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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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The New York Botanical Garden 

LuEsther T. Mertz Library 



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The Estate of 



Henry Clay Frick, II 

2007 



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THE 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESCEIPTION OF THE TREES WHICH GEOW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OP MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



91llui3trateD tnitl^ figured auD Sinali^m tiramn from Ji5ature 



BT 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



VOLUME VII 



LA UBA CEM—JUGLANDA CJEJE 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

M DCCC XCV 



Copyright, 1895, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass,, U. S, A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghton and Company, 



^12 UBHfm 

HBN VORK 
BOTAMrCAL 



To 

SIR JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, 

WHOSE LABORS HAVE LARGELY INCREASED KNOWLEDGE 



IN REGARD TO TREES OF THREE CONTINENTS 



AND WHOSE EXAMPLE 



HAS BEEN A STIMULANT TO BOTANICAL STUDY IN EVERY LAND, 



THIS SEVENTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 



Synopsis of Orders 

Persea Borbonia Plate 

Persea pubescens ........ 

OCOTEA CaTESBYANA ..•••.. 

Sassafras Sassafras 



■ • 



VXl 



CCCl 



Plate cccii 



4 

7 



Plate ccciii. ....♦.♦•. 11 



Plates ccciv., cccv 



17 



Umbellularia Californica 



Drypetes Keyensis 



Plate cccvi. .•..•.... 21 



Plate cccvii 



25 



Drypetes lateriflora 
Gym^tanthes lucida 



Plate eccviii. . . . . . . . . - 27 



Plate cccix 



HiPPOMANE Mancinella ....... Plate cccx 



Ulmus Americana 
Ulm[js racemosa 



Plate cccxi 



30 
35 
43 



Plate cccxii. ......... 47 



Ulmus alata 



Plate cccxiii 



Ulmus fulva ......... Plate ccexiv 



Ulmus crassifolia 



Plate cccxv 



Planera aquatica ......•- Plate eccxvi 



Celtis occidentalis 



Plate cccxvii 



Celtis Mississippiensis ....... Plates ccexviii., cccxix 



MoRUS rubra 



Plate cccxx 



51 
53 

57 
61 
67 
71 
79 



MORUS CELTIDIFOLIA 
TOXYLON POMIFERUM 



Plate cccxxi. ......... 83 



Plates cccxxii., cccxxiii. 



FiCUS AUREA 



Plate cccxxiv 



FiCUS POPULNEA 



Plate cccxxv 



Platanus OCCIDENTALIS ....... Plates cccxxvi., cccxx vii. . 



Platanus racemosa 
Platanus Wrighth 
Leitneria Floridana 



Plate cccxxviii 



89 

95 

97 

102 

105 



Plate cccxxix. -•......, 107 



Plate cccxxx 



JUGLANS CINEREA 
JUGLANS NIGRA 



JuGLANS RUPESTRIS . 

JuGLANS Californica 



111 
118 



Plates cccxxxi., cccxxxii. .-•... 

Plates cccxxxiii., eccxxxiv. ...... 121 

Plates cccxxxv.j cccxxxvi. ..... 



Plate cccxxxvii 



HicoRiA Pecan 
HicoRiA minima 



HiCORIA myristic^formis 



129 

Plates cccxxxviii., cccxxxix. ...... 137 

Plates cccxl., cccxii. ....... 141 

Plates cccxiii., cccxliii. ....... 145 



HiCORIA AQUATICA 



Plates cccxii v., cccxlv. 



HiCORIA OVATA Plates cccxlvi., cccxlvii 



HiCORIA LACINIOSA 



Plates cccxl viii., cccxlix. 



HiCORIA ALBA Plates cccl., cccli- 



HlCORIA GLABRA 



Plates ccciii., cccliii., cccliv., ccelv. 



149 
153 
157 
161 
165 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME YII 

OF THE SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class L DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

SuB-CiiAss L AngiospermSB. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 

Division III, ApetalSB. Corolla 0. Stamens inserted on the petaloid calyx, or hypogynous. 

44. Lauracese. Flowers perfect or dioecious. Stamens 9 to 12, hypogynous. Ovary superior, 1-celled. 
Ovule solitary, suspended, anatropous. Seed exalbuminous- Leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate. 

45. Euphorbiaceae. Flowers unisexual. Stamens 1, few or many. Ovary superior, usually 1-celled. Ovule 
solitary, or 2, collateral, descending, anatropous. Seed albuminous- Leaves usually alternate or opposite, stipulate. 

46. Ulmacese, Flowers perfect or polygamo-monoecious. Stamens as many as the lobes of the calyx, 
hypogynous. Ovary superior, 1-celled. Ovule solitary, suspended, anatropous. Fruit a compressed winged 



samara, or drupaceous. Seed albuminous. Leaves alternate, stipulate. 



47. Moracese. Flowers unisexual. 



caljrx. Ovary superior, 1-celled. 



Ovule 



Seed albuminous. Leaves alternate or opposite, stipulate. 



48. Platanacese. Flowers monoecious In dense unisexual capitate heads. Stamens as many as the lobes of 
the calyx. Ovary superior, 1-celled. Ovule usually solitary, suspended, orthotropous. Seed albuminous. Leaves 

alternate, stipulate. 

49. Leitneriaceae. Flowers amentaceous, dioecious. Stamens 3 to 12. Ovary superior, l-celled. Ovule 



solitary 



Fruit drupaceous. Seed albuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 



50. Juglandaceae. Flowers monoecious. Stamens indefinite. Ovary inferior, 1-celled. Ovule erect, ortho- 
tropous. Fruit a nut inclosed in an indehiscent or 4-valved woody or fleshy involucre. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PERSEA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 6-lobed, the lobes in two series, imbricated in aestivation, 
persistent ; corolla ; stamens 12, in four series, those of the inner series sterile ; 
disk ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit baccate. Leaves 
alternate, destitute of stipules, persistent. 



Persea, Linnaeus, Gen. 94 (1737). — Endlicher, Gen. 317. — Laurus, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 2, 174 (in part) (1742). — A. L 
Meisner, Gen. 325. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. ii. 469. — Ben- de Jussieu, Gen. 80 (in part). 

tham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 156 (excl. sees. Alseodaphne^ Menestrata, Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 199; Icon. v. t. 2 (1825). 

Phcehe^BMdi Notaphoehe). — Pax, Engler & Prantl Pfianr Tamala, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 136 (1838). 
zenfam. iii. pt. ii. 114 (excl. sec- Alseodaphne) . 



Aromatic trees or shrubs^ with naked buds. Leaves alternate^ scattered^ penniveined^ subcoria- 
ceous, rigid^ tomentose or rarely glabrous, persistent. Flowers small, greenish yellow, apetalous, 
cymose or rarely subumbellate in axillary or axillary and terminal pedunculate panicles. Bracts and 
braofclets lanceolate, acute, caducous. Calyx campanulate, divided nearly to the base into six lobes, 
those of the outer series shorter than those of the inner series or sometimes nearly as long, persistent 
under the fruit. Stamens twelve, in four series, those of the inner series and sometimes also those of 
the third series reduced to staminodia ; filaments flattened, inserted on the base of the calyx, longer or 
rarely shorter than the anthers, hirsute or glabrous, those of the third series furnished near the base 
with two sessile or rarely stipitate glands ; anthers ovate, flattened, erect, innate, four-celled, the upper 
ceUs rather larger than the lower, or those of the third series sometimes two-celled, rarely all two-celled, 
the cells opening from below upward by persistent lids, those of the outer series introrse or subintrorse, 
those of the third series extrorse or laterally dehiscent; staminodia large, cordate-sagittate, stipitate, 
usually bearded at the apex ; pollen simple, globose, granular. Ovary sessile, subglobose, glabrous or 
pilose, one-celled, narrowed into a slender simple elongated style, gradually enlarged at the apex into 
a discoid stigma ; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, anatropous. Fruit baccate, 
globose, oblong or rarely piriform, more or less fleshy, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx. 
Seed globose, pendulous, destitute of albumen ; testa thin and membranaceous, separable into two coats. 
Embryo erect ; cotyledons thick and fleshy ; radicle superior, turned toward the hilum, included 
between the cotyledons.^ 



1 By Mez (Jahrh. Konig, Bot. Gart. v. 135 [Lauracece. Americance Heterandra. Anthers of the two outer series of stamens four- 

MonogJ) Persea is divided into the following subgenera : — celled, those of the third series two-celled. 

Hemipersea. Anthers of the three outer series of stamens two- Etjpersea. Anthers of the three outer series of stamens fertile, 



celled. 



four-celled. 



Hexanthera. Anthers of the two outer series of stamens four- 
ii^rl flioco of f.hfi third series minute and sterile. 



2 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LAURACE^. 



Of Persea, as it is now limited^ about fifty species ^ are distinguished ; they are confined to the 
New World and to the Canary Islands^ where one endemic species is found.^ In America the genus 
is distributed from the coast region of the southern United States^ inhabited by two species, to Brazil 
and Chile, where, with a single species,^ it finds its most southern home. During the tertiary epoch 
Persea extended to the middle plateau of North America ^ and to the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, 
where, in deposits of gold-bearing gravel, traces of an immediate ancestor of one of the existing North 

played their part in the miocene and 



species long 



American species has been found ; and several 
pliocene forests of central Europe.^ 

The most useful species, Persea Persea^ the Avocado or Alligator Pear, produces edible fruit 
which is esteemed in all tropical countries j and many of the species yield hard dark-colored handsome 
wood valued in cabinet-making. 



Persea is not seriously injured by insects or fungal diseases. 



8 



The 



generic name, used by Theophrastus to distinguish a tree of the Orient, was transferred by 



Plunder ^ to one of the tropical American species and was afterward adopted by Linnaeus. 



jEq 



bh, Nov, Gen. et Spec. ii. 157. — islands soou after their settlement by Europeans (Browne, NaL 
C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Zmncea, Hist. Jam, 214. — Jacquin, Obs, pt. i. 38), and through cultivation 



viii. 49 ; Syst. Laur. 123. — Seemann, BoL Voy. Herald^ 193. — A. 
Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 185. 



W, 



XV. Dt. i. 43 : Martius Fl 



pt. ii. 151. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 71. — Mez, Jahrb 



Monog 



Indica 



to have spread gradually over all the tropical regions of America, 
where now it often grows spontaneously. It was introduced into 
India about the middle of the eighteenth century, and is generally 
cultivated as a fruit-tree in all the tropical parts of the Old World, 
growing sometimes ^vithout the assistance of man (Hasskarl, PL 
C. G. Nees ab Jav. Rar. 213. — Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt, i. 913. — Brandis, Forest 



Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. 135. — Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. I. c. 52. Fl. Brit. Ind. 378. 
Laurus Indica, Linnaeus, Spec. 370 (excl. Hab. Virginia) (1753). 
Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. i. 480. — 

140. — Webb & Berthelot. Phvh 



290) 



— The cultivated fruit is pear-shaped, apple-shaped, or ellipsoidal, 

Buch, Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins. sometimes four or five inches in length, and yellow or greenish 

gr. Canar. sec. iii. 224, t. 204. yellow often tinged with purple ; it consists of a thick rather tough 

Diet. Suppl. iii. 322 (1813). skin inclosing ct thick firm yellow buttery substance marked by 

>, which is often planted as an green veins, and a large oblong seed covered with a hard rough 

ornamental tree in southern Europe, is one of the most valuable coat. The flesh, wliieh resembles marrow in texture and somewhat 



Teneriffi 



The 



vinatico 



in flavor, is rather insipid. 



wme 



mahogany, a hard close-grained deep-colored wood much used in 

cabinet-making. (See Naudin, Manuel de VAcclimateur, 399.) people who have become accustomed to its peculiar taste. Birds 

s Persea Lingue, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, L c. 157 (1836) ; and other domestic animals eagerly devour alligator pears ; and 



48. — Mez, L c. 169. 



they are often used for fattening hogs on account of the delicate 
4 Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. vi. 75, t. 28, f, 1 ; 76, t flavor they impart to the flesh. The leaves are considered balsamic 



Western 



West 



(ux, Mem. Mus 



Fossil Plants been recommended in the treatment of syphilis and as a cure for 

bruises (Barham, Hart. Amer. 10. — Lunau, Hort. Jam. l 38). Oil 
« SaipoTta,OriginePaleontologiquedesArbres,222.-Zitte\,Handb. employed for lighting is pressed from the pulp; and from the 



Nevada) 



Paloeontolog . ii. 496. 



ink 



m-y 



Laurus Persea, Linnaeus, Spec. 370 (1753). — Swartz, Obs. 152. 
Willdenow, Spec. L c. 
till. iii. 14, t. 3. 



449 



marking linen is obtained (Treasury of Botany, ii. 867). 

Of the popular names of this tree and of its fruit, Alligator Pear 
Tussac, FL An- has no sense or meaning ; Avocado or Avocat is believed to be a 



Persea gratissima, Gaertner f. Fruct. iii. 222, t. 221 (1805). 



uacata 



Bot. Reg. xv. t. 1258. — Sprengel, I. c. 
4580. — Grisebach, L c. — Mez, /. c. 145. 



Mag. Ixxv 



America 



are confined to that genus, and none of them cause serious diseases. 

Sassafras, Schweinitz, and Nummularia 



Th.s tree, of which several varieties are recognized (see Mez, have been recorded on Persea Borbonia, as well as on Sassafras, but 
I c), was probably "^dxgenous m southern Mexico and Central appear to be less common on the former than on the latter. The 
America (A. de Candolle On,.n. des Plantes ^UHvees, 232), .nd leaves are sometimes attacked by two spot diseases caused by PA,Z- 



possibly in eastern Peru, where it was commonly cultivated when 
the country was discovered by the Spaniards (Acosta, HisL Nat 
Ind. 256) ; it appears to have been carried to the West Indian 



losticta micropunctata, Cooke, and Cercospora purpurea, Cooke. 



Nov. PL Am. Gen. 44 



LAUEACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES 



EuPERSEA. Anthers of the four exterior ranks of stamens fertile, 4-celled. 

Peduncles short ; leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obscurely veined, glabrous ; branchlets puberulous 1. P- Borbonia, 
Peduncles elongated; leaves oval or lanceolate, conspicuously veined, tomentose on the lower surface; 

branchlets coated with tomentum 2. P. pubescens 



4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LAURACE-a!! 



PERSEA BORBONIA. 



Red Bay. 



Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obscurely veined, glabrous. Brancblets pu^ 



berulous. 



Persea Borbonia, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 268 (1825). — Coulter, Laurus Carolinensis, a glabra, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 



Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 383 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



276 (1814). 



Laurus Borbonia, Linnaeus, Spec. 370 (1753). — Miller, Laurus Carolinensis, y obtusa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. L 



Diet. ed. 8, No. 5. — Fabricius, Enum, Hort. Hehn. 



276 (1814). 



389. 



Marshall, Arbust. Am. 73. — Castiglioni, Viagf. Persea Carolinensis, C G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. 



negli Stati Unitij ii. 273. — Walter, FL Car. 133. 
Lamarck, Diet. iii. 450. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. 



481. 



Nouveau DuhaTYiel^ ii. 113, t. 33. — Persoon, Syn 



i. 449. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 65. 
Laurus Carolinensis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 245 

(1803). — Persoon, Syn. i. 449. — Desfontaines, Hist. 



150 (exel. var. a) (1836). — Spach, Hist. Veg. x. 492. 
Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1339. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. 
Car. 1860, iii. 63. — Chapman, Fl. 393. — Meisner, De 
Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 50. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 118. — Mez, Jahvh. 
Konig. Bot. Gart. v. 175 {Lauracece Americance Mo- 



Arb. i. 
t. 2). 
461. 
f. 5-12. 



65. 



Michaux f. Hist 



nog.). 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 447. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 276. — Elliott, Sk. i. Tamala Borbonia, Rafinesque, Sylva Telliir. 136 (1838). 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 265. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 106, Persea Carolinensis, u, glabriuscula, Meisner, De Can* 

dolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 51 (1864). — Mez, Jahrb. Konig. 

Bot. Gart. v. 176 {Lauracece Americance Monog.). 



Laurus Caroliniana, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. 323 



(1813). 
i. 258. 



Willdenow, Fnuin. Suppl. 22. — Nuttall, Ge7i 



A tree, sixty to seventy feet in height, with a trunk two and a half to three feet in diameter, stout 
erect branches which form a dense shapely head, and thick fleshy yellow roots ; or usually much smaller. 
The bark of the trunk is one half to three quarters of an inch thick^ dark red^ deeply furrowed, and 
irregularly divided into broad flat ridges which separate on the surface into small thick appressed scales. 



coated with 



The branches, when they first appear, are many angled, light red-brown, and glabrous or 
pale or rufous pubescence, and in their second year are terete and dark green. The winter-buds, 
which are unprotected by scales, are a quarter of an inch long, and coated with thick rufous tomentum. 
The leaves are revolute in vernation, oblong or oblong-lanceolate^ entire, often slightly contracted into 
long points rounded at the apex, and gradually narrowed at the base into stout rigid red-brown petioles 



half to two thirds of an inch in length, and flattened 



d 



ewhat grooved on the upper side 



when they unfold they are thin, tinged with red, and pilose on both surfaces ; and at maturity they are 
thick and coriaceous, bright green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and glaucous on the lower 
surface, three or four inches long and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide, with 
thickened shghtly revolute margins, narrow orange-colored midribs rounded on the upper side, remote 



obscure primary veins arcuate near the margins, and fine closely reticulated 



they appear early 



in the spring, and remain on the branches until after the appearance of the new growth of the following 
year, when they graduaUy turn yellow, and, falling during the spring and summer, leave small circular 
leaf -scars in which appear the ends of single fibro-vascular bundles. The flowers unfold in April and 
May in the axils of leaves of the year in two or three-flowered cymes gathered into short panicles which 



borne on slender glabrous peduncles half an inch 



ch in length ; they are raised on short 



the middle with 



stout pedicels furnished near 

flowers of the ultimate divisions of the inflorescence being produced from 

acute deciduous bracts. The calyx is pale yellow or creamy white and about an eighth of an inch 



minute caducous bractlets, those of the lateral 

the axils of small lanceolate 



LAURACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



5 



long^ with thin lohes ciliate on the margins ; the lobes of the outer series are broadly ovate^ rounded 
and minutely apieulate at the apex, puberulous on both surfaces, and about half as long as those 
of the inner series, which are oblong-lanceolate, acute, and coated on the inner surface with long 
pale hairs. The stamens are about as long as the inner lobes of the calyx, with flattened hairy fila- 
ments and rather shorter yellow anthers, which are all four-celled and fertile in the three outer series, 
the filaments of the third series being furnished at the base with two nearly sessile orange-colored 
glands rounded on the back and slightly two-lobed on the inner face ; the staminodia to which the 
stamens of the inner series are reduced are raised on short broad stalks, and are incurved and two- 
lobed on the inner face and furnished at the apex with tufts of pale hairs. The ovary is ovate, 
glabrous, and abruptly contracted into a slender glabrous slightly exserted style thickened toward the 
apex, which is crowned with a flat obscurely two-lobed stigma. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn, 
is oblong-ob ovate or subglobose, half an inch long, dark blue or nearly black, and very lustrous ; it is 
borne on the somewhat thickened pedicel, and is surrounded at the base by the enlarged and spreading 
lobes of the calyx, from which it separates in faUing, and which remains on the branch until after the 
beginning of winter j the flesh is thin and dry and does not separate readily from the large ovate 
slightly pointed seed. The seed-coat consists of two layers ; the outer is thin and cartilaginous, 
grayish brown on the outer surface, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, which is 
marked by broad yellow veins radiating from the minute hilum, and is separable from the inner coat ; 
this is membranaceous, very thin and hght gray or nearly white, and closely invests and often adheres 
to the thick dark red-brown cotyledons which inclose at the apex the minute plumule. 

Per sea Borhonia is a common inhabitant of the borders of streams and swamps, where, in company 
with the Live Oak, the Water Oak, the Spanish Oak, the Cuban Pine, and the Hickories, it usually 
grows in rich moist soil ; or occasionally it is found in dry sandy loam in the shade of forests of the 
Long-leaved Pine. The Red Bay is distributed through the coast regions of the south Atlantic and 
Gulf states from Virginia to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano in Florida and to the valley 
of the Brazos River in Texas, and west of the Mississippi River extends northward through Louisiana 
to southern Arkansas-^ 

The wood of Persea Borhonia is heavy, hard, very strong although rather brittle, close-grained, 
and susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays and many 
evenly distributed open ducts, and is bright red, with thin Hghter colored sapwood composed of four or 
five layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6429, a cubic foot 
weighing 40.07 pounds. It is occasionally used for cabinet-making and in the interior finish of 
houses, for which its strength, hardness, and bright color make it valuable. Formerly it was employed 
in ship and boat building. 

The Red Bay was first described in the Natural History of Carolina'^ by Mark Catesby,^ who 
probably introduced it into EngHsh gardens, as it was cultivated by Philip Miller ^ as early as 1739 in 
the Physic Garden at Chelsea near London.^ 

Although it is one of the most beautiful and valuable of the evergreen trees of the North American 
forests, the Red Bay has been neglected as an ornament for parks and gardens, and is now rarely seen 
in cultivation. 



1 Traces of Laurus Borhonia found in the sandstone of southern baccatiSy Linnseus, Hort. Cliff, 154. — Royen, PL Leyd. Prodr. 
New Jersey show that this species once lived farther north than it 226. 



XIX 



2 See vi. 16. 



CaroUnensis, foliis acuminatisy baccis cceruldSy pediculis ^ See i. 38. 



longis rubrisy insidentibuSf i. 63, t. 63. 



^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 39 (Laurus). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. m. 



i 



Lauras foliis lanceolatis, nervis transversalibuSy fructus calycihus 1299, f. 1168, 1169 (Laurus). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCL Persea Borbonta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3: A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen of the outer series, front view, enlarged. 

6. A staminodium, front view, enlarged. 

7. A stamen of the third series, showing basal glands, 

front view, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much magnified. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

10- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
U. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of "North America. 



Tab. CCCI 




C.E.Foj^Tv del- 



Himeh/ 



so 



PERSEA BORBONIA, Spreng. 






A.Hzocreuco direa>. 



Imp. J'. Tajheur, Faris 



LAUKACiLE. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



7 



PERSEA PUBESCENS. 



Swamp Bay. 

Leaves oval or lanceolate, conspicuously veined, pubescent or tomentose on the 
lower surface. Branchlets coated with tomentum. 



Persea pubescens. 

Laurus Carolinensis, Michaux f. Hist. A 
(not Michaux) (1813). 

Laurus Carolinensis, p pubescens, Pursh 
i. 276 (1814). 



Tamala 



Carolinensis, ^ pubescens, Meisner, De Cai 
Ir. XV. pt. i. 51 (1864). — Mez, Jahrb. Konig 
'■. V. 176 (Lauracece Americance Monog.). 
Carolinensis, var. palustris, Chapman, Fl 



Persea Carolinensis, a, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. (1865). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Census 



150 (1836). 



U. S. ix. 119. 



A slender tree, occasionally thirty or forty feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding a foot in 
diameter ; or usually a shrub sending up from the ground numerous stems twelve or fifteen feet tall. 
The bark of the trunk rarely exceeds a quarter of an inch in thickness, and is dull brown and irregu- 
larly divided by shallow fissures, the surface separating into thick appressed scales. The branches are 
stout, and terete or slightly angled while young, and when they first appear are coated with rusty 
tomentum, which is reduced in their second season to a fine pubescence and does not entirely disappear 
until the end of their second or third year. The leaves are oval or lanceolate, and entire ; they are 
often contracted toward the apex into long points, and are gradually narrowed at the base into stout 
petioles grooved on the upper side, coated with rusty tomentum, and one half to three quarters of an 
inch in length ; when they first appear they are dark red, thin, and tomentose on both surfaces, and 
at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, pale green and lustrous above, pale and pubescent below, 
except on the midribs and primary veins, which are coated with rusty tomentum, four to six inches long, 
and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide, with thick conspicuous veins and sHghtly 
revolute margins ; they remain on the branches until after the beginning of their second year, and then 
turn yellow and fall gradually. The panicles of flowers are borne on stout tomentose peduncles 
produced from the axils of leaves of the year and two or three inches in length. The flowers are often 
nearly a quarter of an inch long, with thick and firm calyx-lobes coated on the outer surface with a 
dense rusty tomentum which likewise clothes the peduncles, the pedicels, and the minute caducous 
bracts and bractlets ; the lobes of the outer series are broadly ovate, abruptly pointed at the apex, 
pubescent on the inner surface, and about half as long as those of the inner series, which are ovate- 
lanceolate, slightly thickened at the apex, and hairy on the inner surface. The stamens, which are 
slightly exserted, have flattened hairy filaments longer than the anthers ; these are fertile and four-celled 
in the three outer series, and in the inner series are reduced to sagittate stalked staminodia, the fila- 
ments of the third series being furnished near the base with two nearly sessile glands rounded on the 
back and sHghtly two-lob ed on the inner face. The ovary is ovate and glabrous, and is abruptly con- 
tracted into a glabrous style gradually enlarged at the apex into a flat slightly two-lobed stigma. The 
fruit ripens in the autumn and is oblong-ovate to subglobose, and very dark blue or nearly black ; it is 
three quarters of an inch long, and in falling separates from the slightly thickened calyx and pedicel, 
which remain on the branch until after the beginning of winter.* 



1 The Swamp Bay has previously been considered a variety of low wet ground always selected by this tree, the tomentum that 
Persea Borbonia - but characteristics which appear constant, — the clothes the branches and the under surface of the leaves, and the 



8 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. laurace^. 



Persea pubescens is confined to the immediate coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf states^ 
where it is found from North Carolina to Mississippi growing in the thin sour soil of Pine-barren 
swamps^ which it often covers almost to the exclusion of other plants.^ 

The wood of Persea pubescens is heavy, soft, strong, and close-grained; it contains numerous thin 

medullary rays and many large open ducts, and is orange-colored streaked with brown, with thick hght 

brown or gray sapwood composed of thirty-six or forty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity 

of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6396, a cubic foot weighing 39.86 pounds. 

Persea pubescens was first distinguished by Frederick Pursh ^ in his Flora Americce Septentri^ 
onalisy published in London in 1814. 



nature of the bark and wood, — indicate a distinct species, although, ^ Elliott, S\ 

except in the length of the peduncles, there are no good floral ^ 3^^ y^ 39^ 



(under Laurus Carolinensis) 



their fruits are identical. 



distinguished, and 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCCII. Persea pubescens. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab, CCCII 






SvniBhj s(y. 



PERSEA PALUSTRIS 



, Sargr. 



A..Iiiocreica> dLrr-^ ^ 



'ea>: 



Imp, J^. Tari&icr ^ JP ccris 



LAXJKACE-aE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



OCOTEA. 



Flowers polygamo-dioecious or rarely perfect ; calyx 6-lobed, the lobes in two series, 
imbricated in aestivation, usually deciduous ; corolla ; stamens 12, in four series, those 
of the inner series sterile; disk 0; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. 

Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite, destitute of stipules, persistent. 



Fruit baccate. 



Ocotea, Aubletj PL Guian. ii. 780 (1775), —A. L. de Jus- Leptodaphne, C G. Nees ab Esenbeck, PL Laur. Expos 



sieu, Gen. 80. 

326. 

Gen. iii. 157. 
pt. ii. 116. 



Endlicher, Gen. 321. — Melsner, Gen. 



Hist 



Bentham & Hooker, 
\ntl Pflanzenfam. iii. 



Senneberia, Necker, Elem. BoL ii.l20 (1790). 
Gymnobalanus, C- G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Lm 



(1833). 



Endlicher, Gen. 322. — Meisner, Gen. 326 



BaiUon, Hist. PL ii. 477. 
Oreodaphne, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, Linncea^ viii. 39 

(1833). — Endlicher, Gen. 321. — Meisner, Gen. 326. 
Mespilodaphne, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, Linncea. viii. 45 



(1833). 



Endlicher, Gen. 319. — Meisner, Gen. 325. 



BaiUon, Hist. PL ii. 476. 



16 (1833). — Endlicher, Gen. 320. — Meisner, Gen. 
326. 

Camphoromoea; C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, PL Laur. Expos. 

16 (1833). — Endlicher, Gen. 321. — Meisner, Gen. 
326. 

Strychnodaphne, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, PL Laur. Expos. 

17 (1833). — BaiUon, Hist. PL ii. 476. 
Petalanthera, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, Syst. Laur. 346 

(1836). — Endlicher, Gen. 320. — Meisner, Gen. 326. 
Agathophyllum, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 338 (in 

part) (not A. L. de Jussieu) (1851). 
? Dendrodaphne, Beurling, Kongl. Svenska Akad. 1854, 
145 {Prim. FL Portoh.) (1856). 



Teleiandra, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeek, Linncea^ viii. 46 Nemodaphne, Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 109 



(1833). — Endlicher, Gen. 320. — Meisner, Gen. 326. 



(1864). 



Aromatic 



shrubs. Leaves scattered, alternate 



xely subopposite^ penniveined 



gid; glabrous or more or less covered with pubescence. Flowers usually small^ yellowish white 



glabrous or tomentose 



cymose clusters arranged 



Uary or subterminal pedunculate panicles 



Pedicels slender, developed from the 



of lanceolate-acute minute bracts and furnished with 



deciduous bractlets. Calyx-tube campanulate or nearly obsolete, the six lobes of the Hmb nearly equal, 
deciduous or rarely persistent under the fruit. Stamens twelve, in four series, those of the inner series 
reduced to staminodia ; filaments inserted on the tube of the calyx, those of the outer series opposite 
its exterior lobes, flattened, shorter or sometimes rather longer than the anthers, glabrous or hirsute, 
furnished in the third series, or, in one species, in the three outer series, near the base, with two con- 
spicuous sessile or stipitate glands ; anthers oblong, flattened, four-celled, the cells superposed in pairs, 
opening from below upward by persistent lids, introrse in the two outer series, extrorse, subextrorse or 
very rarely introrse in the third series ; in the pistillate flower rudimentary and sterile. Ovary one- 
celled, ovoid, obovoid, or subglobose, glabrous or rarely pilose, more or less immersed in the tube of the 
calyx, gradually narrowed into an erect short or elongated style dilated at the apex into a capitate 
obscurely lobed stigma ; in the staminate flower linear-lanceolate, effete, or minute, or sometimes 
wanting ; ovule sohtary, suspended from the apex of the cell, anatropous ; raphe ventral j micropyle 
superior. Fruit baccate, ellipsoidal or subglobose, nearly inclosed while young in the thickened tube of 
the calyx, exserted at maturity and surrounded at the base only by the cup-like truncate or slightly 
lobed calyx or rarely by its persistent limb; pericarp thin and fleshy. Seed ovate or subglobose, 
pendulous, destitute of albumen ; testa thin, membranaceous. Embryo erect, filHng the cavity of the 
seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, inclosing the minute superior radicle turned toward the hilum.^ 

1 By Mez, Jahrb. Konig. Bot, Gart. v. 221 (Lauracece Americance Hemiocotea. Flowers perfect ; filaments of the three outer 

Monog,) the American species of Ocotea are arranged under the series of stamens biglandular at the base. 
following subgenera : — Dendrodaphne. Flowers perfect ; filaments of only the third 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LAURACE^. 



Nearly two hundred species ^ of Ocotea are now distinguished^ the largest number being found in 
the tropical regions of the New World^ distributed from southern Florida, where one species occurs, to 
Brazil and Peru ; in the Old World a single species is indigenous in the Canary Islands, one inhabits 

South Africa, and several the Mascarene Islands.^ 

Ocotea produces hard, strong, durable, and sometimes beautifully colored wood often employed in 



building and cabinet-makin 



3 



The best known timbe 



of the genus are Ocotea splendens^ of 



the treatment of abscesses 



9 



Guiana, Ocotea fcetens^ of the Canary Islands, and Ocotea hullata^ of South Africa 
of the leaves of Ocotea Chcianensis'^ is used in its native country 
and in Brazil a volatile Hmpid oil distilled from Ocotea opifero 
rheumatism.^^ 

The generic name is derived from the native name of one of the species of Guiana. 



An infusion 



8 



has been employed to alleviate 



stamens 



sec. iii. 226, t. 205. 



Candolle 



sessile, triangular or liguliform, uncontracted at the base, the con- Christ, BoL Jahrb. ix. 157 (Spidlegium Canar.). 



nective produced above the ceUs, papillose. 

Mespilodaphne. Flowers perfect ; filaments of only the sta- 
mens of the third series glandular. 

Oreodaphne. Flowers dioecious ; filaments of only the stamens 
of the third series glandular. 



« BaUlon, /. c. 466 (1870). 

Laurus hullata, BurcheU, Travels, i. 72 (1822). 

Oreodaphne hullatay C G. Nees ab Esenbeck, L c. 449 (1836) 



Mag. Iviii 



Meisner, L c. 



The Stink-hout, as this tree is called in South Africa, is com- 
mon in the forests of the colony. Its wood, which smells disagree- 
C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, SysL Laur. 355 (Teleiandra), 358 (Lepo- able when cut, resembles walnut in color and is hard and durable. 



Nov 



daphne), 380 (Oreodaphne), 467 (Camphoromcea), 471 (Ocotea), 
479 (Gymnobalanus), — Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 96 
(Mespilodaphne),109 (Nemodaphne), 111 (Oreodaphne), 140 (Gym- 
nobalanus), 142 (Strychnodaphne), 143 (Camphoromoea) ; Martins 
Fl. Brasil. v. pt. ii. 186 (Mespilodaphne), 203 (Oreodaphne), 242 
(Gymnobalanus), 243 (Strychnodaphne), 246 (CamphoromcEa). 
Hemsley, BoL Biol. Am, Cent. iii. 72. — Mez, Jahrb, K'dnig. Bot. 
Gart, V. 219 (^Lauracece Americance Monog.) (excl. syn. Sassafridium). 
2 Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 157. 

^ The woods of several south African trees of the Laurel family 
are valued in commerce, although even the genera of the trees 
which produce them are still imknown. 

4 Baillon, Hi^t. PL ii. 466 (1870). — Mez, L c. 282. 
Oreodaphne splendensj Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. L c. 129 

(1864) ; Martins Fl. BrasiL v. pt. ii. 227. 

5 BaiUon, I. c. (1870), 

Lanrus foetenSy Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 39 (1789). — Willdenow, 
Spec. ii. pt. i. 480. — Buch, Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins. 140, t. 1. 
Lanrus Maderiensis, Lamarck, Diet. iii. 449 (1789). 
Lanrns Till, Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. 324 (1813). 
Perseafcetensy Sprengel, Syst. ii. 268 (1826). 
Oreodaphne foetensy C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, L c. 449 (1836), 



The wood of no other south African tree is more valued by the 

cabinet-maker or the gunsmith, and it is also largely used in the 

construction of houses and in wagon and boat building. (See 

Pappe, Sylva Capensisy 27.) 

7 Aublet, PL Guian. ii. 781, t. 310 (1775).— C. G. Nees ab 

Esenbeck, L c. 476. — Mez, I. c. 296. 

Ocotea sericea, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, L c. 162 (1817). 



^qnin 



C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, L c 



478. 



Persea argentea, Sprengel, L c. 269 (1825). 

Oreodaphne Guianensis, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Linncea, xxi. 
268, 516 (1848). — Meisner, L c. 112 ; Martins Fl. BrasiL v. pt. 
ii. 204. 

Oreodaphne sericea, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Z. c. 516 (1848). 
8 Aublet, L 0-. 783. 
^ Martius, Buchner ReperL 1830, 179. — Mez, L c. 291. 

Oreodaphne opifera, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. 390 
(1836). — Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 112. 

Mespilodaphne opifera, Meisner, L c. 510 (1864) ; Martins FL 
BrasiL v. pt. ii. 194, t. 71. 

i*> Martius, SysL MaL Med. BrasiL 110 ; FL BrasiL v. pt. ii. 318 
(Mespilodaphne). — Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. 235 (Oreo- 



Endlicher, Enchirid. 205. — Webb & Berthelot, Phytogr. Canar. daphne). 



LAURACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



OCOTEA OATESBYANA. 



Flowers perfect ; filaments of the stamens of the third series biglandular. Leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, pale on the lower surface. 



Ocotea Catesbyana. 

Laurus Catesbyana, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 244 



XV. pt. i. 165 (in part) (not C. G, Nees ab Esenbeck) 



(1864). 



Sargentj Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 



(1803). 



Poiret, Lam, Diet. Suppl. iii. 321. — Pursh, 



U. S. ix. 119. 



FL Am. Sept. i. 275 (in part). — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 265. Persea Catesbyana, Chapman, FL 393 (1865). 
Laurus Catesbaei, Persoon, Si/7i. i. 449 (1805). — Nuttall, Nectandra coriacea, Mez, Jahrb. Konig. Bot. Gart. v. 459 



Gen. i. 258. 

? Gymnobalanus Catesbyanus, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, 

Sijst. Laur. 483 (1836). 
Nectandra Willdenovianaj Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. 



{Lauracece Americance Monog.) (in part) (not Grisebach) 
(1889). 
Nectandra sanguinea, Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. iv. 125 (not RottboeU) (1893). 



A tree^ twenty to thirty feet in height^ with a trunk rarely exceeding eight inches in diameter^ and 
slender spreading branches which form a narrow round-topped head. The bark of the trunk^ which is 
about an eighth of an inch thick, is dark reddish brown, and is roughened on the otherwise smooth 
surface by numerous small lenticular excrescences. The branches are thin, terete, glabrous when they 
first appear, and dark reddish brown ; they soon become hghter colored, and in their second year are 
light brown or gray tinged with red, and often marked by minute pale lenticels, and in their second 

and third years by small semiorbieular leaf-scars in which appear single central fibro-vascular bundle- 
scars. The leaves are alternate, oblong-lanceolate, entire, slightly contracted above into long points 
rounded at the apex, and gradually narrowed below into broad flat petioles, which vary from one third 
to one hal£ of an inch in length, and are grooved on the upper and rounded on the lower side ; when 
they unfold they are thin, membranaceous, light green tinged with red, and sometimes puberulous on 
the lower surface ; and at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, pale 
below, three to six inches long, and an inch to two inches broad, with thickened slightly revolute 

margins, broad stout midribs impressed on the upper side toward the base, and slender remote primary 



and united 



the margins and connected by coarsely reticulated conspicuous 



The flowers appear in early spring, and are produced in elongated panicles vdth slender glabrous light 
red peduncles developed singly or two or three together from the axils of the leaves of the year or from 



those of the previous year, and three or fom^ inches in 



length ; 



they are borne on thin glabrous or 



puberulous pedicels bibracteolate near the middle, and when expanded are nearly a quarter of an inch 
across ; the calyx is creamy white, with a campanulate tube much shorter than the six ovate deciduous 
lobes which are rounded at the apex, nearly of equal size, pubescent on the outer surface, coated with 
pale tomentum on the inner surface, and about twice as long as the stamens j these are in four series, 
those of the inner series being reduced to Hnear staminodia somewhat enlarged at the apex, and tipped 
with minute abortive anthers ; the filaments of the two outer series are slightly hirsute at the base and 
shorter than the introrse anthers ; the filaments of the third series are as long or longer than the 
extrorse anthers, and are furnished at the base with two conspicuous globose stalked yeUow glands ; the 
anthers are flattened, emarginate, innate and four-celled, the lower cells being a Httle larger and nearer 
the margins than the upper cells. The ovary is ovate and glabrous, and is gradually narrowed into a 
short glabrous style which is about as long as the stamens of the outer series. The fruit ripens in the 
autumn, and is ovate or subglobose, two thirds of an inch long, lustrous, dark blue or nearly black, and 
surrounded at the base by the thickened cup-like tube of the calyx, which is truncate or obscurely lobed 
and brio"ht red like the thickened pedicels ; the flesh is thin and dry, and closely invests the large 



12 



SILVA OF NOUTH AMERICA. laurace^. 



oblong seed ; this is covered by a thin brittle red-brown coat^ the inner layer^ which is hardly separable 
from the outer^ being light chestnut-brown, lustrous on the inner surface, and marked with broad 
lighter colored veins radiating from the small hilum. The embryo is a third of an inch long and 
bright red-brown. 

Ocotea Cateshyana inhabits the shores and islands of Florida south of Cape Canaveral on the 
east coast and of Cape Romano on the west coast ; comparatively common except on some of the western 
keys, it is most abundant and attains its largest size on the rich wooded hummocks adjacent to Bay 
Biscayne, where it grows with the Wild Fig, the Live Oak, the Gumbo Limbo, the Mastic, the Cuban 
Pine, and the Eugenias. It is not rare on the Bahamas, and probably grows on some of the Antilles. 

The wood of Ocotea Cateshyana is heavy, hard, close-grained, containing numerous thin medullary 
rays and ma^y small regularly distributed open ducts ; it is rich dark brown in color, with thick bright 
yellow sapwood composed of twenty to thirty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.7693, a cubic foot weighing 47.94 pounds. 

Ocotea Cateshyana appears to have been first noticed by Mark Catesby,^ who found this tree on 

the Bahama Islands, and published the earliest account of it in his Natural History of Carolina ;^ as 

a Florida plant it was first described by Bernard Romans ^ in the Natural History of East and West 
Florida} 



The lustrous foliage of this small tree, the abundant clusters of white flowers which cover it 



m 



early spring, and the brilliant fruit, make it beautiful at aU seasons of the year, and well worth 
cultivation in tropical gardens. 



1 See vi. 16. 



^ See iv. 5, 



ComuSyfoUis Salicis Laure(B acuminatis ; Jloribus albis; fructu 4 Laurus foliis acuminatis, baccis co^uleis ; pedicellis lonqis rubris 



Sassafi 



insidentibuSy 27. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCIIL Ocotea Catesbyana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen of the third series with glands, front vie^ 

5. A stamen of the outer series, front view, enlarged. 

6. A staminodium, enlarged. 

7. Aji ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10. A seed, enlarged. 

11. An embrvo. enlarp-ftd. 



Silva of ISlortli America. 



Tat. CCCIII. 




UJ<:. 





OCOTEA CATESBYANA, Sarg 




ine so 



^. Tlio ereuzo direci> . 






LAUBACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



13 



SASSAFRAS. 



Flowers dioecious or rarely perfect ; calyx 6-lobed, the lobes in two series, nearly 
equal, imbricated in aestivation, deciduous ; corolla ; stamens 9, in three series ; 
disk ; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit baccate. Leaves 
alternate, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 



Sassafras, Nees ab Esenbeck & Ebennaier, Handb. Med.- tham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 160. — Pax, Engler & Prantl 

Fharm. Bot. i. 418 (1830) . — Endlicher, Gen. 322. — Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. ii. 119. 

Meisner, Gen. 327. — BaiUon, Hist. Fl. ii. 479. — Ben- 



An aromatic tree, with thick deeply furrowed dark red-brown bark, scaly buds, slender light green 
lustrous brittle branches containing a thick white mucilaginous pith and marked with small semiorbicu- 
lar elevated leaf-scars displaying single horizontal rows of minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and stout 
spongy stoloniferous roots covered with thick yellow bark. Flower-bearing buds terminal, ovate, acute, 
protected by nine or ten imbricated scales increasing in size from without inwards, the three outer 
scales ovate, rounded and often apiculate at the apex, keeled and thickened on the back, pale yellow- 
green below, dull yellow-brown above the middle, loosely imbricated, slightly or not at all accrescent, 
deciduous at the opening of the bud, much smaller than the scales of the next rows ; these thin, 
accrescent at maturity, light yellow-green, turning dull red before falling, obovate, rounded at the apex, 
cuneate below, concave, coated on the outer surface with soft silky pubescence, glabrous and lustrous 
on the inner surface, reflexed, often three quarters of an inch long, nearly half an inch broad, tardily 
deciduous ; the two inner scales f oliaceous, lanceolate-acute, light green, coated on the outer surface 
with delicate pale hairs, glabrous on the inner surface, infolding the leaves and falling as these begin 
to expand ; sterile and axillary buds much smaller. Leaves involute, the lower inclosing those above 
it in the bud, ovate or obovate, entire or often one to three-lobed at the apex, the lobes broadly ovate, 
acute, divided by deep broad sinuses, gradually narrowed at the base into elongated slender petioles 
flattened or slightly grooved on the upper side and rounded on the lower, feather-veined with alternate 
veins arcuate and united, the lowest parallel with the margins, and when the leaves are lobed running 
to the points of the lobes, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, mucilaginous, deciduous ; as they unfold 
light green and somewhat pilose on the upper surface with scattered white hairs, cihate on the margins, 
clothed on the lower surface with a loose pubescence of long white lustrous hairs; at maturity 
membranaceous, dark dull green above, pale and glabrous or pubescent below. Flowers produced in 
early spring with the first unfolding of the leaves, the males and females usually on different individuals 
in lax drooping few-flowered pilose racemes developed from the axils of the large obovate bud-scales, 
the upper flowers of the lowest raceme opening first. Pedicels slender, rarely forked and two-flowered, 
ebracteolate, clothed with long pale hairs, produced from the axils of linear-acute scarious hairy 
deciduous bracts; or that of the terminal flower often ebracteate. Calyx pale yeUow-green, divided 
nearly to the base into six narrow obovate concave lobes, rounded and incurved at the apex, spreading 
or reflexed after anthesis, those of the inner series a httle larger than the others. Stamens nine, 
inserted in three series on the somewhat thickened margin of the shaUow concave calyx-tube, those of 
the outer series opposite its outer lobes ; filaments flattened, elongated, sHghtly enlarged toward the 
apex incurved, light yellow, those of the inner series furnished near the base with two conspicuous 
oranffe-colored stipitate glands rounded on the back and obscurely lobed on the inner face ; anthers 
innite oblono* flattened, truncate or slightly emarginate at the apex, rounded or wedge-shaped at the 



14 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LAURACE^. 



base, orange-colored, introrse, four-celled, the cells superposed in pairs, the lower larger than the upper 
opening from below upward by persistent lids, larger and nearer the margin in the anthers of the i 
series of stamens than in the others ; in the female flower reduced to flattened ovate pointed slij 



■htly 



lobed dark orano-e-colored stipitate staminodia, or occasionally fertile and similar 



nly 



smalle 



r 



those of the staminate flower 



Ovary ovate, one-celled, light green, glabrous, nearly 



sessile in the short tube of the calyx, contracted into a slender elongated simple style gradually enlarged 
above into a capitate obHque obscurely lobed stigma; ovule suspended from the apex of the cell, 
anatropous. Fruit an oblong dark blue lustrous berry surrounded at the base by the enlarged and 



thickened obscurely six-lobed 



limb of the calyx raised 



much elongated scarlet 



stalk thickened above the middle ; pericarp thin and fleshy, adherent to the oblong pointed light bro 
seed destitute of albumen ; testa thin, membranaceous, barely separable into two coats, the inner 



coat 



much thinner than the outer, dark chestnut-brown, and lustro 



Embryo erect, subglobose, fiUing the 



cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy ; radicle superior, turned toward the hilum, included 

between the cotyledons. 

The wood of Sassafras is soft, weak, brittle, and coarse-grained, although very durable when 
placed in contact with the soil ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays and bands of three or four 
rows of large open ducts which clearly mark the layers of annual growth ; it is aromatic and dull 



orange-brown, with thin Kght yellow sapwood composed 



of seven or eight layers of annual growth. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5042, a cubic foot weighing 31.42 pounds. It is 
largely used for fence-posts and rails, in the construction of light boats and ox-yokes, and in cooperage. 

The roots of Sassafras, and especially their bark, are a mild aromatic stimulant ; * and oil of 
sassafras, used to perfume soap and other articles, is distilled from them.^ The pith of the young 
branches infused with water furnishes a mucilage which has been used successfuUy as an emulsion in 
febrile and inflammatory maladies,^ and in ophthalmic practice. Gumbo filet, a powder prepared from 
the leaves by the Choctaw Indians of Louisiana, gives flavor and consistency to gumbo soup.* 

onfined to temperate eastern North America. It once inhabited the Arctic 



Sassaf 



IS 



Circle, and long existed in Europe with many forms 



.6 



North America during the cretaceous period 



the mid-continental plateau, where traces of what 



6 



it ranged far westward of its present home to 
believed to be several species have been detected 

In the middle of the sixteenth century the French in Florida learned from the Indians the medical 
value of the Sassafras,^ and in 1569 the first account and figure of this tree were published by the 



1 Kalm, Travels, English ed. i. 146, 340. — Woodville, Med. Bot. -with oil of i 

i. 91, t. 31 (Laurus). — Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii. 142, t. — Nees ab Sassafras oil, 

Esenbeck, PL Med. t. 131. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. vii. 61, Camphor oil. 

t. 464. — Stephenson & Churchill, Med. Bot. iii. t. 126. — Hayne, a Johnson, 

Arzn. xii. t. 19. — Endlicher, Enchirid. 204. — Griffith, Med. Bot. ed. 16, 1338. 



distilling 



Man. Med. Bot. N. 



U. S. Dispells, 



651. 
of& 



Schauer, Am. Jour, PJiarm. 1863, 53. — Porcher, Resources 

Proctor, Proc» Am. Pharm. 



Assoc. 1866, 217. — Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia^ 483. 



Nat 



Med 



^ Robin, Voyages, iii. 361, 

^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des ArhreSy 223. — Zittel, 
Handb. Palceontolog, ii. 495. 

* Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. vi. 77 {Contrih. Foss. FL 



■Matheo 



t. 220. — Spons, Eticyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, Western Territories, i.). 

a7id Raw Commercial Products, i. 823 ; ii. 1430. ^ " Des Espagnols de Sar 

2 The oil of sassafras is manufactured principally in Pennsylva- dire, de la Riviere Dauphine & de la Riviere de May, dtant presque 

nia, Virginia, and North Carolina by small operators who use the tons attaquds de fidvres caus^es par la mauvaise nourriture, & les 

most primitive domestic stills, extracting the oil in the crudest eaux crues & troubles qui ils buvoient, des Frangois leur apprirent 

manner from all parts of the tree except the leaves. It is traded k user du Sassafras, comme ils Tavoient vu pratiquer auxSauvages; 

by the manufacturers with local storekeepers, who collect and ils en coupoient la racine en petits morceaux, qu'ils faisoient boiiil- 

send it to dealers in large cities. The industry is a declining one, lir dans I'eau, ils buvoient de cette eau k jeun & k leurs repars, & 

synthetical oils now replacing Sassafras oil for ordinary uses ; and elle les gu^rit parfaitment.'* (Charlevoix, Hist> de la Nouvelle 

Sassafras oil is rarely found pure in commerce, being usually diluted France, i. 46.) 



LAURACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



15 



Spanish physician Nicolas Monardes.^ Exaggerated ideas of the curative properties of Sassafras soon 

spread through Europe 3 ^ and extraordinary efforts were made to secure large supphes of the wood and 
roots.^ 

Sassafras is little injured by insects/ and is not subject to serious fungal diseases.^ 

Sassafras was first used as a popular name by the French in Florida ; and when the genus^ which 

had been included by earlier botanists with Laurus, was distinguished by Nees ab Esenbeck he adopted 

Sassafras as its name. 



fol. 51, t. 

Sassafras arbor Monardi, Dalechamps, Hist Gen. PL 1786, f. 
Plukenet, Phyt. t. 222, f. 6. 



Sassafras^ Hist. Med. tion of Captain Gosnold^s Voyage to the North part of Virginia^ 

begun the six-and-twentieth of March, Anno 42 Elizabethce Regince, 



— 1602, and delivered by Gabriel Archer, a gentleman in the said voyage 
[Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. ser. 3, viii. 77]); and eight years later 
The Sassafras or Ague-tree, Gerarde, Herball, 1340, f . — Parkin- sassafras is mentioned among the articles to be sent home in the 



son, Theatr. 1606, f, —Jan de Laet, Nov. Orb. 216, t. 
Arbor ex Florida Jiculneo folio, C. Bauhin, Pinax, 431. 
Sassafras, sive Lignum Pavanum, J. Bauhin, Hist. PL i. 483, t. 
De Sassafras, Jonston, Dendrographia, 218, t. 65, f . 



instructions of the English government to the colony of Virginia 
(^Colonial Papers, i. No. 23). (See, also, the Historie of Travaile 
into Virginia Britannia, by William Strachey, ed. Major, 129.) 
During two centuries, at least, the wood and the bark of the 



" The Sassafras is ix, Medicinal Tree whose Bark & Leaves yield roots of the Sassafras-tree were considered valuable remedies for 
a pleasant Smell : it profits in all Diseases of the Blood, and Liver, syphilis, rheumatism, and dropsy; but their specific medicinal prin- 
particnlarly in all Venereal and Scorbutic Distempers.'' (^Carolina, ciples have been one after another disproved; and although sassa- 



or u Description of the Present State of thi 
A. T. Gent, London, 1682.) 

Sassafras, Panckow, Herb. ed. Zorn, 361. 
Lugd. Bat. 537. —Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1568. — Blackwell, ColL Stirp. 
iii. t. 267. 



irmann 



fras is still sometimes used in Europe in combination with sarsapa- 
rilla and guaiacum, in the United States it is now valued in medicine 
only as a mild aromatic stimulant. 

The bark of the root contains it volatile oil, camphorous matter, 
resin, wax, and a decomposed product of tannic acid to which the 
Saxafras, Pomet, Hist. Gen. Drog. 113. name of sassafrid has been given. The volatile oil and tannic acid 

Cornus mas odorata, folio trifido, margine piano, Sassafras dicta, render it stimulant and astringent ; used as an adjuvant to more 



Plukenet, Aim. Bot. 120. — Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. 55, t. 55. 
MiUer, Diet. ed. 3, No. 5. 

Sassafras Arbor folio Ficulneo, Munting, Phyt. Cur. 5, t. 20. 

De Ligno Sassafras, Zorn, Botanolog. Med. 608. 



efficacious medicines, it improves their flavors, but excessive doses 
have produced narcotic poisoning. (See U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 
1339.) 

^ The larffe handsome larvae of Pavilio Troilus. Linnseua. are 



Laurus flore ^ fructu remoto in eadem planta, foliis integris Sf tri" often abundant on the Sassafras, living on the leaves, which they 



lobis, Kramer, Tent. Bot. 141. 



partially fold together by silken threads to protect themselves. 



Cliff. 154 ; Mat 



Med 
227. 



Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 62. 



Fl. Ley 

Novebor 



The larvse of Attacus Promethea, Harris, also feed on the leaves of 
•odr» this tree, and in winter the cocoons may frequently be found hang- 
Du- ing from the branches. A small moth, Gracilaria sassafraseHa^ 



hamel, Traite des Arbres, i. 350, t. 135, f. 7. — Trew, PL Ehret^ Chambers, in its larval stages is believed to mine within the young 
334, t. 69, 70 ; Nov. Act. Phys. Med. Acad. Cces. Leopold Carol, ii. leaves, and later to roll them downwards. A number of other 



344 (Hist. Nat. Arb. Sassafi 



Salsafi 



species of insects which feed upon a variety of plants have occasion- 
ally affected Sassafras, but it is not attacked by borers in the living 



Mas odorata, folio trifido 



wood. 



^fi 



Johann 



ist. Florida, 20. ^ The Sassafras is attacked by numerous fungi peculiar to this 

Neander published in Bremen a medi- host. A disease of frequent occurrence, causing circumscribed 

cal treatise devoted to the virtue of the Sassafras-tree and entitled brown spots on the leaves, is due to Phyllosticta Sassafras, Cooke, 

Sassafrasologia. I have been unable to examine a copy of the work, of which the mature condition is seldom seen ; and the imperfectly 



which, so far as I can discover, is not in any American library. 



known Rhytisma Sassafras, Schweinitz, covers them with thickened 



s One of the objects of the English expedition which, in 1602, black spots. The woody parts of the tree are attacked by several 
made the earliest attempt to establish <* settlement on the coast of species of Pyrenomycetes ; these are most prevalent in the south- 
New England was to obtain a supply of sassafras (see The Rela- ern part of the country. 



LAURACKffi. 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



17 



SASSAFRAS SASSAFRAS. 



Sassafras. 



Sassafras Sassafras, Karsten, Pharm,.-Med. Bot. 605 Tetranthera albida, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 267 (1825). 



(1882) 



Sudworth, Garden and Forest, iv. 166. 



Laurus Sassafras, Linnaeus, Spec. 371 (1753). — Miller 



Diet. ed. 8, No. 7. 

"Wangenheim, Bes 
Holz. 82. t. 27. \ 



Roi, Harhk. Ba 
Nordavi. Holz 
Marshall. Arh 



Nordam 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 273. — Walter, Fl. 
Car. 134. — Willdenow, Berl. Ba^imz. 166 ; Spec. ii. pt. 
i. 485 ; Enum. 435. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 454. — Abbot, 
Insects of Georgia, i. t. 11. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 

115, t. 34. 

Michaux. 1 



Persea Sassafras, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 270 (1825). — Schniz- 

lein. Icon. t. 106, f . 15-23. 
Sassafras officinale, Nees ab Esenbeck & Ebermaier, 
Handb. Med. -P harm. Bot. i. 418 (1830). — C. G. Nees 
ab Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. 488. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 



1357. 



Spach, Hist. V6g. x. 503. — Torrey, Fl. If. Y. 
ii. 158. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 251. — Curtis, 
Hep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 63. — Chapman, Fl. 



394. 



Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. i. 171. 



Handb 



Hist. 



Persoon, Syn. i. 450. 
Du Mont de Coun 



Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 430. — Titf ord, Hort. Bot. Am. 



130. 



Michaux, f. Hist 



Pursh, 



Fl. Am. Sept. i. 277. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 97. 
Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 25. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 259; 



Sylva, i. 88. — Elliott, Sk. i. 464. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 365. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 
359, t. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 70. 
Lauche Deutsche Dendr. 357, f . 138. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 119. — Mez, Jahrb. 
Konig. Bot. Gart. 484 (Lauracece Americance Monog.). 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 447. — Coulter, 
Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 383 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 



Hilaire, Sassafras albidura, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Syst. Laur. 



Traite des Arbres, i. t. 95. — Audubon, Birds, t. 144. 
Laiirus variifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 344 (1796). 
Laurus diversifolia, Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ii. 426 

(1812). 

Laurus albida, Nuttall, Gen. i. 259 (1818). 



490 (1836). 
Sassafras variifoUum, Otto Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL ii. 
574 (1891). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 172. — Dippel, 
Handb. Laubholzk. iii. 95. 



A 



occasionally eighty or ninety feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes nearly six feet 



diameter, and short stout more or less contorted branches which spread almost at right angles from the 



trunk, forming a narrow usually flat-topped head; frequently 



than forty or fifty feet in 



height, and at the north generally smaller and often shrubby. The bark of the trunk is sometimes an 
inch and a half in thickness, dark red-brown, and deeply and irregularly divided into broad flat ridges 
separating into thick appressed scales on the surface. The branchlets, when they first appear, are light 



yeUow-green and coated with pale pubes 



they soon become glabrous, bright green, and 



d at the end of two or three years gradually 



reddish brown, and begin to show the shallow 



fissures which divide the thin bark of the older branches and young stems. The leaves are four 



inches long and 



four inches wide, and are borne on petioles three quarters of an inch to an inch 



and a half in length ; in the autumn they turn to delicate shades of yellow or of orange more or less 
tinged with red. The flowers are produced in racemes about two inches long and a third of an inch 
across when fully expanded. The fruits ripen in September or October, and are a third of an inch 
long and raised on stalks an inch and a half to two inches in length ; when ripe they separate from the 
thick calyx-lobes which, with the stalks of the fruit-clusters, remain on the branches until the beginning 
of winter. Exceedingly abundant in some years, the fruit of the Sassafras is generally produced rather 
sparingly, and is usually devoured by birds as soon as it begins to assume its brilliant colors. 



Sassafras Sassafras is distributed from eastern Massachusetts through southern Vermont 



to 



southern Ontario ^ and central Michigan, southeastern Iowa, eastern Kansas and the Indian Territory, 
and southward to central Florida and the valley of the Brazos River in Texas. 



42 



1879-80 



Macoun, Cat Can. PL 419. 



18 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. laurace^. 



The Sassafras is usually found in rich sandy well-drained loam, and in the south Atlantic and Gulf 
states its stoloniferous roots often take possession of jfields abandoned by the agriculturist. 

The Sassafras was probably one of the first North American trees introduced into European 
gardens, as the figure of the branch, pubHshed in 1633, in the second edition of Gerarde's Herhall^ 
was made from a specimen that had grown in a Mr. Wilmote's garden near London. Few inhabitants 
of the forests of North America are more beautiful or interesting at all seasons of the year ; in winter, 
with its bright green shining branchlets j in spring, with the charm of its drooping clusters of flowers 
surrounded by the expanding scales of the buds ; in summer, with the healthy green of its graceful 
variously shaped leaves j and in autumn, with its brilliant fruit and delicate hues of fading foHage 
unsurpassed in lovehness by the deeper colors of its forest companions. 

The Sassafras can be propagated by seeds, which should be sown as soon as they are ripe, when 
they will germinate early the following spring, or by root-suckers, which are often produced in great 
profusion. The large thick fleshy roots which penetrate deep into the ground make the Sassafras 
dif&cult to transplant, and small plants should be selected for this purpose. 



Johnson, 1524. — Alton, HorL Kew. ii. 40. — Loudon, Arb, Brit iii, 1301. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PiiATE CCCIV- Sassafras Sassafras. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

7. A stamen of the inner series, enlarged. 

8- A stamen of one of the outer series, enlarged. 
9. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

11. An ovule, much map-nififid. 



Plate CCCV. Sassafras Sassafras. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 

5. Sections of an embryo, enlarged. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Siva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCIV, 




11 











Tn^ sc^. 



SASSAFRAS SASSAFRAS, Karst. 



^. Hio areueiy direa> 



t 



Jmp. J Tan&ur, Pazis. 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Ta"b. CCCV 





cwxm^ 



del 



ITiTTieZy, sc 



SASSAFRAS SASSAFRAS, Karst . 






6 



Imp. lJ TaTieijr, Partis 



LAURACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



UMBELLULAEIA. 



Flowers perfect ; calyx 6-lobed, the lobes in two series, imbricated in aestivation, 
deciduous ; corolla ; stamens 12, in four series, those of the inner series sterile ; 
disk ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit baccate. Leaves 
alternate, destitute of stipules, persistent. 



Umbellularia, Nuttall, Sylva, i. 87 (1842). — Bentham & Oreodaphne, Subgen. Umbellularia, C. G. Nees ab Esen- 
Hooker, Gen. iii. 162. — Pax, Engler & Prantl PfiaVf beck, Syst. Laur. 462 (1836). — Endlicher, Gen. 321. 



zenfam. iii. pt. ii. 116. 



Drimophyllmn, Nuttall, Sijlva, i. 85 (1842). 



An aromatic tree, with dark brown scaly bark, slender terete branches marked in their second and 
third years by small semicircular or nearly triangular elevated leaf -scars displaying a horizontal row of 
minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars, naked buds, and thick fleshy brown roots. Leaves alternate, involute 
in vernation, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or rounded at the narrow apex, cuneate or some- 
what rounded at the base, entire, with thickened slightly revolute margins, petiolate, the broad petioles 
grooved on the upper side, pungent ; at first coated on the lower surface with pale soft pubescence and 
puberulous on the upper surface, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, 
dull and paler below, with slender light yellow midribs rounded on both sides, penniveined, the veins 
remote, obscure, arcuate and more or less united near the margins, connected by conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets. Flowers in axUlary pedunculate many-flowered umbels inclosed before anthesis by an invo- 
lucre of five or six imbricated broadly ovate or obovate pointed concave yellow puberulous caducous 
scales, the latest umbels subsessile, at the base of terminal leaf-buds. Pedicels slender, puberulous, ebrac- 
teolate, developed from the axils of obovate membranaceous puberulous deciduous bracts decreasing in 
size from the outer to the inner. Perianth divided almost to the base into six nearly equal broadly 
obovate rounded pale yellow lobes spreading and reflexed after anthesis. Stamens inserted on the short 
slightly thickened tube of the calyx ; filaments flat, glabrous, pale yellow, rather shorter than the 
anthers, those of the third series furnished near the base with two conspicuous stipitate orange-colored 
orbicular flattened glands ; anthers innate, oblong, flattened, light yellow, four-celled, those of the first 
and second series introrse, those of the third series extrorse, the cells superposed in pairs opening from 
below upward by persistent Hds ; stamens of the fourth series reduced to minute ovate acute yellow 
staminodia. Ovary sessile, ovate, often more or less gibbous, glabrous, abruptly contracted into a stout 
columnar style rather shorter than the lobes of the calyx and crowned with a simple capitate discoid 
stio-ma; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, anatropous. Fruit ovate, one-seeded, 
surrounded at the base by the enlarged and thickened truncate or lobed tube of the calyx, yellow-green, 
sometimes more or less tinged with dull red ; pericarp thin and fleshy. Seed ovate, exalbuminous, light 



brown: testa separabl 



the outer thick, hard, and woody, the inner thin and papery 



closely investing the embryo, chestnut-brown, very lustrous on the inner surface. Embryo erect, filKng 
the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, inclosing the minute superior thick and fleshy 
conical radicle turned toward the hilum. 



The wood of Umbellularia is heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, and susceptible of receivin 



& 



beautiful polish ; it contains numerous smaU regularly distributed open ducts and many thin medullary 
rays and is lio"ht rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood composed of thirty to forty layers of 
annual o-rowth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6517, a cubic foot weighing 40.61 
pounds. The most valuable wood produced in the forests of Pacific North America for the interior 



20 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LAURACEiE. 



finish of houses and furniture, it is largely employed for these purposes ; and on the Oregon coast it is 
used in ship and boat building for jaws, bits, cleats, cross-trees, etc. 

The leaves yield by distillation ^ a pungent volatile oil ; and from the fruit a fat containing 
mnbellulic acid has been obtained.^ 



Umbellularia is not seriously injured by insects ^ or fungal diseases. 



4 



The generic name, a diminutive of 
genus consists of a single species. 



umhella, relates to the character of the inflorescence 



The 



All parts of Umbellularia contain volatile oil, although it is 



A scale insect, Aspidiotus rapax^ Comstock, is often abundant on 



cardamom, and a camphorous taste. W 



most abundant in the leaves ; it is limpid and straw-color, with a the bark (Rep. U. S. DepL Agric. 1880, 307) and the Fluted Scale 

pungent aromatic odor resembling that of a mixture of nutmeg and (Icerya Purchase Maskell) ouce infested Umbellularia in some parts 

len inhaled, the oil of Um- of California. This destructive insect was first imported into 

bellnlaria produces dizziness and headache, and is supposed to California on plants from Australia, and in time threatened the 

have marked action on the nervous system. It is recommended ruin of the Orange-orchards of California and many ornamental 

for nasal catarrh and nervous headache ; and its use in the treat- plants and forest trees. For several years the artificial remedies 

meat of cerebro-spinal meningitis is said to have been followed by tried were unsuccessful in keeping the pest in control. Studies, 

favorable results. It is believed to possess curative properties in however, of its habits and enemies made by the entomologists of 

chronic diarrhcea and colic, and to relieve rheumatic pains if applied the United States Department of Agriculture in its original home 

externally (Heamy, Am. Jour. Pharm. xlvii. 106. — New Properties^ led to the importation of the Australian Ladybird Beetle (Vedalia 



iii. 223, 288. — Parke, Davis & Co., New Remedies, No. 10, 136. 
U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1947). 



cardinalis, Mulsant), a predaceous insect which in a short time mul- 
tiplied enormously in California and soon practically cleared the 



2 Stillman & O'Neill, Am. Chem. Jour. iv. 206. — New Remedies, scale from the orchards and gardens of the state. (See Bull. 21, 

xii. 50. Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric. — Third Biennial Rep, 

2 Few insects are recorded as feeding upon Umbellularia. A State Board, Hort. Cal. 246, t. 4. — Annual Rep. State Board Hort. 

beetle, Sinoxylon decline, Le Conte, is said to bore into the wood Cal. 1889, 267, t. 4.) 

(Insect Life, iv. 260) ; and Ptilinus basalis, Le Conte, and Micracis * More than thirty species of fungi are recorded as growing on 

Tiirtella, Le Conte, have been found boring in dead twigs, although Umbellularia Californica, although they are mostly species which 

they probably do not affect green tissue (Trans. Am. Entomolog. are found also on other plants ; but Anihostomxx Oreodaphnes, 

Soc. viii. p. xxiii.). The larvae of a small moth, Lithocolletis Um- Cooke & Harkness, Nectria Umbellularice, Plowright & Harkness, 

bellularice, Walsingham, form large blister-like mines on the upper and Sphcerella Umbellularice, Cooke & Harkness, are, however, pe- 



surface of the leaves (Insect Life, ii, 78). 



culiar to this tree although they do not produce serious diseases. 



LAURACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



UMBELLULARIA CALIFORNICA. 



California Laurel. Spice Tree. 



Umbellularia 



Watson 



61. 



Sargent, Forest 



N. 



Mez 



Konii 
nog.). 



GaH. V. 482 



Ma 



Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk. iii. 96, f. 46. 



Man 



Coville, Contrib. U. 



Nat. Herb. iv. 192 (Bot. Death Valley Exped 



Tetranthera ? 



Arnott 



Beechey, 159 (1833). — Meisner, De Candolle Prodr. xv, 



pt. i. 192. 



