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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

"t' 



/ 



The Nhw York Botanical Garden 

LuEsther T. Mertz Library 



Gift of 



The Estate of 



Henry Clay Frick, II 

2007 



( 




THE 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESCEIPTIOIf OF THE TREES WHICH GEOW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 




CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



gillujstmteu tot]^ f tgureja; ann ainalt^ejs Dratrn from jijature 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



AND ENGRAVED BY 



PHILIBERT AND EUGENE PICART 



VOLUME XL 



C YRILLA CEJE — SA FIND A CEM 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCXCII 



Copyright, 1891, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT, 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghton & Ca 



IffERTZ IJBRARV 
MEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 
GARDEN 



To THE Memory of 



GEORGE ENGELMANN, 

IN ADMIRATION OF HIS CHARACTER AND LEARNING, 



THIS SECOND VOLUME OF THE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

Br ms COMPANION IN LONG JOURNEYS THROUGH THB 



FORESTS OF THE WEST. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME II 

OF THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class L DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Elmbryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class I. AllgiospermSB. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 
Division I. PolypetalSB. Flowers with calyx and corolla, the latter divided into separate petals. 

B. DISCIFLOR-^. Sepals generally distinct. Stamens as many as the petals, or twice as many, or fewer, usually 
inserted on a hypogynous or perigynous disk. Ovary supei'ior, many-celled. 
* * Ovules pendulous, raphe dorsal. 

14. Cyrillaceae. Flowers regular, perfect, 5-parted. Disk annular, confluent with the base of the ovary. 
Ovules solitary in each cell. Embryo minute, in fleshy albumen. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 



* # # 



Ovules erect, or rarely pendulous, raphe ventral. 



15. CelastracesB. Flowers perfect. Sepals and petals imbricated in aestivation. Stamens alternate with the 
petals. Seeds often ariled. Leaves simple ; stipules minute, caducous. 

16. Rhamnaceae. Sepals valvate in aestivation. Petals small, concave, or 0. Stamens opposite the petals. 
Seed solitary, not ariled. Embryo large, in fleshy albumen. Leaves simple, stipulate. 

* * * * Ovules ascending, raphe ventral or dorsal. 

17. Sapindaceae. Flowers usually polygamo-dioecious. Disk fleshy, entire or lobed. Sepals imbricated or 
rarely valvate in aestivation. Petals imbricated in aestivation or 0. Stamens usually hypogynous. Seed exalbu- 
minous or rarely albuminous. Embryo usually fleshy ; cotyledons most often plano-convex, conferruminate (foliaceous 
in Hypelate and Acer). Leaves alternate, compound or rarely simple, exstipulate or rarely stipulate. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Synopsis of Orders 
Cyrilla racemiflora 
Cliftonia monophylla 



EVONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS 



Plate li. 
Plate lii 



Gyminda Grisebachii 



SCHLEFFERIA FRUTESCENS 



Plate liii 
Plate liv. 
Plate Iv. 



ReYNOSIA liATIFOLIA 



Plate Ivi 



CoNDALiA OBOVATA Plate Ivii 



Rhamnidixjm ferreum 



Rhamnus crocea 



Rhamnus Caroliniana 
Rhamnus Purshiana 

Ceanothus THYRSIFLORUS 



Ceanothus velutinus, var. arboreus 



COLUBRINA RECLINATA 



iEsCULUS GLABRA 
-/ESCULUS OCTANDRA 



^scuLus Californica 
Ungnadia speciosa 
Sapindus Saponaria 
Sapindus marginatus 
exothea paniculata 
Hypelate trifoliata 



Acer spicatum 



Acer Pennsylvanicum 
Acer macrophyllum 



Acer circinatum 
Acer glabrum 
Acer barbatum 



Plate Iviii 



PAGE 

V 

3 

7 
11 
14 
17 
21 
25 
29 



Plates lix., Ix 



33 



Plate Ixi 



Plates Ixii., Ixiii 
Plate Ixiv. 



Plate Ixv 



Plate Ixvi 



Plates Ixvii., Ixviii 
Plates Ixix., Ixx. 



Plates Ixxi., Ixxii. 



Plate Ixxiii 



Plates Ixxiv., Ixxv. 
Plates Ixxvi., Ixxvii. 
Plates Ixxviii., Ixxix 



Plates Ixxx., Ixxxi 



Plates Ixxxii., Ixxxiii 
Plates Ixxxiv., Ixxxv. 



Plates Ixxxvi., Ixxxvii 



Plate Ixxxviii 



Plate Ixxxix 



Plates xc. xci., xcii 



Acer saccharinum Plate xciii 



Acer rubrum 



Plates xci v., xcv. 



35 
37 
43 
45 
49 
55 
59 
61 
65 
69 
71 
75 
78 
83 
85 
89 
93 

95 

97 

103 

107 



Acer Negundo 



Plates xcvi., xcvii. 



Ill 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CYRILLA. 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 
5, hypogynous, contorted in aestivation ; stamens 5, hypogynous ; ovary 2-celled, the 
cells 3-ovuled. Fruit capsular, indehiscent, 2-celled, 2-seeded» 



CyriUa, Linnseus, Mant. 5. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 160. — 254. — Baillon, Adansonia, i. 203, t. 4, f . 1, 2 ; Diet, ii. 

EndUcher, Gen. 1413. — Meisner, Ge^i. 137. — Torrey & 336. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 1226. 

Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 256. — Planchon, Loud. Jour. Bot. v. 



A glabrous tree or shrub^ with spongy bark, slender terete branchlets conspicuously marked with 
large leaf-scars, and narrow acuminate buds covered with chestnut-brown scales. Leaves destitute 
of stipules, usually clustered near the ends of the branches, alternate, entire, oblong or obovate-oblong, 
apiculate, rounded, or slightly emarginate at the apex, coriaceous, conspicuously reticulate-veined, short- 
petioled. Flowers small, in slender racemes produced near the extremities of the branches of the pre- 
vious year from the axils of fallen leaves or of small deciduous bracts. Pedicels slender, from the axils 
of narrow alternate persistent bracts, bibracteolate near the summit. Calyx persistent, minute, divided 
nearly to the base into five ovate-lanceolate acute coriaceous segments. Petals white or rose-colored, 
inserted on an annular disk, three or four times longer than the calyx-lobes, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
concave, subcoriaceous, furnished below the middle on the inner surface with a broad glandular nectary. 
Stamens opposite the lobes of the calyx, inserted with and shorter than the petals ; filaments subulate, 
fleshy ; anthers introrse, attached below the middle, two-celled, the cells united above the point of the 
attachment of the filament, free below, laterally dehiscent. Ovary free, sessile, ovoid, pointed, two- 
celled, the division at right angles with its short diameter ; styles short, thick ; stigma two-lobed, the 
lobes spreading ; ovules suspended from an elongated placental process developed from the apex of the 
cell,^ anatropous ; raphe dorsal ] micropyle superior. Fruit broadly ovoid, crowned with the remnants 
of the persistent style, two-ceUed, two-seeded, the pericarp spongy. Seeds suspended, elongated ; testa 
membranaceous ] albumen fleshy. Embryo minute, cyhndrical, two-lobed ; the radicle superior. 

The wood of Cyrilla is hard, heavy, and close-grained, but destitute of strength ; it contains thin 
conspicuous medullary rays, and is brown tinged with red, the sapwood being rather lighter colored. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6784, a cubic foot weighing 43.28 pounds. 



1 Baillon (Adansonia^ I.e.; Bull. Soc, Linn. Paris, i. 156) first character the ovules assume in growi;h. Le Maout & Decaisne 

pointed out the peculiar development of the ovules of Cyrilla from {Trait. Gen. Bot. 340), and after them Bentham & Hooker {Gen. 

what he describes as '* une sorte de saillie placentaire " from which l. c), described the raphe as ventral in Cyrilla and in Cliftonia, in 

they are suspended, the raphes becoming dorsal by the anatropoug which, however, as Baillon has shown, it is really dorsal. 



4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CYRILLACE^. 



coast. 



In such situations as the last it attains a real arborescent habit and its largest size, usually 



tv 



Cliftonia and Yaiipon^ with Water Oaks and Gum 



Ifi 



first noticed by Dr. Alexander Garden/ a resident of Charleston, who 



1765, sent it to Linnaeus.^ Two years later 



dino' to Aito 



3 



& 



oduced into England by 



a Mr. John Cree j it flowered near Paris ^ in the garden of J. M. Cels ^ in 1786. Cu 



raceraiji^ 



able as an ornamental plant on account of its handsome lustrous foliage and graceful and 



abundant inflorescence, has probably seldom been cultivated except in botanic gardens. 



6 



of all sizes, from half an inch to a foot in diameter, spring from a Michaux. The fame of this garden is perpetuated in Ventenat's 
common root and spread in all directions like the stalks of a tussock important work, Description des Plantes Nouvelles et peu connueSj 
of sedge, interlocking and forming a dense impenetrable thicket cultivc'es dans le jar din de J. M. Cels, It supplied also the subjects 
thirty or thirty-five feet high. The leaves are often only an inch for many of the plant portraits published in the Plantes Grasses of 
or an inch and a half long, oblanceolate, rigid, and more persistent De CandoUe, in the Stirpes Novce of L'Hdritier, and in Les Liliacees 
than those on plants growing in drier soil. This variety, which is of R^dout^. Cels was an active member of the National Council 
not rare in the coast region from Florida to Louisiana, was first of Agriculture, and of the Academy of Natural Sciences, and con- 
noticed by Dr. A. W. Chapman near Apalachicola, Florida, and is tributed largely to the knowledge in France of exotic plants. A 
mentioned in his Flora of the Southern States, 2T2. 
1 See i. 40. 

^ Smith, Correspondence of Linnceus^ i. 319, 324. 

3 Hart. Keiu. i. 277. 

* Lamarck, Diet. ii. 245. 



catalogue of his collections was published by his successor in 1817. 
^ According to Nuttall (Sylva, L c), Cyrilla raceraifiora proved 
hardy in John Bartram's garden at Kingsessing, near Philadelphia, 
where in 1840 he found a specimen twenty feet high with a trunk 
twenty-six inches in diameter. This plant disappeared many years 
^ Jacques Martin Cels (1743-1806) established in his nurseries ago. Cyrilla flowered in the Loddiges' nursery at Hackney, near 
at Mont Rouge, near Paris, a large collection of rare plants, in- London, in 1824 ; and the figure in the Botanical Magazine was 



Ajne 



made from this plant. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LI. Cyrilla racemiflora. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
4^. A petal, enlarged. 

4^. A stamen, front and rear view, enlarged 

5. A cluster of ovules, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit; enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LI 




C E Faxon del. 



Puzart /r, so 



CYRILLA RACEMIFLORA, L. 



A RiccreuT- dirAV- 



Imp R ToTUiur. Poj'ir 



CYRILLACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



5 



CLIFTONIA 



Flowers regular, perfect 



aly 



5 to 8-lobecL the lobes imbricated in aestiyation 



petals 5 to 8, hypogynous, imbricated ; stamens 10, hypogynous ; ovary 2 to 4-celled 
ovules solitary. Fruit capsular, indehiscent, 2 to 4-winged, 2 to 4-seeded, 



Cliftonia, Gsertner f . Friict. iii. 246, t, 225. — Endlicher, 
Gen. 1413. — Meisner, Gen. 247.— Torrey& Gray, i^Z. 
N. Am. i, 256. — Planchon, Land. Jour. Bot. v. 254, 



Baillon, Adansonia, i. 202, t. 4, f. 3-6 ; Diet. ii. 97. 
Bentham & Hooker, Gen, ii. 1226. 
Mylocaryum, Willdenow, Enum. 454. 



A glabrous tree or shrub^ with thick dark brown scaly bark, slender terete branchlets marked with 
conspicuous leaf-scars, and small acuminate buds covered with chestnut-brown scales. Leaves alternate^ 
entire^ coriaceous^ oblong-lanceolate^ rounded or slightly emarginate at the apex, glandular-punctate, 
short-petioled, destitute of stipules, persistent- Flowers in short terminal erect racemes. Pedicels slen- 
der, bibracteolate above the middle, produced from the axils of large acuminate membranaceous alternate 
bracts deciduous before the opening of the flower. Calyx-lobes equal or unequal, broadly ovate, rounded 
or acuminate at the apex, persistent, much shorter than the obovate unguiculate concave white or rose- 
colored deciduous petals. Stamens opposite the sepals and alternate with them, inserted vdth and shorter 
than the petals, two-ranked, those of the outer rank longer than those of the inner rank 3 filaments 
laterally enlarged near the middle, flattened below, subulate above ; anthers attached below the middle, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells laterally dehiscent. Disk cup-shaped, surrounding the base of the oblong 
two to four-winged and two to four-celled ovary. Stigma subsessile, obscurely two to f our-lobed ; ovules 



;uspended from the apex of the ceUs, anatrop 




dorsal; micropyle super 



Fruit oblo 



& 



crowned with the remnants of the persistent style, three or rarely four-celled, two to four-seeded; peri- 

and membranaceous. Seeds suspended, fusiform ; testa thin. Embryo 



carp spongy 



the winffs thin 



thin, surrounded by the fleshy albumen ; cotyledons very short ; the radicle superior. 

The wood of Cliftonia is heavy, close-grained, and moderately hard, although brittle and not 
strong 5 it contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is brown tinged with red, with a thick lighter 



colored sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of 



growth. The specific gravity of the ab 



lutely dry wood is 0.6249, a cubic foot weighing 38.95 pounds. It burns with a clear bright flame, and 
is valued as fuel. 

William Bartram^ is the first botanist who noticed Cliftonia. He found it during the spring 
of 1773 in the coast region of Georgia, near the Savannah River.^ It was mistaken by Lamarck for a 
species of Ptelea, and later was dedicated by Sir Joseph Banks to the memory of Dr. Francis Clifton,^ 
an Enghsh physician of the last century. The genus is represented by a single species. 



1 See i. 16. 

2 Trav. 6, 30. 



received an honorary degree of M. D. from the University of Cam- 
bridge, and was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales. Clif- 
® Francis Clifton (d. 1736) ; the son of Joseph Clifton, a mer- ton left England suddenly in 1734 for Jamaica, where he died two 
chant of Great Yarmouth. Clifton entered the medical school at years later. He was the author of several papers on medical sub- 
Leyden in 1724, graduated with honor the same year, and at once jects ; and at the time of his death was engaged in 



WT 



established himself in London as a physician. A friendship with count of the diseases prevalent in Jamaica. (See Leslie Stephen, 
Sir Hans Sloane and other men of science opened for Clifton the Diet, National Biography, xi. 86.) 
doors of the Hoyal Society, to which he was elected in 1727. He 



CYRILLACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



7 



CLIFTONIA MONOPHYLLA, 



Titi. Iron Wood. 



Cliftonia monophylla, Britton, Bull. Torrey BoL Clubj 
xvi. 310. 

Ptelea monophylla, Lamarck, III i. 336. — Poiret, Lam, 
Diet, V- 662. 

C. nitida, Gsertner f . Fruct. iii. 247, t. 225. — Watson, Bull 

Torrey BoL Club, xiv. 167. 
C. ligustrina, Sprengel, Srjst. ii. 316. — NuttaU, Gen. i. 

104; Sylva, ii. 92, t. 73. — Walpers, Rep. vi. 422. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1412. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 240, f . 5, 
7-10, 20. — Chapman, Fl. 273. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am, lOf/i Census U, S. ix. 38. 
Mylocarymn ligustrinum, Willdenow, Enum, 454. 

Bot. Mag, t. 1625. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept, i, 402, t 

- Poiret, Lam, Diet, Suppl. iv. 41 ; III, iii. 616, t 

— Elliott, Sk. i. 508. 



14. 



952. 



"Waltheria Carolinensis, Cat, Sort, Fraser. 



The Cliftonia sometimes grows^ under favorable conditions^ to a height of forty or fifty feet^ with a 
stout trunk which is crooked or often inclining^ occasionally fifteen to eighteen inches in diameter, and 
covered near the base with deeply furrowed dark red-brown bark a quarter of an inch thick, the ridges 

scales. The bark of younger trunks and of the principal branches is thin, the 



broken 



short broad 



surface separating into small persistent scales an inch or two long. The trunk generally divides 



fifteen feet from the ground, into a number of 



ascending branches ; or sometimes, especially 



the region bordering the Atlantic Ocean, where the Cliftonia rarely assumes the habit of a tree, the stem 
divides at the ground into numerous straggling stout or slender branches, growing sometimes a few feet 
high, or often to a height of thirty or forty feet. The shoots of the year are slender, rigid, and covered 
with bright red-brown bark, which gradually becomes paler during the second and third seasons. The 
leaves are one and a half to two inches long, half an inch to nearly an inch broad, bright and lustrous 
on the upper, and paler on the lower surface. They remain on the branches until the autumn of their 
second year. The inflorescence appears in February and March. The racemes are at first nodding, and 
at this period are conspicuous from the presence of the long exserted dark red-brown bracts. These 
fall, and the racemes gradually assume an erect position before the fragrant flowers open. The fruit,^ 
which is a quarter of an inch long, or rather less, ripens in August and September. 

The CUftonia is found in the coast region of the south Atlantic states from the valley of the Savan- 
nah River in South Carolina to northern Florida, extending westward through the Pine belt of the Gulf 



coast to eastern Louisiana. It grows generally on damp sour sandy peat-soil, and attains its greatest size 
in the tree-covered swamps which border the large streams of the Pine barrens of western Florida and 
of Alabama and Mississippi. In these swamps, which are submerged for several months of the year, it 
grows with the Red Bay and White Cedar under the shade of Water Oaks, Gum-trees, and the Cuban 
Pine, forming impenetrable thickets sometimes miles in extent. The Cliftonia in such situations is a 



short-Kved tree. 



The large trunks, which are 



generally hollow, are easily prostrated, and specimens 



which have grown for more than fifty or sixty years are not common. In open shallow swamps which 
are seldom overflowed except temporarily the Chftonia usually assumes a shrubby habit, forming thick- 
ets with the Wax Myrtle, the Swamp Bay, Andromeda mtlda^ Leucothoe axillaris ^ and Vacc'mium 
virgatiim^ and near the GuK coast with Ilex coriacea. 

The Cliftonia is one of the most ornamental of the small trees of the North American forests, espe- 
cially in the early spring, when it is covered with delicate fragrant flowers made conspicuous by their 
backo-round of dark green lustrous foliage. It was probably introduced into Enghsh gardens by John 

1 The fruit, from its fancied resemblance to that of the Buck- wheat-tree ; a name, however, which is possibly not in colloquial 
wheat, has caused the Cliftonia to be sometimes called the Buck- use in any part of the country where the tree is found. 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cyrillace^. 



Fraser^ at the time of one of liis last voyages to America^ and flowered in 1812 or 1813 in his nursery 
at Sloane Square in Londonr Chftonia is now cultivated in a few botanic gardens only.^ 



^ See i. 8. 



8 According to Nuttall {Sylva^ ii. 94), Cliftonia survived for a 



2 The figure in the Botanical Magazine^ published iu 1813, was number of years without protection in Bartram's botanic garden at 
made from a specimen grown in Mr. Fraser*3 nursery, Kingsessing, near Philadelphia. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LII. Cliftonia monophylla. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, enlarged, two of the petals renaoved 

5. A petal, enlarged. 

6. A stamen of the outer rank, enlarged. 

7. A stamen of the inner rank, enlarged. 

8. A pistil, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much magnified. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A fruit, enlarged. 

13. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

14. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

15. A seed, enlarged. 

16. An embryo, much magnified. 

17. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North. America 



Tab. LII. 




O E Faxcon^ del 



PiccLrt fr. SC'. 



CLIFTONIA MONOPHYLLA . Bntt 



A Itu>oreua> direcc- 



Imp.R.Taneur. Paris 



celastrace:*). SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



EVONYMUS. 



Flowers perfect or polygamo-trioecious ; calyx 4 to 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in 
aestivation ; petals 4 or 5, inserted under the margin of the disk, imbricated in sestiva- 
tion ; ovary 3 to 5-celled ; ovules usually 2 in each cell, ascending or resupinate* Fruit 
capsular, 3 to 5-celled ; seeds surrounded by a colored aril. 



Evonymus, Linnaeus, Gen. 29. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 360, 997. — Baillon, Hist. PI 

304. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 377. — Endlicher, Gen. vi. 30. 

1086. — Meisner, Gen. 68. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 187. — Vyenomus, Presl, Bot. Bemerk. 32. 

Melanocarya, Turczaninow, Btdl. Mosc. xxxi., i. 453. 



Small trees or shrubs^ generally glabrous^ sometimes trailing or climbing, with fibrous roots, usually 
square, sometimes terete, often verrucose branchlets, bitter drastic bark, and slender obtuse or acuminate 
buds. Leaves opposite, petiolate, entire, crenate or dentate, deciduous or persistent ; stipules minute, 
caducous- Flowers in dichotomous axillary cymes, usually few-flowered, rarely one-flowered. Calyx- 
lobes spreading or recurved. Disk thick and fleshy, cohering with and filling the short tube of the 
calyx, flat, four or five-angled or lobed, closely surrounding and adherent to the ovary. Petals inserted 
in the sinuses of the calyx under the free border of the disk, spreading, entire, dentate or rarely fimbri- 
ate, much longer than the calyx-lobes, greenish white or purple, deciduous. Stamens as many as the 
petals and alternate with them, inserted on the summit or rarely on the margin of the disk ; filaments 
very short, subulate, erect or recurved at the apex ; anthers didymous, introrse, two-celled, the cells 
nearly parallel or spreading below, opening longitudinally. Ovary immersed in and confluent with the 
disk ; style very short, terminating in a depressed or three to five-lobed stigma ; ovules usually two in 
each cell, rarely four or more, anatropous, ascending from the central angle, the raphe ventral, the 
micropyle inferior ; or pendulous, the raphe then dorsal, the micropyle superior. Fruit fleshy, three to 
five-lobed, angled or winged, smooth, verrucose or echinate, locuhcidally three to five-valved, the valves 
septiferous on their middle. Seeds two, or more commonly by abortion solitary in each cell, ascend- 
ing, or resupinate and suspended ; aril red or purple ; testa chartaceous ; albumen fleshy. Embryo 
axile ; cotyledons broad, coriaceous, parallel with the raphe ; the radicle short, inferior or superior.^ 

The genus Evonymus is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere, extending south of 
the equator to the islands of the Indian Archipelago and to Australia. Botanists now distinguish 
about forty species, the largest number occurring in the tropical regions of southern Asia,^ in China ^ 
and in Japan.* Several species are found as far south as the mountains of Ceylon ; ^ one of the 
Indian species occurs also in Sumatra and in Java,^ and one species has been detected in northeastern 



1 The flowers of Evonymus Europceixs were found by Darwiu ^ Bentham, Fl. Hongk, 62. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour, Linn. 

{Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species, 287) to be 



Soc. xxiii. 118. 



of three forms, one with perfectly developed stamens and pistils, ■* Franchet & Savatier, Enuw. PL Jap. i. 78. — Maximowicz, 

one with semi-sterile hermaphrodite flowers, and a third with per- BulL Acad. Sci, St. Pttersbourg, xxvii. 241 (M^l. Biol. xi. 177). 

feet pistils and rudimentary anthers. The flowers of the North ^ Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 73. 

American species, so far as I have been able to observe them, are ® Evonymus Javanicus, Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. 1146. — Ben- 



perfect. 

2 Hooker f. FL Brit, Ind. i. 607. 



nett, PL Jav. Bar. 130, t. 28. — Miquel, Fl 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CELASTRACE^v 



Austral 



1 



The 



genus IS n 

the Orient:' and 



presented in central Asia/- and is widely scattered, with a number of 



temperate and southern Europe."^ In North America 



species occur in 



Atlantic ' and one in the Pacific *' region, and thi 



ab 



M 



One 



Atlantic snecies is a sm 



3 or four li 
the other A 



known specie 



si 



iru 



bs. 

The wood of Evonymus 
ly white. It has been us 



tely 



d 



& 



ned, tough, and light-colored, sometimes 

Knit- 



d in Europe from the earliest ages for many domestic purposes 



edles and SDindles'"^ were lono* made from it, and 



sed ill the manufact 



of 



instruments and in cooperage 



. 



111 



Ind 



it is sometimes carved into spoons and other household 



d in China it is used in wood 



& 



t> 



Many species of Evonymus are rich in bitter and astringent principles, and are drastic and slightly 
stimulant. The bark and especially the seeds of the European species ^^ are nauseous and purgative, 
and are believed to poison slieep,^^ while in India the leaves and young shoots of some of the species 
are cut for fodder/^ The yellow dye used by the Hindoos to make the sacred mark on the forehead is 
prepared from the bark^^ of Evonymits ting ens ^^^ which is also employed in the treatment of ophthalmic 
troubles. The bark ^' of the American species is purgative and is employed in the preparation of decoc- 
tions, fluid extracts and tinctures,^^ and in homoeopathic remedies. 

Several species of Evonymus are valued in gardens for their handsome foliage and brilliant fruit. 

The European species have been cultivated for centuries, and have developed numerous peculiar and 

interesting forms/^ Evonunms Japan tcus is one of the most ornamental of evergreen shrubs, and, with 

its numerous varieties, is common in the gardens of all the temperate parts of the world. A variety of 

this plant from the forests of central and northern Japan, the Evo7upniis radicrufi^^^ of gardens, with 

high climbing stems and small persistent leaves, has been largely cultivated in recent years, and replaces 

the Ivy in regions where the climate is too severe for that plant. 

Evoyvvi^togy the classical name of the Spindle-tree,^^ was adopted by Tournefort,"^ and then by 
Linn^us. 



1 Evonymus Auslralianut^, Mueller, Fragm. Phyt. Austral, iv. 118. 
^ Aitchison, Jour. Linn, Soc, xviii. 40. 
® Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 8. 
* Nyman, Conspect. FL Europ. 144. 

^ Trelease, Trans. St, Louis Acad. v. 351. — Watsou & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 110. 

6 Brewer & Watson, Bat. CaL i. 98. 



^* Brandis, L c. 

1^ Le Maout & Decaisne, l. c» 

^*' Wallich; Roxburgh, FL Ind. ed. Carey, ii. 406. — Braudis, 



L c. 79. 



Hooker £. FL Brit. Lid. i. 615. 



1"^ Euoiiic acid was obtained by Weiizel (Am. Jour. Pharm. 1862, 
31-i) from the bark of Evonymus atropurpureus. It crystallizes in 
acicular forms, and is precipitated by plumbic subacetate. Resin, 
■^ Bentham, PL Hartweg. 36, 59. — Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. sugar, a bitter principle, asparagine, and tartaric, citric, and nitric 

acids have also been found in the bark of this species. (Mills- 



Cent. i. 188. 

3 Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 496. 

^ The vernacular name Spindle-tree, first applied to the Euro- 



paugh, Am. Med. PL in Homoeopathic Remedies^ i. 42, t. 42.) 



^^ Am. Jour. Pharm. xx. 80. 



U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 402. — Stills 



pean species on accomit of its use in spindle-making, has been grad- & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 559. 



ually transferred to the other species in all English-speaking ooim- 



tries. 



10 Brandis, Forest FL Brit. hid. 78. 

11 Jackson, Commercial Botany, 156. 

12 Evonymus Europceus, Linnaeus, Spec. 197. — De Candolle, 



19 Loudon, Arb. BriL ii. 496. 

20 Evonymus Japonicus, var. radican.^i, Miquel, ProL FL Jap. 



441 



18. 

Biol. xi. 178). 
E.radicans, Siebold in herb.; Miquel, L c. 366. — Franchet & 



Prodr. u. 4. E. latifoUus, Scopoli, FL Cam. 325. — De Candolle, >S;ivatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 79 



L c. E. verrucosus, Scopoli, FL Cam. 324. — De Candolle, L c. 
13 Lc Maout & Decaisne, Trait. Gen. Bot. English ed. 344. 



21 Pliny, xiii. 22. 

22 Inst. 017, t. 388. 



CELASTHACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



EVONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS. 



Burning Bush. Wahoo. 



Parts of the flower usually in 4's ; ovules 
smooth, deeply lobed. 



ascending, the 



raphe ventral. Fruit 



Evonymus atropurpureus, Jacquin, Hort. Find. ii. 55, 
t. 120. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 573; III. ii. 98. — Schmidt, 



Oestr. Baum. ii. 20, t. 73. — Willdenow; Spec, i 
Emim. 256. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 155. 
soon, Syn, i. 243. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iii. 26. 



Per- 
Des- 



fontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 356. — Pursh, M, Am. Sept. i 



168. 



Turpin, Diet. ScL Nat. xvii. 532, t. 272. 



Nut- 



tall, Gen. 155. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 466. 



rey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 257. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 819. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 219, f. 112. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 48. — Baillon, BtclL Soc. Bot. France, v. 256, 
314. — Chapman, FL 76. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. 
Car. 1860, iii. 102. — Koch, Dendr. i. 629. — Sargent, 



TV. 



U. S. ix. 38. 



Tre- 



lease, Titans. St. Louis Acad. v. 353. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 110. 



Hayne, Dendr. FL 24. — Elliott, Sk. i. 293. — De Can- E. Carolinensis, Marshall, Arhnst. Am. 43. 

doUe, Prodr. ii. 4. — Torrey, FL N. F. i. 141. — Spren- E. latifolius, Marshall, Arhnst. Am. 44 (not Scopoli) 



gel, Syst. i. 788. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 5. — Spach, Hist 



Agardh, Theor. et Syst. PL t. 



OQ 



, f. 4. 



Veg. ii. 407. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 499, f. 167. 



Tor- 



A small slender tree, growin 



height of twenty or twenty-five feet, with spreading 



branches ; or more often a shrub six to ten feet high 



The trunk, which does not often attain 



t) 



diameter than six or seven inches, is covered with thin ashy gray fluted bark, the surface separating 
into minute scales. The branchlets are terete, slender, and marked with prominent leaf-scars which 
are white during the first winter ; they are covered with dark purple-brown bark, which becomes lighter 
colored in the second season, and which is often beset with smaU crowded lenticels. The winter-buds 
are an eighth of an inch long, acute and protected by narrow purple apiculate scales with scarious 
margins and covered with a glaucous bloom. The leaves are elliptical or ovate, acuminate, minutely 
serrate or biserrate, membranaceous, puberulous on the lower surface, two to five inches long and 
one to two inches broad ; they are gradually contracted at the base into stout petioles half an inch to 
nearly an inch long, and are furnished with stout midribs and primary veins. They turn pale yellow 
in the autumn and fall in October. The twice or thrice dichotomous cymes are usually seven to fifteen- 
flowered, and are produced on slender peduncles an inch or two long, and conspicuously marked with 
the scars of minute bracts. The flowers appear in May, or, at the north, about the middle of June ; 

they are nea 



ly half an inch across, when 



ded, with rounded or rarely acute and mostly entire 



sepals, and with broadly obovate undulate dark purple petals often with 
ripens in October ai 



d remains on the branches during the early months of 



The fruit, which 
; smooth, deeply 



lobed, half an inch across, or rather more, with light purple valves. The seeds are somewhat gibbous 



the dorsal side, broad and rounded above, and narrowed at the end next the 



they are a quarter 



of an inch lonsr, with 



t> 



■& 



brown wrinkled testa, and are included in a thin scarlet aril 



Evonymus atro^nirjmriKS is widely distrib 



eastern America from 



Nebraska, with an extreme 
extends south to no 



the valley of the upper Mi 



1 



western New York to 
River in Montana, and 



thern Florida, southern Arkansas, and the Indian Territory. It generally 



& 



the borders of woods in rich 



ely 



of the Mississippi River, the habit of 



and beino- really arborescent in southern Arkansas and the adjacent 



The wood of Ei 



02)urjjureus is heavy, hard, very close-grained, and difficult 



it is white tinged with orange, with 



thin 



meduUary 



It has. when perfectl 



specific gravity of 0.6592, a cubic foot weighing 41.08 pounds 



1 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



ACEiE 



The Wahoo, as this plant is familiarly called/ is said to have been introduced into English gardens 



as early as 1756," and it is still often cultivated, especially in the region where it abounds, although its 
fruit and the autumn colorino- of its leaves are less beautiful than those of some of the Old World 
Spindle-trees. 

Few insects are recorded as li\ ing on Evonymus in America/ although the different species are 
occasionally disfigured by them. 



^ Evonymus atropurpureus is also known in some parts of the Geolog. Surv. iv. 110). The Fall Web-worm, Hyphantria cunea, 

country as Spindle-tree and as Arrow-wood. Drury, sometimes destroys the foliage (BulL No. 10, Div. EntomoL 

2 Alton, Hort. Kew. i. 274. DepL Agric, U. S. 41); and the bark and branches are frequently 

3 The larva of a small moth, Hyponomeuta €U07iy?nella, Schop., covered by a scale, Lecanium. The leaves are often infested by 
feeds on the leaves of Evonymus atropurpureus in Kentucky (V. T. aphids. 

Chambers, Canadian Entomologist^ iv. 42. — BulL Hayden^s U. S. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LIIL Evonymus atropurpureus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 
2- Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged, 

7. Cross section of an ovary surrounded by the disk, enlarged 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

12. A seed surrounded by its aril, slightly enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 

15. Winter-buds. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LIII 




15 



3 



-^-^ 



^ . 





6 






14 




4- 





7 



12 



11 



8 




ft 






(' E Faa:on del 



Ptcartfr. sc. 



EVONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS , Jacq- 



A. Rio ere ua: direar 



Imp.R Taneur, Farts 



CELASTRACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



13 



GYMINDA. 




Flowers unisexual ; calyx 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 
imbricated in aestivation ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules solitary, suspended. Fruit drupa- 
ceous, 2-celled, 1 to 2-seeded, 



Gyminda, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ iv. 4. 



Myginda (sec. Gyminda)^ Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 55. 



A slender tree or shrub, with pale quadrangular branchlets and minute acuminate buds. Leaves 



sometimes emarginate at the 



apex 



entire or 



opposite, short-petioled, oblong-ob ovate, rounded and 
remotely crenulate-serrate above the middle, with revolute thickened margins, feather-veined, coriaceous, 
persistent ; stipules minute, acuminate, membranaceous, caducous. Flowers pedicellate, in axillary 
pedunculate few-flowered dichotomously branched cymes, furnished immediately below the calyx with 
two minute bracts. Calyx minute, persistent, mth a short urceolate tube and rounded lobes. Disk 
fleshy, filling the tube of the calyx, cup-shaped, slightly four-lobed. Petals entire, obovate, rounded at 
the apex, reflexed, much longer than the lobes of the calyx, white. Stamens four, opposite the sepals, 
inserted in the lobes of the disk, exserted ; wanting in the fertile flower ; filaments slender, subulate, 
incurved ; anthers attached below the middle, oblong, two-celled, the contiguous cells opening longitu- 



dinally. 



Ovary oblong, sessile, confluent with the disk, two-celled, crowned with the large two-lobed 



sessile stigma ; rudimentary, deeply cleft in the sterile flower ; ovules suspended from the apex of the 
cell, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle superior. Fruit black or dark blue, oval or obovate, the size 
of a pea, crowned with the remnants of the persistent stigma, often one-celled by abortion ; sarcocarp 
rather thin ; putameh thick, crustaceous. Seed oblong, suspended ; testa membranaceous ; albumen 
thin, fleshy. Embryo axile ; cotyledons ovate, foliaceous ; radicle superior, next the hilum. 



The wood of Gyminda is very heavy, hard, and 



close-grained, the layers of annual growth and 



numerous medullary rays being barely distinguishable. It is dark brown or nearly black, with thick 
light brown sapwood composed of seventy-five or eighty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9048, a cubic foot weighing 56.39 pounds.^ 

The generic name, first used by Grisebach ^ for a section of Myginda, is formed by transposing the 

first three letters of that name. One species is known. 

1 The wood of this tree is produced very slowly. A specimen in of colonial Floras prepared under the auspices of the British 

the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American government ; and in 1866 his Catalogus Plantarum Cuhensium^ an 

Museum of Natural History in New York is three and it half account of the collections made by Charles Wright in that island, 

inches in diameter, and contains one hundred layers of annual The most important of Grisebach's contributions to science relate 



growth. 



(1814-1879) 



to botanical geography, a subject to which he gave particular at- 
tention and upon which he wrote voluminously. His Vegetatian 



Hannover and died in Gottingen, where he was professor of botany der Erde, published in 1872, is one of the classical books on the 

in the University. Grisebach published in 1839 a monograph of subject, and the author's crowning scientific effort. Grisehachia, 

the Gentian family, and two years later an account of the plants a genus of heath-like plants native of south Africa, was dedicated 

collected by him during a botanical journey through Roumelia. In to him by Klotzsch. 
1864 appeared his Flora of the British West Indies, one of a series 



u 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEIUCA. celastracejc. 



GYMINDA GRISEBACHII. 



Gyminda Grisebachii, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. 4. Myginda pallens, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th 

Myginda integrifolia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kiinth, ^Ya/j. Census U. A', ix. 38 (not Smith). 

Gen. rf Sper. vii. 66 (not Lamarck, Diet. iv. 39G). — De Myginda latifolia, Chapman, FL 76 (not Swartz). — Tre- 

Candolle, Prodr. ii. 13. — Grisebach, Cat. PL Cab. 55. — lease. Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 356. 

Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xi. 314. — Trelease, Trans. St. 

Louts Arad. V. 356. 



A tree, growing sometimes to a height of twenty or twenty-five feet, with a trunk rarely more than 
six inches in diameter covered with thin hrown bark tinged with red, the surface separating into thin 
minute scales. The branchlets become terete during their third season, and are then covered with thin 
slightly grooved and roughened light red-brown bark. The leaves are an inch and a half to two inches 
long, three quarters of an inch to an inch broad, and pale yellow-green. The flowers, which are pro- 
duced on the shoots of the year, appear in Florida from April to June. The fruit ripens in November. 

Gymhida Grlsehacliii is common and generally distributed through the islands of south Florida 
from the Marquesas to Upper Metacombe Key. It also inhabits Cuba and Porto Rico.^ A form ^ of 
this plant with smaller, less coriaceous, very glaucous leaves was found in Cuba ^ by Charles Wright.^ 



Gyminda Grisebachii was discovered in Florida by Dr. John L. Blodgett 



5 



^ P. Sintenis, Planter Portoricenses, No. Tv/J. Myginda latifoUa^ var. glaucescens^ Grisebach, Mem. Am. Acad. 

2 Gyminda Grisebachii, var. glaucescens, Sargent, Garden and viii. 171 ; Cat. PI. Cub. 55. 



Forest^ iv. 4. 



3 PI Cub. No. 81a. * See i. 94. & gee i. 33. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LIV. Gyminda Grisebachii. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged- 

7. A flower-bud, enlarged. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a pistil, enlarged. 

11. An ovule, much magnified. 

12. A fruitino^ branch, natui-al size. 

13. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

14. Cross-section of a fruit, enlarged. 

15. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 
IT). An embryo, much magnified. 

17. Stipules, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab LIV 





7 




1 




14' 



9 




11 





C E FaxoTh d&l^ 



Ficari/r. sc 



GYMINDA GRISEBACHIl, Sarg. 



A . Rwcreua> direa^ ^ 



Imp R TaneuT\ Pans 



CELASTRACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEFUCA. 



15 



SCHiEFFERIA. 




Flowers unisexual ; calyx 4-parted, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 
imbricated in aestivation, hypogynous ; stamens 4, hypogynous, inserted under the mar- 
gin of the disk ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules solitary, erect. Fruit a 2-seeded fleshy drupe. 



Schsefferia, Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 259. — Endlicher, Gen. 1103. — Meisner, Gen. 69. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 307 
Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 37. 



Glabrous trees or shrubs, with slender rigid terete branches and small obtuse buds. Leaves alter- 
nate, or fascicled on short spur-like branches, entire, obovate or spatulate, acute, rounded, or emarginate 
at the apex, destitute of stipules. Flowers dioecious, pediceled or sessile, in axillary clusters from large 
buds covered with scale-like persistent bracts. Calyx-lobes orbicular, persistent, much shorter than the 
oblong obtuse white or greenish white petals. Disk small, inconspicuous. Stamens opposite the lobes 
of the calyx, wanting in the fertile flower ; filaments subulate, incurved ; anthers attached below the 
middle, subglobose, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary two-celled, ovoid, ses- 
sile, free ; rudimentary in the sterile flower ; style very short j stigma large, two-lobed, the lobes spread- 
ing ; ovules solitary, ascending, anatropous ; the raphe thin, ventral ; the micropyle inferior. Fruit the 
size of a pea, ovate or obovate, crowned with the remnants of the persistent style, indistinctly two-lobed 
by a longitudinal groove on the two sides, slightly flattened ; sarcocarp thin and fleshy, tuberculate ; 
nutlets bony, separable. Seeds solitary, ascending ; testa membranaceous ; albumen fleshy. Embryo 
axile ; cotyledons broad, foliaceous ; the radicle very short, inferior, next the hilum. 

Two species of Schsefferia are described. The type of the genus, Schcefferia fruteseenSy a small 
tree or shrub, is widely distributed in the Antilles, reaching the islands of south Florida and Central 
America. The second species,^ a httle known shrub, belongs to the arid region of western Texas and 
northern Mexico. 

The wood of Schsefferia is hard and close-grained ; the genus is not known to possess other 
properties useful to man. It was estaljlished by Jacquin, and named in honor of J. C. Schaeffer,^ a 
distinguished German naturalist of the last century. 



Schcefferia cuneata, Gray, PL Wright, i. 35 ; ii. 29 (Smithso- clergyman and superintendent at Ratisbon from 1779 until his 



nian Contrib. iii.,v.). — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 47. — Tre- death. 



wr 



lease, Trans, St. Louis Acad. v. 3oG. 



botanical books, including the Botanica Expeditior and two illus- 



2 Jakob Christian Schaeffer (1718-1790) ; bora at Querfurt, a trated works on the Fungi found in the neighborhood of Ratisbon. 



CELASTRACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



17 



SCH^FFERIA FRUTESCENS. 



Yellow Wood. Box Wood. 



Flowers pediceled. Leaves alternate, usually acute at the two ends 



Schaefferia frutescens, Jacquin, Cat. PL Carib. 33 ; Stirp. 



Am. 259. — Gsertner 



FrucL Suppl. 249, t. 225. 



De 



Poiret, Lam. Diet vi. 727 ; III. iii, 402, t. 809. 
Candolle, Prodr. ii. 41. — Karsten, FL Coluvib. i. 183, 

t. 91. 



N. Am. \Oth Censu 
Louis Acad. v. 356. 
completa, Swartz, 



Trelease, Trans. St 



Ind. Occ. i. 327, t 7, f. A. 



Poiret, Lam. HI. ili. 402. — Willdenow 
Macfadyen, FL Jam. 207. 



146. 



Chapman, FL 76. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 
Walpers, Ann. vii. 581. — Sargent, Forest Trees S. buxifolia, Nuttall, Sylva^ ii. 42, t. 56. 



