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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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Thi: New York Botanical Garden 

LuEsther T. Mertz Library 



Gift of 



The Estate of 

Henry Clay Frick, II 

2007 



r 




THE 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA 



A DESOEIPTION OF THE TEEES WHICH GEOW 

NATUEALLY IE NOETH AMEEICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



SlllugJtrateD tsiit)^ figures ann Simli^m tiraton from iSature 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



VOLUME VIII 



CUPTILIFEBM 

( Qiiercus) 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

M DCCC XC5V 



Copyright, 1895, 
By CHARLES SPEAGUE SARGENT. 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass,^ U. S. A. 
Electrotjped and Printed by H. O. Houghton and Company. 



WERT2 LIBRARY 
WEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 
OAROEfg 



TO THE MEMORY OF 

ANDRE AND FRANCOIS ANDRE MICHAUX, 

FATHER AND SON, 

WHOSE LONG AND ARDUOUS JOURNEYS 

IN THE TRACKLESS FORESTS OF THE NEW WORLD 



LAID THE FOUNDATION OF KNOWLEDGE 

WITH REGARD TO THE OAKS OF EASTERN AMERICA, 

THIS EIGHTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS DEDICATED, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Plate cccHx 



Plate ccclxl 



Plate ccclxii. • 



Plate ccclxiii 



Synopsis of Orders . . • . . 

QuERCUs ALBA Plates ccclvi., ccclvii., ccclviii. 

QUERCUS ALBA X MINOR 

QuERCUS ALBA X MACROCARPA 

QUERCUS ALBA X PrINUS 

QUERCUS LOBATA 

QuERCus Breweri ....... 

QuERCus Garryana ....... 

QuERCus Gambehi 

QuERCus minor ........ 

Quercus Chapmani 

quercus macrocarpa ....... 

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus Prinus . 

Quercus acuminata 



Page 

vii 
• • • • • 16 

18 

Pfete ccclx 18 



18 
23 

27 



Plates ccclxiv.j ccclxv. --..... 29 



Plates ccclxvi., ccclxvii. 
Plates ccclxviii., ccclxix 



Plate ccclxx 



Plates ccclxxi.j ccclxxii., ccclxxiii. 



Plate ccclxxiv 



Plates ccclxxv.5 ccclxxvi 
Plate ccclxxvii. . 



Quercus prinoides Plate ccclxxviii 



Quercus Sadleriana 



Plate ccclxxix 



Quercus platanoides 
Quercus Michauxii 
Quercus breviloba . 
Quercus undulata 



Plates ccclxxx., ccclxxxi. 
Plates ceclxxxii., ccclxxxiii 
Plate ccclxxxiv. 



Plate ccclxxxv 



Quercus Douglasii Plate ccclxxxvi 



Plate ceelxxxvii. . 



Plate ecclxxxix 



Quercus Engelmanni 

Quercus oblongieolia ....... 

Quercus Arizonica 

Quercus reticulata ....... 

Quercus Toumeyi 

Quercus dumosa ........ Plates cccxcii., cccxciii 

Quercus Virginiana 



33 

37 
41 
43 

47 
51 
55 
59 
61 
63 
67 
71 

75 
79 
83 



Plate ccelxxxviii. ........ 87 



89 



Plate cccxc. ......... 91 



Plate cccxci 



Plates cccxciv., cccxcv., cccxcvi 



Quercus Emoryi Plate cccxc vii. 



Quercus chrysolepts 



Plate cccciii 



Quercus tomentella ....... 

Quercus agrifolia • 

Quercus pumila Plate cccciv 

Quercus hypoleuca ....... 



Plates cccxcviii., cccxcix., cccc.j cccci 
Plate ccccii . . . . . 



Plate ccccv. 



Quercus Wislizeni ........ Plate ccccvi 

Quercus Wislizeni x Californica .... 



Quercus myrtifolia 
Quercus rubra 
Quercus Texana 



Plate ccccvii. 
Plate ccccviii. . 
Plates ccccix., ccccx 



93 
95 

99 
103 
105 
109 
111 
115 
117 
119 
120 
123 
125 



Plate ccccxi. ......... 129 



Quercus coccinea 
Quercus velutina 



Plates ccccxii., ccccxiii . 
Plates ccccxiv., ccccxv. 



Quercus Californica 
Quercus Catesb^ei . 



141 

Plate ccccxvii. ........ 143 



Plate ccccxvi 



Quercus Catesb.ei x nigra 



Plate ccccxviii 



144 



vi TABLE OF 

QUERCUS CatESB^I X LAURIFOLIA 

QUERCUS DIGITATA 

QuERCUS PALUSTRIS ........ 

QuERCUS NANA 

QuERCus Georgiana 

QuERCus Marilandica 

Quercus nigra 

quercus laurifolia 

Quercus brevifolia 

Quercus imbricaria . 

Quercus imbricaria x Marilandica .... 

Quercus imbricaria x coccinea 

Quercus Phellos 

Quercus Phellos x velutina 

Quercus Phellos x Marilandica ..... 
Quercus denstflora 



CONTENTS. 

Plate ccccxix. . . . . . • • • • 144 

Plates ccccxx.j ccccxxi. .••••• 147 

Plates ccccxxii., ccccxxiii. .•-••• 151 

Plate cccexxiv. .,...••• 155 
Plate ccccxxv. ......•• 159 

Plates ccccxxvi., ccccxxvii. ....•• 161 

Plate ccccxxviii. ........ 165 

Plates ceccxxix., ccccxxx. ...... 169 

Plate ccccxxxi. ........ 171 

Plate ccccxxxii. ........ 175 

Plate ccccxxxiii. ........ 176 

Plate ceccxxxiv. ........ 176 

Plate cccexxxv. ........ 179 

Plate ccecxxxvi. ........ 180 

Plate ccccxxxvii. ........ 181 

Plate ccccxxxviii. ..••... 183 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME VIII 

OF THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class I. DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined. Embryo 
■with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 

Sub-Class I. Angiospemise. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit. 
Division III. ApetalflB. Corolla 0. Stamens inserted on the petaloid calyx, or hypogynous. 

51- Cupuliferse. Flowers monoecious or rarely perfect. Stamens 2 to 4 or indefinite. Ovary inferior, after anthesis 
imperfectly 2 to 3 or rarely 4 to 6-celled. Ovule solitary, or in pairs, ascending or descending, anatropous. Fruit a 
nut usually more or less inclosed in bracts free or united into a woody involucre. Leaves alternate, stipulate. 



SILVA 



OF 



NORTH 



AMERICA. 



QUERCUS. 



Flowers unisexual or rarely perfect, monoecious, apetalous, in unisexual or an- 



drogynous spikes or aments 



aly 



4 to 7-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestiyation 



stamens generally 6 ; pistillate flower surrounded by an involucre of imbricated scales ; 
ovary inferior, usually incompletely 3-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending or 
descending. Fruit a nut surrounded at the base or embraced in the accrescent woody 
involucre. Leaves alternate, annual, or perennial, penniveined, stipulate. 



Quercus, Linnaeus, Gen. 291 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. PI 
ii. 375. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 410. — Endlicher, Gen. 



274. 



Meisner, Gen. 346. — Baillon, Hist. PI. vi. 256. 



Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 407. — Prantl, Engler & 



Pflanzenfc 



Ned 



Endlicher, Gen. 275. — Me 



Synaedrys, Lindley, Introd. Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 441 (1836). 

Meisner, Gen. 346. — Hance, Hooker Jour. Bot. and Kew 

Gard. Misc. i. 175. 
Cyclobalanopsis, Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. 

Kjobenh. 1866, 77 {Bidrag til Egeslcegtens Systematik) 

(1867) ; Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. Nat. Math. ser. 5, is. 



371 {Bidrag til Kundskab om Egefamilien i Nutid og 
Fortid) ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. 19. 

Cyclobalanus, Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjo- 
benh. 1866, 80 (Bidrag til Egeslcegtens Systematik) 
(1867) ; Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. Nat. Math. ser. 5, ix. 
375 {Bidrag til Kundskab om Egefamilien i Nutid og 
Fortid) ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. 20. 

Pasania, Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra Tiat. For. Kjobenh. 
1866j 81 (Bidrag til Egeslcegtens Systematik) (1867) ; 
Vidensk, Selsk. Skrift. Nat. Math, ser, 5, ix. 373 (Bidrag 
til Kundskab om Egefamilien i Nutid og Fortid) ; Lieb- 
mann Chenes Am. Trop. 20- — Prantl, Engler & Prantl 
Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. i. 55. 



Trees or shrubs, with astringent properties, watery juices, stellate pubescence, pale and scaly or 
dark and furrowed bark, hard and close-grained or brittle and porous wood, terete branchlets, buds ^ 
covered by numerous imbricated scales, thick perpendicular tap-roots penetrating deep into the ground, 
stout wide-spreading horizontal roots and few thick rootlets, and in some species long proliferous stolons. 
Leaves simple, alternate, five-ranked, variously folded in the bud, lobed, dentate, spinescent or entire, 
often polymorphous on the same branch, membranaceous or coriaceous, petiolate, penniveined, the 
primary veins prominent and extending to the margins or united within them and connected by more 
or less reticulate veinlets, deciduous in the autumn or persistent imtil spring, or until their third 
or fourth year ; leaf-scars broader than high, shghtly elevated, semiorbicular, more or less obcordate, 
marked with the ends of numerous scattered fibro-vascular bundles. Stipules obovate or lanceolate, 
scarious, caducous or those of the upper leaves sometimes persistent during the winter. Flowers monoe- 
cious, unisexual, or rarely perfect, anemophilous. Staminate flowers (Lepidobalanus) solitary, subtended 
by lanceolate acute caducous bracts, or ebracteate, in graceful pendulous clustered aments from separate 
or leafy buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year or from the axils of the inner scales of the 
terminal bud or from those of leaves of the year ; or (Pasania) in a three to five-flowered cyme in the axfl 



2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupULiFERiE. 



of a persistent bract, the lateral flowers subtended by similar although smaller bracts, in erect unisexual 
or androgynous spikes from the axils of leaves of the year or rarely of the previous year. Calyx 
campanulate, lobed or divided to the base into from four to seven, usually into six, membranaceous 
lobes or segments. Stamens indefinite, generally from four to six or sometimes ten or twelve ; filaments 
inserted on the slightly thickened torus, free, filiform, exserted ; anthers ovate, oblong or rarely sub- 
globose, glabrous or rarely pilose, attached on the back, two-celled, the cells parallel, contiguous, opening 
longitudinally. Ovary obsolete, or (Pasania) rudimentary, minute and pilose. Pistillate flower solitary, 
subtended by a caducous bract, bibracteolate, in short or elongated few-flowered spikes from the axils 
of leaves of the year, or in some species of Pasania scattered at the base of the staminate inflorescence. 
Calyx usually urceolate, the tube adnate to the ovary, with a short campanulate limb, generally six- 
lobed or obscurely dentate. Staminodia minute, usually obsolete (Lepidobalanus), or in some species 
of Pasania developed into abortive stamens inserted on and as many as the lobes of the calyx. Ovary 
inferior, incompletely three or rarely four or five-celled by the development from the bottom, after 
fecundation, of thin partitions, inclosed more or less completely by an accrescent scaly involucre ; 
styles as many as and superposed to the ceUs of the ovary, short or elongated, erect or recurved, 
terete, or dilated or clavate above, stigmatic on the inner face or at the apex only, generally persistent 



on the fruit ; ovules two in each cell^ attached on its inner angle at or above the base^ or suspended 
near the apex^ anatropous or semianatropous ; micropyle superior. Nut or gland maturing in one or in 
two years^ ovoid^ globose^ or turbinate, umbonate at the apex, one-seeded by abortion, surrounded at 
the base or inclosed in the accrescent cupular involucre of the flower, attached by a large conspicuous 
raised or depressed circular umbilicus at the base, or (Lithocarpus) by the sides also. Pericarp crusta- 
ceous or coriaceous, or rarely thick, indurate, granular or bony, indehiscent, of two coats, the inner 
(Lepidobalanus) thin and membranaceous, or thicker and coated on the inner surface with pale 
tomentum. Involucral cup woody, free from the nut except at the base, or adnate to it throughout 
and indehiscent, its scales imbricate, thin or thickened and turbinate or often developed into teeth or 
spines, or united into crenulate or dentate zones. Seed filling the cavity of the nut, marked at the base 
or at the apex, or rarely on the side with the abortive ovules, hypogseous in germination.^ Cotyledons 
thick and fleshy, usually plano-convex and entire, undulate on the back or rarely sinuately lobed, 
or occasionally united into a solid mass ; radicle minute, superior, included within the base of the 
cotyledons ; hilum minute, basal or apical.^ 

Nearly three hundred species of Quercus have been described.^ Inhabitants of the temperate 
regions of the northern hemisphere, they occur also at high altitudes within the tropics, ranging south 
to the mountains of Colombia in the New World and to those of the Indian Archipelago in the Old 
World, where, a few degrees below the equator, they find their most southern home. The genus has 
no representative in central and southern Africa, in South America beyond Colombia, or in the islands 
of the Pacific, in New Guinea, or Australia. The great centres of distribution of Quercus are the 
highlands of Central America and Mexico,^ whence it spreads southward with a few species, and 
northward to British Columbia and the valley of the St. Lawrence River ; and the Indian Archipelago 
and Malaya,^ whence it ranges to the Philippine Islands ^ and through China ^ and Japan ^ to Saghalin ^^ 
and Manchuria,^^ through southern India and along the Himalayas ^^ to western Asia,^^ where many 
species occur, and through the Mediterranean basin ^^ to western and northern Europe, where Quercus 
is less prolific in species than in other equally temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. In North 
America, exclusive of Mexico, fifty species of Quercus are now distinguished.^^ With four exceptions 
they all, under favorable conditions, sometimes assume the habit of trees ; among them are some of 
the largest and most valuable deciduous-leaved timber-trees of the continent ; and in both the eastern 



and extreme western parts of the country Quercus is often the most conspicuous feature of vegeta- 
tion.^^ In eastern America at the extreme northern limits of its range the genus is represented by a 
single species ; the number gradually increases under the influence of a less rigorous climate, and in 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



southern New England ten occui\ They then gradually increase southward in numbers^ and in the 
coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf states nineteen species are found collected together. This 
is the greatest aggregation of species in the United States^ although in the central JNIississippi valley 
Oak-trees are more abundant and grow to a larger size than in any other part of North America. 
Absent from the high, dry, and cold mid-continental plateau, Quercus reappears on the lower slopes of 
the southern Rocky Mountains, which are often covered with vast thickets of Qitercus Gamheltiy a 
species peculiar to the interior of the continent. Farther south this is joined by another species ; and 
on the mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona, six Oak-trees of the Mexican 
forests find their northern home. Extremely rare in the arid region between the Rocky Mountains and 
the Sierra Nevada, where Quercus is represented only by stunted bushes clinging to the upper slopes of 
the mountain ranges, it is often an important element in the forests nourished by the more humid 
atmosphere of the Pacific coast, especially in the valleys of central California. Reaching British 
Columbia and Washington with a single species, the number gradually increases southward, five species 
occurring in southern Oregon and thirteen in California. 

The type is an early one. The ancestors of existing European species inhabited that continent 
during the late cretaceous and tertiary periods, ^^ when Quercus was also widely distributed in North 
America, ranging in the centre of the continent far to the north of its present home, and reaching its 
fullest development during the upper miocene and the eocene epochs. 

Oak-trees, especially the species of Lepidobalanus with annual fructification, produce strong tough 
durable timber.^^ The most valuable timber-trees of the genus are the White Oaks and the Live Oak 
of eastern North America, the European and Asiatic Qitercus Rohur,^^ Quercus Lusitanica^^ of the 



18 




Mediterranean basin, Quercus dilatata " of the northwest Himalayas, Quercus Griffithii ^ of Sikkim and 

Boutan, and Quercus Mongolica'^ of northeastern Asia. The wood of most of the species makes 
excellent fuel, and it is often manufactured into charcoal. The tannic acid ^^ contained in the bark of 
Oak-trees makes that of many species valuable for tanning leather.^^ Among the most useful for this 
purpose are the European Quercus Rohur, Quercus Cerris,'^'^ Quercus Ilex^^ and Quercus Toza^'^ the 
eastern American Quercus velutina and Quercus Prinus, and the western American Quercus densi- 
ora. The large fleshy seeds of some of the species, although slightly astringent, are eaten by man, 
and are often used for fattening hogs. Those most palatable to man are produced by Quercus Ilex, 
var. Bcdlota, of the Iberian peninsula and northern Africa, Quercus ^gilops ^^ of the Orient, Quercus 
Emoryi of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and Quercus Miclumxii of the south- 
eastern United States, although the North American Indians used the acorns of many other species in 
the eastern ^^ and western ^^ parts of the country. Cork is the bark of Quercus Suher ^^ of the western 
countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of Quercus occidentalis,^^ an inhabitant of Portugal, Spain, 
and southwestern France. GaUs caused by the punctures of different insects are produced on the 
branches of most Oak-trees, and are sometimes important articles of commerce.^^ From a parasitic insect 
that inhabits the leaves and branches of Quercus coccifera^^ of the Mediterranean basin kermes, a 
scarlet dye, is obtained. In the United States a decoction of the bark of the young branches of 
Quercus alba is used in external medicinal appHcations and sometimes internally in the treatment of 
hemorrhage or dysentery.^^ The bark of Quercus Rohur is employed in medicine as an astringent,^^ 
and the acorns sometimes supply a tonic and astringent, and a remedy for scrofula.^^ In China and 
Japan coarse silk'^ is made from the cocoons of larvae fed on the leaves of Quercus Mongolica, 
Quercus dentata,^^ Quercus serrata,^ and Quercus Bungeana ; *^ and in India a wild silk-worm ^ feeds 
on the leaves of Quercus incana'^^ of the northwestern Himalaya. From time immemorial Quercus 
Rohur, the symbol of strength and longevity, has been venerated. It is the great ornament of 
European parks,^^ and for centuries European foresters have devoted their highest skill to producing 
the timber of this tree. In the southeastern United States Oaks are largely used to shade city streets 
and country mansions ;^^ and the groves which surround the temples of southern Japan are chiefly 



4 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUrULIFER.E. 



composed of the 



everg-reen 



Qiiercus glauca^^^ Quercus acitta^^^ Quercus glahra^^^ and Quercus cus- 



pu 




r.L 



In the United States Quercus is preyed upon by many insects/^ and is attacked by numerous 



fungal diseases.'" Oak-trees can easily be raised from seeds^ which must not be allowed to become dry 



before they are planted, as they soon lose their vitality.^ Their long stout tap-roots make the operation 
of moving Oak-trees difticidt, and only young specimens can be successfully transplanted.^^ 

Quercus, the classical name of the Oak-tree, was adopted by Linnaeus, who united in it the Quercus^ 
Ilex and Suher of Tournefort.^^ 



^ The biuls in the section Lepidobalanus are clustered at the end apical, or rarely lateral. Leaves lobed, spinescent or entire. By 

of the branches and are somewhat five-angled, covered with nu- Engelmann (Trans, St. Louis Acad. iii. 381) the North American 

merous che.stnut-brown membranaceous slightly accrescent caducous species of Lepidobalanus are grouped in two subsections : Leuco- 

scales keeled on the back, closely imbricated in five ranks, and often balanus, the White Oaks, with sessile or subsessile stigmas, annual 

inclosing minute leaves. They represent morphologically stipules, or rarely biennial maturation of the fruit, basal or rarely lateral 

and in falling mark the base of the branch with their ring-like abortive ovules, and a glabrous or rarely pubescent inner sur- 

scars. On vigorous shoots the terminal and axillary buds are often face of the pericarp ; and Melanobalauus, the Black Oaks, with 

accompanied by minute lateral buds. On Quercus Cerris of south- elongated styles, annual or biennial maturation of the fruit, supe- 

ern Europe and some allied species the buds are surrounded by rior abortive ovules, and a tomentose inner surface of the pericarp, 

linear-lanceolate loosely imbricated or free scales and by the per- To Lepidobalanus belong, with one exception, all the species of 

sistent stipules of the upper leaves ; in Pasania the buds are America, Europe, and western Asia, most of the Himalayan spe- 

covered with fewer erect or spreading foliaceous scales (Henry, cies and those of northern China, Manchuria, and northern Japan, 

Act Nat, Cur. xviii. 531, t. 40 ; xxii. 337, t. 32. — Orsted, Vidensk. or about two thirds of all that are known. 



Medd. fra nat. For. KJobenh. 1866, 26, f. 1 ^Bidrag til Egeslcegtens 
SystematilS] ; Liebmann Climes Am. Trap. 6, f. 1). 



Cyclobalanopsis (Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 408. — G. King, 
L c. 28). Aments of the staminate and pistillate flowers of Lepi- 

Scales of the fruiting involucre united in concentric 



- The radicle is imbedded near the apex of the seed between dobalanus. 

the fleshy cotyledons with the minute plumule or growing point laminse or zones with crenulate or dentate margins ; abortive 

between their petioles toward the middle of the seed, the radicle ovules superior. Leaves usually dentate, rarely lobed or entire. 

in the North American Black Oaks and in a few of the White Oaks Inhabitants of India, Malaya, southern China, and Japan, 



being longer than the petioles of the cotyledons, and shorter in 



Pasania (Miquel, Fl. Ned. hid. Bat. i. pt. i. 848. — A. de Can- 



most of the White Oaks. In germination the petioles of the coty- doUe, L c. 97. - — G. King, I. c. 37 [Androgyne, A. de Candolle, I, c.J), 

ledons with the plumule lengthen, pushing the plumule outside the Sterile spikes erect, simple or panicled from the axils of leaves of 

cracked shell of the nut within which the cotyledons remain ; and the year or of the previous year, the flowers in two to five-flowered 

from between the bases of the petioles the plumule develops into cymes ; stamens usually twice as many as the lobes of the calyx ; 

the ascending axis of the plant, which is covered in its lower nodes ovary rudimentary. Pistillate flowers on short pedunculate sepa- 

with minute scales or rudimentary leaves, and is nourished by the rate axillary spikes or at the base of the staminate spikes ; styles 

food contained in the cotyledons, which rot and disappear toward terete, erect and abbreviated or elongated, stigmatic at the apex 

the end of the first season after the radicle, by absorbing some of only; staminodia or abortive stamens as many as and opposite the 

their nutritious matter, has become swollen and enlarged (Engel- calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in threes, the involucres cup-shaped, 

mann, Trans. St. Louis Acad.iv. 190. — Marshall F. Ward, The Oaky saucer-shaped, or discoid, their bracts imbricate, free or united by 



18, f. 3, 4). 



the bases only ; abortive ovules superior. Leaves entire or spinose. 



3 The species of Quercus have been grouped under the following Inhabitants of India, Malaya, southern China, and Japan, and of 

Pacific North America, where a single species occurs. 

Cyclobalaxus (Endlicher, I. c. 28. — A. de Candolle, L c — G. 



sections : 



Lepidobalanus (Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. iv. pt. ii. 24. 



A. de 



Candolle, Arch. Sci. Phys. et Nat. de Geneve, nouv. p^r. xv. 96. — G. King, /. c. 59 [Gyrolecana, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. i. 299]). 
King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta, ii. 21 \_Lulo' Malayan Species of Inflorescence and flowers of Pasania. Scales of the involucre 
Quercus and Castanopsis'] — [Sec. Robur, Cerroides, Erythrobalanos, united into concentric laminae or zones with crenulate or dentate 



Cerris, Gallifera, Suber, Coccifera, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 148. 



margins ; abortive ovules superior. Leaves entire. Inhabitants 



Sec. Esculus and Ilex, Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 4, vi. 239, 242]). of Malaya and southern China. 



Staminate flowers on slender pendulous clustered aments from 



Chlamydobalanus (Endlicher, I c. 28. — A. de Candolle, I c. 



separate or leafy buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year G. King, L c. 75 [Castaneopsis, Blume, l. v. 288. — Encleisocarpon, 

or from the axils of the inner scales of terminal buds and at the Miquel, A7i7i. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. IIC]). Spikes erect ; flowers and 

base of shoots of the year or from the axils of leaves of the year, leaves of Pasania. Fruiting involucres ovoid or globose, marked 

the flowers solitary in the axils of lanceolate caducous bracts, or externally with concentric zones, or tuberculate with the thickened 

ebracteate ; calyx usually irregularly divided ; stamens from two to points of the scales, closed, or rarely open at the apex only, and 

ten ; anthers glabrous or rarely pilose. Pistillate flowers in abbre- enveloping but not attached to the nut except at the base, dehiscent 

viated or elongated few-flowered spikes from the axils of leaves of at maturity ; abortive ovules superior. Inhabitants of India, Ma- 

the year ; styles from three to five, usually five, abbreviated, short laya, China, and Japan. 

and erect, or long, patulous or recurved. Involucre of the fruit Lithocarpus (]\Iiquel, I c, — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi, pt. ii. 

open at the mouth, covered with imbricated scales free at the apex ; 104. — G. King, I. c. 81). Spikes erect ; staminate flowers, styles 

maturation of the fruit annual or biennial ; abortive ovules basal, and leaves of Pasania. Fruiting involucres large, thick, and woody. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



5 



ovoid or subglobose, concentrically or obliquely zoned, or echinate one recognized hybrid has yet been discovered, although in southern 

by the prominent rigid points of the scales, closed or rarely open California individual plants exist which may have been produced 

at the apex by a circumscissile line, enveloping and more or less by the crossing of Quercus Douglasii with Quercus dumosa. Too 

adnate to the nut, indehiseent ; pericarp thick and bony or granu- little, however, is known of the innumerable forms which plants of 

late ' abortive ovules superior. Inhabitants of Assam and Malaya. these species assume to make possible any conclusions on this sub- 

* A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 2. — Wenzig, Jalirb. BoL ject. American hybrid Oaks appear to be all derived from the 



GarL Berlin, iii. 175 ; iv. 179. 



crossing of species of the s 



section of the genus Lepidobalanus ; 



^ Nde, ^naZ. Cienc. Nat, iii. 276. — Humboldt & Bonpland, P^. and there are no indications that species with annual -maturing 



jEquin 
ii. 6. 



Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuuth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. fruit cross with those whose acorns ripen in the second year (En- 



jEq 



Schlechtendal & Cha- gelmann, Trans* St. Louis Acad. iii. 397). 



misso, Linncea, v. 77. — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 55. — Liebmann, 



In addition to the supposed hybrids of Quercus Cerris which origi- 



Oversigt Dansh. Vidensk. Selsk. ForhandL 1854, 159. — Martens & nated in England among cultivated trees, several hybrids between 

Galeotti, Bull. Acad. Brux. x. 208. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald, closely related species, like Quercus Robur and Quercus Lusitanica 

332. — Orsted, Liebmann Chenes Am, Trop. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol, with deciduous leaves, and between Quercus Ilex and Quercus Suber 

Am. Cent. iii. 166. with persistent leaves, have been noticed in southern Europe, espe- 

^ Blume, Verhand. Batav. Genoot. ix. 203 (Javaansche Eiken) ; cially in Spain and Portugal, where the genus is an important com- 

Bijdr, FL Ned. Ind. 517 ; Mvs, Bot, Lugd, Bat. i. 286. — Blume mercial element of the forest, and in recent years has been carefully 

& Fischer, Fl, Jav. i. 6. — Korthals, Verhand. Nat, Geschied. Bot. studied. (See Brotero^ FL Lusitan. ii. 31, — Saporta, Compt. Rend, 



201. 
106. 



Miquel, FL Ind, Bat, i. pt. i. 844 ; Ann. Mus, Lugd. Bat. i. Ixxxiv. 245. — Barros Gomes, Condifoes Forestaes de Portugal, 60. 
Oudemans, Verhand, Kon, Akad. Amsterdam, xi, 1 (^Anno-^ Laguna, Rev, de Montes, 1881, 477 (C/w Mesto Italiano y Varios 



tationes Criticce in Cupuliferas nonnullas Javanicas), 

■^ Blanco, Fl, Filip, 725 ; ed. 3, iv. pt. ii. 207. — Laguna, Apuntes 

sobre El Roble de la Flora de Filipinas. 

5 Loureiro, FL Cochin, 571,. — Abel, Narrative of a Journey in 



Mestos Espanoles) ; FL Forestal Espanola, i. 272. — Borzf, l. c. 149. 

Coutinho, L c, 104. — Debeaux, Fl, de la Kabylie du Djurdjura, 
333.) 

^® In the deciduous-leaved forests of eastern America, which. 



the Interior of China, 165, 363. — Carruthers, Jour. Linn. Soc. vi. except in the extreme north, are largely composed of different 



31. — Hauce, Ann, Sci. Nat, s^r. 4,xviii. 229 ; Jour, Bot, xii. 240, 



Oak-trees, their numbers are increasing and they are gradually 



Bentham, FL Hongk. 319. — Forbes, Jour, Bot, xxii. 80, — Franchet, usurping the places formerly occupied by other trees. The vitality 



Nouv. Arch, Mus. sdr. 2, v. 272 (PL David, i.). 



of the Oak and its ability to produce year after year shoots from 



^ Thunberg, Fl, Jap, 175. — Siebold & Zuccarini,4&Aanc?.^torf. the stump enable it to survive the effects of fire, which usually 



Munch, iv. 225. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap, i. 445. 



destroys other trees, but only checks and does not kill the Oak. 



1** Fr. Schmidt, Mem, Acad, Sci, St, Petersbourg, xii. No, 2, 171 Its seeds germinating under the shade of the coniferous forest 



(Reisen in Amur-Lande), 



produce plants which, kept alive by a few small leaves and de- 



11 Maximowicz, Mem, Acad. Sci. St, Petersbourg, ix. 241 (Prim, veloping powerful roots, spring up into vigorous growth as soon 



FL Amur.'). 



as the forest that has dwarfed them is cut away, and take posses- 



12 Brandis, Forest Fl, Brit. Ind, 477, — Kurz, Forest FL Brit. sion of the ground to the exclusion of the species that covered it 



Burm, ii. 482. 



Ind 



G. King, Ann. before. The Oak thus replaces the Pine, and continually as the 



Malayan Species of 



Castanopsis), 



forests of eastern America are burnt extends its sway. Forests of 
Oak, too, have recently spread over regions in the basin of the 



18 Koch, Linncea, xxii. 317. — Kotschy, Die Eichen Europa's und Mississippi where prairies existed before the white man checked 



des Orients, — Boissier, Fl, Orient, iv. 1163. 



the Indian fires which year after year had swept them bare of 



1* Webb, Iter Hispan, 10. — Parlatore, Fl, ItaL iv. 175. — Will- trees. The Oak forests of the middle and southern states, although 

komm & Lange, Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 237. — Laguna, Coniferas y increasing in area, are deteriorating, however, in composition, the 

Amentaceas Espanolas, 22 ; Fl. Forestal Espanola, i. 211. — Borzf, White Oaks being gradually overpowered by the less valuable 

Compend. FL Forestale Italiana, 147. — Coutinho, BoL Soc. BroL vi. Black Oaks, whose bitter acorns are left to germinate by the hogs 



47 (Os Quercus de Portugal). 



which pasture in the forest and devour the sweet acorns of the 



15 A number of Oak-trees are known in North America whose White Oaks, 



characters, intermediate between those of recognized species asso- 



1*^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 159. — Zittel, 



ciated with them, make it probable that they are natural hybrids. Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 433, 



The rarity of these trees, which are always found growing with 



1^ Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv, vii, 147 ; viii. 224 (Con- 



individuals of the species from which they are supposed to be trib. Fossil Fl. W. Territories, ii., iii.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. vi. 
derived, the variations in the leaves on one tree and often on one pt. ii. 4 (Fossil Plants of the Auriferous Gravel Deposits of the Sierra 
branch, and their apparent inability to spread in the forest, support Nevada). 



the theory of their hybrid origin. The foliage and fruit of some 



19 Of the eighty or ninety species of Quercus that have been 



of the best known and most remarkable of these trees are figured described in books devoted to the floras of Mexico and tropical 



in this volume. 



number 



known 



in the United States are probably much greater than is generally value, and comparatively little of their specific characters and geo- 

supposed ; and wherever Oak-trees of several species abound, and graphical distribution. Little is known economically, too, of the 

the peculiarities of individual trees are carefully studied, forms noble Oaks of Malaya, or of those of China, where at least thirty 

wliich can only be accounted for by the hypothesis of natural by- species exist. Some of these are large and valuable trees, supply- 

bridizing are found. They appear to be most abundant in the mid- iug timber for construction, and tanning material, or substances 

die and southern Atlantic states and in the valley of the Mississippi employed in the Chinese Materia Medica. (For an early account 

River, although this may be due to the fact that good observers of the Oak-trees of China, see Memoires sur les Chinois, iii. 484.) 
have happened to live in these regions. In the Pacific forests only 



6 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



20 Linn^us, Spec. 996 (1753). — A. de CandoUe, Prorfr. xvi. pt. Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 482. 



ii. 4. 



602. 



Hooker £. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 
^iffn. 23- t. 16. f. 4-7 (Indo- 



'/ 



Quercus RobuVy which once formed large forests in central and 
northern Europe, is generally distributed from the shores of the This is a gregarious subevergreen tree distributed over the north- 

Atlantic Ocean to Asia Minor and the trans-Caucasian provinces western Himalayas from Kumaon to Cashmere, sometimes ascend- 
of western Asia, and from those of the Mediterranean to Scandi- ing to elevations of ten thousand feet above the sea-level, and often 

forming nearly pure forests of considerable extent. The wood is 
dark-colored, hard, heavy, and very durable, and is largely used in 
construction and for agricultural implements and axe-handles. The 



navia and northern Russia. 



(pedunculata and sessiliflord) with 



natural and accidental forms are distinguished. 



Quercus pedunculata (Ehrhart, Beitr, v. 161) {Quercus Rohur pe- leaves are valued as fodder for sheep and goats (Gamble, Man. 



XIX 



Reichenbach, Icon. Indian Timbers^ 383). 



FL German, xii. 8, t. 648. 



rpfi 



t. 12. — Kotschy, Die Eichen Europa's und des Orients, t. 27. — 
Boissier, FL Orient, iv. 1163) is distinguished by its ovoid leaf- 
buds, short petioles, and elongated fruit-stalks. Usually found on 
alluvial plains, it often forms nearly pure forests in the valleys of 
central Europe. 

Quercus sessiliflora (Salisbury, Prodr, 392. — Smith, L c, t. 1345. — 



28 A. de Candolle, L c. 14 (1864). — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat, i. 104. — Hooker f. L c. 602. — G. King, L c. 24, t. 18. 



Mus 



Miquel, L c. — A. de Candolle, L c. 14. 



xui 



361. 



445. _ G. King, 



6> C* ^0> 



Griffith 



Reichenbach, L c. 7, t. 644. — Hartig, L c. t. 11. —Boissier, L c. wood that resembles that of the European Quercus Rohur, and is 
1164. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Bdume und Straucher, t. 22, 23) is more valuable than that of the other Oak-trees of the eastern 
distinguished by its ovoid lanceolate leaf -buds, longer petioles, and Himalayas (Gamble, L c. 381). 



short-stalked or sessile fruit. Widely distributed through Europe ^ Ledebour, FL Ross. iii. pt. i 

and western Asia, this form is usually accompanied by the Beech Baicalensi-Dahurica, ii. pt. i. 136. 



) — Turczaninow, FL 
& Maximo wicz, BulL 



XV. 137 (Mel 



Ruprecht & Maack, BulL Phys. Math. Acad. Set. St. Petersbourg, 



aximowicz 



and the Hornbeam on broken, hilly, or mountainous ground. 

'^1 Lamarck, Diet. i. 719 (1783). — Brotero, FL Lusitan. ii. 33. 

Webb, Iter Hispan. 11. — Boissier, Voyage, ii. 675 ; FL Orient. xv. 373. 

iv. 1166. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. L c. 17. — Willkomm & Lauge, (Prim. FL Amur,). 

Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 240. — Laguna, FL Forestal EspaTiola, i. 235, 130 {Tent. FL Ussur.). — A. de Candolle, /. c. — Fr. Schmidt, Mem. 

t. 32, 33, f. 4, 5. — Coutinho, BoL Soc. Brot. vi. 66 (Os Quercus de Acad. Set. St. Petersbourg, xii. No. 2, 171 (Reisen in Amur-Lande). 



Mem 



Portugal). 



Herder, Act. Hort. Petrop. xi. 365 (PL Radd.) 



ihin 



Quercus Lusitanica is widely distributed in numerous arborescent Hort. Petrop. xii. 388 (PL Amur.). 



and shrubby forms through the countries bordering the Mediter- 
ranean. Of the three subspecies in which the varieties of this 
polymorphous species are grouped by A. de Candolle, the most 

r 

important as a timber-tree is the Algerian Z^en (subspecies Bcetica 



Quercus Robur, Pallas, Fl. Ross.n. 3 (in part) (1788). 

Quercus sessiliflora, Y3iT. Mongolica, Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. 
sdr. 2, V. 273 (PL David, i.) (1884). 
This tree, the eastern Asiatic representative of Quercus Robur, 



a Mirbeckd [^Quercus Mirbeckii, Durieu, Duchartre Rev. Bot. ii. 426 is the common Oak of eastern Siberia, and of Manchuria where 
[1846] — Trabut, iJev. (?en. £o^iv. 1, 1. 1-3]). This noble tree, which it forms vast forests in the valley of the Amour River and in 
sometimes grows to the height of one hundred feet with a trunk three northern China. It is common on Saghalin and in slightly modified 
feet in diameter, is a native of southern Spain, where it is rare and forms (Quercus crispula^ Blume [I. c], and Quercus grosseserrata, 
local, and of Algeria and Tunis, where it grows in the humid littoral Blume [_L c. 296]) constitutes a large proportion of the deciduous- 
region and on the high mountains of the interior, which it ascends leaved forests of Yezo, where it grows to a large size and pro- 
to liigh elevations. Requiring a comparatively moist soil, it selects duces timber of first-rate quality. By Franchet the Mongolian 
deep ravines opening toward the north and rarely appears on south- Oak has been considered a geographical variety of the European 
ern slopes at elevations below twenty-five hundred feet above the Quercus Robur. G. King (l. c.) has suggested its specific identity 



level of the sea, growing often in dense forests with scattered 



Griffith 



Chestnuts, Cork Oaks, and Cedars. The wood of the Algerian White Oaks of Yezo on the other ; and this view, in so far as it 

Z^en, which is one of the largest and most valuable trees of north- concerns Quercus grosseserrata^ is substantiated by the observations 

ern Africa, is heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, and very durable, of Miyabe (Mem. Bost. Soc 
although difficult to season. It is used in construction and for rail- 25 Qerber, Archiv. der I 



Nat 



XXXVUl 



road ties and makes excellent fuel and charcoal, while the bark is rinde) ; ser. 2, xxiv. 167 ( Ueber das Quercin oder den Krystallinischen 



valued for tanning leather, (See Renou, Annates Forestieres, i. 422 Stoff 



Eichenrinde). — Eckert, Vierteljahresschrift 



(Forets de VAlgerie). — Legrand, iVouv. Ann. de la Marine et des Pharm. xiii. 494 (Untersuchung iiber die Bestandtheile der Eichen- 

Colonies, 1854 [ATm. sur les Richesses Forestieres de VAlgerie, 15, rinde). — Wiesner, Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiche, 4S0. — Hohnel, 

49]. — Mathieu, Flore Forestiere, 4d. 2, 250. — Cosson, Annuaire de Die Gerberinden, 59. — Procter, Text Book of Tanning, 38. — Henry, 

la Societe Imperial de V Acclimatation, 1863, 298. — Livet, La Tunisie Ann. ScL Agronomique Frani^aise et Etrangere, i. 358 (Repartition du 
ses Eaux et ses Forets, 23. — Lamey, Forets de la Tunisie, 97.) 



