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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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THE 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



A MEM A 



BY 



CHARLES SPEAGUE SARGENT 



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Thk New York Botanical Garden 

LuEsther T. Mertz Library 



Gift of 



The Estate of 

Henry Clay Frick, II 

2007 



v*!'// 




THE 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTIO:^^ OF THE TREES WHICH GROW 

I^ATURALLY IN :^rORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



gillujaitrateD tnitl^ f igureja: anD anal^^eg! nraton from iUature 



BY 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



AND ENGRAVED BT 



PHILIBERT AND EUGENE PICART 



VOLUME IIL 



ANA CARDIA CE^—LEO UMINOSM 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCXCm 



Copyright, 1891, 
Br CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 



All rights reserved* 



JTie Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass,, U. S, A, 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghton & Go> 



MERTZ LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



To 



FRANCIS PARKMAN, 



HAVE BEST PAINTED THE 



THE AMERICAN FOREST, 



HIS FRIEND DEDICATES 



Cl)t£! Solame; 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME III 

OF THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class I. DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class I- AngiOSpGrmSB. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 
Division I. Polypetalae. Flowers with calyx and corolla, the latter divided into separate petals. 

B. DISCIPLiOR^. Sepals generally distinct. Stamens as many as the petals, or twice as many, or fewer, 
usually inserted on a hypogynous or perigynous disk. Ovary superior, many-celled. 

18. AnacardiacesB. Flowers usually polygamo-dioecious. Disk coherent with the base of the calyx. Sepals 
and petals imbricated in aestivation. Stamens usually as many as the petals and alternate with them, or twice as many, 
inserted above or around the disk. Ovary 1-celled, the style 2 or 3-lobed, or 2 to 5-celled. Ovule solitary, sus- 
pended from the base of the cell on a slender funicle, or attached to the apex or to a parietal placenta. Seed exalbu- 
minous or rarely albuminous. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, stipular or exstipular. 

C. CALYCIPLOR-^. Sepals rarely distinct. Disk adnate to the base of the calyx, rarely tumid or conspicuous 
or wanting (Mimosas). Petals usually as many as the lobes of the calyx, or fewer by abortion, inserted on the margin 
of the calyx-tube or of the disk, occasionally wanting. Stamens definite or indefinite, perigynous or hypogynous. Ovary 



superior, 



19. Legnminosse. Flowers regular or irregular. 
Ovary composed of a single carpel. Ovules indefini 
anatropous. Style terminal. Albumen often wanting. 



ifini 



ula: 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Synopsis of Orders 
CoTiNus Americanus 



Rhus Metopium 



Plates xcviii., xcix 
Plates C.5 ci. 



Rhus typhina Plates cii., ciii 



Rhus copai^lina 
Rhus Vernix . 



Rhus integrifolia 



Eysenhardtta orthocarpa 



Plates civ,, cv., cvi 
Plates cvii.j cviii. 



Plate cix 
Plate ex. 



DaleA SPINOSA 



Plate cxi 



ROBUSriA PSEUDACACIA 

RoBiNiA Neo-Mexicana 



Plates cxii,, cxiii. 



Plate cxiv 



robinia viscosa 
Olneya Tesota 



Plate cxvi 



Ichthyomethia Piscipula 



Cladrastis lute a 



Plates cxvii., cxviii 
Plates exix., cxx. 



SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA ..•...- Plate 



CXXl 



SoPHORA AFFIjSIS 



Plate cxxii 



Gymnocladus dioicus 
Gleditsia triacanthos 



Plates cxxiii., cxxiv. 
Plates cxxv., cxxvi. 



Gleditsia aquatica Plates cxxvii., cxxviii 



Cercidium floridum 



Plate cxxix 



Cercidium Torreyanum Plate 



Parkinso^stia aculeata 



Plate cxxxi 



PARKINSOISnA MICROPHYLLA Plate CXXXU 



Cercis Canadensis 
Cercis Texensis 
Prosopis juliflora 



Plates cxxxiii.j cxxxiv 



Plates cxxxvi., cxxxvii 



Page 
V 

3 

13 
15 
19 
23 
27 
31 
35 
39 
43 



Plate cxv. .-..•.... 45 



49 

53 

57 
63 
65 
69 
75 
79 
83 
85 
89 
91 
95 



Plate cxxxv. ......... 97 



Prosopls pubescens Plate cxxxviii 



Leuc-ena glauca 



Plate cxxxix 



101 

107 
111 



Leuc^ena pulverulenta 



Plate cxl 113 



Acacia Farnesiana 

Acacia Wrighth 



Plate exli 



115 



Plate cxlii 123 



Acacia Greggh 



Plate cxliii 



125 



Lysiloma latisiliqua 



Plate cxliv 129 



PiTHECOLOBIUM UnGUIS-CATI 

Pithecolobium BREVIFOLIUM 

PiTHECOLOBIUM FLEXICAULE 



Plate cxlv 



133 



Plate cxlvi 135 



Plate cxlvii 



137 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



COTINUS 



Flowers regular, dioecious by abortion or rarely polygamo-dioecious ; calyx 5-lobed, 
the lobes imbricated in sestivation ; petals 5, imbricated in aestivation ; ovary 1-celled, 
obovate, compressed ; ovule solitary, suspended from the base of the cell. Fruit an 
oblong oblique compressed drupe. Leaves simple. Abortive pedicels long and tomen- 
tose at maturity. 



Cotinus, Linnaeus, Gen. 84. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 345. (in part). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 418 (in part). 

Rhus, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 5, 129 (in part). — A- L. de Jussieu, Marchand, Rev. Anacard. 179 (in part). — Baillon, Hist 

Gen. 369 (in part). — Endlicher, Gen. 1130 (in part). — PL v. 321 (in part). 

Meisner, Gen. 74 (in part). — Gray, Gen. IlL ii. 157 



Small trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, stout terete pithy branches, minute acuminate winter-buds, 
fleshy roots, and strong-smelling resinous julce.^ Leaves alternate, petiolate, oval, obovate-oblong or 
nearly orbicular, glabrous or more or less pilose-pubescent, destitute of stipules, deciduous. Flowers 
minute, greenish yellow, in ample loose terminal or lateral pyramidal or thyrsoidal panicles, the branches 
from the axils of Hnear acute or spatulate deciduous bracts. Pedicels slender, accrescent after the 
flowering period, mostly abortive and then conspicuously tomentose-villose at maturity. Cal3rx-lobes 
ovate, lanceolate, obtuse, persistent. Disk fleshy, annular, slightly five-lobed, coherent with the base 
of the calyx, and surrounding the base of the ovary. Petals oblong, acute, twice as long as the calyx, 
inserted under the free margin of the disk opposite its lobes, deciduous. Stamens five, inserted under 
the margin of the disk, alternate with and shorter than the petals ; filaments filiform ; anthers broadly 
ovate, attached on the back below the middle, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; usually 
rudimentary or abortive in the pistillate flower. Ovary sessile, obovate ; rudimentary in the pistillate 
flower. Styles three, short and spreading from the lateral apex of the ovary ; stigmas large, terminal, 
obtuse ; ovule anatropous, resupinate-suspended from the apex of a long slender funicle rising from 
the base of the cell ; the micropyle superior. Fruit glabrous, conspicuously reticulate-veined, bearing 
on the side near the middle the remnants of the persistent styles ; sarcocarp thin and dry, the endocarp 
thick and bony. Seed destitute of albumen, amphitropous ; testa thin, membranaceous. Embryo filling 
the seed ; cotyledons oval, flat, accumbent ; radicle short, incurved towards the hilum, descending by 
the unequal development of the fruit. 

The genus Cotinus occurs in the three continents of the northern hemisphere. The type of the 

1 The juice of the Old World species of Cotinus is said by properties found in some American species of Rhus. {Des Plantes 
Cornevin to possess, although in a slighter degree, the irritating Veneneuses^ 278.) 



2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ANACARDIACE^. 



genus 



Cot 



mis 



Cot 



a small shrubby 



dely distributed through southern Europ 



the 



ond species very 



Orient^ Cashmere, the western subtropical Himalayas, and northern China ; and a se< 
like the j&rst inhabits a few isolated localities in North America.^ 

The heartwood of the Old World Cotinus is orange-colored and often handsomely marked and 
mottled, and is valued in southern Europe by cabinet-makers ; it furnishes a yellow dye, and under the 
name of Young Mastic or Venetian Sumach was once an article of commercial importance. 



The bark 



is aromatic and astringent, and is used as a tonic and febrifuge ; and the bark and leaves, which are rich 
in tannin, are employed in curing leather.^ In the Himalayas the branches are used in making baskets 
and as tooth-sticks.'* 

The Venetian Sumach or Smoke-tree, as the Old World species is commonly called, has been 
cultivated as a garden-plant ^ from early times for the handsome effect produced by the clusters of long 
brightly colored pedicels ; and varieties have appeared with pendulous branches and with deeper 
colored pedicels than usually occur on the wild plant. 

The genus, from Korlvog^ the classical name of a tree with red wood, was established by Tourne- 
fort,^ and was afterwards adopted by Linnaeus. 



^ Cotinus Cotimis, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. 340. 
Rhits CotinuSf Linnaeus, Spec. 267. — Pallas, Voyages^ v, 221, t. 
10. — Jacquin, FL Austr. iii. 6, t. 210. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 

4.- 



(S 



299) 



2 Le Maout & Decaisne, TraiieGen. Bat. Eng. ed. 363. — Baillon, 
Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind, ii. 9. — Hemsley^ Jour. Lin?i. Soc. Hist. PL y. 300. — Guibourt, Hist. Drog. ed. 7, iii. 490. — Aitclii- 



xxiii. 146. 

Cotinus Coggygria, Scopoli, FL Carn. i. 220. — Engler, De Can- 
dalle Monogr. Pkaner. iv. 350. 

2 Traces of Cotinus appear in the recent Eocene flora of Aix, in 



son, Jour. Linn. Soc. xix. 141. 

* Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 118. 



Gamble, Man. Indian 



Timbers, 104. 
6 Pliny, xvi. 18, 30. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres , i. 191, t. 78 



v/liich Saporta finds the prototypic form of the existing Old World Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 549, f. 223. 

« Inst. 610, t. 380. 



ANACARDIACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



COTINUS AMERICANUS. 



Chittam Wood. 



Panicles slender, long-branched, few-flowered. Leaves obovate or oval, puberulous 

the lower surface. 



tinus Americanus, Nuttall, Sy 
gent, Garden and Forest^ iv. 340. 



Sar- 



N. 



Rhus cotinoides, Nuttall in herb. — Cooper, Smithsonian 
Rep. 1858, 250. — Chapman, Fl. 70. — Coulter, Contrih. 
U, S. Nat Herb. ii. 67 (Man. PL W. Texas). 



Coggygria, 

350 (in part) 



A small tree, twenty-five to thirty-five feet in height, with a straight trunk occasionally twelve or 
fourteen inches in diameter, usually dividing, twelve or fourteen feet from the ground, into several erect 
stems which separate into wide-spreading, often slightly pendulous branches. The bark of the trunk 
is an eighth of an inch thick and is light gray and furrowed, the surface breaking into thin oblong 
scales. The inner bark is white, but on its exposure to the air soon turns orange, and when cut exudes 
a resinous sap with a strong disagreeable odor. The young shoots are purple at first, but soon become 
green ; during the first winter they are bright red-brown and are covered with small white lenticular 
spots and marked by large prominent leaf-scars j in their second year the bark of the branches is dark 

The winter-buds are acuminate and an eighth of an inch long, and are covered with 
thin dark red-brown scales. The leaves are oval or obovate, rounded or sometimes slightly emarginate 
at the apex^ and gradually contracted at the base ; they are thin and membranaceous, entire, with 
slightly wavy and revolute margins, four to six inches long and two to three inches broad, and are 
borne on stout petioles varying from a half to three quarters of an inch in length. The leaves are hglit 



orange-colored. 



purple when they unfold and 



then covered on the lower surface with fine silky 



they 



soon turn bright green, and at maturity are dark g 
puberulous along the broad midribs and primary 



above and pale on the lower surface, which is 



The flowers, which 



April 



early in May, are produced in puberulous terminal panicles five or six inches long and two and a half 
to three inches broad^ the males and females on different individuals. The bracts are scarious, half an 
inch long, and early deciduous. The flower-bearing pedicels are from a half to three quarters of an 
inch in length and are usually collected three or four together in loose umbels near the ends of the 
principal branches of the panicles. The ripe fruit, which is produced very sparingly, is rather more 
than an eighth of an inch long, and is borne on stalks which vary in length from two to three inches. 
The sterile pedicels are from one and a half to two inches long at maturity, and are covered with short, 
not very abundant, and rather inconspicuous pale purple or brown hairs. 

Cotinus Americanus was discovered by Thomas Nuttall in 1819 on the banks of Grand River, 
a tributary of the Arkansas, within the present hmits of the Indian Territory ; ^ twenty-three years 
later it was found by Mr. S. B. Buckley^ in Alabama, where it grows in a few localities north of 



1 



^/ 



southwestern regions of the Apalachian-mountain system, where 
he discovered many interesting plants. In 1866 Buckley was 



Year 1819, 177. 
2 Samuel Botsford Buckley (1809-1884) was a native of Yates appointed state geologist of Texas, and made his home in Austin, 



V^esleyan 



where he resided during the remainder of his life. In 



Middletown Connecticut, where he was graduated in 1836. He continued his botanical studies and found many undescribed plants, 
established himself as a teacher first in Illinois and then in The botanical papers -which contained the results of these investi- 
Alabama and was one of the earliest naturalists to explore the gations were prepared without access to a well-equipped library, 



4 



SILVA OF NOHTH AMERICA. 



ANACARDIACE^. 



the Ten 



River 



the souther 



lop 



HuntsviUe ; ^ it occurs on the Cheat Mountains 
River 



of the Cumberland Mountains in the neighborhood of 
in eastern Tennessee and in the valley of the Medina 



of 



in western Texas.^ In Alabama Cotinus Americanits occupies limestone terraces at eleva 
en hundred to nine hundred feet above the level of the sea^ on the steep and rocky slop 



of 



ed with a heavy forest growth of Chest 



lut Oaks, Elms, Mocker Nuts, Black Maples, 
and Junipers, and a dense undergrowth composed of the Black Haw, the "Wild Plum, the Hornbeam, 
and the fragrant Sumach. It is nowhere abundant, and occurs only in small isolated groves or thickets 
scattered along the sides of rocky ravines. 

The wood of Cotinus Americanits is hght, soft, and rather coarse-grained, the layers of annual 
growth being marked by several rows of large open ducts ; it is a bright clear rich orange-color with 
thin nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous very obscure medullary rays. It is very durable in 
contact with the soil, but is difficult to season and Hable to check in drying. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.6425, a cubic foot weighing 40.04 pounds. It yields a clear orange- 
colored dye, and was once largely used locally for fence-posts. 



Cotinus Americanus was introduced into cultivation through the Arnold Arboretum in 1882. 



It 



has not proved hardy in New England, and is not known to have flowered in cultivation. In favorable 
situations it may be expected to grow to a larger size than the Venetian Sumach. The sterile filaments 
are shorter, less abundant, and less brightly colored, and it will probably prove a less showy and 
desirable garden plant.^ 



and brought severe and not always just criticisms upon their all the large specimens were cut down for the dye which the wood 

author. The last years of his life, devoted principally to farming yields, and the tree is now much less common than formerly and 

and fruit-growing, were thus greatly embittered, although his is in danger of extermination. 

interest in botany survived to the end. BucJcleya, a remarkable San- ^ Cotinus Americanus was discovered in Texas on the 6th of June, 

talaceous genus, of which he discovered the flowers and fruit, and 1885, by Mr, Julien Reverchon on the steep bluffs of the narrow 

which is represented in the flora of America by a graceful shrub defile of the Bandera Pass over which the road from Kerrsville 



of the mountains of North Carolina, and in Japan by a second 



miles 



species peculiar to that country, fitly commemorates Buckley's Waresville road. Only a few shrubby individuals were found in 



zealous and too little appreciated labors in the cause of science. 
^ The most accessible locality where this tree is found in Ala- 



these two stations. 

^ The fruiting panicles of the Venetian Sumach as it now appears 



bama is on the slopes and summit of a low hill near Bailey's farm, in gardens have been greatly modified by long cultivation and by 
twelve miles from HuntsviUe, on the road to Winchester, Tennes- selection with a view to developing their showy appearance, and 
see. (Buckley, Proc. Phil, Acad, 1881, 125.) It was also found are much more conspicuous than those of the wild plant. Cultiva- 



by Mohr on the southern slope of Mt. Sono, east of HuntsviUe. tion and selection m 
(Proc. PhiL Acad. 1882, 217.) During the War of Secession nearly the American plant. 



xpected 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate XCVIIL Cotixus Amertcanus. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate 2)lant, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Front and rear view of a stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8- Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A pistil cut transversely, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate XCIX. Cotinus Americanus. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, much magnified. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North Afnerica 



Tab. XCVin 




C E.Fcucon del 




t-- 




r sc 



COTINUS AMERICANUS , Nutt 



A Riccreux direj:^ * 



Imp. R, Taneiir, Fans 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Tab. XCIX 




CJL.Faxoa del . 



pLcart fr. sc 



COTINUS AMERICANOS ,Nutt 



A.Rwcreux direx . 



Imp. R Taneur, Parts 



ANACARDIACE^. 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



7 



RHUS. 



Flowers regular, polygamo-dioecious, polygamo-monoecious or dioecious by abortion ; 
calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 5, imbricated in aestivation ; 



ovary 1 -celled, ovoid or globular ; ovules solitary, suspended. Fruit, a small nut-like 
drupe. 



Rhus, Linnaeus, Gen. 84. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 342. 



Metopium, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 111. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 369 (excl. Cotinus). — Endlicher, Vernix, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 342. 

Gen. 1130 (excl. Cotinus). — Meisner, Gen. 74 (excL Pocophorum, Necker, Elem. Bat. ii. 226. 



Cotinus). — Gray, Gen. IlL ii. 157 (excl. Cotinus). 



Lobadium, Rafinesque, Jour. Phys. Ixxxix. 98. 



Benthara & Hooker, Gen. i. 418 (excl. Cotinus^ Li- Turpinia, Rafinesque, N. Y. Med. Rep. hex. 2, v. 352. 

thrcea^ and Anaphrenium) . — Marchand, Rev. Anacard. Schmalzia, Desvaux, Jour. Bot. iii. 229. 

179 (excl. Cotinus and Anaphrenium) . — Baillon, Hist. Styphonia, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 220 



PL V. 321 (excl. Cotinus^ Lithrcea^ and Anaphrenium). 



Melanococca, Blume, Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 236. 



Trees or shrubs^ sometimes climbing by rootlets^ with stout terete pithy branchlets, fleshy roots^ and 
resinous or viscid milky^ sometimes caustic^ juice. Leaves alternate^ pinnate^ pinnately trifohate or rarely 
simple^ destitute of stipules. Flowers minute^ white or greenish white^ in more or less compound axillary 
or terminal panicles, the males and females usually produced on separate plants. Calyx five-lobed, the 
lobes united at the base only, generally persistent. Disk fleshy, surrounding the base of the free ovary, 
coherent with the base of the calyx, annular or five-lobed. Petals five, longer than and alternate with 
the divisions of the calyx, inserted under the margin of the disk opposite its lobes, deciduous. Stamens 
five, inserted on the margin of the disk, alternate with the petals ; filaments subulate ; anthers oblong, 
attached on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; rudimentary or abortive in 
the pistillate flower. Ovary one-celled, sessile, ovoid or subglobose ; rudimentary in the staminate 
flower ; styles three, terminal, free or slightly connate at the base, rising from the centre of the ovary 
and crowned with the obtuse or capitate stigmas ; ovule solitary, anatropous, suspended from the 
incurved apex of a slender funiculus rising from the base of the cell ; the micropyle superior. Fruit 
usually globose, rarely compressed or ovoid, smooth or covered with hairs ; sarcocarp thin and dry, 
more or less resinous ; endocarp crustaceous or bony. Seed ovoid or reniform, amphitropous, commonly 
transverse, filling the cavity of the fruit, destitute of albumen ; testa thin, membranaceous. Embryo 
filling the seed ; cotyledons flat, f ohaceous, generally transverse ; radicle long, uncinate, laterally 

accumbent. 

Rhus is widely distributed in the extratropical regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. 



Mo 



than a hundred species 



distinguished ; ^ they abound 



d eastern and southern Asia,^ and are found in trop 



but is rare within the tropics. 

southern Africa,^ North America 

subtropical America^ and the Andes,^ in east tropical Africa,^ in the Indian Archipelago,*^ the Fej 

and Hawaiian Islands,^ and in Australia ^^ where one species is k 



and 



8 



Traces of Ehus are rare and 



1 Engler, De Candolle Monogr. Phaner. Iv. 371. 

2 Harvey & Sonder, FL Cap. i. 504. 

8 Franchet & Savatier, E?ium, PL Jap. I 92. — Hemsley, Jour. 



xxui 



Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. ii. 9. 



6 Ruiz & Pavon, FL Perm. iii. 29, t, 252. — Engler, L c. 400. 



^ Kichard, FL Abyss, i. 143. 



Fl. Trop. Afi 



441 



7 Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. 1164. — Miquel 



4 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vii. 8, t. pt. ii. 621. — Engler, L v. 450. 
602-604. — Grisebach, FL BriU W. Ind. 175. — Triana & Planchon, » Gray, BoL Wilkes Explor. 

Ann. Set. Nat ser. 5, xiv. 288. — Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. Cent. ^ HQlebranc 



44 



i. 217, 



, Fl. Haw. Is. 89. 
Fl. AustraL i. 488 



8 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A. 



ANACARDIACE^. 



faintly characterized in the records of the Tertiary Arctic flora; they abound, however, in that of 
Europe, especially from the Lite Eocene to the end of the Miocene period.^ In North America the 
genus is widely and generally distributed from Canada to southern Mexico, and from the shores of 
the Atlantic to those of the Pacific Ocean, with sixteen or seventeen species within the territory of 
the United States. Five species growing north of Mexico reach the size and attain the habit of small 
trees ; the others are large or small shrubs. 

Many species of Rhus possess useful properties, and some of them are of commercial importance. 
The most valuable is the Lacquer-tree of China and Japan, Rhits vernlcifera? The acrid milky 
poisonous juice ^ of this species furnishes the black varnish used by the Japanese in the manufacture 
of lacquer ; ^ and a wax is obtained from the fruit and from that of Rhus siiccedanea^ a native of 



^ Saporta, Origine PaUontologique des Arhres, 298, 



ing by a more luxuriant growth. The increased demand for cereals 



2 De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 68. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PL and other farm produce which has sprung up in Japan of late years 



Jap, i. 93. — Engler, De CandoUe Monogr, Phaner. iv. 398. 
Hemsley, Jour, Linn. Soc. xxiii. 148. 

R. VerniXy Thunberg, FL Jap, 121 (not Linnaeus). 



iferd legitimaj folio pmnato Juglandis, fructii 



has restricted the planting of the Lacquer-tree to hilly and waste 
grounds, and old plantations bordering arable fields are being 
destroyed to make room for more valuable crops. 

The age at which the trees are tapped varies in different prov- 



ciceris fc 



Kaempfer alludes to the inces. Sometimes they are tapped when only four years old, al- 



poisonous properties of the juices of this plant in the following though nearly all cultivated trees are allowed to grow for at least 
passage : " Utrinque Japonica & Siamensis Vernix venenatum ex- ten years before the sap is drawn from them, when they yield from 



spirat halitum, ex quo labia tumescuut, & caput dolet ; unde in two to three ounces each. Very old trees are supposed to produce 

delinieiulo artifices strophiolo os & nares obligant." 794. the best and strongest lacquer, and the sap from such trees is 

^ The manufacture of lacquer-ware has been practiced in Japan therefore collected separately and brings a high price, 

for more than two thousand years. The principal ing-redient used The operation of drawing the sap from the trees lasts from June 

is the sap of the Lacquer-tree, which is cultivated with more or less until November. A number of short horizontal incisions, one above 

care all over the main island of Nippon and is grown in several the other and about six inches apart, are made in the trunk and 

districts of the islands of Kiushiu and Shikoku, although a temper- main branches. From these the sap is collected several times a 

ate climate appears to suit it best, as it reaches its greatest per- day with a wooden tool made for the purpose, while every three 

fection on tlie main island north of latitude 36°- It is cultivated or four days a sharp knife-blade is run under the bark, along the 

principally in northern Hondo, between latitude 37° and 39° ; but edges of the cuts, to insure a free flow. Finally all the branches 

extensive plantations occur also in the valley of the Tadami-gawa are cut off the tree, and the larger ones are tapped again to extract 

any sap that may still remain in them, while the small ones which 

of Lacquer-trees, which grow up with straight trunks and while have not been tapped are tied in bundles and steeped in water for 

young produce handsome heads of large pinnate leaves, said by several days, when they yield a small amount of sap. 



and in northern Echigo. Here villages are embowered in groves 



Rein to exceed those of all other species of Rhus in size and 



This operation kills the tree in one season. By reducing the 



beauty. Old trees produce comparatively few branches, and their number of incisions it is sometimes allowed to live through another 



foliage is light and thin. 



season ; but the sap then obtained is of inferior quality and trees 



The Lacquer-tree is propagated from seed and by cuttings. The are rarely worked more than one year. Usually contractors purchase 

fruit is gathered in October, and the outer covering of the stones the trees by the thousand, and the sap is extracted as rapidly and 

is at once removed by pounding them in mortars. They are then as thoroughly as possible by professional tappers. As soon as it is 

washed and put into straw sacks, which are plunged in liquid ma- drawn it is poured into large wooden tubs or vats, and is stirred 

in the sun with large wooden spatulas until all excess of water is 

been first exposed to the sun for five or six days, they are sown in evaporated. In some cases it undergoes careful strainiu"* • in oth- 

carefully prepared seed-beds, and covered with a thin layer of soil. ers it is mixed with sulphate of iron, oxide of iron, or with indigo. 



nure or in water during the winter. In the early spring, having 



Tlie seedling plants reach a height of ten or twelve inches during 



ixpected 



the first summer, and the following spring are transplanted six feet trees in a season ; and some idea of the extent of the industry may 

apart and allowed to grow undisturbed. In ten years they attain be obtained from the fact that the Province of Echizen sends out 

an average height of nine or ten feet, with trunks two or three fifteen hundred tappers every year to the different lacquer districts 

iuclies in diameter. Plants raised from root-cuttings grow rather of the Empire. From 30,000 to 35,000 tubs of lacquer varnish, 

more rapidly than seedlings, although the latter make hardier each of four gallons capacity, are annually produced in the country. 

and longer-lived trees. The process is simple and demands little (See J. J. Quin, Trans. Asiatic Soc, Jap, ix, pt. i. 1; British Consu- 

labor or skill. Pieces of the root about half an inch thick are taken lar Reports, 1882. — Audsley, 

from vigorous young trees and are cut into six-inch lengths ; these 3. — Louis Gonse, L'Art Japonais, 246. 

are set in beds in a slanting position, about an inch only being left tijique, ser, 2, xiv. 1178. — Reed, Japan, its History, Traditions, and 

above the surface of the soil These cuttings, which are usually Religions, ii. 31. — Rein, /a;?an nach Reisen und Studien im Auftrage 

planted in March, produce shoots nearly two feet long during the der Koniglich Preussischen Regierung, ii. 186. — Hosie, Three Years 

first season, and the following spring are transplanted in the same in Western China, 164.) 

manner as the seedlings. Once planted, the trees receive little ^ The vegetable-wax of Japan is obtained from the thick white 



Ornamental Arts of 



Scien 



B::bsequent care, although they repay the cost of occasional manur- 



ifera and 



ANACARDIACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



southern and eastern A 



Chinese o-alls ^ are produced on Rh 



from the Himalayas through China and Japan to the Hawaiian Isla 
in southern Europe for the tannin 



Rii 



tree widely distributed 
Corlarla ^ is cultivated 



contained 



dried and pulverized 



are 



d 



curing leather ; ^ the acid and astringent fruit was employed by 



diment. and 



still 



lonally used.* The wood of many of the species is soft, coarse-grained, and highly 



others yield hard and heavy wood valued in cabinet-making and for wagons. The acrid and astring 
berries 



of Rhus glabra,^ a shrubby North American species, are diuretic and refrio-erant, and are 



& 



sometimes used, in infusion 



the treatment of catarrhal troubles and 



febrile diseases ; and 



infusion of the leaves and of the inner bark of the roots is employed for 

called Poison Ivy of North A 



dressing wounds 



The leaves of the 



Toxicodendron^ are stimulant and narcotic and are said to have been successfully used 



? purpose 
d Japan, 



d in 



Rh 



widely 



one to two and a half inches ; they contain about seventy per cent. 



to Java and Japan, and is extensively grown in the milder portions of tannic acid, which is regarded identical with that obtained from 

of Japan, flourishing south of latitude 35° north, and in Kiushiu oak galls. Chinese galls appear to have been first imported into 

and some parts of Ino, forming a conspicuous feature of the land- Europe early in the eighteenth century, when they were known 

scape, covering hillsides and lining the borders of fields and roads as'"Oreilles des Indes " (Geoffrey, Mem. Acad, Roy ale des Sci- 

and the margins of dikes and canals. It is a smaller and more ences^ 1724, 324), but they soon disappeared from commerce, and 

widely branching tree than Rhus vernicifera^ with smaller leaves it is only in recent years that they have formed a regular article 

but larger, heavier fruit richer in fat ; it resembles an Apple-tree of trade, being imported from both China and Japan into Europe, 

in habit, and grows to a height of fifteen or eighteen feet. As the where they are used, principally in Germany, in the manufacture 

Wax-tree is cultivated for its fruit alone, it is usually propagated of tannic and gallic acids. (Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographiay 

from cuttings in order to secure a preponderance of female plants, 538.) 

2 Linnseus, Spec. 265. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 67. — Sibthorp, 



the methods adopted for multiplying the Lacquer-tree being used. 



It increases in productiveness with age, and the ground is therefore Fl. Gtcec. iii. 84, t. 290. — Ledebour, FL Ross. i. 509. — Boissier, 



generally more carefully prepared and enriched for it than for the FL Orient, ii. 4. 



Monog 



Lacquer-trees, which are constantly destroyed and replanted. 



^ Rhus Coriariay which is a small shrubby tree, grows naturally 



The fruit of both these trees is kidney-shaped and light yellow- on dry rocky slopes and on gravelly sterile plains, and is widely 

green when ripe. The semitranslucent outer coat separates and distributed through the regions bordering the Mediterranean and 

falls soon after the fruit reaches maturity, leaving the greenish the Black Sea, extending into the Caucasus, to the shores of the 

white fat of the mesocarp visible. As soon as it is gathered the Caspian and to northern Persia, and to Madeira and the Canary 

fruit is separated from the stalks and is ground ; the meal is then Islands. 

put into hempen sacks, heated by steam, and pressed in wedge- The sumach of commerce, used in curing the best qualities of 
shaped presses. The tallow as it flows from the press soon con- leather, consists of the dried and powdered leaves of this plant, 
geals into a solid mass. This is melted in iron kettles to free it which has long been cultivated on a large scale in southern Europe, 
from impurities, and the wax as it rises is skimmed off into small particularly in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Dry calcareous soil 
earthenware saucers, from which it can be easily removed in cakes from which the water drains rapidly produces the most valuable 
ready for the market. The wax intended for export is made sumach. The plants are propagated by suckers, which are set in 
almost entirely from the fruit of R. succedanea and undergoes a December and January and yield a harvest of leaves the first year, 
process of bleaching. The raw wax is melted and allowed to drop They are carefully cultivated and are severely pruned at the begin- 
through woolen bags into cold water ; it is then placed in shallow ning of winter to encourage the production of vigorous shoots and 
boxes and exposed to the sun, and, being frequently sprinkled with a large crop of leaves. A plantation is usually profitable for twelve 
water and turned, in thirty days becomes white and almost odor- or fifteen years, and is then dug up and renewed. The leaves are 
less. Rhus-tallow, which is not a true wax, is composed of a gathered in June, and are threshed and ground into fine powder, 
mixture of several glycerides, principally of palmitic acid. The in which form sumach appears in commerce. It is bright olive- 
Japanese use it for candles and in the place of beeswax in polish- green and contains from twenty-five to thirty per cent, of tannic 
iug furniture. It is exported in considerable quantities, princi- acid identical with that found in Oak galls. (For a detailed 
pally to Great Britain and the United States, and is mixed with account of the method of cultivating Rhus Coriaria in Sicily, see 
beeswax or used as a substitute for it. (See A. Mayer, Archiv. de a paper by Professor Inzenga in the Annali di Agricullura Sicili- 



Pharmacies xii. 
Rein, L c. 189.) 



Pharmacie 



ana, 1852, reproduced in the Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh^ ix. 341. 
See also U. S. Consular Reports, No. 42, June, 1884, 27. — Naudin, 



1 Chinese galls are vesicular excrescences produced on the Manuel de VAcclimateur, AG2.) 



branches and leaf-stalks of Rhus semialata (IMurray, Goett. Verh. 
1784, 27, t. 3. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 67.— Hooker f. FL Brit 



* A. de Candolle, VOrigine des Plantes CuUivees, 106. 

^ Linnaeus, Spec. 2Go. — Engler, De Candolle Monogr. Phaner, 



Ind. ii. 10. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 119. — Franchet & Sava- iv. 376. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 119. 



tier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 92. 



Mo 



Stills & Maisch, NaL Dispens. ed. 2, 1230. — U. S. Dispens. 



iv. 380. Hillebrand, FL Haw. Is. 89. — Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. ed. 14, 772. — Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat Med. 174. 

xxiii. 146) by the punctures of an insect believed to be Aphis Chi- "^ Linnseus, Spec. 266. — Engler, L c. 393. — Watson & Coulter, 

nensis. The galls are light and hollow and vary in length from L c. 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ANACARDIACE^- 



of cutaneous diseases. Their medicinal worthy however^ is not great/ The juice of this plant^ which 
turns black on exposure to the air, may serve as indehble ink ; it is soluble in ether.^ 



An infusion of 

the astringent bark of the roots of Rhus aromatlca^ an undershrub widely distributed through the 
northern states and Canada, is valued as an excitant to the bladder, and in the treatment of hemorrhages 
and of atonic diarrhoea,^ The white waxy exudation produced in summer from the fruit of Rhus 
ohovata,^ a shrubby species of the mountains of southern Cahfornia and the adjacent regions of 
Mexico, has a sweet and agreeable flavor, and is used by Indians as a substitute for sugar.^ 

Few species of insects^ are known to injure Rhus in North America 3 and its diseases caused 
by fungi ^ are not numerous or particularly serious. 

Several species of Rhus, particularly the Sumachs of eastern North America, have long been grown 
in gardens for the beauty of their fruit and of their foliage which assumes brilliant colors in autumn. 
The Asiatic Rhus semialata is cultivated in the gardens of the United States and Europe for its 
conspicuous flower-clusters and its large handsome leaves which turn orange and scarlet before faUing. 
Rhus lucida^ a native of southern Africa, is often employed as a hedge plant in the countries adjacent 
to the Mediterranean.^^ 



The name of the genus, formed from 



the 



cal name of the Europ 



Sura 



was 



established by Tournefort 



11 



d afterwards adopted by Linnaeus 



Stilld & Maisch, Nat, Dispens, ed. 2, 1436. — U. S. Dispens. country. (C. V. Riley, 6th Rep. Insects of Mo. 118.) Caterpillars 



ed. 14, 906. 



of various species feed on the leaves, and a leaf-roller (Loxotoenia 



2 The juices of Rhus Toxicodendron^ and even the effluvium ex- rosaceanay Harris) frequently disfigures them. An aphis (Pemphi- 

haled by it under the influence of a hot sun, are extremely poisonous gus rhoisy Fitch) causes the large conspicuous galls which often 

to some persons, while others are not affected by them and can appear on the leaves of R. typhinay and Psylla rhoiSy Fitch, is 

handle the plant without injury. The effects of the poison, which sometimes found in great numbers on the different species, espe- 

appear several hours after exposure, are redness and violent itch- cially on R. copallina. 
ing, followed by fever and ct vesicular eruption which may be 

accompanied, especially on the face and genitals, with tumefaction ; species of the order Discomycetes found on the stems and less 

they reach their height on the fourth or fifth day, when desquama- frequently on the leaves. The most conspicuous of these in the 

tion begins and the swelling and pain subside. Herbivorous ani- northern and eastern parts of the country is Taphrina purpurascenSy 

nials are particularly fond of the leaves of R. Toxicodendron and Robinson ; it is most abundant on Rhus copallinay but also attacks 

devour them greedily and with perfect impunity; and various R. glabra. The diseased leaves, which are principally near the tips 



^ Most of the fungi inhabiting Rhus in North America are small 



insects which feed upon them do so, apparently, without injury. 
(J, C. White, Dermatitis Venenata, 31.) 



of the branches, may at once be recognized by a dark lurid pur- 
ple color becoming somewhat glaucous as the spores ripen. The 



8 Aiton, Hort, Kew. I 367. — Gray, Gen, 111. ii. 160, t. 160 ; affected leaflets are abnormally swollen and crisp on the upper 



Man, ed. 5, 112. 



surface, and finally hang drooping from the branches. The effect 



R, Canadensis, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 129. — Watson & Coulter, produced by this fungus is very unsightly, and might, without 



Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 119. 



the aid of a microscope, pass for the work of insects. Uromyces 



Napheys, Medical TherapeuticSy 467. —Parke, Davis & Co., brevipes (B. & Rav.) is found throughout the eastern and central 



Organic Mat. Med. 154. 

^ Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 358. 

StypJionia integrifoliay Torrey, Pacifi 
(in part). 



;r & Watson, Bat. Cal. i. 110 (in 
Western American Scientist, iii. 46 



parts of the United States on R. Toxicodendron and occurs in 
California on R. diversiloba. Pileolaria effusa (Peck), a closely 
related species, is found on R. aromaticay and other related forms 
afflict different species of Rhus in Japan. 

^ Linnpeus, Spec. 267. — Cavanilles, Icon. ii. 27, t. 132. — Harvey 



& Sonder, Fl. Cap. i. 517 



Monogr. Phaner. 



^ The Jumping Sumach-beetle (Blepharida rhois, Forster) is one iv. 413. 



of the most troublesome insects which attack Rhus in North Amer- 
ica, often defoliating R. glabra and R. typhina over large areas of 



1^ Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateury 463. 
11 Inst. 611, t. 381. 



ANACARDiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES- 



Metopium. Flowers in axillary panicles ; drupe obovate, glabrous ; leaves unequally pinnate. 
(Poisonous.) 

Leaves pinnate or often trifoliate 1. R. METOPruM 



Sumac. Flowers in terminal thyrsoidal panicles ; fruit globular, clothed with acrid hairs ; 
leaves unequally pinnate. 

Branches and leaf-stalks densely velvety-hairy ; leaflets 11 to 31, pale on the lower sur- 
face ; fruit covered with long hairs 2. R. typhina. 

Branches and leaf-stalks pubescent ; petioles winged ; leaflets 9 to 21, green on the lower 

surface ; fruit pilose 3, R. copallina 



• 



Toxicodendron. Flowers in slender axillary panicles ; fruit glabrous, white ; leaves unequally 
pinnate or trifoliate. (Poisonous,) 

Leaves pinnate, seven to thirteen-foliolate 

Stvphonia. Flowers in terminal panicles; pedicels conspicuously bracted; fruit pubescent; 

leaves usually simple, persistent. 

Flowers in short compact panicled racemes ; leaves ovate, entire or serrate, simple or 



4. R. Vernix 



11 



r 



arely trifoliate • . 5. R. INTEGRIFOLIA 



ANACARDIACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



13 



RHUS METOPIUM. 



Poison Wood. Hog Gum. 



Flowers dioecious by abortion. Drupe oboyate, glabrous ; stone cbartaceous 
Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets glabrous, entire. 



Rhus Metopium, LInngeus, Amcen. v. 395. — Poiret, Lam 



Diet. vii. 507. 



HoTt 



Descour- 



Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 175. — Chapman, Ft. 69. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 54. 

tilz, FL Med. AntiL ii. 49, t. 79. — Roemer & Schultes, R. Oxymetopium, Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 67. 

Syst. vi. 648. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 67. — Don, Gen. Metopium Linnaei, Engler, De Candolle Monogr. Phaner. 

Syst. ii. 69. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 211. — Macfadyen, 



iv. 367. 



Fl. Jam. 225. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1002. — Nuttall, Sylva^ Metopium Linnsei, var. Oxymetopium^ Engler, De Can- 



ii. 121, t. 80.— Richard, FL Cut. ii. 157. — Grisebach, 



doUe Monogr. Phaner. iv. 367. 



A tree;, with exceedingly acrid poisonous juices^ frequently thirty-five to forty feet in height, Tvith a 
short trunk sometimes two feet in diameter, and stout spreading often pendulous branches forming a low 
broad top. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, and separates into large thin plate-Uke 
scales displaying the bright orange-color of the inner bark ; it is light reddish brown tinged with orange 
and often marked with dark spots caused by the exuding of the resinous gum with which this tree 



abounds. The branchlets 



thick and are reddish brown, with prominent leaf-scars and 



orange-colored lenticular excrescences. The winter-buds are large and covered with thick acuminate 
scales truncate at the apex and furnished on the margin with rufous hairs. The leaves, which are 
clustered near the ends of the branches, are nine to ten inches long, and are borne on stout petioles with 
swollen and enlarged bases ; they are composed of two or three pairs and a terminal leaflet, or are often 
three-foliate, and unfold in March^ remaining on the branches until the appearance of the new growth 
the following year. The leaflets are ovate, broadly rounded or usually contracted towards the apex, 
which is then acute or sometimes slightly emarginate, and rounded or sometimes cordate or wedge-shaped 
at the base. They are thick, smooth, and lustrous, with thickened slightly revolute margins, prominent 
midribs, primary veins spreading at right angles, and many reticulating veinlets ; they are three or four 
inches long and two or three inches broad, and are borne on stout petiolules half an inch or an inch in 
length, that of the terminal leaflet being sometimes twice as long as the others. The male and female 
flowers are produced on separate trees in slender erect axillary clusters aggregated at the ends of the 
branches and as long as the leaves or rather longer. The stem of the inflorescence is enlarged at the 
base, and, like its branches, is covered with smaU orange-colored lenticular spots. The bracts and 
bractlets are acute, minute, and deciduous. The pedicels are stout, an eighth of an inch thick, and as 
long as the obtuse flower-buds. The lobes of the calyx are semiorbicular, with membranaceous margins, 
and are half the length of the ovate obtuse yellow-green petals, which are marked on the inner surface 
with dark longitudinal hues. The stamens are rather shorter than the petals in the sterile flower, and 
are minute and rudimentary in the fertile flower. The ovary, which in the sterile flower is reduced to 

th a short style and a large three-lobed stigma. The fruit ripens in 



a small point, is subglobose wi 
November and December, and ] 
and rather lustrous, three quarters of 



& 



graceful 



obovoid, orange-colored, glabro 



ch in length, and crowned with the remnants of the styl 



The outer covering, which is rather thick and resinous, incloses a thin crustaceous stone and a nearly 
quadrangular thin seed with a broad f unicle covering its margin and a smooth dark brown opaque 

testa. ^ 

1 The juices of Rhus Meioipium^ and even its exhalations at the people, producing the same symptoms as those caused by Rhus 
time the trees are in flower, are exceedingly poisonous to most 



Toxicodendron. 



14 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ANACARDIACE-a:. 



Rhus Mefojmim- is found in Florida on the shores of Bay Biscayne and on the principal southern 



keys^ where 



of the commonest and most beautiful of the smaller 



It also inhabits the 



Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and Honduras. 

The wood of Bhus ^letojnum is heavy and hard, although not strong, and contains many evenly 

distributed open ducts and thin medullary rays. It is rich dark brown streaked with red, with thick 

Tlie 



light brown or yellow sapwood composed of twenty-five to thirty layers 



of annual growth. 



specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7917, a cubic foot weighing 49.34 pounds, 
badly in drying and is little used or esteemed. An emetic, purgative, 



It checks 



and diuretic resinous gum is 



obtained from incisions made in the bark. 



1 



BJms Metojniim was probably first described by Sloane ^ in his catalogue of the plants of Jamaica 
pubhshed in 1696. It was first discovered in Florida ^ by Dr. J. L. Blodgett.^ 

Metojniim^ the name used by PHny ^ for an African tree, was first adopted by Browne as the 
generic name of this plant. 



Pharmaceutical 



Guibourt, Hist. Drog, 



efest Plantations of the English in America, to wit, of 



489. This resin appears to have been formerly held in New England, Bermudas and Barbados, published in London in 



some esteem by the inhabitants of Jamaica, where, according to 1670, describes on page 72 a Poison Tree, which is, perhaps, Rhus 

Browne, it was much employed in "strengthening plasters" and Metopium. This, he says, "is very beautiful, almost as large as the 

was useful in the treatment of " all swellings arising from colds, Locust : Her Leaves as large and beautiful as Laurel Leaves, and 

the weakness of the vessels, or poverty of the juices, both exter- very like them. As they cut * 

nally and internally.'' (Nat. Hist. Jam. 178.) over their Faces : For if any of their Sap flies into their eyes, it 

^ Terebinthus maxima, pinnis paucioribus majoribus atque rotundi- makes them blind for a moneth after. Of tins Timber they make 



own 



oribus , fructu racemoso sparso, 167; Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 90, t. 199. 

Toxicodendron foliis alatis fructu purpureo Pyri formi sparso, 
Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. 40, t. 40. 

Metopium foliis 



Nat 



most of the Vessels wherein they cure their Sugar." 

^ Rhus Metopium is called by the inhabitants of the Florida keys 
Coral Sumach, Mountain Mauchineel, Bum Wood, and Doctor Gum, 
subrotundis, pinnato-quinatis, racemis alaribus, as well as, more commonly, Poison Wood and Hog Gum. This 
Jam, 177, t. 13, f, 3. last name, by which the tree was known in Jamaica in Sloane's 

It is possible that the "Poyson Tree,'* which Richard Ligon time, had its origin, he says, in the fact "that wild Hogs, when 
could not commend for her virtues, although he could for her beau- wounded, by natural Instinct come to this Tree, where by rubbing 
ties, may have been Rhus Metopium, although it is not reported as its Balsam on their Wounds they are cured." (Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 
now growing on the Barbadoes. (See A true and exact History of 91.) According to Macfadyen, however, the true Hog Gum-tree is 
the Island of Barbados, by Richard Ligon, Gent., London, 1657, Moronobea coccinea, Aubley, and not Rhus. (Fl. Jam. 225.) 



p. 68.) 



Samuel Clarke, in A True and Faithful Account of the Four 



4 See i. 33. 
B xii. 23, 49. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate C. Rhus Metopium. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size- 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Diagram of a flower. 



Plate CI, Rhus Metopium 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab . C . 




^ 




5 



\ 



6 





C.E.FaxofvdeL 



Ficartjr. so. 



RHUS METOPIUM.L 



A.Riocreux^ diresr^. 



Imp. R. Thjieur, Paru . 



Silva of North. America 



Tab . CI 




CE.FazDOTudely 



Picart fr. sc . 



RHUS METOPIUM.L 



^. Riocrei^i> direa> . 



Imp. R. Taneur, Paris 



ANACARDIACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



15 



RHUS TYPHINA. 



Staghorn Sumach. 



Branches and leaf-stalks densely velvety-hairy. Leaflets 11 to 31, pale on the 



lov^rer surface. Fruit covered with long hairs. 



Rhus typhina, Linnaeus, Amoen. iv. 311. — Miller, Diet 
ed. 8, No. 2. — Medicus, Bot. Beob. 1782, 228. — Wan- 
genheim, Nordam.. Holz. 95. — Marshall, ArbusL Am. 



129. 



VTalter, FL Car. 255. — Ehrhart, Beitr. vi. 89. 



i. t. 17, 18. — Hooker, Fl Bor.-Am. i. 126. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 70. — Spach, Hist Veg. ii. 212. — Bennett, PL 
Jav.Rar. 80. — Torrey & Gray, Fl N. Am. i. 217, 680. 
Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1002. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti^ ii. 355. — Moench, 
Meth. 72.— WiUdenow, Spec. i. 1478; Fnum. 323. 
Schoellenbach, Ahhild. Bdtcme, ii. 77, t. 46. — vSchkuhr, 



ii. 571, t. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 43. 



Chap- 



Handh 



Michaux 



Noic- 



veau Duhamely ii. 164, t. 47. — Persoon, Syn. i. 324. 
Desfontaines, Hist Arh. ii. 325. — Poiret, Lam.. Diet. 
vii. 603. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept i. 204. — Bigelow, FL 



man, FL 69. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 93. — Koch, Dendr. i. 576. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat Mils. 1882, 63. — Engler, De Candolle Monogr. 
Phaner. iv. 377. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 52. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 

ed. 6, 119. 



Boston. 72. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 203. — Roemer & Schultes, R. typhina, var. arborescens, WiUdenow, Emim. 323 



Syst vi. 643. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 33. — Elliott, Sk. i 



De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 67. 



360. 



Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 128. — De Candolle, Prodr, R. typhina, var. frutescens, WiUdenow, Enum. 323 



ii. 67. — Sprengel, Syst \. 936. — Watson, Dendr. Brit 



De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 67. 