Wilkes Explor. Exped 



Oreodaphne Calif or nica, C. G. Nees ab Esenbeck, Syst. 
Later. 463 (1836). — Bentham, Fl. Hartweg. 334; Bot. 
Voy. Sulphur, 49. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1356. — Hooker & 
Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 389. — Torrey, Facifie B. B. 
Bep. iv. 133 ; v. 364 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 184. 



Newberry, Facifie R. B. Rep. vi. 24, f. 3, 88. 
Mag. Ixxxviii. t. 5320. 



Bot. 



Drimophylluin pauciflorum, Nuttall, Sylva, i. 85, t. 22 
(1842). 



The California Laurel is a tree eighty to ninety feet in height, with a trunk four or five feet in 
diameter, sometimes tall and straight but usually dividing near the ground into several large diverging 
stems, and stout spreading branches which form a broad round-topped compact head ; or at high eleva- 
tions above the level of the sea and in southern California much smaller and often reduced to a low 
shrub. The bark of the trunk is three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and dark brown 



tinged with red, separating on the surface into thin appressed 



The branches, when they first 



appear, are light green and coated with soft pale pubescence ; they soon become glabrous and yellow- 
green, and in their second and third seasons are light brown tinged with red. The leaves are two to five 
inches long and half an inch to an inch and a half wide, and are borne on petioles which vary from a 
quarter to a half of an inch in length ; they first unfold in the winter or early in the spring, continuing 
to appear as the branches lengthen until late in the autumn, and, beginning to fade during the summer, 



turn 



beautiful yellow or orange 



and fall 



by one during their second season, or often 



remain on the branches until the sixth year, or gradually become rusty brown, dry, and more or less 
curled. The flowers, which are produced in many-flowered umbels on pedicels sometimes an inch in 
length, are a third of an inch across when fuUy expanded ; they first appear in January or February 
before the unfolding of the young leaves, in the axils of those of the previous year, from buds formed 
the previous summer, and at this season often quite cover the tree with their star-like clusters. Later, 
as the leaves of the year develop on the young branches, occasional flower-clusters appear in their axils, 
and thus the trees are frequently in blossom during several months of the spring and summer. The 

. in clusters of two or three on its elongated thickened stalks 



fruit is about an inch long, and hang 
which remain on the branch after the fruit ripens and falls late in the autumn. The seeds germ 
soon after they reach the ground, the fruit remaining below the surface of the soil and attached t( 
young plants until midsummer, when they are often six or eight inches tall 



the 



Umhellularia Californlca ^ is distributed from the vaUey of the Rogue River in Oregon through 



the 



thern 



the California coast ranges and along the high western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to 

slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, which it ascends to an elevation of twenty-five hundred feet 



It 



,lly grows near the banks of watercourses, and sometimes on low hills whe 



strata of 



A common tree wherever 



rock permit it to send down its roots to drink at deep subterranean springs, 
it can obtain an abundant supply of water, the California Laurel is most abundant and attains its great 
est size in the rich valleys of southwestern Oregon, in which, accompanied by the broad-leaved Maple 
it sometimes forms a considerable part of the forest growth. 



1 Umbellularia Californica is also sometimes called Mountain 
Laurel, Cajeput, California Olive, and Bay-tree. 



Parish. Zoe, iv. 344 



22 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. laurace^. 



U'mhellularia Californica was made known to Europeans by Archibald Menzies/ the physician 
and naturahst who sailed with Vancouver on his voyage o£ discovery, being probably first seen by him 
in November, 1792, on the shores of the Bay of San Francisco. In Oregon it was discovered ^ in 1826 
by David Douglas/ who introduced it into the gardens of Europe, where it is occasionally cultivated. 

The California Laurel is one of the stateliest and most beautiful inhabitants of the North American 
forests, and no evergreen tree of temperate regions surpasses it in the beauty of its dark dense crown 
of lustrous foliage and in the massiveness of habit which make it one of the most striking features of 
the California landscape and fit it to stand in any park or garden. 



1 See ii. 90. 



Mag. ii. 127 (Laurus regia). ^ See ii. 94, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCVI. Umbellularia Californica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. An umbel of flowers with expanding involucre, enlarged- 

4. A flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A stamen of the first or second series, front view, enlarged 

7. A stamen of the third series, front view, enlarged. 

8. A staminodium, enlarged. 

9. A pistil, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much magnified. 
11- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a fruit, slightly enlarged. 

13. An embryo, natural size. 



Silva of TSIortli America 



Ta-b. CCCVI 




CE.FacooTV dely. 




so. 



UMBELLULARIA CALIFORNICA, Nutt. 



A. Bio cr^euay 



£rea>. 



Imp J^. Tcuneur, Paris 



EUPHORBiACE^. SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



DRYPETES. 



Flowers dioecious ; calyx 4 to 6-parted, the divisions imbricated in aestivation ; 
corolla ; stamens as many as the divisions of the calyx, or about twice as many ; disk 
^ypogynous, pulvinate ; ovary 1 or rarely 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, suspended. 
Fruit drupaceous. Leaves alternate, entire, or obscurely sinuate-toothed, stipulate, 
persistento 



Drypetes, Vahl, Eclog. iii. 49 (1807). — EndUcher, Gen. Liparena, Poiteau, Dic^. /Sci. iVaf. xxvii. 6 (1823). 

1124. — Meisner, Gen. 344. — Baillon, Etude G^n. Freireodendron, Mueller Arg., De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt 
Euphorh. 606; Hist. PL v. 248 (excl. Hemicyclia and ii. 244 (1862). — BaiUon, Hist. PL v. 248. 

Cyclostemon) . — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 278. 
Pax, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. iii. pt v. 25. 



Trees or shrubs, with thick milky juice and terete branchlets. Leaves involute in vernation, 
alternate, petiolate, penniveined, coriaceous, persistent ; stipules minute, caducous. Flowers axillary, 
sessile or pedicellate, the males in many-flowered clusters, the females solitary or in few-flowered clusters. 
Pedicels developed from the axils of minute deciduous bracts, ebracteolulate. Calyx divided nearly to 
the base into four to six lobes rounded or acute at the apex, deciduous or persistent under the fruit. 
Stamens inserted under the margin of a flat or concave slightly lobed disk j filaments filiform j anthers 
ovate, emarginate, attached on the back near the base, extrorse or introrse, two-celled, the cells affixed 
to a broad oblong connective, opening longitudinally, wanting in the pistillate flower. Ovary sessile 
on a thick lobed disk, ovoid, one or rarely two-celled, crowned by one or two sessile or subsessile 
peltate or renif orm stigmas ; rudimentary or wanting in the sterile flower ; ovules two in each cell, 
collateral, descending, attached to the central angle of the cell, operculate with a hood-Hke body 
developed from the placenta, anatropous j raphe ventral ; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit drupa- 
ceous, ovoid, or subglobose, tipped with the withered remnants of the stigmas, one-celled and one-seeded, 
or rarely two-celled and two-seeded ; exocarp thick and corky or thin and crustaceous ; endocarp 



thick or th 



Seed filling the cavity of the nutlet, estrophiolate 



ceous or membranaceous. Embryo erect in thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons broad and flat, much 
longer than the superior radicle. 

Drypetes is confined to the tropical regions of the New World, where it is distributed from 
southern Florida through the West Indies to eastern Brazil. Eleven species ^ are now distinguished, of 
which two inhabit Florida. 

Drypetes produces hard durable wood, but is not known to possess other useful properties. 

The generic name, from hovnna^ relates to the character of the fruit. 



Arg., De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. ii. 453 ; Martins Fl. 



XV. 351 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. euphorbiace^ 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Calyx 5-lobecl ; stamens 8 ; ovary 1-celled ; fruit oblong ; exocarp thick and mealy ; nutlet thick- 
walled 1. D. Keyensis. 

Calyx 4-lobed ; stamens 4 ; ovary 2-celled ; fruit subglobose ; exocarp thin, crustaceous ; nutlet thin- 
walled 2. D. LATERIFLOEA 



EUPHORBiACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



DRYPETES KEYENSIS. 



White Wood. 



Calyx 5-lobed ; stamens 8 ; ovary 1-celled, Fruit oblong ; exocarp thick and 
mealy ; nutlet thick-walled. 



Keyensis 



N. 



Drypetes glauca, NuttaU, Sylva, ii. 68 (not Vahl) Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 121 (not MueUer Arg.) 



(1849). — Chapman, Fl 410. 



(1884) . 



A tree^ occasionally thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, and 
stout usually erect branches which form an oblong round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is half 
an inch thick, smooth, milky white^ and often marked with large irregular gray or pale brown blotches. 
The branchlets, when they first appear, are light green tinged with red, and covered with pale scattered 
caducous hairs, and in their first winter are stout, ashy gray, and roughened with numerous elevated 
circular pale lenticels, and later with large prominent orbicular leaf-scars in which appear three conspic- 
uous fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The buds are minute, obtuse, partly immersed in the bark, and 
coated with brown resin* The leaves are entire, oval, or oblong, often more or less falcate, acute, 
acuminate, rounded or rarely emarginate at the apex, and rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, which 
is sometimes rounded on one side and gradually parrowed on the other ; when they unfold they are 
thin and membranaceous, hght green or green tinged with red, and pilose with scattered pale hairs ; and 
at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and lustrous, rather paler on the lower than on 
the upper surface, three to five inches long, and one to two inches wide, with broad thick pale midribs 
raised and rounded on the upper side, and obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the thick 
revolute cartilaginous margins and connected by conspicuous coarsely reticulated veinlets ; they are 
borne on stout yellow midribs rounded below, grooved above, and half an inch in length, and in Florida 
appear in early spring and fall during their second year. The stipules are nearly triangular, and rather 
less than a sixteenth of an inch long, and disappear before the leaves are half grown. The flowers open 
in early spring in the axils of leaves of the previous year, the males in many-flowered clusters, the 
females usually solitary or occasionally in two or three-flowered clusters, on pedicels rather shorter than 
the petioleso The caljrx is yellow-green, hirsute on the outer surface, and about a sixteenth of an inch 
long, and is divided nearly to the base into five ovate acute boat-shaped lobes deciduous from the fruit. 
In the male flower, which shows no trace of a pistil, there are about eight stamens inserted on the 
borders of the slightly lobed tomentose pulvinate concave disk ; the filaments are unequal in length and 
rather longer than the lobes of the calyx and a little longer than the broadly ovate emarginate anthers, 
which are nearly as broad as they are long, pilose and introrse, with broad ovate acute connectives. 
The ovary of the female flower, which is sessile on a broad slightly lobed disk, is hirsute, one-celled, 
and crowned with the broad sessile or slightly stalked oblique pulvinate stigma. The fruit ripens in 
the autumn, and is ovoid, an inch long, and ivory white, with thick dry mealy flesh closely investing the 
lio-ht brown nutlet, which is narrowed at the base into a long point, and has bony walls an eighth of an 
inch in thickness and penetrated longitudinally by large fibro-vascular bundle channels j it is borne 
on a stout erect stalk, much enlarged at the apex, and a third of an inch in length, from which it 
separates in falling. The seed is oblong, rounded at both ends, nearly half an inch long, and covered 
with a thin membranaceous light brown coat marked with conspicuous veins radiating from the small 

hilum. 



26 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. euphoebiace^. 



The wood of Drypetes Keyensis is lieavy^ harcl^ not strongs brittle^ and close-grained; it contains 
numerous obscure medullary rays^ and is brown^ streaked with bright yellow^ with thick dull brown 
sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9346^ a cubic foot weighing 58.24 

pounds. 

Drypetes Keyensis inhabits Key West^ Umbrella and Elliott's Keys on the coast of southern 

Florida^ growing in dry sandy soil with the shrubby Eugenias, the Gumbo Limbo, the Pisonias, the 
Florida Coccolobis, the Pigeon Plum, the Princewood, and the Marlberry, which form a large part of 
the shrubby growth that now replaces the original forest-covering of many of the Florida keys. One 
of the rarest of the tropical trees in Florida, Drypetes Keyensis^ is conspicuous for its milk-white bark, 
dark and lustrous foliage, and large white egg-like fruits. 

It was discovered on Key West, from which it has now almost completely disappeared, by Dr. J. L, 



Blodgett.' 



1 See i. 33. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCVIL Drypetes Keyensis. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged, 

6. An anther, front and rear views, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 
10. Transverse section of a pistil, enlarged. 

11- An ovule, much magnified. 

12. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

13. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

14. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

15. A seed, showing raphe, natural size. 

16. An embryo, enlarged. 

17. A young leaf with stipule, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCVII. 




IS 



C.E.Faa:u7W del 



DRYPETES KEYENSIS, Url). 



Taidet^jcy. 



^.Riocreuay direa>r 



BrvD. S. Toneicr , P oris , 



EUPHORBIACE^. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



27 



DRYPETES LATERIFLORA. 



Guiana Plum. 



Calyx 4-lobed ; stamens 4 ; ovary 2-celled. Fruit subglobose ; exocarp thin 
taceous ; nutlet thin-walled. 



Drypetes lateriflora, Urban, Bot. Jahrh. xv. 357 (1893). Drypetes sessiliflora, Baillon, Etude Gen. Euphorh. Atlas, 



Schaefferia lateriflora, Swartz, Prodr. 30 (1788) ; FL Ind. 
Occ. I 329. 

Koelera laurifolia, Willdenow, S^ec. iv. pt. i. 750 (in part) 

(1805). 
Bessera spinosa, Sprengel, Piigill. ii. 91 (1815). 
Drypetes crocea, Poiteau, Mem. Mus. i. 159, t. 8 (1815). 

Nuttall, Sylva^ ii. 66, t 63. — Chapman, FL 410. 

Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 32 ; Cat. PL Cub. 15. 



Mueller Arg., De CandoUe Prodr. xv. pt. ii. 455. 



Sar- 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 120. 



Limacia 



Nachtr. iv. 334 (1818). 



45, t. 24, f. 34-36, 38, 40 (1858). 

Drypetes glauca, A. Richard, FL Cub. iii. 218 (not Vahl) 
(1855). — Grisebach, Mem. Am. Acad. n. ser. viii. 157 
{PL Wright.) ; Nachr. KgL GeselL Gott. 1865, 165 ; 
Cat PL Cub. 15. 

Drypetes alba, var. latifolia, Grisebach, Nachr. KgL Ge- 
selL Gott. 1865, 165 ; Cat. PL Cub. 15. 

Drypetes crocea, fi longipes, Mueller Arg., De CandoUe 
Prodr. XV- pt. ii. 456 (1866). 

Drypetes crocea, y latifolia, Mueller Arg., De CandoUe 
Prodr. XV. pt. ii- 456 (1866). 

Drypetes latifolia, Sauvalle, i^^. Cub. 127 (1873). 



Roumea coriacea, Steudel, Norn. Bot. ed. 2, ii. 475 (not Xylosma nitidmn. Hooker f. & Jackson, Ind. Kew 



Poiteau) (1841). 



(not Grisebach) (1893). 



A tree^ twenty to thirty feet in height^ with a short trunk five or six inches in diameter, and 



slender erect branches 



The bark of the trunk is a sixteenth of an inch thick, and lig*ht brown tinged 



to 



with red^ the generally smooth surface separating into small irregular 
and slender, and when they first appear are Hght 



green tinged with red 



The branchlets are te 
their first winter they 



ashy gray and are marked with scattered pale lenticels, and at the end of their second year with the 
small elevated oval leaf-scars which display the ends of three fibro-vascular bundles. The buds are 



minute, acute or obtuse, chestnut-brown, and coated with pale ha 



The 



oblong 



or 



acuminate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, and entire ; when they unfold they are thin and 
covered with scattered pale hairs, and at maturity are thick and subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous, 
three to four inches in length, and haL£ an inch to an inch and a half in breadth, with conspicuous 
light-colored midribs rounded above and below, and obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the 
sHghtly thickened revolute margins and connected by slender reticulated veinlets ; they are borne on 
slender grooved petioles a quarter of an inch long, and appear in Florida in the early spring, falling 
during their second year. The flowers open late in the autumn or early in the winter, on branches one 



or two years old, in the axils of leaves or from leafless nodes, in many or few-flowered clusters on 
pedicels shorter than the petioles. The calyx is greenish white, hirsute on the outer surface, divided 
to the base into four ovate rounded lobes, and persistent under the fruit ; in the male flower, in which 
there is no trace of an ovary, there are four stamens inserted under the margin and between the lobes 
of the flat tomentose disk, with slender exserted filaments and introrse emarginate pilose anthers. In 



the female flower the ovate tomentose 



celled ovary 



Liounted by two nearly sessile obHque spreading cushion-like stigmas 



on a broad shghtly lobed disk, and is 

The fruit, which ripens 



during the spring 



and 



ly summer, is subglobose, a third of an inch in diameter, tipped with 



conspicuous blackened remnants 



of 



& 



dark brown and coated with soft pubesc 



it is 



solitary or produced in clusters of two or three, and is borne on stout stalks enlarged at the apex and 
a quarter of an inch in leng 



th, from which 



sparates 



fallinsr ; the flesh is thin and 



28 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. euphoebiace^. 



and closely invests the thin-walled 



The seed is obovate, gibbous, an eighth of 



inch long, rounded below, narrowed and marked at the apex with the elevated pale hilum, from which 
numerous broad veins radiate, and on the inner surface with the broad conspicuous raphe. 

The wood of Drypetes lateriflora is heavy, hard, brittle, and close-grained ; it contains numerous 
thin medullary rays, and is rich dark brown in color, with thick yellow sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9209, a cubic foot weighing 57.39 pounds. 

Drypetes lateriflora inhabits in Florida the shores of Bay Biscayne and many of the southern 
keys ; it is also common on the Bahama Islands and on Cuba, San Domingo, Jamaica, and Porto Rico. 

Drypetes lateriflora was discovered toward the end of the last century by the Swedish botanist 
Swartz ^ on the island of San Domingo. In the United States it was first noticed on Key West by 
Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 

1 See V. 44. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



PiiATE CCCVIII. Drypetes lateriflora. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree^ natural size 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, the calyx removed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged- 



Silva of Isf orth America . 



Ta"b. CCCVIIl. 







-urve^ so . 



DRYPETES LATERIFLORA , Ur"b. 



^ . Ilzocreua> direa> 



Imp. kJ. Tcune^cr , Pccns 



EUPHORBIACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



GYMNANTHES. 



Flowers monoecious or rarely dioecious ; calyx rudimentary or ; corolla ; 

stamens 2 or rarely 3 ; disk ; ovary 3-celled ; ovule solitary in each cell, suspended. 

Fruit a 3-lobed capsule splitting into three 2-valved cocci. Leaves alternate, stipulate, 
persistent. 



Gymnanthes, Swartz, Prodr. 95 (1788). — Endlicher, Gen. 

Suppl. ii. 87 ; iv. pt. iii. 87 (Gymnanthus). — Baillon, 



iii. 337. — Pax, Engler & Prantl PfianzenfaTn. iii. pt. v. 

101. 



Btvde Gen. Euphorb. 530. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Excoecaria, Baillon, Hist. PL v. 227 (in part) (1874). 



Glabrous trees or shrubs, with milky juices and slender terete branchlets. Leaves alternate, 
petiolate, entire or crenulate-serrate, coriaceous, penniveined, persistent ; stipules membranaceous, 
minute, caducous. Inflorescence-buds covered with closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales, length- 
ening in anthesis, bearing in the upper axils numerous three-branched clusters of staminate flowers, 
their branches furnished with minute ovate bracts, and from the lower axils two or three long-stalked 



pistillate flowers. Perianth of the staminate flower 



wanting. Stamens two or rarely three 



filaments filiform, declinate in anthesis, inserted on the slightly enlarged torus, free or slightly connate 
at the base ; anthers attached on the back below the middle, erect, ovoid, two-celled, the cells parallel. 



opening longitudinally. Perianth of the pistillate flower reduced to three bract-like scales. 



Ovary 



ovate, three-celled, narrowed into three recurved styles free or slightly united at the base, stigmatic on 
their inner face j ovule solitary in each cell, suspended from its inner angle, anatropous ; raphe ventral ; 



micropyle extrorse, superior ; the obdurator 



larged cup-like growth from the funicle only slightly 



developed- Capsule three-lobed, separating from the persistent axis into three two-valved cocci, dehiscent 



on the dorsal and partly on the ventral suture. 



Seed 



d 



or 



bglobose 



strophiolate, or 



r 



rely 



.ked 



membranaceous 



Embryo erect in thick fleshy alb 



'tyledons foHa 



ceous, broad and flat, much longer than the superior radicle. 

About ten species ^ of Gymnanthes are distributed from southern Florida, where one species occurs, 
through the West Indies to Mexico ^ and Brazil.^ 

Gymnanthes produces hard, durable, and sometimes handsome wood, but is not known to possess 

other useful properties. 

The generic name, from yv^vog and dvOog^ relates to the structure of the naked flowers. 



1 Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 337. 

2 Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 136 



(Sebastiania) 



30 



BILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



EUPHORBIACEiE. 



GYMNANTHES LUCIDA. 



Crab Wood. 



Perianth of the staminate flower ; stamens 2 or 3 ; ovary long-stalked. Leaves 



oblong-obovate to ovate-lanceolate. 



Gymnanthes lucida, Swartz, Proc?/*. 96 (1788). — Balllon, 
Etude Gen. Euphorb. 530. — Mueller Arg., Linncea, 

Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 



xxxii. 



129. 



100. 



ExccBcaria lucida, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. ii. 1122 (1800). 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. 865. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 634. 

Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. i. 155. — A. de Jussieu, 

Euphorb. Tent. t. 16, f. 55. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 60, t. 



61. 
199. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 256. — Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 

Chapman, Fl. 405. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. 

Bid. 50 ; Cat. PL Cub. 20. — Eggers, Vidensk. Medd. 

fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1876, 145 {Fl. St. Croix). 

Sebastiania lucida, Mueller Arg., De Candolle Prodr. xv. 

pt. ii. 1181 (1866). —Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 



13, 92 {Fl. St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). 
gent, Forest Trees N. Am. Idth Census U. S. ix. 121. 



Sar- 



A ti-ee, occasionally twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter 
d often irregularly ridged, the rounded ridges spreading near the surface of the ground into broad 



buttresses, and with slender erect branches which form a narrow loose oblong head 



The bark of the 



trunk is dark red-brown and a sixteenth of an inch thick, and separates into large thin scales, which, in 
falling, display the light brown inner bark. The branchlets are terete and slender, and, when they first 
appear, are Hght green and more or less deeply shaded with red ; in their first winter they are light 
gray-brown faintly tinged with red and roughened by numerous oblong pale lenticels; ultimately they 
become ashy gray, and are marked at the end of their second year with semiorbicular elevated leaf- 
scars in which appear four fibro-vascular bundle-scars superposed in pairs. The leaf-buds are ovate, 



obtuse, covered with chestnut-brown scales, and about one sixteenth of an inch in length. 



The leaves 



are condupHcate in vernation, oblong-obovate to ovate-lanceolate, and obscurely and remotely crenulate- 
serrate or often entire ; when they unfold they are thin and membranaceous, deeply tinged with red, and 
furnished on the teeth with minute caducous dark glands, and at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper, and pale and dull on the lower surface, two to three inches long, 
and two thirds of an inch to an inch and a half wide, with broad pale midribs raised and rounded on 
the upper side, obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the margins, and connected by prominent 
coarsely reticulate veinlets, and broad sKghtly grooved petioles about a quarter of an inch in length ; in 
Florida they appear in early spring, and, remaining on the branches through their second summer, fall 
gradually. The stipules, which disappear as soon as the leaves unfold, are ovate, acute, membranaceous, 
Hght brown, clothed on the margins with long pale hairs, and nearly a sixteenth of an inch in length. 
The inflorescence-buds appear in Florida late in the autumn in the axils of leaves of the year, and 
during the winter are an eighth of an inch long, and covered with closely imbricated scales ; in the early 
spring they begin to lengthen, and when fuUy grown the inflorescence is an inch and a haK to two 
inches long, and consists of a slender glabrous angled rachis, which, in lengthening, has separated the 
scales. From two or three of the lower scales the long-stalked solitary female flowers are produced, and 
from between the remainder the stamens of the usually triandrous male flowers protrude. The scales 
are broadly ovate, pointed, concave, rounded and thickened at the apex, puberulous and ciliate on the 
margins ; those which inclose the male flowers are connate with their peduncles, and as these lengthen are 
carried upward, and thus remain immediately under the pedicels of the fuUy expanded flowers, while 
those subtending the female flowers at the base of the inflorescence are not raised on their peduncles. 
The male inflorescence consists of a peduncle terminating in three divisions, each of these divisions or 



EUPHORBiACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



pedicels being furnished at the base before anthesis with a minute ovate bract, which, as the pedicel 
lengthens, is carried up, so that when the flower is fully expanded, it stands just under the shghtly 
enlarged torus upon which the stamens are inserted. The female flower is borne on a slender dark 
green peduncle tinged with red, half an inch long, and furnished at its apex with three minute ovate 
acute unequal pubescent bracts, from which rises the stout stipe of the ovary. The fruit, which in 
Florida is produced sparingly, and is often injured by insects, ripens in the autumn ; it is shghtly 
obovate, dark reddish brown or nearly black, a third of an inch in diameter, covered with thin dry 
flesh, and hangs on a slender stem an inch or more in length ; the three-valved nutlets into which it 
separates, leaving the white corky axis remaining on the peduncle, are thick-walled, hght brown, hard 
and bony, and lustrous on the inner surface. The seed is ovoid, and covered by a thin chestnut-brown 
coat, and is marked with a conspicuous circular elevated strophiole and with a broad ventral raphe. 

The wood of Gymnanthes litcida is very heavy, hard, close-grained, and susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays, and is rich dark brown streaked with 
yellow, with thick bright yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0905, a 
cubic foot weighing 67.96 pounds. In Florida it is now occasionaUy manufactured into canes, and 
furnishes valuable fuel. 

Gymnanthes lucida is a frequent inhabitant of the low woods which cover the coral formations of 
southern Florida from the shores of Bay Biscayne to the Marquesas keys. It is common on the 

Bahama Islands, and inhabits many of the Antilles. 

Gymnanthes lucida was discovered by the Swedish botanist Swartz, on the island of Jamaica. In 
the United States it was first noticed on Key West by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCIX. Gymnajstthes lucida. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a cluster of male flowers. 

3. Diagram of a female flower. 

4. A cluster of male flowers with their scale, ani 

enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A female flower with its peduncle, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a female flower, enlarged. 
8- Cross section of a female flower, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A coccus partly split open, displaying the ven 

a seed, enlarged. 

13. A seed, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. A stipule, enlarged. 



'^: 



/mH 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCIX 




€.E,FcL2>OTt del. 



Rapine^ so. 



GYMNANTHES LUCIDA.Sw. 



ji.RLocr&LLjc- direcc . 



Irrtf! J. Tarbeur ^ Paris. 



EUPHORBiACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



33 



HIPPOMANE. 



Flowers monoecious; calyx usually 3-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation; 
corolla ; stamens 2 to 3, their filaments connate ; disk ; ovary superior, 6 to 
9-celled ; ovule solitary in each cell. Fruit drupaceous. Leaves alternate, stipulate, 
tardily deciduous. 



Hippomane, Linnaeus, Gen. 368 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, 228. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 333. — Pax, En^ 

Gen. 391. — Endlicher, Gen. 1110. — Meisner, Gen. lev & Prantl Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. v. 98. 

337. — BaiUon, Etude Gen. Ewpliorb. 539 ; Bi&t. PL v. MancaniUa, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 354 (1763). 

Majicinella, Tussac, FL AntilL iii. 21 (1824). 



A glabrous tree, with thick milky acrid juice, scaly bark, and stout pithy branchlets marked with 
circular raised lenticels and oblong or semiorbicular horizontal elevated leaf -scars in which appear a row 
of obscure fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and nearly encircled at the nodes by ring-Hke scars left by the 
falling of the stipules. Buds ovate, acute, covered by many loosely imbricated long-pointed chestnut- 
brown scales. Leaves involute in vernation, broadly ovate, abruptly rounded at the apex into broad 
points terminating in slender mucros, rounded or subcordate at the base, remotely crenulate-serrate 
with minute gland-tipped teeth, penniveined, long-petiolate, pilose at first with occasional long pale 
hairs, soon becoming glabrous, and at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark yellow-green and lustrous 
above, paler and dull below ; midribs stout, Hght yellow, raised and rounded on the upper side ; primary 
veins slender, remote, arcuate and united at some distance from the margin, connected by conspicuous 
coarsely reticulated veinlets more prominent on the upper than on the lower side ; petioles elongated, 
slender, rigid, light yellow, rounded below, obscurely grooved above, marked at the very apex with large 
orbicular dark red glands; stipules ovate-lanceolate, abruptly narrowed from a broad base, slightly 
laciniate near the apex, membranaceous, light chestnut-brown, caducous. Inflorescence terminal, 
spicate, appearing in early spring usually before the unfolding of leaves of the year, the stout fleshy 
rachis often furnished at the base with acute sterile deciduous bracts or with one or two small leaves, 
the two or three minute pistillate flowers soKtary in the axils of these leaves and in those of ovate acute 
lanceolate bracts, furnished with two lateral glandular bractlets, raised on thickened lobes of the rachis ; 
staminate flowers minute, articulate on slender pedicels, clustered in eight to fifteen-flowered fascicles 
in the axils of similar bracts higher on the rachis than those subtending the pistillate flowers and 
extending to its apex. Calyx of the staminate flower yellow-green, membranaceous, divided below the 



middle 



sometimes into two acute lobes. Stamens two or often three, exserted, more 



less connate by their filaments into a stout column, free and spreading from the apex ; anthers ovoid, 
light yellow, surmounted by the short prolongation of the connective, attached on the back below the 
middle, erect, extrorse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Calyx of the pistiUate flower ovate, 
yellow-ffreen, divided nearly to the base into three ovate acute concave divisions rounded on the back. 
Ovary six to eight-celled, narrowed at the base and gradually contracted above into a short simple 
cylindrical style separating into six to eight long radiating flattened abruptly reflexed styles stigmatic 
on the inner face. Ovule solitary in each cell, suspended from its inner angle, descending, anatropous ; 
raphe ventral ; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit pome-shaped, obscurely six to eight-lobed, raised on 
a thickened woody stem ; epicarp thin, light yeUow-green or yellow and red ; mesocarp thick, lactes- 
cent adherent to the thick-walled rugose deeply and irregularly winged six to eight-ceUed subglobose 



endocarp flattened at the two ends, the ceUs separated throughout by thin dark radial plates 



34 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EUPHORBIACEiE. 



ultimately separable, penetrated 



the summit by oblique 



filled by the f unicles of the seeds 



Seed oblono'-ovate, marked with a minute slightly elevated hilum, and on the ventral face with an 



& 



obscure raphe 



membranaceous, separabl 



the 



dark, the 



thinner, Heht 



t? 



brown. Embryo surrounded by thick fleshy albumen 
the short erect radicle turned toward the hilum. 



tyledons flat, foliaceous, much longer than 



The wood of Hippomane, when grown in Florida, is light and soft although close-grained, and 



contains numerous evenly distributed small open ducts and many obscure medullary rays. It is dark 
brown, with thick light brown or yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.5272, a cubic foot weighing 35.97 pounds.^ 

All parts of Hippomane abound in exceedingly poisonous caustic sap which produces cutaneous 
eruptions, and taken internally destroys the mucous membrane.^ Rain water falling on the leaves 
becomes poisonous, and the smoke of the burning wood injures or destroys the eyes. In the Antilles 
and on the adjacent shores of South America the Caribs employed the sap to poison their arrows.^ 

The generic name, from Innoq and [lavia^ used by the Greeks to distinguish some plant with 
properties excitant to horses,^ was adopted for this tropical American tree by Linnseus, who discarded 
the older Manganilla of Plumier. 



5 



The genus is represented by a single species. 



^ By many authors the wood of Hippomane is described as heavy '^ Their poyson is of such a force, that a man being stricken there- 

and hard, and as valued and much esteemed in cabinet-making ; in with dyeth within foure and twentie howers, as the Spaniards do 

Florida the trees rarely produce heartwood, and the sapwood is affirme, & in my judgment it is like there can be no stronger 

certainly too light and soft to be of any value in the arts. Of the poyson as they make it, using thereunto apples which are very faire 

authors who have described this tree, Tussac (Fl, AntilL iii. 23) ap- and red of colour, but are i* strong poyson." (Hawkins, Voyage 

pears to be the only one who has noticed the softness of the wood to the coast of Guinea and the Indies of Nova Hispania [Hakluyt, 



and its inferior quality. 

2 Peyssonel, Rec. Period. d^Obs. de Med.y de Chir, et de Pharm 



VoyageSy ed. Evans, iii. 602].) 
"The fruit is like an apple John, and 'tis said to be one of those 



vii. 411. — Ricord-Madianna, Recherches et Experiences sur les Poi- poisons, wherewith the Indian Caniballs invenome their Arrows.'' 

(Ligon, A true and exact History of the Island of Barbados ^ 68.) 
" Nos Caraibes se servent du lait de cet arbre pour empoisonner 



sons d^Amerique, t. 3.; N. Y. Med. Sf Phys. Jour. iii. 309, 439. — 
Orfela & Olivier, Arch. Gen. de Med. x. 358. — Schroder, GeneesTc. 



Tijdschr. ZeemagL Gravenh. i. 229. — Rosenthal, Syn. PL Diaphor. leurs fleches ; ils font pour cela une fente dans I'dcorce, & y met- 

820. — Jackson, Med. Press Sf Circ. n. ser, xlii. 304. — Guibourt, tent le bout des fleches qui s'imbibent de la liqueur qui en sort qui 

Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 345. — Eggers, Tidsskr. pop. Fremsi. Natur. est blanche comme du lait, mais plus dpaisse & plus gluante. lis 

1878, 112. — Baillon, Traite Bot. Merf. 946. — CormVui, Des Plantes laissent secher les fleches ainsi imbibdes, & lorsqu'elles font une 



Veneneuses, 186. 



Naturelle 



playe elles I'empoisonnent en meme tems." (Labat, Nouveau Voyage 



de St, Domingue, 266. — Boyer-Peyreleau, Les Antilles Fran<;aises, aux Isles de VAmirique^ i. 477.) 



ed. 2, i. 71.) 

s " Arbol 6 man§anillo, con cuya fructa los indios caribes flecheros 
hagen la hierva con que tiran ^ pelean, la qual por la mayor parte 
es inremediable." (Oviedo, Hist, Nat. Gen. Ind. lib. 9, cap. 12.) 



^ Wittstein, Etymol.-Bot, Handworterb, 444. 
fi Nov. PL Am. Gen. 49. 



EUPHORBIACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



35 



HIPPOMANE MANCINELLA. 



Mauchineel. 



Hippomane Mancinella 

Miller. Diet. Prl. 8 T^o 



Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 



Hist. Stirp. Am. 250, t. 159 ; Hist. Select. Stirp. 



Ghcian 



Icon. 



Am. 121, t. 238. 

Am. Gewdch. iii. 64, t. 283. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 694 ; III. 
iii. 374, t. 793, f. 1. — Fahlberg, Acad. Stockh. nya HandL 
xi. 221, t. 10. — Swartz, Ohs. 369. — WUldenow, Spec. iv. 
pt. i. 571. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 589. — Titf ord, Hort. Bot. 
Am. Suppl. 9, t. 12, f . 5. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. 
Cult. ed. 2, vi. 325. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 482. — Hum- 



Nov 



Nat 



XXIX. 

f.54. 



JEquin. i. 394. 

A. de Jussieu, Euphorb. Tent. 90, 1. 16, 
Link, Emim. ii. 407. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 805. 



Med 



Fl. Barb. 368. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 524. — NuttaU, 
Sylva, ii. 54, t. 60. — Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sxdphur^ 169. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 224. — Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 200. 
Baillon, Etude Gen. Euphorb. 540, Atlas, t. 6, f. 12- 
20. — Chapman, Fl. 404. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 
50 ; Cat. PI. Cub. 19. — Kegel, Gartenfiora^ xv. 163, t. 
510. — Mueller Arg., De Candolle Prodr. xv. pt. ii. 
1200. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 243, f. 3. — Le Maout & De- 
caisne, Traite Gen. Bot. English ed. 693, f. — Eggers, 
Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1876, 145 (Fl. 
St. Croix) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 92 {Fl. St. 
Croix and the Virgin Islands). — ■ Hemsley, Bot. Biol. 



Am. Cent. iii. 134. 



N 



Census U. S. ix, 121. — Pax, Engler & Prantl Pflanzen- 
fam. iii. pt. v. f . 64. — Hitchcock, Rep. Missouri Bot. 

Gard. iv. 129, 169. 



Maycock, Mancinella venenata, Tussac, Fl. Antill. iii. 21, t. 5 



(1824), 



A tree, in Florida rarely exceeding twelve or fifteen feet in height, with a short trunk five or six 
inches in diameter, but in the West Indies often fifty to sixty feet tall, with a trunk occasionally three 
feet in diameter, and long spreading pendulous branches which form a handsome round-topped head, or 
sometimes with stout erect branches. The bark of the trunk varies from a quarter to a half of an 
inch in thickness, and is dark brown and broken on the surface into small thick appressed irregularly 
shaped scales j or in the West Indies it is sometimes smooth and light gray or nearly white. The leaves 
are three or four inches long and an inch and a half to two inches broad, and are raised on petioles two 
and a half to four inches in length ; unfolding in early spring, they remain on the branches in Florida 
until the spring of the following year, or until the appearance of the new growth. The flowers open 
in March before the leaves of the year, and before or after those of the preceding year have fallen. 
The rachis of the inflorescence is four to six inches long, dark purple, and more or less covered with a 
glaucous bloom. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn or early winter, and often remains on the 

branches until after the- flowers of the succeeding year appear, is an inch to an inch and a half in 
diameter, and light yellow or yellow-green with a bright red cheek. 

Hippomane Mancinella is a common inhabitant of sandy beaches and dry knolls in the immediate 
neighborhood of the ocean, from the keys which stretch along the southern coast of Florida, and the 
Bahama Islands, through the Antilles to the northern countries of South America, and the eastern 
and western coasts of Central America and southern Mexico. 

The Manchineel, which resembles a Pear-tree in habit and in the form and color of its leaves, 
growing in abundance close to the shores and covered with tempting fruit, raised in the breasts of early 
European travelers in the New World hopes of pleasantness and plenty which were soon to give way to 
disappointment and dismay ; and many of the narratives of their journeys, beginning with that of the 



second voyage of Columbus,^ who found the Manchin 



the island of Marie Galante, allude to the 



1 "Allf habia frutas salvaglnas de diferentes maneras, de las grande ardor y dolor que parecian que rabiaban, los cuales se reme- 
quales algunos no muy sabios probaban, y del gusto solamente to- diaban con cosas frias." (Select Letters of Columhusy ed. Major, 23.) 



candoles con las lenguas se les hinchaban las caras, y les venia tan 



"Toman los Venados, empongonando las Balsas donde beben. 



36 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EUPHORBIACE^. 



attractive appearance and dangerous properties of this plants which contains a more violent poison than 
any other tree of the North American forests. 

The fruit of Hmpomane Mancinella was described by Clusius^ in 1605^ and the earHest authentic 



botanical description of the tree appeared 



Ray 



Historia Plantarum^ published in London 



found in Dalechamps' Historia 

nax Theatri Botanici 



4 



1688j although references to what was perhaps the Manchineel are 
Generalis PlcmtarmUy^ published in Leyden in 1586, and in C. Bauhin's P 

published in Bale in 1623. 

Hippomane Mancinella was cultivated in 1739 ^ by Philip Miller in the Physic Garden at Chelsea 

near London, but probably long ago disappeared from gardens. 



con ciertas Manganillas." (Francisco Lopez de Gomara, HisL de 
las Indias, cap. 46.) See, also, ibid* cap. 71. 



" Et nomm^ment sur le rivage de la mer il y a force arbrisseaux 
qui portent les leurs ressemblans presques k nos poires yurees, mais 



a 



Hano veneno, & qsto, e d' una sorte d' arbori della gradezza di trfes dangereux k manger." (De Lery, Hist, d^un Voyage fait en la 



pomari & non bisogna se non cogliere il frutto, et ungere la frezza Terre du Bresil, 203.) 



con esso, & se non ha frutti ne rompono un ramo, & con certo latte 



"La pomme de Mancenille, ou de Macenilier est tout-k-fait 



chi ha, fanno il medesimo." (Alvaro Nunez, Relatione [Ramusio, semblable k la pomme Dapis pour la couleur, la grosseur & I'odeur. 



Navigationi e Viaggi, iii.].) 



" Arbores in hac provincia nostri 

-1 • « * * 



orum 



Pour le gout je n'en dirai rien, ma curiosity n'a pas ^td jusqu'k en 
faire Texperience." (Labat, iVowyeau Voyage aux Isles de VAmerique, 



races, sed maxime noxiorum ; in vermes nanque comesa convertun- i. 474, t.) 



ter. 



?5 



(Peter Martyr, Decades, ii. lib. i.) 



Orbicularis peregrinus fi 



"The mancinel-apple is of a most pleasant sweet smell, of the x. 30. — J. Bauhin, HisL Gen. i. lib. iii. 327. 



bigness of a crab, but rank poison, yet the swine and birds have 
learnt to shun it." (Smith, Travels^ Adventures and Observations^ 
cap. xxvi.) 

"At our first landing* on this Island TSanta Ctwz) some of our 



2 Arbor venenata Mancinella dicta, ii. 1646. 

Arbor venenata, pomiferay Limonice folio Americana^ Mancinello 
dicta, Commelin, Cat Hort, Amst 35. 

Arbor Americana Mancinello dicta, fructu pomi venenato, Pluke- 



women and men, by eating a small fruit like greene Apples, were net, Phyt, t. 142, f. 4 ; Aim. Bot. 44. 



fearfully troubled with it sudden burning in their mouthes, and Juglandi 

swelling of their tongues so bigge, that some of them could not canillo Hisf 
speake. Also a child by sucking one of those womens breasts, had ii. 3, t. 159. 



iffinis arbor julifera, lactescens, venenata, pyrifolia Ma 
inis dicta. Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 129 : Nat Hist. Ja\ 



at that instant his mouth set on such a burning, that it was strange 



Malus Americana, Laurocerasi folio, venenata, Mancinello arbor 



to see how the infant was tormented for the time : but after 24 seu Massinilia dicta, Commelin, Hort. Amst. 131, t. 68. 



hours it ware away of itself." (Hakluyt, Voyages, ed. Evans, iii. 341 
\_Fourth Voyage to Virginia, anno 1587].) 

"Fruticeta item justa littora nascuntur, quse poma qusedam 



Mancanilla pyri facie, Plumier, Nov. PL Am. Gen. 50. — Cates- 



by, Nat. Hist. Car. ii. 95, t. 95. 

Hippomane foliis ovatis serratis, Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 484, 



Royen, 



ferunt piscibus exitiosa si in aquam decidant ; quin & umbra illius Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 635. 



fruticis admodum nocet hominibus, si sub illo obdormiverint, Man- 
canillo vocant." (Jan de Laet, Nov. Orb. 2.) 

** De nocivis arboribus. Sunt dulcium pomorum feraces, sed 



maximfe noxiorum." (Nieremberg, Hist. Nat. lib. xiv. 331.) 

Le Mancenilier, Rochefort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles 
Antilles, 104. 

"Ilsetrouue dans toutes ces isles une seule sorte de pomme, 
qui a du rapport avec celles de TEurope. Ces pommes sont toutes venenatum,'' ii. 1834. 



Hippomane. Arboreum lactescens, ramulis ternatis, petiolis glan- 
dula notatis ; floribus spicatis mixtis, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 351. 

De arboribus venenatis, iv. Mancanillo, Jonston, Hist. Nat. Arb. 
(ed. Eckebrecht), ii. 257. 

See, also, Jonston, Dendrographia, 46, " Fructus Brasiliensis Me- 
spilo similis.^^ 



fructum ferens pilce magnitudine visu 



aux 



^ Mespilo similis fructus venenatus, 454. Arbor fructu pilce magni^ 



soient du vrayes pommes de Tenfer & de mort, autant dangereuses tudine, 512. 



ceux 



^ Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 378, 



son ame. 



)j 



254 ; Hist. Gen. Antill. ii. 191.) 



Christoph 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



PliATE CCCX. HiPPOMANE MaNCINELLA, 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size, 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. A cluster of staminate flowers inclosed by their bract, enlarged 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A staminate flower, the anthers slightly diverging, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much magnified. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

12. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

13. A nutlet, natural size. 

14. A seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. Portion of a young branchlet with stipule, enlarged. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab. CCCX 




2 



3 






lii 




10 



9 





11 



5 



6 



7 



8 



i'' 









ascarv 




Rajim^ so. 



HTIPPOMANE MANCINELLA 



L 



^.Szocreuay (£rea> 



Imp. J. Tojiezcr^ Pcms 



ULMACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



39 



ULMUS. 



Flowers perfect or rarely polygamous ; calyx 4 to 9-lobed, the lobes imbricated 
in aestivation ; corolla ; stamens 4 to 9, erect before anthesis ; disk ; ovary superior, 
1 or rarely 2-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit a compressed samara, peripter- 
ous. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, deciduous or sub-persistent, furnished with stipules. 



Ulmus, Linngeus, Gen. 68 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PL Microptelea, Spachj^^zw. ^Sci. iV^af. s^r. 2, xv-358 (1841). 
ii- 377. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 408. — Endlicher, Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. ii. 29. — Meisner, Gen. ii. 370. 

Gen. 276. — Meisner, Gen. ^51. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. Chsetoptelea, Liebmann, Vidensk. Medd. fra not. For. 
184. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 351. — Pax, Engler Kjohenh. 1850, 76. 



& Prantl Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. i. 62. 



Trees or rarely shrubs^ with watery juice, deeply furrowed bark, slender 



ed slightly 



zigzag branchlets often furnished with corky wings, and fibrous roots. Leaf -buds ^ formed early in the 
season in the axils of leaves of the year, covered with numerous ovate rounded chestnut-brown glabrous 
puberulous or hirsute scales closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward ; 
scales of the outer rows sterile ; those of the inner rows accrescent, replacing the stipules of the first 
leaves, deciduous, marking the base of the branchlet in falling with persistent ring-like scars. Leaves 
conduplicate in vernation, alternate, two-ranked, petiolate, simply or doubly serrate, penniveined, decid- 
uous or rarely subpersistent ; stipules lateral, hnear-lanceolate to obovate, entire, free or connate at 
the base, scarious, inclosing the leaf in the bud, caducous. Inflorescence-buds ^ axillary near the ends 
of the branches, similar to but rather larger than the leaf-buds, the outer scales sterile, the inner 
bearing flowers and rarely leaves. Flowers, perfect in the American species, minute, articulate on 
slender bibracteolate pedicels produced from the axils of linear acute scarious bracts in pedunculate 
or subsessile fascicles or cymes, appearing in early spring before the leaves in the axils of those of the 
previous year or autumnal in the axils of leaves of the year. Calyx campanulate, four to nine, usually 
five-lobed, membranaceous, marcescent. Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes of the calyx, 
hypogynous ; filaments fihform or slightly flattened, erect in the bud, exserted after anthesis ; anthers 
oblong, emarginate, subcordate at the base, attached on the back below the middle, extrorse, two-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile or stipitate, compressed, glabrous or hirsute, crowned 
with a simple deeply two-lobed style, the spreading lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, usually 
one-celled by abortion, rarely two-celled ; effete or rudimentary in the staminate flower ; ovule solitary, 
suspended from the apex of the cell, amphitropous ; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit ovate or oblong, 
often oblique, sessile or stipitate, surrounded at the base by the remnants of the calyx, membranaceous ; 
seminal cavity compressed, slightly thickened on the margin, chartaceous, produced into a thin reticu- 
late-venulose membranaceous light brown broad or rarely narrow wing naked or ciliate on the margin, 



1 Ulmus does not form a terminal bud, the end of the branch xvii. 184, t. 12, f . 3 ; BulL Torrey Bot Club, xix 



dying and dropping off early in the season, leaving a small nearly 
orbicular pale scar by the side of the upper axillary bud which 
nrolonffs the branch the following spring (Foerste, Bot. GazeUe^ 



XX 



Nov, Act Cur. xxii. 307, t. 28. — Hitchcock, Trans. St. 



Woody Plants of Manhattan in their Wt 



ter Condition, 16. 



40 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACE^. 



tipped with or inclosing the remnants of the persistent style and sometimes marked horizontally by the 
thickened Hne of union of the two carpels. Seed ovate, compressed, marked on the ventral edge with 
the thin raphe, solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, destitute of albumen ; testa membranaceous, 

or dark chestnut-brown, of two coats, rarely produced into a narrow wing. Embryo erect ; 



hght 



cotyledons flat or slightly convex 
oblong linear pale hilum.^ 



fleshy, much longer than the superior radicle turned toward the 



Ulmus, of which fifteen or sixteen species 



be distinguished, is widely distributed through the 



boreal and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the exception of 



North America 



where no Elm-tree is found, reaching in the New World the mountains of southern Mexico, upon which 

the Old World the subtropical forests of the Sikkim Himalaya, the home 

; in Europe three 



species ^ occurs, and in 



The forests of eastern North America 



five 



species 



of Ulmiis lancifolia? 

species occur j of these two, Ulmus campestris ^ and Ulmus scahra^ range through the northern, 

central, and southern parts of the continent, extending to the mountains of northern Africa, to the 
Caucasus, Persia, and Turkestan, and through Siberia, Manchuria, and northern China to Japan ; the 

third European species ^ is confined to the central and southeastern portions of the continent and to 



(Ann, ScL Nat, sdr, 3, x. 260) Ulmus 



wmg 



NaL s4t. 2. XV 



has been Ulmus vulgaris, Dumortier, Fl. Belg, 25 (1827). 

This is the common Elm-tree of Europe, usually called English 

Flowers Elm in the United States, although now not believed to be a native 

vernal, appearing before the leaves ; pedicels subcymose or fasci- of England, where it was probably carried by the Romans. (See 

cled, elongated ; perianth lobed scarcely to the middle. Eruit Bentham, III. Handb. Brit. FL ii. 746.) For centuries it has been 

densely ciliate on the margins. Leaves deciduous. planted in Europe as an ornament to parks and gardens and as a 

Dryoptelea (Spach, L c. 361). Flowers vernal, appearing be- timber-tree ; it was brought to New England during the first cen- 

fore the leaves ; pedicels closely fascicled, abbreviated ; perianth tury of the colony on Massachusetts Bay, and vigorous specimens 



middle 



margins. Leaves in the neighborhood of Boston more than a hundred and fifty years 



deciduous. 



1im 



MiCROPTELEA (Spach, L c. 358). Flowers autumnal in the axils America than many other European trees (Sargent, Rep. Sec. Mass. 

of leaves of the year; pedicels fascicled, more or less abbreviated ; Board Agric. xxv. 24). In European nurseries a number of forms 

perianth divided to below the middle. Fruit ciliate or naked on of this tree, which shows a remarkable tendency to seminal varia- 

the margins. Leaves subpersistent or tardily deciduous. tion, peculiar in habit or in the form and coloring of their leaves, 

2 Ulmus Mexicana, Planchon, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 156 have appeared and are often planted by the lovers of curious trees 



(1873). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 138. 

Chcetoptelea Mexicana^ Liebmann, Vidensh Med. fra nat. For. 



or for timber (Loudon, I. c. 1375, 1395. — Planchon, L c). 
fi MUler, I. c. No. 2 (1758). — Koch, Deiidr. I. c. 412. 



Dippel, 



Kjohenh. 1850, 76 ; Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. ser. 5, ii- 336. I, c-. 27. 



— Walpers, Ann. iii. 427. 

8 Roxburgh, i^^. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 66 (1832). — Wallich 



Ulmus campestris, Linnseus, l. c. ( 



Withering, Arr. Bot. Vea. Gr 



ii. 86, t. 200. 



Nat 



dolle Prodr. I. v. 162. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burm. ii. 473. 



Man. Indian Timbers. 342 



Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. v. 



480. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxvi. 447. 

Ulmus Hookeriana, Planchon, De Candolle Prodr. I. c. (1873). 
* Linnseus, Spec. 225 (in part) (1753). — Sowerby, English Bot 



(1776). — Sowerby, L c. xvii. 1887, t. 1887. — Planchon, Ann. 
ScL NaL L c, 274 ; De Candolle Prodr, L c. 159. — Boissier, L v. 
1158. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 431. — Forbes 



448 



XXVI 1 



Nat 



mowicz 



i.). 
446 



Ulmus Hollandica, Pallas, FL Ross. i. 77 (not Miller) (1784). 

Ulmus nuda, Ehrhart, L c. 86 (1791). 
Can- Ulmus excelsa, Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 839 (1800). 

^eters- As an ornamental tree the Wych or Dutch Elm with its numer- 

Bois- ous seminal varieties produced in cultivation (Loudon, I. c. 1398) 
xviii. is planted in parks and gardens in all the countries of northern 
^avid. and central Europe, and in the eastern United States, where it is 
Dippel, Handb. LaubholzL ii. 22. — Forbes & Hemsley, L c. less commonly seen than Ulmus campestris, and where it now some- 



dolle Prodr. L c. 156. 
bourg, xviii. 290 (MeL 
sier. Fl. Orient, iv. 1. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 405. 



Nat 



Nouv. Arch. Mus 



Ulmus glabra. Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 4 (1758). — Loudon, Arb. 
Brit. iii. 1403. — Dippel, L c. 25. 

Ulmus sativa, Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ii. 502 (1772). 



times springs up spontaneously. 



Ainos 



from the inner bark of a variety of this tree (var. laciniatay Maxi- 



Fl 



Weiss 



Beitr. vi. 87. — W 
1324. 



Ehrhart, cover the mountains in the interior of the island (Rein, Industries 



^f 



Fl 



XXXI 



Ulmus foliaceay Gilibert, Phytolog. ii. 395 (1792). 
Ulmus tetrandra, Schkuhr, Handb. i. 178, t. 57 (1808). 



6 Ulmus Icevis, Pallas, FL Ross. i. 75, t. 48, F. (1784). — Koch, 



L c. 419. 



Mem 



ULMACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



41 



the Caucasus. 



One species ^ inliabits the western Himalaya from Nepaul to Cashmere ; and another ^ 
Thibet and northern China^ where two or three others still imperfectly known have been discovered.^ 



Th 



e type is an ancient one^^ its traces existing in the early tertiary rocks of Greenland 5 before 



the 



glacial period it long inhabited Europe^ western Asia, and North America, where it abounded on the 
mid-continental plateau/ and ranged westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean.*' 

Ulmus produces heavy, hard, tough, and sometimes strong light-colored wood often difficult to 
split, containing in the American species concentric circles of irregularly arranged groups of small open 



ducts. 



The mucilaginous inner bark of the branches of the North American Ulmits fulva is used 



medicinally ; and the tough inner bark of some of the species is made into rope or woven into coarse 



cloth. 



In China a nourishing white mucilaginous meal is made from the inner bark of Elm-trees 



and used as food by the mountaineers of the northern provinces, and in the composition of incense 
sticks J the fruit is employed in medicine, and the bark and young fruits are eaten in periods of severe 
famine.^ 

In all temperate and boreal regions of North America and Europe Elm-trees are planted for shade 
and ornament, particularly Ulmus Americana^ Ulmus alata^ and Ulmus crassifolia in North America, 
and Ulmus campestrisy Ulmus scahray and Ulmus Icevis in Europe. 

In North America Ulmus is preyed upon by many insects,^ which in some parts of the country often 



t. 2 (1787). — Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 3, x. 267 ; De Can- 
dolle Prodr. xvii. 154. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 32. 



6 Lesquereux, L c. 260, 265, t. 45, B. f. 3, 4, 7 ; Mem. Mvs. 
Comp. Zool. vi. pt. ii. 15, t. 4, f . 1 ; t. 6, f . 7'' (Fossil Plants of the 



Ulmus effusa, Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 393 (1796) ; Spec. i. pt. Auriferous Gravel Deposit of the Sierra Nevada). 



ii. 1325. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1397. 

Ulmus ciliata, Ehrhart, Beitr. 88 (1791). 

Ulmus octandra, Schkuhr, Handb. i. 178, t. 67 (1791). 
1 Ulmus Wallichiana, Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. I. c. 277 (1848) 



■^ Bretschneider, Jour. North-China Branch Roy. Asiatic Soc. n. 
ser. XXV. 128, 365 (Botanicon Sinicum^ ii.). — Smith, Chinese Mat. 
Med. 92) . 

^ While many species of insects feed upon Ulmus in North 



De Candolle Prodr. I. c. 158. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 432, America, the greatest injury is caused by a comparatively few 

t. 51. — Gamble, Man, Indian Timbers, 341. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. kinds which are most abundant on and often particularly destructive 

Ind. v. 480. to trees planted for shade or ornament. Packard (Fifth Rep. U. S. 

Ulmus campestris, Brandis, I. c. 433 (not Linnaeus) (teste Hooker Entomolog. Comm.) enumerates seventy-two species as occurring on 



the Elm in the United States, and this number could probably be 
now largely increased. 

Saperda tridentata, Olivier, whose larvae cause great destruction 



f. L c.) (1874). 

2 Ulmus parvifoliay Jacquin, Hort. Schoenbr. iii. 6, t. 262 (1798). 
Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. I. c. 280; De Candolle Prodr. L c. 161. 
Brandis, L c. 434. — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, by boring into the living trees, especially in some of the western 
xviii. 292 (Mel. Biol. ix. 25). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL cities, is one of the most dangerous species infesting the wood of 
Jap. i. 431. — Hooker f. I. c. 481. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Elm-trees. An imported moth, Zeuzera pyrijia, Fabricius, appears 
Soc. xxvi. 448. 



Ulmus Chinensis, Persoon, Syn. i. 291 (1805). 



ifolia 



Fl. 



ifol 



Ulmus campestrisy ChinensiSy Loudon, l. c. (1838). 



ifolia, Spach, 



Nat 



XV 



359 



(1841). 



to be destructive to Elms in New Jersey and New York, where it 
has now become established (J. B. Smith, Garden and Forest, iii. 
30). The most dangerous foliage-destroying insects to Elms are the 
canker-worms, Paleacrita vernata, Peck, and Eugonia subsignaria, 
Hlibner, and an imported Elm-leaf Beetle, Galeruca xanthomelcenay 
Schrank. The larvse of the first often defoliate Elms and other 
trees in the eastern and middle states, and banding the trees with 
cloth covered with printers' ink or other sticky matter is commonly 



This handsome small tree is often planted in temple grounds practiced in order to prevent the ascent of the wingless female 

in Japan, where it was probably carried from China by Buddhist moths. The Elm-leaf beetle, imported from Europe more than half 

priests ; in the United States it is occasionally cultivated in the a century ago, is now spread over a wide area, and is often very 

neighborhood of New York and Boston, where it is hardy and destructive (Bull. 10, Division of Entomology , U. S. Dept. Agric. 



apparently perfectly at home (Garden and Forest, i. 231, 312). 
8 Hance, Jour. Bot. vi. 332. — Maximowicz, I. c. 289 (I. c. 22). 



1887-88). The Fall Web-worm, Hyphantria cwnea, Drury, is often 
abundant on Elms, and the White-spotted Tussock Moth, Orgyia 



Franchet, Nouv. Arcl 
& Hemsley, L c. 446. 



Forbes leucostigma. Abbot & Smith, is occasionally troublesome, especially 

in some of the New England cities. Among sucking insects the 



^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 212, f. 25. — Zit- Cockscomb Gall-louse, Colopha Ulmicola, Fitch, produces conspicu- 



tel, Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 472, f. 280, 1-13. 



ous galls on the upper surface of the leaves, and Tetraneura Ulmi, 



Western 



^ Lesquereux, U. S. Geolog. Surv. vii. 187, t. 26, f. 1-3 ; viii. 160 Linnteus, causes the gro^vth of large galls which are more or less 

L. F. Ward, Ann. club-shaped. Schizoneura Americana^ Riley, often causes the leaves 

(Syn. Fl. Lara- to become curled, gnarled, and discolored ; and Pemphigus ulmifusus, 

mie Group). Walsh, also affects these trees. Gossyparia Ulmi, Geoffroy, recently 



1884-85, 552, t. 46, f . 1-6 



42 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACE^ 



disfigure the foliage and destroy the ornamental value of Elm-trees ; and is subject to numerous fungal 
diseases.^ 

Elm-trees can be easily raised from seeds^ which germinate as soon as they are ripe ; they can be 
multipHed by shoots which in some species are produced in great numbers from the roots, and the 
seminal varieties can be propagated by grafting. 

Ulmus, the classical name of the Elm-tree, was adopted by Tournefort/ and afterward 
Linnaeus, as the name of the genus. 




widely 



It ob- 



Massaria Ulmiy Fuckel, which is also European and is usually 



tains its food chiefly through the bark of the trees, which often confined to foreign species, is occasionally found on the American 

acquires a black appearance from the excretions or honey dew of Elms ; it attacks the twigs and younger branches, where it appears 

the insects (L. O. Howard, Insect Life, ii. 1889, 34. — J. G. Jack, in the form of small scattered black papillae which soon break up 

Garden and Forest, ii. 461, f. 129 ; iv. 184). Other plant lice and when the bark becomes of a sooty black color. This disease ap- 

scale insects affect the Elm sometimes injuriously. A mite, Phy- pears to be perennial and extends from branch to branch, disfigur- 

toptus Ulmij Garman, produces minute club-shaped galls on the ing and often killing the trees. 



leaves, and the fruit is sometim 
ing to the Curculio family. 



Ulmus is infested by certain characteristic leaf mildews, f/n- 
cinula macrospora, Peck, is found on Ulmus Americana, Ulmus alata, 



^ The most serious fungal disease of Ulmus in North America is and Ulmus fulva ; and Uncinula intermedia^ Berkeley & Curtis, also 

caused by Phleospora Ulmiy Wallri, which is sometimes very abun- occurs on the leaves of Ulmus alata. Among edible fungi, Agaricus 

dant in the eastern states, especially on foreign species, although it ulmarius, BuUiard, one of the lateral edible fungi, is not uncommon 

also occurs on Ulmus Americana. The disease, which was proba- on the large branches of Elms in thickly settled districts. Panics 

bly imported from Europe many years ago, covers the leaves in dealbatus, Berkeley, is sometimes found on Elm-trees, and the 

the late summer with many small spots, from which exude in damp characteristic Polyporus conchifery Schweinitz, abounds on the older 

weather rose-colored gelatinous masses. The diseased leaves fall limbs of Ulmus Americana, appearing in the form of small disks or 

prematurely, and the fungus continues to develop after they have flat cups which are usually more or less confluent with concentric 

reached the ground, appearing in its mature state only at the end zones of the white and dark gray colors characteristic of this spe- 

of winter. This disease, which is sporadic in its habit and occurs cies. 



only in limited areas, sometimes does considerable damage. 



2 Inst. 601, t. 372. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers vernal, appearing before the leaves. 

Flowers on slender drooping j^edicels ; fruit ciliate on the margins. 

Bud-scales glabrous ; branchlets destitute of corky wings ; fruit glabrous ; leaves obovate- 

oblong to oval, usually smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface .... 1. U. Amekicana 
Bud-scales puberulous ; branches often furnished with corky wings ; fruit hirsute ; leaves 

obovate to oblong-oval, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface .... 2. U. RACEMOSA. 
Bud-scales glabrous or slightly puberulous ; branchlets furnished with broad corky wings ; 
fruit hirsute ; leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent 

on the lower surface - . . <> 3. U. ALATA. 

Flowers on short pedicels ; fruit naked on the margins. 

Bud-scales coated with rusty hairs ; branchlets destitute of corky wings ; fruit pubescent ; 

leaves ovate-oblong, scabrous on the upper, pubescent on the lower surface 4. U. fulva. 

Flowers autumnal, appearing in the axils of leaves of the year on short pedicels. 

Bud-scales puberulous ; branchlets furnished with corky Avings ; fruit hirsute ; leaves ovate, 

scabrous on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface 5. U. CRASSIFOLIA. 



ULMACE-ffl. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



ULMUS AMERICANA. 



White Elm. Water Elm. 



Flowers on long drooping pedicels. Fruit glabrous, ciliate on the margins. 
Leaves oboyate-oblong to oval, usually smooth, on the upper, soft-pubescent on the 
lower surface. Bud-scales glabrous. Branchlets destitute of corky wings. 



Ulmus Americana, Linnaeus, Spec. 226 (1753). 



Du 



Handb 



Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 



Roi, Sarbk, Baumz, ii. 506. — Wangenheim, Beschreib 



Nat Herb. ii. 406 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



Nordam. Holz. 121; Nordam. Holz. 46- — Walter, Fl. Ulmus mollifolia, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 156 (1783). 
Car. 111. — Schkubvy Handb. i. 179. — Willdenow, -Bfer^. Ulmus Americana, ^ alba, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 320 



Baumz. 394 ; Spec. i. pt. ii. 1325 ; Enum. 295. 



iVbw- 



(1789). — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ii. 35. 



veau Duhamel^ ii. 147. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Ulmus Americana, y pendula, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 320 



Unit% ii. 396. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 857. 
Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 173. — Persoon, Syn. i. 291. 



(1789). — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r, 2, xv. 364; Hist. 
Veg. xi. 109. 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 442. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ? Ulmus tomentosa, Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 856 



ii. 34. — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 269, t. 4. — Bigelow, 



(1800). 



FL Boston. 66. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 199. — Nuttall, Ulmus pendula, Willdenow, BerL Baumz. ed. 2, 519 



Gen. i. 201. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi. 300. — Elli- 
ott, Sk. i. 333. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 31. — Schmidt, 
Oestr. Baumz. iv. 46, t. 230. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 930. 



(1811). — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 



385. 



Hayne, Dendr. FL 33. 



? Ulmus obovata, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 39 (1836). 



Rafinesque, New FL iii. 39. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. Ulmus alba, Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 115 (1817) ; New 



142. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 992. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 



FL iii. 38. 
Ulmus dentata, Rafinesque, New Fl 



s6t. 2, XV. 364; Hist. Veg. xi. 108. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 1 

ii. 165. — Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6v. 3, x. 268 ; Be Ulmus Americana, (3 scabra, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat 



Candolle Frodr. xvii. 155. — Walpers, Ann. iii. 424. 
Richardson, Arctic Exped. ii. 308. — Darlington, Fl 



2, XV. 364 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 109. — Walpers, Ann 
iii. 424. 



Cestr. ed. 3, 255. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N Car. Ulmus Americana, a glabra, Walpers, Ann. iii. 424 



1860, iii. 54. 
421. 



Fl 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 



(1852). 



Mass 



Koehne, Ulmus Americana, y ?Bartramii, Walpers, Ann. iii. 424 



Deutsche Dendr. 136, f . 27, J. — Ridgw 



Nat. Mus. 1882, 71. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 348. 



Watson 



N. Am. 10th 
G^^ay^s Man 



(1852). 
Ulmus Americana 

(1865). 



Chapman, FL 416 



Dippel, Ulmus Floridana, Chapman, Fl. 416 (1865). 



A tree, sometimes one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet in height^ with a tall trunk six 
3n feet in diameter, frequently enlarged at the base into great buttresses, occasionally rising with 
<rht undivided shaft to the height of sixty or eighty feet, and separating into short spreadii 



branches, or more commonly dividing, thirty to fifty feet above the ground 



numerous upright 



mbs which, gradually spreading, form a broad inversely conical round-topped head of long pendulo 



graceful branches, often one hundred and 



Uy 



hundred and forty feet in diameter, and 



slender branchlets which not infrequently also fringe the trunk and its principal divisions. The bark 
of the trunk is an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and is ashy gray, and irregularly divided by 



deep fissures into broad ridges separating on the surface 



th 



appressed scales. The branchlet 



they first appear, are Hght green, and coated with soft pale pubescence, which usually 



disappears, and 



their first 



Hght reddish brown, glabrous, or sometimes puberulous, and 



marked with scattered pale lenticels, and with large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars in which appear 
the ends of three large equidistant fibro-vascular bundles ; later they become dark reddish brown, and 



finally ashy gray 



The buds 



htly flattened by the pressure of the stem, an eighth 



44 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



ULMACE^. 



of 



nch long-, and covered with broadly ovate rounded bright chestnut-brown glabrous scales ; the 



& 



on vigorous 



shoots 



arly 



inner scales are bright green and glabrous, ovate, acute, and often 

inch lono- and a quarter of an inch broad, and gradually pass into the stipules of the later leaves. 

