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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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The New York Botanical Garden 

LuEsther T. Mertz Library 



Gift of 



The Estate of 



Henry Clay Frick, II 

2007 




THE 



SILVA 



OF 




ORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTION OP THE TREES WHICH GROW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OP MEXICO 




CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



91lluja!trateD tuitl^ iffigurejs ann ^nal^^e^ Dratcn from jijature 



BY 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



VOLUME VI 



EBENA CEJE 



POLYGONACE^ 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

M DCCC XCIV 



Copyright, 1894, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U, S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton and Company. 



HERTZ LIBRARY 

HEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 
GARDEN 



To 

FREDERICK LOTHROP AMES, 

A PATRON OF HORTICULTURE AND BOTANY, 

THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



IS DEDICATED 



IN AFFECTIONATE MEMORY 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 



Synopsis of Orders 

DiosPYROs ViRGiNiANA Plates cclii., ccliii 

DiosPYROs Texana 

Symplocos tinctoria 



• • 



vu 



7 

11 



MOHRODENDRON CaROLINUM 
MOHRODENDRON DIPTERUM 



Plate ccliv. ......... 

Plates cclv,, cclvi 15 

21 



Fraxinus cuspidata 
Fraxinus dipetala 
Fraxinus Greggh 



Plates cclvii., cclvm. ....... 

Plate ccUx 23 

Plate cclx 29 



Plate cclxi. ......... 31 



Plate cclxii 



33 



Fraxinus quadrangulata 



Plate cclxiii. ......... 35 



Fraxinus nigra 



Plates cclxiv-5 cclxv 



37 



Fraxinus anomala 
Fraxinus velutina 



Fraxinus Americana 
Fraxinus Texensis 



Plate cclxvi. ......... 39 



Plate cclxvii 



41 



Plates cclxviii., cclxix. ....... 43 



Plate cclxx 



Fraxinus Pennsylvanica 
Fraxinus Berlandieriana 



Plates cclxxi., cclxxli 



Plate cclxxiii 



Fraxinus Caroliniana , Plates cclxxi v,, cclxxv 



Fraxinus Oregona 



Plate cclxxvi 



Chionanthus Virginica Plates cclxxvii., cclxxviii 



OSMANTHUS AmERICANUS 
CORDIA SeBESTENA . 



Plates cclxxlx., cclxxx. 



Plates cclxxxi., cclxxxii. 
Plates cclxxxiii., cclxxxiv 
BouRRERiA Havanensis ....... Plates cclxxxv., cclxxxvi. 



CORDIA BOISSIERI 



Ehretia elliptica 



Plate cclxxxvii 



Cat ALP A Catalpa ........ Plates cclxxx viii., cclxxxix 



Catalpa speciosa 



Plates ccxc, ccxci 



Chilopsis linearis Plate 



ccxcii 



Crescentia cucurbitina 



Plates ccxciii., ccxciv 



CiTHAREXYLON VILLOSUM Plate CCXCV 



AVICENNIA NITIDA 



Plate ccxcvi 



PisONiA OBTUSATA Plate 



CCXCVll 



CoCCOIiOBIS UVIFERA 



Plates ccxcviii., ccxcix. 



COCCOLOBIS LAURIFOLIA Plate 



ccc 



47 
49 
53 

55 

57 
60 

65 

71 

73 

77 

81 

86 

89 

95 

99 

103 

107 

111 

115 

119 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME VL OF 

THE SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class I. DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class I. AngiospermSB. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 

Division II. GamopetalSB, Petals usually united. Stamens inserted on the corolla alternate with or opposite its 
lobes, or free from the corolla. Ovary inferior or superior. 

36. Ebenaceae. Flowers dioecious or rarely perfect, regular. Stamens usually free from the corolla, as many 
as its lobes, or twice as many, or indefinite. Ovaiy superior, 2 to 8-celled. Ovule solitary, anatropous. Seeds 
albuminous. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, exstipulate. 

37. StyracesB. Flowers perfect or rarely polygamo-dicecious, regular. Stamens inserted on the corolla and 
twice as many as its lobes, or indefinite. Ovary usually inferior or partly inferior, 2 to 6-celled. Ovule usually 
solitary, anatropous. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 

38. Oleacese. Flowers perfect or rarely dioecious, or polygamo-dioecious, regular. Stamens usually 2, inserted 
on the corolla, or hypogynous. Ovary superior, 2-celled. Ovules usually in pairs, rarely solitary or 4 to 8, anatropous 
or amphitropous. Seeds albuminous or exalbuminous. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate or verticillate, exstipulate. 

39. BorraginaoeaB. Flowers perfect or rarely polygamous, regular. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla, inserted on it. Ovary superior, 2-celled or imperfectly 4-celled. Ovules in pairs or solitary in each cell. 
Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite or verticillate, exstipulate. 

40. Bignoniaceae. Flowers perfect, bilabiate. Stamens 4, rarely 2. Ovary superior, 2 or rarely 1-celled. 
Ovules numerous, anatropous. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves opposite, exstipulate. 

41. Verbenaceae. Flowers perfect or rarely polygamous, irregular or regular. Stamens 4 or rarely 2, inserted 
on the corolla. Ovary superior, imperfectly 4-celled. Ovules solitary or in pairs, usually amphitropous. 

DrvisiON IIL Apetalse. Corolla 0. Stamens inserted on the petaloid calyx, or hy3)ogynous. 

42. Nyctaginaceae. Flowers perfect or rarely unisexual, regular- Stamens 1 or many, hypogynous. Ovary 
l"Celled. Ovule basal, solitary, erect. Seeds albuminous. Leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate. 

43. Polygonaceae. Flowers perfect or rarely unisexual. Stamens 6 to 9, rarely fewer or many, inserted on 
the calyx. Ovary superior, 1-celled. Ovule erect, solitary, orthotropous- Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, 
stipulate, the stipules sheathing the stem. 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA. 



DIOSPYROS. 



Flowers dioecious or rarely polygamous ; calyx usually 4-lobed, accrescent under 
the fruit ; corolla gamopetalous, usually 4-lobed, the lobes sinistrorsely contorted or 
rarely irregularly imbricated in gestiyation ; stamens usually 16; disk 0; ovary supe- 
rior, 4 or rarely 8-celled; ovules suspended. Fruit baccate, juicy, 1 to 10-seeded. 
Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite, entire, destitute of stipules. 



Diospyros, Linnaeus, Gen. 143 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Cargillia, R. Brown, Prodr. FL Nov. HolL 526 (1810). 



PL 



n. 



165. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 156. — Meisner, 



Meisner, Gen. 250. — Endlicher, Gen. 742. 



Gen. 250. — Endlicher, Gen. 742. — Bentham & Hooker, Leucoxylum, Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. 1169 (1826). 



Gen. ii. 665. 

iv. pt. i. 161. — Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 227. 



Pfianzenfi 



Paralea, Aublet, PL Guian. i. 576 (1775). — Meisner, Gen 

250. 
Dactylus, Forsk&l, FL ^Egypt-Arab. p. xxxvi. (1775). 
Embryopteris, G£ertner, Frtict. i. 145 (1788). 
CavaniUea, Desrousseaux, LaTn. Diet. iii. 663 (1789). 



Meisner, Gen. 250. 
Noltia, Schumacher, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. iii. 189 

{Guian. PL) (1828). — Meisner, Gen. 158. — Endlicher, 

Gen. 1330. 
Mabola, Eafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 11 (1838). 
Persimon, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 164 (1838). 
Gunisanthus, A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 219 (1844). 
Rospidios, A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 220 (1844). 



Trees or shrubs^ with terete branchlets^ scaly buds, hard heavy dark heartwood, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite, entire, deciduous or persistent, destitute of stipules. Flowers 
articulate with the bibracteolate pedicels, in short few or many-flowered bracted cymes, or solitary 
from the axils of leaves of the year, or lateral on older branches. Calyx three to seven, usually four- 
lobed, rarely truncate or slightly divided at the apex, generally pubescent on the outer surface, closed 
or open in the bud, accrescent under the fruit. Corolla urceolate, campanulate, tubular, or salver- 
formed, more or less contracted in the throat, three to seven, usually f our-lobed, the lobes spreading or 
recurved, rarely erect, obtuse, or occasionally acute. Sterile flowers smaller than the fertile, usually 
cymose. Stamens varying from four to an indefinite number, usually about sixteen, inserted on the 
bottom of the corolla, or hypogynous ; filaments slender, sometimes nearly obsolete, rarely geniculate, 
glabrous or hairy, free or connate at the base, often anteposed in pairs, the interior then usually shorter 
than the exterior ; anthers oblong, linear, or lanceolate, often apiculate by the prolongation of the 



connective, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening laterally by longitudinal sHts or rarely by apical 
pores; pollen elhpsoidal or globose. Ovary rudimentary or wanting. Fertile flowers often solitary. 
Stamens rudimentary or sometimes more or less polliniferous, usually less numerous than those of the 
sterile flower, sometimes wanting. Ovary conical or globose, hirsute or glabrous, usually four or some- 



2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EBENACE^. 



times eight-celled, each cell more or less completely divided by the development of a false longitudinal 
partition from its exterior face j styles one to four, distinct or partially united, or obsolete ; stigmas 
two-parted or lobed j ovules solitary in the divisions of the cells, attached to their interior angle, pendu- 
lous, anatropous ; raphe dorsal ; micropyle superior. Fruit globose, oblong, or conical, glabrous, 
glabrate, pubescent, or tomentose, often pulpy, one to ten-seeded, the enlarged persistent calyx often 
dilated at the base, its lobes spreading or reflexed, sometimes phcate, coriaceous, or foliaceous. Seeds 
pendulous, oblong, compressed; testa thin, or thick and bony, dark, more or less lustrous. Embryo 
axile in copious ruminate or uniform albumen, straight or somewhat curved ; cotyledons foliaceous, 
ovate, or lanceolate ; radicle superior, cylindrical, turned towards the small hilum.^ 



About one hundred and sixty species of Diospyros are now known ; ^ they abound in tropical Asia 



d Malaya, where the largest number 



collected, in tropical Africa and Natal, Madagascar, Brazil 



the region bordering the Caribbean Sea, and Mexico. They occur in New Caledonia, on the Mascarene 
and Seychelles Islands, in tropical Australia, China, the West Indies, and eastern North America, where 
two species are found. The genus is not represented in western North America, the Andean region, 
and extratropical South America, southern Australia, New Zealand, or in Europe and northern Africa, 
where, however, Diospyros Lotus ^ a native probably of the Orient, northern India, and China, has 
become naturalized in the countries bordering the Mediterranean. In Japan, where two or three 
species have been cultivated from very early times and are now occasionally naturalized, the genus was 
probably introduced by man from the neighboring continent. Fossil remains found in the miocene 
rocks of Greenland,^ central and southern Europe,^ and Alaska,^ and in the cretaceous formation of 
Nebraska,^ indicate that Diospyros or some closely related genus once inhabited regions from which the 
family to which it belongs has now disappeared. 



Diospyros prod 



hard close-grained valuable wood with small pores, often in radial lines, and 



numerous thin equidistant uniform medullary rays, very thick pale usually soft sapwood, and dark often 
black heartwood, which is formed only in old individuals. The ebony of commerce is partly derived 



from different tropical species of Diospy 



8 



especially from Diospyros JEhenum 



9 



d Dios7)yros 



1 By Hiern (Trans, Camh. Phil. Soc, xii. pt. i. 146) the species 



Diospyros Lotus is believed to be a native of northern Persia and 



of Diospyros are grouped in fifteen sections, principally distin- Anatolia, whence it was carried by the ancients into the countries 
guished by the ruminate or uniform albumen of the seeds, by the bordering the Mediterranean ; it is probably indigenous in some 
form of the calyx, the insertion of the stamens, and the shape of parts of northern India, where it has also long been cultivated, in 



the fruit- 



Afghanistan, and northern China, where this tree is said to be com- 



2 Aublet, PL Guian. i. 576 {Paroled). — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. mon in the mountain forests near Peking. It is often cultivated 



Ind, 668- 



vui 



Fl 



in Japan, where it appears to have been introduced from China 



Bat ii. 1044 ; Martins Fl. BrasiL vii. 3. — Thwaites, Enum. PL in early times. The small fruit, when fully ripe, has a sweetish 
Zeylan. 178, 423. — Grisebach, FL Brit, W. Ind. 404 ; Cat. PL flavor, and is consumed in large quantities fresh and dried by some 
Cub. 168. — Bentham, Fl. Austral, iv. 286. — Hiern, L c. 144 ; native tribes of India (Brandis, Forest FL Brit 



Ind 



Fl.Mau 



Hooker f. Fl, 



Oliver FL Trop. Afi 

Hemsley, Bat. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 300. 

Brit. Ind. iii. 553. 

8 Linnseus, Spec. 1057 (1763). — Pallas, FL Ross. i. pt. ii. 20, t. 
68, 59. — Nouveau Duhamel, vi. 83, t, 26. — A. de Candolle, l. c. 



Fl 



XXVI 



^ Saporta, Origine Paleoniologique des ArbreSy 241. 
andb. PalcBontolog. ii. 745, f. 384-386. 

^ Schimper, Paleontolog. Veg. ii. 949. 

^ Heer, PhvlL Cret. Nebr. 19. t. 1, f . 6. 7. 



Zittel, 



228. — Hiern, I. c. 223. — Hance, Jour. Linn. Soc. xiii. 83. — C. B. 8 Charropin, :^tude sur le Plaqueminier, 13. — Spons, Encyclopce- 



Clarke, L c. 655. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 303, 
Naudin, Nouv. Arch. Mus. sdr. 2, iii. 220. 
Ital. viii. 686. — Forbes & Hemsley, l. c. 70. 



ofthe Industrial Arts, Manufactures 



Fl. uctSy ii. 2015. 



« Koenig, Phys. Sdlsk. HandL i. 176 (1776). — Linnseus f. SuppL 



Dactylus Trapezuntinus^ Forskal, Fl. jEgypt.-Arab. p. xxxvi. 440 

(1775). don 

Diospyros Kaki, var. j8, Thunberg, FL Jap. 168 (1784). 

Diospyros microcarpa, Siebold, Ann. Soc. Hort. Pays Bas, 1844, 



Fl, 



234.— Thwaites, L c-. 180. 
— Hiern, l. c. 208 (in part). 



Bed- 
C.B. 



Clarke, I. c. 568. 



28. 



Diospyros Japonica^ Siebold & Zuccarini, A bhand* A kad 
Munch, iv. pt. iii. 136 (1846). 

Diospyros Pseudo^Lotus, Naudin, l. c. (1880). 



Diospyros gldberrima, Rottboell, Act. Hafn. ii. 540, t. 6 (1783). 

Diospyros melanoxylon^ Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1109 (not Rox- 
burgh) (1805). 

Diospyros Ebenaster, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 529 (not Ret- 
zius) (1832). — Spach, Hist. Veg. ix. 407, t. 135. 



EBENACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



Ebenaster 



of 



melanoxylon ^ of India^ Diospyros Bendo'^ of western tropical Africa^ Diospyros 

Malaya^ and Diospyros tessellaria^ of Mauritius. The beautifully variegated and valuable calamander 



or 



eoromandel wood is produced by Diospyros qucesita ^ and Diospyros oppositifolia ^ of Ceylon. 
In the Phillipine Islands the leaves and fruit of Diospyros Cunalon '^ are used to dye cloth black.^ 
A decoction of the bark of Diospyros Paralea ^ is used as a febrifuge in French Guiana/^ and that of 
the North American Diospyros Virginiana has been found efficacious for the same purpose. The bark 
of Diospyros melanoxyloii is astringent and tonic^ and is employed in India in decoction^ in the treat- 
ment of diarrhoea and diseases of debility.^^ The fruit of Diospyros toxicaria ^^ is said to poison birds 
in Madagascar^ and the unripe fruits of several species are used in the tropics to kill fish.^^ In India the 
glutinous pulp of Diospyros peregrina^'^ which is rich in tannic acid^ is employed in filling the seams 
of fishing boats, for preserving fishing nets and lines, and in book-binding ; ^^ and the oil obtained by 
boiling the seeds, bark, and leaves is used in native medicines.^^ The fruit of several species is edible. 



Diospyros nigricans^ Dalzell, Hooker Jour, BoL and Kew Gard. 
Misc. iv. 110 (not A. de CandoUe) (1852). 
The best Indian ebony is produced by this tree, which is com- 



Diospyros Ebenaster is carefully cultivated in the Phillipine Is- 
lands as a timber-tree, and appears to have been early introduced 
into tronical America, where it has now become occasionallv natu- 



mon in the mountain forests of southern India and of Ceylon, and ralized. The fruit, although of poor quality, is eaten, and is said 
ranges eastward to Sumatra and the Molucca Islands. The heart- to be used before it is ripe to poison fish. The leaves possess caus- 
wood is black, sometimes streaked with yellow or brown, and is tic properties (Blanco, L c). 



very heavy and close-grained. The sap wood, which is white or 



Poiret, Lam, Diet. v. 430 (1804). — A. de CandoUe, I c. 225. 



gray, is hard and strong, although not durable (Brandis, Forest Fl. Hiern, L c. 176. 



Brit. Ind. 296. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers^ 251). 

1 Roxburgh, PL Corom. I 36, t. 46 (1795) ; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 
530- — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1109. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 



224. 



Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil, Soc. xii. pt. i. 159 (in part). 



Diospyros Ebenumy Poiret, L c. 429 (not Koenig) (1804). 

Diospyros reticulata^ Willdenow, I, c. 1109 (1805). — A. de 
CandoUe, I. c. (excl. var. Timoriana). 
6 Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 179 (1860). — Hiern, I c. 174. 



Brandis, I. c. 294 (in part). — C. B. Clarke, Hooker f. Fl, Brit. Ind, C. B. Clarke, I c, 560. 



iii. 564. 



« Thwaites, I c. 181 (I860). — Hiern, I. c. 157. — C. B. Clarke, 



Diospyros Wightiana, A. de CandoUe, I. c. 223 (1844). — Bed- l- c. 565. 



dome, Fl. Sylv. S. Ind. i. t. 67. 

Diospyros dubia, A. de CandoUe, L c. (1844). 
Diospyros melanoxylon is common in the forests of the Deccan 



■^ A. de CandoUe, I. c. 237 (1844). — Hiern, Z. c. 197. 

8 Blanco, L c. 304. 

» Stevidel, Nomen. Bot. ed. 2, i. 514 (1840). — A. de CandoUe, 



ferrugineay Splitgerber, Vriese Ned 



peninsula and of Ceylon, where it sometimes attains the height of '• c- 224. — Miquel, I. c. 6, t. 3. — Hiern, L v. 240. 
eighty feet. The heartwood is black, sometimes streaked with 
purple, and is hard and heavy- The thick sapwood is light pink, 
soft, and soon decays ; but it is used in buUding and for many 

domestic purposes (Gamble, I. c. 249). 

2 Hiern, I. c. 195, t. 10 ; Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. iii. 523. 

« Retzius, Obs. Bot. v. 31 (1798). — A. de CandoUe, I c. 235. 
Hiern, I. c. 244. 

Diospyros digyna, Jacquin, Hort. Schoenbr. iii. 35, t. 313 
(1789). — A. de CandoUe, I c. 238. 

Diospyros revoluta^ Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 435 (1804). — A. de 
CandoUe, L c. 234. 

Diospyros obtusifolia^ Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1112 (1805). — 
Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 253, 



(1775) 



t, 247. — A. de CandoUe, L c. 227. 



Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 535 (1832) 



Mag 



A. de CandoUe, I. c. 228. 



Loureiro) 



(1837). 



Fl. 



327 (1848). 

Diospyros longifolia, Spruce, Jour. Linn. Soc. v. 7 (1861). 

10 Miquel, I c. 10. 

11 Warming, Pharmacopcea of India^ 132. 

12 Hiern, I. c. 175. 
18 Hiern, I. c. 30. 
1^ Diospyros peregrina. 

Embryopteris peregrinay Gsertner, Fmct. i. 145, t. 29 (1788). 

Garcinia Malabarica, Desrousseaux, Lam. Diet. iii. 701 (1789). 

Embryopteris glutini/era, Roxburgh, PL Corom. i. 49, t. 70 
(1795). — Wight, Icon. PL Ind, Orient t. 843, 844. 

Diospyros Embryopteris, Persoon, Syn. ii. 624 (1807). — A. de 
CandoUe, Z. c. 235. — Miquel, Fl. Ned, Ind. Bat. ii. 1048.— 
Thwaites, L c. 178. — Beddome, L c. t. 69. — C. B. Clarke, Z. c. 
556. 

Diospyros glutinosa, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 533 (1837). 

Diospyros Malabarica, Kosteletzky, Med. Pharm. FL iii. 1099 



(1844) 



(1834) 



(1845) 



ifi 



Diospyros laurifolia, A. Richard, Fl, Cub, iii. 86, t. 55 i^ Brandis, l. c. 298. — Balfour, Cyclopcedia of India, ed. 3, i, 



(1845) 



954 



BrasiliensiSy Miquel 



2 (1856). 



16 Bengal Dispens. 1842, 428. — Ruckiger & Hanbury, Pharma- 
copoea, 360. 



4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EBENACE-iE. 



The most valuable is that of Diospyros Kaki^ which is cultivated as a fruit-tree in some parts of 
China and Japan, in California/ 



the southern United States, and in southern Europ 



In the United States Diospyros is not seriously injured by 



5 



fungal diseases 



6 



The generic name, from A tog and 7ti;pdg, in allusion to the life-giving properties of the fruit 
estabUshed by Linnaeus, who discarded the Guaiacana of Tournefort J 



iinnseus 



Fl. 



var. |3). 



Ned 



Wight 



temperate climates. More than a hundred varieties are distin- 
guished by Japanese horticulturists, who propagate them by graft- 



Ind. Orient, t. 415. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 229 (excl. var. ing (Kaempfer, Amoen. 805, t. — Dupont, Notes relatives aux Kakis 



glabra). 



/ 



348 



Hiern, cultives Japonais). The fruit, which is an important article of food, 

is gathered before it is fully ripe, and is eaten while it is still 



Trans. Camb. Phil Soc. xii. pt. i. 227, f . — Rev. HorL 1887 

Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. i. 306. — Forbes & Hemsley, hard and astringent, or, carefully packed in old sak^ tubs, it is 

Jour. Linn, Soc. xxvi. 69. 



? Diospyros Chinensis^ Blume, Cat. HorL Buitenz. 110 (1823). 



Mem. i. 
(1834) 



Nouv 



M^ 



Embryopteris Kaki, Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 41 (1837). 
? Diospyros costata, Carriere, Rev. HorL 1870, 134, f. 



allowed to mellow gradually and to collect the flavor and perfume 
of the sakd. It is also dried in the sun, pressed flat, and packed 
in boxes for export or winter use. From the green fruit, shibu, 
an astringent fluid rich in tannin and employed in several indus- 
tries, is pressed. It is made in early summer by pounding the 
young fruit in iron mortars into pulp, which is covered with water 
in wooden tubs and allowed to soak for five or six hours, when it is 



? Diospyros KaJdy var. costata, Andr^, III. HorL xviii. 176, t. 78 put into bags made of straw rope and made to yield by pressure a 



(1871). 
Diospyros Roxhurghii^ Carriere, I. c. 1872, 253, f. 28, 29 
Diospyros Mazeli, Carriere, L c. 1874, 70, t. 
f Diospyros Sinensis^ Naudin, I. c. 221 (1880). 
f Diospyros Kcempferi, Naudin, l. c. 226 (1880). 



•milky juice, which soon becomes darker on exposure to the air. 
This juice is shibu of the best quality ; a second quality is obtained 
by resoaking and repressing the refuse pulp. Shibu, as it appears 
in commerce, is a light gray fluid containing numerous fine hard 
particles ; it is employed to toughen wood, paper, and fishing 



The origin of the cultivated Klakis is uncertain, and the home of nets, and is used in one of the processes of lacquering, in the prep- 

the wild types from which they have been developed is not well aration of sak^, and in dyeing (Rein, Industries of Japan^ 88, 179, 

established. Naudin's view, based upon plants introduced from 181, 354). In central China oil obtained from the unripe fruit is 

Japan into the gardens of southern Europe (I. c. 226), that three used to make hats and umbrellas impervious to water (Forbes & 

species are cultivated under the general name of Kaki, is perhaps Hemsley, L c. 70) ; and the fruit is used in m.edicine (Smith, Chi- 

the correct one ; and the varieties which are chiefly cultivated by nese Mat. Med. 87). 



the Japanese, and which have been introduced in considerable num- 



The wood of the Diospyros cultivated in central Japan is heavy 



bers into the temperate parts of the United States, are perhaps and hard, but not particularly strong, with a thick dark gray sap- 
derived not from Diospyros Kaki but from Diospyros Schi-Tse, ■<% wood more or less marked with dark lines towards the interior, 
native, it is supposed, of northern China. The Diospyros com- and thin black heartwood, which is valued by the Japanese, who 
monly cultivated in central and northern Japan produces large thick- use it in turnery and in the manufacture of small boxes. 

2 Wickson, California Fruits and How to Grow Them, ed. 2, 484. 

3 Am. Agric. xxxvi. 222, f. — Proc. Am. Pomol. Soc, 17th Ses- 



moniy cuitivatea m central ana nortnern japan proauces large tnicit- 

skinned orange-colored fruits which vary somewhat in shape and 

size, but are usually broadly ovate, pointed, and from two to three 

inches in diameter ; they are produced by a tree thirty or sometimes sion, 1880, 40 ; 19th Session, 1884, 146 ; 22d Session, 1889, 104. 

forty feet high, with a short trunk, wide-spreading rather pendu- U. S. Dept. Agric, Div. PomoL Bull. No. 1, 6, t. 2, 3. 



Amer 



lous branches, and large leathery oval more or less cordate dark ^ Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateurf 248. 
green lustrous leaves which, having turned to shades of orange and ^ Few insects are reported as feeding upon Diospyros ir 
scarlet, fall before the fruit is fully ripe. The severity of the cli- ica, although little is known of the wood-borers which attack it. 
mate in which this tree flourishes in the mountain regions of Japan The leaves of Diospyros Virginiana are occasionally injured by a 
clearly indicates that it is derived from a northern species. The number of general foliage-eating lepidopterous larvse, and a leaf- 
varieties with large red thin-skinned fruits are much less hardy miner, Aspidisca diospyriella, Chambers, lives within their paren- 
and are cultivated in the southern provinces of Japan and in south- chyma. On this tree were fiopst detected Aphis Diospyri, Thomas 
ern China (Burbidge, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 106), only flourish- (8th Rep. Insects of Illinois, 95), and Psylla Diospyri, Ashmead 
ing in regions suitable to the cultivation of the Orange-tree. It is (Canadian Entomologist^ 1881, 222). 



possible that these two distinct forms are derived from a single 



* Botryosphceria Persimmons, Saccardo, and Valsaria Diospyri, 



species of wide continental range, although until the Chinese spe- De Notaris, are peculiar to Diospyros Virginiana, producing small 

cies can be studied in their original forms it is impossible to deter- swellings on the bark, which, so far as is known, are not followed 

mine the origin and relationship of varieties which have been per- by any serious disease of the tree. On the leaves of this tree, 

fected by centuries of cultivation and selection. Cercospora DiospyriyCooke^ and Cercospora fuliginosa, Ellis & Kel- 

In Japan the Diospyros is the universally cultivated fruit-tree ; lerman, cause spots, from which a white growth protrudes on their 

it is found in every garden and by every cottage, and in the early lower surface. A third species of Cercospora, C. Kaki, Ellis & 

autumn, when the trees are covered with their lustrous leaves and Evans, has been found in Louisiana on the leaves of the cultivated 

brilliant fruit they form the most striking feature of the rural Japanese Diospyros. 



landscape, and are not equaled in beauty by any fruit-tree of cold 



7 InsL 600, t. 371. 



EBENACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



5 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF DIOSPYROS. 



Staminate flowers in 3-flowered fascicles ; anthers opening longitudinally nearly throughout their 
entire length ; filaments puhescent ; pistillate flowers with 8 staminodia ; ovary nearly glabrous ; 

leaves oval 1. D. Virgintana 

Staminate flowers in 1 to 3-flowered fascicles ; anthers opening only near the apex ; filaments gla- 
brous ; pistillate flowers without staminodia ; ovary pubescent ; leaves cuneate-oblong or obovate 2. D. Texana. 



ebenace-;e. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



7 



DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA. 



Persimmon. 



Staminate flowers in 3-flowered fascicles ; anthers opening longitudinally almost 



throughout their entire length; pistillate flowers with 8 staminodia 
glabrous. Leaves oval. 



ovary 



ly 



Diospyros Virginiana, Linnseus, Spec. 1057 (1753). 
Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2. — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 

39. — Wangenheim, Beschr. Nordam. Holz. 129 ; Nord- 
am. Holz. 84, t. 28, f . 58. — Marshall, Arhust. Am. 

40. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 233. 
Walter, Fl. Car. 253. — Alton, Hart. Kew. iii. 446- — 
Willdenow, Berl. Baiimz. 101 ; Spec. iv. 1107 ; Enttm, 
1061. — Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ ii. t. 61, 74. 



69. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 215. — Sargent, 



Forest Trees^ N. Am. 10th Census^ U. S. ix. 104. 



Diez, 



Begenshurg Flora^ 1887, 535. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 333. — Gtirke, Engler & Prantl 
Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. i. £. 86, F. — Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 
f. 218-222. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 257 
(Man. PI. W. Texas). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 483, 
f . 79, A-J. 



Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 258. — Borkhausen, Handh. Diospyros Guajacana, Romans, Nat. Hist Florida^ 20 



Forstbot. ii. 1863. — Gsertner, f. Fruct. iii. 138, t. 207. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 428. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 624. 



(1775). 



Robin, Voyages y iii. 417. 



Diospyros concolor, Moench, Meth. 471 (1794). 



Duhamel, Traite des Arbres Fruitiers^ nouv. ^d. i. t. Diospyros pubescens, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 265 (not 



37. 



Desf ontaines. Hist. Arb. i. 208. — Du Mont de Cour- 



set, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 312. — Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 



Persoon) (1814). — Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 139. 
Gen. Syst. iv. 38. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1196. 



Don, 



106. 



Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 195, t. 12. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 265. — Nouveau Duhartiel^ vi. 



84. 



Nuttall, Gen. ii. 240. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 228. 



Elliott, Sk. ii. 712 



Collin, For slag af nagra Nord- 



Diospyros Caroliniana, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 139 

(1817). 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. pubescens, Nuttall, Gen. xL 

240 (1818). — EUiott, Sk. ii. 713. 



Americas Trad, 23. — Audubon, Birds, t. 87. — Sprengel, Diospyros Virginiana, var, microcarpa, Rafinesque, Med 



Syst. ii. 202. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 146, t. 146. 



FL i. 155 (1828). 



Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 39. — Loudon, ^r&. ^rii. ii. 1195, t. Diospyros Virginiana, var. concolor, Rafinesque, Med. 



200, 201. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ix. 405. —A. de CandoUe, 
Prodr. iv. 228. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 437. 



iv. 118, t. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 176. 



Hort. 
Chap- 



FL i. 155 (1828). 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. macrocarpa, Rafinesque, 
Med. FL i. 155 (1828). 



man, Fl. 273. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. Diospyros Persimon, Wikstrom, Jahr. Schwed. 1830, 92 



1860, iii. 70. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 204. — Hiern, Trans, 



Camb. Phil. Soc. xii. pt. i. 224. 
le Plaqueminier, 26. 



J^tude 



N 



(1834) . 

Diospyros ciliata, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 25 (not A. de 
Candolle) (1836). 



A tree^ with thick fleshy black stoloniferous roots^ usually thirty to fifty feet in height^ with a short 
trunk rarely more than twelve inches in diameter^ and spreading often pendulous branches which form a 
broad or narrow round-topped head ; or^ when growing in the primeval forest under the most favorable 
conditions^ sometimes a hundred to a hundred and fifteen feet high^ with a long slender trunk free from 
branches for seventy or eighty feet, and rarely exceeding two feet in diameter. The bark of the trunk 
is three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, dark brown tinged with red, or dark gray, and 
deeply divided into thick square plates, their surface being broken into thin persistent scales. The 
branchlets are terete, slender, with a thick pith, or pith cavity,^ slightly zigzag by the death of the tip 
during the summer,^ light reddish brown and more or less coated, when they first appear, with pale 



sometimes 



pith and are then hollow (Foerste, Bot. Gazette, xvii. 186). 
2 The ends of the branchlets of Diospyros Virginiana 
shrivel up in early summer before the formation of the 
buds, and duriner the winter annear as small dark-eolo] 



immediately below the upper axillary buds which the foUowiag 
spring prolong the branches (Henry, Nov, Act, Nat. Cur. xxii. 239, 
t. 21, f, 7. — Brendel, Illinois Mus. Nat, Hist. Bull. No. 1, t. 3, f. 
26.— Foerste, L c, 184 ; Bull Torrey Bot, Club, xix. 268, t. 132, f. 
9 ; XX. 162) . 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ebenace^. 



pubescence. During their first winter they are pubescent or glabrous, light brown to ashy gray, and 
marked with occasional small orange-colored lenticels and elevated semicircular leaf-scars with deep 
horizontal lunate depressions in which appear the ends of the crowded fibro-vascular bundles ; later they 
are reddish brown and are covered with thin bark often somewhat broken by longitudinal fissures. The 
winter-buds are broadly ovate, acute, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with thick imbricated dark 
red-brown or purple lustrous scales which often remain at the base of the young branchlets during 
the season. The leaves are alternate, revolute in vernation, oval, shortly acuminate at the apex, and 
abruptly or gradually narrowed, or rounded or often cordate at the base ; when they unfold they are 
thin, light green or red, pubescent on the lower surface, puberulous on the upper surface, and ciliate on 
the margins with long soft white hairs; at maturity they are coriaceous, dark green and lustrous 
above, pale and often pubescent below, four to six inches long, and two to three inches wide, with 
broad flat midribs, about six pairs of conspicuous primary veins arcuate near the margins, and reticulate 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout pubescent petioles which vary from half an inch to an inch in length, 
and fall early in the autumn without changing color, or sometimes turn orange or scarlet. The flowers 
appear from April in Texas to the end of June in New England, when the leaves are more than half 
grown, on shoots of the year, the males in two to three-flowered pubescent pedunculate cymes, their 
pedicels in the axils of minute lanceolate acute caducous bracts, and furnished near the middle with two 
minute caducous bractlets, the females solitary, on separate trees, their short recurved pedicels covered 
by two conspicuous acute bractlets ciliate on the margins, and often a quarter of an inch long. The 
corolla of the staminate flower is tubular, a third of an inch long, slightly contracted below the short 
acute reflexed lobes which before expansion form a pointed four-angled bud not inclosed in and rather 
longer than the broadly ovate acute foliaceous ciliate calyx-lobes with inflexed margins. There are 
sixteen stamens with short slightly hairy free filaments inserted in the bottom of the corolla in two 
rows and in pairs, those of the outer row being rather longer and opposite those of the inner row, and 
hnear lanceolate anthers opening throughout their length. The ovary is rudimentary or wanting. 
The pistillate flower is three quarters of an inch long, with a greenish yellow or creamy white corolla 
nearly half an inch broad when fully expanded ; in this, below the middle, are inserted in one row eight 
smaU stamens with short filaments and sagittate abortive or sometimes fertile anthers.^ The ovary is 
conical, pilose toward the apex, ultimately eight-celled by the development of a false partition from the 
face of each of the original four cells, with a solitary ovule in each cell, and gradually narrowed into 
the four slender spreading styles which are slightly two-lobed at the apex and hairy at the base. The 
fruit, which contains one to eight seeds or is sometimes seedless, is borne on a short thick woody stem 
often persistent on the branches during the winter, and ripens at midsummer at the south and late in 
the autumn at the north, where it hangs on the leafless branches until the beginning of winter ; it 
is crowned with the remnants of the style, and is usually depressed-globose or slightly obovate-oblong, 
and an inch to an inch and a half in diameter, although it varies in different parts of the country and 
on different individuals in size, shape, and quahty ; it is pale orange-color, often with a bright red 
cheek, covered with a slight glaucous bloom, and turns yellowish brown when partly decayed by freez- 
ing ; the flesh, which is exceedingly austere while green, is yellowish brown, sweet, and luscious when 

fully ripe, although, except in the extreme southern parts of the country, it requires the action of frost 
to make it edible ; the fruiting calyx is spreading, an inch to an inch and a half across, with broadly 

ovate pointed or rounded spreading lobes recurved on the margins. The seeds are oblong, much 
flattened, half an inch long, a third of an inch broad, with a thick hard lustrous brown pitted testa, a 
conspicuous truncate hilum, and a slender raphe. 

The most northern place where Diospyros Virginiana is known to grow naturally is Lighthouse 
Point in New Haven, Connecticut. It is not uncommon on Long Island, and is abundant in all the 

1 It is not unusual to find abundant crops of fruit on isolated pistillate trees, and such fruits often contain seeds v?ith well-developed 
embryos, although they appear to be more often seedless. 



EBENACE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



region east of the Alleghany Mountains from southern New York to the banks of the Caloosa River 
and the shores of Bay Biscayne in Florida, and southern Alabama and Mississippi ; west of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains it is distributed from southern Ohio to southeastern Iowa, southern Missouri, Arkan- 
sas, Louisiana, eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, and the valley of the Colorado River in Texas. 
The Persimmon usually grows in light sandy weU-drained soil, although in the basin of the Mississippi, 
where it attains its largest size, it is sometimes found in the primeval forests which clothe the deep rich 
bottom-lands of river valleys.^ It is exceedingly common in the south Atlantic and Gulf states, often 
covering with a shrubby growth, by means of its stoloniferous roots, abandoned fields exhausted by 
agriculture, and springing up by the sides of roads and fences. 

The wood of Diospyros Virginiaiia is heavy, hard, strong, and very close-grained, with numerous 
conspicuous medullary rays and bands of one or two rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual 
growth. The heartwood, which is often not developed until the tree is over a hundred years old, is 
dark brown or sometimes nearly black, and is rarely seen. The specific gravity of the sapwood, which is 
light brown and often marked with darker spots, when absolutely dry is 0.7908, a ciibic foot weighing 
49.28 pounds. It is employed in turnery, for shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, and many small articles of 
domestic use ; for shuttles it is preferred to other American woods. 

The fruit contains tannin similar to that of cinchona, to which it owes its astringent quaUties, pec- 
tin, sugar, and lignin, but neither vegetable albumen, starch, nor resin j ^ it is eaten in great quantities 
in the southern states and is sometimes to be found in the markets of northern cities, where, however, 
it is not much appreciated. By the Indians of the south bread was made of the dried fruit, which is 
still occasionally used in the same manner in the western and southern states, where persimmons are 
also fermented with hops, corn meal, or wheat bran, into a sort of beer which is used domestically, or 
are manufactured into brandy.^ It is a favorite food of hogs and many other animals. The inner 
bark, which is astringent and bitter, and the unripe fruit are sometimes used in the treatment of fevers. 



diarrhoea, and haemorrhage, and with alum as a gargle.^ Indehble ink is made from the fruit, and the 
dried, roasted, and ground seeds have been used as a substitute for coffee.^ 

In the autumn of 1539 the companions of De Soto learned from the Indians in Florida the value 
of the fruit of the Persimmon, which helped them to eke out their scanty fare. The earhest mention of 
it appears in the narrative of his expedition pubhshed at Evora in 1557 ; ^ and in the next century the 



fruit was admirably described by Jan de Laet in his account of Virgin] 
The date of the first introduction of the tree into European gardens 



d by Wilham StracheyJ 
certain : it was carried 



Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 68. 



" The plummes are of two kindes, red and gray, of the making 



2 Rafinesque, Med. Fl. i. 153, t. 32, — B. R. Smith, Am, Jour. and bignesse of nuts, and have three or foure stones in them." 



Pharm. xviii. 161. — J. E. Bryan, Am. Jour. Pharm. xxxii. 215. 
fi Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 385. 



(Chap, xliv, 169.) 

■^ " Primornm species hie tres observatse, quarum duse quee rubra 



^ Woodhouse, On the Chemical and Medical Properties of the Per- atque alba Pruna ferunt, arbutis similes : tertise vero fructus appel- 
simmon Tree and the Analysis of Astringent Vegetables. — Barton, lant barbari Putchamins, hsec in Palmse altitudinem adolescit, & 



Coll ed. 2, i. 11, 45 ; ii. 52. — GrifBth, Med. Bot. 435, f . 196. 



fructum fert mespilo non absimilem primo viridem, deinde subfla- 



Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 512. — Mettauer, Boston Med. and vum, ubi plene maturuerit, rubicundum : immaturus austerior est 



Surg. Jour. Ixxvii. 188. — Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 514. — Baillon, Traite 



astringit, maturus gratis 



Bot. Med. 1311. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 199. — U. S. simi est saporis & prsecocibus omuino similis." (iVi 
Dispens. ed. 16, 1783. s a They have a plomb which they call pesser 



nun 



Med. 



There 



red plums like th< 
but farre better." 



9f Florida 



medler, in England, but of a deeper tawnie cullour ; they grow on 
Lch bare a most high tree. When they are not fully ripe, they are harsh and 
ifEering, choakie, and furre in a man's mouth like allam, howbeit, being 
by Don taken fully ripe, yt is a reasonable pleasant fruict, somewhat 

lushious. I have seene our people put them into their baked and 
' They travelled seven daies journie through a desert, and re- sodden puddings ; there be whose tast allowes them to be as pre- 

mais." tious as the English apricock ; I confesse it is a good kind of horse 

plomb." (The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia^ ed. Ma- 
1 many jor, 118.) 



xxiii. 94 



plum; 



XXIV, 



with 



primes 



loaves made of the substance of prunes." (Chap, xxix, 119.) 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EBENACEJE. 



however, to England before 1629, when an account of a cultivated tree appeared 
Raradisi in sole Raradistis terrestrls/ published in that year. 



Parkinson 



As 



an ornamen 



tree Dios7)yros Vlrginiana 



made valuable 




hardiness 



power of 
leaves, its 



adapting itself to a great variety of soils and climates, its good habit, its large and 
abundant crops of handsome fruit, and by its immunity from disease and the serious attacks of disfigur- 
ing insects. The exceUent quahty and flavor of the fruit of some uncultivated trees, and its tendency 
to vary,^ indicate that it could be greatly improved by careful selection and cultivation, and that m 
time it might be made to equal the best Chinese and Japanese varieties in size and flavo 



Diospyros Virginiana 



ly raised from seed ) it can also be increased by stolons, which are 



often produced in great numbers ; and varieties are readily increased by grafting 



^ Lotus. The Virginia Pishamin, 570, t. f. 6. 

PisTiamin Virginianum. The Virginia Date Plumme or Pishaminy 

Parkinson, Theatr. 1523, f . 

Guaiacana Virginiana Pishamin dicta^ Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1918, 
Guaiacana Loto arboris Guaiaco Patavino affinis Virginiana, 

Plukenet, Phyt. t. 244, f . 5. 

Guaiacana^ Plukenet, Aim, Bot, 180, 

Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car, ii. 76, t. 76. 



Miller, Diet. No. 3. 



220. 



foliis uirinque concoloribus, Linnseus, Hart. Cliff. 



Fl. 



441 



2 In size tlie fruit of Diospyros Virginiana varies from that of a 
small cherry to that of a large plum. On some trees it becomes 
so soft when fully ripe that in falling to the ground it is crushed 
by its own weight, while on other trees growing under identical 
conditions it remains nearly as hard as stone after severe freezing. 
Some trees in the south produce fruit which is sweet and luscious 



Gnajacana? Pishamin Virginianum^ Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. ii. without 



acidity when nearly rotten, never becoming edible. 
* Garden and Forest, i. 614. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLII. Diospykos Yirginiaka. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pair of stamens, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCLIII. Diosptros Virginiana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. An oblong fruit, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLIl. 




7 




9 




O 



3 
O 



6 



5 



8 






\ 








C.E.Fcucon. del. 



Jfunely so 



DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA.L. 



A, Riocreux- dzre3>. 



i> 



Imp. R . Taneur^ Paris 



Silva of North Am 



erica. 



Tab. CCLIII. 




6 



5 




C. E. Fax^n, del. 



Rapvae sc 



DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA.L. 



A.Iiu>creua> direa> 



Imp. R . Taneur, Paris. 



EBENACK/E. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



DIOSPYROS TEXANA. 



Black Persimmon. Chapote. 



Staminate flowers in 1 to 3-flowered fascicles ; anthers opening only near the 
apex ; pistillate flowers without staminodia ; oyary pubescent. Leaves cuneate-oblong 
or obovate. 



Diospyros Texana, Scheele, Linncea, xxii. 145 (1849). — Am, Gent. ii. 300. — Sargent, Forest Trees, N. Am. 10th 

Walpers, Ann. iii. 14. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. Census^ U. S. ix. 105. — C G. Pringle, Garden and For- 

109. — Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. xii. pt. i. 238. — est^ ii. 394. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 257 

Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i. 70. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. {Man. PL W. Texas). 



An intricately branched twiggy tree^ occasionally forty to fifty feet in height, with a trunk eighteen 
to twenty inches in diameter, dividing at some distance above the ground into a number of stout upright 
branches which form a narrow round-topped head ; often much smaller, and toward the northern and 
western limits of its range reduced to a low many-stemmed shrub. The bark of the trunk is smooth, 
thin, light gray, slightly tinged with red, the outer layer falling away in large irregularly shaped 
patches displaying the smooth gray inner bark. The branchlets are slender, terete, rigid, and sHghtly 
zigzag by the death of the tips before the terminal buds are formed; when they first appear they are 
coated with pale or rufous tomentum, and in their first winter they are ashy gray, glabrous or puberu- 
lous, later becoming brown, and marked by minute pale lenticels and by the small elevated semicircular 
leaf-scars in which appear lunate rows of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The winter-buds are obtuse, 
barely more than a sixteenth of an inch long, and protected by broadly ovate scales rounded at the 
apex, and coated with rufous tomentum. The leaves are cuneate-oblong to obovate, revolute in verna- 
tion, rounded and often retuse at the apex, and wedge-shaped at the base ; when they unfold they are 
covered on the lower surface with thick pale tomentum, and on the upper with scattered long white 
hairs 3 at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous, glabrous or puberulous 
above, paler and pubescent below, three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half long, and a third of an 
inch wide, with short thick hairy petioles, broad midribs, and about four pairs of arcuate primary 
veins which, like the reticulate veinlets, are inconspicuous on the upper side of the leaf. The leaves 
unfold in February and March, and fall during the following winter without changing color. The 
flowers appear in early spring, when the leaves are about one third grown, on branches of the previous 
year, the staminate in one to three-flowered crowded pubescent fascicles, on slender drooping pedicels 
furnished near the middle with minute caducous bractlets, the pistillate solitary or rarely in pairs on 
separate plants, and borne on stouter club-shaped bibracteolate pedicels. In the sterile flower the calyx 
is an eighth of an inch long and deeply divided into five ovate or lanceolate lobes, silky-tomentose 
on both surfaces, recurved after the opening of the flower, and much shorter than the corolla, which 
is an eighth of an inch long, creamy white, and slightly contracted below the five short spreading 
rounded lobes ciliate on their margins. There are sixteen stamens, which are distinct, glabrous, shorter 
than the corolla, and inserted on it in two rows and in pairs, those of the outer row being rather longer 
than those of the inner row ; the anthers are linear-lanceolate and open at the apex by short slits. The 
pistillate flowers, which have no staminodia, are a third of an inch long, with oblong acute silky-tomen- 
tose calyx-lobes half the length of the pubescent corolla, which, when expanded, is nearly haH an inch 
across the short spreading lobes. The ovary is ovate and gradually contracted into four spreading styles 
two-lobed at the apex ; it is pubescent like the young fruit, and is ultimately eight-celled with a single 



12 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EBENACE^. 



ovule in each 



The fruit, which ripens in August, is subglobose, half an inch to an inch in diame 



pilose, tipped with the remnants of the style, and 



ded at the base by the large thickened 



leathery calyx sometimes an inch across, with oblong pubescent reflexed lobes ; it is covered with 



thick tough black skin which incloses the thin sweet 



ght 
nch 



insipid dark fleshy and contains three to e 
triangular seeds rounded on the back^ narrowed and flattened at the pointed apex, a third of an 
long, about an eighth of an inch thick, and covered with a thick bony lustrous light red pitted coat. 