A small slender glabrous tree, with rigid upright terete branches^ and slender many-angled 
branchlets, growing sometimes to the height of thirty-five or forty feet, with a trunk eight or ten 
inches in diameter ; or often a tall or low shrub. The bark of the trunk is rarely more than a twelfth 
of an inch thick, pale brown faintly tinged with red, the surface divided by long shallow fissures, and 
separating ultimately into small narrow scales j that of the shoots of the year is pale greenish yellow, 
becoming light gray during the second year, and then conspicuously marked with the remains of the 
persistent wart-hke clusters of bud-scales. The leaves are persistent, entire, obovate-oblong, usually 
acute, and then often minutely apiculate, or sometimes rounded or emarginate at the apex, the base 
narrowed gradually into a short broad petiole ; they are bright yellow-green, two to two and a half 

In Florida they appear 

in April, and remain on the branches until the spring of the following year. The pedicels of the 
sterile flowers, generally three or five together, are rarely more than two hues long ; those of the 
fertile flowers are solitary, or more often two or three together, and are rather longer than the petioles- 



inches long and half an inch to an inch broad, with thick revolute margins. 



The flowers are produced in sprin 



shoots of the year, and are an eighth of an inch across whe 



expanded. The fruit is slightly grooved and compressed, and is bright scarlet at maturity. It ripens 
in Florida in November, and then possesses an acrid disagreeable flavor, but is greedily devoured by 

many birds. 

SchcBfferia friitescens is not rare in southern Florida, being found on the principal islands from 

Metacombe Key eastward, in the neighborhood of the Caloosa River and sparingly on the Reef Keys. 

It inhabits the Bahama group, is widely distributed through the West Indies, and has been noticed 

in Venezuela.^ In Florida, where this tree was once much more common than it is now, it is usually 

found OTowing with the Eugenias, the Pisonias, the Florida Coccoloba, the Drypetes, the Bumelia, 



and the Ardisia, forming with them the shrubby second growth which now covers several of the large 



keys. 



The wood of Schcefferia friitescens is heavy and close-grained; it contains numerous obscure 
medullary rays, and is bright clear yellow, while the thick sapwood is a httle hghter colored. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.77^5, a cubic foot weighing 48.27 pounds. It has 

been 



u 



as a 



substitute for box-wood, and the large trees were cut in Florida many years ago and 



sed 

New Providence for export to England 



Sehceff 



friitescens was first described by Plukenet" in 1691o He obtained it from the Barba- 



1 Near the city of Quibor, Kartsen, L c. 



2 Buxus Lauri Alexandrince foliis accedens Americanay Phyt. t. 
80, f. 6; Aim. Bat. 74. 



18 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CELASTRACE^. 



does : it was discovered in Jamaica by Sloane/ and living plants were carried to England in 1793 
Admiral Bligh.^ It was first noticed in Florida by Dr. John L. Blodgett. 



2 




^ Buxi folio majore acuminato arbor haccifera, fructu minore, croceOj which, after a voyage of three months, they succeeded in reaching 
dipyreno, Cat, PL Jam, 171 ; Nat. Hist, Jam, ii. 102, t.'209, f. the coast of Java, and procuring a small vessel returned to Eng- 



land. 



Bligh was sent in command of the Providence in 1791 to 



make another effort to introduce the Bread-fruit into the West 



1. — Ray, Hist. PL Dendr, iii. 65. 

2 Aiton, Hort. Keio, ed. 2, v. 371. 

2 William Bligh (1754-1817) ; a distinguished British naval offi- Indies. In this he was successful, and it was on the return from 

cer who early in life accompanied Cook in his second voyage round this voyage that he brought Schsefferia to England. In 1801 he 

the world as sailing-master of the Resolution. He is best known, was elected a member of the Royal Society, principally on account 

perhaps, from his connection with the unfortunate voyage of the of his services to botany. He was governor of New South Wales 

Bounty, a vessel sent in 1788 to the South Seas under his command from 1805 to 1808, and was promoted to vice-admiral in 1814. 

to introduce the Bread-fruit tree into the West Indies. The story The genus Blighia, established by Koenig for a plant of tropical 

of the mutiny of the crew is familiar. Captain Bligh and a few Africa, now sometimes referred to Cupania, was dedicated to him. 
companions were set adrift on the Pacific Ocean in an open boat in 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LV. Sch^fferia frutescens. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower, 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 
5- A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged- 

9. An ovule, much magnified- 
10- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A fruit, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

14. An embrvo. much maemified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab, LV 




5 




6 



n 



7 





9 





8 




C.E.Faxon del 



Pic or I //•, sc- 



SCHAEFPERIA FRUTESCENS 



\ 



Ja 



c 



\ 



A, Nu^creur. dim.v ^ 



Imp.B.Taneur. Pai'u 



\ ' 



L^^" 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



l\) 



REYNOSIA 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in aestivation, deciduous ; petals 
(5 ?) ; ovary 2 to 3-celled ; ovules solitary, erect. Fruit di^upaceous, 1-seeded ; albu- 
men ruminate. 



Reynosia, Grisebach, Cat, PL Cub, 33. — Eggers, Videns- Condalia, Baillon, Hist, PL vi. 82 (in part). 
kah. Medd.fra nat. For. Kjobenh, 1877, 175. 



Trees or shrubs^ with rigid unarmed terete branches. Leaves mostly opposite^ entire, coriaceous, 
short-petioled^ reticulate-veined, persistent ; stipules minute, caducous. Flowers yellow-green, minute, 
in small axillary sessile umbels from scaly buds. Pedicels stout, bibracteate near the base, two or three 
times longer than the flower. Calyx persistent, hemispherical, with deltoid acuminate spreading peta- 
loid lobes, the short tube filled with the fleshy disk. Stamens five, inserted on the margin of the disk, 
alternate with and rather shorter than the lobes of the calyx ; filaments subulate, filiform, incurved ; 



anthers ovaL attached on the back below the 



ddle, introrse, two-celled, the 



contiguous ceUs 



opening 



longitudinaUy. Ovary free from the disk, almost superior, conical, contracted 



ityle ; stigma two or three-lobed ; ovules solitary 



ph 



micropyle inferior 



Fruit ovoid, supported on the enlarged and now nearly entire calyx, and crowned with the remnants 
of the persistent style ; sarcocarp thin, fleshy ; endocarp crustaceo-membranaceous. Seed solitary by 
abortion, erect, ovoid, or subglobose ; testa very thin, conspicuously rugose and tiiberculated ; albumen 
copious, subcorneous, ruminate. Embryo axile ; cotyledons oblong ; 
hilum.^ 

The genus Reynosia is West Indian. Three species are now recognized : Reynosia latifolw^ d 
small tree, extends north to the shores of southern Florida and to the Bahama Islands ; the others are 



radicle long, inferior, next the 



d 



seed, and in its ruminate albiunen wh 



little known shrubs of Cuba, Ste. Croix, the 

is peculiar in its thin-shelled baccate drupe 

an anomalous position among the genera of the family to which it is referred. It 

Grisebach to Professor Alvaro Reynoso,^ the distinguished Cuban chemist and writer on agricultural and 

scientific subjects. 



Virgin group, and probably of other islands. The genu 

ch gives i 

dicated 




^ Eggers (I. c.) describes the flowers of Reynosia with five (orO?) 



- Alvaro Reynoso (1830-1888) ; born in Duran, Cuba ; studied 



cucuUate unguiculate petals inserted on the margin of the disk in Paris, where he received a first prize from the .Vcaddmie des 



between the lobes of the calyx. I have been able to examine the 
flowers of R, latifolia only ; these show no trace of petals. 



Sciences for his experiments with chloroform, and later the degree 
of Doctor of Science. He is known by the machine invented by 



Reynosia was referred by Baillon (Hist. PL L c.) to Condalia, him for increasing the yield of sugar from Sugar-cane, and by many 
from which it differs in the thinner and less prominent disk of the publications upon chemical and agricultural subjects. 
flower, the thinner wall of the stone of the fruit, the longer radi- 
cle, and the ruminate albumen. 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



REYNOSIA LATIFOLIA. 



Red Iron Wood, Darling Plum. 



Flowers in axillary umbels ; petals 0. Leaves oval, oblong, or subrotund, usually 



emarginate. 



Reynosia latif olia, Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 34. — Eggers, 
Videnskab. Medd.fra not. For. Kjobenh. 1877, 173, t. 2 ; 



N. Am, lOth Census U. S. ix. 39 ; Garden and Forest, iv. 



15. 



Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 358. 



BtdL U. S. Nat. Mas. xiii. 40. — Gray, Bot. Gazette^ iv. Scutia ferrea, Chapman, FL 72 (not Brongnlart). 



208. 



Chapman, FL Suppl. 612. — Sargent, Forest Trees Rhamnidium revolutum. Chapman, Fl. Suppl. 612 (not 

Wright). 



A slender tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk six or eight mches in diameter, 
stout terete rigid branchlets marked with prominent elevated leaf -scars, and minute chestnut-brown acu- 
minate buds. The bark of the trunk is from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch thick, the dark red- 
brown surface dividing into large thick plate-like scales ; that of the young shoots is slightly puberulous 
when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous, and is gray faintly tinged with red, growing darker 
during the second season, when it is often covered with small tubercles. The leaves are oval or oblong 
or sometimes nearly orbicular, rounded, truncate, or more frequently emarginate at the apex, and usually 
minutely apiculate ; they are gradually contracted at the base into short broad petioles, and are an inch 
or an inch and a half long, half an inch broad, and very thick and coriaceous, with thickened revolute 
margins, a stout broad midrib grooved on the upper surface, about five pairs of primary veins spreading 



arly at right 



& 



les, and many intricately netted 



they 



are 



dark 



green on the upper, and 



rather paler or often rufous on the lower surface, and ia Florida appear in April, remaining on the 
branches for one year and sometimes two. The flowers are produced on the shoots of the year in May ; 
they are one twelfth of an inch long, or three times longer than the stout pedicels, with broadly deltoid 
acute calyx-lobes and a two or three-celled ovary. The fruit ripens in Florida in November, or fre- 
(juently not until the following spring ; it is half an inch long, pm^ple or nearly black, edible, and 
possesses an agreeable flavor. 

Reynosia latifolia is common and generally distributed on the coast and islands of southern 
Florida from the Marquesas group to the shores of Bay Biscayne ; and it has been found in Cuba and 



the Virgin and Bahama Island 

The wood of Reynosia 



folia is heavy and exceedingly 



hard, strong and close-ei^ratned 



& 



it 



contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is rich dark hrown in color, the sapwood, which is composed 



of fifteen to twenty layers of annual growth, being light b 
dry wood is 1.0705, a cubic foot weighing 66.78 pounds.^ 



The specific gi-avity of the absolutely 



The earhest account of Reynosh 
plant under the name of BuUet-teee 
Florida on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett 



'f^ 



that of Catesby, who figures what is evidently this 



in his Natural History of d 



It was first collected in 



1 This tree, in Florida at least, grows very slowly. The speci- site, while those of Rhamnns Icevigatus are described as alternate, 
men of the wood in the Jesiip Collection of North American Woods without allusion to their being emarginate at the apex, a, pretty 
in the American Museum of Natural History in New York is seven constant character in Reynosia. Professor Trelease, who exam- 
inches in diameter, and is composed of one hundred and thirty-two ined Vahl's herbarium preserved at Copenhagen, was unable to find 



layers of annual growth. 
2 Reynosia latifolia ha 



the type of Rhamnus Icevigatus ; and the evidence of its identity -with 
Reynosia latifolia is hardly sufficient to justify the adoption of 



Icevigatus, Vahl {Symb. iii. 41), the Ceanothus Icevigatus, De Can- Vahl's specific name for our plant, 
dolle (Prodr. ii. 30). The leaves of Reynosia are usually oppo- 3 i. 75, t. 75. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LVL Reynosia latifolia. 

1. A flowering branchy natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. An umbel of flowers, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. Front and rear view of a stamen, enlarged 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. Stipules, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



ab 



VI 




/ ' E Faxvn del 



Picart fr sc 



REYNOSIA LATIFOLIA, Gnset 



A Rzol ^rt^ua ' c/u 'ea^ 



Inip.H TdJit'ur Pnns 



RHAMNACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



CONDALIA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in aestivation ; petals ; ovary 
immersed in the disk, free, 1 to 2-celled ; ovules solitary. Fruit drupaceous, 1 rarely 
2-celled, 1-seeded. 



Condalia, Cavanilles, Anal. Hist. Nat^ i. 39. — Brongniart, 
Mi'Vi. Rhavineesj 48. — Endllcher, Gen. 1096. — Meisner, 



Gen. 71. — Gray, Gen. Ill ii. 171. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. i. 376. — Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 82. 



Small trees or shrubs^ usually glabrous^ with rigid spinescent branches. Leaves alternate^ subses- 
sile, obovate or oblong, entire, feather-veined ; stipules minute, deciduous. Flowers axiUary, solitary or 
fascicled, short-pediceled, greenish white, minute. Caljrs persistent, with a short broadly obconical tube 
and ovate acute membranaceous spreading lobes. Disk fleshy, flat, sHghtly five-angled, adnate to and 
filling the tube of the calyx and surrounding the free base of the ovary. Stamens five or rarely four, 
inserted on the free margin of the disk between the lobes of the calyx ; filaments slender, subulate, 
incurved, shorter than the calyx-lobes ; anthers introrse, attached at the middle, two-celled, the contigu- 
ous cells opening longitudinally. Ovary conical, one or sometimes two-celled by the development of a 
false partition, and gradually contracted into a short thick style; stigma two or three-lobed; ovules 
solitary, ascending from the base of the cell, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle inferior. 



Fi 



d or subglobose, rarely imperfectly two-celled, supported by the tube of the calyx, and crowned with 



the remnants of the style ; sarcocarp thin and fleshy ; the putamen thick 



Seed compressed 



or subglobose ; testa thin and smooth. Embryo surrounded by a thin layer of fleshy albumen ; cotyle- 
dons oval, flat ; radicle short, inferior, next the hilum. 

Condalia is confined to the New World, and is widely distributed from western Texas and southern 
California to Patagonia and Brazil. 



The type of the genus, Conclal 



a mli'Topliiflla^ is a spiny under- 
shrub of Chile. Two species inhabit Brazil,^ and one is known to occur in Patagonia.^ Three species 
belong to the arid region of northern Mexico and the adjacent portions of the United States. Of these, 
Condalia ohovata is a small tree; the others, C spatliulata'^ and C. Mexicaiia^^ are low many-branched 
spinescent shrubs. 



Condaha has few economic uses. The bark of the Brazihan C. infectorla is rich in tannin, and is 



u 



in 



dyein 



g- 



6 



sed 



inhabitants of Nuevo Leon. 



The fruit of C. ohovata.^ the capulin of the Mexicans, is sometimes eaten by the 



The name of Antonio Condal,^ a Spanish physician of the last century, is preserved by that of this 



srenus. 



1 Cavanilles, Anal. Hist Nat i. 39, t. 4 ; 7con. vi. 16, t. 525. 



De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 28. 
'•^ Reissek, Martim FL L 
8 Gray, BoL N. Pacific . 
4 Gray, PI Wright, i. 32 



— *^ Of Antonio Condal nothing is known beyond the fact that he 

was a native of Barcelona, and that when very young he was 

!8. attached to the scientific expedition sent in 1754 by the Spanish 

government to explore its South Anaerican possessions, as assistant 

Hemsley, to the Swedish botanist, Peter Loefling, who died two years later at 



Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 196. — Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. the Mission of Merercuri, near Cumana. (For an account of Peter 

Loefling and his travels, see Bossu, Travels through Louisiana, Eng- 



362. 



^ Scheele, Linncea, xv. 471. — Hemsley, /. c — Trelease, L c 
« Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 70. 



lish ed. ii. 71.) 



KHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



OONDALIA OBOVATA, 



Purple Haw. Log Wood. 



Flowers fascicled ; stigma 3-lobed ; ovary 1-celled 



Condalia obovata. Hooker, Icon. t. 287. — Torrey & Gray, 

FL N. Am. i. 685. — Gray, Gen. Ill ii. 172, t. 164 ; Jottr. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 169 (PL Lindheim.. ii.) ; PL 
Wright, i. 32; ii. 27 (SmithsonioM Contrih. lii., v.). — 



Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 47. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 40. — Trelease, 
Trans. St. Loiiis Acad. v. 361. 



A small tree, rising sometimes to a height of thirty feet, with a slender trunk six or eight inches in 
diameter, and erect rigid zigzag branches terminating in stout spines ; or more often a shrub. The bark 
of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, divided into flat shallow ridges, the dark brown surface 
tinged with red, separating into thin scales. The bark of the young branches is gray when they first 
appear, and is then clothed with soft velvety pubescence ; this disappears before the end of the season, 
when they are quite glabrous, their pale red-brown bark then often covered with thin scales. The 
leaves appear in May and June, and fall irregularly during the winter, a few usually remaining on the 



branches until the period of 



growth 



m 



following year. They are spatulate or oblon 



t> 



short-petioled, entire, mucronate, and often fascicled 



the sho 



branchlet 



they 



half an inch to an inch long, a third of an mch broad, and rather thin, pale yellow-green, pubescent 



especially on the 



face when 



first appear, and glabrous at maturity, with a conspicuous 



midrib and about three pairs of prominent primary 



The flowe 



produced 



the shoots of 



the year on very short stemmed two to four-flowered fascicles. The fruit ripens irregularly during the 
summer ; it is a quarter of an inch long, dark blue or black, and possesses a sweet pleasant flavor. 

Condalia ohovata is generally distributed through western Texas from the shores of Matagorda 
Bay to the Rio Grande, and through the drier portions of northeastern Mexico. It attains a tree-like 
habit and its greatest size on the elevated sandy banks of the lower Rio Grande and its tributary 
streams. In less favored situations and on dry mesas it sometimes covers large areas with dense 



imnenetrable 



The wood of Condalia ohovata is very heavy, hard, and close-grained 



It is light red, with light 



yellow sapwood composed of seven or eight layers of annual growth, and contains numerous irregularly 
arranged open ducts and obscure medullary rays. The specific gra\aty of the absolutely dry wood is 
1.1999, a cubic foot weighing 74.78 pounds. The wood of this tree burns with an intense heat, and is 
selected for fuel in the region where it abounds.^ 

Condalia ohovata was discovered in Texas in 1833, probably near the mouth of the Rio Grande, 

by Thomas Drummond.^ 



^ C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, ii. 393. Liudheimer (Gray, during several years in the northern and northwestern parts of the 
PL Lindheim, ii. 169) is the only authority for the statement that continent, and later in western Texas, which he was one of the first 
the wood dyes blue, and that Condalia ohovata is called, therefore, botanists to visit. He went to Apalachicola in 1835 for the pur- 
Blue Wood or Log Wood. pose of exploring the entire Florida peninsula, but soon left west- 

2 Thomas Drummond (d. 1835) ; a native of Scotland, and one ern Florida with the intention of reaching Key West by the way of 

of the most industrious and successful of the botanical explorers of Havana, in which place he suddenly died. Drummondia, a genus 

the North American flora. A nurseryman by profession, and then of American Mosses, was dedicated to him by his patron, Sir Wil- 

curator of the Belfast Botanic Garden, Drummond came to America Ham Jackson Hooker, by whom his plants were described. The 

in 1825 as the assistant naturalist to the second Overland Arctic familiar Drummond Phlox of gardens was discovered by him in 



Expedition 



He traveled extensively Texas. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LVII, Condalia obovata* 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, rear and front view, enlarged- 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. Leaf, with stipules, enlarged. 



'^ 1 



juva 



f North Am 



erica , 



Ta. 



n 



li 



1 




O.E.FaJx?n del 



CONDALIA OBOVATA.Hook 



Picart fr. sc. 



A. Riocreitcc direa: 



Imp RTaneur. Pans 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



27 



RHAMNIDIUM. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in aestivation ; petals 5, rarely ; 
ovary immersed in the disk, free, 2-celled ; ovules soUtary, Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded, 
the seed destitute of albumen ; cotyledons fleshy. 



Rhamnidium, Reissek, Martins FL Brasil. xi., i. 94. 
Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 32. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. 



i. 378. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 74. — Sargent, Garden arid 
Forestj iv. 16. 



Small trees or shrubs, with slender unarmed terete branches covered with lenticels. Leaves oppo- 
site or obhquely opposite, oblong or ovate, entire, short-petioled, feather-veined ; stipules minute, 
deciduous. Flowers in axillary simple or dichotomously branched cymes. Calyx turbinate or broadly 
obconical, the lobes triangular, acute, erect or spreading*, crested on the inner surface, deciduous. Disk 
broad and fleshy, filling the tube of the calyx. Petals inserted under its free margin, hooded and 
unguiculate ; or wanting. Stamens five, inserted under the margin of the disk between the lobes 
of the calyx ; filaments subulate ; anthers oblong, introrse, attached on the back below the middle, two- 
celled, the contiguous cells opening longitudinally. Ovary subglobose ; style short and thick ; stigma 
two-lobed ; ovules ascending from the base of the cells, anatropous ; raphe ventral j micropyle inferior. 
Fruit elliptical or subrotund, supported on the tube of the calyx and tipped with the remnants of the 
persistent style ; sarcocarp thin, dry, or fleshy ; putamen membranaceous or thick and crustaceous, 
usually one-celled by abortion, one-seeded. Seeds ellipsoidal, compressed ; testa membranaceous. Em- 
bryo filling the cavity ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, obovate or elliptical ; radicle very short, inferior.^ 

Rhamnidium is confined to the warmer regions of the New World. Three species occur in south- 
ern Brazil ; ^ and four are West Indian.^ Of these, one reaches the southern coast of Florida. 

The name, formed from pd^vog and tl^og, indicates the relationship of these plants with Rhamnus. 



^ Rhamnidium was established for a group of Brazilian shrubs leaves and thicker-walled stones. These appear to unite our Flor- 

with indehiscent fruit distinguished by a very thin outer coat be- ida tree with the Brazilian species, in spite of the fact that its 

coming dry at maturity, and by the thin membranaceous walls of flowers are apetalous. In other genera of RkamnacecBf however, 

the stone ; with exalbuminous seeds having thick and fleshy cotyle- some species are furnished with petals, while others are destitute of 

dons, and with prominently veined leaves. The fruit is described them, 

as baccate, but is more properly drupaceous, the putamen, although ^ Reissek, Martins FL BrasiL xi., i. 94, 95, t. 24, f . 11, 12, 13, t. 

thin, being clearly defined. With these Grisebach joined three or 
four West Indian shrubs with thicker less prominently veined 



25, f. 1, t. 31. 

3 Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 32. 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. 



29 



RHAMNIDIUM FERREUM. 



Black Iron Wood. 



Calyx 



conspicuously crested ; petals 0. Fruit fleshy, the stone thick 



d 



bony. 



Rharanidium ferreum, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ iv. 16. Condalia ferrea, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 100. 



Wal- 



Rhamnus ferrea, Vahl, Symb. iii. 41, t. 58. 

Zizyphus emarginatus, Swartz, FL Ind, Occ. iii. 1954. 

Myginda integrifolia, Lamarck, Diet iv. 396. 

Ceanothus f erreus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 30. 

Scutia ferrea, Brongniart, Mem. Rhamnees^ 56 ; Ann. Sci. 

Nat. X. 363 (not Chapman, FL 72). 



pers, Ann. vii. 588. — Gray, Bot. Gazette^ iv. 208. 
Chapman, FL Suppl. 612. — Eggers, BidL U. S. 



Nat 



Mus. No. 13, 40. 
Census U. S. ix. 39. 
V. 362. 



Sargent, Forest 



N. An 
Louis 



A low tree, rising sometimes to a height of thirty feet, with a slender trunk eight or ten inches in 
diameter, but generally much smaller and more often shrubby than arborescent in habit. The bark of 
the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, and divided into prominent rounded longitudinal ridges, their 
surface broken into short thick light gray scales. The bark of the branchlets when they first appear is 
green and covered with dense velvety pubescence ; it is glabrous in the second year, and is then gray 
faintly tinged with red and roughened with small crowded lenticels. The leaves are conspicuously 
netted-veined, glabrous with the exception of a few scattered hairs on the upper surface and petioles, 
broadly elliptical, emarginate-mucronate at the apex, an inch or an inch and a half long, and three quar- 
ters of an inch to an inch broad, with entire or wavy margins. They are borne on stout petioles a 
quarter of an inch long, are rather thin but coriaceous, bright green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
and pale yellow-green below, and remain on the branchlets two or sometimes three years ; the stipules 
are acuminate, membranaceous, and early deciduous. The flowers are produced on the shoots of the 



year in three to five-flowered cymes borne on stout ped 



sometimes half 



inch long 



uy 



much shorter and often branched near the 



The pedicels are slender, bibracteolate, a quarter of 



an inch long and twice the length of the yeUow-green calyx, which is conspicuously crested on the inner 
surface of the acuminate lobes. The fruit, which is usually solitary, is borne on stems a third of an 
inch to half an inch long ; it is globose-ovoid and a third of an inch long, with thin black flesh. 

Rhamnidium ferreum is widely distributed in southern Florida from Cape Canaveral on the west 
coast through the southern keys to the shores of Bay Biscayne. It inhabits Ste. Croix,^ San Domingo,^ 



St- Thomas,^ Porto Rico,* Jamaica, and probably the other West India islands. On the Florida keys 
Rhamnidiiim ferreum is one of the most common of the small trees which, with the Eugenias, the 
Reynosia, the Citharexylum, and the Pisonias, compose a large part of the shrubby thickets which have 

replaced their original forest covering. 

The wood of Rhamnidium ferreum is exceedingly heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, although 
brittle and difficult to work. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is rich orange-brown in 
color, the thin sapwood being hghter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
1.3020, a cubic foot weighing 81.14 pounds. The wood of this tree is remarkable for the large amount 
of ash — 8.31 per cent. — which is left when it is burned. 

Rhamiiidhnn ferreum was discovered in Florida on Key West in 1846 by Dr. Ferdinand RugeL 



1 Vahl, /. c. 



Fl 



8 Eggers, No. 171. 

* P. Sintenis, Plantce PortoricenseSj No. 4824. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LVIII. Rhamnidium ferreum 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged 

5. An ovule, nauch magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. Stipules, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab . LVIII 








r 



3 




5 



\Jj 



ri 
1 




9 



8 





O E F'aa^-oiv del 



• 



Picart/r sc. 



RHAMNIDIUM FERREUM, Sarcr 



A . Rwcreax^ dirax- ^ 



Imp. B Taneur. Parts 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



RHAMNUS. 



Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in 

; petals 4 or 5 or 0, inserted on the margin of the disk ; ovary free, 2 to 



aestivation 



4-celled. Fruit drupaceous, 2 to 4 



Rhamnus, Linnaeus, Gen. 58. — Adanson, Fam, PL ii. Frangula, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 305. — Gray, Gen. ILL ii. 



305. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen, 380. — Brongn 



177. 



Rhamnees, 53. — Endlicher, Gen. 1097. — Meisner 



Neog 



71. 



i. 377. 



Gray, Gen. IlL ii. 179. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Sarcomphalus 
Baillon^ Hist. PL vi. 74. SciadoDhila. P 



xxvui 



Small trees or shrubs^ with terete^ often spinescent branches and acrid bitter bark. Leaves alter- 
nate or rarely obliquely opposite^ conduplicate in vernation^ petiolate^ feather-veined^ entire or dentate ; 
stipules small^ deciduous. Flowers in axillary simple or compound racemes or fascicled cymes^ small^ 
green^ or yellow-green. Calyx campanulate^ the lobes triangular-ovate^ erect or spreading, keeled on the 
inner surface, deciduous. Disk lining the tube of the calyx, thin below, more or less thickened above. 
Petals inserted in its margin, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, unguiculate, entire, emarginate, or 
two-lobed, concave or cucullate, involute around the stamens in aestivation, deciduous. Stamens as 
many as and opposite the petals ; filaments very short, subulate ; anthers didymous, introrse^ two-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally ; rudimentary and sterile in the pistillate flower. Ovary free, ovoid, 
included in the tube of the calyx, two to four-celled ; rudimentary in the sterile flower ; styles united 
below, with spreading stigmatic lobes, or terminating in a two to f our-lobed obtuse stigma ; ovules 
solitary, erect from the base of the cells, anatropous ; raphe ventral, becoming in one section lateral 
and in the other dorsal by the torsion of the short funiculus. Fruit oblong or spherical, supported on 



the circular base of the calyx ; i 
one-seeded indehiscent or more 



thick and fleshy, inclosing two to four separable 



c 



lehiscent nutlets. Seed 



ob ovate, grooved longitudinally 



on the back, with a cartilaginous testa, the raphe in the groove ; or convex on the back with a mem- 
branaceous testa^ the raphe lateral next to one margin of the cotyledons. Embryo large, surrounded 
with thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oval, foliaceous with revolute margins, or flat and fleshy ; radicle 



very short, turned a little from the hilum.^ 

The genus Rhamnus is widely distributed 



•ly all the temperate and in many 



parts 



About 



of the world, with the exception of Austraha and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, 
species are distinguished. They occur principaUy in Europe ' and in the Orient,^ in southern and east- 
ern Asia.^ and in North America.^ The genus is represented in the West Indies,^ Central America,^ 



1 The genus Rhamnus is separated into the following sections 
which are considered genera by many authors : — 

1. EuRHAMNUS. Flowers usually polygamo-dicecious, lobes of 



2 Nyman, Conspect, Fl. Eur op. 145, 
® Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 14. 

4 Hooker f. FL Brit. /nd. i. 638, — Thwaites 



the stigma spreading. Seed grooved on the back ; testa cartilagi- Ian. 74. — Maximowicz, il/-/m. Acad. Sci. St. Pviershourg, ser. 7, x. 

nous ; raphe dorsal ; cotyledons foliaceous, with revolute margins. No. 11, 6. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 82. — Franchet, 

Inflorescence mostly sessile. Branches often furnished with blunt PL David, i. 72. 
spines ; winter-buds scaly. 



:xin 



2. Frangula 



stigm 



^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vii. 50, t. 
616-619. — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 9, 302. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. 



obtuse, more or less united. Seed rounded on the back; testa iV. ^m. i. 260. — Hemslej, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 197, — Trelease, 



membranaceous ; raphe lateral ; cotyledons thick and fleshy. In- 
florescence pedunculate. Branches unarmed ; winter-buds naked. 
(Tournefort, Inst. 612, t. 383.) 



Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 365. 
« Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 99 
" Hemsley, l. c. 



3^> 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



RHAMNACE^. 



Brazil/ and the Canary Islands/ and in northern, tropical, and southern Africa.^ About eighteen 
species inhabit North America, most of them being* confined to the region south of the United States. 



Of the five species 



indigenous 



to the United States two belong to the Atlantic flora, and two to the 



Pacific flora, while one ranges across the continent. 

The fruit and bark of Rhamnus are drastic, and yield yellow and green dyes. From the fruit of 
liJiamiufs catharticay^ a native of Europe and now naturalized in some parts of eastern America, a syrup 
possessing strong purgative properties is prepared,^ while its bark is used for dyeing yellow. The fruit 
of the European it. Infectoria and of several allied species yields valuable dyes, and has considerable 
commercial importance. H. t'nictoria^^ a shrub of southeastern Europe and of China, and i?. Da- 



vitricff'^ furnish the China 



t> 



of commerce. The bark of the North American H. Purshiana 



powerful purgative, and the bark of i?. Frangii 



9 



ed in dyeing yellow, while its soft porous wood 



ized in the manufacture of gunpowder, and its fruit is employed in veterinary p 



R, cathar 



ilea 



fo 



been a common hedge-plant 



thern Europe and in the northern United 



States, and several varieties differing from the wild plant in habit and in the color of the fruit have 
appeared in gardens.^^ 

The generic name is derived from pd^rog, the classical Greek name of the Buckthorn. 



^ Reissek, Martins FL BrasiL xi., i. 91, t. 24, f. 9, t. 29. 

2 Webb & Bertbelot, Phytogr. Canar. ii. 2, 130, t. 67. 



6 Waldstein & Kit 
sier, FL Orient, ii. 18. 



Bois- 



XXIU 



^ Ball, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvi. 391. — Oliver, FL Trop. Afr, i. 129 (i?. cWoropAora, Decaisne, Co?7^J5^ itenrf. xl. 1140). 



381. 



Harvey & Soncler, FL Cap, i. 476. 



■^ Pallas, Fl, Ross, ii. 24, t. 61. — ^Ledebour, FL Ross. i. 502. 



* Linnaeus, Spec, 193. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 24. — Trelease, Forbes & Hemsley, L c. 128 (R. utilis, Decaisne, L c). 



Trans, St, Louis Acad, \. 365. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. 
ed. 6, 112. 

6 Woodville, Med, Bot. ii. 312, t. 114. — Fliiekiger & Hanbury, 
Pkarmacographia, 139. — U. S, Dispens. ed. 14, 759. — Stilld & 
Maisch, Nat. Dispens, ed. 2, 1223. — Millspaugh, Am, Med. PL in 



s Rondot, Notice du Vert de Chine et de la Teinture en vert chez 
les Chinois. 

^ Linuseus, Spec. 193. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 26, 

10 Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 69. 

11 Duhamel, Traitc des Arbres^ ii. 214, t. 50. — Loudon, Arb, Brit. 



Homceopathic Remedies^ i. 41, t. 41. — Maiscb, Organic Mat, Med. ii. 531. 
ed. 4, 323. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES- 



EuRHAMNUS. Flowers polygamo-dicecious ; seed grooved on the back ; raphe dorsal ; cotyledons foliaceous ; winter-buds 
scaly. 

Fruit red ; nutlets dehiscent ; leaves persistent 1. R. crocea. 

Frangula. Flowers perfect ; seed rounded on the back ; raphe lateral ; cotyledons thick and 
fleshy ; winter-buds naked. 

Peduncles shorter than the petioles ; leaves deciduous 2. R. Caroliniana. 

Peduncles much longer than the petioles ; leaves deciduous or subpersisteut .... 3, R. Purshiana. 



RHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



0'> 



RHAMNUS CROOEA. 



Parts of tlie flower in 4's. Fruit red; nutlets dehiscent on the inner angle 
Leayes evergreen, often sharply toothed. 



Rhamnus crocea, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl K Am, i. 



261. 



Lindley, Jour. Hart. Sac. Land. vi. 217, f . 




Brewer & Watson, Bot. CaL i. 100- — Mary K. Curran, 
Proc. CaL Acad. ser. 2, i. 251. — Trelease, Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. v. 365. 



ton, Brit. Fl. Gard. ii. 821. — Torrey, Pacific K R. Rep. 

iv. 74; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 46; Bot. Wilkes Explor. R. ilicifolia, Kellogg, Proc. CaL Acad. ii. 37 
Exped. 262. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 114. 



A small tree^ rising occasionally to the height of twenty feet^ with a slender 



trunk six or eight 



inches in diameter^ and spreading rigid sometimes spinescent branches ; or more frequently a low matted 



shrub with stems a few feet high forming thickets of considerable 



The bark of the trunk is 



lually from an eighth to a sixteenth of an inch thick^ the dark gray surface being slightly roughened 

cles. The bark of the branchlets when they first appear is puberulous or glabrate and 



with minute tube 



The 



yellow-green^ but becomes dark red or reddish brown and quite glabrous in their second season, 
winter-buds are obtuse and barely more than a sixteenth of an inch long^ with slightly puberulous api- 
culate scales with ciliate margins. The leaves are alternate^ elhptical^ broadly ovate or subrotund or 
rarely lanceolate-acuminate, mucronate, rounded or emarginate at the apex, acutely or often 
denticulate, sometimes revolute, a quarter of an inch to three inches long, with short stout petioles, 
prominent midribs grooved above, and broad conspicuous primary veins. They are persistent, coria- 
ceous, yellow-green, and lustrous on the upper surface, paler or frequently bronzed or copper-colored 



glandular- 



below, glabrous 
on the petioles 



often puberulous, especially 



young, on 



the under surface of the midribs and 



The 



pules are membranaceous, acuminate, and early deciduo 



The flowers 



dioecious and destitute of petals, and are produced on the shoots of the year in small clusters from the 
axils of leaves or of small lanceolate persistent bracts. The pedicels are slender, often puberulous, an 
eighth of an inch long and rather longer than the narrowly campanulate calyx, with acuminate lobes. 
The stamens are included, with short stout incurved filaments and large ovate anthers, which are minute 
and rudimentary in the fertile flowers. The ovary, which is reduced in the staminate flowers to a 
mere rudiment, is ovate and contracted into a long slender style, divided above the middle into two 
wide-spreading acuminate stigmatic lobes. The fruit ^ is red, obovoid, slightly grooved or lobed at 
maturity, and a quarter of an inch long, with dry thin flesh and one to three nutlets which open along 
the inner angle. The seed is broadly ovate, pointed at the apex and deeply grooved on the back, 
with a thin membranaceous pale chestnut-colored testa and thick curved fleshy cotyledons.^ 

Rhamnus crocea is widely distributed west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains from the valley of the 
upper Sacramento River to at least latitude 28° on the mainland, and to Guadaloupe Island, Lower 
California.^ It usually grows as an undershrub beneath the shade of trees and along the borders of 
the forest or in sheltered ravines, preferring the northern slopes of mountains, although sometimes 



1 Brewer & Watson {Hot. CaL i. 101) state that the ripe fruit of pilosa (INIary K. Curran, Proc, CaL Acad. ser. 2, i. 251. — Trelease, 
Rhamnus crocea is used by the Indians as food ; and that ^' their Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 365). The flowers of this peculiar plant 
veins are said to become tinged by a deposition of the red coloring have not been seen. 



matter. 



' 3 This species has been said to extend into Arizona (Watson, 

2 Rhamnus crocea varies in the amount and density of the pubes- CaL PL Wheeler^ 7. —Brewer & Watson, Bot. CaL i. 100), but 

cence which clothes the foliage and young shoots. A form with no record of the locality is preserved, and it is perhaps doubtful 

narrow revolute leaves and densely pilose throughout inhabits Santa whether it occurs anywhere east of the Sierra Nevada. 
Maria valley in the mountains near San Diego. It is the variety 



34 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



RHAMNACEJE. 



app 



ixposed 



sunny hillsides or in the neighborhood of the 



It is tree-like 



in 



hab 



ly in a few favored localities in some of the interior valleys of central California^ 
and on Cedros Island and the Santa Barbara group^ where, as also on the mountains of the adjacent 
mainland, an arborescent form ^ occurs having prominently toothed leaves, rather larger flowers with a 
shorter calyx-tube, shorter and broader calyx-lobes, a less deeply divided style, and larger fruit. 

near Monterey by Thomas Nuttall.^ It was introduced 



Rh 



discovered in 1836 



into England by Theodore Hartweg ^ in 1846, but probably 



soon 



from garde 



It 



in all temperate regions for its bright evergreen foHage and brilliant red fruit 



Rhamnus croceUy var. insularis, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. and to indulge his taste for horticulture. Nuttallia 



364. 



shrub of Oregon and California belonging to the Rose family, fixes 
R. insularisy Greene, Bull CaL Acad, ii. 392 ; Pittonia, i. 201. the name of Nuttall in the annals of botany, and serves to com- 

R, CTOcea, Lyon, Bot. Gazette, xi. 333. — Brandegee, Proc. CaL memorate his early explorations and his hardships and dangers on 
Acad, ser. 2, i. 225. — Vasey & Rose, Contrib, U. S. Nat, Herb. i. 14. the plains and in the forests of the far West. 



This is a tree often growing to the height of twenty-five or thirty 



^ Karl Theodore Hartweg (1812-1871) was a native of Carls- 



feet, and flowering six weeks later than the ordinary form of it. ruhe, and the descendant of a long race of famous gardeners. At 
crocea. Flowers provided with petals are said to occur (Trelease, an early age he found employment in the Jardin des Plantes in 



Trans, St, Louis Acad, v. 365), but I have not seen them. 



Paris, and afterwards in London in the garden of the Royal Hor- 



2 Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859) ; a native of Settle in the West ticultural Society, where his industry and intelligence soon attracted 
Riding of Yorkshire, and from 1807 to 1842 a resident of the attention and led to his being sent to Mexico by the society to col- 
United States, where he made many long and arduous journeys in lect plants and seeds. In 1836 Hartweg left England on this mis- 
the prosecution of his studies in natural history. Nuttall was an sion, passing seven years in Mexico, central and western equatorial 
accomplished and distinguished naturalist, and one of the most America, and in Jamaica, making important discoveries, including 
indefatigable and judicious of the botanists who have studied the many coniferous trees of the Mexican highlands, and several or- 
North American flora. Among his numerous publications are some chids which he successfully introduced into cultivation. Hartweg 
of the most valuable contributions that have been made in the field returned to Mexico in 1845, and was in California in 1846 and 1847, 
of North American botany ; and his work on North American spending much of his time at Monterey and penetrating to the 
birds is still an authority on the subject. In 1834 Nuttall was upper valley of the Sacramento River. On his return to Europe 
appointed curator of the Botanic Garden of Harvard College, and he was appointed by his friend, the Grand Duke of Baden, inspector 
instructor in botany. The duties of the office were not congenial of the ducal gardens at Schwetzingen, a position which he con- 
to him, as they interfered with his love for travel and prevented tinued to fill during the remainder of his life. His American 
him from carrying on his investigations in the field, and he ap- plants were described by Bentham in the Plantce HartwegiancB. 
pears to have passed only a small part of his time in Cambridge. Hartwegia, an epiphytal orchid, which he first found growing on 

and returned to England to take the eastern declivities of Mount Orizaba, was named by Lindley in 



1842 



an 



honor of its discoverer. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LIX. Rhamnus crocea. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 
6- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 
10- An embryo, much magnified. 

11. Nutlet showing the dehiscence, enlarged. 



Plate LX. Rhamnus crocea, var. insulakis. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 
11- An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



J.C. \_ 



i 



/ 




^ 






8 



^ 






C. E .Fascoa del. 



P heart fh . sc 



RHAMNUS CROCEA.Nutt, 



A.Rwcreiuc thrsx 



Imp _ R _ Taite-ar, Fan ^ 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LX 




4 



9 






8 





C. E Faxon del . 



Picari fr sc 



RHAMNUS CROCEA , Var. INSULARIS , Sar 




A./iu>crctLT direx 



Imp. R , Taneur, Paru: 



BHAMNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 




RHAMNUS CAROLINIANA. 



Indian Cherry. 



Parts of the flower in 5's ; peduncles shorter than the petioles. Leaves deciduous 



Rhamnus Caroliniana, Walter 



Lamarck, 



III. ii. 88 ; Diet. iv. 476. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 

153. 



Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 47. — Persoon, Syn. i 
Pursh, Fl. Am, Sept. i. 166. — Nuttall, Gen, i 
152 ; Sylva^ ii. 50, t. 59. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v 



39. 



285. 



Elliott, Sk. i. 289. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 26. 



10th Census U. S. ix. 40. 