Tanin dans les Diverses Regions du Bois de Chene). — Trimble, The 



Exceedingly umbrageous, the Zden is recommended as an orna- Tannins, ii. 11. 
mental tree for temperate regions with dry climates, and, as it 20 



winter 



2^ In North America no attempts have been made to raise Oak- 
woods for the sake of tan-bark, and trees growing spontaneously in 
gested as a food-plant, in southern Europe, for the Oak-feeding the forests have been relied upon to furnish the oak-bark used in 
silk-worms of eastern Asia, which hatch before the indigenous Oak- the United States in the preparation of leather ; but in France, 
trees develop their leaves (Naudin, Manuel de V Acclimateur , 453). Germany, Austria, and other European countries the production of 
22 A, de Candolle, I. c. 41 (1864). — Royle, III. t. 84, f. 2. — oak-bark from plantations created for the purpose is an important 



CUPULITERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



7 



industry and has been practiced for centuries. The bark is beheved branches, are also cultivated (Loudon, L c. 1847. — A. de Candolle, 
to be most rich in the astringent principle when harvested in May L c. — Dippel, Handb, LaubTiolzk. ii. 95). 



and June, and a warm climate or a southern exposure is considered 



28 Linn^us, L c. 995 (1753). — Brotero, FL Lusiian. ii. 33. 



most favorable to its production. The bark is usually gathered from Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 156, t. 43, 4-1, f. 2. — Watson, L c. ii. 90, 

saplings from twenty to thirty years old, or before they have devel- t. 90. — Reichenbach, L c. 7, t. 642. — Kotschy, L v. t. 38. — A. de 

oped the corky layer of outer bark, which is useless for tanning pur- Candolle, L c. 38. — Parlatore, L c. 197. — Willkomm & Lange, 

poses. In harvesting the bark the trees are cut, the plantations or L c. 243. — Boissier, Z. c. 1167. — Laguna, L c. 252, t. 35, 36. 

coppice woods renewing themselves several times by the vigorous Coutinho, BoL Soc. BroL vi. 94 {Os Quercus de Portugal), — Hooker 

shoots which spring from the stumps of all Oak-trees. (See Per- f. FL BriL Ind. v. 002, — G. King, Ann, Bot. Gard, Calcutta, ii. 24, 

T^ult, De TEcorfage du Chene, de la Production et de la Consommation t. 17 {Indo-Malayan Species of Quercus and Castanopsis'), 



des Ecorces a Tan en France. 



Neubrand, Die Gerhrinde.) 



27 Linnaeus, Spec, 997 (1753). — Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 182, t. 
57. — Watson, Dendr. Brit, ii. 92, t. 92. — Reichenbach, /con. FZ. 
German, xii. 9, t. 650. — Hartig, Forst. Culturpfl. Deutsch, 578, t. 
14. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 41. — Parlatore, i*"/. /^aZ. 
iv. 185. — Boissier, FL Orient, iv. 1170. — Willkomm & Lange, 
Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 241. — Laguna, FL Forestal Espanola, 268. 

Quercus Esculus, Linuseus, Mant, 496 (1771). 

Quercus ^gilops^ Scopoli, Ft. Cam. ed. 2, ii. 241 (not Linnseus) dobalanus, distinguished by rigid coriaceous, entire, or spinose-den- 



Quercus Gramuntia^ Linnseus, Z. c. (1753). — Loudon, l. t,-. 1906, 
f. 1787, 1788. 

Quercus calicina^ Poiret. Lam, Diet, Suppl. ii. 216 (1811). 
Quercus expansa, Poiret, L c, (1811). 

Quercus Baloot, Griffith, Itinerary Notes, ii. 328 (1848). — A.de 
Candolle, I, c, 
Quercus Balout, Boissier, I. c. 1168 (1879). 

* * 

Quercus Ilex is the type of Orsted's (Z. c. 61) section Ilex of Lepi- 



(1772). 



tate, subevergreen leaves, and confined to the Mediterranean basin, 



Quercus crinita, Lamarck, Diet, i. 718 (1783). — Olivier, Voyages^ Asia Minor, Afghanistan, and the northwestern Himalayas, China, 



Atlas, p. vi. 

Quercus Touimefortii, Willdenow, Sp. iv, pt. i. 453 (1805). 



and Japan, Mexico, Central America, juid the southeastern and 
southwestern United States. Quercus Ilex is distributed through 



Quercus Atistriaca, Willdeuowy L c, 454 (1805). — Kotschy, Die the countries bordering the Mediterranean, from Spain and Mo- 



Eichen Europa^s iind des Orients, t. 20. 



roceo to the Syrian coast, and reappears in Afghanistan and on the 



Quercus Cerrls is the type of it peculiar group of Lepidobalanus eastern Himalayas, where it ascends to elevations of from three 

(subgenus Cerris, Orsted, Vidensk. Medd, fra nat. For, Kjohenh, thousand to eight thousand five hundred feet above the sea-level. 

1866, 66) with linear styles subulate at the apex, inferior abortive In some parts of Spain, soutbern France, Corsica, Siberia, and Al- 

ovules, biennial maturation, and mostly persistent leaves, which is geria, great natural forests of the Ilex exist, and in southern France 

chiefly confined to the Mediterranean basin and western Asia, but it is cultivated in coppice to supply tanners with bark. The wood 

also, with a few species, inhabits southern India, China and Japan, is close-grained, hard, and heavy, and dark reddish-brown or nearly 

and tropical America. Quercus Cerris is a tree of rapid growth and black ; it makes excellent fuel and charcoal ; and in India it is 

noble size, abounding in the forests of northern Syria, southern used for plows and other agricultural implements, and for the han- 

Russia, the Turkish peninsula, and the country south of the Black dies of small tools (Brandis, Forest FL Brit, Ind. 481). 



Sea, and ranging westward through southern Europe and north- 



In southern Europe the comestible truffles (^Tuber brumale, Yit- 



ward in Europe to Hungary and the Department of the Doubs tadini, and Tuber melanosporum, Vittadini) are found growing near 

in France. In the countries of southeastern Europe the wood, the roots of the Ilex and of several other Oak-trees, or can be pro- 

which is hard, heavy, and strong, is used in construction and ship- duced in the course of a few years by establishing plantations of it 

building (Mathieu, Flore Forestiere, 4d. 2, 251). The bark is con- in calcareous soil (Bosredon, Manuel du Trufficulteur). 



sidered more valuable than that of Quercus Robur for tanning 
leather. 



From the time of the Romans the Ilex has been valued as an 
ornamental plant, and to the deep shade of its leafy crown many 



Quercus Cerris is esteemed as an ornamental tree in western and gardens of Italy still owe their greatest charm. Introduced into 

central Europe, and is occasionally planted in the gardens of the England in 1581, it is hardy in the neighborhood of London, where 

United States, where it is hardy as far north as eastern Massachu- it ripens its fruit in favorable seasons. Several accidental varie- 

setts. Several accidental varieties or hybrids have appeared among ties have appeared and are sometimes found in cultivation (Loudon, 

cultivated plants. The most interesting of these, the Lucombe Oak, /. c. 1888). 



is supposed to be a hybrid with Quercus Suber. It was raised by a 



Of all acorns, those of a variety of the Ilex are most valued as 



.difolia 



nurseryman of Exeter in England named Lucombe from a seed human food. It is : 
of Quercus Cerris gathered from a tree standing near a specimen of Quercus Ilex, y Ballota, A. de Candolle, I. c, 39 (1864). 

Quercus Suber^ and planted about 1762. The original tree was cut tinho, I, c. 97. 
when about twenty years old and during Mr. Lueombe's lifetime, 
in order, it is said, to furnish material for his coffin ; it had been 
multiplied, however, by grafts, and specimens of this evergreen or 
subevergreen Oak may still be seen in English parks and pleasure- 
grounds (Zephaniah Holwel, PhiL Trans. Ixii. 128. — Evelyn, Silva, 
ed. Hunter, i. 72. — Loudon, Arb. BriL iii. 1851, f. 1712-1714). 
The Fulham Oak {Quercus Cerris denticulata, Watson, I. c. 93, 

t. 93. 



Cou^ 



muntia) (1781). — Brotero, L c, 33. 

Quercus Ballota, Desfontaines, Mem. Acad, ScL Paris, 1790, 394, 

t. 6 ; FL Atlant. ii. 350. 



Webb 



Boissier, 



Voyage, ii. 578. — Loudon, L c. 882, f . 1612, 1613. — Willkomm 



44 



Alge 



Quercus Cerris Fulhamensis, Loudon, L c. 1850, f. 1710, t.), form is common, the acorns are an important article of food for 

a variety of Quercus Cerris, ot perhaps a hybrid with some other the lower classes, who prefer them to chestnuts and eat them roasted 

species, originated in the Fulham Nurseries in Exeter about ^ or boiled (Colmeiro y Boutelou, Examen de las Enemas y demas 

century ago ; it is a large tree with broad, subevergreen coarsely Arboles de la Peninsula que producen Bellotas, 10. — Mathieu, L c. 

dentate leaves. Varieties of Quercus Cerris with pinnatifid or 257). 



sinuate-toothed leaves, with variegated foliage, and with pendulous 



29 



Bosc, Jour. Hist Nat. Paris, ii. 155, t. 22, f. 3 (1792). 



Bois- 



8 



> 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



sier, Voyage, ii. 



OiO, 






Kotschy, Die Eichen Enropa's und des Orients, si u These Akornes also they drie, and in ease of want of Come, 

Willkomm & Lanoe, Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 239. — Hooker f. by much boyling they make a good dish of theui : yea sometimes in 

A. de Caudolle, Prodi\ xvi. pt. ii. plentie of Corne doe they eate these Acornes for a novelty." (Roger 



XXIU 



VI. 



Lagmia, Fl Florestal EspaTwla^ i. 231, t. 31. — Coutiuho, 



of 



BoL Soc, BroL vi. 64 (Os Quercus de Portugal). 



I 901). 



Quercus nigra, Thor^, Chlor.Landes.^Sl (not Linnaeus) (1803). "And out of the white Oak Acorns, (which is the Acorn Bears 



Quercus pubescens, Brotero, FL Liisitan, ii. 31 (1804). 
Quercus Pf/renaica, Willdenow, Spec, iv, pt. i. 451 (1805) 



No 



Quercus Tauzin, Persoon, Syn, ii. 571 (1807). 

Quercus stolonifera, Lapeyrouse, Hist. PL Pyr, 582 (1813). 



delight to feed upon) : The Natives draw an Oyl, taking the rot- 
tenest Maple Wood, which being burnt to ashes, they make a strong 
Lye therewith, wherein they boyl their white Oak- Acorns until the 
Oyl swim on the top in great quantity ; this they fleet ofP, and 
put into bladders to annoint tlieir naked Limbs, which corrobarates 



The Tauzin is a small, deciduous-leaved, bushy, usually contorted them exceedingly ; they eat it likewise with their Meat, it is an ex- 



tree, and is common in southwestern France and the Iberian penin- 
sula and in some parts of Syria. On sandy soil in southwestern 
Europe it forms vigorous coppice-woods and supplies excellent ma- 
terial for tanninof. The wood is hard and stronir, and is esteemed 
as fuel and for charcoal (]\Iatlueu, FL Florestilre^ ^d. 2, 247). 



( Josselyn, New 



XXXI 1 



/ 



(Food and Filre 



jftlie Nor 



33 Liunseus, Spec. I c. 995 (1753). — Brotero, L c. ii. 34. — iV^o 
veau Duhamelf "vai. 159, t. 45. — "Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 89, t. 89. 
30 Linuc-eus, ASpec. 996 (1753). — Olivier, Foz/a^es, Atlas, p. vi. t. Boissier, Voyage, ii. 577. — Reichenbach, Icon. FL German, xii. 7, 
13. — Tchihatchefe, Asie Min. Bot. ii. 470, t. 41, 42.— Boissier, FL t. 641. — A. de Candolle, L c. 40. — Parlatore, FL ItaL iv. 192. 
Oriejit. iv. 1171. Willkomm & Lange, L c. i. 243.— Laguna, L c. 243, t. 34. 



Quercus Itkaburensis, Decaisne, Aim. Sci. Nat. sdr. 2, iv. 348 Coutinho, L c. 82. 
(1835). — Kotschy, L v. t. 12. 



Fl 



Quercus Trojana^ Jaubert & Spach, III. PL Orient, i, t. 57 
(1842). 
Quercus Pry ami, Kotschy, L c. t. 3 (1858). 
Quercus Ungeri, Kotschy, /. c. t. 13 (1858). 
Quercus macrolepis, Kotschy, L v. t. 16 (1858). 



The Cork Oak inhabits southern France, Catalonia, Andalusia, 
and Estremadura in Spain, Portugal, Tuscany, Sardinia, and Sicily, 
the Istrian Peninsula and Greece, forming extensive forests either 
alone or mixed with the Ilex and the Maritime Pine ; it inhabits 
also the coast region of northern Africa from western Morocco to 



Quercus Valloneay A. de Candolle, L c. 45 (not Kotschy) Tunis, where vast Cork Oak forests still exist. While adapting 



(1864). 



itself to the climatic conditions of both plains and mountains, it 



An inhabitant of Syria, Anatolia, and Greece, the Valonia Oak appears to be most vigorous on low hills, and in Europe rarely 
is a gregarious species, growing in Syria as a low tree with a- stout ascends more than two thousand feet above the sea-level, although 
gnarled trunk, and in one of its forms (j3 macrolepis, Boissier, /. c.) on some of the mountain ranges of Algeria the Cork Oak grows 
forming great forests in some parts of Greece, especially on the freely up to elevations of four thousand feet. Although attaining 
lower slopes of Taygetos and in Crete. The wood is hard and its largest size in deep rather moist loam underlaid with granite 
tough, and is valued for fuel. The nuts, which are large and or porphyry, it flourishes in all soils except those composed of lime- 
very variable in shape, are sold in great quantities in the bazaars stone or heavy clay, and reaches good dimensions in sand if its roots 
and are eaten raw or cooked (Hooker f. L c. 384, t. 88). The are able to reach a loose subsoil. It is a long-lived tree, usually 
cups are used for tanning, and are exported under the name of not more than thirty or thirty-five feet in height, with a short trunk, 
valonia from Asia Minor and Greece to Europe and the United sometimes growing, however, to twice this height under exception- 
States. They contam from twenty-five to thirty-five per cent, of ally favorable conditions. The roots are large and penetrate deep 
tannin, and, imparting a light color and greater weight and firm- into the soil, and the vitality of the tree is so great that when it is 
ness to leather than the tannin of oak-bark, they are especially cut, or destroyed by fire, it is able to continue producing shoots 
valued for tanning sole leather. The fruit of the Valonia Oak from the stump to an advanced age. 
is beaten from the branches as soon as it ripens in July and The wood of Quercus Suber is hard, close-ffrained, 



difficult 



August, and is allowed to lie on the ground under the trees for split or work, and rather heavier than that of Quercus Robur ; it is 

some time to dry. It is then collected and sent to centres of ship- sometimes used for rude agricultural implements and the handles 

ment, where it is placed in piles five or six feet deep in well-veuti- of tools, and makes excellent fuel and charcoal. The chief value 

lated storehouses and left to heat for several weeks. During this of the Cork Oak. however, is in the outer layer of the bark, a 

process the nuts separate from the cups and are fed to hogs ; homogeneous spongy, elastic, and compressible mass often several 

and the cups are sorted according to their quality and are then inches in thickness, which can be removed without affecting the 

ready for shipment. Smyrna is the principal market, although health of the tree and continues to renew itself as long as the tree 

large quantities are also exported from different Greek ports remains vigorous. (For accounts of the structure and development 

(Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and of the bark of the Cork Oak, see Dutrochet, Compt. Rend. Acad. 



Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1226, 1992). 



Sci iv. 48. — Mohl, Flora, xx. pt. ii. 673. — C. de Candolle, Mem. 



A saccharine substance which exudes from the punctures of a Soc. Phys. et Hist Nat. Geneve, xvi. 1. — Wiesner, Die Rolistoffi 



coccus in the branches of Quercus Vallonea and of Quercus Persica PJlanzenreiches 



Sanio, PringsJieim^s Jahrb. Bot. ii. 39.) 



(Jaubert & Spach, L c. I t. 55 (1842). — Kotschy, L c. t 28) is Although well known to the Greeks and Romans, who used it to 

gathered by some of the wandering tribes of Kurdistan and used float their nets and for various domestic purposes, cork did not 

to sweeten food. The exudation hardens in small grains, and is become an important article of commerce until the seventeenth 

shaken In early morning from the trees on to sheets spread out on century, when glass bottles came into general use. The system- 

the ground or is obtained by dipping the branches into hot water atic care of forests of Cork Oak, with the regular harvesting of 

and evaporating the solution to the consistency of syrup (Fliickiger their crops of bark, was instituted in northeastern Spain in 1760 

& Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 372). (Artigas y Teixidor, Alcornocales y la Industria Taponera, 23) ; and in 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



9 



Gerona, which saw the beginning of this industry, the best man- Prodr, xvi. pt. ii. 44. — Willkoram & Lano-e, Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 



aged forests of Cork Oak are still to be found. From Spain it 
gradually spread into France and Italy, and much later into Por- 



242. 



Laguna, FL Floresial EspaTiola^ i. 271. 
tree, which is distineTiished bv the hi 



tugal and Algeria, but in recent years Portugal has taken the lead the fruit from Qiiercus SubeVy vdth which it was long confounded, 

in the production of cork, her forests now yielding a larger quan- is an inhabitant of southwestern France, its principal station beino* 

tity than those of all other countries combined. Cork is principally in the Landes of Gascony between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, 

obtained from the natural forests, few artificial plantations having where it is found growing in company with the IMaritime Pine in 

yet been established for this purpose. The management consists sheltered situations on the sandy coast plain ; in Spain it inhabits 

in protecting the forest from fires, which, in Africa especially, have the shores of the Bay of Biscay and Estremadura ; and in Portii- 

destroyed great numbers of Cork-trees, and in dividing it into gal, while often scattered through the forests of Quercus Suber, it 

sections corresponding in number to the number of years required is said to become the prevailing species in the forests of evergreen 
by a tree to produce a crop of bark of marketable thickness, so 

that a regular annual product may be insured by workmg each as freely as Quercus Suber, it is not economically distinguished from 



Oaks in the immediate neighborhood of the coast. Producing cork 



year the trees in one of the sections. 



it ; nor do Portuguese botanists now generally consider it specifi- 



Cork is first removed from trees with trunks six or eight inches cally distinct from that species, which, growing nearly continu- 

in diameter, or from twenty-five to thirty years of age. The first ously and often flowering more than once during the year in the 

crop is called virgin cork, and is of comparatively little value. mild climate of the Atlantic coast region, often produces fruit on 

Subsequently, the operation of harvesting the cork may be repeated branches which appear to belong to the previous but are really of 

once in every ten or twelve years for about a century, or as long as the current year. (See Barros-Gomes, Condigoes Floresiaes de For- 

the tree retains its vigor. It can be most easily removed in early tugal, 50. — Coutinho, BoL Soc. Brot. vi. 88 (Os Quercus de Portu- 

summer during the most active period of growth. Sometimes the g<^l)* — Faxon, Garden and Forest, viii. 52.) 

cork is taken from the whole trunk at once, and sometimes in two Quercus occidentalis was planted as an ornamental tree by Ber- 

or three annual sections. In either case, rings are cut with a nard de Jussieu in the park of the Petit Trianon at Versailles in 

hatchet through the outer layer of bark at the top and the bot- 1756, and, being hardier than Quercus Suber, it is now more often 

torn of the portion to be removed, and are connected by a horizon- seen in the gardens and parks of western France (Mathieu, L c, 

tal incision or by two or three incisions if the trunk is so large that 264. — Lamey, Le Chene-LTege, sa Culture et son Exploitation, 7). 



the cork cannot be removed in a single piece. Beginning at the 



^^ The Oak-galls, or nut-galls of commerce, are produced by 



upper ring, the workman then gradually loosens the corky layer Cynips Gallce tinctorice, Olivier, on the branches of a variety of 

with the flattened, slightly curved handle of his hatchet, and sepa- Quercus Lusitanica. This is : — 

rates it from the inner layer of bark. This is the phellogen, or 

cork cambium, called mother cork, and upon its integrity depends 

all the future value of the Cork-tree ; the operation, therefore, of 

removing the cork should be intrusted to careful and experienced 

men, as a cut through the living tissue or a bruise made in it with 

the handle of the hatchet might injure the life of the tree or make 

a wound which would prevent the development of another crop of 

bark. 



Quercus Lusitanica, a infectoria, A. de CandoUe, L c. 18 (1864). 
Quercus infectoria, Olivier, Voyages, i. 253, t. 14, 15 (1801). 

Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 162, t. 49, f. 1. — Hayne, Arzn, xii. t. 45. 

Carson, Med. Bot, ii. 40, t. 85. — Hooker f. Trans. Linn. Soc. 

xxiii. 383 (excl. syn.). 
Quercus Lusitanica, a genuina, Boissier, Fl. Orient, iv. 1167 (1879). 

It is a small bushy tree or shrub distributed from the Island of 
Cyprus to the western borders of Persia, and very abundant on the 
The inner or mother bark of the Cork Oak is rich in tannin, and mountain-slopes of Syria and Asia Minor. The female insect punc- 
as it can only be obtained by destroying the tree, whole forests of tures the young and tender shoots of the tree with her ovipositor 
Cork Oaks have been sacrificed during the last fifty years in Italy and deposits her eggs. This produces an abnormal affluence of 
and Algeria to supply the demand for tanning material. the juices of the plant to the shoot and the growth of an excres- 

Introduced several years ago into California, the Cork Oak flour- cence or gall, which attains its full size at the end of five or six 
ishes in the southern part of the state and may in time become an months, when the larvse are hatched and, transformed into winged 
important factor in its commercial prosperity, as it may in British insects, bore an exit from the gall. The best galls are those which 
India, where it has also been successfully introduced. (For accounts are gathered while the insect is in the larval state ; these are dark 
of the Cork Oak, its cultivation, products, etc., see Duchesne, Guide olive-green, although after the escape of the insect they lose their 
de la Culture des Bois, 171, t. — Jaubert de Passa, Annales Fores- color and become light yellow-green. Commercially, the galls in 
tieres, i. 175. — Eymard, Annales Forestieres, iii. 245 (De la Culture these conditions are distinguished as blue or green, and as white. 
du Chene-Liege). — Lambert, Exploitation des Forets de Chene-Liege Aleppo, which has given its name to the oak-galls of commerce, 
et des Bois d' Olivier en Algerie. — Mathieu, Flore Forestiere, dd. 2, was once the chief centre of their collection and exportation; but 
257. — Balaguer y Primo, Industria Corchera. — Artigas y Teixidor, in recent years the Aleppo product has greatly decreased in impor- 
El Alcornoque y la Industria Taponera. — Hope, Essai sur VEx- tauce, and oak-galls are now mostly gathered on the Syrian coast 
ploitation du Chene-Liege en Algerie. — Lamey, Le Chene-Liege en and in Melelem, Cassaba, and Magnesia. They are also collected on 
Algerie; Notice sur les Forets de la Tunisie, 93 ; Le Chene-Liege, sa the Kurdistan Mountains, and are exported in considerable quanti- 
Culture et son Exploitation. — J) a^Yid, Le Chene-Liege, sa Culture et ties from Bussora, Bagdad, and Bashire. Oak-galls, which contain 
sa Maladie dans le Var. — Jordana y Morera, Notas sobre los Al- from sixty to seventy per cent, of tannic or gallotannic acid, were 
cornocales, la Industria Corchera de la Argelia. — De laGrye, Revue known to the Greeks and Romans, and for tanning and dyeing and 

des Eaux et Forets^ xxiv. 549. — Cap grand-Mo the s, Revue des Eaux 

et FOretSy xxv. 80. — Gaffigny, Le Liege et ses Applications. — Sonsa ployed in medicine, they are no longer used in this manner except 

Pimeutel, Pinhaes, Soutos e Montados. — Combe, Region du Chene- 
Liege en Europe et dans VA/rique Septentrionale ; Les Forets de V Al- 536. — Guibourt, Hist. Drog, ed. 7, ii. 289, f. 429, 430. 



the making of ink have been used from ancient times. Once em- 



rmacogra 



Spons, 



/ • 



gene 




of the Nineteenth 



of the Industrial Arts, Manufacture 



Nat 



A. de CandoUe, mercial Products, ii. 1983. — i/. S. Dispens. ed. 10, 717). 



10 



SILVA OF NOnTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFEE^. 



•G Liimseus, Spec. 995 (1733). — Brotero, FL Lushan. ii. 32. 
Nouvean Duhamel, vii. IGO, t. 46. — Webb, /^er Hispan. 15. 



— feet and forms trunks three feet in diameter ; farther south in 
A. Japan it is rare, and is found only on high mountain-slopes. The 



de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 52. — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. bark of Quercus dentata is used in Japan for tanning leather and in 



FL Hlspan. I li45. — Laguna, FL Forestal Espanola, i. 263, t. 37. 
Coutinho, BoL Soc. BroL vi. 100 {Os Quercus de Portugal). 



the preparation of a black dye. The wood, which is coarse-grained, 
porous, and brittle, is considered worthless except for fuel. As an 



This very variable bushy tree is distributed from Portugal and ornamental tree it is occasionally cultivated in Japan, where it is 

Morocco to Syria and Asia ]\Iinor. The most interesting, perhaps, the only deciduous-leaved Oak-tree seen in gardens. Quercus den- 

of its numerous varieties that have been described is : — tata was introduced several years ago into the gardens of Europe, 

Quercus cocci/era, C Palestinay Boissier, Fl. Orient iv. 1170 and into those of the United States, where it grows rapidly, being 

hardy as far north as eastern Massacliusetts. A variety of this 
species, with deeply pinnatifid leaves, is also occasionally cultivated 

by the Japanese (Sargent, Forest Flora of Japan^ 67, t. -^>). 

c. 176 (1784). — Blume, L c. 290. — Miquel, 



(1879). 



Die 



^- Thunberg, L 



L c. 105. — A. de Candolle, ^ c. 50. — Franchet & Savatier, Z. c. 



447. 



Franchet, I. t-. 275. 



eni^, t. 19 (1858). 

Quercus Calliprinos, A arcuala, A. de Candolle, /. c. 56 (1864). 
Quercus pseudo-coccifera, Hooker f. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 381, 

t. 36, 37 (excl. syn.) (not Desfontaines) (1861). 

This is the most abundant tree of Syria, covering the rocky hills This small tree, with leaves hardly distinguishable from those of 

of Palestine with u, shrubby growth and occasionally growing to a the Chestnut-tree, is very common on the coast and lower foothills 
large size ; and to this variety belongs the famous Oak of Mamre, of central Hondo, where it springs up on rough uncultivated land, 
known as David's Oak, which is popularly supposed to mark the and is planted in some of the silk districts of Japan to supply food 
spot where grew the Oak or Lentisk-tree under which the patriarch for the oak-feeding silk-worms. The wood is used in large quan- 
pitched his tent, and which is revered by Jews, Mohammedans, and titles for charcoal, and from the bark a black dye is made. Quercus 
Christians (^Garden and Forest^ ii. 602, f. 153. — Kew Bull, Mis- serrata is said to be common in southern Manchuria, Corea, and 



cellaneous Information, vi. 226). 



several of the Chinese provinces, and is probably one of the Chi- 



The Oak kermes is produced in the countries of southern Europe nese silk-worm Oaks. It occurs also in India, on the Shan and 
and northern Africa, and is obtained by removing by hand from Kasia hills, and in Natal and Sikkim, in a form with broader 
the leaves and twigs just before the hatching time in May and stipules and ovate-lanceolate cup-scales, distinguished as : 



June the excrescences caused by the deposit of the eggs of the in- 
sect (Coccws/Zzm, Linnseus). The kermes as soon as gathered are 
subjected to the fumes of heated vinegar, which destroy the fecun- Quercus and Castanopsis)^ 22, t. 16. 



Quercus serraia, IB Roxburghii, A. de Candolle, L c. 51 (1864). 
G. King, Ann. BoL Gard. Calcutta, ii. (Indo-Malayan Species of 



Quercus serrata, Brandis, Forest FL Brit. Lid. 486 (1874). 
Hooker f. FL Brit. Lid. v. 601. 
48 Forbes, Jour. Bot xxii, 83 (1884). — Franchet, L c. 275. 

Quercus CJiinensis, Bunge, l. c. 135 (not E. Brown) (1835). 
A. de Candolle, L v. 50. 

Quercus serrata, a Chinensis, Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ 
iv. 221 (1886). 

This is a common tree on the mountains of northeastern China. 
The leaves resemble those of the Chestnut-tree, and are not easily 
distinguished from those of Quercus serrata, and Dr. Bretschneider 
(Z. c. 4) believes that this was the Chestnut-leaved Oak of Incar- 
A. Richard, Z. 0. iii. 157. — Endlicher,7l/e(i.P/Z. 113. — Wood- ville {I. c. 181), which afforded food to the wild silk-worm. In 
ville, Med. BoL ii. 344, t. 126. — FlUckiger & Hanbury, Pharma- China a black dye is made from the cups. Quercus Bungeana was 
cograpMa, 534. — Baillon, Traite Bot. Med. 1006. 



dity of the eggs and turn them to a dull red color. Although now 
replaced by other coloring materials in the United States and Eng- 
land, the kermes of the Oak are still largely employed in southern 
Europe and in Algeria in dyeing leather and woolens. In Italy they 
are used in coloring liquids, and in France in various cosmetics and 
pharmaceutical preparations (A. Richard, Hist. Nat. Med. i. 318. — 
G. Planchon, Le Kermes du Ckene aux Points de Vue Zoologique, 
Commercial lV Pharmaceutique. — Spons, Encyclopcedia of the Indus- 
trial Arts, Mamfactures, and Raw Commercial Products, i. 861). 

2^ Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 138. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 585.— 
Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. A. 249.— U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1260. 

S8 



^9 U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1261. 

^^ Incarville, Memoires Concernant les Chinois, ii. 588, — Ber- 
trand, Annales Forestieres, ii. 644. — Meadows, Commercial Report 
on the Consular District of Netc-chwang (^Commercial Reports from Her 



introduced by Dr. Bretschneider into the Arnold Arboretum in 
1882, and has proved a vigorous and hardy tree in the climate of 
eastern Massachusetts. 



xxvu 



of India 



Majesty's Consuls in China and Japan, 1865, 257), — McCartee, ^^ Roxburgh, F^. /nc?, ed. 2, iii. 642 (1832). A. de Candolle 



North China Branch AsiaL Soc. n. ser. iii. 75. — Hance, Jour. Linn. L c. 51. — Miquel, I. c. 111. — Hooker f. L c. 603. 
Soc. X, 482 ; xili. 7. — Bretschneider, On Chinese Silk-worm Trees, 26, t. 20. 
3. — Rein, Industries of Japan, 205. 

41 Thunberg, FL Jap. 177 (1784). — Blume, Mm. Bot. Lugd. 



G. King, /. c- 



Wen 



Bat i. 297. 



This is it small, deciduous-leaved, gregarious tree, common on. 
Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 105. — A. de Can- the outer ranges of the Himalayas, where it is distributed from 

Franchet the Indus to Nepaul, and in the Shan States of upper Burmah, 



dolle, L c. 13. — Hance, Anii. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, v. 243. 

Franchet, Nouv 
s4v. 2, V. 272 (PL David, i.). 



445 



Jircn. Mus. ilie wood, which is hard and heavy, is used in construction, for 

agricultural implements, and for charcoal. The bark is used iu 
Quercus obovata, Bunge, Mem. Sav. ^tr. SL Petershourg, ii. 136 tanning, and the leaves and young branches are fed to sheep and 
(Enum. PL China-Bor.) (1835). — A. de Candolle, L c. 13. goats. The nuts are devoured by many animals, and are em- 

Quercus pinna fifida, Franchet & Savatier, L c. (1875). 
This species, which is common on the hills in the neighborhood 



ployed in native medicine as a diuretic and in the treatment of 



(Brandis, Forest Fl, 



Man 



of Peking and on the borders of Mongolia, is very abundant in Indian Timbers, 384). 



southern Yezo and northern Hondo, where, on gravelly plains little 



46 



above the level of the ocean, it often grows to the height of eighty Arb. Brit. iii. 1731, 



Evelyn, Sylva, 15. — Strutt, Sylva Britannica. — Loudon^ 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



47 



Nearly two liundred years have passed since American Oaks A large number of the insects found on Quercus also feed upon 



were first introduced into European plantations, and during the last other trees, although many of them are 



iphago 



century efforts have been made at different times to cultivate them entirely on the plants of this genus, and beino* either peculiar to a 

r 

on a large scale in various European countries, but the results of single species or to a group of closely allied species. 



these experiments cannot be considered satisfactory or encouraging. 



Besides affording support to some gall-making insects, the roots 



Large and flourishing specimens of Quercus rubra, generally called of Oak-trees in the southern states are often infested by the 

Quercus coccinea, and oi Queixus palustr is ^ csin he ionnd in some of boring larvse of a large beetle, Mallodon melanopus, Linnseus. 

the old collections of France and Germany ; but, so far as I have Quercus Virginiana seems particularly affected by this insect, the 

been able to observe, these are the only American species which large grubs causing the young trees to become stunted and scrubby, 

grow to a large size in Europe ; and I have never seen in any of great root-masses being often produced without a corresponding 

the countries of Europe that I have visited a vigorous or healthy development of trunk, and trees over large areas being thus 

American White Oak, either large or small, although large speci- dwarfed and rendered valueless. The larvse of the large Prionus 

mens of Quercus alba and Quercus macrocarpa are said to grow in the laticollis, Drury, in the northern states are believed to live in the 



Botanic Garden of Turin (Garden and Forest, ii. 508). 



roots of Oaks as well as in those of other trees. A large propor- 



^s Thunberg, Fl, Jap. 175 (1784). — Blume, Mus. BoL Lugd, tion of the borers found in the trunks of Oaks only attack them 
jBa^i. 302. — M^iqael, Ann, Mus, Lugd. Bat A, 115* — A. de CandoUe, after the trees are injured or dead, or have been felled and the 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 100. — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. timber has begun to dry. Among the insects affecting the living 



448. 



Hance, Jour. Bot, xiii. 363. — Forbes, Jour. Bot. xxii. 84. 



trunks, the larva of a large Cossid moth, Prionoxystus Rohinice, 



The nuts of Quercus glauca are eaten by the Japanese, and are of Peck, is considered one of the most destructive. It makes cir- 



considerable comestible and commercial importance. 

49 Thunberg, L c. 175 (1784). —Blume, L c. 299. — Miquel, 



cular holes about half an inch in diameter, which sometimes extend 
to the heart of the tree (Fitch, Fifth Rep. Insects of New Yorky 4); 



I. c. 115. — A. de Candolle, L c. 91. — Franchet & Savatier, 484. and Oak-trunks are also affected by the larvse of other moths of 



Quercus marginata, Blume, L c. 304 (1855). — Miquel, L c. 
A. de Candolle, L c. 106. 

Quercus Buergerii^ Blume, L c. 299 (1850). — Miquel, L c. 
A. de Candolle, L c. 
e^ Thunberg, I c. (1784). — Siebold & Zuccarini, FL Jap. i. 170, 



the same group. Cossus Querciperda, Fitch, Cossus reticulatus, 
Lintner, and Cossida magnifca, Bailey, occur in various parts of 
the country, the last two being particularly noticeable through 
their injuries to Quercus Virginiana in some of the southern states. 
Quercus alba and other species are believed to be among the 



t. 89. 



Blume, L c. 289. — Miquel, L c. 106. — A. de Candolle, original food-plants of the Flat-headed Borer, Chrysobothris femo- 



L c. 82. — Franchet & Savatier, L c. 447. 



rata, Fabricius, now so injurious to Apple and other fruit-trees, 



103. 



51 Thunberg, L c. 176 (1784). — Siebold & Zuccarini, L c. 8,t. 2. and the Oak is still a favorite food-plant of this insect. Other 
Blume, L c. 288. —Miquel, L c. 117. — A. de Candolle, L c. species of Chrysobothris affect the Oaks, apparently most often 

after the trees have been injured or the wood has begun to dry. 



Franchet & Savatier, L c. 449. 



Quercus cuspidata is the most widely distributed evergreen Oak Eupsalis minuta, Drury, bores into the solid wood, and Liopus 

of Japan, often forming extensive forests in southern Hondo, where Querci, Fitch, is also said to infest these trees. Species of many 

it ranges farther north than other species with persistent foliage ; other genera of beetles attack their wood, but in nearly all cases 

and is more frequently planted by the Japanese as an ornamental after the tree is dead or has begun to decay, among the most 

tree than any other Oak. Always a beautiful object, with its common being species of Phymatodes, Xylotreehus, Graphisurus, 

abundant lustrous dark green foliage, it is most lovely in early Goes, Xyleborus, and Pityophthorus. In its beetle state Pityoph- 

white and bright red young shoots thorus pubipennis, Leconte, has been reported as sometimes very 

and leaves. Its nuts are edible when cooked, and are sold in the abundant on newly felled trees in the Pacific forests, while in the 



with 



Japanese markets. 



east Pityophthorus Querciperda, Schwarz, bores through and under 



The most valuable edible mushroom of Japan takes its name, the bark of dead Oak-trees. 