Diospyros Texana is distributed from the valleys of the Colorado and Concho Rivers in Texas to 
Nuevo Leon. It is abundant in western and southern Texas, inhabiting, near the coast, the borders of 



prairies, where it flourishes in rich moist soil, growi 
vigorously than in other parts of the state ; 



the bottom-lands of the Guadaloupe more 



state ; farther west it is found on dry rocky mesas and in isolated 
canons. In the region between the Sierra Madre and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Nuevo Leon, 
where it is exceedingly common, the Chapote grows to its largest size. 

The wood of Diosi^yros Texana is heavy, hard, and very close-grained, with a satiny surface sus- 
ceptible of receiving a beautiful poHsh. It contains a few minute scattered open ducts and many thin 
medullary rays. The heartwood, which appears only in old individuals, is black, often streaked with 
yellow ; the sapwood is clear bright yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8460, 
a cubic foot weighing 52.72 pounds. It is used in turnery for the handles of tools, etc., and has been 
recommended as a substitute for boxwood for engraving-blocks.^ The fruit, which is exceedingly 
austere until it is fully ripe, stains black, and probably possesses valuable tinctorial properties ; it is 
sometimes used by Mexicans inhabiting the valley of the Rio Grande to dye sheepskins 

Diospyros Texana was discovered in Nuevo Leon in February, 1828,^ by the Belgian botanist 
Berlandier ;^ in Texas it was first noticed by Lindheimer^ in 1845 growing on the bottom-lands west of 
the Colorado River. 

Diospyros Texana is not known to be an inhabitant of gardens, where it might well find a 
place for the beauty of its dark lustrous foUage and abundant black fruit, which no doubt could be 
improved in size and quality by cultivation.^ 



1 



Jackson, Commercial Botany of the Nineteenth Century ^ 156. 
2 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 523. 
^ Teste Hiern, Trans. Camh. Phil Soc. xii. pt. i. 238. 
4 See i. 82. 



5 See i. 74. 



^ The black coloring matter is so abundant in the fruit of the 
Chapote that it discolors the hands, lips, and teeth of a person 
eating it, and so lessens its value for the table. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLIV. Diospyros Texana. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A pistil cut transversely, enlarged- 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10, Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 
11*. A seed, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

13. An embrvo. enlaro-ed. 



Silva of North Ajnerica 



Ta-b, CCLIV 






5 



7 







10 




QE.Foicorvdel 



J^ioart JO 



DIOSPYROS TEXANA, Sclieele. 



A.IUocreua> (^em ^ 



Jmp Taneur,Fan^ 



STYRACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



13 



SYMPLOCOS. 



Flowers regular, perfect, or rarely polygamous ; calyx 5-lobed, tlie lobes imbricated 
in aestivation ; corolla gamopetalous, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens indefi- 
nite, in several series ; anthers innate ; disk ; ovary inferior or partly superior, 2 to 
5-celled; ovules 2 or rarely 4 in each cell. Fruit drupaceous or baccate. Leaves 
alternate, simple, destitute of stipules. 



Symplocos, L'Hdritier, Trans. Linn. Soc. i. 174 (1791). — Sariava, Reinwardt, Syll. Ratish. ii. 12 (1825). 

4fr 



Bentham, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. 225. — Meisner, Gen. Monge 



Icon. V. t. 105, 106 



250. 



Endlicher, Gen. 744. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen 



(1825). 



ii- 668. — Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. pt. i. 168 
Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 461. 

Bugenioides, Linnaeus, Fl. Zeylan. 192 (1747). 



Barberina, Vellozo, FL Mum. 235 ; Icon. v. 1. 117 (1825). 
Endlicher, Gen. 1334. — Miers, Jbwr. Linn. Soc. xvii 

292. 



Symplocos, Jacquin, Hist. Stirp. Am. 166 (1763). — Lin- Bobua, De CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 23 (1828). — Meisner, Gen. 

Endlicher, Gen. 1183. — Miers, Jour, Linn. Soc. 



110. 



naeus, Gen. ed. 6, 272. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 157. 
Bobu, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 88 (1763). 
Hopea, Linnaeus, Mant. 14 (1767). — A. L. de Jussieu, Stemmatosiphum, Pohl, PL BrasiL Icon. ii. 86 (1831). 



xvii. 302. 



Gen. 157. — Meisner, Gen. 250. 



Meisner, Gen. 250. 



Ciponima, Aublet, PL Guian. i. 566 (1775). — A- L. de Lodhra, Decaisne, Jacqnemont Voy.iY. 103 (1847). 



Mi- 



Jussieu, Gen. 157. — Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii. 288. 



ers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii. 297. 



Alstonia, Linnseus, f. SuppL 39 (1781). — A. L. de Jussieu, Cordyloblaste, Henschel, BoL Zeit. 1848, 604. 



Gen. 157. 
? Drupatris, Loureiro, Fl. Cochin. 314 (1790). 
? Deoadia, Loureiro, FL Cochin. 314 (1790). — Miers, Jour. 

Linn. Soc. xvii. 295. 
Dicalyx, Loureiro, FL Cochin. 663 (1790). — Meisner, Ge^i. 



Carlea, Presl, EpimeL Bot. 216 (1850). 

Hypopogon, Turczaninow, BulL Mosc. xxxi. pt. i. 246 

(1858). 

Chasseloupia, VieiUard, BuU. Soc. Linn. Normandie, x. 
101 (1866). 



250. 



Endlicher, Gen. 1018. — Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. Protohopea, Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii. 289 (1879). 



xvii. 296. 
Pladera, Koxburgh, Fl. Ind. i. 416 (1820). 



Prsealstonia, Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii- 290 (1879) 
Palura, Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii. 297 (1879). 



Trees or shrubs^ with scaly buds and fib 



Leaves alternate, coriaceous or membranaceous 



entire or dentate^ usually becoming yellow in dryings and often possessing tinctorial properties. Flow- 
ers yelloWj wbite, or rarely rose-color^ in dense or lax axillary spikes or racemes^ sometimes reduced to 
few-flowered fascicles or to a single flower, the pedicels ebracteolate. Bracts usually small, caducous. 
Calyx campanulate, five-lobed, open in the bud, the tube adnate to the ovary, enlarging after anthesis. 
Corolla divided nearly or quite to the base, or with the divisions sometimes more or less united into a 
tube. Stamens numerous, in many series, inserted on the base of the corolla, or adnate to its tube ; 
filaments filiform or flattened towards the base, free, or more or less united below into clusters or rarely 
into a tube projected above the corolla-tube ; anthers oblong, innate, two-celled, the cells 



ing longitudinally. Ovary t\ 
entire or slightly lobed stigma 
anatropous ; raphe ventral ; m 



five-celled 



itr acted 



slender 




cells lateral, open- 
;tyle tipped with an 
vules two or rarely four in each cell, suspended from its inner angle, 
•pyle superior. Fruit crowned with the persistent lobes of the calyx, 
dehiscent, oblong, ovoid, or globose, drupaceous, with a dry or fleshy endocarp and a bony putamen, 
' sometimes baccate, usually one-seeded or with a solitary seed in each cell. Seed oblong, suspended ; 



14 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



STYRACEJE. 



meinbranac 



crustaceous. Embryo 



conspicuous fleshy albumen, the cotyle 



dons much shorter than the long slender radicle turned towards the broad conspicuous hilum. 

In Symplocos, as the genus is here characterized, more than a hundred and fifty species are re 
nized/ inhabitants of the warmer parts of Asia, Australia, and America, one species occurrmg m 



the 



United States. It is not known in Africa, western North America, extratropical South Amer 



Europe, where, however, the traces of 



species have been found in the rocks of the 



tertiary epoch 



2 



Symplocos contains coloring matter in the bark and 



and some of the species have medical 



properties 



In New Granada 



fusion of the astringent leaves of Symplocos theceformis ^ is used 



as a stimulating beverage j and the bitter astringent mucilaginous bark of some Brazilian species 



employed in the treatment of fevers 



In British India, whe 



:ty to seventy species 



nized, the fruits of Symplocos sincata ^ are strung into necklaces and placed on children to ward off 

' the bark of Symplocos racemosa'^ yields a red dye and a 




<r : 



evil, and the leaves are used in 

powder used by the Hindoos in the festival of the Hoh ; ^ a yellow dye ^ is extracted from the bark and 



small 



leaves of Symp>locos cratcegoides^^ a 

and the leaves of Symplocos phyllocaly 

and sent to Thibet, where they are used to dye yellow. 



shrub distributed from the Himalay 



Jap 



gathered by the inhabitants of the Sikkim Himalay 



12 



The North American species of Symplocos is not seriously injured by insects or fungal diseases.^^ 
The generic name, from XviinTiOxogy relates to the union of the filaments of some of the species. 



^ Humboldt & Bonpland, PL jEquin. i, 181. — Kunth, Syn. PL 
^quin. ii. 315. — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned, Ind. 1116 (Dicalyx). — 
A. de CandoUe, Prodr, viii. 246, 673. — Miquel, Fl. Ind. BaL i. 
pt. ii. 465 ; Ann, Mies, Lugd. Bat, iii. 101 ; Martins Fl, Brasil. 
vii. 23. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind, 403 ; Cat. PL Cub. 167. — 
Bentham, Fl. Aicstral. iv. 292. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL 
Jap. i, 307. — Kurz, Forest Fl. BriL Burnt, ii. 142. — C.B.Clarke, 

Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 572. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am, Cent, ii. 
301. — Forbes & Hemsley, /owr. Linn, Soc. xxvi. 72. — Urban, Bot, 
Jahrb, xv. 328, 

2 Zittel, Handb. Paloeontolog. ii. 751, £. 387, 1-19. 
^ Symplocos theceformis. 

Alstonia theceformisy Limiseus f. SuppL 264 (1781). — Lamarck, 
Diet, i, 95. 

Symplocos Alstonia, L'H^ritier, Trans, Linn. Soc, i. 176 



7 Roxburgh, L c. 539 (1832). — Kurz, /. c, 144. — C. B. Clarke, 
L t, 676. — Forbes & Hemsley, L c, 74. 

Symplocos Hamiltoniana, A. de CandoUe, l. c, 254 (1844). 
Brandis, L c. 301, 

Symplocos nervosa, A, de Candolle, L c. 256 (not Wight), 

(1844). 

Symplocos propinqua, Hance, Jour. Bot. vi. 329 (1868). 

8 Balfour, Cyclopaedia of India, ed. 3, iii. 794. 
» Brandis, L c, 299. 

10 D. Don, L c, 145 (1825). — A. de Candolle, L c, 258. 
Franchet & Savatier, l. o-. 308. — Kurz, L c. 147. — C. B.Clarke, 
I. c. 573. — Forbes & Hemsley, L c. 72. 

Lodhra craicegoides, Decaisne, Jacquemont Voy. iv. 103, t. 110 

(1844). 

In Japan Symplocos cratcegoides is one of the common shrubs of 



(1791). — Willdenow, Spec. iii. 1436. — Humboldt & Bonpland, the mountain regions of Hondo ; and in our gardens the Japanese 
I, c. 181, t. 151. — Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen. et form is it distinct and valuable ornamental plant, conspicuous in 



Spec. iii. 257. — Kunth, L c. — A. de Candolle, l. v. 247. 



the autumn, when it is covered with its bright blue fleshy fruits 



Prcealstonia theceformis, Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc, xvii. 291 (^Garden and Forest, iii. 529 ; v. 90, f. 15). 



(1880). 

4 Martins, Mat Med, Brasil, 48 ; Fl. Brasil. vii. 35. 

6 Roxburgh, Fl. Ind, ed. 2, ii. 541 (1832). — Kurz, L c. 146. 

C. B. Clarke, L c. 573. 



11 C. B. Clarke, L c. 575 (1882). 

12 Hooker f . Himalayan Journals, ii. 63. 

13 A deformity of the leaves of Symplocos tinctoria is caused by 
the growth of Ezohasidium Symploci, Ellis & Martin, a genus 



Symplocos LoTia, D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal, 144 (1825). — A. usually found on Andromeda, Rhododendron, and other members 



de Candolle, L c. 



of the Heath family. A few small and insignificant fungi, like 



Symplocos polycarpa, A. de Candolle, l. c. 255 (1844). — Kurz, Sacidium Symploci, Cooke, and Septoria Symploci^ Ellis & Martin, 



L c. 

^ Brandis, Forest FL Brit, Ind. 300. — Gamble, Man. Indian 
Timbers, 253. 



form small spots on the leaves. 



STYRACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



15 



SYMPLOCOS TINGTORIA. 



Sweet Leaf. Horse Sugar. 

Flowers in many-flowered axillary fascicles ; corolla divided 



stamens united in five clusters 
Fruit drupaceous, 1 -seeded. 



nearly to the base 
ovary 3-celled, with a pair of ovules in each cell 



Symplocos 
(1791). 



Willdenow 



Sprengel, Syst. 

iii. 339. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 2. — A. de CandoUe, 
Prodr. viii. 254. — Chapman, Fl. 272. — Curtis, Rep. 
Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 65. 

Am. ii. pt. i. 70. — Sargent, Forest Trees, N. Am. 10th 
Census, U. S. ix. 105. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man 
ed. 6, 335. 



Fl.N. 



soon, Syn. ii. 72. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 217. 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 320. — Gart- 
ner f. Fruct. iii. 140, t. 209. — Robin, Voyages, iii. 419. 



Michaux f. Hist 



Pursh, Fl. 



Am. Sept. ii. 451. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 83. — ElHott, Sk. 



ii. 173. 



Hist 



Protohopea tinctoria, Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. xvii. 290 
(1879). 
Hopea tinctoria, Linnaeus, Mant. 105 (1767). — Walter, Eugenioides tinctorium. Otto Kunze, Rev. Gen. PI. ii. 



Fl, 



Michaux 



Per- 



976 (1891). 



A tree, occasionally thirty to thirty-five feet in height, with a short trunk rarely exceeding six or 
eight inches in diameter, and slender upright branches which form an open head ; or more often a 
shrub. The bark of the trunk varies from a third to half an inch in thickness, and is ashy gray, 
slightly tinged with red, divided by occasional narrow fissures, and roughened with wart-like excres- 
cences. The branchlets are terete, stout, and pithy, and when they first appear are light green, and 
coated with rufous or pale tomentum, or are sometimes glabrous or covered with scattered white hairs ; 
they are reddish brown to ashy gray, tinged with red, and usually more or less pubescent, or often 
covered with a glaucous bloom during their first and second years, later growing darker, and becoming 
roughened with occasional small elevated lenticels. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, and covered with 
broadly ovate, nearly triangular acute scales; those of the inner rows are accrescent on the young 
shoots, and at maturity are oblong, obovate, rounded, and often apiculate at the apex, light green, 
glabrous or pilose, ciliate on the margins, and often half an inch long. The leaves are revolute in 
vernation, oblong, acute or acuminate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, obscurely crenulate- 
serrate with remote teeth, or sometimes nearly entire ; when they unfold they are coated with pale 
tomentum on the lower surface, glabrous or tomentose on the upper, and furnished on the margins with 
minute dark caducous glands ; at maturity they are sub coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, paler 
and pubescent below, five or six inches long, one to two inches wide, with broad midribs rounded and 
sometimes puberulous on the upper side, inconspicuous arcuate veins and reticulate veinlets ; they are 
borne on stout slightly winged petioles from a third to half an inch long, and late in the autumn fall 



from plants growing in the northern part of the region 



pied by this species and at high elevations 



above the level of the 
until after the flowers 



the southern Atlantic and GuK states remaining: on the branches 



of the following spring have opened and the branchlets have begun to gr 



the 



The fragrant flowers, which appear from the first of March at the south to the middle of May on 
mountains of the Carolinas, are produced in nearly sessile many-flowered clusters in the axils of leaves of 
the previous year, on short pedicels enlarged into thick hemispherical receptacles covered with long white 



hairs. 



The flower-clusters are inclosed in the bud by ovate acute orange-colored scales brown and 
ciliate on the margins, and each of the globose flower-buds is surrounded by three imbricated oblong 
bracts rounded or pointed at the apex and ciliate on the margins, the longest being as long as the calyx 



16 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



STYRACE^. 



and a third longer than the two lateral bracts. The calyx is oblong, cup-shaped, dark green and puberu- 
lous, with minute ovate scarious lobes rounded at the apex. The corolla is creamy white, a quarter of 
an inch long, and divided nearly to the base into five lobes rounded at the apex. The stamens with 
slender filiform filaments united at the base into five clusters, and orange-colored anthers, are exserted. 
The three-celled ovary is furnished on the top with five dark nectariferous glands placed opposite the 
lobes of the calyx, and is abruptly contracted into a slender style, gradually thickened towards the apex, 
and longer than the coroUa. The fruit ripens in the summer or early autumn, and is an ovate nut-like 
drupe, a third of an inch long, dark orange-colored or brown, tipped with the persistent calyx-lobes and 
the remnants of the style, and consists of a thin dry outer covering and a thick-walled bony stone 
containing a single ovate pointed seed covered with a thin papery chestnut-brown coat. 

On the Atlantic seaboard Symplocos tmetoria is found from the Delaware peninsula to north 
Florida, and from the coast to the Blue Eidge, on which it ascends, in the Carolinas, to an elevation 
nearly three thousand feet ; and through the Gulf states ranges west to western Louisiana and southern 
Arkansas. It is an inhabitant of moist rich soil in the shade of dense forests, or in the Gulf states 
often occupies the borders of Cypress swamps. 



of 



The wood of Symplo 



light, soft, and close-grained, and 



medullary rays 



it 



light red or brown, with thick lighter colored, often 



ins numerous thin 
ly white sapwood. 



composed of eighteen or twenty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 

wood is 0.5325, a cubic foot weighing 33.19 pounds. 

taste, are devoured in the autumn by cattle and horses, and, 



The leaves, which are sweet to the 



like the bark, yield a yellow dye, occasionally used domestically 
been used as a tonic.^ 

Symplocos tinctoria 



The bitter and aromatic roots have 



appears 



have been discovered by Mark Catesby 



3 



the coast region of 



South Carolina, and the first description and figure of this plant is found in his Natural History of 
Carolina^^ published in 1731. In England the Sweet Leaf was cultivated before 1780 by Dr. Fother- 
gill^ in his garden at Upton House, near Stratford in Essex.® 



It is probably 



longer cultivated 



except in a few botanic gardens. 



1 Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests^ 388. 

2 Griffith, Med. BoL 437. 



History of Carolina was the most sumptuous work on natural his- 
tory which had appeared in England. To the student of American 



Mark Catesby (1679 or 1680-1749), a native of Sudworth in botany it is still indispensable, as it contains the earliest descrip- 



with 



Suffolk, appears to have developed early in life a love of natural tions and figures of a number of important plants, 
history, which induced him in 1712 to visit Virginia, where some ous and interesting notes upon their properties and uses. 



of his family had settled, and where he remained for seven years 



In 1763 was published Catesby's Hortus Briianno-Americanus^ it 



studying the natural resources of the country, and collecting speci- description of a number of American trees and shrubs adapted to 

mens of animals and plants. After returning to England he be- the soil and climate of England, with illustrations printed from 

came known, through his collections, to Sir Hans Sloane and other copper plates. Cateshcea, a genus of tropical American shrubs, 

English naturalists, who encouraged him to revisit America for the was dedicated to him by Gronovius. 



purpose of describing the curious and interesting objects of nature. 



* Arbor lauri folio y floribus ex foliorum alisy pentapeialisy pluribus 



He left England in 1722 and established himself in Charleston, staminibus donatis^ i. 54, t. 54, 



South Carolina, where he devoted some time to exploring the coast 



5 John Fothergill (1712-1780), a native of Wensleydale in 



region, probably penetrating to the eastern base of the Blue Ridge, Yorkshire, and a distingidshed physician in London, where he 
and afterwards extending his travels through Georgia into north- lived from 1740 till his death. In 1762 Dr. Fothergill planted on 
ern Florida. Having spent nearly three years on the continent, his estate in Essex a collection of trees and shrubs which was at 
Catesby sailed for the Bahama Islands, which he was the first bota- 
nist to visit, and where he remained for a year, finally returning to 
England in 1726. Having learned the art of etching, Catesby de- 



im 



A 



with Humphrev Marshall, the Penns 



Natural History of 



nist and the author of the Arbustum Americanum, whose acquaint- 
ance he made through his friend Benjamin Franklin, enabled Dr. 



Florida, and the Bahama Islands, containing figures of birds, beasts, Fothergill to introduce a niunber of American trees and shrubs 

two hun- into England. (See I)sxlingtony Memorial of Bartram and Marshall^ 



with 



dred and twenty plates representing animals and plants, usually of 495.) Fothergilla, a monotypic shrub of the south Atlantic coast 
life size, and drawn and engraved with his own hands. The first region of North America dedicated to him by Linnseus, associates 
volume was completed in 1731 and the second in 1743, an appendix Fothergill's name with American botany. 



appearing In 1748. 



Natural 



^ Lettsom, HorL Upton. 30. — Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iv. 419. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLV. Symplocos tinctorta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3- A flower-bud with bracts, enlarged. 

4. A flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A cluster of stamens, enlarged. 

7. An anther, enlarged. 

8. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLVI. Symplocos tinctoria, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of Norfh Ainerica. 



Tab. CCLV. 










9 




C^ ^ . F oico-n,, d&L. 



Iioo ended, sa . 



SYMPLOCOS TINCTORIA, I'Her. 



A.lizocr0ua>. direa>. 



£np. J] Taneicr, Pcvris, 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLVI 




C'E.Faa;on del- 



Rapine- sc. 



SYMPLOCOS TINCTORIA, LHer. 



^.lUocreua: dzrea: 



t 



Imp - J. Taneur, Paris 



STYRACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



MOHRODENDEON. 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 4-toothed, the teeth not closed in aestivation ; 
corolla gamopetalous, 4-lobed or divided nearly to the base, the lobes convolute or 
imbricated in aestivation ; stamens definite, in a single series ; anthers adnate ; disk ; 
ovary mostly inferior, 2 to 4-celled; ovules 4 in each cell. Fruit drupaceous, 2 to 
4-winged. Leaves alternate, membranaceous, denticulate, destitute of stipules. 



Mohrodendron, Britton, Garden and Forest^ vi, 463 (excl. Pterostyrax). — Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 



(1893). 



pt. i. 177 (excl. Pterostyrax). — Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 460 



Halesia, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1044 (not Browne) (excl. Pterostyrax). 

(1759) ; Gen. ed. 6, 237. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 158. — Mohria, Britton, Garden and Forest^ vi. 434 (not Swartz) 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 156. — Meisner, Gen. 250. — (1893). 

Endlicher, Gen. 744. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 669 Carlomohria, Greene, Erythea^ i. 246 (1893). 



Trees or shrubs, with slender terete pithy branchlets, buds covered with imbricated accrescent 
scales, and fibrous roots, the young branchlets and leaves clothed with soft stellate pubescence. Leaves 
involute in vernation, membranaceous, ovate-oblong, acute, denticulate, penniveined, deciduous, destitute 
of stipules. Flowers appearing in early spring with the unfolding of the leaves in fascicles or short 
racemes produced in the axils of leaves of the previous year. Pedicels slender, elongated, drooping, 
pubescent, developed in the axils of foHaceous obovate or acute caducous bracts, ebracteolate. Calyx- 
tube obconical or obpyramidal, four-ribbed, adnate to the ovary, coated with thick pale tomentum, the 
limb short, four-toothed, the teeth open in the bud. Corolla campanulate, epigynous, four-lobed or 
divided nearly to the base, thin and white, sometimes puberulous on the outer surface. Stamens eight 
to sixteen 3 filaments inserted on and slightly attached to the base of the corolla or sometimes free, 
flattened below, glabrous or tomentose ; anthers oblong, adnate or free at the very base, introrse, 
two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary two to four-celled, gradually contracted into an 
elongated glabrous or tomentose simple style stigmatic at the apex ; ovules four in each cell, attached 
by elongated funiculi at the middle of the axis, the two upper ascending, the two lower pendulous, 
anatropous; raphe dorsal; micropyle inferior and superior. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, elongated, 
obovate, gradually narrowed at the base, crowned with the calyx-Hmb and the thickened persistent style ; 
epicarp tough, separable, light green and lustrous, turning reddish brown late in the autumn ; endocarp 
thick and fleshy, becoming dry and corky at maturity, produced into two or four broad thin wings 
wedge-shaped at the base and rounded at the apex ; putamen thick and bony, obovate, gradually nar- 
rowed at the base into an elongated slender stipe inclosed in the wings, tipped with the bony remnants 
of the style, usually irregularly eight-angled or sulcate, one to four-celled. Seed soHtary in each cell, 
elongated, cylindrical ; testa thin, light brown, lustrous, adherent to the walls of the stone, the delicate 
inner coat attached to the copious fleshy albumen. Embryo terete, axile, erect ; cotyledons oblong, as 
long as the elongated radicle turned towards the minute hilum. 

Mohrodendron is confined to the southern Atlantic region of North America, where three species 
occur ; of these two are trees and the third, Mohrodendron parviflorum^ is a shrub of southern 
Georo^ia and northern Florida. 



463 



Chapman, Fl 272. — Miers 



N. 



Halesia parvijlora, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 40 (1803). —Per- Am. ii. pt. i. 71. 

soon, Syn. ii. 4. — Pursh, Fl Am. Sept. ii. 450. — Nuttall, Gen. Mohria parviflor a, Britton, I c. 434 

ii. 83. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 6. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1190 
(excl. Bot. Reg, xi. t. 952). — A. de Candolle, Prodr. viii. 270. 



ijloray Greene, Erythea. i. 246 



20 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



STTRACE-ffi. 



Mohrodendron produces light close-grained wood^ but is not known to possess useful properties. 
Their lovely flowers and their immunity from the attacks of insects ^ and fungal diseases ^ make all the 
Mohrodendrons desirable inhabitants of parks and gardens^ in which the two arborescent species are 
often cultivated. They are easily raised from seeds^ which^ if allowed to become dry, do not germinate 
until the second year ; they can be transplanted without difficulty, and flourish in well-drained rich soil. 



The generic name commemorates the scientific accomplishments of Dr. Charles Mohr. 



3 



^ Few records of injury to Mohrodendron by insects have been 



2 The species of Mohrodendron appear to be unusually exempt 



published, although the species seem to be favorites with one of the from the attacks of fungi, Polyporus Halesice^ Berkeley & Curtis, 

Americanlargesilk-worms, -4 ^/acusPram^^^ea, Harris, whose cocoons being the only species that has been described as growing on Mohr- 

may be often seen on the branches in winter. A geometrid moth, odendron Carolinum in the United States. This fungus was sup- 

Therina fervidaria^ Hiibner, was first bred from larvae found on posed, by the botanist who first described it, to be peculiar to Mohr- 



Mohrodendron Carolinum in Georgia by Abbot, and although not 



writers have expressed 



known to be particularly injurious to the plants of this genus, it is opinion that it is merely a form of the older Polyporus amorpJiuSf 



Walker, EnL Month 



Mag 



Fries. 



8 See iv. 90. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF MOHRODENDRON. 



Corolla slightly lobed ; ovary d-celled ; fruit 4-winged. Leaves oval or ovate-oblong 1. M. Caholinum 

Corolla divided nearly to the base ; ovary usually 2-celled ; fruit 2-winged. Leaves ovate or sometimes 

slightly obovate 2. M. dipterum. 



STYRACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



21 



MOHRODENDRON CAROLINUM. 



Silver Bell Tree. 



Corolla slightly lobed; oyary 4-celled, Fruit 4-wiiiged. Leaves oval or ovate- 



oblong. 



Mohrodendron Carolinum, Britton, Garden and Forest, 
vi. 463 (1893). 

Halesia Carolina, LinnaBus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1044 (1759). 

Halesia tetraptera, Ellis, Phil. Trans, li. 932, t. 22, f. A 
(1761). — Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 636. — M.o%n(t\ Bditme 
Weiss. Al \ Meth. 507. — Marshall, Arhust. Am. 57. 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Unitiy ii. 257. — Gsertner, 
Friict. i. 160, t. 32. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 66 ; III. ii. 521, 
t- 404, f . 1. — Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. ed. 2, i. 419. 
Abbot, Insects of Georgia, i. t. 46. — Willdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 138 ; Spec. ii. 849 ; Enum. 496. — Cavanilles, 
Diss, vi. 338, t. 186. — Michaux, Ft. Bor.-Am. ii. 40. 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 4. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 216. 



Loddiges, Bof. Cab. xii. t. 1173. — Jaume St. Hilaire, 
Traits des Arbrisseaux, i. t. 88. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 84. 
Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 42, t. 35. — Don, 
Gen. Syst. iv. 6. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ix. 426. — A. de 
Candolle, Prodr. viii. 269. — Miers, Contrib. i. 191, t. 



31. 



Agardh, Theor. et Syst. PL t. 22, f. 16, 17. 



Chapman, Fl. 271. — Curtis, Hep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 



1860, iii. 80. 



Medd. fra Nat 



Kjbbenh. 1866, 94, f . 2. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 199. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 220, f. 82. — Gray, Syn. Fl. 
N Am. ii. pt. i. 71. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 106. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 334. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 486. 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iii. 318. — Nou/- Halesia stenocarpa, Koch, Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanzenk. 



veau Duhamely v. 143 (excl. syn. Michaux), t. 43. 
Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 449. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 82. 
Bot. Mag. xxxiii. t. 910. — Elliott, Sk. i. 507. — Hayne, 
Dendr. Fl. 67. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 37, t. 220. 



i. 190 (1858) ; Dendr. ii. 200. 
Mohria Carolina, Britton, Garden and Forest, vi. 434 

(1893). 
Carlomohria Carolina, Greene, Erythea, i. 246 (1893). 



A tree, occasionally eighty or ninety feet in height, with a tall straight trunk sometimes three feet 
in diameter, and short stout branches which form a narrow head ; or usually much smaller and often a 
shrub with many stout wide-spreading stems. The bark of the trimk is half an inch thick, bright red- 
brown and broadly ridged, the surface of the rounded ridges separating into thin papery scales. The 



branchlets, when they first appear 



coated with thick pale tomentum, which 



disappears, and 



during their first summer they are light reddish brown, glabrous or pubescent, and often covered with a 
glaucous bloom ; during their first winter they are lustrous, reddish brown or orange-color, and marked 
by the large obcordate leaf-scars. In the second year the thin bark grows darker, sometimes separates 
in thread-like scales, and begins to display the pale shallow longitudinal fissures which mark the older 
branches and young trunks. The winter-buds are an eighth of an inch long, and obtuse, with thick 
broadly ovate dark red scales rounded on the back and covered, especially at the base and above 
the middle, with pale hairs ; those of the inner rows lengthen with the branchlets, and when fully 
grown are strap-shaped, rounded at the apex, light bright yellow, and sometimes half an inch long. 
The leaves are oval or ovate-oblong, gradually or rather abruptly contracted into long points acute or 
rounded at the apex, wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, and finely serrate with remote callous teeth j 
when they unfold they are ciliate on the margins, coated on the lower surface and on the petioles with 



dense pale tomentum, and bronze-red, glabrous or pilose on the upper surface 



maturity they 



four to six inches long, two to three inches wide, thin and firm, light bright green and puberul 



above, paler and more or 
veins which are arcuate i 



pubescent below, especially along the slender midribs and the primary 



the margins and 



ected by remote reticulated veinlets 



They 



are 



borne on stout petioles two thirds of an inch long, and, having turned Hght yellow late in the autumn, 
fall toward the beginning of winter. The flowers, which appear when the leaves are about one third 
grown, from the end of March at the south to the end of May at the north or on high elevations above 



22 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



STYRACEiE. 



the level of 



ocean 



produced 



m 



ded fascicles or short few-flowered racemes 



slender 



drooping pedicels an inch or two long and developed from the axils of obovate yellow-green caducous 
bracts rounded or acute at the apex^ gradually narrowed at the base^ half to two thirds of an inch long, 
and a quarter of an inch broad. The flower-buds are ovate and obtuse. When fully expanded the 
flowers are nearly an inch long, with a slightly lobed corolla narrowed into a short tube at the base and 



bronzy red before anthesis 



stamens, and a four-celled ovary. The fruit, which ripens 



late 



the autumn 



d remains 



the branches until during the winter 



winged, an inch and a half to two inches long, and an inch broad j the 
obscurely ridged, and contracted into a short or sometimes elongated stipe. 



IHpsoidal, equally four 
ne is broadly obovate 



Mohrodendron Carolinum ranges from the mountains of West Virginia to southern Illinois, and 



southward to middle Florida 



Louisiana and 



tral Alabama and Mississipp 



d through Arkansas to western 



Texas. It inhabits rich wooded slopes and the banks of streams, and 



most 



ab 



un 



dant 



the elevated Appalach 



regio 



n 



g 



to its largest size in the forests of Oaks 



Hickories, Maples, Black Birches, Ashes, Buckeyes, Magnolias, and Cherry 



which clothe the 



western slopes of the high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, where it sends up tall straight 
trunks often free from branches for fifty or sixty feet above the ground. 

The wood of Mohrodendron Carolinum is light, soft, and close-grained, with many thin meduUary 
rays; it is Hght brown, with thick lighter colored sap wood composed of fifty or sixty layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5628, a cubic foot weighing 35.07 
pounds. 



The earliest description of Mohrodendron Carolinum was published by Mark Catesby 



the 



Natural History of Carolina in 1731.^ Introduced into gardens a few years later,^ it is valued and 

often planted for the beauty of its abundant flowers, which every year cover the branches with wreaths 
of drooping snow-white bells 

Mohrodendron Carolinum is hardy in the United States as far north as eastern Massachusetts, 



3 



where, however, it rarely loses its shrubby habit, and in central and northern Europe. 



4 



1 Frutexy Padi foliis non serratis, floribus monopetalis albis, cam- tetraptera Meehani^ Garden and Forest^ v. 534, f. 91 ; 611), which 



pani-formibuSy fructu crasso tetragonoy i. 64, t. 64. 



originated a few years ago in the nursery of Thomas Meehan & 



2 Aiton, HorU Kew. ii. 125. — Loudon, Arb. Brit, ii. 1190, f. 1012, Sons of Germantown, Pennsylvania, is distinguished by small flowers 



t. 196, 197. 



Mohrodendron 



Rattle Box. Calico Wood 



Mohrodendron Carolinum (Halesia 



with short pedicels and cup-shaped corollas, and by thick rugose 
leaves conspicuously glandular - serrate on yoimg and vigorous 
plants. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLVn. Mohrodendron Carolinum. 



1- A flowering branch, natural size. 



5. Side and front views of a stamen, enlarged. 



2. A flowering branch before the opening of the flowers, nat- 6. A flower, the corolla and stamens removed, enlarged 



ural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A corolla laid open, slightly enlarged 



7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCLVIII. Mohrodendron Carolinum. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 4. A nutlet, enlarged. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit with one seed developed, natural 5. A seed, enlarged. 



size. 



fruit with 



6- Vertical section of a seed, enlarged 
7. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLVII 



f 





5 




8 



\ 





C.H.FcucoTL, del. 



ZdvendaZ, so. 



MOHRODENDRON CAROLINUM, Bntt 



A.Iiiocrezuz>, direa> 



t 



Iwp. J. Tccrieur ^ P cLTis , 



Silva of '^ North America. 



Ta-b. CCLVIII. 




C.E.Faaurrh del. 



MOHRODENDRON CAROLHSTUM. Britt. 



JRmehj 



sc. 



^.Eiocreu^ direa:^] 



Imp. R. Taneur^ Far is. 



STYRACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



MOHRODENDRON DIPTERUM. 



Snowdrop Tree. Silver Bell Tree. 



Corolla divided 



rly to the base ; ovary 



Uy 2-celled. Fruit 2-winged 



Leaves ovate or sometimes slightly obovate 



Mohrodendron dipterum, Britton, Garden and Forest, 
vi. 463 (1893). 

Halesia diptera, Ellis, Phil. Trans. U. 932, t. 22, f. B 

(1761). — Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 636. — Marshall, ArbusL 
Am. 57. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 66. — Willdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 138 ; Spec. ii. 849 ; ^num. 496. — Cavanilles, 



Syst. iv. 7. 



Hist 



A. de Candolle, 
Payer, Organ. 



Prodr. viii. 270. — Miers 

Compt. 537, t. 126, f. 20-28. — Chapman, Fl 271. 

Koch, Dendr. ii. 201. 



220. 



Diss. vi. 338, t. 187. — Michai 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 4. — Nouveaii 



Pursh, 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 
Gray, Syn, Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i. 71. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N. Am. lO^A Census U. S. ix. 105. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 486. 
lesia reticulata, Bucklev, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, 444 



Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 450. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 83. — Elliott, Mohria diptera, Britton, Garden and Forest, vi. 434 



Sk. 



1. 



508. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 66. — Loddiges, Bot. 



(1893). 



Cah. xii. t. 1172. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 84. — Don, Gen. Carlomohria diptera, Greene, Erythea^ i. 246 (1893). 



A tree, rarely thirty feet in heightj with a short trunk occasionally eight or ten inches in diameter, 
and horizontal branches which form a low broad head ; ^ or more often a shrub sending up from the 
ground numerous stout spreading stems. The bark of the trunk, which varies from a third to half an 
inch in thickness, is brown tinged with red, and divided by irregular longitudinal often broad fissures, 
the surface exfoliating into small thin appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are Hght 
green and more or less coated with pale pubescence, which generally disappears during the summer ; in 
their first winter they are usually glabrous, orange-color or reddish brown, lustrous and marked with 
the large elevated obcordate leaf -scars ; in their second year the bark becomes dark red-brown, often 
separating into thread-like scales, and during the following season begins to divide into irregular pale 
longitudinal fissures. The winter-buds are axillary, a sixteenth of an inch long, ovate, and obtuse, 
with broadly ovate acute light red puberulous scales ; at maturity those of the inner ranks are strap- 
shaped, scarious, and a quarter of an inch long. The end of the branch dies before a terminal bud is 
formed and remains during the winter as a dark withered stub at the side of the upper axiUary bud 
which the following spring prolongs the branch. The leaves are ovate, sometimes slightly obovate, 
acuminate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, and remotely serrate with minute callous teeth ; when 
they unfold they are coated with pale tomentum on the lower surface, and are puberulous on the 
upper surface ; at maturity they are thin, light green, glabrous above except along the narrow midribs, 
pubescent below, four to five inches long and an inch and a haH to three inches wide, with conspic- 
uous pale arcuate veins, reticulated veinlets, and stout petioles two thirds of an inch in length. The 
flowers, which open from the middle of March to the end of April, are produced in fascicles or short 
racemes, and are borne on slender pedicels an inch and a half or two inches long, and developed in the 
axils of obovate or acute puberulous caducous bracts often a quarter of an inch long. The calyx is 
inversely pyramidal, with minute triangular teeth. The corolla is nearly an inch long, puberulous on the 
outer surface, and divided nearly to the base into sHghtly obovate spreading divisions about as long as 
the stamens, which are usually eight, although they vary in number from eight to sixteen ; the filaments 
are covered with pale hairs, and are sometimes free from the corolla. The ovary is usually two, rarely 
four-celled, and, like the exserted stigma, is coated with pale tomentum. The fruit is oblong, com- 
pressed, an inch and a half to two inches long and often nearly an inch wide, with two broad wings, 

1 W. Bartram, Travels, 410. 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. styeace^. 



and frequently with two or sometimes three narrow supplementary wings between them ; the stone is 
narrowly obovate, conspicuously sulcate, with about eight dark ridges, and is contracted into a slender 
stipe sometimes an inch in length. 

MoliTodendvon dipterum inhabits low wet woods on the borders of swamps in the coast region of 
the south Atlantic and Gulf states from South Carolina to northern Florida and eastern Texas, and west 
of the Mississippi River ranges northward through Louisiana to central Arkansas. 

The wood of Mohrodendron d'qyterum is light, soft, strong, and very close-grained, with many 
thin medullary rays. It is light brown, with thick hghter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.5705, a cubic foot weighing 35.55 pounds. 

Molirodeiidron diiJterum was introduced into English gardens in 1758 ^ by Mr. John EUis,^ to 
whom it had been sent by Dr. Alexander Garden ^ of South Carolina. 

In early spring the graceful pure white flowers which cover the branches of the southern Silver 
Bell Tree standing by the dark waters of some impenetrable swamp in the midst of a gloomy forest of 
Pines, bring to the mournful landscape light and cheerfulness which are the peculiar charms of this 
little tree. In the southern United States Mohrodendron dipterum is sometimes found in gardens, in 
which its beautiful flowers, its graceful habit, and freedom from disease make it a desirable inhabitant. 
It is hardy, and occasionally cultivated as far north as eastern Pennsylvania,* and in central Europe. 



1 Alton, HorL Kew. ed. 2, iii. 143. — Loudon, Arb. BriL ii. 1191, 1853 had attained ct height of fifteen feet and a trunk diameter of 

three inches. (See Meehan, American Handbook of Ornamental 
Trees f 130.) In Pennsylvania Mohrodendron dipterum flowers at 
the end of May, or about three weeks later than Mohrodendron 



t 1014, 

2 See i. 40. 

3 See i. 40. 



* A plant in Bartram's garden in Philadelphia, now dead, in Carolinum. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLIX. Mohrodendron dipterum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

3. An ovary cut transversely, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



fruit with 



natural 



6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a nutlet without the stipe, enlarged 

8. An embryo, much magnified. 

9. A winter branchlet. natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



TalD. CCLIX 






SO. 



MOHRODENDRON DIPTERUM, Britt 





t 



JhTp. l/. Taneicr^ Paris . 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



FRAXINUS. 



Flowers regular, dioecious or polygamous, rarely perfect ; calyx 4-lobed, or ; 
corolla 2 to 6-parted, the divisions induplicate or valvate in aestivation, or ; stamens 
usually 2 ; disk ; ovary superior, 2 or rarely 3 or 4-celled ; ovules usually 2 in each 
cell, suspended. Fruit a 1 or rarely 2 or 3-seeded and winged samara. Leaves 
unequally pinnate or rarely reduced to a single leaflet, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 

Fraxinus, Linnaeus, Gen. 318 (1737). — Adanson, i^'am. PL Mannaphorus, Rafinesque, Am. Monthl. Mag. and Grit. 



ii. 445. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 105. — Endlicher, Gen. 

Meisner. Gen. 256. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. 



Rev. ii. 175 (1818). 



573. 
ii. 676. 

Pflanzenfc 



Hist 



Engler & Prantl, 



New Fl. iii. 93 (1836) 
e. New Fl. iii. 93 n83 



Ornus, Necker, Elem. Bot. ii. 375 (1790). 



Aplilia, Rafinesque, New Fl. 
Samarpses, Rafinesque, New 



Glabrous or pubescent trees or shrubs, with colorless watery juices, hght tough wood, thick 
furrowed or rarely thin and scaly bark, usually ash-colored branchlets with thick pith, leaf-buds with 
few thick accrescent scales marking in falling the base of the branches with ring-like persistent scars, 
and fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, petiolate, unequally pinnate or rarely reduced to a single leaflet, 
destitute of stipules ; leaflets conduplicate in vernation, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, usually 
serrate, petiolulate or sessile. Flowers produced in early spring in open or compact slender-branched 
panicles terminal on leafy shoots of the year, or developed from the axils of new leaves, or from 
separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year or at the base of young branchlets and covered 
with two ovate scales.^ Bracts obovate, linear or lanceolate, caducous. Pedicels slender, elongated, 
ebracteolate. Calyx campanulate, four-lobed, deciduous or persistent under the fruit, or wanting. 
Corolla composed of two or four or rarely of five or six ^ petals free or united in pairs at the base, or 
wanting. Stamens usually two or sometimes three or four, attached to the base of the petals or 
hypogynous ; rudimentary or wanting in unisexual pistillate flowers ; filaments terete, abbreviated or 
elongated j anthers ovate or linear-oblong, apiculate or muticous, introrse, attached on the back near 
the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally by lateral slits. Ovary superior, two or rarely 
three-celled, contracted into a short or elongated style crowned with a two-lobed stigma ; rudimentary 
or wanting in unisexual staminate flowers 3 ovules two in each cell, suspended in pairs from its inner 
angle, anatropous ; raphe dorsal, micropyle superior. Fruit samaroid, lanceolate or oblong-spatulate, 
indehiscent, the body terete or shghtly flattened contrary to the septum, with a dry and woody pericarp 
produced into an elongated terminal and more or less decurrent wing, usually one-celled by abortion. 



American 



Fraxinastriini 



inflorescence 



the by four scales. The lower bracts usually resemble the bud-scales 

)y a in color and texture, although they are larger, usually narrow, 

pair of opposite broadly ovate scales, the lower branches being often obovate, and generally wither before falling. The bracts at 

developed from their axils. The central division of the panicle is the base of the lateral flowers of the three-flowered ultimate divi- 

,cts, sions of the panicle are narrowly obovate or lanceolate, and some- 

up times laciniately cut. 

tral 2 In Fraxinus Mariesii, Hooker f. (Bot. Mag, cix. t. 6678 [1883]), 

not the corolla is usually divided into five or six petals. 



with two branches which sprinsr from the axils 



inflorescence 



with 



Where 



branches 



surrounded 



26 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



OLEACE^. 



or sometimes two or three-celled and winged. Seed solitary by abortion in each cell^ oblong, compressed, 
suspended, filling the cavity of the fruit ; testa thin, chestnut-brown. Embryo erect in copious fleshy 
albumen j cotyledons flat ; radicle terete, abbreviated, superior, turned towards the minute hilum.^ 

Fraxinus is widely distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and within the 
tropics occurs on the island of Cuba.^ Of the thirty species which are now distinguished, nearly one 
half inhabit North America.^ The genus is well represented in eastern Asia,^ where ten or twelve 
species are recognized ; it appears on the Himalayas,^ in central Asia,^ the Orient,'^ Europe,^ and 
northern Africa.^ Except in the extreme north, Fraxinus is found in all parts of North America, the 
largest number of species occurring in the eastern part of the continent, where they are often important 
elements of the forest.^^ The type is an ancient one, and during the tertiary epoch Fraxinus inhabited 
the Arctic Circle, from which it gradually spread southward/^ 

Fraxinus produces tough straight-grained valuable wood, and several of the North American 
species, the European and Asiatic Fraxinus excelsior ^"^ and the Manchurian and Japanese Fraxinus 
Mandshurica^'^ are large and important timber-trees. The saccharine exudation from the trunk and 
leaves of Fraxinus OrnuSy^^ of southern Europe and Asia Minor, furnishes the manna ^^ of commerce, 
which is used in medicine as a gentle laxative ; and from the branches of Fraxinus Chinensis ^^ and of 
Fraxinus rhynchophylla ^^ the Chinese white wax is obtained.^^ Several species of Fraxinus are planted 



genus Fraxinus 



Nouveau Duhamely iv. 61, 1. 15. — De Candolle, /. c. 274. — Watson, 



Ornus. Panicles terminal on leafy shoots or axillary on Dendr. Brit, ii. 107, 1. 107. — Koch, L c. 235. — Wenzig, /. c, 168 
branches of the year or of the previous year. Flowers polygamous Koehne, I, c, 508. 



Fraxinus roiundifoUa^ Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. i. 286 (1771). 
Lamarck, Diet, ii. 646. — Willdenow, BerL Baumz, 116, t. 6, f , 
1. — Vahl, Enum. i. 49. — De Candolle, L c. — Koch, L c. 237. 
Koehne, L c. 508. 

Fraxinus Jloriferay Scopoli, Fl. Cam, ed. 2, ii. 282 (1772). 

Ornus Europcea, Persoon, Syn. i. 9 (1805). — Hayne, L c. t. 11. 

Ornus rotundifoliay Persoon, L c. ii. 605 (1807). — Hayne, L c. 
t. 12. 

^^ The medical manna of commerce is now produced in Sicily 

chet, PL David, i. 203. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn, Soc. from trees planted for the purpose, the principal plantations being 

xxvi. 84. established near the shores of the Gulf of Castellamare and in the 



or perfect, with two or four or rarely with five or six petals. 

Fraxinastrum. Panicles from separate buds developed in the 
axils of leaves of the previous year, or from the leafless base of 
shoots of the year. Flowers dicecious, polygamous, or rarely per- 
fect, apetalous. 

