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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."



O W \ V r- 



n^. 



\ 




"1_ 



THE 



H-A- 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE TREES WHICH GROW 

I^ATURALLY m I^ORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIYE OF MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGpNT 

DIRECTOR OP THE ARKOLD ARBORETUM 
OP HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



3!llu0trateD "ooiti) figures anD ^mlum timirn from 0atuxz 



BY 



CHAELES EDWAED FAXON 



AND ENGEATED BY 



PHILIBEET AND EUGENE PICART 



VOLUME IV. 



E 



EOS A CEJE— SAXIFBA GA CE^ 




BOSTON AND NEW YOEK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCSCII 






Copyright, 1892, 
Dt CHARLES SPilA&UE SARGENT. 

All rights reserved^ 



The Riverside Press, Camhrids:€, Mass,, U, S. A, 
Electrotjpea and Prioted by H, 0. Houghton & Oo* 



To 

HORATIO HOLLIS HUNNEWELL, 

A TKUE LOVER OF TREES, 

AND 
A WISE AND GENEROUS PATEON OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES, 

THIS FOURTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS DEDICATED 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME IV. 

OF THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class I. DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class L AngiospermSS. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 
Division L Polypetalse. Flowers with calyx and corolla, the latter divided into separate petals- 

C. CALYCIPLOR^. Sepals rarely distinct. Disk adnate to the base of the calyx, rarely tumid or conspicuous 
or wanting (Mlmosse). Petals usually as many as the lobes of the calySj or fewer by abortioUj inserted on the margin 
of the calyx-tube or of the disk, occasionally wanting. Stamens definite or indefinite, perlgynous or hypogynous. Ovary 
superior. 

20- Eosacese. Flowers usually regular. Stamens distinct, usually indefinite. Carpels 1-many, distinct or (in 
Pomese) united and combined with the calyx-tube. Style often lateral or basal. Ovules usually 2, anatropous. Seeds 
generally exalbuminous. Leaves usually alternate, dentate, lobed or divided, usually stipular. 

21, Saxifragaceee. Flowers usually regular. Stamens mostly 5 to 10. Carpels usually 2, united or rarely 
free- Ovules numerous, anatropous- Styles free or united at the base- Seeds albuminous- Leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, stipular or exstipular. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Synopsis of Obdeks 
Chrysobalanus Ioaco 
Pkunus nigra 
pRUNus Americana . 



PRUNUS HORTULANA 



Plate cslviii. 

Plate cxlis. 
Plate cl. . 
Plate cli. 



Prunus angustifolia . Plate clii. 



Pruntjs Alleghaniensis 



Plate cllii. 



Prunus subcordata Plate cliy. 



Prunus umbellata 



Plate civ. 



Prunus Pennstlvanica 
Prunus emarginata . 



. Plate clvi. 

Plate clvii. 
Prunus Virginiana Plate clvlii, 



Prunus serotina 



Prunus Caroliniana 
Prunus sPHiEROCARPA 



Plate clix, 
Plate clx. 
Plate clxi. 



Prunus ilicifolia 



Vauquelinia Californica 
Cercocarpus ledifolius . 
Cercocarpus parvifolius 

PyRUS CORONARIA 



Pyrus angustifolia 
Pyrus rivularis 
Pyrus Americana 
Pyrus sambucifolia 
Crat^gus Douglasii 



Crat^gus brack yacantha 
Crat^gus Crus-galli . 



Ckat^gus coccinea 



Crat^gus mollis 



Crat^gus tomentosa 

Crat^gus punctata 
Crat^gus spathulata 

CRATiEGUS CORDATA 



Plates clxii., clxlii. . 
Plate clxlv. . 
Plate clxv. 
Plate clxvi. . 
Plates clxvii., clxyiii. 
Plate clxix. . 
Plate clxx. 
Plates clxxi., clxxli. 
Plates clxxill., clxxlv. 
Plates clxxv., clxxvi. 
Plate clxxvii. . 
Plates clxxviii., clxxix. . 
Plates clxxx., clxsxi. 
Plate clxxxll. 
Plate clxxxili. . 
Plate clxxxiv. 
Plate clxxxv. . 



Plate clxxxvl. 

CRATJiGus viridis Plate clxxxvii, 

Crat^gus apiifolia 

Cratjsgus flata . . . . ' . 

Crat-s:gus uniflora . . . . ' . 



Plate clxxxviil. 

Plates clxxxix., cxc, 
Plate cxcl. . 



Crataegus jsstivalis Plate 



CXCII. 



Heteromeles arbutifolia 



Plate 



cxciii, 



AaiELANCHIEB CANADENSIS 



Amelanohier ALNIFOLIA 
Lyonothamnus FLORIBUNDUS 



Plates cxciv., cxcv, 
Plate cxcvi. 
Plate cxcvii. . 



Page 
V 

3 

15 

19 

23 

25 

27 

31 

33 

35 

37 

41 

45 

49 

51 

53 ' 

59 

63 

65 

71 

75 

77 

79 

81 

86 

89 

91 

95 

99 
101 
103 
105 
107, 
109 
111 
113 
117 
119 
123 
127 
131 
135 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CHEYSOBALANUS 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobcd, tlie lobes imbricated in sestivation ; petals 5, im- 
bricated in aestivation ; stamens 15 to 50; ovary 1-celled ; ovules 2, ascending. Fruit 
a fleshy drupe, 1-sceded. Leaves alternate, entire. 

^ 

Chrysobalanus, Linnaeus, Gen. 365. — A, L. de Jiissleu, 1251. — Bentham & Hooker, (?em I. 606. — Baillon, IHs^. 

Gen. 340. — Meisner, G67i. 102. — Endlicher, Gen. PI. i. 480. 

Icaco, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 305. 

Trees or shrubs, with stout branchlets covered with pale lenticels, and fibrous roots. Leaves 
alternate, entire, coriaceous, short-p etiolate, persistent ; stipules minute, deciduous. Flowers short- 
pedicellate, small, creamy white, in axillary or terminal dichotomously-branched silky canescent cymes 
with divisions developed from the axils of conspicuous deciduous bracts. Calyx turbinate-campanulate, 
five-lobed, ebracteolate, deciduous. Disk thin, adnate to the calyx-tube. Petals five, inserted in the 
mouth of the calyx-tube on the margin of the disk, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, spatulate, 

^^ ^^ r 

deciduous. Stamens fifteen, in groups of three opposite the lobes of the calyx, or indefinite in a single 
continuous series, inserted with the petals on the margin of the disk ; filaments fibf orm, free or 
slightly connate at the base ; anthers ovoid, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally, or 
sometimes wanting. Ovary sessile in the bottom of the calyx-tube, hirsute or glabrous, one-celled ; 
style rising from the base of the ovary, filiform, terminated by a minute truncate stigma ; ovules two, 
collateral, ascending, anatropous ; raphe dorsal, the micropyle inferior. Fruit drupaceous ; epicarp 
smooth, membranaceous ; mesocarp pulpy ; putamen coriaceous or crustaceous, more or less adherent to 
the mesocarp, smooth and indehiscent, or five or six-angled toward the base and imperfectly five or 
six-valved, the valves reticulate-veined. Seed suberect, exalbuminous ; testa chartaceous, light brown. 
Embryo filHng the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy ; radicle inferior, very short. 

The genus Chrysobalanus is represented in the southern Atlantic states by a shrubby species^ 
confined to the coast region of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama j and a second species which occasionally 
attains the size of a small tree inhabits the shores of southern Florida, and is widely distributed throuo-h 
the maritime regions of tropical America, and, in various forms which have sometimes been considered 
species, along the coast of western tropical Africa.^ 

1 Chrysobalanus oUongifolius, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 283. — inclined to believe that C^r!/so5a?araMS Jcaco was of American origiu, 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 329. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 301. — Elliott, Sk. and had been naturalized on the African coast 'bj seed carried 
i. 539. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 526. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. from one continent to the other by the Atlantic currents, or by 
Am. i. 406. — Chapman, Fl. 119. man. The view that it was transported across the Atlantic from 

Persea longipeda, Bertoloni, Misc. Bot. fasc. xiii. t. 2, the New World to the Old by ocean currents is aupported by the 

2 Alphonse de Candolle (GeograpUe Boianique, ii. 784, 792) was fact that the early European travelers found the Cocoa PIi 



.um m 



2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA- 



The generic name^ from ;^pi;CTog and paTiavog^ was established by Llnnseus^ who discarded Plumier's 
name of Icaco.^ 



America ; the seeds, too, are well suited to float, their structure 
protecting them for a long time from the influence of salt water, 
and as the species inhabits the shores of the ocean the seed washed up 
on such shores would find suitable conditions for germination. The 
Cocoa Plum, moreover, grows spontaneously in Africa only on the 
west coast, or opposite America, while in the New World it is as 



common on the Pacific as on the Atlantic seaboard. On the other 
hand, the fact that the French in Senegal call it Prune d'Amerique 
might indicate that it had first been carried to Africa by man, and 
then, having become naturalized, had gradually spread along the 
coast. 

1 Nov. PL Am, Gen. 43, t. 5. 



ROSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



3 



OHRYSOBALANUS lOACO. 



Cocoa Plum. 



Stamens indefinite. Stone 5 or 6-angled, imperfectly 5 or 6-Yalved. Leaves 



broadly elliptical or round-oboyate. 

Chrysobalanus Icaco, Linnseus, Spec. 513 (excl. vars.). — 
Jacquin, Mnum. PI. Carib. 23 ; Stirp. Am. 154, t 94 ; 
Select. Stirp. Am. Hist. 75, t. 141. — Icon. Am. Gewach. 
ii. 36, t. 157. — Aublet, PI. Guian. i. 513. — Houttuyn, 
Syst. i. 756, t. 11, f. 2. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 224 ; III. ii. 
542, t. 428. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii. 998. — Persoon, 
Syn. ii. 36. — Rees, CyclopcBdia, viii. — Poiret, Lam. 
Diet. Suppl. iii. 135. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 211. — 
Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 
244. — Kunth, Syn. PL ^quin. iii. 483. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 625. — Diet. Sci. Nat. xxll. 430, t. 236. — Sprengel, 
Syst. ii. 478.— Tussac, Fl. Antill. iv. 91, t. 31. — May- 
cock, Fl. Pari). 215. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 477. — Spacli, 



Hist. VSff. i. 369, t. 5, f. 4. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am, 
i. 406. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 46. — Walpers, Pep. ii. 1 ; 
Ann. iv. 642. — Bentliara, Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 91. — 
Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Pat. ii. 90. — Richard, FL Cub. 
ii. 237. — Chapman, FL 119. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. 
Ind. 229. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 274. — Baillon, Adanso- 
nia, vii. 221; Hist. PL i. 427, f . 486, 487. — Hooker f. 
Martins Fl. Prasil. xiv. pt. ii. 7. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 
Am. Cent. i. 365. — Eggers, BulL U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 
50. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S* 

ix. 64. 
Chrysobalanus Icaco, ^. purpureus, Persoon, Syn. ii. 36. 



A tree, twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a long straight trunk occasionally a foot in 
diameter, or more often a tall broad bush with many upright virgate branches, or often, in exposed 
situations, a semiprostrate shrub a foot or two high. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch 
thick, with a light gray surface tinged with red which separates into long thin scales. The branches, 
when they first appear, are glabrous or sometimes slightly pilose and dark reddish brown ; they are 
soon marked with conspicuous pale lenticels, and in their second year are brown or gray-brown. The 
leaves are broadly elliptical or round-ob ovate, rounded or slightly emarginate at the apex, and wedge- 
shaped at the base; they are borne on short stout petioles, and are glabrous, coriaceous, obscurely 
reticulate-veined, dark green and lustrous on the upper, and light yellow-green on the lower surface, 
with broad conspicuous midribs rounded on the upper side, and thin primary veins ; they vary from an 
inch to three inches and a haK in length, and from an inch to two inches and a half in width, and, 
standing on the branches at an acute angle, seem to be pressed against them. The stipules are acumi- 
nate, an eighth of an inch in length, and early deciduous. The flowers are produced in cymes one 
to two inches in length, which in Florida appear continuously on the growing branches during the 
spring and summer months ; they are borne on short thick club-shaped pedicels which, like the acute 
deciduous bracts and bractlets, and the outer surface of the calyx, are covered with thick hoary tomen- 
tum. The calyx-lobes are nearly triangular, acute, more or less pubescent on the inner surface, and 
half the length of the narrow spatulate white petals. The stamens are exserted, with slender hairy 
filaments, and are sometimes abortive on one side of the flower by the suppression of some of the 
anthers. The ovary is covered with hoary pubescence, and from its base rises the long slender style, 
clothed nearly to the apex with pale hairs. The fruits, of which one or two only develop from an 
inflorescence, are nearly spherical, or often shghtly ovoid, and from two thirds of an inch to an inch 
and a half in diameter ; the skin is smooth, bright pink, yellow, purple, creamy white, or sometimes 
nearly black ; the flesh is white, sweet, and juicy, often a quarter of an inch thick, and more or less 
adherent to the stone. This is pointed at both ends, five or six-angled, especially below the middle, 
half an inch to an inch and a quarter in length and twice as long as broad, indehiscent, or finally 
dehiscent into five or six valves ; the wafl is composed of a thin red-brown dry outer layer, and a thick 



4 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



EOSACEiE. 



interior layer of hard woody fibre, or in the black-fruited form is thin and soft. The testa of the seed 
IS thin and papery, light red-brown, and lined with a thick white reticulated fibrous coat* 

Chrysohalamis Icaco grows in Florida from Cape Canaveral to the shores of Bay Biscayne, and 
on the west coast from Caximbas Bay to the southern keys. It is common on the shores of the Antilles 
and on those of southern Mexico and Central America ; it is found on the northern and eastern coasts 

, r 

of South America, where it extends as far south as southern Brazil, and occurs on the west coast of 
Africa from Senegambia to the Congo country.^ In Florida the Cocoa Plum is usually shrubby, and 
attains the size and habit of a tree only on the shores of the islands of the Everglades, in the neighbor- 
hood of Bay Biscayne, and on the banks of the Miami River above the influence of tide-water, where 
it sometimes forms dense impenetrable thickets of considerable extent. 

The wood of Chrysohalanus Icaco is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, and contains a few 
irregularly distributed open ducts and many thin medullary rays ; it is light brown, often tinged with 
red, with thin lighter . colored sapwood composed of ten or twelve layers of annual growth. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7709, a cubic foot weighing 48.04 pounds. 

The fruit, which resembles a plum in size and shape, is sweet and rather insipid ; it varies in color 
and in the amount of juice contained in the flesh, in the degree to which this adheres to the stone, and 
in the thickness of the wall of the stone.^ It appears to have been a favorite food of the Caribs at the 
tnne of the discovery of America, and it is mentioned in many of the early narratives.^ It is eaten 
by negroes and sometimes by whites, both fresh and preserved in sugar.. The seeds when fresh have 
an agreeable odor, although they soon become rancid, and are considered a delicacy in the West Indies j 
they contain a considerable quantity of oil, and under the name of varach seeds are sometimes sent to 
England from tropical Africa ; strung on sticks, they are used instead of candles by the natives.* The 



^ Guillemin, Perrottet & A. Eichard, Fl. Seneg. Tent. i. 272. — 
Hooker f . & Beiitliam, Hooker Niger Fl. 33G. — Oliver, FL Trap. 
Afr. ii. 365. 

2 In Florida Chrysohalanus Icaco varies but little in the size and 
shape of the leaves, or in the form of the fruit. This is usually 
pink, or occasionally nearly white ; on some individuals, however, 
it is black, and then is smaller and more or less ovate, with narrower 
and rather softer stones than occur in the more spherical pink or 
white-skinued fruit, the two forms apparently never growing on the 
same plant. Within the tropics it shows a greater tendency to va- 
riation. Hooker f. (Martius Fl. Brasil. xiv. pt. ii. 7) considered 
the American and African plants specifically identical, and proposed 
these varieties ; — 

a. genuinm : leaves broadly obovate, obcordate, or orbiculate ; 
drupe fleshy, ovoid or obovoid, obtusely ribbed. 

0. pellocarpus : leaves as in the variety a, although often smaller ■ 
drupe obovoid, narrowed at the base, subacntely ribbed ; flesh thin. 

Chrysohalanus pellocarpus, Meyer, Prim. FL Esseq. 193. — Ben- 
tham, Hooker Jour. Bot. ii. 214. — Grisebach, FL BrU. W. Ind. 229. 

Chrysohalanus Icaco, var. ^. pellocarpus, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 
525. 

Guiana. 

y. elUpticus : leaves elliptical- oblong, acute or subacute at the two 
extremities ; drupe as in variety a, but smaller. 

Chrysohalanus elUpticus, Sabine, Trans. HorL Soc. Land. v. 453. 
— De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 526.— Hooker f. & Bentham, L c — 
Oliver, I. c. 

(?) Chnjsohalanus luteus, Sabine, I. c. — De Candolle, l. c. 

Upper and Lower Guinea. 

To this form, too, should perhaps be referred the African Chryso- 
halanus orJ^■a(^c[m, Schumacher &Thonning, KongL DansL Vidensk. 
Selsk. Afh. iv. 6 ; PI. Guin. ii. 5. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 907. 



8 De los drholes e fructas llamados hicacos, Oviedo, Hist. ISfaU 
Gen. Ind. lib. viii. cap. 9. 

"La Fruta de Cuesco son Hobos, Hicacos, Macaguas, Guiabaras, 
i Mameis, que es la mejor de todas." (Francisco Lopez de Gomara, 
Hist. Gen. de las Indias, cap. xxviii.) 

Arhor folia fert similia Lauri foliis, Marcgrave, HisL Nat. Bras. 
lib. iii. cap. ix. (cum icone). 

Des Prunes de Icaques. " Ce fruit est fort dous, & tellement 
aim^ de certains Sauvages, qui demuerent pres du Golfe d'Hon- 
dures, qu'on les appelle Icaques, h cause de I'dtat qu'ils font de ees 
Prunes, qui leur servent de nourriture." (Rochefort, HisL NaL et 

Morale des Antilles, 74 [cum icone].) 

Prunier d'Icaque. " II y en a de plusieurs especes, qu'on distingue 
seulement par la couleur du fruit, dont les uns sont rouges, les autres 
violets, les autres blancs, mais tons de mcme forme, meme chair, ' 
meme gout, meme vertu." (Labat, Nouoeau Voyage aux Isles de 
VAmerique, iii. 40.) 

■ Frutex cotini fere folio crasso in summitate deliquium patiente, fructu 
ovali cceruleo ossiculum angulosum continente, Catesby, NaL HisL Car. 
i. 25, t. 25. 

Chrysohalanus, Linnsus, HorL Cliff. 484 (escl. syn.). — Plumier, 
PL Am. ed. Burmann, 151, t. 158. 

The Fat Pork-Tree, Griffith Hughes, NaL Hist Barhados, 180. 
Chrysohalanus fruticosus, foliis orhiculatis altemis, florihus laxe 
racemosis, Browne, NaL HisL Jam. 250, t. 17, f. 5. 

Icaquier, Nieolson, Hssai sur VHistoire Naturelle de Vlsle de Saint- 
Domingue, 248. 

Chrysohalanus seu Icaco, fructu nigro, fructu alho, fructu violaceo, 
Pouppd Desportes, Histoire des Maladies de S. Domingue, iii. 244. 

* Spons, Encyclopedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 
Rate Commercial Products, ii. 1414, — Tussac, Fl. AntiU. iv. 92. 



Ml. 



EOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



5 



barkj leaves, and roots are astringent, and bave been employed in tropical America in the treatment of 
diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, and hemorrhages.^ 

The earliest mention^ of Ghrysohalanus Icaco as an inhabitant of Florida appears in A Concise 
Natural History of JEast and West Florida, written by the distinguished engineer Bernard Eomans,^ 
and pnbHshed in New York in 1775. 

Chrysohalamis Icaco was introduced into the Physic Garden at Chelsea in England by Philip 
Miller * in 1752,^ and is occasionally cultivated in tropical regions of the Old World.*^ = 

Icaco, the specific name, is probably of Carib originJ 



^ Tussac, Fl. Antill. It. 92, — Ejidliclier, Enchirid. Bot. 665. — 
Treasury of Botany, i. 278. — Martins, Fl. Brasil. xiv. pt. ii. 75. — 
BaiUon, Hist PL i. 459. 

2 *' A few spots of hammock, or upland, are found on this island ; 
these produce the zantoxylum, ficus eitri-follo, Coccoloba, Mastic, 
Borassus, and a few trees of the live oak and willow oak, the Ghry- 
sohalanus, & the Cereus Triangularis, and with these that kind of 
Cactus commonly called Opuntia,'" 283. 

* 

® Bernard KomanSj a native of Hollandj received in England the 
education of an engineerj and was afterwards employed by the 
English government as a surveyor in the southern colonies of 
North America. He appears to have lived from 1763 to 1771 in 
Florida, where he paid some attention to natural history, enjoying 
a salary of fifty pounds a year as King's Botanist, During his 
residence in New York Romans became imbued with the revolu- 
tionary spirit and was engaged by the Committee of Safety to pre- 
pare a scheme for the defense of the Highlands ; but his relations 
with the committee were unsatisfactory, his plans were not adopted, 
and he was relieved from. duty. In 1776 he was commissioned 
captain of a company of Pennsylvania artillery. Charges of mis- 
conduct were soon preferred against him, but he was probably 
acquitted, as not long afterwards he was deputed by General Gage 
to inspect the works at Fort Ann and Skenesborough, and in 1780 
was ordered to South Carolina to join the Southern Army. Ro- 
mans sailed from New Haven or New London in a vessel which 
was captured by the British and taken to Jamaica, where he was 
held as a prisoner until the end of the war in 1783, when he was 



put on board of a ship bound for the United States- He died on 
the voyage, his friends believed a violent death (see Munsell's 
Historic Series, No, 5, Obstructions to the Navigation of Hudson^s 
Rivevy by E. M. Ruttenber, Introduction^ 9). In addition to the 
work on Florida, of which only the first volume appeared, and which 
is now an extremely rare book, as the largest part of the edition 
was destroyed by fire in New York, Romans, who was a member 
of the American Philosophical Society, printed in 1773, in its Trans- 
actions, a paper on The Marine Compass; in 1775 he published 
A Map of the Civil War in America; in 1778, at Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, the first volume of his Annals of the Troubles in the Nether- 
landsy the second volume of which appeared four years later, and 
in 1779, with J, G, W. de Braham, A Complete Pilot for the Gulf 
Passage. The History of East and West Florida is a work of no 
little interest to botanists, as Romans was the first person with any 
knowledge of plants who visited the coasts and islands of southern 
Florida ; it gives the earliest account of the Ogeechee Lime, and 
of the Florida Fig, Ficus aurea, and first makes known the fact 
that several West India trees are found on the Florida coast. 

^ See L 38. 

^ Aiton, Hort Kew. ii. 166. 

^ Voigt, Hort. Sub. Calcutt, 265. — Hooker f, FL Brit, Ind. ii. 
307, — Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateuTy 204. 

"^ Hicacos was first used by Oviedo y Valdes (Hist Nat. Gen, Ind, 
lib. viii. cap. 9), who landed in San Domingo in 1514, to describe the 
fruit of this plant, which has given its name to numerous capes and 
points of land on the coast of the West Indies and Central America. 



4c L 



» 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE, 



Plate CXLVIIL Chrtsobalaxus Icaco. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 
2- Diagram of a flower- 

3. A flowerj enlarged- 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

6- Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged* 

6- A pistil, a vertical section of the ovary removed, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

10. A stone, natural size. 

11. An embryo, natural size. 



\ 



N 




ilva of North America. 



1 



Tab, CXLVIII, 




1 1 



C.E.FaxoTL del. 



Fioartjr. so 



CHRYSOBALANUS ICACO , L. 



A.Rwcreu^ direxx^. 



-L 



Irnp. K.TaiheJAr ^ Paris 



<i , 1 



KOSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



7 



PRUNUS. 



Flowers perfect, or rarely polygamo-dioecious by abortion; calyx 5-lobed, the 
lobes imbricated in aestivation; petals 5, imbricated in aestivation, rarely wanting; 
stamens 15 to 30; pistil 1, rarely 2 or more; ovules 2, suspended. Fruit a more 
or less fleshy drupe, 1-seeded. Leaves alternate. 



Prunus, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 609. — BalUon, Hist, 

PL i. 478. 
Amygdalus, Linnseus, Gen. 141. — Adanson, Fam. Fl. ii. 
305. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 341.— Melsner, Gen. 102. — 

Endliclier, Gen. 1250. 
Prunus, Linneeus, Gen. 141. — 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 341. 

licKer, Gen. 1250. 
Cerasus, Linnaeus, Gen. 141. — 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 340. 
Padus, Linnffius, Gen. 142. 

Armeniaca, A. L, de Jussieu, Gen. 341. — Meisner, Gen. 102. 
Amygdalophora, Neeker, Elem. Bot. ii. 70- 



Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 305. — 

— Meisner, Gen. 102. — End- 

Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 305. — 

— Meisner, Gen. 102. 



Trichocarpus, Neeker, Elem. Bot. ii. 70. 

Prunophora, Neeker, Elem. Bot. ii. 71. 

Cerasophora, Neeker, Elem. Bot. ii. 71. 

Chimanthus, Kafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 26. 

Persica, Meisner, Gen. 102. 

Ceraseidos, Siebold & Zuccarini, Ahhand. Ahad. Munch. 

iii. 743. 
Amygdalopsis, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 15. 
Laurocerasus, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 89 
Microcerasus, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 93. 
Emplectocladus, Torrey, Smithsonian Contrih. vi. 10, t. 5 

{PI. Fremont.'). 
Tubopadus, Romel, Mat. pour la Flore Atlant. 8. 



wanting. 



r 

Trees or slirubs, with Litter and astringent properties, and scaly buds witli scales imbricated in 
many rows, those of the inner rows accrescent and often colored. Leaves conduplicate or convolute in 
vernation, alternate, simple, usually serrate, petiolate, deciduous or persistent ; stipules free from the 
petiole, usually lanceolate and glandular, often minute, deciduous. Flowers solitary or in fascicled 
corymbs or racemes, appearing from separate buds before, coetaneous with, or later than, the leaves, 
or on leafy branches. Calyx five-lobed, ebracteolate, the tube obconic, urseolate, or tubular, deciduous 
or rarely persistent. Disk thin, adnate to the calyx-tube, glandular, often colored. Petals white or 
rose-colored, inserted in the mouth of the calyx-tube on the margin of the disk, deciduous or rarely 

Stamens usually fifteen to twenty, inserted with the petals in three rows, those of the 
outer row ten, parapetalous, those of the next row opposite the sepals and alternate with those of the 
inner row ; or sometimes thirty in three rows ; filaments filiform, free, incurved in the bud ; anthers 
oval, attached on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Gynoecium unicarpel- 
late, or rarely composed of two or more carpels, rarely suppressed by abortion ; ovary inserted in the 
bottom of the calyx-tube, one-celled ; style terminal, dilated at the apex into a truncate stigma ; ovules 
two, suspended, collateral, anatropous ; raphe ventral, the micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous ; 
epicarp membranaceous, often glaucous or velutinous ; mesocarp pulpy, or dry and coriaceous and 
two-valved ; putamen bony, smooth, rugose, or foraminulose, compressed, iudehiscent, one or rarely two- 
seeded. Seed suspended ; testa thin, membranaceous ; albumen thin, or usually wanting. Cotyledons 
thick and fleshy; the radicle superior.^ 

1 The genus Prunus may be divided into the following sections, 
which by many authors have been considered genera : — 

Amygdalus (including Amygdalophora, Trichocarpus, Persica, 
and Amygdalopsis). Flowers solitary or geminate, subsessile, often 
precocious. Pruit velutinous or rarely smooth ; the flesh dry and 
membranaceous and splitting irregularly, or thick and succulent ; 
the stone compressed, generally thick-walled, rugose aad deeply 
pitted. Leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Emplectocladus. Flowers solitary or geminate, short-pedicel- 



late, appearing with the leaves. Fruit velutinous, with thin dry 
flesh, and a smooth or slightly rugose stone. Leaves conduplicate 
in vernation. 

Aemeniaca. Flowers solitary or geminate, subsessile or short- 
pedicellate, precocious. Fruit pubescent, or in cultivation rarely 
smooth, with succulent flesh, and a thick-walled conspicuously wing- 
margined smooth or pitted stone. Leaves convolute in vernation. 

Peunus (including Prunophora). Flowers pedicellate in fascicled 
umbels, precocious or coetaneous with the leaves. Fruit more or 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



ROSACEA. 



Of the genus PrunuSj now extended to include tlie Plums, Almonds, Peaches, Apricots, and 
Cherries, about one hundred and twenty species are distinguished. They are generally distributed over 
the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, especially in eastern Asia,^ in western and central 
Asia,^ Europe,^ and North America.^ The genus is represented in tropical America by numerous species,^ 
and occurs in southern Asia.^ It has no representative in tropical and southern Africa, in Australia 
Polynesia, or the southern countries of South America. In North America the genus is spread from 
the shores of the Atlantic to those of the Pacific, and from near the northern limits of tree-growth to 
southern Mexico. The territory of the United States contains at least twenty-five indigenous species, 
of which fourteen attain arborescent habit, and one is a large and important forest treeJ 



less succulent, often covered with a glaucous bloom ; stone com- 
pressed, smooth or slightly rugose^ acute-margined along the ven- 
tral suture, grooved ou the other. Leaves conduplicate or convo- 
lute in vernation. 

Cebasus (including Cerasophora, Ceraseidos, and Microcerasus), 
Flowers pedicellate, fascicled, or corymbose, precocious or coeta- 
neous with the leaves. Fruit smooth or rarely pilose^ with succu- 
lent flesh ; stone smooth or slightly rugose, ridged on the ventral 
suture. Leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Padus. Flowers in slender terminal racemes, on lateral leafy or 
leafless branches of the year- Fruit subglobose, smooth, with suc- 
culent flesh ; stone turgid, ovate or obovate, thick-margined on the 
ventral suture. Leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Laurocerasus. Flowers in racemes from the axils of the leaves 
of the previous year. Fruit smooth or rarely covered with a waxy 
bloom ; flesh usually thin and subsucculent ; stone smooth, rugose, 
or conspicuously reticulate-veined, obscurely margined on the ven- 
tral suture. Leaves conduplicate in vernation, 

1 Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, xxis. 74 {Mel. 
Biol xi. 657). — Franehet, PI. David, i. 103 ; PL Delavayanm, i. 194. 

2 Boissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 640. — Aitehison, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 
50. — Franchet, PI. du 2\rkestan, 57. 

3 Nyman, Conspect. Fl. Europ. 212. 

4 Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. I 406. — Chapman, FL 119.— 
Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 166. —Watson & Coulter, Grafs 
Man. ed. 6, 151. — Coulter, Contrib. IT. S. Nat. Herb. i. 102 (Man. 
PL W. Texas). 

s Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 241, 243, 
t. 563, 564. — Kunth, Syn. PL jEquin. iii. 480. — Grisebach, Fl 
Brit. W. Ind. 231. — Hooker f. Martius FL Brasil siv. pt. ii. 55. — 
Hemsley, BoL Biol Am. CenL i. 367. 

■ , 6 Miquel, Fl Ind. Bat. i. pt. i. 363. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Bj-it. 
Ind. 190. — Hooker f . FL Brit. Ind. ii. 312. . 

' Of the sections of the genus, Amygdalus is confined to eastern 
Asia, which is believed to be the home of the tree from which the 
cultivated Peach {Prunus Persica, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 609) 
has been derived (A. de Caudolle, Origine des Plantes Cultivees, 
176. — Bretsehneider, On the Study and Value of Chinese Botanical 
Works, 10), and to southeastern Asia, where many species are 
found, particularly in Persia, Arabia, the Trans Caucasian provinces, 
and Turkestan. Prunus Amygdalus, the origin of the cultivated 
Almond, was believed by Boissier {Ft. Orient, ii. 642) to grow on 
the Anti-Lebanon, in Turkestan and Mesopotamia, and on some of 
the mountain ranges of Persia. By cultivation this tree has spread 
through the Mediterranean basin, and now grows spontaneously in 
many of the southern countries of Europe and in northern Africa, 
where perhaps it is really indigenous (Cosson, Ann. ScL Nat. six. 
429. — A. de CandoUe, Geographie Botanique, ii. 887). 

Emplectoeladus is confined to the dry iiiterior regions of Pacific 



North America, where two small shrubby species are recognized 
(Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 70). 

Armeniaca is Asiatic ; two species are now recognized. Prunus 
Armeniaca, Linnteus (Spec. 474), the Apricot, is probably a native 
of northern China and Mongolia, whence it was carried into north- 
ern India, Persia, Armenia, and other countries of southwestern 
Asia, where it has long been naturalized (A. de Candolle, Origine 
des Plantes Cultivees, 171). The second species, Prunus Mume 
(Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. i. 29, t. 11), is a native of Japan. 

Prunus, the true Plum, of which about twenty species are dis- 
tinguished, is generally distributed in the temperate regions of 
North America and eastern and western Asia. The native country 
of Prunus domestica, Linn^us (Spec. 475), the original oi many of 
the races of the cultivated Plums of the Old World and the most 
important species of this section of the genus, is still undetermined. 
Many authors believe that it is a native of Anatolia and northern 
Persia, and that it was brought into Europe, where it is now widely 
naturalized, not more than two thousand years ago (A. de Candolle, 
I. c). It has been cultivated in northern China and Japan from 
immemorial times, and now grows spontaneously on the mountains 
near Pekin and on those of Shensi and Kansuh (Bretschneider, 
Early European Researches into the Flora of China, 149. — Forbes 
& Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 218). 

Cerasus belongs to the cold and temperate parts of North Amer- 
ica, Europe, and Asia ; nearly forty species are now recognized, of 
which a larger number grow in China and Japan than in any other 
geographico-botanical region. The two most important species are 
Prunus Avium, Linnsus (Fl. Svec. ed. 2, 165), and Prunus Cerasus, 
Linnffius (Spec. 474), from which are derived the two races of garden 
Cherries (A. de Candolle, I c. 163). The former, believed to be a 
native of the region bordering on the Caspian, has become natural- 
ized and now grows spontaneously in southern Europe as far north at 
least as central France. The latter inhabits the forests of northern 
Persia, Armenia, and the Caucasus ; it grows in Algiers, and in 
Europe is distributed through southern Russia and the mountainous 
regions of Greece, Italy, and Spain to Scandinavia ; it has become 
naturalized in northern India (Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. ii. 313) and 
Madeira (Lowe, Man. Fl. Mad. 235), and occasionally in the east- 
ern part of the United States (Darlington, Fl Cestr. ed. 3, 73). 

Padus, with twelve or fourteen species, occurs in the temperate 
and subtemperate regions of the two hemispheres, with its centro . 
of distribution in China and Japan, The type of this section, Pru- 
nus Padus, Linnseus (Spec. 473), is the most widely distributed of 
the genus, growing naturally in nearly every part of northern and 
central Europe, and through Siberia, Manchuria, northern China, 
Mongolia, and northern India. 

Laurocerasus, with about twenty species, is the most generally 
distributed group of the genus. The largest number of the species 
occur in the Indian Archipelago and in tropical America ; the 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



Few genera o£ plants are more useful to man. Many of the species contain in the seeds and 
leaves considerable quantities of hydrocyanic acid^ to which is due their peculiar odor.^ Some bear 
delicious fruits^ which^ fresh and dried^ are important articles of human food, and others^ espe- 
cially the Almondj produce valuable seeds.^ The dried fruit of the Old World Plum has laxative 



others are found in southern China, Japan, India, and the Cauca- 
sian provinces, in southwestern Europe and the north Atlantic 
African islands, and in the southern part of the United States, Cali- 
fornia, and Mexico, 

^ Baillon, HisL PL i. 453. — Le Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen, 
Bot English ed, 388. The leaves and young branches of some 
species of Laurocerasus at the period of active vegetation contain 
such quantities of hydrocyanic acid as to be dangerous to animals 
browsing on them- A city ordinance of Mobile prohibits throwing 
the trimmings of Prunus Caroliniana, a favorite hedge plant in that 
city, into the streets where they might be eaten by cattle, 

^ More than three hundred varieties of plums are now recog- 
nized in the collections of Europe, where this tree has been culti- 
vated from the time of the ancients. The origin of the different 
races of the cultivated Old World Plums is obscure ; they are now 
generally supposed to have been derived from the crossing of dif- 
ferent species, particularly Prunus domestica and Prunus insititia^ 
LinnaBus {Spec, ed, 2, i, 680), or of the different varieties of the former 
which many authorities have considered species (Lucas, Einleitung 
in das Studium der Pomologie, Introduction. — Deeaisne, Le Jardin 
Fruitier^ viii. Prunier^ 11). The cultivation of the Plum on a large 
scale is principally confined to the valley of the Loire and to the 
department of Lot-et-Garonne in France, to central Germany, 
and to Bosnia, Servia, Croatia, and California. In the valley of 
the Loire, which is one of the great sources of supply of the ordi- 
nary prunes of commerce, the variety principally grown is the 
Prunier de St, Julien (Prunus domestica^ var. Juliana^ De Candolle, 
Prodr, ii. 534), The best French prunes are produced in the re- 
gions lying about the town of Clariac in the valley of the Lot, from 
a variety known as Prunier d'Ente, which has been grown for at 
least a century in this region, where the cultivation of the trees 
and the harvesting and drying of the fruit is managed with the 
greatest care and skill, (For accounts of the production of prunes 
in France, see U* S, Consular Reports^ Sept. 1888, 444, — Kew BulL 
Miscellaneous Information^ Dec. 1890, 263-) The German prunes 
are principally the product of a tree considered by De Candolle to 
be a variety of Prunus domestica (var, Pruneauliana^ L c. 534), and 
by Koch (Dendr. i. 94) a species, Prunus ceconomica of Rorkhausen 
(Handb. ForstbQt '± 1401)- 

The Possavina district of northern Bosnia is now the most impor- 
tant prune-producing regioii of southeastern Europe, the best fruit 
bciug grown on the sides of the bills descending into the plains of 
Possavina- The methods of cultivating and drying the fruit are 
rude and primitive, and the product is inferior to the best French 
and German prunes. The prunes grown in Bosnia and Servia are, 
however, largely exported to the United States, Germany, and 
Hunn-ary (SponSy Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts^ Manufactures, 
and Raw Commercial Products,!, 1027. — Kew BulL Miscellaneous 

Information, L c, 264). 

The Apricot, which has boon cultivated in Europe since the he- 
ginning of the Christian era, is now grown in most temperate coun- 
tries, especially in France, Italy, southern Germany, India, and 
California ; in some parts of India, where it flourishes in all the 
Himalayan region, as well as in Thibet and Afghanistan, the Apri- 
cot-trees constitute the chief wealth of the inhabitants, the dried 
fruit being an important article of trade (Jacquemont, Voyage, ii. 



211, 434. — Braudis, Forest FL Brit. Ind, 191- — Hooker f. FL Brit 
Ind, iL 313- — Balfour, Cyclopmdia of India, ed. 3, iii. 299)- The 
Apricot is commonly cultivated in northern China, where the seeds 
are used in the place of almonds (Bretsehneider, On the Study and 
Value of Chinese Botanical Works^ 10 ; Early European Researches 
into the Flora of China, 149. — Franchet, PL David, i. 104), In 
Japan the Apricot is occasionally cultivated, although the climate 
does not appear to suit it. The Japanese species, Prunus Mume, 
produces a small hard sour fruit which is sometimes eaten salted or 
dried, and is made into vinegar (Rein, Japan nach Reisen und Stu- 
dien imAuftrage der Koniglich Preussischen Regierung, ii. 102), 

The Almond is the most important plant of the genus. Bitter 
and sweet almonds are produced from trees which botanists regard 
as varieties of one species, and which have been cultivated in the 
Orient from very early times. (M. Porcius Cato, Be Re Rustica^ 
cap. 8. — Harris, Nat. Hist. Bible, 6.) In the beginning of the four- 
teenth century almonds had become an important article of com- 
merce in Venice, and their consumption in mediaeval Europe was 
enormous. Sweet almonds are produced in great quantities in Italy, 
Portugal, the Canary Islands, and the countries which surround the 
Gulf of Persia (Spons, L e, L 1022), and in California, where the 
cultivation of the Almond has recently assumed importance (Wick- 
son, The California Fruits and How to Grow Them^ ed. 2, 512. — 
C, H. Shinn, Garden and Forest^ iv. 495) ; the best are now raised 
in Spain, and are known as the Jordan almonds. Bitter almonds are 
grown principally in the regions bordering on the Mediterranean, 
the best being produced in France and Sicily. 

The chief value of the Almond is in the oil which is pressed from 
the seeds ; it is of two hinds, a fixed or fatty oil, and a volatile oil. 
The first is obtained from the fresh fruit of the hitter and of the 
sweet almond, and is manufactured in southern France, Italy, and 
Spain, the best quality being made in Majorca- The bitter almonds 
are first peeled in order to free thera of the essential or volatile oil, 
and are then crushed ; the sweet almonds are crushed without peel- 
ing, and the oil is then pressed from the crushed seeds. It is of a 
clear yellow color and possesses an agreeable flavor, and is princi- 
pally used by perfumers and, purified of its hydrocyanic acid, in 
medicine (Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 216, 219. — 
Spons, /, c, ii. 1377, 1416). 

The Peach has been cultivated in northern China from time Im- 
memorial ; it is also commonly grown in Mongolia and Cochin 
China (Loureiro, FT, Cochin, 315), in Japan, where it is the most 
abundant of the stone-fruits (Eeiu, I, c, 101), in northern India, and 
in central and western Europe, where it appears to have been 
brought from Persia at the beginning of the Christian era (Brandis, 
Forest FL Brit. Ind, 191. — Balfour, L c, 166)- It flourishes in 
the southern and central portions of North America ] and in some 
parts of the middle Atlantic and Pacific states the cultivation of 
the Peach is an important agricultural industry (Wickson, I, c, 
293). 

The Cherry, as a cultivated fruit-tree, has been hnown in Europe 
for at least two centuries, and innumerable varieties have been 
raised there and in the United States. These are of two races, the 
Bigarreau and Heart Cherries, with large, sweet, or slightly bitter 
fruit, derived from Prunus Avium, and the Morello and Duke 
Cherries, with smaller and often astringent fruit, derived from 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



ROSACEA. 



properties ; and the bark o£ many species is bitter and astringent and has been used^ particularly tliat 
of the North American Primus Yirginiana and Prunus serotina and of the Old World Prunus Padits^ 
in medicine.^ The aromatic leaves of the Caucasian Prmius Laurocerasiis ^ generate by distillation a 
volatile oil, and are used in making Cherry-cordial water.* The flowers of the Peach are sometimes 
used in Europe and the United States as a mild purgative ; ^ in China they are considered laxative and 
sedative and serve as a vermifuge ; In the same country the seeds are employed in the treatment of 
many diseases, and vinegar was formerly made from the pulp.*^ The flowers of the Blackthorn or Sloe, 
Primus spinosa^ are purgative, and the fruit, which is astringent and austere until mellowed by frost, 
is sometimes used in medicine for its refrigerant and styptic properties.^ The seeds of Prunus Maha- 
leb,^ a native of the Caucasian provinces, and now naturalized in southern Europe and sparingly in 
some parts of eastern North America, possess an agreeable flavor ; and the oil pressed from them is 
used in perfumery,^" and is valued by the Arabs as a cure against calculus of the bladder,^^ Cordials or 
ratafias are made by steeping in spirits the fruit of Plums, Cherries, and Peaches, or the seeds of the 
Bitter Almond, the Cherry, and the Apricot ; from the fruit of the European wild Cherry, Prunus 
Avium, hirschAvasser and maraschino ^^ are prepared, and from that of the European Plums, zwetschen- 
wasser and raki.^^ A limpid oil is obtained from the seeds of various species of Prunus in Europe and 
India ; ^* and Plum-trees, the European Cherries, the Peach, the Apricot, and the Almond secrete from 
their trunks and branches a gum which was once employed in medicine, and is now used in France in 
various industrial processes.^^ 



Prunus Cerasm. The origirij however, of many of the varieties of 
cultivated Cherries is obscure, as species, subspecies, and varieties 
have crossed and recrossed in their production. 

1 Linn^us, Spec. 473. — Koch, Dendr. i. 120. — Brandis, Forest 
FL Brit. Ind. 194. — Hooker f. J^?. Brit. Ind. ii. 315. — Maximo- 
wiez, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, xxix. 108 {Mel. Biol. xi. 705). 

Cerasus Padus, De CandoUe, FL Franc, ed. 3, iv. 480 ; Prodr. ii. 
539. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 2, 1. 1. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 650. 

2 B. S. Barton, Coll ed. 3, i. 11. — A. Richard, Hist. Nat. Med. 
ed. 3, iii. 632. — Endlicher, EncMrid. 663. — Rosenthal, Syn. PL 
Diaphor. 978. — Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 
169. — Guibourt, Hint. Drag. ed. 7, iii. 317. — Baillon, Hist PL i. 
454. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 749. — Stille' & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. 
ed. 2, 1177. — Fliickiger & Hanhury, PharmacograpMa, 223. 

^ LinnEeus, Spec. 474. — Koch, Dendr. i. 125. 
Cerasus Laiirocerasus, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, v. 6. — De 
Candolle, Prodr. ii. 540. — Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 650. 

. * Lindley, FL Med. 232. — A, Richard, L c. 632. — Rosenthal, 
I c. — Baillon, I. c. 453. — Fliickiger & Hanbury, L c. 226. — Gui- 
bourt, l. c. 318, f. 678. — Jackson, Commercial Botany of the 19th 
Century, 81. 

^ Guibourt, I. c. 314. 

6 Smith, Contrib. Mat. Med. China, 168. 

"^ Linn^us, L c. 475. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 532. — Guimpel, 
Willdenow & Hayne, AbUld. Deutsch. Holz. i. 87, t. 66. — Koch, 
Dendr. i. 98. 

s Linnaeus, Mat. Med. 79. — Woodville, Med. Bat. ii. 233, t. 84. 
From the green fruit of the Sloe, a strong astringent extract, known 

r 

as acacia nostras, was formerly made in Germany (A. Richard, I. c. 
630). 

9 Linnseus, Spec. 474. — Jacquin, FL Austr. iii. 15, t. 227. — Koch, 
I. c. 116. 

Cerasus Mahaleb, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, v. 6, t. 2. — De 
Candolle, I. c. 639. 

10 Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 708. 

" Le Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. Bot. English ed. 388.— 

r 

Guibourt, L c, 316. 



^2 Kirschwasser is principally produced in tlie valley of the 
Khine in Germany, France, and Switzerland. A wild black-fruited 
variety of Prunus Avium (var. macrocarpa, De Candolle, Prodr. ii- 
535) is thought to produce the best quality, which is made from 
carefully selected ripe fruit ; this is crushed over wicker strainers 
that separate the pulp and stones from the juice, which is allowed 
to flow into large tubs ; the stones are then collected and added to 
the juice which is fermented in tightly covered vats, and at the end 
of four or five days is drawn off and distilled. Kirschwasser of an 
inferior quality is made from cherries shaken from the trees and 
thrown into open hogsheads, in which the ripe, half ripe, and rotten 
fruit is all crushed together and allowed to ferment. At the end 
of twenty or thirty days, when fermentation is complete, the whole 
mass is distilled over an open fire. Made in this way, kirschwasser 
has a strong and disagreeable flavor, due to the mould developed 
during the process of fermentation. 

Maraschino is made from the Marasca Cherry, a variety of Pru- 
nus Avium with small acid fruit {Nouveau Duhamel, v» 21), by a pro- 
cess similar to that by which kirschwasser is prepared, except that 
honey or sugar is added to the liquor after it is distilled. Mara- 
schino is principally manufactured in Dalmafcia, that made in the 
neighborhood of Zara being considered the best (Loudon, /. c. 697. — 
Spons, Encyclopedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw 
Commercial Products, i. 224). 

1^ Loudon, L c. 690, 

^^ Le Maout & Decaisne, h c. 388. 

In India, oil pressed from the seeds of the Apricot and the 
Peach is used for illuminating, in cookery, and on the human hair 
(Brandis, L c. 192. — Balfour, Cyclopaedia of India, ed. 3, iii. 166). 
Cherry-oil is now manufactured in England from the seeds of Pru- 
nus serotina^ imported from the United States (Spons, /. c), 

^^ See Trdcul, Maladie de la gomme chez les Cerisiers, les Pruniers, 
les Ahricotiers, et les Amandiers, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Ii, 624 ; Pra- 
duit de la gomme chez le Cerisier, le Prunier, VAmandier^ VAhricotier 
et le Pecher, Mem, Inst, xsx, 241. 

The gum which exudes from the bark of Prunus, known gener- 
ally as Cherry-gum, is only partially soluble in water, with which it 



EOSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



11 



.4 



The wood of Prunus is close-grainedj solid, and durable, and is usually light brown, more or less 

r 

tinged with red. The most valuable timber tree of the genus is the North American Prunus serotina. 
The wood oi^Prunus domestica and of Prunus Avium is much esteemed in Europe by makers of 
furniture and musical instruments, and by turners.^ The wood of Primus Mahaleb is hard, dark- 
colored, and fragrant ; known in France as bois de St. Lucie, it is valued by cabinet-makers, and is 
employed in the manufacture of tobacco pipes and of many small articles.^ The spiny stems of Prunus 
spinosa are used for canes, and for the handles of agricultural implements and other tools.^ In India 
the wood of the Peach-tree is utilized in building, and that of the Apricot for many domestic purposes ; 
and in Japan the wood of Pruinis Pseudo-Cerasus^ and of Prunus Mume for engraving and for the 
blocks used in printing cloth and wall-paper.^ 

Prunus contains many plants valued in gardens for the beauty of their flowers and foliage. Vari- 
ous forms of the Cherry, the Peach, and the Plum, with double flowers, or of abnormal habit, have long 
been cultivated. The parks and gardens of temperate Europe are enlivened by the evergreen foliage 
of Prunus Laurocerasus, the so-called English Laurel, a native of the Orient, and of Prunus Lusi- 
tanicay the Portugal Laurel, which are replaced in those of the southern part of the United States 
by Prunus Caroliniana ; in Japan Prunus Mume and Prunus Pseudo-Cerasus hold the first place 
among flowering plants in the affections of the people, and no Japanese home is without them. The 

^ ■ ^ _ 

firstj when its leafless branches are covered with white or red flowers^ announces the arrival of spring 
and a time of rejoicings while the blossoms of the second invite the people to another festival.^ 

Numerous insects^ prey upon the different species of Prunus^ which are also subject to serious 
fungal diseases*^*^ 



makes a thick mucilage, tlie insoluble portion^ to which the name 
of Cerisin is given, merely swelling in water. It is brittle, with an 
insipid, sweet, or astringent flavor, and is at first liquid and color- 
less, but with exposure to the air hardens and grows darker; in 
commerce Cherry-gum appears in the form of large, irregular 
shaped pieces, and is lustrous and transparent, varying in color from 
pale yellow to brown, that produced by the Cherry-tree being of a 
darker color than the gum of the Plum-tree, Cerisin is colorless, 
transparent, odorless, and tasteless (Henry Watts, Dictionary of 
Chemistry. — Spons, Encyclopmdia of the Industrial Arts^ Manufac- 
tures^ and Ram Commercial Products^ ii, 1638, — Guibourt, HisL 

Drag, ed, 7, ill- 318), 

1 Loudon, Arb. Brit ii, 698, — Matthieuj FL Forestiere^ ed, 3, 

125, 129- 

2 Loudon, L c. 708, — Brandis, Forest FL Brit Ind, 195. — Mat- 

thieu, L c. 127. 

^ The common Blackthorn canes of northern Europe are cut 
from the stems of Prunus spinosa. — Loudon, L c, 686. — Mattbieu, 
h €, 130- 

4 Brandis, h c. 191. 

^ Lindley, Trans. HorL Soc. Lond. vi, 90. 

^ Bein, Japan nach Reisen und Studien imAuftrage der Koniglick 
Preussischen Regierung^ 297. 

■^ Linnffius, Spec, 473. — Koch, Dendr. i. 124. 

Cerasus Lusitanica, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, v. 5. — Lowe, 
Fl, Mad. 236. 

8 Kein, I c. 319- — Conder, The Flowers of Japan and the Art of 

Floral Arrangement 

^ The North American species of Prunus furnish food to a large 
number of insects, some of which have become injurious to the cul- 
tivated fruit-trees of this genus. The original food-plant of the 
Peach-tree Borer (jEgeria exitiosa. Say) is believed to have been 
Prunus serotina^ which is sometimes attacked by this insect ; and a 
number of beetles are known as borers in the wood of the different 



species, Dicerca divaricata (Say) attacks the trunks of the Wild 
Cherry, and the Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer (Chrysohothris femo^ 
rata, Fabricius) those of the Wild Plum ; and another borer, Cyrio- 
phorus verrucosus, Olivier, is found in the wood of Prunus serotina, 
and of Prunus Pennsylvanica. 

The number of insects which prey upon the foliage of Prunus is 
very large. Packard (5th Rep. U. S. Entomolog. Comm. 1886-1890) 
records sixty-eight species as feeding on the Wild Plums and the 
Wild Cherries of eastern America ; but this list probably repre- 
sents only a small proportion of the insects which teed on the foli- 
age of trees of this genus in North America, as little is known of 
those that attack the western and southern species. The Tent- cat- 
erpillars (Clisiocampa), are particularly partial to the native Plums 
and Cherries, and in those parts of the country where these trees 
are plentiful, they are considered a menace to neighboring orchards 
by their harboring these pests. The Canker-worms and the Fall 
Web-worms also feed on the trees of this genus- Larv^ of Pla- 
tysamia Cecropia (Linnteus) and other large moths of the Silk- worm 
family are found on the Plum and the Cherry ; and the caterpil- 
lars of Sphinx drupiferarum. Abbot & Smith, occasionally defoliate 
their branches (Saunders, Insects Injurious to Fruits^ 1G2), The 
leaves also are affected by several species of leaf-moths. 

The Cherry-slug (Selandia Cerasi, Peck) and one or two other 
Saw-flies feed on the Wild Cherry. A small Curculio {Anthono- 
mus quadrigihhus, Say) is often abundant in the seeds of Prunus 
serotina. The fruit of the Wild Plum is destroyed by the Plum- 

cureulio (Conotrachelus Nenuphar, [Herbst]), whose ravages seri- 
ously interfere with the cultivation in the United States of the 
European and native plums. 

The Plum-tree has been found to be the food-plant of the Hop- 

r 

aphis (Phorodon Humuli, Schrank) during certain periods of the 
year, and the destruction of Plum-trees in the vicinity of Hop-fields 
is recommended by C. V. Kiley {Insect Life, i, 133). 

^^ The number of described species of fungi which infest arbores- 



12 



SILVA OF NORTH AMUBICA. 



UOSACE^E. 



PrumiSj the classical name of the Plum-tree^ was adopted by Linnaeus for a section of the genus 



as now extended. 



cent Rosacea is very great, and as the fruit-trees of the temperate 
zones belong to this family, they have been more carefully studied 
than those affecting any other family, with the exception of VitacecB. 
Of the fungi which attack the North American species of Prunus, 
one of tlie most striking is PlowrigUia morhosa, Saecardo (Sphmria 
morhosa, Schweimtz), which produces the warty excrescences known 
as Black Knot. These were formerly supposed to be due to the 
attacks of insects, but their fungal nature is now known (Farlow, 
Bull Bussey InsL i. 440, t. 4, 5, 6)- PlowrigMia morhosa is peculiar to 
North America, and is found on Prunus Americana, Prunus nigra, 
Prunus hortulana, Prunus angnsiifolia, Prunus maritima, Prunus 
suhcordata, Prunus Pennsylvanicaj Prunus serotina^ and Prunus Vir-- 
giniana. The ugly black knots which often cover the branches 
of these plants are familiar ; there are two forms of fructifica- 
tion, one called the conidial stage found in early summer when 
the surface of the knots is dark green, and the other ripening iu 
midwinter or early spring when the knots begin to break up, Hor- 
ticulturally considered, the Black Knot is a serious pest, as it passes 
from our native species of Prunus to the cultivated Plums and 
Cherries of Old World origin. The cultivation of Plums has been 
abandoned in some of the eastern states, owing to the ravages of 
this fungus ; and in some parts of the country, varieties of cultivated 
Cherries are also badly diseased. The disease has been known for 
many years in the eastern states, but has not developed on the cul- 
tivated Plums and Cherries of California, although, as the fungus is 
endemic on tlie native species of the Pacific coast, it may be ex- 
pected to spread sooner or later to the fruit-growing regions of the 
coast. In Europe no native disease corresponds to Black Knot, 
which has not yet been imported from America. 

Next in seriousness among the diseases which affect our spe- 
cies of Prunus are the prominent deformities caused by species of 
Tapbrina, which produce Leaf-curL The most striking of these is 
Taphrina deformans, Tulasne, which causes the leaves of Peach-trees 
to become thickened, curled, and wrinkled, doing, however, less real 
injury than the disease called The Yellows, the origin of which is 
not yet satisfactorily determined. The plant which by some authori- 
ties is considered a variety of Taphrina deformans (var, Wiesneri, 



Kathay) is occasionally seen on Prunus serotina, although the exact 
determination of the species is not beyond question- A similar dis- 
ease, Taphrina PruniyTnlRsne^ causes the distortion known as Plum- 
pockets on cultivated Plums, and on the fruits of our native Prunus 
serotina and Prunus maritima, and of a few other species. The pock- 
ets are best seen in the cultivated Plums, which are attacked iu 
early summer soon after the fruit sets ; the young ovaries swell, 
often almost to the size of full-grown plums, by the latter part of 
June, when they are hollow with the exception of a few fibrous 
bands, and are white and powdery. Similar, although smaller, pock- 
ets are sometimes found on wild Plum-trees, and it is probable that 
the disease is a native of America as well as of Europe, where it 
is common. It should not be confounded with Monilia fructigena, 
Persoon, a mould-like fungus which attacks cherries, plums, and 
peaches as they ripen, covering them with a grayish powder without, 
however, causing them to become hoUow- 

The leaves of the different species of Prunus are attacked by a 
number of small fungi, some of which are destructive. The Rust, 
Puccinia Pruni-spinoscE, Persoon, causes small yellow or brownish 
yellow spots to appear on the under surface, with accompanying 
purplish-red spots on the upper surface, of the leaves of Prunus 
serotina, Prunus Virginiana, and other species, as well as on those 
of the Peach and the Almond, In the southern states, especially, 
this Rust is common on Peach-trees, and is often accompanied by a 
thin white mould (Cercosporella Persica, Saecardo), 

The Mildew, Podosph<Era Oxyacantkm, De Bary, is widely dis- 
tributed in Europe and America on wild and cultivated species of 
Prunus, as well as on various species of Pomece. Other fungi which 
attack North American species of Prunus are Septoria cerasina, 
Berkeley & Ravenel, which forms destructive small black spots on 
the leaves ; Monilia Linhartiana, Magnus, which covers the leaves 
of Prunus Virginiana with a web-like moijld, causing them to dry 
and fall ; the curious Cornularia Persicce, Saecardo, which forms 
small black club-shaped bunches on the bark of Peach-trees ; and 
the cinnabar-colored Punk-fungus, Polyporus dnnaharinus. Fries, 
common on the native Wild Cherries used for fencing. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



13 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Peunus. Flowers in fascicled umbels ; fruit often sliglitly two-lobed by a ventral groove ; leaves 
conduplicate or convolute in vernation. 
Leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Fruit red or orange-colored, destitute of bloom. 