Shii-take, from the Japanese name of this tree, upon the dead and 



Oaks are often much damaged by the Oak-pruner, Elaphidion 



rotten stumps and roots of which it grows, as well as upon those villosum, Fabricius, a beetle which lays its eggs on the young twigs, 

of some other Oaks. The artificial production of the Shii-take and whose larvse, after boring into the branches, cut them off, 

upon pieces of the bark of Quercus cuspidata is an important causing them to fall in large quantities to the ground (J. B. Smith, 

Industry in several provinces, great quantities of this agaricus Garden and Jbmf, v. f . 94, 95); and the Seventeen-year Cicada, 

being consimied in soup in Japan, and exported to China. (See Cicada septendecim, Linn^us, sometimes causes much injury to 

Robertson, Commercial Reports by Her Majesty's Consuls in Japan, Oak branches by the incisions made in depositing its eggs. A 



1875, 52.) 



species of woolly aphis, Eriosoma Querci, Fitch, is occasionally abun- 



52 Quercus in its different species is known to afford support to dant on the branches of Oak-trees, and among scale-insects several 
a much larger number of insects than any other genus of trees species of Chermes, Chionaspis Quercus, Comstock, Rhizococcus 
whose insect enemies have been studied. Five hundred and thirty- Quercus, Comstock, Lecanium Quercitronis, Fitch, Lecanium Quer- 



seven species are reported as occurring on the Oaks of central cift 



Europe (Kaltenbach, Die Pflanzenfeinde aus der Klasse der Insecten, 



The majority of insect species affecting the Oak prey, however, 



1874, 643) ; and Packard enumerates about four hundred and fifty upon its foliage, but their number is too great for specific enumera- 
identified species as living upon Oak-trees in North America, 



Web 



Oak 



exclusive of those found in their decayed wood (Fifth Rep. U. S. tive, and Clisiocampa disstria, Hiibner, and Hyphaniria cunea, Drury, 

Entomolog. Comm. 1890, 48). Between one hundred and two hun- are especially noticeable in the east, while Clisiocampa Californica, 

dred species have been noted but not identified or recorded, and Packard, and Clisiocampa constricta, Stretch, sometimes strip 

further studies of the insects infesting Oaks in the southern and trees of their foliage in the Pacific forests. In California the 

western parts of the continent will, no doubt, greatly lengthen this larvre of Phryganidia Californica, Packard, are frequently very 

2jg^ injurious to Oaks, upon which they are said to feed almost exclu- 



12 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



sively. The orange and yellow colored caterpillars of Anisota no scars being left on the acorns, and in the autumn the larvae 



pelludda 



emerge. 



Ilubner, often denude whole trees, the first two being northern ^^ The number of parasitic fungi known to affect Oak-trees in 

the United States exceeds that accredited to the trees of any other 



and the last southern in range. The prickly stinging caterpillars 



of Hemileuca Maia, Drury, as well as various species of Datana American genus, several hundred species being recorded, chieriy 

and of Orgyia, or Tussock Moths, commonly feed on Oaks over a as infesting Quercns alba, Qiiercus velutina, Qiiercus coccinea, and 

large portion of the continent. Qiiercus rubra. It is not probable, however, that these species are 

LocJimceus maiiteo, Doubleday, has been reported as quite inju- more liable to the attacks of fungal diseases than other American 

rious in several localities. The larvse of a number of species of Oak-trees, and the great number known to afflict them can prob- 

Bombycidse, including several silk-worm moths, like Telea Poly- ably be accounted for by the fact that they are exceedingly abun- 

phemusy HUbner, are common on Oaks. Noctuidse are also abun- dant in those parts of the country where fungi have been most 



dant upon them, and of tliis group many species of the genus carefidly studied. Nearly fifty species of fungi are parasitic on. 



Quercus agrifolia, and many species are found on Quercus Marilan- 
dica and Quercus Virginiana. Only a single fungal parasite is 
known thus far on Quercus Californica and Quercus Wisltzeni, but 



Catocala make them their food-plant, being, however, rarely very 
troublesome. 

Various Leaf-rollers are common on Oak-trees, among them 
being Toririx quercifoliana^ Fitch, and other allied species, and the fungal diseases of California Oaks have not as yet been care- 

d. 

Notwithstanding the large number of parasites on North Amer- 

peculiar to itself. Cryptolechia quercicella, Clemens, and Crypto- ican Oaks which are known to systematic botanists, scarcely any- 
lechia Schlagenella, Zeller, live between the surfaces of leaves thing has been done in studying the special diseases which they 
which they draw and fasten together by silken threads. 



species of Caccecia, Cenopis, Gelechia, and other genera, each roll- fully exi 
ing or folding the leaves or parts of the leaves in the manner 



cause. 



Whe 



Forty or fifty species of Leaf-miners belonging to the family of European scientific foresters, it will, no doubt, be found that 

Tineidse, and principally to the genera LithocoUetis, Tischeria, many of the fungi now recognized produce serious diseases in our 

and Nepticula, have been described as harbored by American Oaks. Many of the species of Polyporus and its allies, which are 

Oaks. Their small larvse cause blotches or slender mines or tun- known to cause rotting of Oak wood in Europe, are common in the 

nels of various forms, and mostly live within and feed upon the United States, and probably do the same damage here. Dcedalea 

parenchyma of the leaves, the epidermal surfaces being left intact quercinOy Persoon, appears to be less common here than in Europe, 

except at the points of ingress or egress. Larvse of Selandria although it is found not infrequently. But one fungal disease of 

Quercus-alba, Norton, and other Saw-flies, sometimes injure the Quercus has attracted much attention in the United States, and 

leaves of Oak-trees ; various species of aphids are common upon this only in recent years. It is n leaf disease caused by Gloeo- 

them, and Red Mites, Tetranychus telariusy Linuseus, in dry seasons sporium CanadensCy Ellis & Everhart, which most frequently attacks 



sometimes cause them to turn gray. 



Quercus alba, although it is probably not distinct from a similar 



Many forms of galls on leaves and twigs, and also on flowers, disease of Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra, and other species. It 

fruits, and roots, are well known where Oaks abound. Some are appears in late spring and early summer as soon as the leaves 

characteristic of and peculiar to certain single species of the genus, have grown to their full size, and is characterized by the presence 

while others occur on several allied species. These galls are of brown patches near their tips and margins. These dead por- 

mostly produced by insects of the Hymenopterous family, Cyni- tions gradually increase in size, and the diseased leaves curl and 

pidse, about one hundred and fifty species of which have been shrivel. When the attack is serious, a large part of the foliage 

described as occurring on the various Oaks of North America, of the tree is affected ; but, as a rule, only certain leaves are 

although a few are recorded as the work of the Dipterous family, attacked, and when they at last fall off there is at least an attempt 

Cecidomyidse, and of Mites. The large round Oak-apple, Amphi- on the part of the tree to produce a new crop in their place. 



bolips spongifica, Osten-Sacken, common on Quercus velutina, is one 



fungus as seen externally consists of small dots, hardly 



of the most conspicuous of Cynipidous galls. Many American Oak- visible to the naked eye, which are scattered irregularly over the 

galls are rich in tannic and gallic acids, but have rarely been used surface of the leaves, and scarcely differ in color from the parts 

as a substitute for the officinal Oak-galls of southeastern Europe already dead. The disease has attracted attention principally in 

and Asia Minor. The full life-histories of most of our species of the northern and eastern states, where Oaks are grown for shade 

gall-making Cynipidse are still unknown, and it is probable that and ornament, and where the injured foliage is, therefore espe- 

future studies of them will reduce the list of so-called species, as cially noticeable. It occurs, however, even more frequently on 

it has been shown that the alternating generations of some species trees growing in the forest. 



different 



young 



have even been regarded as members of distinct genera, (See trees, and especially to Quercus rubra, although by no means 

* • 

Adler, Zeit, filr Wissen. ZooL xxxv. 151, t, 10-12 \_Uber den Gene- limited to this species, is caused b 

rationswechsel der Eichen-Gallwespen'].) It attacks the smaller branches, bre 



' Nummularia 
.king throup-h 



In all parts of the country the fruit of different species of in elongated cone-like black patches several inches or even one or 

Quercus is often seriously infested by weevils of various species of two feet in length, but usually not more than two inches in 

the genus Balaninus. Balaninus nasicvs, Say, seems to prefer the breadth. Its development is slow, the patches, which hardly rise 

species with annual maturation, while Balaninus Quercus, Horn, above the general surface of the bark, remaining on it for months, 

has only been observed on biennial-fruited species, which Balani- and then finally crumbling away, leaving the smaller branches 

nus uniformis, Leconte, also appears to prefer. (See J. Hamil- quite dead and marking the larger ones with unsightly wounds, 

ton, Canadian Entomologist, xxii. 1.) The work of these weevils This parasite belongs to the Pyrenomycetes, an order including a> 

often destroys a large part of the fruit of Oak-trees, that of large number of fungi which grow on Oaks, some of them, like Num- 

Quercus rubra being particularly liable to their attacks. Their wiwtor«a;?wnc^wZa^a, Saccardo, and ^n^Ao5foma airojownc^a^a, Saccardo, 

eggs are deposited by the beetles in the ovaries of the flowers, producing diseases similar to that caused by Nummularia Clypeus. 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



13 



Another fungus, Taphrina ccerulescensy Tulasne, is common on the 



ifolia 



laurifolia 



Venttcria Orblcula, Cooke & Peck, forms numerous small hlack 
spots arranged in circles on Oak leaves. Coccomyces triangularis, 
Saccardo, which is common on Quercus alba, is easily recognized 
on other species, ranging as it does from New England to the by its habit of rupturing the bark in triangular spots. Polyporus 
Gulf states and to California. It forms grayish or bluish gray graveolens, Fries, one of the large punk-fungi, is found on Quer- 

cus nigra and Quercus Catesbcei in the southern states ; and the 
perceptible distortion, and is most abundant in early summer. beefsteak fungus, Fisiulina Hepatica, Fries, one of the best edible 
Botanically it is nearly related to the fungus which causes the curl fungi, grows on the trunks of Oaks and Chestnut-trees. 



without 



of Peach-leaves. 

From the attacks of Rust-fungi American Oaks appear to be 



54 Cobbett, Woodlands, No. 422. 

55 Among the North American species of Quercus the White 



nearly exempt, although Uredo Quercus, Brondeau, of southern Oaks are much more difficult to transplant than the Black Oaks or 
Europe, occurs also to some extent in our southern states on the biennial-fruited species, and only small seedlings can be safely 



leaves of Quercus Phellos and Quercus Virginiana. 



removed. Black Oaks of comparatively large size can, however. 



The mildews which infest Oak-trees, apart from the ubiquitous be transplanted without much danger or trouble, and plauts ten 

Phyllactinia, belong to the genus Microsphsera, Microsphcera quer- to fifteen feet high are often taken from the woods and success- 

cina, Burrill, being abundant and widely distributed in the region fully set in the streets of the cities of the southern states, 
east of the Mississippi River on several species of Quercus. A mil- 



es Inst. 682-^84, t. 349, 350. 



lanestris 



ifolia 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Lepidobalanus. Aments of the staminate flowers pendulous ; stigmas dilated, 

Leucobalanus. Abortive ovules basal or rarely lateral ; stamens usually from 6 to 8 ; stigmas 
sessile or subsessile ; nut glabrous or rarely pubescent on the inner surface. White Oaks. 
Maturation annual ; nut glabrous on the inner surface (except No. 26) ; abortive ovules - 
basal. 

Leaves falling in the autumn (except No. 13). 
Yellow-green. 

Lyrate or sinuate-pinnatifid. 

Obovate-oblong, obliquely 3 to 9-lobed or pinnatifid, pale and glabrous 

below 1- Q- ALBA. 

Oblong or obovate, deeply lobed, usually stellate-pubescent on the upper 

surface, pale and pubescent on the lower 2. Q. lobata. 

Oblong, acutely lobed, stellate-pubescent on the upper surface .... 3. Q. Brewert. 

Obovate or oblong, coarsely pinnatifid-lobed 4. Q. Gauryana. 

Obovate or oblong-lanceolate, lobed or pinnatifid, pubescent on the lower 

surface 5. Q. Gambelii. 

Oblong-obovate, usually 5-lobed, pubescent on the lower surface, roughened 

with stellate hairs on the upper 6. Q. minor. 

Oblong or oblong-obovate, entire or slightly sinuate-lobed toward the apex 7. Q. Chapkani. 
Obovate or oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply sinuate-lobed or divided, 

usually pale and pubescent on the lower surface 8. Q. macrocarpa. 

Obovate-oblong, deeply 5 to 9-lobed or pinnatifid, pubescent and usually 

silvery white on the lower surface 9. Q. ltrata. 

Coarsely sinuate-toothed. Chestnut Oaks. 

Obovate or oblong to lanceolate-acuminate, with rounded or acute teeth . 10. Q. Prinus. 

Oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate or broadly obovate, puberulous 

and pale, often silvery white on the lower surface 11- Q- ACUivnxATA. 

Obovate-oblong, wedge-shaped at the base, soft-pubescent and often silvery 

white on the lower surface 12. Q. prinoides. 

Oval to obovate, thick and coriaceous, pale and usually puberulous on the 

lower surface, persistent during the winter 13. Q. Sadleriana 

Obovate or oblong-obovate, generally sinuate-dentate or lobed, pubescent 

and usually hoary on the lower surface 14. Q. platanoides. 



u 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. cupulifer^ 



Obovate or oblong-obovate, wedge-shapeil or rounded at the broad or 
narrow base, tomentose or pubescent and often silvery white on the 

lower surface 15. Q- MiCHAUXii 



Blue-green. 



Obovate or oblong, undulate, lobed or entire, i)ale and often silvery white 

and pubescent on the lower surface 16. Q- breviloba 

Oblong, sinuate-dentate, entire, pinnatifid-lobed or spinescent, pubescent 

on the lower surface 17. Q. undulata. 

Oblong, lobed, spinescent or entire, pubescent on the lower surface . . . 18. Q. DOUGLASII. 
Leaves mostly persistent until the appearance of those of the following spring. 
Blue-green. 

Oblong or obovate, usually obtuse and rounded at the apex, entire or 



remo 



tely dentate 19. Q. EngeliviANNI. 

Ovate, oval or obovate, usually cordate, entire or remotely si)uiulose- 

dentate . 20. Q. oblongifolia. 

Oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovat^, cordate or rounded at the base, 

spinose-dentate, pubescent and conspicuously reticulate-venulose on the 

lower surface 21. Q. Arizonica. 

Broadly obovate, cordate, usually rounded and obtuse at the apes, repandly 

spinose-dentate, coarsely reticulate-venulose 22. Q. reticulata. 

Ovate or ovate-oblong or oval, entire or remotely sjDinose-dentate . . . 23. Q. Toumeyi. 



Dark green. 



Oblong or obovate, entire, sinuate-toothed, or lobed, pubescent and often 

pale on the lower surface 24. Q. dumosa. 

Oblong, elliptical or obovate, entire or remotely spinose-dentate, j^ale or 

silvery white on the lower surface 25. Q. ViRGiJS'iANA. 

Oblong-lanceolate, entire or repand-serrate, coriaceous 26. Q* Emoryi. 

Maturation biennial ; nut sericeo-tomentose on the inner surface ; abortive ovules basal 
or lateral. 

Leaves persistent. 

Oblong, acute or cuspidate, entire or dentate or sinuate-toothed, fulvous- 

tomentose and ultimately pale on the lower surface 27. Q. chrysolepis. 

Oblong-lanceolate, acute, crenate-dentate or entire, conspicuously veined, 

pubescent or tomentose on the lower surface 28. Q. TOMENTELLA. 

Melanobalanus. Abortive ovules superior ; stamens usually from 4 to 6 ; styles elongated, 
finally recurved ; nut sericeo-tomentose on the inner surface. Black Oaks. 
Maturation annual. 

Leaves persistent until the appearance of those of the following year. 

Oval, orbicular or oblong, entire or sinuately spinose-dentate, convex on 

the upper surface 

Oblong or elliptical, or oblong-obovate, usually entire, glabrous or coated 

with pale pubescence on the lower surface 

Maturation usually biennial. 

Leaves persistent until the appearance of those of the following year. 

Lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, entire or spinose-dentate toward 

the apex, coated with pale or fulvous tomentum on the lower surface . 31. Q. hypoleuca 
Oblong-lanceolate, entire or sinuate-dentate, dark green and lustrous . . 32. Q. Wislizeni. 



29. Q. AGRIFOLTA 



30. Q. PUMILA. 



Oval to oblong-obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, mostly entire, with 



thickened revolute margins 



33. Q. MYRTIFOLTA 



Leaves deciduous. 

Pinnatifid or lobed. 



Oblong-obovate to oblong, the lobes tapering gradually from broad bases 
and acute and usually dentate at the apex 

Obovate, truncate or abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, deeply lobed with 
broad rounded sinuses, the lobes sinuate-dentate at the usually broad 
apex 



34. Q. RUBRA. 



35. Q. Texana 



CUPULIIEKiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPiICA. 



15 



Oblong or obovate, deeply lobed with broad rounded sinuses, the slender 
lobes coarsely repand-dentate toward the apex 

Ovate or obovate, slightly or deeply lobed with broad or narrow nearly 
entire or dentate lobes, usually pubescent on the lower surface 

Oblong or obovate, deeply lobed, the lobes tapering, acute, or broad and 
obovate at the apex, repand-dentate or entire, glabrous or pubescent on 
the lower surface 

Oblong-obovate or triangular, deeply lobed with acute spreading often 
falcate lobes, glabrous or rusty-pubescent on the lower surface . . • 

Oblong or obovate, fulvous or pale pubescent on the lower surface, the 
lobes usually elongated and falcate 

Obovate, sinuate-lobed by deep wide sinuses, the spreading lobes acute or 



36. Q. coccixEA 



37. Q. VELUTINA 



38. Q. Califorxica 



39. Q. Catp:sb.ei 



40. Q. DIGITATA. 



obtuse, usually coarsely repand-dentate 41. Q. palustris 



Obovate, mostly acutely 5-lobed, coated on the lower surface with pale 

pubescence 42. Q 



xaxa 



Oval or obovate, glabrous, sinuately lobed with usually acute entire lobes . 43. Q. Georgiana 
Widening upward, and often abruptly dilated at the broad, sinuate or ob- 



scurely 3 to 5-lobed apex. 

Broadly obovate, rusty-pubescent on the lower surface 

Obovate-spatulate or narroAvly wedge-shaped, glabrous 

Oblong or lanceolate-obovate, usually entire. "Willow Oaks. 

Glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, somewhat paler below . . . 
Pale blue-green and glabrous above, coated below with hoary tomentum 
Dark green or lustrous on the upper surface, pubescent on the lower - 



44. Q. Marilandica 

45. Q. NIGRA. 



46. Q. LAURIFOLIA. 

47. Q. BREVIFOLIA. 

48. Q. IMBRICARIA. 



Glabrous, narrowed at both ends 49. Q. Phellos. 

Pasania. Pistillate flowers in 3-flowered cymes at the base of the erect androgynous aments ; 
abortive stamens as many as the calyx-lobes ; stigmas linear. 

Leaves persistent. 



Oblong, entu^e or dentate, tomentose on the lower surface 



50. Q. DEXSIFLORA. 



16 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIPERJE. 



QUERCUS ALBA. 



White Oak. 



Leaves obovate-oblong, obliquely, usually T-lobed, or pinnatifid, pale and glab 



below. 



Quercus alba, Linnaeus, Spec. 996 (1753). — Miller, Diet. 



ed. 8, No. 11. — Muenchhausen, Haicsv. v. 253. 



Du 



Roi, Harhh Baumz. ii. 270, t. 5, f . 5. — Wangenheim, 
Beschreih. Novdam. Holz. 56 ; Nordam. Holz. 12, t. 3, 



f. 6. 
119. 



Lamarck, Diet. i. 720. — Marshall, ArhusL Am. 
Moench, Bdume Weiss. 95. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. 



Hunter, i. 70. — Walter, Fl. Car. 235. — Castiglioni, Viag. 
negli Statl Uniti^ ii. 348. — Abbot & Smith, Insects of 
Georgia^ ii. 173, t. 87. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 



A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 22. — Orsted, Vidensk. 
Medd.fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 66 ; Liehmann Chenes 
Am. Trap. t. 33, f . 29, 30, 58, 59. — Wesmael, Bull. Fed. 
Sac. Sort. Belg. 1869, 341. — Vasey, Am. Ent. and Bat. 
ii. 249, f . 156. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 50. — Bentley & 
Trimen, Med. PL iv. 250, t. 250. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census TJ. S. ix. 137. — Lauche, Deutsche 

Dendr. 294. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 



177. 



Houba, Chmes Ain. en Belgique^ 235, t. 



Mayi', 



708. 



Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 276; Spec. iv. pt. i. 



448; Enum. 977. — Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 4; 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 195. — Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue 
Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin^ iii. 395. — Persoon, Syn. 



Wald. Noi 
Man. ed. 6 



Watson & Coulter, Ch 



Handb 



ii. 570. 



Mem 



pt. i. 340. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 508. — Du Mont 
de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 423. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. 
Med. iv. 413. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 13, t. 1. 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 633. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 



225. 



Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215 ; Sylva^ i. 14. — Nouveau Du- 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 127. — Coulter, Contrib. TJ. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 414 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 
Quercus alba pinnatifida, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. 
No. 4, t. 5, f. 1 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 195. — Loudon, 

Arb. Brit. iii. 1864. 
Quercus alba (repanda), Michaux^ Hist. Chenes Am. No. 
4, t. 5, f. 2 (1801).— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 633. 
Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 159. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1864. 



hamel^ vii. 175. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 158. — Elliott, Sk. 
ii. 607. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 864. — Audubon, Birds, t. 



Wesmael, Bull. Fed. Sac. Hort. Belg. 1869, 342. 
pel, Handb. Laubholzh. ii. 75. 



Dip- 



107, 147. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 158. — Spach, Hist. Quercus alba, a pinnatifido-sinuata, Hayne, Dendr. Fl> 



Veg. xi. 155. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 192. — Emerson, 



158 (1822). 



Trees Mass. 127, t. 1 ; ed. 2, i. 145, t. — Dietrich, Syn. Quercus alba, /? sinuata, Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 159 (1822). 
V. 311. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 266. — Brendel, Quercus alba, y microcarpa, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi 



Trans. III. Agric. Soc. iii. 613, 1. 1. — Curtis, Pep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 31. — Chapman, Fl. 423. 



pt. ii. 22 (1864).— Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg 

1869, 342. 



A tree^ growing to an average height of from eighty to one hundred feet, with a trunk three or 
four feet in diameter. The principal Hmbs are stout, and, spreading irregularly from the stem at a 
broad angle and in a slightly zigzag manner, form an open crown of rather slender rigid branches. 
Crowded by other trees in the forest, the White Oak sometimes grows to a height of one hundred and 
fifty feet, its trunk rising from a base occasionally six feet in diameter, tapering gradually to the first 
branches, which are often seventy or eighty feet above the ground, and bearing a comparatively narrow 
head. When, however, it has grown in the full enjoyment of light and air, the White Oak is low and 
round-headed, with a short gnarled trunk occasionally twelve feet in diameter and great wide-spreading 
branches which are often contorted toward their extremities. The bark of the trunk and lars'e 
branches is light gray slightly tinged with red or brown, or occasionally nearly white, and is broken into 
thin appressed scales ; on large trunks it is sometimes two inches in thickness, and is divided into broad 
flat ridges by shallow fissures. The branchlets are slender, and are marked with minute pale lenticels ; 
and at first are bright green and often tinged with red, and coated with a loose tomentum of lono- 
pale or ferrugineous hairs, which soon disappears, falling in large irregular patches; during the 
summer they turn reddish brown, in their first winter are bright red and lustrous or are coated with a 
glaucous bloom, and in their second year become ashy gray. The winter-buds are broadly ovate, rather 



cupuLiFERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



17 



obtuse, dark red-brown, and about an eighth of an inch in length. The leaves are condupheate in 
the bud, obovate-oblong and gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base; they are divided 
into terminal lobes and from three to nine but usually three pairs of lateral lobes by wide sinuses, 
which are rounded at the bottom, and are sometimes shallow and sometimes penetrate nearly to the 
midribs; the terminal lobe is short or elongated, obovate and three-lobed, or occasionally ovate, 
entire and acute or rounded; the lateral lobes are obhque, broad or narrow, entire or auriculate, 
and increase in size from the base to the apex of the leaf ; or on vigorous shoots or small branches 
developed from the trunks of old trees, the leaves are often repand or shghtly sinuately lobed or 
occasionally entire below and three-lobed at the broad apex ; when they unfold they are bright red 
above, pale below, and coated with soft pubescence ; the red color fades at the end of a few days, and 
they become silvery white and very lustrous ; their covering of tomentum then gradually disappears, and 
when fully grown the leaves are thin, firm, and glabrous, bright green and lustrous or dull on the upper 
surface, pale or glaucous and glabrous below, and from five to nine inches in length, with stout bright 
yellow midribs, conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the lobes, lateral veins forked and 
united near the margins, conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout pale petioles flattened and grooved 
on the upper side and enlarged toward the base. The stipules are linear, brown, scarious, and about 
half an inch long. Late in the autumn, after the leaves of nearly all the trees with which it grows in 
the forest have fallen, those of the White Oak turn to a deep rich vinous red, and, gradually withering, 
drop at the beginning of winter or remain on the branches of some individuals nearly to its close. 
The staminate flowers, which appear when the leaves are about one third grown, are produced in hir- 
sute or nearly glabrous aments from two and a half to three inches long ; they are usually ebracteolate, 
and before opening are furnished at the apex with tufts of rusty brown hairs ; the calyx is bright yellow 
and pubescent, with acute lobes rather shorter than the stamens, which are composed of comparatively 
stout filaments and emarginate glabrous anthers. The pistillate flowers are borne on abbreviated or 
elongated peduncles, the two forms often appearing on the same tree ; they are bright red with broadly 
ovate hirsute involucral scales and ovate acute calyx-lobes. The acorn is sessile, or is borne on a 
slender peduncle from one to two inches in length, and is more often long-stalked on trees with deeply 
lobed leaves than on those with slightly divided leaves, although long and short-stalked acorns can be 
found on trees with leaves of either form, and often on the same tree and on the same branch ; the nut 
is ovoid or oblong, rounded at the apex, lustrous, three quarters of an inch or an inch in length, green 
when fully grown, and finally light chestnut-brown; the cup is cup-shaped and coated outside with 
pale or light brown tomentum, and embraces about a quarter of the nut ; at the base it is tuberculate 
by the much thickened and united scales, which are produced into short obtuse membranaceous tips ; 
growing gradually thinner toward the top of the cup, the scales are small and scarious at the rim. 

Quercus alba is distributed from southern Maine to southwestern Quebec, westward through central 
and southern Ontario,^ the lower peninsula of Michigan and southern Minnesota^ to southeastern 
Nebraska^ and eastern Kansas,* and southward to northern Florida and the valley of the Brazos 
Kiver in Texas. An inhabitant of sandy plains and gravelly ridges, of rich uplands, intervales, and 
moist bottom-lands, the White Oak is rare in Quebec and northern New England, where it is usually 
found mixed with the White Pine. It is abundant and grows to a large size in Ontario, frequently 
forming a considerable part of the forest-growth. Absent from the cold elevated regions of northern 
New England and New York, and from the highest slopes of the southern Alleghany Mountains, and 
rare in the maritime Pine belt of the south, the White Oak is common, where the soil is not too sterile 
to support it, in other parts of the United States from the shores of the Atlantic nearly to the western 
and northwestern limits of its range. While sometimes forming forests almost to the exclusion of other 



1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 48. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can. « Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 109, 



1879-80 



n, Cat. Can. PI. 440. 
lermcB of the Minnesota 



4 Mason, Eighth Bienn. Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 271. 



18 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



often associated witli the Hickories, the Red Oak, the Sour Gum, the White Ash, the Yello 



abundant and orows to its greatest height on the western 



Poplar, and the Cucumber-tree, and is most 

slopes of the Alleghany Mountains in Tennessee and the Carohnas, and on 



bottom-lands of 



lo 



Ohio ba 



1 



Usually sm 



states, it is only in this part of the country 



which was first cleared of its orisrinal forest coverin<r, that low broad-branched 



fo 



Q 



Individual trees beheved to be natural hybrids of Q 



11} 



lort-trunked specimens 
with Qiiercus 



minor 



't I » 



/ 



arpa^ and Quercus Prlnus^^ have been observed in different parts of the country 



1 

1 Riclgway, P/v^r. U, S. I\^at. Mus. v. 78. 



cence of Quercus alba. The bark and nuts are those of Quercus 



- A tree discovered by Mr. M. S. Bebb, near Fountaindale, alba, while the deep cups, destitute of marginal fringe-like scales, 

Illinois, shows some of the characters of Quercus alba and Quercus resemble in form and in the character of their basal scales those 

minor, and is believed to be a hybrid between these species. The of some of the smaller-fruited forms of Quercus macrocarpa (E. 

leaves resemble those of Quercus alba in general outline ; the nar- Hall, Am, EnL and Bot. ii. 191. — Engelmann, h c), 

row lobes, however, are obovate and sometimes retuse, like those A tree discovered near Charlotte, Vermont, by Mr. C. G. Pringle 

of Quercus minor, and they are coated on the under surface and on in 1879 (Plate ccclx.), and apparently a hybrid between Quercus 

the petioles and young branches with soft pubescence. The cups alba and Quercus macrocarpa, has narrow or broadly obovate leaves, 

are shallow and pubescent Avith regular distinct scales somewhat with the oblique lobes of Quercus alba, their sinuses being mostly 

thickened at the base, and are thus intermediate between those of regular and shallow, although some leaves are divided nearly to 

the two supposed parents (Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. the middle by the deep broad sinuses so characteristic of Quercus 

398). inacrocarpa. Some of the individual leaves are green and nearly 

Near Silver Springs Station, in the neighborhood of the city of glabrous on the under surface, and others are pale and more or 

Washington, Dr. George Vasey discovered several years ago a less coated with pubescence. The nuts are an inch in length, 

tree of probably similar parentage. The leaves are oblong, narrow and elongated, and resemble those of Quercus alba; the 

rounded at the narrow base, and irregularly cut into narrow cups are turbinate, entirely destitute of marginal fringe, coated 

oblique or spreading lobes ; more elongated than those of the ordi- with thick pale tomentum and covered with green triangular scales 

nary forms of Quercus alba, which they otherwise generally resem- which, except that they are somewhat more thickened toward the 

ble, they are thicker and firmer, however, darker green on the base of the cup, resemble those of Quercus macrocarpa. Seedlings 

upper surface and slightly pubescent on the lower. The fruit is raised from acorns of this tree were planted in the Arnold Arbo- 

long-pedunculate, with obtuse nuts about three quarters of an inch return in 1880, and reproduce the foliage of the parent. Their 

in length, and shallow cups covered with distinct lanceolate acute winter-buds, which are acute, are often nearly half an inch in 

or truncate scales slightly thickened near the base of the cup only. length, or longer than those of either of the supposed parents, and 

The bark is described as darker and closer than that of the White are covered with the light reddish brown scales scarious on the 

Oak. The buds and leaves are slightly modified from those of margins of Quercus macrocarpa, they are often accompanied, like 

Quercus alba, while the fruit resembles that of Quercus minor those of this species, by the persistent stipules of the upper leaves. 

(Vasey, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, x. 25, t. 29). The trees grow much more rapidly than the specimens of Quercus 

A single tree (Plate ccclix.), found by Mr. George W. Letterman alba and Quercus macrocarpa in the same plantation. 

^ On the grounds of Mr. John Saul, the horticulturist and nursery- 



Wash 



on Buckley's Hill, near AUenton, INIissouri, has the habit, general 

appearance, and bai*k of Quercus alba. The buds, although rather n 

larger, are like those of Quercus minor. The leaves, also, generally discovered a tree which appears intermediate between Quercus alba 

resemble those of this species in outline and in their broader obtuse and Quercus Prinus (Plate ccclxi.). Saul's Oak is a tree about fifty 

lobes, although individual leaves with the narrow rounded oblique feet high in a grove of Eed and White Oaks and Chestnut-trees, 

lobes of Quercus alba are frequent. While young they are coated The bark is said to combine the characters of its supposed parents, 

with the tawny stellate pubescence of Quercus minor, and at ma- The buds are ovate, acute, and nearly a quarter of an inch long, 

turity are glabrous, or pubescent with scattered stellate hairs on "with the pale brown scales scarious and slightly ciliate on the 

the upper surface, and pale, pubescent, or glabrate on the lower. margins of Quercus Prinus. The leaves are elongated, slightly or 

The anthers, like those of Quercus minor, are hirsute. The nuts, c 

which are about an inch in length, resemble those of Quercus alba^ at the narrow base, and pale and nearly glabrous on the lower sur- 

Avhile the cup differs from that of common forms of Quercus minor face, with six or seven pairs of long narrow acute, or on some indi- 



rounded 



only in the somewhat thicker scales at its base. 



^iduals short broad and rounded lateral lobes. Some of the leaves, 



3 A tree believed to be a hybrid between Quercus alba and especially those from lower branches, are not distinguishable from 

Quercus macrocarpa was found several years ago by Mr. M. S, the leaves of Quercus Prinus, while others, with their deep narrow 

Bebb, near Fountaindale, Illinois. The leaves resemble those of sinuses, are more like those of Quercus alba. The fruit is lone- 

Quercus alba, except in the pubescent covering on their lower pedunculate, resembling that of Quercus Prinus in size and shape, 

surface, although some individual leaves are almost exactly like but the cup-scales are rather freer than they are in this species 

those of ordinary forms of Quercus macrocarpa in shape ; like (Vasey, I. c. 25, t. 28). 

those of Quercus cdba they turn deep red in the autumn. The Another tree, found by Dr. Georo^e Vasey near the Soldiers* 

cup is a little deeper than the cup of Quercus alba, with the prom- Home in Washington in 1874, growing with Quercus alba and 



inent triangular scales of Quercus macrocarpa (Engelmann, I. c). 



Quercus Prinus, and destroyed four years later, possessed some 



Another tree of probably the same parentage, discovered near characters of both of its supposed parents. The slightly pubescent 
Athens, Illinois, by Mr. Elihu Hall, has the leaves of Quercus branchlets and the winter-buds were those of Quercus Prinus. The 
macrocarpa, although they are covered whUe young with the pubes- leaves, which were incisely lobed with oblique rounded lobes, were 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NOB TIT AMEBIC A. 



19 



The White Oak is one of the most valuable and important timber-trees of North America 



The 



wood is strong, very heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, and durable in contact with the soil, although 
liable to check unless carefully seasoned. It contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of 



several rows of large open ducts 



layers of annual growth, and is light brown, with thin 



light brown sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7470, a cubic foot weighing 



46.35 pounds 



It 



ployed 



m 



hipbuilding, for 



cooper 



large quantities being 



the form of staves, in the manufacture of carriages, agricultural 



exported annually to Europe in 

implements, and baskets, for the interior finish of houses, and in cabinet-making', and for railway ties 

and fences ; it makes excellent fuel, and is largely used as fire-wood. 

Although first described by Parkinson in 1640,^ the White Oak, according to Aiton, was not 

introduced into English plantations until 1728.^ 

The great size that it attains in good soil, its vigor, longevity, and stately habit, the tender tints of 
its vernal leaves when the sunlight plays among them, the cheerfulness of its lustrous sunmier green 
and the splendor of its autumnal colors, make the White Oak one of the noblest and most beautiful 
trees of the American forest ; and some of the venerable broad-branched individuals growing on the hills 
of New England and the middle states realize more than any other American tree, that ideal of strength 



d durabiUty of which the Oak has been the symbol in all ages and all civilized 



3 



thick and firm, dark green and lustrous above, and pale and slightly inch in length and a shallow thin pubescent cup covered with regu- 



lar triangular thickened scales. In its leaves this tree approaches 



pubescent below, with the broad rounded base often found on the 

leaves of Quercus PrinuSy which, in their acute sinuses, they gen- Quercus Prinm^ while in the fruit and buds it is more like Quercus 

erully resembled. The fruit was sessile, with a short broad nut alha. 



less than an inch in length, and distinct thickened cup-scales, with 



'^They have in Virginia a goodly tall Oke, which they call 



membranaceous triangular tips (Engelmann, Trans. St, Louis Acad. the white Oke, because the barke is whiter then of others, whose 

iii. 399). leafe because it so neerely resembleth this sweete Oke, I have 

Another tree, found by Dr. Vasey two miles north of the city of joined with it, the Ackorne likewise, is not onely sweeter then others, 

Washington and believed by him to be a, hybrid between Quercus but by boyling it long, it giveth an oyle which they keepe to supple 

alba and Quercus minor {Bull, Torrey Bot. Club, x. 26, t. 30), has their joynts." {Theatr, 1387.) 

oblong rath.i narrow thick lustrous leaves slightly puberulous on Quercus alba Virginiana, Plukenet, Aim, BoL 309. — Miller, DicL 

the lower surface, broad and rounded at the base, and regularly No. 9. — Catesby, NaL Hht. Car. i. 21, t. 21. — Charlevoix, /^£s- 

and incisely lobed. The fruit, however, resembles that of Quercus toire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 12°^°- iv. 339, f. 46. — Romans, NaL 

PrinuSy and, judging by herbarium specimens, this tree might be Hist, Florida, 18. 

considered an extreme form of that species, possibly slightly in- Quercus foliis superne latoribus opposite sinuatiSj sinuhus a 



fluenced by a cross with Quercus alba. 



obtusis, Clayton, Fl, Virgin. 117. 



igulisque 
Florida^ 



A tree, found by Mr. C. O. Pringle in 1879 growing on a high 26. 



dry rocky hill near Charlotte in northern Vermont, has characters 
intermediate between those of Quercus alba and Quercus Prinus. 



Quercus alba Banisteri, Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 203. 

2 Hort. Kew, iii. 358. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1864, f . 1723, 



The leaves are obovate, wedge-shaped at the base, thick and firm, 1726, t. 

dark green and lustrous above, and pale and pubescent below, wdth ^ Di 

six or eight pairs of narrow oblique rounded lobes. The fruit is settSj t 
short-pedunculate, with an ovate pointed acorn rather less than an 



?/ Massachtb- 



45-47, — Garden and Forest^ iii. 85, f. ; iv. f. 1, 2. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLVI- Quercus alba. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. Portion of an ament of staminate flowers, enlarged. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 

7. A cluster of pistillate flowers, enlarged. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a pistillate flower before fecundation, enlarged 

10. Vertical section of a pistillate flower after fecundation^ enlarged. 

11. Cross section of an ovary after fecundation, enlarged. 

12. An ovule, much magnified. 

13. An axillary winter-bud and leaf-scar, enlarged. 

14. Diagram of a leaf-bud. 



Plate CCCLVII. Quercus alba. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, basal view, natural size. 

3. A cup, natural size. 

4. A cup-scale, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 

6. A seed, natural size. 

7. A germinating nut, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCLVIII. Quercus alba. 

1. A fruiting branch of a tree with pinnatifid leaves and long- 
pedunculate fruit, natural size. 



^1 ■ 

SilvsuiQl" NortK 'America 



Tab. CCCLVI 





It 



3 




O 




C> <^ 



11 



2 




12 





5 



6 







8 



9 



10 






C. E. FaasoTi. deL. 



Rap'in.ey so. 



gUERCUS ALBA, L. 