2 Grisebach, Cat, PI, Cub, 170. 

8 Gray, Syn, Fl, N. Am, ii. pt. i. 73. — Hemsley, Bot, Biol, Am, 



Cent, ii. 304. 



454 



Fran- 



district of Cefalii. The trees, which are planted in rows, stand 
about seven feet apart, and are carefully cultivated and manured. 

When the trunk has attained a diameter of thrp.p inphps flip Imp- 



fi C. B. Clarke, Hooker f. Fl. Brit, Ind. iii. 605. 
® Kegel, Act, Hort, Petrop, viii. 685, t. 12. 
■^ Boissier, Fl. Orient, iv. 39. 
^ Nyman, Conspect. Fl, Europ. 495. 

^ Cosson & Durieu, Bull, Soc. Bot, France^ ii. 367. twelve years, when the tree is usually cut down and replaced by a 

^** Authors have unnecessarily multiplied the number of North shoot from the old roots. Dry weather is essential for the flow of 



ma 



manna, and the most favorable months for its production are July 
and August. It is obtained by making transverse incisions in the 
bark, beginning at the bottom of the tree, the juice which flows 
from the wounds in the bark being collected on the surface or on 
foliage of cultivated trees, cannot be safely referred to our species ; sticks and straws inserted in the cuts, or on pieces of tile. After 
Fraxinus alba, F, cinerea, F, elliptica, F, fusca, F. mixta, F. nigra, it is removed from the trees the manna is allowed to dry and 
F. ovata, F, pannosa, F. pulverulenta, F. Richardi, F. rubicunda, and harden before it is packed. (See Hooker Jour, Bot, i. 130. — Stett- 



American species of Fraxinus, especially Bosc in France (Mem. 
Inst, 1808) and Rafinesque in the United States (Alsograph. Am.), 
and many of their species cannot be distinguished by the descrip- 
tions. The following species of Bosc, mostly founded upon the 



ruf<^' ner, Archiv. a 

1^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 231, f. 29. — Zit- burgh, x. 132. 



tel, Handb, Palmontolog. ii. 760, f. 389, 390. 

12 Linnseus, Spec, 1057 (1753), — Fl, Dan, vi. t. 969. 
Arzn, xiii. t. 10. — De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 276. — Boissier, I. c. 



194. — Cleghorn, Trans. Bot, Soc, Edin- 
& Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 366.) 



16 Roxburgh, Fl, Ind. i. 150 (1820). — De Candolle, I c. 277. 



Hayne, 



XXI 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 240. — Wenzig 



C. B. Clarke, 



L c. 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr, 513. 



Mat 



(1857). 

Fl, Uss,). 



Mem 



,xxm 



XX 



Franchet & Sava- 



323. — Forbes & Hemsley, Z. c. 85. 
" Hance, /. c. vii. 164 (1869) ; xiii. 134. — Franchet, I. c. 203, t. 
17; Mem, Soc, Set. Nat. Cherbourg, xxiv. 236. — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, vi. 484, f . 70. 

Fraxinus Chinensis var. rhynchophylla^ Forbes & Hemsley, l. c. 
86 (1889). 

^^ The Chinese white wax is principally produced in the province 



tier, I, c, ii. 435. — Wenzi 



Coccus 



Forbes & Hemsley, I c, 86. Westwood 



14 Linn^us, Spec. I, c, (1753). — Sibthorp, Fl Grcec, i. 4, t. 4. 



branches of Ash-trees. The insects are carefully bred, in districts 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



27 



to decorate parks and gardens, especially Fraxinus Americana in the United States, Fraxinus excel- 
sior, with its varieties,^ and Fraxinus Ornus in Europe, and Fraxinus florihunda ^ in northern India. 

Numerous insects ^ prey upon Fraxinus in North America, where many of the species are attacked 
by fungal diseases.* 

can be easily raised from seeds, which sometimes do not germinate until 



The species of Fraxinus can 
the second year -, and the varieties can be multiplied by grafting. Their fibrous roots, which usually 
remain near the surface of the ground, make the operation of transplanting Ash-trees easy and safe. 

Fraxinus, the classical name of the Ash-tree, was adopted by Linnaeus as the name of the genus. 



at some distance from those iu which the wax is produced, on trees 



There are few foliage destroyers found on Ash-trees in the 



of Ligustrum lucidum, Aiton, planted for the purpose ; and during United States which do not also injure the leaves of other trees, 
the naonth of April the cocoons are carried by trains of porters, Among the lepidopterous larvse which live upon the Ashes several 
who travel only at night that the heat of the sun may not cause the species of large Sphingidce and Bomhyddoe are conspicuous. Saw- 



cocoons to hatch prematurely. Arrived 



fly larvae, like those of Monodaphnus bardus, Say, and others, are 



cocoons are placed on the young shoots of the Ash-trees planted somewhat injurious to Ash-trees, and a large beetle, Dynastes Tityus, 

along the borders of canals and irrigating ditches and kept down Linnaeus, has been reported as attacking these trees in the southern 

by constant cutting to the height of six or seven feet. At the end states (Packard, bth Rep. U. S, Entomolog. Comm. 1890, 551). 

of a few days the insects begin to appear and spread over the The fruit is sometimes infested by little larvse belonging to the 

branches, which are gradually covered with a white waxy sub- Curculionidce^ and scale-insects are sometimes troublesome. An 

stance. Toward the end of August the incrusted branches are aphis, Pemphigus fraxinifolii, Thomas, distorts the leaves ; and gall 

cut o£E and boiled in water, when the wax rises to the surface ; it mites like Phytoptus Fraxmi, Garman, make minute galls on the 

is then melted, poured into deep pans, and allowed to harden, leaves or occasionally distort them as well as the twigs and flowers. 



when it is ready for shipment. 



The conspicuous dark distorted growths which often remain on the 



Chinese white wax is chiefly used to cover candles made of vege- trees in winter are panicles injured probably by mites (Garman, 
table or animal tallow, to coat pills and boluses in order to preserve V2th Rep. Illinois State Entomologist, 1882, 136). 



them, and to give a glossy surface to paper, cotton cloth, the soles 



^ Many parasitic fungi attack the different species of Fraxinus 



of shoes, and other articles. (See ISlsixtiniy Novus Atlas Sinensis, 76, in the United States. Among them several are abundant and 

145. — Chanseaume, ifcf moire sur la cire (Tarhrey envoy ee de la pro~ striking in appearance even to the naked eye. Of these the 

vince de Hou-quang, Lettres ^dijiantes et Curieuses, ed. Toulouse, Ash-leaf Rust, JEcidium Fraxini, Schweinitz, is perhaps the most 

xxiii. 118. — Julien, Comptes Rendus, x. 618 ; Industries de VEmpire conspicuous. It appears in early summer on the leaves and some- 

CAinofs, 109. — Hanbury, Pharmaceutical Journal, xii. 476, f. ; Notes times on the young twigs of Fraxinus Americana, Fraxinus nigra, 

on Chinese Mat. Med. 40, f . 17. — Rathouis, iStude sur le Coccus and other species ; and although it is peculiar to America, and has 

Pe-la. — Hosie, Three Years in Western China, 189. — Kew Bulletin not been observed in Europe, it attacks the European species when 



of Miscellaneous Information, April and May, 1893, 84.) 

^ Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1214. — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrb. iv. 177. 
Wesmael, Bull. Bot. Soc. Belg. xxx. 91. 



cultivated in this country. This fungus appears most frequently 
on the under side of the leaves in the form of numerous small tubes 
or cylinders of an orange-red color, which become white after the 



2 Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. i. 150 (1820). — Wallich, PL As. Rar. iii. discharge of the spores. In some years the Ash-leaf Rust pro- 
47, t. 277. — De CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 275. — Brandis, Forest FL duces a widespread epidemic, while in others it is extremely 
Brit. Ind. 302, t. 37. — Wenzig, L c. 173. — C. B. Clarke, Hooker /. scarce. A remarkable epidemic occurred in 1885, when this fungus 

appeared in immense quantities all over the United States, attack- 



FL Brit. Ind. iii. 605. 



Ornus Jloribunda, Dietrich, Spec. i. 249 (1831). — Loudon, L c. ing the trees in large cities as well as those growing spontaneously 



653, f. 1270. 

Ornus urophylla, Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 57 (1837). 
Fraxinus urophylla, De CandoUe, L c. (1844), 



in the forest. Since 1885, although occasionally mild epidemics 
have appeared, the Ash-leaf Rust has not been common. 

Sphceronema Spina, Berkeley & Ravenel, often attacks our native 
^ More than a hundred species of insects are recorded as attack- species, especially Fraxinus Americana. It is found on the smaller 
ing Fraxinus in America and Europe, although few of them appear branches, where it appears in the form of sharp projecting black 
peculiar to the genus. In America the most destructive of the spines about an eighth of an inch in length. A number of species 
wood borers are Podosesia SyringcB, Harris, Carmenta Fraxini, H. belonging to the genera Septoria, Sphseropsis, Cylindrosporium, 
Edwards, and Neoclytus Caprea, Say. The larva of a large beetle, Glceosporium, etc., produce spots on the leaves of our Ash-trees, 
Centrodera decolorata, Harris, bores into the trunks of living trees, some of them causing considerable injury ; and a number of Pyre- 
although probably only when they have been previously injured. nomycetes attack the bark. In spite of the large number of para- 
Fatua denudata, Harris, is described as a root borer on yoimg trees sites which attack the Ash in North America, it is, so far as diseases 
growing in swampy ground. Bark beetles of the genus Hylesinus caused by fungi are concerned, a comparatively healthy tree, 
attack the dead wood. 



28 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^ 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 



Ornus, Flowers with a 2 to 4-parted corolla, polygamous or often perfect ; panicles loose, 
terminal or axillary on leafy branches of the year, or from the axils of leaves of the 
previous year- 
Divisions of the coroUa, 4 ; leaflets, 3 to 7 ; lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, gradually 

narrowed into cuspidate tips, sharply serrate or entire 1. F. cusfidata. 

Divisions of the corolla, 2 ; leaflets, 3 to 9, oval or oblong, obtuse or acute, 

coarsely serrate above the middle 2. F. dipetala. 

Leaflets 3 to 7, usually 5 or 7, narrowly spatulate to oblong-obovate, obtuse; 

petioles wing-margined 3. F, Greggii. 

Fraxinastrum. Flowers apetalous, dioecious, polygamous, or rarely perfect ; panicles 
compact, developed from separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year. 
Flowers perfect. 

Leaflets 5 to 9, usually 7, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, acute, coarsely serrate; 

branchlets quadrangular 4- F. quadrangulata. 

Flowers polygamous. 

Leaflets 7 to 11, oblong-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, the lateral sessile .... 5. F. nigra. 

Leaflets mostly reduced to a simple leaflet or rarely 2 or 3-foliolate 6. F. Anomala. 

Flowers dioecious ; calyx of the staminate flower minute or wanting ; calyx of the pistil- 
late flower persistent. 
Anthers linear-oblong. 

Leaflets 3 to 9, lanceolate to oval, entire or serrate, the lateral short-petiolulate or 

subsessile 7. F. veltjtina. 

Leaflets 5 to 9, usually 7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, mostly acute, pale on the 

lower surface 8. F. Americajsta. 

Leaflets usually 5, ovate to broadly oval, rounded or slightly acute at the apex, 

pale on the lower surface 9. F. Texensis. 

Leaflets, 7 to 9, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, mostly coarsely serrate, clothed on the 

lower surface with velvety pubescence or sometimes, in var. lanceolata^ glabrous 10. F. Pennstlvanica. 
Leaflets 3 to 5, oblong-lanceolate, acute or rounded at the apex, entire or coarsely 

serrate 11. F. Berlandieriana. 

Leaflets 5 to 7, ovate or oblong, acute, sharply serrate or entire, glabrous or 

pubescent 12. F. Caroltniana. 



Anthers short-oblong. 

Leaflets 5 to 7, oblong-lanceolate to oval, acute, usually villous-pubescent while 
young 



13. F. Oregona. 



OLEACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



FRAXINUS GUSPIDATA. 



Ash. 



Panicles usually terminal on short leafy lateral branches of the year. Flowers 
perfect ; corolla deeply 4-parted. Leaflets 3 to 7, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, long- 
pointed, sharply serrate or entire. 



Fraxinus cuspidata, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 166 gle, Garden and Forest, i. 142. — Sargent, Garden and 

(1859). — Gray, Syn. Fl. N.Am. ii. pt. i. 74. — Hemsley, Forest, ii. 447. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 

Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 304. — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 259 {Man. PI. W. Texas). — Wesmael, Bull. Bot. Soc. 

171. — Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 510. — Prin- Belg. xxx. 80. 



A tree, rarely twenty feet in height, with a short trunk six to eight inches in diameter ; or more 
often a shrub sending up from the ground a number of slender spreading stems six or eight feet tall. 
The branches are slender and terete, and when they first appear are light red-brown, soon becoming 
darker and marked with scattered pale lenticels ; in their second year they are ashy gray and rough- 
ened by the dark elevated lunate leaf-scars. The winter-buds are acute and nearly half an inch long, 

with dark reddish brown glutinous scales. The leaves are five to seven inches long, with slender pale 
petioles sometimes sHghtly wing-margined, and three to seven leaflets ; these are lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, gradually narrowed at the apex into long cuspidate tips, wedge-shaped at the base and coarsely 
and remotely serrate above the middle with recurved teeth, or entire ; when they unfold they are 
slightly puberulous on the lower surface, and at maturity they are thin, dark green above, paler and 
covered with minute black dots below, an inch and a half to two inches long and a quarter of an inch to 
nearly an inch wide, with pale midribs and obscure veins, and are sessile or borne on slender petiolules 
which are sometimes nearly an inch in length. The flowers, which are extremely fragrant, appear in 
April and are produced in open glabrous panicles three or four inches long and broad, terminating 
lateral leafy branchlets developed from the axils of leaves of the previous year. The calyx is cup- 
shaped, and a sixteenth of an inch long, with acute apiculate teeth. The corolla is two thhds of an 
inch long, thin and white, and divided to below the middle into four linear-oblong lobes pointed at the 
apex and much longer than the nearly sessile oblong anthers. The ovary is two-celled and crowned 
with a thick two-lobed nearly sessile stigma. The fruit is spatulate-oblong or obovate-oblong, and an 
inch long ; the body is flat and nerveless, the margined edges gradually broadening upward into the 
shorter wing, which is rounded or often slightly emarginate at the apex and a quarter of an inch wide.^ 

Fraxinus cuspidata is distributed from the great canon of the Rio Grande in southwestern Texas, 
through southern New Mexico to the Grand Canon of the Colorado River in Arizona,^ and ranges 
southward to the mountain slopes of Cohahuila and Nuevo Leon and to the canons of the Santa Eulalia 
Mountains in Chihuahua. An inhabitant of rocky slopes and dry ridges, Fraxinus cuspidata grows as 
a shrub within the territory of the United States, and only attains the size and habit of a tree on the 

mountains of Chihuahua. 

Fraxinus cusjndata was discovered in June, 1851, at Eagle Spring, in western Texas by Mr. 

Charles Wright.^ Its abundant clusters of fragrant white flowers, the beauty of its foliage and its 
graceful habit, make this little tree a desirable ornamental plant, and it is occasionally seen in the 



and gardens of the cities of Nuevo Leon 



unable to examine the bark and 



iniDerfectlv known 



Arizona in June, 1892, by Professor J. W 
of Arizona. 



2 Fraxinus cuspidata was discovered in the Grand Canon of the » See i. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLX. Fraxhstus cuspidata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the corolla displayed, enlarged 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, natural size. 
10. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCLX. 




C.E,Fa$corb del. 



Taulet so. 



FRAXmUS CUSPIDATA, Torr, 



A.Iiiocreua> 




t 



Imp. Taneur^ Fans, 



OLEACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



FRAXINUS DIPETALA. 



Fringe-flowered Ash. 



Panicles clustered, often on short lateral branches, in the axils of leayes of the 
previous year. Flowers mostly perfect, corolla 2-parted to the base. Leaflets 3 to 
oval or oblong, obtuse or acute, coarsely serrate above the middle. 




Fraxinus dipetala, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey^ Deutsche Dendr. 509. — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 

362, t. 87 (1840). — Gray, Brewer & Watson BoL Cal. Herb. iv. 148 (Bot Death Valley Exped.). 

i. 472 ; Syn. FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 73. — Hemsley, Bot. Ornus dipetala, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 66, t. 101 (1849). 

Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 305. — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrb. iv. 173. — Chionanthus fraxinifolia, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. v. 
Wesmael, Bull. Sac. Bot. Belg. xxx. 79. — Koehne, 18 (1873). 



A shrub^ with many spreading stems ten or twelve feet tall j or possibly under favorable conditions 
a small tree. The branchlets are stout and terete or more or less four-angled ; when they first appear 
they are dark green and marked with pale lenticels^ and in their second year become rather bright red- 
brown or gray tinged with red. The leaves are two to sik inches long, with stout petioles and three to 
nine leaflets ; these are oval or oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, wedge-shaped at the base, and 
coarsely serrate above the middle with slightly incurved teeth ; they are puberulous when they unfold 
and at maturity are thick and firm, dark green on the upper surface, rather paler on the lower, half an 
inch to two inches long, a quarter of an inch to three quarters of an inch wide, and long-petiolulate or 
sometimes nearly sessile. The flowers are borne on slender puberulous pedicels which vary from a 
quarter to half an inch in length and are produced in narrow panicles two or three inches long, clustered 
in the axils of leaves of the previous year, and often on short lateral spur-hke branches naked or 
furnished with one or two leaves. The caljrx is puberulous on the outer surface, cup-shaped, a sixteenth 
of an inch long, and slightly four-toothed, or occasionally almost entire. The corolla is a third of an 
inch long, thin, creamy white, and divided into two broadly ovate petals rounded at the apex, abruptly 
narrowed at the base into slender claws, and as long as the stamens, which are composed of slender 
filaments and elongated linear anthers. The ovary is ovate and gradually contracted into a style 
slightly lobed at the apex. The fruit is Unear-oblong or spatulate-oblong, with a broad terminal wing 
rounded and apiculate or often emarginate at the apex and about as long as the flat sharp-edged body 
several-nerved on both surfaces.* 

Fraxinus dipetala is a common shrub in the coast region and on the western foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada of California, growing near the banks of streams on dry rocky slopes and ranging 
southward into Lower California.^ 

Fraxinus dipetala appears to have been discovered by David Douglas,^ who visited California in 
1830, although it was not described until several years after his death.^ 



1 The following forms have been distinguished : 



2 T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Cal Acad. ser. 2, ii. 182 (PI Baja 



Var. brackypteraf with short obovate fruit one half to three Cal.}. 
quarters of an inch long, with a wing only half as long as the » See ii. 94. 

body (Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i. 74 (1878). — Wenzig, Bot. ^ I have not examined the bark or wood of this plant, which is 



Jahrb. iv. 174). 



a shrub rather than a tree. But as it is the only American species 



Var. trifoliata, with leaves composed of one to three small coria- which is not known to be arborescent in habit, it is admitted into 
ceous obscurely serrate leaflets and small fruit (Torrey, BoL Mez. The Silva to complete the account of the American Ashes. 
Bound. Surv. 167 (1859)- — Gray, l. c — Wenzig, I. c). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



PiATE CCLXI. Fraxintjs dipetala. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A petal, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower^ the petals removed, enlarged 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXI 







S£>. 



FRAXINUS DIPETALA. Hook et Am 





t 






OLEACE-ffi. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



33 



PRAXINUS GREGGII. 



Ash. 



Panicles axillary on branches of the year or of the previous year. Leaflets 3 to 
7, narrowly spatulate to oblong-obovate, obtuse ; petioles wing-margined. 



Fraxinus Greggii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 63 (1876) ; 
Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i. 74- — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent, ii. 305. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 
sus U. S. ix. 106 ; Garden and Forest, ii. 447, f . 128. 
Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 510. — Pringle, Gar- 



den and Forest^ iv. 338, 362. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 259 {Man. PI. W. Texas). — Wesmael, 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 106. 
Fraxinus Schiedeana, var. parvifolia, Torrey, Bot. Mex. 
Bound. Surv. 168 (1859). 



A tree, rarely twenty to twenty-five feet in 



height, with a trunk eight or ten feet long and 
occasionally eight inches in diameter ; or more often a shrub sending up from a single crown many 
slender erect stems four to twelve feet in length. The bark of the trunk is thin, gray, or Hght brown 
tinged with red, and separates on the surface in large papery scales. The branchlets are slender and 
terete, and are dark green and puberulous when they first appear, soon becoming ashy gray ; they are 
roughened with many minute pale elevated lenticels, and in their second or third years gradually turn 
dark gray or brown. The winter-buds are about an eighth of an inch long, and obtuse, with thick ovate 
light brown pubescent scales rounded on the back. The leaves are an inch and a half to three inches 
long, with winged petioles and three to seven leaflets ; these are narrowly spatulate or oblong-ob ovate, 
and entire or occasionally coarsely serrate above the middle with remote blunt teeth, slender midribs, and 
obscure reticulate veins ; they are thick and coriaceous, dark green on the upper surface, rather paler 
and covered with small black spots on the lower surface, hal£ an inch to an inch long, an eighth to 
a quarter of an inch wide, and nearly sessile. The flowers are unknown. The fruit is oblong-linear or 
obovate, and a half to two thirds of an inch long ; the thin wing is decurrent on the short terete body, 
and is rounded and emarginate at the apex, which is tipped with the elongated persistent conspicuous 
style.^ 

Fraxinus Greggii is scattered along the valley of the Rio Grande in western Texas from the 
mouth of the San Pedro to that of the Pecos River, and ranges southward on the mountains of Nuevo 
Leon, Cohahuila, and Chihuahua. It grows on dry hmestone chffs and ledges, and appears to be most 
common and to attain its greatest size on the Sierra Nevada of Nuevo Leon, where it occasionally 
appears as a small tree. 

The wood of Fraxinus Greggii is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with obscurely marked layers of 
annual growth and numerous thin medullary rays, and is brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7904, a cubic foot weighing 49.26 pounds. 

Fraxinus Greggii was discovered in 1847 in Nuevo Leon by Josiah Gregg,^ the author of The 
Commerce of the Prairies^ whose services to botany are commemorated in the specific name. 



1 On a specimen collected by Mr. C. G. Pringle (No. 3253, 1890) 1842 he contributed a series of letters on the history and condition 
in the state of Cohahuila on September 19, 1890, the wings of the of the Santa Fe trade to the Galveston Advertiser and the Arkansas 



rounded 



and sometimes apiculate at the apex, and Intelligencer ) and in 1844 appeared The Commerce of the Prairies^ 
show no trace of the styles, which are very conspicuous on the full a journal of a Santa Fd trader during eight journeys across the 



grown fruit which I gathered on the moimtains 
Nuevo Leon in April, 1887. 



near Monterey in great western prairies and a residence of nearly nine years in 

northern Mexico. In preparing his notes for this publication he 
Gregg. Broken was assisted by Mr. John Bigelow, who testifies to the purity, 
3, which he after- modesty, and general elevation of Gregg's character, and to his 
wards crossed several times as a trader under the patronage of conscientiousness, which made it impossible for him to state any- 



known 



first 



Philadelphi 



In 



thing which he did not know personally, or to make an overstate- 



34 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



OLEACEiE. 



ment or an understatement. The precise records of his expeditions Greggia, a genus of cruciferous herbs of western Texas and north- 
are therefore valuable, and in The Commerce of the Prairies is found ern Mexico, was dedicated to him by Asa Gray. In 184G Gregg 
the most trustworthy record of the condition of commerce in the accompanied General Wool's division of the United States Army to 
west before the great midcontinental plains were crossed by rail- Chihuahua as guide, and later marched to Saltillo with General 
roads. During his residence in Mexico Mr. Gregg devoted some Butler, He is believed to have died in California in 1860 (Garden 



attention to botany and discovered a number of undescribed plants. 



12) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCLXIL Fraxinus Greggii. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlargedi 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, much magnified, 

5. A leafy branch, natural size. 



Silva of Isforth America. 



Ta"b. CCLXII. 




aE. 





licqTiTie' so. 



FRAXINUS GREGGII, Graj 





t 



Imp. J. Taneur^ PcxtHs 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



35 



FRAXINUS QUADRANGULATA. 



Blue Ash. 



Flowers perfect. Leaflets 5 to 9, usually 7, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, acute 
Tsely serrate. Branchlets quadrangular. 



Praxinus quadrangulata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 255 



(1803). 



1102. 
64. 



Vahl, Enum. i. 50. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 605. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iv. 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 103. — Bosc, Mem. 



95. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census TJ. S. 
ix. 110. — Wenzig, Bot JahrbAv. 185.- — AVatson & Coul- 
ter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 336. — Wesmael, Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Belg. XXX. 114. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 513, f . 90, M. 



Inst. ix. 211. — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 118, Fraxinus tetragona, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 



til. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 671. — Pursh, Ft 



Am. Sept. i. 8. — Roemer & Schidtes, Syst. i. 278. 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 231. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 223. — Sprengel, 



ii. 583 (1811). — Bosc, Nouv. Cours d'Agric. vii. 73. 
Fraxinus quadrangulata, var. nervosa, Loudon, Arb 
Brit. ii. 1235 (1838). 



Syst. 



1. 



96. 



Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 55. — Spach, Hist Fraxinus Americana, var. quadrangulata, D. J. Browne, 



Veg. viii. 296. — De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 278. 



Chap- 



Trees of America, 397 (1846). 



man, FL 370. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 259. — Gray, Syn. FL Fraxinus Americana, var. quadrangulata nervosa. 



N. Am. ii. pt. i. 75. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 164, 



D. J. Browne, Trees of America, 397 (1846). 



f.53. 



Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, v. 63. — Ridgway, Proc. Fraxinus quadrangulata, var. subpubescens, Wesmael, 



U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 69. — Burgess, Bot. Gazette, vii 



BulL Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 114 (1892). 



A slender tree, sometimes 



hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk 



three feet 



in diameter, although generally much smaller and usually not more than sixty or seventy feet tall. The 
bark of the trunk varies from a half to two thirds of an inch in thickness and is irregularly divided 
into large plate-like scales, the light gray surface, which is shghtly tinged with red, separating into thin 
minute scales. The branchlets are stout, four-angled, and more or less four-winged between the nodes, 
and when they first appear are dark orange-color and covered with short rufous pubescence ; in their 
second year they are gray tinged with red, and marked with scattered pale lenticels and with the large 
elevated obcordate leaf -scars in which are a lunate row of fibro-vascular bundle-scars , in their third 
year they are light brown or ashy gray, and gradually become 
quarter of an inch long, with three pairs of scales ; those of the outer row, which are thick, rounded 
on the back, usually obscurely pinnate toward the apex, dark reddish brown and slightly pubescent, or 
often coated with pale tomentum, partly cover the bud ; the scales of the inner rows, which are strap- 
shaped, coated with light brown tomentum and often pinnate, lengthen with the young shoot, and at 
maturity are an inch to an inch and a half in length. 



The terminal bad 



about 



a 



The leaves are eight to twelve inches long, with 



slender petioles glab 



puberulous toward the base, and five 



leaflets ; these are ovate- 



oblono^ to lanceolate, long-pointed, unequally rounded 



dge-shaped at the base, and serrate above 



with incurved teeth ; when they unfold they are coated on the 



rface with thick brown tomen 



turn, and at maturity they are thick and firm, yellow-green and glabrous above, pale and glabrous, or 
sometimes furnished with tufts of pale hairs along the base of the conspicuous midribs below, three to 
five inches long, and an inch to two inches wide, with short broad petiolules grooved on the upper side, 
and eio'ht to twelve pairs of veins arcuate near the margins. Having turned to a pale yellow color, the 



fall early in the autumn. The flowers, which appear as the terminal buds begi 



expand 



borne in loose-branched panicles from small obtuse buds developed in the axils of leaves of the previous 
year and protected by broadly ovate scales keeled on the back, apiculate at the apex, and covered 

secondary branches of the inflorescence 
timate divisions of the inflorescence are 



with thick brown tomentum 



The bracts at the base of the 



are ovate. 



and also covered with tomentum 



The 



36 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. OLEACEiE. 



three or rarely two or four-flowered, the pedicels of the lateral flowers being produced from the axils of 
linear acute caducous pale pink bracts an eighth to a quarter of an inch in length. The flowers are 
borne on slender pedicels and are composed of a calyx which is reduced to an obscure ring, two nearly 
sessile stamens with broad connectives and dark purple oblong obtuse anthers, and an oblong-ovate ovary 
gradually narrowed into a short style divided at the apex into two light purple stigmatic lobes which 
generally mature and wither before the anthers open. The fruit is linear-oblong or cuneate-oblong, 
one to two inches long, and a quarter of an inch to nearly an inch wide, the broad wing, which is 
usually conspicuously emarginate at the apex, surrounding the long flat body faintly many-rayed on 

both faces. 

Fraxinus quadrangidata is distributed from southern Michigan to central Missouri, and southward 
to eastern Tennessee and northern Alabama, and through Iowa and Missouri to northeastern Arkansas. 
Nowhere very common , the Blue Ash usually inhabits rich limestone hills, occasionally descending into 
the fertile bottom-lands of river valleys, and reaching its greatest size in the basin of the lower Wabash 
River in Illinois and on the western slopes of the Big Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. 

The wood of Fraxinus quadrangidata is heavy, hard, close-grained, and rather brittle, with 
numerous obscure medullary rays and bands of three rows of large open ducts marking the layers of 
annual growth. It is light yellow streaked with brown, with thick lighter colored sap wood sometimes 
composed of eighty or ninety layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.71845 a cubic foot weighing 44.77 pounds. It is largely used for flooring and in carriage-building, 
and probably is not often distinguished commercially from that of the other species of the northern and 
middle states. 

A blue dye may be obtained by macerating the inner bark in water. 

The Blue Ash was discovered in 1795 by the French botanist Michaux^ during his journey west 
of the Alleghany Mountains, and by him was introduced into European gardens. The excellent habit 
of this tree, its hardiness, rapidity of growth, and freedom from disease and the attacks of insects make 
it a desirable inhabitant of parks, where, however, it is less commonly cultivated than the White Ash 



the Green Ash 



1 See i. 68. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXIIL Fkaxinus quadrangulata 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistil cut transversely, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North Am 



erica. 



Tab. CCLXIIl 




CE.FaoiOTV del 



KapirLe^ so 



FRAXINUS QUADRANGULATA,MicKx. 



A.Bzocreu^ direj:^ 



Imp . i^ Taneur, Paris 



OLEACE-SE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



37 



FRAXINUS NIGRA. 



Black Ash. 



Flowers polygamous, without calyx. Leaflets 7 to 11, oblong-lanceolate, gradually 
acuminate, the lateral sessile. 



Fraxinus nigra, Marshall, ArhusL Am, 51 (1785). 



Cas- 



tiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti^ ii. 244. — Du Rol, 

Harhk. BauTnz. ed- 2, i. 398. — Koch, Dendr. ii, 257. — 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed- 2, 163. — Sudworth, Rep. 

Sec. Agric. (1892) 326. — ^o^lme^ Deutsche Dendr. 512. 
Fraxinus Novae-Anglise, Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. ed. 1, i. 

290 (not Miller) (1771). — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 

51. 
Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 549 (1786). — 

Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. GeselL Nat. Fr. 

Berlin^ iii. 393. — Borkhausen, Handh. Forst. Bot. i. 



f . Hist Arb. Am. iii. 122, t. 12. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 
8. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. i. 279. — Nuttall, Gen. 



1. 



11. 



231. 



Don^ Gen. Syst. iv. 54. — Spach, Hist. Veg. 
viii. 299. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 50. — De CandoUe, 
Prodr. viii. 278. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 239. 
Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, 381, t. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 
Am. ii. pt. i. 76. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 

Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 180. — Watson & 



69. 



111. 



Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 336. — Hitchcock, Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. v. 507. 
Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 121 ; Spec. iv. 1099 ; Fraxinus Americana, var. sambucifolia, D. J. Browne, 



829. 

Enum. 1059. — Vahl, Emtm. i. 51. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 

605. 



Trees of A'inerica^ 396 (1846). 



Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 211. — Nouveau Duhamel^ Fraxinus nigra, subspec. nigra, Wesmael, Bull. Bot. Belg. 



IV. 



60. 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 103. — Michaux 



XXX. 112 (1892). 



A tree, occasionally eighty to ninety feet in height, with a tall trunk rarely exceeding twenty 
inches in diameter, and slender mostly upright branches which form a narrow head ; or usually much 
smaller. The bark of the trunk, which varies from a third to a half of an inch in thickness, is divided 

gray surface which is slightly tinged with red separating into thin 



into large irregular plates, the 
papery scales. The branches are 



and terete, and 



they first appear 



are dark green and 



slightly puberulous ; they soon become ashy gray or orange-color, and are marked with large pale scat- 
tered lenticels ; during their first winter they grow darker and are roughened by the large suborbicular 



leaf-scars in which appear 



of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The leaf-buds 



broadly ovate, acute, and rather less than a quarter of an inch long, with three pairs of 



those 



of the outer pair are thick and rounded on the back at the base, gradually narrowed and acute at the 
apex, dark brown or almost black and slightly puberulous ; they nearly inclose the bud, and fall as it 
begins to grow in the spring; the scales of the two inner rows are 



coated 



the outer surface with 



rufous pubescence and lengthen with the young branch ; at maturity the scales of the second pair, 
which are thickened at the base, are strap-shaped, an inch long, a third of an inch wide, and about half 
the length of those of the inner pair, which are pinnate and usually foliaceous, with a broad stalk. 
The leaves are twelve to sixteen inches long, with stout pale petioles and seven to eleven leaflets ; these 
are sessile, with the exception of the terminal one, which is borne on a long or short petiolule, oblong 



or oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed at the 



unequally wedge-shaped or sometimes 



ded 



the 



base, and remotely 



with small incurved teeth ; when they unfold they are covered, especially 



the lower surface, with rufous hairs, and at maturity they 



and firm, dark green above 



paler below, glabrous, with the exception of occasional tufts of rufous hairs along the under side of 
the broad pale midribs, four or five inches long, and an inch to two inches wide, with many conspicuous 



primary veins arcuate near the margins, and obscure reticulate 



The leaves, which usually do 



nfold in New England until after the middle of May, or until the beginning of June at the north 
rusty brown, and fall early in the autumn. The flowers appear before the leaves in compact oi 



38 



8ILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. oleace^. 



ultimately elongated panicles four or five inches long -when fully grown^ and covered in the bud by 
broadly ovate dark brown or nearly black scales rounded at the apex. The lower bracts are ovate^ 
boat-shaped^ rounded on the back, acute at the apex^ and covered with scurfy rufous or dark brown 
pubescence ; the upper bracts are linear-lanceolate, more or less laciniately cut on the margins^ some- 
times fan-shaped and divided into five narrow segments, and covered with rufous hairs. The staminate 
flowers are borne on separate individuals or are found mixed with perfect flowers on trees which mostly 
produce pistillate flowers. The staminate flower consists of two large deeply pitted oblong dark purple 
anthers attached on the back to short broad filaments ; the pistillate flower of an ovary gradually 
narrowed into a long slender style deeply divided at the apex into two broad purple stigmas, and often 
accompanied by one or by two perfect, or globose rudimentary pink anthers, which are sessile or borne 
on long or short filaments. The fruit, which is borne in open panicles eight or ten inches in length, is 
lanceolate-oblong or linear-oblong, and an inch or an inch and a half long, with a broad thin wing 
which surrounds the short flat faintly nerved body, and is conspicuously emarginate at the apex. 

Fi^o^xinus nigra inhabits deep cold swamps and the low banks of streams and lakes, and is dis- 
tributed from southern Newfoundland and the northern shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Lake 
Winnipeg, and southward through the northern states to Newcastle County, Delaware^ the mountains of 
Virginia, southern Illinois, central Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. 

The wood of Fraxinus nigra is heavy, rather soft, not strong, tough, coarse-grained, durable in 
contact with the soil, and easily separable into thin layers j it contains numerous thin medullary rays 
and bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is dark brown, with thin light 
brown or often nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6318, a 
cubic foot weighing 39.37 pounds. It is largely used in the interior finish of houses and cabinet- 
making, and for fences, barrel-hoops, and in the manufacture of baskets. According to Lamarck ^ the 
Black Ash was cultivated in the King's Garden at Paris in 1786. Transplanted from its native 
swamps it is a short-lived tree,^ and in cultivation one of the least beautiful and satisfactory of the Ash- 
trees of the Atlantic states. 



1 Diet ii. 549. 



rich moist soil, which usually produces rapid growth. The trunk 
The Fraxinus ex Nova Anglia^ pinnis foliorum in mucronem pro- specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 
ductiorihus of Miller {Diet. No. 5. — Duhamel^ Traite des Arbres, i. American Museum of Natural History in New York is twenty-two 



248) may have been this species. 



inches in diameter inside the bark, and displays two hundred and 



2 The increase in the diameter of the trunk of the Black Ash thirty-four layers of annual growth, the period of slowest growth 
is sometimes remarkably slow in the case of a tree growing in being between its tenth and one hundred and seventieth years. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXIV. Fraxiistjs nigra. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, rear and front views, enlarged- 

5. A pistillate flower with rudimentary stamens, enlarged 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 



Plate CCLXV. Fraxintjs nigra. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 

5. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silya of North America. 



Tab. CCLXIV. 





TV 




Hi^neiy so. 



FRAXINUS NIGRA, Marsh. 



A.Riocreutz> dirax- 



6 



Imp. J. TarieiLr^ Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXV. 




C.Z.I^curon del. 



JtcLpine- so 



FRAXINUS NIGRA, Marsh. 



A.IUocreuay dzre^zi- 



Imp, if. Tojiezcr, Paris 



OLEACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



39 



FRAXINUS ANOMALA. 



Ash. 



Flowers polygamous. Leaves mostly reduced to a single leaflet, or rarely 2 or 



3-foliolate. 



anomala, Watson, King 
Am. Nat. ix. 203. 



mael, BulL Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 114. — Koehne, Deutschi 
N. Am. ii. Dendr. 511, f. 90, D. — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat 



pt. i. 74. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \^th Census Herh. iv. 148 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). 

U. S' Ix. 106. — Wenzig, Bot Jahrh. iv. 186. — Wes- 



A tree, eighteen to twenty feet in height, with a short trunk six or seven inches in diameter and 
stout contorted branches which form a round-topped head ; or often a low shrub with numerous spreading 
stems. The bark of the trunk, which is dark brown slightly tinged with red and a quarter of an inch 
thick, is divided by shallow fissures into narrow ridges, and separates into small thin appressed scales. 

The branches, when they first appear, are quadrangular, dark green tinged with red, and covered with 
pale pubescence ; in their first winter they are orange-color, puberulous, and marked with elevated pale 
lenticels and narrow lunate leaf-scars, and in their second or third year become ashy gray and terete. 
The leaf-buds are broadly ovate, acuminate or obtuse, and covered with thick orange-colored tomentum. 
The leaves are reduced to a single leaflet, or are occasionally two or three-f oliolate ; the leaflets are 
broadly ovate or sometimes rotund, rounded or acute or rarely obcordate at the apex, wedge-shaped 
or cordate at the base, and entire or sparingly crenately serrate above the middle ; when they unfold 
they are covered with short pale hairs on the upper surface, and are pubescent on the lower ; and at 
maturity they are thin and rather coriaceous, dark green above, paler below, an inch and a half to two 
inches long, and an inch to nearly two inches broad, or, when more than one, much smaller ; they have 
broad rather conspicuous midribs and many obscure veins, and when solitary are borne on stout grooved 
petioles often an inch and a half in length, or, when the leaves are composed of several leaflets, these 
are short-petiolulate. The flowers appear when the leaves are about two thirds grown, in short compact 
pubescent panicles produced from the axils of leaves of the previous year. The bracts of the inflo- 
rescence are strap-shaped or lanceolate, acute, half an inch long, and coated with thick brown tomentum. 
The flowers are sometimes perfect and sometimes unisexual by the abortion of the stamens, the two 
forms occurring in the same panicle. The calyx is cup-shaped and minutely four-toothed. The 
anthers are linear-oblong, orange-color, and raised on slender filaments which are nearly as long as the 
stout columnar style divided at the apex into two stigmatic lobes. The fruit is oblong or obovate- 
oblong, and two thirds of an inch long, the broad wing, which is rounded and sometimes slightly 
emarginate at the apex, surrounding the long flattened striately nerved body. 

Fraxinits anomala is distributed from the valley of the McElmo River in southwestern Colorado, 
through southern Utah, where it is not rare in the neighborhood of streams on elevated sandstone 
mesas, and occurs on the western slopes of the Charleston Mountains in southern Nevada. 

The wood of Fraxinus anomala is heavy, hard, and close-grained; it contains many large open 
scattered ducts and numerous thin medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being marked by several 
rows of smaU ducts. It is light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood composed of thirty or forty 
layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6597, a cubic foot 
weighing 41.11 pounds. 



Fraxinus anomala was discovered in 1859 by Professor J. S. Newberry* in the Labyrinth Canon 

1 John Strong Newberry (1822-1892), a native of Warren, Con- palgeontology in the School of Mines at Columbia College, was edu- 
neeticut, and at the time of his death professor of geology and cated in the Western Reserve College in Ohio, from which he was 



40 



SILVA OF NOHTH AMERICA. 



OLEACE^. 



of the Colorado River in southern Utah. In 1874 it was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum, where 
it has proved hardy and flowers every year.* 



graduated in 1846. 



1848, was joined to the party under Lieutenant Ives, which in 1857 and 



and then having spent two years in Europe, took up the practice of 1858 explored the Colorado River, and in 1859 he accompanied 

medicine in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Newberry's interest in science Captain Maeoinbe from Santa F^ to the junction of the Grand and 

induced him to accept the position of geologist and botanist to the Green rivers. In 1861 Dr. Newberry became a member of the 

party imder command of Lieutenant Williamson, sent to the Co- United States Sanitary Commission, which he served during five 

lumbia River by the Government of the United States to explore years, when he was appointed professor at Columbia College. He 

a, railroad route to the Pacific. The account of his collections was was the author of many papers on botany, especially on palsBo- 

published in 1857 in the sixth volume of the iieporis q/ ^zjD^ora^tons botany, and on geology. In botany his name has been com- 

and Surveys to ascertain the most Practical and Economical Route for memorated in Newberrya, a genus of leafless plants of which he 

a Railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean J it included discovered the type among the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, 

an important account of the forest trees of northern California and (See Bull, Torrey Bot. Cluby xx. 89.) 



Oregon, which contained much tiseful information. Dr. Newberry 



^ Garden and Forest^ iii. 54. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXVL Fraxlntjs aistomala. 

1 and 2. Flowering branches, natural size. 

3. A perfect flower, just expanding, enlarged 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A perfect flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A branch with pinnate leaves, natural size. 

13. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tat. CCLXVI 




C.E.Faa>o7i del. 



FRAXINUS ANOMALA,Wats. 



Rapine- so. 



A.Hzocreua::- dzrea:^ 



t 



Imp, ^ Taneiir Faris. 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



41 



FRAXINUS VELUTINA. 



Ash. 



Leaflets 3 to 9, lanceolate to oval, entire or serrate, the lateral short-petiolulate 
or subsessile. 



Fraxinus velutina, Torrey, Emory's Rep. 149 (1848). 



(1873). 



Rothrocb, Wheeler's Rep. vi. 185, t. 22. 



Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. 1892, 326. 



ifi 



Mex 



CoviUe, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 148 {Bot. Death 
R. Rep. iv. Valley Exped.). 

RMshy , Bull. Fraxinus pistaciaefolia, var. coriacea, Gray, Syn. Ft. 



Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 54. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 



Cent. 



« • 

11. 



305. 



Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 74. 



N. Am. ii. pt. i. 74 (1878). — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv 
182. 



Watson, Proct Am. Acad, xviii. 113. — Sargent, Forest "Fraxinus Americana, var. pistaciaefolia, Wenzig, Bot 

Jahrh. iv. 182 (1883). — Wesmael, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg 



Trees N. Am. IQth Censvs U. S. ix. 106. 
Fraxinus coriacea, Watson, Am. Nat. vii. 302 (in part) 



XXX. 108. 



A tree, thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding eight inches in diameter, and 
stout often spreading branches which usually form a round-topped handsome head. The bark of the 
trunk, which varies from a third to a half of an inch in thickness, is gray slightly tinged with red, and 
deeply divided into broad flat broken ridges separating on the surface into small thin scales. The 
branchlets are slender and terete, and are coated, when they first appear, with pale pubescence or with 
thick white tomentum ; and in their first winter they are red-brown or ashy gray, glabrous or tomentose, 
often covered with a glaucous bloom, and marked with small pale lenticels and with semiorbicular 
slightly obcordate leaf -scars, in the middle of which appears a lunate row of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. 
The leaf-buds are acute, and an eighth of an inch long, with three pairs of broadly ovate pointed scales 
which are coated with thick rufous tomentum ; the inner scales lengthen on the young shoot, and when 
fully grown are half an inch long, strap-shaped, and rounded at the apex. The leaves are three to six 
inches long, with stovit grooved petioles, and from three to nine stalked or sometimes nearly sessile 
leaflets ; these are lanceolate or rarely obovate, occasionally falcate, long-pointed and acute or rounded 
at the apex, or sometimes nearly oval, wedge-shaped and often decurrent on the petiolule or unequally 
rounded at the base, and entire or remotely serrate above the middle with acute or recurved teeth ; 
when they unfold they are light green or reddish brown, and glabrous, pubescent, or tomentose, 
especially on the under surface ; and at maturity they are thick and firm or sometimes coriaceous, dark 
yellow-green above, paler and often pubescent below, and occasionally furnished with tufts of long pale 
hairs along the under side of the broad midribs, three to five inches long, and a quarter of an inch to 
nearly an inch wide, with prominent veins arcuate near the margins and connected by conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets. The flowers, which appear late in May or early in June with the unfolding of the 

leaves, are produced in short compact panicles, the males and females on different individuals, from 
buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year covered by broadly ovate scales rounded at the apex and 

coated with rusty tomentum. The calyx is cup-shaped, light green, and larger and more deeply divided 
in the pistillate than in the staminate flower. The anthers are oblong, apiculate, and borne on short 
slender filaments. The ovary is gradually narrowed into a short style deeply divided into two stigmatic 
lobes. The fruit ripens in the summer or early autumn, and hangs in dense clusters four or five inches 
long ; it is spatulate-oblong, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, an inch long and an eighth 
of an inch to nearly a quarter of an inch wide, with a terminal wing which is acute, rounded, or 
emarginate at the apex, tipped with the remnants of the style, and about as long as the terete nearly 
clavate conspicuously rayed wingless body. 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



Fraxhms vehdina ranges from the mountains of western Texas through southern New Mexico 
and Arizona to southern Nevada and the Panamint Mountains and the shores of Owen's Lake in south- 
eastern California ;^ it is common and widely distributed in northern Mexico, and occurs in Lower 
California.^ It is usually found growing in the neighborhood of streams, in elevated canons, and 
occasionally on dry mesas, when the leaves are thick and coriaceous and are sometimes coated with 
dense velvety tomentum. 

The wood of Fraxinus velutina is heavy, rather soft, not strong, and close-grained ; it contains 
numerous thin medullary rays, and is light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6810, a cubic foot weighing 42.43 pounds. It is used locally 
for axe-handles and in the manufacture of wagons. 

Fraxinus velutina was discovered in New Mexico in 1846 by Colonel Wilham H. Emory ^ while 
in the coromand of a military reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth in Missouri to San Diego in 
California. 

In the towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico Fraxinus velutina is often planted in the 
streets and on the borders of irrigating ditches for the shade afforded by its abundant foliage. 



148 



Exped.) 



) 



8 See iv. 60. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXVIL Fraxinus velutina. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Fruits of different forms, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, somewhat enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab CCLXVII. 




C.E,Fa3:>orL del. 



FRAXINUS VELUTINA, Torr. 



Rapine sc 



A.RLocreua: 




i 



iTTip. J. Tanetur, Paris. 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



FRAXINUS AMERICANA 



White Ash. 



Leaflets 5 to 9, usually 7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, mostly acute, pale on their 



lower surface. 



Praxinus Americana, Linnaeus, Spec. 1075 (1753). 