Trans 



Acad. Y. 366. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 

112. 
Frangula fragilis, Rafinesque, Fl. Ltidovic. 97 ; Sylva 

Tellur. 27. 
Sarcomphalus Carolinianus, Rafinesque, Sylm/ Tellur. 29. 



a^vengel, Syst. i. 7 6S. — Don, (re^. >S^//5^ ii. 32. — Torrey Frangula Caroliniana, Gray, Gen. III. ii. 178, t. 167; 



& Gray, FL N. Am. i. 262. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 807. 
Koch, Dendr. i. 610. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 



Man 



N. 



iii. 92. — Chapman, Fl. 73. 



A slender tree, thirty or thirty-five feet high, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter, and 



slender spreading 



d branches j or more often a tall shrub sending up numerous stems to the 



height of fifteen or twenty feet. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, slightly fur- 
rowed, ashy gray, and often marked with large black blotches. 



appear is 



light 



That of the branchlets when they first 
red-brown and puberulent or covered with a glaucous bloom ; it becomes gray during 
the second season, when the branches are slightly angled, glabrous, and conspicuously marked with the 
elevated scars left by the falling of the leaves. These are alternate, elliptical, oblong or broadly elhp- 
tical, acute or acuminate, wedge-shaped or somewhat rounded at the base, remotely and obscurely serrate 
or crenulate, and densely coated when they first appear with rusty brown tomentum ; they are borne on 
slender pubescent petioles half an inch to nearly an inch in length, and are membranaceous, two to six 
inches long, an inch to nearly two inches broad, glabrous or somewhat hairy on the lower surface at 
maturity, dark yellow-green above and paler below, with a prominent yellow midrib and about six pairs 
of conspicuous yellow primary veins. The stipules are minute, nearly triangular, and early deciduous. 
The flowers appear from April to June in the axils of the leaves after these are almost fully grown ; 
they are arranged in few-flowered pubescent umbels borne on peduncles varying from an eighth of an 
inch to almost half an inch in length. The pedicels are slender, a quarter of an inch long or half the 



length of the calyx, which has a narrow turbinate tube and triangular lobes. The petals are minu 
broadly ovate, and deeply notched at the apex, and are folded around the short stamens. The ovary 
contracted into a long columnar style terminated with the slightly three-lobed stigma. The fruit ripe 

!r : it is g^lobose, 



September, and somethues remains on the branches during the month of Novemb 



1 



rather dry flesh and 



fo 



third of an inch in diameter, and black at maturity, wil 

indehiscent nutlets. 

Rhamnus CaTolbiiana is found from Long Island, New York, to northern Florida; it extends 
westward throu^^h the valley of the Ohio River to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and eastern Texas. 



It is found along the borders of streams in rich bottom-lands, and is abundant on 



those 



mestone 



barrens of 



Kentucky and Tennessee which 



ered with thickets of the Red Ceda 



In 



western Florida and in Mississippi the Indian Cherry is occasionally tree-like in habit, but its greatest 



ached only in southern Arkansas and the adj 



portions of Texas, where it often develop 



a small shapely tr 

The wood of Rli 



Caroliniana is rather hard, although liofht, close-2:rained, and 



it contains 



thin medullary rays, and is light b 



the 



pwood, composed of fi 



or six 



3G 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rhamnace^. 



layers of annual growth, being ratlier lighter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.5462, a cubic foot weighing 34.04 pounds. 

Rhamnus Carollnlanay according to Loudon/ was introduced into Enghsh gardens in 1819 ; it is 



rarely seen in cultivation. Few insects are known to devour the foliage or injure the wood of this 
plant." 

^ Arb* Brit. ii. 536. can species of Rhamnus, especially different species of Clisiocampa 

The plant usually grown in European botanic gardens under this or Web-worms ; and Hyphantria cunea, Drury, has been known to 

name is the European Rhamnus Frangula, L., which closely resem- bore into the wood. Henry Edwards (Proc. CaL Acad, v. 164) 

bles Rhamnus Caroliniana, mentions that Papilio Eurymedon, Boisd., feeds upon the foliage of 

2 Various general-feeding insects attack the foliage of the Ameri- Rhamnus Purshiana, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate LXI. Rhamjstus Caroliniana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A petal, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistil, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A nutlet, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

13. A seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. LXl 




CfE Faxon del 



Picart Jr. sc. 



RHAMNUS CAROLINIAM , Walt 



A EwcreuiC'direa^l^ 



Irnp I? Tanenr. Pans 



RHAMNACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



37 



RHAMNUS PURSHIANA. 



Bearberry. Coffee Tree. 

Parts of the flower usually in 5's, sometimes in 4's ; peduncles longer than the 
petioles. Leaves deciduous or subpersistent. 



Bhamnns 



Lou- R. oleifolia, Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 123, t. 44- — Hooker 



don, Arb, Brit. ii. 538, f . 211. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am, i. 
123, t. 43 ; London Jour. Bot. vi. 78. — Don, Gen. Syst. 
ii. 32. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 262. — Dietrich, 

Newberry, Pacifie 



& Arnott, Bot Voy. Beeehey, 136, 328. — Torrey & Gray, 
FL N. Am. i. 260. — Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur^ 10 ; 
PL Hartiveg. 302. — Carriere, Rev. Sort. xlvi. 354, f. 
47, 49. 



Syn. i. 807. — Nuttall, Sylm, ii. 52. 

It. B. Bep. vi. 69. — Koch, Dendr. i. 610. — Gray, Proc. Cardiolepis obtusa, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 28. 

Bot. CaL i. Perfonon laurifoliuin, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 29 

N. Am. IQth Census U. S. Endotropis oleifolia, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 31. 



Am. Acad. viii. 379. 
101. 



Watson 



ix. 41 ; Garden and Forest j iv. 75. — Trelease, Trans. St. R. laxirifolia, Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 260. 

Louis Acad. v. 366. — H. H. Rusby, Druggists' Bull. iv. Prangula Calif ornica, Gray, Gen. III. ii. 178 ; Proc. Bost. 

334, f. 1, 6, 7, 8. 



R. alnifolia, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 166 (not L'Hdritier). 

R. Californica, Eschscholtz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Peters- 
hourgj x. 285. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 32. — Torrey & Gray, 
FL N. Am. i. 263. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 806.— Brewer & 



Soc. Nat. Hist. vii. 146. — Torrey, Sitgreaves^ Rep. 157 ; 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 74 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 

46; Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 261. — Newberry, Pa- 
cific R. R. Rep. vi. 69. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 

78. 



Watson, Bot. CaL i. 101. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Frangula Purshiana, Cooper, Smithsoniaji Rep. 1858, 



Cent. i. 197. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 
sus U. S. ix. 40. — Trelease, TraTis. St. Louis Acad. v. 



366. 



Mary K. Curran, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, i. 252. 



259 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. 29, 57. — Torrey, Bot. 

Wilkes Explor. Exped. 262. 
R. rubra, Greene, Pittonia, i. 68, 160. 



Mary K. Brandegee, Zoe\ i. 240. — H. H. Rusby, Drug- R. Californica, var. rubra, Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
gists' Btdl. iv. 335, f. 2, 3, 9. v. 367. 



are marked with large elevated scars left by the falling of 



A tree, thirty-five to forty feet in height, with a slender trunk often eighteen or twenty inches 
in diameter, separating, ten or fifteen feet from the ground, into numerous stout upright or sometimes 
nearly horizontal branches ; often shrubby and occasionally prostrate. The bark of the trunk, even on 
old individuals, is rarely more than a quarter of an inch thick; and varies in color from dark brown to 
light brown or gray tinged with red, the surface being broken into short thin scales. The branchlets 
when they first appear are coated with fine soft pubescence ; they are pale yellow-green or reddish 
brown, and are pubescent, glabrous, or covered with scattered hairs in their second season, when they 

the leaves. These are alternate, elhptical- 
oblong, obovate, acuminate, or broadly elliptical, and are obtuse, acute, or bluntly pointed at the apex, 
rounded, subcordate, or sometimes wedge-shaped at the base, and serrulate, denticulate, obscurely 
crenate, or often nearly entire with wavy margins. They are thin and membranaceous or sometimes 
thick and coriaceous, and are glabrous or pubescent with scattered hairs on the lower surface and along 
the veins on the upper surface. They vary from an inch to over seven inches in length and are 
conspicuously netted-veined, with broad and prominent midrids and primary veins ; they are borne on 
stout often pubescent petioles half an inch or an inch long ; and are sometimes pale yellow-green above 
and below, and sometimes dark green and rather opaque above and paler or often somewhat orange- 
colored or brown on the lower surface, 
mountains they fall late in November, having previously tinned pale yellow. Farther south and near 



In Washington and Oregon and at high elevations in the 



The 



the California coast they remain on the branches almost all winter, or until the following spring, 
stipules are membranaceous, acuminate, and early deciduous. The flowers are produced on the young 



38 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



RHAMNACE^. 



shoot 



S m 



y umbellate cymes on slender pubescent peduncles varying from half an inch to nearly 



an inch in lenjx 



The ped 



are slender^ pubescent^ a quarter of 



ch to almost an inch long 



d four or five times longer than the calyx, which is narrowly campanulate with more or less spreading 



acuminate lobes 



The petals are minute^, ovate, and deeply emarginate at the apex, and enfold the 



stamens whose filaments are somewhat thickened at the b 



The style is crowned with a slender 



lobed stigma. The fruit is globose or broadly obovoid, a third to half an inch in diameter 



d very slightly or not at all lobed, with thin rather juicy pulp and two or th 



It is at first 



green, then red, and finally black at maturity. The 



obo 



sually 



d of 



an 



inch 



like 



ded on the back, and flattened on the inner surface by mutual pressure, with two bony tooth- 

hilum, and a thin gray or pale 



base, one on each side of the large scar of the 



t? 



It 



yellow-green shell- The testa of the seed is thin and papery, its outer surface of a yellow-brown co 
and its inner surface, hke the cotyledons, bright orange-colored.^ 

Rhammis Piirslilana is widely and very generally distributed from the region surrounding Pu 
Sound southward into Lower California ; it extends eastward along the mountain ranges of northe 
Washinofton to the Bitter Root rano^e in Idaho and the shores of Flat Head Lake in Montana, 
occasionally occurs on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and reappears on the moun- 
tains of Colorado and western Texas. In one of its forms it is scattered through the mountainous 
portions of southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. Rhamniis Purshiana 
is a shade-loving plant. In northern Cahfornia and in the region west of the Cascade Mountains 

usually found along the bottoms 
and the sides of canons, growing under the shelter of coniferous forests. Farther south in California 
it occurs on cool northern hillsides about the margins of the forest, or in sheltered ravines where it 



in Washington and Oregon, where it 



attains its greatest size, it is 



the 



protection of other trees and shrubs, and where it occasionally assumes the size and habit 
of a small tree. In the immediate neighborhood of the California coast, where Rhamniis Purshiana 



sometimes 



nly 



the 



heio-ht of a few inches, with prostrate stems forming broad cushions of 

two thousand feet above the sea- 



■t> 



scanty foliage, and in the Sierra Nevada at elevations of more than 



level, as in the ree^ion south and 



t> 



of these mountains, it occupies more exposed situations, and does 



assiune the habit of a tree.^ 
The wood of Rhcminus Pitrshiaiia is light, soft or hard, and 



strong. It contains numerous 



thin medullary rays, and broad bands of open ducts marking the layers of 



growth. It is brown 



^ In some parts of California near the coast the flowers of Rkam- pointed deciduous leaves, rounded or sometimes even cordate at 
nits Purshiana^ like those of many species of Frangula, continue to the base, and somewhat hairy on the upper surface and on the prin- 
appear during* the growing season, which lasts until the advent of cipal veins below, with short pubescent petioles and prominent 
frost, and it is not uncommon to find expanding flower-buds and veins. In the less humid climate of central California the leaves 
ripe fruit on the branch of a single season. The fruit is red for are semipersistent, usually thicker and smaller, and often Ian- 
only a short time, deepening gradually in color until it becomes ceolate and acuminate. The pubescence increases as humidity 
black. The first crop, the only one in regions of scanty rainfall, decreases, the principal veins are less prominent, and their reticu- 



ripens usually in September and October. 



lation is more conspicuous. In central California, however, indi- 



2 Extreme forms of the black-fruited Rhamnus of western viduals occur in favored localities with the large thin leaves of the 

America are easily distinguished, although they are connected by Washington and Oregon plant, while near them will be found 

so many intermediate forms that it does not seem practicable to others with the narrow coriaceous leaves of the more common Cal- 

characterize them specifically, or even to find satisfactory varietal ifornia form. On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Moun- 

characters for them, except in the case of the plant of the Mexican- tains the plants are shrubby, with slender virgate branchlets often 

boundary region. The differences consist in the shape, size, and covered with bright red bark (72. ruhra, Greene, Pittonia, i. 68), 

texture of the leaves, and not in the more essential characters of and rather thin narrow leaves. This extreme form passes on the 

flower and fruit, which do not vary in any important respect in the one hand into the broad-leaved form of the north, and on the other 
innumerable forms this plant assumes under the influence of widely 

dissimilar climatic surroundings. In the humid atmosphere of the region north and south of the Mexican boundary the branchlets and 

northwest-coast region and of the northern Rocky Mountains, where under surf 

Rhamnus Purshiana grows in the dense shade of coniferous forests, tomentum. 



into that of the California-coast region. In the dry climate of the 



fine 



it becomes a tree with slightly pubescent bright red or green 



® Rhamnus Purshiana is also known in some parts of the country 



branchlets, and large thin broadly elliptical obtuse or abruptly as Bitter Bark, Shittim-wood, Wahoo, and Bearwood. 



RHAMNACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



39 



tinged with red, the thin sapwood being Hghter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.5836, a cubic foot weighing 36.37 pounds. 



The bark of Rl\ 



s 



Piirsh 



possesses the drastic proper 



species of the genus. It is a popular domestic remedy in the region where the plai 
the name of Cascara Sagrada has been admitted into the American materia medica 



found in that of the othe 



d under 



& 



In the south Rhamiius Purshiana gradually 



iety 



2 



m 



wh 



1 



the branchlets 



d 



especially on their lower surface 



densely coated with thick white tomentum. Thi 



spreading shrub, and the only form in southern Cahfornia, Arizona, and Mexico, occurring also occa- 
sionally in central California.^ 

Rhamnus Purshiana was discovered in Montana on the banks of a tributary of the Columbia in 
1805 or 1806, by the members of the first North American transcontinental exploring expedition under 
command of Lewis and Clark. It was first noticed on the coast of California in 1816 by the Russian 
naturalist Eschscholtz.^ Rhamnus Purshiana has been cultivated in the Arnold Arboretum since the 
year 1873, and is sometimes found in its different forms in European botanic gardens. It is only 
precariously hardy in New England.^ 

The specific name given to it by De Candolle commemorates the botanical labors of Frederick 
Pursh,® who first described this plant. 



* Cascara Sagrada has proved valuable as a tonic laxative, and companion, the botanist and poet, Adelbert von Chamisso, the au- 
is now generally used in the United States and in some European thor of Peter SchlemihL On his return to Russia Eschscholtz was 
countries, the annual consumption of the crude drug being esti- appointed professor of medicine and director of the Museum of 
mated at 500,000 pounds. It is employed in decoctions, tinctures, Zoology in the University of Dorpat, to which he presented his col- 
fluid extracts, and cordials (Stills & Maisch, Nat, Dispens. ed. 2, lection. In 1823 he accompanied Kotzebue in a second voyage of 
659. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 122. — Maisch, Organic discovery, publishing its scientific results in London in 1826, Esch- 
Mat. Med. 194. — Parke, Davis & Co. Organic Mat, Med, ed. 2, scholtz was the author of numerous works upon zoology, including 



44 



Materia Medica 



the description of the animals in the recital of Kotzebue's second 



1890, f. 1-3, where will be found a detailed account of the drug voyage. Eschscholtzia^ the so-called California Poppy, now one of 



and its action). 



the most familiar and beautiful of garden annuals, commemorates 



2 Rhamnus Purshiana^ var. tomentella^ Mary K. Brandegee, Zoe\ his connection with the botany of the Pacific coast. 



i. 244. 



^ In 1838 Rafinesque found the tree which he described as Per- 



R. tamentellay Bentham, PL Hartweg, 303. — Seemann, Bot, Her- fonon laurifolium in Bartram's Botanic Garden near Philadelphia. 



aZrf, 275. — Walp 



It was a native of the mountains of Oregon, and was then twenty 



Frangula Californicay var. tomentella^ Gray, PL Wright, ii. 28 feet high. The description leaves little doubt of the identity of 

(Smithsonian Contrib. vi.). — Torrey, Pacific R, R, Rep. iv. 74; this plant with iJ^amnw^ PwrsAiana. Its size, when Rafinesque saw 

vii. 9. it, would indicate that it had been raised from seed brought back 

R, Californicay var. tomentella^ Brewer & Watson, Bot. CaL i. by Lewis and Clark from the valley of the Columbia River. {Gar- 



101. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 41. 



Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad, v. 367. — H. II. Rusby, Druggists* 
BulL iv. 338, f. 4, 5, 10. 

R. Californicaj Hemsley, Bot, BioL Am. Cent, i. 197. 



den and Forest, iv. 76.) 

« Frederick Pursh (1774-1820) was born in Tobolsk, in Siberia, of 



Germa 



[ parentage. He was educated in Dresden, and emigrated 
to America in 1799, establishing himself in Philadelphia, where for 



^ Broad-leaved forms of this variety, with the same hoary tomen- three years he served as gardener to William Hamilton, whose 

tum, collected by Brandegee in Lake and Colusa counties, serve to gardens were at that time the richest and most famous in America, 

unite it with the broad-leaved glabrous form of the northwest-coast Pursh then devoted several years to traveling in eastern North 

reffion. America and the West Indies for the purpose of studying the plants 

* Johann Friedrich (Iwan Iwanowitsch) Eschscholtz (1793-1831) of the country, the object, he tells us, that brought him to America, 

was born in Dorpat. He accompanied Captain Kotzebue as sur- In 1812 he carried his collections to London, where two years later 

geon and naturalist in the ship Ruric, on the voyage of discovery he published his Flora Americce Septentrionalis, in which were 

in the Pacific Ocean which he made between 1815 and 1818, under included the plants discovered between 1804 and 1806 by Lewis 

the auspices of Count RomanzofP, passing the month of September, and Clark on their transcontinental journey. Pursh afterwards 

1816 in the neighborhood of the Bay of San Francisco, where he settled in Canada with the intention of continuing his studies of the 

discovered a number of plants afterwards described by him in the North American flora, but died in Montreal before publishing any 

Tiyr^^^;^a ..f fliA Ano^PTTiv of St. Petersburff, and in Linncea by his other work of importance. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXII. Rhamntjs Purshiaka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a pistil, the calyx removed and displayed, enlarged 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 



Plate LXIII. Rhamnus Purshiana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size (Oregon form). 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size (var. tomentella), 

3. A flowering branch, natural size (mountain form). 

4- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged (mountain form). 

5. A petal of the same displayed, enlarged. 

6. Front and rear view of a stamen of the same, enlarged. 

7. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged (Oregon form). 

8. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tat. LXII 




3 





5 




6 




^7 




^ £. I'axon del. 



Puu/'l //■ sc. 



RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.D C 



A. Jtiocreucc direu: . 



ImpR. Jtuieiw. /'iirL 



Silva of Nortli;;Ain erica 



Tat . LXIII 




C. E Faj:on del 



RHAMNUS PURSHIANA, DC. 



Picart ir. s& 



A Riocmux direx ^ 



Imp.Il.Tamur\I^aru 



RHAMNACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



41 



CEANOTHUS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes yalvate in aestivation ; inflexed ; petals 
5, inserted under the margin of the disk, unguiculate, wide-spreading; ovary im- 
mersed in and more or less adnate to the disk. Fruit drupaceous, 3-coccous. 

Ceanothus, Linnaeus, Act. Ujys. i. 77; Gen. ed. 4,414— Gray, Gen. III. ii. 181. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 380. — Brongniart, Mem. Rhanv- 378. — Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 80. 

nees, 62. — Endlicher, Gen. 1098. — Meisner, Gen. 70. — Paliurus, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 304 (in part). 

Forrestia, Rafinesque, N. Y. Med. Rep. hex. 2, iii. 422, v. 351. 



Small trees or shrubs^ sometimes prostrate^ with flexible, often angled, unarmed, or rigid terete 
spinescent branches. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, petioled, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, entire, 
serrate, spinulose-dentate, or glandular-ciliate, glabrous, canescent-pubescent, or densely tomentose on 
the lower surface, triple-veined from the base or pinnately veined, deciduous or persistent; stipules 
slender, membranaceous and caducous, or thick and corky at the base with deciduous tips. Flowers 
produced in umbel-like fascicles aggregated in dense or prolonged terminal or axillary thyrsoid cymes 
or panicles, blue or white, often fragrant. Pedicels colored. Calyx colored, with a turbinate or hemi- 
spherical tube and triangular membranaceous petaloid lobes, deciduous by a circumscissile line. Disk 
fleshy, thickened above, filHng the tube of the calyx. Petals alternate with and much longer than 
the calyx-lobes, exserted, spreading or reflexed, deciduous, the long Hmb enfolded round the stamens in 
aestivation. Stamens five, inserted with and opposite to the petals, often persistent ; filaments filiform, 
spreading ; anthers didymous or four-lobed, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary 
three-celled, sometimes three-angled, the angles often surmounted by a fleshy gland persistent in the 
fruit ; styles short, united below ; stigmas introrse or terminal ; ovules solitary, erect from the base of 
the cell, anatropous, the raphe next the axis, the micropyle inferior. Fruit subglobose, three-lobed, 
supported on the base of the persistent and conmionly adnate calyx ; epicarp thin and soon becommg 
dry, dehiscent into three crustaceous or cartilaginous longitudinally two-valved cocci. Seed erect, 
obovate-lenticular, with a broad basal excrescence surrounding the liilum ; testa thin, crustaceous ; 
raphe ventral ; albumen fleshy. Embryo axile ; cotyledons oval or obovate ; radicle very short, next 
the hilum.* 

The genus Ceanothus is confined to the temperate and warmer regions of North America. About 
thirty species are distinguished,"^ the largest number belonging to California. Here Ceanothus is one of 
the prominent and striking features of the mountain and foothill vegetation, especiaUy on the ranges of 
the coast region south of the Bay of San Francisco, where many species with sho^vy flowers are aggre- 
gated, and in the arid southern deserts, where species with interlocking branches terminating in long 
rigid spines form impenetrable thickets often of great extent.^ Two species are widely distributed 
in the eastern part of the continent ^ from Manitoba to Texas, and from the ocean to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains ; and two others occur in the maritime region of the southern Atlantic states.^ The 



1 Dr. Parry first recorded (Proc. Damnport Acad. v. 164) the x. 333. — Trelease, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, i. 106. — Parry, Proc. 
fact that the nutlets of many species when relieved from the disk Davenport Acad. v. 162. 

expel the smooth-coated seed through the ventral slit with consid- ^ A number of forms of Ceanothus now believed to be hybrids 

erable force. To this provision, which serves to protect the ripe have been noticed in California (Trelease, Garden and Forest^ i. 7 ; 

seed from omnivorous animals and insures its reaching the surface Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 1\ i. 116. — Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. v. 

of the ground, he ascribes the gregarious habit peculiarly charac- 170). 

teristic of many of the Californian species. * Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 112. 

2 Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 264. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. ^ Chapman, Fl. 74. 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



RHAMNACE-E. 



remainder are peculiar to the Rocky-mountain and Pacific-coast region of the continent^ ranging from 
British Columbia to Mexico/ where five or six species at least have been detected, and to Guatemala. 

Ceanothus possesses few useful properties. The leaves, bark, and roots are astringent and tonic. 
The roots of Ccayiofhus Amerlcanus are dark red, and yield a cinnamon-colored dye; and the leaves of 
this species, which is still popularly known in some parts of the country as New Jersey Tea, are said to 
have been used as a substitute for tea-leaves during the Revolutionary War. The root was used 
the Cherokee Indians as a remedy for syphilis, and a decoction of the seeds and leaves has been 
employed for dysentery,^ and in the treatment of ulceration of the mouth and throat. Many of the 
species are beautiful garden plants 




3 



Ceanothus is formed from xEavcodog^ a name given to some spiny plant by Theophrastus and 



ferred by Linnaeus to this genus 



^ Hemsley, Bot, BioL Am. Cent, i. 199. 
2 U, S. Dispens. ed. 14, 1609. 
ed. 2, 373. 

® Loudon, Arb. Brit, ii. 539. 



Nat 



Med 



Manuel 



99), a seedling of the Mexican C. azureus (Desfontaines, Cat. 
1815, 232), obtained by Monsieur Christern of Versailles, is a plant 
of great ornamental value wherever the climate will permit of its 
being grown in the open air. A race of dwarf hardy Ceanothus, 



F Amateur des Jardins, iii. 81. — Nicholson, Diet. Gard, — Naudin, with abundant showy blue, white, or rose-colored flowers, has been 



Manuel 



produced by crossing the eastern C. Americanus with C azureus^ 



Much attention has been paid for many years in the gardens of and perhaps with some of the Californian species (Jaume St. Hi- 
France to the improvement of Ceanothus by selection and hybridi- laire, Flore et Pomone, vi. t. 525. — Rev. Hort. 1875, 30), 
zation. Ceanothus Gloire de Versailles (Rev. Hort. 1868, 388 : 1889, 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES 



Branchlets conspicuously angled ; leaves slightly pubescent on the lower surface . . 1. C- thtrsiflorus. 
Branchlets slightiy angled ; leaves densely tomentose on the lower surface .... 2. C- VELUTINUS, var. arboreus 



RHAMNACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



43 



OEANOTHUS THYRSIFLORUS. 



Blue Myrtle. California Lilac. 



Branchlets conspicuously angled. Inflorescence compound on leafy branches 
Leaves alternate, prominently 3-ribbed, minutely glandular-serrate. 



Ceanotlius thyrsiflorus, Eschscholtz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petershourg, x. 285. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 125. 
Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 37. — Hooker & Arnott, But. Voy, 
Beechey, 136, 328. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 266. 
Dietrich, Syn. i. 813. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 540. 
Lindley, Bot. Beg. xxx. t. 38. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 44, t 



Bep. iv. 74 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 45 ; Bot. Wilkes 



Explor. Exped. 263. 



ifi 



57, 
302. 



Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur^ 10 ; PL Hartweg 
- Ann. Gand. iii. 11, t- 107. — Torrey, Pacific R. B 



69. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. 57. — Koch, Dendr. 
i. 621. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 334. — Brewer & 
Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 102. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
IQth Census U. S. ix. 41. — Parry, Proc. Davenport 
Acad. V. 170. — Trelease, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, 108. 



A small tree, rising sometimes to the height of thirty-five feet, with a trunk twelve or fom'teen inches 



in diameter, dividing, five or 



feet from the ground 



many wide-spreading slender branches 



more 



often 



shrub 



The bark of the trunk is thin with a bright red-brown surface 



separating into thin narrow appressed scales. The branchlets are conspicuously angled^ pale yellow- 
green, and slightly pubescent when they first appear, but soon become glabrous. The leaves are 
persistent, oblong or oblong-ovate, smooth and lustrous on the upper surface, and paler and sUghtly 
pubescent beneath, especially along the principal veins ; they are an inch or an inch and a half long 
and half an inch to an inch broad, with prominent orange-colored veins, and are borne on stout peti- 

The stipules are membranaceous, acute, and early decid- 
The fragrant blue or white flowers appear in early spring, and are arranged in small pedunculate 



oles from a third to half an inch in length. 



uous. 



corymbs produced from the axils of minute deciduous bracts and collected into slender rather loose 
thyrsoid clusters two or three inches long, terminating long leafy pedunculate branchlets of the year ; 
these spring from the axils of upper leaves or of small scarious bracts, and are usually surmounted by 
the terminal leafy shoot of the branch. The fruit, which ripens from July to September, is black at 
maturity and is not crested. The seed is a hue long, with a smooth dark brown or black coat. 

Ceanotlius thyrsljiorus belongs to the mountainous region of western California, where it is widely 
distributed through the coast ranges from Mendocino County in the north to the valley of the San Luis 
Rey River. It is usually found on shady hillsides growing on the borders of the forest, often in the 
neio'hborhood of streams. It attains its greatest size ^ on the hills overlooking the swamps of the Noyo 
River in Mendocino County, where it is associated with the Redwood, the Douglas Fir, the Buckthorn, 
and various Willows and Oaks ; and in the Redwood forests of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Towards 
the southern limit of its range it is reduced to a low shrub,^ often flowering and ripening its fruit on 
the wind-swept shores of the ocean when only a foot or two high. 

The wood of Ceanotlms thyrsiflorus is close-grained and rather soft, with obscure medullary rays. 
It is Uo-ht brown, with thin darker colored sapwood, and when absolutely dry has a specific gravity of 

0.5750, a cubic foot weighing 35.83 pounds. 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus was discovered in 1816 by Eschscholtz, and was introduced into English 



As noticed by T- S. Brandegee. 

ifi 



thus in the field, reached the conclusion (Proc. Davenport Acad. 
V. 170) that C. Lobbianus (Hooker, BoL Mag. t. 4810) and C. 



species and produce natural hybrids. Several of these have been Veitchianus (Hooker, BoL Mag. t. 5127) are hybrids of this spe- 
noticed ; and Dr. Parry, who long studied the Californian Ceano- 



cies. 



44 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rhamnace^e. 



gardens in 1837 by Richard Brinsley Hinds/ who sent seeds to the Horticultural Society of London. 
CeanothnH thf/rsiJioruSy like the other Californian species, is not hardy in the eastern states j and in 
Europe it is now rarely cultivated, having been replaced by garden varieties and hybrids with more 
showy flowers. 



1 Richard Brinsley Hinds ; a surgeon in the British navy, is best of the voyage were published by Dr. Hinds and Mr. Bentham 

known from his association with the voyage of discovery of the in 1844 in a work entitled The Botany of the Voyage of H. M. S, 

Sulphur under command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher. The Sulphur, Hindsia, a genus of Brazilian plants established by 

Sulphur was in the Bay of San Francisco in the autumn of 1837, Bentham, recalls his name to botanists, 
and two years later visited San Diego. The botanical discoveries 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LXIV. Ceanothtjs thyrsiflorus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged • 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branchy natural size. 

8. A fruit, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of a fi'uit, enlarged. 

10. A fruit, the nutlets detached, enlarged. 

11. A nutlet^ enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryO; much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LXIV 




3 



10 





3 



9 






CE-Faxaro del 




sc. 



CEANOTHUS THYRSIFLORUS. Eschsch , 



jA . 2?2x>crczfa: dire^ 



ImpJt Taneur. Parts 



RHAMNACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



45 



CEANOTHUS VELUTINUS, var. ARBOREUS. 



Branches slightly angled. Inflorescence compound on more or less leafy branches 
Leaves alternate, glandular-crenate, densely tomentose on the lower sm-face. 



Ceanothus velutinus, var, arboreus^ Sargent, Garden 
and Forest^ ii. 364. 



irboreus, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. ii. 144. — Trelease, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, i. 110. — Brandegee, Proc. Cal. 



C. sorediatus, Lyon, Bot, Gazette^ x\. 204, 333 (not Hooker Acad. ser. 2, i. 208. — Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. 



Arnott) 



V. 169. 



A small round-headed tree^ twenty to twenty-five feet high^ with a straight trunk six to ten inches 
in diameter^ dividing^ four or five feet from the ground^ into many stout spreading branches ; or often a 
shrub. The bark of the trunk is dark brown^ an eighth of an inch thick, and broken into small square 
plates which separate into thickish scales. The branchlets when they first appear are slightly angled, 
pale brown, and covered with short dense tomentum. In their second season they are terete, nearly 
glabrous, roughened with scattered lenticular excrescences, and marked with large elevated leaf-scars. 
The leaves are broadly ovate or elliptical, acute, conspicuously glandular-crenate, dark green and softly 



puberulent on the upper surface, and pale and densely tomentose 



they are two and a half 



to four inches long and an inch to two and a half inches broad, with prominent veins, and are borne on 
stout pubescent petioles half an inch to nearly an inch in length. The stipules are subulate from a 
broad triangular base, a quarter of an inch long, and early deciduous. The pale blue flowers, which 



open in July and August, are borne on slender hairy pedicels half an inch to an inch in length 



produced from the axils of large scarious caducous bracts ; they are arranged in ample compound 
densely hoary-pubescent thyrsoidal clusters three or four inches long and one and a half to two inches 
broad, on lateral leafy or naked axillary peduncles which appear at the extremities of young branches. 
The fruit is a quarter of an inch across and black at maturity. 

Ceanothus vehitimiSy var. arhoreiiSy inhabits Santa CataHna, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa in the 
Santa Barbara group of islands off the coast of California. It reaches its best development on the 
northern slopes of Santa Cruz, where it is abundant at the highest elevation. On the other islands it is 
usually a bush branching from the ground with many slender stems. The insular plant appears to pass 
into C. velutinus ^ of the mainland, a species widely distributed from northern California to the Colum- 
bia River, and in the region east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, differing from it in habit, in its 
pubescent shoots, in the more constant pubescence of the leaves, in its long slender pedicels, and in the 

color of its flowers. 

The wood of Ceanothus vehitiiius^ var. arhoreuSy is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with thin very 

obscure medullary rays. The layers of annual growth are clearly marked with broad bands of minute 
open ducts, having irregular groups of ducts between them. Its color is Hght reddish brown, while the 
sapwood, composed of seven or eight layers of annual growth, is nearly white. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.7781, a cubic foot weighing 48.49 pounds.^ 

This handsome tree was discovered in 1835 on Santa CataHna by Thomas Nuttall.^ 

1 Ceanothus velutinus, J)ovig\diS\ Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 125, t. 102. — Trelease, Proc. Cal. Acad, ser, 2, i. 110. — Parry, Proc 

Torrev & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 265, 686. — Davenport Acad. v. 169. 



45 



Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 334. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. ^ Garden and Forest, iii. 332. 

2 Trelease, I. c. 115. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LXV. Ceanothus velutinus, var. arboreus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruity enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab LXV 




2 



3 



5 






6 




7 




C £. Faxon dei 



Picart fr . sc 



CEANOTHUS VELUTINUS, Var. ARBOREUS , Sarot. 

O 



A.RLocreux dirax ^ 



1 



'mp R.Taneur,Faris 



RHAMNACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



47 



COLUBRINA. 



Flowees perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, tlie lobes valvate in aestivation ; petals 5, inserted 
under the margin of the disk ; ovary surrounded by and confluent with the disk, 
3-celled. Fruit drupaceous, 3-lobed, 3-coccous. 



Colubrina, Brongniart, Mem. Mhamnees, 61 ; Ann. ScL Ceanothus, LinnsBus, Act. Tips. i. 77 ; Gen. ed. 4, 414 (in 



NaU 
70. 



X. 



368. 



Endlicher, Gen. 1098. — Meisner, Gen. 



part) . 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 380 (in part) 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 379. — Baillon, Hist. Paliurus, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 304 (in part). 



PL vi. 77. 



Marcorella, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 31. 
Diplisca, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 31. 



Trees or shrubs, with terete, glabrous or pubescent, sometimes sarmentose branches. Leaves alter- 
petioled, oblong-cordate or lanceolate, entire or crenate, pinnately veined or triple-veined from the 



base, often ferrugineo-tomentose on the lower surface 



minute, decid 



Flowers axillary 



contracted few-flowered cymes or fascicles, yellow or greenish yellow. Calyx-tube hemispherical, per- 
sistent, the lobes spreading, triangular-ovate, conspicuously keeled on the inner surface, deciduous by a 
circumscissile line. Disk fleshy, filling the tube of the calyx, annular, five-angled or indistinctly five 
or ten-lobed. Petals alternate with and shorter than the lobes of the calyx, cucuUate, unguiculate, 
enfolding the stamens. Stamens five, opposite to and inserted with the petals ; filaments slender, 



ncurved ; anthers ovate, introrse, two-celled, the contig 



cells 



longitudinaUy. Ovary sub 



globose, immersed in the disk, contracted into a slender three-lobed style, the obtuse lobes stigmatic 



on their inner face ; ovules soHtary, erect from the base of the 



anatrop 



the 



ph 



the micropyle inferior. Fruit subglobose, supported on the adnate base of the 



cal3rK-tub 



epicarp dry and thin or fleshy, septicidally dehiscent into three membranaceous crustaceous or cartilag 



opening longitudinaUy, or two-valved at the 



Seed erect, broadly obovoid, compressed 



three-angled j testa coriaceous, smooth, and shining ; albumen thick and fleshy. Embryo axile 
dons orbicular, flat or incurved, thin or fleshy ; radicle short, inferior, next the hilum. 



►tyle 



The genus Colub 



belongs principally to the warmer and tropical parts of America, although 



widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World, and two others are found in India 



About a dozen species spread in America from 



Texas, where two shrubby forms ^ occur 



through Mexico ^ to Brazil,^ and through the West India Islands ^ to the shores of southe 
which are reached by the arborescent C. redinata and the shrubby C. colitbrhia? 



Florida 



Colubrina has few properties useful to man. The wood of several of the species is hard, heavy 
strono*, and the bark and leaves are bitter and astringent. C. Fermentum^ a native of Guiana, is 

cane.^ Accord 



and strong, ai 

said to owe its name to the fact that the bark is used to ferment the juice of the Sugar 



Colubrina Asiaticay Brongniart, -4nn. Sci. Nat x. 369. — Wight 



Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 336 



Arnott 



Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 75. — Gray, ^ Hemsley, Bot. Biol Am. Cent. i. 200.— Watsoa 



N, 



1. 



o 



77. 



Ft 



383. 

Hooker 



Miquel, FL Ind. Bat. 



648 



42 



642. — Bentham, FL Austral i. 413. 



Fl. Haw. 

Asiaticus 



^ Hooker f. L c. 



Nat 



A^m.ii.).— Walpe 
V. 368. 



Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 



Acad. xxiv. 44. 

5 Reissek, Martins FL Brasil xi., i. 98, t. 23, t. 25, f. 2, 3. 

« Grisebach, Fl Brit. W. Ind. 100 ; Cat. PI Cub. 34. 

' Rhamnus colubrina^ Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 280. 

Ceanothus colubrinus, Lamarck, III ii. 90. 

Colubrina ferruginosaj Brongniart, Mem. Rhamnees^ 62, t. 4, f. 
3. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 100. — Trelease, I c. 369. 

C. Americana, Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 47, t. 58. — Chapman, Fl. 74. 

^ Endlicher, Enchirid. 583. 



48 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rhamnace^. 



Seemann/ the natives of the Feejee Islands use the powdered bark and leaves of C, Asiat 



clean the hair and to destroy vermin. 

The name Colubrina, from coluber, a serpent, was first used by Linnaeus as the specific name of 
the West Indian and Floridian plant, afterwards made the type of the genus. It probably was given to 
it on account of the peculiar twisting of the deep furrows of the stem which produces in some of the 
species an effect resembling that of a mass of intertwined serpents. 



1 Fl. Vit. 42. 



RHAMNACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Vd 



COLUBRINA RECLINATA. 



Naked Wood. 



Inflorescence pedunculate. Fruit dry ; nutlets crustaceous, 2-valved at the 

apex ; cotyledons flat and fleshy. Leaves persistent, glabrate at maturity. 



Nat 



Ceanothus reclinatus, L'H^ritier, Sert. Ang, 4. — De Can- 



Don, Gen, SysL ii. 36. — Richard, FL CuK ii. 147.— doUc; Pra^n ii. 31. — Macfacly 



Grisebach, FL Brit. W, 



Rhamnus elliptica, Swartz, Prodr. 50 ; FL Ind. Occ. i 



Eggers, BulL U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 40. —Sargent; 497. — Alton, Hort. Kew. i. 265. — Willdenow^ 



N 



Tre- 1098. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 288. 



lease, Trans. St. Lotns Acad. v. 368. Zizyphus Domingensis, Nouveau Duhamel^ ill. 56. 

Diplisca elliptica, Rafinesque, Sylva Telia r. 31. 



A tree, growing in Florida to the height of fifty or sixty feet, with a stout trunk three or four feet 
in diameter, divided, when fully grown, by many irregular deep furrows multiplying and spreading in all 
directions. The bark is thin and orange-brown, exfoliating with large papery scales.^ The branchlets 
when they first appear are slightly angled, puberulent, and reddish brown, but soon become glabrate, and 
in the second season are nearly terete, with gray or light brown bark marked with numerous small Hght- 

colored lenticels. The leaves are elliptical, ovate or lanceolate, usually contracted at the apex into a 
blunt point, entire, and furnished with two conspicuous marginal glands on the wedge-shaped or some- 
times somewhat rounded base. When they first unfold they are glabrous or faintly puberulent on the 
lower surface along the principal veins, and are then thin and membranaceous ; they become subcoria- 
ceous before reaching maturity, and are two and a half to three inches long, an inch and a half to 
nearly two inches broad, with slender petioles half an inch long and rather stout midribs grooved on 
the upper surface, and arcuate primary veins. In Florida they appear in early summer, and are then 
light green on the upper and pale on the lower surface, becoming yellow-green at maturity and remain- 
ing on the branches until their second year. The clusters of flowers, which are rather shorter than the 
petioles, appear on the shoots of the year ; they are at first pubescent but soon become glabrate. The 
fruit, which ripens late in the autumn, is a quarter of an inch across and dark orange-red, and is borne 
on pedicels half an inch in length, or often a little longer. 

Cohibriua reclinata is confined in Florida to Umbrella Key, to the north end of Key Largo, and 
to a few of the small islands south of EUiott's Key. It inhabits Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Cuba, 
Hayti, Ste. Croix, and the Virgin and Bahama groups. In Florida it attains its greatest size on 
Umbrella Key, where it forms a forest of considerable extent. 

The wood of Coluhrina reclinata is heavy, hard, and very strong, although ultimately brittle, with 
a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a good polish. It contains many small open ducts and numer- 
ous thin medullary rays, and is dark brown tinged with yellow, the thin sapwood, consisting of eight 
or ten layers of annual growth, being light yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.8208, a cubic foot weighing 51.15 pounds. According to Baron Eggers,- the leaves of this tree are 



sometimes used in Ste. Croix and the Virgin Islands in the preparation of a stomachic beverage. 

The earliest description of Colitbrina i^edlnata^ and the only figure of it which has been pub- 



1 On the side of the deep furrows where the bark does not scale 
off, the edges of forty or fifty of the layers of papery bark can 
sometimes be counted. 



o 



Mus. No. 13. 40 



50 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EHAMNACEiE. 



lished, appears in Patrick Browne's Natural History of Jamaica} It was first detected in Florida in 
1881 by Mr. A. H. Cui^tiss;' 



Cohibrlna 
by Philip MiUer. 



according to Aiton/ was cultivated in the Chelsea Botanic Garden in 1758 



4 



Rhammis arhorescens minor foliis ovatis venosisy pedunculis um~ visited several times as an agent of the United States government 



bellulatis alarihif<,fruciibus sphericis, 172, t. 29, f. 2. 



and of the American Musenm of Natural History, and in which 



- Allen Hiram Curtiss, a native of Central Square, Oswego he has found many plants, including a number of tropical trees, 



County, New York, was born in 1845, and moved to Virginia in 
1862 and to Florida in 1875. Mr. Curtiss has made large and val- 
uable botanical collections In southern Virginia and in Florida, United States and of Europe 



not known in the territory of the United States before his time. 
His sets of dried plants are found in the principal herbaria of the 



especially in the extreme southern part of the State, which he has 



3 Hort. Kew. i. 265. 



4 See i. 38 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate LXVL Colubrijs^a reclinata 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 
2- Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruity enlarged. 