The leaves are obovate-oblong to oval, abruptly narrowed at the apex into long points, full and rounded 



the base 



side, and shorter and wedge-shaped on the other, and coarsely and doubly 



with slightly incurved 



hen they unfold they are coated on the lower surface with pale pubes 



cence, and are pilose on the upper surface with long scattered white hairs, and at maturity are four tc 
six inches long, one to three inches wide, dark green and glabrous or scabrate above, and pale and soft 
pubescent or sometimes glabrous below, with narrow pale midribs slightly impressed on the upper side, 
and many slender straight primary veins running to the points of the teeth and connected by fine cross 



barely distinguishable on the upper surface ; they are borne on 



petioles a quarter of an 



inch in length, and turn bright clear yellow in the early autumn before falling. The stipules are linear- 

an inch to two thirds of an inch loner, caducous, liofht green, or on the latest leaves 



half 



white and 



thirds of an inch long, caducous, light 
The inflorescence-buds are produced in the axils of several of the upper 



of 



the previous year, and are slightly larger than the leaf-buds ; from the axils of the seven or eight inner 
scales, which are ciliate on the margins, and furnished at the apex with tufts of long soft white hairs, 
the three or four-flowered short-stalked fascicles of flowers are produced on long slender drooping 
pedicels sometimes an inch in length, those of the lateral flowers of the clusters being furnished at the 
base with acute scarious bracts half an inch long, and two minute bractlets hairy at the apex. 
The calyx, which is irregularly divided into seven to nine rounded lobes ciHate on the margins, and is 
often somewhat obhque, is puberulous on the outer surface, and green tinged with red above the 
middle, becoming chestnut-brown in fading. The stamens are exserted, with sHghtly flattened pale 
filaments and bright red anthers which shed their pollen before the stigmas mature. The ovary is hght 
green, ciliate on both margins with long white hairs, and is crowned with light green styles covered on 
their stigmatic surface with white papillae. The fruit ripens as the leaves unfold, hanging on its long 
stems in crowded clusters, and is ovate or obovate-oblong, shghtly stipitate, conspicuously reticulate- 
venulose, half an inch long, and cihate on the margins, the sharp points of the wing being incurved, 
and inclosing the deep notch. 

In British America Ulmus Americana is distributed from southern Newfoundland to the northern 
shores of Lake Superior and the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, where it ascends the Sas- 
katchewan to latitude 54° 30" north ; ^ it ranges south to Cape Canaveral and the shores of Pease 
Creek in Florida, and westward in the United States to the Black Hills of Dakota,^ western Nebraska,^ 
western Kansas,* the Indian Territory, and the vaUey of the Rio Concho in Texas.^ Less abundant 



d of smaller size in the south, in the north Ulmus Americana 



of the 



inhabitants 



of the forests which still cover 



bottom-lands, intervales, and low rich hills, and on the mid 



tinental plateau, with the Box Elder, the Green Ash, and the Cottonwood, it fines the banks of 



th a fringe of verdure 



The wood of Ulmus Americana is heavy, hard, strong, tough, difficult to split, and rather coarse- 
grained ; it contains numerous thin medullary rays and rows of many large open ducts, clearly marking 
the layers of annual growth, and is light brown, with thick somewhat lighter colored sapwood. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6506, a cubic foot weighing 40.55 pounds. It is largely 
used for the hubs of wheels, for saddle-trees, in 

The bark was used bv the Inrlians. whp.n thpv ponld r\nt nrnnnrA TiiT^nli Kot-I^ in ^Yiolj-in^- flnoir ^onnoc • ^ 



flooring and cooperage, and in boat and ship building 



used by the Indians, when they could not procure Birch bark, in making their 
d in some parts of the country whites and Indians twisted the tough inner bark into ropes 



44. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Canada, 



1879-80, 48°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 428. 

2 Winehell, Ludlow Rep. Black Hills, Dakota, 68. 



8 



Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board ofAgric. 1894, 104. 



of 



10. 



"" Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 506, 
^ Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii. 298. 
' Lawson, History of Carolina, 93. 



ULMACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMUEICA. 



45 



The White Elm is one of the largest and most graceful trees of the northeastern states and 
Canada. It is beautiful at all seasons of the year; when its minute flowers, harbingers of earliest 
spring, cover the branches ; when in summer it rises like a great fountain of dark and brilliant 
green above its humbler companions of the forest, or sweeps with long and graceful boughs the placid 
waters of some stream flowing through verdant meadows ; when autumn delicately tints its leaves, and 
when winter brings out every detail of the great arching limbs and slender pendulous branches standing 
out in clear relief against the sky. 

The Elm-trees which greeted the English colonists as they landed on the shores of New England 
seemed like old friends from their general resemblance to the Elm-trees that had stood by their 
cottages at home ; and as the forest gave way to corn-fields many Elm-trees were allowed to escape the 
axe, and when a home was made a sapling Elm taken from the borders of a neighboring swamp was 
often set to guard the roof-tree. These Elm-trees, remnants of the forests which covered New England 
when it was first inhabited by white men, or planted during the first century of their occupation, are 
now dead or rapidly disappearing; they long remained the noblest and most imposing trees of the 
northern states, and no others planted by man in North America have equaled the largest of them in 
beauty and size.^ 

The White Elm^ has always been the favorite ornamental tree in the northern states, where it has 
been used more often than any other to shade city streets and country roadsides, to decorate parks, and 
to embower mansions and cottages in verdure. In such situations it does not always flourish, and 
unless provided with good soil and abundant moisture, which are essential to its welfare, and with 
careful and constant protection from the insects which devour its foliage, the White Elm is not a 
handsome or successful tree ; and it should be cautiously used in street planting. 

Ulmus Americana was first described by Clayton in the Flora Virginlca^ and was cultivated in 
England by Mr. James Gordon^ as early as the middle of the eighteenth century;^ it is still occasion- 
ally seen in European collections, although beyond the boundaries of its native land it does not grow to 
a great size or display much beauty. An unusually variable tree in habit and in the size and shape of 
its leaves, Ulmits Americana has not produced in cultivation such abnormal forms as have been derived 
from some of the Old World species. The most remarkable is one with long and unusually pendulous 
branches which was discovered a few years ago in the woods of Illinois, and is now propagated by 



nurserymen.*^ 



of Massachusetts 



Warren, The ^ Ulmus procerior foliis angustioribus , trunco per intervalla vimini- 



146 



Great Tree on Boston Common, — Piper, The Trees of America^ lus dense congestis infra ramos ohsito^ 

40, _ Buckley, Am. Jour. ScL ser. 2, xiii. 398. — Oliver VTendell Ulmus Americana, Golden, ^c^ Hort. Ups. 1743, 99 {PL Nove- 



tocrat of the BreaJcfast-TablCj ch^ip. x. — Dame & bor.). 

Elms and other Trees of Massachusetts. — Garden * See i. 40. 



443.467 



5 Aiton, Hart. Kew. i. 320. 



1406 



2 Ulmus Americana is also known as the American Elm and 1246. 
Swamp Elm, and sometimes as the Rock Elm, although this name ^ C 

is most often applied to Ulmus racemosa. 



and 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXI. Ulmus Americana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged^ 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 

9. A seed, enlarged, 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A summer branch, natural size. 

13. A winter branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tat CCCXI 




C.I^, Facoorv det 



Zo-v eruZal j-o. 



ULMUS AMERICANA, L 



A,Bzocreua> dzrea^ 



Imp. >J. Tarie^Lcr, Paru" 



ULMACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



47 



ULMUS RACEMOSA. 



Rock Elm, Cork Elm. 



Flowers on long drooping pedicels. Fruit hirsute. Leaves obovate to oblong- 
oval, smooth on the upper, soft pubescent on the lower surface. Bud-scales puberulous. 
Branches often furnished with corky wings. 



Ulmus racemosa, Thomas, Am. Jour. ScL xix. 170, t. G^my's iHfa/i. ed. 6, 462. — T>vp^e\, Handh. Laubholzk. u 

(1831). — Nuttall, Sylva, i. 37, t. 12. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y, 34. 

ii. 166, t. 96. — Chapman, i?Y. ed. 2, SuppL 649. — Sar- Ulmus Americana, Planchon, De Candolle Prodr. xvii 

gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 123. — 155 (in part) (not Linnaeus) (1873). 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 136. — Watson & Coulter, 



A tree, ^igl^ty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk occasionally three feet in diameter, 
which diminishes slowly in thickness and is often free of branches for sixty feet, short stout spreading 
limbs which form a narrow round-topped head, and slender rigid branchlets usually furnished with 
numerous broad irregular corky wings. The bark of the trunk is three quarters of an inch to an inch 
in thickness, and is gray tinged with red, and deeply divided by wide irregular interrupted fissures into 
broad flat ridges, which are broken on the surface into large irregularly shaped scales. The branches, 
when they first appear, are light brown, and coated with soft pale pubescence, which often does not 
enthely disappear until their second season; and in their first winter they are Hght reddish brown, 
puberulous, or glabrous and lustrous, and marked with scattered oblong lenticels and with large orbicular 
or semiorbicular leaf -scars in which is an irregular row of four to six fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; later 
they become dark brown or ashy gray. The two or sometimes three or four thick corky irregular 
ridges, which are often half an inch broad, begin to appear during the first but more often during the 
second year. The leaf-buds are ovate, acute, a quarter of an inch long, and covered by about fourteen 
broadly ovate rounded chestnut-brown scales, pilose on the outer surface, and ciHate on the margins 
with soft white hairs ; as the bud opens the scales gradually lengthen from without inward, and at 
maturity the two or three inner scales which replace the stipules of the first leaves are ovate-oblong to 
lanceolate, half an inch in length, often furnished at the base on each side with one or two minute 
teeth, bright green below the middle, marked with a red blotch above, and white and scarious at the 
apex. The leaves are obovate to oblong-oval, rather abruptly narrowed at the apex into short broad 
points, equally or somewhat unequally rounded, wedge-shaped or subcordate at the base, and coarsely 
and doubly serrate ; when they unfold they are pilose on the upper surface, and covered on the lower 
with close soft white hairs ; and at maturity they are two to two and a half inches long and three 
quarters of an inch to an inch wide, thick and firm, smooth, dark green and lustrous above, paler and 
coated with short soft pubescence below, especially on the stout midribs deeply impressed on the upper 
side, and on the numerous straight veins running to the points of the teeth and connected by obscure 
coarse veinlets, and on the petioles, which are about a quarter of an inch in length. The stipules of 



the upper leaves are 



conspicuously veined, light green, marked with dark red on the 



maro'ins above the middle, and two thirds of an inch long ; they clasp the stem by their abruptly enlarged 
united cordate bases furnished on each side with two or three prominent teeth, and disappear when the 
leaves are half grown. In the autumn the leaves turn to a bright clear yellow color before falling. 
The inflorescence-buds, which sometimes produce also one or two small leaves, are slightly larger than 
the flower-buds. The flowers are in two to four, but usually in three-flowered puberulous cymes, which 



48 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACE^. 



become more 



racemose by the lengthening of the axis of the inflorescence^ which^ when fully 



fc> 



sometimes two inches in length \ they are produced 



on elongated slender drooping pedicel 



often half an inch 



lengthy 



those of the 



flowers being developed from the axils of 



obovate pointed bracts scarious and brown above the middle, a third of an inch long, terminated by tufts 

bractlets smaller than the bract, but otherwise 

or eight rounded 



of lono- white hairs, and furnished at the base with 



resembling 
dark red j 



The calyx is green, and is divided nearly to the middle into seven 



lobes* which 



soon 



turn b 



own and wither. The stamens, with slender light green 
filaments and dark purple anthers, are exserted. The ovary is coated with long pale hairs, particularly 
on the thin margins, and is crowned by the hght green styles. The fruit, which ripens in May, when 
the leaves are about half grown, is ovate or obovate-oblong, and half an inch in length, with a shallow 
open notch at the apex ; it is obscurely veined, covered with short pale pubescence, and ciliate on the 

broad wing j the margin of the seminal cavity is scarcely thickened. 



slightly thickened border of the 

and the line of union of the two carpels is obsolete. 

Ulmits racemosa is distributed from the eastern townships of the Province of Quebec,^ where it is 
rare, westward through Ontario, and southward through northwestern New Hampshire, where it is rare 
and local, to southern Vermont ; it ranges westward in the United States through northern New York 



and southern Michigan to northeastern Nebraska,^ southeastern Missouri, and middle Tennessee. 

The Rock Elm grows on dry gravelly uplands, where its most frequent companion is the Sugar 
Maple, on low heavy clay soil, rocky slopes, and river cliffs. Comparatively rare in the east and toward 
the extreme western and southern hmits of its range, it is most abundant and attains its largest size in 
Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan. 

The wood of Ulmus racemosa is heavy, hard, very strong and tough, close-grained, and suscep- 
tible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays and bands of one or 
two rows of small open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is light clear brown, often 
tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.7263, a cubic foot weighing 45.26 pounds. It is largely employed in the manufacture of heavy 
agricultural implements, hke plows and mowing and threshing machines, for the framework of chairs, 
for the hubs of wheels and the beams of stump pullers, for railway ties, bridge timbers, the sills of large 
buildings, and other purposes where strength, toughness, sohdity, and flexibility are required. 

Ulmits racemosa was first distinguished by David Thomas^ in Cayuga County, New York, who 
pubHshed the earliest account of it in 1831. 

The value of the wood of the Rock Elm threatens its extinction ; and most of the large trees have 
abeady been cut in the forests of Canada, New England, New York, and Michigan. The Rock Elm^ is 
sometimes planted as a shade-tree in the region which it inhabits naturally, and although it grows 
rather more slowly than the White Elm, it is a handsome and distinct ornamental tree, which planters 
have too generally neglected. 



3 



1 Brunet, Cat Veg. Lig, Can. 45. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can, and pomology, and by his writings on these subjects, which were 
1879-80, 55°. — Macoun, Cat Can, PL 428. principally published in the Genesee Farmer^ rendered conspicuous 

2 In Nebraska Ulmus racemosa is now known to occur only near services to agricultural science. In 1819, Mr. Thomas published 



Meadville, in Keya Paha County 
Board Agric. 1894, 105). 



Nebraska 



Mass, XXV 



at Auburn, New York, Travels through the Western Country in the 
Year 1816. In addition to his account of Ulmus racemosa he con- 
tributed to the American Journal of Science and Arts, Some Account 
4 David Thomas (1776-1859) was a native of Montgomery of the Chrysomela vitivora (xxvi. 113, t.) ; Remarks on the Specif c 

County, Pennsylvania, of Quaker parentage, and by profession -^ Character of Corydalisformosa and Corydalis Canadensis (^vllU); 

civil engineer. In 1805 lie settled near Aurora in Cayuga County, and Description of a New Species of Liatris (xxxvii. 338, f.). 



New York, subsequently becoming the chief engineer of the western 



portion of the Erie Canal, and later one of the principal engineers Elm, and ClifB Elm. 



Ulmus racemosa is sometimes known as Hickory Elm, White 



Welland 



He was much interested in horticulture 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXIL Ulmus racemosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A cluster of flowers subtended by a bud-scale, and showing the 

bracts and bractlets of the lateral flowers, enlarged. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, slightly enlarged. 

8. A young leaf with stipules, natural size. 

9. A summer branch, natural size. 

10. A winter branch, natural size. 



Silva of l^orth Amenca . 



Tsh. CCCXll. 




CE.FcucoTv del. 



J^bvendaZ so. 



ULMUS RACEMOSA, Thomas. 



^.lUocreiac- dire^i>r 



Imp. S. Tan^tcr^ .Parzs, 



ULMACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



51 



ULMUS ALATA. 



Wahoo. Winged Elm. 



Flowers on drooping pedicels. Fruit hirsute. Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong- 
lanceolate, smooth on the upper, pubescent on the lower surface. Bud-scales nearly 
glabrous. Branchlets usually furnished with broad corky wings. 



Ulmus alata, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 

soon, Syn. i. 291. — Michaux f . Hist 



Per- 



t. 5. 
201. 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 200. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 
Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi. 299. — Elliott, Sk. 



S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 70. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 124. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 462. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
ii. 406 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 



i. 334. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 931. — Audubon, Birds, t. Ulmus pumila, Walter, Fl. Car. Ill (not Linn; 



18. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 992. — Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. 



Ulmus lonerifolia. Rafinesaue. New 



s6t. 3, X. 270 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 155. — Walpers, ? Ulmus dimidiata, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 39 (1836). 



Ann. 



« • « 

Ul. 



425. 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. Ulmus Americana, y alata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat s4v. 2, 



1860, iii. 55. — Chapman, FL 417. — Ridgway, Froc. U. 



XV. 364 (1841) ; Hist. Teg. xi. 109. 



A tree^ forty to fifty feet in height^ with a trunk rarely two feet in diameter^, short stout spreading 
or erect branches which form a narrow oblong and rather open round-topped head, and slender branches 
naked or usually furnished with corky wings ; ^ or commonly, especially in the territory east of the Mis- 
sissippi River, much smaller. The bark of the trunk, which rarely exceeds a quarter of an inch in 
thickness, is light brown tinged with red, and is divided by irregular shallow fissures into flat ridges 
covered with small closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, and when they first appear 
are glabrous or puberulous and fight green tinged with red, and in their first winter are fight reddish 
brown or ashy gray, glabrous or on vigorous individuals frequently coated with short soft hairs, and 
marked with occasional small orange-colored lenticels and with smaU elevated horizontal semiorbicular 
leaf-scars ; the corky wings of the branches, of which there are usually two, and which sometimes begin 
to grow during their first but more often during their second season, are thin, regular, abruptly arrested 
at the nodes, and half an inch in width, and do not disappear for many years. The buds are slender, 
acute, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with dark chestnut-brown glabrous or sfightly puberulous 
scales ; those of the inner series are at maturity oblong or obovate, rounded and tipped at the apex 
with minute points, thin, scarious, light red especially above the middle, and half an inch long. The 
leaves are ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, acute or acuminate at the apex, 



unequally wedge-shaped 



ded or subcordate at the base, and coarsely and doubly serrate with 



incurved teeth j when they unfold they are pale green, often tinged with red, coated on the lower 
surface with soft white pubescence, and glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface, and at maturity are 
thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and smooth above, and pale and coated below with soft 
pubescence which is thickest on the stout yellow midribs and on the numerous straight prom 
arcuate and often forked near the margins and connected 




ather conspicuous reticulate cross 
they are two to two and a half inches in length and one half to three quarters of an inch in 

The stipules are Knear- 

ly an inch long. 



width, and are borne on stout pubescent petioles a third of an inch long. 

acute, thin and scarious, tino'ed with red above the middle and often 



short 



obovate, acute, thin 

In the autumn the leaves turn to a dull yellow color before falling. The flowers are produced 
few-flowered fascicles and appear in February or March on drooping pedicels furnished with linear 
acute scarious bracts and bractlets. The calyx is glabrous and divided nearly to the middle into broad 

^ Rothrock, Garden and Forest, li. 599. 



52 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACE^. 



ovate rounded lobes^ and is as long as the ovary^ which is raised on a short slender stipe and is coated 
with dense white tomentum. The fruity which ripens just before or with the unfolding of the leaves, 
is obloncr, a third of an inch long, contracted at the base into a long slender stalk, gradually narrowed 

coated with long white hairs which are most 



with large incurved horns, and 



and tipped at the apex 

numerous on the thickened margin of the narrow wing. The seed is ovate, pointed, an eighth of an 



inch long, and covered with a pale chestnut-brow 



slightly thickened 



wing-like 



margin. 



Ulmus alata usually grows on dry gravelly uplands, and sometimes in rich alluvial soil on the 
borders of swamps and near the banks of streams, and is distributed from southern Virginia through 
the middle districts to western Florida, and from southern Indiana and Illinois through western Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and through southern Missouri,^ Arkansas, 
and the eastern portions of the Indian Territory to the valley of the Trinity River in Texas, growing 
to its largest size and most abundantly in the region west of the Mississippi River. 

The wood of Ulmus alata is heavy, hard, although not strong, close-grained and difficult to split ; 
it contains inconspicuous remote medullary rays, and is light brown, with thick Hghter colored sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7491, a cubic foot weighing 46.68 pounds. It is 
sometimes employed for the hubs of small wheels and the handles of tools. From the inner bark rope 
used for fastening the covers on cotton-bales has been made.^ 

Ulmiis alata^ was first described in the Flora Caroliniana of Walter, published in 1788. The 
good habit, rapid growth, small size, and abundant foliage of the Wahoo make it a desirable ornamental 



tree, and it is often planted in the southern states to shade the streets of towns and villages. According 
to Loudon,^ it was introduced into English gardens in 1820. 



1 Broadhead, Bot. Gazette, iii. 60, 

2 Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 311. 



3 In Arkansas Ulmus alata is sometimes called Red Elm and 
Mountain Elm (F. L. Harvey, Am, Jour. Forestry^ i. 451). 

4 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1408, f. 1248. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXIII. Ulmus alata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistil, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
8- An embryo, enlarged. 

9. A summer branch, natural size. 



Silva of Borth. America. 



Ta"b . CCCXIII 




CKFocCOTo deZ. 




s(y. 



ULMUS ALATA. Miclix 



A Bzocreiia> direa> f 



Imp. J. Tcpx&ia^, Pccris . 



ULMACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



ULMUS FULVA. 



Slippery Elm. Red Elm, 



Flowers on short pedicels in crowded fascicles. Fruit naked on the margins, 

pubescent. Leaves ovate-oblong, scabrous on the upper, pubescent on the lower 

surface. Bud-scales coated with rusty brown hairs. Branchlets destitute of corky 
wings. 



Ulmus fulva, Michaux, Fl, Bor.-j 
Persoon, Sijn. i. 291. — Willdenow 



i. 172 (1803). 



Nat Miis 



Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 200. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 201. 
Eoemer & Schultes, Si/st. vi. 301. —Elliott, Sk. i. 333. 



Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 122. — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendr. 136, f. 27, G. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 
ed. 6, 462. — Dippel, Handb. Lauhholzk. ii. 30, f . 8. 



Hayne,DmcZr. ^Z. 32.— Sprengel,>S2/5?5.i. 931. — Hooker, ? Ulmus pubescens? Walter, FLCar.112 (1788). 



Sud- 



Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 142. — Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 3, 115. 



worth, Rep. Sec. Agric. 1892, 327. 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 992. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat s^r. 2, Ulmus Americana, a rubra, Alton, Hort Kew. \. 319 



XV. 363; Hist Veg. xi. 107. — Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 

Planchon, Ann. Set. Nat. sdr. 3, x. 276 ; De CaTv- 



(1789). — WiUdenow, Spec. i. pt. ii. 1325. — Stokes, Bot 
Mat Med. ii. 35. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 31. 
dolle Prodr. xvii- 161. — Walpers, Ann. iii. 426. — Dar- ? Ulmus crispa, Willdenow, Ennm. 295 (1809) ; Bert 



166. 



lington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 255. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog, 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 55. — Chapman, Fl. 416. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. 422, — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii 



Baumz. ed. 2, 520. 
Ulmus rubra, Michaux f. Sist. Arb. Am. iii. 278, t. 6 
(1813). 



334, t. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 348. — Ridgway, ? Ulmus pinguis, Rafinesque, -FZ. Ludovic. 115 (1817) 



A tree^ sixty to seventy feet in height, with a trunk occasionally two feet in diameter, and 
spreading branches which usually form a broad open flat-topped head. The bark of the trunk is 
frequently an inch in thickness and is dark brown tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures and 
covered with large thick appressed scales. The branchlets are stout, and, when they first appear, are 
bright green, scabrate, and coated with soft pale pubescence which does not entirely disappear until 
their first winter ; they become light brown by midsummer, and are often roughened with small pale 
lenticels ; during their first winter they are ashy gray, orange-color, or light red-brown, and marked 
with large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars in which appear the ends of three conspicuous equidistant 
fibro-vascular bundles ; ultimately they become dark gray or brown. The leaf -buds are ovate, rather 
obtuse, a quarter of an inch long, and covered with about twelve closely imbricated scales ; the outer 
scales are broadly ovate, rounded, dark chestnut-brown, and covered with long scattered rusty hairs ; 
those next within them are coated on the outer surface above the middle with thick rusty brown 
tomentum, and the scales of the inner rows, which replace the stipules of the lower leaves, are when 



fuUy 



half 



m 



ch 



ighth of an inch to a quarter of an inch wide, light green, strap 



shaped, rounded and tipped at the apex with tufts of rusty hairs, puberulous on the outer surface and 
slio'htly ciliate on the margins, gradually growing narrower and passing into the stipules of the upper 
leaves. The leaves are ovate-oblong, abruptly contracted into long slender points, rounded at the base 
on one side and shorter and obhque on the other, and coarsely and doubly serrate 



wi 



th 



curved 



tipped teeth j when they unfold they are thin, coated on the lower surface with pale pub 



and pilose on 



upper surface with scattered white hairs, and at maturity they are thick and firm 



dark o^een and rugose on the upper surface with crowded sharp-pointed tubercles pointed toward the 



apex of the leaf, paler, soft 



d smooth on the 



surface, and coated with white hairs whicl 



most abundant 



slender yellow midribs deeply impressed above, and in the axils of the slende 



ght veins which are often forked near the margins j they are five to seven inches 



o 



54 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ulmace^. 



inches wide and are borne on stout pubescent petioles a third of an inch in length. The stipules of the 
upper leaves are obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, thin and scarious, coated with pale pubescence and 
tipped with clusters of rusty brown hairs. The leaves turn to a dull yellow color before falling in the 
autumn. The inflorescence-buds are larger and more obtuse than the leaf-buds, which they resemble 
in the shape of the scales and their covering ; from each of the six or eight inner scales the two to 
three-flowered short pedunculate clusters of flowers are produced. The flowers, which appear at the 
south in February and March and at the north from the middle to the end of April, are borne on short 
pedicels produced from the axils of minute linear green bracts with a few short white hairs at the 
apex. The calyx is green, coated with pale hairs, and slightly divided into five to nine short rounded 
thin and scarious equal lobes. The stamens are exserted, with slender light yellow slightly flattened 
filaments and dark red anthers which do not shed their pollen until after the slightly exserted reddish 
purple stigmas papillose with soft white hairs have begun to wither. The fruit, which ripens when the 
leaves are about half grown, is semiorbicular, rounded, slightly emarginate or with the remains of one 
or of both stigmas at the apex, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, and half an inch broad ; the 
seminal cavity is coated with thick rusty brown tomentum, and the broad thin wing is obscurely 
reticulate-veined, naked on the thickened margin, and marked by the dark conspicuous horizontal line 
of union of the two carpels. The seed is ovate, with a large oblique pale hilum, and is covered with 
a light chestnut-brown coat produced into a thin wing which is wider below than above the middle of 

the seed. 

Uhnus fidva is distributed from the island of Orleans in the lower St. Lawrence River through 
Ontario to North Dakota and eastern Nebraska,^ and southward to western Florida, central Alabama 
and Mississippi, and the vaUey of the San Antonio River in Texas. 

A comparatively common tree, although everywhere less common than the White Elm, it inhabits 
the banks of streams and low rocky hiUsides, where it grows in deep fertile soil. 

The wood of Ulmus fulva is heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, durable in contact with the 
soil, and easy to spht while green ; it contains numerous thin meduUary rays and broad bands of several 
rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is dark brown or red, with thin 
lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6956, a cubic foot 
weighing 43.35 pounds. It is largely used for fence-posts and railway ties, for the siUs of buildings, 
the hubs of wheels, and agricultural implements. 

The thick fragrant inner bark of the branches is mucilaginous, demulcent, and slightly nutritious ; 
it is employed in the treatment of acute inflammatory and febrile affections, and is used in the form 
of a powder externally in poultices.^ 

The SKppery Elm appears to have been first distinguished by Clayton,^ and what is probably the 
earliest description of it appeared in his Flora Virginica,^ published in 1739. In cultivation it is a 
handsome shapely fast-growing tree ; but in public parks and streets its use is to be avoided, for once 
its identity is established it usually falls a prey to boys eager to devour the inner bark of the branches. 



^ Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 105. & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 501. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot 

2 Raflnesque, Med. Bot. ii. 271. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 563. — N. A. 243.— f/. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1549. 
Poreher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 310. — Fliickiger ^ See i. 8. 

* Ulmus fructu memhranaceo, foliis simplicissime serratis, 145. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXIV. Ulmus fulva. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged- 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A young branch with unfolding leaves showing the accrescent 

bud-scales and stipules, natural size. 

13. A summer branch, natural size. 

14. A winter branch, the flower-buds beginning to enlarge, natural size. 



Silva of North A 



>^ 



menca . 



Tab. CCCXIV 



^^F \i^ 




QKFcwxm. del. 




ine^ so. ' 



ULMUS FULVA.Michx 



ji. ILu> creuzo' direzr>t' 



Irnp- J'Taneia-, Parij' . 



ULMACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



57 



ULMUS CRASSIFOLIA. 



Cedar Elm. 



Flowers autumnal, short-pedicellate. Fruit hirsute. Leaves ovate, scabrous on 
the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. Bud-scales puberulous. Branchlets 
usually furnished with corky wings. 



Ulmus 



ix. 122. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 135, f. 27 B. 
Dippel, Handb. Lauhholzk. ii, 35. — Coulter, Contrib. U. 



V. 169 (1837). — Planchon, Ann. ScL Nat. s6v. 3, x. 279 ; Dippel, 

De Candolle Prodr, xvii. 162. — Walpers, Ann. iii. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 406 {Man. PL W. 



426. 



N 



Ulmus 



A tree, often eighty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk two to three feet in diameter, 
sometimes free of branches for thirty or forty feet, and dividing into numerous stout spreading limbs 
which form a broad inversely conical round-topped head vdth long pendulous branches, or while young, 
or when growing on dry uplands, a compact round head of drooping branches. The bark of the trunk, 
which is sometimes nearly an inch in thickness, is light brown slightly tinged with red, and deeply 
divided by interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges, broken on the surface into thick scales. The 
branchlets are slender and often furnished with corky wings, and, when they first appear, are tinged with 
red, and coated with soft pale pubescence ; during their first winter they are light reddish brown, 
puberulous, and marked vdth scattered minute pale lenticels, and with small elevated semiorbicular leaf- 
scars, in which appear the ends of three small fibro-vascular bundles ; the two corky wings with which 
they are frequently furnished are covered with lustrous red-brown bark, and when fully grown are a 
quarter to a half of an inch broad 3 they are sometimes continuous, except when abruptly interrupted by 
lateral branchlets, or are often irregularly developed. The leaf-buds are broadly ovate, acute, an eighth 
of an inch long, and covered with closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales, slightly puberulous on the 
outer surface ; those of the inner ranks are at maturity oblong, concave, rounded at the apex, thin, 
bright red, and sometimes three quarters of an inch in length. The leaves are oblong-oval, acute or 
rounded at the apex, unequally rounded or wedge-shaped and often oblique at the base, and coarsely 
and unequally doubly serrate with callous-tipped teeth ; when they unfold, which is in February and 
March, they are thin, light green, tinged with red, pilose above, and covered below with soft pale 
pubescence, and at maturity are thick and subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
which is roughened with crowded minute sharp-pointed tubercles, pale yellow-green and coated with 
soft pubescence on the lower surface, one to two inches long, and one half of an inch to an inch wide, 
with stout yellow midribs shghtly impressed above, prominent straight veins, often forked near the 
margin, obscure on the upper side, and connected by conspicuous more or less reticulate cross veinlets. 
The stipules, which are half an inch long, linear-lanceolate, and red and scabrous above, clasp the stem 
by their abruptly enlarged cordate green and hairy bases, and fall when the leaves are about half grown. 
The leaves turn bright yellow, and fall late in October or early in November, or turn brown and wither 
on the branches in years of exceptional dryness. The inflorescence-buds appear early in the season in 
the axils of leaves of the year ; the flowers, which usually open in August,^ are produced in three to 
five-flowered pedunculate fascicles, and are borne on slender pedicels a third to a half of an inch in 
length, covered with long white hairs, and furnished with linear-lanceolate acute scarious bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx is divided to below the middle into oblong narrow pointed lobes, and is hairy at 

^ In favorable seasons a second crop of flowers sometimes appears in October from which seeds often ripen a month later. 



58 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



ULMACEJE. 



the base. The ovary is coated with pale hairs^ and crowned with two short slightly exserted stigmas. 
The fruit ripens in September^ and is oblong, gradually and often irregularly narrowed from the middle 
to the two ends, short-stalked, deeply notched at the apex, one third to nearly one half of an inch long, 
and covered with soft white hairs, which are most developed on the slightly thickened margin of the 
broad obscurely veined wing. The seed is ovate-oblique, pointed, and covered with a dark chestnut- 
brown coat.^ 

Ulmus crass if olia is distributed from the valley of the Sunflower River in Mississippi through 
southern Arkansas and Texas to Nuevo Leon,^ ranging in western Texas from the coast to the valley of 
the Pecos River.^ 

Texas, where it is the common Elm-tree^, and where it attains its largest size on the rich bottom-lands of 
the Guadaloupe and Trinity Rivers^ it grows near streams in deep alluvial soil and on the dry limestone 
hills which rise from them, usually with Live Oaks and Nettle-trees. 

crassifolia is heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, with obscure 



In Arkansas the Cedar Elm grows usually on river cliffs and low hillsides,^ and in 



light brown tinged with 



The wood of Ulmus crasi 
medullary rays and bands of ducts marking the layers of annual growth 
red, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7245, a 
cubic foot weighing 45.15 pounds. In central Texas it is used in considerable quantities in the manu- 
facture of the hubs of wagon-wheels and saddle-trees, for furniture, and largely in fencing ; grown in 
the dry climate of the Rio Grande basin, the Cedar Elm is less valuable as a timber-tree, and produces 
lumber of an inferior quality, and poor fuel. 



Ulmus i 
rn Arka 



if olia 



discovered by Thomas NuttalP in 1819 



the Red River 



south 



isas. As it grows on the bottom-lands of the rivers of central Texas, the Cedar Elm, with 
broad head of long pendulous branches covered with dark ffreen lustrous leaves, is one of the most 



beautiful and graceful trees of North Amer 



It 



IS 



nally^ planted 



as a 



shade 



th 



of cities and towns in Te 



but, except in Texas, is rarely seen in cultivation 



The seeds of Ulmus crassifolia do not apparently germinate 



until 



362 



NaL Mus 



^ F- L. Harvey, Am, Jour, Forestry^ i. 451. 
fi See ii. 34. 



® In Texas the beauty oit Ulmus crassifolia is often injured by 
the Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides^ Linnaeus), which frequently 



ultimately weakens, and finally 



the tree. 



^ Reverehon, Garden and Forest, vi. 524 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXV. Ulmus crassifolla.. 



1. A flowering branch, natural size 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistil, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much magnified. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



8. A fruit, enlarged- 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A summer branch, natural size. 

13. A winter branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXV. 





9 



3 




10 



11 



5 



fi 








C. S. Faayjn, deL. 




JO. 



ULMU S CRAS S IF LI A, Nutt. 



^ . Bzocreuay dirc3£C' . 



Imp. I Tan3-zcr, Paris 



ULMACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



PLANERA. 



Flowers polygamo-monoecious ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestiva- 
tion ; corolla ; stamens 4 or 5 ; filaments erect before anthesis ; disk ; ovary superior, 
stipitate, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit drupaceous, muricate. Leaves 
alternate, serrate, stipulate, deciduous. 



Nat 



Endlicher, Gen. Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 352. — Engler & Prantl, 



276. — Meisner, Gen. 351. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 185. — Pflanzenfc 



A tree, with watery juice, scaly bark, slender terete unarmed slightly zigzag puherulous hranchlets 
marked with scattered pale lenticels, and at the end of their first season with small nearly orbicular 
leaf-scars in which appear a row of fibro-vascular bundle-scars^ and fibrous roots. Buds axillary/ 
subglobose, minute^ covered with numerous thin closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales, the outer 
more or less scarious on the margins ; the inner accrescent with the young shoot, at maturity ovate- 
oblong, scarious, bright red, one third to nearly one half of an inch long, marking in falling the base of 
the branchlet with numerous ring-like pale conspicuous scars. Leaves alternate, distichous, conduplicate 
in vernation, ovate-oblong, acute or rounded at the narrowed apex, unequally wedge-shaped or rounded 
at the base, coarsely crenulate-serrate with unequal gland-tipped teeth, petiolate with slender terete 
puherulous petioles, penniveined, the numerous straight conspicuous veins forked near the margin, 
connected by coarse reticulate veinlets more conspicuous below than above ; at first puherulous on the 
lower and pilose on the upper surface, at maturity thick and subcoriaceous, scabrate, deciduous ; stipules 
lateral, free, ovate, acute, scarious, bright red, caducous. Flowers articulate, minute, appearing with 
the leaves in early spring, the staminate fascicled in the axils of the outer scales of leaf-bearing buds, 
short-pedicellate, the pistillate or perfect on elongated puherulous pedicels in the axils of leaves of the 
year in one to three-flowered fascicles. Pedicels ebracteolate. Calyx campanulate, divided nearly to 
the base into four or five lobes, rounded at the apex, greenish yellow, often tinged with red, sub- 
scarious, sub-marcescent. Stamens hypogynous, as many as the lobes of the calyx and opposite them ; 
in the pistillate flower sometimes fewer or wanting ; filaments filiform, erect, exserted ; anthers broadly 
ovate, emarginate, cordate, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening 
longitudinally. Ovary ovate, stipitate, glandular-tuberculate, one-celled, narrowed into a short style 
divided into two elongated spreading reflexed stigmas, papillo-stigmatic on the inner face ; wanting in 
the staminate flower ; ovule solitary, suspended near the apex of the cell, anatropous ; micropyle 
extrorse, superior. Fruit oblong, oblique, and narrowed below into a short stipe inclosed at the base by 
the withered calyx, crowned with the remnants of the style ; pericarp crustaceous, fragile, prominently 
ribbed on the anterior and posterior faces, irregularly crested with thin plates, light chestnut-brown, 
puherulous, of two coats, the inner thin and papery, light chestnut-brown, and lustrous on the inner 
surface. Seed ovoid-oblique, pointed at the apex, rounded below, exalbuminous ; testa thin, crustaceous, 
lustrous, dark brown or nearly black, of two coats ; raphe inconspicuous. Embryo erect ; cotyledons 
thick, unequal, bright orange-color, the apex of the larger cucuUate and sHghtly infolding the smaller, 
much longer than the minute radicle turned toward the Hnear pale hilum. 

The wood of Planera is Hght, soft, not strong, close-grained, and contains numerous thin 
medullary rays and occasional scattered open ducts. It is Hght brown, with thick nearly white sapwood 



1 Like Ulmus, Planera does not form a terminal bud, the end of 



axillary 



winter 



following- 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACEiE. 



composed of twenty or thirty layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.5294, a cubic foot weighing 32.99 pounds. 

The genus is not known to possess useful properties. 

The generic name preserves the memory of Johann Jakob Planer/ a German botanist and physician 
of the last century. 

The genus is now represented by a single species.^ 



(1743-1789) 



inhabited 



his scientific studies at Berlin and Leipzig, and in 1779 was appointed during the tertiary epoch (Zittel, Handh, Palceontolog. ii. 472) ; and 

Professor of Medicine in the University of his native city, in which in North America traces of several species of Planera found in the 

he afterward filled the Chairs of Botany and Chemistry, Planer Upper and Middle Miocene rocks show that it once existed in the 

was the author of several works on Botany and Rural Economy, central Rocky Mountain region of the continent and in Alaska 

including a catalogue of the plants growing in the neighborhood of (Lesquereux, U, S. Geolog, Surv. vii. 189, t. 27, f . 4-6 ; viii. 161, t. 

Erfurt and papers on silviculture. 29, f. 1-13, t. 44, f. 10 [Foss. FL Western Territories^ ii., iii.l). 



TJLMACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61 



PLANERA AQUATIOA. 



Water Elm. 



Nat 



WiU- 



denow. Spec. iv. pt. ii. 967 ; BerL Baumz. ed. 2, 281 ; Enum. 
Suppl. 14. — Persoon, Syn. \. 291. — Du Mont de Cour- 
set, Bot. Cult, ed, 2, vJ. 388. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 202. 



Gray's Man 

36, f . 12. 

PL W. Texas). 



1, Handh. Lauhholzk. 
Nat. Herh. ii. 407 (Mt 



Anonymos aquatica, Walter, FL Car. 230 (1788). 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 14, t. 197. — Hayne, Dendr. Planera ulmifolia, Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 283, t. 7 



FL 208. 



Nat. s^r. 2, xv. 355 : Hist 



Nouveau 



Veg. xi. 116. — Planchon, Ann. ScL Nat. sdr. 3, x. 261 ; 



CandolLe 



W 



(1813). — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 429, 

Duhamel^ vii. 65. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Stirv. N. Car. 

1860, iii. 81. 



Chapm 



an, FL 417. 



Koch, Dendr . ii. 424. — Lauche, Ulraus aquatica, Rafinesque, FL Ltidovic. 165 (1817). 



Deutsche Dendr. 350, £. 135. — Sargent, Forest Trees Planera Richardi, Torrey & Gray, Pacific R. R. Rep. ii 



N. 



Watson 



175 (not Michaux) (1855). 



A tree^ thirty to forty feet in height^ with a short trunk rarely exceeding twenty inches in diameter, 
and rather slender spreading branches which form a low broad head. The bark of the trunk is about 
a quarter of an inch thick and light brown or gray, separating into large scales which in faUing 
disclose the red-brown inner bark. The branchlets, when they first appear, are brown tinged with red, 
and during their first winter are dark red and ultimately become reddish brown or ashy gray. The 
leaves unfold in February and March, and when fully grown are two to two and a half inches long and 
three quarters of an inch to an inch wide, and are borne on petioles varying from an eighth to a quarter 
of an inch in length ; they are dark dull green on the upper surface and paler on the lower surface, 
with yellow midribs and veins. The flowers appear with the leaves ; and the fruit, which is a third of 
an inch in length, ripens in April. 

Planera aquatica inhabits deep swamps covered with water during several months of every year, 
and is distributed from the valley of the Cape Fear River in North Carolina to western Florida, and 
through southern Alabama and Mississippi to the valley of the Trinity River in Texas, ranging north 
through western Louisiana and Arkansas to southern Missouri and central Kentucky, and to the valley 
of the lower Wabash River in Illinois. Comparatively rare and confined to the neighborhood of the 
coast in the Atlantic and the eastern Gulf states, the Water Elm is very abundant in western Louisiana 
and southern Arkansas, where it attains its largest size.^ 



Planera aquatica was introduced into the gardens of Europ 



ly in the present century,^ and 



was 



occasionally cultivated in botanical collections, from which it has now, however, almost entirely 

disappeared. 

Although it possesses much botanical interest, the Water Elm has little else to recommend it as an 

inhabitant of parks and gardens, and the high temperature of the region which it inhabits and the 
character of the soil and situation in which it grows make it a difficult tree to cultivate beyond the 
borders of its native swamps. 



1 F. L. Harvey, Am. Jour. Forestry^ i, 451. 



2 Loudon, Arl. Brit. iii. 1413, f. 1251. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXVL Planera aquatica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

9. A fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, much magnified. 

13. A winter branch, natural size. 

14. A winter-bud, enlarged. 

15. A summer branch, natural size. 



4 

Silva of North America.. 



Tat. CCCXVI. 




Q.^Famcm del . 



-MigTbe€uta> so . 



PLANERA AQUATICA, Gmel. 



-A.RLocr^Aay direeo. 



irtp iJ.Taneza^, Paris . 



ULMACEJB. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



63 



CELTIS. 



Flowers polygamo-monoecious or rarely monoecious ; calyx 4 to 5-parted, the 
divisions imbricated in aestivation ; corolla ; stamens 4 or 5 ; disk pulvinate ; ovary 
1-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit a fleshy drupe. Leaves alternate, decidu- 
ous or persistent, stipulate. 



Celtis, Linnseus, Gen. 337 (1737). — Adanson, i^am. /?. ii, Mertensia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 



377. 
276. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 408. — Endlicher, Gen. 
Meisner, Gen. 348. — BaiUon, Hist. PI vi. 186- 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 354. — Engler & Pranti, 
Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. i. 63. 



Spec. ii. 30 (not Roth nor Willdenow) (1817). 
Momisia, F. G. Dietrich, Lexic. Garten, u. Bat. Nachtr. v. 

128 (1819). 

Solenostigma, EndKcher, Prodr. Fl. Norf. 41 (1833). 



Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, thin, smooth, often more or less muricate hark, slender 
unarmed or spinose branches, scaly or naked buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves condupHcate in vernation, 
alternate, distichous, serrate or entire, often obHque at the base, penniveined, three or rarely four or 
five-nerved, petiolate, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, deciduous or persistent ; stipules lateral, free, 
usually scarious, caducous. Flowers vernal, minute, pedicellate on branches of the year, the staminate 
cymose or fascicled at their base, the pistillate solitary or in few-flowered fascicles from the axils of 
upper leaves. Calyx slightly or deeply divided into four or rarely into five lobes, deciduous. Stamens 
as many as the lobes of the corolla, inserted under the margin of the usually hairy discoid torus; 
filaments subulate, sometimes incurved in sestivation and spreading elastically, erect and exserted after 
an thesis ; in the pistillate flower usually shorter and included, or rarely wanting j anthers ovate, attached 
on the back just above the emarginate base, close together and face to face in the bud, two-celled, 
extrorse, the cells lateral, opening longitudinally. Ovary ovate, sessile, one-celled, crowned with a short 
sessile style divided into two divergent elongated reflexed lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, 
entire or bifid, deciduous ; in the pistillate flower minute and rudimentary j ovule solitary, suspended 



from the apex of the cell, anatrop 



Fruit ovoid or glob 



epicarp thick and firm j mesocarp thin 



and succulent ; nutlet thick-walled, bony, smooth or rugose. Seed filling the seminal cavity ; albumen 
scanty, gelatinous, nearly inclosed between the folds of the cotyledons, or wanting ; testa membrana- 
ceous, of two confluent coats ; chalaza colored, close to the minute hilum. Embryo curved 3 cotyledons 
broad, foliaceous, condupHcate or rarely flat, variously folded, corrugate, incumbent on or embracing 
the short superior ascending radicle.^ 

Celtis is widely distributed through the temperate and tropical regions of the world, fifty or sixty 



1 By Planchon (i)e Candolle Prodr, xvii. 168) Celtis is divided Indies, southern continental Asia, Ceylon, and the islands of the 



into the following subgenera : 

EuCELTis. Staminate flowers articulate, in few-flowered fascicles 



Indian Archipelago. 

SoLENOSTiGMA. Stanoinate flowers in many-flowered cymes. 



from the axils of caducous bud-scales. Pistillate flowers solitary or Pistillate flowers usually solitary; stigmas generally contracted and 



axils 



of young leaves; bifid or twice bifid at the apex. Leaves coriaceous, entire, usually 
stigmas linear, undivided. Leaves serrate or rarely entire, deciduous. persistent. Unarmed trees and shrubs of the Old World, principally 
Unarmed trees of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere of the tropics. 



and of high mountains within the tropics. 



MoMisiA. Flowers in many-flowered dense cymes; stigmas 



Sponioceltis. Staminate flowers in lax cymes from the axils of linear, bifid. Leaves entire or serrate, deciduous or persistent. 

caducous bud-scales. Pistillate flowers in several flowered fasci- Trees or shrubs of the tropical and subtropical regions of the New 

cles from the axils of young leaves ; stigmas linear, undivided. World usually furnished with axillary spines. 
Leaves deciduous or semipersistent. Unarmed trees of the West 



64 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



ULMACEJE. 



species being distinguishable 



Four species inhabit North America; of these 



shrubs which 



2 



m 



reach the northern limits of their range within the southern border of the United States, one 
Florida, and the other ^ in Florida and along the Mexican boundary, where it is distributed from the val- 

ancient one. and what are believed 



ley of the lower Rio Grande to southern Arizona. The type is an ancient one, 

to be the traces of several species of Celtis have been found in the miocene rocks of Europ 



4 



Celtis produces straiglit-grained tough Hght-colored wood, and that of some species, especially the 



North American Cdtis occideiitalis and the Europ 



and Asiatic Celtis australis^ is valued in the 



arts. 



In North America numerous insects prey upon Celtis/ which is also attacked by several fungal 



diseases ."^ 



Nov 



xvu 



tensia). 



Mq 



Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. 



Ind. ii. 485 ; Mus. BoL Lugd. Bat ii. 66 (Solenostigma), 69 (Mo- 



Celtis eriocarpa, Decaisne, Jacquemont Voy. iv. 150, 1. 152 (1840). 
Celtis australis is a tree of medium size distributed from Spain 



misia), 70 (Celtis). — Blanco, FL Filip. 197. 
sdr. 2j xvi. 34. 



NaU and northern Africa to Afghanistan and the Himalayas of north- 



Nat 



dolle Prodr, xvii. 168. — Miquel, Martins FL BrasiL iv. pt. i. 173; 
FL Ind. Bat. i. pt. ii. 220. 



Fl. Brit. W, 



Fl. 



XVIU 



western India. In southern Europe it is planted in coppice, and 
from the wood hoops and oars are made ; in the mountainous re- 
gions of India it is frequently planted as a shade-tree and for the 
fodder obtained from the leaves and young shoots ; the sweet insipid 
flesh of the fruit is often eaten (Brandis, Forest FL BriL Ind. 429. 
Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers ^ 343). 

^ In the Fifth Report of the United States Entomological Com- 
mission, 1890, forty-four species of insects were designated as 
preying upon Celtis in North America, and the enumeration is 
Mus. s/r. 2, V. 268 {PL David, i.). — AVarburg, Bot. Jahrb. xiii. 287 not complete. Of borers attacking these trees Httle is known. 



Franchet & 



PL Cub. 57. — Thwaites,-Bnww. PL Zeylan. 267. 

iv. 354. — Maximowicz, BulL Acad. ScL St. Petersb 

(MeL BioL ix. 27). — Bentham, FL AmtraL vi. 155. 

Savatier, Enum.PLJap. i. 431. — Parodi, AnaL Soc. Cient. Argent. 

V. 94 {Contrib. FL Paragua, 43). — Boissier, FL Orient iv. 1156. 

Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent, iii. 138. — Franchet. Nouv. Ar 



Fl, Brit. Ind. v. 481 



Forbes & 



Walsh, is sometimes abundant 



xxvi. 449 



(Papuanische Flora). 

destructive in the southern and western states, penetrating the 

2 Celtis Tala, e pallida, Planchon, De Candolle Prodr. L c. 191 solid wood and hastening its decay; probably, however, it never 
(1873). — Hemsley, L c. 139. 



attacks perfectly healthy trees. 



lifi 



Mex 



(Man. PL PT. 



man, Romaleum atomarium, Drury, and other beetles injure the bark 
and wood of Celtis, although the injury which they inflict is princi- 



In September, 1878, Dr. A. P. Garber discovered Celtis Tala pally upon dead or diseased trees. One or two species of Mallodon 



var. pallida on the shores of Lastero Bay, Florida. 

3 Celtis iguancBus. 
Rhamnus iguanceuSy Jacquin, Enum. PL Carib. 16 (1760). 

Linnseus, Spec. ed. 2, 282. — Cavanilles, Icon. iii. 48, t, 



294 



545 



Willdenow; 

pt. i. 173. 

156. — Hemsley, /. c. 



Marti 



W. 



(1789) 



Willdenow, L c. (1805) 



are said to bore into living trees, Mallodon melanopus, Linnseus, 

being capable of doing much injury. 

Various general feeding insects injure the foliage of Celtis, and 

several species of leaf-eaters appear to be peculiar to the genus ; 

the most interesting of these are the butterflies, Apatura Celtis^ 
? FL BrasiL iv. Boisduval & Leconte, Apatura Clyton, Boisduval & Leconte, and 
Planchon, l. a. Libythea Bachmanni, Kartland ; and a moth, Acronycta rubricoma, 

Guende. Among leaf-miners, Lithocolletis celtifoliella^ Chambers, 

and Lithocolletis celtisella, Chambers, are sometimes abundant. 

The most remarkable insects infesting Celtis in North America 



Mertensia zizyphoides, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, L c. 31 are species of Psyllidse belonging to the order of Hemiptera, These 



(1817). 

Zizyphus commutatai Roemer & Schultes, SysL v. 336 (1819). 



form peculiar galls on the twigs and leaves, and are often very 
abundant and injurious. Packypsylla Celtidis-gemmaj Riley, causes 



Mertensia rhamnoides, Roemer & Schultes, l. c. vi. 313 (1820), the buds on twigs to become rounded and irregularly distorted, pre- 



Momisia Ehrenbergiana, Klotzsch, Linnoeay xx. 538 (1847) 
Momisia aculeatay Klotzsch, I. c. 539 (1847). 



venting their growth and the development of branches. Pachypsylla 
Celtidis-mamma, Riley, produces large mammse-like galls on the 



Celtis Ehrenbergiana, Liebmann, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Shrift. under surface of the leaves, often in such abundance as to disfigure 



ser. 5, ii. 339 (1851). 



the trees ; Pachypsylla Celtidis-vesiculumy Riley, forms flat blister- 



Celtis iguanceus was collected on November 24, 1891, on Terra like yellowish galls which sometimes become confluent ; and Pa- 



Ceia Island, Florida, by J. H. Simpson. 



chypsylla venusta, Osten Sacken, produces large galls on the petioles. 



cause them. 



^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 208. — Zittel, Several species of peculiar Cecidomyidous galls found on Celtis 

Ilandb. Palceontolog. ii. 474. — Lesquereux, U. S. Geolog. Surv. vii. have been described, although little is known of the insects which 
191 (Contrib. Foss. FL Western Territories y ii.). 

fi Linn^us, Spec. 1043 (1753). — Planchon, Ann. ScL Nat. L c. ' In North America Celtis is attacked by a comparatively small 

283 ; De Candolle Prodr. I. c. 169. — Boissier, I. c. 1156. — Hooker number of fungi, although from a mycological point of view several 

f. L c. 482. of them are interesting, especially those which belong to the order 

Planchon, Ann. of Leaf Mildews or Erysiphacese. Uncinula polychcetay Berkeley 

Boissier, I. c. & Curtis, forms a web-like mould on the leaves, and curious knots 



Willdenow, L c. 994 



Nat 



ULMACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



m 



Celtis; tlie name given by Pliny to a species of Lotus^ was adopted by Tournef ort ^ and afterwards 
by Linnseus for this genus. 



determ 



knots 



or distortions have frequently been found on Celtis in Kansas, Texas, not yet been satisfactorily 

Iowa, and Ohio, and occasionally in the eastern states. These un- trees cultivated in the streets of towns for shade and on those 

sightly distortions of the ends of the branches have been attributed growing in the forest. A black mould, Gyroceras Celtidis, Montagne 

to the action of a gall-mite, Phytoptus, but associated with it is a & Cesati, a native of Europe, has also been observed on the American 

fungus, Sphcerotheca phytoptophila, Kellerman & Swingle (Journal of species in some of the western states. Phleospora Celtidis^ Ellis & 

Mycology, iv. 93. — Trans. Kansas Acad.ScL xii. 101. — Kellerman, M.3xim, Phyllosticta Celtidis, Ellis & Kellerman, Ramularia Celtidis^ 

Rep. Kansas Experiment Station, i. 302, t. 4r-6. — Garden and Forest, Ellis & Kellerman, and Gloeosporium Celtidis, Ellis & Everhart, 

iii. 138); and whether the distortions are due entirely to the action produce spots on the leaves and are injurious parasites. 



of the insects or to the combined action of insects and fungi has 



1 Inst. 612, t, 383. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



EuCELTis, Pedicels ebracteolulate. Staminate flowers articulate, in few-flowered clusters, in 
the axils of caducous bud-scales ; pistillate flowers usually solitary in the axils of lower leaves 
of the year ; stigmas undivided ; leaves deciduous ; branchlets unarmed, marked with scat- 
tered pale lenticels, and at the nodes with obscure ring-like stipular scars. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply and coarsely serrate ; fruit large 1. Celtis occidentalis. 



Leaves ovate-lanceolate, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, entire or occasionally obscurely and 
remotely serrate, thin or in one form subcoriaceous ; fruit small 



2. Celtis Mississippiensis 



ULMACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



67 



OELTIS OCCIDENTALIS. 



Hackberry, Sugarberry. 



Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply and coarsely serrate. Fruit large 



Celtis occidentalis, Linnaeus, Spec. 1044 (1753) . — Miller, Celtis occidentalis, var. tenuif olia, Persoon, Syn. i. 292 



Diet. ed. 8, No. 2. — Du Roi, Harhk, Baumz. i. 141. 



(1805), 



Koehne, Deutsclie Deiidr. 138. 



Dippel, 



Moench, Bdume We 



20. 



Marshall, Arbust. Am. 



Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 46. 



29. 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz 



i. 374, t. 77. — W 



Car. 250. 



Fructn Celtis cordata, Persoon, Syn. i. 292 (1805). — Schkuhr, 

Handb. iv. 344, t. 355. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 



Kew. iii. 437. 



Willdenow 



Hort. 

Spec. 



448. 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 389. 



iv. pt. ii. 994 ; Enum. 1046. — Lamarck, Diet. iv. 137 ; Celtis occidentalis, var. scabriuscula, Willdenow, Spec. 



HI. iii. 437, t. 844, f . 1- — Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ 
i. t. 36. — Nouveau Duhamel^ ii. 36, t. 9. — Castiglioni, 
Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 220. — Borkhausen, Handh. 



ForsthoL ii. 1093. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 249. 



Per. 



soon, Syn.i. 292. — Schkuhr, ITandb. iy. 34:3. — Desfon- 



iv. pt. ii. 995 (1805) ; Berl. Banmz. ed. 2, 82. — Hayne, 
Dendr. Fl. 217. — Loudon, Arb. Brit, iii. 1417. 
Ltis occidentalis, var. cordata, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 
ed. 2, 82 (1811). — Hayne, Dendr, Fl. 217. — Roemer & 
Schultes, Syst. vi. 307. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1417. 



taines, Hist. Arb. ii. 448. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. Celtis canina, Rafinesque, Am. Monthl. Mag. and Crit. 



ed. 2, vi. 389. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ii. 41. — Michaux 



Rev. ii. 43 (1817). 



f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 225, t. 8. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. Celtis maritima, Rafinesque, -4m. Moyithl. Mag. and Crit 



200. 



Nuttall, Gen. i. 202. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst 



VI. 



306. 



Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 13, t. 191. 



Bev. ii. 44 (1817) ; Neio Fl. iii. 35. 
Celtis tenuifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 202 (1818) ; Stjlva, i 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 216. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 584. — Guimpel, 



135. 



Rafinesque, Neio Fl, iii. 36. 



Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 119, t. 96- — Sprengel, Syst. i. ? Celtis gn^andidentata, Tenore, Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap 



932. 



Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 147, t. 147. — Rafinesque, 



15 (1833). 



New FL iii. 32. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1417, t. — Bige- Celtis morifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 34 (1836). 



low, Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 401. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 991. 



Celtis heterophylla, Rafinesque, New FL iii. 37 (1836) 



Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 142. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. Celtis patula, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 37 (1836). 
sdr. 2, xvi. 40 ; Hist. Veg. xi. 133. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. Celtis Floridana, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 37 (1836) 



91. 



Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 167. — Planchon, Ann. Sci. Celtis crassifolia, var. tilisefolia, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat 



Nat. sdr. 3, x. 288 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 174. 
Walpers, Ann. iii. 396. — Richardson, Arctic Exped, ii 

309. 



s^r. 2, xvi. 39 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 131. — Walpers, 
Ann. iii. 396. 



Darlington, FL Gestr. ed. 3, 256. — Curtis, Rep. Celtis crassifolia, var. morifolia, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat 



Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 61. — Chapman, Fl 



417. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. 432. — Emerson, Trees Mass 



s4r. 2, xvi. 39 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 131. — Walpers 
A7in. iii. 396. 



ed. 2, 344, t. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 353. — Sargent, Celtis crassifolia, var. eucalyptif olia, Spach, Ann. Sci. 



Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 125 ; Garden 
and Forest^ iii. 39, f. 7, 8, 13. — Engler, Engler & Prantl 
Pfianzenfam. iii, pt. i. f . 46, F, G. — Watson & Coulter, ? Celtis 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 463. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. Sci. 



Nat. s^r. 2, xvi. 40 (1841) ; Hist. Veg, xi. 131. 
pers, Ann. iii. 396. 

occidentalis, var. grandidentata, Spac 



Wal- 



Nat. s^r. 2, xvi. 40 (1841) ; Hist 



43. 



Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 407 {Man. 



W 



PL W. Texas). 
Celtis obliqua, Moench, Meth. 344 (1794). 
Celtis procera, Salisbury, Prodr. 175 (1796). 
Celtis crassifolia, Lamarck, Diet. iv. 138 (1797) 



tis occidentalis, var. serrvilata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
s6v. 2, xvi. 41 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 134. — Walpers, 



Ann, iii. 396. 



Nou^ 



Nat 



veait Duhamely ii. 37. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 
228, t. 9. —Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 200. — NuttaU, Gen. 



41 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 135. — Planchon, De Candolle 

Prodr. xvii. 174. 



1. 



202. 



Roemer & Schultes, /S'ys^ vi. 307. — Sprengel, Celtis Audibertiana, var. ovata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 



Syst. i. 932. — Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 35. — Loudon, 
Arb. Brit. iii. 1418, f . 1254. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 991. — 
Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6v. 2, xvi. 39; Hist. Veg. xi. 



130. 



Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 347, t. 



s^r. 2, xvi. 41 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 135. 
Celtis Audibertiana, var. oblongata, Spach, Ann. Sci. 

Nat. s6t. 2. xvi. 41 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 135. 
Celtis Douglasii, Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6t. 3, x. 293 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ulmace^. 



(1848) ; De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 178. — Walpers, Ann. Celtis occidentalis, var. Audibertiana, Koch, Dendr. ii. 



iii. 396. 



433 (1872). — Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzk. ii. 43. 



Celtis occidentalis, var. crassifolia, Gray, Man. ed. 2, ? Celtis occidentalis, c grandidentata, Dippel^ Handh 

397 (1856). — Koch, Dendr, ii. 433. Lauhholzk. ii. 44 (1892). 

Celtis reticulata, Cooper, Am. Nat. iii. 407 (not Torrey) 

(1869). — Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 93. 



A tree^ sometimes a hundred and thirty feet in height^ with a straight slender trunk two and a half 
to three feet in diameter, and often free of branches for seventy or eighty feet ; usually much smaller, and 
in the eastern states generally short-trunked, with stout spreading ridged or frequently pendulous 
branches, which form a handsome round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is an inch to an inch 
and a half in thickness, and is light brown or silvery gray, broken on the surface into thick appressed 
scales, and sometimes roughened with irregular wart-Hke excrescences or ridges, which also appear on 
the large branches. The branchlets, which are slender and slightly zigzag, and contain a thick Hght- 
colored pith, are light green when they first appear, and glabrous or puberulous ; they gradually become 
tinged with red, and in their first winter are bright red-brown and rather lustrous, and are marked with 
horizontal semi-oval or oblong leaf-scars in which appear the ends of three fibro-vascular bundles ; they 
grow darker in their second or third year, when they become dark brown slightly tinged with red. 
The buds are axillary,^ ovate, pointed, flattened by the pressure of the stem, about a quarter of an inch 
long, and covered by three pairs of chestnut-brown ovate acute pubescent caducous scales loosely 
imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward and gradually passing into the stipules 
of the lower leaves. The leaves are conduplicate in the bud, with slightly involute margins, each leaf 
being inclosed by its stipules ; they are broadly ovate, more or less falcate, gradually or abruptly 
contracted into long narrow points, rounded and usually very obhque at the base, serrate with coarse 
incurved callous-tipped teeth, except at the ends which are mostly entire, and three-ribbed ; when they 
unfold they are pale yellow-green, coated on the lower surface and on the petioles with soft silky white 
hairs, and pilose on the upper surface ; and at maturity they are thin, light green and lustrous, smooth, 
scabrate or scabrous above, and paler and glabrous or slightly hairy below on the prominent midribs and 
primary veins which are arcuate and united near the margins and connected by conspicuous reticulate 
thick veinlets ; they are two and a half inches to four inches long and one to two inches wide, and are 
borne on slender slightly grooved hairy petioles one half to two thirds of an inch in length. The stipules 
are caducous, linear-strap-shaped, white and scarious and nearly half an inch lono;, or on sterile shoots 
they are ovate, acute, concave, and sometimes two thirds of an inch long and a quarter of an inch wide. 
The leaves turn to a light yellow color late in the autumn before falling. The flowers appear in early 
spring soon after the unfolding of the leaves, and are borne on slender drooping pedicels. The calyx 
is light yellow-green, and is divided nearly to the base, usually into five linear acute thin and scarious 
lobes rounded on the back, and more or less laciniately cut at the apex, which is tinged with red and 
often tipped with a tuft of pale hairs. In the sterile flower the stamens are inserted on the margin of 
the thickened torus, which is coated with thick white tomentum 3 the filaments are white, glabrous, 
sKghtly flattened, and gradually narrowed from the base to the apex ; before anthesis they are incurved 
above the middle, the anthers being face to face in the bud, and, straightening abruptly as the flower 
opens, they become sHghtly incurved and exserted ; the anthers are oblong, emarginate, and attached 



on the back below the middle, and are extrorse, nodding rather obliquely on the expanded filaments ; 
in the perfect flower the filaments are slightly incurved in the bud, but do not straisrhten or lengthen 



after anthesis, the anthers remaining erect and included or slightly exserted from the calyx. The 
ovary of the perfect flower is oblong-ovate, sessile on the discoid torus, which is covered with white 



1 The North American species of Euceltis, like Ulmus, do not upper axillary bud, which prolongs the branch the following season 
form a terminal bud, the end of the branch withering and falling (Foerste, Bull Torrey Bot. Club, xx. 163, t. 147, f. 11). 
off during the summer, leaving a minute orbicular scar close to the 



ULMACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



69 



tomentum, bright green, glabrous^ and very lustrous ; in the staminate flower it is reduced to a minute 
point ; the stigmas, which are covered with white papillse, and are a quarter of an inch across when 



expanded, mature before the filaments of the staminate flowers begin to straighten. The 



fruit 



IS 



oblong, one half to three quarters of an inch in length, tipped with the remnants of the style, and dark 
purple; it consists of a thick tough skin, thin dry orange-colored flesh, and a smooth thick-walled 
oblong pointed apiculate light brown nutlet, deep orange-color and lustrous on the inner surface. The 
seed is covered with a thin membranaceous light brown coat marked at the chalaza with a large dark 
circular spot. The fruit hangs on a slender stem one half to three quarters of an inch long and slightly 
enlarged at the apex, from which it separates in falHng ; it ripens in September and October, and, 
unless eaten by birds, often remains on the branches during the winter. 

In Canada, where Celtis occideiitalls is exceedingly rare and local,^ it is distributed from Saint 
Helen's Island in the St. Lawrence River, near Montreal, westward to southern Ontario, and in the 
United States from the shores of Massachusetts Bay to northwestern Nebraska,^ North Dakota, southern 
Idaho,^ eastern Washington and Oregon,* western Washington,^ the East Humboldt Mountains of 
Nevada,^ New Mexico,^ and southward to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano in Florida, and 
to Missouri, eastern Kansas, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas. Rare east of the 
Hudson River, Celtis occidentalis becomes more abundant in western New York and the middle states, 
and attains its greatest size on the rich bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin, where it is one of the 



commonest 



forests of Oaks, Hickories, and Wain 



8 



usually 



moist soil 



and often, especially in the east, on dry gravelly or rocky hillsides. West of the Rocky Mountains it 
is exceedingly rare, and is confined to the banks of streams in positions where it is frequently inundated 
during periods of high water, and where it is a small tree or shrub rarely thirty feet tall, with thick 
rigid scabrous conspicuously reticulate leaves. On the rocky banks of streams a dwarf shrubby form ^ 
with stems four to ten feet tall and small usually rugose leaves is not uncommon in the south Atlantic 
states, from which it ranges westward to Missouri, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada. 

The wood of Celtis occidentalis is heavy, rather soft, not strong, and coarse-grained, containing 
bands of several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, numerous small groups 
of smaller ducts arranged in intermediate concentric rings, and many thin medullary rays ; it is clear 
light yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.7287, a cubic foot weighing 45.41 pounds. It is largely used for fencing and for cheap furniture. 

Celtis occidentalis was introduced into English gardens by the younger Tradescant ^^ about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and the first description of it, made from a plant cultivated in 
England, was published in 1688 in Ray's Historia Plant anmi}^ 

A tall stately tree in the basin of the Ohio River, where its slender shafts covered with smooth 
pale bark enhven the forests which clothe the banks of streams and rich intervale lands, the Hackberry ^^ 



1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can, 45. 

- Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 105. 

3 Celtis occidentalis was found by Dr. J. E. Wilcox, U. S. A., 
near Boisd City, Idaho, in 1881, 

* It was discovered in the valley of the Snake River by David 
Douglas early in the present century. 



429. 6, 436. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 137. — Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk 



Expl 



Expedition under command of Commodore W 



Wilkes 



Exped. 456). 

6 Watson, King's Rep. 321 (y^T, pumila). 

7 Fendler, Plantce Nova-Mexicance^ No. 775. 

8 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 72. 

9 Celtis occidentalis, yar. pumilay Gray, Man. ed. 2, 397 (1856). 



ii. 44. 



Celtis pumila, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 200 (1814). — Roemer & 
Schultes, Syst. iii. 307. — Rafinesque, New FL iii. 36. — Loudon, 



Arb. Brit. iii. 1420. 
10 See i. 20. 



400 



11 LotitrS arbor Virginiana fructu rubroy ii. 1917. 
1- In the eastern states Celtis occidentalis is sometimes called 
Nettle-tree or False Elm ; as it is also called Hogberry and Dog 

Cherry. 

Celtis fructu obscure purpurascente, Tournefort, Inst. G12. — Mil- 
ler, Diet. No. 1 ; Did. Icon. i. 59, t. 88. — Duhamel, Traite des 

Arbres, i. 143. 