Sh 



u. 



672. 



Boemer & Schultes, Syst. \. 277 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli St 
FL Car. 254. — WUldenow 



Uniti, ii. 244. — Walter 



1102 ; Enum. 1060. — Muehlenberg & WiUdenow, Neue 



i. 49. 
63. 



Sprengel, Syst. i. 95. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 2, 8. 

Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 56. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, 

ii. 376, t. 

? Fraxinus juglandifolia, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 548 (1786). 

Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 209. 
Desfontaines, -ffisi. ^r&. i. 102. — Du Mont de Cour- Fraxinus Caroliniensis, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 81 



Schrift. Gesell. Nat 



Vahl, Enum. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 604. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iv. 



set, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 580. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. 



(1787). 



Am. iii. 106, t. 8 (excl. fruit). — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. Fraxinus Canadensis, Gsertner, Fruct. i. 222, t. 49 



249. 



Sprengel, Syst. i. 95. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 221. 



(1788). 



Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 51 (in part). — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 
ii. 125, t. 89. — De Candolle, Frodr. viii. 277. — Darling- 
ton, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 238. — Chapman, FL 369. — Curtis, 
Hep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 54, — Koch, Dendr. 



Michaux 



11. 



252. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 163. 



N. 



Gray, 

)es N. 



Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 107. — Wenzi 
iv. 180. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 511. 



Vahl, Enum. i. 50. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1102; BerL 

Baumz. ed. 2, 147. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 605. — Desfon- 

taines. Hist. Arb. i. 103. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 

671. 

8. 

278. 



— Nuttall, Gen. ii- 231. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i 
Elliott, Sk. ii. 672. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. i 
Sprengel, Syst i. 96. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 55. 
Loudon, ^r5. Brit. ii. 1237. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii 



50. 



De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 277. 



? Fraxinus Nova Anglia, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6 Fraxinus Americana, var. latifolia, Loudon, Arb. Brit 



(1768). 
Fraxinus alba, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 51 (1785). 

Hayne, Dendr. FL 223. 
Fraxinus aciuninata, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 547 (1786). 



Borlthausen, Handb. Forst. Bot. i. 824 



Bosc, Mem 



ii. 1232 (1838). — D. J. Browne, Trees of America^ 395. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. normale, Wesmael, BulL Soc 

Bot. Belg. ^x. 107 (1892). 
Fraxinus Americana, var. acuminata, Wesmael, Bidl 

Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 107 (1892). 



Inst. ix. 205. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, Fraxinus Americana, var. epiptera, Wesmael, BulL Soc 



11. 



580. 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 9. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 



Bot. Belg. xxx. 107 (1892). 



231 ; Sylvay iii. 64. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 220. — EUiott, 



A tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a tall massive trunk five or six feet 



in diameter, although usually much smaller, and 



upright or spreading branches, which 



the 



forest form a narrow crown, or, if the tree has found sufficient space in which to extend them, a broad 



from 



three inches 



round-topped or pyramidal head. The bark of the trunk, which varies 
thickness, is dark brown or gray tinged with red, and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad 
flattened ridges separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. The branches are stout and 
terete, and when they first appear are dark green or brown tinged with red, and covered with scattered 
pale hairs ; they soon become light orange-color or ashy gray and marked with pale lenticels, and in 
their first winter they are gray or light brown, lustrous, often covered with a glaucous bloom, and 
roughened by the large pale semiorbicular leaf-scars which display near the margin a line of conspicuous 
fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; later the branches grow darker. The leaf-buds are broadly ovate, and 
obtuse, with four pairs of scales; those of the outer pair are ovate, acute, apiculate, conspicuously 
keeled on the back, nearly black, slightly puberulous, and about half the length of those of the second 
pair, which are ovate, rounded or apiculate at the apex, dark-colored and puberulous above the middle, 



44 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



and do not entirely inclose the scales o£ the third pair, which lengthen with the young shoot, and at 
maturity are ohlong-obovate, narrowed and rounded at the apex, keeled, half an inch long, and coated 
with rusty pubescence ; the scales of the inner row are also accrescent, and when fully grown are two 
thirds of an inch long, ovate, pointed, keeled, sometimes slightly pinnatifid, green, tinged with brown 
toward the apex, covered with pellucid spots, and very lustrous. The leaves are eight to twelve inches 
long, with stout grooved petioles and five to nine stalked leaflets ; these are ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
generally falcate, long-pointed, unequally wedge-shaped or often rounded at the base, and entire or 



remotely and obscurely 



when they unfold they are thin and glabrous, or sometim 



pubescent on the lower surface, and at maturity they are thick and firm, or subcoriaceous, dark green 
and often lustrous above, pale, frequently silvery white, and glabrous or pubescent below, three to five 
inches long and an inch and a half to three inches wide, with broad pale midribs compressed above, and 
many conspicuous veins arcuate near the margins. The leaves appear late in the spring, and fall early 
in the autumn after turning on some individuals deep purple and on others clear bright yellow. The 
flowers open before the leaves, and are produced, the males and females on separate plants, in compact 
or ultimately elongated glabrous panicles from buds covered with dark ovate scales rounded at the apex 
and slightly keeled on the back. The lower bracts are oblong-ovate, narrowed at the apex, light green 
and rather lono-er than those at the base of the lateral flowers of the ultimate divisions of the inflo- 
rescence^ which are linear, one third of an inch in lengthy and caducous. The calyx is campanulate, 
slightly four-lobed in the sterile flower, and deeply lobed or laciniately cut in the pistillate flower. 
The stamens, o£ which three occasionally appear in one flower, are composed of short stout filaments 
and of large oblong-ovate apiculate anthers which, when the buds first open, are nearly black, later 
becoming reddish purple, and finally appearing yellow by the discharge of the abundant pollen. 
The ovary of the pistillate flower is contracted into a long slender style, divided into two spreading 



dark purple stigmatic lobes, which usually mature and wither before the anthers of trees in the 



neighborhood shed their pollen. The fruit, which varies from an inch to nearly two inches in length, 
or sometimes, on trees in the GuK states, is less than half an inch long,^ is produced in crowded clusters 
six or eight inches long, and hangs on the leafless branches until midwinter ; it is lanceolate or oblong, 
and surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, with a short terete oblong marginless conspicuously 
many-rayed body much shorter than the thin terminal wing which is pointed or emarginate at the apex. 

Fraxiniis Americana^ which is one of the most valuable timber-trees of eastern North America, is 
distributed from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and southern Ontario ^ to northern Minnesota ; it ranges 
south to northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and west in the United States to eastern 
Nebraska ^ and Kansas, the Indian Territory, and to the valley of the Trinity River in Texas. In much 
of this great region it is a common inhabitant of the forest, growing in rich rather moist soil on 
low hills or often in the neighborhood of streams, and attaining its greatest size on the fertile bottom- 
lands of the basin of the lower Ohio River. In the south, and west of the Mississippi River, the White 
Ash is less common and of smaller size, and produces less valuable wood, than in the northeastern and 
central states. 

The wood of Fraximis Americana is heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, and tough, although 
ultimately brittle ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays and rows of large open ducts clearly 
marking the layers of annual growth, and in slowly grown specimens often occupying nearly the entire 
width of the annual rings. It is brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.6543, a cubic foot weighing 40.77 pounds. It is used in immense quantities 

1 The small-fruited variety, first noticed in northern Florida, was Fraxinus Curtissii^ Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees U. S, 20 (1876). 



described by Gray as : 



The fruit of all the American Ash-trees, however, varies in size, 



Fraxinus Americana^ var. microcarpUy Syn, Fl, N. Am. ii. pt. i. 75 and it is not uncommon to find the largest and smallest fruits of 

(1878). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U> S. ix. Fraxinus Americana mixed together on a single branch. 

108. — Mohr, Garden and Forest, v. 508. ^ Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 41. — Macoun, CaU Can. PL i. 316. 

Fraxinus albicans^ Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 4 (in part). ® Bessey, Bull. Exper. Stat. Nebraska^ iv. art. iv. 21. 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



45 



m the manufacture of agricultural implements, for the handles of tools, in carriage-building, for oars 



and furniture, and in the interior finish of buildings. 



The inner bark of the White Ash has been 



successfully employed in dysmenorrhoea,^ and in homoeopathic practice. 



2 



The earliest description of Fraxinus Americana appears in the Flora Virginica of Clayton, 
pubHshed in 1739.^ By Aiton * it was said to have been introduced into EngUsh gardens in 1724 by 
Mark Catesby, although the Ash described by Gatesby is another species. 

The rapid growth of the White Ash, its freedom from disease and the attacks of insects, its dense 
crown of large dark green leaves, its clean gray trunk, the beauty of its fohage in autumn and of its 
leafless branches in winter, make the White Ash, in spite of its late leafage, one of the best ornamental 
trees of the American forest; and in the eastern states it is more often used for the decoration of parks 
and streets than any other American Ash.^ 



^ Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 231. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, with the White Ash on the western prairies where, however, it 



1789. 



137. 



appears less able to resist the effects of drought and to grow less 
Millspaugh, Am. Med. PI. in Homoeopathic Remedies, ii. 137, t. rapidly than the Green Ash. In the elevated regions of central 

Europe it is more promising as a timber-tree ; and, as it begins to 



^ Fraxinus foliolis integerrimis, 122. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. grow there fully two weeks later in the season than the European 



533 (excl. syn. Catesby). 

* Hon. Kew. iii. 445. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1232, f . 1055, t. 



Fraxinus excelsior, it generally escapes the effects of late spring 
frosts, which often destroy the tender shoots of that tree. (See R. 



^ Experiments in forest-planting have been made in recent years Hartig, Ausl. Holz. Bayer. Staatswald. 39 \^Forst.-nat. Zeit. 1892].) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXVIIL FRAxniajs Americaka. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 



Plate CCLXIX, Fraxtkus Americana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 
4- A seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

8. A cluster of fruit of the variety mierocarpa^ natural size 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXVIII 




C.E.Faccon del. 




ine sc 



FRAXINUS AMERICANA, L. 



A FUocreuco dzreay. 



Imp, J, Tcuneur^ Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXIX 



I r T. 



I- 



. , -i 




C.£.FaJX>rh del. 



Uunely jc 



FRAXINUS AMERICANA, L 



A.Riocreua> direa: . 



Imp. J. Taneur^ Paris. 



OLEACE^. 8ILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



47 



FRAXINUS TEXENSIS. 



Mountain Ash. 



Leaflets usually 5, ovate to broadly oval, rounded or slightly acute at the apex 
pale on the lower surface. 



Fraxinus Texensis. 



Americana, var. Texensis, Grav, Svn. Fl. N. 



Fraxinus albicans, Buckley, Proc. Phil Acad. 1862, 4 Am. ii, pt. i. 75 (1878). 



N. 



(in part). 



10th Census U. S. ix. 108.— Wen 



(1873) 



Watson, Am. Nat vii. 302 (in part) 182. 



Nat. Herb. ii. 259 (Mi 



PL W. Texas). — Reverchon, Garden and Forest 
524. 



A tree, rarely fifty feet in height, with a short trunk occasionally two or three feet in diameter, 
and thick spreading often contorted branches ; or usually much smaller. The bark of the trunk is half 
to three quarters of an inch in thickness, dark gray, and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad 
scaly ridges. The branchlets are stout and terete, and when they first appear are dark green, often 
tinged with red, and shghtly puberulous ; during the summer they become light yellow-brown, or light 
orange-color, and during their first winter they are light brown marked with remote oblong pale 
lenticels and with large elevated lunate leaf-scars which display a row of conspicuous fibro-vascular 
bundle-scars ; in the second or third year they grow dark gray or reddish brown. The leaf -buds are 
ovate and acute, with three pairs of scales ; the scales of the outer row are broadly ovate, rounded at 
the apex, dark orange-color, and pilose toward the base ; those of the second row are accrescent, ovate, 
rounded, coated with rufous tomentum, nearly half an inch long when fully grown, and about half the 
length of those of the inner rank, which are linear-strap-shaped, truncate or emarginate at the apex, and 
orange-color. The leaves are five to eight inches long, with elongated slender terete petioles and five 
or occasionally seven usually long-stalked leaflets ; these are ovate, broadly oval, or obovate, rounded 
or acute at the apex, wedge-shaped, rounded or sometimes slightly cordate at the base, and coarsely 
crenulate-serrate mostly above the middle ; when they unfold they are light green slightly tinged with 
red, and pilose with occasional pale caducous hairs ; and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green 
on the upper surface, pale and sometimes silvery white on the lower surface, two inches to two inches 
and a half long and an inch to two inches wide, with broad midribs deeply impressed above and often 



furnished below with tufts of short white hairs in the axils of the numerous 



which 



fork near the margins and are connected by coarse reticulate veinlets. The male and female flowers, 
which are borne on separate individuals, appear early in March as the leaves begin to unfold, and are 
produced in compact glabrous panicles developed from the axils of leaves of the previous year and 
covered in the bud by ovate rounded orange-colored scales. The bracts are narrowly obovate, rounded 
or acute at the apex, scarious and early deciduous. The staminate flower is composed of a minute or 
nearly obsolete slightly f our-lobed calyx and of two stamens with short filaments and linear-oblong light 
purple apiculate anthers. In the female flower the calyx is oblong, cup-shaped, and divided to the base 
into four acute lobes; the ovary is gradually narrowed into a long slender style terminating in two 
large stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which hangs in short compact clusters, ripens in May ; it is spatulate 
or oblong, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, and haK an inch to nearly an inch in length, 
with a short terete marginless many-rayed body about one third as long as the terminal wing, which is 
usually rounded or sometimes emarginate at the apex. 

Fraxinus Texensis^ which grows on high dry limestone bluffs and ridges, is distributed through 



48 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



northern, central, and western Texas from the neighborhood of the city of Dallas to the valley of the 
Devil's River. 

The wood of Fraxinus Texensis is heavy, hard, strong, and coarse-grained, with numerous obscure 
medullary rays and bands of one or several rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, 
and is light brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.7636, a cubic foot weighing 47.59 pounds. It makes excellent fuel, and when it can be obtained 
of sufficient size is used and much valued for flooring. 

Fraxinus Texensis was discovered near the Devil's River on the 16th of September^ 1852, by 
Dr. J. M. Bigelow ^ of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey Commission. 



1 See i. 88. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXX. Fraxinus Texensis. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natui'al size. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXX. 



f 




CE.Faxorv del . 



FRAXINUS TEXENSIS, Sarg. 




tne^ sc 



A.ItCocreiLZ> direcc. 



Imp. J, Taneur, Paris 



OLEACE-iE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



49 



FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANIOA. 



Red Ash. 



Leaflets 7 to 9, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, mostly coj 
their lower surface like the young shoots with velvety pubesc 



sely serrate, clothed on 



Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 51 Fraxinus pubescens, jS longifolia, Vahl, Enum. i. 62 



(1785). — Koch, Dendr. ii. 253. — Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendr. ed. 2, 163, f . 53. — Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. 
1892, 326. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 611, f . 90, E-H. 
Fraxinus pubescens, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 548 (1786). 



(1804). 



Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1104. — Pursh, FL Am. 



Sept. ii. 9. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1233. — De Can- 
doUe, Prodr. viii. 278. 
Fraxinus pubescens, y latifolia, Vahl, Enum. i. 52 



Walter. Fl, 



Willdenow 



(1804). 



Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1104. — Pursh, Fl. Am. 



Spec. iv. 1103; Enum. 1060. 



Borkhausen, Handb. 



Sept. i. 9. — Hayn 



223. 



Loudon, Arb. 



Forst. Bot. i. 827. 



Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue 



Brit. ii. 1233. — De CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 278. 



Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin^ iii. 393. — Vahl, Enum. Fraxinus pubescens, var. subpubescens, Persoon, Syn 



i.51. 
62. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 604. — Nouveau Duhainel^ iv. 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 102. — Du Mont de Cour- 



u. 



605. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 9. — Loudon, Arb 



Brit. ii. 1234. — De CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 278. 



set, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 582. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. Fraxinus longifolia, Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 209 (1808). 

Roemer & Schultes, Syst. i. 279. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. Fraxinus subvillosa, Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 209 (1808). 



9. 
231. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 223. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 673. 



Sprengel, Syst. i. 95. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 55. — Hooker, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 51. — De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 278. 
Emerson, Trees Mass. 337. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 



Fraxinus tomentosa, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ili. 112, 

t. 9 (1813). 
? Fraxinus discolor, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 37 (1817). 
Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 297. 



239. 



Chapman, Fl. 370. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Fraxinus Americana, var. pubescens, D. J. Browne, 



N. Car. 1860, iii. 54. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i 



Trees of America ^ 395 (1846). 



75. 



Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 69. — Sar- Fraxinus oblongocarpa, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 108. 



1862, 4. 



Wenzig, Bot. Jahrb. iv. 183. — Watson & Coulter, Ghray's Fraxinus viridis, var. pubescens, Hitchcock, Trans. St 



Man. ed. 6, 336. 



Louis Acad. v. 507 (1891). 



A tree, forty 



ixty feet in height^ with a trunk rarely exceeding eighteen or twenty inches in 



diameter^ and stout upright twiggy branches which form a compact irregularly shaped head. The bark 
of the trunk is one half to two thirds of an inch thick, brown tinged with red and sHghtly furrowed, 
the surface of the ridges separating into thin appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and terete, 
and when they first appear are more or less coated with pale pubescence, which sometimes continues to 
cover them until the second or third year and often disappears during the first summer ; ultimately they 
become ashy gray or light brown tinged with red, and are frequently covered with a glaucous bloom, 
and marked with pale lenticels and in their first winter with semicircular leaf-scars in which appears a 
short row of large fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The leaf-buds are about an eighth of an inch long, with 



ded 



the 



three pairs of scales coated with rufous tomentum ; those of the outer pair are acute, roui 
back, and truncate at the apex ; those of the second and third pairs lengthen with the young shoot and 
are shorter than those of the inner rank, which at maturity are often an inch or an inch and a half long 
and are sometimes pinnately cut toward the apex. The leaves are ten to twelve inches long, with stout 
shghtly grooved pubescent petioles and seven to nine leaflets j these are oblong-lanceolate or ovate, 
gradually narrowed at the apex into long slender points, unequally wedge-shaped at the b 



and 



obscurely serrate, or ofte 



below the middle ; when they unfold they 



coated 



the 



d 



berulo 



surface and on the petioles with thick white tomentum, and are lustrous ai 

upper surface ; at maturity they are thin and firm, with conspicuous midribs and branching veins, f o 



the 



50 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



OLEACE-aS. 



to six inches long, an inch to an inch and a half wide, light yellow-green on the upper side and pale on 
the under side, which is covered, like the short thick grooved petiolules, with silky pubescence. In the 
autumn the leaves turn yellow or rusty brown before falling. The flowers appear late in the spring as 
the leaves begin to unfold, the males and females being produced on separate trees in rather compact 
tomentose panicles covered in the bud with ovate scales coated with rusty tomentum. The lower bracts 
are obovate, rounded, and a little larger than those at the base of the ultimate divisions of the panicle, 
which are lanceolate and more or less laciniately cut. The staminate flower is composed of a minute 
obscurely toothed cup-shaped calyx and of two stamens with Hnear-oblong light green anthers tinged 
with purple and borne on short slender filaments. The calyx of the pistillate flower is cup-shaped, 
deeply divided, and as long as the ovary, which is gradually narrowed into an elongated style divided 



at the apex into two green stigmatic 



lobes. 



The fruit, which is borne in open glabrous or pubescent 
panicles, and remains on the branches during the winter, is one to two inches in length, surrounded at 
the base by the persistent calyx, and linear or narrowly spatulate, with a slender terete many-rayed body 
tapering gradually from the summit to the base and margined above by the thin decurrent wing, which 
is narrowed, rounded, acute or apiculate at the apex, and as long or somewhat longer than the body. 

Fraxiims Pennsylvanica is distributed from New Brunswick to southern Ontario,* eastern 
Nebraska, and the Black Hills of Dakota, and southward to northern Florida and central Alabama. It 
inhabits low rich moist soil near the banks of streams and lakes, and is most common and attains its 
largest size in the north Atlantic states. West of the Alleghany Mountains it is smaller and less common. 

The wood of Fraxinus Pennsylvanica is heavy, hard, rather strong, brittle, and coarse-grained ; 
it contains numerous thin medullary rays, and is light brown, with thick lighter brown sapwood streaked 
with yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6215, a cubic foot weighing 38.96 
pounds. It is sometimes confounded with the more valuable wood of the White Ash, and is employed 
in the same way. 

The Red Ash, which probably owes its name to the light red color of the inner surface of the 



bark^ of the branches, was, according to Aiton,^ introduced into English gardens in 1783 



It 



often cultivated 

the White Ash. 



the eastern states, althouo'h as a shade or 



t> 



amental tree it is less valuable than 



The Green Ash,* which is perhaps best considered as a variety of this species, ranges from the 



1 Brunei, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 42. — Macoun, Cat. Can, PL i 



316. 



Wh 



Ash is often of the same color. 



8 Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 476. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1233, f. 1056 

{Fraxinus puhescens). 
* Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata. 

Fraxinus juglandifoUa, Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 117 (not La- 
marck) (1796) ; Spec. iv. 1104 ; Enum. 1060. — Vahl, Enum. i. 



50. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 604. — Nouveau DuJiamel, iv. 63, t. 16. 



Aiton, L c. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 9. — Roemer & Schultes, 
Syst. i. 278. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 96. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 55. 
Loudon, I. c. 1236, f. 1061, 1062, t. — Gray, Man. 373. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 119 (not Miller 
nor Lamarck) (1796); Spec. iv. 1103; Enum. 1000. — Pursh, 
L c. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 231. — Elliott, SJc. ii. 673. — Hayne, 
Dendr. FL 223. — Sprengel, L c. — Don, L c. — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendr. 511. 

Fraxinus lanceolata, Borkhausen, Handh. Forst. BoL i. 826 
(1800). 

Fraxinus juglandifolia, jS subintegerrima, Vahl, L c. (1804). 
Loudon, Z. c. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, fi latifolia, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1103 
(1805). 



Fraxinus expansa, Willdenow, BerL Baumz. ed. 2, 150 (1811). 
Roemer & Schultes, L c. 279. — Don, L c. — Loudon, L c. 1238. 
De CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 278. — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 184. 
Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. 1892, 326. 

Fraxinus viridis, Michaux, Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 115, t. 10 (excl 
fruit) (1813). — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 582. 
Hayne, I. c. 222. — Chapman, Fl. 370. — Gray, Pacific R. R. Rep, 
xii. pt. ii. 46 ; Syn. FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 75. — Curtis, itep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 54. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 284. — Bell, 
Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 1879-80, 49'. — Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. 

Burgess, Bot. Gazette^ vii. 95. — Sargent, Forest 



Cent. 



305. 



Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 109.— Wenzig, L c. 186. 
Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 316. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 
ed. 6, 336, — Koehne, L c. 512. 

Fraxinus Americana, Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 51 (in part) 
(1838). 

Fraxinus pubescens, Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 126, t. 90 (not Lar 

marck) (1843). 
Fraxinus Americana, var. juglandifolia, D. J. Browne, Trees of 

America, 398 (1846). 

Fraxinus Novce-Anglice, Koch, Dendr. ii. 251 (not Miller nor 
Wangenheim) (1872). — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 162, f . 53. 

Fraxinus Americana, subspec. Novce-Anglioe, Wesmael, BulL 
Bot. Soc. Belg. xxx. 108 (1892). 



OLEACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



51 



shores of Lake Champlain in Vermont through the Appalachian region to northern Florida^ and west- 
ward to the valley of the Saskatchewan, the valley of the Colorado River in Texas, the eastern ranges 
of the Rocky Mountains, the Wasatch Range of Utah, and the mountains of eastern and northern 
Arizona. In extreme forms it may be distinguished from the Red Ash by its glabrous leaves and 
branchlets and by its rather narrower and shorter and usually more sharply serrate leaflets, which are 
lustrous and bright green on both surfaces. The leaflets are often pale on the lower surface, however, 
and on trees in Nebraska and North Dakota they are occasionally coated, as well as the branches, with 
pale tomentum. In the territory east of the Mississippi River, where the Red Ash and the Green Ash 
sometimes grow side by side, they retain their individual character, but in the west the two extremes 
are connected by many intermediate forms which can as well be referred to one as to the other. The 

flowers of the two trees are indistinguishable, and the fruit of one shows all the varieties of form of the 
other. 

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica^ var. lanceolata^ which rarely attains a greater height than sixty feet or 
produces a trunk more than two feet in diameter covered with gray furrowed bark, is a handsome round- 
topped tree with slender spreading branches, ashy gray terete branchlets marked with pale lenticels, 
and bud-scales covered with dark rusty pubescence. It grows on the banks of rivers, and, comparatively 
rare east of the Alleghany Mountains, is most abundant in the Mississippi basin, often covering the 
banks of streams flowing east from the Rocky Mountains and farther west inhabiting elevated canons. 

The wood of Fraxinus Pennsylvanicay var. lanceolata^ is heavy, hard, strong, brittle, and rather 
coarse-grained ; it is brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous obscure medul- 
lary rays and bands of several rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7117, a cubic foot weighing 44.35 pounds. Inferior in quahty, 
it is sometimes used as a substitute for the wood of the White Ash. 

The beauty of the dark and lustrous foliage of the Green Ash, its great hardiness and abihty to 
flourish in regions of small and uncertain rainfall, the rapid growth of seedHng plants and the ease with 
which they may be transplanted, have made it a favorite ornamental tree in many of the western states, 
where it is now more frequently planted in streets, parks, and shelter-belts than any other Ash-tree. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXI. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Fruits of different forms, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter branclilet, natural size. 



Plate CCLXXIL FRAximjs Pennsylvaistica, vav. lanceolata 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Staminate flowers, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Fruits of different forms, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, natural size. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter branclilet, natural size. 



Silya of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXI. 




C.E.FaccoTt deZ 



Ma^ii 



me^ sc 



FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA, Marsh. 



A.Biocreuco direcC'r 



Imp . l/ Taneur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



CCLXXIl 




C.E.FcuEOTi del 



Rapine sc 



FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANlCA,var. LAN CEO LATA, Saxg. 



AHzocrena:^ direccr 



Imp J. Tan^jT, Paris 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



FRAXINUS BERLANDIERIANA. 



Ash. 



Leaflets 3 to 5, oblong-lanceolate, acute or rounded at the apex, entire or coarsely 



serrate. 



Berlandier ian a 



(1844) 



Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlandieriana, Torrey, Bot. Mex. 



Fraxinus trialata, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 5. 
Fraxinus pubescens, var. Berlandieriana, Wenzig, j 
Jahrb. iv. 183 (1883). 



Bound. Surv. 166 (1859). — Gray, Syn. FL N. Am.\\. Fraxinus pubescens, var. Lindheimeri, Wenzig, Bot. 



pt. i. 75. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 305. 



Jahrh. iv. 184 (1883). 



Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 113. — Sargent, Forest Fraxinus Am 



var. 



Berlandieriana, Wesmael 



Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 109. — Coulter, 
Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 259 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 108 (1892). 



A tree, rarely attaining within the territory of the United States a greater height than thirty feet 
or producing a trunk more than a foot in diameter ; but in Mexico, especially in cultivation, sometimes 
sixty or seventy-five feet tall, with a trunk six or eight feet in diameter, and spreading branches which 
form a broad graceful head. The bark of the trunk is dark gray tinged with red, an inch to an inch 
and a half thick, and divided by shallow interrupted fissures into narrow ridges. The branchlets are 



light green, becoming in their first winter light 



terete and slender, and when they first appear are 
brown tinged with red, or ashy gray, and marked with occasional lenticels and with the small elevated 
nearly circular leaf-scars, which display a short row of large fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The buds are 
acute, with dark brown puberulous scales. The leaves are three to seven inches long, with slender 



elongated petioles and three to five glabrous leaflets ; these 



ovate or rarely obovate, pointed or 



rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base into long petiolules, sharply and coarsely 

coriaceous, dark gre 



above the middle with acute teeth, or sometimes almost 



thick and 



d 



lustrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower, an inch and a half to four inches long, and half an 
inch to an inch and a half wide, with prominent midribs, and primary veins connected by conspicuous 



short 
The 



reticulated veinlets. The male and female flowers are produced on different indiidduals it 
glabrous panicles inclosed in the bud by broadly ovate rounded chestnut-brown pubescent scales 
bracts are obovate or lanceolate, about half an inch long, covered with rusty pubescence, and caducon 
The staminate flower consists of a minute obscurely lobed calyx and two linear-oblong apiculate anthe 
borne on short filaments. The calyx of the female flower is cup-shaped, deeply divided, and as long ; 
the ovary, which is gradually narrowed into a slender style two-lobed and stigmatic at 



the 



The 



fruit, which is often three-winged, is ovate or spatulate, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx 



and an inch to an inch and a half 



& 



with a short clavate body more or less margined by the thin 



, which is ovate or obovate and usually narrowed toward the acute or rounded 
Fraxinus Berlandieriana srrows naturallv in the mountain forests of the s 



of Michoaca 



southern Mexico, where it is probably widely distributed j ^ through the agency of man it has become 



common near streams in n 
the Rio Blanco, and other 



theastern Mexico, and is occasionally found 



the banks of the Nueces 



of western Texas, where possibly it has been introduced since the 



settlement of the country by the Spaniards. 

The wood of a small tree grown in western Texas is light, soft, close-grained, with many obscure 
medullary rays, small scattered open ducts and bands of larger ducts marking the layers of annual 

^ Garden and Forest^ vii. 14. 



54 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



growth. It is light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.5780, a cubic foot weighing 36.02 pounds.^ 

Fraxinus Berlandlertana was discovered by the Belgian botanist ^ whose name it commemorates 
in the valley of the lower Rio Grande in July, 1829. For centuries it has been planted in the cities 
of the Mexican table-land, except in those of Chihuahua, and their parks and plazas are often dignified 
by single individuals or noble avenues of this species, which no other Ash-tree surpasses in stateliness 
and beauty. 



^ The specific gravity of a specimen of the wood of this species construction, for the interior finish of houses, and in the manufac- 
taken from a large tree cultivated in northern Mexico is 0.5459, a ture of tools. 
cubic foot weighing 34.01 pounds. In Mexico the wood is used in ^ See i. 82. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXXIII. Fraxinus Berlandieriana. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Fruits of different forms, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXXIII 




C, Z.Faxon, del. 



Rapine^ sc 



FRAXINUS BERLANDIERIANA, D C. 



A.Riocreua> dzrez:^ 



I^. c/ Tcuteur^ Parts, 



OLEACE^, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



55 



FRAXINUS CAROLINIANA. 



Water Ash. Swamp Ash. 



Leaflets 5 to 7, ovate-oblong, acute, sharply serrate or entire, glabrous or 



pubescent. 



Praxinus Caroliniana, Miller, Diet ed. 8, No. 6 (1768), 
Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. i. 287. — Lamarck, Diet, ii 



648. 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot Cult. ed. 2, ii. 582. 



U. S. ix. 110. — Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 184. —Watson 
& Coulter, Gray's Man, ed. 6, 336. 
Fraxinns pallida, Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 201 (1808). 



Eoemer & Schultes, Syst, i. 279. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. Fraxinus pubescens, Bosc, Mem. Inst. ix. 210 (not La- 



55. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 258. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr 



ed. 2, 163. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 511. 
Praxinus Americana, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 50 (not Lin- 

n^us) (1785). 
? Praxinus juglandifolia, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 548 (1786). 
Fraxinus excelsior, Walter, Fl. Car. 254 (not Linnaeus) Fraxinus curvidens, Hoffmannsegg, Verz. Pfianzenkult. 



marck) (1808). 
Fraxinus triptera, NuttaU, Gen. ii. 232 (1818) ; Sylva^ iii. 
62, t. 100. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 674. — Don, Gen. Sijst. iv. 
56. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 1240. — De Candolle, Prodr. 



viii. 277. 



(1788). 



29 (1824). 



Fraxinus platycarpa, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 256 Praxinus pauciflora, Nuttall, Sylva^ iii. 61, t. 100 (1849) 



txinus Americana, var. Cai 
Trees of America^ 398 (1846). 



(1803). —Vahl, Enum. i. 49. — WiUdenow, Spec. iv. Fi 

1103. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 605. — Nouveau Duhamelj 

iv. 64. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. \. 103. — Michaux f. Fraxinus Americana, var. triptera, D. J. Browne, Trees 

Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 128, t. 13. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 



of America, 399 (1846). 

Suppl. ii. 671. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 9. — Roemer & Fraxinus Nuttallii, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, 444 
Schultes, Syst. i. 278. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 231. — Hayne, Fraxinus nigrescens, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 5 
Dendr. Fl. 224. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 673. — Sprengel, Syst. Fraxinus Cubensis, Grisebach, Cat. PI Cub. 170 (1866). 
i. 96. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 55. — De CandoUe, Prodr. Fr 
viii. 277. — Chapman, Fl. 370. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. 



Wen 



iv. 185 (1883). 



Siivv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 53. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. Praxinus nigra, subspec. Caroliniana, Wesmael, Bull. Soc 



ii. pt. i. 75. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 



Bot. Belg. xxx. 113 (1892). 
Samarpses triptera, Rafinesque, New FL iii. 93. 



A treCj rarely exceeding forty feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes twelve inches in diameter and 
slender branches which form a narrow often round-topped head. The bark of the trunk, which varies 
from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in thickness, is light gray, more or less marked with large 
irregularly shaped brown patches, and separates into small thin closely appressed scales. The branchlets 



d slender, and when they first appear are light green, and 



glabrous or coated with rufous 



tomentum which soon disappears j and in their first winter they are light brown tinged with red and 
sometimes covered with a glaucous bloom, light gray, or yellow, and occasionally marked with large pale 
lenticels, and with the elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars in which appear a short row of conspicuous 



fibro-vascular bundle 



The leaf -buds are an eighth of an inch long, with three 



of 



chestnut-brown puberulous 



those of the outer rank are thickened at the base, rounded on 



the back, and do not entirely inclose the scales of the second row. The leaves are seven to twelve 
inches long, with elongated stout terete pale petioles and five to seven long-stalked leaflets ; these are 
ovate or oblong, acuminate, and usually long-pointed or rarely rounded at the apex, wedge-shaped or 
sometimes rounded or subcordate at the base, and coarsely serrate with acute incurved teeth or entire ; 

more or less covered with pale tomentum below, and at 
ix inches long, two to three inches wide, dark green on 



when they unfold they are pilose above and 
maturity they are thick and firm, three to i 



the upper surface, and pale 



sometimes yellow-green on the lower surface, which is glab 



or 



pubescent, especially along the conspicuous pale midribs deeply impressed on the upper side, and the 



56 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



numerous arcuate veins connected by obscure reticulate veinlets. The flowers appear in February and 
March^ the males and females being borne on different trees^ and are produced in short or ultimately 
elongated panicles inclosed in the bud by chestnut-brown pubescent scales. The bracts are obovate^ a 
third of an inch long, rounded at the apex^ and coated with rusty pubescence. The staminate flower 
consists of a minute or nearly obsolete calyx, and of two or sometimes of four stamens with slender 
filaments and linear apiculate anthers. In the pistillate flower the deeply divided and laciniate cup- 
shaped calyx is as long as the ovary, which is gradually narrowed into an elongated slender style two- 
lobed and stigmatic at the apex. The fruit is elliptical, obovate or spatulate, frequently three-winged, 
surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, and often marked on the two faces by a conspicuous 
impressed midvein ; the broad thin wing, which is many-nerved, acute, and rounded or emarginate at 
the apex, surrounds the short compressed body, and is usually narrowed below into a stalk-like base. 

Fraximis Carolinicma inhabits the coast region of the Atlantic and Gulf states from southern 
Virginia to Cape Canaveral and the Caloosa River in Florida and the valley of the Sabine River in 
Texas, ranging northward through western Louisiana to southwestern Arkansas, and occurring also on 
the island of Cuba.^ In the United States it grows always in deep often almost impassable river-swamps, 
inundated during several months of every year, under the shade of the Bald Cypress, the Red Maple, 
the Cotton Gum, the Water Oak^^ and the Liquidamber. 

The wood of Fraximis Caroliniana is light, soft, weak, close-grained, with remote obscure medul- 
lary rays and ducts ; it is nearly white sometimes tinged with yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3541, a cubic foot weighing 22.07 pounds. 

The first description of Fraximis Caroliniana was published in 1731 by Mark Catesby in the 
Natural History of Carolina? Although introduced by Catesby into English gardens in 1724,^ the 
Water Ash, which is the smallest and the least valuable of the eastern species, probably cannot be found 
now beyond the limits of its native swamps. 



^ Fraxinus Caroliniana, a form with comparatively narrow- winged Fraxinus Caroliniana^ latiori fructu, Miller, Did, No. 6. — Duha- 

fruit, was discovered in western Cuba by Mr. Charles Wright in mel, Traite des Arbres, i. 248. 

1865. (See Grisebach, Cat, PL Cub. 170 (Fraxinus Cubensis),') Fraxinus Jloridana, foliis angustioribusutrinqueacuminatis pendulis, 

2 Fraxinus CarolinensiSy foliis angustioribus uirinque acuminatis Romans, Nat. Hist. Florida, 26. 



pendulisy i. 80, t. 80. 



« Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6. — Loudon, ^rJ.^nV. ii. 1238, f. 1063, 
1064 (Fraxinus platycarpa). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXIV. Fraxinus Caroliniana. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 
3 and 4. Staminate flowers, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 



Plate CCLXXV. Fraxinus Caroliniana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXIV 




C.E.Faxori d^. 



Hapzne^ sc 



FRAXINUS CAROLINIANA,Mill. 



Jl.IUocreua:> direco. 



^mp . J. Taneicr^ Faris. 



Silva of North Americ 



L X XY. 




C.E-Fcucorv del. 



Rapme' so. 



FRAXINUS CAROLINIANA,Mill. 



A.Biocreusc direa^t' 



Imp. J, Tojieur, Parij 



OLEACE-S:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



57 



FRAXINUS OREGONA 



Ash. 



Leaflets 5 to 7, oblong to oval, acute, the lateral sessile or rarely short-petiolulate, 
villous-pubescent while young. 



Fraxinus Oregona, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 59, t. 99 (1849). 

Torrey, Pacific JR. R. Rep. iv. 128. — Newberry, Pacific 



Fraxinus pubescens, var. /?, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 51 

(1838). 



R. R. Rep. vi. 25, 87. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. Fraxinus latifolia, Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur^ 33 (not 



pt. ii. 68 ; Am. Nat. iv. 307. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 260. 



WiUdenow) (1844). 



Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. i. 472; Syn. FL N. Fraxinus Oregona, /?, Nuttall, Sylva^ iii. 59 (1849). 



Am. ii. pt. i. 76. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 164. 



Sargent, Forest 



N. 



U. S. ix 



Fraxinus Oregona, var. riparia, Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv 
187 (1883). 



111. 



Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 187. — Koehne, Deutsche Fraxinus Americana, subspec. Oregona, Wesmael, Bult 



Dendr. 511. 



Soc. Bot. Belg. xxx. 110 (1892). 



A tree, frequently seventy or eighty feet in height, with a tall trunk occasionally four feet in diam- 
eter, and stout branches which form a narrow upright head or a broad shapely crown. The bark of the 
trunk varies from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and is dark gray or brown slightly tinged 
with red, and deeply divided by interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges which separate on the surface 
into thin papery scales. The branchlets are stout and terete, and when they first appear are glabrous 
or more or less thickly coated with pale or rarely rufous silky tomentum, which sometimes continues to 
cover them during their second year, and sometimes disappears during their first summer, when they 
become light red-brown or orange-color, glabrous or puberulous, often covered with a slight glaucous 
bloom, and marked with small remote pale lenticels, and during their first and second winters with the 
large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars in which appear a short row of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle- 
scars. The leaf -buds are acute, an eighth to a quarter of an inch long, with four pairs of scales covered 
with pale hairs or with rusty pubescence; those of the inner rows when fully grown are elongated 
and often foliaceous. The leaves are five to fourteen inches long, with stout grooved and angled 
pubescent or glabrous petioles and five to seven leaflets ; these are oblong or oval, usually contracted at 
the apex into short broad points, gradually narrowed at the base, and entire or remotely and obscurely 
serrate ; when they unfold they are usually coated on the lower surface and on the petioles with thick 
pale tomentum, and are pubescent on the upper surface, or they are nearly glabrous or pilose with a 
few scattered hairs ; at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, light green above, paler and tomen- 
tose, pubescent or puberulous below, three to seven inches long, and an inch to an inch and a half 
wide, with broad pale midribs impressed above, conspicuous veins arcuate near the margins, and reticu- 
late veinlets ; the terminal leaflet is raised on a slender petiolule often an inch in length, and the lateral 
leaflets are sessile or are borne on short stout grooved stalks. The leaves turn yellow or russet-brown 
in the autumn, and fall early. The flowers, which appear in April or May as the leaves begin to 
unfold, are produced, the males and females on separate individuals, in compact glabrous panicles 
covered in the bud with broadly ovate scales coated with rufous pubescence. The bracts are obovate, 
rounded, scarious, a third of an inch long, and early deciduous. The staminate flower consists of a 



minute caly 



d of two stamens with short filaments and short oblong apiculate anthe 



The calyx 



of the pistiUate flower is laciniately cut and shorter than the ovary, which is narrowed into a stout styk 
divided into two conspicuous stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which is produced in ample crowded clusters 
is obovate, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, and an inch and a half to two inches lonsr 



58 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. OLEACEiE. 



the body is clavate and slightly compressed^ with margined edges which gradually widen upward into 
a longer wing, which is many-nerved, and narrowed, rounded, apiculate, or sometimes emarginate at the 



apex 



Fraxmus Oregona inhabits the region surrounding the shores of Puget Sound,^ and ranges south- 
ward through western Washington and Oregon, the California coast region as far south at least as the 
Bay of San Francisco, and along the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada to those of the mountains 
of San Bernardino and San Diego counties in southern California. It grows usually in rich moist soil 
in the neighborhood of streams, and attains its greatest size on the bottom-lands of the rivers of south-, 
western Oregon, where it sometimes forms with the Alder, the Broad-leaved Maple, and the Cahfornia 
Laurel, forests of considerable extent. 

The wood of Fraxhms Oregona is light, hard, brittle, coarse-grained, and contains many thin 
medullary rays and open scattered ducts, the layers of annual growth being clearly marked by several 
rows of similar ducts. It is brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5731, a cubic foot weighing 35.72 pounds. It is largely used in the manufac- 
ture of furniture, for the frames of carriages and wagons, in cooperage, the interior finish of houses, 
and for fuel. 

Fraxinits Oregona^ which is one of the most valuable deciduous-leaved trees of the Pacific forests 
of North America, was discovered on the banks of the lower Columbia River by David Douglas in 
1825. It is often planted as a shade-tree in the streets of the cities of Washington and Oregon, and of 
Victoria in British Columbia. The Oregon Ash has proved hardy in the Arnold Arboretum, into which 
it was introduced nearly twenty years ago, and in western and central Europe, where it is occasionally 
found in botanic gardens. 

1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 317. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXXVL Fraxinus Oregona. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . 



LXXV] 




CE.Faxon del. 



Puxirt sc. 



FRAXINUS OREGONA, Nutt. 



ABiocreuX' direa>^ 



Imp. t/ Taneicr^ Paris 



OLEACE.E. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



CHIONANTHUS. 



Flowers perfect or polygamous ; calyx 4-lobed, the divisions imbricated in aestiva- 
tion ; corolla deeply 4-lobed or divided, the divisions conduplicate-valvate in aestivation ; 
stamens 2, rarely 4, inserted on the tube of the corolla, extrorse ; disk ; ovary supe- 
rior, 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, suspended. Fruit a fleshy usually 1-seeded drupe. 
Leaves opposite, simple, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 



Chionanthus, Linnaeus, G^en. 335 (1737). —Adanson, i^am. Gen. ii. 677. — Baillon, Hist. PL xi. 247. — Engler & 

PL ii. 224. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 105. — Endlicher, Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. ii. 11. 

Gen. 571. — Meisner, Gen. 256. — Bentham & Hooker, 



Trees or shrubs, with watery colorless juices, stout terete or slightly angled branches with thick 
pith, buds with numerous opposite scales, those of the inner ranks accrescent, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves opposite, simple, condupHcate in vernation, deciduous. Flowers on elongated ebracteolate 
pedicels in three-flowered clusters terminal on the slender opposite branches of ample loose panicles 
from separate buds produced in the axils of upper leaves of the previous year. Bracts fohaceous, 
persistent. Calyx minute, deeply four-parted, persistent under the fruit. Corolla white, deeply divided 
into four or rarely into five or six elongated linear or ovate lobes united at the base into a short tube, 
or rarely separable. Stamens two, inserted on the base of the corolla opposite the axis of the flower, 
or rarely four, included ; filaments terete, short ; anthers ovate, attached on the back below the middle, 
apiculate by the elongation of the connective, two-celled, the cells opening by longitudinal, lateral, or 
subextrorse slits. Ovary two-celled, abruptly contracted into a short columnar style ; stigma thick and 
fleshy, emarginate or shghtly two-lobed; ovules two in each cell, laterally attached near its apex, 
pendulous, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, ovoid or oblong, usually 
one or occasionally two or three-seeded ; ^ exocarp thin, dry, and fleshy ; putamen thick, crustaceous. 
Seed filling the cavity of the stone, ovoid, suspended; testa thin, chestnut-brown. Embryo straight, 
axile in thick fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat, longer than the short terete superior radicle turned 

toward the hilum. 

Two species of Chionanthus are known. The type of the genus, Chionanthus Virginica^ a small 
tree or shrub, inhabits the middle and southern United States, and Chionanthus retusa^ northern and 

central China. 

The bark of Chionanthus Virginica is tonic, and is sometimes used in medicine. The genus is 

not known to possess other economic properties. The two species are cultivated for the beauty of their 

abundant white flowers, and the American species is a common garden plant. 

In the United States Chionanthus is not known to be seriously injured by insects or affected by 
dangerous fungal diseases. 

The specific name, from j(^i6v and avQag^ alludes to the fight and graceful clusters of snow-white 

flowers. 



1 Gray, Proc» Am. Acad. v. 332. 



Maximowicz 



2 Lindley & Paxton, FL Gard. iii. 85, f . 273 (1853). — Walpers, bourg, xx. 430 (Mel Biol. ix. 393) (1874). — Franchet & Savatier, 

Ann. V. 482. — Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 820, f . 178. — Garten- Enum. PL Jap. i. 312. 

flora, 1886, 667, f . 84. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 603. 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



OLEACEiE. 



CHIONANTHUS VIRGINIOA. 



Fringe Tree. Old Man's Beard. 



Flowers perfect ; corolla divided into long linear lobes. Leaves oval or oblong, 



sbort-petiolate. 



Chionanthus Virginica, Linnaeus, Spec. 8 (1753). 



Du Chionanthus Virginica, var. latifolia, Aiton, JSort. Kew. 



Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 150. — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 



i. 14 (1789). — Vahl, Enum. i. 44. — Willdenow, Spec, i 



22. 



Marshall, Arhust. Am. 33. — Wangenheim , Nord- 



46. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 2. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 50. 



Holz 



Walter 



Lamarck, III. Chionanthus Virginica, var. angustifolia, Aiton, Hort 



i. 30, t. 9, f . 1. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 61 ; Spec. 
i. 46 ; Enum. 14. — Abbot, Insects of Georgia, ii. t. 



98. 
44. 
111. 



Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 3. — Vahl, Enum. i. 



Kew. i. 14 (1789). —Vahl, Enum. i. 44. — WUldenow, 
Spec. 1. 46. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 2. — Watson, Dendr. 
Brit. i. 1, t. 1. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 50. 



Persoon, Syn. i. 9. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. Chionanthus trifida, Moench, Meth. 478 (1794). 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 588. 



Chionanthus vernalis, Salisbury, Prodr. 14 (1796). 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 7. — Roemer «& Schultes, Syst. i. Chionanthus cotinifolia, Willdenow, Spec. i. 47 (1797). 



72. 



Nuttall, Geoi. i. 5 ; Sylva, iii. 56, t. 98. — Elliott, Linociera cotinifolia, Vahl, Enum. i. 46 (1806) 



De 



Sk. i. 6. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 2. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 



CandoUe, Prodr. viii. 297. 