A.Riocreuciy direay. 



Jmp. J', Tcuieur^ Pciris^ 



ilvci- of North America 



Tat. CCCLVII 




C.E.FaccoTv del. 



Rap 



me- so. 



gUERCUS ALBA, L. 



A.BjLocreua> direj: 



Imp . if Tanezcr^ Paris . 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCLVIII 



m > 




C E.Faxon- d&L 



JTune^ sc 



OUERCUS ALBA, L. 



A.FUocreiar diresr f 



Imp. J.TojTieur ^Pojnj 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLIX. Quercus alba x mixob. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2- A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A cup-scale, outer sui*face, enlarged. 

4. A cup-scale, side view, enlarged. 

5. A leaf, enlarged. 

6. A leaf, enlaro^ed. 



showing 



pubescence, enlarged. 



Plate CCCLX. Quercus alba x macrocarpa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Plate CCCLXI. Quercus alba x Priktjs 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCLIX 




C.E.FaaujrL deL. 



Wonyld^T JO. 



gUERCUS ALBA x MINOR. 



A.Biocreuxc direcc^ . 



Imp. c/ Tcuiezir, Paris . 



Silva of North America 



Tab J CCCLX 




C E Fcucorv deL . 



Hijnaly so . 



QUERCUS ALBA X MACROCARPA 



yi Kwa^euT direjc ^ 



Imp. J. Tofteicr, Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCLXl. 




C.I^,FajcoTh del. 



JTurteh/ sc 



OUERCUS ALBA X PRINUS 



A.Riocreiinr^ dire,r . 



Imp J. Tanj2iLr, Pa ris 



CUPULIFER-a:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



QUERCUS LOBATA. 



White Oak. Valley Oak. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, deeply lobed, pale and pubescent below 



Nat. iii. 277 (D, 
ie Encina) (18( 



Berlin^ iii. 188. — Greene, West Am. Oaks, 13, t. 8 ; 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 570. — Nouveau 

Poiret, iam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 224. 

weg. 337. — Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. 



Man. Bot. Bay Region^ 302; Erythea^ ii. 64. 



Mayr, 



HarU 



Wald. Nordam. 264, t. 2. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 
ii. 75. — Coville, Contrih. TJ. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 197 {Bot. 
Death Valley Exped.). 



Forhandl. 1854, 172. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. Quercus Hindsii, Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 55 (1844). 



205 ; Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 461, t. 15. — R. Brown 
Campst. Horce Sylvance^ 52, f . 1-3. — A. de Candolle, 
Brodr. xvi. pt- ii. 24. — Bolander, Broc. Cat. Acad. \\\. 

Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kj'dbenh. 



Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. pt. iv. 24. — Walpers, Ann. i. 635. 
Torrey, Pacific R. B. Rep. iv. 138. — Newberry, Pacific 
R. R. Rep. vi. 29, 89, t. 1, f. 7. — Orsted, Liebmann 
Chenes Am. Trop. t. 42, f. 4. 
1866, 66 ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. 23, t. 42, f. Quercus longiglanda, Fremont, Geographical Memoir upon 



230. 



1-3. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 53. — Engelmann, Trans 



St. Louis Acad. iii. 388 ; Rothroch Wheeler's Rep. vi 



Uiyper California^ 15, 17 {Senate Doc. Miscellaneous, 
No. 148, 30th Congress U. S. 1st Sess.) (1848). 



Watson 



Kellogg, Forest Quercus lobata, var. Hindsii, Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. 



Trees of California, 66. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 
IQth Census TJ. S. ix. 138. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart 



Berlin, iii. 188 (1885). 



The largest and most graceful of the Oaks of Pacific North America, Quercus lobata often rises 
to a height of one hundred feet. The trunk is generally three or four feet, but sometimes ten feet 
in diameter, and dividing near the ground, or usually twenty or thirty feet above it, into great limbs 
spreading at wide and varied angles, forms a broad head of slender branches which, hanging gracefully 



sprays, sometimes sweep the ground and 



space from 



hundred feet 



1 



Less frequently the upper limbs grow almost at right angles with the trunk and form a narrow and more 
rigid head of variously contorted erect or pendent branches. The bark of the trunk and large limbs 
is usually from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and is covered with small 
loosely appressed light gray scales slightly tinged with orange or brown j at the base of old trees it 
is frequently five or six inches in thickness and is divided by longitudinal shallow fissures into broad flat 

!S. The branchlets are slender and are marked with oblonsr 



idges broken horizontally 



short plat 



pale scattered 



and when they first appear are coated, as are the young leaves and petioles 



with short silky canescent pubescence ; in the first winter they 



ashy gray, light reddish bro 



or 



pale orange-color, and slightly pubescent, or puberulous, becoming glabrous and lighter colored during 
their second year. The buds are ovate, acute, and usually about a quarter of an inch long, but often 



smaller, with orange-brown pube 



scales 



and frequently ciliate on the 



margms 



The 



leaves, which are very variable in shape on the same branch, are conduplicate in vernation, and are 
gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or broad and rounded or cordate at the base ; the sinuses which 
divide them shghtly or nearly to the midribs are rounded, acute, or oblique at the base, and although 
irregular in width are generally narrow except near the middle of the leaf, where one or two pairs 
are often much wider than the others ; the terminal lobe is broad, obovate or oblong, and somewhat 
three-lobed or entire at the rounded apex ; the three to five pairs of oblique lateral lobes diminish in 
size from the uppermost to the lowest, which are usually not more than half as long as those of the 
next pair above them and are generally acute and entire ; 



the other lob 



ely lobed-dentate at their broad apex 



some tun 



and 



obovate, obtuse 
Lided : or occasi 



lly the 



^ Garden and Forest^ iii. 606, f. 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



CUPULIFER^T::. 



leaves are undulately or crenately toothed ; they are thin but firm in texture, deciduous, from two and a 

half to three inches or rarely four inches long, from an inch to two inches broad, dark green and 

stellate-pubescent on the upper surface, and pale and pubescent on the lower, with stout pale midi'ibs, 

obscure lateral 



conspicuous yellow veins running to the slightly thickened and revolute 



margins 



veins and veinlets, and broad hirsute flattened petioles varying from a quarter to a half of an inch 

The aments of staminate flowers, which appear when the leaves are about half grown, 



in length. 



from February at the south to the end of April at the north, are hirsute and from two to three inches 
in length ; the calyx is light yellow and divided into six or eight acute lobes which are pubescent on the 
outer surface and cihate on the margins ; the stamens equal the calyx-lobes in number, and the yellow 
anthers are emarginate and glabrous. The pistillate flowers are solitary and sessile, or rarely are borne 
in elongated few-flowered spikes ; the scales of the involucre are broadly ovate, acute, coated with 
dense pale tomentum, and about as long as the narrow calyx-lobes. The acorns are solitary or often 
in pairs, and sessile or subsessile ; the nut is conical, elongated, and rounded or pointed at the apex, 
which is covered with persistent fine white pubescence and tipped with a short thick umbo ; it varies 
from an inch and a quarter to two inches and a quarter in length, and is bright green and lustrous 
when fully grown, ultimately turning bright chestnut brown ; the cup, which varies from a quarter of 
an inch to nearly an inch in depth, is cup-shaped or rarely saucer-shaped, coated within and without 



with pale tomentum, and usually irregularly tuberculate below 




the large thickened scales; these 



decrease upward in size and thickness, and, with the exception of those at the base of the cup, are 
elongated into acute ciliate chestnut-brown free tips which are longest on the uppermost scales, forming 
a short fringe-like border to the edge of the cup. 

Quercus lohata inhabits the valleys of western California between the Sierra Nevada and the 
ocean, from that of the upper Sacramento to the Tejon Pass, where it crosses the coast ranges into 



Antelope Valley, and to Santa Monica 



Never forming a dense forest, the California 



White Oak, either alone or with the Blue Oak, covers with open groves free of all shrubby undergrowth 
the central valleys of the state. Since the eyes of the white man first looked upon these natural parks, 
which surpassed in grandeur of broad effect and in the dignity of their graceful trees all the creations 
of the landscape gardener's art, fields of wheat have rejDlaced the wild grasses which covered their open 
glades, and many of their noblest trees have been sacrificed to satisfy the demands of civilization. No 
other region in North America, however, presents to-day anything that compares with their park-like 
beauty, the nobility of their individual trees, or the charm of the long vistas stretching beneath them. 

The wood of Quercus lohata is moderately hard, fine-grained, brittle, and difficult to season. 



It 



contains bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and smaller ducts arranged in 
lines parallel with the broad conspicuous medullary rays, and is light brown, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7409, a cubic foot weighing 46.17 
pounds. Of little economic value, it is used only for fuel. 

The nuts, which Quercus lohata produces in great profusion, were gathered and stored for winter 
use by the California Indians, who pounded them into coarse flour, which they mixed with water and 
baked or steamed in rude ovens dug in the sand." 

In March, 1792, Vancouver anchored in the Bay of San Francisco, and visited the Spanish Mission 
of Santa Clara situated in a beautiful valley which reminded him of England : ai 



of the California White Oak appears in his narrative of this journey 



3 



d the earliest 



A year 



the Spanish 



1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, pt. ii. 333 {Death Val- origiually been closely planted with the true old Euglisli Oak ; the 



ley Exped. ii.). — S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 345. 



underwood, that had probably attended its early growth, had the 



2 Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxii. 37 {Food and Fibre appearance of having been cleared away, and had left the stately 



Plants of the North American Indians). 



lords of the forest in complete possession of the soil, which was 



^ " We had not proceeded far from this delightful spot, when we covered with luxuriant herbage, and beautifully diversified with 
entered a country I little expected to find in these regions. For pleasing eminences and vallies ; which, with the range of lofty 
about twenty miles it could only be compared to a park, which had rugged mountains that bounded the prospect, required only to be 



CUPULIFEEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



ploring expedition, under the command of Malaspina, had visited the coast of California, and the. 



pti 



of 



French botanist, Louis Nee,* who accompanied it, pubHshed in 1801 the first scientific desci 
Quercus lohata and of several other Californian and Mexican Oaks. 

Like other California Oaks, Quercus lohata does not flourish beyond the borders of its native 
state, and the attempts that have been made to establish it in eastern America and in Europe have not 
been successful. 



adorned with the neat habitations of an industrious people, to pro- through Chile, crossed the pampas to Montevideo, and embarked 
duce a scene not inferior to the most studied effect of taste in the for Spain, reaching Cadiz in 1794 with an herbarium of ten thousand 
disposal of grounds." {A Voyage of Discovery round the World, ii. species, of which four thousand are believed to have been unde- 



17.) 



scribed, Nde's tastes led him to gather material rather than to 



^ Louis Nde, a Frenchman naturalized in Spain, began his scien- publish the results of bis field labors, and his long journey had few 

tific career by making large collections of plants in different parts literary results. He is chiefly to be remembered by the genus 

of that country ; and in July, 1789, he left Cadiz as naturalist of the Neea, dedicated to him by Ruiz and Pavon, by a few short papers 

exploring expedition sent by the Spanish government under com- published in the annals of the Scientific Society of Madrid, in- 

mand of Malaspina. Nde made collections of plants in the neigh- eluding one on Oaks, in wbich are the first scientific descriptions of 

borhood of Montevideo, on the coast of Patagonia, on the Island of California trees, and by the fact that he and Haenke were the first 

Chiloe, in Cbile, — where he was joined by the Bohemian botanist, botanists who visited California. Of the date and place of Nde's 

Thaddaeus Haenke, — Peru, Mexico, and California. In Mexico, the birth there is no record, and nothing has been published about his 

botanists penetrated inland to the capital, and then returning to the career after his return to Europe from his journey in America. His 

coast, sailed with the expedition to the Philippine Islands and New herbarium is preserved in the Botanic Garden at Madrid. (See 

Holland. Sailing again to South America, they finally left the ship Colmeiro, La Botanica y los Botanicos de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusi- 

at Callao, and going to Lima, separated there. Nde then traveled tano^ 183.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXIL Quercus lobata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flowerj enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A cup-scale, enlarged. 

8. Upper surface of a portion of a mature leaf showing 

the stellate pubescence, enlarged. 

9. A winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of ISforth America 



Tab. CCCLXII 




C^E.Faoion- del. 



Toicl^t sc. 



QUERCUS LOBATA, Nee. 



A.Riocreujy direcc ! 



Imp . J, TaneiMr, Paris 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



2 



i 



QUERCUS BREWERI 



Shiu Oak. 



Leaves oblong, mostly acutely lobed, stellate-j)iibescent at maturity on the upper 



surface. 



Quercus Breweri, Engelmann, Breiver & Watson Bot. Cal. Quercus lobata, var. Breweri, Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. 
ii. 96 (1880). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 196 Berlin, iii. 188 (1885). 



(Bot. Death Valley Ex^yeJ.). 



? Quercus CErstediana, Greene, TTest Am. Oaks, 19, t. 10 



Quercus lobata, subspec. fruticosa, Engelmann, Trans. (in part) (probably not of R. Brown Campst.) (1889) 

St. Louis Acad. iii. 389 (1877). 



A shrub, with slender stems and ashy gray bark, usually five or six, or occasionally fifteen or 
twenty feet high, spreading into broad compact thickets by stoloniferous roots. The branchlets are 



slender and marked with pale 



they first appear they are light green and clothed with 



loose pale tomentum, and during their first winter are light reddish brown or rather bright orange- 
color and coated with fine pubescence, which does not entirely wear off until their second or third 
year. The winter-buds are ovate, rather obtuse, and an eighth of an inch long, and are covered with 
chestnut-brown scales coated with pale pubescence. The leaves are convolute in the bud, oblong, 
abruptly or gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped, rounded or cordate at the base, rounded or acute 
at the apex, and mostly seven or occasionally nine-lobed, with broad acute or rounded and usually 
apiculate lobes j when they unfold they are clothed, especially below, with thick pale pubescence, and 
at maturity are thick and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, which is roughened with 
scattered stellate hairs, paler and pubescent on the lower surface, from one to four inches long and 
from half an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, with stout pale hirsute midribs and primary veins, 
obscure veinlets, and hairy terete petioles gradually enlarged toward the base and from a quarter to 
a half of an inch in length. The stipules are brown and scarious, covered with long pale hairs, and 
nearly an inch long. In October the leaves turn a bright clear yellow before falling. The flowers 
appear toward the middle of May, usually when the leaves are about one fourth grown, and are borne 
the males in short hirsute aments, the females sessile or on short stalks. The calyx of the staminate 
flower is clothed with pale hairs, and is deeply divided into from five to seven acute lobes shorter than 
the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments, and ovate, slightly emarginate, yeUow glabrous 
anthers. The involucral scales and the calyx-lobes of the pistillate flower are coated with pale tomentum, 
and the stigmas are bright red. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn, is sessile or subsessile and 
usually solitary ; the nut is ovate or oval, from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length and from 
three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in breadth, and is inclosed only at the base by the shallow 
cup ; this is cup-shaped or turbinate, pubescent on the inner surface, coated on the outer with pale or 
ferrugineous tomentum, and covered by broadly ovate scales which are gradually narrowed into long 
lanceolate acute membranaceous tips, and at the base of the cup are slightly thickened on the back, 
gradually decreasing in size toward the rim. 

Quercus Breiveri inhabits the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California, and ranges from 
the northern borders of the state to the valley of the upper Kaweah River in Tulare County, forming 
on the upper San Joaquin, at an elevation of about six thousand feet above the sea, vast, almost 
impenetrable thickets, with slender stems from twelve to eighteen feet in height, and, for miles, standing 
as regular as the plants in an evenly sown field of wheat. 



28 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULEFER^. 



Querciis Breweri was discovered in August, 1862, by Professor William H. Brewer/ growing on 



the top of a dry ridge a few miles west of Mount Shasta in northern California. 



^ William Henry Brewer, of Frencli Huguenot and Dutch de- School at Yale College, which he still occupies. In 1865 Professor 

scent, was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, on September 14, Brewer began in the Gray Herbarium at Cambridge the prepara- 

1828, and in infancy was taken to Enfield in the central part of tion of a Flora of California, and in 1874 his friends in that state 

the state, his parents settling there upon a farm where his child- raised a sum of money to cover the expenses of this publication, 

hood and youth were passed. In 1848 he entered the Scientific The first volume appeared in 1876, the Polypetalse being princi- 

School of Yale College, from which he was graduated four years pally described by Professor Brewer and the Gamopetalse by Asa 

later. Beginning to teach in academies in 1850, while still it Gray. The second volume, from the pen of Serene 

college student, he continued to do so in central New York until other botanists, was published in 1880. 



Watson 



1858, with the exception of two years wliich he passed in Germany 



Since his connection with the Sheffield Scientific School, Profes- 



and France studying botany and chemistry. In 1858 he was ap- sor Brewer has exerted a wide influence by his lectures on agricul- 



Washingt 



tural science and his papers on many scientific subjects published 



vania ; but two years later, having received the appointment of in periodicals and in the proceedings of scientific societies. The 

first assistant in the newly oi^ganized California State Geological genus Brewerina from the California mountains, now united with 

Survey, Professor Brewer went to California, where he remained Arenaria, was established by Gray to commemorate Professor 

for four years in charge of the field work of the survey. During Brewer's important services in elucidating the flora of that state, 

this period he traveled all over the state, and made large and im- One of the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada, the remotest fast- 

portant collections of plants, with copious field-notes ; and the first nesses of which he explored, climbing all the high summits and 

comprehensive and accurate knowledge with regard to the distri- crossing and recrossing all the passes, bears his name, which is 

bution and the scientific and economic characters of California also associated with a beautiful Spruce-tree of the California moun- 

trees was obtained from his field observations. In 1864 he was tain forests, 
appointed to the chair of agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXIII. Quercus Breweri. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. Upper surface of a portion of a mature leaf showing 

stellate pubescence, enlarged. 

7. A winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCLXIII 




2 



3 





CE.Faa^wdel 



Rapine' jo. 



QUERCUS BREWERI, En6elm. 



A . Rio cr^eua> direjo . 



Imp. J. Faneur, Ra^is 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



QUERCUS GARRYANA 



White Oak. 



Leaves obovate or oblong, coarsely pinnatifid lobed. 



Quercus Garry ana, Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 159 (1839). 



Hooker & Axnott 



Voy. Beecheyy 391. — Nuttall, 



Bay Region^ 302. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 281, t. 2, 5. 
Lloyd, Garden and Forest^ vii. 494, £, 78. 



Sylva, i. 1, t. 1. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 309. — Torrey, Pa- Quercus Nesei, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk 



cific R. i?. Rep* iv. 138 ; Bot. Wilkes FxjjIot. Exped, 

Newberry, Pacific R. R, Rep, vi. 89. — Cooper, 



462. 



Forhandl. 1854, 173. — Orsted, Liebmann Chenes Am 
Trop. 23, t. 41, f. 1, 2. 



Pacific R, R. Rep. xii. pt. ii- 28, 68 ; Am. Nat. iii. Quercus Douglasii, 8 ? Nesei, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. 



407. 



R. Brown Campst. Horm Sylvance^ 60. 



Lyall, 



pt. ii. 24 (1864). 



Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 131, 144. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. ? Quercus CErstediana, R. Brown Campst- Ann. and Mag. 



xvi. pt. ii. 24. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 229. 
Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, ( 



Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vii- 250 (1871). — Greene, West Am. 
OakSy t. 10 (in part). 



Liehmann CMnes Am. Trop. t. 40, f. 3, — Rothrock, Quercus Jacobi, R. Brown Campst. ^?zn. and Mag. Nat. 



Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 435 (Fl. Alaska). — Engelmann, 
Trans. St. Loitis Acad. iii. 389 ; Brewer & Watson 



Hist. ser. 4, vii. 255 (1871). — Greene, West Am. OakSy 

75, t. 35, 36, f. 1. 



Bot. Cal. ii. 95. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of California^ Quercus Gilberti, Greene, West Am. Oaks^ pt. ii. 77, t 



89. 



IX. 



138. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S. 

Greene, West Am. Oaks, 11, t. 7 ; Man. Bot 



37 (1890). 



A tree, with an average height o£ sixty or seventy feet;, but sometimes growing nearly one hundred 
feet tall, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter, and stout ascending or spreading branches which 
form a broad compact head ; or frequently at high elevations, or when it is exposed to the direct winds 
from the ocean, reduced to a low shrub.^ The bark of the trunk varies from an eighth of an inch to 
nearly an inch in thickness ; it is divided by shallow fissures into broad ridges, and separates on the 
surface into light brown or gray scales sometimes slightly tinged with orange-color. The branchlets, 
which are stout and marked with many conspicuous pale lenticels, are coated at first with thick pale 
rufous pubescence, and during their first winter are pubescent or tomentose and light or dark orange- 
color, becoming glabrous and rather bright reddish brown in their second year, and ultimately gray. 
The winter-buds are ovate, acute, and from one third to oiie half of an inch in length, and are densely 
clothed with light ferrugineous tomentum. The leaves are convolute in the bud, oblong-ob ovate and 
wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, with slightly thickened revolute margins, and are divided by 
shallow sinuses into seven or nine lobes, the terminal lobe being rounded and acute or three-lobed at 
the apex, and the lateral lobes, which increase in size from the bottom of the leaf upwards, being acute 
or sometimes apiculate or rounded and often notched or lobed ; when they unfold they are coated with 
soft pale lustrous pubescence, and at maturity they are thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green^ 

gflabrate in 



lustrous and glabrous on the 



upper surface, hght green or orange-brown, pubescent, or ^ 



some shrubby forms, on the lower surface, from four to six inches long and from two to five inches 



broad, with stout light yellow midribs and 



conspicuous primary 



veins spreading at wide angles or 



gradually diverging from the midrib and running to the points of the upper lobes ; ^ they are borne 



shrubs 



On one 



1 On the shores of Puget Sound and on some of its islands what These 

is evidently a depauperate form of this species is not uncommon, of their sterile shoots, Quercus Gilberti was established, 

its low stems composing dense thickets from two to six feet in ^ The spreading of the primary veins at narrow angles from the 

diameter and a few feet in height. The leaves are thin, pale on midrib, which often occurs in individual leaves of Quercus Garryana 

the lower surface, and acutely lobed, the usually divided lobes (Plate ccclxv.f. 2), as it does in those of many other Oak-trees, and 

and winter- is particularly noticeable in the leaves of Quercus GwnheUi of the 



branchlets 



terminating in minute rigid points. The 

buds are not distinguishable from those of Quercus Garryana, 



wi 



30 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPDLIFER^. 



on stout pubescent petioles flattened on the upper side and from half an inch to nearly an inch in 

The stipules are linear- 



len 



gth, and before falling in th 



e autumn sometimes turn a bright scarlet. 



lanceolate, coated with dense tomentum, from half an inch to an inch in length and usually caducous, 



those of the upper leaves, however, sometimes remaining on the branch throughout the season. 



The 



staminate flowers are produced in hirsute aments ; their calyx-lobes are glabrous, laciniately cut, slightly 
ciliate on the margins with soft fine hairs, ovate-acute and but little longer than the stamens, with 
emarginate glabrous yellow anthers, or sometimes linear-lanceolate and much elongated. The pistiUate 
flowers are sessile or short-pedunculate, and are coated with pale tomentum. The fruit is sessile or 
short-stalked, with an oval or slightly obovate obtuse sweet nut from an inch to an inch and a quarter 
in length and from half an inch to nearly an inch in breadth ; the cup is shallow, cup-shaped or slightly 
turbinate, puberulous and light brown on the inner surface, and pubescent or tomentose on the outer ; 
the scales are ovate-acute, with acute and often elongated tips ; they are thin and free, or sometimes 
thickened and more or less united toward the base of the cuf), and, gradually decreasing in size from 
below upward, are minute at the rim.^ 



Q 



Garry an 



ally inhabits valleys and the dry and 



& 



elly slopes of low hills, and is 



buted from 



thern part of Va 



Island and 



valley of the 



Frazer R 



southward through western Washington and Oregon and the California coast-valleys to the Santa Ci 
Mountains, Rare and local in British Columbia^ where it is the only Oak-tree, Querciis Garryana 
abundant and grows to its largest size in the valleys of western Washington and Oregon, ascending 
shrubby forms to considerable elevations on the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and occasi( 



It is 



ally reappearing on their eastern slopes, where it is common in the valley of the Yakima River, 
abundant in northwestern California, gradually becoming less frequent and of smaller size southward, 
and in the neighborhood of the Bay of San Francisco is exceedingly rare. 

As a timber-tree, Quercus Garryana is the most important Oak of Pacific North America. 



The 



wood is strong, hard, and close-grained, and that from young trees is frequently exceedingly tough and 
valuable- It contains numerous and often conspicuous medullary rays and bands of from one to three 
rows of open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. It is light brown or yellow, with thin nearly 
white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry Avood is 0.7453, a cubic foot weighing 4&A5 
pounds. In Oregon and Washington it is used in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, in cabinet- 
making and shipbuilding, and in cooperage, and is also largely consumed as fuel. 



Quercus Garryana 



was discovered on the shores of Puget Sound by Archibald Menzies,^ the 



century, 



surgeon and naturalist of Vancouver, during his voyage of discovery at the end of the last 
although no account of it was published until after its rediscovery near the Columbia River many years 
later by David Douglas,^ who named it in honor of Nicholas Garry, secretary of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, by whom he was aided in his explorations in western America. 



tate lobing of such leaves at the apex as the prhicipal character duced ou vigorous trees of this species, are otherwise similar, 
for distinguishing Quercus JacobL In specimens, however, taken The flowers are 



unknown 



by Professor Macoun from the tree in Vancouver upon which this thicker and more tuberculate scales at the base of the cup. This 
species was founded, the subpalmate venation does not appear, the is probably the Quercus 



(Er 



veins leaving the midrib at comparatively broad angles ; and on found it in September, 1865, in southern Oregon. Unfortunately, 
the same individual tree leaves with both sj^stems of veiuing can however, the specimens upon which Quercus 



(Erstediana 



often be found (Plate ccclxv. f. 1, from a specimen from the type lished have not been preserved, and his account of this species 



tree of Quercus Jacohi). 



excites some doubt whether the author described this dwarf form 



1 On dry hillsides in the Klamath valley of northern California, of Quercus Garryana or Quercus BrewerL These two plants appear 
at an elevation of twenty-five hundred feet above the level of the to have been figured in Greene's West Am. Oaks as Quercus (Ersted- 
sea, what appears to be a dwarf form of this species (Plate ccclxv. 



laria. 



f. 3) is very abundant, growing to a height of six or ten feet and 2 George M. Dawson, Canadian Naturalist, n. ser. ix. 330. 

producmg fruit in the greatest profusion. The buds and branches Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 440 ; pt. v. 355. 

and their pubescence are not distinguishable from those of Quercus ^ See ii. 90. 

Garryana^ The leaves, although rather smaller than those pro- 4 g^^ jj^ 94.^ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXIV. Quercus Garryana 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A stamiuate flower, enlarged, 

3. Calyx of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A cup-scale, enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCLXV. Quercus Garryana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A leaf, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch of the dwarf form from northern California, 

natural size. 



"Silvavpf North America 



Tab. CCCLXIV 




C.E.Faocorv deL 



Kapine sc 



QUERCUS GARRYANA, Hook. 



A.Biocreua:: direa> ■ 



Imp . J^. ToJxeitr^ Faru 



t Jft 



Silva of "North America. 



Tat. CCCLXV. 




C H.J^aoiOTi. deZ^. 



Ifimehj so. 



gUERCUS GARRYANA.Hoolc. 



A.Biocreua:' dzrecc^^ 



Imp. J. Tccnezir^ Paiis 



CUPULIFERiE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



33 



QUERCUS GAMBELII 



White Oak. Shin Oak. 



Leaves broadly obovate to . oblong-lanceolate, pubescent on the lower surface 
variously lobed or pinnatifid, the lobes entire, emarginate or lobed. 



Quercus Gambelii, Nuttall, Jour. Phil. Acad. n. ser. i. Quercus stellata, 8 Utahensis, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 



pt. ii. 179 (1848). — Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 172, t. 18 ; 



xvi. pt. ii. 22 (1864). 



Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 205. — Liebmann, Oversigt Quercus Douglasii, yS ? Gambelii, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 



Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. ForhandL 1854, 169. — Orsted, 



xvi. pt. ii. 23 (1864). 



Liebmann Chmes Am. Trop, 22, t. 40, f. 1. — Hemsley, Quercus Douglasii, y Novomexicana, A. de Candolle, 



Bot, Biol, A7n. Cent. iii. 171. — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. 



Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 24 (1864). 



Gart. Berlin^ iii. 189. — Greene, West Am. Oaks^ 23, t. Quercus undulata^ Watson, Am. Nat. vii. 302 (Plants of 



13, f. 1, 2 ; pt. ii. 71, t. 33. — Sargent, Garden and 



Northern Arizona) (in part) (1873). 



Forest^ ii. 471. — Coulter, Contrlb. U. S. Nat. Herb. Quercus undulata, ^ Gambelii, Engelmann, Trans. St. 



ii. 415 {Man. PI. W. Texas). — Koehne, Gartenflora^ 
xliv. 6, f. 2-10. 

ercus alba /? ? Gunnisonii, Torrey, Pacific B. R. Rep. 
ii. pt. i. 130 (1855). — Watson, King's Rep. v. 321. — 
Porter, Haijden's Rep. 1871, 493. — Porter & Coulter, 
Syn. Fl. Colorado, 127. 



Louis Acad. iii. 382,392 (1876). — Sargent, i^ores^ Trees 

N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 139. — Coulter, Man. 

Rooky Mt. Bot. 333. 
Quercus Gambelii, var. Gunnisonii, Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. 

Gart. Berlin, iii. 190 (1885). 
Quercus venustula, Greene, West Am. Gales ^ pt. ii. 69, 

t. 32 (1890), 



Usually a shrub^ forming by vigorous stolons broad low thickets varying from three or four to 
fifteen or twenty feet in height, the central stems often rising high above the others and assuming 
the habit of trees; or less commonly a tree, twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk a 
foot in diameter, or, rarely, forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk eighteen inches in diameter, 
and slender branches spreading nearly at right angles from the stem and forming a narrow round- 
topped head. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and 
is deeply divided into broad irregular often connected flat ridges separating on the surface into thin 

•own. The branchlets are 



dark gray scales frequently tinged with red or light brown. 

they first appear, are coated with short pale or ferrugineous tomentum 



are slender, and, when 
their first winter they 

are light orange-color or reddish brown, glabrous or puberulous, and, gradually growing darker or 
sometimes ashy gray during their second and third years, ultimately become dark brown or gray. The 
buds are ovate, acute or obtuse, covered with light chestnut-brown pubescent scales, and about an 
eighth of an inch in length. The leaves are convolute in the bud, broadly obovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
wedge-shaped or sometimes narrowed and rounded or broad and cordate at the base, and slightly or 
deeply divided by narrow or broad sinuses into from five to thirteen lobes, or pinnatifid ; the terminal 



lobe 



ded and three-lobed at the apex, and the lateral lobes are obi 



-b 



broadly rounded, emarginate or auriculate or lobed, or are narrow, rounded or acute and entire or lobed ; 
when the leaves unfold they are coated below with thick white tomentum and above with scattered stel- 
late pubescence, and at maturity they are thick and firm, glabrous or rarely stellate-pubescent, lustrous 
and dark or yellow-green, or 
they are from three to five inches in length and from 



dull green above, and paler, often yellowish and soft-pubescent below 



five inches in width, with prominent pale 

midribs hirsute on the under and occasionally also on the upper side, primary veins deviating at broad 

arcuate and united near the 



& 



d running to the points of the lobes, secondary veins 



mar^rins and conspicuous veinlets ; they are borne on stout persistent petioles flattened above, and 



34 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CUPULIFERiE 



scarlet 

hirsute with 
nearly half g 
bracts about 



or orange-color before falling in the autumn. 



The stir 



dark bro 



wn 



pale hairs, and caducous. The flowers appear in May and June 



The sterile flowers are borne in slender hirsute aments in the axils of ovate acute 



& 



the hirsute yellow calyx, which is divided 



five or 



rather shorter than the stamens : the anthers are emarginate, yellow, and glabrous 



six acute lobes 
The briofht red 



pistillate flowers are sessile or short-stalked, and solitary or in elongated few-flowered spikes, with ovate 



ded involucral scales coated with soft pale tomentum^ and acute calyx-lobes 



The 



pedunculate and rijDen in August and Septembe 



ally oval, broad 



d 



r 



unded or sometimes narrowed and acute at the apex, which is covered 



1 



at the base, obtuse 
sty pubescence, and 



usually about three quarters of an inch long and five eighths of an inch broad ; frequently 



does not exceed a quarter of an inch in length, and 



ally it is more than an inch long ; when 



fully ripe it is at first dark chestnut-brown or nearly black, and ultimately 



o 



ht chestnut-b 



the cups are saucer-shaped, cup-shaped, or rarely turbinate, and although occasionally shallow, generally 
inclose about a third of the nut ; they are light brown and pubescent on the i 



on the outer surface with pale tomentum, and 



1 



hened below by 



iner surface, coated 
ckened and more or 



less united 



th 



ounded on the back and narrowed, except at the base of the cup 



into short free scarious pointed tips, and are thin and minute near the rim of the cup ; or sometimes th 
lower scales are only slightly thickened and are free, with long loose tips 

Querciis Gamhelii is distributed from the eastern slopes of the 



where it finds 



home 



Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
divide between the waters of the Platte and Arkansas 



E 



at elevations of f 



six to seven thousand feet above the 



of the 



westward to the 



Wahsatch Mountains of Utah, and southward over the mountain ranges and high plateaus to the mouth 
of the Pecos River in Texas, the Charlestown Mountains in southwestern Nevada,^ and the mountains of 

lion on the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, where it usually grows as a low 



thern Sonor 



Com 



shrub 



ally 



in their sheltered 



the size of 



a 



small 



more abundant 



ds to 



southern, and especially in southwestern Colorado, where it is the only Oak and often ascei 
elevations of nearly ten thousand feet, it frequently covers hillsides with nearly uninterrupted thickets 



thousands of 



d 



sually 



ly 



or tliree feet hisrli 



& 



it is 



7 



abundant on the 



mountains of northern New Mexico and western Texas 



the common Oak of the Colorado plateau 



and of southern Utah and northern Arizona^ where it is scattered irregularly through the great forest 
of Phms j^onderosciy sometimes in broad clumps and often as isolated trees^ probably attaining its 
larsfest size in northern Arizona at elevations of from six to seven thousand feet above the level of the 
sea ; it is scattered through the open forests of Pinus mono2jhyUay which clothe the mountain ranges 
of southern Nevada, and high up on those of southern New Mexico and Arizona it forms a narrow 
fringe above the groves of evergreen Oaks which enHven their lower slopes and just below the Nut 
Pines which usually crown their summits. 



Three quite distinct forms of this species can be distinguished 



Shrubby plants bearing leaves of the first and second of these 



by the shape and coloring of the leaves, although they are con- forms are mixed together indiscriminately on the mountains of 
nected by innumerable varieties and all three of them sometimes southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, and can be readily 



grow together in areas only a few yards square. 



distinguished from a considerable distance by the color of the 



The leaves of the first form (Plate ccclxvi. f. 1) are usually foliage. Plants of the third form I have seen only on the hills 
obovate in outline with few broad and rounded or emarginate lobes, near the city of Durango in southwestern California ; they were 



and are dark green and lustrous on the upper surface. 



shrubs without fruit, and grew in clumps among those of the two 



In the second form (Quercus vcnustula) the leaves (Plate ccclxvii. other forms. Arborescent individuals usually produce large dark 
f. 3) are oblong-lanceolate, sinuately lobed, usually smaller and green deeply lobed leaves, especially on the Colorado plateau, and 



bright yellow-green on the upper surface. 



this appears to be the only form on the mountains of southern New 



In the third form the leaves (Plate ccclxvii. f. 2) are oblong, Mexico and Arizona. 



broad at the abruptly rounded or cordate base, divided deeply or 



2 Merriam, North American Fauna^ No. 7, 333 (Death Valley 



slightly by narrow sinuses into broad rounded entire lobes, and Exped, ii.). — Coville, Contrib. JJ, S, Nat Herb, iv. 197 (BoL Death 



dull green on the upper surface. 



Valley Exped,). 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



35 



The wood of Q 



Gamhelli is heavy ^ hard 



and often toujrh* althouof^h difficult to 



season. It contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays 



d 



narrow 



b 



of small open ducts 



marking the layers of 



ual growth 



d is dark red-brown^ with thin lighter colored sapwood 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8407^ a cubic foot weighing 52.39 pounds.^ 
largely used for f uel^ and the bark is occasionally of service in tanning leather. The acorns^ which 
sometimes quite sweety were probably eaten by the Indians. 



It 



Qiierciis Gamhelii was discovered 



1844 



the banks of the Rio Grande by William Gambel^^ 



memory is preserved in the association of his name with this beautiful little 



ith 



rous summer green and brilliant autumn tints delights the traveler through the sombre forests of 
central regions of the continent. 



^ Some idea of the slow rate at which the wood of this species their cattle and consequent abandonment of many wagons in the 
is formed may be obtained from the log specimen in the Jesup Humboldt desert, they were caught by snow in the mountains ; and 
Collection of North American W^oods in the American Museum of instead of abandoning the remainder and pushing through, they 
Natural History in New York, obtained from the neighborhood of camped to await better weather, which did not come. The snow 
Canon City, Colorado. It is ten and a quarter inches in diameter constantly accumulated, all the cattle died, provisions were con- 
inside the bark, and shows one hundred and fifty-eight layers of sumed, and when too late they made snowshoes and tried to save 
amiual growth. themselves. But few got across the range, including Gambel, and 

^ William Gambel was born in New Jersey. In his youth he those saved little but what they stood in. With numbers rapidly 

appears to have attracted the attention of Thomas Nuttall, the diminishing, the remnant pushed on down to Rose's Bar, where 



naturalist, who employed him as an assistant. 



1844 



several, including Gambel, died almost immediately of typhoid 



visited the southern Rocky Mountains with a party of trappers to fever. Gambel was buried on the Bar, which, however, as I have 

collect birds and plants for the Academy of Natural Sciences of understood, has since been entirely removed by hydraulic mining. 

