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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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SILVA 



OF 




ORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESCEIPTIOISr OF THE TEEES WHICH GEOW 

NATXJEALLY m NOETH AMEEICA 

EXCLUSIVE OP MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



3!lluj5traten tnttl^ figured am anal^^e^ tiratcn from lUature 



BY 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



AND ENGRAVED BT 



PHILIBEET AND EUGENE PICART 



VOLUME V. 



HAMAMELIDE^ — SAP TA CEJE 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

M Dccc xcm 



Copyright, 1893, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE fURGENT. 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass,, U, S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H, O. Houghton and Company. 



&i£RT2 UBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



To 

FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED, 

THE GREAT ARTIST 
WHOSE LOVE FOR NATURE HAS BEEN A PRICELESS BENEFIT 

TO HIS FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN, 
THIS FIFTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS AFFECTIONATELY 



DEDICATED. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME Y. OF 

THE SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class L DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class I. AllgiosperniSB. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 
Division I. PolypetalSB. Flowers with calyx and corolla, the latter divided into separate petals. 

C. CALYCIFLOR-^, Sepals rarely distinct. Disk adnate to the base of the calyx, rarely tumid or conspicuous 
or wanting. Petals usually as many as the lobes of the calyx, or fewer by abortion, inserted on the margin of the calyx- 
tube or of the disk, occasionally wanting. Stamens definite or indefinite, perigynous or hypogynous. Ovary superior or 
inferior, 

22. Hamamelidese. Flowers often polygamo-monoecious. Petals often wanting. Stamens few or indefinite. 
Ovary inferior or partly superior, of 2' carpels, free at the apex. Ovules few or solitary, suspended, anatropous. 
Seeds albuminous. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate. 

23. RhizophoracesB. Flowers usually perfect. Petals 3 to 14. Stamens two to four times as numerous as 
the petals. Ovary 2 to 6-celled, usually superior. Ovules 2, rarely 4 or more, anatropous. Seeds exalbuminous or 
rarely albuminous. Leaves usually opposite and stipulate, occasionally alternate and exstipulate. 

24. CombretaceaB. Flowers usually perfect. Petals or 4 to 5. Stamens 4 to 5 or 8 to 10. Ovary 1-celled. 
Ovules 2 to 6 or rarely solitary, anatropous. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate, 

25. Myrtacese. Flowers usually perfect. Petals 4 to 5, rarely 6, or 0. Stamens indefinite. Ovary usually 
inferior, 2 to many-celled, or rarely 1-celled. Ovules 2 or many, amphitropous. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves oppo- 
site or rarely alternate, exstipulate. 

26. Cactacese. Flowers perfect. Petals and stamens indefinite. Ovary inferior, 1 or 2 or many-celled. 
Ovules numerous, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. Leaves minute or 0, or rarely large and fleshy. 

27. Araliaceae. Flowers perfect. Petals and stamens usually 5. Ovary inferior, 1 to 2 or many-celled. 
Ovule solitary, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, usually compound. 

28. OornacesB. Flowers regular, perfect. Petals and stamens usually 5. Ovary inferior, 1 to 4-celled. Ovules 
1 or rarely 2, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, entire. 

Division II. GaiZUOpetalSB. Petals usually united. Stamens inserted on the corolla alternate with or opposite its 
lobes, or free from the corolla. Ovary inferior or superior. 

29. Caprifoliaceae. Flowers perfect, regular or irregular, 4 to 5-merous. Stamens inserted on the corolla, and 
usually as many as its lobes. Ovary inferior, 2 to 8-celled. Ovules 2 or many, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. 
Leaves opposite, rarely stipulate. 

30. Rubiaceae. Flowers perfect, regular, 4 to 5-merous. Stamens inserted on the corolla and as many as its 
lobes. Ovary inferior, 2 to 4-celled. Ovules usually numerous, anatropous, or amphitropous. Seeds albuminous or 
rarely exalbuminous. Leaves simple, opposite or verticillate, stipulate. 

31. Ericaceae. Flowers regular, perfect, 4 to 5-merous. Stamens free from the corolla. Ovary inferior or 
superior. Ovules numerous or rarely solitary, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate or opposite, ex- 
stipulate. 

32. Myrsineaceae. Flowers regular, perfect or polygamo-dicecious. Stamens inserted on the corolla opposite its 
lobes. Ovary superior, 1-celled, with a free central placenta. Ovules few or numerous, amphitropous or anatropous. 
Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, exstipulate. 

35. SapotacesB. Flowers regular, perfect, 4 to 5-merous. Stamens inserted on the corolla opposite its lobes- 
Ovary superior, few or many-celled. Ovule solitary, amphitropous. Seeds albuminous or exalbuminous. Leaves 
alternate or rarely subopposite, exstipulate or rarely stipulate. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 



Synopsis of Orders 



• « 



Hamamelis Virginiana . 

LiQUIDAMBAR SxYRACIFLUA 

Rhizophora Mangle 
Terminalia Buceras . 



conocarpus erecta . 
Laguncularia racemosa 
Anamomis dtchotoma 



Calyptranthes Chytraculia 
Eugenia buxifolia . 

Eugenia Monticola 
Eugenia prooera 



Eugenia Garberi 



Cereus giganteus 
Aralia spinosa 
cornus florida 
cornus nuttallii 
cornus alternifolia 



Nyssa sylyatica 
Nyssa Ogeche . 
Nyssa aquatica 



Sambucus Canadensis, var. Mexicana 
Sambucus glauca . 
Viburnum Lentago . 
Viburnum prunifolium 

EXOSTEMA CarIB^UM 

PiNCKNEYA PUBENS . . ■ . 

GUETTARDA ELLIPTICA 

Vaccinium ARBOREUM . . . . 

Arbutus Mexziesii .... 
Arbutus Xalapensis . . . . 
Arbutus Arizonica . 
Andromeda ferruginea 
0xydendru3i arboreum . 

Kalmia LATIFOLIA . , . . 

Rhododendron maximum . 



icacorea panic ulata . 
Jacquinia armillaris 
Chrysophyllum oliyiforme . 

SiDEROXYLUM MaSTICHODENDRON 

BUMELIA *rENAX . 

BuMELIA LANUGINOSA 

BUMELIA LYCIOIDES 
BUMELIA ANGUSTIFOLIA 



DiPHOLIS SALICIFOLIA 



Plate cxcviii 
Plate cxcix. 
Plate cc. , 



Plate cci 



Plate ccii. . , , . . . 

Plate cciii. ........ 

Plate cciv. ....... 

Plate ccv. . ...... 

Plate ccvi. . ...... 

Plate ccvii. ..... 

Plate ccviii. ......... 47 



vii 

3 

10 
15 

21 

29 
32 

36 
43 

15 



Plate ccix 
Plate ccx. 



Plate ccxi. . 
Plates ccxii., ccxiii. 



Plates ccxiv,, ccxv 
Plate ccxvi. 



Plates ccxvii., ccxviu. . 

Plate ccxix. 

Plate ccxx. . 

Plate ccxxi. 

Plate cexxii. 

Plates ccxxiii., ccxxiv. 

Plate ccxxv. 

Plate ccxxvi. . 

Plates ccxxvii., ccxxviii. 

Plate ccxxix. . 

Plate ccxxx- 

Plate ccxxxi. 

Plate ccxxxii. 

Plate ccxxxili. 

Plate ccxxxiv. 

Plate ccxxxv. . 

Plates ccxxxvi., ecxxxvii. 

Plates ccxxxviii., ecxxxix. 

Plates ccxl., ccxli- 

Plate ccxiii. . 

Plate ccxliii. 

Plates ccxHy., ccxlv. 

Plate ccxlvi. 



Plate ccxl\di. . 
Plate ccxlviii. 
Plate ccxlix. . 



49 

53 
59 
66 
69 



i 



1 



75 



i 



9 



83 

88 

91 

96 

99 

105 

109 

113 

119 

123 

125 

127 

131 



13: 



) 



139 
148 
153 
157 
161 
165 
169 
171 
173 
175 



Plate ccl 179 



MiMUSOPS SiEBERi Plate ccH. 



183 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HAMAMELIS. 



Flowees usually perfect ; calyx deeply 4-parted, the lobes imbricated in aestiva- 
tion ; petals 4, elongated-linear, involute in aestivation ; stamens 8, those opposite the 
petals rudimentary and scale-like ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules suspended. Fruit a woody 
capsule, loculicidally dehiscent from the apex. Leaves alternate, stipulate, deciduous. 



Hamamelis, Linnaeus, Gen> ed, 2, 54 (1742). — A. L. de 456 (excl. Loropetalum) . — Engler & Prantl, Pfianzen- 

Jussieu, Gen. 288. — Meisner, Gen. 153. — Endlicher, fam. iii. pt. ii. 128. 



Gen. 804. — Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 459. 



Mitchell, Act. Nat 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 667. — Baillon, Hist. PI. iii. Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 381. 



Trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, terete zigzag branchlets, naked buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves 
involute in vernation, alternate, unsymmetrical at the base, crenate-toothed, the primary veins conspic- 
uous and nearly parallel with the margins, deciduous ; stipules acute, infolding the buds, deciduous/ 
Flowers autumnal or hyemal, perfect or polygamous,^ in terminal three-flowered clusters borne on axil- 
lary simple, or rarely branched peduncles furnished near the middle with two acute deciduous bractlets, 
each flower surrounded by two or three ovate acute bracts, the outer shghtly united at the base into a 
three-lobed involucre. Calyx deeply four-parted, persistent on the base of the ovary, the lobes reflexed. 
Petals inserted on the margin of the cup-shaped receptacle, alternate with the sepals, strap-shaped. 
Stamens eight in two rows, inserted on the margin of the receptacle, the four opposite the lobes of the 
calyx fertile, the others reduced to minute strap-shaped scales ; filaments free, shorter than the calyx, 
prolonged into the thickened pointed connective ; anthers muticous, attached at the base, two-celled, 
introrse, the elKptical cells opening laterally from within by persistent valves. Ovary composed of two 
carpels free at their apex, inserted in the bottom of the receptacle, partly superior ; styles subulate, 
spreading, stigmatic at the apex, persistent ; ovules one, or two in each cell ^ becoming sohtary by 
abortion, suspended from the apex of the axile placenta; micropyle superior, raphe ventral. Fruit 
capsular, partly superior, two-beaked at the apex, the thick and woody exocarp spHtting from above 
locuHcidally before the opening of the thin crustaceous endocarp. Seed oblong, acute, suspended ; testa 



American 



winter-bud and fall away from the upper leaf, that is, the last leaf p 

formed in the previous autumn, as it begins to expand, although varying somewhat in size on 

they generally remain during the spring and early summer on the be generally perfect. 

leaves which unfold after the opening of the bud. On Hamamelis ^ Baillon, Adansonia, x. 126. 

mollis, a native of China, the stipules are more developed than on 

fiio nfiipr snfipips and entirelv inclose the winter-buds. 



2 The flowers of Hamamelis are described by many authors as 



American s 
le individual 



2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HAMAMELIDEiE. 



chestnut-brown, shinin 



& 



Embryo surrounded by thick fleshy albumen \ cotyledons oblong 



foliaceous, longer than the radicle tui-ned towards the oblong depressed hUum 



Hamamelis is confined to eastern America and eastern Asia 



A 



mer 



a second inhabits the mountain fo 



Three species 



k 



one is 



of Japan, and of central China/ where, in Kiangsi 



and Hupeh, the third species ^ occurs. 

The appearance of the flowers of Hamamelis in autumn simultaneous with the ripening of 
fruit of the previous year and after the foliage has assumed its autumnal colors, or in winter or e 



rly 



while the branches are bare of leaves, gives special interest to the species of this genus, which 



not known to possess useful properties. 

The American species of Hamamelis is not attacked by many 
fungal diseases.^ 



4 



or 



usly affected by 



The generic name, from a^a and ;u>7XiV, once apphed to the Medlar, or to some other plant resem- 
bling the Apple-tree, was fii-st given by Linnaeus to the American species. 



XVUl 



XXlll 



1 In Hamamelis Virginiana the seed is forcibly discharged to a « Hamamelis mollis, Oliver, Hook( 
considerable distance by the contraction of the edges of the valves Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
of the bony endocarp, which in opening suddenly frees it by pres- * Few insects are described as livmg upon Hamamelis in the 
sure and causes it to fly upwards (EUiott, Sk. i. 219. —Gray, Am. United States or as affecting it injuriously. Packard (5th Report 

Bat. Gazette, vii. 125, 137). U. S. Entomolog. Comm. 1886-1890, 668) enumerates six species, 

2 Hamamelis Japonica, Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. and a number of others are known. Larv* of such moths as Sco- 



144 



Munch 



Mus 



iii. 21, — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 163; ii. 368. 



Bot. Mag. cviii. t. 6659. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. miners lik 



Moffatiana, Grote, and Halesidota Caryce, Clemens, devour 
the leaves, while several species of the small Tortricids, or Leaf- 



290. 



45 



superhifrontella, Clemens, and Catastega 



hamameliella, Clemens, feed upon or mine within the parenchyma. 



Hamamelis Virginiana, var. Japonica, Franchet, PI. David, i. The most conspicuous and peculiar injuries to Hamamelis are 



131 (1884). 



caused by two aphid-galls, one affecting the leaves, the other the 

Hormaphis Hamamelidis 



In Japan Hamamelis Japonica is found in southern Yezo and in fruit, 

the mountain forests of the three southern islands, where, in the makes cone-shaped galls on the upper surface of the leaves ; the 

neigliborhood of streams, it is common at an elevation of from other, Hormaphis spinosus, Osten Sacken, infests the young fruit 

two to four thousand feet above the sea, often becoming a tree after it begins to grow in spring, causing it to develop into a 

sometimes hollow gall as large as the mature fruit or larger, covered on the 

conditions, outside with spines, and filled with aphids and their liquid secre- 

a straggling many-stemmed shrub. In China it has been found tions (Trans. Am. Entomolog. Soc. i. 284). Bees and wasps are 



trunk 



unde 



ghborhood of Eaukiang 



The flowers of the often attracted in large numbers to Hamamelis in search of the 



genus 



Japanese plant are rather smaller than those of the American secretions of these aphids, which appear to be peculiar to the 

species, and on plants cultivated in the United States and in 

Europe appear in winter or in very early spring ; they vary in ^ i^ America Hamamelis is subject to no serious fungal disease, 

colored although the leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana are inhabited by sev- 

elis ar- eral small and peculiar species of fungi of considerable interest to 

borea. Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xv. 216, f. 38 [1881] ; ser. 3, botanists. Of these the mUdew Podosph<Bra hiundnata, Cooke & 

Andrd, Peck, with its well-marked appendages, is a, characteristic North 



with calyx 



inner surface and with 



ix. 248, f. 55. 



xxxvu. 79 ; xxxix. 546, 

alyx- 



Am 



Phyllosticta Hamamelidis, Cooke, Ramularia 



brown and the petals canary-yeUow {Hamamelis Hamamelidis, Peck, and Cercospora Hamamelidis, Ellis & Everhart, 



XXXV 



In its native country the foliage of Hamamelis Japonica during 



form discolored spots on the leaves, and are slightly injurious to 
the plant. 



shades of brilliant orange, or rarely of deep vinous red. 



with 



HAMAMELIDE-a:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA. 



Witch Hazel. 



Flowers autumnal. Leaves obovate or oval, usually acute at the apex. 



Hamamelis Virginiana, Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 180 



464 ; Diet. Bot. iii. 10. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, 



(1762). 



Miller 



Moench, Bdume Weiss 



ii. 472, t. 



Le Maout 



Traite Gin. Bot. 



48. 



Marshall, Arbust. Am. 58. — Du Roi, Harhk 



Baumz. i. 297 . — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti,u. 



258. 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 87, t. 29, f. 62. 



Lamarck, Diet. iii. 68 ; El. i. 350, t. 88. — Willdenow, 
Berl. Baumz. 139 ; Spec. i. 701. 



88, t. 27. — Michaux 



7, Handb. i. 
Borkhausen, 



271, f . — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 545, f . 220. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 85. 
"Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 179. — Engler & 

Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. ii. 128, f. 
Hamamelis dioica, Walter, Fl. Car. 255 (1788). — Gmelin, 

Syst. ii. 282. 



Handb. Forstbot. ii. 1568. — Persoon, Syn. i. 150. — Du Hamamelis androgyna, Walter, Fl. Car. 255 (1788). 



Mont 



Desfontaines, 



Gmelin, Syst. ii. 281. — Selt. Am. Gewdch. 13, t. 25. 



Hist. Arb. ii. 29. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 116. — Bige- Hamamelis corylifolia, Moench, Meth. 273 (1794). 

low, Fl. Boston. 40. — Nuttall, Gen. i. lOl.—Nouveau Hamamelis macropliylla, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 116 



Duhamel, vii. 207, t. 60. — Elliott, Sk. i. 219. — Roemer 
& Schultes, Syst. iii. 483. — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. vi. t. 598. 
Barton, Fl. iV. Am. iii. 21, t. 78. — Torrey, Fl. N. T. i. 
260. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 95, t. 75. 
Sprengel, Syst. i. 491. — Rafinesque, Med. Fl. i. 227, f. 
45. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 268. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- 



(1814). 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. v. 698. — EUiott, Sk. 



i. 220. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 483. — Rafinesque, 

Med. Fl. i. 230. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 396. 
Hamamelis Virginiana, var. parvifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 

107 (1818). — Torrey, Fl. U. S. 193. — Don, Gen. Syst. 

iii. 396. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 597. 
Am. i. 275. — Don, Gen. Stjst. iii. 396. — Spach, Hist. Hamamelis parvifolia, Rafinesque, Med. Fl. i. 230 (1828). 
V6g. viii. 79. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 550. —Torrey & Gray, Trilopus Virginica, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 15 (1836). 



m 



Darlingt 



Trilopus nigra, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 16 (1836). 



Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. t. 13, f. 7. — Schnizlein, Icon. Trilopus rotundifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 16 (1836). 
t. 167, f. 18-25, 27-29. — Chapman, Fl. 157. — Curtis, Trilopus estivalis, Rafinesque, New Fl iii. 16 (1836). 



Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 



111. 



105. 



Koch, Trilopus dentata, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 17 (1836). 



Dendr. ii. 458. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. iii. 389, f. 462- Trilopus parvifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 17 (1836) 



A 



nally twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk twelve or fourteen 



inches in diameter, and spreading branches forming a broad open head 



or 



lually a stout shrub 



ding up from the ground numerous rigid diverging stems from five to twenty feet tall. The bark 

is an eighth of an inch thick, light brown, generally smooth, and covered with minute 



of the trunk is an € 
thin appressed scales 
which are alternate and 



which disclose in falhng the dark reddish purple inner bark. The branchlets 



placed on the branches at an 



gle; they are thin and 



flexible, and vary greatly in length, the longest being usually near the end of the branches 



first 



they 



coated with 



fy rusty 



which gradually disappear during the summer ; in 



their first winter they are glabrous 



or sHghtly puberulous, light 



5 



•brown, and marked with 



small white dots ; and in their second year they become dark or reddish b 



The winter-buds 



are acute, slightly falcate, light orange-brown, and covered with short fine pubescence. The leaves ar( 
obovate, acuminate, long- pointed or sometimes rounded at the apex, and are very unequal at the base 
the lower side beino^ rounded or subcordate and larger than the upper, which is usually wedge-shaped 



they 



larly and 



ely serrate-toothed above the middle, and 



or dentate below, four 



to 



inches long, two to two and a haU inches broad, with 



midribs and six 



pairs of 



primary veins terminating 



the principal teeth, and are borne on stout petioles which vary from half 



nch to nearly an inch in length ; when they unfold, the veins, especially on the lower surface, and 



4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HAMAMELIDEiE. 



the petioles and stipules, are coated with stellate ferrugineous pubescence; at maturity they are 
membranaceous, dull dark gieen on the upper surface, which is glabrous or pilose with occasional minute 



hairs, and pubescent or puberulous especially along the midribs and principal 



on the lowe 



surface, which is lighter colored and more lustrous than the upper. The stipules are lanceolate 
coriaceous, and from one third to half an inch long. In the autumn, before falling, the leavi 



a delicate yellow 
developed from the 



color. 



dark ferrugineous pubesc 



The clusters of flower-buds appear in August on short recurved peduncles 

saves of the year, and are covered, like the acute bracts and bractlets, 
jnce. The flowers open from the middle of September to the middle of 



of 



Novemb 



different parts of the country ; the caly 



with thick pale pubescence, and is orange-brown on the 



is at this season coated on the outer surface 
inner surface, the rounded lobes being ciliate 
on the margins. The petals are bright yellow,^ and half an inch to two thirds of an inch long, and, 
like the stamens, fall as soon as the ovules have been fertilized. During the winter the calyx-lobes 
surround and protect the pubescent ovary, which does not begin to enlarge until the following spring. 
The fruit ripens in the autumn, usually two from each flower-cluster, and discharges its seeds when the 
flowers of the season are expanding ; it is half an inch long, pubescent, dull orange-brown, and is 
surrounded for half its length by the large persistent calyx bearing at its base the blackened remnants 

of the floral bracts. 

Hamamelis Virginiana is distributed from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the valley of the 

St. Lawrence River to southern Ontario,^ Wisconsin, and eastern Nebraska,^ and southward to northern 

Florida and eastern Texas. The Witch Hazel is one of the most common shrubs in the territory it 

inhabits, and is usually found on the borders of the forest in low rich soil or on the rocky banks of 

streams ; it probably becomes a tree only on the slopes of the high Alleghany Mountains in North and 

South Carolina and Tennessee. 

The wood of Hamamelis Virginiana is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, and contains 
numerous thin obscure medullary rays ; it is light brown tinged with red, the thick sapwood, composed 
of from thirty to forty layers of annual growth, being nearly white. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.6S56^ a cubic foot weighing 42.72 pounds. 

The bark and leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana are slightly astringent, and although not known 
to possess essential properties ^ are largely used by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts and decoc- 
tions,^ and in homoeopathic practice.^ 

The appearance of the flowers of the Witch Hazel late in the autumn as the fruit ripens and after 
the leaves have changed color gives it peculiar interest, and should secure for it a place in the 
shrubbery, where formerly it was more often seen than it is at present.^ 

Hamamelis Virginiana appears to have been first noticed by John Banister,^ an English mission- 
ary in Virginia; and the earliest printed notice of it is found in the Almagestum Botanieum of 



1 Mr. Edward L. Raud has found in Maiden, Massachusetts, a of disease have excited an unusual interest in Hamamelis, in which, 



single plant on which the petals are all light red. 



however, chemists fail to distinguish any active medicinal prop- 



2 Provancher, Flore Canadienne, i. 255. — Bruuet, Cat Veg. Lig, erties. 
Can, 29. — Macouu, Cat Can. PI, i. 166. 



Med. Fl 
1. Med. . 



Endlicher, En- 
James Foun- 



2 Bessey, Bull. Exper. Stat Nebraska, r 
^ Gray, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxiv. 438. 



chirid. Bot 401. 

tain, N. Y. Jour. Med. x. 208. — Trans. Am. Med. Assoc, i. 349. 

Nat Dispens. ed. 2, 704. — Baillon, Traite Bot Med. 768, f . 2398- 



^ The bark of Hamamelis first attracted attention as a remedy 2400. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot N. Am. 145, f . 127. 



Parke, 



on account of its reputed use by the North American Indians in Davis & Co., Organ. Mat Med. ed. 2, 197. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 
the treatment of external inflammations. It has been recommended 757.) 



by several practitioners for the treatment of haemorrhage of the 



Millspaugh, Am. Med. Plants in Homceopathic Remedies, i. 58, 



lungs and stomach, and for external applications. By distilling t. 58. 

the bark in dilute alcohol " Pond's Extract" is made. The popu- ' Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 1007, f. 756, 757 

larity of this medicine and the widespread belief in its value for ^ 3^^ j g^ 

external applications and for the treatment of nearly every form 



HAMAMELIDE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



5 



Plukenet^ published in 1696.^ According to Aiton/ it was introduced into English gardens in 1736 



by Peter CoUinson. 



3 



It is propagated by seed^ which should be sown as soon as gathered^ when it will germinate in the 



second year.* 



^ Pistachia Virginiana nigra Coryli/oliis, 298. 



^ The popular name of this plant is due to the fact that it was 



Hamamelis, Catesby, Nat, Hist. Car, ii. Appx. 2, t. 2. — Clayton, early used by impostors to indicate the presence of precious metals 
Fl, Virgin, 139. — Golden, Cat. PL Novehor. 89. — Duhamel, Traite in the soil and to discover springs of water. For this purpose a 
des Arbres, i. 287, t. 114. 



2 Hort. Kew. i. 167. 
8 See i. 8. 



forked branch is twirled between the fingers and thumbs of the 
two hands ; then at the place where the fork points water or gold 
is declared to exist. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCVIIL Hamamelis Virginiana. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, one of the anthers opening, front view, enlarged 

6. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A rudimentary stamen, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. An open fruit, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 

14. A leafy branch, natural size. 

15. The base of a leaf with stipules, natural size. 

16. A branchlet showing flowers and leaf-bud in winter. 

17. A cluster of flower-buds with bracts and bractlets, enlarged. 



Tat. CXCVllI. 



Silva of North America. 



^7 




Picartjr . scy. 



C.E.Faxvn. del ■ 



HAMAMELIS VlRGmiANA, L 



A.JUocreiLV- dire^'^: 



Imp . TO. Taneup, Paris 



HAMAMELIDE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



7 



LIQUIDAMBAR. 



Flowers usually unisexual, capitate, apetalous ; stamens indefinite in globular 

r 

heads ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules indefinite, suspended. Fruit a spherical head of woody 
carpels consolidated by their bases. Leaves alternate, palmately lobed, stipulate, 
deciduous. 



Liquidambar, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 2, 463 (1742). — Adan- 
son, Fam, PL ii. 376. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 410. 
Endlicher, Gen. 289. — Meisner, Gen. 347. — Bentham & 



Hooker, Gen. \. 669. — Baillon, Hist. PL iii. 461 (excl 
Altingia). — Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. ii. 

123. 



Trees, with balsamic juices, scaly bark, terete often winged branchlets, scaly buds, and fibrous 
roots. Leaves plicate in vernation, alternate, palmately lobed, glandular-serrate, long-petiolate, decidu- 
ous ; stipules lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers monoecious or occasionally perfect, in capitate heads 
surrounded by involucres of four deciduous bracts, the males in terminal racemes, the females in 
solitary long pedunculate heads from the axils of the upper leaves. Male flowers destitute of calyx 
and corolla ; stamens indefinitej interspersed with minute scales ; filaments filiform, shorter than the 

obcordate introrse longitudinally dehiscent anthers attached by their bases. Female flowers 
surrounded by mammif ormed or long-awned scales, the whole confluent into globular heads ; calyx-Kmb 
short or nearly obsolete ; stamens generally four, inserted on the summit of the ob conic calyx ; anthers 
minute, usually rudimentary or abortive, rarely fertile ; ovary inserted in the bottom of the concave 
receptacle, partly inferior, two-celled, the carpels produced into an elongated subulate recurved persist- 



oblong 



;tyle stigmatic on its inner face 



definite, suspended from an axile placenta, anatrop 



micropyle superior, raphe ventral. Fruit a globose multicapsular head armed with the hardened 
incurved styles ; capsules free above, septicidally dehiscent at the apex, the epicarp thick and woody, 
the endocarp thin, corneous, lustrous on the inner surface, separable. Seeds usually solitary, or two by 
the abortion of many ovules, compressed, angulate ; testa opaque, crustaceous, produced into a short 

Embryo surrounded by thin fleshy albumen ; 



membranaceous obovate wing rounded at the 



apex 



cotyledons oblong, flat, the radicle terete turned towards the lateral hilum. 

Liquidambar is now confined to the eastern United States, to central and southern Mexico, Central 
America, the Orient, and middle and southeastern China j although in the Tertiary epoch the forests 
which clothed the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California possessed a Liquidambar,^ and the 
immediate ancestor ^ of the existing American species inhabited Alaska, Greenland, and the mid-conti- 
nental plateau of North America, and later was widely distributed in the Miocene of Europe, where 
have been found the traces of a second species ^ similar in the form of its leaves to the present 
representative of the genus in western Asia. Three species are distinguished in the genus as it is 
now usually limited : Liquidambar Styraciflita is American ; Liquidainbar orientalis^ inhabits a few 



ibar Califomicum^ Lesquereux, Mem. Mus. Comp. Z 
(Fossil Plants of the Auriferous Gravel Deposit of 



Nevada) 



uereux 



Zittel, Handb, Palceontolog. ii. 624, f. 12. 



^ Liquidambar protensium^ Unger, Icon, Foss. 44, t. 20, f, 27 
(1852). — Saporta, L c. 195. 

4 MUler, Diet, ed. 8, No. 2 (1768). — Hooker, Icon. xi. 13, t. 
1019. — De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii, 158. 



Boissier, Fl. Orient. 



Western Territories, ni.). — Saporta, Origine Paleoniologique ii. 819. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 465. 



des Arbres, 194. — Zittel, L c. t 1-7. 



Liquidambar imberbe^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 365 (1789). 
The Oriental Liquidambar is described as a handsome tree attain- 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HAMARIELIDE-S:. 



provinces in southwestern Asia Minor ; and lAqiiidamhar Formosana is found in China and on the 



island of Formosa. 



1 



All the species produce hard straight-grained handsome dark-colored wood and valuable balsamic 



exudations.^ 



ing the height of thirty or forty feet, and is said to form forests still used as an ingredient in some old-fashioned remedies (A. Ri- 



Nat. Med 



of considerable extent in the extreme southwestern part of Asia 

Minor. Introduced into France toward the middle of the eighteenth Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 203. 

century by the French consul at Smyrna, it was first cultivated in 417, 461 ; Bonplandia, v. 114, t. ; Jour, de PI 

Europe at the King's Garden in Marly (Duhamel, Traite des Ar- Fluckiger & Hanhury, Pharmacographia, 241. 



Lindley, Med, FL 321. 



Pharm 



XXXI 



Guibourfc, Hist. 



hresy i. 366. — Nouveau Duhamely ii. 44. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 305. — Sp 



of 



'^053, f. 1963, 1964). 



^f 



Balfour, 



1 Hanee, Ann. Sci. Nat. st<r. 5, v. 215 (1866) ; Jour. Bot. viii. Encyclopcedia of India, ed. 3, ii. 721. — Baillon, Traite Bat. Med. 



274. 



Hooker, Icon. xi. 14, t. 1020. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. 110, f. 2401-2403.— U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1430). 



Linn. Soc. xxiii. 291. 



ifl 



Liquidambar acerifoUa, Maximowicz, Bull Acad. ScL St. Peters- ral fissures in the bark or by incision small quantities of balsamic 



hourg, x. 486 (MIL BioL vi. 21) (not Unger) (1866). 



resin, which is produced more freely in the southern states and in 



Liquidambar Maximowiczii, Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. Mexico and Central America than in the north. It flows from the 
iii. 200 (1867). — Franchet, PL David, i. 357. 

Liquidambar species, Hemsley, Jour. Bot. xiv. 207 (1876). 



brown 



a balsamic odor and a bitter acrid taste, and upon exposure gradu- 
The Chinese Liquidambar is a handsome tree thirty to forty feet ally hardens and turns to a darker color. The product of Liquid- 



in height, distinguished from the other species by its dull rather 



ifi 



opaque leaves and by the long-awned scales which surround the considered to be identical in its properties with the liquid storax 

female flowers and harden in the development of the fruit. From obtained from Liquidambar orientalis^ and to be useful for the same 

Liquidambar Forinosana, and from an imperfectly known tree of purposes. Another product is obtained by boiling the young 

central China, which is probably an imdescribed species m this branches in water ; the substance which rises to the surface is 

genus (Forbes & Hemsley, L c. 290), the wood used in making tea- dark-colored and nearly opaque, but has the same properties as 

chests and the forms in which brick-tea is compressed is largely copalm balm. A syrup prepared from the bark of this tree has 

obtained. been employed with advantage in sonae parts of the country in 

In southern Japan Liquidambar Formosana is occasionally culti- the treatment of dysentery and catarrhal affections ; the concrete 

vated as an ornamental tree, and fine specimens exist in the Botanic juice is used as ii chewing-gum to sweeten the breath, and some- 



Garden of the Imperial University in Tokyo. 



times as an ingredient in ointments. In the south the bark has 



2 From Liquidambar orientalis is derived liquid storax, an opaque been successfully used in camp-hospitals in the treatment of diar- 

grayish brown resin. The origin of this substance remained un- rhoea and dysentery (Medical and Surgical History of the War of 

known until recent years, although the bark has been widely the Rebellion, pt. ii., i. Medical History , 47) ; and it is now consid- 

exported from Asia Minor, and in general use at least since the ered a useful and valuable mucilaginous astringent (Dale, Pharma- 

beginning of the Christian era, especially in India and China, cologia, ¥)Q. — Vova^i, Hist. Gen. Dro^f. pt. i. 282, — Linnseus, Mat. 

where the largest part of the product is still consumed. The Med.\b2. — Le Page du Pratz, fl'i^^ozVe c?6 Za iommne, ii. 38, t. 

extraction of the resin is carried on by wandering tribes of Tur- Bergius, Mat. Med. ii. 798, — B, S. Barton, Coll. ed. 2, i. 16. 

comans in the forests of southwestern Asia Minor. The process, Hayne, Arzn. xi. t. 25. — Nees von Esenbeck, PL Med. t. 96. — 



A. 



as described by Fliickiger & Hanbury, consists in the removal of Richard, I. c. 193. — Lindley, l. c. 322. — Pereira, Elements Mat. 

the outer bark of the tree, which is not productive ; the inner bark Med. ed. 4, ii. pt. i. 336. — Boyle, Mat. Med. 562. — Griffith, Med. 

is then scraped off with a peculiar knife made for the purpose, and Bot. 681, f . 254. — Rosenthal, I. c. — Guibourt, Z. c. 305, f . 445. 

is stored in vats until a sufficient quantity is collected; it is then Spons, I. c. — Baillon, I. c. 1772, f, 2404, — Johnson, Man. Med. 

boiled with water in copper kettles, and the resin which now sepa- Bot. N. Am. 146, f. 128, 129, — Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat, 



rates and rises to the surface is skimmed off. In order to obtain 
the residue which the first process has not separated, the boiled 



Med. 



U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1843). 
lidambar Formosana a drv 



resin of 



bark is put into hair bags, and subjected to pressure while hot agreeable fragrance is obtained, which is believed by Fliickiger 

water is poured over it. In this way are obtained a product of an & Hanbury to be the Styrax liquida folio minore described by Ray 

inferior quality and the cakes of foliaceous fragrant bark known as imported from Amoy (Hist. PL iii. Appx. 233). It is used by the 

in European pharmacy as cortex thymiamatis. The resin is packed Chinese, as is also the product of the allied Altingia Chinensis, as 

in barrels, or with water in goatskins, and shipped to Constanti- a stimulant, alterative, and anti-hsemorrhagic remedy, and in the 

nople, Smyrna, and Alexandria, the largest part of the annual crop, treatment of v 

which is estimated at from sixty to eighty thousand pounds, being Smith, Chinese 



Hanbury, I. c. 246 



Mat. Med 



Spons, L c. 1683). 



sent by the way of the Red Sea to Bombay. In India and China Corky excrescences, developed on the trunk and root-stalk of 



gum storax appears to be chiefly used in perfumery, as a protection 



Formosana and known as pigs' tubers (chii 



against insects, and in the temples as incense. It is said to be from their resemblance to pigs' dung, are a popular remedy in 

expectorant and stimulant, and to be valuable in the treatment of China in the treatment of fevers and urinary disorders (Smith, 

bronchial affections ; it is praised as a remedy for diphtheria, and /. c. 171). 
has been recommended as a cure for gonorrhcEa ; in Europe it is 



HAMAMELIDE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



In the United States Liquidambar is little injured by the attacks of insects/ and does 



suffer 



seriously from fungal diseases.^ 

Tlie generic name^ from Itqiddics and the Arabic word amhary adopted by Linnaeus in allusion to 
the fragrant juices of the tree, was at first applied by Hernandez^ to the American species or to some 
other balsamic Mexican tree. 



1 Liquidambar in the United States is nearly exempt from inju- long winding linear mines in the upper surface of the leaves (Cinn. 
Ties inflicted by insects. There is no record of damage to the wood Quart. Jour, Sci, ii. 106). 



by borers. The most conspicuous of the foliage - eating insects 



2 Nearly eighty species of fungi have already been noticed on 



found on the American species belong to the family BombyciSce; Liquidambar in the United States, although few of them are pecul- 

the large American silk-worms of the Luna, Cecropia, Polyphemus, iar to the tree or do it any particular harm. Among the species 

and Promethea moths feed upon it, although rarely in sufficient found only on Liquidambar the following may be mentioned : Valsa 

numbers to cause serious injury. Liquidambar is sometimes also Liquidambar is ^ Curtis, Seiridium LiquidambariSy Berkeley & Curtis, 

attacked by the Fall Web-worm, Hyphantria cunea^ Drury ; and Septoria Liquidambaris^ Cooke & Ellis. 



in southern Kentucky during the summer months a Leaf-miner, 



^ Nov. PL Hist, lib. i. pt. ii, cap. 18 (Ximenes, Spanish ed. 



Phyllocnistis liquidambarisellay Chambers, has been found making Mexico, 1615). — C. Bauhin, Prodr. 158 ; Pinaxy 502. 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HAMAMELIDEiE 



LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA 



Sweet Gum. Bilsted. 



Leaves deeply 5 to 7-lobed, lustrous. 



Liquidambar Styraciflua, Linnaeus, Spec. 999 (1753). 
Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Kalm, Travels^ English 
ed. ii. 21, — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 56 ; Meth. 340. 
Marshall, Arbust. Am.77. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii, 279. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 49, t. 16, 



f. 40. 
533. 



Walter, Fl. Car. 237. 



Lamarck, Diet, iii. 



Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 57, t. 90. — Willdenow, BerL 
Baumz. 172 ; Spec. iv. 475 ; Enum. 985. — Borkhausen, 
Handh. Forsthot. i. 633. — Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ i. 

t.48. 
573. 



Michaux 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 541. — Titford, Hort. 

NoVy 



Bot. Am. 97. — Schkulir, Handh. iii. 275, t. 307. 



Syst. iii. 864. — Audubon, Birds, t. 45. — Torrey, Fl. 
N. Y. ii. 217. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 84. — Broomfield, 
Land. Jour. Bot. vii. 144. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 98, f. 
5-21. — Chapman, FL 157. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
N. Car. 1860, iii. 77. — De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



157. 



Hooker, Icon. xi. 13. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 464. 



Baillon, Hist. PI. iii. 397; Diet. Bot. iii. 262. 
Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. Bot. 533, figs. 



Le 



Ridg- 



way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 67. — Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendr. ed. 2, 337, f. 129. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. V)th Census U. S. ix. 86. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 180. 



veau Duhamelj ii. 42, 1. 10. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. Liquidambar Styraciflua, var. Mexicana, Orsted, Am 



iii. 194, t. 4. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 635. — Rafinesque, 



Cent. xvi. t. 11 (1863). 



FL Ludovic. 116. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 219. — Elliott, Sk. Liquidambar macrophylla, Orsted, Am. Cent. xvi. t 



ii. 621, — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Ill, iii. 367, t. 783. — Sprengel, 



10 (1863). — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 400. 



A tree, eighty to one hundred and forty feet in height, with a straight trunk four or five feet in 
diameter, and slender branches which, while the tree is young, form a symmetrical pyramidal head, and 
when it reaches old age a comparatively small oblong crown. The bark of the trunk on fully grown 
individuals varies from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness ; it is dark brown tinged with red, 
and broken by deep fissures into broad ridges covered by short thick scales. The branchlets, which 
contain a large pith, are shghtly many-angled, and covered, when they appear, with caducous rufous 
hairs ; in their first winter they are light orange-color to reddish brown, with occasional minute dark 
lenticels, and large arcuate leaf-scars marked by the ends of three conspicuous clusters of fibro-vascular 
bundles ; in their first season they develop corky wings, which on lateral branches appear on the upper 
side in three or four parallel ranks, and irregularly on all sides of vertical branches, increasing in width 
and thickness for many years, until they are sometimes two or three inches broad and an inch thick.^ 
In their second year the branchlets become red-brown, gray, or dark brown. The winter-buds are acute, 
a quarter of an inch long, and covered with ovate acute minutely apiculate orange-brown scales rounded 
on the back, those of the inner rows being accrescent, sUghtly ciliate on the margins, tipped with red, 
and at maturity half an inch in length. The leaves are generally round in outHne, truncate or shghtly 
heart-shaped at the base, deeply five to seven-lobed, with acutely pointed divisions, and finely glandular- 



with rounded appressed teeth j they 



inches across, and are borne on slender 



petioles at first clothed near the base with rufous caducous hairs and five to seven inches in length 



when they unfold they 



pilose on the lower surface, but usually soon become glabrous, with th 



ption of large tufts of pale or rufous hairs which remain in the 



of the principal 



du 



rmg 



the season ; at maturity they are thin and rather membranaceous, bright green, smooth, and 



with broad primary veins and finely reticulated 



when bruised they exhale a pleasant 



fragrance ; and in the autumn they turn a deep crimson. The stipules are lanceolate 

1 Emily L. Gregory, Bet. Gazette^ xiii. 282. 



HAMAMELIDE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



i^labrouSj from one third to half an inch in length, and caducous. The flowers appear from March to 
the end of May, when the leaves are more than haH grown, the males in terminal racemes two or three 
inches long and coated with rufous hairs, the females in a soHtary head borne on a slender glabrous 
peduncle an inch to two inches in length and developed from the axil of one of the upper leaves. The 
heads of male flowers, which are stalked towards the base of the raceme and nearly sessile above, are 
a quarter of an inch across and surrounded by ovate acute deciduous hairy bracts much larger than the 
lanceolate acute bracts of the female inflorescence, which is half an inch across and conspicuous from 
the broad stigmatic surfaces of the recurved and contorted styles. The fruit is an inch to an inch and 
a half in diameter, and hangs on the branches during the winter, the carpels, which rarely contain 
fertile seeds but are generally filled with abortive ovules in various stages of development, opening in 



the autumn. 



The seed is half an inch long and rather longer than its wing, with a Hght brown coat 



central and southern Mexico ^ and ranges southward to the highlands of Guatemala.^ 



conspicuously marked with oblong resin-ducts. 

Liqiddamhar Styracifiita is distributed from Fairfield County, Connecticut, to southeastern Mis- 
souri, southward to Cape Canaveral and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and through Arkansas and 
the Indian Territory to the valley of the Trinity Kiver in Texas ; it reappears on the mountains of 

In some parts 

of the United States, especially in the maritime region of the southern Atlantic states and in the basin 
of the lower Mississippi River, the Sweet Gum is one of the most common trees in the forests of low 
rich river-bottom lands which are usually inundated every year ; in such situations, growing with the 
Cotton Gum, the Chestnut White Oak, the Willow Oak, the Red Maple, the Black Gum, and the 
Water Ash, it develops tall straight trunks free from branches to a height of seventy or eighty feet 
above the ground.^ In the northern and middle states it is found on the borders of swamps and in 
low wet swales, where in company with the Red Maple, the Swamp White Oak, the Tupelo, the White 
Ash, and the Red Ash, it often grows in great numbers ; occasionally the Sweet Gum appears on drier 
and more elevated ground, where it remains small ; and in the north it rarely grows more than sixty or 
seventy feet tall or produces a trunk more than two feet in diameter. 

The wood of Liqiddamhar Styracifliia is heavy, hard, straight, and close-grained, although not 
very strong ; it is bright brown tinged with red, with thin almost white sapwood composed of sixty or 
seventy layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5910, a cubic 
foot weighing 36.83 pounds. The wood of the Sweet Gum is smooth and satiny and can be made to 
take a beautiful poHsh ; it is difficult to season and warps and shrinks badly in drying,^ but in spite 
of this serious defect it is now used in large quantities, especially in the western states, in the outside 
finish of houses, in cabinet-making, for street-pavements, cheap dishes, and fruit-boxes. 

The leaves contain tannin, and have been recommended as a substitute for Oak-bark for tanning 

leather.^ 

In 1615 the first account of this tree from the pen of the Spanish naturalist Hernandez was 
published in the City of Mexico,^ and the resin, which resembled the Hquid storax of the east, soon 



Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen, et Spec. vii. 273. 



agitable lorsque Ton n'en brule qu'une petite quantity." (Le Page 



Kunth, Syti. PL uEquin. iv. 266. 

Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent, i, 400. 
2 Donnell Smith, PI Guatemal. No. 1855. 
^ Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 232, f. 



346. du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, ii. 27, t.) 

^ Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 345. 
® Del arhol de Liquidambar^ que los naturales llaman '^Xochiocotzotl,^^ 
" QuauTixihuitly^ Francisco Hernandez, Nov. PL Hist. lib. i. pt. ii. 



1 u 



Le Copalm r^unit deux grandes qualitds ; Tune, d'etre extre- cap. 18 (Ximenes, Spanish ed. Mexico, 1615). 



mement commun, I'autre de douner un baume dont les vertus sont 
infinies . . . Son bois est si tendre & si souple, qu'en I'abbattant il 



Styrax Aceris folio, Parkinson, Theatr. 1529. 

Acer Virginianum odoratum, Hermann, Cat. Hort. Lugd. Bat 



sort de son coeur des baguettes de cinq k six pieds de longeur. On 641. — Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. ii. 234. 



ne pent Femployer k aucuns ouvrages k cause qu'il travaille sans 



eiires 



Styrax arbor Virginiana Acer is folio, potihs Platanus Virginiana 
Styracem fundens, Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1799. — Commelyn, Hort. i. 191, 



surprenantes que I'on ne voit dans aucun bois du monde. On n'ose t. 98. 



meme le bruler parce que son odeur est trop forte, quoiqu'elle soit 



Liquid-ambari arbor s, Styracijiua Aceris folio, fructu tribuloide 



12 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. hamamelide^. 



attracted the attention of European pharmacists.^ It was introduced from Virginia into England, and 
was cultivated before 1688 by Bishop Compton in his garden at Fulham.'^ 

As an ornament for parks and roadsides in the middle and southern states, few trees are more 
valuable than the Sweet Gum.^ It grows rapidly and is not particular about soil ; its habit, although 
rather regular before it reaches maturity, adapts it to formal planting ; the leaves are unsurpassed m 
beauty of form, in lustre, or in the brilliancy of their autumnal tints ; and in winter its broadly winged 
branches make it a curious and interesting object. 



(i. €.) pericarpio orbiculari, ex quamplurimis apicibus coagmentato semen Liquidambar Styracifiua ; Aceris folio, Romans, Nat. Hist. 

recondens, Plukenet, Phyt. t. 42, f. 6 ; Aim. Bot. 224. — Catesby, Florida, 20. 

1 J. Bauhin, Hist. PI. i. lib. ix. 323. — Parkinson, Theatr. 1590. 



Nat. Hist. Car. ii. 65, t. 65. 

Liquidambar, Linn^us, Hort. Cliff. 486 ; Hart. Ups. 287. — Clay- « Ray, Hist. PI. ii. 1681. — Aiton, Hwt. Kew. iii. 365. — Loudon, 

ton, Fl. Virgin. 190. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 534. Arb. Brit. iv. 2049, f. 1961. 



Liquidambari Arbor, Blaekwell, Coll. Stirp. t. 485. 



2 In some parts of the country Liquidambar Styraciflua is also 



II Xochiocotzotl, volgarmente appellato Liquidambar, e lo storace known as Star-leaved Gum, Liquidamber, and Red Gum 
liquido dei Messicani, Clavigero, Storia Antica del Messico, i. 64. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CXCIX. Liquidambar Styraciflua. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

3. Vertical section of a head of stamens, natural size. 
4 and 5. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a head of pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a capsule showing in one cell a perfect seed 

and in the other a mass of undeveloped ovules, enlarged. 

12. A seed, natural size. 

13. Vertical sections of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. A winter-bud, natural size. 

16. Part of a young branch with wings. 



Silva of North Am&ricsb. 



Tab. CXCIX 



3 



/i 



5 



6 




15 



C^.Faaumy d&L. 



LigUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA, L. 



Ficarty so. 



^.Jiiocreu£[> i3irea>f 



Imp. JL.ToTiezcr, I oris 



RHizoPHORACKffi. SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



13 



RHIZOPHORA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 4-parted, the lobes valvate in aestivation ; petals 4, indupli- 
cate in aestivation; stamens 8 to 12 ; ovary partly inferior, 2-celled; ovules 2 in each 
cell, suspended. Fruit a 1-celled, 1-seeded berry, perforated at the apex by the ger- 
minating embryo. Leaves opposite, ovate or elliptical, entire, stipulate, persistent. 



Rhizophora, Linnaeus, Gen. 137 (1737). — A. L. de Jus- 1185. — Bentham & Hooker, 6^67^. i. 678. — Baillou, lf^5^ 

sieu, Gen. 213. — Meisner, Gen. 119. — Endlicher, Gen. PL vi. 299- 

Mangle, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 445 (1763). 



Trees^ with stout terete pithy branchlets, thick astringent bark^ and adventitious fleshy roots. 
Leaves opposite^ ovate or elliptical^ entire^ thick and coriaceous^ glabrous^ petiolate, persistent ; stipules 
elongated^ acuminate, interpetiolar, infolding the bud, caducous. Flower-clusters pedunculate, axillary^ 
dichotomously or trichotomously branched, the base of the branches surrounded by an involucre of two 
ovate three-lobed persistent bracts, or one-flowered. Flowers yellow or creamy white, sessile or pedi- 
cellate, bibracteolate, the bractlets united into an involucral cup. Calyx four-lobed, the lobes acute, 
coriaceous, ribbed on the inner surface and thickened on the margins, two or three times longer than 
the turbinate-globose tube, reflexed at maturity, persistent. Petals alternate with and longer than the 
lobes of the calyx, inserted on a fleshy disk-like ring in the mouth of the calyx-tube, involute on the 
margins and coated on the inner surface with long pale hairs, or flat and naked, caducous. Stamens ^ 
eight, four episepalous and four slightly longer, epipetalous, or eleven or twelve ; filaments short or 
wanting ; anthers attached at the base, introrse, triangular in section, elongated, connivent, areolate, 
their membranous coat splitting by two longitudinal slits united near the apex and disclosing numerous 
spherical cavities covering their inner face and filled with pollen grains.^ Ovary partly inferior, conical, 
two-celled, contracted into two subulate spreading styles stigmatic at the apex ; ovules two in each 
cell, suspended from its apex, collateral, anatropous ; raphe ventral, micropyle superior. Fruit a conical 
coriaceous berry surrounded by the reflexed persistent calyx-lobes. Seed usually solitary by abortion, 
suspended, and germinating in the fruit before faUing ; the apex surrounded by a thin albuminous 
micropylar cup-like aril,^ testa thick and fleshy. Embryo at first surrounded by a thin layer of albu- 
men J cotyledons conferruminate, dark purple ; radicle elongated, clavate, perforating in its development 
the apex of the fruit, and when fully grown separating from the narrow exserted woody tube inclosing 
the plumule and developed from the cotyledons after the ripening of the fruit.^ 

Ehizophora is widely and generally distributed on the shores of tidal marshes in -the tropical 
regions of the two worlds. Three species are distinguished : one is American ; a second, WiizojyJiora 



^ Griffith, Trans, Med. ^ Phys. Soc. Cole, viii. 1. — Baillon, BulL made by the spreading back of the membrane on the outer sides of 
Soc. Linn. Paris, i. 58 ; Hist. PL vi. 286. the slits. 

- By the splitting of the membranous coat of the anther a trian- s Tulasne, Ann, Sci. Nat, s6r. 4, vi. 110. — Warming, Engler Bot. 

ffular valve is formed which is attached by the base and in opening Jahrb, iv. 530. 

falls forward, while the two lateral wings on the open anther are * Petit-Thouars, Desvaux Jour, Bot* ii, 32. — Griffith, Notul. iv. 

662. 



14 



SILVA OF NOB TIT AMERICA. 



RHIZOPHORACE^. 



conjitfjata^ is Indian ; and the third, Rhizophora mucronata^ is found on the west and east coasts of 
Africa^ on Madagascar, in southern Asia from Arabia to the Malay peninsida, in the East Indies, New 
Guinea, Austraha, and the South Sea Islands. 

Rhizophora possesses astringent properties ; the bark of all the species has been used in tanning 
leather, in dyeing, and as a febrifuge ; ^ and the wood is hard, durable, and dark-colored. Rhizophora 
is especially adapted to maintain itself on low muddy tidal shores, and plays an important part in 
protecting and in extending them into the ocean ; this it is able to do by the aerial germination of the 
seeds and by the power to develop roots from the trunks and branches. Of these some spring from 
the stems at a considerable distance above the ground and, arching outward, descend into the water 
and fix themselves in the mud beneath, while other roots growing down from the branches enter the 
ground and gradually thicken into stems, the whole forming a barrier which prevents the mud washed 



away again, and gradually consolidates it. 



The structure and 

The 



up by rising tides from being swept 

character of the seed are wonderfully adapted to aid in this extension of the land into the water, 
aerial germination protects it from the salt water, into which, without such a provision, it would fall, 
probably to be washed away or destroyed. The radicle, when fully grown and ready to put forth roots 
and leaves, is often ten or twelve inches long ; the root-end is thicker and heavier than the other, so 
that when it detaches itself from the cotyledons and falls, the heavy end sticks into the mud ; here 
being kept in position, it puts forth roots, while the plumule at the other end is held up above the 
surface of the shallow water and is thus enabled to unfold its leaves. 

The generic name, from pt^oc and ^e^eiVy used by early authors to designate various climbing 
plants with thickened roots, like Dioscorea,^ was adopted for the Mangrove by Linnaeus, who discarded 
the earlier Mangles of Plumier.^ 



1 Linnseus, Spec. 443 (1753). — De Candolle, Prodr. iii. 33. 



Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. 407. — Brandis, L c. 217. — Kurz, L c. — Hooker 



Walker- Aruott, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 363. — Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. f. L c. — Baker, Fl. Maur. Sf Seych. 109. 



Bat i. 134. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 218. — Hooker f. FL 

Brit. Ind. ii. 436. 

Rhizophora candelariay De Candolle, L c. 32 (1828). 

Rhizophora apiculata, Blmne, Enum. PL Jav. 91 (1827), 
Wight, IlL i. 209. — Kiirz, Forest Fl. Brit Burm, i. 447. 

Rhizophora Mangle, Blanco, FL Filip. 397 (not Linnseus) (1837) 
2 Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 189 (1804). — Lamarck, IlL ii. 617, t 



Rhizophora Mangle, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ii. 459 (not Linnseus) 



(1824). 



Blume, Enum. PL Jav. 91. 



Rhizophora macrorrhiza, Griffith, Trans. Med. ^ Phys. Soc. Calc. 

viii. 8 (1836). 

Rhizophora candelaria, Wight & Walker-Arnott, Prodr. Fl. 
Ind. 310 (not de Candolle) (1834). 
3 Howison, Trans. Soc. of Arts, xxii, 201. — Hamilton, Pharm. 



396, f . 2. — De Candolle, L c. — Decaisne, Ann. Sd. Nat. s4t. 2, iv. Jour. vi. 11. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 298. — Procter, I'ext Book of 



75. 

Bltmie 



Wight, L c. J Icon. t. 238. — Walker-Arnott, L c. 362. 
, Mus. Boi. Ludq. Bat. i. 132. — Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4v. 



4, vi. 109. — Gray, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. i. 613. — Harvey & 
Sonder, Fl. Cap. ii. 513. — Bentham, FL Austral, ii. 493. — Oliver, 



Tanning, 55. — Trimble, Contrib. Bot. Lab. Univ. Penn. i. 50. 
* Hermann, Parad. Bat. 217. 
6 Nov. PL Am. Gen. 13. 



RHIZOPHORACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



15 



RHIZOPHORA MANGLE 



Mangrove. 



Leaves oval or elliptical, rounded at tlie apex 



Rhizophora Mangle, Linnaeus, Spec. 443 (1753). — Gaert- 
ner, FrucU i. 212, t. 45, f. 1. — Lamarck, IlL ii. 517, t. 
396, f . 1. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 843. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 
vi. 188. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 2. — Turpin, Diet. Sei. Nat. 



t. 1 ; Engler Bot. Jahrb. iv. 519, t. 7-10. — Eggers, 
Videnskab. Medd. fra. nat. For, Kjobenh. 1877, 177. 
BaiUon, Hist. PL vi. 284, f. 253-259. 
grove-Vegetation^ t. iv. f. 3, 6, 7, 8. 



Man- 



xlv. 386, t. 109. — De Candolle, Prodr. iii. 32. — Petit- Rhizophora racemosa, Meyer, Prim. Fl. Fsseq. 185 



Thouars, Desvaux Jour. Bot. ii. 27, t. 11. — Spach, Hist 

Veg. iv. 332, t. 34. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 484. 

Wight, IlL i. 209. — Walker-Arnott, A^m. Nat. Hist. i. Rhizophora Mangle, a. Walker- Ar no tt, Ann. Nat. Hist 



(1818).— De Candolle, Prodr. iii. 32. — Hooker f. & 
Bentham, Hooker Niger FL 341. 



361. 



Walpers, Pep. ii. 70- — Blume, Mtis. Bot. Licgd. 



Bat. i. 132. — Schnizlein, Icon, t 263, f. 1-7, 21-29. 



i. 361 (1838). 
Rhizophora Americana, Nuttall, Sylva, i. 95, t 24 (1842). 



Chapman, FL 135. — Le Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. Rhizophora Mangle, var. racemosa, Eichler, Martins 



Bot. English ed. 419. — Warming, Bot. Notiser, 1877, 14, 



FL BrasiL xii. pt. ii. 427 (1872). 



A round-topped bushy tree, with spreading branches, usually fifteen to twenty feet in height, 
forming almost impenetrable thickets with its numerous aerial roots ; or occasionally seventy or eighty 
feet high, with a tall straight stem clear of branches for more than half its length, and a narrow head. 
The bark of the trunk is from one third to one haH an inch thick and gray faintly tinged with red, the 
surface irregularly fissured and broken into thin appressed scales ; that of young trunks and principal 



branches is smooth and rather light reddish brown. The branchlets are stout, glabrous, and dark red- 



brown, becoming lighter in their second year, when they are conspicuously marked with large oval 
shghtly elevated leaf-scars. The leaves, which remain on the branches during one or two years, are 
oval or elliptical, rounded at the apex, and gradually contracted at the base into stout petioles ; they 
are three and a half to five inches long, an inch to two and a half inches broad, with petioles which 
vary from half an inch to an inch and a half in length, dark green and very lustrous on the upper 
surface and paler below, with shghtly thickened margins, broad midribs, and reticulated veinlets. The 
stipules are lanceolate, acute, and an inch and a half long, and fall as the leaf unfolds. The flowers, 
which are produced throughout the year from the axils of young leaves, are nearly sessile on stout 
two or three-branched peduncles an inch and a half to two inches in length ; they are an inch across 
when expanded, the pale yeUow involute petals being coated on the inner surface with long pale hairs 
which cover the eight stamens. The fruit is an inch long, rusty brown, and shghtly roughened with 
minute bosses ; from its apex, after the germination of the seed, the hard woody thick-walled tube 
developed from the cotyledons protrudes from one half to two thirds of an inch, covering the plumule 
and holding the dark brown radicle which is marked with occasional orange-colored lenticular dots, 
and which when fully grown is ten or twelve inches long and, near the apex, a quarter to one third of 
an inch thick. 

In the United States Rhizophora Mangle inhabits the shores of Florida from Mosquito Inlet on 
the east coast and Cedar Keys on the west to the southern islands, the delta of the Mississippi River, 
and the coast of Texas ; it occurs on Bermuda ^ and the Bahama Islands, in the Antilles,^ on the east 



1 Lefroy, Bull U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 25, 74 (BoL Bermuda). 



i. 45, t. 10. — A. Richard, FL Cub. i. 251. — Grisebach, FL BriL W. 



2 Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 141, t. 89 ; Hist. Select. Stirp. Am. 70, t. Ind. 274. — Eggers, Bull U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 54 (FL St. Croix 
132. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 487. — Descourtilz, FL Med. Antilles^ and the Virgin Islands). 



16 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



RHIZOPHORACEiE. 



and west coasts of Mexico/ in Lower California," and the Galapagos Islands/ and from Central America 
extends along the north and east coasts of South America to the Hmit of the tropics ; * by many authori- 
ties it has been thought to inhabit also the west coast of Africa.^ In the United States the Mangrove 
is most abundant on the Florida peninsula south of latitude 29°, where it borders the coast with wide 



thickets, ascending the rivers for many miles, especially those flowing from the everglades, and entirely 
covers some of the small keys. On Cape Sable and on the shores of Bay Biscayne it sometimes grows 
at a little distance from the immediate coast, and on ground which is not submerged by overflowing 
tides ; in such situations it attains its greatest size in the United States and makes tall shapely trees 
with straight trunks developing few aerial roots, and in general appearance is entirely unlike the low 
bushy widespreading shore tree.^ 



The wood of Rhizophora Mangle is exceedingly heavy. 



hard, close-grained, and strong. 



The 



surface is satiny and can be made to receive a beautiful polish ; it is dark reddish brown streaked with 
lighter brown, with pale sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of annual growth,'^ and contains 
numerous thin meduUary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.1617, a cubic 
foot weighing 72.40 pounds. On the Florida keys it is used for fuel and for wharf-piles, for which 
its strength and immunity from attacks of the teredo make it valuable. 

The strange and peculiar mode of growth of the Mangrove-tree and the shell-fish which clustered 
on its stems attracted the attention of some of the earliest travelers who landed on the shores of the 

)ned in many of their narratives.^ Its presence in the United States 



New World, and 



is menti 



1 Kunth, Syn. PI. ./Equin. iii. 86. — Hooker & Walker- Arnott, they cast many branches and rootes, and these branches remaine 



Bot. Voy. Beechey, 290. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 402. 



fast in the earth." 



^f 



2 Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 14. — Brandegee, Proc, CaL Acad, which had long lived there, Purchas his PilgrimeSy iv. 1316.) 



ser, 2, ii, 155 {PL Baja CaL) ; iii. 136, 

^ Hooker f. Trans, Linn, Sac. xx. 225. — Andersson, Stockh, Acad, 
Handl, 1853, 108 (Om Galapagos- Oames Veg,), 

^ Vellozo, FL Flum. v. t. 1. 



De Mangle, Nieremberg, Hist Nat, 313. 
^^ Marinis arboribus annumerant Mangu 



Eichler, Martins FL BrasiL xii, 

pt. ii. 426, t. 90. — Sagot, Ann, Sci, Nat, s6r. 6, xv. 314. 

^ Hooker f. & Bentham, Hooker Niger FL 341. — A. De Can- 

doUe, Geographic Botanique, ii. 772. — Oliver, FL Trop, Afr, ii. 408. 

^ Garden and Forest^ vi. 97, figs. 17, 18. — Contrib, Bot, Lab, 
Univ, Penn, i. t. 7. 

■^ The trunks of Rhizophora Mangle after the first twenty or 
thirty years increase in diameter slowly. A specimen of the trunk 



juxta 
575.) 



Nov, Orb 



Mangue Guaparaiba dicta, Piso, Hist, Nat, Bras, lib. x\ 
Mangle Pyri foliis cum siliquis longis Ficui Indicce affi, 



Nat 



Ray, Hist, PL ii. 1772. — Sloane, 



Naturelle et Morale 



Antilles, 100, t. 



" The Mangrave is a tree of such note, as she must not be for- 
of a Florida tree in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods gotten ; for, though she be not of the tall and lusty sort of trees, 
in the American Museum of Natural History in New York, which yet, she is of great extent ; for there drops from her limbs a kinde 
is fifteen inches in diameter, has one hundred and forty-five layers of Gum, which hangs together one drop after another, till it touch 

the ground, and then takes root, and makes an addition to the tree. 



annual g 



8 "Mangle es un ^rbol de los mejores que en estas partes hay, So that if all these may be said to be one and the same tree, we 

may say that a Mangrave tree may very well hide a troop of Horse. 



Firme 



Nat 



will 



Gen, Ind, lib. ix. cap. 6.) 
« Store of oisters (grew) upon the branches of the trees, and were roaps, and the Indians make it as fine as flax, and spin it into fine 



All 



is thred whereof they make Hamocks, and divers other things they 

and spraies, and no^on the ground : the like is commonly seen in wear : and I have heard the Unnen they wear is made of this bark, 

b, as also their chaires and stooles." (Richard Ligon, A true and exact 

c- History of the Island of Barbados, 72.) 



W 



(Walter 



Beautiful Empire of 



luyt. Voyages, ed. Evans, iv. 120.) 



ii 



Shrimps, Lobsters, and Oysters, which hang upon the branches 

(Harcourt, Relation of a Voyage to Guiana, Purchas 



Mangles, quod ft 



425 



of Trees." (Harcourtj 
his Pilgrimes, iv. 1275.) 



Mang 



464. 



Willowes 



rope, there is so great quautitie of them in the armes or creeks that 241. 



Mangle arbor Pyrifolia, Plukenet, Phyt, t. 204, f. 3 ; Aim, Bot, 



the Sea maketh within the Land, that many leagues of the Land is 
of these Trees, that are watered with the tides. ... A certaine kind 
of them doe cast certaine twigs from the top of their lenoih some 
times as long as a Launce, till they come to the water, and then 



foliis Laurinis, flore tetrapetalo luteo, fructu 



Nat 



"And nothing of this kind could be more surprising to Euro- 



shaded 



RHIZOPHORACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



17 



appears to have been first recorded in the Histoire de la Louisiane by LePage du Pratz/ pubhshed 
in Paris in 1755.^ 



different from all other Trees in the manner of their growth ; for later published his Histoire de la Louisiane^ in which are described 

from their branches hang innumerable small filaments growing the topography and natural history of the regions visited by the 

downwards, till they touch the Earth, and then take Root." (Grif- author and the habits of the Indians. Three chapters and a num- 

fith Hughes, Nat. Hist. Barbados^ 2.) ber of illustrations are devoted to the trees of Louisiana, which he 

^ Le Page du Pratz, a native of Holland, having served in Ger- appears to have studied with special care. He died in 1775. 
many with the French army through several campaigns, emigrated 



2 u 



Le Manglier est tres-commun dans toute I'Am^rique ; il croit 

to Louisiana in 1718 to take possession of a grant of land in the k la Louisiane dans le voisinage de la Mer sur le bord des eaux 

neighborhood of New Orleans which he had received from the mortes. II est plus nuisible qu'utile, en ce qu'il veut de la bonne 

French government. Later he established himself at Natchez and terre, qu'il en occupe beaucoup, & que ses racines qui s'dtendent 

subsequently explored portions of the country west of the Missis- dans Teau empechent Tabordage k ceux qui navigent, & donnent 

sippi River now included in the states of Arkansas, Missouri, and une retraite sure aux Poissons contre les travaux & I'adresse des 

Texas. He returned to France in 1734 and twenty-eight years Pecheurs." (Histoire de la Louisiane^ ii. 41.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CC. Rhizophora Mangle. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A sepal, front view, enlarged. 

5. A petal cut transversely, front view, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. Front, side, and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an anther, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A seed germinating, showing its ariloid growth, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. An embryo partly developed, enlarged. 

14. A fruit, the radicle detached, showing the plumule, natural size. 

15. Vertical section of a seed, showing the tube developed from the cotyledons 

after the detachment of the radicle, enlarged. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 

17. A stipule, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CC. 







C^.Faa^Ty del 



PicoT't so. 



RHIZOPHORA MANGLE, L. 



■ t 

ji.IUocreujy direcc^ 



Imp. Jl. Taneur, Faris . 



COMBRETACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



TERMINALIA. 



Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious ; calyx 5-toothed, the teeth yalvate in 
aestivation ; petals ; stamens 10, in two series ; ovary inferior, 1 -celled ; ovules 2 or 



rarely 




suspended. Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded. Leaves alternate or occasionally 



opposite, destitute of stipules. 



Terminalia, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 685 (1865). 



Kniphofia, Scopoli, Introdicct. 327 (1777). 



Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 280 (excl. ConocarpuSy Ramaticellay Chiincoa, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 76 (1789). 



AnogeisstcSy and Bitchenavia) . 



Badamia, Gaertner, Fruct ii. 90, t. 97, f. 1 (1791) 



Bucida, Linn^us, Syst. ed. 10, 1025 (1759). — Adanson, Myrobalanus, Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 90, t. 97, f. 2 (1791) 
Fam. PL ii. 80. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 75. — Meisner, Catappa, Gaertner, Fruct ii. 206, t. 127, f. 3 (1791). 



Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen. 1180. 
Adamaram, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 445 (1763). 



Gimbernatia, Ruiz & Pavon, Prodr. FL Peruv. 138, t. 36 
(1794). 



Terminalia, Linnaeus, Mant. 21 -(1767). — A. L. de Jussieu, Fatrea, A. L. de Jussieu, Ann. Mus. v. 223 (1805). 



Gen. 76. — Meisner, Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen. 1180. 
Tanibouca, Aublet, PL Guian. i. 448, t. 178 (1775). 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 76. 
Pamea, Aublet, PL Guian. ii. 946, t. 359 (1775). — A. L 

de Jussieu, Gen. 76. 



Hudsonia, Lunan, Hort. Jam. ii. 310 (not Linnaeus) (1814). 
Pentaptera, De CandoUe, Mem, Soc. Phys. Genhve^ iv. 5 

(1828) ; Prodr. iii. 14, — Endlicher, Gen. 1180. 
Chicharronia, A. Richard, Fl. Cub. 529 (1845). 



Trees or shrubs^ with astringent properties. Leaves 



xely opposite or subopposite 



usually clustered at the ends of the branches, sessile or sometimes petiolate, generally entire and marked 
with minute pellucid dots, glandular or eglandular at the base. Flowers in the axils of minute bractlets, 
green, creamy white, or bright-colored, in lax elongated simple or branched spikes, rarely contracted into 



dense heads, axillary or clustered 
above the ovary, the short limb 
Disk epigynous or annular. 



the old nodes. Calyx-tube ovoid or subcyHndrical, constricted 
)late or campanulate, five-toothed or divided, usually deciduous. 



Stamens ten, in two ranks, inflexed in sestivation, inserted 



the limb of 



the calyx, the five inferior opposite its teeth, the five superior shorter and alternating with them ; fila- 
ments subulate or fihform, exserted ; anthers minute, attached on the back, sagittate or oblong, introrse, 
two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary included in the tube of the calyx, one-celled ; style 
subulate, often thickened or villose at the base, terminated by a simple minute stigma ; ovules two or 
rarely three, suspended from the apex of the cell on elongated slender funiculi, anatropous ; raphe 
ventral, the micropyle superior. Fruit ovoid, terete, angular or compressed, sometimes with two to five 
longitudinal wings, or samarif orm, one-seeded ; exocarp usually thin, fleshy or coriaceous ; endocarp 
coriaceous or bony. Seed elongated, ovoid or terete; testa membranaceous. Embryo destitute of 
albumen ; cotyledons convolute, fleshy ; radicle minute, superior, turned toward the hilum. 

Terminaha, as the genus is now enlarged, inhabits the tropics of the two worlds ; eighty or ninety 
species ^ are distinguished, of which the larger part are found in Asia and Africa. 



1 Willdenow, Spec. iv. 967. 

Xov. Gen, et Spec, vi, 113. — Kunth 



Bonpland 



W, 



Bentham. Fl 



&;(/m. iii. 399. — De FL BrasiL xiv. pt. ii. 82. 



Candolle 
615. 



Gray, BoL Wilkes Explor. Exped. i. 



Fl 



ii. 508. — Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 103. 



Fl, 
Fl 



Eichler, Martins 
Fl, Trop. Afr. ii. 415. — Kiirz, 

cer f. Fl. Brit. Ind, ii. 443. 
Baker, Fl. 2Iaur. and Seych. 110. — Hemsley, Bot, Biol. Am. Cent. i. 
402. — Yidal y Soler, FL Forest. Arch. Filip, 135. 