Calyx-lobes glandular-serrate, glabrous on tbe inner surface ; stone compressed ; 

leaves broadly oblong-ovate to obovate ; petioles biglandular . ... . . . 1. P. NIGRA. 

Calyx-lobes entire, pubescent on the inner surface ; stone turgid ; leaves oval or 

slightly obovate ; petioles usually eglandular 2. P. Americana. 

Calyx-lobes glandular-serrate, pubescent on the two surfaces ; stone turgid, com- 
pressed at the two ends ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute ; petioles glandular . 3. P. hortulanA. 
Calyx-lobes glandular-eiliate, glabrous ; stone turgid ; leaves lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate ; petioles biglandular 4. P, angitstifolia 

Fruit blue, covered with a glaucous bloom. 

Calyx-lobes entire, puberulous on the outer, tomentose on the inner surface ; stone 
turgid, acute at the two ends ; leaves lanceolate to oblong-ovate ; petioles eglan- 
-, dular 5. P. Alleghaniensis. 

Leaves convolute In vernation- 
Fruit red or yellow, nearly destitute o£ bloom. 

Calyx-lobes pubescent or puberulous, with ciliate margins; stone flattened or 
turgid, pointed at tbe two ends; leaves broadly ovate to orbicular; petioles 

eglandular 6. P. suecokdata. 

Fruit dark blue or black, covered with a glaucous bloom- 

Calyx-lobes entire, glabrous or puberulous on the outer, tomentose on the inner 
surface ; stone slightly compressed, acute at the two ends ; leaves ovate-lance- 
olate to oblong ; petioles eglandular 7. P. UMBELLATA. 

Cerasus. Flowers fascicled or corymbose ; fruit globular ; leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Calyx-lobes obtuse, entire; stone oblong-globular; leaves oblong-lanceolate; pe- 
tioles glandular 8. P. Pemi^stlyakica. 

Calyx-lobes rounded or sometimes emarginate at the apex; stone ovoidj acute at 

the two ends ; leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate 9* P. emArginata, 

pADtJS- Flowers racemose on leafy branches of the year; fruit globular; stone cylindrical; 
leaves conduplicate in vernation- 

Calyx-lobes deciduous ; stone oblong-ovate; pointed at the apex ; leaves broadly 

oval or oblong-obovate, usually abruptly acuminate 10. P. VieginianA, 

Calyx-lobes persistent on the ripe fruit; stone oblong-obovate; leaves oblong or 

lanceolate-oblong, usually gradually acuminate 11- !*• SEKOTINA. 

Laukoceeasus. Flowers racemose, from the axils of persistent leaves of the previous year ; 
fruit globose or slightly two-lobed ; leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

Calyx-lobes rounded, with undulate margins ; stone broadly ovate, cylindrical ; 

leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, or rarely remotely spinulose-serrate . . . . 12. P. Cakoliniana. 
Calyx-lobes acute, with laclniate margins ; stone depressed-globose ; leaves ellip- 
tical to oblong-ovate, entire 13. P. sph^rocaepa. 

Calyx-lobes acute, entire ; stone ovate, slightly compressed ; leaves ovate to lan- 
ceolate-acuminate, coarsely spinulose-toothed or rarely entire 14. P. ilicifolia. 



^v 



^; 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



15 



PRUNUS NIGRA. 



Red Plum. Canada Plum. 



Calyx-lobes glandular-serrate, glabrous on the inner surface. Stone compressed. 
Leaves broadly oblong-oyate to oboyate ; petioles biglandular. 



Prunus nigra, Alton, Sort. Kew. ii. 165. — Willdenow, 
Spec. ii. pt. ii. 993 ; Enum^ 518 ; Berl. Baumz, ed. 2, 
311. — Poiret, Xam. Diet. v. 674. — Pcrsoon, Syn. ii. 35. 
— Bot. Mag. t. 1117. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 331. — 
Torrey, Fl. U. S. 469. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 477. — Spach, 
Hist. Veg. i. 399. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 59. 

Cerasus nigra, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, v. 32. — ■ De 
Candolle, Prodr. ii. 538. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 
167. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 513. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 
704 (in part), f. 411, 412. 



Prunus mollis, Torrey, Fl. U. S. 470. 

Prunus Americana, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 407 

(in part). — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 19 (in part). — Torrey, Fl. 
N. Y, i. 194 (in part). — Provancher, Flore Canadienne, 
i. 162. — Koch, Dendr. i. 101 (in part). — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 511. — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. Am. IQtk 
Census U. S. is.. ^^ (in part). — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 151 (in part). — Gray, Forest Trees 
N. Am. t. 46. 



A small tree, twenty or thirty feet in heightj with a trunk sometimes ^ye or six inches in diameter, 
dividing, usually five or six feet from the ground, into a number of stout upright branches, which form 
a narrow rigid head. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, and light gray-brown, with 
a smooth outer layer which exfoliates in large thick plates composed of several papery coats, and in 
falling exposes a darker slightly fissured scaly inner bark. The branches in their second year develop 
stout spiny lateral spur-like secondary branchlets, which are sometimes two inches in length and grow 
into leafy branches. The branchlets, when they first appear, are bright green, glabrous or puberulous ; 
they are slightly zigzag and marked by numerous pale excrescences, and in their second year are dark 
brown tinged with red. The winter-buds are acuminate, an eighth to a quarter of an inch in length, 
and covered with chestnut-brown triangular scales with broad pale scarious margins. The leaves are 
oblong-ovate or obovate, abruptly contracted at the apex into long narrow points, wedge-shaped, trun- 
cate, or slightly heart-shaped at the base, and doubly crenulate-serrate with small dark glandular teeth ; 
when they unfold they are faintly tinged with red, and are pubescent on the under surface, or are 
glabrous with the exception of conspicuous tufts of slender white or rufous hairs in the axils of 
the primary veins ; at maturity they are membranaceous, rather opaque, light green on the upper, and 
pale on the lower surface, three to ^ve inches long and one and a half to three inches broad, with 
conspicuous pale midribs and slender veins, and are borne on stout petioles from half an inch to an 
inch in length, and furnished near the apex with two large dark glands. The stipules are lanceolate 
or, on vigorous shoots, often three to five-lobed, glandular-serrate, half an inch in length, and early 
deciduous. The flowers, which are an inch and a quarter across' when expanded, appear before the 
leaves, from the first of May in eastern New England to the end of the month at the north ; they are 
proterandrous, and are produced in three or four-flowered umbels, with short thick peduncles conspicu- 
ously marked by the scars left by the falling of the bud-scales, which when fully grown are one third 
of an inch long, pale green tinged with pink, and usually persistent until the expansion of the flowers. 
These are borne on slender glabrous dark red pedicels which vary from one half to two thirds of an 
inch in length. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, dark red on the outer, and bright red on the 
inner surface, with narrow acute glandular lobes, glabrous or occasionally pubescent on the outer 
surface, and reflexed after anthesis. The petals, which are white, turn pink in fading, and are broadly 
ovate, rounded at the apex, with more or less erose margins, and contracted at the base into short claws. 



16 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EOSACEiE. 



The fruit, which ripens between the middle and the end of August, is oMong-oval, and an inch to an 
inch and a quarter long, with a tough thick orange-red skin nearly destitute of bloom, and yellow rather 
austere flesh adhesive to the stone, which is nearly oval, compressed, an inch in length, two thirds of 
an inch in breadth, thick-walled, and acutely ridged along the ventral, and slightly grooved on the 
dorsal suture. The seed is ovate and compressed, Avith a thin brown testa and a short exserted radicle. 

Prunus nigra is distributed from Newfoundland ^ through the valley of the St. Lawrence, and 
westward to the valleys of the Eainy and Assiniboine Kivers and the southern shores of Lake Mani- 
toba.^ It is found in the neighborhood of streams in rich alluvial soil, or grows on low limestone hills 
in open glades with Hawthorns and Viburnums, or along the borders of the forest.^ 

The wood of Prunus nigra is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained ; it is rich bright red-brown, 
with a lustrous surface and thin lighter colored sapwood, and contains many thin medullary rays. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6918, a cubic foot weighing 43.17 pounds. 

Jacques Cartier, on his second voyage to North America, landed in September, 1535, on the banks 
of the St. Lawrence, near the island of Orleans, which he named Isle de Bacchus, on account of the 
wild grapes which he found growing in the woods, and was there the first European to see the Canada 
Plum-tree ; * its dried fruit he had already seen in the canoes of a tribe of Indians whom he had met 
during the previous season in the Bay of Chaleur.^ 

Primus nigra was introduced into English gardens in 1773 ^ by Lee & Kennedy,'^ nurserymen at 
Hammersmith near London ; and the earliest botanical description was drawn up from the cultivated 
tre'e. ' 1 ' ■ ' ' 

Prunus nigra is often planted in Canadian gardens, and occasionally in those of the northern 
states, for its fruit or for the beauty of its large slightly fragrant flowers.^ 



1 Teste Hooker, Ft. Bor.-Am. i. 167. 

2 Richardson, A rctic Searching Exped. ii. 288. — Brunet, Cat Veg. 
Lig. Can. 20. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 1867-69, Appendix, 
8 (PI. ManiiouUn Islands) ; 187&-80, 54". — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 
i. 124. 

The range of the Canada Plum has been much extended through 
cultivation, and it is now naturalized and grows spontaneously in 
the neighborhood of houses and along the borders of highways in 
northern New England and 'New Tork in the territory adjacent to 
the Canadian boundary, and in eastern Massachusetts. It is to be 
looked for growing indigenously in northern Minnesotaj and is 
probably naturalized in Wisconsin and Iowa, and some of the va- 
rieties of cultivated Plum-trees which are believed to have been 
taken from the woods of these states can be traced to this species. 

^ Prof, D. P. Penhallow notices that the leaves of Prunus nigra^ 
when it grows on limestone hills in the Province of Quebec, are 
pubescent on the lower surface, and that they are glabrous or 
puberulous when it grows on bottom-lands, Prunus Americana 
under similar conditions shows the same variations in the valley of 
the Mississippi River. 

* '* Pleine de moult beaux arbres de la nature et sorte de France : 
comme chesnes, ormes, fresnes, noyerSj pruniers, ifs, cedres, vignes, 
aub^pines qui portent fruit aussi gros que prunes de damas, et 
autres arbres." (Voyages de Decouverte an Canada^ 2"^° Voyage, 34 
[Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. Reprint].) 

^ " lis ont aussi des prunes qu'ils sfeehent comme nous faisons 
pour I'hiver, et les appellent Honesta." {Idem. 1" Voyage, 17- 
See also Hakluyt, Voyages^ ed, Evans, iii, 258.) 

^ Alton, HorL Kew. ii. 165- 

^ James Lee (1715-1795) ; a native of Selkirk, Scotland, was 
employed in the gardens of Syon House, a seat of the Duke of 



Northumberland, and afterwards in those of the Duke of Argyll 
at Whitton ; in 1760, in partnership with Louis Kennedy^ he estab- 
lished a nursery at Hammersmith, which soon became famous and 
for many years was considered the most important in the world. 
Lee was a correspondent of Linnfeus, who dedicated to him a genus 
of Old World tropical plants related to the Grape Vine (Leea) ; 
he was the author of an Introduction to Botany, arranged according 
to the Linnsean system, which passed through several editions and 
was long held in high repute, and in 1774 he published a catalogue 
of the plants and seeds grown in his garden. 

Louis Kennedy (1775-1818) made many contributions to horti- 
cultural literature toward the end of the last century, and articles 
from his pen are found in the Botanical Repository (1799-1804). 
Kennedyay a genus of Australian leguminous plants, well known in. 
gardens, was dedicated to him by the French botanist Ventenat, 

Lee & Kennedy were exceedingly active and successful in in- 
troducing new plants, and maintained collectors in North and 
South America, and, in partnership with the empress Josephine, 
one in South Africa also. They first cultivated in England several 
North American plants, as well as the China Rose and Fuchsia 
coccinea^ which was the first of its genus introduced into gardens. 

^ The fruit of Prunus nigra is sold in large quantities in Cana- 
dian markets ; it is eaten raw or cooked, and is made into preserves 
and jellies. Like the fruit of all Plum-trees, it varies in size and 
shape, in the thickness and color of the skin, and in the flavor and 
juiciness of the flesh ; and some attention has been paid in Canada 
to selecting the best wild varieties for cultivation. Varieties of 
this species are propagated and sold by nurserymen in some of the 
western states, and to it can be referred the well known Purple 
Yosemite, Quaker, and Weaver Plums. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXLIX. Pkunus nigka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower* 

3. Vertical section o£ a flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, with a vertical section of the ovary removed, enlarged* 

5. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged, 
6* An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

8. Cross section of a fruit, natural size- 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

10. A stone, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13- A winter branchlet, natural size- 

14. Part of a leaf, with stipules, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America. 



Tab. CXL 





C.E.Fajxx)7h del. 




r. sa 



PRUNUS :NIGRA, Alt 



'P^^Hfc 



A . UxocT'eK^ dzrea: 



Imp. R. ToTisur , ParU. 



? 



EOSACE>E. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



PRUNUS AMERICANA. 



Wild Plum. 



Calyx-lobes entire, pubescent on the inner surface. Stone turgid. Leaves oval 
or slightly oboYate ; petioles mostly eglandular. 



Prunus Americana, Marsliall, Arbust. Am. 111. — Dar- 
lington, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iii. 87, t. 1 ; FL Cestr. ed. 3, 
72.— Torrej & Gray, M. JSf. Am. I 407 (in part). — 
Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 19 (in part), t. 48. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 
i. 194 (in part) ; Emory's Rep. 408 ; Paoific B. R. Rep. 
iv. 82. — Koch, Dendr. i. 101 (in part). — Ridgway, Rroc. 
TJ. jS. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10^^ Census U. S. ix. 65 (in part) .-— Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 151 (In part). — Coulter, Contrib. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 102 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 

? Prunus Mississippi, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 112. 

Prunus spinosa?, Walter, Fl. Car. 146 (not Linnjeus). 

Prunus hiemalis, Michaux, Fl. Ror.-Am. i. 284 (in part). — 
Desfontaines, Mist. Arb. ii. 206 (in part). — Du Mont de 



Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 539. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 

V. 679 (in part). — Persoon, Syn. ii. 35. — Nouveau Du- 

hamel, v. 184 (in part). — Elliott, Sh. 1. 542. ~ Schmidt, 

Oestr. JBaumz. iv. 48, t. 231. — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 398. 

■ — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 59 (in part). 
Prunus nigra, Muehlenberg, Cat. PI. Am. Sept. ed. 2, 49 

(not Alton). 
Cerasus hiemalis, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 538 (in part). — 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am,. i. 168 (in part). — Don, Gen. Syst. 

ii. 514 (in part). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 704 (in part). 
Cerasus nigra, Hooker, Compan. Bot. Mag. i. 24 (not 

Loiseleur). 
Cerasus Americana, Hooker, Comp>an. Bot. Mag. I. 24. 



A tree, twenty to tliirty-five feet in height^ "with a trunk which rarely exceeds a foot in diameter 

and divides, usually foiir or five feet from the ground, into many spreading branches, often pendulous 

toward the extremities, which form a broad graceful head, and are furnished with long slender remote 

sometimes spinescent lateral spur-like branchlets. The bark of the trunk is half an inch thick and dark 
brown tinged with red, the outer layers separating into large thin persistent plates. The branchlets, 

when they first appear, are light green and glabrous or puberulous, or coated with dense pale tomentum ; 
they are light orange-brown during their first winter, and in their second year are darker, often tinged 
with red, and marked with minute circular excrescences. The winter-buds are covered with chestnut- 
brown triangular scales with more or less erose margins ; the inner scales when fully gi*own are folia- 
ceous, half an inch long, oblong, acute, remotely serrate, furnished below the middle with two narrow 
acuminate lobes, and fail after the small colorless scales of the outer rows. The leaves are oval or 
slightly obovate, acuminate, narrowed and occasionally rounded at the base, sharply and often doubly 
serrate ; when they unfold they are sometimes nearly glabrous, or are furnished on the lower surface 
with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs, or are pubescent or densely coated below with thick pale tomentum ; 
at maturity they are rather coriaceous, more or less rugose, dark green on the upper, and paler on the 
lower surface, and glabrous or coated below with pale or rufous pubescence or tomentum ; they are 
three or four inches long and an inch and a half broad, with slender midribs grooved on the upper 
side and narrow primary veins, and are borne on slender petioles one half to two thirds of an inch in 
length and usually destitute of glands.^ The stipules are Hnear or often three-lobed, sharply serrate, 



1 The amount and character of the pubescence on the leaves and 
shoots of Prunus Americana vary considerably on different indi- 
viduals and in different parts of the country ; in the eastern and 
southern states the leaves are either glabrous or slightly pubescent 

1 

on the lower surface along the midribs and primary veins ; in the 
valley of the Mississippi the lower surface is ofien covered with 
pubescence ; and from Missouri to northern Mexico, especially 
south of the Red River, the young branches, the lower surface of 



the leaves, and the petioles are coated with pale tomentum. This 
form which gradually passes into the smooth form of the east and 
of the Rocky Mountains is 

Yar. mollis, Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 407, — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. IQth Census IT. S. ix. 65. — Ilavard, Proc. U. S. 
Nat Mus. viii. 512. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. NaL Herh. ii. 102 
{Man. PL W. Texas). 



20 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA, 



one half to three quarters of an inch long, and early deciduous. The flowers, which appear in Texas 
early in March, and in Pennsylvania two months later, when the leaves are half grown, are produced in 
two to five-flowered umbels, and are borne on slender glabrous green pedicels which vary from one 
third to two thirds of an inch in length ; on some individuals they are unisexual by the abortion of the 
pistils, and are, when expanded, an inch across and exhale a disagreeable odor. The calyx-tube is 
acutely obconic, light red, glabrous or puberulous, and green on the inside, with acuminate lobes, 
reflexed after anthesis, and slightly pubescent on the outer, and pilose on the inner surface. The petals 
are pure white, half an inch long and a quarter of an inch broad, rounded and irregularly laciniate at 
the apex, and contracted below into long narrow claws which are bright red at the base. The fruit, 
which ripens in June at the south, and from the end of August to early October at the north, is subglo- 
bose or rarely slightly elongated, and usually rather less than an inch in diameter ; in ripening it turns 
from green to orange, often with a red cheek, and when fully ripe is bright red, usually destitute of 
bloom, and more or less conspicuously marked with pale spots ; the skin is tough, thick, acerb, and 
easily separated from the bright yellow succulent rather juicy acid flesh which adheres to the oval 
stone ; this is slightly rugose, pointed at the apex, more or less contracted at the base, turgid, often 
nearly as thick as it is broad, and slightly and acutely ridged on the ventral^ and obscurely grooved on 
the dorsal suture. 

Primus Americana is distributed from middle and northern New Jersey * and central New York ^ 
to Nebraska,^ the valley of the upper Missouri Eiver in Montana,* the eastern slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado,^ the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, the valley of the Rio Grande in 
southern New Mexico, and the mountains of northeastern Mexico. In the middle and northern states 
it is found in rich soil, growing along the borders of streams and swamps, where it often forms thickets 
of considerable extent ; in the southern Atlantic states it sometimes inhabits river-swamps, which are 
submerged during several months of each year, and west of the Mississippi River it grows on bottom- 
lands and sometimes on dry limestone uplands. At the north the Wild Plum-tree is rarely more than 
ten or fifteen feet in height, and it is in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas that it attains its greatest 
dimensions. 

The -w^ood o£ Primus Americana is heavy, hard^ close-grained, and strong. It has a lustrous surface 

and is dark rich brown tinged with red, with thin Hght-colored sapwood, and many medullary rays. 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry Avood is 0.7313, a cubic foot weighing 46,95 pounds. 

The fruit is sometimes used in the preparation of jellies and preserves, and is eaten raw or cooked.^ 
Prumis Americana was first described by Humphrey Marshall, in his Arhustum Americamim^ 

published in 1785 ; and in most subsequent works it has been confounded with Prunus nigra of Aiton, 

published four years laterJ 

As an ornamental plant Prunus Americana has real value ; the long wand-like branches form a 
^ide graceful head, which is handsome in winter, and in spring is covered with masses of pure white 
flowers, followed by ample bright f oHage and abundant showy fruit.^ 



^ Britton, Cat PL N. /. 91, 

^ Dudley, BulL Cornell Univ. ii. 27 {Cayuga FL), 
^ Bessey, BulL Agric, Exper. Stat Nebraska^ iv. art. iv. 16- 
^ Where it was collected by Lester F, Ward, whose specimens 
are preserved in the U, S- Nat. Herb, 
^ Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt BoL 76, 

^ Much attention has been given in late years by American po- 
mologists to the selection and cultivation of the best fruited varie- 
ties of Prunus Americana^ and their lists now contain the names of 
many Blum-trees which are selected wild forms of this species. 
Of these perhaps the best known and the most generally esteemed 
are De Soto, Itaska, Forest Garden, Louisa, Minnetonka, Cheney, 
Deep Creek, Kickapoo, Forest Rose, and Miner, 



^ In the Linntean Herbarium there is an unnamed specimen of 
Prunus Americana without flowers or fruit, and without locality, 
from Kalm the Swedish traveler, who included in his list of trees 
growing in the woods near Philadelphia, in 1748, the Wild Pbim- 
tree and the Sloe-Slirub, which be called Prunus domestica and 
Prunus spinosa (Travels^ English ed- i. 67, 68). 

^ As an ornamental plant Prunus Americana is not so often seen 
in the gardens of the eastern and northern states as Prunus nigra, 
which is a less beautiful plant although its flowers are earlier and 
considerably larger. It is well established in the Arnold Arboretum, 
where it flowers and fruits abundantly every year, and has proved 
to be one of the most beautiful plants of the genus. 



I 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



r 

Plate CL, Pkuisttts Americana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Vertical section of a flowerj enlarged- 

3. A fruiting branclij natural size, 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A stone, natural size. 
7* An embryo, enlarged, 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size* 



\ 



Silva of North America. 



"^ab 




L. 



( 







<• - 



O. E. Faax)7v dely. 




uh& so. 



'' 



PRUNUS AMERICANA, 




arst. 



w 



Tn-ip. It. TcutmAT^Pcwis. 



ROSACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 23 



PRUNUS HORTULANA. 



Wild Plum. 



Calyx-lobes glandular-serrate, pubescent on both surfaces. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
long pointed ; petioles glandular. Stone turgid, compressed at the two ends, conspicu- 
ously rugose and pitted. 



90. * 



Prunus hortulana, L. H. Bailey, Garden and Forest, v. Prunus Chicasa, Watson & Coulterj Gray's Man. ed. 6, 

152 (in part). 

IPrunus Americanaj var. (?), Patterson, List Fl. Oquawka, 
5. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height^ with a slender often inclining trunk frequently five or six 
or occasionally ten or twelve inches in diameter, dividing, usually several feet from the ground^ into stout 
spreading branches ; or often a shrub with many upright stems, forming thicket-like clumps» The 
bark of the trunk is thin and dark brown, and separates into large thin persistent plates which in exfo- 
liating display the light red-brown inner layers. The branches are stout, rigid, marked with minute 
pale lenticels, glabrous or sometimes puberulous during their first summer, rather dark brown when the 
tree grows in the shade of the forest, and usually unarmed ; or on vigorous trees grown in the open 
ground they are sometimes bright red or red-brown in their first year, and darker brown in their second, 
and are then often armed with stout spinescent spur-like branchlets. The winter-buds are minute and 
obtuse, and are covered by chestnut-brown scales with slightly ciliate margins, those of the inner ranks 
accrescent with the growing shoots, oblong-lanceolate, acute, glandular-serrate, and sometimes half an 
inch long at maturity. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, contracted at the apex into long slender points, 
wedge-shaped or more or less rounded at the narrow base, and finely serrate with incurved lanceolate 
glandular teeth ; when they unfold they are pilose with slender white hairs, and at maturity are gla- 
brous with the exception of the hairs which are gathered on the under surface in the axils of the 
primary veins or are scattered along the midribs ; they are rather thick and firm, dark green and 
lustrous on the upper, and paler on the lower surface, and four to sis inches long and an inch to an 
inch and a half broad, with broad conspicuous midribs orange-colored on the under, and slightly grooved 
on the upper surface, conspicuous orange-colored veins connected near the margin of the leaf, and 
prominent reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender orange-colored petioles which vary from an 
inch to an inch and a half in lengthy and are furnished above the middle with numerous small scattered 
dark glands; and on vigorous shoots stand nearly at right angles with the stems. The stipules are 
lanceolate-acuminate, glandular-serrate, and early deciduous. The flowers, which in the neighborhood 
of St. Louis appear by the end of April or early in May with the unfolding of the leaves, vary from 
two thirds of an inch to an inch in diameter, and are produced in two to four-flowered subsessile umbels, 
on slender puberulous pedicels half an inch in length. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, puberulous 
on the outer surface, with ovate glandular-serrate lobes acute or rounded at the apex, pubescent on 
the outer, and pubescent or tomentose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the unfolding of the 
petals ■ these are narrowly obovate, rounded and occasionally emarginate at the apex and contracted 
below into long narrow claws, entire, erose, or occasionally serrate, and pure white, or often marked 
toward the base with orange. The stamens are as long as the petals or sometimes rather longer, with 
slender glabrous filaments and minute orange-colored anthers. The pistil is glabrous, with a slender 
style crowned by a thick truncate stigma. The fruit, which ripens in the neighborhood of St. Louis 



24: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EOSACE^. 



in September and October, is borne on stout stems, and is globose or oblong and two thirds of an inch 
to an inch in diameter, with thick acerb deep red or sometimes yellow skin, and hard and austere thin 
flesh, which adheres to the turgid stone j this is acute and compressed at the two ends, conspicuously 
ridge-margined on the ventral, and broadly and deeply grooved on the dorsal suture, thick-walled, 

rugose, and deeply pitted. 

Primus hortidana inhabits the banks of the Mississippi Eiver near Oquawka, Illinois, and St. 
Louis, Missouri ; it is common on the banks of the Maramec Eiver in Missouri, and will probably be 
found wild in southern Illinois and Indiana, in western Kentucky and Tennessee, and ranging through 
Arkansas to eastern Texas. It grows on the low banks of streams in rich moist soil, overflowed every 
winter and spring for several weeks^ in forests of the Hackberry^ the Honey Locust^ the Sycamore^ the 
Big-nut Hickory^ the Swamp White Oak^ the Pin Oak, the Green Ash^ the Box Elder, and the Eed 
Birehj with the Red Bud^ the Silky Cornel^ the Pawpaw^ dwarf Willows^ the Burning Bush^ and the 
deciduous-leaved Holly. 

Por many years Prunus Jiortulana was confounded with Pruniis angiistifolia^ the Chickasaw 
Plum, to which numerous cultivated Plum-trees that have been derived from it have been referred by 
pomologists, Mr. Harry N. Patterson^ many years ago noticed its pecuHarities, and Prof. L. H* Bailey^ 
has recently pointed out its true characters. 

The fruit of the wild trees is gathered in large quantities, and for years has been sold in the 
markets of St. Louis, and used for jellies and preserves ; selected varieties sometimes produce excellent 
fruitj and have been largely cultivated^ in the western states especially^ for many years.^ 



1 Harry Norton Patterson was born in 1853 in Oquawka, Illinois, 
where he was educated, and where from early youth he has been 
employed in printing. An early acquired love of botany led him 
to study the flora of the neighborhood of bis native place, and has 
since carried him on several occasions to Colorado, where he has 
botanized extensively during four summers, and has made several 
interesting botanical discoveries. Mr. Patterson is the author of 
A List of Plants collected in the Vicinity of Oquawka^ published in 
1874, A Catalogue of the Plants of Illinois^ published in 1876, and 
a Chech List of North American Plants. 

2 Liberty Hyde Bailey was bom in South Haven, Michigan, in 
1858, graduated at the Agricultural College of his native state 
in 1882, and then, having studied botany with Professor Asa Gray 
at Cambridge during two years, was appointed in 1888 professor 
of horticulture and landscape gardening in the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College. This position he soon left to accept the chair of 
horticulture in Cornell University, which he still fills. Professor 
Bailey is the author of two important papers on North American 
Carices, three annual volumes of the Annals of Horticulture in North 
America^ The Horticulturist's Mule Booh^ The Nursery Booh^ and 
Field Notes on Apple Culture^ and of many horticultural and botan- 



ical articles. He has devoted special attention to the study of 
American fruit-trees, and our present knowledge of the history 
and distinctive characters of the various races of cultivated Ameri- 
can Plum-trees is due to his long and careful study of this difficult 
and interesting subject, 

^ The first variety of this species which attracted attention, the 
now well-known Wild Goose Plum, believed to have been a native 
of Kentucky, where it originated about forty years ago, is now a 
valuable fruit-tree in some parts of the country ; it is esteemed for 
its rapid growth and the excellence of its large juicy fruit, and is 
more largely cultivated than any other native Plum. Other varie- 
ties of Prunus hortulana well known to pomologists are Cumber- 
land, Indian Chief, Garfield, Sucker City, Missouri Apricot (Honey 
Drop), Wayland, Indiana Ked, Golden Beauty, Indiana Chief, Forest 
Hose, Parsons, and Miner (L. H, Bailey, Bull. Cornell Univ. Agric. 
Exper. Stat^o. 38). 

A sterile tree, known as the Elaekman Plum, believed to he a 
natural hybrid between the Peach and the Wild Goose Plum, ap- 
peared in Tennessee many years ago (Rep. U. S. Dept, Agric. 1886, 
261 ; 1887, 636) ; and Professor Bailey reports another hybrid of 
similar origin. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



\ 



Plate CLI. Pkunus hoktulana. 



1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. Interior face of a calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A petal, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

6- A fruit cut transversely, natural size. 



7, 8, and 9- Stones, natural size. 

10. A seed, natural size. 

11. An embryo, natural size. 

12. A sterile branch, natural size. 

13. A winter branchlet, natural size- 



r' 




ilva of North America 



lab . 





'' 



\ 



C.E.Fcur^oTh deL . 




one- sc 



PRUNUS HORTULANA, Bail 




A. .Rj^oreucc- dvrea^ ^ ^ 



Imp. R. Tanei.u', Paris 



ROSACEA. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 25 



PRUNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA, 



Chickasaw Plum. 



Calyx-lobes glabrous, glandular-ciliate. Stone turgid. Leaves lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, thin and lustrous ; petioles biglandular. 

Prunus angustifolia, Marshall, Arbust Am. 111. — Koch, Mep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 56. — Ridgway^ 

Dendr. i. 103. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen. Proe. XI. S. Nat, Mus. 1882, 65. — Watson & Coulter, 

sus U, S. ix. Q>Q. Gray's Man. ed. 6, 152 (in part). — Gray, Forest Trees 

Prunus Chicasa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 284. — Du N. Am. t. 47. 

Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 540. ~ Poiret, Lam. Prunus insititia, Walter, Fl. Car. 146 (not LinnEeus). — 

Diet. V. 680. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 35. — ■ Nowoeaii Diihamel, Abbot, Insects of Georgia, ii. t. 60. 

V. 183. — Elliott, Sk. i. 542. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 476. — Cerasus Chicasa, Seringe, De Candolle Prodr. ii. 538. — 

Audubon, Birds, i. 53. — Spach, Hist. Vig. i. 397. — Tor- Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 168 ; Compan. Bot. Mag. i. 24. — 

rey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 407. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 514. 

Syn. iii. 58. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 73. — Curtis, 



A small tree, fifteen to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding eight inches in 
diameter, and slender spreading virgate branches often armed with long thin S2:)inescent lateral branch- 
lets ; or more often a shrub five or six feet high, with many stems, forming broad thickets. The bark 
of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, dark red-brown and slightly furrowed, the surface broken 
into long thick appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are glabrous or covered with 
short caducous hairs, and are bright red and lustrous ; in their second year they lose their lustre and 
grow darker, and are then often brown marked with occasional horizontal orange-colored lenticels. The 
winter-buds are acuminate and a sixteenth of an inch in length, and covered with chestnut-brown scales.. 

-. 

The leaves are lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pointed at the two ends, apiculate, and sharply serrate 
with minute glandular teeth ; they are glabrous or, while young, are sometimes furnished on the lower 
surface with tufts of long pale hairs in the axils of the primary veins, bright green and lustrous on the 

r 

upper, and paler and rather dull on the lower surface, one to two inches long and a third to two 
thirds of an inch broad, and are borne on slender glabrous or puberulous bright red petioles, from a 
quarter to a half of an inch in length, and furnished near the apex with two conspicuous red glands. 
The stipules are linear or lobed, glandular-serrate, and half an inch long. The flowers, which appear 
before the leaves from the beginning of March in the extreme southern states until the middle of April 
at the north, and which are one third of an inch across, are produced in subsessile two to four-flowered 
umbels, and are borne on slender glabrous pedicels which vary from one fourth to one half of an inch 
in length. The calyx-tube is glabrous and campanulate, with oblong obtuse lobes, reflexed at maturity, 
ciliate on the margins with slender hairs, and covered on the inner surface with pale pubescence. The 
petals are white or creamy white, obovate, rounded at the apex, and contracted at the base into short 
broad claws. The filaments and pistil are glabrous. The fruit, which ripens between the end of May 
and the end of July, is globose or subglobose, haK an inch in diameter, bright red, rather lustrous, and 
nearly destitute of bloom, with a thin skin, and tender juicy subacid yellow flesh adherent to the turgid 
stone, which is more or less thick-margined on the ventral, and conspicuously grooved on the dorsal 

suture. 

Prunus angustifolia is widely naturalized, especially in the southern Atlantic and Gulf states, in all 
the region from southern Delaware and Kentucky to central Florida, eastern Kansas and eastern Texas. 
Occupying the margins of fields and other waste places near human habitations, usually in rich soil, it 



26 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



appears like an escape from cultivation rather than an indigenous plant ; and its origin and true home 

are still uncertain.^ 

The wood o£ Primus angustifolia is heavy, although rather soft and not strong ; it is light brown 

or redj with lighter colored sapwood and many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0,6884, a cubic foot weighing 42.90 pounds. 

The fruit, which varies greatly in quality, like that of all Plum-trees, is often sold in the markets of 
the middle and southern states, and it is eaten raw and cooked, and used for jelHes and preserves.^ 

William Strachey, who accompanied Admiral Sir George Somers to Jamestown, Virginia, where 
he landed in May, 1610, and afterward published an account of the colony, is probably the first author 
to mention the Chickasaw Plum,^ which was not described by any botanist until a hundred and seventy- 
five years later, in 1785, when it was included in the Arhiistum Americanwn by Humphrey Marshall.* 



1 The Chickasaw Plum has been occasionally cultivated a little 
to the north of the region in which it has become naturalized, but 
it has not been able to secure a foothold beyond the northern limits 
of this region, which is coextensive with that occupied by the Taxo- 
dium and several other southern trees. This fact seems to indicate 
a southern origin, as a plant of such peculiarly domestic habits, able 
to follow man everywhere in the south, and to hold its own against 
the native inhabitants of the soil, would have spread through the 
north if it had come originally from a cold region. The shrubby 
Plum of the high plateau east of the Eocky Mountains, which trav- 
elers have believed to be the original of the Chickasaw Plum, is 
probably distinct from this species, and it is not improbable that its 
natural home must be looked for south of the boundary of the 
United States- The fact that when the country was first visited 
by Europeans the Chickasaw Plum was always found in the neigh- 
borhood of Indian settlements in the south, seems to confirm the 
early Indian tradition that the tree had been brought by their an- 
cestors from the region beyond the Mississippi River. It is inter- 
esting to note that the elder Michaus, who resided for several years 



in South Carolina toward the end of the last century, was told 

F 

there that the Chickasaw Plum had been brought from the West 
Indies (Fl. Bor.-Am. I 285). 

2 The fruit of Prunus angustifolia is sold in early summer in the 
markets of some of the cities of the middle states, under the name 
of " Mountain Cherry." Varieties of this tree, selected for the 
excellence of their fruit, are cultivated in the southern states. Of 
these, the best known to pomologists are Pottawattamie, Jennie 
Lucas, Early Red, Caddo Chief, Transparent, and Colleta, although 
many others are in cultivation. 

^ " They have cherries, much like a Damoizin, but for their taste 
and cullour we called them cherries ; and a plomb there is, soni- 
what fairer then a cherrie, of the same relish, then which are sel- 
dome a better eaten." (Ilistorie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia^ 

ed- Major, 118.) 

* According to Loudon, Prunus angustifolia was introduced into 

European gardens in 1806 (Arh. BriL ii. 705). In eastern New 
England it is barely hardy, seldom flowering and never producing 
fruit. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLII. PiiUNus angustifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

3. A fruiting brancK, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A stone, cut transversely, natural size- 
6- An embryo, natural size- 

7. The end of a young leafy stootj natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 




ilva of North America . 





I. 



\ 



/ 



/ 




i 



\ 



C, E :FcLXori del . 



Puxirtfr . 



so 



PRUNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA . 




marsn . 



A.RjxJCJ^eJxx dire.x . 




. R . ToJteur, Pai'is 



EOSACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 27 



PRUNUS ALLEGHANIENSIS. 



Sloe. 



Calyx-lobes entire, puberulous on the outer, tomentose on the inner surface. Fruit 
usually subglobose, dark blue covered with bloom ; stone turgid, acute at the two ends. 
Leaves lanceolate to oblong-ovate. 

L 

Prunus AUeghaniensis, T. C. Porter, Bot. Gazette, ii. 85; Garden and Forest, ili. 428, f. 53. — Watson & Coiilter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 151. 

A small slender tree, occasionally eighteen to twenty feet in height^ with a trnnk which is some- 
times six or eight inches in diameter, and which divides into numerous erect rigid branches ; or more 
often a shrub, usually four or five feet high. The bark of the trunk is dark brown and a quarter of an 
inch thick, the fissured surface broken into thin persistent scales. The branches, when they first appear^ 
are coated with pale pubescence ; this soon disappears and in their first winter they are dark red and 
rather lustrous, later becoming brown or finally nearly black, and are unarmed or sometimes armed with 
stout spinescent lateral spur-Hke branchlets, and are covered with minute pale lenticels. The winter- 
buds are a sixteenth of an inch long, and acuminate or obtuse, the accrescent inner scales scarious, 
oblong-acute, two thirds of an inch long, and bright red at the apex. The leaves are lanceolate to 
oblong-ovate, often long-acuminate and finely and sharply serrate with glandular-tipped teeth, and bear 
at the very base of the blade two large rather conspicuous glands ; when they unfold they are covered 
with soft pubescence, and at maturity are puberulous on the npper surface, and on the lower surface are 
sometimes quite glabrous with the exception of a few hairs in the axils of the veins, or are covered, espe- 
cially along the broad midribs and conspicuous veins, with rufous pubescence ; they are rather thick and 
firm in texture, dark green above and paler below, two to three and a half inches long and two thirds of 
an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, and are borne on slender grooved pubescent or puberulous peti- 
oles which vary from a qxiarter to a third of an inch in length. The flowers, which appear in May with 
the unfolding of the leaves, are half an inch across when fuUy expanded, with slender puberulous pedi- 
cels from one half to two tliirds of an inch in length, arranged in subsessile two to four-flowered umbels. 
The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and pubescent or puberulous on the outer surface, with ovate-oblong- 
lobes rounded at the apex, scarious on the margins, and coated with pale tomentum on the inner surface. 
The petals are pure white, rounded at the apex and contracted at the base into short claws, and in 

4 

fading turn pink. The filaments and pistil are glabrous. The fruit, which is produced in great quanti- 
ties and often quite covers the branches, ripens in the middle of August ; it is borne on stout puberulous 
stems, and is subglobose or slightly oval or pear-shaped, and varies from one third to two thirds of an 
inch in diameter; the skin is thick, rather tough, and dark reddish-purple, covered with a glaucous, 
bloom ; the flesh is yellow, juicy, and austere, and adheres to the thin-walled turgid stone which is two 
thirds as thick as broad, from a quarter of an inch to half of an inch long, pointed at both ends, ridged 
on the ventral edge, and slightly grooved on the other. 

Primus AUeghaniensis is not known to grow spontaneously outside of a small elevated region in 
central Pennsylvania, which extends from the slopes of Tussey's Mountain in the northwestern part of 
Huntingdon County, across Bald Eagle Mountain and Yalley, and over the main range of the Allegha- 
nies into Clearfield and Elk Counties, and has a north and south range of only twenty or thirty miles. 
It grows in low moist soil, where it forms shrubby thickets, sometimes of considerable extent, and on the 



28 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



dry ridges of the so-called " barrens " ^ of Huntingdon County, where it occasionally assumes the habit of 
a tree, associated usually with the Wild Crab-apple, the Scarlet Haw, the Bear Oah, the Black Oak, the 
Pig-nut, and the Eed Cedar, reaching its largest size on the limestone bluffs north of the Little Juniata 

Eiver.^ 

The wood of Prunus Alleghaniensis is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with many thin medullary 

rays ' it is brown tinged with red, with thin pale sapwood composed of ten or twelve layers of annual 

o^rowth; when absolutely dry the specific gravity is 0.7073, a cubic foot weighing M.13 pounds. 

The fruit is collected in large quantities, and is made into excellent preserves, jelHes, and jams, 
which have a considerable local consumption. 

Primus Alleghaniensis was first distinguished by Mr. J. R. Lowrie^ of Warriorsmark, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1859 ; and the first account of it was published by Professor Thomas C. Porter^ in 1877. It 
was introduced into the gardens of Lafayette College at Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1885, by Professor 
Porter, through whose agency it has now become an inhabitant of the Arnold Arboretum. 

As an ornamental shrub or small tree, Prunus Alleghaniensis deserves a place in the garden for 
its abundant flowers and handsome fruit ; this also possesses considerable culinary value, and, like that 
of other Plum-trees, will probably be improved by selection and cultivation. 



1 The name '^barrens" is given to a plateau some twelve hun- 
dred feet above tide-water. It is ten or twelve miles broad and 
lies north of the Little Juniata River between Tussey's Mountain on 
the east and Bald Eagle Mountain on the west. The soil is sandy 
and underlaid by limestone which crops out in many places, with 
many extensive beds of iron ore in the troughs of the limestone. 
The soil, however, is by no means sterile, and when properly culti- 
vated yields good crops, 

^ There is preserved in the Herbarium of Columbia College a 
specimen of a Prunus collected in Alabama many years ago by Mr, 
S. B. Buckley, and referred by Torrey & Gray {FL N, Am, i, 408) 
to their var, j3- of Prunus maritima^ and, in the same collection, a 
specimen of what is described as *'a small tree ten to fifteen feet 
high ; fruit oval, small, blue, glaucous, very austere to the taste," 
and which was seen many years ago in Lincoln County, North Caro- 
lina, by Mr, M. A. Curtis, who mentions it m his report of the trees 
of that state (Rep. Geolog. Surv, iV. Ca7\ 1860, iiL 56). It is possible, 
as Professor Britton is inclined to believe, that these Specimens 
represent a southern form of Prunus Alleghaniensis ; but they are 
without flowers, and hardly suffice to justify the extension of the 
range of the species, of which no other trace has been found in the 
now well explored region of the southern Alleghany Mountains. 

s Jonathan Roberts Lowrie (1825-1885) ; a native of Butler, 
Pennsylvania, and the son of Walter Lowrie, a senator of the 
United States from Pennsylvania, graduated from Jefferson Col- 
lege in 1843 and devoted himself to the study of law, first prac- 
ticing his profession at Hollidaysburg in Blair County, and then at 
Warriorsmark in Huntingdon County, at the foot of the eastern 
slope of the Alleghany Mountains, Here he passed the remainder 
of his life, occupied in the management of large business interests, 
which, however, left him leisure to devote himself to a critical 
study of the local flora. Lowrie's love of trees and shrubs, which 



is said to have amounted to a passion, led him to establish a large 
and interesting arboretum in his park at Warriorsmark, where 
many noble trees bear witness to his knowledge and skill. 

^ Thomas Conrad Porter, D-D,, LL. D., was born at Alexandria, 
Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, January 22, 1822, and graduated 
from Lafayette College in 1840, and from Princeton Theological 
Seminary in 1843. His father was a Presbyterian elder of more 
than fifty years standing, a man of influence and note, whose 
father came to Pennsylvania from Donachedy, Ireland, late in the 
last century. His maternal great-grandfather, John Conrad Bucher, 
of a German-Swiss family from the canton of Sehaffhausen and a 
minister of the Reformed Church, emigrated to America in 1755 
and died in 1780, the pastor of a congregation at Le"banon, Penn- 
sylvania. Thomas C, Porter served a mission-church in Monticello, 
Alabama, for one year, and for another year was pastor of the 
Second Reformed Church of Reading, Pennsylvania. He then 
became successively professor of natural science in Marshall Col- 
lege, in Franklin and Marshall College, and in Lafayette College, 
where he has occupied the chair of botany since 1866. For nearly 
forty years Professor Porter has devoted particular attention to 
the flora of his native state, and he has built up the great collec- 
tion of Pennsylvanian plants now preserved in the Herbarium of 
Lafayette College- He is the author of many papers relating to 
botany, including A Catalogue of the Plants of Lancaster County^ 
Pennsylvania^ published in Mombert's history of the county in 
1869 ; A Sketch of the Botany of Pennsylvania^ in Walling & 
Gray's Topographical Atlas, published in 1872 ; A Sketch of the 
Botany of the United States, in Gray's Atlas, published in 1873 ; A 
List of the Carices of Pennsylvania^ published in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1887 ; and of vari- 
ous papers relating to the flora of Colorado and other western ter- 
ritories, included in the reports of government surveys. 



J 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CLIII. Pkunus Alleghaniensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A stone cut transversely, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



«.- ^ 



Silva of North Am 



erica 




CLIII.' 



; 




aazoTL 



del 



m. 






■rnelif' sc , 



PRUNUS ALLEGHANIENSIS , Porter 



^•■pV 



A . Rw oreuX' dvrejc^ 



Imp . R , Tajte^wr^ Pcuris 



^o&ACEM. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 31 



PRUNUS SUBCORDATA. 



Wild Plum, 



Calyx-lobes pubescent or puberulous. Stone flattened or turgid, pointed at the 
two ends. Leaves broadly ovate to orbicular. 

Prunus subcordata, Bentliam, Fl. Hartweg. 308. — Wal- Bot, Oal. i. 167 (in part).— J. G. Lemmon, Fittonia, ii. 

pers, Ann. ii. 464. — Torrey, Pacific B. R. Rep. iv. 82. — 68. — Greene, Fl Francis. 49 ; Garden and Forest, iv. 

Newberry, Facific R. M. Rep. vi. 73. — Brewer & Watson, 255. 

A small tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, 
dividing, six or eight feet from the ground, into stout almost horizontal branches ; or often a shrub, 
with stout ascending stems ten or twelve feet tall, or a low scraggy much branched bush. The bark of 
the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, gray-brown, deeply fissured, and divided into long thick plates, 
their surface broken into minute persistent scales. The young branchlets are glabrous or pubescent, 
and are covered with bright red bark marked by occasional minute pale lenticels, and in their second 
year become darker red or purple, ultimately turning dark brown or ashy gray. The winter-buds are 
acute and an eighth of an inch long, and are covered with chestnut-brown scales with scarious margins, 
those of the inner rows accrescent with the young shoots and at maturity a quarter of an inch in length, 
oblong, acute, and generally bright red. The leaves are broadly ovate or orbicular, usually cordate, 
sometimes truncate, or rarely cuneate at the base, and are sharply and often doubly serrate; when they 
unfold they are puberulous on the upper, and pubescent on the under surface, and at maturity they are 
glabrous or more or less puberulous below, an inch to three inches long, half an inch to two inches 
broad, slightly coriaceous, dark green on the upper, and pale on the lower surface, with broad midribs, 
grooved on the upper side, and conspicuous veins. The stipules are lanceolate, acute, glandular-serrate, 
and caducous. In autumn at the north the leaves assume, before falling, brilHant scarlet and orange or 
red and yellow colors.^ The flowers, which appear before the leaves in March or April, are two thirds 
of an inch across and are produced in subsessile two to four-flowered umbels on slender glabrous or 
pubescent pedicels which vary from a quarter to one half of an inch in length. The calyx is campanu- 
late and glabrous or puberulous, with oblong-ob ovate lobes rounded at the apex, pubescent on the 
■outer, and more or less covered with pale hairs on the iuner surface, and half the length of the white 
petals which are obovate, rounded above and contracted at the base into short claws, and in fading turn 
rose-color. The filaments and ovary are glabrous, and the slender style is funnel-shaped at the apex. 
The fruit, which ripens in August or September, is oblong and from half an inch to an inch and a 
quarter in length, and is borne on a stout stem from half an inch to two thirds of an inch in length ; 
the skin is dark red or rich purple or sometimes bright yellow ; the flesh is more or less succulent, 
.subacid, often of exceUent flavor, and adherent to the flattened or turgid stone, which is acute at the two 
ends, narrowly wing-margined on the ventral edge, conspicuously grooved on the other, and from a 
third of an inch to an inch in length.^ 

Prunus subcordata inhabits the region west of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains from 



1 E. W. Hammond, Garden and Forest, iii. 626. orljicular or elliptical leaves wedge-shaped at the base, and yellow 

2 J. G-. Lemmon distinguishes (Pittonia, ii. 67) as variety Kelloggii, ovate juicy fruit an inch or more in length. (See Hutddng's Mag- 
.a form of Prunus subcordata first noticed many years ago by Dr. azine, v. 7. — Wiekson, California Fruits and How to Grow Them, 
Albert Kellogg, and common in Sierra County and at the base of ed. 2, 51. — Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 49.) 

Mount Shasta, California, with ashy gray branches, nearly glabrous 



32 SILVA OF NOETH AMEBIC A, rosacea 

southern Oregon to central California. It is found in the neighborhood of streamSj sometimes forming 
thickets of considerable extent^ on dry rocky hills and in open woodsj and is most common in southern 
Oregon and northern California, and there produces the best and most abundant fruit, reaching its great- 
est size on the borders of small streams, in deep rich rather moist soil, where it grows with the Oregon 
White Oak, the Choke Cherry, the Oregon Hawthorn, the Crab-apple, and various species of Cornel. 
In central California, where Frunus siibcordata is common on the foothills of the coast ranges, and 
often ascends to considerable elevations on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, it is usually a low 
shrub, producing sparingly small acid fruit. 

The wood of Frtmiis siibcordata is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface susceptible 
of taking a good polish. It is pale brown, with thin Hghter colored sapwood composed of five or six 
layers of annual growth, and contains many thin inconspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6412, a cubic foot weighing 40.01 pounds. 

The fruit of Frunus siibcordata is collected in Oregon and northern California, and is consumed 
in large quantities both fresh and dried, and is used for preserves and jellies.^ 

The first botanists who explored Oregon and California failed to notice the Wild Plum, and it 
was not known until 1836 or 1837, when Karl Theodore Hartweg ^ found it in the upper valley of the 

r 

Sacramento River. 

r 

1 In northern California, where for several years some attention It has also been found useful as stock upon which to graft varieties' 

has been paid to improving it, Prunus suhcordata produces in cuUi- of the European Plums. (See Kep. Cal Agric, Soc, 1858, 183. — 

vation more abundant crops of larger fruit than are borne on the Pacific Rural PresSy iv. 163, 198. — Wicksou, California Fruits and 

wild trees ; and the quality of the fruit of selected seedlings shows How to Grow Them^ ed. 2, 52,) 
that valuable garden varieties can be obtained from this species. ^ See ii- 34* 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLTV". Pkunus subcordata. 

!• A flowering branch, natural size* 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

3. A fruiting branchj natural size. 

4- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size- 

5, 6, and 7. Stones, natural size. 

8- An embryo, enlarged. 

9, Winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of' 




rth 




.rnerica 



»!' 



Tah . CLI 



T 



\ 



/ 




ii 



C. E. Faxvrh del . 



Jrlurieiy sc^ 



PRUNUS SUBGORDATA 




en 



1- 




A . Ri/yoreuai^ di^rex^ 




rap . R, Tojx&ur^ Pcbris 



/ 



ROSACEA. SILVA OF NORTH AMEFdCA. 33 



PRUNUS UMBELLATA. 



Sloe. Black Sloe. 



Calyx-lobes entire, glabrous or pubescent on the outer, tomentose on the inner 
surface. Fruit black covered Avith bloom. Leaves obovate -lanceolate to oblong. 

* 

Prunus umbellata, Elliott, Sk. i. 541. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. ? Prunus pumila, Walter, Fl Car.^ 146 (not Linneeus). 
44. — Chapman, Fl. 119. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Cerasus umbellata, Torrey & Gray, Fl. JSf. Am. i. 409. — 
10th Census U. S. is. 67. Eoemcr, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 78. 

A tree, sometimes fifteen or twenty feet in height, with a short often crooked or inclining trunk 
six to ten inches in diameter, and slender unarmed branches which form a wide compact flat-topped 
head ; or frequently a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, the dark brown 
surface separating into small appressed persistent scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are 
more or less densely coated for a short time with pale pubescence ; they soon become glabrous and are 
covered with a lustrous bright red bark which, in their second year, is dark brown and lustreless, and 
is marked with occasional orange-colored oblong lenticels. The winter-buds are a sixteenth of an inch 
long and are protected by acute chestnut-brown apiculate scales ; those of the inner rows lengthen with 
the young shoots and at maturity are a quarter of an inch in length and red-tipped. The leaves are 
ob ovate-lanceolate to oblong, acute at both ends or sometimes rounded or slightly cordate at the base^ 
finely and sharply serrate with remote incurved glandular teeth, and usually furnished with two large 
dark glands at the very base of the blade ; when they unfold they are bright bronze-green with red 
margins, midribs, and petioles, and are membranaceous, glabrous on the upper surface, and pubescent or 
glabrous on the lower with the exception of a few hairs along the prominent orange-colored midribs and 
primary veins ; at maturity they are two to two and a half inches in length and an inch to an inch and 
a half in breadth, membranaceous, dark green above and paler below, and are borne on stout glabrous 
or pubescent petioles. The stipules are lanceolate, setaceous, glandular-serrate, from one fourth to two 
thirds of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers, which expand in March and April before the 
appearance of the leaves, are two thirds of an inch across and are borne on slender glabrous pedicels 
half an inch long, in three or four-flowered subsessile umbels. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, 
glabrous or puberulous on the outside, with acute red tipped lobes sometimes slightly cleft at the apes, 
scarious on the margins, and coated on the inner surface with thick white tomentum. The petals are 
nearly orbicular and are contracted at the base into short claws. The filaments and pistil are glabrous. 
The fruit, which ripens from July to September, is borne on a slender stem which varies from half an 
inch to nearly an inch in length ; it is globose without a basal depression, half an inch in diameter, and 
is tipped with the remnant of the style ; the skin is tough, thick, and bright red when the fruit is 
first fully grown, but black or nearly so when it is ripe, and then covered with a glaucous bloom ; the 
flesh is thick and acid and adheres to the flattened stone, which is half as thick as it is broad, acute at 
both ends, slightly rugose, conspicuously ridged on one margin and slightly grooved on the other, with 

thin and brittle walls. 

Friimis umbellata is distributed through the maritime portions of the southern Atlantic and Gulf 

states from South Carolina to Mosquito Inlet in Florida, and from Tampa Bay to eastern Mississippi ; 

it reappears on the banks of the Mississippi Eiver near Baton Kouge, Louisiana, and is scattered 

through the valley of the Eed River from Alexandria to Shreveport, Louisiana, and to near Camden 

in southern Arkansas, It grows on the rich sandy bottom-lands of rivers and large creeks, and along 



34 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA, 



the borders of tlie forests of LongJeaved Pine^ which it enlivens in the early days of spring with its 
profusion of pure white flowers. 

The wood of Primus umhellata is heavy, hard^ and close-grained, with many thin medullary rays ; 
it is dark red-brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood composed of about thirty layers of annual growth. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8202, a cubic foot weighing 51.11 pounds. 

The fruit is gathered in large quantities and is used in making jellies and jams. 

Prunus umhellata appears to have escaped the notice of the botanists who explored the flora of 
the southern states during the last century, and was first distinguished by Stephen Elliott, who pub- 
lished the earliest account of it in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia} 



^ It is remarkable that this very distinct and common plant, 
which in early spring is a most attractive and conspicuous feature 
of the coast region of Georgia and northern Floridaj should have 
been overlooked by such keen observers as Catesby, John and Wil- 
liam Bartram, and the two Michauxs, who were all familiar with 



this region and who traveled several times through a portion of it 
at least. Elliott considered the Prunus pumila of Walter (FL Car. 
146) identical with his Prunus umhellata^ but Walter^s description is 
so meagre and vague that the identity of his plant is very doubtful. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE, 



Plate CLV, Peunus umbellata. 

!• A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, part of the fl,esli removed; natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a stone^ enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged, 
7- A stone, natural size- 

8. Part of a leafy young branchlet with stipules, natural size- 



•, 




X 

ilva of North America. 



I 



V \ 



Tab. CLV 



^ 



^ 




V 



V 



-O 



C, E.Faxon del. 



\ 




r . <fO. 



y 



PRUNUS UMBELLATA Ell 



r 



A - Rw crtiux dir &x ^ 




) . R. Tan^jir Pa/'Ls 



\ 



, \. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



35 



PRUNUS PENNSYLVANIOA. 

L 

Wild Red Cherry. Bird Cherry. 

Calyx-lobes obtuse, entire. Stone oblong. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long- 



pointed. ' 

Prunus Pennsylvanica, LiniiEeus £. Syst. ed. 13, Suppl. 
252. — Willdenow, Berl Baums, 248 ; Spec. il. pt. ii. 
992 ; Enum. 518. —Abbot, Insects of Georgia, i. t. 45. — 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 673. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 35. — 
Pursh, i^Z, Am. Sept. i. 33L — Nuttall, Gen. i. 302.— 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 477. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 73. — Diq- 
Uioh.^ Syn. iii. 42. — Chapman, Fl. 120. — Curtis, Rep. 
Geolog. Surv. N. Car, 1860, iii. 57. — Koch, Dendr. i. 
117. — Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 21. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 513. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census X7. S. ix. QQ. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bat. 
77. — Watson &, Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 152. 

Prumis-Cerasus montana, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 113. 

Prunus lanceolata, "Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 240, t. 3, f . 3. 