8. A fruit, cut transversely. 

9. A nutlet, enlarged. 

10. A seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. LXVI 




3 



^ 







7 




C E.Faxon del. 



COLUBRINA RECLINATA, Bron^ 



Pi cart J r sc 



A. Riocreiix ciirLW ^ 



Imp F.Ttineur Fiins 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



51 



^SCULUS. 



Flowers polygamo-monoecious ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation, 
unequal ; petals 4 or 5, imbricated in aestivation, unequal, hypogynous, inappendicu- 
late ; ovary sessile, 3-celled ; ovules 2, heterotropous. Fruit a coriaceous capsule, 
3-celled and loculicidally 3-valved, the cells by abortion 1-seeded. Leaves opposite, 
digitate, destitute of stipules. 



^sculus, Linnseus, Gen. 109. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Macro thyrsus, Spach, Ann, ScL Nat. ser. 2, ii. 61 



251. 



Endlicher^ Geii. 1075. — Meisner, Gen, 51. 



Nat 



Gray, Ge7i. III. ii. 205. — Bentliam & Hooker, Gen. i. Billia, Peyritsch, Bot, Zeit. xvi. 153. — Baillon, Hist. PI 



398. 



Baillon, Hist. PL v. 424. 



Hippocastanum, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 383 
Pavia, Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 93. 



V. 424. 
Putzeysia, Planchon & Linden, Cat. 1857 



Trees or shrubs^ with stout terete branchlets conspicuously marked with triangular leaf-scars^ 
fetid bark^ thick fleshy roots^ and large scaly winter-buds^ the outer scales sometimes coated with resin, 
the inner bract-like^ accrescent with the young shoots, and often brightly colored. Leaves opposite, 
digitately compound, deciduous ; leaflets five to nine, rarely three (Billia), lanceolate or ovate, serrate, 
pinnately veined. Flowers showy, white, red, or pale yellow, racemose or nearly unilateral on the 
branches of large terminal thyrsi or panicles appearing later than the leaves, only those near the base of 
the branches of the inflorescence perfect and fertile. Pedicels from the axils of minute caducous bracts. 



Calyx campanulate or tubular, mostly oblique or posteriorly gibbous at the base- 



jointed, 

hypogynous, annular, depressed, lobed, more or less gibbous posteriorly. 



Disk 



Petals alternate with the 



lobes of the calyx, deciduous, the anterior one often abortive, unguiculate, the margins of the claw com- 
monly involute. Stamens six to eight, rarely five, generally seven, inserted on the disk, free, unequal ; 
filaments filiform; anthers elliptical, giandular-apiculate, attached on the back below the middle, 
introrse, two-ceUed, the contiguous cells opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile, oblong or lanceolate, 
three-celled, echinate or glabrous ; rudimentary in the sterile flower ; style slender, elongated, generally 
more or less curved ; stigma terminal, entire, mostly acute ; ovules two in each cell, borne on the middle 
of its inner angle, ampliitropous, the upper ascending, the micropyle inferior ; the lower pendulous, the 



micropyle superior. Fruit echinate, roughened, or smooth, three-celled, the cells one-seeded by abortion, 
or often by suppression one or two-celled and then one or two-seeded, the remnants of the abortive cells 
and seeds commonly visible at its maturity. Seeds destitute of albumen, round when only one is devel- 
oped, or, when more than one, flattened by mutual pressme ; testa coriaceous, chestnut-brown, smooth 
and shining, with a broad opaque Hght-colored hilum. Embryo filling the seed ; cotyledons very thick 
and fleshy, often conferruminate, unequal, incurved on the short conical radicle, and remaining under- 
ground in germination ; plumule conspicuously two-leaved.^ 



veins of the leaflets straight and less remote than in Hippocasta- 



num. 



1 The genus .Esculus is divided into two sections : 
Hippocastanum. Petals 5. Fruit echinate with thick valves. 
Primary veins of the leaflets slightly arcuate, remote. 

Pavia. Petals 4. Fruit smooth with thin valves. Primary with rather thin-valved fruit which, at least when young, is echi- 
nate, and the venation of Hippocastanum. 



jEsc 



52 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE.K. 



The genus iEsciilus is represented in the floras of the three continents of the northern hemisphere. 
Thirteen species are distinguished, eight of which are American. The type of the genus, JE^vulus 
ITippocastaiium^ is indigenous in the mountains of Greece. One species'^ occurs in the forests of the 
western Himalayas at elevations of from four to ten thousand feet above the sea-level ; and another ^ in 
the tropical forests of the Sikkim Himalayas, of the Khasia hills, and of Assam and Burmah. ^sculus 
Chinensls* is widely distributed in northern China, and jEsculus turhhmta^ in central China and in 

With the exception of jEsculus Favia^ and ^sculus 2)arviflora'' of the southern United 



9 



Japan. 

States, ^sculus Farri/l^ of Lower California, and two Kttle known species with trifoliate leaves, one 

of which inhabits southern Mexico, and the other ^° New Granada and Venezuela, all the Horse-chest- 
nuts are arborescent, some of them growing to a large size. 

^sculus has few useful properties. The wood of all the species is soft, straight-grained, Hght- 

colored, and easily worked, and, although it decay 



r 



dly when exposed to the action of the weather 



ployed in the manufacture of many small articles, and, in the United States, in paper-mak 



& 



The 



bark is bitter and astringent; that of JEscidus Hipjjocasta 



has been used in tanninsr, as a substi 



fc> 



tute fo 



in 



treatment of fevers/^ and in homoeopathic remed 



12 



The 



mucilaginous saponiferous matter^ and it is said that those of jEsciiliis Pavia are used in Carohna 



substitute for soap.^^ The 



d the bruised branches of this and of some of the other American 



species emit a disagreeable odor^ and their narcotic properties ha 



sed them 



be used to in- 



toxicate fish 



14 



The large farinaceous seeds of -^sculus contain a bitter principle^ Esculine, which 



dep 



them of value as food for man/^ although they 



sometimes fed to sheep^^ goats, and swine 



Linnseus, Spec. 344. — De Candolle, Prodr. i. 597. 



Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 24, t. 21. — Lmdlej, Bot 



Although the Horse-chestnut has been cultivated in the gardens Reg. t. 993. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 116. 



of Europe for more than three centuries, its native country was 



long unknown. Different authors have believed it to be a native of 
the Caucasus, of northern India, and of Thibet. Sibthorp noticed 



Pavia rubra, Lamarck, III, ii. 407, t. 273. 
7 Walter, FL Car. 128. — Chapman, FL 79. 
^. macrostachva. Michaux. FL Bor,~Am. i. 



Mag 



it on the mountains of northern Greece (Nyman, Coiispect. FL 2118. 



It uu out; iinjuiitttiiia \jl iiuiuiitriii vjtxccuc ^x^^yiiicni, t-zty/t^^eoc.. -it. 

Europ. 136), but it is only in recent years that Orphanides has 

established the fact that it is indigenous in the forests which cover iii. 356, f . 47. 



® Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 200. — Sargent, Garden and Forest^ 



these mountains. (Grisebach, Vegetation der Erde, French ed. i. 
521, note.) 

2 JEsculus Indica, Colebrooke, Wallich Cat. No. 1188. — Brandis, 



Fl 



Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. i. 675. 



Pavia Indica, Cambessedes ; Jacquemont Voyage, iv. 31, t. 35. 
The Horse-chestnut of northern India, a fine tree which grows to 
the height of sixty or seventy feet with a stout trunk three or four 



® jEscuIus Mexicana, Bentham & Hooker, Gen, i. 398. — Hems- 
ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 212. 

Billia Hippocastanum, Peyritsch, Bat. Zeit. xvi. 153. — Walpers, 
Ann. vii. 624. 

Putzeysia rosea, Planchon & Linden, Cat. 1857. 

^^ ^sculus Columbiana, Bentham & Hooker, L c. 

Billia Columbiana, Planchon & Linden, L c. — Triana & Plan- 



feet in diameter, is found in considerable numbers in moist shady chon, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, xviii. 367. — Walpers, Aim. L c. 



valleys, which it enlivens in April and May with large panicles of 



^1 Zannichelli, Lettera intorno alia Facolta delV Ippocastano. 



showy flowers. It was introduced as early as 1850 into English Peipers, Diss, de coriice Hippoc. — Turra, Delia febrifuga Facolta 



gardens, where for many years it flowered freely. It is, however, delV Ippocastano. — Woodville, Med. Bot. ii. 349, t. 128. 



U.S. 



still little known in cultivation. (^Bot. Mag. t. 5117.) 

3 jEscuIus Punduana, Wallich, Cat. No. 1189. — Hooker f. I. c. 
jE. Asamica, Griffith, Journals, i. 122. 



Dispens. ed. 14, 1565. — Stills & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 712. 

The oil of the Horse-chestnut has also been used as a lotion in 
cases of chronic gout and rheumatism, and a decoction of the leaves 



* Bunge, Enum. PL Chin. Bor. 10. — Hance, Jour. Bot. 1870, was once a popular remedy in the United States for whooping- 



312. — Forbes & Hemslev, Jour. Lhin. Soc. xxiii. 139. 



cough. A seed of the Horse-chestnut carried on the person is still 



s Blume, Rumphia, ii. 195. — Debeaux, FL Shangh. 22. — Gray, believed by many people in the United States to be a certain pre- 
Mem. Am. Acad. u. ser. vi. 384. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL ventive of rheumatism. 



Jap. i. 86. — Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 
jE. Pavia, Thunberg, FL Jap. 154 
jE. dissimilis, Rumphia, iii. 195. 

Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 



Miquel, ProL FL Jap. 257 



12 Millspaugh, A m.. Med. PL in Homoeopathic Remedies^ i. 43, t. 43. 

13 Gray, Gen. IlL ii. 207. 

14 Gray, I. c. 
1^ The bitter properties contained in the cotyledons of JEsculus 

jEscuIus turbinata is now occasionally cultivated in the gardens can be removed by repeated washings in pure water, and, were it 
of the United States and Europe, where it makes a handsome round- not for the cost of the operation, they could be made in this way 



headed hardy tree. (Andr^, Rev. Hort. 1888, 496, f. 120-124.) 



® Linnseus, 



344 



Watson, Dendr. BriU ii. t. 120. 



valuable as food for man. (See Memoh 
A. Baume, published in Paris in 1797.) 



Marrons 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



6 



Flour made from the seeds has been used as a cosmetic/ and is said to make the best starch ; ^ and it 
has been stated that paste made from this flour is superior to any other on account of its greater 
tenacity and because it is repellent to moths and other insects/ a quality which recommends it to book- 
binders. The seeds of JEscithts Chinensls are said by Smith ^ to be sweet, and to be thought useful 
by the Chinese in the treatment of limbs contracted by palsy or rheumatism. In northern India the 
leaves and branches are cut in large quantities for the winter fodder of cattle.^ The Japanese employ 

the bark of ^scidics titrhinata in connection with ferrous acetate and sulphates to produce a black 
dye. 

iEsculus includes some of the most ornamental trees of the north temperate zone, u^sciihis Hip- 
pocastamtm has been a favorite in gardens and parks ^ since its introduction into Europe in the middle 
of the sixteenth century.^ A number of varieties with differently divided or blotched leaves, or with 
more or less double flowers, have been developed in cultivation,^ but none of them equal the normal 
form in beauty, ^seiches ritbicitnda ^^ a probable hybrid with bright red flow ers, is valued by the 
lovers of beautiful trees. The American species are all handsome plants in cultivation. 

All species of ^sculus thrive in rich rather humid soil, and display their greatest beauty only in 

They can easily be raised from seed, which, how- 
ever, soon loses its vitality ; and the varieties may be perpetuated by grafting. 

^ they are not 



regions of abundant and well distributed rainfaU. 



Although the Horse-chestnuts are sometimes disfigured and injured by insects. 



1 Baillon, Hist. PL v. 388. 

'-^ Pannentier, Recherches sur les vegetaux nourrissants, 176, 218, 

» Griffith, Med. Bot. 214. 

* Contrih. Mat. Med. China, 5. 

® Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 104. 



The history of this plant has never been satisfactorily determined. 
Even the date of its appearance is unknown, although it seems to 
have existed in France as early as 1812, and in England as early as 
1820. The belief that it is a garden hybrid between jEscuIus Hip- 
pocasianum and jEscuIus Pavia of the southern United States is 



® Rein, Japan nach Reisen und Studien im Auftrage der Konig- supported by the fact that it resembles the former in its dark green 



lich Preussischen Regiervng dargestellt, ii. 211. 



leaves with remote veins and in its echinate fruit, while the flowers 



^ The symmetrical habit of the Horse-chestnut and its dense have the four red petals of the latter. In stature it is intermediate 
heavy head of foliage adapt it rather to formal gardens and ave- between the two. 



nues than to more picturesque landscape-plantations. 



According to Koch ( VerhandL Ver. Beford. Gart. in den Konig. 



® The Horse-chestnut was first made known in Europe by Qua- Preuss. Staat. 1855), some of the seedlings of this plant do not dif- 

kelbeen, a Flemish physician attached to the person of the famous fer from the true Horse-chestnut, while others produce smooth 

traveler Busbeck, ambassador of the Archduke Ferdinand I. at the fruit, 

court of Solyman II., who, in 1557, sent a branch and fruit from Koch (Hort. Den 

Constantinople to Matthiolus, the commentator of Dioscorides (Lib. nyms the following: 



jEscuIus rubicunda as syno- 



i. 184, f , ed. 1674. — Sprengel, Hist. Rei Herb, i. 340). The seed 



jEscuIus carnea^ Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 25, t. 



was sent to Clusius in Vienna in 1576 from Constantinople, where 22. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 43. — Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1056. — Wat- 
it is possible the Horse-chestnut was already in cultivation, by the son, Dendr, Brit. ii. t. 121. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 652. — Torrey & 
Baron David von Ungnad, ambassador of the Emperor Rudolph II. Gray, Fl. N, Am. i. 253. 



to the Ottoman Porte. Matthiolus gave the name of CastanecB equi- 



Pavia carnea, Spach, Ayin. Set. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 53 ; Hist. Veg. iii. 



nee to the seeds, which he says were so called in Constantinople 22. — Sweet, Bril. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, t. 301. 



JEsculus Watsoniana (Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1225. — Pavia Watsoniana, 



Nat 



JE 



because they were given to horses as a remedy for broken wind. 
He described the leaves and fruit in a letter to Aldrovandus (Epist. S 
Lib. iii. 125, ed. 1674). Clusius described the tree as Castanea S£ 
equina in 1583 (Ear. Stirp. Pannon. 3, 5), from a specimen which principally in having darker colored flowers with shorter stamens. 
was growing in Vienna in 1581. Gerard speaks of the Horse- " Among insects known as peculiar or specially partial to these 
chestnut in his Herbal as a rare tree in England in 1579. It was trees, a leaf-miner (Lithocolletis guttijinitella, var. cesculisella, Cham- 
first planted in France in 1615 by a Monsieur Bachelier, whose bars, Canadian Entomologist, iii. Ill) is recorded as abundant in 
garden in Paris was famous at that time (Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. Kentucky, mining the upper surface of the leaves oi ^sculus gla- 
464). The Horse-chestnut was brought to the United States in the bra. The larva of a small moth (Proteoteras cesculana) bores into 
last century. John Bartram, writing to Peter Collinson in April, the tender terminal branchlets of this tree in Missouri (Riley, 
1746, acknowledges the receipt of the seeds, of which he had hopes, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 321) ; and its leaf-stalks, buds, and flow- 

^eniorials of ers are sometimes destroyed by the larvse of Steganoptycha claypo- 

leana, Riley {Papilio, iii. 191 ; Am. Nat. xv. 1009 ; xvi. 913). 
The number of insects which are known to attack the Horse- 



as " some seemed to be pretty sound." (Darlington, Memorials 

Bartram and Marshall, 175.) 

9 Loudon, Arb. Brit i. 463. — Koch, Hort. Dendr. 59. 

10 Loiseleur ; De Candolle, PL Rar. Genev. t. 24 ; Herb. Amat. t. chestnut in Europe is not large. It is worthy of note that two of 



De Candolle, Prodr. \. 597. 



364. 



Fl. des Serres^ xxL 



467 



Rev. HorL 1878, 370, t. 



the most troublesome have recently been introduced into America 
and threaten to become dangerous pests here. These are the wood- 



54 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE.E. 



attacked by many species. When they are planted in the streets of cities or in other unfavorable situa- 



tions and weakened 




drought and insufficient nourishment^ fungal diseases^ seriously affect them, 



often stripping them of their leaves by midsummer. 

The generic name iEsculus ^ was derived from the classical name of an Oak, or other mast-bearing 
It was first used by Linnaeus^ who discarded the earher and better name of Tournefort/ Hippo- 
castanum or Horse-chestnut^ which indicates the resemblance of the large seeds to those of the Chestnut- 



tree. 



tree, and their use by the Turks. 



boring Zeuzera pyrina^ F, (^Garden and Fnresty iii. 30), and the de- and not infrequently covering the portions between the lateral veins 



bonng Zeuzera pynna, F, (^Garden and Forest^ iii. 30), and the de- 
structive Gypsy luoth (Ocneria dispavy L,, see Special Bulletin Mass 
Aaric. CoL Nov. 1889). 



without passing across them. The fruit dots are black and scat- 
tered. A mildew, Uncinula flexuasa, is developed on the different 



^ A serious disease now common and widely spread through the species of -Slsculus, and in the western states a rust fungus, jEcid- 
northern United States is due to Phyllosticta spkceropsoideay E. & E. ium cescuU^ E. & K. (BulL Torrey BoL Cluby xi. 114), disfigures 
(^BulL Torrey Bot. Cluh, x. 97). It makes its appearance in early the leaves of jEscuIus glabra. 



summer, attacking the leaves of jEscuIus Hippocastanum, ^, gla- 



2 The name was written Esculus by Linnaeus in the Hortus Clif-* 



bray and other species cultivated as ornamental and shade trees, fortianus and in the first edition of the Genera Plantarum, but was 

and becomes more marked as the season advances. It appears at afterwards changed by him to jEsculuSy to conform with the clas- 

first in early summer in the form of yellow discolorations with a sical spelling of the word. Esculus seems to have been first used 

rather reddish margin. Later the patches become quite brown, in modern times by Caspar Bauhin (Pinax, 420) in connection with 

giving the leaves the appearance of having been scorched by fire, the Oak-tree, afterwards called Quercus Esculus by Linnseus. 



sometimes extending from the midrib to the margin of the leaflets, 



s InsL 611, t. 382. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Winter-buds without resinous coating. 

Petals nearly equal, shorter than the stamens ; fruit tjiberculate 1, JE. glabra. 

Petals unequal, longer than the stamens ; fruit glabrous 2. JE. octandra. 

Winter-buds resinous. 

Petals nearly equal, much shorter than the stamens ; fruit smooth 3. JE, Californica, 



SAPINDACE^. 



jSILVA of north AMERICA. 



55 



^SCULUS GLABRA. 



Ohio Buckeye. Fetid Buckeye. 



Petals 4, shorter than the stamens. Fruit when young covered with prickles 
Leaves usually 5-foliolate. 



-aSsculus glabra, Willdenow, E7m7n. 405. — Pursh, M. 
Am. Sept. i. 255. — Nuttall, Ge7i. i. 242. — De CandoUe, 



t. 51. 



Rafinesque, Alsograplu Am. 69. — Loudon, Arb 



Brit. i. 468. 



Prodr. i. 597. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abhild. Holz. -ffi. echinata, Muehlenberg, Cat. 38. 

28, t. 24. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 44. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. Pavia Ohioensis, Michaux £. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 242; N. 



166. 



Don, Gen. Syst. i. 652. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. 



Am. i. 251. — Dietrich, Syn, ii. 1225, — Walpers, Bej:). i. 



Am. Sylva^ ii. 217, t. 92. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii 

593. 



424. 



Rafinesque, ^/so^ropA. ^??i. 69. — Grsijy Gen. III. ^. Ohioensis, De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 597. — Don, Ge7i. 



ii. 207, t. 176, 177. —Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 467. 



Chap- 



man, Fl. 79. 



Koch, Dendr. i. 508. — Sargent, Forest 



Syst. i. 652. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 467. — Nuttall, 
Sylva^ ii. 71. 



Trees N. Am. l{)th Census U. S. be. 42. — Watson & Pavia pallida, Spach, Ann, Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 54; Hist 



Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 116. 
-^. pallida, Willdenow, Ennm. 406. — Nuttall, Gen. 



242. 



De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 597. — Guimj)el, Otto & 



Veg. iii. 23. 
Pavia glabra, Spach, Ami. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 54 ; Hist 

Veg. iii. 24. 



Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 29, t. 25. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. ^. muricata, ^. ochroleuca, ^. verrucosa, ^. alba, 



166. 



Don, Gen. Syst. i. 652. — Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiv 



Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 68, 69. 
? M. arguta, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, 443 



A tree^ rising occasionally to the height of seventy feet^ usually much smaller^ and rarely more than 
thirty feet tall^ with a trunk which sometimes^ although not often^ attains a diameter of two feet^ and 



slender spreading branches. The bark of the trunk is three quarters of an inch to an inch thick^ ashy 



gray^ densely furrowed^ and broken into thick plates, the surface separating into many small roughened 
scales ; that of the branches and young twigs is dark brown and scaly. The branchlets when they first 



appear are orange-b 



d clothed wi 



1 



fine pubescence ; before the end of the season they 



glabrous and covered with red-brown bark marked 



scattered 



ed lenticular spot 



The winter-buds are two thirds of an inch long and acuminate, with thin, nearly triangular scales prom 



tly keeled on the back, minutely apiculate, and slightly ciliate along the margins. 



The 



pale brown, and those of the 
bloo 



ranks 



ed, like the wi 



branches, with a slight gl 



m. The others are bright red on the outer surface towards the bottom, the inner pair strap-shaped 
and becoming an inch and a half or two inches long when fully developed ; they are then bright yelloTi 



and remain on the base of the shoot until the leaves have grown to a third of their size. 



The 



are 



mposed of five to seven leaflets, and are borne 



slender uetioles four 



inches in length 



with enlarged ends often covered above with clusters of dark brown chaff -like scales surrounding the 
bases of the petiolules ; the leaflets are oval, oblong, or obovate, acuminate at the apex, and gradually 
contracted at the other end. They are finely and unequally serrate, and are at first sessile, but become 
sfio-htly petiolate at maturity. Like the petioles, they are covered when they first appear, especially on 



the lowe 
with the 



surfac 



soft pubescence ; this soon disappears, and at maturity they 



glabro 



vems. 



exception of a few hairs along the under side of the midribs and in the axils of the principal 
They are yellow-green and paler on the lower than on the upper surface, with conspicuous yel- 



midribs and primary 
es in length, two or tl 



five 



or six 



The inflorescence, which appears from April to May, is 
ches in breadth, and more or less densely covered with pubescence, the 



sh 



branches being usually four to six-flowered. The pale yellow 



flowers are mos 



56 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^. 



d 



half an inch to an inch 



long, or more than twice the length of the ped 



The petals 



are nearly equal in length and puberulous ; the thin limb is about twice the length of the claw : in 



t> 



the lateral p 



broadly 



oblong, and in the superior pair oblong-spatul 



m 



uch 



n ar- 



There are usually seven stamens with long exserted 



rower, and sometimes marked with red stripes. 

curved pubescent filaments and orange-colored anthers bearing a few scattered hairs. 



The ovary 



pubescent and covered with long slender deciduous 



ckles with 



ckened tubercle-like bases, which 



enlarire and roughen the surface of the fruit which is ovate or irregularly obovate, pale brown, and 



ch to almost two inches long, with thin or sometimes thick valves^ and is borne on stout stems half 



to nearly an inch in length. The seed 
jEs cuius glabra is confined to the ^ 



1 



inch and a half broad 



alley of the Mississippi R 



It is found on the 



of the Alleghany Mountains from Pennsylvania to northern Alabama, extending west to southe 



I 



Kansas, and the Ind 



Te 



The younger M 



found the Fetid Buckeye 



ffrowinof in laro^e numbers on the banks of the Ohio River between Pittsburgh and Marietta ; but 

o O O *^ 



abundant, and, althous^h distributed over a wide extent of territory, is the least common of 



Amer 



arborescent Horse 



It is always found in rich moist 



banks of streams. It is most common and reaches 



greatest 



in river-bottom land 
the valley of the Ten 



nessee River in Tennessee and northern Alabama. 



The wood of jEsculm glahra is light, soft, close-grained, but not strong, and is often blemished 
by dark lines of decay. It is nearly white with darker colored thin sapwood, composed of ten or twelve 

layers of 

weighing 28.31 pounds. 



annual growth. 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4542, a cubic foot 
It is not distinguished commercially from the wood of jEsciilus octandra^ 
and, like this, is used in the manufacture of artificial limbs, for which the wood of ^sculus is preferred 
to that of all other American trees, wooden ware, wooden hats, and paper pulp. It is also occasionally 
sawed into lumber. 



glahra has been found 



of the cereb 



An extract of the bark of jEsciilus 
spinal system.^ 

jEsciilus glahra was not noticed by the early botanists who explored the valley of the Mississippi 
River, and Muehlenberg ^ probably first distinguished its specific characters and sent it to the German 



botanist Willdenow, who first described it. 



jEscuIus glahra was not introduced into English gardens until 1821 



It is the least desirable of 



the American species as a garden plant, and is rarely cultivated. It is perfectly hardy in New England, 
where it forms a small round-headed tree flowering at the end of May and ripening its fruit in October. 



^ Hale, Neio Remedies^ 1877, 19. — Millspaugh, Am. Med. PI. in Muehlenberg was noted for his knowledge of botany, especially of 



Homceopathic Remedies, i. 44, t. 44. 



the Grasses, and enjoyed the friendship and correspondence of the 



2 Gotthilf Heinrich Muehlenberg (1753-1815) ; a member of a principal American and European botanists of his time. His most 

distinguished Lutheran family of German origin, was born in New important works are the Index Florce Lancastriensis, published in 

Providence, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and received his 1793 in the third volume of the Transactions of the American Philo- 

early education in the common schools of Philadelphia, and after- sophical Society ; Catalogus Plantarwn Americce Septentrionalis ; and 

wards at Halle, where he was sent to study literature, the sciences, Descriptio uherior Graminum. Mnehlenbergiay a genus of Grasses 

and theology. He returned to America in 1770, and was appointed widely scattered in its many species over the surface of the earth, 

assistant pastor of the Lutheran Church in Philadelphia, and ten fitly associates his name with the family of plants that he studied 

years later pastor at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, a position which he so successfully. 



filled assiduously and faithfully during the remainder of his life. 



^ Nicholson, Dictionary of Gardening 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXVII. -^sculus glabra. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A winter-bud. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

5. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A lateral petal, enlarged. 

7. A superior petal, enlarged- 

8. A stamen, front and rear view. 

9. A pistil, cut transversely, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

11. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate LXVIII. ^sculus glabra. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A half-grown fruit, natural size. 

3- A fruit with a portion of two of the valves removed, natural size, 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat LXVII 




O.EFiXcon dsl 



Ficart /r sc 



yESCULUS GLABRA . Willd . 



-^, t 



A Kwcreux (iire:i 



Imp R Taneur Paris 



i 



Silva of Noplh America , 



Tab LXVIII 




V^^. .-: 



C ^ Faxorv del. 



^SCULUS GLABRA, Willd 



•Picart/r. so. 



A.JduPcreuay direcv^ 



Imp. If. 7anei/r, J^arfs. 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



^SCULUS OCTANDRA. 



Sweet Buckeye. 



Petals 4, longer than the stamens, the 2 upper narrower and longer than the 
others. Fruit smooth. Leaves 5 to 7-foliolate. 



^sculus octandra, Marshall, Arbust. An 
Garden and Forest, ii. 364. 

■ 

M. lutea, Wangenheim, Schrlft GeselL Nat 



Sargent, 



Prenss, Staaf. 1855- — Chapman, Fl. 80, — Curtis, Bep. 



133, t. 6. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Ai 
Syn. i. 403. — Koch, De7idr, i. 509. 



Persoon, 



Geolorj. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 48. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 43. — Watson & Coul- 
ter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 163. 
Pavia flava, Moench, Meth. 66. — De CandoUe, Prodr. L 



-^. flava, Alton. Hort. Kew 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baxim. 



598. 



Don, Gen. Syst. i. 653. — Spach, Ann. Set. Nat 



i. 41, t. 40. — B. S. Barton, Coll. i. 13 ; Elem, Bot. t. 
15, f . 2. — WUldenow, Sj^ec, ii. 286 ; Emcm. 405 ; Berl. 



ser. 2, ii. 55 ; Hist. Veg. iii. 25. — Loudon, Arh. Brit, i 
471, t. — Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 73. 



Baumz. 16. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 385. — Pursh, Pavia lutea, Poiret, iam. Z)/t'?'. v- 94. — Nouveau Duhamelj 



Fl. Am. Sept. i. 255. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 242. — Guimpel, 



iii. 155, t. 38. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 237, t. 11 



Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 27, t. 23. — Hayne, Dendr. Paviana flava, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 87. 
FL 44. — Elliott, Sk. i. 436. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. M. neglecta, Lindley, Bot. Beg. xii. t. 1009. 
163, t. 163. — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 1280. — Torrey & Pavia neglecta, Don ; Loudon, Hort. Brit. i. 143 ; Gen. 

Syst. i. 653. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 55 ; Hist 



Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 252. — Dietrich, Sijn. ii. 1225. 
Walpers, Bep. i. 424. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 230**, f. 
3. 



Veg. iii. 24. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 472. 



Koch, Verhandl. Ver. Beford. Gart. in den Kanig. Pavia fulva, P. bicolor, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 74. 



A tree, rising sometimes to the height of ninety feet, with a tall straight trunk two and a half or 
three feet in diameter and small rather pendulous branches ; or towards the southern and southwestern 
limits of its range reduced to a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is three quarters of an inch thick, 
dark brown, and divided by shallow fissures, the surface separating into small thm scales. 



The 



brown 



buds are two thirds of an inch to an inch in length and rather obtuse, with broadly 

aDiculate, ciliate on the margins, destitute of 



ounded on the back, minutely 



t> 



d 



overed with a slight glaucous bloom. The inner scales sometimes grow to a length of two inches, and 



are bright yellow or occasionally 



The branchlets are glabrous or nearly so and orange-b 



when they first appear, and in their second year are pale brown and marked by numerous irregularly 
developed lenticular spots. The leaves, which are composed of five to seven leaflets, are borne on slen- 
der glabrous or slightly pubescent petioles four to six inches in length ; the leaflets are elliptical or 
obovate-oblong, acuminate at the apex and gradually contracted at the base, and are sharply and equally 
serrate, four to six inches long and one and a half to two and a half inches broad ; they are short-petio- 



to 



labrous above with the exception of the midribs and veins, which 



sometimes clothed with 



ddish b 



pubescence, and mor 



•pubescent on the lower surface, which becomes 



labrous at maturity with the exception of a few hairs along the midribs and in the axils of the principal 



veins. They 



dark yellow 



open when the leaves are about half 



and paler on the lower than on the upper surface. The flowers 
srrown, or from March, in the extreme southwest, to the middle of 



June at high elevations on the Alleghany Mountains. They are an inch to an inch and a half long, 



pale or da 
inflorescence wh 



k yellow, with short pedicels, and 



mostly unilateral on the branches of the pubescent 



from five to seven inches in lenoth. The 



are 



y unequ 



puberulent, the claws villous with 



limb of the superior pair is minute, th 



\i ciaw 



la 



ceedintr the lobes of the calyx, while that of the lateral paii* is large, obovate or nearly round, and 



su 



bcordate 



the base. The stamens 



» 



& 



subulate villous filaments 



ually 



ber and rather shorter than the petals. The ovary is pubescent. The fruit is two to three 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACEiE. 



inclies long, with thin smooth or slightly pitted pale brown valves, and is generally two-seeded. The 
seeds are one and a half to nearly two inches broad. 

jEsciiIus octmidra occurs in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and extends along the Alleghany 
Mountains to the neighborhood of Augusta, Georgia, and to northern Alabama, and westward and 



southwestward to southern Iowa, the Indian Territory, and to western Texas, where it has been noticed 
as a low shrub near Boerne in the valley of the upper Cibolo River. 



It grows in rich soil in river-bot- 



tom lands or on the moist slopes of the higher Alleghany Mountains. On these slopes in Tennessee 
and North Carolina it is most common and reaches its greatest size, sending up tall straight shafts which 
are sometimes free of branches for sixty or seventy feet from the ground. 

The wood of jEsciilus octandra is light, soft, close-grained, and difficult to split, with numerous 
but very obscure medullary rays. It is creamy white, the thick sapwood being hardly distinguishable. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4274, a cubic foot weighing 26.64 pounds. It is 
used for the same purposes as the wood of ^seidiis glabra. 

A variety ^ of this tree, characterized by its purple or red flowers, by the dense pale pubescence 
which clothes the under surface of its leaves, petioles, and inflorescence, and by its lighter colored 
bark, is not rare on the Alleghany Mountains from West Virginia southward, and in Texas. 

although, according to 



jEscidiis octandra was first described by Humphrey Marshall in 1785, 



Aiton, it was cultivated in England as early as 1764 by a Mr. John Greening. It is the handsomest of 
the North American Horse-chestnuts, and one of the most beautifid of the trees which compose the 
deciduous forests that cover the southern Alleghany Mountains. 

^scidits octandra^ especially the variety with purple flowers, has long been a favorite in gardens 
where, if planted in good soil, it makes a handsome tree with a rather narrow head of pendulous 
branches. It is very hardy and less often disfigured by fungal diseases than the Old World Horse- 
chestnut J but its flowers are not so showy, and it seldom attains so great a size. 



1 jEscuIus 

jfE, hvhrid 



Poiret, Lam 



Pavia hybrida, De Candolle, Prodr. i. 698. — Don, Gen, Syst.i, 



653. 



Nat 



334 



jE 



Nuttall, Gen. i. 24li. 



BoL Reg, iv. t. 310. — Elliott, Sk, i, 436. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. Walpers, Rep, i. 424. 



Loudon, Arb, BriL i. 472. — Koch, Dendr. i. 512. 

jE, Pavia, var. discolor^ Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 252. 



167.— SerL BoL iv. t. — Walpers, Ann. iv. 381. 

Pavia discolor^ Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. v. 769. 
SysL i. 653. 



D 



on 



Gen, 



Nat 



28 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 472. 



jE. Jiavay var. purpurascensy Gray, Man. ed. 5, 118. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 43. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 116. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATED 



Plate LXIX- ^scixlus octandra. 

1. A flovrering branch, natural size. 

2. A winter-bud; natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, natural size, 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, natural size. 

5. A lateral petal, natural 

6. An upper petal, natural size. 




Plate 




iEsCULUS OCTANDRA, 



1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A seed, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a seed, natural size 

4. An embryo, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



T* 



at. lAlX 




C.E Faxoru cL^l 



^SCULUS OCTANDRA, Marsh 



Picart /r. sc. 



A.huuyrf^a' diriu:.^ 



Imp. N. Ta/ieur Pans. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. LXX 






■ x-^'' 




C. £. Faxon del/. 



Picurt /r, so 



^SCULUS OCTANDRA, Marsh 



A.A^irr/\'a,z^ dtfnw ^ 



IrnpR. 7li/}c'ur /\t/'u\ 



SAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61 



^SCULUS CALIFORNICA. 



Buckeye. 

Petals 4, nearly equal, much shorter than the stamens. Fruit smooth. Leaves 
4 to 7-foliolateo 



-ffisculus Calif ornica, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. iii. 78. — Koch, Dendr. i. 513. — Brewer & Watson, Bot 

i. 251 ; Sylva, ii. 69, t. 64. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Cal. i. 106. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

BeecUy, 327. — Dietrich, 8yn. ii. 1225. — Walpers, Re;p. U. S. ix. 43. 

i. 424 ; Ann. vii. 624. — Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 9 ; Calothyrsus Calif ornica, Spach, Ann. ScL Nat. ser. 2, ii. 

PI. Hartweg. 301. — Rev. Hort. 1855, 150, f . 10, 11. — 62 ; Hist. Veg. iii. 35. 

Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 74 ; Bot, Mex. Bound. Surv. Pa via Calif ornica, Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. London, ii. 

48 ; Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 260. — Newberry, PacifiA^ 123. 
R. R. Rep. vi. 20, 69, f- 1. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. 



A widely branched tree, rarely thirty or forty feet in height, with a short stout trunk two or three 
feet in diameter, and often expanded at the base to twice that size ; or more often a shrub with spread- 
ing branches ten or fifteen feet high, forming broad dense thickets. The bark of the trunk is a quarter 
of an inch thick, smooth, and light gray or nearly white. The winter-buds are acuminate and covered 
with narrow dark brown scales rounded on the back and thickly coated with resin. The branches are 
glabrous and pale reddish brown when they first appear, becoming darker in their second season. The 
leaves are composed of from four to seven, but usually of five leaflets, and are borne on slender grooved 
petioles three or four inches long ; the leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, acute, narrowed, and obtuse or 
somewhat rounded at the base, sharply serrate, four to six inches in length and one and a half to two 
inches in breadth, with slender petiokiles half an inch to an inch long- ; they are dark green above, 
paler below, slightly pubescent when they first unfold, and glabrous or nearly so at maturity ; they fall 
early, often by midsummer, leaving the branches naked for a large part of the year. The inflorescence, 
which appears from May to July when the leaves are fully grown, is long-stemmed, three to six inches 
in length, and covered with thick fine pubescence. The flowers are an inch or more long with short 
pedicels ; they are mostly unilateral on the long branches of the thyrsus, and are white or pale rose- 
colored. The calyx is two-lobed, shghtly toothed, and much shorter than the narrow oblong petals. 
The stamens, which vary in number from five to seven, have long erect exserted slender filaments and 
bright orange-colored anthers. The ovary is densely pubescent. The fruit is obovate, pear-shaped, and 
often somewhat gibbous on the outer side, with very thin smooth pale brown valves ; it is usually one- 
seeded, two or three inches long, and is borne on rather slender stems a quarter to half an inch in 
length. The seed is an inch and a half to two inches broad. 

^sculus Californica is distributed from the valley of the upper Sacramento River in Mendocino 
County, California, along the coast ranges to San Luis Obispo County, and on the western foothills of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the northern slopes of the Tejon Pass in Kern County, with an extreme 
station in Antelope valley of the San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County.^ It is found on the 
borders of streams, which it enHvens in spring and early summer with its abundant and showy flowers, 
and reaches its greatest size in the caiions of the coast ranges north of San Francisco Bay. 

The wood oi JEs cuius Cal if ornica is soft, light, and very close-grained, with numerous obscure 
medullary rays. It is white or faintly tinged with yellow, the thin sapwood, composed of ten or twelve 
layers of annual orowth, being hardly distinguishable. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.4980, a cubic foot weighing 31.04 pounds. 

1 S. B. Parish. 



62 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapindace^ 



^sculus Californica was first noticed by Dr. P. E. Botta, and was first described by Spacli^ who 
established a genus to receive it^ differing from ^Escuhis only in its tubular bilobed calyx and erect 
stamens. It was introduced into English gardens by the Messrs. Veitch^ in whose nursery at Exeter it 
flowered in 1858.^ It was first planted in Paris in 1854 in the Jardin des Plantes, where it flowered in 
1862." It is now rarely cultivated, although it is one of the most ornamental trees of the whole genus. 



1 BoL Mag. t. 5077. — FL des Sevres, xiii. 39, t. 1312. — Gard. a Rev. HorL 1862, 369, i 

Chron. 1858, S4A. — Belg. Hart. ix. 121. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXI. jJEsculus Californica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, natural size 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, natural size, 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Plate LXXII. jEsculus Californica. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit; natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. LXXI 




C. S 2^(KC07V del. 



Picart /r. Sc 



^SCULUS CALIFORNICA, Nutt 



A..]lu?creux^ din^u' ^ 



ImpH. Tamur.ParLs' 



Silva of North America , 



Tab LXXII 




O.^.^ccx/JTV del. 




sc. 



7f:SCULUS CALIFORNlCA.Nutt. 



^.I^crei£JO dcresi 



Imp.il. Taneur.l^ans 



SAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



UNGNADIA. 



Flowers polygamous, irregular ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; 



petals 4 or 5, imbricated in aestivation, hypogynous, conspicuously crested ; ovary 
stipitate, 3-celled; ovules 2, homotropous. Fruit a coriaceous capsule, 3-celled and 
loculicidally 3-valved. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, destitute of stipules. 



Ungnadia, 



Nov. Stlrp. Dec. FL N. Am. i. 253, 684. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 209. — Ben- 



75; Gen. 1075. — Meisner, Gen. 346. — Torrey & Gray, tham & Hooker, Gen. i. 398. — Baillon, Hist. PL v. 423. 



A smaU tree or shrub, with thin pale gray fissured bark, slender terete slightly zigzag branclilets 
marked with large conspicuous leaf -scars, small obtuse nearly globose winter-buds covered with chestnut- 
brown scales, and thick fleshy roots. Leaves alternate, long-petioled, four or five, or rarely three-folio- 
late, deciduous ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, rounded, or wedge-shaped, often oblique at the 
base, irregularly crenulate-serrate, coated at first on the lower surface, like the petioles, with dense pale 
tomentum, pilose above, glabrous at maturity with the exception of a few hairs on the lower surface 
along the principal veins, pinnately veined, reticulated, the terminal one long-petiolulate. Flowers large 
and showy in small pubescent fascicles or simple corymbs appearing just before or smiultaneously with 
the new leaves from the axils of those of the previous year, usually from separate buds, or occasionally 
from the base of a leafy branch. Pedicels jointed in the middle. Calyx-lobes hypogynous, oblong- 
lanceolate, somewhat united irregularly at the base only, deciduous. Petals four by the suppression of 
the anterior one, or five and then alternate with the lobes of the calyx, hypogynous on the margin of a 
thickened truncate torus, unguiculate, bright rose-colored, deciduous ; when four, almost equal, unequal 
when five ; the claw as long as the lobes of the calyx, nearly erect, clothed with tomentum especially on 
the inner surface, and conspicuously appendaged at the summit with a fimbriated crest of short fleshy 
tufted threads, the blade obovate, spreading, often erose-crenulate. Disk unilateral, oblique, lingulate, 
surrounding and connate wdth the base of the stipe of the ovary. Stamens seven to ten, usually eight 
or nine, inserted on the obHque edge of the disk, much exserted and unequal in the sterile flower, the 
anterior one shorter than the others, equal or almost so and shorter than the petals in the pistillate 
flower ; filaments filiform ; anthers oblong, attached near the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitu- 
dinally. Ovary ovoid, three-celled, pilose, raised on a long stipe ; rudimentary in the staminate flower ; 
style subulate, filiform, elongated, slightly curved upwards ; stigma minute, terminal ; ovules two, borne 
on the inner angle of the ceU near its middle, ascending, amphitropous or anatropous, the micropyle 
inferior. Fruit broadly ovate, a little three-lobed, conspicuously stipitate, crowned with the remnants 
of the style, unarmed, rugosely roughened and dark reddish brown, loculicidally three-valved, the valves 
somewhat cordate, bearing the dissepiment on the middle. Seed generally solitary by abortion, almost 
spherical, destitute of albumen ; testa coriaceous, very smooth and shining, dark chestnut-brown or 
almost black ; hilum broad, light-colored ; tegmen thin. Embryo filling the coat of the seed ; cotyle- 



dons thick and fleshy, nearly hemispherical, confe 



r 



below ground in germ in 



incumbent on the short conical descending radicle turned towards the hilum. 