Celtis procera, foliis ovate-lanceolatis, serratls ; frv^tu pullo, Clay- 



Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 62. — Chapman, Fl. ton, Fl. Virgin. 195. 



417. 



434 



Gray 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. ulmace^. 



is perhaps as beautiful in less favored regions^ with its shorter trunk, broad head of graceful branches 
and dense light green foliage. Few North American trees are better suited to adorn parks or high- 



ways ; and 



creased by its rapid growth under varied conditions of 



climate and soil, its resistance to drought, and its freedom from serious diseases and the injuries caused 
by insects. The Hackberry is now often planted as a shade-tree in some of the states between the 
Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, and occasionally in other parts of the United States and in 
Europe. It can be raised from seed without difficulty ; and its abundant fibrous roots make the 
operation of transplanting it easy and safe. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXVIL Celtis occidentalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A staminate flower before the straightening of the 

filaments, enlarged- 

4. A staminate flower expanded, enlarged. 

5. A perfect flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a perfect flower, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much magnified. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A fruit cut open transversely, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. An embryo partly displayed, enlarged. 

13. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North A 



merica . 



Tab. CCCXVll. 




3 



5 





6 




10 




rv 





so . 



CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS L 



y^. /Ez£?c/"eicr direx f 



/rip J, TaneiLr , Farur 



ULMACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



71 



CELTIS MISSISSIPPIENSIS. 



Sugarberry. Hackberry. 



Leaves ovate-lanceolate, ovate, or oblong-lanceolate, entire or occasionally obscurely 
and remotely serrate. Fruit small. 



Celtis Mississippiensis, Bosc, Diet. Agric. nouv. ed. x. 41 Celtis longifolia, Rafinesque, Fl. Tex. 22(1833). — Nuttall, 



(1810). — S]^a>Qh.^ Ann. ScL Nat. s^r. 2, xvi. 42; Hist. 
Veg. xi. 136. — Planchon, Ann. Set Nat. s4t. 3, x. 287 ; 
De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 176. — Walpers, Ann. iii. 395. 

& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 463, 734. 

ntrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 407 (Man. PI W. 



Watson 



Texas^ . 

Celtis laevigata, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 81 
(1811) ; Enum. Suppl. 68. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 



Sylvay i. 34, t. 40. — Planchon, Be Candolle Prodr. xvii. 

177. 
Celtis fuscata, Rafinesque, New FL iii. 33 (1836). 
Celtis integrifolia, Nuttall, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. 

ser. V. 169 (not Lamarck) (1837). 

Celtis Berlandieri, Klotzsch, Linncea, xx. 541 (1847). 

Planchon, Be Candolle Prodr. xvii. 179. — Hemsley, Bot 
Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 139. 



vi. 306. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 932. — Rafinesque, New Fl. Celtis Texana, Scheele, Linncea^ xxii- 146 (1849) ; Roemer 



iii. 34. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1420. — Dietrich, Syn 
ii. 991. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 432. 



Texasj 446. 
Celtis Lindheimeri, Koch, Dendr. ii. 434 (1872). 



Celtis alba, Rafinesque, FL Ludovic. 25 (1817) ; New FL Celtis occidentalis, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 



ui. 



32. 



Planchon, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 177. 



Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 139. 
Celtis occidentalis, var. integrifolia, Nuttall, Gen. i. 202 



Census TJ. S. ix. 125 (in part) (not Linnseus) (1884) ; 
Garden and Forest^ iii. 39 (in part), f. 9, 10, 11. — Ha- 
vard, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 506. 



(1818). 



Chapman, Fl. 417. 



A tree, sixty to eighty feet in height, with a short trunk two or three feet in diameter and 
spreading sometimes pendulous branches which form a broad and often graceful head ; often much 
smaller and sometimes shrubby in habit. The bark of the trunk is one half to two thirds of an inch 
in thickness, Hght blue-gray, and covered with prominent excrescences. The branchlets, when they first 

covered with pale pubescence, and in their first winter are 



light green and glabrous or 



appear, are 

bright reddish brown, rather lustrous and marked with oblong pale lenticels and narrow elevated 
horizontal leaf-scars in which appear the ends of three fibro-vascular bundles. The buds are ovate, 
pointed, flattened by the pressure of the stem, from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in length. 



and covered by chestnut-brown puberulous 



The 



are 



oblo 



long 



pointed, more or less falcate, unequally rounded and very obhque, or unequally wedge-shaped at the base, 
entire or occasionally obscurely serrate with minute incurved teeth, or rarely furnished above the middle 
with one or two broad sharp teeth, and three-ribbed ; when they unfold they are light yellow-green and 
nearly glabrous or coated with pale pubescence, and at maturity they are firm, smooth, and glabrous, 
dark green on the upper, and pale on the lower surface, three or four inches long and three quarters of 
an inch to three inches broad, with slender petioles slightly grooved above and from one quarter to one 
half of an inch in length, narrow yellow ribs impressed above, and slender veins arcuate and united near 
the margins and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets. The stipules are hnear-strap-shaped, 
white and scarious, and coated with soft white hairs. The flowers appear in early spring and are borne 
on slender hirsute pedicels. The calyx is greenish yellow, divided to the base into five ovate lanceolate 
glabrous or puberulous scarious lobes which are furnished at the apex with tufts of long white hairs. 
The filaments are incurved in the bud, slightly flattened and glabrous; in the sterile flower they 
straio'hten themselves abruptly and become exserted ; and in the perfect flower they are shorter and 
remain incurved, the anthers after anthesis being included or slightly exserted. The ovary is ovate, 



72 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ULMACE^. 



glabrous, green, and lustrous, and is 



wned 



the spreading white stigmas which open before the 



stamens of the sterile flowers shed their pollen. The fruit is ovate, on 
inch long, and bright orange-red, with thin dry flesh and a smooth light b 
brown and marked with a larofe dark spot at the chalaza. 



hth to one quarter of 



The seed is light 



C 



Mlssiss IpjJiens 



habits rich bottom-lands and the banks of streams 



lionally dry 



limestone hills, and is distributed from southern Indiana and Ilhnois through Kentucky, Tennessee, and 



shores of Bay Biscay 



Florida,^ and through Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas 



abits Bermuda.^ In the basin of the lower Ohio River, whe 



abundant 



Alabama to the 

Nuevo Leon ; it 

and grows to its largest size,^ it is often found associated with Celtis occidentalls, from which it may 

be distinguished by its smaller size and proportionately shorter trunk, by the larger and more numerous 



excrescences which cover its bark, by 



narrower an 



d 



ally 



d 



o-e-red f 



In Kentucky and Tennessee Celtis 3Iississi2)piensis is the most 



smaller bright 



species 



the Gulf 



is exceedingly common 



of the Mississippi River, especially in Arkan 



Louisiana, Texas, and Nuevo Leon, where in the valley of the Rio Grande it forms broad heads of 
long graceful pendulous branches. 



The wood of Celtis Mississippiensis is rather soft, not strong 



d 



grained, and 



bands of several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, groups of smaller ducts 
arranged in intermediate concentric rings, and thin medullary rays ; it is light clear yellow, with thick 
lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7956, a cubic foot 
weighing 49.57 pounds. Confounded in commerce with the wood of Celtis occidentalism it is used for 
the same purposes. 

In Texas Celtis Mississippiensis gradually passes into the vari( 



bushy 



forty to fifty feet in height, with 



variety reticulata ; * this is a small 
branches and a short trunk covered with smooth 



blue-gray bark on which the excrescences are sometimes over an inch high and are usually interrupted 



broken into 



fc> 



ths ; or in arid regions it is often reduced to a low shrub 



The 



broadly ovate, acute or rarely acuminate, rounded or cordate and usually oblique and very unequal at 
the base, entire or rarely furnished above the middle with a few large teeth, thick and coriaceous, dark 
green and glabrous or scabrate on the upper surface, and pale and yellow-green, glabrous or hirsute on 
the lower surface, which is covered with a network of prominent yellow veinlets impressed on the upper 

The fruit varies from one quarter to one half of an inch in lengi;h and is dark orange-red. 
Celtis Mississippiensis y var. reticulata^ is distributed from the neighborhood of Dallas in Texas 



side. 



to the Rio Grande, and westward through New Mexico and Arizona to southern Utah and Nevada and 
the western rim of the Colorado Desert in California, reappearing in Lower California.^ In eastern 
Texas it grows usually on dry limestone hills, and farther west near the banks of streams and in 
mountain canons. 



The 



fie 



vity of the absolutely dry wood of Celtis Mississipjnensis 



reticulata, is 



0.7275, a cubic foot weighing 45.34 pounds 



er's Rep, vi. 238. 



54 



Nat 



Watson 



1 A. H. Curtiss, North American Plants, 1881, No. 172. 

2 Lefroy, Bull U. S, Nat. Mus, No. 25, 41 (Bot, Bermuda). C 
There are a number of Celtis-trees in the Walsingham Tract in 

Bermuda, in addition to those mentioned by General Lefroy. In Celtis occidentalism var. reticulata, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 

the shape, size, and texture of the leaves, which are entire or occa- 10th Census U. S. ix. 126 (1884) ; Garden and Forest, iii. 40, f. 

sionally furnished with one or two large teeth, and in the size of 
the fruit, they appear identical with the trees of Bay Biscayne. 

3 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus. 1882, 72. 

^ Celtis Misshsiwiensis. var. reticulata. 



Nat 



12. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 138. — Dippel, Handb. Lauhholzk. 
ii. 45. 

Valley Exped.). 
^ Celtis Mis<iiss\ 



Celtis reticulata, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 247 (1828). — Ra- Island off the coast of Lower California, in 1872, by Dr. J- A. 

finesque, New Fl. iii. 35. — Nuttall, Sylca, i. 133, t. 39. — Plan- Veatch ; and in the San Julio Canon on the mainland in AprU, 

r, xvii. 1889, by Mr. T. S. Brandegee {Proc. Cal Acad. ser. 2, ii. 205 [PL 

R. R. Baja Cal]). 



Nat 



178. — Walper 



Pacific 



Rep. ii. 175. —Watson, Cat. PI. Wheeler, 



Wheel 



ULMACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



73 



Celtis Mississippiensis was described from a plant cultivated in Paris, where it was probably 
introduced by the elder Michaux/ who was the first botanist to explore the forests of that part of the 
Mississippi basin where this tree abounds. Its rapid growth, excellent habit, and cheerful fohage, 
which remains on the branches with slight change of color until the beginning of winter, make it a 
desirable ornamental tree, and it is now generally used to shade the streets of the cities and towns of 
central and western Texas. 



1 See i. 68. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXVIIL Celtis Mississippiensis. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower just expanding, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower after an thesis, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6- A fruit cut transversely, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. A branchlet with lanceolate entire leaves, natural size 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A leaf, natural size. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

13. A winter-bud and leaf-scar, enlarged. 



Plate CCCXIX. Celtis Mississippiensis, var. reticulata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower expanding, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. Under surface of a leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

9. A winter-bud, and leaf-scar, enlarged. 
10. Side view of a winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. cccxvm 




'f}- 



C.E,Faa^n del 



JlimeJ^ sc 



CELTIS MISSISSIPPIENSIS,Bosc. 



A.Biocreua:^ diz^ej: 



Imp . J. Toneur^ Fariy 



Silva of "North America 



Tab. CCCXIX 




\ ' 



[\ 






C.B.Faa^orv del 



Mi^ne^Lita: sc 



CELTIS MISSISSIPPIENSIS,Var.RETICULATA, Sar6. 



f 



A.Rwcreiu: direx . 



I?iip. JTctrheur^ Paris 



MORACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



15 



MORUS. 



Flowers monoecious or dioecious ; calyx 4-parted, the divisions imbricated in aesti- 
vation ; corolla ; stamens 4, incurved in the bud ; disk ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; 
ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit drupaceous, inclosed in the thickened succulent calyx. 
Leaves alternate, stipulate, deciduous. 



Morus, Linnseus, Ge7i. 283 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 364. — Engler, Engler & 

377. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 402. — Endlicher, Gen. Prantl Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. i. 72. 

278. — Meisner, Gen. 351. — Baillon, Hist. PL vi. 190. — Morophorum, Necker, Elem. Bot. iii. 255 (1790). 



Trees or shrubs, with thick milky juice^ slender terete unarmed branches, scaly bark, and fibrous 
roots. Buds ^ covered with ovate scales closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without 
inward, the inner accrescent, caducous, marking in falling the base of the branch with narrow ring-like 
scars. Leaves condupHcate in the bud, alternate, serrate, entire or three-lobed, three to five-nerved at 
the base, petiolate, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, deciduous ; stipules inclosing their leaf in the bud, 
lateral, lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers minute, vernal, in pedunculate clusters from the axils of the 
caducous bud-scales, or of the lower leaves of the year ; the males short-pedicellate, in elongated cylin- 
drical spikes ; the females sessile, in short oblong or subglobose, or rarely elongated densely flowered 
spikes ; the males and females on different branches of the same individual or on different individuals, 
or the two sexes rarely mixed in the same inflorescence. Calyx of the sterile flower deeply divided into 
four equal ovate rounded lobes. Stamens four, inserted opposite the lobes of the calyx under the minute 
rudimentary ovary ; filaments filiform, incurved in the bud, in anthesis straightening elastically, exserted ; 
anthers attached on the back below the middle, erect, two-celled, the cells reniform, attached laterally 
to the orbicular connective, opening longitudinally. Calyx of the pistillate flower four-parted, the lobes 
ovate or obovate, thickened, often unequal, the two outer broader than the others, persistent, becoming 
succulent, and inclosing the fruit. Ovary ovoid or subglobose, sessile, included in the calyx, one-celled, 
crowned with a central style divided nearly to the base into two equal spreading filiform or subulate 
villous stigmatic branches; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, campylotropous ; 
micropyle superior. Drupes ovate or obovate, crowned with the remnants of the styles, inclosed in 
the succulent thickened colored perianths and more or less united into an edible juicy syncarp; exocarp 
subsucculent, thin ; endocarp thin or thick, crustaceous.^ Seed oblong, pendulous ; testa thin, membra- 
naceous y hilum minute, apical. Embryo incurved in thick fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oblong, equal ; 
radicle ascending, incumbent. 

Morus, of which six or seven species can be distinguished, is confined to eastern temperate North 
America, where two species occur, the elevated regions of Mexico, Central America and western South 
America, western Asia, India, China, Japan, and the high mountains of the Indian Archipelago. The 



The North American, Persian, Chinese, and Japanese species Cur. xxii 



XX 



terminal 



147, f. 4). 



and falling oflf during the summer, leaving a scar close to the upper ^ Baillon, Adansonia^ i. 214, t. 8, f. 1-12. 

axillary bud, which prolongs the branch (Henry, Nov, Act. Nat. 



76 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MORACEtE. 



most valuable species^ Moms alha^ a native o£ northern China and the island of Yezo, is cultivated in 
China and Japan^ northwestern India, western Asia^ and the countries surrounding the Mediterranean^ 



1 Linnseus, Spec. 986 (1753). — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Virginia, which seemed to offer particular advantages for this 



xii. t. 1327. — Seringa, Descr. et Cult. Mur. 191, Atlas, t. 1-18. 
Bureau, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 238. 



Fl, Orient, iv, 



1153. — Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mas. s^r. 2, v. 270 {PI David. \.). 
Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Sac. xxvi. 455. 



Moras Tataricay Linnaeus, /. c. (1763). — Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. feeding of 
pt. ii. 9, t. 52. 

Morus Constantinopolitanay Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 381 (1797). 



industry (see a pamphlet published in London in 1655, entitled 

The Reformed Virginian Silk-Wormy or a rare and new Discocery of 
a speedy ivag, and easie means, found out by a young Lady in Eng- 
land y she having made full proof thereof in May anno 1652. 

Sil/c-worms in the Woods, on the Mulberry-tree leaves in 

Virginia [Force, Coll. Hist. Tracts, iii. No. 13]) ; and in Georgia, 

where every grant of Crown land was coupled with the condition 



For 



Nouveau Duhamel, iv. 92, t. 24. — Maximowicz, Prim. Fl. Amur. that one hundred White Mulberry-trees should be planted on each 



477. 



ten acres of grouiirl, (See an Account, shewing the Progress of the 



The wild Mulberry-tree with deeply lobed, irregularly shaped Colony of Georgia, in America, from its first establishment, ly'LondiOiiy 
leaves and dark red or nearly black fruit, discovered by the French 1741 [Force, I. c. i. No. 5].) 



missionary David on the mountains of southern Mongolia, and 



The White Mulberry-tree flourishes in all the eastern United 



common in the mountainous regions of northern China, is believed States, and by its hardiness in the severe climate of New England 
to be the original t}^e from which have sprung the numerous vari- 



shows its northern origin. In a description of the province of South 



eties of this tree which are now cultivated where sericulture is Carolina in 1731, a White Mulberry-tree seven or eight years old, 
practiced (Julien, Resume des Principaux Traites Chinois sur la growing at Port Royal, is said to have had a trunk five feet in cir- 
Culture des IMuriers. — Bretschneider, Jour. North-China Branch cumference, and several other trees only five years old with trunks 
Royal Asiatic Soc. n. ser. xxv. 329 [^Botanicon Sinicumy ii.]) ; and a foot in diameter are described. (See Force, I. c. ii. No. 10.) Seri- 
the White Mulberry in a form with less uniformly divided leaves culture, however, has never become an American industry, although 
than those of the north China tree is certainly wild in the primeval various attempts to make it so have been tried in the United States 
forests which cover the hills of central Yezo. by individuals or through bounties offered by the state govern- 
No other tree furnishes employment, directly and indirectly, to ments. Climatic conditions favor the industry, but the high price 
so large a number of the human race, or has been so carefidly of labor has made it unprofitable. Sixty years ago the hope of 
studied from the cultural point of view ; and no other tree has establishing it in the United States caused the greatest horticultu- 
given rise to such a voluminous literature. The cultivation of the ral speculation the country has known, and ruined thousands of 
White Mulberry-tree in China to furnish food for the silk-worm people. In 1824 a French traveler brought to France under the 
{Bombyx Moriy Linnaeus) is as old as the civilization of the Chinese name of Morus multicaulis (Perrottet, Ann. Soc. Linn, Paris, 1829, 
race ; and there is a tradition printed in the first centur}^ before 129. — Seringe, I. c. 213, t. 18) a variety of the White Mulberry- 
the Christian era that Siling, wife of the Emperor Huang Ti (b. c. tree which he had found in the Philippine Islands, where it had 
2697), first instructed the people in the art of rearing silk-worms. been carried by a Portuguese priest toward the end of the sixteenth 
Long and jealously guarded by the Chinese, the secret of the art century. The rapid growth of this tree, its large and succulent 
of silk-making first reached Japan through Corea in the third cen- leaves, and the ease with which it could be multiplied, soon at- 
tury of our era ; during the reign of the twenty-first Mikado (457- tracted the attention of European sericulturists ; and in 1827 it 
479 A, D.) the planting of Mulberry-trees was encouraged, although was introduced into the United States through the Prince Nur- 
it was not until the second half of the sixth century that sUk-cul- sery on Long Island. A year later it was carried to Massachusetts 
ture became a great national industry in Japan (Rein, Industries of by 



William 



Japan, 188). The art of sericulture carried from China to India marvelous stories of its value spread from town to town and from 

was first established there in the valley of the Brahmaputra, and state to state. Nurserymen gave up all other business to propagate 

the earliest account of the silk-worm in European literature appears the South Sea novelty ; farmers covered their land with the trees, 

in Aristotle {Hist. Anim. v. 19 [17] ; 11 [6]), who may have derived and aU eastern America, converted into one great Mulberry plan- 

his scanty knowledge of it from the Greek soldiers who accompa- tation, was to become the rival of the Orient and of Europe in the 

nied Alexander to India. In the year 550 two Nestorian monks production of silk. Plants brought fabulous prices, and the north, 

carried eggs of the silk-worm from Khotan to the Court of Justin- the south, and the west struggled with each other to secure them in 

ian in Constantinople, and silk-culture, gradually established in the the auction rooms of eastern cities. But the reaction soon came ; 

Byzantine Empire, spread through southern Europe, although until the climate of the northern states was found to be too severe for 

the fourteenth century the Black and not the White Mulberry-tree this variety, and trees were killed by cold or by the diseases which 

was planted in the countries bordering the Mediterranean to sup- appeared among them ; and nurserymen and farmers were ruined. 



ply the silk- worm with food. (See Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1348. 



In 1839 the bubble burst ; and of the millions that were planted 



Antonio Targioni-Tozzetti, Cenni Storici sulla Introduzione di varie hardly one tree now remains in any of the northern states. (See 
Piante nelV Agricoltura ed Orticoltura Toscanay 188. — A. De Can- Kendrick, American Silk Growers' Guide, 26. — L. H. Bailey, Bull 

Hort. Div. Cornell Agric. Exper. Stat. No. 46 ; also numerous arti- 



) 



{Mi 



doUe, Origine des Plantes Cultivees, 119.) 

Early in the sixteenth century the Spaniards made an unsuccessful 
attempt to establish sericulture in Mexico, and Mulberry-trees and 
the eggs of the silk-worm were sent from Spain for the purpose ; was introduced by Russian Mennonites into the western states in 
a century later James I. endeavored to introduce it into the Eng- 1875 ; although of comparatively little value as a fruit-tree, it is 
lish colonies in North America, and, until the breaking out of the very hardy, and useful in forming wind-breaks on the prairies or 
War of the Revolution, persistent efforts were made by the British as an ornamental hedge-plant, and several varieties, valued for 
government to encourage the rearing of silk-worms, especially in their large fruit or pendulous branches, have been raised in this 



MORACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



77 



in 



many 



for its leaves, which are the best food of the silk-worm. Morns nigra^^ valued 



many temperate regions as a fruit-tree, is believed to have originated in Persia; in the temperate 



and semitropical mountainous regions of India two or three species are recognized;^ two 
little known and doubtful species inhabit the mountains of the Indian Archipelago/ and 
perhaps two others those of central and western South America.^ 



or three 
one and 



Morns produces straight-grained durable handsome light brown or orange-colored wood sometimes 

The fruit of Morns is 
)m it are used to flavor 



used for furniture, agricultural implements, and fencings and in boat-building, 
sweet and acidulous, and possesses slightly laxative properties ; syrups made fr 
or color medicines, or in the preparation of refrigerant beverages.^ 
the fruit, from which a mild spirit is sometimes distilled.^ 



Vinegar is occasionally made from 



The North American species of Morns are not seriously injured by 



8 



by the ravages of 



fungal diseases 



9 



country (L. H. Bailey, Bull, HorL Div, Cornell Agric. Exper. StaU 
No. 46, 232). 



Morus serraia (Roxburgh, FL Ind, ed. 2, iii. 596) is an inhabit- 
ant of the northwestern Himalayas, where it sometimes ascends to 



From the leaves of Morus alba a yellow dye is obtained in the elevations of nine thousand feet above the level of the sea, and is a 

Caucasus, used in coloring wool and silk ; the Vine is tied with its tree sixty or seventy feet in height, with a stout trunk. It is culti- 

inner bark and staked with its branches ; and in Turkestan flour vated in Kunawar ; the wood is employed for agricultural imple- 

made from the fruit, which is both white and black, support the ments and many household articles, and the brauches are used for 



mountain tribes in winter (The Industries of Russia^ iii. 436, 462). 
The wood of Morus alba is moderately hard, light yellow, brown, 



fodder (Brandis, L c). 

Morus Icevigata (Brandis, L c.) inhabits the evergreen forests of 



or yellow. In northern India it is employed in boat-building and the lower Himalayas from the valley of the Indus to Assam, and is 
for furniture and agricultural implements. The tough branchlets occasionally cultivated. 



are used as cords, and the leaves are fed to sheep and goats (Bran- 



4 Miquel, FL JungJi. 42 ; FL Ned. Ind. i. pt. ii. 280 ; Suppl 



dis, Forest FL BriL India, 408) ; and in China the bark of the roots 414. — Bureau, L c. 247. 



is administered in the treatment of many human maladies (Smith, 
Chinese MaL Med. 151). 



6 Bureau, L c. 246, 247. 

® Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 305. 



1 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1348. — Seringe, Descr. et Cult. Mur. Fliickiger & Hanbury, Phannacographia, 489. — Johnson, Man 



198. 



Bureau, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 238. — Rein, Industries of Med. Bot. N. A. 244. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 986. 



Japan^ 191. 



' The Industries of Russia, iii. 436. — Corcoran, Gard. Chron, 



2 Linn^us, Spec. 986 (1753). — Woodville, Med. BoL ii. 352, t. ser. 3, xv. 398. 



129. — Nouveau Duhamel, iv. 90, t. 22. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 



^ Few species of insects feed upon the American Mulberry-trees, 



169, t. 159. — Hayne, Arzn. xiii. t, 16. — Reichenbach, Icon. FL and even the silk- worms refuse to eat or thrive on Morus rubra 



Germ. xii. t. 1328. — Seringe, L c. 220, Atlas, t. 6, f . 4, t. 19. 



(Riley, Special Rep. Dept. Agric. No. 11, ed. 2, 34 ; Bull. No. 9, ed. 



Parlatore, FL Ital. iv. 362. — Bureau, I. c. — Boissier, FL Orient. 6, Div. Entomology U. S. Dept. Agric. 1886, 56). The Fall Web- 
worm, Hyphantria cunea, Drury, is often abundant on Morus rubra^ 



iv. 1153. 



The Black Midberry is believed by A. De Candolle {Origine des and the larvse of other insects are occasionally sufficiently abundant 
Plantes Cultivees, 121) to have originated in the country south of on the foliage to attract attention. No borers are recorded as 



the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea ; it was well known to the 
Greeks, who introduced it into Europe, where it now sometimes 



affecting the living wood. 

® The fungal parasites of the Mulberry have been carefully 



grows spontaneously in the countries bordering the Mediterranean. studied in Italy, where this tree is of great economical importance. 

Before the greater value of the leaves of Morus albja for feeding In his classic work on the subject, Fungi Moricoloe, published in 

silk-worms was known to Europeans, they planted the Black Mul- Padua in 1889, Berlese has described all the species of fungi known 

berry for this purpose ; and in Greece it is still the more commonly to infest the Mulberry up to that date, and has given figures illus- 

nsed species (Heldreich, Nutz. Pflanzen, 19). The Black Mul- trating most of them. A considerable number of the species are 

berry, which is not hardy in the northern United States, is occa- known in this country, and some of them are peculiar to North 

sionally planted in the southern and Pacific states, although its America. The greater part, however, are species which grow on 

value as a fruit-tree is not appreciated in this country. The fruit the trunks, especially the dead trunks, and are not the cause of 

is larger than that of the other species of Morus, and possesses a special diseases, nor are they confined to species of Mulberry. A 

better flavor ; still occasionally used for desserts, it is now in most leaf-mildew, Uncinula geniculata, Gerard, has been observed on 

olesome food Morus rubra in New York, but not elsewhere, although it probably 

occurs in other places. Massaria epileuca, Berkeley & Ciirtis, 



countries 



also occurs on Morus 



for poultry or as an ingredient for cooling beverages. 

8 Of the Indian species of Morus, Morus Indica (Linnaeus L c), 

a shrub or small tree of the temperate and subtropical Himalayas, rubra, and is not known on other species. The leaves of Mulberries 

from Cashmere to Sikkim, is the Mulberry usually planted in Ben- are attacked by several spot diseases. Cercospora Moricola, Cooke, 

ffal, Burmah, and the Malay Peninsula, to supply food for the silk- is recorded on both Morus alba and Morus rubra. Phleospora 

worm (Brandis, L c. 409). By some authors it is considered a Mori, Saccardo, a fungus producing brownish spots on the leaves, 



Morus alba, while others still regard 



492) 



has been known to cause much trouble in Italy, and is occasionally 
seen in this country. 



78 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. moeace^. 



Mulberry-trees can be easily raised from seeds which germinate during the spring, and the varieties 
can be increased by cuttings made from the mature wood or from the roots, by root and crown-grafting, 
and by budding in early spring with dormant buds. 

Morus, the classical name of the Mulberry-tree, was adopted for this genus by Tournefort,^ and 
afterward by Linnaeus. 

1 Inst. 589, t. 362. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves ovate, smooth or scabrate on the upper, coated with pale pubescence on the lower surface ; 

fruit oblong, dark purple 1. MoRUS rubra. 

Leaves ovate, smooth or scabrate on the upper, glabrous or pubescent on the lower surface ; fruit 

subglobose or short-ovate, nearly black 2. MoRUS celtidifolia, 



MOKACE-S;, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



MORUS RUBRA. 



Red Mulberry. 



Leaves ovate, smooth or scabrate on the upper, coated with pale pubescence on 
the lower surface. Fruit oblong, dark purple. 



Morus rubra, Linngeus, Spec. 986 (1753). — MiUer, Dic^. 



Du 



ed. 8, No. 3. — Kalm, Travels^ English ed. iii. 64. 

Roi, Ohs. 32 ; Harhk. Baiimz. i. 430. — Wangenheim, 

Beschreih. Nordam. Holz, 95 ; Nordam. Holz, 37, t. 15, 



Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 464. — Dippel, Handb. Laith* 
holzk. ii. 14, f. 5. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 139. 

Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 408 {Man. PI. W. 
Texas) . 



f. 35. 



Moench, Bdume Weiss. 63; Meth. 343. — Mar- Morus Canadensis, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 380 (1797). 



Will- 



shall, Arbust. Am. 93. — Walter, FL Car. 241 

denow, Berl. Baumz. 197 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 369 ; Enum. 
967. 



Seringe, Descr. et Cidt. Mur. 224. — Rafinesque, New Fl, 
iii. 47 (1836) ; Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 29. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 377. 



?/ Morus scabra, Willdenow, Enum. 967 (1809) ; Berl. 



Georgia, ii. t. 70. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, 



Baumz. ed. 2, 252. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 209. — Rafinesque, 



n. 



301. 



Handb 



1. 



637. 



Mi 



New FL iii. 47 (1836) ; 



Man. Mulberry 



chaux, Fl. Bor.'Am. ii. 179. — Nouveau Duhamel, iv. 91, 



29. 



Hayne, Dendr. FL 154. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 492. 



t- 23. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 558. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. Morus tomentosa, Rafinesque, Ft 



u. 



416. 



Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi 



New Fl. 47 ; Am. Man. Midberry 



364. 



Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 232, 1. 10. — Pursh, Morus rubra, var. pallida, Rafinesque, New 



46 



FL Am. Sept. ii. 639. — NuttaU, Gen. ii. 209. — Hayne, 



(1836) ; Am. Man. Midberry Trees, 28. 



Dendr. FL 155. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 574. — Sprengel, Syst. Morus rubra, var. heterophylla, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 



i- 492. — Jaume St. Hilaire, Traite des ArbreSj t. 46. 



46 (1836) ; Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 28. 



Rafinesque, Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 27. — Dietrich, Morus 



Syn. i. 551. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 48. — Moretti, Prodr. 



Man. Midberry 



Monog. Morus, 20. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 280. — Dar- Morus rubra, var. purpurea, Rafinesque, Am. Man. Mul- 



lington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 285. — Seringe, Descr. et Cult. 



berry Trees, 28 (1839). 



Mur 



N. Morus reticulata, Rafinesque, Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 



Car. 1860, iii. 71. — Chapman, Fl. 415. — Koch, Dendr. 



28 (1839). 



ii. 447. — Bureau, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 245. — Ridg- Morus rubra, var. tomentosa. Bureau, De Candolle 



way, Proc. U. S> Nat. Mus. 1882, 73. — Lauche, Deutsche 



Prodr. xvii. 246 (1873), 



Dendr. 343. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Morus rubra, var. incisa, De Candolle, Prodr. xvii. 247 



U. S. ix. 127 ; Garden and Forest, ii. 448. — Watson & 



(1873). 



A tree, sixty to seventy feet in height^ with a short trunk rarely exceeding three or four feet in 
diameter, and stout spreading smooth branches which form a dense broad round-topped shapely head.^ 
The bark of the trunk, which is one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, is dark brown tinged 
with red, and divided into irregular elongated plates separating on the surface into thick appressed 
scales. The branchlets are slender and slightly zigzag, and, when they first appear, are dark green often 
tinp-ed with red, glabrous, or more or less coated with pale pubescence, and covered with oblong straw- 
colored spots ; in their first winter they are light red-brown to orange-color and marked by pale lenticels 
and large elevated horizontal nearly orbicular concave leaf-scars, in which a row of prominent fibro- 



bundle-scars appears; in their second or third year they 



dark brown faintly tinged with 



red 



The buds are 



ded or pointed at the apex, covered by six or seven chestnut-brown 



and a quarter of an inch in length ; the scales of the 



three outer rows are broadly 



roun 



ded 



d shghtly thickened on the back, puberulous, cihate on the margins with short pale ha 



and much shorter than those of the 



these are ovate-oblong:, thick and rounded on the back 



&^ 



1 The largest tnmk of Moms rubra I have seen was that of a Augusta, Georgia, which in 1880 had a diameter of seven feet one 
venerable tree growing on the estate of Mr. P. J. Berckmans in inch, three feet above the surface of the ground. 



80 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. morace^ 



kes two to two and a half inches long 



and very lustrous, inclosing the inner scales, which are scarious, coated with pale hairs, oblong-lanceolate, 
rounded or acute at the apex, and one half to two thirds of an inch long at maturity. The leaves are 
ovate, oblong-ovate, or semiorbicular, abruptly contracted into long broad points or acute at the apex, 
more or less deeply cordate or occasionally truncate at the base, coarsely and occasionally doubly serrate 
with incurved teeth ending in minute callous tips, and sometimes, especially on vigorous young shoots, 
three-lobed by broad deep oblique rounded lateral sinuses, entire in the bottom, the lower lobes being 
again sometimes slightly lobed ; when they unfold they are yellow-green, slightly pilose on the upper 
surface, and coated on the lower surface and on the petioles with thick white tomentum, which soon 
begins to disappear, and at maturity they are thin and membranaceous, dark bluish green, glabrous, 
smooth or scabrate above, and pale and more or less pubescent below with short white hairs, which are 
thickest on the narrow orange-colored ribs and primary veins arcuate and united near the margins, and 
connected by reticulate veinlets, or sometimes in Louisiana and Texas the lower surface is covered with 
a thick coat of white tomentum ; they are three to five inches long, two and one half to four inches 
broad, and are borne on stout terete petioles three quarters of an inch to an inch and one quarter in 
length. The stipules are lanceolate, acute, abruptly enlarged and thickened at the base, sometimes 
tinged with red above the middle, coated with long white hairs, and often an inch long. The leaves 
turn bright yellow, and fall early in the autumn. The flowers appear with the unfolding of the leaves 
from the middle of March in Texas to the middle of June in western New York ; the males are borne 

on stout light green peduncles covered with pale 
hairs, and produced in the axils of the inner bud-scales or of the first leaves, and the females, with 
which a few male flowers are sometimes mixed, in oblong densely flowered spikes an inch long on short 
hairy peduncles in the axils of later leaves. The bud of the staminate flower is conspicuously four- 
lobed, depressed at the apex, green below and dark red above the middle, covered with pale hairs, and 
gradually narrowed into a short hairy pedicel ; after anthesis the calyx is divided nearly to the base into 
four oblong concave lobes rounded at the apex, slightly thickened on the back, and hirsute on the outer 
surface. The filaments are inserted under the margin of the slender minute pointed rudimentary ovary, 
and are slightly flattened, narrowed from the base to the apex, abruptly infolded above the middle in 
the bud and exserted after anthesis ; the anthers are bright green, with conspicuous bright green 
orbicular connectives. The bud of the pistillate flower is obovate, four-lobed, pilose, slightly depressed 
and hirsute at the apex, bright green below and dark red above the middle, and sessile on the stout 
hairy rachis; after anthesis the calyx is divided nearly to the base into four thick concave lobes, 
rounded at the apex, and rounded or slightly angled on the back, the two outer lobes being nearly twice 
as wide as the others ; it is as long as the ovary, which it closely invests, and which is ovate, flattened, 
glabrous, light green and lustrous, and crowned with a short style, divided into two long white 
stigmatic lobes. The compound fruit, which at first is bright red when it is fuUy grown, ripens from 
May to July ; it is an inch to an inch and a quarter long, dark purple or nearly black, and sweet and 
juicy when fully ripe ; the drupes are about one thirty-second of an inch in length, with a thin fleshy 
outer coat and a light brown nutlet. The seed is ovate, acute, and covered with a thin membranaceous 
light brown coat. 

Morus rubra is distributed from western Massachusetts and Long Island, New York, to southern 
Ontario ^ and central Michigan, westward to southeastern Nebraska ^ and eastern Kansas, and southward 
to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano in Florida and the valley of the Colorado River in 
Texas. An inhabitant of the rich soil of intervale lands and low hills, Morus rubra is most abundant, 
and attains its largest size in the basin of the lower Ohio River and on the foothills of the southern 
Appalachian Mountains. 

The wood of Morus rubra is light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarse-grained, and very durable 
when placed in contact with the soil ; it contains may thin meduUary rays and broad bands of large 



1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 430. 



Nebraska 



MORACEjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



81 



open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is light orange-color, with thick lighter colored 
nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5898, a cubic foot weighing 
36.75 pounds. Its durability makes it valuable for fencing, for which it is largely used, as well as in 
cooperage, and in the southern states it is often employed in ship and boat building. From the inner 
bark the Indians of the southern states obtained a fibre with which they wove coarse cloth.^ 

Morus rubra was introduced into English gardens early in the seventeenth century,^ and was first 
described from a cultivated plant in Parkinson's Paradisi in sole Paradisiis TerrestriSy^ pubhshed in 
London in 1629, although the efforts of the Crown to establish sericulture in North America had much 
earlier drawn the attention of travelers in the colonies to the native Mulberry-tree, which is often 
mentioned in their narratives.^ 



The Red Mulberry 



onally planted in orchards in the southe 



fruit, which is considered valuable for fattening hogs and as food for poultry ; but 



for the sake of 
as a fruit-tree 



has been generally neglected by horticulturists who have, ho 



multiplied 



three natural 



ties distinguished for the large size and good quahty of their fruits or for their productiveness 
The size of the Red Mulberry, surpassing as it does in height and beauty all Mulberry-tre< 



5 



of 



temperate regions, the dense shade afforded by its broad compact 



of dark blue 



6 



freedom from disease and the attacks of disfiguring insects, its prolificness, its hardiness except 
earliest years, and the rapidity of its growth in good soil, make it a most desirable ornamental tre( 



its 



Morus foliis amplissimis Fid similibus, fi 



n 



Will 



^ " A fourth chiefe commoditie wee may account to be the great 

number of Mulberrie trees, apt to feede Silke-worms to make p 
silke : whereof there was such plentie in many places, that, though 

they found some hempe in the countrie, the Spaniards made ropes in Virginia in 1610, found by the houses of the settlers "some great 

of the barks of them for their brigandines, when they were to sut mulberrye trees, and these in some parts of the country are found 

to see for Nona Hispania." (^Virginia richly valued. Written by a growing naturally in pretty groves : there was an assay nnade to 

Portugall gentleman of Eluas, emploied in all the action, and trans- make silke, and surely the wormes prospered excellently well until 

lated out of Portuguese, by Richard Hakluyt, Epistle Dedicatore, the master workman fell sick, during which tyme they were eaten 

p. 3 [Force, ColL Hist. Tracts^ iv. No. 1].) with ratts, and this wilbe a commoditie not meanely profitable." 

"This tree (the Mulberry) is found in abundance in the North (^The History of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, ed. Major, 117.) 



Western parts of Florida : the chactaws put its inner bark in hot 



See, also, Nova Britannia : Offering most excellent fruites for Plant- 



water along with a quantity of ashes and obtain filaments, with ing in Virginia. London, 1609, p. 16 (Force, L c. i. No. 6) ; A 
which they weave a kind of cloth not unlike a coarse hempen Perfect Description of Virginia, London, 1G19, in which among the 
cloth." (Romans, Nat, Hist, Florida, 142. See, also, Le Page du natural products of the Colony are mentioned " Mulbery-trees, the 



Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, ii. 192.) 

2 Aiton, Hort, Kew. iii. 343. — Loudon, Arh, Brit, iii. 1359, t 
^ Morus Virginiana, 599, f . 4 ; Theatr, 1492. 



natural and proper food for Silke- wormes, they have abundance in 
the woods, and some so large that one tree contains as many leaves 
as will feed Silke-wormes that will make as much Silk as may be 



Corylus maxima folio latissimo Virginiana, Ray, Hist, PL ii. 1799. worth five pounds sterling money, this some French men affirm," 
Morifolia Virginiensis arbor , Loti arboris instar ramosa, foliis p. 6 (Force, L c. ii. No. 8); and Virginia: more especially the South 



amplissimis, Plukenet, Phyt, t. 246, f. 4 ; Aim, Bot, 253. — Miller, 

Did. No. 6. 

Morus Virginiana, foliis latissimis scabrisy fructu rubro longiori, 

Miller, Diet. No. 5. 



part thereof. Richly and truly valued, ed. 2, by E. W. Gent, London, 
1650 (Force, I c. iii. No. 11). 

^ L. H. Bailey, Bull, Hort. Div, Cornell Agric, Exper, Stat, No. 

10, 238. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXX. Morus rubra. 

1. A flowering branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5- A staminate flower before the exsertion of the stamens, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a staminate flower with one stamen partly exserted, 

enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

8. A pistil, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much magnified. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A fruit inclosed in the fleshy calyx, enlarged. 

13. A nutlet, enlarged. 

14. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

15. A seed, enlarged. 

16. An embryo, much magnified. 

17. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab CCCXX^ 




C.E-Faa^rv det. 



Toule^ 



sc 



MORUS RUBRA, L 



A,IUocreua> du^ecc. 



Imp. J. rarbeur , P oris , 



MOEACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



83 



MORUS CELTIDIFOLIA. 



Mulberry. Mexican Mulberry. 

Leaves ovate, smooth or scabrous on the upper, glabrous or pubescent on the lower 
surface. Fruit subglobose or short-ovate, nearly black. 



Morus celtidifolia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Morus Mexicana, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 71 (1839). 



Gen. et Spec. li. 33 (1817). — Kunth, Syn. Fl. jEquin. 
i. 370. — Rafinesque, Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 32, 
Dietrich, Syn. i. 551. — Bureau, De Candolle Prodr, 



« • 



XVll. 



246. 



Hemsley, Bot, Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 141. 



Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 448. 



Llebmann, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. ser. 5, ii. 314. 
Morus microphylla, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 
8. — Gray, Proc. Phil Acad. 1862, 167. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 128. — Coulter, 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 408 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



A tree^ sometimes thirty feet in height in the United States^ with a trunk occasionally twelve to 
fourteen inches in diameter, or usually much smaller, and often reduced to a low shrub ; or in northern 
Mexico frequently much larger. The bark of the trunk is smooth, sometimes nearly half an inch thick, 
although usually thinner, light gray, slightly tinged with red, deeply furrowed and broken on the 
surface into small appressed scales. The branchlets, when they first appear, are covered with soft white 
hairs ; they soon become glabrous or nearly so, and during their first winter are hght orange-red 
marked with small lenticels, and with small horizontal nearly orbicular elevated concave leaf-scars in 
which appears a ring of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The buds are ovate, acute, sharp-pointed, and 
covered with thin lustrous chestnut-brown ovate rounded scales, scarious on the margins ; those of the 



oblong, rounded at the 



coated on the outer surface with pal 



in 



pubescence, and nearly an inch long when fully grown. The leaves are ovate, acute or acuminate at 
the apex, rounded or rarely truncate at the broad base, and coarsely and sharply serrate, or often, 
especially on vigorous shoots, they are three-lobed with shallow lateral sinuses and broad coarsely 
serrate lobes, and are then frequently cordate at the base ; when they unfold they are coated below and 
on the petioles with pale tomentum, and are puberulous above ; and at maturity they are thin and firm 
texture, dark green and often roughened on the upper surface with minute pale tubercles, and 
paler, smooth or scabrate on the lower surface, which is glabrous or coated with soft pale pubescence, 
and often hirsute with short stiff pale hairs on the broad orange-colored ribs and on the primary veins, 
which are arcuate and united near the margins, and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; on 
wild trees in the United States they are rarely more than an inch and a half in length and three 
quarters of an inch to an inch in width, and are borne on slender pubescent petioles, one third of an 
inch long ; on trees cultivated in northern Mexico the leaves are thinner, smoother, and often four or 
five inches long, and two to three inches wide. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, acute, sometimes 
falcate, white and scarious, coated with soft pale tomentum, and about half an inch in length. The 
leaves turn yellow in the autumn before falling. The flowers open from March in the Texas lowlands 
to April and May on the mountains of Chihuahua and New Mexico ; they are usually dioecious, and are 
borne on slender hairy peduncles produced in the axils of the caducous bud-scales or of the first leaves, 



males being short-pedicellate in short many-flowered spikes one half to three quarters of 



ch 



& 



and the females sessile in few-flowered spikes, which rarely exceed one third of an inch in length 



The calyx of the staminate flower is dark green, covered on the 



rface with soft pale hairs, and 



deeply divided 



four equal rounded lobes, reddish toward the apex. The stamens are inserted 

' slightly flattened 



under the margin of the minute rudimentary ovary, and are composed of slender sli< 

brio-ht yellow anthers, with conspicuous darker green connectives. The calyx of the pistillate flo 



84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MORACE^. 



divided to the base into four thick rounded lobes, the two outer lobes being much broader than the 



others, and is dark 



green 



and covered with pale scattered hairs, which are most abundant on the 



margins o£ the lobes. 



The 



ovary is flattened, green and glabrous, and is surmounted 




a short 



style, divided into two short white stigmatic branches. The fruit, which ripens from May to July, and 
is sparingly produced on wild trees, is haK an inch long, dark purple or nearly black, and sweet and 
palatable. The drupe is two lines long, ovate, rounded at both ends, with a thin fleshy outer covering 

The seed is ovate, pointed, and covered with a membranaceous 



and a thick-walled light brown nutlet. 



pale yellow testa. 

In the United States Moms celtidifolia is 
southward in Texas, and through the mountain regions of western Texas and southern New Mexico to 



distributed from the valley of the Colorado River 



the Santa Rita Mountains of Arizona ; in the east it grows on dry limestone hills, where it usually 
appears as a low shrub, or on the banks of streams, where it is associated with the Black Walnut, the 



Ash-leaved Maple, the Spanish Buckeye, and the Texas Oak, often developing into a shapely 
farther west it is found only in 



elevated mountain canons in the neighborhood of streams 



It 



IS 



common on the mountain rancres of northern Mexico from Nu 
southward through southern Mexico and Central America to Peru 



Leo 



to Chihuah 



d 



ranges 



The wood of Monis celtidifolia is heavy, hard, close-grained, and contains numerous thin medul 



rowth ; it is dark orang 



lary rays and bands of smaU open ducts marking the layers of annual ^ 

or sometimes dark brown, with thick light yellow sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 

wood is 0,7715, a cubic foot weighing 48.08 pounds. It was formerly used for bows by the Indians of 



Texas 



1 



Discovered by Humboldt among the Andes of Ecuador, Moms celtidifol 



first noticed 



Texas in the neighborhood of the German colony of New Braunfels by Ferdinand Lindheimer 



the countries south of the United States it is frequently planted as a fruit-tree,^ 
which it produces is inferior in size and flavor to that of the Red and Black Mulberry 



In 



although the fruit 



1 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 507, 

2 See i. 74. 



s Kunth, Syn. PL ^quin. i. 370. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXI. Morus celtidifolia. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet cut open transversely, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 

10- A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America. 



Tab. CCCXXI. 



- • 




/ 





MORUS CELTIDIFOLIA.H.BK. 




me' so. 





Imp. J. Taneicr, I^aris 



MORACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



85 



TOXYLON. 



Flowers dioecious ; calyx 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; corolla ; 
stamens 4, incurved before anthesis ; disk pulvinate, minute ; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; 
ovule solitary, suspended. Fruits drupaceous, united into a globose syncarp. Leaves 
alternate, entire, stipulate, deciduous. 



Toxylon (loxylon), Rafinesque, Am. Monthl. Mag. and 278. — Meisner, Gen. 351. — Baillon, ifis^. PZ. vi. 193. 



Crit. Rev. ii. 118 (1817) ; New Fl. iii. 42. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 363. — Engler, Engler & 



Madura, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 233 (1818). — Endlicher, Gen. Frantl PJlanzenf am. iii. ^t i. 17 4:. 



A tree, with thick milky slightly acrid juice^ thick deeply furrowed dark orange-colored hark, 
stout tough terete flexible pale branches;, with thick orange-colored pith, marked with raised orange- 
colored lenticels, often armed with stout straight axillary spines, short stout spur-like branchlets devel- 
oped from lateral buds at the base of the spines, and thick fleshy flexible roots covered with bright 
orange-colored bark exf ohating freely in long thin papery persistent scales. Buds ^ formed in summer, 
depressed-globose, partly immersed in the bark, covered with a few closely imbricated ovate rounded 
light chestnut-brown caducous scales, cihate on the margins. Leaves involute in vernation, ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate and apiculate at the apex, rounded, wedge-shaped or subcordate at the 
base, entire, penniveined, the veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by inconspicuous 
reticulate veinlets, petiolate with elongated slender terete pubescent petioles obscurely grooved on the 
upper side, at first pubescent on the upper surface, and coated on the lower with soft white tomentum, 
at maturity glabrous, or pubescent on the under surface of the prominent midribs and veins, thick and 
firm, dark green and very lustrous above, paler and dull below, deciduous, marking the branchlets in 
falling with large pale elevated concave leaf-scars displaying a central ring of small fibro-vascular bundle 
scars ; stipules lateral, nearly triangular, minute, coated with pale tomentum, caducous. Flowers hght 
green, minute, appearing in early summer, the staminate long-pedicellate in short or ultimately elongated 
racemes borne on long slender drooping peduncles developed from the axils of crowded leaves on the 
spur-like branchlets of the previous year, the pistillate sessile in dense globose many-flowered heads on 
short stout peduncles axiUary on shoots of the year. Calyx of the staminate flower ovate, gradually 
narrowed into the slender pubescent pedicel, coated on the outer surface with pale hairs, divided to the 
middle into four equal acute boat-shaped lobes. Stamens four, inserted opposite the lobes of the calyx 
on the margin of a minute thin pulvinate disk j wanting in the pistillate flower ; filaments flattened, 
light green, glabrous, infolded above the middle in the bud, with the anthers inverted and back to 
back, straightening abruptly in anthesis, exserted ; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the 
middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells attached laterally to a minute oblong or semiorbicular connective, 
free and spreading above and below, opening by longitudinal lateral slits. Calyx of the pistillate flower 
ovate, divided to the base into four oblong thick concave lobes, rounded, thickened and covered with 
pale hairs at the apex, longer than the ovary and closely investing it, the two outer lobes much broader 
than the others, accrescent, persistent, and inclosing the fruit. Ovary ovate, compressed, sessile, green 
and glabrous, crowned by a long slender filiform style covered with white stigmatic hairs ; wanting in 



1 Toxylon does not form a terminal bud, the end of the branch branch then remaining rough and thickened during several years 

withering and falling oflf before midsummer ; the following spring by the persistent crowded scars left by the leaves of the branchlet. 

it is prolonged by an upper axillary bud or often by an axillary (Foerste, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cluby xx. 163, t. 147, f. 1.) 
bud on one of the last lateral spur-like branchlets, the base of the 



86 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MORACE^. 



the 



flower ; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, anatrop 



Fruit drupa 



oblono-, compressed, rounded and often notched at the apex, acute at the base ; epicarp thin and 



succulent ; endocarp thin, crustaceous, light brown. 
obHque and marked at the apex by the conspicuous 
membranaceous. 



Seed oblong. 



compressed 



ded at the base 



blong pale hilum, destitute of albumen 



testa 



o 



anaceous, light chestnut-br 
ated, incumbent, ascending, 
jy tough perianths, globose 



Embryo recurved 



tyledons oblong 



ly equal; radicle 



Syncarp formed by the union of the thickened and much elongated 

the 



saturated with milky juice, mammillate on the surface 




ir 



thickened rounded summits, light yellow 
individuals. 



ally of full 



but seedless on isolated pistillate 



The wood of Toxylon is heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, flexible 



grained, with a 



satiny surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish, and very durable in contact with the ground 
it contains numerous thin conspicuous medullary rays, many small open ducts and broad bands of large 
ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is bright orange-colored, turning brown on exposure t 



the atmosphere, with thin light yellow sapwood composed of five to ten layers of 



growth 



The 
It is 



specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7736, a cubic foot weighing 48.21 pounds, 
largely used for fence-posts, pavement-blocks, railway ties,* and wheel-stock, and as a substitute for Olive 

it was employed by the Osage and other 




wood in the manufacture of many small articles; formei 
Indians west of the Mississippi River for bows and war-clubs. 

The bark of the roots of Toxylon, which contains moric and morintannic acid,^ has some 



yellow dy 



3 



d that of the trunk is sometimes used in tanning leather 



4 



The earliest account of the Osage Orange appears in the 



6 



of Dunbar and Hunter's journey 



made in 1804 from St. Catherine's Landing on the Mississippi to the Washita River. It was first found 



by Mr. Dunbar 



6 



the Dost of the Washita, althousrh traders with the Indians of the Red River had 



doubtless been familiar with their Bois d'Arc before this, for in 1810 Bradbury^ found two trees 

In the preface to 



in Pierre Chouteau's^ garden in St 



growing 

Pursh's Flora Amer 



Louis old enough to bear fruit 



Ser)tentrionaliSy published in 1814^ allusion is made to its discovery 




the expedition which crossed and recrossed the continent in 1804-1806 under command of Captains 
Lewis and Clark, although there is no mention of the tree in their published journals. Early in this 
century seeds of the Osage Orange were received in Philadelphia by Bernard MacMahon^ and David 



1 "In 1873 we procured from Texas some railroad ties of Osage ture. He visited Pittsburgh, and then joining a company formed to 

Orange, and had them put in the road-bed of the New York Divi- colonize West Florida, became a planter, settling in Baton Rouge, 

sion of the Pennsylvania Railroad alongside of oak, chestnut, and and afterward in Natchez. He was a friend and correspondent of 

catalpa. The soft woods were all torn out in two or three years, Jefferson, and received several appointments under the Federal 

but the Osage Orange, after twenty-one years, is still in place, Government. He was a member of the American Philosophical 

after having been turned several times, and still as good as the first Society, and contributed to its Proceedings papers on ethnology, 



year 



J? 



(Bernet Landreth in litt., July, 1893.) 



2 King, Am. Jour, Pharm, xlvi. 275. 

8 Guibourt, Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 325. — Baillon, Hist PL vi- 1810, and 1811, 159, 



meteorology, and astronomy. 

^ Travels in the Interior of North America in the Years 1809, 



179. 



U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1848. 



^ Reverchon, Garden and Forest, vi. 524. 



Bradbury describes the bows and war-clubs made from the wood 
of the Osage Orange as well as the two cultivated trees. In 



^ The Message of the President of the United States, February 19, Arkansas the price of a bow made of the wood was in his time a 

1806, commimicating discoveries made in exploring the Missouri, horse and blanket. 

Red, and Washita Rivers, 166. 8 Pierre Chouteau (1749-1849), a native of New Orleans, was 

Dunbar praised the appearance of the Osage Orange, which he one of the settlers of St. Louis, the site of which he selected with 

considered one of the most beautiful trees he had seen, suggested his brother Auguste in 1763. By honesty and intelligence he 

its probable value as a hedge-plant, and alluded to the dye obtained acquired wealth in trading with the Indians, over whom he had 

by the Indians from its roots. great influence, and lived to see a great city rise on the uninhabited 

6 William Dunbar (about 1746-1810) was born in Scotland, and bluff where he had landed as a young man. 

educated in Glasgow and London. His proficiency in mathematics ^ Bernard MacMahon (about 1775-1816) was born in Ireland, 
and astronomy made him known to Sir William Herschel, with 
whom he corresponded for many years. In 1771, Dunbar, being 



and was of good birth aud fortune. Obliged to leave Ireland 
owing: to his connection with one of the unsuccessful rebellions which 



out of health, came to Philadelphia in charge of a mercantile ven- distracted it during the last years of the eighteenth century, he 



M0RACE-3a. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



87 



Landreth,^ who raised plants from them ; it was sent to England in 1818/ and two years later was cul- 
tivated in the nurseries of Jacques Martin Cels^ in Paris.^ 

Toxylon is remarkably free from the attacks of destructive insects ^ and fungal diseases.^ 

The generic name, first misprinted loxylon, from to^ov and ^v%ov^ alludes to the Indian use of the 



wood 



The genus is represented by a single species 



catne to the United States in 1796. MacMahon enjoyed the friend- and produced no fruit until some years later, when the flowers 
ship of Jefferson and other distinguished Americans, and it is sup- were artificially impregnated hy pollen brought from another tree 
posed that the arrangement for the Lewis & Clark Expedition was supposed to have been growing in MacMahon's garden, 
made at his house in Philadelphia. In 1809 he established a seed 
and nursery business in his garden, which he supplemented by a 
seed store on Second Street, near Market. The site of his gar- 
den is now occupied by the yards of the Philadelphia & Reading ^ The larvse of a large beetle, Dorchaschema Wildii, Uhler, some- 
Railroad at Huntington Station in Philadelphia. MacMahon was times bore into the trunks and injure or destroy Toxylon. Various 
the author of the American Gardeners^ Calendar, published in 1806, grasshoppers, crickets, and other insects sometimes eat the leaves, 
which subsequently passed through several editions, and is still one and the larvsB of such small moths as Teras hastiana, Linnaeus, and 
of the most comprehensive and useful books of its class that has Lophoderus triferanus, Walker, occasionally injure them. A Pyra- 



2 Loudon, Gard. Mag, i, 356. 

^ See ii. 4. 

4 Delile, Bull Soc. d'Agric, Herault, 1835, 195. 



wr 



Maho 



la, a genus of handsome evergreen shrubs of lid, Loxostege Maclurce, Riley (Insect Life, v. 155, f. 11), appears to 
western North America and eastern Asia, now considered a section be peculiar to the genus. Scale insects, or Coccids, like Pulvinaria 



of Berberis, was dedicated to him by Thomas Nuttall. 



innumerabilis, Rathvon, are sometimes found on Toxylon. Silk- 



^ David Landreth (1752-1836) was a native of Brunswick on the worms feed and thrive on the leaves (Riley, BulL No. 9, Division of 
Tweed, and the son of a Northumberland farmer. Having learned Entomology, U. S. Dept, Agric, 58). 



the art of tree-growing, he emigrated to Canada in 1781, removing 



^ The commonest parasite of Toxylon, Sphceria collecta, Schwei- 



shortly afterward to Philadelphia, where, in 1786, in partnership nitz, appears in the form of small black pustules on twigs and 

with his brother Cuthbert, he established the nursery and seed busi- smaller branches, which it appears to destroy, although the fungus 

ness, which is still carried on by his descendants, who have always is best seen on the twigs after they are dead. Valsa Maclurce^ 

occupied prominent and honorable positions in the agricultural and Berkeley & Curtis, CollospJiceria corticata, Ellis & Everhart, Septo- 

horticultural industries of the country. In 1804 or 1805 David sphceria Maclurce, Ellis & Everhart, and Sphcerella Maclurce, Ellis 

Landreth received from the Lewis & Clark Expedition seeds of the & Everhart, are small Pyrenomycetes sometimes found on Toxy- 

Osage Orange, which produced a number of plants. One of these, Ion ; and a rust fungus, Uredo Citri, Cooke, has been seen once on 

planted in front of the old Landreth mansion house on the ground its leaves. 



now occupied by the Landreth School, at 22d and Federal Streets, 
Philadelphia, flowered before the others ; it was a pistillate tree. 



' Rafinesque, New FL iii. 42. 



MORACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



TOXYLON POMIFERUM. 



Osage Orange. Bow Wood. 



Toxylon (loxylon) pomiferum, Eafinesque, Am. MonthL 

Mag. and CHt. Rev. ii. 118 (1817). — Greene, Pittoniay 
ii. 122. — Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agrlc. 1892, 327. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 139. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. 
Nat. Hevh. ii. 408 {Man. PL W. Texas). 
Madura aurantiaca, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 234 (1818) ; Jour. 
Phil. Acad. vii. pt. i. 52 ; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. ser. v. 
169 ; Sylva^ i. 126, t. 37, 38. — James, Long's Exped. ii. 



47. 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1362, f . 1226-1228. 



Spach, 



Hist. Veg. xi. 53. — Blume, Mua. Bot, Lugd. Bat. ii. 



82. — Miquel, Martins Fl. BrasiL iv. pt. i. 158. — Koch, 
Dendr. ii. 437. — Bureau, De Candolle Prodr. xvii. 
227. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 339, f. 130. — Sargent, 



Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 128. 



Wat- 



158. 



Soulange-Bodin, Ann. Soc. Hort. Paris, i. 181. 



Desf ontaines, Cat. Hort. Paris ^ ed. 3, 347. — Seringe, 



son & Coulter, Gi^ay's Man. ed, 6, 464. — Dippel, Handb. 
Laubholzk. ii. 15. 
Broussonetia tinctoria, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 246 
(not Kunth) (1828). 



Trans. Soc.d'Agric. Lyons, 1835, 125, t. ; Descr. et Cidt. Toxylon aurantiacum, Rafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 268 



Mur. 232, t. 27. — Delile, Bidl. Soc. d'Agric. Herault, 



(1830). 



1835, 189, t. — Lambert, Pinus^ ed. 2, ii. Appx. 32, t. Toxylon Madura, Rafinesque, New FL iii. 43 (1836) ; 



12. 



Denson, London Gard. Mag. n. ser. i. 312, f. 45 



Aut. Bot. 149; Am. Man. Mulberry Trees, 13. 



A tree, sometimes fifty to sixty feet in height, with a short trunk two to three feet in diameter, and 
stout erect ultimately spreading branches which form a handsome rather open irregular round-topped 
head. The bark of the trunk is two thirds of an inch to an inch in thickness, and is deeply and 
irregularly divided into broad rounded ridges separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. The 
branchlets, when they first appear, are light green, often tinged with red, and coated with soft pale 
pubescence, which soon disappears, and during their first winter they are light brown slightly tinged 



with 



orange-color, later becoming paler. 



The leaves are three to five inches long, two to three 



inches wide, and are borne on petioles an inch and a half to two inches in length ; in the autumn they 
turn a bright clear yellow before falling. The racemes of staminate flowers with their peduncles are an 
inch to an inch and a half long, and the heads of pistillate flowers are three quarters of an inch in 
diameter. The fruit, which is four or five inches in diameter, ripens in the autumn, and soon falls to 
the ground, where it lies under the trees until it rots or is eaten by horses or cattle. 

Toxylon jpomifermn is distributed from southern Arkansas south of the Arkansas River through 
the southeastern portions of the Indian Territory, and southward in Texas to about latitude 35° 56^^ 
north. It is an inhabitant of rich bottom-lands, and appears to be most abundant and to attain its 
greatest size in the valley of the Red River in the Indian Territory. 

An inhabitant of a region of comparatively limited area, of high winter and summer temperature 
and of copious rainfall, the Osage Orange, nevertheless, flourishes on the dry soil of the western prairies 
and in the severe climate of New England ; and during the last forty years it has been more used in 
the western states for making Hve fences, or hedges, than any other plant.^ Its hardiness and rapid 
srrowth,^ the toughness of its well-armed branches, and its freedom from disease and insect enemies. 



make it valuable for this purpose, 
the beauty of the large fruits which in 
desirable ornaments of parks and garde 



1 McGraw, Rep. Commissioner of Patents, 1854, Agriculture, 



The good habit, the large lustrous and abundant leaves. 



and 



the branches of the pistillate trees, make them 



418. 



S. A. Lindley, Ibid. 1855, 315. —Torrey, Ibid. 1857, 242. 



^ The log specimen of Toxylon in the Jesup Collection of North 
American Woods in the American Museum of Natural History in 



Warder, Hedges and Evergreens, 35, t. 5, 173, 215. — Porcher, New York, grown in southern Arkansas, is twenty-four inches and 

Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 101. See also notes on a half in diameter, and shows one hundred and thirty-four layers 

the value of the Osage Orange, with directions for its cultivation of annual growth, 
as a timber-tree in Forestry Manual of the Kansas State Hort. Soc. 

1881, 10. 



90 



SILVA OF NOBTE AMERICA. morace^. 



The Osage Orange can be easily raised from seeds which germinate the first season; or from 



uttings of the 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXII. Toxtlon pomiferum. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. A staminate flower just before anthesis, enlarged. 

6. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a head of pistillate flowers, enlarged 

9. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

11. An ovule, much magnified. 

12. A stipule, enlarged. 



Plate CCCXXIII. Toxylon pomiferum. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nutlet, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

4. An embryo seen from the two sides, enlarged. 

5. Section of a syncarp, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

7. Portion of a winter branchlet with a spine and lateral bud, 

enlarged. 

8. A leaf-scar, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXXII. 




C.E.Facaon. deZ 



Rap 



'Lne sc 



TOXYLON POMIFERUM .Raf 



^.JUocr&i^c dzreccr. 



Imp. J. ToTieur^Paris. 



Silva of l^orth America. 



Tal). CCCXXIII. 




CE.Fa£coTudeL 




j-o. 



TOXYLON POMIFERUM, Raf. 



j4.,Iiiocreuiz> (iirea>r' 



Jrnp, J. Tcuz&ur , I^ (xris 



MOKACKSJ. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



FICUS. 



Flowers mostly unisexual, usually monoecious or dioecious, collected on a con- 
) receptacle closed at the apex ; calyx 2 to 6-parted or divided, the divisions imbri- 

; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; 



cated in aestivation 



olla ; stamens 1 to 3 : disk 



ovule solitary, suspended. Fruit drupaceous, more or less immersed in the thickened 



fleshy re< 
deciduous 



ptacle. Leaves alternate or 



rely 



•pposite, stipulate, persistent 



or 



Picus, Linnaeus, Gen. 321 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PL ii. Galoglychia, Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 10 (1844). 



377. 
278. 



A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 400. — Endliclier, Gen. Sycomorphe, Miquel, Ann. Sci. Nat. sir. 3, i. 35 (1844). 



Meisner, Gen. 350. — BaUlon, Hist. PI. vi. 208. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 367. — G. King, Jour. Linn. 



Soc. xxiv. 42. 
89. 



PJlanzenfc 



Gonosuke, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 58 (1838). 
Varinga, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 58 (1838). 
Necalistis, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 58 (1838). 
Oluntos, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 58 (1838). 
Perula, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 58 (1838). 
Rephesis, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 59 (1838). 
Tremotis, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 59 (1838). 
Mastosuke, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 59 (1838) 

Caprificus, Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 6 (1844). 

Urostigma, Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 9 (1844). 
Visiania, Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 9 (1844). 
Covellia, Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 10 (1844). 



Macrophthalma, Gasparini, Bicerch. Caprif. 83, t. 7 

(1845). 
Erythrogyne, Visiani ; Gasparini Ricerch. Caprif. 86 

(1845). 
Sycomorus, Gasparini, Bicerch. Caprif. 86 (1845). 

Plagiostigma, Zucearini, Abhand. Acad. Milnch. iv. pt. i. 



154 (1845). 



Nat 



• • • 

Ul. 



345 



Cystogyne, Gasparini, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6t. 3, 

(1845). 
SyncBcia, Miquel, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot vi. 525 (1847). 
Pharmacosycea, Miquel, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. vii. 64 

(1848). 
Pogonotrophe, Miquel, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. vii. 72 

(1848) . 



Trees or shrubs^ sometimes scandent, often epiphytal^ with thick milky juice, naked or rarely scaly 
buds, and thick fleshy roots which are frequently produced from the branches, and, entering the ground, 



d form supplementary stems, so that an individual often gradually spreads 



d lives to a great 



Leaves alternate 



ely opposite 



dentate 



sometimes 



pules deciduous, often fugacious, interpetiolar, embracing 



young leaves, or lateral in pairs at the base of the petiole 



lobed, penniveined, persistent or deciduo 
the leaf-bearing axis and inclosing the 
rarely in some annual-leaved species scale-like, minute, covering the leaf -buds. Flower-bearing recep- 
tacle homorphous or rarely dimorphous, globose, ovoid, ellipsoidal, obovate, or pyriform, narrowed, and 
often contracted at the base into a short stipe, sessile or pedunculate, solitary by abortion, or in pairs, 
in the axils of existing or fallen leaves, or in axillary fascicles or on abbreviated leafless lateral branchlets 
from the trunk or large branches, or in long nearly leafless branches close to the ground, and more or 
less hypogseus, or very rarely in dense heads arranged on long pendulous leafless branches 3 sometimes 
inclosed while young in a posterior hood-like caducous involucre, usually surrounded at the base 
three anterior bracts, distinct or united into an involucral cup, be 




on the 



the 



apex 



numerous rows of minute triangular viscid bracts closing the orifice, those of the lower rows turned 
downward into the cavity of the receptacle and infolding the upper flowers, those immediately above 
these horizontal^ and the upper rows projecting from the orifice and forming a more or less prominent 
umbilicus, or occasionally united into a ring surrounding the orifice. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, the 

ripening of the fruit, unisexual, occasionaUy 



pedicels thickening an 



d becoming succulent with the 



92 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



HORACES. 



perfect, gall/ or rarely asexual, often separated by chaffy scales or hairs ; the staminate, gall, and fertile 
flowers collected on the same receptacle, or the staminate and gall flowers on distinct receptacles, with 
the perfect and asexual flowers on others, or the staminate and gall flowers on one set of receptacles, 
and the pistillate on another set. Calyx of the staminate flower usually divided into two to six sepals, 
or gamopetalous and two to six-lobed, or wanting. Stamens one or two, or rarely three ; filaments 
short, erect, or rarely elongated, when more than one united throughout their length ; anthers innate 
or rarely adnate, ovate, broad and subrotund, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally j wanting in 
the pistillate and gall flowers. Sepals or lobes of the calyx of the fertile and gall flowers usually 
narrower than those of the staminate flower. Ovary sessile, erect, or oblique, surmounted by the elon- 
gated lateral style, crowned with a clavate cylindric peltate, or two-lobed stigma ; wanting in the pistil- 
late flower ; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex or laterally below the apex of the cell, anatropous. 