Cerasus borealis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 286. — TVom- 
veau Diihamely v. 32. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 
159, t. 8. -De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 538. — Don, Gen. 



Sifst. ii. 513. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 703, f. 410.— 
Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 78. 

Prunus borealis, Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 674. — Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. 1. 330. — W. P. C. Barton, Compend. Fl. Phil. 
i. 223. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 302. — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 
1598. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston, ed. 2, 193. 

Prunus persicifolia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 205. 

Cerasus Pennsylvanica, Loiselcur, JVonveau Duhamel, 
V. 9. — De CandoUe, ProtZr. ii. 539. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. i. 168. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 514. — Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. JSr. Am. i. 409. — Gray, Forest Trees N. Am. t. 48. 

Cerasus persicifolia, Loiseleur, Nouveau Dufiamel, v. 9. ~ 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 530. — De Can- 
doUe, Prodr. ii. 537. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 513. — Spach, 
Hist. Veg. i. 411. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. m. 81. ~ 
Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1869, 272, f. 63. 



A tree^ with bitter aromatic bark and leaves, thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk often 
twelve or eighteen inches in diameter, and regidar slender horizontal branches which form a narrow 
head usually more or less rounded at the summit ; or, at the extreme northern and western limits of its 
range, often a low shrub. The bark of the trunk, which varies from one third to one half of an inch in 
thickness, separates horizontally into broad persistent papery plates with a dark red-brown surface 
marked with irregular horizontal bands of orange-colored lenticels, and is smooth on young stems or 
branches but on old trees is broken into minute persistent scales. The branches, when they first 
appear, are light red and sometimes slightly puberulous ; they soon become glabrous, and in their first 
winter are bright red, lustrous, and covered with pale excrescences ; in their second year short thick 
lateral spur-like branchlets are developed, and the outer bark, which has now lost its lustre and is 
marked by bright orange-colored lenticels, is easily separable from the brilliant green inner bark. The 
leaves are oblong-lanceolate, sometimes shghtly falcate, long pointed and finely and sharply serrate with 
incurved teeth often tipped with minute glands ; for a short time after they first unfold they are bronze- 
green, pilose on the lower surface and slightly viscid ; they soon become green and glabrous, and at 
maturity are bright and lustrous on the upper, and rather paler on the lower surface, three to four and 
a half inches long and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, and are borne on 
slender glabrous or slightly pilose petioles which vary from half an inch to nearly an inch in length, 
and are often glandular above the middle. The stipules are acuminate, glandular-serrate, and early 
deciduous. The leaves in autumn turn a bright clear yellow some time before falling. The flowers, 
which appear in early May when the leaves are haK grown, or at the extreme north and at high eleva- 
tions as late as the first of July, are half an inch across when expanded, and are borne on slender 
pedicels nearly an inch in length collected in four or five-flowered umbels, which are generally clustered 
two or three together and are subsessile when the flowers expand, but ultimately stalked. The calyx- 
tube is glabrous, broadly obeonic with obtuse lobes tipped with red and reflexed at maturity, and is 



36 SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. rosacea. 

marked in the mouth of the throat with a conspicuous light orange-colored band. The petals are 
creamy white^ a quarter of an inch long, nearly orbicular, and contracted at the base into short claws. 
The filaments and pistil are glabrous. The fruit, which ripens between the first of July and the first of . 
September, is globular, a quarter of an inch in diameter, tipped with the remnant of the style, and light 
red with a thick skin, thin sour flesh, and an oblong stone which has thin brittle walls and is ridged 
on the ventral margin. 

Primus Pennsylvanica is distributed from Newfoundland to the shores of Hudson's Bay and west 
to the eastern slopes of the coast range of British Columbia in the valley of the Erazer River,* and 
south through the northern states to Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois, and central 
Iowa. It is common on the high mountains of North Carolina, on the eastern slopes of the Eocky 
Mountains of Colorado, and in all the forest regions of the extreme northern states, growing in moist 
rather rich soil, reaching its greatest size on the western slopes of the Big Smoky Mountains in Tennes- 
see, and often occupying, to the exclusion of other trees, large areas cleared by fire of their original 
forest covering.^ 

The wood of Primus Pennsylvanica is light, soft, and close-grained, with numerous medullary rays. 
It is light browiij with thin yellow sapwood^ and when absolutely dry has a specific gravity o£ 0,5023^ a 
cubic foot weighing 31»30 pounds. 

The fruit is often used domestically and by herbalists in the preparation of cough-mixtures. 

Prumis Pennsylvanica ^ was first introduced into English gardens in 1773 ^ by Lee & Kennedy^ 
nurserymen at Hammersmith^ although it was not described until eight years later ; and it was estab- 
lished in the Botanical Gardens of Berlin toward the end of the last century.^ It grows rapidly in 
cultivation^ and is a handsome and shapely although short-lived treCj and in early spring is conspicuous 
for the great quantity of flowers which cover its branches. 



^ Maeoun, Cat Can, PL i, 125. important part in the reproduction and preservation of tlie forests. 

^ The ease with whicli the seeds of Prurms Pennsylvanica are (See Miehaux f- Hist. Arh, Am. iii. 160. — Robert Douglas, Garden 

disseminated by birds and mountain streams, their vitality and and Forest^ ii. 285.) 

power of germination in soil where the upper layers of humus have ^ In some parts of the country Prunus Pennsylvanica is also called 

been destroyed by fire, and the rapid growth of the young plants, Pin Cherry and Pigeon Cherry, 

which soon form a covering for longer lived trees, constitute the ^ Aiton, HorL Kew. ed. % iii, 198, 

chief value and interest of this plant, which, in the northern part ^ Willdenow^ BerL Baumz. 248, 
of the country east of the mid-continental plateau, has played an 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLVI- Prujj^us PenjvSylvanica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
3- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged- 

6. An embryo, enlarged, 

7. Portion of a leaf with stipules, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



y% 



■%' 



■ 

Silva of North America 



Ta'b. CLVI. 



^ 




8 



k 



5 




6 




C.E.FcwcoTv deL 



t 



Picartjr. so 



PRUNUS PENNSYLVANICA, L.F. 



ji.Biocreua> dires>. 



Irnp. By. Taneur, Paris 



*'°^^°^^- SILVA OF HOSTS AMERICA. 2,1 



PRUNUS EMARGINATA. 

Wild Cherry. 

Calyx-lobes rounded or sometimes emarginate. Stone ovoid, pointed at the two 
ends. Leayes oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, usually rounded at the apex. 

Prunus emargmata,Walper8,^ei>.ii. 9. — Dietrich, Syn. 714. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 410. — Roemer, 

iii. 42. — Watson, Kinfs Bep. y. 79. — Torrey, Bot. Fam. Nat. Syn. iix. l^. — Tovvey, Pacific B. R. Eep.iY. 

Wilkes Explor. Exped. 284. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. 83. — Bolander, Proc. Col. Acad. Iii. 79. 

Cal. i. 167. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Cerasus erecta, Presl, Epimel. Bot. 194. 

U. S. is. 67. Prunus erecta, Walpers, Ann. iii. 854. 

■Cerasus emarginata, Douglas ; Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. Cerasus Pattoniana, Carri^re, Bev. Sort. 1872, 135, f . 17. 

169. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 515. — Loudon, Arb, Brit. ii. Cerasus glandulosa, Kellogg, Froc. Cal. Acad. i. 59. 

A tree^ with exceedingly bitter bark and leaves, thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk twelve 
to fourteen inches in diameter, dividing into a number of slender rather upright branches which form a 
symmetrical oblong head; or often a shrub with spreading stems three to ten feet tall. The bark of 
the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, with a generally smooth dark brown surface marked by horizon- 
tal Hght gray interrupted bands, and by rows of oblong orange-colored lenticular excrescences. The 
branches, when they first appear, are coated with pale pubescence, and are slender and flexible ; in their 
first winter they are covered with dark red-brown bark marked by many minute dots, and in their second 
season, when they develop short lateral branchlets, with bright red bark conspicuously marked by large 
pale lenticels. The winter-buds are acute, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with chestnut-brown 



scales often slightly scarious on the margins ; those of the inner ranks are acuminate at maturity, glandular- 
serrate above the middle, scarious, and nearly half an inch in length, with bright red tips. The leaves 
are oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, rounded, and usually obtuse or sometimes acute at the apex, the two 
forms appearing occasionally on the same branch; they are narrowed at the base, which is generally 
iurnished with one or two and sometimes three or four large dark glands, and are serrate, the minute 

I 

teeth tipped with short subulate glandular points ; when they unfold they are puberulous or pubescent 
■on the lower surface and slightly viscid, and when fully grown are glabrous or pubescent on the 
lower surface, one to three inches long and from one third of an inch to one and a half inches broad, 
dark green above, paler below, and borne on short stout grooved and usually pubescent petioles. The 
:stipules are lanceolate-acuminate, glandular- serrate, and early deciduous: The flowers, which appear 
when the leaves are about half grown, at the end of April at the level of the ocean or as late as the 
end of June at high elevations, and which when expanded vary from one third to one half of an inch 
in diameter, are produced in six to twelve-flowered glabrous or pubescent corymbs an inch to an inch 
and a half in length, on slender pedicels from the axils of foliaceous glabrous glandular-serrate bracts. 
The calyx-tube is obconic, glabrous, or puberulous on the outer surface, and bright orange-colored in 
the throat, with sh(5rt lobes rounded or emarginate or somewhat cleft at the apex, sometimes slightly 
glandular on the margins, and reflexed at maturity. The petals are white faintly tinged with green, 
obovate, rounded or emarginate at the apex, and contracted below into short claws. The ovary ^ and 
filaments are glabrous, and the style, which enlarges into a stout clavate stigma, is sometimes shghtly 
glandular. The fruit, which ripens from June to August, is globose, from one fourth to one half of an 
inch in diameter, and more or less translucent, and when first fully grown is bright red, becoming 

1 In nortlieastern Idaho Professor Greene found bipistillate flowers of this species, with two drupes from each flower {Garden and 
Forest, iv. 243). 



38 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEiB. 



darker and almost black when ripe ; the flesh is thin, bitter, and astringent ; the stone is ovoid and 
pointed at both ends, with a prominent grooved ridge on the ventral margin, and is rounded and 
slightly grooved on the other, with thick brittle and sHghtly pitted walls.^ 

Primus emarginata is distributed from the valley of the upper Jocko Eiver in Montana ^ along the 
mountain ranges of Idaho and Washington and of southern British Columbia to Vancouver Island ^ 
and through western Oregon and northern California and along the coast ranges to the neighbor- 
hood of the Bay of San Francisco, and on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
where it sometimes reaches an elevation of five or six thousand feet, to the Yosemite Valley ; it is 
common on the Santa Lucia and San Bernardino Mountains * in California : on the eastern slopes 
of the Sierras it ranges to the shores of Lake Tahoe and the neighborhood of Carson City,^ and it 
occurs on the Washoe Mountains " in Nevada. Prumis e^narginata grows usually near the banks of 
streams in low rich soil, or less commonly on dry hill-slopes, attaining its best dimensions on Vancouver 
Island, in western Oregon and Washington, and on the Santa Lucia Mountains of California, where, at 
elevations of from three to four thousand feet, it becomes a tree sometimes forty feet in height ; on the 
coast ranges of middle California and on the Sierra Nevada Mountains it is commonly a shrub fiye to 
eight feet highJ 

The wood of Prumis emarginata is close-grained, soft, and brittle, and contains numerous thin 
medullary rays ; it is brown streaked with green, with paler sapwood composed of eight or ten layers 
of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4502, a cubic foot weighing 
28.06 pounds. 

The fruit is said to have been eaten by the Indians of the northwestern coast.^ 

Primus emarginata was discovered in the valley of the Columbia River in 1825 by David Doug- 
las.^ It is cultivated as a shade tree in the streets of Portland, Oregon, where it attains the height 
of forty feet, and assumes the habit of" the common European Cherry-tree ; ^^ in 1881 it was introduced 

from Oregon into the Arnold Arboretum, where it is perfectly hardy, flowering and ripening its fruit 
every year." 



^ Prunus emarginata varies in the amount of pubescence which 
clothes the young shoots, the lower surface of the foliage, and the 
inflorescence. At the north it is more often pubescent than gla- 
brous, and the pubescent form is not uncommon on the mountains 
of southern California. It has been distinguished as — ■ 

Var. mollis, Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 167. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S. Ix. 67. — Maeoun, Cat, Can. PI. 
i. 125. 

Cerasus mollis, Douglas ; Hooker, Ft. Bor.-Am. i. 164. — Hooker, 
Lond. Jour. Bot. vi. 217. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 515. — Torrey & 
Gray, Ft. N. Am. i. 410. —Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 714. — Nuttall, 
Sylva, ii. 14, t. 46. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 79. — Cooper, 
Pacific U. U. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 29, 59 ; Am. Nat. iii. 406. — Lyall, 
Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 131. 

'Prunus mo^^fs, Walpcrs, Rep. ii. 9. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 42. — Tor- 
rey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 284. — Maeoun, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
Can. 1875-76, 194. 

2 Here it was found in 1883 by Canby and Sargent. 
^ Maeoun, I. c. 513. 

^ The pubescent form of Prunus emarginata was discovered in 
Bear Valley in June, 1885, by Mr. S. B. Parish. 



^ Here it was collected in 1864 by Dr. C. L. Anderson. 

^ Teste Watson, King's Rep. v. 79. 

' The shrubby glabrous Cherry-tree of central California is con- 
sidered by Professor Greene a species, to which he has given the- 
name of Cerasus Califomica {FL Francis, i. 50. — Garden and For- 
est, iv. 243). Numerous forms appear to connect this plant with 
the arborescent form of the north and of the Santa Lucia Mountains 
in the south, and its shrubby habit, small leaves, and more astringent. 
fruit are perhaps the result of the peculiar climatic conditions to- 
which it has been subjected. 

^ R. Brown (Campst.), TVans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, ix. 383. 

9 See ii. 94. 

10 Greene, Garden and Forest, iv. 243. 

11 Prunus emarginata was probably introduced into Scotch gar- 
dens by the Scotch collector John Jeffrey in 1851 or 1852, as at 
that time he sent the seeds of many of the plants of our northwest-- 
ern coast to the members of the so-called Oregon Expedition, whose 
agent he was. It was sent from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden to 
the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris in 1865, as Prunus Patto- 
niana, a name which does not appear to have been published (Car- 
ri^re, Rev, Hort 1872, 135). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLVIL Peunus emakginata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A stone, enlarged. 

6. Part of a leafy branch showing stipules^ natural size. 
7- A winter branchlet^ natural size. 



u 




ilva of 




or 




-V 




menca. 



' n 



Tab. CLVII 



' I 



7 





\ 




.' 



C . E. Faxon del- 



Pi r. art fr. SCy 



PRUNUS EMARGINATA 




^m 



alD 



^' 



A. Riocreux Ju^ex P 



Imp. R. Taneur^ Pans 



EOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



41 



PRUNUS VIRGINIANA. 

Choke Cherry. Wild Cherry. 

Calyx-lobes deciduous. Stone oblong-ovate, pointed. Leaves broadly oval to 



oblong-obovate, usually abruptly acuminate. 

Prunus Virginiaua, Linneeus, Spec. 473 (excl. syn.). — 
Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 238, t. 5, £. 1 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 
985 ; Enum. 517. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 203. — 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 34. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 70. — Guimpel, 
Otto & Hayne, Ahbild. Holz. 43, t. 36. — Sprengel, Syst. 
ii. 478. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 42. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. 
Bound. Surv. 62. — Koch, Dendr. i. 121. — Chapman, 
Fl. 120. — 'W Sitson, Kin ff's Rep. y. 80. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 518, t. — Brewer & "Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 
167. ■ — -Watson «& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 152. 

Padus rubra, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2. 

Prunus nana, Du Roi, JTarhk. Baumz. ii. 194, t. 4. 

Prunus- Cerasus Canadensis, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 113. 

Prunus rubra, Aiton, Hort. Keiv. ii. 162. — Willdenow, 
Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 299. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, 
Abhild. Eolz. 98, t. 78. 

Padus oblonga, Moench, Meth. 671. 

Prunus serotina, Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 665 (not Ehrhart). — 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 330. — Elliott, Sh. i. 541. — Tor- 
rey, Fl. JSr. Y. i. 196. 

Cerasus Virginiana, Loiseleur, Nouveau DuTiamel, v. 3 
(excl. syn. Michaus). — De Candolle, Prot^r. ii. 539. — 
Spach, Bist. VSg. i. 414. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. iV. Am. i. 
410. — Torrey, Fl. iV. Y. i. 196 ; Nicollefs Rep. 149 ; 
Fremont's Rep. 89; Emory's Rep. 408; Pacific R. R. 



Rep, iv. 83. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 456. — Gray, Man. 

115 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 42. — Darlington, Fl. 

Cestr. ed. 3, 74. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 

30 ; Am. Nat. iii. 406. 
Prunus hirsuta, Elliott, Sk. i. 541. 
Prunus obovata, Bigelow, Fl. Boston, ed. 2, 192. 
Cerasus serotina, Hooker, Fl Bor.-Am. i. 169 (excl. syn. ; 

not Loiseleur). — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 515. 
Cerasus obovata. Beck, Bot. 97. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 

189. 
Cerasus micrantha, Spach, Hist. VSg. i . 414. 
Cerasus densiflora, Spach, Hist. VSg. i. 415. 
Cerasus flmbriata, Spach, Hist. VSg. i. 416. 
Cerasus hirsuta, Spach, Hist. VSg. i. 417. — Eaton & 

Wright, Bot. 190. 

Cerasus Virginiana, var. p. Torrey & Gray, Fl. i. 410. 
Cerasus Duerinekii, Martens, t5eZ. ^em. ^or^. io^a?i. 1840; 
Bull. Bot. Soc. Brux. viii. 68. 

■t 

Prunus Duerinckii, Walpers, Rep. ii. 10. 
Padus fimbriata, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 84, 
Padus densiflora, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 84. 
Padus micrantha, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 84. 
Padus obovata, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 86. 
Padus hirsuta, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 87. 



A tree, with strong-scented bark ^ and leaves, rarely thirty to thirty-five feet in height, with a short 
and often crooked or inchning trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, small erect or horizontal branches, 
and stout branchlets which form a narrow irregular head ; or more often a low shrub. The bark of 
the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, slightly and irregularly fissured, broken on the surface into 
small persistent scales, and often marked by irregular pale excrescences. The branches, when they first 
appear, are light brown, or bronze-green, and glabrous, puberulous, or sometimes pubescent, and in their 
first winter are light brown or brown tinged with red and marked with large oblong lenticels ; in their 
second year they become darker brown, and the tough outer layer of bark is easily separable in horizon- 
tal strips from the bright green inner layers. The winter-buds are acute or obtuse and are covered by 
pale chestnut-brown scales, more or less scarious on the margins and rounded at the apex, those of the 
inner rank accrescent, lanceolate or ligulate, sharply and often glandular-serrate, chartaceous, and from 
haK an inch to an inch in length. The leaves are broadly oval or more or less oblong-obovate, usually 
abruptly acuminate at the apex, wedge-shaped, rounded or subcordate at the base, and sharply and 
often deeply serrate with subulate spreading teeth ; when they unfold they are glabrous with the excep- 



^ The strong disagreeable odor of the inner hark of the branches 
of this species affords the best character for distinguishing it in 
winter from Prunus serotina, the inner bark of which has an aro- 



matic and rather agreeable perfume. The branches of the former 
are usually much stouter than those of the latter. 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMUEICA. 



ROSACEA. 



tion o£ conspicuous tufts of pale Lairs in tlie axils of the principal veins on the lower surface, or are 
puberulous or pubescent ; at maturity they are membranaceous, bright green above, paler and sometimes 
pubescent below, two to four inches in length and an inch to two inches broad, and are borne on slender 
grooved petioles biglandular near the apex, or sometimes, especially on vigorous shoots, many-glandular. 
The stipules are lanceolate, acute, glandular-serrate, half an inch long, and early deciduous. The leaves 
turn yellow in the autumn some time before falling. The flowers, which are from one third to one 
half of an inch in diameter, appear from the first of April in the south to the end of June at the extreme 
north; they are borne on slender glabrous or puberulous pedicels produced from the axils of scarious 
caducous bracts in slender many-flowered erect or nodding racemes three to six inches long. The 
calyx-tube is cup-shaped, glabrous or rarely puberulous, with short broad obtuse reflezed deciduous 
lobes, laciniate or more or less glandular on the margins. The petals are pure white, orbicular, and 
contracted below into short claws. The filaments and pistil are glabrous, and the short thick style is 
abruptly enlarged into a broad orbicular stigma. The fruit, which varies from one fourth to one third 
of an inch in diameter, is globose or occasionally somewhat elongated, bright red when first fully grown, 
and when perfectly ripe is dark vinous red or almost black, or rarely yellow or amber-colored,^ with a 

^ 

thick lustrous skin, dark juicy flesh, and an oblong-ovate stone, broadly ridged on one margin and 
acute on the other. In early autumn the fruit is austere and astringent, but later loses much of its 
astringency and becomes sweet and edible.^ 

Primus Virginiana is the most widely distributed North American tree ; it grows within the 
arctic circle,^ ranging across the continent from Labrador and the shores of Hudson's Bay to the valley 
of the Mackenzie River in latitude 62°, and, crossing the Rocky Mountains, reaches the Pacific coast in 
northern British Columbia ; * it extends southward through eastern North America to southern Georgia, 
Louisiana, Texas, northern Mexico,^ and along the mountain ranges of western North America. In 
the eastern states it is one of the most common of the large tree-like shrubs, growing usually on the 
margins of the forest, generally in rich rather humid soil, and along highways and fence-rows ; in 
southern Oregon and northern California it inhabits low valleys where, in rich moist soil in the neigh- 
borhood of streams, it attains a large size and arborescent habit; on the mountain ranges of the interior 
of the continent, where it is confined to elevated valleys, in southern California, and at the northern and 
southern limits of its range, it is a low shrub. 

The wood ^ of Pruniis Virginiana is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong ; it con- 
tains numerous conspicuous medullary rays, and is light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood 
composed of fifteen to twenty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0,6951j a cubic foot weighing 43-32 pounds. 



^ A yellow-fruited form of Prunus Virginimia (var. leucocarpa^ 
Watson, Bot. Gazette^ siiL 233) was found in Dedham, Massachu- 
setts, a few years ago ; and plants with light-colored fruit are 
sometimes cultivated in Canadian gardens, and in those of nortliern 
Europe (J. Gr. Jack, Garden and Forest^ v- 135). 

^ The western Choke Cherry has usually been considered a spe- 
cies. Extreme forms, especially those of the mid-continental re- 
gions, vary slightly from the eastern plant in the shape of their 
leaves, which are more often rounded or subcordate than cuneate 
at the base, and are sometimes pale on the lower surface, in their 
more abundant and persistent pubescence, and their greater thick- 
ness and consistency- It is not easy, however, to find stable char- 
acters upon which to establish even a geographical variety ; for 
the extreme forms pass insensibly one into the other, showing the 
gradual influence of a dry climate in increasing the thickness and 
the hairy covering of leaves- The synonymy of the western plant 
is as follows ; — 

Prunus demissa, Walpers, Rep. ii. 10- — Dietrich, Syn, iii, 43, — 



Eentham, PL Hartweg. 307- — Torrey, BoU Mex. Bound. Surv. 
63< — Watson, Ei7ig's Hep. v. 80. — Kothrock, PL Wheeler, 37. — 
Brewer & Watson, BoL CaL i. 167. — Macoun, Cat Can. PL i. 
125. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U> S. ix. 69. — 
G-reene, FL Francis. 51, — T. S. Brandegee, Zoe, ii, 157. — Bessey, 
BulL Agric, Exper. Stat, Nehraska, iv. art. iv. 18. 

Cerasu^ serotina^ Hooker, FL Bor^-Am. i. 169 (in part), 

Cerasus demissa^ Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N, Am. i. 411. — 
Torrey, Pacific R. R, Rep. iv. 83. — Newberry, Pacific R. R, Rep. 
vi, 73. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep, xii, pt, ii. 59, 

Padus demissa, Eoemer, Fam, Nat. Syn. iii, 87- 

Prunus Virginiana, var, demissa^ Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. 
Exped, 284. — Gray, Proc. Am., Acad. viii. 381. 

^ Hooker f. Trans, Linn, Soc. xxiii. 290 (^Distribution Arctic PI)- 

^ Macoun, Cat. Can. PI, I 125. 

^ Hemsley, BoL BioL A^n. Cent, i. 368. 

^ The specimen of wood tested in the United States Census in- 
vestigation was taken from a tree grown in southern Oregon. 



ROSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



43 



In Canada the fruit, which is gathered in great quantities and is sold in the markets of the large 
citiesj IS eaten by the French Canadians, and was formerly an important article of food among the 
northern Indians/ as well as among those inhabiting the western and central parts of the continent. 

Primus Virginiana early attracted the attention of European colonists/ although it does not 
appear to have been introduced into European gardens until the middle of the eighteenth century. 

The Choke Cherry is a handsome plant when it is covered with its abundant racemes of pure white 
flowers ; but it is generally disfigured by the Black Knot, which makes it a dangerous neighbor to 
orchards of cultivated Plum-trees. 



1 Eichardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 190. 

2 "The Cherrie trees yeeld great store of Cherries, which grow 
on clusters like grapes ; they be much smaller than our English 
Cherrie, nothing neare so good if they be not very ripe ; they so 
furre the mouth that the tongue will cleave to the roofe, and the 



r 

throate wax horse with swallowing those reel Bullies (as I may call 
them), being little better in taste, English ordering may bring 
them to be an English Cherriej but yet they are as wilde as the 
Indians-" (Wood^ New EnglarKPs Prospect^ pt, i, chap. 5^ 18.) 



/ 



^ ^ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE- 



Plate CLVIII. Prunus Virginiana (fhom Okegon). 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A stone, enlarged- 

6. Part of a leafy branch with stipules, natural size. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



'N, 



^" 



**. 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Tab . CLVI..' 



p ' 



n 



-> 



I 



/ 




V' 



■V 



^A. 



^' 



C-E.Faax)rL deL, 




■/? JO. 



PRUNUS VIRGINIANA.L 



r' 



tt 



ji. HwcreiuD dwe^. 



t 



/ 



Imp. R. ToM^ur^ Farij. 



SOSACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



45 



PRUNUS SEROTINA. 

Rum Cherry. Wild Black Cherry. 

Calyx-lobes persistent. Stone oblong-obovate. Leaves oblong to lanceolate-ob- 



long, usually gradually acuminate 

Prunus serotina, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 20. — "Willdenow, 
Berl. Baumz. 239, t. 5, f. 2 ; Spec, ii. pt. ii. 986 ; Enum. 
517. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v- 531. — 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 34. — Desfontaines, lUst. Arh. ii. 204. — 
Nuttall, Gen. i. 302. — W. R C. Barton, Compend. Fl. 
Phil. i. 222, — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Ahbild. Holz. 
45, t. 37. — Hayne, Dendr. M. 70. — Sprengel, Syst, 
ii. 478. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 43. — Curtis, Hep. Geolog* 
Surv. JSf. Car. 1860, iii. 56. — Chapman, Fl. 120. — Koch, 
Bendr, i. 122. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 515, t. — 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. JSTat Mus. 1882, 66. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. is. 68. — Wat- 
son & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 152. 

Prunus Virginiana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 3 (not Lin- 
neeas). — Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 12 ; Barhk. Baumz. ii. 191. — 
Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 34, t. 14. — Medicus, Bot. 
Beoh. 1782, 345. — Marshall, Arhust Am. 112. — Aiton, 
Hort. Kew. ii. 163. — Walter, Fl. Car. 146. — Poiret, 



Lam. Diet. v. 664. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 329. — Blg- 
elow, m. Boston. 118. — Elliott, Sk. i. 540. — Torrey, Fl. 
U. S. 467. 
Cerasus Virginiana, MichauK, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 285.— 
Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 151, t. 6. — Darling- 
ton, Fl. Cestr. 61. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 169 (excl. 
syn.). — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 515. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 
710, f. 418. 

Cerasus serotina, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhctmel, v. 3. — 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 540. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 416. — 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 410. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. 
ii. 712, f . 419. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 196. — Emerson, 
Trees Mass. 453. — Gray, Man. 115 ; Forest Trees N. 
Am. t. 50. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 75. 

Prunus cartilaginea, Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamh. 1833. 

Padus serotina, Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. t. 14, f. 8. 

Padus Virginiana, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 86. 

Padus cartilaginea, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. SQ. 



A tree, with bitter aromatic bark and leaves, sometimes attaining a height of one hundred feet; 
with a stout straight trunk four to five feet in diameter, and small horizontal branches which form a 
narrow oblong head ; usually much smaller and occasionally, toward the northern limit of its range, of 
shrub-like habit. On fully grown trunks the bark varies from one half to three quarters of an inch in 
thickness and is broken by reticulated fissures into small irregular plates, the surface of which splits 
into thin persistent scales ; it is dark red-brown, or in southern Florida and the coast region of the GuL£ 
states is light gray. The branches are slender and rather rigid, and at first are pale green or bronze- 
green and glabrous ; they soon turn bright red or dark brown tinged with red, and in their first winter 
are red-brown or gray-brown and marked by minute pale lenticels. In the second year the thin tough 
layer of outer bark is bright red and more conspicuously marked, and may be separated readily in hori- 
zontal bands from the brilliant green inner layer. The winter-buds are obtuse or on sterile shoots acute, 
and are covered with bright chestnut-brown broadly ovate scales keeled on the back and apiculate at 
the apex ; those of the inner ranks are persistent on the growing shoots scarious at maturity, acumi- 
nate, and from one half to two thirds of an inch in length. The leaves are oval, oblong, or lanceolate- 
oblong, gradually or sometimes abruptly acuminate, or rarely rounded at the apex, wedge-shaped, or 
occasionally rounded at the base, finely serrate with appressed incurved callose teeth, and furnished at 
the very base of the blade or at the apex of the slender terete petioles with one or more dark red con- 
spicuous glands ; while young they are slightly bearded along the midribs on the lower surface, and are 
often bronze-green, and at maturity they are glabrous, sub coriaceous, dark green, and lustrous on the 
upper, and paler on the lower surface, two to five inches long, and an inch to an inch and half broad, 
with narrow conspicuous midribs deeply grooved on the upper side, and slender veins. The stipules 
are lanceolate, acuminate, glandular- serrate, from one half to three fourths of an inch in length, and 
•early deciduous. In autumn the leaves turn clear bright yellow before falling. The flowers, which are 



46 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



produced on slender glabrous or pubernlous pedicels developed from the axils of minute scarious cadu- 
cous bractS; are borne in erect or ultimately spreading narrow many-flowered racemes, four to six inches 
in length, and appear when the leaves are about half grown, from the end of March in Texas and 
Louisiana to the first week of June in the valley of the St. Lawrence River. They are a quarter of an 
inch across when expanded, with a cup-shaped glabrous or puberulous calyx-tube and short ovate-oblong 
obtuse lobes, slightly laciniate on the margins, reflexed at maturity, and persistent with the stamens 
until after the failing of the fruit, pure white, broadly obovate petals, glabrous filaments and pistil, 
and a thick club-shaped stigma. The fruit, which ripens from June to October, is depressed-globular, 
slightly lobed, from one third to one half of an inch in diameter, dark red when first fully grown and 
almost black when ripe, with a thick skin, dark purple juicy flesh of a pleasant vinous flavor, and 
oblong-ob ovate pointed thin-wafled stones broadly » ridged on the ventral margin and acute on the other. 
Primus serotina is distributed from Nova Scotia westward through the Canadian Provinces to the 
valley of the Kaministiquia River,^ southward through the eastern states to the shores of Matanzas Inlet, 
and Tampa Bay, Florida, and westAvard to the valley of the Missouri River in Dakota, eastern Nebraska 
and Kansas, the Indian Territory and eastern Texas, along the mountain ranges of western Texas, south- 
ern New Mexico, and Arizona, and on those of Mexico and the Pacific regions of Central America, Co- 
lombia, and Peru. In the United States Primus serotina grows usually in rich moist soil, and was once 
common in all the Appalachian region, where, associated with the White Oak, the White Ash, the Blue 
Ash, the Sugar Maple, the Yellow Buckeye, the Hickories, and the Black Birch, it was an important 
element of the forest, reaching its greatest size and beauty on the slopes of the high Alleghany Moun- 
tains from West Virginia to Georgia and Alabama ; sometimes it grows on light sandy soil, and it may 
be found on the rocky cliffs of the New England coast within reach of the spray of the ocean ; in the 
coast region of the southern states it is nowhere common, and does not attain a large size ; and in the 
southwest it is confined to the bottoms of mountain cauonSj at elevations between five thousand and 
seven thousand feet about the level of the sea, and rarely grows to a greater height than twenty or 
thirty f eet.^ 

Primus serotina is one of the most valuable timber trees of the American forests. The wood is 
light, strong, and rather hard, with a close straight grain and a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish ; it is light brown or red, with thin yellow sapwood composed of ten or twelve layers of 



1 Brunetj Cat. PL Can. 43. — Delamare, Kenauld & Cardot, Fl. 
Miquelon. 18.-~Maeoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 126, 513. 

2 Botanists have usually considered the Mexican Cherry-tree a 
distinct species, but it is impossible to find essential characters to 
distinguisl; it from the northern species with which it is connected 
geographically through Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The 
leaves of the Mexican tree are often narrowly lanceolate and acu- 
minate, but this character is by no means constant, and leaves of a 
similar form are not uncommon on northern trees. The persistent 
calyx-lobes which distinguish Prunus serotina from the other species 
of the section Padus are found on the southern as well as on the 

northern trees. The synonymy of the Mexican Cherry-tree is as fol- 
lows : — 

Prunus salicifolia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 
Spec. vi. 241, t. 563. — Kunth, Syn. PL ^quin. iii. 481. — Sprengel, 
Syst. ii. 478. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 368. 

Cerasus Capollin, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 539. — Don, Gen. Syst. 
ii. 515. — London, Arh. Brit. ii. 713, f. 420. — Bentham, PL Hart- 
weg. 10. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 412. —Gray, Smitlsonian 
Contrib. V. 54 {PL Wright, ii.). 

Cerasus salicifolia, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 540. — Spacb, HlsL 
Ve'g. i. 422. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 516. 

Cerasus Capuli, Seringe ; De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 541. — Don, 
Gen. Syst. ii. 516. — Spaeh, FlisL Ve'g. i. 422. 



Prunus Capuli, Cavanilles ; Sprengel, Syst. ii. 477. — Sehlechten- 
dal, Linncea, xiii. 89, 404. — Koch, Dendr. i. 123. — Hemsley, BoU- 
Biol. Am. Cent. i. 367. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 352. i 

Prunus Capulin, Zuccarini, Ahliand. Ahad. Munch, ii. 345, t. 8. — =■ 
Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 87. — Torrey^ Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv.. 
62. — Rushy, BulL Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 53. 

Prunus Canadensis, Mociuo & Sesse, PI. Mex. Icon. ined. 

Laurocerasus salicifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 89. 

Prunus salicifolia, var. acutifolia,Wa.tson, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 411. 

As is generally the ease with individual trees grown in dry cli- 
mates, the wood of the New Mexican Cherry is considerably heavier 
than the average of several specimens from trees which had grown 
in other parts of the United States, the specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood being 0.7879, and a cubic foot weighing 49.10 
pounds. The Mexican Cherry is supposed to be an inhabitant of 
French gardens (Eev. Hort. 1884, 111 ; 1891, 62, f. 19, 20 ; 196. — 
Lavall^e, Arh. Segrez. 115, t. 34), but as the plants which resemble 
in every respect the Wild Cherries of the east are perfectly hardy 
in the neighborhood of Paris and in the Arnold Arboretum, which 
received them from France, they are probably of more northern. 
origin than the French horticulturists believe. In the elevated 
regions of western South America the Mexican Cherry is occasion- 
ally planted as a fruit-tree in the neighborhood of dwellings (Ed. 
Andr^, UAmeriqiie Equinoxiale \_Le Tour du Monde, xxxiv. 46]).. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



47 



.annual growth, but grows darker with exposure to the air. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
AYOod is 0.5822,, a cubic foot weighing 36.28 pounds ; the wood of no other North American tree is 
better colored or more valuable for cabinet-making and the fine interior finish of houses, and the great 
demand for it for these purposes has caused the destruction of the largest and best trees in all parts of 
the country. 

The bark of the Wild Cherry, which contains the bitter principle ^ peculiar to plants of this genus, 
yields hydrocyanic acid when steeped in cold water, and, especially that of the branches and roots, is 
much employed in medicine for infusions, syrups, and fluid extracts, which are used as tonics and seda- 
tives in the treatment of pulmonary consumption and nervous debility.^ The ripe fruit is used domesti- 
cally to flavor alcoholic liquors ; and under the name of capulinos it is sold in the markets of Mexico 
and Central America, where it is eaten fresh or preserved, and is fermented and manufactured into 
a liquor similar to kirschwasser.^ > ^ * 

The records of several early voyagers to the New World mention the Wild Cherry,* and, being 
established in Enghsh gardens before 1629, as John Parkinson records in his Paradisi in Sole Paradi- 
•sus terrestris, it was one of the first American trees cultivated in Europe.^ 

With its tall massive trunk, lustrous foliage, abundant and graceful inflorescence, and handsome 
fruit, the Wild Cherry is one of the stateliest and most beautiful trees of the eastern woods ; and its 
hardiness and ability to thrive under varied climatic conditions and in different soils, its rapid growth, 
and the value of the timber it produces, commend it to the attention of the planters of forests.*^ 



1 Procter, Am. Jour. Pharm.. iv. 197. — Perot, Am. Jour. Pharm. 
ssiv. 750. 

2 B. S.Barton, Coll. ed. 3, 11, pt. ii. 51. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 
288. —Carson, Med. Bot. i. 41, t. 35.— Beutley, Plarm. Jour. v. 
97. — Gobley, Jour. Pharm. et Ckim. xv. 40. — Guibourt, ITisi. 
Drag. ed. 7. iii. 317. — Fllickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacograplia, 
224.— U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 749. —Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1177. — 
Bentley & Trimen, Med. PL ii. 97, t. 97. — Laurence Johnson, 
Man. Med. Bot. N. A. 135, f. 122.— Maiseh, Organic Mat. Ifed.ed. 
4, 184. 

3 Hamelin, Eev. Hort. 1884, 111. 

^ " It naturally yeelds mulberry-trees, cherry-trees, vines aboun- 
'dance ; goosberyes, strawberyes, liurtloberyes, respesses." (A Re- 
latyon of the discovery of our river from James Forte into tlie Maine ^ 
made hy Capt. ChristopJier Newport^ and seveerely written and observed 
hy a gentleman of the colony, Archceologia Americana^ iv. 61 [1607],) 
De Capolhij sen Ceraso dulci Indica, Francisco Hernandez, Hist. 
PL Nov, Hisp, ed. Madrid, 1790, ii. lib. vi. cap. Ixxviii. 



De Capolin sen ceraso dulci^ Nieremberg, Hist. Nat, lib. xv< cap. 
sxi. 343 (cum iconej p. 344). 

"The indigenous fruits consist ... of mulberries, plums, but 
not many, medlars, wild clierries.'' (^Representation from New- 
NetTier-Land^ concerning the Situation^ FruitfulnesSy and poor Condition 
of the same. English ed. Henry C- Murphy, 15.) 

" Wild Cherry^ they grow in clusters like Grapes, of the same 
bigness, blackish red when ripe, and of a harsh taste." (Josselyn, 
New England\s Rarities, 61.) 

^ Laurea Cerasus, sive laurus Virginiana, the Virginian Bay or 
Cherry Bay, 599, t., f , 6. 

Cerasus racemosa^ foliis Amygdalinis^ Americana^ Plukenet, P^yi. t- 
158, f . 4 ; Aim. Bot. 95. 

r 

Cerasus syloestris, fructu nigricante in racemis longis pendulis Phyto- 
lacca instar congestis^ Clayton, Fl. Virgin, 54. — Eoyen, FL Leyd. 
Prodr. 537. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres^ i. 148, 

^ Sargent, Rep. Sec. Board Agric. Mass, xxv. 269, — Naudin, Man- 
uel de V Acclimateur, 198. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLIX. Phukus serotina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower^ enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruity enlarged. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 
6- A stone, enlarged. 

7. Portion of a leafy branch showing stipules^ natural size, 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 




ilva of North Ameri 



i 




Tat 




L 




■* 



\ 



f J 



e- 1 :' : 



8 




-^ 



Ex 



C . E .Faccorh deZ. 



Pi-euT't fr . scy. 



PRUNUS SEROTINA 



Ehrh. 



-'-L 



A , Hincrezur dzrace 



*-> 



\" 




v:R. TcwLeJur, Paris . 



f' 



\ 



ROSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A 



49 



PRUNUS CAROLINIANA. 

Wild Orange. Mock Orange. 

Calyx-lobes rounded at the apex, with undulate margins. Stone broadly ovate, 
cylindrical. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire or rarely remotely spinulose-serrate. 



Prunus Caroliniana, Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 163. — Willde- 

noWj S^6c. ii. pt. ii. 987. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 667. — 

Persoon, Syn. Ii. 34. — Desfontaines, Hist. Ai^b. ii. 203. — 

Nuttail, Gen. i. 302. — Sprengel, Netce Entd. i. 304 ; 

Syst. ii. 478. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 71. — Elliott, Sk. i. 

540. — Audubon, Birds, t. 159, 190. — Sclilechtendal, 

LinncBci, xiii. 89. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 43. — Chapman, 

Fl. 120. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. iV. Car. 1860, iii. 
57. — ■ Koch, Dendr. i. 124. — Sargent, Forest Trees JV- 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 69. 
Padus Caroliniana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6. 
Padus Carolina, Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. ii. 198. 
Prunus-Lauro-Cerasus serratifolia, Marshall, Arbust. 

Am. 114. 
Prunus Lusitanica, Walter, Fl. Car. 146 (not Linnseus). 



Prunus Lusitanioa, var. serratifolia, Castiglioni, Viag. 

negli Stati Uniti, ii. 340. 
Cerasus Caroliniana, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 285. — 

Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 532. — Nouveau 

Duha^melj v. 5. — Michaux, Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 156, 

t. 7. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 540. — Don, Gen. Syst. 

ii. 516. — Spacli, Hist. Veg. i. 420. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. 

ii. 720, f. 423. — Torrey & Gray, Fl, N. Am. i. 411. 
Prunus sempervirens, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 33. 
? Bumelia serrata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 155. — Eoemer 

& Schultes, Syst. iv. 498. 
? Achras serrata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. v. 36. 
Chimanthus amygdalina, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovie. 26. 
Laurocerasus Caroliniana, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

90. 



A tree, thirty to forty feet in height, with a straight or inclining trunk sometimes ten or twelve 
inches in diameter, and small horizontal branches forming a rather narrow oblong or sometimes a 
broadly spreading head. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, and smooth or slightly 
roughened by narrow longitudinal ridges, and is gray, with large irregular dark blotches. The branches 
are glabrous and marked by occasional pale lenticels, slightly angled, at first light green, then bright 
red, and in their second season light brown or gray. The buds are acuminate, an eighth of an inch 
long, and covered with narrow-pointed dark chestnut-brown scales rounded on the back. The leaves, 
which are persistent on the branches until their second year, are oblong-lanceolate, acuminate and 
mucronate, with entire thickened slightly revolute margins, or are rarely remotely spinulose-serrate ; 
they are glabrous, coriaceous, and obscurely veined, with narrow pale midribs deeply grooved on the 
upper side, dark green and lustrous on the upper, and paler on the lower surface, two to four and a 
half inches long, and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half broad, and are borne on stout 
broad orange-colored channeled petioles. The stipules are foliaceous, lanceolate-acuminate, and early 
deciduous. The flowers appear from February to April and are produced, in dense racemes shorter 
than the leaves, on slender club-shaped pedicels from the axils of long acuminate scarious red-tipped 
bracts ; these mostly fall some time before the opening of the flowers, which are cream-colored, and 
have a narrow obconic calyx-tube with small thin rounded deciduous lobes undulate on the margins 
and reflexed after anthesis, minute erect boat-shaped petals, exserted orange-colored stamens with gla- 
brous filaments, large pale anthers, and a glabrous pistil and club-shaped stigma. The fruit ripens in 
the autumn and remains on the branches until after the flowering period of the following year ; it 
is oblong, short-pointed, black, and lustrous, and half an inch long, with a thick skin, thin dry flesh, 
and a broadly ovate pointed cylindrical stone which has an obscure or rudimentary ridge on the ventral 
maro'in, and thin fradle walls. The coat of the seed is thin and papery and dark red-brown like the 
cotyledons which inclose the short radicle. 

Frunus Caroliniana inhabits the southern eoast region, and is distributed from the valley of the 



50 SILVA OF NOETII AMEBIQA, ROSACEyE. 

Cape Fear Eiver to the shores of Bay Biscayne and the valley of the Kissimmee Eiver in Florida, and 
through southern Alabama, Missouri, and Louisiana to the valley of the Guadaloupe River in Texas. It 
grows in deep rich humid bottom-lands, reaching its greatest size in the valleys of eastern Texas, where 
it often forms nearly impenetrable thickets of considerable size ; in the eastern Gulf and Atlantic states 
it is nowhere common and is confined to the islands and the immediate neighborhood of the sea, rarely 
penetrating inland more than fifteen or twenty miles. 

The wood of Primus Caroliniana is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained ; it is light red-brown 
or sometimes rich dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood, a satiny surface susceptible of receiv- 
ing a beautiful polish, and many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.8688, a cubic foot weighing 54.14: pounds. 



Primus Caroliniana contains hydrocyanic acid in considerable quantities, and the partially with- 
ered leaves and young branches have proved fatal to animals browsing upon them.^ 

Primus Caroliniana was first described by Mark Catesby in his Natural History of Carolina,^ 
published in 1731, and was first cultivated in Europe in the Physic Garden at Chelsea by Philip Miller, 
who received it from Catesby in 1759.^ 

The beauty of the foliage * of the Mock Orange, its early and abundant flowers, and the rapidity 
of its growth, make it a favorite garden plant in the southern states, where it has been used from early 
times to decorate the neighborhood of dwellings, and to form hedges, for which purpose it is well 
adapted by its rigid leaves and its power of withstanding the effects of annual prunings.^ 

r 

1 Elliott, Sk. i. 540- which grows about 30 feet high in S- Caroliaa, and from the 

2 Ligustrum Lauri folio, fructu violaceo, i, 61, t. 61. beauty of its evergreen shining leaves is called the Mock-orange ; 
Padus foliis lanceolatis acute denticulatis sempervirentibus, Miller, the fruit of this steeped in brandy makes a fine flavoured ratafie." 

Diet. ed. 7, No. 6- (Stork, An Account of East Florida, Bartram^s Journal, 9, note.) 

^ Alton, HorU Kew, il 163. ^ Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 171. — Nau- 

^ "There is an evergreen sort of this Bird or Cluster-cherry din, Manuel de PAcclimateur, 197. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLX- Pbuxus Carolintana- 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size- 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flowerj enlarged, 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size- 
6. Cross section of a fruitj natural size. 

6. An embryo^ enlarged- 

7. Vertical section of a portion of the embryo, showing the radicle, enlarged 

8. A stone, enlarged- 

9. The inflorescence before anthesis, showing the bracts, natural size. 
10. A spinulose-toothed leaf, natural size. 



!i 




liva 01 



o 



IN or 



til A 



merica . 



Tab. CLX . 



^ 




C.E.Faxon del 




r . so 



y 



PRUNUS CAROLINIANA, Ai 



A.FdocreiLT dJj'ex 





.ToJi-eur. F arur . 



KOSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A 



51 



PRUNUS SPHu5]R0CARPA. 

L 

Calyx-lobes acute, with laciniate margins. Stone globosCo Leaves elliptical to 
oblong-ovate, entire. 



Prunus sphserocarpa, Swai-tz, Prodr. 81; Fl. Ind. Occ. 
ii. 927. — • Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii. 987. — Polret, Lam. 
Diet. V. 666. — Persoon, Sijn. ii. 34. — Lunan, Hort. 
Jam. ii. 276. — Don, Gen. 8yst. ii. 516. — Dietrich, 
Syn. iii. 43. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 478; iv. pt. ii. 406. — 
Schlechtendal, Linncea, xiii. 87. — Walpers, Mep. ii. 10. — 
Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 231. — Hooker f. Martins 
FL Brasil. xlv. pt. ii. 55, t. 19. — Sauvalle, Fl. Cuh. 
36. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Supph 620. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. is. 70. 

Cerasus sphserocarpa, Loiselenr, Nouveau Dtihmnel, v. 
4. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 540. — Chamisso & Schlecht- 



endal, Linnmay ii. 542. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 721. — 

Bot Mag. t. 3141. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i. 421. 
Prunus Brasiliensis, Steudel, Norn. Bot. 
Cerasus Brasiliensis, Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linncea, 

ii. 540. 
Cerasus reflexa, Gardner, Bond. Jour. Bot. ii. 342. 
Laurocerasus sphserocarpa, Koeraer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

89. 

Laurocerasus sphserocarpa, /3. Brasiliensis, Roemer, 

Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 89. 
Prunus pleuradenia, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 231. 



A small glabrous tree, in Florida rarely exceeding twenty-five to thirty feet in height, "with a 
trunk five or six inches in diameter covered with thin smooth or sHghtly reticulate-fissured light brown 
bark tinged with red, and slender upright branches and branchlets. These, when they first appear^ 
are orange-brown but become ashy gray or light brown tinged with red, and are covered with small 
circular pale lenticels. The leaves are elliptical to oblong-ovate, gradually or abruptly contracted into 
broad obtuse points or less commonly rounded or rarely eniarginate at the apex, wedge-shaped at the 
base, entire, with sHghtly thickened undulate margins, egiandular, obscurely veined, with narrow mid- 
ribs deeply grooved on the upper side ; they are persistent, sub coriaceous, yellow-green and lustrous on 
the upper, and paler on the lower surface, two to four and a half inches long and an inch to an inch 
and a haL£ broad, and are borne on slender orange-brown petioles which vary from one half of an inch 
to nearly an inch in length. The stipules are foliaceous, lanceolate-acuminate, entire, a quarter of an 
inch long, and early deciduous. The flowers are produced in slender many-flowered racemes shorter 
than the leaves and ebracteolate at the flowering period, and in Florida appear in November ; they are 
one eighth of an inch across and are borne on slender orange-colored pedicels which stand remotely on 
the rachis and vary from one fourth to two thirds of an inch in length. The calyx-tube is obconic, 
bright orange-colored on the outer surface, and marked by an orange band in the throat, with thin 
minute acute deciduous lobes laciniate on the margins and much shorter than the petals, which are 
obovate, rounded, or acuminate above, contracted below into short claws, and reflexed at maturity, and 
are white marked with yellow on the inner surface towards the base. The stamens are exserted, and 
have slender orange-colored subulate filaments and small yellow anthers. The ovary is ovoid and 
contracted into a short stout style crowned with a large club-shaped stigma. The fruit, which in 
Florida is produced very sparingly and ripens either in the spring or early summer, is subglobose to 
oblong, apiculate, orange-brown, and from one third to one half of an inch long, with thin dry flesh 
adherent to the thin-walled fragile stone which is obscurely ridged on the ventral edge. The seed is 
pointed at the apex, with a thin dark orange-colored testa and thick cotyledons inclosing the short 

radicle. 

Primus sjohmrocariKt is found in the United States only near the shore of Bay Biscayne, where, 

west of the Miami Eiver on rich hummock-land, it grows as a slender tree in a dense forest principally 

composed of the Mastic, the Gumbo Limbo, the Pigeon Plum, and the Florida Fig-tree, and occasionally 



52 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



KOSACE^. 



on low ground near tlie borders o£ small streams and ponds. It is not rare in the West Indies, and is 
widely distributed through Brazil. 

The wood of Prumis sjyhceroearpa is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with obscure medullary rays 
and numerous minute open ducts, and is Hght clear red, with thick pale sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8998, a cubic foot weighing 56.08 pounds. The fruit is used in the 



West Indies in the preparation of a cordial.^ 

Primus S2olicBrocarpa was first found in Florida in 1877 by Dr. A. P. Garber; 



1 Bot. Mag. t. 3141. — Roscutlial, Syn. PI. Diaphor. 979. 



2 See i. Q^. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate OLXI. Prunits spHiEEOCAHPA. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower just expanded, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. Part of a young leafy shoot showing stipules, natural size. 



> . 



I - 




ilva 




f N 



OP 





erica , 




a 







J* 

V 



C. E. FaxcoTh 




Picartfi\ JO 



^ 



PRUNUS SPH^ROCARPA 




A.BlocTezajy dv^e-tC-. 



t 




Imp . 7?. Tojieur Parus 






\ 



nosACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 53 



PRUNUS ILICIPOLIA. 

Islay. 

Calyx-lobes acute, entire. Stone orate, slightly compressed. Leaves ovate to 
lanceolate-acuminate, coarsely spinosely toothed or rarely entire. 

"Prunus ilicifolia, Walpers, Rep. ii. 10. — Dietrich, Syn. ^eec/te!/, 340, t. 83. — Torrey & Gray,-F^. iV^. ^??i.i. 411.— 

iii. 43. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 63; Bot. l^nitaM, Sylva, H IQ, t. 41. —lovTej, S??wnfs Rep. 1S9 ; 

. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 285. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 83. — Walpers, Ann. iv. 654. — 

Cal. i. 168 ; ii. 443. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Kellogg, Proc. Cat. Acad. ii. 22. — Bolander, Proc. Cat. 

Census JJ. S. ix. 70. — Greene, Fl. Francis. 50. Acad. iii. 79 ; iv. 22. — The Garden, iii. 131, f. 

"Cerasus ilicifolia, Nuttall ; Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Laurocerasus ilicifolia, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 92. 

A glabrous tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk rarely attaining a diameter of 
two feet or rising to a greater height than ten or twelve feet, and stout spreading branches forming a 
dense compact head ; usually much smaller, and often a shrub with stems sometimes only a foot or 
two in length. The bark of the trunk, which varies from one third to one half of an inch in thickness, 
is dark red-brown, its surface divided by deep fissures into small square plates. The branchlets are at 
first yellows-green or orange-colored but soon become gray or reddish brown, and are more or less con- 
spicuously marked by minute pale lenticels, and, in their second or third year, by the large leaf-scars 
left by the falling of the leaves. The buds are acuminate, with narrow dark red scales contracted into 
lono* slender points, those of the inner ranks being accrescent and persistent on the young shoots until 
these have obtained a leno^th of several inches. The leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, rounded 



-or emargiaate at the apex, w^edge-shaped and rounded or truncate at the base, and very obscurely 
veined, with thickened margins coarsely spinosely toothed, the stout teeth near the base of the leaf 
•often tipped with large dark glands ; they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper, and paler and yellow-green on the lower surface, an inch to two and a half inches long, and an 
inch to an inch and a half broad, with slender yellow midribs grooved on the U-pper side ; they are 
borne on broad channeled petioles from one eighth to one half of an inch in length, and fall during 
their second summer. The stipules are acuminate, obscurely denticulate, a quarter of an inch long, and 
early deciduous. The flowers, which are produced in slender racemes an inch and a half to three inches 
in length, on short slender pedicels developed from the axils of acuminate scarious bracts a quarter 
■of an inch in length and mostly deciduous before the opening of the flower-buds, are a third of an 
inch across and appear from March to May. The calyx-tube is cup-shaped and orange-brow^n, with 
minute acuminate deciduous lobes refiexed at maturity and about one third as long as the obovate 
white petals which are rounded above and narrowed below into short claws. The stamens are slightly 
exserted, with slender incurved filaments which taper from below upwards, and minute yellow anthers. 
The ovary is glabrous and abruptly contracted into a slender style usually bent near the summit at a 
right angle, or rarely erect, and surmounted with a large orbicular stigma. The fruit, which ripens in 
November and December, is subglobose, often compressed, from one half to two thirds of an inch in 
diameter dark red when first fully grown, and purple or sometimes nearly black at maturity ; the flesh 
is thin, with a slightly acid astringent and agreeable flavor, and is easily separable from the stone. 
This is ovate, slightly compressed, pointed at the apex, light yellow-brown, and conspicuously marked 
with reticulate orange-colored vein-like lines, with three broad orange bands radiating from the base to 
the apex alono- one suture, and with a single narrow band along the other suture j the walls are thin 
■and brittle and are composed of two distinct coats, the inner being light yellow and lustrous on the 



54: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACE.^ 



interior surface. The seed coat is thin and papery, hght hrown, and conspicuously marked with broad 
darker colored veins ; the cotyledons are orange-brown and inclose the short radicle. 

A form, Primus ilicifolia, var. integrifolia,^ common on some of the islands ofE the coast of Cali- 
fornia and not rare on the mainland, has entire or occasionally spinose-serrate ovate-acuminate or 
lanceolate-acuminate, or sometimes broadly ovate and abruptly acute leaves, apiculate at the apex, wedge- 
shaped, rounded, or truncate at the base, two to three inches long, and from half an inch to two and 
a half inches broad, and produces rather larger fruit than the more common form with spinosely toothed 
leaves. 

Primus ilicifolia is distributed from the shores of the Bay of San Francisco southward through 
the coast ranges to the San Julio caiion in Lower Cahfornia,^ and it occurs on the western slopes and 
foothills of the San Bernardino, and on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands. It grows as a low shrub 
on dry hillsides and mesas, or as a tree near streams in the bottoms of canons in moist sandy soil, 
reaching its greatest size in those of the Santa Inez Mountains near Santa Barbara, on the islands, and 
in Lower California. 

The wood of Primus ilicifolia is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. It contains numerous medullary rays and many regularly 
distributed small open ducts, and is light red-brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood composed of eight 
or ten layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9803, a cubic 
foot weighing 61.09 pounds.^ It is sometimes used for fuel, and might be employed in cabinet-making. 

Primus ilicifolia appears to have been first noticed by David Douglas * who discovered it on the 
mountains near Monterey j it was next found by Thomas Nuttall,^ whose description is the earliest that 
was published. It was introduced into Europe many years ago, and is now occasionally seen in the 
gardens of southern Europe,^ where it flowers and produces fruit abundantly, and in California is some- 
times cultivated as an ornamental plant and for hedges.'^ 

Few of the broad-leaved evergreens of North America are more beautiful than the Islay,^ or are 
better suited to adorn a garden in those parts of the world where the chmate permits it to display all 
the beauties of its abundant lustrous fohage, its showy racemes of flowers, and its 'handsome fruit. Its 
rapid growth when planted in good soil,^ the vigor which enables it to withstand the effects of annual 



cutting, and its spinescent rigid fohage, make it a useful and interesting hedge plant. 



10 



1 Prunus ilicifolia. Tar. integnfoUa, Sudworth, Garden and Forest, 
iv. 51. 

Prunus occidentalis, W. S. Lyon, Bot. Gazette, si. 202, 333 (not 
Swartz). — Greene, Bull. Col. Acad. ii. 395. 