34. 



Loddiges, Bot. Cab. xiii. t. 1264. — Guimpel, Otto 



Mat. Med 



& Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 93, t. 73. — Don, Ge7i. Syst. iv. Chionanthus Virginica, var. montana, Pursh, Fl. Am. 



50. 
37. 



Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 259. — Dietrich, Syn. 



Sept. i. 8 (1814). — De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 295. 



De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 295. — Darlington, Fl. Chionanthus Virginica, var. maritima, Pursh, Fl. Am. 



Cestr. ed. 3, 238. — Chapman, FL 369. — Curtis, Pep. 
Geolog. Surv. iV. Car. 1860, iii. 95. — Koch, Dendr. ii 



262. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 167, f. 56. 



Sept. i. 8 (1814). — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 50. — De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. viii. 295. — Regel, Gartenflora, 1867, 357, 
t. 564. 



Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. ii. pt. i. 77. — Sargent, Forest Chionanthus maritima, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 86 (1836). 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 112. — Watson Chionanthus heterophylla, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 87 



Trees N. Am. 10th 

& Coulter, Ch'ay's Man. ed. 6, 337. — Koehne, Deutsche 



(1836). 



Dendr. 503. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 261 Chionanthus montana, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 87 (not 



{Ma7i. PL W. Texas). 



Blume) (1836). 



Chionanthus Zeylonica, Linnaeus, ^^ec. 8 (1753). — Bur- Chionanthus longifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 88 



man f . Fl. Ind. 6. — Houttuyn, Pflanzensyst. i. 204, t. 5, 



f. 1. 



Lamarck, Diet. i. 735 ; III. i. 30, t. 9, f . 2. 



Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. i. 47. — Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. i 



(1836). 
Chionanthus angustifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 88 
(1836). 



107. 



Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeylan. 188. 



A slender tree, twenty or thirty feet in height, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter 
and stout ashy gray or light brown branches which form an oblong rather narrow head ; or often a 
shrub sendiag up from the ground several stout thick spreading stems. The bark of the trunk, which 
varies from a quarter to a half of an inch in thickness, is irregularly divided into small thin appressed 



appear, are 



Hght 



green 



and 



are 



brown scales tinged with red. The branchlets, when they first 
covered with pale pubescence or are sometimes glabrous ; in their first winter they are terete or shghtly 
angled, often much thickened below the nodes, light brown or orange-color, and marked by large 
scattered darker colored lenticels and by the elevated semiorbicular leaf -scars which display a semi- 
circular row of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and do not entirely disappear until the end of 
several years. The leaf-buds are broadly ovate, acute, and an eighth of an inch long, with about five 
pairs of scales, which increase in length from the outer to the inner pair, and are ovate, acute, keeled 
on the back, light brown and slightly pilose on the outer surface, bright green and lustrous on the inner 
surface, and cihate on the margins with scattered white hairs ; those of the inner pair lengthen on the 
young shoot, and at maturity are obovate, gradually narrowed below, foliaceous, and an inch to an inch 



OLEACE-^E. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61 



and a half long. The leaves are ovate or oblongs acuminate^ with short broad points^, or sometimes 
rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed below into stout puberulous petioles, entire with undulate 
margins, and coarsely reticulate-venulose ; when they unfold they are yellow-green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, pubescent on the lower, and ciliate on the margins, and at maturity they are four to eight 
inches long, half an inch to four inches broad, thick and firm, dark green above, and pale and glabrous 



below, except along the stout midribs and conspicuous arcuate primary veins, which are more 



or less 



covered with short white hairs j they are borne on petioles which vary from half an inch to nearly an 
inch in length, and, having turned bright clear yellow, fall early in the autumn. The flowers appear 
from the middle of April in the south to the beginning of June in New England, when the leaves are 
about a third grown, in loose pubescent drooping panicles four to six inches long, and are slightly and 
agreeably fragrant. The bracts at the base of the lower branches of the inflorescence are obovate, 
f ohaceous, glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent on the lower, and sometimes an inch long ; those 
at the base of the upper branches are oval, successively smaller, and gradually pass into the minute 
laciniate bracts which subtend the lateral pedicels of the three-flowered clusters which terminate the 
last divisions of the panicle. The calyx is light green, glabrous, and deeply divided into four acute 
entire or laciniately cut lobes. The corolla is an inch long, marked on the inner surface near the base 
by a row of bright purple spots, and is divided into four or sometimes into five or six narrow strap-shaped 
divisions usually united below or separable. The anthers are light yellow with a green connective. 
The stigma is two-lobed, and matures and begins to wither before the anthers discharge their pollen. 
The fruit, which ripens in September, is borne in loose few-fruited clusters on which the persistent 
leaf -like bracts have sometimes become two inches long ; it is oval or oblong, surrounded at the base 
by the persistent calyx, tipped with the remnants of the style, an inch long, dark blue or nearly black, 
and often covered with a glaucous bloom ; it has a thick skin, thin dry flesh, and a thin rather brittle- 
walled stone. The seed is a third of an inch long, ovate, narrowed at the apex, and covered by a 
thin light chestnut-brown coat marked by reticulate veins which radiate from the short hilum. 

Chionanthus Virginica usually inhabits the banks of streams, where it grows in rich moist soil, 
and is distributed from Lancaster and Chester counties in southern Pennsylvania to the shores of 
Tampa Bay in Florida, and through the Gulf states to southern Arkansas and to the valley of the 
Brazos River in Texas. 

The wood of Chionanthus Virginica is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and contains numerous 
obscure medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being marked by several rows of large open ducts 
connected by branching groups of similar ducts. It is hght brown, with thick Hghter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6372, a cubic foot weighing 39.71 pounds. 

The bark is tonic, and is sometimes used in decoction, in the treatment of intermittent fevers, or as 



perient or diuretic ; ^ and in homoeopathic practice 



2 



The 



first authentic figure of 



Chionanthus Virginica 



published by Mark Catesby 



the 



Natural History of Carolina ^ in 1771.^ It is said to have been first cultivated in Europe in 1736 
by Peter CoUinson.^ 



5 



1 Griffith, Med. BoL 441. — Porcher, Resourc 
and Forests, 494. — U, S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1752. 



of Southern 



Med, PL in Homceonathic Remedies 



136. 



ifoUo. 



(inn 



Cliff. 



Fl. 



10. — Royen, FL Leyd. Prodr. 399. 



Duhamel 



i. 165, t. 63. 



Itijioris paniculatis, Linnseus, Fl 



Ian. 5. 



trijidis irifloris 



Thes, Zeylan, 31), published in 1691, upon which Linnaeus estab- 
lished the genus Chionanthus, and Willdenow his Chionanthus cotini' 
folia, was intended to represent Chionanthus Virginica, although in 
the figure the corolla is generally five-parted, and the native coun- 
try of the plant is said to have been Ceylon, where, however, no- 
thing like it is now known to exist. This was the view of Catesby 
and of Duhamel, who both quoted Plukenet's descriptive phrase 
as a. synonym of the American species ; De CandoUe suggested 
the same explanation (Prodr. viii. 295), which has now been sub- 
stantiated by Plukenet's specimen in the British Museum (Britten, 
Jour. Bot. xxxii, 38). 



figure of Plukenet's Arhor Zeylanica, Cotini foliis subtus 
villosis, floribus albis, Cuculi modo laciniatis (Phyt. t 241, 
m. BoL 44. — Ray, HisL PL iii. Dendr. 124. — Barman, 



Aiton 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1206, f. 1029, 



1030. 



6 See i. 8. 



62 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



The charming appearance o£ the Fringe Tree when its branches are covered with the ample 
clusters of pure white flowers, and the vigor of its constitution, which enables it to flourish in climates 
more severe than that of its native home, have made this little tree a favorite for more than a century, 
and few inhabitants of the forests of North America are more often used for the decoration of parks 
and gardens, although its value as an ornamental plant is somewhat affected by the tardy appearance of 
the leaves, which do not unfold until the branches of most plants are completely clothed in vernal 
green. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXVIL Chionanthus Virginica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged 

5. The base of the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

6. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLXXVIII. Chionaj^thus Virginica 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit cut transversely, slightly enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

4. A stone, enlarged. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 

7. A leaf of a sterile branch, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCLXXVII 




C,E,FaxoTvdel, 



Rapine^ so 



CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICA,L. 



A.mocreux- direa>^ 



Imp, J. Tazieur, Paris. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXXVIIL 




Ci:.Faax?7t del 



ffime^ so. 



CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICA . L. 



A,Jiu?creiia> direcC' 



t 



Imp, J.T^arieur, Paris 



OLEACE-iE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



OSMANTHUS. 

Flowers polygamo-dioecious or perfect ; calyx 4-toothed or divided, the divisions 
imbricated in aestivation : corolla 4-lobed. the lobes imbricated in aestivation : stamens 



2 or 



rely 4, inserted on the tube of the corolla, introrse ; disk 



ovary superior 



2-celled; ovules 2 in each cell 



ipended. Fruit a fleshy usually 1 -seeded drupe 



Leaves opposite, persistent, destitute of stipules 



Osmanthus 



(1790). 



Bentham «& Hooker, Gen. ii. 677. 



Hist 



Pflanzenfc 



Trees or shrubs, with watery colorless juices, terete or slightly angled branches, scaly buds, and 
fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, entire or dentate, persistent. Flowers fragrant, vernal or autumnal, in 
short axillary racemes, or in short axillary or rarely terminal fascicles. Pedicels short or elongated, 
subtended by scale-like bracts, ebracteolate. Calyx short, four-toothed or divided, persistent under the 
fruit. Corolla white, creamy white, or yellow, tubular, four-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse, spreading 
after anthesis. Stamens two, inserted on the base of the corolla opposite the lateral lobes of the cdljs., 
or rarely four ; filaments terete, short ; anthers ovate or linear-oblong, muticous or apiculate by the 
prolongation of the connective, attached on the back below the middle, two-celled, the cells opening 



longitudinally by marginal slits j sometimes rudimentary or wanting in the pistillate flower. 



Ovary 



two-celled, subulate, rudimentary or wanting in the staminate flower ; style columnar, short or elongated, 
crowned with an entire capitate stigma ; ovules two in each cell, laterally attached near its apex, pen- 
dulous, anatropous; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, ovoid or globose, tipped 
with the remnants of the style, usually one-seeded ; exocarp thin and fleshy ; putamen thick, hard or 
bony. Seed pendulous, filling the cavity of the stone ; testa thin. Embryo elongated, axile in thick 
fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat, much longer than the short superior radicle turned toward the hUum. 

Ten species of Osmanthus are now distinguished ; they inhabit eastern North America, where one 



species occurs, the Sandwich Islands/ Polynesia,^ Japan/ China/ and the Himalayas. The type of the 
genus, Osmanthus fragvans^ a native of China and the temperate Bimalayas, is cultivated in China 
for its deliciously fragrant minute cream-colored or yellow flowers used by the Chinese to perfume tea ^ 
and as a conserve/ and is everywhere a favorite garden plant. Osmanthus Aqidfoliiim^ a native of 
China and Japan, is often planted in its native countries, in temperate Europe, and in the southern 
United States, for its handsome Holly-like leaves and fragrant autumnal flowers. 

The genus is not known to possess economic properties. 

In the United States Osmanthus is not seriously injured by insects or fungal diseases. 

The generic name, from 00^171 and avdog^ relates to the fragrance of the flowers of the original 

species. 

1 Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, v. 331 (Olea). — Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. 
Is. 301 (Olea). 



2 Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 677. 

s Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 312 (Olea). 

4 Bentham, FL Hongk. 215 (Olea). 
Paris, No. 77, 613. 
87. 



Franchet 



XXVI 



Hooker f. 



Fl 



vui 



291. — C. B. Clarke, I. c. —Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 88. 



Olea fragr^ 



XXXV 



Loddiges, Bol. Cab. xviii. t. 1786. 



ht. Mag. 

Nouveau 



Duhamelf v. 68, t. 24. — Siebold & Zuccarini, Ahhand. Akad, 
Munch, iv. pt. iii. 167. — Blume, Mus. Bat. Lugd. Bat. i. 316. 
Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 309. 

*^ Fortune, Three Years* Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of 
China, 213. — Smith, Chinese Mat. Med. 161. 
8 Soubeiran & Thiersant, Mat. Med. Chin. 175. 
^ Bentham & Hooker, I.e. &11 (1876). — Gard. Chron. n. ser. vi. 
689, f . 132. — Forbes & Hemsley, I. c. 87. 

Ilex AquifoUum, Thunberg, I. c. 79 (not Linnaeus) (1784). 
Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 1150. 

Olea ilicifoliay Hasskarl, Cat. Hort. Bogor. 118 (1844). 

Osmanthus ilicifoliuSy Gard. Chron. n. ser. vii. 239, f. 38 (1877) 



OLEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Q5 



OSMANTHUS AMERICANUS. 



Devil Wood. 



Flowers polygamo-dioecious, in short axillary racemes or cymes. Leaves lanceolate- 
oblong, entire. 



Osmanthus Americanus, Bentham 



(1876). 



N. 



Sargent, 



N. 



Olea Americana, Linnaeus, Mant. 24 (1767). — Marshall, 
ArhusL Am. 98. — Lamarck, III. i. 28 ; Diet. iv. 543. 
Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. i. 45 ; Enum. 13. — Michaux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. ii. 222. — Vahl, Enum. i. 41. — Persoon, Syn. 

Desf ontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 112. — Du Mont de 



i. 9. 

Courset, Bot. Ctilt. ed. 2, ii. 592. — Nouveau 



67. 



Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 50, t. 6. — Pursh, 



Fl. Am. Sept. i. 7. — Roemer & vSchultes, Syst. i. 70. 
Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 38. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 5. 



El- 



liott, Sk. i. 5. — Sprengel, Syst i. 34. — Croom, Am. Jour. 
Sci. xxvi. 315. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 48. — Loudon, A7'b. 
Brit. ii. 1208, f . 1034. — Spach, Hist. Veg. viii. 267. — 
Dietrich, Syn. i. 37. — De Candolle, Prodr. viii. 286. 
Chapman, Fl. 369. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 

1860, iii. 57. — Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields 
and Forests^ 493. — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 401. 



A tree^ occasionally forty-five feet in height, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter ; usually 
much smaller and often shrubby in habit. The bark of the trunk is thin, dark gray or gray tinged 
with red, and roughened with small thin appressed scales which in falling display the dark cinnamon-red 
inner bark. The branchlets are slender, shghtly angled, ultimately terete, light or bright red-brown, and 
marked with minute pale lenticels, becoming ashy gray in their second year, when they are roughened 
by the small elevated orbicular leaf-scars in which appear a ring of minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars. 
The winter-buds are half an inch long and Hnear-lanceolate, with two thick lanceolate reddish-brown 
scales puberulous on both surfaces. The leaves are involute in vernation, lanceolate, oblong or some- 
times obovate, acute or rarely emarginate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base into broad stout 
petioles, and entire, with thickened revolute margins ; when they unfold they are coated on the lower 
surface with pale tomentum, and at maturity are thick and coriaceous, glabrous, bright green, lustrous 
on the upper surface, obscurely reticulate-venulose, four or five inches long, and half an inch to 
nearly two inches wide, with broad pale midribs impressed on the upper side, and remote forked primary 
veins arcuate near the margins ; they are borne on petioles which vary from half an inch to three 
quarters of an inch in length, and, unfolding in the spring after the appearance of the flowers, do not 

second year. The flowers, which are exceedingly fragrant, open in March from stout- 



fall 



the 



branched pilose inflorescence-buds formed during the previous autumn in the axils of leaves of the 

The staminate and the pistillate and perfect flowers are borne on different individuals in three- 



year. 

flowered clusters, and are sessile or 



pedicellate and produced in pedunculate cymes or short 



racemes 



The bracts 



like, nearly triang 



keeled on the back, puberulous, slightly 



ciliate on the margins, and persistent. The calyx is minute, puberulous, with acute rigid lobes, and 
much shorter than the creamy white corolla, which before anthesis forms an oblong-ovate bud coated 
with pale pubescence, and when expanded is an eighth of an inch long, with an elongated tube and 
short spreading ovate rounded lobes. The stamens are inserted on the middle of the tube of the corolla 
and are included or slightly exserted ; in the pistillate flower they are small and often rudimentary. The 
ovary is abruptly contracted into a stout columnar style crowned with a large shghtly exserted capitate 
stiffma, and in the staminate flower is reduced to a minute point. The fruit, which ripens early in the 
autumn, is oblong or obovate, an inch long, and dark blue, with thin dry flesh, a thick or sometimes 
thin-walled brittle ovate pointed stone, and a sohtary ovate seed covered with a thin chestnut-brown 



66 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. oleace^. 



marked with broad conspicuous pale veins which^ radiating from the short broad ventral hilum and 



encircling the seed, terminate near the micropyle. 



Osnianthus Americanus inhabits the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf states from the 
valley of the Cape Fear River in North Carohna to the shores of the Kissimmee River and Tampa Bay, 
Florida^ and eastern Louisiana. It grows usually In moist rich soil near the borders of streams and 
Pine-barren ponds and swamps, and occasionally on dry sandy upland. 

The wood of Osmanthiis Americanus is heavy, very hard and strong, close-grained, and difficult 
to work ; it contains radiating groups of open cells arranged parallel with the thin obscure medullary 
rays, and is dark brown, with thick light brown or yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.8111, a cubic foot weighing 50.55 pounds. 

The Devil Wood, which owes its popular name to the character of the wood, which is difficult to 
split, was first described by Mark Catesby in the Natural History of Carolina^ and was introduced 
into Europe in the middle of the eighteenth century.^ It is now rarely cultivated, although its large 
lustrous leaves, its fragrant flowers and handspme fruit make it a desirable inhabitant of the gardens 
of temperate regions. 



Lauri folio, fructu 



Alton 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXIX. Osmai^thus American^us. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size- 

2. A flowering branch of a pistUlate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistUlate flower. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

8. Front and rear views of an anther, enlarged. 

9. A pistillate flower with half the corolla removed, enlarged 



'tically 



Lgnified 



Plate CCLXXX. Osmanthus Americanus 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. A stone, enlarged. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North Am eric 



a. 



Tab. CCLXXIX. 




avoj 





Himeiy so. 



OSMANTHUS AMERICANUS ,Benth.8c Hook 



A,Iiiocreua> direccf 



Imp, J.Taneicr, I^ajris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXX 






Ifimely sc 



OSMANTHUS AMERICANUS ,Benth.8c Hook. 



A,IiLOcr^M2> dzrecc-P 



Jrnp, ^. Taneur^ Paris 



BORKAGINACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



67 



COEDIA. 



Flowers 



gular, perfect or polygamous ; calyx 3 to 5-tootlied ; corolla gamopeta 



lous, usually 5, rarely 4 to 6-lobed or divided ; stamens as 



corolla, inserted on its tube : disk annular 



many 



the lobes of the 



ovary superior, 4-celled ; ovules solitary 



scending. Fruit drupaceous, often inclosed in the enlarged calyx. Leaves alternate 
r rarely subopposite, destitute of stipules. 



Cordia, Linnaeus, Gen. 52 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Borellia, Necker, Elem. Bot. i. 275 (1790). 



128. 



Endlicher, Gen. 643. 



Meisner 



Hist 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 838. 

X. 396. — Engler & Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. iii. 81. 



Cerdana, Ruiz & Pavon, Prodr. Fl. Peruv. 37, t. 6 (1794). 
Macria, Tenore, Mem. Soc. Modena, xxiv. pt. i. 362 (not 
E. Meyer) (1842). 



Gerascanthus, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 170, t. 29, f. 3 Hemigymnia, Griffith, Calcutta Jour. Nat. Hist 



(1756). 



(1843). 



Varronia, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 172 (1756). — Adan- Gynaion, A. de Candolle, Prodr. ix. 468 (1845). 

son, Fam. PI. ii. 177. — Linnseus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 916 ; Hymenesthes, Miers, Trans. Lin7i. Soc. ser. 2, i. 26 (1874). 
Gen. ed. 6, 102. — A. L. de Jussieu, G^ew. 129. — Meisner, Paradigma, Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i. 30, t. 8 



Gen. 278. 
Sebesten, Adanson, Fa77t. PI. ii. 177 (1763). 
Firensia, Scopoli, Introduct. 157 (1777). 
Macielia, VandeUi, Fl. Lusit. et Brasil. 14 (1788) 



(1874). 

Plethostephia, Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i. 32, t. 8 
(1874). 



Scabrous-pubescent villose or glabrous trees or shrubs, sometimes subscandent, witb watery juices. 
Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite, entire or dentate, petiolate. Flowers in dichotomous scorpioid- 
brancbed open cymes, or in dense heads or spikes, ebracteate or occasionally furnished with minute bracts, 
sessile or pedicellate, the pedicels without bractlets. Calyx tubular or campanulate, ribbed or smooth, 
usually three to five-toothed or variously cut, or calyptrate, often accrescent, and then at maturity 
shorter or sometimes longer than and inclosing the fruit. Corolla hypocraterimorphous, infundibuU- 
f orm or campanulate, white or orange-color, generally five, rarely four to six-lobed, the lobes in aestivation 
variously plicate or plane, imbricated or slightly contorted. Stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla 
and as many as its lobes, exserted or included ; filaments filiform ; anthers ovate-oblong or linear, 
sagittate or hastate, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening 
longitudinally. Ovary sessile on the thin annular disk, four-celled; style slender, elongated, two- 
branched above the middle, the branches slightly or deeply two-parted ; stigma clavate or cuspidate ; 
ovules solitary, ascending, laterally attached below the middle to the inner angle of the cell, subortho- 
tropous ; micropyle superior. Fruit a drupe tipped with the persistent style and often entirely or partly 
inclosed in the thickened calyx ; exocarp dry and corky, or juicy, mucilaginous, astringent or acid ; 
putamen thick-walled, hard or bony, one to four-ceUed, usually one or two-seeded. Seed ascending, 
exalbuminous. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, or membranaceous, 
longitudinally pHcated or corrugated ; much shorter than the superior radicle turned toward the hilum. 

Cordia inhabits the tropics and warm extratropical regions in the two hemispheres. One hundred 
and eio-hty to two hundred species are known,^ the largest number being found in America. 



Fo 



1 Aublet, PI. Guian. i. 219. — Euiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. ii. 24. 



Syn. PI. JEquin. ii. 191 ; iv. 227. — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 



Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 68. — Kunth, 842. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ix. 471. — A. Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BOERAGINACE-S;. 



species occur within the territory of the United States ; two of these are small trees and two are shruhs^ 
Cordia glohosa^ a West Indian and Central American plant which reaches the keys of southern 
Florida, and Cordia podocephala'^ of the Eio Grande valley. 

The fruit of several of the species of Cordia is edible ; the most valued are those of Cordia Myxaf 
a native of tropical Asia and Australia, and for centuries cultivated in the countries bordering the Red 
Sea, and of Cordia vestita^ and Cordia Rothii^ of India. Cordia siihcordata^ of Malaya, northern 
Australia, and the Pacific Islands produces handsome brown streaked wood with the smell of musk, and 



is often planted as a shade 



In the West Indies the wood of Cordia Gerascanthus^ a large and 



stately tree, is valued in construction j the young stems are used for the hoops of sugar hogsheads 
and oil is extracted from the fruit ; ^ and in Brazil the light and fragrant wood of Cordia alliodora ' 
is employed for the interior finish of houses.^*^ 



108. 



worm ; the bark is used in astringent gargles, and the root is 
considered laxative (Endlicher, Enchirid, BoL 319. — Honigberger, 



— Miquel, FL Ind. Bat ii. 914 ; Suppl. 244. — Fresenius, now only used medicinally in the East. From the seeds a powder 

Martins Fl, BrasiL viii. 3. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind, 477 ; Cat. is made which in India is believed to be an infallible cure for ring- 
PL Cub. 208. — Bentham, FL Austral iv. 385. — Kurz, Forest Fl, 
Brit. Burnt, ii. 206. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 366. 

C. B. Clarke, Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 136. — Forbes & Hems- Mat. Med. 343. — Guibourt, HisL Drog. ed. 7, ii, 512. — Balfour, 

ley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 143. — Robinson, Proc. Am. Acad. xxvi. Cyclopaedia oflndia^ ed. 3, i. 812 ; iii. 559). The pulp, which is sweet 

169. — Baker, Kew Bull, Miscellaneous Information^ Jan., 1894, 26. and exceedingly mucilaginous, is sometimes eaten and is employed 

1 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 76 to trap birds. The young fruit is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. 



(1818). 
Ind. 481. 



JBg' 



Fl 



Grisebach, FL Brit. W. or is pickled ; and from the fruit a glue was made in Egypt and 
Hemsley, Z. c. 367. Arabia, which was once an article of export to Europe. (See Fors- 



Varronia hullata^ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, ed. 10, 916 (in part) kal, I, c. p. xxiii. — Olivier, Voyage dans V Empire Othoman^ ii. 



(1759). 

Varronia globosa, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 14 (1760) ; Hist. 
Stirp. Am. 41. — Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 276. — Willdenow, Spec. 
i. pt. ii. 1080. 



177.) 



India 



gun-stocks, the handles of agricultural 



Ropes are made from the bark, and the fibre is used in calking 



Cordia bullata^ De Candolle, Prodr, ix. 496 (1845). — Chap- boats. The leaves serve for plates and for the wrappers of che- 



man, Fl. 329. 

2 Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 135 (1859). — Gray, Z. c. 



roots (Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 336). 

* Hooker f . Jour, Linn. Soc. ii. 128 (1858). — Brandis, L c. 338. 



Hemsley, L c. 369. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat Herb. ii. 283 C. B. Clarke, L c. 139. 



(Man. PL W. Texas). 
8 Linnseus, Spec. 190 (1753). — De Candolle, L c. 479. — Delile, 



Gynaion vestitum, A. de Candolle, l. c. 468 (1845). 
fi Roemer & Schultes, SysL iv. 798 (1819). — De Candolle, Z. c. 



FL d'EgyptCy 47, t. 19, f. 1, 2. — Miquel, I. c. ii. 915. — Bentham, 480. — Brandis, L c. 



I. c. 386. — Boissier, FL Orient, iv. 124. — C. B. Clarke, L c-. 

Cordia Sebestena, Forskal, FL JEgypt-Arab, p. Ixiii. (not Lin- 
nseus) (1775). 

Cordia dichotomay Forster, FL Ins. Austr. Prodr. No. 110 
(1786). — R. Brown, Prodr. Fl. Nov. HolL 498. 
Sebestena officinalis^ Gsertner, Fruct. i. 364, t. 76 (1788). 
Cordia officinalis, Lamarck, 111. i. 420, t. 96, f. 3 (1791). 
Cordia Africana^ Lamarck, L v. (1791). 



Cordia reticulata, Roth, I, c. 124 (not Vahl) (1821). 
Cordia angustifolia, Roxburgh, L c. 338 (not Roemer & Schultes) 
(1824). 

Cordia subopposita^ De Candolle, L v. 480 (1846). 
6 Lamarck, IlL i. 421 (1791). — Miquel, L c. 914. — De Candolle, 
L c. 477. — Seemann, FL Vit, 168, t. 34. — Mann, Proc. Am. Acad. 
vii. 194. — Nadeaud, Enum. PL TaJtiti, 57. — Bentham, L c. 385. 
Kurz, I. c. 209. —C. B. Clarke, L c. 140. — Hillebrand, Fl, Haw. 



Cordia Indica, Lamarck, L c. 422 (1791) ; DicL vii. 49. — De Is, 321. — Hemsley, BoL Challenger Exped. L pt. iii. 167. 



Candolle, L c. 500. 

Cordia paniculata, Roth, Nov. PL Spec. 125 (1821), — De Can- 
dolle, L c. 482, 

Ehretia glabra, Roth, L c. 127 (1821). 

Cordia latifolia, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ii. 330 (1824). — De Can- 
dolle, L V. 478. 

Bourreria glabra^ Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 390 (1838). 

Cordia Brownii, De Candolle, L c. 499 (1845). 

Cordia Myxa is distributed from tropical India and Ceylon to ® Brow 

the Philippine Islands and northern Australia ; and through culti- Amer. 57. 



Cordia Sebestena, Forster, L c. No. 108 (not Linnseus) (1786) 

Cordia orientalis, R. Brown, I. c, 498 (1810). 

Cordia hexandra, Roemer & Schultes, L c. 799 (1819). 



(1824) 



Ned 



(1763). — Lamarck, 



I. c. t. 96, f. 2, — Swartz, Obs. 86. — Lunan, HorL Jam. ii. 182. 
Roemer & Schultes, L c. 450. — Grisebach, I. c. 478. 



Nat 



Barham, Hort, 



vation has been established in southern Persia, Arabia, Palestine, 
and Egypt from very early times. The dried fruits of this tree 
are the smaller sebestens of commerce, valued by the ancients for 
their soothing and laxative properties, and introduced by the Arabs 



9 De Candolle, L c. 472 (1845). — Fresenius, L c. 3. 

Cerdajia alliodora, Ruiz & Pavon, Fl, Perm. ii. 47, 1. 184 (1799). 

Cordia Cerdana, Roemer & Schultes, I. c. 467 (1819). 
1** This tree, the Louro of the Brazilians, is said to grow so rap- 



into the pharmacopoeia. Once esteemed by European physicians in idly that seedling plants can in eight years produce trunks large 
the treatment of bronchial and pulmonary affections, sebestens are enough to furnish saw-logs. The dust made by sawing the wood 



BORRAGIN^ACE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



69 



The generic name, which commemorates the botanical labors of Valerius Cordus/ established by 
Plumier ^ for one of the West Indian species, was afterwards adopted by Linnaeus. 



causes extraordinary thirst, and the freshly cut shavings ahsorb studying botany, chemistry, and pharmacy, he traveled through 
moisture from the hands of the workmen to a painful degree Europe to Italy, where he died in Rome at the early age of twenty- 
(Saldanha da Gama, Ann, Sci, Nat, s4r, 5, xix. 217). nine, leaving the manuscripts of several works on pharmacy and 



1544), the son of the German physician, botany which were published after his death. 



botanist 



After 



2 Nov. PL Am. Gen. 13. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



CoroUa orange or flame-color ; fruit inclosed in the smooth glabrous and thickened calyx ; leaves 

ovate 1. CoRDiA Sebestena 

Corolla white with a yellow centre ; fruit entirely or partly inclosed in the thin many-ribbed 

tomentose calyx ; leaves oval or oblong-ovate 2. Cordia Boissieri. 



72 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. borraginace^. 



being stigmatic to the base. The drupe is broadly ovate^ rather abruptly narrowed and pointed at the 
apex, tipped with the persistent style, and entirely inclosed in the thickened fibrous calyx, which is 
smooth and ivory-white on the outer surface ; the flesh is thin, pale, and corky, and is inseparable 
from the irregularly sulcate thick-walled stone, which has a deep depression at the base, and is one or 

often two-seeded. The seed is Hnear-lanceolate, half an inch long, and covered with a delicate white 
coat. 

Cordia Sebestena now grows spontaneously in the forests of Key West and in those of some of 
the other islands of the south Florida coast, to which it may perhaps have been first brought as a 
garden plant. It is common on the Bahama Islands, where it is probably indigenous, on most of the 
Antilles, and in Guiana and New Granada.^ 

The wood of Cordia Sebestena is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface, numer- 
ous thin medullary rays, and occasional small scattered open ducts, and is dark brown, with thick light 
brown or yellow sap wood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7108, a cubic foot 
weighing 44.30 pounds. 

Cordia Sebestena appears to have been first noticed by Sir Hans Sloane, who described it in 
1691 y ^ according to Aiton,^ it was cultivated in 1728 by Dr. James Sherard,* in whose garden at 
Eltham in England it probably flowered for the first time in Europe. It is occasionally planted on 
Key West ; ^ and in many gardens of the Antilles its abundant and beautiful flowers, set off by large 
dark green leaves, and its great clusters of ivory-white fruit, can be admired. 



1 Grisebach, Fl Brit W. Ind. 478. 



Cordia foliis ampliorihus hirtis ovatis, tuho floris suhcequaliy Browne, 



^ Caryophyllus spurius inodorus, folio subrotundo scabro^ flore race- Nat, Hist, Jam. 202. 

moso hexapetaloide coccineo speciosissimoy Cat. PL Jam. 136 ; Nat. ® Hort. Kew. i. 258. 

Hist. Jam. ii. 20, t. 164. — Ray, Hist. PI. iii. Dendr. 38. — Catesby, ^ See i. 77. 

Nat. Hist. Car. ii. 91, t. 91. ^ The popular nan: 

Cordia nucis juglandis folioy flore puipureOy Plumier, Nov. PI. that of the man who 

Am. Gen. 13, t. 14. West. 

Sebestena scahra, flore miniato crispOy Dillenius, Hort. Eltk. 340, t. 
255, f. 331. 



known 



first 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXXI. Cordia Sebestena. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower^ the corolla displayed, enlarged. 

4. A calyx, enlarged. 

5. Front and rear views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Apex of a style, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLXXXIL Cordia Sebestena. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, natui'al size. 

4. A drupe, natural size. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCLXXXI 




CE.FaaooTvdel. 



Toulet so 



CORDIA SEBESTENA.L 



A . FUo creua> direa> 



kJ. FcLneicr . Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCLXXXII 






TouZet so 



CORDIA SEBESTENA.L. 



A.Ezocreiuc- direa^ 



Imp. J. raneicr, Faris 



BORRAGiNACEJE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



73 



CORDIA BOISSIERI. 



Anacahuita. 



Corolla white with a yellow centre. Fruit entirely or partly inclosed in the thin 
many-ribbed tomentose calyx. Leaves oval or oblong-ovate. 



Cordia Boissieri, A. de Candolle, Pro(Zr. ix. 478 (1845). — ii. 366. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 135. — Gray, Syn. Fl. U. S. ix. 114. — Coulter, Cmitrih. U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 283 

N. Am. ii. pt. i. 180. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Ant. Cent. {Man. PI. W. Texas). 



A tree, occasionally twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a short often crooked trunk six or 
eight inches in diameter, and stout spreading branches which form a low round-topped head ; or often 
a shrub sending up from the ground numerous stems sometimes only two or three feet tall. The bark 
of the trunk is thin, gray tinged with red, and irregularly divided into broad flat ridges, the surface 
ultimately separating into long thin papery scales. The branchlets are stout and terete, and when they 
first appear are covered, as well as the young leaves, the branches of the inflorescence, and both surfaces 
of the calyx, with thick rusty or dark brown tomentum, through which short white usually matted 
hairs are scattered ; in their second year the branches are dark gray or brown, slightly puberulous, and 
marked with occasional large lenticels and with the elevated obcordate leaf-scars. The leaves are oval 
or oblong-ovate, acute or rounded at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, entire or obscurely 
crenulate-serrate, thick and firm, dark green, minutely rugose and more or less scabrous on the upper 
surface, coated on the lower surface with thick soft pale or rufous tomentum, four or five inches long 
and three or four inches wide, with broad midribs and conspicuous primary veins forked near the 
margins and connected by cross veinlets ; they are borne on stout petioles covered with tomentum, and 
are an inch to an inch and a half long, and fall when they are about a year old. The flowers, which 
appear from J^pril until June and are slightly fragrant, are sessile or short-pedicellate, and are produced 
in open terminal dichotomous cymes. The calyx is short-cylindrical or subcampanulate, and conspicu- 
ously many-ridged, with five linear acute teeth, and is about half as long as the tube of the white corolla, 
which is funnel-form, puberulous on the outer surface, and marked in the throat with a large light yellow 
spot j the lobes are rounded, imbricated in the bud, and two inches across when fully expanded. The 
stamens are inserted below the middle of the tube of the corolla, and are composed of slender filaments 
and of ovate-oblong anthers. The ovary is glabrous, and is gradually narrowed into a slender two- 
branched style, the divisions of the branches being stigmatic to their base. The drupe is ovate, an 
inch long, pointed and tipped at the apex with the remnants of the style, lustrous and bright red- 
brown, and is inclosed entirely or partly by the thin fibrous conspicuously rayed calyx, coated on the 
outer surface with thick short pale tomentum, and often split nearly to the base ; the flesh is thin, 
sweet, and pulpy, and separates easily from the stone ; this is ovate, long-pointed, smooth, Hght brown, 
faintly reticulate- veined, and marked with four longitudinal lines corresponding with the divisions of 
the ovary and at the apex with a deeply f our-lobed thin cap ; it is thick-walled, hard, and bony, with a 
deep cavity at the base through which a large cluster of fibro-vascular bundles passes. The seed is 
ovate, acute, and a quarter of an inch long, and is covered with a thin delicate pure white coat. 

Cordia Boissieri inhabits dry limestone ridges, and depressions in the desert, and from the valley 
of the Rio Grande in Texas and from southern New Mexico ranges southward into northern Mexico. 
Comparatively rare and of small size within the territory of the United States, the Anacahuita is exceed- 
ino-ly abundant and grows to its largest size in Nuevo Leon between the mouth of the Rio Grande and 



74: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BORRAGINACEJE. 



the base of the Sierra Madre^ enlivening the dry mesas with its beautiful white flowers, which are 
produced in the greatest profusion and continue to open during several weeks. 

The wood of Cord la Bolssieri is light, rather soft, close-grained, with many thin conspicuous 
meduUary rays and small scattered open ducts, and is dark brown, with thick light brown sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6790, a cubic foot weighing 42.32 pounds. 

All parts of Cordla Bolssieri^ which contains an aromatic principle, are used by the Mexicans in 
the treatment of bronchial affections.^ An extract of the wood is beheved by them to be valuable as 
an expectorant and diaphoretic ; the fruit is eaten, and in the form of jelly is used to relieve coughs ; 
and a decoction of the leaves is employed in the treatment of rheumatism.^ 

Cordia Boissleri was discovered by J. L. Berlandier^ in the valley of the Rio Grande. Occa- 
sionally planted in the gardens of western Texas and northern Mexico, it might well find a home in 
those of other warm dry countries, for few trees of temperate regions produce more beautiful or 
abundant flowers.^ 

The specific name commemorates the scientific labors of Edmond Boissier,^ the distinguished Swiss 
botanist. 



1 Havard, Proc. U, S. Nat. Mas, viii. 510. 

2 In 1860 Anacahuita wood attracted some attention in Germany 



s See i. 82. 

* Two plants of Cordia Boissieri were sent in 1861 by the Han- 



as a remedy for consumption, and considerable quantities were noverian consul at Tampico to the Botanic Garden at Gottingen ; 
imported from Tampico and sold at high prices, but as an analysis in the following year they were alive and in good condition (i?e- 
did not demonstrate that it possessed important medical properties, gensh. Flora^ xlv. 444). 



and no good results following its use in the treatment of phthisis. 



^ Pierre-Edmond Boissier (1810-1875), a native of Geneva, a 



it was soon given up as a remedy. (See Berg, Bonplandia, 1860, traveler in Spain, northern Africa, and Asia Minor, and best known 

302. — Buchner, Neues Repertorium fur Pharmacie^ x. 97. — Miiller, by his Voyage botanique dans le midi de VEspagney 1839-1845, and 

Vierteljahresschrift far Prakt. Pharm. x. 519. — Seemann, Pharm. by his Flora Orienialis, 1867-1884. Boissiera, a genus of Grasses, 

Jour, and Trans, iii. 164. — Hanbury, Pharm. Jour, and Trans, ser. was established by Hochstetter in his honor. (See A. de Candolle, 



2, ii. 407 ; iv. 272, t. ; Science Pavers, 277, t.) 



Arch. Sd. Phys. et NaL de Geneve, xiv. 368.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXXIIL Cordia Boissieri. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, the corolla and half of the calyx renaoved. 

3. A corolla displayed. 

4. A stamen, front and rear views. 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLXXXIV. Cordia Boissieri. 

1 . A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 

6. An embryo cut across the cotyledons, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXXIII 




2 




5 



4 






7 



6 



C. E. FaacoTV del 



Iicif>in& jc 



CORDIA BOISSIERI, A.DC. 



A.Biocreux. dire^ 



i. 



Imp. J. Tojieur^ Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCLXXXIV 




3 



5 



li 





6 




C.E.Faa^iv del. 




JO. 



CORDIA BOISSIERI, A.DC. 



ji.IUocraLUS^ (^ea:> 



6 



Imp. J. Taneur^Faris. 



BORRAGiNACE^. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



75 



BOUERERIA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx closed in the bud, 2 to 5-toothed or divided, the lobes 
valvate in aestivation ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in estivation ; 
stamens 5 ; disk annular ; ovary superior, spuriously 4-celled ; ovules solitary in each 
cell. Fruit a fleshy drupe. Leaves alternate or subverticillate, without stipules. 



Bourreria, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 168 (1756). —Adan- licher, Gen. 645. — Engler & Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt 

son, Fam. PI. ii. 177. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 840 iii. 86. 



Hymenesthes) . — BaiUon, Hist 



Hym 



Morelosia, La Llave & Lexarza, Nov. Veg. Desc. 
Crematomia, Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist 



Beurreria, Jacquin, Hist. Stirp. A7n. 44 (1763). — End- 301 (1869) ; Contrib. ii. 242. 



Small trees or shrubs, with watery juices and fibrous roots. Leaves involute in vernation, alternate 
or occasionally subverticillate, obovate-oblong or ovate, glabrous, or scabrous on the upper surface. 
Flowers on slender pedicels, bracteolate, small or large, in terminal corymbose dichotomous cymes 
usually many-flowered, sometimes few or rarely one-flowered. Bracts and bractlets linear-lanceolate, 
caducous. Calyx closed before anthesis, globose or ovoid, splitting in two to five short teeth, persistent 
and sometimes accrescent under the flower. Corolla white, campanulate or infundibuliform, the tube 
short or elongated, often enlarged in the throat, five-lobed, the lobes broadly ovate, spreading after 
anthesis. Stamens five, inserted on the tube of the corolla, introrse, included or exserted ; filaments 
filiform ; anthers ovate or oblong, often rugulose, two-celled, opening laterally by longitudinal slits. 
Ovary sessile on the thin annular disk, incompletely four-celled by the development of the two parietal 
placentas, narrowed into a terminal style two-parted toward the apex, the divisions more or less coales- 
cent ; stigma truncate, capitate, or clavate ; ovules solitary in each cell, attached on the back near the 
middle of the inner face of the revolute placenta, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. 
Drupe subglobose, tipped with the remnants of the style ; exocarp thin and fleshy ; endocarp somewhat 
four-lobed and separable into four thick-walled bony one-seeded nutlets rounded and furnished on 
the back with a thick spongy longitudinally many-ridged appendage, flattened on their converging 
inner faces, and attached at the apex to a filiform column. Seed terete, filling the seminal cell longi- 
tudinally incurved round a small cavity opposite an elevated oblong scar on one of the inner faces 
of the nutlet and connected with the hilum by a narrow passage ; testa membranaceous, light brown. 
Embryo axile in fleshy albmnen ; cotyledons plane ; radicle slender, elongated, superior, turned toward 
the hilum. 

Bourreria is tropical American, with sixteen or eighteen species^ distributed from southern Florida, 
where one species occurs, through the West Indies to southern Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. 

The genus is not known to possess economic properties, 

The generic name perpetuates that of J. A. Bourrer, an apothecary at Nuremberg. 



Bonpland & Kunth, Nov 



Cat PL Cub. 209. — Miers, Ann. Sj- Mag 



Kunth, Syn, PL jEquin, ii. 190. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 481 ; 199 ; Contrib. ii. 230. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent, ii. 369. 



BORRAGINACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



11 



BOURRERIA HAVANENSIS. 



Strong Back. 



Calyx campanulate, usually 5-toothed. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous or tuberculate- 
scabrous. Fruit bright orange-red. 



Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ehretia Havanensis, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv. 805 



ser. 4, iii. 207 (1869) ; Contrib. ii. 238, t. 86. 



Gray, 



(1819). 



Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 



N 



Sargent, Forest Trees 



Spec. vii. 206. — De Candolle, Prodr. ix. 508. 



N. Am. 
Missouri 
zenfaon. i 



Hitchcock, Rep. Bourreria recurva, Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 



Pfi' 



Ehretia Bourreria, Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 275 (in part) 



(1762). 



Willdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1078 (in part). 



Desfontaines, Ann. Mus. i. 279. — Chapman, Fl. 329. 



Hi. 203 (1869) ; Contrib. ii. 234. 
Bourreria ovata, Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 

iii. 203 (1869) ; Contrib. ii. 234. 
Bourreria tomentosa, y HavanensiSj Grisebach, FL 

Brit. W. Ind. 482 (1864) ; Gat. PL Cub. 209. 



A bushy tree^ in Florida occasionally forty-five feet in height^ with a buttressed and often fluted 
trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, and slender terete branchlets ; usually much smaller, and often a 
shrub with numerous spreading stems. The bark of the trunk varies from a sixteenth to an eighth of an 
inch in thickness and is light brown tinged with red, more or less fissured, and divided on the surface 
into thick plate-hke irregular scales. The branches, when they first appear, are light red and pilose 
with pale hairs which soon disappear ; and in their first winter they are covered with thin dark red, 
orange-colored, or ashy gray bark which is sometimes roughened with pale lenticels and often sepa- 
rates in delicate scales. The leaves are obovate-oblong or ovate, acute, rounded, apiculate or emarginate 
at the apex, wedge-shaped at the base, and entire with thickened revolute margins ; they are covered, 
when they unfold, with soft pale caducous hairs, and at maturity are thick, coriaceous, conspicuously 
reticulate-venulose, dark green and glabrous, or in one form^ tuberculate-scabrous or hispidulous on 
the upper surface, pale yellow-green and glabrous or pubescent on the lower surface, two to three and 
a half inches long and an inch to an inch and a half wide, with broad orange-colored midribs deeply 
impressed on the upper side, and thin arcuate veins ; they are borne on slender rigid grooved petioles 
three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, and, unfolding in Florida in April and May, usually 
remain on the branches through their second summer. The flowers, which open in the spring and late 
in the autumn, are produced in open terminal cymes three or four inches across with slender glabrous 
branches, and are borne on pedicels half an inch long and furnished near the middle with a scarious 



bractlet 



an 



ghth of an inch in length and, like the small bracts, caducous from 



persistent base 



The calyx before opening for 



an 



pointed glabrous or pube 



bud, and after anthesis 



campanulate and five-toothed, with acute teeth cihate on the margins. The corolla is subcampanulate 
and creamy white, with a short tube somewhat enlarged in the throat, and broad ovate spreading lobes 
three quarters of an inch across when expanded. The stamens, which are inserted near the middle of the 
tube of the corolla and are exserted, are composed of slender filaments and of ovate rugulose apiculate 
anthers. The ovary is conical and glabrous, and is gradually contracted into a slender exserted style 

1 Bourreria Havanensis, var. radula. Gray, Syn, Fl. N. Am. ii. Ehretia radula, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 2 (1811). — Die- 

pt. i. 181 (1878). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. trich, Syn. I 630. — De Candolle, Prodr. ix. 606. — Chapman, FL 

ix. 114. 329. 

Bourreria radula, Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 390 (1836). — Chamisso, Cordia Floridana, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 83, t. 107 (1849). 

Linncea, viii. 120. — Miers, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, iii. Bourreria virgata, Grisebach, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. viii. 528 

205 ; Contrib. ii. 237. (PL Wright, pt. ii.) (1862) ; Cat. PL Cub. 209. 



78 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. borraginace^. 



which is divided only toward the apex, or is sometimes nearly entire, and is crowned with two capitate 
stigmas. The fruit ripens in the autumn, or early in the spring from autumnal flowers, and is bright 
orange-red, subglohose, half an inch in diameter, tipped with the remnants of the style, and surrounded 
at the base by the enlarged spreading calyx which sometimes becomes half an inch across ; it has a 
thick touo-h skin and thin drv flesh inclosing* the four thick-walled nutlets. 

Boitrreria Havanensls is a common inhabitant of the forests of Key West, Key Largo, Upper 
Metacombe and Elliott's Keys, in Florida, and of those of the Bahama Islands and of many of the 
Antilles. 

The wood of Bourreria Havanensls is hard, strong, very close-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays, and is brown 
streaked with orange, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8073, a cubic foot weighing 50.31 pounds. 