Burm. i. 453 



20 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



COMBKETACE-ae. 



Several of the species are valuable timber-trees j ^ the bark of all is astringent and rich in tannm^ 
and some produce astringent fruit used in dyeing and tanning.^ Galls formed on the young leaves oi 
Terminalia Chehula^ an Indian species, are strongly astringent and serve as a substitute for Oak-galls 
in ink-making.* Terminalia Catappa^^ the Indian Almond-tree, one of the largest and most beautiful 
members of the genus, is a favorite shade and avenue tree in all tropical countries j it produces valuable 
timber and edible fruit from which an oil with the odor and flavor of Almond-oil is prepared, and from 
the bark and leaves is extracted a black pigment used by the natives of India to color their teeth. 

The generic name, formed from terminus^ was used by Linnaeus in allusion to the usual arrange- 
ment of the leaves of these trees at the ends of the branches. 



1 Brandis, Forest FL BriL Ind. 222. — Gamble, Man. Indian 
Timbers, 179. 



665-670 



of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 



^ Under the name of myrobalans the dried astringent fruits of Commercial Products, ii. 1226, 1987, 

several Indian species of Terminalia once had a place in the Euro- ed. 3, ii. 1031. 

pean pharmacopoeia (Dale, Pharm. 334. — Linnaeus, Mat. Med. 178); tury, 120. 
in India they are still used medicinally (Honigberger, Mat. Med. 



Cyclopcedia of i 
of the Nineteenth 



U. S. Nat. Dispens. ed. 1< 
8 Retzius, Obs. v. 31 (1790). — W 



De 



313), and are exported in great quantities to China, where they are CandoUe, L c. — Beddome, I. c. 27, t. 27. — Brandis, L c. 223, t. 
employed as a tonic and mild laxative (Smith, Chinese Mat. Med. 29. — Hooker f. I. c. 446. 



215). For tanning leather the fruits of Terminalia are now largely 
imported from India into Europe ; two kinds are known, chebulic 
myrobalans, the fruit of Terminalia Chebula, and the beleric my- 



* Voigt, Hort. Sub. Calcutt. 37. — Drury, Useful Plants of India, 
431. _ Balfour, Z. c. 850. 

s Linnseus, Mant. 519 (1771). — Willdenow, I. c. 967. — Jacquin, 



robalans, the fruit of Terminalia Belerica (Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. Icon. PI. Ear. i. 19, t. 197. — De Candolle, I. c. 11. — Nuttall, 
33. — De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 12. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. S. Ind. i. Sylva, i. 110, t. 32. — Bot. Mag. Ivii. t. 3004. — Beddome, L c. 20, 
19, t. 19. — Brandis, I. c. 222. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. ii. 445) ; t. 20. — Hooker, f . I. c. 444. 



they contain from thirty to thirty-five per cent, of tannic acid in the 
pulp which surrounds the stones, and make soft porous leather of a 



« Spons, I. c. 1396. — Balfour, I. c. 850. 



COMBRETACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



TERMINALIA BUGERAS. 



Black Olive Tree. 



ent. 



Flowers perfect, in simple axillary spikes ; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, persist- 
Fruit ovoid, conical-oblique, irregularly 5-angled, coriaceous. Leaves alternate, 



eglandular, clustered at the ends of the branches, persistent. 



Terminalia Buceras, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 685 



doUe, Prodr. iii. 10. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 657. 



Spach, 



(1865). 



Sargent, BoU Gazette^ xi. 314 ; Garden and 



Forestj ii. 435. 



Hist. V6g, iv. 297. — Eichler, Martins FL BrasiL xiv. 
pt. ii. 94, t. 35, f. 1. 



Bucida Buceras, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. t. 23, f. 1 Bucida angustifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. iii. 10 (1828) 



(1756). 



Linnaeus, Amoen. v. 397 ; Si^ec. ed. 2, 55(3. 



Lamarck, III. ii. 484, t. 356- — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 630. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 733. — Persoon, Syn. i. 485. 
Bot. Reg. xi. t. 907. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 359. — De Can- 



Den, Gen. Syst. ii. 657. — A. Richard, Fl.Cnh. ii. 240. 
Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 109. 
Bucida Buceras, var. angustifolia, Eichler, Martins Fl 
BrasiL xiv. pt. ii. 95 (1867). 



A tree, with naked buds, in Florida sometimes forming a single straight trunk or sometimes a 
short prostrate trunk two to three feet in diameter, from which usually spring several straight upright 
stems forty to fifty feet in height and twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. The principal branches 
are stout, and, spreading nearly at right angles with the trunk, make a broad handsome head ; they are 
covered, Hke the trunk, with thick bark, the gray surface of which is tinged with orange-brown and 
broken into short appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, terete, trichotomously or dichotomously 
forked, and zigzag by their unequal and irregular growth, the terminal bud often becoming a short 
thick spur, while the lateral buds develop into branches, or sometimes one or both into slender spines 
one or two inches in length ; when they first appear they are clothed with short pale rufous pubescence 
which often does not entirely disappear before the end of their second year, when they are covered with 
light reddish brown bark which separates into thin narrow shreds. The leaves are obovate to spatulate- 
lanceolate, rounded and slightly emarginate or minutely apiculate at the apex, and gradually contracted 
at the base into short petioles ; they are thick and coriaceous, with sHghtly thickened revolute margins, 
bluish green on the upper, and yellow-green on the lower surface, pubescent while young, especially 
below, and at maturity are glabrous with the exception of the rufous hairs which cover the under 
surface of the stout midribs and the petioles ; they are from two to three inches long, an inch to an 
inch and a half broad, with petioles varying from one third to one half of an inch in length, and are 
crowded together at the ends of the spurs and of the lateral branches. In Florida the flowers appear 
in April, in slender spikes thickly coated with rufous pubescence, and an inch and a half to two inches 
in length j they develop in the axils of lanceolate acute caducous bractlets, from globular sessile buds, 
and are greenish white, hairy on the outer surface, and an eighth of an inch long. The calyx-lobes are 
minute and pubescent on both surfaces ; the five long stamens are inserted opposite the lobes under the 
five-lobed epigynous hairy disk, and the five shorter alternate stamens a little higher up on the calyx- 
tube ; the anthers are sagittate, and the base of the slender style is coated with pale hairs.^ The fruit 
is indehiscent, one third of an inch in lengthy fight brown, puberulous on the outer surface, crowned 
with the enlarged persistent calyx, and composed of a thin membranaceous exocarp inseparable from 
the crustaceous endocarp which is porous toward the interior. The seed is ovate and acute, with a 
broad raphe and a thin chestnut-brown testa. 



(Martins Fl 



specimens from Florida, however, the flowers all appear to be 



female flowers scattered irregularly in the same spike. On the perfect. 



22 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



COMBRETACE^. 



In the United States TerminaUa Buceras has been found only on Elliott's Key in southern 
Florida ; it is widely distributed in brackish marshes through the West Indies/ and on the shores of 



Caribbean Sea and of the Bay of Panama 
The wood of TerminaUa 



2 



Buc 



ras 



ceedingly heavy, hard, and 



t> 



ained, the lay 



of 



the 
The 



annual growth being difficult to distinguish ; it contains numerous minute evenly distributed open ducts 
and thin obscure medullary rays, and is light yellow-brown sometimes shghtly streaked with orange 
thick sapwood, composed of thirty to forty layers of annual growth, being clear pale yellow, 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0406, a cubic foot weighing 64.85 pounds.^ The bark 
was once used in the West Indies for tanning leather. 

The earliest account of TerminaUa Buceras was pubHshed in 1696 by Sir Hans Sloane m his 
Catalogue of the Plants of Jamaica,'' and the tree was first noticed in the United States ^ by Mr. A. H. 



Curtiss.^ 



According to Aiton,"^ it was introduced into English gardens in 1793 by Captain BHgh 



8 



of 



the English navy. 



The specific name^ from (3ovg and xspag^ relates to the long slender horn-shaped spongy bodies into 



which the terminal flowers are occasionally changed. 



9 



1 Vahl, Eclog. i. 50. — Swartz, Obs. 180. — A. Richard, FL Cub. side of Elliott's Key ; one of the party immediately noticed grow- 



ii. 240. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 276 ; CaL PL Cub. 109. 



ing close to the house in a field from which most of the trees had 



Eggers, BulL U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 54 {FL St. Croix and the been cleared to make room for a plantation of Pineapples, a Palm 



Virgin Islands). 

2 Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 402. 

^ Sargent, Garden and Forest, iii. 355. 

^ Mangle Julifera, foliis suhrotundis versus summitates latissimis^ 
confertim nascentibus, cortice ad coria densanda utiliy Cat. PL Jam, 
156 ; NaL HisL Jam. ii. 67, t. 189, f . 3. — Ray, HisL PL iii. De7idr. 
116. 



of an undescribed genus, Pseudophcenix, and a few yards distant, on 
the borders of the forest, Mr. Curtiss discovered a grove of Termi- 
nalia trees covered with flowers. 

6 See ii. 50. 

■^ Hart. Keio. ed. 2, iii. 61. 

8 See ii. 18. 

^ Whether this malformation is produced bv an insect or bv 



Buceras ramulis Jiexuosis tenuioribus, foliis obovatis confertis, spicis fungal disease does not seem to be known; at least I have not 



plurimis terminalibus, Browne, Nat. Hist, Jam. 221. 

^ Early on the morning of April 19, 1886, A. H. Curtiss, C. E. 



a published 
Browne's e 



Faxon, and C. S. Sargent landed at Filer's plantation on the south figure of the species. It has not been noticed on the Florida trees. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCL Tekminalia Buceras. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged, 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Two ovules, much magnified. 

8. A fruit-bearing spur-like branch, natural size 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarsred. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. An embryo cut crosswise, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Ta"b. CCI . 




C E.Faxorv deL 



Picart./r so 



V 



TERMINALIA BUCERAS , Benth. et Hook. 



A.JUocreiur direa>. 



Imp. 2L ToTieur, Parir 



coMBRETACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



CONOCAEPUS. 



Flowers perfect, in dense capitate heads; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in 
aestivation; petals 0; stamens usually 5; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 2, suspended. Fruits 
crustaceous, indehiscent, 1 -seeded, retrorsely imbricated in subglobose heads. Leaves 
alternate, entire, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Conocarpus, Linnaeus, Gen. 376 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Rudbeckia, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 80 (not Linnaeus) (1763) 
Gen, 75. — Meisner, Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen. 1181. — Terminalia, Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 280, in part (1877). 
Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 686- 



A tree or shrub, with angled branchlets^ naked buds^ and astringent properties. Leaves alternate, 
short-petiolate, narrowly ovate or obovate, acute, gradually contracted and biglandular at the base, 
entire, coriaceous, glabrous or sericeous, persistent. Flowers in dense capitate heads in narrow leafy 
terminal panicles. Bracts and bractlets acute, coated with pale hairs, caducous. Peduncles stout, 
covered with pale tomentum, bracteolate near the middle. Calyx-tube truncate and obliquely compressed 
at the base, not produced above the ovary, clothed with long white hairs, the limb campanulate, five- 
parted to the middle, the divisions ovate, acute, erect, pubescent on the outer and puberulous on the 
inner surface, deciduous. Disk epigynous, five-lobed, hairy. Stamens usually five, inserted in one rank 
on the base of the calyx-Kmb, or rarely seven or eight in two ranks ; filaments filiform, subulate, 
exserted ; anthers minute, cordate, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells 
opening longitudinally. Ovary inferior, one-celled ; style slender, subulate, thickened and villose at 
the base, tipped with a simple stigma ; ovules two, suspended from the apex of the cell, collateral, 
anatropous ; micropyle superior, raphe ventral. Fruits scale-shaped, broadly obovate, pointed, recurved, 
and covered at the apex with short pale tomentum, densely imbricated in ovoid reddish heads j exocarp 
coriaceous-corky, produced into broad lateral wings ; endocarp thin, crustaceous, indistinct, inseparable. 
Seed irregularly ovoid, exalbuminous ; testa membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown. Embryo filling the 
cavity of the seed; cotyledons convolute; radicle short, erect, turned towards the hilum. 

The wood of Conocarpus is very heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, with numerous obscure 
medullary rays ; it is dark yellow-brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood composed of ten or twelve 
layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9900, a cubic foot 
weighing 61.70 pounds. It burns slowly like charcoal, and is highly valued for fuel. The bark is 
bitter and astringent, and has been used in tanning leather, and in medicine as an astringent and tonic .^ 

The generic name, from xu^voc, and xapTtog, relates to the cone-like shape of the head of fruits. 
The genus consists of a single species. 



MM. AntilL vi. 68. t. 399 



902. — Eichler. Martins Fl 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



COMBRETACE^. 



CONOCARPUS ERECTA 



Buttonwood. 



Conocarpus erecta, Linnaeus, Spec. 176 (1753). — Miller, 
Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 96 ; III. ii. 74, t. 
126, f. 1. — Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 470, 1. 177, f. 3. — Willde- 
now, Spec. i. 994. — Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 47. — Roemer 
& Schultes, Syst. v. 573. — De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 16. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. iv. 304. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 661. 



Dietrich, Syn. i. 879. — Torrey «fe Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 



485. 
136. 

ix. 87. 



Nuttall, S7jlva, i. 113, t. 33. — Chapman, Fl. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 



Conocarpus acutifolia, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 574 
(1819). — Dietrich, Syn. i. 879. 



A tree, forty to sixty feet in height, with a trunk twenty to thirty inches in diameter, and slender 
branches which form a narrow regular head;^ or sometimes a low shrub with semiprostrate stems.^ 
The bark of the trunk is dark brown, and is divided by irregular reticulating fissures into broad flat 
ridges broken on the surface into small thin appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, conspicu- 
ously winged, Hght red-brown, and usually glabrous, but in one form coated, like the leaves, with silky 



pubescence ; in their second year they are terete and marked with large orbicular leaf -scars. The 
leaves, when they first appear, are slightly puberulous on the lower surface, or, in the variety sericea^ 
are coated with pale silky persistent pubescence ; they vary from two to four inches in length and from 
half an inch to an inch and a half in width, and are borne on stout broad petioles half an inch long ; 
they are lustrous, dark green or pale on the upper surface, and paler on the lower, with broad orange- 
colored midribs, obscure primary veins, and reticulated veinlets. The flowers are produced throughout 
the year in panicles six to twelve inches long ; the heads, on peduncles which vary from half an inch 
to an inch and a half in length, are one third of an inch across, or about half the size of the cones 
of fruit. 

The Buttonwood inhabits, with the Red Mangrove, the low muddy tide-water shores of lagoons 
and bays. In the United States it is common in southern Florida from Cape Canaveral on the east 

ir size on Lost Man's 



coast and Cedar Key 



the west to the southern islands, growing to a larg 



River near Cape Sable than in other parts of 



state : 



thern limit it is reduced to a low 



shrub 



It is common in the Antilles,* on the shores of Central America and tropical South America 



5 



the Galapagos Islands,^ and on the east coast of Africa 



Co7iocarpiis 



first described by Marggraf 



8 



his Natural History of Brazil,^ published 



* Conocarpus erecta, var. arhorea, De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 16 
(1828). — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W.Ind. 277. 



(Om 



Mart 



Brasil. xiv. pt. ii. 102. 

2 Conocarpus erecta, var. procumbens, De CandoUe, I. c. (1828). 
Eichler, I. c. — Grisebach, I. c. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth 
Census U. S. ix. 87. 



Oarnes Veg.). 



Afi 



8 



1644) 



with WiUe 



the auspices of the Duke of Nassau. After extensive travels and 



Conocarpus procumbens, Linn^us, Spec. 177 (1753).— Miller, explorations, he died in Guiana in 1644 



Diet ed. 8, No. 2. — Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 79, t. 52, f . 2. — Lamarck, ure to the climate. In 1648, four years after the death of Marg- 
Dict. ii. 96 ; iii. 699 ; III. ii. 74, t. 126, f . 2. — Gc-ertner f . FrucL graf, the earliest classical volume upon the Natural History of 
iii. 205, t. 216, f. 4. — Roemer & Schultes, SysL v. 573. 
trich, Syn. i. 879. — Grisebach, L c. 



Die- 



OV?Tl 



by Jan de Laet in Leyden and Amsterdam. Marco: 



8 Conocarpus erecta, var. sericea, De CandoUe, l. c. (1828). — Chap- of tropical American shrubs of the Camellia family, was dedicated 



man, Fl. 136. — Grisebach, L c. — Eichler, l. c. 

^ Jacquin, Hist. Select. Stirp, Am. 41, t. 78. — Icon. Am. Gewach 
i. 12, t. 39. —A. Richard, Fl. Cub. ii. 243. — Grisebach, L c. 277. 

^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi. 113. 
Kunth, Syn. PL JEquin. iii. 401. — Eichler, I c. t. 35, f. 2. — Hems- 
ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 403. 



to him by Plumier. 

^ Frutex instar Salicis pumilce, foliis Salignis, Hist. Nat. Bras. 

76, f. 

Alno shnilis arbor, J. Bauhin, Hist. PL i. lib. viii. 155. 

Salix Brasiliensis capitulifera, Jonston, Dendrographia, lib. ix. 
44G. 



COMBRETACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



in 1648, and was first noticed in the United States on Key West. According to Aiton, it was 
cultivated in England in 1755 by Philip Miller. 



Alno affinis Americanay Ligustri folio, fructu spicato rubrOj Breyne, 
Prodr. ii. ed. 1739, 41. — Plukenet, Aim. BoL 18. 

Mangkala arbor Curassavica, foliis salignis, Hermann, Parad, Bat. 
Prodr. 351. — Commelyn, HorL 115, t. 60. — Catesby, Nat Hist. 
Car. ii. 33, t. 33. 

Alnus maritima Myrtifolia Coriariorum, Plukenet, Phyt. t. 240, 
f . 3. 



Alni fructu, laurifolia arbor maritima, Sloane, Cat. PL Jam. 135 ; 
Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 18, 1. 161, f. 2. — Ray, Hist. PL iii. Dendr. 11. 

Conocarpus, Linnaeus, Hort, Cliff. 485. 

Conocarpus foliis oblongis, petiolis brevibus, florihus in caput coni" 
cum collectisy Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 159. 

Conocarpus erecta, foliis oblongis, Plumier, PL Am. ed. Burmann, 
135, t. 144, f . 2. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCIL Conocarpus erecta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a head of fruits, enlarged. 

8. A fruit, inner face, enlarged- 

9. A fruit, outer face, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged, 

11. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of ^oTih Ameinca 



Tab. ecu 




2 



11 



10 



3 



4 





8 




9 



12 



13 



Kr- 








C.E.Faxorv del . 



Ficartjr. so . 



CONOCARPUS ERECTA, L 



A.BiocreuJ> direcc^. 



Irrw . R. Taneur, Paris 



COMBKETACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



27 



LAGUNCULARIA. 



Flowers usually perfect, in axillary and terminal spikes ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes 
vahate in aestivation ; petals 5, valvate in aestivation, caducous ; stamens 10 ; ovary 
1-celled; ovules 2, suspended. Fruit 10-ribbed, coriaceous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. 
Leaves opposite, entire, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



LagTinoularia, Gsertner f. FmcL iii. 209 (1805). — Meisner, PHorau, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 80 (1763). 



Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen. 1181. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. i. 688. — BaiUon, Hist. PL vi. 278. 



Fruit 



A tree, with scaly bark, terete pithy branchlets, naked buds, and astringent properties. Leaves 
opposite, petiolate, involute in vernation, glabrous, thick and coriaceous, oblong or elliptical, obtuse or 
emarginate at the apex, entire, marked toward the margin with minute tubercles, the petioles conspicu- 
ously biglandular, persistent. Flowers usually perfect or polygamo-moncecious,^ minute, flattened, 
greenish white, sessile, in simple terminal axillary tomentose spikes generally collected in leafy panicles. 
Bracts and bractlets ovate, acute, coated with pale tomentum. Calyx-tube turbinate, not produced 
above the ovary, with five prominent ridges opposite the lobes of the limb and five intermediate lesser 
ridges, bracteolate near the middle with two minute persistent bractlets, and coated with dense pale 
tomentum, the limb urceolate, five-parted to the middle, the divisions triangular, obtuse or acute, erect, 
persistent. Disk epigynous, flat, ten-lobed, the five lobes opposite the petals broader than those 
opposite the divisions of the calyx-limb, hairy. Petals five, nearly orbicular, contracted into short 
claws, inserted in the bottom of the calyx-limb, ciHate on the margins, caducous. Stamens ten, inserted 
in two ranks on the limb of the calyx; filaments slender, subulate, slightly exserted ; anthers cordate, 
apiculate, attached on the back below the middle, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary 
one-celled ; style slender, short, crowned with a slightly two-lobed capitate stigma ; ovules two, sus- 
pended from the apex of the cell, elongated, collateral j raphe ventral, micropyle superior ; f unicle 
short or obsolete. Fruit hoary-pubescent, elongated, obovoid, flattened, crowned with the calyx-limb, 
unequally ten-ribbed, the two lateral ribs produced into narrow wings ; exocarp coriaceous, corky 
towards the interior, inseparable from the thin crustaceous endocarp, dark red and lustrous on the 
inner surface. Seed suspended, ob ovoid-oblong, destitute of albumen j testa membranaceous, dark red. 
Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; radicle elongated, slightly longer than and nearly inclosed by 
the convolute green cotyledons. 

The wood of Laguncularia is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, with a satiny surface and 
numerous obscure meduUary rays ; it is dark yellow-brown, with lighter colored sapwood composed of 
ten or twelve layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7137, 
a cubic foot weighing 44.48 pounds. The bark, which contains a large amount of tannic acid, is 
sometimes used in tanning leather, and as an astringent and tonic.^ There is a single species. 

The generic name, from lagiincula^ relates to the supposed resemblance of the fruit to a flask. 



^ The flowers of Laguncularia have usually been described as ^ Rosenthal, 

polygamous or polygamo-monoecious, but in all the specimens from xiv. pt. ii. 127. 
Florida which I have seen they are perfect. 



902. — Eichler, Martius Fl 



COMBRETACEJS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



LAGUNOULARIA RACEMOSA. 



White Buttonwood. White Mangrove. 



Laguncularia racemosa, Gsertner f. Fruct. iii, 209, t. 217 



(1805). 



De Candolle, Prodr. iil. 17. — Don, Gen. Syst 



ii. 662. — Spach, Hist. Veg. iv. 305. — Nuttall, Sylva^ i 
117, t. 34. — Chapman, Fl 136. 

278. 

Ix. 87. 



Baillon, HisL PI. vi, 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S 



Conocarpus racemosa, Linnaeus, Syst. ed. 10, 930 (1759) ; 



Spec. ed. 2, 251. — Willdenow, Spec, i. 995. — Poiret, Lam. 

Did. Suppl. iii. 343. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst v. 574. 
Schousboa commutata, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 332 (1825). 
Bucida Buceras, Vellozo, FL Flum. iv. t. 87 (not Browne) 

(1827). 

Laguncularia glabrifolia, Presl, ReL Haenk. ii. 22 
(1835). — Walpers, Rep. ii. 63. — Chapman, Fl. 136. 



A tree, thirty 



ixty feet in height 



1 



trunk twelve to twenty inches in diameter, and 



spreading branches forming a narrow round-headed top ; or, in the northern part of the territory which 
it inhabits in Florida, a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, the brown 
surface slightly tinged with red and divided into long ridge-like scales. The branchlets, when they first 
appear, are somewhat angled, glabrous, often marked with minute pale spots, and dark red-brown ; in 



their second year they are terete, light red-b 



orange-color, thickened at the nodes, and marked 



by conspicuous ovate leaf 



d an inch 



ch and a half 



The leaves are an inch and a half to two inches and a half in length 

in width, with red petioles half an inch long ; when they unfold 



they are slightly tinged with red and at maturity are dark green on the upper surface and hghter green 
or pale below. The flower-spikes, which are produced throughout the year from the axils of young 
leaves, are densely coated with hoary tomentum, and are an inch and a half to two inches in length. 
The flowers are a quarter of an inch long, or rather less than half the length of the fruit. 



Lagimcitlaria racemosa^ with Rhizophora and Co 



habits the muddy tidal shores of 



tropical bays and lagoons ; in the United States it is common in southern Florida from Cape Canaveral 



the east coast and Cedar Keys on the west coast to the southern islands 



B 



5 



the borders of 



Shark River to the largest size which it reaches in the 



It is a common littoral tree in Bermuda 



the West Indian islands,^ Mexico and Central America,^ tropical South America,^ and western Africa.^ 

Lagimcitlaria racemosa was first described by Sir Hans Sloane in his Catalogue of the Plants of 



Jamaica, published in 1696 

West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett 



6 



and 



appears to have been first noticed in the United States on Key 



7 



Lefroy, Bull. U. S. Nat Mus. No. 25, 74 (Bot. Bermuda). 



!ilaire. FL Bras. Merid. ii. 244 



Martius 



2 Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 80, t. 53 ; Hist Select. Siirp. Am. 41, t. Brazil, xiv. pt. ii. 102, t. 35, f. 3. 



79. 



Icon. Am. Gewdch. i. 12, t. 40. — Swartz, Obs. 79. — Lunan, 



5 Hooker f . & Bentham, Hooker Niger Fl. 337. — Oliver, FL 



Hort. Jam. i. 10. — A. Richard, FL Cub. ii. 244. — Grisebach, FL Trop. Afr. ii. 419. 



W. 



Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. 



Mus. No. 13, 54 (FL St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). 

3 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vii. 255. 
Kunth, Syn. PL jEquin. iv. 256. — Bentbam, Bot. Voy. Sulphury 
14^ 92. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 403. 



® Mangle Julifera, foliis ellipticis ex adverso nascentibus, Cat. PL 
Jam. 156 ; Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 66, t. 187, f. 1. — liay, Hist. PL iii. 



Dendr. 115. 



foliis elliptico-ovatisy petiolis biglandulatiSy racemis 
\ctis. Browne. Nat. Hist. Jam. 159. 



' See i. 33. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCIIL Laguncularia racemosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A disk and pistil, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 

13. A leaf, with tubercles, natural size. 



SilvsL of iNTortli America. 



Tab C cm. 




C<E,Faai>oru delf . 




so. 



LAGUNCULARIA RACEM S A , Goerta. f. 



^.Iiiocreu£C' Screay 



t/ 



Inro. It Tccnezcr . Pcm^ 



MYRTACE-Sl. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



ANAMOMIS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx usually 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; petals 
usually 4, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens indefinite, in many ranks ; ovary inferior, 
2 to 4-celled ; ovules numerous in each cell. Fruit baccate, 1 or rarely 2-seeded. 
Leaves opposite, penniveined, chartaceous or coriaceous, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Anamomis, Griaebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 240 (1864). 



Myrtus, Bentham & Hooker, Geii. i. 714 (in part) (1865) 
Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 349 (in part). 



Aromatic trees, with terete branchlets. Leaves opposite^ ovate or elliptical, petiolate, chartaceous 
or coriaceous, penniveined, punctate, destitute of stipules, persistent. Flowers in pedunculate, usually 
three, sometimes five to seven, or occasionally one-flowered cymes. Peduncles axillary, dichotomously 
branched or rarely simple, furnished inmiediately below the apex of each division with two lanceolate 
acute deciduous bractlets. Calyx-tube ovoid, not produced above the ovary, the limb four or rarely 
five-lobed, the lobes ovate, acute, persistent. Petals four or occasionally five, inserted on the thickened 

Stamens 

indefinite, inserted with the petals on the margin of the disk ; filaments filiform, inflexed in the bud j 
anthers oblong, attached on the back below the middle, versatile, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening 
longitudinally. Ovary two to four-celled; style simple, fiHform, crowned with the minute capitate 
stigma ; ovules numerous in each cell, attached irregularly to a central placenta, semianatropous ; raphe 
ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit baccate, subglobose or more or less obliquely oblong, aromatic, 
crowned with the persistent calyx-hmb, one or sometimes two-seeded. Seed reniform, exalbuminous ; 
testa membranaceous. Embryo aromatic, filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons distinct, obovate, 



margin of the conspicuous disk, ovate, acute, glandular-punctate, spreading after anthesis. 



thick and fleshy, flat and rounded at the apex, or more or less pointed, incurved 



d 



usly 



infolded at the apex ; radicle basilar, terete, accumbent, from one quarter to one third the length of 
the cotyledons. 

Anamomis is West Indian, with four or five species,^ one of which reaches the shores and islands 
of southern Florida, 
found in Florida. Anamomis 



Little is known with regard to the economic value of the species that 



inhabitant of Hayti, is said to produce edible fruit 



The name of the genus, from ava and d/w6)^t$, alludes to its aromatic properties 



1 Grisebach, Fl Brit, W. Ind. 240 ; Cat. PI Cut. 90. 



2 Grisebach, Fl Brit. W. Ind. 240 (1864). 
Eugenia esculenta, Berg, Linncea, xxvii. 1273 (1854) 



32 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. myrtace^. 



ANAMOMIS DICHOTOMA 



Naked Wood. 



Leaves ovate or obovate, acute or rounded at the apex. 



Anamomis dichotoma 
130 (1893). 



ent, Garden and Forest, vi. Eugenia ? dichotoma, De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 278 

(1828).— Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 861. — Nuttall, Sylva, i. 103, 
Mag. xxxi. t. 1242 (not Will- t. 27. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 64. — Berg, Linnma, xxvii. 



denow teste Grisebach) (1810) 



261. — ChaDman, Fl 



N. 



Myrtus dichotoma, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 53 (1816). Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 88. 



Myrcia 



(teste Grisebach). 



Anamomis 

(1864). 



W. 



A tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter ; or often 
a shrub sending up from the ground numerous slender stems. The bark of the trunk varies from one 
sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in thickness, with a smooth light red or red-brown surface exfoliating 
into minute thin scales. The branchlets, which are slender and terete, are at first light red and coated 
with pale silky hairs ; in their second year they are glabrous and covered with Hght or dark red-brown 
bark which separates into small thin scales. The leaves are ovate or obovate, acute or rounded and 
occasionally emarginate at the apex, wedge-shaped at the base, entire, chartaceous and finally subcori- 
aceous, glabrous, and covered with minute black dots ; they are an inch to an inch and a quarter long 
and half an inch to two thirds of an inch broad, with stout midribs impressed on the upper surface, 
slightly thickened and revolute margins, and short stout petioles enlarged at the base and covered while 
young with silky hairs. The flowers, which appear in Florida in May, and are a quarter of an inch 
across when expanded, are borne in pedunculate cymes produced near the ends of the branches in the 
axils of the leaves of the year. The peduncles are slender and coated with pale silky hairs, and are 
sometimes one-flowered and not longer than the leaves ; more often they are longer than the leaves, 
dichotomously branched, and three-flowered, with one flower at the end of the principal division in the 



fork of its one-flowered branches, which vary from a quarter to half an inch in length 



nally 



they are five to seven-flowered by the development of peduncles from the axils of the bracts of the 
secondary divisions of the inflorescence. Each branch of the inflorescence is furnished at its apex, 
immediately beneath the flower, with two lanceolate acute bracts which are nearly as long as the calyx- 
tube, and which in falling leave prominent persistent scars. The calyx is narrowly ovoid and coated 
with hoary tomentum, with a four-parted limb, its lobes ovate, rounded at the apex, and much shorter 
than the ovate acute glandular-punctate white petals. The fruit, which ripens in August in Florida, is 
reddish brown, a quarter of an inch long, obliquely oblong, obovate or subglobose, crowned by the 
persistent limb of the calyx, roughened with minute glands, and one or rarely two-seeded ; its flesh is 
thin and rather dry, with an agreeable aromatic flavor. The large reniform seed is covered with a thin 
hght brown membranaceous coat and is extremely fragrant. 

Anamomis dichotoma is abundant in rocky woods on the east coast of Florida from Mosquito 
Inlet to Cape Canaveral ; on the west coast it occurs from the banks of the Caloosa River to the shores 
of Cape Romano ; it grows occasionally on Key West and in the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne, and 
inhabits several of the West Indian islands. 

The wood of Anamomis dichotoma is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin 
medullary rays ; it is light brown or red, with thick yellow sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of 



MYRTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



33 



annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely diy wood is 0.8983^ a cubic foot weighing 55.97 
pounds. 

Anamomis dichotoma was probably first distinguished ^ by the Danish botanist Vahl ; ^ in Florida 
it was discovered on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



^ See Poiret, Lam. Diet Suppl, iv. 54. The flowers of Vahl's consumed more than a century in publication. Between 1790 and 



plant were, however, described as five-parted. 



1794 he published in three folio volumes, with many plates, the 



2 Martin Vahl (1749-1804) was born at Bergen in Norway and Symbolce Botanicm, devoted principally to descriptions of plants 

pursued his scientific studies at Copenhagen and afterwards at collected by ForskS,l in the Orient ; in 1796 and 1798 were pub- 

Upsal, where he became a favorite pupil of Linnaeus. In 1779 lished the two first volumes of his Eclogce Americanm^ containing 

Vahl was appointed lecturer in the Botanic Garden at Copenhagen, figures and descriptions of tropical American plants, the third vol- 

and having filled this position during three years was sent by the ume appearing in 1807. Vahl left unfinished, also, his Enumeratio 

King of Denmark on a scientific voyage of observation, during Plantarum^ of which the first volume was published in 1804, shortly 

which he traveled extensively in Holland, France, Italy, Spain, before he died. At his death the King of Denmark purchased 

northern Africa, Switzerland, and England. Returning to Copen- his herbarium, manuscripts, and botanical library, which is said to 

hagen in 1785, he was appointed professor of natural history in the have contained three thousand volumes. Vahlia^ a genus of south 

University of that city and was intrusted with the completion of African herbs of the Saxifrage family, was dedicated to him by 

the Flora Danica of Oeder. Vahl was the author or editor of the Thunberg. 
sixth and seventh volumes of this monumental work, which has 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCIV. Anamomis dichotoma. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural 

6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. CCIV 




2 





7 



li 



6 










C< E.Faxon deL. 



Fzcartjr . so 



ANAMOMIS DICHOTOMA, SarS. 




^.Biocreux- direa>^ 



Imp. Ry.Taneur ^ PcLris 



MYRTACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



35 



CALYPTRANTHES. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx produced above the ovary, closed in the bud by a decidu- 



ous lid ; petals 2 to 5, minute, imbricated in aestivation, or ; stamens indefinite, 
many-ranked ; ovary inferior, 2 or 3-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, or rarely indefinite. 
Fruit baccate. Leaves opposite, entire, penniveined, pellucid-punctate, persistent, 
destitute of stipules. 



Calyptranthes, Swartz, Prodr. 79 (1788). — Meisner, Gen. Chytralia, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 80 (1763). 

108. — Endlicher, Gen. 1232. — Bentham «&; Hooker, Gen. Calyptranthus, A. L. de Jussieu, Diet. Sci. Nat. vi. 274 



i. 717. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. vi. 352. 



(1805). 



Aromatic trees or shrubs, with terete or angled branchlets. Leaves complanate in vernation, 
opposite, entire, penniveined, marked with pellucid or resinous dots, petiolate. Flowers bibracteolate, 
minute, in subterminal or axillary pedunculate many-flowered panicles, their primary and secondary 
branches often racemose, the ultimate branches cymose. Bracts and bractlets minute, acute, caducous. 
Flower-buds ovoid or spherical. Calyx-tube turbinate, produced above the ovary, closed in the bud by 
a shghtly four or five-lobed Hd-Hke orbicular Umb, opening in anthesis by a circumscissHe Hue, the 
limb at first attached laterally, finally deciduous. Disk fining the tube of the calyx. Petals, two to 
five, minute, inserted on the sHghtly thickened margin of the disk, or wanting. Stamens indefinite, 
inserted in many ranks on the margin of the disk ; filaments filiform, inflexed in the bud, exserted ; 
anthers ovate, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-ceUed, the cells opening longitudi- 
nally. Ovary inferior, two to three-celled ; style filiform, simple, crowned with a minute capitate 
stigma ; ovules two or three in each ceU, collateral, or rarely indefinite, attached to an axile placenta, 
ascending, anatropous ; micropyle inferior ; raphe ventral. Fruit baccate, crowned with the truncate 
persistent calyx-tube, two to four-seeded. Seed subglobose, destitute of albumen ; testa membranaceous, 
shining. Embryo filHng the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons f oliaceous, contortupHcate ; radicle elon- 
gated, incurved. 

Calyptranthes is confined to tropical America, where seventy or eighty species,* distributed from 
the shores of Lake Worth in southern Florida to Brazil and Peru, are distinguished. 

The genus possesses few useful properties. The flower-buds and fruit are aromatic and astringent, 
and are occasionaUy used in condiments and as stimulants and digestives,^ especiaUy those of the 
BraziHan C. aromatica ^ and C. obscura,^ of the Mexican C. Schlechtendaliana ^ and C. Schiedeana^ 
and of the Peruvian C. 'paniculata? 

The name of the genus, from noJkvivt^a, and av^ri, refers to the pecuHar fid-like Hmb which closes 
the calyx before the opening of the flower. One species inhabits Florida. 



1 Swartz, Prodr. 79; Fl. Ind. Occ. ii. 917. — WiUdenow, Spec. « St. HUaire, PI. Usuelles Brasil. t. 14 (1824). — De CandoUe, 

ii. 974. — Ruiz & Pavon, Syst. 130. — De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. I. c. — Berg, I. c. 19 ; I. c. 38. 

256. — Berg, Lmnoea, xxvii. 18 ; Martins Fl. Brasil. xiv. pt. i. * De CandoUe, I. c. 257 (1828). — Berg, I. c. 31 ; l. <.. 542, 627. 

38. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 232 ; Cat. PL Cub. 85. — Hems- ^ Berg, Linncea, xxvii. 29 (1854). — Hemsley, L c. 409. 



ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 408. 



6 Berg, L c. 28 (1854) .— Hemsley , L c. 409. 



2 Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 924. — BaUlon, Hist. PL vi. ' Ruiz & Pavon, Prodr. 74, t. 13 (1794) ; Syst. 131. — De Can- 



340. 



doUe, L c. 268. — Berg, L c. 20. 



36 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MYRTACE^. 



OALYPTRANTHES CHYTRACULIA. 



Petals ; ovules 2 in each cell. Branchlets wing-angled. 



iyptranthes Chytraculia, Swarl 
Fl Ind. Occ. ii. 921. — WiUdenow 



Per- 



XXVll 



Chapman, FL 131. — Sargent, Forest 



N. 



soon, Syn. ii. 32. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 499. — De Can- Myrtus Chytraculia 



dolle, Prodr. iii. 257. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 847. 
tall, Sylva^ i. 101, t. 26. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 120. 



Nut- 
Berg, 



Swartz, Obs. 202. 



Eugenia pallens, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. 122 (1813). 



A slender tree^ in Florida sometimes twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk three or 
four inches in diameter, and a narrow head. The bark of the trunk is one eighth of an inch thick, with 
a generally smooth, Kght gray, or almost white surface, occasionally separating into irregular plate-Hke 
scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are slender, wing-angled between the nodes, and coated, 
like the branches of the flower-clusters, the bracts, and the flower-buds, with short rufous silky tomen- 
tum ; in their second or third year they become terete, thicken at the nodes, and are covered with light 
gray bark tinged with red and broken into small thin scales. The leaves are oblong or ovate-oblong, 
elongated and rounded or acute at the apex, and gradually contracted at the base into long petioles ; 
they are pellucid-punctate on the upper 



surface, marked with dark glands 



on the lower, and are at 



first pink or Hght red and covered with pale silky hairs, and at maturity are coriaceous, dark green 
and lustrous above, coated with pale pubescence below, two and a half to three inches long and one 
half to three quarters of an inch broad, with sHghtly thickened revolute margins, broad midribs orange- 
colored beneath and deeply impressed on the upper surface, slender veins arcuate and united near the 
margins, and petioles varying from one third to one half of an inch in length. The flower-clusters 
are subterminal and axillary, long-stemmed, and from two and a half to three inches in length and 
breadth, with slender divaricate branches, the flowers of the ultimate divisions being in threes. The 
flowers are sessile, apetalous, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with rufous pubescence on the 
outer surface of the calyx-limb. The fruit is oblong or nearly globose, dark reddish brown, and 
puberulous, with thin dry flesh and lustrous seeds.* 

In Florida Calyptranthes Chytraculia inhabits the shores of Lake Worth, and is not uncommon 



ghborhood of Bay Biscay 



It 



Key West and Key Largo and on the hummocks in the ne 
many of the West India islands^ and in southern Mexico.^ 
The wood of Calyptranthes Chytraculia is very heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous 



Berg (Linnceay xxvii. 27) proposed the following varieties : 



surface, silky-pubescent on the lower, with thin veins ; cymes long- 



o. genuina : indumentum tomentose, ultimately silky; leaves short- pedunculate, scarcely shorter than the leaves, their branches abbre- 
petiolate, ovate, obtuse, or shortly acuminate at the base, glabrous, viated, few-flowered. 



obscurely impressed-punctate on the upper surface ; cymes two to 
four-branched, shorter than the leaves, subterminal. 

p. ovalis : indumentum, scanty, velutinous ; leaves short-petiolate, surface, glabi 
oval, acute at the base, obsoletely impressed-punctate on the upper trichotomous. 
surface, with very narrow veins ; cymes shorter than the leaves. Myrtus Z 



€. Zuzygium: branches and petioles ferrugineo-silky ; leaves long- 
petiolate, oval, acute at the base, impressed-punctate on the upper 



with 



Linnseus 



7. trichotoma : indumentum, silky-velutinous ; leaves long-petio- 



Calyptranihes Zuzygium, Swartz, Prodr. 79 (1788) ; FL Ind. 



late, oval-oblong or oval, acute at the base, ciliate on the margins, Occ. ii. 919. — De CandoUe, Prodr, iii. 257. — Grisebach, FL Brit 

slightly impressed-punctate on the upper surface, densely silky- 



with 



than the leaves. 

d.paucijlora: indumentum, silky-velutinous ; leaves long-petiolate, 
oval-oblong, acute at the base, impressed-punctate on the upper 



W. Ind. 232. 

^ Lunan, Hort Jam, i. 61. 

bach, /. c. 232. 

Croix and the Virgin Islands'). 

8 Hemsley, Bot. Biol Am. Cent. i. 408. 



Fl.i 
Mus 



Grise- 



MYRTACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



37 



evenly distributed rather large open ducts and many thin medullary rays. It is brown tinged with red, 
with lighter colored sapwood composed of thirty to forty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8992, a cubic foot weighing 56.04 pounds.^ 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia was first described by Patrick Browne in the Natural History < 
Jamaica, published in 1756 ; ^ and in Florida was first noticed by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. According i 
Aiton,^ it was introduced into EngHsh gardens in 1778. 




^ In Florida Calyptranthes Chytraculia grows very slowly. The 
trunk of this tree in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History in New York 
is five and a half inches in diameter, and displays one hundred and 
thirty-six layers of annual growth. 



foliis ovatis glabris oppositis, racemis 



nalibus, 239, t. 37, f . 2. 
* Hort. Kew. ed. 2. i 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCV. Calyptranthes Chttraculia 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower-bud, enlarged. 

4. A flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

14. A seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta'b. CCV. 



^r.^. 



2 




14. 




15 



Ik. 




6 





9 





13 




O.E.FoMxiii- del. 



J'lcart fr . sc< 



CALYPTRANTHES CHYTRACULIA , Sw 



j4 RiocrezLX' direca-^ 



Imf. R ToTieur, Farw. 



MYRTACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



39 



Flowers perfect 



caly 



EUGENIA. 



4 or rarely 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestiyation 



petals 



ually 4, imbricated in aestivation; stamens indefinite, many-ranked; ovary 



inferior, 2 rarely 3-celled ; ovules indefinite or 2 to 4. Fruit baccate or subdrupa- 
ceous. Leaves opposite, penniveined, coriaceous or membranaceous, destitute of 
stipules. 



Eugenia, Linnseus, Gen. 139 (1737). —A. L. de Jussieu, Acmena, De Candolle, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. xi. 446 



Gen. 324. 



Meisner, Gen. 109. 



Endlicher, Gen. 



(1826). —Meisner 



1233. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 718. 



BaiU 



on 



Hist. PI. vi. 364 (excl. Cuphceanthus), 



Endlicher, Gen. 1232. 
237 (1828). — Meisner 



Gen. 109. 



Caryophyllus, Linnaeus, Gen. 154 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Cerocarpus, Hasskarl, Flora, 1842, ii. Beibl. 36. 

PL ii. 88. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 324. — Meisner, Gen. Syllysium, Meyen & Schauer, Nov. Act. Leop. xix. Suppl 



108. 



Endlicher, Gen. 1232. 



i. 334 (1843). 



Plinia, Linnseus, Gen. 155 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. Cleistocalyx, Blume, Mus. Bat. Lugd. Bat. i. 84 (1849). 



448. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 342. 



Gelpkea, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 88 (1849). 



Jambos, Burmann, Thes. Zeylan. 124 (1737). —Adanson, Strongylo calyx, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 89 (1849). 
Fam. PI. ii. 88. Clavimyrtus, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 113 (1849). 

Jambosa, Rumpf, Herb. Amhoin. i. 121 (1741). — Meisner, Microj ambosa, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 117 (1849). 



Gen. 109. — Endlicher, Gen. 1233. 
Catinga, Aublet, PI. Guian. i. 511, t. 203 (1775) 
Syzygium, Gaertner, Fruct. i. 166, t. 33 (1788). 
Greggia, Gaertner, Fruct. i. 168, t. 33 (1788). 
Guapurium, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 324 (1789). 
Opa, Loureiro, Fl. Cochin, i. 308 (1790). 
Rugenia, Necker, Elem. Bot. ii. 78 (1790). 
Olynthia, Lindley, Collect. No. 19 (1821). 



Macromyxtus, Miquel 



XXVI 1 



A. Richard) (1854). 



Stenocalyx, Berg, Linncea, xxvii. 309 (1854). 



Myrciaria 



xxvii. 344 (1854) 



Hexachlamys 



Trees or shrubs, with aromatic foliage, hard durable wood, and scaly bark. Leaves opposite, 
coriaceous or membranaceous, penniveined, destitute of stipules. Flowers often large and conspicuous, 
white, rose, or rarely straw-colored, bibracteolate. Inflorescence centripetal, the pedicels one-flowered, 
opposite, solitary in the axils of the leaves, fascicled or collected in short racemes ; or centrifugal, the 
flowers in dense terminal cymes, or in terminal or lateral trichotomous panicles. Bracts and bractlets 
usually minute, caducous, occasionally foliaceous and persistent. Calyx-tube globose-ovoid, turbinate 
or elongated, sometimes angled or winged, not at all or more or less produced above the ovary, the 
limb four or rarely five-lobed, large, or minute and scarcely developed above the truncate margin of 
the tube. Petals inserted on the slightly thickened margin of the disk Hning the calyx-tube, four or 
very rarely five or indefinite, free and spreading or more or less connivent, or connate and deciduous 
in a single piece, or wanting. Stamens indefinite, in many ranks, free or obscurely collected into four 
clusters by a sHght union of their bases in the bud ; filaments fiHf orm, incurved in the bud ; anthers 
versatile, introrse, attached on the back below the middle, two-celled, the cells usually parallel or rarely 
spreading, opening longitudinally. Ovary two, rarely three-celled ; style simple, fihf orm, crowned with 
a minute capitate stigma ; ovules many in each cell or two to four, attached to a central placenta, semi- 
anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit crowned with the persistent calyx-tube, baccate, 
juicy, sometimes almost drupaceous, or dry with a fibrous outer coat. Seeds one to four, globose or 
variously flattened by mutual pressure ; testa membranaceous or cartilaginous, exalbuminous. Embryo 



40 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MYRTACE^. 



thick and fleshy ; cotyledons thick, more or less conferruminate into a homogeneous mass j radicle very 

short, turned towards the hilum. 

Euo-enia, to which as now enlarged more than seven hundred species have been referred, and 
which, according to the best authorities, contains about five hundred species, is represented in North 
America by five species of southern Florida, three of which 



small 



and 



one 



shrub 



1 



The genus appears 



tropical and semitropical regions, abounding in the tropics of America ^ and 



Asia,^ and being less common in tropical Africa,* Australia,^ and the Pacific islands 



Se 



timber 



species are 
edible fruit, and others 



valued for their stimulant and digestive properties ; ^ some produce useful 

The 



cultivated for the beauty of their flowers or foliage 



9 



most useful species of 



to 



Eug 



which furnishes the cloves of commerce 



11 



xxvu 



man, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 620. 
Census U. S. ix. 89. 



N. 



Chap- end of the eighteenth century by the energy of the governor of the 
t. lOth French islands of Mauritius and Bourbon, who succeeded in 1770 

in introducing into them the Clove-tree and the Nutmeg. From 



2 Berg, Martins Fl. Brasil. xiv. pt. i. 214. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. Mauritius the Clove-tree was carried to Cayenne, and then to Zan- 
W. Ind. 235 (Caryophyllus, Syzygium, and Jambosa), 236 (Eu- zibar and other tropical countries, and now Zanzibar and Pemba 



genia) . 



) 



produce a large part of the clove-crop of the world. (See Tessier, 
Fl. Ind, Bat i. 407 (Jambosa), 440 (Eugenia), 446 Sur V Importation du Giroflier des Moluques aux Isles de France^ de 

Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. Bourbon et des Sechelles, et de ces isles a Cayenne.) 



114 (Eugenia), 115 (Jambosa), 116 (Syzygium). — Hooker f. FL 



Brit. Ind. ii. 470. 



XXUl 



The Clove-tree flourishes in clayey loam and requires a good 

drainage, exposure to the sun, and protection from high winds. It 

4 A. Richard, FL Abyss, i. 284 (Syzygium). — Harvey & Sonder, is raised from seed or by layering the branches, which will root in 

Fl. Cap. ii. 521 (Syzygium, Eugenia). — Oliver, FL Trap. Afr. ii. six or eight months in moist ground. The seeds, which soon lose 

436. 



^ Bentham, FL Austral, iii. 280. 
^ Grav. Bot. Wilkes Exvlor. Ext 



their power of germination, should be sown a foot apart in rich soil 
as soon as gathered and not more than two inches below the sur- 
face, when they will germinate at the end of five or six weeks. 



■^ Rosenthal, Syn. PL DiapTior. 926. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 340. The seedlings require an abundant supply of water and protection 



^ Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers^ 190. 
Plants of Australia^ 530. 

^ Naudin, Manuel de VAccUmateury 277. 



Useful Native from the sun. Usually the seedlings are not transplanted until 

they are three or four feet high, when they should be set in pits 
filled with enriched surface-soil ; they require shading for two or 



10 Baillon, L c. 311, f. 288, 289 (1877) ; Traite BoL Med. 1015, three years. Banana-plants being often used for this purpose. The 

f. 2832-2834. ground occupied by a Clove-tree plantation requires careful and 

Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linnaus, Spec. 515 (1753). — De Can- constant cultivation in order to produce the best results ; liberal 



dolle, Prodr. iii. 262. — Miquel, L c. 462. 



dressings of manure are recommended, and in dry weather a thick 



Eugenia caryophyUata, Thunberg, Diss. De Caryophyllis aroma- mulch of litter increases the vigor of the trees. 



ticis (1788). — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii. 965. 

Myrtus Caryophyllus y Sprengel, Syst. ii. 485 (1825). 



The flower-buds are at first white, then green, and finally bright 
red, in which stage they are gathered. In Zanzibar this is done by 



1^ The Clove-tree, a handsome evergreen thirty or forty feet in hand from a movable stage, each bud being picked separately ; in 

height, is endemic in five small islands west of New Guinea, which the East Indies the buds are gathered by hand from the lower 

constitute the original Molucca group, or Clove Islands. It was branches and beaten with bamboo poles from the upper ones on to 

early carried to Amboyna, probably before the discovery of that the ground, which is swept clean to receive them, or on to cloths 

island by the Portuguese, and is now cultivated in mauy of the stretched under the trees. The yield of flower-buds varies in dif- 

islands of the East Indian Archipelago, in southern India, Ceylon, ferent years ; occasionally none are produced, and a heavy crop is 

Mauritius, and Bourbon, in Zanzibar and Pemba off the eastern gathered only at intervals of five or six years. Five or six pounds 



coast of Africa, and occasionally in the West Indies. Cloves, which is 



xnerea omy at intervals or nve or six years. i?ive or six po 
considered an average annual crop from a tree in its prime, 
imatra the leno-th of life of the Clove-tree is from twent 



In 



are the dried flower-buds of this tree, were used in China during Sumatra the length of life of the Clove-tree is from twenty to 

the Han dynasty (b. c. 266 to A. B. 220) ; they were perhaps known twenty-four years, although in Amboyna it is said that it does not 

to the Romans as early as the first century, as Pliny's caryophyllon, begin producing until its twelfth or fifteenth year, and continues 

a spice imported from India for the sake of its odor, may refer to productive for nearly a hundred and fifty years. The flower-buds 

them ; for centuries they have been well known in Europe, and a are dried in the sun as soon as gathered and are then ready for 

considerable commerce in cloves was carried on by the overland shipment. In some parts of the East Indies they are cured on 

Indian route until the discovery of the Spice Islands by the Por- frames over a slow fire before exposure to the sun. 



tuguese at the beginning of the sixteenth century. For a century 



Cloves contain sixteen to eighteen per cent, of essential oil, oleum 



the Portuguese controlled the clove-trade, but in 1605 they were caryophylli, a colorless yellow liquid with the odor and taste of 

expelled from the Moluccas by the Dutch who, in order to secure cloves, and composed of a mixture of hydrocarbon and eugenol in 

a monopoly of this trade by confining it to the Amboyna group, variable proportions, caryophyllin, a considerable proportion of 

endeavored to exterminate the Clove-tree from its native islands. gum and tannic acid. 



They were at first so far successful that the Clove Islands no longer 
exported cloves ; but the Dutch monopoly was broken before the 



The principal consumption of cloves is in cooking ; in medicine 
they are used to modify the action of other drugs, entering into 



MYRTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



41 



Eugenia Janibos^ the Rose Appl 



of southeastern Asia and the Indian Archipelago, and 



cultivated in all tropical countries as a shade and ornamental tree and for its deHcately fragrant and 
rather dry fruit, and Eur/enia Jamholana,^ a common Indian timber-tree. Eugenia unijfora,^ 



the 



In 



Surinam Cherry, a shrubby species originally from Brazil, with handsome flowers and aromatic fruit of 
a pleasant flavor, is often cultivated and has become naturalized in the tropics of the two worlds 
tropical South America a number of species are esteemed as fruit-trees,^ although the 
Eugenias is dry and inferior in flavor and quality to that of many other tropical trees. 



fruit of aU 



The 



6 



^ ^..wiiame" commemorates the interest in botany and gardening taken by Prince Eugene of 

Savoy, the famous Austrian general, who, after the peace of Carlowitz in 1699, devoted his leisure for 
several years to building the Belvedere Palace near Vienna and laying out its gardens, in which he made 
a collection of rare plants. 



numerous preparations. The essential oil relieves toothache and chipelago, Queensland, and New South Wales it is naturalized or 

forms an ingredient in various kinds of pills. Clove-stalks, the indigenous. It is a tall tree, often attaining the height of eighty or 

peduncles of the inflorescence, are imported from Zanzibar and ninety feet, with a stout straight trunk, and in India and other trop- 

used in the manufacture of mixed spices and in the adulteration of ical countries is often planted as a shade tree, for which purpose its 

ground cloves ; and the fruit of the Clove-tree, the mother-cloves wide-spreading branches, drooping brant^hlets, and crown of dense 

of commerce, is used for the same purposes. The oil of cloves, dark foliage make it valuable. It produces tough hard heavy 

which is obtained by distillation, is largely used iu perfumery dark-colored wood, which is used in India in building and in the 

(Crawfurd, Dictionary of the Indian Islands, article Cloves. — Fliick- manufacture of horticultural inaplements. The fruit, which resem- 

iger & Hanbury, Pharmacographiaj 249, — Guibourt, Hist. Drag. bles a small plum, is eaten by the natives of India and by birds, 

ed. 7, iii. 271, f. 661. — Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts^ and yields a sort of vinegar. The bark is astringent and dyes 

— brown (Balfour, Cyclopcedia of India, ed. 3, i. 1059). 

3 Linnffius, I c. 470 (1753). — Willdenow, I c. 962. 



Manufactures^ and Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1420, 1808. — 
Nichols, Tropical Agriculture, 184). 

1 Linnaeus, Spec, 470 (1753), — Brandis, Forest FT. Brit, Ind. 
233. — Kurz, Forest Ft. Brit. Burm. i. 495.— Hooker f. FL Brit 
Ind, ii. 474. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 297. 

Jambosa vulgaris, De CandoUe, Prodr, iii. 286 (1828). — Wight 
& Walker- Arnott, Prodr. FL Ind. i. 332. — Bentham, Ft. Hongk. 
120, — Bot, Mag. Ixi. t. 3356. — Berg, Linncea, xxvii. 342. 

Myrtus Jambos, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 
Spec. vi. 144 (1823). — Kunth, Syn. PL JEquin. iii. 418. — 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 485. — Blume, Bijdr, FL Ned. Ind. 1085. 

2 Lamarck, Diet iii. 198 (1789).— Wight, Icon. t. 535. — Ben- 
tham, FL Austral, iii. 283. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. S. Ind. i. 197, t. 

Brandis, L c. 233, t. 30. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burm. i. 



Myrtus Brasiliana, Linnaeus, L c. 471 (1753). — Sprengel, L 



480. 



197. 



485. — Hooker f . L c. 499. 



Willdenow, 



Syzygium Jamholanum, De Candolle, L t. 259 (1828). 



AMght 



Walker- 



Berg, I. c. 339. 



Moorei 



Pluni 



tile plains of India, ascending on the Himalayas to an elevation of 



Plinia rubra, Linnaeus, ikfan^ 243 (1771). — Vellozo, FL Flum. 
V. t. 46. 

Plinia pedunculata, Linnaeus f. Syst. ed. 13, Suppl. 253 (1781). — 
Bot. Mag. xiv. t. 473. 

Eugenia Michelii, Lamarck, L c. 203 (1789). — De Candolle, 
L c. 263. 

Myrtus Willdenowii, Sprengel, L c. (1825). 
Eugenia Zeylanica, Willdenow, I. c. 963 (1799). 
Eugenia? Willdenoioii, De Candolle, l. c-. 265 (1828). 
Eugenia Parkeriana, De Candolle, L c. 271 (1828). 
Stenocalyx Michelii, Berg, Martins FL Brasil. xiv. pt. i. 337 
(1855) ; Linncea, xxvii. 310. 

4 Miquel, FL Ind. Bat. i. 440. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 
239. — Hooker f . L c. 505. — Lef roy, BulL U. S. Nat Mus. No. 25, 
74 (Bot. Bermuda). 

^ Berg, Martins FL Brasil. xiv. pt. i. 627. 

6 Micheli, Nov. PL Gen. 227. 



Ar- 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. myrtace^e. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



iieugenia : Flowers 4 rarely 5-parted ; calyx campanula^, scarcely produced above the ovary ; petals free and sj 
ovules numerous ; pedicels short, obsolete, or elongated. 
Flowers in short solitary or clustered axillary racemes. 

Leaves ovate or obovate, rounded at the apex, short-petiolate 1. E. buxifolia. 

Leaves ovate, contracted at the apex into broad points, distinctly petiolate 2. E. Moi^lcOLA 

Flowers in axillary fascicles. 

Leaves usually broadly ovate, narrowed at the apex into short points, subcoriaceous - . . 3- E. procera. 
Leaves ovate-oblong, narrowed at the apex into long points, coriaceous 4. E. Garberi. 



MYRTACEjK. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



EUGENIA BUXIFOLIA. 



Gurgeon Stopper. Spanish Stopper. 



Leaves ovate or obovate, rounded at the apex, short-petiolate 



Eugenia buxifolia, Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii. 960 (1799). 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 29. — De CandoUe, Prodr, iii. 275. 
Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 859. — Nuttall, Sylva, i. 108, t. 29. 
Dietrich, Syn. iii. 62. — Chapman, FL 131. — Grisebach, 



11. 



899. 



Sprengel, Syst. ii. 484. — Kunth, Mem. Soa 



W. 



N. 



10th Census U. S. ix. 88. — Hitchcock, Hejj. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. iv- 86. 



Hist. Nat. Paris, i. 325. 
Myrtus axillaris, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 412 (not Swartz) 
(1797). 

Eugenia myrtoides, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. 125 
(1813). 

Myrtus Poireti, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 483 (1825). 



Myrtus buxifolia, Swartz, Prodr, 78 (1788) ; FL Ind. Occ. Eugenia triplinervia, y. buxifolia. Berg, Linua-a. xxvii. 

191 (excl. syn. F. Monticola) (1854). 



A small shrubby tree, in Florida rarely twenty feet in height, with a short trunk occasionally a 
foot in diameter ; or often a shrub with numerous stems. The surface of the bark of the trunk^ which 
barely exceeds an eighth of an inch in thickness^ is light brown tinged with red and is broken into 
small thick square scales. The branchlets are terete, slender, and coated at first with thick rufous 
tomentum ; at the end of a few months they are ashy gray or gray tinged with red, and are often more 
or less twisted or contorted. The leaves are ovate or obovate, rounded at the apex, and sessile or 



acted into very short thick petioles, and 



or 



ally sHghtly and remotely crenulate 



toothed above the middle ; they are an inch to an inch and a half long, half 



ch broad, thick and 



coriaceous, dark green on the upper surface, yellow-green and marked with minute black dots on the 
lower, with narrow inconspicuous midribs and incurved nearly obsolete veins arcuate and united near 
the slightly thickened and revolute margins ; in Florida they usually unfold in November and remain 
on the branches until the end of their second winter, often turning red or partly red before falling. 
The flowers, which appear in Florida from midsummer until early autumn in short rufous pubescent 
racemes clustered in the axils of the old leaves or often of those which have fallen, are borne on short 



thick pedicels and are an eighth of 



ch across when expanded. The bracts are minute 



acute, and persistent ; the bractlets, which are placed immediately below the flowers, are broadly ovate- 
acute. The calyx is glandular-punctate, globose, ovoid, and pubescent on the outer surface, with four 



ovate 



ded^ lobes much shorter than the four ovate white petals which 



rounded at the apex 



ciliate on the margins, and glandular-punctate. The fruit is a globose black and glandularly roughened 
berry crowned with the large calyx-lobes, one third of an inch in diameter, with thin aromatic flesh, 
and is usi 



ally one-seeded. The seed 



ghth of an inch across, with a thick pale brown 



cartilaginous coat and a pale olive-green embryo. 

Eugenia hiixlfoliaj which also inhabits several of the Antilles, is distributed in Florida from Cape 
Canaveral on the east coast to the southern keys, and from the banks of the Caloosa River on the west 
coast to Cape Sable. On Key West and some of the other Florida islands it is one of the most 



common plants, forming 



the coral rock a lar 



6 



part of the shrubby 



d ffrowth which 



t> 



occupies ground from which the original forest has been removed. 

The wood of Eugenia buxifolia is very heavy and exceedingly hard 



and 



grained 



and contains numerous thin medullary rays; it is dark brown shaded with red, with thick Ughter 
colored sapwood composed of fifteen or twenty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.9360, a cubic foot weighing 58.33 pounds. On the Florida keys it is some- 
times used for fuel. 



44 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MYRTACEjE. 



Eugenia hiixlfolla was discovered in San Domingo by the Swedish botanist Swartz/ and was first 



oticed in the United States on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blod 



(1760-1818) 



fixed 



and at the age of eighteen was sent to the University of Upsal, new genera of orchids, adding many new tropical American species 

where he studied natural history under the younger Linnaeus. In to this family, which by him was first elaborated in a comprehen- 

1783, after the preparation of his Dissertatio de Methodo Muscorum sive manner. He was the author of a number of classical works on 

and his account of Gentiana pulchella, he left Sweden with the view the West Indian flora, in which the first descriptions of many genera 

of improving himself by foreign travel. Having spent a year in and species are found. He paid particular attention to the study 

North America, he visited the West Indies, where he remained of cryptogamic plants, especially Mosses, and published a manual 

for two years studying the vegetation of the tropics and gather- of the Swedish species in 1799. He was the author of a Synopsis 

ing botanical specimens, chiefly in San Domingo. In 1786 Swartz Filicurn, published in 1806, in which seven new genera are distin- 

returned to Sweden by way of England, and four years later was guished ; and he is said to have discovered in the neighborhood of 

and a professor in Stockholm alone three hundred species of Lichens new to the flora 

the Burgian Agricultural Institution, where he devoted the remain- of Sweden. SwartziGj a genus of noble tropical American trees of 

der of his life to the study of botany and the elaboration and pub- the Pea family, was dedicated to him by Willdenow. 
lication of his large West Indian collections. In his Genera et 



Stockholm 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCVI. Eugenia buxifolia, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlai'ged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

5. A flower, the petals and stamens removed, enlarged 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah. CCVI . 





'¥^'^^M^^ 



10 



0£. FawoTv del 



Pwoptfr. sc/ 



EUGENIA BUXIFOLIA , WiUd . 



A TUocreuoc^ direa> ^ 



Imp . It. TanenT , Paris. 



MYRTACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



45 



EUGENIA MONTICOLA. 



Stopper. White Stopper. 

Leaves ovate, narrowed at the apex into broad points, distinctly petiolate 



Monticola 



Myrtus Monticola 



Fl 



Don, Gen, Syst. ii. 859. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 62. — Chap- Occ. ii. 898. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 484. 



man, FL 131. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. 



triplinervia, Berg, Linncea. xxvii 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 89. — (1854). 



Misso 



axillaris 



A tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk occasionally a foot in diameter ; or 
toward the northern limit of its range in Florida a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is an eighth 
of an inch thick and is divided by irregular shallow fissures, the surface of the broad ridges finally 
separating into small thin light brown scales. The branchlets are terete, rather stout and rigid, ashy 
gray or gray slightly tinged with red, and often covered with small wart-like elevations. The leaves 
are ovate, gradually or abruptly narrowed at the apex into short wide points, and rounded and con- 
tracted at the base into broad winged petioles ; they are thick and coriaceous, dark green on the upper, 
and paler and covered with minute black spots on the lower surface, with broad midribs deeply 
impressed above, and conspicuous arcuate veins united near the thickened revolute entire margins, 
and are an inch and a half to two inches and a half long and half an inch broad with petioles one third 
of an inch in length. The flowers, which appear in Florida at midsummer in short axillary racemes 
and are an eighth of an inch across when expanded, are borne on stout pedicels ; these vary from one 
sixteenth to nearly one half of an inch in length and are covered with pale white hairs and furnished 
near the middle or toward the apex with two acute minute persistent bractlets. The calyx is broadly 
ovate, glandular-punctate, coated on the outer surface with pale hairs, and four-lobed, with ovate 
rounded lobes shorter than the four ovate glandular petals. The fruit is a black globose glandular- 
punctate berry usually one-seeded, half an inch in diameter and crowned with the nearly obsolete 
calyx-lobes. The seed is globose, with a pale brown chartaceous coat and light olive-green cotyledons. 
In Florida the fruits ripen in slow succession from November to April and are edible and rather juicy, 
with a sweet agreeable flavor. 

Eugenia Monticola is not common in Florida, although it is distributed from the shores of the 
St. John's River in the northern part of the state to the southern islands, where it occm^s occasionally 
on Key West, Key Largo, and on upper Metacombe and ElHott's Keys. It is an inhabitant also of 
several of the West Indian islands. 

The wood of Eugenia Monticola is heavy, hard, strong, and very close-grained, with numerous 
thin medullary rays. It is brown often tinged with red, with thin darker colored sapwood composed of 
five or six layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9156, a cubic 
foot weighing 57.06 pounds.^ 

Eugenia Monticola was discovered in San Domingo by the Swedish botanist Swartz, and in 
Florida was first noticed on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



^ Eugenia Monticola^ like the other species of this genus, grows diameter and shows or 

slowly in Florida. In the Jesup Collection of North American growth, and the other is 

Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, layers of annual growth. 
are two log specimens from the Florida keys ; one is six inches in 



sixteen layers 
diameter, with 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCVIL Eugenia Monticola. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flowerj enlarged- 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 
6- An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva o{' North America. 



Tsh. CCVIL 




O E. Faa^on- del- . 



Picartjr so. 



EUGENIA MONTICOLA 



D C 



■/ .^-^locrfliuv direJ2 . 



Imp. R.Taneur, Parts 



MYRTACE^. JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



47 



EUGENIA PROCERA. 



Stopper. 



Leaves usually broadly ovate, narrowed at the apex into short points, subcoria- 



ceous. 



Eugeniaprocera,Poiret,jLam.i)ic^.Suppl.iii. 129(1813). — M3rrtus prooera, Swartz, Prodr, 11 (1788) ; Fl. Ind. Occ, 

De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 268. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 855. — ii. 887. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. ii. 968. 

Nuttall, Sylva, i. 106, t- 28. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 58. — Eugenia Baruensis, Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 87 (1866) 

Berg, LinncBa, xxvii. 207. — Chapman, Fl. 131. — Grise- (not Jacquin). 

bach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 238. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 89 (In paii). 



1 



A tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height^ with a trunk occasionally a foot in diameter. The 
bark of the trunk is a sixteenth of an inch thick, with a smooth light gray surface faintly tinged with 
red. The branchlets are slender, terete, at first light purple and covered with glaucous bloom, and 
ultimately ashy gray or almost white- The leaves, which unfold iq Florida in May, are broadly ovate, 
narrowed into broad points rounded at the apex, and abruptly or gradually wedge-shaped at the base ; 
they are thin and light red at first and at maturity are subcoriaceous, two inches to two inches and a 
half in length and an inch to an inch and a half in widthj conspicuously marked with black dots, olive- 
green on the upper surface, and paler on the lower, with narrow midribs slightly impressed on the upper 
side, obscure arcuate veins united near the entire thickened margins, and narrow-winged petioles fron 
one third to one half of an inch in length. The flowers, which are produced in sessile axillary many- 
flowered clusters and are half an inch across when expanded, appear in Florida in April and May on 
slender glandular pedicels from one third to two thirds of an inch long and furnished at the apex with 
two lanceolate acute persistent bracts ciliate on their margins. The calyx-tube is tm^binate and much 
shorter than the limb, which is divided into four glandular narrow lobes rounded at the apex and half 
the length of the broadly ovate rounded glandular white petals. The fruits ripen in Florida in succes- 
sion from September to November, and vary from two thirds of an inch to nearly an inch in diamete 
they are usually one-seeded, crowned with the large persistent calyx-lobes, and when first fully grown 
are orange-colored with a bright red cheek, turning black when ripe ; the flesh is thin and dry and 
slightly glandular-roughened on the surface. The seed is nearly globose, with a thick pale chestnut- 
brown lustrous coat and olive-green cotyledons. 

In Florida Eugenia 2^^ocera has been found only on Key West where it is common, and on 
Umbrella Key. It also inhabits San Domingo, Cuba, Jamaica, Santa Cruz, and Martinique. 

The wood of Eugenia j^'^ocera is heavy, hard, close-grained, light brown, and contains numerous 
thin medullary rays. The sapwood is indistinguishable from the heartwood. 

In the autumn, when the branches of Eugenia i^TOcera are covered with its large berries, which in 
the same cluster are sometimes bright orange and scarlet and sometimes black, it is a handsome object 
and one of the most beautiful of the small trees of southern Florida. It was discovered in San Domingo 
by the Swedish botanist Swartz, and in the United States was first noticed by Dr. J. L. Blodgett on 

Key West. 



r : 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCVIIL Eugenia procera 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North A 



merica 



Tab. CCVTII 




C.^.Faccorv deL . 



PicarL fr .jc^. 



E 



OCERA ^ P 



oir, 



ji,Iiiocreua> dxreoc^ 



irtf ■ R .Taneivn , P oris . 



MYRTACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



49 



EUGENIA GARBERI. 



Red Stopper. 