A tree, occasionally thirty-five or forty feet in height, with copious milky white viscid juice turning 
black on exposure, a slender and often sHghtly recUning trunk twelve or fourteen inches in diameter, 
and stout, upright, often contorted branches which form a low flat head ; or more frequently a tall 
shrub, spreading by underground shoots into broad thickets. The bark of the trunk is dark brown and 
is smooth, or occasionally separates into small square scales. The branchlets are thick and are coated 
with long soft hairs which are pink when they appear in early spring, later turn bright green and 
then brown, and are short and dark-colored in the second season. The branchlets, which do not 
become glabrous until after their third or fourth year, in their second season are marked with large 
leaf-scars and with small orange-colored lenticels which enlarge vertically with the expansion of the 
bark and do not disappear for several years. The winter-buds are protected by a covering of thick 
pale brown tomentum ; the terminal bud is obtuse, with almost triangular scales, and is nearly twice the 
size of the globular axillary buds. The leaves are sixteen to twenty-four inches long and have stout 
stalks usually red on the upper side ; these are covered with soft pale hairs, and, enlarged at the base, 
surround and inclose the buds developed in their axils. The leaflets are borne on very short thick 
petiolules and are oblong, rather remotely and sharply serrate or rarely laciniate, long-pointed, and 
rounded or sKghtly heart-shaped at the base, with stout midribs and primary veins forking near the 
margin ; they are opposite, or the lower ones slightly alternate, the three or four middle pairs being 
considerably longer than those at the two extremities of the leaf. The back of the leaflets as they 
unfold, like the young 



shoots and the petioles, is covered with bright red hairs. 



The leaflets are 

brio-ht yellow-green until they are half-grown, and at maturity are dark green and rather opaque on 
the upper surface, and pale or often nearly white on the lower surface, which is then glabrous with the 
exception of the short fine hairs which cover the midrib and occasionally appear on its upper surface. 

scarlet with shades of crimson, purple, and orange. The male and 
female flowers are usually produced separately on different individuals,^ and in dense panicles with 

1 Perfect flowers, if they occur at all on Rhus typhina^ are very plants never produce fruit, although their small ovaries often have 
rare • and so far as I have been able to observe, the staminate well-developed stigmas. The flowers of the pistillate plants do not 



In the autumn they turn bright 



IG 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



ANACARDIACE^. 



pubescent stems and branches and acuminate bracts half an inch to nearly an inch long, or occasionally 
twice that length on the female plant, and deciduous with the opening of the flowers. The panicle of 
sterile flowers is from eiffht to twelve inches in leng^th and five or six inches in breadth, with wide- 
spreading branclies^ and is nearly a third larger than the more compact inflorescence of the fertile 
plant. The flowers are borne on slender pedicels produced from the axils of small acute pubescent 
bractlets. The calyx-lobes are acute and are covered on the outer surface with long slender hairs ; in 
the male flower they are much shorter than the petals^ and in the female flower almost as long. The 
petals of the staminate flower are yellow-green sometimes tinged with red^ strap-shaped, rounded at the 
apex and reflexed above the middle at maturity^ while those of the pistillate flower are green, narrower 
and acuminate with a thickened slightly hooded apex, and remain erect or nearly so. The disk is 
bright red and conspicuous, especially in the staminate flower. The stamens in the sterile flower are 
slightly exserted, with slender filaments and large bright orange-colored anthers ; in the fertile flower 
they are much shorter, with minute rudimentary anthers. The ovary is ovoid and pubescent, and is 
crowned by three short spreading styles slightly connate at the base with large capitate stigmas ; in the 
staminate flower it is glabrous, much smaller, and usually rudimentary. The sterile trees flower from 
the middle to the end of June and the fertile trees a week or ten days later, the flowers of both 
opening gradually and in succession. The fruit is borne in dense panicles six to eight inches long and 
two to three inches broad. It is depressed-globular, with a thin outer covering clothed with long acrid 
crimson hairs, and a smaU pale brown bony stone. The seed is slightly reniform, with an orange-brown 
smooth testa. The fruit, fully grown and colored in August, does not ripen until October ; the panicles 
remaining on the branches and retaining their color until the new leaves appear the following spring.^ 

Rhus ti/phina grows in New Brunswick and extends westward through the valley of the St. 
Lawrence to southern Ontario and Minnesota, and southward through the northern states and along 
the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia and to central Alabama and Mississippi. It is a common 
plant in nearly every part of this region, although it is more generally distributed on the Atlantic 

It usually grows on uplands in good 
soil, spreading into broad thickets to the exclusion of other plants, but is sometimes found on sterile 
gravelly banks and near the borders of streams and swamps. 

The wood of Bhis typhlna is light, brittle, soft, and coarse-grained, with a satiny surface that 
takes a good polish. Its layers of annual growth are clearly defined by four to six rows of large open 
ducts ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays and is orange-color streaked with green, with thick 



seaboard than in the region west of the Alleghany Mountains. 



nearly white sapwood. It has been employed in inlaying furniture made of other woods, but probably 
is now little used. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4357, a cubic foot weighing 
27.15 pounds. From the young shoots of this tree pipes are made for di^awing the sap of the Sugar 



Maple. The bark, especially of the root, as well as the leaves, is rich in tannin.^ An infusion made 
from the astringent and refrigerant fruit is occasionally employed as a gargle.^ 

Rhus typhbia was known to Europeans in the beginning of the seventeenth century. It was first 
described by Caspar Bauhin^ in 1623, and was cultivated in England by John Parkinson^ as early as 



open until after the anthers of many of the early staminate flowers which cover the surface, and is due to malic acid and bimalate 
have shed their pollen, and fertilization is dependent on the pollen of calcium. (Kalm, Travels, English ed. i. 76.— U. S. DUpens. 
produced by the later flowers. Bees visit the flowers of all our ed. 14, 772. — Guibourt, Hist Drog. ed. 7, iii. 488.) 



species of Rhus and probably secure their fertilization. 



* Rhus Virginianum, PinaXy 521. — Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1591. 



1 Individual plants almost intermediate in character between Plukenet, Aim. BoL 318. —Miller, DicL No. 1. 



Rhus typhina and Rhus glabra are occasionally found, indicatino- 
the possibility of natural hybrids between the two species. 

2 See Special Report No. 26, U. S. Dept. Agric, 22, t. 3. 

8 Lawrence Johnson, Man. Mat. Med. N. A. 118. 



Rhus foUii^ pinnatls serratis, a, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 110. 
Rhus foliis amplis pinnatis^ racemis atro-rabentibuSy Clayton, FL 
Virgin. 33. 

^ John Parkinson (1567-1650), a London apothecary, was herb- 



The berries of Rhus typhina, or Rhus glabra, and of many other alist to James I., a position due to his botanical writings and to 
Sumachs have a sour, astringent, and rather agreeable flavor and the fame of his garden near London, in which many exotic plants 
can be eaten with impunity. Their acidity is confined to the hairs were cultivated for the first time in England. His first publica- 



ANACARDIACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



17 



1629.^ 

Europi 



The Staghorn Sumach is occasionally found in American gardens ; and in central and northe 



now one of the most common and popular 



It can be grown with a singl 



stem for the decoration of the lawn, or it can be used with good effect to cover gravelly slopes, the 
margins of roads, and other waste places. 

The excellent habit of the Staghorn Sumach, its ample and brilhantly colored foliage, its large 



panicles of male flowers, and its brilliant fruit make it one of the most beautiful of 
inhabit the northern states. 



all trees which 



The specific name, derived from rv^og^ relates to the supposed virtues of this plant in the treatment 



of fevers 



7/ pleasant Jli 



}le Paradisus Terrestris^ or a garden of all Walnut, the Red Mulberry, and the Shellbark Hickory, as well as 
This was published in 1629, and is still the Staghorn Sumach, are believed to have been first cultivated in 



interesting as it gives the best idea of the condition and contents England by Parkinson. 



of English gardens at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 



Parkinsonian a genus of leguminous trees, natives of tropical 



In 1640 appeared a much more comprehensive and important work America and southern Africa, with one of its species now widely 

from the pen of Parkinson, the Theatrum Botanicumy the Theatre of distributed by cultivation through all the warmer parts of the 

PZan^s, or an fferSaZ (?/* a Zar^fe ea:^eni, which was intended to include world, commemorates Parkinson's services to botany and horti- 

an account of all the plants described by earlier authors " encreased culture. 



by the accesse of many hundreds of new, rare and strange Plants 



^ Sumach, Sive Rhus Virginiana. Virginian Sumacke. Theatr, 



from all parts of the world." This book was Parkinson's life work, 1449, f . — Aiton 
and was not published until ten years before his death. The Black f. 224. 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 550, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATESL 



Plate CU. Ehus typhika. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CIII. Ehus ttphina. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged- 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, much enlarged^ 

4. A stone, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat . ClI 




C.E Faxon del. 



RHUS TYPHINA.L 



Picart fr. so 



j4 Rwcreiix. (/in\r 



Imp R Tane.iu\ Paris . 



Silva.. of North America. . 



Tab CIIL 




'^-^M^r 




C E.Fa.xon del . 



Picart^/r . Sii 



RHUS TTPHINA.L. 



A Biorreux Jire.r 



Imp. R Taneu/\ Faru . 



ANACARDIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



RHUS COPALLINA. 



Sumach. 



Branches and leaf-stalks pubescent. Petioles wing-margined; leaflets 9 to 21, 
green on the lower surface. Fruit pilose. 



Rhus copallina, Linnaeus, Spec. 266. — Miller, Diet. ed. 8, 
No. 6. — Medicus, Bot. JBeob. 1782, 224. — MarshaU, 

Arhust. Am. 128. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 96. 



Walter, Fl. Car. 255. — Gaertner, Fruct. i. 205, t. 44. 



Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 366. — Plenck, Icon. t. 233. 



La- 



marck, III. ii. 346, t. 207, f. 3. — Jacquin, Hort. Schoenh 
iii. 50, t. 341. — Willdenow, Spec. i. 1480 ; Enum. 324. 
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 182. — Schkuhr, Handb. i. 237. 
Nomseau Duhamel, ii. 160. — Persoon, Syn. i. 324. 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 326. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 



• • 



vu- 



606. 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 205. — Bigelow, FL 



Boston. 72. — Nattall, Gen. \. 203. — Eoemer & Schultes, 
Syst. vi. 647. — Hayne, Dendr, FL 34. — Elliott, Sk. 



\. 362, — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 129. — De Candolle, Prodr. 
li. 68. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 936. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii- 
72. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 214. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. 
Am. i. 217. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1003. — Loudon, Arb. BriL 
ii. 554, f . 229. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 503. — Darling- 
ton, FL Cestr. ed- 3, 43. — Chapman, FL 69. — Curtis, 
Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 92. — Koch, Deiidr. 
i. 675. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63. 
Engler, De Candolle Monogr. Phaner. iv. 383. — Hems- 
ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 217. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 55. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 119. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. ii. 67 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



A tree J twenty-five to thirty feet in height^ with colorless watery juice^ a short stout trunk eight or 
ten inches in diameter^ and erect spreading branches j or at the north a low shrub rarely more than four 
or five feet high. The bark of the trunk varies from a third to half an inch in thickness ; the surface^ 
which is light brown tinged with red and is marked by large elevated dark red-brown circular excres- 
cenceSj separates into large thin papery scales. The branchlets when they appear are dark green tinged 
with red, and are more or less densely clothed with short fine or sometimes ferrugineous pubescence/ 
and are marked by many minute dark red lenticels ; they appear slightly zigzag by the end of the first 
season on account of the swellings formed by the prominent leaf-scars, and are then covered with pale 
red-brown sHghtly puberulous bark dotted with conspicuous dark-colored lenticels. The winter-buds 
are minute, nearly globular, and clothed with dark rusty brown tomentum. The leaves are six to eight 
inches long and have slender pubescent petioles with enlarged bases nearly surrounding and inclosing 
the buds formed in their axils. The stalk of the leaf is more or less broadly wing-margined between 
the leaflets, the wings increasing in width towards the point of the leaf, each pair being broadest in the 



middle and narrowed at the 



extremities 



The leaflets are oblong or ovate-lanceolate, entire or 



remotely serrate above the middle, sharp-pointed or rarely emarginate at the apex, and acute or obtuse 
and often unequal at the base. The lower pairs are short-petiolulate and smaller than those above the 
middle of the leaf ; the others are sessfle with the exception of the terminal leaflet, which is sometimes 



acted into a long-winged 



stalk 



When they unfold, the leaflets are dark green and slightly 



puberulous on the upper surface, especially along the midrib, and are covered on the lower surface with 
fine silvery white pubescence ; at maturity they are an inch and a half to two inches and a half long, and 

an inch broad, with slighty thickened and revolute margins and prominent midribs 



three quarters of a 
and primary veins, 
glabrous with the exception 



and 



are 



then subco 



the 



upper 



surface beino; lustrous, 



dark 



gree 



and 



of the midrib, and the lower surface pale and pubescent. In the 



the upper surface turns a dark rich maroon color. The male and female flowers are produced on 



1 The branchlets on some plants in the east are slightly puberu- is not unusual to find both branchlets and leaf-stalks clothed with 
lous, while west of the Mississippi River from Missouri to Texas it dense ferrugineous tomentum. 



20 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. anacardiace^ 



separate plants in short compact pubescent panicles, the lower branches being developed from the axils 
of the upper leaves. The panicles are four to six inches long and three or four inches broad, and are 
usually rather smaller on the female than on the male plant. The bracts and bractlets, which fall 
before the expansion of the flowers, are ovate or oblong and densely cinereo-pilose. The pedicels are 
stout and pubescent, and vary from an . eighth to a quarter of an inch in length. The calyx is 
puberulous on the outer surface ; its ovate acute segments are a third of the length of the ovate 
greenish yellow petals, which are rounded at the apex and at maturity are reflexed above the middle. 
The disk is red and conspicuous. The stamens are somewhat longer than the petals, with slender 
fdaments and lar^e orange-colored anthers ; in the fertile flower they are much shorter than the petals 



and have minute rudimentary anthers. The ovary is ovate, pubescent, and contracted into three short 
thick spreading styles with large capitate stigmas; in the staminate flower it is glabrous and much 
smaller. In Texas the flowers appear in June, and in New England during the first days of August, 
those of the sterile plant opening in succession during nearly a month and continuing to unfold long 
after those of the fertile plant have faUen. The fruit ripens in five or six weeks, and is borne in stout 
compact often nodding clusters with pubescent stems and branches, which sometimes remain on the 
plants until the beginning of the following summer. The drupe is an eighth of an inch across, 
slightly obovate, and more or less flattened, with a thin bright red coat covered with short fine 
glandular hairs, a smooth bony orange-brown stone, and a reniform seed with a broad funicle and 
a smooth orange-colored testa. 

Rhus copallina is widely and generally distributed from northern New England to Manatee and 
the shores of Caximbas Bay, Florida, and to Missouri, Arkansas, and the valley of the San Antonio 
River in Texas, and occurs in Cuba. It occupies dry hillsides and ridges, and becomes truly arborescent 
only in southern Arkansas and in eastern Texas ; east of the Mississippi River it rarely grows more 



few feet high, and, spreading by underground stems, forms broad thickets on gravelly 



land. 



The wood of Rhus copallina is hght, soft, and coarse-grained, with a satiny surface. It contains 
many thin obscure medullary rays and rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. 
It is Hght brown streaked with green and often tinged with red ; the thin light-colored sapwood is 
composed of four or five layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.5273, a cubic foot weighing 32.86 pounds. 

The leaves, like those of the other species of the genus, are rich in tannin, and in some parts of 
the country, principally in Maryland, West Virginia, and Tennessee; they are gathered in large quantities 
and are ground for curing leather and for dyeing.^ The acid and astringent fruit possesses the same 
properties and is used for the same purposes as the fruit of the other North American Sumachs. 

Rhus cojKillina varies considerably in the size and form of its leaflets. The most distinct and 
probably the most constant of the varieties is var. lanceolata^ a small tree found from the prairies of 
eastern Texas to the vaUey of the Rio Grande. It is distinguished by its narrower acute often falcate 
and entire leaflets, and by its larger inflorescence and fruit. This plant grows to the height of twenty- 
five or thirty feet, with a trunk sometimes eight inches in diameter, covered with dark gray bark marked 
with red lenticular excrescences. It inhabits dry hmestone uplands, often forming large thickets on 
river bluffs, about the heads of prairie ravines, and near the banks of small streams. The flowers 
appear in July or August, and the fruit, which is dull red or sometimes green, ripens in early autumn 
and falls before the beginning of winter. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of this 
variety is 0.5184, a cubic foot weighing 32.31 pounds. 



1 Special Report No. 26, U. S. Dept. Agric. 26, t. 5. xvii. 338. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOtJi Census U. S. ix. 

2 Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 158 (PL Lindheim. ii.). — 63. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 67 (ilfan. PI. W. 
Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 44. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. Texas). 



ANACARDIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



A variety^ oi Rhus copallina with white flowers occurs on rocky cliffs near New Braunfels 



Texas 



Rhus copallina was one of the rare exotic trees cultivated by Bishop Compton^ in his garden at 
Fulham near London, to which it had probably been sent from Virginia by Bannister ; ^ and the first 
description of the species was drawn up from this cultivated plant and pubhshed by Ray in the Historia 



Plantarum 



5 



m 



1688. 



The foliage of Rhus copallina is more beautiful in summer and in autumn than that of the other 
North American Sumachs ; and although it does not usually grow to the size of the Staghorn Sumach, 
or bear such conspicuous flowers and fruit, it is a beautiful and attractive plant, and especially useful 
when slopes of sterile gravel or rocky hillsides are to be clothed with shrubs. 

The specific name was given to it by Linnaeus under the mistaken idea that this plant furnished 
the copal gum of commerce. 



^ Rhus copallina^ var. leucantha^ De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 68. 



N. 



Coulter, 



(Man. PL W. 



R, leucanthay Jacquin, Hort, Schoenb, iii. 50, t. 342. — Spach, HisL 
Veg. ii. 215. 

2 Engler (De CandoUe Monogr. Phaner. iv. 384) distinguishes 
the following forms : 

Var. latifoUa^ with oblong or oblong-elliptical leaflets two and a 
half to three times as long as broad, the wings broad or narrow. 



wing 



Var. angustifoliay with lanceolate leaflets five to six times longer 



Gray, Jour. BosL Soc. Nat HisL vi. 158 (PL Lindheim, ii.). — Sar- than broad. 



Var. integrifolia. 

Var. serrata. 

* See i. 6. 

^ See i. 6. 

^ Rhus Virginianum Leniisci foliisy ii. 1799. 

Rhoi Obsoniorum similis Americana^ Gummi candidum fundens. 



Plukenet 



Aim. BoL 318. 



Rhics foliis pinnatis, pedunculo communi memhranaceo articulator 



(Cuba, Wright 



(R. copallina^ var. Grisebach, Royen, FL Leyd. Prodr. 244. — Linnaeus, Mat. Med. 50. 



Cat. PL Cub. 67.) 



Rhus elatior foliis cum impart pinnatiSj petiolis membranaceis articu- 



wing from one twelfth to one sixth 



inch broad. 



latisy foliolis 
atrorubentibiLS. 



racemis 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CIV. Rhus copallina. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2- A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged- 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged, 

7. A pistil, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified- 



Plate CV. Ehus copallina, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit; enlarged. 

4. A stone, enlarged. 
6. A seed, enlarged. 



.gnified 



winter 



Plate CVL Rhus copallina, var. lakceolata 

1- A branch of a staminate panicle, natural size. 
2* A branch of a pistillate panicle, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 



. Silva of North America 



Ta-b . CIV 




3 



it 



5 



6 







C. £. Faro a de-l . 



PLccLrt /?. jl . 



RHUS COPALLINA. L 



A fUocreia: d^/^&r ^ 



Imp. 7?. Tarieur, Popls . 



Silva of North America 



Tab . C V 




9 




^ 



5 



6 







C, E. Faxon del 



Picart /r sc 



RHUS COPALLINA.L. 



A.RwcreiiX direx 



Imp R Taneur, Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CVI 




C. E. Famri deZ 



I ■ 



RHUS COPALLINA ,Var. LAN CEO LATA , Gray 



jd. liiocreioK dzrejz , 



/rri/?. R Taneiu\ Paru; 



ANACARDIACEJEL 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



23 



RHUS VERNIX. 



Poison Dogwood. Poison Sumach. 



Flowers dioecious, in axillary panicles. Fruit globular, white ; the stone striate 
Leaves 7 to 13-foliolate. 



Rhus Vernix, Linnaeus, Spec. 265. — Medicus, BoU Beoh. Toxicodendron pinnatum, Miller, Diet ed. 8, No. 4. 
1782,223. — Marshall, ^r5w5i. ^m, 130. — Wangenheim, R. venenata, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 68. — Hooker, FL 



Nordam. Holz, 92. — Castiglioni, Viag, negli Stati Uniti, 
ii. 356, t. 14. — Planck, Icon. t. 234. — Lamarck, III. ii. 
346, t. 207, f. 2. — WiUdenow, Spec. I 1479 ; Enitm. 

— Schkuhr, Handb. i. 236. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Avi. 



323. 



i- 183. — Nouveaii Diihamelj ii. 165. — Persoon, Si/n- i. 



324. 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 325. — Poiret, Lam. 



Diet. 



vn. 



505. 



Bigelow, FL Boston. 72. — Nuttall, 



Gen. i. 203. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 205. — Roemer & 
Schultes, Syst. vi. 646. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 34. 
Elliott, Sk. i. 362. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 936. 



Bor.-Am. i. 126. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 71. 



Spach, 



Hist. Veg. ii. 215. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 218, 



681. 
130. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1003. — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 
Emerson, Trees Mass, ed. 2, ii. 575, t. — Darling- 



ton, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 44. — Chapman, Fl. 69. — Curtis, 
Rep. Geolog. Siirv* N. Car. 1860, iii. 93. — Bailey, Am. 



Nat 



Monog 



iv. 397. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
?7. S* ix. 54. — Watson & Coulter, Gh'uy's Man. ed. 6, 

119. 



A small tree, with acrid poisonous juice turning black on exposure^ occasionally twenty or twenty- 
five feet in height, with a trunk five or six inches in diameter, and slender rather pendulous branches 
forming a narrow round head ; or more often a shrub sending up from the ground a cluster of slender 
stems. The bark of the trunk is thin, smooth, or sometimes slightly striate and pale light gray in color. 
The branchlets are glabrous when they appear, reddish brown and covered with minute orange-colored 
lenticular spots j they are orange-brown at the end of the first season, and a year later are light gray and 
still marked by lenticels and by large elevated conspicuous leaf-scars. The winter-buds are acute and 
covered with dark purple scales puberulous on the back and margins with short pale hairs ; the terminal 
bud varies from an eighth of an inch to nearly an inch in length and is two or three times larger than 
the axillary buds. The leaves are from seven to fourteen inches in length, and are borne on slender 
petioles which are usually light red or red streaked with green on the upper side. The leaflets are 
obovate-oblong with entire revolute margins, and are slightly unequal at the base and contracted at the 
acute or rounded apex ; they are short-petiolulate with the exception of the terminal one, which is 
sometimes raised on a stalk an inch in length. The leaflets when they unfold are bright orange-colored 
and coated, especially on the margins and under surface, with fine pubescence ; they soon become 
glabrous, and at maturity are three or four inches long and an inch and a half or two inches broad, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper surface and pale on the lower^ with prominent midribs scarlet 
above, primary veins forking near the margin, and conspicuous reticulated veinlets. In October they 
turn to brilliant scarlet or orange and scarlet colors. The staminate and pistillate flowers are produced 
on different plants in long narrow axillary pubescent panicles aggregated near the ends of the branches. 
The bracts and bractlets are acute, pubescent, and early deciduous. The pedicels are slender, pubescent, 
and bibracteate near the middle. The calyx-lobes are acute and a third of the length of the yellow- 
green acute petals, which are erect and slightly reflexed towards the apex. The stamens are nearly 



twice as long as 



the petals, with slender filaments and large orange-colored anthers; in the fertile 



flower they are not more than half the length of the petals, with small rudimentary anthers. 



The 



is ovoid-globose 



ovary 

capitate stigmas 



and surmounted 




three short thick spreading styles terminating in large 



The flowers appear late in June or early in July. The fruit ripens in September 
and often hangs on the branches until the following spring ; it is produced in long graceful racemes 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



ANACARDIACEJE. 



and Is often flattened and slightly gibbous, and is tipped with the dark remnants of the styles. The 
outer coat is thin, more or less striated at maturity, ivory white or white tinged with yellow, and very 
lustrous ; the stone is conspicuously grooved, thin, rather membranaceous than coriaceous, and, like the 
testa of the seed, pale yellow. 

lihus Vernix is common in all the region between northern New England and northern Georgia 



d Alabama* and extends westward 



thern Minnesota and 



Arkansas and 



Louisiana 



inhabiting wet swamps often inundated during a portion of the year. 

The wood of Rhus Vernix is light, soft, and coarse-grained, with three or four rows of large open 
ducts clearly defining the layers of annual growth, and thin, very obscure medullary rays. It is light 
yellow streaked with brown, the sapwood being lighter colored, and when absolutely dry has a specific 
gravity of 0.4382, a cubic foot weighing 27.31 pounds. 

Rims Vernix is one of the most dangerous plants of the North American flora. The juices and 
the efiftuvium from the flowers possess the properties found in those of Rhus Metopium and Rhus 
Toxicodendron y and to most persons are even more injurious.^ The extreme brilhancy and beauty in 
autumn of the foliage of the Poison Dogwood,^ as this plant is almost invariably called in the northern 
states, aUure many people ignorant of its true character to gather and handle it, and cases of serious 
poisoning are a common consequence. It contains the volatile principle toxicodendric acid found in 
the allied Rhus Toxicode7idron^ and possesses properties of as great medicinal value as that plant.^ 
An infusion of the young branches and leaves is employed in homoeopathic practice ; * and the juice can 
be used as a black lustrous durable varnish very similar to that furnished by the Japanese Lacquer- 
tree.^ 



Rhus Vernix 



first described by Plukenet in the Phytographia ^ published in 1691, and 



cultivated in the Physic Garden at Chelsea^ in England as early as 1713 



8 



^ Kalm, Travels^ English ed. i, 77. — Cutler, Mem, Am. Acad. i. 
428. —B. S. Barton, Coll i. 24. — Bigelow, Med. BoL i. 96, 1. 10. 
U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 908. — Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1464. — James FL Virgin. 148. 



foliis pinnaiis integerrimis, Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 



Mat. Med 



244. — Clayton, 



C. White, Dermatitis Venenata^ 31. 

^ Rktis Vernix is also known in some parts of the country as 
Poison Elder and as Poison-tree. 

® Lawrence Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. A. 118. 



7 Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 366. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 552, f. 226. 

^ The confusion which has long existed with reference to the 
name of this plant was due to the fact that Linnaeus, misled by 
the similarity of the Japanese Varnish-tree, united this with the 



4 Millspaugh,^m. Med. PI. in Homoeopathic Rem^dieSyi. 37, t. 37. American Poison Sumach, calling the species thus enlarged Rhus 



^ Bigelow, L c. 



Vernizy the name, of course, relating to the properties of the 



* Arbor Americanus alatis foliis, succo lacteo venenata, Phyt. t. Japanese and not of the American plant. 



145, f. 1; Aim. Bot. ^5. 



(cui adnectuntur folia) rubra, folio 



ulrinque glabra non serrato, pistachice simili, Boerhaave, Hort. Lugd. 



Bat 



Colden, Cat. PI. Novebor. 64. 



XXXI 



146. 



XXXI 



foliis pinnatis, fly 



Diet 



foliis alatis, f 



Elth. 390, t. 292, f. 377. 



De Candolle found that 
the two plants were distinct and made new names for them both, 

dropping entirely the Linncean specific name Vernix. This, how- 
ever, is the oldest name, and clearly belongs to the American and 
not to the Japanese plant, as Linnaeus's description in the Hortus 
Cliffortianus, as well as that in the Species Plantarum, makes it 
clear that he considered the American plant as the type of his 
species to which he referred the Japanese plant of Kaempfer. (See 
in this connection discussions upon the differences in the two trees 
by Abbd Mazeas, Philip Miller, and John Ellis. Phil. Trans, xlix. 
157, 161, 866.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CVIL Rhus Vernix. 

1. A branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CVIIL Rhus Verktx. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A stone, enlarged. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



■ 

Silva of North Am 



erica . 



Tab . CVII 




C.E. Faxon del . 



Picart fr. jc 



c 



RHUS VERNIX , L 



^.Bwcreia: drex 



Imp. R. Tanmr Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CVin. 




( ] £ FiiTon Jel 



Picurt. fr. SO 



RHUS VERNIX.L 






Imp. R. TantoiKFans 



ANACARDIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



27 



RHUS INTEGRIFOLIA. 



Mahogany. 



Flowers dioecious or polygamo-dioecious, on conspicuously bracteate pedicels ; 

sepals orbicular, colored. Fruit pubescent. Leaves usually simple, persistent. 



Rhus integrifolia, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 419. — 
Brewer & Watson, Bot, Cat. L 110. — Greene, BttlL CaL 
Acad. ii. 393; Pittonia, I 87, 201. — Engler, Z)e Can- 



1226. 



Bentham, BoL Voy. Siilphur^ 11. — Walpers, 



Be'p. i. 555 ; v. 414. — Torrey, Bot. Hex. Bound. Surv. 



44. 



Gray, Ives^ Rep. 9. 



Monogr 



T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Styphonia serrata, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. 



CaL Acad. ser. 2, i. 208 ; ii. 139. — Sargent, Garden and 
Forest, ii. 375. 



i. 220 ; Sylva^ iii. 6. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1226, 
pers. Rep. v. 414. 



Wal- 



Styphonia integrifoha, Nuttall; Torrey & Gray, FL Rhus integrifolia, var. serrata, Engler, De Candolle 



N. Am. i. 220; Sylva^ iii. 4, t. 82. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 



Monogr, Phaner. iv. 388. 



A low evergreen tree, rarely thirty feet in height, with a short stout trunk two to three feet in 
diameter, and numerous long spreading branches; or usually a small often almost prostrate shrub. 
The surface of the bark, which varies from a quarter of an inch to half an inch in thickness, is bright 
reddish brown and exfoHates in large plate-hke scales. The branchlets are bright reddish brown and 
are marked with many small elevated lenticels, and when they appear are covered with thick pale 
pubescence which gradually disappears in their second and third years. The winter-buds are small, 
obtuse, and clothed with a thick coat of pale tomentum. The leaves are simple or rarely ternate,^ with 
thickened revolute or spinosely toothed margins, and are pointed or rounded at the apex ; they are 
puberulous when young, and at maturity are an inch and a half to three inches long, an inch to an 
inch and a half broad, thick and coriaceous, dark yellow-green on the upper surface, paler below, and 
labrous with the exception of the stout petioles. 



& 



broad thick midribs, and prominent reticulated veins. 
The flowers, which appear from February to April, are a quarter of an inch across when expanded, and 
are borne in short dense racemes forming hoary-pubescent terminal panicles an inch to three inches in 

are furnished 



length, the males and females on different 



with from 



four broadly ovate pointed 



The pedicels are short and stout and are 
sistent scarious ciHate and pubescent bracts 



The 



sepals are rose-color, orbicular and concave, with scarious ciHate margins, and are rather less than half 

The disk is annular, broad, and fleshy. 



the length of the rounded ciliate reflexed rose-colored petals. 



The stamens are as long as the petals, with slender filaments and pale anthers, and in the fertile flower 



minute and rudimentary. The ovary is broadly ovate, pubescent, and 



ted by three sho 



thick connate styles with large capitate stigmas. The fruit is half an inch in length, ovate, flattened, 
more or less gibbous, with thick dark red densely pubescent and resinous viscid juice and a kidney- 
shaped smooth bght chestnut-brown stone which has thick walls, and a flat seed with a thin pale coat 
and a broad dark-colored funicle covering its side. 

Rims integrifolia is found in the immediate neighborhood of the Pacific coast from Santa Barbara 
to the shores of Magdalena Bay in Lower CaHfornia and on the Santa Barbara and Cedros Islands. It 






usually occurs in sandy sterile soil along the sea-beaches and bluffs, in California rising generally to th 
heio'ht of one or two feet only and forming close impenetrable thickets which offer the least possible 
resistance to the ocean gales.^ In more sheltered situations and on some of the islands^ it assumes a 



1 W. S. Lyon, Bot. Gazette^ xi. C05, 333. — T. S. Brandegee, Zoe, ^ Professor Edward L. Greene noticed on Sau Miquel, one of 



i. Ill, t. 4, f. 3-7 {Plants of Santa Catalina Island). 
2 C. R. Orcutt, The Western American Scientist, vii. 149. 



the smaller of the Santa Barhara group, that the sands drifting 
from the beaches had almost entirely exterminated this species 



28 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. anacakdiace^. 



tree-like habit, probably attaining its greatest size on the shores of Todos Santos Bay in Lower 
California. 

The wood of Rims integrifolia is hard and heavy, with bands of open ducts distinctly marking the 
layers of annual growth, and many thin conspicuous medullary rays. It is of a handsome bright clear 
red color, with tliin pale sapwood composed of eight or ten layers of annual growth. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7830, a cubic foot weighing 48.80 pounds.^ It possesses a 
liigh fuel value, and is cut and consumed in large quantities in the regions where it abounds. 

The berries, from which a white oily acid substance exudes, are occasionally used in southern 
Cahfornia in the preparation of a coohng beverage,^ either fresh or after having been roasted and 
ground. 

Rhus integrifolia was discovered by Thomas Nuttall ^ in 1835 in the neighborhood of San Diego. 

once abundant on the island, as shown by the remnants of dead spreading out horizontally and not more than a foot above the 
trees which have furnished fuel to the parties of seal hunters and surface of the ground (^Pittonia, i. 78). 
fishermen who for years have frequented the island. One of these ^ Garden and Forest^ iii. 332. 

skeleton trees had produced gnarled branches thirty feet in length, ^ C,R. Orcutt, The Western American Scientist^ iii. 46. 

» See ii. 34. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CIX. Rhus integrifolia. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 
6. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branchy natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CIX 




3 



^ 



8 



6 







5 




^ E Fn. con del . 



FtCiVi fr sl 



RHUS INTEGRIFOLIA, Benth el Hook 



A. f>iO( •/> ux d(rt\r 



Imp R. Taneur //^.'v. 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEPiICA. 



29 



EYSENHAPvDTIA. 



Flowers in dense spicate racemes ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals erect, free ; ovary 
subsessile, 2 to 3 or rarely 4-ovuled. Legume small, compressed; seeds oblong-reniform, 
solitary or rarely 2. Leaves unequally pinnate* 



Eysenhardtia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Viborqiiia, Ortega, Dec. v. 66 (not Thunberg nor Moench) 
et Spec. vi. 489. — Meisner, Gen. 89. — Endlicher, Gen. Varennea, De Candolle, Mem. Legiim. 494. 
1270, — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 492. — Baillon, 

Hist. PI. ii. 287. 



Small glandular-punctate trees or shrubs^ with slender terete branches. Leaves alternate^ unequally 
pinnate ; stipules subulate^ caducous ; leaflets oblong, mucronate or emarginate at the apex, short- 
petiolulate, numerous, stipelate. Flowers short-pedicellate, in long spicate racemes, terminal or produced 
from the axils of the upper leaves. Bracts subulate, caducous. Calyx tubular-campanulate, conspicu- 
ously glandular-punctate, five-toothed, the acute teeth nearly equal, persistent. Disk cupuliform, adnate 
to the base of the calyx-tube. Corolla subpapiHonaceous ; petals erect, free, nearly equal, oblong- 
spatulate, rounded at the apex, unguiculate, creamy white ; the standard concave, slightly broader 
than the wings and keel. Stamens ten, inserted with the petals, diadelphous, the superior one free, 
shorter than the others, the remainder united above the middle into a tube ; anthers uniform, oblong, 
attached on the back at the middle, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary subsessile, 
contracted into a long slender uncinate style, geniculate and conspicuously glandular below the apex ; 
stigma introrse, oblique ; ovules two or three, rarely four, attached to the interior angle of the ovary, 
superposed, descending, amphitropous. Legume small, oblong or linear-falcate, compressed, tipped with 
the remnants of the style, indehiscent, pendent or erect. Seed usually solitary, rarely two, oblong- 
reniform, destitute of albumen ; testa coriaceous. Embryo filHng the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 
flat, fleshy ; radicle superior, short and erect. 

Eysenhardtia belongs to the warmer parts of the New World, where it is found in the region from 
western Texas and Arizona to southern Mexico, Lower CaHfornia, and Guatemala. Four species are 
distinguished. The type of the genus, Eysenliavdtia poJystachya^ a slender shrub, is widely distributed 
throusrh western Texas south of the Colorado River and is common in the Mexican Sierra Madre. 
Eysenhardtia sjnnosay^ a low intricately branched shrub, occurs on the mountain ranges of Chihuahua 
and in Lower California, and Eysenhardtia orthocarpa^ sometimes a small tree, on those of western 
Texas, New Mexico^ Arizona, and northern Mexico. Eysenhardtia adenostylis^ the most southern 
species of the genus yet discovered, is known only in Guatemala. 



Eysenhardtia polystachya 
Viborquia polystachya, Ortega, Dec. v. 66, t. 9. 



E. amorphoides, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et ii.). — Hemsley, L c. 
Spec. vi. 491, t, 592. —De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 257. —Gray, Jour. (PL Baja CaL), 
BosL Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 173 (PL Lindheim. ii.). — Hemsley, Bot » Baillon, Adansonia, \x. 239. 

BioL Am. Cent. i. 236. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 339. 
Coulter. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 76 (Man. PL W. Texas). 



Varennea polystachya, De Candolle, I. c. 522. 
^ Engelmann, Jour. Boi^t. Soc, Nat. Hist. vi. 174 (PI. Lindheim. 

Brandesree, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, ii. 148 



30 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



The wood of some species is hard and close-grained and affords valuable fuel. The genus 



known to possess other useful properties. 

The generic name commemorates the botanical labors of Karl Wilhelm Eysenhardt/ professor of 
botany in the University of Konigsberg. 



^ Karl Wilhelm Eysenhardt (1794-1825), a native of Berlin, gave promise in a number of scientific papers of a brilliant career 
closed by death almost at its beginning. 



LEGUMmos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



EYSENHARDTIA ORTHOCARPA. 



Leaves composed of 10 to 23 pairs of leaflets. Legume nearly straight, pendent 



Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, Watson, Proc. Am. Acod. :s.wn. B. amorphoides, var. orthocarpa. Gray, Smithsonian 
339. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. Contrib. v. 37 (PL Wright, ii.). 

ix. 55. — Coulter, Contrib. JJ. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 76 {Man. E. amorphoides, Torrey, Bot Mex. Bound. Surv. 51 (in 



PI. W. Texas). 



part). 



A small tree; occasionally eighteen or twenty feet in height^ with a trunk six or eight inches 
in diameter, separating, three or four feet above the ground, into a number of slender branches ; or 
more often a low rigid shrub. The bark of the trunk is a sixteenth of an inch thick, light gray, and 
broken into large plate-hke scales, their surface exfohating in thin layers. The branchlets are at first 
coated with ashy gray pubescence j this disappears during the second year, when they are reddish brown 
and roughened with numerous glandular excrescences. The leaves are four or five inches long, with 
pubescent midribs grooved on the upper side, ten to twenty-three pairs of leaflets, and small scarious 
deciduous stipules. The leaflets are oval, rounded or sometimes slightly emarginate at the apex, with 
stout petiolules and minute scarious deciduous stipels, and are furnished on the lower side with con- 
spicuous chestnut-brown glands ; they are pale gray-green, glabrous or shghtly puberulous on the 
upper surface, pubescent below, especially along the prominent midrib, reticulate-veined, and conspicu- 
ously glandular-punctate, with thickened slightly revolute margins, and vary from half to two thirds of 
an inch in length and from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in breadth. The flowers are produced 
in May in axillary pubescent spikes three or four inches long ; they are borne on slender pubescent 
pedicels and are rather less than half an inch long. The calyx is many-ribbed, pubescent, covered with 
large and conspicuous glands, and half the length of the white petals, which vary little in size and shape 
and are ciliate on their margins. The legume is half an inch long, pendent, nearly straight or slightly 
falcate, conspicuously thickened on the two edges, and usually contains a single seed near the apex. 

Eysenhardtia orthocar2oa is found from the valley of the upper Guadaloupe River in western 
Texas to the Santa Catalina and Santa Rita mountains of southern Arizona, and extends southward 
into Mexico to the neighborhood of San Luis Potosi and to southwestern Chihuahua. It grows in 
gravelly soil on arid slopes and dry ridges, and is only known to assume an arborescent form near the 
summit of the Santa Catalina Mountains. 

The wood of Eysenhardtia orthocarpa is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous rows of 
open ducts clearly marking the layers of annual growth, and many thin medullary rays. It is hght 
reddish brown in color, with thin clear yeUow saj)wood composed of seven or eight layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8740, a cubic foot weighing 54.47 

pounds. 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa was discovered by Charles Wright ^ in August, 1849, on the banks of a 

stream between the Pecos and Limpia rivers in western Texas. 



1 See i. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CX. Eysenhardtia orthocarpa- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. The petals of a flower displayed, enlarged. 



calyx 



6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a legume, enlarged 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 



J 

Silva of North Am 



erica 



> 



Tab. CX 




^ 






7 



11 





8 



10 





C.E Faxon del 



Picart tr sc 



EYSENHARDTIA ORTHOCARPA. Wats 



on . 



A.Riocreiix dir&r^ 



Imp H. Taneur^ Pa/'L^ 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



33 



DALEA. 



Flowers in pedunculate spikes or racemes ; calyx 5-tootlied ; standard cordate 
with a free claw ; claws of the wings and keel-petals adnate to the staminal tube ; 



ovary 2 or rarely 3, sometimes 4 to 6-ovuled. Legume ovate, compressed, generally 

indehiscent. Seed subreniform, usually solitary. Leaves most often unequally 
pinnate. 



Dalea, Linnaeus, Gen. 349. — Meisner 



Endlicher, Cylipogon, Kafinesque, Jour. Phys. Ixxxix, 97 



Gen. 1270. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 493. — Baillon, Trichopodium 



Hist. PL ii. 285. 
Parosella, Cavanilles, Elench. Sort. Matrit. 



Hist 



(not Lindley). 



late spikes or racemes^ terminal or opposite the leaves. 



Glandular-punctate herbs, small shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, 
rarely digitately three-foliate or simple ; stipules generally minute, subulate, deciduous ; leaflets small, 
entire, often stipellate. Flowers purple, blue, white, or rarely yellow, usually sessile, in loose peduncu- 

Bracts membranaceous or setaceous, broad, 
concave above, glandular-punctate. Calyx five-toothed or lobed, the divisions nearly equal, often 
accrescent after anthesis, then sometimes plumose, persistent. Corolla papilionaceous ; petals unguicu- 
late ; standard cordate, free, inserted in the bottom of a tubular disk connate to the calyx-tube, 
rather shorter than the wings and keel with claws adnate to and jointed upon the staminal tube. 
Stamens ten or sometimes nine through the suppression of the superior one, monadelphous, united into 
a tube cleft above and cup-shaped towards the base ; anthers uniform, attached on the back near the 
base, often surmounted with a gland, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile or 
short-stalked, contracted into a slender subulate style with a minute terminal stigma rarely slightly 
dilated ; ovules usually two, sometimes three, seldom four to six, attached to the interior angle of the 
ovary, superposed, amphitropous, the micropyle superior, 
ribbed, more or less inclosed in the calyx, membranaceous, most often indehiscent, one-seeded. 



Legume ovate, sometimes conspicuously 

Seed 



oblong 



or 



iform, destitute of albumen ; testa coriaceous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed 



tyledons broad and flat ; the radicle superior, accumbently inflexed. 

The genus Dalea is confined to the New World. Nearly a hundred species have been described 



More than half are Mexican and tropical and Central America 



species 



inChil 



the Andes of Peru,* and two in the Galapagos Island 



. 5 



remainder belong to the central 



d southwestern regions of the United Stat 
;v undershrubs ; but in the arid re2:ion of tl 



Many of the species are herbs, and others are 

southwestern territory of the United States 



extreme 



individuals of a peculiar group ^ of these plants grow to a considerable size, and among them 
which occasionally assumes the habit and attains the size of a small tree.^ 



1 De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 244. — Walpers, Rep, i. 652 ; ii. 855 ; 
513 ; Ann. I 228 ; ii. 359 ; iv. 482. 

2 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen. et Spec. vi. 480. 



CnL i. 141. 



n. N. Am. i. 30 

Man. Rocky Ml 



Watson 



Herb. i. 77 {Man. PL W. Texas). — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 



Martens & Galeotti, Bull. Acad. Brux. x. pt. ii. 41. — Schlechtendal, Man. ed. 6, 132. 



Linncea, xii. 290. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 236. 

8 C. Gay, FL CUL ii. 87 (Psoralea). 

4 Humboldt, Bonplaud & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 484, 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 247. 



^q: 



" Xylodalea, Brewer & Watson, L c. 

^ Dalea arhorescens (Torrey, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. v. 316 
[Gray, PL Thurber.]. — Brewer & Watson, L c.) was discovered by 
Fremont at the eastern base of the San Fernando Mountains in 



XX 



Andersson, Stockh. southern California during his second transcontinental journey, and 



* • 

Acad. Handl 1853, 109 {Om Galapagos- Oames Veg.). 



was described by him as "a small tree.'' All attempts, however. 



:J4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



None of the species is known to possess properties useful to man, although several are cultivated 



for the beauty of their flowers.^ 



The genus was dedicated by Linnaeus^ to Dr. Samuel Dale/ an English botanist and writer on 
the materia medica. 



to find an arborescent Dalea in this region have proved unsuc- 



had 



cessful, although this species has recently been noticed on the the subject. Dale also wrote a History of Harwich (1730), and 



Mohave Desert growing as a low shrub, 
^ Ventenat, Jard. Cels, 40, t. 40. 

Mag. t. 2486. — Nicholson, Diet Gard. 
3 Hort. Cliff, 3G3, t. 22. 



Fl. 



between 1692 and 1736 made numerous communications to the 
Royal Society, of which he was a member, including in a letter 
to Sir Hans Sloane, Descriptions of the Moose Deer and a sort of 
Stag in Virginia, with remarks on the Flying Squirrel of America, 



^ Samuel Dale (1659-1739), an English apothecary and physi- He practiced his profession at Braintree in Essex for many years, 

of Boking, is best known by his Pharmacologia seu Manuductio and was the neighbor and friend of Ray, whose executor he became. 

ad Materiam Medicam, published in 1693. Several editions of this His herbarium, bequeathed to the Apothecaries' Company, is now 

work appeared, and a supplement in 1705. It was considered in preserved in the British Museum. 



LEGUMmOS-S:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



35 



DALEA SPINOSA. 



Flowers loosely racemose 




10-ribbed, conspicuously glandulai 



adnate to the staminal tube by their bases only. Leg 
for half its length ; ovules 4 to 6. 



exserted from the 



petals 
calyx 



Dalea spinosa, Gray, Mem. Am. Acad, n. ser. v. 315 {PL 
Thitrber,) ; Ives* Rep. 10. — Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. 
iv. 78 ; vii. pt, iii. 9, t. 3 ; Bot Mex. Bo2ind. Sicrv. 63, — 



Bot Biol. Am, Cent. i. 247.' — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 55. — Brandegee, Proc. Cat. 
Acad, ser. 2, ii. 148 {PI. Baja Cal.). 
Walpers, Ann. iv. 485. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. Asagrsea spinosa, Baillon, Adansonia^ ix. 232; Hist. PL 



132. 



Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 143. — Hemsley, 



ii. 288. 



A small spinose tree^ occasionally eighteen or twenty feet high, with a short stout contorted trunk 
sometimes twenty inches in diameter and divided near the ground into several upright branches ; or 
more often a low rigid intricately branched shrub. The bark of the trunk is dark gray-brown, nearly 
a quarter of an inch thick, deeply furrowed, and roughened on the surface with small persistent scales. 
The branchlets are reduced to slender sharp spines coated with fine hoary pubescence, bearing minute 
nearly triangular scarious caducous bracts, and marked by occasional glandular fistules. These ultimate 
branchlets are developed from stouter ones also covered when young with hoary pubescence, but 
glabrous in their third year, with pale brown bark roughened with lenticels which as it exfoliates shows 
a pale green inner bark. The leaves are few and irregularly scattered near the base of the spinose 
branchlets ; they are cuneate or linear-oblong, sessile or nearly so, and marked by a few large glands, 



especially on the margins, which are 



entire, wavy, or, on vigorous young 



shoots or seedling plants. 



remotely and coarsely serrate ; they are hoary-pubescent, three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, 
and an eighth of an inch to half an inch in width, with a broad midrib and three pairs of lateral ribs, 
and are very deciduous, remaining only for a few weeks on the branches. The stipules are minute, 
ovate, and acute, and resemble the leaves and branchlets in their pubescent covering. The flowers are 
produced in June in racemes an inch or an inch and a half long, with slender spinescent hoary-pubescent 
rachises j they are nearly half an inch long and are borne on short pedicels developed from the axils of 
minute bracts. The calyx-tube is ten-ribbed and marked with about five glands between the dorsal 
ribs ; the lobes are short, ovate, rounded or more or less ciliate on the margins, and reflexed at maturity. 
The petals are dark violet-blue ; the standard is cordate, reflexed, and furnished at the base of the 
blade with two conspicuous glands ; the wings and keel are attached to the staminal tube by their bases 
only and are almost equal in size, rounded at the apex, and more or less irregular at the base by a deep 



lobe. 



The ovary, which is pubescent 



and glandular-punctate, develops into 



a one-seeded pubescent 

ovate compressed pod twice as long as the calyx and tipped with the remnants of the recurved style. 
The seed is reniform and an eighth of an inch long, with a lustrous pale brown coat irregularly marked 

with darker spots. 