The wood of Ungnadia is heavy and close-grained, although rather soft and brittle. It is red 
tino-ed with brown with lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous inconspicuous medullary rays 
and many evenly distributed open ducts. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6332, a 
cubic foot weighing 39.46 pounds. 



64 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. sAPiNDACEiE. 



The seeds of Ungnadia have a sweet rather pleasant flavor, but possess powerful emetic properties 
and are reputed to be poisonous. 

Ungnadia was discovered in western Texas by Thomas Drummond. It was named in honor of the 
Baron Ferdinand von Ungnad, ambassador of the Emperor Rudolph II. at the Ottoman Porte, who in 
1576 sent seeds of the Horse-chestnut tree from Constantinople to Clusius at Vienna. It is repre- 
sented by a single species. 



sAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



65 



UNGNADIA SPECIOSA. 



Spanish Buckeye. 



Ungnadia speciosa, Endlicher, Atakt. Bot. t. 36; Nov. 230**, f. 2, %.—VH<yH. Franc. 1865, t. 15. — Koch, 

Stivp. Dec. 75- — Torrey & Gray, Pacific R. B. Rep. ii. Dendr. i. 515. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 337. 

162. — Walpers, Rep. i. 423 ; v. 371 ; Ann. vii- 625. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S- ix. 44. 

Gray, Gen. III. ii. 211, t. 178, 179 ; Jonr. Bast. Soc. Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 212. 

Nat. Hist. vi. 167 (PL Lindheim. ii.) ; PL Wright, i. U. heterophylla, Scheele, Linncea^ xxi. 589. 

38 ; ii, 30 {Smithsonian Contrib. iii., iv.) ; Man. Am. U. heptaphylla, Scheele, Linncea^ xxii. 352 ; Roemer Texas, 

Acad. n. ser. v. 299. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Snrv. 432. 
48. — Fl. des Serves^ x. 217, t. 1059. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 



The Ungnadia sometimes grows, under favorable conditions, to the height of twenty-five or thirty 
feet, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter, dividing, at some distance from the ground, into a 
number of slender upright branches, and covered with light gray bark rarely more than a quarter of an 
inch thick, the surface netted with shallow fissures ; or more often a shrub sending up many stems 
from the ground. The branchlets are covered during their first season with short fine pubescence and 
are then light orange-brown ; in their second year they are pale brown tinged with red, glabrous, and 
marked with scattered lenticels. The leaves appear from March to April simultaneously with or just 
after the flowers, and are five to seven inches long, with rather coriaceous leaflets which are dark green 
and lustrous on the upper, and pale or occasionally rufous on the lower surface, three to five inches in 
length and an inch and a half to two inches in breadth. The petiolule of the terminal leaflet is some- 
times a quarter of an inch long, those of the lateral leaflets rarely exceeding an eighth of an inch. The 
flowers, which are arranged in short umbels one and a half or two inches long, are an inch across when 
expanded, and often quite hide the branches for a space of a foot or more. The fruit is two inches 
broad at maturity and opens in October, the empty pods often remaining on the branches until the 
appearance of the flowers the following year. 

The Ungnadia is widely scattered from the valley of the Trinity River in Texas to the Organ 
Mountains of New Mexico, and to the Sierra Madre of Nuevo Leon and the mountains of Chihuahua. 
It occupies the borders of streams, the slopes of Hmestone hiUs, and the sides of mountain canons, and 
is most common and reaches its largest size forty or fifty miles from the Texas coast west of the Colo- 
rado River. Farther east and west and in Mexico it is usually shrubby, growing from six to ten feet 

high. 

When its branches are covered with its delicate and beautiful flowers the Spanish Buckeye is one 

of the most attractive and ornamental of the small trees or shrubs of North America. It was introduced 

into cultivation from seed sent in 1848 by Friedrich Lindheimer ^ to the Botanic Gardens at Vienna and 

at Cambrido^e, Massachusetts. It is still occasionally cultivated in southern Europe and in the southern 



Atlantic and GuH states, where it is perfectly at home and annually produces flowers and fruit 



2 



1 See i. 74. 



speciosa 



Augusta, Georgia. Later it has been successfully grown 
Charles Mohr of Mobile. 



ground in the United States by Mr. P. J. Berckmans 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LXXIII. Ungnadia speciosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

10. An embryo, natural size. 

11. A winter branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab. LXXIIl 



s 



J 




C E FcccoTV del. 



Piccu't /i\ sc . 



UNGNADIA SPECIOSA, Endi 



A Jiwcreicz: direa:. 



ImpH Janeur Pans 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



67 



SAPINDUS. 



Flowers polygamo-dioecious, regular; sepals 4 or 5, imbricated in aestivation 



petals 4 or 5, naked 



ppendiculate, imbricated in aestivation. Ovary 2 to 4-celled 



ovules solitary. Fruit baccate 



1 to 3-seeded 



Sapindus, Linnseus, Gen. 359. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 



1. 



404. 



Baillon, Hist 



Radlkofer, Sitz. 



343. 
Mus 
53. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 247. 



Mem 



MilncJi. XX 



Endlicher, Gen. 1070. — Meisner 



Fl. Ned. Ind 



Endlicher 



Gray, Gen. El. ii. 213. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. 



Gen. 1070. 



Meisner 



Didymococcus, Blume, Rnmphia, iii. 103. 



Trees or shrubs, sometimes subscandent, with terete branches, thick fleshy roots, and bitter and 
detersive properties. Leaves alternate, destitute of stipules, abruptly pinnate or rarely one-f oliolate ; 
leaflets alternate or opposite, entire or occasionally serrate. Flowers minute, in ample axiUary or termi- 
nal racemes or panicles. Pedicels short, from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. Sepals unequal, 
slightly united at the base. Petals equal, alternate with the sepals, inserted under the thick edge of the 
disk, unguiculate, naked or often furnished at the summit of the claw, on the inside, with a two-cleft 
scale, deciduous. Disk annular, fleshy, entire or crenately-lobed, hypogynous or perigynous. Stamens 
usually eight or ten, rarely four to seven, inserted on the disk immediately under the ovary, equal ; 
filaments subulate or fihf orm, often pilose, exserted in the sterile, much shorter in the fertile flower ; 



anthers oblong, attached near the base, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinaUy. 



Ovary 



sessile, entire or two to four-lobed, two to four-celled, contracted into a short columnar style ; rudimen- 
tary in the staminate flower ; stigma two to four-lobed, the lobes spreading ; ovules solitary in each cell, 
anatropous or amphitropous, ascending from below the middle of the inner angle of the cell ; raphe ven- 
tral ; micropyle inferior. Fruit usually formed of one globose fleshy or coriaceous carpel, the others 
abortive, their rudiments remaining at its base ; or of two or sometimes of three carpels more or less 
connate by their bases, and then two or three-lobed. Seed soHtary in each carpel, obovate or globose, 
destitute of albumen ; testa crustaceous or membranaceous, smooth, black or dark brown ; tegmen mem- 
branaceous or fleshy ; hilum oblong, surrounded (at least in the North American species) by an ariloid 



tuft of long pale silky hai 



Embryo incvuved 



t> 



ht ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, incumbent 



radicle very short, inferior, near the hilum 



The genus Sapindus is widely distributed through the tropics, especiaUy in Asia, occasionaUy 



extending into subtropical regions 



About forty species have been distinguished 



One of these, the 



type of the genus and a common West Indian tree, reaches the shores of southern Florida, and another 
occurs in the southern part of the North American continent from the coast of Georgia to northern 
Mexico.^ Sapindus existed in Europe in the Tertiary period, and even earHer, with forms which repre- 



the ancestors of existing American species 



3 



1 De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 607. — Blume 
ra Rpn. i.416 ' V. 362 : Ann. i. 134 : ii. 



Wal 

Thwaites 



377. 



Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. Cent. i. 214. — Hillebrand, Fl 



Haw. Is. 85. 



Enum, PL Zeylan,55. — Turczaninow, BulL Mosc. \. 401. — Hooker ^ Radlkofer {Sitz, Akad. Milnch. 1878, 221 ; Durand Index Gene- 

f. FL Brit. Ind. i. 682. — Miquel, FL Ind. £a^i.,ii.551 ; SuppL 198, runty 81) refers many of the species of Sapindus to other genera, 

Harvey & Sonder, Fl, Cap. i. reducing the number to ten, with a few doubtful ones. As his 

Afr. i. 430. — Bentham, FL Austral, i. paper is an annotated catalogue and not a monograph of the genus, 



508; Mus 

240. 
464. 

t. 81. 

W. I 



Fl 



Fl 



it is not easy to judge of the value of his conclusion with regard to 



Wilkes 



Grisebach, FL Brit. the limitation of genera and species. 



Nat 



2 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 279. 



68 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA, 



SAPINDACE^. 



Sapindus contains a detersive principle which causes the pulp of the fruit, and to a lesser de 



^^^ 



the rootj to lather freely in water, making them valuable as substitutes for soap. The fruit of the West 
Indian and Floridian >S'. Sar)onaria is used by the negroes of the West Indies for washing linen, ^ 



hich 



however, it is said to injure and soon destroy.^ The fruit of several of the South American species 
employed for the same purpose. Scq)iucliis Mukorossly' a widely distributed tree in 



eastern 



Asia, and 



tree in southe 
zed in Japan, is generally cultivated in northern and 



d 



India for the fleshy pulp of the fr 



important article of trade in the Punjab 



d 



thwest 



provinces, and is preferred to soap for washing flannels and Cashmere shawls, and is also used for wash- 
In India the leaves of this tree serve as fodder for cattle, and in China the roasted fruit is 



inof silk. 



occasionally eaten and the seeds are employed medicinally.^ S. trifoliatus^ a native of southern India, 

The fruit of Sapindus possesses a terebintliine and disagreeable flavor ; the 



is cultivated in Bensfal. 



bark is bitter and astringent, and has been used as a tonic ; and the pulverized seeds are said to poison 

The seeds of several of the species are strung to form chaplets and bracelets, and are sometimes 



fish 



used for buttons.^ 

The generic name, formed from Sapo and InduSy refers to the detersive properties and use of the 
first species known to botanists, the Sapindus Sap)onaria of the West Indies ^ it was established 
Tournef ort ^ and afterwards adopted by Linnaeus. 




Nat 



Gen. Ind, lib. 9, cap. 5. — Sloane, Nat. Hist. southern India. Cleghorn states that its cultivation in favorable 
Jam. ii. 132. — Macfadyen, FL Jam. 159. — Radlkofer, Sitz, Akad. situations yields a larger return than that of any other fruit-tree. 



Munch. 1878, 234. 

- Gsertner, Fruct. L 341 



De Candolle, Prodr. i. 609. 



Hooker f. Fl. BriL Ind. i. 683. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI 
Jap. i. 86. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc, xxiii. 139. 

« Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 106. 

4 Smith, Contrib. Mat. Med. China, 199. 



linn; 



Hooker f. I c. 682. 



this 



(Forests and Gardens of Southern India, 239.) 

^ Nieremberg, Hist, Nat. 368. — Sloane, I. c. — Macfadyen, L c. 

^ "The Stone is made Use of for Buttons, and therefore the Ber- 
ries are gathered and the Stones sent into Europe in great Quanti- 
ties. The Stone makes better Beads to be used in Prayers than 
Ebony." (Sloane, L c.) 

8 Inst. 659, t. 440. 



SAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



69 



SAPINDUS SAPONARIA. 



Soapberry. 



Calyx-lobes rounded at the apex ; petals inappendiculate, short-clawed. Petioles 
broadly winged. 



Sapindus Saponaria, Linnaeus, Spec. 367. — Swartz, Obs. New FL 22. — Nuttall, Stjlva, li. 73. — Richard, Fl. Ctib. 

152. — WiWdenow, Spec. ii. i68. —Foivet, Lam. Diet, vl n. 114. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. IncL 126; Cat. PL 

663 (in part). — Lunan, Hort. Jam. ii. 177. — Titford, Cub. 45. — Baillon, Hist. PL v. 349, f. 353. — Radlkofer, 

HoTt. Bot. Am. 61. — Descourtilz, FL Med. AntiL iv. Sitz. Akad. Milnch. 1878,319. — ChsL^manj Bot. Gazette^ 

121, t. 261. — De Candolle, Frodr. i. 607. — Maycock, FL iii. 3 ; FL S. States, Suppl. 613. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

Barb. 159. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 665. — Spach, Hist N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 45. 
Veg. iii. 53. — Macfadyen, FL Jam. 159. — Rafinesque, 



A small tree^ sometimes growing to the height of twenty-five or thirty feet^ with a trunk which 
rarely exceeds ten or twelve inches in diameter, and erect branches. The bark of the trunk is from 
a quarter to half an inch thick^ hght gray and roughened with oblong lighter colored excrescences, the 
outer layer exfoliating in large flakes, exposing a nearly black surface. The branchlets are at first 
slightly many-angled, orange-green, with white lenticular spots ; in their second season they become 
terete, and are then marked with large leaf-scars and covered with pale brown bark slightly tinged with 
red. The leaves are six or seven inches in length with about four pairs of leaflets, the lower pair being 
smaller than the others. They appear in Florida in March and April, and remain on the branches 
until the period of growth the following year. The wings of the petioles, which are narrow and often 
nearly obsolete below the lowest pair of leaflets, are sometimes nearly half an inch wide below the 
upper pair ; they are broadest above the middle, and are contracted abruptly at the top and gradually 
at the base. The leaflets, which are opposite or alternate, are elhptical or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
rounded, or occasionally somewhat emarginate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and very 
short-petiolulate. They are three or four inches in length and an inch and a half in breadth, gla- 
brous on the upper surface with the exception of a few hairs along the channel of the midrib when 
they first appear, softly pubescent on the lower surface, and rather coriaceous at maturity ; they are 
yellow-green, paler below than above, and prominently reticulated, with yellow midribs and primary 
veins. The panicles, which appear in Florida in November, are terminal and seven to ten inches in 
length, with an angulate peduncle and branches. The flowers are usually produced three together, and 
are short-petioled ; the calyx-lobes are rounded, concave, and ciliate on the margin, the two outer rather 
smaller than those of the inner rank ; the petals are white, ovate, short-clawed, rounded at the apex^ and 
covered, especially towards their base, with long scattered hairs ; the stamens are included or slightly 
exserted, with hairy filaments broadened at the base. In Florida the fruit ripens in spring or early sum- 
mer ; it is two thirds of an inch in diameter, with thin orange-brown semitranslucent flesh, and black 
slightly obovate seeds half an inch across, the hilum surrounded with long pale hairs. 

Scqnndiis Saponaria is found in Florida on the shores of Cape Sable, on the shores and islands of 
Caximbas Bay, on Key Largo, Elliott's Key, and the shores of Bay Biscayne ; it is generaUy distributed 
throuo-h the West Indies, and occurs in Venezuela. In Florida it is most common on Cape Sable, but 
reaches its greatest development on some of the Thousand Islands. 

The wood of Sapindus Sap07iaria is heavy, rather hard, and close-grained. It is light brown 
tino-ed with yellow, with thick yellow sapwood, and contains nmnerous thin medullary rays. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8367, a cubic foot weighing 52.14 pounds. 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



INDACEJE 



The fact that the fruit of this tree was used by the Caribs as a substitute for soap attracted the 
attention of early travelers in the New World. It was mentioned by Oviedo y Valdes ^ in 1535^ and 



has been noticed and described by nearly all subsequent writers on the 
the Antilles. It was first discovered in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



history and products of 



Scqnndus Sar)onarl(t^ according to Aiton 



2 



Itivated in England by the Duchess of Beaufort 



1697 



ly introduced 



Senegambia^ and is said to have become naturahzed 



some of 



the Cape Verde Islands. 



3 



^ Arhol de las cuentas del xaboriy Hist. Gen, Nat hid. lib. 9, cap. 
5. — Nicolas Monardes, HisL Med. ed. Sevilla, 1574, fol. 105. 
Clusius, Exot. lib, L', cap. 16. (See also Joanne de Laet, Nov. Orb. 
lib. 5, cap. 21, 260.) 

SaponaricB sphcerulce arboris Jilicifolice, J, Bauhin, Hist. Gen. i, 
312. 

Nuculce saponarice non edules, C. Bauhin, Pin. 511. 

*^Sope berries like a. musket bullet that washeth as white as 



sope 
eat. 



)> 



a 



Sope berries, the Kernel so big as a sloe, and good to 



j> 



(Smith, Trav. and Obs. 55, 56.) 



"7)e Varbre qui porte les savonettes,^^ (Du Tertre, Hist. Gen. 



Antil. ii. 165.) 



foliis 



31- — Commelin, Hort. i. 183, t. 94. 



Prunifera sive nuciprunifera, Plukenet, Phyt. t. 217, f. 7. 

Prunifera racemosa, folio alato, costa media membranuUs utrinque 
extantibus donatay fructu saponarioy Sloane, Cat. PL Jam. 184 ; Nat, 
Hist. Jam. ii. 131. 

SapinduSy Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff, 152. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 
464. 

The Black Nicker-tree, Hughes, Natural History of Barbados^ 
118. 

Sapindiis foliis oblongis^ vix petiolatis, per costam ample alatam dis^ 
posilis, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 206, 

2 Hort. Kew. ed. 2, ii. 424. 

3 Hooker, Niger FL 249. 

Sapindus Saponaria is said by Radlkofer {Sitz. Akad. Munch. 
1878, 319) to inhabit Polynesia and the Philippine Islands. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXIV. Sapindus Saponaria. 

1. An inflorescence of the staminate plant, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size, 

3. Diagram of a perfect flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A petal, enlarged. 

7. An anther, rear and front views, enlarged. 

8. A perfect flower, enlarged. 

9. A flower-bud, enlarged- 

10. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 



Plate LXXV. Sapindus Saponaria, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LXXIV 




C.JE.FazcoTV deZi 



Picart/r sc 



SAPINDUS SAPONARIA,L 



A. Rwcrezcr!^ direaz ^ 



Imp It Ihneur Fans 



Silva of Korth America. 



Tab: LXX\ 




C £ 2^032071 deZ. 



T'lcart fr sc 



SAPINDUS SAPONARIA.L 



ji Riocreitx dzrea: 



Imp 2? Tarieur Paruw 



SAPINDACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



71 



SAPINDUS MARGINATUS. 



Soapberry. Wild China Tree. 



Calyx-lobes acute ; petals appendaged. Petioles wingless or nearly so. 



Sapindus marginatus, Willdenow, Emim. 432, — Muehl- S. Saponaria, Lamarck, III. ii. 441, t. 307 (not Linnaeus). 



enberg, Cat. 41. — De Candolle, Prodr. i. 607. — Sprengel, 
Syst. ii. 250. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 665. — Spach, Hist 
Veg. iii. 54. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 255, 685 
Pacific R. E. Pep. ii. 162. — NuttaU, Sylva, ii. 72, t 



Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 242. — Poiret, Zam. Diet. vi. 



65. 



663 (in part). 



444. — Pursh, FL Am 



Sept. i. 274. — NuttaU, Gen. i. 257. — EUiott, Sk. i. 460. 

Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 172. 
S. falcatus, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii. 261. 
S. acuminatus, Rafinesque, Neio Fl. 22. — Radlkofer, Sltz. 

Akad. Mllneh. 1878, 316, 393. — Watson & Coulter, 

Gray's Man. ed. 6, 116. 



Engelmann & Gray, Jour. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist 
V. 241 (PL Lindheim. i.), — Gray, Gen. EL ii. 214, 1. 180 

Jour. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 168 {PL Lindheim. ii.) ; PI 

Wright, i. 38 {Smithsonian Contrib. iii.). — Engelmann, 

Wislizenus^ Mem. 96. — Torrey, Fmo^y's Pep. 138 ; Mar- S. Drummondi, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 281 



cy's Pep. 269 ; Pacific P. P. Pep. iv. 2, 74 ; Bot. Mex, 
Pound. Surv. 47. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 230, f. 22. 
Chapman, Fl. 79. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 
214. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 337. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 44. 



(excl. var,). — Walpers, Rep. i. 417. 
S. Manatensis, Radlkofer, Sitz. Akad. Munch. 1878, 318, 
400 (Shuttleworth in Herb. Pugel). 



A tree, forty or fifty feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes a foot and a half or two feet in diame- 



usually 



branches and minute depressed globular winter-buds. The bark of the trunk 



which is from a third to half an inch thick^ separates by deep fissures into long narrow flakes^ their 
surface breaking into small red-brown scales. The branchlets when they appear are slightly many- 
angled, pale yellow-green^ and clothed with pubescence. In the second year they are terete^ with large 
conspicuously elevated leaf-scars, and are covered with pale gray and usually slightly puberulous bark, 
marked with numerous small lenticels. The leaves are composed of four to nine pairs of leaflets borne 



on slender grooved puberulous petioles sometimes 



a little winged towards the 



upper end. They 



appear in March and April, and faU in the autumn or early winter. The leaflets are alternate, obhquely 
lanceolate, and sharply acuminate ; on the upper surface they are glabrous and on the lower are usually 
covered with short pale pubescence, although in some Florida forms they are nearly smooth ; ^ they are 
short-petiolulate, rather coriaceous, prominently reticulated, pale yellow-green, two to three inches long 



and 



a 



half 



thirds of an inch broad. The inflorescence, which appears in May or J 



SIX 



to nine inches in length and five or six inches in breadth, with a pubescent many-angled stem and 
branches. The sepals are acute and concave, with cihate margins, and are much shorter than the white 
obovate petals, which are rounded at the apex and contracted into a long claw hairy on the inner 
surface and furnished at the top with a deeply cleft scale with hairy margins. The stamens of the 
sterile flower are exserted, while those of the fertile flower are barely haH the length of the petals ; the 
filaments are slightly thickened at the base, and are furnished with long soft hairs. The fruit ripens 
in September and October and remains on the branches until the following spring or summer. 



The 



berries are ovate or rounded, and half an inch in diameter, with thin dark orange-colored semitranslu- 
cent flesh and obovate dark brown seeds, the hilum surrounded by a tuft of pale hairs. 

Sapindus marglnatus grows along the Atlantic coast from the valley of the Savannah River in 
Georoia to that of the St. John's River in Florida ; and on the west coast of Florida from Cedar Keys 
to the Manatee River. It reappears west of the Mississippi River and extends from western Louisiana 

1 As collected by Rugel near the mouth of the Manatee River ; the S. Manatensis of Shuttleworth and of Radlkofer. 



T2 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. sapindace^ 



to the valley of the Washita River in southern Arkansas and to southern Kansas, through Texas to the 
mountain valleys of southern New Mexico and southern Arizona, and into northern Mexico. On the 
Atlantic coast it is a small tree, rarely exceeding twenty feet in height, and is not common ; it is most 
abundant and reaches its greatest size along the river bottoms of eastern Texas, where it grows in com- 
pany with the White Elm, the Texas Elm, the Honey Locust, and the Hackberry, or often occupies 
considerable areas to the exclusion of other trees. It prefers moist clay soil, although it sometimes 

grows on dry limestone uplands. 

The wood of Sa'plndns marrjinatus is heavy, sti'ong, and close-grained, with several rows of large 

open ducts clearly marking the layers of annual growth, and thin obscure medullary rays. It is light 
brown tinged with yellow, with lighter colored sapwood composed of about thirty layers of annual 
gi'owth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8126, a cubic foot weighing 50.64 pounds. 
It splits easily into thin strips, and is largely employed in Texas in the manufacture of baskets used in 
harvesting cotton, and in New Mexico for the frames of pack-saddles. The fruit is eaten in Texas 
by cattle and deer. 

Sapindiis marginatits was discovered by the French botanist Michaux on the coast of Georgia, 
and was first described by Lamarck, who confounded it v^th the West Indian S. Saponaria. It is now 
occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern Europe and in Algeria.^ 



1 Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateur^ 487. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXVI. Sapindus mahgenatus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A petal, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, rear and front views, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A pistil cut transversely, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

11. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate LXXVn. Sapindus marginatus. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. An embryo, natural size. 

5. A winter-branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tat. LXXVI 



I 



\ 



X 




( * E. FaxoTL del 



SAPINDUS MARGINATUS,Willd 



IhcaTtfr sc 



A. Hwcreicx dtrezc- 



Imp K. lanezir . ParLr 



'Silva of North Am 



erica . 



Tab. LXXVII. 




C.E FiLi-on del 



Ficarp/r. scy 



SAPINDUS MARGINATUS, Willd 



A..Hiocreiuv direa.' ^ 



Imp It Tccriiucr. Parw. 



SAPINDACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



73 



EXOTHEA. 



Flowers regular, polygamo-dioecious ; sepals 5, imbricated in aestivation; petals 5, 
imbricated in aestivation; ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cell, suspended. Fruit 
baccate, by abortion 1-seeded. 



Exothea, Macfadyen, FL Jam. 232. — Endlicher, Gen. 



1134. 



Me 



Melicocca, A. L. de Jussieu, Mem. Mus 



pelate, Cambessedes, Mem. Mus. xviii. 31 (in part). 
Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 408 (in part). — Baillon, 
Hist. PL V. 408 rin uartV 



A tree, with thin scaly bark and terete branchlets covered with lenticels. Leaves alternate, petio- 
late, abruptly pinnate, or three or rarely one-f oliolate, glabrous, persistent, destitute of stipules ; leaflets 



oblong or oblong-ovate. 



acute, rounded, or emarginate at 



the apex, with entire undidate margins. 



obscurely veined, membranaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper, and slightly paler on the lower 
surface. Flowers small, in ample terminal or axillary wide-branched panicles, the peduncle and branches 
clothed with orange-colored pubescence. Pedicels short from the axils of minute deciduous bracts, and 
covered, like the flower-buds, with thick pale tomentum. Sepals ovate, rounded at the apex, cihate on 
the margins, puberulous, persistent. Petals white, ovate, rounded at the apex, shortly unguiculate, 
alternate with and rather longer and narrower than the sepals- Disk annular, fleshy, irregularly five- 
lobed, puberulous. Stamens seven or eight, inserted on the disk, in the sterile flower as long as the 
petals, much shorter in the fertile flower ; filaments filiform, glabrous ; anthers oblong, introrse, attached 
at the base, two-celled with a broad connective, the cells opening longitudinally ; rudimentary in the 
staminate flower. Ovary sessile on the disk, conical, pubescent, contracted into a short thick style ; 
rudimentary in the sterile flower ; stigma large, declinate, obtuse ; ovules two in each cell, suspended 
from the summit of the inner angle, anatropous, collateral ; raphe ventral ; micropyle su]3erior. Fruit a 
nearly spherical one-seeded berry, containing the rudiment of the second cell, and tipped with the 
short remnant of the style, the base surrounded by the persistent reflexed sepals ; pericarp thick, dark 



purple, and jnicy at maturity. 



Seed oblong, 



solitary, suspended, destitute of albumen ; testa thin, 



coriaceous, orange-brown, and lustrous ; embryo subglobose, filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 
fleshy, plano-convex, puberulous ; radicle superior, very short, uncinate, turned towards the hilum and 
inclosed in a lateral cavity of the testa. 

The wood of Exothea is very hard and heavy, strong and close-grained, and capable of receiving a 
beautiful polish, although liable to check badly in drying. It is bright red-brown, with lighter colored 



sapwood composed of ten or twelve layers of 



& 



t> 



ty of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9533, a cubic foot weighing 59.41 pounds. 



owth and obscure medullary rays. The specific 

59.41 nounds. It resists the 



attacks of the Teredo and is therefore valuable for piles 
the handles of tools, and for many small objects. 



sed in Florida in boat-building, for 



The generic name, derived from f^^^t u>, to expel, was bestowed upon it by Macfadyen ^ when he 



1 James Macfadyen (1800-1850) was born in Glasgow where tains, as far as completed, the best account of the plants, and espe- 
he studied botany under Sir AVilliam Hooker and was graduated cially of the trees, of the island, which has been published. A 
from the School of Medicine in 1821. He was selected on the second volume was written and printed in Kingston but never pub- 
recommendation of Hooker to organize a government Botanical lished, the author's career being suddenly ended by cholera which 
Garden in Jamaica. This he did, but the garden languished, and he contracted while zealously devoting himself to his professional 
Macfadyen soon retired from its direction and established himself duties. Macfadyena, a large genus of tropical American Blgy-ioni- 
on the island as a physician. He did not, however, abandon the aceoe^ was dedicated to him by A. de Candolle. (See Proc, Linn, 
study of botany, and in 1837 published the first volume of his Flora Soc. ii. 135.) 



^/ 







74 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapindace^ 



separated it from the group of plants with which he supposed it to be allied. The genus is represented 
by one or perhaps two species.^ 



^ Radlkofer (^Sitz, Akad. Munch, xx. 276) distinguishes a second nceaj vi. 419. Ratonia sp., Hemsley, Bot Biol. Am. Cent i. 213), 
species of Exothea, E. Copalillo (**Copalillo/' Schlechtendal, Lin- but I have never seen it. 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



EXOTHEA PANIOULATA. 



Iron Wood. Ink Wood. 



paniculata, Eadlkofer, Durand 



Miinch. XX. 276. 



Forest, iv. 100. 



Sargent, Garden and 



Melicocca paniculata, A. L. de Jussieu, Mem. Mus. iii 
187, t. 5. — De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 615. — Dietrich, Syn 
u. 1278. — Nuttall, Stjlva, ii. 74, t. 65. 

Hypelate paniculata, Cambessedes, M6m. Mus. xviii. 32. 



Don, Gen. Syst. i. 671. — Eichard, Fl. Cub. ii. 122. 
Grisebach, FL Brit W. Ind. 127. — Chapman, Fl. 79. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 45. 
Sapindus lucidus, Hamilton, Prodr, PL Ind. Occ. 36 (teste 



Radlkofer, L c.). 
oblongifolia, Macfadyen, 1 
don Jour. Bot. iii. 227, t. 7. 



Hooker, Lon- 



The Exothea sometimes grows in Florida to the height of forty or fifty feet^ with a tall trunk 
twelve or fifteen inches in diameter and slender upright branches. The bark of the trunk is from an 
eighth to a quarter of an inch thick^ with a bright red surface separating into large brown scales. The 
branchlets are orange-brown when they first appear, becoming red-brown in their second year, and are 
thickly covered with small white lenticels. The leaves, which are borne on stout grooved petioles half 
an inch to nearly an inch in length, appear in Florida in April ; the leaflets are four or five inches long 
and an inch and a half or two inches broad. The panicles of sterile and of fertile flowers are produced 
on separate plants- The flowers open in Florida in April, and are half an inch across when expanded. 
The fruit is fully grown by the end of June, and is then dull orange-colored; it remains on the 
branches during the summer and ripens in the autumn, when it is juicy and dark purple.^ 

The Exothea is found in Florida from Mosquito Inlet on the east coast to the southern keys, where 
it is generally distributed, but is nowhere a common tree. It also inhabits San Domingo, Cuba, and 
Jamaica. It was discovered in San Domingo early in the century by the French botanist Poiteau,^ and 
was first noticed in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



^ According to Richard, the fruit of Exothea paniculata is de- mained until 1821. Returning to France he was made successively 

voured in Cuba by hogs and other domestic animals. (^FL Cub, ii. head gardener at Fontainebleau, of the gardens of the ficole de 

122.) Mddicine, and of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. Poiteau discov- 

2 Alexandre Poiteau (1766-1850) was one of the most famous ered many new plants in America ; and was particularly successful 

gardeners of his time. Born at Amblecy near Soissons, he learned in his efforts in improving different fruits. He was the author of 

botany and gardening in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, and so dis- many works of importance, including Le Jardin Botanique de rjScole 

tinguished himself that he was soon sent to organize a rural insti- de Medicine de Paris (1816) ; Histoire des Palmiers de la Guayne 

tution in the Dordogne, and then in 1793 to Hayti, where he was Frangaise (1822) ; Voyageur Botaniste (1829) ; Pomologie Fran(;aise 

made director of the recently established botanical garden. Poi- (1839) ; Cour d"* Horticulture (1847^48) ; and with Risso, Histoire 

teau returned to Paris in 1802, carrying with him many plants and Naturelle des Oranges* Some of the volumes of the Bon Jardinier 

seeds, and was placed in charge of the royal uursery-gardens at were edited by him ; and he contributed articles to scientific peri- 



Versailles ; in 1815 he was sent to America again to take charge of odicals. Poitceay a genus of leguminous plants of the Antilles, was 



Government 



established by Ventenat. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXVIII. Exothea paniculata. 

1. A flowering branch of tlie staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower^, enlarged. 

8. A pistil cut transversely, enlarged, 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate LXXIX. Exothea paniculata- 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tat . LXXVIII 




< E FaxoTi del^ 



Picartjr. sc 



EXOTHEA PANICULATA, Radlk 



A. Ihocreua^ di/wr^ 



Imp . K Taneur . Fans. 



Sllva of Nopth America. 



Tab- LXXIX 




C £ Favo^Tv del 




\ sc. 



EXOTHEA PANICULATA,Radlk 



A JhocreUiC 




Imp. R Taneur. Fans- 



SAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



77 



HYPELATE. 



Flowers regular, polygamo-monoecious ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in 
aestivation, deciduous ; petals 5, imbricated in aestivation ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules 2 in 
each cell, heterotropous. Fruit a fleshy drupe, 1-celled, 1-seeded. 



Hypelate, Browne, Nat, Hist. Jam. 208. — Cambessedes, Ge7i. i. 408 (in part). — BaiUon, Hist. PL v. 408 (in 

Mem. Mus. xiii. 31 (in part). — Endlicher, Gen. 1071 part), 

(in part). — Meisner, Gen. 53. — Bentham & Hooker, Melicocca, A. L. de Jussieu, Mem. Mus. iii. 178 (in part; 

not Linnaeus). 



A glabrous tree or shrub, with smooth bark and slender terete branches. Leaves alternate, long- 
petiolate, the petioles sometimes narrow winged, destitute of stipules, three-foHolate, the terminal leaflet 
rather larger than the others, persistent ; leaflets sessile, obovate, rounded or rarely acute or emarginate 
at the apex, entire with thickened revolute margins and prominent midribs, coriaceous, conspicuously 
feather-veined, the veins arcuate and connected near the margin, dark green and lustrous on the upper, 
and bright green on the lower surface. Flowers minute, in few-flowered long-stemmed wide-branched 



terminal or axillary panicles. Pedicels slender from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. Calyx-lobes 
ovate, rounded at the apex, slightly puberulous on the outer surface, ciHate along the margins, decidu- 
ous by a circumscissile line. Petals rather longer than the calyx-lobes, rounded, spreading, white, with 
ciliate margins. Stamens seven or eight, inserted on the lobes of the annular fleshy disk ; filaments fili- 
form, in the sterile flower as long as the petals, much shorter in the fertile flower ; anthers oblong, 
attached on the back near the bottom, two-ceUed, the cells spreading from above downwards, opening 
longitudinally. Ovary sessile on the disk, slightly three-lobed, three-celled, contracted into a short stout 
style ; rudimentary in the sterile flower ; stigma large, declinate, obscurely three-lobed ; ovules two in 
each cell, borne on the middle of its inner angle, amphitropous, superposed, the upper ascending with 
the micropyle inferior, the lower pendulous with the micropyle superior. Fruit an ovate black drupe, 
crowned with the remnants of the persistent style and supported on the persistent base of the calyx ; 
sarcocarp thin and fleshy ; endocarp thick and crustaceous. Seed destitute of albumen, solitary by the 
abortion of the upper ovule^ suspended, obovate ; testa thin, slightly wrinkled. Embryo conduplicate, 
filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thin, foliaceous, irregularly folded, incumbent on the long 

radicle. 

The wood of Hypelate is very heavy, hard, and close-grained. It contains numerous thin obscure 
medullary rays, and is rich dark brown in color with thin darker colored sapwood usuaUy composed of 
four or five layers of annual growth. It is durable in contact with the soil, and is valued in Florida for 
posts ; it is also used in ship-building and for the handles of tools. 

Hypelate, the ancient name of th^ Butcher's Broom, Rusciis HyjJophyUum of Linnseus, was 
adopted by Patrick Browne as the generic name for the West Indian tree. The genus is represented 
by a single species. 



78 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDAC E.K 



HYPELATE TRIFOLIATA. 



White Iron Wood. 



Hypelate trifoliata, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. ii. 665, t. 14. 



H^ 



Delessert, Icon. iii. 23, t. 



39. 
163. 



De Candolle, Prodr. i. 614. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jc 
Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1279. — Chapman, Fl. 78. 



Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 127; Cat. 
Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. 100. 
Amyris Hypelate, Robinson ; Lunan, Hort 



A 

ally 



ising sometimes in Florida to the height of thirty-five or forty feet, with a trunk 



twenty inches in diameter, although generally much smaller 



The bark, which 



sm 



1 



minute 



ely an eighth of an inch in thickness and is marked with many shallow depressions and 

are pale green when they first appear j they become gray later in the 



The branchlets 



and bright red-brown in the second year. The 



unfold in Florida in J 



d 



remain 



on the branches until the second season and often longer. They are borne on stout petioles one and 



half 



che 



long, furnished with narrow green wings. 



The leaflets are one and a half 



to two inches long, three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter wide, and very bright green. 

in length, with a slender peduncle and 



The inflorescence is few-flowered, and is three or four inches 



The 



branches. The sterile and fertile flowers are produced in separate panicles on the same tree, 
flowers appear in Florida in June, and when fully expanded are a little less than an eighth of an inch 

The fruit, which is produced very sparingly, ripens in September ; it is three eighths of an 



across. 



inch long and possesses a sweet rather agreeable flavor. 

Hlipelate trifoliata is known in Florida only on Upper Metacombe and Umbrella Keys, and is one 
of the rarest of the tropical trees which occur within the territory of the United States. It also inhabits 
Jamaica and Cuba. 



Hyi 



trifoliata was discovered in Jamaica by Sir Hans Sloane, and the earHest account of it 
Catalogue of the Plants of Jamaica published in 1696.^ It was first found in Florida by 



Dr. J. L. Blodgett 



1 Cytisus arboreus, foliis ohtusis glahis, foliorum pediculis alatis, 
141 ; Nat Hist Jam. ii. 33. — Ray, HisL PL iii. 473. The figure 
in the Natural History of Jamaica^ to which Sloane himself refers, 
represents another plant. 



\xis 



icosa, foliis ohovatis pinnato-ternatis 
Browne, Nat. Hist, Jam. 208. 



m^rginato af 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXX. Hypelate trifoliata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamenj back and front views, enlarged 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistil divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

8. A pair of ovules, much magnified. 



Plate LXXXI. Hypelate trifoliata. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. 6. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. LXXX 




6 



7 



o 



4- 






8 






5 




C.£.FcKcoTL deZ. 



Picart fr. sc 



HYPELATE TRIFOLIATA, Sw 



^ , Hio creuaz direzc 



Imp, R Taneur. Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . LXXXI 





5 





6 



C.E Fazcon del 



Ficoj^tfr sc 



HYPELATE TRIFOLIATA, Sw. 



A Fiorreax dir^x.^ 



Imp.R TariiUir Paris 



SAPINDACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



ACER. 



ClOUS 



Flowers regular, dioeciously or monoeciously polygamous, rarely perfect, or dioe- 
; calyx generally 5-parted, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals usually 5, 



imbricated in aestivation, or ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending. Fruit 
a double samara. 



Acer, Linnaeus, Gen. 112. — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 383. 
A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 251. — Endlicher, Gen. 1056. 
Meisner, Gen. 56. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 199. — Bentham 



& Hooker, Gen. i. 409. 



Hist 



Negundo, Moench, Meth. 334. — Endlicher, Gen. 1056- 
Meisner, Gen. 56. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 201. — Bentham 
& Hooker, Gen. i. 409. 

Negundiiun, Rafinesaue, N. Y. Med. Rev. hex. 2, v. 350. 



Trees or rarely shrubs^ with limpid or sometimes milky juice^ terete branches^ scaly buds^ the inner 



scales often accrescent with the young- shoots^ and fib 



roots. Leaves opposite^ long 



limple^ palmately three to seven-lobed, or rarely entire^ or pinnately three to five-foliolate^ generally des 



of stipules, decid 



Flowers in fascicles produced from separate lateral buds and appearin 



before the leaves, or in terminal and lateral racemes or panicles appearing with or later than the leaves. 
Bracts minute, usually caducous* Calyx colored, four to twelve, usually five-parted or lobed, decidu- 



ous. Petals as many as the lobes of the calyx, ins 
erect, colored like the calyx, deciduous ; or wanting. 



ted 



the margin or base of the disk 



qual 



Disk annular, fleshy, more or less lobed, with a 
free margin, or rarely rudimentary. Stamens four to ten, usually eight, inserted on the summit or inside 
of the disk, hypogynous or perigynous ; filaments distinct, filiform, commonly exserted in the sterile, 
shorter and generally abortive in the fertile flower ; anthers oblong or linear, attached at the base, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary Iwo-lobed, two-celled, compressed contrary 
to the dissepiment, wing-margined on the back ; styles two, inserted between the lobes of the ovary, 
connate below and divided into two linear branches stigmatose on their inner surface ; ovules two in 
each cell, collateral, rarely superposed, ascending, attached by their broad bases to the inner angle of 
the cell, anatropous or finally amphitropous ; micropyle inferior. Fruit composed of two samaras sepa- 
rable from a small persistent axis, the nut-like carpels compressed laterally, produced on the back into a 
large chartaceous or coriaceous reticulated wing thickened on the lower margin. Seeds solitary by 
abortion or rarely two in each cell, compressed or irregularly three-angled, ascending obliquely, destitute 
of albumen ; testa membranaceous, the inner coat often fleshy.^ Embryo conduplicate ; cotyledons thin^ 
foliaceous or coriaceous, irregularly plicate, incumbent, oblique, or accumbent on the elongated descend- 
insr radicle which is turned towards the hilum.^ 

The genus Acer is represented in all the great geographico-botanical divisions of the northern 
hemisphere, but extends south of the equator only to the mountains of Java.^ In the eastern and 

1 The seed of Acer usually ripens in the autumn and germinates ^ The genus may be divided into two sections as proposed by 

the following spring. The seed of the two American species with Maximowicz {Bull. Acad. Scu St. Petersbourg, 
precocious flowers, however, ripens at the end of a few weeks after Biol. x. 591, 609]). 



xxvi. 437. 450 



the trees flower, and germinates at once. This is a provision, per- 



cquired 



land 



Acer. Flowers polygamous or dicecious, petalous or apetalous. 
Leaves simple. 