Leaves ovate-oblong, contracted at the apex into long points, coriaceous 



Eugenia Garberi, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 28, f. 87 Eugenia procera, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 



(1889). 



sics U. S. ix. 89 (in part) (1884). 



A tree, fifty to sixty feet in height^ with a straight trunk eighteen to twenty inches in diameter, 
and stout upright branches which form a narrow compact head. The bark of the trunk is an eighth 
of an inch thick and, like that of the principal branches, is bright cinnamon-red and separates freely 
into thin small scales. The branchlets are slender, terete, and covered with smooth ashy gray bark. 
The leaves are ovate-oblong, abruptly or gradually contracted into long narrow points rounded or acute 
at the apex, and wedge-shaped or occasionally rounded at the base, with thickened revolute entire 
margins j as they unfold they are thin and light red, and at maturity are dark green and very lustrous 
on the upper surface, paler and marked with minute black dots on the lower, an inch and a half to two 
inches long, and one third to two thirds of an inch broad, with stout petioles a quarter of an inch in 
length and thick orange-colored midribs barely impressed on the upper side, primary veins arcuate and 
united into a conspicuous marginal line, and prominent reticulated veinlets. The minute flowers, which 
are barely an eighth of an inch across when expanded, appear in Florida in September in many-flowered 
axillary clusters on slender pedicels which vary from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and 
are furnished near the apex with two minute acute bractlets. The calyx is narrowly obovate and 
glandular-punctate^ with four ovate acute lobes much shorter than the four broadly ovate rounded 
white petals. The fruit, which ripens in March and April, is a quarter to a third of an inch long, 
bright scarlet, subglobose or obovate, crowned with the conspicuous lobes of the calyx, glandular- 
roughened, and usually solitary and one-seeded, with thin dry flesh. The seed is nearly globose, with 
a thin crustaceous Kght brown lustrous coat and an olive-green embryo. 

Eugenia Garheri occupies a rich hummock which, about three quarters of a mile east of the mouth 
of the Miami River, rises above the level sandy plain that separates Bay Biscayne in southeastern 
Florida from the Atlantic Ocean. Here it grows in considerable numbers in company with the Mastic, 
the Ironwood, the Gumbo Limbo, the Calabash, the Pigeon Plum, and other tropical trees, and with 
the Live Oak, the Red Mulberry, the Palmetto, and the Pine, in a grove which is one of the most 
interesting in the United States from the commingHng of tropical trees with those which belong in a 
temperate region. Eugenia Garheri grows also on Old Rhodes and on Elhott's Key in Florida, on the 
island of New Providence, one of the Bahama group,^ and in Antigua.^ 

The wood of Eugenia Garheri is very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained, with 
numerous obscure medullary rays ; it is bright red-brown, with thick darker colored sapwood composed 
of fifty or sixty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9453, a 
cubic foot weighing 58.91 pounds. 



Eugenia Garheri was first collected in Florida near the Miami River by Dr. A. P. Garber.^ The 
lustre of its briUiant and abundant foliage, the deep rich color of its bark, and the handsome shape of 
its head, make this tree an attractive object ; no other tree of the Myrtle family indigenous in North 
America equals it in size, and few of the southern Florida trees surpass it in beauty. 



1 Bruce, Herh. Kew. 
- Nicholson, Herb, Kew. 



^ See i. 65. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCIX. Eugenia Garberi. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged- 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tat. CCIX. 




C.E> Faxon, del. 



Puxirtfp. s<y 



EUGENIA GARBERI,Sarg. 



ji-Riocreiuc direcc. 



Imp.A.Taa&ur^ Parus . 



CACTACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



51 



CEEEUS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx elongated, the lobes numerous, imbricated in many series ; 
petals numerous, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens indefinite, inserted in the tube of 
the calyx ; ovary inferior, 1-celled, many-ovuled. Fruit baccate, many-seeded. 



Cereus, Haworth, Syn. PL Succ. 178 (1812). — Meisner, Cephalocereus, Pfeiffer, Otto & Dietrich Gartenz. 141 



Gen. 128.— Endlicher, Gen. 944. — Miquel, Bull Sci. 



(1838). 



Phys. et Nat. Neerl. 1839, 110. — Bentham & Hooker, Cephalophorus, Lemaire, Cact.Hort, Monvill. 33 (1838). 



Gen. i. 849. — Baillon, Hist. PL ix. 31. 



Pilocereus, Lemaire, Cact. Gen. et Spec. Nov. 7 (1839). 



Echinopsis, Zuccarini, Ahhand. Akad. Munch, ii. 675 Echinonyctanthus, Lemaire, Cact. Gen. et Spec. Nor', 10 



(1837).— Miquel, BidL Sci. Phys. et Nat NeerL 1839, 

109. 



(1839). 

Bchinocereus, Engelmaim, WlsUzeiius 3Iemoir of a Tour 
to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. Bot. Appx.), 91 (1848). 



Spiny leafless trees or shrubs^ with copious watery juice^ the stems sometimes columnar and six to 
twenty-ribbed, sometimes cylindrical, erect and slightly many-ribbed, sometimes remotely jointed, more 
or less three to seven-angled and spreading or climbing, sometimes cylindrical, weak, remotely jointed 
and eight to twelve-ribbed, and sometimes short, globular or oblong, many -ribbed, and clustered or 
branched from the base. Buds on the back of the ridges, springing from the axils of latent leaves, 
geminate, superposed, the upper producing a branch or flower, the lower arrested and developed into a 
cluster of spines surrounded by an elevated cushion or areola of chaffy tomentose scales. Flowers 
lateral, diurnal or nocturnal, large and showy, often fragrant. Lobes of the calyx spirally imbricated 
in many ranks, forming a long and slender or short or subglobose nectariferous tube, those of the 
exterior ranks adnate to the ovary, scale-like, only their tips free with a tuft of hairs and sometimes a 



cluster of spines in their axils 



of the interior ranks free, elongated, green, yellow, or bright 



ed. Petals cohering by their bases with the 



of the calyx-tube, larger than its interior lob 



spreading, recurved, white, red, or crimson 



Stamens numerous, in two or 



many ranks; filaments 



filiform, adnate by the base to the tube of the calyx, those of the interior ranks free, the exterior united 
into a tube ; anthers oblong, minute, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the 
cells opening longitudinally. Ovary inferior, one-celled; style elongated, filiform, terminal, divided 
into numerous radiating hnear branches stigmatic on the inner face ; ovules indefinite, horizontal, 
anatropous, inserted on numerous parietal placentae ; funiculi long and slender, becoming thick and 
juicy in the fruit. Fruit baccate, squamate, or spinescent, many-seeded, often edible. Seeds destitute 
of albumen, subglobose and tuberculate, or obovate smooth or pitted. Embryo straight ; cotyledons 
abbreviated or f oliaceous, usually hamate ; radicle conical, turned towards the hilum.^ 



1 The following sections of the genus are now usually recog- 
nized : — 



like the fruit 



at the apex. 



EcHiNOCEREUS. Stems short, usually subglobose, branched from Pilocereus. Stems elongated ; calyx-tube short, few-lobed, cov- 

the base ; calyx-tube abbreviated, subcampanulate ; ovary acule- ered with scales ; stigmas pale ; seed smooth ; embryo hooked at 
ate ; stigmas green ; seed tuberculate ; cotyledons suberect. 



the apex. 

EuCEREUS. Stems long ; calyx-tube elongated, usually furnished Echinopsis. Stem depressed, ribbed, globose or cylindrical ; 

with slender hair-like spines ; stigmas pale ; seed smooth or rarely calyx-tube elongated, pulvilligerous, i 
nxo-ose ; embryo hooked at the apex. covered with scales ; cotyledons smallj 

Lepidocereus. Stems elongated ; calyx-tiibe short, many-lobed, 



ovaries 



connate 



52 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



CACTACEiE. 



About two hundred species of Cereus are now recognized 3^ they inhabit the dry southwestern 
region of North America,^ the West Indies/ tropical South America/ and the Galapagos Islands,^ At 
least four species with erect columnar stout stems may properly be considered trees ; these are Cereus 
gigantcuSy the tallest member of the Cactus family and an inhabitant of the arid deserts of the south- 
western territories of the United States and of Sonora ; Cereus Pringlei^ a plant of Lower California, 
the islands of the Bay of California, and Sonora, which produces thicker trunks than any other Cactus 
now known; Cereus Pecten-dborlglnum'^ of the same regions ; and Cereus Perumanus^ which in the 
temperate arid parts of Peru rises to a height of forty or fifty feet. 

The fruit of several species is edible, and that of others has reputed medicinal virtues.^ The ribs 



of the woody frames of the stems 



of the large arbo 



species are durable and 



used for the 



rafters of houses and for fuel. Several of the species with cylindrical stems are planted 



hedges to protect cultivated fields from grazing animals, and othe 



are 



ywhere popular 



garden plants,^*^ valued for their beautiful flowers, which are sometimes nocturnal and 



dingly 



fragr 



The generic name relates to the candle-like form of the stems of some of the species. 



^ Like other plants of the Cactus family, the species of Cereus flour which they wrap between corn-husks and boil into cakes, 
are difficult to understand and limit unless studied alive, and it is The ribs of the stems are used on the island for door-posts and the 
not improbable that the number at present established by botanists rafters of houses, and supply the inhabitants with their only fuel. 



will be reduced when they are better known. 



Watson 



Brandegee, Proc, CaL Acad. 



2 Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xvii. 278 ; BoL Mex. Bound. ser. 2, iii. 141. — Vasey & Rose, L c. 89. 



Surv. ii. 28. — Hemsley, BoL BioL Am, Cent. i. 540. 
3 Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 300. 
^ C. Gay, Fl. Chil. iii. 18. — Jameson, Syn. PI 



^Equator 



The bristly covering of the fruit of this tree, which produces 
trunks twenty to thirty feet high and three feet in diameter, is 
used as hair-brushes by the Mexican Indians, who also grind the 



^ Hooker f. Trans. Linn. Sac. xx. 223. — Andersson, StockJi. seeds and mix them with their meal. 



Acad. HandL 1853, 95 (Om Galapagos-Oarnes Veg.). 

^ Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xx, 368 (1885). — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest^ ii. 64, f. 92. — Brandegee, Proc. CaL Acad. ser. 2, ii. 162 
(PL Baja Ca^.). —Vasey & Rose, Contrih. U. S. NaL Herb. i. 79. 

The little island of San Pedro Marten in the Gulf of California 
is covered with a forest of large trees of this Cactus, called Car- 



8 De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 464 (1828). 

Cactus Peruvianusy Linnfeus, Spec. 467 (1753). — De Candolle, 
PI. Grasses^ t. 58. 

Cactus hexagonus, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 32 (1813). 

9 Baillon, HisL PL ix. 38. 

1® Nicholson, DicL Gard. i. 299. 



Manuel 



den by the Mexican Indians, who grind the seeds and pulp into teur^ 200. 



CACTACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



OEREUS GIGANTEUS. 



Suwarro. 



Flowers clustered at the top of the stems ; calyx-tube short, covered with scales, 
many-lobed. Fruit oval, bursting irregularly into three or four valves ; seeds smooth ; 
cotyledons foliaceous, hooked at the apex. 



Cereus giganteus, Engelmann, Emory's Rep. 158 (1848) ; 676. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 543. — James, 

Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xiv. 335; xvii. 231 ; Proc. Am. Am. Nat. xv. 982, f. 3. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 

Acad. iii. 287 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii. 42, t. 61, 62 ; 10th Census U. S. ix. 89. 

Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. i. 247. — Bigelow, Pacific B. Pilocereus Engelmanni, Lemaire, III. Hort. ix. Misc. 97 

R. Rejp. iv. 12. — Engelmann & Bigelow, Pacific R. R. (1862). 

Rep. iv. 36. — Walpers, Ann. v. 46. — Lemaire, III. Hort. Pilocereus giganteus, Forster, Handh. Cact. ed. Riimpler, 

ix. Misc. 95. — Marcou, Jour. Hort. Sac. France, s6r. 2, iii. 662, f. 88 (1886). 



A tree, fifty to sixty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes two feet in diameter, columnar, thickest 



below the middle and tapering gradually and sHghtly towards both ends, marked by transverse 
superficial lines into rings four to eight inches long, which represent the amount of annual longitudinal 
growth, and branchless or furnished above the middle with a few, usually two or three, stout alternate 
or sometimes opposite upright branches which are shorter but otherwise resemble the principal stem. 
At the base the trunk is eight to twelve-ribbed, with obtuse ribs four or five inches broad separated by 
wide shallow depressions ; higher up the stem the ribs are somewhat triangular and rounded or obtuse 



the back with deep 



between them ; at the top they increase to eighteen or twenty 



by bifurcation or by the growth of new ribs, and are obtuse, deep, and compressed. The stem and 
branches are covered with a thick tough green epidermis, and consist of a fleshy covering and a circle 
of bundles of woody fibre which makes, with annual layers of exogenous growth, dense tough elastic 
columns placed opposite the depressions between the ribs and one half of an inch to three inches in 
diameter ; they are frequently united by branches growing at irregular intervals between them, and 
increase in thickness towards the base, where they swell into spreading irregular knotted roots. The 
woody frame remains standing after the death of the plant and the decomposition of its fleshy covering ; 
this is three to six inches thick, saturated with bitter juice, and, passing between the woody bundles, 
forms in the centre of the stem a pith four to six inches in diameter. The backs of the ribs, except at 
the base of old trees where they become worn and smooth, are set at distances of half an inch with a 
row of pale elevated chaffy cushions or areolae about half an inch in width and rather more in length, 
from which are developed clusters of stout spines ; these are straight, with dark enlarged bulbous bases, 
and are sulcate and angled, and pale or tinged with red ; in the centre of the cluster are 
spines; of these the lower four are horizontal or slightly inclined downward, the lowest being the 
lono*est and stoutest and sometimes an inch and a haH long and one twelfth of an inch thick, while the 
upper two are shorter, more slender, and slightly turned upward ; surrounding this central group of six 
is a row of shorter and thinner spreading radial spines, twelve to sixteen in number. The upper radial 
spines, which are sometimes accompanied by a few shorter setaceous spines, and the lower vary from 
one half of an inch to an inch in length, and are much shorter than the lateral radial spines which are 
sometimes an inch and a half long and increase in length towards the bottom of the cluster. The sjDine- 
clusters and areolae fall together from old stems, generally the six central spines falling first, leaving 
the radial spines appressed on the stem. The flowers, which begin to appear on plants twelve to fifteen 
feet hio-h and open from May to July, are produced in great numbers near the top of the stem, each 



SIX 



rA 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CACTACEiE. 



being surrounded on the lower side by the radial spines of the cluster above which it is developed; they 
are four to four and a half inches long, and two and a half inches broad when expanded. 



The 



ovary 



oid, an inch in lenofth, and rather shorter than the stout tube of the flo 



covered like 



base of the tube hj thick imbricated green scales with small free triangular acute scarious mucronate 
tips furnished in their axils with short tufts of rufous hairs and occasionally with clusters of short 
chartaceous spines. The scale-tips lengthen above the base of the tube and gradually pass into thin 
oblong-ovate or obovate sepals, mucronate or rounded at the apex and closely imbricated in many ranks. 
The petals, which vary in number from twenty-five to thirty-five, are obovate-spatulate, obtuse, entu^e, 
thick and fleshy, creamy white, two thirds of an inch long, and much reflexed after the expansion of the 
flower. The stamens are exceedingly numerous, with long slender filaments and linear anthers emar- 
ginate at both ends ; the filaments are united for half their length to the walls of the calyx-tube, the 
exterior rows ])eing joined below into a long tube which lines its bottom, from which rises the stout 
cohnnnar style surrounded at the base by a circle of oblong nectariferous glands and divided at the apex 
into twelve or fifteen green stigmas. The fruit ripens in August and is ovate or slightly obovate, two 
and a half inches long, one inch and a third broad, and covered with the remote persistent tips of the 
scales of the ovary ; the top is truncate and covered by the depressed pale scar left by the falling of 
the flower. When ripe it is light red and separates irregularly into three or four fleshy valves which 
are one sixth of an inch thick and bright red on theu^ inner surface, and in opening disclose the bright 
scarlet juicy mass of the enlarged funiculi through which are scattered innumerable seeds ; these are 
obovate, rounded, one sixteenth of an inch long, and covered with a thick lustrous dark chestnut-brown 
coat. After the bursting of the fruit the juicy central mass dries and falls to the ground, the valves of 
the pericarp, which remains for some time longer on the stem, turning back and presenting the appear- 
ance of a star-shaped red flower.^ 

distributed from the vaUey of Bill Williams River through central and 
valley of the San Pedro River, and southward in Sonora, scattered in consid- 



C 



(jiga 



IS 



southern Arizona 



erable numbers through the crevices of low rocky hills and over the dry gravelly mesas of the desert, to 
which its tall sombre sentinel-like shafts, which look as if they had been cut from stone, give a peculiar 
and most interesting appearance." 

The wood of the columns is strong, very light, soft and rather coarse-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a fine polish ; it contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays and broad bands 
of open cefls marking the inner portion of the layers of annual growth. It is light brown tino^ed with 



yellow, and when perfectly diy has a specific gravity of 0.3188 



bic foot weighing 19,87 pounds 



The columns, which 



destructible in contact with the ground and little affected by the 



mosphere, are largely used for the rafters of adobe houses, for fencing, and by the Indians for 



bows 



The pulp and seeds are devoured by birds, and are prized by the Indians,^ who 



with long forked sticks, and who dry and eat them 
molasses-like juice, which they preserve for winter use 



or press them when fresh to obtain their thick 







giganteiis was discovered on the 1st of November, 1846 



the mouth of the San Francisco in A 



a gorge 



of the Gila Rive 




Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Emory ^ of 



The accompanying plate was engraved from drawings made 



'/ 



by Mr. Faxon of the flowers and fruit of Cerexis giganteus produced Reconnakance from Fort Leavenworth in Missouri to San Diego in 

on the top of a tree sent to me in Brookline from Phoenix, Arizona, California), opposite pp. 72, 74, 76, 78 ; in the frontispiece to pari 

by Mr. Thomas H. Douglas. The top of the stem, which had been ii. vol. ii. Repori on the U. S. Mexican Boundary Survey (Ex. Doc. 

cut off two or three feet from the apex, was placed as soon as it No. 108, 

arrived on a board in a warm dry greenhouse where the small 25(; ; in 



34th Congress, 1st Session) ; in the Treasury of 



flower-buds with which it was covered grew and opened, and after- 
ward produced fully developed fruit witli pcrFrct scmtIs. 

2 Portraits of Ceren.^ rjlqanteus displaying the habit of the plant 
and the appearance of the country which it inliabits can be found 



< 



ind in the frontispiece to vol. vi. of the Rep. of 
-al Surveys West of Hip One. Hundredth Meridian 

® Thurber, il/em. .1//;. Acad, n, ser. v. 305. 

■^ See iv. 60. 



CACTACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



55 



United States army, when in command of a military reconnaisance from Fort Leavenworth m 
Missouri to San Diego in California ; ^ and the first account of this tree was published with a portrait 
in the report of this expedition,^ The Suwarro is now a famihar object to all travelers on the railroads 
of southern Arizona, and is occasionally cultivated in California and under glass in the northern states 
and in Europe.^ 



^ Humboldt {Essai sur la Nouvelle-Espagne, I. 312) alludes to with establishing the boundary line between this country and 

the occurrence of a great cylindrical Cactus which the Spanish mis- Mexico, were distributed by Dr. Engelmann among cultivators of 

sionaries found growing in the woods at the foot of the California Cactus-plants, and a number of specimens were raised. These have 

Mountains. This, as Dr. Engelmann suggests, may have been Ce- grown slowly, and so far as has been reported none of them have 

reus giganteus, or it may equally well have been one of the other yet flowered. In Europe Cereus giganteus flowered for the first 



tall-stemmed species. 

- Ex, Doc. No, 41, 30th Congress, 1st Session, 72. 

2 The seeds collected by Colonel ICmory, and afterwards by Dr 



time in July, 1891, a large specimen which had been obtained from 
an American florist producing \x number of flowers in the Royal 
Gardens at Kew in England (W. Watson, Garden and Forest, iv. 



George Thurber and Dr. C. C. Parry when connected as botanists 342. — Bot. Mag, cxviii. t. 7222). 
with the United States government expedition which was intrusted 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCX. Cebeus gigai^teus. 

1. A flower and flower-bud, natui^al size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. The apex of a style, enlarged. 

5. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged- 

6. A cluster of ovules, much magnified. 

7. A closed and an open fruit, natural size. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10, An embryo, much magnified. 

11. A cluster of spines, slightly enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab C CX . 







sc^. 



CERE us GIGANTEUS, 




^.Riocreuay dire<n 



i> 



Jnrp. JL. Tangier, J^ot^. 






\RALIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



57 



ARALIA. 



Flowers perfect, polygamo-monoecious or polygamo-dioecious ; calyx-tube coher- 
ent with the ovary, the limb truncate, repand or minutely 5-toothed, the teeth valvate 



in aestivation ; petals 5, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; ovary 2 to 5-celled ; 
ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a berry-like di'upe, 2 to 5-seeded. Leaves alternate, 
digitate, pinnate or decompound, stipulate, deciduous. 



Aralia, Linnaeus, Geyi. 88 (1737). — A. L, de Jussieu, Gen, 



794 (in part). — Decaisne & Planchon, Rev. Hort. 1854, 



218. 



Meisner, Gen. 152 (in part). — Endlicher, Gen. 



104. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. \. 936. 



Dimorphanthus, Miquel, Comm. Phyt. 95 (1840). 



Aromatic spiny trees and shrubs, with stout pithy branchlets and thick fleshy roots ; or bristly 
or glabrous perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, digitate or once or twice pinnate, the pinnse serrulate ; 
stipules inconspicuous, produced on the expanded and clasping base of the petiole. Bracts and 
bractlets minute. Flowers on slender jointed pedicels, umbellate, small, greenish white, the umbels 
solitary, racemose, panicled or rarely collected into compound umbels. Calyx-tube coherent with the 
ovary, the limb truncate, repand or minutely five-toothed. Disk epigynous, explanate, confluent with 
the base of the style, the margin thin and free. Petals five, inserted by their broad bases on the 
margin of the disk, ovate, obtuse or acute and slightly inflexed at the apex. Stamens five, inserted on 
the margin of the disk, alternate with the petals ; filaments filiform ; anthers oblong or rarely ovate, 
attached on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary two to five-celled ; 
styles two to five, in the fertile flower distinct and erect or slightly united at the base, spreading and 
incurved above the middle, or incurved from the base and sometimes inflexed at the apex, crowned with 
the large capitate stigmas ; in the sterile flower short and united ; ovules soHtary, suspended from the 
apex of the cell, anatropous ; raphe ventral, the micropyle superior. Fruit laterally compressed or three 
to five-angled, crowned with the remnants of the styles ; exocarp fleshy j nutlets two to five, orbicular, 
ovate or oblong, compressed, crustaceous or bony, one-seeded. Seed compressed ; testa thin, adnate to 
the thick fleshy albumen. Embryo minute, next the hilum ; cotyledons ovate or oblong, as long as the 
straight radicle or barely longer.^ 

Aralia, as the genus is now limited, consists of about thirty North American and Asiatic species. 
In Asia it is common in the eastern and southern parts of the continent from Manchuria to northern 
India, Japan, and the islands of the Malay Archipelago. In eastern North America seven species,^ all 
herbs with the exception of Aralia spinosa^ a small tree, are distributed from Canada to New Mexico : ^ 



one herbaceo 



species grows 



the mountains of California,^ and one or two others in Mexico 



In 



The genus is conveniently divided into two sections : 



EUARAJLIA 



pinnate 



compound ; flowers polygamo-monoecious or perfect ; styles usually 



CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 258. — Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. y. 65 (PI 
Wright, ii.). 
^ Aralia Californica, Watson, Proc, Am. Acad. xi. 144 (1876). 



five. 



Watson 



Ginseng, Stems herbaceous ; leaves digitate ; flowers polygamo- 



dioecious ; styles two or rarely three. 



-Fl.N. 



Gray 



Aralia racemosa^ Torrey, Pacijic R, R. Rep. iv. 94 (1856) (not 
Linnaeus). 

Aralia racemosa^ var. occidentalism Torrey, Bat. Wilkes ,Explor. 
Exped. 325 (1874). 



Man. ed. 6, 212. 

3 Aralia humilisy Cavanilles, Icon^ iv. 7, t. 313 (1797). — De ^ Remsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cm^ i. 571. —Brandegee, Proc. Cal. 

Acad, ser. 2, ii. 165, t. 8 {PL Baja Cal.'). 



58 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



AKALIACEiE. 



A 



Ai 



ST) 



in 



glitly modified forms appears in Manch 



Jap 



d the Philippine 



Islands : ^ and 



a second American species, Aralia 
endemic herbaceous species, and Ch 
largest number of arborescent and shrubby forms 



quinquefolia, is also found 



Manch 



una. 



Jap 



possesses 



one 



at least two ; in the Malay Archipelag 



collected,^ and in India the 



of 



t» 



represented by eight species 



Aralia has few useful properties. In China ginsengs the 

roots and young shoots of A'i 



of Aralia quinquefi 



the 



in medicine^ and in Japan 

The roots of the American Aralia 



6 



cor data are eaten 



S13 



Aralia racemosai} Aralia nudicaul 



8 



^ is prized 

vegetables, 
d Aralia 



hispida^ are sometimes used in domestic practice as gentle stimulants and aperitives, chiefly 
treatment of rheumatism and syphilitic symptoms/^ 

The generic name is of obscure and doubtful meaning. 



the 



1 Aralia hypoleuca^ Presl, Epirael BoL 250 (1849). — Walpers, 
Ann. ii. 724. 

2 Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn, Soc. xxiii. 337. 
s Miquel, FL Ind. Bat. I 749. 

4 Hooker f. FL Brit Ind. ii. 721. 



The extinction of the Manchurian supply led to the importation 
of the American root, and for more than a century immense quan- 
tities of wild American Ginseng-roots have been sent to China 
from the eastern United States, where the plant has become rare 
and is in danger of extermination. (See Lafitau, 



Memoire 



^ Decaisne & Planchon, Rev, Hort. 1854, 105. — Gray, Mem. Am, cemant la precieuse plante du Gin-seng de Tarlarie, decouverte en 



Acad, n. ser. vi. 391. — Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 338. — Watson & Canada. — Micha 



Voyage a Vouest des Monts 



Coulter, Grayh Man. ed. 6, 213. 

Panax quinquefolium^ Linnaeus, Spec, 1058 (1753). — De Can- 
doUe, Prodr. iv. 252. — Seemann, Jour. BoL vi. 54. 
Panax Americanum, Rafinesque, New FL iv. 58 (1836). 



182. — Rafinesque, Med 



W. P. C. Barton. Med 



45 



Woodville 



For centuries the 



first 



been cultivated on a large scale in that country (Kaempfer, Amcen. 



Panax Ginseng^ C. A. Meyer, Bull. CL Phys.-Math. Acad, Sci, ExoL 826. 



of 



St Pelersbourg, i. 340 (1843). — Seemann, L c. 
Ginseng quinquefolium^Wood, Bot and Fl. 142 (1870). 



Corea it constitutes the most important farm crop (Aston, Pharma- 
ceutical Journal and Transactions^ 1885, 732), and recently attempts 



In China from the earliest historic times the roots of Aralia quin- have been made to cultivate it in the northern United States (Stan- 
quefolia have enjoyed the reputation of possessing marvelous medi- ton, Garden and Forest, v, 223. — Kew BulL 1893, 71, t.). 



cal virtues, and fabulous prices are paid for the wild Manchurian 



6 Thunberg, FL Jap, 127 (1784). — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. 



roots which are more esteemed than those of cultivated or of Bat. i. 9. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PL Jap. i. 191. 



American plants, and are now almost entirely consumed in the Im- 
perial household. The root is fleshy, spindle-shaped, with two or 



Aralia edulisj Siebold & Zuccarini, FL Jap. i. 57, t. 25 (1835). 
7 Linnseus, I c. 273 (1753). — Chapman, FL 166. — Watson & 



three terminal divisions, from one to four inches long, semitrans- Coulter, L c. 



parent and yellowish, with a sweet mucilaginous flavor. In China 



^ Linnseus, I. c. 274 (1753). — Chapman, I. c. — Watson & Coul- 



the drug prepared from the root of the Ginseng, which apparently ter, L c. 



possesses no active properties, is prescribed for nearly every form 



9 Ventenat, Jard. Cels, 41, t. 41 (1800) 



Chapman, Z. c. 



of human disease, and as a tonic and stimulant it is considered in- Watson & Coulter, L c. 



valuable (Raynal, Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Etablisse- 
mens Sf' du Commerce des Europeens dans les deux IndeSy ii. 210. 
Jartoux, Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses (ed. Toulouse), xviii. 97, t. 
Seemann, L c. ii. 320. — Smith, Chinese Mat. Med. 103). 



1^ Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests^ 51. — John- 



Med, BoL N, 



U. S. Dispens, ed. 16, 1714. 



ARALIACE^. 



SILVA OF NOB TIT AMERICA. 



59 



ARALIA SPINOSA. 



Hercules' Club. 



Flowers perfect or polygamo-monoecious 
Leaves ample, twice pinnate. 



larg 



compound 



panicles 



Aralia spinosa, Linnaeus, Spec. 273 (1753). — Fabricius, 
Enum. PI. Helm. ed. 2, 405. — Crantz, Umbell. 123. 



Miller 

63. 

11. 



Harhk 



Lamarck, Diet. i. 223. — Marshall 



Walter 



Am 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. ii. 



52, 1. 102, 103. — WiUden 



ii. 1520; Enum. 332. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 186. 
Persoon, Syn. i. 332. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 209. 
Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi. 701. — Elliott, Sk. i. 372. 
Sprengel, Syst. i. 951. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 259. 
Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 389. — Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 120. 



Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 647. — Dietrich, Syn. ii 



1035. 



Curtis, Rep. Geoloy. Surv. N. Car. iii. 91. 



Chapman, Fl. 166. — Seemann, Jour. Bot. vi. 135. — 
Koch, Dendr. i. 672. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 
503. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 213. 
? Chaeropliylluin arborescens, Linnaeus, Spec. 259 



(1753). 



Hill, Veg. Syst. vi. 55, t. 53, f. 3. — Crantz, 



Umbell. 79. — Lamarck, Diet. i. 684. — Willdenow, Spec. 
i. pt. ii. 1457. — Persoon, Syn. i. 321. — Don, Gen. Syst. 

iii. 367. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 638. — Dietrich, 
Syn. ii. 983. 



A spiny tree, thirty to thirty-five feet in height, with a trunk six to eight inches in diameter and 
stout wide-spreading branches ; or more often a shrub with a cluster of unbranched stems six to twenty 
feet tall. The bark of the trunk is dark brown, an eighth of an inch thick, and divided by wide shallow 
fissures into broad rounded ridges irregularly broken on the surface. The branchlets are one half to 
two thirds of an inch in diameter, armed like the principal branches and young trunks with stout and 
straight or slightly incurved orange-colored scattered prickles, and nearly encircled by the conspicuous 



leaf-scars which are marked by a row of prominent fibro-vascnlar bundle 



is brisrht 



& 



6 



and the outer 



thin, liorht oransre-colored in the first 



o 



o 



the inner bark 
IS and marked 



irregularly with oblong pale dots, and in the second year Hght brown. The terminal bud is coi 
blunt at the apex, one half to three quarters of an inch long, and covered with thin chestnut-b 



scales. The axiQary buds 



triangular, flattened, and about a quarter of an inch in length and 



breadth. The leaves, which are clustered at the top of the branches, are twice pinnate, three or four 
feet long, two and a half feet broad, with stout light brown petioles eighteen to twenty inches in length 
clasping the stem with enlarged bases, and armed with slender prickles, or occasionally unarmed j ^ the 
pinnae are unequally pinnate, usually with five or six pairs of leaflets and a long-stalked terminal leaflet, 
and are often furnished at the base with a pinnate or simple leaflet ; the ultimate divisions of the leaves 
are ovate-acute, dentate or crenate, wedge-shaped or more or less rounded at the base and short-stalked, 
with prominent midribs and reticulated veinlets; when they unfold they are lustrous, bronze green, 
and sHghtly pilose on the upper side of the midribs and on the midribs and primary veins below, and at 
maturity are membranaceous, dark green on the upper surface, pale on the lower, two to three inches 
in length, an inch and a half in breadth, and occasionally furnished with smaU hooked prickles on the 
upper side of the midribs. The acute stipules are haK an inch long, and when the leaves unfold are 
puberulous on the back and cihate on the margins. In the autumn the leaves turn hght yellow before 



falling. 



The flowers, which appear in midsummer, are produced on long slender pubescent straw- 



colored pedicels in many-flowered umbels arranged in compound panicles, with light brown puberidous 
branches forming a terminal racemose cluster three or four feet in length which rises, sohtary or two or 
three together, above the spreading leaves. The bracts and bractlets are lanceolate, acute, scarious, 



Aralia spinosa, 0., Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 647 (1840). 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ARALIACE^. 



and persistent. The flowers are one sixteenth of an inch long, perfect or often unisexual by the 
abortion of the ovary, and have acute white petals inflexed at the apex, and connivent styles. In 
the autumn the branches of the flower-clusters become purple. The fruit ripens in August in small 
quantities in proportion to the number of the flowers, which are often sterile ; it is blach, one eighth of 
an inch in diameter, globose, three to five-angled, and crowned with the blackened styles ; the flesh is 
thin, purple, and very juicy ; the nutlets are crustaceous and compressed. 

At alia splnosa is distributed from Pennsylvania, where it is common on the western slope of the 
Alleghany Mountains in the counties of Clearfield, Cambria, Westmoreland, and Fayette, to southern 
Indiana ^ and southeastern Missouri, and ranges southward to Florida, western Louisiana, and eastern 
Texas, growing in deep moist soil usuaUy in the neighborhood of streams, and probably attaining its 
greatest size on the foothills of the Big Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. The Manchurian^ and 
Japanese forms ^ are only distinguishable from the American plant by their larger wider leaflets, which 
are often more deeply cut, and are usually pubescent on the lower surface. 

The wood of Aralia sjnnosa is close-grained, light, soft, and brittle ; it contains numerous thin 
medullary rays and rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is brown streaked 
with yellow, with lighter colored sapwood composed of two or three layers of annual growth. 

The bark of the root and the berries are occasionally employed in the United States in medicine, 
principally in domestic practice, and are stimulant and diaphoretic ; the bark of the root is emetic and 
cathartic, and has been found efficient in relieving rheumatism.'* 

The earliest account of Aralia sjmiosa was pubhshed in 1688,^ and describes a plant cultivated 



by Bishop Compton 



garde 



Fulham 



London, who received it from John Banister 



Virginia 



The unusual appearance of its stout-armed stems, the 



of its leaves, and the enormous 



of flowers which appear when most trees and shrubs have passed their flowering time, have 



£? 



made Aralia splnosa a favo 



in the gardens of temperate 



habit and pecuHar 



appearance are unlike those of any other hardy plant. In recent years the American plant ii 
frequently seen in cultivation than the hardier and more robust Manchurian form. 

Aralia spinosa may be propagated from seed, or from cuttings of the fleshy roots, which 
produce vigorous plants. 



1 Ridgvvay, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus. 1882, 67. 

2 Aralia spinosa, var. Chinensis, 



Aralia spinosa, var. canescens^ Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PL 
Jap. i. 192 (1875). 

In Yeso, where this form with large ovate leaflets, pale and pu- 



Aralia Chinensis^ Linnaeus, Spec, 21^ (1753). — De Candolle, 
Prodr. iv. 259. — Bentham, FL HongJc. 135, — Seemann, Jour. bescent or rarely glabrous on the lower surface, grows to the 



Bot. vi. 133. 
Leea spinosa^ Sprengel, Syst i. 670 (1825). 
Aralia Planchonianaf Hance, Jour. Bot. iv. 172 (1866). 



largest size, it is one of the commonest inhabitants of the forest 
of deciduous trees which cover the low hills, growing in rich humid 
soil, usually associated with White Oaks, Hornbeams, the Hop 



Aralia Decaisneana, Hance, Ann. Sci Nat s^r. 5, v. 215 (1866). Hornbeam, Magnolias, Cercidiphyllum, Lindens, and Acanthopanax ; 
Aralia Mandshurica, Maximowicz & Ruprecht, Bull. CI. Phys.- it is also abundant on the mountain ranges of Hondo, and is always 



Math. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg^ xv. 134 (1857). 



a conspicuous feature in August and September, when the flower- 



Dimorphanthus Mandshuricus, Maximowicz, Prim. FL Amur. clusters rise above the surrounding foliage. 



133 (1859). 



4 Elliott, Sk. i. 373. — Rosenthal, Syn. PL DiapTior. 560. — John- 



Aralia spinosa, Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 338 son, Man. Med. PL N. Am. 15Q.— U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1714. 



(in part) (1886). 

^ Aralia spinosa, var. elata. 

Dimorphanthus elatuSy Miquel, Comm. Phyt. 95, t. 12 (1840). 
Walpers, Rep. ii. 430. 

Aralia canescens^ Siebold & Zuccarini, AhTiand. Akad. Milnch. 
iv. 202 (1843). 

Aralia Leroana, Koch, WochenscTirift^ 1864, 369. — Seemann, 

/. c. 135 (excl. var. ^., Torrey & Gray). 

Aralia elata^ Seemann, Jour. Bot. vi. 134 (1868). 



^ Angelica arborescens spinosa, seu Arbor Indica Fraxini folio, cor- 
tice spinosOf Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1798. 

Christophoriana arbor aculeata Virginiensis, Plukenet, PJiyL t. 20 ; 

Aim. Bot. 98. 

Angelica arborescens spinosa, seu Arbor Indica Fraxini folio y cor tice 

spinosOf J. Commelyn, Hort. i. 89, t. 47. 

Aralia arborescens spinosa, Vaillant, Serm. Struct, Flor. 43. 

Aralia caule aculeato, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 113. 

Aralia arborea aculeata, Linnaeus, Virid. 26. — Clayton, FZ. Vir- 



Aralia spinosa, var. glabrescens, Franchet & Savatier, L c. 191 gin, 34, 



(1875). 



® Aiton, Hort Kew. i. 382. — Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 999, f. 754. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXL Akalia spikosa. 

1. The end of a panicle of flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A'^ertical section of a perfect flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

5. A perfect flower, the petals and stamens removed, enlarged 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. The end of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

8. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. A leaflet, natural size. 

13. A wmter branchlet, natural size. 

14. A growing terminal bud showing stipules, natural size. 



Silva of ISIorth Am eric a 



Tab CCXI 




C.E.Faxorv dd/. 



Lovendal so. 



ARALIA SPINOSA^ L. 



A.m 




6 



Imp R. Taneur , Paris. 



CORNACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



COENUS. 



Flowers perfect 



caly 



minutely 4 -toothed ; petals 4, valvate in aestivation 



stamens 4 ; ovary 2 or rarely 3-celled ; ovules solitary, suspended. Fruit drupact 
1 or 2-seeded. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, destitute of stipules, deciduous 



Cornus, Linnaeus, Gen. 29 (1737). — Adanson, Fa^ii. FL ii. Benthamia 



Meis- 



158. 
153. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 214. — Meisne 



Gen. 



ner, Gen. 153. — Endlicher, Gen. 798. 



Endlicher, Gen. 798. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Eukrania, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 59 (1838). 



i. 950. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. vii. 79. 



Cynoxylon, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 59 (1838). 
Benthamidia, Spach, Hist Veg. viii. 106 (1839). 



Glabrous or pubescent trees and shrubs^ with astriagent bark^ slender terete unarmed branchlets^ 
scaly buds with accrescent scales^ and fibrous roots 3 or herbs. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate and 
clustered at the ends of the branchlets^ conduplicate or involute in vernation^ petiolate or subsessile^ 
entire or obscurely serrate^ hirsute with tuberculate roughened hairs on the upper surface^ silky-pilose 
and often glaucous on the lower^ deciduous. Flowers small^ terminal or axillary^ white or greenish 
white^ in close cymes or heads surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of four to six large petal-like 
scales, or yellow, precocious, umbellate, the sessile umbels surrounded by four small deciduous scales ; 
or white or cream-color, in dichotomously branched cymes. Caljrx-tube turbinate, urceolate or cam- 
panulate, terete, angled or winged, the limb minutely four-toothed. Disk epigynous, pulvinate, depressed 
in the centre, or obsolete. Petals four, oblong or ovate, inserted on the margin of the disk. Stamens 
four, exserted ; 

petals ; anthers oblong, introrse, versatile, attached on the back near the middle, two-celled, the cells 
opening longitudinally. Ovary inferior, two or rarely three-celled ; style exserted, simple, filiform or 
columnar, crowned with a single capitate or truncate stigma j ovules suspended from the interior angle 
of the apex of the cell, solitary, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, 
ovoid or oblong, areolate at the apex and often crowned with the calyx-lobes or the remnants of the 
style, free or (Benthamia) confluent into a fleshy tuberculate syncarp ; sarcocarp dry ; putamen bony or 
crustaceous, two-celled, two or sometimes one-seeded. Seed oblong, compressed ; testa membranaceous. 



Embryo straight or sHghtly incurved, as long as the copious fleshy albumen and surrounded by it ; 



filaments fiHform or subulate, inserted on the margin of the disk, alternate with the 



cotyledons f ohaceous j radicle terete, elongated, turned towards the hilum.^ 

Cornus is widely distributed through the three continents of the northern hemisphere, and south of 
the equator appears in Peru with a single species.^ In North America, where the species of Cornus are 



more numerous than in other parts of the world, sixteen or seventeen have been distinguished.^ 



Three 



of these are arborescent ; the other American species are large and small shrubs, and herbs of boreal 



tions . 



The species may be conveniently grouped in the following sec- cream-colored petal-like scales ; drupes confluent into a fleshy 

syncarp. Arborescent. 

4. Flowers umbellate, the umbels surrounded by green decidu- 
ous scales. Arborescent or frutescent. 



1. Flowers in close cymes surrounded by an involucre of four 
large petal-like scales. Herbaceous. 



2. Flowers in close cymes surrounded by an involucre of four to 5. Flowers white or cream-color, in cymose panicles, ebracteo- 



late. Arborescent or frutescent. 



sLx white petal-like scales. Arborescent. 

3. Flowers capitate, surrounded by an involucre of four white or 2 Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 950. 

3 Coulter & Evans, BoL Gazette, xv. 30, 86 



64 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACE-iE. 



regions. 



The flora of Mexico contains four or five species ; ^ and in Europe there are four/ all widely 



distributed in western Asia 



Of the four Himalayan species, Cornus sanguinea ^ is also Europ 



and northern Asiatic, while Cornus macrophyll 

Cornus capitata ^ to central China. At least five species are now k 

although only two 



ranges through China and Corea to Japan, and 



naturally in China/ 

of them are peculiar to that empire. Five species occur in Japan/ where Cornus 

'' In 



Kousa ^ represents the Flowering Dogwoods, and Corea possesses probably one endemic species 



the 



ly tertiary epoch arborescent species of Cornus inhabited the Arctic region 



d towards the 



eocene period species similar to existing forms appeared in Europe." In North America traces of 
Cornus abound in the midcontinental Laramie group.^^ 



Cornus is rich in tannic acid, and the bark and 



onally the leaves and unripe fruit are used 



tonics, astringents, and febrifuges 



The 



cherry-like fruit of 



Europ 



Cornus 



mas^^ is 



edible, and is used in preserves, robs, and cordials j ^^ and that of several species contains considerable 



quantities of fatty 



^^ The dried inner bark of the American Cornus sericea?^ mixed with tobacco 



was smoked with satisfaction by the Indians who inhabited the shores of the Great Lakes and 



central regions of the continent.^^ 



Humboldtj Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen. et Spec. iii. 430. 



JEq 



Hemsley, Bot. Biol, Am. Cent.i 



■^ Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 344. 
s Franchet & Savatier, L c. 195 



575. 



® Miquel, Ann. Mm. Lugd. Bat ii. 159 (1865). — Franchet & 
Savatier, L c. — The Garden^ xliii. 153, t. 

Benthamla Japonicay Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. i. 38, t. 16 

(1835). 

10 Cornus officinalis^ Siebold & Zuccarini, l. c. 100, t. 50 (1835). 

Deutsch. Holz. i. 12, t 3. — Pallas, FL Ross. i. 117. — Ledebour, F/. Miquel, I. c. 160. — Franchet & Savatier, L c. 196. — Forbes & 

Ross. ii. 378. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 253. — Hooker f. FL Hemsley, Z. c. 

Brit. Ind, ii. 744. In Japan, where Cornus officinalis was introduced, probably from 

Cornus australis, C. A. Meyer, Mem. Acad. Set, St. Petershourg, Corea, several centuries ago, it is esteemed for the tonic and astrin- 



2 Nyman, Conspect. FL Europ. 319. 
fi Boissier, FL Orient, ii. 1092. 

4 Linnseus, Spec. 117 (1753). — L'H^ritier, Cornus^ 5. — De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. iv. 272. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, Ahhild, 



sdr. 6, V. 211 (1849). —Boissier, L c. 



gent properties of the fruit (see Smith, Chinese Mat. Med. 74), and 



^ Wallich, Roxburgh Fl. Ind. \. 433 (1820).- — Don, Prodr, Fl. is often planted in gardens, where it appears as a bushy tree twenty 



Nepal. 141. — De Candolle, I. c. — Brandis, I. c. 252, t. 32. 



or twenty-five feet in height, with the habit and general appearance 



Hooker f. l. c. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour, Linn, Soc. xxiii. of the European Cornelian Cherry, which it resembles in most of 



345. 



Cornus brachypoda, C A. Meyer, L c. 222 (1849). — Walpers, 
An7i. ii. 725. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 195. 
Cornus crisjmla, Hance, Jour. Bot, xix. 216 (1881). 



Zittel, 



its essential characters, 

^^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 249. 
Handb, Palceontolog. ii. 614. 

12 L. F. Ward, 6th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. 1884-85, 490 



Cornus macrophyllay which is one of the stateliest and most beau- (^Syn. Fl. Laramie Group). 



tiful trees of the genus, is common in the forests of northern and 



13 Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 569. — Baillon, Hist, PL vii. 76 ; 



central Japan, where it is usually found on moist slopes or in the Traite Bot. Med. 1072. 



neighborhood of streams, sometimes rising to the height of fifty 



1* Linnseus, I. c. (1753). — L'H^ritier, I. c. 4. — Schmidt, Oestr, 



or sixty feet and developing trunks two or three feet in diameter Baumz. ii. 7, t. 63. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, I. c. 10, t. 2. 
and broad flat heads of horizontal branches. In northern India, De Candolle, I.e. 273. — Nyman, L c. 319. 



where it is widely distributed at elevations between three thou- 
sand and eight thousand feet above the sea, the wood is valued 
for the excellent charcoal for gunpowder which it yields, the fruit 554. 



15 Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1016. 

1^ Jour. Chim. Med. ii. 350. — A. Richard, Hist. Nat. Med, iii. 



is eaten, and the leaves furnish fodder for goats. (See Gamble, 
Man. Indian Timbers^ 212.) 



Wallich. L c. 434 



D 



on 



1"^ Linnffius, Mant. 199 (1771). — L'Hdritier, L c. 5, t. 2. — C. A. 
Meyer, I. c. 213. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 466, t. — Coulter 
& Evans, Bot. Gazette^ xv. 34. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man, 



L c — De Candolle, L c. 273. — Hooker f. L c. 745. — Forbes & ed. 6,214. 



Hemsley, l. c. 



Mgifi 



Trans. Roy. Hort. Soc, ser. 2, i. 457, t. 17. — Walpers 



435. _ w 

Fl, des Se: 



BoL Mag. Ixxviii. t. 4641. 



In the mountainous regions of India, where Cornus capitata is 
abundant at elevations of from thirty-five hundred to eight thou- 
sand feet, the handsome yellowish red strawberry-shaped succulent 
fruits formed by the coalition of the numerous pericarps are eaten 
raw and are made into preserves (Brandis, L c. 253). 



Cornus Amomuin, Du Roi, Diss, 7 (1771) ; Harblc. Baumz. i. 164. 

? Cornus coeruleay Lamarck, Diet. ii. 116 (1786). 

? Cornus alba, Walter, FL Car. 88 (not Linnseus) (1788). 

? Cornus rubiginosa, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv. 15 (1789). 

Cornus cyanocarpa, Moench, Meth. 108 (1794). 

Cornus lanuginosa^ Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 92 (1803). 

? Cornus poly gama, Rafinesque,F/. Ludovic.78 (1817) ; Alsograph. 
Am. 61. — De Candolle, L c. iv. 274. — Don, Ge7i. SysL iii. 401. 

Cornus obliqua, Rafinesque, Ann. Nat, 13 (1820). 
^s It is this species, which was generally known as " Kinnikin- 



CORNACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



65 



The wood of Cornus is hard, close-grained, and durable, and is used in turnery and for charcoal 



The greatest value of Cornus, however, is for the decoration of parks and gardens 

species produce flowers and fruits of remarkable beauty, and others cover 
colored bark. 



of the 



their branches with brilHantly 



The plants of this genus are little injured in America by the attacks of insects^ or by fungal 



diseases.' 



The generic name, from comity relates to the hardness of the wood produced by the different 



species 



uic," and was chiefly prized by the Indians for smoking, although ley & Curtis, which is common on Cornus alternifolia, kills the 

in those parts of the country where it was not found they used for young twigs and branches, which become yellowish brown and often 

the same purpose the bark and leaves of several other plants- (See highly polished and spotted with the minute perithecia of this 

Parry, Owen Rep. Geolog. Surv. Wisconsm^ lowaj and Minnesota^ parasite. Septoria cornicolaj Desmazi^re, produces numerous small 

613.) white spots powdered with purple on the leaves of Comics Jlorida 

^ The Fall Web-worm sometimes disfigures Cornus Jlorida^ and and Cornus alternifolia and on those of many shrubby species. Of 

ih^l^VYdd oi Antkpila cornifoliellay CXem^n^ {Proc. PhiL Acad. 1%Q0^ all the American species, Cornus Jlorida appears to be the most 

11), mine within its leaves, and Coleophora coryiella^ Walsingham subject to attacks of fungi, about thirty species having been de- 

(Trans, EnL Soc. Lond, 1882,432), feeds on the leaves of Cornus tected on this tree. Among mildews, Microsphcera Alniy Winter, 

pubescens in California. The larvse of a, Saw-fly, Haipiphorus vari- is common on the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and Cornus stolo- 

amiSf Norton, destroy the foliage of several of the shrubby species nifera. Phyllactinia guttata^ Ldveilld, a common fungus on the 

of Cornus in many parts of the country (J. G. Jack, Garden and Chestnut-tree, occurs also on Cornus Jlorida and Cornus stolonijera. 

Forest^ ii. 520). One or two species of unidentified borers injure A sooty black fungus, Dimerosporium pulchrum, Saccardo, is not 

the wood of Cornus, and a whitish Scale-insect is often abundant rare on the leaves of Cornus paniculata and Cornus sericea, but 



on the bark of plants of some species. 



although it disfigures them it does not penetrate into the interior 



2 The American arborescent species of Cornus are attacked by of the plants, 
a number of characteristic fungi ; Myxosporium nitidum, Berke- 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Flowers in a dense cymose head surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of 4 to 6 petal-like 

scales from buds formed the previous summer. 
Heads of flower-buds inclosed by the involucre during the winter ; involucral scales 4, obcor- 

date or notched at the apex ; leaves ovate or elliptical 1. C- Florida. 

Heads of flower-buds not inclosed by the involucre ; involucral scales 4 to 6, oblong to obovate, 

usually acute at the apex ; leaves ovate or rarely obovate 2. C. Nuttallii. 

Flowers in a cymose head without involucral scales, terminal on shoots of the year. 

Leaves mostly alternate and clustered at the ends of the branches 3. C- alternifolia 



66 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



COKNACEiE. 



CORNUS FLORIDA. 



Flowering Dogwood. 

Heads of flower-buds inclosed bv the involucre ; involucral scales 4, obcordate or 



notched at the apex. Leaves ovate or elliptical. 



Cornus florida, Linnaeus, Spec. 117 (1753). — Miller, Did 



ed. 8, No. 3. 



Da Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i- 167. 



Wangenheim, Beschreih. Nordam. Holz. Ill ; Nordam 
Holz. 51, t. 17, f. 41. — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 26. 
Marshall, Arhust. Am. 35. — Castiglioni, Viag.negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 225. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 114 ; IlL i. 302. 
Walter, FL Car. 88. — L'H^ritier, Cornus^ 4. — Schmidt, 
Oestr. Baumz. ii. 6, t. 62. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 
73 ; Spec. i. 661 ; Enitm. 164. — Abbot, Insects of Geor- 
gia, ii. t. 73. — Bot. Mag. xv. t. 526. — Michaux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. i. 91. — Persoon, Syn. i. 143. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. i. 350. — Schkuhr, Handb. i. 82. — Titford, 
Sort. Bot. Am. 41, t. 16, f. 7. — Nouveau Diihamel^ 



• • 



u. 



153. 



Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 138, t. 3. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 108. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 38 
Nuttall, Gen. i. 98. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 319 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 6. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. 
Holz. 21, t. 19. — Elliott, Sk. i. 207. — Sprengel, Syst. 
1. 451. — Audubon, Birds, t. 8, 73, 122.— De CandoUe, 
Prodr. iv. 273. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 277 (in part). 
Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 400. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 504. — Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. Am. l 652. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 290. — 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 111. — Chapman, Fl. 168. 
Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 60. — 



Koch, 



Dendr. i. 694. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 467, t. 
BaiUon, Hist. PL vii. 68, f. 46. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 1882, 67. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 
516. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 90. — Coulter & Evans, Bot. Gazette^ xv. 32. — Watson 
& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 214. 
Benthamidia florida, Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 107 (1839). 



A low bushy 



ely forty feet in height, with a short trunk twelve to eighteen inches 



slender spreading or upright branches and diverging branchlets turned upwards near the 
frequently toward the northern limits of its range a many-stemmed shrub. The bark of the 

an inch in thickness, has a dark red-brown surface 
scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are 



diameter^ 
ends ; or 
trunk, which varies from an eighth 



their first winter they 



to a quarter of an ii 
divided into quadrangular or many-sided plate-like scales 
pale green or green tinged with red, and are glabrous or shghtly puberulous 
are bright red or yellow-green and are nearly surrounded by the narrow ring-like leaf-scars, while later 
they become light brown or gray tinged with red. The buds are formed in midsummer, and are covered 
by two opposite acute pointed scales rounded on the back and connate below for half their length ; the 
terminal bud is accompanied by two pairs of lateral buds, each covered by a single scale ; the scales of 
the outer pair of these lateral buds usually fall in autumn, and the inclosed shoots then often remain 



undeveloped ; on fertile shoots the terminal bud is replaced 




the head of flower-buds which, by 



midsummer, protrudes from between the two upper lateral buds. The leaves are involute in vernation, 
ovate to elliptical or rarely slightly obovate, acute and often contracted into slender points at the apex, 
gradually narrowed at the base, remotely and obscurely crenulate-toothed on the somewhat thickened 
margins and mostly clustered toward the ends of the branches ; when they unfold they are pale, pubes- 
cent below, and faintly puberulous above, and at maturity are thick and firm, bright green, and covered 
with minute appressed hairs on the upper surface, and pale or sometimes almost white and more or less 
pubescent on the lower, from three to six inches long and an inch and a half to two inches broad ; they 
have prominent light-colored midribs deeply impressed above, five or six pairs of primary veins parallel 
with their sides and connected by obscure reticulated veinlets, and grooved petioles from one half to 
three quarters of an inch in length. In the autumn they turn bright scarlet. The head of flower-buds 
is inclosed by four involucral scales which remain light brown and more or less covered with pale hairs 
through the winter, and is borne on a stout club-shaped puberulous reddish peduncle which during the 



CORNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



67 



winter is a quarter of an inch or less in length, but, by the time the flowers have expanded, is an inch 
or an inch and a half long. The involucral scales begin to unfold, enlarge, and grow white with the 
first warm days of spring, and when the flowers open, which in Texas takes place in March and in 
Massachusetts in May, when the leaves are half grown, these scales form a flat coroUa-Uke cup three or 
four inches in diameter ; at maturity they are obcordate, an inch or an inch and a half wide, gradually 
narrowed below the middle, the rounded apex notched by its growing round the discolored and thick- 
ened remnants of the portion formed during the previous summer,^ reticulate-veined, and pure white, 
pink. 



or 



rarely bright red ; they fall after the fading of the flowers. The flower-buds, which are 
collected in close many-flowered cymes, are oblong, obtuse, puberulous with pale hairs, and sessile in the 



axils of broadly 
The flowers are 



nearly triangular minutely apiculate glabrous light green deciduous b 
ghth of an inch across when expanded ; the calyx is terete, sHghtly ui 



puberulous, obtusely four-lobed, and Hght green ; the corolla-lobes are strap-shaped, rounded or acute 
at the apex, slightly thickened on the margins, puberulous on the outer surface, glabrous on the inner, 
reflexed after anthesis, and green tipped with yellow ; the disk is large and orange-colored, and the 
style is columnar and crowned with a truncate stigma. The fruit ripens in October, usually only three 
or four drupes being developed from a head of flowers; they are surrounded by the remnants of 
abortive flowers and are ovoid, crowned with the remnants of the narrow persistent calyx and with the 
style, bright scarlet, haK an inch long and a quarter to half an inch broad, with thin mealy flesh and a 
smooth ovate thick- waUed slightly grooved stone, acute at the two ends and containing two oblong 
seeds, or often only one, covered with a thin pale coat. 

Cornus florida is distributed from eastern Massachusetts to southern Ontario ^ and southwestern 
Missouri,^ and southward to central Florida and the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, and reappears 



on the Sierra Madre and several of the other mountain ranches of eastern and southern Mexico.^ 




Comparatively rare at the north, the Flowering Dogwood 



of the commonest and most generally 



distributed inhabitants of the deciduous forests of the middle and southern 



growing under the 



shade of taller trees in rich weU-drained soil, and from the coast nearly to the summits of the high 

Alleghany Mountains. 

The wood of Cornus florida is heavy, hard, and strong, tough and close-grained, with a satiny 
surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays, and 
is brown, sometimes changing to shades of green and red, with Hghter colored sapwood composed of 
thirty to forty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8153, a 
cubic foot weighing 50.81 pounds. It is largely used in turnery, for the bearings of machinery, the 
hubs of small wheels, barrel-hoops, the handles of tools, and occasionally for engravers' blocks. 

The bark, especially that of the roots, which contains a bitter principle, cornin or cornic acid,^ is 
astringent and slightly aromatic, and is occasionally used in the form of powder, decoctions, or fluid 



extracts, in the treatment of intermittent and malarial fevers,^ and in homoeopathic practice.^ 



The Flowering Dogwood is one of the most beautiful of the 



small trees of the American forests, 
which it enHvens in early spring with the whiteness of its floral leaves and in autumn with the splendor 



1 Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1892, 377. 



1879-80 



1 



. 190. 



3 Broadhead, Bot. Gazette, iil. 53. 

* Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 575. 



mental Inquiry into the similarity in virtue between the Cornus fiorida 
Macoun, Cat. Can, PI. and sericea, and the Cinchona officinalis of Linnceus. — Barton, Coll. 

ed. 3, i. 12, 47 ; ii. 17. — W. P. C. Barton, Med. Bot. i. 43, t. 3. 
Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii. 73, t. 28. — Rafinesque, Med. Fl. i. 131, t. 

Lindley, Fl. Med. 81. — A. Richard, Hist. Mat. Med. iii. 



ecimens 



28. 
554 



iffith. Med 



Carson, Med. Bot. i. 50, 



snowy ^ 
ed with 



42 



/ 



Pharm 



Bentley & Trimen, Med. PL ii. 136, t. 136. 
A. J. Frey, Am. Bot. N. Am. 158, t. 5, — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 508. 



Man 



Jour. Pharm. 1878, 390. 
6 Snhoenf. Mat. Med 



■^ Millspaughj Am. Med. PL in Homoeopathic Remedies^ i. 71, 



Walker 



t. 71. 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACE-ffi. 



of its foliage and the brilliancy of its fruit. 

s sun is sufficiently hot 



where the summer 



No tree is more desirable in the garden or park ^ in regions 
) insure the production of its flowers through the perfect 

affo in the 



development of the branchlets.^ A variety with pendulous branches^ discovered a few years 
forests of Maryland^ and one with bright red involucral scales are now often cultivated. 



The first pubhshed account of Corims florida appeared in the Phytograph 



of Plukenet 



1691 ; ^ his information was probably derived from John Banister, the English missionary in Virginia 
although there is no mention of the Flowering Dogwood in Banister's printed catalogue of Virg 



plant 



According to Loudo 



cultivated in England in 1730 by Thomas Fairchild/ and a few 



years later by Philip Miller in the Physic Garden at ChelseaJ 

Coriiiis florida is easily raised from seeds,^ which germinate in the second year ; it requires mode 
ately rich well-drained soil^ and under favorable conditions begins to 



flower when 



years 



old. 



1 Kalm, Travels, English ed. i. 160 ; ii. 163. — W. Bartram, ful practice of his art. In 1722 he published The City Gardener, 



Travels, 401. 
2 Garden and Forest, iii. 431, f. 54. 



of cultivating 



fruit-trees, flowering shrubs, fl^ 



xxxu 



of some new Experiments relating to the different and sometimes 



8 In Great Britain and other countries of northern and central will he ornamental, and thrive lest in the London Gardens , and in 
Europe Cornus florida rarely produces flowers (Loudon, Arl. Brit. 1724, in the Philosophical Transactions 
ii. 1017. — The Garden^ xxxiii. 441 ; xliii. loO). 

* Cornus Virginiana, fosculis plurimis albidis ex involucro tetra- 
petalo rubro erumpentibus, t. 26, f . 3 ; Aim. Bot, 120. — Catesby, Nat, 
Hist. Car. I 27, t. 27. 



of the Sap of 



He was a corre- 



wUl 



Charity School of Shoreditch, where he died, £25, the income of 
Cornus involucro maxima, foliolis obverse cordatis, Linnseus, Hort. which was to be used for an annual sermon to be preached on 



Cliff. 38 ; Hort. Ups. 29. — Royen, Fl Leyd. Prodr. 249. 



Clay. 



Whitsun Tuesday (Felton, Portraits of English Authors on Garden- 



ton, FL Virgin. 17. — Coldeu, Act Hort. Ups. 1743, 89 {PI Nove- ing, ed. 2, QO.— The Cottage Gardener, vi. 143). 



bor.). 
i. 182. 



Miller, Diet. ed. 7, No. 3. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, 



^ Loudon, Z. c. 



■^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 157. 

® The great abundance of this tree in those parts of the country 
where the climate is not too severe for it may be explained by the 



® Thomas Fairchild (1667 ?-l 729), a nurseryman and florist at fact that the fruit is a favorite food of many birds, who scatter 
Hoxton near London, who united a. love of science with the success- the seeds without injuring their vitality. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



Plate CCXIL Cornus Florida. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower^ enlarged. 

4. An ovary cut crosswise, enlarged. 



Plate CCXIIL Cornus florida. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3, A fruit cut crosswise, enlarged. 

4, A nutlet, enlarged. 



5. 



8. 



A seed, enlarged. 



6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 



vrith 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCXII 




CE Faax>n deL . 



Ptoartjr- 



so 



CORNUS FLORIDA .L 



^.mocreux- direco^ 



Imp R . Taneur, Paris . 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. ccxm 




5 



S 



3 





1 




C.E.FaxoTV del 



Picartjr. sc 



CORNUS FLORIDA. L 



t 



A.Biocreua^ dire:x^ . 



Imp.RJaneur^ Paru 



CORNACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



69 



CORNUS NUTTALLII. 



Dogwood. 



Heads of flower-buds not inclosed ; involucral scales 4 to 6, oblong to obovate 



usually acute at the apex. Leaves ovate or rarely obovate 



Cornus Nuttallii, Audubon, Birds, t. 467 (1837) ; Orn 
Biogr. iv. 482. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 652. 
Walpers, Rep. ii, 435. — Benthara, PL Hartioeg. 314. 
Nuttall, Sylva^ iii. 51, t. 97. — Torrey, Pacific B. B. 
Bep. iv. 94 ; Bot. Mex. Boimd. Surv. 71 ; Bot Wilkes 



Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 134. — Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. viii. 387. — Brewer & "Watson, Bot. Cat. i. 274 ; 
ii. 452. — Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 88. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
Evans, Bot. Gazette, xv. 33. 



u. s. 



91. 



Coulter & 



Fxplor. Fxped. S26. — 'Newhevvy, Pacific B. B. Bep. yi. Cornus florida, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 277 (in part) 



4, 75. 



Cooper, Pacific B. B. Bep. xii. pt. ii. 29, 63. 



(1833). 



A tree^ forty to sixty feet or exceptionally one hundred feet ^ in height, with a trunk one or two 
feet in diameter, and slender spreading branches which form an oblong-conical or ultimately a round- 
topped head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, brown tinged with red, and divided 
on the surface into small thin appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, light green, and coated 
when young with pale hairs ; in their first winter they are glabrous or puberulous, dark reddish purple 
or sometimes green, conspicuously marked by the elevated lunate leaf -scars, and later become bght brown 
or brown tinged with red. The buds, which are formed in July, are acute, a third of an inch in length, 
and covered with two narrowly ovate acute long-pointed puberulous light green opposite scales ; the 
terminal bud is accompanied by two pairs of lateral buds, each covered by a single scale ; the scales of 
the lower pair usually fall in the autumn and the buds remain undeveloped, and those of the upper 
pair, which are now coated with pale hairs, especially toward the apex, thicken and turn dark purple, 
and, lengthening in the spring with the shoots which they inclose, finally become scarious or often 
develop into small leaves, and in falling mark the base of the branchlets with ring-like scars. The leaves 
are involute in vernation, ovate or slightly obovate, acute and often contracted into short points at 
the apex, wedge-shaped at the base and faintly crenulate-serrate, and are generally clustered toward the 
ends of the branches ; when they unfold they are coated below with pale tomentum and are puberulous 
above, while at maturity they are membranaceous, bright green, and slightly puberulous, with short 
appressed hairs on the upper surface and woolly pubescent on the lower, and are four or five inches 
in length and an inch and a half to three inches in breadth, with prominent pale midribs impressed 
above, about five pairs of slender primary veins nearly parallel with their margins and connected by 
remote reticulated veinlets, and stout grooved hairy petioles from one half to two thirds of an inch long, 
with large clasping bases. In the autumn the leaves become brilHant orange and scarlet before falling. 
The head of flower-buds appears during the summer from between the upper pair of lateral leaf-buds, 
and is surrovmded at the base but not inclosed by the involucral scales ; during the winter it is hemi- 
spherical, covered only at the base by the involucre, half an inch in diameter, and is usually nodding 
by the reflexion above the middle of the stout hairy peduncle, which is enlarged at the apex and three 
quarters of an inch to an inch in length. In early spring, when the flowers open, the involucral scales 
have become an inch and a half to three inches long and an inch and a half to two inches wide ; they 
are now white or white tinged with pink, narrowly oblong to obovate or sometimes nearly orbicular, 
abruptly acute, acuminate or obtuse, entire and thickened at the apex with the remnants of the portions 
of the scales formed during the previous summer, puberulous on the outer surface, gradually narrowed 

^ Kellogg, Forest Trees of California^ 112. 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACEJE. 



below the middle and conspicuously eight-ribbed^ the spreading ribs being united by reticulated veinlets. 
The flowers, which are crowded in dense cymose heads, are produced in the axils of minute acuminate 
scarious deciduous bracts. The calyx is terete, slightly urceolate, puberulous on the outer surface and 
yellow-o-reen, or in one form light purple, with dark red-purple lobes \ the 23etals are strap-shaped, 
rounded at the apex, spreading, somewhat puberulous on the outer surface, with thickened slightly 
inflexed margins ; they are yellow-green, or in the purple-flowered form yellow below the middle on the 



inner surface and of a dark plum-color above 



the styl 



umnar and crowned with 



stionia. The fruit ripens in October, thirty or forty drupes being crowded into a dense spherical head 



which 



ded at the base by 



of abortive pendulou 



the drupes are half 



1 



much flattened by mutual pressure, crowned with the broad persistent calyx, and bright 



red or orange-color, with tliin mealy flesh and thick-walled 



ded stones which are obtuse 



at both ends and 
pale papery coat. 



ly grooved. The seeds 



oblong, compressed, and covered with a very thin 



Corniis JSfuttallii is distributed from the valley of the lower Eraser River ^ and Vancouver's 
Island,^ southward along the coast of British Columbia, through western Washington and Oregon, and 
southward on the coast ranges of California to the San Bernardino Mountains and on the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada. It grows usually in moist well-drained soil under the shade of coniferous 
forests, ascending on the Cascade Mountains to an elevation of three thousand feet above the sea-level 
and of four or five thousand at the southern hmits of its range, and attaining its greatest size near the 
shores of Puget Sound and in the Redwood forests of northern California. 

The wood of Cormis NiittaUli is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained, with a satiny 



face 



ptible of receiving a good polish ; it 



numer 



obscure medullary rays, and 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7481, a cubic foot weighing 46.42 pounds 



light brown tinged with red, with lighter colored sapwood composed of thirty to forty layers of 

growth. 

It is used in cabinet-making, for malls, the handles of tools, etc. 

The flower-clusters of Cormis Nuttallli are more beautiful and conspicuous than the flowers of 
any other tree of the Pacific states ; and in early spring, when the great flower-scales have grown to 
their fuU size, it lights up the dark and sombre forests which are the home of the Dogwood as with a 
bridal wreath, and as with tongues of flame late in the year, when the beauty of the brilliantly colored 
leaves and large heads of bright fruit is often heightened by the appearance of autumnal flowers. 

Cormis NutUdUi was discovered on the banks of the lower Columbia River by David Douglas 
in 1825 or 1826 ; it was first mistaken for the Flowering Dogwood of the east, and was not distin- 
guished from that species until several years later by Thomas Nuttall ^ in his transcontinental journey. 



3 



5 



1 Macoun, Cat Can. PL i. 190. 

2 G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat, n. ser. ix. 331. 

3 See ii. 94. 

4 See ii. 34. 

s Various attempts have been made in the eastern states and in 



Europe to cultivate this magnificent tree, but although the seeds 
germinate readily the young plants soon perish, and the right 
method of managing them, so far as I have heard, has not yet 
been discovered. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXIV. Cornus Nqttallii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branchlet, natural size. 

n. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 



6. A fruit cut crosswise, enlarged 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 



Plate CCXV. Cornus Nuttallii. 

1. A flowering branch, with an involucre of six scales, natural 



size. 



2. A winter branclilet with head of flower-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah. CCXIV 




QE.Fa^xxfiv del 



Ptcartfr sc 



CORNUS NUTTALLII 



/ 



Aud. 



A.Riocreax dmemP 



Imp. R. Tarie^cp , Paris 



Silva, of North America. 



Tab . C CXV 




I 



t 



OE. Faxon del. 



Pioartfr. so. 



CORNUS NUTTALLlI.Aud. 



A-Biocreu^ direec. 



Imp . H.TaJieur, Paris 



CORNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



71 



CORNUS ALTERNIPOLIA. 



Dogwood. 



Leaves mostly alternate, clustered at the ends of the branches 



Cornus alternifolia, Linnaeus f. Syst. ed. 13, Suppl. 125 
(1781). — Lamarck, Diet. \i.llQ\ III i. 303. — L'Hdri- 
tier, CormiSy 10, t. 6. — Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 19. — Du Roi, 
Harbk. Baumz. ed. 2, i. 253. — Schmidt, Oestr, Baicmz, 



St Petershourg^ s^r. 6, 203. — Walpers, Rep. v. 932. 
Chapman, FL 167. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. i\r. Car. 
1860, iii. 61. — Koch, Dendr. i. 690. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. ed. 2, ii. 463, t. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 



Perso 



ii. 15, t. 70. — WiUdenow, Berl. Baumz. 77 ; I 
Enum. 165. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 93. 
Syn. i. 144. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 351. 
Duhamelj ii. 157, t. 45. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 109. 