Dalea S'pinosa inhabits the Colorado Desert of California, where it occurs at Agua Caliente, Toras, 
and in a few other localities, and extends eastward to the valley of the lower Gila River in Arizona and 
the adjacent parts of Sonora, and to Calamujuet in Lower California.^ 

The wood of Dalea S'pinosa is light, soft, and rather coarse-grained, with many evenly distributed 
open ducts and numerous thin medullary rays. It is walnut-brown in color, with nearly white sapwood 



composed of twelve to fifteen lay 



of 



growth. The specific 



ty of the absolutely dry 



od is 0.5536, a cubic foot weighing 34.50 pounds 



Where it was collected by T. S. Braudegee. 



36 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



Dalea 



sp 



first gathered by Fremont in 1849^ but his specimen showed neither flo 



nor fruity and the species 



first described from 



specimens collected in 1852 on the Colorado 



Desert by Dr. George Thurber/ the botanist of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey 
Commission. 



1 George Thurber (1821-1890) was bom in Providence, Rhode New York College of Pharmacy. In 1859 he was appointed pro- 
Island, where he was educated and for several years practiced his fessor of botany and horticulture in the Agricultural College of 
profession of apothecary. Through the influence of Dr. John Michigan, retaining his chair until 1863, when he became editor 
Torrey he was appointed in 1850 botanist to the United States of the American Agriculturist^ a position which he held until 
Commission to establish the boundary line between our territory within a short time of his death. He was a most accomplished 
and that of Mexico ; and to his scientific duties in connection with and successful writer on all matters pertaining to horticulture and 
the survey were added those of quartermaster and commissary. related subjects, and exerted <t wide and always wholesome influ- 
Dr. Thurber devoted five years to exploring the natural resources ence through his own writings and through the improvement which 
of the boundary region from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to his editorial example produced in the character and scope of the 
those of the Pacific Ocean, discovering many interesting plants, agricultural and horticultural journals of the United States, A 
including a few trees. The most important of these discoveries Malvaceous plant of the Mexican boundary, named by Gray Thur- 
were described by Professor Asa Gray in the Memoirs of the heria in honor of the discoverer, is now referred to Gossypium^ but 
American Academy (Plantm Tkurberiance). Thurber, on the com- Thurberia, a genus of American grasses, plants to which he devoted 
pletion of his duties in connection with the survey, settled in New years of study, and which he knew better than any of his con- 
York, where he was employed in the United States Assay Office, temporaries, keeps green the memory of a learned and interesting 
and later became a, lecturer before the Cooper Union and in the man. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXI. Dalea spinosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Portion of a seedling plant showing serrate leaves, natural size 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A flower, enlarged. 

5. The petals of a flower, displayed, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A fruit, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Tab. CXI 




C. E Fcucon . deL . 



Fccart /?. so 



DALE A SPINOSA, Graj 



A.IUocreua: cUrew. 



Imp. Ji. Taneur, Paris 



LEGUMiNosiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



37 



ROBINIA. 



Flowers in drooping axillary racemes ; calyx 5-lobed, the upper lobes sub- 
connate ; standard large, reflexed, barely longer than the wings and keel ; ovary 
stipitate, many-ovuled. Legume linear, compressed, 2-valved. Leaves unequally 
pinnate. 



Robinia, Linnseus, Gen. 220. — Adanson, Fam. PI ii. 323. — 273. — Endlicher, Gen. 1274. — Meisner, Gen. 89. — Ben- 

A. L. de Jussieuj Gen. 358. — De Candolle; Mem. Legum. tbam & Hooker, Gen. i. 499. — Baillon^ Hist. PL ii. 267. 



Trees or rarely shrubs, spreading by underground shoots, with slender terete or slightly many- 
angled zigzag branchlets of indefinite growth. Buds minute, naked, subpetiolar, three or four 



together, superposed, protected collectively in a depression by a scale-like covering lined on the inner 
surface with a thick coat of tomentum and opening in early spring, its divisions persistent through 
the season on the base of the branchlet developed usually from the upper bud.^ Leaves unequally pin- 
nate, deciduous ; leaflets oval, entire, petiolulate, reticulate, pen ni veined, stipellate ; stipules setaceous, 
becoming spinescent at maturity, persistent. Flowers long-pedicellate in short pendulous racemes 
developed from the axils of the leaves of the year. Bracts and bractlets small, acuminate, early 
deciduous. Calyx campanulate, five-toothed, or cut, the upper lobes shorter than the others, cohering 
for a part of their length and valvate in sestivation. Corolla papilionaceous ; petals shortly uuguiculate, 
inserted on a tubular disk glandular on the inner surface and connate with the base of the calyx- 
tube ; standard ample, naked on the inner surface, obcordate, reflexed ; wings oblong-falcate, free ; 
keel-petals valvate in aestivation, incurved, obtuse, united below. Stamens ten, inserted with the petals, 
diadelphous ; the nine inferior united into a tube often enlarged at the base and cleft on the upper 
side, the superior one free at the base and connate in the middle with the staminal tube, or finally 
free ; anthers similar, or those opposite the petals sometimes rather smaller, ovate, attached on the back 
near the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary linear-oblong, stipitate j style subu- 
late, inflexed, bearded along the inner side near the apex ; stigma terminal, small ; ovules suspended 



from the interior angle of the ovary, two-ranked, superposed, amphitropous, the micropyle superior 



Legume many-seeded, linear-compressed, almost sessile, two-valved, the seed-bearing suture narrow- 
winged ; valves thin and membranaceous. Seed oblong-oblique, transverse, estrophiolate, attached by a 
stout persistent incurved funiculus enlarged at the point of attachment to the placenta ; testa thin, 
crustaceous ; albumen thin, membranaceous. Embryo large 3 cotyledons oval, fleshy ; radicle short, 
much reflexed, accumbent. 

The genus Robinia is North American. Four species inhabit the territory of the United States ; 
and two, or possibly more, very imperfectly known, occur in Mexico.^ Robinia was once more widely 
distributed over the earth's surface, and the traces of its presence in the Old World are found in the 
Cretaceous and Eocene rocks of central Europe, where analogues of existing forms abound.^ Of the 
species of our territory three are arborescent and one is shrubby. 



4 



1 The subpetiolar buds are often accompanied by a supplemen- ^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arhres, 312. 

tary supra-axillarv bud which sometimes develops late in the season * Robinia Mspida^ Linnseus, ManL 101. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baum. 

into a feeble branchlet which apparently does not survive the first i. 30, t. 31. — BoL Mag. t. 311. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 262. 

Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 83, t. 66. — Torrey & Gray^ 



winter. 



2 Schlechtendal, Linncea, xii. 305, 306. — Hemsley, BoL Biol Am. Fl. N. 



Man. ed. 6, 134. 



Cent. i. 259. 



38 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



LEGUiMmOS^. 



Oi 



of the species produces hard^ durable^ and very valuable timber^ and its bark^ especially that 



f the rootsj possesses tonic and emetic properties. All the species of the United States are valued 



plants and are largely cultivated for 



beauty of their flowers. Many insects feed upon 



2 



Robinia/ which is also affected^ although not very seriously, by fungal diseases 

The generic name made by Linnseus, who discarded that of Tournefort, Pseudacacia/ commemo 
rates the botanical labors of Jean Robin/ herbalist of the king of France^ and of his son, Vespasier 



Robi 



m. 



6 



1 The most serious enemy of the Robinia is a borer (Cyllene ro- ^ InsL 649, t. 417. 

hinice, Forster) which riddles the trunk and in many parts of the ^ Jean Robin (1550-1629), a Parisian apothecary whom Toume- 

country has destroyed the value of Robinia Pseudacacia as a timber fort called the most distinguished botanist of his time, established 

tree. The different species are injured by another borer (Cossus a garden near the Louvre which soon became famous. About 1586 

robinice, Harris) which, however, generally does more damage to he was made arborist and herbalist of Henry III. and was appointed 

the Oak. The boring larva of a moth (Sciapleron robinice, H. director of the gardens of the Louvre, a position which he contin- 

Edwards) is said to destroy Robinia Pseudacacia in some parts of ued to fill under Henry IV. and Louis XIII. In 1697 he laid out 



and planted the garden of the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, into 
which he introduced a number of valuable plants, including Hihiscxis 
Svriacus and the Tuberose, which before his time was onlv known 



Nevada and California (Bull. Brooklyn Entomolog, Soc, iii. 72). 

The foliage of Robinia is attacked by several insects, one of the 
most common and generally distributed being a butterfly (Eudamus 

tityruSy Fab.). The larvfe of a small moth (Depressama robiniellay in France in the gardens of Provence and Languedoc, but which 

Packard) draw the leaves together and devour them (^BulL JVo. 7, he made popular at the north. His published works include de- 

U. S, Entomolng, Com. 98), and they are eaten by several species scriptions of new plants from Spain and Guinea published in his 

of leaf-miners, one of the most destructive of which is a, small Jardin de Louis XIII. and catalogues of the plants which he culti- 

beetle {Odontola dorsalis, Thunb.). The larvse of a small saw-fly vated. In 1601 these numbered 1371 species, and in 1624 had 

(^Nematus similaris, Norton) feed on the leaves ; and the genus is increased to 1800 as described in his Enchiridion Isagogicum pub- 

not exempt from the attacks of the Clisiocampas and other insects lished in that year. 



which are found on many of our forest trees. Small caterpillars 



^ Vespasien Robin (1579-1660) was early associated with his 



are occasionally found in the pods, and the seed is often devoured father, whom he succeeded as king's arborist. The younger Robin 



by weevils. 



made a number of journeys in the south of France and among the 



2 Robinia, in common with other arborescent Leguminosce of Alps and Pyrenees and into Spain and the Barbary States for the 
North America, is affected by only a few diseases which can be purpose of collecting plants for the Jardin du Roi, in which, in 
traced directly to the action of fungi, and these are not especially 1635, he was made assistant professor of botany, becoming pro- 
fessor at the death of Gui de Labrosse. In 1653 he was replaced 



dangerous. They are caused by species like Aglaospora profusa^ 



De Not., Valsa ceratopTiora, Tul., and others found on many woody in this position by Dionys Joncquet, although until his death he 
plants ; while a few like Valsaria Robin ice, Cooke, Sphceronema retained the honorary title of lecturer upon medical plants. He 
Robinice, B. & C, and Sporocybe Robinice, Fr., are considered pecul- was associated with his father in the publication of the Enchiridion. 
iar to the genus. These are all small black fungi whose characters 
are not to be recognized without the aid of the microscope. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Flowers in slender loose racemes ; legume smooth ; branches naked 1. R. PsEUDACAClA. 

Flowers in short crowded glandular-hispid racemes ; legume glandular-hispid ; branches naked 2. R. Neo-Mexicana, 
Flowers in crowded oblong racemes ; legume glandular-hispid ; branches and petioles clammy 3. R. VISCOSA. 
Flowers in short crowded racemes ; legume glandular-hispid ; branches and petioles bristly- 
pubescent (shrubby) 4 R, hispida. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



39 



ROBINIA PSEUDACACIA. 



Locust, Acacia. Yellow Locust. 



Flowers white, in slender loose racemes. 



Legume smooth. Branches naked 



Robinia Pseudacacia, Linnaeus, Spec. 722. — Miller 



Tor- 



ed. 8, No. 1. 



Harhk 



Mar- 



shall, Arbust. Am. 133. — Wanfrenheim, Nordam. Holz 



16, t. 7. 



ne 



Nov 



31, t. 32. — Walter, FL > 
307, t. 145. — WiUdenow 



Schmidt, Oestr, Baum. i. 

Gaertner, Fruct. ii. 
131 ; Enum. 769 ; 



Berl. Baicmz. 372. — Sclioellenbach,^&6t7tZ. Bdume, ii. 
67, t. 42. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 65. — Nouveau 
Diihamel, ii. 60, t. 16. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 222 ; IlL 
iii. 163, t. 606. — Persoon, Syn,\\.ZW. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. ii. 302. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh Am. iii. 245, 
t. 1. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 487. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 
118. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 140. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 242. 



dolle, Prodr. ii. 261. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 247. — 
rey, Fl. N. Y. I 165. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 140. 
Audubon, Birds, t. 104, — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 237. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 258. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. 
\. 294. — Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 3, 295. — Dietrich, S-yn, 
iv. 1053. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 63. — Chapman, 
FL 94. — Curtis, Rejy. Geolog. Suriu N. Car. 1860, iii. 

Koch, Dendr, 

Will- 



48. 



Hist 



i. 55. 



Mass 



komm, ForsU FL ed. 2, 930. — Ridgway 

3Ius. 1882, 65. — Sargent, Forest : 



U. S. 



Nat 



N 



Census U. S. ix. 55. 



Watson 



Man 



Pseudacacia odorata, Moench, 3feth. 145 



Jaume St. Hilaire, TraitS des Arbres, t. 71. — De Can- R. fragilis, Salisbury, Prodr, 336. 



A tree^ seventy to eighty feet in height^ with a trunk three or four feet in diameter^ and slender 
brittle usually erect branches which form a narrow oblong head. The bark of the trunk on fully grown 
individuals varies from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness ; it is deeply furrowed and dark 
brown tinged with red^ the surface being broken into small square persistent scales. The branchlets, 
which are terete or sometimes sHghtly many-angled^ especially on vigorously growing plants^ are marked 
with small pale scattered lenticels, and when they appear are coated with short appressed silvery white 
pubescence. This soon wears off^ and during their first season they are pale green and puberulous^ 
turning light reddish brown towards autumn^ when they are glabrous or nearly so. The leaves when 
they unfold are covered with silvery pubescence, which, however, soon disappears ; they are composed 
'of seven to nineteen leaflets, and vary from eight to fourteen inches in length, with slender puberulous 
petioles which are grooved on the upper side and swoUen at the base. The stipules are half an inch 
long, linear, subulate, membranaceous at first, coated with pubescence, and tipped with a small tuft of 
caducous brown hairs ; ultimately they develop into hard woody straight or slightly recurved spines, 
which do not disappear for many years and increase in size with the growth of the branches until they 
are sometimes more than an inch long.^ The leaflets are ovate, rounded or slightly truncate and 
minutely apiculate at the apex, very thin, dull dark blue-green on the upper, and pale on the lower 
surface, and glabrous at maturity with the exception of the slight puberulence which covers the under 
side of the slender midribs ; they are an inch and a half to two inches long, and half an inch to three 
quarters of an inch broad, and are borne on stout petiolules an eighth of an inch to a quarter of an 
inch in length. The stipels are minute, linear, membranaceous, and early deciduous. The leaves turn 
pale clear yellow late in the autumn, just before falling. The flowers, which open late in May or early 
in June^ are produced in loose puberulous racemes four or five inches long ; they are nearly an inch in 



^ The stipules of Rohinia Pseitdacacia appear to be more devel- the other species this protection is afforded by bristly hairs or by 

oped on the lower than on the upper branches, and this fact leads the gummy substance which exudes from the small globose glands 

Sir John Lubbock to suppose that they serve to protect the young that cover the branches of R. viscosa^ a species also provided, 

growing branches presumably from herbivorous animals, while in however, with spiny stipules. {Jour. Linn. Soc. xxviii. 228.) 



40 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



length and are filled with nectar and very fragrant. The pedicels^ developed from the axils of minute 
caducous hractlets^ are slender^ half an inch long, and dark red or red tinged with green. The calyx 
is conspicuously gibbous on the upper side, pilose within and without, ciliate on the margin, and dark 
green blotched with red, especially on the upper side ; the lower lobe is acuminate and much longer 
than the triangular lateral lobes; the upper divisions are short and nearly triangular. The petals 



are pure white with the exception of the large pale yellow blotch which marks the inner surface of the 
standard. The fruit, which attains nearly its full size by the end of July, ripens late in the autumn 
and hangs on the branches until the end of winter or the beginning of spring. It is borne in stout 
thick-stemmed racemes, and is three or four inches long and half an inch broad, with bright red-brown 
valves, and is usually four to eight-seeded. The seeds are three sixteenths of an inch long, and dark 
orange-brown with irregular darker markings. 



Roblnia Pseiidac 



naturally inhabits the slopes of the Apalachian Mountains from Locust 



Ridge in Marion County, Pennsylvania, to northern Geo 



has become widely naturalized in most 



of the territory of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, and is perhaps indig 
Crowley's Ridge in northeastern Arkansas and in some parts of western Arkansas and of easter 



Indian 



Territory.^ In 

exclusively, but mingles singly 



its native forests the Locust is nowhere common and does not occupy the ground 



oups of 



or 



th 



1 



Hickory 



Black Walnut 



the Ash, the White Oak 



Cucumber Map'nolia, and 



t> 



hich thrive in the deep 



which the Locust grows to its largest size and produces its most valuable timber. It is most common 



d attains its best develop 



on 



the 



ilop 



s 



of the mountains of West Virg 



In less 



favorable situations and at lower elevations, especially on gravelly soil, it spreads by underground stems 
into broad thickets of small and often stunted trees, and is now common in many parts of the northern 
and eastern states. 

Robiiiia Pseudacacia is one of the most valuable timber-trees of the American forest. The wood 
is heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, and very durable in contact with the ground. It 
is brown or more rarely light green with pale yellow sapwood composed of two or three layers of annual 
growth only J it contains numerous obscure medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being clearly 
marked by two or three rows of large open ducts. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.7333, a cubic foot weighing 45.70 pounds. It is extensively used in shipbuilding,^ for all sorts of 
posts, and other purposes where durabihty in contact with the ground is sought, in construction and 
in turnery. It is preferred to the v/ood of any other North American tree for treenails, and was once 
largely exported in this form ; and it is excellent fuel, burning slowly with a clear bright flame.^ 



Eiigelmann, who explored this region fifty years ago and be- 



The English in Virginia soon learned the value of Locust timber, 



fore it had been invaded by settlers, through whose agency Rohinia for, " being obliged to run up with all the expedition possible sucli 

Pseudacacia has become so widely scattered in the United States, little houses as might serve them to dwell in, till they could find 

first noticed it west of the Mississippi River growing, as he always leisure to build larger and more convenient ones, they erected each 

believed, indigenously. In the trans-Mississippi region it does not, of their little hovels on four only of these trees (the Locust-tree of 

except in cultivation, attain a large size, and is usually a low shrub. Virginia), pitched into the ground to support the four corners: 

It 13 i)robable that the Indians of Virginia, who knew the value many of these posts are yet standing, and not only the parts under- 

of the wood of the Locust and made their bows from it, carried the ground, but likewise those above, still perfectly sound." (Mark 

tree from the mountains into the low country, and so helped to Catesby, Hortus Britanno-Americanus, 34. London, 1763.) 



spread it beyond the limits of its native forests. It appears to 



2 Mr. Ebenezer Jessup, writing to the Gentleman's Magazine in 



have been common in the neighborhood of the coast when Virginia 1791, proposed a scheme for planting the Locust on a large scale 



was first settled by Europeans. Will 



in the New Forest with the idea of supplying the British navy with 



colony on James River in 1610 and printed the first mention of this timber, its value in shipbuilding being well established at this time, 
tree, found that '*by the dwellings of the salvages arc bay-trees, (Ixi. 699.) Locust treenails, according to London (Arb. BriL ii. 
wild roses and a kynd of low tree, which beares a cod like to the 619), sold in Pliiladelphia, in 1819, at ten dollars a thousand, and 



peas, but nothing so big: we take yt to be looust." 



jf fifty to one hundred thousand were annually exported from that 



Travaile into Virfjinia Britannia^ ed. Major, 130.) The Lulians, he 
tells us, made " their bows of some plant, eyther of the locust-tree 



city alone to England. 

^ Mathieu, Flore ForestierCy ed. 3, 108. 



or of weech.'^ 



) 



LEGUMINOS^. 



mZVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



41 



The bark of the root is tonic^ or in large doses purgative and emetic/ and is used in homoeopathic 
remedies.^ 

Rohinia Pseiiclacacia was introduced into Europe early in the seventeenth century,^ and was 
planted in the Jardin du Roi in Paris by Vespasien Robin in 1636.^ The first description o£ the tree 
was published by John Parkinson in 1640 in the Theatritm Botanimm? 

No other North American tree has been so generally planted for timber and ornament in the 
United States^ and in Europe ;^ and no inhabitant of the American forest has been the subject of so 
voluminous a literature.^ Numerous varieties have appeared in nurseries marked by peculiarities of 
foliage^ of habit^ and of the color of the flowers, and are esteemed wherever the Rohinia can be 
successfully grown .^ 



Med 



Nat. Dispen 
N. Am. 132. 



U, S. Dispens, ed. 14, 1746. 

nee Johnson, Man, Med. 1 



railroad embankments, and to fix shifting sands, in coppice for the 
production of stakes and poles, and for the fodder furnished by 
the young growing shoots and leaves. (See a letter on the Acacia 



2 Millspaugh, Am. Med. PL in HomoeopatJiic Remedies, i. 50, t. 50. as a fodder plant in the Gentleman's Magazine^ 1801, 1098.) 



^ It is impossible to establish the exact date of the introduction 



s Evelyn, Silva, 64, ed. Hunter, ii. 63. — Miller, Diet. No. 1. 



of the Locust-tree into Europe. Some authors, including Linnseus, Duharael, Traite des Arbres, ii. 187, t. 4l*. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 
the editors of the last edition oi Miller's Dictionari/y and those of 53. — Bechstein, i^or5/6o^ i. 265. — H^smdin, Manuel derAcclimateury 
the Nouveau Duhamely fix it as 1601 when Jean Robin is said to 467. 



have obtained seeds from America : others, including Adanson and 



Towards the end of the last century public attention in Europe 



Deleuze, state that it was not until 1636 that the Locust reached was attracted to the value of the Robinia by a number of papers 

Paris, and that the honor of its introduction belongs to Vespasien printed in the Transactions of scientific and horticultural societies; 

and not to Jean Robin. It is not improbable that the Locust may aud in 1803 Monsieur N. Frangois de Neufchateau, a senator and 

have been cultivated in England as early or earlier than in France. member of the Institute, published in Paris, under the title of 

According to Parkinson, whose work was published only five years Lettre sur le Robinia connu sur le nom impropre de faux Acacia, an 

after Vespasien Robin planted his tree in Paris, the Locust had been octavo volume of three hundred and fourteen pages containing the 

raised near London by Tradescant " to an exceeding great height." essence of all that had been published about the tree in France, 

4 The tree planted by Vespasien Robin in Paris in 1636 is still with much interesting information relating to its cultivation and 

living in the gardens of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. (See its uses. A translation of a large part of this was published in 

Revue Horticole, 1873, 152, f. IG. — Garden and Forest, iii. 305, f.) 1842 in an English book on the Locust by W. Withers entitled. 



^ Arbor siliquosa Virginiensis spinosa, Locus nostratibus dicta, 1550. 

Acacia Virginiana siliquis glabris, Ray, Hist, PI. ii. 1719. 

iffinis Virginiana spinosa, siliqua membranacea plana, Jli 



The Acacia-tree : its Growth, Cultivation, and Uses. 

William Cobbett, the publicist, by his example and writings, did 
more than any one else to make known the value and extend the 



albis papiliomiceis. Anagyridis modo in Uvam propendentibus, cultivation of the Locust-tree in the United States and in Europe. 



Plukenet, Phyt. t. 73, f. 4 ; Aim. Bot. 6. 



During an enforced residence in the United States, between the 



Psevdo-A 



ii. 39. 



siliquis glabris, Boerhaave, Hort. Lugd. Bat. years 1817 and 1819, Cobbett devoted himself to farming on Long 

Island, and established a small nursery for the propagation of fruit 



geminatis, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 



Leyd. Prodr. 372. — Clayton, FL Virgin. 82. 



010 



1 



lia pedunculis racemosis, foliis j 
Clayton, FL Virgin, ed. 2, 105. 



Fl. and timber trees. Here he came to the conclusion " that nothing 

in the timber line could be so great a benefit as the general culti- 

^5. vation of the Locust." On his return to England he carried with 

him a package of the seeds and began the systematic raising and 



^ The value of Robinia Pseudacacia is practically destroyed in selling of Locust-trees, of which he sold more than a million, (See 
nearly all parts of the United States beyond the mountain forests Cobbett, Woodlands, No. 323. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 609.) 
which are its home, by the borers which riddle the trunk and ^ At least thirty varieties of Robinia Pseudacacia are recognized 



branches. Were it not for these insects it would be one of the 
most valuable timber-trees that could be planted in the northern 



in gardens. The most distinct are, 

Var. inermis, De Candolle, Cat. Hort. Monsp. 136 ; Prodr. ii 



and middle states. The character of the timber which it produces, 261. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 609. (R. spectabilis, Du Mont de 

the rapidity of its growth, its power to adapt itself to different Courset, Bot. Cult. vi. 140. R. Utterharti, Hort. — Verlot, RexK 

soils and to reproduce itself rapidly by seeds which germinate Hort. 1873, 155.) 

readily and by stump and root shoots, would make it a most valu- This only differs from the common Locust in the absence of 
able subject for forest and coppice-planting if it coidd be protected stipular spines. It is this form which is usually planted in Europe 
from insects. Young trees grow quickly and vigorously for a for fodder. Grafted plants are used for this purpose, as the seed- 
number of years, but soon become stunted and diseased, and rarely lings are often furnished with spines, which detract from the value 
live long enough to attain any commercial value. of the fodder. Grown m good soil the Robinia furnishes two crops 



Monsp 



' No other American tree is so common in central and northern of shoots in the season. 
Europe, where Robinia Pseudacacia, although it never attains the Var. umbraculifera, 1 

size to which it grows in its native forests, now sometimes springs L c. — Loudon, I. c. 610. — Koch, Dendr. i. 57. — Verlot, L c. (R 

up spontaneously and appears to be naturalized. It is planted in inermis, Du IMont de Courset, L c.) 



great 



The Parasol Acacia, as this variety is usually called, is character- 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



Rohinia Pseudaeacia is surpassed in beauty by few American trees. In no other are Kghtr 
and grace of foliage combined with such massiveness of trunk and spread of branches.^ Few ti 
produce more abundant^ beautiful, or fragrant flowers, or afford more pleasing contrasts of color 
the lio^ht green of the youngest leaves with the darker hues of those of the earlier part of the seas 
and between the different shades of color of the upper and lower surfaces of the leaflets as they i 
and fall with the slightest breath of air.^ 



ized by its short unarmed branches which form a compact spherical A form in which the leaves are sometimes reduced to a single 

head. It is grafted either on tall stems of the common Rohinia or broad leaflet, or more often to two or three. This variety was 

roots, and, although it does not produce flowers, is one obtained about 1855 by a French nurseryman, Monsieur Deniaux. 



own 



of the most popular trees in the countries of central and northern (Verlot, L c.) 

Europe, where it is much used to decorate city and villa gardens Other distinct varieties sometimes found in gardens are var. 

and to shade highways, for which purpose its low wide-spreading maavphylla (Loddiges, Cat. 1830. — Loudon, L c.) ; var. microphylla 

It is also used as a forage (Loddiges, Z. c. — Loudon, L c.) ; var. pendula^ Hort* j var. dissecta, 

Hort, ; and var. latisiliqua^ HorLy characterized by its large legumes. 



head and dense foliage well adapt it. 
plant. (Andrd, Reo. Hort. 1863, 347.) 



Var. crispay De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 261. — Verlot, Rev, Hort. (Koch, Z. c. — Verlot, /. c). 



1873, 155. 



^ The brittleness of its branches is the only serious drawback to 



A form in which the margins of the leaflets, especially those on the Locust as an ornamental tree where it escapes the ravages of 



the upper branches, are more or less undulate or crinkled. 

Var. tortuosay De Candolle, L c, — Loudon, Arb, Brit. ii. 609 
Koch, Dendr. i. 57. — Verlot, Z. c. 



insects. In exposed situations they are often broken by the wind 
and the symmetry of the tree is injured. " It may ornament a 
garden, but is by no means qualified to adorn an exposed country. 



A form distinguished by the abnormal tortuous growth of the It depends on its beauty rather than on its grandeur, which is a 

quality more liable to injury." (Gilpin, Forest Scenery^ ed. 2, i. 



72.) 



branches. 

Var. pyramidalisj Hort. (J?, stricta, Hort, R, fastigtata, Hort.) 

A variety with upright branches forming a narrow pyramidal 
head which appeared in 1839 in the nursery of Monsieur A. Leroy growing under the shade of its branches, owing to the open char- 



The Locust is less injurious than many other trees to plants 



at Angers. (Verlot, L c.) 



acter of the foliage and the fact that the leaflets fold together in 



Var. Decaisneanay Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1863, 151, t. — Fl. des wet weather and so allow the rain quickly to reach the ground 
SerreSy xix. t. 2027. — Lemaire, III. Hort. xii. t. 427. — Verlot, L c. beneath. (See Phillips, Sylva Flor. i. 47.) 



A vigorous tree distinguished by its rose-colored flowers, which 



^ Rohinia Pseudaeacia continues to grow until the beginning of 



appeared in the nursery of Monsieur Villevelle at Manosque in autumn, and the ends of the branches in summer are covered with 



France, where it flowered for the first time in 1862. 
Var. monophylla^ Hort. 



young light yellow-green leaves which stand out conspicuously 
against the dark background of the older foliage. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXIL Robinia Pseudacacia. 



1. A flowering branchy natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower, 

3. Front view of a flower, natural size. 

4. A staminal tube, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CXIII. Robinia Pseudacacia. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A legume with one of the valves removed, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 

5. A portion of a branch, the petiole removed and the bud covering laid 

open, showing the superposed naked buds, with a portion of a 
branchlet developed from a supra-axillary bud, enlarged. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXII 




C. £. Faxo n del 



Ficart/r sc. 



ROBIN lA PSEUDACACIA 



A.Jiuicreu,r dtr&T- 



Jmp,R. Taneur, Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXIII 




C E. Facupri , del 



Ficart /r. sa 



ROBINIA PSEUDACACIA, L 



A. HzocreuzD direa: 



Irnp. R Tojzeur, Fans 



LEGUMiNosjE. SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



ROBINIA NEO-MEXICANA. 



Locust. 



Flowers pale rose-colored, in short crowded glandular-hispid racemes. Legume 
glandular-hispid. Branches naked. 



Robinia Neo-Mexicana, Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. 491. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 419. — Sargent, Forest 



y. 314 (PL Thurher.).—ToTvey, Pacific JR. B- Rep. iv. Trees N. Am. Kith 

79; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 53. — Walpers, Ann. iv. Rocky Mt- Bat. 59. 



Coulter, Man» 



A small tree^ sometimes twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a slender trunk six or eight 
inches in diameter; or more often a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is thin, slightly furrowed, and 
light brown, the surface separating into small plate-like scales. The branchlets when they appear are 
pale and coated with rusty brown glandular hairs which increase in length during the summer and do 
not disappear until the autumn. In winter the branchlets of the previous season are slightly puberulous, 
bright reddish brown, often covered with a glaucous bloom, and marked by a few scattered small pale 
lenticels. The winter-buds are minute, depressed-globular, and protected by a scale-like covering coated 
with dark brown tomentum. The leaves vary from six to twelve inches in length, and are composed of 
from fifteen to twenty-one leaflets borne on a stout pubescent petiole grooved on the upper side and 
enlarged at the base. The leaflets are elliptical-oblong, mucronate, rounded, or sometimes slightly 
emarginate at the apex, usually wedge-shaped or sometimes rounded at the base, an inch and a half 
long and an inch broad ; at first they are coated on the lower surface and the margins with soft brown 
hairs, and on the upper surface with silvery white pubescence ; and at maturity they are thin, pale blue- 
green, conspicuously reticulate-veined, with slender midribs and primary veins, and quite glabrous with 
the exception of the lower side of the midribs and the stout petiolules, which are slightly puberulous. 
The stipules are chartaceous when they appear, and are covered with long silky brown hairs, which 
also form a tuft at their apex ; at maturity they become stout slightly recurved flat brown or bright 
red spines sometimes an inch or more in length.^ The stipels are membranaceous, a quarter of an inch 
long, often recurved, and sometimes do not disappear until the end of the season. The flowers, which 
are an inch in length, appear in May in short compact many-flowered glandular-hispid racemes with 
stout peduncles. The pedicels are slender, half an inch long, and, like the exterior of the calyx, 
covered with stout glandular hairs. The corolla is pale rose-colored or sometimes almost white, with a 
broad standard and wing-petals. The legume is three or four inches long with a narrow wing, and is 
covered with stout glandular hairs and conspicuously tipped with the remnants of the recurved style. 
The seeds are very dark brown, slightly mottled, and a sixteenth of an inch or rather more in length. 

Rohlnia Neo-Mexicana inhabits the banks of mountain streams from the valley of the Purgatory 
River in Colorado, through northern New Mexico to the Santa Catalina and the Santa Rita Mountains 
in Arizona, where it occurs at elevations varying from four thousand to seven thousand feet above the 
sea-level, and to southern Utah, where it has been found near Kanah and in Mt. Zion Caiion of the 
west fork of the Rio Virgen. Only in the valley of the Purgatory River near Trinidad in Colorado is 

it known to grow into a small tree. 

The wood of Rohlnia JVco-Mexlcana is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained, with a 
satiny surface ; it contains many evenly distributed open ducts and thin conspicuous medullary rays. 

1 The stipular spines of this species, which inhabits an arid re- and are nsuaUy well armed against them, are more constantly devel- 
ffion where plants require special protection from browsing animals oped and generally much larger than those of the other Rubinias. 



44 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



It is yellow streaked with brown, with a light yellow sapwood composed of four or five layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8034, a cubic foot weighing 50.07 
pounds. 

Rohinia Neo-Mexicana was discovered in May, 1851, by Dr. George Thurber, the botanist of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey Commission, on a dry hillside in the valley of the Mimbres 
River in New Mexico, and was introduced into cultivation through the Arnold Arboretum in 1882. It 
is perfectly hardy in New England, where it grows rapidly and vigorously.^ 



1 The largest plants in the Arboretum are ten or twelve feet plant in his Arboretum at Zoeschen, in Germany, produced flowers 
gh but have not yet flowered. Dr. G. Dieck reports that the in the spring of 1891 {Gartenfloray 1891, 362). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



PiATE CXrV. RoBiNiA Neo-Mexicana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A calyx, enlarged. 

3. A flower, the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A raceme of fruit, natural size- 

6. A legume with one valve removed, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed^ enlarged. 

8. An embryo, much magnified. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab cxrv. 




C.E Fcucon del. 



ROBINIA NEO-MEXICANA, Graj 



Ficart fr jc 



t^ 



A.Rwcreax diretT. 



Imp. R. Taji^eur, Paru 



LEGUMINOS-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



45 



ROBINIA VISOOSA. 



Clammy Locust. 

Flowers pale rose-colored, in crowded oblong racemes. Legume glandular-hispid 



Branches and petioles clammy 



Robinia viscosa, Ventenat, Hort, Cels, 4, t. 4 ; MSm. de 



De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 262. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, 



Inst. Nat. Sci. Phys. & Math. ^ 
Inst. Nat. Sci. Phvs. & Math 



Isj MSm. di 
Willdenow. 



Abbild. Holz 



Sprengel, Syst. 



« « « 

111. 



Spec. iii. 1131 ; Enum. 769 ; BerL Baumz, 372. 
chaux, Fl. Bor,-Am. ii. 65. — Nouveau Duhamely 



Mi- 



t. 17. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 222, — B. S. Barton, Bot* 



Michaux f. Hist 



Appx. 29, t- 21. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 311. — Desfontaines, 

Hist 
t. 2. 
118- 



Don, Gen, Syst. ii. 238. — Spach, Hist. V6g, i. 260. 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 295. — Dietrich, Syn. iv. 
1053- — Chapman, FL 94. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
N. Car. 1860, iii. 49. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 56. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s 
Man. ed. 6, 134. 



Pursh, Fl. Am,. Sept. ii. 488. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. Robinia glutinosa, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 560. — Koch, Dendr. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 140. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 242, 



i. 59. 



A small tree, thirty or forty feet in height, with a trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter, and 
slender spreading branches; or a low shrub five or six feet in height. The bark of the trunk is 
an eighth of an inch thick, smooth, and dark brown tinged with red. The branchlets are dark reddish 
brown during their first season, and clothed with conspicuous dark glandular hairs, which, like those 
on the petioles and legumes, exude a clammy, sticky substance j ^ during their first winter they are 
bright red-brown covered with small black lenticels and very sticky, and in their second year turn 

light brown and become dry. The winter-buds, which are minute and protected by a scale-Kke 
covering, are immersed in the scars left by the leaves of the previous season, and do not appear until 
the beginning of growth in the spring. The leaves are from seven to twelve inches long, with stout 
nearly terete dark petioles slightly enlarged at the base, and from thirteen to twenty-one leaflets which 
are ovate or sometimes acuminate, mucronate, rounded, or pointed at the apex, and wedge-shaped at the 
base. As they unfold the lower surface is covered with soft silky white pubescence, and the upper 
surface is sHghtly puberulent ; at maturity they are an inch and a half to two inches long, two thirds 
of an inch broad, dark green and glabrous above, and pale and coated with pubescence below, especially 
along the slender yellow midribs and primary veins and on the stout glandular-hispid petiolules. The 
stipules are subulate, chartaceous, and often deciduous or sometimes develop into stout slender spines. 
The stipels are very slender, and disappear soon after the leaf has reached its full size. The flowers, 
which are two thirds of an inch long, appear in June^ in short ovate crowded grandular-hispid racemes, 
and are almost inodorous. The slender pedicels are covered with long pale hairs, and are developed 
from the axils of large lanceolate acuminate dark red bracts contracted at the apex into long setaceous 
points which are exserted beyond the flower-buds, and mostly fall before the flowers open. The calyx 
is dark red and covered on the outer surface and on the margin of the subulate lobes with long pale 
hairs. The corolla is pale rose or flesh color, with a narrow standard marked on the inner surface by a 
pale yellow blotch, and broad side petals. The legume is Hnear-lanceolate, narrow winged, from two 



to three and a half inches in length, and tipped with the remnants of the long slender style. The 
seed is an eighth of an inch long, dark reddish brown and mottled. 

1 See an article by the French chemist Vauquehn {Mem. de ^ A second crop of flowers is often produced in August from 

VInst. Nat ScL Phys. &f Math. v. 105), entitled Experiences sur la shoots developed early in the summer, especially on vigorously 
substance visqueuse qui se rassemble sur Vecorce du Robinia viscosa. growing young trees or in years of abundant rainfall. 



46 



mLVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



Rohinla viseosa inhabits the high mountains of Carolina^ and has now become naturalized through 



many parts of the United States east of the Mississippi River and as far north 



Massachusetts 



1 



TheAvood^ of Rob 



heavy^ hard^ and close-grained, with several rows of open duets 



clearly marking 



lay 



of annual growth, and many thin medullary rays 



It is brown with light 



of two or three thick layers of annual growth 



yellow sapwood composed 

absolutely dry wood is 0.8094, a cubic foot weighing 50.44 pounds 



The specific gravity of 



Robinia viseosa was first noticed by William Bartram 



the summer of 1776 on the mountains 



between the headwaters of the Savannah and Tennessee rivers.* It was next found by the French 
botanist Michaux ^ in 1790 in the same region^, and was introduced by him into his garden near Charles- 



from which he sent it the 



year 



h 



IS son m 



Paris 



It was first planted in Europe by the 
his garden at Montreuil.^ The excellent habit of the Clammy Locust, 
handsome foliage and beautiful flowers, soon attracted the attention of horticulturists, and it has 



French physician Lem 



always been a popular garden plant in the United States and in Europe 



8 



1 



Robinia viseosa^ which appears to be one of the rarest of all cian to Louis XVI. Ruined by the Revolution, Lemonnier retired 

our trees, was not seen growing wild in the forests of the southern to Montreuil, where he opened a small shop for the sale of herbs, 

Alleghany Mountains from the time of the Michaux until 1882, and in his garden cultivated many American plants given to him 

when it was rediscovered by Mr. John Donnell Smith near High- by his friends, the two Michaux, passing in these occupations what 

lands, Macon County, North Carolina, covering a rocky slope he declared were the happiest days of his life. His publications 

known as Buzzard Ridge at an elevation of four thousand five relating to plants are not numerous or important. They include a 

hundred feet above the sea-level, and growing as a shrub with Lettre sur la Cultivation du Cafe (Paris, 1773) and a few short 

stems only a few feet high. It has not been seen in any other memoirs. Monnieria, a name given by Linneeus to an annual plant 

locality growing wild. Bartram and Michaux speak of it as a tree of tropical America, preserves the memory of this modest and 

forty feet high, and it often attains that height in cultivation. public-spirited man of science, to whose value, according to the 

2 Taken from a cultivated tree growing in Essex County, Mas- testimony of his contemporaries, scant justice is done in the pub- 



sacbusetts. 
** See i. 16. 
4 Trav, 335. 
6 See i. 58. 
^ Louis Guillaume Lemonnier (1717-1799), brother of the 



lished results of his observations. 

' Michaux f. Hist, Arh. Am. iii. 264. 

8 Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iv. 323. — Loudon, Arb, BriL ii. 626, 
f. 306, V. t. 87. 

Robinia bella-rosea, Hort., a plant sometimes found in gardens 



astronomer, Pierre Louis Lemonnier, a distinguished Parisian with usually glabrous leaflets, rose-colored flowers, and red branches 

physician, was appointed on the death of Bernard de Jussieu in without glandular hairs, is perhaps a hybrid between this species 

1777 professor of botany in the Jardin du Roi, which he is said and R, Pseudacacia. (Nicholson, Diet. Gard.^ Robinia dubia 

to have greatly enriched. He soon after abandoned his chair in (Desvaux, Jour, Bot. iv. 204) was considered by De Candolle 

favor of Antoine Louis de Jussieu and was appointed first physi- {Prodr. ii. 261) a garden hybrid of similar parentage. 



EXPLAJ^ATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXV. Robinia viscosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, front view, natural size. 

3. A staminal tube, the upper stamen detached, enlarged 

4. A pistil, enlarged- 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. A raceme of fruit, natural size. 

7. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America 



Ta'b. CXV. 




C.E.Faxon, del . 



Picart fr, so. 



ROBINIA VISCOSA, Vent. 



A.Biocreujc dire^r . 



Imp . R. Tan^eur^ Partj 



LEGUMiNosiE. SILVA OF NORTR AMERICA. 



47 



OLNEYA. 



Flowers in short axillary racemes ; calyx subcampanulate, 5-lobed, the lobes 
imbricated in aestivation ; corolla papilionaceous ; ovary many-ovuled. Legume com- 
pressed, thick-valved, tardily dehiscent. Leaves pinnate, destitute of stipules, 

Olneya, Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. v, 328 {PL T/mr&er. ). —Bentham & Hooker, Gen. I 500. — Baillon, Hist. PL 
ii. 271. 

A small tree, with thin scaly bark and stout terete hoary-canescent, slightly many-angled branchlets 
often armed with stout infrastipular spines. Leaves hoary-canescent^ persistent^ equally or unequally 
pinnate, ten to fifteen-foliolate, destitute of stipules and stipels, short-petiolate^ often fascicled in former 
axils; leaflets cuneate, oblong or obovate, entire, obtuse, often mucronate, rigid, short-petiolulate, 
reticulate-veined, with broad conspicuous midribs. Flowers in short axillary few-flowered hoary- 
canescent racemes. Bracts and bractlets chartaceous, acute^ minute, deciduous before the expansion 
of the flowers. Pedicels stout, as long as or rather longer than the calyx. Calyx hoary-canescent 
with short thick pubescence, the lobes ovate, obtuse, almost equal, the two upper connate for the 
greater part of their length. Disk cupuliform, adnate to the tube of the calyx. Corolla papiliona- 
ceous ; petals unguiculate, purple, or violet, inserted on the disk ; standard orbicular, deeply emarginate, 
reflexed, furnished at the base of the blade with two infolded ear-shaped appendages covering two 
prominent callosities ; wings oblique, oblong, slightly auriculate at the base of the blade on the upper 
side, free, as long as the broad obtuse incurved keel-petals. Stamens ten, diadelphous, the superior 
one free, filling the slit in the staminal tube ; filaments filiform, of the same length ; anthers uniform, 
attached on the back, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile or slightly stipitate, 
pilose, many-ovuled ; style inflexed, bearded above the middle ; stigma thick and fleshy, depressed- 
capitate ; ovules suspended from the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, amphitropous, the micro- 
pyle superior. Legume oblique, compressed, glandular-hairy, light brown, two-valved, often tipped 
with the remnants of the long persistent style, one to five-seeded ; valves thick and coriaceous, unequally 
and interruptedly convex at maturity by the growth of the seeds. Seeds broadly ovate, slightly angled 
on the ventral side, estrophiolate, suspended by short thick funicles, destitute of albumen ; testa thin, 
membranaceous, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 
thick and fleshy, accumbent on the short incurved radicle, light green. 

The wood of Olneya is very heavy, hard, and strong, although brittle. The character of the grain, 
which is usually contorted, although it increases its beauty, renders it difficult to cut and work. It is 
rich dark brown striped with red, with thin clear yellow sapwood, and contains numerous thin medul- 
lary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry heartwood is 1.1486, a cubic foot weighing 66.07 
pounds. It furnishes excellent fuel, and is sometimes manufactured into canes and other small objects. 

Olneya was discovered in July, 1852, by Dr. George Thurber, the botanist of the United States 
and Mexican Boundary Survey Commission, on the table-lands of the valley of the lower Gila River in 
what is now the Territory of Arizona. 

The generic name commemorates the services to botany of Stephen T. Olney.^ The genus is 
represented by a single species. 



Stephen Thayer Olney (1812-1878) was a native of Providence, 



Brown 



ogiie 



Rhode Island, where he was actively engaged during nearly his plants of his native State. He published a cata 

entire life in business and manufacturing enterprises which left 1845, with continuations and emendations in 1846 and 1847 ; and 

him, however, the opportunity to indulge his taste for botany, and in 1871 a List of Rhode Island Algce. Mr. Olney was president of 

to collect it. large and rich herbarium and botanical library which the Providence Franklin Society from 1859 to 1869. 



LEGUMiNOs^. JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



49 



OLNEYA TESOTA. 



Iron Wood. Arbol de Hierro. 



leya Tesota, Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. v. 313 {PL 265. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat \. 157. — Hemsley, 

Thurher.) ; Ives' Rep. 11. — Torrey, Pacific E. R. Rep. Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 260. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 

iv. 82 ; vii. 10, t. 5 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 58. — Wal- Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 56. 

pers, Ann. iv. 587. — Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, Tesota, Mueller, Walp. Ann. iv. 479. 



Olneya Tesota sometimes grows to the height of twenty-five or thirty feet, with a short trmik 
occasionally eighteen inches in diameter and usually divided, four or sik feet from the ground, into a 
number of stout upright branches. The bark of the trunk exfoliates in long longitudinal dark red- 
brown scales. The branchlets are at first thickly coated with hoary-canescent pubescence which 
disappears early in their second year, when they are pale green and more or less spotted and streaked 
with red, becoming pale brown in their third season. The spines, which are often developed in pairs 
below the leaves, are straight or slightly curved, very sharp and rigid, from an eighth to a quarter of 
an inch in length, and persistent during at least two years. The leaves are from one to two and a 
half inches in length, with grooved petioles, and leaflets which are from half to three quarters of an 
inch long. They appear with the flowers early in June, those of the previous year apparently faUing 
at the same time. The fruit, which is light brown and very glandular, is fully grown in midsummer 
and ripens before the end of August. 

Olneya Tesota is widely distributed through the arid regions of the southwestern part of the 
continent, from the valley of the Colorado River south of the Mohave Mountains of California to 
southwestern Arizona, the adjacent portions of Sonora, and Lower California.^ It occupies the sides 
of low depressions and arroyos in the desert, and in some portions of its range, especially in Sonora, 
where it is more abundant and grows to a larger size than in any part of the United States, it is a 
common tree. No other desert tree is more beautiful than the Tesota when its abundant racemes of 
large bright flowers are clustered on the end of the branches ; and in recent years a number of attempts 
have been made to introduce it into the gardens of southern Europe, where, however, it has resisted 
every effort at domestication.^ 

The specific name Tesota is that by which this tree, the Arbol de Hierro of the Spaniards in 
Mexico, was known to the inhabitants of Sonora at the time of its discovery. 



^ It was found in Lower California by T. S. Brandegee between ^ The seed germinates readily, but the seedling plants soon be- 

Comondu and Calamujuet {Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, ii. 149 [PL Baja come sickly, and perish at the end of a few weeks (Naudin, Garden 



CaL']). 



and Forest, iv. 324). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXVL Olneta Tesota. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A calyx, enlarged. 

4. The petals of a flower displayed, enlarged. 

5. A flower, the corolla and part of the calyx removed, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged- 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North Am 



erica- 



Tab. CXVI. 




C E. Faron del- 



FLcarl.^ . sc . 



OLNEYA TESOTA , Gray. 



A . Hiocreux direx . 



Imp. R . Tarieur PctrLs 



LEGUMmos^, 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



51 



ICHTHYOMETHIA. 



Flowers in ample axillary panicles ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in 
aestivation ; corolla papilionaceous ; ovary 10 to 12-ovuled. Legume linear, longi- 
tudinally 4-winged, indehiscent. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, destitute of 
stipules. 



Ichthyomethia, Browne, Nat. Hist 



Gen. 358. — Meisner, Gen. 89. — Endlicher, Gen. 1305. 



Piscidia, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1155 ; Gen. ed. 6, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. \. 550. — Baillon, H 

367. — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 326. — A. L. de Jussieu, 327. 