The Strong Back ^ was first described in the Natural History of Carolina ^ by Mark Catesby, 
who discovered it on the Bahama Islands ; it was first noticed in Florida ^ by Dr. J. L. Blodgett.^ 



^ This name, which was in use among the inhabitants of the ^ The Porto Rico plant that flowered in the Jardin des Plautes 

Bahama Islands when Catesby visited them early in the last cen- in Paris in 1801, and was described by Desfontaines (Ann, Mies. i. 

tury, was probably given to this tree on account of the hard tough 279) as Ehretia Bourreriay was, according to Miers {Ann. Sf Mag, 

nature of the wood. On the Florida keys, which were first settled Nat. Hist ser. 4, iii. 203} his Bourreria recurva here reduced to 

by fishermen and woodchoppers from the Bahamas, Strong Back is Bourreria Havanensis. 
sometimes replaced by Strong Bark. ^ See i. 33. 

2 Pittonice similis, Laureolce foliis^ Jlorihus albis^haccis ruhrisy ii. 79, 
t. 79. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXXV. Bourreria Havanensis. 

1. A floweiing branch, natural size. 

2. A diagram of a flower. 

3. A calyx, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the calyx removed and the corolla displayed, enlarged 
6. A stamen, front and rear views. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLXXXVI. Bourrerli Havanensis 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A nutlet, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXXV. 




/ ^\ 



2 



I 





5 



6 







3 



C.I^.Faxon. del. 



Lov ended sc 



BOURRERIA HAVANENSIS , Miers 



A.JUocreux direa>^ 



Imp, t/ Taneicr, Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CCLXXXVI. 





3 




4- 



5 





CZ.FaxoTh del. 



Ldvendal so. 



BOURRERIA HAVANENSIS . Miers 



A.liwcreua> direa^f 



Imp. J. TaneiLT, Paris. 



B ORR AGINACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



EHRETIA. 



Flowers regular, perfect; calyx 5-partecl, open or closed in aestivation, the 
divisions imbricated ; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; 
stamens 5 ; disk annular ; ovary incompletely 4-celled ; ovule solitary. Fruit a fleshy 
2 or 4-stoned drupe. Leaves alternate, entire or dentate, vrithout stipules. 



Ehretia, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 168 (1756). — Adanson, 
Fam. PI. ii. 177. — Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 936; 



Gen. ii. 840. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. iii. 392. — Engler & 
Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. pt. iii. 87. 



Gen. ed. 6, 102. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 128. — Meisner, Carmona, Cavanilles, Anal. Cienc. Nat. i. 38, t. 3 (1799) ; 



Gen. 278. — Endlicher, Gen. 645. — Bentham & Hooker, 



Icon. V. 22, t. 438. 
Hilsenbergia, Meisner, Gen. ii. 198 (1840). 



Glab 



Leaves 



icabrous-pubescent trees or shrubs^ with terete branehlets and fibrous roots, 
dentate. Flowers small^ in terminal or rarely in axillary scorpioid cymes, corymbs 



panicles. Calyx ope 



closed before anthesis, five-parted, tbe divisions ovate or linear, persistent 



der the fruit. Corolla usually white, the tube short or cylindrical, with five spreading obtuse lobes 



Stamens five, inserted on the tube of the corolla 



ted 



eluded : filaments filiform 



anthers ovate or oblong, attached on the back near the base, two-celled, the cells opening longitu- 



dinally. 



Ovary oblong-conical, sessile on the annular disk, one-celled before anthesis, incompletely 



four-celled by the development of the two parietal placentas ; style columnar, slightly or deeply parted 
into two divisions terminating in capitate or clavate stigmas j ovules solitary in each cell, attached 
laterally near or above the middle on the inner face of the revolute placenta, anatropous ; raphe 
ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit small, usually globose, tipped with the remnants of the style, and 
surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx ; epicarp thin, dry, or juicy ; endocarp separable into 
two two-celled or into four one-celled thick-walled bony nutlets rounded on the back, plane on the face, 
and attached to a thin axile columella. Seed terete, usually erect, filling the longitudinally incurved 
seminal cavity ; testa thin, membranaceous, light brown. Embryo axile in thin albumen ; cotyledons 
ovate, plane, shorter than the elongated superior radicle turned toward the hilum. 

Ehretia is found in the tropics and warm extratropical regions of the two hemispheres, about fifty 
species being now distinguished.^ In the United States the genus is represented by a single species, a 
small tree of southwestern Texas and northern Mexico. 

Some of the species produce edible fruit, and wood of moderate value. The genus is not known 
to possess other useful properties. Ehretia acuminata^ an inhabitant of the Himalaya forests, is often 
planted as a shade-tree in India, China, and Japan. 



1 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov, Gen. et Spec. iii. 65. 
Kunth, Syn, PL JEquin, ii. 189. — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind, 



841. 



De CandoUe, Prodr. ix. 502 (excl. sec. Bourreria in part). 



Miquel, FL Ind. Bat ii. 919. — Bentham, FL Hongk. 234 ; FL 
AusiraL iv- 387. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 481. — Miers, 



Ann. §• Mag. Nat Hist. ser. 4, iii. 

ley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent, ii. 370. 

Brit. Ind. iv. 141. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jbwr. Li 

143, — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xxvi 



Hems- 



Fl, 



inn. 



Soc. 



Nov 



De CandoUe, 



L c. 503. 



Fl. 



C. B. Clarke, L c. 



Forbes & Hemsley, L c. 



Ehretia serrata, Roxburgh, FL Ind. ii. 340 (1824) ; Bot. Reg. 



xiii. t. 1097. — De Candolle, L c. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. 
PL Jap. i. 333. — Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burnt, ii. 210. 

Ehretia pyrifolia, D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 102 (1825). 

Ehretia ovalifolia, Hasskarl, Cat. Hort. Bogor. 137 (not Wight) 
(1844). 

Cordia thyrsiflora^ Siebold & Zuecarini, Abhand. Akad. Miinch, 
iv. pfc. iii. 150 (1846). 
In India the fruit of this handsome tree, which is sweet and 



and 



facture of agrricidtural im 



dis. Forest Fl 



339, under Ehretia serratd). 



80 



JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BORRAGINACE^. 



The generic name commemorates the artistic and scientific labors of 



botanical painter of the eighteenth century 



Georg Dionysius Ehret 



^ Georg Dionysius Ehret (1708-1770) was born in the grand 



am 



Ehret returned to London in 1740, mar- 



duchy of Baden, where his father was gardener to Charles, Prince ried a sister of Philip Miller of the Physic Garden at Chelsea, and 
of Baden Bulach, a patron of botany and horticulture. Ehret early passed the remainder of his life in England occupied in flower- 
displayed a talent for drawing, and a collection of five hundred painting and in teaching his art. Of his published drawings, which 
paintings of flowers which he made in the ducal gardens was represent a small part of his accomplishment, the most important 
purchased by Dr. Trew, the distinguished physician and botanist of are the illustrations of the sumptuous Plantce Selectee^ of which 



Nuremberg. W 



seven decades were issued by Trew and three by Vogel after the 



through 



death of the former. 



Browne 



found 



employment in painting the flowers in the Jar- Natural History of Jamaica^ and drew and engraved a series of 
din du Roi under the direction of Jussieu. He crossed to London, tables of exotic plants and butterflies, published in London in 1748- 
but soon returned to the continent, and in 1736 was working in 1759. Several papers on botanical subjects written by Ehret, 



Clifford's famous garden in Amsterdam, where he 
y Linnaeus, under whose eye he prepared the drawings 



including an account of the Sassafras-tree of North America, were 
printed in the Nova Acta Academice Curiosorum, 



BORRAGiNACE^ 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



81 



EHRETIA ELLIPTICA. 



Anaqua. Knackaway. 

Flowers in terminal racemose panicles. Nutlets 2. Leaves oval or oblong 



Ehretia emptica, De CandoUe, Prodr, ix, 503 (1845). 



Hort 



Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Sitrv. 136. — Miers, Ann. & 1847, 12. — Walpers, Ann. i. 524. — Miers, Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, iii. 110 ; Contrih. ii 228, t. 85. — Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, iii. Ill ; Contrih. ii. 229. 



N. Am. ii. pt. i. 118. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 



Miers, Ann. & Mag, Nat. Hist 



Am. Cent. ii. 370. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 111 ; Contrih. ii. 229. 

Census U. S. ix. 114. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Ehretia exasperata, Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 

Herh. ii. 283 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 4, iii. 112; Contrib. ii. 230. 



A tree^ sometimes forty to fifty feet in height^ with a trunk occasionally three feet in diameter, 
and stout spreading branches which form a handsome compact round-topped leafy head ; usually much 
smaller within the territory of the United States, and often reduced to a low shrub. The bark of old 
trunks is sometimes an inch thick, and is deeply furrowed and divided into long thick irregular plate- 
like scales with a gray or reddish brown surface which separates in thin flakes ^ or on young stems and 
on the branches it is thin, light brown, and broken into thick appressed scales. The branchlets are 
slender and terete, and when they first appear are covered like the under surface of the leaves, the 
branches of the inflorescence, and the outer surface of the calyx of the flower, with rigid hirsute pale 
hairs ; during their first winter they are hght brown tinged with red, sometimes puberulous, and often 
roughened by numerous pale lenticels. The leaf-scars are small, depressed, and obcordate, and display a 
short lunate row of minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; in their axils are one, or two superposed minute 
buds buried in the bark, and covered with two pairs of dark scales which remain on the base of the 
growing branchlet and at maturity are lanceolate, acute, dark chestnut brown, coated with pale hairs, 
and sometimes a quarter of an inch long.^ The leaves are oval or oblong, pointed and apiculate at the 
apex, gradually rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, entire or occasionally furnished above the middle 
with a few broad teeth, and conspicuously reticulate-venulose, with short stout grooved pubescent peti- 
oles ; they unfold late in the winter, and are then thin and light green, lustrous, minutely tuberculate 
and pilose on the upper surface, and are often furnished below with tufts of white hairs in the axils of 
the veins ; at maturity they are thick, subcoriaceous, dark green and roughened above by the enlarged 
circular rigid pale tubercles, and are more or less covered with soft pale or rufous pubescence below, 
especially on the narrow midribs and the numerous primary veins which are arcuate near the margins. 
The flowers are produced in compact racemose scorpioid-branched panicles two to three inches long 
and broad, terminal on short leafy branches of the year, and appear in the autumn, during the winter, 
or usually in very early spring. The bracts and bractlets are linear, acute, about a quarter of an inch 



& 



d early deciduous. The calyx, which is open in the bud, is divided to the base into five 



acute divisions and is nearly as long as the campanulate tube of the coroUa, which forms before 
anthesis an obovate bud rounded at the apex, and is haK an inch across the expanded lobes, which are 
ovate, thin and white, and rather shorter than the exserted stamens. The fruit ripens in the autumn 
and in the spring, and is globose, surrounded at the base by the persistent somewhat enlarged calyx, 
lio-ht yellow, and a quarter of an inch in diameter, with thin sweet rather juicy edible flesh, and two 



seeded nutlets 



rminal bud, the winter branchlet ending 



point close to the scar of the last leaf of the previous season. 



82 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. boeraginace^. 



Ehretia eUij^tiea is most abundant in the fertile soil of river valleys, although it often covers dry 

t 

barren ridges with a shrubby growth/ and is distributed in western Texas from the valley of the upper 
San Marcos River to the Rio Grande, and through Nuevo Leon and Cohahuila to the mountains of San 
Luis Potosi. It is often extremely common on the bottom-lands of western Texas, and probably attains 
its largest size within the territory of the United States on those of the Guadaloupe and Nueces rivers, 
sixty or seventy miles from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 

The wood of Ehretia elUptica is heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, and difficult to split j it 
contains many thin medullary rays and small open ducts arranged in numerous concentric rings within 
the layers of annual growth which are marked by several rows of larger ducts, and is light brown, 
with thick slightly lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6440, 
a cubic foot weighing 40.13 pounds. 

Ehretia elliptica was discovered in Nuevo Leon by the Belgian botanist Berlandier, and was first 
found in Texas near New Braunfels by Frederick Lindheimer.^ 

The rapid growth of this tree, which is not much affected by drought, its compact round head of 
dark green foliage, and abundant clusters of white flowers, which frequently quite cover the branches, 
make it a desirable ornamental tree, and the Anaqua is often found shading the streets of the cities of 
western Texas and northern Mexico. 



" Poor as a Knackaway hill" has become a proverbial expression among Texas farmers (Garden and Forest, vi. 242). 2 ggg j 74^ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCLXXXVIL Ehretia elliptica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front and side views, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Cross section of an ovary, much magnified. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of Nortli America. 



Tab. CCLXXXVII. 




C.E:Fax^7hdd.. 



LovenddL so 



EHRETIA ELLIPTICA.DC 



A-JUo€reua> direa>P 



Imp. J. Taneur .Paris 



BiGNONiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



83 



CATALPA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx gamosepalous, closed in the bud, bilabiately splitting in 
anthesis ; corolla gamopetalous, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; 
stamens usually 2 ; staminodia 3 ; disk hypogynous, nearly obsolete ; ovary 2-celled ; 
ovules numerous. Fruit a linear v^^oody capsule. Leaves simple, usually opposite, des- 
titute of stipules. 



Catalpa, Scopoli, Introduct. 170 (1777). — A. L. de Jus- 711. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 1041. — Baillon, 

sieu, Gen. 138. — Meisner, Gen. 301. — Endlicher, Gen. Hist. PI. x. 45. 

Catalpium, Rafinesque, Jour. Phys. Ixxxix. 259 (1819). 



Trees, with watery juices, terete branchlets with thick pith, thin scaly bark, scaly buds, soft Hght- 
colored wood, and fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, verticillate, or alternate, involute in vernation, simple, 
entire or lobed, oblong-ovate or cordate, long-petiolate, deciduous. Flowers vernal or sestival in 
ample terminal compound trichotomously branched panicles or corymbs. Bracts and bractlets Hnear- 
lanceolate, deciduous. Calyx membranaceous, subglobose and apiculate in the bud, in anthesis sphtting 
nearly to the base into two broadly ovate entire lobes. Corolla gamopetalous, thin and membra- 
naceous, white or yellow, variously marked and spotted on the inner surface, inserted on the nearly 
obsolete disk, the tube occasionally furnished on the upper side near the base with an external lobed 
appendage, obUque and enlarged above into a broad bilabiate limb, with spreading Hps undulate 
on the margins, the posterior two-parted, the anterior deeply three-lobed. Stamens and staminodia 
inserted near the base of the coroUa ; stamens two, introrse, anterior, included or slightly exserted, or 
rarely four ; filaments flattened, arcuate ; anthers attached on the back, oblong or linear, carried to the 
rear of the corolla and face to face on either side of the stigma by a half turn in the filaments near their 
base, two-celled, the cells divergent in anthesis, opening longitudinally ; staminodia filiform, minute or 
rudimentary. Ovary sessile, two-celled, abruptly contracted into an elongated filiform style divided at 
the apex into two stigmatic lobes exserted above the anthers ; ^ ovules numerous, inserted in many 
series on a central placenta, horizontal, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit an 
elongated subterete capsule tapering from the middle to the two ends, persistent on the branches during 
winter and ultimately sphtting loculicidally into two valves. Seeds numerous, compressed, oblong, 
exalbuminous, inserted in two to four ranks near the margin of the flat or more or less thickened, 
woody septum free from the walls of the capsule j testa thin, light brown or silvery gray, longitudinaUy 
veined, produced into broad lateral wings notched at the base of the seed and divided at their narrowed 
or rounded ends into comas of long coarse white hairs. Embryo filling the cavity of the seed ; 
cotyledons plane, broader than long, slightly two-lobed, rounded laterally ; radicle short, erect, turned 
toward the oblong conspicuous basal hilum. 

Catalpa is now confined to the eastern United States, the "West Indies, and China. During the 

1 la the North American species of Catalpa the flowers are pro- who enter the corolla in search of the nectar secreted by the small 

tandrous ; the anthers open in the morning and discharge their oblong glands on the margin of the disk, and probably insure their 

pollen, while the lobes of the stigma remain closed until the even- cross-fertilization, 

iug of the same day, when the anthers have become effete (Engel- pmo, 



viii. 171. — Del- 



UJteriori 



3). The flowers are visited by humble-bees, 



84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



tertiary epoch it was common in Europe, from which it has now disappeared ; ^ and in North America 
ranged westward to the northern Rocky Mountain region, where traces o£ Catalpa crass if ol la, ^ the 
ancestor of the existing species, have been discovered in the miocene strata on the banks of the Yellow- 
stone River. 

Seven species are distinguished ; of these, two are North American. One species, Catalpa longis- 
sima,^ is a native of the Antilles ; two others, still imperfectly known, have been detected on the island 
of Cuba,* and Catalpa ovata ^ and Cataljm Bungei ^ inhabit northern and central China. 

Catalpa contains a bitter principle, and is tonic and diuretic, and produces soft straight-grained and 

« 

durable wood. 



In the United States Catalp 



not 



sly injured by insects ^ or fungal diseases.^ The North 



American and Chinese species are easily raised from seeds^^ which germinate early in the first se£ 
and can be multipHed by cuttings taken from young shoots, which root readily. 

The generic name is that by which one of the North American species, the type of the genus 
known among the Cherokee Indians. 



^ Saporta, Ann, Sci, Nat. ser. 7, x. 62. — Zittel, Handb. Palce- of western China, although it has been so long cultivated in the 



ontolog. ii, 780, f . 397. 

2 Newberry, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 56 (1870). 

8 Sims, Bot. Mag. xxvii. under t. 1094 (1808). — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ix. 226. 



northern and central provinces that, like several other Chinese 
trees, it is not possible, with the existing knowledge of the flora of 



trmini 



its original home. Catalpa ovata was 

introduced into Europe by Siebold in 1849. In the northern 

Bignonia longissima^ Jacquin, Enum. PL Carih. 25 (1760) ; Hist. United States it is hardier than either of the North American spe- 

Stirp. Am. 182, 1. 176, f. 78. — Swartz, Prorfr. 91 ; Fl.Ind. Occ. ii. cies, producing in great profusion during the month of July its 

1037. — Willdenow, Spec. iii. pt. i. 290, — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. small light yellow flowers, which are succeeded by slender fruits. 



309. 



A hybrid of Catalpa ovata and of one of the North American 



Bignonia Quercus, Lamarck, Diet. i. 417 (1783). — Tussac, Fl. species appeared several years ago at Baysville, Indiana, in the 



AntilL iv. 118, t 37. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. AntilL i. 87, t. 18. 
Catalpa longisiliqua^ Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 446 (1864). 
Catalpa longissima is a handsome tree forty to fifty feet in height, 



nursery of Mr. J. C. Teas, whose name it bears (Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, ii. 303, f.). 

6 C. A. Meyer, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersiourg, ii. 49 (1837). 



with an oblong round-topped head, narrow ovate pointed leaves, De Candolle, L c. — Hance, Jour. Bot. xx. 37. — Franchet, PL David. 
small fragrant nearly white flowers, and long slender fruits, and i. 229 ; Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg^ xxiv. 236. — Forbes & Hems- 



West 



The 



wood, known as French oak or Spanish oak, is moderately strong, 
and is considered valuable (Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 264). The 
bark, leaves, and flowers are believed to possess tonic and anti- 



ley, L c. 235. 

Catalpa syringifolia, Bunge, Mem. Sav. Etr. St. Petersbourg, ii. 
119 (Enum. PL Chin. Bor.) (not Sims) (1834). 
Catalpa Bungeiy which is often planted in Peking and other cities 
periodic properties, and are sometimes used medicinally in the of central and northern China, is described as it large tree with 

foetid lobed or entire leaves varying in size and shape, large white 
flowers spotted with purple and appearing in May, and long slen- 
der pods (Bretschneider, Jour. China Branch Roy. Asiatic Soc. n. 



West 



4 Grisebach, Cat PL Cub. 192. 
6 Don, Gen. SysL iv. 230 (1838). 

Bignonia Catalpa, Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 251 (not Linnseus) (1784). 

Catalpa bignonioides, var. Kcempferi, De Candolle, I. c. (1845). 



ser. 



XXV. 341 



Few insects are reported as injuring Catalpa in North Amer- 



Catalpa K(Empferi,^\Qho\di8iZ\iQ,QdJ^mi, Abhand.Akad. Miinch. ica. In the southern states the foliage is sometimes entirely de- 

iv. pt. iii. 142 (1846). — Wi^v^el, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. stroyed by the larvae of Sphinx Catalpce, Boisduval, although in 

122. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 326. — Laval- the north it is considered a rare insect (Rep. U. S. A gric. 18S2, 

Ide, Icon. Arb. Segrez. 33,t.lO.—BoL Mag. ex. t. 6611. — Forbes 189). The Fall Web-worm also feeds upon the leaves; and Diplo- 



& Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 235. 



sis Catalpce, Comstock, is described as infesting the fruit on trees 



This tree was first made known to Europeans by the German growing in the city of Washington (Rep. U. S. Agric. 1880, 266). 



botanist Engelbert Kaempfer, who visited Japan in 1690, and in 



^ The fungal parasites of Catalpa are principally species which 



1712 published an excellent description and figure of it in his produce spotting of the leaves. The most characteristic are Cer- 

Amcenitaies Exoticce (p. 841). It is not, however, indigenous in cospora Caialpce, Winter, which makes small white spots, and 

Japan, where it now only exists in cultivation, being rarely seen Macrosporium Catalpce, Ellis & Martin, and Amphyllosticta Catalpce, 

outside of the inclosures of Buddhist temples, and where it was Ellis & Martin, which make black spots. The mildew of Catalpa 

brought from China about the beginning of the Christian era by leaves is due in part to Phyllactinia suffulta, Saccardo, a species 

the priests of Buddha, who appear to have a, particular fondness diffused on many different plants, and to the more special Micro- 

for the Catalpa. Catalpa ovata is probably a native of the forests sphcera elevata, BurriU, which infests both North American species. 



BiGNONiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



S^ 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF CATALPA. 



Flowers in many-flowered crowded panicles ; corolla thickly spotted on the inner surface ; fruit 

slender, thin-walled ; leaves slightly acuminate 1. Catalpa Catalpa, 

Flowers in few-flowered open panicles ; corolla inconspicuously spotted ; fruit stout, thick-walled ; 

leaves caudate-acuminate 2. Catalpa speciosa, 



86 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



CATALPA CATALPA. 



Catalpa. Indian Bean. 



Flowers in many-flowered crowded panicles ; corolla thickly spotted on the inner 
surface. Fruit slender. Leayes slightly acuminate. 



Catalpa Catalpa, Karsten, Pharm. Med. Bot. 927 



(1882). 



Sudworth, Garden and Forest^ iv. 466. 



log. Surv. N. Car. iii. 1860, 50. — Bureau, Bignoniacece ^ 

Koch, Dendr. ii. 302. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 



t. 25. 



Bignonia Catalpa, Linnaeus, Spec. 622 (in part) (1753). 
Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. i. 114. — Lamarck, Diet. 



417. 



Moench, Bdume Weiss. 15. — Marshall, Arhust 



Am. 21. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 58, t. 20, £. Catalpa cordifolia, Moench, Meth. 464 (1794). 



ed. 2, 146, f. 45. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 115. — Watson & Coulter, Gray*s Man. 
ed. 6, 399. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 520, f. 91, H-L. 

Nou- 



45. 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Unitij ii. 210. 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. i. 42, t. 41. — Willdenow, Bert 
Baumz. 46 ; Spec. iii. 289 ; Enum. 649. — Michaux, Fl 
Bor.-Am. ii. 25. — Schkuhr, Handh. ii. 201, t. 175. 



Hist 



Michaux f . Hist 



Le 



Am. iii. 217, t. 6. — Rafinesque, Fl. Lttdovic. 159. — 
Maout & Decaisne, Traite Gen. Bot. 209, f . ; English 
ed. 602, f , 
Catalpa bignonioides, Walter, Fl. Car. 64 (1788). 

Borkhausen, Handh. Forstbot. ii. 1601. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ix. 226. — Gray, Man. 292 (in part) ; Syn. Fl. N. 
A^n. ii. pt. i. 319 (in part) ; ed. 2, 456. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestr. ed. 3, 182. — Chapman, FL 285. — Curtis, Bep. Geo- 



veau Diihamel^ ii. 13 (excl. t.). — Nuttall, Gen. i. 10. 
Elliott, Sk. i. 24. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 2, 363. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. ix. 133. 
Catalpa syringifolia, Sims, Bot. Mag. xxvii. t. 1094 
(1808). — Pursh, FL Am. Sep>t. i. 10. — Hayne, Dendr. 
FL 2. — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. xiii. t. 1285. — Sprengel, 
Syst. i. 70. — Sertum Botanicum, i. t. — Don, Gen. Syst. 



IV. 



230. 



Dietrich, Syn. i. 82. — Nuttall, Sylva^ iii. 77. 



Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 25. — Hofmeister, Abhand. K'onigL 
Sdchsisch. GeselL Wiss. vi. 632, t. 23, f. 7. 
balpa communis, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 
iii. 242 (1811). 



A tree, rarely sixty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes three or four feet in diameter, and 
stout elongated brittle branches which form a broad head/ and dichotomous branchlets. The bark of 
the trunk varies from a quarter to a third of an inch in thickness, and is light brown tinged with red 
on the surface, which separates in large thin irregular scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, 
are green shaded with purple, and slightly puberulous ; during their first winter they are thickened at 
the nodes, lustrous, Hght orange-color or gray-brown, covered with a slight glaucous bloom, and marked 
with large pale scattered lenticels, the outer layer of the thin bark separating easily from the bright 
green inner layer. The leaf-scars, in which appear a circle of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars, 
are large, oval, and elevated, and do not entirely disappear until the third or fourth year, when the 
branches are reddish brown, and marked with a network of thin flat brown ridges. The branch con- 
tinues to grow through the summer, the end dying in the autumn without forming a terminal bud, and 
appearing during the winter as a black scar by the side of the upper axillary bud. The axillary buds 
are minute, globose, and deeply immersed in the bark, with several pairs of chestnut-brown broadly ovate 
rounded slightly puberulous and loosely imbricated scales ; those of the inner ranks are accrescent, and 



when fully grown are bright green, pubescent, and sometimes two inches in length. 



The leaves are 



opposite or in threes, broadly ovate, rather abruptly contracted into slender points or sometimes rounded 
at the apex, cordate at the base, and entire or often laterally lobed j when they unfold they are coated 
on the lower surface with pale tomentum, and are pilose on the upper surface ; and at maturity they are 
thin and firm, light green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent below, five or six inches long and 

^ Sometimes when not interfered with the branches grow to a great length, and, resting on the ground, form roots, and produce 
new trunks in succession (^Garden and Forest, iii. 536, f. 68). 



BIGNONIACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



87 



four or five inches broad, with stout terete petioles five or six inches in length, prominent midribs and 
primary veins arcuate near the margins, connected by reticulate veinlets, and furnished in their axils 
with clusters of dark glands.^ They smell disagreeable when bruised, and turn black and fall after the 
first severe frost in the autumn. The flowers, which appear from May in the south to the middle of 
July in New England, are produced in compact many-flowered panicles eight or ten inches long and 
broad, with light green branches tinged with purple, and are borne on slender pubescent pedicels half 
an inch in length. The calyx: is half an inch long, and green or light purple. The corolla is white, 
with a broad campanulate flat tube, and a spreading limb which, when it is expanded, is an inch and a 
half wide and nearly two inches long j it is marked on the inner surface on the lower side with two 
rows of yeUow blotches following two parallel lateral ridges or folds, and in the throat and on the lower 
lobes of the limb with crowded conspicuous purple spots. The stamens and style are slightly exserted. 
The fruit, which ripens in the autumn, hangs in thick-branched orange-colored panicles, and remains on 
the trees without opening during the winter ; it is six to twenty inches long, a quarter to a third of an 
inch thick in the middle, with a thin wall which is bright chestnut-brown on the outside and light olive- 
brown and lustrous on the inside, and in the spring sphts into two flat valves before finally falling ; the 
partition is thin and light brown. The seed is about an inch long, a quarter of an inch wide, silvery 
gray, with pointed wings terminating in long pencil-shaped tufts of white hairs. 

Catalpa Catalpa is usually supposed to be indigenous on the banks of the rivers of southwestern 



Georgia 



Florida, and central Alabama and Mississipp 



The hardiness of this tree, ho 



in severe chmates like that of New England, would indicate an origin in some colder and more elevated 
region, and it is possible that the Catalpa-trees which now appear to be growing naturally in the south- 
ern states are the offspring of trees carried there by man.^ 

The wood of Catalpa Catalpa is soft, not strong, coarse-grained, and very durable in contact with 
the soil, with numerous obscure medullary rays and rows of large open ducts clearly marking the layers 
of annual growth ; it is light brown, with lighter colored often nearly white sapwood composed of one 
or two layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.M74, a cubic foot 
weighing 27.88 pounds. It is used and highly valued for fence-posts, rails, and other purposes where 

durable wood is needed. 

The bark, which contains tannin and an amorphous bitter principle, has been occasionally used, 
as wefl as the seeds, in decoction for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis,^ and in homoeopathic 



practice 



4 



The first account of Catalpa Catalpa was published in the Natural History of Carolina^ hj 



Mark Catesby, by whom it was introduced into English gardens about 1726 



6 



Its 



orna- 



1 In the North American and Chinese species of Catalpa the completely naturalized in populous regions in the middle and 
leaves are furnished with these glands, which, on the American southern states- 
species, at least, secrete nectar, and are visited by numerous insects 



Nat 



Med. Bot. N, 



Guests, 



201 ; U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1747. 



Nat, xiu. 648) 



Med, PL in HomoeopatJiic Remedies 



•win 



109. 



wide bv the wind 



Jlore sordide albo, intus maculis purpureis 



surface of the water, are perfectly adapted to insure its wide dis- ^ luteis asperso, siliqua longissima ^ angustissima, i. 49, t. 49. 



semination 



region abounding in swift-flowing 



foliis fl 



streams like that which surrounds the southern extremity of the pureo^ Miller, Diet, No. 4. 



Appalachian mountain system. Catesby, who is the first botanist Bigm 

who speaks of this Catalpa, found it in the uninhabited part of Royen, 

Carolina, which in his time was all the middle and western part of Bigm 

the state, and carried it to the coast. Although not now known in cceruleis 

the forests which cover the foothills of the southern Alleghany tissima^ 

Mountains except in the neighborhood of human habitations and on ® Ait 

the banks of streams, it is not improbable that they contain the 1261, t. 
home of this tree, which, during the last hundred years, has become 



foliis simplicihus cordatis, Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 



Fl. 



foliis simplicihus cordatis, Jlore sordide albo^ intus maculis 



Romans, Nat. Hist. Florida 
on, Hort. Kew. ii. 346 (B 
(Catalpa syringifolia). 



Loudon, Arb. Brit, 



88 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. bignoniace^. 



mental tree was soon recognized^ and for one hundred and fifty years it has been planted in the parks 
and gardens of all temperate countries, which it decorates in early summer with its abundant clusters 
of showy flowers.^ 

Catali:^a Catal'pa is hardy in the United States as far north as eastern New England, where the 
ends of the branches, however, are often killed in winter, and young plants are sometimes injured, and 
in central and western Europe. 



nk 



with s 
under 



duced flowers. A seedling variety of Catalpa with 
also occasionally planted. 



It is not known to have pro- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCLXXXVIII. Catalpa Catalpa. 

1. The end of a flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A corolla displayed, natural size. 

4. Stamens, front and rear views, slightly enlarged 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged- 
6- An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCLXXXIX. Catalpa Catalpa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. The end of a fruit, one of the valves removed, natural size 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4- Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCLXXXVIII. 




C. E.Faccorv del^. 




SCr 



ZK^K\:?K CATALPA,Karst. 



jA.JtLocreiia> £rej:>. 



Imp. iJ. Taneur^ Pans 



Silva of North America 



Tah . CCLXXXIX 



2 




C.E.Faxon del. 




J'C. 



CATALPA CATALPA , Karst. 



A.Bzocreiuc 




t 



Imp. J. Tanezir^J^arir. 



BiGNONiACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



OATALPA SPECIOSA. 



Western Oatalpa. 



Flowers in few-flowered open panicles ; corolla inconspicuously spotted. Fruit 
stout. Leaves caudate-acuminate. 



Catalpa speciosa, Engelmann, BoL Gazette, v. 1 (1880). — Nuttall, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. ser. 2, v. 183 (not 

Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 70. — Sargent, Moench). 

Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 115- — Catalpa bignonioides, Lesquereux, Owen's Second Rep. 

Grsiy, Si/n. Fl. N. Am. ed. 2, i. pt. ii. 456. — Lauche, Geolog. Surv. Ark. 375 (not Walter) (1860). — Gray, 

Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 145. — Watson & Coulter, Graxfs Man. ed. 5, 321 (in part); 8yn. FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 

Man. ed. 6, 399. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 520. 319 (in part). — Broadhead, Bot. Gazette^ iii. 59. 
Catalpa cordifolia, Nouveau Duhamel^ ii. t. 5 (1802). 



A tree, in the forest occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk 
rarely four and a half feet in diameter, and a narrow round-topped crown of slender branches ; usually 
smaller, although often a hundred feet high, and when grown in open situations rarely more than fifty 
feet in height, with a short trunk and a broad head of spreading branches. The bark of the trunk is 
three quarters of an inch or sometimes nearly an inch in thickness, brown tinged with red, and broken 
on the surface into thick scales. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are light green, 
often tinged with purple, and covered with scattered pale hairs ; during their first winter they are light 
orange-color or reddish brown, covered with a slight bloom, and marked with many pale conspicuous 
lenticels, and with the elevated oval leaf-scars which are a quarter of an inch long and display a circular 
row of large fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; in their second and third years the branches grow darker 
and the leaf-scars and lenticels nearly disappear. The end of the branch dies in the autumn without 
forming a terminal bud, and during the winter appears as an elevated circular scar close to the upper 
axillary bud. The buds are minute, globose, partly immersed in the bark, and covered with loosely 
imbricated chestnut-brown ovate scales, keeled on the back and slightly apiculate at the apex ; those of 
the inner ranks are accrescent, and at maturity are foliaceous, obovate, acute, gradually narrowed below 
to a sessile base, many-nerved with dark veins, pubescent on the lower surface, and sometimes nearly two 
and a half inches long and three quarters of an inch broad. The leaves are opposite, or in threes, oval, 
long-pointed, cordate at the base, and usually entire or furnished with one or two lateral teeth ; when 
they unfold they are pilose on the upper surface and covered on the lower and on the petioles with pale 
or rufous tomentum which soon disappears, and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green above, 
and pale and covered with soft pubescence below, especially along the stout midribs and the principal 
veins marked in their axils with large clusters of dark glands; they are ten to twelve inches long, seven 
or eight inches broad, and are borne on stout terete petioles four to six inches in length. They turn black 
and fall after the first severe frost of the autumn. The flowers, which appear late in May or early in 
June, are borne on slender purple pedicels furnished near the middle with one, two, or three bractlets, 
and are produced in open few-flowered glabrous panicles five or six inches long and broad, with green 
or purple branches marked with orange-colored lenticels, the lowest branches being often developed 
from the axils of small leaves. The calyx is purple, and divided to the base into two ovate pointed 
apiculate divisions. The corolla is white, with a broad conical oblique tube nearly an inch long, often 
marked externally with purple spots near the base and internally on the lower side with two bands of 
yellow blotches which follow two parallel lateral ridges, and with occasional purple spots spreading over 
the lobes of the lower lip of the limb, which, when the flower is fully open, has a vertical diameter of 



90 



JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



nearly two inches and a horizontal diameter of two inches and a half. The filaments, which are marked 
near the base with a few oblong purple spots, are shghtly exserted, and rather longer than the slender 
glabrous style. The fruit is eight to twenty inches long and one half to three quarters of an inch in 
diameter in the middle, with a thick wall which toward spring splits into two concave valves; the 
partition is thickened in the middle and nearly triangular in section. The seed is an inch long and a 
third of an inch broad, with a light brown coat, and wings which are rounded at the ends and terminate 

in a frinofe of rather short hairs. 

Catal])a sjjeciosa inhabits the borders of streams and ponds and fertile often inundated bottom- 
lands, and is distributed from the valley of the Vermillion Kiver in Illinois through southern Illinois 



d Indiana, western Kentucky and Tenn 



southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas 



through cultivation it has become naturalized near habitations in southern Arkansas, western Louisiana 



and eastern Texas 



In 



thern Illinois and Indiana, where it probably grew 



largest size, the 



Western Catalpa was formerly extremely abundant 



The wood of Catalpa speciosa is hght, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, and very durable in con- 
tact with the soil.* It contains numerous obscure medullary rays and bands of large open ducts, which 
clearly mark the layers of annual growth, and is light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood com- 
posed of one or two layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.4165, a cubic foot weighing 25.96 pounds. It is largely used for railway ties, fence-posts, and rails, 
and occasionally for furniture and the interior finish of houses. 

Long confounded with the Catalpa of the Atlantic and eastern Gulf states, Catalpa speciosa was 
first distinguished by Dr. J. A. Warder,^ who published the earliest account of it in 1853.^ Twenty 
years later its rapid growth,^ its hardiness, and the remarkable durability of its wood drew the attention 
of the public to the value of the Western Catalpa for planting on the prairies, where, chiefly through 
the efforts of E. E. Barney ^ and Robert Douglas,^ many plantations have been made with this tree. 



^ The trunks of the Catalpa-trees killed by the sinking and sub- valuable papers in The American Journal of Forestry, and other 

sequent submersion of a large tract of land near New Madrid, Mis- technical periodicals, 
souri, which followed the earthquake of August, 1811, were stand- ^ Western Horticultural Review^ iii. 533. 

ing and perfectly sound sixty-seven years later, although all their ^ Young plants of Catalpa speciosa in good soil sometimes in- 

companions in the forest had disappeared long before, Undecayed crease in diameter of the trunk with great rapidity, and specimens 

fence-posts believed to have been continuously in the ground for with three or four layers of annual growth each nearly an inch in 

more than half a century demonstrate, too, the remarkable dura- thickness are not uncommon. In one of these quickly grown speci- 

bility of the wood of Catalpa speciosa. (See E. E. Barney, Addl* mens Professor C. R. Barnes (Bot, Gazette/is.. 74, f. 4) found thelay- 



tional Facts and Information in Relation to the Catalpa-tree, 5.) 
2 John Aston Warder (1812-1883), of a family of the Society 



ers of annual growth separated by thin well-defined plates of cork. 
After the first few years the growth of Catalpa speciosa in the 



of Friends, was born in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, where forest is not particularly rapid. Of the two log specimens in the 

he had his schooling, and with his parents moved in 1830 to Spring- Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American Mu- 

fleld, Ohio. He was graduated in 1836 from the Jefferson Medical seum of Natural History in New York, collected in southeastern 

College of Philadelphia, and established himself as a physician in Missouri, one is 37^ inches in diameter inside the bark, with 178 

Cincinnati. In 1855 he gave up the practice of medicine, and layers of annual growth, and the other is 22^ inches in diameter, 

settled on a farm in North Bend, Ohio, which was his home during with 105 layers of annual growth. 



the remainder of his life, passed in the study and practice of hor- 



^ Eliam Eliakim Barney (1807-1880) was born in Henderson 



ticulture and forestry. In 1873 Dr. Warder was appointed United near Sackett's Harbor, New York, and in 1831 was graduated from 

States Commissioner to the International Exhibition at Vienna, and Union College at Schenectady. For many years a teacher, he af- 

his report on the exhibits in the Forestry Department is an inter- terwards became interested in a saw-mill in Dayton, Ohio, where 

esting contribution to the knowledge of forestry. The last years later he established the Barney & Smith Car Company, of which 

of Dr. Warder's life were devoted to creating a public interest in he was president until his death. Attracted by the beauty of the 

American forests and forest-planting ; and in 1875 he took the Catalpas shading the streets of Dayton, he became interested in 

principal part in organizing the American Forestry Association, the tree, and in 1878 published for free distribution two tracts, in 



which held its first meeting in Philadelphia the following year. 



which he had gathered all the available information concerning it. 



Among Dr. Warder's numerous contributions to the literature of entitled Facts and Information in relation to the Catalpa-tree (^Ca- 

horticulture and forestry are a Manual on Hedges and Evergreens, talpa bignonioides) , its Value, and importance of its extensive cultiva- 

published in 1858 ; American Pomology : Apples, published in 1867, tion in groves, and Additional Facts and Information in relation to the 

in which are included the results of many years of careful observa- Catalpa-tree {Catalpa bignonioides) and its variety f speciosa. 

tion ; The Woody Plants of Ohio, published in 1882 ; and many ^ Robert Douglas was born in Gateshead near Halifax in Eng- 



BIGNONIACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



The dark green foliage of the Western Catalpa^ and its abundant clusters of large nearly white 
flowers, which begin to appear on plants eight to twelve years old, make it a valuable ornamental tree, 
and it is already a familiar inhabitant in many of the gardens of the United States and Europe. 



land in 1813, and having learned the tailor's trade, emigrated to of his party, crossing the deserts of Utah and Nevada and the 

Canada in 1836. Two years later he settled in Whitingham, Ver- Sierra Nevada on foot. After a short stay in California, Mr. 

mont, where for a short time he kept the country inn, but the tide Douglas returned home by the Isthmus of Panama, and has since 

of emigration was setting to the west, and in 1844 he drove through devoted himself to raising conifer and other tree seedlings, of 

the then sparsely inhabited country to Illinois, and established his which he has distributed millions. In recent years IVIr. Douglas 

home on the shores of Lake Michigan about thirty miles north of has taken large contracts for planting trees in different parts of 

Chicago, in what is now the town of Waukegan. Here he opened the country, and the most successful plantations of Catalpa speciosa 

a tailor's shop ; but in 1848, impelled by a strong love of nature in the United States were made by liim near Farlington, in Kansas, 

which had declared itself in his boyhood, when he lived with his on the line of the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railroad, 

parents in Fallon's nursery near Newcastle, he established a small in 1879-83. (See Qth Ann, Rep. Kansas Forestry, 47.) No one in 

nursery business. The next year, the California gold fever being his time has been more active than Mr, Douglas in increasing the 

at its height, Mr. Douglas joined a party of his neighbors and love of planting trees in the United States, or has studied them 

started to cross the continent. In fording the Bear River, among from the cultural point of view with greater zeal, intelligence, and 

the Wahsatch Mountains, he lost his team of cattle, and, impatient success. 
of the slow progress of the emigrant train, walked on alone ahead 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PiiATE CCXC. Catalpa speciosa. 

1. The end of a flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A corolla displayed, natural size. 

3. A flower, the corolla removed, natural size. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 



Plate CCXCI. Catalpa speciosa 

1. A cluster of fruit, natural size. 

2. A seed, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 
5- A leaf, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta'b. CCXC 




C. E.Faau??!' del. 




so. 



CATALPA 



A.Bzocreux^ direa:. 



SPECI0SA,En8elm. 



Imp . l/. Taneur, Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tat. CCXCI 




1 1 \ 







so 



CATALPA SPECI0SA,En6elTn. 




A.JiioGreiza> direa:' 



t 



Imp . S. Taneur, Pcvris 



BiGNONiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



CHILOPSIS. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx gamosepalous, closed in the bud, bilabiately splitting in 
antbesis; corolla gamopetalous, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestiyation; 
stamens 4 ; staminodium 1 ; disk bypogynous, nearly obsolete ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules 
numerous. Fruit a linear woody capsule. Leaves opposite or alternate, linear or 
linear-lanceolate, entire, deciduous, destitute of stipules. 



Chilopsis, D. Don, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. ix. 261 Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848, Bot. Appx. 94) . — Bentham & 

(1823). — Meisner, Gen. 300. — Endlicher, Gen. 712. — Hooker, Gen. ii. 1041. — BaiUon, Hist. PL x. 46. 

Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a Tour to Northern 



A tree, with slender terete branchlets, buds with several imbricated scales, those of the inner rows 
accrescent, deeply furrowed bark, soft coarse-grained dark-colored wood, and fibrous roots. Leaves 
opposite, alternate, or scattered, involute in vernation, linear, or linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, entire, 
three-nerved, the lateral nerves obscure, reticulate-venulose, membranaceous, light green, smooth or 
glutinous, short-p etiolate or sessile from an enlarged base. Flowers in short puberulous crowded 
racemes terminal on leafy branches of the year, pedicellate, the slender pedicels produced from the axils 
of ovate acute scarious tomentose deciduous bracts, and bibracteolate near the middle. Bractlets ovate, 
acute, tomentose, deciduous. Calyx gamosepalous, coated with pale tomentum, closed before anthesis 
into an ovoid rounded apiculate bud, sphtting to the base into two ovate divisions, minutely toothed at 
the apex, the upper with three, the lower with two, rigid teeth, membranaceous, dark green. Corolla 
white, shaded within and without into pale purple, slightly oblique, enlarged and blotched with yellow 
in the throat, the Hmb undulate-margined, two-lipped, the upper lip two-lobed, the lower unequally 
three-lobed, the central lobe much longer than the others. Stamens four, inserted in one row near the 
base of the coroUa, didymous, introrse, included or slightly exserted ; filaments filiform, glabrous, the 
anterior nearly twice as long as the posterior ; anthers oblong, attached on the back, two-celled, the 
cells divergent in anthesis, opening longitudinally ; staminodium posterior, linear, acute. Ovary two- 
celled, sessile on the thin nearly obsolete annular disk, conical, glabrous, gradually narrowed into a 
slender style divided at the apex into two ovate flat rounded lobes ; ovules numerous, inserted in many 
series on a central placenta, horizontal, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit a slender 
elongated thin-walled capsule, gradually narrowed from the middle to the two ends, sphtting longitudi- 
nally into two concave valves. Seeds numerous, inserted in two ranks near the margin of the thin flat 
woody septum free from the walls of the capsule, compressed, oblong, exalbuminous j testa thin, light 
brown, longitudinally veined, produced into broad lateral wings, divided at their rounded ends into 
lono" fringes of thin soft white hairs. Embryo filhng the seminal cavity ; cotyledons plane, broader 
than lono-, slightly two-lobed and rounded laterally; radicle short, erect, turned toward the oblong 

basal hilum. 

The wood of Chilopsis is soft, not strong, close-grained, with many small open ducts, numerous 

meduUary rays, and bands of large ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is brown streaked 

with yellow, with thin light-colored sapwood composed of two or three layers of annual growth. The 

specific o-ravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5902, a cubic foot weighing 36.78 pounds. 

Chilopsis was first described in the last century from a plant cultivated in the Botanic Garden at 

Madrid which had probably been obtained from Mexico. In the United States it appears to have been 



94 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACBiE. 



&st noticed during the summer of 1846 by Dr. F. A. Wislizenus ^ near Sabina on the Rio Grande 

NeAv Mexico. 

The generic name, which is formed from xeXXog and o^^tgy is without special significance. 
The genus is represented by a single species. 



Wislizen 



IS (1810-1889), the son of a Prot- sas. In 1846 Wislizenus joined a trading expedition to Mexico, 
estant minister, was born at Koenigsee in Scbwarzburg-Rudol- News of the breaking out of hostilities between the United States 
stadt. He began the study of medicine in the University of Jena, and Mexico reached him at Santa Fd, but he continued his journey 



Wiirzburg 



to Chihuahuaj where he was imprisoned, and did not finally return 



interested in the visionary plans of the Burschenschaf t, he joined in to St. Louis until the end of the next year. An account of his 

an unsuccessful attempt made at Hamburg to overthrow the mo- Mexican journey was published by order of the Senate of the 

narchical government of Germany, and was obliged to escape to United States in 1844, with a botanical appendix by Dr. George 
Switzerland. Wislizenus was graduated from the University of 



1834 



versity of Engelmann, in which are described the plants discovered by Wis- 

t year be- lizenus, includmg Pinus Chihuahuana, Pinus eduUs, and several 

gan the practice of medicine in New York. Two years later he species of Opuntia and Cereus. The remainder of Dr. Wislizenus's 

oon tiring life was passed in St. Louis engaged in the practice of medicine, 



town 



life he went to St. Louis, and attached hun 
i of the St. Louis Fur Comnanv. with whici 



elf to one and active in the affairs of the St. Louis Academy of Science, of 

he visited which he was one of the founders, of the St. Louis Medical Society, 

His companions being about to return and of the German Medical Society, which for many years he 

home, he joined a wandering band of Flat Head and Nez Percys served as president. Wislizenia, a genus established by his friend 

Indians, and with them crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Engelmann to receive a New-Mexican herb, commemorates the 



Wind 



timtry of the Utes, returning to the east by the way of the Arkan 



name of its discoverer. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



95 



CHILOPSIS LINEARIS. 