Philadelphia. Returning to Philadelphia the following year, he His death occurred in the latter part of November, 1849, and I 

entered the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania, have never since seen any of the survivors of his party or heard 

from which he was graduated in 1848. He was soon elected re- any further particulars. 



cording secretary of the Philadelphia Academy, but retired from 



"■ He was a genial, kindly man and delightful companion, but 



this position the following year and joined a party organized to averse to the rough life, hard work, and short commons then in- 
cross the continent to the California gold-fields under the leader- separable from such a journey. He was about twenty-eight at the 
ship of I. J. Wistar, afterward tt distinguished officer in the Union time of his death, and, had he lived to cultivate more congenial 
army, a philanthropist and president of the Philadelphia Academy. pursuits at home, would certainly have attained increased distiuc- 
The party started from Independence about the first of May, and tion as a naturalist. His taste for natural science was great, his 
proceeded up the Platte valley, where Gambel left it to join a party attainments considerable, and his work, even in youth, valuable." 
of Missourians led by a, Captain Boone of Kentucky. Gambel's (See, also, Meehan, The Native Flowers and Ferns of the United 
fate IS described in the following extract of a letter from General States, ser. 2, ii. 62.) 

Wistar : — Nuttall described the new genera and species discovered by 

" In the year 1850, 1 met two men of Boone's train at Foster's Gambel in his first journey to the Rocky Mountains, dedicating 

Bar, who gave me the first information I had received of the fate to him the genus Gamhelia, formed to receive a shrub with beau- 

of the majority of their overland party. Being well furnished and tiful scarlet flowers from the island of Santa Catalina o£E the 

provisioned and mostly older men than we, they traveled leisurely California coast, and now merged into Antirrhinum, 
and reached the Sierras only in October. After the loss of most of 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXVI, Quercus Gambelu. 

1. A flowering branchy natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



natural 



Plate CCCLXVIL Quercus Gambelh 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A leaf, natural size. 

3. A leaf, natural size. 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America 



Tat. CCCLXVI 




C. E, FacDOTV dsL . 



Rapine^ jo. 



gUERCUS GAMBELII, Nutt 



A.Biocr&jjz> direa>^ 



Imp. c/ TcuheiLT^ Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCLXVII 




C. £, F amort deL . 



Ifim^y so. 



QUERCUS GAMBELII.Nutt. 



AJiiocreua:^ dzrea^. 



Imp, l/. TanezLT, Paris. 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. 



37 



QUERCUS MINOR 



Post Oak. 



Leaves oblong-oboyate 



Uy 5-lobed, pubescent on the lower and roughened 



with stellate hairs on the upper surface 



Quercus minor, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 471 ? Quercus villosa, Walter, i^Z. Cr/n 235 (1788). 



(1889). 



Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. U. S. 1892, 327. 



Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 414 {Man. PL W. 
Texas) . 

Quercus alba minor, Marshall, ArMist. Am. 120 (1785). 
Muehlenberg & WlUdenow, Netce Schrift. Gesell. Nat. 
Ft. Berlin^ iii. 395. 

Quercus stellata, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 78, t. 6, 
f. 15 (1787). — Smith & Abbot, Insects of Georgia^ i. 
93, t. 47. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 452 ; Enum. 977 ; 
Berl. Baitmz. ed. 2, 349. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 570. — 
Nouveau Duhamel^ vii. 180. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 161. 
Nuttall, Sylva^ i. 13. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 156. — Em- 
erson, Trees Mass. 133, t. 3 ; ed. 2, i. 151, t. — Dietrich, 
Syn. V. 311. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 22 



Quercus obtusiloba, Michaux, Hist. Chines Am. No. 1, 
t. 1 (1801); Fl. Bor.'Am. ii. 194. — Michaux f. Hist. 
Arh. Am. ii. 36, t. 4. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 632. 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 606. —Hooker, Fl 



Bor.-Am. ii. 158. — Torrey, Fl. N. T. ii. 190. 



Gray, 



3Ia7i. 414. — Scheele, Roemer Texas, 446. — Darlington, 
Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 265. — Brendel, Trans. III. Agrlc. Soc. 
iii. 615, t. 2. — Curtis, Rep>. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
32. — Chapman, Fl. 423. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. 



« « « 

ni. 



fra nat. For. Kjohenh. 1866, 66 ; Liehmann Chenes 
Am. Trop. t. H, t. 33, f. 60. — Vasey, A^^n. Ent. and Bot. 
ii. 250, f. 158. — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 
178. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Census U. S^ 
ix. 138. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 144, t. 1, 2. 
(excl. var. y and 8). — Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. Hort. Quercus Driunmondii, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vi- 



Belg. 1869, 340 (excl. var. y and 8). — Koch, Dendr. ii. 
pt. ii. 52. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Lotcis Acad. iii. 
389. 



densk. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 170. — Orsted, Liehmann 
Chenes Am. Trop. 22. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 295. — Houba, Chenes Quercus stellata, /? Ploridana, A. de Candolle, Prodi 



Am. en Belgiqne^ 265, t. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 475. — Dippel, Handh. Lanhholzk. ii. 79. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 128. 



xvi. i)t. ii. 22 (1864).— Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. Hort 
Belg. 1869, 340. 



A tree^ rarely a hundred feet in height/ with a trunk two or three feet in diameter^ and stout 
spreading branches which form a broad dense round-topped head^ but usually not more than fifty or sixty 
feet tall, with a trunk one or two feet in diameter^ and at the northeastern limits of its range generally 
reduced to a shrub. The bark of the trunk varies from half an inch to nearly an inch in thickness^ and 
is gray more or less deeply tinged with brown^ and divided by deep fissures into broad ridges covered on 
the surface with narrow closely appressed scales. The branchlets are stout and marked with small pale 
lenticels, and when they first appear are coated^ as are the young leaves and petioles^ the stalks of the 
aments of staminate flowers^ and the peduncles of the pistillate flowers^ with thick orange-brown tomen- 
tum 3 this gradually falls from the branchlets^ and in their first winter they are light orange-colored to 
reddish brown and covered with short soft pale pubescence which sometimes does not entirely disappear 
until their third year^ when they are gray^ dark brown, or nearly black, or bright brown tinged with 
orange-color. The buds are broadly ovate, rather obtuse, or rarely acute, and usually rather less than 
an eighth of an inch, although occasionally nearly a quarter of an inch in length, and are covered with 
bright chestnut-brown pubescent scales coated toward the margins with scattered pale hairs. The leaves 
are convolute in the bud, generally broadly oblong-obovate in outline, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped or occasionally abruptly narrowed and wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, and deeply divided 
by a pair of wide lateral sinuses, which are oblique at the bottom, into two basal lobes and two upper 
lobes separated from the terminal lobe by narrow sinuses acute or rounded at the bottom ; the terminal 

^ Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus^ xvii. 414. 



i^ 



38 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^ 



lobe is obovate and deeply three-lobed with rounded lobes^ or ovate and sometimes elongated and rounded 
and frequently emarginate at the apex, or rarely it is entirely suppressed and the broad apex of the leaf 
is truncate or emarginate ; the lateral lobes are oblique^ broadly obovate, rounded or emarginate at the 
apex, undulate or concave in outline on the upper margin, and furnished on the lower with a large lobe 
deeply emarginate or irregularly lobed at the broad apex ; the basal lobes generally widen gradually 
from the bottom and then spread abruptly into small ovate rounded or slightly emarginate lobes^ or are 
sometimes nearly triangular with undulate entire margins ; on some trees in the southern states all the 
leaves are three-lobed at the apex with short broad rounded or pointed lobes, and are Avedge-shaped and 
entire or undulate below ; on many of the leaves of other trees the basal lobes are suppressed and the 
lateral lobes are very oblique, narrow, entire, and rounded at the apex ; and occasionally a few individual 
leaves are oblong or oval and entire, or furnished on one side with a small entire lobe; when they 
unfold the leaves are dark red above, especially toward the apex ; soon losing a large part of their dense 
pubescent covering, at maturity they are thick and firm, deej) dark green on the upper surface^ which 
is roughened with pale scattered stellate hairs, and covered on the lower surface with gray or light 
yellow or rarely silvery white pubescence, and before falling in the autumn they turn dull yellow or 
brown ; they are usually four or five inches long and three or four inches across the upper lateral lobes, 
although they vary from two to eight inches in length and from an inch and a half to five inches in 
width ; their midribs are broad^ light-colored, and pubescent on the upper and tomentose or pubescent 
on the lower side ; the veins which run to the points of the upper lateral lobes are much stouter than 
the others, and the lateral veins are arcuate and united near the margins and connected by conspicuous 
coarsely reticulate veinlets ; the stout pubescent jDctioles are slightly flattened on the U23per side and from 
half an inch to nearly an inch in length.^ The stipules are brown, scarious^ pubescent^ and ciliate on the 
margins with long pale hairs, and obovate, rounded or acute at the apex ; they are half an inch long 
and from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch broad on the first leaves of the season^ and^ becoming 



gradually narrow, are linear on those at the end of the brand 



The flowers appear when the 



are about a third grown, from March in Texas to the end of May at the north ; the staminate flowers 
are borne in aments three or four inches long and are produced from the axils of ovate acute hairy 
bracts rather longer than the hirsute yellow calyx, which is usually divided into five ovate acute lacini- 
ately cut segments ; the anthers are emarginate^ yellow, and covered with short scattered pale hairs. 
The pistillate flowers are sessile or pedunculate and covered with pale hairs ; the stigmas are bright red. 
The acorns are usually sessile or occasionally short-pedunculate ; ^ the nut is oval or ovate or ovate- 
oblong, broad at the base, obtuse and naked or covered with pale persistent pubescence at the apex, 
from one half of an inch to an inch long, and from one quarter to three quarters of an inch broad, and 
is sometimes striate with dark longitudinal stripes ; the cup is cup-shaped or turbinate, or rarely saucer- 
shaped, and usually incloses from one third to one half of the nut, although rarely it is very shallow, 
embracing only the base of the nut ; it is pale and pubescent on the inner and pale and tomentose on 
the outer surface, which is covered with thin free ovate scales rounded or acute at the apex, reddish 
brown, and sometimes, toward the rim of the cup, ciliate on the margins with long pale hairs. 

1 In the northern and middle states the leaves of Quercus minor ^ Near Austin, Texas, individual trees of Quercus minor produce 

are quite constantly five-lobed with broad three-lobed or entire acorns with large broadly ovate nuts pubescent at the apex and 

terminal lobes and two broad lateral lobes separated by wide inclosed nearly to the middle in deep turbinate cups (Plate ccclxix. 

sinuses from the small basal lobes. In the south, however, the f. 5), while the acorns of others growing with them have ovate 

leaves are often extremely variable on the same or on different oblong narrow glabrous nuts and shallow saucer-shaped cups (Plate 

individuals, and in a small grove of these trees on limestone soil ccclxix. f. 6). I have not seen such acorns in other parts of the 

near Austin, Texas, I found leaves varying from what may be country on this species, which usually produces short oval nuts 

called the normal five-lobed form to trifid, one-lobed, undulate and about half an inch in length and cup-shaped or slightly turbinate 

entire, or subentire forms, and from two to five inches in length cups. In all the forms of fruit the cup-scales are thin and remark- 
(Plate ccclxix. f. 1, 2,3). Trees with rather thin trifid leaves seven 



3 



ably homomorphous, and no other North American "White Oak 
or eight inches long and four or five inches wide I have seen only appears to vary so little in the character of the cup-scales, 
near Mobile, Alabama, where they grow side by side with those ^ Xwo trees discovered by Dr. J. H. Mellichamp near Bluffton, 

bearing leaves of the normal shape (Plate ccclxix. f. 4). South Carolina, several years ago, but now destroyed, were consid- 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



» > 



9 




rtis 



distributed from Brewster near the 



^n extremity of Cape Cod/ the island 
.Massachusetts, North Kinoston. Rhod 



s 



of Martha's Vineyard and Naushon off the coast of 

Island,^ and Long Island^ New York^ to northern Florida and southern Alabama and Mississipp 

New York it ranp-es westward to Missouri, eastern 



from 



Kansas,^ the Indian Territory^ and Texas, where it 
extends southward to the valley of the San Antonio River and westward to the one hundredth meridian 

of Martha's Vinevard, the Post 



of west lono^itude 



Growing on the dry and sandy wind-swept soil 

with low and much contorted stems ; of larger size in Rhode Island and 



on 



Oak is usually shrubby with low ai 
Long Island^ it is more abundant farther south;, and from the coast of the south Atlantic and the 
eastern Gulf states to the lower slopes of the Appalachian Mountains^ and in the Mississippi basin it is 
one of the common Oak-trees on dry gravelly uplands, where it grows to its largest size ; it is the most 
abundant Oak of central Texas, being usually found on limestone hills and sandy plains, and toward 
the western limits of its range, in Texas and the Indian Territory, it forms with Qiiercffs MarUandtca 
an open forest belt to which the name of the " Cross Timbers" was given by the early travelers and 
settlers. 

The wood of Quercus muior is very heavy, hard, close-grained, and durable in contact with the 
soil, although it is difficult to season, checking badly in drying. It contains numerous conspicuous 
medullary rays and bands of one to three rows of small open ducts marking the layers of annual 
growth, and is light or dark brown, with thick Hghter colored sapwood. The sjDecific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.8367, a cubic foot weighing 52.14 pounds. It is largely used for fuel, 
fencing, and railway ties, and in some states west of the Mississippi River, especially in Texas, in the 
manufacture of carriages, for cooperage, and in construction. 

Long confounded with the White Oak, Quercus inlnor was first distinguished by the Pennsylvania 
botanist, Humphry Marshall,^ who published the earliest description of it, in 1785, in his Arhustum 
Americmmm. According to Aiton,^ it was introduced into English plantations in 1800, although it 
is probable that the French botanist Michaux^ had sent it to France before the end of the last century. 

Its dense round-topped head and its dark foliage, which at a distance sometimes appears nearly 
black, make it easy to recognize the Post Oak in the landscape ; and, always a beautiful tree, it might 
be used to advantage in the decoration of parks and pleasure-grounds in the eastern United States. 



ered by Dr. Engelmann as possible hybrids between Quercus minor New World and was the principal American botanist of his time, and 

and Quercus alba. The buds of both trees were larger than those from him, no doubt, he acquired that love of botany which has made 

usually produced by Quercus minor ; the first had the normal leaves his name also famous. Like Bartram, he collected plants and seeds 

of Quercus minor^ glabrous branchlets and anthers, and the second for English correspondents ; and when he established his new home 



had rather narrow cuneate leaves with oval lobes and glabrous 



at Bradford Meeting-house he planted about his house a collection 
branchlets ; the stamens of the latter and the mature fruit of both of trees and shrubs which lovers of plants still visit M'ith interest 



are unknown (Engelmann, Trans, St. Louis Acad, iii. 389, 398). 

1 Farlow, Garden and Forest, ii, 48. 

2 L. W. Russell, Garden and Forest, ii. 34. 

3 Mason, Eighth Bienn, Rep, State Board Agric, Kansas, 271. 

4 Havard. Proc, U. S. Nat, Mus. viii. 505. 



5 Humphry Marshall (1722-1801), the son of a Pemisylvania of 



and pleasure. Five years later Marshall began to prepare an ac- 
count of the forest trees of the United States. This was published 
in 1785 in a duodecimo volume of one hundred and seventy-nine 
pages, and was entitled the Arhustum Americanum, The American 
Grove, or an alphabetical catalogue of forest trees and shrubs natives 
the American United States, Apart from its value as a record 



farmer who emigrated from England in 1697, and the eighth of 
nine children, was born in West Bradford, Chester County. Affcer 



of the observations of an acute field botanist of excellent judgment, 
the Arhustum Americanum is of special interest as the first book of 



leaving school at the age of twelve, he worked on his father's farm botany written and published by an American. Reappearing in 

imtil he was sent to learn the trade of a stone-mason. He appears German and French editions, it received wide recognition at the 

to have inherited a large part of the paternal farm, which he man- time of its publication, and students of American trees will always 

aged for some time after his father's death in 1767, and upon which consult it. The memory of Humphry Marshall is also preserved 

he continued to live until 1774, when he removed to a tract of land by Marshallia, a genus of herbs of the southern United States, 

near the Bradford Meeting-house, now the town of Marshallton in dedicated to him by the German botanist Scbreber. (See Darling- 



Chester County, where he had built with his own hands a substan- 
tial stone house that still bears witness to his skill as a mason and 

mess of his work. Marshall was a relative of John Bar- 



ton, Memorials of John Bartram and Humphrey Marshall, 485.) 
G Hort. Kew, ed. 2, v. 294. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1870, f 

1732, t. 



tram, who planted near Philadelphia the first botanic garden in the '^ See i. 58. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXVIII. Quercus minor. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branclij natural size. 

5. Portion of the upper surface of a mature leaf showing 

the stellate hairs, enlarged. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCLXIX, Quercus mikoRo 

1. A fruiting branch showing nearly entire and dee^^ly 

lobed leaves, natural size. 
2- A leaf, natural size. 

3. A leaf, natural size. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A fruit with a deep cup, natural size. 
6. A fruit with a shallow cup, natural size. 



Silva. of North America. 



Tab. CCCLXVJii 




as. 





Miff 7zsaza2> sa 



QUERCUS MINOR, Sarg. 



A.Riocreua:> direcc. 



Imp. l/ Taneur, Faris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab- CCCLXIX 




C.£,J^ciccon del- 



Hurieh^ sc 



QUERCUS MINOR. Sar6. 



A^Riooreu3:> dira2>^ 



Imp J Tane^tr, farir. 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



41 



QUERCUS CHAPMANI. 



Leaves oblong or oblong-oboyate, entire or slightly sinuate-lobed toward the apex. 



Chapmani 



(1895). 



viii. 93 (not Qitercits Rohiir^ var. parvifolia, Lorey & Durey) 

(I860). — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart Berlin, iii. 178. 
Fl. 423 Quercus stellata, Engelmann, Trans. St Louis Acad. iii. 

389 (in part) (1877). 



Usually a rigid shrub^ producing fruit on stems only one or two feet tall^ but occasionally 
thirty feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter covered with dark bark separatin 



t> 



6 ---t^^ ^c^^g 



irregular plate-like scales, and stout branches forming a round-topped head. The branchlets are 
slender and marked with small scattered pale lenticels ; they are coated at first with dense bright yellow 
pubescence, which soon begins to disappear, and becoming light or dark brown and puberulous during 
their first winter, they ultimately turn ashy gray. The winter-buds are ovate, acute or obtuse, and about 
an eighth of an inch long, and are covered with glabrous or puberulous light chestnut-brown scales. 
The leaves are convolute in the bud, from oblong to oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge- 



shaped or rounded or broad and rounded at the base, rounded at the apex, and entire, with slightly 
undulate margins or obscurely sinuate-lobed toward the apex ; or, on vigorous shoots, they are often 
coarsely sinuately divided or deeply lobed and pubescent or tomentose below, the lobes frequently 
terminating in short rigid points ; when they unfold they are coated below with thick bright yellow 
pubescence and are covered above with pale stellate deciduous hairs, and at maturity they are thick and 
firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, and light green or silvery 
white and glabrous on the lower, except along the slender midribs, which are sometimes pubescent or 
puberulous ; they are two or three inches long and an inch wide, but occasionally from four to five 
inches in length and from two to three inches in breadth, or often not more than an inch long and three 
quarters of an inch wide, with slender veins arcuate and united near the margins or running to the 
ends of the lobes, and obscure reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on broad petioles grooved on the 
upper side and rarely exceeding an eighth of an inch in length, and fall gradually dming the winter, or 
sometimes remain on the branches until the appearance of those of the next season. The flowers open 
when the leaves are about a third grown, or on some individuals when they have attained nearly their 
full size. The staminate flowers are produced in short hirsute aments ; the calyx is hirsute and usually 
divided into five acute laciniately cut segments, and the stamens are emarginate and hirsute. The 
pistillate flowers are sessile or short-pedunculate, and their involucral scales, like the peduncles, are 
coated with dense pale tomentum. The acorns are usually sessile, and solitary or in pairs ; the nut is 
oval, about five eighths of an inch long and three eighths of an inch broad, and is clothed with pale 
pubescence from the obtuse rounded apex nearly to the middle ; the cup is deeply cup-shaped or 
turbinate, and incloses nearly half of the nut ; it is light brown and slightly pubescent on the inner 
surface, and is covered by ovate oblong long-pointed scales thickened on the back, especially toward 
the base of the cup, and coated with pale tomentum except on their thin reddish brown margins. 

Quercus Chapmani is distributed from South Carolina to Florida, and inhabits sandy barren 
Pine lands usually in the immediate neighborhood of the coast. Comparatively rare on the Atlantic 
seaboard and in the interior of the Florida peninsula, it is very abundant in western Florida, where it 
is found from the shores of Tampa Bay to Appalachicola and Santa Rosa Island. Usually a shrub, it 
has only been reported as a tree in the streets of Tampa and in the neighborhood of Appalachicola. 

The character and value of the wood are not known. 



42 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer.e. 

Long considered a variety o£ the Post Oak, which it resembles in the nature and color of the 
pubescent covering of the young branches and the under surface of the leaves, and in the hairy anthers, 
Que rem Chapnianl differs from that species in its larger and more acute winter-buds, in its smaller and 
usually entire or only sHghtly sinuately lobed leaves, which are glabrous at maturity on the upper 
surface, and in the thicker scales of its cup, and seems entitled to specific rank. 

The varietal name by which this tree was first designated having been previously used for 
Oak, the name of the venerable author of the Flora of the /Southern Uwted 
worth Chapman,^ who first distinguished and described it, has been given to it. 



^:: 



Dr. Alvan Went 



1 See vii. 110. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXX. Quercus Chap:mani, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A sterile branch, natural size. 

6. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCLXX 




C E, FaxoTv deiy. 




rzcrt/ S£> 



QUERCUS CHAPMANI, SarS. 



A. RLocreuzc/ diraa> 



L 



Imp . i/. Taneur^ Parir . 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



QUERCUS MACROCARPA 



Bur Oak. Mossy Cup Oak. 



Leaves obovate or oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply sinuately lobed or divided, 
usually pale and pubescent on the lower surface. 



Quercus macrocarpa, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 2, 



t. 



3 (1801) ; Fl Bor.-Am. ii. 194. — Willdenow, 
S])eG. iv. pt. i. 453 ; Emtm. 977 ; BerL Bituinz, ed. 2, 
350. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 570. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. 
ii. 224. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 34, t. 3. — Pursh, Quercus olivseformis, Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 32, 



Walcl. Nordam. 143, t. 2. — Watson & Coulter, Gi'ay'& 
Man. ed. 6, 475. — Dippel, Hanclh. Lauhholzk. ii. 79. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 128. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 414 {Man. PL W. Texas). 



FL Am. Sept. ii. 632. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215. — Nonveau 
Dithamel^ vii. 182. — Hayiie, Dendr. FL 161. — Sprengel, 
Syst. iii. 863. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 159. — Torrey, FL 
N. T. ii. 191, t. 108. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 132, t. 2, 
f. 2 ; ed. 2, i. 149, t. — Scheele, Boemer Texas, 447. 
Dietrich, Syn. v. 311. — Brendel, Trans, IlL Agric. Soc. 
iii. 621, t. 5. — Chapman, FL 423. — A. de Candolle, 

« ■ 

Prodr. xvi- pt. ii. 20. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. 
For. Kjobenh. 1866, 67 ; Liehman7i Chenes Am. Trop. t. Quercus macrocarpa, var. oUvaeformis, Gray, Man. ed 

2, 404 (1856). — AVenzig, Jahrb. Bot. GarL Berlin, iii 



t. 2 (1812). — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 632. — Nuttall, 
Ge7i. ii. 215; Sylva, i. 14. — Nonveau Duhamel, vii. 
181. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 864. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 
1869, f. 1730. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 159. — Torrey, 
FL N. Y. ii. 191. — Gray, Man. 414. — A. de Candolle, 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 20. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. 
For. Kjohenh. 1866, 67. — Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. Sort. 
Belg. 1869, 336. 



G, t. 33, f. 27, 28. — Vasey, Am. Ent. and Bot. ii. 250, 



f. 157. — W 



Hort 



179. 



Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzk. ii. 80. 



335, t. 2. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 51. — Engelmann, Quercus macrocarpa, ^ abbreviata, A. de Candolle, 



Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 381, 389. — J. F. James, Joitr. 
Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. iv. 1, t. — Wenzig, Jahrb. 



Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 20 (1864). — Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. 
Hort. Belg. 1869, 335. 
Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 178. — Lauclie, Deutsche Dendr. Quercus naacrocarpa, y minor, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 



295. 
140. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censu. 

Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 269, t. 



Mayr, 



xvi. pt. ii. 20 (1864). — Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Soc. Hort 
Belg. 1869, 335. 



This is one of tHe largest Oaks of eastern North. America, rising sometimes to a height of one 
hundred and sixty or one hundred and seventy feet, and forming a trunk six or seven feet in diameter 
and clear of limhs for seventy or eighty feet above the ground, and a broad head of great spreading 
branches with an ambitus of one hundred and twenty or one hundred and thirty feet. Trees of this 
size, however, are not common, the average height of the Bur Oak being hardly more than eighty feet, 
and its average trunk diameter not more than three or four feet, while toward the northwestern limits 
of its range it is sometimes reduced to a low shrub. During its early years the stout branches of some 
individuals grow nearly at right angles with the stem, and on others, spreading at narrow angles, form an 
open irregular head ; but in its old age the Bur Oak, unless it has been crowded in the forest, develops 
a massive and beautiful round-topped crown of branches.^ The bark of the trunk is from one to 
two inches in thickness, deeply furrowed, and broken on the surface into irregular plate-Kke light brown 
scales often slightly tinged with red. The branchlets are stout and marked with pale lenticels, and at 
first are coated with thick soft pale pubescence which usually soon disappears ; during their first winter 
they are light orange-color and usually glabrous or occasionally slightly puberulous, and in their second 
year grow ashy gray or light brown, ultimately becoming dark brown ; and the corky wings, often 
from an inch to an inch and a half in width, which are formed on the branches of some individuals and 
persist for several years, usually begin to develop, although frequently they do not appear, before the 
third or fourth season. The buds are broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, and from an eighth to nearly a 

1 Garden and Forest, ii. 497, f. 136 ; iii. 402. f. — Forest Leaves, iv. 22 f. 



u 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, cupuLiFERiE. 



The 



quarter of an inch in lengtli, with Hght red-brown scales coated with soft pale pubescence, 
are convolute in the bud, obovate or oblong, and gradually contracted into long wedge-shaped or 
occasionally into narrow and rounded bases ; they are sometimes divided by wide sinuses, which often 
penetrate nearly or quite to the midribs, into five or seven lobes ; the terminal lobe is large, oval, or 
obovate in outline and regularly crenately lobed, or smaller and three-lobed at the rounded or acute 
apex ; the upper lateral lobes are narrow, oblique, and three-lobed or variously crenately lobed at the 
apex, or oblong and rounded and entire at the apex, and much larger than the basal lobes, which are 
nearly triangular and entire or crenately lobed below ; or the leaves are broadly obovate and deeply or 
slightly crenately lobed with equal or unequal rounded or occasionally acute lobes, or are pinnatifidly cut 
into five or seven pairs of narrow lateral rounded lobes gradually increasing in size from the lowest to the 
three-lobed apex of the leaf ; when they unfold they are yellow-green and pilose above and silvery white 
and coated with long pale hairs below ; and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green, lustrous 
and glabrous or occasionally pilose on the upper surface, and pale green or silvery white on the lower 
surface, which is coated with soft pale or rarely rufous pubescence, and before falling in the autumn 
they turn dull yellow or yellowish brown ; they are from six to twelve inches in length and from three 
to six inches in width, with stout pale midribs sometimes pilose on the upper side and pubescent on the 
lower, large primary veins running to the points of the principal lobes, secondary veins running to their 
divisions or arcuate and united within the slightly thickened and revolute margin, and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets ; the thick petioles are flattened and grooved on the upper side, much enlarged at 
the base, and from one third of an inch to an inch in length ; the stipules are Hnear-obovate, or ovate 
from broad bases and then sometimes abruptly contracted in the middle, brown and scarious, pubescent, 
especially on the margins and toward the ends, and often an inch long ; or those of the upper leaves 



d frequently remain on the branches d 



The flowers open when 



the leaves are about a third grown, from March in Texas to the beginning of June in the north. The 
staminate flowers are borne in slender aments from four to six inches in length, with yellow-green stems 
coated with loosely matted pale hairs -, the calyx is yellow-green, pubescent, and divided into from four 



laciniately 



j^iX^»^ii..^ V^XiVLiii 



fts of long pale hairs ; the stamens are usually from 



four to six in number, with short filaments and yellow glabrous anthers. The pistiUate flowers are 
sessile or pedunculate, with broadly ovate involucral scales often somewhat tinged with red toward the 
margins, and coated, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum ; the stigmas are bright red. The 
acorns, which are usually solitary, are sessile or are borne on stout peduncles, sometimes two or three 
inches in length, and are exceedingly variable in size and shape ; the nut is oval or broadly ovate, 
broad at the base and rounded at the acute obtuse or depressed apex, which is covered with soft fine 
pale pubescence , it varies from three fifths of an inch in length and one third of an inch in width 
on trees growing in the valley of the St. Lawrence River and in northern Minnesota, to two inches in 
length and an inch and a half in breadth on trees in eastern and central Texas; the cup is cup- 
shaped, and sometimes on northern trees thin and shallow, but on southern trees deep, thick, and woody ; 
it sometimes embraces one third of the nut and sometimes all but its extreme apex, and is Hght 
brown and pubescent on the inner surface and coated with thick hoary tomentum on the outer surface ; 
tliis is covered by large regularly imbricated ovate pointed scales, which at the base of the cup are 
sometimes thin and free and sometimes much thickened and more or less united and tuberculate, and 
near its rim are generally developed into long, slender pale awns varying greatly in length and numbers, 
and forming on northern trees a short inconspicuous and on more southern trees a long conspicuous 
matted fringe-like border to the cup. 

lunx-uH macrocarpa usually inhabits low, rich bottom-lands or intervales, or sometimes, in the 
northwest, low dry hills. In British America it ranges from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia westward 
through the valley of the St. Lawrence River, where, in the neighborhood of Montreal, it is the common 
White Oak, and u^^ the valley of the Ottawa River to Pembroke, through Ontario, where it is common. 




CUPULIFER^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



45 



and along the northern shores of Lake Huron ; appearing again in the country south of Lake Winnipeg, 
it often forms groves of considerable extent in Manitoba, extending in depauperate forms to the mouth 
of Shell River, on the Assiniboine, and to the westward of Fort ElHce on the Qu'Appelle.^ In the 
United States it occurs in the valley of the 



Penobscot River, in Maine 

Ri 



the 



of Lake Ch 



plain, in Vermont j in the valley of Ware River, in Massachusetts, and in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, and ranges westward to the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Montana," to western 
Nebraska ^ and central Kansas,* and southwestward to central Tennessee, the Indian Territory, and the 
valley of the Nueces River in Texas. Comparatively rare and local east of the Alleghany Mountains, 
it is common in the lowland forests of the Mississippi Basin and in eastern Texas, growing probably to 
its largest size in southern Indiana and Illinois ; ^ it is the common species of the scattered Oak forests or 
" Oak Openings " of western Minnesota, where the eastern woodlands are gradually replaced by treeless 
prairies, and in all the basin of the Red River of the North, ranging farther to the northwest than any 
other species of eastern America^ and as a low shrub maintaining a foothold in the cold dry regions of 
Manitoba, Dakota, and eastern Montana.^ It is the most frequent and generally distributed Oak of 
Nebraska, attaining a large size in canons and on river-bottoms in the extreme western part of the state, 
or remaining low and shrubby on dry hillsides- It is the most generally distributed Oak of Kansas 
also, growing to a large size near small creeks in all the eastern parts of the state, and spreading at the 
north to the valley of Bow Creek, in Philhps County, and to Sumner County in the south. 

Qiierciis viacroccuya is one of the most valuable timber-trees of North America, its wood being 
superior in strength even to that of Qitercits alha^ with which it is commercially confounded. It is 
heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, and very durable in contact with the soil. It contains 
conspicuous and often broad medullary rays and bands of from one to three rows of small open ducts 
marking the layers of annual growth, and is a dark or rich light brown in color, with thin much lighter 
colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7453, a cubic foot weighing 
46.45 pounds. It is used in ship and boat building, for constructions of all sorts, and the interior 
finish of houses, in cabinet-making, in 



cooperage, m 



the manufacture of carriages, agricultural imple- 
ments, and baskets, for railway ties and fencing, and for fuel. 

Qiierciis macrocarpa was discovered by the French botanist Michaux in his journey west of the 
Alleghany Mountains in the spring of 1795.^ 

The vigor and rapid growth^ of Quercus macrocarpa in cultivation, the beauty of its ample deeply 
lobed leaves, with the contrasting colors of their upper and lower surfaces, its handsome fruit and its 
curious and picturesque winter aspect, when the branches are furnished with their broad wings, make 
the Bur Oak one of the most interestino^ and desirable of American Oaks as an ornamental tree where it 
can be given room for its free development. 



1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 48. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. when he was within twelve miles of Nashville, Michaux makes the 



1879-80, 47^ — Macoun, Cat Can. PL 441. 



Winchell 



W; 



first mention of Quercus macrocarpa as " Quercus glandibus magnis, 

Oak:' (See Proc. 



White 



Nebraska 



jf A ndre 



Nebraska 



State Board Agric. 1894, 109. ^ The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 

^ Mason, Eighth Bienn. Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 271 ; Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 



Garden and Forest, iv. 508, 

s Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 81. 



obtained from the neighborhood of AUenton, Missouri, is thirty- 
two and a half inches in diameter inside the bark, and shows two 



Quercus stellaia, y depressa, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt, ii. 22 hundred and fifty-three layers of annual growth, fourteen of which 



(1864). 

' In an entry for the 15th of June, 1795, written in his journal 



are of sapwood. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXXL Quercus macrocarpa 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 



Plate OCCLXXIL Quercus macrocarpa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, natural size, 

3. A fruit, natural size. 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCLXXIII. Quercus macrocarpa. 

1. A branch with immature fruit, natural size 

2. A fruit, natural size, 

3. A fruit, natural size. 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of ISIorth America. 



Tab. CCCLXXI. 




(t 



2 




C.E.FaccoTv deL. 



Mi^n,ecLuci> so. 



QUERCUS MACRO CARPA, Miclix. 





i. 



Imp . kJ, Tcuieur, Far up. 



Silva of Worth America. 



Tab- CCCLXXII 







ine^ j-o. 



QUERCUS MACRO CARPA,Micbc. 



A.Riocreua> dire^z^^ 



Imp . ^. Timezir, Paris 



Silva of ISlorfh America 



Ta"b. CCCLXX:iIl. 




I 



C.E. 




n/ 




Rapine^ so. 



gUERCUS MACRO CARPA, Michx. 



A.Iiiocreic2> dJrea>^ 



Imp . c/ Tayte^^r^ Parlr 



CUPULIFEK^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



47 



QUERCUS LYRATA. 



Overcup Oak. Swamp White Oak. 



Leaves obovate-oblong, deeply 5 to 9-lobed, or pinnatifid, pubescent and usuall} 
silvery wbite on the lower surface. 



Quercus lyrata, Walter, Fl. Car. 235 (1788). — Smith & 
Abbot, Insects of Georgia, ii. 165, t. 83. — Michaux, Hist. 
Chenes Am. No. 3, t. 4 ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 195. — Willde- 
now, Spec. iv. pt. i. 453. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 570. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 224. — Michaux f . H 
Arh. Am. ii. 42, t. 5. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 632. 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215. — Nouveau Duliamel, vii. 181. 



Elliott, Sh. ii. 607. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 864. 



Sj)ach, 



Hist. Veg. xi. 156. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 311. — Curtis, 
Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 33. — Chapman, Fl. 

m w 

A. cle Candolle, Prodr. xvl. pt. ii. 19. — Orsted, 



423. 

Vidensk. Medd.fra nat. For. Kjbhenh. 1866, 66. 



Wes- 



HoTt 



Koch, 



Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 53. — Engelmanrij Trans. St, Louis Acad. 



111. 



389. 



Ridgway, Froc. TJ, S. Nat. Mas. v. 80. 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 295. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. A')n. 10th Census U. S. ix. 140. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bat. 
Gart. Berlin^ iii. 178. — Houba, Chenes Ahi. en BelgiquCj 



73, t. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 475. 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam, 146, t. 1, 2. — Dippel, Handb, 
Laubholzk. ii. 78, f. 31. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
127. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 414 {Man. 
FL W. Texas). 



A tree, rarely one hundred feet in height, with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter, 
generally dividing, fifteen or twenty feet above the base, into comparatively small often pendulous 
branches which form a handsome symmetrical round-topped head and sometimes sweep the ground with 
their extremities ; or the trunk forks at narrow angles, and the branches, spreading gradually, form an 
oblong head; or they grow nearly horizontally and form a wider and less symmetrical head. The 
bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and is light gray tinged, 
sometimes conspicuously, with red, and broken into thick plates se^^arating on the surface into thin 
irregular appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and covered with pale lenticels, and when they 
first appear are green more or less tinged with red and pilose with scattered pale hairs, or pubescent ; 
during their first winter they are light or dark orange-colored or grayish brown and glabrous or rarely 
puberulous ; and growing darker, in their second year ultimately become ashy gray or light brown. 
The buds are ovate, obtuse, about an eighth of an inch long, and covered with Hght chestnut-brown 
scales, which are clothed, especially near the margins, with loose pale tomentum. The leaves are convo- 
lute in the bud, obovate-oblong, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base and divided into from 
five to nine lobes by deep or shallow sinuses, those near the middle of the leaf being often wide, and 
round, straight, or oblique at the bottom ; the terminal lobe is oblong-ovate, usually broad, acute at the 



;wo small entire nearly triangular lateral lobes ; the upper lateral 
broad and slightly or deeply emarginate, or narrowed and acute 



elongated apex, and furnished with 

lobes are oblong, ovate or obovate, 

and often auriculate on the lower edge, and much longer than those below them, which 



ded 



at the ends, usually 
lobes; when they unfold the lea 
surface and coated on the 



tire and nearly twice as long as the nearly triangular entire basal 

ves are bronze-green and pilose with caducous hairs on the upper 

lower with thick pale tomentum, and are furnished on the teeth with smaU. 



dark glands 



; at maturity they are thin and firm, dark green and glabrous above, silvery white or rarely 
light green and coated with pale pubescence below, from seven to eight inches long and from one to 



upper lobes, with stout yellow midribs and primary 



four inches broad across the 

points of the lobes, which are usually tipped with minute points, and obsci 

are borne on stout grooved glabrous or pubescent petioles from one third of 



reticulate 



\ 



ing^ to the 

ilets ; they 
*ly an inch 



48 



SILVA OF NORTH AiMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



in leno'tli, and before falling- in the autumn turn bright scarlet or scarlet and orange. The stipules are 



& 



linear-obovate or linear-lanceolate, brown and scarious and coated with pale hairs, those of the last leaves 



of the season often remaining on the branch during the following winter. 



The flowers appear 



during 



about a third grown. 