A tree, with red-brown scaly bark and stout terete branchlets marked with many pale lenticular 
spots* Buds obtuse, their thin scales clothed with silky rufous hairs. Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, 
five to eleven-f oliolate, deciduous j leaflets opposite, the terminal one distant from the others, oval, 
obovate, or broadly oblong, obtuse or shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded or wedge-shaped at 
the base, with undulate thickened margins and thick pubescent petiolules, at first coated like the 
petioles and young branchlets with rufous hairs, at maturity coriaceous and then glabrous and dark 
green on the upper surface, pale and more or less covered with rufous or canescent pubescence along 
the elevated conspicuous midribs and primary veins on the lower surface, otherwise glabrous or 
sometimes covered with soft silky pubescence. Flowers in axillary canescent ovate densely flowered 
or elongated thyrsoidal panicles with short three to twelve-flowered branches, developed from the 
naked branchlets of the previous year. Pedicels slender, enlarged at the two extremities, bibracteolate. 
Bracts minute, caducous. Bractlets minute, scarious, subelliptical, slightly coriaceous. Calyx cam- 
panulate, canescent, five-lobed, persistent, the lobes short and broad, the two upper subconnate, the 
lower broadly triangular. Petals inserted on an annular glandular disk adnate to the interior of 
the calyx-tube, unguiculate, white tinged with red ; standard nearly orbicular, emarginate, hoary- 
canescent on the outer, marked with a green blotch on the inner surface, the claw as long as the calyx ; 
wings oblong-falcate, auriculate at the base of the blade on the upper side ; keel-petals broadly falcate, 
the claws connate. Stamens ten, the filament of the upper one free at the base only, connate above 
with the others into a closed tube ; anthers uniform, versatile, two-celled, the cells opening longitudi- 
nally. Ovary sessile, sericeous, many-ovuled, contracted into a filiform incurved style terminated by 
the capitate stigma ; ovules suspended from the inner angle of the ovary, two-ranked, amphitropous, 
the micropyle superior. Legume linear-compressed, raised on a stalk longer than the calyx, many- 



( 



ded, slightly contracted between the seeds 



or glabrate, thin walled, indehiscent 



longitudinally four-winged ; the wings developed from the dorsal and ventral sutures, broad, continuouj 
or interrupted by the abortion of some of the ovules, membranaceous, softly pubescent, laterally many 



ed, their margins undulate 



Seed oval, compressed, destitute of alb 



Embryo fiUin 



attached by a short thick funicle ; testa thin, crustaceous, red-brown, not lustrous, 
cavity of the seed ; cotyledons plano-convex, oval, fleshy ; radicle short, inflexed. 

The wood of Icthyomethia is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong, with a fine 
surface susceptible of taking a beautiful polish ; it is clear yellow-brown, with thick lighter colored 
sapwood, and is extremely durable in contact with the ground. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8734, a cubic foot weigliing 54.43 pounds. It is largely used in Florida in boat-building 
and for firewood and charcoal. 

Icthyomethia, especially the bark of the roots, contains an active principle, Piscldiny which is 



52 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS-aS. 



sedati 



d hypnotic, and has been found effective in producing sleep without subsequent injurious 

extract of the bark of the root locally 



effects, although inferior to opium as an analgesic. 



The fluid 



applied has been successfully employed in alleviating toothache, or, taken internally, in relieving pain.^ 
The bark of the roots, with the young branches and powdered leaves, has been used in the West Indies 
from the time of the Caribs to stupefy fish and faciUtate their capture.^ 



The generic name, formed from ixdvc, and /ufO>7, indicates the Carib use of the tree, 
epresented by a single species. 



The 



genus IS 



^ Barham, Hort. Amer. 52. — Liudley, FL Med. 246. — William de belesa 6 barbasco : , . . Esta baygua es como bexuco, d picada 



6 maxada aprovecha para embarbascar 6 adormecer el pescado, 
como he dicho.'' (Lib. xiii. cap. i.) 

It is probably the Bois a Ennyurer les Poissons of Du Tertre 
America describe the employment by the natives of Ichthyomethia (Hist. Gen. des lies de Saint Christopher etc., 216) and of Labat 
and some allied leguminous trees for this purpose. The first men- (Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de VAmeriquey i. 418). 



Hamilton, Pharm. Jour. iv. 76, — U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 1734. 
The Pharmacology of the Newer Materia Medica^ 1890, 593, f . 
2 The earlier European travelers in the Antilles and South 



tion of the custom appears in Oviedo y Valdes's Historia Natural y 



Rochefort speaks of it as "celuy dont la racine ^tant broy^e, & 



General de las Indias, published in 1535, in which this passage jettde dans les rivieres, enyure les Poissons." (Histoire Naturelle 



occurs : 



et Morale des Isles Antilles^ 103.) 



" Y tambien usan de cierta hierva que se dice baygua, en lugar 



LEGUMINOS^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



lOHTHYOMETHIA PISCIPULA. 



Jamaica Dogwood. 



Ichthyomethia Piscipiila, A. S. Hitchcock, Garden and 
Forest^ iv. 472. 

Brythrina Piscipula, Linnaeus, Spec. IQl. 

Piscidia Erythrina, Linnseus, Syst Nat. ed. 10, 1155; 

Spec. ed. 2, 993. — Jacquin, Enum. PL Carih. 27 ; Stirp. 

Am. 209; Hist. Select. Stirp. Am. 102. — Miller, Diet. 



Fl. Jam. 268. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 31, t. 52. — Dieti-ieh, 
Syn. iv. 1224. — Bentham, Joitr. Linn. Soc. iv. Suppl. 
116 ; Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 81. — Chapman, Fl. 110. 
Grisebach, Fl Brit. W. Ind. 200. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 
Am. Cent. \. 319. — Sauvalle, FL Cub. 32. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S- ix. 57. 



ed. 8, No- 1. — Swartz, Ohs. 276. — Lamarck, Diet. i. p. Carthagenensis, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 27 ; Stirp. 



433. 



Willdenow, Spec. iii. 919. — Titford, HorL Bot. 



Am. 210 ; Hist. Select. Stirp. Am, 103. — Linnaeus, Spec. 



Am. 84. 



Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 269- — Kunth, Syn. iv. 



ed. 2, 993. — WiUd 



HoH 



73. 



VI. 



Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. 



382. 



De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 267. — Poiret, Lam. 



Jam., i. 270. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 267. — Sprengel, 
Syst. iii. 228.— Don, Gen, Syst ii. 242. 



Hist 



Diet. Ill iii. 163, t. 605. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 228. 



Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antil. iii. 203, t. 196. 



Spach, 



Veg. i. 266. — Macfadyen, FL Jam. 259. — Dietrich, Syn 
iv. 1224. 



Hist. Veg. i. 266. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 242. — Macfadyen, P. Piscipvila, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. 436. 



A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, vrith a trunk often two or three feet in diameter and stout 
upright-growing sometimes contorted branches forming an irregular head. The bark of the trunk is 



an eighth of an inch thick, with a light red-brown surface which divides into small square scales. The 
branchlets when they first appear are coated with thick rufous pubescence which disappears during the 
summer, and in their first winter they are glabrous or glabrate, bright reddish brown, and conspicuously 
marked by oblong longitudinal lenticular white spots and large elevated leaf-scars. The leaves, which 
in Florida are deciduous in early spring, appear after the flowering period. They are from four to 
nine inches in length, with stout petioles slightly enlarged at the base, the rachis being sometimes 
extended for nearly an inch between the upper pair and the terminal leaflet. The leaflets are from 
three to four and a half inches in length and an inch and a half to nearly two inches in breadth, with 
thick petiolules half an inch long. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in length, and are borne 
on slender pedicels which are sometimes an inch and a half long, and which appear jointed from the 
prominent elevated persistent scars left by the falling of the bractlets. The flower-clusters are some- 
times ten or twelve inches in length, with long graceful few-flowered branches, or often are not more 
than two to four inches long, compact, and densely flowered. They appear in Martinique in February, 
and in Florida in May ; and as they are produced in great quantities near the ends of all the 
branches, the trees are handsome and conspicuous 
The fruit ripens in July and August, and is light brown, three or four inches long, and from an inch 
to an inch and a half across the thin papery wings. 

Ichthyomethia Piscipida is one of the commonest of the tropical trees which grow in Florida, 
where it occurs on the shores of Bay Biscayne, on many of the southern keys, and on the west coast 
from the neighborhood of Pease Creek to Cape Sable. It abounds in many of the West India islands, 
and occurs in southern Mexico. 



at the flowering time, although bare of leaves. 



1 



The 



description of Ichthyomethia Piscipula was published in 1689 by Paul Hermann 



m 



his Paradisi Batavi Prodromus 



1 



Nat. Mus. No. 13, 45) 



fraxini folio^ siliqua alis folia 



ly those individuals which are going to flower drop their leaves. ceis extantibus, voice molendinarice fluviatUis, vel seminum laserpitij 
2 Coral arbor polyphylla non spinosay 329. 



143 



iffi: 



176, f . 4, 5. — Ray, Hist, PL iii. Dendr. 108. 



foliis 



cacia sUiQuis alatis. rivnn 



51 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



According to Aiton ^ it was cultivated in England as early as 1690 in the Royal Gardens at 



Hampton Court. 

Ichthyomethia Pisctpula was first detected in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



2 



merabranaceis 



foliis pinnatis ovatisy racemis terminalibus 



Burmann, 229, t. 233, f. 2. 

Robinia foliis impari-pinnatis^ foliolis 
dosis alabris. vedunculis racemosis. Miller 



296 



^ HorL Kew> iii. 9. 

2 See i. 33. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXVII. Ichthyomethia Piscipula. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. The petals of a flower displayed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A calyx, enlarged. 

6- A flower, the corolla and part of the calyx removed, enlarged 

7. A pistil and part of the calyx, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CXVIII. Ichthyomethia Piscipula. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, a portion of one wall removed, natural size. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4- Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXVII 




5 





C.E.Faxon del 



Picartjr 



r so . 



ICHTHYOMETHIA PISCIPULA, Hitdicock. 



d.Biocreux dlrea:^ 



Inip.R.Tojieiir^Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CXVIII . 




3 



C.E. Faxon del 



PhCMTi ^ SO 



ICHTHYOMETHIA PISCIPULA, Hitchcock 



A Riocreiuv dxrex f* 



Imp R TiznetLT Pans 



LEGUMiNOS^. SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



55 



CLADRASTIS. 



Flowers in ample terminal panicles ; calyx 5-tootlied, the teeth imbricated in 
aestivation ; corolla papilionaceous ; stamens distinct ; ovary stipitate, many-ovuled. 
Legume linear-compressed, tardily dehiscent. Leaves unequally pinnate, destitute 
of stipules. 

Cladrastis, Rafinesque, Neogen. 1. — Endlicher, Gen. 1309. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 554 (excl. Maackia). — Baillon, 
Hist. PL ii. 361 (excl. Maackia). 

A tree, with copious watery juice, smooth gray bark, slender slightly zigzag terete branchlets, 
infrapetiolar buds, and fibrous roots. Buds four together, superposed, flattened by mutual pressure 
into an acuminate cone, covered individually with thin lanceolate scales coated with lustrous brown 
tomentum, and inclosed collectively in the hollow base of the petiole, the largest and upper one only 
developing, the lowest minute and rudimentary. Leaves alternate, petiolate, the stout terete petioles 
abruptly enlarged at the base, seven to eleven-foliolate, deciduous ; leaflets usually alternate, broadly 
oval, the terminal one rhomboid-ovate, conti'acted at the apex into a short, broad point, wedge-shaped 
at the base, entire, petiolulate, destitute of stipels, covered at first Hke the young shoots with fine 
silvery or on the midrib slightly rufous pubescence, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark yellow-green on 
the upper, and pale on the lower surface, the midribs and numerous primary veins conspicuous, deeply 
grooved above, light yellow below. Flowers in long graceful nodding terminal panicles, the lower 
branches racemose and often springing from the axils of sohtary flowers, the main axis slightly zigzag^ 
and, like the branches, covered at first with a glaucous bloom, and slightly pilose. Bracts lanceolate, 
scarious, early deciduous. Pedicels solitary, slender, puberulous, bibracteolate near the middle, the 
bractlets scarious, minute, caducous. Calyx cylindrical-campanulate, enlarged on the upper side, 
obliquely obconic at the base, puberulous within and without, the teeth nearly equal, short, and 
obtuse, the two upper subconnate. Disk cupuUform, adnate to the interior of the calyx-tube. Petals 
white, unguiculate ; standard nearly orbicular, entire or slightly emarginate, reflexed above the middle, 
barely longer than the straight oblong wings, slightly bi-auriculate at the base of the blade, marked 
on the inner surface with a pale yellow blotch ; keel-petals free, oblong, nearly straight, obtuse, shghtly 
subcordate or bi-auriculate at the base. Stamens ten, free ; filaments filiform, slightly incurved near 
the summit, glabrous ; anthers attached on the back at the middle, versatile, two-celled, the cells 
opening longitudinally. Ovary linear, stipitate, bright red, villose with long pale hairs, many-ovuled, 
contracted into a long slender glabrous slightly incurved subulate style ; stigma terminal, minute ; 
ovules suspended from the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, amphitropous, the micropyle superior. 
Legume glabrous, short-stalked, hnear-compressed, the upper margin slightly thickened, tipped with 
the remnants of the persistent style, four to six-seeded, ultimately dehiscent, the valves thin and 
membranaceous. Seed oblong-compressed, scarcely strophiolate, destitute of albumen, attached by 
a slender funicle ; testa thin, membranaceous, dark brown. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; 
cotyledons fleshy, oblong, flat ; radicle short, inflexed. 

The wood of Cladrastis is heavy, very hard, strong, and close-grained, with a smooth satiny 
surface capable of receiving a good polish, the layers of annual growth being clearly marked by several 
rows of open ducts. In color it is bright clear yellow changing to light brown on exposure, the thin 
sapwood beino- almost white. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6278, a cubic foot 
weio-hino- 39.12 pounds. It is used for fuel and occasionally for gun-stocks, and yields a clear yellow 
dye. The genus is not known to possess other useful properties. 



56 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSJE. 



Cladrastis was discovered in March, 1796/ by the French botanist Michaux/ near Fort Blount on 
the Cumberland River*^ 

The generic name, from xXdhoq and ^pavcnrdg, relates to the brittleness of the branches. The 
genus is represented by a single species.* 



1 Michaux, Jour, in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxvi. 135 

2 See i. 58. 



known 



(Bentham 



^ A letter written by Michaux to William Blount, governor of which, however, it appears generically distinct in its solitary extra- 

the Ohio Territory, suggesting the value of the wood of this tree petiolar buds, accrescent bud-scales persistent on the base of the 

as a dyewood, was published in the KnoxvUle Gazette of March young shoots, and erect spicate inflorescence, geminate pedicels, 

15, 1796. (Michaux f. Voyage a V Quest des Monts AUeghanys, four-toothed calyx, filaments connate at the base, the thickened 

255.) suture of the pod, and in the character of its bark and its general 

* Maackia (Ruprecht, Bull, Acad. St. Petersbourg^ xv. 143, t. 1, habit. (See Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Set. St. Petersbourg^ xviii. 

f. 2), a small leguminous tree of the valley of the Amour River 400 [il/e'Z, Biol. ix. 72].) 



LEGUMiNosiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



57 



OLADRASTIS LUTEA. 



Yellow Wood. Virgilia. 



Cladrastis lutea, Koch, Dendr. i. 6. — Sargent, Garden and i. 163. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1501. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 



Forest, ii. 375. 



565, t 78. 



Michaux f. Hist 



Neogen. 1 ; Med. FL ii. 210 ; New 
jv & Grav, FL N. Am. i. 391. 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 309. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 284. — Sylva, iii. 83. 

Hayne, Dendr. FL 53. — Loiseleur, Herb. Amat, iii. t. Walpers, Rep. i. 807. — Chapman, FL 113. — Sargent, 

197. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 98. — Sprengel, Syst. iv. Forest Trees N. Am. IC 

pt. ii. 171. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 112. — Spach, Hist. Veg. & Coulter, Gray's Man 



Watson 



Cladrastis lutea is a tree, sometimes fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk from a foot and 
a half to two feet or exceptionally to four feet in diameter, usually divided six or seven feet from the 
ground into two or three stems, and rather slender wide-spreading more or less pendulous brittle 
branches forming a wide graceful head. The bark of the trunk varies from an eighth to a quarter of 
an inch in thickness and has a smooth silvery gray or light brown surface, while that of the branches 
is lighter colored. The branchlets are clothed with pubescence when they appear, but soon become 
glabrous, and during their first season are light brown tinged more or less with green, especially on the 
shaded side, very smooth and lustrous, and covered with numerous darker colored lenticels ; during 
their first winter they are bright red-brown, still lustrous, and marked with large elevated leaf-scars 
surrounding the buds, and the following year are dark brown and less lustrous. The leaves, which 
appear in early spring, are eight to twelve inches long ; the leaflets are three or four inches in length 
and an inch and a half to two inches in breadth, the terminal one rather shorter than the others and 
from three to three and a half inches broad. The leaves turn a bright clear yellow rather late in the 
autumn some time before falling. The flowers, which appear in the middle of June in panicles twelve 
or fourteen inches long and five or six inches broad, are slightly fragrant. The fruit, which is fully 
grown by the middle of August, ripens in September, when the legumes soon fall to the gTOund and 
then open, the seed germinating the following spring. 

Cladrastis lutea is one of the rarest and most local of the trees of eastern North America ; it is 
found on the hmestone chffs of the Kentucky and Dick Rivers in central Kentucky, in central 
Tennessee where, perhaps, in the neighborhood of Nashville it is more abundant and attains a larger 
size than elsewhere, and in a few localities on the western slopes of the high mountains of eastern 
Tennessee, and in Cherokee County, North Carolina. It generally grows in rich soil, often overhanging 
the banks of rapid streams, and its usual companions in the forest are the Black Walnut, the White 
Ash, the White Oak, the Mulberry, the Butternut, the Shellbark Hickory, and the Tulip Poplar. 

Cladrastis lutea is one of the most beautiful flowering trees of the American forests. It was 
introduced into cultivation by the elder Michaux, and has become one of the most valued ornamental 
trees in the United States and in those parts of Europe where the summer sun is sufficiently hot to 
ripen the wood thoroughly and insure the free production of flowers which appear in profusion only in 
alternate years. It is hardy as far north as New England and the province of Ontario. Few insects 
prey on the handsome foliage of Cladrastis lutea ;^ fungal disease is unknown to it, and the brittle- 
ness of the branches, which are often broken by high winds, is the only objection to the Virgilia ^ as an 
ornament to the o*arden and the lawn, which it graces with the lightness of its port, its smooth delicate 



bark, rich and ample foliage, and handsome flowers 

1 Occasionally leaf-eating insects and red spiders slightly injure 

this tree in cultivation. 

2 T« rt«u;wofi'r.ii rvnrl-rnviiii hiffifi IS jilmnst universallv known as 



Wood 



Wood 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXIX. Cladkastis lutea. 

1« A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. The petals of a flower displayed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

5. A stamen, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, natural size. 

7. An ovule, magnified. 



Plate CXX. Cladrastis lutea. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size 

3. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXIX 




CE. Faxon del 



Picartyr. JC 



CLADRASTIS LUTE A , C. Koch 



A.Biocreu^ direa^\ 



Imp. R. TanBur^ Paris 



S.ilva of North America 



Tab. CXX. 




C.E.Faxon del . 



Phcartfr so 



CLADRASTIS LUTEA C. Koch. 



Ru?creuT direa> 



Imp R. Taneicr^ 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



SOPHORA. 



Flowers in terminal simple racemes or leafy panicles, papili 



caly 



5-tootlied, the short teeth 



rly equal, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens free or 



rarely subconnate ; ovary short-stalked, many-ovuled. Legume moniliform, indehis 
cent, or tardily dehiscent. Leaves unequally pinnate. 



Sophora, Linnseus, Gen. 125. — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii, 318. 
A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 352. — De Candolle, Mem. Legum, 



166. 



Endlicher, Gen. 1308. — Meisner, Gen. 80. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 555. 
358. 



Hist 



Broussonetia, Ortega, Dec. v. 61 (not Ventenat)- 



Patrinia, Rafinesque, Jour. Phys. Ixxxix. 97 (not A. L. de 

Jussieu). 
Zanthyrsis, Rafinesque^ New Fl. iii. 84. 
Agastianis, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 85. 
StYDhnolobium, Schott, Wien. Zeitschr. 1830, 844. 



End- 



licher, Gen. 1309. 



Ed"wardsia5 Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 298. — Meis- Dermatophylluin, Scheele, Linncea^ xxi. 458. 



ner Gen. 80. — Endlicher, Gen. 1308. 



Gcebelia, Bunge, Boissier Fl. Orient, ii. 628- 
Keyserlingia, Bunge, Boissier Fl. Orient, ii. 629 



Trees, shrubs, and perennial herbs, with unarmed terete branches, supra or subpetiolar buds, and 
fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, persistent or deciduous ; stipules minute, deciduous ; 
leaflets numerous and small or few and ample, membranaceous, or coriaceous ; stipels minute, setaceous, 

Flowers in simple racemes terminal or panicled from the axils of the upper leaves. 



Calyx broadly campanulate, often 



often wanting. 

Bracts and bractlets linear, minute, deciduous, or often wanting, 
slightly turbinate or obconic at the base, obliquely truncate, five-toothed, the short teeth nearly equal 
or the two upper subconnate, often somewhat larger than the others. Disk cupuliform, glandular, 
adnate to the calyx-tube. Petals white, yellow, or rarely violet blue, unguiculate ; standard broadly 
obovate or orbicidar, erect or spreading, usually shorter, rarely longer than the keel-petals ; wings 
oblong-oblique ; keel-petals oblong, suberect, as long as the wings or rather longer, overlapping each 
other at the back, barely connate. Stamens ten, free, or nine of them slightly connate at the base, 
uniform ; anthers attached on the back near the middle, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. 
Ovary shortly stipitate, contracted into an incurved style terminated by a minute truncate or slightly 
rounded stigma ; ovules indefinite, suspended from the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, amphi- 
tropous, the micropyle superior. Legume moniliform, terete or slightly compressed, naked or longitu- 
dinally four-winged, fleshy, coriaceous or woody, many-seeded, each seed inclosed in a separate ceU, 
indehiscent or two-valved and tardily dehiscent. Seed globular, oblong or flattened, estrophiolate 
or nearly so, albuminous or destitute of albumen ; testa thick, membranaceous, or crustaceous. 
Cotyledons thick and fleshy ; radicle very short and straight or more or less elongated and incurved 
or inflexed. 



Sophora is scattered through the warm parts of the world with twenty-two recognized species. 



Of 



these Sophora tomentosa^^ a large shrub, is widely distributed on tropical ocean shores in the two 
worlds, reaching those of southern Florida and western Texas. Five other species, two of which are 
small trees, inhabit the territory of the United States^ and Mexico.^ The genus is represented in the 



LinnsBus, Spec. 373. — De CandoUe, Prodr, ii. 95. — Torrey & 



N. Am. i. 389. 
Martius Fl. Brasil. xv 
. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 203. 



Fl 



Fl 



2 Nuttall, Gen, i. 280. — Torrey & Gray, /. c. — Gray, Ives' Rep. 



10. 



Chapman, L c. — Watson, Proc. Am, Acad. xi. 135. 



Watson 



Watson & Coulter, Gray 



Hemsley, £o^ Challenger Exped. Man. ed. 6, 127. 



144 



8 



Hemsley 



60 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



Orient/ in southern Asia^ where ten species occur^ in China ^ and Japan/ Australia/ New Zealand/ 
the Hawaiian Islands/ Chile/ and tropical^ and southern Africa.^^ It once existed in Europe^ where 
traces of Soj^hora Fiiroj^cea are common in the rocks of the lower Miocene period.^^ 



The genus has not many useful properties. In China a drug prepared from the roots and leaves 
of Sojjhora tomentosa is used in large quantities as a tonic and diuretic ; ^^ and a yellow dye is made 
from the pods of SopJiora Ja])oniQa^ while the flower-buds of this species, which form an important 
article of commerce, are used to dye cloth yellow and blue cloth green, and in astringent remedies/^ 
The leaves have been successfully used, it is said, as a cathartic. The seeds of the Texas and Mexi- 
can Sophora secimdijiora contain a poisonous alkaloid, Sop)horiay which possesses strong narcotic 
properties, and are believed to have supplied the Indians of Texas with a means of intoxication/^ The 
Hawaiian Soijliora chrysopliylla ^^ produces hard, durable, and very valuable timber, and the wood of 



the New Zealand and Chilian Sophora tetraptera^^ is distinguished for its great strength, toughness, 
and elasticity.^^ 

Many species of Sophora are valuable ornamental plants. Sophora Japonica^^ which was one of 
the first Asiatic trees introduced into Europe, is now a familiar inhabitant of the gardens and parks 
of all temperate regions, and several species of the section Edwardsia, natives of New Zealand, Chile, 
and the Hawaiian Islands, and distinguished principally by their winged legumes, are sometimes 
cultivated in European gardens,^^ where the Indian Sophora glauca^^ Sind S. heptaphylla^^ sue also 
occasionally seen. 



1 Bunge, Boissier Fl. Orient ii. 628, 629 (Goebelia and Keyser- du Platane et de VAune, 



258) 



lingia). 



was planted by Bernard de Jussieu in the garden of the Petit 



2 Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl, Ind, 179. — Thwaites, Enum, PL Trianon several years before it reached England, where it was in- 



Zeylan, 94. — Hooker f . FL Brit Ind. ii. 248. 



troduced by the nurseryman James Gordon in 1753 (Alton, Hort, 



201. 



^ Franchet, PL David, i. 100. — Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. Kew. ii. 45). It first flowered in Europe in 1779 in the garden of 

the Mar^chal de Noailles at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and in the 



^ Thunberg, FL Jap. 178. — Miquel, ProL FL Jap. 241. — Max- same year iu that of the Petit Trianon at Versailles. 



(MeL BioL ix 



71). 



Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 113. 



^ Benthara, FL AustraL ii. 274. 

'^ Hooker f, FL New Zealand^ i. 62. 

7 Hillebrand, FL Haw. Is. 108. 

8 C. Gay, FL ChiL ii. 214 (Edwardsia). 

9 Oliver, FL Trop. Afr. ii. 253. 

10 Harvey & Sonder, FL Cap. ii. 265. 

^1 Saporta, Origine PaUontologique des Arbres, 314, 



Sophora Japonica appears to be indigenous to northern, central, 
and western China, and is cultivated on a considerable scale in some 
parts of the empire for its flower-buds. It is supposed to have 
been introduced into Japan, where, however, Rein (Japan nach 
Reisen und. Studien im Auftrage der Koniglich Preussischen Regier- 
ung, ii. 297) found it scattered over the entire country, especially 
in the broad-leaved forests of the north. 

In the United States, where Sophora Japonica is hardy as far 
north as eastern New England, and in Europe, it forms a handsome 



12 Smith, Chinese Mat. Med. 202. — Maiden, Useful Native Plants tree sometimes forty or fifty feet in height, with a, dense broad 



of Australia, 204. 
18 Smith, L c. 201. 
14 H. C. Wood. PI 



head of bright green branches and dark lustrous foliage. It is 

valuable as an ornamental plant from the fact that its white flow- 

Rothrock, 5o;. ers, produced in loose panicles at the end of the branches, appear 



Gazette, ii. 133. — Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1333. — Havard, Proc. U. S. in August when few trees are in blossom. A variety with pendu- 



Nat. JMus. viii. 500. 

15 Seemann, FL Vit. 66. — Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 108. 



Ions branches is common in gardens (Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 564, t.). 
The wood of Sophora Japonica is pale brown, tough, and durable. 



Edwardsia chrysophylla, Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 299, t. although light and coarse-grained, the layers of annual growth 

being marked by broad bands of open cells. When first cut it 



26. f. 1. 



1® Alton, Hort Kew. ii. 43. — Bot. i\Iag. 167. — Nouveau Duha- possesses cathartic properties which make it dangerous to work 



mel, iii. 82, t. 20. 

17 Kirk, Forest FL New Zealand, 84, t. 50, 51, 52. 

IS Linnseus, Mant. 68. — Nouveau Duhamely iii. 84, t. 21. 



De 



until thoroughly seasoned (Nouveau Duhamely L c). 

1^ Bot. Mag. 1. 1442, 3735. — Bot. Reg. 738, 1798. — Gard. Chron. 
11. ser. ix. 729. — Nicholson, Diet. Gard. — Naudin, Manuel de 



Candolle, Prodr. ii. 95. — Miquel, ProL FZ. Jo;?. 241. — Franchet r A cclimateur, 502. 



& Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 113. — Franchet, PL David, i. 100. 
Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 202. 



^^ De Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. iv. 98 ; Prodr. ii. 95. — Hooker 

f. Fl. Brit. Ind. ii. 249. 



S. Sinica, Trochereau, Jour. Phys. xiv. 248. 
Styphnolobium Japonicum, Schott, Wien. Zeitschr. 1830, 844. 
Sophora Japonica was sent to Europe from China by the Pere 260. 
d'Incarville in 1747 (Guerrapain, Notice sur la Culture du Sophora, 



S. velutina, Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1185. 

21 Linnseus, Spec. 373. — De Candolle, L c. 96. — Hooker f. I. c. 



LEGUMiNosiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61 



Insects are not known to injure the North American species of Sophora, which are not subject to 

LIS fungal diseases.^ 

The generic name was formed by Linnaeus from Sophera^ the Arabic name of some tree with 



pea-shaped flowers 



2 



^ Species of Uromyces of the order of Rusts which abound on 



ixpected 



sometimes 



>phora affinis, 

« HorL Cliff. 156. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES 



Flowers in terminal racemes ; legume woody ; seeds destitute of albumen ; leaves persistent . 1. S. secundiflora. 
Flowers in axillary racemes ; legume fleshy ; seeds albuminous ; leaves deciduous . • . . 2. S- affinis. 



LEGUMINOS-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA. 



Frijolito. Coral Bean. 



Flowers 



terminal secund racemes ; stamens free. Legume woody. Leaves 



7 to 9-foliolate, persistent 



Sophora secundiflora, De CandoUe, Cat. HorU Monsp. Virgilia secundiflora, Cavanilles, Icon. v. 1, t. 401. 



148 ; Frodr. ii. 96. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 110. — Hemsley, 



secundiflora, Rafinesque, New 



Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 321, 



Watson, Proc. Atn. Acad, Dermatophyllum speciosum 



xvu. 



347. 



U. S. ix. 57. 



Coulter Contrib. U, S. Nat, Herb. ii. 72 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censics S. speciosa, Bentham, Bost. Soc. Nat Hist. vi. 178 (PI 

Lindheim. ii.). — Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 54 {PI 
Wright, i.). — Walpers, Ann. ii. 439. — Torrey, Bot 
Mex. Bound. Surv. 58. 



{Man. PL W. Texas). 
Broussonetia secundifloraj Ortega, Dec. v. 61, t, 7 



A small tree, twenty-five to thirty-five feet in height, vrith a straight slender trunk six or eight 
inches in diameter, separating, several feet from the ground, into a number of upright branches which 
form a narrow head ; or more often a shrub sending up from the ground a cluster of low stems. The 
bark of the trunk is half an inch thick, with a dark red-brown surface which separates into long thin 



narrow scales. The branchlets are at first coated with fine hoary tomentum which gradually disappears, 



and in their second year are glabrous or nearly so and covered with pale orange-brown bark. 



The 



leaves, which appear in February and March, are at first covered, especially on the lower surface of the 
leaflets, with silky white hairs ; at maturity they are from four to six inches in length, with stout 
puberulous petioles slightly enlarged at the base, and, like the broad rachises, deeply grooved on the 
upper side ; the leaflets are elliptical-oblong, rounded, emarginate, or sometimes mucronate at the apex, 
and gradually contracted at the base into short and very thick petiolules ; they are destitute of stipels, 
thick and coriaceous, dark yellow-green above and rather paler below, glabrous or sometimes slightly 
puberulous along the under surface of the stout midribs, and entire with thickened margins. They are 
conspicuously reticulate-veined, and vary from an inch to two inches and a half in length, and from half 
an inch to an inch and a half in breadth. The flowers, which emit a powerful and deHcious fragrance 
not unlike that of violets, appear with the young leaves in early spring ; they are an inch long and 
are produced in one-sided canescent racemes two or three inches in length on stout pedicels sometimes 
an inch long developed from the axils of subulate deciduous bracts half an inch or more in length, and 
furnished near the middle with two acute bractlets broad at the base and rounded on the back. The 
calyx is campanulate and slightly enlarged on the upper side, the three lower teeth triangular and 
nearly equal, the two upper rather larger and connate almost throughout- The petals are shortly 
unofuiculate and violet-blue, the broad erect standard being marked on the inner surface near the base 



with a few darker spots. The ovary is coated with long silky white hairs, which as the legume enlarges 
develop into dense thick white tomentum which covers the ripe fruit. This varies from one to seven 
inches in length and is half an inch in breadth, stalked, and crowned with the thickened remnants of 
the style ; it is indehiscent, from one to seven-seeded, and conspicuously contracted between the seeds, 
with hard woody walls a quarter of an inch in thickness. The seeds, each of which is inclosed in a 
separate cell with thin dry walls, are oblong, rounded, half an inch in length, and bright scarlet, with 
a small pale hilum and bony testa, the thick inner coat being conspicuously lighter colored. The seed 
is destitute of albumen, the thick orange-colored cotyledons filling" its cavity. 

Sophora seciindijlora is found on the shores of Matagorda Bay in Texas to the mountain canons 



of New Mexico, and to those of Nuevo Leon and of San Luis Potos 



It 



ually occupies the borders 



64 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



of streams^ often forming broad thickets or small groves in low rather moist limestone soil, and reaches 
its greatest size in the neighborhood of Matagorda Bay^ Farther south and west, especially west of 
the Pecos River, it is rarely more than a shrub. 

The wood of Sophora secimdiflora is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin 
medullary rays and a compact satiny surface : it is orange-colored streaked with red. The sapwood is 
thick, bright yellow, and composed of ten or twelve layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.9842, a cubic foot weighing 61.34 pounds. It is valuable as fuel. 

Sophora secimdiflora was first noticed in Texas by Lindheimer ^ in the neighborhood of New 
Braunfels and on the shores of Matagorda Bay. It appears to have been introduced into the Botanic 
Garden at Madrid towards the end of the last century, and the earliest description, that of Ortega, was 
drawn up from the cultivated plant ; it was in cultivation in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris ^ in 1854, 
and is occasionally found in the gardens of southern Europe. 

Sophora secundiflora is one of the handsomest of the small trees of the Texas forests ; its lustrous 
persistent foliage, large and fragrant flowers, conspicuous fruit, and brilliant seeds make it a desirable 
garden ornament in all regions where the climate is sufficiently temperate to develop its beauties. 



1 See i. 74. « jj^. H^rt. 1854, 201, f. 11. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXI. Sophora secutsdiflora. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. The petals of a flower displayed, natural size. 

4. A calyx, enlarged. 

5. A flower, a portion of the calyx and the petaLs removed, enlarged 

6. A pistil, enlarged- 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified- 

9. A cluster of fruit, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a legume, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab CXXI 




C.E.Foj^rv dU 



Ficartyr so 



SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA, DC 



A.RLocretLC direa:\ 



Imp .jR,_ Tane^MT. Pares 



LEGUMiNos^ SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



65 



SOPHORA AFFINIS. 



Flowees in axillary racemes ; stamens slightly connate at the base, the posterio 
free. Legume fleshy. Leaves 13 to 19-foliolate, deciduous. 



Sophora affinis, Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 390. — Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 58. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 

Leavenworth, Am. Jour. Sci. xlix- 130. — Gray, Jour. Nat. Herb. ii. 72 (Man. FL W. Texas). 

Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 178 (FL Lindheim. ii.). — Styphnolobium affine, Walpers, -Rep. i. 807. 
Scheele, Eoemer Texas, 428. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 



A small tree^ eighteen or twenty feet in height^ with a trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, 
dividing into a number of stout spreading branches forming a handsome round head, slender terete 
slightly zigzag branchlets, and thick orange-colored roots. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an 
inch thick, dark reddish brown, and broken into numerous oblong scales, the surface exfoliating in thin 
layers. The buds are depressed, minute, ahnost surrounded by the base of the petioles, and are covered 
with broad scales which are coated on the outside with dark brown and on the inside with longer pale 
tomentum, and which are persistent on the base of the growing shoots- The branchlets are at first 
orange-brown or dark green and slightly puberulous, and in their second year are bright green marked 
by narrow brown ridges and with large leaf-scars and occasional dark-colored lenticular spots. The 
leaves, which appear in March and April, are at first coated on both surfaces with hoary pubescence ; 
they are six to nine inches long, with slender puberulous petioles and rachises slightly grooved on the 
upper side. The leaflets are elliptical, obtuse or retuse, slightly mucronate, and contracted at the base 
into short stout pubescent petiolules ; they are entire with slightly wavy thickened margins, membra- 
naceous, pale yellow-green and glabrous on the upper surface, paler and covered with scattered hairs 
or nearly glabrous on the lower surface, and are from an inch to an inch and a half in length and 
half an inch in breadth, with prominent orange-colored midribs grooved on the upper side, slender 
primary veins, and conspicuous reticulated veinlets. The flowers appear in early spring with the new 
growth in slender axillary pubescent semipendent racemes forming conspicuous panicles at the ends of 
the branches, and are half an inch in length or rather longer than the slender canescent pedicels 
produced from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. The calyx is short, campanulate, abruptly 
narrowed at the base, somewhat enlarged on the upper side, and slightly pubescent, especially on the 
margins of the short nearly triangular teeth. The petals are shortly unguiculate, and are white tinged 
with rose-color; the standard is nearly orbicular, shghtly emarginate, reflexed, as long and twice as 
broad as the ovate auriculate wings and keel-petals. The ovary is conspicuously stipitate and villose. 
The legumes, which vary from half an inch to three inches in length, are indehiscent, black, and more 
or less pubescent, and are crowned with the thickened remnants of the styles; they are four to eight or 
by abortion one-seeded and then subglobose ; the walls are fleshy, and when fully ripe rather sweet Hke 
those of the cells inclosing the seeds. The fruit is produced in great abundance, and hangs on the 
branches during the winter. The seeds are oval, slightly compressed, and scarcely strophiolate, with a 
thin crustaceous bright chestnut-brown testa. The cotyledons, which are surrounded by a thin layer 
of horny albumen, are bright green ; the radicle is long and incurved. 

Sophora affinis inhabits the region between the vaUey of the Arkansas River in Arkansas and 
that of the San Antonio in Texas, extending westward in Texas to the upper waters of the Colorado 
River. It is usually found on limestone hills or along the margins of streams or of ravines or depres- 
sions in the prairie, where it often forms small groves with Oaks, Elms, Redbuds, Viburnums, and 

Hawthorns. 



66 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS-^. 



The wood of Sophora affinis is heavy and very hard and strong although coarse-grained, the 
layers of annual growth being marked by several rows of large open ducts. It contains thin conspicu- 
ous medullary rays, and is light red in color, the thick sapwood composed of ten or twelve layers of 
annual growth, being bright clear yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8509, 
a cubic foot weighing 53.03 pounds. 

Ink is sometimes made domestically of the resinous exudations from the fruit. 

Sophora affinis was discovered in the valley of the Red River in Arkansas by Dr. M. C. Leaven- 
worth^ in 1821 ; and was introduced into cultivation through the Arnold Arboretum in 1890. 



^ Mellins C. Leavenworth was bom in Connecticut early in the Connecticut Volunteers, December, 1861, and died near New Or- 
century. He served in the United States army as acting assistant- leans, November 16, 1863, while serving in the Department of the 
surgeon in 1831 and 1832, and was appointed assistant-surgeon Gulf. Dr. Leavenworth was the author of a few short botanical 



in 1833, continuing his connection with the army until 1840. At 



^f 



In 



frontier posts in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Florida, Dr. Leavenworth the earliest of these, published in 1824, four new species of plants 

was able to gratify a taste for botany, for which he did useful ser- discovered by the author in northern Alabama are described ; and 

vice by observing and collecting the plants within his reach. These in others are recorded some of the results of his wide and careful 

he communicated to Dr. Torrey with copious notes. Dr. Leaven- observations. Leavenworthiay a genus of Cruciferous plants, was 

worth was appointed assistant-surgeon of the 12th Regiment of dedicated to him by Torrey. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXII. Sophora affinis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. The petals of a flower displayed, enlarged. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a portion of a fruit, natural size 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 
10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North A 



menca 



Tat. GXXII, 




C E Ftuvori lM 



PLcartfr so 



SOPHORA AFFINIS, Torr. el Gray 



A Biocrt^iw liirex ^ 



Imp . FL Taneur, Fans 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



67 



GYMNOCLADUS. 



Flowers regular, dioecious by abortion ; calyx tubular^ disciferous, 5-lobed, the 
lobes yalvate in aestivation ; petals 4 or 5, imbricated in aestivation ; ovary sessile or 
slightly stipitate, 4 or many-ovuled. Legume turgid or compressed, woody, 2-valved. 
Leaves unequally bipinnate. 



Gymnocladus, Lamarck, Diet. i. 733 (in part). — A. L. de Guilandina, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 2, 518 (in part) 
Jussieu, Gen. 346. — Meisner, Gen. 98. — Endlicher, Gen. Hyperanthera, Vahl, Symb. i. 30 (in part). 
1311. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. \. 568. — Baillon, HisU 
PL ii. 175. 



TreeSj with stout unarmed blunt pithy branches^ rough deeply fissured bark, and thick fleshy roots. 
Buds minute, depressed in pubescent cavities of the stem, two in the axil of each leaf, superposed, 
remote, the lower and smaller sterile and nearly surrounded by the enlarged base of the petiole ; bud- 
scales two, ovate, rounded at the apex, coated with thick dark brown tomentum, infolded one over the 
other, accrescent with the young shoots. Leaves deciduous, alternate, bipinnate ; pinnae and leaflets 
usually alternate ; stipules ample, foHaceous, early deciduous ; leaflets membranaceous, ovate, entire, 
petiolulate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, leafy or bracted towards the base, that of the staminate 
plant a short racemose corymb, of the pistillate plant an elongated raceme. Flowers greenish white, 
long-pedicellate, the slender pedicels developed from the axils of long lanceolate scarious caducous 
bracts, and furnished near the middle with two minute deciduous bractlets. Calyx tubular, elongated, 
ten-ribbed, lined with the thin glandular disk, five-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, acute, nearly equal, erect. 
Petals oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, pubescent, as long as the calyx-lobes or rather longer 
and twice as broad, inserted on the margin of the disk, spreading or reflexed. Stamens ten, free, 
inserted on the margin of the disk, erect, included ; filaments filiform, pilose, those opposite the petals 
shorter than the others ; anthers oblong, uniform, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, 
two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; smaller and sterile in the pistillate flower. Ovary sessile 
in the bottom of the calyx-tube or slightly stipitate, acute, pilose, or glabrous, many-ovuled ; style short, 
erect, obliquely dilated into two broad stigmatic lobes, or, in the Chinese species, contracted into a 
slightly oblique capitate stigma ; rudimentary or wanting in the sterile flower ; ovules suspended from 
the angle opposite the posterior petal, superposed, anatropous, the micropyle superior. Legume oblong, 
subfalcate, turgid, or slightly compressed, several-seeded, tardily dehiscent, two-valved, the woody valves 
thickened on the margins into narrow wings, pulpy between the seeds. Seed ovoid, slightly obovoid or 
subglobose, suspended by a long slender funicle ; testa thick, bony, three-coated, brown, and opaque. 
Embryo surrounded by a thin layer of horny albumen 5 cotyledons ovate, thick and fleshy, the radicle 

short, erect. 

Gymnocladus is now confined to the temperate parts of eastern North America and to southern 
China, although there is evidence that it existed in Europe during the Tertiary period.^ Only two 
species are known. Gymnocladus dioicuSy the type of the genus, inhabits America, and Gymnocladus 
Chinensis ^ several of the southern and southwestern provinces of China. 

Gymnocladus is slightly astringent and purgative. The seeds of Gymnocladus dioicus were 



1 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arhres, 20. Hoo 

2 BaiUon, CompL Rend. Assoc. Franc, pour T A vane. Sci.l874y418j Gar 
L 4 ; Bull. Soc. Linn. Par. 1875, 33 ; Diet. Bot. i. 781. — Oliver, 139. 



XV 



XXlll 



266. — Nicholson, Garden and Forest, ii. 



I 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



once used in some parts of the United States as a substitute for coffee ; a decoction of the fresh green 
pulp of the unripe fruit is used in homoeopathic practice/ and the bruised leaves are said to destroy 
insects feeding on them.^ The seeds of the Asiatic species are surrounded by a detersive pulp which 
is used by the Chinese as a substitute for soap in washing Hnen and cleaning the human head.^ 

The generic name^ from yv^vo^ and xXdSog^ relates to the stout branches destitute of spray. 



Med, PL in Homoeovathic Remedies 



9/ China, 14. — Hanbury, Science Papers, 238, 



^ See Millspaiigh, Z. c. 



f. 5. 



some Botanical Questions connected with 



LEGUMINOS-a:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



69 



GYMNOCLADUS DIOICUS. 



Kentucky Coffee Tree. 



Inflorescence terminal. Leaves 10 to 14-pinnate, the lowest pinnae reduced to 
simple leaflets, the others 7 to 13-foliolate. 



Gymnocladus dioicus, Koch, Dendr. i. 5. — Baillon, Hist. 

PI ii. 88, f. 52, 53; Diet. i. 781. — Sargent, Garden and 

Forest, ii. 375. 
Guilandina dioica, Linnaeus, Sj^ec. 381. — Marshall, Ar- 

hicst. Am. 56. 
Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lamarck, Diet. i. 733 ; IlL iii. 



412, t. 823. — Michaux, FL Bor,-Am. ii. 241, t. 51. 



Will- 



Fl. 203. — Reichenbach, Mag. Bot. t. 40. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 480. — Sprengel, Stjst. ii. 327. — Torrey, Fl. 
N. Y. i. 191 ; Emory's Rep. 407. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. 
i. 166. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 429. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 
89. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 398. — Walpers, Rep. 
i. 809. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 1879-80, 54^ 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63. — Chapman, 



denow, Spec. iv. 816 ; Ennm. 1019 ; Ber^l. Baumz. 169. 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 626. — Desfontaines, Hist, Arb. ii. 250. 
Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 272, t. 23. — Pursh, Fl. Am 



Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 618. — Sargent, Forest 
10th Census U. S. ix. 58. 
Man. ed. 6, 148. 



N. 



Watson & Coulter. Ch 



Sept. i. 304. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 243. — Hayne, Dendr. Hyperanthera dioica, Vahl, Symb. i. 31. 



A tree, seventy-five to one hundred and ten feet in height, with a trunk two or three feet in 
diameter, usually separating, ten or fifteen feet from the ground, into three or four principal divisions 
which spread slightly and form a narrow pyramidal head ; or occasionally sending up a tall straight 
shaft destitute of branches for seventy or eighty feet. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of 
an inch to an inch in thickness and deeply fissured, the dark gray surface being tinged with red and 
roughened by small persistent scales. The branchlets when they first appear are coated with short 
thick pubescence faintly tinged with red, and bear at their bases until nearly grown the conspicuous 
orange-green pubescent bud-scales which at maturity are broadly obovate, rounded at the apex, and an 
inch long. At the end of the first season the branchlets are a quarter to a third of an inch thick, very 
blunt, and composed of a thick core of light orange-brown pith surrounded by a thin layer of bright 
yellow wood covered with bright green astringent inner bark and thin dark brown often slightly pilose 
outer bark marked by orange-colored lenticular spots and large pale broadly heart-shaped leaf-scars. 
The leaves are from one to three feet in length and eighteen to twenty-four inches in breadth, and are 
obovate in outline by the greater development of the upper pairs of pinnae ; and are covered when they 
unfold with hoary tomentum, except on the upper surfaces of the leaflets- The leaf-stalks and those 
of the pinnae are terete, abruptly and conspicuously enlarged at the base, glabrous at maturity, and pale 
o-reen or frequently purple on the upper side. The stipules are foliaceous, lanceolate, or shghtly obovate, 
<Tlandular-serrate towards the apex, a third of an inch in length, and deciduous. The leaflets are pink 
at first but soon become bronze-green, and are lustrous and glabrous on the upper surface with the 
exception of a few scattered hairs along the midribs ; ^ when fully grown they are from two to two and 
a half inches in length and an inch in breadth, or those which replace the lower or occasionally the two 
lower pairs of pinnae sometimes twice as large ; they are membranaceous, obscurely veined, ovate, acute, 
or often mucronate, especially while young, wedge-shaped or irregularly rounded at the base by the 
o-reater development of the upper side, dark green above, pale yellow-green below, and glabrous with 
the exception of a few soft hairs 



scattered along the narrow midribs, the 



entire slightly thickened 
and revolute wavy margins, and the short stout petiolides. The leaves appear about the middle 

^ The trees are conspicuous at the time the leaves are expand- the ends of the leaves are bright pink, while those on the lower 
ino- bv the contrast of colors furnished by the leaflets. Those near pinnae which had opened first are green or bronze-colored. 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. LBGUMiNOSiE. 