Negundo. Flowers dioecious, apetalous (in the American spe- 

seed, if it ripened in the autumn, would often lie in water through cies) or furnished with petals. Leaves pinnately or ternately 

the winter and be in danger of losing its vitality ; but it reaches divided. 

the ground after the water has fallen in the swamps and before the ^ Acer appears to have been unrepresented in the Tertiary Arctic 

exposed surface of the ground has become baked by the hot sun of flora, and to have been rare in that of Greenland. (Heer, Fl. Foss, 

summer, that is when it is in just the condition to insure the ger- Arct. vii. Die tert. FL v. Groenl. 125, t. 94, f. 1-3.) It was more 



mination of seed. 



abundant in Spitzbergen at the same epoch (Heer, Fl, Foss. Arct. 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^. 



central parts of the continents species are more multiplied than in the western parts, and arc common 



and characteristic features of vegetation. 



Sixty or seventy species may be distinguished/ nearly half of them belonging to China and Japan/ 
which must be considered the headquarters of the genus." One widely distributed species of southern 
India is found in Sumatra and Java;^ twelve are endemic to the Himalaya-mountain region,'"' and twelve 



Europe and the 



6 



In North America nine species occur ; five of these belong to the Atlantic 



the Pacific region ; one is peculiar to the 



mountain ranges, and one extends across 



the continent. 



The wood of Acer is light, close-grained, and moderately hard. The bark is astringent and yields 
red and yellow coloring matter,^ and the limpid sweet sap of some of the American species is manufac- 
tured into sugar. The most valuable timber trees of the genus are the European Acer Pseiido-PJata- 

^ the American A. harhatitm. and the Indian A. Camijhellii.^ In Japan the wood of Acer is httle 



nus 



employed, although that oi A. plctiua^^ sometimes serves for the mterior finish of buildings; a few 
species supply material for turnery and for making trays and other small objects, and the mucilaginous 
inner bark of A. cratcpgifoHimi'^^ is used in paper-making- 
Acer contains several species which have been planted for centuries as. ornamental trees in Europe ; 
and in North America and Japan,^^ where the brilliant colors assumed by the foliage of many Maples 
increase their value. 



iv. Spitzbergeuy 86, t. 2:2-24, 25, f. 1-3), so that it probably existed 



® Hooker f. FL Brit, Lid, i. 696. Acer Campbellii is the princi- 



in polar regions before its appearance in central Europe, where the pal Maple of the northeastern Himalaya, where the wood is used 
early vestiges of Acer date only from the upper Eocene. (Saporta, in large quantities for planking and in the manufacture of tea- 



Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 281.) 

^ Dr. Ferdinand Pax, in his recent Monograph of Acer {Engler 



boxes. (Gamble, Mail, Indian Timbers, 101.) 

^^ Thunberg, FL Jap. 162. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PI 



Bot. Jahrb, vii. 177), distinguishes more than eighty species. As, Jap, i. 87. — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad, Sci. St, Petersbourg, xxvi. 443 

however, he sometimes establishes species on single herbarium spe- (^1^1. Biol. x. 599). — Hooker f. Fl, Brit, Ind, i. 696. In India, 

cimens without flower or fruit, his views will be accepted with cau- where A, pictum is also widely distributed from the Indus to As- 

tion in the case of a genus in which individuals and even parts of sam, and is the most common species of the northern Himalaya, 

individuals show such a tendency to leaf variation ; aud the species its wood is used for construction and in the manufacture of plows 

of Acer, if they are all ever studied in the field, will perhaps be and other articles ; and its branches are cut for the winter fodder 



found to be nearer sixty than eighty in number. 

2 Maximowicz, Bull Acad. Sci, St, Pi'tersbourg, xxvi. 437 (M^l. 



of cattle, (Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 101.) 

11 Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad, Milnch. iv. 2, 155 ; FL 



Biol. X. 591). — Franchet & Savatier, Eyium. PL Jap, i. 87. — Fran- Jap, ii. 84, t. 147. — Maximowicz, BulL Acad. ScL Sl Petersbourg, 
chet, PL Daoid, 176, 230 ; PL DelavayancBy i. 144, t. 31. —Forbes xxvi. 441 QsUl. Biol. x. 596). 



& Hemsley, Jour, Linn, Soc, xxiii. 140. 



1- Acer palmat urn (Thunberg, FL Jap. 162. — Maximowicz, Bull, 



8 Dr. Heinrich Mayr estimates that fully thirty per cent, of the Acad, ScL St. Petersbourg, xxvi. 448 [Mdl. Biol. x. 607]), Acer Ja- 

deciduous forests of Japan are composed of different species of ponicum (Thunberg, L c. 162. — Maximowicz, L c, 605), both in 

^^P^^- many forms, and A,diabolicum (Miquel, ProL FL Jap, 20. — Maxi- 

* Acer niveum, Blume, Rumphia, iii. 193, t. 167, B, f. 1. — Miquel, mowiez, L v. 593), are the most commonly cultivated Maple-trees 

Fl, Ind, Bat. i., ii. 582. in the gardens of Japan, in which they are considered indispeusa- 

s Hooker f. FL Brit. Lid, i. 092. ble ; and the last holiday excursion of the year is made late in the 

6 Nyman, ConspecL FL Europ, 135. — Boissier, FL Orient, i. autumn by the Japanese lover of nature to look on the brilliant 



947. 



■^ Le Maout & Decaisne, Trait, Gai, BoL English ed. 356. 
8 Limiffius, Spec. 1034. — FL Dan. t. 1575. — Reichenbach, Icon 
FL Germ. v. t. 164. 



colors of A , 2?objmorphum, (Rein, Japan nach Reisen und Studien im 
Auftrage der Koniglich Preussischen Regierung dargestellt, ii. 325.) 

As a general rule the European Maples which have been planted 
in the United States have not proved long-lived or handsome trees. 



The wood oiAcer Pseudo-Platanus is compact and firm without The exception is the Norway Maple {Acer platanoides) , which 

being very hard ; it is easily worked and does not warp or shrink flourishes here, especially in the neighborhood of the ocean, as well 

when properly seasoned. It is much used in central Europe in as any of the indigenous species, reproducing itself naturally and 

turnery and wood-sculpture, and in the manufacture of trays, vio- abundantly. Acer Pseudo-Platanus, the most stately and beauti- 

lins, and other musical instruments, and of rollers, spoons, plates, ful of the European Maples, and one of the most beautiful trees of 

pestles, and many other small household utensils. It has a high the genus when it grows in the mountain valleys of central Europe, 

fuel value, both in the quantity of the heat it produces and in the fails to become a large or long-lived tree in the United States ; and 

length of time it burns. The leaves, gathered green and dried, are none of the Asiatic species which have been planted here appear 



used as winter fodder for sheep in some parts of Europe. 



capable of adapting themselves permauently to the climate. 



SAPINDACEJE, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



81 



Acer is attacked by a number of injurious insects/ and is affected, although not very seriously, by 
various fungal diseases.^ 

Acer, the classical name of the Maple-tree, was adopted for the genus by Tournefort,^ and after- 
wards by Linnseus. 



^ The Maples are liable to serious injury from the attacks of sev- seedlings of the different species ; it has not yet been observed, 
eral species of wood-boring insects which are particularly destructive however, in this country, where the cultivation of Maples from seed 
to trees planted for shade or ornament, or growing in open sunny is not very often attempted on a large scale. The most striking 
woods. In America and in Europe the different species are injured fungal disease of Maples in the United States is that caused by 
by many insects. Packard has found thirty-six species {Bull No. Rhytisma acerinum, Fr., which produces black and more or less cir- 
7j U, S. Entomolog. Comm, 103), which probably represent but a cular and thickened spots of considerable size on the leaves. It is 
small proportion of those living upon Maple-trees in this country ; particularly conspicuous on the narrower lobes of the leaves of the 
while Kaltenbach has enumerated no less than sixty-six found on Silver Maple, and is also common on the leaves of the Red and 
these trees in Germany alone (Die Pjianzen-feinde aus der Classe Sugar Maples. On those species which affect northern or moun- 
ter InsecleUy 87). The large Sugar Maple borer (Glycobius sped- tainous regions, such as A. Pennsylvanicum and A. spicatum, a see- 
osus) is one of the most dangerous beetles which infest these trees oud form (Rhytisma punctatum, Fr.) is more frequently found. It 
in this country, often causing their death (Harris, Insects Injurious differs in appearance from the first species in that the blotches are 
to Vegetation^ ed. 2, 101), and the flat-headed Apple-tree borer not a uniform black mass, but are aggregations of small black 
(Chrysobothris femorata^ F.) is sometimes hardly less injurious to spots. The leaves affected with Rhytisma are conspicuous in the 
the Red and Silver Maples (Riley, l5i 4nn. /JfijD. /nsec^s o/ikfJ5SOun, autumn, although the fungus does not mature until winter and 
1869, 46). The boring larvae of a small moth (JEgeria acerniy after the leaves have fallen. Rhytisma acerinum is common in 
Clemens) is often very destructive to the Red and Sugar Maples, America, where it is found from Maine to Louisiana and California, 
and is especially abundant in some parts of the west. (Riley, 6th as well as in Europe. Although less conspicuous to the eye, other 
Ann, Rep. Insects of Missouri, 1874, 107.) The foliage of all the leaf fungi are more injurious to Maples than the Rhytisma. In 
species of eastern America is more or less liable to injury by the addition to the European species, Glceosporium acerinum^ Westd., 
common Fall Web- worm, and Silver Maples planted in New Eng- and Phlceospora Aceris, Sacc, occur on the Silver Maple in the 

land cities are sometimes much injured by the larvse of the Tussock United States, the last being common also on Acer Negundo in 

California. This is the American species first described by Berke- 

The caterpillar of Dryocampa rubicunda, F., sometimes destroys ley and Curtis under the name of Sphceropsis minima (Grevillea^ 

the Red and Silver Maples in some parts of the west (Riley, iii. 2), (Phyllosticta acericola, C. & E., Phoma minima, Sacc), 

5th Ann. Rep. Insects of Missouri, 1873, 137) ; and many other which attacks A. barbatum, A. rubrum, and A. Pennsylvanicum in 

leaf-eating and some leaf-mining insects affect the Maples of the the northern states, forming rather small scattered spots which are 

United States, although their ravages have rarely been serious white, thin, and brittle with a black border. This fungus is occa- 



moth. 



enough to attract general attention. 



sionally so prevalent as to disfigure and injure the trees. In more 



Apliids quite frequently infest Maple-trees, and the scale insect mountainous districts, A. Pennsylvanicum, especially when young, is 

known as the Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis. Rath- badly infested by Septoria acerina (25th Ann, Rep. N. Y. State Mu- 

von) is often exceedingly troublesome and destructive. (J. D. seum, 87), which forms brown irregularly polygonal spots on which 

Putnam, Proc, Davenport Acad, ii, 293.) are sprinkled the brownish fruit dots. When abundant and mature 

Acer NegundOj besides being liable to injury by the boring and this fungus sometimes covers the leaves, and the copious spores 

foliage-eating insects which prey on the other Maples, is peculiarly exude in powdery whitish masses. 

liable to defoliation by the Fall Web-worm (Bull. 10, Div. Ent. Of fungi belonging to the Perisporiacece or mildews, Uncinula 

Dep. Agric. 1887, 40) ; and the Box Elder bug (Leptocoris irivitta- circinata, C. & P., replacing the European U. Aceris, is common on 

tus) is reported as seriously affecting the growth of this tree. (First nearly all the Maples of the northern states. This plant forms a 



Ann. Rep. Kansas Ex. Station, 1888, 220.) 



thin white mesh with scattered minute black globules usually on 



2 A considerable number of fungi are parasitic upon Maples. the under side of the leaves. Of the species of fungi found on the 



As a rule, however, they 



comparatively free from serious dis- trunks and branches of Maples, the greater portion belong to the 



eases caused by fungi, and the species found upon them, while Pyrenomycetes and Hymenomycetes. Most of these species, which are 
possessing much botanical interest, cannot be said to be of great found also on other trees, are not known to produce any serious or 
importance from the point of view of the arboriculturist. In Eu- widespread disease on Maples. 



disease 



3 Inst. 615, t. 386. 



82 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^ 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 



ACEK. Flowers polygamo-moncBcious or polygamo-dioecious ; leaves simple. 

Flowers usually polygamo-moncBcious in terminal racemes on leafy branches, appearing later than the leaves. 

Flowers in dense U2>right racemes. 

Petals linear-spatulatCj much longer than the sepals ; leaves three or slightly five-lobed . 1. A. spicatum. 
Flowers in drooping racemes. 

Petals obovate ; ovary and young fruit glabrous ; leaves three-lobed at the apex ... 2. A. Pennsylvanicum 

Petals obovate ; ovary and young fruit hairy ; leaves deeply five-lobed 3. A. MACROPHYLLUM. 

Flowers in terminal pedunculate corymbs, appearing with the leaves. 

Flowers usually polygamo-monoecious ; petals involute, much shorter than the sepals ; 

leaves palmately seven to eight-lobed 4. A. cmciNATUM. 

Flowers usually polygamo-dioecious ; petals linear, as long as the sepals ; leaves three- 
lobed or three-parted 5. A. glabbum. 

Flowers usually polygamo-monoecious, in nearly sessile umbel-like terminal and lateral cor- 
ymbs, appearing with the leaves. 

Flowers apetalous ; leaves three to five-lobed 6. A. baebatum. 

Flowers precocious, usually polygamo-dioecious, in umbel-like fascicles from separate lateral 
buds. 

Flowers sessile or short-pedunculate ; ovary and young fruit tomentose ; leaves deeply 

five-lobed 7. A. saccharinum. 

Flowers long-pedunculate ; ovary glabrous ; leaves three to five-lobed 8. A. rubrum. 

Negundo. Flowers dioecious ; leaves pinnately or ternately divided. 

Flowers apetalous 9. A. Negfndo. 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



83 



ACER SPICATUM. 



Mountain Maple* 

Flowers in dense upright racemes ; petals linear-spatulate, much longer than th 



pals 



Leaves 3 or slightly 5-lobed, tomentose on the lower surface 



Acer spicatum, Lamarck, Diet, ii. 381. — Persoon, Syn, i. 

De Candolle, Prodr. i. 593. — Don, Gen. Syst, i. 
Audubon, Birds ^ t. 134. — Spach, Ann. Set. Nat. 



417. 

648. 



22, t. 2 (not Linnaeus). — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 
82, t. 12, f. 30. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 2, — Castiglioni, 

Vuig. negli Stati Unitl, ii. 1' 



ser. 2, ii. 163; Hint. Veg. iii. 87. — Torrey & Gray, FL A. parviflorum, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv.'25; vi. 40. — Moench, 



N. Am. i. 246. 



Dietrich, /S'^/Ti. ii. 1281. — Torrey, FL 



Mrth. 56. 



N. Y. i. 135. — Chapman, Fl. 80. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. A. raontanmn, Aiton, Hoi^t. Keic. iii. 435. — Schmidt, Oestr. 



Surv. iV". Car. 1860, iii. 52. — Buchenau, Bot. Zeit. xix, 
285, t. 11, f. 23. — Koch, Dendr. i. 522. — Emerson, 
Trees 3fass. ed. 2, ii. 567, t. — Bell, Bep. Geolog. Surv. 



Can. 1879-80, 54*=, 



Sartjent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th 



Census U. S. ix. 46. — Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 188. 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 117. — 
Gen. Acer, 16. 



Wesmael 



A. Pennsylvanioum, Du Roi, Diss. 61 ; Harbk. Baum. i. 



Baum. i. 13, t. 11. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 253. 
WiUdenow, Spec. iv. 988 ; Enum. 1045. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. i. 
tinick, Archi 



Nouveau 



Trat- 



r. 1. 



t. 13, 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 267. 



Nuttall, Gen. i. 253. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne. Abbild. 
Holz. 59, t. 48.— Hayne, Dendr. FL 212. — Elliott, Sk. 
i. 452. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 224. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. 
i. 111. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 408. 



A small bushy tree^ rising occasionally to a height of twenty-five or thirty feet, with a short trunk 
six or eight inches in diameter and slender upright branches ; or more often a tall or low shrub. The 
bark of the trunk is very thin with a smooth or slightly furrowed reddish brown surface. The branch- 
lets when they first appear are light gray and coated with pubescence which disappears during the 
summer ; in the winter they become bright red, especially when exposed to the full action of the sun, 
and the following summer turn gray or pale brown again and are then somewhat blotched or streaked 
with green towards the base. The winter-buds are acute ; the terminal flower-bud is an eighth of an 
inch long and more or less coated with pale tomentum, the leaf-buds being much smaller and glabrous 
or somewhat puberulous. The outer scales are red ; the second pair are densely white-tomentose and 
deciduous ; those of the inner ranks lengthen with the young shoots until at maturity they are an inch 
or more long, and are then lanceolate, pale and papery, and in falling leave narrow scars surrounding the 
base of the branchlets. The leaves are membranaceous, three or sHghtly five-lobed with taper-pointed 
lobes, and are conspicuously three-nerved with prominent veinlets ; they are subcordate or sometimes 
nearly truncate at the base, sharply and coarsely glandular-serrate, and four or five inches in length 
somewhat less in breadth, and are borne on slender petioles two or three inches long with enlarged 




bases 



They 



are 



berulous on the upper and densely tomentose on the 



face when they 



fold, and 



turity are hoary-pubescent below and glabrous above. The petiole is often 



summer, while the blade of the leaf, which turns later to various shades of orange and scarlet, is still 

The minute greenish yellow flowers are produced together, the fertile towards the base. 



bright green 



and the sterile at the ends of narrow many-flowered long-stemmed upright slightly compound pubescent 



are 



fully 



The calyx-lobes 



racemes which appear during the month of June after the lea\ 

thread-like and half to tliree quarters of an inch in length. 

colored, pubescent on the outer surface, and much shorter than the 

There are seven or eio^ht stamens inserted immediately under the ovary, with slender glabrous fil 



vn. The pedicels are 

are narrowly ob ovate, 

ipatulate pointed petals. 



& 



the petals in the 



flower and about the 



gth of the sepals in the fertile flower, and 



oflandular anthers 



The ovary is densely coated with pale tomentum, and in the sterile flower is reduced 



84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapindace.e. 



to? 



to a minute point surrounded by a tuft of pale hairs. The style is columnar and almost as long as the 
petals^ with very short stigmatic lobes. The fruit is almost glabrous, with more or less divergent wings^ 
and is rather more than an inch across. It is fully grown and bright red in July^ turning brown late 
in the autumn^ the racemes then being pendulous or nearly so. The seed is an eighth of an inch loi 

with a smooth dark testa and thick fleshy cotyledons. 

Acer splcatitm is common in all the region from the valley of the lower St. Lawrence River to 
northern Minnesota and the Saskatchewan^ and extends southward through the northern states and 
along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. It is represented in the flora of eastern Asia by 
a plant widely distributed from Manchuria to Japan^ hardly distinguishable from the American tree.^ 
Acer spiccitiim grows on moist rocky hillsides in the shade of other trees^ and at the north is rarely 
more than a spreading shrub, becoming really a tree only on the western slopes of the high mountains 
of Tennessee and North Carolina, where it occurs in great abundance in forests of the Sugar Maple^ 
the Beech, the Birch, the Hemlock, the Buckeye, and the Ash, often forming a considerable portion of 
the undergrowth. 

The wood of Acer sj^lcahuii is light, soft, and close-grained, with thin inconspicuous medullary 
rays. It is light brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.5330, a cubic foot weighing 33.22 pounds. 

Acer spicatitm^ according to Aiton,^ was cultivated in England as early as 1750 by Archibald, 
Duke of Argyll,^ but it was not described by any botanist until twenty years later. It is now rarely 
cultivated, although well worth a place in the shrubbery. 



^ A. spicatuniy var. Ukurunduensey Maximowicz, Prim. Fl, Amur, A. Ukurunduensey Middendorff, FL Ochotsk. No. 78 

65 ; BulL Acad. Sci. Sl Pelershourg^ xxvi. 439 (Mdl. Biol. x. 594). — 2 jj^^.^^ ^ew. iii. 435. 

Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PL Jap. i. 88. — Pax, Engler BoL ^ See i. 108. 
Jahrb. vii. 189, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXXIL Acer spicatum. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 



Plate LXXXIII. Acer spicatum 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, much magnified. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North. America. 



Tab. LXXXII 







6 




C E, Fa^coTi^^ deZ< 



PiC4xrL fr. ^c-. 



ACER SPICATUM.Lam 



A , IbjO creu2zy direst. 



t- 



Imp.Jit'Taneur, Pccrw, 



•*ri 



Silva. of North America . 



^ab LXXXil! 




\ 



k 




3 





r.Bj'if.j •<''.■ •/-'/. 



Fic<zrL /r. j-c-. 



ACER SPICATUM . Lam 



yi. Jiu'cr.-^u^t ihr>\r. 



f 



Imp R. Tizmu/. PuTfs. 



SAPlNDACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



85 



ACER PENNSYLVANICUM 



Striped Maple. Moose Wood. 



Flowers in long drooping racemes ; petals obovate, as long as the sepals ; ovary 
and young fruit glabrous. Leaves 3-lobed at the apex. 



m 



Michaux 



245. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 117 



Fl. B 
1045. 



WiUden 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 391. — Nouveau 



Wesmael, Gen, Acer, 46. 
A. Canadense, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 3. 



hamel, iv. 32. — Trattinick, Archlv. i. t. 11. — Hayne, A. striatum, Du Roi, Diss. 58 ; Harbk. Baum. i. 8, t. 1. 



Dendr, Fl 
Y. i. 135. 

Fl. N. M 



Elliott, Sk. i. 451. 



N. 



Sprengel, Si/st. ii. 224. — Torrey & Gray, 

Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 111. 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 29, t. 12, f . 28. — Castigli- 
oni, Viag, negli Stati Uniti, ii. 172. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 
381. — Ehrhart, Beitr. iv. 25. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baitm. 



Gray, Gen, III. ii. 200, t. 174, f. 1-3. —Chapman, 7^^. 



i. 13, t. 10. — Moench, Meth. 56. — Persoon, Syn. i- 



80. 



Curtis, Rev. Geoloa. Surv. N. 



417. 



Michaux f. Sist 



Pursh, 



Em- 



Buchenau, Bot. Zeit. xix. 285, 1. 11, f, 24. — Koch, Dendr 
i. 521. — BaiUon, Hist. PL v. 373, f . 418-420. 
erson, Trees Mass. ed. 
Canada, 1879-80, 53^ 



Bell, Geolog. Rep 
est Trees N. Am 
10th Census U. S. ix. 46. — Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii 



FL Am. Sept. i. 267. — NuttaU, Gen. i. 253. — De Can- 
doUe, Prodr. i. 593. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. t. 170. 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 648. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 407, t. 
Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 162 ; Hist. Veg. iii. 
85. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1281. — Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 
3, 407. 



A small tree, thirty or forty feet in height, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter and 
slender upright branches ; or often much smaller and shrubby in habit. The bark of the trunk varies 
from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness and is reddish brown, marked longitudinally with 



broad pale stripes, and roughened with numerous horizontal oblong excrescences. 



The branchlets are 



pale greenish yellow, very smooth, and at first change little in appearance except to turn bright reddish 
brown during the winter when they are exposed to the action of the sun ; 



but at the end of 



years become striped like the trunk, with broad pale marks. The terminal winter-bud is conspicuously 
stipitate, and when it contains an inflorescence is almost half an inch long and much 



longer than the 



axillary buds ; it is covered by two thick bright red spatulate boat-shaped scales prominently keeled on 
the back and inclosing a second pair of scales densely coated with white tomentum ; the inner scales 
are green and foliaceous, and enlarge with the young shoots until they are an inch and a half or two 
inches long and half an inch wide when they are pubescent and bright yellow or rose-colored; in 
falling they leave two or sometimes three conspicuous narrow scars surrounding the base of the branches. 
The leaves are palmately three-nerved;, three-lobed at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, and 



finely and sharply doubly serrate, the short lobes contracted into tap 



they are five 



g and four or five inches broad, and are borne on stout grooved petioles an inch and 



half to two inches in length, the enlarged bases of each pair 



ly uniting and embracing the branch 



The 



when they first 



appear, are 



thin and memb 



pale 



colored 



d coated with 



This gradually disappears, and 
maturity the leaves are glabrous with the exception of a tuft of ferrugineous hairs in the axils of the 



ferrugineous pubescence, especially on the lower surface and petiole 



principal nerves on the upper surface, membranaceous, pale green above and rather paler belo 



w. 



In 



Ju 



autumn they turn a clear bright yeUow. The flowers unfold towards the end of May or in early 

e when the leaves are nearly fully grown ; they are borne in slender drooping long-stemmed racemes 

from four to six inches in leno^th, the sterile and fertile flowers being usuaUy produced on different 

larter to half an inch 



emes 



on the same plant. The ped 



thread-like, and vary from a q 



86 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE-^. 



in length, 
shorter and 



The sepals are petaloid^ linear-lanceolate or obovate^ a quarter of an inch long and a little 



than the bright canary-yellow petals. There 



seven or 



ght stamens, wh 



shorter than the petals in the sterile flower, and rudimentary in the fertile flower. The pistil is 



purplish brown and puberulous 



Li a 



ityl 



uni 



ted 



ly to the top and spreading recurved 



I 



stigmas ; in the sterfle flower it is reduced to a minute pointed rudiment. The fruit, which is produced 
in long drooping racemes, is glabrous with thin spreading wings three quarters of an inch long, and is 
marked on one side of each nutlet by a small cavity. The seed is a quarter of an inch long with a dark 

ed-brown slightly rugose coat. 

The northern limits of Acer Pennsylvanicum are the shores of Ha-Ha Bay in the valley of the 
Saguenay River ; it ranges westward along the shores of Lake Ontario and the islands of Lake Huron 
to northeastern Minnesota ; it is common in the northern Atlantic states, especially in the interior and 
elevated regions, and extends southward along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.^ 

Acer P ennsylv aniciiTR is a shade-loving plant, and usually grows in forests composed of the Sugar 
Maple, the Beech, the Canoe Birch, the Yellow Birch, and the Hemlock, often forming in some parts of 
northern New England a large proportion of their shrubby undergrowth. In more open situations it 
rises in the northern states to the height of a small tree, but attains its greatest size on the slopes of the 
Big Smoky Mountains in Tennessee and of the Blue Ridge in North and South Carolina. 

The wood of Acer P ennsylv cmiciim is liffht, soft, and close-grained ; it contains numerous thin 



medullary rays, and is light brown with thick lighter colored sapwood consisting of thirty to forty layers 
of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5299, a cubic foot weighing 
33.02 pounds. 

Acer P ennsylv aniciim has few economic uses. In some parts of the country cattle are turned into 
the forest in the early spring to browse on the young and tender shoots filled with saccharine juice, 
which are the favorite food of the moose and the deer. Its principal value, however, consists in its 
beauty. The excellent habit of this small tree, the brilliancy of its young leaves and bud-scales in early 
spring, its handsome graceful flowers, its large bright summer foHage and briUiant autumn colors, and 
the conspicuous markings of its trunk and branches, more striking in winter even than in summer, make 
it a valuable garden plant, beautiful at all seasons of the year. 



Acer P ennsylv anicimn appears to have been first noticed in 1747 by the Swedish 



Kalni 



who sent it to Linnaeus.^ It was introduced in 1755 * into the gardens of Europe, where it is still 
occasionally cultivated. 



1 The type represented in America by Acer Pennsylvamcum ap- states. On his return to Sweden Kalm was appointed professor of 
pears in the flora of Japan in A. rufinerve (Siebold & Zuccarini, botany in the University at Abo, and published (1753-1761) an ae- 
Ahhand. Akad. Miinch. iv. 2, 155 ; FL Jap. ii. 85, t. 148. — Maxi- count of his American travels. A German edition of this interest- 
mowicz, Bull. Acad, Sci. St, Petersbourg^ xxvi. 441 [Mdl. Biol. x. iug book soon appeared, and was followed in 1772 by an English 
596]), which is barely distinguishable from the American plant edition. This is the most important of Kalm's published works, 
except in some comparatively unimportant characters. although he wrote a number of botanical treatises. His memory 

2 Peter Kalm (1715-1779) was a native of Bothnia and a favor- is perpetuated by the name of the beautiful Mountain Laurel, KaU 
ite pupil and disciple of Linn^us, at whose instance he was sent by mia^ bestowed by his master, Linnseus, 

the Swedish government to travel in America, where he landed in ® The earliest figure of Acer Pennsylvanicum was published by 



unng 



middle 



^ Aiton, Hort, Kew. iii. 435. 



( 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXXIV. Acer Pennstlvakichm. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers^ natural size. 






. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

5. An anther, front and back views, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate LXXXV. Acer Pennsylvanicum. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 



{ 

Silva of North America . 



T 



-r ^ r- r^ r 



ZZZIV 




C\ E.Faxon del. 



J\cart fr. sc 



ACER PENN SYLVAN I CUM.L 



A.RiocreiiCC dirt^x . 



Jrnp.K Th/unir. Parts 



Silva. of Morth America 



•Tab. LXX7.V 




C^E.Fqxoti del. 



Picartfr. sc^ 



ACER PENNSYLVANICUM, L. 



A.Biocreuoc^ dzres^. 



& 



Imp.K Tojieur. Pans. 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



ACER MACROPHYLLUM. 



Broad Leaved Maple. 

Flowers in long drooping racemes ; ovary and young fruit hairy. Leaves deeply 



5-lobed, 



macrophylluni 



Poiret, 



Lam. Diet. SuppL v. 669. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 253 ; Sylva^ 

ii. 77, t. 67. — De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 594. — Sprengel, 
SijsU ii. 225. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 112, t. 38. 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 648. 
ii. 165. — Torrev & Grav, FL AT. 



Nat 



Hooker 



& Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey^ 327. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 
1281. — Bentham, PL Hartiveg. 301- — Torrey, Pacific 
R. R. Rev. iv. 74: Bot. 



Rep. vi. 21, 69. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. 28, 

57. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 134, 144. — Bolander, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 78. — Rothrock, S'inithsonian Rep. 
1867, 334. — Koch, Dendr. i. 528. — Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. viii. 379. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 107. 
G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat. n. ser. ix. 330. — Sargent, 



N. Am. \^th Census 



Pax, 



Engler Bot. Jahrh. vii. 190. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 
17. 
Wilkes Explor. Exped. 258. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. A. palmatum, Rafinesque, New FL i. 48 (not Thunberg). 



Mex 



A tree^ eighty to a hundred feet high^ with a tall straight trunk two or three feet in diameter and 



often pendulous b 



forminar a compact handsome head. The bark of the trunk is from 



green or dark red^ and are 



half to three quarters of an inch thick ; it is brown faintly tinged with red or bright reddish brown, 
deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into small square plate-like scales. The branchlets are at 
first smooth and pale green ; during the first winter they become bright 
covered more or less thickly with small longitudinal white spots, and encircled at the base with the 
scars of the accrescent inner bud-scales ; during the second summer they turn gray or grayish brown. 
The obtuse terminal winter-buds are a quarter of an inch long, and are surrounded by two pairs of short 
broad slightly spreading dark red scales rounded on the back, ciliate on the margins, and contracted at 
the apex into short blunt points ; the next pair of scales are also colored, with united edges, and are 
rounded at the apex. The remainder are green and foliaceous, and when fully grown are an inch and 
a half long, and are then colored, puberulous, and tipped with short blunt points. The axillary buds 
are minute, obtuse, and are not provided with the spreading outer scales of the terminal bud. The 
leaves are puberulous when they first unfold, especially on the uj)per surface along the principal veins ; 
they are prominently three to five-nerved, deeply three to five-cleft, with sinuate acuminate divisions 



furnished with two or three 



lobes, and cordate at the base by 



deep 



narrow smus. 



They 



rather coriaceous at maturity, dark green and lustrous on the upper, and pale on the lower surface, eight 
to twelve inches in diameter, and are borne on stout petioles ten or twelve inches long with enlarged 
bases which unite and encircle the stem and are often suppHed on the inside with a small tuft of white 



hairs. In Oregon the leaves turn in the autumn to a bright orange-color before falling 



The stami 



and pistillate flowers are produced together in graceful pendulous slightly puberulous racemes four 



th, which appear in April and May after the leaves are fully 



they are bright 



yellow, fragrant, a quarter of an inch long, and borne on slender pubescent and often branched pedicel 



s 



half to three quarter 



of an inch in length 



The 



pals are petaloid, obovate, obtuse, and a little 



ger and broader than the spatulate petals 



There are nine or ten stamens with orange-colored 



and long slender filaments, hairy at the base, exserted 



the 



eluded in the fertile 



flower. The ovary is coated with pale tomentum, and in the staminate flower is reduced to a minute 



•udiment ; the styles are united at the base only ; and the stigmas are long and exserted. 
vhich is fully grown by the first of July, is then pale green, and ripens late in the autumn 



The fruit 
the nutlets 



90 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



SAPINDACE-i'. 



are covered with long pale hairSj and the wings are an inch and a half in lengthy half an inch in breadth, 
slightly divergent, and glabrous with the exception of a few hairs on the thickened edge. The seed is 
a quarter of an inch long, with a dark claret-colored rugose pitted coat and foliaceous cotyledons. 

Acer macroj^hyUmn inhabits the coast of Alaska south of latiude 55*" north j it occurs on the 
islands and coast of British Columbia, is widely and generally distributed through Washington and 
Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, and spreads south along the coast ranges and the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada of California to the San Bernardino Mountains and to Hot Spring valley, San 
Diego County, rarely extending more than four thousand feet above the level of the sea. It grows 
along the banks of streams or on rich bottom-lands, or sometimes in California on the rocky slopes 
of mountain valleys, reacliing its greatest size in the humid climate and rich soil of the bottom-lands 
of southern Oregon, where, with the Laurel and the Alder, it abounds in extensive and beautiful forests, 
sending up tall stout stems clothed with moss. In California it is usually much smaller, especially 
in the coast ranges, often occurring as an isolated specimen, when it forms a low wide-branched round- 
headed tree. 



The wood of Acer macrophyll 



light, soft, and 



very strong 



close-grained, and can 



be easily worked and given a beautiful poHsh 



It 



IS 



rich b 



tinged with red, with thick light 



ed or often nearly white sapwood 



posed of sixty or eighty layers of annual growth, and many 



thin meduUary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4909, a cubic foot weighing 
30.59 pounds. The grain is often beautifully curled and contorted, and sometimes forms concentric 
rings similar to those found in the wood of the Sugar Maple. It is the most valuable wood produced 
by any deciduous tree of the forests of western North America, and in Washington and Oregon is 
largely used for the interior finish of buildings, for furniture, and for axe and broom handles.^ 



A 



macrophyll 



discovered on the northwest coast late in the last century by Archibald 



Menzies,^ and a few years later was observed near the cascades of the Columbia River by the members of 



the first transcontinental exploring exped 



der Lewis and Clark. It is said to have been intro- 



duced into England in 1812.^ 



Acer inacroj^hylhnu flourishes in the temperate parts of Europe, where 
it has long flowered and ripened its fruit, and where it forms a low round-headed tree remarkable for 
the size and beauty of its leaves, which are larger than those of any other Maple. In eastern America, 
where it is very rarely cultivated, it is hardy as far north as eastern Pennsylvania at least, and may be 
expected in sheltered situations to withstand the climate of southern New England. 



^ Sugar of good quality has, according to Greene (FL Francis, i. northwest coast of America, returning to England in 1789. Men- 
76), been made in the mountains of California from Acer macrO' zies was appointed the following year naturalist to Captain Vancou- 



phyllum; and the young twigs when cut crude a milky juice. 



ver, whom he accompanied on his celebrated voyage of discovery, 



2 Archibald Menzies (1754^1842) was born at Weem in the during which he visited King George's Sound on the coast of New 

county of Perth, Scotland, and was early attached to the Botanic Holland, New Zealand, the Sandwich Islands, and the northwest 

Garden of Edinburgh, of which his brother William was afterwards coast of America, returning to England in 1795. Subsequently he 

curator. Through the assistance of Dr. Hope, the professor of hot- served in the 



served in the West Indies as a naval surgeon, but early in the cen- 

any in the University, he was enabled to obtain the degree of M. D. tury quitted the sea and established himself as a physician in Lon- 

He then settled at Caernarvon, but soon entered the navy as assist- don. Menzies made large collections of natural objects, especially 

ant-surgeon on board the Nonsuch, and was present at the victory in botany, and first introduced into Europe the Chilian Araucaria. 

obtained by Rodney over the Comte de Grasse in April, 1782. In Menziesia, a genus of delicate shrubs belonging to the Heath family 

1786 he joined as surgeon a vessel sent by a commercial firm on a and represented by several species of North America 

voyage of discovery to the northwest coast of America. During this and northeastern Asia, commemorates his name. 



and 



voyage Menzies visited Staten Island, where he appears to have 
remained for some time, the Sandwich Islands and China, and the 



3 Loudon, Arb. Brit i. 408, f. 117, 118, t. 28. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate LXXXVL Acer macrophyllum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged, 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 



Plate LXXXVIL Acer macrophyllum 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2- Vertical section of a samara, natural size. 

3. An embryo, much magnified. 

4. An embryo displayed, much magnified. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva, of Nortli America 



Tab. LXXXVI 





5 



C E FcGcort deL 



ACER MACROPHYLLUM.PursK 



Picart/r. so. 



A. B2A?creuJ> 




Imp R-ToTieijr. Paris 



Silva of North America 



Ta"b , LXXXVIl 




/" E.F(x.von d^l. 



J-'icart //, sCi 



ACER MACROPHYLLUM , Parsh 



A . Rco creitv direcr 



Imp N. TeUiiUir Paris. 



8AP1NDACE-S:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



ACER CIRCINATUM. 



Vine Maple. 

Flowers in terminal umbel-like corymbs ; petals involute, much shorter than the 



pals 



Leaves palmately 7 to 9-lobed 



circinatum 



Poiret, 



Lam. Diet, Suppl. v. 669. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 253 ; Joicr. 
Phil, Acad, vii. 17 (excl. syn.) ; Sylva, ii. 80, t, 67. 
De Candolle^ Prodr. i. 595. — Sprengel, Syst, ii. 225. 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 651. — Loudon, Arb, Brit. i. 422, f 



112. 



Spach, A}m. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 169 ; Hist, Veg. 
iii. 97. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N, Am. i. 247. — Hooker, 
Fl. Bor,-Am. i. 112, t. 39. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1282. 



1851, 791, f. 210. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. 21, 



69. 



Cooper, Pacific R, R. Rep. xii. 28, 57. 



Lyall, 



Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 134. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 

Koch, Dendr. i. 523. — Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Ex- 



379. 

plor. Exped. 258. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 107. — 
G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat. n. ser. ix. 330. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 47. — Pax, 
Engler Bot. Jahrh. vii. 203. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 25. 



Lindley, Paxton Fl, Gard. ii. 156, f. 210 ; Gard. Chron. A. virgatiom, Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 48. 



A low tree^ rarely thirty or forty feet in height, often vine-like or prostrate, with a trunk ten or 
twelve inches in diameter covered with thin smooth bright red-brown bark marked by numerous shallow 
fissures ; or often a low wide-spreading shrub. The branchlets are glabrous, sometimes pale green and 
sometimes reddish brown, frequently covered late in the season and during their first winter with a 
glaucous bloom, and occasionally marked with small lenticular spots. The winter-buds are an eighth of 
an inch long, rather obtuse, and furnished at the base with a short brown papery subpetiolar scale with 
ciliate margins. The outer bud-scales are rounded on the back, rather thin, and bright red ; they 
inclose a pair of thick scales coated with dense white tomentum which protect the inner series ; these are 



green 



the bud and lengthen with 



the 



o-rowms!' 



& 



& 



shoot 



til 



maturity they are tw 



long, a 



into a long narrow claw, 
surface. The leaves are 



quarter of an inch broad, obovate-spatulate, rounded at the apex, contracted 
bright rose-colored, and more or less hairy-pubescent, especially on the outer 
almost round in outline, palmately seven to nine-lobed sometimes nearly to the middle, with acute lobes 
sharply and irregularly doubly-serrate ; they are conspicuously palmately-nerved with prominent veinlets, 
and are cordate at the base by a broad shallow sinus, or sometimes almost truncate, two to seven inches 
across, and borne on stout grooved petioles one or two inches long which clasp the stem by their large 
bases ; they are tinged with rose-color when they unfold and are then somewhat puberulous, principally 
on the lower surface and the petioles, but at maturity are glabrous with the exception of a tuft of 
pale hairs in the axils of the large veins on the upper surface ; they are thin and membranaceous, dark 
green above and paler below, and in the autumn turn orange and scarlet. The flowers appear when 
the leaves are about half grown in loose ten to twenty-flowered umbel-like corymbs drooping on long 
stems from the ends of slender two-leaved branchlets, the staminate and pistillate flowers being produced 



together. 



The 



ipals are oblong or obovate, acute, villous, purple or red, and much 



5 



than the 



greenish white broadly cordate acute petals which are folded together at the apex. There are from 



& 



ht stamens with slender filaments villous at the base, exserted in the sterile flower, and in the fertile 



flower shorter than the petals. The ovary is glab 



li 



preading lobes, and is surmounted by 



tyle divided near the base into long exserted stio'mas : in the staminate flower it is reduced to a small 



& 



point surrounded by a tuft of pale hairs. The fruit is two or three inches long with thin wings which 
spread almost at right angles to the peduncle and, like the nutlets, are red or rose-colored in early sum- 



mer 



the fruit is fully grown, althou 



does not ripen until late in the 



mn. The seed 



with a pale chestnut-brown testa and foHaceous cotyled 



9i 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACi:^. 



Acer circinatimi inhabits the coast of British Columbia, and extends southward through Washing 



d Oregon to Mendocino County in Cahfornia 



In Washinsrton and Oregon it is one of the most 



& 



common of the deciduous-leaved trees, Hning the banks of streams up to an elevation of four thousand 



feet above the sea-level, and reaching its greatest size on the low alluvial soil of bottom-lands 
situations the vine-like stems SDrinsr 



In such 



The 



stems spring four or five together from the ground, spreading in wide curves 
and sending out long slender branches which root when they touch the ground and form impenetrable 
thickets of contorted and interlaced trunks, often many acres in extent and so dense that no other plant 
can grow beneath their shade. In California the Vine Maple is smaller and much less common^ growing 
along streams in the coniferous forests. 

The wood of Acer circlnatum is hard, heavy, close-grained, and not very strong; it is light brown 
or sometimes nearly white, with thick lighter colored sapwood and many thin medullary rays, 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6660, a cubic foot weighing 41.51 jDounds. It is used 
for fuel, for the handles of axes and other tools, and by the Indians of the northwest coast for the bows 
of their fishing nets. 