The stami- 



the calyx is Hght 



March and April with the unfolding o£ the leaves^ or when they are 

nate flowers are produced in slender hairy aments from four to six inches in length ; 

yellow covered on the outer surface with pale hairs and divided into acute segments ; the anthers are 

acute^ glabrous^ and yeflow. The pistillate flowers are sessile or pedunculate^ and are covered^ as are 

theu^ stalks^ with long thick pale tomentum. The acorns are sessile or are often borne on slender 

pubescent peduncles marked with pale lenticels and sometimes an inch or an inch and a half in length ; 



the nut varies in shape from subglobose to ovate or rarely to ovate-oblong, and from half an inch 
to nearly an inch in length, and usually its breadth 



at the base is greater than its length ; 



it is 



light chestnut-brown and covered at the apex and often on the sides also with short pale pubescence ; 
the cup is ovate or rarely deeply cup-shaped or nearly spherical, and almost or entirely incloses the nut, 
or rarely only its lower half j it is thin and woody, bright red-brown and pubescent on the inner 
surface and hoary-tomentose on the outer, which is covered by ovate united scales produced into free 
acute tips ; these are usually much thickened and contorted at the base of the cup, and, gradually 
growing thinner above, form a ragged edge to its thin and often irregularly split margin.^ 

QuercKS lyrata inhabits river-swamps or small deep depressions in rich bottom-lands often filled 
with Avater and usually wet throughout the year, and is distributed from the valley of the Patuxent 
River in southern Maryland ^ southward near the coast to western Florida, through the Gulf states to 
the valley of the Trinity River in Texas, through Arkansas ^ and southwestern Missouri, where, in a 
swamp near Allenton, there is a single specimen, the most northern known representative of the species 
west of the Mississippi River, to central Tennessee, southern Indiana, and Jasper County, Illinois.* 
Rare in the Atlantic and eastern Gulf states, it is most common and grows to its largest size in the 
valley of the Red River in Louisiana and the adjacent parts of Texas and Arkansas; and in southern 
Illinois on the swampy bottom-lands of the Fox River it is the prevailing species of the forest. 

The wood of Quercns lyrata is heavy, hard, strong, tough, and very durable in contact with 



ground, but is rather liable to check 

bands of from one to three rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual 

dark brown, with thick li2"hter colo 



contact with the 
It contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and 

►wth, and is rich 



ed sapwood. The specific gravity of 



absolutely dry wood 



0.8313, a cubic foot weighing 51.81 pounds. Commercially it is confounded with the wood of Quercus 
aTba^ and is used for the same purposes. 

Although introduced into English plantations by John Fraser^ as early as 1786,^ Quercus lyrata 

It is well established, however, in the Arnold Arboretum, proving 



still little k 



in cultivation. 



perfectly hardy in the climate of eastern Massachusetts 



1 It is only from trees found by Dr. Charles Mohr In December, 



Quercus lyrata was discovered in Maryland in September, 1890 



1880, on Peyton's Creek, Matagorda Coimty, Texas, that I have by Mr. Robert Ridgway. (See Garden and Forest iii. 129.) 



seen acorns with deeply cup-shaped cups embracing only from one 
half to one third of the oblone- ovate or oval nut TPlate ceclxxiv. 



^ Harvey, Am» Jour. Forestry^ i. 453. 

^ The most northern recorded station of Quercus lyrata in Illi- 
f. 6). The leaves on this tree are oblong-oval, crenately or undu- nois is at Rafe's Mill on the Embarras River in the southeastern 
lately lobed with small nearly triangular acute or rounded lobes corner of Jasper County. (See Ridgway, Proc. U, S. Nat. Mus. 
four or five inches in length, thick and firm in texture, dark green xvii. 413.) 



on the upper surface and pale and pubescent on the lower (Plate 
ceclxxiv. f. 8). 



6 See i. 8. 

^ Alton, HorL Kew. ed. 2, v, 295. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1871, 
f. 1733, 1734. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE- 



Plate CCCLXXIV. Quercus lykata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 

7. Part of the base of a cup, enlarged. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

10. An axillary winter-bud with persistent stipule, enlarged 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCLXXIV, 




O.E.FcLxoTh del. 




rzcn. sc. 



QUERCUS LYRATA.Walt. 



A.Jiu?crecaz> tHrea^-z' 



Imp . tl ToTL&ur^ Pciri^ . 



CUPULIFERiE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



51 



QUERCUS PRINUS. 



Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak 



Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate-acuminate, coarsely crenately toothed with 
rounded or acute teeth. 



Quercus Prinus, Linnaeus, Spec. 995 (1753). — Miller, ? Quercus Prinus, ^ oblongata, Aiton, HorU Kew. iii 



Diet. ed. 8, No. 9. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 252. 



Du 



356 (1789) . 



Eoi, Harhk. Baumz. ii. 276, t. 6, f. 3, — Wangenheim, Quercus Prinus (Monticola), Michaux, Hist. Chenes 



8. 



h^eib. Nordam. Holz. 58 ; Nordam. Holz. 15, t. 4, f. 
Lamarck, Diet. i. 720. — Moench, Baume Weiss. 



94 ; Meth. 348. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 69. 
Willdenow, Bert. Baumz. 271 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 439 ; Enum. 
975. 



82. 



Smith & Abbot, iTiseets of Georgia^ ii. 163, t. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. GeselL 



Nat. Ft. Berlin^ iii. 397. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 568, 



Am. No. 5, t. 7 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 196. — Mi- 
chaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 55, t. 8. — Spach, Hist. 

Veg. xi. 158. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 34. — Chapman, Fl. 424. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 21. — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 451. — Wesmael, Bull. 
Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg. 1869, 339, t. 4. — BaUey, Am. Nat. 
xiv. 892, f . 1-4. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 



Hist 



Mat. Med, 



179. 



Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 85. 



IV. 



407. 



Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215. — Nouveau Buhamel^ Quercus montana, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 440 (1805) ; 



vii. 164. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 155. — Sprengel, Syst. iii* 



859. 



Audubon, Birds, t. 50, 131. — Spach, Hist. Veg. 



Enum. 975; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 340. — Persoon, >S?/w.. 
ii. 569. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 634. — Nuttall, Gen. 



xi. 157. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 308. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 267. — Chapman, Fl. 423. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. 
fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 67. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. 



11. 



216. 



Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 165, t. 47, f. 2. 



Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 156. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 609. — Bigelow, 
Fl. Boston, ed. 2, 352. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 860. — 



ii. 48. 



Engelm; 



iii. 390, 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 294. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S- ix. 142. — Houba, Chenes 
Am. en Belgique, 279, t. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 145, 



t. 2. 



Watson & Coulter, Grays Man. ed. 6, 476. 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 127. — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xiv. 
616, f. 101. 



Quercus Prinus, 

(1789). 



u. 



lata, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 356 



— Em- 
erson, Trees Mass. 138, t. 6 ; ed. 2, i. 156, t. — Torrey, 
Fl. N. Y. ii. 192. — Gray, Man. 414. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestr. ed. 3, 266. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 308. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. 294. 

Quercus Castanea, Emerson, Trees Mass. 137, t. 5 (not 
N^e nor Willdenow) (1838) ; ed. 2, i. 155, t. 

? Quercus Prinus, a parvif olia, Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 
ii. 85, f. 35 (1892). 



A tree, usually sixty or seventy or occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a trunk three or 
four, or rarely six or seven, feet in diameter, divided, generally fifteen or twenty feet above the surface 
of the ground, into large limbs which spread into a broad rather open irregular head ; or on dry exposed 
mountain-slopes often not more than twenty or thirty feet tall, with a trunk from eight to twelve inches 
in diameter. The bark of young stems and small branches is thin, smooth, purpHsh brown, and often 
lustrous, and on old trunks and large limbs it is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness, dark reddish brown or nearly black, and divided into broad rounded longitudinal ridges 
separating on the surface into smaU closely appressed scales. The branchlets are stout and marked 



with scattered pale lenticels, and when they first appear are green 



tinged 



with purple or bronze- 



color and glabrous, or 



pilose with long pale hairs; during their first winter they vary from Hght 



orange-color to reddish brown, and in their second year become dark gray or brown. The buds are 
ovate, acute or acuminate, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and are covered with hght 
chestnut-brown scales more or less pilose toward the apex, and ciHate on the margins with pale hairs. 
The leaves are convolute in the bud, obovate or oblong to lanceolate, gradually or abruptly wedge- 
shaped, or rounded or subcordate at the narrowed base, acute, or acuminate with short or elongated 
pointed or rounded tips, or rounded at the apex, and regularly and coarsely crenulate-toothed, except 



52 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



toward the base, with rounded or acute sometmies nearly triangular oblique teeth, or rarely obscurely 
sinuately toothed with oblong rounded teeth ; when they unfold they are orange-green or bronze-red 
and very lustrous on the upper surface, which is glabrous with the exception of the slightly pilose 
midribs, and on the under surface are green and coated with soft pale pubescence ; at maturity they 
are thick and firm or subcoriaceous, yellow-green and rather lustrous above, and paler and covered 
with fine pubescence below, with stout yellow midribs slightly impressed on the upper side and 
conspicuous primary veins which run to the points of the teeth or fork before reaching the margins and 
are connected by rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets 5 they are from four and a half to nine mches 
in length and from an inch and a half to three inches and a half in width, those near the bottom of 
the tree being often much broader than those on fertile upper branches ; they are borne on stout or 
slender petioles varying from half an inch to an inch in length, and fall in the autumn after turning 
a dull orange-color or rusty brown. The stipules are linear-obovate to lanceolate, scarious, hirsute, 
green below, brown above the middle, from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and caducous. 
The flowers appear in May and June, when the leaves are about a third grown, and are borne, the 
staminate in elongated hirsute aments, and the pistillate in short spikes on stout puberulous dark 
green peduncles marked with pale lenticels. The calyx of the staminate flower is light yellow, pilose 
and deeply divided usually into from seven to nine narrow acute segments scarious and reddish brown 
toward the margins and tipped with clusters of pale hau's ; the stamens equal its divisions in number 
and are composed of slender light yellow glabrous filaments and oblong bright yellow glabrous emar- 
ginate anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are coated with pale hairs ; the stigmas 
are dark red. The acorns are borne on short stout stems, singly or often in pairs ; the nut is oval or 
ovate, rounded and rather obtuse or pointed at the apex, bright chestnut-brown, very lustrous, from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length, and from five eighths of an inch to nearly an inch in breadth ; the 
cup, which incloses about half the nut or sometimes only its base, is cup-shaped or turbinate, thin, light 
brown and pubescent on the inner surface, and reddish brown and hoary-pubescent on the outer surface, 
which is roughened or tuberculate, especially toward the base ; the scales are rather small, with a 
thickened and knob-Hke base, small thin nearly triangular free light brown tips, and are minute near 
the rim of the cup. 

Quercus Frinus is an Appalachian tree, and grows on hillsides and the high rocky banks of 
streams in rich and deep or sometimes in shallow and comparatively sterile soil. Inhabiting the banks 
of the Saco River and Mount Agamenticus on the coast of southern Maine,^ and the slopes of the Blue 
Hills in eastern Massachusetts, it ranges southward to Delaware and the District of Columbia ^ and 
along the mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama, and westward to the shores of Lake Champlain 
and the valley of the Genesee River in New York, and to the northern shores of Lake Erie, where 
it is found from the Niagara River to Amherstburg,^ and to central Kentucky and Tennessee. Rare 
and local in New England and Ontario, it is abundant on the banks of the lower Hudson River and on 
all the Appalachian hiUs from southern New York to Alabama, and is most common and attains its 



& 



the lower slopes of the mountains of the Carolinas and Tennessee, where, on dry hills 



often forms a large part of the forest growth. 

The wood of Quercus Frinus is heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close-grained, although difficult 
to season, and durable in contact with the soil ; it is dark brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood, and 



broad conspicuous medullary rays and large open ducts marking the layers of 



i=> 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7499, a cubic foot weighing 46.73 pounds. It 



gely used in fencing, for railway ties, and for fuel 



1 Emerson, Trees Mass. 137. 



in Maine has generally been overlooked by subsequent writers on 



Although Quercus Prinus was collected by William Oakes on the American flora. 
Mount Agamenticus, where it was found by Emerson, who also ^ L_ -p. Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mm. No. 22, 113 {Fl. Wash- 

saw it farther north on the Saco River, the fact of its occurrence ington). 

8 Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 442. 



CUPULIFER^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



The bark, which is rich in tannin and is considered more valuable than that of other American 
White Oaks, is consumed in large quantities for tanning leather.^ 

Quercus Prinus was one of the first American Oaks known to Europeans. Mentioned by Eay in 



U 



1688 in the Historia Plantavura^ it was first figured and described by Plukenet in his Phytograpltkt 
three years later^ and^ according to Aiton/ was cultivated in EngHsh gardens in 1730. 

Few of the Oaks of eastern America surpass this species in the beauty of strength and vigor ; it 
often grows to a venerable age^^ and^ always an interesting and handsome object^ is perha])8 most attractive 
in the hazy light of a warm autumn day, when the sunlight, flickering through the branches, illumines 

its dusky stem and yellow leaves. 



1 Trimble, The Tannins, ii. 15, f. 3-5. 



* HorL Kew. iii. 356. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iu. 1873, f. 1736 



2 Quercus Virginiana Castanece folio, ii. 1801. — Breyne, Prodr. (^Quercus Prinus Monticold), 



ed. 1739, 93. 



5 One of the most interesting Oak-trees in the United States is 



2 Quercus castanece foliis procera arhor Virgiyiiana, L 54:, i. 3 ; Aim. a Chestnut Oak standing on the banks of the Hudson River, at 



Bot. 309. 



Presqu'ile, near Fishkill-on-the-Hudson, under which Washington 



Quercus foliis obverse ovatis utrinque acuminatis serratis : denticulis in 1782 and 1783 used to mount his horse when he went from his 
rotundatis uniformibus, Linnseus, HorL Cliff. 448. — Clayton, Fl, headquarters on the west bank of the Hudson to the army encamped 



Virgin. 117. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 80. 



at Fishkill. This tree, which is still in vigorous condition, although 



The early description of the Chestnut Oak might apply as well its companion was blown down several years ago, has a fcriiuk 



Oak (Quercus Michauxii) 



diameter of seven feet, and is believed to be several hundred years 



which does not grow near the coast of Virginia, where, however, old, as a century ago it was already famous for its size and age 



first (Garden and Forest, i. 511, f. 81). 



of the Chestnut Oaks noticed by Europeans. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



Plate CCCLXXV. Quercus Prestus 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A leaf, natui'al size. 



Plate CCCLXXVI. Quercus Prijstus. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cup, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Part of the base of a cup, enlarged. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCLXXV. 




2 




^ 





C. E, Fa3:x)n^ deZ 




LTZe, sc- 



QUERCUS PRINUS, L. 





Imp. J. Taneur^ Paris . 



Silva. of North America. 



Tah. CCCLXXVl 




C.£, Falcon del 



KajJLne' sc. 



OUERCUS PRINUS. L 



A.Riocreua> cUr-em. 



Imp. J. Tan&ur, Paris 



CUPULIFEILa:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



55 



QUEROUS ACUMINATA. 



Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak. 



Leaves oblong or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, or broadly obovate, ^ 
ately toothed, puberulous, pale, and often silvery white on the lower surface 



Qualh 



Quercus acuminata 



Garden and Forest, viii 



93 (1895). 



acuminata, Michaux, Hist 



No. 5, t. 8 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am, ii. 196. — Michaux 
f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 61. t. 9. 



167. 



Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 

Gray, Man. ed. 5, 451. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. 

xvi. pt. ii. 21. — Wesmael, Bull. Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg. 

1869, 339. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 284. 

Quercus Castanea, Willdenow, Muehlenberg & Willdenow 



Sprengel, Syst. iii. 860. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 168. — Tor- 
rey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 193. — Gray, Man. 416. — Darlington, 
Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 267. — Brendel, Trans. III. Agric. Soc. 
iii. 619, t. 4. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Sum. N. Car. 1860, 

Chapman, Fl. 424. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd, 



34. 



fra not. For. Kjohenh. 1866, 68; Liehmann Chenes 
Am. Trop. t. H, K, 33, f. 31, 32. — Vasey, Am. Ent. and 
Bat. ii. 281, f. 173. — Dipjiel, Handb. Laubholzk. 86, f. 



36. 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 127. 



Neue Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii. 396 (not N^e) Quercus Muehlenbergii, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 



(1801) ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 441 ; Enum. 976 ; Berl. Baumz. 
ed. 2, 341. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. — Bosc, Mem. Inst. 



Acad. iii. 391 (1877). — Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 

xiii. 40. 



Nat. Sci. Phys. Math. viii. pt. i. 341. — Stokes, Bot. Quercus prinoides, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 



Mat. Med. iv. 407. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 634. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 219. — Nuttall, Gen. ii 
216. — Hayne, De7idr. Fl. 156. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 610. 



Censics U. S. ix. 142 (in part) (not Willdenow) (1884) 
Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 145, t. 1, 2. 



A tree, from eighty to one hundred or 



ally one hundred and sixty feet in height, with 



tall 



& 



ht trunk th 



or four feet in diameter above the broad and often buttressed base and 



comparatively small branches which form a shapely narrow round-topped head ; or east of the AUeghany 
Mountains and on dry hills often not more than twenty or thirty feet tall. The bark of the trunk is 
rarely more than half an inch in thickness and is broken on the surface into thin loose silvery gray or 
nearly white scales, sometimes slightly tinged with brown. The branchlets are slender and marked 
with scattered pale lenticels, and when they first appear are green, more or less tinged with red or 
purple, and pilose with scattered pale hairs ; during their first winter they are light orange-colored or 
reddish brown, and, gradually growing darker, become dark brown or orange-colored in their second 
year, and ultimately gray or brown. The buds are ovate, acute, from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an 
inch in length, and covered with chestnut-brown scales white and scarious on the margins. The leaves, 
which are usually crowded at the ends of the branches, are convolute in the bud, oblong or lanceolate 
or broadly obovate, abruptly or gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or slightly narrowed and rounded 
or cordate at the base, acute, or acuminate at the apex with long and narrow or with short and broad 
points, equally serrate except at the base, the teeth, which are acute and often inflexed or broad and 
rounded, being tipped with small glandular mucros ; or the leaves are rarely sHghtly undulate ; when they 
unfold they are bright bronzy green and puberulous on the upper surface, and tinged with purple, and 
coated on the lower with pale tomentum which soon disappears, leaving in the axils of the veins tufts 
of pale hairs which are very conspicuous when the leaves are about haH grown ; at maturity they are 
thick and firm in texture, light yeUow-green above, pale, often silvery white, and coated with short fine 
pubescence below, from four to seven inches long, and from one to five inches broad, with stout yeUow 
midribs impressed on the upper side, and conspicuous primary veins running obliquely to the pomts of 
the teeth and connected by reticulate cross veinlets ; they are borne on slender nearly terete or shglitly 
flattened petioles varying from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length, and in the 



56 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



autumn, before falliuQ-. turn orange-color and scarlet.^ The stipules are linear-obovate 



o 



b 



d 



and caducous. The aments of 



flowers are three or four inches 



long, with slender yellow-green pilose ste 
fall until they are nearly half grown ; 



appearin 



the unfolding of 



the 



do not 



the calyx is light yellow, hairy, and deeply divided into 



lanceolate ciliate segments ; the anthers are oblong, slightly emarginate, yellow 



glabrous. 



The 



pistillate flowers, which are 



bo 



like their peduncles, with th 



white tomentum ; the stigmas are bright red. The fruit is sessile or raised on a short stout ped 



and is solitary or often in pairs; the nut is broadly 



or 



rowed 



an 



d 



nded at the 



pubescent apex, from half an inch 



ly an inch 



& 



hofht chestnut-brown, and contains a 



sometimes edible seed ; the cup, which embraces about half the nut, is 



shaped, thin, hght 



brown and pubescent on the inner, and hoary 



on the outer surface, which 



ed with 



small obtuse scales, more or less thickened and rounded on the back toward the base of the cuj), the 
small free red-brown points of the upper ranks forming a minute fringe-like border to its rim.^ 



Q 



acuminata is distributed from Gardner's Island 



Lake Chami3lain, and the banks of 



the Hudson River north of the city of Newburgh^ westward through southern Ontario ^ to southeastern 
Nebraska^ and eastern Kansas/ and southward in the Atlantic states to the District of Columbia^ and 
the valley of the upper Potomac River and^ west of the Alleghany Mountains^ to central Alabama and 
Mississippi^ and through Arkansas ^ and northern Louisiana to the eastern borders of the Indian 
Territory and to the valley of the Nueces River in Texas^ reaching the western limits of its range in 
the caiions of the Guadaloupe Mountains in the extreme western part of this state.^ Rare and 
comparatively local in the Atlantic states, where it is usually found on limestone soil, it is exceedingly 
abundant in the Mississippi basin, growing on limestone ridges or sometimes on dry flinty hills and 
on deep rich bottom lands and the rocky banks of streams, and probably attains its largest size on the 
bottoms of the lower Wabash River and its tributaries in southern Indiana and Illinois.^ 

The wood of Quercns acimihiata is heavy, hard, very strong, close-grained, and durable in contact 
with the soil, but liable to check badly in drying. It is dark brown, with thin light-colored sapwood, 
and contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of small open ducts marking the layers of 



annual growth. 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8605, a cubic foot weighing 



53.63 pounds. It is largely used in cooperage and the manufacture of wheels, for fencing, and for 

railway ties. 



Its 



tall straight stem, its pale and often snow-white bark, and its long leaves hanging close to the 
branches or fluttering on their slender stalks with the faintest breeze, now yeUow-green and then silvery 



^ In the Atlantic states the leaves of this tree are usually are deeply divided in the middle by a pair of broad oblique sinuses, 

oblong-lanceolate and long-acuminate, with sharp often inflexed the upper half of the leaf being sinuately lobed and the lower 

teeth, and are from four to six inches in length and from one to divided into two pairs of narrow acute and usually entire lobes, 

two inches in width. West of the Alleghany Mountains, especially The fruit is short-stalked, with an oval pilose nut half an inch 

when growing on deep rich bottom-lands, it produces, even on fertile long, inclosed to the acute apex in a deep cup-shaped cup, with 

branches, broader obovate mostly short-pointed and larger leaves the hoary basal scales of Quercus macrocarpa^ bui 

with broad, rounded teeth. Such leaves, while they resemble in ginal fringe. 



without 



8 Macoun, Cat Can, PL 442. 



outline those of Quercus Prinus, can be distinguished from them 

by the presence of the glandular tips on the teeth. Ovate acute ^ Besse; 

leaves, rounded at the broad bases with only slightly undulate glan- prinoides). 

dular margins, were found in 1879 near the Chain Bridge, in the 

District of Columbia, by L. F. "Ward, whose specimens are pre- Garden and Forest, iv. 508. 



Nebraska 



(Quercus 



^ Mason, Eighth Bienn, Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 272 ; 



served in the National Herbarium. 

- A tree foimd by Mr. E. J. Hill at Robey, Indiana, in 1892, is 
possibly a hybrid between Quercus acuminata and Quercus macro- 
carpa. The leaves are oblong or slightly obovate, acute, dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, and silvery white and 
pubescent on the lower. Some individuals are regularly sinuately 
lobed with small acute or rounded gland-tipped lobes, and others 



Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 113 (Ft. Wash 



t07l) . 



454 



\uercus acuminata 



Arkansas 



Nat. Mus 



9 



Bidgway, Proc, U. S, Nat. Mus, v. 82 ; xvii. 415. 



cupuLiTERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



57 



white as first the upper and then the lower surface is turned to the eye, make the Yellow Oak one of 
the most heautiful trees of the regions in which it attains its finest development. Little known in 
cultivation, although it is said to have been planted in England in 1822,^ the Yellow Oak is well worthy 
of a place in the parks and pleasure-grounds of the eastern United States. 

1 Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1875, f . 1637. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXVIL Quercus acuminata 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A leaf, natural size- 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

7. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North. America. 



Tab. CCCLXXVII. 




C, E. FcuEon del . 



QUERCUS ACUMINATA, Saxg. 



Jiimali/ sc 



A .RLocreua::' cHreaz. 



Imp . J. Tanezcr^ Paris 



CUPULIFER^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



QUERCUS PRINOIDES 



Chinquapin Oak. 



Leaves usually obovate-oblong, wedge-shaped at the base, undulate-toothed with 
ounded or acute teeth, soft-pubescent and often silvery white on the lower surface. 



Quercus prinoides, Willclenow, Muehlenherg & Willdenoic Quercus Prinus (pumila), Michaux, Hist. ChPnes Am. No 



Neue Schrift. GeselL Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii. 397 (1801) ; 
Spec. iv. pt. i. 440. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 568. — Poiret, 



5, t. 9, f. 1 (not Quercxis ^9?o/n7a., Walter) (1801) ; Fl 
Bor.-Am. ii. 196. 



Lam. Diet. Suppl. 
166. 



11. 



219. 



Noitveaiv Diihamelj vii, Quercus Prinus Chincapin, Micbaux f. Hisf. Arb. Am 



Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 193, t, 109. — Darlington, FL 
Cestr. ed. 3, 267. — Dietrich, Sy7i. v. 309. — Chapman, 
;FI, 424. — Vasey, A77u Ent and Bat. ii. 281, f . 174. 



ii. 64, t. 10 (1812). — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



1. 



Wesmael, BidL Fed. Hort. Soc. Belg. 1869, 339. 



Wenzig, Jahrh. BoU Gart. Berlbij iii. 180. 



Koch, i>encZr- ii. pt. ii. 49. — Engelmann, Tmns. >S/. Zoi^/s Quercus Chinquapin, Pursh, FL Am. Se/jf. ii. 634 
Acad. iii. 391. — Watson & Coulter, Gh 

476. 



Handb 



Quercus Prinus humilis, Marshall, Arhust. Am, 125 

(not Qiiereiis humilis, Lamarck) (1785). — Castiglioni, 



(1814). — Nuttall, 6^671. ii. 216. — Elliott, SL ii. 611.— 

Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 2, 536. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. 140 ; ed. 2, i. 158, t. — Bigelow, FL Boston, ed. 3, 



Oi i . 



Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 346. — Gray, ilia?z. edo 5, Quercus Muehlenbergii, var. humilis, Britton, Bnll 



452. 



Torreij Bat. Club, xiii. 41 (1886). 



A shrub^ spreading into broad clumps by vigorous prolific stolons^ Tvith slender stems usually from 
two to four feet in height ; or occasionally ^ in the east^ from twelve to fifteen feet tall^ and in the prairie 
regions of Missouri and Kansas sometimes almost tree-like in habit^, with trunks covered with pale 
scaly bark^ often four or five inches in diameter and from ten to fifteen feet in height. The branchlets 
are slender and marked with conspicuous pale lenticels, which persist for many years, and when 
they first appear are dark green tinged with red and covered with pale scurfy caducous pubescence ; 
during their first winter they are orange or reddish brown, and, becoming brown tinged with red in 
their second year, they ultimately turn dark brown. The buds are ovate or subglobose, and obtuse 
or slightly narrowed at the apex, about an eighth of an inch in length, and covered with light chestnut- 
brown scales thin and scarious on the margins. The leaves are convolute in the bud, ovate-oblong or 
rarely oblong, usually gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped, or rarely rounded at the broader entire 
base, acute or acuminate at the apex, coarsely undulate-toothed with equal acute incurved or with broad 
rounded teeth tipped with small glandular mucros ; when they unfold they are orange-red and puberu- 
lous, or pilose with short pale hairs on the upper surface, red and coated on the lower with thick sil- 
very white tomentum, and furnished at the points of the teeth with large dark glands, and at maturity 
they are thin and firm, dark yeUow-green and rather lustrous above, coated Avith soft fine pubescence 
and silvery white or rarely Hght green below, from three to six inches in length and from an inch to 
three and a half inches in breadth, with slender narrow yellow midribs, primary veins running obhquely 
to the points of the teeth, and conspicuous reticulate cross veinlets ; they are borne on stout glabrous 
or puberulous petioles grooved and flattened on the upper side and from one quarter to three quarters 
of an inch in length, and in the autumn turn bri^-ht orange and scarlet before falling. The stipides are 



obovate or linear lanceolate, red above the middle, coated with pale hairs, from one half to three 
quarters of an inch long, soon becoming brown and scarious, and caducous. The flowers open in May, 
when the leaves are nearly a third grown, and are borne, the staminate in hirsute aments from an inch 
and a half to two inches and a half in length, the pistillate on short peduncles clothed, like their invo- 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupULiFERiE. 



lucral scales, with dense silvery white tomentiiin. The calyx of the pistillate flower is light yellow-green, 
coated with pale hairs on the outer surface, and divided into from five to nine acute segments ending in 
tufts of rusty haiis and shorter than the stamens, which are composed of slender elongated filaments 
and emarginate yellow glabrous anthers. The stiomas are bright red. The acorns, which are produced 



in the greatest profusion, covering the branches in favorable seasons with abundant crops, are sessile or 
are borne on short stout orange-brown stalks ; the nut is oval, rounded and obtuse at the apex, which 
is covered with white pubescence, fight chestnut-brown and lustrous, from one half to three quarters of 
an inch in length and from one third to nearly one half of an inch in breadth, with a sweet seed ; the 
cup, which embraces from one half to two thirds of the nut, is thin, deeply cup-shaped, light brown and 
pubescent on the inner surface, and hoary with pale tomentum on the outer surface, which is covered 
with loosely imbricated ovate acute scales usually considerably thickened on the back toward the base 
of the cup and ending in small acute reddish brown tips. 

Quercus iJrhioldes inhabits rocky slopes and hillsides, or, west of the Mississippi River, some- 
times low undulating prairies, and is distributed from Essex County, Massachusetts, to North Carolina,^ 
and westward to southeastern Nebraska,^ central Kansas,^ the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas.* 

First described by Plukenet in 1696,^ this pretty shrub was, according to Loudon,^ introduced into 
Eno^lish gardens in 1823. 



& i3 



N. 



Nebraska 



8 Mason, Eighth Bienn. Rep. Slate Board Agric. Kansas, 272. 
4 Coulter, Conirih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 415 (Man. PI. W. Tea 



^ Quercus pumilis Castanece folio Virginiensis, The Ch 
Oak, Aim. Bat. 309. — Diihamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 203 
« Arb. Brit. iii. 1875. f . 1738. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXVIII. Quercus prinoides. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

9. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of "North. America. 



Tah. CCCLXXVIII 




C. E . F accoTV del/. 



3foivKida' so. 



QUERCUS PRINOIDES, Willi. 



■L 





Imp. cZ Tane^^r^ Pcirir 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMEPtlCA. 



61 



QUERCUS SADLERIANA. 



Leaves oval to oboyate, coarsely denticulate, thick and coriaceous, pale and usuall} 
puberulous on the lower surface, persistent during the winter. 



Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vii. 249 (1871). — Watson 



xxii. 477. — Greene, Wi 



A shrub, with slender ashy gray stems from three to six feet tall, forming large thickets. The 
branchlets are stout and marked with oblong scattered pale lenticels ; when they first appear they are 
green tinged with red and glabrous or pilose with occasional caducous pale hairs, and during their first 
winter they are light orange-colored or light reddish brown, becoming ashy gray m their second or 
third year. The buds are ovate, obtuse, bright red-brown, covered with loose pale hairs, and from one 
quarter to one third of an inch in length, the scales of the inner ranks being coated with thick white 
tomentum. The leaves are convolute in the bud, oval or slightly obovate, wedge-shaped or rounded 
equally or unequally at the narrow base, acute or rounded at the apex, and coarsely dentate with 
incurved gland-tipped teeth ; when they unfold they are thin, bronze-green and puberulous on the 
upper surface, and pale or silvery white and coated with soft short pubescence on the lower, and at 
maturity are thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, and paler, sometimes 
silvery white, and glabrous or puberulous below ; they are from two to four inches in length and from 
one to two inches in breadth, with slender midribs rounded on the upper side, and simple or rarely 
forked oblique veins running to the points of the teeth and connected by obscure reticulate cross 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout glabrous grooved petioles varying from half an inch to nearly an inch 
in length, and, turning yellow in the autumn, remain on the branches until after the appearance of the 
leaves of the following year. The stipules are obovate, pointed, narrowed into long slender stalks, 
coated with long loose white tomentum and often nearly an inch long, those of the last leaves being^ 
usually persistent on the branches during the winter. The staminate flowers are subtended by linear 
hairy bracts, and are produced in slender glabrous aments three or four inches in length from the 
inner scales of the terminal bud and from the axils of the first four or five leaves ; the calyx is light 
yellow, pubescent, and divided into ovate acute lobes much shorter than the stamens, from five to nine 
in number, which are composed of slender filaments and oblong pointed glabrous yellow anthers. The 
pistillate flowers are borne in few-flowered spikes on stout peduncles in the axils of the upper leaves^ 
and, like the involucral bracts, are covered with dense pale tomentum; the stigmas are bright red. 
The acorn is sessile or short-stalked, and usuaUy solitary ; the nut is oval, rounded or acute at the 
apex, about three quarters of an inch long, light chestnut-brown, and slightly puberulous ; the cup^ 
which incloses about a third of the nut, is cup-shaped, thin, light brown, and coated with soft white 
hairs on the inner surface, and reddish brown and tomentose on the outer surface, which is covered 

* 

by small ovate acute scales with minute free tips, and thick and rounded on the back toward the base 
of the cup. 

Quercus Sadler iana is confined to the high slopes of the mountain ranges of the coast region of 
southwestern Oregon and northwestern Cahfornia, forming vast thickets on the Siskiyou Mountains 
between four and nine thousand feet above the level of the sea. 



un 



Discovered in southern Oregon in 1852 or 1853 by John Jeffrey, the Scotch collector, whose spe 
1 of a sterile branch is preserved in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, ii 



G2 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



remained unknown until its rediscovery by Robert Brown^^ wbo^ in September^ 1865^ found it 

the California boundary o: 
and distinct plant/ the 



elevation of 



thousand feet above the 



of the 



sea 



an 
the 



Crescent City trail^ and published the first description of this beautiful 
Chestnut Oak of Pacific North America, with which he afterward assoc 




ated the name of John Sadie 



3 



retary of the Botanical Society of Edinbur 



^ Robert Brown, who affixes Campsteriensis to his name to dis- - Quercus sp. nov. No. 253, The Partner, May 16, 1866. 
tinguish himself from the other botanist of the same name, was ^ John Sadler (1837-1882) was born at Gibblcston in Fifeshire, 
born in Caithness, Scotland, in 18J:2, and received the degree of Scotland, and in his infancy was carried to Moncriffe, where his father 
Doctor of Science from the University of Rostock with a thesis on was gardener to Sir Thomas Moncriffe, Here his early years were 
the North American species of Thuya and Libocedrus. From 1861 spent, and on the completion of his schooling he became bis father's 
to 1866 Dr. Brown traveled in America from Venezuela and the assistant. In 1854 he joined the staff of the Edinburgh Botanic 
"West Indies to Alaska and the shores of Behriug's Sea. As botanist Garden, and at the end of a few years was made assistant to Pro- 
of the British Columbia Exploring Expedition he visited the then fessor Balfour, a position which he filled for nearly a quarter of a 
little known interior regions of A^ancouver's Island and southern century. In 1858 he was chosen assistant secretary of the Botanical 
Oregon. Beturning to Europe, Dr. Brown traveled in Greenland Society of Edinburgh, to whose Transactions he was a constant 
and in the Barbary States, and has been a, lecturer on geology in contributor, and in 1862 he became secretary of the Scottish Ar- 
Scotland and a voluminous writer of popular works of science. In boricultural Society, interesting himself deeply in its affairs during 
addition to his paper on the Xorth American Thuyas he has pub- tlic remainder of his life, and contributing largely to the success of 
lished an essay on the geographical distribution of theCouiferse and its work. In 1879 he was made curator of the Edinburgh Botani- 
Gnetace?e (Ty-a^z^.^o^ jS'(9C.£'r/m&z^r^A, X. 175); descriptions of some cal Garden. His discoveries of new stations for Scottish plants 
new and little known species of Oaks from northwestern America were numerous, and his name is perpetuated by several species, 
(^Ann. and Mag, Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vii. 249) ; and Horce Si/lvance, including a small Willow which he found on the cliffs above Loch 
an incomplete work on the forests of Xorth America. Chander. (See Bailey Balfour, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh^ xvi, 11.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXIX. Quercus Sadleriana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



5, 



winter 



natural size 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCLXXIX 




C, E. Faccow deL. 



M. 



"6 



necvuay so-. 



QUERCUS SADLERIANA,R.Br.Campst. 



A . Hio creiLzy direa>^ 



Imp. Jl lane^cr, Farls 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



QUERCUS PLATANOIDES. 



Swamp White Oak. 



Leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, wedge-shaped at the base, generally coarsely 
sinuate-dentate or lobed, pubescent and usually hoary on the lower surface. 



Quercus platanoideSj Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. U. S. 
1892, 327 (1893). 

Quercus Prinus, ^ platanoides, Lamarck, Diet. i. 720 

(1783). —Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Ctdt ed. 2, vi. 423, 

Quercus alba palustris, Marshall, Arbtcst Am. 120 



(1785). 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati U^iiti, ii. 348. 



Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Netie Schrift. Gesell. Nat. 
Fr. Berlin^ iii. 395. 
Quercus Prinus tomentosa, Michaux, Hht. Chenes Am. 

t. 9 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 196. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. 
iii. 1876, f . 1739. — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 
180. 
Quercus bicolor, Willdenow, Miiehlenherg & Willdenow 
Neue Schrift Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii. 396 (1801) ; 



Darlington, FL Cestr. ed. 3, 266. — A. de Candolle, 
Prodv. xvi. pt. ii. 20 (excl. syn. Michaiixii). — Orsted, 
Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. KjohenJu 1866, 67. — Wes- 
mael, Bull. Fed. Sac. Hart. Belg. 1869, 337. —Vasey, 
Am. Ent. aiid Bot. ii. 280, f. 172. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. 
ii. 47. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 389. 
Lauche, DexUsche Dendr. 294. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 141. — Houba, Chenes Am. eii 
Belgique^ 275, t. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
476. — Mayr, Wald. Nordani. 144, t. 1, 2. — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 127. — Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzk. ii. 86. 
Quercus Prinus discolor, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 
46, t. 6 (1812). — Brendel, Trans. III. Agrlc, Soc. iii. 617, 



t. 3. 



Chapman, FL 424. 



Spec. iv. pt. i. 440. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. 
Mem. Dist. Nat. Sci. Phys, Math. viii. pt. 



Bosc, 



Quercus bicolor, p mollis, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215 (1818) ; 
Sylva^ i. 14. — Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States^ 359. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 219. — Pursh, FL Am. Sejyt. Quercus Prinus, /? bicolor, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 158 



1. o 



'^ll. 