& 



of May or after most of the deciduous trees of the American forests have covered themselves with 
foliage/ and in the autumn turn a bright clear yellow. The inflorescence of the sterile tree is three or 
four inches in length, the lower branches, which are somewhat swollen at the base, being usually three 
or four-flowered. The inflorescence of the female tree is ten or twelve inches long, the flowers being 
borne on stout pedicels from an inch to two and a half inches in length, or from twice to five times 

th of those of the staminate flowers. The calyx is two thirds of an inch long, conspicuously 
ten-ribbed and clothed in the bud, like the petioles and the exterior surface of the petals, with thick 
white tomentum ; when the flowers are expanded they are covered on the outer surface with pale 
hairs, and on the inner surface with thick pale tomentum. The petals are keeled, pilose on the back, 
sUghtly grooved, and clothed with tomentum on the inner surface, and are rather longer than the calyx- 
lobes and about twice as broad. The anthers are bright orange-colored. The ovary is sessile, covered 
with hairs, many-ovuled, and contracted into a short style dilated above into two broad lobes stigmatic 
on their inner surface. The legumes, which hang unopened on the branches throughout the winter, 
are subfalcate, with more or less thickened margins, six to ten inches in length, an inch and a half to 
two inches in breadth, and dark reddish brown covered with a slight glaucous bloom ; they are borne on 
stout stalks an inch or two long, and are crowned with the thickened pointed remnants of the styles. 
Their valves are thin, tough, and woody, and contain between the seeds a thick layer of dark-colored 
sweet pulp. The seeds are three quarters of an inch long, ovate, or sHghtly obovate and compressed, 
with a hard bony coat and albumen, and orange-colored cotyledons. 

Gymnocladiis dioiciis is found growing spontaneously on the shores of Cayuga and Seneca Lakes 
in New York^ and on the banks of Conococheague Creek in Franklin County, Pennsylvania;^ it 
extends westward through southern Ontario* and southern Michigan to the valley of the Minnesota 
River, to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and southwestern Arkansas, and to about longitude 96° 
west in the Indian Territory, and southward between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi 
River to middle Tennessee. Although distributed over a wide area, Gymnocladiis dioicus is one of 
the rarest of the forest trees of eastern North America. It selects bottom-lands and the richest soil, 
where it grows in company with the Black Walnut, the Blue Ash, the Hackberry, the Cottonwood, the 
Honey Locust, the Red Elm, and the Hickories. 

The wood of Gymnocladiis dlolciis is heavy although not very hard, strong, coarse-grained, liable 
to check in drying, and very durable in contact with the ground ; it can be easily worked, and the 
surface will take a good polish. It contains many thin medullary rays, and bands of one or two 
rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is rich light brown in color, tinged with 
red, the thin sapwood composed of five or six layers of annual growth, being rather lighter colored 
than the heartwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6934, a cubic foot weighing 
43.21 pounds. It is occasionally used in cabinet-making, and for fence-posts, rails, and in construction. 

Gymnocladus dioicuSy mentioned by Linnaeus ^ in 1742 as growing in Paris, was first described 
by Duhamel in the Traite dcs Arbres^ published in 1755 ; according to Aiton*^ it was cultivated in 
' England in 1748 by the Duke of Argyll. 

Gymnocladiis dioicus is now a familiar inhabitant of the gardens and parks of the United States 
and of northern and central Europe, and is valued for its hardiness, rapid growth, and good habit, for 
the singular appearance that its naked branches present in Avinter, for the lightness, grace, and cheerful 
color of its great leaves, and for its immunity from disease. 



8 



9 



^ The stout dark-colored branchlets destitute of spray give to ^ Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 19. — Macoun, Cat Can. PL 512. 

Gymnocladus in winter and especially in spring the appearance of ^ Gen. ed. 2, 518, 

a dead tree. This appearance has caused it to be called Chicot ^ Bonduc Canadense polyphyllum^ non spinosum mas Sf fceminaf i 

(Branche morte ou couverte de chancres) by the French settlers in 108, t. 42. 

America, and it is by this name that it is now known in France. "^ Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 400. — Loudon, Arb, Brit. ii. 656, t. 

2 Dudley, Bull Cornell Univ. ii. 26 {Cayuga FL). 8 See i. 108. 

3 Where it was discovered by Professor T. C. Porter. 9 Garden and Forest, ii. 75, f. 49. 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



71 



The Kentucky CofPee-tree, as it is almost universally called in the United States and in England, 
from the use which at one time was made of the seeds, is not at all particular about the character of 
the soil in which it is planted, although it will not grow rapidly or to a great size except in deep rich 
and rather humid loam. It may be propagated by seeds which the pistillate plants produce rather 
sparingly, and which sometimes do not germinate until the second or thu-d years, and more easily and 
quickly from cuttings made from pieces of the roots, which soon form rootlets and grow with vigor.^ 



1 Briot, Rev. Hort. 1870, 436. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXXIIL Gtmnocladus dioicus. 

1. An inflorescence of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. An inflorescence of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Front view of a long and a short stamen, enlarged. 

6. A female flower, a portion of the calyx, corolla, and stamens removed, enlarged 

7. A pistil, a vertical section of the ovary removed, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CXXIV. Gymnocladtjs dioicus. 

1. A cluster of fruit, natural size. 

2. A portion of a legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 

7. Base of a young branchlet with bud-scales and stipules^ natural size 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva. of North America. 



X 



ao C/^'\iii . 




C 



.J LULAJfU COC^ • 



GYMNOCLADUS DIOICUS, G. Koch. 



Picartjr. sc 



A.Biocreux. direa:^ 



Imp.R raneur , F oris 



Silva of North America . 



Tat. CXXIV 




CE .Faayon del. 



Picartjr sc 



GYMNOCLADUS DIOICUS . C. KocK 



A Rwrrctc^r dire^r^ . 



Imp .R.TcuieAiT Paris 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



73 



GLEDITSIA. 



Flowers regular, polygamous by abortion ; calyx campanulate, disciferous, 3 to 
5-lobed, the lobes yalvate or slightly imbricated in aestivation ; petals 3 or 5, imbri- 
cated in aestivation ; ovary subsessile, 2 or many-ovuled. Legume indehiscent or 
tardily 2-valved. Leaves abruptly pinnate or bipinnate. 



Gleditsia, Linnseus, Gen. ed. 2, 480. — Adanson, _Fam. PL Melilobus, Mitchell, Act. Nat. Cur. viii. Appx. 215 



ii. 319. — Meisner, Oen. 100. — Endlicher, Gen. 1311. 



Rafinesque, Sylva Telhir. 121. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 568. — Baillon, Jlist. PL ii. Asacara, Rafinesque, Neogen. 2. 
175- 



Trees^ with furrowed bark, terete branchlets, minute subpetiolar buds, and thick fibrous roots, the 
branches and trunk often armed with stout simple or branched spines or abortive branches developed 
from supra-axillary or adventitious buds. Leaves deciduous, alternate, often fascicled in earlier axils, 
abruptly pinnate or bipinnate often on the same individual, the lower pinnae sometimes reduced to 
single leaflets j stipules minute, caducous ; leaflets membranaceous, their margins irregularly crenate, 
destitute of stipels. Flowers minute, green or white, short-pedicellate, in axillary or lateral simple or 
fascicled racemes- Bracts minute, scale-like, caducous. Calyx campanulate, lined with the disk, three 
to five-lobed, the narrow lobes only imperfectly inclosing the petals in the bud, nearly equal- Petals 
as many as the lobes of the calyx, nearly equal. Stamens six to ten, inserted with the petals on the 
margin of the disk, exserted ; filaments free, filiform, 
below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; much smaller and abortive in 



erect ; anthers uniform, attached on the back 



the pistillate flower. Ovary inserted in the bottom of the disk, sub 



rely bicarpellary, rud 



mentary or wanting in the staminate flower ; style short ; stigma terminal, more or less dilated, often 
declinate ; ovules two or many, suspended from the angle opposite the posterior petal, superposed, 



anatropous, the micropyle superior- Legume many or rarely one or two 
compressed, pulpy between the seeds, indehiscent, the walls thin and memb 



seeded 



gated, straight 
or ovate, desti 



tute of pulp, and tardily dehiscent, or slightly turgid 



d 



dehiscent with hard woody walls. Seed 



obovate, or compressed, attached by a long slender f unicle ; testa thin 



ght 



brown. Embry 



ded 




a 



lay 



of horny albumen ; cotyledons subfoHaceous, compressed 



radicle short, erect, sHghtly exserted. 

Gleditsia is represented in the flora of eastern America by two species, one of which is the type 
of the genus ; it occurs on the mountains of west tropical Africa,^ in the Orient,^ and in China and 
Japan ; ^ and in the Tertiary period existed in Europe.^ In China four species and possibly more, as the 
Chinese Gleditsias are still very imperfectly known, are found scattered from the northern to the 
southern provinces of the empire-^ 

Many of the parts of Gleditsia are astringent, and several of the species produce strong, durable, 



^ Gleditsia Africana^ Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv. c 
3 Gleditsia Caspica^ Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 247. 



Koch 



^ Gleditsia Japonica^ Miquel, Prol. Fl. Jap. 242. — Frauchet & 
Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 114; ii. 327. — Maximowicz, L c. A 



Dendr. i. 10. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 631. — Maximowicz, Bull. handsome tree, widely scattered through the empire, especially in 

Acad. Set. St. Petersbourg, xxxi. 37 (Mel. BioL xii. 451). This is a the northern islands, where it grows near the borders of streams 

small tree generally distributed through the forest region of the and in the forests which cover the lower slopes of the mountains, 

province of Talysch south of the Caspian Sea, and in northern and is often cultivated in the neighborhood of villages. 



Persia, and is to be distinguished from Gleditsia triacanthos by its 
leaflets, which are twice as large as those of that species, and by 
its shorter pods* 



^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 20. 
^ Maximowicz, I. c. 
Garden and Foresty ii. 266- 



XXlll 



74 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



although coarse-grained timber. The pulp which surrounds the seeds has a sweet taste when fresh, but 
becomes bitter and astringent. Beer has been made in the United States by fermenting the fresh pods 
of Gleditsia triacanthos,^ and in Japan the pods of Gleditsia Japonica were formerly employed as 
soap, and once formed an article of some commercial importance.^ 

The American species are not seriously injured by insects,' and are subject to few fungal diseases.* 
The generic name commemorates the scientific labors of Johann GottHeb Gleditsch,^ a contem- 
porary and friend of Linnaeus, and professor of botany at Berlin. 



'/ 



Studien im Auft 



Preussische 
8 The B 



'eminata 



their trunks. Web 



States by Leptostroma hypophyllum, Berk. & Rav., which appears in 
the form of small black spots, and by the mildew Microsphceria 
Raveneliiy Berk., which produces velvety olive-colored patches on 
the leaves. Of the fungi which attack the stems the most impor- 
tant are Botryosphceria GleditschicBy Sacc, SpTiceropsis Gleditschioey 

r 

Cooke, and Sphceropsis mamillaris^ B. & C, but they are not known 



insects occur on them, and the leaves are sometimes mined by the to cause serious injury. 



larvae of small moths. The larvse of Pempelia gleditschiella, Fernald, 



^ Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786), a native of Leipsic, 



are described as drawing the leaves together and feeding on them was appointed in 1771 to the chair of botany in the University of 
(Rep. Dept, Agric. 1880, 262). In some parts of the country they Berlin, which he occupied during the remainder of his life. He 
are injured by the maggots of Cecidomyia gleditschicBj Osten Sacken, wrote numerous botanical treatises and one of the earliest works 



which distort the young leaflets and prevent their development 
(Proc. EntomoL Soc. Phil. vi. 219). 
* The leaves of Gleditsia are sometimes injured in the United 



on scientific forestry, his chief merit as an author being the appli- 
cation of botanical methods to rural science. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Legume linear-oblong, elongated, many-seeded, pulpy, indehiscent ; leaflets lanceolate-oblong . 1. G. triacajsthos. 
Legume oval, oblique, one or two-seeded, without pulp, tardily dehiscent; leaflets ovate, 

ohUqae 2. G. aquatica. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



GLEDITSIA TRIACANTHOS. 



Honey Locust. Three Thorned Acacia. 

Legume linear-oblong, elongated, many-seeded, pulpy, indehiscent. Leaflets lance- 



olate-oblong. 

Gleditsia triacanthos, Linnaeus, Spec. 1056. — Miller 



Harhk 



Medicus 



ed. 8, No. 1. 

Bot. Beoh. 1782, 230.— Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 249. — Lamarck, 
Diet. ii. 465 ; HI. iii. 446, t 857, f . 1. — Moench, Meth. 
69. — Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ ii. t. 85. — Michaux, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 257. — Schkuhr, Randb. iv, 346, t. 

Persoon, Syn. ii. 623. — Desfontaines, JSist. Arb. 



& Schultes, Syst. vii. 73- — Don, Gen. Syst ii. 428. 
Spach, Hist VSg. I 92. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am 



1. 



398. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 539- — Chapman, FL 115. 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 49. — Koch, 



Dendr. \. 8. — Brunet, Cat. VSg. Lig. Can. 20. 



Sar- 



356. 



ii. 246. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1097 ; Enitm. 1058 ; Berl 
Baumz. 163. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iv. 100, t. 25. 



gent. Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Censics JJ. S> ix. 59. 
Maximowicz, BulL Acad. ScL St. Petersbourg^ xxxi, 37 
{MM. BioL xii. 451). — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 

ed. 6, 149. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 95 
{Ma7i. PL W. Texas). 



Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 164, t. 10. — Pursh, FL G. spinosa, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 54. 

Am. Sept. i. 221. — Nuttall, Gen.M. 239. — James, Long's G. Meliloba, Walter, FL Car. 254. 

Exped. i. 138. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 218. — Elliott, Sk. G. f erox, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 247. — Sprengel, Syst 



ii. 709. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 157, t. 



iii. 919. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 428. — Spach, Hist. VSg 



132. 



De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 479. — Watson, Dendr. 



i. 94. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 539. 



Brit. ii. 138, t. 138. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 918. — Torrey, G. elegans, Salisbury, Prodr. 323. 



Fl. JSr. Y. I 192. — Audubon, Birds, t. 42, 146, 150. 



G. heterophylla, Rafinesque, Fl. Lvdovic. 99. 



Jaume St. Hilaire, TraitS des Arbres, t. 31. — Roeraer Melilobus heterophylla, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 121 



A tree, seventy-five to one hundred and forty feet in height, with a trunk two or three or occa- 
sionally five or six feet in diameter, and slender spreading somewhat pendulous branches which form a 
broad and often rather flat top. The bark of the trunk is from half to three quarters of an inch thick 
and is separated by deep fissures into long narrow longitudinal ridges, the surface of which is roughened 
by small persistent scales. The buds are minute, three or four together, and superposed, the two or 
three lower being without scales and covered by the embossed scar left by the falling of the petiole, 
while the upper one is larger, nearly surrounded by the petiole and covered with minute scurfy scales ; ^ 
the spine-bud is minute, at some distance above the axil of the leaf, and embedded in the bark. The 
branchlets, which at first are light reddish brown, and slightly puberulous, are somewhat zigzag by the 
enlargement of the swollen nodes, and are thickened at the apex ; they consist of a thin core of Hght 
yellow pith surrounded by a thick layer of pale straw-colored wood covered with lustrous reddish bark 

green and marked with minute lenticular spots ; in their second year they are grayish 
brown. The spines, which are undeveloped branches, are three or four inches long, simple or three- 
forked,^ terete, very sharp and rigid, long-pointed, thickened at the base, red at first and bright 
chestnut-brown when fully grown ; they are produced on some individuals from above the axils of all 
the leaves, and sometimes in large numbers on the trunk and main branches, but are wanting or nearly 
wanting on others.^ The leaves are from seven to eight inches in length, long-petiolate with petioles 



tingfed with 



1 Macaire, BiU. de Gen. xvii. 142. — Gray, Structural Botany ^ 

66, f . ^Q. 

2 Baillon, Bull Soc. Bot. France, v. 316. 



G. inermis, Moench, Aleth. 69. 



grown 



ixposed 



inermis. Willdenow, BerL Baumz 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 
f. 109 ; Prodr. ii. 479. 



Mi 



while those which have grown in the forest in the shade of other 
trees are often unarmed — a rule, however, which does not always 



Don, 



428. — Torrey & Gray, hold good. 



N, 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 650, t. 92, 93. 



Sar- 



N, 



76 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS-a;. 



abruptly enlarged at the base, and, like the rachises, flattened and grooved on the upper side ; they are 
eighteen to twenty-eight-foliolate or sometimes bipinnate, with four to seven pairs of pinnae, which 
increase in length towards the apex of the leaf, the upper pair being four or five inches long and 
the lowest often single leaflets ; when they unfold they are covered with thick white tomentum ; at 
maturity they are pubescent on the petioles and rachises, on the short stout petiolules, and on the under 
surface of the midribs of the leaflets. In autumn they turn a pale clear yellow. The leaflets are 
lanceolate-oblong, rather unequal at the base by the greater development of the upper side, acute or 
slightly rounded at the apex, remotely crenulate-serrate, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
dull yellow-green on the lower surface, and from one to one and a half inches long and half an inch 
broad. The flowers are produced in June, when the leaves are nearly fully grown, from the axils of 
those of the year or of previous years, the staminate in short many-flowered pubescent racemes, which 
lengthen after the flowers begin to open, and which at maturity are from two to two and a half inches 
in length and often clustered, the pistiUate in slender graceful few-flowered and usually solitary racemes 

two and a half to three and a half inches long. The flower-buds are nearly globose, and are covered 
with hoary orange-colored pubescence persistent on the outer surface of the calyx after the flowers have 
opened. The calyx is campanulate, narrowed at the base, its acute lobes, which have thick revolute 
ciliate margins and thickened tips and are covered on the two surfaces with white hairs, being rather 



shorter than the erect acute petals and half their width. The stamens 



exserted, with 



der fila 



ments pilose towards the base and green anthers. The pistil is occasionally bicarpellary and is coated 

legumes, which are twelve to eighteen inches long or sometimes 



th thick white tomentum 



The 



b 



much shorter,^ dark brown, pilose and slightly falcate with straight thickened margins, 
or three together in short racemes on stalks an inch or an inch and a half in length j 
thin and tough, with a thin papery inner coat, and contain a quantity of pulp between the seeds; they 



their 



contract in drying with a 



ber of cork-screw twists, and fall late in the autumn or in early 



2 



The seeds are oval, flattened, and a third of an inch in length, with thin albumen and orange-colored 
embryos. 

naturally on the western slope of the Alleghany Mountains in 



Gledlt 



thos 



grows 



Pennsylvania, and ranges westward through southern Ontario^ and Micl 



eastern Nebraska and 



Kansas, and to about longitude 9G° 
Mississippi, and to the valley of 
has often become naturahzed by 



B 



the Indian Territory, and southward to northern Alabama and 
[-azos River in Texas. East of the Alleghany Mountains it 
scattered from cultivated trees. It inhabits the borders of 



d intervale land 



1_r 



& 



the most fe 



with the Black Walnut, the Shellbark 



Hickory, the Red Elm, the Blue Ash, the Box Elder, and the Kentucky Coffee-tree, usuaUy singly, but 
sometimes so multiplied as to form the prevailing tree-growth over considerable areas ; or less commonly 
it is found on dry and sterile gravelly hills like those of central Kentucky to which the name of 



ba 



has b 



the valleys of 



given, and upon which 



the characteristic and often the prevail 



In 



of southern Indiana and Illin 



Gleditsia triacanthos 



greatest size and majesty. Here individuals may still be found from one hundred and twenty to one 
hundred and forty feet in height, with trunks six feet in diameter and free of branches for sixty or 

seventy feet.^ In less favorable situations and in poorer soil it is low, stunted, wide-branched, and often 
covered with thorns. 



Fl 



De Can- Without this provision they would remain where they fall under 
dolle, Prodr. ii. 479. — Sprengel, SysL iii. 919. — Don, Gen. Syst. the trees, but the pods thus twisted roll like wheels, and, being 



428 



Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 653. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 539. 



G. triacanthos, var. brachycarpos, Michaux, FL Bar. -Am. ii. 257. 



very light, are blown for great distances over the frozen ground 
and especially over the snow. The obstacles they are obliged to 



Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 399.— Sargent, Forest Trees N, overcome in their journeys probably help to break open the pods 



Am. lOth Census U. S. ix. 59. 

3 The contraction of the walls of the pods of Gleditsia triacanlTios 
seems to be intended to facilitate the distribution of the seeds. 



and liberate the seeds. 

^ J. W. Burgess, Bot. Gazette^ vii. 95. 

4 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 64. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



The wood of Gleditsia triacanthos is hard, strong, and very durable in contact with the ground, 
although it is coarse-grained, with broad bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, 
and many conspicuous medullary rays. It is red or bright red-brown, with thin pale sapwood composed 
of ten or twelve layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6740, 
cubic foot weighing 42,00 pounds. It is largely used for fence-posts and rails, and for the hubs of 
wheels, and somewhat in construction, for which purpose its weight and strength give it value. 



a 



Gled 



triacanthos was first cultivated in Europe 




Bishof) Compt 



his garden at 



Fulham near London towards the end of the seventeenth century,^ and the first account of it, drawn 
from the cultivated tree, was published by Plukenet^ in 1700. 

The Honey Locust^ has been extensively planted both in the United States and in Europe since 



first introduction.^ It has many qualities to recommend it as an ornamental tree for 



decoration 



of parks or the borders of high 



It 



is 



ly raised from seed and grows rapidly 



particular about soil ; it is extremely hardy, and remarkably free from serious disease and the attacks 
of disfiguring insects. 



It 



the droup-ht and dirt of 



better than most trees, and when 



well 



grown 



few 



compare with it in the beauty of its massive dark trunk and spreading head and 



the grace and lightness of its lustrous foliag 



6 



The 



of the Honey Locust in covering itself 

serious drawback to it as 



with leaves, which do not appear until most trees are in full leaf, is the only serious 

an ornamental tree. Its hardiness, robust growth, and stout well-armed branches make it an excellent 

hedge plant, and it has been largely used for this purpose. 

Few varieties of the Honey Locust have appeared in cultivation, and none of them possess special 
value with the exception of the form known in gardens as Gleditsia Bujotiiy distinguished by its 
graceful pendulous branches and small leaflets. 



^ See i. 6. 

^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 444. 



^ Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, i. 265, t. 105. — Evelyn, Silva^ ed. 



Hunter, ii. 61. 



Woodlands 



Loudon, Arb. 



^ Acacia Americana Abrum foliis triacanthos^ sive ad axillas folio- Brit. ii. 650, t. 91. 



rum spina triplid donata^ Aim. Bot. Mant. 1; Amalth, Bot. t. 352, 



f. 1. 



Boerhaave, Hort. Lugd. Bat. ii. 56. — Miller, Did. No. 1. 



® The pistillate trees are more desirable than the staminate for 
ornamental plantings, as the fruit which hangs in great profusion 



Acacia triacanthos^ siliquis latis fuscisy pulpa virescente subdulci^ from all the branches is conspicuous and beautiful from midsum- 



Clayton, FL Virgin. 59. 



foliis pinnatvi ac duplicato-pinnatis 



Cliff. 489. 



Gleditsia^ Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 193. — Linnseus, Hort. Ups. 298. 
Gouan, Hort. Monsp. 620. 



mer until it falls. The only sure way of obtaining them is by graft- 
ing seedling plants with grafts taken from trees known to bear 
female flowers. 

' This handsome and distinct plant appeared previous to 1845 
among a number of seedlings raised by a Monsieur Bujot, a nursery- 



* Gleditsia triacanthos is also called in some parts of the country man at Chateau-Thierry {Rev. Hort. 1845, 205). 
Black Locust, Sweet Locust, and Honey Shucks. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXXV. Gleditsia tkiacanthos. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CXXVI. Gleditsia triacakthos. 

1. A cluster of fruit and a spine, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 

7. A doubly pinnate leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a part of a branch showing the posi 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CXXV, 




o 



7 



8 



4 



5 



6 










C. E Fcuionj del. 



PicarLjr . sc 



GLEDITSIA TRIACANTHOS , L. 



A. Biocreucc dire^r . 



Imp. R. Taneur, Paru 



Silva 'cf North America. 




.0 . CXXVI 



C.E.Faxvri del. 



Pic art fr 3C 



GLEDITSIA TRIACANTHOS. L. 



^ 'Ruwrcn.T iiire^r^ 



[mp. K.Tanrur^ Pnri^- 



LEGUMINOSJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



GLEDITSIA AQUATIOA. 



Water Locust. 



Legume oval, oblique, usually one-seeded, without pulp, tardily dehiscent. Leaflets 
ovate-oblong. 



Gleditsia aquatica, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 54. — E. L. 



Greene, Bull. Torrey 
Coulter, Gray's Man. 
triacanthos, )S- Linn 
inermis, Miller, Die 
Du Roi, Harbk. Ban 



Watson 



Gen. 
709. 



2 (not Linnaeus) - 
Koch, Dendr. i. 9. 



E. L. Greene, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club^ xv- 110. — Sargent, 
Garden and Forest^ ii. 376. 



ii. 239. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 218. — ElUott, Sk. ii. 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 479- — Sprengel, Syst. 
iii. 919. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 428. — Spach, Hist. VSg- i- 
98. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 398. — Dietrich, 
Syn. V. 539. — Chapman, FL 115. — Ridgway, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus. 1882^ 64. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
IQth Census U. S. ix. 59. — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. 
St. Petersbourgy xxxi. 40 {Mel. Biol. xil. 455). 



G. monosperma, Walter, Fl. Car. 254. — Michaux, FL G. triacanthos, /?. aquatica, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 



Bor.-Am. ii. 257. 



Handb 



Persoon, 



Uniti, ii. 249. 



Syn. ii. 623 — Desfontaines, Sist. Arb. ii. 246. — Willde- G. Carolinensis, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 4B5 ; III. iii. 447, t. 857, 



now, Spec. iv. 1097 ; Enum. 1058 ; Berl. Baumz. 165. 
Nouveau DuhameL iv. 101. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. A 



f. 2. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. 74. 



Arb. Am. G. triacantha, Gaertner, Fruct. ii. 311, t. 146, f- 3 
iii. 169, t. 11. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 221. — Nuttall, Asacara aquatica, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 121. 



A tree^ fifty to sixty feet in height, with a short trunk from two to two and a half feet in diameter, 
usually dividing, a few feet from the ground, into stout spreading and often contorted branches which 



form a wide irregular flat-topped head. The bark of the trunk is rarely more than 



ghth of 



inch thick, and is smooth, dull gray, or reddish brown, and divided by shallow fissures into small plate-like 
scales. The branchlets are glabrous and orange-brown, and in their second year are gray or reddish 
brown and marked by occasional large pale lenticels. The spines are usually compressed^ simple or 
with one or two short lateral branches, straight or falcate, very sharp and rigid, three to five inches 
long, half an inch broad at the base, and dark red-brown and lustrous. The leaves are long-petiolate 
and from twelve to eighteen-foliolate, or are doubly pinnate with three or four pairs of pinnae which 
increase in length towards the apex of the leaf. The petioles are slightly enlarged at the base, and, 
like the rachises, are slender, terete, and glabrous. The leaflets are ovate-oblong, usually rounded or 
rarely emarginate at the apex, unequally wedge-shaped at the base, slightly and remotely crenate, or 
often entire below the middle, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, and dull yellow-green on 
the lower. They are glabrous with the exception of a few hairs on the short stout petiolules, and are 
an inch long and from a third to half an inch broad. The flowers are produced in May and June, after 
the leaves are fully grown, in slender racemes three or four inches long, with dark purple somewhat 
puberulous peduncles. The pedicels are short and stout, occasionally geminate, purple, and puberulous.. 
The flower-buds are ovate or obovate, pointed at the apex, and covered with orange-brown pubescence 
which remains on the outer surface of the calyx-tube after the flowers have expanded. The calyx-lobes 
are narrow, acute, a little pilose on the two surfaces, and as long but narrower than the green erect 
petals which are rounded at their apex. The stamens are sHghtly exserted, with slender filaments hairy 
towards the base and large green anthers. The ovary is long-stipitate and glabrous. The legumes,, 
which hang in graceful racemes, are pulpless, an inch to two inches long, an inch broad, obliquely 
ovate, long-stalked, and crowned with short stout tips. They are thin, with thin tough papery bright 
chestnut-brown lustrous valves somewhat thickened on the margins, and contain one, or rarely two, flat 

slightly 



obovate seeds half an inch in length with a thin orange-brown testa, thick albumen. 



and 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



compressed orange-colored embryos. The legumes^ which are fully grown in August^ and which are 
often produced in great quantities, fall in the autumn. 

Gledltsla aquatica is found in the coast region of the southern Atlantic states from South 
Carolina to Matanzas Inlet in Florida, and in the Gulf states from the shores of Tampa Bay to the 
valley of the Brazos River in Texas ; it spreads northward through western Louisiana and southern 
Arkansas to middle Kentucky and Tennessee, and to southern Illinois and Indiana. The Water 
Locust is rare east of the Mississippi River, where it grows in deep river-swamps with the Cypress, the 
Cotton Gum, the Scarlet Maple, and the Swamp Oak, but abounds on the rich bottom-lands west of 
the Mississippi, where it attains its greatest size and often occupies extensive tracts of low rich ground 
submerged during a considerable part of the year. 

The wood of Gleditsia aquatica is heavy, and very hard and strong, although rather coarse- 
grained, with a fine surface which takes a high polish. It contains thin, conspicuous medullary rays, 
and bands composed of one to three rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is 
rich bright brown tinged with red, the thick sapwood composed of about forty layers of annual growth, 
being a light clear yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7342^ a cubic foot 
weighing 45.76 pounds. 

The Water Locust was discovered in South Carolina by Mark Catesby, who introduced it into 
English gardens,* and who published the first description and figure of it in 1731 in his Natural 
History of Carolina. 

The Water Locust has not proved hardy in New England, and is now very rarely cultivated even 
in the more temperate parts of Europe. 



2 



* Loudon, Arb, Brit. ii. 653, f. 364. 



Acacia Americana palustris abruce foliis spinis rarioribus^ Miller, 



^ Acacia Abruce foliisy triacanthos^ capsula ovali unicum semen Diet. No. 2. 



claudente, i. 43, t. 43. 



Ccesalpinoides foliis pinnatis ac duplicato-pinnnatis^ a> LinnsenSi 
HorL Cliff. 489. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXXVII. Gleditsia aquatica. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size, 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged* 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7- Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 
8. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 



Plate CXXVIII. Gleditsia aquatica, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A legume, natural size. 

3. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, natural size. 

7. A portion of a branch with a doubly pinnate leaf, natural size 



Silva of North AmenceL 



Tat. cxmi 




i^ 






8 




C.E, Faxon del 



Picart fr . so 



GLEDITSIA AQUATICA, Marsh. 



{RiocreuX' direa:^ 



Imp . R . Tone a r , Paris 



Siiva of North Am 



erica. 



Tab. CXXVUI 







c- £, FaxoTt del . 



GLEDITSIA AgUATICA, Marsh. 



Picari fr sc. 



-^ . JUocreux- direccP 



Imp.R, Taneur, Paru\ 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



81 



CERCIDIUM. 



Flowers perfect, in short axillary racemes ; calyx disciferous, 5-lobed, the lobes 
valvate in aestivation ; petals 5, nearly equal, imbricated in aestivation ; ovary many- 



ovuled. Legume linear-oblong, compressed, 2-valved, conspicuously nerved on the 
tral suture. Leaves abruptly bipinnate. 



Cercidium, Tulasne, Arch. Mus. Parisj iv. 133. — Bentliam Rhetinophloeum, Karsten, M. Columh. ii. 25 
& Hooker, Gen. i. 570. — Baillon, Hist. PI. ii. 172. 



Trees or shrubs, with stout tortuous brauches covered with bright green bark and armed with 
slender straight axillary spines- Leaves alternate, abruptly bipinnate, early deciduous, petiolate; pinnae 
two or occasionally three, four to eight-foliolate ; stipules inconspicuous or wanting ; leaflets ovate or 
ohovate, without stipels. Flowers in short graceful few-flowered axillary racemes solitary or fascicled. 
Bracts minute, membranaceous, early deciduous. Calyx contracted into a long stipe jointed on the 
slender pedicel, membranaceous, shortly campanulate, persistent, with equal acute deciduous lobes 
reflexed at maturity, their margins scarious, slightly revolute. Petals orbicular or oblong, unguiculate, 
bright yellow, the upper one broader and longer clawed than the others, a little auricled at the base of 
the blade, the claw (in the North American species) conspicuously glandular at the base. Stamens ten, 
inserted with the petals on the margin of the disk, free, shghtly declinate, exserted j filaments filiform, 
pilose below, the upper one (in the North American species) enlarged at the base and gibbous on the 
upper side ; anthers uniform, ovate, attached on the back below the middle, versatile, two-celled, the 
cells opening longitudinally. Ovary short-stalked, inserted at the base of the calyx-tube, glabrous or 
covered with long hairs ; style slender, involute, infolded in the bud and terminated by a minute 
stigma ; ovules suspended from the angle of the ovary opposite the posterior petal, superposed, ana- 
tropous, the micropyle superior. Legume linear-oblong, compressed or somewhat turgid, straight or 
slightly contracted between the seeds, thickened on the margins, that of the ventral suture acute or 
slightly grooved, tipped with the remnants of the style, tardily dehiscent, two-valved, the valves 
membranaceous or subcoriaceous, obliquely veined. Seeds suspended longitudinally on long slender 
funicles, ovate, compressed, the minute hilum near the apex ; testa thin, crustaceous. Embryo com- 
pressed, surrounded by a thin layer of horny albumen ; cotyledons oval, flat, rather fleshy ; radicle very 
short, erect, near the hilum. 

Cercidium is confined to the warmer parts of the New World, where it is distributed with four or 
five species ^ from the southern borders of the United States through Mexico, Central America, and 
Venezuela to Mendoza. Three species occur in the territory of the United States, two being small trees, 
and the third, a native of western Texas, a low intricately branched and often prostrate shrub.^ 

The North American species produce rather hard wood which is sometimes used as fuel, but the 
genus is not known to be otherwise useful to man. 

The generic name, from xspxtStoVy refers to the fancied resemblance of the legume to a weaver's 
instrument of that name. 



^ Walpers, Rrp, v. 552 ; Ann. iv. 594. —Karsten, FL Columh. Parkinsonia Texana, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 13G. — Coul- 

iv. 25, t. 113 (Rhetinophlceum). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ter, Contrib, U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 94 {Man. PI. IT. Texas). 

J 326, The flowers of Cercidium Texanum are readily distinguished 

^ Cercidium Texanum^ Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 58 ; v. 50 from those of the other North American species by the long white 

(PL Wright, i., ii.). — Walpers, Ann. L c. — Torrey, BoL Mex. hairs which clothe the ovary. 

Bound. Surv. 59. 



82 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. LEGUMmosiE 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Legume compressed, with straight margins ; leaflets green, slightly glandular 1, C. floridum- 

Legume somewhat turgid, the margins often slightly contracted between the seeds ; leaflets 

glaucous 2. C. TORBEYANIJM. 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



83 



OERCIDIUM FLORIDUM. 



Green Barked Acacia. 



Legume compressed, with straight acute margins. Leaflets green, slightly glandular 



Cercidium floridum 



Wright, i,). — Walpers 



CoTv- Parkinsonia florida, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad 

Brewer & Watson, Bot. Col. i. 162. 



Contrih 



Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 327. — Sargent, Garden U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 94 {Man. PL W. Texas) 

and Forest, ii. 388. 



A tree, eighteen to twenty feet in height, with a short crooked trunk eight or ten inches in 
diameter and stout spreading branches covered with thin smooth bright green bark, and forming a 
low wide head. The bark of the trunk is a sixteenth of an inch thick, light brown tinged with green, 
with numerous short horizontal light gray ridge-like excrescences on its otherwise smooth surface. 
The branches are light or dark olive-green, slightly puberulous at first but soon glabrous ; they are 
marked by a few black lenticular dots and are armed with slender spines an inch or less in length. 
The leaves appear in Texas in April, and farther south probably a month earlier, and remain on the 
branches until October ; they are an inch or an inch and a half long, with two or rarely three pinnse, 
broad pubescent petioles and rachises, and oval or somewhat obovate dark green puberulous and mi- 
nutely glandular leaflets about a sixteenth of an inch in length, which are borne on short stout pubes- 
cent petiolules, rounded or slightly emarginate at the apex, and when they unfold are covered on the 
lower surface with scattered white hairs. The flowers, which are three quarters of an inch across 
when expanded, open in April with the leaves, and are produced in successive crops during three or 
four months, flowers and fully grown fruit appearing sometimes together on the same tree ; they are 
borne in four or five-flowered racemes, with slender stems and branches furnished with small acu- 
minate membranaceous caducous bracts. The flower-buds are oval or obovate, rounded at the apex, 
of a tawny orange color, and, like the young pedicels, faintly pilose. The legumes are compressed, 
oblong, straight, or slightly falcate, acute, with a narrow and acutely margined ventral suture ; they 



tardily dehiscent, with papery valves which are yellow tinged with brown on th 



face and 



bright orange-colored within. They are from two to two and a half inches long, half an inch broad, 
two or three-seeded, and, like the ovary, quite glabrous. The seeds are a third of an inch long and 
compressed, with thin albumen covering the sides only of the bright green embryos. 

Cercidium floridum is distributed from the shores of Matagorda Bay to Hidalgo County in 
western Texas ^ and to northern Mexico, where it abounds on dry gravelly mesas from the mouth of 
the Rio Grande to the foothills of the Sierra Madre, and in many of the low valleys in the neighbor- 
hood of Monterey. It is not common in Texas, where it appears to have been first noticed in 1881 
by Mr. S. B. Buckley, but in Mexico it forms a conspicuous feature in the region which it inhabits, 
enlivening it with its bright green branches, and in spring and early summer with its abundant brilliant 

ffolden flowers. 

The wood of Cercidium floridum is light, soft, and close-grained, with a smooth satiny surface, 

and contains numerous thin prominent medullary rays, and bands of from one to three rows of open 

cells which mark the layers of annual growth. It is pale yellow tinged with green, the thick sapwood 



1 Where it was coUe 
Parkinsonia Torreyana.) 



Conirih. U. S. Nat. Herb. Ii. 94 \Man. PL W. Texasl, under 



84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS-fi. 



being lighter colored than the heartwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5483, 
a cubic foot weighing 34.17 pounds.^ 

Cercidiiimfloridum was probably discovered in Mexico by Dr. Thomas Coulter.^ 



* Garden and Forest^ iii. 332. 



California, and was the first botanist to explore the flora of the 



2 Of the birth and early history of Thomas Coulter, who died in desert of the lower Colorado and Gila basins, which he visited in 

Dublin in 1843, nothing now appears to be known. He is said to 1832, Returning to Europe, Dr. Coulter was appointed curator 

have come to America as the surgeon of an English mining com- of the herbarium in the Botanic Garden at Dublin, a position which 

pany ; later, to gratify his taste for botanical exploration, he went he filled during the remainder of his life. His name is associated 

to Monterey, California, which he reached in 1831, remaining there in the minds of the lovers of trees with a noble California Pine 



at least two years. He made a number of botanical journeys in 



him and remarkable for the great 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXIX. Cercibittm floridum- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. The petals of a flower displayed, natural size. 
3- A stamen, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A legume, one of the valves removed, natoral size 

7. A seed cut transversely, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXXK 




2 





7 



6 



8 






^^l 



O.E FcujcoTo ieL. 



FlXMTVjr. sc/. 



CERCIDIUM FLORIDUM.Benth. 



A Bxocreux dircj: 



Imp . R, Ta/ieur, Par if 



LEGUMiNOSiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



85 



OERCIDIUM TORREYANUM. 



Green Barked Acacia. Palo Verde. 



Legume somewhat turgid, often slightly contracted between the seeds, the nerve 
of the yentral suture often slightly grooved. Leaflets glaucous. 



Cercidium Torreyanum, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. Parkinsonia Torreyana, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 

135- — Brewer & Watson, BoL CaL i. 162. — Hemsley, 



388. 



Cercidiiim floridum, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 82 ; Bot. Biol. Am.. Cent. \. 327. 

V. 360, t. 3 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 59 (not Bentham). 
Gray, Ives' Rep. 11. 



A low, intricately branched tree, leafless for most of the year, twenty-five to thirty feet in height, 
with a short often inclining trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, and stout branches covered 
with yellow or olive-green bark, forming a narrow upright irregular head. The bark of the trunk on 
old trees is reddish brown, an eighth of an inch thick, and furrowed near the base, the surface sepa- 
rating into thick plate-like scales ; on young individuals it is thinner, smooth, and pale olive-green. 
The branchlets are slightly zigzag, quite glabrous even when they first appear, light yellow or pale 
ohve-green and glaucous, and are armed with thin straight or curved spines a quarter of an inch long. 
The leaves are an inch in length, covered when they unfold with pale tomentum, and puberulous 
at maturity, with slender petioles and two pinnse, each composed of two or three pairs of oblong 
obtuse glaucous leaflets narrowed towards the somewhat oblique base, and from a twelfth to a sixth 
of an inch long. The leaves, which are few and scattered, unfold in March and April, and fall almost 
as soon as they are fully grown, a small second crop sometimes appearing in September after the autumn 
rains. The flowers, which open in April, are hardly distinguishable from those of Cercidium floridicm. 
The legumes are three or four inches long, two to eight-seeded, slightly turgid, and often contracted 
between the seeds, the nerve of the ventral suture being often grooved ; they ripen and fall from the 
trees during the month of July. The seeds are thicker, but otherwise resemble those of Cercidium 
floridum. 

Cercidium Torreyanum grows on the Colorado Desert of southern California and in the valley 
of the lower Gila River in Arizona, extending southward into Sonora and Lower California.^ It is 
scattered on the sides of low caiions and in depressions among the sand-hills of the desert, which it 
brightens with the cheerful coloring of its trunk and branches, exciting the delight and wonder of 
all travelers in that dreary and forbidding region. 

The wood of Cercidium Torreyanum is heavy although not strong, soft and close-grained, with 
a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a good polish. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, and 
small evenly distributed open ducts. It is light brown with clear light yellow sapwood. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6531, a cubic foot weighing 40.70 pounds. 

The Green-barked Acacia was probably discovered in southern California by Fremont during his 
second transcontinental journey. 



1 Vasey & Rose, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 3, 69, 88. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXX. CERcrDiinvi Torreyanum. 

!• A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A young leafy shoot, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. The petals of a flower displayed, enlarged. 

5. A flower, the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

11. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXXX'/ 




C. E Faxon del. 



Piocurtjr. so. 



CERCIDIUM TORREYANUM, Sarg. 



A. JUocreux direa>. 



i 



Imp. K Taneur, Paris, 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



87 



PARKINSONIA. 



Flowers perfect, in axillary racemes ; calyx disciferous, 5-lobed, the lobes slightly 
imbricated or subvalvate in aestivation ; petals 5, nearly equal, narrowly imbricated or 
yalvate in aestivation ; ovary many-ovuled. Leaves abruptly bipinnate. 



Parkinsonia, Linnaeus, Gen. 342. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 



Endlicher. Gen. 1314. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i 



318. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 347. — Meisner, Gen. 98. 



570. 



BaUlon, Hist. PI. ii. 171. 



Trees or shrubs, with smooth thin bark and terete branches often armed with simple or three- 
forked spines. Leaves alternate or fascicled from earUer axils, short-p etiolate, the rachis short and 
spinescent with two to four secondary elongated rachises bearing numerous minute opposite entire 
leaflets without stipels ; stipules short, spinescent, persistent, or caducous. Flowers on thin elongated 
jointed pedicels developed from the axils of minute caducous bracts, in slender axillary solitary or 
fascicled racemes. Calyx shortly campanulate, the narrow membranaceous lobes nearly equal, reflexed 
at maturity, deciduous. Petals bright yellow, unguiculate, much longer than the lobes of the calyx, 
spreading, the upper one rather broader than the others and glandular at the base of the claw. Stamens 
ten, inserted in two rows on the margin of the disk, free, slightly declinate, included or exserted, those 
of the outer row opposite the sepals and rather longer than the others ; filaments villose below the 
middle, the upper one enlarged at the base and gibbous on the upper side ; anthers uniform, attached 
on the back below the middle, versatile, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary inserted 
at the base of the calyx-tube, shortly stipitate, pilose, many-ovuled, contracted into a slender fiHform 
incurved style infolded in the bud and tipped with a minute stigma ; ovules suspended from the inner 

Legume linear, torulose, acumi- 
nate at the two ends, two-valved, the valves thin and coriaceous, convex by the growth of the seeds, 
contracted between and beyond them, and longitudinally striate, the endocarp readily separable from 
the exocarp at maturity. Seed oblong, suspended longitudinally by a slender f unicle, the hilum minute, 
near the apex ; testa thin, crustaceous, light brown. Embryo inclosed on the sides only by thick layers 
of horny albumen ; cotyledons oval, flat, slightly fleshy, the radicle very short and straight. 

The genus Parkinsonia, which contains three species, is confined to the warmer parts of America 
and to southern Africa, where a single species^ occurs. The American species are small trees found 
within the territory of the United States, one in the mountains of Arizona, and the other, Parkinsonia 



angle of the ovary, two-ranked, anatropous, the micropyle superior 



border, where it sometimes has the appearance of 



2 



acideata^ the type of the genus, along o 
having grown without the agency of man 

The American species furnish hard close-grained wood. Parkinsonia aculeata has long been 
used in many tropical countries to form hedges, its stout well-armed branches, rapid growth, and indif- 
ference to heat and drought making it valuable for this purpose. In some parts of India the branches 

)ats,^ and it is said to have supplied the natives of Mexico with a febrifuge and 



are 



food for 



t) 



Africana^ Sonder, Linncea^ xxiii. 38. — Harvey & recent years. If it is American, it is probably indigenous in the 



Sender, FL Cap. ii. 269. 



basin of the Rio Grande and on the Mexican plateau, or in some 



^ Parkinsonia aculeata has become widely naturalized through high country of western South America, as it is scarcely possible 



couu 



that if it had originated in the warm climate of southern Mexico 
is uncertain (A. de CandoUe, Geographic Botanique, ii. 770). Ac- or of Central America it would have been able to establish itself 
cordinff to Browne (Nat, Hi^l. Jam. 222) it was introduced into and spread as widely as it has in a region of such severe cold and 
Jamaica from the mainland, and students of botanical geography serious climatic changes as western Texas. 



Af 



Brandis 



88 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



sudorific, a remedy against epilepsy/ and a means for producing abortion.^ The young branches of 
Parkinsonia micropJiylla are greedily eaten by domestic animals, and are gathered in considerable 
quantities for fodder ^ by the inhabitants of the islands of the Gulf of California. 

The genus, established by Plumier ^ and adopted by Linnseus, was dedicated to John Parkinson.^ 



^ Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 59. 

2 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas. viii. 601. 

» Vasey & Rose, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 3, 82 



* Nov. PL Am. Gen. 25, t. 3. 
^ See antCf 16. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Flowers in long slender racemes ; petals imbricated in aestivation ; legumes one to eight- 
seeded ; leaves long, the rachises of the pinnse flat, wing-margined, many-foliolate ; 
branches armed with the enlarged spinescent rachises of the primary leaves . . . . 1. P. aculeatA- 

Flowers in short racemes ; petals valvate in aestivation ; legumes one to three-seeded ; leaves 

short, rachises of their pinnae terete, eight to twelve-foliolate ; branches unarmed .... 2. P. microphtlla 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



89 



PARKINSONIA AOULEATA. 



Retama. Horse Bean. 



Flowers in long slender racemes. Legumes 1 to 8-seeded. Leaves long, the 
racliises of the pinnae flat, wing-margined, many-foliolate. Branches armed. 



Parkinsonia aculeata, Linnaeus, Spec. 375. — Miller, Diet. 

ed. 8j No. 1. — Lamarck, III. ii. 475, t. 336. — Persoon, 
Syn. i. 459. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 513. — De CandoUe, 
Mem. LSgum. 119, t. 22, f. 112; Frodr. ii. 486. 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 345. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 434. 
Spach, Mist. Veg. i. 108. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1496. 



Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur^ 87. — Torrey, JBot Mex. 
Bound. Surv. 59. — Brewer & Watson, Bot CaL i. 162. 
Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 327. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 60. — Coulter, Con- 
trib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 94 (Man. Fl. W. Texas). 



A low tree, eighteen to thirty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, usually 
separating at six or eight feet from the ground into slender spreading slightly pendulous branches 
which form a wide graceful head. The bark of the trunk is brown tinged with red, and an eighth of 
an inch thick, the generally smooth surface being broken into small persistent plate-like scales. The 
branchlets, which are slightly zigzag, are covered with yellow-green puberulous bark during their first 
season, and are glabrous, gray, or light orange-colored, and often roughened with lenticels in their second 
and third years. The leaves are short-petiolate, persistent, light green, and glabrous except for a few 
hairs on the lower part of the young secondary rachises. The spinescent rachises of the leaves produced 
on the young branchlets bear two or four pinnae, and develop into stout rigid persistent sharp-pointed 
chestnut-brown spines an inch or occasionally an inch and a half in length and marked near the base 



by the prominent scars left by the 
persistent, and appear on the spines 
rachises fascicles 



falling of the 



pinnae. The stipules of the primary leaves are 



spiny branches. In the 



of these enlarged 



cles of leaves are produced, each with a short terete spinescent rachis bearing two pinnae 
and furnished with minute caducous spinescent stipules. The rachises of the pinnae of the primary 
and secondary leaves are flat, a sixteenth of an inch long, conspicuously wing-margined and acute 
at the apex, and bear from twenty-five to thirty pairs of leaflets which vary from a sixteenth to an 
eighth of an inch in length and are oval or obovate, minutely apiculate, and long or short-petiolu- 
late. The flower-buds are oval or obovate, dark orange-brown, a quarter of an inch long and shorter 
than the slender pedicels. The flowers are fragrant, an inch across when expanded, and produced 
in slender erect racemes which are five or six inches long and continue to appear on the growing 
branches during the spring and summer months, or in the tropics throughout the year. The petals 
are bright yellow, the upper one being marked near the base on the inner surface with conspicuous 
red spots, and are much longer than the stamens. The legumes hang in graceful racemes j they 
are from two to four inches in length, long-pointed, dark orange-brown, faintly pilose, and compressed * 
between the remote seeds. These are a third of an inch long and nearly circular in section, with thick 
albumen and bright yellow embryos. 