Acer clrcuiatiim was discovered in 1806 near the cascades of the Columbia River by the members 
of the transcontinental exploring expedition under command of Lewis and Clark. It was introduced 
into cultivation in 1827 through the Horticultural Society of London, which received seeds from David 
Douglas.^ In New England it has proved the hardiest of the trees from the Pacific coast, forming a low 
round-headed tree with a short stout trunk 



and Ions: branches that 



sweep the ground, flowering and 
ripening its seed every year, and here unsurpassed in beauty of form^ foliage, and flower by any of the 
smaller trees of the genus which are known in cultivation. 



David Douglas (1798-1834) ; a Scotch gardener sent by the exploration as far north as the Fraser River, in which he was 



:xpl 



wrecked, losing his collections and instruments and barely escaping 



west Territory, is, from his courage, energy, and success in the pres- with his life. But the beauties of tropical vegetation lured hina 
ence of great difficulties and dangers, and from his untimely and from the awful solitude of the sombre Fir forests of the northwest, 
horrible death, a conspicuous figure in the annals of American and in October, 1833, he sailed again for the Sandwich Islands. 



botanical exploration. 



Wil- Here he passed the winter, and on the 12th of July, 1834, while 



liam Hooker and had made a short botanical journey in eastern engaged in exploring the high peaks of the islands, he fell into a 
America in 1823, was sent in 1824 by the way of Cape Horn to the pit in which a wild bull had been captured, and several hours later 
Columbia River, where he arrived in April, 1825. He spent two was found dead and terribly mangled. 



years in Oregon, discovering some important trees, including Abies 



Douglas is said to have introduced two hundred and seventeen 



nobilisj Abies amabiliSy and Pinus Lambertiana, the largest of its species of plants into English gardens, the list including many valu- 

race. In March, 1827, Douglas started from Fort Vancouver on able and beautiful trees like the Redwood, the Sugar Pine, and the 

the Columbia, crossed the continent by the Hudson's Bay posts, and Douglas Fir. No other collector has ever reaped such a harvest in 

embarked for England, which he reached in October of the same America, or associated his name with so many useful plants. By 

year. Two years later he left England for the last time and an unfortunate hazard of fate the noble Douglas Fir, the most im- 

reached the mouth of the Columbia on the 3d of June, 1830, re- portant timber-tree introduced by Douglas, and one of the most 

maining in Oregon until the autumn, when he sailed for Monterey. valuable trees in the world, does not, as might well have been the 

Here he remained until the next summer, discovering no less than case, perpetuate his name in the language of science, and it is it 

a hundred and fifty species of undescribed plants, and then sailed humble primrose-like alpine herb which commemorates this ex- 

for the Sandwich Islands. In the autumn of this year he returned plorer of forests and discoverer of mighty trees, 
to the Columbia River, and in the following summer extended his 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LXXXVIII. Acer circinatum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged, 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A petal, enlarged. 



6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a samara, natural size- 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo displayed and much magnified 

11. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America 



T 



IdlJ 



L XXXVI 1 1 




C.'E.FiiJi'n i/<'/. 



Pu\irt 'r .'V 



ACER CrRCINATUM,Pursh 



A 7?U'rrt^/i.r direx 




^in.'i/f FarL) 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



ACER GLABRUM. 



Dwarf Maple. 



Flowers in terminal racemose 
Leaves 3-lobed or 3-parted. 



ymbs ; petals linear, as long as the 



pals 



Acer glabrum, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 172; Bot. 
Wilkes Explor. Exped. 259. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 650. 



gler Bot. Jahrh. vii. 218. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 30 
Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 76. 



Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 247, 684. — Walpersj Rep. A. Douglasii, Hooker, London Jottr. Bat. vi. 77, t. 6, 




i. 409. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 86. — Newberry, Pacific B. 
R. Rep. vi. 69. — Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 258 ; 
Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. 51, 57 ; Am. Nat. iii. 406. 
Gray, Am. Jour, Sci ser. 2, xxxiv. 259 ; Proc. Phil. 
Acad. 1863, 59. —Watson, K^ 
& Watson. Bat. Cal. i. 107. 



Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 219. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 30. 



tripartitum 



Torrey & Gray, FL N, Am. i. 



247. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1281. — Walpers, Rep. i. 409. 



Brewer 



W. 



vi. 83. 



N. 



ix. 47. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 49. — Pax, Eiv- 



NuttaU, Sylva, ii. 85, t. 71. — Gray, PL Fendler. 28 
{Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. iv.) ; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 
73. — Newberry, Pacifi/^ R. R. Rep. vi. 69. 
A. glabrum, var. tripartitum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrh. 
vii. 218. 



A low bushy tree, rarely twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a short trunk six or eight inches 
in diameter covered with smooth reddish brown bark, and slender upright branches j or more often a 
shrub four or five feet high. The branchlets are at first pale grayish brown, often slightly many-angled 
on vigorous shoots, and quite glabrous ; they become bright red-brown during the first winter, and are 
then conspicuously marked at the base by the scars left by the falling of the accrescent inner bud-scales. 
The winter-buds are acute, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with vivid red or occasionally yellow 
scales ; the second pair of scales are bright rosy red, and more or less hairy-pubescent, especially within, 
whUe those of the inner ranks are pale brown tinged with pink, and at maturity are sometimes an inch 
and a half long, narrowly spatulate, very thin, and tomentose on the inner surface. The leaves are 
glabrous, membranaceous, rounded in outline, cordate-truncate or wedge-shaped at the base, and three 
to five-lobed, or often three-parted or three-f oliolate, with acute or obtuse, doubly serrate lobes j they 
are from an inch to five inches across, rather 
upper, and paler on 



conspicuously veined, dark green and lustrous on the 



the lower surface, and 



borne on stout grooved petioles which vary 



g 



from one to six inches, and are often bright red.^ The staminate and pistillate flowers are usually pro- 
duced separately on different plants in loose few-flowered glabrous racemose corymbs borne on slender 
drooping peduncles from the ends of two-leaved branchlets. The sepals are oblong, obtuse, petaloid, 
and as long as the greenish yellow petals. There are seven or eight stamens with glabrous unequal 
filaments, which in the sterile flower are shorter than the petals, and much shorter or rudimentary in 



the fertile flowe 



The 



y, which is rudimentary or wanting in the 



flower, is glabrous, with 



short obtuse lobes, and is surmounted with a style that divides at the base into two spreading stigmatic 
lobes the length of the petals. The fruit is glabrous, and an inch or rather less in length, with broad 



rly erect or shghtly spreading wings which 



often 



d during the summer. The seeds 



are ovate, with a bright chestnut-brown testa and thin foliaceous cotyledons. 

Acer glabrum is widely distributed from British Columbia over the mountain ranges of western 
America, extending south in Cahfornia along the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the Yosemite valley, and 
reaching the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and the mountains of eastern New 
Mexico and western Arizona. It is found on the borders of mountain streams, usually at an elevation 



1 It is not unusual to find lobed and trifoliate leaves on the same branches. 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACEiE. 



of five or six thousand feet, although at the north it sometimes descends to within a few hundred feet 



of the sea-level. 



It 



ely more than a low shrub, and only in some of the elevated canons of New 



Mexico, Arizona, and Idaho assumes the habit of a tree. 

The wood of Acer glabritm is heavy, hard, and close-grained ; it is light brown or often nearly 
white, with thick lighter colored sapwood and numerous medullary rays. 



The specific gravity of the 



absolutely dry wood is 0.6028, a cubic foot weighing 37.57 pounds. 



Acer glabritm was discovered in the valley of the Bear River by Dr. James,^ the naturalist of the 



United States Exploring 
Major Stephen H. Long. 



Expedition which reached the Rocky Mountains in 1820 under command of 
It was introduced several years ago into the Botanic Garden of Harvard 



College, where, as in the Arnold Arboretum, it is perfectly hardy, forming a small shrub which flowers 
and fruits every year. 



^ Edwin James (1797-1861), best known as the botanist and his- James remained in the army until 1830, and then returned to 

torian of Long's Rocky Mountain Expedition, was born in Wey- Albany where he engaged in editorial duties, and in 1836 removed 

bridge, Vermont, and educated at the Middlebury Academy in that to Burlington, Iowa, then on the very edge of the wilderness, 

state, afterwards studying medicine in Albany, New York, where, Extreme views on moral and religious subjects separated him from 

under the inspiration of Eaton, he became interested in natural sci- the world, and he passed the last years of his life, brought to an 

ence. In 1820 Dr. James, having been appointed a surgeon in the end by an unfortunate accident, as a recluse. Jamesia, a delicate 

United States army, was attached as naturalist to the party sent to shrub of the Saxifrage family, represented by the single species 

explore the then little known central part of the continent, and discovered by Dr. James in the Rocky Mountains, perpetuates his 

made many interesting discoveries on the alpine heights of the cen- name. (See Am. Jour. Sd. ser. 2, xxxiii. 428.) 
tral Rocky Mountains, wliich he was the first botanist to reach. Dr. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate LXXXIX. Acer glabrum, 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged, 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. 6. Fruiting branches, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much magnified. 

10. A three-parted leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab. LXXXIX 




C.E. F^xxoTL^ del. 



Fhzart fr sc. 



ACER GLABRUM.Torr. 



A.RiocreJjx^ air&r 






/TnpRTamur. Fans. 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



9 



I 



ACER BARBATUM. 



Sugar Maple. Rock Maple. 

Flowers in nearly sessile umbel-like corymbs, apetalous. Leaves 3 to 5-lobed 



barbatum, Michaux 



WiUde 



now, Spec. iv. 989. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 575 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 253. 
Elliott, Sk. L 451. — De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 595. 



Sprengel, Syst. ii. 224. —Don, Gen. Syst. i. 649. 
Hist. Veg. iii. 118 ; Ann. ScL Nat ser. 2, ii. 178. 



Spach, 
Tor- 



rey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 249, 684. — Hooker, FL Bor.- 
Am. i. 113 (in part). — Sargent, Garden and Forest y ii. 

364. 
A. saccharinmn, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 26, t. 11, f. 
26 (not Linnaeus). — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 379. — Castiglioni, 
Viag. negli Stati TJniti^ ii. 171. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baum. 
i. 12, t. 8. — Walter, Fl. Car. 251. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. 
iii. 434. — Ehrhart, Beitr. iv. 24. — Persoon, Syn. i. 417. 
Nouveau Duhamel^ iv. 29, t. 8. — Willdenow, Spee. iv 
985 ; Enum. 1044. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 392. 
Trattinick, Arehiv. i. t. 3. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. 
ii. 218, t. 15. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 247. — Pursh, Fl 
Am. Sept. i. 266. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 253 ; Sylva, ii. 88. 



Hayne, Dendr, Fl. 214. — Elliott, Sk. i. 450. —De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. i. 595. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 135. 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 225. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am,. i. 113. 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 650. — Spach, Hist. Veg. iii. 99 ; Ann. 
ScL Nat. ser. 2, ii. 170. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 411, 



f . 122, t. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 248. 



Die. 



trich, Syn. ii. 1282. — Walpers, Rep. i. 409. — Nees, PI 



Med. 5, — Emerson, Trees Mass, ed. 2, ii. 558, t. 



Gray, 



Gen. EL ii, 200, t. 174. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 
45. — Chapman, FL 80, — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. 
Car. 1860, iii. 51. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. duiada, 1S79- 
80, 51^ — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas. 1882, 62. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Census U. S. ix. 48. 
Pax, Engler Bat. Jahrh. vii. 241. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 117. — Wesmael, Gen. Aeer, 44. 



A. saccharophorum, Koch, Hort. Dendr. 80. 



Tun 



Cat. PL N. 



(not Mar- 



shall) . 



Hitchcock^ Trans. St. Louts Acad. v. 490. 



A noble tree^ a hundred or a hundred and twenty feet high^ with a trunk three or four feet in 
diameter^ rising sometimes in the forest to the height of sixty or seventy feet without a branch, or 
in open situations developing, eight or ten feet from the ground, stout upright branches which form, 
while the tree is young, a narrow egg-shaped head, and begin to spread when it is fifty or sixty years 
old, gradually making a broad round-topped dome often seventy or eighty feet across. The bark of 
large trunks is from a half to three quarters of an inch thick, and is broken into deep longitudinal fur- 
rows, the light gray-brown surface separating into smaU scales- The bark of the young trunks and of 
the principal branches is pale and smooth or slightly fissured. The branchlets are green when they 
appear, but by the end of the first season become orange-brown ; they are then lustrous and marked 
with numerous large pale oblong lenticels, and are encircled at the base with the scars left by the falling 
of the accrescent inner bud-scales ; in the second winter they are pale brown tinged with red, and are 
still faintly marked with lenticels. The winter-buds are acute, a quarter of an inch in length, and 
covered with about sixteen purple shghtly puberulous pointed scales imbricated in pairs, those of the 
outer pairs being much reduced in size. The inner scales lengthen with the growing shoot until at 
maturity they are an inch and a half long, narrowly obovate, contracted at the apex into a short blunt 
point, thin, coated with pubescence, and bright canary-yellow. The leaves are three to five-lobed with 
rounded sinuses and usually acute sparingly sinuate-toothed lobes, and with three to five conspicuous 
pale primary veins and reticulated veinlets ; they are heart-shaped by a broad or narrow sinus, or trun- 
cate or sometimes wedge-shaped at the base, densely coated when they unfold with pale tomentum, 
glabrous or more or less pubescent on the under surface at maturity, four or five inches across, often 



rather coriaceous, dark green and opaque on the upper, and generally paler on the lower surface. 



They 



98 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^. 



brilliant shades of deep red^ scarlet^ and orange^ or of clear yellow 



The flowers 



produced in many-flowered nearly sessile umbel-like corymbs from terminal leafy buds and from lateral 
leafless buds ; the sterile and fertile flowers are in separate clusters on the same or on different trees^ the 



fertile flower 



d the sterile usually 



They appear with the leaves^ and are g 



The 



yellow and borne on slender thread-like hairy pedicels two and a half to three inches in length, 
calyx is broadly campanulate^ five-lobed by the partial union of the obtuse sepals^ and hairy on the oute] 
surface. There are seven or eight stamens with slender glabrous filaments which^ in the sterile flower 



calyx^ and in the fe 



flower much shorter. The ovary^ which in the 



flower is reduced to a minute point, is obtusely lobed, pale green, and covered with long scattered hairs 
The styles are united at the base only, and have two long exserted stigmatic lobes. The fruit, whicl 



ripens in the autumn, is glab 



the wings vary from half an 



ch to rather more than an inch in 



& 



th, and are broad, thin, and usually divergent. The seed is a quarter of an inch long, with 



2 



smooth bright red-brown coat and foliaceous thick cotyledons 

Acer harhatum is one of the most widely and generaUy distributed trees of eastern North America. 
The northern limit of its range on the Atlantic coast is southern Newfoundland ; it extends southward 



through Canada and the north 
western Florida, and westward 



and 



along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia and 
the vaUeys of the St. Lawrence and the Saguenay, by the shores 



of Lake St. John and the northern borders of the Great Lakes 



Lake of the Woods, and in the 



United States 



Minnesota 



Nebraska 



Kansas, and eastern Texas. It is one of the 



common 



aU these regions, especially at the north and on the slopes of the 



thern mountain 



growing on rich uplands and on intervale lands mingled with Ashes and Hickories, the White Oak 



Wild Cherry, the Black Birch, the Yellow Birch, and the Hemlock 
principal part of extensive forests." 

The wood of Acer harhatum is heavy, hard, strong, close 



often at the north forming the 



6 



ed, and 



surface 



ble of receiving a good poHsh 



ght b 



ged 



itl 



witn 



composed of thirty or forty layers of annual growth, and contains numerous thin medullary rays 



Lgh, with a fine satiny 
ed, with thin sapwood 

The 



specific 



,vity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6912, a cubic foot weighing 43.08 pounds. The wood 



of the Sugar Maple is more valuable and more generaUy used than that of any other Ame 



Mapl 



It possesses a high fuel value, biu-ning with a clear steady flame 



largely used for the interior finish 



of buildings, especially for floors, in the manufacture of furniture and in turnery, in shipbuilding for 
keels, keelsons, shoes, etc., for the handles of tools, and for saddle-trees ; and in the United States shoe- 
lasts and pegs are made almost exclusively from this wood. Accidental forms in which the grain is 
beautifully curled and contorted, known as ^^ curled maple" and ^^ bird's eye maple," are common and 
highly prized in cabinet-making. The ashes of the wood are rich in alkali and yield large quantities of 
potash ; and maple-sugar is principally made from the sap of this species.'^ 



Much of the splendor of the northern forest in early autumn 



abundance 



^ It is not unusual to find the undergrowth in some of the forest 
regions near the northern border of the United States composed 
passed in brilliancy of color by any upland tree. Individuals vary almost entirely of young Sugar Maples ; and the multiplication of 
in the time and in the manner of assuming their autumn colors, but this tree is insured and its value in forest composition increased by 



such peculiarities appear fixed and are certainly renewed year after the remarkable ability it \ 
year. All the leaves on a single branch sometimes turn bright dense shade of other trees. 



hile young 



scarlet early in October, while the rest of the foliage remains green. 



^ Sugar-making begins with the upward flow of the crude sap, 



On some trees a part of the leaves turn scarlet and a part orange or between the end of February and the beginning of April, as the 
or yellow ; on others all the leaves assume shades of bright clear season is early or late, and continues during three or four weeks, 
yellow, and on others a few leaves become red or yellow on differ- Trees twenty or thirty years old are considered the most produc- 
ent parts long before the remainder lose their dark green summer tive and yield the purest sugar, although sap can be drawn from 

the tree year after year without seriously injuring it. Trees exist 



color. 



^ The fruit of Acer barbatum, although it usually appears to be in northern New York which are known to have yielded sugar 

fully developed, is often abortive ; and it is rare to find perfect every year for a century, and which, while much swollen about the 

seed in each of the two carpels, or a tree which produces seed every base from repeated wounds, are still vigorous and fruitful. A tree 

year. of the average size will give in an ordinary season twenty or thirty 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IEBICA. 



99 



Acer harhatura, like many species of the genus, varies greatly in the size and shape of its leaves 
The most generally distributed of the varieties, and one of the most marked in its extreme forms, ii 
the Black Maple, first noticed by the younger Michaux on the banks of the Genesee River in New York 



where it still forms a forest of considerable 



The leaves of 



Black Maple 



;ually three- 



gallons of sap, usually containing from two to three per cent. About 40,000,000 pounds of maple-sugar and 2,000,000 gallons 

of sugar, or from two and two thirds to three and a half ounces of maple-syrup are made annually in the forests of the United 

per gallon. Individual trees, however, vary much in productive- States, — Vermont, New York, and Michigan producing the largest 

ness ; and those standing by themselves on high ground, with a quantities. The yield will probably decrease rather than increase 

large development of roots and branches, generally yield more sap in volume as the Maple forests are destroyed and the price of other 

than trees crowded together in the forest. The highest percentage sugars is lowered. Land covered with sugar orchards is still con- 

of sugar recorded is 10.20 for a tree in Vermont in a small flow late sidered, however, the most productive part of many farms in some 

in the season, 5.01 per cent, being the average of this tree during parts of the northern states, and orchards are occasionally planted, 



(Wiley 



although a large part of the maple-sugar produced in the United 



The primitive method of obtaining the sap consisted in cutting States is obtained from the forests or from natural groves left 
with an axe into the side of the tree, two or three feet from the standing when the forests were cut away. 



ground, a notch slanting a little upward in order that the sap might 



The testimony of early travelers iix North America shows that 



drop from the lower end into a concave wooden spout about a foot the nutritious and sugary properties of the sap of the Maple and of 

long which was inserted in the bark below the notch, and from other trees were well known to and made use of by the Indians be- 

which it then flowed into a cedar pail placed upon the ground or fore the earliest settlement of Europeans in New France or in New 

hung upon a nail driven in the trunk. Such a notch, although it England, and that the i^aaking of maple-sugar was an established 

yields a rapid flow owing to the large surface exposed, injures the industry of the Indians during the last half of the seventeenth cen- 

tree, and is now seldom used ; instead, one or generally two holes tury, and before the discovery of the upper Mississippi River by 

are bored about three quarters of an inch into the trunk on the Europeans (1673). Bossu, a French officer of much intelligence 

south side of the tree with a three-quarter-inch auger, and into who traveled in America between 1756 and 1771, states explicitly 

these holes are driven short spouts made by hollowing out pieces that the French learned the method of sugar-making from the In- 

of Elder or Sumach wood. The sap is collected from the pails dians (Nouveaux Voyages dans VAmvrique Septentrionale^ 237); and 

every day and carried to the sugar camp established at a central the testimony of earlier travelers points to the same conclusion (see 

and convenient spot ; here it is allowed to evaporate for a short Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle France^ ed. 1618, lib. vi. chap, 

time, when it is boiled to the consistency of honey in kettles or in xvi. 865. — Sagard, Grande Voyage, 102. — Pierre Boucher, Histoire 

shallow copper or iron pans made for the purpose. It is then Veritable et Naturelle de la Nouvelle France, 44. — Nicolas Denys, 

dipped from the pans, passed through a woolen strainer, and al- Histoire Naturelle de VAmerique Septentrionale^ ii. 316. — Leclercq, 

lowed to stand for eight or ten hours to deposit suspended impuri- Etablis semen t de la Foy, i. 252 ; Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie, 

— Joutel, Journal Hisiorique, 352. — Rasles, Lettres 
of the product is sold without further concentration in the form of Edijiantes, iv. 83. — Lafitau, Moeurs des Sauvages Americains com- 
maple-syrup. When the syrup is to be converted into sugar it is pare'es aux moeurs des premiers temps, \. 188. — James Smith's Cop- 
carefully poured into a kettle for the final process called " sugaring tivity, 36, 68. — See, also, a paper on the evidence relating to 
off," and boiled over a brisk fire. To prevent the syrup from boil- sugar-making by the Indians, by H. W. Henshaw in the American 

■ 

ing over, a few drops of cream are occasionally added, or a piece of Anthroj^ologist, iii. 341, and a paper by A. F. Chamberlain in the 

fat pork is hung on a string a few inches below the rim of the pot, same magazine, iv. 39, on The IMople amongst the Algonkian Tribes ; 

and cold sap, milk, or the white of eggs, is added from time to and papers by William D. Ely in Garden and Forest, iv. 171, 183, 



ties. This part of the process is called "syruping off," and much chap. vi. 124. 

i\ , -m ^fl> in"ti i^ji ii* "ii^ t* T^ 1 ' y^ t * 



time to clarify it. It is kept simmering over a slow fire until a 207). 



skimmed 



^ Acer barbatum, var. nigrum, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii 



boiled until it reaches the proper consistency. This is determined 364 ; iv. 148, f. 27. 



by stirring a small quantity in a saucer, when, if it grains, the syrup 



A. nigrum^ Michaux f. Hist. Arb, Am, ii. 238, t. 16. — Pursh, Fl. 



has been sufficiently boiled ; or by spreading it on the snow, when Am. Sept. i. 266. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. v. 669. — Nuttall, Gen. 
it should candy or become like glass as it grows cold. If the test i. 253. — Elliott, Sk. i. 450. — De Candolle, Prodr. i. ;j05. 
is satisfactory, the syrup is poured into moulds and allowed to cool, Sprengel, Sysi. ii. 225. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 650. — Spach, Hist. 



when it is ready for market. 



Veg. iii. 104; Ann. Sri Nat. ser. 2, ii. 170. — Dietrich, Syn, ii. 



Maple-sugar has the appearance of raw cane-sugar, except that 1282. — Koch, Dendr. i. 532. — Bailey, Bot. Gazette, xiii. 213. 



refin 



A. saccharlnum, var. nigrum, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 



flavor for which it is valued. It often contains a considerable per- 248. — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 136. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 411. — 

centao-e of melite of lime, tt substance that feels like sand in the Bell, Geolog. Rep. Canada, 1879-80, 54". — Sargent, i^ores^ Trees 

mouth, and seems to increase in quantity in proportion to the length N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 49. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 

of time the tree has been tapped. (See Lahontan, 



Nouveaux 



Man. ed. 6, 117. 



ages dans VAmerique Septentrionale, ii. 59. — Castiglioni, Viag.negli A. Rugelii, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. yu. 243. 

Stati Uniti, ii. 180 ; also an account of the Sugar-tree in a letter Acer saccharinum, var. pseudo-platanoideSj Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb 

addressed to Thomas Jefferson by Dr. Benjamin Rush of Phila- vii. 242. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 45. 



delphia, published in the third volume of the Transactions of the 



Acer saccharinum, var. glaucum. Pax, Engler Bot, Jahrb. vii 



American Philosophical Society, 64. — rruibourt, Hist. Drag. ed. 7, 242. 



Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 45. 



iii, 606. — J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, ii. 302.) 



A. saccharinum, var. Rugelii, Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 45. 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^. 



lobed with entire 

sides of the deep 
the Sugar Maple 



along 



bluntly toothed lobes^ and often appear almost peltate by the overlapping of the 

sinus. They are frequently thinner than those of the common form of 



basal 
ually 



on the lower surface 



is often villous-pube 



especially 



the principal veins and on the petioles^ and sometimes are six or eight inches across^ although 



varying considerably 



size. 



1 



The Black Sugar Mapl 



ally found on lower ground than the 



common form^ occupying^ as a rule, the banks of streams or rich 



been 



oticed on the shores of Lake Champla 



bottom lands. It has 
west as southwestern 



Arkansas and eastern Kansas, ranofinsr southward 



t»""t) 



Vermont, and spreads as far west as soi 

est of the Alleghany Mountains to northern Ala 



bama and to the valley of the Chickasaw River in Mississippi 



2 



A 



harhatiim 



the Gulf 



This is a small tree inhabiting upland woods, and 



states passes into a form ^ having small three to five-lobed leaves an 
inch and a half to three inches across, with obtuse entire or obscurely toothed lobes, truncate or slightly 
cordate at the base, and pale and sometimes thickly covered by hairy pubescence on the lower surface, 
and having flowers and fruit barely half the size of those of the ordinary form, the wings of the samaras 
rising nearly at right angles from the nutlets, 
western Texas, where it is reduced to a low shrub, found only along the banks of streams. It is 
nowhere common, although distributed from western Florida to the valley of the upper Cibolo River in 

Texas, and the Sierra Madre of Nuevo Leon. 

Acer harhatiiin reappears in the mountainous regions of the interior of the continent in another 
form ^ very similar to the last. The leaves of the mountain Sugar Maple are three-lobed and slightly 
cordate or truncate at the base, with broad shaUow sinuses and acute or obtuse lobes which have nearly 
entire or sinuous margins, or sometimes are somewhat three-lobed ; they are two or three inches across, 
rather pale on the upper, much paler and at maturity slightly pubescent on the lower surface along the 
principal veins, and are borne on slender petioles an inch or an inch and a half long ; the flowers and 
fruit ^ are smaller than those of the eastern tree. This is a small tree, rising occasionally to the height 
of thirty or forty feet, with a trunk eight or ten inches in diameter covered with thin dark brown bark, 
the surface of which separates into plate-like scales. It grows at an elevation of from five to six thou- 
sand feet above the sea-level, and is rare and local, forming occasionally with the Aspen small groves 
on the banks of streams. It occurs on the headwaters of the Columbia River in northern Montana, 



1 Professor L. H. Bailey calls attention to the fact that the sides shown by the Census tests is 0.6915, a cubic foot weighing 43.09 
of the large leaves of the Black Maple as it grows in some parts of pounds. 



central Michigan droop and hang down like pieces of old limp 



8 Acer barbatum, var. Floridanum, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ 



thick cloth. This peculiarity is particularly noticeable when the iv. 148. 
leaves are fully grown, and gives the tree a heavier and duller as- A. saccharin 

pect than that of the common Sugar Maple, making it possible to Gen, Acer, 45. 



Floridanum 



Wesmael 



distinguish 



A. Mexicanimy Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, v. 176. — Hemsley, BoL 



xni 



More remarkable is the occasional BioL Am. Cent, i. 214, 



occurrence on some Indiana and Michigan trees of large foliaceous 

and caducous puberulous or small rudimentary stipules, organs 

otherwise unknown in the genus. (A. Gray, Am. Nat. vi. 764 ; est, iv. 148. 

vii. 422. — Wheeler, Cat, Mick, PL 23. — Bailey, Z. c.) They are Acer gro 



A. Floridanum^ Pax, Bugler Bot, Jahrb, vii. 243. 

* Acer barbatum^ var. grandidentatum, Sargent, Garden and For- 



N. 



apparently abnormal, although reproduced year after year on 247 ; Sylva, ii. 82, t. 69. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 1283. — Walpers 



some trees, and cannot be relied on to distinguish this plant specifi- Rep. i. 409. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 62 ; PL Wheeler 



Nat 



cally, as no trace of them appears on such specimens from other Am 

parts of the country as I have been able to examine. Extreme BulL Torrey Bot, Club^ ix. 106. 



Wheeler 



Parry, 

Rusby, 



N. 



forms of the Black Maple, like those found in Michigan, are easily 



48. — Pax, Engler Bot Jahrb. vii. 220. 



Wes 



recognized and appear distinct, but they seem to pass gradually by mael, Gen. Acer, 30. 



many intermediate forms into the plant which is usually regarded 



^ In a specimen collected by Professor H. H. Rusby on the Mo- 



as the type of the species, and it is not easy to find characters suf- goUon Mountains, and in specimens gathered by Marcus E. Jones in 

ficiently constant to establish satisfactorily the Black Maple even as Utah, the fruit is as large and hardly distinguishable from that of 

a variety. the eastern Sugar Maple. Occasionally, however, it is not half so 

2 The wood of the Black Maple is not distinguishable from that large ; and on a specimen collected by Pringle in the Huachuaca 

of the common Sugar Maple, and is used commercially for the same Mountains on the first of July, the fruit is apparently fully grown 

purposes. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood as and has small pink wings. 



SAriNDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



discovered by Thomas Nuttall, on the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah 



the Huach 



and other ranges of southern Arizona, and on the Mogollon Mountains of New Mexico, the Guadaloupe 
Mountains of western Texas, and the rang-es of Coahuila. 



The wood of Acer harhatina^ var. grand 



light brown or sometimes nearly white^ with thick sapwood 



heavy^ hard^ and very close-grained 
and thin remote medullary rays. 



The 



specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6902, a cubic foot weighing 43.01 pounds 



Acer harbatiim 



(jrandldentatimi. 



introduced 



the Arnold Arboretum in 1882 ; it 



grows very slowly, and probably will be of little value as an ornamental tree. 

The Sugar Maple, strangely enough, escaped the attention of the early botanists who examined the 



forests of North America, and it was not kno 
trees was 



Linnse 



Wangenheim,^ whose 



k 



A 



was published in Germany in 1787, first described it, although it is stated by Aiton ^ that the 
Sugar Maple was introduced into England by Peter CoUinson ^ in 1735. The hardiness of the Sugar 
Maple, its rapid growth in good soil, its excellent habit, the grace of its flowers, the beauty of its foHage 
especially in autumn, and its freedom from serious disease make it one of the most valuable ornamental 
trees of North America, and it is now planted in immense numbers in the northern states for shade and 
for the embellishment of streets, roadsides, and parks.^ 



^ This tree, as might be expected from the aridity and the high ^ The Sugar Maple, like the Hickories, the White Oaks, and 

elevation of the regions it inhabits, grows very slowly. The speci- other upland trees of eastern America, does not flourish in the Old 

men which represents it in the Jesup Collection of North American World, and really fine specimens, if they exist at all in Europe, are 

Woods in the American Museum of Natural History in New York, extremely rare, although one hundred and fifty years have passed 

and which was gathered in Utah, is eight and three quarter inches since it was introduced, and at different times considerable atten- 

in diameter, and shows one hundred and forty layers of annual tion has been given to its cultivation. It is now seldom planted in 



growth with eighty-five layers of sapwood. 
2 Wangenheim, misled no doubt by th 



Europe, and this accounts, perhaps, for the fact that no marked 
seminal varieties of the Sugar Maple have been developed in culti* 



and 



stowed by Linneeus upon another American Maple, transferred it vation ; for it is not probable that this tree would show less ten- 

ime has been adopted by nearly dency to vary in the shape of its leaves than other Maples, had it 
of this tree. been raised in nurseries from seed in as great numbers. The trees 

planted in America are seldom obtained in this manner, being gen- 
erally taken from the forest. 



written 



8 Hort. Kew. iii. 435. 
* See i. 8. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate XC. Acer barbatum. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged* 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 
10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11- A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate XCL Acer barbatum. 



1, 2, 3. Var. nigrum 
4. Var. Floridanum. 



Plate XCII. Acer barbatum, var. graxdidentatum 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, the calyx removed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Tab . XC 



Silva of l^oTLh AmeTica, 




Phcartjr. jc 



C E. Faacoro del 



ACER B ARB AT U M , Michx 



A Hiocreujz- dzrem . 



dmf. R. faneur. Faru . 



SilveL of North America 



Tab. XCI. 




C. E. FaxoTo del' 



1.2.3 ACER BARBATUM, Var. NIGRUM, Sar 



S 



^ ACER BARBATUM, Var FLORIDANUM, Sar 



Z 



PicarC fr - sc . 



w 



i.Riocreiiay iirex}. 



Imp . B . Tojumr, Pa/'ts 



Silva of North America 



Tab. XCII 



• -I 




3 





6 



5 





1 



r.A./J/./v>A/ c/c^Z. 



PiccLTt /r. j'a 



ACER BARBATUM.Var GRAKDIDENTATUM, Sar^. 



A. Hufrrt^i^r (/Mrr*^2\ 



Imp. R Ti/n 



t'U/' J ',i/ Li 



SAPINDACE-a;. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



ACER SACCHARINUM. 



Flowers sessile 

deeply 5-lobed. 



Silver Maple. Soft Maple. 

axillary fascicles ; ovary and young fruit tomentose. Leaves 



Acer saccharinum 



Hort 



Dendr 



Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 364 



Saccharum, Marshall 
rubrum. Lauth. T)e A a 



Lamarck, 



P 



m 



Moench, Meth 



56. 



Persoon^ Syn. i. 417.— Willde 



Emim. 1044. 



Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 446. 



11, f . 17, 18, 18% 26, 27. — Koch, Dendr. i. 541. 



BeU, 



Geolog. Rep. Canada, 1879-80, 53^ — Ridgway, Proc. 



U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 62. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 49. 



argent. Forest Trees N. 
Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrh. 



vii. 179. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 1] 

Wesmael, Gen. Acer^ 11. 
A. rubrum mas, Schmidt, Oestr. Baum. i. 11, t. 7. 
A. rubrum, var. pallidum, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 434 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 266. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 252 ; A. eriocarpum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-A 



m. n. 



253. 



Desfon- 



Sylva^ ii. 87. — Hayn 



449. 
ii. 225. 



Bor.-Am. i. 113. 



Fl. N. 



Fl 



Elliott, Sk. i. 
Sprengel, Syst. 
— Hooker, Fl. 



taines, Ann. Mus. vii. 412, t. 25, f . 1 ; Hist. Arh. i. 392. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 573. — Trattinick, Archiv 



i. t. 8. 



Michaux 



Hist 



Bigelow, Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 407. 



Nouveau Duhamel, iv. 30. — De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 



N, 



Emerson, Trees 



595. 



Don, Gen. SysU i. 650. 



Hist 



Mass 
46. 



gt 



Chapman, FL 81. 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Siirv. N. 
Car. 1860, iii. 51. — Buchenau, Bot. Zeit. xix. 285, t. 



116; Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 177. — Darling 
Cestr. 116 ; ed. 2, 245. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1282. 



Fl 



A 



Tge tree, ninety to a hundred and twenty feet high, with a trunk three or four feet 



diameter, which generally divides, ten or fifteen feet from the ground, into three or four stout i 
secondary stems destitute of branches for a considerable length, and brittle pendulous branchlets 



pright 
The 



bark of the trunk is from a half to three quarters of an inch thick, reddish brown and more or less 

n scales. The bark of the young stems and large branches 



furrowed, its surface senaratino* into laro-e th 



is smooth and gray tinged with red. The branchlets are at first light green and covered with lenticels, 
but soon become darker, and in the autumn and winter of their first year are bright chestnut-brown with 
a smooth and very lustrous surface, and are covered with large pale lenticels, and indistinctly marked at 



the base with the scars left by the falling of the inner bud 



the second season they 



rose-colored or gray faintly tinged with red, the lenticels then being of the same color as the remainder 
of the bark. The leaf-buds are an eighth of an inch long and covered with thick ovate bright red 
imbricated scales rounded on the back, minutely apiculate, and ciliate along the margins ; those of the 
inner ranks are pale green or yellow, an inch long at maturity, acute, pubescent on the inner surface, 
and caducous. The leaves are deeply five-lobed by narrow sinuses with acute irregularly and remotely 



dentate divisions, the middle lobe often 



being three-lobed ; 



they are truncate or somewhat heart-shaped 



at the base, six or seven inches in length and rather less in breadth, membranaceous, bright pale green 
on the upper surface, and silvery white and at first sHghtly hairy, especially in the axils of the pri- 
mary veins, on the lower surface, and are borne on slender drooping bright red petioles four or five 
inches long. They turn pale yellow in the autumn before falling. The flowers are produced in sessile 
axillary fascicles on shoots of the previous year, or on short spur-hke branchlets developed the year 
before from the wood of the preceding season. The staminate and pistillate flowers appear in separate 
clusters, sometimes together and sometimes on different trees, and are produced from aggregated obtuse 
buds covered with thick ovate pubescent red and green scales furnished on the margin with a thick 



fringe of long rufous hairs. They are greenish yellow and destitute of petals, and open 



dm^ingf th 



e 



104 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAFINDACE^. 



first warm days o£ the late winter or early spring", and long before the appearance of the leaves, which 
do not unfold until the fruit is nearly grown. The calyx is shghtly five-lobed, more or less pubescent 
on the outer surface, long and narrow in the sterile, and short and broad in the fertile flower. There 
are from three to seven stamens with slender filaments which in the sterile flower are three times as 
long as the calyx, and in the fertile flower about the length of the calyx. The ovary, which is rudi- 



in the sterile flower, is borne on a narrow disk and is covered, as is the young fruit, with i 
k coat of pubescence ; the styles are united at the base only and have long exserted stigmatic lobes 



mentary 



The f 



b 



orne on 



pedicels an inch and a half or two inches long, and ripens in 



April or May ; the samaras vary in length from an inc 
almost straight or conspicuously falcate divergent win 
broad and are 



1 



d a half to nearly three inches, and have tliin 
[lich are sometimes three quarters of an inch 



prominently reticulate-veined and pale chestnut-br 



The seed is half an inch 



& 



with a pale reddish brown wrinkled testa and an almost straight embryo with thin foliaceous cotyledons 
and a short radicle ; it germinates as soon as it faUs to the ground, producing plants with several pairs 

of leaves before the end of the summer. 

Acer saecharinum is found in the north from the valley of the St. John River in New Brunswick 
to southern Ontario ; it extends southward through the United States to western Florida, and westward 
to eastern Dakota and Nebraska, to the valley of the Blue River in Kansas, and to the Indian Territory. 
It grows on the sandy banks of clear streams which, with Willows and the Red Birch, it lines in some 
parts of the country, especially in the vaUey of the Mississippi, where it is one of the largest and most 
common of the river-trees. The Silver Maple is rare in the immediate neighborhood of the Atlantic 
coast or among the high Appalachian Mountains ; it reaches its greatest size on the banks of the lower 

Ohio and its tributaries, and there forms one of the most characteristic and beautiful features of the 
forest vegetation. 

The wood of Acei^ saccluirhumi is hard, strong, close-grained, and easily worked, but rather brittle ; 



pale, faintly tinged 



1 



b 



thick sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of 



growth, and many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5269, a 
cubic foot weighing 32.84 pounds. It is now sometimes used for flooring and in the manufacture of 



cheap f 



Sugar is occasionally produced from the sap 



Acer saecharinum appears to have been first distinguished by the Swedish traveler Kalm 



it to Lin 



It was introduced into Enghsh gardens in 1725 by Sir Charles Wager. The Silver 



Ma]3le grows very rapidly 



2 



dry soil, and for this reason was planted at one time in 



immense numbers 



the northern states as a shade and 



When it has grown under favo 



able conditions it forms a wide-spreading head, beautiful in the play of light and shade through the 
deeply divided leaves dancing with the shghtest breath of wind on their slender stems and displaying 
the silvery whiteness of their lower surface. On dry and elevated ground, however, it is not handsome 



ipt when young ; the branches become brittle and are easily broken, and the habit is loose and 



and the Silver Maple is now much less frequently planted in this country than 



fifty 



years ago 



It 



-Imost as well in Europe as it does in its native country, and numerous 



have been found in American and Europ 
more or less pendulous branches.^ 



with variously cut and marked leaves and with 



1 When this tree is enticed into expanding its flower-buds by the a trunk circumference at three and a half feet from the ground of 
succession of a few -unnaturally warm days in winter, its fruit is twelve feet six inches in 1837. Fifty-two years later the trunk, 
often entirely destroyed by spring frosts. Not infrequently only which had become hollow and much decayed, measured at the same 
one of the two carpels is developed, the other appearing as a small distance from the ground seventeen feet four inches. 

rudiment. 8 Pax (Engler BoL Jahrh. vii. 180) proposes the following sub- 

2 The Silver Maple is a fast-growing tree, even after it has at- varieties for variously cultivated seminal forms of this tree : 
tained a large size. The great tree on the meadows in Northamp- Var. normale {A. lutescensy Hort., Wittmack, Gartenz, 188 
ton, Massachusetts, mentioned by Emerson {Trees Mass. 489), had A, macrophyllum, A, Pavia^ A, palmatum, A, spicatum). 



SAPiNDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 

None of these seedling varieties are very distinct or possess greater beauty than the type. 



105 



gifolium 



pendulum^ Hort., A, lon- 



Var. alho-maculatum {A. alhO'Variegatum^ Hort., A. pulverulentunij 



Wittmack 



Wierii 



Hort,). 



Var, dissectum (4. dissectum Wagneri, Hort.). 

A. saccharinum is found in gardens, too, under the name of A. al- 



monospermum, A. Floridanum 



Floridum 



xv 



137). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate XCIII. Acer saccharinum. 

1. A branch with staminate flowerS; natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged* 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a samara, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 
10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11- An embryo displayed, enlarged. 
12. A winter branchlet, natural size- 



Silva of NoTtt America 



Tab. XCIII 




C.E.Faxon id. 



PzaJTtJr. jc. 



ACER SACCHARINUM, L 



A.Hiocreux direxl 



p 



Imp. K. Taneur^ Paris 



SAPINDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



107 



ACER RUBRUM. 



Red Maple. Scarlet Maple. 

Flowers pedicellate in axillary fascicles ; ovary and young fruit glabrous. Leaves 



3 to 5-lobed 



Acer rubruin 

Marshallj j. 
Ehrhart, B 



Du Roi, Diss. 59. 
Lamarck, DicL ii. 380. 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 



Uniti, ii. 171. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baitm. i. 10, t. 6. 



Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ ii. 93. 
434 (excl. var.). — Moench, Meth 



Hort, Kew 
Michaux. 



Bor.-Am. ii. 253. 