514. 



N. 



on 



Wat- 



Nouveaii 



ix. 90. — Coulter & Evans, BoU Gazette^ xv. 90. 

son & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 215. — MacMillan, Bot. 

Bep. Geolog. Surv. Minn. 400 (Metasperm. Minn. ValL). 



Nuttall, Gen. i. 99. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst iii. 323; Cornus alterna, Marshall, Arbitst. Am. 35 (1785). 
Mant. 251. — Elliott, Sk. i. 210. — Bigelow, FL Boston. Cornus undulata, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 61 (1838). 
ed. 2, 58. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abhild. Holz. 53, Cornus rotundifolia, Rafinesque, Alsogniph. Am. 62 



t.43. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 8- — Sprengel, Syst. i. 451. 



(1838). 



De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 271. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. 



Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 62 (1838) 



1. 



275. 



Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 398. — Tausch, Begensb. Cornus rip aria, var. rugosa, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 



Flora, 1838, 732. 



Hist 



Dietrich, 

Tor- 



62 (1838). 



Syn. i. 503. — Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 649. 

rey, Fl. N. Y. i. 288. — C. A. Meyer, Mem. Acad. Sci 



(1838) 



A flat-topped bushy tree, rarely twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk six or 
eight inches in diameter, and long slender alternate divergent horizontal branches from which rise 
numerous short upright flower-bearing branchlets ; or often a shrub sending up several stems from the 
ground. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, dark reddish brown and smooth, or 



divided 




shallow longitudinal fissures into 



narrow ridges irregularly broken transversely. 



The 



winter-buds are acute, light chestnut-brown, and covered with four or five imbricated ovate acute 
lustrous scales which are rounded on the back and thickened and short-pointed at the apex ; those of 
the inner ranks are accrescent, half an inch long at maturity, scarious, and more or less persistent on 



shoots, which, in falling, they mark with ring-like 



The branchlets 



slender, pale 



orange-green 



to reddish brown when they first appear, mostly light green or sometimes brown tinged 
with green during their first winter, later turning darker green, and are marked with pale lunate leaf- 



d small scattered pale dots. The leaves 



alternate or rarely opposite, involute 



oval or ovate, gradually contracted at the apex into long slender points, wedge-shaped or occasionally 
somewhat rounded at the base, and obscurely crenulate-toothed on the slightly thickened and reflexed 
margins ; when they unfold they are coated on the lower surface with dense silvery white tomentum, 
and are faintly tinged with red and pilose above ; at maturity they are membranaceous, bright yellow- 
green, and glabrous or sparsely pubescent on the upper, and pale or sometimes nearly white and covered 
with appressed hairs on the lower surface, three to five inches long and two and a half to three and a 
half inches wide, vrith broad orange-colored midribs slightly impressed above, about six pairs of primary 
veins parallel with then* sides, and slender pubescent grooved petioles which have enlarged clasping 
bases and are an inch and a half to two inches long. In the autumn the leaves turn yellow or 
yellow and scarlet. The flowers, which are produced mostly on lateral branchlets, in terminal flat 
puberulous many-flowered C3?Tnes an inch and a half to two inches and a half wide, are borne on slender 
lointed pedicels from an eighth of an inch to a quarter of an inch long, and appear from the beginning 
of May in the middle states to the end of June at the extreme north and on the high Alleghany 



72 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACE^. 



Mountains ; they are cream-color^ with an oblong cup-shaped obscurely toothed calyx coated with hoary 
tomentum, narrow oblong corolla-lobes which are rounded at the apex, an eighth of an inch long and 



reflexed after anthesis, long slender filaments 



with nodding anthers, 



and a columnar style with a 
prominent stigma. The fruit is borne in loose spreading red-stemmed clusters and ripens in October ; 
it is subglobose, dark blue-black, a third of an inch across, and tipped with the remnant of the style, 
which rises from the bottom of a small depression ; the nutlet, which is covered with a thin coat of dry 
bitter flesh, is obovoid, pointed at the base, longitudinally many-grooved, thick-walled, and one or two- 
seeded. The seed is lunate, compressed, and a quarter of an inch long, with a thin membranaceous pale 
coat and copious albumen. 



Corniis alternifi 



is distributed from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia westward along the 



valley of the St. Lawrence River to the northern shores of Lake Superior 



d Minnesota, and 



southward through the northern states, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia and 
Alabama. It is a 



common inhabitant of rich woodlands, growin 



ally along the margins of the 



forest and by the borders of streams and swamps in moist well-drained soil. 

The wood of Cornus alternlfolia is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin medullary 
and is brown tinged with red, with thick light-colored sapwood composed of twenty to thirty 
layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6696, a cubic foot 



rays 



weighing 41.73 pounds. 

CorniLS alternlfolia, which was overlooked by the early botanists in North America, was cultivated 
in England by James Gordon " in 1760.^ The peculiar habit of this species with its wide-spreading 
branches and flat-topped head, its handsome foliage, and abundant flowers and fruit make it a desirable 
ornament for parks and gardens, although in cultivation it is often injured by fungal diseases. 



1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. i. 192, 538 

2 See i. 30. 



8 Alton, Hort. Kew. i. 159. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1010, f. 760. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXVI. Cornus alternifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 



crosswise 



5. An ovule, much magnified. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A nutlet, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. End of a winter branchlet, natural size. 



I 



n 



Silva of North America 



Tah. CCXVI 




C,B,Faxo7vd&L, 



PicartjT. so 



CORNUS ALTERNIFOLlA,L.f. 



A.Tiiocreiar- dire^P 



Imp, R. TcLneur^ Paris. 



CORNACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



73 



NYSSA. 



Flowers polygamo-dicecious ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals 5, imbricated in sestivation ; 



stamens 5 to 12 ; ovary 1 



ely 2-celled ; oyules solitary, suspended. Fruit a fleshy 



drupe 



Leaves alternate, petiolate, destitute of stipules, deciduous 



Nyssa, Linnaeus, Gen. 308 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Ceratostachys, Blxxme, BiJ dr. Fl Ned. Ind. 644 (1825). 



75. 



Endlicher, Gen. 328. — Meisner, Gen. 328. 



Ben- 



Meisner, Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen, 1183. 



thana & Hooker, Gen. i. 952. — Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 281. Agathisanthes, Blume, Bijdr, FL Ned. Ind. 645 (1825). 



Tupelo, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 80 (1763). 



Meisner, Gen. 110. — Endlicher, Gen. 1183. 



Trees^ with terete branchlets and scaly buds^ the scales of the inner ranks accrescent. Leaves 
alternate, conduplicate in vernation, petiolate, entire or sometimes remotely angulate or toothed, mostly 
crowded at the ends of the branches, deciduous or persistent. Flowers minute, greenish white. The 
staminate on slender pedicels from the axils of minute caducous bracts in simple or compound clusters 
on long axillary peduncles bibracteolate near the middle or at the apex or sometimes ebracteolate. 
Calyx disciform or cup-shaped, the limb five or many-toothed. Petals five or indefinite, equal or 
unequal, ovate or linear-oblong, thick, inserted on the margin of the conspicuous pulvinate entire or 
lobed disk, erect. Stamens five or indefinite, exserted ; filaments filiform, inserted on the margin of 
the disk ; anthers oblong, introrse, attached at the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. 
Ovary rudimentary or wanting. Pistillate flowers on axillary peduncles, in two or few-flowered clusters, 
sessile or nearly so in the axil of a conspicuous bract and furnished with one or two smaller lateral 
bractlets, or solitary and surrounded by two to four bractlets. Calyx-tube urceolate or campanulate, 
the limb five-toothed. Petals small, thick, and spreading. Stamens five to ten or wanting ; filaments 
short ; anthers fertile or sterile. Disk less developed than in the sterile flower, depressed in the centre. 
Ovary inferior, one or two-celled ; style terete, elongated, simple or rarely forked, recurved, sulcate on 
the inner face, stigmatic toward the apex j ovules solitary, suspended from the interior angle of the apex 
of the cell, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, oblong, areolate at the 
apex J sarcocarp thin, oily, acidulous 3 putamen thick-walled, bony, terete or compressed, slightly or 
conspicuously longitudinally ridged or winged, one or rarely two-celled, usually one-seeded. Seed filling 
the cavity of the stone ; testa membranaceous. Embryo straight, in the centre of the copious fleshy 
albumen and nearly as long ; cotyledons foliaceous, much longer than the terete radicle turned toward 
the hilum. 

Nyssa is now confined to the eastern United States, where three species are distinguished, and to 
southern Asia, where the genus is represented by a single species ^ distributed from the eastern Hima- 
layas to the island of Java. In the tertiary epoch Nyssa perhaps inhabited the Arctic Circle and then 
spread over Europe ^ and Alaska,^ and traces of it occur in the Laramie group of western America.^ 

The American species produce tough wood with intricately contorted and twisted grain, and the 



Ny^ 



Daphniphyllopsis capitatay Kurz, L c. 1875, pt. ii. 201 ; Forest 



Ned. Ind. 644 



urm 



Ned 



5-7 



645 



Miquel, I c. Zittel, Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 611. 

Nyssa sessiliflora, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 952 (1867). 

Hooker f. Fl. Brit Ind. ii. 747. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers^ FL Western Territories). 

211. * L- F. Ward, Qth Ann. Rep. U. > 

Ilex daphnephylloides, Kurz, Jour. Asiatic Sac. 1870, pt. ii. 72. t. 47, f. 7 {Syn. Fl, Laramie Group). 



vui 



;84r-8 



74 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACE^. 



fruit of one of them is sometimes used as a 
properties. 



conserve. The genus is not known to possess other useful 



In America Nyssa is little injured or disfigured by insects/ and is not seriously affected by fungal 



diseases.^ 



Nyssa^ the name of a nymph, was bestowed by Linnaeus upon the species of the genus which grow 



in water. 



1 Web-worms occasionally disfigure the different species, and 



2 More than fifty species of fungi have been recorded as living 



the caterpillars of Everyx chcerilus, Cramer, also feed among the upon the species of this genus in the United States, principally ou 

leaves. The larvse oi Antispila nysscefoliellay Clemens {Proc. Phil, Nyssa sylvaiica. Most of them are small black species sometimes 

Acad, 1860, 11), and of Nepticula nyssoeella, Clemens, have been found also on other plants, and none produce marked disease, al- 

observed to mine within the parenchyma of the leaves. In North though the leaves of young shoots are sometimes somewhat disfig- 



Carolina a Scale-insect, Ckionaspis Nyssce, Comsi 
DepL Agric, 1880, 316), has been found on Nyssa. 



ured by Glenospora Curtisiij Berkeley and Desmazifere. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Stones of the fruit with more or less distinct low broad rounded ridges. 

Leaves linear-oblong to oval or obovate 1. N. SYLVATICA 

Stones of the fruit with prominent, winged, or acute ridges. 

Leaves oblong-oval or obovate, usually obtuse at the apex 2. N. Ogeche. 

Leaves oval or oblong, acute or acuminate 3. N. aquatica. 



CORNACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



NYSSA SYLVATICA. 



Tupelo. Pepperidge. 



Fruit small, the stone more or less distinctly ridged. Leaves linear-oblong to 
oval or obovate. 



Nyssa sylvatica, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 97 (1785).— Cas- Nyssa Caroliniana, Poiret, Lam. Bid. iv.507 (1797) ; III. 



tiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 304. — Michaux f. 



iii. 442, t. 851, f. 1. 



Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 260, t. 21. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. Nyssa Canadensis, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 507 (1797). 



IV 



.116. 



W. P. C. Barton, Compend. Fl. Phil. ii. 193. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censtis U. S. ix. 92. 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 215. 
Nyssa multiflora, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 46, t. 16, 
f. 39 (1787). — Walter, Fl. Car. 253. — ElUott, Sk. ii. 

Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 463. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 



684. 

ii. 161, t. 95. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 108**, f. 1, 2. 



Nyssa integrifolia, Alton, Hart. Kew. iii. 446 (1789). 

Persoon, Syn. ii. 614. 

Nyssa villosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 258 (1803). 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1112. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 
37. -Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 479. — Bigelow, Fl. 
Boston. 248. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 177. — Nuttall, 



Dar- 



Gen. 



9 « 



11. 



236. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst v. 575. 



lington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 254. — Chapman, Fl. 168. 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 62. 



Koch, 



Sprengel, Syst. i. 832. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 878. 
don, Arh. Brit. iii. 1317, f. 1197, 1198. 



Lou- 



Dendr. ii. 454. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 353, t. 



Nyssa multiflora, var. sylvatica, Watson, Index^ 442 (1878). 



Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mies. 1882, 68. — Lauche, Nyssa aquatica, Coulter & Evans, Bot. Gazette^ xv. 91 



Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 543. 



(not Linnseus nor Marshall) (1890). — Coulter, Contrib 
U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 151 {Man. PI TV. Texas). 



A tree, with crowded slender spreading and pendulous tough flexible branches, short stout spur-like 
lateral branchlets, and long thick hard roots, occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a trunk which 
is usually short, often enlarged and swollen at the base, and occasionally five feet in diameter ; generally 
in the northern and extreme southern states much smaller and rarely more than fifty or sixty feet in 



height 



The head is sometimes short and cyhndrical, with a flat top ; sometimes it is low and broad 



or, when the individual has been crowded by other trees in the forest, it is narrow, pyramidal, or conical, 
and sometimes it is inversely conical and broad and flat at the top. The bark of the trunk varies from 



d a half 



thickness, and is Hght brown, often tinged with 



three quarters of an inch to an inch ai 
red, and deeply fissured, the surface of the ridges being covered with small irregularly shaped scales. 
The branchlets are at first hght green to orange-color, nearly glabrous, or often covered with dense 
pale or rufous pubescence ; during their first winter they are Hght red-brown marked with minute 
scattered pale lenticular dots and with the small lunate leaf-scars which display the ends of three 
conspicuous groups of fibro-vascular bundles, and later become darker. The winter-buds are obtuse and 
a quarter of an inch long, and are covered with ovate acute apiculate dark red puberulous imbricated 
scales ; those of the inner ranks are accrescent, bright-colored at maturity, and mark the base of the 

The leaves, which are crowded on the ends of the lateral 
branchlets, or are remote on vigorous shoots, are deciduous, linear-oblong, lanceolate, oval or obovate, 
acute or acuminate, sometimes contracted into short broad points at the apex, wedge-shaped or occasion- 
ally rounded at the base, entire, with shghtly thickened margins, or are rarely coarsely dentate ; when 
they unfold they are coated with rufous tomentum, especially on the lower surface, or are pubescent or 
sometimes nearly glabrous ; at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green and very lustrous above, 
pale and often hairy below, principally along the broad midribs, which are impressed above, and on the 
primary veins ; they are two to five inches long, half an inch to three inches broad, with slender or stout 



branchlets with obscure ring-like scars. 



76 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACEiE. 



wino'-maroined ciliate petioles which vary from a quarter of an inch to an inch and a half 



& 



th, and are often bright 



In the autumn they 



bright scarlet on the upper surface only 



The flo^Yers, which are yellowish green, appear when the leaves are about one third grown, from Ap 



Florida to the middle of J 



thern New England ; they are b 



on slender pubescent or 



Qtose peduncles half an inch to an inch and a half in length, often on the staminate plant furnished 
the middle with two minute deciduous bractlets, or ebracteolate, the males in many-flowered dense 



or lax compound heads, the females in two to 



•flowered clusters and sessile 



the axil of a 



conspicuous often foHaceous bract and furnished with two smaller acute hairy bractlets. The caly 



oblong 



d 



tly urceolate 



th 



minutely five-toothed limb ; the petals are thick 



■ounded at the apex, erect or slightly spreading, and early decid 



the stamens are 



flower, and in the fertile flower are shorter than the petals or are sometimes 



oblong, 
ixserted 



the 



& 



& 



of which there is no trace in the sterile flower, is stout, exserted, and reflexed above the middle 



One to three fruits develop from a flower-cluster and ripen in October ; they are ovoid, from a third to 
two thirds of an inch long, and dark blue, with thin and acid flesh ; the stone is light brown, ovoid, 
pointed at the two ends, terete or more or less flattened, and ten or twelve-ribbed, with narrow distinct 



pale ribs rounded on the back, and thick hard 
membranaceous coat. 



The seed is oblong, and is covered by a thin pale 



Ny 



ylvatlca is distributed from the valley of the Kennebec River in Maine to southern 



Missouri^^ and southward to the shores of the Kissimmee 

[as. In a large part of 
the region which it inhabits the Tupelo generally frequents the borders of swamps^ growing in wet 



Ontario/ central Michigan^ and southeastern 

River and Tampa Bay in Florida^ and to the valley of the Brazos River in Te 



imperfectly drained soil in company with the Elm^ the Swamp White Oak 
Hornbeam, and other water-lovino" trees ; 



Scarlet Mapl 



the 



water-loving trees ; but in all the Alleghany region, where in North and South 
Carolina and Tennessee it attains its largest size, it is found on high wooded slopes associated with the 
White Oak, the Tulip-tree, the Cucumber-tree, the Buckeye, the Ash, the Sugar Maple, the Hickories, 

the Black Walnut, and the Wild Cherry. 

The wood of JSfyssa sylvatlca is heavy, soft, strong, very tough, hard to split, difficult to work, 
incHned to check unless carefully seasoned, and not durable in contact with the soil ; it is light yellow 
or nearly white, with thick lighter colored sapwood composed of eighty to a hundred layers of annual 
growth, and contains many thin medullary rays and numerous regularly distributed small open ducts. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6353, a cubic foot weighing 39.59 pounds. It is 



ployed for the hubs of wheels 



& 



lass factories, ox-yokes, shoes used to support horses 



fields of the southern states, wharf-piles on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and sometimes for 



the soles of shoes.^ 

In the south Atlantic 



here the Tupelo often occupies small ponds in the Pine bar 



marked 



ety occurs.** This is a tree thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk gradually 



tapering upward from a swollen and much enlarged base, many erect thick roots rising 



above the 



1 Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 1879-80, 55^ — Burgess, BoL 
Gazette, vii. 95. — Mocoun, Cat^ Can. PL i. 192. 

2 Broaclhead, Bot. Gazette, iii. 53. 

3 Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 347. 
^ Nyssa sylvatlca, var. hiflora, 

Nyssa aquatica, Linnaeus, Spec. 1058 (in part) (1753), — Wan- 
genheim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 86 (in part). — St. Hilaire, 
Fam, Nat. ii. 152. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 614. — Michaux f . Hist. 



Nyssa biflora, Walter, Fl 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. 



Desfon- 



iv. 508. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 259. — WiUdenoW; 

1113 (in part) ; Enwn. 1061 ; BerL Baumz. ed. 2, 256. 

taines, Hist Arb. i. 37.— Gsertner f. Fruct. iii. 202, t. 216. 

Aiton, HorL Kew. ed. 2, v. 479. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 177. 

Nuttall, Gen. ii. 236. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 115. 

Hayne, Dendr. FL 229.— Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1317, f. 1195, 

1196. — Coulter & Evans, BoL Gazette, xv. 92. 
Arb. Am. ii. 165, t. 22. — Roemer & Schultes, SysL v. 76 (in This aquatic tree of ten appears distinct enough from the northern 



t) 



W 



Sprengel, Tupelo, but the extreme forms are connected by others intermedi- 



Syst. I. 832. — Audubon, Birds, t. 133. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 684. 



ate between the two in the shape and size of their leaves and in the 



Dietrich, Syn. i. 878. — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 464. — Chapman, shape and ridges of their stones. 



FL 168. 



N 



coRNACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



77 



surface of tlie water/ smaller and usually narrow acute or obtuse leaves^ and flattened stones with 
more strongly developed ridges than usually occur on plants growing farther north. 

A figure of doubtful identity which has been thought to represent Nyssa sijUatica was published 
by Plukenet in his Phytograj^hia^ in 1691 3 but the earliest authentic portrait and account of this 
tree are found in Catesby's Natural History of Carolina^ pubHshed in 1731. The Tupelo, according 
to Alton/ was cultivated by the Duke of Argyll^ near London in 1750. 

In habit the Tupelo ^ is one of the most distinct, variable, and picturesque trees of eastern North 
America ; the autumn coloring of its lustrous foliage equals in brilliancy that of the Scarlet Maple, the 
Sweet Gum, and the Flowering Dogwood, while its immunity from the attacks of disfiguring insects 
and serious fungal diseases heightens its value for the decoration of parks. 

In cultivation the Tupelo flourishes in wet, undrained soil and on well-drained uplands. It is 
easily raised from seed, but its long hard roots, mostly destitute of small fibres, make it a difficult tree 
to transplant after it has been long established in one place. 



Wilson 



folio 



Nyssa foliis latis acumlnatis noii dentatisy fructu 
Romans, Nat. Hist Florida, 29. 



f. 6 ; Aim. Bot. 127. 



446 



foliis latis acuminatis Sf non dentatis, fructu ^ See i. 108. 



Eleagni minore, i. 41, t. 41. 
Nyssa foliis integerrimis, 
Nyssa pedunculis multifli 



^ Nyssa sylvatica is also known as Sour Gum and Black Gum. 
In New England, Tupelo, its Indian name, is most frequently given 
to this tree ; in the middle states it is generally called Pepperidge, 
and in the south Sour Gum. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXVII. Nyssa stlvatica. 

1. A flowering branch of the sterile tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the fertile tree, natural size, 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 
5- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branchlet, natural size. 
8- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
9. A fruit cut crosswise, enlarged. 

10. A stone, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCXVIII. Nyssa sylvatica, var. eiflora. 

1- A flowering branch of the sterile tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the fertile tree, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a sterile flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a fertile flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit cut crosswise, enlarged. 

7. A stone, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab . CCXVU . 




C.E.Faaxm^ d^ 




so. 



NYSSA SYLVATICA, Maxsli 



j4 . JUocrezuc (3irea> 



iy 



Imp . IL Tamper, J^ans. 



Silva of ISTorth America. 



Tab. CCXVIII 




C. S. Faa:>OTiy deL, 



SiTrmh/ SO!. 



NYSSA SYLVATICA,VarBTFLORA,Sar§ 



ji . Jizocreiia> dire<z>. 



i> 



Imp. IL Taneicr ^ Pans. 



CORNACEJE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



NYSSA OGECHE. 



Ogeechee Lime. Sour Tupelo. 

Fruit large, the stone conspicuously winged. Leaves oblong-oval or obovate 
usually acute at the apex. 



ssa Ogeche, MarshaU, Arhust. Am. 97 (1785). — Cas- Nyssa coccinea, W. Bartram, Travels^ 17 (1791). 
tiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 305. — Sargent, Gar- Nyssa tomentosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 508 (1796) 



and 



XV. 93. 



Coulter & Evans, Bot. Gazette^ Nyssa candicans, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 259 (1803). 



Nyssa capitata, Walter, Fl. Car. 253 (1788). — Poiret, 
Lam. Diet. iv. 508. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 257, 
t. 20. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. v. 740. — Elliott, 
Sk, ii. 685. — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 464. — Chapman, Fl. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 614. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 37. 
Willdenow, Spee. iv. 1113. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 
177. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 116. — Nuttall, 



Gen. 



11. 



236. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 576. 



168. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 456. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 



Sprengel, Syst. i. 832. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 879. — Loudon, 
Arb. Brit. iii. 1318, f. 1199. 



ed. 2, 543. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Nyssa montana, Gaertner f. Fruct. iii. 201, t. 216 (1805). 
U. S. ix. 91. 



A bushy tree, forty to fifty feet in height, with a short trunk occasionally two feet in diameter and 
spreading branches which form a narrow round-topped head ; or often a shrub sending up from the 
ground a cluster of small slender diverging stems. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, 
irregularly fissured, with a dark brown surface broken into thick appressed persistent plate-Hke scales. 
The branchlets, when they first appear, are coated with rufous tomentum, and during their first summer 
are light reddish brown, or green tinged with red, and puberulous j during their first winter they turn 
gray or reddish brown, and are marked by the large lunate or nearly triangular leaf-scars in which 
appear the ends of three groups of fibro-vascular bundles. The winter-buds are obtuse, an eighth of 
an inch long, and covered with ovate apiculate imbricated scales rounded on the back and clothed with 
thick hoary tomentum ; those of the inner ranks lengthen on the growing shoots, and at maturity are 
ovate-oblong or obovate, rounded at the apex, bright red, and from one haK to three quarters of an 
inch long. The leaves are oblong, oval or obovate, acute, rounded, or rarely obtuse and apiculate at the 
apex, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped or sometimes rounded at the base, entire, deciduous ; when 
they unfold they are covered on the lower surface with thick pale tomentum, and on the upper with 
short scattered appressed pale hairs; and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green, rather 
lustrous and shghtly pilose above, pale below, four to six inches long, and two to two and a half inches 
broad, with stout midribs and nine or ten pairs of primary veins covered on the lower side with rufous 
pubescence or often nearly glabrous, obscure reticulated veinlets, and stout grooved petioles from half 
an inch to an inch in length. The flowers are greenish yellow, and appear in March and April j the 
sterile are produced in capitate clusters on slender hairy peduncles, which are half an inch in length 
and furnished near the middle with two minute bractlets, and are developed from the axils of the inner 
scales of the terminal buds ; the fertile are solitary on short stout woolly peduncles from the axils of 
bud-scales, and are furnished at the apex with two acute hairy bractlets. The sterile flowers are minute 
and are covered with long pale hairs on the outer surface of the short obscurely five-toothed calyx, and 
on the petals, which are oblong and rounded at the apex j the filaments are inserted under the margin 
of the thick pale pulvinate disk, and are longer than the petals ; the anthers are oval and conspicuously 
tuberculate-roughened. The fertile flowers are a sixteenth of an inch long, with a deep cup-shaped 
calyx coated, like the minute rounded spreading petals, with hoary tomentum ; the stamens which are 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CORNACE^. 



included, com 
reflexed from 



of short filaments and small mostly fertile anthers ; the style is stout, es 
ir the hase. The fruit, which ripens in July and August, sometimes ha 



ted. and 



on 



the 



remam 



branches until after the falling of the leaves ; * it is bright or dull red, oblong or obovate, glabrous, an 
inch to an inch and a half long, tipped with the thickened and pointed remnants of the style which 

attached to the stone, and is borne on a slender stem clothed with tomentum, enlarged at the 
apex, and one half or two thirds of an inch in length ; the flesh is thick, juicy, and very acid 3 the 
stone is oblong, compressed, with thick hard walls produced into ten or twelve broad thin papery white 
wings, and is an inch or more m length and one or rarely two-seeded. The seed, which is compressed 
and narrowed at both ends, has a thin papery pale coat and thick albumen. 



Nyssa Ogeclie, which is a rare and local tree 



deep often inundated river-swamps from 



the borders of South CaroHna in the neighborhood of the coast, through the Ogeechee valley 



Georgia to Clay County 
seems to attain its largest 



northern Florida, and in Washin 



County 



Florida 



2 



The wood of Nyssa Ogeche is light, soft, tough, although 
iplit. It contains many thin medullary rays and numerous 



grained, and difficult 



larly distributed open ducts, and 



white, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood composed of about ten layers of annual growth 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4:613, a cubic foot weighing 28.75 pounds. 



The 



A preserve with an agreeable subacid flavor, known as Ogeechee Kmes, is sometimes made from 



the fruit of this tree in Georgia and South C 



The earliest mention 



of the Ogeechee Lime 



published 



1775 



3 



said by Alton 



4 



occurs in Bernard Eomans* account of Florida, 
have been introduced into England in 1806 by John 



Ly 



5 



but probably it does not now exist in cultivation outside the region it naturally inhabits, where 
sasionally found in gardens. 



^ *'I saw large, tall trees of the Nyssa coceineaj si. Ogeeche, 



W 



banks 



of the river. They grow in the water, near who was afterwards a merchant in London. Lyon probably came 

the shore. There is no tree that exhibits a more desirable appear- to America toward the end of the last century, as in 1802 he was 

ance than this, in the autumn, when the fruit is ripe, and the tree placed in charge of the famous gardens at Woodlawn, near Phila- 

divested of its leaves ; for then they look as red as scarlet, with delphia, the property of William Hamilton. He retained this posi- 

their fruit, which is of that colour also. It is of the shape, but tion until 1805, and in the following year returned to England with 

larger than the olive, containing an agreeable acid juice.'' (W. Bar- a large collection of living plants and seeds, which were sold at 



tram, Travels, 17.) 



auction near London. He probably soon returned to America, and, 



2 Nyssa Ogeche has been said to grow also in southern Arkansas having devoted several years to exploring the Carolinas, Georgia, 
(Nuttall, Trans, Am. PhiL Soc. v. 167 ; Travels^ 71. — Lesquereux, and Florida, returned in 1812 to England with another collection 

w 

Owen 2d Rep, Geolog. Surv. Arkansas^ 364), where several trees of plants. He again returned to America, where he died before 
once considered peculiar to the south Atlantic states are now known 1818 at Asheville, North Carolina, where he was buried. 



to occur, but I have seen no specimens gathered west of Florida. 
(See Coulter & Evans, BoL Gazette, xv. 93.) 



3 Nat, Hist. Florida, 22. 

4 Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 4i 



A number of species of Andromeda were united by Thomas 
Nuttall into the genus Lyonia, which commemorates " the name of 
the late Mr. John Lyon, an indefatigable collector of North Ameri- 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1318, f. 1199. can plants who fell victim to a dangerous epidemic amidst those 



^ Little is known of the early history of John Lyon, who is iden- savage and romantic mountains which bad so often been the theatre 
tified with American plants through his introduction of a number of his labors" {Gen, i. 266). 
of important species into English gardens. He is said to have been 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXIX. Nyssa Ogeche. 

1. A flowering branch of the sterile tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the fertile tree, natural size 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a fertile flower. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

7. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

8. An anther, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged, 

11. An ovule, much magnified. 

12. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

15. A stone, natural size. 

16. An embryo, natural size. 

17. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah. CCXIX . 




C.S. Faxon deL 



FLcart^r. so. 



NYSSA OGECHE, MarsK. 



^.JUo-cn 




l7np.R.Tazienr, Paris 



C 



CORNACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



83 



NYSSA AQUATICA. 



Cotton Gum. Tupelo Gum. 



Fruit large, the stone acutely ridged. Leaves oval or oblong, acute or acuminate 



Nyssa aquatica, Marshall, -4r5«s^. ^m. 96 (1785). — Poiret, Nyssa palustris, Salisbury, Prodr. 175 (1796). 



Lam. Diet. iv. 507. 



Hist 



Arb. i. 36. Nyssa angulosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 507 (1797) ; III. 

Nyssa aquatica, Linnseus, Spec. 1058 (in part) (1753). iii. 442, t. 851, f. 2. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst v. 578. 

Nyssa uniflora, Wangenheim, Nordavi. Holz. 83, t. 27, f . 57 Nyssa tomentosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor. - Am. ii. 259 



(1787). 



Walter, Fl. Car. 253. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 686. 



Chapman, Fl. 168. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 62. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 455. — Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendr. ed. 2, 543. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 92. — Coulter & Evans, Bot. Gazette, xv. 



(1803). — Persoon, Syn. ii. 615. — Willdenow, Spec.iv. 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 177. — Nuttall, Gen. ii 

Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 577. — Elliott, Sk 

Sprengel, Syst. i. 832. — Audubon, Birds, t 



1113. 
236. 



11. 
13. 



685. 



Dietrich, Syn. i. 879. 



92. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 215. 



Nyssa denticulata, Alton, Sort. Kew. iii. 446 (1789). 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 615. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1114. 
Gaertner f. Fruct. iii. 203, t. 216. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 

Poiret, Lam.. Diet. Suppl. iv. 115. — Nuttall, 



1. 



178. 



Nyssa angulisans, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 259 (1803). 

Dietrich, Syn. i. 879. — Spach, Hist. V6g. x. 465. 
Nyssa grandidentata, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 252, 

t. 19 (1812). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1319, f. 1200, 

1201. 



Gen. 



u. 



236. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 229. — Roemer & Nyssa candicans, var. grandidentata, D. J. Browne, 



Schultes, Syst. v. 577. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 832. 
trich, Syn. i. 879. 



Die- 



Trees of America, 426 (1846). 



A tree, eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter above 
the greatly enlarged tapering base, comparatively small spreading branches which form a narrow oblong 
or pyramidal head, stout pithy branchlets, and thick corky roots. The bark of the trunk is a quarter 
of an inch thick, and is dark brown, longitudinally furrowed and roughened on the surface with small 
scales. The branches, when they first appear, are dark red and coated with fine pale tomentum ; they 
soon become glabrous or nearly so, and in their first winter are Hght or bright red-brown and marked 
by small scattered pale lenticels and by conspicuous elevated nearly orbicular leaf-scars which show the 
ends of three large fibro-vascular bundles. The terminal buds are nearly globose, and are covered with 
broad ovate light chestnut-brown scales keeled on the back and rounded and apiculate at the apex ; the 
scales of the inner ranks lengthen on the growing shoots, and at maturity are ovate-oblong, or obovate- 
oblong rounded at the apex, an inch or more in length, and bright yellow. The axillary buds are minute, 
obtuse, and nearly imbedded in the bark. The leaves are ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate and often 
long-pointed at the apex, wedge-shaped, rounded or subcordate at the base, entire or remotely and irregu- 
larly angulate-toothed, the teeth being often tipped with long slender mucros, and deciduous ; when 
they unfold they are light red, coated below and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum, and pubes- 
cent above, especially on the midribs, and at maturity are thick and firm, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, pale and more or less downy-pubescent on the lower, five to seven inches long and two 
to ioui inches wide, with broad thick midribs, about ten or twelve pairs of primary veins forked near 
the margin and connected by conspicuous cross veins, and stout grooved hairy petioles enlarged at the 
base and an inch and a hal£ to two inches and a half in length. The flowers, which appear in March 
and April, are yellow-green and are borne on long slender hairy peduncles produced in the axils of 
the inner scales of the terminal bud, the sterile in dense capitate clusters, their peduncles furnished near 
the middle or occasionally at the apex with long linear ciliate bractlets, and the fertile sohtary and 
surrounded by two to four strap-shaped scarious ciliate bractlets often half an inch in length and more 




84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cornace^. 



or less united below into an involucral cup. The calyx of the sterile flower is cup-shaped, obscurely 
five-toothed, and a third of the length of the oblong erect petals which are rounded at the apex and 
much shorter than the stamens. In the fertile flower the calyx is oblong and much longer than the 
ovate minute spreading petals ; the stamens are included, with small mostly fertile anthers ; the upper 
half of the stout tapering style is reflexed above the middle and revolute into a close coil. The fruit, 
which ripens in the early autumn, is oblong or sHghtly obovate, crowned with the pointed remnants of 
the style, dark purple, marked with conspicuous scattered pale dots, an inch long, and borne on slender 
drooping stalks three or four inches in length ; the flesh is thin and acid, and is covered by a thick 
tough skin ; the stone is ovate, pointed at the base, flattened, light brown or nearly white, thick-walled 
and about ten-ridged, the ridges being acute and wing-like with thickened separable margins and 
sometimes united by short intermediate ridges. The seed is compressed and pointed at both ends, with 
a pale thin coat and thin albumen. 

Nyssa aquatica is distributed through the coast region of the Atlantic states from southern 
Virginia to northern Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Nueces Eiver in Texas, 
and through Arkansas and southern and southeastern Missouri to western Kentucky and Tennessee 
and to the valley of the lower Wabash River in Illinois. It is an inhabitant of deep swamps inundated 
during a part of every year, growing in great numbers with the Cypress, the Liquidamber, the Swamp 
White Oak, the Water Ash, the Scarlet Maple, the Water Locust, and the Cottonwood. In some parts 
of the country, especiaUy in the valley of the lower Mississippi River, the Tupelo Gum is one of the 
largest and most abundant of the semiaquatic trees. It attains its greatest size in the Cypress swamps 
of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

The wood of Nyssa aquatica is light, soft, not strong, close-grained, and difficult to spht ; it 
contains numerous thin meduUary rays, and is light brown or often nearly white, with thick sapwood 
sometimes composed of more than a hundred layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5194, a cubic foot weighing 32.37 pounds. It is used in the manufacture 
of wooden-ware, broom-handles, and wooden shoes, and now largely for fruit and vegetable boxes ; * 
the wood of the roots is sometimes used instead of cork for the floats of nets. 

The first account of Nyssa aquatica appears in Catesby's Natural History of Carolina? It was, 
perhaps, introduced by Catesby into English gardens, as according to Aiton ' it was cultivated near 
London by Peter ColHnson^ in 1735. At the present time it is probably not to be found outside of 
its native swamps. 



Garden and Forest, ii. 122. 



Nyssa peduncidis miifloris, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 121. 



A rbor in aqua nascens, foliis latis acuminatis ^ dentatis, fructu ^ Hort. Kew. iii. 447. 



Eleagni majore, i. 60, t. 60. 



* See i. 8. 



/ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXX- Nyssa aquatica. 

1. A flowering branch of the sterile tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the fertile tree, natural size, 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. A stone^ enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of T^orth America. 



Tab. CCXX 



9 




1 



Ficartjr. se-. 



NYSSA AQUATICA, Marsli 



^.Hwcreuj:- direo'J. 



hrv. E . Tajieitr. Peru 



CAPRiFOLiACE^. SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



85 



SAMBUCUS. 



Flowers regular, perfect or rarely polygamous ; calyx 3 to 5-lobed or toothed ; 
corolla gamopetalous, 3 to 5-parted, the divisions imbricated or rarely valvate in 
aestivation; stamens 5 ; ovary inferior or partly superior, 3 to 5-celled ; ovules solitary, 
suspended. Fruit a berry-like drupe 3 to 5-stoned, the stones 1 -seeded. Leaves 
opposite, unequally pinnate, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 



Sambucus 



Adanson, Fam. PL Phyteiim 



ii. 158. — A. L- de Jussieu, Gen. 214. — Endlicher, Gen. nseus). 

569. — Meisner, Gen. 155. — Bentham & Hooker^ Gen. ii. Tripeteli 
3. — Baillon, Hist. PL vii. 501. 



(not Lin- 



M 



ii. 14 (1839). — Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. ii. 54. — Meisner 
Gen. pt. ii. 360. 



Trees or shrubs, with stout branches containing thick white or dark yellow-brown pith^ scaly buds^ 
and fibrous roots ; or rarely perennial herbs. Leaves opposite^ unequally pinnate^ involute in vernation ; 
leaflets serrate or laciniate, the base of the petioles naked, glandular or furnished with a stipule-like 
leaflet ; stipels small, usuaUy setaceous, often wanting. Bracts and bractlets lanceolate, acute, scarious, 
caducous, the bractlets sometimes wanting. Flowers smaU, articulate with slender pedicels, in broad 
terminal corymbose cymes. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, ovoid or turbinate, the limb three to five- 
lobed or toothed. Corolla rotate or sHghtly campanulate, equally three to five-parted, white, yellow, or 
light rose. Stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla, as many as its lobes and alternate with them ; 
filaments filiform or subulate ; anthers oblong, attached on the back, extrorse, versatile, two-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary inferior or partly superior, three to five-celled ; style abbre- 
viated, thick and conical, three to five-lobed and stigmatic at the apex ; ovules solitary, suspended 
from the apex of the cell, resupinate ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle superior. Drupe baccate, subglobose, 
red, black, or rarely yellow, three to five-stoned, crowned with the remnants of the persistent stigmas ; 
sarcocarp juicy ; stones cartilaginous, punctate-rugulose, one-seeded. Seed oblong, compressed ; testa 
membranaceous, adherent to the copious fleshy albumen. Embryo minute, near the hilum ; cotyledons 
ovoid ; radicle terete, erect. 

Sambucus, with about twelve species, is now widely and generally distributed through the temperate 
parts of North America, Europe, and Asia ; it inhabits high mountain ranges within the tropics of the 
two worlds, and Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Of the four North American species,^ the 
red-fruited Samhucus racemosa^ a tall shrub found in all the northern and mountainous regions of 



Fl.N. 



• • 



ucus 



Fl 



2 Linn^us, Spec. 270 (1753). — Gray, Brewer Sf Watson BoL CaL Am. Sept. i. 204. 



Fl. N. Am. L c. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. Sambucus pubens, var. arhorescens^ Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 



ed. 6, 1117. 



Fl 



Fl 



ii. 13 (1841). 

Sambucus William^iiy Hance, Ann. Sci, Nat. s^r. 5, v. 217 
(1866). — Franchet, PL David. I 148. 



Sambucus pubens, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 181 (1803). — Gray, 
Man. 173. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 361. — Chapman, FL 171. 



86 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CAPRIFOLIACE^ 



the continent^ is common also in northern Europe/ in northern Asia/ central China/ Corea^ and Japan.* 
In Europe two other species occur ; one of them^ the herbaceous Sambucus EhuhiSy^ reaches Madeira, 
northern Africa, Asia Minor, and Cashmere, and perhaps reappears in southwestern China ; ^ and the 
second, the arborescent Samhuciis nigray extends also to the Orient.^ In the elevated mountain valleys 
of Sikkim and Nepaul one endemic species is f ound.^ 
Malay peninsula, southern and central China, Java and Formosa, and perhaps to Japan. 



Sambucus Javanica ^^ ranges from Assam to the 

Two endemic 



15 



species occur in Australasia 3 ^^ and two arborescent species are described in the Floras of the Canary 
Islands ^^' and Madeira.^^ One species inhabits the mountains of central and western South America 
from Guatemala to Peru,^* and a species, possibly endemic, those of southern Mexico. 

Sambucus possesses cathartic and emetic properties in the bark ; the flowers are excitant and 
sudorific, and the juice of the fruit is alterative and laxative. The fruit was used by the Romans 
to paint the statues of Jupiter red j the bark has been employed in dyeing.^*^ The dried flowers of 
Sambucus nigra are used in Europe in the preparation of an aromatic distilled water and in flavoring 
lard, and by distilling the flowers small quantities of a light yellow fatty essential oil with a bitter 
burning but afterwards cooling flavor are obtained ; ^^ the leaves are employed to give a green tint to 
oil and fat,^^ and wine made from the juice of the ripe fruit is sometimes used in the United States and 
Europe as a beverage or to adulterate grape-juice.^^ The fruits of some of the species, especially of 
Sambucus nigray and of Sambucus glauca of western America, are cooked and eaten. 

The wood of Sambucus nigra is hard and compact, and is used by comb-makers and in mathe- 
matical instruments. The large pithy shoots furnish children with pop-guns, pipes, flutes, and whistles. 
In Europe Sambucus nigra often serves as a hedge plant and is a common inhabitant of cottage 
gardens. AU the species produce handsome and abundant flowers and fruit, and are valuable orna- 
mental plants. Forms with variously cut leaflets and with yellow or variegated foliage or abnormally 
colored fruit are favorites with horticulturists. 

In North America Sambucus is not injured by insects and does not suffer seriously from fungal 
diseases.^ 



(1826). — De Candolle, Z. c. — Hance, Ann. ScL Nat. s^r. 5, v. 217; 

Jour. BoL vii. 295 ; xii. 260. — Maximowicz, Bull. Mosc. 1879, 24. 
Sambucus Thunhergianay Miquel, Ann, Mus. LugrL Bat. ii. 265 

(1866). — Franchet & Savatier, L c. — Franchet, I. c. i. 147. 

1^ Sambucus xanthocarpa^ F. Mueller, Hooker Jour. Bot. cV Kew 

rica, i. 518. — Maxiinowicz, Prim. Fl. Amur. 135. — Franchet, PL Gard. Misc. viii. 145 (1856) ; Trans. Phil. Inst. Vict. i. 42 ; PL Vict 



^ Jacquin, Icon. PL Rar. i. t. 59. — Pallas, FL Ross. ii. 29. 
Nouveau Duhamel^ i. 249, t. 56. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, 
Abbild. Deutsche Holz. i. 45, t. 35. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 323. 
Ledebour, Fl. Ross. ii. 383. — Nyman, Conspect. FL Europ, 321. 

2 Ledebour, Fl. Alt. i. 420. — Tiirczaninow, Fl. Baicalensi-Dahu- 



David, i. 148. 

^ Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 348. 

^ Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. ii. 265. — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PL Jap. i. 198. — Miyabe, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, iv* 
238 (FL Kurile Islands). 

6 Linnseus, Spec. 269 (1753). — JF7. Dan. vii. t. 1156. — De Can- 
dolle, l. c. 322, — Boissier, FL Orient, iii. 2, — Nyman, I. c. 321. 
Hooker f. FT. Brit. Ind. iii. 2. 

® Forbes & Hemsley, L c. — Fraucbet, l. c. ii. 68. 



t. 29. — Beutbam, FL Austral, iii. 398. 

Tripetelus Australasicus, Lindley, Mitchell Three Exped. East 
Australia, ii. 14 (1839). 

Sambucus Gaudichaudiana, De Candolle, L c. (1830). — Hooker 
f . FL Tasman. i. 164. — Bentbam, L c. 

^2 Sambucus Palmensis^ Link, Buch Phys. Beschr. Canar. Lis. 151 
(1825). —Webb & Bertbelot, Phytogr. Canar. sec. ii. 176, t. 78. 
^^ Sambucus Madeirensis, Lowe, Man, Fl. Mad. 381 (1868). 

Peruviana, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. 



ucus 



^ Linnseus, l. c. (1753). 
hamel, i. 245, t. 55. — De Candolle, l. c. 

Sambucus vulgaris, Lamarck, FL Front;, iii. 369 (1778). 
? Sambucus australis, Chamisso & Scblechtendal, Linncea, iii. 
140 (1828). 

^ Boissier, /. c. 

^ Sambucus adnata, De Candolle, L c. (1830). — Hooker f. & 
Thomson, Jour. Linn. Soc. ii. 180. — Hooker f. l. c. 3. 

10 Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. 657 (1825). — De Candolle, L c. — 



b^.— Nouveau Dw Gen. et Spec. iii. 429 (1818). 



De Candolle, L c. 323. 



. PL JEqi 
Guatemal. 



■ * • 



Sambucus graveolens, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi. 641 (1820). 



amiss 



(1830). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 1. 
16 Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1029. 
" Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 

Raio Commercial Products, ii. 1420. 



Pharmacogri 



Z7. S. Dispells. 



Flora 



Mi- ed. 16, 1319. 



quel, FL Ind. Bat. ii. 124. — Hooker f . L c. — Forbes & Hemsley, l. c. 
Sambucus Chinensis, Lindley, Trans. Hort. Soc. Loud. vi. 297 



1^ Loudon, l. c. 



summer 



CAPKIFOLIACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



87 



Sambucus, tlie classical name of the Elder-tree, is believed to have been derived from aa[i(3hxy;y a 
musical instrument, probably in allusion to the use of the pithy stems. 

Rust, jEcidium Samiuci^ Schweinitz, In its appearance this is one become bent and curved. Several other fungi occur on different 

of the most striking of the Cluster Cups found in the eastern species of Sambucus in the United States, although none of them 

United States, and forms marked yellow distortions on the leaves, are very conspicuous or cause serious diseases, 
petioles, and young shoots, which when the fungus is luxuriant 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



owers in compound depressed 5 or 8-rayed cymes, the four external rays once to three times unequally 5-rayed, the central 
ray smaller, finally reduced to 3-flowered cymelet« or to single flowers. Fruit blue-black ; nutlets punctate-rugulose ; pith 
white. 

Leaves and young shoots more or less pubescent or cinero-canescent. 

Fruit destitute of bloom 1. Sambucus Canadensis, var. Mexicana. 

Leaves and young shoots glabrous. 

Fruit whitened with a glaucous bloom 2. Sambucus glauca. 



88 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CAPRIi^OLIACEiE. 



SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, var. MEXICANA 



Elder. 



Leaves and young shoots more or less pubescent- Fruit destitute of bloom 



Sambucus Canadensis, var. Mexicana. 

Sambucus Mexicana, De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 322 



Am. Cent. ii. 1. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \^th 



(1830). 



Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 437, — Loudon, Arh 



Census U. S. ix. 93. 

ii. 155 {Man. PL W, Texas). 



Herb 



Brit. ii. 1030. — Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. v. 66 {PL Sambucus glauca, Bentham, PL Hartweg. 313 (not Nut- 



Wright. ii.) (in part) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. CaL i. 
278; Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. ii. 9. — ToiTey, Pacific 
B. B. Bep. iv. 95 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Snrv. 71. 
Rothrock, Wheeler's Bep. vi. 135. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL 



taU) (1848). — Gray, Brewer iSc Watson Bot. CaL i. 278 (in 

part) . 

Sambucus velutina, Durand & Hilgard, Jour. PhiL Acad. 
n. ser. iii. 39 (1854) ; Pacific B. B. Bep. v. pt. iii. 8. 



A tree, twenty-five to thii^ty feet in height, with a short trunk often abruptly enlarged at the base 
and sometimes a foot in diameter, and stout spreading branches which form a compact round-topped 
head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, with a Hght brown surface tinged with red 
and broken into long narrow horizontal ridge-like scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are 
light green, and like the young leaves are more or less covered with pale pubescence, or are glabrate or 
sometimes coated with canescent tomentum ; at the end of the first year they become pale, or light 
brown tinged with red and roughened with elevated lenticels. The leaves are usually composed of five 
leaflets, and are borne on stout pubescent or glabrate petioles an inch or an inch and a half long and 
usually naked at the base ; the leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, narrowed at the apex into long slender 
points, sharply serrate with incurved glandular-tipped teeth except at the base, w^iich is entire and 
wedge-shaped or more or less unequally rounded on the two sides ; at maturity they are dark yellow- 
green, pubescent especially on the broad midribs and primary veins, or nearly glabrous, thick and firm, 
an inch and a half to six inches long, half an inch to two and a half inches wide, increasing in size 
from the base to the apex of the leaf, and borne on slender petiolules which on the terminal leaflet 



are sometimes three quarters of an inch in length and on the lateral leaflets ar 
stipels on vigorous shoots are sometimes a third of an inch long, ovate, acute and 



mu 



ch 



:; the 
fertile 



branches, from which they are usually wanting, they are subulate or oblong and much smaller. The 
flowers, which are an eighth of an inch across, are produced in flat pubescent long-branched cymes six 

in the valley of the Rio Grande appear from March to July j the calyx 



eight inches across, and in 
ovoid and five-lobed ; the corolla is rotate, five-parted, and creamy white, with 



oblong divisions 



ded at the apex ; the styl 



thick, and fleshy. The fruit is a quarter of an inch 



diameter, nearly black, rather juicy and destitute of bloom 



Sambitcits Canadensis 



Mexicana^ is distributed from the vaUey of the Nueces River 



Texas through southern New Mexico and Arizona to southern California ; it ranges southward 



through Me 
Cahfornia.^ 



ico to Central America, and appears on the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Plumas County 
It frequents bottom-lands and the margins of streams, and is usually found growing ir 



moist gravelly loam. From Samhiieiis Canadensis^^ a common shrub distributed from New Brunswick 

1 The Mexican Elder was found here by Mrs. R. M. Austin, now, BerL Baumz. 355 ; Spec. I pt.ii. 1494 ; Etium. 328. — Schmidt, 

Michaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 181. — Poiret, Lam. DicLyii. 519. — Pursh, FL Am. 



whose specimens are preserved in the Gray Herbarium at Cam- Oestr. Baumz. iii. 22, 1. 142. —iVbuvea 



bridge. 

2 Sambucus Canadensis, Linnaeus, Spec. 269 (1753).— Miller, Sept. i. 203. — Roemer & Schultes, SysL vi. 640. — Elliott, Sk.l. 
Diet ed. 8, No. 6. — Du Hoi, Harbk. Baumz. ii. 414. — Moench, 368, — Sprengel, SysL i. 935.— De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 322. 

Don, Gen. SysL iii. 437. — Loudon, 



Weiss 



Wansrenheim, Nordam 



Willde 



Fl 



CAPRiFOLiACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



to the Saskatchewan and the mountains of Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, and southward to Florida and 
Texas, it differs in its arborescent habit and in the pubescent covering of the young shoots and leaves, 
although some of its glabrate forms are barely distinguishable from the northern plant. 

The wood of Samhucus Canadensis, var. Mexicana, is light, soft, and coarse-grained ; it contams 
numerous thin conspicuous medullary rays, and is hght brown with thin lighter colored sap wood 
composed of two or three layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.4614, a cubic foot weighing 28.75 pounds. 

The Mexican Elder was first found in the United States by Mr. Charles Wright ^ in the valley of 
the lower Rio Grande in June, 1852. Its dense leafy head and large handsome flower-clusters make 
it a desirable ornamental tree, and in northern Mexico " and lower California ^ it is often found in the 
neighborhood of houses, where it is planted for shade and for the fruit, which is eaten by Mexicans and 
Indians. 



Arb. Brit. ii. 1030, f. 776. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1009. — Torrey & Samiucus repens, B.a&nesque, Alsograph. Am. H (1S3S). 

Gray, FL N. Am. ii. 13. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 362. — Chapman, Sambucus bipinnata, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 47 (1838). 

Fl. 171. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 71. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. ii. Sambucus glauca, Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. v. 66 (PL fVright 

9. —Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 217. ii.) (1853) (not Nuttall). 

Sambucus nigra, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 141 (1785) (not Lin- ^ See i. 94. 



nseus). 



2 C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 106. 



Sambucus humilis, Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 13 (1820) ; Alsograph. « Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, iii. 224. 



Am. 48. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXI. Sambucus Cajstadensis, var. Mexicaka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla and stanaens removed 

5. A cluster of fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, divided transversely, enlarged. 

7. A stone, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a stone, enlarged. 

9. An emhrvo. much map-nified. 



Silva of TMorth America 



Ta>). CCXXI 



-. 9 




C.E.Fcuvon deL. 



Raplrie. so 



SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS Var.MEXICANA, Sarcr. 



A.Biocreua> dire<z>^ 



Imp . R, Taneiir^ Parus. 



CAPRiFOLiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



91 



SAMBUOUS GLAUCA. 



Elder. 



Leaves and young shoots glabrous. Fruit covered with a glaucous bloom 



Sambucus glauca, Nuttall, Torrey & Gray Fl. N. Am. ? Sambucus cerulea, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 48 

ii. 13 (1841) . — Walpers, Rep. ii. 453. — Torrey, Toes' (1838). 

Rep. 15 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Sxcrv. 71. — Watson, King's Sambucus Mexicana, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. 

Rep. V. 134. — Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. i. 278 pt. iii. 75 (1857) (not De Candolle). 



(in part) ; Syn. Fl. N. Am 
zette, ii. 88. — Rothrock, W, 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. An 
Greene, Fl. Francis. 342. 



Hall, Bot. Ga- Sambucus ( 

? Sambucus 



A tree, thirty to fifty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk sometimes enlarged at the base and 
twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and stout spreading branches which form a compact round-topped 
head ; or often a broad shrub sending up from the ground a number of spreading stems. The bark of 
the trunk is deeply and irregularly fissured, the dark brown surface being slightly tinged with red and 
broken into small square appressed scales. The branches, when they first appear, are green tinged with 
red or brown, and are covered with short scattered white hairs which soon disappear ; in their first winter 
they are stout, slightly angled, covered with lustrous red-brown bark, and nearly encircled by the large 
triangular leaf-scars marked by five conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Terminal buds are rarely 
formed, owing to the premature death of the tips of the shoots, which continue to grow late in the 
autumn. The axillary buds are generally in pairs, superposed, or in clusters of four or five, only the 
upper bud or sometimes the lower usually developing; they are covered with two or three pairs of 
opposite broadly ovate chestnut-brown scales persistent on the base of the growing shoot until it is 
nearly a foot long ; those of the inner rank are accrescent and at maturity are acute, entire, green, and 
an inch in length, or sometimes develop into pinnate leaves two or three inches long. The leaves are 
composed of from five to nine leaflets, and are borne on stout grooved petioles much enlarged and 
naked or sometimes furnished at the base with leaf-Hke appendages ; the leaflets are ovate or narrowly 
oblong, contracted at the apex into long narrow points, unequaUy wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, 
and coarsely serrate with spreading or slightly incurved caUous-tipped teeth ] the lower ones are often 
three-parted or pinnate, and the terminal one is sometimes furnished with one or two lateral stalked 
leaflets ; when they unfold they are yellow-green on the upper, and pale on the lower surface, and, like 
the leaf-stalks, are covered with scattered pale hairs ; at maturity they are glabrous, thin, rather firm in 
texture, bright green above and pale below, two to six inches long, and half an inch to an inch and a 
haK wide, with narrow pale midribs, inconspicuous veins, and slender petiolules which are a quarter of 
an inch to half an inch in length on the lateral leaflets and sometimes an inch and a half to two inches 
in length on the terminal leaflet. The stipels, which are often suppressed, vary from a sixteenth of an 
inch to half an inch in length, and are oblong-lanceolate, rounded or acute at the apex, entire and 
caducous. The flowers, which appear in April in southern California, and in June and July in Wash- 
in o-ton and British Columbia, are produced in flat long-branched glabrous cymes four to six inches in 
width, with linear acute green caducous bracts and bractlets, the lower branches being often produced 
from the axils of upper leaves. The flower-buds are globose and covered with a glaucous bloom, and 
sometimes turn red before opening. The flowers, which are an eighth of an inch across, have an ovoid 
red-brown calyx with acute scarious lobes, a rotate yeUowish white coroUa with oblong divisions rounded 
at the apex and as long as the stamens, and a thick fleshy conical style. The fruit is subglobose, a 



92 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CAPraFOLIACE^. 



quarter of 



in 



ch 



diameter^ tipped with the remnants of the stigmas^ blue-black, whitened with 



a thick mealy bloom, and rather sweet and juicy. 

Samhucits gkmca is distributed from the valley of the lower Fraser River and Vancouver's Island^ 
to the southern borders of California, and eastward to the Blue Mountains of Oregon and the Wasatch 
Mountains of Utah. It is an inhabitant of valleys, where it usually grows in rather dry gravelly soil. 
Very abundant in the coast region, and comparatively rare in the interior, it attains its greatest size in 
the valleys of western Oregon, while farther north, and east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains, it rarely assumes the habit of a tree. 

The wood of Samhucits glauca is light, soft, weak, and coarse-grained. It contains numerous 
rather conspicuous medullary rays, and is yellow tinged with brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5087, a cubic foot weighing 31.70 pounds. 

Sambiiciis glauca was first noticed in eastern Oregon by members of the party which crossed the 
continent early in the century under the leadership of Lewis and Clark.^ It is occasionally planted ^ in 
the Pacific states for ornament, and for the sake of its fruit, which is reputed to be of better quahty 
than that of the other species and is largely used in pies and preserves.^ 



1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PL pt. iv. 331. 



his Sambucus cerulea, the name which, if the identity of his plant 



2 "The Alder, which is also common to our country, was found could be satisfactorily determined, would replace the Isitev Sambucus 
in great abundance in the woodlands, on this side of the Rocky glauca of Nuttall. 



Mountains. It differs in the color of its berry : this being of a 



A specimen planted in Jacksonville, Oregon, in 1859 or 1860, 



pale sky blue, while that of the United States is of a deep purple." is described in Garden and Forest (iii. 508). In 1890 its trunk, 
(^History of an Expedition under the command of Captains Lewis Sf which was much swollen at the base, had a circumference of eleven 
Clark to the Sources of the Mis.'^ouri, thence across the Rocky Moun- feet nine inches at the ground, and three feet higher up girted 



Pacific Ocean, ii. 160.) 



seven feet two inches ; the branches spread thirty-three feet, and 



This description probably refers to the Oregon Elder. Upon the the total height of the tree was forty feet. 



strength of it Rafinesque published in 1838 (^Alsograp>h. Am. 48) 



^ Wickson, California Fruits and How to Grow Them^ ed. 2, 65. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXIL Sambucus glauca. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. An ovule, much magnified- 

5. A cluster of fruit, natui^al size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXXII 



-?kM^ 





1 



3 



6 






8 



9 



10 





C.£ Faocon del. 



HapLTve' SO' 



SAMBUCUS GLAUCA.Nutt. 



AJtLocreuay direcD , 



Imp.R.Taneur^ ParLs' 



CAPRIFOLIACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMEPiICA. 



93 



VIBURNUM. 



Flowers perfect or neutral ; calyx equally 5-toothed, persistent ; corolla gamo- 
petalous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; ovary inferior, 
1 -celled ; ovules solitary, suspended. Fruit a dry or fleshy 1 -seeded drupe. Leaves 
simple, usually opposite, stipulate or destitute of stipules. 



Viburnum, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 213 (1789). — Meisner, Opulus, Linnaeus, Gen. 86 (1737). 

* * 

Ge7i. 155. — Endlicher, Gen, 569. — Orsted, Videnskah. Lentago, Rafinesque, Ann. Gen. ScL Phys. vi. 87 (1820) 



2Iedcl. fra Nat. For. Kjobenh. 1860, 295 (excl. Tinus). 



Thyrsosma, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellitr. 130 (1838). 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 3. — Baillon, Hist. PL vii. Oreinotinus, Orsted, Videnslcah. Medd. fra Nat. Fo) 



502. 



Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. pt. iv. 163. 



Kjohenh. 1860, 281, t. 6, f. 11-25. 



Tinus, Linnaeus, Gen. 85 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. Microtinus, Orsted, Videnskah. Medd. fra Nat. For. Kjo- 



158. 



Orsted, Videnskah. Medd. fra Nat. For. Kjohenh. 



1860, 303. 
Viburnum, Linnaeus, Gen. 86 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PI 
ii. 158. 



benh. 1860, 293, t. 6, f. 7-10. 

Solenotinus, Orsted, Videnskah. Medd. fra Nat. Foi 
Kjohenh. 1860, 294, t. 6, f. 1-4. 



Small trees or shrubs, with tough flexible branchlets, naked or scaly buds, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves opposite or very rarely verticillate, petiolate, involute in vernation, entire, serrate or dentate, 
deciduous or persistent ; stipules obsolete or minute, or conspicuous and rarely ample. Bracts and 
bractlets minute, lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers articulate with the short bracteolate or bibrac- 
teolate pedicels, white or rose color, in terminal or axillary umbel-like flat or panicled cymes, the cymes 
sometimes radiate with large neutral ray-flowers. Calyx-tube turbinate or sub-cyHndrical, the limb 
short, equally five-lobed, persistent. Corolla tubular, turbinate or rotate, equally five-lobed, the lobes 
spreading and reflexed after an thesis. Stamens five, inserted on the base of the corolla alternate with its 
lobes, in one or rarely two series j filaments filiform or subulate, exserted, short or elongated ; anthers 
oblong, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, versatile, two-celled, the cells opening longi- 
tudinally. Ovary inferior, one or at first incompletely two to three-celled ; style capitate, conical, short, 
divided at the apex into three stigmatic lobes j ovules solitary, suspended from the apex of the interior 

Fruit ovoid or globose, terete or 
compressed, one or incompletely two to three-celled, crowned with the persistent hmb of the calyx and 
with the remnants of the style, dry or fleshy, the flesh sweet, acidulous, or oily; stone coriaceous, 
chartaceous or corneous, ovate or orbicular, flattened or globose, smooth or marked with longitudinal 
grooves or ridges. Seed oblong, compressed, concave on the ventral face or shghtly winged or incurved 
on the margin ; testa membranaceous, adherent to the copious fleshy or ruminate albumen. Embryo 
minute, near the hilum ; cotyledons ovate ] radicle terete, erect.^ 



angle of the cell, resupinate ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle superior 



1 Viburnum may be divided into the following sections : 
Exterior flowers of the corymb neutral. 



Opulus. 



uniform 



petioles often biglandular at the apex, stipulate ; buds 
naked or scaly ; fruit red or black, 1-celled. 
Flowers all perfect ; buds scaly. 

LentagO. Flowers in terminal umbel-like cymes ; corolla 
rotate, funnel-form or tubidar ; drupe 1-celled ; endocarp 
flattened ; albumen fleshy, homogeneous. 



Tinus. 



umbel 



dry, 1-celled ; endocarp subterete ; albumen ruminate ; 



Microtinus. Flowers in paniculate cymes ; corolla cam- 
panulate - rotate or salver - shaped ; drupe imperfectly 
2-celled ; endocarp compressed, its margins incurved ; 
albumen fleshy, homogeneous. 

Oreinotinus. Flowers in umbel-like cymes ; corolla cam- 
panulate-rotate ; drupe imperfectly 3 -celled; albumen 
fleshy, homogeneous. 

Solenotinus. Flowers in paniculate cymes ; corolla tubu- 
lar, elongated, with a spreading limb ; drupe imperfectly 
3-celled ; endocarp flattened ; albumen fleshy, homoge- 
neous. 



leaves coriaceous. 



94 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



CAPRIEOLIACE-aE. 



Viburnum, with about eighty species, is now widely and generally distributed through the tem- 
perate regions of the northern hemisphere ; it inhabits the mountain ranges of central and western 
South America and the West Indies,^ and occurs on several islands of the East Indian Archipelago" 
and in Madagascar.^ 

endemic in the region west of the Rocky Mountains, 
trees. Judging by the number of described species, the centre of distribution of the genus is in 
southern Mexico and Central America.*^ It is well represented in China,^ Japan,^ and India, ^ where 



In America where, north of Mexico, fourteen species are found,^ only one is 

Of the North American species, two are small 



a number of shrubby species occur ; there are fewer species in the Orient, ^"^ and in Europe 



11 



only 



three are recognized, including Viburnum Opulus^"^ which grows in profusion in the boreal regions 
of the three northern continents. In the cretaceous epoch Viburnum inhabited the Arctic regions and 
afterward spread through Europe and North America,^^ abounding in the central and western parts of 
this continent/^ where it is less common and less multiplied in species at present than in other northern 
regions. 

Viburnum has few useful properties. The leaves and fruit of some of the species are astringent/^ 
and those of the European Viburnum Lantana ^^ are used in dyeing and for making ink.^' The bark 
of the North American arborescent Vihurnwn i^Timifoliimi is used in medicine ] and the bark and 
leaves of several of the American species are said to have been employed by the Indians and in early 
domestic practice in the treatment of various diseases.^^ The wood of Viburnum Opnlus produces 
charcoal valued in the manufacture of gunpowder ; ^^ and in America the bark is sometimes employed 
as a tonic and antispasmodic/^ and the fruit is occasionally eaten.^^ Many of the species produce 
beautiful flowers and fruit, and are prized in gardens where the Laurustinus, Viburnum TiniiB{'" has 
been cultivated since the time of the ancients. 



In North America Viburnum is not seriously injured by insects ^^ or fungal diseases 



24 



1 Grisebach, Fl. Brit W. Ind. 315, Viburnum Opulus Pimina^ var. subcordatuniy Rafinesque, l. c. 58 

2 Miquel, FL Ind. Bat ii. 119. (1838). 

® Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 3. ^^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des ArbreSy 244. — Zittel, 

4 Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. ii. 9. Handh Palceontolog. ii. 789, f. 402, 403. 

^ Viburnum ellipticum, Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i. 280 (1833). — ^* Lesquereux, iJep. U, S, Geolog. iSury. viii. 230 {Contrib. Foss. 

Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. ii. 15. — Gray, Brewer ^ Watson BoL FL W. Terr. pt. iii.). — L. F. Ward, Qth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geolog. 



CaL i. 278; Syn. FL N. Am. L c. 10. 

^ Orsted, Videnskab. Medd. fra Nat For. Kjobenh. 1860, 280. 
Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. iL 2. 



Surv. 1884r-85, 556 (Syn. FL Laramie Group). 
15 Baillon, Hist. PL vii. 382. 



1® Linnaeus, L c. (1753). — Schmidt, L c. 47, t. 175. — Nouveau 
^ Maximowicz, BuU. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, xxvi. 474 (MeL DuTiamel, ii. 130, t. 103. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, L c. 41, 



BioL X. 644). 

8 Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 199. 

» Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit Ind. 257. — Hooker f . FL BriL Ind 

iii. 3. 

^^ Boissier, Fl. Orient, iii. 3. 

11 Nvman, Consnect. Fl. Eurov. 320. 



t. 31. — De CandoHe, L c. 326. 

Viburnum tomentosum, Lamarck, FL Franf. iii. 363 (1778). 
" Loudon, Arh Brit. 1036, f. 785. 
18 Rafinesque, Med. FL ii. 274. 
1^ Baillon, L c. 388. 
20 Johnson, Man. Med. BoL N. Am. 164. — U. S. Dispens. ed 



12 Linn^us, Spec. 268 (1753). — FL Dan. iv. t. 661. — Schmidt, 16, 1586. 



Oestr. Baumz. iii. 47, t. 173, 174. — Nouveau Duhamel ii. 132, t. 
39. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Havne, Abbild. Deutsch. Holz. i. 42. 



21 Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 220. 

22 Linn^us, L c. 267 (1753). — Schmidt, L c. 50, t. 180. 



Nou- 



t. 32. — De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 328. — Maximowicz, /. c. 492 (/. c. veau Duhamel, ii. 126, t. 37. — De CandoUe, L c. 324. — Loudon, L c 
670). — Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. L c— Forbes & Hemsley, Z. c. 1032, f. 778. 



^o4. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 217. 
Viburnum Americanum, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 8 (1768). 
Viburnum trilobum, Marshall, Arbmt. Am. 162 (1785). 



22 The foliage of Viburnum Opulus, especially of the sterile form, 
the Snowball of gardens, is often seriously injured by Aphis Viburni, 
Scopoli, which causes the leaves to curl up and twist. Larvse of 



Viburnum Opulus Americanum, Aiton, HorL Kew. i. 373 (1789). Hyphantria cunea, Drury, occasionally disfigure the foliage of dif- 

FL Bor.'Am. i. 180 ferent species in the United States ; and Coleophora vibunnella, 



Michaux 



(1803). 



Clemens, sometimes mines within the parenchyma of the leaves 



Viburnum Opulus Pimina, Michaux, L c. (1803). —Rafinesque, {Proc. Ent. Soc. PML i. 79). 



Alsograph. Am. 57. 

Viburnum Opulus edule, Michaux, L c. (1803). 
Viburnum Oxycoccus, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 203 (1814). 
Viburnum edule, Pursh, L c. (1814). 



2^ In North America two fungi of the Rust family are known on 
species of Viburnum, Coleosporium Viburni, Arthur, on Viburnum 
Lentago in the western states, and Puccinia Linkii. Klotzsch, on 



CAPRiFOLiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



Viburnum^ the classical name of Viburnum Lantana^ was adopted by Tournef ort ^ as the name of 



the genus, from which he distinguished Opulus and Tinus 



Viburnum pauciflorum^ Torrey & Gray, in Newfo 
ada. A mildew, Microsphcera Abu, Winter, is co] 
parts of the country on the leaves of Viburnum L 



ifoliumy and on those of some of the shrubby 



Massaria 



1 Inst. 607, t. 376-378. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Flowers in sessile compound many-flowered cymes of three to five cymose rays subtended by the upper leaves ; calyx tubular. 
Fruit black or bluish black, sweet and fleshy ; stones cartilaginous, oval or orbicular, flattened, without ridges ; albumen 
fleshy. Leaves vdthout stipules. Winter-buds scaly, their scales accrescent and foliaceous. 
Leaves ovate, acunainate, their petioles generally undulate-margined or winged. Winter-buds 

long-pointed 1. V. Lentago. 

Leaves ovate, oval or suborbicular, their petioles usually naked. Winter-buds short-pointed 

or obtuse, coated with rufous pubescence 2. V. prunifolium. 



96 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



CAPRIFOLIACE^ 



VIBURNUM LENTAGO. 



Sheepberry. Nannyberry. 



Leaves ovate, acuminate, their petioles usually undulate-margined or winged 



Winter-buds long-pointed. 



Viburnum Lentago, Linnaeus, S2:)ec. 268 (1753). 



Mar- 



shall, Arbust. Am. 161. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ii 



485. 



Moench, B'dume Weiss. 140, t. 8. — Wangenheim, 



Nordam. Holz. 100. — Walter, Fl. Car. 116. — Willde- 
now, Berl. Baximz. 402 ; Spec. i. pt. ii. 1491 ; Enuvi. 