Parkinsonia acideata is generally distributed in Texas along the vaUey of the lower Rio Grande, 
where it selects open situations and low wet soil on the borders and around the ends of lagoons ; it 
is common in northern Mexico, in the valley of the Colorado River in Arizona and California, and in 

Lower California. 

It is now well established on Key West, and is widely naturalized in the Bahama and other West 



90 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMlNOSiE. 



India Islands/ in many of the 



of Central and South America/ and in tropical Af 



3 



and 



Asia. 



4 



The wood of Parkinsonia aculeata is heavy^ hard, and very close-grained, and contains numerous 
thin conspicuous meduUary rays and small evenly distributed open ducts ; it is light brown with very 
thick lighter colored sapwood tinged with yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.6116, a cubic foot weighing 38.11 pounds. 

Parkinsonia aculeata was first described by Plumier in the Nova Plantariim Americanariim 
Genera^^ published in 1703 ; it was cultivated in the Physic Gardenr at Chelsea in England by Philip 
Miller in 1739/ and has quickly spread through many warm countries, where it is valued for its har- 
diness and rapid growth, for the strange appearance of its long fine narrow leaves and the beauty of 
its perennial flowers, and for its usefulness as a hedge plant. The Retama, which is the name given to 
Parkinsonia aculeata by the inhabitants of the regions bordering the Rio Grande, is often found in 
the gardens of southern Europe ^ and in those of western Texas ; and it may now be seen growing 
spontaneously in the neighborhood of many of the towns of Texas, northern Mexico, and southern 
California. 



^ Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 121, t. 80 ; PL Rar. Amer. 61, t. 119. 
Icon, Am. Gewach, ii. 31, t. 135. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 398. 
Descourtilz, Ft, Med. Antil, i. 54, t, 12. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. HorL Walth. 36, t. 13. 



:, foliis minutiSf uni costce adnexis 
foliis Mimosce uni costce adjixis. 



334. — Richard, FL Cub. ii. 221. — Grisebach, Fl, Brit, W. Ind, 



Parkinsonia, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 157, t. 13 ; HorL Ups. 99. 



204 



Eggers, Bull. U. S, Nat, Mus, No. 13, 46. Royen, FL Leyd, Prodr. 465. 



284. 



*^ Bentham, Martins Fl. BrasiL xv. pt. ii. 78, t. 26. 
3 Oliver, FL Trap. Afr. ii. 267. 

* Roxburgh, Hon. Beng. 31, — Wight & Arnott, Prodr, Fl, Ind. 
— Miquel, FL Ind, Bat, i. pt. i. 115. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. S. 



foliolis 



Nat 



^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 49. 

^ Naudin, Manuel de V AcclimateuTy 392, 



Ind. ii. xci. 1. 13, f . 2. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit Ind. ii. 260. — Gamble, 
Man. Indian Timbers^ 134. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXXL Parkinsonia aculeata. 

1. A flowering branchj natural size, 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3- The petals of a flower displayed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A cluster of fruit, natural size. 

7. A portion of a legume, one of the valves removed, natural size 
8- Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Tab. CXXXI 




C E Taxorv del. 



Picart^r sc, 



PARKIN SONIA ACULEATA , 



A Bzocrezix direa:.^ 



Imp R. Tarwur , Paru 



LEGUMINOS^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



PARKINSONIA MICROPHYLLA. 



Flowers in short racemes. Legumes 1 to 3-seeded. Leaves short, the rachises 
of the pinnae terete, 8 to 12-foliolate. Branches unarmed. 



microphylla, Torrey, Pacifi 



136. 



Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 162. — Hemsley, 



Mex 



Surv. 59. — Walpe 



812. 



Gray, Ives^ Rep, 11. 



Martins 



Bot. BioL Am. Cent i. 327. 
Am, lO^A Census Z7. S. ix. 60. 



N. 



BrasiL xv. pt. ii. 78. — Watson 



A low intricately branched tree, occasionally twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk a 
foot in diameter, and straight rigid branchlets terminating in stout spines ; or more often a shrub with 
many stems from three to ten feet high. The bark on old trees is a quarter of an inch thick, dark 
orange-colored, and generally smooth, although sometimes roughened by scattered clusters of short light 



gray horizontal ridg 



The branchlets are stout, pale yellow-green, covered at first with deciduous 



tomentum, slightly puberulous during their first and second seasons, and often marked by the persistent 
scales of undeveloped buds. The leaves are an inch long, pale, densely tomentose when they unfold, 
pubescent at maturity, and deciduous at the end of a few weeks after their appearance ; the rachis is 
short, rarely spinescent, or more commonly wanting ; the rachises of the pinnse are sHghtly grooved on 
the upper side and are jointed at the points of attachment of the leaflets which are 



distant 



5sile, broadly oblong or nearly orbicular, obtuse or somewhat acute at the apex, oblique at the base 
d a sixth of an inch long. The flowers, which are a third of an inch across when expanded, an 



borne on slender pedicels in racemes an inch or less in length developed from the axils of 



of the 



previous year ; they are pale yellow, with exserted stamens, and open in May or early June before the 
new growth and the leaves appear. The legumes, which probably hang on the branches for at least a 
year, are frequently one, and rarely three-seeded ; they are two or three inches long, slightly puberulous, 
especially towards the base, and are contracted at the two ends, the long acuminate apex being often 
falcate. The seed is a third of an inch in length, with a pale brown testa and a bright green embryo. 

Parklnsonia microphylla inhabits the deserts of southern Arizona and the adjacent regions of 
California, Sonora, and Lower California. 

The wood is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin conspicuous medullary rays and 
many large scattered open ducts. It is dark orange-brown streaked with red, with thick Hght brown or 



yello 



,pwood composed of twenty-five or thirty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of 



the absolutely dry wood is 0.7449, a cubic foot weighing 46.42 pounds. 

Parklnsonia microjjhylla is nowhere common, and it is only known to attain the size and habit 
of a tree in the neighborhood of Wickenburg in Arizona. It appears to have been first discovered, 
probably in the valley of the Colorado River, by Dr. Thomas Coulter in 1832, although it was not 
described until many years later, when it was rediscovered by the members of the Mexican Boundary 
Survey Commission. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXXII. Parkinsonta microphtlla- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A leafy branch, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. The petals of a flower displayed, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

6. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size 

7. A seed cut transversely, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXXXII 













■■'; 

p 



J 



C £ Faxon, del. 



pLcart^ so. 



PARKINSONIA MICROPHYLLA, Torr. 



A BzocreuX' dirext 



Imp. R. Tojiear Faris 



LEGUMiNOs^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



CERCIS. 



Flowers fascicled or racemose ; calyx disciferous, shortly turbinate, 5-tootlied, the 
short broad teeth imbricated in aestivation ; corolla subpapilionaceous, the upper petal 
the smallest, inserted within the others ; ovary many-ovuled. Legume compressed, 
narrow-winged on the ventral suture. Leaves simple. 



Cercis, Linnaeus, Gen. 125. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 351, — Siliquastrum, Adanson, Fam, PL ii, 317 
Meisner, Gen. 99. — Endlicher, Gen. 1310. — Bentham & 
Hooker, Gen. i. 576. — Baillon, Hist. PL ii. 187. 



Small trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, slender unarmed branches^ and small scaly buds. Leaves 
simple, alternate, entire or emarginate at the apex, three or many-nerved, long-petiolate, deciduous ; 
stipules small, membranaceous, deciduous. Flowers on thin jointed pedicels in simple fascicles or in 
short or long racemes produced on the branches of the previous or of earlier years, or on the trunk.^ 
Bracts small, scale-like, often imbricated at the base of the inflorescence ; bractlets minute or wanting. 
Calyx colored, persistent, the tube oblique at the base, campanulate, enlarged on the lower side, the five 
teeth short and broadly triangular. Petals nearly equal, pink or rose-color, oblong-ovate, rounded at the 
apex, unguiculate, slightly auricled on one side of the base of the blade, the upper one the smallest and 
inclosed in the bud by the wings encircled by the broader slightly imbricated keel-petals, the vexillum 
and wings reflexed after anthesis- Stamens ten, inserted in two rows on the margin of the thin disk, 
free, declinate, those of the inner row opposite the petals and rather shorter than the others ; filaments 
enlarged and pilose below the middle, persistent until the fruit is grown ] anthers uniform, oblong, 
attached on the back near their base, two-celled, the contiguous cells opening longitudinally- Ovary 
shortly stipitate, inserted obliquely in the bottom of the caljrx-tube, many-ovuled ; style filiform, fleshy, 
incurved, tipped with a stout obtuse stigma ; ovules two-ranked, superposed, attached to the inner angle of 
the ovary, anatropous, the micropyle superior. Legume slightly stipitate, oblong or broadly linear, acute 
at the two ends, compressed, tipped with the thickened remnants of the style, many-seeded, two-valved, 
the valves coriaceo-membranaceous, reticulate- veined, tardily dehiscent by the dorsal and often by the 
wing-margined ventral suture, dark red-purple and rather lustrous at maturity, the thin endocarp silvery 
white. Seed suspended transversely by a slender funicle, ovate or oblong, compressed, the hilum near 
the apex, small, depressed ; testa crustaceous, reddish brown, the tegmen thickened. Embryo surrounded 
by a thin layer of horny albumen, compressed ; cotyledons oval, flat, the radicle short, straight or 
obliquely incurved, slightly exserted. 

Cercis is found in North America, where it occurs on the two sides of the continent, in Europe, in 
the Orient, and in central and eastern Asia. The type is an ancient one, and the genus has existed 
in Europe almost in its present state from the Eocene period.^ Seven species are now distinguished. 
The type of the genus, Cercis Siliquastrum ^^ is widely distributed in southern Europe and in the 
Orient."* Cercis Grijithii^ inhabits Afghanistan, Cercis Chinensis^ and Cercis racemosa'^ the prov- 



1 The flowers developed upon the trunk or the old branches are, CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 518. — Bot Mag, t. 1138. — Loudon, Arh. Brit, 

accordino- to Baillon {HisL PL ii. 122), produced year after year ii. 657. — Koch, Dendr. i. 13. 
from excrescences which correspond to the axils of ancient leaves, ^ Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 633. 

and are composed of the remnants of the axes of earlier inflo- ^ Boissier, h c. 

rescences which have gradually united and formed a more or less ^ Bunge, Mem. Sav. Etr. St. Petersbourg, ii. 95 (Enum. PL Chin. 



prominent mass. 



Bor. 21). — Miquel, ProL FL Jap. 243. — Franchet & Savatier, 



2 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique de$ Arbres, 315, f. 43, 2, 3. Enum. PL Jap. i. 116. — Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 213. 

8 Linojeus, Spec. 374. — Sibthorp, FL Grcec. iv. 60, t. 367. — De ^ Oliver, Hooker Icon. xix. t. 1894. — Hemsley, L c. 



94 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSjE. 



inces o£ central and northern China ; Cercis Chinensis is also found in Japan^ where it is thought to 
have been introduced. Of the North American species two are small trees^ and the third, C. occiden- 
talism^ an inhabitant of the western foothills of the California Sierras, is a tall many-branched shrub.^ 



Cercis, bestowed on the European species by Linnseus, who discarded the Siliquastrum of Tourne- 
fort,^ is formed from xEpxlg^ the Greek name of the tree, and derived from a fancied resemblance in the 
fruit to a weaver's implement of that name. 



^ Gray, Jour, BosL Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 177 (PL Lindheim. ii.). 



as peculiar to the genus in this country. This is the larva of a 



Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 283, t. 3. — Brewer & Watson, little moth Gelechia cercerisella^ Chambers, said to be very common 

in it, sometimes folding the leaves together (Canadian Entomolo- 



Bot. Cat. i. 160. 

C Siliquastrum^yBX.y'BentliSLTnf PL Hartweg. 307, 361. 

2 A few common insects, like the Web-worms, occasionally 
attack Cercis in the United States, although only one is recorded 



gisty iv. 108). 

8 InsL 646, t. 414. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Flowers in sessile clusters ; leaves ovate, acute, cordate, or truncate at the base 1, C- Canadensis 

Flowers fascicled or slightly racemose ; leaves reniform 2, C. Texensis. 



LEGUMLNOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



CEBOIS CANADENSIS. 



Redbud. Judas Tree. 



Flowers in sessile clusters. Leaves ovate, acute, cordate, or truncate at the base 



Cercis Canadensis, Linnaeus, Spec. 374. — Miller, Diet. 

ed. 8, No. 2. — Du Roi, Harhk. Baum. i. 147. — Marshall, 



^ 



ne 



223. 

Holz 



Lamarck, Diet. ii. 586. — Wangenheim, Nordam 



Walter 



Willd 



508 ; JEJnum. 439 ; Berl, Baumz. 84. — Noitveau Duhamel^ 



i.l9. 



Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 265. — Schkuhr, Handh 



i. 354. — Persoon, Syn. i. 454. — Desfontaines, Hist 
Arh. ii. 254.— Pursh, Fl.Am. Sept. i. 308.— Nuttall, Gen 
i. 283. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 53. — EUiott, Sk. i. 470. 
Torrey, FIN. F. i. 188. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 518. 



Sprengel, SysL ii. 346. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, AhbUd. 



Holz 



Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 167. 



Don, 



Gen. Syst ii- 463. — Spach, Hist. VSg. i. 129. — Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 392. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1515. 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 67. — Chapman, FL 114. 
Curtis, Hep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 50- — Koch, 
Dendr. i. 14. — Baillon, HisL PL ii. 121. — Ridgway, 



Proc. U. S. Nat. Mtis. ] 
N. Am. 10th Census U. 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 147. 



Sargent, Forest Trees 
Watson & Coulter, 



Siliquastrmn cordatum, Moench, Meth. 54 



A small tree, sometimes forty or fifty feet in height, with a straight trunk usually separating, ten 
or twelve feet from the ground, into stout branches which form an upright or often a wide flat head. 
The bark of the trunk is half an inch thick, and divided by deep longitudinal fissures into long narrow 
plates, the bright red-brown surface separating into thin scales ; that of the branches is smooth and 



ght b 



gray 



The branches 



slender, glabrous, somewhat 



to 



their first summer with lustrous brown bark marked by many minute 



, and 
which 



year loses its lustre and grows darker, and in the third beco 



dark or a grayish brown 



ed during 
second 
The 



the 



winter-buds are obtuse, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with ovate chestnut-brown imbricated 
scales rounded on the back and slightly ciHate on the margins. The leaves are broadly ovate, often 
abruptly contracted at the apex into short broad points, truncate or more or less cordate at the base. 



five to seven-nerved, srlabrous with the exception of tufts of white hairs on the 



sur 



face 



m 



the axils of the nerves, or sometimes more or less pubescent below.^ They are from three to five inches 
in length and breadth, and are borne on slender terete petioles abruptly enlarged at the two ends and 
from two to five inches long ; the stipules are ovate, acute, membranaceous, an eighth of an inch in 
length, and early deciduous. The leaves turn in the autumn to a bright clear yellow. The flowers, 
which appear in early spring before or contemporaneously with the leaves, are half an inch long with a 
dark red calyx and rosy pink petals, and are borne on pedicels from a third to half an inch in length 
and fascicled four to eight together. The legumes are fully grown in the south by the end of May and 
at the north by midsummer, and are then pink or rose-color ; they are unequally oblong, almost straight 
on the upper, and curved on the lower edge, and are from two and a half to three and a half inches 
long. They are produced in great quantities, and fall late in the autumn or in early winter. The seed 
is bright chestnut-brown and a quarter of an inch long. 

Cercis Canadensis is widely distributed from the valley of the Delaware River in New Jersey^ to 
the shores of Tampa Bay, northern Alabama and Mississippi, and ranges westward to Missouri, the 
eastern borders of the Indian Territory, Louisiana, and the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, and 
reappears on the northeastern slopes of the Sierra Madre of Nuevo Leon. It is a common tree in all 
this region in glades by the borders of swamps, and on rich bottom-lands forming, especially west of the 



1 C. Canadensis^ var. pubescenSy Pursh, Fl. Ain. Sept. i. 308 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 659. 



2 Britton, Final Rep. State Geologist, N J. ii. 90 (Cat. PL iV. J,) 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



Alleghany Mountains, an abundant undergrowth to the forest. It grows in immense numbers and to 
its largest size in southern Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas, where in early spring, 
when its branches are covered with its brilliant flowers, it makes a beautiful and conspicuous feature 

of the landscape. 

The wood of Cercis Canadensis is heavy, hard, although not very strong, and rather coarse 
grained. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, and bands of from one to three rows of open ducts 
clearly defining the layers of annual growth. It is rich dark brown tinged with red, with thin lighter 
colored sapwood composed of eight or ten layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.6363, a cubic foot weighing 39.65 pounds. 

Cercis Canadensis was cultivated in English gardens as early as 1730,^ and the first description of 
it was published by Plukenet in the Almagestiim Botaniciim in 1696.^ The Redbud is a desirable 
ornament for the garden. It is very hardy far north of its native home and in regions where none of 
the other species of Cercis can survive ; it grows rapidly in good soil, and at the end of a few years, 
if space is given for its free development, makes a broad-branched flat-topped tree of formal outline, 
handsome at all seasons of the year, and in flower a striking and dehghtful object. 



1 Alton, HorL Kew, ii. 47. — Loudon, Arb> Brit, ii, 659. Siliquastrum Canadensey Tournefort, Inst 647. — Duhamel, Traite 

^ Ceralia agrestis, Virginiana^ folio rotundOy minori. Forte Siliqua des ArbreSy ii. 264. 
sylvestrisy rotundifoliay Canadensis H, R. P. SchoL Botan. 95. — Ray, Cercis foliis cordatis puhescentibus, Linnaeus, HorL Cliff. 156 ; 

Hist. PL iii. Dendr. 100. Hort, Ups. 99. — Clayton, FL Virgin. 47. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. 

Prodr. 463. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES- 



Plate CXXXIIL Cercis Canadensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 
3- A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A flower, a portion of the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged 

6. A calyx, enlarged. 

7. A stamen, enlarged. 

8. A pistil, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged- 
ID. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CXXXIV. Cercis Canadensis. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A legume, one of the valves removed, natural size. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, much magnified. 

7. A winter branchlet. natural mto. 



Silva of North. America 



Tab 





2 




fz^^^^3^ 







C Z, Faccon del. 



Picart^. sc'. 



CERCIS CANADENSIS, 



A. RLocreux direa^ 



Imp. R. Taneur , Parts 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXXXIV 






5 





CE.Fcucvn del. 



Fuuirtjr. sc. 



CERCIS CANADENSIS 



4 Bzocreux direx 



Imp R TojiezLT, Fans 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



CEROIS TEXENSIS. 



Redbud. 



Flowers fascicled or slightly racemose. Leaves reniform 



Cercis Texensis, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iv. 448. 



Watson 



C. occidentalis, var., Gray, Jour, Bast. Soc. Nat Hist. vi. C. reniformis, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 348. 

177 {PL Lindheim. \i.) . — Walpers, ^nn. ii. 440. Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix 

C. occidentalis, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound, Surv. 58 (in 61. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 91 {Man 

part), — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Gent. \. 340 (in part). PL W. Texas). 



A small slender tree, occasionally twenty or nearly forty feet in height, with a trunk six to twelve 
inches in diameter ; or more often a shruh sending up many stems and forming dense thickets only a 
few feet high. The bark of the trunk and branches is thin, smooth, and light gray. The branchlets 
are glabrous and covered with minute white lenticels, and are hght reddish brown during their first and 
second years and dark gray in their third. The leaves, which appear soon after the opening of the 
flowers in March, are at first light green and slightly pilose j at maturity they are subcoriaceous, dark 
green and lustrous on the upper, and paler and glabrous or pubescent on the lower surface, and are 
borne on petioles an inch and a half to two inches long and abruptly contracted at both ends. 
The flowers are half an inch or rather less in length, and are borne on slender pedicels fascicled in 
sessile clusters or occasionally racemose, and as long or sometimes twice as long as the flowers, which are 
rosy pink with a darker colored calyx. The legumes are from two to four inches long and from half 
an inch to almost an inch broad, and in form and color are hardly to be distinguished from those of 

Cercis Canadensis. 

Cercis Texensis is distributed from the neighborhood of Dallas in eastern Texas to the Sierra 
Madre in Nuevo Leon.^ It is very common in the valley of the upper Colorado River, and attains 
its greatest size on the mountains of northeastern Mexico,^ and here and in many parts of western 
Texas is a conspicuous feature of vegetation, often forming extensive thickets on the limestone hills and 
ridffes on which the Texas Redbud is found. 

The wood of Cercis Texensis is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous rather obscure 
medullary rays, and rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is brown streaked 
with yellow, with thin lighter colored sapwood consisting of five or six layers of annual growth. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7513, a cubic foot weighing 46.82 pounds. 

Cercis Texensis was discovered by Jean Louis Berlandier^ at Comancheries, in the valley of the 



Rio Grande, in November, 1828 



4 



1 In the specimen (No. 2080) collected by Pringle in 1888 on » See i. 82. 

the Sierra Madre near Monterey the lower surface of the leaves, * Cercis Texensis was named by Engelraann in MSS. Cercis reni- 

the petioles, and the branchlets are coated with hoary canescent formis, bat was not published. See Scheele, Roemer Texas, 428, 



tomentum. 



and Brewer & Watson, Bot Cal i. 161. 



2 C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, iii. 362. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXXV. Cercis Texensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. The petals of a flower displayed, natural size- 

3. A flower, a portion of the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

6. A portion of a legume, one of the valves removed, natural slze- 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab CXXXV 




C.E.FcucoTV d£l. 



Fic^irL fr. so. 



CERCIS TEXENSIS , Sarg 



A.Bxocreua^ direcc 



Imp R. Taneur, Fari^ 



LEGUMiNOS^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



PROSOPIS. 



Flowers perfect, regular, in axillary cylindrical spikes or globose heads ; calyx 
campanulate, 5-tootlied, the teeth valyate in aestivation ; petals 5, valvate in aestivation ; 
stamens 10, free ; ovary sessile or stipitate, many-ovuled. Legume linear, compressed 
or subterete, indehiscent. Leaves bipinnate. 



Prosopis, Linnseus, Mant. 10. — Meisner, Gen.^%. — End- Algarobia, Benthara, PL Hartweg. 13. — Torrey & Gray, 
llcher, Gen. 1324. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 591.— FL N. Am. i. 399. — Endlicher, Gen. 1324- 

Baillon, HisU PI. ii. 64. 



Trees or shrubs, with aculeate or naked branches sometimes armed with soUtary or gemmate 
axillary spines or spinescent stipules. Leaves bipinnate with two to four or rarely many pinnse, the 

pinnae many or few-foliolate ; petioles and petiolules usually furnished with minute or obscure glands ; 
leaflets often rigid ; stipules minute or wanting. Flowers usually sessile, in axillary spikes or heads. 
Calyx: five-toothed or slightly five-lobed, deciduous. Petals connate below the middle or ultimately 
free, glabrous or tomentose on the inner surface towards the apex, sometimes puberulous on the outer 
surface, hypogynous. Stamens ten, free, inserted with the petals on the margin of a minute obscure 
disk adnate to the calyx-tube, those opposite the lobes of the calyx rather longer than the others j 
filaments filiform ; anthers oblong, attached on the back below the middle, versatile, introrse, two- 
celled, the connective tipped with a minute deciduous gland or rarely eglandular, the cells 023ening 
longitudinally by marginal sutures. Ovary inserted in the base of the calyx, sessile or stipitate, villose 
or glabrous, many-ovuled ; style filiform, tipped with a minute stigma ; ovules suspended in two ranks 
from the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, anatropous, the micropyle superior. Legume hnear, 
compressed or subterete, straight, falcate, contorted or twisted into a more or less regular spiral, inde- 
hiscent ; exocarp thin or coriaceous ; mesocarp thick, spongy, or hardened, rarely thin ; endocarp 
cartilaginous or papery, inclosing the seeds individually in distinct nuthke joints, or occasionally con- 
tinuous and scarcely distinguishable from the mesocarp. Seed ovate or oblong, compressed, the hilum 
near the base ; testa crustaceous. Embryo surrounded by a layer of horny albumen 3 cotyledons flat, 

the radicle short, straight, slightly exserted. 

The genus Prosopis is distributed from the southern borders of the United States to Patagonia, 
and occurs in tropical Africa, in the Orient, and in tropical and subtropical Asia. Sixteen or seventeen 
species are distinguished,^ three of which belong to the Old World. The type of the genus, P. spici- 
gera^^ is found from Persia and Afghanistan to southern India, where in arid regions it sometimes forms 
extensive forests. Prosopis Stephaniaiia^ inhabits Cyprus, the Caucasus, Persia, and Afghanistan, 
extending eastward as far as the Punjab, and Prosopis ohlonga^ Upper Guinea and the Nile-land. 
Two of the species found within the territory of the United States are small trees, and the third, Proso- 
pis ciiierascens,^ a native of the valley of the lower Rio Grande, is a low shrub. The other American 
species are shrubs of Mexico and Peru, and the extratropical countries south of the equator. 



ins. Linn. Soc. xxx. 376 (Rev. Mint.). — Watson, * Bentham, Hooker Jour. Bot. iv, 

xxiv. 48. — Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, 377. — Oliver, FL Trop. Afr. ii. 331. 



348 



ii. 152 {PL Baja CaL). 



fi Bentham, L c-. 381. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 95 



Mant 



446. — Boissier, (Man. PL W. 



Fl. Orient. 11.634:. Bentham, Z. c. — Hooker i. FL Brit. Ind.ii. 288. Strombocarpa cinerascens, Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. m. Ql (PL 



« Kunth, Steudel Nam. I 
tham, L c. — Hooker f . L c. 



Boissier, L c. 633. — Ben- Wright, i.). — Walpers, Ann. iv. 614. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. 

Surv, 60. 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



The North American species produce hard durable timber. The wood of Prosopis spicigera^ a 
moderate-sized tree, is used in India in making agricultural implements and carts, in buildings, and for 
furniture ; and it is largely employed as fuel on locomotives and steamboats j the pods, like those of the 
North American species, are used for fodder ; and in some districts of India the mealy sweet mesocarp 
is an important article of food, being eaten raw or cooked with vegetables.^ This tree is worshiped by 
the Hindoos at the Dussera Festival.^ 

Numerous insects feed upon the leaves of the North American species, and borers often injure 
their stems.^ 

■ 

The generic name was formed by Linnaeus from TtpoaQTtlgy employed by Dioscorides to designate 
the Burdock. 



1 Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 170, t. 25. — Aitchison, Jour. Sci. Phil. 1858, 67), and Cyllene antennatus, White, lives in Mes- 



Linn. Sac. viii. 64. 
^ Brandis, L c. 
* Little is known 



quite wood (G. H. Horn, Trans. Am, Entomolog. Sac, viii. 135). 

The fruit and seeds of Prosopis, as well as those of the North 
American species of Acacia and Cercidium, are often destroyed by 



American species of Prosopis. Hemileuca yavapai^ Neumoegen, has weevils. 



iijlora are infested 



been found living on one of the species (Entomologica Americana^ sopisj and those of Prosopis pubescens by Bruchus desertorum (G. H. 



^9 



iiflora (Papilio^ ii. 99). Chrysobothris 



Horn, Trans. Am. Entomolog, Soc. iv. 311. 
Forest, iv. 280, f. 49). 



and 



stems 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Algarobia. Legume elongated, compressed or ultimately convex ; pinnae twelve to sixteen- 



foliolate 



1. P 



JUXIFLOEA* 



Strombocarpa. Legume thick, spirally twisted ; pinnse ten to sixteen-foliolate 2. P. pubescens. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



101 



PROSOPIS JULIFLORA. 



Mesquite. Honey Locust. 

Legume elongated, compressed or ultimately convex. Pinnae 12 to 16-foliolate 



Prosopis juliflora, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. 



Des- 



courtilz, Fl. Med. Antil. viii. 107, t. 550. — Don, Gen. 



Syst. 



II. 



401, 



Dietrich, Syn. 



11. 



1425. 



Bentham, 



Trans. Linn, Soc. xxx, 377 {Rev, Mim.). — Schnizlein, 



& Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 307. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 447. — Sprengel, Syst, ii. 326. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 400. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 63. — Dietrich, Syn, 
ii. 1424. 



Icon. t. 277, f. 13. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. Desmanthus salinarum, Steudel, Nom. Bat. \. 493. 



163. 

Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censtis U. S. ix. 61. 



Nat. Herb 



(Mi 



W, 



Texa^). 



Don, Gen 



Rothrock, Wheeler's Bep. vi. 42, 106. — Sargent, P. inermis, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 

Spec. vi. 307. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424. 
P. Siliquastrum, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. 

Syst. ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424. 
P. flexuosa, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. — Don, Gen. Syst. 

ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424. — Hooker & Arnott, 

Hooker Bot. Misc. iii. 203. 
P. bracteolata, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1425. 
P. Domingensis, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 447. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1425. 

Acacia ? salinarum, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 456. 
P. afla.nis, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 326. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 401. 
P. glandulosa, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 192, t. 2 ; Emory's 
Rep. 139 ; Pacific B. R. Rep. iv. 82. — Don, Gen. Syst. 



Mimosa juliflora, Swartz, Prodr. 85 ; Fl. Ind. Occ. 986. 

Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 76. (Err. tyip. pilifiora.) 
Mimosa salinarum, Vahl, Eclog. iii. 35. 
Acacia Ciomanensis, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1058. 
Acacia pallida, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1059- 
Acacia laevigata, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1059. 
Acacia juliflora, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1076. 
Acacia furcata, Desvaux, Jonr. Bot. v. 67. 
Acacia diptera, Willdenow, Emim. 1051. 
Mimosa pallida, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 65. 
Mimosa Cumana, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 65. 
Mimosa laevigata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 65. 
Mimosa furcata, Desfontaines, Cat. Hort. Paris^ ed. 2, 207 
Acacia flexuosa, Lagasca, Elench. Hort. Matrit. 16. 
Acacia Siliquastrum, Lagasca, Elench. Hort. Matrit. 16. 



II. 



400. 



861. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424. — Walpers, Rep. i. 
Bentham, Hooker Jour. Bot. iv. 348 ; Lond. Jour. 



Bot. V. 81. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 420. 



P. horrida, Kunth, Mim. 106, t. 33. — Humboldt, Bonpland Algarobia glandulosa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 



& Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 306. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 446. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 326. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 400. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 63. — Dietrich, Syn. 

ii. 1424. 

P. pallida, Kunth, Mim. 106. — Humboldt, Bonpland & 
Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 309. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 

— De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 447. — Don, Gen. Syst. 



399; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii. 164. — Engelmann & Gray, 
Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. v. 242 (PL Lindheim. i.). 
Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a Tour to Northern 
Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848) Bot. Appx. 94. — Scheele, 
Roemer Teocas, 427. — Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
vi. 181 {PI. Lindheim. ii.) ; Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 60 ; 



326. 



Wright 



Torrey, Sit- 



ii, 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424. 
P. Cumanensis, Kunth, MiTn. 106. — Humboldt, Bonpland 



Pacific 



Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 60. 



& Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 310- — De Candolle, Algarobia dulcis, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 13. 
Prodr. ii. 447- — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 326. — Don, Gen. P. fruticosa, Meyen, Reise^ i. 376. 



Syst. ii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1425. 
P. dulcis, Kunth, Mim. 110, t. 34. — Humboldt, Bonpland 



P. odorata, Torrey, Fremont's Rep. 313, t. 1 (excl. fruit) 



A 



occasionally forty or fifty feet in height^ with a trunk rarely two feet in diameter and 
feet long, but usually not more than six to twelve inches in diameter, and divided, a short 



distance above the ground, into many irregularly arranged crooked branches formin 



head 



ally, w^hen 



der the most favorable 



d 



shapely tree with a round 



symmetrical head ; or often a shrub with slender stems sometimes only a few inches in height 



The 



principal roots with a large thick tap-root descend vertically 



depth sometimes of forty or fifty feet 



d are supplemented by radiating horizontal roots which spread in all directions and form a dense mat 



102 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



in 



the 



subsoil.^ The bark of the trunk is thick, dark reddish brown, and divided by shallow fissures, 
the surface separating into short thick scales. The branchlets are slender, glabrous, or pubescent, at 
first pale yellow-green, and rather darker in their second year, when they are usually more or less zigzag 
and are often marked with minute dark lenticels and irregularly shaped red blotches. The winter-buds 
are obtuse and are covered with acute apieulate dark brown scales. The branches are furnished at the 
axils of the leaves of their first season vdth short thick spur-like excrescences covered with chaffy scales, 
and are usually armed with stout straight terete supra-axillary persistent spines which vary from half 



incl 



1 



length, or the branches are sometimes unarmed 



The 



on 



the 



branchlets of the year and fascicled in the axils of those of previous years ; they have two or rarely four 
pinnse, and are glabrous or pubescent, and deciduous. The petiole is terete, two to four inches in length, 

at the apex with a minute gland and 



with an abruptly enlarged glandular base, and is furnished 
tipped with the slender subulate spinescent rachis. The pinnae 



fro 



to 



inches Ions', with 



& 



petioles enlarged and glandular at the base, and 



lightly winged rachises, each bearing from 



fifteen pairs of oblong or Hnear enthe acute or obtuse and often apieulate rigid leaflets 



These vary f 



one to 



ches in length and from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in breadth 



they are conspicuously reticulate-veined, strengthened by broad thick midribs, and are sessile 



b 



on short stout glandular petiolules, and 



sometimes remote and sometimes placed close togethe 



standing in all positions on the rachis, as often in vertical or obliq 



horizontal pi 



2 



The 



The flowers^ which are a twelfth of an inch 

axils of minute sea- 



stipules are linear^ acute^ membranaceous^ and deciduous. 

longj are greenish white and fragrant^ and are produced on short pedicels from the 

rious deciduous bracts in slender cyhndrical spikes which vary from an inch and a half to four inches in 

leno-th ; these are densely or occasionally interruptedly flowered^ and are borne on stout peduncles from 

haK an inch to three quarters of an inch long^ and when the flowers are open appear bright yellow from 

the numbers of largely exserted anthers. The calyx is glabrous and is barely a quarter of the length of 



the narrowly oblong acute petals 



These 



htly puberulous or glab 



the outer surface and 



covered on the inner surface towards the apex with thick white tomentum which appears as a tuft 



of the flower-bud. The stamens are straight or diverging and twice as long as the 



the apex ^ 

the large dark-colored connective of the anther cells bearing a stalked gland. The ovary is shortly 



stipitate and clothed with silky ha 



The flowers begin to appear in May^ and are produced 



the middle of July. The legumes are linear^ compressed at first^ subterete at maturity 



constricted between the seeds^ of which there are usually from ten to twenty^ straight or falcate^ and 
tracted at the two ends; the apex being tipped with the straight or recurved remnant of the style ; 
vary from four to nine inches in length and from a quarter of an 



nch to half an inch in width 



thin and ligneous^ longitudinally veined, and pale yello 



they 
The 



often marked with 



1 The roots of the Mesquite appear to develop almost indepen- earth, and gradually form mounds, often of considerable size and 

dently of the leaves, and often attain an enormous size on plants height, upon which the plants appear to be growing. 

with stems a few inches in height and with only a small quantity The value of the Mesquite is greatly increased by the remark- 

of foliage. The tap-root, which is the only one of the vertical roots able development of its roots, which enables it to reach a deep 

that grows to a large size, often descends to a great depth in search water-level and flourish where no other ligneous plant can exist ; 

of water, and does not branch or decrease much in diameter until these roots furnish large quantities of valuable fuel, which is dug 

this is reached. The Mesquite is thus enabled to extract an unfail- from the ground or dragged out by oxen in pieces fifteen or twenty 

ing supply of water from low strata, and is not dependent on the feet long in regions where no wood of fuel value is produced above 

moisture of the subsoil. Its presence and condition afford almost ground, (Havard, Am, Nat. xviii. 454.) 



certain indications of the depth of the water-level ; when the plant 



The weight of the wood of the root, as shown by the result of 



attains the size of a tree this will be found within forty or fifty feet the tests published in Volume IX. of the 10th Census of the United 
of the surface, or, when it grows as a thrifty bush, within fifty or States, is considerably greater than the average weight of many 
sixty feet ; when the roots are forced to descend below sixty feet, specimens taken from trunks grown in dijfferent regions, its specific 
the stems are not more than two or three feet high. Sand heaped gravity being 0.8493. 

2 Havard {L c. 453) found 63,660 stomata to the square inch on 



by the wind about the stems of the plants causes the development 
of secondary vertical roots and branches which hold more sand and 



the upper surface of the leaflets of Prosopis juliflora, an 
on the lower surface, as the mean of several observations. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



red ; this surrounds a thick spongy layer of sweet pulp in which the seeds are placed obliquely, sepa 
rately inclosed in thin envelopes forming nut-hke joints quadrate by mutual pressure. The seeds arc 
oblong, flattened, with a thin light brown lustrous testa and thin horny albumen.^ 



Prosopls jidifl' 



distributed 



the United States from the southern borders of Colorado and 



Utah through New Mexico, the southern borders of the Indian Territory and northern and 



Texas to the Rio Grande, and through southern Nevada and Arizo 



southern Calif 



The 



limits of its range may be represented by a line extending from a point where the thirty 



seventh parallel of latitude intersects the on 
Texas, and then southward to the valley of 



hundredth meridian to the neighborhood of Dallas in 
le Colorado and along the Gulf at a distance of twenty 



thirty miles from 



which 



the 



th of the Rio Grande 



d 



limit by a line extending from the Tejon Pass in Cahfornia by Los Angeles to San Pedro on the Pacific 
coast. The Mesquite is generally distributed through northern Mexico ^ and Lower California,^ and is 
abundant in the Andean region, extending south as far as Chile ; it is widely spread in the Argentine 
Repubhc, and has become naturalized in the arid regions of southern Brazil^ and in the drier parts of 
the island of Jamaica.^ 

In the United States the Mesquite attains its greatest size in those bottom-lands of the rivers of 
southern Arizona where it is protected from the wind and where the water-level is not far below the 
rich porous surface of the soil. Favored by such conditions it often forms open forests of considerable 
extent j it is at home on rich prairies, from which fire recurring year after year cannot drive it, on arid 
rocky hills, on sandy and saline flats, and on shifting sand dunes. A hot dry climate with mild winters, 
a small rainfall, and a clear atmosphere suits it best ; but it can withstand many degrees of frost, and 

to struggle against conditions which would exterminate most plants it is 



tenacity of Hfe and abihty to struggle 
b surpassed by any other tree. 

The wood of JProsopis julijlora is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not very 



it 



numerous distinct medullary rays and many evenly distributed 



ducts, and 



rich dark 



brown or sometimes red, with thin clear yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.7652, a cubic foot weiorhina* 47.69 pounds. It is almost indestructible in contact with the 



and is valued and largely used for fence-posts and railway 



furnished the underpinnings and 



timbers of the adobe buildings of the early inhabitants of western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and 



northern Mexico 



sometimes used in furniture, for the felhes of heavy wheels, and for the pave 



ments of city streets ; and it affords the best and often the only fuel in the regions where it grows, 
burning slowly with a bright clear flame. It produces valuable charcoal, but is unsuited for the genera- 
tion of steam on account of the destructive action upon boilers of the tannin ^ which it contains. The 



1 The variations in the size and shape of the leajflets of Prosopis Amer. 150. — Lunan, Hort, Jam, i, 156. — Macfadyen, FL Jam. 
julijlora^ the absence or presence of spines on different branches 311.) 



of the same individual or at different periods of its growth, and 



® An analysis of the wood of Prosopis julijlora made by the 



the innumerable forms assumed by the fruit in ripening have led chemist of the Department of Agriculture of the United States 
to the publication of a large number of species which were often shows 6.21 per cent, of tannic acid in the heartwood, 0.50 per cent, 
established upon fragmentary specimens, and are now referred to in the sapwood, and 0.50 per cent, in the bark. (W. McMurtree, i2ep. 
it by Bentham as synonyms. (See Bentham, Trans. Linn, Soc- 
378 lRei\ il//m.].) 



XXX 



344 



8 Brandegee, Proc, CaL Acad, ser. 2, ii. 152 (JPl 
4 Bentham, Martins FL BrasiL xv. pt. ii. 289. 



DepL Agric. 1873, 183.) It is almost identical with the tannic acid 

found in oak-galls, although it is claimed that it acts more quickly 

on animal tissues and penetrates hides more rapidly than either 

^a?.). oak or sumach tannin. The color of the heartwood is due to a 

pigment probably associated with the tannin, the two being extri- 
lijlora^ cable together by hydrated ether ; and Havard suggests {Am. Nat. 
ioribus xviii. 458) that the relative proportion of tannin in any log can be 
inland judged of by the extent and deepness of its color, and that, like the 
and was already (1756) flourishing " luxuriantly in many parts of color, it increases with the age of the tree. An astringent decoction 
the lowlands, where it is observed to rise, frequently to the height obtained by boiling chips of the heartwood may be used to check 
of fourteen or fifteen feet, or better.'' (See also Barham, Hort. diarrhoea or dysentery, or by infusion to purify muddy or stagnant 

water. (Havard, /. c.) 



diffl 



compressis 



104 



8ILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOSjE. 



ripe pods ^ of the Mesquite supply the Mexicans and Indians with a favorite and nutritious food^ and are 



greedily devoured by most herbivorous animals.^ A gum resembling gum arabic ^ exudes from its stems. 

From the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to those of the Pacific Ocean the Mesquite is the most 
important tree of the districts immediately north and south of the boundary of the United States 3 it is 
the most valuable leguminous tree of the North American forests^ and the amount and quality of the 
food and fuel which it produces in vast territories where both are scarce make it one of the most 
valuable of all trees. In spring and summer its bright green foliage and abundant fragrant flowers 
give life and beauty to dreary desert slopes and arid plains, and delight the eye of the traveler, who, 
however, in the broken and illusory shadows cast by its thin and scattered leaves, vainly seeks protection 
from the burning rays of the sun 

The earliest botanical account oi Rrosopis juliflora was published in 1788 by the Swedish traveler 
Swartz, who had found it naturahzed in Jamaica. It was first found within the territory of the United 
States, in the valley of the Canadian River near the northern limits of its distribution, in 1820, by Dr. 
Edwin P. James,^ the naturaHst of 



4 



Long's Rocky Mountain Expedition. 



It was introduced into 



England from Chile in 1832,^ and is now cultivated in most of the warm dry parts of the world as 
an ornamental or fodder plant,^ or in hedges, for which its hardiness and stout well-armed branches 
make it valuable. 

Prosoins jidijlora is easily raised from seeds,^ which readily germinate and produce plants that 
grow rapidly in good soil, and at the end of four or five years form shrubs with stems several feet in 
height. 



^ The nutritious portion of a Mesquite pod is about fifty-three although the flow can be increased by making incisions in the bark^ 

per cent, and consists of vegetable albumen, gum, and grape-sugar, and it is not probable that Mesquite gum will ever become an 

with traces of fat and salts. The remainder, or nearly one half, important article of commerce. (Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor, 

made up of the outer and inner walls of the pod and of the seeds, 1052. — Rep. Dept. Agric. U. S, 1872, 452. — Havard, L c.) 

is indigestible and always voided. As only about one half of their * Prosopis juliflora is called Algaroba and its pods Algarobo by 

weight is assimilable, Mesquite pods furnish much less valuable f od- the Spanish-speaking inhabitants of Central and South America. 



5 See ii. 96. 

^ Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 661. — Nicholson, Diet Gard. 



for Indi 
Manuel 



der than oats or corn ; it is rich in sugar and nitrogen but deficient 
in starch and salts. The unripe pods are bitter and of no value as 

food ; when fully ripe they fall to the ground and should then be "^ F. Mueller, Select Plants rea 

collected at once and stored in a dry place when they will keep or Naturalization in Victoria^ 185. 

until the crop of the following year ripens ; if left upon the teur, 439. 

ground they soon deteriorate and decay. ^ A large proportion of the seeds do not grow without aid, 

Mesquite pods are largely consumed by Mexicans and Indians, through their failure to find suitable conditions for germination, 

who grind them into coarse flour which they bake, after picking Many decay where they fall, or are destroyed by insects, and the 

out the seeds, into cakes or tomales. Mesquite atole is made by spontaneous growth of seedlings occurs only in favorable seasons at 

boiling the pods and pounding them in fresh water into a pulp ; irregular intervals of years. The principal agencies for disseminat- 

the liquid, which contains in suspension and solution all the nutri- ing the seeds are water which rushes down gulches and arroyos 

tious portion of the fruit, is then strained and makes a pleasant after heavy rains, and carries the pods to the banks and bottom- 

and healthful beverage. An infusion of Mesquite flour can be fer- lands of rivers, where they find conditions favorable for germina- 

mented and brewed into a weak beer, once largely used by the tion, as the Mesquite forests common in such situations attest, and 

Apache and Comanche Indians. (See Havard, Am, Nat. xviii. 459.) herbivorous animals which void the seeds without having destroyed 



2 Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. v. 304 (PL Tkurher.). 



their vitality. The seedlings usually spring up in clusters, owing 



8 The gum which exudes from the bark of the Mesquite from to the germination of several of the seeds from a single pod ; on 
May to September concretes in tears of various sizes and of a rich laud the strongest of these takes the lead, gradually destroying 
bright amber color. It is usually found on old trees with thick the others, and forms a, tree ; on higher and drier land several of 



farrowed bark, accumulated in knot-holes and ou the ed^^es of 

to 

wounds, and less commonly on smooth young stems. Sometimes 
the exudation does not concrete but spreads out on the bark in 



the seedlings develop equally and form a cluster of stems more or 
less united at the base. 

The Mesquite grows rapidly in good soil during the first four or 



large flat resinous patches. Mesquite gum has the taste of gum five years of its life. Later its increase is slow ; in thirty years it 



arabic, from which it differs in not being affected by subacetate may form a stem 



or eight inches in diameter which during 



of lead ; it dissolves readily in three parts of water, and makes the next fifty years may, under favorable conditions, increase three 
excellent mucilage. The quantity of gum naturally produced in or four inches. Trunks more than a foot in diameter are probably 
a season by a large tree perhaps does not exceed half a pound, over a hundred years old. (Havard, L c. 456.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXXXVL Prosopis juliflora. 

1 and 2. Flowering branches, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A flower, enlarged- 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

6. Front and back view of a stamen, enlarged 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified- 



Plate CXXXVII. Prosopis jtjliflora. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cluster of half-grown fruit, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, natural size 
4 and 5. Vertical sections of a seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryO; magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab CXXXVI 




C E Faxon del. 



Picart^r sc 



PROSOPIS JULIFLORA, DC. 



A.RLocreusi direa:^ 



Imp. It laneur, Faru. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXXXVII 




C,E Faxon del 



Picart^r 



r sc 



PROSOPIS JULIFLORA , DC. 



A.TUocreux direx^^ 



Imp, R.raneicr^ Potls 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



107 



PROSOPIS PUBESCENS. 



Screw Bean, Screw Pod Mesquite. 



Legume thick, spirally twisted. Pinnae 10 to 16-foliolate 



Prosopis pubescens, Bentham, Loud. Jour. Bot. v. 82; P. odorata, Torrey, -Fr6wio?i^'5 ^e^. 313, 1 1 (excl. flowers). 



XXX 



Mint 



Ann. i. 259. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 420. 
Watson, Bot. CaL i. 163- — Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. 
vi. 42, 107. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 344. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census JJ. S. ix. 
62. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 95 {Man. PL 
W. Texas). 



- Walpers, P. Emoryi, Torrey, Emory's Rep. 139. 

Brewer & Strombocarpa pubescens, Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 



60 ; V. 51 {PL Wright, i., ii.) ; Ives' Rep. 9. — Torrey & 

■ 

Gray, Pacific R. R. Rep. ii. 263. — Torrey, Pacific R. 
R. Rep. iv. 11, 20, 82 ; v. 360, t. 4 ; vii. pt. iii. 10 ; Bot. 

Mex. Bound. Surv. 60. 
Strombocarpa odorata, Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 158. 



A smaU tree^ rarely twenty-five or thirty feet in height^ with a slender trunk sometimes a foot 



diamete 



r 



often a tall many-branched shrub 



The bark of the trunk is thick and Hglit brown 



tinged with red^ and exfoliates in long thin persistent ribbon-like scales.^ The b 



terete, 



armed 



[i stout rigid geminate supra -axillary spines j they 



canescently pubescent or glabrate 



when they first appear, but glabrous in their third year^ when they are covered with light red-brown 

axils of the leaves of the 
inches long, each with a 



bark 



The leaves are alternate on the 



yo 



shoots 



d fascicled in the 



previous years, canescently pubescent, and deciduous ; they are two or three 

slender petiole from a third to two thirds of an inch in length bearing a minute gland near the 



which is tipped with a small spinescent rachis, and two pinnse each 



ch and a half or two inches 



long with five or eight pairs of oblong or somewhat falcate acute sessile or shortly petiolulate leaflets, 
often apiculate, conspicuously reticulate-veined, and from a third to two thirds of an inch in length 
and an eighth of an inch in breadth. The stipules are spinescent and deciduous- The flowers, 
which begin to open in early spring, are produced in successive crops, and are greenish white ; they 
are sessile from the axils of minute scarious deciduous bracts, and are borne in dense or interrupted 
cylindrical pedunculate spikes two or three inches in length. The calyx is obscurely five-lobed, pubes- 
cent on the outer surface, one third or one fourth as long as the narrow acute petals coated on the 
inner surface near their apex with thick white tomentum, and slightly puberulous on the outer surface. 
The ovary and young fruit are covered with pale tomentum. 