Prunus ilicifolia, var. occidentalis, T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Cat. 
Acad. ser. 2, i. 209. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 400. 

2 Mr. T. S. Branciegee found the entire-leaved form of Prunus 
ilicifolia growing in the San Julio canon at the southern limit of its 
known range in a tree-like form with trunks more than a foot in 
diameter (I. c. ii. 121 [P^. Baja Cal.']'). 

3 The absolutely dry wood of a log of the entire-leaved form in 
the Jesup Collection of ^Torth American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York, collected by Mr. T. S. 
Brandegee on Santa Cruz Island, has a specific gravity of 0.7997, a 
cubic foot weighing 49.84 pounds {Garden and Forest, iii. 344). 

^ See ii. 94. 
s See ii. 34. 

y 

L 

^ I find no record of the date of introduction of Prunus ilicifolia 
into Europe, or of the name of the first person who cultivated it 



there. In 1850 it was seen by Herincq in the nurseries of Thibaut. 
& Keteleer near Paris (Rev, Horl. 1850, 246), and five years later- 
it was included in the list of plants which perished in the garden 
of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris during the severe 
winter of 1854^55 (Rev. Hort. 1855, 313)- It had been intro- 
duced into England before 1853 by the Koyal Horticultural Society^ 
(Paxton, Brit FL Gard. iii. 44, f. 254), 

^ The early Spanish settlers in California appreciated the beauty 
of Prunus ilicifolia^ and frequently used it to decorate their gar- 
dens ; and in those of some of the old missionSj fine specimens,, 
probably a hundred years old, testify to its value as an ornamental 
plant. 

^ Prunus ilicifolia is also known in California as the Spanish "Wild 
Cherry and the Mountain Evergreen Cherry. 

^ Plants in the nurseries of the Leland Stanford, Jr. University 
in Santa Clara County, California, which are only three years old, 
are eighteen feet high with heads fifteen feet in diameter. 

^^ Nicholson, DicL Gard, f, 403, A. (as Cerasus). — Naudin,, 
Manuel de VAcclimateur^ 445 (as Pygeum). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



w" 



Plate CLXIL Peunus ilicifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower just expanded, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A stone, natural size. 

6. An embryo, natural size. 



Plate CLXIII. Peuxus ilicifolia, var. integeifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 
5 and 6. Leaves, showing variation. 



JH 



■:■*'' 



^ . 



^ 



' h 




ilva of North America 



Tab . CLXI 



V 



\ 

^ 



\ 




' ■ 



.*■■ 



I 



'-- 



I . 




y 



5 




6 ■ 




C.E.Faxon deZ. 



PioarL J}' . so. 



PRUNUS ILICIFOLIA, 




a 



1 



«ih 



P 



-A.Iiiocreux dxrecc^ 



Imp. R, Taneur^ Paru 



\ 



% 



- • 



Silva of North Am 



'n 



erica 



Tab. CLXIII 



<L 



5 



6, 



V 




^ 




f 







C.E .Faxon deX 



PioartJ^r . so 



PRUNUS ILICIFOLIA, Var . INTEGRIFOLIA SudwortK 



/ 



/ 



/ 



/ 



A.Riocreu:r direa? 



Imp. R. Taneur, Paris'. 



I - 

, 4 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A. 



57 



VAUQUELINIA. 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in sestivation ; petals 5, 
imbricated in sestivation ; stamens 15 to 25; carpels 5, united into a 5-cclled ovary ; 
ovules 2 in each cell, ascending. Fruit a dry 5-celled woody capsule. Leaves simple. 



Vauquelinia, Correa ; Humboldt & Bonpland, Fl. ^qiiin. 
i. 140. — Meisner, Gen. 103. — Endlicher, Gen, 1249. — 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 615. 
472. 



Baillou, Mist. PI. i. 



Small trees or shrubs, with slender terete branches and scaly bark. Leaves alternate or rarely 
opposite, lanceolate, serrate, long-petiolate, reticulate-veined, coriaceous, persistent; stipules minute^ 
deciduous. Flowers white, in compound terminal corymbs, the lower branches o£ the inflorescence from 
the axils of leaves, the upper from those of minute deciduous bracts. Pedicels slender, bibracteo- 
late. Calyx shortly turbinate, coriaceous, persistent, five-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse or acute, erect. 
Disk connate to and lining the tube of the calyx, glandular. Petals five, inserted in the mouth of the 
calyx, orbicular or oblong, reflexed at maturity, persistent. Stamens fifteen to twenty-five, inserted on 
the margin of the disk in three or four proximate rows, equal or subequal, those of the outer row para- 
petalous, those of the next alternate with them and with those of the other rows ; filaments subulate, 

r 

those of the outer row rather thicker at the base than the others, exserted, persistent ; anthers attached 
on the back near the middle, versatile, extrorse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Carpels 
five, opposite the sepals, inserted on the thickened base of the calyx-tube, united below into a five-celled 
ovoid ovary coated with tomentum and crowned by '^ive short spreading styles with dilated capitate 
stigmas; ovules two in each cell, subbasilar, ascending, collateral, anatropous, two-coated, prolonged 
at the apex into thin membranaceous wings ; raphe ventral, micropyle superior. Fruit a woody ovoid 
five-celled tomentose capsule inclosed at the base by the remnants of the flower and separating at 
maturity into five nutlets adherent below, tipped with the remnants of the styles, and at maturity split- 
ting longitudinally down the back. Seeds two in each cell, ascending, compressed, exalbuminous ; testa 
membranaceous, expanded at the apex into a long membranaceous wing. Embryo filling the cavity of 
the seed ; cotyledons flat ; radicle straight, erect. 

Vauquelinia is confined to the New World, where it inhabits southern Mexico, northern Mexico, 
Arizona, and Lower California. Three species are distinguished. The type of the genus, Vauquelinia 
eorymbosa^ is a small tree widely distributed from the mountains of Oaxaca to those of Coahnila and 
Chihuahua ; Vauquelinia Karwinshji^ described as a shrub, inhabits southern Mexico, and Vauque- 
linia Californica the mountain ranges of southern Arizona and the adjacent portions of Sonora and 
Lower California. The genus is not known to possess properties useful to man. 

The generic name commemorates the scientific labors of the distinguished French chemist, Louis 
Nicolas Vauquelin.^ 



1 Correa ; Hum'boldt & Bonpland, PL jEquin. i. 140, t. 40. — 
Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 238. — Kunth, 
Syn. PL ^quin. iii. 479. — Baillon, Hist. PL i. 398, f. 452^55. — 
Maximo wicz. Act, Hort. Petrop. vi. 236 {Adnot. Spirmaceis, 132). — 
Hemsley, Bot. Biol Am. Cent. i. 370. — Pringle, Garden and For- 
est, 1. 524. 

^ Maxiraowicz, L c. 

3 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829) ; a native of Saint-An- 
dr^-dcs-Berteaux, after a youth of much privation, became the pupil 
and later the associate of Fourcroy, with whom he published the 
results of many of his early investigations and through whom he 



obtained the position of inspector of mines, and professorships in 
I'Ecole des Mines, in I'Ecdle Polytechnique, and in the College de 
France. He became a member of the Institut de France, direc- 
tor of I'Ecole de Pharmaeie, professor of chemistry in the Mu- 
seum d'Histoire Naturelle, and a member of the Conseil des Arts 
et Manufactures. In addition to many papers printed in the Pro- 
ceedings of learned societies, Vauquelin, who was regarded as one 
of the most distinguislied experimenters in physics and chemistry 
of his time, published Le Manuel (VEssayeur and edited the Dic- 
tiormaire de Chimie et de Metallurgie which formed part of the En-* 
cyclopedic Methodique. 



€ 



* 



KOSACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 59 



VAUQUELINIA CALIPORNICA. 
Leaves narrowly lanceolate, coated on the lower surface with white tomentum. 

Vauquelinia Californica, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. Vauquelinia Torreyi, Watson, ProG. Am. Acad. xi. 147. — 

400. Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 169. — Maximowicz, Act. 

Spiraea Californica, Torrey, Emory's Rep. 140. Hort. Petrop. vi. 237 {Adnot. Spirceaceis, 133). — Hems- 

Vauquelinia corymbosa, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 370. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

64 (not Correa). N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 70. 

A small tree, eighteen or tiventy feet in height, with a slender often hollow trunk ^ve or six inches 
in diameter, and rigid upright contorted branches ; or more often a low shrub. The bark of the trunk 
is a sixteenth of an inch thick, with a dark red-brown surface broken into small thin square plate-like 
persistent scales. The branches are at first bright reddish brown and more or less thickly covered with 
pale tomentum ; and in their second year are light brown or gray and marked with large elevated leaf- 
scars. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, obliquely wedge- 
shaped or slightly rounded at the base, and remotely serrate with minute glandular teeth ; when they 
unfold they are puberulous on the upper, and densely tomentose on the lower surface, and at maturity 
are coriaceous, bright yellow-green and glabrous on the upper, and tomentose, or late in the season 
puberulous, below ; they are from an inch and a half to three inches long, and from one quarter to one 
half of an inch broad, with thick conspicuous midribs grooved on the upper side, and numerous thin 
primary veins connected by reticulate veinlets, and are borne on thick channeled petioles from one third 
to one half of an inch in length, and fall in spring or early summer. The stipules are minute, acute, 
and early deciduous. The flowers, which appear in June, are a quarter of an inch in diameter and are 
produced in great numbers in loose wide-branched panicles two or three inches across and coated with 
white tomentum ; they vary from those of the type of the genus only in their shghtly oblong petals 
and the pilose inner surface of the disk. The fruit, which is fully grown by the end of August, is then 
conspicuous on account of the contrast between the bright red faded petals and the white silky cover- 
ing of the calyx and carpels ; it is a quarter of an inch long, and remains on the branches after open- 
ing until the spring of the following year. The seed is a twelfth of an inch in length, or one third as 

long as the oblong wing. 

Vauquelinia Californica inhabits the mountain ranges of southern Arizona and those of Sonora 
and Lower California,^ but has not been seen with the habit of a tree except on the Santa Catalina 
Mountains of Arizona ; here at an elevation of some five thousand feet above the level of the sea it 
reaches its largest size in rich granite soil baked by the direct rays of the sun, growing on the bottoms 
or rocky sides of gulches, or often on grassy slopes and chiefly associated with Quercus grisea and 
Quercus ohlongifolia ; and towards the base of these mountains is common in a shrubby form with 
Celtis pallida, Fendlera rupieola^Fouquieriasplendens, and Rhamnus Furshiana. 

The wood of Vauquelinia Californica is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, and is susceptible of 
receiving a beautiful polish. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is dark rich brown streaked 
with red, with thin yellow sapwood composed of fourteen or fifteen layers of annual growth. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.1374, a cubic foot weighing 70.88 pounds.^ 

Vatiquelinia Californica was discovered in October, 1846, by a detachment of United States troops 

1 T. S.Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2,ii. 154 {PL Baja Cal.). American Woods in the American Museum of Natural History in 

2 The stems of Vauquelinia Californica increase very slowly in New York, whicli is only seven inches in diameter, with one hun- 
aiameter"^s shown by the specimen in the Jesup Collection of North dred and four layers of annual growth. 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMUBICA. 



ROSACEA, 



under command of Colonel William H. Emory/ on one of tlie mountain ranges near the head-waters of 
the Gila River. 

The snowy whiteness of the under surface of its leaves and the abundance of its flowers make 
Vauquelinia CaUfornica an attractive and beautiful plant well Avorth a place in the gardens of all dry 
temperate regions. 



^ William Hemsley Emory (1811-1887) was born in Queen 
Anne County, Maryland, and was graduated from the noilitary 
academy at West Point in 1831, when he was appointed a second 
lieutenant of artillery. He resigned from the army in 1836 in 
order to practice civil engineering, but two years later was reap- 
pointed with the grade of first lieutenant of topographical engi- 
neers, Emory served with distinction in California and in the 
Mexican War, and on the conclusion of peace was named astronomer 
to the commission for establishing the boundary between the United 
States and Mexico, and afterwards became a member of this eom* 
mission. He fought gallantly in the War of the Rebellion and ob- 



tained the rank of major-general of volunteers. He is the author 

of Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth in Mis- 
souri to San Diego in California, published in Washington in 1848 ; 
of Notes of Travel in California, published in New York in 1848, and 
of the Report of the United States and Mexican Boundary Commis- 
sion, published in Washington in 1857. 

Emorya, a shrub of New Mexico and Arizona, dedicated to him 
by Torrey, commemorates Greueral Emory's active and intelligent 
interest in increasing the knowledge of plants, and connects his 
name with the scenes of his scientific labors. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXIV. Vauquelixia CazifoknicAo 

1. A flowering branch, natural size^ 

2. Diagram of a flower 

3. A flowerj enlarged, 

4. Vertical section of a flowerj enlarged, 
5- A stamen^ enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural slze= 
9- A fruitj enlarged- 

10. A fruitj after the splitting open of the carpels, enlarged. 

11, Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 
12- A seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, magnified. 



4 




ilva 




N 



or 




I 




m eric a 



Tao. CLXIV 



^ 



' 





6 




1 










C .E.FaaxfTh del. 




r. sc. 



I 



VAUQUELINIA CALIFORNICA, 



A . Riocrezaxi- dzrejz. ^ 




ar(T. 



/ 



Imp. R . Tcuneiw^ Far is 



■^ 



'• 



•. ■ . ■■ 



KOSACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 61 



CERCOCARPUS, 

Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals ; 
stamens 15 to 30; carpel 1 or rarely 2. Fruit a linear-oblong akene tipped with the 
accrescent persistent plumose style. Leaves alternate, simple, persistent. 

Cercocarpus, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuiith, Nov. Gen. et 1245. — Bentliam & Hooker, Gen. i. 618. — Baillon, Hist 

Spec. vi. 232. — Meisuer, Gen. 105. — Eudlicher, Ger- PI. i. 468. 

Trees or slirabs, with scaly bark, rigid terete brandies, sliort lateral spur-like branchlets, and hard 
heavy dark-colored wood. Buds minute, the scales of the inner rows accrescent on the growing shoots, 
often colored. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or serrate, coriaceous, straight-veined, short-p etiolate, 
persistent; stipules minute, adnate to the base of the petiole, deciduous. Flowers sessile or short- 
pedicellate, solitary or fascicled, axillary or terminal. Calyx-tube cylindrical, long and pedicelliform, 
abruptly expanded at the apex into a cup-shaped iive-lobed deciduous limb. Disk thin, slightly glandu- 
lar, adnate to the tube of the calyx. Stamens inserted in two or three rows on the limb of the calyx, 
those of the outer row parasepalous and alternate with those of the inner rows ; filaments incurved in 
the bud, free, short, terete ; anthers oblong, usually pubescent, attached on the back, introrse, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally, distinct, united by a broad connective. Ovary composed of a 
single carpel, inserted in the bottom and included in the tube of the calyx, acute, terete, smooth, striate 
or sulcate, sericeous ; or rarely bicarpellate ; style terminal, filiform, villose, or glabrate, crowned with a 
minute obtuse stigma ; ovules sohtary, subbasilar, ascending, anatropous ; raphe dorsal, the micropyle 
inferior. Akene linear-oblong, coriaceous, slightly ridged, angled, or sulcate, included in the persistent 
tube of the calyx and surmounted by the long persistent plumose style, which in enlarging and length- 
ening raises the limb of the calyx now separated near the apex of the tube by a circumscissile line. 
Seeds solitary, linear-acute, erect, exalbuminous, the conspicuous hilum lateral above the oblique base ; 
testa membranaceous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons ovate-oblong, elongated, 
fleshy ; radicle inferior. 

Cercocarpus is confined to the dry interior and mountainous regions of North America. Three 
species can be distinguished. The type of the genus, Cercocar2ous f other gilloides,^ inhabits the moun- 
tains of southern Mexico ; the others are small shrubby trees of the central and western parts of the 
United States and of northern Mexico. The wood of all the species makes valuable fuel, and is 
occasionally used in the manufacture of many small objects for domestic and industrial use. 

The generic name, from xsi^xoc, and s^apTtog, refers to the peculiar long-tailed fruit. 



1 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 233, t. 589. — Baillon, Hist. PL i. 381, f . 436, 437. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 
559.— Kunth, Syn. PL Mquin. iii. 475. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. Am. Cent. i. 373. — Engler & Prantl, Pfiamenfam. iii. 39, f. 17. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves narrowly linear, entire ' 1. C. ledifolius. 

Leaves cuneate-obovate, coarsely glandular-serrate above the middle .. = ...... 2. C. pakvifolius. 



ROSACEJE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 63 



OEROOOARPUS LEDIFOLIUS. 

Mountain Mahogany. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate, entire. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. "Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 174. — Kotlirock, Wheeler's Rep. vi. 

Am. i. 427; Sylva, ii. 28, t. 51. — Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 43, 111, 360. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 

324. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 46. — Dietrich, Si/n. iii. 119. — sus U. S. ix. 71. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 80. — 

Watson, King's Rep. v. 83, 420. — Parry, Am. Hat. ix. M. E. Jones, Zoe, ii. 244. 
201, 270 ; Froc. Davenport Acad. i. 146. — Brewer & 

A resinous and sliglitly aromatic tree, rarely attaining a height of forty feet, with a short stout 
trunk occasionally two and a half feet in diameter, and stout spreading usually contorted branches 
forming a round compact head ; generally much smaller, or often a low intricately branched shrub. 
The bark of the trunk of old individuals is an inch thick and is divided by deep broad furrows, the 
red-brown surface being broken into thin persistent plate-like scales. The branchlets are red-brown at 
first and coated with pale pubescence, but soon become glabrous and sometimes covered with a glaucous 
bloom, and in their second season are silver gray or dark brown, and for many years are marked by the 
conspicuous elevated leaf-scars which give a moniliform appearance to the branches of slow-grown 
stunted individuals. The leaves, which remain on the branches until the end of their second summer, 
are crowded, narrowly lanceolate, acute at both ends, apiculate, and entire, with thick revolute margins ; 
they are thick and coriaceous, reticulate- veined, with broad thick midribs deeply grooved on the upper 
side, and obscure primary veins, usually puberulous when young but at maturity glabrous on the upper 
surface, and more or less coated with pale or rufous pubescence on the lower surface, and are resinous, 
half an inch to an inch in length, a third to two thirds of an inch in width, and are borne on short 
broad petioles. The stipules are minute, nearly triangular, and caducous. The flowers are solitary, 
sessile in the axils of the clustered leaves, two thirds of an inch long, the calyx with acute lobes covered 
with pale tomentum. The enlarged calyx-tube of the fruit is almost half an inch long, nearly cyHn- 
drical but rather larger above than below, ten-ribbed, obscurely ten-angled, slightly cleft at the apex, 
and coated with pale tomentum. The akene is chestnut-brown, pointed at the two ends, obscurely 
angled, a quarter of an inch long, and clothed with long pale or tawny hairs similar to those that cover 
the tail-like lengthened style which at maturity is two or three inches in length, and is generally con- 
tracted by one or two partial corkscrew twists. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius inhabits the mountain ranges of the interior region of the United States, 
and is distributed from western Wyoming to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana, 
the Cceur d'Alene Mountains of Idaho, and the eastern portions of the Blue Mountains of Oregon, and 
southward through the Wasatch Mountains and the ranges of the Great Basin to the eastern slopes of 
the Sierra Nevada and the northern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains and to the mountains 
of northern New Mexico and Arizona. It inhabits dry gravelly arid slopes at elevations of from fiVQ 
thousand to nine thousand feet above the level of the ocean, growing sometimes on almost precipitous 
cliffs and on rocky ridges, where it is a densely branched contorted shrub which often forms broad 
thickets, or, on better soil and with more moisture, rising to a shapely tree and reaching its greatest 
size on the high foothill-slopes of the mountain ranges of central Nevada between six thousand and 
■eight thousand feet above the level of the sea.^ 



1 Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xvii. 420. 



64 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



The wood of Cercocarpus ledifolius is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, although brittle and 
extremely difficult to work. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is bright clear red or often 
rich dark brown, with thin yellow sapwood composed of fifteen or twenty layers of annual growth and 
is susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0731 
a cubic foot weighing ^Q.d>S pounds. It furnishes the most valuable fuel produced in the region that 
it inhabits, and in the Great Basin is largely manufactured into charcoal used in smelting silver ore. 

A variety of this plant, Cercocarpus ledifolius, var. intricatus^ a low intricately branched shrub 
distinguished by its Hnear revolute leaves and small flowers and fruit, is common on the mountain 
ranges of Utah and Arizona, where, at high elevations, it sometimes covers cliffs and rocky mountain 
slopes, and at lower elevations gradually and by many intermediate forms passes into the large-leaved 
upright arborescent form.^ 

Cercocarpus ledifolius was discovered in 1834 by Thomas NuttalP in the valley of the upper 
Snake Eiver in western Wyoming. 

q ■ 4 

Few other trees produce more valuable fuel than Cercocarpus ledifolius ; this fact, and its ability 

to thrive under the most severe climatic conditions and to clothe and protect exposed mountain slopes 

where few other trees could maintain themselves and where no other hard-wood tree is found, make it 

one of the most valuable trees of the North American forests * in spite of its small size and its slow rate- 
of growth.'^ 



1 M. E. Jones, Zoe, ii. 244. 

Cercocarpus intricatuSy Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, x. 346. — Sar- 
gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 71- 

Cercocarpus brevifolius^ "VVatson, King's Rep. v. 83 (not Gray), 
Cercocarpus Arizonicus^ M. E, Jones, Zoe, iL 14. 

2 Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. \. 147. 
2 See ii, 34. 

* Seeds of Cercocarpus ledifolius were sent to the principal bo- 



tanical establishments of Europe from the Arnold Arboretum im 
1878. It is still, however, exceedingly rare in cultivation, although 
it may be expected to flourish on the dry high mountain slopes of 
southern Europe and northern Africa, and in some parts of India, 

^ A specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods: 
in the American Museum of Natural History in New York displays, 
one hundred and eight layers of annual growth, and inside the bark, 
is only thirteen inches in diameter; 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



» ' 



Plate CLXV. Cercocakpxjs ledifolitjs, 

1- A flowering branch, natural size* 

2, Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4* Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branchy natural size. 

7. A fruit inclosed in the tube of the calyx, enlarged. 

8. An akene divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 

10, An embryo, much magnified- 

11. A leaf with stipules, enlarged. 



1 




liva 01 



o 



N 



or 



Ih A 



merica. 




a 




CLXV 



V ri ■ 




1 



'''- rai 




■^ 


If; / 




E .Faxon del. 



FuuzTty? . sc 



CERCOCARPUS LEDIFOLIUS ■ Nutt 



A . PhLOcreuaD direx 




r 

. Ph. TajteuT', PcLPLS. < 



KosACE^. SILVA OF JSrOBTH AMEBIC A. Q5 



CERCOCARPUS PARVIFOLIUS, 

Mountain Mahogany. 

Leaves cuncate-obovate, coarsely glandular-serrate above the middle. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nuttall ; Hooker & Arnott, Bot. vi. Ill, 359. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 174 ; ii. 

Voy. Beechey, 337. — Torrej & Gray, M. 2^. Am. i. 427 ; 444. ~ M. E. Jones, Sxcur. Bot. 12, 15, 20, 21 ; Zoe, ii. 

Baciflo It. M. Hep. ii. 164. — Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 323. — 245. — Hemsle j, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 374. — Watson, 

Walpers, Hep. ii. 45. — Torrej, Fremont's Rep. 89 ; Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 353. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 

Fmory's Hep. 139 ; Sitcfreaves' Rep. 158 ; Pacific R. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 71. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mi. 

R. Rep. iv. 83 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 63 ; Bot. Wilkes Bot. 81. — Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 59. 
Explor. Exped. 287. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 119. —Gray, Cercocarpus fothergilloides, Tovvey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii„ 

Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 68 ; v. 54 {PL Wright, i., ii.). — 198 (not Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuntli). 
Watson, King's Rep. v. 82. — Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. 

A bushy tree, with aromatic leaves and branches, sometimes twenty to thirty feet in height, with 
a trunk which rarely attains a greater diameter than ten inches, and slender rigid upright branches ; or 
more often a small or tall shrub branchino; from a thickened base. The bark of the trunk is a six- 



teenth of an inch thick, the generally smooth surface being divided by narrow shallow fissures and 
broken into small square persistent red-brown scales. The branchlets are clothed at first with pale silky 
pubescence ; this soon disappears, and during their first year they are rather bright red-brown and are 
marked by occasional oblong light-colored lenticels, and in their second year are dark gray or brown 
and covered with the conspicuous ring-hke leaf-scars. The leaves, which do not fall until the summer 
of their second year, are cuneate-ob ovate, rounded or obtuse or rarely acuminate and gradually con- 
tracted at the base, coarsely glandular-serrate above the middle, or rarely almost entire, or slightly 
three-toothed or apiculate at the apex; when they unfold they are coated with pale pubescence on 
both surfaces, and at maturity are puberulous or glabrous above and more or less pubescent below, and 
are subcoriaceous, dark yellow-green on the upper, and paler or often nearly white or sometimes ferru- 
gineous on the lower surface, half an inch to two and a half inches in length and a quarter of an inch 
to an inch in breadth, with slightly thickened and revolute margins, broad midribs, four to sis pairs of 
conspicuous primary veins, and reticulate veinlsts; and they are borne on broad channeled petioles which 
vary from an eighth to nearly half an inch in length. The stipules are lanceolate, acuminate, apiculate, 
from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in length, and early deciduous. The flowers, which are produced 
on slender hairy pedicels, are solitary or geminate in the axils of the crowded leaves, and are a quarter 
of an inch long, with a slender tube covered on the outer surface with pale tomentum and a narrow 
obtusely lobed limb. The mature calyx-tube of the fruit is spindle-shaped, light chestnut-brown, 
slightly puberulous, deeply cleft at the apex, and from one half to three quarters of an inch long. 
The akene is more or less conspicuously sulcate on the back and is covered, like the persisteut tail-like 
style which is often four or five inches in length, with long white hairs. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius is widely and generally distributed on the mountain ranges of the arid 
portions of western North America from western Nebraska ^ to the northern slopes of the Siskiyou 
Mountains in Oregon ^ on the north, and to western Texas ^ and northern Mexico on the south ; in 
California, west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it is common through the coast ranges, extendino- 
south to the San Jacinto Mountains ; it occurs on Santa Cruz Island * and on some of the mountain 
ranges of Lower California. 

1 Bessey, Bull. Agric. Exper. Stat. Nebraska, iv. art. iv. 19. ^ Coulter, Conirib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 104 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 

* Greene, Garden and Forest, ii. 470. * Greene, Bull. Cat. Acad. ii. 396 (as C. betulcefoUus'). 



66 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



The wood of Cercocarpus parvifoUus is heavy, hard, and close-grained and difBcult to season and 
work ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is bright red-brown, with thin Hght brown sap- 
wood composed of twenty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.9365, a cubic foot weighing 58.36 pounds. It makes excellent fuel, and is sometimes used by turners 
for boxes and other small objects. The shoots and leaves, which possess a birch-like flavor, are relished 
by cattle, which browse upon them in late summer and autumn after the annual grasses have disap- 
peared.^ 

Cercocarpus parvifolius varies in the size and shape of its leaves and in the amount of their 
pubescence in different parts of the territory it inhabits ; in the California coast ranges it frequently 
produces larger fruit than is developed in the dry interior parts of the country, and larger and propor- 
tionately broader leaves which are often quite glabrous,^ while near the southern boundary of the United 
States the leaves are sometimes much reduced in size^ and are entire or sparingly toothed.* 

Cercocarpus parvifolius was discovered in the Eocky Mountains on the head-waters of the Platte 
Eiver in 1820 by Dr. Edwin P. James,^ the naturalist of Long's expedition. In Cahfornia it was first 
noticed a few years later by David Douglas.^ Cercocarpus parmfolius is sometimes seen in the 
botanic gardens of Europe, where it occasionally flowers and produces its fruit. 



^ Greene, Garden and Forest, ii. 4.70. 

^ Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. hetuloides. 

Cercocarpus hetuloides, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. 
i. 427. — Hooker, Lond. Jour. Bot. vi. 218. 

Cercocarpus hetulcefoUus, Nuttall ; Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 322. — Wal- 
pers, Rep. ii. 40.— Greene, Bull. Cat. Acad. ii. 396 ; Garden and 
Forest, I. c. ■ Fl. Francis, i. 59. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. glaber. Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat 
I. 175.— Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQtli Census U. S. ix. 71. 

Professor E. L. Greene, whose opportunities for studying the 
trees of western America in their native forests have been great, 
believes (Garden and Forest, I. e.) that the California coast plant is 
speeifieally distinct from the plant of the dry interior part of the 
country on account of " a certain constant difference in the general 
bearing or habit easily seen at a glance but not easily defined," and 
of the character of the bark, which on the coast plant is smooth and 
gray, " the outer layer deciduous and falling away in irregular 
flakes in the early autumn," while on the Kooky Mountain plant it 



is "dark-colored, thick, persistent, and fissured;" but these differ^ 
ences, like the more arborescent habit, the better developed leaveSj 
and the absence of pubescence, are perhaps due to the more favor- 
able climatic conditions amid which the coast plants have grown. 

3 Cercocarpus parvifolius^ var. hrevifoUuSy M. E, Jones, Zoii, il 
245. 

Cercocarpus hrevifolius, Gray, Smithsonian Co?itrib. v. 54 (PL 
Wriglit. ii.). — Walpers, Ann. iv. 605, 

^ Cercocarpus parvifolius^ var. paucidentatuSy Watson, Proc, Am. 
Acad. xvii. 353, — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 71. This form, which is not uncommon in northern Mexico 
and in the mountains of southern Arizona, is connected by many 
intermediate forms with tliat of the Colorado mountains, which has 
large and coarsely serrate leaves, just as the last-named passes 
imperceptibly into the still larger-leaved plant of the California 
coast. 

^ See ih 96. 
^ See ii. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXVL Cekcocakpus parvifolixts. 

1. A flowering branchy natural size. 
2- A flovrer, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

4. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged 

5. A pistilj enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7- A fruit, inclosed in the tube of the calyx, enlarged. 

8. An akene, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of an akene, enlarged. 

10. A seedj enlarged- 

11. An embryo, much magnified- 



-*■'*._. .#^ n«». 



" ■■' ■ 



I 



■^w »■ b- Vl^^bij- » '-'^■*E*» »■ -< . '^ -, ^ '"-^ 1''?-. -•,- - '-M '■'-' .:- V^---'^ --^ 



-,*-- ■ — 



- v> "-■^ ' "^ -*^»* ■ 



-^-^' - 



N 



Siiva of North Am 



enoa 



Tab. CLAV.. , 




C E . Facc-ori deZ 



u. 



P;.> 



WXU't fr . ,ycy. 



L^' 



CERCOCARPUS PARVIROLIU^ 



3 




Utt 



A . Bxo creu.cc dire'j> ^ 



Tn-ifr R . nzMxuir^ Pojru 



KOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NOETH AMEBIC A, 



67 



PYRUS. 



Flowers perfect or rarely polygamo-dioocious by abortion, regular ; calyx 5-lobcd, 
the lobes imbricated in eestivation ; petals 5, imbricated in sestivation ; stamens usually 
20, or indefinite ; ovary 2 to 5-ccllod ; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending. Fruit a pome. 
Leaves alternate, simple or pinnate, deciduous. 



Pyrus, Linnaeus, Gen, 145 (excl. Cydonla). — Adanson, 
Fam. PI. il. 296 (excl. Cydonia). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen, 
335. — Meisiier, Gen. 106. — Endliclier, Gen. 1237. — 
Beiitham & Hooker, Gen. i. 626 (excl. Cydonia and Mes- 
pilus). — Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 403. 

Sorbus, Linneeusj Gen. 144. — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 296. — • 
A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 335. 

Mains, Ruppius, Fl. Jen. ed. 3, 141. ■ — 
i. 138. 

Torminalis, Medicus, Phil. Bot. i. 134. 

Lazarolus, Medicus, Phil. Bot i. 135. 

Aucuparia, Medicus, Phil. Bot. i. 138. 



Medicus, Phil. Bot. 



ChamEemespilus, Medicus, Phil Bot. i. 138. 
Pirophorum, Necker, Elevi. Bot. ii. 72. 
Apirophorum, Necker, Flem. Bot. ii. 72. 
Hahnia, Medicus, Geseh. Bot. 81. 
Azarolus, Borkhausen, Handh. Forsthot. ii. 1224. 
Aronia, Persoon, Syn. ii. 39 (excl. Amelanchier) . 
Aria, Host, Fl. Austr. ii. 7. 
Cormus, Spacli, Hist. Veg. ii. 96. 
Torminaria, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 101. 
Micromeles, Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 168. 
Chloromeles, Decaisne, Fl. des Sevres, xxiii. 156. 



Trees or shrubs^ with smooth or scaly barl^ terete branches, imbricated bud-scales, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves involute or conduplicate in vernation, simple, palmatelj lobed or unequally pinnate, usually 
serrate, deciduous ; stipules entire or lobed, free from the petiole, deciduous. Flowers in simple or 
compound terminal cymes, rarely corymbose or racemose or one or two-flowered, from buds formed the 
previous year. Bracts and bractlets subulate or foliaceoas, deciduous. Calyx-tube urceolate or rarely 
turbinate, adnate to the ovary and fleshy at maturity, the five-lobed limb with acuminate reflexed lobes 
persistent, or deciduous with the apex of the receptacle. Disk lining the tube of the calyx, more or less 
thickened over the ovary. Petals white, pink, or red, suborbicular, unguiculate, inserted on the slightly 
thickened border of the disk. Stamens usually twenty, inserted in three rows, those of the outer row 
of ten parapetalous, those of the other rows alternate with them and with each other ; filaments subu- 
late, free or slightly connate at the base , anthers oblongs pale, red, or purple, attached on the back, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Carpels five, alternate with the petals, or two to four, inserted 
in the bottom of the calyx-tube and united into an inferior ovary ; styles terminal, free, or united 
below ; stigmas capitate, truncate ; ovules two in each cell, ascending, collateral, anatropous, the raphe 
dorsal, the micropyle inferior. Fruit an ovoid globose or pyriform pome formed by the thickenino- of 
the walls of the calyx-tube and its consolidation with the ovary ; mesocarp more or less fleshy, the flesh 
homogeneous or granular, adherent to the one to five-celled endocarp, the cells erustaceous or cartilagi- 
nous, usually two-valved. Seeds two or by abortion one in each cell, ovate, acute, erect, exalbuminous ; 
testa usually cartilaginous, chestnut-brown and lustrous, slightly mucflaginous on the outer surface. 
Embryo erect ; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy ; radicle short, inferior.^ 



^ The genus Pyrus may be divided into the following sections 
which some authors consider entitled to the rank of genera : — 

Malus. Flowers fascicled or subumbellate on short spur-like 
lateral branchlets ; ovary 3 to 5-celled ; styles more or less united 
below. Fruit globose, umbllicate or rounded at the base ; the flesh 
homogeneous. Leaves entire, or laciniate on vigorous shoots. 

Pyeus. Flowers in few-flowered corymbs on short spur-like 
lateral branchlets ; ovary 5-celled ; styles free. Fruit pyriform 



or subglobose, tapering at the base, the flesh granular. Leaves 
simple. 

Akia. Flowers in corymbose cymes ; ovary 2 to 5-eelled ; styles 
free. Fruit pyriform or globose ; flesh granular. Leaves entire 
or lobed. 

Aronia. Flowers in compound corymbs ; ovary 4 or 5-celled - 
styles united at the base. Fruit berry-like, pyriform or subc-Iobose. 
Leaves simple, their midribs glandular on the upper side. 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



ROSACEA. 



The genus Pyrus is widely and generally distributed through the temperate parts o£ the northern 
hemisphere ; from thirty to forty species may be distinguished, the largest number inhabitinjr south- 
central and eastern Asia. In North America the genus is represented by seven species, of which fiY% 
are small trees and two are shrubs of the eastern states ; ^ in Europe^ where the genus is distributed from 
Great Britain and Scandinavia to Spain^ southern Italy^ and Greece^ eight or nine species wdth many nat- 
ural varieties are recognized.^ Pyrus is spread through the mountain regions of the Orient/ and abounds 
in the Himalayas with twenty-two species/ and in China and Japan/ where botanists recognize fourteen 
or fifteen species.^ 

Pyrus is chiefly valuable to man for the fruits of Pyrus Malus^ the Apple^ and of Pyrus com- 
muniSy^ the Pear^ which supply him "with important articles of food^ and with alcoholic liquors.^ 



MiCKOMELES. Flowers in cymose corymbs ; calyx-lobes decidu- 
ous ; ovary 2 to 3-celled ; styles free or united. Fruit small, glo- 
bosCj umbilicate. Leaves simple. 

SoRBUS, Flowers in ample compound cymes ; ovary 2 to 4, usually 
3-ceIled ; styles 3. Fruit subglobose, berry-like, crowned with the 
thickened and often incurved persistent calyx-lobes. Leaves un- 
equally pinnate, the leaflets conduplicate in vernation. 

1 Tliese both belong to the section Aronia and are distributed 
through all the country east of the mid-continental plateau from 
Nova Scotia to Florida and Louisiana. Tliey are : — 

Pyrus arhutifolia^ Linnaeus f. SysL ed. 13, Siippl, 256. — BoL Mag. 
t. 3G68. — Torrey & Gray, Fl N. Am. i. 471. — Chapman, FL 
128. — "Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 164. — Sargent, Gar^ 
den and Forest^ iii. 416, f. 52. 

Mespilus arhutifoliay Linnseus, Spec. 478, 

Pyrus nigra^ Sargentj Garden and Forest, in. 416, 

Pyrus arbutifolia, var. nigra, Willdenow, Spec, ii- pt, ii. 1013. 

Mespilus arbutifoliay var, melanocarpa^ Miehaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 

292. 

Pyrus arhutifolia, var. melanocarpa, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 

204- — Torrey & Gray, ;. c. ~ Chapman, I c, 129. — Watson & 

Coulter, L c. 

^ Nyman, Conspect. FL Europ. 240. 

^ Boissier, FL Orient ii. 653, 

4 Hooker f. Fl. BriL Ind. ii. 372. 

^ Franehct & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 138. — Maximowicz, BulL 
Acad. ScL St Pe'tershourg, xix. 169 (MeL Biol. ix. 164). — Forbes & 
Hemslev, Jour. Linn. Soc. sxiii. 254. 

^ Of the different sections of the genus, Malus is eastern and 
western North AmericaUj European, and Asiatic, one species being 
now, through cultivation, widely naturalized beyond its original 
home. Pyrus is southern European, western Asiatic, and eastern 
Asiatic, 

Aria is northern European, western Asiatic, Himalayan, and 
eastern Asiatic. Aronia is eastern !N"orth American. Micromeles 
is Himalayan. Sorbus, the most widely distributed of the sections 
into which the genus is divided, is spread over the boreal and ele- 
vated portions of the three continents, 

'^ Linn^us, Spec. 479. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 635. — Maximo- 
wicz, l. c. 165. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 205. — Hooker f . 
L c. 

Malus communis^ Desfontaines, IJist. Arh. ii. 140. — Boissier, L c. 
655. — Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. s. 135. 

The native country of Pyrus Malus is uncertain ; it is believed to 
be indigenous in the northwestern Himalayas, where it ascends to 
an elevation of nine thousand feet above the level of the ocean and 
of eleven thousand four hundred feet in western Thibet (Hooker f.. 
l. c.)j and in Anatolia, where, on the mountains of Trebizond along 



the southern shores of the Black Sea, it forms forests of considera- 
ble extent (Boissier, L c). In southern and central Europe it has 
existed either in a wild or cultivated state since prehistoric times 
(A. de Candolle, Origine des Plantes Cultive'es, 186) ; and in some 
parts of the eastern United States it already grows spontaneously 
(Britton, Cat. PL JV. J. 99). 

Pyrus Malus has been cultivated in Europe since the days of the 
ancients, and from time immemorial in India, Cashmere, and north- 
ern China. It is the most valuable fruit-tree of the temperate 
zones, and thousands of varieties have l)een obtained from it by 
selection and cultivation, or by crossing its cultivated varieties with 
Pyrus prunifolia (Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii, 1018. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii, 635) or perhaps with varieties of Pyrus haccata. It is 
from these crosses that the best varieties of the cultivated Crab- 
apples have been obtained. 

^ Linnaeus, L c. 479. — De Candolle, L c. 633. — Boissier, L c* 
653. — Brandis, L c. 203. — Hooke'r £. L c. 374. 

Pyrus communis grows naturally in nearly all the elevated regions 
of Europe and in western Asia, especially in Anatolia, tlie southern 
Caucasian provinces, and northern Persia ; it grows spontaneously 
in northern and northeastern Europe and perhaps naturally in 
Cashmere and the northwestern Himalayas (A. de Candolle, 
L c. 183). 

The Pear-tree, which has been cultivated in Europe from ancient 
times, has given rise to innumerable varieties, many of which were 
known to the Romans in tlie time of Pliny, and the lists of pomol- 
ogists now contain the names of hundreds of cultivated Pears 
(Decaisne, Le Jardin Fruitier^ i, Poirier, 72. — Downing, The Fruits 
and Fruit- Trees of America, ed. 2, 639) which have been derived from 
Pyrus communis, and from Pyrus nivalis (Jacquin, FL Austr. ii. 4, 
t. 107. — Deeaisne, L c. 326, t. 21), from which is derived the race 
of Pears with hard acid fruit cultivated for cider (A. de Candolle, 
L c. 185), or from the intercrossing of the different species of the 
section Pyrus, which are sometimes believed to represent geo^ 
graphical races of one widely distributed polymorphous species 
(Deeaisne, L c. 132), 

^ Cider, which contains from four to ten per cent, of alcohol, is 
made from the juice of the ripe fruit of the Apple, which is pressed 
from the pulp and allowed to ferment in open casks ; at the end of 
two or three days the liquor is drawn off, put into fresh casks, and 
allowed to settle in a low regular temperature for thirty or forty 
days when the process is complete. Cider is of tliree qualities, 
rough, sweet, and bitter. The first is made by grinding unripe or 
carelessly selected fruit, the juice being allowed full fermentation, 
and the second is made from fully ripe sweet apples, the process 
of fermentation being cheeked before completion. Bitter cider 
owes its peculiarities of flavor to the character of the fruit from 
which it is made. Ciderkin is made by infusing with boiling water 



BOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEEICA. 



69 



Pyrus SinensiSy^ a native of northern China^ has long been cultivated on an extensive scale in China ^ 
and Japan ^ for its large and handsome fruity and recently has attracted the attention of pomologists in 
the United States and Europe.^ The fruit of most of the species, especially of those of the section Sor- 
buSj contains malic and tartaric acids/ and the unripe fruit and bark of these plants are astringent 
and are sometimes employed medicinally.*^ 

The wood of Pyrus is hard, heavy, and close-grained, and that of several of the species is esteemed 
by millwrights, turners, and engravers, and makes excellent fuel. The beauty and abundance of their 
flowers and fruit, their excellent habit, and their hardiness, make many of the species valuable garden 
plants, particularly the Asiatic Pyrus haccata'^ with its numerous varieties, Pyrws Toringo} Pijrus 
spectahilis^^ Pyrus salicifoUa^^^ the various North American species, and the species of Sorbus^^ and 
Aria.^^ 



the marc or refuse left after the juice has been extracted from the 
fruit for cider, the mass being again subjected to pressure. Cider 
is manufactured principally in the eastern United States, in several 
English counties, principally Herefordshire, Devonshire, and Somer- 
set, in Normandy and Brittany in France, and in northern Germany. 
Vinegar is sometimes made from cider whieli has soured owing to 
a deficiency of alcohol, by exposure to spontaneous acetification. 

Perry, which resembles cider, is made by the same process from 
varieties of the pear selected on account of their austere juice. It 
is principally produced in southern England and in western France, 
where Pear-trees are cultivated on a large scale for this purpose 

(I^oudon, Arb, Brit iL 884. — Spons, Encyclop(Bdia of the Indmtrial 
Arts ^Manufactures, and Raw Commercial Products^ i, 414, 421), 

1 Lindley, Trans, HorL Soc, Land. vi. 396 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1248,— 
Decaisne, Le Jardin Fruitier^ i, PoirieVy 331, t. 5- — Maximowicz, 
Bull. Acad. ScL St. Petersbourgy xix. 172 (^MeL BioL is, 168). — 
Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Sac. xxiii, 257- 

Pyrus communis^ Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 207 (not Linnaeus). 
Pyrus Ussuriensisy Maximowicz, Prim. Fl. Amur. 102, 

2 Loureiro, FL Cochin. 321, — Eretschueider, Early European Re- 
searcTies into the Flora of China, 150, 

^ With the exception of the Persimmon the Pear is the most com- 
mon fruit-tree of Japan, where it was early introduced from northern 
China, Several varieties have been developed in Japanese gardens, 
but they differ less from each other than the pears of European 
origin, although some ripen in the summer and others in the autumn. 
In the neighborhood of large cities there are Pear-orchards in which 
the trees are carefully cultivated and manured ; the tops are trained 
over Bamboo frames, and too vigorous shoots are removed to insure 
the production of large crops of fruit- The trees are propagated 
by grafting selected varieties on seedling stocks, and often by cut- 
tings which are made in March from stout yearling shoots ; these are 
pointed, their ends are charred, and they are then set in rows in 
deep rich soil, and at the end of a few years are transplanted into 
the orchards (Rein, Japan nach Reisen und Studien im Auftrage der 
Koniglich Preussischen Regierung, ii, 99). 

^ Downing, The Fruits and Fruit-Trees of Ainericay ed, 2, 851. — 
Gard. Chron. n. ser, iv. 456, f , 95 ; ser. 3, ix, 141, f , 36- — Rev. Hart 
1878, 310, t- ; 1885, 286, f. 49. 

s Baillon, Traite Bot Med. 559. 

« Linn^tis, Mat Med.Sl,^m\U & Maisch, Nat. Dkpens. 1334, 

^ Linnffius, Mant. 75. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 635. — Maximo- 
wicz, t c. 166. — Hooker f . FL Brit Jnd. ii. 373. — Forbes & Hems- 
ley, L e. 255, 

Pyru^ baccatay which is widely distributed in Siberia, in the Hima- 
layaSj and in northern China and Japan, has been cultivated as a 
garden ornament by the Chinese and Japanese from very early 



times, and many forms have been developed in their gardens dif- 
fering in the habit of the plants, in the size and character of the 
fruit, and in the color of the flowers, which are sometimes semi- 
double; among these varieties are some of the most beautiful of 
all flowering trees, and their free-flowering habit, hardiness, and im- 
munity from disease and the attacks of insects commend them to 
the attention of gardeners (FL des Sevres, xv, 161, t. 1585, 1586, 
1587. — Carrifere, Pommiers Microcarpes, 68, — Garden and Forest, 
ii, 260, 520, f. 139). 

^ Siebold, Cat. Rats. i. 4. — Koch, Dendr. L 212. — Maximo- 
wicz, L c. 167, 

Pyrus Sieboldii, Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 82. 

Mains Toringo, Carri^re, Rev. HorL 1872j 210, f. 25 j Pommiers 
MicTOcarpeSy 61, f- 11. 

^ Alton, Hart. Kew. ii. 175- -— Nouveau Duhamely vi, 141, t. 42, 
f, 2. — Watson, Dendr. BriL I 50, t, 50. — Koch, L c, 209.— Maxi- 
mowicz, L c. 166. ~ Forbes & Hemsley, L c. 258. 

This tree, which is believed to be a native of northern China 
and is known in cultivation only in a form with semidouble flowers, 
is one of the handsomest of the small-fruited Apple-trees, appear- 
ing in gardens as a tree-like shrub with erect slightly spreading 
branches, which are covered every spring with masses of fragrant 
pink or rose-colored flowers (Garden and Forest^ L 272, f, 214; ii, 
260), 

^^ Linnteus f. Syst ed. 13, SuppL 255. — Pallas, FL Ross. L 20, 
t, 9; VoyageSy v, 504, t, 11, f. 1, — Nouveau Duhamel, vi. 189, 
t. 5Q. — BoL Reg, t, 514. — Decaisne, L c. 310, t, 12, — Koch, t c. 
218. 

^^ The Old World Sorbus {Pyrus aucupariay G^Brtner, Fruct. ii. 
45, t- 87 J^Sorbus aucupariay Linnaeus, Spec. 477- — Maximowicz, L c, 
170]), the Scottish Rowan-tree or Mountain Ash, is widely dis- 
tributed through the forests of mountainous regions from the shores 
of the Atlantic Ocean to Japan, extending north to the arctic circle^ 
where it is reduced to a stunted shrub. For eenturies it has been 
a favorite tree with planters, and varieties with yellow and with 
orange-colored fruit and with pendulous branches have appeared. 
(See Gilpin, Forest Scenery y ed, 2, 138, — Loudon, L c. 916-) 

The fruit of the Rowan-tree is greedily devoured by birds, and it 
is often planted to supply them with food. The fruit is sometimes 
made into flour, or is eaten uncooked in northern Europe and in 
Siberia ; infused witTi water it produces a pleasant subacid bever- 
age, and by distillation a powerful spirit. The wood, which is hard 
and close-grained, is often used for the handles of tools and the 
cogs of wheels, and by wheelwrights and turners (Evelyn, Silvan 
ed. Hunter, i- 211, — Mathieu, Flore Forestiere, ed. 2, 131), 

12 Pypus Aria (Ehrhart, Beitr, iv. 20), the White Beam-tree, is 
distributed from western Europe to Japan, and is common in the 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Many insects^ feed upon the different species of Pjrus^ whicli are also subject to serious fungal 
diseases.^ 

Pirus^ the classical name of the Pear-tree^ v^^as changed to Pyrus by Tournefort/ and then adopted 
by LinnseuSj who^ in establishing his genus^ united with Pyrus the Cydonia^ and Malus^ of Tournefort. 



forests of northern Europe and Asia, in the mountainous regions of 
central and southern Europe, and of central, southern, and western 
Asia, It is valued by planters for the beauty of its entire or vari- 
ously divided ample leaves, which are pale or sometimes nearly 
white on the lower surface, and for its subacid and astringent fruit, 
which is a favorite food of birds, and is sometimes made into flour 
and of ten fermented into a kind of beer or distilled into a powerful 
spix^it. 

The wood of the White Beam-tree is bard, strong, and durable, 
and is largely employed for the handles of tools and the bearings 
of machinery, and by wheelwrights and turners (Loudon, Arh. Brit 
ii. 910, — Mathieu, Flore ForesHere, ed. 2, 123). 

1 Many of the insects which injure the different species of Pru- 
nus in America also attack the native Apples, and Mountain Ashes 
are sometimes seriously injured by them. Tent-caterpillars and 
the larvEe of Tussock-moths are often abundant on the Apple, and 
the Mountain Ash suffers from attacks of the Fall Web-worm 
{Hypkantria cunea, Drury), Datana ministraj Brury, often com- 
pletely defoliates the branches of small trees, and (Edemasia con- 
cinna, Smith & Abbot, commits similar depredations. Great destruc- 
tion among the trees of this genus, and often their death, is caused 
by borers. The Apple-tree Borer (Saperda hivittata, Say) and the 
Flai-headed'BoveT (CkrysobotJiris femorataj Fabricius) are the most 
destructive to the Apple and the Mountain Ash. Several Scale-in- 
sects affect the bark and branches, the most harmful being the 
Scurfy Eark-louse (Chionaspis furfurus^ Fiteh) and Mytilaspis pomi- 
corticisy Hiley, The foliage is also injured hy Aphids, and the fruit 
of the Wild Apple by the ravages of the Codlin-moth and a Cur- 
culio (Anthonomus guadrigihius^ Say)- No less than eighty-one 
species of insects which attack the cultivated Apple in America are 
enumerated by Saunders (Insects injurious to Fruits, 13), and most 
of them may be discovered on. the wild species also. 



^ Of the Fungi which attack the North American species of 
Pyrus, the most interesting are the different Rcestelice, found on the 
leaves and less frequently on the fruit and young stems of most of 
the species. The RcEstelicEj commonly called Clustor-cups, belong 
to the order Uredinem or Rusts, a group of plants which pass through 
several different stages in their development, in some of the stages 
appearing as parasites on certain genera of flowering plants, while 
in others they may be parasitic on entirely different genera. In the 
most highly differentiated Rusts there may he as many as four dif- 
ferent stages during their development. The most destructive of 
these plants to our Wild Apples is Rcestelia pyrata^ Thaxter, a Clus- 
ter-cup which usually grows in dense rings on the under side of the 
leaves of Pyrus coronaria^ and sometimes on those of Pyrus angus- 

tifolia and several of the native species of Crataegus, and in a less 
striking form on the leaves of the cultivated Apple-tree. This 
species is peculiar to North America, and its teleutosporic stage is 
reached in the large yellow gelatinous masses common on the young 
branches of the Red Cedar in May. In the northern part of the 
country the leaves of the Mountain Ashj Pyrus Americana^ exhibit 
large yellow spots, and on their under surface bear groups of long 
narrow Cluster-cups which appear identical with those of the Euro- 
pean Rcestelia cornuta^ Fries, although as yet the teleutosporic stage 
of this plant has not been detected in North America- Other fungi 
which attack the American species of Pyrus are Entomosporium 
maculatum^ Lev^illd, with curious ciliated spores, found commonly 
on tlie leaves of Quinces, Pears, and Apple-trees, as well as on Ame- 
lanchier and several species of Crataegus ; and Nummularia discreta^ 
Tulasne, most common on the branches of the Apple-tree^ hut 
sometimes seen on those of Pyrus Americana. 

s InsL 628, t. 404. 

* Inst. 632, t. 405- 

s Inst 634, t. 406. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTPI AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES- 



Malxjs. Flowers in simple umbellate or racemose cymes on spur-like lateral branches; styles 
3 to 5, more or less united below- Trees with small winter-budsj scaly bark, and simple 
leaves, involute in vernation. 

Calyx-lobes persistent ; fruit depressed at the base. 

Leaves ovate, truncate or subcordate at the base, incisely serratej often lobed, membra- 
naceous 1- P- CORONARIA. 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong, acute at the base, crenulate-serratCj or nearly entire, sub- 

coriaceous 2. P, angustifoliA. 

Calyx-lobes deciduous ; fruit not depressed at the base. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrulate, often 3-lobed 3- F- mvuLABis. 

SoKBUS- Flowers in compound leafy cymes ; styles usually 3, free- Trees with large winter- 
budsj smooth aromatic bark, and odd-pinnate leaves, the leaflets conduplicate In vernation. 

Leaflets lanceolate, acuminate 4. P- Amekicaka. 

Leaflets oblong-ovai to lance-ovate, mostly obtuse 5. P. sameucifolia. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



1 



PYEUS CORONARIA. 

Crab Apple. Fragrant Crab. 

Leaves ovate, truncate or subcordate at the base, incisely serrate, often lobed, 
glabrous to tomentose on the lower surface. 



*. s,i 



Du Roi, Harhk. 

— Castigli- 



Pyrus coronaria, Linnaeus, Spec. 480. - 

Bamns. li. 229. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 118. 
oni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 344. — Willdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 265 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1019 ; Mnum. 527. ■ — Per- 
soon, Syn. ii. 40. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 340. — Nut- 
tall, Gen. i. 307. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. B>Q. — Torrey, FL 
N. Y. i. 223. — ^0^;. Mag. t. 2009. — Elliott, Sk. i. 659. — 
Bot. Reg. t. 651. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 610. — De Can- 
doUe, Brodr. ii. 635. ■ — ■ Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 647. — Keich- 
enbach, Fl. Exot. iv. t. 240. — Torrey & Gray, Fl -N, 
Am. i. 470, — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 164. — Chapman, Fl. 
128. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 69. — 
Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 26. — Koch, Dendr. i. 214. — 
Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 40 (excl. var.). — The Gar- 
den, xix. 400, t. 280. — Ridgway, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. 



1882, 66. — Sargent, Forest Trees iV". Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 72. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
164. — L. H. Bailey, Am. Garden, xii. 472. — Gray, Forest 
Trees N. Am. t. 52. 

Malus coronaria, Miller, Bid. ed. 8, No. 2. — Moench, 
Meth. 682. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 292. — Poiret, 
Lam. Bid. v. 562. ■ — ■ Desf ontaines. Hist. Arb. ii. 140. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 427. — Nouveau 
Duhamel, vi. 139, t. 44, f. 1.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. 
Am. iii. 65, 1. 10. — Spach, Rist. Veg. ii. 136, t. 8, — Roe- 
mer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 191. — ■ Decaisne, Noiw. Arch. 
Mus. X. 154. — Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1877, 410, t. 

Cratsegus coronaria, Salisbury, Frodr. 357. 

Malus microcarpa coronaria, Carrifere, Bommiers Micro- 
carpes, 133, f. 17 ; Rev. Bort. 1884, 104, f. 24. 



A tree, twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a trunk twelve or fourteen inches in diameter, 
dividing, eight or ten feet above the ground, into several stout spreading branches which form a wide 
open head ; or usually much smaller and sometimes barely more than a bushy shrub with rigid con- 
torted branches. The bark of the trunk is one third of an inch thick, and longitudinally fissured, the 
outer layer separating into long narrow persistent red-brown scales. The branchlets are at first coated 
with thick white tomentum which soon disappears, and in their first winter are glabrous or slightly 
pubescent and covered with bright red-brown bark marked by occasional small pale lenticels ; in their 
second year they develop long stout spur-like and somewhat spinescent lateral branches, and are then 
light brown. The winter-buds are minute, obtuse, and protected by bright red scales with dark scari- 
ous ciliate margins ; those of the inner ranks enlarge with the growing shoots and at maturity are from 
one third to one half of an inch in length, oblong, acute, bright red, and glandular-serrate. The leaves 
are ovate or sometimes almost triangular, usually acute at the apex, often truncate or subcordate, and 
occasionally acute at the base, incisely serrate with glandular teeth, and often three-lobed, especially on 
vigorous shoots ; when they unfold they are red-bronze, coated on the lower surface with pale tomentum, 
and pilose on the upper surface ; at maturity they are membranaceous, bright green above, and paler, 
glabrous, or sometimes slightly pilose below, three or four inches long, and an inch and a half to two 
inches and a haK broad, with broad midribs and primary veins grooved on the upper side, and conspicu- 

If 

ous veinlets, and are borne on slender petioles an inch and a half to two inches in length, tomentose or 
pubescent at first but ultimately glabrous and often furnished near the middle with tAvo dark glands. 
The stipules are filiform, acuminate, half an inch long, and early deciduous. The flowers, which appear- 
when the leaves are almost fully grown, are produced in five or six-fiowered umbels on slender pedicels 
an inch and a half to two inches in length, and are an inch and a half to nearly two inches across when 
expanded, and very fragrant. The calyx-tube is obconic, and pubescent or coated with thick white 
tomentum ; this also covers the inner surface of the long acute lobes which end in rigid subulate points. 
The petals, which are inserted remotely one from another, are white or rose-colored, obovate, rounded 



72 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EOSACE^.. 