Desert Willow. 



Chilopsis linearis, De Candolle, Prodr. ix. 227 (1845). 

Coville, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 174 {Bot. Death 

Valley Exped.^. 
Bignonia linearis, Cavanilles, Icon. iii. 35, t. 269 (1794). 



217. 



Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 494. 



Rusby, 



Bnll. Torrey Bot. Cluh^ ix. 54. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N.Am. 10th Census JJ. S> ix. 116. — Coulter, Contrib. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 319 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 



Chilopsis saligna, D. Don, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. ix. Chilopsis glutinosa, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of 



261 (1823).— Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 228. — Dietrich, Syn. 
iii. 566. — Gray, Brewer & Watson Bot. CaL i. 587 ; Syn. 
FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 320. — Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. vi 



a Tour to Northern Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848, Bot. 
Appx. 94). 



Chilojjsis linearis is a tree^ twenty or thirty feet in height, with a trunk usually more or less 
reclining, often hollow, and sometimes a foot in diameter, and slender upright branches which form a 
narrow head ; or often a straggling shrub. The bark of the trunk is an eighth to a quarter of an inch 
in thickness, dark brown, and divided into broad branching ridges broken on the surface into small 
thick plate-like scales. The branches, when they first appear, are glabrous, glutinous, or covered with 
dense tomentum, and during their first season are light chestnut-brown, later becoming darker and 
tinged with red, or sometimes ashy gray. The leaves, which unfold in the early spring, and fall during 
the following winter, are six to twelve inches long, and from a quarter to a third of an inch wide. The 
flowers appear in early summer in racemes three or four inches in length, and continue to open for 
several months in succession ; they are an inch and a half long and about an inch and a quarter across 
the expanded lobes of the limb of the corolla. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn, hangs on the 
branches during the winter ; it is seven to twelve inches long, and a quarter of an inch thick in the 
middle. The seed is a third of an inch long and an eighth of an inch broad. 

Chilopsis linearis is a common inhabitant of the banks of streams, and depressions in the desert, 
growing in dry gravelly porous soil, and is distributed from the neighborhood of Laredo in southwestern 
Texas through western Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, San Diego 
County, California, and the states of northern Mexico. 

Its long drooping crowded bright green leaves make Chilopsis linearis a conspicuous object in 
the desert, which it enlivens with its lovely delicate flowers, exhaUng at night the odor of violets. It 
is occasionally cultivated in the gardens of the southern states^ and in those of northern Mexico, where 
it grows to its largest size. 

^ Reverchon, Garden and Forest, v. 615. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE- 



Plate CCXCIL Chilopsis linearis. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A corolla displayed, natural size. 
4- A pistil, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 
6- An ovule, much magnified. 

7. Part of a cluster of fruit, natural size. 

8. Cross section of the base of an open fruit, the seed 

removed from the septum, enlarged. 

9. A seed, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXCII. 




C.Il.Fa3:^rL d&l. 



Ifunelz/ so. 



CHILOPSIS LINEARIS , D C. 



A.IiiocreiLZ> dir&z> 



t 



Irnp, J^ Taneur^ Paris. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



CRESCENTIA. 



Flowers perfect 



caly 



gamosepalous, closed in the bud, bilabiately splitting in 

5e fold^ 



anthesis ; corolla gamopetalous, yentricose on the anterior side by a transverse 
obscurely 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens, 4 ; staminodium, 1 ; disk 
pulvinate; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules numerous. Fruit a many-seeded berry. Leaves 
alternate, coriaceous or membranaceous, destitute of stipules. 



(1737). — A- L. de Jussieu, 



Gen. 127. — Endlicher, Gen. 723. — Meisner 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 1053. 
54. 

Cuiete, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 207 (1763). 



Hist 



Trees, with watery juices, scaly bark, and stout terete or slightly angled branchlets. Leaves 
alternate, solitary or fascicled, coriaceous or membranaceous, sbort-petiolate. Flowers long-pedunculate, 
the peduncles bibracteolate, produced in the axils of upper leaves or from the sides of the branches, 
solitary or in few-flowered fascicles. Calyx coriaceous, closed in the bud, splitting in anthesis into 
two unequal broad divisions or sometimes slightly five-lobed, deciduous. Corolla inserted under the 
hypogynous pulvinate fleshy disk, yellow streaked with purple, or dingy purple, tubular-campanulate, 
more or less ventricose on the lower side by a transverse fold, abruptly dilated into an oblique two- 
lipped obscurely five-lobed laciniately toothed limb. Stamens four, inserted in two ranks on the tube 
of the corolla, didymous, introrse, included or slightly exserted ; filaments filiform • anthers oblong, 
attached on the back, two-celled, the cells divergent, opening longitudinally ; staminodium solitary, 
posterior, often wanting. Ovary sessile, one-celled, ovate-conical, gradually narrowed into an elongated 
simple style two-lobed and stigmatic at the apex; ovules numerous, attached horizontally in many 
ranks on two thickened two-lobed lateral parietal placentas, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle 



superior 



Fruit globose or ovoid, indehiscent, rounded or umbonate at the apex, many-seeded ; 



perianth fleshy, green, thin or thick, ultimately becoming hard, light brown and separable into two 
layers, the inner ^thin and membranaceous, filled with the united and thickened fleshy or spongy 
placentas attached at the base by a cluster of thick fibro-vascular bundles. Seed imbedded irregularly 
in the placental mass, compressed, small, flattened on the two faces, cordate at the summits and cuneate 
at the base, or large, suborbicular, cordate above and below, and deeply grooved on the two faces. 
Embryo fiUing the seminal cavity, flattened, white and waxy, or thick and fleshy, deeply grooved and 
becoming black in drying ; ^ radicle minute, vague, turned toward the small basal or lateral hilum. 

Crescentia is tropical American, with five or six species distributed from southern Florida through 
the Antilles to southern Mexico and Brazil. The Calabash-tree, Crescentia Cujete^ a native of the 
West Indies and now planted in all tropical countries, is the most useful member of the genus. The 



1 By Miers (Trans* Linn, Soc, xxvi. 167) Crescentia is divided t. 111 ; Fragm. 30, t. 33, f. 5. — Swartz, Obs. 234. — Tussac, Fl. 



into two sections : 

EUCRESCENTIA. 



AntilL ii. 80, 1. 19. 



Fl, Med. AntilL iv. 47, t. 244 



rounded 



pericarp BoL Mag, bii. t. 3430. — De Candolle, Prodr, ix, 246. 



See 



mann 



cuneate at the base : hilum 



thick and hard ; mature placentas viscid and fleshy; seeds small, Hooker Jour. BoL and Kew Gard. Misc. vi. 275. — Grisebach, Fl. 

Brit.W. Ind. 445. — Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 167. — Hemsley 
BoL Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 498. 

Crescentia acuminata^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. 



Leaves fascicled. 



Enallagma. Fruit small, umbonate ; pericarp thin and brit- 



mature 



Gen. et Spec. iii. 157 (1818). 



Kunth, Syn. PL ^quin. ii 



grooved 



265. — De Candolle, L c. — Miers, L c. 169. 



hilum lateral. Leaves alternate. 



ifolia, Gardner, Hooker Jour, Bot. ii. 422 (1840) 



2 Linnffius, Spec. 626 (1763). — Jacquin, HisL Stirp. Amer. 175, 



Miers, I. c, 168. 



98 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACE-aE. 



hard woody shell of the large fruit is used for drinking-cups, vases, and all 
The pulp is emollient and 
making,^ and the juice 
vated as a shade-tree : 



sorts of domestic vessels, 
the seeds are cooked and eaten, the wood is used in cabinet 



of the fruit dyes silk black.^ In Sonora Crescentia alata^ is sometimes culti- 
and the fruit is used medicinally.^ 



The generic name, which commemorates that of Pietro de' C 



•escenzi,*^ the distinguished Italian 
agriculture of the fourteenth century, was established by Linnseus, who discarded the older 



Cuiete ' of Plu 



^ Seemann, BoL Voy. Herald, 183 ; Hooker Jour. BoL and Kew 
ird. Misc. ix. 142. 

2 Baillon, Hist. PL x. 24. 



® Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. 66. 
6 Pietro de' Crescenzi (1233-1320), j 



Kew Gard. Misc. 
. Nov. Gen. et 



(1818). — Kunth, Syn. PL Squirt 
ix. 247. — Seemann, L c. 



of the earliest scientific writers on agriculture, produced in his 
ix. 143. time a profoxmd impression on the development of the rural arts 

Jen. et Spec. iii. 158 in southern Europe. His greatest work. Opus Ruralium Commodo- 
De Candolle, Prodr. rurriy was printed in Augsburg in 1471 and in a French edition in 



1486. 



Parmentiera alata, Miers, Trans. Linn. Sac. xxvi. 166 (1867) 
Hemsley, Bat. BioL Am. Cent, ii, 498. 



7 Nov. PL Am. Gen. 23, t. 16. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



CRESCENTIA CUCURBITINA. 



Black Calabash. 



Fruit ovate-oblong, umbonate. Seeds large, 2-lobed. Leaves obovate-oblong or 



ovate-oblong, alternate. 



Crescentia cucurbitina, Linnseus, Mant. 250 (1771). 
Swartz, Ohs. 234. — Willdenow, Spec. iii. 311. — Persoon, 



Census TJ. S. ix. 116. — Gray, Sy7i. FL N. Am. ed. 2, ii 
pt. i. 456. 



Syn. ii. 168. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed- 2, iv. 37. — Lunan, Crescentia ovata, Burman f. FL Ind. 132 (1768). 



Hort Jo.m. i. 141. — G^ertner f . Fruct. iii. 230, t. 223. 
Dietrich, Syn. iii. 567. — Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 232. 
De Candolle, Prodr. ix. 246. — Seemann, Hooker Jour. 
Bot. and Kew Gard. Misc. vi. 274. — Walpers, Ann. v. 

Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 445. — Eggers, 



Crescentia latifolia, Lamarck, Diet. i. 558 (1783) ; El 



iii. 96, t 547. — Miller 



Descour- 



tilz, Fl. Med. Antill. iu. 143, t. 182. — Miers, Trans 
Linn. Soc. xxvi. 176. 



524. 



Fl 



Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjbhenh. 1876, 136 {Fl. Crescentia obovata, Bentham, Bat. Voy. Sulphury 130, t. 



St. Croix) ; Bull. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 79 {Fl. St. 



46 (1844). — Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 175. 



Croix and the Virgin Islands). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Crescentia, species. Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1860, 439. 
Am, Cent. ii. 498. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth ? Crescentia coriacea, Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 177, 

t. 9 (1867). 



A tree, in Florida eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk four or five inches in diameter, 



The bark of the trunk is an eisfhth of an inch 



and long slender drooping branches covered with warts, 
thick, hght brown tinged with red, and irregularly divided into large thin scales. The branchlets are 
stout, slightly angled, roughened and somewhat enlarged at the nodes by the thickening of the large 
crowded cup-shaped persistent woody bases of the leaves, and are covered with thin creamy white bark, 



which in the third year becomes dark or ashy gray. The buds are protected by 



piculate 



scales, which become woody and do not disappear for a year or two. The leaves, which are alternate 
and crowded near the ends of the branches, are obovate-oblong or ovate-oblong, contracted into short 
broad points or rarely rounded or emarginate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base into short 



thick glandular peti 



and entire, with cartilaginous slightly revolute margins; they 



coriaceous 



dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler and yeUow-green on the lower surface, six to eight 
inches long and an inch and a half to four inches wide, with broad stout midribs deeply impressed on 



the upper side, conspicuous primary 
Unfolding in the spring, they do nc 



sins arcuate and united near the margins, and reticulate veinlets. 
fall until their second year. The flowers, which appear in April 



and May, and also in the autumn, and emit a strong foetid odor, are solitary in the axils of the upper 
leaves, and are borne on thick drooping peduncles an inch and a half to two inches long, furnished 
below the middle with two minute rigid acute bractlets and enlarged at the apex into the thick obHque 



iptacles 



The 



lyx, which is light green and slightly glandular at the base, forms an obovate 



rounded bud, and in an thesis spUts nearly to the bottom into two ovate pointed lobes which are nearly 
as long as the tube of the corolla. The coroUa is thick and leathery, dull purple except on the lower 
side, which is sometimes creamy white and marked with narrow purple bands, and two inches long, 
with a narrow tube creamy white on the inner surface, slightly contracted above the base, ventricose on 



the lower side by a deep 



fold, and abruptly dilated into the oblique limb which is erosely 



cut on the margins, and obscurely two-lipped ; the upper Up is slightly divided into two reflexed lobes ; 
the lower is obscurely three-lobed. The stamens are inserted near the middle of the tube of the corolla 
in two pairs, those of the anterior pair below the others and above the posterior linear staminode. 
The ovary is obliquely conical, narrowed into a long exserted style divided at the apex into two ovate 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BIGNONIACE^. 



pointed flat lobes stigmatic on the inner face. The fruit is ovate or oblong, three or four inches long, 
an inch and a half to two inches broad, umbonate, dark green, minutely rugose-punctulate, and marked 
with four obscure longitudinal ridges corresponding with the margins and midribs of the carpellary 



leaves ; it is raised on the thickened woody disk, and hang 



a stout drooping stalk an inch and 



half to two inches 



& 



much enlarged at the 



apex 



the shell is a sixteenth of an inch thick 



ultimately hard and brittle, lustrous on the outer surface, and lined with a thin membranaceous shining 



light brown 



marked with the broad placental 



The seed 



ly orbicular, slightly com 



pressed, emarginate at the top and bottom, deeply grooved on both faces, five eighths of an inch long 
and broad and a quarter of an inch thick, with a minute oblong lateral hilum just above the basal 
sinus ; it is covered with two coats, of which the outer is thin, dark reddish brown, rugose, and sepa- 

The cotyledons, which become black in drying, fill the 

in the 



the base ; the radicle 



short and is inclosed 



rable from the thicker pale felt-like inner c< 
seminal cavity, and have two ear-like folds 
lower sinus of the cotyledons. 

Crescentia cucurhitina is found in Florida only on the shores of Bay Biscayne, where it grows 
just east of the mouth of the Miami River on a rich hummock under the shade of the Live Oak, the 
Red Mulberry, the Gumbo Limbo, the Nectandra, the Pigeon Plum, the Iron Wood, the Palmetto, and 
Eugenia Garheriy and on the banks of Little River. It is a common littoral tree on the Antilles/ and 
extends to southern Mexico, the Pacific shore of the Isthmus of Panama, and Venezuela.^ 

The wood of Crescentia cucurhitina is heavy, hard, very close-grained, and contains many small 
irregularly distributed open ducts and thin hardly distinguishable medullary rays ; and is light brown 
orange-color. 



or 



with hght 



ed sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 



0.6319, a cubic foot weighing 39.38 pounds. 

In Florida Crescentia cucurhitina was discovered in 1859 by Mr. J. G. Coop 



3 



(Fl. AntilL iv. 50) believed that the fruit 



quoted by Linnseus under his Crescentia cucurhitina^ has the narrow 



cucurhitina contained a deadly poison, but as the other plants of the leaves and small cuneate seeds of Crescentia Cujete, Plumier's 

Bignonia family are innocent of poisonous properties the statement figures {Nov, Am. PL Gen. t. 16, and PL Am. ed. Burman, t. 

is probably incorrect (see Seemann, Hooker Jour. Bot. and Keio 109) represent the seeds of both species, while the uncut fruit is 

Gard. Misc. ix. 142), especially as the fruit of the Coco de Mono, evidently that of Crescentia cucurhitina^ and Browne {Nat. Hist. 

as this tree is called in Venezuela, is freely devoured by monkeys, Jam. 266) considered the small-fruited Crescentia a variety of the 



birds, and other animals {Bonplandia^ v. 44). 

2 Authors before Linnseus appear to have confounded this species 
with the Calabash-tree. Plukenet's figure {Phyt. t. 171, f. 2), 



large-fruited Calabash-tree. 
8 See i. 30. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXCIII. Crescentia cucukbitina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the corolla and half of the calyx removed, natu- 

ral size. 

4. A corolla, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a corolla, natural size. 

6. An anther, front and rear views, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary through the median line, 

enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 



Plate CCXCIV. Crescentia cucurbitina 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Cross section of a fruit, natural size- 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

6. An embryo, natural size, 

7. Inner face of a cotyledon, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXCIII 




C.E.Faccon det. 



Ifimely sc. 



CRESCENTIA CUCURBITINA .L. 



A.Iiiocreua> direa:^. 



Imp. J. Taneur^ Faris 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCXCIV. 






Jfimeb/ sc. 



CRESCENTIA CUCURBITINA , 



A.Jiiocr*eiLZ> £re2>. 



Imp. J" roTieur, Fcwis. 



VERBENACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



CITHAREXYLON. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-toothed, accrescent under the fruit ; corolla gamopeta- 
lous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in sestiyation ; stamens 4 ; staminodium 1 ; disk 
annular ; ovary superior, imperfectly 4-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a 
2-stoned 4-seeded fleshy di'upe. Leaves opposite, persistent, without stipules. 



Citharexylon, Linnaeus, Amoen. i. 406 (1749) ; Gen. ed. 6, Bocquillon, Adansonia, iii. 222. — Bentham & Hooker, 

314. — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 200. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. ii. 1149. — BaUlon, Hist. PL xi. 98. 



Gen. 108. — Endlicher, Gen. 636. — Meisner 



Rau-w^olfia 



nseus) (1799). 



Trees or shrubs, glabrous, or tomentose with simple or branched hairs, unarmed or rarely armed 
with axillary spines. Leaves opposite, entire, serrulate or spinosely toothed. Flowers small, in axillary 
or terminal short or elongated racemes, short-pedicellate, the pedicels ebracteolate, produced in the axils 
of minute persistent bracts, alternate or scattered on the filiBorm rachis. Calyx gamosepalous, 
membranaceous, tubular-campanulate, truncate, minutely five-toothed, persistent and spreading or cup- 
shaped under the fruit. GoroUa salver-form, usually white, inserted on the thin annular hypogynous 
disk, the spreading limb somewhat obHque, five-lobed, the broadly ovate rounded lobes sHghtly unequal, 
the two posterior exterior. Stamens four, inserted on the tube of the corolla below the middle, didy- 
mous, introrse, included ; filaments short, filiform, slightly thickened at the base, the two anterior longer 
than the others; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the base, two-ceUed, the cells parallel, 
opening longitudinally ; staminodium posterior, linear, acute, or rarely antherrferous and fertile. Ovary 
sessile, ovate, incompletely four-celled by the development of the two parietal placentas, gradually 
narrowed into a short simple included style slightly two-lobed and stigmatic at the apex; ovules 
sohtary in each cell, erect, attached laterally near the base, ascending, anatropous ; micropyle inferior. 
Fruit drupaceous, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx, tipped with the remnants of the style ; 
exocarp thin and fleshy ; endocarp thick and bony, separable into two two-seeded compressed smooth 
hght brown nutlets, rounded on the back, and concave on the inner face. Seed erect, exalbuminous, 
fiUing the seminal cavity ; testa membranaceous, light brown. Embryo subterete, straight ; cotyledons 
thick and fleshy, oblong, much longer than the short inferior radicle turned toward the oblong basal 
hilum. 

Citharexylon is confined to tropical America, and is distributed from southern Florida, where one 
species occurs, through the West Indies to southern Mexico, Lower California, Bolivia, and Brazil 
Fifteen or twenty species are distinguished.^ 

Citharexylon produces hard strong wood, but is not known to possess economic properties. 

The generic name, from xtddpa and ^v2.ov^ is a translation of the English West Indian name 
Fiddle Wood, a corruption of the earlier French-colonial Bois Fidele, given in allusion to the strength 
and toughness of the wood produced by the trees of this genus. 



1 Schauer, De Candolle Prodr. xi. 609; Martins Fl. BrasiL ix. 636. — Watson, Proc. ^m. ^4 carf. xxiv. 67. — T. S. Brandegee, Proc. 
267. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 497 ; Cat. PL Cub. 216. — Boc- Cal Acad. ser. 2, ii. 197 (PL Baja CaL) ; iii. 163. 
quillon, Adansonia^ iii. 222. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. ii. 



VERBENACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



CITHAREXYLON VILLOSUM. 



Fiddle Wood. 



Flowees in elongated axillary racemes. Leaves oblong-obovate or oblong 



villosum 



iv. 76. — Bocquillon, Adansonia, iii. 223, t. xiii. f. 1-9. 



Bar. i. t. 118. — Selt. Am. Gewach. 57, t. 144. — Willde- Chapman, Fl. 309. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 



now, Spec. iii. pt. i. 309. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 142. — Aiton, 340. 



Nat. Mus. No. 13, 84 (Fl. 



Eort. Kew. ed. 2, iv. 36. — Schlechtendal, Linncea, vi. St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). — YLem^ley, Bot. Biol. 

752 {Fl. Im. St. Thorn.). — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 614. — Am. Cent. ii. 537. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 

Schauer, De Candolle Frodr. xi. 610. — Walpers, Rep. Census U. S. ix. 116. 



A tree, rarely exceeding in Florida twenty feet in height, with a trunk four to six inches in 
diameter, and slender upright branches which form a narrow irregularly shaped head ; or often a shrub 
sending up from the ground many low stems. The bark of the trunk varies from a sixteenth to an 
eighth of an inch in thickness, and is light brown tinged with red, generally smooth, and separates into 
minute appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are slender, shghtly many-angled, light 
yellow, and covered with pale simple hairs, which soon disappear ; and in their second year they are 
terete and ashy gray. The leaves are oblong-obovate or oblong, acute, acuminate, rounded or emargi- 
nate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and entire, with thickened slightly revolute margins ; 
while young they are pubescent on the lower surface, and at maturity they are glabrous, thick, and 
coriaceous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, pale green, three or four inches long, and an inch or an 
inch and a half wide, with broad pale midribs rounded on the upper side, remote arcuate veins, and stout 
grooved petioles two thirds of an inch in length, which, when the leaves fall, in their second year, 
separate from their elevated nearly circular persistent woody bases. The fragrant flowers, borne on 
slender pedicels produced in the axils of scarious pubescent bracts, appear throughout the year in 
drooping axillary pubescent racemes crowded near the ends of the branches, and two to four inches in 
length. The caly^s is obscurely toothed, scarious, and coated with pale hairs, or is sometimes nearly 
glabrous. The corolla, which forms before opening an obovate rounded bud, is an eighth of an inch 
across the expanded lobes of the hmb, and is covered on the inner surface of the tube with pale hairs. 
The fruit is subglobose or oblong-ovate, light red-brown, very lustrous, a third of an inch in diameter, 
with thin sweet rather juicy flesh, and is inclosed nearly to the middle in the cup-Hke pale brown calyx, 
which is slightly and irregularly lobed or sometimes nearly entire. 

Citharexylon villosum, which is also an inhabitant of many of the Antilles, is common in Florida 
from Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, growing to its largest size in the United States on the shore 
of Bay Biscayne, near the mouth of the Miami River ; farther north it is usually reduced to a low 

shrub . 

The wood of Citharexylon villosum is heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, and 
susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous small regularly distributed open ducts, 
and is clear bright red, with thin lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.8710, a cubic foot weighing 54.28 pounds. 

In the United States Citharexylon villosum was first noticed on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXCV. Cithahexylon villosum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower, the calyx removed and the corolla displayed, enlarged 

5. A stamen^ front and rear views, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified, 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CCXCV. 




C,E,Faxo7L del. 



Rapine^ so 



CITHAREXYLON VILLOSUM , Jacq 



A.Jiwcreu3> direx-f^ 



Imp. J. ToJieur. Paris 



VERBENACE-ZE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



105 



AVICENNIA 



Flowers perfect 



caly 



5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation : corolla 



gamopetalous, 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 4 ; disk annular ; 
ovary 1-celled ; ovules 4, suspended. Fruit capsular, 1-seeded, the seed naked. Leaves 
opposite, entire, without stipules. 



Avicennia 



A. L. de Jussieu, Up at a 



Gen. 108. — Endlicher, Gen, 638. — Meisner 

Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 1160. 

xi. 120. 

ntia, Loefling, Iter^ 193 (not Linnaeus) (1758) 



Sceura, Forsk^l, FL Mgypt 



Hist 



Nat 



Halodendrum 

(1809). 



Soemer 




Seashore trees or shrubs^ with stout pithy branches thickened at the nodes and marked 
interpetiolar lines, and long thick horizontal roots producing numerous short vertical thick and fleshy 
leafless stems rising above the surface of the soil. Leaves opposite, entire, coriaceous, persistent. 
Inflorescence cymose ; flowers opposite, in centripetal pedunculate spikes or heads, closely invested by 
a bract and two bractlets, the peduncles soHtary or in pairs in the axils of upper leaves and ternate 
on the ends of the branches. Bracts and bractlets similar, concave, acute, keeled on the back, apiculate, 
scarious and slightly ciliate on the margins, shorter than the corolla. Calyx cup-shaped, coated like the 
bracts and bractlets with canescent pubescence, divided nearly to the base into five concave ovate 
rounded lobes, persistent. Corolla campanulate, white, inserted on the obscure annular disk, the tube 
straight, cyhndrical, shorter than the glabrous or tomentose spreading four-lobed limb, the posterior 
lobe usually somewhat larger than the others. Stamens four, inserted on the tube of the corolla, 
exserted j filaments short, fiHf orm, sKghtly thickened at the base ; anthers ovate, attached on the back 
near the bottom, two-celled ; the cells parallel, opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile, ovate, pubescent, 
one-celled, gradually narrowed into an elongated slender or abbreviated style divided at the apex 
into two lobes stigmatic on their inner face ; ovules four, suspended from the summit of a free central 
placenta, orthotropous, without coats.^ Fruit ovate, oblique, compressed, surrounded at the base by the 
persistent calyx, bracts and bractlets, apiculate at the apex. Pericarp thin, light green, villose-pubescent 
on the outer surface, longitudinally veined on the inner, opening by the ventral suture and displaying 
the enlarging embryo before separating from the branch, ultimately two-valved. Seed naked, exalbu- 
minous. Embryo fiUing the cavity of the pericarp, light green ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, broader 
than long, slightly pointed, deeply cordate at the base, unequal, conduplicate; radicle elongated, clavate, 
retrorsely hirsute, inferior, descending obliquely and included between the lobes of the cotyledons, 
shghtly attached near the apex in the bottom of the capsule to the withered columella by a minute 
papillose point ; plumule hairy .^ 



1 The ovary of Avicennia has been described as two-celled and 



DoNATiA. Style elongated and exserted beyond the calyx 



as incompletely four-celled by the development of four wings from after the falling of the corolla ; limb of the corolla tomentose. 
a central placental column, with a single ovule in each cell, and 



Upata. Style abbreviated ; limb of the corolla glabrous on the 
by Baillon (Hist PL xi. 89) as one-celled with a four-winged een- upper surface. 

tral placenta and orthotropous ovules. In the flowers of Avicennia In the first group he places Avicennia nitida and Avicennia Afri- 

nitida from Florida that we have examined the ovary is one-celled 
with a free slisrhtlv flattened central placenta without trace of 



cana^ and in the second Avicennia officinalis of the Old World and 
Avicennia tomentosa of the New World, which are now usually 
wino-s and bearing just below the summit four suspended ortho- considered identical. The style of Avicennia officinalis is, however, 



tropous ovules attached laterally below their apex. 



groups 



Avicennia in two sections. 



sometimes well developed, and there are really no constant char- 
acters that can be relied on to distinguish the different species, 
which all bear a close resemblance to one another. 



106 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



VERBENACE^ 



Avicennia is widely distributed on maritime shores through the tropics of the two worlds 



Three 



species are now usually recognized : Avicennia nitida of the Antilles and Central and South America 
reaches southern Florida and Louisiana; a second species* is widely distributed through tropical 
America, eastern Asia, the Indian Archipelago, the islands of the Pacific, AustraHa, New South Wales 
New Zealand, and eastern Africa from Natal to the shores of the Red Sea ; and Amcennia Afi 
inhabits west tropical Africa. 

Avicennia produces hard strong wood.^ 



2 



The bark is rich 



tannic acid, and 



often used 



tropical America for tanning leather/ In India a preparation of the wood is used for cleaning cotton 
cloth, and is mixed with paint to increase its adhesiveness.^ The fruit is bitter, but is sometimes cooked 
and eaten,^ and the leaves are used for fodder.^ The chief value of the plants of this genus, however, 
consists m their ability to live on low muddy tidal shores, which, with the Red Mangrove, they protect 



and gradually extend into the ocean. This they are able to do by the 



of the embryo, which 



is growing and ready to take root as soon as it falls into the soft mud, and of the long horizontal roots ; 
these are furnished with short vertical fleshy leafless branches or aerating roots,^ and form a close 
network which holds the soil together, preventing it from being washed away by outflowing tides, and 
extending the growth of the tree by sending up numerous stems which soon form dense thickets. 



The generic name is derived from that of the most illustrious physician of the Orient 



9 



^ Avicennia officinalis, Linnseus, Spec. 110 (1753). — Schauer, De 
Candolle Prodr. xi. 700 ; Marlins Fl. Brasil. ix. 306. — Miquel, Fl. 



Ind. Bat. ii. 912. 



Fl 



Brandis, Forest 



604. 



Avicennia Lamarlciana, Presi, Abhand. konigl. bohm. Gesell.Wiss. 
Folge 5, iii. 529 (^BoL Bemerk.'). 

Avicennia intermedia, Grif6th, L c. 188 (1854). 

Avicennia officinalis^ var. alba, C. B. Clarke, L c, (1885). 
2 Palisot de Beauvois, FL d^Oware et de Benin, i. 79, t, 47 
Hemsley, BoU Challenger Exped. i. pt, iii. 178. — Kirk, For- (1804). — Scbauer, De Candolle Prodr. I. c; Martins FL BrasiL 



FL BriU Ind, 371. — Boissier, Fl. Orient iv. 636. — Kurz, Forest 
FL Brit. Burnt, ii. 275. — C. B. Clarke, Hooker f, Fl. Brit, Ind, iv. 



New 



Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. L c. 



xxvi. 265. 



3 Moloney, Forestry of West Africa, 402. — Madden, Useful 



Avicennia tomentosa, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib, 25 (1760) ; Plants of Australia, 380. 



HisL Stirp. Am. 178, t. 112, f. 2 ; Hist. Select. Stirp. Am. 87, t. 



^ Maximilian, Heise nacTi Brasilien, 206. — Martins, Syst. Mat. 



169. 



R. Brown, Prodr. Fl. Nov. HolL 518. — Humboldt, Bon- Med. BrasiL 49. — Endlicber, Enchirid. Bot. 314. 



Nov 



Kuntb, Syn. PL 



^ Balfour, Timber Trees of India, ed. 3, 25 ; Encyclopaedia of 



jEq 

Fl. 



Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. 821. — Roxburgh, India, ed. 3, i. 209. 



* « « 



Wallicb, PL As. Uar. iii. 44 



Miquel, Lehmann PL Preiss. i. 353. — Walp 



Schauer, De 



Ma 



Wight, Icon. PL Ind. Orient t. 1481. — Griffith, NotuL iv. 185 
Hemsley, BoL BioL Am. Cent ii. 540. 

Bontia germinans, Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 891 (1763). 

Sceura marina, ForskU, Fl. JEgypt-Arab. 37 (1775). 



^ Madden, L c. 9. 

' Forskal, L c. — Madden, L c. 120. 

8 WQson, Proc. PML Acad. 1889, 69. 

9 Abu Ali el-Hosein Ibn-Abdallah Ibn-Sina (980-1036), in 
Latin Avicenna, was born in Afshena in Bokhara, the son of a 
Persian official and of a woman of Bokhara. He was a youth of 
remarkable precocity and industry, and became a voluminous writer 



Avicennia resinif era, FoTsteT, PL Esc. 72 (1786). — A.Richard, on medicine, which he practiced successfully, philosophy, meta- 



Bot Voy. Astrolabe, 195. — Griffith, L c. 186. 



theology 



'Wn 



Halodendrum Thouarsii, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 485 ral history, producing in his wandering and irregular life more 
(1818). 

Avicennia elliptical Thunberg, PL Brazil. Dec. iii. 37 (1821). 

Avicennia aZ&a, Blume, L c. (1825). — Wight, Z. c, t, 1482. 
Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 913. 



than a hundred volumes. He is best kn ^ 

cine, which from the twelfth to the seventeenth century served as a 
guide to medical study in the universities of Europe. He was one 
of the fi.rst to study and apply the principles of chemistry, and is 
credited with inventing the art of distilling the perfume of flowers. 



VERBENACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



107 



AVICENNIA NITIDA. 



Black Mangrove. 



Flowers with elongated styles. Leaves oblong or lanceolate-elliptical 



Avicennia nitida, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carih. 25 (1760) ; 
Hist. Siirp. Am. 177, t. 112, f. 1. — Linnaeus, Syst 
Nat. ed. 12, 427. —Icon. Am. Gewdch. iii. 47, t. 205. 
Willdenow, Spec. iii. pt. i. 395. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 143. 
Chamisso, Linncea, vii. 370. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 768. 
Walpers, Hep. iv. 133. — Schauer, De Candolle Prodr. 



mtida). — Sargent, Forest 



N. 



10th Census 



U. S. ix. 117. 



Hitchcock, Hep. Missouri Bat. Gard. iv. 



118. 



tomentosa, Mey 



Jacquin) (1818). — NuttaU, Sylva, iii. 79, 1. 105. 
man, Fl. 310. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 



Chap- 



xi. 699; Martins Fl. Brasil. ix. 303. — Dietrich, Syn. Avicennia Floridana, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. 148 



iii. 619. — Miquel 



Fl. 



(1832). 



Cub. iii. 149- — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 502 ; Cat. Avicennia Meyeri, Miquel, Linncea, xviii. 262 (1844) 



PL Cub. 217. — Gray, Syn. FL N. Am. ii. pt. i. 341. 
Lefroy, BulL U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 25, 97 {Bot. Ber- 



Avicennia oblongifolia. Chapman, Fl. 310 (1865) 
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 



A tree^ in Florida occasionally sixty to seventy feet in height, with a short trunk rarely two feet in 
diameter, and spreading branches, which form a broad round-topped head; usually not more than 
twenty or thirty feet tall, with a short slender trunk, and toward the northern limit of its range reduced 
to a low shrub. The bark of the trunk varies from a quarter to a half of an inch in thickness, and is 
roughened with thin irregularly appressed scales which are dark brown tinged with red, and in falling 
display the bright orange-red inner bark. The branchlets, when they first appear, are shghtly angled, 



d coated with fine hoary pubescence, which usually 



disappears, when they 



light orange 



color : 



their second year they 



stout and terete, more 



torted, Hght or dark gray, and 



conspicuously marked with the 



petiolar lines, and with the transverse semicircular leaf 



which appear a central row of fibro-vascular bundle 



The leaves are oblong or lanceolate-elliptical 



rounded or acute at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and 



with slightly thickened and 



margins ; they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and often lustrous on the upper surface, 
t on the lower, two to three inches long, and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half 



wide, with broad midribs, thickened and grooved toward the base on the upper side 



d obliq 



primary veins arcuate and joined close to the margins, rounded and conspicuous on the two surfaces 



and connected by prominent reticulate veinlets ; they 



bo 



broad channeled petioles, enlarged 



at the base, and half an inch long, and, appearing irregularly, fall early in their second season. The 
flowers, which are produced continuously through the year, are borne in few-flowered short spikes, with 
stout angled canescent peduncles half an inch to an inch and a half in length, the lateral peduncles 



of the ternate terminal clusters being subtended by oblong acute bracts half an inch in length 



The 



flowers begin to open at the base of the central terminal spike, and are closely invested with the bracts 
and bractlets, which are nearly a quarter of an inch long, coated with pale or slightly rufous pubescence. 



d about as long as the lobes of the calyx. The corolla is half an inch 



the expanded lob 



which are shghtly tomentose on both surfaces, and is nearly closed in the throat in which appear the 
four anthers and the end of the slender slightly lobed style. The fruit is an inch to an inch and a half 
long, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch broad ; and in Florida is rarely developed. 



In the United States Avicennia nitida is found on the deltas of the Missis 



sipp 



Louisiana, and 



in Florida from St. Augustine to the southern keys on the 



d from Cedar Keys to Cap 



Sable on the west coast ; it is common on many of the Antilles, and ranges southward to Brazil 



The 



108 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. verbenace^ 



Black Mangrove^ which owes its name to the color of the wood/ abounds in southern Florida, where it 
is mingled with the Ked Mangrove, Rhizoi^hora Mangle^ in vast thickets which often line the shores 
for miles and cover the banks of streams flowing from the Everglades. In the United States the Black 
Mangrove attains its largest size just north of Cape Sable, where there are open groves of large isolated 
round-topped trees. North of Matanzas Inlet, on the east coast of Florida, it remains a shrub, with 
stems only a few feet tall. 

The wood of Amcennia nitida is very heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, with numerous medullary 
rays, and eccentric layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large open ducts ; it is dark 
brown or nearly black, with thick brown sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.9138, a cubic foot weighing 56.95 pounds. 

Some of the early European travelers in America ^ noticed the Black Mangrove ; but it is impos- 
sible to determine whether their descriptions relate to the species which grows in Florida or to the very 
similar Avieennia tomentosa of the Antilles and Brazil.^ 

In the United States the Black Mangrove appears to have been first distinguished by Dr. Mellins 
C. Leavenworth,^ who found it on the east coast of Florida. 



^ In Florida Avieennia niiida is also called Black Tree and Black Bontia ? Foliis integris oUongis oppositis, petiolis crassis brevissimis 



Wood. 



suh amplexantihus, floribus racemosisy Browne, Nat, Hist, Jam. 263. 



2 Cereiba quce Mangue est alba^ Piso, Hist. Nat. Bras. lib. iv. cap. ^ It is probable that the two species were confounded by all 



87. 



travelers until Jacquin distinguished them about the middle of the 



? Cynoxylum Americanuniy folio crassiusculoy mollis ^ tenaci^ Pluke- last century. 
net, Phyt. t. 172, f. 6 ; Aim. Bot. 127. ^ See iii. m. 

Mangle laurocerasi foliis flore albo tetrapeialo^ Sloane, Cat. PL 
Jam. 156 ; Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 66. — Kay, Hist. PI. iii. Dendr. 115. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXCVL Aviceistnia nitida. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, the calyx removed and the corolla displayed, enlarged 

4. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, the ovary cut vertically, enlarged. 

6. A placental column and ovules, much magnified. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



displaying the radicle, natural size. 



tyledons 



fruit 



11. An embryo displayed, natural size. 



Silva of North Americai. 



Tab. CCXCVI. 




CE.FaxoTLdel. 



Htmely so. 



AVICENNIA NITIDA , Jacq, 



A.Iiio<Teu3> direcc^ 



Imp. J. Tanezir, Paris. 



NYCTAGINACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



109 



PISONIA. 



Flowers perfect, dioecious or rarely monoecious; calyx 5-lobed or toothed, the 



divisions induplicate-valvate in aestivation; corolla 



stamens usually 5-8 ; ovary 



superior, 1 -celled ; ovule solitary. Fruit a utricle inclosed 
Leaves opposite or alternate, without stipules. 



the thickened perianth 



Pisonia, Linnaeus, Gen. 42 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PL ii 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 91. — EndKcher, Gen 



265. 
312. 
608. 



Bessera, Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 147 ; Icon. iv. t. 2 (1825). 



Flum 



Meisner 



XXI 



Columella 



Hist. Fl. iv. 20 (excl. Need). — Bentham" Cephalotomandra, Karsten, Linncea, xxviii 



& Hooker, Gen. iii. 9. 
iii. pt. i. 29. 



Pfianzenfc 



Calpidia, Du Petit-Thouars, Hist. Veg. Isles Austr. Afr. 
ii. 23, t. 8 (1806). 

Torrubia, Vellozo, FL Flum. 139 ; Icon. iii. t. 150 (1825). 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 10. 

Timeroya, Montrousier, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. Lyon, x. 

247 (1860). 
Vieillardia, Brongniart & Gris, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, viii. 

376 (1861) ; Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5. i. 340. 



Glabro 



pubescent 



shrubs, unarmed or rarely spinescent, erect, or sometimes semi 



scandent. Leaves opposite or alternate, oblong-oval or lanceolate, entire, sessile or short-petiolate, 
persistent. Flowers small, green or yellow, in subsessile or pedunculate cymes, their branches 



subtended by small bracts, short-pedicellate, the pedicels bib 



d produced in the axils of 



minute bracts. Calyx petaloid, tubular or funnel-shaped in the staminate flower, elongated and often 
enlarged at the base of the tube in the pistillate flower, the limb five-lobed or toothed, the divisions 
short, plaited in the bud, erect or spreading. Stamens five to thirty, usually five to eight, inserted on 
the base of the calyx under the ovary, introrse, exserted; minute or rudimentary in the unisexual 
pistiQate flower ; filaments filiform, unequal, free or ui 



ited at the base into a tube or rins", folded 



& 



the bud : anthers oblono-, attached 



on the back below the middle, two-celled, the cells parallel, opening 
longitudinally. Ovary oblong-ovoid, sessile, one-celled, gradually narrowed into a slender terminal or 
sublateral style included or exserted ; stigma capitate, laciniate or fimbriate ; ovule solitary, rising from 
the base of the cell on a short funicle, campylotropous ; micropyle inferior. Fruit anthocarpous. 



crowned with the persistent teeth of the caly 



durate, rarely fleshy, oblong-linear 



clavate, cylindrical, compressed or pentagonal, terete, sulcate or 
furnished with stipitate viscid glands ; utricle elongated, membranac 



e, smooth, tuberculate or 
Seed erect, the thin trans- 



parent testa 



with the endocarp. Embryo erect ; cotyledons unequal, thin, broad, cordate 



the base, or at the base and apex, cortortuplicate, folded round the scanty soft albumen ; radicle short, 
inferior turned toward the hilum. 

Pisonia is tropical, and of the sixty species * which are distinguished the larger number are found in 
the New World. It is represented in southern Asia, the Indian Archipelago, Australia, New Zealand, 
and the islands of the Pacific by a few species, and in Africa by Pisonia aculeata,^ a shrub with 



1 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 217. 



Martins Fl. Brasil. xiv. pt. ii. 351. — Baker, Fl. Maur. and Seych. 



Kunth, Syn. PL JEquin. ii. 19. — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 262. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burnt, ii. 278. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 
734. — Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. i. 989. — Choisy, De Candolle Am. Cent. iii. 8. — Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 367. — Warburg, Bot. 
Prodr. xiii. pt. ii. 440. — Hooker f. Fl. New Zealand, i. 209 ; Fl. Jdhrl. xiii. 303 (Papuan. Fl.). 



Brit. Ind. iv. 710. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 70 ; Cat. PL 



2 Linnseus, Spec. 1026 (1753). —Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. 



Cub. 24, 283. — Bentham, FL Austral, v. 279. —J. A. Schmidt, Poiret, Zam. IlL iii. 449, t. 861. — Choisy, L c. — Nuttall, Sylva, 



110 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



NYCTAGINACEjE. 



long semiprostrate vine-like stems, and an inhabitant of nearly all trop 
Florida, where two other species occur ; 



cal countries, and of southern 
of these one is a small tree, and the other. Risonia rotnndata} 



is a low shrub. 

The roots of Pisonia possess purgative and emetic properties, and are sometimes employed i 
medicine.^ From the leaves of Pisonia tomentosa,^ the Pao Lepra of Brazil, a black dye is obtained 
In India impenetrable hedges are made with the long semiscandent stems covered with stout hooked 



4 



prickles of Pisonia acideata, which is often planted for this purpose 



6 



The 



name 



first proposed by Plumier^ and adopted by Linnseus^ commemorates that of 



Willem Piso^ the Dutch physician and naturalist who first studied the natural products of Brazil 



iii. 146, 1. 121. 



Fl 



Fl. Brit. W, 



is due to the belief among the inhabitants of Minas Geraes that 



70. — Bentham, FL Austral v. 279. 



Martins Fl, leprosy is brought on by sleeping under the shade of its leaves, 



Brasil. xiv. pt. ii. 351, 354. — Hemsley, Bot. Challenger Exped, i. 
pt. iii. 181. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 711, 

Pisonia villosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 347 (1804). — Choisy, 
De Candolle Prodr. xiii. pt. ii. 440. 



with 



irritating hairs (Netto, /. c. 81) 
* Netto, I. c. 82. 



fi Balfour, Encyclopmdia of Indian ed. 3, iii. 226 (under Pisonia 



Pallavia aculeata, Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 121 ; Icon. iv. t. 12 villosa). 



(1825). 

Pisonia loranthoides^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen, 
€t Spec. Suppl. vii. 197 (1825). 



« Nov. PL Am. Gen. 7, t. 11. 

' Willem Piso, a Dutch physician and naturalist, practiced 
medicine in Leyden and Amsterdam, and in 1637 visited Brazil, 



1 Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 283 (1866). — Chapman, FL ed. 2, accompanied by Georg Marggraf, under the auspices of the Duke 



Suppl. 644. 



of Nassau. In 1648, four years after the death of Marggraf, Jan 



2 Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 227, 1111. — Eichler, Martins Fl. de Laet published in Leyden and Amsterdam the classical His- 



BrasiL xiv. pt. ii, 375. 



toriceRernm Natnralium Brasilice Libri VIII,, containing a record of 



^ Casaretto, Nov. Stirp. Bras. Dec. viii. 69 (1844). — Choisy, I. o. the observations of the two naturalists, to which was added a work 



445. _ J. A. Schmidt, I c. 363, t. 84. 



by Piso upon the Brazilian materia medica. After the death of 



Pisonia noxia, Netto, Ann. ScL Nat. s4t. 5, v. 80, t. 7 (1866). the Duke of Nassau in 1679, Piso entered the service of the 
The popular name of this tree, which is also called Pao Judeu, elector Frederick William. 



NYCTAGiNACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



PISONIA OBTUSATA. 



Blolly. 



Fruit 10-ribbed, fleshy. Leaves opposite or alternate, obovate-oblong. 



N. Am. 
Missouri 



ionia obtusata, Jacquin, Hort. Schcenh. iii. 35, t. 314 JSrasil. xiv. pt. ii. 361. 

(1798).— Swartz, FL Ind. Occ. iii. 1960. — Sprengel, 10th Census U. S. ix, 

Syst ii. 168. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1226. — Choisy, De Bot. Gard. iv. 120. 

Candolle Prodr, xiii. pt. ii. 443. — A. Richard, FL Cub. Pisonia cuneifolia, Schlechtendal, Linncea^ xxiii. 671 
iii. 170. — Chapman, Fl. 374. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. (1850). 



Ind 



Martins 



A tree, in Florida thirty to fifty feet in height, with an erect or inclining trunk fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter, and stout spreading branches which form a compact round-topped head ; or usually 
much smaller. The bark of the trunk^ which is rarely more than a sixteenth of an inch thick, is 
light red-brown and broken into thin appressed scales. ' The branchlets are slender and terete, and 
when they first appear are light orange-color ; later they often produce numerous short spur-like 
lateral branches, and are light reddish brown or ashy gray, and marked with the large elevated 
semiorbicular or lunate leaf -scars. The leaves are opposite and sometimes alternate, obovate-oblong, 
rounded or occasionally emarginate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and entire, with slightly 
thickened revolute undulate margins ; they are an inch to an inch and a half long, half an inch 
broad, thick and firm, light green and glabrous, and paler on the lower than on the upper surface, 
with stout midribs slightly grooved on the upper side, obscure veins, and stout channeled petioles halE 
an inch in length. The flowers appear in Florida in the autumn in terminal long-stalked open few- 
flowered panicled cymes with slender puberulous divergent branches, the ultimate divisions being two 
or three-flowered; they are perfect or unisexual, short-pedicellate, and greenish yellow, with minute 
acute bracts and bractlets. The calyx is funnel-shaped, divided nearly to the middle into five acute 
erect lobes conspicuously plaited in the bud and about half as long as the five to eight free stamens. 
The ovary is oblong-ovoid and gradually narrowed into a slender terminal style about as long as the 
calyx and crowned with a capitate lacerate stigma. The fruit, which ripens during the winter or in 
early spring, is clavate, prominently costate with ten rounded ribs, fleshy, smooth, bright red, and three 
quarters of an inch long ; the utricle is terete, and light brown, with a thin membranous wall united 
with the thin coat of the seed which closely invests the large white embryo, with cotyledons rounded 
above and cordate at the base. 