The 



& 



ch are bo 



dense 



racemes, are sessile and are twisted with from twelve to twenty turns into a narrow straight spiral one 
or two inches in length. The outer coat of the legume is thin and woody and of a pale straw color ; 
it incloses the thick sweet pulp of the mesocarp in which are the seeds, wrapped in separate envelopes 
and flattened by mutual pressure. The seeds are obovate, a sixteenth of an inch long, with a thick 
very hard pale brown testa and thin horny albumen. The fruit ripens throughout the summer, and falls 
in the autumn. 

Prosopis pubescens is common in the valley of the Rio Grande in western Texas, from the mouth 



of the Devil's River to El Paso 



extends westward through New IMexico and Arizona, and 



CaH 



fornia through the arid region of the Colorado basin to San Diego County ; it reaches the southern 



borders of Utah and Nevada, and extends southward into northern Me 



It occupies sandy or gravelly 



bottom-lands, and attains its greatest size in the United States in the valleys of the lower Colorado and 
Gila rivers. 



^ The bark on an old trunk of Prosopis pubescens has a shaggy appearance like that of a very old Grape-vine or of a large-stemmed 
Cowania Mexicana. 



108 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



The wood of Prosopis pubescens is heavy, and exceedingly hard and close-grained, but brittle 

and not very strong. It contains numerous thin medullary rays and many evenly distributed open 

ducts, and is Hght brown with thin lighter colored sapwood composed of six or seven layers of annual 

growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7609, a cubic foot weighing 47.42 pounds. 

It is somewhat employed for fencing, and makes excellent fuel. The pods are used for fodder, and are 

sweet and nutritious, although their small size and the hardness of the seeds make them less valuable 

than those of the Mesquite.^ 

Prosopis pubescens"^ was discovered by Fremont in the Mohave Desert in 1843, during his second 
transcontinental journey. 



* Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus, viii. 499. ^ Prosopis pubescens is called Tornillo by the Mexicans. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXXVIII. Prosopis pubescens. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, enlarged 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 
10. An embryo, magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXXXVIII 




7 



8 



2 



3 







6 



9 



10 






C £ Faxon- del 



Picari'T'. sc. 



PROSOPIS PUBESCENS, Benth. 



A. Bzocreux direa^ 



Imp R . TaneAAT^ Paris 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



109 



LEUC^NA. 



Flowers in globular heads ; calyx 5-tootlied, the teeth valvate in aestivation ; petals 
5, valvate in aestivation, free; stamens 10, free; ovary stipitate, many-ovuled* Legume 
broadly linear, piano-compressed, 2-valved. Leaves abruptly bipinnate. 



Hooker 



Meisner, Gen, pt. ii. 353, — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 594. — Baillon, 



Hist 



Trees or shrubs, with branches usually unarmed. Leaves alternate, persistent, bipinnate, petiolate, 
the petioles often furnished with a conspicuous gland below the lower pair of pinnae ; leaflets small, in 
many pairs, or few, large, and obHque ; stipules setaceous, minute, or ample, deciduous, rarely becoming 
spinescent and persistent.^ Flowers white, mostly perfect, sessile in the axils of small bractlets, imbri- 
cated in globose pedunculate heads, the peduncles in axillary fascicles or in leafless terminal racemes, 
sometimes bibracteate near the apex. Calyx tubular-campanulate, minutely five-toothed, deciduous. 
Petals five, acute or rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base, hypogynous. Stamens ten, free, 
inserted under the ovary, exserted ; filaments filiform ; anthers ovate, oblong, or globose, eglandular, 
attached on the back near the middle, versatile, usually pilose, two-celled, the cells opening longitu- 
dinally. Ovary stipitate, many-ovuled, contracted into a long slender style ; stigma terminal, minute, 
slightly dilated ; ovules attached in two ranks on the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, anatropous, 
the micropyle superior. Legume many-seeded, stipitate, Hnear, compressed, tipped with the remnants 
of the style, dehiscent, the valves thickened on the margins, rigid, membranaceous, continuous within ; 
exocarp thin and papery, dark-colored, the endocarp rather thicker, woody, pale brown. Seed obovate, 
compressed, transverse, the hilum near the base ; f unicle long and slender ; testa thin, crustaceous, 
brown and lustrous. Embryo inclosed on its two sides by a thin layer of horny albumen ; cotyledons 
oval, flat, the radicle straight, slightly exserted. 

Leucsena is represented by nine or ten species.^ One ^ inhabits the islands of the Pacific Ocean 
from New Caledonia to Tahiti, and the others the warmer parts of America, where they are distributed 
from western Texas through Mexico to Lower California and to Central America, Peru, Venezuela, and 
San Domingo. Three species occur within the territory of the United States. Leuccena retusa^ is a 
slender shrub, abundant in some parts of Texas west of the Colorado River and reaching the borders 
of New Mexico ; the others are small trees. 

Leucsena is not known to possess useful properties. 

The genus was established by Bentham to receive a number of plants previously referred to Acacia, 
which they resemble in habit and in the appearance of the fruit ; this, however, in the character of the 
valves and in the albumen of the seeds approaches the fruit of Desmanthus rather than that of Acacia, 
while the flowers are similar to those of Mimosa. 

The generic name, from 'kEVxalvOy refers to the color of the flowers. 



1 The stipules of Leuccena Greggii (Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. * Leuccena glandulosa. 

xxiii. 272), a small tree of northern Mexico, are triang;ular, ovate, L. Fosteriy Bentham, Hooker Lond. Jour. BoL v. 94 ; Trans. Linn, 

and contracted into long slender points which become rigid and Soc. xxx. 442. 

spinescent, and remain on the branches for at least a year as slender Mimosa glandulosa, Foster, Prodr. 92. 

p-eminate spines, sometimes a third or nearly half an inch in length. Acacia glandulosa, Guillemin, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, vii. 360. 

There are traces of similar spinescent stipules also on Leuccena ^ Bentham; Gts.j, Smithsonian Cantrih. iii. 64 {PL Wright, i.) ; 

macrophylla (Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 90). Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 443. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb, ii. 

3 Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 444: (Rev. Mim.).— Watson, I.e. 98 (Man. PL W. Texas). 



110 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^ 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Branchlets slightly tomentose or glabrous ; peduncles bibracteate at the apex ; pinnae twenty 



to forty-foliolate 



1. L. GLAUCA. 



Branchlets pulverulent-tomentose ; peduncles ebracteolate ; pinnae sixty to one hundred and 



twenty-foliolate 



2. L. PULVERULENTA. 



LEGUMmOS^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



LEUC^NA GLAUCA. 



Branchlets slightly tomentose or glabrate at maturity. Leaves 16 to 18-pinnate 



the pinnse 20 to 40-foliolate 



Leucsena glauca, 



Hooker 



Bot. iv. 416 ; Acacia biceps, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1075. — De Candolle, 



Trans. Linn, Soe. xxx. 443 



MiTn 



Walpers 



Frodr* ii. 467. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 418. 



Rep, i. 884. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 477. — Sargent, Forest Acacia frondosa, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1076. — De Can- 



N. Am. IQth Census 



Coulter, CoTir 



Nat Herb. ii. 98 {Man, PI. W. Texas) 



doUe, Prodr, ii. 468. 

Mimosa biceps, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 75. 



Mimosa 

265. 
Mimosa 



Persoon, Syn. ii. Mimosa frondosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 76. 



Poiret, Lam, Diet. Suppl, i. 75. 



Willdenow 



De Candolle, 



Acacia leucocephala, Link, JEmcm. ii. 444. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 467. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 139. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 418. 



Prodr. ii- 467. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 139. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 418. 



feet, with 



A slender tree, with graceful spreading foliage, occasionally rising to the height of twenty or thirty 

; or more often a broad shrub sending up many 



stem three 



four inches 



diameter 



stems from the ground. The bark of the trunk is three eighths of an inch thick, slightly ridged and 



dark b 



the 



face being broken into short persistent 



The branchlets when they first 



appear are coated with short pale pubescence, which gradually disappears, and in their second year they 
are glabrate or only slightly puberulous. The leaves are ten or twelve inches long and six or eight 
inches broad, with stout terete petioles enlarged at the base and an inch and a half to three inches in 
length, sometimes eglandular and sometimes on the same individual furnished with a large conspicuous 
dark gland opposite the lower pair of pinnse or between these and its base. The stipules are minute, 
subulate, and caducous. The pinnse are remote and three or four inches in length, with entire acute 
sessile or shortly petiolulate leaflets ; these are oblique or unequal at the base, and from a third to half 
of an inch long, paler on the lower than on the upper surface, and at maturity occasionally slightly 
pilose along the margins and on the under surface ; their midribs are broad and orange-colored for a 
third of their length, and narrow and obscure above the middle of the blade. The flower-heads are 
ovate before anthesis and globose at maturity, two thirds of an inch in diameter, and borne on stout 
pubescent peduncles ; these are furnished at the apex with two irregularly three-lobed pubescent bracts, 
and are solitary or fascicled two or three together in the axils of the upper leaves, or are arranged in 
short terminal racemes, the branches springing from the axils of small scarious bracts. The flowers are 
numerous, sessile, and produced from the axils of minute peltate bractlets borne on long slender stalks 
which lengthen with the growing buds ; these are oblong, obtuse, and densely coated with pale tomen- 
tum. The calyx is a twelfth of an inch long, very short-toothed, covered with pale tomentum, and 
half the length of the petals, which are narrow, acute, and rounded at the apex. The stamens are twice 
as lono- as the petals and have slender filaments and large oval bright yellow pilose anthers. The ovary 
is glabrous or often more or less covered with thin scattered hairs. The legumes are from four to 
seven inches lons^ and from a half to two thirds of an inch broad, obtuse or acute at the apex, long- 



Two or 



stalked, and furnished with a short recurved point ; they are pubescent until nearly half -grown, and at 
maturity are bright chestnut-brown and glabrous or somewhat puberulous towards the base, 
three or sometimes as many as ten or twelve, often of different lengths, are produced together on a 
sinffle peduncle abruptly and conspicuously thickened at the apex. The seeds are obovate, two thirds 
of an inch long, rounded at the apex and contracted at the base ; the testa is thin, bright chestnut- 
brown, and lustrous. 



112 



SILVA OF NORTH AMUEICA. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



Leuccena glauca is probably a native of the warmer parts of the New World ; but it has been 



cultivated so long and has now established itself so firmly in most of the tropical countries of 
hemispheres that its origin is uncertain. 



both 



It occurs in western Texas from San Saba to the valley of 
the Devil's River in many locahties so remote from human habitations that it hardly seems possible it 
could have reached them through the agency of man. It is widely scattered through Mexico and 
Central America/ and many of the countries of South America, extending at least as far south as 
southern Brazil.^ It has become naturalized in most of the West India and Bahama Islands ^ and on 
Key West in Florida/ and is now common in tropical Africa ^ and Asia/ and on the islands of the 
Pacific OceanJ In Texas and northern Mexico Leuccena glauca inhabits dry rocky hillsides and the 
sides of depressions in the desert, or is occasionally found near the borders of small streams. 

The wood of Leiicmna glauca is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and contains many small regularly 
distributed open ducts. The layers of annual growth and the medullary rays are hardly distinguishable. 
It is rich brown streaked with red, with thin clear yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.9235, a cubic foot weighing 57.55 pounds. 

Leucmna glauca appears to have been first described in 1690 by Kiggelaer^ in his catalogue of 
the plants cultivated in the garden of Simon van Beaumont, of Dordrecht, 'and in the same year was in 
cultivation in the gardens of Hampton Court.^ The beauty of its large pale finely divided leaves, its 
showy heads of flowers produced in the tropics throughout the year, and its handsome fruit, must early 
have made LeuccBua glauca a favorite garden plant in many warm countries where its vigorous consti- 
tution, the abihty of its seeds to germinate under trying conditions, and its rapid growth have enabled 
it to secure a foothold and gradually spread itself over wide areas. 



1 Hemsley, Bot. Biol, Am. Cent, i, 351. 



Martius FL . 
, Fl. Brit. W. 



Acacia^ Buxi foliis rotundioribus, Jlorihus 
pressa, Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car, ii. 42, t. 42. 



Sauvalle, FL Cub. 35. 



Chapman, 



Fl 



Wight 



100. 



Hooker f. FL Brit, Ind. ii. 290. 



7 HiUebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 114. 



Mimosa arborescens Americana nan spinosa, pinnis Acacias latiori- 
bus in/erne glaucis, flare albo^ Breyn, Prodr. ed. 1739, 83. 

Mimosa inermis, foliis duplicato-pinnatis : partialibus ufrinque senis 
Bentham, FL Hongk. pluribusve^ siliquis planis membranaceis , Royen, FL Leyd. Prodr. 472. 

Acacia non spinosa,flore albo^ foliorum pinnis latiuscuUs glabris, 
siliquis longis planis. Miller, Diet. Icon. 4, t. 4. — Trew, PL Ehret, 9, 



florib 



mosis, 3. 



t. 36. 



^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 441. — Loudon, Arb, Brit. ii. 665. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXXXIX. Leuccena glauca, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

2". A flower-bud with its bractlet, enlarged. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 
7- An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A portion of a legume, one of the valves removed, natural size 

9. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, magnified. 



Silva of North America , 



Tab. CXXXIX 




C.E.fn.rvri del. 



Picartjr, so 



LEUC^NA GLAUCA, Benth. 



j4.Riocr^uj^ direa:^ 



Imp. R.Taneur, Parts. 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



113 



LEUC^NA PULVERULENTA. 



Mimosa. 



Branchlets pulverulent-tomentose. Peduncle ebracteolate. Leaves 30 to 36- 
pinnate, the pinnae 60 to 120-foliolate. 



Leucsena pulverulenta, Bentham, Hooker Land, Jour. Pringle, Garden and Forest^ ii- 393. — Coulter, Contrih. 

Bot. iv. 417 ; Trans, Linn. Soc. xxx. 443 {Rev. Mim.). — U.B, Nat. Herb. ii. 98 {Man. PL W. Texas). 

Dietrich, Syn. v. 477. — Hemsley, BoL Biol. Am. Cent. Acacia pulverulenta, Schlechtendal, Linncea, xii. 571. 

i. 351. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Acacia aesculenta. Martens & Gsdeoiti, Bull. Acad. Brux. 
U. 8. ix. 63 ; Garden and Forest, ii. 388, f . 122. — C. G. x. pt. ii. 312. 



A tree, fifty or sixty feet in height^ with a straight trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter^ 
separating, twenty or thirty feet from the ground^ into slender spreading branches which form a loose 
round handsome head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick^ bright cinnamon-brown^ 
and roughened with thick persistent scales. The branchlets when they first appear are more or less 
striately grooved, and are thickly coated with pulverulent tomentum which, however, soon disappears, 
and at the end of a few weeks they become terete, pale cinnamon-brown, and only slightly puberulous. 
The leaves are from four to seven inches long and three or four inches broad, with fifteen to eighteen 
pairs of pinnse, slender petioles usually marked with a large dark oblong gland between the somewhat 
enlarged base and the lowest pair of pinnse, and minute caducous stipules. When the leaves unfold 
they are covered, like the peduncles and flower-buds, with dense hoary tomentum, and at maturity are 
puberulous on the petioles and rachises. The leaflets are linear, acute at the apex, rather oblique at 
the base by the greater development of the upper side, sessile or very short-petiolulate, pale bright green, 
and from a sixth to a quarter of an inch in length. The flower-heads, which are half an inch or rather 
more in diameter, appear in succession, as the branches grow, from early spring to midsummer, and are 
borne on slender peduncles an inch or an inch and a half in length fascicled in the axils of the upper 
leaves of the branchlets, which, when the tree is in flower, thus appear to terminate in leafy racemes one 
or two feet long. The flowers are produced from the axils of minute clavate scarious bractlets. The 
calyx is slightly five-toothed and a quarter as long as the acute petals, which, like these, are pilose on 
the outer surface. The stamens are twice the length of the petals^ with glabrous oblong anthers. The 
ovary is coated with long pale hairs. The legumes, which are of different lengths and produced two or 
three together on a common peduncle thickened at the apex, are conspicuously thick-margined, four to 
fourteen inches in length, long-stalked, and tipped with short straight or recurved points. The seeds 
are five sixteenths of an inch long with a dark lustrous coat. 

Leiiccena pulverulenta grows in Texas for a few miles along the Rio Grande near its mouth ; it 
is more abundant from Matamoras to Monterey in Nuevo Leon, and has also been collected in Mexico 
on the banks of the Misantla River near San Antonio, at Orizaba and Cordova and near the City of 
Mexico. In the valley of the lower Rio Grande LeitccEna pulverulenta is not common, being found 
only in a few places on the banks of the river or on the borders of lagoons and small streams, always 
ffrowino- in rich moist soil, and usually associated with the beautiful Texas Elm, which hardly over- 
tops it. 

The wood of LeucoRna pulverulenta is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, and contains numerous 

thin conspicuous meduUary rays, and many small regularly distributed open ducts. It is rich dark 
brown with thin clear yellow sapwood composed of two or three layers of annual growth. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6732, a cubic foot weighing 41.95 pounds. It is considered 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



more valuable than the wood of any other tree of the lower Rio Grande valley, and is sometimes 
manufactured into lumber, although the large trunks are often hollow or defective. 

XewccE7^a^wZven^Ze?^^a was discovered by Jean Louis Berlandier^ in Nuevo Leon in 1830. It is 
the most beautiful of the Mimosa-like trees which grow naturally within the territory of the United 
States, and has occasionally been planted for shade and ornament in the towns of the lower Rio Grande 
valley, which it decorates with its handsome trunks, graceful feathery foHage, and abundant flowers. In 
cultivation it grows with great rapidity j ^ and it may be expected to flourish in southern Europe, where 
it was introduced in 1889 through the Arnold Arboretum, in southern California, and other warm 



countries* 



1 See i. 82. 

^ In Matamoras trees believed 



with 



spreading tops. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXL. Leuc^na pulverulenta- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A portion of a head of flowers, slightly enlarged* 

3. A flower with its bractlet, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged- 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. A cluster of legumes, natural size. 

7. A portion of a legume, one of the valves removed, natural size 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CXL 




C.S.Fcucvw del 



Picart f? so 



LEUCt^NA PULVERULENTA. Benth. 



A.BiQcreuco direcc^ 



Imp. RJojieur. Pans, 



4 



LEGUMINOS-S). 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



115 



ACACIA. 



Flowers perfect or polygamous, in globose heads or cylindrical spikes ; calyx 4 o] 
5, rarely 3-parted, the divisions valvate in aestivation, or sometimes almost wanting 
petals as many as the divisions of the calyx, valvate in aestivation ; stamens indefinite 
free or slightly connected at the base ; ovary 2 or many-ovuled. Legume 2-valved oi 
indehiscent. Leaves bipinnate. 



Acacia, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 319. — Meisner, Gen. 96. 

Endlicher, Gen. 1326. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 594. 

Baillon, Hist. PI. ii. 68. 
VacheUia, Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. 272. — Meisner, Tetracheilos, Lehmann, PL Preiss, ii. 368. 



Aldina, E. Meyer, Comm. PL Afr. i. 171 (not Adanson nor 

Endlicher) . 

Farnesia, Gasparini, Descr. Nuov. Gen. Leg. 



Gen. 96. — Endlicher, Gen. 1326. 



Chithonanthus, Lehmann, PL Preiss, ii, 368. 
Arthrosprion, Hasskarl, Betzia, i. 212. 



Trees, shrubs, or occasionally herbs, with unarmed aculeate or spinescent branches. Leaves bipin- 
nate ; leaflets usually small, in many pairs ; or reduced to simple phyllodia or dilated petioles ; stipules 
spinescent or inconspicuous, rarely membranaceous. Peduncles axillary, solitary, or fascicled, or pani- 
cled at the ends of the branches, generally furnished, either at the apex, towards the middle, or near 
the base, with two short connate scale-like bracts. Flowers perfect or often polygamous, in globose 
heads or cylindrical spikes, small, generally yellow or greenish white, in the axils of minute linear 
bractlets more or less dilated and often peltate at the apex. Calyx campanulate, dentate, lobed or 
divided into distinct sepals sometimes reduced to minute hairs. Petals more or less united, rarely 
free, very rarely wanting. Stamens numerous, usually more than fifty, exserted, free or slightly and 
irregularly united at the base, inserted under or just above the base of the ovary ; filaments fihform ; 



anthers small, attached on the back, versatile, introrse, 



celled, the cells opening longitudinally 

cell. Ovary sessile or stipitate, tw 



pollen grains generally aggregated into two to four masses in each cell. 

or many-ovuled, contracted into a long slender style terminating in a min 

from the inner angle of the ovary, two-ranked, superposed, anatropous, the micropyl 



stigma; ovules suspended 



superior 



Le 



gume 



oblong or hnear 



fc> 



ht, falcate 



►usly twisted, flat 



'ly cylindrical, mem 



branaceous, coriaceous or woody, two-valved or indehiscent, continuous or variously divided within, very 



ely separating 



seeded 



destitute of albumen : funicle fihform 



Seed transverse or lor 
thick, colored, straight 



gitudinal 



aUy 



pressed 



thrice folded upon itself 



sometimes entirely surrounding the seed, often dilated at the apex into a more or less flat aril ; testa 
thick, crustaceous, generally marked on the centre of each face of the seed with an oval or horseshoe- 
shaped depression or opaqiie spot or ring sometimes very obscure. Embryo filling the cavity of the 
seed ; cotyledons oval, flat, the radicle straight, included, slightly exserted. 

Acacia is generaUy distributed through the warmer parts of the world, especiaUy in regions of 
scanty rainfall, and seems to have abounded in Europe towards the end of the Lower Eocene period.^ 
No less than four hundred and thirty-two species are now distinguished.^ Australia, the headquarters 
of the genus, contains nearly three hundred species;^ they abound in tropical^ and southern Africa^ 
and in northern Africa and the Orient,^ in all the warmer regions of southern Asia,"^ in the islands of 



1 Saporta, Origine PaUontologique des Arbres^ 320. 

2 Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 444 (Rev. Mim.) 
8 Bentham, FL Austral, ii. 301. 

* OUver, -FY. Trop. Afr. u. 337. 



6 Harvey & Sender, Fl Cap. ii. 279. 

® Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 635. 

' Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 99. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. ii. 



292. 



Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 215. 



116 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMmOS^.. 



the soutli Pacific/ in tropical and subtropical America/ in the West Indies/ Central America^ and 
Mexico/ and the desert regions adjoining the southern boundary of the United States, where eleven 



twelve species 



6 



Three of these are small trees ; the others are large or small shrubs 



Acacia is astringent^ and many species, especially those of AustraHa, yield valuable tan-barks.^ 
Gum arabic ^ is produced by different species of African, Indian, and Australian Acacias, principally by 

Acacia 



Senegal^ A 



Arabica?^ Acacia stenocari 



Acacia Seyal^'^ Acacia horrida^^ and the 



Austrahan A. pycnantlia}^ Catechu or cutch 



15 



the Indian A 



Catechu ^^ and of A 



Sum 



stringent medicine, is obtained from the wood of 
^ Acacia yields hard heavy and durable wood. 



d some of the Australian species are large and valuable timbe 



18 



Many Acacias bear beautiful 



graceful foliage and handsome fragrant flowers, and several Australian species are 
the gardens of all semitropical countries and in northern conservatories.^^ 

The genus was established by Tournefort^^ and was afterwards adopted by Adan 
name, from azaxiaj relates to the spines with which the branches are usually armed. 



cultivated 



The generic 



1 Gray, BoL Wilkes Explar. Exped, i. 480. — Seemann, Fl Vit 
73. _ Hillebrand, FL Haw, Is. 112. 

*^ Bentham, Martins FL BrasiL xv. pt. ii. 391. 
3 Grisebach, FL Brit W. Ind. 220. 
* Hemsley, Bot, BioL Am. Cent. L 352, 



Wats 



Coulter, Contrib. U* S. 



18 Willdenow, I c. 1082.— Harvey & Sender, FL Cap. ii. 281. 
Bentham, L c. 507. 

^^ Bentham, Hooker Lond. Jour. BoL i. 351; FL AustraL ii. 365; 

Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 469. 
" Fliickiger & Hanbury, L c. 213. 
^^ Willdenow, L c. 1079. — Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 



W, 



519. 



Hooker f. I. c. 295. 



® Of the five great series in which Bentham arranged the species The wood of Acacia Catechu is exceedingly durable, and is not 

of Acacia, the Phyllodinece, with leaves reduced to simple phyllodia, attacked by white ants or injured by the Teredo. In India it is 

are almost exclusively confined to Australia, where Acacia is repre- thought to yield the best charcoal, and in some parts of the coun- 

sented by a larger number of species than any other genus of flow- try is largely used in the manufacture of agricultural implements, 

ering plants. The other series with bipinnate leaves are cosmopoli- while in Burmah it is said to be preferred to all other woods for 



tan in the warmer parts of the world, especially in the tropics. 

^ Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia, 302. 

^ Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 206. 

9 Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1077. — Oliver, FL Trop. Afr. ii. 340, 
Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 516 (/2eu. Mim.). 



house-posts. The bark is astringent and bitter, and is sometimes 
employed in tanning. The most valuable product of this tree, 
however, is catechu. In order to prepare this the heartwood is 
cut into chips which are boiled in water many times changed until 
it is reduced to a thick black paste, which when dry is the cutch 



506. 



10 Willdenow, /. c. 1058. — Oliver, L c, 350. — Bentham, I. c. of commerce. This is consumed in the East with the betel-leaf, is 

exported to Europe for dyeing and tanning, and is also used medi- 



Hooker f. FL Brit Ind. ii. 293. 



This tree, which is one of the most valuable of the genus, is cinally. (Brandis, I. c. 187.) 



widely distributed in all the Upper Nile region, and extends 
through Afghanistan to the Indian peninsula, where it has also 
been largely cultivated and naturahzed except in the humid coast 



regions 



gum 



^'^ Brandis, /. c. 187. — Bentham, L c. 519, 

18 Maiden, L c. 349. 

Acacia Melanoxylon (Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 462. — Bentham, 
FL AustraL ii. 388 ; Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 481), the Australian 
made in the bark, is used in India for native medicines, and by Black-wood, a large tree of extratropical and semitropical eastern 
dyers and cloth-printers, and is largely exported. The wood is Australia, is perhaps the most valuable of the genus as a timber- 
tough and durable, and is much employed in the manufacture of tree, producing hard and close-grained very dark-colored durable 
agricultural implements, for the hubs and fellies of wheels, and in wood capable of receiving a fine polish. It is much used in cabinet- 
boat-building. The bark is used for tanning and dyeing, and in making, in boat-building, for gun-stocks, picture-frames, piano- 
India domestic animals are fed on the shoots and the unripe pods, fortes, and oil-casks, and in all sorts of construction. Acacia Mel- 
Lakh is produced in some Indian provinces in large quantities from anoxylon has been extensively cultivated in Madras and other parts 



the small dried branches. (Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 181.) 



of India, although it has not maintained its Australian reputation 



11 Richard, FL Abyss, i. 238. — Oliver, L c. 351.— Bentham, there as a timber-tree. (Maiden, ?. c.) 



L c. 512. 



1^ Nicholson, Did. Gard. — Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateur< 



12 Delile, FL d':^gypte, 142, t. 52, f. 2. — Oliver, ;. c. 351.— Ben- 107. 



tham, l. c. 512. 



20 Tournefort, InsL 605, t. 375. 



LEGUMiNOs^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Flowers in globose heads, the peduncles bibracteolate at the apex ; legume thick, pulpy, 

indehiscent 1. A. Farnesiana. 

Flowers in elongated slender spikes ; legume compressed, straight or contracted between the 
seeds ; branches armed with stout recurved infrastipular spines. 

Legume broad, straight or slightly contracted between the seeds ; seeds narrowly obovate 

or ovate 2. A. Wrighth. 

Legume narrow, often conspicuously contracted between the seeds ; seeds nearly orbicular 3. A. Greggh. 



LEGUMINOS^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



119 



ACACIA PARNESIANA. 



Huisache. Cassie. 



Flowers in globose heads on clustered peduncles bibracteolate at the apex. 
Legume thick, pulpy, indehiscent. Branchlets armed with persistent spinescent 
stipules. 



Acacia Parnesiana, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1083. — Nuttall, Mimosa scorpioides, ForskSJ, Fl. Mgypt.-Arah. Ixxvii 



Gen. 



• ■ 



11. 



80. 



De Candolle, Prodr. \\. 461. — Don, Gen. A. pedunculata, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1084. 



Syst. ii. 414. — Spach, HisU VSg. i. 80. — Hooker, Com- A. edulis, Willdenow, Emtm. 1056. 

pan. Bot. Mag. \. 24. — Bentham, Hooker Lond. Jour. Mimosa pedunculata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 81. 



Bat. i. 494 ; Trans. Linn. Soe. xxx. 502 {Rev. Mim.). 
Dietrich, Syn. v. 494. — Engelmann & Gray, Jour. Bost. 
Sac. Nat. Hist. v. 216, 239 {PI. Lindheim. i.). — Seemann, 



Vachellia Parnesiana, Wight, Cat. No. 591 ; leon, PI. 
Ind. Orient. U 300. — Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. 

272. 



Bot. Voy. Herald^ 282. — Gray, Smithsonian Contrih. Farnesia odora, Gasparini, Descr. Nuov. Gen. Leg. t. 

iii. 67 {PI. Wright, i.) ; Proc. Am. Acad. v. 158. — Tor- A. ? leptophylla, De Candolle, Cat. Hort. Monsp. 74 ; 

rey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 62. — Chapman, M. ed. 2, 



Prodr. ii. 472. 
Suppl. 619. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 400. — Coul- A. Farnesiana, var. pedunculata, Don, Gen. Syst. ii 



ter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. 99 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



414. 



Mimosa Farnesiana, Linnaeus, Spec. 521. — Lamarck, Diet. A. lenticellata, F. Mueller, Jour. Linn. Soc. iii. 147. 



i. 18. 



Nouveau Duhamel^ ii. 92, t. 28. 



A tree^ twenty or thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk twelve or eighteen inches in diameter, 
separating, six or eight feet from the ground, into many long pendulous graceful branches which form 
a round wide-spreading head. The bark of the trunk, which is thin and reddish brown, is irregularly 
broken by long reticulated ridges, and exfoliates in large tliin scales. The branchlets are slender, terete, 
or slightly striately angled, glabrous or at first puberulous, and armed with straight rigid terete spines 
developed from the persistent stipules and sometimes an inch and a half long, often much smaller or 
minute. The leaves are alternate on the young branchlets and are fascicled in earlier axils j they are 
short-petiolate with from two to eight but usually four or five pairs of pinnae, three or four inches in 
length, and generally somewhat puberulous on the petioles and rachises, and in Texas mostly fall at the 
beginning of winter ; the pinnse are sessile or short-stalked, remote or close together, and from twenty 
to fif ty-f oliolate . The leaflets are linear, acute, tipped with minute points, unequal at the base, sessile 
or short-petiolulate, glabrous or puberulous, and bright green on both surfaces. The peduncles are 
axillary, solitary, or most often two or three together ; they are rather slender, puberulous, from an 
inch to an inch and a half long, and furnished with two minute dentate connate bracts which form an 
involucral cup immediately under the flower-heads. These are covered with hoary pubescence before 
the flowers open, and at maturity are two thirds of an inch in diameter. The flowers are bright yellow. 



very fragrant, a sixteenth of an inch in length, and are produced during the summer and autumr 
from the axils of minute clavate pilose bractlets. The calyx is about half as long as the petals, and lik( 
them somewhat pilose on the outer surface. The stamens are two or three times as long as the corolla 
The ovary is shortly stipitate and covered with long pale hairs. The legumes are indehiscent, oblong 
cylindrical or spindle-shaped, thick, turgid, straight or curved, sHghtly constricted between the seeds 
short-stalked, and contracted at the apex into short thick points ; they are two or 



three inches 



& 



half to two thirds of an inch broad, dark red-purple, lustrous, and marked by broad light-colored 

coat of the walls 



bands alono* the two sutures which are defined by elevated grooved lines. The outer coat 

is thin and papery, and incloses a thick pithy pulp-like substance which surrounds the seeds, each 



a 



120 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



separate thin-walled compartment. The seeds are suspended transversely in two ranks on short straight 
f unicles ; they are a quarter of an inch long, ovate, thick, and flattened on the inner surface by mutual 



pressur 
coat : i 



the 



and consists of a thin outer and of a thicker harder and paler 



Ho-ht brown and lustrous on the outer surface, which is faintly marked on both sides of the 



seed by large ov 
exserted radicle. 



The embryo is pale yellow, with thick cotyledons, and has a straight slightly 



Acacia Farnesiana is now widely distributed through the tropical and subtropical regions of the 
ATorlds ; it has, however, been so long cultivated and has established itself so completely in many 
bries that it is not possible to determine accurately where it is really indigenous. It is probably a 



itive of America from the valley of the Rio Grande to northern Chile ; ^ it 
diofenous in northern central and in the interior of northeastern Australia 



2 



abundant and probably 
it is abundant, too, and 



possibly indige 



south-tropical Africa/ and has become entirely naturalized in the West Indies 



in Guiana, Brazil,^ and in some parts of the Argentine Republic, in northern ^ and northern-tropical 
Africa/ India/ southern China/ the Indian Archipelago/^ and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.^^ Along 
the southern borders of the United States Acacia Farnesiana is established in the neighborhood of 

^^ to southern California/^ and in the arid and almost 



from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico 



uninhabited region between the Nueces and the Rio Grande it grows in places so remote from human 
habitations and apparently so little altered through the agency of man that it is not easy to believe that 
it is not indigenous there. In southern Florida on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans, Acacia Farnesiana has also sparingly estabHshed itself as an escape 
from gardens. 

The wood of Acacia Farnesiana is hard, heavy, and close-grained ; it contains many evenly dis- 
tributed open ducts, the layers of annual growth being barely distinguishable, and many thin conspicu- 
ous medullary rays, and is a rich reddish brown, with thin pale sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.8304, a cubic foot weighing 51.74 pounds.^^ In India it is used for the knees 



of small vessels and in the manufacture of agricultural implements 



15 



d a gum of commercial val 



collected from the trunk.^^ A decoction of the pods, which contain a large amount of tannin, is used 
in Mexico in making ink.^^ 

Acacia Farnesiana is cultivated on a large scale in southern Europe, especially in France and 
northern Italy, for its fragrant flowers which are used in the manufacture of perfumery ; ^^ it is planted 
for ornament in the gardens of all warm countries, and in India is employed as a hedge plant. 



^ A. de Candolle, Geographie Botanique, ii. 770. — Bentham, 
Trans. Linn, Soc. xxx. 502 (^Rev, Mim.^. 

2 Bentham, Fl, Austral, ii. 419. 
2 Bentham, Trans, Linn. Soc. I. c. 



^® Gamble, Man, Indian TimherSy 150. 
^■^ Havard, L c. 

^^ Grasse in southern France is the centre of Cassie culture in 
Europe. A sandy soil and the warm slopes of hills open to the 



4 Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 222. — Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat, sun and protected from cold north winds are preferred for the 



Mus. No. 13, 49. 

^ Bentham, Martins Fl. Brasil. xv. pt. ii. 394. 

c Hooker, Niger FL 331. 



346 



xvi. 442 



8 Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. 272 (Vachellia) 
dome, Fl. Sylv. S. Ind. i. t. 52. -— Hooker f. Fl. Brit. 
292. 

» Bentham, FL Hongk, 101. 

10 Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. i. 7. 

" Hillebrand, FL Haw. Is. 113. 



Bed- 



Ind. 



u 



plantations, which are often of great extent. On limestone soil the 
Cassie also flourishes and grows to a larger size than on granite, 
but it blossoms later, and flowers which open late in the season are 
less fragrant than earlier ones. 

The seed is sown in March and April in carefully prepared beds 
exposed to the south and frequently watered to hasten germination 
and the growth of the young plants. These are transplanted the 
following year to the ground where they are to stand permanently, 
and are usually set six feet apart each way in order to secure a 
sufficient development of the branches and permit the cultivation 



12 Hemsley, Bot, BioL Am. Cent I 352. — Havard, Proc, NaL of the soil between the plants. The plantations are kept free from 



Mus 



C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest^ ii. 393 



13 Brewer & Watson, Bot. CaL i, 164. 
1^ Garden and Forest^ iii. 344. 
1^ Bcddome, l. c. 



weeds, and the ground is usually thoroughly cultivated every spring 
and enriched with a good coating of manure. The main stems of 
the young plants are generally stopped at a height of two feet 
from the ground to force the development of several main branches, 



LEGUMINOSiE. 



A 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



121 



Acacia Farnesiana appears to have bee 



first cultivated in Europe in the gardens of Cardinal 



Odoardo Farnese^ in Rome, whither it was brought in 1611 from San Domingo; and the earliest 
description with an excellent figure was published in 1625 by Pietro Castelli in a work ^ devoted to 



with 

of the rare plants in the Farnese gardens 



3 



so that the flowers, which are gathered by women and children, the end of twenty-five or thirty days» The impregnated grease is 

may not grow too far above the ground. The branches are cut then distilled to obtain the pure essence. The process of enjleurage 

every year in such a manner as to give the plants a vase-like form, is also performed with hot oil. Olive oil of the best quality is 

which has been found best suited to insure the production of the poured into large heated kettles containing the flowers, and is then 

largest quantity of flowers near the ground. The flowers are pro- heated almost or quite to the boiling point, while workmen keep 

duced from the middle of summer until the middle of autumn, and turning the flowers with large wooden spoons to prevent them from 

a few blossoms continue to appear until frost. The earliest, how- falling to the bottom of the kettle and burning. When this opera- 

ever, those which open during hot weather, are considered more tion has been continued long enough, the flowers and oil are poured 

valuable than those which open late in the season, and every effort into little sacks which are then pressed under an hydrauhc press. 

is made to advance the flowering period. The flowers are gathered (See Naudin, Garden and Forest, iv. 309. — Eugene Rimmel, The 



in the morning and are at once delivered to manufacturers. 



Book of Perfumes, 228, 251. — The Art of Perfurmry, by G. W. 



A variety known as Acacia Farnesiana sempervirens, which ap- Septimus Piesse, 26, 199.) 



peared a few years ago in the gardens of southern Europe, is now 



73-1626) was distinguished 



cultivated. It is thought to be more valuable than the ordinary tity of his life, and for his wealth and the magnificence of his 

form, as it produces two crops of flowers in a year, one in the palaces and gardens. (See Litta, i^am?'^Zi€ Celebri di Italia.') 
spring and the other at the end of summer. It is also a larger, more 

robust, hardier, and more productive plant than the type. The continentur Romce in Horto Farnesiano. 



^ Exactissima Descriptio Rariorum Quarundam Plantai-um, quce 



essence of cassie is used in the preparation of pomades, perfumed 



fi Acacia Indica Farnesiana, 3, t. — Ray, Hist. PL i. 977. 



oils, and extracts. The flowers are not distilled, the only process Acacia Indica foliis Scorpioides leguminosce siliquis fuscis teretibus 

used to extract the perfume being that known as enfleurage. This resinosis, Hermann, Cat. Ilort. Lugd. Bat. 5. — Miller, Diet, No. 4. 
consists in spreading the flowers over glass plates covered with a 
thin layer of pure grease. The grease is turned over two or three w 
times a week until it is impregnated with the perfume, usually at 



Mimosa 



146 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLL Acacia Farnesiaka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a legume, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXLI. 




C^ E F> la^on deL 



Picart fr. so. 



kZKQAk FARNE SIANA , Willd. 



A^Biocreua: direcc 



Imp . R . Tanear, Parts , 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



123 



ACACIA WRIGHTIL 



Cat's Claw. 



Legumes broad, straight, or somewhat contracted between the seeds ; seeds nar- 
rowly oboyate or ovate. Leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent. 



Acacia Wrightii, Bentham; Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. Mex. Bound. Surv, 61. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 



iii. 64 (PI. Wright i.) ; Trans. Lum. Soc. xxx. 521 xvii. 351. — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. IQth Census 

{Rev. Mlm.). — Gray, Smithsonian Contrih. v. 53 {PI. U, S. ix. 63. 

Wright, ii.). — Walpers, Ann. iv. 626. — Torrey, Bot. 



A small tree, occasionally twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk ten or twelve 
inches in diameter and spreading branches forming a low wide irregular head ; or more frequently a 
shrub with many stems often only a few feet high. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch 
thick and furrowed, the surface of the ridges separating into thin narrow scales. The branches are 
armed with occasional stout recurved infrastipular chestnut-brown spines a quarter of an inch long, 
compressed towards the broad base and very sharp-pointed, or are rarely unarmed. The branchlets 
when they first appear are somewhat striately angled, glabrous, and pale yellow-brown or dark red- 
brown, turning pale gray in their second year. The leaves are alternate on the young branchlets or 
fascicled in the axils of former leaves, glabrous or slightly pubescent especially on the petioles and 
rachises, with two to six pinnae, and one or two inches in length. The petioles are slender, a third 
of an inch long, and eglandular or furnished with small convex glands ; the pinnse are four to ten- 
foliolate. The leaflets are obliquely obovate-oblong, obtuse, rounded and often apiculate, sessile or 
short-petiolulate, two or sometimes three-nerved, reticulate- veined, rigid, bright green and rather paler 
on the lower than on the upper surface, and from a sixteenth to a quarter of an inch long. The 
stipules are linear, acute, a sixteenth of an inch in length, and caducous. The flowers, which appear 
from the end of March to the end of May, are produced in narrow spikes an inch and a half long, often 
interrupted below the middle, on slender fascicled axillary pubescent or sometimes glabrous peduncles ; 
they are borne on thin pubescent pedicels from the axils of minute caducous bractlets, and are light 
yellow and fragrant, with stamens a quarter of an inch in length. The calyx is obscurely five-lobed, 
pubescent on the outer surface, and half as long as the spatulate petals, which are slightly united at 
the base and ciUate on the margins. The ovary is long-stalked and clothed with long pale hairs. The 
legumes, which are fully grown early in the summer and fall in the autumn, are indehiscent, slightly 
falcate, compressed, stipitate, oblique at the base, rounded and short-pointed at the apex, two to four 
inches in length, an inch in breadth, with thick straight or irregularly contracted margins and thin 
papery walls conspicuously marked by narrow horizontal reticulated veins. The seeds, which are sus- 
pended transversely on long slender funicles, are narrowly obovate, compressed, and a quarter of an 
inch long j the testa is thin, cartilaginous, light brown, and marked on the two sides of the seed with 



a large oval depression. The embryo is compressed, with oval cotyledons and an included radicle. 

Acacia Wrightii is distributed from the neighborhood of New Braunfels in the valley of the 
Guadaloupe River in western Texas to the Sierra Madre in Nuevo Leon. It is most common and grows 
to the largest size south of the Rio Grande, where it abounds on dry gravelly mesas and foothills. 



The wood of Acacia Wrightii is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with the layers of annual 
growth marked by one or two rows of small open ducts, and contains many smaller scattered open ducts 
and obscure medullary rays. The color is a bright clear brown streaked with red and yellow, the thin 



124 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



sapwood composed of six or seven layers of annual growth being clear yellow. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9392, a cubic foot weighing 58.53 pounds. It furnishes excellent fuel, 
and is used in large quantities for that purpose in all the territory adjacent to the lower Rio Grande. 

Acacia Wrightii was discovered in the neighborhood of Matamoras by Jean Louis Berlandier in 
1830. Its specific name commemorates the late Charles Wright/ who, several years later, found it in 
western Texas. 

1 See i. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLIL Acacia Wkightii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower, 
3- A flower, enlarged. 

4. Portion of a stamen, enlarged. 

5- A pistil, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9- A portion of a legume, one of the valves rei 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab CXUl 













3 



9 




li 



5 





7 



11 






C.E^Fojwn del. 



Picarijr. sc 



kCKQAh WRIGHTII, BentK. 



A Biocreux. direj:^ 



Jmf). R.Tcuieur ^PariA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



125 



ACACIA GREGGII. 



Cat's Claw. Una de Gato 



Legumes narrow, often conspicuously contracted between the seeds ; seeds nearly 
orbicular. Leaves hoary pubescent. 



Acacia Greggii, Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 65 ; v< 53 
{PL Wright, i., ii-) ; Ives' Eep. 11. — Torrey, Sitgreaves' 
Rep, 158. — Torrey, Pacific R, R. Rep. vii. pt. iii. 10; 
Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 61. — Walpers, Ann. iv. 626. 



Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 521 (Rev. Mim.). 
Brewer & Watson^ Bot, Gal. i. 164. — Rothrock, Wheeler's 
Rep. 108. — Hemsley, BoL Biol. Am. Cent, i- 353. 



A low many-branched tree^ rarely thirty feet in height, with a trunk ten or twelve inches in 
diameter; or often a straggling shrub. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick and 
furrowed, the surface separating into thin narrow scales. The branches are armed with stout recurved 
infrastipular terete spines a quarter of an inch long, and broad and flat at the base. The branchlets 
are striately angled, puberulous, and pale brown faintly tinged with red. The leaves are alternate on 
the young branchlets and fascicled in the axils of earlier leaves, pubescent or puberulous, with two to six 
pinnse, one to three inches in length, persistent and petiolate, the short slender petioles being furnished 
near the middle with a minute oblong chestnut-brown gland ; the pinnse are eight to ten-foliolate, 
with oblique obovate hoary leaflets rounded or truncate at the apex, and unequally contracted at the 
base into short petiolules ; they are two or three-nerved, reticulate-veined, from a sixteenth to a quarter 
of an inch long, and rather thick and rigid. The stipules are linear, acute, a sixteenth of an inch long, 
and caducous. The flowers, which appear in succession from April to September, are produced in dense 
oblong pubescent spikes from the axils of minute caducous bractlets ; they are fragrant, bright creamy 
yellow, and with their stamens nearly a quarter of an inch long. The peduncles vary from one half to 
two thirds of an inch in length, and are fascicled usually two or three together in the axils of the leaves 
towards the ends of the branches. The calyx is obscurely five-lobed, puberulous on the outer surface, 
and half as long as the petals, which are only slightly united at the base and are bordered with a narrow 
margin of pale tomentum. The ovary is long-stalked and clothed with long pale hairs. The legumes, 
which are fully grown in midsummer, hang unopened on the branches until winter, and sometimes until 
the following spring ; they are narrow, compressed, straight or shghtly falcate, obhquely contracted at 
the base into a short stalk, and acute or rounded at the apex ; they are more or less contracted between 
the seeds, and when fully ripe are curled or often contorted j the valves are thin and membranaceous, 
thick-margined, light brown, and conspicuously transversely reticulate-veined. The seeds are nearly 
orbicular, compressed, and a quarter of an inch in diameter ; the testa is thin, crustaceous, dark brown 
and lustrous, and marked on the two sides of the seed with a small oval depression. The embryo is thin, 

with a short included radicle.^ 

Acacia Greggii is distributed from the valley of the Rio Grande in western Texas through southern 



TFi 



ally pubescent. The pods are narrower and more conspicuously 



it is not easy to distinguish the two trees. Bentham described the contracted between the seeds, and when fully ripe become twisted 
Texas plant as unarmed, and depended chiefly upon this character and contorted, a peculiarity I have never seen in the pods of Acacia 



to separate the two species. The branches of Acacia Wrigh 



find 



Wrightii. The seeds, however, offer the best means for distinguish- 
ing the species. In Acacia Wrightii they are narrowly obovate or 



short recurved spines which are similar on the two species. The ovate, and in Acacia Greggii are constantly orbicular or nearly so, 



cacia 



and much larger. 



Wright 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



New Mexico and Arizona to soutliern California, and extends southward into northern Mexico. It is a 

common tree in all this region, occupying dry gravelly mesas, the sides of low canons, and the banks of 

mountain streams. 

The wood of Acacia Gregr/li is heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, and durable. It contains 

several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and many thin medullary rays. 

It is rich brown or red, with thin light yellow sap wood composed of five or six layers of annual growth. 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8550, a cubic foot weighing 53.28 pounds. 

A resinous gum resembling gum arabic is produced in small quantities by this species.^ 
Acacia Greggii was discovered in Nuevo Leon by Jean Louis Berlandier in 1830, and in Texas 

by Charles Wright in 1851. It was named in honor of Dr. Josiah Gregg, author of The Commerce of 

the Prairies^ who made numerous early botanical explorations in Texas, New Mexico, and northern 
Mexico. 

1 Am, Jour. Pharm, lii. 409. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLIII. Acacia Greggu. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 



8, An embryo, enlarged. 



enlarged 



Silva of North A 



menca 



Tab, CXUII 










2 






3 



5 



8 



6 



7 







C. E.Faxon, del. 



PlCU27-t^r. JC 



ACACIA 



GREGGII, G 




y 



^. Rwcre^ia: direa: f' 



Imp K. Taneicr ^ Paru. 



LEGUMINOSJE. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



127 



LYSILOMA. 



Flowers perfect or polygamous, in globose heads 



or 



5-tootlied, the teeth valvate in aestivation 



ylindrical spikes 



ah 



petals 5, valvate in aestivation ; stamens 



indefinite, united at the base ; ovary many-ovuled. Legume tardily dehiscent by the 



paration of the valves from the persistent marg 



Leaves abruptly bipinnate 



oma, Bentham, Hooker 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen, i. 595. 