Persoon, Syn. i. 417. — Robin, Voy- 



age^ iii. 471. — Nouvemi Dui 
Spec. iv. 984; Enum. 1044. 



Willdenow 

Ann. Mus 



ed. 2, ii. 551, t. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 46. 
Chapman, Fl. 81. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 50. — Buchenau, Bot. Zeit. xix. 285, t. 11, f. 15, 
16, 28, 29. — Koch, Dendr. i. 542. — BeU, Geolog. Rep. 
Canada, 1879-80, 54^ — Ridgway, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 
1882, 62. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 50. — Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrh. vii. 181. — Wat- 
son & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 118. — Wesmael, Ge7i. 
Acer, 12. 



vii. 413, t. 25, f. 2 ; Sist. Arb. i. 391. — Poiret, Lam. ? A. glaucum, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 2. 

Diet. Suppl. ii. 574; III. iii. 438, t. 844, f. 3. 



Trat- 
tinick, Archiv. i. t. 9. — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 



L. Carolinianum, Walter, Ft 
coccineum, Michaux f. Hist 



210, t. 14. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 265. — Bigelow, Fl. A. sanguineum, Spach, Hist. Veg. iii. 115 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. 



Boston. 247. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 252; Sylva^ ii. 87. 



ser. 2, ii. 176. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1282. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 213. — Elliott, Sk. i. 449. — Torrey, A. microphyllum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 180. 



Fl. N. J. i. 137. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. t. 169. 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 225. — Audubon, Birds, t. 54, 67. 
Tausch, Regensb. Fl. xii., ii. 552. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Avi. i. 



A. semiorbiculatum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 181, 
A. rubrum, var. semiorbiculatum, Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 
13. 



114 ; Joiir. Bot. i. 199. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 650. — Spach, A. rubrum, var. microphyllum, Wesmael, Ge7i. Acer, 13. 



Hist. Veg. iii. 113 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 176. 
Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. I 249, 684. — Dietrich, Sy7i. 
ii. 1282. — Walpers, Rep. i. 409. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 



A. rubnxm, var. eurubrum, var. sanguineum, var. clau- 
sum, var. pallidiflorum, var. tomentosum. Pax, Eng- 
ler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 181, 182. 



A slender tree^ ^iglity to one hundred and twenty feet high, with a tall trunk three to four and 
a half feet in diameter^ and upright branches usually forming a rather narrow head. The bark of the 
trunk varies from a quarter to half an inch in thickness^ and is dark gray divided by longitudinal 
ridgeSj the surface separating into large flake-like scales. The shoots when they appear are green or 
dark redj turning by autumn dark or bright red and lustrous^, and are marked by numerous longitudinal 
white lenticels ; in the second year they become gray^ faintly tinged with red. The winter-buds are 
obtuse, an eighth of an inch long, and covered by thick dark red imbricated scales rounded on the back 
and ciliate on the margins with a short fringe of pale hairs ; the outer pair of scales are much smaller 
than the others ; the inner pairs lengthen with the shoot, and at maturity are three quarters of an inch 



nch long, narrowly oblong, rounded at the apex, and b 



iglit scarlet. The leaves are three to five- 
lobed by acute sinuses, with irregularly doubly-serrate or toothed lobes, the middle lobe being often 
lono^er than the others, or they are sometimes lanceolate and scarcely lobed ; they are truncate, more or 



ordate by a broad shallow sinus, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, pubescent, especially on the 
surface when young, and at maturity light green and glabrous on the upper, and white and more 



pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along* the principal 



They 



charta 



or 



sometimes almost coriaceous, an inch and a half to six inches in length and rather longer than broad, 
and are borne on slender red or green petioles two to four inches long.^ In early autumn they turn to 

^ No other American Maple shows such a tendency to vary in vii. 180) distinguishes three species and a number of varieties of 

r Bot. Jahrb. the Red Maple, hased principally on the shape of the leaves. This 



the shape of its leaves. 



(Engl 



108 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACEJi. 



brilliant shades of scarlet or scarlet and oranofe. 



The flowers are pedicellate and are produced in few- 
flowered fascicles developed on the branches of the previous year from aggregated obtuse buds/ the stam- 
inate and pistillate flowers in separate clusters on the same or on different trees ; they open in March 
and April before the appearance of the leaves^ and are bright scarlet or dull yellowish red. The sepals 



oblong and obtuse^ and as long as and broader than the oblong or linear petals. There 



from 



five to eig^ht scarlet stamens, with 
flo 



der filaments exserted in the sterile, and included in the fe 



wer. 



The ovary is glabrous, and is borne on a narrow shghtly lobed glandular disk j the styles are 
united for a short distance above the base, and then separate into long exserted stigmatic lobes.^ The 
fruit, which ripens in the latter part of spring or in early summer, is borne on drooping stems three or 
four inches long and is scarlet, dark red, or brown, with thin erect wings convergent at first and diver- 
gent at maturity, half an inch to an inch in length, and from a quarter to half an inch in breadth. The 
seed has a dark red rugose testa, thin f oliaceous cotyledons, and a long thin radicle ; it germinates 
immediately after falHng to the ground. 

Acer ritbriim is one of the most common and generally distributed trees of eastern North America. 
It extends from about latitude 49° north in New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, southward to the 
Indian and Caloosa rivers in southern Florida, and westward to the Lake of the Woods, eastern Dakota 
and Nebraska, Indian Territory, and the valley of the Trinity River in Texas. It occurs along the bor- 
ders of streams or in low wet swamps, which it sometimes covers, particularly at the north, almost to the 
exclusion of other trees ; or in the northern states it is mingled with the Black Ash, the Swamp White 
Oak, and the Gum-trees, and in the south with the Swamp Bay, the White Oak, the Loblolly Bay, the 



Red Gum, and the Cotton Gum 



It is most common in the south, especially in the valley of the Missis 



sippi 



River, and attains its largest size in the river-swamps of the lower Ohio and its large tributaries 



The Red Maple is one of the most beautiful trees of the American forests, and is a conspicuous feature 
in the landscape in spring, when its branches, still destitute of leaves, are covered with its brilliant red 
fruit, or in the early autumn, when it enhvens the lowlands with a blaze of scarlet.^ 

The wood of Acer ruhritm is very heavy, close-grained, easily worked, and not very strong. It is 
hght brown, often slightly tinged with red, with a smooth satiny surface and many obscure n 



rays 



The thick sapwood is rather fighter colored than the heartwood 



medullary 
The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.6178, a cubic foot weighing 38.50 pounds. It is now used in large quantities 
in the manufacture of chairs and other furniture, in turnery, for wooden ware, and for gun-stocks. A 
variety with beautifully undulating grain is much valued by cabinet-makers. Ink is sometimes made 
domestically by boiling the bark of the Red Maple in soft water and combining the tannin which it 



dyeing 



in large quantities with sulphate of 



At 



the bark was occasionally employed in 



is a character, however, which can hardly be depended on in tlie grant, and that the fertile flowers are scentless {Proc. Phil Acad 
case of this tree. Of two individuals standing side by side, one may 1878, 122). 



have large thin five-lobed leaves cordate or truncate at the base, 



3 At the north A, rubrum is one of the first trees to change the 



and the other small thick almost entire leaves rounded at the base ; color of its leaves, and the earliest general effects of autumn color 

;rent parts of the same are produced by this tree* It is not unusual in dry seasons to find 

individual trees beginning to assume their autumnal tints by the 
end of August, while the majority do not turn until late in Sep-» 



or nearly all the forms may be found on difi 
tree, or sometimes even on the same branch. 
1 Linn^us, Amcen, Acad, ii. 204. 

^ The flowers of the Red Manlp ar^ nsn 



tember or early in October. 



gamous, and it is possible that perfect flowers occasionally occur ^ The characteristics of the bark appear to have been known to 

on this tree. Much more commonly they are moncecious or dice- the Indians, as Josselyn, when describing an oil made by them in 

cious by the abortion in the pistillate flowers of the stamens, which, eastern Massachusetts out of the acorns of the 

although they are apparently well-formed in the bud, do not "The Natives draw an Oyl, taking the rottenest I 



White 



Wood 



lengthen after the flower opens, and fall without discharging any being burnt to ashes, they make a strong Lye therewith, wherein 



pollen. 



staminate 



swim 



with 



sometimes be found on a tree on which the flowers are pistillate. 
Meehan notices that the sterile flowers of the Red Maple are fra- 



48). See, also, Ealm, 



168 



SAPINDACEiE. 



/ 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



109 



Acer ritbruniy var. Dritmmondu^^ a well-marked variety of the Red Maple, is common in the deep 
nver-swamps of southern Arkansas, eastern Texas, and western Louisiana, and occurs occasionally in the 
other Gulf states and in southern Georgia. The leaves are three-lobed with short broad lobes, usually 



ounded 



sometimes a little cordate 



the base, which 



htly and remotely 



toothed. The lower surface is covered, as are the young shoots and petioles, with thick white tomen 
tum. The fruit, which ripens late in March or in April, is bright scarlet with large convergent wings 



and a half inches long and a half to three quarters of an inch broad 



2 



The Red Maple, as it inhabited swamps in the immediate neighborhood of the coast, attracted the 
attention of early travelers in America ; it was carried to England as early as 1656, probably by the 
younger Tradescant,^ in whose garden near London it was 



drawn from Tradescant's cultivated 



1 it was growing in that year. The first descripti 
bhshed by Plukenet ^ in 1691. It has always bee 



favorite tree in cultivation in the United States and in Europe, and a number of seminal varieties ^ have 



ppeared. None of these 



particularly distinct or valuable. The Red Maple, although it is found 



only in low wet ground which is often submerged during a large part of the year, grows as rapidly and 



to as 



when planted in rich well-drained upland soil as it does in its native swamps ; and 

and in autumn, the brilliancy of its fruit, and 



summer 



excellent habit, the beauty of its L 

freedom from disease, make it one 

ornament where sufficient space can be allowed for its full development. 



of the most desirable of the trees of eastern America to nlant for 



6 



^ Acer ruhrum,Y2iV. Drummondii, Sargent, Forest Trees N.Am. 



10th Census U. S. ix. 50. 



Arnott 



Nuttall, 



Sylvay ii. 83, t. 70. 



This tree in some extreme forms is certainly very distinct, but 



Acer Vir g in ianum folio subtus incano fiosculis ex viridi ruhentihuSy 
Hermann, Parad. Bat. i. t. 1- — MiUer, Diet. Icon. i. 6, t. 8, f. 2. 

Acer folio palmato-angulato flore fere apetalo sessilifi^ctu peduncu- 
lato corymbosOy Clayton, FL Virgin. 41. — Golden, Cat. 85. 

Acer foliis quinquelohis subdentatis subtus glauds, floribus pedun^ 



it seems to pass gradually by many intermediate forms found in culatis simplicissimis rare aggregatis dioicis^ Trew, PL Ehrety 47, 
the eastern Gulf states into the typical Red Maple. Large trees t. 85. 



destitute of leaves and covered in the early spring with intensely 
scarlet fruit are very beautiful, especially when they are surrounded 



^ Nicholson, Gard. Chron. n. ser, xv. 172. 

^ The Red Maple and other forest trees, especially the Canoe 



by the broad-leaved evergreen Bays with which the Red Maple is Birch, the Red Oak, and the Mountain Ash, are sometimes d&- 



usually associated in the Gidf states. 
8 See i. 20. 



stroyed in considerable numbers in northern New England by the 
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker (Sp^jropicus vanus, Baird), who drills 



* Acer Vir ginianum folio majore subtus argenteo, supra viridi splen^ into the trunk for the purpose of drinking the sweet sap. (Frank 
dente^PhyU t. 2, f . 4 ; Aim, Bot. 7. — Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. u 62, BoUes, Garden and Forest, iv. 177.) 
t. 62. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate XCIV. Acer rubrum. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers^ natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, display ed and enlarged. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate XCV. Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii, 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A sterile branch, natural size. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of NortK America. 



Tab. XCIV 




C<£. Fax/)Tv^ deL 



Pjjcart Jr so. 



ACER RUBRUM.L 



A.Riocrex/20 direco'. 



t^ 



iTnp.R. Tanenr. J oris. 



Silva of North AmencsL . 



Tab. XCV 




QE.Fa:ron del. 



Picart rr sck 



ACER RUB RUM ,Var DRUMMONDII , Sa^o^ 

O 



A. Rwcreiay dzrex. 



]mp.R:Ta/ieuj\ Pans 



II 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



ACER NEGUNDO. 



Box Elder. Ash Leaved Maple. 

Flowers dioecious, destitute of petals. Leaves pinnately or ternately divided 



Acer Negundo, Linnaeus, Spec. 1056. — Wangenh 



son, King's Rep. v. 52 ; PL Wheeler^ 7 ; Proc. Am. Acad. 



Nordam. Hoi 



Marshall 



2. 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 172. 



xvii. 338. — Rothrock, Wheeler's Pep. vi. 84. 



BeU, 



La- 



marck, Diet. ii. 380. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baum. i. 14, t. 

Walter, Fl Car. 250. — Aiton, Hort. Keio. iii. 



Geolog. Rep. Canada^ 1879-80, 48*^. — Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mils. 1882, 63. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 



12. 

436. 

418. 



-4m. 10^^ Censics U. S. ix. 50. 



Mt 



Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 253. — Persoon, Syn. i. 



49. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 118. 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 391. — Willdenow, Negundium fraxinifolium, Rafinesque, N. Y. Med. Rep 



Spec. iv. 992; Fmtm, 1046. — Nouveau Duhamely iv. 27, 



hex. 2, V. 352, 354 ; Desvaux, Jour. Bot, ii. 170. 



t. 7. 



Trattinick, Archiv. i. t. 40. — Michaux f. Hist. Negundo fraxinifolium, Nuttall, Gen, i. 253- — De Can- 



Arb. Am. ii. 247, t. 18. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 268. 
Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 216. — Elliott, Sk. i. 452. — James, 
Long's Exped. ii. 69- — Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 
172; Emory's Rep. 407. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 225.— 



dolle, Prodr. i. 596. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i- 114. 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 651. — Spach, Hist. Veg. iii. 119. 
Rafinesque, Neiv Fl. i. 48. — Scheele, Roemer Texas^ 



433. 



Schnizlein, Icon. t. 227, f. 2, 18. 



Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, ^&6z7cZ. .ffoZ^. 119, t. 95. — Die- ? Negundo Mexicanum, De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 596. 



trich, Syn. ii. 1283. — Buchenau, Bot. Zeit. xix. 285, t, 
11, f. 31, 32. —Koch, Dendr. i. 544. — Baillon, Hist. PI 
V. 374, f . 426. — Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 211. 



Schlechtendal, Liniicea^ xvi. 487. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 
Am. Cent. i. 214. — Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 212. 
Negundo trifoliatum, Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 48. 



Negundo aceroides, Moench, Meth. 334. — Torrey & Gray, Negundo lobatum, Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 48. 

Fl. N. Am. i, 250. — Nuttall, Sylva^ ii. 91. — Gray^ Gen. Negundo Californicum, Scheele, Roemer Texas, 433 (not 



m. ii. 202, t- 175; Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 166 



Torrey & Gray)- 



(Pl. Lindheim. ii.) ; PI. Fendler. 29 {Mem. Am. Acad. n. A. Negundo, var. Texanum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb 
ser. iv.) ; PL Thurber. 300 {Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. v.). 



Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 46. — Chapman, F%. 81. 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 53. 



Wat- 



vii. 212. 
Negundo Negundo, Sudworth, Garden and Forest, iv 

166. 



A tree, fifty to seventy feet in height, with a trunk two to four feet in diameter, dividing near the 
ground into a number of stout wide-spreading branches. The bark of the trunk is from a quarter to 



haK an inch thick, pale gray or light brown, and deeply cleft 
separating into short thick scales. 



broad 



led ridges, the surface 



The branchlets when they first appear are pale green and glabrous 
or slightly pubescent ; in their first winter they are marked with a few dark lenticels, and are bright 
green and lustrous or sometimes pale purple with a glaucous bloom ; ^ in the second and third years they 
are gradually covered with smooth or somewhat fissured bark and are still marked with lenticels. The 
terminal winter-bud is acute, an eighth of an inch long, and rather longer than the obtuse lateral buds ; 
they are protected by scales with slightly overlapping edges and thickly coated with pale tomentum, the 
outer pair being often rudimentary, while the inner pairs are accrescent with the shoot, an inch long at 
maturity and deciduous, leaving when they fall conspicuous scars visible at the base of the branchlets 
for two or three years. The leaves are three or five-foliolate, and are borne on slender petioles two or 
three inches in length, with enlarged bases often furnished with a minute fringe of stipule-like decidu- 
ous white hairs, and in falling leave large conspicuous scars surrounding the stem ; the leaflets are ovate 



This 



which are hardier than those raised from seed gathered in the east. 



ornicum 



more common on the trees in the region between the Great Lakes This midcontinental form of the Negundo is found in German nur- 
and the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains than on those in other 
parts of the country. Seed gathered in this region produce trees 
„4,;rtV» rrT.r»«r I'n r»nlfi vnf lOTi morc raoidlv and to a larsrer size and 



confounded with the Pacific-coast tree. 



112 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapindace^. 



or oval, acute, rounded, or wedge-shaped at the base, and coarsely and irregularly serrate above the 
middle, or sometimes tliree-lobed, the lower surface being coated with tomentum when they unfold, and 
at maturity are smooth or more or less pubescent ; they are membranaceous, prominently veined, light 
bright green, paler on the under than on the upper surface, two to four inches long and two or three 
inches broad, and are borne on stout petiolules, that of the terminal leaflet being often an inch long, or 
twice the length of those of the rather smaller lateral leaflets. The sterile and fertile flowers appear on 
separate trees, and expand just before or with the leaves from buds developed in the axils of the last 
leaves of the previous year, the sterile flowers fascicled on slender hairy pedicels an inch and a half to 
two inches in length, the fertile flowers in narrow drooping racemes. The flowers are minute, apeta- 
lous, and yellow-green, with a hairy calyx which is five-lobed and campanulate in the sterile flower, and 
in the fertile flower is much smaller and divided to the base into five narrow sepals. There are four to 
six stamens in the sterile flower, with slender exserted hairy filaments and long linear anthers surmounted 
by the pointed end of the connective. The ovary, which is placed on a narrow rudimentary disk, is 
covered with pubescence, and is only partly inclosed by the calyx ; the styles separate at the base into 
two long stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which attains its full size early in the summer, hangs on stems an 
inch or two inches long, in graceful racemes six or eight inches in length ; it ripens in the autumn 
and drops from the stems which remain upon the branches until the following spring ; the samaras 
are an inch and a half to nearly two inches long, with narrow acute nutlets diverging at an acute angle, 
and with thin reticulate-veined straight or falcate wings, the margin undulate towards the apex. The 
seed is narrowed at each end, and is half an inch in length, with a thin coat, narrow thin cotyledons, 
and a rather long radicle. 

Acer Negundo is one of the most widely distributed, and in some parts of the country one of the 
commonest, trees of the North American forest. It occurs on the banks of the Winooski River and 
of Lake Champlain in Vermont, on the shores of Cayuga Lake in New York, in eastern Pennsylvania, 
and ranges to Hernando County, Florida, and northwestward to Dog's Head Lake in Winnipeg and 
along the southern branch of the Saskatchewan to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains ; in the 
United States it is found as far west as the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, the 
Wahsatch Mountains in Utah, western Texas, New Mexico, and eastern Arizona, extending south 
along the mountain ranges of northeastern Mexico. The Box Elder inhabits the banks of streams and 
lakes and the borders of swamps ; it is comparatively rare in all the region east of the Appalachian 
Mountains, and is much more common in the basin of the Mississippi, being most abundant and reach- 
ing its greatest size in the valleys of the streams which flow into the lower Ohio River. Here it 
flourishes in the deep rich moist and often inundated bottom-lands, forming a large part of the growth 
under the Oaks, Hickories, and Gum-trees, which in such situations rise to a great height. It is mingled 
with Willows, the Elm, and the Hackberry on the banks of the streams which flow through the midcon- 
tinental plateau almost to the western Hmit of tree-growth, while in the central mountain region it is 
confined to valleys five or six thousand feet above the level of the sea. 

In western Texas and in New Mexico the pubescence which clothes the young shoots and the under 
surface of the leaves of the Box Elder increases in thickness and is persistent, and the eastern tree is 
thus graduaUy connected with the variety ^ which in California is found on the banks of streams in the 
valley of the lower Sacramento River, and in the interior valleys of the coast ranges from the Bay of 



1 Acer Negundo, var. Calif ornicum, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. Jahrh, vii. 213. — Wesmael, Gen. Acer, 27. — Greene, FL Francis 



148, 



i. 76. 



Negundo Californicum, Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 250 
Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 327, t. 77. — Walpe 



Negundo aceroides, Torrey, Pacijic R. R. Rep. iv. 74 ; Bot. Mex 
mnd. Surv, 47 : Bot. Wilkes Exvlor. Exned. 259 ("not Moenoh^. 



i. 410. — Bentham, PL Hartioeg, 301. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 90, t. Bolander, Proc. CaL Acad. i± IS. 



72. — Koch, Dendr. i. 5 15. — Brewer & W; 
Acer Calif ornicum, Dietrich, Syn. ii. 11 



Pax, Engler Bot. est, ii. 364 



Negundo aceroides, var. Californicum, Sargent, Garden and For- 



SAPINDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. 



113 



San Francisco to about latitude 35^^ and in high canons on the western slopes of the San Bernardin 

tree fifty or sixty feet in height^ may b 
Lstern tree^ by the thick tomentum of t\v 



Mountains. The CaHfornia Negundo, which is a spreading 
distinguished by the bark which is darker than that of the e 



buds, by the short pale persistent pubescence of the branchlets and ripe fruity and by the 



itantly trifoliate leaves with larger more coarsely 



and more frequently lobed leaflets densely 



coated, even at maturity, on the lower surface with pale pubescence- 

The wood of Acer Negundo is light, soft, close-grained, but not very strong ; it is creamy white, 
with thick, hardly distinguishable sapwood, and contains numerous medullary rays. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4328, a cubic foot weighing 26.97 pounds. The specific gravity of the 
wood of a tree grown in Contra Costa County, California, is 0.4821, a cubic foot weighing 30.04 pounds. 
The wood of the Box Elder is occasionally manufactured into cheap furniture, and is sometimes used for 
the interior finish of houses, for wooden ware, cooperage, and paper pulp. Small quantities of maple- 
sugar are occasionally made from this tree.^ 

Acer Negundo was one of the first North American trees known in Europe ; Ray first described it 

ants cultivated by Bishop Compton * in his 
Fulham near London. It was discovered in Cahfornia in the neighborhood of Monterey by 



the His tor ia Plantaritm^ pubHshed in 1688,^ from 




garden at. 
David Douglas. 

The rapid growth made by the Box Elder in good soil, its hardiness, and the cheerful color of its 
graceful foliage have always made it a favorite tree in gardens, although it is not long-lived or very 
stately or handsome in old age ; and in the United States it has been planted in gi^eat numbers of late 
years, especially in the naturally treeless central part of the continent, where it supports better than many 
other trees the severe climatic changes and the deficiency of moisture- Many varieties ^ have appeared 
in nurseries, and one of them, producing leaves marked with broad blotches of pure white, is now a pop- 
ular garden-plant in most European countries. 



^ Professor J. B. Harrington (Trans- Roy. Soc. Canada, v. 3, which appears to have been first used by Ray, is of unknown mean- 
1887) found that the average yield of sugar for a number of trees ing and derivation. 



was 2.50 per cent. 

2 Arbor exotica foliis Frazini instar pinnatis, et serratisy Negundo 
perperam credita^ ii. 1798. 



3 Aiton, Hort. Kew, iii. 436. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 460, t. 

4 See i. 6. 

^ Pax (Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 211) distinguishes the varieties 



Acer maximum foliis trijidis et quinquijidis, Virginianum, Plukenet, cultivated in European nurseries as 



Phyt. 1. 123, f . 4, 5 ; Aim, Bot. 7. — Boerhaave, Hort, Lugd. Bat. ii. 
234. — Duhamel, Traite des ArbreSy i. 28. 

Acer foliis compositisy Linnaeus, Hort, Cliff. 144. — Royen, FL 
Leyd. Prodr. 460. — Clayton, FL Virgin. 154. The word Negundo^ 



Var. vulgare (A. Calif ornicum, A, versicolor, A. violaceum, Hort.). 

a. bicolor (.4. aureo-variegatum, and A. argenteO'Variegatum, Hort.). 

b. angustissimum (A. crispum, Hort.). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate XCVL Acer Negxhstdo. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified- 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. A winter branchlet. natural size. 



Plate XCVII. Acer Negundo, var. Californicum 

!• A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size- 

2. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of .Nor til America 



Tab XCVI 




CkE.f'ivron del 



Picart /r sc. 



ACER NEGUNDO, L. 



A . Hiocreita: d-irc^r ^ 



Irtjp. R. Taneta: Far is 



Silvai of l^oTth Anierica. 



Tab . 'XCVII 




OE FazcoTv del . 



Pzcojtji' . so 



ACER NEGUNDO ,Var CALIFORNICUM , Sar 



z- 



A . KjocreujD dcrex. 



Imp R: TaneuT, Paru 



INDEX TO VOL. 11. 



SMALL 



of synonyms, in italics. 



Acer, 79. 

Acer alho-variegatum^ 105. 
Acer alburriy 105. 

Acer argenteo-variegatum, 113. 
Acer aureo-variegatum^ 113. 
Acer barbatum, 97. 

Acer barbatum, var. Floridanum, 100. 



Acer Pennsylvanicum, 85. 
Acer Pennsylvanicuniy 83. 
Acer pictum, 80. 
Acer platanoides, 80. 
Acer polymorphum, 80. 
Acer Pseudo-Platanus, 80. 
Acer pulverulentum, 105. 



Acer barbatum, var. grandidentatum, 100. Acer rubrum, 107. 



Acer barbatum, var. nigrum, 99. 
Acer Cali/ornicum, 112, 113. 
Acer Canipbellii, 80. 
Acer Canadense, 85. 
Acer CaroUnianuniy 107. 
Acer circinatum, 93. 
Acer coccineum, 105, 107. 
Acer cratsegifolium, 80. 
Acer crispum, 113. 
Acer dasycarpuniy 103. 

Acer dasycarpum monospermum^ 105. 
Acer diabolicum, 80. 
Acer dissectum Wagneri, 105. 
Acer Douglasiif 95. 
Acer Drummondii, 109. 
Acer eriocarpum, 103. 
Acer Floridanum^ 100, 105. 
Acer Floridum, 105. 
Acer glabrum, 95. 
Acer glabrum, var. tripartitum, 95, 
Acer glaucuniy 107. 
Acer grand idenlatum, 100. 
Acer heterophyllum, 105. 
Acer Jiybridum, 105. 
Acer Japonicum, 80. 
Acer laciniatum Wierii, 105. 
Acer longifoliumy 105. 
Acer lutescenSj 105. 
Acer macrocarpumy 105. 
Acer macrophyllum, 89. 
Acer macrophyllum^ 104. 
Acer Mexicaiiumy 100. 
Acer microphyllumy 107. 
Acer montanum, 83. 
Acer Negundo, 111. 
Acer Negundo, var. Californicum, 112. 
icer Negundo, var. Texanwriy 111. 



Acer rubrumy 103. 

Acer rubrum mas, 103. 

Acer rubrum, var. clausum, 107. 

Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii, 109. 

Acer rubrum, var. eurubrum, 107. 

Acer rubrum, var. microphyllumy 107. 

Acer rubrum, \slv. pallidijlorum, 107. 

Acer rubrwUy war. pallidum , 103. 
Acer rubrum, var. sangnineumy 107. 
^cer rubrum, var. semiorbiculatumy 107. 
-4cer rubrum, var. tomenlosumy 107. 
Acer rufinerve, 85, 
^cer Rugeliiy 99. 
Acer saccharinum, 103. 
-4c€?' saccharinumy 97. 



jEscuIus AsamicQy 52. 

-^sculus Californica, 61. 

jEscuIus carnea, 53. 

-^sculus Chinensis, 52, 53. 

iEsculus Columbiana, 52. 

jEhcuIus discolor, 60. 

jEscuIus d'lssimiliSy 52. 

jEscuIus echinata, 55. 

jEscuIus Jlava, 59. 

jEscuIus Jiava, var. purpurascens, 60. 

-^sculus glabra, 55. 

jEscuIus Hippocastanum, 52, 53. 

JEscuIus hybrida, 60. 

^sculus Indica, 52. 

jEscuIus lutea, 59. 

^'Esculus macrostachya, 52, 

iEsculus Mexicana, 52. 

jEsculus muricata, 55. 

jEscuIus neglecta, 59. 

jEscuIus ochroleuca, 55. 

-^sculus octandra, 59. 

JEscuIus octandra, var. hybrida, 60. 

jEscidus Ohioensis, 55. 



Acer saccharinum, var. albo-maculatum, JEscuIus pallida, 55. 

-Sisculus Parryi, 52. 



105. 

Acer saccharinum, var. cuneatum, 105. 
Acer saccharinum, var. dissectum, 105. 
Acer saccharinumy var. Floridanum, 100. 
-4c6r saccharinum, var. glaucum, 99. 
Acer saccharinum, var. laciniatum, 105. 
^ctT saccharinuniy var. nigrumy 99. 
Acer saccharinum, var. normale, 104. 



^sculus parviflora, 52. 

-^Csculus Pavia, 52. 

jEscuIus Paviay 52. 

jEscuIus Pavia, var. discolor, 60. 

-^sculus Punduana, 52. 

-3]sculus rubicunda, 53. 

^sculus turbinata, 52, 53. 



Acer saccharinum, var. pseudo-platanoides, jEscuIus verrucosa, 55. 



99. 

Acer saccharinum, var. Rugeliiy 99. 

-4cer saccharophorum, 97. 

^cer Saccharum, 97, 103. 

^cer sanguineum, 105, 107. 

^cer SairOy 105. 

^cer semiorbiculatum, 107. 

Acer spicatum, 83. 

^cer spicatum, 104. 

Acer spicatum, var, Ukurunduense, 84. 

^cer striatum, 85. 

-4cer tomentosum, 105. 

-4cer tripartitum, 95. 



^sculus Watsoniana, 53. 
Amyris Hypelate, 78. 
Andromeda plumata, 3. 
Aphaniay 67. 
Arrow-wood, 12. 
Ash-leaved Maple, 111. 



Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, 113. 

Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, b. angustissi- Acer UkurunduensCy 84. 



mum, 113. 



:icer niolaceuMy 113. 



Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, a. bicolor, 113. Acer virgatwn, 93. 



Acer nigrum, 99. 
Acer niveum, 80. 
Acer palmatum, 80, 
Acer palmatum, 89, 104, 
Acer parviflorum, 83. 

Acer Pavia, 104. 
Acer pendulum y 105. 



^cer Virginicum rubrumy 105. 
Acer versicolor, 113. 
^cidium sesculi, 54. 

JEgeria acerni, 81. 
^sculus, 51. 
jEscuIus alba, 55. 
jEsculus arauta, 55. 



Bearberry, 37. 
Bear-wood, 38. 
Billia, 51. 

Billia Columbiana, 52. 
Billia Hippocastanumy 52. 
Bitter Bark, 38. 
Black Iron-wood, 29. 
Bligb, William, 18. 
Blighia, 18. 
Blue Myrtle, 43. 
Blue-wood, 25. 
Box Elder, 111. 
Box- wood, 17. 
Broad-leaved Maple, 89. 
Buckeye, 61. 
Buckwheat-tree, 7. 



116 



INDEX. 



Burning Bush, 11. 



California Lilac, 43. 
Calothj/rsus, ol. 

Calothyrsus Cali/ornica, 61. 
Capulin, 23. 

Carfilo/ppis, 31. 

Cardiolepis obtitsay 37. 
Cascara Sagrada, 39. 
Ccanotlius, 41, 
Ceanoiltus, 47. 
Ceanotlius Americanus, 42. 
Ceanotkus arborcus, 45. 

Ceanotlius Asiadcus, 47. 
Ceanothus azureus, 42. 

Ceanothus colubrinus^ 47. 

Ceanothus f err euSy 29. 

Ceanothus Gloire de Versailles, 42. 

Ceanothus, hybrids, 42. 

Ceanothus Icevigatus, 21, 

Ceanothus Lobbianus, 43. 

Ceanothus redmatus, 49. 

Ceanothus sorediatus, 45. 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, 43. 

Ceanothus Veitchianus, 43. 

Ceanothus velutinus, 45. 

Ceanothus velutinus, var. arboreus, 45 

Celastrace^, 9. 

Cels, Jacques Martin, 4. 
Cercospora acerina, 81. 
Chrysobothris femorata, 81. 
Cirillo, Domenico, 2. 
Clifton, Francis, 5. 
Cliftonia, 5. 
CUftonia ligustrina, 7. 
Cliftonia monophylla, 7 
Cliftonia 7iitida, 7. 
Clisiocampa, 36. 
Coffee-tree, 37. 
Colubrina, 47. 
Colubrina Americana^ 47. 
Colubrina Asiatica, 47. 
Colubrina colubrina, 47. 
Colubrina Fermentum, 47. 
Colubrina f err uginosa, 47. 
Colubrina Greggii, 47. 
Colubrina reclinata, 49. 
Colubrina Texensis, 47. 
Condal, Antonio, 23. 
Condalia, 23, 
Condalia, 19. 
Condalia ferrea, 29. 
Condalia infectoria, 23. 
Condalia Mexieana, 23. 
Condalia microphylla, 23. 
Condalia obovata, 25. 
Condalia spathulata, 23. 
Copalillo, 74. 
Costsea, 2. 
Curtiss, Allen Hiram, 50. 

Cyrilla, 1. 

Cyrilla Antillana, 2. 

Cyrilla Caroliniana, 3. 

Cyrillace^e, 1. 

Cyrilla fuscata, 3. 

Cyrilla parvifolia, 3. 

Cyrilla poly stachia, 3. 

Cyrilla racemifera^ 2. 

Cyrilla raceniiflora, 3 

Cyrilla racemosa, 3. 

Cyrilla racemosa, var. racemifera, 2. 



Diplisca, 47. 
Diplisca elliptical 49. 
Douglas, David, 94. 
Drunimond, Thomas, 25. 
Drunimondia, lio. 
Dryocampa rubicunda, 81. 
Dwarf Maple, 95. 



Elliottia, 2. 

Endotropis oleifoUa^ 37. 
Eschscholtz, Johann Friedrich, 39. 

Eschscholtzia, 39. 

EsculuSf 54. 

Euonio acid, 10. 

Evonymus, 9. 

Evouymus atropurpureus, 11. 

Evonymus Australianus, 10. 

Evonymus Carolinensis^ 11. 

Evonymus Europseus, 9, 10. 

Evonymus Japonicus, 10. 

Evonymus Japonicus, var. radicans, 10 

Evouymus Javanicus, 9. 

Evonymus latifolius, 10. 

Evonymus latifolius, 11. 

Evonymus radicans, 10. 

Evonymus tingens, 10. 

Evonymus verrucosus, 10. 

Exothea, 73. 

Exothea Copalillo, 74. 

Exothea oblongifolia, 75. 

Exothea paniculata, 75. 



Fetid Buckeye, 55. 

Forrestia, 41. 

Frangulay 31. 

Frangula Californica, 37. 

Frangula Californica, var. tomentellaj 39 

Frangula Caroliniana, 35. 

Frangula fragilis, 35. 

Frangula Purshiana, 37. 



Gloeosporium acerinum, 81. 

Glycobius speciosus, 81. 

Grisebach, Heinrich Rudolph August, 13. 

Grisebachia, 13. 

Gyminda, 13. 

Gyminda Grisebachii, 14. 

Gyminda Grisebachii, var. glaucescens, 14. 



Hartweg, Karl Theodore, 34. 

Hartwegia, 34. 

Hinds, Richard Brinsley, 44. 

Hindsia, 44. 

HippocastanuMy 51. 

Horse-chestnut, oil of, 52. 

Horse-chestnuts, fungal diseases of, 54 

Horse-chestnut, the history of, 53. 

Hypelate, 77. 

Hypelatey 73. 

Hypelate paiiiculatay 75. 

Hypelate trifoliata, 78. 

Hyphantria cunea, 12, 36. 

Hyponomeuta euonymella, 12. 



Indian Cherry, 35. 
Ink-wood, 75. 
Iron-wood, 3, 7, 75. 
Itea CyrillOy 3. 
Itea racemijlora, 2, 



Darlmg Plum, 21. 
Didymococcus, 67. 



James, Edwin, 96. 
Jamesia, 96. 



Leather-wood, 3. 

Leptocoris trivittatus, 81. 

LithocoUetis guttifinitella, var. aesculisella, 

53. 
Log-wood, 25. 



Macfadyen, James, 73. 

Macfadyena, 73. 
Macrothyrsus, 51. 

Maples, fungal disease of, 81. 

Maple-sugar, making of, 98. 

Marcorellay 47. 

Melanocaryay 9. 

Melicocca, 73, 77. 

Melicocca paniculata^ 75. 

Menzies, Archibald, 90, 

Menziesia, 90. 

Moose-w^ood, 85. 

Mountain Maple, 83. 

Muehlenberg, Gotthilf Heinrich, 56. 

Muehlenbergia, 56. 

Myginday 13. 

Myginda integrifoliaj 14, 29. 

Myginda latifoliay 14. 

Myginda latifolia, var. glaucescens^ 14« 

Myginda pallensy 14, 

Mylocarium, 5. 

Mylocarium ligtcstrinwu, 7. 



Naked-wood, 49. 

Negundium, 79. 

Negundium fraxintfoliumy 111. 

Negundoy 79. 

Negundo aceroides, 111, 112. 

Negundo aceroideSy var. Californicunif 112, 

JVegundo Californicumy 111, 112. 

Negundo fraxinifolium^ 111. 

Negundo lobatum, 111. 

Negundo Mexicanum, 111. 

Negundo Negundo, 111. 

Negundo trifoliatuniy 111. 

New Jersey Tea, 42. 

Nuttall, Thomas, 34. 

Nuttallia, 34. 



Ocneria dispar, 54. 

Ohio Buckeye, 55, 



Kalm, Peter, 85. 



PaliuruSy 41, 47. 

Papilio Eurymedon, 36. 

Pa via, 51. 

Pavia bicolory 59. 

Pavia Calif or nicay 61. 

Pavia carneay 53. 

Pavia discolor, 60. 

Pavia fiava, 59. 

Pavia fulvay 59. 

Pavia glabra, 55. 

Pavia hybrida, 60. 

Pavia Indica, 52. 

Pavia lutea, 59. 

Pavia neglectay 59. 

Pavia Ohioensis, 55. 

Pavia pallida, 55. 

Pavia rubra, 52. 

Pavia Watsoniana, 53. 

Paviana Jlavay 59. 

Perfonon laurifolium, 37, 39. 

Phlseospora Aceris, 81. 

Phoma minimay 81. 

Phyllosticta acericola, 81. 

Phyllosticta sphseropsoidea, 54 
Poitfea, 75. 

Poiteau, Alexandre, 75. 



INDEX. 



117 



Proteoteras sesculana, 53. 
Ptelea monophylla^ 7. 
Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 81 
Purple Haw, 25. 
Pursh, Frederick, 39. 
Putzey.'ila, 51. 

Putzeysia rosea, 52. 



Quercus Esculus, 54. 



Red Iron-wood, 21. 
Red Maple, 107. 
Reynosia, 19. 
Reynosia latifolia, 21. 
Reynoso, Alvaro, 19. 

RlIAMNACEiE, 19. 

Rhamnidium, 27. 

Rhamnidium ferreum, 29. 

Rhamnidium revolutum, 21. 

Rhamuus, 31. 

Rhamnus alnifoliay 37. 

Rhamnus Calif ornica, 37, 39. 

Rhamnus Californica^ var. rubra, 37. 

Rhamnus Californica, var. tomentella, 39, 

Rhamnus Caroliniana, 35. 

Rhamnus cathartica, 32. 

Rhamnus chlorophora, 32. 

Rhamnus colubrina, 47. 

Rhamnus crocea, 33. 

Rhamnus crocea, 34. 

Rhamnus crocea, var. insularis, 34. 

Rhamnus crocea, var. pilosa, 33. 

Rhamnus Davurica, 32. 

Rhamnus elliptica, 49. 

Rhamnus ferrea, 29. 

Rhamnus Frangula, 32, 36. 

Rhamnus ilicifolia, 33. 

Rhamnus infectoria, 32. 



Rhamnus insularis, 34. 

Rhamnus Icevigatus, 21. 

Rhamnus laurifoUa^ 37. 

Rhamnus oleifolia, 37. 

Rhaninus Purshiana, 37. 

Rhamnus Purshiana, var. tomentella, 39. 

Rhamnus rubra, 37, 38. 

Rhamnus tinctoria, 32. 

Rhamnus tomentella, 39. 

Rhamnus utilis, 32. 

Rhytisma acerinum, 81. 

Rhytisma punctatum, 81. 

Rock Maple, 97. 



Scutia ferrea, 21, 29. 
Septoria acerina, 81. 
Shittim-wood, 38. 
Silver Maple, 103. 
Soapberry, 69, 71. 
Soft Maple, 103. 
Spanish Buckeye, 65. 
Sphceropsis minima, 81. 
Sphyrapicus varius, 109. 
Spindle-tree, 10, 12. 
Steganoptycha claypoleana, 53. 
Striped Maple, 85. 
Sugar Maple, 97. 
Sweet Buckeye, 59. 



Titi, 7. 



Sapindace^, 51. 

Sapindus, 67. 

Sapindus acuminatus, 71. 

Sapindus Drummondi, 71. 

Sapindus falcatus, 71. 

Sapindus lucidus, 75. 

Sfipindus Manatensis, 71. 

Sapindus marginatus, 71. 

Sapindus Mukorossi, 68. 

Sapindus Saponaria, 69. 

Sapindus Saponaria, 71. 

Sapindus Saponaria, detersive properties Vine Maple, 93. 



Uncinula Aceris, 81. 
Uncinula circinata, 81. 
Uncinula flexuosa, 54. 
Ungnadia, 63. 
Ungnadia heptaphylla, 65. 
Ungnadia heterophylla, 65. 
Ungnadia speciosa, 65. 



of, 68. 
Sapindus trifoliatus, 68. 
Sarcomphalus , 31, 
Sarcomphalus CaroUnianus, 35. 
Scarlet Maple, 107. 
Schaeffer, Jakob Christian, 15. 
Schsefferia, 15. 
Schcefferia buxifolia, 17. 
Schoefferia completa, 17. 
Schsefferia cuneata, 15. 
Schsefferia frutescens, 17« 
Sciadophila^ 31. 



Vyenomus, 9. 



Wahoo, 11, 38. 
Waltheria Carolinensis, 7. 
"VMiite Iron-wood, 77. 
Wild China Tree, 71. 



Yellow-wood, 17. 



Zeuzera pyrina, 54. 
Zizyphus Domingensis, 49 
Zizyphus emarginatuSf 29. 



New York Botanical Garden Library 




3 5185 00287 8195 




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