In Florida Pisonia obtusata is common near sea-beaches and the shores of salt-water lagoons 
from Cape Canaveral to the southern islands, attaining its largest size in the United States on Elliott's 
Key and Old Rhodes Key. It is common on many of the West Indian islands, and ranges southward 

to Brazil. 

The wood of Pisonia ohtusata is heavy, rather soft, weak, coarse-grained, and contains numerous 
large open ducts, the layers of annual growth and medullary rays being hardly distinguishable ; it is 
yellow tinged with brown, with thick darker colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.6529, a cubic foot weighing 40.69 pounds. 

In Florida the Blolly ^ was first noticed on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



1 For the derivation of the name Blolly, see i. 42. On the Florida Keys Pisonia ohtusata is also called Pigeon Wood, Beef Wood, and 
Pork Wood. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCXCVIL Pisoista obtusata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A perfect flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a perfect flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, cut transversely, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
8- A fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a utricle, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 

13. An embryo cut transversely, much enlarged. 



Silva of North AmericaL. 



Tab. CCXCVII. 




C.E.FaxoTb dei. 



LovendaZ so. 



PISONIA OBTUSATA , Jacq. 



A.RLocreux^ dzrex-. 



Imp. J. Tanezir, Paris. 



POLYGONACEJE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



113 



COCCOLOBIS. 



Flowers perfect or rarely unisexual by abortion ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbri- 
cated in aestiyation ; corolla ; stamens 8 ; disk annular ; ovary 3-angled, superior, 
1 -celled ; ovule solitary, erect • Fruit a nutlet, included in the thickened calyx-tube 
or in its lobes. Leaves alternate, entire, stipulate. 



Nat Hist 



Nat 



Lin- Guiabara, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 277 (1763). 

Gen. Campderia, Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur^ 159, t. 52 



ed. 6, 196, — A. L. de Jussien, Gen. 82. — EndUcher, (1844). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 102, 

Gen. 308. — Meisner, Gen. 316. — Bentham & Hooker,^ Uvif era, Otto Kunze, Bev. Gen. PI. ii. 561 (IS 
Gen. iii. 102. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xi. 391. — Engler & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. i. 33. 



Trees or shrubs, occasionally scandent. Leaves alternate, usually coriaceous, entire, orbicular, ovate, 
obovate or lanceolate, petiolate, persistent ; stipules inclosing the branch above the node with broad or 
narrow membranaceous truncate lobed or acuminate persistent or caducous sheaths. Flowers articulate 
on short or elongated ebracteolate pedicels in one or few-flowered fascicles subtended by a minute bract, 
and surrounded by a narrow truncate membranaceous sheath or ochreola, each pedicel and those above 
it in the fascicle being surrounded by a similar sheath; fascicles gathered in short or elongated 
terminal and axillary racemes or terminal panicles inclosed at the base in the sheath of the nearest 
leaf, and sometimes also in a separate sheath. Calyx cup-shaped, five-lobed, the lobes ovate, rounded, 
thin and white, spreading ; after anthesis thickening and inclosing the nut in the tube or in the lobes. 
Stamens eight, rarely seven or nine, introrse, exserted or included; filaments filiform or subulate, 
dilated and connected at the base into a ring or short discoidal cup adnate to the tube of the calyx ; 
anthers ovate, attached on the back below the middle, versatile, two-celled, the parallel cells opening 
longitudinally. Ovary free, sessile, ovoid or oblong, three-angled, contracted into three stout terminal 
styles ; stigmas slightly or conspicuously dilated, entire or three-lobed ; ovule solitary, rising from the 
bottom of the cell on a short or elongated f unicle, orthotropous ; micropyle superior. Fruit ovoid or 
globose, rounded or acute and crowned at the apex with the persistent often connivent lobes of the 
calyx, rounded or abruptly narrowed at the base ; exocarp fleshy, crustaceous or dry, more or less 
adnate to the thin crustaceous or bony wall of the nutlet often divided on the inner surface near the 
base into several more or less intrusive plates. Seed erect, subglobose, acuminate at the apex, three to 
six-lobed, sessile or stipitate ; testa membranaceous, porulose, dark red-brown and lustrous. Embryo 
axillary in more or less ruminate farinaceous albumen ; cotyledons suborbicular, white, cordate, flat or 
involute on the margins; radicle short, superior, cylindrical, erect or incumbent, ascending, turned 
toward the hilum.^ 

Coccolobis is confined to the tropics of the New World, where about one hundred and twenty 



1 By Lindau {Bot. Jahrb. xiii. 121) the species of Coccolobis are Nut included in the thickened tube of the calyx. Trees or 



grouped in the following sections : 



shrubs with ample leaves. 



Rhigia. Inflorescence few-flowered. Many-branched shrubs Campderia. Inflorescence simple or fascicled ; bracts growing 

with small leaves. dark ; ochreolse lax. Nut chiefly included in the thickened lobes 

Paniculate. Inflorescence panicled. Trees with ample leaves. of the calyx. Trees or shrubs with large leaves. 
EUCOCCOLOBA. Inflorescence racemose, simple or fascicled. 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



POLYGONACE^. 



species/ distributed from southern Florida to Mexico, Central America, Brazil, and Peru, are distin- 
guished.^ 

Coccolobis possesses astringent properties, which are sometimes utilized in medicine,^ and many of 
the species produce hard dark-colored valuable wood. 

The generic name, from xoxxog and Tuo^og, is in allusion to the character of the fruit. 



JEq 



Martins Fl. 



183. 



W. 



xui 



ith, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 175. — the Rocky Mountain region of North America (Lesquereux, Hay- 
Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xiv. den Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. vi. 387 [1872]) have been referred to 

Fl. Cub. iii. Coccolobis ; but the specimens upon which the determinations have 

Lin- been made are so fragmentary that it is hardly safe to assume with 

the existing knowledge that the genus ever inhabited a larger area 



2 Traces of leaves found in the tertiary rocks of Europe (Et- of the earth's surface than it does at the present time. 



Fl. 



8 Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 223, 1111. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Leaves coriaceous, broadly ovate or suborbicular, cordate at the base 1. C. Uvifeba. 

Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate .... 2. C. laurifolia 



POLYGONACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



115 



COGCOLOBIS UVIFERA. 



Sea Grape. 



Fascicles of flowers in terminal and axillary racemes. L 
rounded, cordate at the base, thick, and coriaceous. 



broadly ovate 



Coccolobis Uvif era, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 19 (1760) ; 



Hist. Stirv. Am. 112, t. 73 ; Hist 



t. 110. 



Miller 



Linnseus, Spec. ed. 



2, 523. — Icon. Am. Gewdch. ii. 29, t. 127. — Gsertner, 
Fruct. i. 214, t. 45. — Lamarck, HI. ii. 445, t. 316, f . 2. 
West, Beskriv. St. Croix, 281. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. 



fra iiat. For. Kjohenh. 1876, 142 {Fl. St. Croix) ; Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 88 {Fl. St. Croix and the Vir- 
gin Islands). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 37. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix 

Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. xiii. 204. — BaiUon, Hist. PI 



118. 

xi. f. 444. 



i. 457. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 61. — Persoon, Syn. i. Polygonum Uvif era, Linnseus, Spec. 365 (1753). 



442. 

252. 



^^^^ J, 

Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 61. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. Coccolobis Leoganensis, Jacquin, Enum. PI. Carib. 19 



Bot. Mag. lix. t. 3130. — Humboldt, Bonpland & 



Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 175. — Kunth, Syn. PI. 
JEquin. i. 465. — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 542. — Nuttall, 
Sylva, iii. 23, t. 88. — A. Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 183. 
Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. i. 159. — Maycock, Fl. Barb 



155. 



Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linncea, vi. 368. 



Schlechtendal, Linncea, vi. 760 ; xxvi. 643. — Miquel, 
Linncea, xviii. 242. — Meisner, Mon. Gen. Polyg. Prodr. 
8, 33, t. 1, f. 4 ; t. 2, B ; t. 5, f. 1 ; Be Candolle, Prodr. 
xiv. 152 ; Linncea, xxi. 263 ; Martins Fl. Brasil. v. pt. 

Schomburgk, Fl. and Faun. Brit. Guian. 820, 
Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald, 192. — Dietrich, Syn. 



(1760) ; Hist. Stirp. Am. 113, t. 178, f. 33 ; Hist. Select. 
Stirp. Am. 56, t. 260, f. 30. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vi. 
61. — Eggers, VidensTc. Medd. fra nat. For. Kj'dbenh. 
1876, 142 {Fl. St. Croix) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
13, 88 {Fl. St. Croix and the Virgin Isla7ids). 
Coccolobis Uvifera, var. Leoganensis, Willdenow, Spec. 

ii. pt. i. 457 (1799). — Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xiv. 



152. 

ix. 118. 



N. 



Meisner 



42. 



934. 



dolle Prodr. xiv. 152 (1857). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 118. 



ii. 1326. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 161 ; Cat. PI. Uvifera Leoganensis, Otto Kunze, Rev. Gen. PI. ii. 561 



Cub. 61. — Chapman, Fl. 391. — Eggers, Vidensk. Medd. 



(1891). 



three 



A tree, in Florida rarely exceeding fifteen feet in height, with a short gnarled and contorted trunk 
or four feet in diameter, and stout branches which form a round compact head ; often reduced to 



The 



a shrub with prostrate stems, and in the West Indies sometimes rising to the height of fifty feet 
bark of the trunk, which is barely a sixteenth of an inch thick, is smooth, hght brown, and marked 
with large irregular pale blotches. The branches, which are stout and terete, with a thick pith, are light 
orange-color, puberulous, marked with oblong pale lenticels, and gradually grow darker during their 
second and third years. The leaves are broadly ovate or suborbicular, rounded, and sometimes short- 
pointed at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, and entire, with undulate margins ; they are very thick 
and coriaceous, minutely reticulate-venulose, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface 
puberulous on the lower surface, four c 
bright red midribs rounded and g^roo^ 



five inches long and five or six inches wide, with 



: and 
often 



ed on the upper side and frequently covered with pale hairs 



near 



below, and about five pairs of conspicuous spreading primary veins red on the upper side 

the maro-ins and connected by cross veins ; they are borne on short stout puberulous flattened petioles 

abruptly enlarged at the base, and leave in faUing large pale elevated orbicular 

the stipular sheath is a 



bicula 



scars : 



third of an inch broad, truncate, entire, membranaceous, Hght brown, slightly 



puberulous and persistent during 



three years. The leaves sometimes gradually 



d 



or 



and usually fall during their second and third years. The flowers, which appear almost 



sly through the year, are borne on slender puberulous pedicels 



ghth of an inch long 



six-flowered subsessile fascicles from the axils of minute triangular apiculate dark brown puberulous 



116 



jSILVA of north A3IERICA. 



POLYGONACE^. 



bracts^ and produced in terminal and axillary thick-stemmed puberulous many-flowered racemes six to 
fourteen inches in length. The sheaths which surround the fascicles and the pedicels of the separate 
flowers are scarious^ Hght brown^ j)uberulous^ about a third of an inch long, and persistent. The calyx 
is conical, and an eighth of an inch across when expanded, with broadly ovate rounded reflexed white 
lobes, puberulous on the inner surface, and rather longer than the red stamens. The ovary is oblong, 
three-angled, and abruptly contracted into three short styles, reflexed and stigmatic on their inner face. 
The fruit, which hangs in long crowded clusters, is ovoid or obovoid, three quarters of an inch long, 
rounded and marked at the apex with the conspicuous connivent remnants of the calyx-lobes, and grad- 
ually narrowed into a stalk-like base ; it is purple or greenish white, translucent, with thin juicy astrin- 
gent flesh and a thin-walled light red nutlet, and in falHng separates from its thickened persistent stalk. 

Coccolohis Uvifera inhabits saline shores and beaches, and in Florida is found from Mosquito 
Inlet to the southern keys on the east coast, and from the shores of Tampa Bay to Cape Sable on the 
west coast. It is common on the Bermuda ^ and Bahama ^ islands and on the Antilles, and in South 
America ranges from Colombia to Brazil. 

The wood of Coccolohis Uvifera is very heavy, hard, close-grained, and susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish ; it contains scattered small open ducts and obscure medullary rays, the layers of annual 
growth being hardly distinguishable, and is dark brown or violet-color, with thick lighter colored 
sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9635, a cubic foot weighing 60.05 
pounds. It is sometimes used in cabinet-making. 

The fruit, which is scarcely edible, and is extremely astringent before it is fully ripe, is sometimes 
used medicinally in the West Indies;^ and it is perhaps from the wood of this tree that the Jamaica 
Kino,^ a powerful astringent occasionally imported into the United States, is obtained. 

The strange sight of a tree covered with clusters of tempting grape-like fruit naturally attracted 
the attention of the Europeans when they first landed on the burning sands of the Antillean shores, and 



the beauty and value of the Sea Grape were extoUed in the 



of many of the early voyages 



5 



the New World. The first technical descripti 



d a figure of this species 



published in 



1586 



1 Lefroy, Bull U. S. Nat Mus. No. 26, 100 (BoL Bermuda). 

2 Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri BoL Gard. iv. 123. 

3 Barliain, Hort. Amer. 68. — Lunan, HorL Jam. i. 76. — Duncan, 



Edinburgh Med. Dispens. ed. 2, 162. 
ii. 41, t. 77. — Hayne, Arzn. x. t. 4. 



Med 
Med, 



Guiahara, Dalechamps, HisU PL 1850, f. — C. Bauhin, Pinax, 
19. — Parkinson, Theatr. 1667. 

Populus rotundifolia Americana^ C. Bauhin, Pinax, 430. — Jons- 
ton, Dendrographiay 439. 

Arbor insulce Tabago materie ligno Brasiliano similiy Jonston, Den- 



Med 
Med, 



Ernst, 



211. 

Linnceaf viii. 280. 

Jour. Bot. iii. 320. 

* Carson, Med. Bot. ii. 21, t. 68. — Karsten, Pharm. Med. Bot 
518. — Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 799. — Guibourt, Hist. Drog. ed. 7, iii. 



Schomburgk, drographia^ 458, t. 130, f. ; ed. 2, ii. 247, f. 



434. 



U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 856. 



^ " Del arbol Uamado guiabara, que los christianos Uanaan 



uvero. 



37 



(Oviedo, Hist. Nat. Gen. Ind. lib. viii. cap. 13.) 



Papyracea arbor Cruaiabara, J. Bauhin, Hist. Gen. i. lib. iii. 
374, f . 

Populus novi orbisy J. Bauhin, Hist. Gen. i. lib. viii. 164, f . 

Du Raisiniery Rochefort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles An- 
tilles, 71, f. — Du Tertre, Hist. Gen. Antill. ii. 186. 

Uvifera arbor Occidentalis folio rotunda^ Hermann, Parad. Bat. 
Prodr. 385. 

Uvifera litorea foliis amplioribuSy fere orbiculatis crassis Americana. 



" And so doe their wild Grapes, which are a fruit growing in U 

Clusters and therein have very little meat upon them." (Layfield, Plukenet, Phyt. 236, f. 7 ; Aim. Bot. 394. 

Purchas his Pilgrims, iv. 1172.) Prunus maritima racemosa, folio rotunda glabra, fructu minore pur- 

" There is a berrie in those parts very excellent against the pureo, Sloane, Cat. PL Jam. 183 ; Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 129, t. 220, f 

bloudie-fluxe, by the Indians it is called Kellette." (Harcourt, 3-5. — Ray, Hist. PL iii. Dendr. 40. 



Nat 



96, t. 96. 



Purchas his Pilgrims, iv. 1276.) 

"Acinus qui barbaris dicitur Kellete utiliter adhibetur contra 
dysenteriam." (Jan de Laet, Nov. Orb. 645.) 

" Arbor, cujus materies rubra est instar ligni Brasiliani, folia The Ba 

pene orbicularia, fert racematim fructus uvis baud dissimUes, sapo- Coccolo^ 

ris admodum grati ; nascitur potissimum juxta littora." (Jan de Jam. 209, 

Laet, Nov. Orb. 665). Raisinit 



Uvifera foliis subroiundis, amplissimis, Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 487. 



Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 534. 



'iffith Huffhes, Nat 



Nat 



145 



mer 



® Populus Americana, Dalechamps, Hist. PL ii. 1830, f, 



relle de VIsle de Saint Domingue, 299. 



POLYGONACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



Coccolohis Uvifera was first noticed in the United States by Bernard Romans, who described it 
in his Concise Natural History of Hast and West Florida,^ published in 1775. According to 
Aiton/ it was introduced as early as 1690 into Europe/ where, and in Asia,* it is occasionally culti- 
vated in botanic gardens. 



I (( 



Coccoloba, or seaside plumb, growing in bunches, an almost ' Willdenow, Enum. 431. — Link, Enum. i. 386. — Desfontaines, 

round veined leaf, & the fruit blue, inclined to purple." (21.) Cat. Hort. Paris, ed. 3, 69. — Endlicher, Cat. Hort. Vindob. i. 273. 



2 Hort. Kew. ii. 34. 



Voigt, Hort. Sub. Calcutt. 326. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCXCVIIL Coccolobis Uvifera. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower-bud, enlarged. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged- 

5. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged- 

6. A pistil, the ovary cut vertically, enlarged. 

7- A portion of a branch showing leaf-scar and stipular sheath, natural size. 



Plate CCXCIX. Coccolobis Uvifera. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A seed, slightly enlarged. 

5. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 



Siiva of North America. 



Tab. CCXCVIII 




C.E.FaxoTb del. 



Himeb^ so 



COCCOLOBIS UVIFERA,L. 



A.JUocreitX' dzrex^^ 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCXCIX 




C.E.Faxon del. 



Ticart sc. 



COCCOLOBIS UVIFERA.L 



A.RLocreux direa:.^ 



Imp. J. Taneur. Paris. 



POLYGONACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



119 



COCCOLOBIS LAURIFOLIA. 



Pigeon Plum. 



Fascicles of flowers in terminal racemes. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate 



Coccolobis laurifolia, Jacquin, Hort. Schoenhr. iii. 9, t. Coccolobis parvifolia, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 25, t. 89 (not 



267 (1798). — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 652. — Meis- 



Poiret) (1849). 



ner, Mon. Gen. Polyg. Prodr. 33, t. 2, C ; De Candolle Coccolobis tenuif olia, Eggers, Vidensk. Medd. fra not. 



Prodr. xiv. 165. — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 543. — Eggers, 



For. Kjobenh. 1876, 142 (FL St. Croix) (not Linnaeus). 



Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 88 (Fl. St. Oroix and Coccolobis Leoganensis, Eggers, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. 
the Virgin Islands). — lAndidiVi, Bot. Jahrh. xiii. 158. 
Baillon, Hist. PI. xi. f . 445. — Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri 
Bat. Gard. iv. 123. 



For. Kjobenh. 1876, 142 {Fl. St. Croix) (not Jacquin).— 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 88 {Ft. St. Croix and the 
Virgin Islands). 
Coccolobis Curtissii, Lindau, Bot. Jahrh. xiii. 159 (1891). 
165 (1857). — Grisebach, Ca^. P/. Ci<6. 61. — Chapman, Uvifera Curtissii, Otto Kunze, Bev. Gen. PI. ii. 561 



Meisner 



Fl. 392. — Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and 



(1891). 



Forests, 376. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Uvifera laurifolia. Otto Xunze, Rev. Gen. PI. 



11. 



561 



U. S. ix. 117. 



(1891). 



A glabrous tree, in Florida sixty to seventy feet in height, with a tall straight trunk one or two 
feet in diameter, and spreading branches which form a dense round-topped handsome head. The bark 
of the trunk is a sixteenth of an inch thick, gray tinged with red and brown, and broken on the 
surface into large smooth plates, which in faUing display the dark purple inner bark. The branchlets 
are slender, terete, often slightly zigzag, usually contorted, and covered with hght orange-colored bark, 
which in their second or third year becomes dark gray tinged with red. The leaves are ovate, ovate- 
lanceolate or obovate-oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, and 
entire, with slightly undulate revolute margins ; they are thick and firm, bright green on the upper 
surface, paler on the lower surface, three to four inches long and an inch and a half to two inches 
broad, with conspicuous pale midribs rounded on the upper side, and three or four pairs of remote 
oblique primary veins forked and arcuate near the margins and connected by prominent reticulate 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout flattened grooved petioles half an inch long and abruptly enlarged 
at the base ; the stipular sheaths are truncate, entire, hght brown, glabrous, thin and scarious, and 
about half an inch wide. The flowers appear in early spring in few or one-flowered fascicles in simple 
racemes terminal on short axillary branches of the previous year and two to three inches long ; they 
are borne on slender pedicels a quarter of an inch long and much longer than the minute acute bracts 
and the narrow light brown scarious sheaths. The calyx is campanulate, narrowed at the base, and an 
eighth of an inch across the expanded lobes, which are cup-shaped, thin, and rather shorter than the 
stamens composed of slender yellow filaments enlarged at the base and of dark orange-colored anthers. 
The ovary is abruptly contracted into an abbreviated style, divided into three elongated stigmatic 



lobes 



The fruit, which ripens during the winter and early spring 



d, narrowed 



the base 



rounded and crowned at the apex with the lobes of the calyx, dark red and a third of an inch long, 
with thin acidulous flesh and a hard thin-walled light brown nutlet. 

In Florida, where it is one of the largest and most abundant of the tropical trees, the Pigeon 
Plum is found on the seacoast from Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, and on the west coast from 
Cape Romano to Cape Sable. It is common on the Bahama Islands, and inhabits many of the Antilles 

and Venezuela. 

The wood of Coccolobis laurifolia is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, brittle, and close-grained, 



120 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. poLYGONACEic. 



and contains small scattered open ducts^ the layers of annual growth and the numerous medullary rays 
being hardly distinguishable j it is rich dark brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9835, a cubic foot weighing 61.29 pounds. In 
Florida it is occasionally used in cabinet-making. 

The fruit is devoured by raccoons and other mammals, and by many birds. 

Coccolohis JaiiTifolia was discovered on the Bahama Islands by Mark Catesby, and the first 
account and figure of this tree was published in 1743 in his Natural History of Carolina} The 
earhest mention of it as an inhabitant of Florida is found in Bernard Romans' Concise Natural 
History of East and West Florida^ published in 1775.^ It was introduced early in the present 
century into European gardens,^ and in 1820 flowered near Paris.* 



^ Cerasns latiore folio ; fructu racemoso purpureo majore, ii, 94, t. s Willdenow, Enum. 431. — Link, Enum. i. 386. — Endlicher, 

94. Cat. HorL Vindoh. i. 274. 

2 *« Coccoloba, with oblong egg shaped veined leaves, with pointed ^ Mordant de Launay, Herh, Amat. v. t. 323. 
grapelike fruit less than currants." (22.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCC. Coccolobis laurifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Portion of a rachis with two flowers, enlarged, showing the ochreolse. 

4. A flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10. A seed, enlarged. 

IL An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America , 



Tab. CCC. 




C.E.FaxoTh del 



Rapine' sc 



COCCOLOBIS LAURIFOLIA , Jac<j. 



A.Bwcreux^ dzrex 



Imp. J. Taneur. Paris. 



INDEX TO VOL. VI. 



admitted Genera and Species and 
of synonyms, in italics. 



iEcidium Fraxini, 27. 

Alstoniay 13. 
Alstonia theceformis, 14. 
Amphyllosticta Catalpse, 84. 
Anacahuita, 73. 



Bobu, 13. 

Bobua, 13. 

Bois Fidele, 101. 



Anaqua, 81. 

Aphis Diospyri, 4. 

Aplilia, 25. 

Ash, 29, 33, 39, 41, 53, 57. 

Ash, Black, 37. 

Ash, Blue, 35. 

Ash, Fringe-flowered, 31. 

Ash, Mountain, 47. 

Ash, Red, 49. 

Ash, Swamp, 55. 

Ash, Water, 55. 

Ash, White, 43. 

Aspidisca diospyriella, 4* 

Attacus Promethea, 20, 

Avicenna, 106. 

Avicennia, 105. 

Avicennia Africana, 105, 106. 

Avicennia alba, 106. 

Avicennia, economic uses of, 106. 

Avicennia elliptical 106. 

Avicennia Floridana, 107. 

Avicennia intermedia, 106. 

Avicennia Lamarkiana, 106. 

Avicennia Meyeri, 107. 

Avicennia nitida, 107. 

Avicennia oblongifolia, 107. 

Avicennia officinalis, 105, 106. 

Avicennia officinalis, var. alba, 106. 

Avicennia resinifera, 106. 

Avicennia tomentosa, 105, 106, 107. 



Barbarina, 13. 

Barney, Eliam Eliakim, 90. 

Bean, Indian, 86. 

Beef Wood, 111. 

Bessera, 109. 

Beurreria, 75. 

Bignonia Catalpa, 84, 86, 

Bignonia linearis, 95. 

Bignonia longissima, 84. 

Bignonia Quercus, 84. 

BiGNONIACEiE, 83. 

Black Ash, 37. 
Black Calabash, 99. 
Black Mangrove, 107. 
Black Persimmon, 11. 

Black Tree, 108. 
Black Wood, 108. 
BloUy, 111. 
Blue Ash, 35, 



Edmond 



Boissiera, 74. 



Anacahuita wood, medical properties of, 74. Bontia, 105. 



Bontia germinans, 106. 
Borellia, 67. 

BORRAGINACE^, 67. 

Botryosphseria Persimmons, 4. 
Bourreria, 75. 

Bourreria glabra, 68. 

Bourreria Havanensis, 77. 

Bourreria Havanensis, var. radula, 77. 

Bourreria ovata, 11, 

Bourreria radula, 11. 

Bourreria recurva, 11, 78. 

Bourreria tomentosa, y Havanensis, 11, 
Bourreria virgata, 11. 



Calabash, Black, 99. 

Calabash-tree, 97. 

Calamander wood, 3, 

Calico Wood, 22. 

Calpidia, 109. 

Campderia, 113. 

Campderia, 113. 

Cargillia, 1. 

Carlea, 13. 

Carlomohria, 19. 

Carlomohria Carolina, 21. 

Carlomohria diptera, 23. 

Carlomohria parvijlora, 19, 

Carmenta Fraxini, 27. 

Carmona, 79. 

Catalpa, 83, 86. 

Catalpa bignonioides , 86, 89. 

Catalpa bignonioides, var. Kcempferi, 84, 

Catalpa Bungei, 84. 

Catalpa Bungei, 88. 

Catalpa Catalpa, 86. 

Catalpa Catalpa, garden forms of, 88. 

Catalpa communis, 86. 

Catalpa cordifolia, 86, 89. 

Catalpa crassifolia, 84. 

Catalpa, fertilization of the flowers of, 83. 

Catalpa, fungal enemies of, 84. 

Catalpa, insect enemies of, 84. 

Catalpa Kcempferi, 84. 

Catalpa longisiliqua, 84. 

Catalpa longissima, 84. 

Catalpa longissima, wood of, 84, 

Catalpa, medical properties of, 84. 



Catalpa speciosa, 89. 

Catalpa syringifolia, 84, 86. 

Catalpa, Teas' hybrid, 84. 

Catalpa, Western, 89. 

Catalpium, 83. 

Catesbsea, 16. 

Catesby, Mark, 16. 

Cavanillea, 1, 

Centrodera decolorata, 27. 

Cephalotomandra, 109. 

Cercospora Catalpse, 84. 

Cercospora Diospyri, 4. 

Cercospora fuliginosa, 4. 

Cercospora Kaki, 4. 

Cerdana, 67. 

Cerdana alliodora, 68. 

Chapote, 11. 

Chasseloupia, 13. 

Chilopsis, 93. 

Chilopsis glutinosa, 95. 

Chilopsis linearis, 95. 

Chilopsis saligna, 95. 

Chinese white wax, 26. 

Chionanthus, 59. 

Chionanthus angustifolia, 60. 

Chionanthus Chinensis , 59. 

Chionanthus cotinifolia, 60, 61. 

Chionanthus fraxinifolia, 31. 

Chionanthus heterophylla, 60. 

Chionanthus longifolia, 60. 

Chionanthus maritima, 60. 

Chionanthus, medical properties of, 59. 

Chionanthus montana, 60. 

Cliionanthus retusa, 59. 

Chionanthus trijida, 60. 

Chionanthus trijiora, 60. 

Chionanthus vernalis, 60. 

Chionanthus Virginica, 60. 

Chionanthus Virginica, var. angustifolia, 60, 

Chionanthus Virginica, var, latifolia, 60. 

Chionanthus Virginica, var. maritima, 60. 

Chionanthus Virginica, var. montana, 60. 

Chionanthus Zeylonica, 60. 

Ciponima, 13. 

Citharexylon, 101. 

Citharexylon villosum, 103. 

Coccoloba, 113. 

Coccolobis, 113. 

Coccolobis Curtissli, 119. 

Coccolobis Floridana, 119. 

Coccolobis laurifolia, 119. 

Coccolobis Leoganensis, 115, 119. 

Coccolobis, medical properties of, 114. 



Catalpa, nectariferous glands of the leaves Coccolobis parrifolia, 119. 



of, 87. 
Catalpa ovata, 84. 



Coccolobis tenuifolia, 119. 
Coccolobis Uvifera, 115. 



' fe 



/ Iw- 



122 



INDEX. 



Uvifi 



lifolia 



Coccus Pe-la, 26. 

Columella^ 109. 

Cordia, 07. 

Cordia Africana^ 68. 

Cordia alliodora, 68. 

Cordia alliodora, wood of, 69. 

Cordia angustifoliay 68. 

Cordia Boissieri, 73. 

Cordia Brownii, 68. 

Cordia buUata, 68. 

Cordia campanulata, 68. 

Cordia Cerdana, 68. 

Cordia dichotoma^ 68. 

Cordia, economic uses of, 68. 

Cordia Floridana^ 77. 

Cordia Gerascanthus, 68. 

Cordia globosa, 68. 

Cordia hexa^idra, 68. 

Cordia Indica, 68. 

? Cordia juglandifoliay 71. 

Cordia latifolia, 68. 

Cordia Myxa, 68. 

Cordia Myxa, uses of, 68, 

Cordia officinalis, 68. 

Cordia orientalis, 68. 

Cordia paniculata, 68. 

Cordia, podocephala, 68. 

Cordia reticulata, 68. 

Cordia Rhumpkii, 68, 

Cordia Rothii, 68. 

Cordia Sebestena, 71. 

Cordia Sebestena, 68, 

Cordia Sebestena, var, rubra, 71. 

Cordia speciosa, 71. 

Cordia subcordata, 68. 

Cordia subopposita, 68. 

Cordia thyrsiflora, 79. 

Cordia vestita, 68. 

Cordus, Valerius, 69. 

Cordyloblaste, 13. 

Coromaudel wood, 3. 

Crematomia, 75. 

Crescentia, 97. 

Crescentia acuminata, 97, 

Crescentia alata, 98. 

? Crescentia coriacea, 99. 

Crescentia cucurbitina, 99. 

Crescentia Cujete, 97. 

Crescentia Cujete, uses of, 97. 

Crescentia cuneijolia, 97, 

Crescentia latifolia, 99. 

Crescentia lethifera, 99. 

Crescentia obovata, 99. 

Crescentia ovata, 99. 

Crescentia, species, 99. 

Crescenzi, Pietro de', 98. 

Cuieie, 97, 98. 



Dactylus, 1. 

Dactylus Trapezuntinus, 2. 

? Decadia, 13. 

Desert Willow, 95. 

Devil Wood, 65. 

Dicalyx, 13. 

Diospyros, 1. 

Diospyros Brasiliensis, 3. 

Diospyros Caroliniana, 7, 

Diospyros, character of the wood of, 2, 

? Diospyros Chinensis, 4. 

Diospyros ciliata, 7. 

Diospyros concolor, 7. 

? Diospyros costata, 4. 



Diospyros Cunalon, 3. 
Diospyros decandra, 3. 
Diospyros Dendo, 3. 
Diospyros digyna, 3. 
Diospyros dubia^ 3, 
Diospyros Ebenaster, 3. 
Diospyros Ebenaster, 2. 
Diospyros Ebenaster, fruit of, 3. 
Diospyros Ebenum, 2. 
Diospyros Ebenum, 3. 
Diospyros Embryopteris, 3. 
Diospyros ferruginea, 3. 
Diospyros, fungal enemies of, 4. 
Diospyros glaberrima, 2. 
Diospyros glutinosa, 3. 
Diospyros Guajacana, 7. 
Diospyros, insect enemies of, 4. 
Diospyros Japonica, 2. 
f Diospyros Kcempferi, 4. 
Diospyros Kaki, 4. 
Diospyros Kaki, var. j3, 2. 
.^ Diospyros Kaki, var. costata^ 4. 
Diospyros Kaki, wood of, 4. 
Diospyros laurifolia, 3, 
Diospyros longifolia, 3. 
Diospyros Lotus, 2. 
Diospyros Malabarica, 3. 
Diospyros Mazeli, 4. 
Diospyros, medical properties of, 3. 
Diospyros melanoxylon, 3. 
Diospyros melanoxylon, 2. 
Diospyros melanoxylon, wood of, 3. 
Diospyros membranacea, 3. 
Diospyros microcarpa, 2. 
Diospyros nigra, 3. 

Diospyros nigricans, 3. 
Diospyros obtusifolia, 3. 

Diospyros oppositifolia, 3. 
Diospyros Paralea, 3. 
Diospyros peregrina, 3. 
Diospyros Persimon, 7. 
Diospyros Pseudo-Lotus, 2, 
Diospyros pubescens, 7. 
Diospyros qusesita, 3. 
Diospyros reticulata, 3. 
Diospyros revoluta, 3. 
Diospyros Roxburghii, 4. 
Diospyros Sapota, 3. 
? Diospyros Schi-Tse, 4. 
.^ Diospyros Sinensis, 4. 
Diospyros tessellaria, 3. 
Diospyros Texana, 11. 
Diospyros toxicaria, 3. 
Diospyros, uses of, 3. 
Diospyros Virgiuiana, 7. 



Ehretia acuminata, uses of, 79 

Ehretia Bourreria, 77, 78. 
Ehretia ciliata, 81. 
Ehretia elliptica, 81. 
Ehretia exasperata^ 81. 
Ehretia glabra, 68. 

Ehretia Havanensis, 77. 
Ehretia ovalifolia, 79. 
Ehretia pyrifolia, 79. 
Ehretia radula, 77. 
? Ehretia scabra, 81. 
Ehretia serrata, 79. 
Embryopteris, 1. 
Embryopteris gelatinifera, 3. 
Embryopteris glutinifera, 3. 

Embryopteris Kaki, 4. 
Embryopteris peregrina, 3, 

Enallagma, 97. 
Eucoccoloba, 113. 
Eucrescentia, 97, 
Eugenioides, 13. 
Eugenioides tinctorium, 15, 
Exobasidium Symploci, 14. 



Fatua denudata, 27, 
Fiddle Wood, 101, 103, 
Firensia, 67. 
Fothergill, John, 16. 

Fothergilla, 16. 
Fraxinastrum, 26. 
Fraxinus, 25. 
Fraxinus acuminata, 43. 
Fraxinus alba, 26, 43. 
Fraxinus albicans, 44, 47. 
Fraxinus Americana, 43. 



Fraxinus Americana, 50, 55. 

Fraxinus Americana, subspec. Novce-Anglice, 

50. 
Fraxinus Americana, subspec. Oregona, 57. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. acuminata, 43. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. Berlandieriana, 

53. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Caroliniana, 55. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. epiptera, 43. 
Fraxinus Americana, yb,t, juglandi/olia, 50. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. latifolia, 43. 
Fraxinus Americana, var, microcarpa, 44. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. normale, 43, 
Fraxinus Americana, yslt. pistacicefolia, 41. 
Fraxinus Americana, ybx, pubescens, 49. 
Fraxinus Americana, yslt, quadrangulata, 35. 
Fraxinus A mericana, var. quadrangulata 

nervosa, 35. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. sambucifolia, 37. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis, 47. 



Diospyros Virginiana, medical properties Fraxinus Americana, var. triptera, 55. 



of, 9. 

Diospyros Virginiana, var. concolor, 7. 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. macrocarpa, 7. 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. microcarpa, 7. 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. pubescens, 7. 
Diospyros Wightiana, 3. 
Diplosis Catalpse, 84. 
Donatia, 105. 
Douglas, Robert, 90. 
? Drupatris, 13. 
Dynastes Tityus, 27. 



Ebenacf.e, 1. 

Ebony, 2. 

Ebony, Indian, 3. 

Ehret, Georg Dionysius, 80. 

Ehretia, 79. 

Ehretia acuminata, 79. 



Fraxinus anomala, 39. 

Fraxinus Berlandieriana, 53. 

Fraxinus Canadensis, 43. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, 55. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, 50. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, /3 latifolia, 50. 

Fraxinus Caroliniensis, 43. 

Fraxinus Chinensis, 26. 

Fraxinus Chinensis, var, rhynchophylla, 26. 

Fraxinus cinerea, 26. 

Fraxinus coriacea, 41, 47. 

Fraxinus Cubensis, 55, 56. 

Fraxinus Curtissii, 4A, 

Fraxinus curvidens, 55. 

Fraxinus cuspidata, 29. 

Fraxinus dipetala, 31. 

Fraxinus dipetala, var. brachyptera, 31. 

Fraxinus dipetala, var. trifoliata, 31, 



INDEX. 



123 



? Fraxinus ducolovy 49. 
Fraxinus, economic uses of, 26. 
Fraxinus ellipticay 26. 
Fraxinus epipteray 43. 
Fraxinus excelsior, 26, 27- 
Fraxinus excelsior^ 55. 
Fraxinus expansa^ 50. 
Fraxinus floribunda, 27. 
Fraxinus Jlor if era y 26. 
Fraxinus, fungal enemies of, 27. 
Fraxinus fusca^ 26. 
Fraxinus Greggii, 33. 
Fraxinus, insect enemies of, 27. 
Fraxinus juglandif alia y 50. 
? Fraxinus juglandifoliay 43, 55. 



Fraxinus viridisy var. Berlandierianay 53. 
Fraxinus viridiSy var. pubescens, 49. 
Fringe Tree, 60. 
Fringe-flowered Ash, 31. 
Fungal enemies of Catalpa, 84. 
Fimgal enemies of Diospyros, 4. 
Fungal enemies of Fraxinus, 27, 
Fungal enemies of Mohrodendron, 20. 
Fungal enemies of Symplocos, 14. 



Garcinia Malaharicay 3. 
Geiger Tree, 71. 
GerascanthuSy 67. 
Grape, Sea, 115. 
Gregg, Josiab, 33. 



Fraxinus juglandifoliay P subintegerrimay 60. Greggia, 34. 



Fraxinus lanceolatay 50. 

Fraxinus latifolia, 57. 

Fraxinus longifolia, 49. 

Fraxinus Mandshurica, 26. 

Fraxinus Mariesii, 25. 

Fraxinus, medical properties of, 26. 

Fraxinus mixta, 26. 

Fraxinus nigra, 37. 

Fraxinus nigra, 26. 

Fraxinus nigra, subspec. Caroliniana, 55. 

Fraxinus nigra, subspec. nigra, 37. 

Fraxinus nigrescens, 55. 

? Fraxinus Nova Anglia, 43. 

Fraxinus Novce-Anglice, 37, 50. 

Fraxinus Nuttallii, 55. 

Fraxinus oblongocarpa, 49. 

Fraxinus Oregona, 57. 

Fraxinus Oregona, 13, 57. 

Fraxinus Oregona, var. riparia, 57. 

Fraxinus Ornus, 26, 27. 

Fraxinus ovata, 26. 

Fraxinus pallida, 55. 

Fraxinus pannosa, 26. 

Fraxinus pauciflora, 55. 

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, 49. 



Guaiacana, 4. 
Guiabara, 113. 
Chmisanihus , 1. 
Gynaian, 67. 
Gynaion vestitum, 68. 



Halesia, 19. 
Halesia Carolina, 21. 
Halesia diptera, 23. 
Halesia parvijlora, 19. 
Halesia reticulata, 23. 
Halesia stenocarpa, 21. 
Halesia tetraptera, 21. 
Halesia tetraptera Meehani, 22. 
Halodendrum, 105. 
Halodendrum Thouarsii, 106. 
Hemigymnia, 67. 
Hilsenbergia, 79. 
Hopea, 13. 

Hopea tinctoria, 15. 
Horse Sugar, 15. 
Hymenestkes, 67. 
Hypopogon, 13. 



//ez Aquifolium, 63. 



Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata, 50. Indian Bean, 86. 



Fraxinus pistacicefolia, 41. 

Fraxinus pistacicefolia, var. coriacea, 41. 

Fraxinus platycarpa, 55. 

Fraxinus platycarpa, var. Floridana, 55. 

Fraxinus pubescens, 49, 50, 55. 

Fraxinus pubescens, var. 3, 57. 

Fraxinus pubescens, j8 longifolia, 49. 

Fraxinus pubescens, y latifolia, 49. 

Fraxinus pubescens, var. Berlandieriana, 53. 

Fraxinus pubescens, var. Lindheimeri, 53. 

Fraxinus pubescens, var. subpubescens, 49. 

Fraxinus pulverulenta, 26. 

Fraxinus quadrangulata, 35. 

Fraxinus quadrangulata, var. nervosa, 35. 



Insect enemies of Catalpa, 84. 
Insect enemies of Diospyros, 4. 
Insect enemies of Fraxinus, 27. 
Insect enemies of Mohrodendron, 20. 



Japanese Persimmon, 4. 



Kaki, 4. 

Kakis, origin of the cultivated, 4. 
Kakis, uses of, 4. 
Knackaway, 81. 



Leptalix, 25. 
Leucoxylum, 1. 



Fraxinus quadrangulata, var. subpubescens, Linociera cotinifoliay 60. 



35. 

Fraxinus rhynchophylla, 26. 

Fraxinus Richardi, 26. 

Fraxinus rotundifoliay 26- 

Fraxinus rubicu7ida, 26- 

Fraxinus rufa, 26. 

Fraxinus sambucifolia, 37. 

Fraxinus Schiediana, var. parvifolia, 33. 

Fraxinus subvillosa, 49. 

Fraxinus tetragona, 35. 

Fraxinus Texensis, 47. 

Fraxinus tomentosa, 49. 

Fraxinus trialata, 53. 

Fraxinus triptera, 55. 

Fraxinus urophylla, 27. 

Fraxinus velutina, 41. 

Fraxinus viridis, 50. 



Lodhra, 13. 

Lodhra cratcegoides , 14. 

Louro, 68. 



Mabola, 1. 
Macielia, 67. 
Macria, 67. 

Macrosporium Catalpae, 84. 
Mangrove, Black, 107. 
Manna, 26. 
Mannapliorus, 25. 
Microsphsera elevata, 84. 
Mohria, 19. 
Mohria Carolina, 21. 
Mohria diptera, 23. 
Mohria parviflora, 19. 
Mohrodendron, 19. 



Mohrodendron Carolinum, 21. 
Mohrodendron dipterum, 23. 
Mohrodendron, fungal enemies of, 20. 
Mohrodendron, insect enemies of, 20. 
Mohrodendron parviflorum, 19. 

Mongezia, 13. 
Monodaphnus bardus, 27. 
Morelosia, 75. 
Mountain Ash, 47. 



Neoclytus Caprea, 27. 
Newberry, John Strong, 39. 
Newberry a, 40. 
Noltia, 1. 
Nyctaginaceje, 109. 



Old Man's Beard, 60. 

Oleace^, 25. 

OZea Americana, 65. 

Olea fragranSy 63. 

OZea ilicifolia, 63. 

Ornanthes, 25. 

Ornus, 26. 

Ornus, 25. 

Ornus dipetala, 31. 

Ornus Europcea, 26. 

Ornus floribunda, 27- 

Ornus rotundifolia, 26. 

Ornus urophylla, 27. 

Osmanthus, 63. 

Osmanthus Americanus, 65. 

Osmanthus Aquifolium, 63. 

Osmanthus, economic uses of, 63. 

Osmanthus fragrans, 63. 

Osmanthus ilicifolius, 63. 



Pallavia, 109. 
Pallavia aculeata, 110. 
Palura, 13. 
Paniculatse, 113. 
Pao Judeu, 110. 
Pao Lepra, 110. 
Paradigma, 67. 
Paralea, 1. 
Paralea Guianensis, 3. 

Parmentiera alata, 98. 
Pemphigus fraxinifolii, 27. 

Persimmon, 7. 
Persimmon, Black, 11. 
Persimmon, Japanese, 4. 
Persimon, 1. 

Phyllactinia suffidta, 84. 
Phytoptus Fraxini, 27. 
Pigeon Plum, 119. 
Pigeon Wood, 111. 
Piso, WiUem, 110. 

Pisonia, 109. 

Pisonia aculeata, 109, 110. 
Pisonia cuneifolia, 111. 
Pisonia, economic uses of, 110. 
Pisonia loranthoides, 110. 
Pisonia noxia, 110. 
Pisonia obtusata, 111. 
Pisonia rotundata, 110. 
Pisonia tomentosa, 110. 
Pisonia villosa, 110. 
Pladera, 13. 
Plethostephia, 67, 
Plmu, Pigeon, 119. 
Podosesia Syringse, 27. 

POLYGONACEiE, 113. 

Polygonum Uvifera, 115. 
Polyporus amorphus, 20. 
Polyporus Halesise, 20. 



124 



INDEX. 



Pork Wood, 111. 
Praalstoniay 13. 
Pradlstonia theceformiSy 14. 
Protohopea, 13. 

Protohopea tinctorial 15. 
Psylla Diospyri, 4. 

Pterost} rax, 19. 



Racka, 105. 
Rattle Box, 22. 
Ramooljia, 101, 
Red Ash, 49. 
Rhigia, 113. 
RospidioSy 1. 

Sacidium Symploei, 14 
SamarpseSy 25. 

Samarpses iriptera, 55. 
Sapota nigray 3. 
Sariava, 13. 
Sceura, 105. 
Sceura marina^ 106. 
Sea Grape, 115. 
Sebesteuy 67. 
Sebestena officinalis^ 68. 
Sebestena scabra^ 71. 
Sebestens, 68. 
Septoria Symploei, 14. 



Shibu, 4. 

Silver Bell Tree, 21, 23. 
Snowdrop Tree, 22, 23. 
Spliserouema Spina, 27. 
Sphinx Catalpae, 84. 
Stemmatosiphum , 13. 
Strong Back, 77. 
Strong Bark, 78. 

Styrace^, 13. 
Swamp Ash, 55. 
Sweet Leaf, 15. 
Symplocos, 13. 
SymplocoSj 13. 
Symplocos Alstonia, 14. 
Symplocos cratsegoides, 14. 
Symplocos, economic uses of, 14. 
Symplocos, fungal enemies of, 14. 
Symplocos Hamiltoniana, 14. 

Symplocos Loha, 14. 

Symplocos, medical properties of, 14 

Symplocos nervosa^ 14. 
Symplocos phyllocalyx, 14. 
Symplocos polycarpa, 14. 
Symplocos propinqua, 14. 
Symplocos racemosa, 14. 
Symplocos spicata, 14. 
Symplocos theseformis, 14. 
Symplocos tinctoria, 15. 



Therina fervidaria, 20. 
Timeroya, 109. 
Torrubia, 109. 



Upata, 105. 
Upata, 105. 
Uvifera, 113. 
Uvifera Curtissii, 119. 
Uvifera laurifoliay 119. 
Uvifera LeoganensiSf 115. 



Valsaria Diospyri, 4. 

Varronia, 67. 
Varronia bullata, 68- 
Varronia globosa^ 68. 

VERBENACEiE, 101. 

Vieillardia, 109. 



Warder, John Aston, 90. 

Water Ash, 55. 

Wax, Chinese white, 26. 

Western Catalpa, 89. 

White Ash, 43. 

Willow, Desert, 95. 

Wislizenia, 94. 

Wislizenus, Friedrich Adolph, 94 



New York Botanical Garden Library 



3 5185 00287 8179 



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