F 

above, contracted below into long narrow claws, often crenulately serrate or undulate and sometimes 

irregularly and unequally dentate near the base of the blade. The stamens are shorter than the petals 

and for one third of their length, by a partial twist of the filaments at the base, form a tube narrowed 

in the middle and enlarged above. The ovary and the lower part of the styles are coated with 

long pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens late in the autumn, is suspended on slender stems and is 

depressed-globose, and an inch to an inch and a half in diameter. It is green when first fully o-rown 

and Avhen ripe is yellow-green, somewhat translucent, dehciously fragrant, and covered with a waxy 
exudation. 

• Pyriis coronaria is distributed in Canada from the valley of the Humber Eiver westward along 
the shores of Lake Erie ; ^ it ranges southward through western New York and Pennsylvania to the 
District of Columbia, and along the Alleghany Mountains to central Alabama, and westward to southern 
Minnesota, eastern Nebraska,^ eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, northern Louisiana, and eastern 
Texas.^ It usually grows in rich rather moist soil in forest glades where it sometimes forms consider- 
able thickets, or less commonly on dry limestone hills, and reaches its greatest size in the valleys of the 
lower Ohio basin and in the states west of the Mississippi River. 

The wood of Fyrus coronaria is heavy and close-grained, but not hard or strong j it contains 
numerous obscure medullary rays, and is brown to light red, with thick yellow sapwood composed of 
eighteen or tAventy layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0,7048, 
a cubic foot weighing 43.92 pounds. It is employed for levers, the handles of tools, and many small 
articles of domestic use. 

The fruit is used for preserves and is often manufactured into cider. 

Pyrus coronaria varies somewhat in the form of its leaves, in the amount and persistence of the 
tomentum which covers their under surface, the young shoots and the calyces, and in the size of the 
fruit ; and, especially west of the Alleghany Mountains, the eastern plant passes into the variety loensis,'^ 
which is distinguished by its elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong leaves irregularly obtusely toothed, an4 
while young densely coated on the lower surface, like the young shoots, with thick white tomentum, and 
by its larger fruit which is sometimes two inches in diameter. This is the common form of the Crab- 
apple of the Mississippi valley. ^ 

Pyrus coronaria did not attract the attention of early travelers in America ; it appears^ however^ 
to have been introduced into English gardens as early as 1724/^ and was described by Philip Miller in 
the first edition of the Gardener^ s Dictionary published in 1731.^ 

As an ornamental plant the American Crab-apple has many attractions ; its small size and excellent 
habit render it useful in shrubberies and small gardens ; its flowers^ which do not appear until after 
those of other Apple-trees have fallen^ are large and sweety and the fragrant fruity hanging gracefully 
on its long stems and remaining on the branches until after the leaves have dropped^ make it interesting 
late in the autumn. Its horticultural value was early appreciated by the settlers of the middle and 



^ Brunei, Cat Veg, Lig. Can, 26, — Macouiij Cat. Can, PL 
I 145. 

2 Bessey, Bull Affnc, Exper. Stat Nebraska, iv. art. iv. 20. 

s Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb, ii, 106 (Man, PI W. Texas), 

^ Wood, CI Book, rev, ed. 333. 

Pyrus loensis, L. H, Bailey, Am. Garden, xii, 473, f, 7, 8, 

TSe Soulard Crab, which was first introduced many years ago 
into Illinois, has been variously considered a large-fruited variety 
of P?jnis coronaria^ a natural hybrid between this species and the 
cultivated Apple-tree, and a native species (Pyrus Soulardi, L. H. 
Bailey, /, c). Probably the first view is correct, as various forms 
appear to connect it with eastern and western varieties of Pyrus 
coronaria. The leaves are round-ovate to elliptic-ovate, usually 



rounded at the apex, and acute or rounded at the base, irregularly 
crenate-dentate, three or four inches long and two and a half inches 
broad, with short thick petioles ; they are thick, rugose, and, while 
young, are coated on the lower surface with thick pale tomentum. 
The fruit is two to two and a half inches in diameter or often much 
smaller, but in color, in the waxy exudation from the skin, and iu 
the character of the flesh is not distinguishable from that of the 
eastern tree (Downing, The Fruits and Fruit-Trees of America, ed. 2, 
42G), This form, which is not common In a wild state, appears to 
be distributed from Minnesota to Texas (L. H, Bailey, I. c). 
^ Alton, Hort. Kew, ii. 176, — Loudon^ Arb. Brit. ii. 908, 
^ Mains; sylvestris, Virginiana, Jioribu^ odoratis, No, 3. 
Mains sylvestrisj /loribiis odoratis^ Clayton, Ft, Virgin. 55, 



ROSACEA. 



t: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMUBICA, 



73 



eastern states/ and for more than a century it has been a favorite garden plant in America and 
Europe.^ 



1 " Crab-Trees are a species of wild apple-trees, whicli grow in 
the woods and glades, but especially on little hillocks, near rivers. 
In Neio Jersey the tree is rather scarce ; but in Pennsylvania it is 
plentiful. Some people liad planted a single tree of this kind near 
their farms, on account of the fine smells which its flowers afford. 
It had begun to open some of its flowers about a day or two ago ; 
however, most of thera were not yet open. They are exactly like 
the blossoms of the common apple-trees, except that the colour is a 
little more reddish in the Crab-trees; though some kinds of the 
cultivated trees have flowers which are very near as red : but the 



smell distinguishes them plainly ; for the wild trees have a very 
pleasant smell, somewhat like the rasp-berry. The apples, or crabs, 
are small, sour, and unfit for anything but to make vinegar of. 
They lie under the trees all the winter, and acquire a yellow colour. 
They seldom begin to rot before spring comes on. The Crab-trees 
opened their flowers only yesterday and to-day; whereas, the culti- 
vated apple-trees, which are brought from Europe^ had already lost 
their flowers." (Kalm, Travels^ English ed. ii. 160,) 
2 Rev. HorL 1877, 410, t. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CLXVIL Ptrxts coronaria. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

r 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, parts of the petals removed^ enlarged, 

4. An ovule, mucli magnlfied- 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size- * 

8. A seed, natural size- 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged- 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. The base of a leaf showing stipules, natural size. 

12. Winter-buds, natural size- 



Plate CLXVIII. Pykus coros-aria, var. Ioensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size- 
s' A seed, enlarged. ' 

6. An embryo, magnified- 

7. A vigorous leafy shoot, natural size. 



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PYRUS CORONARIA, 



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Imp. R. Tar^eur^ Paris . 



EOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA 



75 



PYRUS ANGUSTIFOLIA. 

r 

r 

Crab Apple. 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong, acute at the base, crenulate-serrate or nearly entire, 
subcoriaceous. 



Pyrus angustifolia, Aitoii, Hort. Kew. ii. 176. — Willde- 
now, 82>&c. ii. pt- ii. 1020- — Poiretj Lam. Diet. v. ^5^. — ■ 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 40.^ — Piirsh^ FL Am, Sejpt, i. 340. — 
Elliott, Sk. L 559. — Sprengel, JSyst. ii. 509. — De Can- 
doUe, Frodr, ii. 635. — "Watson, Fendr, Brit, ii- 132, t- 
132,-^0^. Reg. t- 1207. — Don, Gen. Si/st ii. 647- — 



Torrey & Gray, FL J^. Am. i. 471.- 

154. — Nuttall, S2/lva, ii. 24, —Chapman, FL 128. 



Dietrich, Syn. iii. 

-Cur- 
tis, Bep. Geolor/. Sicri\ iV. Car. 1860, iii. 69. — Koch, 
Dendr. i, 213. — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. Am, 10th Ceii- 
sus JJ. 8. ix. 72. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
164. — L. H. Bailey, Am. Garden, xii. 472. 
P. coronaria, Wangenheira, Nordam. Rolz. 61, t. 21, f . 47 
(not Linnreus) . — "Walter, Fl Car. 1481 



Malus angustifolia, Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 292. — De- 

caisne, Noiw. Arch. Mus. x. 156. 

Malus sempervirenSj Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 141, — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 428. — Nouveau 
Duhamel, vi. 138, t. 43, f. 1- — Poiret, Lam. Diet, SuppL 
iv- 524. — Spach, Hist. Veg, \i- 135, t. 8. — Loiseleur, 
Herh. Amat. iii. t. 154. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 
191. 

P. coronaria, var. angustifolia, Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 

■ 41. 

Chloromeles sempervirens, Decaisne, Fl. des 8erres, xxiii. 
156. 

Malus microcarpa, sempervirens, Carricre, Pommiers 
Microcarpes, 136, f. 1. 18. 



A tree, rarely attaining the heiglit o£ thirty feet, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, 
and spreading rigid branches which form a wide open head. The bark of the trunk is from an eighth 
to a quarter of an inch in thickness^ dark reddish brown, and divided by deep longitudinal fissures into 
narrow ridges, the surface of which is broken into small persistent plate-like scales. The young branches 
are clothed at first with pale pubescence Avhich soon disappears ; in their first winter they are slender 
and covered with smooth brown bark slightly tinged with red, and in their second year produce slender 
spinescent lateral branchlets, and are light brown and marked by occasional orange-colored lenticels. 
The winter-buds are obtuse, and one sixteenth of an inch long, their outer scales chestnut-brown and 
slightly pubescent, with ciliate scarious margins, the inner ones oblong, acute, coated with long pale 
hairs, accrescent with the young shoots, and a quarter of an inch long when fully grown. The leaves 
are lanceolate-oblong, acute or rounded and apiculate at the apex, acute at the base, and coarsely crenu- 
late-serrate above the middle or sometimes almost entire ; when they appear they are more or less coated 
with pale tomentum on the lower surface, and are pilose on the upper surface, and at maturity are sub- 
coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, paler below, and glabrous or nearly so, with slender midribs 
grooved on the upper side and obscure primary veins ; they are then an inch and a half to three inches 
long and one half of an inch to an inch and a half broad, and are borne on slender rigid glabrous or 
puberulous petioles from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The stipules are filiform, rose- 
colored, half an inch long, and cad.ucous. The flowers, which are an inch across when expanded, and 
very fragrant, appear from the end of March in Louisiana to the middle of May in Pennsylvania, and 
are produced in few-flowered umbels on slender pedicels an inch to an inch and a half in length, furnished 
near the middle with one or more inconspicuous glands, and are glabrous or sometimes, especially in the 
GuK states, covered with pale tomentum. The calyx-tube is glabrous, pubescent, or tomentose on the 
outer surface, with narrow acuminate lobes, terminating in rigid points, and clothed on the inner surface 
with pale tomentum. The petals are distant, narrowly obovate, rounded above, contracted below into 
long slender claws, undulate and sometimes irregularly denticulate-serrate at the base of the blade, and 
white, pink, or rose-colored. The ovary and the lower part of the styles are densely clothed with pale 



76 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



tomentum. The fruit is depressed-globose or sometimes slightly pyriform, and is from three quarters 
of an inch to an inch in diameter, pale yellow-green, and very fragrant when fully ripe, with hard 
acid flesh. 

Pyrus angustifolia is distributed from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania/ and southern Delaware 
through the coast region of the southern Atlantic states to the valley of the Chattahoochee in western 
Florida, and through the Gulf states to the valley of the Ked Eiver in Louisiana, and northward to 
middle Tennessee. In the Atlantic states, where it is more common than in the country west of the 
Alleghany Mountains, Pyrus angustifolia usually grows in open forest glades in stiff clay soil near 
streams, and in the Gulf states in the sandy soil of dry depressions in rolling Pine-covered uplands. 

. The wood of Pyrus angustifolia is heavy, hard, and close-grained ; it is light brown tlno-ed with 
red, with thick yellow sapwood and many obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.6895, a cubic foot weighing 42.97 pounds. It is occasionally employed for levers, 
the handles of tools, and other small objects. , ^ 

The fruit is used for preserves and is occasionally made into cider. 

It was this tree, no doubt, that William Strachey found on the James Eiver in 1610,^ although it 

was not recognized by botanists until nearly the end of the next century, the earliest description having 

been drawn up from trees cultivated in England, where it was introduced in 1750 ^ by Christopher 
Gray.* 

The southern Crab-apple is occasionally cultivated in the gardens of Europe. When in flower it 
is not surpassed in beauty by any of the smafl trees of North America, and the traveler in the gloomy 
and monotonous Pine forests of the southern states experiences no more delightful sensation than when 
he comes unexpectedly into some retired glade and finds it filled with these trees covered by their deli- 
cate and fragrant flowers. ' ■ ' 



1 Pyrus angustifolia was first noticed here by Professor Thomas 
C. Porter. 

^ " Crabb trees tliere be, but the fruiet small and bitter, howbeit, 
being graffed upon, soone might we have of our owne apples of 
any kind, peares, and what ells." (Historie of Travaile into Vir- 
ginia Britannia, ed. Major, 130.) 

3 Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 176. —Loudon, Ark Brit. ii. 909, t. 

^ Christopher Gray established a nursery- garden at Fulham early 
in the eighteenth century, and appears to have been active in intro- 
ducing Korth American plants, for Mark Catesby, in the preface to 
the Hortus Britanno-Americanus, published in 1767, remarks that 
" Mr. Gray at Fulham has for many years made it his business to 



raise and cultivate the plants of America (from whence he has annu- 
ally fresh supplies) in order to furnish the Curious with what they 
want ; " and that, " through his industry and skill a greater variety 
of American forest-trees and shrubs may be seen in his gardens, 
than in any other place in England." According to Loudon, the 
first plant of Magnolia foitida which was brought to England was 
planted in Gray's nursery ; it died in 1810, when it had formed a 
head twenty feet in diameter and a trunk nearly five feet in cir- 
cumference {Arl). Brit. i. 76). 

In 1755 Gray published a catalogue of the plants cultivated in 
his garden, which is supposed to have been written by Philip 
Miller. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXIX. Pykus angustipolia. 

1, A flowering branch, natural size, 

2, Vertical section of a flower, parts of the stamens and petals removedj enlarged, 

3- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size, 

5- A winter branchletj natural size. 



^ 



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Silva of North America 



/ 



Tab, CLXIX, 



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Pir^j't-Jr . so 



PYRUS ANGUSTIFOLIA 




t . 



A . Bzocrewr. direcv ^ 





• Tan^eiir. Paris 



ROSACEA. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 77 



PYRUS RIVULARIS. 

Oregon Crab Apple, 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrulate, often 3-lobed, pubescent on the lower surface- 

r 

Pyrus rivularis, Douglas ; Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 203, t- Pyrus fusca, Kafinesque, Med. FL ii. 254. 

68. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 647. — Torrey & Gray, FL JSf. Pyrus subcordata, Ledebour, FL Ross, ii- 95. 

Atyi. i 471. — Walpers, Rep, ii. 53. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. Malus rivularis, Eoemer^ Fam. Nat. Syn. iii- 215. — De- 
154. — ■ Ledebour, FL Ross. ii. 99. — Nuttall, Sylva^ ii. 22, caisne, Noitv. ArcJu Mus. x- 155- 

t. 49. — Torrey, Bot, Wilkes Explor. Exped. 292. — Koch, Malus diversifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat Syn, iii. 215. — De- 
Dendr. i. 212. — ■ Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 38. — Brewer caisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 155. 

& Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 188. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Malus subcordata, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 192. 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 73. Pyrus rivularis, ^S. levipes, Nuttall, 8ylva, ii. 24. 

Pyrus diversifolia, Bongard, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Peters- 
bourg^ ser. 6, ii. 133. 

A tree, thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk twelve to eighteen inches in diameter ; or often 
a shrub sending up from the ground many slender stems. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an 
inch thickj the surface broken into large rather thin loose light red-brown plate-like scales. The winter- 
buds are obtuse, one sixteenth of an inch long, and covered by chestnut-brown scales rounded on the 
back and ciliate on the margins ; the accrescent scales of the inner rows being lanceolate-acute when 
fully grown, usually bright red, and nearly half an inch long. The branches are at first coated with 
long pale hairs which are sometimes deciduous, and sometimes cover them more or less completely 
until the autumn ; in their first winter they become bright red and lustrous, and later are dark brown 
and often marked by minute remote pale lenticels. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate 
at the apex, wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, sharply serrate with appressed glandular teeth, and 
occasionally, especially on vigorous shoots, obscurely three-lobed, with prominent midribs and primary 
veins grooved on the upper side, and conspicuously reticulate veinlets; when they unfold they are pubes- 
cent on the lower, and puberulous on the upper surface, and at maturity are thick and firm, dark green 
and glabrous above, and pale and slightly pubescent below, an inch to three inches long, and half an 
inch to an inch and a half broad, and are borne on stout rigid pubescent petioles an inch to an inch 
and a half in length. The stipules are narrowly lanceolate, acute, from one half to three quarters of 
an inch long, and caducous. In the autumn the leaves assume beautiful shades of orange and scarlet. 
The flowers, which are produced in short racemose many-flowered cymes leafy at the base, are borne on 
slender pubescent pedicels biglandular near the middle, and are half an inch across when expanded ; the 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous or puberulous, with acute lobes, minutely apiculate, coated 
with dense pale tomentum on the inner surface, and deciduous from the mature fruit; the petals are 
orbicular to obovate, with erose or undulate margins ; they are contracted below into short claws, and 
are as long as the two to four glabrous styles. The fruit, which ripens in September and October, is 
obovate-oblong, and from one half to .three quarters of an inch in length, with thin dry flesh and 
large seeds ; on some trees it is yellow-green when fully ripe, and on others it is light yellow with a red 
flush on one side, or sometimes is almost entirely red. 

Ryrtts rivtdaris is distributed from the Aleutian Islands southward along the coast and aslands of 
Alaska and British Columbia ^ and through wesljern Washington and Oregon to Sonoma aaid Plumas 

1 Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 294. — Rothrock, Smithsonian Hep. 1867, 435 {FL Alaska). — G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat. 
n. ser. ix. 330. 



78 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



EOSACE^ 



Counties, California.^ It grows usually in deep rich soil in the neighborhood o£ streams, often formino- 
almost impenetrable thickets of considerable extent, and attains its greatest size in the valleys of Wash- 
ing-ton and Oregon. 

The wood of Pyrus rivtdaris is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with a satiny surface suscep- 
tible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays, and is light brown 
tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood composed of twenty-five to thirty layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8316, a cubic foot weighing 51.83 pounds. 
It is employed for mallets, malls, the handles of tools, and the bearings of machinery. 

The fruit, which has a pleasant subacid flavor when fully ripe, is gathered and consumed by the 
Indians,^ 

Archibald Menzies,^ who sailed with Vancouver as surgeon and naturalist late in the last century, 
appears to have been the first botanist to notice Pyriis rivularis, although its character was not distin- 
guished until fifty years later.* In 1882 it was introduced from Oregon into the Arnold Arboretum^ 
where it is perfectly hardy and flowers abundantly every year.^ 



^ Greene, Fl, Francis, i, 53- 

2 "The fruit of the Crab-apple (Pyrus rivularis) is prepared for 
food by being wrapt in leaves and preserved in bags all winter. 
When the apples have become sweet, they are cooked by digging a 
hole in the ground, covering it over thickly with green leaves and 
a layer of earth or sand, and then kindling a fire above them," 
(R. Brown (Campst.), Trans. BoL Soc, Edinburgh, ix. 383.) 

s See ii, 90. 

^ Probably the earliest printed reference to this tree is in Georgi's 



GeograpJiisch-PJtysikaliscJie und Naturhistorische Beschreihung des 
Russischen ReicJis (pt, iii, iv. 1015), published in 1800, where the 
wild Apple-tree seen by Schelechow on the Aleutian Islands is 
mentioned, but is regarded as a variety of the common Apple- 
tree, 

^ Pyrus rivularis is exceedingly rare in European gardens, and 
does not appear to have attracted the attention of European horti- 
culturists. It is cultivated, however, in the garden of the Forest 
School at Miinden, where it flowers and produces fruit. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXX. Pykus kivulakis. 

1. A flowering branch^ natural size- 

2. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 
6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North Am 



eric^ 



r 

Tab . CLXX 




\ 



4j 

} 



\ 



3 





2 



5 





C.E.Fcux^n del. 




• JO. 



PYRUS RIVULARIS 



D ouol 

o 



yi. Bxo creMoy direcc- '^ 




R . Taneur^ Parif 



ROSACE^E. 



SILVA OF NOETE AMERICA. 



79 



PYRUS AMERICANA. 



Mountain Ash, 



Leaflets lanceolate, acuminate. 



Pyrus Americana, De Candolle, Frodr. ii. 637. — Watson, 
DeTidT. Brit 1. 54, t. 54. — Sprengel, S]/st. ii. 611. — Hooker, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 204. — Don, Gen. Si/st. ii. 648. — Audu- 
bon, Birds, t. 363. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 472. — 
Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 224. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 155. — Nut- 
tall, Sylva, ii. 25, t. 50. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 439. — 
Lange, Fl. Grcenl. 134. — Provancher, Flore Canadienne, 
i. 209. — Chapman, Fl. 129. — Curtis, Fep. Geolog. Sutu. 
N. Car. ISGO, iii. 70. — Brewer & Watson, Bot, Col. i. 
189. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censiis U. S. 
is. 73. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 164. 

Sorbus Americana, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 145. — ■Willde- 
now, Fnum. 620. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 341. — Poiret, 



Zam. Diet. Suppl. v. 164. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 305. ■ — Hayne, 
Dendr. Fl. 75. — Spach, Hist. Veg^ ii. 95. — Bigelow, FL 
Boston, ed. 3, 207. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 138. — 
Koch, Dendr. i. 190. ■ — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sd. St. 
Fetershourg, xix. 174 (Mel. Biol. ix. 171). — Wenzig, Lin- 
n(Ba, sxxviii. 71. — Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 158. 

Sorbus aucuparia, Poiret, Lam. Diet. vii. 234 (in part). — 
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 119. — Decaisne, JSfouv. Arch. Mus. 
X. 168 (in part). 

Sorbus aucuparia, var. Americana, Persoon, Syn. ii. 38. 

Pyrus aucuparia, Meyer, Fl. Lab. 81 (in part). — Schlecht- 

r 

endal, Linnma, x. 99 (not Gartner). — Hooker f. Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xxiii. 290, 327 (Distribution Arctic FL), in part. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, "with a trunk which rarely exceeds a foot in diameter, 
spreading slender branches, and stout hranchlets j or more often a tall or sometimes a low shrub sending 
up many stems from the ground. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, with a smooth 
light gray surface irregularly broken by small appressed plate-like scales. The branchlets are slightly 
clothed at first with fine pubescence, but soon become glabrous, and in their first winter are brown 
tinged with red, marked by the large leaf-scars and remote pale oblong lenticular spots, and often cov- 
ered with a faint glaucous bloom ; in their second year they become darker, and the thin papery outer 
layer of bark is easily separable from the bright green and fragrant inner layers. The winter-buds 
are acute, from one quarter to three quarters of an inch long, and protected by dark vinous red acumi- 
nate scales rounded on the back, more or less pilose, and covered with a gummy exudation ; the inner 
scales are coated in the bud with thick pale tomentum and enlarge with the growing shoots which, in 
falling, they mark with enduring narrow ring-like scars. The leaves are six to eight inches long, 
with slender grooved dark green or red petioles often furnished with tufts of dark hairs at the base of 
the petiolules and enlarged at the base, and from thirteen to seventeen leaflets ; these are lanceolate, 
acute, taper-pointed, unequally wedge-shaped or rounded and entire at the base, and sharply serrate 
above, with acute often, glandular teeth ; they are sessile or shortly petiolulate, or the terminal one is 
sometimes borne on a stalk half an inch in length ; when they unfold they are slightly pubescent on 
the lower surface, and at maturity are membranaceous, glabrous, dark yellow-green on the upper, and 
pale on the under surface, two to three inches long, and one half to two thirds of an inch broad, with 
prominent midribs grooved on the upper side, and thin veins. The stipules are broad and foliaceous, 
nearly triangular, variously cut, and caducous. The leaves turn a bright clear yellow before falling. 
The flowers, which appear after the leaves are fully grown toward the end of May or as late as July at 
the north and on the high Alleghany Mountains, are one eighth of an inch in diameter when expanded, 
and are borne on short stout pedicels in flat compound cymes three or four inches across. The bracts 
and bractlets are acute, minute, and caducous. The calyx is broadly obconic and puberulous, with 
short nearly triangular lobes tipped with minute glands, and half the length of the nearly orbicular 
creamy white petals which are contracted below into short claws. The fruit is a quarter of an inch 



80 



SILVA OF ^^OETII AMERICA. 



EOSACE^. 



across, subglobose or slightly pyriform, and bright red, with thin acid flesh, a thick rather woody endo- 
carp, and light chestnut-colored seeds rounded at the apex, acute at the base, more or less flattened by 
mutual pressure, and one eighth o£ an inch long. It ripens late in the autumn, and, unless eaten by 
birds, remains on the tree until the end of winter, when it separates from the stems, which often remain 
on the branches untfl the leaf-buds open in the spring. 

Fyrus Americana is distributed from Newfoundland to Manitoba,^ and extends southward throuo-h 
the maritime provinces of Canada, Quebec, and Ontario, the elevated portions of the northeastern United 
States, the region of the Great Lakes, and the high mountain ranges of Ylrginia and North Carolina. 
It is abundant in afl the eastern provinces of Canada, where it grows in rich rather moist soil alono- the 
borders of swamps and on rocky hiflsides, and probably attains its largest size on the northern shores 
of Lakes Huron and Superior; in the United States, except in northern New England, it is more often 
a shrub than a tree, growing usually on the Afleghany Mountains in the form of a low bush with 
narrower foliage and smafler fruit than the tree bears at the north.^ 

The wood of Pyrits Americana is close-grained, but light, soft, and weak ; it is pale brown, with 
pale lighter colored sapwood composed of fifteen to twenty layers of annual growth, and contains 
numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5451, a cubic 
foot weighing 33.97 pounds. 

The fruit of the American Mountain Ash is as astringent as that of the Old World species, 
contains the same principles, and can be used for the same purposes ; in the United States it is some- 
times employed domestically in infusions and decoctions,^ and in homceopathic remedies.* 

Pyrus Americana was first distinguished by Humphrey Marshall, the Pennsylvania botanist, who 
described it in his Arhiistum Americamm in 1785,^ although it is said to have been introduced into 
English gardens three years earlier.^ It is sometimes planted in Canada and in the northern United 
States in the neighborhood of houses on account of the beauty of its fruit. This, however, is smaller 
and less highly colored than that of the second North American and of the European species. 



1 Brunei, Cat. Ve'g. Lig. Can. 26. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 
1879-80, 54". — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 146. 

2' Pyrus Americana, var. microcarpa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. 
l 472. ~ Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOi/j Census U. S. ix. 74. 

Sorhus aucuparia, var. a., Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 290. 

Sorhus microcarpa, Pursh, FL Am. Sept i. 341. — Poiret, iam. 
Did. Suppl. V. 164. — Elliott, Sk. i. 555. — Spaeh, Hist. Ve'g, ii. 
95. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 138. 

Pyrus microcarpa, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 511. — De Caudolle, Prodr. 
ii. 636. — Don, Gen. SysL ii. 648. —London, Arb. Brit. ii. 921.— 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 71. 

Sorhus Americana, var. microcarpa, Wenzig, Linncea, ssxviii. 73. 



Sorbus riparia, Eaflnesque, New FL iii. 15. 

8 Eafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 205. — Stills & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. 
ed. 2, 1333. 

^ Millspaugh, Am. Med. PL in Homceopathic Remedies, i. 56, t. 56. 

s John Josselyn includes in his list of plants mentioned in New 
England's Rarities the " Quick Beam or Wild Ash." This has been 
supposed to be the American Mountain Ash (see ed. Tuckerman, 
98), and, although Josselyn probably never visited the part of 
New England where this tree grows naturally, he may well have 
learned of its existence from the Indians, who doubtless made use 
of the fruit. 

° Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 920, t. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CLXXI. Pyetjs Americana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. An ovary divided transversely, enlarged. 

4. Portion of a young branch showing stipules, natural size. 



Plate CLXXII. Pyrus Americana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 

6. A winter-bud, natural size. 



\ 



A 
-I 



oiiva 




N 



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1 



A 



orin America 



Tab. 




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PYRUS AMERICANA 



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A. Riv cj^cAMr^ direa>^ 



Im.p . R . TdJzeiu-^^ Par is . 



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Silva of North A 



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'-''^r-^S.--'^-' -^^ -- ■r--.^-'-:'^^L:*^^^^':::^L. 




f*-^^^---^.^'^: '^--.I'^^^SS^SSH^;;-.. 



■-"— .^^--:^t::.vj^ 



y 



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AJiiocreum dz^-'ew^^ 



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arts ... 



jft*^ 



ROSACEiE. 



8ILYA OF NOETH AMEBIC A, 



81 



PYRUS SAMBUCIFOLIA. 



Mountain Ash. 



Leaflets oblong-ovate to lance-ovate, mostly obtuse 



Pyrus sambucifolia, Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linncea, 

ii. 36. — Don, Gen. Syst. il. 648. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. 

iV. Am. i. 472. — Walpers, Bep. ii. 53. — Dietrich, Syn. 

iii. 155. — Watson, King^s Re;p. v. 92. — Brewer & Wat- 

son, Bot. Cat. i. 189. — Sargent, Forest Trees iV. Am. 

10th Census U. S. ix. 74. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 

Man. ed. 6, 164. 
Sorbus aucuparia, var. /?., Mlchanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 290. 
Sorbus aucuparia, Schi-ankj Pfi. Lab. 25 (in part ; not Lin- 

n£eus) . 



Pyrus Americana, Newberry, Pacific R. B. Rep. vi. 73 

(not De CandoUe). — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 

60. — Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 292. 
Pyrus aucuparia, Meyer, PI. Lab, 81 (in part). — Schleelit- 

endal, Linncea, x. 99 (in part). — Hooker, Trails. Linn. 

SoG. xxiii. 290, 327 (in part). 
Sorbus sambucifolia, Roeraer, Fa^n. Nat. Syn. iil. 139. — 

Wenzig, Linncva, xxxviii. 73. — Decaisne, JSfouv. Arch. 

Mils. X. 159. 

Sorbus Sitchensis, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 139. 



A treej occasionally thirty feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, and spreading 
branches which form a round handsome head ; or often on the mountains of western America a low 
shrub. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, with a smooth gray satiny surface some- 
times broken by small appressed scales. The branchlets are at first glabrous, pubescent, or pilose with 
long pale hairs, and in their first winter are brown tmged with red and are marked by scattered 
oblong lenticular spots. The winter-buds are acute, often three quarters of an inch to an inch in 
length, and in the shape, color, and texture of the scales which cover them hardly distinguishable from 
those of Pyrus Americana, The leaves are four to six inches long, with stout grooved and usually 
bright red petioles often tufted with dark hairs at the base of the petiolules, and seven to thirteen 
oblong-oval or lance-ovate leaflets ; these are generally blunt and rounded, or abruptly short-pointed, or 
acuminate at the apex, unequally wedge-shaped at the base, entire or undulate below, and sharply and 
often doubly serrate above the middle, with spreading and sometimes glandular teeth ; when they unfold 
they are pubescent on the lower surface, and at maturity are glabrous, dark green above, and pale 
below, with inconspicuous midribs and veins, and are sessile or short-petiolulate, or the termmal one 
long-stalked, and an inch and a half to two inches in length and one half to three quarters of an inch 
in breadth. The stipules are lanceolate to triangular, foliaceous, from one half to three quarters of an 
inch long, and early deciduous. The leaves turn a deep orange-color in the autumn before falhng. The 
flowers, which appear in the early part of July, are produced in small dense pubescent cymes two to 
three inches across ,- they are a quarter of an inch in diameter when fully expanded, and are borne on 
slender clavate pedicels twice the length of the obconic calyx; this is glabrous or puberulous on 
the outer surface with narrow acute rigidly pointed lobes ciHate on the margins and much shorter 
than the obovate petals which are rounded above and contracted below into short claws. The fruit is 
subglobose, bright scarlet, and sometimes nearly half au inch in diameter, and is produced in dense 
red-branched clusters, 

Fyrus samhucifolia is distributed from southern Greenland^ to Labrador^ and the hio-h moun- 
tains of northern New England, and ranges westward along the northern shores of the Great Lakes to 
those of Little Slave Lake, through the Eocky Mountains to Alaska^ and Kamschatka,* and through 

1 Hooker f. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 290, 327 (Distribution Arctic Kothroek, Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 446 {Fl Alaska). — Maeoun, Cat. 
PI. ii.). Can. PI. l 146. 

2 Meyer, PI. Lah. 81. 4 Ledebour, Fl. Ross. ii. 99. 
8 Bong&rd, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ser. 6, ii. 133. — 



82 



SILVA OF NOUTB AMEBIC A, 



ROSACEA. 



northeastern Asia ^ and tlie Kurile Islands ^ to Japan^^ extending south in western America alon^ all 
the mountain ranges of the interior * and western part o£ the continent to southern New Mexico, and 
to the neighborhood of the Yosemite valley in central California.^ It inhabits the margins of cold wet 
alpine swamps and the borders of streams, and probably attains its greatest size in northern New 
England, where it grows at higher elevations above the level of the sea than Pyrus Americana, and 
in the region immediately north and Avest of Lake Superior. 

The wood of Pyrus samhucifolia is close-grained but soft, light, and weak ; it is light brown, with 
thin lighter colored sapwood and obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
"wood is 0.5928, a cubic foot weighing 36.94 pounds. 

Pyrus samhucifolia was first distinguished by the French botanist Michaux, who found it in 
Canada late in the last century. In cultivation it has been usually confounded with Pyrus Americana, 
from which it is best distinguished by its smaller cymes, its larger and later flowers and much larger 
fruit, and its usually more obtuse and broader leaflets. The large and brilliant fruit of this tree makes 
it the handsomest of all the Mountain Ashes, and it is a common ornament of gardens in northern 
Vermont and New Hampshire and in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, where it often 
grows to a large size and during the autumn and early winter is a conspicuous and beautiful object.^ 



■4^ 



1 Trautvetter & Meyer, FL OchoL 37- — Maximowiez, Prim, FL 
Amur. 103, 

2 Miyabe, Mem. BosL Soc. Nat Hist iv. 232 (FL Kurile Islands'). 

^ Francliet & Savatierj Enum. PL Jap. i. 140. — Maximowiez, 
BulL Acad. Sci, St Petersiourgy xix, 174 (Met Biot ix. 171). 

4 Coulter, Man. Rochy Mt Bot 89. 

^ The subalpine form of the high mountains of Washington, 
Oregon, and California, a low shrub with small cymes and with 
leaves composed of seven to eleven oblong or elliptic-obovate leaf- 
lets usually serrate only towards the apes, has been regarded as a 
distinct species {Sorbus pumila^ Eafinesque, Med. FL ii, 265. — Pyrm 



occidentalism Watson, Proc. Am, Acad, sxiii, 263 \_SorT)us occidentalism 
Greene, FL Francis. \, 64]), but intermediate forms appear to con- 
nect it with the northern and eastern tree, and it is perhaps better 
to consider it a variety of that species (var. pumild) until the 
American Mountain Ashes, -which should perhaps be considered 
geographical varieties of one widely distributed species, are better 
understood than they are at present. 

^ Pyrus sambucifolia requires a northern climate with long cold 
winters to develop all its beauties, and it does not flourish even in 
eastern New England, where it is a less beautiful plant than the 
Old World Mountain Ash. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES, 



Plate CLXXIII. Pynus sambucifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. An ovary divided transversely, enlarged. 

4. Portion of a young branch showing stipules, natural size- 



Plate CLXXIV- Pybus sambucifolia* 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged, 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 
6- Winter-buds, natural size. 



1- 



\ 



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Iva 






rlh 



Am 



erica . 



Tab, 




LXX 



1 1 .1 . 



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n 






PYRUS SAMBUCIFOLIA 



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111 



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a of North A 



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PYRUS SAMBUCIFOLIA 




.lam el 




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- 1 



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^OQACEM, SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 83 



CRAT^GUS. 



iflW* 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in ccstivatipn ; petals 
5, imbricated in sestivation ; stamens usually 10 to 20 ; ovary 1 to 5-cclled ; ovules 2 in 
each cell, ascending. Fruit a drupaceous pome with bony nutlets. Leaves alternate, 
simple, lobed or pinnatifid. 

Cratssgus, Linnseus, Gen. 143. - — Adanson, Fam. PI. li. Halmia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 101. 

296. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 335. — Meisner, Gen. 106. — Anthomeles, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 102. 

Endliclier, Gen. 1239. — Bentliam & Hooker, Gen. i. PliEenopyruin, Eoeraer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 103. 

626. — Baillon, Hist. Fl. i. 475. Phalacros, Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 164. 
Oxyacantha, Euppius, Fl. Jen. ed. 3, 136. ■ — Medicus, FhU. 

Sot. I 150. 

Trees or shrubs, "with scaly bark, rigid terete and usually armed branches, small -vvinter-huds cov- 
ered by imbricated scales, those of the inner rows accrescent and often colored, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves alternate, petiolate, conduplicate in vernation, simple, and generally serrate or more or less 
lobed or pinnatifid, membranaceous or coriaceous, commonly deciduous ; stipules often glandular- ser- 
rate, deciduous, lanceolate, acuminate, minute, or, on vigorous shoots, ample, foliaceous, usually lunate 
and stalked. Elowers pedicellate, in cymose pauicled or slightly racemose corymbs, terminal on leafy 
lateral branches developed from the axils of leaves of the previous year. Bracts and bractlets linear, 
caducous, often colored, in falHng marking the slender branches of the inflorescence and the ped- 
icels with persistent gland-like scars. Calyx-tube urceolate or campanulate, five-lobed or divided, 
the lobes reflexed after anthesis, entire or glandular-serrate, persistent or deciduous. Disk adnate 
to the interior of the calyx-tube, thin or fleshy, entire, lobed or slightly sulcate, concave or somewhat 
convex. Petals ^ve, inserted on the margin of the disk in the mouth of the calyx-tube, orbicular, 
spreading, entire or sinuate margined, white or rose-colored. Stamens ten to twenty, or indefinite, 
inserted with the petals in one to three rows ; filaments filiform, subulate, incurved, often persistent 
on the ripe fruit; anthers oblong, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the 
cells opening longitudinally, pale, rose-colored, or violet-purple. Ovary inferior, composed of one to 
five carpels inserted in the bottom of the calyx-tube and united with it ; styles terminal, contracted or 
slightly spreading, free, persistent on the ripe nutlets ; stigmas terminal, dilated, truncate ; ovules two 
in each cell, ascending, collateral, anatropous ; raphe dorsal, the micropyle inferior. Fruit drupaceous, 
ovate or globose, red, yellow, or black, usually somewhat open or concave at the summit ; sarcocarp dry 
and mealy ; endocarp composed of one to five one-celled slightly united nutlets, variously sulcate and, 
when more than one, flattened on the inner faces by mutual pressure. Seeds solitary by the abortion 
of one of the ovules, erect, compressed, exalbuminous ; testa membranaceous. Embryo filhng the 
cavity of the seed ; cotyledons plano-convex ; radicle short, inferior. 

Crataegus is widely and generally distributed through the temperate regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere. About forty species, nearly equally divided between the Old World and the New, can be dis- 
tinguished. Fourteen are found within the territory of the United States, a larger number of species 
occurring in the region between the Red and the Trinity Eivers in western Louisiana and eastern 
Texas than in any other district of similar extent.^ Three species at least occur in Mexico,^ and of these 

1 This region, wLieli is one of the most interesting in North anywhere else, individuals of several of them growing to a 

America for the student of trees, must be considered the headquar- greater size and in greater numbers than in any other part of the 

ters of the genus Cratsegus, which makes here a conspicuous fea- country. 

ture of the vegetation. More species occur here together than 2 Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 379, 



84: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EOSACE^. 



12 



one^ ran':>'es soutliward to tlie mountains of Ecuador^ the most southern country which any member of 
the genus is known to reach. In Europe, where Crataegus is distributed from Scandinavia to the shores 
of the Mediterranean and from the Atlantic to the Black Sea, fourteen species are now generally recog- 
nized ; ^ in the Orient ^ six endemic species are known ; two occur in the Himalayan regions of central 

Asia/ and three in China and Japan.^ 

Crateegus has few useful properties. The wood of all the species is heavy, hard and solid, and is 
sometimes used for levers, the handles of tools, and other small articles.^ In the United States the fruit 
of some of the species is made into jellies and preserves, and in northern China the fruit of CratcBgus 
pinnatifida^ is employed for the same purpose.^ The Old World Cratmgus Oxyacantha,^ the most 
widely distributed plant of the genus, is sometimes cultivated in Afghanistan and the northwestern 
Himalayas as a fruit-tree,^'' and in some parts of Europe its fruit is fermented and used to strengthen 
cider and perry." Many of the species are esteemed as ornamental plants, and Cratrngiis Oxyacantha, 
with its numerous varieties developed in cultivation, has been for centuries a favorite park and hedge 

plant in Europe. 

The American species of Crataegus are preyed upon by numerous insects,^^ and are often injured 

by serious fungal diseases.^* 

The generic name, from pcpctroj, refers to the strength of the wood produced by the different 

species. 

1 CratcEgus stipulosa, Steudel, Nom. Bot. ed. 2, I. 434. 
Mespilus stipulosa, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuntli, Nov. Gen. et 

Spec. vi. 213. — Kunth, Si/n. PL jEquin. iii. 4G2. 

2 Nyman, Conspect, Fl. Europ. 243. 
s Eoissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 660. 
4 Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. ii. 383. 
s Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. i. 140. — Maximowicz, 

Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg. six. 176 (Mel. Biol. ix. 175).— 
Torbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 259. 

6 The wood of Cratcegus Oxyacantha lias been found the best 
substitute for Boxwood in wood-engraving (Jackson, Commercial 
Botany of the 19th Century, 156). 

' Bunge, Mem. Sav. JEtr. St. Peiershourg, ii. 100 {Enum. PL Chin. 
Bor. 26). — Fraucbet, PL David. 118. — Maximowicz, I. c. — Forbes 

& Hemsley, I. c. 

8 Bretschneider, Early European Researches into the Flora of 

China, 127. 

9 Linn^us, Spec. 477. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 628. — Boissier, 

L c. 664. — Hooker f . L c. 

10 Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 207. 
, " Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 837. 

12 Cratcegus Oxyacantha is widely and generally distributed 
through the forests of Europe and central Asia ; for many centu- 
ries it has been cultivated in Europe as a hedge plant, for which 
purpose it is fitted by its rigid and well-armed branches, and Haw- 
thorn hedges are common in all parts of Great Britain, where, too, 
this tree is a conspicuous and beautiful feature in all parks and 
many gardens. (See Loudon, L c.) The Hawthorn was early in- 



troduced into the United States, but the heat and dryness of our 
summers cause the growth of many fungal enemies on its foliage 
and fruit, and its beauty is thus destroyed early in the season. 

13 American Hawthorns are attacked by many insects which prey 
particularly on their foliage. Packard Qith Rep. U. S. Entomolog. 
Comm. 188G-1890, 532) enumerates forty-six species which afflict 
the trees of this genus in the United States ; these have been noted 
chieiiy in the eastern part of the continent. Tent-caterpillars, 
Fall Web-worms, and Canker-worms sometimes infest our Haw- 
thorns to such an extent as to make them a danger to neighboring 
orchards. Most of the insects which live upon Prunus and Pyrus 
attack Hawthorns also, in addition to other species which are pe- 
culiar to them. The larva of several species of Catocala have 
been found feeding on these trees as well as a number of leaf- 
miners, among which are Nepticula cratcegifoliella, Clemens, Ornix 
cratcpgifoUella, Clemens, Lithocolletis cratmgella, Clemens, and others. 
Aphids and mites also affect the foliage, and the trunks are often 
injured by Apple-tree Borers. Certain species of Curculio, like 
Anthonomus Cratcegi, Walsh, Conotrachelus Naso, Leconte, and Co~ 
notrachelus posticatus. Say, live within the fruit. 

1* Different Ecestelice occur on the fruit and young branches of 
most of the American species of Crataegus as well as on Pyrus and 
Amelanchier, and a Cluster Cup, Rcestelia pyrata, Thaxter, makes 
rings on the under surface of the leaves of several species. Among 
other fungi which attack Cratjegus are Entomosporium maculatum, 
Levdill^, with curious ciliated spores, and most of the species 
which attack Pyrus can be found also on Cratfflgus. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



85 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers in ample many-flowered corymbs. 
Fruit subglobose, black or blue. 

Leaves broadly obovate to oblong-ovate 1. C. DonaLASIi. 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong to ovate . 2. C EitACHYACANTHA. 

Fruit large, subglobose or pyriform, scarlet or rarely yellow. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, obovate-cuneiform to broadly ovate or linear-oblong . - • • 3- C. Ckus-GALLI, 

Leaves membranaceous, round-ovate, acutely incisedj usually glabrous 4- C. coccinea. 

Leaves membranaceous, broadly ovate, acutely incised, pubescent on the lower sur- 
face 5* C. MOLLIS. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong , 6. C. tomentosa. 

Leaves wedge-obovate, prominently veined 7. C. pukctata- 

Fruit small, depressed-globose, scarlet- 
Leaves submembranaceous, spatulate or oblanceolate 8. C. spathitlata, 

r 

Leaves broadly ovate or triangular 9. C- cobdata- 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or oblong-ob ovate 10. C. vikidis. 

Leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, pinnately 5 to 7-cle£t 11. C- apiifoliA- 

Flowers in simple few-flowered corymbs. 

Fruit pyriform or subglobose, red or greenish yellow. v 

Leaves cuneate-ob ovate or rhombic-obovate 12. C. flata. 

Leaves obovate, spatulate 13. C. unifloba. 

Fruit red, globose. 

Leaves elliptical to oblong-cuneiform 14. C. ^stivalis. 



86 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



KOSACE^, 



CRATAEGUS DOUGLASII 



Haw. 



Fruit black. Leaves broadly obovatc to oblong-ovate. 

Cratsegus Douglasii, Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1810. — Koch, iii. 160. — Wenzig, LinncBa, xxxviii. 135. — Torrey, Bot 

Dendr. i. 147. — Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. Wilkes Explor. Ex;ped. 292. — Eegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. 

26. — Brewer &, Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 189. — Engelmann, i. 116. 

Bot. Gazette, Yii. 128. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Cratsegus sanguinea, Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 6, t. 44 (not Pal- 

l(ith Census XI. S. ix. 75. — -Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 53. las). — Cooper, Am. Nat iii. 407. 

Cratsegus punctata, var. brevispina, Douglas ; Hooker, Anthomeles Douglasii, Roeraer, Fam. Nat. 8yn. iii. 140. 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 201. Crateegus rivularis, Brewer & Watson, Bot. Oat. i. 189 

Cratsegus sanguinea, var. Douglasii, Torrey & Gray, Fl. (not Nuttall). — Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 53. 
N. Am. i. 464. — Walpers, -Sep. ii. 58. — ■Dietrich, Syn. 

A tree, thirty to forty feet in height, with a straight stout trunk eighteen inches to two feet in 
diameter, dividing into many branches which form a compact round head, and slender rigid hranchlets ; 
or often a tall shrub throwing up many stems, or, in the dry climate of the interior of the continent, a 
low intricately branched bush. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, longitudinally 
fissured, and broken into oblong' plates, the surface of which separates into long thick dark red-brown 
scales. The hranchlets are glabrous, green when young, and in their first winter bright red and lustrous, 
and marked by pale elevated lenticels ; they are sometimes unarmed, but usually bear stout straight or 
slightly curved blunt or acute spines, three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, which are bright 
red in their first year, and, Hke the branches, later become ashy gray. The winter-buds are obtuse, 
one eighth of an inch long, and covered by broadly ovate scales which are keeled on the back, apicu- 
late, ciliate on the margins, bright chestnut-brown, and lustrous. The leaves are broadly ovate to 
oblong-ovate, acute at the apex, gradually contracted at the base into short broad petioles, finely serrate 
except at the base with small glandular teeth, and often incisely cut towards the apex, or more or less 
three-lobed, especially on vigorous shoots ; when they unfold they are pnberulous on both surfaces, and 
at maturity are glabrous, thick, and rather coriaceous, dark green and often lustrous above, and paler 
below, one to four inches in length, and half an inch to an inch and a half in breadth. The stipules 
are narrowly obovate, acuminate, glandular-serrate, and caducous, or, on vigorous shoots, are foliaceous, 
broadly ovate-falcate, deeply incised, glandular-serrate, and short-stalked. The flowers are produced in 
broad or narrow leafy many-flowered cymes, furnished with lanceolate acuminate caducous bracts and 
bractlets ; they appear in May when the leaves are nearly fully grown, and are from one third to one 
half of an inch across, with broadly obconic calyx-tubes, glabrous or puberulous, and nearly as long as 
the lanceolate calyx-lobes, which are acute or rounded at the apex, entire, ciliate-margined or finely glan- 
duiar-serrate, and green or tinged with red or purple. The petals are pure white, broadly obovate, 
rounded above, and contracted below into short claws, and are rather longer than the stamens which 
have stout filaments and small pale anthers and than the short styles which vary in number from two to 
five, and are often furnished at the base with tufts of long pale hairs. The fruit, which falls as soon as 
it ripens in August and September, is subglobose or rarely somewhat oblong, black, and lustrous, with 
thin sweet flesh and small thin-walled nutlets slightly grooved on the back. 

Cratcegiis Douglasii is distributed from the valley of the Parsnip River in British Columbia^ 



1 Macoim, Cat. Can. PI. i. 148, 



^osACEJE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 87 

through ^Yashington and Oregon to the valley of the Pitt Eiver in California, and ranges southward 
through Idaho and Montana to the valley of the Flat Head River at the western hase of the Rocky 
Mountains. It is found in wet sandy soil in the neighborhood of streams, where it often forms impene- 
trable thickets of considerable extent, and is most abundant and attains its greatest size in the valleys of 
western Oregon and northern California. 

The wood of Cratmgxis Douglasii is heavy, hard, tough, and close-grained, with a satiny surface 

susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it is rose-colored, with thick pale sapwood composed of thirty 

to forty layers of annual growth, and contains many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 

absolutely dry wood is 0.6950, a cubic foot weighing 43.31 pounds. It is used for wedges, malls, and 

the handles of tools. The fruit, Avhich is produced in great profusion, is a favorite article of food with 
the Indians. 

In the dry interior parts of the continent Cratcegiis Douglasii is represented by the variety rivu- 
lariSy^ which, in its extreme form, is distinguished by narrowly lanceolate simply serrate membranaceous 
pale leaves ; but in northern Montana, where the black-fruited Thorns abound, it passes into the form 
with larger thicker incisely cut leaves, the plants in one thicket often showing both the extreme and all 
the intermediate varieties of foliage ever produced by this tree. 

Oratcegtts Douglasii, var. rivularis, is usually a low intricately branched armed or unarmed shriib. 
It is common in the coast region of Oregon, and is the usual form in the region bordering the shores of 
Puget Sound ; it ranges southward to Sierra and Plumas Counties, California,^ and extends over aU the 
mountain ranges of eastern Oregon and Washington ; it abounds on those of Idaho, Montana, and 
Utah, and spreads through Colorado '^ to the Pinos Altos Mountains of New Mexico, and grows along 
the borders of streams and mountain meadows, generally at high elevations. 

Crataigits Douglasii was discovered by David Douglas * in the valley of the lower Colorado River, 
and in 1826 or 1827 was introduced by him into the garden of the London Horticultural Society, where 
it flowered ten years later. 

In cultivation Cratcegus Douglasii is a rapidly growing round-headed tree, soon attaining in good 
soil a height of eighteen or twenty feet ; it is hardy on the Atlantic coast as far north as Nova Scotia, 
and in eastern Massachusetts covers itself every year with its handsome flowers and abundant black 
fruit,^ 



1 Sargent, Garden and Forest, u. 400. Mespilus rivularis, Wenzig, Linnma^ xxxviii. 137 ; Bot. CentralU. 

Cratcegus rivularis, Nuttall ; Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. xxxv. 342. 

464. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. ICl. — "Walpers, Rep. ii. 58. — Nuttall, ^ Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 53. 

Sylva/n.^. — Kegel, ^ei. Hort.Petrop. i. 107. — Watson, /Cinq's * CovMbv, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. S^. 

Rep. V. 92. — Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vii. 128. — Sargent, Forest * See ii. 94. 
Trees N. Am. lOth Census U. S. ix. 74. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL . ^ Garden and Forest, i. 201. 
i. 522. 



n ■> 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CLXXV. Crataegus Douglasii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. Front and back views of a stamen, enlarged. 
6. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. ' 

7. A fruit with a part of the flesh removed, showing the nutlets, enlarged, 

8. A nutlet natural size. 

9. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

10. "Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 

13. A leaf from a young shoot with stipules, natural size. 

14. Winter-buds, natural size. 



^. 



Plate CLXXVI. CKATiEGUs Douglasu, var. kivulauis, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



t ' 



Tab, CLXXV, 



L' 



1k- 



■t-l 



^• 




1 



I. 



C.£.Fciccon- deL 



PtoOyPt sa 



■ l 



CRATtEGUS douglasii, 



inc_ 



A.Blocreziai direaz 



Imp . R . rojzeiu^ Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tah 



CLXXVI 



-■ 




O.E .Fawony deb 



GRATyEGUS DOUGLASII 



^^^^ 




ar. RIVULARIS 



i 




Rapine^ so. 



-A.B2^creim> dweei^^^ 



■» ■ - 



v. 



Imp . R'- Taneicr, Fans. 



■'^" 



ROSACEA. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 89 



CRATAEGUS BRACHYAOANTHA, 

Pomette Bleue. Hog's Haw. 

Fruit bright blue. Leaves lanceolate- oblong to ovate. 

Crateegus brachyacantha, Sargent & Engelmann ; Engel- Cratsegus spathulata, Hooker, Compan. Bot. Mag. i. 25 
mann, Bot. Gazette, vii. 128. — Sargent, Forest Trees M ' (not Michaux). 

Am. 10th Census XT- S. ix. 75. — Otto Kuntze, Hev. Gen. 
PI. i. 215. 

r 

A tree, forty to fifty feet in height, with a straight trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, 
dividing, five or ten feet from the ground, into stout spreading light gray branches which form a broad 
compact round head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, dark brown, deeply 
furrowed, and broken into long persistent scales. The branchlets are at first hght green and slightly 
pubescent, but soon become glabrous and pale red-brown, and in their second year are stout, more or 
less zigzag, and ashy gray ; they are armed with numerous short stout generally curved or sometimes 
straight and slender spines, from one third to two thirds of an inch in length, which often terminate 
lateral branchlets on vigorous shoots. The winter-buds are obtuse, nearly globose, one sixteenth of an 
inch across, and protected by chestnut-brown suborbieular scales ciliate on the margins and rounded on 
the back, those of the inner ranks being accrescent with the young shoots, and at maturity foliaceous, 
obovate, rounded above, nearly entire, and from one third of an inch to nearly an inch in length. The 
leaves are deciduous, and are lanceolate-oblong to ovate or rhombic, acute or rounded at the apex, grad- 
ually contracted into short broad petioles, and crenulate-serrate with minute appressed apiculate teeth; 
when they unfold they are slightly puberulous on the upper, and glabrous on the under surface, and at 
maturity are thick, subcoriaceous, dark green, and lustrous, with thin inconspicuous midribs and veins, 
and are one inch to two inches in length and half an inch to nearly an inch in breadth. The stipules are 
minute, subulate, one eighth of an mch long, and caducous. On vigorous shoots the leaves are some- 
times broadly ovate or almost triangular, wedge-shaped, truncate, or heart-shaped at the base and more 
or less deeply three-lobed, and are two and a half inches long and two inches broad, with foliaceous 
broadly ovate to triangular-oblong acute stalked stipules an inch in length, and early deciduous. The 
flowers, which appear toward the end of April and early in May, when the leaves are nearly fully 
grown, are one third of an inch across when expanded, and are produced in great profusion on lateral 
spur-like branchlets in glabrous umbellate corymbs with long slender branches. The bracts and bract- 
lets, which are narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length and 
tinged with red, fall when the flower-buds are half grown, leaving minute gland-like scars. The pedicels 
are half an inch long, or four or ^Ye times the length of the glabrous obconic calyces, which has broadly 
lanceolate acute entire deciduous lobes. The petals are white, nearly orbicular, and contracted below 
into short claws, and in drying turn a bright orange-color. The styles vary in number from three to 
five. The fruit, which matures and falls in the middle of August, is subglobose or occasionally some- 
what pyriform, and from one third to one half of an inch in diameter, with a deep cavity and thin flesh, 
and is bright blue and covered with a glaucous bloom ; the nutlets, which are a quarter of an inch long, 
pointed at the apex, rounded at the base, nearly triangular in section, and slightly two-grooved on the 
rounded and nearly smooth back, are composed almost entirely of the thick hard walls which inclose 
minute compressed seeds ; these are not more than half a line thick and are covered with a pale brown 
testa. 

Crafcegiis hracliyacantha is distributed from the valley of Bayou Dorcheat in northwestern Lou- 
isiana through the western part of that state to the valley of the Sabine Eiver in eastern Texas, It 



90 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EOSACEiE. 



grows on the borders of streams in rich moist soil, or surrounds with dense groves low wet prairies 
in western Louisiana, where, a few miles west of Opelousas, it is the most conspicuous and beautiful 
feature of the arborescent vegetation. 

The wood of Oratcegus hrachyacantha is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous very obscure medullary rays and is 
light brown tinged with rose, the thin sapwood, composed of ten or twelve layers of annual growth, 
being lighter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood' is 0.6793, a cubic foot weighing 
42.33 pounds. 

r 

Oratcegus hracliyacantlm was first collected, without flowers or fruit, by the Scotch botanist 
Thomas Drummond,^ but its true character was only made known fifty years later, when it was rediscov- 
ered by Dr. Charles Mohr ^ near Minden in Louisiana in November, 1880. 

Cratmgiis hrachyacantha is the least widely distributed, and one of the largest and most beautiful 
representatives of the genus in North America. As it grows on the prairies of western Louisiana it is 
a striking and very attractive object, and its size, its compact well-shaped head, its lustrous foliage, its 
abundant flowers, and the color of its fruit, which is unlike that of any other Hawthorn, will make the 
Pomette Bleue, as it is called by the French Acadians of Louisiana, a valuable ornament of gardens and 
parks where the cHmate is sufficiently temperate for its full development.^ 



1 See ii. 25. 

2 Charles Mohr was born in Esslingen, Wiirtemberg-, December 
28, 1824, and early imbibed a taste for natural history and the woods 
from a relative employed in the forest service of WUrtemberg, 
who made the boy his companion. In 1842 he entered the poly- 
technieal school at Stuttgart, where he remained for three years, 
when, having made the acquaintance of the naturalist Kappler, an 
employee in the colonial service of Holland, he accompanied him 
as assistant to Dutch Guiana. Here, however, Mohr's stay was 
short, owing to repeated attacks of malarial fever ; and, after the 
chemical works at Brunin in Moravia, where he next found employ- 
ment, were closed in consequence of the political agitations of the 
year 1848, he sought a home in North America. The spring of 
1849 found him crossing the plains to California, where he arrived 
on foot, after a journey of one hundred and seven days from the 
Missouri River. In California he made a collection of all the 
plants he could find in flower on the foothills of the Yuba valley 
and in the neighborhood of Sacramento. Unfortunately this collec- 
tion, which doubtless contained a number of undesc'ribed species, 
as Dr. Mohr was among the earliest botanists to erplore central 
California, was lost during his return journey across the Isthmus of 
Panama. On reaching the east, Dr. Mohr first settled in Louisville, 
Kentucky, and, after a journey in Mexico, where he thought of 
establishing himself, and where he collected Mosses especially, and 
among them several new species afterwards described by Professor 
Karl Mueller of Halle, he made his home at Mobile, Alabama. 