• * 



11. 



633. 



Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 226. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 



(1842). 



215. 

860. 



Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 165. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. Quercus bicolor, ^ platanoid.es, A. de CancIoUe, Prodr. 



Emerson, Trees Mass. 135, t. 4 ; ed. 2, i. 153, t. 



Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 192. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 308. 



xvi. pt. ii. 21 (1864). — Wesmael, Bull. Fed. Soc. Hort 
Belg. 1869, 336. 



A tree, usually sixty or seventy, or, exceptionally, a hundred feet in height,^ with a trunk 



or 



three 



ally 



and rising above into a narrow ronnd-topped 



feet in diameter and rather small limbs generally pendulons below 

head, and often furnished with short lateral 

less^ and is 
overed with 



open 



pendulous branches. The bark on old trunks varies from one to two inches in thick 
deeply and irregularly divided by continuous or interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges ( 
small appressed gray-brown 



scales 



sometimes slightly tinged with red; on 



young stems and small 



branches 



smooth and reddish or purphsh brown^ and separates freely into large papery persistent 



which in curHng back or falHng display the bright green inner bark 



Theb 



and marked with pale lenticels^ and when they first appear 



green 



and sHghtly 



fy 



pubescent ; during their first winter they are Hght orange-colored or reddish brown and glabrous or 
puberulousj and in their second or third year become darker and often purphsh and clothed with a 
glaucous bloom. The buds vary in shape from broadly ovate and obtuse or subglobose to ovate and 
acute, and are about an eighth of an inch in length and covered by hght chestnut-brown scales usually 
pilose above the middle with pale scattered fine hairs. The leaves are obovate or oblong-obovate, grad- 
ually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the entire base, acute or rounded at the apex, and coarsely sinuate- 

1 The largest specimen of Quercus plataimdes of which a record varied little in size between the ground and the branches, had an 

has been preserved grew on the bottom-lands of the Genesee average circumference of twenty-seven feet with a minimum cir- 

I of Geneseo cumference of twenty-four. (See Buckley, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, 

Oak, as this xiii. 397 [Notice of some large Trees in Western New York}. 



Wadsworth estate, ct mile from the villag 

The Wadsworth 



in the western part of Xew York. The 

tree was called, was destroyed several years ago by the washing Down 

away of the bank of the river. In 1851 the short trunk, which 



04 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulieer^. 



dentate or sometimes pinuatifid with oblique rounded or acute entire lobes ; when they unfold they are 
light bronze green and pilose on the upper surface and on the petioles, coated below with silvery 
white tomentum, and conspicuously glandular-toothed ; and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark 
green and lustrous above, pale or often silvery white and downy with short soft pubescence below, 
five or six inches long and from two to four inches broad, with stout pale midribs rounded on the 
upper side and from six to eight pairs of conspicuous primary veins connected by reticulate cross 
veinlets and running obHquely to the points of the teeth or lobes, which are tipped with minute 
callous glandular points; they are borne on stout petioles grooved and flattened on the upper side 
and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and late in the autumn turn dull yellow- 
brown or occasionally orange-color and red before falling. The stipules are hnear, acute, brown and 
scarious, coated with pale hairs, from one third to one half of an inch in length and caducous. The 
staminate flowers are produced in hairy aments three or four inches long ; the calyx is light yellow- 
green, covered with pale hairs, and deeply divided into from five to nine lanceolate acute segments rather 
shorter than the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments and oblong apiculate glabrous yellow 
anthers. The pistillate flowers are produced in few-flowered spikes on elongated peduncles covered, 
like the involucral scales, with thick white or tawny tomentum ; the stigmas are bright red. The fruit, 
which is usually in pairs, is borne on slender light or dark brown peduncles gradually thickened toward 
the apex, marked with pale lenticels, glabrous, puberulous or pubescent, and from an inch and a half 
to four inches in length ; the nut is oval with a broad base, rounded or acute and covered with pale 
pubescence at the apex, Hght chestnut-brown, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter 
in length and from one half to three quarters of an inch in width ; the cup, which incloses about a 
third of the nut, is cup-shaped, thick and woody, light brown and pubescent on the inside and hoary- 
tomentose on the outer surface, which is sometimes tuberculate or roughened toward the base by the 
thickened contorted tips of the ovate acute scales ; higher on the cup these are free, thin, acute, 
chestnut-brown, and at the margin sometimes form a short fringe-like border, which, however, is 
frequently wanting ; or sometimes all 



& 



wanting ; or sometimes all the scales of the cup are thin with free acute tips. 

Quercua i^Zc/Za^^o/f^^.s inhabits the borders of streams and swamps, growing in low moist fertile 
soil. It ranges from southern Maine to northern Vermont and southwestern Quebec, westward through 
Ontario^ and the southern peninsula of Michigan to southeastern Iowa and western Missouri, and 
southward to the District of Columbia,^ northern Kentucky and Arkansas,^ and along the Appalachian 
Mountains to northern Georgia. Widely and generally distributed through aU this region, it usually 
grows in smaU groves, rarely forming an important part of the forest, and is probably more abundant 
and of larger size in western New York and northern Ohio than in other parts of the country. 

The wood of Quercus platcmoides is heavy, hard, strong, and tough, although Hable to check in 
seasoning ; it contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of from one to three rows of large 
open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is light brown, with thin hardly distinguishable 
sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7662, a cubic foot weighing 47.75 
pounds. It is used in construction, for the interior finish of houses, and in cabinet-making, in 
carriage and boat building, and in cooperage, for agricultural implements, railway ties, and fencing, 
and for fuel. Commercially it is not distinguished from the wood of Quercus alba and Quercus 

macrocarpa. 

Quercus lilatanoides was first described by the French botanist Lamarck in 1783, from trees 
growing in the park of the chateau of Malesherbes. 



^ Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 48. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can. crocarpa, the range of which eastward of Toronto he now doubts, 

1879-80, 55°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 441. although Mr. J. G. Jack has found this species on the St. Law- 

The Blue Oak mentioned by Professor Macoun, which at one rence River south of Montreal, 
time furnished much of the oak timber exported from Ontario ^ l F. Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 112 {Fl. Washington). 

west of the Trent River, is now believed by him to be Quercus ma- * Harvey, Am. Jour. Forestry, i. 454. 



cupuLiFER^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Q>5 



The specific name relates to the bark of the young trees, which resembles that of Platanus in its 
manner of separating into large thin scales. This juvenile flaky bark, peculiar to the species, and th( 
small contorted and generally pendulous branches which often appear on the larger limbs and some 
times on the trunk, make it easy to recognize the Swamp White Oak at all seasons of the year. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXXX. Qukrcus platanoidks 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 



Plate CCCLXXXI. Quekcus platanoides 

1- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. A cup, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of Nortli America. 



Tab. CCCLXXX 




2 



^ 




0. E. Faccorv d&l/. 




run/ sc< 



QUERCUS PLATINOIDES, Sudw. 



A.Iiiocreuay direx^P 



Imp. if. Taneur, FcltLt. 



Silva of North America 



Tab, CCCLXXXI 




^^;i51^£^ 



C.E.Faa^orv del/. 



Ml 



^VlU'Jfli^iiU.U Jt> 



gUERCUS PLATINOIDES Sudw. 



A.Rio creiLr. direa:.^ 



Imp J Tan C'Ur, Faru 



CUPULIFER^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



6 



QUEROUS MICHAUXII 



Basket Oak. Cow Oak. 



Leaves broadly obovate or oblong-oboyate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the broad 
or narrow base, undulate-lobed with rounded or acute lobes, tomentose or pubescent 
and often silvery white on the lower surface. 



No. 5, t. 6 (not Qiiercus pahistris^ Muenchhausen) (1801) ; 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 196. — Michaux f. Rist. Ark Am. ii. 51, 



t.7. 



Quercus Michauxii, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 215 (excl. syn.) 

(1818). — Elliott, Sk. ii. 609. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 860. — 

Dietrich, Sy7i. v. 308. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 

Acad. iii. 390. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 

Census U. S. ix. 141. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. 

ed. 6, 476. — Mayr, Walcl. Nordam. 145, t. 1, 2. 

Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 414 {Man. PL W, 

Texas) . 
Quercus Prinus, Walter, FL Car. 234 (not Linnaeus) Quercus bicolor, A. de Candolle, Frodr. xvi. pt. ii, 20 (in 



— Loudon, Ay^b. Brit. iii. 1872, f. 1735, t. — Wenzig, 
Jahrb. Bat. GarL Berlin, iii. 179. 

Quercus Prinus, var. discolor, Curtis, Bej)* Geolog. Surv. 

N. Car. 1860, iii. 33 (not Michaux f.) (1860). 
Quercus Prinus, var. Michauxii. Chapman, FL 424 

(I860). 



(1788). 



Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti^ ii. 346. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 633. — Elliott, SL ii. 608. 
Gray, Ma7i. 414. 

Quercus Prinus (palustris), Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. 



part) (1864). 
Quercus bicolor, subspec. Michauxii, Engelmann, Trans. 
St Louis Acad. iii. 390 (1877). 



A tree, often a hundred feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes free of branches for a distance of 
forty or fifty feet above the ground and from three to seven feet in diameter, and stout branches 
ascending at narrow angles and forming a round-topped rather compact head. The bark of the trunk 
is from half an inch to an inch in thickness, and separates into thin closely appressed silvery white or 



ashy 



gray 



scales more or less deeply tinged with red. The branchlets are stout and marked with 



scattered oblong pale lenticels, and when they first appear are dark green and covered with pale caducous 
hairs ; during their first winter they are bright red-brown or light orange-brown, and ultimately become 
ashy gray. The buds are broadly ovate or oval, acute, a quarter of an inch long, and covered with 
numerous thin closely and regularly imbricated dark red puberulous scales with pale scarious margins, 
those of the inner ranks being coated on the outer surface with loose pale tomentum. The leaves are 
convolute in the bud, broadly obovate or oblong-obovate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the broad or 



narrow entire base, acute, or acuminate with short broad points at the apex, and 



ly crenately 



lobed with oblique rounded entire lobes sometimes furnished with glandular tijDS ; or rarely they are 

entire^ with undulate margins ; when they unfold they are bright yellow-green, lustrous and pubescent 
with scattered pale hairs above and coated below with thick silvery white or pale f errugineous tomentum, 
and at maturity they are thick and firm, or sometimes membranaceous, especially on young and vigorous 
branches, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, which is glabrous or occasionally roughened with 
scattered stellate hairs, more or less densely pubescent on the pale green or silvery white lower surface, 



from six to eigrht inches lonsr and from three to five inches wide, with 



midribs impr 



upper side, and slender primary 



obhquely to the points of the lob 



[ on the 
ected by 



conspicuous reticulate cross veinlets ; they are borne on stout pubescent flattened and 



ym 



fl 



'om 



half 



an 



inch 



iich and a half in length, and late in the 



crimson before falhng. The stipules are linear-ob ovate or hnear-lanceolate, brown and scarious, covered 
with thick pale hairs, and caducous. The flowers appear from the end of March to the middle of May, 



rly half grown, the 



slender hairy 



thr 



fo 



ur 



inche 



s m 



68 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



length, the pistillate in few-flowered spikes on short peduncles coated, like the involucral scales, with 
dense pale rufous tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is light yellow-green, pilose with long 
pale hairs, and divided into from four to seven acute lobes ; the stamens are composed of slender 
filaments and broad oblong slightly emarginate yeUow glabrous anthers. The stigmas are dark red. 
The fruit is soHtary or in pairs, and is sessile or subsessile or borne on a short stout puberulous peduncle 
marked with pale lenticels and rarely half an inch in length ; the nut is oval or ovate, with a broad 
base and an acute rounded or occasionally truncate apex, which is clothed with a narrow ring of rusty 
pubescence ; it is sometimes pilose nearly to the middle, and is bright brown, rather lustrous, from an 
inch to an inch and a haK in length and from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch and a quarter 
in width, and contains a sweet seed ; the cup, which incloses about a third of the nut, is thick, 
cup-shaped, and often broad and flat on the bottom, reddish brown and pubescent within, and hoary- 
tomentose on the outer surface, which is covered with regularly imbricated large ovate acute free scales 
rounded and much thickened on the back, with thin reddish margins and short tips which sometimes 
form a rigid fringe-like border to the rim of the cup. 

Quercus Mlchaitxii inhabits the borders of streams, low swamps, and bottom-lands often covered 
with water, and is distributed from the neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware, southward through the 



coast and middle districts to northern Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Trinity 
Kiver in Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee and Kentucky 

and the valley of the lower Wabash River in Illinois and Indiana.^ 

Quercus Mlchaitxii is one of the most important timber-trees of eastern North America, and the 
largest and most valuable White Oak of the southeastern states. The wood is heavy, hard, very strong 
and tough, close-grained, very durable in contact with the soil, and easily spht. It is light brown, with 
thin darker colored sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of large open 
ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8039, 
a cubic foot weighing 50.10 pounds. It is largely used in all kinds of construction, for agricultural 
implements and wheels, in cooperage, for fences and for fuel, and in the manufacture of strong baskets, 
for which purpose, as it can be so easily split into thin plates, it is excelled by the wood of no other 
American tree. The seeds are sweeter than those of the other Oaks of eastern North America, and are 
eaten by domestic animals, and by children and negroes. 

Quercus Michauxii is the most beautiful of the Chestnut Oaks and one of the most striking and 
imposing of the trees of eastern North America, always conspicuous from the silvery white bark of the 
tall massive trunk and the broad crown of large and finely colored foliage. First described in 1731 in 
The Natural History of Carolina ^ by Mark Catesby, who confounded it with what has usually been 
considered the Chestnut Oak of Plukenet, the Quercus Prinus of Linnseus, it was long considered a 
variety of that tree. 



Nat Mils, v. 81 : xvii 



foliis 



foliis 



make 



Plukenet). 



this certain 



Michaux (HisL Chmes Am.) considered that Plukenet's Quercus 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCLXXXII. Quercus Michauxii 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A stamlnate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. Base of a leaf, natural size. 

5. Base of a leaf, natural size. 



Plate CCCLXXXIII. Quercus Michauxii 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A nut, natural size. 

3. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva, of North AmericeL. 



Tab. CCCLXXXII 




C.E, FcucoTV deL . 



LoveruiciZ SC' 



gUERCUS MICHAUXII, Nutt. 



A.RLocraiax^ direca^ 



w 

Imp. J. TcLTLeur ^ P oris 



Silva of Nor'tli Ainerica 



Tab- CCCLXXXIIl 




C E, FcLccon. det . 



Zehritn JO. 



QUERCUS MICHAUXII, Nutt. 



A.Hiocreuj:' direa>t 



Imp, t/ ToTLe^tr, Taris 



CUPULIFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



71 



QUERCUS BREVILOBA. 



White Oak. 



Leaves obovate or oblong, undulate, lobecl with short broad lobes or entire, pale 
often silvery white and pubescent on the lower surface. 



Quercus breviloba, Sargent, Garden and Forest, viii. Nordam 

93 (1895). (Man. I 



Nat. Herh 



W. 



Bound 



)btusifolia, var. ? breviloba, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Quercus annulata, Buckley, Proc. Phil Acad. 1860, 
Surv. 206 (1859). 445. 

Quercus Durandii, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, Quercus San-Sabeana, Young, Bot. Texas, 507 (1873). 

445. — Young, Bot. Texas, 507. — Sargent, Forest Trees Quercus undulata, Engelniann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
JSr. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 145. — Mayr, Wald. iii. 392 (in part) (not Torrey) (1877). 



A tree, sometimes eighty or ninety feet in height when growing east of the Mississippi River, with 
a tall straight trunk frequently from two to three feet in diameter ; in Texas much smaller, rarely more 
than twenty or thirty feet in height, Avith a short trunk usually dividing near the ground into two or 
three spreading limbs and seldom more than twelve or fifteen inches in diameter ; and frequently, 
especially toward the western limits of its range, small and shrubby, often forming extensive thickets. 
The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness and separates into long 
narrow plate-like scales about a sixteenth of an inch thick ; it is silvery white and tinged with reddish 
brown on the surface, and thus trunks seen from a little distance produce the effect of being reddish in 
general color. The branchlets are slender and marked with pale lenticels, and when they first appear 
are coated with hoary tomentum ; during the following winter they are gray, faintly tinged with red, 
or ashy gray and grow darker during the second and third years. The winter-buds are broadly ovate or 
oval, acuminate, and from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch long, and are covered with light chestnut- 



brown closely and regularly imbricated puberulous scales pale and scarious on the margins. The leaves 
are convolute in the bud, obovate or oblong, usually gradually narrowed and acute or rarely broader 
and equally or unequally rounded at the base, and broad and rounded and often emarginate or narrowed 
and rounded or rarely acute at the apex ; they are undulate-lob ed with from four to seven broad lobes, 
or are obscurely three-lobed at the broad apex and entire below, or are undulate or coarsely and 
remotely dentate with acute spinescent teeth, or are often entire, and on vigorous shoots are frequently 
oblong-obovate and more or less deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into broad lobes 
which increase in size from the base to the apex of the leaf ; when they unfold they are thin, covered 
with scattered pale stellate hairs on the upper surface and coated with thick pale pubescence on the 
lower, and at maturity they are thin on trees grown in the eastern GuK states and thicker and often 
subcoriaceous on those grown in the drier climate of Texas, light blue or yellow-green and usually 
lustrous above, and pubescent and paler and often silvery white below ; they are usually from an inch 
and a half to three inches long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide, although 
on trees east of the Mississippi River and on young vigorous branches they are sometimes from four to 
six inches in length and two and a haH inches broad j they are obscurely reticulate-venulose and furnished 
with narrow pale yellow midi-ibs raised and rounded on the upper side, and slender veins running to the 
slightly thickened and revolute margins of the leaf or forked within them ; borne on stout grooved 
petioles rarely more than a quarter of an inch in length, they turn pale yellow and fall in the autumn, 
or in western Texas sometimes irregularly during the winter or in the early spring. The flowers appear 
with the first unfolding of the leaves from March to the end of April, the stamiuate borne on hairy 



72 



> 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, cupulifer e. 



aments from an inch and a balf to two inches long, the pistillate on short peduncles coated with thick 
hoary tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is pale yellow and divided into nearly triangular 
segments much shorter than the from five to seven stamens, which are composed of short slender 



filaments and broad oblong emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The scales of the pistillate flowers 
are coated with pale tomentum, and theu^ stigmas are dull red. The acorns are sessile or subsessile and 
usually soHtary ; the nut is ovate, obovate or oval, acute or rounded and sometimes depressed at the 
broad apex, which is usually clothed with a narrow ring of pale pubescence, from half an inch to an 
inch in length and from three eighths to three fifths of an inch in width j the cup, which incloses only 



the base of the nut, is saucer-shaped, thin and shallow, bright reddish brown and pubescent on the inner 
surface, and covered on the outer with regularly and closely imbricated ovate bright red-brown scales 
clothed with hoary pubescence except at their acute or rounded appressed tips. 

Quercus hi^eviloha inhabits the rich Hmestone prairie region of central Alabama and Mississippi,^ 
finding its most eastern home in the valley of the Mulberry Fork of the Tombigbee River in Blount 
County, Alabama.^ It reappears on the banks of the Red River at Shreveport,^ and in Texas ranges from 
the neighborhood of the city of Dallas westward to the central part of the state and southward near 
streams flowing into the Gulf of Mexico to the mountains of Nuevo Leon in the vicinity of Monterey.* 
East of the Mississippi River, where it attains its largest size, it grows on dry prairies with the Post Oak, 
the Black Jack, the White Oak, and the Nutmeg Hickory, or in low ground subject to overflow, where 
it is scattered through the forests of the Swamp Chestnut Oak, the Willow Oak, and the Texas Oak ; in 
Texas, where it grows on the dry hmestone banks of streams and rocky bluffs,^ it is usually asso- 
ciated with the Post Oak, the Texas Oak, the Cedar Elm, and the western Juniper. 

The wood of Quercus hreviloha grown in Texas is very heavy, hard, and strong, although brittle 
and inchned to check in drying. It is brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous 
conspicuous medullary rays and bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The 
specific gravity of the absolute dry wood is 0.9507, a cubic foot weighing 59.29 pounds. When grown 
in Alabama and Mississippi it is said to equal the best white oak and to be used for the same purposes 
as that wood ; it is especially valued for the pins in cotton-gins and in the manufacture of spools, 
baskets, and wagon-hubs. 

Quercus hreviloha was discovered in western Texas in 1850 by Dr. J. M. Bigelow,^ one of the 
botanists of the Mexican Boundary Survey ; in September, 1859, it was found near Clinton, in Wilcox 
County, Alabama, by Mr. S. B. Buckley,'^ who saw it in October of the same year at Shreveport, 
Louisiana, and, finding it afterward in Texas, first distinguished the specific characters of this useful 
and beautiful tree. 



hreviloha 



discovered 



only near Columbus, and in the neighborliood of Mhoons Valley, 1887, by C. S. Sargent. 



in the centre of the state. 

2 Mohr, Garden and Forest, vi. 372. 



^ Reverchon, Garden and Forest, vi. 524. 
6 See i. 88. 



8 Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1881, 121. ' See iii. 3. 



\ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXIV. Quercus breviloba, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A sterile branch, natural size. 

7. A nut, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCLXXXIV. 




^^ 



V.f 




ci:. 



TV 





SC 



QUERCUS BREVILOBA.Sarg-. 




A.Jiu?creua> dzreccp 



Imp, ,_/ Taneicr, Paris. 



CUPULIFEKJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



QUEROUS UNDULATA 



Scrub Oak. Shin Oak. 



Leaves oblong, sinuate-dentate, entire, pinnatifid, lobed or spinescent, blue-green, 



pubescent. 



Quercus undulata, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 248, t. 4 
(excl. fruit) (1828) ; Marcy's Re]). 284 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. 
Sitrv. 206. — Nuttall, Sylva, i. 8, t. 3 (excl. fruit). 



ercus undulata, ft obtusifolia, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 23 (1864). — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ 

iii. 199. 



Watson, Am. Nat. vii. 302 {Plants of Northern Arizona) Quercus undulata, y pedunculata, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 



(in part). — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 384 



xvi. pt. ii. 23 (1864). 



(excl. a G^am5e?^^, /3 (?w7im5om),392 (inpart). — Wenzig, Quercus Emoryi, Porter & Coulter, Syn. FL Colorado^ 



Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 199. — Greene, West Am. 



127 (not Torrey) (1874). 



Oaks^ 27 (in part), t. 13, f. 4; pt. ii. 65, t. 30. — Coulter, Quercus undulata, y Jamesii, Engelmann, Trans. St 



Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 415 {Man. PI. W. Texas) 



Louis Acad. iii. 382 (1876). 



(excl. var. Gicnnisoni). — Sargent, Garden and For est ^ Quercus undulata, S "Wrightii, Engelmann, Trans. St 



viii. 92. 



Lonis Acad. iii. 382 (1876). 



Quercus Pendleri, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk. Quercus undulata, var. pungens, Engelmann, Trans. St 

Louis Acad. iii. 392 (1877) ; Rothrock Wheeler's Rep, 



Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 170. — Orsted, Liebmann Chenes 
Am. Trop. 22. — ^ Greene, West Am. Oaks, pt. ii. 67, t. 31. 



vi. 250. — Wenzig, Jahi^b. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 199. 



Quercus grisea, Liebmann, 0^67-5^^^ i)ans^. Vidensk. Selsk. Quercus undulata, var. grisea, Engelmann, Trans. St. 

Louis Acad. iii. 393 (1877). — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin^ iii. 200. 
Quercus undulata, var. oblongata, Engelmann, Rothrock 



Forhandl. 1854, 171. — Orsted, Liebmann Chenes Am. 

Troi?. 22. — Coulter, Contrib. V. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 415 

{Man. PL W. Texas). 
Quercus pungens, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk. 

m . 

Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 171. — Orsted, Liebmann Chenes 
Am. Trop. 22, (1869). —Greene, Fittonia, ii. 112. 

Quercus oblongifolia, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 
206 (not Sitgreaves' Rep.) (1859). 



W, 



W( 



t. 27 (in part) (1889). 



This little Oak, which is widely distributed from the cliffs above 



of the Arkansas Ri 



in the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado to western Texas, and through New Mexico 
and Arizona to southern Utah and Nevada and to northern Mexico, is extremely variable in size and 
habit, in the shape of its leaves, and in the size of its fruit. Usually a shrub, forming small thickets by 
vigorous stolons, and with stout more or less contorted stems from two to eight feet tall, it rises only 



in the canons of some of the mountain ranges of southeastern Arizona to the height of twenty-five or 
thirty feet, with a straight trunk from six to eight inches in diameter and scaly pale bark slightly 
tino^ed with reddish brown .^ The slender branches, which are marked with pale lenticels, are coated, 



when they first appear, with dense hoary tomentum, and during their first winter are fight reddish 
brown or ashy gray and pubescent or tomentose, ultimately becoming glabrous and dark brown or gray. 
The buds are oval and about an eighth of an inch long, and are covered by a few thin fight red-brown 



often 



the margins with loose pale hairs 



The leaves are convolute in the bud, oblon 



& 



sinuate-dentate, entire, pinnatifid, lobed or spinescent, broad and rounded or cordate or rarely abruptly 
wedge-shaped at the base, and usually acute or occasionally rounded at the apex ; when they unfold 
they are coated with hoary tomentum, and at maturity they are thick and firm, fight blue-green, more 



Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 13. 

r. Havard (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 505) speaks of Quercus 

'.a as a small tree and the most abundant and characteristic 

of western Texas, but as he makes no mention of Quercus 



mm 



have confounded the two species. His collection preserved in the 
National Museum contains specimens almost identical with the 
fTTTio nf Oupr/'us nrlspfi. which is uow United with Quercus undulata. 



76 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



or less thickly covered with stellate hairs on the upper surface, and clothed on the lower with pale or 
yellow pubescence, and vary from an inch to three inches in length and from one to three quarters of 
an inch in width, with pale slender midribs, few conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the 
teeth or arcuate and united within the more or less thickened and revolute margins, reticulate veinlets, 
conspicuous both above and below, and stout pubescent or tomentose petioles rarely more than a 
quarter of an inch, although sometimes, especially on vigorous shoots, nearly an inch in length. In 
the north and at high elevations the leaves fall in the autumn, but in southern New Mexico and 
Arizona they sometimes remain on the branches until the appearance of the new growth of the following 
spring, or fall gradually and irregularly during the winter. The flowers appear with the first unfold- 
ing of the leaves, the staminate borne in short tomentose aments from one to two inches in length. 



The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are 



the pistillate sessile or on tomentose peduncles. The hairy calyx of the staminate flowers is divided 
into acute segments shorter than the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments and broad 

oblong emarginate light yeUow glabrous anthers, 
coated with pale tomentum, and the stigmas are red. The acorns, which are sohtary or in pairs, are 
sessile or raised on stout hoary peduncles varying from a quarter of an inch to nearly two inches in 
length ) the nut is oval, rounded and rather obtuse or sometimes acute at the apex, and from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch long, with sweet seeds ; the cup is cup-shaped, thick, light reddish 
brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose on the outer, and covered by ovate acute 
scales usually thickened and tumid on the back toward the base of the cup, and above its middle 
ending in thin bright red free cihate tips ; or sometimes all the scales are thin with free tips. 

The seeds, raw or baked, are eaten by Indians and Mexicans, and furnish hogs with excellent food. 

In Colorado Quercus undulata grows on dry rocky mountain ridges mixed with clumps of shrubby 
forms of Querciis Gamhelii, from which it can be readily distinguished by the blue color of the leaves ; 
it is found in similar situations on the mountains of western Texas, and in New Mexico and southern 
Arizona, where it is comparatively rare ; in central Arizona, south of the Colorado plateau, it covers low 
mountain ranges with vast thickets from six to eight feet taU, furnishing valuable and nutritious fodder 
to cattle and sheep, which eagerly browse on the leaves and young branches. In southern Utah and 
Nevada it is less common and is local in distribution.^ 

Quercus undulata was discovered on the head-waters of the Canadian River in 1820 by Dr. Edwin 
James,'^ the naturahst of the expedition sent under the command of Major Long by the government of 
the United States to explore the Rocky Mountains. 



1 On the type specimen (Plate ccclxxxv. f. 4) of this species the apex, rather deeply cordate at the base, an inch long and three 
preserved iu the herbarium of Columbia College in New York quarters of an inch broad, is the type of Liebmann's Quercus ^mea ; 
city, the leaves are oblong, narrowed and rounded at the base, and a form with leaves of the same size and shape, but with spines- 
acute and rounded at the apex, coarsely sinuate-dentate, pubescent cent teeth, is his Quercus pungens (the varieties pungens and Wrightii 
with scattered stellate hairs on the upper surface, covered with of Engelmann), a not unusual plant from western Texas to south- 
pale tomentum on the lower surface, and from an inch and a ern Utah and Nevada. In southern Arizona this spinescent-leaved 
half to two inches and a half in length ; this is the variety Jamesii form sometimes bears larger and more undulate leaves (Plate 
of Engelmann, and plants of this form produce leaves which vary ccclxxxv. f. 5), and in central and southern Arizona small ovate 
from entire to deeply pinnatifid and from oblong to linear-oblong, acute sometimes entire or slightly spinescent broad or narrow acute 
those on vigorous'shoots being deeply lobed with rounded or acute and mostly cordate leaves covered on the lower surface with pale 
oblique lobes and sometimes three to four inches in length, with or yellow pubescence and from half an inch to an inch in length, 
petioles sometimes nearly an inch long. An unattached nut, pre- This last, which produces small acorns with shallow cups usually 
served with the type specimen of Quercus undulata which appears covered by thin scales, is the common Oak of the mountains of 
in the original figure and in Nuttall's copy of it, probably belonged central Arizona, 
to some other plant, as was suggested by Torrey himself. 2 ggg \i ^Q. 

A form with nearly oval pubescent leaves rounded or pointed at 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXV. Quercus undulata 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A sterile branch, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A leaf, natural size. 

12. A leaf, natural size. 

13. A leaf, natural size. 

14. A leaf, natural size. 

15. A fruit, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . CCCLXXXV. 




15 



C.E.FasEi?w del/. 




so. 



QUERCUS U]SfDULATA,ToTr. 



A.IUocreuay direa> ^ 



Imp. J, Taneur-^ Paris 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



79 



QUERCUS DOUGLASII. 



Blue Oak. Mountain White Oak 



Leaves oblong, lobed, spinescent or entire, blue-green and pubescent. 



Quercus Douglasii, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 
391 (1841). —Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 382, 383. — Bentham, 
PL Hartweg. 337 ; Bot Voy. Sulphur^ 55. — Nuttall, 
Sylvaj i. 10, t. 4. — Dietrich, Syn, v. 311. — Torrey, 
Pacific R. R. Rep. v. 365 ; Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 
462. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 23. — Bolander, 



f . 4, 5 ; Man. Bot. Bay Region^ 302. — Mayr, Wald. 
Nordam. 264, t. 2, 5- — Dippel, Handb. Laicbholzk. 
ii. 76, f. 30. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 128. — Merriam, 
North American Fauna^ No. 7, 333 {Death Valley 
Exped. ii.). — Coville, Co7itrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 196 
(Bot. Death Valley Exped.) . 

« ■ 

Proc. CaL Acad. iii. 230. — Orsted, Vidensk.3fedd.fra Quercus Ransomi, Kellogg, Proc. CaL Acad. i. 25 



(1855). 



Mary K. Curran, Btdl. Cal. Acad. i. 146. 



nat. For. Kjobenh. 66 ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. t. 41, 
f. 3, 4. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Loitis Acad, iii- 392 ; 
Brewer & Watson Bot. CaL ii. 95. — Hall, Bot. Gazette^ ? Quercus oblongif olia, R. Brown Campst. Ann, and Mag. 



Brandegee, Zoe^ i. 156- 



ii. 93, 



?/ Califi 



Sar- 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 143. 
Greene, West Am. Oaks, 17, t. 9, f. 1, 2; t- 12, 



Nat. Hist, ser 2, vii. 252 (not Torrey) (1871). 
Quercus oblongifolia, var. brevilobata, Torrey, Bot 
Wilkes Explor. Exped. 460 (1874). 



A tree^ rarely eighty or ninety but usually fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk three or four 
feet in diameter and short stout branches which^ spreading nearly at right angles^ form a dense round- 
topped symmetrical head ; or frequently not more than twenty or thirty feet high^ and sometimes, 
especially toward the southern limits of its rano^e. 



shrubby in habit. The bark of the trunk is from 



half an inch to an inch in thickness and is generally pale^ although the small scales into which the 
surface divides are tinged with brown or hght red.^ The branchlets are stout and marked with pale 
lenticels^ and^ being extremely brittle at the joints^ can be easily broken from the branch ; when they 
first appear they are coated with short dense hoary tomentum, which continues to cover them more 
or less thickly during the summer, and in their first winter they are dark gray or reddish brown 
and tomentose, pubescent^ or puberulous, and in their second or third year grow ashy gray or dark 



b 



The winter-buds are ovate^ obtuse, from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in length 



and are covered with light and rather bright red pubescent 



The 



convolute in the 



bud* and 



oblongs gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or broad and rounded or subcordate 



^ Miss Alice Eastwood, the curator of the botanical department 



Moiigifolia 



of the California Academy of Sciences, whose unrivaled collection of R. Brown Campst. (not of Torrey), described as a bush three feet 

nia Oaks made in the central and southern parts of the high from the mountains of southern Oregon, which, in the speci- 



CaKfo 



state during the autumn of 1894 has been of great assistance to men without fruit preserved in the herbarium of the Eoyal Botanic 
me, calls my attention to the fact that Quercus Douglasii has very Garden at Edinburgh, has ovate or oblong-elliptical and nearly entire 

leaves hardly distinguishable in size and shape from those of some 



luercus 



.uercus 



light gray bark on trees growing on exposed hillsides and open 
plains, and much darker bark on trees in sheltered valleys and 
arroyos. 

y X ^ ^ 

2 On the foothills and in the valleys of northern and central is more variable than Quercus Douglasii in the size, shape, and den- 
California the leaves of Quercus Douglasii are perhaps larger and tation of its leaves. They are readily recognized in the field by 
more commonly lobed than in the southern part of the state, where their blue color, as this is the only blue-leaved Oak of northern 
they are usually small and often spinescent and entire, but trees 



California 



with 



.his 



with 



the green-leaved Quercus dumosa, and Miss Eastwood suggests that 



common at the south. A specimen collected in Round Valley, natural hybridizing between these trees would account for the 

Mendocino County, in June, 1893, by Mr. G. W. Blankinship, with apparent running together of the two species, which in most of 

thin broadly obovate-oblong leaves entire or slightly notched- their forms are, however, very unlike, 
toothed at the wide rounded apex, apparently belongs to this spe- 



80 



8ILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. cupuldfer^. 



/ 



the base, acute or rounded at the apex, and divided by deep or shallow wide or narrow sinuses acute 
or rounded at the bottom into four or five broad or narrow acute or rounded and often mucronate 
lobes, and are from two to five inches long and from an inch to an inch and three quarters broad ; or 
they are oval, oblong or obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, equally or unequally wedge-shaped or 
rounded at the base, regularly or irregularly sinuate-toothed with rounded acute and rigid spmesceut 
teeth or denticulate toward the apex and entire below, from one to two inches long and from a quarter 
of an inch to an inch wide ; when they unfold the leaves are covered with soft pale pubescence and 
are tomentose on the petioles, and at maturity they are thin, although firm and rather rigid, pale blue 
and pubescent with scattered stellate haks on the upper surface, and on the lower pale blue or often 
yellow-green and covered with short soft pubescence ; they are more or less conspicuously reticulate- 
venulose, furnished with pale prominent hirsute or puberulous midribs raised and rounded on the upper 
side, with primary veins which, when the leaves are lobed, are conspicuous and run to the points of the 
lobes, and prominent lateral veins arcuate and united near the slightly thickened and revolute margins ; 
or when the leaves are entu-e or dentate the veins are less prominent and are usually united before 
reaching the margin ; the leaves are borne on stout grooved petioles varying from a quarter to a half of 
an inch in length and fall late in the autumn. The stipules are lanceolate-ob ovate or linear-lanceolate, 
thin and scarious and coated with pale hairs. The flowers appear from February to April, the staminate, 
which are subtended by linear-lanceolate bracts, are borne in hairy aments, and the pistillate in short 
few-flowered spikes coated, hke the involucral scales, with hoary tomentum. The calyx of the staminate 
flower is yellow-green, covered on the outer surface with pale hairs and deeply divided into broad acute 
laciniately cut segments shorter than the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments and ovate- 
oblong emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The acorns are sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in pairs, 
and are sometimes produced in such abundance that they make the trees, seen from a Httle distance, 
appear green ; the nut is broadly oval, often ventricose with a narrow base, graduaUy narrowed and acute 
at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and from half an inch to nearly an inch broad, 
or it is often ovate acute and from an inch to an inch and a half in length and not more than a quarter 
of an inch in breadth ; it is bright green and lustrous, soon turning dark chestnut-brown in drying, and 
is furnished at the apex with a small ring of hoary pubescence ; the cup, which embraces only the base 
of the nut, is cup-shaped, thin and shallow, light green and pubescent on the inner surface and covered 
on the outer with small acute and usually thin, although sometimes, especially in the south, thicker 
tumid scales coated with pale pubescence or tomentum and ending in thin reddish brown points. 

Quercus Douylcni'd inhabits low hills, dry mountain-slopes and valleys, and is distributed from 
Mendocino County, California, and the upper valley of the Sacramento River, southward along the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, which it ascends to elevations of four thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, and through the valleys of the coast ranges to the Tehachapi Pass, which it crosses, with 
occasional stunted individuals, to the borders of the Mohave Desert, and probably grows to its largest 
size and is most abundant in the Jolon and other valleys between the coast mountains and the interior 
ridges of the Coast Range south of the Bay of San Francisco. 

The wood of Quercus Douglasli is very hard, heavy and strong, although brittle and inclined to 



check badly in drying. It is dark brown, becoming nearly black with exposure, with thick hght brown 



sapwood,^ and contains numerous meduQary rays, scattered groups of smaU ducts, and rows of large] 
ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8928 
a cubic foot weighing 55.64: pounds. Of Httle use for construction and in the arts, it makes excellem 
fuel. 



^ The sapwood of Quercus Douglasii is thicker than that of most shows two hundred and thirty-two layers of annual growth, of 

American White Oaks. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection which eighty-eight, measuring three and three fifths inches in thick- 

of North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural ness, are sapwood. 
History, New York, which is twenty-three inches in diameter, 



cupuLiFER^. 8ILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



81 



With its pale bark, its dense round head of Hght blue foliage, and its large acorns, Q 



Douglasii, which was discovered by the indefatigable and successful collector ^ whose name it helps to 
commemorate, is one of the most beautiful of the California Oaks. Never forming forests, it is 
scattered in innumerable numbers over foothills and high valleys, and, either alone on the hills or with 
the statelier Quercus lohata in the valleys, gives them their characteristic park-like appearance. 