Gall flower long-pedicellate, the ovary ovoid 



or globular, crowned 



with a usually abbreviated often 



central style, occupied by the pupa of a hymenopterous insect. Fruit drupaceous, mostly immersed in 
the thickened succulent receptacle, obovoid or reniform, rarely globular j exocarp thin, mucilaginous \ 



endocarp thin, crustaceous, minutely tuberculate. Seed suspended; testa membranaceous, 
curved in thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons equal or unequal, longer than the incumbent radicle. 



Embryo 



2 



Ficus, of which about six hundred species ^ have been described, is widely distributed through the 



1 The term gall flower, proposed by Solms-Laubach {BoL Zeit. flowers in one set of receptacles, the pistillate and asexual flowers in 



GescMechterdiffi 



another ; stamen 1 or very rarely 2 ; leaves tessellate on the lower 



FeigenhdumenY) for certain pistillate flowers of Ficus used by insects surface ; receptacles large and colored. Climbing shrubs. 



as nests in which to deposit their eggs, has been adopted by G. King 
in his Species of Ficus of the Indo-Malayan and Chinese Countries 



Sycidium. Flowers unisexual, the staminate and gall flowers in 
one set of receptacles, the pistillate flower in another ; stamen 1 



(Ann. Bat. Gard. Calcutta, i.). As described by Dr. King, the or very rarely 2 ; receptacles generally axillary, more or less sea- 
gall flowers resemble in many cases the fertile pistillate flowers, brate. Small trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, rarely epiphytal. 



with a similar calyx, and an ovary and style, although the style is 



COVELLIA, Flowers unisexual ; staminate and gall flowers to- 



more terminal, shorter, straighter, and broadly dilated at the apex, gether in one set of receptacles, the pistillate flowers in another ; 

which is slightly if at all stigmatic. In their later stages gall calyx of the staminate flower divided into three or four sepals ; 

flowers can be distinguished from the fertile fruit by their longer stamen 1 ; calyx of the pistillate flower gamophyllous or rarely of 

pedicels and more globular shape, and by the smooth not tubercu- four or five sepals much shorter than the ovary, or wanting ; recep- 

late pericarp without fleshy covering. Their peculiarities of struc- tacles on long aphyllous branches produced near the base of the 

ture are not believed to be the results of insect visitations, but to stem, often subhypogseus, or on abbreviated branchlets from the 

have led to their selection by insects as their nests. In many stem or large branches, or axillary. Trees or shrubs, not climbing 

species of Ficus, especially in those of the section Urostigma, no or epiphytal. 



external difference between the fertile female and the gall flowers 



EusYCE, Flowers unisexual, the male and gall flowers in one set 



exist, and it is only possible to distinguish the female by opening of receptacles, the pistillate flowers in another ; stamens usually 2, 

rarely 1 or 3 ; receptacles axillary ; leaves alternate, villous or 



the ovaries. 



No investigations of the flowers of the two Florida species of glabrous, deciduous or persistent. Small trees or shrubs, scandent 
Ficus with reference to their fertilization by insects have been or erect, rarely epiphytal. 



made ; and we have been unable to find in the receptacles pre- 



Neomorphe. Flowers unisexual, the male and gall flowers in 



served in the herbarium any traces of the pupse of insects in the one set of receptacles, the pistillate flowers in another and smaller ; 
female flowers, which in both species vary in the length of the calyx inflated into three or four membranaceous sepals ; stamens 2 ; 



pedicels, or in the fruit, which is frequently hollow. 



receptacles large, fascicled on abbreviated branchlets from the stem 



2 By G. King {I. c. 1) Ficus is divided into the following sec- or large branches. Trees, usually scandent, not epiphytal. 



tions, several of which were first characterized by Miquel (Ann, 
Mus, Lugd. Bat. iii. 214, 260) : 



^ Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 117. 
Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. ii. 436. — Miquel, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4v. 



Pal^omorphe. Staminate and gall flowers in different recep- 3, i, 31 ; Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. vi. 514 ; vii. 563 ; Verh. Acad. 
tacles from those containing the pistillate flowers, the staminate Amst. i. Ill (Afrik Vijge-Boom.') ; Martius Fl. BrasiL iv. pt. i. 106 ; 
with a single stamen and a rudimentary pistil. Small trees or Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iii. 214, 260. — Liebmann, Dansk. Vidensk. 



erect or subscandent shrubs. 



Selsk. Skrift. ser. 3, ii. 319, — Bentham, Fl. Austral, vi. 160. 
Urostigma. Flowers unisexual ; receptacles usually tribrao- Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 150. — Seemann, Fl. Vit. 247. 



Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 434. 



Baker, FL Maur. Sf 

the same receptacle; stamen 1 or rarely 2; stigmas elongated, Seychel. 283. — KxxvZy Forest Fl. Brit. Burnt, ii. 435. — Parodi, ^nn, 
usually acute; leaves alternate, entire, coriaceous, subcoriaceous, Soc. Cienc. Argent, v. 87 (Contrib. Fl. Parag. 35). — Boissier, i^. 
or rarely membranaceous. Usually trees or large climbing shrubs, Orient, iv. 1153. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 143. — G. 



epiphytal in youth. 



/• 



Watson 



Syncecia. Flowers unisexual or asexual, the staminate and gall Acad. xxiv. 77 ; xxvi. 150. 



MORACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



trop 



of both hemispheres, the largest number being found on the islands of the Malay Arehipelag 



and the Pacific Ocean ; a few species extend beyond the tropics into Mexico, southern Florida, which 
mhabited by two indigenous Fig-trees, Argentina, southern Japa 
the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, and southern Africa- 



d China, the countries borderin 



The typ 



ancient 



having 



existed in the cretaceous age, when several species of Ficus flourished in Europe,^ and during tertiary 
times in North America, where Ficus then abounded with many species in the northern Rocky Mountain 
region ^ and ranged to the shores of the Pacific Ocean .^ 

Some of the species of Ficus produce edible fruit, the most valuable as fruit-trees being Ficus 
CariQa^ the type of the genus, and Ficus Sycomoriis.^ From the thick milky juice of others India 
rubber is made,^ All the species produce soft light perishable wood. 



1 



Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 204. — Zittel, fig on Fig-trees at the fruiting season or in planting occasional 



Handh, Palceontolog. 478, f. 283-285. 



1-63 



3-6 



Western 



Ward 



1884-85, 552, t. 44-46 {Si/n. Fl. Laramie Group), 
IX, Mem, Mus. Comp. ZooL vi. pt. ii. 17, t. 4, f. 6-11 
of the Auriferous Gravel Deposits of the Sierra Nevada.) 



Caprifigs in Fig orchards in order that the female insects which 
are hatched from eggs laid in the gall flowers of the Caprifig may 
enter the receptacles of the Fig-tree, and insure the fertilization of 
the pistillate flowers with pollen carried from the staminate flowers 
of the Caprifig. 

D. D. Cuuningham, from investigations made on Ficus Rox* 
burghii, Miquel, in the Botanic Garden of Calcutta (Ann. Bot. 



* Linnseus, iSpec. 1059 (1753). — Hayne, 4r2:?i- ix, t. 13. — Parla- Gard. Calcutta^ i. Appx. 1, t. 1-5) reached the conclusion that the 

Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind, 418. — Bois- fertilization of this species at least is asexual, the female flower 



tore, Fl. ItaL iv. 367. 
sier, FL Orient, iv. 1154. 

Caprificus insectiferaj Gasparini, Nov. Gen. Fie. 6 (1844). 



being prolific without pollen when visited by Blastophaga, whose 
visit to the staminate flower is also necessary to insure the pro- 

Ficus Carica, whose succulent receptacles are the edible figs of duction of pollen. Although Linngeus (Hort. Cliff. 471) recognized 

commerce, has been cultivated from ancient times, and now grows the fact that the Fig and the Caprifig were male and female 

spontaneously from Afghanistan and eastern Persia through all the forms of the same species, later botanists continued to consider 

Mediterranean region to the Canary Islands, being arrested to the them specifically distinct, and Gasparini placed the two trees in 

north by the mountains of the Caucasus and western Europe. The distinct genera, Ficus and Caprificus (Nov, Gen. Fie. 6), the view 

evidence collected by A. de Candolle (Origine des Plantes Cultivees, which was maintained by the Dutch botanist Miquel (Hooker, 

235), seems to fix its prehistoric home in the Mediterranean basin Land. Jour. Bot, vii. 222). By others the Caprifig has been consid- 

from Syria to the Canary Islands, although in the case of a plant ered the wild type from which the cultivated Fig has been derived 

like the Fig-tree, cultivated for centuries for its food, with minute (Solms-Laubach, AbhandL GeselL Wiss. Gott, [Die Herkunfty Domes^ 

seeds which do not lose vitality in the process of animal digestion, tication und Verbreitung der gewohnlichen FeigenbaumJ). Fritz Miil- 

it is not easy to decide to what extent its habitat has been extended ler (KosmoSy xi. 306), however, established the fact, now generally 



by the agency of man. 

The Fig-tree was known and cultivated by the ancient Egyp- 



recognized, that the two plants were sexual forms of one species ; 
and while the action of the insect (Blastovhaaa orossorum. Graven- 



tians, and is mentioned in the oldest books of the Hebrew race. horst) appears to be necessary to insure the fertilization of the 
Numerous varieties were originated and valued by the Greeks, one ovaries and the production of seeds, caprification from ar 



economic 



of these from Caria in Asia Minor furnishing the Fig-tree with its point of view in the case of some varieties, at least, has probably 
scientific name. Ficus Carica, which is now cultivated in innu- little practical significance, as the receptacles containing the female 
merable varieties in all temperate countries, supplies the people flowers, which are the edible figs, often grow without reference to 
of southern Europe and western Asia with one of their most impor- the production of seeds. (See, also, Paul Meyer, MittheiL Zoolog. 
tant articles of food ; the fruit is eaten fresh and dried, and dried StaL Neap. iii. 551 [_Zur NaturgescMchte der Feigeninsecten']), 

Hermann Miiller, The Fertilization 
Annual Rep. California State Board 



Nature, xxvii 



figs are now exported from Asia Minor, which is the great Fig- 
producing region, to North America and all the countries of of Flowers^ English ed. 
Europe. Figs are slightly laxative, and are sometimes used in the Agriculturey 1891, 227). 
treatment of chronic constipation (FlUckiger & Hanbury, Pharma- 
cographia, 487. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 711). 

The staminate and gall flowers of Ficus Carica occupy elongated 
receptacles borne on one individual, and the pistillate flowers a glo- 
bose or pyriform receptacle on another. The difference in the 
shape, size, and general appearance of the two receptacles is so 
great that the trees producing them were long considered distinct, 
that with the staminate and gall flowers being called the Caprifig 
and the other the Fig. Vague ideas of the sexual relations of the 



fi Linnaus, L c. (1753). — Forskal, FL jEgypt-Arab. 180. 

Boissier, L c. 1155. 

Svcomorus antiouorum^ Miquel, Hooker Lond, Jour, Bot, vii 



109. — Gasparini, Ricerch. Caprf 86. 



omorus 



with a dense spreading crown, is often planted in Egypt 



in avenues. 



that 



am- 



mals. 



mummy cases of the ancient Egyptia 



two plants led to the practice of caprification, which was originated were made. 



Minor 



Fl 



southern Europe, and has lately been mtroduced into California. iNTeci. /nrf.i. 446. — Roxburgh, F/. /nrf. ed. 2, iii. 541.— G.King 



It consists in placing the receptacle-bearing branches of the Capri- 



45, t. 54 ; Hooker f Fl 



94 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MORACEiE. 



In all tropical countries Fig-trees^ usually o£ the section Urostigma, are cultivated for shade and 
ornament j and in India^ Ceylon^ and Burmah Ficus reUgiosa^ sacred to Buddha^ is planted near his 
temples^ and cherished by his followers. 

The North American species of Ficus are not known to suffer from the attacks of insects or fungal 

diseases. 

Ficus, from ovxov^ the classical name of the Fig-tree, was adopted by Tournef ort ^ and afterward 

by Linnseus. 



native of the eastern Himalayas, Assam, Burmah, and Malaya, is 



(1753) 



Ned, 



probably the most valuable species of the genus, although the rub- 436. — Roxburgh, Fl, Ind. ed. 2, iii. 547. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. 
ber it yields is less valuable than that obtained from several species Burmah^ ii. 448, — G. King, Ann, Bot. Gard, Calcutta, i. 55, t. 67, A. 
of He via of tropical America. It is a noble tree, sometimes a 84, U. ; Hooker/. FL Brit. Ind, v. 513. 



hundred feet high, with enormous trunks and long roots, which 
form a network on the surface of the ground {Garden and Forest^ 
ii. 644, f. 143), 



Ficus affinior, GrifBth, NotuL iv. 392, t. 553 (1854). 
Ficus caudata, Stokes, Bat. Mat, Med. iv. 358 (1812). 
Urostigma religiosumy Gasparini, Ricerch. Caprif. 82, t. 7, f. 1 



Ficus elastica is planted as a shade and avenue tree in all tropical (1845) 



Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. vi. 563 : Fl. 



l pt. ii. 333, t. 23. 



countries, and is largely used outside the tropics for the decoration 

of conservatories and living-rooms. In Assam large plantations of 

this tree have been made since 1873 for the production of rubber 

(Mann, Forest Administration in Assam, 1874-75, 28 [^Rep, Forest 

Dept. India, 1875]. — Brandis, Suggestions regarding Forest Admin- c< 

istration in Assam^Sl [Ibid. 1879]. — Strettel, The Ficus Elastica in Asia. It is the most sacred tree of the Buddhists, and is also ven- 



Urostigma affinCy Miquel, Hooker Lond* Jour. Bot. vi. 564 

(1847). 

The Pipal tree is a native of Bengal and central India, and is 

mmonlv nlanted through all the warmer regions of southern 



Burma Proper [Rangoon, 1876]). 



erated by the Hindoos because Vishnu is believed to have been 



The sap is extracted by incisions made about a foot apart through born under the shade of its wide-spreading branches. Silk-worms 
the bark of the trunk and principal branches up to the top of the are said to flourish on its leaves ; the bark is tonic ; and lac of 
tree. On exposure to the air the juice separates spontaneously into good quality is obtained from it (Brandis, Forest Ft. Brit. Ind. 415. 



a hard elastic substance and into a fetid whey-like colorless liquid 
(See Balfour, Encyclopedia of India, ed. 3, i. 1099.) 



Balfour, L c. 1101). 

2 Tournefort, Inst. 662, t. 420. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Urostigma. Flowers unisexual, united in the same receptacle ; stamen 1 ; anther adnata ; receptacles 
axillary, inclosed in a caducous cucuUate bract, tribracteate at the base ; leaves alternate, entire, 
coriaceous, inclosed in the bud in the interpetiolar caducous stipules marking the branches in falling 
with narrow ring-like scars. 

Receptacles subglobose, sessile, or short-pedunculate ; leaves oblong, usually pointed at both ends . 1. F. aurea. 

Receptacles obovate, long or short-pedunculate ; leaves broadly ovate, cordate 2. F. populnea, 



MORACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



FIOUS AUREA. 



Receptacles subglobose, sessile, or short-pedunculate. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
usually pointed at both ends. 



Picus aurea, Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 4, t. 43 (1849). — Chap- Ficus aurea, var. latifolia, Nuttall, Sijlva, ii. 4 (1849). 
man, FL 415. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 
sus JJ. S. ix. 126, 



A round broad-topped parasitic tree, fifty or sixty feet in height, germinating and growing at first 
on the trunks or branches of other trees, and sending down to the ground stout aerial roots, which, 



gradually growing together and strangling its host, form a trunk often three or four feet in diameter, 
while other roots produced from the branches fix themselves in the ground, grow into trunks, and 
extend the tree over a large area. The bark of the trunk is half an inch thick, smooth, ashy gray, or 
light brown slightly tinged with orange, and broken on the surface into minute appressed scales which, 
in falling, disclose the nearly black inner bark. The branchlets are stout, terete, pithy, light orange- 
colored, and marked with pale lenticels, conspicuous stipular scars, large slightly elevated horizontal 
oval leaf -scars in which appear a marginal ring of large pale fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and smaller 
elevated concave circular scars left by the receptacles in falling. The leaves are involute in vernation, 
oblong, usually narrowed at both ends, acute, or acuminate with short broad points at the apex, wedge- 
shaped or rarely broad and rounded at the base, two to five inches long, an inch and a half to three 
inches wide, thick and coriaceous, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, and paler and rather less 
lustrous below, with broad light yellow midribs slightly grooved on the upper side, and numerous 
obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by fine closely reticulated 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout slightly grooved petioles, half an inch to an inch in length, and, 
continuing to unfold during a large part of the year, usually fall during their second season. The 
stipules, which are ovate-lanceolate, thick and firm, tinged with red, and about an inch long, inclose the 
leaf in a slender sharp-pointed bud-hke covering. The receptacles, which develop in succession as the 
branch lengthens, are axillary, subglobose, sessile, or short-pedunculate, and solitary or often in pairs, 
with a lateral orifice marked by a small point formed by the union of the minute bracts with which it is 
closed 5 when they first appear they are partly inclosed by a thin broadly ovate membranaceous light 
brown hood-like caducous posterior bract, and are furnished at the base with three ovate rounded 
persistent anterior bracts, the central one being outside the others, and rather smaller j when they are 
fully grown, they are about one third of an inch in diameter, and yellow, but ultimately turn bright 
red. The flowers are reddish purple, separated by minute reddish chaff-like scales, more or less 
laciniate at the apex, and are sessile or long-pedicellate. The calyx of the staminate flower is divided 
to below the middle into two or three broad lobes rather shorter than the stout flattened filament. The 
lobes of the anther are oblong, and attached laterally to the broad connective. The calyx of the pistil- 
late flower is divided to the middle into four or five narrow lobes, and closely invests the ovate sessile 
ovary surmounted by a slender lateral clavate style two-lipped at the apex. The fruit is ovate, inclosed 
at the base by the persistent calyx, crowned with the remnants of the style, and immersed in the 
thickened reddish-purple walls of the receptacle ; it has a thin fleshy outer covering and a thick-walled 
lio-ht brown crustaceous nutlet. The seed is ovate and rounded at both ends, with a thin light brown 
testa, and a large lateral oblong pale hilimi. 

Ficus aurea is a common inhabitant of woody hummocks on the shores and islands of southern 
Florida, where it is distributed from the Indian Eiver on the east coast and from the shores and islands 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MORACEiE. 



of Tampa Bay on the west coast ^ to the southern keys^ attaining its largest size in the neighborhood of 
Bay Biscayne ; ^ it also inhabits the Bahama Islands.^ 

The wood of Ficiis mirea is exceedingly light, soft^ very weak, coarse-grained, and very perishable 



in contact with the ground ; it is 



light 



b 



rown 



with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains 



numerous thin hardly distinguishable medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.2616, a cubic foot weighing 16.30 pounds. 

The earliest account of Ficiis aiirea appears in Bernard Romans's Natural History of Florida^^ 
published in 1775. It is sometimes planted as a shade-tree on Key West/ and has lately been intro- 
duced into the gardens of the United States and Europe. 



^ P. W. Reasoner, Garden and Forest , i, 214. 



branches of tlie original trunk, and its dense wide crown of foliage 



'^ What is probably the largest specimen of Fieus aurea in the (Garden and Forest^ i. 128, f.). 



United States grows on a wooded hummock, locally known as 
" The Hunting-ground," about ten miles west of the mouth of the 
Miami River and close to the shores of Bay Biscayne. This re- 



8 Brace, No. 356, Herb. Kew. 

^ Ficus Americana, citri folio, fructu parvo purpureo, 21. 

^ The noble tree in front of the United States barracks on Key 



markable tree covers about a quarter of an acre of ground with its West, which is 
numerous distinct stems formed from roots developed from the of this species. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXIV. Ficus aurea. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A pair of young receptacles covered by their posterior cucullate bract, enlarged 

3. A receptacle, side view, enlarged. 

4. A receptacle, front view, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a receptacle, enlarged. 

6. Section of a recei)tacle, showing the flowers, enlarged. 

7. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

8. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

10. A fruit, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much magnified. 

14. Portion of branch showing: leaf and receptacle scars, natural size. 



r 

Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXXIV 




3 



(t 





8 



7 





C. E. Fctxorv del. 



Hi/TL6h^ so. 



FICUS AUREA, Nutt 



A.Riocreua> direcc^ 



Imp . J'. rcuiecLr, Parir 



MORACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



FICUS POPULNEA. 



Receptacle obovate, long or short-pedunculate. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate 



popvdnea, Willden 



A, Ficus pedunculata 



Richard, FL Cub. iii. 220. — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. (1849).— Chapman, i^Z. 415. 

Ind. 151; Cat. PL Cub. 57. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 127. 

Bat. iii. 298. — Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, Ficus brevifolia, NuttaU, Sylva, ii. 3, t. 42 (1849). 

94 (^Fl. St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). — Sargent, Chapman, jPY. 415. 

Garden and Forest, ii. 448. 



N, 



N. 



Census 



Urostigma populneum, Miquel, Hooker Lond. Jour. Bot. 
vi. 537, t. 21 A. (1847). 



A tree, sometimes epiphytal^ rarely forty to fifty feet in height, with a trunk twelve to eighteen 
inches in diameter, spreading branches, from which, in Florida, aerial roots are occasionally produced, 
and an open irregular head. The bark of the trunk is one third to one half of an inch in thickness, 
and is smooth and light brown tinged with orange, separating into minute scales, which cover the bright 
red-brown inner bark. The branches are stout and terete, and, when they first appear, are Hght red and 
slightly puberulous, becoming brown tinged with orange and later vath red, and marked with minute 
pale lenticels, narrow stipular scars, large elevated horizontal oval or semiorbicular leaf-scars, in which 
appear a marginal row of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and elevated concave receptacle-scars. 
The leaves are involute in vernation, broadly ovate, or rarely obovate, contracted into short broad 
points or occasionally rounded at the apex, rounded, truncate or cordate at the base, two and one half 
to five inches long, one and a half to three inches wide, thin and firm, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface and paler on the lower surface, with broad light yellow midribs slightly impressed on the 
upper side, slender remote primary veins, arcuate and united near the margins and connected by finely 
reticulate veinlets, and slender grooved petioles, sometimes an inch in length. The stipules are ovate- 
lanceolate, half an inch long, and tinged with red. The receptacles are obovate, axillary, solitary, or in 
pairs, at first covered with a hood-like membranaceous light brown caducous posterior bract, and 
surrounded at the base by three small ovate acute light brown nearly equal persistent bracts ; they are 
yellow until fully grown, ultimately turning bright red, and one quarter to one half of an inch in 
length, and are borne on stout drooping peduncles one quarter of an inch to an inch long. The 
flowers are sessile or pedicellate, and separated by minute chaff-like scales, more or less laciniate at the 
apex ; in the males the calyx is divided nearly to the base into three or four broad acute lobes ; the 
stamen is composed of a broad flattened filament and an innate anther ; in the females the narrow calyx- 
lobes are shorter than the ovate pointed ovary, which is crowned with broad spreading stigmatic lobes. 
The fruit is ovate, nearly inclosed in the persistent calyx, and crowned with the remnants of the style ; 
the nutlet is thick-walled, light brown, crustaceous, and is covered by a thin layer of membranous flesh. 
The seed is ovate, with a membranaceous light brown testa and an oblong lateral pale hilum. 

In Florida, where it is comparatively rare, Ficus j^ojnihiea is confined to the shores of Bay 
Biscayne, Key Largo, UmbreUa, Bocca Chica, and Pumpkin keys, and Key West, growing usually on 
dry slightly elevated coral rock ; it is also an inhabitant of the West Indies. 

The wood of Ficus j^opuhiea is light, soft, and close-grained, containing many thin conspicuous 
medullary rays, large open scattered ducts, and numerous groups of smaller ducts arranged in concentric 
circles ; it is light orange-brown or yellow, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood. The specific 
o-ravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5568, a cubic foot weighing 34.69 pounds. 

Ficus popuhiea was discovered in Florida on Key West, from which it has now nearly disappeared, 

by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXV. Ficus populnea. 

!• A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size 

2. Vertical section of a receptacle, enlarged- 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruit, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 



Silvai of North America. 



Ta"b CCCXXY 






3 




^ 





C^E.Faiccnv del 



Sismeh/ scy. 



FICUS POPULNEA,Willd. 



^.Itiocreu€i> dire^z>. 






PLATANACKa:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



99 



PLATANUS. 



Flowers monoecious, in dense unisexual heads ; sepals 3 to 6, imbricated in 
aestivation ; petals and stamens as many as the sepals ; disk ; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; 
ovule usually solitary, suspended. Fruit an akene. Leaves alternate, stipulate, 
deciduous. 



Platanus, Linnaeus, Gen. 358 (1737); ed. 2, 462. — Adan- 
son, Fam. PL ii. 377. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 410. — 



Hist. PL iii. 462. 



Bentham & Hooker Gen. iii. 396. 
Prantl Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. ii. 14 



Endlicher, Gen. 289. — Meisner 



347. 



Baillon, 



Trees, with watery juice, thick deeply furrowed scaly hark exfoliating from the branches and young 
trunks in large thin plates, terete zigzag pithy branchlets, infrapetiolar buds, and fibrous roots. Buds 
axillary,^ conical, large, smooth and lustrous, nearly surrounded at the base by the narrow leaf-scars, in 
which appear a row of conspicuous dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; covered by three deciduous scales, 
the two inner accrescent, strap-shaped, rounded at the apex at maturity and marking in falling the base 
of the branch with narrow ring-like scars ; the outer scale surrounding the bud and splitting longitudi- 
nally with its expansion, the second light green, covered with a gummy fragrant secretion, and usually 

Leaves longitudinally plicate 
in vernation, alternate, broadly ovate, cordate, truncate, or wedge-shaped and decurrent on the petiole 
at the base, more or less acutely three to seven-lobed, and occasionally furnished with a more or less 
enlarged basal lobe,^ the lobes entire, dentate with remote minute callous teeth, or coarsely and 
remotely sinuate-toothed, palmately nerved, penniveined, the veins arcuate and united near the margins 
and connected by inconspicuous reticulate veinlets, clothed while young, like the petioles, stipules. 



inclosing a bud in its axil,^ the third coated with long rufous hairs. 



an 



d 



young 



branches, with caducous stellate sharp-pointed branching hairs,^ pale on the 



lo 



wer 



and 



rufous on the upper surface of the blade, long-petiolate, the petioles abruptly enlarged at the base and 
inclosing the buds, turning brown and withering in the autumn before falling ; stipules membranaceous, 
laterally united below into a short tube surrounding the branch above the insertion of their leaf, acute 
and more or less free above, dentate or entire, thin and scarious on flowering shoots, broad and leaf- 
like on vigorous sterile branches, caducous, marking the branch in falling with narrow ring-like scars. 
Flowers minute, appearing with the unfolding of the leaves, in dense unisexual pedunculate soHtary 
or spicate heads, the staminate and pistillate heads on separate peduncles or rarely united on the same 



1 The end of the branch of Platanus withers and falls at mid- logic History of the Genus Platanus'] ; American Naturalist, 1878, 

summer with or before the stipiiles of the upper leaf by which it is t. 28 \_Origin of the Plane-treeJ) , who regards them as evidences of 

nearly inclosed, leaving, close to the upper axillary bud which the the descent of our existing American Plane-trees from extinct 

following spring prolongs the branch, an elevated orbicular dark ancestral types, as traces of the leaves of these with well developed 

Act. Nat. Cur. basal lobes have been found in the rocks of the Laramie Group in 



xxii 



irs (Henry, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 

Foerste, BulL Torrey Bot. Club, the northern Rocky Mountain region, 



XX. 163, t. 147, f. 9). 



* The peculiar hairs in the thick coat of tomentum which covers 
the young leaves and shoots of Platanus, and which, easily de- 
8 The basal lobes, which vary greatly in size and shape, usually tached by the wind, often floats in large flakes through the air in 



2 Hitchcock, Trans. St. Louis Acad, vi, 138, 



occur only on large leaves produced on vigorous shoots from the 



figured 



stumps of trees that have been cut down. 



figured 



447 



Nat 



,mm 



100 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



platanace-;e. 



peduncle ; the sterile heads dark red on axillary peduncles ; the fertile heads light green tinged with 
red on longer terminal peduncles, the lateral heads in the spicate clusters sessile and embracing the 



peduncle at maturity, usually persistent on the branches during the winter. 



Calyx of the staminate 



flower divided into three to six minute scale-like sepals slightly united at the base, about half as long as 



the three to six cuneiform 



scarious pointed petal 



Sta 



mens as 



any 



the di\ 



of the 



calyx and opposite them ; filaments short or nearly obsolete ; anthers elongated, clavate, two-celled, the 
cells opening throughout their length by lateral slits, crowned by capitate pilose truncate connectives. 
Calyx of the pistillate flower divided into three to six, usually into four, rounded sepals much shorter 
than the acute petals. Staminodia scale-like, elongated-obovate, pilose at the apex. Ovaries as many as 
the divisions of the calyx, superior, sessile, ovate-oblong, surrounded at the base by long ridged jointed 
pale hairs persistent around the fruit, gradually narrowed into long simple styles slightly dilated and 
excurved toward the apex, bright red, papillose-stigmatic to below the middle along the ventral suture ; 
ovules one or rarely two, suspended lateraUy, orthotropous, covered with two coats. Akene elongated- 
obovate, rounded and obtuse or acute at the apex, crowned with the remnants of the persistent style, 
one-seeded, light yellow-brown ; pericarp thin, coriaceous. Seed elongated-oblong, suspended ; testa 
thin and firm, light chestnut-brown. Embryo erect in thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oblong, about 
as long as the elongated cylindrical erect radicle turned toward the minute apical hilum.^ 

Platanus is now confined to temperate North America, where three species occur, to Mexico, south- 
western Europe, Asia Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, and northwestern India. It flourished over a larger 



and played a most important part 



forests of the northern hemisph 



d 



and the tertiary periods, when it inhabited Greenland and Arctic America 



ig 
for 



the late 



m 



hardly 



distinguishable from the 



t> 



species 



of 



North America and Europe, and then, spreading 



southward, was not driven from central Europe until the close of the tertiary period, during which it 
also inhabited with several species the mid-continental region of North America, from whence it has now 
entirely disappeared.^ The genus is homorphous, and the six or seven species which are distinguished 
all resemble each other except in the form of the lobes of the leaves, in the amount of the pubescence 
on their lower surface, in the obtuse or pointed apex of the akene, and in the number of heads of 
flowers on the pistiUate peduncles, which vary, however, in the same species. 

Platanus produces hard and heavy, although not strong, light brown wood tinged with red, and 
containing numerous broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of small ducts marking the layers of 
annual growth. The genus is not known to possess useful properties. 

In southern and western Europe, Asia Minor, Abyssinia, northwestern India, and the United 
States, Platanus orientalist is frequently planted as a shade-tree in streets, avenues, and parks; 



grows 



1 Clarke, Ann, §- Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, i. 102, t. 6, f. 9-13. — Platanus orientalis, of which several varieties are distinguished 

Schoenland, Bot. Jahrb. iv. 308. 

^ Lesquereux, U. S. Geolog. Surv. vii. 181, t. 25-27 ; viii. 44, t. and peninsula to Afghanistan and Cashmere, and now occasionally 
3, f. 1, t. 7, f. 5, 249, t. 56, f. 4, t. 57, f. 1-2 (Contrib. Foss. FL spontaneously in southwestern Europe, where it was carried by the 
Western Territories^ ii., iii.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. vi. pt. ii. 13, Romans, who shared with the ancient Greeks and Persians their 
t. 7, f. 12, t. 10, f, 4, 5 (Fossil Plants of the Auriferous Gravel Be- veneration for this tree, with which they formed their groves and 
yosits of the Sierra Nevada). — L. F. Ward, Gth Annual Rep. U. S. shaded their dwellings. (See Evelyn, Sylva, ed. Hunter, ii. 53. 
Geolog. Surv. 1884-85, 552, t, 40, f. 8, 9, t. 41 (Syn. Ft. Laramie Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2033.) It is commonly planted as a shade- 
Group). — Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arhres^ 195. — Zit- tree in the valleys of the northwestern Himalayas (Brandis, Forest 
tel, Handh. Palceontolog. ii. 627, f. 343. — Jank6, Bot. Jahrb. xi. Fl. Brit. Ind. 434), in Persia (Fraser, Historical and Descriptive 



451. 



of 



3 Linnaeus, Spec. 999 (1753). — Pallas, FL Ross. i. pt. ii. 1, t. used more generally than any other tree to adorn city streets and 



51. — No 



Watson 



Flore ForestierCy ed. 3, 373), and occasionally 



101, — Sibthorp, FL Grcec. x. 36, t. 945. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. the middle and north Atlantic United States, where the Oriental 
xvi. pt. ii. 159. — Parlatore, FL ItaL iv. 373. — Bommer, Les Pla- Plane is hardy as far north as Massachusetts. The wood is used 
tanes et leur Culture^ 10. — Boissier, FL Orient, iv. 1161. — Jankd, in Persia and other countries of western Asia for furniture 



and 



449 



Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. v. 594. 



the construction of houses, and it is made into trays and other 
Platanus vulgaris^ Spach, Ann. ScL Nat. s6t. 2, xv. 291 (excl. small articles of domestic use (Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 345). 
angulosa) (1841). 



PLATANACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



Platanus Mexicana^ i^ occasionally used for similar purposes in the cities of northern Mexico; and 
Platanus occidentalis is sometimes planted in the United States and central and western Europe. 

Platanus in North America is remarkably free from the attacks of disfiguring insects,^ although it 
suffers from severe fungal diseases.^ All the species of Platanus can be easily raised from seeds^ which 
germinate the first year, and the varieties can be multiplied from layers or cuttings.^ 

The generic name, the classical name of the Plane-tree, from nXarvg^ was adopted by Tournefort/ 
and afterward by Linnaeus. 



Mem 



vi. 39, t. 26 {PL Nouv. Am.). 

160. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. iii. 162. 



XTl 



Mexicana. Jankd 



(1890) 



nervisequumy Saccardo, which attacks Platanus occidentalism Platanus 
racemosay and the Old World Platanus orientalis. This fungus was 
first discovered in Germany more than twenty years ago, but its 
occurrence in the United States was not recognized by botanists 
until recently. It is now known to be common throughout nearly 



This noble tree, which is planted in the streets of the cities of all parts of the country where Platanus occidentalis and Platanus 
northwestern Mexico, is distinguished by the thick coat of silvery racemosa grow spontaneously or are cultivated, and to it may per- 
white tomentum which covers the under surface of the mature haps be referred the cause of the disease of Platanus in the eastern 
leaves, which, flickering in the wind, make it the most beautiful of states recorded as long as fifty years ago. Its external portion is 

small and not easily recognized except by close observation, appear- 



Plane-trees. 

2 Only a few species of insects are known to live upon the ing in the form of small black spots or lines which lie close to the 

American Plane-trees, and none of them cause serious injuries. veins of the leaves. The disease makes its appearance soon after 

Chalcophora campestriSj Say, lives in the dead wood, and the larvae the leaves have expanded, causing them to turn brown, shrivel, and 

of several moths are occasionally found upon the foliage. Cirrha fall. No practical remedy for it has yet been suggested, for as the 

platanellay Chambers, lives on the under side of the leaves, which mycelium of the fungus is in the leaves and petioles, and probably 

are also fed upon by a number of leaf-miners, including Nepticula also in the younger stems, little benefit can be expected from 

platanella^ Clemens, Nepticula maximella, Chambers, and Nepticula spraying the trees with sulphate of copper or other poisons. A 

Clemensella^ Chambers. A species of Corythuca is sometimes abun- large number of other fungi are found on the trunks and branches 

dant on the leaves, from which it sucks the juices, and a plant- of Platanus, although none of them cause well-defined diseases in 

louse, Lachnus Platanicola^ Kiley, is sometimes foimd on these the United States, 

trees. ** Buc'hoz, Dissertations sur le Cedre du Libauy Le Platane et le 

® The different species of Platanus are peculiarly subject to CytisCyVJ. — GidL^i^Zsvlm^ Notes sur la Culture du Sophoray du Platane 

diseases caused by fungi, several of which produce serious injury, et de VAunCy 18. 



Woodlands 



the most widely spread being caused by the growth of Gloeosporium 



5 Inst. 590, t. 363. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves broadly ovate, obscurely 3 to 5-lobed, the lobes mostly serrulate-toothed, truncate or rarely 

wedge-shaped at the base. Fruit usually solitary 1. P. occrDENTALis 

Leaves deeply 5-lobed, the lobes entire, remotely and obscurely dentate or rarely sinuate-toothed, 

truncate or rarely slightly cordate or wedge-shaped at the base- Fruit racemose 2. P. racemosa. 

Leaves deeply 3 to 7-lobed, the lobes elongated, slender, entire or rarely remotely dentate, deeply 

cordate or rarely wedge-shaped or truncate at the base. Fruit racemose 3. P. Wrighth. 



102 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PLATANACE^. 



PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS. 



Sycamore. Buttonwood. 

Leaves broadly ovate, obscurely 3 to 5-lobed, the lobes usually serrulate-toothed 
truncate or rarely wedge-shaped at the base. Head of fruit usually solitary. 



Platanus occidentalis, Linnaeus, Sj^ec. 999 (1763). 
Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ii 



134. 



Wanp-enheim, Nordavi. Hi 



t. 54. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 

76. — Chapman, Fl. 418. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. 
pt. ii. 159. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 468. — Emerson, Trees 



Marshall, Arhust. Am. 105. — Moench 



Wi 



78 ; Meth. 358. — : Evelyn, Sylva^ ed. Hunter, ii. 54, t. 



Walter 

55. 



Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ ii. t. 
Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 224 ; Spec. iv. pt. 1, 
474 ; Eniivi. 984. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iii. 126, t. 
8. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 327- 
Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 666. — Michaux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. ii. 163. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. v. 438. — iVbw- 
veau Duhamel^ ii. 6, t. 2. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 573. 



Mass. ed. 2, i. 261, 
Mathieu, Flore For 

Dendr. 354, f. 137. 



Schnizlein, Icon. t. 97, f . 1-24. 

Lauche, Deutsche 
yees N. Am. 10th 



Census U. S. ix. 129. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 
ed. 6, 467. — Jankd, Bat. Jahrb. xi. 450. — Coulter, Con- 
trib. U. S. Nat Herb. ii. 410 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 
Niedenzu, Engler & Prantl PJlanzenfam. iii. pt. ii. f. 
76. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 206, f. 40, A. — Dippel, 
Handb. Laubholzk. iii. 279, f. 152. 



Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 545. — Du Mont de Courset, Platanus lobata, Moench, Meth. 358 (1794). 

Bat. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 435. — Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 274, t. Platanus hybridus, Brotero, Fl. Lus. ii. 487 (1804) 



306. 



Michaux, Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 184, t. 3. — Pursh, Platanus vulgaris, € angulosa, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 



FL Am. Sept. ii. 635. — Bigelow, FL Boston. 233. 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 219. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 171. — Elliott, 



sdr. 2, XV. 293 (1841) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 79. — Bommer, 
Les Platanes et leur Culture^ 17. 



Sk. ii. 620. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 865. — Watson, Dendr. Platanus occidentalis, var. Hispanica, Wesmael, Mem. 



Brit. ii. 100, t, 100. — Audubon, Birds^ t. 206. — Hooker, 



Fl. Bor.'Am. ii. 158. — Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 218. 



Dar- 



Soc. Sci. Hainauty s^r. 3, i. 12, f. 5 (1867). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 206. 



lington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 283. — Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL Platanus occidentalis, p lobata, Bommer, Les Platanes 



t. 13, f . 1-2. — Hartig, Forst. Culturpfi. Deutschl. 446, 



et leur Culture, 17, f. 5, 6 (1869). 



A tree^ occasionally one hundred and forty to one hundred and seventy feet in height^ with a trunk 
sometimes ten or eleven feet in diameter above its abruptly enlarged base^ often divided near the ground 
into several large secondary trunks^ or rising seventy or eighty feet as a straight column-like shaft free 
from branches and with little diminution of diameter ; ^ and massive spreading limbs which form a 
broad open rather irregular head often exceeding a hundred feet in diameter, their extremities usually 
erect or sometimes more or less pendulous. The bark at the base of large trunks is two to three 
inches thick, dark brown, and divided by deep furrows into broad rounded ridges separating on the 
surface into small thin appressed scales ; thickest near the ground, it gradually grows thinner, and 
passes into the bark of the younger trunks and large branches, which rarely exceeds half an inch in 
thickness, and is dark reddish brown, and broken into small oblong thick appressed plate-like scales, 
while high on the tree it is smooth and light gray, and separates into large thin scales, which, in falling, 
expose large irregular surfaces of the pale yellow, whitish, or greenish inner bark. The branchlets are 
at first coated, like the leaves, the petioles, and stipules, with thick pale tomentum, which soon 
disappears j during their first summer they are dark green and glabrous, and marked with many minute 
oblong pale lenticels, and during their first winter they are dark orange-brown and rather lustrous, 
becoming light gray in their second year or light reddish brown when they cast their pale membranous 
outer bark. The leaves are broadly ovate, more or less deeply three to five-lobed by broad shallow 
sinuses rounded in the bottom, the lobes being broad, acuminate, sinuate-toothed with long straight or 

^ The large trunks of Platanus occidentalis are usually hollow to a considerable height above the ground. 



PLATANACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



slightly cordate 



curved remote acuminate teeth, or entire, with undulate margins ; they 
or wedge-shaped and decurrent on the petioles at the base, with stout yellow ribs and veins, thin 
firm, bright green on the upper surface, paler on the lower, and glabrous, with the exception of a co^ 
of pale pubescence along the ribs and principal veins, ai 



d 



veins, and are four to seven inches in length and 
breadth, or twice as large on vigorous shoots, when they are frequently furnished with dentate basal 



Jightly angled puberulo 



petioles 



d with pale pub 



The 



stipules are an inch to an inch and a half long and entire or sinuate-toothed 



The 



lobes ; they are bo 

cence. 

peduncles are coated with pale tomentum, and generally bear one and sometimes two heads of flowers. 

The heads of fruit, which are usually solitary or rarely spicate, are an inch in diameter, and hang on 

slender glabrous stems three to six inches long. The akenes are about two thirds of an inch in length, 

and are truncate or obtusely rounded at the apex. 

Plataiius occidentalis inhabits the borders of streams and lakes and rich bottom-lands, and ranges 
from southeastern New Hampshire and southern Maine to northern Vermont and the valley of the Don 



' the northern shores of Lake Ontario,^ westward 
orthern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi 



Nebraska^ and Kansas, and 



thward 



the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, and 



in 



th 



thence southwestward in Texas to the Devil's River valley. A common tree 

most abundant and grows to its largest size on the bottom-lands of the basins of the lower Ohio and of 

the Mississippi Rivers.^ 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of Plataniis occidentalis is 0.5678, a cubic foot 
weighing 35.39 pounds. It is largely used and is the favorite material for the boxes in which tobacco is 
packed, for ox-yokes, and butchers' blocks, and for furniture and the interior finish of houses, where its 
broad conspicuous medullary rays and cheerful color make it valuable. 

Platanits occidentcdls was introduced into English gardens by the younger Tradescant early in 
the seventeenth century,'* and the first account of it, published in 1640 in Parkinson's Tlieatrum 
Botanicwn^ relates to a tree cultivated in England. It is now occasionally planted in American and 
European ^ parks and avenues, although as an ornamental tree its value is impaired by the fungal disease 
which strips it of its young leaves in spring, and stunts and often deforms its growth. 

Always conspicuous from the pale often mottled bark which covers the upper parts of the trunk 
and branches, the Sycamore,^ which is the most massive if not the tallest deciduous-leaved tree of the 
North American forest, is a magnificent object as it grows in the deep alluvial soil of the bottom-lands 
of the Mississippi basin, with its long ponderous branches and its broad leafy crown of bright green 
cheerful foHage raised high above the heads of its sylvan associates. 



^ Brunei, Cat Veg. Lig. Can. 45. — Macoun, Cat Can, PL 432. Cephalanthus capitulis penduliSj Golden, Act. Hort. Ups. 1743, 85 

2 Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 105. (PI. Novebor.). 

8 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 73. ® It is frequently stated that Platanus occidentalis is common in 

* Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 365. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2043, f. European plantations ; but, so far as I have been able to observe, 



1959, 1960. 



it is now exceedingly rare in western and central Europe, where I 



^ Platanus occidentalis aut VirginiensiSy 1427. — Boerhaave, Ind, have seen only a few individuals. 



Alt. Hort. Lugd. Bat. ii. 209. 



sometimes 



Platanus Novi Orbis^foUis Vespertilionum alas re/erentibuSy globulis and Water Beech. In Europe, Sycamore, the common name of the 



parviSf Plukenet, Aim. Bot. 300. 



different 



Nat 



Platanus foliis lobatis^ Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 447 
Leyd. Prodr. 78. — Clayton, FL Virgin, ed. 2, 151. 



Fl, 



Pseudo-PlatanuSj and never to the Plane, while the Sycomorus of 
the ancients is the Ficv^ Sycomorus of northeastern Africa. (See 
Garden and Forest^ ii. 349.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXVL Platanus occidentalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. A head of staminate flowers with most of the flowers 

removed, enlarged. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A pistil, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

10. Portion of a branch and stipule, natural size. 

11. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

12. Portion of a branchlet showing bud and the base of 

a petiole, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a branchlet, bud and petiole, 

natural size. 



Plate CCCXXVIL Platanus occidentalis. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a head of fruit, natural size, 

3. An akene, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of an akene, enlarged. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North Am 



erica . 



Tab. CCCXXVI. 




CE^Faccorv del. 



Rapuze' so 



PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS , L. 



ji,Biocreua2 direcc. 



Imp. J. ToTieur , F OTIS 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCXXVII 




C.E.Fa^ron. del. 



Hapt 



inB' JO 



PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS , L 



A.Jiu?creu^z> direcc 



t 



Jmp J Tezneztr, Paris . 



PLATANACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



105 



PLATANUS RACEMOSA. 



Sycamore. 



Leaves deeply 3 to 5-lobed, the lobes entire, remotely and obscurely dentate or 
rarely sinuate-toothed, truncate or rarely slightly cordate or wedge-shaped at the base. 
Fruit racemose. 



Plat anus racemosa, Nuttall, Sylva^ i. 47, 1. 15 (1842). 

Audubon, Birds^ t. 362, — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 336. 
Newberry, Pacific R, R. Rep, vi. 33, 89, t. 2, f. 10. 



holzk. iii. 278, f. 151. — Greene, Man. Bay Region Bot 



297. 

Death Valley Exped.). 



Nat. Herb 



Torrey, Bot, Mex. Bound. Surv. 204 ; Ives* Rep. 27 ; Bot. Platamis occidentalis, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey^ 



Wilkes Explor. Exped. 457. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. 



N. 



pt. ii- 160. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 469. 

Bot. CaL ii. 66. — Sargent, Fores 

Census U. S. ix. 129. — Jankd, Bot. Jahrh. xi. 451. 

Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 206. — Dippel, Handh. Laub- 



160, 390 (not Linn^us) (1833). 



Watson, Platanus Californica, Bentham, Bot. Voy. SulphuVj 54 



(1844). 
Platanus Mexicana, Torrey, Sitgreaves'* Rep. 172 (not 
Moricand) (1853) ; Pacific R. R> Rep. vii. pt. iii. 20. 



A tree^ sometimes one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet in height^ with a trunk occasionally 
nine feet in diameter above the broad tapering base^ sometimes erect and free of branches for half its 
height, more often dividing near the ground into several secondary stems which are erect^ incliningj or 
prostrate for twenty to thirty feet at their base, and thick ponderous more or less contorted long 
spreading branches which form an open irregular round-topped head ; usually smaller and generally 
seventy to eighty feet in height, with a trunk two to three feet in diameter. The bark at the base of 
the trunks of old individuals is three to four inches thick, dark brown, deeply furrowed, with broad 



rounded ridges separating on the surface into thin scales ; ^.^ 



hio^her on the trunk and on the branches 



thinner, smooth, and pale or almost white. The branches, which are coated at first with thick 



tomentum, which soon disappears, during their first winter are light reddish b 



d marked with 



numerous small lenticels, and gradually grow darker in their second and third years. The 
three or fiive-lobed to below the middle, with acute or acuminate 



lobes, which 



dentate with 



remote minute callous-tipped teeth, or occasionally coarsely sinuate-toothed, and broad sinuses acute or 
rounded in the bottom ; they are usually cordate or sometimes truncate, or wedge-shaped and decurrent 
at the base on the petioles, six to ten inches in length and breadth, thick and firm, light green on the 
upper surface, and on the lower surface paler and more or less thickly coated with pale pubescence, 
which is most abundant along the broad midribs and primary veins ; they are borne on stout pubescent 
petioles one to three inches long, and often do not all fall until spring. The stipules are an inch to an 
inch and a half in length, and entire or dentate. The peduncles are covered with pale pubescence, and 



Ily bear four 



five heads of staminate flowers or from 



heads of pistillate flowers 



a head of staminate flowers 



nally appearing on the pistillate peduncle above the fertile heads 



The heads of fruit hang on slender zigzag glabrous or pubescent stems six to ten inches in length, and 
are three quarters of an inch in diameter. The akene is acute or rounded at the apex, one third of an 
inch long, tomentose while young and glabrous at maturity. 

Platanus racemosa is distributed from the valley of the lower Sacramento River in California 
southward through the interior valleys and coast ranges of the state, finding its southern home on San 
Pedro Martir Mountain in Lower California.^ It inhabits the banks of streams, and is exceedingly 
common in all the valleys of the coast range from Monterey to the southern borders of the state, 

^ Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 209. 



106 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. platanace^. 



ascending the southern slopes of the San Bernadino Mountains to an elevation of three thousand feet 



above the level of the sea.^ 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of Platanus racemosa is 0.4880, a cubic foot 

weighing 30.41 pounds. 

Confounded with the Plane-tree of the eastern United States by the botanists who first explored 
the coast of southern California, Platanus racemosa^ which is one of the noblest and most beautiful 
deciduous-leaved trees of the Pacific forests, was first distinguished by Thomas Nuttall, who found it at 
Santa Barbara in 1835. 

1 S. B, Parish, Zoe. iv. 344. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXVIIL Platanus racemosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A stamen, enlarged. 
3- A pistil, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5- Vertical section of an akene, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 

7- A leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab, CCCXXVIII. 




CE.Fazxin del. 



PLATANUS RACEMOSA.Nutt. 



Rapine- sc. 



ABiocreiMC direaz . 



Imp J. Taneur, Paris 



PLATANACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



107 



PLATANUS WRIGHTII. 



Sycamore. 

Leaves deeply 3 to 7-lobed, the lobes elongated, slender, entire or rarely remotely 
dentate, usually deeply cordate or rarely wedge-shaped at the base. Fruit racemose- 



Platanus Wrightii, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 349 Platanus Mexicana, Torrey, Emory's Rep. 151 (not Mori- 
(1875). — Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 54. — Sar- cand) (1848). 

gentj Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Census U. S. ix. 130. — Platanus racemosa, Watson, PL Wheeler, 16 (not Nuttall) 
Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 410 (Man. PI. W. (1874). — Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. vi. 239. 

Texas) • 



A tree^ often sixty to eighty feet in height, with a straight trunk four or five feet in diameter at 
the base, gradually tapering and free from branches for twenty or thirty feet, or with a trunk dividing 
just above the surface of the ground into two or three large stems, usually more or less reclining, and 
often nearly prostrate for fifteen or twenty feet, and with thick contorted branches ; of these the lowest 
frequently grow almost at right angles to the trunk, and are fifty or sixty feet in length, while the 
upper are usually erect at first, and then spread into a broad open handsome head. The base of the 
trunk is covered with dark bark three or four inches thick, deeply and irregularly divided into 
broad ridges, and covered on the surface with small appressed scales ; ten or fifteen feet above the 
ground it grows thinner, separating into larger scales, and gradually passes into the bark of the upper 
trunk and branches, which is smooth, much thinner, and creamy white faintly tinged with green. The 
branchlets are slender, and are coated at first with thick pale tomentum, which soon begins to disappear ; 
during their first winter they are glabrous or slightly puberulous, marked with minute scattered lenti- 
cels, and light brown tinged with red, or ashy gray, and gradually grow darker during their second and 
third years. The leaves are divided by narrow sinuses to below the middle, and sometimes nearly to 
the centre into three to seven, but usually into five, elongated acute lobes, which are entire, or dentate 
with callous-tipped teeth, or occasionally are furnished with one or two acuminate lateral lobes ; they 
are sometimes deeply cordate by the downward projection of the lower lobes or are often truncate or 
wedge-shaped at the base ; they are six to eight inches in length and breadth, thin and firm in texture, 
light green and glabrous above and coated with pale pubescence below, with narrow ribs and primary 
veins connected by rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout glabrous or puberulous petioles an 
inch and a half to three inches long. The peduncles are clothed with thick white tomentum, and bear 
two to four heads of flowers. The heads of fruit hang on slender glabrous stems six to eight inches in 
length, and are about three quarters of an inch in diameter. The akenes are glabrous, about one 
quarter of an inch long and truncate at the apex. 

Platanus Wrlghtll inhabits the banks of streams in the mountain canons of southwestern New 
Mexico, southern Arizona, and Sonora ; on all the mountain ranges in New Mexico and Arizona, south 
of the high Colorado plateau, it is the largest and one of the most abundant of the deciduous-leaved 
trees, extending from the mouths of the canons up to elevations of from five to six thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. 

The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4736, a cubic foot weighing 29.51 pounds. 



Platanus Wrightii was discovered in 1851 by Mr. Charles Wright^ in southern Arizona durin 



t> 



1 See i. 94. 



108 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMEBIC A. 



PLATANACE-^. 



his connection with the United States and Me 



Boundary Survey. Originally confounded with 



Platanus racemosa^ it was first distinguished by Sereno Watson.^ 

In the deep and sombre canons of the Arizona mountains^ Platanus Wright 



IS a n 



oble 



d 



beautiful object^ rising high ab 



the Walnuts, Willows, and Alders which mark the course of the 



streams, with 



great wide-spreading p 



sea-green branches and bright foliage thrown into clear 



ef against the sunburnt hills covered with dark Evergreen Oaks and darker Pines 



1 



Watson (1826-92) was born at Windsor 



College. He devoted the remainder of bis life to a study of the 



iciit, and was graduated from Yale College in 1847 ; having flora of North America and to the care and development of the 
taught school in different states, he studied medicine in the Uni- collections in his charge. In connection with Professor William 



versity of New York and later with an elder brother established at 



Wats 



the botanical portion of the 



Quincy, Illinois. He practiced his profession during two years only, report of the Geological Survey of California ; he was the author 

and then abandoned it to assume a business position in Alabama, of a Biographical Index of North American Botany, issued in 1878, 

where he resided from 1856 to 1861, beginning at this time the which unfortunately was not carried beyond the first volume, and 

study of plants, although it was not uutil several years later, after of numerous papers published in the Proceedings of the American 

a term in the Sheffield Scientific School, that he became a profes- Academy of Arts and Sciences, in which some twelve hundred spe- 

sional botanist. cies of North American plants were first described by him, and 

In 1868 Dr. Watson was appointed botanist of the United many difficult groups were elaborated. In 1890, with Professor 

States Geological Expedition which, under the leadership of Clar- J, M. Coulter, he published an enlarged edition of Gray's 



Manual 



ence King, explored the territory west of the Rocky Mountains of the Botany of the Northern United States. 



adjacent to the fortieth parallel of latitude. In 1871 he published, 



Serenoa^ <% genus of plants of the southern United States, estab- 



with the aid of Professor D. C. Eaton, his classical report upon the lished by the younger Hooker, commemorates th^ name of this 

plants he had collected on this expedition ; this led to his receiving modest and learned man, whose life was devoted to useful labor 

the appointment at Cambridge of assistant to Professor Asa Gray, and noble endeavor, 
whom he succeeded as curator of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXIX. Platanus Wrightii 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A stamen, enlarged. 

3. A pistil, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of an akene, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva- of North America 



Tab. CCCXXIX 




C.E,Fcu3:^rL del. 




■:sc 



PLATANUS WRIGHTII, Watson. 



A.KiocreucD diTBcn 



Imp. J. Tojieiir, Paris 



LEiTNERiACE^. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



109 



LEITNERIA. 



Flowers amentaceous, dioecious ; perianth of the staminate flower ; stamens 3 to 
12 ; perianth of the pistillate flower minute ; ovary 1-celled ; ovule solitary, ascending. 
Fruit an oblong compressed drupe. Leaves alternate, entire, petiolate, destitute of 
stipules, deciduous. 



Leitneria, Chapman, Fl. 427 (I860), — Baillon, Hist. PL Engler, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. iii* pt. i. 29, £ 

vi. 239, f. 214-216. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 397.— 22. 



A shrub or tree^ with pale slightly fissured bark, scaly buds, stout terete pithy branchlets marked 
with pale conspicuous elevated nearly circular lenticels and with elevated crescent-shaped obliquely 
angled or sometimes obscurely three-lobed leaf-scars displaying the ends of three conspicuous fibro- 
vascular bundle-scars, and thick fleshy stoloniferous yellow roots spreading horizontally near the surface 
of the ground. Terminal buds broad, conical, an eighth of an inch long, covered by ten or twelve 
oblong triangular closely imbricated scales coated with pale tomentum, often persistent during one or 
two years at the base of the branch, and in falhng marking it with narrow ring-like scars ; lateral leaf- 
buds smaller, ovoid, flattened by the pressure of the stem. Leaves involute in vernation, lanceolate to 
ellipticaHanceolate, acuminate or acute and short-pointed at the apex^ gradually narrowed at the base, 
entire, with sHghtly thickened revolute undulate margins, penniveined, with remote primary veins 
arcuate and united near the margins, and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets, long-petiolate, 
the stout petioles grooved on the upper side ; as they unfold coated on the lower surface and on the 
petioles with thick pale tomentum, and puberulous on the upper surface ; at maturity thick and firm, 
bright green and lustrous above, pale and coated below and on the broad midribs and veins with 
villous pubescence, deciduous. Flowers amentaceous, expanding in early spring with the first unfolding 
of the leaves from inflorescence-buds developed the previous autumn in the axils of leaves of the year 
and covered with many imbricated ovate acute concave chestnut-brown scales coated on the outer surface 
with pale hairs, the lowest often persistent after anthesis. Sterile aments clustered near the ends of the 
branches, frequently excurved at maturity, composed of numerous ovate acute concave bracts, inserted 
on a stout pubescent rachis and bearing on their torus-like stalks a ring of three to twelve stamens ; 
filaments slender, somewhat dilated at the base, incurved; anthers oblong, slightly emarginate, attached 



the back below the middle, bright yellow, introrse, two-celled, the cell 



tudinally 



pollen grains glabrous, slightly three to four-grooved. Pistillate aments scattered, shorter and more 
slender than those of the staminate plant, composed of imbricated ovate acute concave bracts, bearing 
in their axils a short-stalked pistil surrounded by a rudimentary perianth of small gland-fringed scales, 
the two largest lateral, the others next the axis of the inflorescence. Ovary one-celled, ovoid, pubes- 
cent, crowned with an elongated flattened style, inserted obliquely, curving above the middle outward 
in anthesis, grooved and stigmatic on the outer face; ovule soHtary, attached laterally to a placenta 
facino- the bract, ascending, semianatropous, the micropyle directed upward. Fruit ovate, thick and 
rounded on the ventral, narrowed on the dorsal edge, rounded at the base, compressed and pointed at 
the apex, marked by the pale oblique scar left by the falling of the deciduous style, chestnut-brown, 
ruo'ose ; exocarp thick and dry, closely investing the thin-walled Hght brown crustaceous rugose nutlet. 



o 



110 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEITNERIACEiE. 



Seed filling the cavity of the nutlet^ compressed^ rounded at both ends, marked on the thick edg 
with 



an 



oblong 



ly black hilum. Embryo 



ded by thin fleshy albumen \ cotyledons 



oblong, flattened, rounded at the extremities ; radicle superior, conical, short, and fleshy. 

The wood of Leitneria is soft, exceedingly hght, close-grained, and contains thin obscure medullary 
rays and groups of small open ducts, the layers of annual growth, which are not distinguishable to the 
naked eye, being marked by narrow bands of interrupted cells ; it is pale yellow, and shows no trace of 
heartwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.2070,^ a cubic foot weighing 12.90 



pounds 



It 



used for the floats of fishing 



Missouri, its remarkable lightness 



2 



making it 



valuable for this purpose. 

Leitneria was discovered by Thomas Drummond ; ^ it was 
growing on the muddy shores of a cove washed by high tides five mi 



found by Dr. A. W. Chapman* in 1847 

es west of the town of Apalachi- 



cola in Florida ; and in October, 1892, by Mr. B. F. Bush 
Francis River in southeastern Missouri. 



the deep swamps bordering the St 



The generic name commemorates that of a German naturahst killed in Florida during the Seminole 



War. 



The genus is represented by a single species. 



^ This determination made by Professor Nipher is published in 1846, having received an honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine 
Professor William Trelease's exhaustive study of Leitneria, to from the Louisville Medical Institute, he established himself in 
which I am indebted for my knowledge of this interesting tree. Apalachicola, Florida, which is still his home. Before leaving 



(See iJep. Missouri BoL Gard. vi. t. 30-44.) 



Massachusetts, Dr. Chapman had acquired a, fondness for botany 



2 The wood of no other North American tree that has been and some rudimentary knowledge of the science, although his 
examined is as light as that of Leitneria ; the wood which ap- botanical career did not begin until after his settlement in Florida, 
proaches it nearest in lightness is that of the Florida Ficus aurea, when he commenced, in his long professional rides, the systematic 



which has a specific gravity of 0.2616. 
3 See ii. 25. 



formation of a herbarium upon which was based his Flora of the 
Southern United States, prepared in the moments of leisure left by 



Drummond's specimen preserved in the herbarium of the Royal the demands of a laborious profession, and published in 1860, with 
Gardens at Kew has no collector's ticket, and is labeled in the hand- a second edition and appendix in 1883. 



writing of Sir William Hooker, *^E,io Brazos, Texas." Drum- 



Florida herb of the Pea f ami! 



mond passed some time in Apalachicola, where he made a large successful botanical labors. 



collection of plants, and it is not impossible that it was in Florida 



^ Benjamin Franklin Bush was born in Columbus, Indiana, in 



and not in Texas, where it has not been seen since, that he discov- 1858, and in 1865 moved to Independence, Missouri, where he has 

been engaged in horticultural pursuits. In 1892 Mr. Bush pre- 



ered Leitneria. 



^ Alvan Wentworth Chapman (September 28, 1809) was born pared a herbarium of the dried plants of Missouri and a collection 
in Southampton, Massachusetts, and was graduated from Amherst of the forest products of the state for the Columbian Exposition 



College in 1830. Having taught school in different parts of Geor- held in Chicago in the summer of 1893. 



Notes on a List of 



gia from 1831 to 1834, he studied medicine at Washington, Geor- Plants collected 
gia, and then with Dr. John W. Davidson at Quincy, Florida. In of the Missouri 



Missouri are published 



LEITNERIACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



LEITNERIA FLORIDANA. 



Cork Wood. 



Fl. 



C. de 



Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 154. 



Hooker 



ser. 3, i. 33, t. 1044. 
V. 150. 



Mis sour 



A shrub or small tree^ occasionally twenty feet in height-, with a straight slender trunk four or five 
inches in diameter above the swollen gradually tapering base, and spreading branches which form a 
loose open head. The bark of the trunk is about one sixteenth of an inch thick, dark gray faintly 
tinged with brown, and divided by shallow fissures into narrow rounded ridges. The branchlets, when 
they first appear, are light, rather reddish-brown, and thickly coated with thick hairs, which gradually 
disappear, and during their first winter they are glabrous or puberulous, especially toward the 
extremities, and dark red-brown. The leaves are four to six inches long and an inch and a half to two 
and a half inches wide, and are borne on petioles which vary from one to two inches in length. The 
aments of staminate flowers are an inch to an inch and a quarter long, and one quarter of an inch 
thick, and twice as long as those of the pistillate flowers. The flowers open at the end of February or 
early in March \ and the fruit, which is solitary or in clusters of two to four, and ripens when the 
leaves are about half grown, is three quarters of an inch long and one quarter of an inch wide. 

Leitneria Floridmia inhabits muddy saline shores on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico near 
Apalachicola, Florida, where it is known only in a few isolated stations ; and deep swamps inundated 
during several months of the year in Butler and Duncan Counties, Missouri, where it is abundant, 
growing with Taxodiiim distichum^ Acer riibriim^ Nyssa aqiiatica^ and Planera aqiiatica^ in rich 
moist soil usually covered with water often two or three feet deep, and sometimes occupying muddy 
sloughs of considerable extent to the exclusion of other woody plants.^ 



1 < 



* Apparently suckers arise from some of the roots, as in the rately from the soil or water, so that the plant lacks the clustered 

case with the Ailanthus and White Poplar ; but I have not been bushy habit which distinguishes a shrub from a small tree, and it 

able to actually trace these young shoots to the older plants, though not infrequently attains a height of fifteen or twenty feet and 

their root system is usually developed out of proportion to their forms n trunk from three to five inches thick toward the base, 

size. The impression made on one by such a Leitneria swamp is where it gradually increases in thickness as do many other swamp 

that of m, tangle of coarse bushes from five to ten feet in height, trees." (Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bat. Gard, vi.) 
but on closer observation it is evident that each stem rises sepa- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXX. Leitneria Floridana. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate plant, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate plant, natural size. 

3. A bract of the staminate ament, exterior view, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower with bract, enlarged. 

5. Rear and front views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower with bract and involucre, the style cut 

transversely, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a staminate flower with bract, enlarged 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A stone, natural size. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. A leafy branch, natural size. 

15. A winter branchlet of the staminate plant, natural size. 

16. A winter branchlet of the pistillate plant, natural size. 

17. An axillary bud and leaf-scar, enlarged. 



Silva of North America . 



Tat. CCCXXX. 




CE.FaJU^rv del 



Toulet sc . 



LEITNERIA FLO RIDANA, Chapm . 



A Riocreua: direa: . 



/mp. ^K Taneitr, Paris 



JUGLANDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



113 



JUGLANS. 



Flowers monoecious, apetalous ; calyx of the staminate flower 3 to 6-lobed, the 
lobes imbricated in aestivation ; stamens 8 to 40 ; calyx of the pistillate flower 4-lobed, 
the lobes imbricated in aestivation ; ovary inferior, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, erect. 
Fruit, a nut inclosed in an indehiscent involucre. Leaves alternate, unequally pin- 
nate, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 



Juglans, Linnseus, Gen. 291 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam, iii. pt. i. 24. — Baillon, 

Gen. 375. — Meisner, Gen. pt. ii. 54. — Endlicher, Gen. Hist. PL xi. 405. 

1126. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 398. — Engler, Wallia, Alefeld, Bonplandia^ ix. 334 (1861). 