Here for many years he has been a successful manufacturing drug- 
gist, and has devoted his spare time to the study of the flora and 
the natural resources of the state. Being appointed, in 1880, an 
agent of the Forestry Division of the 10th Census of the United 
States to investigate the forest resources of the Gulf states, he 
prosecuted this task during several years with great vigor and in- 
telligence, traveling through all parts of the Gulf region west of 
the Appalachicola River, and obtaining the first accurate informa- 
tion about the composition and distribution of the southern forests, 
besides adding much to our knowledge of the range and life-his- 
tories of the trees which compose them. Later, as an agent for 
the American Museum of Natural History in New York, he again 
explored the southern forests to collect specimens for the Jesup 
Collection of North American Woods. He made a collection of 
southern woods under the auspices of the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad Company for the New Orleans Exposition, and is now 
engaged, under the Forestry Division of the Department of Agri- 
culture, in studying some of the most important timber-trees of 
the south. Dr. Mohr is the author of numerous papers upon the 
botany and geology of the southern states published ia the reports 
of scientific societies or in more popular form. (See Pharmaceu- 
tiscJie Rundschau, v. No. 2, 4.) 

3 Seeds of Cratmgus hrachyacantha were distributed by the Ar- 
nold Arboretum, in 1883, to the principal botanical establishments 
of Europe. In eastern Massachusetts the climate has proved too 
severe for it, and the young plants have all perished. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 
Plate CLXXVII. Crataegus beachyacantha. 

1. A flowering branch., natural size. 

2. Vertical section of^ flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit with a part of the flesli removed, showing the nutlets, natural size. 
6. A nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. A vigorous shoot with stipules, natural size- 
s' A lobed leaf, natural size. 



_ 'l l- V ^> 



"-^"*-^^ '7--* '-*■'-«•-. -Vv^^. 



■■r' ^•" -m. 



\ 



^ ' 




IVSL of 




ortli Am 



erica. 



y 



Tab . CL 




'^ 



y 



-iM 



^ 





:..■-■ 



6 



i 



V 



m 



C. E. Faazoriy del/. 



Picart fr. scy. 






r 



CRAT^GUS BRAGHYACANTHA 



^ 



-iKTelm. et 




ar 




..I 



ji.Bzocrezuxy dzreay ^ 



-\ 



Imf). R. TajLeAxr^PcLPu . ' 



A.* 



* 



> ' 



\ 



r' / 



ROSACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



CRAT^GUS CRUS-GALLI. 

Cockspur Thorn. Newcastle Thorn. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, obovate-cuneiform to broadly oval or linear-oblong. 



Cratsegus Cnis-galli, Linn^us, Sjpec. 476. — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 5. ~ Medicus, Bot. Beob. 1782, 344. — Moench, 
Bdume Weiss. 28. ~ "Walter, FL Car. 147. — Willdenow, 
Berl. Baumz. 87; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1004. — Michaux, FL 
Bor.-Am. i. 288. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 
V. 448. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 37. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 
338. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 305. — Elliott, Sk. i. 548. — Bige- 
low, FL Boston. 118. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 5Q, t. 56. — • 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii. G26. — Hooker, FL Bor.'Am. i. 
200. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 598. — Torrey & Gray, FL J^. 
Am. i. 463. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 158. — Torrey, FL JSf. Y. 
i. 221. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 117. — Darlington, 
Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 83. — Chapman, FL 127. — Curtis, Bep. 
Geolog. Surv. iV. Car. 1860, iii. 83. — Kegel, Act. Mart. 
Fetrop. i. 108. — Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 137. — Kale- 
niczenko, BtdL Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. 19. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 492, t. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. NaL Mus. 
1882, Q%. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 76. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
166. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 107 {Man. 
FL W. Texas). 



Crateegus lucida. Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6. — Moench, 
Bdume Weiss. 28. — Du R-oi, Obs. Bot. 13. — Wangen- 
heim, Nordam. Holz. 53, t. 17, f. 42. — Spreugel, Syst. 
ii. 506. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 629. — Don, Gen. Syst. 

ii. 599. 
Mespilus Crus-galli, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 88. — Castigli- 

oni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 294. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 

iv. 441. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 157. — Nouveau Du- 

hamel, iv. 149. — Willdenow, Enum. 522 ; BerL Baumz. 

ed. 2, 244. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 80. — Koch, Dendr. i. 142. 
Mespilus lucida, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv. 17. — Moench, Meth. 

685. — Du Mont de Courset, BoL Cult ed. 2, v. 448. — 

Spach, Hist. VSg. ii. 57. 
Cratsegus laurifolia, Medicus, Gesch. Bot. 84. 
Mespilus cuneifolia, Moench, Meth. 684. 
Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. splendens, Alton, Hort. Kew. 

ed. 2, iii. 202. 
Mespilus "Watsoniana, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 57. 
Crateegus Watsoniana, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 117. 
Cratsegus Carrierei, Carri^re, Bev. Hort. 1883, 108, t. 
Crateegus Lavallei, Hort. Paris. 



A tree; twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk four to sis feet tall and sometimes a foot in 
diameter, covered, like the stout rigid spreading branches which form a broad flat or round head, with 
light red-brown or ashy gray scaly bark, and usually armed with long stout often branched spines. 
The branchlets are glabrous, and at first green but soon become light brown or gray tinged with brown, 
or sometimes, in the southern states, bright red and lustrous j they are stout, usually more or less zigzag, 
light brown to ashy gray in their second year, and armed with stout straight or slightly curved sharp- 
pointed chestnut-brown or ashy gray spines from one to four inches in length, which continue to enlarge 
for many years and eventually often become many branched and six or eight inches long. The winter- 
buds are obtuse, an eighth of an inch long, and covered by chestnut-brown lustrous apiculate scales 
rounded on the back and scarious on the margins, those of the inner ranks being at maturity lanceolate, 
acute, finely glandular-serrate, from one half of an inch to an inch in length, sometimes bright red and 
caducous. The leaves are obovate, cuneiform to broadly ovate or linear- oblong, acute or rounded at 
the apex, gradually contracted below into short broad petioles, sharply serrate except towards the base 
with minute appressed usually glandular-tipped teeth, and rarely slightly three-lobed ; they are glabrous 
or occasionally puberulous on the lower surface, thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, and 
pale below, reticulate-veined, with narrow midribs and primary veins, an inch to five inches long, and 
from one quarter of an inch to an inch and a half wide. The stipules are linear-acute to ligulate, minutely 
glandular-serrate, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and caducous ; or, on vigorous 
shoots, they are foliaceous, obliquely ovate, stalked, coarsely glandular-serrate, and sometimes half an 
inch broad. In the autumn before falling the leaves turn bright orange and scarlet. The flowers, 
which appear after the leaves are fully grown from the middle of April in Texas to the middle of June 



92 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPaCA. 



EOSACEiE. 



in New England^ are produced in many-flowered glabrous or sometimes puberulous thin-branclied 
elongated racemose corymbs^ the lower branches from the axils of leaves. The bracts and bractlets are 
linear-spatulate^ acute, finely glandular-serrate, half an inch to an inch in length, usually tinged with 
redj and caducous. The flowers are two thirds of an inch across and are borne on slender pedicels one 
half of an inch to nearly an inch in length ; the calyx is narrow, obconic, and glabrous or pilose on the 
outer surface, with linear-lanceolate entire or minutely glandular-serrate persistent lobes rather shorter 
than the white petals ; the pistils are two to five and are surrounded at the base by tufts of pale 
hairs. The fruit is subglobose or rarely pyrif orm, and one third of an inch across, with a deep cavity 
surrounded by the remnants of the calyx-lobes and filaments, and is dull red with thin dry mealy fiesh. 
The nutlets are a quarter of an inch long, rounded at both ends, and two or three-grooved on the back, 
with broad rounded ridges and thick brittle walls. The seed is acute, one sixteenth of an inch in 
length, and covered with a thin papery light brown testa,^ 

Cratmgus Crus-galli is distributed from the valley of the St. Lawrence to the northern shores of 
Lake Erie,^ ranging southward in the United States to the valley of the Chipola River in western 
Florida^ and westward to Missouri and to the valley of the Colorado River in Texas. It grows in rich 
soil, usually along the margins of swamps, on the borders of prairies^ or in the neighborhood of streams ; 
it is generally distributed but nowhere very common in the northern and eastern states, and is abundant 
and attains its largest size in southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. 

The wood of Cratcegus Crus-gaUi is heavy, hard^ and close-grained, with a satiny surface, and 
contains many obscure medullary rays. It is brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0,7194^ a cubic foot weighing 44.83 poundso 



^ The leaves o£ Cratmgm Crus-gaUi^ although easily recognized 
by their texture and lustrous upper surface, vary considerably in 
form on different individuals and sometimes on the same individual- 
Botanists have endeavored to establish varieties based on some of 
these different leaf -forms, although such characters have little value 
in Cratsegus and are not at all constant or to be depended upon- 
These varieties are : — 

Tar. pyracanthifolia^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 170. — Ue CandoUe, 
Prodr. ii, 626. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am, L 464- — Loudon, 
Arh. BriL ii, 820, t. 128, f. 580. — Kegel, Act. HovL Petrop. i- 
109 (in part), — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. 10th Census U. S. 

ix- 76- ' 

Cratcegus sallcifolia, MedicMS^ Bot. Beoh. 1782, 345. — Roemer^ 

Fam. Nat. Syn, iii. 117- 

Crat(Egus Crus-galliy var. salidfolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 170, — 
De Candolle, Prodr, ii, 626. — Loudon, Arh. Brit, ii, 820, t 
551-553, 578, t.— Kegel, Act Hort Petrop, i. 110, — Wenzig, 

Linnmd-i xxxviii. 139. 

Mespilus Crus-galli^ var, salidfolia^ Hayne, Dendr. FL 80. — 

Willdenow, Berl Baumz. ed, 2, 244, 

Mespilus Crus-galliy var. pyracantJiifoUa, Hayne, Dendr. FL 80, 

Mespilus salidfolia^ Koch, Dendr. i, 144, 

Cratcegus Coursetlana^ Koemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 117. 

Var, ovalifolia, Bot Reg. t. I860- — Torrey & Gray, Ft, N Am. 

I 464. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159, —Loudon, Arb. Brit, ii, 821, f. 

579, t. — Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 109. — Wenzig, Linnmay 

xxxviii, 139, — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U, S, ix, 

76. 

Mespilus ovalifoliay Hornemann, Hort, Hafn, SuppL 52. — 

Koch, Dendr. !• 143, 

Mespilus prunellifolia^ Poiret, Lam. Diet, Suppl. iv, 72. 

Cratcegus ovalifolia^ De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627, — Don, Gen, 
Sgst, ii, 598, — Roemer, Fam. Nat, Syn. iii. 117. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. 10th Census If. S. ix. 76, 



Cratcegus prunellifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 627, — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 598, — Koemer, Fam, Nat, Syn. iii, 117. 

Mespilm elliptica^ Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Ahhild. Holz, 170, 
t. 144 (not Lamarck), — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 68. 
Var. linearis^ De Candolle, Prodr. ii- 626, — Torrey & Gray, FL 
N, Am, i- 464, — Dietrich, Syn, iii, 159. — Loudon, Arh, Brit, ii, 
821, f, 577, — Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop, i. 110, — Wenzig, Linncea, 
xxxviii. 140. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U, S, ix, 
76, 

Mespilus ludda, var. angustifolia^ Ehrhart, Beitr. iv. 18. 
CratfEgus linearis^ Persoon, Syn, ii, 37. — Roemer, Fam, Nat. 
Syn, iii, 118. 

Mespilus linearis, DesfontaineSj Hist. Arh. ii. 156, — Poiret, 
Lam. Diet, Suppl, iv. 70, — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult, ed, 2, 
y, 448, — Spach, Hist. Veg, ii. 57- 

This is the most distinct of all the forms of Cratcegus Crus-galli, 
It is not known to me in a wild state, and is believed to have origi- 
nated in Europe, probably in France, where it appears to be more 
often cultivated than the other forms of the speeies- 

Var. prunifolia^ Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i, 464. — Dietrich, 
Syn. iii. 159. — Loudon, Arh, Brit, ii, 821, f, 576, t. — Kegel, Act. 
Hort. Petrop. i, 110. — Wenzig, Linncea^ xxxviii. 140, — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U, S. ix, 77. 

Mespilus prunif alia f Marshall, Arhust. Am. 90. — Poiret, Lam. 
Diet, iv. 443, — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. CulU ed- 2, v- 448. — 
Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 150, t. 40. — Sprengel, Syst, ii. 506. 

Crat(Egus prunif olia^Vev^oon, Syn. ii. 37, — De Candolle, Prodr. 
ii. 627.— Don, Gen, Syst, ii, mB. — Bot. Reg. t. 1868. 
Var, Fontanesianaf Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii, 141- 

Mespilus Fontanesianay Spach, Hist. Veg, ii. 58, t, 10, f- K. 
Mespilus Bosciana^ Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 58. 
Cratmgus hadiata^ Bosc, Nouv. Cours d^Agric. ii, 224, 11, 58, 
Cratcegus Bosdana^ Roemer, Fam. Nat, Syn. iii, 118, 
2 Brunet, Cat.Veg, Lig. Can. 26,— Macoun, Cat. Can, PL I 147, 



■ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



In some parts of the country the spurs are used as pms to close the mouths of sacks and for 
similar purposes. 

Crat(Egus Crus-galli was introduced into English gardens toward the end of the seventeenth 
century/ and the first description and portrait of this tree are those of Plukenetj made from cultivated 
plants and published in 1691 in his PJiytographia? 

In western Louisiana, and eastern Texas and occasionally in the southern Atlantic states, a variety, 
Cratmgus Crus-galli, var. herherifolia,^ occurs with obovate leaves rounded at the apex and covered, 
as are the shoots, the corymbs, and the calyces, by thick pale persistent pubescence, and with orange- 
colored red-cheeked fruit. In its habit, however, in the appearance of its bark, the form and texture of 
its leaves, the character of its thorns, or the nature of its wood, this tree is not distinguishable from the 
ordinary form of the Cockspur Thorn which grows with it. 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of Cratcegiis Crus-galU, var. herherifolia, is 
0.6126, a cubic foot weighing 38.17 pounds.* 

It was discovered many years ago near Opelousas^ in Louisiana, by Professor William M, Carpenter. 

Cratmgus Crus-galli has been more generally cultivated in the United States and in Europe than 
any other American Hawthorn, and as a cultivated plant it is particularly beautiful. It flowers later 
than most trees, and after its large and beautifully lustrous leaves are fully developed. Its habit is 
always good and often strildng ; its foliage is less subject to fungal diseases than that of the other 
American species ; and its fruit, which birds do not devour, covers the branches until the spring without 
losing color. It is the best of the American Hawthorns to plant in hedges,"^ and for more than a century 
has been used in some parts of the eastern states for this purpose.^ 



6 



1 Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 170. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 820, f. 574, 
575, t. 

^ Mespilus aculeata Pyrifolia dentlculata splendens, fructu insigni 
■rutilo Virginiensis, t. 46, f. 1; Aim. Bot. 249. — Miller, Diet. No. 9. 

Mespilus } spinosa, sive Oxyacantka Virginiana. The Cockspur 
-or Virginian Hawthorn, Miller, Diet. No. 8. 

L 

Mespilus foliis lanceolatis serratis, spinis rohustiorihus^ Jiorihus 
^corymhosisy Miller, Diet. Icon. 119, t. 178, L 2, 
^ Sargeiitj Garden and Forest, ii, 464. 

Cratcegus herherifolia^ Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i, 469, — 
Dietrich, Syn, iii. 159. — Walpers, Rep, ii. 59- — Roemer, Fam, 
Nat. 5yn, iii. 115. — Regel, Act Hort Petrop. i, 123. — Engel- 
manu, Bot. Gazette, vii- 128, — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, IQth 
Census U. S. ix. 82. 

Mespilus herberifolia, Wenzig, Linnma^ xxxviii. 125- 

^ Garden and Forest^ iii. 344. 

^ This tree Is common four miles west of OpeloiisaSj Loulsianaj 
^on land adjoining the plantation of Monsieur Pierre Pompon Petre, 
in an open grove of Oaks and HiekorieSj growing on low moist 
ground with the Hornbeam, the Flowering Dogwood, and the 
Parsley Haw, close to the border of a prairie surrounded by broad 
masses of Cratmgus hracliyacantha. 

6 William M. Carpenter (1811-1848) was born in St. Francisville 
:dn the parish of West Feliciana, Louisiana. In 1829 he entered the 



military academy at West Point, but two years later delicate health 
compelled him to resign, and he left the academy before graduatiou 
and began the study of medicine in the Louisiana Medical College, 
from which he was graduated in 1836, when he was called to the 
chair of natural history and chemistry in the Louisiana State Col- 
lege at Jackson in his native parish. In the six years during which 
Professor Carpenter was connected with this institution he devoted 
himself assiduously to studying the flora of Louisiana, communicat- 
ing the results of his observations to the authors of the Flora of 
North America. In 1842 he was made professor of materia med- 
Ica and therapeutics in the Louisiana State College, a position 
which he held until his death, six years later. Carpenteria, a genus 
with a single species, a lovely white-flowered shrub of the Califor- 
nia Sierras, was dedicated to his memory by his friend Torrey. 

' " The Virginian Azarole with a red fruit, or Linnmus^s Cratcegus 
Crus-galliy is a species of hawthorn, and they plant it in hedges, for 
want of that hawthorn, which Is commonly used for this purpose in 
Europe. Its berries are red, and of the same size, shape, and taste 
with those of our hawthorn. Yet this tree does not seem to make 
a good hedge, for its leaves were already fallen, whilst other trees 
still preserved theirs." (Kalm, Traiwls, English ed, i. 115.) 

^ The name of Newcastle Thorn, sometimes given to this species, 
had its origin in the fact that it was once largely used as a hedge 
plant by the farmers of Newcastle County, Delaware. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



'J 



Plate CLXXVIII. Crat.^gxjs Crus-gallt. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting tranche natural size. 

4. A fruit with a part of the flesh reraovedj showing the nutlets, natural size. 

5- View of the back of a nutlet, natural size. 

6- A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 
7. Winter-buds, natural size. 

8- A leaf from a vigorous shoot with stipules, natural size. 
9. A leaf of the linear-lanceolate form, natural size. 



Plate CLXXIX. Crat^gtts Ckus-gallt, var. bereerifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 
6. A nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 



1 .-r 




ilva 



f 




ortli America . 




, CL 




\ 



V 




C-E .Faxon del 



Picxirt so 



CRATAEGUS CRUS-GALLI 



T 



A.Rw 



7- i 



Inip . R . TajzeMJ" , P,2rij . 



Silva of 




orth America 



Tab , CLXXI 




/ 



/ 




\ 



C, E. Faxorv d&L.- 



-} 



\ 



\ 



a 



lu^if/iter sa 



CRAT^GUS CRUS-GALLI 





BERBERIFOLIA, 




/ 



A.Riocreux^ dzrea^^ 



-I 



Imp. H. Tarieur ^ Parur. 



/ 



\ 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



CRAT^GUS COCCINEA. 



Scarlet Haw. White Thorn. 



Leaves membranaceous, round-ovate, acutely incised. 



Orat^gus coccinea; Linnieus, ;S/>6C. 476. — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 4. — ■ Du Eoi, Harhk. Baumz. i. 193. — Moench, 
Biiume Weiss. 28.— Walter, Fl Car. 147.— Willdenow, 
Berl. Baumz. 81 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1000 (excl. syn.). — • 
Micliaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 288. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 36. — ■ 
Parsli, M. Am. Sept. i. 337. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 305.— 
Sctrank, PJl. Lab. 26. — Elliott, Sh i. 553. — Torrey, 
Fl. I^. Y. i. 221. — De Candolle, Frodr. ii. 627.— 
Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 201 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3432. — Don, 
Gen. Syst. ii. 599. — Bot. Reg. t. 1957. — Torrey & Gray, 
FL N. Am. I. 465. — Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 3, 206. — 
Dietrich, Syn. iii. 160. — ■ "Walpers, R&p. ii. 58. — Schniz- 
lein, Icon. t. 270, f. 18-20, 22. — Darlington, FL Gestr. ed. 
3, 83. — Chapman, FL 127. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. 
N. Car. 1860, iii. 82. — Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. 
pt. ii. 9. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 493, t. — ■ Ridg- 
way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. Wth Census IT. S. ix. 77. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 165. 

Mespilus coccinea, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 87. — -Casti- 
glioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 293. — Moench, Meth. 
684. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 442. — Desfontaines, Hist. 
Arb. ii. 156. — Willdenow, Enum. 523 ; Berl. Baumz. ed. 
2, 238. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 451. — 
Hayne, Dendr. FL 11. — Wendland, Regensb. Flora, 
1823, 699. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 507. — Spach, Hist. Veg. 
ii. 64. 



CratEegus rotundifolia, Moench, Baume Weiss. 29, t. 1. 
Mespilus rotundifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 20. — Wendland, 

Eegensb. Flora, 1823, 700. — Koch, Dendr. i. 148. 
Mespilus coccinea, var. viridis, Castiglioni, Viag. negli 

Stati Uniti, ii. 293. 

? Mespilus maxima, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 
V. 451. 

? Crateegus viridis, Elliott, SJc. i. 551 (not LinnEeus). — 
Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 2, 293. 

Mespilus odorata, Wendland, Regensb. Flora, 1823, 700. 
? Mespilus Wendlandii, Opiz, Regensb. Flora, 1834, 590. 
Mespilus flabellata, Spach, Hist. VSg. ii. 63. — Koch, 

Dendr. i. 148. 
Crateegus coccinea, var. oligandra, Torrey & Gray, FL 

N. Am. i. 465. — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. lOtli Cen- 
sus U. S. ix. 78. 
Cratsegus coccinea, var. viridis, Torrey & Gray, FL N. 

Am. i. 465. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Wth Census 

U. S. ix. 78. 
Halmia flabellata, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 136. 
Anthomeles rotundifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

140. 
Pheenopyrum coccineum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 156, 
Phsenopyrum Wendlandii, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

156. 
Crateegus glandulosa, var. rotundifolia, Hegel, Act. 

Hort. Petroj). i. 120. 



A bushy intricately branched tree, rarely twenty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes a 
foot in diameter, and stout spreading branches which form a narroAV head ; or more often a tall or low 
shrub. The bark of the trunk is light brown or ashy gray and is slightly fissured, the surface being 
broken into small persistent plate-like scales. The branchlets, which are at first light green and glabrous 
or pubescent, in their first winter are usually zigzag, bright red and lustrous or sometimes light brown 
or gray, and marked by many small pale lenticels, and in their second year become light brown or ashy 
gray, their bark ultimately separating, like that of the trunk, into persistent scales ; they are armed with 
slender straight or slightly curved chestnut-brown or sometimes gray persistent spines an inch to tw^o 
inches in length. The winter-buds are nearly globular, one sixteenth of an inch across, and covered 
with bright chestnut-brown scales, scarious on the margins and rounded on the back ; at maturity the 
scales of the inner rows are from half an inch to an inch in length and are lanceolate, ligulate, or 
broadly obovate, glandular-serrate, and usually more or less tinged with red. The leaves are round-ovate, 
acute, wedge-shaped, rounded, truncate, or, on vigorous shoots, often subcordate at the base, acutely 
incised, or slightly five to nine-lobed, and sharply and irregularly serrate except at the base with acute 
glandular teeth ; they are very thin and membranaceous, at first glabrous or puberulous on the upper, and 
pubescent on the lower surface, and glabrous at maturity or sometimes puberulous below, and are borne 



■v 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACE^.. 



on slender glabrous or pubescent petioles often an incb to an inch and a quarter long, and vary from an 
inch to four inches in length and from an inch to two and a half inches in breadth. The stipules are 
glandular-serratCj caducous, linear, acute, or, on vigorous shoots, foliaceous, broadly ovate; and stalked. 
The flowers, which appear when the leaves are nearly fully grown, are produced in few-flowered elon- 
gated glabrous or pubescent corymbs with lanceolate or narrowly oblong acute glandular-serrate cadu- 
cous bracts and bractlets ; they are borne on slender pedicels, and vary from half an inch to nearly an 
inch in diameter. The calyx is obconic, and glabrous or puberulous, with long lanceolate denticulate 
or rarely entire and usually glandular lobes much shorter than the obovate white petals, which are erose 
or occasionally denticulate towards the base. There are two to five pistils surrounded at the base by 
tufts of pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens in September and October and generally hangs on the 
branches until after the leaves have fallen, is subglobose or slightly elongated or pyriform, bright scar- 
let, and one third to one half of an inch in diameter, with a shallow cavity surrounded by the persis- 
tent calyx-lobes and remnants of the filaments, and thin dry flesh ; the nutlets are acute at both ends, 
with two deep grooves and a prominent ridge on the back, and thick hard walls. The seed is acute, 
and is covered by a pale brown coat. 

Cratmgus coccinea is distributed from the western shores of Newfoundland through the maritime 
provinces of Canada, Quebec, and Ontario, and extends westward through Winnipeg nearly to the east- 
ern base of the Kocky Mountains.^ In the United States it ranges southward to northern Florida and 
eastern Texas and westward to Nebraska and Kansas. It grows in dense thickets, in open upland 
woods, or rocky pastures, or in lower ground near the borders of streams ' and prairies, and is common 
in all the northern states, on the Alleghany Mountains, and in the valley of the Ohio Eiver, but com- 
paratively rare in the south. 

The wood of Cratrngits coccinea is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with thin obscure medullary rays ; 
it is brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8618, a cubic foot weighing 53.71 pounds. 

A distinct form of the Scarlet Thorn, Cratmgus coccinea, var. wiacracantha^ may be distinguished 
by the longer bright chestnut-brown thorns, two to five inches long, which cover its straggling branches,, 
and by the broadly obovate leaves ; these are acute at the apex, wedge-shaped, and contracted below 
into broad stout petioles, sharply and often doubly serrate with acute glandular-tipped teeth except at 
the base, sometimes three-lobed, coriaceous, dark green and glabrous on the upper, and paler on the 
lower surface, with a few pale hairs along the prominent midribs and primary veins, three or four 
inches long, and two to two and a half inches broad. The flowers are smaller than those of the more 
common Cratmgns coccinea, with narrow pectinately glandular calyx-lobes, and are produced in broader 
looser pilose or pubescent corymbs. The fruit is oblong, or subglobose, smaller and less fleshy, with 
larger nutlets. 



1 Meyer, PI. Lab. 82. — Macoun, Cat Can. PL i. 147. 

2 Dudley, Bull. Cornell Univ. ii. 33 {Cayuga Flora). — Sargent, 
Garden and Forest, ii. 412, — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
165. 

? Cratmgus glandulosa, Moench, Bdume Weiss. 31. 

? Pyrus glandulosa, Moench, Meth. 680. 

Cratmgus glandulosa, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 84 (not Aiton) ; 
Spec. ii. 1002 (excl. syn.)- — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 337 (in 
part). — De CandoUe, Protfr. ii. 627. — Loddiges, JSoi. Cah. t. 
1012. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-A m. i. 201. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 599. — 
Loudon, Ari. Brit. ii. 817, f. 550, 567, 568, t. — Kegel, Act. Hort. 
Petrop. i. 120. 

Mespilus sanguinea, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 
452 (escl. syn.). 

Mespilus glandulosa, Willdenow, Enum. 523. — Sprengel, Syst. 
ii. 507. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 58, t. 68. — Schmidt, Oestr. 



Baumz. iv. 33, t. 213. — Spach, Hist. Ve'g. ii. 62. — Koch, Dendr. 
i. 145. 

Craixgus macracantha, Loddiges ; Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 819, 
f. 572, 573, t. 

CratcBgus glandulosa, var, macracantha, Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 
1912. 

Cratmgus sanguinea, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 464 (excl. 
var. ^. ; not Pallas). 

Cratmgus coccinea, var. viridis, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 
86 (not Torrey & Gray). 

Cratmgus coccz'nea, T. S.Brandegee, i^isp. Chief Engineer U. S.A. 
Apps. S. 1841 (not Linnaeus) ; Bull. U. S. Geolog. Sf Geog. Surv. 
Terr. ii. 236 {Fl. Southwest Colorado). — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. 
Bot. 90. 

Cratmgus Douglasii, Macoun, Cat. Can, PI. i. 522 (not Lind- 
ley). 



EOSACE-.E. 



8ILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



97 



CratcBgus coccinea, var. macraccmtha^ is common in eastern MassacliusettSj -where it grows with 
Cratcegics coccinea ; it occurs on the Maine coast, in northern New Hampshire and Vermont, and in 
the province of Quehec, and ranges westward through Winnipeg. It occurs in Missouri and is not 
rare on the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado and of New Mexico, in eastern Oregon, and on 
the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Washington.^ 

A shrubhy form of the southern states with small thin glabrous deltoid-ovate leaves, usually wedge- 
shaped or sometimes cordate at the base, and borne on slender petioles, is distinguished as Cratcegus 
coccinea, var. populifolia? It produces small flowers in narrow few-flowered corymbs, and small fruit. 

Cratcegus coccinea was probably introduced into Enghsh gardens in the seventeenth century, and 
the earliest descriptions of it were drawn up from cultivated plants.^ 

In cultivation it is a less desirable plant than the related Cratcegus mollis, and than several other 
North American species, and it is now rarely found in gardens. 



1 The synonymy of this variety, which is possibly the Cratcegus 
glandulosa of Moeneh, is much inyolved. If it is the Cratcsgus glan- 
dulosa of this author, and is regarded as a variety of CratcEgus 
coccinea^ its name would be var. glandulosa. But the identity of 
Moench's plant is so doubtful that it is better to pass over this 
name and take up the much later one of Loddiges and Loudon, 
although it is in part the Cratcegus glandulosa of WilldenoWj whose 
name, however, was published later than the Cratcegus glandulosa 
of Aiton, which is the Cratcegus Jlava of this author. The figure in 
Watson's Dendrologia Britannica was made from this variety, which 
is admirably portrayed by Schmidt. 

' ^ Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am, l 465. — Sargent^ Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 78. 

Cratcegus populifolia, Elliott, ^S'^. i. 553 (not Walter), — Nut- 
tallj Gen. i. 305, 



Mespilus populifolia^ Poiret, Lam. Diet iv. 447. 
Phcenopyrum populi/olium, Roemer, Fam.Nat Syn. iii, 153- 
Cratcegus coccinea, var. typica, B-egel, Act. Hart. Petrop. i. 121. 
^ The confusion in the pre-Linneean descriptions of the American 

Hawthorns makes it impossible in some cases to determine which 
species different authors intended to describe ; but it is apparent that 
some of the descriptions which have usually been thought to refer 
to Cratcegus coccinea relate rather to Crataegus mollis^ which was well 
figured by Plukenet. 

f Mespilus Virginiana grossularice foliis, fructu rubra minor e^ Aim. 
Bot. 249 (excl. syn. Banister), 

Cratcegus foliis ovatis repando-angulatis serratis, LinnteuSj Ho7't. 
Cliff. 187 ; Hart. Ups. 126. — Clayton, Ft. Virgin. 54. — Royen, Fl. 
Leyd. Prodr. 272. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CLXXX- Ckat^gus coccinea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flowerj enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4. A fruit with part of the flesh removed, showing the nutlets, natural size. 

5. View of the side of a nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged, 

7. The end of a vigorous leafy shoot with stipules, natural size* 
8- A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CLXXXI* Ckat^gxts coccinea, var. maceacantha. 

1, A flowering branch, natural size. 

2- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged, 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4. Cross section of a fruit; enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, natural size- 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. Portion of a young branchlet with stipules, natural size. 




ilva of 




orth AmericsL 




ab, CLXXA. 



■^ 



r- 



'I- 



- ■»* 




.• 



C. E. Fajzoii deZ . 



-V 



CRAT^GUS COCCINEA 



/ 



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Hianelz/ sd . 



^. Bioof'ez.Laz di. 



reoj-. 



t 



Imp /Ft-. Tcuze-ui\ Paris 



V 



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T 



K 



f 



Silva. 



of North America. 



Tab. 





T 




C. E. FaccorL deL . 



CRAM:GUS COCCINEA.Var, MACRACANTHA,D 



ToziZet 



sc. 



uaie 



I ' 





.Riocreiwo. direcc^r 



Irrvp. Tcuxeur^ Paris. 



ROSACK^. 



JSIZVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



99 



CBAT^GUS MOLLIS. 



Scarlet Haw. 



Leaves membranaceous, broadly ovate, usually incisely lobed, pubescent on the 



lower surface. 



Crat^gus mollis, Scheele, Linncea, xxi. 569; Eoemer 

Texas, Appx. 473. — Walpers, Ann. ii. 523. 
Mespiius coccinea, Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz, iv. 30, t. 210 

(not Linnaeus). 
Mespiius pubescens, Wendland, Eegensh. Flora, 1823, 

700 (not Humboldt & Bonpland). 
Mespiius coccinea, jS. pubescens, Tauscli, Beg&nsh. 

Flora, 1838, pt. ii. 718. 

Cratsegus coccinea, var. mollis, Torrej & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. 1. 465. — Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 186 
{PI. Lindheim. ii.). — Eegel, Act. Sort. Fetrop. i. 121. — 
Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 132. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 165. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 
107 {Man. Fl. W. Texas) . 



+ 

Crat^gus tomentosa, Emerson, Trees Mass. 435 ; ed. 2, 
ii. 494, t. (not Linnseus). — Provancher, Flore Canadienne, 
212. 

Ph^nopyrum subvillosum, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 
154. 

Cratsegus subvillosa, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 86. — 
Ridgway, Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census V. S. ix. 78. — Havard, 
ProG. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 512. 

Cratsegus Texana, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1861, 454. 

Crat^gus tomentosa, var. moUis, Gray, Man. ed. 6, 160. 

MespHus tili^folia, Koch, Dendr. i. 151. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, 
and spreading often contorted branches which form a compact round head. The harh of the trunk is 
one third of an inch thick, slightly furrowed, and ashy gray to reddish brown, the surface being broken 
into small persistent plate-like scales. The branchlcts are coated when young with thick pale tomentum 
and in their first winter are light orange-brown, lustrous, and marked by pale lenticels; becoming darker 
in then- second year and eventually ashy gray ; they are stout, zigzag, and armed with thick and straight 
spines which are chestnut-brown and lustrous or finally ashy gray and two or three inches in length. 
The winter-buds are obtuse, one eighth of an inch long, and protected by orbicular chestnut-brown 
lustrous scales ciHate on the margins and rounded on the back ; the scales of the inner rows at maturity 
are obovate, rounded or truncate at the apex, glandular-serratCj and from half an inch to an inch in 
length. The leaves are broadly ovate, acute at the apex, cuneate, truncate, or cordate at the base, sharply 
serrate with slender spreading glandular- tipped teeth, and often incisely many-lobed ; when they unfold 
they are coated on the lower surface with pale tomentum, and are more or less pubescent on the upper 
surface ; and at maturity they are thin and membranaceous, pubescent or tomentose below, glabrous or 
slightly scabrous above, light green, with broad prominent midribs and primary veins deeply grooved on 
the upper side, three to five inches long, and three to four inches broad, and borne on stout pubescent 
petioles an inch to two inches in length. The stipules are glandular-serrate, deciduous, fohaceous 
acute, or lunate, and sometimes an inch broad on vigorous shoots. The flowers, which are from an 
inch to an inch and a quarter across when expanded, are produced in broad pubescent or tomentose 
stout-branched corymbs, with large spatulate glandular-serrate deciduous or occasionally persistent 
bracts and bractlets, and appear several days earlier than those of Cratmgits coccinea, when the leaves 
are half grown, which in Texas is in March and in New England from the middle to the end of May. 
The calyx is obconic, coated with tomentum or pubescence, and lined with a bright red or green disk • 
the lobes are acute, glandular-serrate, and persistent. The ovaries are pubescent or puberulous and 
are surrounded at the base with tufts of pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens and fails in September or 
early in October, is subglobose or pyriform, with a shallow cavity surrounded by the remnants of the 



100 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



calyx- lobes and filaments j it is often pubescent while young, and at maturity is an inch to an inch 
and a quarter in diameter, bright orange-scarlet, and covered with a glaucous bloom ; the flesh is 
thin and mealy but sweet and edible ; the nutlets are pointed at both ends, lunate, rounded on the 
back, with a single broad deep or sometimes shallow groove down the middle, thin brittle walls, and a 
large seed covered with a pale brown coat. 

Cratmgus mollis is distributed from the shores of Massachusetts Bay to northern New England 
and the province of Quebec,^ and ranges westw^ard through central Michigan to Missouri and middle 
Tennessee, and through Arkansas to the valley of the San Antonio Eiver in Texas, reappearing on the 
Sierra Madre near Saltillo in Mexico. It grows on the margins of swamps, along the banks of streams, 
and on prairies in rich soil ; in New England it is more tree-like in habit and attains a larger size than 
the other native Hawthorns, and reaches its best development in Texas and southern Arkansas, where 

it abounds. 

The wood of Cratcegus moUis is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong ; it is light 

brown or red, with thick sapwood composed of tw^enty-five or thirty layers of annual growth, and con- 
tains numerous very obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7953, 

a cubic foot weighing 49.56 pounds. 

Cratcegus mollis, although it was long confounded with Cratmgus coccinea, was introduced into 
European gardens and was described and figured before the end of the seventeenth century,^ and it is 
no doubt this species which is called the White Thorn in early accounts of New England.^ 

It is the largest and handsomest of the Scarlet Hawthorns of North America, and its rapid growth, 
tree-like habit, ample foliage, and large and abundant flowers, as well as its brilliant fruit which, how- 
ever, has the disadvantage of falling as soon as it ripens, commend it to the attention of planters. 



1 Brunet, Cat. Ve'g. Lig. Can. 25. — Maeoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 147. 

^ Mespilus Apii folio Virginiana spinis Jiorrida, fructu amplo coc- 
dneo, Plukenet, Phyt. t. 46, f. 4 ; Aim. Bot. 249. 

Mespilus spinosa, sive Oxyacantlia maxima Virginiana, Hermann, 
Cat. Lugd. Bat. 423. — Boerhaave, Cat. Lugd. Bat. ii. 257. — Cat. 
PI. Land. p. 49. 

Mespilus aculeata pyrifolia denticulata splendens fructu insigni i-utHo 
Virginiensis, Cat. PI. Lond. 1. 13, f. 2 (not Plukenet). 

Mespilus Canadensis, Sorbi torminalis facie, Tournefort, Inst. 642. 
— Duhamel, Traite des Arhres, ii. 16. 



^ " Also, mulberries, plums, raspberries, corrance, chestnuts, fil- 
bcrds, walnuts, snmlnuts, hurtleberies, and hawes of whitethorne 
neere as good as our cherries in England, they grow in plentie 
here." (Higginson, New England's Plantation l_Coll. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. i. 119].) 

" The whitethorne affords haws as bigge as an English Cherrie, 
which is esteemed above a Cherrie for Hs goodnesse and pleasant- 
nesse to the taste." (Wood, New England's Prospect, pt. i. chap. 5, 
20.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXII. Ckat^egus mollis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting brancli, natural size. 

4. A subglobose fruit, natural size. 

5. A fruit, part of the flesh removed, showing nutlets, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, natural size. 

7. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. A stipule of a young branchlet, natural size. 

-r 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



L r 




Sil 



va' of North America. 




ab, CLXXXII 



L 




/ 



C,E, FcbcCOTV deL. 



JHoart so, 



/ 



CRAT^GUS MOLLIS, 




heel 



eeie. 



-A . Szo creuiry direzcy 



Imp. Ry, Taneur Poj^b , 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



CRATAEGUS TOMENTOSA. 



Haw. 



Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, contracted into margined petioles, densely coated 



with pubescence on the loAver surface. 

Crataegus tomentosa, Linn^us, Spec. 476 (excl syn. Clay- 
ton), — Miller, Diet, ed. 8, No- 9- — Da Roij liarhk. 
Baumz. i. 183. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am, i- 465-^ — 
Dietrich, S^jn. iii, 160. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 222, ~ 
Chapman, FL 127. — Wenzig, Linnmay xxxviii- 129. — 
Ridgway, Ptoc. U. S. Nat Mus, 1882, 66. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees iV". Am. 10th Census XJ. S- ix. 79 ; Garden 
and Forestj ii. 423, f- 126. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 166. 

Crateegus leucophlceos, Moench, Baitme Weiss, 31, t. 
2. — Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. L 106, — Lavall^e, J^r6. 
Segre^. 11, t. 22. 

Mespilus Calpodendron, Ehrhart, Beitr. ii. 67. — Burgs- 
dorfj Anleit, pt. ii. 147. 

Crateegus pyrifolia, Alton, HoH. _Kez^- ii. 168. — Willde- 
now, BerL Baum^, 83 ; Spec. ii. pt, ii- 1001. — Persoon, 
Syn. ii. 36. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iv- 131- — Poiret, Lam. 
Diet Suppl- i. 192. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 337- —Nut- 
tall, Gen. i. 305. — Elliott, 8k. i. 550. — ■ De CandoUe, 
Frodr. ii. 627. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 201. —Don, 
Gen. Syst. ii. 599. — Bot. Reg. t. 1877- — Loudon, Arh. 



Brit, ii- 819, f. 571, t. 

pt- ii. 15. 



Kaleniczenko, BulL Mosg. xlviii. 



Mespilus tomentosa, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Xlniti^ 

ii, 293- 
Mespilus latifoliaj Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 444. — Desfon- 

taines, Hist. Arh. ii- 156- — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. 

Cult, ed- 2, V. 450- — Kouveau Duhamel^ iv. 150, — 

Spach, Hist. VSg. ii. 60. 
Crateegus latif olia, Persoon, Syn. u. 37. — De CandoUe, 

Prodr. ii. 627. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 598. — Roeraer, Fam^ 

Nat. Syn. iii. 119. 
Mespilus pyrifolia, Willdenow, Enum. 523 ; BerL Baumz. 

ed- 2, 240. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 34, t. 216. — 

Sprengel, Syst. ii. 507. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 78. 
Mespilus lobata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 71. 
Crataegus lobata, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 628. 
Halraia tomentosa, E-oemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 135. 
Halmia tomentosa, /3- pyrifolia, Hoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 

iii. 135. 
Halmia tomentosa, 8, leucophlaea, Roemer, Fam. Nat. 

Syn. iii. 135. 
Hahnla tomentosa, €. Calpodendron, Roemer, Fam. Nat. 

Syn. iii. 136. 
Halmia lobata, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 136- 
Cratsegus tomentosa, var. pyrifolia, Gray, Man. ed. 5, 

160. 



A tree, fifteen or twenty feet in height, with a straight trunk five or six inches in diameter, sepa- 
rating, a few feet from the ground, into slender branches which often spread nearly at right angles and 
form a wide flat head j or frequently a shrub with many distinct straggling stems. The bark of the 
trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, ashy gray to dark brown, fissured, and broken on the surface into 
small persistent scales. The branchlets are coated at first with thick pale tomentum ; as this disappears 
they become dark orange-color, and in their first winter they are pubernlous and marked by many minute 
dark spots, and at the base by the conspicuous ring-like sears left by the falling of the inner bud-scales ; 
they are ashy gray in their second year, and are slender, often contorted or zigzag, smooth, and usually 
unarmed, although sometimes furnished with slender ashy gray or very rarely chestnut-brown straight 
slender sharp spines an inch to an inch and a half in length. The winter-buds are nearly globular, and 
are protected by orbicular chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins and apiculate at the apex. The 
leaves are ovate to ovate-oblong, acute or rarely rounded at the apex, gradually contracted below into 
broad winged petioles, generally incisely lobed, and sharply and usually doubly serrate except at the 
base with broad spreading teeth sometimes tipped towards the lower part of the blade with minute 
glands which occasionally appear also on the petioles ; they are thin but firm in texture, gray-green, 
coated with pale persistent pubescence on the lower surface, pubernlous and ultimately glabrous on the 
upper surface, conspicuously reticulate-veined, with broad midribs and primary veins, from two to five 
inches in length and from an inch to three inches in breadth. The stipules are linear, acute, minutely 



102 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



ROSACEA. 



glandular-serrate, and from one quarter to one half of an inch long. The leaves turn brilliant orange 
and scarlet in the autumn before falling. The flowers are produced in broad leafy pubescent slender- 
branched cymes with lanceolate acute minutely glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. They are haK 
an inch across and have a strong disagreeable odor, and in Texas open as early as the middle of March 
and at the north in the middle of June, or some two weeks later than those of the forms of Cratcegus 
coccinea with which this species has often been confounded. The calyx is coated with pale tomentum, 
and is obconic with long lanceolate acute taper-pointed persistent lobes, which are deeply or pinnately 
serrate and usually glandular, reflexed after anthesis, and equal or exceed in length the obovate erose 
white petals, and glabrous pistils, Avhich are two to five in number. The fruit is pear-shaped or rarely 
subglobose and half an inch broadj with a shallow cavity surrounded by the remnants of the calyx-lobes, 
thin dry flesh, and short obtuse thick-walled nutlets rounded and sometimes obscurely two-grooved on 
the back ; it is erect and dull red, and remains on the branches with little loss of color until the leaf- 
buds unfold in the following spring. 

Cratcegus tommtosa is distributed from the vafley of the Hudson River near Troy ^ to eastern 
Pennsylvania,^ and ranges westward through central New York to central Michigan, and Missouri ; it 
occurs on the Alleghany Mountains from northern Georgia to central Tennessee, and extends through 
Arkansas to eastern Texas.^ It usually grows in low rich soil in the neighborhood of streams and on 
the margins of the forest, and, except in western New York and southeastern Missouri, is not known to 
be very common. 

The wood of Cratcegus tomentosa is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and contains numerous thin 
medullary rays ; it is bright reddish brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.7585, a cubic foot weighing 47.57 pounds. 

Cratcegus tomentosa is often found in EngHsh gardens, where it was introduced by Lee & Ken- 
nedy in 1765,* and in those of France and Germany. The brifliant color of its foliage in autumn and 
the persistence of the fruit on its branches daring the winter constitute its chief value as an ornamental 
plant. 



1 Cratmgus tomentosa was discovered here hj Professor H. G. » It was found near Dallas by Mr. J. Reverelion in 1880. 
Jesup in June, 1889. 4 Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 168.— Loudon, Arh. Brit. n. 819, f. 

2 It was detected by Professor Thomas C. Porter on Chestnut 571, t. 
Hill, Easton, Pennsylvania, in May, 1889. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXIII. Cratmgus tomentosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

4. A subglobose fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A fruit, a part of the flesh removed, showing the nutlets, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, natural size. 

8. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. Portion of a leafy shoot with stipules, natural size. 
10. Winter-buds, natural size. 




ilva of .Nor 





merica . 



Tab. CL 




T T 







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/i 



6 



' I 

8 




5 



..— ''^'^ 






7 





C^iE'. FcKXi-ori. deZy. 



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CRAT^GUS tOMENTOSA 



L, 






I 



■ Imp. JLTaneur^ Paru. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



103 



CRAT^GUS PUNCTATA, 



Haw. 



Leaves wedge-obovate, prominently yeined 



Crateegus punctata, Jacquin, Bort. Vind. i. 10, t. 28. — 
Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 86 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1004. — 
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 289. ™ Persoon, Syn. ii. 37. — 
Pursh, Fl. Am, Sept. i. 338. —Elliott, Sk. i. 548. ~ Tor- 
rey, Fl. iV". Y. i. 222. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. G27. — 
Hooker, i?'^. Bor.-Am. i. 201 (excl. var.). — Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 598. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 466. — 
Dietrich, Syn. m. 169. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 435. — 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 84. — Provancher, Flore 
Canadienne, 211. — Regel, Act. Rort. Petrop. i. 106. — 
Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. 14. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 166. 

Mespilus cornifolia, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 145. — 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 444. — Koch, Dendr. i. 134. 

Mespilus ouneiformis, Marshall, Arhist. Am. 88. 

Crat^gus Crus-galli, Wangenlieim, Nordam. Holz. 52 (not 
LinnEeus). — Du Roi, Harhk. Bauviz. i. 195. 

Mespilus cuneifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 21 (not Moench). — 
Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 34, t. 215. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 
506. ■ — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 61. 

Mespilus punctata, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, iy. 152. — 
Willdenow, Enum. 524 ; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 243. — 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 70. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 
79. ■ — • Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 57, t. 57. ■ — ■ Spach, Hist. 
Veg. ii. 61. — Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 128. 



Mespilus pyrifolia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 156 (not 
Willdenow). — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 
452. — Spach, Eist. Veg. ii. 60, t. 10, f. C. 

Cratsegus punctata, var. rubra, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 170. 

Crat^gus punctata, var. aurea, Aiton, Bort. Kew. ii. 170, 

Cratsegus latifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 627. 

CratsBgus flava, Darlington, Fl, Cestr. ed. 2, 292 (not 
Aiton). 

Mespilus Trewiana, Tausch, Begensh. Flora, 1838, pt. ii. 

716. 
Cratsegus cuneifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 118. 
Cratsegus obovatifolia, Roemcr, Fani. Nat. Syn. iii. 120. 
Halmia punctata, Roemer, Fam. Nat, Syn. iii. 134. 
Halmia cornifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 135. 
Phaenopyruni Tr e-wianum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

154. 
Crat^gus tomentosa, var. punctata, Gray, Man. ed. 2, 

124. — Chapman, Fl. 127. — Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 

26. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census IT. S. 

ix. 80. — Macoun, Cat. Can, PL i. 147. 
Cratsegus tomentosa, var. plicata, Wood, CI. Booh, 330 ; 

Bot. and Fl. 111. 
Crat^gus punctata, var. xanthocarpa, LavalMe, Arb. 

Segrez. i. 53, t. 16. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally eight or ten inches in diameter, 
and stout hranches spreading nearly at right angles with the stem and forming a broad round or flat- 
topped head. The bark of the trunk is from one sixteenth to one eighth of an Inch thick, with a dark 
red-brown surface broken into long persistent plate-like scales. The branchlets are coated at first with 
pale pubescence ; this soon disappears, and in their first winter they are light brown and conspicuously 
marked at the base by the scars left by the inner scales of the leaf-buds ; in their second year they are 
ashy gray, silvery white, or light brown, and ultimately become light brown, and are slender, rigid, armed 
with straight sharp light brown spines two to three inches long, or often unarmed. The winter-buds are 
obtuse, one eighth of an inch across, and covered by pale brown lustrous orbicular apicukite scales. The 
leaves are wedge-obovate, pointed or rounded at the apex, contracted below into long winged petioles, 
sharply and often douMy serrate above the middle with minutely apiculate teeth, entire or nearly so 
below, and sometimes, especially on vigorous shoots, more or less incisely lobed ; when they unfold they 
are covered on the lower surface with thick pale pubescence and are pilose on the upper surface ; at 
maturity they are thick and firm, pale gray-green and glabrous on the upper surface, the broad promi- 
nent midribs and principal veins, which are deeply impressed above, being more or less thickly covered 
with pale hairs on the lower surface, two or three inches long and three quarters of an inch to an inch 
and a half broad. The stipules are lanceolate, acute, glandular-serrate, and caducous. The leaves turn 



104 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, eosace^. 

bright orange or orange and scarlet in tlie autumn. The flowers are produced in broad leafy thick- 
branched corymbs, covered with pale tomentum or pubescencej and furnished with long lanceolate cadu- 
cous bracts and bractlets ; they are borne on stout hairy pedicelsj and open from the middle of May at 
the north to the end of June on the high mountains of North Carolina, and vary from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is narrowly obconic and more or less tomentose, with a dark 
red disk and narrow acute nearly entire or minutely glandular-serrate persistent lobes covered on the 
inner siirface with scattered pale hairs, and nearly as long as the white petals. There are from two to 
five styles surrounded at the base by conspicuous tufts of white hairs. The fruit, which ripens and 
falls in the autumn, is pyriform or subglobose, dull red or sometimes bright yellow, marked by numer- 
ous small white spots, and three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, with a deep cavity surrounded 
by the remnants of the calyx-lobes and filaments, thin dry flesh, and thick-walled nutlets rounded and 
slightly or deeply grooved on the back. 

Cratcegiis punctata is distributed from the valley of the Chateaugay Eiver in the province of 
Quebec, where, in the neighborhood of Montreal, it is not uncommon, to the valley of the Detroit 
Eiver in Ontario ; it is not rare in northern New Hampshire and Vermont, and extends south through 
western Massachusetts, where it abounds, and along the Appalachian Mountain system to northern 
Georgia, ascending in North Carolina and Tennessee to an elevation of six thousand feet above the 
level of the sea ; it is very common in northern and western New York, ranges westward along the 
southern shores of the Great Lakes, and crosses the Mississippi River into eastern and southeastern 
Missouri. It usually grows in rich moist soil in forest glades, or in rocky upland pastures, where it 
often spreads into broad thickets. 

■ 

The wood of CratmguB -punctata is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin medullary 
rays, and is bright red-brown, with thick pale sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0,7681, a cubic foot weighing 47.87 pounds. 

Cratcegiis punctata is said to have been introduced into English gardens in 1746 hj the Duke of 
Argyll,^ and the first description of it, published in 1770, was drawn up from plants cultivated in the 
Botanic Garden at "Vienna. 

In cultivation Cratmgus punctata is a hardy tree of good habit, especially beautiful in the 
autumn, when its spreading branches are covered with its abundant and showy fruit. 



1 Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 169, —Loudon, Arb, Brit ii. 818, f. 569, 570, t. 



/ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXIV. Ckat.^gtjs punctata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2- A flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

4. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A nutlet, natural size. 

6- A nutlet divided transversely, natural size. 

7- The end of a leafy branch showing the stipules, natural size, 

8. A subglobose yellow fruit, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



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CRAT/EGUS PUNCTATA 





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ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NOETE AMERICA 



105 



CRATiEGUS SPATHULATA. 



Small Fruited Haw. 



Leaves submembranaceous, spatulate or oblanceolate, erenately toothed or lobcd 



aboYC the middle. 



Crateegus spathulata, Michaux, Fl Bor.-Am. i. 288. — Per- 
soon, Sijn. ii. 37. ~ Elliott, Sk. i. 552. ~ Loddiges, Bot. 
Cab. t. 12G1. — Don, Gen. Sysf. ii. 599. — Gray, Bot. 
Beg. under t. 1957. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am,, i. 
467.— Dietrich, Syn. iii. 160, — Chapman, Fl 126.— 
Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 112. — Kaleniczenko, Bull. 
Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. 31. — Ridgway, Am. Nat. vi. 728. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census XT. S. ix. 
81. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 165.— 



Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 107 {Man. PI. W. 

Texas) . 

Mespilus spathulata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. Q^. — 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 157. — Du Mont de Courset, 
Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 455. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 507.— 
Spach, Hist. VSy. ii. 6Q. — Koch, Dendr. i. 137. 

Crat^gus microcarpa, Lindlej, Bot. Reg. 1. 1846. 

PhEenopyrum spathulatum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 
iii. 155. 

Cotoneaster spatkulata, Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 201. 



A tree^ eighteen to twenty-five feet in height, with a straight trunk occasionally eight or ten inches 
in diameter, and slender upright branches j or more often a shrub Avith numerous spreading stems. 
The bark of the trunk is generally smooth, with minute red-brown appressed scales, and is rarely more 
than a sixteenth of an inch thick. The branchlets are slender, zigzag, and glabrous ; during their first 
year they are light reddish brown and marked with minute pale lentieels, and later become darker 
brown ; they are unarmed or armed with straight stout light brown spines an inch to an inch and a half 
in length. The winter-buds are one sixteenth of an inch long, obtuse, and protected by chestnut-brown 
ovate apiculate scales keeled on the back. The leaves are spatulate or oblanceolate, erenately serrate 
at the rounded or acuminate apex, on fertile branchlets fascicled, nearly sessile, three quarters of an 
inch to an inch long and one quarter of an inch broad, or on young sterile branches or vigorous shoots 
scattered, often deeply three-lobed above the middle, with rounded erenately serrate lobes deejily and 
sharply incised, contracted below into long winged petioles, and one to two inches in length, and an 
inch to an inch and a half in breadth ; they are deciduous, subcoriacoous, glabrous, dark green, and 
lustrous above, paler below, and reticulate-veined, with very obscure midribs and primary veins, except 
on those of vigorous shoots, which have broad and thick midribs often pilose along their lower surface. 
The stipules are linear, acute, minute, and caducous, or on vigorous shoots are foliaceous, lunate, sharply 
serrate, stalked, and often half an inch broad. The flowers, which appear from March to May after 
the leaves are grown to their full size, are produced on long slender pedicels in glabrous many-flowered 
narrow cymes with linear-lanceolate deciduous bracts and bractlets ; they are half an inch across when 
expanded, with broadly obconic calyx-tubes and short nearly entire persistent calyx-lobes, minutely glan- 
dular-apiculate, and much shorter than the white undulate-margined petals, and than the styles, which are 
tM^o to five in number. The fruit, which ripens in October, is subglobose, crowned with the remnants 
of the calyx-lobes and filaments, lustrous, bright scarlet, and one eighth of an inch in diameter, with 
thin dry flesh, nearly orbicular thin brittle-walled nutlets rounded or slightly grooved on the back, and 
minute seeds covered with a thin brown coat. 

Cratmgits sjyathuJxita is distributed through the coast region of the southern Atlantic states from 
southern Virginia to northern Florida, and extends westward through the Gulf states to the valley of 
the "Washita River in Arkansas, where it is abundant in the neighborhood of the Hot Springs and to 
the vaUey of the Colorado River in Texas. It grows in rich soil, usually near the banks of streams or 



106 



J3ILVA OF NOBTH AMEBIC A. 



ROSACEA. 



swamps, or in low moist depressions in the Pine forests, and attains its greatest size on "the bottom-lands 
of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

The wood of Cratmgus spathidata is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong; it is 
light brown or red, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous very obscure medullary 
rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7159, a cubic foot weighing M,61 pounds. 

Cratmgus S]}athidata was discovered late in the last century by the French botanist Michaux in 
South Carolina; it was introduced into French and English gardens early in the present century, hut 
probably no longer occurs in cultivation. ^ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXV. Ceat^gus spathulata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, natural size. , 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. The end of a leafy shoot showing stipules. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Oil 



vsL of North 




erica. 