327. 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iii. 48, t. 176. 



Nouveau 



Duhamel, ii. 129. — Schkuhr, Sandh. i. 234. — Michaux, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 178. — Persoon, Syn. i. 327. — Poiret, 
Lam. Diet. viii. 658. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 344. 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iv. 341. — Parsh, 



Nut- 



Fl. Am. Seiot. i. 201. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 70. 
tall, Gen. i. 202. — Hayne, Dewh: Fl. 37. — Roemer & 
Schultes, Sijst. vi. 637. — Elliott, Sk. i. 365. — Torrey, 
Fl. N. Y. i. 305. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 21, t. 21. 
Sprengel, Syst. i. 934. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abhild. 



Holz. 125, t. 102. 



De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 325. 



Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 279. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 440. 
Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 55. — Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 



311. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1011. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 



Am. ii. 15. — Emerson, Trees Masfi. 304. — Darlington, 



• ■ 



FL Cestr. ed. 3, 115. — Orsted, Videnskah. Medd, fra 
NaL For. Kjohenh. 1860, 301. — Chapman, FL 171. 



Engelmaniij Trans. St, Lovis Acad. ii. 269. 



Koch, 



Dendr. ii. 62. 



Nat. Mils 



68. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S. 



ix. 94. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 206. 



Gray, 



Syn. F%. N. Am. \. pt. ii. 12. — Watson & Coulter, Ch^ay's 
Man. ed. 6, 219. 
Viburnum pyrifolium? Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 2, 116 
(1824). 



A bushy tree^ twenty to thirty feet in height^ with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter^ 
slender rather pendulous flexible branches which form a compact round-toj)ped head^ thin divergent 
branchlets^ and bad-smelling wood. The bark of the trunk is reddish brown and irregularly broken 
into small thick plates divided on their surface into minute thin appressed scales. The branchlets^ when 
they first appear^ are light green and slightly covered with rufous pubescence, and in their first winter 



leaf 



slender, light red, scurfy, and marked by occasional dark oran 
scars in which appear three conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle 



colored lenticels and by narrow 
3.rs ; in their second year they 



become dark reddish brown and are sometimes covered with a slight glaucous bloom. The winter-buds 



which 



light red and generally covered 



pale 



urfy pubescence, are protected 




pair 



of 



ch 



g 



opposite scales ; those which contain flower-bearing branchlets are three quarters of an ii 
obovate, much swollen below the middle, and then abruptly contracted into long narrow tapering points, 
and are subtended by two minute lateral buds formed in the axils of the last leaves of the previous year 
and generally abortive j the terminal buds inclosing sterile shoots are lanceolate, acute, slightly angled. 



d about half an inch 



& 



the 



illary buds 



much smaller than the terminal buds. The bud 



flattened by pressure against th 
enlarging and unfolding become 



ddle, and an inch 



outer 



ded on the back, often sHghtly expanded and leaf-like at the apex, light purple, reflexed above the 

L inch and a half in length, or often develop into leaf-like bodies which only 
their smaller size, shorter blades, and broad boat-hke petioles covered on the 

The 



differ from the 



face 



fy pubescence, and which sometimes do 



fall until the flowers open 



d usually acuminate, with short or elongated points, or are sometimes rounded 



apex, wedge-shaped, rounded or subcordate at the base, and sharply serrate with incurved callous-tipped 
teeth ; when they unfold they are bronze green and lustrous, coated on both surfaces of the midribs and 
on the petioles with thick rufous pubescence, slightly pilose on the upper surface, and covered on the 
lower with short pale hairs ; at maturity they are bright green and lustrous above, yellow-green and 
marked with minute black dots below, two and a half to three inches lonfr and an inch to an inch and a 



CAPRiFOLiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



half broad, with slender midribs, primary veins connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and broad 
grooved more or less interruptedly winged or often wingless petioles which vary from an inch to an 
inch and a half in length, and on the first pair of leaves are broader, boat-shaped, and covered with thick 
rufous tomentum. In the autumn the leaves turn a deep vinous red or red and orange-color before 
falling. The flowers are slightly fragrant, and appear from the middle of April to the first of June in 
stout-branched scurfy flat cymes from three to five inches in diameter. The bracts and bractlets are 
nearly triangular, a sixteenth of an inch long, green, and caducous. The flower-buds are globose and 
light yellow-green. The flowers, which are borne on slender pedicels bibracteolate at the apex, have a 
slender ovoid calyx-tube with minute triangular acute lobes, a pale cream-colored or nearly white 
corolla a quarter of an inch across when expanded, with ovate lobes acute and shghtly erose at the 
apex, exserted stamens with slender filaments and bright yellow anthers, and a thick ovate hght green 
style crowned with a broad stigma. The fruit, which ripens in September, is borne on slender drooping 
stalks in red-stemmed few-fruited clusters ; it is oval, thick-skinned, sweet and rather juicy, black or 
dark blue, and covered with a glaucous bloom. 

Vihurmmi Lentago is distributed in British America from the valley of the Riviere du Loup in 
the province of Quebec to the Saskatchewan,^ and ranges southward through the northern states and 
along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia, and westward in the United States to southern 
Indiana, southwestern Missouri, and eastern Nebraska.^ It is a common plant, usually growing on 
rocky hillsides in moist ground, along the borders of the forest, or near the banks of streams and the 
margins of swamps in wet peaty soil, and in northern New England often springing up in fence-rows 
and along the margins of roadsides. 

The wood of Vibitrnimi Lentago is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and contains thin barely 
distinguishable medullary rays. It is dark orange-brown in color, with thin nearly white sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7303, a cubic foot weighing 45.51 pounds. 

Viburnum Lentago appears to have been discovered by Peter Kalm,^ the Swedish naturahst, who 
traveled in America in the middle of the last century. According to Aiton,^ it was cultivated in 
England in 1761 by the nurseryman James Gordon. 

The Sheepberry is one of the largest of the Viburnums. It is admired for its compact habit, its 
lustrous foliage, which insects rarely disfigure, its beautiful and abundant flowers, its handsome edible 
fruit, and its brilliant autumnal color. It readily adapts itself to cultivation, and is one of the best of 
the small trees of eastern America for the decoration of parks and gardens in all regions of extreme 
winter cold. It is easily raised from seeds which, Hke those of the other American species, do not 
germinate until the second year after they are planted. 

The specific name, from lentiis^ first used by Cesalpini,^ in allusion to its flexible branches, to 
designate the European Vibiirmim Lantana^ was transferred to this species by Linnaeus. 



5 



1 Brunet, Cat Veg, Lig. Can. 33.— Macoun, Cat Can. PI i. 194. ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 372. — Loudon, Arh. Brit, ii. 1033, f. 780. 

2 Bessey, Bull. Exper. Stat. Nebraska^ iv. art. iv. 22. ^ See i. 40. 



8 See ii. 86. 



6 De Plantis Lihri xvi. 76. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXXIII. Viburnum Lentago. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower, 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the corolla and stamens removed, enlarged. 

6. A corolla displayed, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla and stamens removed, enlarged 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. An expanding bud, natural size. 



Plate CCXXIV. Viburnum Lentago 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A stone, enlarged. 

5. Side view of a stone, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, much magnified. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of "North America. 



Tab. CCXXIII 




C. E. Faworu del. 



Rapvne/ so. 



VIBURNUM LENTAGO,L. 



A.Blocr&uay dzrea^l 



Imp. R, Taaeur^ Paris. 



Silva of Nortli America . 



Tab. CCXXIV. 




2 



(i 



5 



3 



6 



7 








8 







C_S.J^a£C07V ^eZ- 




so 



VIBURNUM LENTAGO L. 



-A.JbLocreusiy dcrea^r 



Imp, Ji^.Jlzneur Pa;ru- 



CAPEIFOLIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



VIBURNUM PRUNIFOLIUM. 



Black Haw. Stag Bush. 



Leaves ovate, oval, or suborbicular, their petioles 
short-pointed or obtuse, coated with rufous pubescence. 



ally naked 



Winter-buds 



Viburnum 
MUler, 1 



.um 



Marshall 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 98. — Walter, Fl. Oar. 



116. 



Willdenow 

Eriwrn. 326. 



Sjpec. i. pt. ii 



Medd. fra Nat. For. Ejohenh. 1860, 301. — Chapman, 

Fl. 171. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Loiiis Acad. ii. 269. 

Koch, Dendr. ii. 62. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis. 
1882, 68. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 207. 



Sar- 



'/ 



Schkuhr, Handh. i. 233. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i 



178. 



Nouveau Duhamel^ ii, 128, t. 38. — Persoon, Syn, 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 1.0th Census U. S- ix. 94. 
Gray, Syn, FL N. Am. i. pt. ii. 12. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 219. 



i. 326. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 344. — Poiret, Lam. Viburnum pyrifolium, Poiret, Lam. Diet. viii. 653 



Diet. viii. 653. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 



(1808). 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. \. 345 ; Cat. Hart. 



IV. 



341. 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 201. — Roemer & 

EUi- 



Schultes, Syst. vi. 631. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 37. 
ott, Sk. i. 365. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 933. — Guimpel, 
Otto & Hayne, Ahhild. Holz. 125, t. 101. — Watson, 
Dendr. Brit. i. 23, t. 23. — Audubon, Birdsy t. 23. 
De CandoUe, Prtdr. iv. 325- — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 



Paris^ ed. 3, 404. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 
iv. 341. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 201. — NuttaU, Gen. 



202. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi. 631. — Hayne, 
Dendr. FL 37. — Watson, Dendr. i. 22, t. 22. — De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. iv. 325. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1034, f. 
781, 782. — Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 55. 
Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 55. — Spach, Hist. Viburnuin ainblodes, Rafinesque, ^Zsop'ra29^.^772-o 55 (1838). 
V6g. viii. 312. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 279. — Torrey Viburnum prunif olixmi, var. f errugineum, Torrey & 



440. 



& Gray, Fl. N. Am. ii. 14. — Walpers, Rep. ii. 451. 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 115. — Orsted, Videv^kah. 



Gray, FL N. Am. ii. 15 (1841). 



A bushy tree, occasionally tvrenty to thirty feet in height, with a short and usually crooked trunk 
six to eight inches in diameter, and stout spreading rigid branches beset with slender spine-like branch- 
lets ; or at the north often reduced to a low much-branched shrub. The bark of the trunk varies from 
a quarter to a third of an inch in thickness and is broken into thick irregularly shaped plate-like red- 
brown scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are bright red, and are glabrous or more or 
less covered with rufous pubescence ; they soon turn green, and in their first winter are gray faintly 
or strongly tinged with red, covered with a shght bloom, and marked by orange-colored lenticels and by 
the large lunate leaf -scars which display three fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; later they become dark brown 
tinged with red. The winter-buds are coated with dark rufous tomentum, and are covered with two 
scales ; those which contain flower-bearing branches are ovate, gradually narrowed and obtuse at the 
apex, half an inch in length, and much larger than the axillary buds which are flattened by pressure 
against the stem 3 the bud-scales, which are accrescent, are soon after opening strap-shaped, purple, 
puberulous, and nearly an inch in length, and, often developing into leaf-like bodies with broad boat- 
shaped petioles, do not fall until after the flowers open. The leaves are ovate or rarely obovate, oval 
or suborbicular, rounded, acute or short-pointed at the apex, wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, and 
usually rather remotely or sometimes finely serrate with ridged incurved callous-tipped teeth ] when they 
unfold they are tinged with red and are lustrous, glabrous on the lower surface, and covered on the 
upper side of the midribs and on the bright red petioles with scattered reddish hairs, or are clothed 
on the petioles, midribs, and lower surface of the primary veins with dense rusty brown tomentum j at 
maturity they are firm or sometimes subcoriaceous, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, and 
on the lower pale and glabrous or covered with tufts of rusty tomentum chiefly along the narrow 
midribs and in the axils of the slender primary veins which are connected by reticulate veinlets ; tliev 



100 



JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. caprifoliace^. 



are one to three inches long, half an inch to three inches wide, and are borne on short grooved petioles 
which are one half to two thirds of an inch in length, often clothed throughout the season with rufous 



tomentum, and broad and boat-shaped on the first pair of leaves, and on vigorous shoots often narrowly 
wing-margined. In the autumn the leaves turn a briUiant scarlet or a dark vinous red before falling. 
The flowers, which open from the middle of March in Texas to the middle of May at the north, are 
produced in glabrous, glandular, or tomentose cymes two to four inches in diameter, and are borne on 
slender pedicels bibracteolate at the apex. The bracts and bractlets are subulate, a sixteenth of an 
inch long or less, usually red above the middle, and caducous. The calyx is narrowly ovate, with short 
rounded lobes often tipped with pink ; the corolla is pure white and a quarter of an inch across when 
expanded, with oval or nearly orbicular lobes ; the stamens are exserted, with slender filaments and pale 
yellow anthers, and the style is thick, conical, light green, and terminated by a broad stigma. The 
fruit is oval or slightly obovate, half an inch long, dark blue, and covered with a handsome glaucous 
bloom. It ripens in October, and is produced in few-fruited clusters with red stems marked by elevated 
lenticels. Hanging on the branches until the beginning of winter, it does not become sweet and edible 
until after it has been touched by frost. 

Viburnum 2^'i^unifolmm is distributed from Fairfield County, Connecticut, and the valley of the 
lower Hudson River to Hernando County, Florida, the vaUey of the Guadaloupe River in Texas,* and 
to Missouri, Arkansas, and the Indian Territory. It is exceedingly common in the middle and southern 
states, especially in the neighborhood of the coast ; at the north it is usually found in rich coppices on 
dry rocky hillsides, in fence-rows and by roadsides, and in the south in dry open Oak woods and on the 
margins of upland Pine forests. 

The wood of Viburnum prunifoUum is heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, and close-grained. It 
contains numerous obscure medullary rays, and is brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white 
sapwood composed of twenty to thirty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8332, a cubic foot weighing 51.92 pounds. 

The astringent bark is nervine, antispasmodic, tonic, and diuretic ; it has been admitted into the 
American pharmacopoeia, and is sometimes used in the form of decoctions or fluid extracts for the 
treatment of urinary affections and chronic diarrhoea and as a preventive of miscarriage,^ although 
some medical writers believe that its value has been exaggerated.^ 

The earliest mention of Viburnum prunifoUum appears in John Banister's Catalogue of American 
plants, published in Ray's Historia Plantar um in 1688 ; * according to Aiton, it was cultivated in 
England as early as 1731.^ 

Vibwiium PrunifoUum varies considerably in the form of the leaves and in the amount and 
nature of their pubescent covering ; at the north it is usually glabrous except in the early stages of 
growth ; in the south the under surface of the leaves and their petioles are often clothed with rusty 
tomentum throughout the season. As an ornamental plant the Black Haw is valuable for its good 
habit, the abundance of its clusters of white flowers, its handsome fruit, and briUiant autumn foliage. 



1 Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 156 (Man. PL W. Texas). * Rhammis Prunifolius fructu nigro, ossiculo compresso, The Black 

2 Phares, Atlanta Med. 8j- Surg. Jour. n. ser. vii. 408. — Abbot, Haw, ii. 1927. 

Bost. Med. §' Surg. Jour. xcix. 634. — Wilson, Liverpool Med.-Chir. Mespilus Prunifolia Virginiana non spinosa fructu nigricante, Plu- 

Jour. V. 36. — Brit. Med. Jour. i. 987. — Rusby, Bull. Pharm. July, kenet, Phyt. 46, £. 2 ; Aim. Bot. 249. — Miller, Diet. No. 11, 



1891, t. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1586. 



Viburnum foliis subrotundis serratis gldbris , Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 33. 



3 Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 164, t. 6. 6 ffoj-t. Kew. i. 371. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1034, t. 193. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXV- Viburnum prunifolium. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A flower, the corolla and stamens removed, enlarged. 

4- Vertical section of a flower, the corolla and stamens removed, enlarged 

5. A corolla, displayed. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A stone, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. The end of a winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North Am 



erica. 



Tab. CCXXV 





3 



* 






7 





C. E. Faacon, d&L. 



Hapv. 



ins' so. 



VIBURNUM PRUNIFOLIUM, L 



A.liLocreua> direa>- 



Imp. R, Taneicr^ Paris . 



RUBIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



EXOSTEMA. 

Flowers perfect ; calyx-limb 5 -toothed ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, quincun- 
cially imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules numerous, ascending. 
Fruit a 2-celled many-seeded crustaceous capsule. Leaves opposite, simple, stipulate, 
persistent. 



Exostema, Richard, Httmholdt & Bonpland PL Mq 



131 (1808). 
V. 200. 



Mem. Soe, Hist. Nat 



491 (excl. Badicsa), 
pt. iv. 53. 



PJlanzenfi 



Meisner 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 42. 



Endlicher, Gen. 555. 
Baillon, Hist. PL 



Hooker Icon. xii. t. 1150 (1876) 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 43. 



Trees or shrubs, with usually terete branehlets, bitter bark^ and watery 



Leaves opposite 



simple, sessile or petiolate, persistent ; stipules interpetiolar, entire, denticulate or two-parted, deciduous. 
Flowers axillary, solitary or in many or few-flowered terminal panicles, large or small, fragrant, pedun- 
culate, the peduncles bibracteolate above the middle. Calyx-tube ovoid, clavate, or turbinate, the Hmb 
short, five-lobed, its lobes nearly triangular, subulate or linear, persistent or deciduous. Corolla white, 
funnel-shaped, the tube long and narrow, erect, glabrous or pilose in the throat, the lobes of the limb 
linear, elongated, spreading. Stamens five, alternate with the lobes of the corolla, exserted ; filaments 
filiform^ united at the base into a short or long tube inserted on and adnate to the tube of the corolla ; 
anthers oblong, linear, attached at the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Disk epigy- 



nous, annular. 



Ovary inferior, two-celled ; style simple, elongated, slender, exserted ; stigma 



simple or minutely two-lobed ; ovules numerous, attached on the two sides of a fleshy oblong peltate 
placenta fixed to the inner face of the cell, ascending, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. 
Fruit capsular, many-seeded, cylindrical or clavate, two-celled, septicidally two-valved, the valves entire 
or two-parted ; epicarp membranaceous, separable from the crustaceous endocarp. Seeds compressed, 
ovate or oblong, rounded or pointed at the apex, imbricated downwards on the placenta ; testa membra- 
naceous, chestnut-brown, lustrous, produced into a narrow wing. Embryo minute, in fleshy albumen ; 
cotyledons flat ; radicle terete, inferior. 

Exostema is confined to the tropics of America, where about twenty species, chiefly found in the 
Antilles,^ are distributed from southern Florida, where one species occurs, to Mexico, Central America,^ 

and Brazil,^ 

The bark of Exostema contains active tonic properties. That of several species, especially of 

Exostema Carihceiim and Exostema fiorihimdum^ was considered a useful febrifuge ^ before the 
general introduction of the more valuable Cinchona barks, which now replace it except in domestic 
practice in the countries which Exostema inhabits. 

The generic name, from l^6> and <Tr>7^a, relates to the long exserted stamens. 

1 A. Richard, FL Cuh iu. 5. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 323 ; 
Cat. PL Cub. 125. 



Crsted, Videnskah Medd. fra Nat 



Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. v. 180. — Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. Cent. ii. 13 



Endlicher, Nov. 



Schu- 



Mart 



Cinchona Jlorihunda^ Swartz, Prodr. 41 (1788) ; FL Ind. Dec. 
375. — Lambert, Cinchona^ 27, t. 7. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 37. 

Cinchona wion^ana, Badier, i2o2ier Ohs. xxxiv. 129, t. 1 (1789). — 
Descourtilz, Fl. Med. AntiU. i. 67, t. 13. 

Cinchona Luciana, Vitman, Summa Bl. Suppl. 264 (1802), 
^ Davidson, PhiL Trans. Ixxiv. 452. — Fourcroy, Ann, de Chim. 



4 Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 19 (1819). — Hayne, Arzn. vii. t. viii. 113. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 391. — A. Richard, Hist. Nat. 
^^ j)q CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 360. — A. Richard, L c. 6. — Grise- Med. iii. 530. — Guibourfc, Hist. Drag. ed. 7, iii. 186. — Rosenthal, 



bach, L c. 



Syn. PL Diaphor. 337. 



RUBIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



105 



EXOSTEMA OARIBiEUM. 



Prince Wood. 



Flowers on simple axillary peduncl 



ceous. 



Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate 



Exostema Caribseum, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. v. 18 



Hist. Stirp. Am. 61, t. 179, f. 95 ; Ohs. Bot. ii. 27, t. 47 ; 



(1819). 
705. 



Hayne, Arzn. vii. t. 44. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 
De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 359. — Don, Gen. Syst. 



Hist 



linn 



2, 245. — Icon. Am. Gewach. i. 11, t. 33. — Swartz, Ohs. 



iii. 481. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 722. — Spach, Hist. V6g. viii. 



72. 



Valil, Skriv. Nat. Selsk. i. 21 ; Symb. ii. 37. 



394. 



Torrey «fe Gray, Fl. N. Am. ii. 36. — A. Richard, 



Gaertner, Fruct. i. 169, t. 33. — Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 



Fl. Cub. iii. 5. — Chapman, Fl. 180. — Grisebach, Fl. 
Brit. W. Ind. 324 ; Cat. PI. Cub. 125. — Gray, Syn. 
Fl. N. Am. i. pt. ii. 23. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
l^th Census U. S. ix. 95. — Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. iv. 92. 
Cinchona Caribsea, Jacquin, Fnum. Fl. Carib. 16 (1760) ; 



959. 



Gmelin, Syst. Nat. ii. 361. — Lambert, Cinchona, 



38, t. 12 (excl. syn.). — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 35; HI. ii. 
261, t. 164, f. 4. — Andrews, Bot. Rep. vii. t. 481. 
Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 391. 

ichona Jamaicensis, Wright, Phil. Trans. Ixvii. 5i 
t. 10 (1778). 



A glabrous tree, in Florida sometimes twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk ten or 
twelve inches in diameter, slender erect branches which form a narrow head, and terete branchlets ; 
or often a shrub only a few feet high. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick and is 
divided by deep fissures into square smooth pale or nearly white plates. The branchlets, when they 
first appear, are dark green, but soon become dark red-brown and covered with pale lenticels, and in 
their second year are ashy gray and rather conspicuously marked by the elevated leaf-scars. The leaves 
are oblong-ovate to lanceolate, contracted into slender points and apiculate at the apex, wedge-shaped 
and gradually narrowed at the base into long slender orange-colored petioles, entire, thick and coria- 
ceous, dark green on the upper surface and yeUow-green on the lower, an inch and a half to three 
inches long and half an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, with prominent orange-colored midribs 
slightly impressed on the upper side and conspicuous reticulate veins ; they appear in the autumn and 
in early spring and summer, and remain on the branches for one or two years. The stipules are a 
sixteenth of an inch long, nearly triangular and apiculate, with entire, dentate, or ciliate margins, 
and in falling mark the branchlets with ring-like scars. The flowers, which appear from March until 
June, are borne on one-flowered axillary peduncles and are exceedingly fragrant ; they are three inches 
long, with an ovate calyx-tube, persistent nearly triangular calyx-lobes, a glabrous corolla, and filaments 
united at the base into a short tube. The fruit is cylindrical, two thirds of an inch long and dark 
brown, becoming black in drying. The seed is oblong and an eighth of an inch long, with a dark 
brown papillose coat and a Hght brown wing. 

Exostema Caribceicm is scattered over the keys of southern Florida and is common on Key West 
and Upper Metacombe Keys ; it inhabits the West Indies, southern Mexico, and the west coast of 

Nicaragua.^ 

The wood of Exostema Carihceum is very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained, 

a beautiful poHsh; it contains numerous obscure 



receiving 



with a satiny surface susceptible of 
medullary rays, and is light brown handsomely streaked with different shades of yeUow and brown, the 
brio-ht yeUow sapwood being composed of twelve to twenty layers of annual growth. The specific 
o-ravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9310, a cubic foot weighing 58.02 pounds. 

Exostema Car'ibcBum was first detected in Florida on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 

* Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 13. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXVL Exostema Carib^um. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

4. A corolla with stamens, displayed, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. An anther, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit cut parallel with the dissepiment, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit cut at right angles with the dissepiment, enlarged 

11. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 

14. A portion of a young branch showing stipule, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat CCXXVI 




C. E. FcucoTv del. 



ToziZec so. 



EXOSTEMA CARIB^UM, R.t S. 



A,Riocreua> ^eay 



t 



Imp. R. ToTi^^ur, PcLris. 



RUBiACE^. SILVA OF NOBTH A3IERICA. 



107 



PINCKNEYA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx-limb 5-lobed, the lobes unequal, sometimes developed into 
colored petaloid leaf-like bodies ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes yalvate in 
aestiyation ; stamens, 5 ; ovary inferior, 2-celled ; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit 
a many-seeded 2-celled capsule. Leaves opposite, entire, petiolate, stipulate, deciduous. 



Pinckneya, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am, i. 103 (1803) . — End- Hooker, Gen. ii. 47. — BaUlon, Hist. PI. vii. 472 (excl 

licher, Gen. 554. — Meisner, Gen. 158. — Bentham & Pogonojpus). 



A small tree, with fibrous roots, scaly light brown bitter bark, resinous buds, stout terete pithy 
branchlets coated while young with hoary tomentum, ultimately glabrous and marked with scattered 
minute white lenticels and large nearly orbicular or obcordate leaf-scars displaying a lunate row of 
numerous crowded fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Terminal buds ovate, terete, contracted above the middle 
into slender points, covered with the dark red-brown lanceolate-acute stipules of the last pair of leaves 
of the previous year often persistent on the base of the growing shoots and marked at the base with two 
broadly ovate pale scar-hke shghtly pilose elevations ; axillary buds obtuse, minute, and nearly immersed 
in the bark. Leaves opposite, complanate in vernation, oblong-oval or ovate, acute at the apex, wedge- 
shaped at the base, and gradually narrowed into long stout petioles, entire, membranaceous, coated at first 
with pale pubescence, at maturity dark green and puberulous on the upper surface, paler and puberulous 
on the lower surface, especially along the stout midribs and primary veins, deciduous ; stipules interpe- 
tiolar, conspicuously glandular-punctate at the base on the inner face, inclosing the leaf in the bud, 
triangular, subulate, pink, becoming oblong, acute, scarious, hght brown, caducous. Flowers in pedun- 
culate terminal and axillary pubescent trichotomous few-flowered cymes. Bracts and bractlets hnear- 
lanceolate, acute, at first pink, becoming scarious, deciduous, or the bracts sometimes enlarged, and 
rose-colored. Flower-buds sulcate, coated with thick pale tomentum. Calyx-tube clavate, bracteolate 
at the base, covered with hoary tomentum, not closed in the bud j calyx-limb five-lobed, the lobes decid- 
uous, subidate-lanceolate, green tinged with pink, scarious, or in the central flower of the ultimate 
division of the cyme with one or rarely with two produced into oval or ovate acute petaloid rose-colored 
puberulous membranaceous leaf-like bodies. Corolla salver-formed, hght yellow, cinereo-tomentose, with 
a long narrow tube somewhat enlarged in the throat, five-lobed, the lobes oblong-obtuse, marked with 
red hues and pilose with long white hairs on the inner surface, recurved after anthesis. Stamens five, 
exserted ; filaments filiform, free, inserted opposite the lobes of the calyx on the tube of the corolla 
below the middle ; anthers oblong, emarginate, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Disk epigynous, fleshy, annular, depressed in the centre. 
Ovary two-celled ; style fihform, exserted, shghtly enlarged, two-lobed and stigmatic at the apex ; 
ovules numerous, inserted in two ranks on a thin two-lipped placenta longitudinally adnate to the inner 
face of the cell, anatropous; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. Fruit a subglobose obscurely two- 
lobed two-celled many-seeded capsule, loculicidaUy two-valved, the valves thin and papery, hght brown, 
puberulous especiaUy at the base, faintly rayed and marked with oblong pale spots and with the scars 
left by the falling of the deciduous calyx-limb and style, sometimes tardily septicidally two-parted to 
the middle, persistent on the branches during winter, the valves finally falhng from the woody axis ; 
epicarp very thin, brittle, separable from the shghtly thicker tough woody endocarp. Seeds horizontal, 
two ranked, minute, compressed ; testa thin, light brown, reticulate-veined, produced into a broad thin 



'■■^K^ f^' ^\ 



■h-- 



. - ^. 1 



'■ -■■ ^ 



108 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



EUBIACEiE. 



"^ 



lunate -orbicular wing. 



immersed 



oblono-, foliaceous, larger than the terete erect radicle turned towards the hilum. 

The wood of Pinckneya is close-grained^ although soft and weak, and contains obscure remote 



mi 



- J 



growth. The 



■? ■ 



\ " 



specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5350, a cubic foot weighing 33.34 pounds. The bark 
has been used successfully in the treatment of intermittent fevers.^ 

It is supposed that Pinckneya was discovered by John Bartram,^ as specimens of this tree are said 
to have been found in the herbarium of the younger Linnseus ; ^ the earliest printed account of it 



■■'..... ■. 



^ _j- ■ - ^ 



I, . 



^ r- 



appears in the Travels 



W 



It was first brought into 



o-eneral notice, however, by the French botanist Michaux, who found it on the banks of the St. Mary's 



Eiver in Florida or Georgia in 1791.^ 



The o-eneric name commemorates the scientific accomplishments of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of 
South CaroHna, the Revolutionary patriot and general, who, after the liberty of the United States had 

r 

"been established, devoted himself to the study of botany and chemistry. The genus is represented by 



a single species. 



■"^ ^ 






I ?T .- 



1 Rafmcsque, Med. Fl. ii. 57, t. 72. •— Lindley, Fl Med. 433. — 
Griffith, Med. Bot 365, f. 174. — Porelier, Resources of Southern 
Fields and Forests, 404. -— Naudain, Am, Jour, Pharm. April, 
1885.— £/■. 5. i>is23m. ed. 16, 1894. 



.-^ 



a See i. 8. 

8 W. P. C. Barton, Fl. N. Am. i. 27. 

4 16, 468. . 

s Miehaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 276. 



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KL'BIACE^. 



;S/iF^ OF NORTH AMERICA. 



109 



% 



S-" .^1 ■■■ ' 



.-' --i ".- 



^■^ 



T T- T. 



^ ■ . 



PINCKNEYA PUBENS. 



Georgia Bark, 



^" 



Pinckneya pubens, Michaux, FL Bor.-Avi, i. 105, t. 13 
(1803). — Du Mont de Courset, Bot Cult. ed. 2, iv. 311. 
Willdenow, Enum, Suppl. 10. — Michaux f. Hist, Avh. 
Am. ii. 276, t. 24. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 158. 
Nuttall, Gen. i. 137. — W. P. C. Barton, Fl. N. Am. i. 25, 
t. 7. _ Sprengel, Stjst. i. 705. — Elliott, Sk. i. 269. — De 
Candolle, Prodr. iv. 366. — Audubon, Birds, t. 165. 
Don, Gen. Si/st. iii. 486. — D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. 



xvii. 143. — Spact, Hist. VSg. vUi. 400. — Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. Am. ii. 37. — Chapman, FL 179.— FL des Sevres^ 
^. 13, t. 772. —Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. i. pt. ii. 23. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. A m. \Oth Census U. S. ix. 95. 
Engler & Praiitl, PJianzenfam. iv. pt. iv. 21, f. 6, M-0. 

Cinchona Caroliniana, Poiret, Lam. Diet, vi. 40 (1804). 

Pinckneya pubescens, Xamarck, RL ii. 265 ( — ?). — Per- 
soon, Syn. i. 197. — Goertner f. Fruct. iii. 81, t 194, f. 3. 



Pinckneya piib ens is a tree twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally eight or tea 



branches 



The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, -with a light brown surface divided into minute 
appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are coated with hoary white tomentum ; they 
soon turn licrht red-brown, and are pubescent during the summer and slightly puberulous during the 
first winter, but ultimately become glabrous. The leaves, which unfold in March, are five to eight 
inches long and three to four inches broad when fully grown, and are borne on petioles two thirds of 
an inch to an inch and a half in length. The flowers appear late in May and in the early days of 
June, and are produced in open clusters seven or eight inches across ; they are an inch and a half long, 
fl^mr ripff^lni'fl Pnlvv-lobps bfiiufr sometimes two inches and a half in leno^th and half an inch in breadth. 



■ -■-^ 



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The fruit ripens in the autumn and is an inch long and two thirds of an inch broad. 

Pinckneya pitb ens is one of the rarest trees of eastern North America j it inhabits low wet sandy 
. xT-. T J «-c «4.«..„^« ««/! \c, ;iiofi.i'Vmfii/l frnm fTiP nonst rficrion of South Carolina to the 



r 



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It was 



basin of the upper Appalachieola River and its tributaries in Florida and Georgia. 

The Georgia Bark, when in flower, is one of tte most beautiful of North American trees, 
planted by Michaux in the experimental garden which he estabhshed near Charieston, and was sent by 
him to the French horticulturist Cels,^ who probably first cultivated ^ it in Europe/although, accordmg 
to Aiton,^ it was introduced into English gardens by John Eraser as early as 1786. It is occasionally 



V 

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Carolina 



ived 



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peculiar 



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1 See ii. 4. 



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3 Hort. Kew. ed. 2. i. 372. 



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3 Cuvier, Recueil des tlloges Historiques, i. 252. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXXVII. Pinckneya pubens. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a flower with petaloid calyx-lobe, the corolla removed, enlarged 

5. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. Portion of a young branchlet showing stipule, natural size. 



Plate CCXXVIII. Pinckneya pubens 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab CCXXVII 




C.E.FaoiOTV deZ 




sc 



PINCKNEYA PUBENS, Michx. 



A.Bzocreiuc direcc . 



Imp. R Taneur, Paris 



Silva of NortTi America 



Tab. CCXXVIII 




C.E,Fcuro7v direa>^ 



Lo'oeruLaL so- 



PINCKNEYA PUBENS. Miclix. 



A,BiocrGu^y 



dir. — ^ 



'ea> - 



Imp. It.Tcui&ur, Paris. 



KUBIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



GUETTAEDA. 



Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious 



cah 



produced into an elongated tube 



corolla gamopetalous, 4 to 9-lobed, the lobes quincuncially imbricated in aestivation 



stamens 4 to 9 ; ovary inferior, 4 to 9-celled ; ovules solitary 



pended. Fruit a 



fleshy 1 -stoned 4 to 9-seeded drupe. Leaves opposite or rarely verticillate, membra- 
naceous, or coriaceous, stipulate. 



Guettarda, Ventenat, CAotic, 1 (1803). — A. Richard, -afew^. Guettarda, Linnaeus, Sysf.ed. 10,1270 (1759); Gen, ed. 



Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris^ v. 121. — Meisner, Gen. 165. 
Endlicher, Gen. 540 (excl. sec. Laugeria). — Bentham 



6, 492. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 147. — A. L. de Jussieu, 
Gen. 207. 



& Hooker, Gen. ii, 99. — Baillon, Hist. PI. vii. 423 (excl. Halesia, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 205 (1756). 

TimoniiiSy Chomeliay Malanea^ Hodgkinsonia, Antirrhcea, Laugieria, Jacquin, Hist. Stirp. Am. 64 (1763). — Linnaeus, 



Bobea, and Obbea). — Engler & Pranti, Pflanzenfam. iv. 
pt. iv. 97. 



Gen. ed. 6, 102 (Laugeria). 
Cadamba, Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. ii. 228 (1782). 



Matthiola, Linnaeus, Gen. 49 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PI. Donkelaaria, Lemaire, HI. Hort. ii. Misc. 72 (1855) 
ii. 159. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 206. 



Small trees or shrubs, with bitter bark. Leaves opposite, rarely in verticils of three, subsessile 
or petiolate, membranaceous or coriaceous. Stipules interpetiolar, deciduous. Flowers sessile, large or 
small, bracteolate or ebracteolate, secund on the branches of axillary forked pedunculate cymes, often 
dichotomously branched with a flower between the contracted branches, or rarely one-flowered. Bracts 
and bractlets lanceolate, acute, minute, deciduous. Calyx ovoid or globose, the limb produced above 
the ovary into a cup-shaped or elongated tube, irregularly two to four or regularly four to nine-toothed, 
deciduous or persistent. CoroUa salver-shaped, with an elongated cyHndrical erect or curved tube 
naked in the throat, the Hmb four to nine-lobed, with oblong acute or rounded lobes. Stamens four to 
nine, inserted in the tube of the corolla, alternate with its lobes, included ; filaments short or wanting ; 
anthers oblong-Hnear, attached on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Disk 
epigynous. Ovary four to nine-celled, the cells elongated, tubular j style stout or filiform ; stigma 
subcapitate or minutely two-lobed ; ovules sohtary, suspended on the thickened f unicle from the inner 
angle of the cell, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Drupe globose or obtusely angled, 
or rarely ovoid ; sarcocarp thin and fleshy ; putamen osseous or Hgneous, globose, obtusely angled or 
sulcate, four to nine-celled, the cells narrow and often curved upward. Seed compressed, suspended 
on the thick f unicle closing the orifice of the wall of the stone, straight or excurved j testa membrana- 
ceous ; albumen fleshy, thin or wanting. Embryo elongated, cyHndrical or compressed ; cotyledons 
flat, minute, not longer than the elongated terete radicle turned towards the hilum. 

Guettarda is represented by about fifty species, mostly confined to the tropical regions of America,^ 
where they are found from southern Florida to Mexico, Central America,^ Brazil,^ and Peru,^ although 
one species ^ is widely distributed on the maritime shores from eastern tropical Africa to Australia and 



1 De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 455 (excl. sec. Laugeria). — Walpers, 



^ Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. ii, 22 (^Laugieria) , — Humboldt, Bon- 



Rep. ii. 486 ; vi. 49 ; Ann. ii. 764. — Grisebacb, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. pland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 420.— Kunth, Syn. PL 



331 ; Cat. PL Cub. 130. 

2 Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. ii. 41. — Donnell Smith, Bot. 

Gazette, xviii. 204. 
s Chamisso & SchlechtendaJ, Linncea, iv. 181, —J. Miiller, Mar- 

tins FL BrasiL vi. pt. v, 14. 



^quin. iii. 55. 

^ Guettarda hirsuta. 
Nyctanthes hirsuta^ Linnseus, Spec, 6 (1753). 
Guettarda speciosa, Linnseus, Spec. 991 (1753). — Blume, Bijdr. 
FL Ned. Ind. 993. — De CandoUe, L c. — Bot. Reg. xvii. 1. 1393. — 



112 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



RUBIACE^. 



the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Two species are found within the territory of the United States ; one 
of these is a small tree, and the other a shrub ^ which also inhabits the West Indies and Mexico. 

Guettarda has few useful properties. The bark of some of the American species is occasionally 



employed 



d febrifuge, and the powdered bark of the Old World species has been found 



valuable in the treatment of ulcers and wounds.^ A few of the species are cultivated for ornament, 
particularly Guettarda hirsicta^ which is often planted in tropical gardens on account of the dehghtful 
fragrance of its pure white flowers. 

The genus was named for Jean &ienne Guettard,^ a distinguished French botanist and min- 
eralogist. 



Miquel, Fl, Ind, Bat ii. 262. — Bentham, FL Austral, iii. 419. 
Oliver, FL Trap. Afr. iii. 125. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burm. 
ii. 37. — Hooker f . FL Brit. Ind. iii. 126. 

Cadamha jasminijlora^ Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. ii. 228, t. 128 (1782). 

Jasminum hirsutum, Willdenow, Spec. i. 36 (1797). 

Laugieria hirsuta, Ruiz & Pavon, FL Peruv. ii. 22, 1. 145 (1799). 



Guettarda Havanensisy De Candolle, L c. 455 (1830). — A. Ri- 
chard, Fl, Cub. iii. 19. 

Guettarda ambigua, A. Richard, L c. 20 (not De Candolle) 

(1853). — Chapman, FL 178 (1865). 
2 Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 332. 
^ Jean fitienne Guettard (1715-1786) was born at fitampes, and 



^ Guettarda scabra, Ventenat, Choixy 1, t. 1 (1803). — Lamarck, at an early age became distinguished for his observations on the 

EL ii. 218, t. 154, £. 3. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 456. — Grise- habits of plants, which obtained his admission into the Academic 

bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 332 ; Cat. PL Cub. 131. — Hemsley, des Sciences in 1743 and made him known to Linnaeus. Later he 

Bot. Biol Am* Cent. ii. 42. — Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. i. pt. ii, 30. — abandoned botany and devoted himself entirely to mineralogy, which 

Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 60 (FL St. Croix and the he studied in many European countries. Guettard was one of the 



Virgin Islands). — Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri Bot Gard. iv. 93. 
Matthiola scabra^ Liimseus, Spec. 1192 (1753). 



first naturalists to appreciate the value of mineralogical maps, of 
which he constructed several. He is the author of Observations 



Guettarda rugosa^ Swartz, Prodr. 59 (1788) ; FL Ind. Occ. i. sur les Plantes^ published in two volumes in 1747, of five volumes of 
632. — De Candolle, L c. (teste Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. Memoires sur differentes parties des Sciences et Arts^ and of many 



L c). 



papers published in the Memoirs of the French Academy. 



KUBiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



113 



GUETTARDA ELLIPTICA. 



Flowers perfect, 4-parted, in forked few-flowered cymes ; calyx tubular ; corolla 
3eo-canescent on the outer surface. Fruit globose, 4 to 8-celled. Leaves membra- 



naceous. 



Guettarda eUiptica, Swartz, Prodr. 59 (1788) ; Fl. Ind. 35. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 332 ; Cat. PI. Ctib. 

Occ. I 634. — Lamarck, III. ii. 218. — Persoon, Sy7i. i. 131. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. ii. 30. — Sargent, 

200. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 859. — Lunan, HoH. Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 96. — Hitch- 

Jam. ii. 66. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 442. — De cock. Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 93. 

Candolle, Prodr. iv. 457. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 787. — Don, Guettarda Blodgettii, Chapman, Fl. 178 (1865). 



Gen. Syst. iii. 551. 



N. 



A tree, occasionally in Florida eighteen or twenty feet in height, with an irregularly buttressed or 
lobed trunk five or six inches in diameter, the deep depressions between the lobes continuous or often 
interrupted, slender upright branches, and thin terete branchlets. The bark of the trunk is a sixteenth 
of an inch thick, with a smooth dark brown sm*face covered with large irregularly shaped pale blotches 
and numerous small white spots. The branchlets, when they first appear, are coated with long pale or 
rufous hairs, and in their second year are light red-brown or ashy gray and conspicuously marked by 
pale lenticels and large elevated nearly orbicular leaf -scars. The leaves are opposite, broadly oval to 
elliptical-oblong, acute or obtuse and apiculate at the apex, wedge-shaped and rounded at the base, and 
entire ; when they unfold they are covered with silky hairs, and at maturity are three quarters of an 
inch to two and a half inches in length, half an inch to an inch in breadth, membranaceous, dark 
green and pilose or glabrate on the upper surface, lighter and pubescent on the lower, especially 
along the stout midribs and in the axils of the four to six pairs of primary veins ; they are borne on 
stout hairy petioles from a quarter to half an inch long, and unfold in Florida in May and June, 
remaining on the branches untd the trees begin their growth the following year. The flowers, which 
in Florida appear in June, are yellowish white and a quarter of an inch in length, and are produced in 
slender hairy-stemmed cymes developed near the ends of the branches from the axils of leaves of the 
year or from bud-scales at the base of the new shoots. The peduncles, which are shorter than the 
leaves, are forked near the apex and produce a flower in the fork and three at the end of each branch, 
or the lateral flowers of these clusters are replaced by branches which at their apex produce three 
flowers. The bractlets, which subtend the branches of the peduncle and the lateral flowers of the 
ultimate divisions of the inflorescence, are Hnear-lanceolate, acute, coated with hairs, one sixteenth of 
an inch long, and deciduous. The calyx is nearly globose and is contracted into an elongated tube. 



four-lobed at the apex with nearly triangular acute lobes ; it is coated on the outer surface with long- 
pale hairs and is half the length of the salver-shaped erect corolla, which is externally canescent and 
four-lobed, with rounded lobes. The oblong anthers are borne on short slender filaments inserted above 
the middle of the tube of the coroUa. The fruit, which ripens in November, is globose, dark purple, 
pflose, a thii'd of an inch in diameter, and crowned with the remnants of the persistent calyx-tube ; the 
flesh is thin, sweet, and mealy. The stone is globose, obscurely ridged, four to eight-ceUed, and usually 
two to four-seeded. The seed is oblong-lanceolate, compressed, nearly straight, and covered with a thin 

pale coat. 

Gkiettarda ellij^tica is found in Florida on the southern keys, growing in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the coast ; it also inhabits the Bahama Islands and the coast of Jamaica, where it was 
discovered by the Swedish botanist Swartz late in the last century. 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rubiace^. 



The wood of Guettarda eWq^tica is heavy^ hard^ very close-grained, with a satiny surface suscep- 
tible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains many thin medullary rays and numerous small scattered 
open ducts, and is light brown tinged with red, with thin sapwood composed of six to ten layers of 
annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8337, a cubic foot weighing 51.96 

pounds.^ 

Guettarda elliptica was discovered in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett on Key West. 



Guettarda elliptica grows slowly. The specimen is six inches in diameter and shows sixty-six layers of annual 



collected on Key West for the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History in New York 



growth. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXIX. Guettarda elliptica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. Portion of a young branch showing stipule, enlarged 



Silva of "North America 



Tab. CCXXIX. 




Ca. Famorv deL 



GUETTARDA ELLIPTICA.Sw. 



Himeiz^ so. 



A.Iiiooreiaz> direa> 



t 



Imp. R. rane^Mr^ Pcltls 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



115 



VACCINIUM. 



Flowers perfect; calyx-tube adnate to the 



y, the Hmb 4 or 5-lobed 



olla 



gamopetalous, epigynous, 4 or 5-toothed, the teeth imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 
8 or 10 ; ovary inferior, 4 or 5 or imperfectly 8 to 10-celled ; ovules numerous, attached 
to a central placenta. Fruit a many-seeded berry. Leaves alternate, membranaceous 
or coriaceous, destitute of stipules. 



Vaccinium, Linnaeus, Gen. 110 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Caviniunij Petit-Thouars, Eoemer Coll. Bat 204 (1809). 
FL ii. 164. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 162. — Endlicher, (?) Adnaria, Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 56 (1817). 
Gen. 757. — Meisner, Gen. 243. — Bentham & Hooker, Batodendron, Nuttall, Trans. Am. Phil. Sac. n. ser. viii. 



Gen. ii. 573. — BaiUon, Hist. FL xi. 182. 



261 (1843). 



Oxycoccus, Adanson,i^am.PZ. ii. 164 (1763).— Endlicher, Picrococcus, Nuttall, Trans. Am. Fhil. Sac. n. ser. viii 



Gen. 757. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 575. — BaiUon, 

Hist FL xi. 183. 
SchoUera, Roth, Tent. FL Germ. i. 170 (1788). 
Vitis-Idsea, Moench, Meth. 47 (1794). 



262 (1843). 

Metagonia, Nuttall, Trans. Am. FML Sac. n. ser. viii. 263 

(1843). 
Bpigynium, Klotzsch, Linncea^ xxiv. 49 (1851). 



Shrubs, sometimes epiphytal, or rarely small trees, with scaly buds and fibrous roots. Leaves simple, 
alternate, entire or dentate, membranaceous or coriaceous, deciduous or often persistent. Flowers small, 
bibracteolate, in many-bracted axillary racemes or in terminal or axillary fascicles, or solitary. Bracts 
small or rarely foliaceous. Caly^x-tube terete, globose, hemispherical or turbinate, the limb short, four 
or five-lobed, the lobes equal or rarely unequal, persistent. Corolla white, rose-colored, or red, m^eolate, 
campanulate, or occasionally tubular or conical, terete, or rarely costate or angled, the limb four or 
five-lobed or toothed, the teeth short, or rarely elongated and revolute. Stamens ten or sometunes 
eight, epigynous or inserted on the very base of the corolla ; filaments filiform, free, short or elongated, 
usually hirsute ; anthers attached and awned or muticous on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells 
produced upwards into erect, rarely curved, tubes dehiscent by terminal transverse or oblique, rotund, or 
elongated pores, or rarely by elongated clefts ; pollen-grains compound, of four united grains. Disk 
pulvinate or convex, rarely flat, glabrous or pilose, occasionally lobed or angled. Ovary four or five- 
celled, the cells sometiiaes imperfectly divided by the development from the back of a false partition ; ^ 
style filiform, erect ; stigma minute, simple or capitate ; ovules few or many in each cell, attached to 
the interior angle by a two-lipped placenta, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; the micropyle superior. Fruit 
a dry or juicy globose berry crowned with the calyx-limb, four or five, or imperfectly eight or ten-celled, 
the cells few or many-seeded. Seed small or minute, compressed, ovoid or renif orm ; testa crustaceous. 
Embryo clavate, minute, surrounded by fleshy albumen, axile, erect ; cotyledons ovate, radicle terete, 
turned towards the hilum.^ 



1 Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. iii. 52 (Chlor. Bor.-AmJ). 

2 The genus lias been divided into the following sections : 
Batodendron. Flowers in leafy bracted racemes ; coroUa open- 10-celled. 

campanulate, 5-lobed ; anthers awned on the back, tipped with EuvAC 

slender tubes ; ovary incompletely 10-celled. Leaves deciduous. 

Eastern North America. 

Cyanococcus. Flowers in fascicles or short racemes, appearing 



with the leaves ; corolla cylindrical to ovoid or oblong-campanu- 
late, 5-lobed ; anthers awned ; ovary completely or incompletely 



America 



IINITJM 



Flowers solitary or 2 to 4 together on drooping 



with 



drical, 4 to 5-lobed ; anthers awned on the back ; ovary 4 or 



116 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A, 



ERICA CE^. 



\ 



with about one hundred species, is distributed through the bo 



d temperate 



regions of the northern hemisphere, and occurs within the tropics at high elevations above the sea north 
and south of the equator. In North America twenty-five species and several varieties are distinguished ; ^ 
one is a small tree^ while the others are tall or small shrubs. 

The fruits of many of the species are edible. The most valuable are the cranberries^ the red acid 
berries of the North American Vaccuiiiim macrocarpon^' which are now consumed in enormous quanti- 
ties in the form of a conserve^ and of Vaccinium OxycoccoSy^ which are used in the same manner in all 
northern countries. In the eastern United States blueberries^ the sweet blue fruits of several species 
of the section Cyanococcus^ are eaten in large quantities raw or cooked and are often dried or 
preserved. The small dark red acid fruits of Vaccmium Vitls-Idceay^ an inhabitant of the Arctic 
Circle and of elevated northern regions round the world, are cooked and eaten in the northern countries 
of Europe, in Siberia, Japan, and North America. Bilberries, the blue-black sweet fruits of Vaccmium 
idiginositm^ and of Vacclnmm MyrtllluSy^ are eaten raw and cooked in northern Europe and in some 
parts of North America; and in California the sweetish fruits of Vaccmium occidentale'^ are gathered 
on the Sierra Nevada Mountains in large quantities. Citric acid^ is obtained from the fruit of 



5-celled. North America, Europe, Asia Minor, Madeira, and the 
Canary Islands. 

Vitis-Id^ea. Flowers in short racemes on clusters from separate 
buds ; corolla ovate or globose-urceolate, 4 to 5-lobed ; anthers 
awned : ovarv 4 to 5-celled. 



') 



(1805). 



; ovary 4 to 5-celled. Leaves coriaceous, persistent. North 
America, West Indies, western South America, and Europe, 



Oxycoccus macrocarpus, Pursh, Fl. Am. SepL i. 263 (1814). 
W. P. C. Barton, FL N. Am. i. 58, t. 17. -De CandoUe, Prodr. 
vii. 577. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 458, t. 
The cultivation of the Cranberry on carefully prepared bogs so 
Xeurodesia. Flowers in short terminal or subterminal racemes ; arranged that they can be flooded with water at certain seasons of 
corolla urceolate-campanulate or urceolate, 5-lobed ; anthers awned the year, in order to protect the plants from frost or insects, has 
on the back ; ovary 5-celled, Leaves coriaceous, persistent, subim- become an important industry in the northern United States ; and 
bricated. Western South America and Guiana. a number of varieties have been obtained. These differ in the size 

DiSTERiGMA. Flowers axillary, solitary or two or three together ; and color of the fruit and in its time of ripening. Barnstable 
corolla urceolate or tubular-campanulate, 4 to 5-lobed ; anthers County, Massachusetts, New Jersey and northern Michigan and 
awned on the back ; ovary 4 to 5-celled. Leaves minute, coriaceous, Wisconsin are found more suitable for Cranberry culture than other 
usually entire. Western South America. 



parts of the country. (See Garden and Forest, iii. 511, 535 ; iv. 3, 



LIacropelma. Flowers axillary, solitary ; corolla cylindrical- 
urceolate, 5-lobed ; anthers awned on the back ; ovary 5-celled. 



542.) 
Linnse 



Leaves serrate, coriaceous, persistent. Islands of the Pacific L c. 354. 



Willdenow 



FL Dan. i. t. 80. — Willdenow, 
; Hayne, Ahhild. Deutsche Holz. 



Ocean. 

CiNCTOSANDRA. Flowcrs in terminal and axillary racemes ; co- 
rolla campanulate, deeply 5-lobed ; anthers awned on the back ; 

ovary 5-celled. Leaves serrate, coriaceous, persistent. Madagascar 
and eastern tropical Africa. 

Epigynium. Flowers in corymbs or racemes, rarely solitary ; 

corolla urceolate or conical ; stamens inclosed ; filaments pilose ; 

ovary 5 or incompletely 10-celled. Leaves coriaceous, persistent. 
India, Malay Archipelago, China, and Japan. 



44. — Gray, L c. 25. — Wats 



c. 314. 



SchoUera Oxycoccus^ Roth, Tent FL Germ. i. 170 (1788) ; ii. 



442 



lifolium, Michaux 



(1805).— De CandoUe, 



I c. 577. 



Oxycoccus vulgaris, Pursh, L c. 263 (1814). 
^ Linnaeus, L c. (1753). — FL Dan. i. t. 40. — Willdenow, L c. 
Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 107, t. 30. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, 
Leptothamnia. Flowers in axillary many-flowered racemes; L c. 57, t. 43. — De CandoUe, Z. c. 568. — Gray, Z. c. — Watson & 
coroUa conico-urceolate, 5-toothed ; anthers awned on the back ; Coulter, L c. 
ovary 5-celled. Leaves acuminate, long-pointed. Western South 
America and the West Indies. 



Vaccinium punctatum, Lamarck, Diet. i. 74 (1783). 
5 Linnffius, L v. 350 (1753). — H. Dan. ii. t. 231. — Willdenow, 
Oxycoccus. Flowers axillary and terminal on long slender L c. 350. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, L c. 56, t. 42. — De 
pedicels ; corolla deeply 5.parted, the lobes reflexed ; anthers awn- CandoUe, L c. 574. — Gray, L c. 23. — Watson & Coulter, Z. c. 



less, exserted ; ovary 4-celled. Leaves small, entire, persistent. 313. 
North America, Europe, and northern Asia. 

1 Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. ii. 20. 

2 Aiton, HorL Kew. ii. 13, t. 7 (1789). — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 
355. — BoL Mag. Iii. t. 2586. — Gray, ;. c. 26. — Watson & Coul- 



Vaccinium Sednense, Persoon, L c. 478 (1805). 
Vaccinium pubescens, Hornemann, Fl. Dan. ix. 1. 1516 (1820). 
^ Linnsus, L c. 349 (1753). — i^Z. Dan. vi. t. 974. — WiUdenow, 



ter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 314. 



_.^ _. ^ Guimpel, Willdenow 

De CandoUe, L c. 573. — Hooker, FL 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 108, t. 30, 



f. 67 (not Linnseus) (1787). 



ohlongifolium 



i. 228 (1803). 



I. c. 348. — Nouveau Duh 

& Hayne, l. c. 54, t. 41. 

Bor.-Am. ii. 33. — Gray, L c. 24, 

' Gray, Brewer ^ Watson Bot. CaL i. 451 (1876) ; Syn. Fl. N. 

Am. ii. 23. 

^ Jour, de Pharm, s^r. 4, xviii. 439. 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



Vaccinmm macrocarpon^ which contains a bitter principle for which the 



of oxycoecin has been 



proposed.^ Most of the Vacciniiims produce handsome flowers and fruit, and the leaves of 



of the North Ame 



species assume brilliant 



the autumn. Several are desirable garden 



plants, especially the High-bush Blueberry, Vaccinmm corymhoswn^^ and the Deerberry, Vaccinlum 

stamineum^ of eastern America, and the evergreen Vaccinmm ovatum'^ of the Pacific regions of North 
America. 

In North America Vaccinium escapes the attacks of disfiguring insects and serious fungal diseases.^ 
Vaccinium, the classical name of Vaccinium Myrtillus^ was adopted by Linnseus as the name of 
this genus. 



1 Am. Jour. Pharm. 1863, 321, 

2 Linnseus, Spec. 350 (1753). — Wangenheim, Nordam 
t. 30, f . 68. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 123 

t. 3433. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 571. 
ed. 2, ii. 454, t. 

ter. Graves Man 



Mag. Ixii 



Vaccinium lanceolatum^ De Candolle, L c. (1838). 

Metagonia ovata, NuttaU, L c. 264 (1843). 

A number of curious fungi are parasitic on North Am 



N, 



Watson 



Fl 



Mass. Vacciniese, some being peculiar to this country, and others, occur- 
Coul- ring also in Europe, being more abundant and more higbly devel- 
oped here. The most striking are the species of Exobasidium, the 
03) . European Exobasidium Vacciniiy Woronin, being exceedingly common 



3 Linnseus, I. c. (1753). — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 349, — Andrews, on several species of Gaylussacia and Vaccinium. This attacks the 



Bat. Rep. iv. t. 263. — De Candolle, I. c. 667. — Gray, I c. 21 



Watson 



(not 



(1814). 



(1838) 



leaves, causing them to swell up and assume at first a pink color 
which later is powdered with the white spores. When this fungus 
attacks the flower it causes conspicuous although usually symmetri- 
cal distortions often believed to be the work of insects. 

Several interesting Rusts are found on American Vacciniese. 



Picrococcus stamineus^ Nuttall, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. ser. Melampsora Vacciniorum^ Schroeter, affects the leaves of several 



viii. 262 (1843). 



(1843) 



Floridanus 



(1814) 



xvi. 1. 1354 



species, and Melampsora Gcepperiiana, Winter, causes the curious 
distortions popularly known as " witches' brooms," which are often 
of large size on the leaves of Vaccinium corymhosum. A number 
of small characteristic Discomycetes affect the leaves of Vacciniege 



Hooker, FL Bor.'Am. ii. 34. — De Candolle, I. c, 570. — Gray, in this country, which are also injured by the mildews, Microsphcera 



Brewer Sf* Watson Bot. Cal. i. 451 ; Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 25. 



Vaccina, Cooke & Peck, and by Rhytisma Vaccinii, Fries. 



ERICACEAE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



119 



VACCINIUM ARBOREUM. 



Farkleberry. Sparkleberry. 

Flowers articulate with the pedicels, axillary and solitary or in terminal racemes ; 
corolla open-campanulate, 5-lobed ; anthers tipped with slender tubes, awned on the 



back 



ovary imperfectly 10-celled. Berry globose, dry and astringent 



Vacciniura arboreum, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 157 



87. 



(1785). 



Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 230. — Persoon, 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censzts U. S. 



vs.. 96. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 312. 



Syn. i. 479. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, Vaccinium mucronatum, Walter, Fl. Gar. 139 (not Lin- 



iii. 511. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 270. — Pursh, Fl. 



naeus) (1788). 



Am. Sept. i. 285. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 263. — Elliott, Sk. Vacciniiim diffusum, Alton, ^ort Kew. 



i. 495. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 853. — De Candolle, Prodr. 
vii. 567. — Dietrich, Syn. ii- 1264. — Loddiges, BoL Cah. 



Bot. Mag. xxxix. t. 1607. — Koch, Dendr. ii- 96. 
Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 239. 



xvii. t. 1885. — Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. iii. 53 (?) Arbutus obtusifolius, Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 55 



{Chlor. Bar. Am.) ; Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 20. — Klotzsch, 



(1817). 



Linncea^ xxiv. 55. — Walp 
Fl 259. 



N. 



Chapman, Batodendron arboreum, Nuttall, Trans. Am. PhiL Sac 
1860, iii. n. ser. viii. 261 (1843) ; Sylva, iii. 43. 



brown scales which often remain on the base of the branchlets throuohout the season. 



A tree; twenty to thirty feet in height, with a short often crooked trunk occasionally eight or ten 
inches in diameter, and slender more or less contorted branches which form an irregular round head ^ or 
toward the northern limit of its range generally reduced to a low shrub with many divergent stems. The 
bark of the trunk, which is barely one sixteenth of an inch thick, is light reddish brown and covered 
with minute appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are Hght red and coated with 
pale pubescence ; in their first winter they are glabrous or puberulous and bright red-brown, and later 
become dark red, and are marked by the minute elevated nearly orbicular leaf-scars. The winter-buds 
are obtuse, one sixteenth of an inch or less in length, and covered with imbricated ovate-acute chestnut- 

The leaves 

are obovate, oblong-oval, or occasionally nearly orbicular, acute, or rounded and apiculate at the apex, 
gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, obscurely glandular-dentate, or entire with thickened 
shghtly revolute margins ; when they unfold they are light red and more or less pilose or puberulous, 
and at maturity they are thin, coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, paler below, glabrous or often 
puberulous along the midribs and veins, which are more prominent on the upper than on the lower 
surface, reticulate-venulose, half an inch to two inches and a half long, a quarter of an inch to an inch 
broad, and sessile or borne on short broad petioles ; in the southern states they remain on the branches 
until after the opening of the flowers in the following year, while farther north they fall during the 
winter. The flowers, which appear in March in Florida and in May at the northern limits of the range 
of the plant, are a quarter of an inch in length and are borne on slender drooping pedicels half an inch 
long and furnished near the middle with two minute acute scarious caducous bractlets ; they are soHtary 
in the axils of leaves of the year, or are arranged in terminal puberulous racemes two or three inches 
long, and produced from the axils of leafy or minute acute scarious bracts. The corolla is white, open- 
campanulate, slightly five-lobed, with acute reflexed lobes, and longer than the ten stamens. These are 
inserted on its base under the thick obscurely lobed pulvinate disk which is depressed in the centre ; the 
filaments are hirsute and shorter than the anthers, which are long-awned on the back and tipped by two 
long slender tubes with obhque elongated terminal pores. The fruit ripens in October and sometimes 
remains on the branches until the end of winter ; it is globose, a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
black, lustrous, and many-seeded, with dry, granular, slightly astringent flesh of a pleasant flavor. 



120 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ericace^. 



Vaccinium arboreiim is distributed from North Carolina^ where it is found from the coast region 
to the valleys of the Alleghany Mountains in the extreme western part of the state, southward to 
Hernando County, Florida ; it ranges through the Gulf states and from southern Illinois and Missouri 
through Arkansas and eastern Texas to the shores of Matagorda Bay. The Farkleberry usually inhab- 
its moist sandy soil along the banks of ponds and streams, and is common in the Pine belt of the 
southern Atlantic and Gulf states, reaching its greatest development in eastern Texas near the coast. 
In the interior it is less common and usually of small size. 

The wood of Vaccinium arhoreum is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous broad conspicuous medullary rays and 
is light brown tinged with red, with thick sapwood which is distinguished with difficulty from the 
heartwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7610, a cubic foot weighing 47.tl2 
pounds. It is sometimes used for the handles of tools and in the manufacture of other small articles 
in which strength and tenacity are required. 

Decoctions of the astringent bark of the root and of the leaves of Vaccinium arhoreum are 
sometimes used domestically in the treatment of diarrhoea, and the bark has been employed by tanners.^ 

The first description of Vaccinium arhoreum was published by Humphrey Marshall in 1785, 
although according to Aiton ^ it was introduced into English gardens twenty years earher. With its 
lustrous leaves and profusion of pure white flowers the Farkleberry is one of the most beautiful of the 
North American species of Vaccinium, and it might weU be used to decorate the gardens of temperate 
countries ; but, although once cultivated in Europe, it probably is no longer to be found outside its 
native home. 



1 Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests^ 384. ^ Hort Kew. ii. 11. — Loudon, Arb. BriU ii. 1159. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXX. Vaccinium arboreum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged- 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. Front, rear, and side views of a stamen, enlarged 
6- An ovule, much magnified, 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged 



Siiva of North America 



Tab. CCXXX 








10 



9 






8 



^. ^. FcucoTL deL 



Toulet sc. 



VACCINIUM ARBOREUM 



/ 



M 



ars 



h 



^. Buf crezioz direec-. 



Imp. IL.TanenT ^ Pcu^u 



ERICACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMUFvICA. 



121 



AEBUTUS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx free from the ovary, 5-parted, the divisions imbricated 
in aestivation ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-toothed, the teeth imbricated in aestivation ; 



stamens 10 ; ovary superior, 5 or rarely 4-celled ; ovules numer 
or baccate. Leaves alternate, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Fruit drupaceous 



Arbutus 



11. 



165. 



inseus, Ge7i. 123 (1737). — Adansoiij Fam. PL 
A- L. de Jussieu, Gen. 160. — Meisner, Gen. 



247. 
il. 581. 



Endlicher, Gen. 756. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen 
Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 191. 



Unedo, Hoffmannsegg & Link, FL Port. i. 415 (1809). 



Trees or shrubs^ with astringent bark exfoliating from young stems in large thin scales, smooth 
terete red branches, thick hard roots, and scaly buds. Leaves alternate, petiolate, entire or dentate, 
obscurely penniveined, persistent. Mowers small, in simple compound racemes or panicles. Pedicels 
clavate, bibracteolate at the base, developed from the axils of ovate bracts. Bracts and bractlets 
scarious, scaly, persistent. Calyx five-parted nearly to the base, the divisions ovate, acute, scarious, 
persistent. Corolla hypogynous, globose or ovoid-urceolate, white, rose-colored, or greenish white, five- 
toothed, the teeth obtuse, recurved. Stamens ten, included ; filaments subulate, dilated and pilose at 
the base, free, inserted in the bottom of the corolla ; anthers short, compressed laterally, attached on 
the back below the apex, dorsally two-awned, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening at the top ante- 
riorly by a terminal pore ; pollen-grains compound. Ovary superior, glandular-roughened, glabrous 
or tomentose, sessile or slightly immersed in a glandular ten-lobed disk ; style columnar, simple, exserted, 
stigmatose and obscurely five-lobed at the apex ; ovules numerous, attached to a central placenta devel- 



oped from the inner angle of each cell, amphitropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior 



Fruit 



drupaceous or baccate,^ globose, smooth or glandular-coated, five-celled, many-seeded ; exocarp firm, dry, 
and mealy ; endocarp cartilaginous, often incompletely developed. Seed small, compressed or angled, 
narrowed and often apicidate at the apex ; testa coriaceous, dark red-brown, slightly pilose. Embryo 
axile in copious horny albumen, clavate ; radicle terete, erect, turned towards the hilum. 

Ten or twelve species of Arbutus are distinguished ; they inhabit the western and southern parts 
of North America, where in Mexico ^ the largest number of species occur, Central America, eastern, 
southern, and southwestern Europe,^ Asia Minor,^ northern Africa,^ and the Canary Islands.^ Three 
species grow naturally within the territory of the United States ; two of these are Mexican, and find 
their most northern home just north of our southern boundary, one in Texas and the other in Arizona, 
and the third inhabits the coast forests of the Pacific states and British Columbia. 

Arbutus produces hard close-grained valuable wood often used as charcoal in the manufacture of 
gunpowder. In the south of Europe the strawberry-shaped fruits of the European and north African 
Arbutus Unedo ^ are eaten raw or cooked, and possess narcotic properties ; the bark and leaves are 



•ally 



Wo 



^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen, et Spec. iii. 279 
Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. Cent, ii. 276. 



it sometimes contains traces of a thin crustaceous imperfect endo- 



K 



Nyman, Conspect. Fl. Eur op. 490. 



carp, which in Arbutus Andrachne is more developed. In the fruits ^ Boissier, Fl. Orient, iii. 965. 



examine 



there is a distinct more or less complete endocarp, which appears 

to be most developed in Arbutus Menziesii, in which it is often a thelot, Phytogr, Canar, sec. iii. 11. 

distinct five-celled stone with thin papery walls. ^ Linn^us, Spec. 395 (1753). 



^ Desfontaines, Fl, Atlant. i. 340. 

6 Link, Buck Phys, Beschr. Canar, Ins. 146, 180. — Webb & Ber- 



DuTiamel 



122 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACE^. 



used as astringents.^ 



The fruit of the Oriental Arbutus Andrachne ^ is edible, and its wood is used 



for fuel. 



Arbutus is chiefly valuable for the beauty of its smooth red branches, evergreen foliage, and large 
clusters of white flowers, and the two European species have been cultivated in gardens since the time 



of the ancients.^ 

Arbutus, tl 



classical Latin name of the species of southern Europe, was adopted by Linnseus 



the name of the genus. 



Savi, Flora Italianay i. t 5. — Sibthorp, Fl. Grcec. iv. 66, t. 373. 
BoL Mag, xlix. t. 2319. — De Candolle, Prodr. vii. 581. 



2 Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 666 (1762). — Savi, L c. t. 12. — Nouveau 
Duhamel^ i. 76, t. 22. — Bot, Reg. ii. t. 113. — Bot, Mag. xlvi. t. 



Arbutus serratifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 288 (1796). — Loddiges, 2024. — Sibthorp, l. c. 67, t. 374. — De Candolle, L c. 682. 



BoL Cab. vi. t. 580. 

Unedo edulis, Hoffmannsegg & Link, FL Port i. 416 (1809) 
1 Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 1119. 



Arbutus integrifolia, Salisbury, Z. c. (1796). 
^ Loudon, L c. 1118. 



CONSPECTUS OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Ovary glabrous ; leaves oval or oblong, entire or rarely serrate 1. Arbutus Menziesii. 

Ovary pubescent ; leaves oval, ovate, or lanceolate 2. Akbutus Xalapensis. 

Ovary glabrous, conspicuously porulose ; leaves lanceolate or rarely narrowly oblong .... 3. Arbutus Arizonica. 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



123 



ARBUTUS MENZIESII. 



Madrofia. 



Ovary glabrous. Leaves oval or oblong, entire or rarely serrate 



Arbutus Menziesii, Pursh, FL Am. SepL i. 282 (1814). 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 286. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 834. — De 
CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 582. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1387. 



Gazette^ ii. 88. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 276 
(in part). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

U. S. ix. 97. 



Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 36. — Hooker & Arnott, BoL Arbutus procera, Lindley, ^o?;. _Ke<7. xxi. 1. 1753 (1836). 



Voy. Beechey, 143. — Klotzsch, Linncea, xxiv. 72. 
Nuttall, Sylva^ iii. 42, t. 95. — Torrey, Pacific B. B. 
Bep. iv. 116 ; Bat. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 378. — New- 
berry, Pacific B. B. Bep). vi. 23, 79, f. 22. — Cooper, 



Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1121. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 



582. 
147, 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1387. — Paxton, Mag. Bat. ii. 



t. 



Walp 



Bep>. 



VI. 



416. 



Klotzsch, Linncea^ 



xxiv. 71. 



Pacific B. B. Bep. xii. pt. ii. 29, 66. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Arbutus laurif olia. Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 36 (not Lind- 



Soc. vii- 131. — Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. CaL i. 452 
(in part) ; Syn. FL N. Am. ii. 27 (in part). — Hall, Bot. 



ley) (1840). 