Resinous aromatic trees^ with sweet watery juice, furrowed scaly bark, handsome durable dark- 
colored wood, stout terete branchlets, laminate pith, scaly buds, long stout flexible perpendicular roots 
covered with thick bark, and few thick fibrous rootlets. Terminal buds short or elongated, usually 
covered with two pairs of opposite scales often obscurely pinnate at the apex, those of the inner pair 
accrescent, more or less leaf-like, often resembling the short-Hved scale-like upper leaves, and in falhng 
marking the base of the branchlet with faint ring-like scars. Axillary buds formed before midsummer, 
obtuse, slightly flattened, covered with four ovate rounded scales, superposed, two to four together, 
decreasing in size from the upper to the lower, the scales closed or open during winter. Leaves alter- 
nate, unequally pinnate or often equally pinnate by the suppression of the terminal leaflet, many- 
foliolate, deciduous, the last leaf of the year sometimes reduced to a scale-like body and persistent 
during the winter ; petioles elongated, terete, grooved on the upper side, gradually enlarged toward 
the base, leaving in falling large conspicuous elevated obcordate three-lobed leaf-scars displaying three 
equidistant U-shaped clusters of dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars, the basal cluster much larger than 
the others j leaflets conduplicate in vernation, ovate, acute or acuminate, mostly unequal at the base, 
membranaceous, serrate or entire, sessile or short-petiolulate, or the terminal leaflet raised on a long 
slender stalk, penniveined, the veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by reticulate 
veinlets, often separating from the petiole in falling. Flowers proterandrous or proterogynous, opening 
in the late spring after the leaves. The staminate in many-flowered elongated aments, soHtary or in 
pairs from the lower axillary buds of the upper nodes, appearing from between the persistent bud-scales 
in the autumn and remaining during the winter as short cones covered by the closely imbricated bracts 
of the flowers, coated with tomentum, and beginning to elongate in early spring. Perianth sessile or 
pediceUate, three to six-lobed in the axil of and adnate to an ovate acute bract free only at the apex. 
Stamens eight to forty, inserted on the perianth in two or several ranks, those of the exterior rank 
alternate with its lobes ; filaments free, abbreviated ; anthers erect, oblong, glabrous, two-celled, the cells 
opening longitudinally and surmounted by a conspicuous dilated truncate or lobed connective. Ovary 
wanting. Pistillate flowers in few-flowered spikes terminal on branches of the year, invested by a villous 
involucre adnate to the ovary and formed by the union of the anterior bract, sometimes free nearly to 
the base, and two lateral bractlets free only at the apex, and variously cut into a laciniate border shorter 
than the erect lanceolate calyx-lobes inserted on the summit of the ovary. Stamens wanting. Pistil 
composed of two median, or rarely of three, carpels j ovary inferior, one-celled ; style short ; stigmas 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^E. 



dorsal, linear or club-shaped, spreading, recurved, fimbriately plumose ; ovule solitary, erect from the 



bottom of the cell, orthotropous. 



Fruit 



ovoid, globose 



or pyriform, cylindrical or obscurely four- 



angled, marked at the apex with the remnants of the style ; involucre fleshy, indehiscent, glabrate or 
hirsute, adherent to the nut, or free at maturity and separating from it irregularly. Nut ovoid or 
globose, more or less flattened, hard, thick-walled, the walls and partitions often lacunose with irregular 
variously shaped internal longitudinal cavities filled with dry powder, longitudinally and irregularly 
rugose, separating by the dorsal sutures in germination into two, or rarely into three valves ; the valves 
alternate with the cotyledons, sometimes furnished at the dorsal sutures, and in some species also at the 
marginal sutures, with broad thick ribs ; the cavity imperfectly two-celled at the base by the develop- 
ment, at right angles with the valves, of a thin dissepiment from the bottom to above the middle, the 
cells sometimes subdivided by lower thicker partitions parallel with the valves, the apex of the cavity 
narrow and pointed by the thickening of the walls of the endocarp, broader and penetrated in some 
species by a short thick dissepiment paraUel with the valves and deeply notched at the bottom. Seed 
solitary, filling the cavity of the nut, exalbuminous, compressed, two-lobed from the bottom to the 
middle, the lobes oblong, rounded or keeled on the back, concave on the inner face, rounded or deeply 
lobed at the base, gradually narrowed or broad and deeply lobed at the apex, and then abruptly con- 
tracted into a broad point flattened at right angles with the plane of the lobes ; testa thin, membra- 
naceous, of two coats, the outer light brown, marked with conspicuous darker veins radiating from the 
apex and from the minute basal hilum. Embryo fleshy, oily ; radicle short, stout, superior, filling the 
apex of the cavity of the nut. 

Juglans is now confined to the temperate and southern parts of North America, the Antilles, South 
America from Venezuela to Peru, the Caucasus, Persia and northwestern India, Manchuria, northern China. 



d Jap 



About ten species are known ; ^ two are widely distributed in the forests of 



North 



Several supposed hybrids between different species of Juglans 



Walnut 



have appeared. In 1816, to commemorate the birth of his eldest soil composed of sand and alluvial loam on the Rowe Farm on the 
son, Monsieur Pierre Phillipe Andrd de Vilmorin, the distinguished north bank of the lower James River, in Virginia, and described 
horticulturist, planted in his garden at Verri^res, near Paris, a seed- by him in Forest Leaves (ii. 133, f.), has the habit, bark, and foliage 

oi Juglans regia, and produces nuts which resemble those of Juglans 

thick hard shells and small kernels. Nothing 



Walnut 



with 



Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, and has been described as Juglans 

intermedia Vilmoriniana (Carri^re, Rev. HorL 1863, 30. — Koch, is known of the history of this remarkable tree, which, in 1888, at 

Dendr. i. 588. — Dippel, Handh, Lauhholzk. ii. 319). It is now a six feet above the surface of the ground and above its greatly 

tree seventy-five to eighty feet in height, with a trunk three feet swollen base, had it trunk circumference of twenty-four feet eight 

four inches in diameter at three feet above the surface of the inches, while its longest branch was sixty-seven feet in length. The 

ground, and stout erect slightly spreading branches ; the character nut of this tree has the appearance of hybrid origin, and resem- 
of the bark and buds appears intermediate between those of its 



Walnut 



supposed parents ; the leaves resemble those of Juglans regia, Carri^re as Juglans regia gibbosa (L u. 1860, 99, f . 21-23 ; 1861, 
although their leaflets are usually more numerous; the nut is 428, f. 101-103), which sprang from one of a number of nuts planted 



with 



nurseryman 



imder 



thick husk of Juglans nigra; in shape it resembles the nut of have been received by him 

Juglans regia, but is thicker shelled and more deeply furrowed. mangeables." 

The fruit of this tree, whieli is produced sparingly and not every In eastern Massachusetts 

year, is fertile and germinates freely, producing plants which re- gin, in remote situations and isolated from each other, appear inter- 



Walnut-trees of unknown 



known 



Vilmorin, Garden and Fairest, iv. 61, f. 11, 12). 



(Z. 



4-9 



P supposed similar parentage and of unknown 
d by Carri^re as Juglans iniemnedia pyriformis 
Koch, Z. c. — Dippel, Z. c.) ; and still another 



mediate in character between Juglans cinerea and Juglans regia, 
and are probably hybrids of these species (Sargent, Garden and 



434 



W; 



Burbank 



hybrid of the same parentage, which is said to have originated in Rosa. The first was obtained in 1874 by fertilizing the flowers of 
the garden of the Trianon at Versailles, is described by C. de Can- Juglans reqio 



intermedia (Ann. Sci. Nat 



41^3) 



A Walnut-tree, supposed to be a hybrid between Juglans cinerea 



Juglans regia with the pollen of Juglans Californica ; it is remark- 
able for the great size of its leaves and the vigor and rapidity of 
its growth. The nuts, which are produced very sparingly, resem- 



and Juglans nigra, in the Botanic Garden of Marburg, has been Flowers 



(Burbank, New 



described as Juglans cinereo-nigra (Muderoth, Liimma, xxix. 728). 



Mr. Burbank's second hybrid 



was produced by fertilizing the flowers of Juglans nigra with the 



JUGLANDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



115 



America ; one inhabits western Texas^ New Mexico^ and Arizona^ ranging far south into Mexico^ where 



one ^ and perhaps two other ^ species 



occur ; and one inhabits the valleys o£ western Cahfornia. 



The 



flora of the Antilles contains a single species of Juglans/ while two or perhaps three others occur in 
the northern and western countries of South America.'* 



In the Old World the genus is represented 



by Jitfjlans regia^ an inhabitant of southeastern Europe and western Asia and now cultivated in all 
temperate countries, by Juglans Mandslmrica^ of the Amour valley and northern China, and by Juglans 



pollen of Juglans Californica. The foliage and habit of growth of indigenous, however, to China, nor is there any evidence that tliis 

this tree are intermediate between those of its parents ; it produces tree is a native of Japan, as many authors have believed, although 

fruit freely and precociously, and the nuts, resembling those of it is occasionally seen in that country in the neighborhood of human 

Juglans nigra^ are said to be superior in quality to those of either habitations. The Greeks cultivated a variety of this tree obtained 

of its parents, lacking the strong flavor of the nut of Juglans nigra from Persia ; the Romans carried it to Italy, whence its cultivation 

and possessing the flavor and sweetness of those of the California as a fruit-tree has spread through all the countries of southern and 

species (Burbank, New Creation in Fruits and Flowers^ 1893, 10, f .), western Europe, the Pacific states of North America, Chili, and 

^ Juglans mollis ^ Engelmaun, Hemsley Diag. PL Nov. 54 (1880). other temperate regions. The nuts, which in the United States are 



Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. iii. 163. 



usually called English walnuts, and are eaten fresh, sometimes be- 



Juglans Mexicana, Watson, Proc. Am, Acad. xxvi. 152 (1891). fore they are ripe, and frequently cured or pickled, form an impor- 

^ Juglans pyriformis, Liebmann, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. tant article of food in southern Europe and are consumed in all 

Kjobenh. 1850, 79. — Walpers, Ann. iii. 844. — C, de Candolle, civilized countries. The nut of the wild tree is small, with a thick 



Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 138. — Hemsley, I. c. 164. 

Wallia pyriformis f Alefeld, Bonplandia, ix. 336 (1861). 



hard shell and small kernel, and is scarcely edible, but centuries of 
cultivation and careful selection have produced a number of forms 



^ Juglans insularis, Grisebach, Cat. PL Cub. 68 (1866) ; Kew Bull. with variously shaped thin-shelled nuts, which are propagated by 



Miscellaneous Information, April, 1894, 138. 



grafting or budding (Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1423. — Carri^re, L c. 



? Juglans cinerea, A. Richard, FL Cub. iii. 231 (not Linn^us) 1859, 147, f. 33 ; 1860, 539, f. 107, 607, f. 118 ; 1861, 425, f. 99, 



(1854). 



100, 104, 105, 108 ; 1868, 455, f. 60 ; 1872, 119 ; 1878, 53, f. 10. 



^ Little is known of the South American Walnuts. Dr. A. Ernst, C. de Candolle, Prodr. L c. 136), 



director of the National Museum of Venezuela, describes the wood 



In Europe and northern India Walnut-oil is pressed from the 



of a native species used in Caracas in cabinet-making, which he cotyledons, and is consumed in large quantities as a substitute for 

refers to Juglans cinereay Linnseus (La Exposicion Nacional de Vene- olive-oil in cooking, for illuminating, and for mixing with paint and 

zuela en 1883, 219). Fragmentary specimens of Walnut-trees have varnish (Spons, Encyclopcedia of Industrial Arts, Manufactures ^ and 

been collected in the United States of Colombia and in Bolivia Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1413, 2024). The wood of this tree, 

{Juglans nigra, var. Boliviana, C. de Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. which is tough, strong, moderately hard, and very durable, is light 

4, xviii. 33 (1862) ; Prodr. L c. 137); and in the central region of brown and often beautifidly marked with darker shades ; it does 

Peru, about eleven degrees south of the equator, at elevations of not warp or split easily, and can be made to receive a beautiful 

from two thousand to four thousand feet above the level of the polish. The wood of no other tree is considered so valuable for 

sea, a Walnut resembling Juglans nigra is said to be a conspicuous gunstocks ; in Europe it is largely used for this purpose and for 

and valuable timber-tree. (See Kew Bull, of Miscellaneous Informa- furniture, and in Cashmere it is employed in turnery and is some- 



tion, L c. 140.) 



times lacquered. The green husks of the nuts contain a. yellow- 



^ Linnaeus, *Spec. 997 (1753). — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres Fruit- brown coloring matter, and are used in dyeing cloth and to stain 

iers, nouv. dd. iii. t. 140, 141. — Alefeld, L c. 336. — C. de Candolle, wood dark. In India the bark is used as a dye, in native medicine, 

Prodr. L c. 135. — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. Burm. ii. 490. — Boissier, and as m dentifrice ; and the leaves and young branches serve as 
Fl. Orient, iv. 1160. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 595. 



Juglans regia, var. Kamaonia^ C. de Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
L c. J Prodr. L c. 136. 



fodder for domestic animals (Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Ind. 498). 

The husk of the nut has been employed in Europe as a vermi- 
fuge from the time of the ancients, and the oil of the nut was once 



Juglans regia, var. Sinensis, C. de Candolle, ^nw. Sci. Nat. L c. believed to be efficacious against tape-worms. In France a bitter 
t. 4, f. 38, 39 ; Prodr. L c, — Maximowicz, BulL Acad. Sci. St. and astringent infusion of the leaves has been found effective in 



Petersbourg, xvii. 57 {Mel. Biol. viii. 630). 

f Juglans intermedia alata, Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1865, 446. 
Dippel, Laubholzk. ii. 319. 



the treatment of scrofula (Roques, PL Usuelles, ed. 2, i. 264, t. 72, 
f. 242. — Hayne, Arzn. xiii. 17, t. 17). From the bitter outer coat 
of the seed a variety of tannic acid has been obtained, for which 



? Juglans intermedia quadrangulata, Carri^re, L c. 1870-71, 493, the name of nuci-tannin has been proposed (C7. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 

850), and from the green husk of the fruit nucin was obtained by 



f. 66-68. 



*ee with st 
mountains 



xvu 



rtorium 



Armenia 



355). 



and 



(A 



times and 



in Burmah ^ Maximowicz, Bull. Phys.-Mat. Acad. St. Petersbourg, xv. 177 

It was culti- (1856) ; Prim. FL Amur. 76 ; BulL Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, I. c. 
Led thence to 58, f. {Mel. BioL l. c. f.). — Alefeld, L c. — C. de Candolle, Prodr. 



China, where it is still grown on a large scale (Bretschneider, On L c. 138. 



^f 



,ximowicz. Prim. Fl 



/ 



It is probably not 



Acad. Sci. Sl Petersbourg, L c. 59, f. {MeL BioL L c. 632, f.). 



116 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



a: 



h 



)ldi(ma^ of Japan. The tyjje is an ancient one in Europe, from which later it entirely disappeared, 
existing in the cretaceous flora and abounding with many species during the tertiary epoch ; ^ in North 
America traces of Juglans appear in the eocene rocks of the northern Rocky Mountain region and of 
the northwest coast from Vancouver's Island to Alaska, regions where no representative of the Walnut 



4 



family now exists,^ and in the auriferous gravel deposit of the California Sierra Nevada 

Juo-lans produces handsome straight-grained light or dark brown wood valued in cabinet-making. 
The nuts of all the species are edible, and those of Juglans regla are important commercially. The 
juices of Juglans possess tinctorial properties, and are employed, especially those of the North American 

V : and the bark, and husk of the fruit, which contain tannic acid. 



Juglans cinerea, to dye cloth yellow ; 
are sometimes used in tanning leather. 

The different species of Juglans are preyed upon by numerous 



5 



d 



bject to serious 



fungal diseases. 



6 



Juglans regia octogona, Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1861, 429, f. 106, Paleontologique des Arhres, 294. — Zittel, Handb. Palcentolog. ii. 445, 



107. 



Pterocarya sorhifolia, Miquel, Ann. Mus, Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. 103 
{ProL FL Jap,) (not Siebold & Zuccariui) (1867). 



t. 272, f. 1-5. 

^ Lesquereux, Rep. U. S, Geolog. Surv. vii. 284, t. 54, f. 5-14, t. 
55, 1-9, t. 56, 1-10, f . 58, f . 1, t. 62, f . 6-9 ; viii. 235, t 46% f . 11 



A native of northeastern Asia, where it was discovered by the (^Contrib. Fossil FL W. Territories, ii., iii-). 



Russian botanist Maximowicz, Juglans Mandshurica, which is hardly 



^ Lesquereiix, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. vi. pt. ii. 34 (Fossil Plants 



distinguishable from the North American Juglans cinerea in habit, of the Auriferous Gravel Deposits of the Sierra Nevada). 



foliage, and fruit, was introduced several years ago, through the 



^ Although little is known of the insects which feed upon the 



agency of the Botanic Garden of St. Petersburg, into European species of Juglans that grow in the southwestern part of the United 
and American gardens. In New England and northern Europe it States, more than sixty kinds are recorded as preying upon this genus 
is hardy and produces abundant crops of nuts {Gard. Chron. ser. 3, in North America. Of the wood-boring species, probably the worst 



iv. 384, f. 53. — Garden and Forest, i. 396, 443). 



known enemv of Julians in Ajnerica 



^ Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, xvii. 60, f. (^MeL pictus, Drury. Several other species, however, have been recorded 
Biol. viii. 633, f.) (1872). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. as affecting the wood or bark, chiefly after they have begun to 

453. 



Lavall^e, Icon. Hort. Segrez. 1, t. 1, 2. 
Juglans nigra, Thuuberg, FL Jap, 195 (not Linnseus) (1784). 
Juglans Mandshurica, Miquel, Z. c. 104 (not Maximowicz) twigs. 



decay. Among scale insects Aspidiotus Juglandis, Fitch, and Le- 
canium Juglandifex, Fitch, are found on the bark of branches and 



(1867). — Dupont, Essences Forestieres du Japon, 62. 



The species of foliage-eaters are numerous on Juglans. The larvse 



Juglans cordiformis, Maximowicz, I. c. 62, f. L v. 635, f. of a handsome sphinx moth, Smerinthus Juglandis, Abbot & Smith, 



feed upon the leaves. These trees are favorite food-plants for the 
larvge of the beautiful Luna Moth, Actias Luna, Liunseus, of ath- 
eroma regalis, Fabricius, and other large Bombycids which seldom, 



(1872). 

Juglans ailantifolia, Carrifere, L c. 1878, 414, f. 86. 

Juglans macrophylla, Carri^re, L c. 415. 

The Japanese Walnut is a common tree in the forests of Yeso, however, cause much injury, and are often rather rare. Datana 

where it often attains the height of fifty feet, and is scattered minisira, Drury, is sometimes very troublesome, especially in the 

through the mountain regions of the other islands. In its habit, in western states, and Datana integerrima, Grote & Robinson, also 



the color of its pale furrowed bark, in its racemose fruit, and in the 
pubescent covering of its young branches and the inner surface of 



Walnut 



^all Web 
Walnut-t 



its leaves, it resembles the North American Juglans cinerea. The the eastern states, and the larvse do considerable injury, sometimes 
nut, which varies greatly in size and shape, resembles in form and entirely stripping the trees of foliage. The larvae of numerous 
marking the nut of Juglans regia j it is moderately thin-shelled, species of Catocala and other Noctuids are common on these trees. 



with a large sweet edible kernel, and is an important article of 
food in all the northern districts of Japan, although the trees are 



Among smaller foliage-injuring Lepidoptera more or less pecu- 
Lr to the erenus is the Walnut ease-bearer. Acrohasis Jualandhi. 



not cultivated at least to any extent, the nuts sold in the markets Le Baron ; and the larvse of Lithocolletis juglandiella, Clemens, 



being obtained from wild trees of the forest. 



difoliella 



Gracilaria Juglandinigrceella, 



A peculiar flattened form of this nut, pointed at the apex and Chambers, and Aspidisca juglandiella, Chambers, live within the 
more or less cordate at the base (Juglans cordiformis), was found tissue of the leaves and make tortuous or blotch-mines beneath their 
by the Russian naval officer Albrecht exposed for sale in the market epidermis. 



of Hakodate ; similar nuts, said to be brought from the forests of 



A little beetle, Paria aterrima, Olivier, often eats numerous 



Fuji-sau, are sold by the seedsmen of Yokohama, although the trees holes in the young leaves and devours the blossoms ; a small flat 

which produce them are not distinguished by the Japanese botan- Hemipteron, Tingis Juglandis, Fitch, is frequently found sucking 

ists (Sargent, Notes on the Forest Flora of Japan, 60). Juglans' Sie- the juices from the lower surface of the leaves of Juglans cinerea ; 

holdiana was introduced many years ago by Siebold into European and a weevil, Conotrachelus Juglandis, Le Conte, sometimes infests 

gardens ; it is perfectly hardy in central Europe and in New Eng- the fruit. 



land, where it produces fruit every year. 



6 



Juglans in North America has few peculiar fungal enemies, 



2 C. de Candolle, Ajui. ScL Nat sdr 4, xviii. 38. — Saporta, Origine and in general the same parasitic fungi which are found on it occur 



JUGLANDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



The species of Juglans can be easily raised from seeds^ which should not be allowed to dry before 
they are planted^ as they soon become rancid and lose their power of germination.^ The varieties can 
be propagated by grafting. 

The generic name^ the classical name of the Walnut-tree^ from Jupiter and glanSy was adopted by 
Linnaeus, who discarded the older Nux of Tournefort.^ 



also on Hicoria and are not the cause of serious disease. Micro- ever, this fungus does comparatively little damage. A spot disease 
stroma JuglandiSy Saccardo, one of the most generally distributed is produced on the leaves of Juglans nigra by Cercospora JuglandiSy 



Walnuts 



KeUerman & Swingle. 



whitish layer on the under surface of the leaves, causing them to ^ Cobbett, Woodlands ^ Bi4:. — Fuller 



shrivel un. In 



346 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Fruit racemose ; nut prominently 4-ribbed at the sutures, 2-celled at the base ; heartwood light brown. 

Leaflets 11 to 17, oblong-lanceolate 1. J. cinerea. 

Fruit usually solitary or in pairs ; nut without sutural ribs, 4-celled at the base ; heartwood dark brown. 

Leaflets 15 to 23, ovate-lanceolate ; nut deeply and irregularly ridged 2. J. istigra. 

Leaflets 9 to 23, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate ; nut deeply sulcate 3. J. rupestris. 

Leaflets 11 to 17, ovate-lanceolate ; nut obscurely sulcate 4. J. Californica. 



118 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



JUGLANS CINEREA. 



Butternut. Oilnut. 



Leaflets 11 to 17, oblong-lanceolate. Fruit oblong, acute, racemose ; nut 4-ribbed 
at the sutures, deeply sculptured into thin ragged plates, 2-celled at the base. 



Juglans cinerea, Linnaeus, Spec. eel. 2, 1415 (1763). 



• « • 

Ul. 



45. 



Jacquin, Icon, Rar. i. 19j t. 19 



Moench, Bdicme 



Wi 

21, 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz, 21, t. 9, f. 
Walter, FL Car. 235. — Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 



Curtis, Rep, Geolog. Surv. N, Car. 1860, 

Chapman, Fl, 419. — C de CandoUe, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 

4, xviii. 16, t. 4, f. 45 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 137. — Koch, 



Dendr. 



1. 



589. 



Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, 207, t. 



156 ; Spec. iv. 456 ; Eiiuvi. 979. — Castiglioni, Viag. 
negli Statl Uniti^ ii. 263. — Borkhausen, Handh. Forst- 
bot. 1. 754. — Poiret, Lam. Diet, iv. 503 ; III. iii. 365, t. 
781, f. 7- — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iii. 38, t. 161. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. GeselL nat. . 
Berlin, iii. 388. — Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 191. - 
soon, Syn. ii. 566. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 347. 



Ridgway, P^^oc. U. S 

Deutsche Dendr. 305- 



Nat. Mus 



Lauche, 

N. Am. 



10th Census U. S. ix. 130. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 467. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 320. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 76. 



Per- Juglans oblonga, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). 

Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 332. — Moench, Meth. 696. 



Du 



Du 



Mont de Courset, Bot Cttlt. ed. 2, vi. 235. — Stokes, Bot. Juglans oblonga alba, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 67 (1785) 



Mat. Med. iv. 402.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 636. 
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 230. — NuttaU, Gen. ii. 220. 
Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 163. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 622. — Sprengel, 



Juglans nigra, /?, Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 139 (1787). 
Juglans cathartica, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 165, t 
2 (1810). 



Syst. in. 865. — Audubon, 5mZ5, t. 142. — Spach, Hist. Carya cathartica. Barton, Compend. Fl. Phila. ii. 178 



Veg. ii. 170. — Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am, 66. — Hooker, 



(1818). 



Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 143. — Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 180. — Die- Wallia cinerea, Alefeld, Bo^iplandia^ ix. 336 (1861) 
trich, Syn. v. 312. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 262. 



A tree, occasionally one hundred feet liigh, with a tall straight trunk two to three feet in diameter 
and sometimes free of branches for half its height, but more frequently dividing, fifteen or twenty feet 
above the surface of the ground, into numerous stout limbs which spread horizontally often to a great 
length, and form a broad low symmetrical round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and is light brown and deeply divided into broad ridges, 
which separate on the surface into small appressed plate-like scales ; that of young trunks and of the 
branches is smooth and light gray. The branchlets, when they first appear, are coated, like the petioles, 
with rufous pubescence, which gradually disappears during the summer ; and in their first winter they 
are dark orange-brown or bright green, rather lustrous, slightly puberulous, covered more or less thickly 
with pale lenticels, becoming brown tinged with red or orange in their second year, and then gradually 

growing gray. The leaf-scars are light gray, and made conspicuous by the 
large black fibro-vascular bundle-scars and by the elevated bands of pale tomentum which separate them 
from the lowest axillary buds. The terminal buds are one half to two thirds of an inch in length and 
one quarter of an inch in breadth, and are somewhat flattened and obliquely truncate at the apex. 
The two outer scales are coated externally with short pale pubescence, and when fully grown are an 
inch long and one third of an inch wide ; they are often narrowed into broad distinct stalks, and are 
thickened and rounded on the back and acute at the thickened apex ; the inner scales are longer and 
broader, and are frequently obscurely pinnate, resembling the first leaves, which are an inch and a 
half long, with two or three pairs of small leaflets and thickened stalks widened from the base to the 
apex, where they are frequently half an inch across, and covered on the outer surface with rusty 
brown tomentum and on the inner with soft pale hairs. The axillary buds are ovate, flattened, rounded 



losing: their lustre and 



JUGLANDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



119 



at the apex, an eighth of an inch long, and covered with rusty brown or pale pubescence. The leaves 
are from fifteen to thirty inches long, with stout pubescent petioles and eleven to seventeen leaflets ; 
these are oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at the apex, finely serrate with minute callous teeth 
except at the unequally rounded base, and sessile or short-petiolulate, the terminal leaflet being raised 
on a slender stalk often two to three inches in length ; when they unfold they are yellow-green, slightly 
glandular and sticky, lustrous and scurfy on the upper surface and puberulous on the lower; and at 
maturity they are three to four inches long, an inch and a half to two inches wide, thin, yellow-green, and 
rugose above, and pale and soft-pubescent below, with conspicuous pale midribs rounded on the upper 
side and conspicuous primary veins- In the autumn the leaves turn yellow or brown and fall early. 
The catkins of staminate flowers are covered during the winter with the closely imbricated conspicuous 
flower bracts coated with pale tomentum, and vary from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in length j 
they begin to lengthen during the month of May, and when fully grown are from three to five inches 
long, the flowers unfolding when the leaves have attained about half their size. The perianth of the 
flower, which is subtended by a bract covered with rusty pubescence and acute at the apex, is a quarter 
of an inch long, bright yellow-green, slightly puberulous on the outer surface, and usually six-lobed, the 
lateral lobes terminating in tufts of brown hairs ; there are usually twelve or sometimes eight or ten 
stamens with nearly sessile dark brown anthers surmounted by their darker shghtly lobed connectives. 
The female flowers are constricted above the middle and one third of an inch long, and are produced 
in six to eight-flowered spikes, maturing after the pollen of the staminate flowers has been mostly shed. 
The bract and bractlets which form the outer covering of the flower are coated with sticky white or 
pink glandular hairs ; the bract is linear and acute, and is sometimes free at the base of the ovary or is 
often adnate to it to the middle 3 the bractlets are broadly ovate, acute, entire or irregularly cut at the 
apex into numerous small teeth, and rather shorter than the linear-lanceolate sepals, which are puberu- 
lous on the outer surface. The stigmas are clavate, spreading, bright red, and half an inch long. Three 
to five fruits often ripen on one branch ; they are cyHndrical, obscurely two or rarely four ridged, 
ovate-oblong, pointed, coated with rusty clammy matted hairs, and an inch and a half to two inches and 
a half in length. The nut is ovate or rarely obovate, abruptly contracted and acuminate at the apex, 
and furnished at the two sutures with thick broad ridges ; alternate with these are two other ridges 
nearly or quite as prominent, and between these dorsal and marginal ridges are four others narrower 
and less developed ; the thick hard wall is light brown, a quarter of an inch thick, and deeply sculptured 
on the outer surface between the ridges into thin broad irregular broken longitudinal plates, and 



internal lono^itudinal 



celled at the base and one-celled above 



the middle, with a narrow pointed apical cavity. The cotyledons are ovate-oblong, ridged on the back, 
slightly concave on the inner face, rounded and entire at the base, and abruptly contracted above into 
the long-pointed radicle. 

Jiiglans cinerea prefers rich moist soil in which it grows near the banks of streams and on low 
rocky hills, and is distributed from southern New Brunswick, the valley of the St. Lawrence River 
and Ontario^ to eastern Dakota^ and southeastern Nebraska;^ it ranges southward through the 
northern states to Delaware, southern Missouri,* and northeastern Arkansas,^ and along the Apalachian 
Mountains to northern Georgia and the headwaters of the Black Warrior River in Winston County, 
Alabama.^ One of the most abimdant trees in the lowland forests of the north, south of the Oliio 
River the Butternut is nowhere very common and is usually of small size. 

The wood of Juglans cinerea is Hght, soft, not strong, rather coarse-grained, and easily worked, 
with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful pohsh ; it is Hght brown, turning darker with 



1 Brunet, Cat. Vcg. Lig, Can. 46. — Bell, Geolog. Rep, Can. ^ Broadhead 



1878-80, 53^ — Macoun, Cat, Can. PL 434. 
2 ]\IcMillan, Metaspervwe of the Minnesota 
8 Bessey, Rep, Nebraska State Board Agri 



452 



The Butternut has been seen by Dr. Charles Mohr in Alabama 



Winston 



120 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



exposure, with thin light-colored sapwood composed of five or six layers of annual growth, and contains 
numerous regularly distributed large open ducts and thin obscure remote medullary rays. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4086, a cubic foot weighing 25.46 pounds. It is now largely 
employed for the interior finish of houses and for furniture. 

The inner bark is white, but becomes light yellow on exposure to the air and ultimately dark 
brown ; it possesses mild cathartic properties, and is used, especially that of the root, with good results 
in the treatment of habitual constipation,^ and in homoeopathic practice.^ Sugar of excellent quality has 
been made from the sap j ^ the kernel of the nut, which contains a large quantity of oil and soon 



becomes rancid, has a sweet and agreeable flavor while fresh ; the 



used by the Indians 



4 



and 



the green husks of the fruit are employed domestically to dye cloth yellow or orange-color. 

What is probably the earliest mention of the Butternut appears in New England^ s Prospect^ by 
William Wood, published in London in 1639.^ Introduced into European gardens at the close of the 
seventeenth century,^ Juglans cinerea was first described in 1731 by PhiKp Miller.'^ The rapid growth 



in good soil, and the broad symmetrical head of the Butternut, make 



desirable ornamental 



where sufficient space 



be allowed for the spread of its branches. Like many other trees, however 



which unfold their leaves late in the spring, it loses them again after the first cold days of autumn 



^ Schoepf, Mat Med. Amer 
43.— Rush, Med. Obs. i. 112.- 
Rafiuesaue, Med. BoL ii. 234. 



Med. BoL 589. 



Med. 



B. S. Barton, Coll. i. 31 ; ii. of the chips of the Waluut-tree (the barke taken off) Some English 

in the Country make exeeUent Beere both for Taste, strength, 
Griffith, colour, and in offensive opening operation.'' (Roger Williams, A 
Porcher, Re- Key into the Language of America ^ ed. Trumbull, 120.) 



Med. Bot 
, Fl. Med 



sources of Southern Fields and Forests, 317. — Bentley & Trimen, 
Med. PL iv. 47, t. 247. 
U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 850. 



Man. Med 



Man 



156. 



Mass. Ai 
Wallnuts 



ann 



But as Walnuts and Hickories were confounded by all writers 
before the beginning of the present century, Roger Williams's ob- 
servations refer probably to both these trees. 

® " There is likewise a tree in some parts of the country, that 
beares a Nut as big as a small Peare " (pt. vi. 14). 



Aiton 

NUX y 



Loudon, Arh. BriL 1439, f. 1262. 
Ta, fructu oblongoy profundissime 



insculptOf Diet. No. 8. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres^ ii. 61. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXXI. Juglans cikerea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Perianth of a staminate flower displayed, enlarged 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A pistillate flower, the bracts removed, enlarged. 



Plate CCCXXXII. Juglaks cinerea. 

1. ,A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

4. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a branchlet, showing the pith, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab. CCCXXXl. 




C E, FaxoTV del 




sc 



JUGLANS CINEREA.L 



A. lUocreua:^ direzc . 



Imp. J. Taneur^ FarLs 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXXXIl 




5 



C.E. 




del. 



JUGLANS CINEREA,L 



Haptne^ so. 



ji.JHocrezi^c- direa>. 



Imp. oZ ToTieur, Paris 



JUGLANDACE-^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



121 



JUGLANS NIGRA. 



Black Walnut. 



Leaflets 15 to 23, ovate-lanceolate. Fruit 



ally globose, solitary or in pairs 



nut globose, deeply and longitudinally ridged, 4-celled at the base. 



jlans nigra 

ed. 8, No. 2. 



Miller 



179. 



Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 262. — Dietrich, Syn. 



Harbk 



Wang 



heim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 60 ; Nordam. Holz. 20, 

t. 8, f . 20. — Jacquin, Icon. Rar. i. 19, t. 191. — Moench, 

Baume Weiss. 83 ; Meth. 696. — Walter, FL Car. 235. 

Willdenow, BerL Baumz. 155 ; Spec. iv. 456 ; Enum. 



V. 312. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Sitrv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 
45. — Chapman, Fl. 419. — C de Candolle, Ann. Sci. 
Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. 35, t. 4, f . 44, 46 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



137. — Koch, Dendr, i. 587. 



Mass 



211. 



Schnizlein, Icon. t. 244, f. 1, 8, 12, 13. — Lauche, 



978. 
6. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 502 ; III. iii. 365, t. 781, f. 
Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ ii. t. 88. — Castiglioni, 
Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 263. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. 
iii. 37, t. 160. — Borkhausen, Handh. Forsthot. \. 751. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Nexce Schrift. Gesell. nat. Fr. 



Deutsche Dendr. 305. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
V)th Census U. S. ix. 131. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 467. — Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk, ii. 319- 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr, 74, f. 24 A. — Coulter, Con- 
trib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 412 {Man. PI W. Texas). 



Berlin^ iii. 388. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 191. — Per- Juglans nigra oblonga, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 67 (1785) 



soon, Syn. ii. 566. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 347. 



Mont 



Stokes, 



Juglans Pitteursii, Morren, Ann. Soc. Roy. Agric. et Bot 
Gand, iv. 179, t. 197 (1848). 



Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 403. — Nouveau Duhamel^ iv. 179, t. Wallia nigra, Alefeld, Bonplandia, ix. 336 (1861). 



48. 



Michaux f . Hist 



Pursh, Fl. Wallia fraxinifolia, Alefeld, Bonplandia^ ix. 336 (excl. 
Am. Sept. ii. 636. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 220 ; Sijlva, 141. — hab. Antilles) (1861). 

Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 163. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 622. — Sprengel, Wallia nigra microcarpa, Alefeld, Bonplandia^ ix. 336 



Syst. iii. 865. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 158, t. 158. 
Audubon, Birds, t. 84, 156- — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 168. 
Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 66. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii 



(1861). 
Wallia nigra macrocarpa, Alefeld, Bonplandia^ ix. 336 
(1861). 



A tree, frequently one hundred feet, and occasionally one hundred and fifty feet high, with a 
straight trunk often clear of branches for fifty or sixty feet, and four to six feet in diameter, and stout 
limbs which spread gradually, and form a comparatively narrow shapely round-topped head of mostly 
upright rigid branches. The bark of the trunk is two or three inches thick, dark brown slightly tinged 
with red, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the surface into thick appressed 
scales ; that of young stems and of the branches is light brown, and separates in thin papery scales, 
which, as they fall, display the dark gray inner bark. The branchlets, when they first appear, are 
covered, like the petioles, with pale or ferrugineous matted pubescence, which gradually wears off 
during the summer or autumn, and in their first winter are dull orange-brown, pilose with short soft 
hairs, or puberulous, marked with raised conspicuous orange-colored lenticels, and with elevated pale 
leaf-scars ; in their second and third years they gradually grow darker, and become light brown. The 
terminal buds are ovate, slightly flattened, obliquely rounded at the apex, coated with pale silky 
tomentum, one third of an inch long, and one quarter of an inch broad, and usually covered with four 
scales ; those of the outer pair are rounded on the back, thickened, concave, and often obscurely pinnate 
or pinnately marked at the apex, and little, if at all, accrescent ; those of the inner pair are pinnate 
at the apex, covered on the outer surface with rusty brown tomentum, and an inch long at maturity, 
and often resemble the scale-like short-lived upper leaves, which are composed of short broad flat 
petioles and of three or four pairs of leaflets. The axillary buds are obtuse, an eighth of an inch 
lono", and coated with pale tomentum, their outer scales being open at the apex during the winter. The 



leaves are from one to two feet long, and are composed of pubescent petioles, and of from fifteen to 



122 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



tAventy-three leaflets, and not infrequently are equally pinnate by the suppression of the terminal leaflet 



the leaflets 



often unequal by the greater development of 



■pointed 



sharply serrate with callous appressed teeth except at their more or less rounded unequal bases, and 
sessile or short-petiolulate ; when they unfold they are lustrous, yellow-green, glabrous on the upper 
surface, and coated on the lower with rufous caducous tomentum ; and at maturity they are thin, bright 



yellow-green, lustrous and glabrous above, and soft-pubescent below, especially along the 
midribs and primary veins ; they are from three to three and a half inches in length, and from a 
to an inch and a quarter in breadth, and turn bright clear yellow in the autumn before faUing 



[ider 



The 



catkins of staminate flowers protrude during the winter from the scales of the bud, and are coated with 



three to five inches in length, and slightly puberulous 



The 



pale tomentum; at maturity they 

bract is nearly triangular, coated with rusty brown or pale tomentum, and about one quarter of an inch 

long. 



The perianth is rotund and six-lobed, the lobes being nearly orbicular, concave, and pubescent 



m many 



the outer surface. There are from twenty to thirty stamens arranged 
sessile purple anthers surmounted by the slightly lobed truncate connect] 
produced in two to five-flowered spikes, and do not expand until the leaves have 



with 



ly 



The female flowers 



ly to their 



full size ; they are ovate, gradually narrowed to the apex, and one quarter of an inch long. The bract 
and bractlets are coated below with pale glandular hairs, and above are green and puberulous ; they are 

cut into a laciniate border, or the bract is often undivided, and the bractlets are 



sometimes irregularly 



sometimes reduced to an obscure ring just below the apex of the ovary 



The caly:s:-lobes are ovate, 



ht green, puberulous on the outer, glabrous or pilose on the inner surface, and a quarter of 



inch long 



The stigmas are club-shaped, yellow-green, tinged on the margins of the lobes with red 



d one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and b 



wither before the anthers shed thei 



poUe 



n. 



The fruit 



ch is solitary or sometimes produced in pairs, is globose, oblong, or slightly 



pyriform, light yellow-green, roughened with 



of short pale articulate hairs, and an inch and 



half to two inches in diameter. The nut, which is oval or oblong and slightly flattened, without sutural 
ridges, often measures an inch and a half in its long diameter, and an inch and an eighth in its short 
diameter, and is dark brown tinged with red. The hard wall, which is frequently a quarter of an inch 
thick, is deeply divided on the outer surface into thin or thick often interrupted irregular ridges, and 
contains large irregular cavities. The interior of the nut is four-celled at the base by thick dissepi- 
ments, and slightly two-ceUed at the apex. The cotyledons are concave or sulcate on the back, deeply 
lobed at the base and apex, and abruptly narrowed into a short broad radicle. 

Jitglans nigra is distributed from western Massachusetts to southern Ontario,^ and through 
southern Michigan and Minnesota to central and northern Nebraska ^ and eastern Kansas, and south- 
ward to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and the vaUey of the San Antonio River in 
Texas. An inhabitant of rich bottom-lands and fertile hillsides, and less common in the Atlantic states, 

of the Alleghany Mountains, and was most 
abundant and grew to its largest size on the low western slopes of the high mountains of North 
Carolina and Tennessee and on the fertile river bottom-lands of southern Illinois and Indiana/ south- 
western Arkansas and the Indian Territory. 



the Black Walnut once abounded in the reg:ion west 



4 



^ Brunei, Cat. Veg, Lig. Can, 46. — Bell, Geolog. Rep, Canada, and a standing tree measured six feet in diameter three feet above 



1878-80, 53^ — Macoun, Cat, Can, PL 434. 

2 Bessey, Rep, Nebraska State Board Agric, 1894, 108, 

^ Eight Black Walnut trees grown in the bottoms of Greathouse 



the ground, and was estimated to be one hundred and fifty feet 
in height. (See Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus. 1882, 76.) 

* Large Black Walnut trees practically no longer exist in the 



Creek near Mount Carmel, Illinois, had an average height of one American forests. Many were cut down and burnt or split into 

hundred and six feet one and one half inches, and an average fence-rails when the rich bottom-lands of the Mississippi Basin 

trunk-diameter of three feet, while the tallest of them measured were cleared for agriculture. The sudden demand for gunstocks 

one hundred and nineteen feet six inches. A tree grown on the during the War of Secession greatly stimulated the demand, which 

river-bottoms in the same locality had a trunk diameter of five feet has always been large for this wood for domestic use and for 

six inches and a total height of one hundred and thirty-one feet ; exportation ; and during the last twenty years the agents of lum- 



JUGLANDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



123 



durable 



The wood of Jiiglans nigra is heavy, hard, strong, rather coarse-grained, easily worked, and very 

; it contains numerous large irregularly distributed open ducts and 



contact with the soil 



many thin obscure medullary rays. It is rich dark brown, with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving 
a beautiful polish, and thin light-colored sapwood composed of ten to twenty layers of annual growth. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6115, a cubic foot weighing 38.11 pounds. It is 



gely 



in cabinet-making, in the interior finish of houses, for gunstocks and coffins, and in boat 



d ship building; its value was recognized by the early colonists, and when William Strachey visited 



Virginia in 1610 black walnut was already sent to the mother country,^ and 



of 



commercial importance 



The 



which were valued by the 



Indians of the Mississippi Basin,^ are still gathered 



for 



domestic use, and are sometimes offered for sale in the markets of western and southern cities, although 
the kernel, which is sweet and has a pleasant flavor while fresh, soon becomes rancid ; the husks are 
used for dyeing. 

Introduced into Europe about the middle of the seventeenth century ^ by the younger Tradescant,^ 
Jiiglans nigra was first described by Parkinson in the Theatrwn Botanicum^ A tree in the garden 
of the Bishop of London produced fruit before 1687.^ 

The Black Walnut is frequently used as an ornamental tree in the parks of the United States and 
of central Europe, and during the last twenty years many plantations of it have been made in the United 
States and Canada ^ in the hope of replacing by cultivation the wasted stores of walnut timber which 
once abounded in the forests of North America. As an ornamental tree the Black Walnut, with its 
massive trunk and handsome shapely head of beautiful foliage, is surpassed in beauty by few other 
inhabitants of the American forest, although the preference of the Fall Web-worm for its leaves and its 
early defoliation somewhat detract from its value as an ornamental tree for parks and pleasure-grounds.^ 



ber-dealers, penetrating into the most remote and inaccessible parts rendre plus utiles.'' (Le Page du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisianey 
of the country, have bought up often singly and at merely nominal ii. 25.) 



Walnut 



^ Alton, HorL Kexo, iii. 360. — Loudon, Arb. Brit iii. 1435, f. 



" Of walnutts there be three kindes, the black walnutt which 1260, t. 



is returned home yearly by all shipping from thence, and yields 
good profitt, for yt is well bought up to make waynscott tables, cub- 
bardes, chaires, and stooles, of a delicate grayne and cuUour like Car, i. 67, t. 67. 



* See i. 20. 

^ Nux juglans nigra Virginiensis, 1414. — Catesby, Nat, Hist, 



ebonie, and not subject to the worme ; the fruict of this is little, yt 



Nux juglans Virginiana nigra^ Hermann, Cat. Hort, Lugd,'Bat. 



is thinne shelled, and the karnell bitter." (The Historic of Travaile 452, t. — Boerhaave, Ind, Alt, Hort, Lugd. Bat, ii, 175. 



into Virginia Britannia, ed. Major, 129.) 



Juglans foliolis lanceolatis tomentosis acute serrratis : superioribus 



i 



* The Walnut which is divers, some bearing square nuts, others minoribus, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff, 449. — Royen, FL Leyd, Prodr, 82. 



like ours, but smaller : there is likewise black Walnut of precious 
use for Tables, Cabinets, and the like." (Josselyn, An Account of 
Two Voyages to New England, 69.) 

'-* " II en est de trfes-gros, dont le bois est presque aussi noir que 
I'dbene ; mais il a ses pores trfes ouverts. Leur fruit avec son 
bois est de la grosseur d'un ceuf de poule; la coque en est tr^s- 



® See Hermann, L c. 

■^ See Joly, Rep, Montreal Horticultural and Fruit Growers^ Asso- 
ciation, 1880, 23. — Proc, Am, Forestry Congress, 1885, 79. 

Although the young cultivated trees grow rapidly, trees in the 



girth of trunk. 



W 



raboteuse, sans ensures, & si dur, qu'il faut un marteau pour la under the most favorable conditions in the best alluvial soil, to 

La chair est envelopp^e d'un bois si fort, que quoi-qu'elle a size really valuable for timber. The log specimen in the Jesup 



casser. 



soit d'un tr^s-bon gout, la difficult^ de les tirer en fait perdre I'en- 



Woods 



vie : cependant les Naturels en font du pain. Comme lis venoient Natural History, New York, grown in Missouri, has a trimk-diame- 
en ramasser sur ma Concession, oh j'en avois un Bois de Haute- ter of twenty-six inches inside the bark, and shows one himdred 



arpens 



and ninety-two layers of annual growth. 



Walnut flourishes 



quelle Industrie ils parvenoient k detacher cette chair de son bois. ^ As an ornamental tree the Black 

Je les vis, apr^s avoir cassd & pild les noix, les mettre dans de north as Montreal and Quebec ; and on the Atlantic coast it is 

oil ils jetterent beaucoup d'eau; ils frotterent hardy as far north at least as eastern Massachusetts. A specimen 



vaisseaux 



ensuite cette espece de farine, & la manierent longtems entre leurs standing on the estate of Mr. Peter C. Brooks of West Medford, 

mains de sorte que le bois & I'huile de la noix, qui est tr^s-abon- Massachusetts, is believed to be from one hundi-ed and fifty to one 

grais- hundred and seventy-five years old. This noble tree is probably 

qu'en the largest in New England; in 1888 it had a trunk-circumference 



fruit, vinrent au-dessus de I'eau, & la chair 



;umer 



sde tomba au fond par son propre poids. H est h pr^ 

ffreffant ces arbres avec du Noyer de France, on parviendroit h les of thirteen feet six and one half inches at five feet above the sur- 



124 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, juglandace^. 



face of the ground; and, although injured by lightning in 1878, is a size ; but the Black Walnut often suffers there from spring frosts 

still in a healthy and vigorous condition. (See Dame & Brooks, in its early years, and produces wood so slowly that European f or- 

Typical Elms and other Trees of Massachusetts ^ 68, t. 43.) esters do not recommend it for general forest planting. (See Mayr, 

Specimens of Juglans nigra at least a century old may occasion- Die Wald, Nordam, 151, t. 4, f - — R, Hartig, AusL Holz, hayer. 

ally be seen in central and southern Europe. Few other North Staatswald, 35 [Forst-nat. Zeit, 1892].) 
American deciduous-leaved trees have grown in Europe to so large 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXXIIL Juglans nigra. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower before anthesis, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Perianth of a staminate flower displayed, enlarged^ 

5. A stamen, enlarged- 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A leaf, reduced. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCXXXIV. Juglans nigra 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXXXIII 







C.E.Faaaon del. 



TouZet 



sc 



JUGLANS NIGRA, L 



A.BzocreuX' £r&7z. 



Imp. tZ ToTL&ur, Paris-. 



SilvcL of North Amen 



C£L 



Ta*b. CCCXXXIV 




C.E.FcLi^n del. 




riLTL so. 



JUGLANS NIGRA, L. 



A.Hzocreux direcc r 



Imp . tJ. lojzeur ^ J^aris 



JUGLANDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



125 



JUGLANS RUPESTRIS. 



Walnut. 



Leaflets 9 to 23, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate. Fruit usually spherical; nut 
globose, deeply sulcate, 4-celled at the base. 



Juglans rupestris, Engelmann, Sitgreaves' Rep. ITl, t. 15 Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 75, f. 24 B. B. — Coulter, Con^ 



(1853). 



Mex. Bound, Surv. 205 ; Ives^ 



trib. U. S. Nat. Serb. ii. 412 (Man. PL W. Texas). 



Rep. 27. — C. de CandoUe, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. Juglans rupestris, var. major, Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 



28, t. 2, f . 11 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 138, — Brewer & Wat- 
son, Bot. Cal. ii. 93. — Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club^ 
ix. 54. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 305- — Hemsley, Bot. 



171, t. 16 (1853) ; Bot. Mex. Bound: Surv. 205 ; Pacific 
R. R. Rep. vii. 20. — C. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
138. 



Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 164. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Juglans Calif ornica, Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. vi. 249 



10th Census U. S. ix. 131 (excl. syn. Juglans Califor- 



nica). 



Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 323, f. 146. 



(not Watson) (1878). — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat 
Herb. ii. 412 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 



A tree^ sometimes fifty feet in height, with a short trunk occasionally four to five feet in diameter, 
and sometimes dividing near the ground, or usually ten or fifteen feet above it, into several stout 
branches, which are nearly upright throughout, forming a narrow head of rather formal outline, or, 
when the tree is growing in moist soil, sometimes begin to spread a few feet above the division of the 
trunk and become more or less pendulous at the extremities, making a handsome symmetrical round- 
topped head ; or often reduced to a shrub sending up from the ground a cluster of stems only a few 
feet in height. The bark of the trunk varies from a quarter of an inch to nearly an inch in thickness. 



d is deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into thin appressed 



that of young trunks and 



of the branches is smooth, pale, and sometimes nearly white. The branchlets, when they first appear, 
are coated, Hke the petioles, with a pale or light brown scurfy pubescence or tomentum, which often 



does not entirely disapp 



til the end of the second or third year 



their first winter they 



orange-red, and marked by many small pale lenticels, growing lighter in their second season, and grad- 
ually become pale or nearly white. The terminal buds, which vary from one quarter to one half of an 
inch in length, are compressed, narrowed and often oblique at the apex, and are covered by two pairs 
of strap-shaped scales, the outer pair being pointed and often obscurely pinnate at the apex, and 
clothed with rusty or pale tomentum, while the inner pair are thicker, rounded on the back, flat on the 
inner face, and half an inch long when fully grown. The axillary buds are an eighth of an inch long, 
compressed, covered with dark scales, often open at the apex during the winter, and coated with pale 
pubescence- The leaves, composed of from nine to twenty-three leaflets and slender pubescent petioles. 



are from seven to fifteen inches in length ; the leaflets are lanceolate. 



ceolate 



or 



Tely 



ovate. 



ually very unequal on the two ed 



8 



coarsely or finely crenulate 



xly 



and rounded or wedge-shaped on the other edge, and distinctly 



the base, which is rounded on one 
petiolulate or sometimes nearly sessile 3 when they unfold they are bronze-red, pubescent below, and 
puberulous above, and at maturity are from two and a half to five inches long, one third of an inch to 
an inch and a half wide, thin, dark yellow-green and glabrous, or often pubescent on the lower surface, 
especially along the stout yellow midribs and primary veins, which are also sometimes pilose above. In 

leaves turn yellow before falling. The catkins of staminate flowers, which protrude 



the autumn the leaves turn 

slio-htly from the bud-scales during the winter 



C5 



are slender, slightly puberulous, and from two and one 
The bract of the staminate flower is ovate-lanceolate, acute, and coated with 



half to four inches loi 

thick pale tomentum. The perianth, which opens in April and May after the leaves are about half 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



grown, is three to five-lobed, nearly orbicular, light yellow-green, glabrous, or slightly pubescent on the 



lower surface, and raised 



abo 



slender stalt, which is about a quarter of an inch long. There 



twenty stamens, with nearly sessile yellow anthers and dark conspicuous sKghtly lobed con- 
nectives. The pistillate flowers, which are produced in few-flowered spikes, are narrowed at both ends, 
coated with pale or rufous tomentum, and from one eighth to one quarter of an inch in length; the 
bract and bractlets are green above, puberulous at the apex on the outer surface, and irregularly divided 

is on the 



laciniately cut border rather shorter than the ovate-acute sepals, Avhich are puberulo 



surface 



The stigmas are club-shaped, spreading, green tinged with red, and one third of 



inch long. The fruit is globose or rarely oblong, and varies from half an inch to an inch and a half 
diameter, with a thin husk, glabrate or coated with short rufous articulate hairs. The nut is globe 



without sutural ridges, often compressed at both ends and sometimes flattened 



ally, dark reddish 



brown to black, and deeply sulcate with longitudinal simple or forked grooves ; it is four-celled at the 
base and two-celled at the apex, with very thick hard walls, containing numerous interior 



inclosing a small sweet kernel. The cotyledons are keeled on the back, flat or slightly 



cavities, and 
cave on the 



inner face, more or less deeply lobed below and above, and abruptly contracted into the short pointed 
radicle.^ 

Jiiglans rui^estris is distributed from the valleys of the upper Colorado, the Llano, and Guada- 
loupe Rivers in central Texas, westward through southern New Mexico and Arizona, and southward 
into the states of northern Mexico. In Texas, where it is common west of the ninety-eighth meridian 
on streams flowing to the Gulf of Mexico, Jiiglans rupestvis is often shrubby, and is rarely more than 
thirty feet in height, growing on the limestone banks of streams or sometimes in their stony beds with 
the narrow-leaved Chestnut Oak, the Plane-tree, the Green Ash, the Cedar Elm, the Red Mulberry, and 
the black-fruited Persimmon ; in New Mexico and Arizona, where it attains its largest size, it is a 
common inhabitant of canons in all the mountain ranges south of the Colorado plateau, growing from 
their mouths up to elevations of six thousand feet, with Cottonwoods, the Black Willow, the Alder, and 



Plane-tree, alway 



the banks of the streams 



where the roots, penetrating 



deep into the soil, are able to secure a constant supply of water. 

The wood of Jiiglans Tiipestris is heavy, hard, not very strong, and coarse-grained, with a satiny 
surface susceptible of receiving a good pohsh ; it contains numerous irregularly distributed large open 
ducts and thin obscure medullary rays. It is rich dark brown, with thick nearly white sapwood. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of the New Mexico and Arizona trees is 0.6861, a cubic foot 
weighing 42.14: pounds. 

In New Mexico and Arizona the nuts are gathered and eaten by Mexicans and Indians. The 
kernel is very sweet and remains fresh for a long time, but its commercial value is lessened by its small 
size and the thickness and hardness of the walls which inclose it. 

Juglans rimestris was discovered in western Texas in 1835^ by the Belgian botanist Berlandier;^ 



in 1868 it was growing in the Botanic Garden at Berlin ; ^ and in 1879 it was introduced into the 



Texas. It is perfectly hardy in eastern 



Arnold Arboretum by means of seeds gathered in western 
Massachusetts, where as a low shrub it has ripened fruit. 

In the canons of the Arizona mountains Juglans rupestris is a handsome and conspicuous tree, 
particularly in winter, when its head of rigid white branches makes it peculiarly effective. 



^ The eastern and westeru forms of Juglans rupestris seem some- cccxxxvi., the var. major of Torrey) is a larger tree, with broader 

times like distinct species; but in the extreme western part of and more coarsely serrate stalked leaflets, usually pubescent on the 

Texas and in New Mexico the two forms grow together and appear lower surface, larger fruit coated with rufous hairs, and a darker, 

to pass one into the other. The Texas form (Plate cccxxxv.) is dis- more flattened, and more deeply sulcate nut with proportionately 

tingnished by its smaller size, by its narrower, more glabrous, and thinner walls and a larger kernel. 



more finely serrate leaflets, which are often nearly sessile, and by 
the small globose glabrate fruit and very thick-walled nut inclosing 
a kernel often scarcely larger than a pea. The western form (Plate 



2 No. 2459, " Rio de Medina, Texas, June, 1834.'* 

8 See i. 82. 

* Teste, Herb. Engelmann. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXXV. Juglajs^s kupestris, from Texas 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2- A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCXXXVI. Juglans kupestris, from Arizona 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 
A. A leaf, reduced. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah. CCCXXXV 




O.E.Fcwooru deL. 



HapiTie/ so. 



JUGLANS RUPESTRIS, Engelm. 



A. Bzocreuay diresy ^ 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris, 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXXXVl 




C.E.Faccon del . 



HimeJ^ sc . 



JUGLANS RUPESTRIS, En^elm. 



A,RiOcreuat direo!^ 



Imp . xJ. Tanettr, Paris , 



JUGLANDACE^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEPtlGA. 



129 



JUGLANS CALIFORNIOA. 



Walnut • 



Leaflets 11 to 17, oyate-lanceolate. Fruit globose ; nut obscurely and remotely 
sulcate, 4-celled at the base. 



Juglans Calif ornica, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 349 sits U. S. ix. 131 (in part). — Greene, Man. Bot. Bay 

(excl. syn.) (1875). — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 93 Region^ 301- 

(excl. syn.). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lO^A Gen- 



A tree, occasionally forty to sixty feet in height, with a trunk eighteen to twenty inches in 
diameter, and stout pendulous branches which form a symmetrical graceful round-topped head ; or 
often much smaller, and sometimes shrubby in habit. The bark of the trunk is one third to one half 
of an inch in thickness, dark brown or nearly black, and deeply divided into broad irregular ridges, 
separating on the surface into thin appressed scales ; that of young stems and the branches is smooth 
and pale or nearly white- The branchlets are covered when young with rufous scurfy tomentum, which 
soon disappears, and in their first winter are puberulous, dark reddish brown, and marked with pale 
scattered lenticels ; becoming darker, and gradually glabrous in their second season, they begin to grow 
pale during their third year, and ultimately are nearly white. The terminal buds are acute, compressed, 
more or less oblique at the apex, coated with pale tomentum, and about a quarter of an inch long. 
The axillary buds, which are often solitary, are nearly globose, one sixteenth of an inch in length, and 
covered with thick pale or rufous tomentum. The leaves are composed of eleven to seventeen leaflets 
and of slender puberulous petioles, and are six to nine inches long ; the leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, 
often somewhat falcate, long-pointed, coarsely crenulate-serrate except at the equally or unequally 
rounded or subcordate or wedge-shaped bases ; when they unfold they are bronzy green and pilose, or 
covered with scurfy pubescence, and at maturity are thin, light green, glabrous, or sometimes furnished 
on the under surface with tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the primary veins, an inch and a half to 
three inches in length and one half to three quarters of an inch in width, with pale midribs and short 
stout petiolules grooved on the upper side. The staminate flowers, which open in April and May, 
when the leaves are nearly fully grown and after the stigmas of the female flowers have begun to 
wither, are produced in slender puberulous aments two to three inches long. The perianth is elongated, 
light green, coated Uke its bract on the outer surface with rufous pubescence, divided into five or six 
ovate acute lobes, and raised on a short slender stalk. There are from thirty to forty stamens with 
yellow anthers, surmounted by short connectives bifid at the apex. The pistillate flowers are broadly 
ovate or subglobose, glabrate or puberulous, and an eighth of an inch long. The free border of the 
bract and bractlets is ring-like and nearly entire, and much shorter than the broad ovate pubescent 
calyx-lobes. The stigmas are club-shaped, half an inch in length, and yellow. The fruit is globose, 
and three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in diameter, with a thin dark-colored husk 
coated with short soft pubescence. The nut is nearly globose, without sutural ridges, slightly com- 
pressed, and sometimes flattened at both ends. It is dark brown, and obscurely sulcate with remote 
shallow grooves, and thin waUs, and is four-celled at the base, with low basal medial partitions, a 
slightly divided apical cavity, and a large sweet kernel, which retains its sweetness and flavor for 

several months. 

Juglans Californica is an inhabitant of the California coast region, where it grows along the 
banks of streams and on their bottom-lands, usually twenty or thirty miles from the sea, from the vaUey 



130 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



JUGLANDACE^. 



of the lower Sacramento River to the southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, where it some- 
times ascends to an elevation of three thousand feet above the ocean level/ 

The wood of Juglans Californica is heavy, hard, and rather coarse-grained, with a satiny surface 
susceptible of receiving a good polish. It contains numerous regularly distributed open ducts and thin 
obsciu^e medullary rays, and is dark brown, and often handsomely veined and mottled, with thick pale 
sapwood, composed of eight or ten layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.6266, a cubic foot weighing 39.04 pounds. 

Juglans CaVfornica appears to have been first noticed by Dr. C. C. Parry,^ who found it in 1850 
north of Los Angeles.^ 

Juglans Californica is often cultivated in California as a shade-tree, and is sometimes used there 
as a stock upon which to graft different varieties of Juglans regia. Introduced into Europe through 
the Arnold Arboretum, it flowered in the spring of 1889 in the garden of the Villa Thuret at Antibes 
in southern France. 



S45 



(182S-1890) 



Pinus aristata^ Piniis Torreyana^ Pinus Parryana, Picea pungens, 
and Picea Engelmanni being among the trees which he added to 



ton, in Gloucestershire, England, and in 1833 came to America our silva. 

with his family, who settled on a farm in Washington County, New Dr. Parry was the author of many papers published in scientific 

York. He was graduated from Union College at Schenectady, and journals and in the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sci- 

subsequently from the Medical School of Columbia College, New ence, of which he was one of the founders and for many years the 

York- In 1846 Dr. Parry established himself in his profession at president. One of the peaks of the Snowy Range of Colorado bears 

Davenpoii;, Iowa, which he considered his home during the remain- the name of this indefatigable and successful explorer, and Parry- 
der of his life, although he soon abandoned the practice of medicine 

greatly 



banks 



Wisconsin 



Mexican 



Iowa, and Minnesota, along the southern boundary of the United they are indebted to his zeal, industry, and intelligence. His her- 
barium, gathered in the wanderings of forty-eight years, and con- 
taining duplicate types of his discoveries, has been acquired by the 
Agricultural College of Iowa. (See Preston, Proc, Davenport 



Commission, in southern California, in Colorado, whose alpine flora 
he first made known, in southern Utah, in Wyoming and Montana, 
in Lower California, Mexico, and San Domingo, No other botan- 
ist of his generation explored so many unexplored fields in North 
America or revealed so many undescribed North American plants, 



life and 



writings.) 

^ Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 205. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXXXVIL Juglans CALn^oRNiCA. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A pistillate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXXXVII 




C.E.Fojrorb del. 




sc 



JUGLANS CALIFORNICA ,Wats. 



A.Ru?creic33' dir&z>. 



Imp, i/. Taneur, Pcwis 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



131 



HICORIA. 



Flowers monoecious, apetalous ; calyx of the staminate flower unequally 2 to 3- 

; stamens 3 to 10 ; calyx of the pistillate 



lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation 



flower 1-lobed 



ovary 



infer 



1 -celled, surrounded by a 4-lobed involucre ; ovule 



solitary, erect. Fruit a nut inclosed in the 4-valved thickened involucre. Leaves 
alternate, unequally pinnate, destitute of stipules, deciduous. 



Hicoria (Scoria), Rafinesque, N. T. Med. Rep. hex. ii. v 
352 (1808) ; Alsograph. Am. 65. — Baillon, Hist. PL xi 
405 (Scoria). 

Carya, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 220 (1818). — Meisner, Gen. 74. 



Endlicher, Gen. 1126. 



Nat 



sdr. 4, xviii. 36. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 398 
Engler, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. iii. pt. i. 25. 



Aromatic resinous trees, with watery juice, scaly bark, tough strong hard brown wood, tough terete 
flexible branchlets, solid pith, scaly buds, long stout perpendicular roots and thick fibrous rootlets 
covered with thick dark-colored bark. Buds covered with few valvate, or with numerous imbricated 
accrescent and often bright-colored scales ; the axillary buds superposed two or three together and often 
stalked, or solitary. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, many or few-foliolate, often glandular dotted, 
deciduous, the lowest often scale-Hke and short-lived, with broad flat stalks and few small leaflets, 
the uppermost frequently reduced to small bract-Hke acute bodies, more or less persistent during the 
winter. Petioles elongated, terete, flattened and grooved on the upper side, and gradually enlarged 
toward the base, often persistent on the branches during the winter, leaving in falling large elevated 
oblong or semicircular more or less three-lobed emarginate leaf-scars displaying small marginal clusters 
and central radiating lines of dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Leaflets involute in vernation, ovate 
or obovate, usuaUy acuminate, thick and firm, serrate, mostly unequal at the entire base, usually 
increasing in size from the lower to the upper, sessile or short-petiolulate, or the terminal leaflet raised 
on a long stalk, penniveined, the veins forked and running to the margin of the leaflet and connected 
by reticulate cross veinlets, turning clear bright yeUow in the autumn, and often separating from the 
petiole in faUing. Staminate flowers appearing in late spring after the unfolding of the leaves from 
buds in the axils of the last leaves of the year, or at the base of branches of the year from the inner 
scales of the terminal bud, in solitary or fascicled pedunculate ternate aments, the lateral aments 
produced from the axfls of lanceolate acute persistent bracts. Calyx usuaUy two, rarely three-lobed, 
subtended by an ovate acute elongated bract free nearly to the base, and usually much longer than the 
ovate rounded calyx-lobes. Stamens three to ten, inserted in two or three series on the slightly 
thickened torus-like inner and lower face of the calyx; filaments abbreviated, free; anthers ovate- 
oblong, emarginate or divided at the apex, pilose or hirsute, two-celled, the ceUs opening longitudinaUy, 
as long or longer than their slender connective. Ovary wanting. Pistillate flowers mostly proterogy- 
nous, sessile, in two to ten-flowered clusters or spikes borne on a peduncle terminal on a leafy branch of 
the year. Calyx reduced to a single posterior lobe. Ovary inferior, one-celled, formed of two 
transverse carpels, crowned with two sessile persistent median commissural spreading stigmas papiUo- 
stio'matic on the inner face, inclosed in a perianth-like slightly four-ridged involucre, composed by 
the more or less complete union of an anterior bract and two lateral bractlets, adnate below to the 
ovary, unequaUy four-lobed at the apex, cup-shaped, viUous on the outer surface, the bract exterior in 



132 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



aestivation and much longer tlian the bractlets and calyx-lobe ; ^ ovule solitary, erect from the bottom 
of the cell, orthotropous. Fruiting involucre ovoid, globose, or pyriform, thin or thick, becoming hard 
and woody at maturity, four-valved, the sutures alternate with those of the nut, sometimes more or less 
broadly winged, splitting promptly or tardily to the base or to the middle, marked on the inner surface 
with broad dark veins radiating from the thickened base. Nut oblong, obovate, or subglobose, acute, 
acuminate or rounded at the apex, and tipped by the hardened remnants of the styles, narrowed and 
usually rounded at the base furnished with the usually persistent hardened acute point of attachment 
to the involucre* < 



ylindrical or compressed contrary to the 



separating by the dorsal sutures 



in germination into two valves, the valves alternate with the cotyledons, their walls thin and brittle, 
or thick, hard and bony, smooth or variously rugose or ridged on the outer surface and containing 



numerous larg 



gitudinal 



cavities filled with dark or light astringent 



coarse powder, four-celled at the base by the development to above the middle of a thin dorsal partition 
at right angles with the valves, and by a lower ventral partition in their direction, and two-celled at the 
apex by the projection downward into the cavity of a thick partition at right angles with the dorsal 
basal partition, and divided to receive the short broad point of the seed. Seed solitary, filling the 
cavity of the nut, exalbuminous, two-lobed from the bottom nearly to the middle, the lobes oblong, 
compressed, variously grooved on the back by the projection inward of longitudinal ridges on the walls 
of the nut, concave on the inner face, more or less deeply two-lobed at the apex, the connective thick 
and short-pointed ; testa thin, membranaceous, of two coats, the outer coat light brown. Embryo flat. 



oily, sweet or bitter ; radicle short, superior, filling the apex of the cavity of the nut. 



2 



Hicoria is confined to the temperate regions of eastern North America, and is distributed from the 



valley of the St. Lawrence River to the highlands of Mexico, where 



3 



demic species 



Nine 



species are known, eight of which inhabit the territory of the United States, the headquarters of the 
genus as represented by the greatest number of species being in southern Arkansas. Traces of Hicoria 
have been found in the tertiary rocks of Greenland ; * palaeontologists have described numerous species 
from the upper tertiary formation of Europe,^ and there are evidences that it once ranged in North 
America far to the westward of its present home 

Many of the species of Hicoria produce strong tough and very valuable wood ^ and edible nuts of 



1 The involucral character of the outer covering of the pistiUate united into a sack. Catkins of staminate flowers at the base of 
flower of Hicoria is shown by the fact that it sometimes contains young branches from the axils of the inner bud-scales. Husk 
two or three ovaries, producing two or three separate or more or of the fruit thick or rarely thin, without sutural ridges, or in 
less united nuts inclosed in one husk. (See Gray, Proc. Phil Acad, one species obscurely ridged; nut compressed, more or less promi- 
nently four-ridged and angled; the walls and partitions thick 



1884, 15.) 