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ab 




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L. E. Faazvrh dely. 




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CRAT^GUS 



SPATHULATA 



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ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



107 



CRATiEGUS OORDATA. 

Washington Thorn. 

Leaves broadly ovate to triangular, acute, long-petiolate. 



Crataegus cordata, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 168. — Willde- 
nowj Berl. Baumz. 82 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1000. — Persoon, 
Syn. ii. 36. — Elliott, Sk. i. 554. — De Candolle, Prodr. 
ii. 628. — "Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 63, t. 63. — Bot. Heg. 
t. 1151. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.~Am. i. 201. — ■ Don, Gen. 
Syst. ii. 599. — Torrey & Gray, FL iV. Am. i. 467. ™ 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 825, t. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 160. — 
Chapman, Fl. 127. — Curtis, Mep. Geolog. Siorv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 82. — Regal, Act. Hort. Petropj. i. 114. — Kale- 
niczenko. Bull. Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. 31. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. is. 80. — ■ Watson & 
Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 165- 

Mespilus cordata, Miller, Diet, ed- 8, No. 4, — Da Roi, 
Sarhk. Baumz. ed. 2, i. 615. — Willdenow, Enum. 623 ; 
Berl Baumz. ed. 2, 239- — Hajne, Ve^idr. FL 77. — 
Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 31, t. 211. — Guimpel, Otto & 
Hayne, Ahhild. Holz. 167, t- 142. — Sprengel, SysU ii. 
507.— Koch, i?efic^r.i- 138. 



Mespilus Pheenopyrum, Linnaeus f, Syst. SuppL ed- 13, 
254. ~ Ehrhart, Beiti\ i. 182; ii. 67.— Moench, Metlu 
685, — Poiret, Lam. Diet iv. 446. 

Crataegus acerifolia, Moencli, Bdume Weiss, 31. 

Mespilus acerifolia, Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt- ii. 147. — Poi- 
ret, Lam. Diet, iv, 442. — Nouveaii Duhamel^ iv. 151- — 
Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 65. 

Cratsegus populif olia, Walter, Fl. Car. 147- — Pursh, FL 
Am. Sept. L 337. 

Mespilus corallina, Desfontaines, Tab. Fcole Bot. Mus. 
174. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 451.— 
Tausch, Begensh. Flora, 1838, pt. ii. 717. 

PhEenopyrum cordatum, Roeraer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 
157. 

Phsenopyrum acerifolium, Roomer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 
157. 

Phalacros cordatus, Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 164. 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, gener- 
ally dividing, four or five feet from the ground, into slender and usually upright branches which form 
a handsome oblong or occasionally a round head ; or often much smaller and sometimes only a broad 
spreading bush. The bark of the trunk is light brown and an eighth of an inch thick, the generally 
smooth surface being broken into long persistent scales. The branchlets are slender, often zigzag, 
glabrous, pale orange-brown when they first appear, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous and marked by 
small lenticels in their first winter, and ultimately dark gray or reddish brown, and are armed with 
slender sharp spines an inch and a half to two inches in length ; these, which sometimes terminate 
sterile lateral branches also, are bright chestnut-brown at first and finally, like the bark of the branches, 
gray or red-brown. The winter-buds are one sixteenth of an inch long and are protected by obovate 
apiculate light brown lustrous scales rounded on the back. The leaves are broadly ovate to triangular, 
acute at the apex, truncate, slightly wedge-shaped or cordate at the base, ineisely three to five-cleft or 
three-lobed, and sharply serrate except at the base with acute or spreading often glandular- tipped teeth ; 
they are subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous above and pale below, glabrous except for a few decidu- 
ous hairs on the upper surface when they unfold, or rarely pubescent on the lower surface, especially on 
the conspicuous orange-colored midribs and primary veins ; they are one and a half to two inches long 
and an inch to an inch and a half broad, and are borne on slender terete petioles three quarters of an 
■ inch to an inch and a half in length. The stipules are lanceolate, acute, entire, half an inch long, and 
caducous. The leaves turn very late in the autumn bright scarlet and orange before falling. The 
flowers, which open in the last days of May after the leaves are fully grown, are produced in few- 
flowered spreading slender-branched corymbs with lanceolate acute minute bracts and bractlets mostly 
caducous before the expansion of the flower-buds. The calyx is broadly obconic and glabrous, with 
short or nearly triangular persistent entire lobes abruptly contracted at the apex into minute points, 
pubescent on the inner surface, bearded on the margins, and much shorter than the obovate white petals ; 



ROSACEA 



108 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

there are two to five styles surrouncled at tlie base with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs. The fruit 
ripens in September and October, and remains on the branches until late in the spring of the foUowino- 
year, although it loses its color early in the winter; it is depressed-globular, with a shallow cavity 
surrounded by the remnants of the reflexed calyx-lobes and filaments. 

Cratmgiis cordata is distributed from the valley of the upper Potomac Eiver in Viro-inia,^ south- 
ward in the foothill region of the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama, and 
westward through middle Tennessee and Kentucky to the valley of the lower Wabash River in Illinois.^ 
It grows near the banks of streams in rich moist soil, and is nowhere very common. 

The wood of Cratmgns cordata is heavy, hard, and close-grained; it contains many obscure 
medullary rays and is brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7293, a cubic foot weighing 45.45 pounds. 

Cratcegus cordata was known in Europe before the end of the seventeenth century, and Plukenet 
published in his Phytograpliia, in 1691,^ a figure which well represents the foliage, and which was 
probably made from a cultivated tree. 

As an ornamental plant Crataegus cordata is one of the most valuable of the genus, and few 
small trees of the North American forests exceed it in beauty; it is hardy as far north at least as New 
England, where it flowers in the middle of June and later than any other Hawthorn ; it grows rapidly, 
its habit is excellent, its handsome foliage is seldom injured by fungal diseases, and, late in the autumn 
after the leaves of many trees have fallen, changes slowly to brilliant shades of orange and scarlet which 
heighten the effect produced by the bright persistent fruit. 

The Washington Thorn was once much used in the middle states for hedges, and is still occasion- 
ally planted in American gardens; it is better knoAvn, however, in those of Europe, and fine old 
specimens are not uncommon in England, France, and Germany. 

r 

1 Cratcegus cordata now grows spontaneously and perhaps uatu- Meqjilus folio cordato ovatis acuminatis marginibus acute serratis 
rally, as Professor Porter believes, in Penryn, Lebanon County, ramis spinosis, Miller, Diet. Icon. 119, t. 179. 

Pennsylvania, where it was found in 1891 by Mr. J. K. Small. The popular name by which Cratcegus cordata Is best known, at 

2 Patterson, Cat. PL III. 13. ^ least in American gardens, is said to be due to the fact that early 
8 Mespilus Virginiana Apii folio, vulgari similis major, grandiori- in the century it was introduced from the neighborhood of the city 

bus spinis, t. 46, f. 3 ; Aim. Bot. 249. —Miller, Diet. No. 10. — Cat. of Washington into Chester County, Pennsylvania, where it was 
PI. Lmd. 49, t. 3, f. 1. afterwards more generally used than any other plant for hedges 

(Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 83). ' 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXVL Crat^gtjs cordata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit, a part of the flesh removed, showing nutlets, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. A leaf of a vigorous young shoot with stipules, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



/ 



Silva of North 




merica 



Tat. 





I. 



X 




.'\ 



\i. 



^ 



C.Ej. Faxon del . 



Pzc^art j'c 



CRAT^GUS CORD ATA, Ait. 



A.Hioc^'eucn dir'eaz 



Imp . R . Tan^ur, Paru 



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* 



KOSACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 109 



CRAT^QUS VIRIDIS. 



Haw. 



Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or oblong- ob ovate. 

r 

Crat^gus viridis, Linnseus, ;S^ec. 476. — "Willdenow, /^^ec. Chapman, Fl. 127. — Wenzig, Linnma, xxsviii. 203. — 

ii. pt. ii. 1001. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 36. — De Candolle, Engelmann, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cluh, ix. 4. — Sargent, 

.Frodr. ii. 630. — Don, Gen. Syst, il. 601. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOi/i Census TJ. S. is. 75. — Coulter, 

Garden and Forest, ii. 411. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Contrib. XJ. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 107 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 

Man. ed. 6, 165, Pheenopyrum arborescens, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

CratEegus arborescens, Elliott, Sh. i. 550. — Torrey & 153. 

Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 466. — Dietricli, Syn. iii. 160. — Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, Kegel, Act. 

Walpers, Hep. ii. 58. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 10, t. 45. — JECort. Petrop. i. 109 (in part). 

A tree, twenty to thirty-five feet in height, with a straight often fluted trunk eight to twelve feet 
tall and eighteen to twenty inches in diameter, and slender spreading branches Avhich form a round 
rather compact head. The bark of the trunk is one eighth of an inch thick and is ashy gray to bright 
reddish brown, and divided by shallow reticulated fissures into small irregular plate-like scales. The 
branches are slender, glabrous, in their first winter sometimes ashy gray but usually light red-brown 
and lustrous and marked with minute lenticels, and later pale brown, ashy gray, or nearly white ; they 
are unarmed or occasionally are furnished with slender sharp pale spines three quarters of an inch to 
an inch in length. The winter-buds are obtuse, chestnut-brown, one sixteenth of an inch long, and 
covered by ovate minute apiculate scales slightly searious on the margins ; the scales of the inner ranks 
are foliaceous, lanceolate to oblanceolate, and are sometimes half an inch long at maturity and bright 
red towards the apex. The leaves are ovate to ovate-oblong or oblong-obovate, acute or sometimes 
rounded at the apex, wedge-shaped and gradually contracted at the base into long slender petioles, 
sharply serrate except at the base with spreading teeth often tipped with minute glands, and sometimes 
three-lobed towards the summit, especially on vigorous shoots ; they are membranaceous to sub coriaceous, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper, and paler on the lower surface, with tufts of pale hairs in the 
axils of the conspicuous primary veins, one to three inches long and half an inch to an inch and a 
half broad, with wide thick midribs, and are borne on petioles which vary from an inch to an inch and 
a half in length. The stipules are linear, acute, half an inch long, and caducous. The leaves turn 
brilliant scarlet late in the autumn before falling. The flowers, which appear from the end of March 
in Texas to the beginning of May in Missouri when the leaves are almost fully grown, are three quarters 
of an inch across when expanded, and are produced in many-flowered leafy glabrous thin-branched 
corymbs furnished with narrow spatulate often glandular-serrate deciduous bracts and bractlets; the 
calyx is obconic and glabrous or covered with long pale hairs, and its lanceolate entire lobes are subu- 
late at the apex, reflexed after anthesis, persistent, and much shorter than the broadly obovate white 
petals ; the styles, which vary from two to five in number, are surrounded at the base by conspicuous 
tufts of pale hairs. The fruit ripens in the autumn and remains on the branches through the winter 
without changing color ; it is depressed-globular, bright scarlet or occasionally orange, and one eighth 
of an inch in diameter, with a shallow cavity surrounded by the remnants of the calyx-lobes and fila- 
ments, thin dry flesh, and thin-walled nutlets narrowed and rounded at the two ends, rounded and barely 
grooved or ridged on the back, and minute seeds covered with a thin pale brown coat.^ 

1 "West of the Mississippi River from St. Louis to central Ar- flowers at the same time, and is not to be distinguished from it in 
kansas a form with larger, rather thicker, more lustrous leaves and habit. 
laro-er fruit is not uncommon. It grows with the ordinary form, 



110 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEiE. 



Cratcegits mridis is distributed in the southern Atlantic states, where it is rare, from the valley of 
the Savannah River in South Carolina to that of the Chattahoochee in western Florida, and is common 
west of the Mississippi River from the neighborhood of St. Louis to the valley of the Colorado River 
in Texas. It grows along the borders of streams and swamps in low moist soil, and in western 
Louisiana and eastern Texas, where it attains its greatest size and is most abundant, often forming 
thickets of great extent, it makes in early spring a conspicuous and beautiful feature of the vegetation 
of the broad river-bottoms. 

The wood of Cratmgics mridis is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong, and is sus- 
ceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it is light brown tinged with red^ with thick lighter colored 
sapwood, and contains numerous very obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.6491, a cubic foot weighing 40.15 pounds. Cratcegus mridis was known ^ by Clayton,^ 
who probably sent to Linneeus the specimen upon which the species was established, although the tree 
is not now known to grow so far north as Virginia, the field of Clayton's botanical observations. 

In 1876 Cratcegus viridis was introduced from Missouri into the Arnold Arboretum, where it is 
perfectly hardy^ and is conspicuous late in the autumn by the splendid color of its foliage^ which at this 
season is unsurpassed in brilliancy by that of any other North American tree. 

^ Mespilus inermis, foliis oblongis integris acuminatis serratis parvis^ ^ See i, 8, 

utrinque viridilms^ cortice albicante^ FL Virgin. 163- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CLXXXVIL Ckat^gus vibidis* 

1, A flowering T^ranch, natural size- 

2, Vertical section of a flower, enlarged, 

3, A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4- A fruit with part of the flesh removed^ showing the nutlets, natural size. 

5. A nutletj natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. A spine, natural size, 

8. End of a leafy shoot with stipules, natural size- 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size- 



.i. 



f 



Silva of North Am 



- / 








9 




.4 



C . E . Tax^iz det . 



CRATy^GUS VIRIDIS , L 



Pi-c-art sc 



A . Rto cre^ia^ dir, — ^ 



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Imp . R . Tan.eur^ Paris 



EOSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA, 



111 



CRAT^GUS APIIFOLIA. 

F 

Parsley Haw. 

Leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, pinnately 5 to 7-cleft 



Crateegus apiifolia, Michaux, M. Bor.-Am. i. 287. — Per- 
soon, Syn. ii. 38. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 
2, V. 454. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 336. — NuttaU, 
Gen. i. 305. — Elliott, Sk. i. 552. — De CandoUe, Prodr. 
ii. 627. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 599. — Audubon, Birds, t. 
192. — Torrey & Gray, M. N. Am. i. 467. — Dietrich, 
Syn. in. 160. — Roemer, Fam,. Nat. Syn. iii. 121. — 
Chapman, Fl. 127. — Kaleniczenko, Bull. Mosc. xlviii. 
pt. ii. 29. — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 81. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 165. 



Cratsegus Oxyacantha ?, Walter, Fl. Car. 147 (not Lin- 

nffius). 
Mespilus apiifolia, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 89. — Poiret, 

Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 68. — ■ Sprengel, Syst. ii. 508. — 

Spachj Hist Veg. ii. 67. — Wenzig, Linncea^ xxxviii. 152. 
Crateegus Oxyacantha, var. Americana, Castiglioni, 

Viag. negli Stati Uniti^ ii- 292. 
Crataegus apiifolia minor, Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 825. 
Crateegus Oxyacantha, var. apiifolia^ Kegel, Act. HorL 

Petrop. I. 119 (in part). 



A tree, rarely attaining the height of twenty feet^ with a slender often inclining trunk three or 
four inches in diameter, and branches which spread nearly at right angles and form a wide irregular 
open head j or more often a low shrub with many more or less contorted stems rising from the ground. 
The bark of the trunk is from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in thickness^ smooth, and light 
gray tinged with red. The branchlets, which when they first appear are covered with long pale hairs, 
are slender, often zigzag and contorted, and are usually armed with stout straight chestnut-brown spines 
an inch to an inch and a half in length ; in their first winter they are light red or pale orange-brown, 
marked with minute lenticels, and usually puberulous, but ultimately become light broAvn or ashy gray. 
The winter-buds are acute, one sixteenth of an inch long, and covered by lustrous chestnut-broAvn ovate 
scales apiculate at the apex and scarious on the margins. The leaves are broadly ovate to orbicular, 
acute at the apex, truncate, slightly cordate or wedge-shaped at the base, and pinnately five to seven- 
cleft with shallow acute or deep broad sinuses, and incisely lobed segments serrate towards the apex 
with spreading glandular- tipped teeth ; when they unfold they are pilose on the upper surface with 
long pale hairs, and usually glabrous below, and at maturity are thin and membranaceous, bright green 
and rather lustrous above and paler below, glabrous or pilose on the lower surface along the prominent 
midribs and primary veins, or occasionally covered with pubescence on both surfaces, and are two thirds 
of an inch to an inch and a half broad, and borne on slender pubescent or ultimately glabrous petioles 
an inch to an inch and a half in length. The stipules are linear, acute, a quarter of an inch long, and 
caducous, or on vigorous shoots are foliaceous, lunate, coarsely glandular-serrate, short-stalked, and 
sometimes half an inch in length. The flowers, which appear late in March or early in April when the 
leaves are fully grown, are half an inch across and are produced on long slender pedicels in few-flow- 
ered Adllose-pubescent somewhat simple corymbs with minute lanceolate acute colored caducous bracts 
and bractlets; the calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous or viUose-pubescent, with lanceolate 
acute usually glandular-serrate lobes, often tinged with red towards the apex, reflexed after anthesis, 
and deciduous or sometimes persistent. The fruit, which ripens in October and remains on the branches 
untfl the beo-inning of winter, is oblong, from a quarter to a third of an inch in length, and bright 
scarlet, with a minute cavity surrounded by the remnants of the calyx, thin flesh, and one to three thick- 
waUed rugose nutlets barely grooved on the back. 

Cratcequs mnifolia is distributed through the coast region of the southern Atlantic states from 
southern Viroinia to central Florida, and ranges westward through the GuK region to southern Arkan- 



112 SILVA OF NORTH AMEFiICA, RosACEiE. 

L 

r 

sas and the valley of the Trinity River in Texas. It is nowhere very common^ and usuallv grows near 
the borders of streams and swamps in low rich soil, or in Florida on hummocks in the Pine barrens, 
where it attains its greatest size. 

r 

The wood of Oratcegus ajpiifolia is heavy, hard, very close-grained, and susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish ; it contains many thin very obscure medullary rays, and is light brown tinged with red 
or rose, with lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7453, a 
cubic foot weighing 46.45 pounds. 

r 

The earliest account of Cratmgiis apiifoUa appears in the Flora Caroliniana of Walter^ who mis- 
took it for the European Hawthorn. It appears to have been introduced into EngHsh gardens ^ early in 
the present century^ but^ although the form of its delicate leaves and the abundance of its flowers 

make it one of the most attractive of the American Hawthorns^ it is still an extremely rare plant in 
cultivation. ^ 

1 Loudon, Arh. Brit ii. 824 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE» 



Plate CLXXXVIIL Ckat^gus aphfolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. A flower-bad, enlarged, 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 
4- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit with part of the flesh removed, showing the nutletSj enlarged. 

6, A nutlet, natural size. 

7. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. A leaf from a vigorous shoot with stipules, natural size. 

9, A winter branchlet, natural size. 



/ 



% 



Silva of 



-^orth Am 



erica 



t: 



ab. CLXXXVI 



-'■^.. 










f 



I 




9 



C^. FcLxorv del/ 




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CRAT^GUS 



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SILVA OF NOETH AMEPiICA 



113 



CRAT^GUS FLAVA. 



Summer Haw. Yellow Haw. 



Leaves rhombie-obovate. 



Crat^gus flava, Alton, Sort. Kew. ii. 169. — Willdenow, 
Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1002. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 37. — Pursh., Fl. 
Am. Sept. i. 338. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 305. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 628. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 59, t. 69. — 
Don, Gen. Syst, ii. 600. — Bot. Ueg. t. 1939. ~ Torrey & 
Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 468. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 160. — 
Chapman, Fl. 128. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 83. — Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 123. — Ka- 
leniczenko, Biill. Mosc. xlviii. pt. ii. 27. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N.Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 82. — "Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 166. 

CratEegus glandulosa, Alton, Sort. Kew. Ii. 168 (not 
Willdenow). — Persoon, Syn. ii. 37. — Poiret, Lam. Bid. 
Suppl. iv. 69 (excl. syn. Moench). 

Mespilus Caroliniana, Poiret, Lam. Bid. iv. 442. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arb. il. 156. — Du Mont de Courset, Pot. 
Cult. ed. 2, V. 449. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. Iv. 32, t. 
212. — Sprengel, Syst. il. 507. 



Cratsegua Caroliniana, Persoon, Syn. ii. 36. — Elliott, Sk. 
i. 554. 

Mespilus flava, Willdenow, Enum. 623. — Poiret, Lam. 

Bid. Suppl. iv. 70. — Spacli, Hist. VSg. ii. 59, 1. 10, f. H. 

Cratsegus turbinata, Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. Suppl. 735. — 
Poiret, Lam. Bid. Suppl. v. 643. — Elliott, Sk. i. 549. — 

De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 627. — Don, Gen. Syst. 11. 599. 

Mespilus turbinata, Sprengel, Syst ii. 606. — Spach, Hist. 

VSg. Ii. QQ. 

Cratsegus lobata, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 628. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. 11. 599. ~ Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 824, f . 554, 586. 
Crataegus flava, var. lobata, Lindley, Bot. Beg. t. 1932. 
Anthomeles flava, Eoemer, Fa^n. Nat. Syn. iii. 142. 
Anthomeles glandulosa, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. ill. 141. 
Anthomeles turbinata, Poemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 142. 
PhEenopyrum Carolinianum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 

Hi. 152. 
Mespilus flexispina, Koch, Bendr. i. 139 (not Moench). — 

Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 127. 



A tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a straight stout trunk ten or twelve inches in diam- 
eter^ dividing, five or six feet from the ground, into short spreading often pendulous hranches which form 
a handsome compact round head ; or often a wide much-branched shrub only a few feet high. The bark 
of the trunk varies from half an inch to an inch in thickness and is dark brown tinged with red or 
nearly black and often deeply furrowed, the surface being broken into small square persistent scales. 
The branchlets are at first villose-pubescent with long pale hairs, and often puberulous in their first 
winter but ultimately glabrous ; they are slender, very zigzag, unarmed, or armed with straight stout spines 
an inch to an inch and a half in length, and are red-brown, dark gray-brown, or nearly black. The 
winter-buds are globose, one sixteenth of an inch in diameter, and covered with bright chestnut-brown 
orbicular scales slightly scarious on the margins ; the scales of the inner ranks at maturity are spatu- 
late, rounded at the apex, glandular-serrate, and often half an inch in length. The leaves are rhombic- 
ovate to obovate-cuneif orm, three to five-ribbed, with obscure reticulated veinlets, rounded and sometimes 
abruptly contracted into short points, gradually narrowed below into broad winged glandular petioles, 
glandular-serrate with large dark glands, often incised and three to five4obed on vigorous shoots ; when 
they unfold they are puberulous above and pubescent below, especially along the principal veins, and 
at maturity are sub coriaceous, yellow-green and lustrous on the upper, and pale and sometimes pubescent 
on the lower surface, an inch to an inch and a half long, two thirds of an inch to an inch and a quarter 
broad, and borne on glabrous or pubescent petioles which vary from half an inch to an inch and a half 
in length. The stipules are glandular-serrate, linear, acute, pubescent, and a quarter of an inch long, or 
on vigorous shoots are foliaceous, stalked, obovate or lunate, variously and irregularly lobed and incised, 
and sometimes nearly an inch in length. The flowers, which appear in March and April when the 
leaves are almost fully grown, are half an inch across when expanded and are produced in simple one 
to four-flowered thick-branched corymbs ; these, like the obovate glandular-serrate caducous bracts and 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



bractletsj the thick pedicels, and the narrowly obconic calyx-tubes, are coated with thick pale tomentum 
or are pubescent or puberulous ; the calyx-lobes are lanceolate, acute, conspicuously glandular-serrate, or 
rarely entire and eglandular, pubescent on the outer, and usually glabrous on the inner surface, reflexed 
after anthesis, persistent, and rather shorter than the white petals which are often erose or crenate on 
the margins ; the disk is dark red and glandular, and around the base of the styles, which are usually 
four or ^sfQ in number, are tufts of pale hairs. The fruit is produced sparingly, and ripens and falls in 
the autumn ; it is pyriform or subglobose, half an inch long, and usually greenish yellow or yellow 
tinged with red, with a deep cavity surrounded by the long conspicuous calyx-lobes, thin austere flesh, 
and thick-walled nutlets rounded or obscurely grooved on the back. 

Cratcegus flava extends from the coast region of southern Virginia southward to the shores of 
Tampa Bay, Florida, and ranges inland to the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains of North 
Carolina and along the Gulf coast through southern Alabama and Mississippi. It usually grows in dry 
sandy soil on the borders of the Pine forests, or occasionally in lower situations near streams subject to 
overflow, and although generally distributed is nowhere very common, usually appearing singly or in 
groups of two or three individuals. 

The wood of Cratmgiis jlcma is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface susceptible of 
receiving a good polish y it is light brown tinged with red or rose-color, with thick lighter colored 
sapwood, and contains numerous very obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.7809, a cubic foot weighing 48.67 pounds. 

A variety of Cr at cegiis flava ^ may be distinguished by its thicker broader leaves ; these are usually 
rounded at the apex, more uniformly lobed and coated with pubescence while young, and at maturity 
are thicker and more lustrous on the upper surface ; by its usually smaller flowers, and by its larger 
subglobose bright red or yellow fruit with thicker and sweeter flesh. 

This variety, CratcBgiis flava, var. elliptica, is generally a shrub with spreading branches, or rarely 
a small tree, and often forms thickets in abandoned fields in the middle districts of tke Carolinas and 
Georgia, where it is most common, although it may be found throughout the region inhabited by 
CratcBgus flava, the two forms gradually passing one into the other. 

The wood of Cratcegus flava, var. elliptica, is rather lighter than that of the species, although not 
otherwise distinguishable, the specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood being 0.7683, and a cubic 
foot weighing 47.88 pounds. 

The fruit of the Summer Haw, as this variety is called in South Carolina and Georgia, is gathered 
in large quantities in those states and made into a jelly which can hardly be distinguished from that 
made from the West Indian Guava-tree. 

Cratoigus flava, according to Aiton,^ was introduced into English gardens by Philip Miller in 
1758, and the earliest descriptions of it were drawn up from cultivated plants.^ 



^ Cratmgus flava^ var. elliptica^ 

? Mespilus hyemalis, Walter, FL Car. 148, — Poiret, Lam. Diet 
iv- 447- 

Crataegus viridis f^ Walter, Fl. Car, 147 (not Linnreus)- 

Crataegus elliptica^ Aiton, Hort Kem, ii. 168, — Willdenow, Spec. 
ii. pt, ii- 1002. — Persoon, 8yn. ii, 37. — Pursh, Fl. A m. Sept. i. 
337, _ Nuttall, Gen. L 305. — De Candolle, Pro^r. ii. 627. — 
Hookerj Fl. Bor.-Am. L 201 (in part). — Don, Gen, SysL ii, 
598."Torrey &Gray, i^. i\^. Am. I 469. — Dietrich, Syn, nl 
159. —Kegel, Act HovL Petrop, I 122. 

Mespilus elliptica^ Poiret, Lam, Diet iv. 447. — Wenzig, Zm- 
nma^ xxxviii, 125, — Koch, Dendr, i, 140. 

Cratcegus glandulosay Alichaux, FL Bor.-Am, i. 288 (not Alton 
nor Willdenow). — Nuttall, Gen. i. 105, — Curtis, Eep. Geolog, 
Surv. ISr. Car, 1860, Hi, 84. — Chapman, FL 

Cratcegus MicJtaaxii, Persoon, Syn, ii. 38. 



Cratcegus spathulatay Pursli, FL Am, Sept. i- 336 (not Mi- 
cbaux)- — De CaudoUe, Prodr. ii. 627. — Bot, Reg, t. 1890. — ■ 
Lindley, Bot. Reg. under t, 1957. 

Mespilus MicTiauxii, Hornemann, HorL Hafn. 455. — Poiret, 
Lam, Diet, Suppl. iv. 69. 

Cratmgus flava y Elliott, 5^, i, 551 (not Aiton). 

Cratcegus Vir ginicaj Jjondoiiy Arh, B^'it. ii. 842, f. 560j 615. — 
Kaleniezenko, BuU. Mosc. xlviii. pt, ii, 58. 

Cratcegus fiava^ var. puhescens, Gray, Man. ed, 5, 160, — Sar- 
gent, Forest Trees N, AmAOth Census U. S, ix. 83, — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed, 6, 166. 

Phcenopyrum Virginicum^ Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn, iii, 155. 

Phcenopyrum ellipticum^ Roemer, Fam. Nat, Syn. iii, 155. 
2 Hort. Kew, ii. 169. 

^ Mespilus Caroliniana apii folio^ vulgari similisy major^ fructu 
luteOy Trew, PL Select, 3, t. 17. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CLXXXIX. Crat^gus flava, 

1. A flowering brancli, natural size. 

2. A flower-budj enlarged. 

3. Vertical section o£ a flower, enlarged- 
4- A frmiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, natural size. 

7. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CXC. Ckatjsgus flava, var. elliptiga. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2- A flower-bud, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

4- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A subglobose fruit, natural size* 

6. A fruit, part of the flesh removed, showing the nutlets, enlarged 

7- A nutlet, natural size. 

8- A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. A leaf from a vigorous young shoot with stipules^ natural size. 
10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva 



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merica. 



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Tab . CL 





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CRAT^GUS FLAVA 



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ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NOETH AMEBIC A 



117 



CRATAEGUS UNIPLORA, 



Haw. 



Leaves obovate-spatulate. 



Cratsegus unifloraj Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 147. — Du 

Roi, Harhh. Baumz. i. 184, 
Mespilus xanthocarpa, Linnasus f. SysL ed. 13, SuppL 

254. — Ehrhart, Beitr. i. 182 ; ii. 67. — Bargsdorf , AnleiL 
pt. ii. 146- ^ — Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz, ed- 2^ i. 623- ™Poi' 
ret, Lam.. Diet, SuppL iv, 67. — Sprengel, SysU ii. 506. 

Mespilus flexispina, Moench, Bdume Weiss* 62^ t- 4; 
Meth. 685- — Wenzigj Linnma^ xxxviii- 127. 

Mespilus Oxyacantha aurea^ Marshall, ArbitsU Am. 89. 

Mespilus laciniata, Walter, M. Car. 147. — Poiretj Lam. 
Diet. iv. 447- 

Crateegus parvifoliaj Aiton, Ilort. Kew. ii- 169. — Will- 
denow, BerL Baumz. 85 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 1002. — Pursh, 
FL Am. Sept i. 538. — Elliott, Sk. i. 547- — De Can- 
doUe, Prodr. ii. 627. — Don, Qen. Syst. ii- 598. — Dar- 
lington, Fl Cestr. ed- 2, 29L— Torrey & Gray, FL N. 
Am. i. 469. — Dietrich, Syn. iii- 159. — Curtis, Rep. 
Geolog. Siirv. N. Car, 1860, iii. 384, — Chapman^ Fl. 
128. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed- 6, 166. 



Crat^gus tomentosa, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 289 (not 

Linn^us). — Regel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 122 (in part). 
Mespilus parvif olia, Willdenow, Enum. 523 ; Bert Baumz. 

ed. 2, 242. — Spacb, Hist. 'V4g. ii. 55. 
Mespilus axillaris, Persoon, Si/7i. ii. 39. — Du Mont de 

Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 44.7. 
Cratsegus unllateratis, Persoon, S^/n. ii. 37. — De Can- 

dolle, Frodr. ii. 629. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 699. — Eoemer, 

Fam. Nat. Syn, iii. 116. 
Mespilus tomentosa, Poiret, Nouveau Duhamel, Iv. 153 

(not Castiglioni). 
Mespilus unilateralis, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 73. 
Mespilus flexuosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 73. 
Cratsegus flexuosa, De Candolle, Frodr. ii. 627. — Don, 

Gen. Syst. ii. 598. 
Pheenopyrum unifiorum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 163. 
Phsenopyriun p ar vif olium, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

152. 
Mespilus uniflora, Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 123. 



A low slirubj with slender stems one or two feet high; or rarely a bushy tree attaining a height of 
ten or twelve feet, with a short stout trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter and covered with thin ashy 
gray furroAved bark, the surface of which separates into small appressed scales. The branches, when 
they first appear, are coated with thick pale pubescence which >often does not disappear until the end of 
their second summer ; they are slender, nearly straight or often zigzag, bright red-brown, dark gray in 
their first year and ultimately dark brown, and are armed with slender straight spines one to two inches 
in length, and often furnished, when they first appear, with leafy serrate green or red caducous bracts. 
The winter-buds are small, obtuse, and .covered by chestnut-brown scales with scarious margins ; 
the scales of the inner ranks are obovate at maturity, glandular-serrate, pubescent, pyriform to sub- 
globose, pale greenish yellow, half an inch long, and caducous. The leaves are .obovate-spatulate 
to oblong-cuneiform, rounded at the apex or sometimes abruptly acute, with short broad points, and are 
gradually contracted below into broad petioles or are sometimes nearly sessile ; they are crenately ser- 
rate, the broad teeth being sometimes tipped with minute dark glands, and are occasionally incisely 
lobed towards the apex ; when they unfold they are pilose on the upper surface with pale deciduous 
hairs and pubescent on the lower surface, and at maturity they are sub coriaceous, scabrous, dark green 
and lustrous above, and paler and pubescent below, especially along the midribs and primary veins, and 
vary from an inch to two inches in length and from half an inch to two thirds of an inch in width. 
The stipules are ovate, acute, glandular-serrate, sometimes a quarter of an inch long, and caducous. 
The flowers, which are solitary or rarely geminate and vary from a half to three quarters of an inch in 
diameter, appear from the first of April in Florida to the middle of June at the north when the leaves 
are fully grown ; they are borne on short stout pedicels which are furnished with lanceolate acute glan- 
dular-serrate caducous bractlets, which, like the calyx, are hirsute-tomentose with long pale hairs j the 
calyx is narrowly obconic, with foliaceous lanceolate acute sharply incised and glandular persistent lobes 



118 SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



covered -with pale hairs on tlie inner surface^ reflexed after antlaesis, and longer than the obovate creamy 
"white petals and than the styles, which are usually five in number. The fruit ripens and falls in Octo- 
ber, and is half an inch across, with a broad deep cavity surrounded by the large and conspicuous 
calyx-lobes, thick dry sweet flesh, and small thin-walled nutlets acute above, rounded below, and deeply 
grooved on the back. 

Cratcegus uniflora is distributed from the valley of the Delaware Eiver in New Jersey southward 
to Florida, Louisiana, and southern Arkansas; it grows usually in sandy soil in abandoned fields or 
along tiie borders of the forest^ and only on the banks of the Appalachicola Eiver In Bristol^ Eloridaj 
on the slopes of a ravine occupied bj Torreja and the Florida Yew^ has it been noticed in tree-like 
form. 

Cratcegus uniflora was probably detected by Banister/ who sent it^ in I7l3j to Bishop Compton/ 
in whose garden it first flowered in Europe^ and the earhest description was made from plants culti- 
vated in England.^ It is still found in most botanic gardens^ but is cultivated as a curiosity rather than 
for ornament. It is hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts. 

^ See L 6, J)ict ed. 7, No- 17), Banister's description as quoted by Miller 

^ See i, 6. (^Oxyacantha folio parvo siibrotundOy Jiore unicOy theca foliaced induso 

^ Mespilus foliis lanceolato-ovatis serratts suhtus villosis^ Jiorihus summitatihus ramulorum insidente) does not appear to liaye been 

solitariis, cdlycihus foUaceis^^ spinis longissimis tenuioribus (Miller^ published. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCI. CitATiEGus uniflora. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutletj natural size- 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 



T ■ 



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ROSACEiE. SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA, 119 



CRAT^GUS AESTIVALIS, 

May Haw. Apple Haw, 

Leaves elliptical to oblong-eunciform. 

Crateegus eestivalis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 468. — • ? Cratsegus lucida, Elliott, Sh. \. 548 (not Ehrhart). 

Walpers, Rep. ii. 58. — Dietrich., Syn. iii. 162. — Nuttall, Cratsegus elliptica, Elliott, Sk. i. 549 (not Alton). 

Sylva, ii. 12. — Chapman, Fl. 127. — Eegel, Act. Sort. Crateegus opaca, Hooker & Arnott, Corrvpan. Bot. Mag. 1. 

P&trop, i. 124. — Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 202. — Sar- 25. 

gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census JJ. S. ix. 82, Anthonieles Eestivalis, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 141. 
Mespilus eestivalis, AValter, Fl. Car. 148. — Poiret, Lam. 

Diet. iv. 447. 

A tree, twenty to thirty feet in lieiglitj witli a stout trunk sometimes a foot in diameter and occa- 
sionally three or four feet tall, or more often divided close to the surface of the ground into several 
large upright branches which form a round compact bushy head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of 
an inch thick, deeply fissured, and broken on the surface into thick dark red-brown persistent plate-like 
scales. The branchlets are at first covered with rufous or occasionally with pale hairs, and in their first 
winter are glabrous, lustrous, bright red or sometimes light brown, becoming darker brown or dark 
gray in their second year ; they are stout, straight, or more or less zigzag, and often unarmed, or armed 
with stout straight lustrous spines an inch to an inch and a half long. The winter-buds are one eighth 
of an inch in length, oblong, obtuse, and covered with broad thick ovate scales keeled on the back, 
minutely apiculate, and bright chestnut-brown ; the scales of the inner ranks at maturity are broadly 
obovate, rounded and conspicuously glandular-serrate at the apex, and from one quarter to one half of 
an inch in length. The leaves are elliptical to oblong-cuneifonn or on sterile branches often obovate, 
and are acute or rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed below into stout petioles, and irregularly 
sinuate-toothed or angled above the middle, or crenately serrate with minute glandular-tipped teeth, or, 
especially on vigorous shoots, rarely three-lobed or incised ; when they unfold they are covered on the 
upper surface with deciduous pale hairs and on the lower surface with dense rufous tomentum, and 
when fully grown are sub coriaceous, dark green and lustrous, glabrous or sometimes puberulous above 
and clothed below, especially along the broad midribs and primary veins, with thick rusty pubescence ; 
they are an inch and a half to two inches long, half an inch to an inch wide, and are borne on 
petioles which are coated with rusty tomentum and vary from a quarter of an inch to an Inch in length. 
The flowers, which appear with the unfolding of the leaves in February and early in March, are an 
inch across when expanded, and are produced in two to five-flowered simple glabrous corymbs on long 
stout pedicels furnished with lanceolate acute caducous glandular bractlets ; the calyx is glabrous, tur- 
binate, with nearly triangular persistent lobes which are minutely glandular-serrate, reflexed after 
anthesis, often flushed Avith red towards the apex, and much shorter than the obovate concave white 
petals. The fruit, which ripens in May, is depressed-globose, very fragrant, bright red dotted with 
pale spots, and half of an inch to two thirds of an inch in diameter, with a small shaUow cavity 
surrounded by the remnants of the calyx-lobefi and filaments, juicy subacid fleshy and three to fiNQ 
thin-walled nutlets rounded at both ends and deeply two-grooved on the back. 

Crateegus cestwalis is distributed in the coast region from the valley of the Savannah Eiver in 
South Carolina to northern Florida, and through the Gulf states to southern Arkansas and to the vafley 
of the Sabine River in Texas ; it grows usually in moist sandy soil near the margins of streams and 
Pine-barren ponds, where the ground is often submerged during several weeks in winter. It is com- 



120 SILVA OF JSfOETH AMEFiICA. rosacea. 

r 

parativelj rare in the Atlantic states, and is most common and attains its greatest size in western Lou- 
isiana and eastern Texas. 

The wood of CratcBgus cestwalis is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong ; it is light 
brown or red, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous obscure medullary rays. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6564, a cubic foot weighing 40.91 pounds. 

The fruit, which is collected in large quantities in all the region where the May Haw is found, is 
sold in the markets of the towns of southwestern Louisiana and is preserved and made into jellies. . 

Oratcegus cestivalis appears to have been first noticed by Walter, who published the earliest account 
of it in his Flora Oaroliniana ; it is probably still unknown in gardens, although one of the most 
beautiful trees of the genus. No other species produces such large flowers or such large well-flavored 
and valuable fruit ; and as a fruit-tree the May Haw deserves the attention of pomologists in all warm- 
temperate countries. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCII. Ceatj^gus ^stivalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A nutlet, natural size. 

6. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



A 




ilva. of North 




meric^ 



Tab. CXC 




^ 



6 



4 



5 





C.E. Fixi 



ojzon 



/ 



del. 



P LOOT t Jr. so. 



CRATAEGUS AESTIVALIS, Torr. et 




r 




A.Hhocreu^ cl/rai:' 



Imp. R.Tari&wr^ Paris 



■\ 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A, 



121 



HETEROMELES 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in sestivation ; petals 
5, conyolute in sestivation ; stamens 10, parapetalous ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each 
cell, ascending. Fruit a fleshy di'upe. Leaves alternate, serrate, coriaceous, persistent. 

Heteromeles, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syti. iii. 100. 

A small tree, "with smooth pale aromatic barb, stout terete branches, pubescent or puberulous 
while young, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, acute at the two ends, sharply 
and remotely serrate with rigid glandular teeth, or rarely ahnost entire, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper, paler on the lower surface, petiolate with stout grooved glandular petioles often furnished near 
their apex with one or two slender glandular teeth, feather-veined, with broad midribs grooved on the 
upper side and conspicuous reticulated veinlets; stipules subulate, ridged, minute, early deciduous. 
Flowers in ample tomentose terminal corymbose panicles, their branches developed from the axils of the 
upper leaves or from acute leafy bracts. Bractlets acute, minute, usually tipped with small glands, 
caducous. Pedicels stout, shorter than the turbinate calyx-tube, tomentose below, glabrate above ; the 
lobes short, nearly triangular, spreading, persistent. Disk Hning the tube of the calyx, cup-shaped, 
obscurely sulcate ; petals five, inserted on the margin of the disk, flabellate, erose-denticulate or emar- 
ginate at the apex, contracted at the base into short broad claws, thick, glabrous, pure white. Stamens 
ten, inserted in one row with the petals on the margin of the disk in pairs opposite the lobes of the 
calyx ; filaments subulate, enlarged at the base, incurved, free ; anthers oblong-ovate, emarginate, 
attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Carpels 
two, adnate to the calyx-tube, at first only dorsally below the middle, and slightly united into a sub- 
globose tomentose nearly superior ovary ; styles terminal, distinct, slightly spreading, enlarged at the 
apex into broad truncate stigmas ; ovules two in each cell, ascending, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micro- 
pyle inferior. Fruit an obovoid fleshy drupe formed by the thickening of the calyx-tube connate to 
their middle only with the membranaceous carpels which are coated above with long white hairs filling 
the cavity closed by the infolding of the thickened persistent lobes, their tips erect and crowning 
the fruit. Seeds usually solitary in each cell by the abortion of one of the ovules, or rarely two, ovate, 
lenticular, obtuse, slightly ridged on the back, destitute of albumen ; testa membranaceous, puncticu- 
late, light brown ; hilum orbicular, conspicuous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons 
plano-convex ; radicle short, inferior. 

The wood of Heteromeles is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface susceptible 
of receiving a beautiful polish ; it is dark red-brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood composed of 
seven or eight layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9326, a 
suborbicular, cubic foot Aveighing 58.12 pounds. 

The genus is not known to possess useful properties. 

The generic name, from erepog and ^yjlov, refers to the fact that this tree differs from the plants 
of allied genera. It consists of a single species. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



123 



HETEROMELES ARBUTIFOLIA. 

Tollon. Toyou. 



Heteromeles arbutifolia, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii, 
105. — Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 144, t. 9. — 
Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 188 ; ii. 444. ~ Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. Ix. 83. — Greene, 
Fl. Francis, i. 53. 

Crataegus arbutifolia, Alton, ITort Kew. ed. 2, iii. 202 
(not Poiret). — ■ Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 201. 

Aronia arbutifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 306. 

Photinia arbutifolia, Lindley, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 103 ; 
Bot. Reg. t. 491 ; and under t. 1956. — Sprengel, Syst. 
ii. 508. — De CandoIIe, Frodr. ii. 631. — Chamisso & 
Sclilechtendal, Linncea, ii. 542. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 
602. — Spach, mst. Veg. ii. 80.— Hooker & Arnott, 
Bot. Toy. Beechey, 139, 340. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. JST. 



Am. i. 473. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 162. — Bentham, Bot. 

Voy. Sulphur, 14 ; Fl. Hartweg. 307. — Torrey, Emory's 

Bep. 140 ; Sitgreaves' Rep. 159 ; Pacijio B. B. Rep. iv. 

85 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 64 ; Bot. Wilkes Explor. 

Exped. 291. — Bolander, Froc. Cal. Acad. iii. 80.— 

Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 599. — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. 

Sci. St. Petershourg, six. 180 {MU. Biol. ix. 180).— 

Wenzig, Linnma, xxxviii. 96. 
Mespilus arbutifolia, Link, Enum. ii. 36. 
Photinia salicif olia, Presl, Epimel. Bot. 204. — Walpers, 

An?i. iii. 858. 

Heteromeles Fremontiana, Decaisne, Nam. Arch. Mus. 
iii, 144. 



A tree, sometimes thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, 
dividing, a few feet above the surface of the ground, into numerous erect branches which form a hand- 
some narrow or round-topped head ; or more often a low much-branched shrub. The bark of the trunk 
varies from two thirds to one half of an inch in thickness, and is light gray with a generally smooth 
surface broken by obscure reticulated ridges. The branchlets are at first coated with pale pubescence 
which gradually disappears, and in their first winter they are dark red and slightly puberulous, ultimately 
becoming darker and glabrous. The leaves, which appear in early summer with the flowers, are three 
or four inches long, an inch to an inch and a half broad, and are borne on petioles which vary from 
half an inch to two thirds of an inch in length and usually remain on the branches during at least two 
winters. The flowers, which are produced from June to August in compact panicles four to six inches 
across, are often more or less hidden by young lateral branches which rise above them. The fruit, 
which is mealy, astringent, and acid, ripens in November and December and remains on the branches 
until late in the winter. 

^ 

Heteromeles arbutifolia is distributed through the Californian coast regions from Mendocino 
County to Lower California ; ^ it is most common, and reaches its largest size on the islands off the 
California coast ^ and extends inland to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. It generally grows in the neighborhood of streams, on dry hills, and especially on their northern 
slopes, and is often found clinging to the steep cliffs of the coast fully exposed to the sweep of ocean 
gales J on the island of Santa Catalina, where it is very abundant, it forms groves of considerable 
extent/ and on the foothifls of the Sierras, where it ascends to elevations of two thousand feet above 

r 

the level of the sea, it usually grows as a shrub. 

The fruit-covered branches are gathered in large quantities and are used in California for Christ- 
mas decorations.* 

Heteromeles arhutifolia was discovered by Archibald Menzies, the Scotch surgeon who accom- 
panied Vancouver to the northwest coast of America, and, in 1796, introduced it into EngHsh gardens.^ 
In winter, when its branches are covered with great clusters of scarlet fruit, whose effectiveness is 



1 T. S. Erandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, iii. 136. 

2 Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. ii. 397; PiUonia, i. 77, 88. 
Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, i. 209 ; Zoe, i. 136. 



T. S. 



8 T. S. Brandegee, Zoe, i. 111. 

* K. Brandegee, Zoii, ii. 349. 

6 Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 868, f. 619, 



124 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



KOSACE^. 



increased by tlie contrasting color of tlie ample lustrous dark green foliage, the ToUon ^ is more beauti- 
ful perhaps than any other North American tree. It is still too seldom seen in the gardens of Cali- 
fornia and is rare in those of other parts of the worldj although in southern Europe it is perfectly at 
home and flowers and fruits abundantly. ' 

^ ,Heteromeles arhuiifolia is sometimes also called California Holly and Christmas Berry. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



, Plate CXCIII. Hetekomeles akeutifolia, 

1. A flowering branchy natural size- 
2* Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower-budj enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower^ enlarged. 

5. A stamen^ enlarged. 

6. A pistilj enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. , 

8. A fruiting brancli, natural size. 

^9. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 

12. An embryoj much magnified. 



y r 



1 ■ 



jT 



*. - 



\, 



r^ 



-» ri ' 



- } 



V 




ilva of North America 



Tab, CXCIII 



, J 



V 




CIl.Faaiori del. 



J^icai't /? 



\ sc . 



I' 



HETEROMELES ARBUTIFOLIA 




OS III. 




JliocreiLCC direj: , 



Imp. K. Taaezip. ^Foj'M 



^ -* 



iiosACEiE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 125 



AMELANCHIER. 

Floavees perfect, regular ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 
5, imbricated in gestivatioii ; stamens usually 20 ; ovary inferior or partly superior, 
5-celled, each, cell incompletely divided by a false dissepiment ; ovules 2 in each cell, 
ascending. Fruit a pome. Leaves simple, alternate, deciduous. 

Amelanchier, Medicus, Phil. Bot. i. 135,155. — Lindley, PerapliyUum). — Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 477 (excl. Pera- 

Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii. 100. — Meisner, Gen. 106. — End- phyllurri). 

liclier, Gen. 1237. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 628 (excl. Aronia, Persoon, Syn. ii. 39 (in part). 

Trees or slarubs, with scaly bark, slender terete branclilets, acute buds ^-itli imbricated scales, tliose 
of the inner rows accrescent and bright colored, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, conduplicate in 
vernation, simple, entire or serrate, penniveined, often lanate, petiolate, deciduous ; stipules subulate, 
elongated, caducous. Flowers in erect or nodding racemes, their pedicels slender, bibracteolate, devel- 
oped from the axils of lanceolate acuminate deciduous bracts. Calyx-tube campanulate or urceolate, 
the lobes acute or subulate, recurved, persistent. Disk lining the tube of the calyx, green, entire 
or crenulate, nectariferous. Petals white, obovate-oblong, spatulate or ligulate, rounded, acute or 
truncate at the apex, gradually contracted below into short slender claws, inserted on the thickened 
margin of the disk, spreading. Stamens usually twenty, inserted with the petals in three rows, those of 
the outer row of ten parapetalous, those of the other rows alternate with them and with each other ; 
filaments subulate, free, persistent on the fruit ; anthers oblong, attached on the bach near the middle, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary more or less adnate to the calyx-tube, 
glabrous or puberulous above, two to five-celled, each cell more or less divided after the fecunda- 
tion of the ovules into two compartments by the development of a false partition from the back ; styles 
two to five, connate below, spreading and dilated above into broad truncate stigmas j ovules two in each 
ceil, erect, anatropous, the micropyle inferior. Fruit subglobose or pyriform, open at the summit, the 
cavity surrounded by the lobes of the calyx and the remnants of the filaments j mesocarp sweet, rather 
juicy, red or dark purple ; endocarp membranaceous or cartilaginous, the carpels free or connate, 
glabrous or villose at the apex. Seeds ten or often five by the abortion of one of the ovules in each 
cell, ovate-elliptical, not rarely subuncinate at the base, destitute of albumen ; testa coriaceous, dark 
chestnut-brown, mucilaginous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons plano-convex, the 
radicle inferior. 

Amelanchier is widely distributed through the boreal and temperate portions of eastern and the 
mountainous regions of western North America, and occurs in Japan and central China, in Asia Minor, 
the Caucasus, southern Europe, and northern Africa. Five or six species are distinguished ; one is 
European,^ north African, and Anatolian ; a second inhabits the Orient ; ^ and a third, perhaps not dis- 
tinct from the arborescent species of eastern America, is found in the forests of Japan and of central 



1 Amelanchier AmelancTiier. Amelanchier rotundifoUa, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 

Mespilus AmelancJiier, Linnffius, Spec. 478. v. 459. 

Sorbus Amelanchier^ Crantz, Stirp. Austr. II, 53. Cratcegus AmelancTiier, De CandoUe, PI. Pranc. iv. 432. 

Pyrus Amelanchier, LinnEeus f. Syst ed. 13, Suppl. 256. — Aronia rotundifoliaf VeTsoon, Syn. ii. Z9. 

Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. il. 1014. Amelanchier rotundifoUa, Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 134. 

Crat<B(jus rotundifoUa, 'Ln'maxcVi, Diet, i, ?i^. ^ Amelanchier parviflora, Boissier, Biag. ill. 9^ Ft. Orient, ii. 

Amelanchier vulgaris, Moencli, Meth. 682. — De Candolle, Prodr. 668, 
ii. 632. — Boissier, PL Orient, ii. 667. 



126 



8ILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A, 



EOSACE.E. 



China/ -while two belong to the flora of eastern and one to that of western America. Two of the 
American species attain the size of small trees ; the third ^ is a shrub of the northern and alpine parts 
of eastern America. The Old World species are shrubs. 

The fruit of all the species is more or less succulent and edible, and the wood produced by the 
American arborescent species is strong, hard, and close-grained. The large white flowers, appearing 
before or coetaneous with the leaves, give the different species great beauty in very early spring, and 
make them desirable garden plants. 

The American species of Amelanchier do not suffer seriously from the attacks of insects,^ although 
they are subject to many of the fungal diseases which affect Pyrus and Crataegus.* 

The generic name is derived from Amelancier, the popular name of the European species in 
Savoy. 



^ Amelanchier Asiatica, Walpers, i?cp. ii. 55. — Eoemerj Fam, 
Nat. Syn. iii. 144. — Koeh, Dendr. i. 180. 

Aronia Asiatica, Siebold & Zucearini, FL Jap. i. 87, t. 42. 

AmelancUer Canadensis, var. Japonica, Miquel, ProL FL Jap. 
229. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PI Jap. i. 142. — Maxi- 
mowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, xix. 175 (Mel. Biol. is. 
174). 

2 Amelanchier oligocarpa, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 145. — 
Watson, Garden and Forest, i. 245, f. 41. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 167. 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 
291. 

Amelanchier ? sanguinea, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 633 (in part). 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. i. 474. — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 226. — Gray, Man. 131. 



Amelanchier sanguinea, Deeaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus.x. 136 (not 
De Candolle nor Lindley). 

^ The same insects which injure Pyrus in North America are also 
found on the diilerent species of Amelanchier ; and Leaf-miners 
like Nepticula amelanchier ella, Clemens, and Ornix quadripunctella, 
Clemens, may be peculiar to them. 

* A striking fungus attacks the leaves and young branches of 
Amelanchier Canadensis in the east, and of Amelanchier alnifolia in 
the west, covering them at first with an olive-eolored down which 
afterwards changes to a black crenulated surface. Many leaves on 
certain branches are attacked simultaneously, and the so-called 
bird's-nest distortions are produced. This fungus, which belongs 
to the order Pyrenomycetes, was first called Sphceria Collinsii by 
Schweinitz, and by other authors has been referred to Dimerospo- 
rium, Lasiosphteria, and Plowrightia. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or oUong to broadly ellii)tieal or suborbicularj acute or rounded at 

the apex, cordate or rounded at the base 1. A- Canadensis- 

Leaves broadly orbicular, obtuse^ or rarely acute 2. A. alnifolia. 



ROSACEA. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A, 



127 



AMELANCHIER CANADENSIS, 

Shad Bush. Service Berry. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, acute, cordate or rounded at the base 



Amelanchier Canadensis, Meclicus, Gesch. Bot. 79. — ■ 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. e<l. 3, 86. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog, 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 68, — Koch, Dendr. I 180. — 
Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Set. St. Petershourg, xix. 176 
{Mel. Biol. ix. 174). — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 
503, t. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 84. — Watson t& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 166. 

Mespilus Canadensis, Linn^us, Spec. 478. — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 6. — Du Roi, Harhk. Baicmz. i. 416. — "Walter, 
Fl. Car. 148. , 

Pyrus Botryapium, Linnreus f. Syst. ed. 13, SuppL 255- — 
Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 90, t, 28, f, 65- — Ehrhart, 
Beitr, i, 183; ii. 68, — Willdenow, Berl. Bmtmz. 268; 
Spec, ii, pt- ii. 1013; Enum. 625- — Aiton, Kort. Kew, 
ed. 2, iii. 207. —Pursh, FL Am. SepU i. 339. — Bigelow, 
FL Boston. 120. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 83- — Guimpel, 
Otto & Hayne, Ahhild, Hoh. 100, t. 79. — Sprengel, SysU 
ii. 509. — Audubon, Birds^ t. 60. 

Crataegus racemosa, Lamarck, Diet i. 84. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. ii. 148. — Nouveau Diihamely iv. 133. — Poiretj 
Lam. Diet. SuppL i. 292. y 

Mespilus nivea, Marshall, ArhusL Am. 90. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. prunifolia, Castiglioni, 
Viag. negli Stati Unit% ii. 293. 

Mespilus Amelanchier, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Unitiy 
ii. 293 (not Linnaeus). 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. cordata, Michaux, FL Bar.- 
Am. I 291. 

Amelanchier Botryapium, Borkhausen, Handb. Forsthot. 



ii, 1260. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot Cidt. v- 458. — 
Lindley, Trans. Linn. Soe. xiii. 100. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 632. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 202.— Don, 
Gen. SysL ii. 604. — Spach, Hist. VSg. ii. 84. — Roemer, 
Fam.NaL Syn. iii. 146- — Wenzig, X^^i^it^a, xxxviii, 110. 
— Decaisne, Nowv. Areh. Miis. x, 135. 



Aronia Botryapium, Persoon, Syn. ii. 39. — Kuttall, Gen. 
i. 306. — Elliott, Sk. i. 557. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 63- 

Mespilus arborea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 68, t. 
11. — W. P. C. Barton, FL Phil Prodr. 55. 

Aronia arborea, W. P. C- Barton, Compend. FL PhiL i. 
228, 

Amelanchier sanguinea, Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1171 (not 
De Candolle). 

Aronia cordata, Rafinesque, Med. FL ii. 196. 

Amelanchier ovalis, Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 202 (in 
part). 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. Botryapium, Torrey & 
Gray, FL IT. Am. i. 473. — Walpers, Ttep. ii. 55. — Die- 
trich, Syn. iii. 158. — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 225.— Chap- 
man, FL 129. 

Pyrus Bartramiana, Tausch, Regensh. Flora^ 1838, pt, ii- 
715. 

Pyrus "Wangenheimiana, Tausch, Regensh. Flora^ 1838, 
pt. ii. 715. 

Amelanchier Bartramiana, Roemer, Fam. Nat. 8yn^ iii. 
145. 

Amelanchier Wangenheimiana, Roemer, Fam. Nat. 
Syn. iii. 146. 



A treej sometimes forty to fifty feet in height^ with a tall trunk twelve to eighteen inches in 
diameter, and small spreading branches which form a narrow oblong round-topped head. The bark 
of the trunk is from a quarter to half an inch in thickness, pale red-brown, and divided by shallow 
fissures into narrow longitudinal ridges, the surface of which is broken into small square persistent 
scales. The branchlets are slender and at first bright green and glabrous or slightly puberulous, but 
are dark red and marked mth many minute pale lenticels in their first winter, and later become dark 
brown or red-brown. The winter-buds are a quarter of an inch long and covered with pale chestnut- 
brown ovate apiculate slightly pubescent scales, scarious on the margins and obscurely keeled on the 
back ; the scales of the inner ranks are lanceolate, acute, bright red above the middle, ciliate with silky 
hairs, and sometimes an inch long when fully grown, and leave when falling narrow ring-like scars 
which mark the base of the branchlets during two or three years. The leaves are ovate to ovate-oblong, 
acute or often taper-pointed at the apex, cordate or rounded at the base, and finely serrate with straight 
or incurved rigid subulate teeth ; when they unfold they are dark red-brown and pilose on both sur- 
faces with scattered deciduous white hairs, and at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, glabrous. 