A tree^ ^igiity to a hundred and ten feet in height^ with a tall straight trunk four to seven feet 
in diameter and upright or spreading stout branches which form a narrow oblong or broad round- 
topped head. The bark of old trunks varies from one third to one half of an inch in thickness^ and 



that of young stems and of 
The branchlets^ when they 



has a dark reddish brown surface broken into small thick plate-like scales ; 
the branches is smooth and bright red, and separates into large thin scales, 
first appear, are light red, pea-green, or orange-colored, and are glabrous, or on vigorous young plants 
are sometimes covered with pale scattered hairs which usually soon disappear ; in their first winter they 
turn bright red-brown. The winter-buds are obtuse, a third of an inch long, and covered by many 
imbricated broadly ovate bright brown scales which are keeled on the back, apiculate at the apex, and 
slightly ciliate on the margins. The leaves are oval or oblong, rounded or contracted into short points 
at the apex, and rounded, subcordate, or wedge-shaped at the base, with slightly thickened revolute 
entire, crenate, or occasionally on young plants sharply serrate margins ] when they unfold they are 
light green or often pink, especially on the lower surface, and are glabrous or slightly puberulous, and 
at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, pale or often nearly white 
below, three to five inches long and an inch and a half to three inches wide, with thick pale midribs 
rounded on the upper side, and conspicuously reticulated veinlets ; they are borne on stout grooved 
petioles half an inch to an inch in length and often sUghtly wing-margined towards their apex ; and, 
appearing in early spring, remain on the branches until midsummer of their second year, when they 
begin, gradually and irregularly, to turn to an orange or scarlet color, and to fall. The flowers appear 
from March at the south to May at the north, and are borne on short slender puberulous pedicels 
produced from the axils of acute scarious bracts with cihate margins, and gathered in spicate pubescent 
racemes which form a terminal cluster five or six inches in length and breadth j they are a third of an 
inch long, with scarious white calyx-lobes, white globular corollas, and glabrous ovaries. The fruit, 
which is drupaceous, ripens in the autumn and is subglobose or occasionally obovate or oval, half an 
inch long, bright orange-red, and covered with thin glandular flesh surrounding a five-ceUed more or 
less perfectly developed thin-walled cartilaginous stone, containing in each cell several seeds tightly 
pressed together and angled, and covered with dark brown pilose coats. 

Arbutus Menziesii is distributed from the islands of the British Columbia coast at Seymour 



124: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ericace^. 



Narrows ^ southward through the coast region of Washington and Oregon, and through the Cahf ornia 
coast rantres to the Santa Lucia Mountains. It usually grows on high weU-drained slopes in rich soil 
and attains its greatest size in the fog-swept coast region of northern California, where it is a common 
inhabitant of the Redwood forest;- farther north and south and on the dry eastern slopes of the 
Cahfornia mountains it is much smaller, and in the region south of the Bay of San Francisco it is often 

shrubby in habit.^ 

The wood of Arhutiis Menziesii is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained j it contains numerous 

conspicuous medullary rays, and is hght brown shaded with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood 
composed of eight to twelve layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.7052^ a cubic foot weighing 43.95 pounds. It is inclined to check badly in drying, but is used for 
furniture, and largely for charcoal in the manufacture of gunpowder, for which purpose it is considered 
especially valuable. The bark is sometimes employed in tanning leather. 

Arhittus Menziesii was discovered near the mouth of the Columbia River late in the last century 
by Archibald Menzies,^ the surgeon of Vancouver, on his voyage of discovery. Thirty years later it 
was introduced by David Douglas ^ into the gardens of Europe, where it is occasionally cultivated, and 

where it has produced flowers and fruit.^ 

Arhittus Menziesii is the noblest of all its race j no other inhabitant of the North American 
forests with persistent leaves and petalous flowers equals it in size ; and among our evergreen trees only 
the great Magnolia of the southern Atlantic states, the Kalmia, and the Rhododendron, produce more 
beautiful blossoms. Its dark red bark and smooth red branches, its lustrous foliage, abundant white 
flowers, and ample clusters of brilhant fruit, make the California Madrona an object of remarkable 
beauty at all seasons of the year, and one of the most desirable trees for the decoration of the parks 
and gardens of temperate regions.^ 



1 G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat, n. ser. ix. 331. — Macoun, Cat. enty-five in the other, and the trunt girts twenty-three feet at three 

feet above the surface of the ground. (See Garden and Forest, v. 



Can. PL i. 294. 
2 Garden and Forest, iii, 515. 



146, f. 23.) 



^ The largest specimen of the Madroila of which there are meas- ^ See ii. 90. 

urements stands on the slopes of Mt. Tamalpais, in the grounds of ^ See ii. 94. 

the reservoir of the town of San Rafael, in Marin County, Califor- ^ Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1122. — Andr^, Rev. Hort. 1893, 149, f. 

nia. This remarkable tree is more than one hundred feet high; 53, 54. 
the branches cover a spread of ninety feet in one direction and sev- ^ Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 96. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXXI. Arbutus Menziesh. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, side and front views, enlarged. 

6. A flower, the corolla removed, cut transversely through the ovary, enlarged 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A branch of a fruit-cluster, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXXXI 




1 L 



C E. FaccOTh deL. 



ZcroendoZ si>. 



ARBUTUS MENZIESII 



/ 



P 



urs 



\i. 



A.Iii/?cre-ua> direa^^. 



Imp . Jt. Tcurieur^ Paris 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



12. 



J 



ARBUTUS XALAPENSIS 



Madrofia. 



Ovary pubescent. Leaves oval, ovate, or lanceolate 



Arbutus Xalapensis, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Arbutus laurifolia, Lindley, BoU Reg. xxv. t. 67 (not Lin- 



Gen.etSpec.\\i.21^{lSl^). — Knxit\i, Syn. PI. JEquin. 



nseus f.) (1839). 



11. 



327. 



Sprengel, Syst. ii. 286, — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. (?) Arbutus macrophylla, Martens & Galeotti, Bull Acad. 



835. 



Bentham, PL Hartweg. 66. — De Candolle, Prodr, 



Bmx. ix. pt. i. 534 (1842). — Walpers, Rep. ii. 725. 



vii. 583. — Dietrichj Syn. ii. 1388. — Walpers, Ann. ii. (?) Arbutus prunifolia, Klotzsch, LinnceUy xxiv. 73 



1105. 



(Tour. Hart, Soc. Land. v. 192, t. 8. — Klotzsch, 



(1851). 



Hemlsey, Bat, Biol. Am, Cent. ii. 277. 



LinncBa^ xxiv. 72. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. Arbutus Menziesii, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 108 



77. 



Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 111. — Havard, 



Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 524. 



(1859) (not Pursh). — Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. 
i. 452 (in part) ; Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 27 (in part). 



Arbutus mollis, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Arbutus Texana, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1861, 460. 



etSpec. iii. 280 (1818). — Sprengel, ;S?/5#. ii. 286.— De 
Candolle, Prodr. vii. 582. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1388. 
Bot. Mag. Ixxvii. t. 4595. — Klotzsch, Linncea^ xxiv. 72. 
Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 277. 
Arbutus varians, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 77 (1839). 
Klotzsch, Linncea^ xxiv. 72. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am 
Cent. ii. 277. 



Gray, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 165. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Cens^ts U. S. ix. 97. 
Arbutus Xalapensis, var. Texana, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Aia. 
ed. 2, i. pt. ii. 397 (1886). — Coulter, Contrib. U, S. Nat. 
Herb. ii. 253 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



A bushy tree, in Texas rarely more than eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a shorty often crooked 
trunk eight or ten inches in diameter^ separating, a foot or two above the ground^ into several stout 
spreading branches ; or often a broad irregularly shaped bush sending up numerous contorted stems. 
At the base of old trunks the bark is sometimes a quarter of an inch thick, deeply furrowed, dark 
brown on the surface, and broken into thick square plates j on younger stems and on the branches it is 
much thinner and tinged with red, and separates into large papery scales, exposing the light red or flesh- 
colored inner bark. The branchlets, when they first appear, are light red and thickly coated with 
pubescence, and later are covered with dark red-brown bark which divides into small plate-like scales. 
The leaves are oval, ovate, or lanceolate, rounded, acute, and often apiculate at the apex and rounded or 
wedge-shaped at the base, with sUghtly thickened margins which are usually entire or sometimes are 
remotely crenulate-toothed, or are coarsely serrate with a few obtuse teeth mostly above the middle ; 
when they unfold they are often tinged with red, especially on the petioles, midribs, and margins, and 
are sometimes pubescent on the lower surface, along the upper side of the midribs, and on the petioles ; 
at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above, pale and glabrous 
or covered with pale or cinereous pubescence below, an inch to three inches in length and from two 
thirds of an inch to an inch and a half in breadth, with thick light-colored midribs slightly rounded 
and sometimes puberulous on the upper side, reticulate veinlets, and stout glabrous pubescent petioles 
an inch or an inch and a half long and often furnished towards the apex with several dark glands. 
The flowers, which in Texas appear in March, are borne on stout reddish pubescent recurved pedicels 
developed from the axils of ovate acute scarious persistent bracts, and arranged in a compact termi- 
nal conical pubescent panicle two or two and a half inches long, the lower branches of which are 
developed from the axils of upper leaves ; the flowers are a third of an inch in length, with acute 



scarious calyx-lobes ciliate on 



their margins, an oblong white corolla more 



or less abruptly contracted 



above the middle, and an ovary sparingly or densely covered with long white scattered hairs. 



The 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ERiCACEiE. 



fruit, which is usually produced very sparingly, ripens in summer, and is dark red and a third of an inch 
in diameter; it is drupaceous, with thin granular flesh and a rather thick more or less completely 
formed five-celled stone containing numerous puberulous compressed seeds in each cell. 

In Texas, where it is a rare and local plant, Arhiitiis Xcdrqjensis is scattered over dry limestone 
hills from Travis County and the valley of the Rio Blanco in Hays County westward to the Guadaloupe 
and Eagle Mountains. It is common on the Sierra Madre in Nuevo Leon, ranging southward to the 
mountains near Jalapa, where it was discovered by Humboldt and Bonpland. 

The wood of Arbutus Xalcqjeiisis is heavy, hard, close-grained, and contains numerous obscure 
medullary rays ; it is brown tinged with red, with lighter colored sapwood composed of ten or twelve 
layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7500, a cubic foot 
weighing 46.75 pounds. It is sometimes used in Texas for the handles of small tools and in the manu- 
facture of mathematical instruments, and by the Mexicans for wooden stirrups. 

Arbutus Xalapensis was discovered in Texas in the valley of the Limpia River by Mr. Charles 
Wright,^ the botanist of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, in June, 1851, although it 
was not distinguished from the CaHfornia species until some years later, when it was found in the valley 
of the Rio Blanco in Hays County by Mr. S. B. Buckley.^ 



1 See i. 94. 



2 See iii. 3. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXXII. Arbutus Xalapensis. 



1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 



calyx 



4. Vertical section of a corolla with stamens displayed 

5. Side views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of Worth America. 



Tab. CCXXXII 



r. 




10 



11 





7 



3 






5 




2 








■f 



( 



i 

i 




r E.FaccoTv del. 



ZaverbdaZ so 



ARBUTUS XALAPENSIS,H.B.K. 



A. 





Imp. R . laneur^ ParLr. 



ERICACEAE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



12 



i 



ARBUTUS ARIZONIOA. 



Madrona. 



Ovary glabrous, conspicuously porulose. Leaves lanceolate or rarely narrowly 



oblong 



Arbutus 



f. 54 (1891). 
Arbutus Menziesii, Rothrock. Wi 



Dutus Xalapensis, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 97 (not Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth) 
(1884) . 



(not Pursh) (1878). — Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. Arbutus Xalapensis, var. Arizonica, Gray, Syn. FL iV 



N. 



Am. ed. 2, i. pt. ii. 396 (1886). 



A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk eighteen to twenty-four inches in 
diameter, stout spreading branches which form a rather compact round-topped head, and thick tortuous 
divergent branchlets. The bark of the trunk, which varies from one third to one half of an inch in 
thickness and is irregularly broken by longitudinal furrows, is divided into square appressed plate-like 
scales, and is light gray or nearly white and faintly tinged with red on the surface. The bark of young 
stems and of the branches is thin, smooth, and dark red, and exfoliates in large thin scales. The 
branchlets, when they first appear, are reddish brown and more or less pubescent, or are light purple 
and pilose with a glaucous bloom, and by the end of their first season are covered with bright red bark 
which separates freely into thin irregularly shaped more or less persistent scales. The leaves are 
lanceolate or rarely oblong, acute or rounded and apiculate at the apex, and wedge-shaped or occasion- 
ally rounded at the base, with thickened entire or rarely denticulate margins ; when they unfold they 
are membranaceous, tinged with red, and slightly puberulous especially on the petioles and margins ; 
and at maturity they are thin, firm, and rigid, glabrous, light green on the upper surface, pale on the 
lower surface, an inch and a half to three inches long and half an inch to an inch wide, with slender 
yellow midribs and obscure reticulate veinlets, and are borne on slender petioles often an inch in length ; 
they appear in May and after the summer rains in September, and remain for at least one year on the 
branches. The flowers, which expand in May, are borne on short stout hairy pedicels developed from 
the axils of conspicuous ovate rounded scarious bracts, and are collected in rather loose terminal clusters 
two or two and a half inches in length and breadth, their lower branches from the axils of the upper 
leaves ; they are a quarter of an inch long, with scarious calyx-lobes, ovate white corollas often much 
contracted in the middle, conspicuously lobed disks, and glabrous porulose ovaries. The fruit ripens 
in October and November, and is drupaceous, globose or oblong, dark orange-red, porulose, with thin 
sweetish flesh, a papery five-celled usually incompletely developed stone, and compressed puberulous 

seeds. 

Arhiitiis Arizonica inhabits the Santa Catalina and the Santa Rita Mountains of southern Arizona, 

where, associated with Querciis grisea^ Querciis Emoryi^ Querciis chrysolejnSy and Pimts ponderosay 
it grows on dry gravelly benches at elevations of from six to eight thousand feet above the sea ; and 
rano-es southward alon^ the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua.^ 

The wood of Arhidus Arizonica is heavy and close-grained although soft and brittle ; it contains 
numerous obscure medullary rays, and is Hght brown tinged with red, with lighter colored sapwood com- 
posed of thirty to forty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.7099, a cubic foot weighing J4.24 pounds. 

1 Here it was found at an elevation of eight thousand feet by Mr. C, G. Priugle in 1885. 



128 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ericace^. 



The Arizona Madrona was first noticed in southern Arizona in June, 1851, by Dr. George Thur- 
ber,^ while he was attached as botanist to the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, and for 
many years was confounded with the species of the Pacific coast region. In its habit, which is that of 
a small White Oak, and in the color of its bark, it is one of the most distinct species of the genus. 
The contrast in color between the white bark of the trunk and the bright red branches and pale green 
leaves makes this tree a remarkable and beautiful object at all seasons of the year ; and in the sprino- 
when the pure white flowers are expanded, and late in the autumn when its branches are covered with 
clusters of brilliant fruit, it is particularly beautiful. 



^ See iii. 36. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXXIIL Arbutus Arizonica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. A seed, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of Nortli America. 



Tab. CCXXXIII. 




2 





i^ 



G 




9 



8 



7 







C.E.FacciorL del. 



PvcArb jc. 



ARBUTUS ARIZONICA, Sar§. 



A.Iliocreaa> du^ecc. 



Imp. R.Tane^itr ^ Parw 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



129 



ANDROMEDA 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-tootlied, or 5-parted nearly to the base, the divisions 
valvate in aestivation ; corolla globular, urceolate, or nearly cylindrical, 5-toothed or 
lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 8 to 10 ; ovary superior, 5-celled ; 
ovules numerous. Leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Andromeda, Linnseus, Gen. 123 (excl. Cassandra, Cassiope, Zenobia, D. Don, Edlnhurgh New Phil. Jour. xvii. 158 



and Leucothoe) (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 160 
(excl. Cassandra, Cassiope, and Leucothoe). — Endlicher, 



(1834). 



Meisner, Gen. 246. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. 



ii. 587. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. xi. 177. 



Gen. 755 (excl. sec. Cassiope, Cassandra, Leucothoe, and Pieris, D. Don, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. xvii. 159 



Agarista). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 587. — Baillon, 
Hist. PL xi. 177. 



(1834). —Meisner, Gen. 246. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. ii. 588. 



Rhododendros, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 164 (in part) (1763). Pieridia, Reichenbach, Deutsch. Botan. Ill (1841). 



Lyonia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 266 (not Rafinesque nor Elliott) 



(1818) . 



Meisner, Gen. 246. — Endlicher, Gen. 755. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 587. 
Zolisma, Rafinesque, Am. Monthl. 3fag. and Crit. Rev. iv. 
193 (1819) ; Jour. Phys. Ixxxix. 259. 



Portuna, Nuttall, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. ser. viii. 268 

(1843). 
(?) .iSlgialea, Klotzsch, Linncea, xxiv. 17 (1851). — Walpers, 

Ann. ii. 1113. 



Small trees, or shrubs, with terete branchlets and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, entire or serrate, 
petiolate, membranaceous or coriaceous, deciduous or persistent. Flowers in axillary and terminal 
umbellate fascicles or panicled racemes. Pedicels slender, produced from the axils of ovate acute bracts, 



and bibracteolate at the base 



the divisions 
urceolate or 



Caly 



free, persistent, five-toothed or parted nearly to the bottom 



te-acute, sometimes herbaceous. Corolla gamopetalous, deciduous, globose or ovate- 
•ly cylindrical, five-toothed or five-lobed, glabrous, pubescent, or glandular, white or 



colored 



Stamens 



ght or ten, included j filaments flat, broad or narrow, usually slightly adnate 
to the base of the corolla, often bearded, narrowed or dilated at the base, sometimes geniculate, and 
often furnished below the apex with two horn-like appendages j anthers short, oblong or lanceolate, 

introrse, the cells opening below the apex by two oblong pores, 



attached on the back 



celled 



furnished on the back with one ascending deflexed awn or with two ascending awn-Hke appendages, 
or muticous ; pollen grain compound. Disk ten-lobed. Ovary five-celled, depressed in the centre ; 



ovules numerous in each ceU, attached 



style columnar, tipped with a simple truncate stigma; 
placenta borne next the summit or near the middle of the axis, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle 

Fruit dry, capsular, ovoid, globose or subglobose, many-seeded, locuhcidally five-valved, the 
valves septiferous and separating from the placentiEerous axis, sometimes five-ribbed by the thickening 



superior 



of the 



the dorsal sutures, the ribs more or less separable in dehiscence. Seeds pendulous 

: testa crustaceous. smooth and shinin 



Embryo axile in 



spreading in all directions, oval, sometimes angled or scobiEorm ; testa crustaceous, 
or loose, thin, reticulate, and sometimes produced at both ends beyond the nuclei 
fleshy albumen, cyhndrical, elongated ; cotyledons much shorter than the terete radicle, turned towards 

the hilum.^ 



About twenty species of Andromeda, as the genus is here regarded, are distinguished ; they 



of 



North America, to the mountains of 



chiefly confined to the temperate and southern parts 

1 The following sections of Andromeda, by many authors consid- each cell surmounted by an ascending awn-like appendage ; pla- 

ered genera were established by Asa Gray {Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 30) : — centas attached near the apex of the axis ; ovules and seeds turned 

EuANDROMEDA. Calyx small, deeply 5-parted ; corolla globose- in all directions. Capsule globose, 5-lobed. Leaves linear, persist- 

urceolate • filaments bearded, without appendages ; anthers short, ent. A single species, in all boreal and sub-Arctic region^rr* 



130 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A, 



ERICACE^. 



Mexico ^ and the West Indies/ and to the Himalayas,^ the Malay Peninsula, China/ and Japan/ although 
one species ^ is found in all temperate and sub-Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Andromeda 
was once more generally distributed over the surface of tlie earth, the traces of a number of species 
being found in the cretaceous and tertiary remains of northwestern and central North America," where 
the genus is now represented by a single species, and in the tertiary remains of southern Europe. 



8 



All 



the sections of the genus are represented in the flora of eastern North America, where eight species 

occur ; ^ one of these is a small tree. 

Andromeda has few useful properties. The leaves and buds of Andromeda ox}alifolia^^ a small 
tree of the Himalayas, Burmah, China, and Japan, are poisonous to goats in India j an infusion of the 
leaves is employed externally in the treatment of cutaneous diseases, and the young leaves are used to 
destroy insects.^^ In North America leaves of the Stagger Bush, Andromeda Mariana}^" are popularly 
supposed to poison lambs and calves. Most of the species of Andromeda produce handsome foliage 
and beautiful flowers often arranged in ample clusters, and their value as garden plants is recognized in 
all temperate regions. In North America Andromeda is not seriously injured by insects or by fungal 
diseases. ^^ 

The generic name was adopted by Linnaeus in fanciful allusion to the fable of Andromeda.^* 



Zenobia. Calyx small, S-parted, corolla open-campanulate, ob- 22. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, Abbild, Deutsche Holz. i. 72, 

tusely 5-lobed ; filaments naked, dilated at the base ; anthers Ian- t. 55. — De Caudolle, Prodr, vii. 606. — Franchet & Savatier, I, c. 

ceolate, each cell surmounted by two ascending awn-like appendages; Gray, Syn, FL N. Am, ii. 31. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. 

placentas attached to the middle of the short axis. Capsule de- ed. 6, 316. 
pressed-globose, obtusely 6-lobed. Leaves deciduous, often covered 



with a dense glaucous bloom. A single species of the coast region 
of the south Atlantic states. 



Andromeda rosmarinifolia, Pursh, FL Am, Sept, i. 291 (1814). 
Andromeda glaucophyllaj Link, Enum, i, 394 (1821). 
^ Heer, PhylL Cret, du Net, 18, t. 1, f. 5. — Lesquereux, U, S, 



PoRTUNA. Calyx deeply 5-parted ; corolla ovate-urceolate, Geolog. Rep, vi. 88, t. 23, f. 6, 7 ; t. 28, f. 15 ; Rep, U. S, Geolog, 
5-toothed ; filaments without appendages ; anthers oblong, each Surv, viii. 60, t. 2, f . 5 ; 175, t. 34, f, 10, 11 (^Contrib, Foss, FL 



cell with a reflexed awn-like appendage on the back ; placentas 
attached near the apex of the axis. Capsule globose. Seed mostly 
scobiform. Leaves coriaceous, persistent. Eastern North America, 
Himalayas, China, and Japan, ^^ Wallich, Asiat. Res. xiii. 391, f. (1820). — W^ 

PiERis. Calyx divided nearly to the base into five sometimes Ind, Orient, t, 1199. — Msiximowiczy BulL Acad. Sd, St. Petersbourg, 



Western Territories). 

8 Zittel, Handb. PalcBontolog. ii. 722, f. 376, 377. 

9 Gray, L c. 30. 

10 Wallich, Asiat. Res. xiii. 391, f. ri820y 



herbaceous sepals ; corolla ovate-urceolate to cylindrical, 5-toothed; 
filaments mostly pubescent or ciliate, generally furnished near the 
apex with two spreading recurved awn-like appendages ; anthers 
oblong ; placentas usually borne above the middle of the axis. 
Capsule 5-angled and ridged on the dorsal sutures. Seeds sco- 
biform or oblong. Leaves deciduous. Eastern North America, 
Mexico, Himalayas, China, and Japan. 

Lyonia. Calyx 5 or rarely 4-lobed ; corolla globular to urceo- 
late, pubescent or glandular ; filaments flat and, like the short 



(Mel 



Franchet & Savatier, L c, 285. 
■lifolia, D. Don, Edinburgh New PhiL Jour, xvii. 



(1834). — Don, Gen. Syst. in, 832. —De Candolle, /. c. — Kurz, 
Forest FL Brit. Burm. ii. 92. — Hooker f. L c. 460. — Forbes & 
Hemsley, L c. 17. 

Andromeda ellipticay Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Munch 
iv. pt. iii. 126 (1846). 

11 Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 280. 



12 Linnseus, L c. (1753). 



J7, 



anthers, without appendages ; placentas at the apex of the axis. Mag. xxxviii 



Nouveau 



Bot. 

Guimpel, 



Capsule 5-angled and ridged on the dorsal sutures, the ridges Otto & Hayne, ^&&i76?. floZ^. 138, 1. 113. — Gray, Z. c. 32. — Watson 
separable in dehiscence. Seeds pendulous, scobiform. Leaves & Coulter, L c. 



Andromeda pulchella, Salisbury, Prodr. 289 (1796). 

Don, L c. 



Mariana 



persistent or deciduous. Eastern North America, West Indies, 
and Mexico. 

* Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. ii. 281. 

2 Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind, 142 (Lyonia); Cat. PL Cub. 50. 
8 Hooker f . FL Brit. Ind. iii. 460 (Pieris). 

^ Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Sac, xxvi. 16 (Pieris). 
^ Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 284. 

« Andromeda polifolia, Linn^us, Spec, 393 (1753). — i^Z. Dan, i. branches of Andromeda ligustrina, Elliott, 
t. 5-1, — Nouveau Duhamelj i. 183, t. 38. — Hayne, Arzn. iii. 22. t. i^ Linn^us, Fl. Lapp. 126. 



(1839) 



13 Among the fungi found on the American species of Andromeda 
the most conspicuous is the remarkable Exobasidium AndromedcEy 
Peck, which appears in the form of irregular bag-like bodies, 
often several inches in length, hanging in early summer from the 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NOMTH AMERICA. 



131 



ANDROMEDA PERRUGINEA. 



Flowers in axillary clusters ; corolla globose ; anthers destitute of appendages. 
Capsule 5-angled and ridged, the ridges separable in dehiscence. Leaves coriaceous, 
persistent, like the young branches lepidote-scurfy. 



Andromeda ferruginea, Walt 



Willdenow 



480. 



Noicveau 
Hort. Malm. 80, t. 80. 

, Mont de Courset. Bot. C 



Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 33. ....^...., 

10th Census U. S. ix. 96. 
Persoon, Syn. i. Lyonia ferruginea, Nuttall, Gen. i. 266 (1818). 



N. 



Hist 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 



i. 292. — EUiott, Sk. i. 489. — Chapman, Fl. 263. 



Gray, 



Don, 

Gen. Syst. iii. 830. — Dietrich, Sijn. ii. 1399. — De Can- 
dolle, Frodr. vii. 600. — Koch, Deiidr. ii. 122. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 229. 



A tree, 



naUy twenty to thirty feet in height, with a slender crooked or often prostrate 



trunk rarely ten inches in diameter, and thin rigid divergent branches which form a tall oblong irregu- 
lar head ; or often a shrub two or three feet high. The bark of the trunk, which varies from an eighth 
to a quarter of an inch in thickness, is divided into long narrow ridges by shallow longitudinal furrows, 



and is reddish brown on the surface, which separates into short thick 



The branchlets, when they 



first appear, are thickly coated with minute f errugineous scales, and in their second year are covered with 
glabrous or pubescent Hght or dark red-brown bark, which is smooth or exfohates in small thin scales. 
The leaves are cuneate - ob ovate, rhombic-obovate, or cuneate-oblong, acute or rounded at the apex, and 
usually tipped with a cartilaginous mucro, gradually wedge-shaped at the base, and entire, with thickened 
revolute margins ; when they unfold they are scurfy on both surfaces, but especially on the lower, and 
at maturity are thick and firm, pale green, smooth and shining or sometimes obscurely lepidote above, 
covered below with ferrugineous or pale scales, one to three inches long and a quarter of an inch to an 
inch and a half broad, with midribs and primary veins prominent on the upper as well as on the lower 
surface, and broad conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on short thick petioles much enlarged 
at the base, and, appearing in early spring, do not fall before the summer or autumn of their second 
year. The flowers are chiefly produced on the branches of the year or occasionally on those of the 
previous year, and open from February until April, when the leaves are fully grown ; they are borne in 
crowded axillary short-stemmed or sessile ferrugineous-lepidote fascicles, on slender recurved pedicels 
much shorter than the leaves, and are an eighth of an inch in diameter. The bracts and bractlets are 
minute, acute, and early deciduous. The calyx, which is covered on the outer surface with ferrugineous 
scales, is five-lobed, with acute lobes, and is a third as long as the globular white pubescent corolla, 
which is five-toothed, with short reflexed acute teeth slightly thickened and ciliate on the margins. The 
pubescent filaments are shortened by a conspicuous geniculate fold in the middle, and, like the short 
anthers attached just above the middle, are destitute of appendages. The ovary is coated with thick 
white tomentum ; and the stout style, which is as long as the corolla or a little longer, is glabrous. 
The fruit is borne on a stout erect stem, and is an oblong five-angled capsule a quarter of an inch in 
length, with thickened ribs at the dorsal sutures, which separate from the valves when the capsule opens. 
From the placentas, borne at the apex of the columella or axis, a number of seeds are suspended ; these 
are minute, narrow-oblong, and are covered with a loose cellular-reticulate coat produced at both ends 

into short fringe-like wings. 

Andromeda ferrufjlnea is distributed from the coast region of South Carolina to Cedar Keys on 



the west coast of Florida 



It 



IS 



said 



inhabit the West Indies and Mexico, where 



ported 



from the region of San Luis Potosi as growing at elevations of from six to eight thousand feet ab 



132 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ericace^. 



3 



the sea^ from the mountains of Oaxaca^ and from Orizaba^ Jitotole^ and Talea.^ In the United States it 
is usually found in the neighborhood of the coast, where, in the rich soil of the wooded hummocks which 
rise from the sandy Pine-covered coast plain, it grows as a small tree,^ with crowded narrow less con- 
spicuously reticulate-veined leaves, or in the dry sandy sterile soil of the Pine barrens as a low shrub 
with remoter broader obovate or rhomboidal leaves conspicuously reticulate-veined. 

The wood of Andromeda ferriirjuiea is heavy, hard, and close-grained, although not strong, with 
a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays, 
and is light brown tinged with red, with thick Ughter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.7500, a cubic foot weighing 46.74 pounds. 

First described by Walter in 1788, Andromeda ferruginea had been introduced twelve years 
earher by the nurseryman James Gordon into English gardens,* from which it no doubt disappeared 
long ago ; and this handsome plant, which covers itself every year with countless flowers, is now 
probably unknown in pleasure-grounds, which it would adorn at all seasons of the year. 



1 Hemsley, Bot Biol Am. Cent ii. 282. Lyonia rigida, Nuttall, Gen. i. 266 (1818). — Don, Gen. Syst. 

2 Andromeda ferruginea^ var. arborescenSy Michaux, Fl, Bor^-Am. iii. 830. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 600. 



i. 252 (1803). 



^ Andromeda rhomboidalis, Nouveau Duhamely i. 192 (1801). 



Andromeda rigida, Pursh, FL Am. SepL i. 292 (1814). — Lod- Andromeda ferruginea, yslt. fruticosaj Michaux, Z. c. (1803). 



diges, BoL Cab. ii. t. 430. 



Lyonia? rJiomboidaliSy Don, I, c. 831 (1834). 
^ Aiton, HorL Kew. ii. 68. — Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 1109 (Lyonia). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXXIV. Ajstdrgmeda ferrugii^a 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Rear view of a flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

7. A stamen, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A fruit, enlarged. 

12. A fruit after the opening of the valves, enlarged. 

13. A fruit, two of the valves removed, enlarged. 

14. A seed, enlarged. 

15. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

16. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of Eorth America 



Tab. CCXXXIV 




5 



12 



13 



3 





5 






C. E . Faacorv deZ 



Rapine' sc- 



ANDROMEDA FERRUGINEA, Walt. 



A.RLocreuay direco. 



Imp. R Toiieur , Farhs 



ERicACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



133 



OXYDENDEUM. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx free, 5-parted, the divisions valvate in aestiyation ; corolla 
gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 10 ; ovary superior, 
5-celled ; ovules numerous, ascending. Fruit a 5-celled many-seeded capsule. Leaves 
alternate, membranaceous, deciduous, destitute of stipules. 



Oxydendrum, De CandoUe, Prodr.\\i. 601 (1839). —Meis- Andromeda, Linnaeus, Gen. 123 (1737) (in part). — A. L 
ner, Gen. pt. ii. 153. — Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. i. 1412. — de Jussieu, Gen. 160 (in part). 

Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 585. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xi. 
180. 



A tree, with thick deeply furrowed bark, slender terete glabrous light red or brown branchlets 
marked by elevated nearly triangular leaf -scars displaying a lunate row of crowded fibro-vascular bundle- 
scars and many elevated oblong dark lenticels, acid fohage, and fibrous roots. Winter-buds axillary, 
minute, partly immersed in the bark, obtuse, covered with opposite broadly ovate dark red scales 
rounded at the apex, those of the inner ranks accrescent.^ Leaves alternate, revolute in vernation, 
oblong or lanceolate, acute, gradually contracted at the base into long slender petioles, serrate with 
minute incurved callous teeth, penniveined, with conspicuous bright yellow midribs and reticulate 
veinlets, thin and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and glaucous on the lower, 
glabrous, or at first slightly puberulous, deciduous. Flowers in puberulous panicles of secund racemes 
appearing in summer and terminal on axillary leafy shoots of the year, the lower racemes from the axils 
of the upper leaves. Pedicels produced from the axils of lanceolate-acute caducous bracts, clavate, erect, 
coated with hoary pubescence, and bibracteate above the middle, the bractlets Hnear-acute, caducous. 
Flower-buds ovate-acute, puberulous. Calyx free, divided nearly to the base, pubescent or puberulous 
on the outer surface, persistent, the divisions ovate-lanceolate and acute. Corolla hypogynous, cylin- 
drical to ovate-conical, white, puberulous, the lobes minute, ovate-acute, reflexed. Stamens ten, included ; 
filaments subulate, broad, pilose, inserted on the very base of the corolla ; anthers Hnear-oblong, nar- 
rower than the filaments, attached on the back above the base, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening 
longitudinally from the apex to the middle ; pollen grains compound. Disk thin, obscurely ten-lobed. 
Ovary broadly ovoid, pubescent, five-celled; style columnar, thick, exserted, crowned with a simple 
stigma J ovules numerous in each cell, attached to an axile placenta rising from the base of the cell, 
ascending, amphitropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Capsule small, ovoid-pyramidal, crowned 
with the remnants of the persistent style, five-lobed, puberulous, locuhcidally five-valved, the valves 
ligneous, septiferous, separating from the central persistent placentiferous axis, many-seeded. Seeds 
ascending, elongated ; testa membranaceous, loose, reticulated, produced at both ends into long slender 
points. Embryo minute, axile in fleshy albumen, cyhndrical ; radicle terete, next the hilum. 

The wood of Oxydendrum is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with a satiny surface susceptible 
of receiving a beautiful pohsh ; it contains numerous medullary rays, and is brown tinged with red, with 
lighter colored sapwood composed of eighty or ninety layers of annual growth. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7458, a cubic foot weighing 46.48 pounds. It is sometimes used locally 
for the handles of tools and the bearings of machinery.^ 



1 Oxydendrum does not appear to form a terminal bud, the apex 
of the branchlet appearing as a minute black point close to the 



axillary bud, which the following 
jcvdendrum increases its trunk-d 



specimen, from the mountains of Tennessee, in the Jesup Collection 
of North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York, is eleven inches in diameter inside the bark, 



The log- and shows eighty-six layers of annual growth. 



134 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. Ericaceae. 



The leaves of Oxydendrum have a pleasant acidulous taste^ and when chewed allay thirst ; they are 
reputed to be tonic, refrigerant, and diuretic, and are occasionally used in domestic practice in infusions 
and decoctions for the treatment of fevers.^ 

The earliest account of Oxydendrum was published in 1739 by Gronovius in the Flora Virgmica 
of Clayton, where it is described as an Andromeda. 

The generic name, from o^vg and ShSpovy alludes to the acid leaves. The genus consists of a 



2 



single species. 



1 Rafinesque, Med. FL i. 41, t. 5. — Porcher, Resources of South- ^ Andromeda arhorea foliis oblongo-ovatis integerrimis^ Jloribus 

em Fields and Forests^ 379. — Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 516. — paniculatis nutantibus, racemis simplicissimisy 48. 
Johnson, Man. Med, BoL N. Am, 194. Frutex foliis oblongis acuminatis, floribus spicatis unoversu disposi- 

tisy Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. L 71, t. 71. 



EKICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



135 



OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM. 



Sorrel Tree. Sour Wood. 



Oxydendrum arboreum, De CandoUe, Frodr. vii. 601 



(1839). 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1389. — Chapman, FL 263. 



Curtis, Hep. Geolog, Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 79, — Koch, 



Dendr. ii. 128. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 33. 



Sar- 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 98. 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 317. 
Andromeda arborea, Linnaeus, Spec. 394 (1753). — Millei^, 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 257. — Du Mont de Courset, 
Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 495. — Michaux f . Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 
222, t. 7.— Pursh, Fl Am. Sejjf. i. 295. — Nuttall, Gen. 

i. 265. — Elliott, Sk. i. 491. — Mordant de Launay, Herb. 
Amat. V. t. 342. — W. P. C Barton, Fl. N. Am. i. 105, t. 



30. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 59. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 291 



Gray, Man. 266. 



Diet. ed. 8, No. 4. — Lamarck, Diet. i. 158. — Marshall, Andromeda arborescens, Persoon, Syn. i. 480 (1805). 



Arbust. Am. 7. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii 



Loddiges, Bot. Cab. xiii. t. 1210. 



191. 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 105. — Walter, FL Lyonia arborea, D. Don, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, xvii- 



Car. 138. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 612 ; Enum. 452 ; Berl. 
Baumz. ed. 2, 31. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 255. 
Nouveau Duhamel^ i. 178. — Bot. Mag. xxiii. t. 905. 



159 (1834). — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 831. — Spach, Hist. 
Veg. ix. 486. 



A tree^ occasionally fifty or sixty feet in height^ with a tall straight trunk twelve to twenty inches 
in diameter^ and slender spreading branches which form a narrow oblong round-topped head. The 
bark of the trunk is two thirds of an inch to an inch in thickness^ giaj tinged with red^ and divided by 
deep longitudinal furrows into broad rounded ridges covered with small thick appressed scales. The 
branchlets, when they first appear^ are glabrous^ light yellow-green^ and marked with orange-colored 
lenticels, and in their first winter are orange-colored to reddish brown. The inner bud-scales at maturity 
are an inch long^ an eighth of an inch wide, spatulate, acute at the apex, and shghtly puberulous on 
the inner surface and the margins. The leaves, when they unfold, are bronze-green, very lustrous, 
and glabrous with the exception of a slight pubescence on the upper side of the midribs and of a few 
scattered hairs on the under side of the midribs and on the petioles j at maturity they are five to seven 
inches in length, an inch and a half to two inches and a half in breadth, and are borne on petioles two 
thirds of an inch long. In the autumn before falling they turn bright scarlet. The flower-clusters 
appear on the ends of the leafy shoots of the year late in June or early in July, and the flowers, which 
are a third of an inch in length and arranged in lax drooping panicles seven or eight inches long, open 
three or four weeks later. The fruit, which hangs in drooping clusters sometimes a foot in length, 
ripens in September, although the empty capsules often remain on the branches until late in the 

autumn. 

Oxydendrum arboreiim is distributed from Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, 

to southern Indiana and middle Tennessee, and southward along the Alleghany Mountains to western 
Florida and the eastern shores of Mobile Bay, and through the elevated regions of the Gulf states to 
western Louisiana. It is usually found in well-drained gravelly soil on ridges rising above the banks 
of rivers in forests of White Oaks, Hickories, Tupelos, Walnuts, and Sugar Maples, and attains its 
largest size on the western slopes of the Big Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. 

According to Aiton, the Sorrel-tree was cultivated in England by Philip Miller as early as 1752.^ 
Amonsf the small trees of North America few are more beautiful or better deserve the attention of 
planters. The handsome lustrous leaves are not injured by insects or fungal diseases ; the large droop- 
in o* clusters of white flowers appear at a season when few other trees are in bloom ; and the color of 
the foliage in autumn is not surpassed in brilHancy and splendor by that assumed by any other tree. 



1 Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 69. — Loudon, Arb, Brit, ii. 1111 (Lyonia). 



136 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ericace^. 



The Sorrel-tree is easily raised from seeds, which germinate readily, although the seedlings grow 
ilowly ; it is transplanted without difficulty, and is perfectly hardy as far north as eastern New England 
md in western and central Europe. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXXXV. Oxydendrum akboreum 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged- 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

6. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A portion of a fruit-cluster, natural size. 

9. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An ovule, much magnified. 

14. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America 



Tab. CCXXXV- 




CS.J^ctaxrn. d&L. 



JMk0j3ZLe^ so. 



OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM, DC 



^,RLocrezw> 3ipea> 



b 



Imp. IL. ToTiezLr^ Paru. 



EKICACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



137 



KALMIA. 



Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation; corolla 

gamopetalous, 10 -pouched below the 5-lobed limb, the lobes imbricated in aestiyation ; 
stamens 10 ; anthers held before anthesis in the pouches of the corolla ; ovary superior, 

Fruit a septicidal woody capsule. Leaves opposite, alter- 



5-celled ; ovules numerous. 

nate, or 3-verticillate, coriaceous, persistent, destitute of stipules 



Kalmia 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 158. — Endlicher, Gen. 759 



Meisner, Gen. 246. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 596. 
BaiUon, Hist. PI. xi. 172. 

Rhododendros, Adanson, Favi. PI. ii. 164 (in part) (1763) 



Small trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, terete or two-edged branchlets, minute axillary leaf-buds, 
elongated inflorescence-buds of imbricated scales, and fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, alternate, or 
rarely in whorls of three, ovate-oblong or Hnear, short-petiolate, entire, coriaceous, persistent. Flowers 
in simple or clustered axillary umbels, fascicles, or corymbs, or rarely axillary, soHtary, and scattered. 
Pedicels slender, bibracteolate at the base, produced from the axils of foliaceous coriaceous ovate or 
subulate persistent bracts. Calyx five-parted, the divisions small, or large and foliaceous, persistent 
or deciduous. Corolla rose-colored, purple, or white, crateriform or saucer-shaped, the tube short, with 
ten pouches just below the five-parted limb, the lobes ovate, acute ; before anthesis prominently ten- 
ribbed from the pouches to the acute apex of the bud, the salient keels of the ribs running to the points 
of the lobes and to the sinuses. Stamens ten, hypogynous, shorter than the coroUa ; filaments filiform ; 
anthers oblong, attached on the back, two-celled, each cell opening by a short apical oblong longitudinal 
pore, at first free in the bud, the filaments then erect, later received in the pouches of the corolla and 
afterwards bent back by its enlargement and expansion and straightening elasticaUy and incurving on 



the release of the anthers; 



pollen grain 



compound, discharged by the straightening of the filaments.* 



Disk prominent, ten-lobed. Ovary subglobose, five-celled ; style filiform, exserted, persistent or decidu- 
ous, crowned with a capitate stigma ; ovules numerous in each cell, inserted on a two-lipped placenta 
pendulous or porrect from near the top of the thin columella, few-ranked, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; 
micropyle superior. Capsules many-seeded, globose, slightly five-lobed, five-celled, tardily septicidally 
five-valved, the valves crustaceous, ultimately opening down the middle by a narrow slit, and separating 
from the persistent placenta-bearing axis. Seed oblong or subglobose ; testa crustaceous or membrana- 
ceous ; albumen fleshy. Embryo minute, terete, near the hilum ; radicle erect, rather shorter than the 

oblong cotyledons. 



Kalmia, of which six species are distinguished,^ is North American and Cuban 



One 



species 



Kalmia polifolia^ inhabits bogs from Newfoundland and Hudson's Bay to the mountains of Pennsyl- 



1 The peculiar structure of the flowers of Kalmia makes their ^ Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 37. 



diffi 



from the corolla-sacks until the elasticity of the filaments is lost, 
and evidently provides for their cross-fertilization through the 



* Wangenheim, Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, viii. 130, t. 5 
(1788). 

Kalmia glauca, Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 64, t. 8 (1789). — Bot. Mag. 



anthers 



agency of humble-bees, who, in searching in the cup of the flower v. 177. — Nouveau Duhamel, i. 213, t. 45. — Guimpel, Otto & 

Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 165, t. 139. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 
729. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 41. — Gray, I. c. 38. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 319. 



stigm 



Nat 



Gray, How Plants Behave, 33, f. 26-29 ; 



Agriculturist, xxxv. 262, f. 1^ 



6, 229, f. 455-458). 



138 



SILVA OF NORTH AMURICA. Ericaceae. 



vania, and in an alpine form ranges from Sitka to the high mountains of California and Colorado. 
Two species, one of -which under favorable conditions occasionally becomes a small tree, are widely 
distributed through the eastern part of North America ; two are confined to the coast region of the 
southern Atlantic states, and one with rigid heath-like leaves, Kalmia ericoides^ has been seen only in 



Cuba. 

Kalmia has few useful properties. The leaves of Kalmia latifolia and of Kalmia angustifolia ^ 
are usually believed to be poisonous to animals, and cases of men poisoned by eating the flesh of birds 
which have fed upon the buds and leaves are reported.^ The poisonous properties of Kalmia, however, 
are probably much exaggerated by popular fancy, and need scientific demonstration. Kalmia is slightly 
astringent, sedative, and antisyphilitic, and is occasionally used in medicine,* although its value is 
doubted by many physicians.^ All the species bear handsome and interesting flowers, and those which 
inhabit the north are much cultivated. Where they can be successfuUy grown no other shrubs surpass 
these in value or beauty as garden plants. 

The generic name commemorates the scientific labors of the Swedish traveler and botanist, Peter 

Kalm,^ a friend and pupil of Linnaeus, who traveled in eastern North America in the middle of the 
last century. 



1 Grisebaeh, Cat. PL Cub. 51 (1866). ^ G. G. Thomas, Inaug. Diss. — B. S. Barton, Coll ed. 2, 1. 18, 

Bot. Mag. x. t, 331. — Guimpel, 48 ; ii. 26. — Rafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 18. — Boston Med. and Surg. 



ivan 



Hayne, AlUld. Holz. 164, t. 138. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. Jour. x. 213. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 428, f. 192. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 



729. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 37.— Watson & Coulter, Gray*s 16, 1834. 

Man. ed. 6, 319. 5 Johnson. 

3 Kalm, Travels, English ed. i. 337. — Bigelow, Med. Bot. i. 133, « See U. 86. 
t. 13, — Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 381-383. 



Man. Med. Bot. N. 



ERICACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



139 



KALMIA LATIFOLIA. 



Laurel. Mountain Laurel. 



Flowers in clustered panicles in the axils of upper leaves. Capsules depressed, 



glandular- viscid. 



Kalmia latifolia, Linnaeus, Spec. 391 (1753). — Bot. Mag. 
V. 175. — Wangenheim, Beschreib. Nordam, Holz. 105 ; 



Nordam. Holz 



Marshall, 



72. 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 270. 



La- 



marck, Diet. iii. 345 ; III. ii. 487, t. 363, f. 1. — Gartner, 
Fruct. i. 305, t. 63, f. 7. — V^alter, Fl. Car. 138. — Abbot, 
Insects of Georgia, i. t. 37. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 
161 ; Sjpec. ii. 600 ; Enum. 450. — Schkuhr, Handb. i. 
359, t. 116. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iii. 42, t. 166. 
Nouveau Duhamel, i. 210, t. 44. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.- 

Persoon, Syn. i. 477. — Thornton, Sex. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 54. — Elliott, Sk. i. 481. — Guimpel, 
Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 162, 1. 137. — Sprengel, Sijst. 
ii. 293. — Audubon, Birds, t. 55. — Sertum Botanicum, 
iv. t. — Mordant de Launay, Herb. Aviat. iii. t. 151. 
Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 850. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 729. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. vs.. 498, 1. 139. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. 

Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1407. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 172. — Chapman, 



ii. 41. 



440. 



Fl. 264. —Curtis, Eep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 99. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 152. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 



Am. 



258. 



443 



Syst. Linn. t. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 220. — Du 
Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 322. — Michaux 
f . Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 147, t. 5. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 



296. 



Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 103. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 267. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 250, 
f . 100. — The Garden, xxii. 6, t. 343. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 
Am. ii. 38. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
TJ. S. ix. 98. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 

319. 



A tree. 



ly thirty to forty feet in height, with a short crooked contorted trunk sometimes 



ghteen or twenty inches in diameter, and stout forked divergent branches which form a round-topped 



compact head 



more 



often a dense broad shrub six to ten feet high, sending up from the ground 



numerous crooked branches. The bark of the trunk, which is hardly more than a sixteenth of an inch 
thick, is dark brown tinged with red, and is divided by longitudinal furrows into narrow ridges which 
separate into long narrow scales. The branches, when they first appear, are Hght green tinged with 
red, and are covered with soft white glandular-viscid hairs ; they soon become glabrous, and in their 
first winter are green tinged with red and very lustrous, turning bright red-brown during their second 
year, and paler during the following season, when the bark begins to separate in large thin papery scales, 
exposing the cinnamon-red inner bark, and the branches are marked with large deeply depressed leaf- 
scars showing near the centre a crowded cluster of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The young shoots begin 
to grow in early spring from buds formed before midsummer in the previous year in the axils of the 
leaves just below those from which the clusters of flower-buds are produced, and in which they are 
almost completely immersed ; the tip of the branch dies when these axillary buds, two of which usually 
produce branches, are formed, and appears during the summer as a small black point between the last 
pair of leaves. 



leaves. The inner bud-scales are accrescent at maturity, often an inch long and half an inch 
wide, and are ovate, acute, light green, and covered with glandular white hairs, and in falling mark the 



base of the shoots with conspicuous broad 



The leaves are alternate or sometimes in pairs or in 



threes, condupHcate in vernation, each leaf in the bud being inclosed by the one immediately below 
it, oblong or elliptical-lanceolate, acute, or rounded and tipped at the apex with callous points, and 
gradually narrowed at the base ; when they unfold they are slightly tinged with pink and are covered 
with glandular white hairs, and at maturity they are thick and rigid, dark and rather duU green above, 
lio-hter and yeUow-green below, three to four inches long and an inch to an inch and a half wide, with 
broad yeUow midribs rounded on both sides, and obscure immersed veins not distinguishable on the 



lower surface ; they 



borne on stout terete 



ihghty flattened petioles two thirds of an inch in 



length, and begin to fall during their second summer. The inflorescence-buds appear in the 



umn 



uo 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACEAE. 



m 



the 



of the upper leaves in the form of slender acuminate cones of acute pubescent scales 



they begin to 



& 



then with the first warm days of springs and usually develop two or several lateral 



branches^ the whole forming a compound many-flowered corymb of 



numerous 



owded fascicl 



more or less covered with dark 



fy scales, fo 



five inches in diameter, and overtopped at the 



flowering time by the leafy branches of the year. The branches of the fascicles, and the long slender 
pedicels, which are red or green, covered with glandular hairs, and furnished at the base with two minute 
acute bractlets, are developed from the axils of acute persistent bracts sometimes a third of an inch long. 
The flowers open in May or June, and when fully expanded are nearly an inch in diameter. The 
calyx is divided nearly to the base into narrow acute thin green lobes. The corolla is white, rose- 
colored, or pink, viscid-pubescent, and marked on the inner surface with a waving dark rose-colored line 
and with delicate purple pencihng above the sacs. The fruit, which ripens in September, is depressed, 
crowned with the persistent style, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, three sixteenths of 
an inch in diameter, and covered with viscid hairs. The seeds, which are oblong, are scattered by the 
opening of the valves of the capsules, which remain on the branches until the following year, the valves 
splitting through the middle and generally carrying the placentas with them. 

Kalmia latifolia is distributed from New Brunswick to the northern shores of Lake Erie,^ and 
southward, generally in the neighborhood of the Appalachian Mountains, to western Florida, and 

At the 

north it often gi^ows in low moist ground near the margins of swamps, or on dry slopes under the shade 
of the deciduous-leaved forest ; on the southern mountains, where it is most abundant and often forms 
great dense impenetrable thickets, and where it ascends to elevations of three to four thousand feet 



through the Gulf states to western Louisiana and the valley of the Red River in Arkansas. 



above the 



of the 



sea, it selects as its home rich rocky hillsides. It is usually a shrub, and 
assumes the habit and attains the size of a tree only in a few secluded fertile valleys between the Blue 
Ridge and the Alleghany Mountains in North and South Carolina. 

The wood of Kalmia latifolia is heavy, hard, strong although rather brittle, and close-gTained ; 
it contains remote broad dark brown conspicuous medullary rays, and between these^ numerous thin 



The 



inconspicuous rays. It is brown tinged with red, with slightly lighter colored thick sapwood. 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7160, a cubic foot weighing 44.62 pounds. It is used 
for the handles of tools, in turnery, and for fuel. 



The earliest 



of Plukenet 



account of Kalmia latifolia appeared in 1700 in the Almagesti Botanici Mantissa 
According to Aiton,^ it was introduced into English gardens in 1734 by Peter Collinson.'* 



When it is covered with 



its clusters of delicately marked white or pink flowers, the Mountain 
Laurel ^ is one of the most beautiful plants of the North American flora. Few shrubs are more desirable 



satisfactory inhabitants of the garden, which it ornaments 



of the year. It is easily 



raised from seed ; the fine matted roots, which form a compact sohd ball, make the operation of moving 
the young plants easy and safe ; it flowers profusely when only a few inches in height ; it is perfectly 



hardy except in countries of the most extreme winter cold 



of tropical heat, and it is not particular 



about soil or exposure, although, like other plants of its family, it does not flourish in soil strongly 
impregnated with lime.^ 



Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 39. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 300. 

Cisius Chamcerhododendros Mariana, Laurifolia, florihus expan- 



4 See i. 8. 
Kalmia latifolia is also sometimes caUed Calico Bush, Spoon 



sis, summo ramulo in umlellam plurimis, 49 ; Amalth. BoL 1 379, f . 6. Wood, and universally by the inhabitants of the southern Alleghany 



Chamcedaphne foliis Tini,Jlorib 
Hist. Car. ii. 98, t. 98. 

Andromeda foliis ovatis obtusis,€oroUis corymhosis infundibulifc 
bus, genitalibus declinatis, Clayton, FL Virgin. 160. 



floribvs bullatis confertim 



foliis 
f. 1. 



3 Hort. Kew. ii. 64. — Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 1151, f. 959. 



Mountains, Ivy. 

® A curious monstrous form of Kalmia latifolia, in which the 
corollas are all deeply divided into five narrowly linear or some- 
times nearly thread-shaped petals, the pouches being rudimentary 
and represented by slight depressions on the inner surface of the 
divisions of the corolla, was discovered several years ago by Miss 
M. Bryant near Deerfield, Massachusetts (Gray, Am, Nat. iv. 
373. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, iii. 452, f . 56). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXXXVL Kalmia latifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram o£ a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCXXXVII. Kalmia latifolia. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 

8. A cluster of inflorescence-buds in autumn, enla: 

9. An inflorescence-bud in early spring, natural size. 
.0. The end of a sterile shoot in winter, one of the le; 

removed, showing the axillary leaf-buds. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXXX^/I. 



I I 




V.E.Fcuroru det> 



Phcart so. 



KALMIA LATIFOLIA, L. 



A Biooretazy. dirGZ> . 



Imp. R Tamicr, Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXXXVII. 




C.^.Fchr^n del 



ItcLpU 



trie' sc. 



KALMIA LATIFOLIA,L. 



A.Riocrea^ direa:r 



Imp. R.Tane^ur, Paris 



ERICACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



143 



EHODODENDEON. 



Flowers perfect 



ealy 



5-parted or toothed, the divisions imbricated in sestiva 



tion, often much reduced or obsolete 
imbricated in aestivation; stamens u 
ovules numerous in each cell. Fruit 
capsule. Leaves alternate, entire, coi 
ous, destitute of stipules. 



corolla gamopetalous, usually 5-lobed, the lobes 
ually 8 to 10; ovary superior, 5 to 20-celled ; 

a vroody 5 to 20-celled septicidal many-seeded 
iceous or membranaceous, persistent or decidu- 



Rhododendron, Maximowicz, Mem 



(1870). 

Hist. PI. xi. 171. 



, 7, xvi. 13 {Ehododendrece Asice Orientalis) 
Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 599. — Baillon, 



Rhododendron, D. Don, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. vi. 49 



(1822). 



Ned 



(1826). 



Don, Gen. Syst, iii. 848. 



Azalea, Linnseus, Gen. 53 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Anthodendron, Reichenbach, Moessler Handh. Gew'dchsk. 



158. 



Endlicher, Gen. 758. — Meisner, Gen. 246. 



ed. 2, i. 308 (1827). —Meisner, Gen. 246. 



Rhododendron, Linnaeus, Sy&t. Nat. ed. 10, 1023 (1759) ; Rhododendron, Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 843 (1834). 

Gen. ed. 6, 218. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 158. — End- Osmothamnus, De Candolle, Prodr. vii. 715 (1839) 
licher, Gen. 759. — Meisner, Gen. 246. Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. i. 1412. 

Rhodora, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 6, 218 (1764). — A. L. de Jus- 
sieu, Gen. 159. — Meisner, Gen. 246. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes epiphytal, glabrous, 
bark, hard close-grained wood, terete branchlets, scaly leaf-buds, and fibro 



pubescent, tomentose, or lepidote/ with scaly 

IS roots. Leaves alternate. 



usually clustered at the ends of the branches, entire, coriaceous or membranaceous, persistent or 



decid 



Flowers in terminal few or many-flowered umbellate corymb 



fascicles from separate 



strobilaceous inflorescence-buds with usuaUy numerous caducous bracts, or rarely axillary or solitary 
from leafy or separate buds, or terminal and solitary on leafy shoots of the year. Calyx five-parted or 
toothed, disk-shaped, cupular or obsolete, coriaceous or foliaceous, persistent. Corolla usually funnel- 



shaped or campanulate, rarely tubular, salver-formed or subrotate, the limb more 



oblique, five 



rarely six to ten-lobed or parted, occasionally two-lipped, deciduous. Stamens hypogynous, usually 
eight to ten, rarely five, or twelve to eighteen, more or less unequal, often declinate, ultimately spread- 
ing ; filaments usuaUy subulate-filiform or rarely short and thick, usuaUy pilose or bearded at the base ; 
anthers attached on the back, stout or elongated, rarely incurved and connivent, entire, two-celled, each 
cell opening by a terminal pore. Disk usually thick and fleshy, crenately lobed. Ovary superior, five 



twenty-celled; style slender, short or elongated, declinate 



curved, crowned with a capitate five 



twenty-lobed stigma ; ovules numerous in each cell, attached in many series to an axile two-lipped 



placenta projected from the 



of the ceU, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior 



Capsule short or elongated, splitting septicidally from the apex into five to twenty valves free from the 
placentiferous axis, many-seeded. Seeds scobiform ; testa loose, reticulate, produced beyond the nucleus 



at both ends into short often laciniate appenda 



Embryo minute, cylindrical, axile in fleshy 



albumen ; cotyledons oblong, shorter than the radicle turned towards the hilum.^ 

^ The character of the covering of the leaves of Rhododendron from separate subglobose leafless buds of few caducous bracts on 

has been found useful in grouping the species and for distinguish- shoots of the previous year; corolla campanulate or salver-form, the 

s^r. 7, i. 238.) tube erect or slightly ciu-ved, villous ui the throat ; stamens 5 to 7, 

2 By Maximowicz (Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, sdr. 7, xvi. included; ovary 4 to o-ceUed. Dwarf graveolent alpine shrubs with 

14") ( Rhododendrece Asice Orientalis} Rhododendron is divided into persistent leaves tomentose on the lower surface. Central Europe, 

the following' sections : central Asia, Siberia, and northern China. 

Osmothamnus. Flowers in many-flowered terminal clusters Eurhododendron. Flowers in many-flowered terminal clusters 



iiig them. (See Vesque, Ann. Sci. Nat 



1^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACE^. 



Nearly two hundred species of Rhododendron are already known j ^ they abound in western Thibet 



2 



d on the Himalay 



3 



d their western prolongation in southwestern China : * through the Malay 



Peninsula and Archipelago/ where several species inhabit the high mountain forests, they range 



New Guinea/ and through central and northern China and Corea ^ to Jap 



8 



here a dozen species 



found J of these, Rhododendron Camtschaticum ^ reaches Alaska ^° by the Kurile Islands 



Fiftee 



or sixteen species, representing 



of the nine sections 



which the genus has been divided 



habit North America,^^ where they are chiefly confined to northern regions and high mountain ranges 
laro'er number occurring in the eastern than in the western part of the continent. Only Rhododen 



dron Lajwonicimi ^^ crosses the 



ging from the shores of Norton Sound 



Labrador and 



e alpine summits of the White Mountains in New England, and by way of Greenland reaching Europ 
d northern Asia. In the extreme western part of Europe two other species 
[labits the hio^h mountain ranges of the central regions of the continent. 



found, while a thhd 



Five species 



found 



the 



IG 



the 



reappears 



Afghanistan 



with two endemic species 



17 



an 



cl rapidly 



in the number of species from west to east on the Himalay 



Rhododendrons were common 



the 



Arctic regions of both hemispheres during the tertiary period^ and traces of several species are found 



from separate cone-like buds of many caducous bracts on shoots of scribed Rbododencbons, transferring the headquarters of the genus, 
the previous year ; corolla 5 to 10-lobed, glabrous or pilose in the as represented by the greatest number of species, from Sikkim to 



throat ; stamens 10 to 20. 



with 



Yuu-uan ; and a further examination of the forests which cover 



Eastern and Pacific North America, Europe, Asia Minor, Hima- the momitains of western and southwestern China, eastern Thibet, 



layas, China, and Japan. 



and northern Burmah may be expected to yield large additions to 



Azalea. Flowers in many-flowered terminal clusters from sepa- the number of species. 



•liki 



fimnel 



2 Franchet, PL David, ii. 83. 

8 Hooker f. RJiododendrons of the Sikkim-Himalaya j FL Brit. 



limb 4-lobed or parted, rarely bilobed ; stamens 5 to 10, exserted. Ind. iii. 462, 



Shrubs with membranaceous or rarely coriaceous deciduous leaves. 
Eastern and western North America, Asia Minor, China, and 
Japan. 



* Franchet, Bull, Soc. Bot. France^ xxxiii. 223. 



5 Miquel, FL Ind. BaL ii. 1057. 



® Beccari, Malesia^ i. 199. — Warburg, Engler Bot, Jdhrb. xvi. 



TsusiA. Flowers terminal from leafy buds of few caducous 24. 



scales on shoots of the previous year ; corolla campanulate ; sta- 



^ Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, s4t. 7, xvi. 13 



mens 5 to 10 ; ovary 5-celled. Glandular shrubs with deciduous or (Rhododendrece Asice Orientalis). — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. 



persistent leaves. China and Japan. 

Keysia. Flowers fascicled from axillary buds ; corolla tubidar- 
cylindric, the lobes incurved ; stamens 10 ; ovary 5-celled. A shrub 
with persistent leaves. Himalayas. 



Soc. xxvi. 19. 

^ Franchet & Savatier, Enum, PL Jap. i. 287, 

9 Pallas, FL Ross. i. 48, t. 23 (1784). — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 
726. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 43. — Ledebour, FL Ross. ii. 922. 



Rhodorastrum. Flowers solitary from axillary buds ; corolla Kegel & Tilling, Tent. FL Ajan. 110. — F. Schmidt, Mem. Acad. 

campanulate ; stamens 10. Shrubs with deciduous lepidote slightly Sci. St. Petershourgy s6v. 7, xii. 157 (Fl. SachaL). — Maxiniowicz, 

coriaceous leaves. Northern Asia, Himalayas, and eastern Thibet. L c. 47. 

AzALEASTRUM. Flowcrs axillary from the same bud as the leafy Rhodothamnus KamtschaticuSj Lindley, Paxton Brit. Fl. Gard. i. 



shoot or from separate 1 to 3-flowered buds ; corolla rotate or sub- 
campanulate ; stamens 5 to 10. Shrubs 



with 



branaceous deciduous leaves. Northwestern America, eastern 
Thibet, China, and Japan. 

Therorhodion. Flowers in 1 or 2-flowered clusters from buds 



113, t. 22 (1850). 

10 Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. ii. 40. 

11 Miyabe, ilf em. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist iv. 247 {Fl. Kurile Islands). 

12 Gray, L c. 39. 

18 Wahlenberg, FL Lapp. 104 (1812). — Bot Mag. Iviii. t. 3106. 



terminal on the leafy shoots of the year, their bracts persistent on Hooker, L c. — De CandoUe, /. c. 724. — Gray, L c. 42. — Watson 



the base of the branch during the season ; corolla rotate, 5-lobed, & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 321. 



divided on the anterior side to the base ; stamens 10. Low shrubs 
with deciduous leaves. Northwestern America and northeastern 



Fl. Dan. vi. 



Asia. 



Azalea Lapponica^ Linnseus, Spec. 151 (1753). 
t. 966. — Pallas, L c. ii. 52, t. 70, f . 1. 
14 Nyman, Conspect FL Ewop. 491. — Hooker f. Bot Mag. cxvi. 



XXXIU 



t. 7149. 



adds a ninth : 



/^ 



Jac- 



qum 



Choniastrum. Flowers in 1 or 2-flowered fascicles from axil- 
lary buds; corolla inf imdibular ; stamens 13 to 14, exserted. Leaves 
persistent. Southwestern China and eastern Thibet. 

1 Although botanical travelers have as yet hardly penetrated Nyman, l. c. 492. 



Hayne, Arzn. x. 25, t 



25. 



Willdenow & Hayn 



69, t 



52. 



Med. 



De CandoUe, l. c. 



that great central Asiatic region where the Himalayan system is 



1^ Boissier, FL Orient, iii. 971. 



Hort 



prolonged to the west and northwest in high momitain ranges, ix. 513. Gartenji\ 



they have recently made known a large nmnber of previously uude- 



Aitchison & Hemslev* Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii 



ERICACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



145 



in the miocene rocks of central Europe/ where the genus is now poorly represented by 
which have been able to retain here only an alpine foothold. 



species 



Rhododendron possesses bitter^ astringent, and narcotic properties. A decoction of the leaves of 



Rhododendron chryscmthiim 



2 



of the 



d m 



and 



loyed in Siberia in the treatment of rheumatism and other affec 
is now used in some European countries for the same purpose. 



The buds of Rhododendron ferritgineum are used in northern Italy in the preparation of an anti-rheu 
matic liniment : ^ and in the United States a decoction of the leaves 



leaves of Rhododaidron v 
ally used domestically for the same purpose. The flowers of Rhododendron fl^ 



G 



are 



believed to be poisonous and to have caused the madness of Xenophon's Ten Thousand;^ and in India 
honey made in the spring where Rhododendrons abound is beHeved to be dangerous.^ The flowers of 
the Himalayan Rhodoiidedron arhoreum^ which are said to be slightly intoxicating, are eaten fresh 



made 



a conserve 



10 



but its flower-buds and young leaves are thought to be poisonous to cattle. 
In Sikkim goats and sheep die from the effects of browsing on the fohage of Rhododendron cinna- 
harinum^^ and the smoke produced by its burning wood inflames the face and eyes. The leaves of 

^^ are injurious to browsing animals and are considered poisonous to the 



Rhododendron Afghanlciim^^ are injurious to 

touch by the natives.^^ The dried leaves of Rhododendron 



wanidat 



14 



are used 



Ind 



la as 



snuff/^ and the leaves of Rhododendron lepidotitm ^^ and of Rhododendron Anthopogon 



17 



stimu 



lants. 



18 



In China the leaves of different species of Rhododendron are employed to adulterate tea. 



19 



Rhododendron produces hard close-grained compact wood; in India that of Rhododendron 
arhoreum is used in buildings in turnery^ and for fuel and charcoal ; ^^ and in Japan Rhododendron 
wood is manufactured into many small articles. 

Many species of Rhododendrons are cultivated in gardens, and during the last fifty years great 
attention has been paid to improving them by selection and cross-breeding.^^ The natural species most 



1 Zittel, Handh. Palceontolog, ii. 728, f. 378. 



IQS. — BoL Reg. xi. t. 890; xv. t. 1240; xxiii. t. 1982. — De Can- 



''■ Pallas, Reise, iii. 369 ; Appx. 729, t. N. f . 1, 2 (1776) ; Fl. Ross. dolle, I c. 720. —BoL Mag. Ixxxviii. t. 5311. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit 



i. 44, t. 30. 

X. 27, t. 27. 



linn 



mm 



Hayne, Arzn, Burnt, ii. 93. — Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind, iii. 465. 



Med 



De Candolle, Prodr, vii. 



10 Brandis, Forest FL Brit, Ind. 281. 

11 Hooker f . Rhododendrons of the S\ 



723. — Ledebonr, FL Ross. ii. 920. — Tm?czaninow, FL Baicalensi- Ind. iii. 474. — BoL Mag. Ixxx. t. 4788. 



Dahurica, ii. pt. ii. 205. 



,ximowicz 



Fl 



XVI 



Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat 



A sice Orientalist . 
Kurile Islands). 

Rhododendron aureum, Georgi, Reise^ 214 (1775). 

Rhododendron officinale, Salisbm^y, Parad. Lond. i. pt. ii. t. 

80 (1806). 

8 Gmelin, FL Sibir. iv. 123, t. 64. — Pallas, Reise, iii. 531. 

4 WoodviUe, Med. BoL iu. 403, t. 149. — Rosenthal, Syn. PL 

Diaphor. 521. 

^ Le Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. BoL English ed. 517. 

6 Don, Gen. SysL iii. 847 (1834). — Loudon, Arb. BriL ii. 1140. 

Azalea Pontica, Linnaeus., Spec. 150 (1753). — Pallas, Fl. Ross. 
ii. 51, t. 69. — BoL Mag. xiii, 433 ; 1. t. 2383. — Savi, Flora Ila- 
liana, iii. t. 107. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, L c. 135, t. 109. 
De Candolle, L c. 718. 



Linnseus) (1773). 
Anthodendron Jlavum, Reichenbach, Moessler Handb. Gewachsk. 

ed. 2, i. 309 (1827). 

^ The Expedition of Cyrus into Persia and the Retreat of the Ten 



Greeks, Spelman 



Pallas, L c. 



i. 43 ; ii. 51. 



XX 



190 



(1804) 



Fl 



12 Aitchison & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 75. 

13 Aitchison, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 12, 26 (1881). 

14 D. Don, Edinb. Wern. Soc. Mem. iii. 409 (If 



Sweet, 



Brit. FL Gard. vi. t. 241. — De Candolle, L c. 121. — Bot. Mag. 
Ixvi. t. 3759. — Hooker f . FL BriL Ind. iii. 466. 

Rhododendron ceruginosum, Hooker f. Rhododendrons of the 
Sikkinv-Himalaya, t. 22 (1849). 

15 Brandis, L c. 282. 

16 Don, L c. iii. 845 (1834). — Roy le, IlL 260, t. 64, f. 1. — De 
Candolle, L c. 724:.— BoL Mag. Ixxviii. t. 4657 ; Ixxx. t. 4802. 
Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 471. 

Rhododendron salignum^ Hooker f. Rhododendrons of the Sikklm- 

Himalaya, t. 23 A (1849). 

Rhododendron elceagnoidesy Hooker f. I. c. t. 23 B (1849). 

17 D. Don, L c. (1820). — Royle, L c. t. 64, f. 2. — De Candolle, 
I. c. 725. — BoL Mag. Ixviii. t. 3947. — Hooker f . FL BriL Ind. iii. 



Rhododendron Ponticum, Schreber, Nov. AcL UpsaL i. 90 (not 472. 



IS Brandis, I. c. 

1^ Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures^ and 
Raw Commercial Products^ ii. 2010. 

^^ Brandis, L c. — Gamble, Man. Ind. Timbers^ 236. 