^ The species of Hicoria may be grouped in the following sec- 
tions: — 

Apocarya (C. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 144). Buds com- 



lacunse minute, filled with 



sweet. 



« Hicoria Mexicana, Britton, Bull Torrey BoL Club, xv. 283 



pressed, covered with four scales valvate in sestivation, the inner (1888). 



slightly accrescent, often obscurely pinnate at the apex ; axillary 

buds superposed two or three together, often stipitate, the outer 

scales united into a sack soon opening at the apex. Catkins of 

staminate flowers usually from separate or rarely leaf-bearing 

buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, and formed before 

midsummer, or occasionally at the base of shoots of the year, / 

Husk of the fruit thin, prominently ridged at the sutures ; nut 2 

cylindrical or compressed, not at all or obscurely ridged; the walls torieSy ii., iii.). 



Mexicana, Engelmann, Hemsley 



iii. 162 (1882). 

^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des ArbreSj 296. 
^ Zittel, Handb. PalcBontolog. ii. 447, f. 272, 4-8. 
^ Newberry, Ann. Lye. N, Y. ix. 72 (Notes on (hi 



North America 



ux 



1-5, t. 58, f. 2 ! viii. 236 (Contrib. Fossil Fl. W, 



and partitions thin and brittle, or in one species thick and hard; 



lacunae large, irregular, filled with dark powder, or in one species ness combined with lightness. 



^ No other wood equals the best Hickory in strength and tough- 



knew 



small; kernel sweet or bitter. 



142) 



with 



to twelve closely imbricated scales, the outer opening in the au- 



used it for the handles of their tools. (See Le Page du Pratz, His- 
toire de la Louisiane, ii. 26.) The European colonists soon learnt 
its quality, and, writing: early in the seventeenth centurv. William 



tumn, and falling before winter or early in the spring, the inner Wood in the New England's Prospect ri4) tells us : " The Walnut 



Walnut 



accrescent, large, and often brightly colored and reflexed at ma- 
turity; axillary buds solitary, their outer scales at first sometimes deale more tough, and more serviceable, and altogether al heavier 



JUGLANDACB^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



133 



commercial importance. Oil made from the kernels of the nuts was used by the Indians/ who also 
pressed a milky substance from them ; ^ the bitter astringent inner bark has been employed successfully 



the treatment of dyspepsia and intermittent fever/ and in homoeopathic practice ; ^ and a yellow dye 
obtained from the inner bark. No other trees give greater dignity and character to the forests of 
stern North America or surpass the Hickories in vigor and beauty of appearance.^ Numerous insects ^ 



and whereas our Gunnes that are stocked with English Walnut, ^ U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1744. 

are soone broken and cracked in frost, being a brittle wood; wee * Millspaugh, Am, Med, PL in Homoeopathic Remedies, ii. 157. 

are driven to stocke them new with the Country Walnut, which ^ Poreher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 322. 

will indure all blowes, and weather; lasting time out of minde. ® In the Fifth Annual Report of the United States Entomologi- 

These trees beare a very good Nut, something smaller, but nothing cal Commission, published in 1890, one hundred and sixty-nine 

inferiour in sweetnesse and goodnesse to the English Nut, having species of insects are recorded as living upon Hicoria, and very 

no bitter pill." little is known of those which attack these trees in the southern 

Their Hickory-wood handles have made American axes known states. Many insects that injure the Hickories feed also on other 

all over the world, and it is to the light American carriages, only plants, although a large number seem to confine themselves to this 

made possible by the use of Hickory wood in their construction, genus. More than fifty species are known to affect the bark and 

that the American trotting horse, one of the greatest triumphs of wood of the trunk and branches, both when they are green and 

the breeder's art, owes his superiority. Hickory wood is the best after they have become dry. A large portion of these wood-borers 

fuel yielded by the American forests; and for hoops no other are the larvae of beetles belonging to the family Cerambycidae. 



American wood equals it. 



Cyllene pictus, Drury, which resembles the common Locust-borer, 



1 " The third sort is, as this last, exceeding hard shelled, and hath often does serious injury to the Hickories. Goes tigrinus, De Geer, 

a passing sweet karnell ; this last kind the Indians beat into pieces and several other species of this genus, are often common on these 

with stones, and putting them, shells and all, into morters, mingling trees, in the larval state boring first into the bark and sapwood and 

water with them, with long woodden pestells pound them so long later into the solid wood. CMon dnctus^ Drury, is often destructive 

togither untill they make a kind of mylke, or oylie liquor, which to drying hickory timber. (See Garden and Forest, i. 148.) Saperda 

they call powcohicora." (Strachey, The Historie of Travaile into discoidea, Fabricius, and Stenosphenus notatus, Olivier, are also said 



Virginia Britannia, ed. Major, 129.) 



to affect the Hickories, and several species of Dicerca and Chryso- 



" The Wild Wallnut, or Hiquery-Tree, gives the Indians, by bothris, are common on them. Larvse of such minute beetles as 

boyling its Kernel, a wholesome Oyl, from whom the English fre- Sinoxylon basilare, Say, and Apate basilaris, Say, often make deep 

quently supply themselves for their Kitchen uses ; It's commended slender tunnels in the dry wood. A twig-girdler, Oncideres cingu^ 

for a good Remedy in Dolors, and Gripes of the Belly; whilst new latus, Say, and Elaphidion villosumy Fabricius, sometimes cut off the 

it has a pleasant Taste; but after six Moneths, it decays and grows small branches. Some species of Agrilus, Acanthoderes quadrigih- 

acid; I believe it might make a good Oyl, and of as general an use hus. Say, Liopus cinereus, Leconte, and the larvse of several other 

as that of the Olive, if it were better purified and rectified." beetles bore into the branches and twigs, although frequently not 

(Thomas Ash, Carolina, or a Description of the Present State of that until the wood is dead. The Hymenopterous, Tremex Columba, 



Country, 12.) 



Linnaeus, is reputed to be a destructive borer of the Hickory in 



"Hiccory Nuts have very hard Shells, but excellent sweet Ker- some localities. Chramesus Icorice, Le Conte, and Scolytus 4-5pmo- 

nels, with which, in a plentiful Year, the old Hogs, that can crack sus, Say, and several other species of Scolytidse; and Magdalis, 

them, fatten themselves, and make excellent Pork. These Nuts and other Curculionidae, live in the bark of dead or living trees, 

are gotten, in great Quantities, by the Savages, and laid up for A scale insect, Lecanium Caryce, Fitch, and large masses of aphids. 

Stores, of which they make several Dishes and Banquets. One of like Eriosoma Caryce, Fitch, Lachnus Caryce, Harris, are found on 

these I cannot forbear mentioning ; it is this : They take these the surface of the bark of young branches. 



Nuts, and break them very small betwixt two Stones, till the Shells 



The Hickories are favorite food-plants of several species of the 



and Kernels are indifferent small; And this Powder you are pre- large Silk-spinners and other Bombycidse which also feed upon the 

sented withal in their Cabins, in little wooden Dishes; the Kernel foliage of Juglans, and of numerous species of Catocala. Halesidota 

dissolves in your Mouth, and the Shell is spit out. This tastes as Caryce, Harris, is often common, and the Fall Web-worm and the 

well as any Almond. Another Dish is the Soup which they make larvse of Datana ministra, Drury, frequently defoliate the branches. 

of these Nuts, beaten, and put into Venison-Broth, which dissolves The larvse of Phycis ruhrifasciella, Packard, live in the buds and 

the Nut, and thickens, whilst the Shell precipitates, and remains at leaf-stalks in spring and early summer, and some other Pyralid^ 

the bottom. This Broth tastes very rich,'' (Lawson, History of and some species of Tortricidae and Tineidae live either in the 



Carolina, 98.) 



2 a 



folded leaves or in curiously constructed cases which protect their 

The fruit is in great estimation with the present generation bodies. Gelechia carycevorella, Packard, lives within the young 

of Indians, particularly Juglans exaltata, commonly called shell- leaves, which it rolls up, and larvse of Coleophora caryafoliella, 

barked hiccory. The Creeks store up the last in their towns. I Chambers, live in cylindrical cases on the under surface of the 

have seen above an hundred bushels of these nuts belonging to one leaves. Among leaf-miners which attack the Hickories are Litho- 

family. They pound them to pieces, and then cast them into boil- colletis carycefoliella, Clemens, Lithocolletis carycealbella, Chambers, 

mg water, which, after passing through fine strainers, preserves and Nepticula carycefoliella, Clemens. The leaves of Hickories are 

the most oily part of the liquid: this they call by a name which frequently affected by numerous species of gall-making insects, 

signifies hiccory milk; it is as sweet and rich as fresh cream, and is which often twist and disfigure them. Between fifteen and twenty 

an ingredient in most of their cookery, especially homony and corn distinct kinds of galls have been described as formed by different 

cakes." (William Bartram, Travels in North America, 38.) species of Phylloxera on these trees, Phylloxera carycecaulis. Fitch, 



134 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACE^. 



prey upon and do considerable injury to all the species of the genus, which, however, are comparatively 



free from fungal diseases.^ 



Hickories can be raised from seeds/ which should not be allowed to become dry, as they soon lose 
their power of germination, and the varieties can be propagated by grafts. 

The generic name ^ is formed from the popular name of these trees.* 



being oue of the most conspicuous, as on the leaf-stalks and layer on the under surface of the leaflets and causing them to curl 
young shoots it makes large hollow leathery galls which do not and ultimately to shrivel up. Two spot-diseases on the leaves of 
disappear during the winter. Various species of galls formed by Hickory-trees are due to Phyllosticta Caryce^ Peck, and Ramularia 



Cecidomyidfe are common on these trees and peculiar to them. 



albo-maculata. Peck ; neither of them does the trees any serious 



Among plaut-lice Monella caryella. Fitch, and some species of damage. 



Callipterus, are common on the foliage. Numerous species of 
Hemiptera belonging to the Jassidse or Leaf-hoppers, and to the 



2 Cobbett, Woodlands, 298. — Fuller, Practical Forestry, 115. 

3 The generic name proposed by Rafiuesque, who first separated 



Membracidse or Tree-hoppers are found on them, but apparently the Hickories from the Walnuts in 1808, was originally printed 



do them little injury. 



Scoria, but this was evidently a misprint, as in 1817 Rafinesque 



The young fruits and the mature fruit-husks of Hicoria are often himself corrected it to Hicoria in the Flora Ludoviciana, 109 ; and 
much mined and eaten by the larvae of Grapliolitha caryana. Fitch, again in 1816 in the AlsograpJiia Americana, vfheve he reestablished 



a small Tortrix moth, and by some other allied species. The nuts 



dividing 



are frequently infested by a weevil, Balaninus nasicus. Say, while character of the kernel of the nut. 
Balaninus rectus, Say, is also reported as attacking the fruit. 



The distinctions between Walnut-trees and Hickories were dis- 



^ The disease which probably attracts more attention than any regarded by all the botanists of the eighteenth century, although 
other that affects Hicoria appears in the form of very rough tumors Caspar Bauhin had recognized the fact as early as 1623 that there 
on the side of the smaller branches or nearly surrounding them, were Walnuts of two very different sorts in Virginia {Pinax, 417). 



some trees being covered with hundreds of such knot-like excres- 



^ Hickory is from the Virginian powcohicora or pawcohiccora, the 



cences, presenting a curious appearance after the leaves have fallen, name of the milk, or oily liquor obtained by pounding the kernels. 
and often remaining on the branches for years. It was long sup- Hickory nuts were called paean by the Indians of the seaboard, a 



knots 



were the result of the visitation of some general name for all nuts hard enough to require a stone or ham- 
insect. This is now denied by entomologists ; yet as microscopical mer to crack them ; and this name was appropriated by the French 



fuugu 



settlers of the Mississippi basin for the nuts of one of the species 



and as the Hickory tumors resemble those formed on the Olive in (Hicoria Pecan). The thin-shelled nut of the eastern Shag-bark 

Europe, which some vegetable palaeontologists believe are due to Hickory was distinguished by northern Algonkins as one to be 

bacteria, although others do not agree with them, it is possible that cracked with the teeth (Abn. s' kwskaddmenne) ; this by the de- 

the tumors of Carya may have a similar origin despite the fact scendants of the Dutch settlers in New York was changed into 



at no exact observations have yet confirmed this view. 
Microstroma Juglandis, Saccardo, is one of the most widely 



Cuskatominy or Cruskatominy, or, as written by Michaux {Hist, 
Arb. Am, i. 190), Kiskythomas nut. (See Trumbull, Trans. Am. 



tribnted fungi on the leaves of Hicoria, appearing as a thin white Philological Soc. 1872, 25.) 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Apocahta. Bud-scales valvate ; catkins of staminate flowers usually from buds formed in the 
axils of leaves of the previous year ; fruit ridged at the sutures ; nut subcylindrical, or in one 
species much compressed and angled, the wall thin and brittle, or in one species thick and 
bony ; lacunae usually large ; kernel sweet or bitter. 

Catkins of staminate flowers fascicled, nearly sessile, usually on branches of the previous 
year. 

Leaflets 13 to 15, oblong-lanceolate, more or less falcate ; nut ovate-oblong ; cylin- 
drical, thin-shelled ; kernel sweet 1. H. Pecan. 

Catkins of staminate flowers pedunculate from branches of the year or of the previous year. 
Leaflets 7 to 11, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate ; nut often broader than long, thin- 
shelled, slightly 4-angled ; kernel bitter 2. H. minima. 

Leaflets 7 to 11, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate-obovate ; nut ellipsoidal, cylindrical, 

thick-shelled ; kernel sweet 3. H. myristic^formis 

Leaflets 7 to 13, lanceolate, more or less falcate ; nut compressed, rugose, thin-shelled ; 

kernel bitter 4. H. AQUATICA. 

EucARTA. Bud-scales imbricated ; catkins of staminate flowers pedunculate on branches of the 
year. Fruit without sutural ridges, or in one species slightly ridged ; walls of the nut thick 
and bony ; lacunse minute ; kernel sweet. 

Bark separable from old trunks in long loose plates. 

Leaflets 5 to 7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate or obovate ; nut thick or thin-walled, ovate, 

more or less flattened and 4:-angled, pale or nearly white 5. H. ovata. 

Leaflets 5 to 9, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, puberulous on the lower surface ; nut 

ovate, thick-walled, prominently 4-angled, dull white to light reddish brown . . . 6. H. laciniosa. 
Bark closely furrowed, rarely exfoliating in plate-like scales. 

Leaflets 7 to 9, oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, more or less tomentose on the 
lower surface, very fragrant ; nut globose or oblong, often long-pointed, 4-ridged 

toward the apex, thick-shelled, reddish-brown 7. H. ALBA. 

Leaflets usually 5 to 7, oblong or obovate-lanceolate, glabrous or villous-pubescent ; 
fruit pyriform or globose ; husk usually thin, slightly ridged at the sutures ; nut 
oblong, oval, or globose, thick or thin-shelled 8. H. glabra. 



JUGLANDACE^, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



137 



HICORIA PECAN. 



Pecan, 



Leaflets 9 to 11, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, more or less falcate. Fruit 

four-winged nearly to the base ; nut ovate-oblong, cylindrical, thin-shelled ; kernel 
sweet. 



Hicoria Pecan, Britton, Bull Torrey Bot. Chib, xv. 282 Carya olivseformis, NuttaU, Gen. ii. 221 (1818). 

— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 173. 



(1888). — Dippel, Handb. Laiibholzk. ii. 340, f. 156. — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr, 73, f. 23 H. H'. H". — Coulter, 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 410 (Man. PL W. Texas). 



Hort 



Juglans Pecan, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 69 (1785). 



Wal- 



Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. — S 

Scheele, Roemer Texas^ 447. 

223, vi* t. 45, f . 2. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Sicrv. 

205. — Chapman, FL 418. — C de Candolle, A7in. Sci 



ter, FL Car. 236. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. 



Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. 36, t. 1, f. 3, t. 6, f . 59 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. 



759. 



Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. Gesell. 



11. 



144. 



Ridg-way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 77. 



nat. Ft. Berlin^ iii. 392. 
ed. 2, vi. 236. 



Mont 



Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. iii. 163. — Sargent, Forest 

Havard, 



Trees N. 



Census U. S. ix. 132- 



Juglans lUinoinensis, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 54, t. 

18, f. 43 (excl. fruit) (1787). 
Juglans angustifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 361 (1789). — 

Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 400. 
Juglans alba, e pacana, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, 



Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 506. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 468. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 161, 



t. 4. 
Carya angustifolia, Sweet, Hort. Brit. 97 (1827). 

tall, Sylva^ i. 41- 



Nut- 



ii. 262 (1790). 
Juglans cylindrica, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 505 (1797) ; IlL 
iii. 365, t. 781, £. 5. — Nouveaic Duhamely iv. 178. 

Juglans olivsef ormis, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii- 192 ? Carya Texana, C. de Candolle, Ann. ScL Nat. s^r. 4, 



Carya tetraptera, Liebmann, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For, 

Kjbbenh. 1850, 80. 
Hicoria Texana, Le Conte, Proc. PML Acad. 1853, 402, 



(1803). 



Willdenow, Spec. iv. 457 ; Enum. 979 ; Berl 



xviii. 33 (1862) ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 145. 



Baumz. ed. 2, 194. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 566. — Desfon- Carya Illinoensis, Koch, Dendr. i. 593 (1869). — Lauche, 



taines. Hist. Arb. ii. 348. — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. A7n 



Deutsche Dendr. 307, f. 124. 



i. 173, t. 3. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 296. — Pursh, Hicorius Pecan 



Garden and Forest, ii. 460 



FL Am. Sept. ii. 636. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 163. 



(1889). 



A tree, one hundred to one hundred and seventy feet in height, with a tall massive trunk occasion- 
ally six feet in diameter above its enlarged and buttressed base, and stout shghtly spreading branches 
which form in the forest a narrow symmetrical and inversely pyramidal, or, where they find room to 
spread, a broad round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness, light brown tinged with red, and deeply and irregularly divided into narrow forked ridges 
broken on the surface into thick appressed scales. The bark of the young stems and branches is 
smooth and light reddish brown. The branchlets, when they first appear, are slightly tinged with red 
and coated with loose pale tomentum which soon wears away, and in their first winter they are glabrous 



puberulous 



pube 



toward the extremities, and are marked with numer 



ed lenticels and with large oblong obscurely three-lobed concave leaf 



oblong orange- 
ded by a broad 



th 



memb 



border which embraces the lower axillary bud. The terminal buds 



acute, 



compressed, half an inch long, covered with clusters of bright yellow articulate hairs, and during the 
winter are coated with pale tomentum ; the scales are strap-shaped, often obscurely pinnate at the apex. 



bright green on the inner surface and slightly 



The axillary buds are 



com 



pressed, and covered with clusters of yellow articulate hairs, and are often stalked, especially the upper 



of the node, which is frequently twice as large as the buds below. The 



from 



twenty inches in length, and 



composed of from nine to seventeen leaflets and of slender glab 



138 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLAI^DACE^. 



or pubescent petioles flattened and slightly grooved along the upper side toward the base ; the leaflets 
are lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate and more or less falcate, and increase in size from the lowest to the 
uppermost j they are long-pointed, and coarsely and often doubly serrate with incurved cartilaginous 
teeth, rounded or sometimes wedge-shaped on one side and shorter and wedge-shaped on the other at 
the base, and are borne on stout petiolules often a quarter of an inch long, or are sometimes sessile with 
the exception of the terminal leaflet, which is symmetrical and wedge-shaped at the base and raised on 
a slender stalk an inch or an inch and a half in length ; when they unfold the leaflets are bright green 
and glandular, and, like the petioles, are coated with thick pale tomentum which soon disappears ; at 
maturity they are thin and firm, dark yeUow-green and glabrous or pilose on the upper, and pale and 
glabrous or pubescent on the lower surface, from four to eight inches in length and from an inch to 
three inches in width, with narrow yellow midribs rounded on the upper side, and thin conspicuous 
veins. The staminate flowers appear in late spring in slender puberulous clustered aments three to five 
inches long, usually produced from buds formed in the axils of leaves of the previous year, or occasion- 
ally on shoots of the year, and sessile or short-pedunculate ; the perianth is light yeUow-green and 
hirsute on the outer surface, with broadly ovate acute lobes rather shorter than the oblong or obovate 
bract, which is narrowed at both ends and twice as long as the nearly sessile yellow stamens. The 
pistiUate flowers are oblong, narrowed at both ends, slightly four-angled and coated with yellow scurfy 
pubescence, with an ovate more or less elongated bract, broadly ovate bractlets, and an ovate acute 
calyx-lobe. The fruit, which is produced in clusters of from three to eleven, is oblong, pointed, four- 
winged and angled, one to two and a half inches long, half an inch to an inch broad, dark brown and 
more or less thickly coated with clusters of yellow articulate hairs ; the husk is about a sixteenth of an 
inch thick, hard and brittle, and splits at maturity nearly to the base, discharging the nut and often 

The nut is ovoid to ellipsoidal, nearly cylindrical or 
slightly four-angled toward the acute or acuminate apex, rounded and usually apiculate at the base, 
bright reddish brown with irregular black marks, and one to two inches in length, with thin brittle 
walls, thin papery partitions, the basal ventral partition being often not more than an eighth of an 
inch high, and large irregular lacunae filled with a dark astringent powder. 



remaining on the branch during the winter. 



The seed is sweet, 

ovate-oblong, divided from the base to above the middle, and covered with a red-brown coat ; the lobes 
are rounded and slightly divided at the base, nearly flat and slightly grooved on the inner face, and 
rounded on the outer, which is marked from near the base to the apex by two deep longitudinal 
grooves caused by ridges on the wall of the nut, and rounded and two-lobed at the apex, with lobes as 
long as the short flattened point of their connective. 



Hicoria Pecan is distributed from the valley of the Mississippi Kiver, where it probably finds its 
most northern home in the neighborhood of Sabula, Iowa, through southern Illinois and Indiana, 
western Kentucky and Tennessee, to central Mississippi and Alabama,* and through Missouri and 
Arkansas to southeastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, western Louisiana, and the valley of the Concho 
River in Texas, reappearing on the mountain ranges of Mexico. The largest of the Hickory-trees, the 
Pecan inhabits low rich ground in the neighborhood of streams, growing to its greatest size on the 
fertile bottom-lands of southern Arkansas and the Indian Territory, and in western Texas surpassing 
aU other trees in size and value.'^ 



1 Mohr, Garden and Forest, vi. 372. 



A remarkable Hickory-tree, evidently a hybrid between Hicoria 



2 A Hickory-tree that sprung up twenty-five or thirty years ago Pecan and one of the true Hickories, probably Hicoria laciniosa or 

near a planted Pecan-tree in Hamilton County, Ohio, with pubescent Hicoria alba, growing in Wabash County, Illinois, was made known 

winter branchlets, small bright yellow buds, leaves composed of by Dr. Jacob Schneck of Mount Carmel in the autumn of 1894. 

four or five pairs of narrow falcate leaflets, oblong thin-husked fruit This tree has stout pubescent branchlets, the larffi 



terminal 



prominently ridged from base to apex, an obloug-obovate compressed the true Hickories, solitary axillary buds covered with valvate or, 
and slightly angled nut with a somewhat bitter kernel, is perhaps in one specimen, 



with 



a hybrid between Hicoria Pecan and Hicoria minima. (See S. J. fruit nearly two and a half inches in length ; the husk, which is 



Galloway, Gardening, ii, 226, f.) 



third 



JUGLANDACE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



139 



The wood of Hlcoria Pecan is heavy, hard, not very strong, brittle and close-grained, with 
numerous thin medullary rays and bands of one or two rows of large open ducts marking the layers of 



annual growth. 



It is light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter brown sapwood- The specific 



gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7180, a cubic foot weighing 44.75 pounds. Less valuable than 
the wood of most of the other species of Hickory, it makes excellent fuel, and is now occasionally used 
in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements. 

The nuts, which vary in size and shape, in the thickness of their shells and in quality, are an 
important article of commerce. They are usually gathered for market from wild tiees, Texas producing 
the largest quantity ; but in recent years orchards of Pecan-trees raised from selected nuts have been 
planted in many of the southern states.^ 

Growing remote from the Atlantic seaboard, Hlcoria Pecan was not known to the early Europeans 
who explored the American forests ; in 1704 Penicaut, a follower of Bienville, noticed the nuts among 
the fruits used in the village of the Natchez Indians on the Mississippi/ and they were described by 
Charlevoix ^ and Le Page du Pratz ^ in the narratives of their travels in Louisiana ; and, according to 
Aiton, the tree was introduced into European gardens in 1766. 



splitting nearly to the base, remains on the branch after discharging broad, with a prominent basal point. Van Deman is a broad obo- 

the nut ; this is oblong, two inches long, two thirds of an inch broad, vate nut short-pointed at the full apex, gradually narrowed at the 

short-pointed, slightly compressed, slightly or conspicuously angled, rounded base, about two inches long and two thirds of an inch 

and light reddish brown, with thin walls and partitions, large irreg- broad. Stuart is rather fuller below than above the middle, nearly 



ular lacunae, and a sweet kernel. 



equally short-pointed at both ends, very symmetrical, one and one 



^ Deep sandy loam, into which its long roots, sometimes descend- third inches long and three quarters of an inch broad. Beauty is 

ing to a depth of twenty feet, may penetrate freely, is best suited slightly obovate, somewhat angled at the full short-pointed apex, 

for the cultivation of the Pecan-tree, while boggy land with water gradually and regularly narrowed at the base, an inch and three 

standing near the surface is least favorable to its vigorous growth. quarters long and three quarters of an inch broad. (See The Pe- 

The trees are usually set from forty to eighty feet apart in straight can and How to Grow It, 58, t. 4 ; see, also, Molir, Garden and 

rows, according to the quality of the soil, the best soil supporting Forest, ii. 669. — Van Deman, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1890, 415, 

the greatest number of trees. Seedling trees one or two years old t. 1, 2.) 



are generally used ; and some of the most experienced Pecan 



In the forest the Pecan-tree, like other Hickories, does not grow 



planters recommend cutting back the tap-root to the length of fif- rapidly. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North 

teen or twenty inches to make it branch and thus increase the num- American "Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, 

ber of roots. In order to keep the ground clear of weeds, a crop New York, grown in Missouri, is twenty-four inches in diameter 

of cotton, corn, or potatoes is often grown among the trees during inside the bark, and shows one hundred and twenty-nine layers of 

their first year ; and a crop of clover or cow-peas may be plowed annual growth, of which twenty are of sapwood. In cultivation, 

under the second year with advantage to the young trees. Wlien however, and when abundantly fertilized, it grows rapidly and 

the trees are three or four years old the ground can be laid down begins to produce fruit in small quantities at the end of eight or 

to permanent pasture and grazed with sheep or calves, and the ten years. Two Pecan-trees, planted in 1872, when two years old, 

orchard will require no further care beyond the fertilization of by Dr. Charles Mohr in his garden in Mobile, in sandy land origi- 

the trees to increase their productiveness. The seedling trees are nally covered with Pine-trees, are now from sixty-five to seventy 

raised from selected nuts planted as soon as ripe, in rows four feet feet high, with trunks five feet eleven inches and five feet eight 

apart, and are covered with three or four inches of soil ; during inches in circtm^ference three feet above the ground ; and four 

the first year they grow from eight to fifteen inches in height. trees in the same garden, planted in 1880, are all about fifty feet 

Seedlings vary in the size and quality of the nuts they produce, high with trunks which, at three feet above the ground, girth four 

and even when raised from the finest nuts produce small and infe- feet nine inches, four feet five inches, four feet eight inches, five 

rior fruit. The best results are obtained by using plants grafted feet nine inches, and five feet five inches, 

with scions taken from selected trees, although the first cost of ^ » Ug out de trois sortes de noyers ; il y en a dont les noix sont 

such plants is high. The Pecan can be grafted by a ring-graft grosses comme le poing, et qui servent h faire du pain pour leur 

of the bark, by tongue and by cleft-grafting ; but the operation is soupe, mais les meilleures ne sont gu^res plus grosses que le poulce ; 

delicate and difficult, and often fails unless performed by an expe- ils les appellent pacanes." (Margray, Memoires et Documents, v. 



rienced hand. 



445 [Description du Village de Natchez].') 



A pound of Pecan nuts usually contains from eighty to one hun- 



une Noix de la longueur & de la figure 



dred and twenty nuts, although forty to sixty of the largest nuts gros Gland. H y en a dont la coque est fort mince, d'autres 

sometimes weigh a pound. Several named varieties, selected on I'ont plus dure & plus dpaisse, & c'est autant de ddfalqud sur le 

account of their size, the thinness of their shells, and the quality fruit : elles sont meme un peu plus petites. Toutes sont d'un gout 

of their kernels, are now cultivated. Columbian is slightly broader fin and delicat ; I'Arbre, qui les porte, vient fort haut : son bois, 

above than below the middle, short-pointed at the apex, full and son dcorce, I'odeur & la figure de ses feuilles m'ont paru assez 

romided at the base, sometimes two inches and a quarter long and semblables aux Noyers d'Europe." (Journal d'un Voyage fait par 

one inch and an eighth broad. Jewett is a slender acuminate nut ordredu Roi dans VAmtrique Septentrionale, vi. 141.) 
nearly two and one half inches long and seven eighths of an inch ^ "II y a encore les Pacaniers dont le fruit est une esp^ce de 



140 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



The Pecan, with its tall straight trunk and great head of cheerful yellow-green foliage, is one of 



o 



the impressive trees of 



North America : and 



amental 



some of the wide-hranched 



specimens, planted early in the century to shade the homes of the Creole planters of Louisiana and 
now grown to vast proportions, rival the Elms of the New England farmhouse and the Live Oaks of 
the Carolina mansion in statehness and grandeur. 



noix fort petite, & qu'on prendroit au coup d'ceil pour des noi- cultivated tree in the nursery of William Prince at Flushing, New 

settes, parce qu'elles en ont la forme, la couleur, & la coque aussi York. This tree had not borne fruit, and Wangenheim's figure 

tendre ; mais en dedans elles sont figur^es conime les noix : elles probably represented a peanut. The Pecan does not seem to have 

sont plus d^licates que les notres, moins huilleuses & d'un gout si been known on the Atlantic seaboard before 1762, when some of 

fin, que les Frangois en font des pralines aussi bonnes que celles the nuts were carried to New York by fur-traders from the Missis- 



d'amandes." {Histoire de la Louisiane, ii. 26.) 



sippi valley. In 1772 William Prince planted thirty nuts and suc- 



The first description of the Pecan-tree was published in the Ar- ceeded in raising ten plants, eight of which he sold in England for 
bustum Americanum of Marshall, who evidently had never seen it ; ten guineas each (Brendel, Am. Nat xiii. 757). 
the next account was that of Wangenheim, drawn up from a small 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXXXVIIL Hicoria Pecan 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 
6. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Diagram of a winter-bud. 



Plate CCCXXXIX. Hicoria Pecai.-. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. A nut, natural size. 

4. A nut, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

6. A thin-shelled nut cut transversely, natural size^ 

7. A leaf, reduced. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of ISTorth America . 



Tab . CCCXXXVin 




4 



5 





6 




2 

o 




3 








7 




CE.Faaxnv del. 



HICORIA PECAN, Bntt. 




SO 



j^.Hiocreimy direeof' 



Imp, cZ Tazieur, J^aris 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCXXXIX 







so. 



HICORIA PECAN, Britt. 



^.lUocreicay direay. 



Unp. J, Tanezcr, Faris. 



JUGLANDACKa:. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



141 



HICORIA MINIMA. 



Bitternut. 



Swamp Hickory. 



Leaflets 5 to 9, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate 



rly to the middle 



Fruit 4-winged from the apex 
nut ovate or oblong, often broader than long, thin-shelled; 



kernel bitter. Winter buds bright yellow 



Handb 



Hi cor i a minima 

(1888). 

Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 73, f. 23 F. F'. — Coulter, Con- 

trib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 411 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 
Juglans alba minima, Marshall^ 

Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 262. 
Juglans cordiformis, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 25, t. 

10, f. 25 (1787). 

Juglans angustifolia, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 504 (not Aiton) 



Club, XV. 284 Juglans amara, Michaux f. Hist 



111, t. 4 



(1797). 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cidt. ed. 2, vi. 236. 



Juglans sulcata, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 154 (1796) ; 
Spec. iv. 457. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 758. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. Gesell. nat. Ft. 
Berlin, iii. 391. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 566. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. ii. 348. 

Juglans minima, Borkhausen, 



Handb 



760 



(1800). 



Juglans mucronata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 192 (1803) 



(1810). 



Fl 



amara 



626. 



Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. 



Elliott, Sk. 
Hist. Veg. ii. 
ey, Fl. N. Y. 
Darling- 
ton, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 264. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 



111. 



144 



183. 



Mass 



N. 



1860, 



• • * 

111. 



44. 

Nat 



Chapman, Fl. 419. — C. de 



65 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 144. — Koch, Dendr. I 592. 
Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 308. — Ridgway, Proc. U. S> 
Nat. Mns. 1882, 77. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 135. — Watson & Coulter. 



Gray 



Man 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam 



amara, Ri 
minimus 



(1889). 



A tree^ often one hundred feet in height^ with a tall straight trunk two to three feet in diameter, 
and stout spreading limbs which form a broad handsome head of slender rather stiff upright branches ; 
or toward the northern and southern limits of its range much smaller. The bark of the trunk is from 
one third to three quarters of an inch in thickness^ light brown tinged with red, and broken into thin 
plate-like scales, their surface separating in small thin flakes* The branchlets are slender and marked 
with oblong pale lenticels, and when they first appear are bright green and covered more or less thickly 
with rusty hairs which soon disappear ; during their first summer they are reddish brown and glabrous 
or puberulous ; during the winter they are reddish or orange-brown and lustrous, with small elevated 
obscurely three-lobed obcordate leaf-scars, and are often covered toward the apex with the clusters of 
bright yellow articulate hairs that likewise clothe the buds and the fruit ; in the second year they grow 
gradually darker and ultimately are hght gray. The terminal buds are from one third to three quarters 
of an inch long, compressed, oblique at the apex, and covered by two pairs of scales, the outer pair being 
ovate or obovate, rounded and reticulate or sometimes obscurely pinnate at the apex, yellow-green and 
puberulous on the inner surface, while the inner pair are strap-shaped, pinnate at the apex, coated on the 
back with rufous tomentum, and sprinkled with golden glands, reflexed and an inch and a half long at 
maturity, resembling in their broad flat stalks and in their covering the first pair of leaves. The lateral 
buds are compressed, slightly four-angled, often stalked, and from one eighth to one quarter of an inch 
in length, with ovate pointed scales keeled on the back, pubescent on the inner surface, slightly accres- 
cent and reflexed after the opening of the bud. The leaves are composed of from five to nine leaflets 
and slender pubescent or hirsute slightly grooved petioles, and are from six to ten inches long ; the 
leaflets, which increase in size from the base to the apex of the leaf, are lanceolate to oblong or ovate- 



142 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. juglandace^. 



lanceolate or obovate, long-pointed, and rather coarsely serrate with reflexed callous teeth except at the 
base, which is equally or unequally wedge-shaped or subcordate, and are sessile with the exception of the 
terminal leaflet, which is gradually narrowed into a long or short petiolule ; when they unfold they are 
lustrous brio-ht yellow-green or bronzy red, pubescent above and coated below with pale tomentum and 
lustrous o-olden often persistent glands ; and at maturity they are thin and firm, dark yellow-green and 
glabrous on the upper surface, and on the lower surface lighter and glabrous or pubescent, especially 
alono- the midribs, or coated with golden glands, from four to six inches in length and from three quar- 
ters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in width, with narrow rounded pale midribs and slender primary 
veins, or those of the lowest pair are often not more than half this size. The catkins of staminate 
flowers are usually produced from branches of the previous year, but sometimes from the base of shoots 
of the year ; they are slightly pubescent, and from three to four inches long, with a slender peduncle 
often an inch in length, and lanceolate acute bracts rounded and boat-shaped on the back, coated with 
long rusty hairs, and half an inch in length. Before they unfold the buds of the staminate flowers are 
flattened, green, glandular with scattered pale glands, and covered toward the apex with long slender 
pale rufous hairs ; the bract is ovate, acute, twice as long as the lobes of the calyx, and, like them, coated 
on the outer surface with scattered rufous hairs ; there are four stamens with ovate yellow anthers deeply 
eraarginate at the apex and about as long as the lobes of the calyx. The pistillate flowers are half an 
inch in length, slightly four-angled, and covered with yellow scurfy tomentum ; the bract is lanceolate, 
acute, hairy at the margins, and coated on the inner surface with soft pale hairs ; the bractlets are broadly 
ovate, acute, thin and spreading, hairy-pubescent on the inner surface, and rather shorter than the 
acute calyx-lobe ; the stigmas, which mature and begin to wither before the staminate flowers open, are 
exserted and reflexed at maturity, as long as the bract, and Hght green. The fruit is three quarters of 
an inch to an inch and a half long, obovate to subglobose, and four-winged from the apex to about the 
middle, with a husk an eighth of an inch thick or less, more or less thickly covered on the outer surface 
with golden scurfy pubescence, and conspicuously marked on the Hght brown inner surface with dark 
veins radiating from the base. The nut is ovate or oblong, often broader than long, compressed, 
rounded, and marked at the base with dark lines along the sutures and alternate with them, de- 
pressed or obcordate and abruptly contracted into a long or short point at the apex, gray tinged with 
red or light reddish brown, and u-regularly and coarsely reticulate on the surface, with a thin or rarely 
with a thick brittle sheU which contains numerous large lacunae, and, like the thin rugose partitions 
of the interior, is dark reddish brown and very rugose on the inner surface. The seed is compressed, 
with flat cotyledons, rounded and deeply two-parted at the base, rounded and lobed at the apex, the 
lobes being as long or longer than their short-pointed connective, deeply rugose with irregular cross 
folds, covered with a bright reddish brown coat, and very bitter. 

Hicoria minima is distributed from southern Maine to the islands of the St. Lawrence near the 
mouth of the Nicolet River, westward from the neighborhood of Montreal through Ontario,^ central 
Michigan and Minnesota to southeastern Nebraska,^ eastern Kansas,^ and the Indian Territory, and 
southward to the valley of the Appalachicola River in western Florida and to that of the Trinity River in 
Texas. An inhabitant of low wet woods near the borders of streams and swamps or of high rolling 
uplands, Hicoria minima, which reaches a higher latitude than any other Hickory-tree, is the most 
abundant species in Canada, where it is common south and west of Montreal, growing usually in low 
ground, and in the western part of Ontario is one of the principal trees of the forest. Absent from 
the mountain forests of northern New England and New York, in southern New England it is one of 
the largest and commonest species of the genus, and is often found remote from streams ; it abounds 
in all the central states east and west of the Appalachian Mountains, growing to its largest size on the 



1 Bmuet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 47. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can. ^ Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894:, 109. 

1879-80, 52°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 434. » Mason, Distribution of Kansas Trees, 13. 



JUGLANDACE^. SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



143 



rich bottom-lands of the lower Ohio Basin ; ^ it is rare on the south Atlantic seaboard, and probably 
does not reach the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, but north of the coast Pine-belt in Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi it is the most multiplied species on the poor dry gravelly soil of the uplands ; ^ in Iowa and 
Nebraska it is the commonest species j it is very abundant in Kansas, growing farther west in that 
state than any other Hickory-tree, but gradually becomes rarer in southern Arkansas and in Texas. 

The wood of JSicorla minima is heavy, very hard, strong, tough, and close-grained, with numerous 
obscure medullary rays and bands of several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual 
growth. It is dark brown, with thick light brown or often nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7552, a cubic foot weighing 47.06 pounds. It is largely used for 
hoops and ox-yokes, and for fuel. 

Hicoria minima was not distinguished by the early European travelers and botanists in North 
America, who usually confounded the different species of Hickory ; and the first mention of it appears 
in Marshall's Arhustum Americanum, pubhshed in 1785. According to Loudon,^ it was introduced 
into English gardens in 1800. 

The noble size of the Bitternut, its strong trunk covered with close bright bark, and its handsome 
head, make it at aU seasons of the year one of the most beautiful trees of the northern forest. In 
cultivation it grows more rapidly than the other Hickories,"* with the exception of the Pecan, and, still 
little known or appreciated by planters it might more often be used with advantage for the decoration 
of parks and pleasure-grounds. 



^ Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 77. Hicoria minima in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods 

2 On this southern upland tree the nut is often unusually thick- in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, from 

shelled, and is covered with a thick husk. Missouri, is fourteen inches in diameter inside the bark, with one 

^ Arh. Brit. iii. 1443, f. 1264. hundred and nine layers of annual growth, twenty-two of which 

* All the species of Hicoria grow slowly. The log specimen of are sapwood. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXL. Hicoria minima. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 
2o Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, side view, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlargedi 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCXLI. Hicoria mentma 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 
6. An embryo, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tah. CCCXL. 




C:j^. FojeccTL del. 



^ijneb/ so. 



HICORIA MINIMA, Britt. 



_^ . Iiiocreu££y direm' 



i> 



^Bnp J. Taneur ^J^aris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXLI 




C.£.FaazorL del 



Jfuneh/ 



so 



HICORIA MINIMA, Bntt 



A.HiocreuX' dzrejz^ 



Imp. </. Taneur, ParLs 



JUGLANDACE-iE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



145 



HIOORIA MYRISTIG^PORMIS. 



Nutmeg Hickory. 



Leaflets 5 to 11, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, pale and lustrous on the 
lower surface. Fruit ellipsoidal, conspicuously 4-winged to the base ; nut ellipsoidal, 
thick-shelled ; kernel sweet. 



Hicoria myristicsef ormis, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot Club, 
XV. 284 (1888). — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 
411 {Man. PL W. Texas). 

Juglans myristicsef ormis, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 



Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. 36, t. 6, L 58 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 145. 
Koch, Dendr. \. 595. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 308. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 



135. 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 162, t. 4. 



211, 1. 10 (1810). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 638. — Poiret, Carya amara, var. ? myristicaef ormis. Cooper, Smithso- 



Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 112. — Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic 
161. 
Carya myristicaef ormis, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 222 (1818). 



nian Rep, 1858, 255. 
Hicorius myristicseformis, Sargent, Garden and Forest, 
ii. 460 (1889). 



Elliott, Sk. ii. 628. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. — Spach, Hicoria Fernowiana, Sudworth, Trees of Washington^ 



Hist. Veg. ii. 179. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1451, f . 



(1891). 



1275. 



Chapman, FL 419. — C. de Candolle, Ann. ScL 



A tree, ^iglity to one hundred feet in height, with a tall straight trunk often two feet in diameter 
and stout sUghtly spreading branches which form a comparatively narrow rather open head. The bark 
of the trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch thick, dark brown tinged with red, and 
broken irregularly into small thin appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and are coated at first 
with lustrous golden or brown peltate scales which often do not entirely disappear until the second year ; 
during their first winter they are light brown or ashy gray and marked with small scattered pale 
lenticels and small oval emarginate elevated leaf-scars, and in their second year they become dark 
reddish brown. The terminal buds are from an eighth to a quarter of an inch long, broadly ovate and 
rather obtuse, the outer scales being coated with thick brown scurfy pubescence and soon splitting so 
that the inner scales, which are covered with thick pale tomentum, are displayed ; the axillary buds are 
much smaller and are acute, shghtly flattened, sessile or short-stalked, and often solitary. The leaves 



composed of from five to eleven leaflets and of slender 



or slightly grooved scurfy-pubescent 



petioles, and are from seven to fourteen inches in length ; the leaflets are ovate-lanceolate or the upper 



which are usually twice as larg 



those at the base of the leaf, are broadly obovate ; they 



acute with short or elongated points at the apex, usually equally or sometimes unequally wedge-shaped 
or rounded at the narrow base, coarsely serrate with remote incurved teeth, and short-petiolulate or 
nearly sessile, the terminal leaflet being decurrent on a broad stalk rarely half an inch long ; when they 
unfold they are coated with scurfy brown pubescence on the lower surface and are covered on the 
upper by circular more or less persistent clusters of brown scales ; at maturity they are thin and firm, 
dark green above, and below are more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous and silvery white and very 
lustrous, changing late in the season to bright bronzy brown ; they are four or five inches in length and 
from an inch to an inch and a half in breadth, with pale midribs scurfy-pubescent on both sides and 
numerous straight primary forked veins and thin cross-veinlets. The catkins of the staminate flowers, 
which are three or four inches long and are coated, Hke the bract and calyx of the flower, with dark 
brown scurfy pubescence, have a common peduncle three quarters of an inch long and linear-lanceolate 



bracts half an inch in length ; the bract of the flower 



oblong 



and about twice 



to 



the broadly ovate rounded lobes of the calyx ; there are six stamens with oblong emarginate 



146 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLAND.VClwi:. 



thers 



The female flower is oblongs narrowed at both ends, slightly four-angled and covered Avith 



thick brown scurfy pubescence ; the bract is elong 
ovate acute 



ated. lanceolate, acute, and twice as long as the 



bractlets and the calyx-lobe. The fruit, which is usually solitary on the branch, is ellip 



dal 



or 



tly obovate, four-ridged to the base with broad thick rid 



^ 



half long, and coated on the outer surface with yello 



brown 



fy pub 



about an inch 

Bnce : the husk 



d 



a 



not 



more 



th 



an 



thhty-second of an inch thick, and in opening splits nearly to the base 



The nut is 



ellipsoidal or sometimes slightly obo 



inch long, three quarters of an inch broad, rounded and 



apiculate at both ends, smooth, dark reddish brown and marked with irregular longitudinal broken bands 
of small gray spots which often cover the entire surface at the ends. It has a very hard bony shell one 
eighth of an inch thick or more, with a thick dissepiment separating the cotyledons, a low thin dorsal 
dissepiment and a small sweet seed with two deep longitudinal grooves on the outer surface of the thick 
cotyledons, a short broad connective, and a dark brown testa. 

Hlcorla myrhtlccfformls inhabits the banks of rivers and swamps, growing in rich moist soil or 

It is rare and very local in 

the coast region of South Carolina 5 ^ it occurs in the cretaceous belt of central Alabama ^ between the 



sometimes on higher ground at a considerable distance above the stream 



Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers, where it grows with Hicoria Pecan and Qiierciis Diirandiiy and in 
central Mississippi ; ^ and it is common in southern Arkansas ^ and on the Sierra Madre Mountains of 
northeastern Mexico.^ 

The wood of Hicoria myristicceformls is heavy, hard, very strong, tough, and close-grained, and 
contains numerous thin inconspicuous medullary rays, many small open ducts and bands of one or two 
rows of larger ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is light brown, with thick lighter colored 
sapwood composed of eighty or ninety layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8016, a cubic foot weighing 49.96 pounds. 

Hicoria myrlstlcmformiSj which, before the exploration of the forests of southern Arkansas, was 
considered one of the rarest trees of eastern America, was first made known by the younger Michaux, 
to whom nuts found in the swamps of Goose Creek, fifteen or twenty miles west of Charleston in South 
Carolina, were given in 1802. The lustrous under surface of the leaves makes it perhaps the most 
beautiful of the Hickories, and, although it is now rarely cultivated, it might well find a place as an 
ornamental tree in the gardens and parks of temperate countries.^ 



1 In South Carolina fl"/cona?/i?/m/«C(^(>rmzs grows ou Goose Creek, soil in the neighborhood of Mhoons Valley in the central part of 
where the species was first discovered, and in the valley of the the state. 



Cooper River not far from Black Oak on the Santee Canal (Ra- 
venel, BulL Torrey Bot. Club, vi. 81). 

2 In Alabama, where it was discovered in 1890 by Dr. Charles 
Mohr, Hicoria myristicceforinis grows on low limestone prairies, occu- 



^ In Arkansas Hicoria myristicceformis is common in the south- 
eastern part of the state between Pine Bluff on the Arkansas River, 
where it was found in 1881 by Mr. George W. Letterman, and 
Arkansas City on the Mississippi, and along the Red River bottoms 



pying a narrow belt eighteen or twenty miles long from west to above Fulton in the southwestern part of the state (Harvey, Am. 
east, which extends from Demopolis on the Tombigbee River to Jour. Forestry^ i. 



453) 



Gallion near the Alabama (Mohr, Garden and Forest, vi. 372). 



^A 



exhibition of a quantity of the nuts in the exhibit 



known Madre Mountains near Monterey, in Nuevo Leon, by Mr. C. G. 
Df that Pringle, in July, 1888, covering rocky slopes almost to the exclu- 



state at the New Orleans Exposition of 1884, but it was not until sion of other trees (Pringle, Garden and Forest, iii. 362). 



the autumn of 1894 that it was found by Dr. Charles Mohr abound- 
ing and growing to its largest size in thick forests on calcareous 



^ A Nutmeg-Hickory tree, which has been growing for many 



ton, is now about twenty-five feet high. 



Washing 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXLIL Hicoria myristic^fokmis 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 
3- A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, lateral view, enlarged. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCXLIIL Hicoria mtristic^formis 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. CCCXLII 




2 



3 



/t 







C E. FcuDOTo det. 




j-o. 



HICORIA MYRISTICi^FORMIS, Bntt. 



ABiooreuco direayf' 



Imp . X Taneur, Farir. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXLIII 




C.E.Faccon del 



HirrL&ly jc 



HICORIA MYRISTICJEFORMIS .Bntt. 



A.Hiocreu^ dzrecc. 



Imp J. ToTietLr, Paris- 



JUGLANDACE^a:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



149 



HICORIA AQUATIOA. 



Bitter Pecan. 



Water Hickory. 



Leaflets 7 to 13, ovate-lanceolate, often falcate 



the base ; nut flattened, 4-ridged, rugose, thin-shelled ; kernel bitter 



Fruit compressed, 4 -winged to 



Hicoria aquatica, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xv. 284 



(1888). 



Handh 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 73. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 411 (Man. PL W. Texas). 
?lans aquatica, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 182, t. 
6 (1810). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 638. — Poiret, Lam. 
Diet. Suppl. iv. 112. 

3orius integrifolia, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 109 (1817). 



Scheele, Roemer Texas, 447. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
N. Car. 1860, iii. 44. — Chapman, Fl. 419. — C de 
Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 4, xviii. 36, t. 1, f. 4, t. 5, 
f . 53, 56, 57 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 144. — Koch, Dendr. i. 



593. 



IX 



.135. 



jnt, Forest Trees N. Am. lOtl 
Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 162, t. 4. 



Gary a integrifolia, Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849 (1826). 

don, Arb. Brit. iii. 1451. 



Lou- 



Carya aquatica, NuttaU, Gen. ii. 222 (1818). — EUiott, Hicorius aquaticus, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 460 



Hist 



Sk. ii. 627. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. 

ii. 179. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1444, f . 1265, 1266. 



(1889). 



A tree, occasionally eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding two feet 
in diameter, and slender upright branches which form a narrow head ; or usually much smaller. The 
bark of the trunk is from one half to two thirds of an inch thick and separates freely into long loose plate- 
like light brown scales tinged with red. The branchlets are slender, dark reddish brown or ashy gray, 
lustrous and marked with numerous pale lenticels ; when they first appear they are slightly glandular 
and coated with loose caducous pale tomentum -, they become glabrous or puberulous during the summer, 
are marked during the winter with small nearly oval or obscurely three-lobed slightly elevated leaf-scars, 
and in their second year grow dark brown, ultimately turning gray. The buds are slightly flattened, 
acute, dark reddish brown, and clothed with caducous yellow glands. The terminal bud, which varies 
from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in length and is often covered, especially while young, with 
pale scattered hairs, is about twice as large as the axillary buds, which are often solitary and frequently 
nearly sessile. The leaves are composed of from seven to thirteen leaflets, which increase slightly in 
size from the lowest to the uppermost, and slender dark red puberulous or tomentose terete petioles, 
and vary from nine to fifteen inches in length ; the leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, long-pointed, falcate, 
equilateral, and gradually rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, or oblique and very unequally wedge- 
shaped, or with one side rounded and the other wedge-shaped at the base j they are serrate with minute 
remote teeth or conspicuously and coarsely serrate, and sessile or petiolulate, the terminal leaflet, which 
is sometimes obovate and rarely rounded at the apex, being more or less decurrent by its regular wedge- 
shaped base on a slender stalk often nearly an inch long, or rarely nearly sessile ; when they unfold 
they are coated, like the petioles, with pale tomentum and covered with yellow persistent glandular dots, 
and at maturity are from three to five inches in length, from half an inch to an inch and a half in 
width, thin and membranaceous, dark green on the upper surface, and on the under surface brown 
and rather lustrous and more or less pubescent or tomentose, especially along the slender midribs, which 
are also tomentose on the upper side, and along the slender primary veins connected by finely reticulate 

The catkins of staminate flowers, which appear when the leaves are about a third grown, are 



vein 



lets. 



or sometimes from leaf-bearing buds on branches 



solitary or fascicled and are produced from separate 

of the previous year and at the base of branches of the year ; they are hirsute and from two and one 

half to three inches long, with common peduncles one third of an inch in length and ovate-lanceolate 



150 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, juglandace^. 



scarious caducous lateral bracts sometimes nearly an inch long ; the bract of the flower is elongated, 
obovate, rounded at the apex and coated on the outer surface, like the shorter calyx-lobes, with yellow 
glandular pubescence; there are six stamens with oblong slightly emarginate light yellow anthers. 
The female flower is oblong, slightly flattened and four-angled, and covered with glandular pubes- 



cence : the bract is linear-lanceolate, acute and about 



& 



the broad nearly triangular 



acute bractlets and the acute calyx-lobe. The fruit, which is often in three or four-fruited clusters, 
is much compressed, usuaUy broadest above the middle, rounded at the slightly narrowed base, rounded 
and abruptly narrowed at the apex into a short thick point, conspicuously four-winged, dark brown or 
nearly black and covered more or less thickly with bright yeflow pubescence, from an inch to an inch 
and a half long and from an inch to an inch and a quarter wide, with a very thin and brittle husk 
which splits tardily and usually only to the middle. The nut is flattened, slightly obovate, from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length and often as much in breadth, rounded and abruptly sharp-pointed 
or umbonate at the apex, rounded at the narrow base, four-angled and ridged, the ridges which alternate 
with the sutures being much broader and more developed than the others, dark reddish brown and 
longitudinally and very irregularly rugose. The walls and partitions of the cavity are thin, with large 
and very irregular lacunae fiUed with a dark red bitter powder. The seed is oblong, compressed, two- 
lobed to above the middle, covered by a dark brown testa and very irregularly and mostly longitudi- 
naUy furrowed, with cotyledons which are divided from the base for about one third of their length 
by the thin dorsal partition. 

Hicoria aquatica, the smallest and least valuable of the Hickory-trees, is an inhabitant of low 
river-swamps often inundated during a considerable part of the year, where it is associated with the 
Water Ash, the Sweet Gum, the Red Maple, the Cotton Gum, the Bald Cypress, and other water-loving 
trees. It is distributed from the neighborhood of Mobjack Bay in Virginia * south through the coast 
region to Cape Malabar and the valley of the Caloosa River in Florida, and through the maritime 
portions of the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, ranging north through western 
Louisiana to northeastern Arkansas, eastern Mississippi, and southern Illinois.^ Comparatively rare in 
the south Atlantic states, and seldom if ever approaching within fifteen or twenty miles of the coast, 
the Bitter Pecan is most abundant and grows to its largest size in the swamps of western Mississippi, 
Arkansas, and Louisiana. 

The wood of Hicoria aquatica is heavy, strong, and close-grained, although soft and rather brittle, 
and contains numerous thin medullary rays, occasional scattered open ducts and obscure bands of 
similar ducts marking the layers of annual growth ; it is dark brown, with thick bright-colored or often 
nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7407, a cubic foot weighing 
46.16 pounds. It is sometimes used for fencing and fuel, although it is difficult to obtain an account 
of the inaccessibiHty of the situations inhabited by this tree. 

The Bitter Pecan was first distinguished in Louisiana by the French traveler Robin.^ Introduced 
into France by the younger Michaux, it is now exceedingly rare in cultivation, or, perhaps, has entirely 
disappeared from gardens. 



W. H. lege). 



August 



College). 



It is included with Hicoria inyristiciceformis in ■ 
trees noticed by Maximilian, Prinz von Wied, growing 
Harmony, Indiana, during his visit there in 1832 (R 



2 Hicoria aquatica was collected in 1883 near Equality, Gallatin Innere von Nord-Amerika, i. 209) 



Mr. W. F. Fortune (teste 



(1807) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXLIV- Hicoria aqtjatica. 

1. A flowering branchj natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, lateral view, enlarged 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCXLV. Hicoria aquatica 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, natural size. 
3- A nut, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 



SilvcL of North America . 



Ta"b. CCCXLIV. 




CEFaxoTL del 



IfimeLy j-c 



HICORIA AQUATICA .Britt. 



A-RLocreux- direa>f' 



Imp. L Tanezcr, Parus 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXLV 




C,E, 





JiimeLy so. 



HICORIA AQUATICA.BritL 





Imp. Ji leuieur^ Paris 



JUGLANDACKffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



153 



HIOORIA OVATA. 



Shellbark Hickory. Shagbark Hickory. 



Leaflets 5 or 7 



obovate to oblong-lanceolate, ciliate on the 



marg 



Fruit 



globose, depressed at the apex ; nut ovate, more or less flattened, 4-angled, thin or 
thick-shelled, pale or nearly white. 



Hicoria ovata, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cluhy xv. 283 Juglans obcordata, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 504 (1797). 



(1888). 



Dippel, Handb, Laitbholzk. ii. 335. — Koehne, Juglans squamosa, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 190, t. 



Deutsche Dendr. 72, f. 22 C. C. C"- 
Juglans ovata, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6 (1768). 
Juglans alba ovata, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 69 (1785). 

Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 262. — Borkhau- 
sen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 762. 
Juglans ovalis, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 24, t. 10, f. 

23 (1787). 
Juglans compressa, Gsertner, Fritct. ii. 51, t. 89, £. 1 

(1791). — Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. 
Gesell. nat. Fr. Berlin^ iii. 390. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 
458 ; Enum. 979 ; BerL Baicmz. ed. 2, 195. — Persoon, 
Syn. ii. 566- — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 347. — Aiton, 
Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 297. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 164. 
Poiret, Lam>. Diet. iii. 365, t. 781, f. 3. 
Juglans alba, Michaux, FL Bor.~Am. ii. 193 (not Linnaeus) 
(1803), — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 637. — Du Mont de 
Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi- 235. 



7 (not Poiret) (1810). — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 229. 
Carya alba, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 221 (1818). — EUiott, Sk.'± 

Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1446, f . 1269, t. — Hooker, 

Dar- 



624. 
174. 



FL Bor.'Am. ii. 143. — Torrey, FL N. Y. 181. 
lington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 263. — Ed. Morren, Beige Hort 
vi. 223, t. 45, f. 8. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 43. — Chapman, FL 418. — C. de CandoUe, Ann 
Sci. Nat. siv. 4, xviii. 36, t. 2, f . 13, 14, 18 ; Prodr. xvi 



pt. ii. 142. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 191, t. 12. 
gent. Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 132. 



Sar- 



Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 468 
Wald. Nordam. 158, f. 4, t. 4. 



Mayr, 



Hicorius ovatus, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 460 
(1889). 



A tree, often seventy to ninety feet and occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height, with 
a tall straight columnar shaft three or four feet in diameter, in the forest often free of branches for 



fifty or sixty feet above 



the ground, and 



then dividing into two or three comparatively small limbs 



which form a narrow head ; or, when it has had sufficient space for its free development, sometimes 
dividing near the ground into stout slightly spreading limbs which form a narrow inversely conical 
round-topped head of more or less pendulous branches, or growing with a single stem, forked perhaps 
at half the height of the tree, and retaining its short small lateral branches which spread at nearly right 
angles to the trunk, droop toward their extremities, and form an oblong round-topped symmetrical 
head. The bark of the trunk is light gray, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, 
and separates in thick strips often a foot or more long and six or eight inches wide, which remain more 
or less closely attached to the trunk by the middle, giving it the shaggy appearance to which the tree owes 
its common name ; the bark of the young stems and branches is smooth and light gray. The branchlets 
are stout, and marked with oblong pale lenticels ; when they first appear they are slightly angled, covered, 
like the young leaves and the inflorescence, with caducous brown scurf, and coated with pale grandular 
pubescence, and during their first year are bright reddish brown or light gray, glabrous and lustrous, 
or covered more or less thickly with short rufous pubescence, growing dark gray in their second 
year, and ultimately light gray. The leaf-scars are ovate to nearly semiorbicular in outline, or are 



very obscurely three-lobed, emarginate at the apex, pale, and shghtly elevated. 



The terminal buds 



are broadly ovate, rather obtuse, and from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and from 
one third to one half of an inch broad ; their three or four outer scales are broadly ovate, nearly 
triano-ular, acute, dark brown, pubescent and hirsute on the outer surface^ the exterior ones being 
often abruptly narrowed into long rigid points, and, opening as the bud enlarges in the autumn, fall 



154 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. juglandace^. 



before the appearance of the leaves in the spring : within these seven or eight scales protect the bud ; 
the lowest and outermost of these are coated on their exterior surface with thick pale tomentum, and 
are lustrous and puberulous on the inner surface; the upper and inner side is puberulous, lustrous, 
covered with resinous glands, yellow-green, often tinged with red, especially above the middle, oblong- 
obovate, pointed at the apex, reflexed, and from two and one half to three inches long and half an 
inch broad at maturity, and usually persistent until after the aments of male flowers have fallen. The 
axillary buds appear with the leaves, and are coated at first with thick white tomentum, and when fully 
grown are from one third to one half of an inch in length. The leaves are composed of five or rarely 
of seven leaflets and of stout green glabrous or pubescent petioles slightly grooved and abruptly 
enlarged at the base, and are from eight to fourteen inches in length ; the leaflets are ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate, or those at the end of the leaf are sometimes obovate, equilateral, and acuminate or rarely 
rounded at the apex and sessile or short-petiolulate ; they are more or less thickly ciliate on the mar- 
gins with soft white hairs, and serrate with minute incurved callous teeth except toward the base, 
which is equally or sometimes unequally wedge-shaped or occasionally rounded on both edges ; when 
they unfold they are thin, light yellow-green and lustrous above, and coated below with pale pubes- 
cence, which is thickest along the under side of the midribs and on the petioles, and at maturity they 
are thin and firm, dark yellow-green and glabrous on the upper surface, and paler and glabrous and 
lustrous or puberulous on the lower surface. The terminal leaflet, which is decurrent at the base on a 
slender stalk from half an inch to an inch in length, is from five to seven inches long, from two to three 
inches broad, rather larger than the upper leaflets, and twice or often three times as large as those of 
the lowest pair. The catkins of staminate flowers are slender, light green, glandular-hirsute, and four 
or five inches long, with peduncles often an inch in length, and elongated linear-lanceolate scarious 
caducous lateral bracts ; the flowers open late in the spring after the leaves have grown nearly to their 
full size ; they are glandular-hirsute on the outer surface, and pedicellate with short slender pedicels 
about one eighth of an inch in length ; the bract is elongated, acute, ovate-lanceolate, or often narrowed 
and wedge-shaped from near the middle to the base, and two or three times as long as the ovate concave 
lobes of the calyx, which are rounded or acute at the apex ; there are four stamens with nearly sessile 
yellow anthers, tinged with red, and slightly hirsute above the middle, the lobes slightly spreading at 
the apex. The pistillate flowers, which are usually borne in two to five-flowered spikes, are one third 
of an inch long, and clothed with rusty tomentum ; the bract is linear-lanceolate, elongated, much 
longer than the broader acute bractlets, and like them green above, and covered on both surfaces with 
pale scurfy pubescence and long scattered white hairs ; the stigmatic lobes are pale green, and do not 
mature until most of the anthers have shed their pollen. The fruit, which is usuaUy sohtary or in 
pairs, is subglobose, rather longer than it is broad, or slightly obovate, depressed at the apex, from 
which the blackened remnants of the stigmas protrude, dark reddish brown or nearly black at maturity, 
roughened with smaU pale lenticels, glabrous or pilose, and from an inch to two and a half inches long ; 
the husk, which sphts freely nearly to the base, varies from one eighth to one half of an inch in 
thickness, and is hard and woody and pale on the inner surface. The nut is oblong, nearly twice as 
long as it is broad, or obovate and broader than it is long, compressed, prominently or obscurely four- 
ridged and angled, and sometimes furnished with two additional narrower ridges at the two sutures, 
more or less compressed, acute and gradually or abruptly narrowed or rounded or nearly truncate at 
the apex, which is tipped with a stout point equahng in length the valves of the fruit, graduaUy 
narrowed and rounded at the base, which is furnished with a dark bony point, longitudinally and 
irregularly rugose between the ridges, nearly white, reticulate-veined, and thick or rarely thin-waUed, 
from half an inch to nearly two inches in length, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in 
breadth, the waUs and thin partitions being penetrated by smaU lacunae.* The seed is two-lobed from 



known 



of those nnts good quality. The tree that produces it is growing on bottom- 
of this species which are distinguished for thinness of shell and lands near the Saddle River, on the farm of Mr. Henry Hales, a 



JUGLAKDACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



155 



the base nearly to the apex, with a short thin 
rounded at the base, divided n< 



d flat cotyledons, which 



d 



d 



arly to the middle by the thin ventral partition, rounded and deeply 
lobed at the apex, irregularly and often prominently ridged on the back, and flat and rugose on the inner 
face ; it is covered with a thin light brown rather lustrous coat, and is sweet, with an aromatic flavor. 

Hicoria ovata ranges from southern Maine to the valley of the St. Lawrence River, where it finds 
its most northeasterly home in the neighborhood of Montreal,^ thence southwestward along the northern 
shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, through southern Michigan to central Minnesota ' and south- 

of the elevated regions 



of 



Nebraska,^ southward through the northern states, with the 

New England and northern New York, to Pennsylvania and Delawai 



d along the 



Appalachian Mountains to western Florida, northern Alabama and Mississippi, and westward to central 



Kansas,* the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas.^ It is usually found growing on low hills or in th 



ghborhood of streams and swamps in rich deep and moderately 



Rare 



d comparatively 



local in the Province of Quebec, the Shellbark Hickory is abundant in the forests of southern Ontai 
where it often grows to a large 



size. 



It abounds in southern New England and the central states ; 



although it does not extend to the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts or ascend to hio-h elevations on th 
thern mountains ; it is not rare in the country lying at the eastern base o£ the Alleghany Mountains 



but is most common on their western slopes and in the 



Ohio River, where 
Territory, and east 
streams. 



B 



largest 



6 



an 



d 



region watered by the tributaries of the lower 
Missouri and Arkansas ; in Kansas, the Indian 



Texas, it is comparatively rare and confined to the immediate neighborhood of 



The wood of Hicoria ovata is heavy, very hard and 



h, close-irrained, and flexibl 



it 



contains numerous thin medullary rays and bands of from one to three rows of large open ducts clearly 
marking the layers of annual growth. It is light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8372, a cubic foot weighing 52.17 pounds. It is largely used 



the manufacture of agricultural implements, in 



carriage and wagon-making, for axe-handles and 



The nuts are the common Hickory nuts of commerce, and are gathered 



the 



baskets, and for fuel, 
forest in great quantitie 

Hicoria ovata^ according to Loudon,"^ was cultivated in England as early as 1629 ; and what i 
probably a description of this tree was published by Plukenet in his Almagestiim Botanicimi in 1696 



8 



The stronor vis^orous apDcarance of the Shellbark, the remarkable character of its bark 



hang 



ff 



from the trunk in loose plates, the beauty of its head with its graceful winter outlines, the charm of 
bursting buds with their bright petal-like scales, and its clean fragrant foliage, make it one of the n 
interesting and beautiful as well as one of the most valuable trees of the northern forest.^ 



few miles east of Ridgewood, Bergen County, New Jersey ; the nut simili, cortice glahro, summo fastigio veluti in aculeum producto, 264 ; 
is about an inch and a half in length, and somewhat more in Phyt. 309, f. 2. 



breadth, very wide and full at both ends, obscurely six-angled, and 



Nux Juglans Virginiana albayfructu parvo anguloso^ cortice Icevi, 



full, rounded, and deeply grooved on the back of the valves. The 264; Phyt, 309, f. 2 c. 



walls are not more than u thirty-second of an inch in thickness, and 



These figures are not very good, however, and might almost as 



the partitions are proportionately thin. The flavor of the kernel, well represent some forms of the nuts of Hicoria glabra as those of 
which keeps sweet for a remarkably long time, is unusually good. this species. 



(See Fuller, Practical Forestry, 120, f . 31, 32. Fig. 6, plate cccxlvii. 
of this Silva represents this nut.) 



® The demand for Hickory wood in the arts and for fuel is very 
great, and large individuals of this species, which is usually con- 



1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can, 47. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can. sidered the best timber-tree of the genus, are no longer common 



1879-80, SS*', — Macoun, Cat, Can, PL 433. 

2 Macmillan, Metaspermce of the Minnesota Valley, 178. 
8 Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 109. 



in any part of the country. Few trees of the northern forest 
grow more slowly. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of 
North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural 



* Hitchcock, The Woody Plants of Manhattan in Their Winter History, New York, obtained from Missouri, is thirteen inches in 



Conditiony 18. 



(Man. PI. W. 