128 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA, 



KOSACEiE. 



dark green and dnll on the upper surface; pale on the lower surface^ three or four inches long and 
an inch to an inch and a half broad, with prominent midribs grooved on the upper side and slender 
Yeinsj and are borne on slender channeled petioles which vary from half an inch to an inch in length. 
The stipules are narrowly lanceolate, membranaceous, pubescent, at first pink but xxltimately brown, and 
early deciduous. The leaves turn bright clear yellow in the autumn before falling. The flowers, 
which appear from the end of March at the south to the end of May at the north when the leaves are 
grown to nearly one third of their size, are produced in erect or nodding glabrous racemes three or 
four inches long, and are borne on slender pedicels half an inch to an inch in length, furnished with two 
lanceolate pubescent pink caducous bractlets, and developed from the axils of lanceolate bright-colored 
bracts which fall before the expansion of the flowers. The calyx is campanulate, with lanceolate acute 
lobes, villose on the inner surface, twice the length of the tube, and rather longer than the stamens 
and styles. The petals are strap-shaped or slightly obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, gradually 
contracted at the base, thin, pure white, half an inch to nearly an inch in length, and from a quarter to 
half an inch in width. The ovaries are glabrous. The fruit, which ripens in early summer, is sweet 
and edible ; it is depressed-globular, from a third to half an inch broad, and borne on elongated slender 
stems conspicuously marked by the scars left by the falling of the bractlets ; when first fully grown it 
is bright red, but when ripe becomes dark purple and is covered with a slight glaucous bloom. The 
seeds are an eighth of an inch long, with a dark red-brown opaque coat. 

Amelanchier Canadensis is distributed from Newfoundland through the maritime provinces of 
Canada, where it is common, and westward along the northern shores of the Great Lakes,^ and in the 
United States ranges southward to northern Florida and westward to Minnesota, eastern Nebraska,' 
eastern Kansas, Louisiana, and southern Arkansas. 

Amelanchier Canadensis grows in rich soil in upland woods with Oaks, Hickories, Sugar Maples, 
and Birches ; it is abundant in all the northern parts of the country and on the Alleghany Mountains, 
where, in North CaroHna and Tennessee, it reaches its greatest size. In the coast region of the Atlantic 
Gulf states it is represented only by a low shrubby form, while west of the Alleghany Mountains it is 
common in all the elevated regions but does not extend into the river-bottoms, and is more abundant 
at the north than at the south. 

The wood of Amelanchier Canadensis is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained, with 
a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a good polish ; it is dark brown often tinged with red, with 
thick lighter colored sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of annual growth, and contains numerous 
obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7838, a cubic foot weigh- 
ing i:^m pounds. It is occasionally used for the handles of tools and other small implements. 

Amelanchier Canadensis varies considerably in the form of its leaves and in the character of the 
pubescence which sometimes covers them, in the size of its flowers and fruit, and in its habit and 
stature. The most distinct of these forms is Amelaiichler Canadensis, var. olovalis? This is a tree 
sometimes twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a single straight stem or often with a cluster of 
spreading stems springing from the ground and forming a broad taU bush. The leaves are oblong 
or broadly elliptical, acute or rounded at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, remotely serrate 



1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 27. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 
1867-69, Appendix 9 {PL Manitoulin Islands). — Macouii, Cat. 
Can. PI. i. 148. 

^ Bessey, Bull. Exper. Stat. Nebraska, iv. art. iv. 20. 
8 Amelanchier Canadensis, var. ohovalis. 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. oboralis, Michaus, FL Bor.~Am. i. 291. 

Pyrus sanguinea, Pursh, FL Am. Sept i. 340 (in part).— 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 509. 

Pyrus ovalis, Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 2, 195 (not Willdenow). 
Aronia ovalis, Torrey, Fl. U. S. 479. 



AmelancUer intermedia, Spaeh, Hist. Veg. ii. 85. — "Wenzig, 
Linnaa, xxxvili. 112. 

AmelancUer Canadensis, var. oUongifoUa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N. Am. i. 473. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 55. ^ Dietrich, Syn. iii. 158. — 
Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 225 ; Nicollefs Rep. 149. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 504, t. — Sargent, Forest Trees N.Am. lOtli Census 
U. S. ix. 84. —Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 167. 

Amelanchier ohlongi/oUa, Roemer, Fam. NaL Syn. iii. 147. 

AmelancTder spicata, Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mm. x. 135, t. 9, 
f. 5 (not Lamarck). 



KOSACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOETII AMEBIC A. 



129 



or sometimes nearly entire below the middle, coated at first on the lower surface with thick white 
tomentum, and at maturity pale and more or less pubescent on the lower surface. The flowerSj which 
are produced in shorter racemes on hairy pedicels, are smaller, with pubescent calyces, their lobes being 
densely tomentose on the inner surface, and narrower strap-shaped petals usually less than haK an inch 
long. This variety is found in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, where, however, it is not common, 
and is abundant in Quebec and Ontario, extending northward to the valley of the Mackenzie Eiver in 
latitude 65° ; ^ it is common in the northeastern states, ranging southward along the Alleghany Moun- 
tains to Virginia and westward to Minnesota and Missouri, and occasionally occurs, much reduced in 
size, in the southern coast region from Bluffton, South Carolina, to the shores of the Bay of Mobile. 

Ainelanchier Canadensis, var, ohovalis, grows usually on the borders of streams and swamps in 
low wet soil, and sometimes on high rocky slopes and ridges, where it is often a small shrub producing 
fruit when only a foot or two high. In the situations which it selects, and in the shape and covering 
of its leaves, it is usually very distinct from the upland form, but the two are connected by intermediate 
forms growing in intermediate situations which make it difficult to find constant characters upon which 
to establish a second species. 

The fruit of the tomentose form is rather more juicy and of better flavor than that of the upland 
tree ; and of late years American pomologists have paid some attention to the cultivation and improve- 
ment of a large-fruited variety originally obtained from Iowa, Minnesota, and Manitoba.^ 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. spicata,^ is a variety with broader obovate sometimes suborbicular 
leaves which is common in the northern states, where it usually grows as a low shrub, but occasionally 
rises to a height of fifteen or twenty feet. 

The earliest account * of Amelanchier Canadensis is that of Clayton,^ who also distinguished the 
tomentose variety."^ It was first cultivated in Europe in 1746 by the Buke of Argyll.'^ 

Amelanchier Canadensis is a beautiful object in early spring when its laxge white flowers unfold 
with the red or with the silvery white leaves of the different varieties, and its beauty at this time is 
heightened by its brilliant silky bud-scales and bracts. As a fruit-tree, although the birds devour the 
fruit as fast as it ripens, it deserves more attention than it has yet received. 



1 Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 294. — Macoun, Cat. 

Can. PI i. 149. 

^ Am, Agric. xxx. 144. — Rep. Iowa Hart. Soc. xii. 203. — Gar~ 
deners' Monthly, xx. 141, 186, 306. 

2 Amelanchier Canadensis, var. spicata. 

Cratcegus spicata, Lamarck, Diet. i. 84. — Desfoiitaines, Hist. 
Arh. ii. 148. — Nouveau Diihamel, iv. 132. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 
Suppl. i. 192. 

Pyrus ovalis, "VVilldenow, Berl. Baumz. 259 ; Spec. ii. pt. ii. 
1014. — PursB, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 340. 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. rotundifoUa, Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 

291. 

Amelanchier ovalis, Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. ii. 1259. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, v. 459. — Lindley, Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xiii. 100. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 635. — Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. i. 202 (exel. var.). — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 604 (excl. var.). 
— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 85. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 876, f. 632. 

Aronia ovalis, Persoon, Syn. ii. 40. — Klliott, Sic. i. 558. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. rotundifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N. Am. i. 473. — "Walpers, Rep. ii. 55, — Dietrich, Syn. 158. — 



Torrey, Fl. N. T. i. 225. — Chapman, Fl. 129. — Watson & Coul- 
ter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 167. 

Amelanchier rotundifolia, Poemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 146 (not 

Du Mont de Courset). 

■* It was probably one of the forms of Ainelanchier Canadensis 
which John Mason, writing of Newfoundland in 1G20, calls a Peare 
in this passage: "The Countrie fruites wild, are cherries small, 
whole groaucs of them, Filberds good, a small pleasant fruite, 
called a Peare, Damaske Roses single very sweet, excellet Straw- 
berries, and Hartleberries with aboundance of Rasberries, and 
Gooseberries somewhat better than ours in England, all which 
replanted would be much inlarged.'* {A Brief Discourse of the 
Newfoundland [Royal Letters^ Charters^ and Tracts relating to the 
Colonization of New Scotland^ 1621-1638],) 

^ Mespilus inermisy foliis subtvs glabris obverse ovalis^ FL Virgin. 
54, — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres^ ii, 15. 

* Mespilus inermiSi folio ovato oblongis, serratis^ suhius tomentosisy 
Fl. Virgin, 55. 

T Alton, HorL Kew. ii. 173. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 874, f, G27- 
629, t. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CXCIV. Amelanchier Canadensis- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2, Diagram of a flower. 

3- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

4. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

5. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged* 

6. An. ovule, much magnified. 

7- A fruiting branch, natural size, 

8- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9- Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10. A seed, enlarged, 

11- An embryo, much magnified. 

12. The end of a winter brancliletj natural size. 



Plate CXCV. Amelanchiek Canadensis, var. obovalis 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged - 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, nmch magnified. 



i- 




ilva of North 




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AMELANCHIER ■ CANADE^NSIS, Torr. 







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P. 



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AMELANCHIER CANADENSIS, 



Var. OBOVALIS, Sarg. 



^. Rzocreii£c^' dxrcccf^ 



Imp . 7Z. Taneur^ Paris. 



KOSACE^. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEIUCA 



131 



AMELANOHIER ALNIFOLIA. 

Service Berry. 

Leaves broadly oyate to orbicular, obtuse or rarely acuta 



Amelanchier alnifolia, Nuttall, Jour. Fhil, Acad. vii. 

22. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat, Syn. iii. 147. — Cooper, Am. 

Nat. iii. 407. — Wenzig, Linncea, xxxviii. 113. — De- 

caisne, Nouv. Arch. Miis. x. 135. — Brewer & "Watson, 

Sot. Cat. i. 190. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 

6, 167. — Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 52. 
Pyrus sanguinea, Fursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 340 (in part). 
Aronia alnifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 306. 
Pyrus alnifolia, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 509. 
Amelanchier ovalis, var. semiintegrifolia, Hooker, Fl. 

Bor.-Am. i. 202. ~ Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 604, 
Amelanchier fiorida, Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1589. — Spach, 

Hist. Veg. ii. 86. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 55. — Loudon, Arh. 

Brit. ii. 876, f. 633, 634. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 

144. — Decaisne, Nouv. Arch. Mus. x. 135. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. alnifolia, Torrey & Gray, 

Fl.N.Am. i. 473. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 55. — Dietrich, 

Syn. iii. 158. — Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 85 ; Bot. 



Mex. Bound. Surv. 64; Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 
291. — Hooker, Lond, Jour. Bot. vi. 220. — Gray, Man. 
130. — Newberry, Pacific R. E. Rep. vi. 73. — Cooper, 
Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 30. — Watson, King's Rep, 
V. 92. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. pnmila, Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. Am. i. 474. — Walpers, Rep.H. 65. — Dietrich, 
Syn. iii. 158. 

Amelanchier pumila, Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. 145. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifolia, Bentham, 

PL Hartweg. 309 (not Torrey & Gray) . 
Amelanchier diversifolia, var. alnifolia, Torrey, Fre- 

Tiiorifs Rep. 89. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, Anderson, Cat. PI. Nov. 120 

(not Medicus). 
? Amelanchier glabra, Greene, Fl. Francis, i. 52. 
? Amelanchier pallida, Greene, Fl. Francis, i. b^. 



A tree, occasionally forty feet in height, with a single straight trunk six to ten inches in diameter, 
or more often with a cluster of slender stems rising from the ground ; or usually a shrub only a foot or 
two in height. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, smooth or slightly fissured, and 
light brown somewhat tinged with red. The branches are green at first and glabrous, pilose with long 
pale hairs or coated with pubescence, and in their first winter are stout, bright red or plum-color, gla- 
brous or rarely puberulous, and more or less marked by small pale lenticels. The winter-buds are acute, 
a quarter of an inch long, and covered with chestnut-brown glabrous or occasionally pilose scales j the 
scales of the inner ranks at maturity are ovate, acute, brightly colored, covered with pale silky hairs, and 
from a half to three quarters of an inch in length. The leaves are broadly ovate to orbicular or occa- 
sionally oblong-ovate, rounded or rarely acute at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, and 
sharply and coarsely serrate above the middle, with incurved rigid teeth ; when they unfold they are 
coated on the lower surface with thick pale tomentnm, and are often pilose on the upper surface ; but 
they soon become glabrous, and at maturity are membranaceous to subcoriaceous, dark green above and 
pale or sometimes rufous below, or, when the plants grow in the dry climate of the interior, gray-green 
on both surfaces and often puberulous below ; they are an inch to an inch and a half in length and in 
breadth, with slender midribs and veins, and are borne on slender petioles half an inch long. The 
stipules are linear, acute, red-brown, sometimes an inch in length, and caducous. The flowers, which 
appear from April on the shores of Puget Sound to the middle of June on the high mountains of 
Montana, are produced in erect glabrous or pubescent racemes an inch to an inch and a half in length 
on short pedicels furnished near the middle with linear acute colored bractlets which in falling leave 
conspicuous scars. The calyx is cup-shaped and glabrous, pilose or pubescent on the outer surface, 
with linear acute lobes glabrous or coated with pubescence on the inner surface. The petals are nar- 
rowly oblong to obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, and from a quarter of an inch to an inch in 
length. The ovaries are pubescent or puberulous. The fruit ripens from June to September, and is 
sweet and juicy ; it is subglobose, "dark blue or almost black, with a glaucous bloom, and from half an 



132 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPiICA. 



ROSACEA. 



inch to nearly an inch in diameter. The seeds are an eighth of an inch long^ with a lustrous red-brown 
coat.^ 

Amelanchier alnifolia is distributed from the valley of the Yukon River in latitude 62^ 45' 
north/ southward through the coast ranges of northeastern America and on the mountain ranges of 
the western and interior parts of the continent^ extending in California to the southern boundary of the 
statOj and eastward throu^^h British Columbia^ the Saskatchewan, and Manitoba^ to the western shores 
of Lake Superior/ and to northern Michigan^ Nebraska/ and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado ^ and 
New Mexico.^ 

The wood of Amelanchier alnifolia is heavy, hard, and close-grained ; it is light brown and con- 
tains numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8262, a 
cubic foot weighing 51.55 pounds. 

The nutritious and abundant fruit of the Service Berry is an important article of food with the 
Indians of western America, who gather and dry it in large quantities.'^ 

Amelanchier alnifolia attains its largest size and occasionally assumes the habit of a tree on the 
islands and rich bottom-lands of the lower Columbia Eiver and on the small prairies which occur in 
Washington in the neighborhood of Puget Sound, where it grows in gravelly soil near the borders of 
small ponds, and often forms thickets of considerable extent, or is associated with the Oregon Haw- 
thorn, the Crab-apple, and the Choke Cherry, In the interior it is confined to high elevations, in Cali- 
fornia frequently ascending ten thousand feet above the level of the ocean, sometimes near the borders 
of streams or alpine meadows, or often on high hillsides where, as a low shrub^ it forms thickets which 
cover areas several hundred acres in extent. 

Amelanchier alnifolia was noticed early in this century by the party of explorers who, under the 
leadership of Lewis and Clark, first crossed North America ; ^ and it was introduced into cultivation by 
David Douglas who, in 1826, sent seeds to the London Horticultural Society. In the Arnold Arbore- 
tum it produces fruit every year. 



^ In the different parts of the immense territory over which it is 
distributed Amelanchier alnifolia varies not only in size and habit, 
but in the texture and color of the leaves, in the amount and char- 
acter of the pubescence of the calyx, and in the size of the flowers ; 
at high elevations in the dry interior its foliage, like that of many 
plants in these regions, is pale green on both sides, and the bark of 
the branches and stems is much lighter than on plants which have 
grown in the more humid climate of the coast. The extreme 
forms of this species, however, are connected by intermediate 
forms, and it is not probable that western America contains more 
than a single species of Amelanchier, and this, at the extreme east- 
ern limits of its range, is not always easily distinguished from some 
of the broad-leaved forms of Amelanchier Canadensis of the eastern 
states. 

2 Macoun, CaL Can. PL I 148. 

s Macoun, L c, 622. 



^ Bessey, Bull Agric. Exper. Stat. NehrasJca^ iv. art. iv. 20. 

^ Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt, BoL 89. 

^ Gray, Mem, Am. Acad, n- ser. iv. 42 {PL Fendler.). 

'^ ** In a great number of localities service-berries are stored for 
winter use by the Indians- They are gathered where most abun- 
dant, crushed and made into a paste which is spread out on bark 
or stones in the sun until it is thoroughly dried. It is then put in 
sacks, and during the winter serves to give variety to their diet 
which otherwise consists of flesh or dried fish.'* (Newberry, Food 
and Fibre Plants of the North American Indians, Popular Science 
Monthly^ xxxii. 43. See, also, K, Brown (Campst.), Trans. BoL Sac. 
Edinburgh^ ix. 384.) 

^ History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis 
and Clark to the Sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky MouU' 
tains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean^ ii. 505. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCVL Amelanchiek alnifolia- 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section o£ a flower, the ends of the petals rernovec!, enlarged, 

3. A fruiting branch, r.atural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 
5- A seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, much magnified. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



y 



Tat. CXCVI 



/ 




C. E. Fcuxojb del . 




so. 



y 



AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA. Nutt. 



A.Riocreua> direa> 



Imp . R. Taneur^ Paris. 



SAXIFEAGACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



133 



LYONOTHAMNUS. 

Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in sestivation, persistent ; 
petals 5, imbricated in sestiyation ; stamens 15 ; ovaries 2, 1-celled ; ovules 4 in eacb 
cell, suspended. Fruit follicular. Leaves opposite, simple or pinnately divided, per- 
sistent. 



Lyonothamnus, Gray, Proc. Am, Acad, ser. 2, xii. 291. 

A tree or shrub, with scaly bark exfoliating In long strips^ stout terete pubescent ultimately 
glabrous branchletSj and scaly buds. Leaves opposite, long-petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base, entire or finely crenulate-serrate or serrulate-lobulate below the middle, or 
on the same branch irregularly pinnately parted into three to eight linear lanceolate remote lobulate 
segments, coriaceous, transversely many-veined, dark green on the upper surface, paler and more or 
less coated with pubescence on the lower, persistent j stipules lanceolate, acute, minute, caducous. 
Elowers on slender pedicels in broad ample compound terminal pubescent cymes. Bracts and bractlets 
acute, minute, persistent. Calyx-tube hemispherical, one to three-bract eolate, tomentose on the outer 
surface, the lobes nearly triangular, slightly heeled, apiculate, persistent. Disk lining the calyx-tube, 
lanate, the slightly thickened margin teu-lobed. Petals five, orbicular, sessile, white. Stamens fifteen, 
inserted with the petals on the margin of the disk in pairs opposite the petals and singly opposite the 
sepals ; filaments subulate, incurved, as long as the petals ; anthers oblong, attached on the back below 
the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Pistils two, inserted in the bottom of 
the calyx-tube ; ovaries ovate, flattened on the inner surface by mutual pressure, glandular-setulose, 
contracted into thick spreading styles 5 stigmas capitate, truncate ; ovules four in each cell, oblong, 
suspended, anatropous ; micropyle superior, the raphe ventral. Fruit composed of two woody ovate 
glandular four-seeded follicles, dehiscent on the ventral and partially dehiscent on the dorsal suture. 
Seeds ovate-oblong, pointed at both ends ; albumen thin ; testa Hght brown, thin, and membranaceous ; 
hilum orbicular, apical, the raphe broad and wing-like. Cotyledons oblong-acuminate, twice the length 
of the straight radicle directed towards the hilum. 

The wood of Lyonothamnus is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface suscep- 
tible of receiving a good polish. It contains numerous thin medullary rays, the layers of annual 
growth being hardly distinguishable, and is bright clear red faintly tinged with orange. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8029, a cubic foot weighing 50.05 pounds.^ 

Lyonothamnus was named in honor of William S. Lyon, who discovered it in July, 1884,^ on the 
island of Santa Catalina, California. It is represented by a single species. 



^ Garden and Forest, iii. 344. 

2 William Scrugham Lyon, forester of the California State Board 
of Forestry, was born at White Plains, New York, in November, 
1852, and educated at the College of the State of New York and at 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College. The acquaintance of Dr. 
John Torrey, made in boyhood, laid the foundation of Mr. Lyon's 
taste for the study of plants, which, after his removal to California 



in 1871, he was able at length fully to gratify. In 1884 and 1885 
he explored the little known island of Santa Catalina, one of the San 
Bernardino group, discovering several undescribed species of plants, 
and making useful observations on the character and distribution 
of its peculiar flora. Under the title of A Flora of our Southwestern 
Archipelago, Mr. Lyon published, in 1886, the scientific results of 
these journeys in the eleventh volume of the Botanical Gazette. 



SAsiFRAGACE^. 8ILVA OF NOETH AMEBIC A, 135 



LYONOTHAMNUS FLORIBUNDUS 



Iron Wood. 



Lyonothamnus floribundusj Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, ser, Aead. ser. 2, i 210- — Sargent^ Garden and Forest^ iL 

2, xiL 292. — T. S- Brandegee, Zoe, L 111, 136, t- 4 435. 

Lyonothamnus asplenifoliuSj Greene, BiilL CaL Acad. L Lyonothamnus floribundus, var. asplenifolius, T, S- 

187 ; ii. 149, 397, t. 6. ■ — T- S. Braudogee, Proe. CaL Brandegee, Zoe^ L 136. 

A bushy tree^ rarely thirty to forty feet in height, with a single trunk sometimes eight or ten 
inches in diameter, but usually with a number of tall stems rising from the ground ; or, in exposed 
situations, reduced to a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is a third of an inch thick and dark red- 
brown, and is composed of many thin papery layers, five or six of which, after partially separating, 
remain on the stem broken into long loose strips. The branchlets are at first pale orange-color and, 
like the branches of the inflorescence, are coated with pubescence which soon disappears, and at the end 
of their first season they are bright red and lustrous. The leaves, which vary from four to eight 
inches in length and from half an inch in width when entire to four inches when pinnately divided, 
are coated on the lower surface, when they unfold, with thick white deciduous tomentum, and are dark 
green and rather lustrous on the upper surface, and yellow-green, glabrous, or pubescent on the lower, 
with orange-colored midribs. The inflorescence, which appears iu June and July, varies from four to 
eight inches across, the individual flowers being from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in diameter. 
The fruit ripens in August and September, and is three sixteenths of an inch long.^ 

Lyonothamnus floribundus is known only on the islands of Santa Catalina and Santa Cruz off the 
coast of California, where it is found growing in dry rocky soil on the steep slopes of canons. It is 
most abundant on Santa Cruz, where many fine groves exist on the northern shore of the island, and 
where it attains its largest size. On Santa Catalina it is much smaller, rarely arborescent in habit, and 

usually produces simple or sinuate or lobulate leaves. 

Lyonothamnus floribundus is an interesting and handsome plant. It is the only North American 
representative of its family which attains the size and habit of a tree. The beauty of its multiform 
* persistent leaves, and the ample size and abundance of its clusters of flowers, will cause it to be valued 
as an ornament in the gardens of temperate countries. 

1 Plants of Lyonothamnus with simple leaves and with pinnately and his conclusion that the plants of Santa Catalina and of Santa 

divided leaves appear distinct, but on Santa Catalina trees were Cruz are merely heterophyllous forms of one species is doubtless 

found by Mr. T. S. Brandegee on which both the narrow simple correct {Zoe, i. 111). 
leaves and the divided leaves of all the different forms occurred, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCVIL Lyonothamnus eloribundus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2- Diagram of a flower, 

3- A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
5» A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A gynoecium, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A cluster of fruit, natural size, 

9. A fruit, enlarged. 

10. Ventral view of an open carpel, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged, 

14. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, much magnified. 

16. A simple leaf, natural size. 




ilva of Nortk America 



ao . CX 




. 4 




4 



3 



9 



12 



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11 





CMFcuuon del 



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LYONOTHAMNUS FLORIBUNDUS, 




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Imp It. Tanein\PaTis 



INDEX TO VOL. IV 



Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Aeaeia nostras, 10. 

AcJiras serrata^ 49. 

^geria exitiosaj 11. 

Almond-oil, 9. 

Almonds, Bitter, 9. 

Almonds, Sweet, 9, 

Almondj the, 8, 9. 

Amelanchier, 125. 

Amelanchier alnifolia, 131. 

Amelanchier Amelanchier, 125, 

Amelanchier Asiatica, 126. 

Amelanehier Barlramiana, 127, 

Amelanchier Botryapium^ 127. 

Amelanehier Canadensis, 127, 

Amelanchier Canadensis^ 131. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var- ahiifolia, 131. 

Amelanchier Canadensis^ vai\ Botryapium^ 

127. 
Amelanchier Canadensis^ var. Japonica, 126. 
Amelanchier Canadem^is, var. oblongifolia^ 

128, 131, 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. obovalis, 128. 
A melanchier Canadensis, var. oligocarpa^ 

126. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. prunifolia, 127, 
Amelanchier Canadensis, yav. pumila, 131. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. rotundifolia, 
129. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var, splcata, 129, 

Amelanchier diversifolia, var. alnifolia, 131. 

Amelanchier fiorida, 131. 

Amelanchier, fungal enemies of, 126. 

Amelanchier glatra, 131- 

Amelanchier, insect enemies of, 126. 

Amelanchier intermedia, 128. 

Amelanchier ohlongifolia, 128, 

Amelanchier oligocarpa, 126, 

Amelanchier ovalis^ 127, 129. 

Amelanchier ovalis, var. semiintegrifolia^ 131. 

Amelanchier pallida, 131- 

Amelanchier parviflora, 125, 

Amelanchier pumila, 131. 

Amelanchier rotundifolia, 125, 129. 

Amelanchier sanguhiea, 126, 127- 

Amelanchier spicata, 128, 

Amelanchier vulgaris, 125. 

Amelanchier Wangenheimiana, 127, 

Amygdalophora, 7, 

Amygdalopsis, 7. 

Amygdalus, 7, 8. 

Amygdalus, 7- 

Anthomeles, 83, 

Anthomcles cestivalis, 119, 

Anthomeles Douglasii, 86, 

Anthomeles flava, 113. 

Anthomeles glandtdosa, 113. 



Anthomeles rotundifolia, 95. 

Anthomeles turbinata, 113. 

Anthonomus Crata^gi, 84. 

Anthonomus quadrigibbus, 11, 70. 

Apirophorum, 67. 

Apple, Crab, 71, 75. 

Apple Haw, 119, 

Apple-tree B©rer, 70. 

Apricot, the, 8, 9, 

Aria, 67, 68. 

Aria, 67. 

Armeniaca, 7, 8, 

Armeniaca, 7, 

Aronia, 67, 68, 

Armia, 07, 125. 

Aronia alnifolia^ 131. 

Aronia arhorea, 127. 

Aronia arhutifolia, 123- 

A^ronia Aslatica, 126, 

Aronia Botryapium^ 127. 

Aronia cordata, 127. 

Aronia ovalis, 128, 129, 

Aronia rotundifolia, 125, 

Ash, Mountain, 69, 79, 81. 

Aucuparia, 67, 

Azarolus, 67, 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 24. 
Beam-tree, White, 69. 
Bigarreau Cherries, 9. 
Bird Cherry, 35, 
Black Knot, 12. 
Blackman Plum, 24, 
Black Sloe, 33. 
Blackthorn, 10- 
Blackthorn canes, 11, 
Bois de St, Lucie, 11, 
Borer, Apple-tree, 70- 
Borer, Flat-headed, 70, 

Bumelia serrata, 49, 

CaddoChief Plum, 26. 
California Holly, 124. 
Canada Plum, 15- 
Capulinos, 47. 
Carpenter, William M., 93. 
Carpenteria, 93. 
Ceraseidos, 7, 8, 
Cerasin, 11, 
Cerasophora, 7, 8, 
Cerasus, 8- 
CerasuSy 7, 8. 
Cerasus Americana, 19, 
Cerasus horealis, 35- 
Cerasus Brasiliensis, 51. 
Cerasus Califomica, 38, 



Cerasus Capollin, 46. 

Cerasus Capuli, 46- 

Cerasus Caroliniana, 49. 

Cerasus Chicasa,2.5, 

Cerasus demissa, 42, 

Cerasus densi/lora, 41. 

Cerasus Duerinckii, 41. 

Cerasus emarginata, 37. 

Cerasus erecta^ 37- 

Cerasus ^fimhriata, 41. 

Cerasus glandulosa, 37, 

Cerasus hiemalis, 19, 

Cerasus hirsuta, 41. 

Cerasus ilicifolia, 53. 

Cerasus Laurocerasus, 10. 

Cerasus Lusitanica, 11. 

Cerasus Mahaleh, 10. 

Cerasus micrantha, 41, 

Cerasus mollis, 38. 

Cerasus nigra, 15, 19, 

Cerasus obovata, 41, 

Cerasus Padus, 10. 

Cerasus Pattoniana^ 37, 38. 

Cerasus Pennsylvanica^ 35. 

Ci^ra^t/^ persicifolia, 35. 

Cerasus reflexa^ 51. 

Cerasus salicifolia, 46. 

Cerasus serotina, 41, 42, 45. 

Cerasus sphcerocarpa, 51. 

Cerasus umhellata, 33. 

Cerasus Virginiana, 41, 45. 

Cerasus Virglniana, var. ^S , 41. 

Cercocarpns, 61. 

Cercocarpus Arizordcns, 64. 

Cercocarpus betulcefolius, 66. 

Cercocarpus hetidoides, 06, 

Cercocarpus hrevifolius^ 64, 66. 

Cercocarpus fothergilloides, 61, 

Cercocarpus fothergilloides, 65, 

Cercocarpus intricatus, 64. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, 63, 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, var. intricatus, 04. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, 65. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var, betuloides, 66, 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var, brevifolius, 

66, 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. glaher, 66, 
Cercocarpus parvifolius^ var. paucidentatus, 

66. 
Cercosporella Persica, 12. 
Chammmespihts, 67. 
Cheney Plum, 20. 
Cherries, Bigarreau, 9, 
Cherries, Duke, 9. 
Cherries, Heart, 9. 
Cherries, Morello, 9. 



138 



INDEX, 



Cherry, Bird, 35, 

Cherry, Choke, 41, 

Cherry Cordial- water, 10. 

Cherry, cultivation of, 9. 

Cherry-gmn, 10. 

Cherry, Marasca, 10, 

Cherry, Mountain, 26. 

Cherry, Mountain Evergreen, 54, 

Cherry-oil, 10, 

Cherry, Pigeon, 36, 

Cherry, Pin, 36. 

Cherry, Rum, 45- 

Cherry, Spanish Wild, 54- 

Cherry-tree, Mexican, 46, 

Cherry-tree, New Mexican, 46. 

Cherry, Wild, 37, 41. 

Cherry, Wild Black, 45. 

Cherry, Wild Eed, 35. 

Chickasaw Plum, 25. 

Chickasaw Plum, origin of, 26. 

ChimayithuSf 7. 

Chimanthus amygdalinay 49. 

Chionaspis f urfurus, 70. 

ChlorOmeleSy 67. 

Chloromeles sempervirens, 75. 

Choke Cherry, 41. 

Christmas Berry, 124- 

Chrysohalanus, 1. 

Chrysobalanus elUpticuSy 4, 

Chrysobalanuft leaco, 3. 

Chrysohalanus Icaco, a. genuinus, 4. 

Chrysobalanus Icaco, &. pellocarpus, 4. 

Chrysohalanus Icaco^ j8, purpureuH^ 3. 

Chrysobalanus Icaco, 7, ellipticus, 4. 

Chrysohalanus luteus, 4, 

Chrysobalanus oblongifolius, 1, 

Chrysohalanus orbicularis^ 4. 

Chrysobalanus pellocarpus^ 4, 

Clirysobothris femorata, 11, 70, 

Ciderkin, 68. 

Cider, manufacture of, 68- 

Cluster-cups, 70. 

Cockspur Thorn, 91- 

Cocoa Plum, 3, 

Codlin-moth, 70. 

Colleta Plum, 26. 

Conotrachelus Naso, 84. 

I 

Conotrachelus Nennpharj 11. 

Conotrachelus postieatus, 84. 

Cordial- water. Cherry, 10. 

CormuSf 67. 

Cornularia Persic^, 12, 

Cotoneaster spathulata^ 105. 

Crab-apple, 71, 75. 

Crab-apple, Oregon, 77. 

Crab, Fragrant, 71. 

Crab, Soulard, 72. 

Crataegus, 83. 

Crataegus acerifoUay 107- 

Cratsegus aestivalis, 119. 

Cratcegus Amelanckier, 125- 

Cratffigus apiifolia, 111. 

Cratcegus apiifolia minor^ 111. 

Crataegus arborescens^ 109- 

Cratcegus arbutifolia^ 123. 

Cratcegus badiata, 92. 

Cratcegus berberifolia^ 93. 

Cratcegus Bosciana^ 92. 

CratJEgus brachyacantha, 89. 

Crataegus Caroliniana, 113, 

Cratcegus Carrierei, 91- 

Cratsegus coccinea, 95. 

Cratcegus coccinea, 96, 

Cratjegus coccinea, var. macracantha, 96. 



Cratcegus coccinea, var. mollis, 99- 
Cratcegus coccinea, var. oligandra, 95- 
Cratsegus coccinea, var. populifolia, 97. 
Cratcegus coccinea^ var. typica, 97. 
Crataegus coccinea, var. viridis, 95, 96. 
Cratsegus cordata, 107, 
Cratcegus coronaria, 71. 
Cratcegus Coursetiana, 92. 
Crat^gus Crus-galH, 91. 
Cratcegus Crus-galli^ 103. 
Crattegus Crus-galli, var. berberifolia, 93. 
Crataegus Crus-galli, var. Fontanesiana, 92, 
Crataegus Crus-galli, var, linearis, 92, 
Crataegus Crus-galli, var. ovalifolia, 92, 
Crataegus Crus-galli, var. prunifolia, 92. ■ 
Crataegus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, 

92. 
Cratcegus Crus-galli, var, pyracanthi/olia, 

109. 
Cratcegus Crus-galli, var, salicifoUa, 92. 
Cratcegus Crus-galli, var. splendens, 91- 
Cratcegus cuneifolia, 103, 
Crat^gus Douglasii, 86. 
Cratcegus Douglasii, 96, 
Crataegus Douglasii, var- rivularis, 87. 
Cratcegus elliptica, 114, 119, 
Crataegus flava, 113- 
Cratcegus Jiava, 103, 114. 
Crataegus flava, var. elliptica, 114. 
Cratcegus JiavCf var, lobata^ 113, 
CratcBgus flava, v^r.pubescens, 114. 
Cratcegus flexuasa^ 117. 
Crataegus, fungal enemies of, 84. 
Cratcegus glandulosa, 96, 113, 114. 
Crataegus glandulosa, var- macracantha, 96. 
Cratcegus glandulosa, var. rotundifolia, 95, 
Cratsegus, insect enemies of, 84. 
Cratcegus latifoUa, 101, 103. 
Cratcegus lauj^ifoUa, 91. 
Cratmgus Lavallei, 91. 
Cratcegus leucophlceos, 101. 
Cratcegus linearis, 92. 
Cratcegus lohata, 101, 113. 
Cratcegus lucida, 91, 119. 
Cratcegus macracantha, 96. 
Cratf^gus Micliauxli, 114, 
Cratcegus microcarpa, 105. 
Crat^gus mollis, 99. 
Cratcegus obovatifolia, 103. 
Cratcegus opaca^ 119. 
Cratcegus ovalifolia^ 92, 
CratiBgus Oxyacantha, 84- 
CratCECjus Oxyacantha, 111, 
Cratcegus Oxyacantha, var. Americana, 111. 
Cratcegus Oxyacantha, var. apiifolia. 111, 
Cratcegus parvifolia, 117. 
CratEegus pinnatifida, 84. 
Crattegus populifolia, 97, 107. 
CratfeguSj properties of, 84. 
Cratcegus prunellifolia, 92. 
Cratcegus prunifolia, 92, 
Crataegus punctata, 103. 
Cratcegus punctata, var. aurea, 103. 
Cratcegus punctata, var. hrevispina, 80. 
Crataegus punctata, var. rubra, 103. 
Cratcegus punctata, var, xanthacarpa, 103, 
Cratcegus pyr if olia, 101. 
Cratcegus racemosa, 127. 
Cratcegus rivularis^ 86, 87. 
Cratcegus rotundifolia, 95, 125, 
Cratcegus salicifolia, 92. 
Cratcegus sanguinea, 86, 96. 
Cratcegus sanguinea, var, Douglasii, 86. 
Cratffigus spathulata, 105. 



Cratcegus spathulata, 89, 114, 
Cratcegus spicata, 129, 
Crataegus stipulosa, 84. 
Cratcegus suhvillosa, 99. 
Cratcegus Texana, 99, 
Crataegus tomcntosa, 101. 
Cratcegus tomentosa, 99, 117, 
Cratcegus tomentosa, var, mollis, 99. 
Cratcegus tomentosa, var. plicata, 103- 
Cratcegus tomentosay var, punctata, 103, 
Cratcegus tomentosa, Yd^v , pyrifolia, 101- 
CratcBgus turhinata^ 113. 
Cratsegus uniflora, 117. 
CratCBgus unilateralis, 117. 
Cratcegus Virginica, 114, 
Crataegus viridis, 109. 
Cratcegus viridis, 95, 114. 
Cratcegus Watsoniana, 91. 
Cumberland Plum, 24, 
Cyrtophorus verrucosus, 11. 

Datana ministra, 70- 
Deep Creek Plum, 20. 
De Soto Plum, 20, 
Dieerca divaricata, 11. 
Duke Cherry, 9. 

Early Ked Plum, 26, 

Emory, William Hemsley, 60. 

Emorya, 60, 

Emplectocladus, 7, 8. 
Emplectocladus, 7- 
English Laurel, 11. 
Entomosporium maculatum, 70, 84, 

Fat Pork-Tree, 4. 

Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer, 11. 

Flat-headed Borer, 11, 70. 

Forest Garden Plum, 20. 

Forest Kose Plum, 20, 24. 

Fragrant Crab, 71, 75, . 

Fungal enemies of Amelanchier, 126. 

Fungal enemies of Crat^gus, 84. 

Fungal enemies of Prunus, 11, 

Fungal enemies of Pyrus, 70. 

Garfield Plum, 24. 
Golden Beauty Plum, 24. 
Gray, Christopher, 76. 
Gum, Cherry, 10. 

Hahnia, 67. 

Halmia, 83. 

Halmia cornifoUa, 103. 

Halmia flabellata, 95. 

Halmia lohata^ 101. 

Halmia punctata, 103. 

Halmia tomentosa, 101. 

Halmia tomentosa^ e. Calpodendron, 101. 

Halmia tomentosa, 5. leucophlcea, 101. 

Halmia tomentosa, &. pyrifolia, 101. 

Haw, 86, 101, 103, 109, 117, 

Haw, Apple, 119. 

Haw, Hog's, 89. 

Haw, May, 119. 

Haw, Parsley, 111, 

Haw, Scarlet, 95, 99. 

Haw, Small-fruited, 105. 

Haw, Summer, 113, 114- 

Haw, Yellow, 113. 

Heart Cherries, 9. 

Heteromeles, 121, 

Hetoromeles arbutifolia, 123. 

Heteromeles Fremontianay 123. 



INDEX. 



139 



Hicacos, 6. 
Hog's Haw, 89. 

Holly, California, 124. 
Honey-drop Plum, 24, 
Hyphantria cunea, 70- 

Icaco, 1, 

Icaque, Prunier de, 4. 

IcaqueSj Prunes de, 4. 

leaquier, 4- 

Indiana Chief Plum, 24. 

Indiana Eed Plum, 24. 

Indian Chief Plumj 24. 

Insect enemies of Amelanchier, 126. 

Insect enemies of Crataegus, 84. 

Insect enemies of Prunus, 11, 

Insect enemies of Pyrus, 70, 

Iron Wood, 133, 

Islay, 53, 

Itaska Plum, 20. 

^ 

Jennie Lucas Plum, 26. 

Kennedy, Louis, 16, 
Kennedya, 16, 
Kickapoo Plum, 20, 
Kirsehwasser, manufacture of, 10- 

Laurel, English, 11, 
Laurel, Portugal, 11. 

Laurocerasus, 8- 
Laurocerasns, 7, 8, 

Laurocerasus Caroliniana, 49. 
Laurocerasus ilicifolia^ 53. 
Laurocerasus salicifolia^ 46. 
Laurocerasus spJimrocarpa^ 51, 
Laurocerasus spJicerocarpa^ 0. BrasiliensiSf 

51. 
LazaroluSy 67- 
Lee & Kennedy, 16. 
Lee, James, 16, 
Leea, 16, 

Lithocolletis crat^gella, 84, 
Louisa Plum, 20, 
Lowrie, Jonathan Roberts, 28, 
Lyonothamnus, 133, 
Lyonothamnus asplenifolius^ 135. 
Lyonothamnus floribundus, 135- 
Lyonothamnus JiorihunduSy var, asplenif alius , 
135. 

Lyon, William Scrugham, 133- 

Mahogany, Mountain, 63, 65. 

Malus, 67, 68- 

Malus, 67. 

Malus angustifoUay 75- 

Malus communis^ 68, 

Malus coronaria, 71. 

Malus diversifolia, 77, 

Malu^ microcarpa coronaria, 71. 

Malus microcarpa sempervirenSy 75- 

Malus rivularisj 77, 

Malus sempervirens, 75. 

Malus suicordata^ 77, 

Malus Toringo, 69- 

Marasca Cherry, 10. 

Maraschino, manufacture of, 10. 

May Haw, 119. 

Mespilus acerifolia, 107- 

Mespilus cEstivalis, 119, 

Mespilus Amelanchier^ 125, 127- 

Mespilus apiifoliaj 111- 

Mespilus arhorea, 127, 

Mespilus arbuti/olia, 68, 123- 



Mespilus arhutifolia, var. melanocarpay QS. 

Mespilus axillaris^ 117, 

Mespilus berberi/oliaj 93- 

Mespilus Bosciana^ 92, 

Mespilus Calpodendrony 101, 

Mespilus Canadensis^ 127- 

Mespilus Canadensisy var, cordata, 127- 

Mespilus Canadensis, var, obovalis, 128, 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, 126- 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. rotundifolia, 129, 

Mespilus CaroUniana, 113- 

Mespilus coccinea, 95, 99, 

Mespilus coccineay jS. pubescens, 99- 

Mespilus coccinea, var, viridis, 95- 

Mespilus corallina, 107. 

Mespilus cordata, 107. 

Mespilus cornifoliay 103. 

Mespilus Crus-galUy 91. 

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. pyracantMfolia, 92. 

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, 92. 

Mespilus cuneifolia^ 91, 103, 

Mespilus cuneiformisy 103, 

Mespilus ellipticay 92, 114. 

Mespilus Jlabellata, 95. 

Mespilus fiava, 113- 

Mespilus flexispina^ 113, 117- 

Mespilus flexuosay 117- 

Mespilus Fontanesianay 92. 

Mespilus glandulosa, 96. 

Mespilus JtyemaliSy 114. 

Mespilus ladniata, 117. 

Mespilus lati/olia, 101, 

Mespilus linearis, 92. 

Mespilus lobatay 101. 

Mespilus lucida, 91, 

Mespjilus lucida, var. angustifolia, 92. 

Mespilus maxima^ 95, 

Mespilus Michauxiiy 114. 

Mespilus nivea, 127. 

Mespilus odorata, 95. 

Mespilus ovalifoliay 92. 

Mespilus OxyacantJia aureUy 117- 

Mespilus parvi/olia, 117, 

Mespilus Pkmnopyrumy 107, 

Mespilus popuUfolia, 97. 

Mespilus prunellifoliay 92. 

Mespilus prunifoliay 92, 

Mespilus pubescens, 99. 

Mespilus punctata, 103, 

Mespilus pyr if olia, 101, 103. 

Mespilus rivularisy 87, 

Mespilus rotundifolia, 95- 

Mespilus salicifolia, 92, 

Mespilus sanguinea^ 96. 

Mespilus spathulata, 105, 

Mespilus stipulosa, 84. 

Mespilus tilimfolia, 99- 

Mespilus tomentosa, 101, 117- 

Mespilus turbinata, 113. 

Mespilus unijlora, 117. 

Mespilus unilateralisy 117. 

Mespilus Watsoniana, 91. 

Mespilus Wendlandiiy 95- 

Mespilus xanihocarpa, 117. 

Mexican Cherry-tree, 46. 

MicrocerasuSy 7, 8. 

Micromeles, 67, 

MicromeleSy 67- 

Mincr Plum, 20, 24- 

Minnetonka Plum, 20- 

Missouri Apricot Plum, 24. 

Mock Orange, 49, 

Mohr, Charles, 90- 

Monilia fructigena, 12. 



Monllia Linhartiana, 12, 
Morello Cherry, 9. 
Mountain Ash, 69, 79, 81. 
Mountain Cherry, 26, 
Mountain Evergreen Cherry, 54. 
Mountain Mahogany, 63, 65, 
Mytilaspis pomicorticis, 70. 

Nepticula amelanehlerella, 126, 
Nepticula cratEegifoliella, 84. 
Newcastle Thorn, 91. 
New Mexican Cherry-tree, 46. 
Nummularia discreta, 70. 

(Edemasia concinna, 70. 
Oil, Almond, 9, 10- 

Oil, Apricot, 10. 
Orange, Mock, 49- 
Orange, Wild, 49. 
Oregon Crah-apple, 77- 
Ornix cratiegifoliella, 84, 
Ornix quadripunctella, 126. 
Oxyacantha, 83. 

Padus, 8," 
PaduSy 7, 8. 
Padus CaroUnay 49. 
Padus Caroliniana, 49- 
Padus cartilaginea, 45. 
Padus demissay 42, 
Padus densiflora, 41. 
Padus Jimbriata, 41. 
Padus hirsuta, 41. 
Padus micrantha, 41, 
Padus oblonga, 41- 
Padus obovata, 41, 
Padus rubra, 41, 
Padus serotina, 45, 
Padus Virginiana, 45- 
Parsley Haw, 111. 
Parsons Plum, 24, 
Patterson, Harry Norton, 24, 
Peach, cultivation of, 9. 
Peach, properties of, 10. 
Peach-tree Borer, 11, 
Pear-tree, G8, 
Perry, manufacture of, 69, 
Persea longipeda, 1, 
Persicay 7, 
Phcenopyrum, 83, 
Phmnopyrum acerifolium, 107. 
Phmnopyrum arborescens, 109, 
Plicenopyrum Carolinianum, 113, 
Phmnopyrum coccineum, 95. 
Phcenopyrum cordatum, 107. 
Phmnopyrum ellipticum, 114, 
Phmnopyrum par vi folium, 117. 
Phcenopyrum populifolium, 97. 
Phmnopyrum spailmlatum, 105, 
Phmnopyrum subviUosum, 99- 
Phmnopyrum unijlorumy 117. 
Phmnopyrum Virginicum, 114, 
Phmnopyrum Wendlandii, 95. 
Phalacros, 83, 
Phalacros cordatus, 107, 
Phorodon Humuli, 11, 
Photinia arbutifoliay 123- 
Photinia salicifoliay 123- 
Pigeon Cherry, 36. 
Pin Cherry, 36, 
Pirophorum, 67- 
Pirus, 70. 

Platysamia Cecropia, 11. 
Plowrightia morbosa, 12. 



140 



INDEX. 



Plum, Blackman, 24, 

Plum, Caddo Chief, 26. 

Plum, Canada, 15, 

Plum, Chickasaw, 25. 

Plum, Cocoa, 3. 

P]um, Colleta, 26- ■ 

Phira, cultivation of, 9. 

Plum, Cumberland, 24, 

Plum, Deep Creek, 20. 

Plum, Ue Soto, 20. 

Plum, Karly Red, 26. 

Plum, Forest Garden, 20,-' 

Plum, Forest Rose, 20, 24. 

Plum, Garfield, 24. 

Plum, Golden Beauty, 24, 

Plum, Indian Chief, 24. 

Plum, Indiana Chief, 24. 

Plum, Indiana Red, 24. 

Plum, Itaska, 20, 

Plum, Jennie Lucas, 26. 

Plum, Kickapoo, 20. 

Plum, Louisa, 20, 

Plum, Miner, 20, 24. 

Plum, Minnetonka, 20. 

Plum, Missouri Apricot, 24, 

Plum-pockets, 12, 

Plum, Pottawattamie, 26. 

Plum, Purple Yosemite, 16- 

Plum, Quaker, 16, 

Plujn, Red, 15, 

Plum, Sucker City, 24, 

Plum, Transparent, 26. 

Plum, Wayland, 24, 

Plum, Weaver, 16. 

Plum, Wild, 19, 23, 31, 

Plum, Wild Goose, 24. 

PodospliJBra Oxyacanth^, 12. 

Polyporus cinnabarinus, 12. 

Pomette Bleue, 89. 

Pork^Tree, Fat, 4. 

Porter, Thomas Conrad, 28, 

Portugal Laurel, 11. 

Pottawattamie Plum, 26- 

Prune d'Am^rique, 2, 

Prunes, 9, 

Prunes de leaques, 4. 

Prunier d'Ente, 9, 

Prmiier d'Icaque, 4. 

Primophora^ 7, 

Prunus, 7, 8. 

PrunuSy 7, 

Prunus Alleghaniensis, 27. 

Prunus Americana, 19. 

Prunus Americana^ 15, 

Prunus Americana^ var. (?), 23. 

Prunus Americana, var. mollis, 19- 

Prunus Amygdalus, 8. 

Prunus angustifolia, 25, 

Prunus Armeniaea, 8, 

Prunus Avium, 8, 9, 10. 

Prunus Avium, var. macrocarpa, 10. 

Prunus borealis^ 35, 

Prunus Brasiliensisy 51, 

Prunus Canadensis^ 46, 

Prunus Capuliy 46. 

Prunits Capulin, 46, 

Prunus Caroliniana, 49, 

Prunus Caroliniana, cifcy ordinance on, 9. 

Prunus cartalaginea, 45. 

Prunus Cerasus, 8, 10. 

Prunus-Cerasus Canadensis, 41, ■ 

Prunus- Cerasus montana, 35. 
Prunus Chicasa, 23, 25, 
PAmus demissa, 42. 



Prunus domestica, 8, 9, 20. 

Prunus domestica, var, Juliana, 9. 

Prunus domestica, var, Pruneauliana, 9. 

Prunus Duerinddu 41. 

Prunus emarginata, 37, 

Prunus eniarginata, var, mollis, 38. 

Prunus erecta^ 37- 

Prunus, fungal enemies of, 11. 

Prunus hiemaliSy 19. 

Prunus hirsuta, 41, 

Prunus hortulana, 23. 

Prunus ilicifolia, 53. 

Prunus ilicifolia, var, integrlfolia, 54. 

Prunus ilicifolia, var. occidentaliSy 54. 

PrnnuSj insect enemies of, 11. 

Prunus insititia, 9. 

Prunus insititia, 25. 

Prunus lanceolata, 35. 

Prunus Laurocerasus, 10, 11. 

Prunus Laurocerasus, properties of, 10. 

Prunus-Lauro-Cerasus serratifohay 49. 

Prunus Lusitauiea, 11. 

Prunus Lusitanica, 49, 

Prunus Lusitanica^ Yiiv.^serrati/olia^ 49- 

Prunus Mahaleb, 10, 11. 

Prunus maritima, var. j8. 28- 

Prunus Mississippi^ 19* 

Prunus mollis^ 15, 38, 

Prunus Mume, 8, 9, llo 

Prunus nana, 41. 

Prunus nigra, 15- 

Prunus nigra, 19. 

Prunus obovata, 41, 

Prunus occidentalism 54, 

Prunus (Economical 9. 

Prunus Padus, 8, 10, 

Prunus Pennsylvanica, 35» 

Prunus Persica, 8, 

Prunus persicifolia^ 35, 

Prunus pleur ad enia^ 51. 

Prunus, properties of, 9, 

Prunus Pseudo-Cerasus, 11. 

Prunus pumila, 33, 34. 

^ 

Prunus rubra, 41, 
Prunus salicifolia, 46. 
Prunus salicifolia^ var. acutifolia, 46. 
Prunus sempervirens, 49, 
Prunus serotina, 45. 
Prunus serotina^ 41, 
" Prunus serotina, properties of, 10, 
Prunus sphaBrocarpa, 51. 
Prunus spinosa, 10, 11, 20, 
Prunus spinosa, 19. 
Prunus subcordata, 31. 
Prunus subcordata, var, Kelloggii, 31, 
Prunus umbellata, 33, 
Prunus Virginiana, 41, 
Prunus Virgimana^ 45- 
Prunus Virginiana, var, demissa, 42, 
Prunus Virginiana, var, leucocarpa, 42- 
Prunus Virginiana, properties of, 10. 
Prumis, v\^ood of, 11, 
Puccinia Prnni-spinosse, 12, 
Purple Yosemite Plum, 16. 
Pyrus, 67, 68. 
Pyrus alnifolia, 131. 
Pyrus Amelanchier, 125. 
Pyrus Americana, 79, 
Pyrus Americana, 81. 
Pyrus Americana, var. niicrocarpa, 80. 
Pyrus angustifolia, 75. 
Pyrus arbutifolia, 68. 
Pyrus arhutifolia, var. melanocarpa^ 68. 
Pyrus arbutifoUa, var. nigra, 68, 



Pyrus Aria, 69. 

Pyrus ancuparia, 69. 
Pyrus aucuparia, 79, 81. 
Pyrus baccata, 69, 
Pyrus Bartramiana, 127. 
Pyrus Botryapium, 127. 
Pyrus communis, 68. 
Pyrus communis, 69, 
Pyrus coronaria, 71. 
Pyrus coronaria^ 75. 
Pyrus coronaria, var, angusiifolia, 75. 
Pyrus coronaria, var. loensis, 72. 
Pyrus diversifolia, 11. 
Pyrus, fungal enemies of, 70. 
Pyrus fusca, 11. 
Pyrus glandulosa, 96, 
Pyrus, insect enemies of, 70, 
Pyrus loensis, 72. 
Pyrus Malus, 68. 
Pyrus niicrocarpa, 80. 
Pyrus nigra, 68, 
Pyrus nivalis, 68, 
. Pyrus occidentalis, 82, 
Pyrus ovalis, 128, 129. 
Pyrus prunifolia, 68. 
Pyrus rivularis, 77, 
Pyrus rivularis, ^. levipes, 77, 
Pyrus salicifolia, 69, 
Pyrus sambucifolia, 81. 
Pyrus sambucifolia, var, pumila, 82, 
Pyrus sanguinea, 128, 131- 
Pyrus Sieholdii, 69. 
Pyrus Sinensis, 69- 
Pyrus Soulardi, 72, 
Pyrus spectabilis, 69, 
Pyrus subcordata, 77. 
Pyrus Toringo, 69, 
Pyrus Ussuriensis, 69. 
Pyrus Wangenheimiana, 127. 

Quaker Plum, 16. 
Quick Beam, 80. 

Raki, 10, 
Red Plum, 15. 

Rcesteli^e on Pyrus and Crataegus, 70, 84. 
Rceatelia cornuta, 70. 
Rcestelia pyrata, 70, 84. 
Romans, Bernard, 5. 

Rosacea, 1. 

Rowan-tree, Scottish, G9- 
Rum Cherry, 45. 
Rusts on Pyrus, 70. 

Saperda bivittata, 70, 

Saxifkagace^, 133. 

Scarlet Ilaw, 95, 99. 

Scurfy Bark-louse, 70, 

Selandia Cerasi, 11. 

Septoria cerasina, 12. 

Service Berry, 127, 131. 

Shad Bush, 127, 

Sloe, 10, 27, 33. 

Sloe, Black, 33- 

Small- fruited Haw, 105- 

Sorbus, 67. 

Sorbus, 67. 

Sorhus Amelanchier, 125, 

Sorhus Americana, 79, 

Sorbus Americana^ var. mia'ocarpa, 80. 

Sorbus aucuparia, 69, 79, 81. 

Sorbus aucuparia, var. a, 80. 

Sorbus aucuparia, var. Americana^ 79. 

Sorbus aucuparia, var. /3. 81, 



/ 



INDEX, 



141 



Sorhus microcarpa, 80, 
Sorbus occidentalisy 82. 
Sorbiis pumila^ 82. 
Sorbus riparia, 80, 
Sorbus sambucifoliaj 81, 
Sorbm Sitckemis, 81, 
Soulard Crab, 72. 
Spanish Wild Cherry, 54. 
Sph^eria Collinsii, 126. 
Spkceria morbosa^ 12. 
Sphinx drupiferarunij 11. 
Spircea Californica^ 59- 
Sucker City Plum, 24. 
Summer Haw, 113, 114. 

Taphrina deformans, 12- 

Taphrina deformans, vai\ Wiesiieri, 12, 

Taphrina Pruni, 12. 

Thorn, Coekspur, 91- 



Thorn, Newcastle, 91. 
Thorn, Washington, 107. 
Thorn, White, 95, 
Tollon, 123. 
Torminalisy 67, 
TomiiTiaria, 67- 
Toyon, 123. 
Transparent Plum, 26. 
TrichocarpuSy 7, - 
TubopaduSf 7. 

Uredinefe on Pyrus, 70. 

Yarach seeds, 4. 
Vauquelinia, 57. 
Vauqueliuia Calif ornica, 59, 
Vauquelinia corymhosa, 57. 
Vauquelinia corymbosa, 59, 
Vauquelinia Karwinskyi, 57. 



Vauquelinia Torreyi, 59. 
Vauquelin, Louis Nicolas, 57. 

Washington Thorn, 107. 
Wayland Plum, 21 
Weaver Plum, 16. 
White Beam-tree, 69. 
White Thorn, 95. 
Wild Ash, 80. 
Wild Black Cherry, 45. 
Wild Cherry, 37, 41. 
Wild Goose Plum, 24. 
Wild Orange, 49. 
Wild Plum, 19, 23, 31. 
Wild Red Cherry, 35. 

Yellow Haw, 113. 
Zwetschenwasser, 10. 



I ,