^1 One of the earliest hybrid Rhododendrons whose history is 
recorded was produced in the nursery of a Mr. Thompson of ^lile 
End, near London, about 1820, by the accidental crossing of Rho- 
dodendron Panticum with some species %\'ith deciduoiis leaves and 



U6 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACE-E. 



generally cultivated are the Azaleas and Rhododendrons of eastern North America and the Orient, and 
some o£ the Rhododendrons of the Himalayas, which display their magnificent evergreen foliage and 
splendid flowers in the temperate and humid regions of western and southern Europe.^ Rhododendrons 
of garden origin and mixed blood are now, however, more often cultivated. These are chiefly of four 
races, Indian Azaleas, Ghent Azaleas, Catawbiense Rhododendrons, and Javanese Rhododendrons. 
The Indian Azaleas of the garden are improved forms of Rhododendron Indicitm^^ a native of China 
and Japan, which owes its name to the fact that it was first sent to Europe from India ; in its native 
countries it is a variable plant with persistent or deciduous leaves and small and usually brick-red 
flowers J for centuries it has been cultivated by the Chinese and Japanese, who value it as a chief 
ornament of their gardens,^ although improvement in the size, form, and coloring of its flowers is due 
to the skill of European gardeners, who, especially in Belgium, have devoted much attention to this 

The race of Ghent Azaleas has been produced by crossing the yellow-flowered Oriental Rhodo- 



plant. 

dendron flamtm with the North American Rhododendron calendulaceura^ Rhododendron viscosum^ 

and Rhododendron nudiflormUy and then by crossing their hybrid progeny with each other and 

with the eastern Asiatic Rhododendron Sinensey and later with the Californian Rhododendron 

occidentale^ and with Rhododendron arhorescens^ of the AUeghany Mountains. The product of 

these crosses and of years of careful selection, carried on principally in Belgium and England, is a race 



fragrant flowers. This plant, known as Rhododendron azaleoides 
or as Rhododendron odoratum (Andrews, Bot, Rep. vi. t. 379. 
Guimpel, Otto & Hayue, Abbild, Holz. 15, t. 15. — Sweet, Brit Fl. 
Gard. v. 117, t. 117. — Loudon, Arb. Brit, ii. 1131. — Seidel & 
Heynhold, Rhodoracece, 87. — Rand, The Rhododendron^ 58. — Gard, 



Azalea viscosa, Linnaeus, L c, 151 (1753). — Micbaux, /. c. 
150. — Emott, I c. 241. — Savi, L c. ii. t. 46. — Guimpel, Otto & 
Hayne, h c. 38, t. 32. — De Candolle, I. c. 715. — Gray, Man. 
I. c. — Emerson, Trees Mass, ed. 2, ii. 438, t. 
« Torrey, Fl, U, S, I 424 (1824). — Chapman, I c. — Gray, Syn. 



Chron, n. ser. xii. 200. — W. Watson, Gard. Chron, ser. 3, xii. 761), Fl, N. Am. ii. 41. — Watson & Coulter, I. c. 



is still valued in gardens as a hardy free-flowering dwarf shrub. 
Other hybrids between species of different sections of the genus 
have occasionally appeared. (See Bot, Reg. iii. t. 195 ; xxviii. t, 
25. — Herbert, Trans, Hort. Soc. Loud. iv. 45 ; Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. ii. 86 ; Amaryllidacece, 356. — Bot. Mag. xlix. t. 2308. 
Paxton, Mag. Bot. ix. 79, t. — Anderson-Henry, Jour. Royal Hort. 
Soc. n. ser. iii. 106, — Andrd, Traite des Plantes de Terre de Bruyeres^ 
164 ; Rev. Hort. 1893, 369. — Burbidge, Cultivated Plants, 121, 
— Focke, Die PJlanzen-Mischlinge, 243. — Masters, Gard, 



297. 



Chron. ser. 3, xiii. 665.) 

1 Llewelyn, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xvii. 558, 700. — W. Watson, 
I c. 698. 



(?) Azalea lutea, Linnseus, l. c. 150 (in part) (1753). 

Azalea nudijlora, Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 214 (1762). — Bot. 
Mag. V. t. 180. — Bot. Reg. ii. t. 120; xvi. t. 1367. — Mordant 
de Launay, Herb. Amat. iv. t. 213. — Elliott, L c. — Guimpel, Otto 
& Hayne, Z. c. 135, t. 110. — De Candolle, l. c. 716. — Gray, Man. 
I. c. — Emerson, Z, c. 440, t. 

Azalea canescens, Micbaux, I. c. 150 (1803). — Pursh, L c. 
Azalea periclymenoideSy Micbaux, Z. c, 151 (1803). — Pursh, I.e. 
Azalea bicolor, Pursh, Z. c. 153 (1814). 
Rhododendron bicolor, Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 847 (1834). 
Rhododendron canescensy Don, L c. iii. 848 (1834). 
^ Sweet, I c. iii. 290, t. 290 (1829). — Maximowicz, I. c, 28. 



2 Sweet, I. c. V. 128, t. 128 (1833). — De Candolle, Prodr. vii. Francbet & Savatier, Z. c, 289. — Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 30. 



726. 



XVI 



37 (Rhododendrece 
PL Jap. i. 291. 
(with synonymy). 

Azalea Indica, Linngeus, Spec. 150 (1753). 
t. 1480 ; Ii. t. 2509 ; liH. t. 2667. 



Francbet & Savatier, Enum. 



XXVI 



XXX VI 



XX 



■ ■ * 



XXVUl 



242 



t. 796. — Savi, Flora Itallcma, ii. t. 67. 
2 Kaempfer, Amcen. 845, t. 



Azalea Sinensis, Loddiges, Bot. Cab. ix. t. 885 (1824). 
Azalea mollis, Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 853 (1826). — De 
Candolle, I. c. 718. 

Azalea Pontica^ var. Sinensis^ Lindley, Bot. Reg. xv. t. 1253 
(1829). 

Rhododendron molle, Siebold & Zuecarini, Abhand. Akad. Munch 
iv. pt. iii. 131 (1846). 



400 



^f 



Watson 



270. 



Am. I. c. 



4 Torrey, Fl. U, S. i. 425 (1824). — Chapman, Fl. 265. — Gray, 
Syn, Fl. N. Am. ii. 41. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 



320. 



(?) Azalea lutea, Linnaeus, Spec, 150 (in part) (1753). 
Azalea calendulacea, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 151 (1803). 



Bot. 



xK 



K 



151. — Elliott, Sk. i. 238. — De Candolle, I. c. 717. — Gray, Man. FL N. Am. ii. 41. 



Rhododendron calendulaceum, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. 
Beechey, 362 (not Torrey) (1841). 

Azalea calendulacea^ Bentbam, PL Hartweg. 321 (not Micbaux) 

(1857). 

Azalea occidentalis, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 116 (1857). 
« Torrey, FL U. S. I 425 (1824). — Chapman, L c. — Gray, Syn. 



268. 



Sargent, Garden and Forest, i. 400, f , 64. 



6 Torrey, Z. c. (1824) ; FL N. Y. i. 439, t. 66. — Gray, Syn. FL 
N. Am. ii. 40. — Watson & Coulter, Z. c. 



Watson & Coulter, L c. 

Azalea arborescens, Pursh, L c, 162 (1814). 
Azalea fragrans, Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 12 (1820) 



Man. 268 



ERICACEAE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



147 



of hardy shrubs with fragrant flowers in colors passing from white through yellow and orange to pink 

' The Catawbiense Ehododendrons have been produced by crossing Rhododendron Cataichi- 



and red 



of the high summits of the southern Alleghany Mountains, which it sometim 



vast thickets, with Rhododendron Ponticum,^ the offspring being again crossed with Rhododendron 
arbor eum and other Indian species with bright-colored flowers, or with the North American Rhodo- 
dendron maximum. The race of Javanese Rhododendrons, conspicuous for then- brilliantly colored 
flowers and their habit of flowering continuously, has been obtained by English gardeners by inter- 
breeding Rhododendron Javanicum,^ Rhododeiidron j asminijioriim ,^ and other Malayan species with 
persistent foliage and yellow, orange, and scarlet flowers.^ 



The different species of Rhododendron in North America are sometimes injured by insects which 
bore into their trunks, and are occasionaUy disfigured by fungiJ 

The generic name, from pohov and hkvh^ov, was adopted by Linnseus for the species with persistent 
foliage . 



1 Lindley, Bot. Reg. xvi. under t. 1366. — W. Watson, Gard. 



Chron. ser. 3, xii. 742. 
2 Michsiux. FL Bor.- 



Mag 



Elliott, 



485. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii. 723. — Chapman, Fl. 266. 



« • 



42 



^ G. Henslow, Jour. Roy, Hort Sac. xiii. pt. ii. 240. — W. Wat- 
son, I. c. 698. 

■^ Exohasidium Azalece, Peck, forms irregular globose greenish 
swellings at the tips of the branchlets of Rhododendron viscosum and 
of Rhododendron nudiflorum which are sometimes eaten, and in those 



^ Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 662 (1762), — Pallas, FL Ross. i. 43, t. parts of the country where the true May Apple, Podophyllum pelta- 
29. — BoL Mag, xviii. t. 650, — Schmidt, Oestr, Baumz. iii. 4, t. ^wwi, Linnseus, does not occur, are called may apples. On Rhododen- 
122. — Nouveau Duhamely ii. 140, t. 41. — Savi, Flora Raliana, iii. dron viscosum, Exohasidium discoideum, Ellis, produces curious disks 



t. 101. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 136, t. 111. 



De 



usually on the under 



CandoUe, L c. 721. — Loudon, Arb. Brit ii. 1131, f. 931. — Boissier, FammV, Thomas, which causes a serious disease among Cranberries 

Fl, Orient iii. 971. and other small Ericacese in the middle states, also appears on this 

Rhododendron speciosum, Salisbury, Prodr, 287 (1796). 



Bennett 



Mag, Ixxiii 



4336. 



Mag 



Fl. 



* * 



Mag. Ixxvi 



Miquel, l. c. 



species. The leaves of the evergreen Rhododendrons are often dis- 
colored or killed in large spots by the growth of a number of differ- 
ent fungi, like Pestalozzia and Hendersonia, and in eastern Massa- 
chusetts are not infrequently affected by a leaf disease caused by 
the growth of Phyllosticta Saccardoi, Thuemeu. 



148 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACE-S:. 



RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM. 



Great Laurel. Rose Bay. 



Flowers in terminal umbels from cone-like inflorescence-buds of numerous imbri- 
cated caducous bracts ; corolla campanulate, rose-colored or white. Leaves lanceolate- 
oblong or lanceolate-obovate. 



Rhododendron maximum, Linnaeus, Spec. 392 (1753). 

Marshall, Arbust. Am. 127. — Gsertner, Fmct i. 304, t 
63, f . 6. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 63, t. 23, f . 49. 
Moench, Metlu 45. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 286 ; Sioec 
ii. 606 ; Emcvi. 451. — Poiret, Lam, Diet. vi. 265 ; III. ii 
488, t. 364, f . 1. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iii. 3, 1. 121. 
Nouveait Diihamel^ ii. 141. — JMichaux, FL Bor.-Am. i 



Esenbeck & Sinning, Samml. Sch'dnb. Geivdch. 138, t. 60. 
Guimi>el, Otto & Hayne, Ahhild. Holz. 137, t. 112. 



Au- 



dubon, Birds^ t. 103. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 843. — De 
Candolle, Prodr. vii. 722. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 43. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. ix. 503.— Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 437. 
Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1404. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 



259. 



Schkuhr, Handb. i. 362. — Persoon, Syn. i. 478 



171. 

N.C 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 221. — Bot. 3Iag. xxiv. t. 951. 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cnlt. ed. 2, iii. 326. — Michaux 
f. Hht. Arh. Am. iii. 144, t. 4. — Ptirsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 



Chapnaan, FL 265. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 

Koch, Dendr. ii. 169. — Emerson, 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 



Mass 



297. 



Bigelow, FL Bostoii. 102. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 268. 



ed. 2, 257. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 42. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U* S. ix. 99. — Watson 
& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 321. 



Elliott, Sk. i. 483. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 57. — Nees von Rhododendron procerum, Salisbury, Prodr. 287 (1796) 



A bushy tree^ rarely thirty to forty feet in height, with a short crooked often prostrate trunk 
occasionally ten or twelve inches in diameter^ and stout contorted branches which form a round head ; 
or more often a broad shrub with many divergent twisted stems ten or twelve feet tall. The bark of 
the trunk is one sixteenth of an inch thick, light red-brown, and broken on the surface into small 
thin appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are green tinged with red, and are 
covered with dark red or slightly ferrugineous glandular-hispid tomentum ; in their first winter they 
are dark green and glabrous; at the end of the second year they gradually turn bright red-brown, 

and ultimately are gray tinged with red, the thin bark separating on branches four or five years old 
into irregular persistent scales. The leaf-buds, which are formed at midsummer, are conical, dark 
green ^ axillary, or terminal on barren shoots, and are covered with many closely imbricated scales. 

4 

The scales of the outer ranks are scarious and remain on the base of the growing shoot until it is 
nearly half-grown, and in falling mark it with numerous crowded ring-like scars. The scales of the 
inner ranks are accrescent, and are carried up on the growing shoot, which they cover until it is several 
inches long ; they increase in length from the outer or lower to the inner or upper ranks, and at 
maturity are an inch and a half long, a quarter of an inch wide, and are gradually narrowed at the 
base and at the apex which terminates in a long slender point ; they are light green and glabrous, 
and are closely held against the shoot 




a resinous exudation from the 



glandular hairs which 



cover it, and in falling mark the branches with numerous conspicuous narrow remote scars which do 
not entirely disappear for three or four years. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 



ted at the apex, narrowly wedge-shaped 



rounded at the base, and 



m 



vernation ; at first they are coated with gland-tipped hairs which are pale, or ferrugineous on the 

covering ; at maturity they are glabrous, thick, and 



midribs and petioles, and form a thick tomentose 



coriaceous 



dark 



green 



and 



lustrous on the upper surface, usually pale or whitish on the lower, f om: 
inches long and an inch and a half to two inches and a half wide, with thickened shghtly 



revolute margins 



broad pale midribs impressed on the upper side, and obscure reticulate veinlets; 
they are borne on stout petioles ridged above, rounded below, and an inch or an inch and a half 



ERiCACE^ SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



149 



in length, and remain on the hranches two or three years. The inflorescence-buds are formed in 
summer, and at first are surrounded by several loose narrow leaf-like scales; when fully grown in 
September they are cone-like, an inch and a half long, half an inch broad, and covered with many 
imbricated ovate bracts rounded and contracted at the apex into long slender points; they begin 
to open late in June, after the shoots of the year, which develop immediately below the inflorescence- 
buds from buds in the axils of upper leaves, have reached their full length. The flowers are produced 
in sixteen to twenty-four-flowered umbellate clusters four or five inches in diameter, and are borne on 
slender pink pedicels ; these are covered with glandular white hairs, furnished at the base with two 
linear scarious bractlets, and are developed from the axils of the bracts of the inner ranks of the 
inflorescence-buds. As the flower-buds open, the bracts graduaUy faU ; they are accrescent, scarious, 
very resinous, and puberulous, especially on the outer surface near the base ; when fully grown, those 
of the outer ranks are an inch long and one third of an inch broad, and in falHng mark the base of the 
stem of the inflorescence with many conspicuous ring-like scars ; those of the inner ranks are an inch 
and a half long, a quarter of an inch wide, lanceolate, and contracted into long slender points. The 
calyx is light green and puberulous, with rounded rather remote lobes, and in the bud does not entirely 
inclose the corolla, which is campanulate, gibbous on the posterior side, puberulous in the throat, Hght 
rose-color,^ purplish,^ or white,^ an inch in length, cleft to the middle into oval rounded lobes with 
conspicuous central veins ; the upper lobe is marked on the inner face by a cluster of yellow-green spots ; 
and on the outer surface at the bottom of each sinus there is a conspicuous dark red gland ; before 
anthesis the corolla is prominently five-angled or ridged, white below and marked above with five pink 
bands corresponding with the lobes. The stamens vary from eight to twelve in number ; they are 
proterandrous, white, inserted on the bright green disk, and vary in length from the anterior to the 
posterior part of the flower ; the filaments are enlarged and flattened at the base, slightly bent inward 
above the middle, and bearded with stiff white hairs, the four or five shorter ones at the back of the 
flower for more than half their length and the longer ones only near the base. The ovary is ovate, 
green, coated with short glandular pale hairs, and crowned with a long slender glabrous white declining 
style, which is club-shaped and inflexed at the apex, and terminates in a five-rayed scarlet stigma. The 
capsule is dark red-brown, ovate, half an inch in length, glandular-hispid, surrounded at the base by 
the persistent calyx, and crowned with the style ; it has papery walls, and the thin endocarp is separable 
from the light brown slightly thinner exocarp ; it ripens and sheds its seed in the autumn, although the 
clusters of open capsules remain on the branches until the foUowiug summer. The seed is oblon 
flattened, and covered with a loose coat prolonged at both ends into scarious fringed appendages. 

Rhododendron maximum, is distributed from Nova Scotia to the northern shores of Lake Erie in 
the province of Ontario,* and southward through New York and New England and along the AUeghany 
Mountains to northern Georgia. At the north it is rare, inhabiting deep cold swamps in a few isolated 
situations ; on the mountains of western Pennsylvania it is more abundant, and farther south becomes 
exceedingly common, occupying the steep rocky banks of streams to an elevation of about three 
thousand feet above the sea, and reaching its greatest size on the lower slopes of the high mountains 
of Tennessee and the Carolinas, where it often forms thickets hundreds of acres in extent, impassable to 
man, and the secure retreat of the bear, the fox, and the wild-cat. 

The wood of Rhododendron maximum is heavy, hard, strong, although rather brittle, and close- 
grained ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is Hght clear brown, with thin lighter colored 



to 



Rhododendron maximum, var. roseum, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 297 * Rhododendron maximum, var. album, Pursh, I. c. (1814). —Elli- 



(1814). —Elliott, Sk. i. 484. 



ott, I. c. 484. 



2 Rhododendron maximum, var. purpureum, Pursh, I. c. (1814). — Rhododendron Purshii, Don, I. c. (1834). — Loudon, I. c. 1135. 



Elliott, I. c. 



Dietrich, I. c. 



Rhododendron purpureum, Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 843 (1834).— * Bnmet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 40. — Lawson, Proc. ^y Trans. Norn 

Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1134. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1404. Scotia Inst. Nat. Sci. iv. pt. ii. 172. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 302. 



150 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ERICACE^ 



sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6303, a cubic foot weighing 39.28 
pounds. It is occasionally made into the handles of tools, and has been used as a substitute for boxwood 

occasionally used in domestic practice in the treatment of 



A decoction of the leaves is 



m engraving. 

rheumatism.^ 

The earliest account of Rhododendron maximum appears in the Appendix to Catesby's Natural 

History of Carolina,^ published in 1748. According to Aiton/ it was first cultivated in Europe twelve 
years earher by Peter Collinson in his garden near London. 

As a garden plant Rhododendron maximum is one of the hardiest and most easily cultivated 
of all Rhododendrons, although the young branchlets, rising above and partly concealing the flower- 
clusters, make it less showy when in bloom than those species which do not make their annual growth 
until after the flowers have faded. It flourishes in all soils not impregnated with lime, which is fatal 
to Rhododendrons ; it is easily raised from seed and easily transplanted, and it produces its clusters of 
lovely slightly fragrant flowers at midsummer, long after those of the other species have faded. Before 
the general introduction into gardens of the hybrids of the Catawbiense race, with larger and more 
briUiant flowers. Rhododendron maximum was more valued and more frequently planted than at 
present. Its blood can be traced in several distinct and beautiful hybrids.* 



1 B. S. Barton, Coll. ed, 2, i. 18. 



Med 



t. 61. 



Med 



^f 



Fields and Forests, 380. 



Dispens 



2 ChamcBrhododendroSy lauri- folio semper virens, Jlorib 
corymbosis, ii. Appx. 17, t, 17, f. 2. 



* Oue of the most distinct of these hybrids was obtained in Eng- 
land many years ago by a cross with one of the white-flowered 
American Azaleas (Bot. Reg. iii. 1. 195. — Bot. Mag. Ixii. t. 3454, 
Seidel & Heynhold, Rhodoraceoe, 89) ; another, Rhododendron Due 
de Brabant^ was obtained by a Belgian nnrseryman in 1853 from a 



Kalmia foliis lanceolato-ovatis nitidis subtus ferrugineisy corymbosis cross with Rhododendron Catawbiense (FL des Serres, viii. 220, 227, t. 



terminalibuSf Miller, Diet, Icon, ii. 152, t. 228. 
Ledum lauro-cerasi folioy Linnseus, Amoen. ii 



Rhododendron foliis nitidis ovalibxiSymargine acuto reJiezOy 
FL Virgin, ed. 2, 66. — Trew, PL Ehret, 32, t. m. 

« H<yrt. Keio. u. 67. — Loudon, Arb. Brit, ii. 1134, f. 932, 



836,837). The blood of Rhododendron maximum can be traced also 
in the well-known Catawbiense hybrid, Delicatissimumy in Rhododen- 
dron Wellsianumy raised at the Knaphill Nurseries at Woking in 
England, and in Rhododendron Madame van Houtte (FL des Serres, 
XV. 199, t. 1606). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXXXVIIL Rhododendron maximum 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, natural size. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCXXXIX- Rhododendron maximum. 



inflorescence 



2. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged, 

3. A fruit, showing the open valves and the placentiferous central column 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. An embrvo. mnnh mno-TiifiArl 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXXXVIII 




C.^.Faa^n del. 



J^Lccirt sc. 



RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM. L. 



A.IUo 



direa: 



t 



Imp. R.Taneur^ Parts. 



Siiva of North America. 



Tab. CCXXXIX. 




O.E.Fo^zxnv del. 




RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM.! 



_^. Jfzooreimy direior 



Imp. H. lane^cr^ Faris 



MYRsiNEACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



151 



ICACOREA. 



Flowers perfect or poly gamo- dioecious ; calyx free, 5 or rarely 4-lobed or parted, 
the divisions contorted or imbricated in aestivation ; corolla gamopetalous, 5 or rarely 

4 or 6-parted, the divisions dextrorsely or sinistrorsely contorted in aestivation ; stamens 

5 ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovules few or numerous. Fruit a dry 1-seeded drupe. 
Leaves simple, alternate, membranaceous or coriaceous, destitute of stipules. 



Icacorea, Aublet, PI. Ckiian. ii. Suppl. 1 (1775) . — Baillon, Ardisia, Swartz, Prodr. 48 (1788) . — Endlicher, Gen. 736. 
Hist. PI. xi. 331. Meisner, Gen. 253. — Bentham &, Hooker, Gen, ii. 645. 

Bladhia, Thunberg, Nov. Gen. i. 6 (1781) ; Fl. Jap. 7. — Engler &, Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. i. 93. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 421. 



Pyrgus, Louriero, Fl. Cochin. 120 (1790). 



Small trees or shrubs, sometimes partly herbaceous, glabrous, pubescent or rarely tomentose. 
Leaves alternate, sessUe or petiolate, entire or rarely dentate or crenate, membranaceous or coriaceous, 
punctate with immersed resinous dots or short lines at first pellucid, ultimately dark. Flowers in 
terminal or rarely in axillary branched panicles, resinous-punctate, pedicellate, the pedicels bibracteolate 
at the base or ebracteolate. Bracts and bractlets minute, scarious, deciduous or caducous. Calyx five 
or rarely four-lobed or parted, persistent. Corolla rotate, five or rarely four or six-parted, the segments 
short or elongated, white or rose-colored. Stamens five, exserted ; filaments short or nearly obsolete, 
rarely somewhat elongated, free, inserted on the throat of the corolla opposite its divisions ; anthers 
usually sagittate-lanceolate, acute, acuminate or apiculate, attached on the back just above the base, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally sometimes nearly to the base. Ovary globose, one- 
celled ; stigma short or elongated, simple, tipped by a minute undivided style ; ovules few or numerous, 
immersed in a free central globose resinous-punctate placenta, peltate, amphitropous ; raphe ventral ; 
micropyle superior. Fruit globose or rarely obovoid, naked or crowned at the apex with the remnants 
of the style, black, blue, or scarlet ; exocarp thin, usually dry ; endocarp usually crustaceous or bony, 
one-seeded. Seed solitary, globose, concave and more or less lobed at the base, inclosed with the 
abortive lower ovules by the thin membranous remnants of the placenta adnate to the interior surface 
of the endocarp ; testa thin, resinous-punctate ; hilum basilar, concave, conspicuous. Embryo cylin- 
drical, transverse, in copious corneous or cartilaginous albumen j cotyledons flat on the inner face, 
rounded on the back, shorter than the slender radicle. 

About two hundred Hving species of Icacorea, inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions of 
the two hemispheres, are distinguished,^ and traces of many others appear in the tertiary rocks of central 

Europe.^ 



The ffenus has few useful properties ; the fruit of some of the species is said to be edible 



d 



1 A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 120, 670. — Walpen 
A nn. iii. 10. — Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. pt. i. 1015 ; Suj 
stfd, Videnskah. Medd. fra Nat. For. Kjobenh. 186 



1:52; bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 394. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. 
Or- i. 304. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 291. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. 



Ind. iii. 518. 



XXVI 



sec. i.). — Bentham, Fl. Hongk. 206; Fl. Austral, iv. 276. —Oliver, 2 Zittel, Handh. Pal(Eontolog. ii. 737. 



Fl. Trap. Afi 



Martins Fl. Brasil. x. 281. — Grise- » Le Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. Bot. English ed. 534. 



152 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. myrsineace^. 



that of others is occasionally used medicinally in their native countries.^ A number of species are 
cultivated for the beauty of their handsome evergreen foliage and bright-colored fruit." 

The generic name is of Carib origin. 



328. 



1 Rosenthal, Syn. PI. Diaphor. 503. — Bailloa, Hist. PI. xi. ^ Bot. Mag. xl. t. 1677, 1. 1678 ; xlv. t. 1950 ; 1. 1. 2364. — i?oi. 

Req. vii. t. 533 ; viii. t. 638 ; x. t. 827 : xxii. t. 1892. — Nicholson, 



Diet. Gard. i. 108. 



MYRSiNEACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



153 



ICACOREA PANICULATA. 



Marlberry. Cherry. 



Flowers in broad terminal many-flowered panicles ; corolla-lobes sinistrorsely 
contorted in aestivation. Fruit black. Leaves ovate to lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate- 
obovate. 



Icacorea paniculata, Sudworth, Garden and Forest, vi. 324 A. de Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 2, xvi. 95 ; Prodr. 



(1893). 



viii. 124. — Chapman, FL 277. — Gray, Sij7i. Fl. N. Am. 



Cyrilla paniculata, Nuttall, Am. Jour. Sci. v. 290 (1822). ii. 65. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S 

Pickeringia paniculata, Nuttall, Jour. Phil. Acad. vii. vs.. 100. 

pt. i. 95 (1834). — De Candolle, Prodr. vii. 733. Bladhia paniculata, Sudworth, Garden and Forest, iv. 23S 

Ardisia Pickeringia, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 69, 1. 102 (1849).— (1891). 



A slender tree, in Florida rarely more than twenty feet in height, with a short trunk four or five 
inches in diameter, many thin upright branches which form a narrow formal head, stout terete often 
contorted branchlets, and fibrous roots. The bark of the trunk, which is an eighth of an inch thick 
and is light gray or nearly white and roughened with minute lenticels, separates into large thin papery 
plates disclosing the dark brown inner bark. The branchlets, when they first appear, are rusty brown 
or dark orange-colored and slightly puberulous, and in their second year are dark red-brown or ashy 
gray and marked with many minute circular lenticels and with thin nearly orbicular flat leaf -scars which 
display in the centre a group of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The leaves are ovate to lanceolate-oblong 
or lanceolate-obovate, acute or rounded at the narrow apex, wedge-shaped and gradually contracted at 
the base into stout grooved petioles, and entire, with thickened and shghtly revolute margins ; they are 
three to six inches long, an inch to an inch and a half broad, thick and coriaceous, glabrous and marked 
with minute scattered black dots, dark yellow-green on the upper surface and pale below, with broad 
midribs yellow and conspicuous on the under side and slightly grooved on the upper, slender obscure 
primary veins and reticulate veinlets ; they appear late in the summer or in early autumn and fall before 
the trees flower in the following year. The fragrant flowers are produced in terminal rusty brown 
puberulous panicles three or four inches in length and breadth, the branches being often developed 
from the axils of the upper leaves ; they are borne on slender elongated pedicels without bractlets and 
developed from the axils of linear acute caducous bracts ; in Florida they usually open in November, 
although sometimes as early as July. The calyx is ovate and is divided nearly to the base into five ovate 
acute lobes, scarious and ciliate on the margins and marked on the back with dark lines. The corolla is 
five-parted, with oblong rounded divisions sinistrorsely overlapping, or with one lobe wholly outside and 
one inside in the bud, which is oblong, ovate, acute, and marked with longitudinal black Hues, and near 
the apex with a few minute bright red spots j after opening, the lobes, which are conspicuously marked 
with red spots on the inner surface near the base, become reflexed. The stamens consist of short broad 
filaments contracted by a geniculate fold in the middle, and of large sagittate orange-colored anthers 

;r than the filaments, their cells opening longitudinally almost to the base. The ovary is glandular, 
fflobose and gradually contracted into a long slender style tipped with a simple stigma, and, before the 
openino- of the corolla, exserted from its apex. The fruit, which ripens in early spring, is globose, a 
quarter of an inch in diameter, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, tipped with the remnants 
of the style and roughened with resinous glands ; when fully grown it is at first dark brown but ulti- 
mately becomes black and lustrous ; the flesh is thin and dry, and adheres to the thin crustaceous li 



tj 



154 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MYRSINEACE^, 



b 



The seed is conspicuously lobed at the base and 



ed with a thin bright red-brown 



resinous-punctate coat. 

leacorea paniculata is distributed in Florida from Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys on the east 
coast, and from the shores of the Caloosa River to Cape Romano on the west coast. Usually a shrub, 
on the shores of Bay Biscayne and on some of the southern keys it occasionally attains the size and 
habit of a tree. It also inhabits the Bahama Islands/ Cuba/ and southern Mexico.^ 

The wood of leacorea 2:)aniculata is heavy, hard, very close-grained, and susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish ; it contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays, and is rich brown beautifully 
marked with darker medullary rays, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.8602, a cubic foot weighing 53.61 pounds. 

leacorea paniculata was first discovered early in the present century in eastern Florida by 
Nathaniel A. Ware.^ 



1 Eggers, No. 4196. 

2 Grisebach, Cat PL Cub. 163. 



« Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent ii. 294 
* See i. 86. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXL. Icacorea pajsticulata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagrana of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A corolla, displayed, enlarged. 

6. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged 

7. An ovule, much magnified* 



Plate CCXLL Icacorea paniculata 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. An embrvo. much macrnified. 



Silva of North America'^ 



Tab. CCXl 



• 




CE.FaxoTv del 



Himehj so. 



BLADHIA PAN I CU LATA, Sudw. 



A.Jiiocreucc direa>: 



Imp. R TaTzeuT, Pari^ 



Silva of iNTortli America,. 



Ta"b. CCXLI 




5 



2 



3 





4 






FlCCCrV SO. 



BLADHIA PANICULATA, Sudw. 



A^Jiiocreie^ direw^ 



i> 






MYRSINEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



155 



JACQUINIA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-parted, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; corolla 

gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; ovary superior, 
1-celled ; ovules numerous. Fruit baccate, few or many-seeded. Leaves opposite or 
subverticillate, entire, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Jacquinia, Jacquin, Hist. Stirp. Am. 53 (1763). 



Lin- 



& Hooker, Gen. ii. 650. — Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 
iv, pt. i. 89, f . 52, F. — BaiUon, Hist. PL xi. 329. 



nseus, Gen. ed. 6, 101. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 151. 

Endlicher, Qen. 737. — Meisner, Gen. 252. — Bentham Bonellia, Bertero, CoZZa -ffbrt -Rtp^tZ. 21 (1824). 



Trees or shrubs, with terete or slightly many-angled branchlets, and fibrous 



Leaves opposite 



or subverticillate, obovate-cuneate or lanceolate, rounded and sometimes emarginate or acute or cuspidate 
at the apex, entire, coriaceous, often punctate with pellucid or ultimately dark glands, persistent. 
Flowers in terminal or axillary racemes, corymbs, or fascicles. Pedicels slender, produced from the 
axils of minute ovate acute persistent bracts, ebracteolate. Calyx free, five-parted, the lobes slightly 
cihate on the margins, rounded at the apex, persistent. CoroUa hypogynous, rotate or campanulate, 
yellow or purple, the lobes of the limb obtuse and spreading, furnished in the throat opposite the 
sinuses of the limb with five petal-Hke ovate obtuse spreading staminodia. Stamens five, inserted on 
the corolla opposite its lobes near the base of the short tube; filaments complanate, broad at the 
bottom ; anthers oblong or ovate, attached on the back above the base, extrorse, two-ceUed, the cells 
opening longitudinally. Ovary ovoid, gradually contracted into a cylindrical or conical style crowned 
by a slightly five-lobed stigma ; ovules peltate, attached to a free central ovoid fleshy placenta, ascend- 
ing, amphitropous ; raphe dorsal; micropyle • inferior. Fruit ovoid or globose, crowned by the remnants 
of the persistent style, thin-walled, crustaceous or coriaceous. Seeds immersed in the thickened muci- 
laginous placenta fiUing the cavity of the fruit, ovoid, compressed ; testa membranaceous, punctate. 



Embryo eccentric, surrounded 




thick cartilaginous albumen ; cotyledons ovate, shorter than the 



elongated inferior radicle turned towards the broad ventral hilum. 

Jacquinia is tropical American ; the five or six species which are known are distributed through 
Mexico,^ Central America,^ Brazil,^ and the West Indies, one species reaching southern Florida. 

The genus has few useful properties. The branches of the West Indian species are said to have 
been used by the Caribs to poison or stupefy fish in rivers.* The fruits of Jacquinia armillaris are 
sometimes strung into bracelets and necklaces, and the leaves have been used on the Bahama Islands 
as a substitute for soap.^ 



The generic name perpetuates the memory of the distinguished botanist Nicolaus Joseph Jacquin. 



6 



294 



Mem 



n. ser. v. 325 (PL Thurher.). 



Kunth, Nov 



504 



rsted, Videnskab. Medd.fra Nat Fo 

2 Miquel, Martius Fl. BrasU. x. 260 

* Martius, FL BrasiL x. 322. 

BaUlon, Hist. PL xi. 328. 

fi Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. 98. 

fi Nicolaus Joseph Jacquin (1727-1818), a native of Leyden and 



jf Botany, 634 



a pupil in Paris of Bernard de Jussieu, was sent by the Austrian 
government to gather plants in tropical America for the Botanic 
Gardens of Vienna and Schoenbnmn. He remained in the West 
Indies and South America from 1755 to 1763, and returning to 
Europe became professor of botany at Chemnitz and then at 
Vienna. In 1806 Jacquin was created Baron by the Austrian 
government. He is the author of many classical works, including 
those in which his important American discoveries are described. 



MYESINEACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



157 



JAOQUINIA ARMILLARIS. 



Joe Wood. 



Flowers straw-colored, in terminal and axillary racemes. Leaves cuneate-spatulate 
obovate-oblong. 



Jacquinia armillaris, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 15 (1760); 
Hist Stiiy. Am. 53, t. 39 ; Hist Select. Stirp. Am. 31, 



66. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 



ix. 100. 



t. 56- 



Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 272. — Miller, Diet. ed. 8, Jacquinia arborea, Vahl, Eclog. i. 26 (1796). — Willde- 



No. 2. — Icon. Am. Gewdch. i. 15, t. 49. — Alton, Hort. 
Kew. 1. 257. — Lamarck, Diet. ill. 195 ; HI. ii. 46, t. 121, 
f - 1. — Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1064 ; Enum. 246. 
Persoon, Syn. i. 234. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv 



now, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1064. — Persoon, Syn. i. 234. 
Roemer & Schultes, Syst iv. 490. — Sprengel, Syst 

668. 



638. 



490. 
24. 

149. 



Sprengel, Syst 



1. 



668. 



Don, Gen. Syst iv 



Dietrich, Syn. i. 638. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 
Chapman, Fl. 276. — Gray, Syn. Ft N. Am. ii. 



Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 24. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 
A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 149. — Miquel, Mar- 
tins FL BrasiL x. 282, t. 27, f. 2. 
Jacquinia armillaris, p. arborea, Grisehach, Fl. Brit W. 
Ind. 397 (1864). 



A tree^ twelve to fifteen feet in height, with a straight trunk six or seven inches in diameter, stout 
rigid spreading branches which form a compact regular round-topped head, and slightly many-angled 
branchlets. The bark of the trunk is thin, smooth, blue-gray, and usually more or less marked with 
pale or nearly white blotches. The branches, when they first appear, are yellow-green or light orange- 
colored and are coated with short soft pale or ferrugineous pubescence ; in their second year they 
become terete, darker and sometimes reddish brown, and are marked with the nearly orbicular depressed 
conspicuous leaf -scars and with many scattered black dots ; in their third year they turn red-brown or 
ashy gray and become glabrous. The leaves, which are alternate and crowded near the ends of the 
branches, are cuneate-spatulate or obovate-oblong, rounded or emarginate or often apiculate at the apex, 
gradually contracted below into short stout puberulous petioles abruptly enlarged at the base, and are 
entire, with thickened slightly revolute margins ; they are thick and coriaceous, yellow-green, nearly 
veinless, with very obscure midribs, and covered on the lower surface with pale dots ; they are from 
one to three inches in length and from a quarter of an inch to an inch in breadth, and remain on the 
branches until after the appearance of the new leaves of the following year. The flowers, which appear 
in Florida from November until June, are produced in terminal and axillary many-flowered glabrous 
racemes two or three inches long, on slender club-shaped pedicels half an inch in length and produced 
from the axils of minute ovate coriaceous reddish bracts which are slightly ciliate on the margins j they 
are one third of an inch across when expanded, with pale straw-colored corollas. The fruit, which 
ripens in the autumn, is nearly globose, one third of an inch in diameter, and orange-red when fuUy ripe, 
with thin crustaceous walls inclosing the thick enlarged mucilaginous placenta in which are immersed 
the oblong rounded seeds covered with light red-brown punctate coats. 

In Florida Jacquinia armillaris is distributed from Sanibel Island to the southern keys and to 
the neio-hboring borders of the Everglades ; it grows close to the shore on dry coral soil, and, always 
exceedin<yly rare, is most abundant and attains its largest size on the Marquesas Keys. It inhabits the 
Bahamas^ and is scattered alon^ the Antillian coasts^ to those of southern Mexico,^ Central America, 



Venezuela,^ and northern Brazil.^ 



1 Hitchcock, Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 104. 



- Vahl, Eclog. i. 26 



Swartz, Ols. 85. — Lunan 



390. 



Grisebach, Fl Brit W. 



Eggers, Bull. U. S. 



XaL Mus. No. 13, 67 (FL St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). 



^ Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur ^ 123. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent. ii. 294. 

* Seemann, Jour. Bot. iii. 279. 

s Minuel. Martins Fl. BrasiL x. 282. t. 27. f. 1. 



158 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. MYRSiNEACEiE. 



The wood of Jacquinia armillaris is heavy, hard, very close-grained, and susceptible of receiving 
a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays, and is rich brown beautifully 
marked with darker medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6948, a cubic 
foot weighing 43.30 pounds. 

Jacquinia armillaris was discovered on the island of Jamaica by Sir Hans Sloane, and the first 
account of it was published in his Catalogue of Jamaica Plants in 1696.^ In the United States it was 
first noticed on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



^ Arbor haccifera^ laurifolia, fructu corallino ribium instar racemoso Chrysophyllum. BarbascOj Loefling, Iter, 204. 

calyculato venenato, Currans-tree, 167 ; NaLHisL Jam, ii. 89, 1. 190, ChrysopTiyllo fruchu adfinis^ foliis pungentibus ; vulgo BarbascOy 



f . 2. — Ray, Hist PL iii. Dendr. 60. 

Frutex Buxi foliis oblongis, baccis pallide viridibus apice donatisj 
Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car, i. 93, t. 93. 



Loefling, I c, 277. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLIL Jacquinia armillaris. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

5. A corolla displayed, the anthers removed, enlarged 

6. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embrvo, much mae^nified. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXLII 




C.E.FaazcTv deL, 



Hoping sc 



JACQUINIA ARMILLARIS, Jac(j 



A.Rio crezta:' direjcr 



Imp. M. Tanezcr^ Paris. 



SAPOTACEyE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



159 



CHEYSOPHYLLUM 



Flowers perfect 



caly 



5 or rarely 6 or 7-parted, the diyisions 



arly 



qual 



imbricated in aestivation, deciduous ; corolla gamopetalous, 5 or rarely 6 or 7-lobed, the 
lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla ; disk ; 
ovary superior, 5 or rarely 6 to 10-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a fleshy 
or coriaceous 1 or few-seeded berry. Leaves alternate, usually clothed on the lower 
surface with brilliant golden or copper-colored pubescence, persistent, destitute of 
stipules. 



Chrysophyllmn, Linnaeus, Gen. 361 (1737). — A. L. de 
Jussieu, Gen. 152. — Meisner, Gen. 251. — Endlicher, 



& Pranti, Pflanzenfam. iv. pt. i. 147. — Baillon, Hist. PI 



XI. 



293. 



Gen. 739. — Bentham «& Hooker, Gen. ii. 653. — Engler Cainito, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 166 (1763). 



Fl. 



Trees, with terete unarmed branchlets, usually coated while young with dense tomentum, naked 
buds, and milky juice. Leaves sh ort-petiolate, entire, coriaceous, penniveined, the veins usually 
numerous and arcuate near the margins, or remote, connected by transverse reticulate veinlets, bright 
green and glabrous on the upper surface and coated on the lower with brilliant silky golden or copper- 
colored pubescence or tomentum, or in some Old World species naked on the lower surface, persistent. 
Flowers pedicellate or subsessile, minute, in dense many-flowered fascicles, axillary or from leafless 
thickened nodes of previous years. Pedicels ebracteolate, produced from the axils of minute acute 
deciduous bracts. Calyx generally deeply parted, the divisions obtuse, almost one-ranked, persistent. 
Corolla hypogynous, tubular, campanulate, or subrotate, white or greenish white. Stamens inserted in 
the throat or towards the base of the coroUa-tube opposite its lobes ; filaments short, subulate or fili- 
form, enlarged into a broad connective ; anthers ovate or triangular, attached on the back, extrorse 
or rarely partly introrse, two-celled, the ceUs spreading below, opening longitudinaUy . Ovary usually 
five or rarely six to ten-celled, villose, contracted into a glabrous short or elongated style crowned 
by a five-lobed stigma; ovules solitary, attached below the middle of the cell to an axfle placenta 
projected from its interior angle, ascending, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle inferior. Fruit 
globose, ovoid or oblong, apiculate, fleshy or coriaceous, usually one or few-seeded by the abortion of 
several of the ovules. Seeds ovoid, terete when solitary, or compressed by mutual pressure when more 
than one ; testa coriaceous, dull or lustrous ; hilum subbasilar, elongated, conspicuous. Embryo erect, 
surrounded by more or less abundant fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oblong, f oliaceous or fleshy ; radicle 

terete, inferior. 

Chrysophyllum, a tropical genus with fifty or sixty species, is principally confined to the New 

World, where it is distributed from southern Florida, where one species is found, to Brazil ^ and Peru,^ 
although it also occurs with a small number of species in western and southern tropical Africa,^ southern 
Asia,^ Austraha,^ and the Sandwich Islands.^ 



Martins Fl. Brasil. vii. 87. 

Pavon, Fl. Peruv. ii. 47 (Nyderisition) 



XXlll 



Fl. Trop. Afi 



* Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 578. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. iii 



635. 



6 Bentham, Fl. Austral, iv. 278. 
« Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 277. 



160 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, sapotace^. 



The most valuable species of the genus, Chrysoi^hyllum Cainito^ a native of the West Indies and 
now cultivated in all tropical countries and widely naturahzed in many parts of Central and South 
America, produces the so-called star-apple, a succident edible blue or purple and green fruit of the size 
and shape of a small apple, which owes its name to the seven to ten large cells regularly arranged 
around the centre and presenting the appearance of a star when the fruit is cut open transversely. The 
fruit of several of the South American species is edible,^ although none are so good as the star-apple, 
which contains less of the milky juice pecuHar to many plants of this family. In India the dried fruit 
of Ghrysopliyllum Roxburghii ^ is eaten by the inhabitants of Khasia. Several of the species produce 
hard handsome and valuable wood. The large leaves, green and shining on the upper surface, and 
resplendent on the lower with golden or copper-colored pubescence, make many of the American 
species desirable ornamental trees for the decoration of gardens. 

The generic name, from ;tpi;(T6g and ^v%7\.ov, alludes to the golden covering of the under surface 
of the leaves. 



1 Linn^us, Spec. 192 (excl. var. 3.) (1753). — Jacquin, ^wi. Stirp. Cainito pomiferum, Tussac, Fl. Antill. iii. 41, t. 9 (1824). 

Am. 51, t. 37, f. 1; Hist. Select. Stirp. Am. 30, t. 51. — Descourtilz, ^ Martius, Fl. Brasil. vii. 113. 

Fl. Med. Antill. ii. 13, t. 70. — Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. » Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 33 (1838). — A. de Candolle, I. c. 162. 

Gen. et Spec. iii. 236. — Maycock, Fl. Barb. 108. — Bot. Mag. Iviii. Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burm. ii. 118. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 
t. 3072. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 157. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. 535. 
W. Lid. 398. — Miquel, Martius Fl. Brasil. vii. 94. — Gray, Syn. 
Fl. N. Am. ii. 67. 



SAPOTACKa). 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



161 



CHRYSOPHYLLUM OLIVIFORME. 



Fruit ovoid or 



bglobose, dark purple, 1-seeded. Leaves covered on the lower 



surface with lustrous copper-colored pubescence 



Chrysophyllxim oliviforme 



259. 



44 



VUl 



N. 



634. 
ix. 100. 



Gray, 

Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 
s N. Am. IQth Census U. S. 



1. 



666. 



32. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 703. — Sprengel, Syst. 
Bot. Mag. Ixi. t. 3303. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 
Dietrich, Syn. i. 638. — Miquel, Martins Fl. Brasil. 
vii. 94 (excl. var. Tnicrophyllum) . 

Chrysophyllum ferrugineum, Gsertner f. Fruct. iii. 122, 

t. 202 (1805). 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme, var. monopso'enum, Grise- 
bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 398 (1864) ; Cat. PI. Cub. 163. 
(1788) ; Fl. Ind. Oce. i. 480. — Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. Chrysophyllum microphyllum, Chapman, Bot. Gazette, 



Chrysophyllum Cainito, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1 (not 
Linnaeus) (1768). 

Chrysophyllum monopyrenimi, Swartz, Prodr. 49 



ii. 1083. — Persoon, Syn. i. 236. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 



iii. 9 (not A. de Candolle) (1878). 



A tree, twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a taU straight trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, 
upright branches which form a compact oblong head, and slender terete sKghtly zigzag branchlets. 
The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, Hght brown slightly tinged with red, and broken 
by shallow fissures into large irregularly shaped plates, the surface of which separates into small thin 
scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are coated with ferrugineous tomentum, and in their 
second year are light red-brown or ashy gray and covered with small pale elevated circular lenticels. 
The leaves are revolute in vernation, oval, acute or contracted into short broad points or sometimes 
rounded at the apex, and abruptly wedge-shaped at the base ; they are thick and coriaceous, two or 
three inches long and an inch and a half or two inches wide, bright blue-green on the upper surface, 
and covered on the lower and on the stout petioles with briUiant copper-colored pubescence ; they have 
broad prominent midribs deeply impressed on the upper side and numerous straight veins arcuate near 
the margins, and are borne on petioles which vary from one half to two thirds of an inch in length. 
The flowers are raised on stout pedicels shorter than the petioles and covered like the caljrx with rufous 
tomentum, and produced in few or many-flowered fascicles in the axils of leaves of the year, or at the 
base of lateral branchlets in those of the previous year. The calyx is divided nearly to the base into 
broad rounded lobes and is rather shorter than the tube of the subrotate white coroUa, the short 
spreading lobes of which are rounded at the apex. The ovary is five-ceUed and pubescent, and is 



gradually contracted into a short style crowned by a broad five-lobed stigma 



In Florida the flowers 



appear irregularly throughout the year, and are often found on the same branch with ripe or half-grown 



fruit 



The fruit, which is ovoid or sometimes nearly globose, dark purple and roughened with 



sional excrescences, hangs gracefully on stems an inch long, usually only a single fruit being produced 
from a cluster of flowers. It is covered with a thick tough skin inclosing the juicy sweet mawkishly 
flavored flesh, and is light purple on the exterior, lighter towards the interior, and quite white in the 
centre ; it is usually only one-seeded by abortion, the seed, which is half an inch long, narrowed at both 
ends, and covered with a thin light brown coat, being closely invested with a white glutinous aril-Hke 

* 

pulpy mass. 

In Florida, where it is always local and nowhere common, Chrysophyllum oliviforme is found on 

the east coast from Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys, and on the west coast from the shores of the 

Caloosa River to Cape Sable. It also inhabits the Bahamas ^ and many of the West Indian islands." 



Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 104 



2 Descouxtilz, Fl. Mtd. Antill. ii. 17, t. 171. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit 
W. Ind. 398 ; Cat. PL Cub. 163. 



162 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^. 



The wood of C}iryso]pliylluin oUviforme is very heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, containing 
numerous inconspicuous medullary rays, and is light brown shaded with red, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9360, a cubic foot weighing 58.33 

pounds. 

Chryso])hyllum oliviforme appears to have been first distinguished by Plumier, who described it 
in his Nova Plantarum Americanarum Genera^ published in 1703 ; it was first noticed in Florida 

by Dr. A. P. Garber." 



folio subtus aureoj fructu olivce-fc 



Bunnarm 



foliis majis aureis fructu 
*stoire des Maladies de S, 



fructu minori glabro, foliis subtus ferrugineis. The 240. 



Damson Plumb. Browne, Nat 



2 See i. 65. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLIIL Chrtsophtllum oliviforme. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

5. Rear view of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. Front view of a stamen, enlarged. 

7. An ovary, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

12. A fruit cut transversely, natural size. 

13. Side view of a seed, natural size. 

14. Front view of a seed, natural size. 

15. An embryo, magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXLIII. 




C.E.Fcucon del. 



JTirnel^ .^c 



CHRYSOPHYLLUM OLIVIFORME , Lam. 



A.Biocreua: dzrea: . 



Iny),Ii, Tcuieicr^ Par is' - 



SAPOTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



163 



SIDEROXYLUM. 



Flowers perfect 



ah 



5 or 



rely 6-parted, the divisions imbricated in aesti^ 



tion, persistent ; corolla gamopetalous, furnished with 5 or 6 staminodia, 5 or 
6-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation : stamens 5 or 6 : disk 



y super 



ely 

5 

rely 2 to 4-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a dry or fleshy usually 
1-seeded berry. Leaves alternate, coriaceous or submembranaceous, persistent, destitute 
of stipules, or rarely stipulate. 



or 



Sideroxylum, Linnaeus, Gen. 58 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. 

PI. ii. 171. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 151. — Meisner, 



143. 

varia) . 



Baillon, Hist. PI. xi. 277 (excl. Argania and Cat- 



Gen. 251. — Endlicher, Gen. 739. — Bentham & Hooker, Robertia, Scopoli, Introduct. 154 (1777). 

Gen. ii. 655. — Engler & Pranti, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. i. Spiniluma, Baillon, Btill. Soc. Linn. Paris, 943 (1891). 

Glabrous or pubescent trees or shrubs, with naked buds. Leaves alternate, petiolate, penniveined, 
the veins remote, connected by reticulate veinlets, rarely approximate and obscure, or nitidous and 
nearly veinless, without stipules, or stipulate in some African species.* Flowers usually minute, sessile 
or pedicellate in crowded many-flowered axillary fascicles often from leafless nodes. Pedicels ebracteo- 
late, produced from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. Calyx funnel-shaped or rotate, the divisions 
orbicular or ovate, obtuse or rarely acute, nearly equal, not distinctly two-ranked. Corolla hypogynous, 
broadly campanulate or subtubular, white or greenish white, the lobes obtuse or acute, longer than the 
tube. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and inserted opposite them in the throat of the tube ; 
filaments short, or elongated and bent outward at the apex ; anthers ovate or lanceolate, attached on 
the back, two-celled, the ceUs opening longitudinally, at first extrorse, sometimes becoming sublateral. 
Staminodia linear, scale-like or petaloid, entire or dentate, inserted under the sinuses of the corolla, or 
in the same rank and alternately with the stamens. Ovary five or rarely two to four-ceUed, glabrous 
or viUose, contracted into a subulate short or elongated simple style tipped with a minute sHghtly five- 
lobed stigma ; ovules solitary, attached to an axile placenta projected from the inner angle of the cell, 
ascending, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle inferior. Fruit ovoid or globose, smaU, with a thin 
coriaceous pericarp, or large, globose, with thick pulpy fruit, usuaUy one or sometimes two to five- 
seeded. Seed obovate or oblong ; testa lustrous, hght brown, thick and bony, and folded on the inner 
face into two obscure lobes rounded at the apex ; hilum elevated, subbasilar or lateral, oblong or Hnear. 
Embryo erect in thick fleshy albumen ; radicle terete, short or elongated, turned towards the hilum, 
much shorter than the oblong fleshy cotyledons. 

Sideroxylum, with about sixty species, is widely distributed through the tropics of the two hemi- 
spheres ; ^ it occurs also in Australia,' one species reaches the shores and islands of southern Florida, 
and the floras of Madeira,'* southern Africa,^ New Zealand,^ and Norfolk Island each include a single 



species 



^fi 



VIU 



Walpers, Rep. vi. 455. 

P580 : Martius Fl, Brasil 



^ Sideroxylum Mermulanay Lowe, Trans, Camb. PhiL Soc. iv. 22 
(1831) ; Man. FL Mad. ii. 18. — A. de Candolle, l. c. 181. 
^ Sideroxylum merme, Linnseus, *S/?€C. 192 (1753). — Jacqtiin, Coll. 



48 



Bentham 



W. Ind 



Fl, Maur 



Oliver, I. c. — Grisebach, FL ii. 250. — Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1089. — Lamarck, III. ii. 41, t. 

Hemsley, 120, f. 1. — A. de Candolle, L c. 182. — Pappe, Sylva Capensis, 22. 



BoL Biol. Am. Cent u. 296. — Hooker f. FL Brit Ind. iii. 536. 



^ Sideroxylum costatum^ F. Mueller, Cens. Austral. PL pt. i. 92 



Fl 



XXVI 



Bentham, Fl 



Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. (1882). —Kirk, Forest Fl. New Zealand y 277, t. 133. 

Achras costata, Endlicher, Prodr, FL Norf. 49 (1833) ; Icon. 

;0 (Achras). Gen. PL t. 83. 

Sapota costatay A. de Candolle, L c^ 175 (184i). 



164 



SILVA OF NORTH A3fERICA. sapotace^. 



Several species o£ Sideroxylum are large and valuable timber-trees, producing hard handsome 
durable wood. The sweet fruits of Sideroxylum dulcificum,^ the Miraculous Berry of the English 
colonists on the west coast of Africa, are eaten to counteract acidity, and are an article of trade among 
the natives.^ From the milky sap of Sideroxylum attenuatum^ a native of sautheastern Asia from 
Burmah to the Philippine Islands, gutta-percha of inferior quality is obtained,'* and the sap of other 
species is probably utilized in the same way. 

The generic name, from Gihri^oc, and ^iXov, relates to the hardness of the wood produced by the 
different species of this genus. 



1 A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 183 (1844) . — Oliver, J7. Trop.Afr. » a. de CandoUe, I. c. 178 (1844).— Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. ii 



iii. 503. 



1036. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burm. ii. 117. 



Bumelia dulcifica, Schumacher, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. * Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 



iii. 150 {Guin. PL) (1828). 
' Treasury of Botany, 1057. 



Pi.aw Commercial Products, ii. 1627, 1652. 



SAPOTACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



165 



SIDEROXYLUM MASTICHODENDRON. 



Mastic. 



Flowers in crowded fascicles shorter than the petioles. Fruit oblong, pulpy 
1-seeded. Leaves oyal, long-petiolate. 



Sideroxylum Mastichodendron, Jacquin, Coll. ii. 253, t. Achras pallida, Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 533 (1804). 

17, f. 5 (1788). — Lamarck, EL ii. 41, 1. 120, f. 2. — Gsert- Bumelia Mastichodendron, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 



ner f. Fruct. iii. 125. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 666. — Dietrich, 
Syn. i. 622. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 181. — Grise- 
bach, Fl Brit W. Ind. 399. — Gray, Syn. Ft. N. Am. 
ii. 67. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. l()th Census U. S. 
ix. 101. 



493 (1819). — Don, Ge7i. Syst. iv. 29. — Cooper, Smith- 
sonian Rep. 1860, 439. 

leroxylum pallidum, Sprengel, Syst. i. 666 (1825). — 
A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 180. — A. Richard, Fl. Ctib. 
iii. 84. — Chapman, Fl. 274. 



Bumelia pallida, Swartz, Prodr. 49 (1788) ; Fl. Ind. Occ. Bumelia fcetidissima, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 39, t. 94 (excl. 



i. 489. — Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1085. — Lunan, Sort. 
Jam. i. 58. 
Bumelia salicifolia, Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1086 (in 

part) (1797). 



syn.) (not Willdenow) (1849). — Cooper, Smithsonian 

Bep. 1858, 265. 



A tree, in Florida sixty or seventy feet in height, with a massive straight trunk three or four feet 
in diameter, stout upright branches which form a dense irregular head, thick terete branchlets, and 
naked buds. The bark of the trunk varies from one third to one half of an inch in thickness and from 
a dark gray color to a light brown tinged with red, and is broken into thick plate-like scales which 
separate in thin plates. The branchlets, when they first appear, are orange-colored and slightly puberu- 
lous, later becoming light red to ashy gray and quite glabrous, and in the second year they are brown 
more or less tinged with red, marked with the conspicuous nearly orbicular leaf-scars, displaying 
three large fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and conspicuously roughened by the thickened persistent bases 
of the fruit-stalks. The leaves are oval, acute at the apex, or rounded and then occasionally shghtly 
emarginate, and acute at the base, with thickened cartilaginous slightly undulate margins ; when they 
unfold they are silky-canescent on the lower surface, and at maturity are thin and firm, glabrous, bright 
green and lustrous above, lustrous and yellow-green below, three to five inches long and an inch and a 
haK to two inches broad, with broad pale conspicuous midribs deeply impressed on the upper side and 
inconspicuous primary veins arcuate near the margins and connected by prominent reticulate veinlets ; 
they are borne on slender pale petioles an inch to an inch and a half in length, and are mostly clustered 
near the ends of the branches, and, unfolding irregularly from early spring until autumn, fall at the 
close of the year. The flowers usually appear in Florida in the autumn, but also open in early spring and 
durino* the summer ; they are five-parted, produced in many-flowered clusters from the axils of young 
leaves or on the branches of the previous year from leafless nodes, and are borne on stout orange-colored 
puberulous pedicels developed from the axils of minute acute scarious bracts which usually fall before 
the opening of the flower-buds. The calyx is yellow-green, puberulous on the outer surface and deeply 
divided into broadly ovate rounded lobes rather shorter than the light yellow corolla, the divisions of 
which are ovate-oblong and rounded. The staminodia are lanceolate, nearly entire, tipped with subulate 
points, and much shorter than the stamens, which have elongated filaments and lanceolate anthers. The 
ovary is oblono^-ovate, glabrous, and gradually contracted into an elongated style, stigmatic at the apex. 
Usually only one flower in a fascicle produces a fruit ; it develops in about six months, in Florida the 
principal crop ripening through April and May. The fruit, which is one-seeded, oblong, surrounded 



at the base by the persistent calyx, apiculate at the apex with the remnants of the style, and an inch 



166 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^ 



thick tough clear yellow skin and thin dry flesh of a pleasant subacid flavor ; it stands 



or nearly at right angles to the branch on a much thickened woody stem, and in falling separates from 
the calyx. The seed is obovate, rounded above, narrowed at the base, half an inch long and a third of 
an inch broad. Produced in great profusion, the fruit of the Mastic is an important article of food 
for many birds and animals, who devour it eagerly. 

In the United States 8ide7^ oxylum Mastichodend7^07i inhabits southern Florida, where it is dis- 
tributed on the eastern coast from Cape Canaveral to the southern keys and on the western coast from 
Cape Romano to Cape Sable, usually growing on rich hummocks ; on the keys it is found with the 
Gumbo Limbo, the Marlberry, the Bustic, the Black Calabash, the Ironwood, the Pigeon Plum, and the 
Eugenias, and on the mainland with the Live Oak, the Palmetto, the Mulberry, and the Cuban Pine. 
It is also common on the Bahamas and on many of the West Indian islands. 

The wood of Sideroxylum Mastichodendron is very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, and close- 
grained; it contains small scattered open ducts and numerous inconspicuous medullary rays, and is 
bright orange-colored, with thick yellow sapwood composed of forty or fifty layers of annual growth. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0109, a cubic foot weighing 63.00 pounds. It is 
not injured by the teredo, and in southern Florida is largely used in ship and boat building. 

Sideroxylum Mastichodendron was first distinguished by Catesby, who found it in the Bahama 
Islands, and in 1743 pubHshed the earliest description of it in the second volume of his Natural 
History of Carolina} It was discovered in Florida on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 

The Mastic is the largest, the most valuable, and one of the most beautiful of the tropical trees 

which inhabit the coast of Florida ; and no other North American tree which equals it in size produces 
such heavy wood. 

1 Comus,foliis Laurinis, fructu majore luteo, ii. 75, t. 75. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXLIV. Sideroxylum Mastichodendron. 

1. A flowering branch, natural tize. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a flower, the coroUa removed, enlarged 

7. An ovule, much mae-nified. 



Plate CCXLV. Sideroxylum Mastichodendron. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Cross section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

4. A seed, slightly enlarged. 

5. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXLIV 




aK 





Mofrune so. 



SIDEROXYLUM MASTICHODENDRON, Jacq 




creua: 




z^ 



3np^ R. Taztezo'. Ta7%s 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXLV 




2 




t^ 





5 



A 



\ 




C.E.Fcuz^ri/ de-L. 



HurieZz/ so. 



SIDEROXYLUM MASTICHODENDRON, Jac 



q 



A.Riocreujy direa>. 



Irnp. R.TcuteuT^ Paris 



SAPOTACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



167 



BUMELIA 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5 or 6-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation, persistent ; 
corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes furnished Avith petal-like appendages and stami- 
nodia, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; disk ; ovary superior, 5-celled ; ovules 
solitary, ascending. Fruit a fleshy 1 -seeded berry ; seed exalbuminous. Leaves alter- 
nate, membranaceous or coriaceous, destitute of stipules. 



Bumelia 



Meisner, Gen. 251. — zenfam. iv. pt. i. 145. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xi. 277 (excl 



Endlicher, Gen. 740 (excl. Rostellaria). — Bentham & Dipholis). 

Hooker, Gen. ii. 660. — Radlkofer, Sitz. Math.-Phys. CI. Sclerooladus 



(1838) 



Milnch 



Pfl 



Small trees or shrubs, with hard close-grained wood, terete often spinescent glabrous or tomentose 
branches with short spur-like lateral brancblets, scaly buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, often 
fascicled on the spur-Hke lateral branchlets, conduplicate in vernation, coriaceous or membranaceous, 
short-petiolate, small, obovate, obtuse, or sometimes larger and elliptical, clothed on the lower surface 
with silky or tomentose pubescence, or glabrous or nearly so, penniveined with rather inconspicuous 
veins arcuate near the entire margins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, deciduous or persistent. 
Flowers small, pedicellate, in many-flowered crowded fascicles in the axils of existing leaves or from 
leafless nodes of previous years. Pedicels slender, clavate, ebracteolate, produced from the axils of 
lanceolate acute scarious deciduous bracts. Calyx ovate to subcampanulate, tomentose or glabrous, 
five-lobed, the lobes in one series, ovate or oblong, rounded at the apex, nearly equal. Corolla hypogy- 
nous, campanulate, short-tubed, white, with spreading broadly ovate lobes rounded at the apex and 
furnished on each side at the base with an acute ovate or lanceolate petaloid appendage. Stamens five, 
inserted in the throat of the tube of the coroUa opposite its lobes ; filaments filiform, short or elon- 
gated; anthers ovate-sagittate, attached on the back below the middle, two-ceUed, the cells opening 
lono-itudinaUy by subextrorse sHts. Staminodia petal-like, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire or obscurely 
denticulate, complanate or keeled on the back, sometimes furnished at the base with a pair of minute 
scales, inserted in the same rank and alternately with the stamens. Ovary hirsute, ovate to ovate-conical, 
gradually or abruptly contracted into a slender short or elongated simple style stigmatic at the acute 
apex ; ovules solitary, attached by the base to an axile placenta projected from the inner angle of the 
cell, ascending, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle inferior. Fruit an oblong obovate or globose 
black one-seeded berry tipped with the remnants of the persistent style and inclosed at the base by the 
calyx, soHtary or in two or three-fruited clusters; pericarp thin and fleshy. Seed ovate or oblong, 
apiculate or rounded at the apex, destitute of albumen ; testa thick, crustaceous, hght brown, smooth 
and shinino-, folded more or less conspicuously on the back into two lobes rounded at the apex. Embryo 
fiUino- the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, hemispherical, usually consohdated ; radicle 
terete, very short, turned toward the basilar or subbasilar, orbicular, or eUiptical hilum. 

BumeHa, with about twenty species,^ is confined to the New World, where it is distributed from 
the southern United States through the West Indies to Mexico, Central America, and Brazil. Five 



1 A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 189. 



W. Ind. Am. ed. 2, ii. 67. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 297. — Engler, 



401. 



46. — Gray. Svn. Fl. N. Bot. Jahrb. xii 



168 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. sapotace^. 



species inhabit the United States ; of these four are small trees and the fifth is a low shrub * of the 



south Atlantic coast reg 



Bumeha produces hard heavy strong wood which in the North American species 



bands 



of numerous large open ducts which define the layers of annual growth and are connected by conspicu 
ous branched groups of similar ducts presenting in cross-section a handsome reticulate appearance 
It is not known to possess other valuable properties. 

The generic name is formed from (Sov^eXia, the ancient classical name of an Ash-tree. 



1 Bumelia recUnata, Ventenat, Choix, 1 22 (1803). — Persoon, Syn. Sideroxylon reclinatum, Miehaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 122 (1803). 

i. 237. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 155. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Du Mout de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 302. 

iv. 496. — Elliott, Sk. i. 287. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 621. — Don, Gen. Bumelia lydoides, var. recUnata, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am ii. 68 

Syst.iy.30. — London, Ari. Brit. ii. 1193.— A.deCiindLolle,Prodr. (1878). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

viii. 190. — Chapman, FL 275. — Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. ed. 2, ii. 68. 103. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Pedicels and calyx clothed with silky or tomentose pubescence. Leaves silky or tomentose-pubescent on the lower surface, 
venulose-reticulate on the upper. 

Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate-cuneate, coated on the lower surface with golden or f errugine- 



ous 



pubescence 1. B. tenax 



Leaves oblong-obovate or cuneate-obovate, silky-pubescent on the lower surface 2. B. lanuginosa. 

Pedicels and calyx glabrous. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves oblanceolate to obovate-oblong, finely venulose-reticulate, thin 3. B. ltciotdes. 

Leaves spatulate or linear-oblanceolate to broadly obovate-cuneate, obtuse, coriaceous, obscurely 

venulose-reticulate 4. B. angustifolia 



SAPOTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



169 



BUMELIA TENAX. 



Ironwood. 



Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate to cuneate-obovate, obtuse, coated on the lower 
surface with golden or ferrugineous pubescence. 



Bumelia tenax, WiUdenow, Spec. i. pt, ii. 1085 (1797) 
Enum. 248 ; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 67. — Alton, Hort 



Obs. 92. 



Hist 



Mont 



Coui-set, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 300. 



Kew. ed. 2, ii. 12. — Persoon, Syn. i. 237. — Roemer & Chrysophyllum Carolinense, Jacquin, Obs. iii. 3, t. 54 



Schultes, Syst. iv. 496. — Elliott, Sk. i. 288. — Hayne, 



(1768). 



Dendr. Fl. 18. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 665. — Don, Gen. Sideroxylon sericeum, Walter, Fl. Car. 100 (1788). 
Syst. iv. 30. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 621. — Spach, Hist. Veg. Sideroxylon chrysophylloides, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Avi. 



ix. 388. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 35, t. 92. — A. de CandoUe, 



i. 123 (1803). 



Prodr. viii. 189. — Chapman, Fl. 275. — Gray, Syn. Fl. Bumelia chrysophylloides, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 155 



N. Am. ii. 68. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 101. 



(1814). — Nuttall, Gen. i. 135. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. 
i. 10, t. 10. — Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 53. 



Sideroxylon tenax, Linnaeus, Mant. 48 (1767). — Jacquin, Sclerocladus tenax, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 35 (1838). 
Coll. ii. 252. — Lamarck, Diet. i. 245 ; III. ii. 42. — Swartz, Sclerozus tenax, Rafinesque, Aut. Bot. 73 (1840). 



A tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally five or six inches in diameter, and 
straight spreading flexible tough branches unarmed or armed with straight stout rigid spines sometimes 
half an inch long. The bark of the trunk is thick, brown tinged with red, and divided irregularly by 
deep fissures into narrow flat reticulate ridges covered with minute appressed scales. The branchlets, 
when they first appear, are coated with silky pale pubescence often tinged with red, which soon becomes 



rusty brown and disappears before winter, when they 



dark red and slightly roughened with occa- 



sional minute dark 



The winter-buds are minute, subglobose, and covered by imbricated 



ded at the apex and clothed with rusty brown tomentum. The leaves vary from oblanceolate 



patulate 



obovate, and are rounded 



d sometimes apiculate or emarginate at the 



apex and wedge-shaped at the base ; when they unfold they are coated with thick pale or light red 
silky pubescence, and at maturity are thin and firm, dark dull green, glabrous, finely venulose-reticulate 
on the upper surface, coated on the lower with soft silky golden ferrugineous pubescence, one to three 
inches in length and one half to two thirds of an inch in breadth, with prominent midribs deeply 



impressed on the upper side ; they are b 



der hairy grooved petioles half an inch long, and 



turn yellow and fall irregularly during the winter. The flowers, which appear from May in Florida to 
July in North Carolina, are produced in many-flowered crowded fascicles from buds which at their first 
appearance in the axils of the young leaves are coated with bright red pubescence ; they are an eighth 
of an inch long, and are borne on pedicels an inch in length and coated with rufous silky pubescence, as 
is also the narrowly ovate calyx with its oblong lobes. The appendages of the coroUa are ovate, acute. 



and shorter than the ovate staminodia, which are about equal to the lobes of the corolla 



gth 



The ovary is narrowly ovate and gradually 



contracted 



elongated 




The fruit 



ripens and faUs in the autumn ; it is oblong and varies from a third to half an inch in length. 

Bumelia tenax grows in dry sandy soil in the neighborhood of the coast and is distributed from 
North Carolina to Cape Canaveral and Cedar Keys, Florida. 

The wood of Bumelia tenax is heavy, hard, close-grained, and susceptible of receiving a beautiful 



polish 



contains numerous thin meduUary rays and is Hght brown streaked with white, with Hghte 



colored sapwood. The specific 
45.45 pounds. 



& 



ty of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7293, a cubic foot weighin 



o 



170 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^. 



Bumelia tenax appears to have been discovered in South Carolina by Dr. Alexander Garden/ who 
sent it to Linnaeus ; according to Aiton/ it was introduced into England in 1765. Occasionally found 
in European gardens in the early years of this century, it has probably now disappeared from 
cultivation. 



1 See i. 40. 



(Sideroxylou). — Loudou, Arb. Brit. ii. 1193, f. 1017. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLVL Bumelia tenax. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 
. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A corolla displayed, enlarged. 

5. A flower, two of the calyx-lobes and the corolla removed, enlarged 

6. A stamen, side views, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXLVI 



13 




OSE. Fasoon^ del-- 



BUMELIA TENAX,Will(i 



ToiuZei> j(y^ 





.t> 



Imp . IL. Taaeur , Far is . 



SAPOTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



171 



BUMELIA LANUGINOSA. 



Gum Elastic. Ohittim Wood. 