Hist 



Trees or shrubs, with slender unarmed branches. Leaves bipinnate, long-petiolate, the petiole often 



marked by a large conspicuous gland ; leaflets small, in 



many pairs, or 



sometimes large, in few pairs ; 
stipules large, membranaceous, persistent, or deciduous. Flowers perfect or rarely polygamous, numer- 
ous, minute, usually white or greenish white, produced from the axils of minute bractlets more or less 
dilated at the apex, and collected into globose heads or cylindrical spikes. Peduncles axillary^ solitary, 
or fascicled, or occasionally shortly racemose, and then developed from the axil of a deciduous bract, and 
furnished near the middle with a minute bractlet. Calyx campanulate, dentate. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
the petals united for more than half their length. Stamens indefinite, generally twelve to thirty, 
exserted ; filaments filiform, united at the base into a column free from the corolla ; anthers minute, 
ovate, attached on the back, versatile, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary free m the 
bottom of the calyx, sessile or shortly stipitate, many-ovuled, contracted into a slender subulate style ; 
stigma terminal, minute ; ovules suspended in two ranks from the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, 
anatropous, the micropyle superior. Legume linear or broad, straight or falcate, compressed, submem- 
branaceous, the valves at maturity separating from the undivided margins or rarely dehiscent on the 
inner margin, continuous within ; exocarp thin and papery, dark-colored ; endocarp rather thicker, pale 



yellow. 



Seed ovate, compressed, destitute of albumen, transverse, suspended by a long slender funicle, 



the hilura near the base ; testa thin, crustaceous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 



flat ; the radicle straight, slightly exserted. 

Ten species^ of Lysiloma, inhabitants of the W 



Indies, Mexico, Lower Californ 



Central 



America,^ and Bolivia,^ are disting 



Lysiloma latisiliquay a tree widely distributed through the 



Antilles, reaches the coast of southern Florida. Some of the species produce valuable timber, especially 



Lysiloma Sab 



5 



large tree of Cuba and the Bahama Islands 



The genus was established by Bentham to receive a number of plants previously referred to Acac 



Nat 



1 Bentham, Trans, Linn, Sac. xxx. 533 (Rev, Mint.). has sometimes caused sabicii to be mistaken for rosewood. It 

2 Brandegee, Proc, Cal. Acad, ^ev. 2/\\, 153 (PL Baja Cal),— seasons slowly wthout shrinking or splitting, and is very solid, 

although sometimes injured by cross fractures of the fibre in the 
interior of the logs. It is little affected by exposure to the weather, 
even when unprotected by paint or varnish. ISabicii was once 
largely employed in shipbuilding for beams, keelsons, stern-posts, 

vi. 236 ; Trans. pillars, and cleats ; and is now much used, especially in England, 

by cabinet-makers, and for the treads of stairs. In tlie Bahamas, 

inth). where Lysiloma Sabicu does not grow to so large a size as it does in 

Cuba, it is called Horseflesh Mahogany, and the wood is used in 



^ Hemsley, BoL BioL Am, Cent \, 356. 
^ Lysiloma polyphylla^ Bentham, /. c. 535, 



254 



Misc 



Linn, Soc. L c, 534. 



formosay Richard, Fl 



Leitccena formosa 



Sabicd orsavicii, as the wood of this tree is called in Cuba and in the islands in construction and for shipbuilding, and is exported to 
commerce is one of the most valuable of all tropical timbers. It is England in small quantities. (Treasury of Botany, ii. 704. 



Las- 



Keio Bull. i. No. 12, 4, t. 



hard, heavy, strong, and close-grained, with only a thin layer of lett, Timber and Timber-trees, 104. 

sapwood. The fibre, which is often twisted or curled, gives* a wavy Jackson, Commercial Botany of the 19th Century, lo4.) 

or figured appearance to the dark chestnut-colored surface, and 



128 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



from which they differ in their smaller number of stamens united at the base into a tube free from the 
corolla, and in theu- legumes which, like those of Entada and Mimosa, mostly open by the separation 
of the thin walls from the persistent thickened margins. 

The generic name, from )li;crt$ and /Iw^a, refers to the separation of the valves from the margins of 

the legume. 



LEGUMmos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



129 



LYSILOMA LATISILIQUA. 



Wild Tamarind. 



Leaves with 2 to 4 pairs of pinnae ; leaflets in 10 to 20 pairs, obliquely ovate 



oblong 



Lysiloma latisiliqua, Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. dolle, Frodr. ii. 467. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 318. — May- 

634 (Eev. Mim.) — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 619. — cock, Fl. Barb. 403. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 418. — NuttaU, 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 64. Sylva, ii. 34, t. 53. 

Mimosa latisiliqua, Linnaeus, Spec. 519. — Lamarck, Diet. L. Bahamensis, Bentham, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. iii. 



i. 11. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 265. 



82. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 506. 



Acacia latisiliqua, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1067. — De Can- Acacia Bahamensis, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 221. 



A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter and stout spreading 
branches which form a wide flat head. The bark of the trunk varies from a quarter to half of an inch 
in thickness ; it is dark brown, and separates into large plate-hke scales, or, on the trunks of young 
vigorous trees and on the branches, is smooth and light gray tinged with pink. The branchlets are 

glabrous or somewhat pilose, conspicuously verrucose, and, hke the leaf-stalks, bright red-brown when 
they first appear, becoming pale or light reddish brown in their second year. The leaves are four or 
five inches long, glabrous or sometimes slightly puberulous, and are borne on slender petioles an inch 
in length, marked near the middle with a conspicuous elevated gland. The stipules are foliaceous, half 
an inch long, ovate, acute, auricled and semicordate at the base, usually caducous but sometimes per- 
sistent until after the opening of the flowers. The pinnae are short-stalked and twenty to forty-foliolate, 
with petioles enlarged and sHghtly glandular at the base. The leaflets are obliquely ovate or oblong, 
obtuse or acute, more or less unequal at the base by the greater development of one of the sides, sessile 
or shortly petiolulate, entire, reticulate-veined, light green, and paler on the lower than on the upper 
surface. The peduncles are from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half long and are solitary 
or fascicled in the axils of the upper leaves, or are arranged in short terminal racemes ; their bracts 
and bractlets are acute, membranaceous, and caducous, the former a third of an inch and the latter 
about a twelfth of an inch in lenp^th. The flower-heads, which in Florida appear early in April, are 



cevered before the flowers open with thick pale tomentum, and after the exsertion of the stamens are 
two thirds of an inch in diameter. The calyx is broadly five-toothed, pilose on the outer surface espe- 
cially above the middle, a twelfth of an inch long or half as long as the petals, which are united for 
two thirds of their length and reflexed at the apex. There are about twenty stamens, which are at 
least twice as long as the petals and are united for a quarter of their length into a slender tube. The 
leo-umes ripen in the autumn and remain on the branches until after the flowering period of the 
foUowing year ; they are four or five inches long, an inch broad, acute at the apex, and borne on stems 
an inch or two in length two or three together from a common peduncle abruptly and conspicuously 
enlarged at the apex. The valves are thin and papery, bronzy green when fuUy grown, and ultimately 
dark red-brown ; they separate slowly from the margins, and probably not until after the pods have lain 
for some time on the ground, the exocarp first gradually breaking away from the endocarp. The seeds 
are half an inch long, oval or obovate, and compressed, with a thin lustrous dark brown coat. 

Lysiloma latisiliqua grows in Florida on Key Largo, EUiott's, Plantation, and Boca Chica Keys, 
although it is not common on any of these islands. It inhabits the Bahamas and many of the West 
India Islands and perhaps Venezuela.^ 

» Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 534 (Rev. Mim.) 



130 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



The wood of Lysiloma latisiliqua is heavy^ hard although not very strongs tough and close-grained. 
It has a smooth surface susceptible of receiving a fine polish, and contains many scattered small open 
ducts and numerous inconspicuous medullary rays. It is rich dark brown tinged with red, with nearly 
white sapwood an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and composed of four or five thick layers of 
annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6418, a cubic foot weighing 40.00 
pounds. It is occasionally used and much esteemed in Florida in boat and ship building. 

Lysiloma latisiliqua was discovered in the Antilles by Plumier, and was first described in Burmann's 
edition of his work on American plants.^ It was first found in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett ^ on the 
island of Key West, from which it has now entirely disappeared. 



compressisyjlore alboy 3, t. 6. ^ See i. 33. 



Jlore alboy foUorum 
filler, DicL ed. 7. N( 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLIV. LTSHiOMA latisiliqua. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged 

5. Portion of a stamen, enlarged. 

6- A pistil, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



size 



10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab CXLIV 




C.E Faxon del . 



1-/ 



LYSILOMA LATISILIQUA.Benth. 



.':/ Bh^crctw direa: 



Imp . R Tamur. Paris 



LEGUMmosiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



131 



PITHECOLOBIUM. 



Flowers perfect or rarely polygamous, in globose heads or in oblong or cylindrical 
spikes ; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5 or occasionally 6-tootlied, the teeth valvate in 
aestivation ; petals as many as the teeth of the calyx, valvate in aestivation ; stamens 
indefinite, united into a tube at the base ; ovary many-ovuled. Legume 2-valved, the 
valves after opening variously contorted, or rarely indehiscent or articulate. Leaves 
bipinnate, usually glandular. 



Pithecolobium, Martius, Cat. Hort Monac. 188; Herh. Cathormion 
FL BrasiL 114. — Meisner, Gen. pt. ii, 353. — Bentham 
& Hooker, Gen. i. 597. — BaiUon, Hist PL ii. 70. 



Trees or shrubs^ with slender branches unarmed or armed with spineseent stipules or axillary spines- 
Leaves alternate, petiolate, bipinnate ; pinnae many-foliolate with small leaflets, or few-f oliolate with 
ample leaflets, or rarely three, two, or one-jugate, or unifoliolate ; rachis generally marked by numerous 
glands between the pinnae, and between the leaflets; stipules minute or inconspicuous, sometimes 
persistent, rigid or spineseent ; leaflets usually penni-veined, occasionally many-nerved. Flowers perfect 
or sometimes polygamous, generally white, small or seldom large, produced from the axils of minute 
bractlets in pedunculate globose heads or in oblong cylindrical spikes. Peduncles from the axils of small 
deciduous bracts, solitary, fascicled or superposed, axillary or racemose or panicled at the end of the 
branches. Calyx campanulate or tubular, short-toothed. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, the petals 
united for more than half their length, hypogynous. Stamens many or indefinite, exserted, short or 
elongated, white or rose-color ; filaments filiform, united at the base into a tube free from the corolla 
and almost as long ; anthers minute, attached on the back, versatile, introrse, two-celled, the cells open- 
ing longitudinally. Ovary free in the bottom of the calyx, sessile or stipitate, many-ovuled, contracted 
into a slender filiform style ; stigma terminal, minute or capitate ; ovules suspended in two rows from 
the inner angle of the ovary, superposed, anatropous, the micropyle superior. Legume compressed, flat 
or occasionally subterete, before opening circinate, falcate or occasionally almost straight, coriaceous, solid 
or fleshy, rarely submembranaceous, two-valved, the valves, after opening, variously contorted, not elasti- 
cally revolute, usually red on the inner surface, or indehiscent or sometimes breaking into indehiscent 
joints. Seed often surrounded by thin pulp, ovate or orbicular, compressed, suspended transversely, 
destitute of albumen ; funicle filiform or variously expanded into a fleshy aril, the hilum near the base 
of the seed ; testa thin, cartilaginous, sometimes marked on the two surfaces of the seed with a faint oval 
or horseshoe-shaped depression or opaque ring. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 
flat, oval or orbicular, radicle straight, included or slightly exserted. 

Pithecolobium is widely spread through the tropical and subtropical regions of the two worlds, 
especially in the tropics of America,^ where more than half the species are found, and of Asia ; ^ it is 
represented in tropical Africa^ by a single species, and in Australia* by two or perhaps three species. 
About one hundred and twelve species are now recognized.^ Four extend to the southern borders of 



1 Bentham, Martins Fl. BrasiL xv. pt. ii. 428, — Grisebach, Fl. » Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. 363 

Brit. W. Ind. 226. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am, Cent i. 359. ^ Bentham, Fl. Austral ii. 423 



100. — Bentham, Fl. 



^ Bentham, Trans, Linn. Soc. xxx. 570 (Rev. Mim 



102. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Br 

ii. 302. — Oliver, Hooker Icon, 



Ind 



132 



8ILVA OF NORTH A3IEEICA. leguminos^. 



the United States ; one of these, Pithecolohium Guadalupense^ is a tall stout shrub of the Florida 
keys ; the others are small trees. 

Several species of Pithecolohium produce hard and valuable timber. The pods of Pithecolohium 
dulce^ a native o£ the tropical regions of southern Mexico^ contain a sweet pulp which is cooked and 
eaten. This tree was early introduced by the Spaniards into the Philippine Islands and then into 
India^ where it is now largely cultivated along the railroad lines^ and as a hedge plant. It is also grown 
in coppice for f uel^ and the fruity known in India as Manilla tamarinds^ is cooked and eaten ; and oil is 
pressed from the seeds.^ P. Baraan^ a native of America from Venezuela to Peru^ is now planted in 
most tropical countries as a shade tree^ for which purpose its handsome foHage and rapid growth make 
it valuable/ and its edible pods are used as fodder. The bark of the West Indian and Floridian 
jP. Ungids-cati is astringent and tonic. 

Pithecolohium differs from Inga in its bipinnate leaves. It differs in its pods from Calliandra and 
Albizzia^ which it resembles in its flowers, and from Acacia in the union of the stamens into a tube 
surrounding the ovary. 

The generic name, from nidri^ and eX^o^ioVy relates to the shape of the contorted fruit of some 
of the species. 



Fl 



Fl. 



Inga Guadalupensis, Desvaux, Jour. Bot, v. 70. — Nuttall, Sylva, ^ 

ii. 40, t. 55. sil I 
P. Unguis-caiiy Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc, L c. 572 in part. ^ 

2 Bentham, Lond. Jour. Bot, iii. 199 ; Trans. Linn. Soc. L c. 115- 
372. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. S. Ind. \. t. 188. 



Martius 



442 



Man. Indian Timbers, 145. — Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Is 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Pinnae one or unequally two-jugate ; legume curved or circinate, the valves contorted after 
dehiscence ; seed surrounded by the enlarged ariloid funicle. 

Pinnae one-jugate ; legume subtorulose, glabrous 1. P. UNGUls-CAxr. 

Pinnae one or many-jugate ; legume flat, straight, separating into membranaceous somewhat 
coriaceous valves more or less interrupted within. 

Pinnae three to five-jugate ; legume shortly stipitate, the valves submembranaceous, only 

imperfectly divided within 2. P. brevifolium 



Pinnae two or three-jugate ; legume sessile, the valves thick and woody, tardily dehis- 



cent 



? 



3. P. FLEXICAULE 



LEGUMINOS-iE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



133 



PITHECOLOBIUM UNGUIS-OATI. 



Gat's Claw. 



Flowers polygamous, in globose heads. Legumes subtorulose, the valves much 
contorted after opening. Branches armed with rigid persistent spinescent stipules. 



Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, Bentham, Hooker Loud. 
Jour. Bot. iii. 200; Trans, Linn. Soc. xxx. 572 (Rev. 



Willdenow 



De Can- 



Dietrich, Syn. V. 514. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. 
Chapman, FL 116. — Eggers, Bull U. S. 



dolle, JProdr. ii. 436. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 391. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 58. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 306. 
Nuttall, Sylva^ ii. 37, t. 54. 
Mimosa rosea, Vahl, Eclog. iil. 33, t. 25. 
Inga forfex, Kunth, Mim. 62, t. 16. 
Mimosa Unguis-cati, Linnaeus, Spec. 517. — Miller, Diet. Inga rosea, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 437. 

ed. 8, No. 13. — Aublet, PL Guian. ii. 944. — Lunan, P. forfex, Bentham, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot iii. 199. 



Mim.) 
Ind. 226. 

Nat. Mus 



N. 



10th Census U. S. ix. 64. 



Hort 
t.11. 



Descourtilz, Fl. Med. A 
Jacquin, Hort. Schoenh. iii. 74, t. 392. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 514. 
microphyllum, Bentham, Hooker 



Inga microph.ylla, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1004. — Maycock, 
FL Barb. 400. 



200. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 514. 



A glabrous tree^ sometimes twenty or twenty-five feet in height^ with a slender trunk seven or 

or more often a shrub with many vine-like 



eight inches in diameter and a low flat irregular head j 



almost prostrate stems. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick^ reddish brown, and 
divided by shallow fissures into small square plates. 



The branchlets are slender, somewhat zigzag, at 



first slightly striately angled, light gray-brown or sometimes dark reddish brown, covered with minute 
pale lenticels and armed with straight persistent rigid stipular spines broad at the base and a quarter of 
an inch in length, or rarely minute. The leaves are persistent and long-petiolate, with a single pair 
of bifoliolate pinnse. 



The petioles are slender, faintly grooved on the upper side, from half an inch 



to an 



furnished at the apex 

ses. The secon 



with solitary conspicuous orbicular glands and tipped with the 
minute spinescent rachises. The secondary petioles, which vary from a quarter to half of an inch in 
length and are slightly and abruptly enlarged at the base, are furnished with glands between the short 
stout petiolules of the leaflets ; these are obtuse, orbicular or broadly oblong, very oblique, and obtuse or 
rarely emarginate at the apex j they are entire, membranaceous, or somewhat coriaceous, reticulate-veined, 
bright green and lustrous on the upper, and paler on the lower surface, and vary from half an inch to 
two inches in length and from half an inch to an inch and a half in breadth. The flowers, which in 



F 

Florida first open in March and 



to app 



midsummer, are produced in globular head 



borne on slender peduncles an inch or an inch and a half long fascicled in the axils of the leaves or ( 
lected in ample panicles at the ends of the branches ; their bracts are lanceolate, acuminate, chartaceo 



quarter of an inch in length, and early decid 



The flowers are pale yellow, glabrous or slight! 



puberulous, and with their fully grown purple stamens are half an inch long. The calyx is rathe 



than a twelfth of an inch long, broadly toothed, and a quarter of the length of 



acuminate petals 



which barely exceed the tube formed by the union of the filaments. The ovary is glabrous, long-stalked, 
and in the sterile flower minute or rudimentary. The legumes are compressed, slightly torulose, stipitate, 
rounded or acute at the apex, two to four inches long and from a quarter to half an inch broad ; the 
valves are reticulate-veined, thickened on the margins, bright reddish brown, and after opening greatly 
and variously contorted. The seeds are irregularly obovate or sometimes nearly triangular, compressed 
or thickened, and a third of an inch long, the lower portion being surrounded by the enlarged bright 



134 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^. 



red ariloid fimicles ; the testa is thin, dark chestnut-brown^ lustrous, and marked on the two sides of 



the seed with a faint oval ring. 

Pithecolobmm Unguis-cati is found in Florida on the shores of Caximhas Bay and on many of 
the southern keys, where it is generally distributed in the original forests and in the shrubby thickets 
which are replacing them on many of the islands ; in its arborescent form it is now most abundant on 
the larger of the eastern keys, and probably attains its greatest size in Florida on Elhott's Key. It is 
widely and generally distributed through the Antilles and extends to Venezuela and New Granada. 

The wood of Pithecolobmm Uiiguls-cati is very hard, heavy, and close-grained^ and contains 
numerous inconspicuous medullary rays. It has a rich red color varying to purple, vdth thin clear 
yellow sapwood- The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9049, a cubic foot weighing 
56.39 pounds. 

The bark of Pithecolohmm Ungids-cati is astringent and diuretic, and in Jamaica was at one 
time considered a sovereign cure for many diseases.^ 

The first description of Pithecolohium Ungids-cati appeared in the Paradisi Batavi Prodro- 

^ it was introduced 



mus^ of Paul Hermann, published in Amsterdam in 1689 
into English gardens in 1690. 



ording to Aiton 



^ The bark of the Nephritic-tree, as Pithecolohium Unguis-cati cornuum in modum incurvata ; sive Unguis-cati, Breyn, Prodr, ed 
was once called in Jamaica, was, in the last century, according to 1739, 38. 



Barham, then in such general use that it was hard to find a tree 

that had not been stripped. It was employed in the treatment of a 

stone, gravel, and other urinary complaints, and of diseases of the siliquis parum intortl^, Plukenet, Phyt, t. 1, f . 6, 



Acacice quodammodo accedens, s, Ceratice Sf* Acacice media Jamai- 
^sis spinosa bigeminatis foliis, Jlosculis stamineis, atronitente fructUy 



liver and spleen. (Barham, HorL Amer. 111.) 

2 Ungais-cati arbor Americana siliquosa spinosa, 385. 

Acacice similis spinosa, ceratonioe foUis geminatis , Jloribus alhislanu- 
ginosis, siliqua compressa corniculata, seminibus nigerrimis splendenti- FL Leyd. Prodr, 470, 



Acacia arborea major spinosa, pinni^ quatuor, majoribus, suhrotun- 
dis, siliquis varie intortis, Sloane, Cat, PL Jam. 152 ; Fl, Jam, ii. 56. 



Mimosa foliis bigeminatis, Linnaeus, HorL Cliff, 207. 



Royen, 



bus, Kiggelaer, Cat. HorL Beaum, 3. 



Acacia quadri/olia, siliquis circinatisy Plumier, Cat, 17; PL Am. 



Acacice quodammodo accedens, Myrobalano chebulo Veslingii similis ed. Burmann, 2, t. 4. 



arhor Americana spinosa, foliis Ceratonioe in pediculo geminatis, sili* 



The Moabite ; alias the Mangrove-Beard-Tree, Griffith Hughes, 



qua bivalvi^ compressa, comiculata, sen cochlearum^ vel arietinorum The Natural History of the Barbados, 193. 

* Aiton, HorL Kew. iii. 439. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLV. Pithecolobium Unguis-cati. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3- A flower-head with all but one flower removed, enlarged 
4. A staminate flower, the corolla laid open, enlarged. 
6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

7. Front and rear views of an anther, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
iO. A seed with its aril, enlarged. 
11. A seed, enlarged. 



13. An embryo, enlarged. 



enlarged 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CXLV 




C. E .Faxon- deL 



Picarijr sc 



PITHECOLOBIUM UNGUIS -CATI , Bentli 



A Rwcreux direcc 



i> 



Jmp.R. TaTheur, Paris 



LEGUMiNos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



135 



PITHECOLOBIUM BREVIFOLIUM. 



Huajillo. 



Flowers perfect, in globose heads. Legume flat, straight, the valves not contorted 
after opening. Branches armed with rigid spinescent stipules. 



Pithecolobiuna brevifolium 



ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 359. — C. G. Pringle, Garden 



Contrib. iii. 67 {PL Wright, i.) ; Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. and Forest, ii. 393. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii 

Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 101 (Man 



692 (Rev. Mim.). — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Sicrv. 400. — Coulter, 

62. — Havard, Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 500. — Hems- PL W. Texas). 



A tree, twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a trunk rarely five or six inches in diameter and 
slender upright-growing branches which form a narrow irregular head ; or more often a shrub sometimes 
only two or three feet in height. The bark of the trunk is smooth, light gray somewhat tinged with red, 
and often marked with hirge pale blotches. The branches are armed with stout rigid stipular spines 
sometimes half an inch long and persistent for many years ; the branchlets are slightly striately angled 
and covered with minute white lenticels ; when they first appear they are light gray and puberulous, and 
in their second year dark brown. The leaves are persistent or tardily deciduous, long-petiolate, two or 
three inches in length, two inches in breadth, and with eight to twelve pinnae ; when they unfold they 
are coated with pale tomentum, but at maturity are glabrous with the exception of a faint pubescence 
covering the petioles and rachises. The petioles are slender, terete, an inch long, and furnished near 
the middle with a dark oblong gland. The leaflets are in ten to twenty pairs and are oblong, Hnear, 
obtuse or acute at the apex, oblique at the base by the greater development of one of the sides, very 
short-petiolulate, from a sixth to a quarter of an inch in length, light green on the upper, and paler on 
the lower surface. The flowers are collected in globose or oblong heads half an inch in diameter and 
borne on thin pubescent peduncles which, when they first appear, are coated like the flower-buds with 
thick white tomentum ; they are bracteolate at the apex, and are developed from the axils of lanceo- 
late acute scarious deciduous bracts, and arranged in short racemes on the ends of the branches. 
The flowers are white or pale yellow, and when the stamens are fully grown are nearly half an inch 
long. The calyx is shortly five-lobed, puberulous on the outer surface, and about a twenty-fourth of 
an inch long or one quarter the length of the petals, which are puberulous on both surfaces, and, with 
the stamens, are persistent at the base of the fully grown fruit. The legumes, which ripen in mid- 
summer and often remain on the branches after opening until the trees flower the following year, are 



straight, compressed, slightly torulose, short-stalked, contracted at the 



slender point 



four to six inches long and two thirds of an inch broad. Their valves are somewhat membranaceous, 
thick-margined, reddish brown on the outer, and yellow tinged with red on the inner surface, and 
reticulate- veined. The seeds are suspended transversely by slender coiled and somewhat dilated funi- 
cles, and are compressed, ovate, or nearly orbicular and a quarter of an inch long ; the testa is thin^ 
dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, and faintly marked on the two sides of the seed with large oval 

depressions. 

Pithecolohium hrevifoimm is scattered in Texas along the bluffs and on the bottom-lands of the 

lower Rio Grande occurrino- only at a few places between Rio Grande City and the mouth of the river. 



In Texas it is usually a low shrub spreading into broad clumps, but occasionally, in the rich and com- 
paratively moist soil of the river lagoons, a slender straggling tree. In Mexico, from the mouth of the 
Rio Grande to the Sierra Madre, it is much more common. Here it grows to its largest size and, with 



136 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^. 



the Acacia, the Parkinsonia, and the Cercidium, forms a characteristic feature of the arborescent vege- 



tation. 



The foKage is eaten by sheep and goats in winter.* 

Pithecolohium hremfolium was discovered by Jean Louis Berlandier near the mouth of the Rio 
Grande in 1830.2 



1 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mm. viii. 500. and sound enough to detennine satisfactorily its specific gravity 

2 The wood of Pithecolohium brevifolium is dark-colored, heavy^ and fuel value. 
and rather hard, but I have not been able to obtain a piece large 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLVL Pithecolobium brevifolium. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
4- A pistil, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 



• 

Silva of North America. 



Tab. CXLVI. 




O.ll^FaxoTvdel. 



Picart>Jr. SC 



PITHECOLOBIUM BREVIFOLIUM , Benth 



j4 , Riocreuxr^ dzreco^ 



Imp. a Taneur, Paris. 



LEGUMmosiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



137 



PITHECOLOBIUM FLEXICAULE. 



Ebony. 



Flowers perfect, in axillary spikes. Legume thick and woody, interrupted within 
Branches armed with rigid spinescent stipules. 



Pithecolobium flexicaule, Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Rep i. 913. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 497. — Gray, Smith- 



Herh. ii. 101 (Man. PL W. 



Wriaht. \.\ \ Proc. Am. Acad 



Pithecolobmm Texense, Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. v. 158. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 62. — Hems- 

Herb. No. 2, 37 ; Bot. Gazette, xv. 269. ley, Bot. Biol. Am.. Cent. i. 353. — C. G. Pringle, Garden 

Acacia flexicaulis, Bentham, Lond. Jour. Bot. i. 505; and Forest, ii. 394. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 

Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 514 {Bev. Jfim.). — Walpers, 400, f. 123. — Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. yiii. 4:99. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk two or three feet in diameter, sepa- 
rating, eight or ten feet from the ground, into short spreading branches which form a wide round head. 
The branches are stout, zigzag, covered with pale lenticels and armed with persistent stipular pale 
chestnut-brown spines from a quarter to half an inch in length ; when they first appear they are 
puberulous and are sometimes light green and sometimes dark reddish brown j in their second year they 
are glabrous or rarely puberulous, and usually dark reddish brown or often light gray. The leaves are 
persistent, long-petiolate with slender puberulous petioles and rachises, with four to six pinnse, an inch 
and a half to two inches long and two and a half to three inches broad. The petioles are glandular 
near the middle, and furnished at the apex with small orbicular soKtary glands ; the pinnse are six to 
twelve, usually six-f oholate, the lower pair often the shortest ; the leaflets are ovate-oblong, rounded at 
the apex, reticulate-veined, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, glabrous, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface and paler on the lower, from a quarter to a third of an inch in length, and borne on 
short broad petiolules. The flowers, which appear from June until August, are produced in cylindrical 
dense or interrupted spikes an inch and a half long on stout pubescent peduncles fascicled in the axils 



of the upper leaves of 



they are sessile in the axils of minute caducous bracts, light 



yellow or cream color and deliciously fragrant, and with the exserted 



ghth of an inch 



in length. The coroUa is four or five times as long as the calyx, like this puberulous on the outer 
surface, and about as long as the tube formed by the union of the filaments. The ovary is glabrous 
and sessile. The legumes, which ripen in the autumn and remain on the branches until after the 
flowerino- season of the foUowing year, are tardily dehiscent ; they are flattened, turgid, straight or 
sUghtly falcate, sessile, obhque at the base, rounded and contracted into a short broad point at the 
apex, four to six inches long and an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, with thick woody valves lined 
with a thick pithy substance inclosing and separating the seeds. These are suspended transversely on 
very short straight funicles, and are half an inch in length, a quarter of an inch in breadth, irregularly 
obovate and usually more or less flattened on one side ; the testa is thick, crustaceous, bright reddish 
brown, and faintly marked on the two sides of the seed with a short oblong depression. 

PithecoJohiumjlexicaule is distributed from the shores of Matagorda Bay in Texas to the Sierra 
Madre in Nuevo Leon and has been found at La Paz in Lower California.^ It is common on the bluffs 
of the Gulf coast in Texas and on those of both banks of the lower Rio Grande, and south of the river 
is one of the commonest and most beautiful trees of the region. 

The wood of Pithecolobium iiexicaule is exceedingly heavy, hard, compact, and close-grained, with 



1 Vasey & Rose, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 3, 69. 



138 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminosje. 



a satiny surface, the layers of annual growth being hardly distinguishable. It is very dark rich reddish 
brown slightly tinged with purple, with thin clear bright yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely di*y wood is 1.0386, a cubic foot weighing 64.72 pounds.^ It is highly prized by cabinet- 
makers, and for fuel is considered more valuable than the wood of any other tree of the Rio Grande 
valley. It is almost indestructible in contact with the ground, and is therefore largely used for fence- 
posts. 

The seeds are palatable and nutritious if boiled when green, and are roasted when ripe by the 
Mexicans, who use their thick coat as a substitute for coffee.^ 

Pithecolohiunn flexicaule was cUscovered by Jean Louis Berlandier in the neighborhood of Mata- 
moras in 1830. With the exception, perhaps, of Leuccena pulverulenta and of Acacia Farnesiana, 
it is the most beautiful of the Mimosa-like trees which grow naturally within the territory of the United 
States. It is compact in habit ; its foliage is luxuriant, dark, and lustrous ; the flowers, which are 
produced during a long period of every year, are abundant, beautiful, and fragrant, and the fruit is 
large and of striking appearance. Pithecolohium flexicaule might well be introduced into the gardens 
of many temperate countries, and although it grows slowly and does not attain a great size, it may 
prove worthy of the attention of planters as a timber-tree. 



1 Garden and Forest, iii. 344. 



3 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 499. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLVII. Pithecolobium flexicaule. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

2". A flower, the calyx and corolla removed, enlarged. 

3. A pistil, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



6. An embryo, natural size. 



legu 



7. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 



Silva of North AmenccL, 



Tab. CXLVIL 




C E.Faxon del. 



Ptcartjr sc. 



PITHECOLOBIUM FLEXICAULE, Coult 



A.Riocreiuc direx. 



Imp. R . Taneur, Paris. 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



SMALL CAPITALS ; of admitted Genera and S 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Acacia, 39, 115. 

Acacia CEsculenia, 113. 

Acacia Arabica, 116. 

Acacia Bahamensis, 129. 

Acacia bicepSj 111. 

Acacia Catechu, 116- 

Acacia Cumanensis, 101. 

Acacia diptera^ 101, 

Acacia eduliSy 119. 

Acacia Farnesiana, 119. 

Acacia Farnesiana^ var. pedunculata^ 119. 



Asagrcea^ 33. 

Asagrcea spinosa, 35. 
Australian Black-wood, 116. 



Bean, Coral, 63- 
Bean, Horse, 89. 
Bean, Screw, 107. 
Black Locust, 77. 
Black-wood, Australian, 116. 
Blepharida rhois, 10. 
Botryosphseria Gleditschise, 74 



Acacia Farnesiana, var. semper virens, 121. Broussonetia, 59. 



Acacia flexicaulis, 137, 
Acacia Jlexuosa^ 101. 
Acacia formosa 9 127. 
Acacia frondosay 111. 
Acacia fur caia^ 101. 
Acacia glandulosay 109. 
Acacia glauca. 111. 
Acacia, Green-barked, 83, 85. 
Acacia Greggii, 125. 
Acacia horrida, 116. 
Acacia julijiora, 101. 
Acacia Imvigata^ 101. 
Acacia latisiliqua^ 129. 
Acacia lenticellataj 119- 
Acacia ? leptophyllay 119. 
Acacia leucocephala^ 111. 
Acacia Melanoxylon, 116. 
Acacia pallida, 101. 
Acacia, Parasol, 41. 
Acacia pedunculata, 119- 
Acacia polyphylla, 127. 
Acacia pulverulenta^ 113. 
Acacia pycnantha, 116. 
Acacia? salinarurrif 101. 
Acacia Senegal, 116. 
Acacia Seyal, 116. 
Acacia Siliquastrumy 101. 
Acacia stenocarpa, 116. 
Acacia Suma, 116. 
Acacia, Three-thorned, 75. 
Acacia Wrightii, 123. 
-Algeria prosopis, 100. 
Agastianisy 59. 
A gastianis secundijloray 63. 
Aglaospora profusa, 38. 

Aldina, 115. 
Algarohia, 99. 
Algarobia duldsy 101. 
Algarohia glandidosa, 101. 

Anacardiace^, 1. 

Arbol de Hierro, 49. 
ArthroHprioriy 115- 

Asacara, 73. 
Asacara aquatica, 79. 



Broussonetia secundijlora, 63, 
Bruchus desertorum, 100. 
Bruchus prosopis, 100. 
Buckley, Samuel Botsford, 3. 
Buckleya, 4. 
Bum Wood, 14. 



Cassie, 119. 

Cassie, culture of, 120. 

Catechu, 116. 

Cathormiouy 131. 

Cat's Claw, 123, 125, 133. 

Cecidomyia gleditschiae, 74. 

Cercidium, 81. 

Cercidium floridum, 83. 

Cercidium floridum, 85- 

Cercidium Texanum, 81. 

Cercidium Torreyanum, 85- 

Cercis, 93, 

Cercis Canadensis, 95. 

Cercis Canadensis, var. pubescens, 95. 

Cercis Chinensis, 93. 

Cercis Griffithii, 93. 

Cercis occidental is, 94 

Cercis occidentalism 97. 

Cercis occidentalism var., 97. 

Cercis occidentalism var, Texensis, 97. 

Cercis racemosa, 93. 

Cercis reniformis, 97. 

Cercis Siliquastrum, 93. 

Cercis Siliquastrum, var., 94. 

Cercis Texensis, 97. 

Chicot, 70. 
Chinese galls, 9. 
Chithonanthus , 115. 

Chittam Wood, 3. 
Chrysobothris octocola, 100. 

Cladrastis, 55. 
Cladrastis lutea, 57. 
Cladrastis tinctoria, 57. 
Clammy Locust, 45. 
Coffee-tree, Kentucky, 69. 
Coral Bean, 63. 
Coral Sumach, 14. 



Cossus robinipe, 38, 
Cotinus, 1. 

Cotinus Americanus, 3. 
Cotinus Coggygria, 2, 3, 
Cotinus Cotinus, -. 
Coulter, Thomas, 84. 
Cutch, 116. 
Cylipogon, 33. 

Cyllene antennatus, 100. 
Cyllene robiniae, 38. 



Dale, Samuel, 34. 
Dalea, 33. 

Dalea arborescens, 33. 
Dalea spinosa, 35. 

Depressaria robiniella, 38. 
Dermatophyllum, 59. 

Dermatophyllum speciosum, 63. 

Desmanthus salinarum, 101- 
Doctor Gum, 14. 
Dogwood, Jamaica, 53- 
Dogwood, Poison, 23. 



Ebony, 137. 

Eburia quadrigeminata, 74. 

Edxoardsia, 59. 

Edwardsia chrysophylla, 60, 

Elder, Poison, 24. 

Erythrina Piscipula, 53, 

Eudamus tityrus, 38. 

Eysenhardt, Karl Wilhelm, 30. 

Eysenhardtia, 29, 

Eysenhardtia adenostylis, 29. 

Eysenhardtia amorpkoides, 29, 31. 

Eysenhardtia amorphoides, var. orthocarpa, 31 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, 31. 

Eysenhardtia polystachya, 29, 



Farnese, Odoardo, 121. 
Farnesia, 115. 
Farneda odora, 119- 
Frijolito, 63. 



Galls, Chinese, 9. 
Gelechia cercerisella, 94. 
Gleditsch, Johann Gottlieb, 74. 

Gleditsia, 73. 
Gleditsia Africana, 73. 
Gleditsia aquatica, 79. 
Gleditsia brachycarpa, 76. 
Gleditsia Bujotii, 77. 
Gleditsia Carolinensis, 79. 
Gleditsia Caspica, 73. 
Gleditsia elegans, 75. 
Gleditsia ferox, 75. 

Gleditsia heterophylla, 75- 



140 



INDEX. 



Gleditsia inermis, 75, 79. 

Gleditsia Japonica, 73. 

Gleditsia Japonica, economic uses of, 74. 

Gleditsia Meliloba, 75. 

Gleditsia monosperma, 79. 

Gleditsia spinosa, 75. 

Gleditsia triacantha, 79. 
Gleditsia triacanthos, 75. 
Gleditsia triacanthos, i3., 79. 
Gleditsia triacanthos, p, aquatica, 79. 



Locust, 39, 43. 
Locust, Black, 77. 
Locust, Clammy, 45. 
Locust, Honey, 75, 101. 
Locust, Sweet, 77. 
Locust, Water, 79. 

Locust, Yellow, 39. 
Loxotsenia rosaceana, 10. 
Lysiloma, 1-7, 
Lysiloma Bahamensis, 129. 



Gleditsia triacanthos, economic uses of, 74. Lysiloma latisiliqua, 129. 
Gleditsia triacanthos, var. hr achy car pos, 76. Lysiloma polyphylla, 127. 

Lysiloma Sabicu, 127. 



Gleditsia triacanthos, var. inermis, 75, 

Gcebelia, 59. 

Gopher Wood, 57. 

Green-barked Acacia, 83, 85. 

Gregg, Dr. Josiah, 126. 

Guilandina, 67. 

Guilandina dioica, 69. 
Gum, Doctor, 14. 

Gum, Hog, 13, 14. 

Gum-tree, Hog, 14. 

Gymnocladus, 67. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis, 69. 

Gymnocladus Chinensis, 67. 

Gymnocladus dioicus, 69. 



Maackia, 56. 

Mahogany, 27. 

Mahogany, Horseflesh, 127. 

Manchineel, Mountain, 14. 

Mastic, Young, 2. 

Melanococca, 7. 

MelilohuSy 73. 

Melilobus heterophylla, 75. 

Mesquite, 101. 

Mesquite, Screw-pod, 107. 

Metopium, 11, 14. 

Metopium, 7. 



Gymnocladus dioicus, economic uses of, 67. Metopium Linncei, 13. 



Hemileuca yavapai, 100. 
Hog Gum, 13, 14. 
Hog Gum-tree, 14. 
Honey Locust, 75, 101. 
Honey Shucks, 77. 
Horse Bean, 89. 
Horseflesh Mahogany^ 127. 
Huajillo, 135. 
Huisache, 119. 
Hyperanthera, 67. 
Hyperanthera dioica, 69- 



Icthyomethia, 51. 
Icthyomethia Piscipula, 53. 
Inga forfeXy 133. 
Inga Guadalupensisy 132. 
Inga microphyllay 133. 
Inga roseOy 133. 
Inga Unguis-catiy 133. 
Iron Wood, 49. 
Ivy, Poison, 9. 



Metopium Linncei, var. Oxymetopiunif 13. 

Microsphseria Ravenelii, 74. 

Mimosa, 113. 

Mimosa biceps, 111. 

Mimosa Cumana, 101. 

Mimosa Farnesiana, 119. 

Mimosa frondosa, 111. 

Mimosa fur cata, 101. 
Mimosa glandulosa, 109. 

mimosa glauca. 111. 
Mimosa julijiora, 101. 
Mimosa Icevigata, 101. 
Mimosa latisiliqua, IHO. 
Mimosa leucocephala , 111. 
Mimosa pallida, 101. 
Mimosa pedunculata , 119. 
Mimosa rosea, 133. 
Mimosa salinarum, 101. 
Mimosa scorpioides, 119. 
Mimosa Unguis-cati, 133. 
Monnieria, 46. 
Moronobea coccinea, 14. 
Mountain Manchineel, 14» 



Jamaica Dogwood, 53. 
Judas-tree, 95. 



Kentucky Coffee-tiree, 69. 
Keyserlingia, 59. 



Nematus similaris, 38. 
Nephritic-tree, 134. 



Lacquer, manufacture of, 8. 
Lacquer-tree, cultivation of, 8. 

Lakh, 116. 

Leavenworth, Mellins C, 66. 

Leavenworthia, QQ, 

LeguminoSwE, 29. 

Lemonnier, Louis Gnillaume, 46. 

Leptostroma hypophyllum, 74. 

Leucsena, 109. 

Leuccena formosa, 127. 

Leuccena Fosteri, 109. 

Leucfena glandulosa, 109. 

Leucpena glauca, 111. 

Leucjena Greggii, stipules of, 109. 

Leucsena macrophylla, stipules of, 109. 

Leucsena pulverulenta, 113. 

Leucsena retusa, 109. 

Lobadium, 7. 



Odontota dorsalis, 38, 
Olney, Stephen Thayer, 47. 
Olneya, 47. 
Olneya Tesota, 49. 
Oreilles des Indes, 9- 



Palo Verde, 85. 
Parasol Acacia, 41. 
Parkinson, John, 16. 
Parkinsonia, 17, 87. 
Parkinsonia aculeata, 89. 



Parosella^ 33. 

Patrinia, 69. 

Pempelia gleditschiella, 74. 
Pemphigus rhois, 10. 
Pileolaria effusa, 10. 
Piscidia, 51. 

Piscidia CarthagenensiSj 53. 
Piscidia Erythrina, 53. 
Piscidia Piscipula, 53. 
Piscidin, 51. 
Pithecolobium, 131. 
Pithccolobium brevifolium, 135. 
Pithecolobium dulce, 132. 
Pithecolobium flexicaule, 137. 
Pithecolobium for/ex, 133. 
Pithecolobium Guadalupense, 132. 
Pithecolobium microphyllum, 133. 
Pithecolobium Saman, 132. 
Pithecolobium Texense, 137. 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, 133. 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, 132. 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, economic uses of, 
132. 

Pocophorum, 7. 
Poison Dogwood, 23. 
Poison Elder, 24. 
Poison Ivy, 9, 10. 
Poison Sumach, 23. 
Poison-tree, 24. 
Poison Wood, 13, 14. 
Prosopis, 99. 
Prosopis affinis, 101. 
Prosopis bracteolata, 101. 
Prosopis ciuerascens, 99. 
Prosopis Cumanensis, 101. 
Prosopns Domingensis^ 101. 
Prosopis dulcisy 101. 
Prosopis Emoryi, 107. 
Prosopis Jlexuosa, 101. 
Prosopis fruticosa, 101. 
Prosopis glandulosa, 101. 
Prosopis horrida, 101. 
Prosopis inermis, 101. 
Prosopis juliflora, 101. 
Prosopis oblonga, 99. 
Prosopis odorata, 101, 107. 
Prosopis pallida, 101. 
Prosopis pubescens, 107. 
Prosopis Siliquastrum, 101. 
Prosopis spicigera. 99, 100. 
Prosopis Stephaniana, 99. 
Pseudacacia, 38. 

Pseudacada odorata, 39. 
Psylla rhois, 10. 



Redbud, 95, 97. 
Retama, 89. 
Rhetifiophloeum, 81, 
Rhus, 7. 
Rhus, 1. 

Rhus aromatica, 10. 

Rhus Canadensis, 10. 

Rhus copallina, 19. 

Rhus copallina, var. angustialata, 21. 

Rhus copallina, var. angustifolia, 21. 



Parkinsonia aculeata, native country of, Rhus copallina, var. integrifolia, 21. 

Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata, 20. 



87. 
Parkinsonia Africana, 87. 
Parkinsonia Jiorida, 83. 
Parkinsonia microphylla, 91. 
Parkinsonia microphylla, economic uses of, Rhus copallina, var. serrata, 21. 



Rhus copallina, var. latialata, 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. latifolia, 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. leucantha, 21. 



88. 
Parkinsonia Texana, 81. 
Parkinsonia, Torreyana, 83, 85. 



Rhus Coriaria, 9. 
Rhus cotinoides, 3. 
Rhus Cotinus, 2, 3. 



INDEX. 



141 



Rhus glabra, 9, 16. 

Rhus integrifolia, 27. 

Rhxis integrifolia^ 10. 

Rhus integrifolia, var. serrata^ 27. 

Rhus leucantha, 21. 

Rhus lucida, 10. 

Rhus Metopium, 13. 

Rhus obovata, 10. 

Rhus Oxymetopium, 13. 

Rhus semialata, 9, 10. 

Rhus succedaiiea, 8. 

Rhiis-tallow, 9. 

Rhus Toxicodendron, 9, 10. 



Robinia Utterharti, 41. 
Robinia viscosa, 45. 



Sumach, Venetian, 2. 
Sweet Locust, 77. 



Sabicii, 127. 
Savicu, 127. 

Schmalzia, 7. 
Sciapteron robinise, 38. 
Screw Bean, 107. 
Screw-pod Mesquite, 107. 
Siliquastrum, 93, 04. 
Siliquastrum cordatum, 95. 
Smoke-tree, 2. 
Sophora, 59. 



Rhus Toxicodendron, poisonous properties Sophora affiuis, 65. 



of, 10. 
Rhus typhina, 15. 
Rhus typhina, var. arborescens, 15. 
Rhus typhina, var. frutescens, 15- 
Rhus venenata, 23. 
Rhus vera icif era, 8. 
Rhus Vernix, 23. 
Rhus Vernix, 8. 
Robin, Jean, 38. 
Robin, Vespasien, 38. 
Robinia, 37. 
Robinia bella-rosea, 46. 
Robinia dubia, 46. 
Robinia fastigiata^ 42. 
Robinia fragil is, 39. 
Robinia glutinosa, 45. 
Robinia hispida, 37. 
Robinia inennis, 41. 
Robinia Neo-Mexicana, 43. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, 39. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var, crispa, 42. 



Sophora chrysophylla, 60. 
Sophora Europsea, 60. 
Sophora glauca, 60. 
Sophora heptaphylla, 60. 
Sophora Japonica, 60. 
Sophora secundiflora, 63. 



Tallow, Rhus, 9. 
Tamarind, Wild, 129. 
Tamarinds, Manilla, 132. 
Taphrina purpurascens, 10. 
Tesota, 49, 
Tetracheilos, 115. 
Three-thorned Acacia, 75. 
Thurber, George, 36. 
Thurberia, 36. 
Tornillo, 108. 
Toxicodendron, 11. 
Toxicodendron pinnatum, 23. 
Tree, Lacquer, 8. 
Trichopodium, 33. 
Turpinia, 7. 



Una de Gato, 125. 



Sophora secundiflora, economic uses of, 60. Uromyces brevipes, 10. 

Sophora Sinica, 60. 



Sophora speciosa, 63. 
Sophora tetraptera, 60. 
Sophora tomentosa, 60. 
Sophora velutina, 60. 
Sophoria, 60. 
Sphseronema Robinife, 38. 
Sphseropsis Gleditschise, 74. 
Sphseropsis mamillaris, 74. 
Sporocybe Robinise, 38. 
Staghorn Sumach, 15. 
Strombocarpa cinerascens, 99. 
Strombocarpa odorata, 107. 
Strombocarpa pubescens, 107. 



Robinia Pseudacacia, var. Decaisneana, 42. Styphnolobium, 59. 



Vachellia, 115. 

Vachellia Farnesiana, 119. 

Valsa ceratophora, 38. 

Valsaria Robinise, 38. 

Varennea, 29. 

Varennea polystachya, 29. 

Vegetable wax, 8. 

Venetian Sumach, 2. 

Vernix, 7. 

Viborquia, 29. 

Viborquia polystachya^ 29. 

Virgilia, 57. 
Virgilia lutea, 57. 
Virgilia secundiflora, 63. 



Styphnolobium ajjine, 05. 
Styphnolobium Japonicum, 60. 
Styphonia, 11. 



Robinia Pseudacacia, var. dissecta, 42. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. inermis, 41. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. latisiliqua, 42. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. macropliylla, 42. Styphonia, 7. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. microphylla, 42. Styphonia integrifolia, 10, 27. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. monophylla, 42. Styphonia serrata, 27. 



Water Locust, 79- 
Wax-tree, cultivation of, 9 
Wax, vegetable, 8. 
Wild Tamarind, 129. 



Robinia; Pseudacacia, var. pendula, 42. 



Sumac, 11. 



Xylodalea, 33. 



Robinia Pseudacacia, var. pyramidalis, 42. Sumach, 19. 



Robinia Pseudacacia, var. tortuosa, 42. 



Sumach-beetle, Jumping, 10. 



Robinia Pseudacacia, var. umbraculifera, Sumach, Coral, 14. 



41. 

Robinia spectabilis, 41. 

Robinia striata, 42. 



Sumach of commerce, 9. 
Sumach, Poison, 23, 
Sumach, Staghorn, 15. 



Yellow Locust, 39 
Yellow Wood, 57. 
Young Mastic, 2, 



Zanthyrsis, 59. 



New York Botanical Garden Libra 







3 5185 00287 8203 



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