6 Ridgway, Proc, U, S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 77. 

7 Arb. Brit. iii. 1446, f. 1269, t. 



diameter inside the bark, and shows two hundred and thirty-three 
layers of annual growth, forty -five of which are sapwood; but it 
probably indicates an exceptionally slow rate of growth, as the nar- 
rowness of the rings formed during the first one hundred and nine 



^ Nux Juglans Virginiana alba minor, fructu Nucis moschatce years shows that the tree was overshadowed at first by other trees, 

and its development stunted. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXLVL Hicoria oyata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 
4c A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, lateral view, enlarged. 

6- Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged 

7. A winter-bud, natural size. 

8. Diagram of a winter-bud. 



Plate CCCXLVIL Hicoria ovata. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A valve of the fruit, natural size. 

3. A nut, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a nut cut through the middle, natural size 
5- An inversed cotyledon, natural size. 

6. A thin-shelled nut, cut transversely, natural size, 

7. A nut, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXLVI 




^ 



CKFacaoTv del 




vne' sc, 



HICORIA OVATA , Bntt 



A.Eiocreu3::> direa^'r 



Imp . S. ToTieur, Pcu^is. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXLVII. 




C, £, FaasoTv del. 



HirrLeiy so. 



HICORIA OVATA, Bntt 



A, Bzocreucty direa^ 



Imp . J, Taneur, Paris 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA, 



157 



HICORIA LAOINIOSA. 



Big Shellbark. Bottom Shellbark. 



Leaflets 5 to 9, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, puberulous on the lower surface 
Fruit oblong, depressed at the apex ; nut thick- walled, ridged or angled, dull white. 



Hicoria laciniosa. 



Michaux f. Hist 



(1810). 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 112. — W 



36, t. 5, f . 51, 52 ; Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 143. — Ridgway, Proc. 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 



U. S, Nat. Mus 



308. 



Barton, Compend. Fl. Fhila. ii. 178. — Audubon, Birds, 
t. 101. 

Juglans sulcata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 637 (not Willde- 
now) (1814). 

Gary a sulcata, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 221 (1818). — Elliott, Sk. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 



ix. 133. — Watson & Coulter, Graifs Man 



Sort 



cordiformis 
a sulcata. I 



(1888). 



ii. 624. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. Hicorius sulcatus, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 460 



174 



Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1448, f. 1271. — Curtis, 



(1889). 



Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 43. — Chapman, Hicoria acuminata, Dippel, Eandh. Lauhholzk. ii. 336 



Fl. 418. — C. de Candolle, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. 



(1892). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 72 D. D'. 



A tree, occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a straight slender trunk often 
free of branches for more than half its height and rarely exceeding three feet in diameter, and 
comparatively small spreading branches which form a narrow oblong head. The bark of the trunk is 
from one to two inches thick and light gray, and separates into broad thick plates, which are frequently 
three or four feet long and sometimes remain for years hanging on the trunk j the bark of young stems 
and of the small branches is smooth and light or dark gray. The branchlets are stout, and when they 
first appear are slightly angled, dark or light orange-red, and pilose or covered with pale or rufous 
pubescence or tomentum; they soon become light orange-color and roughened by scattered elevated 
oblong pale lenticels, and during their first winter are orange-brown, glabrous or puberulous, and marked 
with oblong three-lobed emarginate leaf -scars ; in their second year they turn ashy gray. The terminal 
buds are ovate, rather obtuse, sometimes an inch long and two thirds of an inch broad, and three or 
four times as large as the axiUary buds ; they are usually covered by eleven or twelve scales, the outer 
ones being dark brown, puberulous on the exterior surface, generally keeled, and long-pointed at the 
apex ; the scales next within these are ovate, rounded, and coated with thick orange-colored tomentum, 
and, lengthening slightly in the spring, fall as the branch begins to grow ; the six or seven inner scales 
are accrescent and become reflexed, the edges curling backward, and when fuUy grown are obovate, 
pointed and rounded at the apex, light green tinged with red or bright red or yellow and glabrous and 
lustrous on the inner face, and covered with silky pubescence on the outer, slightly resinous, two to 
three inches long and an inch broad, and fall with or before the catkins of staminate flowers. The 
leaves are fifteen to twenty-two inches in length, and are composed of from five to nine but usually of 
seven leaflets, and of stout glabrous or pubescent petioles flattened and grooved and then abruptly 



enlarged at the base, and very often persistent on the 



branches during the winter ; the leaflets are 



usually placed at some distance apart on the petiole and are ovate or oblong-lanceolate, or broadly 
obovate, especially the upper ones, which are generally two or three times as long as those of the lowest 
pair, and are usually equilateral, acuminate with long slender points, equaUy or unequally wedge-shaped 
or rounded at the base, which is often oblique, finely serrate with incurved callous-tipped teeth, and 
sessile or sometimes raised on short stout stalks j when they unfold they are lustrous and red on the 



158 



SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



upper 



surface 



on the petioles, coated on the 



surface with soft pale pubescence, and 



the mar«-ins with long white caducous hairs ; and at maturity they are dark green and rather 



lustrous above, and pale yellow 



or bronzy b 



and covered with soft pubesce 



below 



especially along the broad yellow midribs and the numerous straight stout veins connected by prominent 
reticulate veinlets ; the terminal leaflet, which is from five to nine inches long, three to five inches 
broad, and gradually narrowed at the base into a stout stalk often an inch in length, is not much larger 
than the upper lateral leaflets. The catkins of staminate flowers, which open from the middle of May 



in Missouri to the middle of June 



central New York 



■ly glab 



or 



ered with rufous 



fy tomentum and from five to eight inches long, with common peduncles an inch to an inch and 



quarter in length and 
to nearly an inch lone 



dark brown caducous lateral bracts from half an inch 



the flowers are short-pedicellate with linear-lanceolate acute bracts 



or 



thrice as long as the broader rounded lobes of the perianth, and, like them, coated on the outer surface 



with loose pale or rufous tomentum, and have hirsute yello 



bsessile anthers more or less deeply 



emarginate at the apex. The pistillate flowers are usually produced in two to five-flowered spikes and 
are oblong-ovate, about twice as long as they are broad, slightly angled, and clothed with pale tomen- 
tum, with linear acute bracts much longer than the nearly triangular bractlets and calyx-lobes ; the 



ht green and begin to wither before the anthers shed their pollen 



The fruit, which 



solitary or in pairs, is ellipsoidal 



bglobose, depressed at the apex, roughened with 



orange-colored lenticels, downy with pale pubescence, or glabrate, light orange-colored or dark chestnut- 
brown at maturity, from an inch and three quarters to two and a half inches long and from an inch and 
a quarter to two inches broad, with a hard woody husk, pale and marked on the inside with dark con- 
spicuous veins, and from a quarter to a third of an inch in thickness. The nut is ellipsoidal or slightly 
obovate, longer than it is broad, or sometimes as broad or broader than it is long, flat and rounded at 
both ends or gradually narrowed and rounded at the base, sometimes acuminate at the apex, more or less 
compressed, rather prominently four-ridged and angled or often six-ridged, full and rounded on the back 
of the two valves, furnished at the base with a stout long point, slightly reticulate-rugose, light yeUow 
to reddish brown, and from an inch and a quarter to two inches and a quarter in length and from an 
inch and a half to an inch and three quarters in breadth, with a hard and bony shell from one eighth to 
one quarter of an inch in thickness. The seed, which is covered by a lustrous light chestnut-brown 
coat and is very sweet with an agreeable flavor, is divided nearly to the apex by the dorsal partition of 



the cotyledons are flat, longitudinally and deeply two or three-grooved on the 

rounded at the base, 
iinded and deeply two- 



owed and 



the cavity of the nut ; 

back by the broad inward projections of the wall of 

which is separated nearly to the middle by the thin ventral partition, and 

lobed at the apex, the lobes being rather longer than the short thin connective.^ 

Hicorla laciniosa is distributed from the neighborhood of Muscatine on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi River in lowa,^ through Missouri and Arkansas, eastern Kansas^ and the eastern portion of the 



Indian Territory 



4 



d through southern lUino 



d Indiana 



central Tennessee,^ western ^ 



d 



1 The Nussbaumer nut (Silvay t. cccxlix. f . 4), named for its dis- and propagated by Mr. R. M. Floyd of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has 

coverer, J. J. Nussbaumer of Okawville, Dlinois, has been some- the internal structure of the Nussbaumer nut, but is longer, fuller 

times considered the fruit of a hybrid between Hicoria laciniosa and at the apex, and less prominently ridged ; and is perhaps a hybrid. 

Hicoria Pecan. It is a light red-brown long-pointed nut with the (See Fuller, N, Y. Tribune^ weekly ed. July 9, 1892.) 

ridges of the nut of Hicoria laciniosa^ firm hard walls varying from ^ Science^ xix. 23. 

one thirty-second to one eighth of an inch in thickness, thin par- ® Mason, Variety and Distribution of Kansas Trees^ 12. 

titions, and the large lacunse peculiar to nuts of the species of * In August, 1880, it was discovered near Ouachita, Indian Ter- 

Apocarya, but not found in the true Hickories (Fuller, American ritory, by Mr. G. W. Letterman. 

Agriculturist, xliii. 546, f.). A young tree raised from one of these ^ Gattinger, The Medical Plants of Tennessee, 81. 

nuts, and growing in Mr. A. S. Fuller's garden near Ridgewood, ® Hicoria laciniosa is not rare in the valley of the Genesee River, 

New Jersey, cannot be distinguished from plants of Hicoria lacin- and the nuts, which are called king nuts, are sold in the markets 



iosa of the same age. 
The Floyd nut, from a tree supposed to have grown in Indiana 



of Geneseo. 



JUGLANDACEJE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



159 



central ^ New York, and eastern Pennsyl 



2 



It 



inundated during 



weeks of every year; rare and 



inhabitant of rich deep bottom-lands usually 
local east of the Alleghany Mountains and 



comparatively rare in Arkansas, Kansas, and the Indian Territory 



of the commonest 



the great river-swamps of central Missouri and the 



Ohio basin, where, growing with the Swamp 



White Oaks, the Tupelo, the Red Maple, the Spanish Oak, the Sweet Gum, the Red Ash, and the 
Swamp Cottonwood, it attains its greatest size and beauty.^ 

Goria laciniosa is heavy and very hard, strong and tough, close-grained and very 



The wood of Hi 



flexible, with many obscure medullary rays and bands of 



or two large 



open ducts marking the 



lay 



of 



growth 



It 



dark brown, with comparatively thin and nearly white sapwood 



The 



specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8108, a cubic foot weighing 50.53 pounds. Confounded 
commercially with the wood of Carya ovata, it is used in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural 



plements, for the handles of axes and other 



The nuts are sold in the markets of some of the 



western states in large quantities, but commercially are not often distinguished from those of the 
SheUbark Hickory. 

Hicoria laciniosa, which may be readily recognized at aU seasons of the year by the orange-color 
of the young branchlets, is hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts, and in cultivation grows rather 
more rapidly than the other true Hickories.* Introduced into England in 1804,^ it is occasionally seen 
in the gardens of central and western Europe.^ 



^ Dudley, Bull. Cornell University, ii. 84 (^Cayuga Flora). and shows three hundred ai 

^ Hicoria laciniosa has been seen by Professor Thomas C. Porter four of which are sapwood. 



annual growth 



of Lafayette College in Franklin, Lancaster, and Bucks counties, 
and on the banks of the Juniata River in Huntingdon County, 
Pennsylvania. 

3 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 78. 



5 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1448, f. 1271 {Carya sulcata). 
^ Like many other deciduous-leaved trees of eastern North 
America, the Hickories all grow badly in Europe ; and I have 
never seen a large or well-grown specimen of any of the species 
* Like the other Hickories, this is a, slow-growing tree in the there, although a century ago great numbers of nuts, carried over 
forest. The log specimen from Missouri in the Jesup Collection by the Michauxs, were planted in France, and many attempts to 
of North American Woods In the American Museum of Natural cultivate them have been made in Germany and England. 
History, New York, is thirty-two inches in diameter inside the bark, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXLVIIL Hicoria laciniosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, enlarged. 

5- A pistillate flower, lateral view, natural size 

6. A winter branch, natural size. 



Plate CCCXLIX. Hicoria laclniosa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a nut, natural size- 

4. A nut cut transversely, natural size. 
6. A leaf, reduced. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXLVIII. 




C,E.Faax)7L del. 




iTte sc 



HICORIA LACINIOSA, Sarg;.. 



A.Bioa^eiuc dzrecc 



Imp, J. TcLTLeur , Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXLIX 



t 




C. E. F aaxm/ del'. 



HICORIA LACINIOSA. Sar 





S£>, 



A.Bzocreua> direa>f 



Imp. J, Ta;rveicr, Paris. 



JUGLANDACE-ffi. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



161 



HICORIA ALBA. 



Mockernut. Big Bud Hickory. 

Leaflets 7 to 9, oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, tomentose on the lower 
surface. Fruit subglobose to oblong; nut globose or oblong, often long-pointed, 
4-ridged toward the apex, thick-shelled, reddish brown. 



Hicoria alba, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xv. 283 
(1888). — Dippel, Ha7idb. Laubholzk. ii. 334. — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 72, f . 23 E. E'.— Coulter, Contvib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 411 {Man. PL W. Texas), 

Juglans alba, Linnaeus, Spec. 997 (in part) (1753). 



Du 

Kalm, Acad. Stockh. 



Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 333. — 

Handl. xxx. 119. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 181. 

Wangenheim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 64 ; Nordam. 



Holz 



Walter. 



Aiton, 



Hort. Kew. iii, 360. — Gaertner, Fruct. ii. 50, t. 89, £ 



1. 
t. 29. 



Moench, Meth. 696. — Abbot, Insects of Georgia, i 
Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 154 ; Spec. iv. 457. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 503 ; III. iii. 364, t. 781, f. 2. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. GeselL not. Fr. 

Berlin, iii. 389. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 347. 



Willdenow 



(1811) ; Enum. Suppl. 64. 
•ya tomentosa. Nuttall. 



Elliott, 



Sk. ii. 625. 



Sprengel, Syst. ii. 849. 



Hist 



ii. 176. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1445, f . 1267. — Torrey, 



N. 



Fl 



N. 



Chap- 



man, Fl. 419. 



Nat 



xviii. 36 ; Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 143. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 
194, t. 13. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 



U. S. ix. 133. 



468. 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 160. 
tomentosa, var. maxima, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 221 



(1818) ; Sylva, i. 40. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1445. 
C. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 143. 



Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 400. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. Hicoria maxima, Rafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 67 (1838) 



228. 



Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 148, t. 148. 



Juglans rubra, Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 51, t. 89, f. 1 (1791). 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. iii. 365, t. 781, f. 4. 



tomentosa 



Michaux, Fl^ 



Michaux f. Hist 



Am. i. 184, t. 6. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 637. 
Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 236. 



Du 



Carya alba, Koch, Dendr. i. 596 (not Nuttall) (1867). 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 318. 
Hicoria alba, var. maxima, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club, XV. 283 (1888). 

Hicorius albus, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 460 
(1889). 



A tree, rarely one hundred feet high, usually much smaller, with a tall trunk occasionally three feet 
in diameter and comparatively small spreading branches which make a narrow or often, when not 
crowded by other trees, a broad round-topped head of upright rigid or of graceful pendulous branches. 
The bark of the trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch thick, slightly ridged by shallow 
irregular interrupted fissures and covered with light or dark gray closely a2:)pressed scales- The branch- 
lets are stout and terete, and when they first appear are slightly angled and clothed, Hke the pedicels, 
the inner surface of the leaves and the flower-clusters, with thick pale tomentum, and during their first 
year are rather bright red-brown, nearly glabrous, pubescent or tomentose, marked with conspicuous 
pale lenticels, and in winter with pale emarginate leaf-scars which are sometimes almost equally lobed or 
are elongated, with the lower lobe two or three times as long as the others, and which display minute and 
mostly marginal clusters of pale fibro-vascular bundle-scars ; in their second year the branches become 
light or dark gray. The terminal buds are broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, and from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in length, being two or three times as large as the axillary buds, which, when they 
appear on the young branchlets in early spring, are coated with long white hairs ; the three or four 
outer bud-scales are ovate, acute, often keeled, or apiculate^ thick and firm, dark reddish brown and pilose 
on the outer surface, and usually fall late in the autumn, disclosing the closely imbricated ovate rounded 
and short-poinfed inner scales which are clothed externally with thick fight yellow silky lustrous tomen- 



162 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. juglandace^. 



tunij and cover the bud during the winter ; they are slightly accrescent in the springs and fall i 
after the branch bes'ins to grow : the innermost scales^ which do not fall until after the opening of 



&""•" "^ fc» 



staminate flowers, are at maturity ovate, rounded or acute and short-pointed at the apex, light green and 
covered with soft silky pubescence on the outer, and often bright red and pilose on the inner surface, 
from an inch to an inch and a half long and half an inch broad, becoming much reflexed and twisted 
before falling. The leaves, which are from eight to twelve inches in length, are more fragrant, with a 
powerful pleasant resinous odor, than those of other Hickory-trees, and are composed of five or seven 
leaflets and of hirsute or tomentose petioles flattened and grooved and gradually much enlarged at the 
base ; the leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, or are obovate-lanceolate toward the extremity of the leaf, gradu- 
ally or abruptly acuminate with long or short points, mostly equilateral, equally or unequally rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base which is sometimes rounded on one side and oblique on the other, and 
minutely or sometimes coarsely and occasionally very obscurely serrate, and are sessile or short-petio- 
lulate with the exception of the terminal one which is decurrent by its wedge-shaped base on a short 
stalk varying from one quarter to one half of an inch in length; when they unfold they are thin, light 
yellow-green, covered with soft pale pubescence, and tipped at the apex with clusters of long pale hairs, 
and at maturity are dark yellow-green and rather lustrous above, and lustrous, paler or often light 

5-color or brown on the lower surface which is clothed with soft pale pubescence, most thickly 



& 



along the stout yellow midribs, slightly impressed and often hirsute above, and along the slender veins 
connected by fine reticulate veinlets ; the upper leaflets are from five to eight inches long, and from 
three to five inches wide, and are often two or three times as large as those of the lowest pair. The 
catkins of staminate flowers are four or five inches in length, with slender light green stems and 
common peduncles coated with matted hairs, and lanceolate acute scarious hairy caducous lateral bracts 
half an inch in length ; the flowers, which open from the beginning of April in southern Florida to the 
end of May in eastern New England, are short-pedicellate, pale yellow-green, from one sixteenth to 
one eighth of an inch long, and scurfy-pubescent on the outer surface, with elongated ovate-lanceolate 
bracts ending in tufts of long pale hairs and three or four times the length of the ovate rounded calyx- 
lobes ; there are four stamens with nearly sessile oblong emarginate bright red hirsute anthers. The 
pistillate flowers are produced in crowded two to five-flowered spikes and are slightly contracted above 
the middle and coated with pale tomentum ; the anterior bract is ovate, acute, sometimes a quarter of an 
inch long, about twice the length of the broadly ovate nearly triangular bractlets and calyx-lobe, and, 
like them, glabrous or puberulous on the inner surface ; the stigmas are dark red and begin to wither 
before the anthers shed their pollen. The fruit is ellipsoidal or obovate, gradually narrowed at both ends, 
acute at the apex, abruptly contracted toward the base, more or less roughened with small lenticels, 
pilose or nearly glabrous, dark reddish brown, and from an inch and one half to two inches long, with 
a husk about one eighth of an inch thick sphtting to the middle or nearly to the base. The nut is 
nearly globose or ellipsoidal or obovoid-oblong, narrowed at both ends, rounded at the base, and acute 
and sometimes attenuated and long-pointed at the apex, much or only slightly compressed, obscurely or 
prominently four-ridged, rather conspicuously reticulate-venulose, light reddish brown, becoming darker 
and sometimes red with age, from three quarters of an inch to two inches in length and from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in width, with very thick hard walls and partitions, and 
a small sweet seed deeply divided by the partitions of the cavity and covered by a dark brown lustrous 
coat, the cotyledons being deeply grooved on the back by the broad longitudinal ridges on the inner 
face of the wall of the nut. 

Hicoria alba is distributed from southern Ontario^ southward to Cape Canaveral and the shores of 
Tampa Bay in Florida, and westward to Missouri, eastern Kansas ^ and the Indian Territory, and the 
valley of the Brazos River in Texas. Comparatively rare at the north, where it grows on ridges and 
hillsides in rich soil, or less frequently on the alluvial of river-bottoms, Hicoria alba is the commonest 



Briinet 



Macoun, Cat Can. PL 433. 



/ 



JUGLANDACE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



163 



and most generally distributed of tlie Hickory-trees in the south, and grows to its largest size in the 
basin of the lower Ohio Kiver ^ and in Missouri and Arkansas. It is the only Hickory found in the 
Pine forests of the sandy maritime Pine-belt of the southern states, where it is not rare, and with 
the Pignut it grows in great abundance on low sandy hummocks close to the shores of bays and 
estuaries along the coast of the south Atlantic and Gulf states. 

The wood of Hicoria alba is heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close-grained, and flexible, with 
many thin obscure medullary rays and numerous large regularly distributed open ducts. It is a rich 
dark brown, with thick nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.8218, a cubic foot weighing 51.21 pounds. Confounded commercially with the wood of the Shell- 
bark Hickories, it is used for the same purposes. 

The abundance of this species ^ on the shores of Virginia and the other southern states probably 
made it known to Europeans earlier than any of the other Hickories, and it was first described by 
Parkinson in his Theatrwn Botanicum^ published in 1640. 



Nat. Mus 



sometimes 



White Heart Hickory. 



Nux Juglans Virginiana foliis vulgaris similis , fructu subrotundo, 
cortice duriore Icevi, Plukenefc, Aim. Bot. 264. — Miller, Diet. No. 
9. — Duhamel, Traite des Arhres, ii. 51. 



8 Nux Juglans Virginiana, 1414. — Catesby, Nat. Hist, Car. i. Juglans alba, fructu ovaio compresso, profunde insculpto durissimo : 



38, t. 38 (in part). 

Nvx Juglans alba Virginensis, Ray, Hist. PI. ii. 1377, 1915. 



cavitate inius minima, plerumque apyrena, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 190. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCL. Hicoria alba. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, lateral view, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged, 

6. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Plate CCCLI. Hicorla. alba. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. An oblong fruit, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

4. A nut, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a nut, natural size 



Silva of Nortli America 



TalD. CCCL. 







SO. 



HICORIA ALBA, Bntt. 



-A.Iiiocreusy direml^ 



Imp. cT. TaneuT, J^ojtLt 



3ilva of North America.. 



Tat. CCCLI. 




C.£.FaJ0^7t del 



Himeiy sc. 



HICORIA ALBA , Britt 



ji,Riocreuci> del 



Imp, J. Taneur^ Paris 



JUGLANDACE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



165 



HICORIA GLABRA. 



Pignut. 



Leaflets 5 to 7, oblong or obovate-lanceolate, glabrous or villous-pubescent. Fruit 

pyriform or globose ; husk usually thin ; nut oblong, oval or globose, thick or thin- 
shelled : 



kernel sweet or slightly bitter 



Hicoria glabra, Britton, Bull Torrey Bot. Cluh, xv. 284 



Handh 



(1888). 

Deutsche Dendr, 70, f . 23, B. B'. 



Koehne, 



Juglans glabra, MiUer, Diet. ed. 8, No. 5 (1768). 



Juglans porcina, /3 ficiformis, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii 
638 (1814). — W. P. C. Barton, Compend. Fl. Phila. ii 
180. 

Carya porcina, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 222 (1818). — EUiott, Sk 



Muenchhausen, Hi 



Harbk 



Hist 



i. 335. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 2 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift 
Berlin, iii. 391. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 45 
ed. 2, 196. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 566. 
ton. 229. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 164, 



ii. 627. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 849. 
178. — Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 2, 546. — Loudon, Arb. 
Brit. iii. 1449, f, 1272-1274. — C. de Candolle, Ann. Sci. 
Nat. s^r. 4. xviii. 36. t. 1. f. 5. t. 5. f. 54-: Pmdr^ ^^r'^. ^t. 



Fl 



ii, 143. 



Nat. Mus 



Juglans alba acmninata, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 68 

(1785). — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Unitiy ii. 262. 
Juglans squamosa, Poiret, Lam. Diet. iv. 504 (1797). 

Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 348. 
Juglans obcordata, Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue 

Schrift. Gesell. nat. Fr. Berlin, iii. 392 (not Poiret) 

(1801). — WiUdenow, Spec, iv- 458. — Persoon, Syn. 566. 
Juglans porcina, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 206, t. 9 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 306. — Sargent, Forest Trees 



N 



Watson 



Man 



Carya obcordata, Sweet, Hort. BriL 97 (1827). 

Carya glabra, Spach, ITzs^. Veg. ii. 179 (1834). — Sweet, 



Hort. Brit. 97. — Nuttall, Sylva, 



1. 



40. 



Torrey, FL 



N. Y. ii. 182, t. 101. — Gray, Man. 412. — Darlington, 
FL Cestr. ed. 3, 264. — Curtis, Hep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 
1860, iii. 44. — Chapman, FL 419. — Koch, Dendr. i. 594. 



(1810). — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 638. — Audubon, Carya amara, var. porcina. Darby, Bot. S. States, 513 



Birds, t. 91. 



(1855). 



Juglans porcina, a obcordata, Pursh, FL Am.. Sept. ii. Hicorius glaber, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 460 



638 (1814). — W. P. a Barton, Compend. Fl. Phila. ii 



(1889). 



180. 



Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 167, t. 167. 



A tree^ ^^S^^J ^^ ninety or occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height^ with a tall slender 
often forked trunk^ occasionally from three to four feet in diameter^ and spreading limbs which form a 
rather narrow head of slender more or less pendulous and often contorted branches. The bark of the 
trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch thick, and light gray, with a firm close surface, 
usually divided by small fissures, the surface of the low ridges separating in close loose scales; or 
sometimes scaly, with loose thick plate-like scales five or six inches long. The branchlets are slender, 
and marked with oblong pale lenticels, and when they first appear are slightly angled, light green, 
nearly glabrous, often covered with yellow scurf, puberulous, tomentose, or coated with long pale hairs ; 
during their first year they are rather hght red-brown, glabrous, or rarely puberulous or pubescent, and 
turn dark red in their second season. The leaf-scars are comparatively small, semiorbicular to oblong, 
obscurely lobed, and slightly emarginate at the apex. The terminal buds are usually about a quarter 
of an inch or sometimes fully half an inch in length,^ ellipsoidal, acute or obtuse, and two or three 
times as large as the axillary buds ; the outer scales are acute or often slightly keeled, and frequently 
long-pointed at the apex, light orange-brown or dark reddish brown, lustrous, and covered with soft 



Lgnut grows 



dunes 



forms, and much larger than I have seen them in any 
the country. 



fuUy 



166 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. juglandace^ 



short pubescence, and sometimes with clusters of yellow articulate hairs, and, beginning to unfold early 
in the autumn, occasionally fall before winter, or early in the spring ; the scales immediately within 
these are clothed on the outer surface with thick yellow lustrous silky pubescence, and are somewhat 
accrescent, strap-shaped, rounded or short-pointed at the apex, and often three quarters of an inch long 
when fully grown ; the inner scales increase in size from without inward, and are yellow-green more or 
less tinged with red, covered with long pale hairs on the outer surface, lustrous on the inner, lanceolate 
and acute to broadly obovate and apiculate, frequently two and a half inches in length and an inch and 
a quarter in width, and reflexed and more or less curled before falling. The leaves are composed of five 
or seven, or rarely of nine, leaflets, and of slender glabrous or pubescent petioles, slightly grooved and 
enlarged at the base, and are from eight to twelve inches long j the leaflets are oblong to obovate- 
lanceolate, gradually or abruptly long-pointed at the apex, equally or unequally rounded at the base, 
sharply serrate with incurved teeth, subsessile or short-petiolulate, or the terminal one decurrent on a 
slender stalk, and from a quarter of an inch to nearly an inch in length j when they unfold they are 
bright bronzy green, covered below with long pale hairs, glandular-punctate with dark mostly 
deciduous glands, which usually disappear before midsummer, and furnished with tufts of long snowy 
white hairs at the base, pilose above along the midribs and primary veins, and ciliate on the margins 
with long pale or rufous hairs j and at maturity they are thick and firm, glabrous and dark yellow- 
green on the upper surface, and glabrous or rarely pubescent, and often furnished with tufts of pale 
hairs in the axils of the slender primary veins on the lower surface, which is much lighter colored and 
sometimes bright yellow or yellow-brown ; the upper leaflets are from six to eight inches long, and 
two to two and a half inches broad, and are three or four times as large as those of the lowest pair. 
The catkins of staminate flowers are from three to seven inches long, with stout common peduncles 
from half an inch to an inch and a quarter in length, covered, hke the slender rhachises, with soft pale 



fy pubescence, and 



hirsute lateral bracts j the flowers, which open from 



the middle of March in Texas to the beginning of June in New England, are short-pedicellate, yellow- 
green, and coated with pale pubescence or tomentum ; the bract, which is very variable in size and 
shape, is lanceolate, acute, and much longer than the ovate rounded calyx-lobes, or it is ovate, rounded, 
and does not much exceed them in length ; there are four stamens, with nearly sessile ovate emarginate 
orange-colored anthers, slightly hirsute above the middle. The female flowers are produced in from 
two to five-flowered spikes, and are about one quarter of an inch long, more or less prominently four- 
ribbed, and nearly glabrous or coated with scurfy pubescence or with pale tomentum ; the bract is 
lanceolate, acute, sometimes half an inch long, or usually shorter, much longer than the ovate acute 
bractlets and the calyx-lobe, and, like them, dark green and glabrous on the inner surface, and more or 
less covered with pale hairs on the outer surface and along the margins ; the stigmatic lobes are 
yellow, and begin to wither before the anthers shed their pollen. The fruit, which is extremely variable 
in shape and size, is pyriform, ellipsoidal or subglobose, rounded or often much depressed at the apex, 
abruptly or gradually narrowed at the base, cylindrical or often obscurely winged to the middle or 
nearly to the base, rather bright reddish brown, often pubescent or covered with scattered clusters of 
bright yellow hairs, from an inch and a half to two inches long, and from three quarters of an inch to 
an inch and a half broad ; the valves, which vary from one thirty-second to one sixteenth of an inch in 
thickness, open in some forms only at the apex, and continue to inclose the nut after it has fallen to the 
ground, and in others split to the middle or nearly to the base. The nut is elhpsoidal to subglobose, 
often nearly as broad as it is long, rounded at both ends, or obcordate or rarely acuminate at the apex, 
obscurely four-angled, compressed or sometimes nearly cylindrical, and from half an inch to an inch 
and a half in length, with thick or thin hard walls and partitions, and a small seed with cotyledons 
deeply divided at the base, and often deeply grooved on the back by the thick longitudinal ridges on 
the inner face of the wall, and a light brown coat. 

Hicoria glabra inhabits dry ridges and hillsides, and is distributed from southern Maine to 



JUGLANDACE^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



167 



southern Ontario/ and through southern Michigan to southeastern Nebraska/ and southward to the 



shores of the Indian River and Peace Creek in Florida and to southern Alabama and Mississippi^ and 
through Missouri and Arkansas^ to eastern Kansas* and the Indian Territory^ and to the valley of the 



ascends to higher 



Nueces River in Texas. Extremely common in all the northern states^ the Pignut 
elevations on the southern Appalachian Mountains than the other Hickories ; it abounds on the shores of 
bays and estuaries along the coast of the south Atlantic and Gulf states^ and ranges farther south in 
Florida than the other species^ and^ with the exception of the Pecan, farther to the southwest in Texas. 
In Missouri and Arkansas it is perhaps the commonest species, and it probably attains its largest size in 
the basin of the lower Ohio River. 

The wood of Hicoria glabra is heavy, hard, very strong and tough, flexible and close-grained. 



It contains numerous thin obscure medullary rays and many large open ducts, and is light or dark 
brown, with thick lighter colored or often nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.8217, a cubic foot weighing 51.21 pounds. It is used for the handles of tools and in the 
manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements, and commercially is not distinguished from the 
wood of the Shellbark Hickories. 

The earhest authentic account of Hicoria glabra^ with an excellent figure of the nut, appeared in 



Catesby's Natural History of Carolina^ published in 1731 ; according to Aiton,^ it was introduced 
into English gardens in 1799. 

Less variable than several of the other Hickory-trees in habit, foliage, and flowers, Hicoria glabra 
varies more than any of them in the size and shape of its fruit ^ in one form the fruit is oblong and 
usually pyriform, with thick husks splitting nearly to the middle or to the base, and thick-shelled nuts ; 
in another ^ it is subglobose, with rather thinner husks spHtting freely to the base, and small compara- 
tively thin-shelled nuts and better flavored kernels than those of the pear-shaped form. In Missouri a 
variety ^ of the Pignut ^ with remarkably small buds, branchlets, petioles, and leaflets clothed with soft 
yiUous pubescence, and rather large subglobose thick-shelled fruit, is common on dry flinty hills in the 
neighborhood of Allenton. 



1 Macoun, CaL Can. PL 433. 

2 Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric, 1894, 109. 

3 Harvey, Am. Jour. Forestry^ i. 453. 



BIgelow, and Pursh, although only the first of these authors consid- 
ered it specifically distinct from the Pignut with oblong fruit. 
Nuttall described a small-fruited Hickory in his Genera of North 
American Plants j but figured in his Sylva as Carya microcarpa, a 



^ Mason, Variety and Distribution of Kansas Trees, 12. 

^ Nux Juglans Carolinensis fructu minimo putamine Icevi, i. 38, t. small fruit of Carya ovata with a branch of what is possibly the 



38. 



fructu 



118. 



Pignut, as shown by his specimen preserved in the herbarium of 
Virgin. the Philadelphia Academy; and in his Sylva recognized the two 

forms of Hicoria glabra. 

Hicoria glabra, var. odorata, is common in eastern Massachusetts, 
in Connecticut, eastern and central New York, eastern Pennsylva- 
nia, Delaware, the District of Columbia, central Michigan, southern 
Carya microcarpa, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 221 (1818); Sprengel, Indiana and Illinois, and in Missouri. In Massachusetts and in 



« Hart. Kew. ed. 2, v. 297 (Juglans glabra). 
'^ Hicoria glabra, var. odorata. 

Juglans alba odorata, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 68 (1785). 



Syst. iii. 849. 



1451 



Fl, some parts of New York it grows side by side with the other 



Cestr. ed. 3, 264. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. form, the two trees being indistinguishable, but in other states it is 
44. Chapman, Fl. 419. — De Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. sometimes found in rather low ground, when the bark is scaly, 

143. 



Man 



Nat Mus 



Koch, Dendr. i. 596. — Ridg- although in rich 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr, more scaly bark. 



sometimes 



308. 

Watson & Coulter, Graves Man. ed. 6, 469 



Flora) 



s Hicoria glabra, var. villosa. 



sometimes 



Brown 



W 



Fl, 



XV 



(1888). 

Hicorius odoratus^ Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 460 (18i 

Hicoria odorata, Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 335 (1892). 

This form was recognized by Humphrey Marshall, who 



Hickory, and Broom Hickory. The last name is said to be due to 
the fact that in the early settlement of the country brooms were 
made with narrow strips split from the wood of this tree, and 
probably also from that of the other species. It has been sug- 
gested that its most common name, the Pignut, is a corruption of 
Fignut, from the shape of the fruit (Tucker, Trees of Worcester, 
57), but Pignut, according to Catesby, was in use in Virginia early 



known to Muehlenberff, the younger Michaux, in the eighteenth century. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLIL Hicoria glabka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A winter branch, natural size. 



Plate CCCLIIL Hicoria glabra. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. A nut, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a nut, natural size 
6. Cross section of a nut, natural size- 



Plate CCCLIV. Hicoria glabra, var. odorata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 

9. A nut, natural size. 

10. A nut, natural size. 

11. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCLV. Hicoria glabra, var. villosa 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A male flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A male flower, front view, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. One of the valves of the fruit, natural size. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab CCCLII. 



.^ 



j^i^i^ 



yj 




CE.FaxoTtdel, 



Hirrbely sc. 



HICORIA GLABRA,Britt 



A.RiocreiMZ> direa:^ 



Imp. J, Taneur^Fccris 



Silva of -NortTi America . 



Tah. CCCLIII. 




QE.Faooort/ del. 



Himeb/ Si>. 



HICORIA GLABRA, Britt. 



A.-RLocreuay direa>7 



Imp. J. TaneiLr, Paris. 



Silva of North America.. 



Tab. CCCLIV 




('. 


, 1 


H 


4 


■■:i ■ 






' 


rl* 


f 


T 

r 
J . 


1 - 
1 


L 







C.E^Fcuvorv del-- 



HimeJy sc. 



HICORIA GLABRA, Var 



ODD RATA, SaL^o^ 



A . EiocreuiZi direa,^ . 



Imp. J'. Tarheur, J^aru 



Silva of .NoBth America . 



Hah: CCCLV 




C .£ .Faa^aTZ del 



IlimeJ^ so. 



HICORIA GLABRA, Var. VILLOSA, Sarg. 



A. rUocreiia: dtrecc . 



Imp. l7. TcLTLe^LT^ Paris . 



INDEX TO VOL. VII. 



SMALL CAPITALS : o£ admitted 



of synonyms, in italics. 



Acanthoderes quadrigibbus, 133 
Acrobasis Juglandis, 118. 



64 



Actias Luna, 116, 



42 



Agathophyllum, 9. 
Alligator Pear, 2. 
American Elm, 45. 
Anonymos aquatica, 61. 
Anthostoma Oreodaphnes, 20. 
Apate basilaris, 133. 
Apatura Celtis, 64. 
Apatura Clyton, 64, 
Apocarya, 132. 
Aspidiotus Juglandis, 116. 
Aspidiotus rapax, 20. 
Aspidisca juglandiella, 116. 
Attacus Promethea, 15. 
Australian Ladybird Beetle, 20 
Avocado Pear, 2. 



Balaninus nasicus, 134, 
Balaninus rectus, 134, 
Bay, Red, 4. 
Bay, Swamp, 7. 
Bay-tree, 21. 
Beech, Water, 103. 
Bessera spinosa, 27. 
Big Bud Hickory, 161. 
Big Shellbark, 157. 
Bitternut, 141. 
Bitter Pecan, 149. 
Black Hickory, 163, 167. 
Black Mulberry, 77. 
Black Walnut, 121. 
Blastophaga grossorum, 93. 
Bottom Shellbark, 157. 
Bow Wood, 89. 
Broom Hickory, 167. 
Broussonetia tinctorial 89. 
Brown Hickory, 167. 

Bull Nut, 163. 

Bush, Benjamin Franklin, 110. 
Butternut, 118. 
Button-ball tree, 103. 
Buttonwood, 102. 



Cajeput, 21. 

California Laurel, 21, 

California Olive, 21. 

Camphoromoeay 9. 
Caprification, 93, 

CapriJiciiSy 91, 

Caprificus insectiferay 93. 

Caprifig, 93. 

Carya, 131, 

Carya alba, 153, 161. 



Carya amara^ 141. 



^fi 



Carya amara, var. porcina, 165. 
Carya angustifolia, 137. 
Carya aquatica, 149. 
Carya cathartica, 118, 



ormis 



Carya glabra, 165. 
Carya Illinoensis, 137. 
Carya integrifolia, 149. 
Carya Mexicana, 132. 
Carya microcarpa, 167. 
Carya my risticcef ormis, 145. 
Carya obcordata, 165. 

Carya olivceformis, 137. 

Carya porcina, 165. 

Carya pubescens, 157- 

Carya sulcata, 157. 

Carya tetraptera, 137. 

Carya Texana, 137. 

Carya tomentosa, 161. 

Carya tomentosa, var, maxima, 161. 

Cedar Elm, 57. 

Celtis, 63. 

Celtis Acata, 64. 

Celtis aculeata, 64. 

Celtis alba, 71. 

Celtis Audibertiana, 67. 

Celtis Audibertiana, var. oblongata, 67. 

Celtis Audibertiana, var. ovata, 67. 

Celtis australis, 64. 

Celtis Berlandieri, 71. 

Celtis brevipes, 72. 

Celtis canina, 67. 

Celtis Caucasica, 64. 

Celtis cordata, 67. 

Celtis crassifolia, 67. 

Celtis crassifolia, var. eucalyptifolia, 67. 

Celtis crassifolia, var. morifolia, 67. 

Celtis crassifolia, var. tilicefolia, 67. 

Celtis Douglasii, 67. 

Cellis Ehrenbergiana, 64. 

Celtis eriocarpa, 64. 

Celtis Floridana, 67. 

Celtis, fungal diseases of, 64. 

Celtis fuscat a, 71. 

? Celtis grandidentata, 67. 

Celtis heterophylla, 67. 

Celtis iguaneus, 64. 

Celtis, insect enemies of, 64. 

Celtis integrifolia, 71. 

Celtis Icevigata, 71. 

Celtis Lindheimeri, 71. 

Celtis long folia, 71. 

Celtis maritima, 67. 

Celtis Mississippiensis, 71. 

Celtis Mississippiensis, var. reticulata, 72. 



Celtis morifolia, 67. 

Celtis obliqua, 67. 

Celtis occideiitalis, 67. 

Celtis occidentalis , 71. 

Celtis occidentalis, var. Audibertiana, 68. 

Celtis occidentalis, var. cordata, 67. 

Celtis occidentalis, var. crassifolia, 68. 

? Celtis occidentalis, c grandidentata, 68. 

? Cete5 occidentalis, var. grandidentata, 67 

CeZ/25 occidentalis, var. inteyrifolia, 71. 

Celtis occidentalis, var. pumila, 69. 

Ce^/is occidentalis, var. reticulata, 72. 

Celtis occidentalis, var. scabriuscula, 67. 

CeZ^i's occidentalis, var. serrulala, 67. 

Ce/^25 occidentalis, var. tenuifolia, 67. 

CeZ/25 pallida, 64. 

CeZ^/s patula, 67. 

CeZ^/5 procera, 67. 

Celtis pumila, 69. 

CeZ^i5 reticulata, 68, 72. 

Celtis rhamnoides, 64. 

Celtis Tala, e pallida, 64. 

CeZ^is tenuifolia, 67. 

CeZ^is Texana, 71. 

Cercospora Juglandis, 117. 

Cercospora Moricola, 77. 

Cercospora purpurea, 2. 

Chcetoptelea, 39. 

Ckcetoptelea Mexicana, 40. 
Chalcophora campestris, 101. 
Chapman, Alvan Wentworth, 110. 
Chapmannia, 100. 
Cherry, Dog, 69. 

Chion cinctus, 133. 
Chouteau, Pierre, 86. 
Chramesus Icoriae, 133. 
Cirrha platanella, 101. 
Citheronia regalis, 116. 
Cliff Elm, 48. 
Cockscomb Gall-louse, 41. 

Coleophora carysefoliella, 133. 
Collosphseria corticata, 87. 
Colopha Ulmicola, 41. 
Conotrachelus Juglandis, 116. 
Cork Elm, 47. 
Cork Wood, 111. 
Covellia, 92. 
Covellia, 91. 
Crab Wood, 30. 
Cyllene pictus, 116, 133. 
Cystogyne, 91. 



Datana integerrima, 116. 
Datana ministra, 116, 133. 
Dendrodaphne, 9. 
? Dendrodaphne, 9. 
Dog Cherry, 69. 



170 



INDEX. 



Dorchaschema Wildii, 87. 
Drimophyllum, 19. 
Drimophyllum paucijiorum^ 21. 
Dryoptelea, 40. 
Drypetes, 23. 

Drypeies alba, var. latifoliay 27- 
Drypetes crocea, 27. 
Drypeies crocea, fi longipes, 27. 
Drypetes crocea, y latifolia, 27. 
Drypeies crocea, var. laiifoliay 25. 
Drypetes glauca, 25, 27. 
Drypetes Keyensis, 25. 
Drypetes lateriflora, 27. 
Drypeies laiifolia, 27. 
Drypeies sessilijioray 27. 
Dunbar, William, 86. 
Dutch Elm, 40. 



Elaphidion villosum, 133. 
Elm, American, 45. 
Elm, Cedar, 57. 
Elm, Cliff, 48. 
Elm, Cork, 47. 
Elm, Dutch, 40. 
Elm, English, 40. 
Elm, False, 69. 
Elm, Hickory, 48. 
Elm-leaf Beetle, 41. 
Elm, Momitain, 52. 
Elm, Red, 52, 53. 
Elm, Rock, 45, 47. 
Elm, Slippery, 53. 
Elm, Swamp, 45. 
Elm, Water, 43, 61. 
Elm, White, 43, 48. 
Elm, Winged, 51. 
Elm, Wych, 40. 
English Elm, 40. 
English Walnuts, 115. 

EriosomaCaryae, 133. 
Erythrogyne^ 91. 
Eucarya, 132. 

Euceltis, 63. 

Eugonia subsignaria, 41. 

Eupersea, 1. 

EUPHORBIACE^, 23. 

Eusyce, 92. 
Exccecariay 29. 
Ezcoecaria lucida, 30. 



Fall Web-worm, 41, 77, 116. 

False Elm, 69. 

Ficus, 91. 

Ficus affinior^ 94. 

Ficus aurea, 95. 

Ficus aurea, var. latifolia, 95. 

Ficus hrevifolia, 97. 

Ficus Carica, 93. 

Ficus Carica, cultivation of, 93. 

Ficus caudata, 94. 

Ficus elastica, 93. 

Ficus, fertilization of, by insects, 93. 

Ficus, gall-flowers of, 92. 

Ficus pedunculata, 97. 

Ficus populnea, 97. 

Ficus religiosa, 94. 

Ficus Roxburghii, fertilization of, 93, 
Ficus Sycomorus, 93. 
Fig, 93. 
Figs, 93. 
Fig-tree, 93. 

Floyd nut, the, 157. 

Fluted Scale, 20. 
Frdreodendron, 23. 



Fungal diseases of Celtis, 64. 
Fungal diseases of Hicoria, 134. 
Fungal diseases of Juglans, 116. 
Fungal diseases of Morus, 77. 
Fungal diseases of Persea, 2. 
Fungal diseases of Platanus, 101. 
Fungal diseases of Sassafras, 15.; 
Fungal diseases of Toxylon, 87. 
Fungal diseases of Ulmus, 42. 
Fungal diseases of Umbellularia, 20. 



Galeruca xanthomeleena, 41. 
Gall-flowers of Ficus, 92. 
Galoglychia, 91. 

Gelechia carysevorella, 133. 
Glceosporium Celtidis, 65. 
Gloeosporium nervisequum, 101. 
Goes tigrinus, 133. 
Gonosuke, 91. 
Gossyparia Ulmi, 41. 

Gracilaria juglandinigrseella, 116. 

Gracilaria sassafrasella, 15. 

Graphisurus triangulifer, 64. 

Grapholitha caryana, 134. 

Guiana Plum, 27. 

Gumbo filet, 14. 

Gymnanthes, 29. 

Gymnanthes lucida, 30. 

Gymnobalanus y 9. 

? Gymnobalanus Caieshyanus, 11. 

Gyroceras Celtidis, 65. 



Hackberry, 67, 71. 



154 



134 



Halesidota Caryse, 133. 
Hemiocotea, 9. 
Hemipersea, 1. 
Heterandra, 1, 
Hexanthera, 1. 
Hickory, Big Bud, 161. 
Hickory, Black, 163, 167. 
Hickory Borer, 116. 
Hickory, Broom, 167. 
Hickory, Brown, 167. 
Hickory Elm, 48. 
Hickory, Nutmeg, 145. 
Hickory, origin of the name of. 
Hickory, Shagbark, 153. 
Hickory, Shellbark, 153. 
Hickory, Swamp, 141. 
Hickory-trees in Europe, 159. 
Hickory, Water, 149. 
Hickory, White Heart, 163. 
Hicoria, 131. 

Hicoria acuminata, 157. 

Hicoria alba, 161. 

Hicoria alba, var. maxima^ 161. 

Hicoria aquatica, 149. 

Hicoria Fernowiana, 145. 

Hicoria, fungal diseases of, 134. 

Hicoria glabra, 165. 

Hicoria glabra, var* odorata, 167. 

Hicoria glabra, var. villosa, 167. 

Hicoria, insect enemies of, 133. 

Hicoria laciniosa, 157. 

Hicoria laciniosa, hybrids of, 158. 

Hicoria maxima, 161. 

Hicoria, medical properties of, 133. 
Hicoria Mexicana, 132. 
Hicoria microcarpa, 167. 
Hicoria minima, 141. 



Hicoria Pecan, 137. 

Hicoria Pecan, cultivated varieties of, 139. 

Hicoria Pecan, cultivation of, 139. 

Hicoria Pecan, hybrids of, 138. 

Hicoria sulcata, 157. 

Hicoria Texana, 137, 

Hicoria, wood of, 132. 

Hicorius albus, 161. 

Hicorius amara, 141, 

Hicorius aqualicus, 149. 

Hicorius glaber, 165. 

Hicorius integrifoha, 149. 

Hicorius minimus, 141. 

Hicorius myristiccefonnis, 145. 

Hicorius odoratus, 167. 

Hicorius ovatus, 153. 

Hicorius Pecan, 137. 

Hicorius sulcaius, 157. 

Hippomane, 33. 

Hippomane Mancinella, 35. 

Hippomane, poisonous properties of, 34. 

Hippomane, wood of, 34. 

Hogberry, 69. 

Hybrid Walnuts, 114. 

Hyphantria cunea, 41, 77, 116, 

Hypoxylon Sassafras, 2. 



Icerya Purchasi, 20. 
India Rubber from Ficus elastica, 93. 
Insect enemies of Celtis, 64. 
Insect enemies of Hicoria, 133. 
Insect enemies of Juglans, 116. 
Insect enemies of Morus, 77. 
Insect enemies of Platanus, 101. 
Insect enemies of Sassafras, 15. 
Insect enemies of Toxylon, 87. 
Insect enemies of Ulmus, 41. 
Insect enemies of Umbellularia, 20. 
loxylon, 85. 



145 



Hicoria odorata, 167. 
Hicoria ovata, 153. 



Japanese Walnut, 116. 

JUGLANDACE^, 113. 

Juglans, 113. 

Juglans ailantifolia, 116. 

Juglans alba, 153, 161. 

Juglans alba acuminata, 165. 

Juglans alba minima, 141. 

Juglans alba odorata, 167. 
Juglans alba ovata, 153. 

Juglans alba, € pacana, 137. 

Juglans amara, 141. 

Juglans angustifolia, 137, 141. 

Juglans aquatica, 149. 

Juglans Californica, 129. 

Juglans Californica, 125. 

Juglans cathartica, 118. 

Juglans cinerea, 118. 

? Juglans cinerea, 115. 

Juglans cinerea, medical properties of, 120 

Juglans cinereo-nigra, 114. 

Juglans compressa, 153. 

Juglans cordiformis, 116, 141. 

Juglans cylindrica, 137. 

Juglans, fungal diseases of, 116. 

Juglans glabra, 165. 

Juglans, hybrids of, 114. 

Juglans, insect enemies of, 116, 

Juglans in South America, 115, 

Juglans insidaris, 115. 

Juglans Ulinoinensis , 137. 

? Juglans intermedia alata, 115. 

Juglans intermedia pyriformis, 114. 

? Juglans intermedia quadrangulata, 115. 

Juglans intermedia Vilmoriniana, 114. 



INDEX. 



171 



Juglans laciniosa, 157. 
Juglans macrophylla , 116. 
Juglaus Mandshurica, 115. 
Juglans Mandshurica, 116. 
Juglans Mexicana, 115. 
Juglans minima^ 141. 
Juglans mollis, 115. 
Juglans mucronata, 141. 
Juglans myristicceformisj 145. 
Juglans nigra, 121. 
Juglans nigra^ 116. 
Juglans nigra, fi, 118. 
Juglans nigra, var. Boliviana, 115. 
Juglans nigra oblonga, 121. 
Juglans obcordata, 153, 165. 
Juglans oblonga, 118. 
Juglans oblonga alba, 118. 
Juglans olivceformis, 137. 
Juglans ovalisy 153. 
Juglans ovata, 153. 
Juglans Pecan, 137. 

Juglans Pitteursii, 121. 
Juglans porcina, 165. 
Juglans porcina, a obcordata, 165. 
Juglans porcina, ^Jiciformis, 165. 
? Juglans pubescens, 161. 
Juglans pyriformis, 115. 
Juglans regia, 115. 



Laurus variifolia, 17. 
Lecanium Cary^e, 133. 
Lecanium Juglandif ex, 116, 
Leitueria, 109. 
Leitneria Floridana, 111, 

Leitneriace^, 109. 
Lepiodaphne, 9. 

Libythea Bacbmanni, 64. 

Limacia laurifolia, 27. 

Liopus cinereus, 133. 
Liparena, 1!3. 

Lithocolletis caryaealbella, 133, 
Lithocolletis carysefoliella, 133. 
Lithocolletis celtif oliella, 64, 
Lithocolletis celtisella, C4. 
Lithocolletis juglandiella, 116. 
Lithocolletis Uuibellulariae, 20. 
Lophoderus triferanus, 87. 
Loxostege Maclurai, 87. 
Luna Moth. 116. 



Madura, 85. 
Madura aurantiaca, 89. 
MacMahon, Bernard, 86. 
Macropthalma, 91. 
Madeira mahogany, 2. 
Mahogany, Madeira, 2. 

Mahonia, 87o 

Juglans regia, cultivation and uses or, 115. Mallodon melanopus, 64. 
Juglans regia gibbosa, 114. Mancanilla, 33. 

Manchineel, 35. 

Mancinella, 33. 

Mancinella venenata, 35. 

Massaria epileuca, 77. 

Massaria Ulmi, 42. 

Mastosuke, 91. 

Menestrata, 1. 

Merterisia, 63. 

Mertensia rhamnoides, 64. 

Mertensia zizyphoides, 64. 

Mespilodaphne, 10. 

Mespilodaphne, 9. 

Mespilodaphne opifera, IC 

Mexican Mulberry, 83. 

Micracis hirtella, 20. 

Microptelea, 40. 

Microptelea, 39. 

Microptelea parvifolia, 41 



Juglans regia intermedia, 114. 
Juglans regia, var. Kamaonia, 115. 
Juglans regia ociogona, 116. 
Juglans regia, var. Sinensis, 115. 
Juglans rubra^ 161. 
Juglans rupestris, 125. 
Juglans rupestris, var. major, 125. 
Juglans Sieboldiana, 116. 
Juglans squamosa, 153, 165. 
Juglans squamosa, fi microcarpa^ 167. 
? Juglans stenocarpa, 115. 
Juglans sulcata, 141, 157. 
Juglans tomentosa^ 161. 



Koelera laurifolia, 27. 
King nuts, 157. 
Kiskythomas nut, 134. 

Lachnus Caryse, 133. 
Lachnus Platanicola, 101. 
Ladybird Beetle, Australian, 20. 
Landreth, David, 87. 

LauraceuE, 1. 

Laurel, California, 21. 
Laurel, Mountain, 21. 

Laurus, 1. 

Laurus albida, 17. 

Laurus Borbonia, 4. 

Laurus bullata, 10. 

Laurus CarolinensiSy 4, 7. 

Laurus Carolinensis, a glabra, 4. 

Laurus Carolinensis, $ puhescens, 7 

Laurus Carolineyisis, y obtusa, 4. 

Laurus Caroliniana, 4, 

Laurus Catesbcei, 11. 

Laurus Catesbyana, 11. 

Laurus diversifolia, 17. 

Laurus foetens, 10. 

Laurus Indica, 2. 

Laurus Maderiensis, 10. 

Laurus Persea, 2. 



134 



Mockernut, 161. 
Momisia, 63. 
Momisia, 63. 
Momisia aculeata, 64. 
Momisia Ehrenbergiana, 64. 



134 



Moracese, 75. 
Morophorum, 75. 

Morus, 75. 
Morns alba, 76. 



Morus nigra, uses of, 77. 

Morus reticulata, 79. 

Morus riparia, 79. 

Morus rubra, 79. 

Morus rubra, var. heterophylla, 79. 

Moi'us rubra, var. incisa, 79. 

Morus rubra, var. pallida, 79. 

Morus rubra, var. purpurea, 79. 

Morus rubra, var. tomeutosa, 79. 

Morus scabra, 79. 

Morus serrata, 77. 

Morus Tatarica, 76. 

Morus tomentosa, 79. 

Mountain Elm, 52. 
Mountain Laurel, 21. 
Mulberry, 83. 
Midberry, Black, 77. 
Mulberry, Mexican, 83. 
Mulberry, Red, 79. 
Mulberry, Russian, 76. 
Mulberry. White, 76. 



Necalistis, 91. 
Nectandra coriacea, 11. 
Nectandra sanguinea, 11. 
Nectandra Willdenoviana, 11. 
Nectria Umbellularise, 20. 
Nemodaphne, 9. 
Neoniorphe, 92. 
Nepticula carya^foliella, 133. 
Nepticula Clemensella, 101. 
Nepticula juglandif oliella, 116. 
Nepticula maximella, 101. 
Nepticula platanella, 101. 

Nettle-tree, 69. 
Nummularia microplaca, 2. 
Nussbaumer nut, the, 157. 
Nutmeg Hickory, 145. 

Nux, 117. 



Ocotea, 9. 

Ocotea bullata, 10. 

Ocotea Catesbyana, 11. 

Ocotea, economic uses of, 10. 

Ocotea foetens, 10. 

Ocotea Guianensis, 10. 

Ocotea opifera, 10. 

Ocotea sericea, 10. 

Ocotea splendens, 10. 

Oilnut, 118. 

Oil of Sassafras, 14. 

Oil of Umbellularia, 20. 

Olive, Culifornia, 21. 

Oluntos, 91. 

Oncideres cingulatus, 133. 

Orange, Osage, 89. 

Oreodaphne, 10. 

Oreodaphne, 9. 

Oreodaphne bullata, 10. 



Morus alba, introduction into the United Oreodaphne Californica, 21. 



Sassafra 
Teneriffc 



Laurus 



States, 76. 
Morus alba Tatarica, 76. 
Morus Canadensis, 79. 
Morus celtidifolia, 83. 
Morus Constantinopolitana, 76. 
Morus, fungal diseases of, 77. 
Morus Indica, 77. 
Morus, insect enemies of, 77. 
Morus laevigata, 77. 
Morus, medical properties of, 77. 
Morus Mexicana, 83. 
Morus microphylla, 83. 
Morus multicaulis, cidtivation of, 76. 

Morus nigra, 77. 



Oreodaphne fcetens, 10. 
Oreodaphne Guianensis, 10. 
Oreodaphne opifera, 10. 
Oreodaphne sericea, 10, 
Oreodaphne splendens, 10. 
Oreodaphne, subgen. Umbellularia, 19, 
Oreoptelea, 40. 
Orgyia leucosti^^ma, 41. 
Osage Orange, 89. 



Paean, 134. 

Pachypsylla Celtidis-gemma, 64. 

Pachypsylla Celtidis-mamma, 64. 
Paub^-psylla Celtidis-vesiculum, 64. 



172 



INDEX. 



Pachypsylla venusta, 64. 

Pal?eomorphe, iYl. 

Paleacrita veniata, 41. 

Pauus dealbatus, 4li. 

Paper-shell Hickory nut, Hales', 154. 

Papilio Troilus, 15. 

Paria aterrima, 116. 

Parry, Charles Christopher, 130. 

Parryella, 130. 

Pawcohiccora, 134. 

Pear, Alligator, 2. 

Pear, Avocado, 2. 

Pecan, 137. 

Pecan, Bitter, 149. 

Pemphigus ulmifusus, 41* 
Persea, 1. 

Persea argentea, 10. 

Persea Borbonia, 4. 

Persea Carolinensls, 4. 

Persea Caroliyiensis, a, 7. 

Persea Carollnensts, a glabriuscida, 4. 

Persea CaroUnensis, ^ pubescens, 7. 

Persea Carolinensis^ var. palustris, 7. 
Persea Catesbyaiia, 11. 

Persea foetensy 10. 

Persea, fungal diseases of, 2. 

Persea gratissimay 2. 

Persea Indica, 2. 

Persea Lingue, 2. 

Persea Persea, 2. 

Persea Persea, cultivation and uses of, 2. 

Persea pubescens, 7. 

Persea Sassafras, 17. 

Perula, 91. 

Petalanthera^ 9. 

Pharmacosyceay 91. 

Phleospora Celtidis, 65. 

Phleospora Mori, 77. 

Phleosphora Ulmi, 42. 

Phycis rubrifasciella, 133. 

Phyllosticta Caryse, 134. 

Phyllosticta Celtidis, 65. 

Phyllosticta micropunctata, 2. 

Phyllosticta Sassafras, 15. 

Phylloxera carysecaulis, 133. 

Phytoptus Uluii, 42. 

Pignut, 165. 

Pipal Tree, 94. 

Plagiostigma, 91. 

Planer, Johann Jakob, 60. 

Planera, 59. 

Planera aquatica, 61. 

Planera parviflora, 41. 

Planera Richardi, 61. 

Planera ubnifoliay 61. 

Platanace^, 99. 

Platanus, 99. 

Plataniis CaUfornica^ 105. 

Platanus, fungal diseases of, 101. 

Platanus hybridus, 102. 

Platanus, insect enemies of, 101. 

Platanus lobata, 102. 

Platanus Mexicana, 101. 

Platanus Mexicana, 105, 107. 

Platanus occidentalis, 102. 

Platanus occidentalis, 105. 

Platanus occidentalis , j3 lohata, 102. 

Platanus occidentalism var. Hispanicay 102. 

Platanus occidentalis, var. Mexicana^ 101. 

Platanus orieutalis, 100. 

Platanus racemosa, 105. 

Platanus racemosa, 107. 

Platanus vulgaris, 100. 

Platanus vulgaris, e angulosa, 102. 



Platanus Wrightii, 107. 
Plum, Guiana, 27. 

Pogonotrophe, 91. 
Polyporus conchifer, 42. 
Powcohicora, 134, 
Pterocarya sorbi/olia, 116. 
Ptiliiius basalis, 20. 
Pulvinaria iunumerabilis, 87. 



Synoecia, 92. 
Synoecia, 91. 



Ramularia albo-maculata, 134. 
Ramularia Celtidis, 65. 
Red Bay, 4. 
Red Elm, 52, 53. 
Red Mulberry, 79. 
Repkesis, 91. 
Rhamnus iguaneus, 64. 
Rhytisma Sassafras, 15. 
Rock Elm, 45, 47. 
Romaleuni atomarium, 64. 
Roumea coriacea, 27. 
Russian Mulberry, 76. 



Saperda discoidea, 133. 

Saperda tridentata, 41. 

Sassafras, 13, 17. 

Sassafras albidum, 17. 

Sassafras, fungal diseases of, 15. 

Sassafras, insect enemies of, 15. 

Sassafras, medical properties of, 14, 15 

Sassafras officinale, 17. 

Sassafras, oil of, 14. 

Sassafras Sassafras, 17. 

Sassafras variifolium, 17. 
Scale, Fluted, 20. 

Schcefferia lateriflora, 27. 

Schizoneura Americana, 41. 

Scolytus Fagi, 64. 

Scolytus 4^spinosus, 133. 

Scoria, 131, 134. 

Sehastiaiiia lucida, 30. 

Senneberiaj 9. 

Septosph^eria Maclurte, 87. 
Serenoa, 108. 

Shagbark Hickory, 153. 

Shellbark, Big, 157. 

Shellbark, Bottom, 157. 

Shellbark Hickory, 153. 

Silk-culture, 76. 

Silk-worms on Toxylon, 87. 

Sinoxylon basilare, 133. 

Sinoxylon decline, 20. 

Slippery Elm, 53. 

Smerinthus Juglandis, 116. 
Solenostigma, 63. 
Solenostigma, 63. 
Spha^rella Maclurse, 87. 
Sphserella Umbellularise, 20. 
Sphseria collecta, 87. 

Sphserotheca phytoptophylla, 65. 
Spice Tree, 21. 

Sponioceltis, 63. 

Stenosphenus notatus, 133. 
Stink-hout, the, 10. 

Strychnodaphne, 9. 

Sugarberry, 67, 71. 

Swamp Bay, 7. 

Swamp Elm, 45. 

Swamp Hickory, 141. 

Sycamore, 102, 103, 105, 107, 109. 

Sycidium, 92. 

Sycomorphe, 91. 
SycomoruSy 91. 
Sycomorus, 103. 
Sycomorus antiquorum, 93, 



Tamala, 1. 

Tamala Borbonia, 4. 

Tamala palustr is, 7. 

Teleiandra, 9. 

Tenorea, 91. 

Teras hastiana, 87. 

Tetraneura Ulmi, 41. 

Tetranthera albida, 17. 

Tetranthera? Caiifomica, 21. 

Thomas, David, 48. 

Tingis Juglandis, 116. 

Toxylon, 85. 

Toxylon aurantiacum, 89. 

Toxylon, economic uses of, 86. 

Toxylon, fungal diseases of, 87. 

Toxylon, insect enemies of, 87. 

Toxylon Madura, 89. 

Toxylon pomiferum, 89. 

Tremex Columba, 133. 

Tremotis, 91. 

Tussock Moth, White-spotted, 41. 



Ulmace^, 39. 

Ulmus, 39. 

Ulmus alata, 51. 

Ulmus cdba, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, 47. 

Ulmus Americana, a glabra, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, a rubra, 53. 

Ulmus Americana, P alba, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, fi scabra, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, y alata, 51. 

Ulmus Americana, y? Bartramii, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, y pendula, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, var,? aspera, 43. 

Ulmus aquatica, 61. 

Ulmus campestris, 40. 

Ulmus campestrL% 40, 41. 

Ulmus campestris Chinensis, 41. 

Ulmus campestris parvifolia, 41. 

Ulmus Chinensis, 41. 

Ulmus ciliata, 41. 

Ulmus crassifolia, 57. 

? Ulmus crispa, 53. 

? Ulmus dentata, 43. 

? Ulmus dimidiata, 61. 

Ulmus, economic uses of, 41. 

Ulmus effusa^ 41. 

Ulmus excelsa, 40. 

Ulmus Floridana, 43. 

Ulmus foliaceay 40. 

Ulmus fulva, 53. 

Ulmus fulva, medical properties of, 54 

Ulmus, fungal diseases of, 42. 

Ulmus glabra, 40. 

Ulmus Hollandica, 40. 

Ulmus Hookeriana, 40. 

Ulmus, msect enemies of, 41. 
Ulmus Iffivis, 40, 41. 
Ulmus lancifolia, 40. 
? Ulmus longifolia, 51. 
Ulmus Mexicana, 40. 
Ulmus mollifolia, 43. 
Ulmus montana, 40. 
Ulmiis nuda, 40. 
? Ulmus obovata, 43. 
Ulmus octandra, 41. 
Ulmus opaca, 57. 
Ulmus parviflora, 41. 
Ulmus pedunculaia, 40. 



INDEX. 



173 



Ulmus pendulay 43. 

? Ulmus pinguis, 53. 

f Ulmus pubescens f, 53. 

Ulmus pumila, 51. 

Ulmus racemosa, 47. 

Ulmus rubra, 53. 

Ulmus saliva, 40. 

Ulmus scabra, 40, 41. 

Ulmus scabra, var. laciniata, 40. 

Ulmus suberosa, 40. 

Ulmus tetrandray 40. 

f Ulmus tomentosa, 43. 

Ulmus virgata, 41. 

Ulmus vulgaris, 40. 

Ulmus Wallichiana, 41. 

Umbellularia, 19. 

Umbellularia Californica, 21. 
Umbellularia, fungal diseases of, 20. 
Umbellularia, insect enemies of, 20. 
Umbellularia, medical properties of, 20. 
Umbellularia, oil of, 20, 
Umbellulic acid, 20. 
Uncinula genicnlata, 77. 
Uncinula intermedia, 42. 



42 



Uncinula polychseta, 64. 
Uredo Citri, 87. 
Urostigma, 92. 
Urostigma, 91. 
Urostigma affine^ 94. 
Urostigma populneum, 97. 
Urostigma religiosum, 94. 

Valsa Maclurse, 87. 
Varinga, 91. 
Vedalia cardinalis, 20. 
Vinatico, 2. 
Visiania, 91. 



Wahoo, 51. 
Wallia, 113. 
Wallia cinerea, 118. 
Wallia fraxinifolia, 121. 
Wallia nigra, 121. 
Wallia nigra macrocarpa, 121 
Wallia nigra microcarpa, 121. 
Wallia pyr if or mis, 115. 



Walnut, 125, 129. 

Walnut, Black, 121. 

Walnut Case-bearer, the, 116. 

Walnut, Japanese, 116. 

Walnuts, English, 115. 

Walnuts, hybrid, 114. 

Water Beech, 103. 

Water Elm, 43, 61. 

Water Hickory, 149. 

Watson, Sereno, 108. 

White Elm, 43, 48. 

Wliite Heart Hickory, 163. 

White Mulberry, 76. 

White-spotted Tussock Moth, 41 

White Wood, 25. 

Winged Elm, 51. 

Wych Elm, 40. 



Xylosma nitidum, 27. 

Zeuzera pyrina, 41. 
Zizyphus commutata, 64. 
Zizyphus iguanea, 64. 



New York Botanical Garden Libra 













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