Leaves oblong-obovate to cuneate-obovate, silky-pubescent on the lower surface 



Bumelia lanuginosa, Persoon, Syn. i. 237 (1805). — Pursh, Chrysophyllum Ludovicianum, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 



Fl. Am. Sept. i. 155. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 135. — Roemer 
& Schultes, Syst. iv. 497. — Elliott, Sk. i. 288. — Don, Gen. 



Syst. iv. 30. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 190. 
man, Fl. 275. 



Fl. N. 



N. 



Chap- 
Sargent, 
Wat- 



53 (1817). 
Bumelia _ oblongifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 135 (1818) ; 
Sylva, iii. 33. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 664. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. iv. 30. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1194. — Dietrich, 
Syn. i. 621. 



vui 



Man 



Coulter, Contrib. Bumelia arachnoidea, Rafinesque, New 



U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 256 (Man. Fl. W. Texas) . 
? Sideroxylon tenax, Walter, Fl. Car. 100 (not Linnseus) 



;um 



tomentosa, A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 190 



(1844). 



(1788). 



(1803). 



lanuginosum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 121 
Du Mojit de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 302. 



Bumelia ferruginea, Nuttall, S}jlva, iii. 34 (1849). 
Bumelia arborea, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1861, 461 



A tree, sometimes fifty or sixty feet in height, with a tail straight trunk occasionally three feet in 
diameter, short stout tough rigid branches, unarmed or armed with stout rigid straight or slightly 
curved spines which frequently develop into spinescent leafy lateral branches, and slender often some- 



what zigzag branchlets, forming a narrow oblong round-topped head 



much smaller in the region 



of the Mississippi River, where it rarely attains the height of twenty feet. The bark of the 



trunk is half an inch thick, dark gray-brown 



d 



ridges which are broken 



thick appressed 



ally divided by deep reticulate fissures int( 
lies. The branchlets, when they first appear 



are coated with thick rufous or pale tomentum, and in their first winter vary in color from red-brown to 
ashy gray and are glabrous or nearly so, and marked with occasional minute lenticels and with the small 
semiorbicular leaf-scars which display two clusters 



of fibro-vascular bundle 



The winter-buds 



obtuse, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with broadly ovate scales clothed with rufous tomentum. 
The leaves are oblong-obovate to cuneate-obovate, rounded and often apiculate at the apex and gradually 
narrowed at the base ; when they unfold they are coated with pale or ferrugineous tomentum, which is 



thick on the lower and 



loose on the upper surface, and at maturity they are thin and firm, dark green 
and lustrous above, and covered below with loose dull and usually pale tomentum, which varies greatly 



in amount and sometimes almost disapp 



They vary from an inch to two inches and a half 



length and from 



third to three quarters of an inch in width, and are borne on short slender hairy 



petioles ; they fall irregularly during the winter. The flowers are produced 



summer 



sixteen 



ghteen-flowered fascicles on hairy pedicels and 



hth of an inch long. The calyx 



with ovate rounded lobes, coated on the outer surface with pale or ferrugineous tomentum, and rather 
shorter than the tube of the corolla. The staminodia are ovate, acute, remotely and sHghtly denticulate, 
and as long as the lobes of the corolla, which are furnished with ovate acute appendages. The ovary is 
hirsute and abruptly contracted into a slender elongated style. The fruit is oblong or slightly obovate, 
half an inch long, and borne on slender drooping stalks ; it ripens and falls in the autumn. 

Bumelia lanuginosa is distributed from southern Georgia and northern Florida to the shores of 
Mobile Bay, Alabama, and from southern lUinois and southern Missouri through Arkansas and Texas 
to the mountain slopes of Nuevo Leon. Nowhere common east of the Mississippi River, where it usually 
ffrows in dry and rather sandy soil, it is very abundant and reaches its largest size on the rich river- 
bottom lands of eastern Texas. 



172 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^ 



The wood of Bumelia lanuginosa is heavy, rather soft, not strong, close-grained, with many thin 
medullary rays, and is light brown or yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6544, a cubic foot weighing 40.78 pounds. In Texas it is sometimes 
used in cabinet-making. The clear viscid gum which exudes in considerable quantities from the freshly 
cut wood is used domestically. 

Bumelia lanuginosa was first distinguished by the French botanist Michaux, who found it in 
Georgia ; it was introduced into cultivation early in the present century and is still occasionally found 
in European gardens. 

In the region adjacent to the southern boundary of the United States, from western Texas and 
Nuevo Leon to Arizona, a form * occurs with more rigid spinescent branches and with thick coriaceous 
leaves which vary from obovate to cuneate-oblanceolate, and are rather more than an inch in length and 
a quarter of an inch in width ; at maturity they are covered on the lower surface with sparse pale 
tomentum or are nearly glabrous. It is a small tree eighteen to twenty-five feet in height, with a short 
trunk covered with red-brown bark divided into long appressed ridge-like scales broken into minute 
flakes, and inhabits dry gravelly mountain slopes in the neighborhood of streams. 

The wood of Bumelia lanuginosa, var. rlgida, is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with thin 
obscure medullary rays, and is a fight rich brown or yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6603, a cubic foot weighing 41.15 pounds. 



N. Am. ed. 2, Candolle) (1883). 



N. 



ii. 68 (1886). 



U. S. ix. 102. 



Bumelia spinosa, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 112 (not De 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLVIL Bumelia lanuginosa. 

1. Flowering branches of the typical and of the spinescent forms, natural size 

. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A flower, with the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

4. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. An embryo, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of Nort*h America 



TalD. CCXLVII 




C.E.Faccorv del 




so. 



BUMELIA LANUGINOSA, Pers. 



A . Rio creuco direa> . 



Imp. Jt.Taneur, Potij- 



SAPOTACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



173 



BUMELIA LYCIOIDES. 



Ironwood. Buckthorn. 



Leaves oblanceolate to obovate-oblong, thin, finely venulose-reticulate. 



Bumelia lycioides, Gaertner f. Fruct. iii. 127, t. 202 

(1805). — Persoon, Syn. i. 237 Willdenow, Enum. 



266-269. — Coulter, Contrih 
{Man. PI. W. Texas) . 



Nat. Herb 



249; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 68. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. Sideroxylon lycioides, Linn^us, ^^ec.ed. 2, 279 (1762). 



1. 



155. 



NuttaU, Gen. i. 135 ; Sylva, iii. 31, t. 91. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 495. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 



19. — Elliott, Sk. i. 287. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 664. 

Gen. Syst. iv. 30. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 621. 

Veg. ix. 388. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 189. 



Don, 
Hist. 
Chap- 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 117. — Lamarck, Diet. i. 

246 ; ni. ii. 42. — WiUdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1090. 
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 122. — Du Mont de Courset, 
Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 301. — Jaume St. HUaire, Flore et 
Pomone, v. t. 481. 



man, Fl. 275. 



N. 



Hems- Sideroxylon decandrum, Linnaeus, Mant. 48 (1767). 



ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 298. — Sargent, Forest Trees 



N. 



Watson 



Man 



Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1091. 

Sideroxylon Iseve, Walter, Fl. Car. 100 (1788). 



Mist 



A tree, twentyTfive to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk rarely more than six inches in 
diameter, stout flexible branches usually unarmed or furnished with short stout slightly curved spines 
which occasionally develop into leafy spinescent branches, and short thick spur-like lateral branchlets. 
The bark of the trunk is thin and light red-brown, the generally smooth surface being broken into 
small thin persistent scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are sHghtly puberulous but soon 
become glabrous ; in midsummer they are hght red-brown, rather lustrous and marked by numerous 
minute pale lenticels, and in their second year are dark or light brown tinged with red, or ashy gray. 
The winter-buds are minute, obtuse, nearly immersed in the bark and covered with pale dark brown 
glabrous scales. The leaves are oblanceolate to oblong-ob ovate, acute and rounded at the apex, 
gradually narrowed at the base, bright green and glabrous on the upper surface, hght green on the 
lower surface, which is sometimes coated at first with pale pubescence, thin and rather firm, finely 
venulose-reticulate, an inch and a half to four inches long and half an inch to an inch and a half 
broad, with pale thin conspicuous midribs and primary veins rounded on the upper side ; they are 
borne on slender slightly grooved petioles half an inch in length and faU in the autumn. The flowers, 
which appear in midsummer in crowded many-flowered fascicles, are borne on slender glabrous pedicels 
half an inch long. The calyx is glabrous, ovate-campanulate, with rounded lobes, and rather shorter 
than the corolla. The staminodia are broadly ovate and denticulate. The ovary is ovate, slightly 
hairy toward the base only, and gradually contracted into a short thick style. The fruit, which ripens 
and falls in the autumn, is ovoid or obovate and about two thirds of an inch long. 

Bumelia lycioides, which selects low wet soil along the borders of swamps and streams, is distrib- 
uted from the coast of Virginia and southern Illinois to Mosquito Inlet and the shores of the Caloosa 
River in Florida, and through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas to the vaUey of the Rio Concho. 

The wood of Bumelia lycioides is heavy, hard, not strong, and close-grained, with numerous thin 
medullary rays ; it is Hght brown or yellow, with thick fighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.7467, a cubic foot weighing 46.53 pounds. 

The earliest account of Bumelia lycioides, prepared from a plant grown in the Botanic Garden at 
Leyden was published by Boerhaave in 1720.^ According to Aiton ^ it was cultivated by PhiHp Miller 



folio Salicis viridi, alterno, splendente 
alas/oUorum, Ind. Alt. Hart. Ludg. Bat. 
, Linufeus, Hort. Cliff. 488 (excl. liab.). 



foliis decid 



Duhamel 



Traite des Arbres, ii. 260, t. 68. 

2 Hort. Kew. i. 262 (Sideroxylon). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1193, 
f. 1016. 



174 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^. 



in 1758 in the Physic Garden at Chelsea near London. It is still an occasional inhabitant of botanic 



gardens. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLVIIL Bumelia lycioides. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

3. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

4. An ovary divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

8. A seed, slightly enlarged. 

9. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 
10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of ^orth America 



Ta-b. CCXLVIIl 



» 



. ' 



. * '-. ' ■■■..■■'■; 




CS.T^amoTh' deL. 



Sum eh/ so. 



BUMELIA LYCIOIDES, Gasrtn. f. 



_J_Biocreiuo 3irea>. 



3up. Ji^Taneur^ Taru 



SAPOTACE^. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



175 



BUMELIA ANGUSTIFOLIA. 



Ants' Wood. Downward Plum. 



Leaves spatulate or linear-oblanceolate to broadly obovate-cuneate, obtuse, coria- 



ceous, obscurely yenulose-reticulate. 



Bumelia 



Bumelia parvif olia, Chapman, Fl 



Math.-Phys, CI. Acad. Miinch. xiv. pt. (1865). 



iii. 481. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 
Garden and Forest, ii. 447. 



Sargent, Bumelia cuneata, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. 68 (not 
. S. Nat. Swartz) (1878). — Hemsley, Bot Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 



Herh. ii. 257 {Man. PI. W. Texas) . 297. 

Bumelia reclinata, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Siirv. 109 ix. 103. 

(not Ventenat) (1859). 



N. Am. 10th Census 



A tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a short trunk rarely exceeding six or eight inches in 
diameter, graceful pendulous branches which form a compact round head, and rigid spinescent diverging 
lateral branchlets often armed with acute slender spines sometimes an inch in length ; or occasionally in 
Texas a low shrub with spreading stems. The bark of the trunk varies from one third to one half of 
an inch in thickness, and is gray tinged with red and deeply divided by longitudinal and cross fissures 
into oblong or nearly square plates. The branchlets, when they first appear, are thickly coated with 
loose pale or dark brown tomentum which soon disappears, and they become light brown tinged with 
red or ashy gray. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, and coated with rufous tomentum. The leaves 
are spatulate or Hnear-oblong, or sometimes broadly obovate-cuneate, rounded and occasionally emargi- 
nate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and entire, with slightly thickened and revolute 
margins ; they are glabrous, thick, and coriaceous, pale blue-green on the upper, and paler on the lower 
surface, an inch to an inch and a half long and a quarter of an inch to an inch and a quarter wide, 
with slender pale midribs and very obscure veins and veinlets ; they are borne on petioles which are 
rarely a quarter of an inch in length, and usually remain on the branches until the end of their second 
winter. The flowers, which generally appear in October and November, barely exceed one sixteenth of 
an inch in length, and are borne in few or many-flowered crowded fascicles on slender glabrous pedicels 
seldom more than half an inch long. The calyx is glabrous and divided nearly to the base into narrow 
ovate lobes rounded at the apex and half the length of the divisions of the corolla, which are furnished 
with Knear-lanceolate appendages as long as the ovate acute denticulate staminodia. The ovary is 
narrowly ovate, slightly hairy at the very base only, and gradually contracted into an elongated style. 
The fruit is oblong-oval and two thirds of an inch in length, with thick sweet flesh ; it hangs on a 
slender drooping stem, usuaUy only one fruit being developed from each fascicle of flowers, and ripens 

in the spring. 

In Florida Bumelia angustifolia is distributed on the east coast, where it is common, from the 

shores of Indian River to the southern keys, and on the west coast, where it is much less abundant, 

from Cedar Keys to Cape Romano, being most frequently found on rocky shores and in the interior of 

low barren islands. It also inhabits the Bahama Islands,^ the vaUey of the Rio Grande below Laredo, 

Texas, and Nuevo Leon. 

The wood of Bumelia angustifolia is heavy, hard, although not strong, and very close-grained, 

with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful poHsh ; it contains many thin medullary rays, 

1 Ecgers, No. 4418 ; an uuusually narrow-leaved form. 



176 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^. 



and is light brown or orange-colored^ with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.7959, a cubic foot weighing 49.60 pounds. 

Bumelia angustifolia was first discovered on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. In the valley of 
the Rio Grande it was first collected near the city of Matamoras by Jean Louis Berlandier.^ 



1 See i. 82. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXLIX. Bumelia angustifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Interior view of a corolla displayed, enlarged. 

4. Exterior view of a corolla displayed, enlarged. 

5. A flower, the corolla removed, with the ovary 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, slightly enlarged. 

10. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.CCXLIX 




3 



d 



ii 



8 





C.E. FaccoTL del . 



Toidet so. 



BUMELIA ANGUSTIFOLIA.Nutt. 



A-RiOC-reiirc dire^c. 



Imp. R.Toneitr, Paris. 



SAPOTACE^. SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



1 



i i 



DIPHOLIS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes in one series, imbricated in aestivation, 
persistent ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes furnished with lateral petal-like 
appendages and staminodia, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 5 ; disk ; oyary supe- 
rior, 5-celled; ovules solitary in each cell, ascending. Fruit a fleshy usually 1-celled 
1 -seeded berry. Leaves alternate, petiolate, coriaceous, persistent, destitute of stipules. 



Dipholis, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 188 (1844). —Ben- Bumelia, BaiUon, Hist. PI. x\. 211 (in part) (1891) 
tham «fe Hooker, Gen. ii. 660. — Engler & Prantl, Pflan- 
zenfatn. iv. pt. i. 145. 



Glabrous or pubescent trees or shrubs, with terete unarmed branches and naked buds. Leaves 
coriaceous, elliptical to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, short-petiolate, penniveined, the slender veins 
arcuate and united near the margins, entire, lustrous, persistent. Flowers minute, short-pedicellate, 
in many-flowered fascicles in the axils of existing leaves or from the leafless nodes of previous years. 
Pedicels clavate, ebracteolate, from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. Calyx ovate, deeply five-lobed, 
the lobes nearly equal, ovate, rounded at the apex. Corolla campanulate, short-tubed, hypogynous, 
white, five-lobed, the spreading lobes furnished on each side at the base with exterior linear or 
subulate appendages. Stamens five, inserted toward the base of the coroUa-tube opposite its lobes, 
exserted; filaments fiHform; anthers ovate or oblong-sagittate, attached on the back, extrorse, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Staminodia five, petaloid, ovate, acute, mostly erosely or 
fimbriately cut on the margins, oblique, keeled on the back, inserted in the same rank and alternately 
with the stamens. Ovary oblong or narrowly ovate, gradually contracted into a slender style shorter 
than the corolla and stigmatic at the apiculate apex ; ovules solitary in each cell, attached to an axile 
placenta, ascending from near the bottom of the cell, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle inferior. 
Fruit ovate or oblong, tipped with the remnants of the persistent style, mostly one-seeded ; pericarp 
thin and fleshy. Seed ovate or subrotund ; testa thick, coriaceous, and lustrous ; hilum oblong, basilar 
or slightly lateral. Embryo erect in thick fleshy albumen ; cotyledons ovate, flat, much longer than the 

short terete radicle turned towards the hilum. 

Diphohs, which differs chiefly from Sideroxylum in the presence of the exterior appendages to the 
corolla-lobes and from Bumelia in the copious albumen of the seed, is West Indian ^ and Floridian. Of 
three species which are recognized, one inhabits southern Florida. 

Dipholis produces strong hard wood, but is not known to be otherwise valuable. 

The generic name, from htg and ^o7.l<;, relates to the appendages of the corolla. 

1 A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 188. — Grisebach, Fl Brit. W. Ind. 400. 



SAPOTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



179 



DIPHOLIS SALICIFOLIA. 



Bustic. Oassada. 



Flower 



shorter than the petioles. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or obovate 



gradually contracted into slender petioles 



Dipholis salicifolia, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 188 



Occ. i. 491. 



W 



(1844). 

Martins 



Delessert, Icon. Select, v. 17, t. 40. — Miquel 

Chapman, Fl. 274. 
N. Am. ii. 67. — Sargent, Forest Trees 



Mastichodench 



Hort. Ke 



11. 



13. 



Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 494. — Don, Gen. 



N. 



Achras salicifolia, Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 470 (1762). 
Bumelia salicifolia, Swartz, Prodr. 50 (1788) ; Fl. Ind. 



Sijst. iv. 29. — Dietrich, S^Jn. i. 621. 
Sideroxylum salicif olium, Lamarck, 
Gaertner f. Fruct. iii. 124, t. 202. 



A tree, in Florida sometimes forty to fifty feet in height, with a straight trunk eighteen or twenty 
inches in diameter, slender upright branches forming a narrow graceful head, and thin terete branchlets. 
The bark of the trunk is a third of an inch thick and is broken into thick square plate-like brown scales 
tinged with red. The branches, when they first appear, are coated with rufous pubescence, and later 
become ashy gray or light brown tinged with red, and are marked by numerous circular pale lenticels 
and by small elevated orbicular leaf -scars, displaying near the centre a compact cluster of fibro-vascular 
bundle-scars. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate or narrowly obovate, acute, acuminate, or rounded at the 
apex, gradually contracted at the base, and entire, with shghtly thickened cartilaginous wavy margins ; 
when they unfold they are thickly coated with lustrous rufous pubescence, and at maturity are thin and 
firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on the lower, three to five inches 
long, half an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, and glabrous or slightly puberulous on the lower side 
of the narrow pale midribs, with inconspicuous veins, reticulate veinlets, and slender petioles varying 
from half an inch to an inch in length ; they appear in Florida in the spring and remain on the branches 
between one and two years. The flowers, which open during March and April, are an eighth of an 
inch long, and, produced in dense many-flowered fascicles crowded on the branchlets of the year or of 
the previous year for a distance of eight or twelve inches, are borne on thick pedicels a quarter of an 
inch lone, coated with rufous pubescence and developed from the axils of ovate acute scarious bracts 
barely a twelfth of an inch in length. The calyx is half the length of the corolla, its outer surface 
being covered with rusty silky pubescence ; the linear acute exterior appendages of the corolla-lobes are 



are 



the oval acute irregularly toothed staminodia, these being shorter than the stamens 
composed of slender filaments and oblong anthers. The ovary is narrowly ovate, glabrous, and 

" " " " ' The 

the 



gradually contracted into a slender style shorter than the coroUa and stigmatic at the apex 
fruit, which is solitary or rarely clustered, is produced in Florida rather sparingly and ripens 



autumn ; it is oblon 
single oblong seed. 



& 



subo-lobose, black, and a quarter of an inch long, with thin dry flesh and 



JDipholis salicifolia grows 



Florida on the shores of Bay Biscayne, on rich hummock soil, with 



the Mastic, the Live Oak, the Cuban Pine, the Palmetto, the Black Calabash, the Marlberry, the Gumb 
Limbo, and Eugenia Garheri, and on several of the southern keys, although here it is nowhere commor 
It also inhabits the Bahamas ^ and many of the West Indian islands.^ 



The wood of JDipholis salicifolia is very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong 



■grained 



d 



104 



Siblj 



2 A. Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 85, t. 54 
Ind. 401 ; Cat. PL Cub. 164. 



Grisebach, Fl. Brit. U 



ISO 



SILVA OF NOJRTH AMERICA. sapotace^. 



iptible of receiving a beautiful polish 



large open ducts and obscure medul 



lary rays, and is dark brown or red, with thin sapwood composed of four or five layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9316, a cubic foot weighing 58.06 
pounds. 

Dipholis salicifolia ajDpears to have been discovered in Jamaica by Sir Hans Sloane, and the 

earliest description of it is found in his Catalogue of Jamaica Plants, published in 1696.^ In Florida 
it was detected by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



^ Salicis folio lata splendente, arbor Jloribus parvis pallide luteis pen- Achras? Foliis oblongis nitidis utrinque productis, floribus confertis^ 

tapetalis e ramulorum lateribus confertim exeuntibus^ 170 ; Nat Hist. fasciculis infra frondes sparsisy Browne, Nat, Hist. Jam. 201, t. 17, 



Jam. ii. 98, t. 206, f. 2. 



f.4. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCL. Dipholis salicifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, with the corolla displayed, enlarged 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

.0. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCL 




8 




9 



10 





5 



C.E FauxoTb del. 



Rapuie' SC'. 



DIPHOLIS SALICIFOLIA, A.DC. 



A.RiocreuX' direcC' 



Imp. R. Ta/ieur , Paris 



SAPOTACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



181 



MIMUSOPS. 



Flowees perfect 



ah 



6 to 8-parted, the divisions in two series, those of the 



exterior valyate in aestivation, the others imbricated, persistent ; corolla gamopetalous, 
6 to 8-lobed, the lobes imbricated or subcontorted in aestivation and furnished at the 
base with a pair of petal-like appendages and with scale-like or petaloid staminodia ; 
stamens 6 to 8 ; disk ; ovary superior, 6 to 8-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell. 
Fruit a globose, usually 1-seeded berry. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, persistent, 
destitute of stipules. 



Mimusops, Linnaeus, Amcen. i. 397 (1749). — A. L. de Jus- 
sieu, Gen. 152. — Meisner, Gen. 251. — Endlicher, Gen. 



Gen. 251. — Endlicher, Gen. 741. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. ii. 661. 



741. 



Beutham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 661. — Hartog, Jour. ? Phlebolithis, Gaertner, Fruct. i. 201, t. 43, f. 2 (1788). 



Bot. xvii. 358. 
150, f. 82. 



Pfianzenfi 



Hist 



Manilkara, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 166 (1763). 
Binectaria, Forskai, Fl. ^gijpt.-Arab. 82 (1775). 
Stisseria, Scopoli, Introd. 199 (1777). 



Synarrhena, Fischer & Meyer, 'BvM. Acad. Sci. St. Feters- 
hourg, viii. 255 (1841). — Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. iii. 81. 

Delastrea, A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 195 (not Tulasne) 
(1844). 

Labramia, A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 672 (1844). 



Imbricaria, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 152 (1789). — Meisner, Eichleria, Hartog, Joiir. Bot. xvi. 72 (not Progel) (1878) 

Muriea, Hartog, Jour. Bot. xvi. 145 (1878). 



Trees, or rarely shrubs, with stout terete unarmed branches, scaly buds, and sweet milky juice. 
Leaves alternate, usually clustered at the ends of the branches, petiolate, penniveined, with slender 
inconspicuous transverse veins and minutely reticulated veinlets, persistent. Flowers small, pedicellate 
from leaf-bearing or older leafless nodes. Pedicels clavate, short or elongated, ebracteolate, produced 
from the axils of minute deciduous bracts. Calyx six to eight-lobed, the lobes in two series. Corolla 
hypogynous, white, barely longer than the calyx, subrotate, usually dilated in the throat, the divisions 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire or variously cut, each furnished at the base on either side with an exterior 
petaloid appendage. Stamens inserted on the tube of the coroUa opposite its lobes ; filaments short, 
dilated, free, or united with the staminodia into a spreading tube ; anthers lanceolate, attached on the 
back below the middle, extrorsely or sublaterally dehiscent, two-ceUed, the cells opening longitudinally, 
the connective excurrent, acute, or sometimes aristate at the apex. Staminodia as many as the lobes of 
the corolla, scale-Hke or petaloid, entire, two-lobed or laciniate, inserted in the same rank and alter- 
nately with the stamens. Ovary ovate, hirsute or puberulous, six to eight-celled, gradually narrowed 
into a slender style stigmatic at the apex ; ovules solitary, attached to an axile placenta projected from 
the inner angle of the cell, subbasilar, ascending or horizontal, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle 
inferior. Fruit globose or slightly obovate, one or few-seeded by abortion, tipped with a thickened 
persistent style, and surrounded at the base by the calyx ; epicarp crustaceous, indurate ; endocarp thick 
and fleshy. Seed oblong-ovate, slightly compressed ; testa crustaceous or hard, chestnut-brown, lus- 
trous ; hilum elongated and lateral, or minute and basilar. Embryo surrounded by thick fleshy albu- 
men ; cotyledons flat, thick, and fleshy, much longer than the short terete erect radicle. 

Mimusops, with thirty or forty species,* is widely distributed through the tropics of the two hemi- 



1 A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 202. — Walpers, Rep. vi. 456 



tral. iv. 284, 



Fl. Trap. Afi 



« ■ • 

HI. 



13. 



A. Richard, Tent FL Abyss, ii. 22. — Sender, Linncea^ Kurz, Forest FL BriL Burm. ii. 122. 



Fl. Maur 



t « • 



XXIU. 



74. 



11. 



1042. 



ITartitis Fl. Brasil. vi 
Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 400 



Fl 



194 



Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 548. — Engler, Bot. Jahrh. 



Fl 



m 



182 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPOTACE^. 



cluce hard heavy timber^ fragrant flowers^ edible fruits^ and valuable milky 



heres^ a single species inhabiting the islands of southern Florida. Several species of Mimusops pro- 
juices. 3£imusops Balata^^ 

Bully-tree or Balata of the West Indies and Guiana^ where it grows to the height of a hundred 
and produces trunks six feet in diameter^ is a valuable timber-tree ; - it yields a small deliciously 

food by the natives of Guiana^ and 



feet ai 

flavored fruity and abundant sweet milky juice which 



u 



sed 



m 



years 



has been imported into the United States and Europe 



the form of 



elastic d 



the balata of commerce.^ In Indidi, Mimusoios hexandra'^ is often cultivated as a fruit 



hard tough even grained wood is used in the construction of building 



turnery^ and for gun- 

of southern India and Ceylon^ is also cultivated in India and 

its edible fruit : oil is 



stocks.^ Mimiisojys Elengi^^ a native 

Burmah for its fragrant star-shaped flowers, which are used in garlands, and for 

pressed from its seeds, and its bark is used medicinally 



in native practiced Mimusops Kauki ^ of Bur- 
mah, the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, and of Australia, is often cultivated in tropical countries as 



f 



fresh cream 



9 



and Mliniisojjs parinfi 



10 



of Australia exudes a thick milky edible sap with the taste of 



The significance of the generic name, from ^I^o and 6^i$, given in allusion to the shape of the 



corolla, is not apparent. 



1 Gartner f. FrucU iii. 133, t. 205 (1805). — A. de Candolle, Martius, i^. ^m^zY. vii. 112. — Giiiboiirt, -ffz5^ Z^ro^^. ed. 7, ii. 600. 
Prodr, viii. 206. — Miquel, Martins FL BrasiL vii. 44. — Beauvisage, Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures^ and Raio 



Origines Botaniques de la Gutta-Percha, 54. 

Achras Balata, Aublet, PL Guian, i. 308 (1775). 
? Mimusops glohosa, Gsertner f. L c, 132, t. 205 (1805). — Grise- 
bach, FL BriL W. Ind. 400. ' 

Sapota MwZZm, Bleekrod, ^nn. Sci. Nat. s^r. 4, vii. 225 (1857). 
2 R. Schomburgk, A Description of British Guiana, 33. — Laslett, 
Timber and Timber-trees, 160. 



Commercial Products, ii. 1635. — Jackson, Commercial Botany of 
the Nineteenth Century, 33.) 

4 Roxburgh, PL Coram, i. 16, 1. 15 (1795). — A. de Candolle, L c. 



204. 



Hooker f . FL Brit, Ind. iii. 549. 



Mimusops Indica, A. de Candolle, I, c, 205 (1844). — Thwaites, 
Enum, PL Zeylan, 175. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 291. 
^ Brandis, L c, — Balfour, Timber-trees of India, ed. 2, 168 ; En- 



^ Balata-gum when dried resembles leather and is heavier than cyclopcedia of India, ed. 3, ii. 950. 



water. Treated with sulphur it forms a vulcanized elastic supple 



Linnaeus, Spec, 349 (1753). — Roxburgh, L c, 15, 1. 14. — Gsert- 



substance intermediate in its properties between gutta-percha and ner, FrucL i. 198, t. 42. — A. de Candolle, L c. 202. — Thwaites, 
India - rubber. When first introduced it was extensively em- I, c. — Brandis, L c, 293. — Kurz, I, c, — Hooker f . L c, 548. 



ployed for isolating telegraph wires ; its lack of durability when 
exposed to the air, however, lessens its value for this purpose, and 



^ Beddome, FL Sylv, S. hid. i. t, 40. — Balfour, L c. 167 ; I, c. 
8 Linnaeus, L c. (1753). — R. Brown, Prodr. 531. — A. de Can- 



it is now little used except as an ingredient in chewing-gum, for doUe, L c. 203. — Miquel, FL Ind, Bat, ii. 1042. — Hooker f, L v 
which purpose its sweetness and excellent masticatory qualities 549. 



luake it valuable. To obtain the gimi the coarse outer bark is 



Mimusops dissecta, R. BroVra, L c, (1810) 



Mag 



removed from the trees and a number of oblique uisertious are 3157. — A. de Candolle, I, c, 204. 



made in the inner bark to the height of about seven feet from 



Mimusops Balota, Blimie, Bijdr, FL Ned. Ind, 673 (not Gsert- 



the ground ; a ring of clay wrapped around the base of the tree ner f.) (1825). 



collects the sap as it flows from the cuts. The quantity of sap 



Mimusops Kauki f var. Browniana, A. de Candolle, L c. 203 



obtained from a tree varies from six to thirty ounces, which produce (1844). 



from three quarters of a pound to a poimd of the dried gum. This 
process, it is said, does not injure the trees. They are often cut 
down, however, and the sap extracted from wounds made along 
the whole length of the trunks ; m this way as much as forty-five 



Mimusops Hookeri, A. de Candolle, L c, 204 (1844). 

Mimusops Broioniana, Bentham, FL Austral, iv. 285 (1869), 
® Brandis, L c. 
10 R. Brown, L c, (1810). — A. de CandoUe, L c. 203. — Mueller, 



poimds of dried giun have been obtained from a single tree, while Fragm. Phyt, Austral, v. 160. — Bentham, L c. 



the average amount is eleven pounds. (See Bleekrod, I, c. 220. 



11 Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia, 45. 



SAPOTACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



183 



MIMUSOPS SIEBERI. 



Wild Dilly. 



Staminodia scale-like, triangular, entire. Leaves elliptical-oblong or slightly obovate, 



retuse. 



Mimusops 



Mimusops dissecta, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. 



Chapman, Fl. 275. — Gray, Syn. Fl. JST. Am. ii. 69. — part) (1864). 



N. 



Bahamensis. Baker. Hooker 



Achras Zapotilla, var. parviflora, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 28, t. (1888). 



90 (1849). 



Mimusops Floridana, Engler, Bot. Jahrb. xii. 524 (1890). 



A tree, in Florida rarely more than thirty feet in height, with a short gnarled trunk twelve or 
fifteen inches in diameter, usually hollow and defective, and stout branches and branchlets which form 
a compact round head. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, and is irregularly divided 
by deep fissures into ridges rounded on the back and broken into small nearly square plates. The 
branchlets, which are clustered at the ends of the branches of the previous year, are coated, when they 
first appear, with dark rufous pubescence, and at the end of a few weeks are glabrous, or nearly so, 
and light orange-brown ; in their second year they are stout, covered with thick ashy gray or light red- 
dish brown scaly bark, and marked by the elevated obcordate leaf-scars, which display three large dark 
conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The buds are ovate, acute, and covered with dark rusty brown 
tomentum. The leaves, which are clustered at the ends of the branchlets, are involute in vernation, 
elliptical-oblong or occasionally slightly obovate, rounded and retuse at the apex, rounded or wedge- 
shaped at the base, and entire, with slightly thickened revolute margins ; when they unfold they are 
bright red and slightly puberulous on the under surface of the midribs, and at maturity are thick and 
coriaceous, bright green and lustrous, covered on the upper surface with a slight glaucous bloom, con- 
spicuously reticulate-venulose, three to four inches long and an inch to an inch and a half broad, with 
stout midribs glabrous or puberulous with rusty hairs below and deeply impressed above ; they are borne 
on slender grooved petioles from half an inch to an inch in length and usually covered with rusty 
pubescence, especially while young, and, appearing in Florida in April and May, fall during their 
second year. The flowers, which open in the spring, are borne on slender pedicels, coated with rusty 
tomentum, an inch or more long, and produced at the ends of the branches from the axils of leaves of 
the previous year, or from those of leaves two years old which have fallen. The flower-buds are ovate, 
rounded at the apex, and clothed with rusty tomentum. The calyx is narrowly ovate, and divided 
nearly to the bottom into six lobes ; the lobes of the outer row are lanceolate, acute, covered on the outer 
surface with rusty brown tomentum and on the inner with pale pubescence, and thickened at the base, 
where they are usually marked on the outer surface with a black spot ; those of the inner row are 
ovate, acute, keeled towards the base, light greenish yellow and covered with pale pubescence. The 
corolla is light yellow, tinged with green, and two thirds of an inch across when expanded, with six 
spreading lanceolate acute divisions, entire, or erosely toothed towards the apex, and furnished at the 
base on each side with a slender acute appendage one half or two thirds of their length. The stamino- 
dia are minute, nearly triangular, entire, and free from the stamens. The ovary is narrowly ovate, dark 
red, puberulous toward the base with pale hairs, and gradually narrowed iato an elongated exserted 
style stio-matic at the apex. The fruit is subglobose or slightly obovate, flattened and compressed at the 



apex surrounded at the base by the remnants of the persistent calyx with its reflexed lobes, and 



184 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapotace^ 



crowned by the thickened persistent style ; it is an inch or an inch and a half in diameter, and is 
borne on a stout erect stem an inch or more long, and, ripening at the end of a year in the spring or 
early autumn, is still on the branches when the tree is again in flower ; the fruit is usually one-seeded 
by abortion, and is covered with a thick dry outer coat, roughened with minute, russet-brown scales, 
and inclosing the thick spongy flesh filled with milky juice. The seed is half an inch long, with an 
elongated lateral hilum. The fruit is devoured by many birds and other animals. 

The wood of Mimuso2:)S Sieheri is very heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, with numerous 
obscure meduUary rays. It is rich very dark brown, with lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0838, a cubic foot weighing 67.54 pounds. 

Mimusops Sieheri is found in Florida only on the southern keys, where it is not uncommon ; it 
also inhabits the Bahamas,^ and probably many of the other West Indian islands. 

The specific name commemorates the scientific labors of F. W. Sieber/ the botanical traveler and 
collector, who found this tree on the island of Trinidad. 

The Wild Dilly was discovered on the Bahama Islands by Mark Catesby, who published the earhest 
description of it in his Natural History of Carolina? 



iock, Rep, Missouri Bot. Gard 
WUhelm Sieber (1785-1844) 



Europe with plants collected in the O 
the world which he made in 1822-24. 



profession an apothecary, who enriched the principal herbaria of ® Anona foliis Laurinisy in summitate incisis j fructu 

scabrofusco, in medio acumine longoy ii. 87, t. 87. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLI. MiMirsops Sieberi. 

!• A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
6. An ovule, much magnified- 

6. Cross section of a fruit, showing the seed, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. A seed, natural size. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva o£_JSfoTth._j!\in erica. 



Tab. CCLI 




CS. FcuBOTL dd^. 




so 



MIMUSOPS SIEBERI, A. DC. 



^.JHocreiLV Jxrex^r 



J^np . lL.Taneur, Faris 



INDEX TO VOL. V. 



Names of Orders are in small capitals; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Achras Bahamensis, 183. 

Achras Balatay 182. 

Achras costatay 163. 

Achras pallida, 165. 

Achras salicifoUa, 179. 

Achras Zapotillay var. parviflora^ 183. 

Acmena, 39, 

Adamaram, 19. 

? Adnaria, 115. 

-fficidium Sambiici, 87. 

? JEgialea, 129. 

Agathisanthes, 73. 

A gathisanthes Javanica, 73. 

Almond-tree, Indian, 20, 

Altingia Chinensis, medical uses of, 8. 

Anamomis, 31. 

Anamomis dichotoma, 32. 

Anamomis esculenta, 31. 

Anamomis punctata, 32. 

Andromeda, 129. 

Andromeda, 133, 

Andromeda arborea, 135. 

Andromeda arbor escens, 135, 

Andromeda elliptica, 130. 

Andromeda ferruginea, 131. 



Aralia Mandshurica, 60. 

Aralia nudicaulis, 58. 

Aralia Planchoniana, 60. 

Aralia quinquefolia, 58. 

Aralia racemosa, 58, 

Aralia racemosa, 57. 

Aralia racemosa, var. eccidentalis, 57. 

Aralia spinosa, 59. 

Aralia spinosa, 60. 

Aralia spinosa, (3,, 59. 

Aralia spinosa, var. canescens, 60, 

Aralia spinosa, var. Chinensis, 60. 

Aralia spinosa, var. elata, 60. 
Aralia spinosa, var. glabrescens, 60. 

ARALIACE.E, 57. 

Arbutus, 121. 
Arbutus Andrachne, 122. 
Arbutus Andrachne, fruit of, 121. 
Arbutus Arizoniea, 127. 



Arbutus integrifolia, 122. 
Arbutus laurifolia, 123, 125. 
f Arbutus macrophylla, 125. 
Arbutus Menziesii, 123. 
Arbutus Menziesii, 125, 127. 
Arbutus mollis, 125. 



Andromeda ferruginea, var. arborescens, ? Arbutus obtusifolius, 119. 



132. 



ferruginea, var. fi 



132 



Andromeda, fungal enemies of, 130. 
Andromeda glaucophylla, 130. 
Andromeda Mariana, 130. 
Andromeda ovalifolia, 130. 
Andromeda polifolia, 130. 
Andromeda pulchella, 130. 
Andromeda rhomboidalis, 132. 
Andromeda rigida, 132. 
Andromeda rosmarinifolia, 130, 
Anthodendron, 143. 
Anthodendron flavum, 145, 146. 
Antispila cornifoliella, 65. 
Antispila nyssaefoliella, 74. 
Ants' Wood, 175. 
Aphis Vibnrni, 94. 

Apple, Rose, 41. 
Aralia, 57. 

Aralia Californica, 57. 
Aralia canescens, 60. 
Aralia Chinensis, 60. 
.Aralia cordata, 58. 
Aralia Decaisneana, 60. 
Aralia edulis, 58. 
Aralia elata, 60. 
Aralia hispida, 58. 
Aralia humilis, 57. 
Aralia hypoleuca, 58. 
Aralia Leroana, 60. 



Arbutus procera, 123. 

Arbutus prunifolia, 125. 

Arbutjts serratifolia, 122. 

Arbutus Texana, 125, 

Arbutus Unedo, 121. 

Arbutus Unedo, fruit of, 121. 

Arbutus varians, 125. 

Arbutus Xalapensis, 125. 

Arbutus Xalapensis, 127. 

Arbutus Xalapensis, var. Arizoniea, 127 

Arbutus Xalapensis, var. Texana, 125. 

Ardisia, 151. 

Ardisia Pickeringia, 153. 

Azalea, 144. 

Azalea, 143. 

Azalea arborescens, 146. 

Azalea bicolor, 146. 

Azalea calendulacea, 146. 

Azalea canescens, 146. 

Azalea fragrans, 146. 

Azalea Indica, 146. 

Azalea Japonica, 146. 

Azalea Lapponica, 144. 

? Azalea lutea, 146. 

Azalea mollis, 146. 

Azalea nudiflora, 146. 

Azalea occidentalis, 146. 

Azalea periclymenoides, 146. 

Azalea Pontica, 145. 

Azalea Pontica, var. Sinensis, 146 



Azalea Sinensis, 146. 
^siaZea viscosa, 146. 
Azaleas, Ghent, 146. 
Azaleas, Indian, 146. 
Azaleastrum, 144. 



Badamia, 19. 

Balata, 182. 

Balata-gum, 182. 

Balm, copalni, 8. 

Batodendron, 115. 

Batodendron, 115. 

Batodendron arbor eum, 119. 

Bay, Rose, 148. 

Beleric myrobalans, 20. 

Benthamia, 63. 

Benthamia fragifera, 64. 

Benthamia Japonica, 64. 

Benthamidia, 63. 

Benthamidia florida, 66. 

Berry, Miracidous, 164. 

Bilberries, 116. 

Bilsted, 10. 

Binectaria, 181. 

Black Gum, 77. 

Black Haw, 99. 

Black Olive Tree, 21. 

Black Phmi-tree, 41. 

Bladhia, 151. 

Bladhia paniculata, 153. 

Blueberries, 116. 

Blueberry, High-bush, 117. 

Bonellia, 155. 

Bucida, 19. 

Bucida angusiifolia, 21. 

Bucida Buceras, 21, 29. 

Bucida Buceras, var. angustifolia 

Buckthorn, 173. 

Bully Tree, 182. 

Bumelia, 167. 

Bumelia, 177. 

Bumelia angustifolia, 175. 
Bumelia arachnoidea, 171. 
Bumelia arborea, 171. 
Bumelia chrysophylloidesy 169. 
Bumelia cuneata, 175. 
Bumelia dulcifica, 164, 
Bumelia ferruginea, 171. 
Bumelia fcetidissima, ICo. 



Bumelia lanuginosa, 171. 

Bumelia lanuginosa, var. rigida, 172. 

Bmnelia lycioides, 173. 

Bumelia lycioides, var. recliyiata, 168. 

Bumelia Mastichodendron^lQb. 

? Bumelia oblongifolia, 171. 

Bumelia pallida, 165. 



186 



INDEX. 



Bumelia parvifolia^ 175. 
Bvimelia reclinata, 168. 
Bumelia reclinata^ 175. 
Bumelia salicifolia, 165, 179. 
Bumelia spinosa, 17li. 
Bumelia tenax, 169. 
Bumelia tomentosay 111. 
Bustic, 179. 
Buttonwood, 24. 
Buttonwood, White, 29. 



ACTACKE 



Cactus TiexagonuSy 52. 

Cactus PeruvianuSy 52. 

Cadambay 111. 
Cadamba jasminifloray ] 

CainitOy 159. 

Cainito pomiferum, 160. 

Calico Bush, 140. 
Calyptranthes, 35. 
Calyptranthes aromatic 
Calyptranthes Chytraculia, 36. 



Chrysophyllum microphyllumy 161. 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenumy 161. 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme, 161. 

Chrysophyllum oliviformey var. monopyrenumy 

161. 
Chrysophyllum Roxburghii, 160. 
Chii-ling, 8. 
Chuncoay 19. 
Chytraliay 35. 
Cinchona Caribcea, 105. 
Cinchona Carolinianay 109. 
Cinchona Jloribunday 103. 

Cinchona JamaicensiSy 105. 
Cinchona Lucianay 103. 

Cinchona montanay 103. 
Ciuctosandra, 116. 
ClavimyrtuSy 39. 
CleistocalyXy 39. 
Cloves, 40. 
Cloves, oil of, 41. 
Clove-stalks, 41. 
Clove-tree, 40. 



Cyanocoecus, 115. 
Cynoxylony 63. 

CyrUla paniculatay 153 



Calyptranthes Chytraculia, a., genuina, 36. Clove-tree, cultivation of, 40. 



Calyptranthes Chytraculia, /?., ovalis, 36. 



Coleophora cornella, 65. 



Calyptranthes Chytraculia, 7., trichotoma, Coleophora viburniella, 94. 
36. Coleosporium Viburni, 94. 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, d., pauciflora, CombretacEuE, 19. 



35 



36. 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, e,y \ 

36. 
Calyptranthes Jambolanay 41. 
Calyptranthes obscura, 35. 
Calyptranthes paniculata, 35. 
Calyptranthes Schiedeana, 35. 
Calyptranthes Schlechtendaliana. 
Calyptranthes Zuzygium, 36. 
CalyptranthuSy 35. 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE, 85. 

Garden, 52. 

CaryophylluSy 39. 

Caryophyllus aromaticuSy 40. 

Cassada, 179. 

Catappay 19. 

Catastega hamameliella, 2. 

Catawbiense Rhododendrons, 146, 147. 

Catingay 39. 

Caviniumy 115. 

Cecropia moth, 9. 

CephalocereuSy 51. 

CephalophoruSy 61. 

CeratostachySy 73. 

Ceratostachys arborea, 73. 

Cercospora Hamamelidis, 2. 

Cereus, 51. 

Cereus giganteus, 53. 

Cereus Pecten-aboriginum, 52. 

Cereus Peruvianus, 52. 

Cereus Pringlei, 52. 

Cerocarpus, 39. 

? Chcerophyllum arborescens, 59. 

Chebulic myrobalans, 20. 

Cherry, 153. 

Cherry, Surinam, 41. 

Chicharroniay 19. 

Chinese Liquidambar, 8. 

Chionaspis Nyssse, 74. 



Wood 



144 



tun 
iim 



Chrysophyllum Cainlfo, 161. 
Chrysophyllum CarolinensCy 160. 
Chrysophyllum ferrugine>imy 161. 
Chrysophyllum Ludovicianumy 171. 



Conocarpus, 23 
Conocarpus acuti/olia, 24. 
Conocarpus erecta, 24. 
Conocarpus erecta, var. arborea, 24. 
Conocarpus erecta, var. procumbens, 24. 
Conocarpus erecta, var. sericea, 24. 
Conocarpus procumbenSy 24. 
Conocarpus racemosay 29. 
Copalm balm, 8. 

CORNACEiE, 63. 

Cornus, 63. 
? Cornus albay 64. 
Cornus alternay 71. 
Cornus alternifolia, 71. 
Cornus Amomumy 64:. 
Cornus australisy 64. 
Cornus brachypodCy 64. 
Cornus capitata, 64. 
? Cornus coeruleay 64. 
Cornus crispulay 64. 
Cornus cyanocarpay 64. 
Cornus florida, 66. 

Cornus Jioriday 69. 

Cornus florida, pendulous variety, 68, 
Cornus florida, red-bracted variety, 68. 
Cornus, fungal enemies of, 65. 
Cornus, insect enemies of, 65. 
Cornus Kousa, 64. 

Cornus lanuginosa, 64. 
Cornus macrophylla, 64. 
Cornus mas, 64. 

Cornus Nuttallii, 69. 

Cornus obliquay 64. 

Cornus officinalis, 64. 

? Cornus polygama, 64. 

Cornus punctata y 71. 

Cornus riparia, 71. 

Cornus ripariay var. rugosay 71. 

Cornus rotundifoliay 71. 

? Cornus rubiginosay 64. 

Cornus sanguinea, 64. 

Cornus sericea, 64. 

Cornus undulatay 71. 

Cortex thymiamatis, 8. 

Cotton Gum, 83. 

Cranberries, 116. 

Cranberry, cultivation of the, 116. 



Daphniphyllopsis capitatay 73. 
Deerberry, 117. 
Delastreay 181. 
Dilly, Wild, 183. 
Dimerosporium pulchriun, 65. 
DimorphanthuSy 57. 
Dimorphanthus elatuSy 60. 
Dimorphanthus MandshuricuSy 60. 
Dipholis, 177. 
Dipholis salicifolia, 179. 
Disterigma, 116. 
Dogwood, 69, 71. 
Dogwood, Flowering, 66. 
Donkelaaria, 111. 
Downward Plum, 175. 



Echinocereus, 51. 
Echinocereusy 51. 
EchinonyctanthuSy 51. 
Echinopsis, 51. 
EchinopsiSy 51. 
Eichleria, 181. 
Elder, 88, 91. 
Epigynium, 116. 
Epigynium, 115. 

Ericaceae, 115. 

Euandromeda, 129. 

Euaralia, 57. 

Eucereus, 51. 

Eugenia, 39. 

Eugenia, aromatica, 40. 

Eugenia axillariSy 45. 

Eugenia Baruensisy 47. 

Eugenia buxifolia, 43. 

Eugenia caryophyllata, 40. 

Eugenia ? dichotoma, 32. 

Eugenia esculenta, 31. 

Eugenia fragransy 32. 

Eugenia Garberi, 49. 

Eugenia Jambolana, 41. 

Eugenia Jambos, 41. 

Eugenia longipes, 40. 

Eugenia Micheliiy 41. 

Eugenia Monticola, 45. 

Eugenia Mooreiy 41. 

Eugenia myrtoideSy 43. 

Eugenia pallensy 36. 

Eugenia Parkeriana, 41. 

Eugenia procera, 47. 

Eugenia procera, 49. 

Eugenia triplinervia, 45. 

Eugenia triplinerviay y., buxifoliay 43. 

Eugenia uniflora, 41. 

Eugenia? Willdenowiiy 4tl. 

Eugenia Zeylanica, 41. 

Eukraniay 63. 

Eurhododendron, 143. 

Euvaccinium, 115. 

Everyx choerilus, 74. 

Exobasidium Andromedse, 130. 

Exobasidium Azalese, 147. 

Exobasidium discoideum, 147. 

Exobasidium Vaccinii, 117. 

Exostema, 103. 

Exostema Caribseum, 105. 

Exostema floribundum, 103. 



Fairchild, Thomas, 68. 
Fall Web-worm, 9. 
Farkleberry, 119. 



INDEX. 



187 



FatreUy 19. 

Flowering 



Andromeda. 



enemies 



Fimgal 



Hormaphis Hamamelidis, 2. 
Hormaphis spinosus, 2. 
Hudsonia, 19. 
Hyphantria cmiea, 9, 94. 



^^ —J — 

Fungal enemies of Liquidambar Styraci- Icacorea, 151. 



flua, 9, 



imium 



enemies 



GelpJcea, 39. 
Georgia Bark, 109. 
Ghent Azaleas, 146. 
Gimbernatiay 19. 
Ginseng, 57. 
Ginseng, American, 58. 
Ginseng, Chinese, 58. 
Ginseng quinquefolium^ 58. 
Glenospora Curtisii, 74. 

Gracilaria superbifrontella, 2. 

Great Laurel, 148. 

GreggiUy 39. 

Guapuriuniy 39. 

Guettard, Jean Etienne, 112. 

Guettarda, 111. 

Gicettarda, 111. 

Guettarda amhigua^ 112. 
Guettarda Blodgettiiy 113. 
Guettarda elliptica, 113. 
Guettarda HavanensiSy 112. 
Guettarda hirsuta. 111. 
Guettarda riigosa, 112. 
Guettarda scabra, 112. 
Guettarda speciosay 111. 
Gum, Black, 77. 
Gum, Cotton, 83. 
Gum Elastic, 171. 



um 



Sour, 



Gum, Star-leaved, 12. 

Gum, Sweet, 10. 
Gum, Tupelo, 83. 
Gurgeon Stopper, 43. 



Halesia, 111. 

Halisidota Caryse, 2. 

HAMAMELIDEiE, 1. 

Hamamelis, 1. 

Hamamelis androgyna, 3. 
Hamamelis arborea^ 2. 

Hamamelis corylifoliaj 3. 

Hamamelis dioica, 3. 
Hamamelis, fungal enemies of, 2. 

Hamamelis, insect enemies of, 2. 
Hamamelis Japonica, 2. 
Hamamelis macrophyllay 3. 
Hamamelis mollis, 2. 
Hamamelis parvifolia, 3. 
Hamamelis Vir^iniana, 3. 



Icacorea paniculata, 153. 
Ilex daphnephylloidesy 73. 



Fungal enemies of Nyssa, 74. 

Fungal enemies of Rhododendi-on, 147. Imbricaria, 181. 

Fungal enemies of Sambucus, 86. Indian Almond- 



146 



enemies 
enemies 
enemies 



Insect enemies of Nyssa, 74. 
Insect enemies of Viburnum, 94. 
Ironwood, 169, 173. 
Ivy, 140. 



Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph, 155. 

Jacquinia, 155. 

Jacquinia ariorea^ 157. 

Jacquinia armillaris, 157. 

Jacquinia armillaris^ /?., arhorea^ 157. 

Jacquinia armillaris, fruits of, 155. 

JamboSy 39. 

Jambosa, 39. 

Jambosa vulgaris, 41. 

Jasminum hirsutum, 112. 

Javanese Rhododendrons, 146, 147. 

Joe Wood, 167. 

Jossinia^ 39. 



Kalmia, 137. 

Kalmia angustifolia, 138. 

Kalmia ericoides, 137. 

Kalmia glauca, 137. 

Kalmia latif olia, 139. 

Kalmia latifolia, fertilization of, 137. 

Kalmia latifolia, monstrous form of, 140. 

Kalmia polifolia, 137. 

Keysia, 144. 

Kinnikimiic, 64. 

Kniphojiay 19. 



Labramia^ 181. 
Laguncularia, 27. 
Laguncularia glabri/olia, 29. 
Lagimcularia racemosa, 29. 
Laugeriay 111. 
Laugieria^ 111. 
Laugieria hirsuta, 112. 
Laurel, 139. 
Laurel, Great, 148. 
Laurel, Mountain, 139. 
Laurustinus, 94. 
Leea spinosa, 60. 
Lentago, 93. 
Lentago, 93. 
Le Page du Fratz, 17. 
Lepidocereus, 51. 
Leptotbamnia, 116. 



Hamamelis Virginiana, discharge of seeds Leucothoe Mariana, 130. 



of, 2. 

Hamamelis Virginiana, var. Japonica, 2. 

Hamamelis Virginiana, var. paiDifolia, 3. 

Hamamelis Zuccariniana, 2. 

Harpiphorus varianus, &5. 

Haw, Black, 99. 

Hazel, Witch, 3. 

Hercules' Club, 59. 

Hexachlamys, 39. . 

High-bush Blueberry, 117. 

? Horau, 27. 



Lime, Ogeechee, 79. 
Liquidambar, 7, 8. 
Liquidambar acerifolia, 8. 
Liquidambar Californicum, 7. 
Liquidambar, Chinese, 8. 
Liquidambar Formosana, 8. 



Liquidambar Maximowiczii, 8 
Liquidambar, Oriental, 7. 
Liquidambar orientalis, 7, 8. 
Liquidambar protensium, 7. 
Liquidambar, species, 8. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, 10. 



Liquidambar Styraciflua, fungal enemies o 

9. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, insect enemies o 

9. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, medical uses of, 8. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, var. Mexicana, 10. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, resin of, 8. 

Liquidamber, 12. 

Liquid storax, 8. 

Luna moth, 9. 

Lyon, John, 80. 

Lyonia, 80, 130. 

Lyonia, 129. 

Lyonia arborea, 135. 

Lyonia ferruginea, 131. 

Lyonia Mariana, 130. 

Lyonia rhomboidalis, 132. 

Lyonia rigida, 132. 



Macromyrtus, 39. 

Macropelma, 116. 

Madroiia, 123, 125, 127. 

Mangle, 13. 

Mangrove, 15. 

Mangrove, White, 29. 

Manilkara, 181. 

Marcgravia, 24. 

Marggraf, Georg, 24. 

Marlberry, 153. 

Massaria Corni, 95. 

Mastic, 165. 

Matthiola, 111. 

Matthiola scabra, 112, 

May apples, 147. 

Melampsora Gceppertiana, 117. 

Melampsora Vacciniorum, 117. 

Metagonia, 115. 

Metagonia ovata, 117. 

Microjambosa, 39. 

Microsphfera Alni, 65, 95. 

Microsphsera Vaccinii, 117. 

Microtinus, 93. 

Microtinus, 93. 

Mimusops, 181. 

Mimusops Balata, 182. 

Mimusops Balota, 182. 

Mimusops Browniana, 182. 

Mimusops dissecta, 182, 183. 

Mimusops, economic properties of, 182. 

Mimusops Elengi, 182. 

Mimusops Floridana, 183. 

'i Mimusops globosa, 182. 

Mimusops hexandra, 182. 

Mimusops Hookeri, 182. 

Mimusops Indica, 182. 

Mimusops E^uki, 182. 

Mimusops Kauki, var. Brotoniana, 182. 

Mimusops parviflora, 182. 

Mimusops Sieberi, 183. 

Miraculous Berry, 164. 

Mother- cloves, 41. 

Mountain Laurel, 139. 

Muriea, 181. 



Liquidambar Formosana, corky excrescences Myrcia ? Balbisiana, 32. 



of, 8. 
Liquidambar Formosana, resin of, 8. 
Liquidambar imberbe, 7. 
Liquidambar macrophylla, 10. 



Myrciaria, 39. 
Myrobalans, 20. 
Myrobalans, beleric, 20. 
Myrobalans, chebulic, 20. 



188 



INDEX. 



MyrohalanuSy 19. 
]\Iyrsineace^, 151. 
Myrtace^, 31, 

MyrtuSj 31. 
Myrius axillaris, 43. 
MyrtuSy Brasiliana, 41, 
Myrtus buxifolia, 43. 
Myrius CaryophylluSy 40. 
Myrtus Chytraculia, 36. 
Myrtus dichotomay 32. 
Myrtus Jambos, 41. 
Myrtus Monticolay 45. 
Myrtus Poireti, 43. 
Myrtus procera, 47. 
Myrtus Willdenowii, 41. 
Myrtus Zuzygium, 36. 
Myxosporiam nitidum, 65» 



Oxydendrum, 133. 
Oxydendrum arboreum, 135. 



Naked Wood, 32. 

Nannyberry, 96. 

Nepticula nyssseella, 74. 

Neurodesia, 116. 

Nyctanthes hirsuta^ 111. 

Nycterisiliony 159. 

Nyssa, 73. 

Nyssa angulisanSy 83. 

Nyssa angulosa, 83. 

Nyssa aquatica, 83. 

Nyssa aquatica, 75, 76, 83. 

Nyssa arborea, 73. 

Nyssa hifloray 76. 

Nyssa Canadensis, 75. 

Nyssa candicans, 79. 

Nyssa candicans, var. grandidentaia, 83. 

Nyssa capitata, 79. 

Nyssa Caroliniana, 75. 

Nyssa coccinea, 79. 

Nyssa denticulata, 83. 

Nyssa, fungal enemies of, 74. 

Nyssa grandidentata, 83. 

Nyssa, insect enemies of, 74. 

Nyssa integrifolia, 75. 

Nyssa montana, 79. 

Nyssa muliijlora, 75. 

Nyssa multijiora, var. sylvatica, 75. 

Nyssa Ogeche, 79. 

Nyssa palustris, 83. 

Nyssa sessiliflora, 73. 

Nyssa sylvatica, 75. 

Nyssa sylvatica, var. biflora, 76. 

Nyssa tomentosa, 79, 83. 

Nyssa unijlora, 83. 

Nyssa villosa, 75. 



Ogeechee Lime, 79. 
Oil of cloves, 41. 
Olive-tree, Black, 21. 
Olynthia, 39. 
Opa, 39. 
Opulus, 93. 
OpuluSy 93. 
Oreinotinus, 93. 
OreinotinuSy 93. 
Oriental Liquidambar, 7. 
Osmothamnus, 143. 
OsmothamnuSy 143. 

Oxycoccin, 117. 
Oxycoecus, 116. 
OxycoccuSy 115. 
Oxycoecus macrocarpuSy 116. 
Oxycoecus palustrisy 116. 

Oxycoecus palustrisy var. (?) macrocarpus. 
116. 

Oxycoecus vulgaris, 116. 



Pamea, 19. 

Panax Americanumy 58. 
Panax Ginseng, 58. 

Panax quinquefoliuniy 68. 

Pe7itaptera, 19. 

Pepperidge, 75. 

.? PhleboUthiSy 181. 

Phyllactinia guttata, 65. 

Phylloealyx, 39. 

Phyllocnistis liquidambarisella, 9. 

Phyllosticta Hamamelidis, 2, 

Phyllosticta Saccardoi, 147. 

Phyteuma, 85. 

Piekeringia paniculata, 153. 

PicrocoeeuSy 115. 

Picroeoecus elevatus, 117. 

Picroeoeeus FloridanuSy 117. 

Picroeoecus stamineuSy 117. 

Pieridiay 129. 

Pieris, 130. 

P;e?-i5, 129. 

Pieris ovalifoliay 130. 

Pigs' tubers, 8. 

Pilocereus, 51. 

Pilocereus, 51, 

Pilocereus Engelmanniy 53. 

Pilocereus giganteuSy 53. 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 108. 

Pinckneya, 107. 

Pinckneya pubens, 109. 

Pinckneya pubeseenSy 109. 

Plinia, 39. 

Plinia pedunculata, 41. 

Plinia rubra, 41. 

Plum, Downward, 175. 

Plum-tree, Black, 41. 

Podosphsera biuncinata, 2. 

Polyphemus moth, 9. 

Pond's Extract, 4. 

Portuna, 130, 

Portuna, 129. 

Pratz, Le Page du, 17. 

Prince Wood, 105. 

Promethea moth, 9. 

Puccinia Linkii, 94. 

Pyrgus, 151. 



Ramularia Hamamelidis, 2. 



iim 



Red Stopper, 49. 

Resin of Liquidambar Formosana, 8. 
Resin of Liquidambar Styraciflua, 8. 
Rhizophora, 13. 
Rhizophora A mericanay 15. 
Rhizophora apiculata, 14. 
Rhizophora candelaria, 14. 
Rhizophora conjugata, 13. 
Rhizophora macrorrhiza, 14. 
Rhizophora Mangle, 15. 
Rhizophora Mangle^ 14. 
Rhizophora Mangle, a., 15. 

Rhizophora Mangle, var. racemosay IB 

Rhizophora mucronata, 14. 
Rhizophora raeeinosay 15. 

RniZOPHORACEiE, 13. 

Robertiay 163. 
Rhododendron, 143. 
Rhododendroriy 143. 



Rhododendron arborescens, 146. 
Rhododendron arboreum, 145. 
Rhododendron aureuniy 145. 
Rhododendron azaleoides, 146. 
Rhododendron bieolor, 146. 
Rhododendron calendulaceum, 146. 

Rhododendron calendulaceum, 146. 
Rhododendron campanulatum, 145. 
Rhododendron Camtschaticum, 144. 
Rhododendron canescensy 146. 
Rhododendron Catawbiense, 147. 
Rhododendron chrysanthum, 14o. 
Rhododendron cinnabarinum, 145. 
Rhododendron Due de Brabant, 150, 
Rhododendron elceagnoides, 145. 
Rhododendron ferruginetma, 144. 
Rhododendron flavum, 145. 
Rhododendi'on, fungal enemies of, 147. 
Rhododendron hybrid, Delicatissimum, 150. 
Rhododendron Indicum, 146, 147. 
Rhododendron jasminiflorum, 147. 
Rhododendron Javanicum, 147. 
Rhododendron Lapponicum, 144. 
Rhododendron lepidotum, 145. 
Rhododendron, Madame van Houtte, 150. 
Rhododendron maximum, 148. 
Rhododendron maximum, var. album, 149. 
Rhododendron maximum, var. purpureum, 

149. 

Rhododendron maxiinum, var. roseum, 149. 
Rhododendron, medical properties of, 145. 
Rhododendron molle, 146. 
Rhododendron nudiflorum, 146. 
Rhododendron occidentale, 146. 
Rhododendron odoratum, 146. 
Rhododendron officinale, 145. 
Rhododendron, poisonous properties of, 145. 
Rhododendron Ponticum, 147. 
Rhododendron Ponticum, 145. 
Rhododendron procerum, 148. 
Rhododendron purpureuniy 149. 
Rhododendron Purshiiy 149. 
Rhododendron salignum, 145. 
Rhododendron Sinense, 146. 
Rhododendron speciosuniy 147. 
Rhododendron viscosum, 146. 
Rhododendron Wellsianum, 150. 
Rhododendrons, Catawbiense, 146, 147. 
Rhododendrons, cultivated, 145. 
Rhododendrons, hybrid, 145. 
Rhododendrons, Javanese, 146, 147. 
Rhododendros, 129, 137. 
Rhodoray 143. 
Rhodorastrum, 144. 
Rhodothamnus KamtschaiicuSy 144. 
Rhytisma Vacciuii, 117. 
Rose Apple, 41. 
Rose Bay, 148. 

RUBIACE^, 103. 

Rudbeckia, 23. 
Rugenia, 39. 



145 



Afghanicum 
Anthopogon 



Sambucus, 85. 

Sambucus adnata, 86. 

? Sambucus australis, 86. 

Sambucus bipinnata, 86. 

Sambucus bipinnatay 89. 

Sambucus Californieay 91. 

? Sambucus callicarpay 91. 

Sambucus Canadensis, 88. 

Sambucus Canadensis, var. Mexicana, 88, 

Sambucus ceruleay 91, 92. 

Sambucus Chinensisy 86. 

Sambucus Ebulus, 86. 



INDEX. 



189 



Sambucus, fungal enemies of, 86. 
Samhucus Gaudichaudiana, 86. 
Sambucus glauca, 91. 
Sambuciis glauca^ 88, 89. 
Sambucus graveolens, 86. 
Sambucus humilis, 89. 
Sambucus Javanica, 86. 
Sambucus Madeireusis, 86. 
Sambucus Mexicana^ 88, 91. 
Sambucus nigra, 86. 

Sambucus nigray 85, 89. 

Sambucus Palmensis, 86 

Sambucus Peruviana, 86. 

Sambucus pubensy 85. 

Sambucus pubens, var. arborescens, 85. 

Sambucus pubescensy 85. 

Sambucus racemosa, 85. 

Sambucus repens, 89. 

Sambucus Thunbergianay 86. 

Sambucus velutina, 88, 

Sambucus vulgaris^ 86. 

Sambu,cus Williamsii, 85. 

Sambucus xanthocarpa, 86. 

Sapota costata, 163. 

Sapota Mulleriy 182. 

SAPOTACEiE, 159. 

Scholleray 115. 

Schollera OxycoccuSy 116. 
Schousboa commutata^ 29. 
Sclerocladus, 167. 
Sclerocladus tenaxy 169. 
Sclerozus tenaxy 169. 
Scopelosoma Moffatiana, 2. 
Seiridium Liquidambaris, 9. 
Septoria cornicola, 65. 
Septoria Liquidambaris, 9. 
Sheepberry, 96. 

Sideroxylon chrysophylloidesy 169. 
Sideroxylon decandrumy 173. 
Sideroxylon lcev€y 173. 
Sideroxylon lanuginosumy 171. 
Sideroxylon lycioideSy 173. 
Sideroxylon reclinatum, 168. 
Sideroxylon salicifoliuviy 179. 
Sideroxylon sericeumy 169. 
Sideroxylon tenax, 169. 
? Sideroxylon tenaxy 171. 
Sideroxylum, 163. 
Sideroxylum attenuatum, 164. 
Sideroxylum costatum, 163. 
Sideroxylum dulcificimi, 164. 
Sideroxylum inerme, 163. 
Sideroxylum Mastichodendron, 165. 
Sideroxylum Mermulana, 163. 
Sideroxylum pallidumy 165. 
Sieber, Franz Wilhelm, 184. 

Siphoneugenay 39. 
Solenandray 103. 
Solenotinus, 93. 
Solenotinusy 93. 
Sorrel Tree, 135. 
Sour Gum, 77. 
Sour Tupelo, 79. 



Sour Wood, 135. 
Spanish Stopper, 43. 
Sparkleberry, 119. 
Sphenocarpus , 27. 
Spinilumay 163. 
Spoon Wood, 140. 
Stag Bush, 99. 
Star-apple, 160. 

Star-leaved Gum, 12. 

StenocalyXy 39. 

Stenocalyx MicJieliiy 41. 

Stisseriay 181. 

Stopper, 45, 47. 

Stopper, Gurgeon, 43. 

Stopper, Red, 49. 

Stopper, Spanish, 43. 

Stopper, White, 45. 

Storax, liquid, 8, 

StrongylocalyXy 39. 

Styrax liquida folio minore, 8. 

Surinam Cherry, 41. 

Suwarro, 53. 

Swartz, Olof, 44. 

Swartzia, 44. 

Sweet Gum, 10. 

Syllysium, 39. 

Synarrhenay 181. 

Synchytrium Vaccinii, 147. 

Syzygiumy 39. 

Syzygium Jambolanumy 41. 



Tanibouca, 19. 
Terminalia, 19. 
Terminaliay 19, 23. 
Terminalia Belerica, 20. 
Terminalia Buceras, 21, 
Terminalia Catappa, 20. 
Terminalia Chebula, 20. 
Therorhodion, 144. 
Thyrsosmay 93. 
Tinus, 93. 
Tinusy 93. 
Trilopus dentatay 3. 
Trilopusy 1. 
Trilopus estivalisy 3. 
Trilopus nigray 3. 
Trilopus parvifoliay 3. 
Trilopus rotundifoliay 3. 
Trilopus Virginictty 3. 
TripeteluSy 85. 
Tripetelus AustralasicuSy 86. 
Tsusia, 144. 
Tupelo, 75. 

TupelOy 73. 
Tupelo Gum, 83. 
Tupelo, Sour, 79. 



Vaccinium corymbosum, 117. 
Vaccinium diffusum, 119. 
Vaccinium disomorphum^ 117. 
Vaccinium elevatumy 117. 
Vaccinium, fungal enemies of, 117. 
Vaccinium hispidulumy 116. 
Vaccinium lanceolatum, 117. 
Vacciniiun macrocarpou, 116. 
Vaccinium mucronatumy 119. 
Vaccinium Myrtillus, 116. 
Vaccinium occidentale, 116. 
Vaccinium ovatum, 117. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos, 116. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos, 116. 
Vaccinium OxycoccuSy var. oblong if oliumy 116. 
Vaccinium Oxy coccus, var. ovalifoliumy 116. 

Vaccinium pubescensy 116. 
Vaccinium punctaiumy 116. 
Vaccinium Sednensey 116. 
Vaccinium stamineum, 117. 
Vaccinium uliginosum, 116. 
Vaccinium Vitis Idsea, 116. 
Vahl, Martin, 33. 
Vahlia, 33. 

Valsa Liquidambaris, 9. 
Viburnum, 93. 
Viburnumy 93. 
Viburnum amblodesy 99. 
Viburnum Americanum, 94. 
Viburnum edulcy 94. 
Viburnum ellipticum, 94. 
Viburnum, fungal enemies of, 94. 
Viburnum, insect enemies of, 94. 
Viburnum Lantana, 94. 
Viburnum Lentago, 96. 
Viburnum Opulus, 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Americanumy 94. 
Viburnum Opulus edule, 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Europeanumy 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Piminay 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Piminay var. subcordatumy 
94. 

Viburnum OxycoccuSy 94. 

Viburnmn prunifolium, 99, 

Viburnum prunifoliumy var. ferrugineumy 99. 

Viburnum pyrifolium, 96, 99. 

Viburnum Tinus, 94. 

Viburnum tomentosumy 84. 

Viburnum trilobumy 94. 

Vireyay 143. 

Vitis Idgea, 116. 

Viiis Idceay 115. 



Unedoy 121. 
Unedo edulisy 122. 



White Buttonwood, 29. 
White Mangrove, 29. 
White Stopper, 45. 
Wild Dilly, 183. 
Witch Hazel, 3. 



Vaccinium, 115. 
Vaccinium albumy 117. 
Vaccinium arboreum, 119. 



Zenobia, 130. 
Zenobiay 129. 
Zolismay 129. 




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