1 See ii. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXVI. Quercus Douglasii 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting braneli, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCLXXXVI 




C.E. 






rtuv so: 



QUERCUS D0UGLASlI,Hook.8cArn. 



A.BiocreuiZ> dzr&x-t' 



Imp . J. Taneur , J^arir 



cupuLiFEK^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



83 



QUERCUS ENGELMANNI. 



Evergreen White Oak. 



Leaves oblong or obovate, usually obtuse and rounded at the apex, entire or 
remotely dentate, dark blue-green. 



Quercus Engelmanni, Greene, West Am. Oaks, 32, t. 15, Sitgreaves' Rep.) (1861). — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 

f. 2, 3 ; t. 17 (1889). — Sargent, Garden and Forest, Acad. iii. 393 (in part) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 96 

ii. 471. — S. B. Parish, Zee, iv. 345. (in part). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census 

Quercus oblongifolia, Torrey, Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28 (not U. S. ix. 143 (in part). 



A tree, fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter, and stout branches 
spreading nearly at right angles and forming a broad rather irregular handsome head. The bark of 
the trunk is from an inch and a half to two inches in thickness, light gray tinged with brown and 
deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into small thin 
appressed scales. The branchlets are stout, rigid, and marked with pale lenticels, and at first are coated 
with hoary tomentum which soon begins to disappear ; during their first winter they are light or dark 
brown tinged with red and clothed with short fine pubescence, and become glabrous and light brown 



or gray during their second or third years. The winter-buds are oval or ovate, about an eighth of an 



inch long, and covered by thin hght red puberulous scales. The leaves are revolute in the bud, oblong 
or obovate, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped or rounded or cordate at the base, and usually obtuse 
and rounded but sometimes acute at the apex ; they are entire and often undulate, or sinuate- 
toothed with occasional minute rigid teeth ; or near the ends of sterile branches they are frequently 
coarsely and crenately serrate with incurved callous-tipped teeth or rarely lobed with acute oblique 
or broad rounded lobes ; when they unfold they are Hght red and coated, Hke the petioles, with thick 
pale rufous tomentum, which is soon replaced by scurfy pubescence ; and at maturity they are thick 
and firm in texture, dark blue-green and glabrous or covered with scattered stellate hairs on the upper 
surface, and pale and usually yellow-green on the lower surface, which is clothed with hght brown 
pubescence or is puberulous or frequently glabrous ; they vary from one to three inches in length and 
from half an inch to two inches in width, but are usually about two inches long and an inch wide, 
with stout midribs raised and rounded on the upper side, obscure primary veins arcuate and united near 
the margins, and slender reticulate veinlets ; and, borne on slender pubescent petioles varying from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in length, they fall in the spring with the appearance of the new growth. 
The stipules are oblong-obovate or linear-lanceolate, thin, scarious, Hght brown, puberulous, from one 
haH to three quarters of an inch long and caducous. The flowers appear early in April, the staminate 
borne in slender hairy aments two or three inches in length, the pistillate usually on slender peduncles 
clothed, like their involucral scales, with dense pale tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is 
light yellow, pilose, and divided into lanceolate acute segments rather shorter than the stamens, which 



are composed of slender filaments and oblong slightly emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The fruit 
is sometimes sessile, but more frequently is borne on a slender pubescent stem sometimes three quarters 
of an inch in length ; the nut is oblong, oval, gradually narrowed and acute, or broad, full and rounded 
at the obtuse apex, broad or narrowed at the base, dark chestnut-brown and more or less conspicuously 
marked with darker longitudinal stripes, which soon disappear, but turning a Hght chestnut-brown as 
it dries, from three quarters of an inch to an inch lonof and about half an inch broad ; the cup, which 



'loses about a third of the nut, is deep saucer-shaped, broad and flat on the bottom, or is cup-shaped 
turbinate ; it is light brown and pubescent within and covered on the outer surface by ovate bright 



84 



8ILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



ecl-bro 



coated with pale tomentum, usually thickened, united, and tuberculate at the base of 



the cup and produced into small acute ciliate tips near the margin 



or 



sometimes only the 



thickened and the others are thin and furnished with free elongated tip 



Q 



Engehiicmnl inhabits southwestern California, where, minghng with Q 



agrifol 



it is scattered over low hills west of the coast ranges from the neighborhood of Sierra Madre to the 
mesa east of San Diego, occupying a belt about fifty miles in width and extending to within fifteen 



twenty miles of the coast. 
The wood of Quercics Eng 



difficult 



season ; it is dark brown 



very heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained, but brittle and 
early black, with thick lighter brown sapwood, and contains 



small 
rays. 



open 



2red 



numerous 



groups par 



Jlel to the broad and very conspicuous medullary 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9441, a cubic foot weighing 58.84 pounds. 



It is valued and sometimes used for fuel. 

First noticed by Dr. C. C. Parry,^ this tree was long confounded with Quercus ohlongifolia of New 

Mexico and Arizona, from which it was separated by Professor E. L. Greene,^ who associated with it 
the name of Dr. Georg-e Eno^elmann.^ 

Qitercits Migehnanni is a handsome tree^ easily distinguished from the green-leaved evergreen 

Oakj with which it usually grows^ by the blue color of its leaves, and from its nearest botanical 
congener, Quercus ohlongifolia^ by its darker furrowed bark, its thicker and darker leaves, larger fruit 
with thicker cup-scales, and yellow cotyledons. 

^ See vii. 130. University of Heidelberg in 1827, and in the following year, owing 

2 Edward Lee Greene was born on the 20th of April, 1842, in to some political difficulties at Heidelberg, he joined the Berlin 

Hopkinton, Washington County, Rhode Island, Beginning the study University, where he remained for two years, going thence to 

of plants at the age of five, he had gained, with the assistance of Mrs. Wiirzburg, where in 1831 he took his degree in the department of 

Lincoln's Botany, a good understanding of the local flora before he medicine, his inaugural thesis, De Antholysi Prodromus, a morpho- 

was twelve years old, when he went with his family to central Illi- logical dissertation, being published the following year and attract- 

nois, and, two years later, to southern Wisconsin, where he had ing some attention. A few months of study having been spent in 

the advantage of instruction from the Swedish naturalist, Thurn Paris with Agassiz and Alexander Braun, later the distinguished 

Kumlien. Having then engaged in teaching for several years, and Berlin botanist. Dr. Engelmann sailed for America, where some 

having tramped repeatedly over almost all the country between members of his family had become interested in land investments 

Lake Michigan and northern Georgia and Alabama in pursuit of in the Mississippi valley. After a long and adventuresome solitary 

botanical knowledge, Mr. Greene went to Denver, Colorado, in 1870 journey tlu'ough the forests of Arkansas and northern Louisiana, 

and became connected with Bishop Randall's new " Jarvis Hall" Dr. Engelmaim established himself in St. Louis, where he resided 

institution as an instructor in science and a student of theology. during the remainder of his life, engaged in the practice of medi- 

He was ordained in the Episcopal Church in 1873, and was sta- cine, which brought him high standing, fame, and wealth, while 

tioned successively at Pueblo, Colorado, at Vallejo, California, at the few leisure hours snatched from the demands of an absorbing 

in northern Cali- profession were devoted to botany and meteorology. As a botanist, 

vas called to St. Dr. Engelmann confined himself to mastering by patient study the 



missionary 



fornia, Arizona, and New Mexico. Li 1881 he was called to St. 
Mark's Church in Berkeley, California, and in 1882 was appointed most difficult groups of flowering plants, studying them year after 
lecturer, in 1884 instructor, and in 1885 assistant professor of year, and leaving when his work was done little for the followers 
botany in the University of California. In 1884 Mr. Greene re- in liis chosen fields to garner. In this manner he elaborated the 
nounced the Episcopal faith, and was received into the Roman Cactacese and the North American species of Cuscuta, Juncus, 
Catholic Church, and in 1894 was named professor of botany in the Yucca, Agave, Quercus, Pinus, Abies, and Juniperus. Nearly all 
Catholic University of America in the City of Washington. In his life a closet botanist, working with scanty and often insufficient 
addition to papers in which many new species of plants are pro- material in his own herbarium or in those of Europe, which he 
posed, in the Bulletin of the Academy of Science of California and in visited several times for botanical investigations, it was only to- 
botanical journals, Mr. Greene has published two papers on the ward the end of his career that he was able to see with his own 
Oaks of western America, an incompleted Flora Franciscaua, parts eyes living individuals of many of the western plants he had first 
of a Manual of the Botany of the Region of San Francisco Bay, and 
two volumes of Pittonia^ a series of papers relating to botany and 
botanists. 



known 



Those who knew George Engelmann well will never forget this 
friendly broad-minded, learned, and modest man, his many kind- 
Greenella, an herb discovered by him in southern Arizona, was nesses, his practical common sense, his unbounded good nature and 

good fellowship, or the pleasure of his society. His name is pre- 



named in his honor by Asa Gray. 

3 George Engelmann (1809-1884) was born at Frankfort-on-the- served by the yellow-flowered Engelmannia of the western plains, 

Main, where his father, a member of the younger branch of the dedicated to him by Torrey and Gray, by the handsomest of all 

Engelmann family, which for many generations had furnished Spruce-trees, by a conspicuous Cactus of the deserts and coasts of 

clergymen to Bacharach on the Rhine, was likewise a clergyman California, and by many smaller plants ; and it will live in honored 

and the master of a successful school for young ladies. George remembrance as long as the trees of the New World remain a 

Engelmann was the oldest of thirteen children. He entered the subject of interest to students. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXVIL Quercus Engelmaoth:. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A cup-scale, enlarged. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter branchlet, the leaves removed, natural size 

12. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b.CCCLXXXVII 






LavendaL so. 



QUERCUS ENGELMANNI. Greene. 



A,BiocrezLa> direcoP 



Imp. Jl Tazie^Lr, Paris. 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



87 



QUERCUS OBLONGIFOLIA 



White Oak. 



Leaves ovate, oval or obovate, usually cordate, entire or remotely spinulose-dentate, 



pale blue. 



Quercus oblongifolia, Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 173, t. 19 Quercus undulata, var. oblongata, Engelmann, Rotlv- 
(1853). — A. cle CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 36. —Wat- roch Wheeler's Rep. vi. 250 (1878). 



son, PL Wheeler^ 17. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Quercus undulata, S grisea, Wenzig 
Acad. iii. 393 (excl. hab. California). — Sargent, Forest i?erZm, iii. 200 (in part) (1885). 

Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 143 (excl. hab. Cali- Quercus undulata, var. grisea, Greei 
fornia).— Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 416 29 (in part), t 15, f. 1 (1889). 

(Ma7i. PL W. Texas). 



West Am. Oaks 



A tree, rarely more than thirty feet in height, with a short trunk eighteen or twenty inches in 
diameter and many stout spreading and often contorted branches which form a handsome round-topped 
symmetrical head. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in 
thickness, and is ashy gray and checkered with small nearly square or oblong close plate-like scales. 
The branches are slender, rigid, and marked with pale lenticels ; at first they are coated with thick 
pale or fulvous tomentum which gradually disappears, and during their first winter they are light 
red-brown, dark brown, or dark orange-color, becoming ashy gray in their second or third year. The 
winter-buds are subglobose^ obtuse, from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, and covered with 
thin light chestnut-colored scales, those of the inner ranks being coated with thick pale tomentum 



o 



ed with red or pink. The leaves 



bud, ovate^ oval or shghtly obovate, usually 



cordate or sometimes rounded at the base, rounded and occasionally emarginate or acute at the apex, 
which is often furnished with a minute ridged tip, and entire and sometimes undulate, with thickened 
revolute margins, or occasionally remotely dentate with small caUous teeth ; or on vigorous shoots or 
young plants they are oblong, elongated, rounded or wedge-shaped at the narrow base, acute at the 
apex, and coarsely sinuate or undulate-toothed with gland-tipped teeth, or three-toothed at the broad 
apex and entire below ; when they unfold they are bright red and coated, especially on the lower 
surface, with hoary tomentum which soon disappears ; when they are half grown they are membrana- 
ceous, light green, and glabrous, and at maturity are thin and firm in texture, bright blue and lustrous 
on the upper and paler on the lower surface, from one to two inches long and from one half to three 
quarters of an inch broad, or on vigorous shoots sometimes from three to four inches long, with 
prominent pale midribs raised and rounded on the upper side, slender primary veins arcuate and 
united near the margins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout nearly terete 
petioles about a quarter of an inch in length, and, remaining on the branches during the Avinter without 
change of color, gradually turn yellow in the spring and fall with or just before the appearance of the 
new growth. The stipules are oblong-ob ovate or linear-lanceolate, brown and scarious, from half an 
inch to nearly an inch in length, coated with pale pubescence and caducous. The flowers appear during 
March and April with the first unfolding of the leaves ; the staminate are borne in short aments, their 
slender stems covered with white tomentum, and the pistillate are usually sessile, or are raised on tomen- 
tose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is Hght yellow, pilose, and divided into five or six 
laciniately cut or entire acute segments tinged with red above the middle, and shorter than the stamens 
with slender filaments and ovate emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the 



88 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



pistillate flower are coated with pale tomentiim, and the stigmas are bright red. The 



ripen 



the autumn and 



ually solitary and sessile^ although occasionally they are raised on slender stalks 



sometimes 



ly two inches in length ; the nut is ovate, oval 



htly obovatC; full and rounded 



at the apex, which is furnished with a narrow ring of white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, striate 
and very lustrous, but soon becoming light brown in drying, from one half to three quarters of an 
inch long and about one third of an inch broad, with a thin papery shell and dark purple very astringent 
connate cotyledons ; the cup, which embraces about a third of the nut, is shallow, cup-shaped or rarely 

turbinate, thin, yellow-green and pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by ovate-oblong scales ; 
these are regularly imbricated, shghtly thickened on the back^ coated with hoary tomentum, and 

slender white hairs which some- 



produced into thin acute bright red tips ciliate on their margins with 
times form a minute fringe to the rim of the cup. 



Qiiercus oblongifolia is distributed from the Chisos Mountains, in 



western Texas,^ through 



southern New Mexico and Arizona, and ranges southward into northern Mexico. Comparatively rare 
in Texas, it is abundant on the foothills of all the mountain ranges of New Mexico and Arizona south 
of the Colorado plateau, at elevations of about five thousand feet, and, with Quercits Emoryi^ dots the 
upper slopes of the mesa where narrow canons open to the plain. 

The wood of Quercits ohlonr/ifoUa is very heavy, hard, and strong, but brittle and liable to check 
badly in drying ; it is dark brown or nearly black, with thick brown sapwood, and contains conspicuous 
medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being hardly distinguishable. Exceedingly difficult to cut 
and split, it is sometimes used as fuel, but has no other economic value. 

Quereus ohlongifolia was discovered in western New Mexico in the autumn of 1851, by Dr. S. W. 



Woodho 



of the expedit 



by the government of 



the United States, under the 



conmiand of Captain Sitgreaves, to explore the Zuiii and Colorado Rivers. It is a tree of the foothills 
and one of the most beautiful of the Oaks of the southwest, always easily recognized by its pale 
checkered bark, its handsome compact round-topped head, and its Hght blue foliage. 



^ Quereus ohlongifolia was collected in western Texas by Dr. V. 
Havard, U. S. Army {teste Herb. Engelnianu). 



Woodrufe 



the Creek and Cherokee Nations ; a year later he joined the Zuui 



2 Samuel Washington Woodhouse, son of Samuel Woodhouse, a exploring party under command of Captain Sitgreaves in the same 
captain in the United States Army, was born June 27, 1821, in capacity, and published the account of the mammals and birds 



1854 



Pliiladelphia, where he was educated, and in 1847 was graduated included in the general report of this expedition. In 

from the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania and Woodhouse took part in a scientific expedition to Central America, 

elected an assistant physician in the Philadelphia Hospital. In and two years later resigned his position in the army. The natural 

1849 Dr. Woodhouse, who had early developed it love of natural history collections made in his long journeys are preserved in the 



history, especially of ornithology, was appointed surgeon and nat- 



Washingt 



uralist of the expedition sent under command of Captain L. Sit- Academy of Natural Sciences. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXVIII. Quercus oblongifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 
3- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. The end of a winter branchlet, natural size. 
10. A winter-bud, enlarged. 



K> 



ilva of North America 



Tal. CCCLXXXVIII 




2 



o 





C. E. FawoTh' del/. 



Rapzney j-o 



QUERCUS OBLONGIFOLIA, T 



orr 



A.Iiiocreuay (Sreay f 



Imp. J^.Tojn&iMr, ParLr . 



cupuLiFER^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



QUERCUS ARIZONICA 



White Oak. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovate, cordate or rounded at the base, acute 
or rounded at the apex, spinose-dentate, blue-green, pubescent and conspicuously 
reticulate-yenulose on the lower surface. 



Quercus Arizonica, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ viii. 92 Quercus undulata, var. grisea, Engelmann, Rothrock 



(1895). 



Wheeler's Rep. vi. 250 (not Quercus grisea^ Liebmann) 



Quercus Emoryi, Watson, PL Wheeler^ 17 (not Torrey) (1878). — Greene, West Am. Oaks, 30 (in part), t. 14. 



(1874). 



Quercus grisea, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

U. S. ix. 144 (excl. syn.) (not Liebmann) (1884). 



A tree^ occasionally fifty or sixty feet in height^ with a trunk three or four feet in diameter and 
stout contorted branches spreading nearly at right angles from the stem and forming a handsome round- 
topped symmetrical head ; usually not more than thirty or forty feet tall^ and at high elevations 
sometimes reduced to a low shrub. The bark of the trunk is about an inch thick^ and is deeply divided 
by narrow fissures into broad ridges broken into long thick plate-Kke scales pale or ashy gray on the 
surface^ that of the young stems and the branches being thinner^ pale, and scaly with small appressed 
scales. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are clothed with thick fulvous tomentum 
which continues to cover them during their first winter, and in their second season they are reddish 
brown or light orange-color, marked with pale lenticels, and pubescent or puberulous, becoming glabrous 
and darker the following year. The buds are subglobose, about a sixteenth of an inch long, and 
covered by loosely imbricated bright chestnut-brown puberulous scales often ciliate on the margins. 
The leaves are revolute in the bud, oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at the 
base, generally acute or sometimes rounded at the apex, and repandly spinose-dentate with minute 
callous teeth usually, except on vigorous shoots, only above the middle or toward the apex ; or they are 
entire and sometimes undulate ; when they unfold they are light red, clothed with bright fulvous or 
hoary tomentum, and furnished with dark dental glands, and at maturity they are thick, firm and rigid, 
dark blue-green and glabrous or covered with stellate hairs above, and yellow-green or pale blue and 
clothed with thick fulvous or pale pubescence below ; they are extremely variable in size as well as in 
shape, varying from an inch to four inches in length and from half an inch to two inches in width, but 
are usually about two inches long and an inch wide, with yellow midribs broad and thick on the under 
and slender and raised on the upper side, and slender yellow primary veins arcuate and united near the 
thickened and slightly revolute margins and connected by coarsely reticulate veinlets ; they are borne 
on stout tomentose slightly flattened petioles from one quarter to one half of an inch in length and fall 
in the early spring with or just before the appearance of the new growth. The stipules are obovate- 
oblong or Hnear-lanceolate, brown and scarious, coated with pale tomentum below and furnished at the 
apex with clusters of long hairs, and are caducous, or those of the last leaves sometimes persist during 
the winter. The flowers appear in April ; the staminate are borne in short tomentose aments two or 
three inches in length from the axils of the inner bud-scales of the terminal buds, and the plstiUate 
on short peduncles clothed with thick pale tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is pale yellow 
and pubescent, and is divided into from four to seven broad acute lobes often ciHate on the margins 
Avith pale hairs, and shorter than the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments and oblong 
slightly emarginate red or yellow anthers. The fruit, which is sessile or is sometimes borne on a stout 



90 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUFULLFEKiE. 



overed with hoary tomentum and rarely more than half an inch long^ is usually solitary and 



1 



ipens irregularly from the first of Septemb 



the 



d of November ; the 



'hlong^ oval 



sHghtly oh 



obtuse and rounded at the puberulous apex^ from three quarters of 



in 



ch 



an 



& 



and about half an inch broad, and is dark chestnut-brown, lustrous and often 



ipe^ but soon becomes light brown and losing its stripes as it d 



the 



tyledo 



dark 



purple^ and very 



the cup^ which 



hemispherical^ light brown and pubescent within and covered 



about a third of the nut; is deeply cup-shaped or 

regularly and closely imbricated 




broadly 



ated with thick pale tomentum^ furnished with thin light red pointed tip 



below the middle of the cup much thickened and rounded on the back. 

Quercus Arlzonlca is the most common and generally distributed White Oak of southern Arizona 
and New Mexico, covering with Quercus Emoryi the slopes of the canons of the mountain ranges 
south of the Colorado plateau ^ at elevations of from five to ten thousand feet above the level of the 



sea^ and many of those of northern Mexico.^ 



Growing at the 



upper edge of the mesa with Quercus 



ohlongifoUa^ it ascends nearly to the summits of the high peaks^ where it mingles with Quercus chryso- 
lepiSy Qiiercics GcoaheWy and with Pines and Junipers. 

The wood of Quercus Arhonlca is very heavy, strong, hard, and close-grained, although liable to 
check badly in drying ; it is dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter colored sapwood^ and contains 



bands of 



sm 



open 



marking the layers of annual growth and connected 




rows of similar 



ducts parallel to the numerous conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 

and split; it is only 



wood is 1.0092, a cubic foot weighing 62.89 pounds. Extremely difficult to cut 
used for fuel. 

Quercus ArizonlcfA^ which has been long confounded with one of the Texas forms of Quercus 
unclulata^ appears to have been first collected in Arizona in 1871 by the party, under command of 
Lieutenant George M. Wheeler, sent by the government of the United States to explore the territory 
west of the one hundredth meridian. 

To this tree, less beautiful in color, perhaps, than Quercus oblongifolicty but always attractive from 
its pale bark and shapely head of cheerful foHage, is due much of the beauty of the forest-covering of 
the Arizona 
abundance. 



Mountains, where Q 



Emoryi is the only broad-leaved tree that grows 



more 



^ The sterile branches of a shrubby Oak collected by Coville and gifoliay connate cotyledons. It differs from Quercus oUongifolia 

Funston in December, 1890 {Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 234, in its thicker pubescent and much more coarsely reticulate leaves 

No. 4 [Bot. Death Valley ExpedJ])^ near Flagstaff, Arizona, on the and in its pubescent branchlets and larger fruit with thicker 

Colorado plateau, I can refer only to this species, although the cup-scales. In the texture, pubescence, and coloring of its leaves, 

and in the shape of some of the large broadly obovate and rounded 

An Oak found without flowers and fruit by Brandegee on Mt. individual leaves (Plate ccclxxxix. f . 6, 7) which may sometimes be 

San Pedro Martir in Lower California and referred to Quercus found on branches bearing oblong acute leaves, it resembles Quercus 
grisea (Zoe, iv. 209) is probably of another species. 



region is far north of its range as otherwise known. 



reticulata, but its fruit is much larger and has thicker cup-scales 
than the fruit of that species ; its bark is thicker and fissured and 
3 Quercus Arizonica is intermediate in many of its characters generally lighter colored, and in Arizona it grows to a much larger 



441 



Mongifol 



Like these size and at lower altitudes. 



species it has purple and astringent seeds, and, like Quercus ohlon- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCLXXXIX. Quercus Arizonica. 



1. A flowering branch, natural size 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



5. A fruiting branch, natural size 

6. A sterile branch, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 



SilvsL of Norlh America. 



Tab. CCCLXXXIX, 




CA'.^'cucorL d^L 



RapirLO' sc- 



QUERCUS ARIZOTNfICA, Sarg. 



Va. RlocT'eua:^ direza . 



Imp . ^^. Tan^ur^ Paris' 



CUPULIFER-S:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



QUERCUS RETICULATA. 



Leaves broadly obovate, cordate, usually rounded and obtuse at the apex, repandly 
spinose-dentate, coarsely reticulate-venulose, dark blue-green. 



Quercus reticulata, Humboldt & Bonplandj PL JEquin. ii. 
40, t. 86 (1809),— Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. 
Gen. et Spec. ii. 12. — Kunth, Syn. PL ^quin. i. 357. 
Poiret, Lavi. Diet. Suppl. v. 609. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 

Loudon, Arh. Brit iii. 1944, f. 1865. — Dietrich, 



860. 



Census U. S. ix. 144. — Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Ber- 
Ihiy iii. 194. — Greene, West Am. Oaks, 31, t. 16. 
Quercus spicata, Humboldt & Bonpland, PL JEqiun. ii. 
46, t. 89 (1809). — Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. 
Ge7i. et Spec. ii. 13. — Kunth, Syii. PL JEqni7i. i. 358. 
Bentham, PL Hartweg. 56. 



Syn. V. 308- — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 33. 

« ■ 

Orsted, Vidensk. Medd.franat. For. Kjohenh. 67; Lieb- Quercus decipiens, Martens & Galeotti, BulL Acad. Sci 



mann 



Chenes Am. Trop. t. H, t. 34, f. 10-16 ; t. 35, 



Brux. X. 214 (1843). 



f. 16-22. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 383 ; ? Quercus reticulata, (i Greggii, A. de Candolle, Prodr 



Bothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 250. — Hemsley, Bot. BioL 
Am. Cent. iii. 176. — Sargent, jpbr^si Trees N. Am. l^th 



xvi. pt. ii. 34 (1864). — Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent 
iii. 176. 



Quercus reticulata^ a large tree in the canons of the Sierra Madre of Mexico,^ rarely grows more 
than thirty feet tall on the mountains of southern Arizona and New Mexico or produces a trunk that 
exceeds a foot in diameter^ and is usually shrubby in habit and sometimes only a few feet high. The 
bark of the trunk is about a quarter of an inch thick^ and is dark or light brown and covered with 
small thin closely appressed scales. The branchlets, which are stout and marked with pale lenticels^ are 
coated, when they first appear, with thick fulvous tomentum, and during their first winter are light 
orange-colored and more or less thickly clothed with pubescence^ ultimately becoming ashy gray or 
light brown. The winter-buds are ovate or oval, often accompanied by the persistent stipules of the 
upper leaves, about an eighth of an inch long and covered by thin loosely imbricated light red scales 

The leaves are revolute in the bud, broadly obovate, usually cordate or 
occasionally rounded at the narrow base, obtuse and rounded or rarely acute at the apex, repandly 
spinose-dentate above the middle or only toward the apex with slender teeth, and entire below ; when 
they unfold they are coated with dense fulvous tomentum, and at maturity are thick, firm and rigid, 
dark blue and covered with scattered stellate hairs on the upper surface, paler and clothed with thick 
fulvous pubescence on the lower surface, from one to five inches long and from three quarters of 
an inch to four inches broad, with stout midribs slightly raised on the upper side and remote primary 
veins running to the points of the teeth or arcuate and united within the slightly revolute margins, 



ciliate on the margins. 



coarse conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout petioles about a quarter of an inch in length. 



The 



stipules are linear, scarious, light brown, pubescent, and caducous, or those of the last leaves 
sometimes persist on the branches until the opening 



of the buds of the following season. 



The 



flowers appear in Arizona in May and June, and are borne, the staminate in short tomentose aments 
from the axils of the leaves of the year, the pistillate in spikes on elongated peduncles clothed, like 
their involucral scales, with hoary tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is light yellow and 
coated with pale hairs, and is divided into from five to seven ovate acute segments shorter than 
the stamens, which are composed of slender filaments and smooth ovate emarginate glabrous yellow 
anthers. The stigmas of the pistillate flowers are dark red. The acorns are borne usually in many- 
fruited spikes or occasionally in pairs or rarely solitary, on slender hirsute or glabrous peduncles 
from two to five inches in length and persistent on the branches for one or two years ; the nut is 
oblong, rounded or acute at the pilose apex, broad at the base and about half an inch long, with deep 



^ Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 411 



92 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER-E. 



purple astringent cotyledons ; the ciip^ which incloses about a quarter of the nut^ is shallow^ cup-shaped 
dark brown and pubescent within^ and coated with pale or fulvous tomentum on the outer surface 
which is covered by small ovate acute scales with thin free scarious tips, and, at the bottom of the cup 
slightly thickened and rounded on the back. 



The 



ood of Quercus retlcidata. which 



y 



heavy, hard, and 



o 



d contains 



numerous small scattered open ducts and many broad medullary rays 



dark brown with thick lighte 



ed sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9479, a cubic foot weighing 



59-07 poimd 



In the United States Q 



discovered 



Mt. Graham, A 



of nine thousand five hundred feet above the sea by Dr. J. T. Rothrock ^ in 1874 



, at an elevation 
It has also been 



found 



the summits of 



Santa Rita, Huachuca, Chiricahua, and Santa Catahna Mountains 



Arizona and on the San Luis and Animas Mountains in southern New Mexico 



1 Joseph Trimble Rothrock was born In McVeytown, Mifflin fornia. He largely prepared the volume in which are described 

County, Pennsylvania, on April 9, 1839, and received his early edii- the plants collected by him at this time, and is the author of a 

cation in Pennsylvania in the Freeland Seminary and in Academia, report on the flora of Alaska, published in the Report of the 

Juniata County ; he then entered the Lawrence Scientific School of Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for 1867. In 1877 Dr. 

Harvard University, from which he was graduated in 1864, and three Rothrock was appointed professor of botany in the University of 

years later received a degree in medicine from the University of Pennsylvania, and in November, 1892, general secretary of the 

Pennsylvania. He was botanist to a party sent to the Northwest in Pennsylvania Forestry Association. 

1865 to explore a route for a. proposed telegraph line across Behr- ^ Quercus reticulata was found on the mountains of southern 

ing's Sea, and from 1873 to 1875 was surgeon and botanist to the New Mexico in the summer of 1892 by Dr. Edgar A. Mearns, 



United States Geographical Survey of the country west of the one 



Boundary 



hundredth meridian, which, under command of Lieutenant George growing on their summits as a little shrub and at lower eleva- 



Wheele 



tions as a small tree with rough whitish bark. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXC. Quercus reticulata, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Silva of NortTi America. 



r r .^ 



Tat. CCCXC 




C, -£I FcLCi:o7b del/ 




lyt^ sc. 



QUERCUS RETICULATA, HuTnb.&Bonp. 



A.Hio cr*eua> direa>. 



Imp . J'* Tane^LT, Pari^ 



cuPULiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



QUERCUS TOUMEYI. 



Leaves ovate or ovate-obiong or oval, entire or remotely spinose-dentate, blue- 



green. 



Quercus Tourney i, Sargent, Garden and Forest, viii. 92, f. 13, 14 (1895). 



A tree; from twenty-five to thirty feet in height^ with a short trunk six or eight inches in diameter 



dividing not far above the ground into 



spreading branches which form a broad 



irregular head. The bark of the trunk is about three quarters of an inch in thickness and is deeply 
furrowed; dark brown tinged with red, and broken on the surface into small thin closely appressed 
scales. The branchlets are slender, and at midsummer are Kght rather bright red and more or less 
thickly coated with pale tomentum, and during their second and third years are covered with thin dark 
brown nearly black bark broken into small plate-like closely appressed scales. The leaves are ovate or 
ovate-oblong or oval, rounded or cordate at the base, acute and apiculate at the apex, entire with 
thickened and slightly revolute margins or remotely spinulose-dentate, or often minutely three-toothed 
at the apex ; they are thin but firm in texture, light blue-green, glabrous and lustrous above, pale and 
puberulous below, from one half to three quarters of an inch long, from one quarter to one half of an 
inch wide, and conspicuously reticulate-venulose, with slender midribs raised and rounded on the upper 
side and thin arcuate primary veins ; they are borne on stout tomentose petioles about one sixteenth 
of an inch long and probably fall early in the spring with the appearance of the new growth. The 
flowers are unknown. The fruit is sessile, solitary or in pairs, and ripens in June ; the nut is oval or 
ovate, one half or two thirds of an inch long, one quarter of an inch broad, light brown and lustrous, 
and furnished at the acute apex with a narrow ring of pale pubescence ; the abortive ovules are at the 
base of the seed ; the cup, which incloses about a quarter of the nut, is thin and shallow, cup-shaped 
and tomentose, Hght green and pubescent within and covered on the outer surface by thin ovate regu- 
larly and closely imbricated light red-brown scales ending in short rounded tips and coated on the back 
with pale tomentum. 

The wood of Quercus Toitmeyi is light brown, with thick pale sapwood, and contains numerous 
medullary rays and narrow bands of small open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. 

Quercus Toiimeyi inhabits the Mule Mountains in Cochise County in southeastern Arizona, where 
it was found in July, 1894, by Professor J. W. Toumey,^ forming stunted open forests extending from 
the belt of Quercus Emoryi to the summits. 

^ James WiUiam Toumey was born in Van Buren County, Michi- professor of botany and entomology in the University of Arizona, 

gan, April 17, 1865, and was graduated from the Michigan Agri- Professor Tourney has made large collections of Arizona plants 

cultural College in 1889, becoming a year later an assistant in the gathered in different parts of the territorj-, which he has explored 

botanical department of that institution. In 1891 he was appointed botanically more thoroughly than any one else. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCCXCL Quercus Toumeyi. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cup-scale, enlarged. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

5. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCXCl 




C.^.J^a^OTi^ dei^. 



HimeZy so 



QUERCUS TOUMEYI, Sarg. 



AJUo 



c^eua> 




Imp. J. Tane^MT, Parur. 



CUPULIEERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



95 



QUEROUS DUMOSA 



Scrub Oak. 



Leaves oblong or obovate, entire, sinute-toothed or lobed, green, pubescent, and 
often pale on the lower surface. 



Quercus dumosa, Nuttall, Sylva, i. 



( 



(1842). 



Torrey, Quercus dumosa, y acutidens, Weiizig, Jahrh. Bot. GaH. 



Mex. Bound. Surv. 207. — Engelmann, Trans. St. 



Berlin , iii. 204 (1885). 



Louis Acad. iii. 382 (excl. syn. Quercus herberldtfoUa), Quercus MacDonaldi, Gr 



■) 



West Am. OaJcs, 25 



393 ; Breiver & Watson Bot. Col. ii. 96. — Wenzig, Jahrb. 
Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 203. — Greene, Bull. CaL Acad. 



(1889) ; pt. ii. 73, t. 34. — Sargent, Garden and Forest^ 
ii. 471. 



ii- 412 ; West Am. Oaks, 35, t. 18, 19 ; Man. Bot, Baij Quercus MacDonaldi, var. elegantula, Greene, West 



Region, 302, — Merriam, North American Fanna, No. 7, 
334 {Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U.S. 
Nat. Herb. iv. 197 {Bot. Death Valley Exp ed.). — Sar- 
gent, Garden and Forest, viii. 93. 



Am. Oaks, 25 (1889) ; pt. ii, 61, t. 29. —Parish, Zoe, iv. 
346. 
Quercus dumosa, var. polycarpa, Greene, West Am, 
Oaks, 36 (1889) ; pt. ii. 61, t 28. 



Quercus acutidens, Torrey, Bot. Mex, Bound. Sitrv. 207, Quercus dumosa, var. munita, Greene, West Am. Oaks, 



t. 51 (1858). 



37, t. 20 (1889). 



Quercus undulata, var. pungens, Engelmann, Breiver & Quercus turbinella, Greene, West Am. Oaks, 37 (1889) ; 



Watson Bot, Gal. ii. 96 (in part) (1880). 



pt. ii. 59 (in part), t. 27. 



An intricately branched rigid shrub^ with stout stems covered by pale gray bark, usually from six 
to eight feet in height, often forming dense thickets ; or occasionally in the sheltered canons of the 
California islands rising to the height of twenty-five or thirty feet, with a trunk from twelve to eighteen 
inches in diameter covered by bright brown scaly bark, and a round-topped head of slender branches. 
The branchlets are slender, marked with scattered pale lenticels, and coated when they first appear with 
hoary tomentum ; during their first winter they are ashy gray or light or dark reddish brown and usually 
pubescent or tomentose. The winter-buds are oval, generally acute, from a sixteenth to an eighth of an 
inch long, and covered by thin pale red scales often pilose and ciliate. The leaves are convolute in the 
bud, and when they unfold are thin, clothed with scattered stellate hairs or rarely tomentose on the upper 



surface, and coated on the lower and 
thick and firm, dark green and ratln 



the petioles with hoary tomentum 



d 



maturity they 



abo 



ve 



d paler and covered more or less thickly with 



pubescence bel 



The leaves of no other North American Oak vary so much in shap 



often on the 



1 



nd they are oblong, broad and abruptly wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, rounded or acute 
apex, sinuate, spinescent-toothed or entire or occasionally lobed, and usually about three quarters 



of an inch long and half an inch broad, with obscure midribs and primary veins, conspicuous 



d short stout petioles rarely more than an eighth of 



ch in lensrth ; Pfenerally furnished 



with a few small remote spinescent teeth, oblong-obovate leaves, and leaves with undulate and entire or 
coarsely spinescent margins are common on individual plants, and leaves of all these forms may be found 
on the same plant; small lobed leaves are not uncommon on plants near the 
abundant on the islands, where individual plants frequently produce 



but 



most 



oblong or oblong-obovate 



narrowed at the base into long slender petioles and divided by deep sinuses rounded at the bottom 



from five to nine oblonsr lobes, these being 



& 



acute, rounded or emarginate and 



bristle tipped, and 



g in size from the base of the leaf to the apex, which is three-lobed, rounded or acute ; such 
e sometimes from two to four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with 



stout midribs, primary veins running to the points of 
borne on petioles varying from three quarters of ai 



and ob 



eticulate 



and 



ch to an inch in length, they appear to fall 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA. 



CUPULIFEKiE. 



earlier in the winter than the smaller dentate or entire leaves on mainland plants.^ The stipules 
are linear, obovate or lanceolate, searioiis, licvht brown, coated with pale hairs and caducous. The 
flowers are produced in early spring with 



the unfolding of 



the leaves ; the staminate are borne in 
pubescent aments about three inches in length, and the pistillate are sessile or pedunculate ; or rarely the 



flowers are perfect in 



long many-flowered 



tomentose spikes.^ The calyx of the pistiUate flower is 



divided into from four to eight ovate lanceolate hairy segments much shorter than the stamens, which 
are composed of slender filaments and ovate emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. 



The involucral scales 



clothed with pale tomentum, and the stigmas are red. 



The 



and the calyx of the pistillate flower are 
acorns are usually solitary, and are sessile or short-pedunculate ; the nut is oval, broad at the base, broad 
and rounded or narrowed and acute at the apex, from half an inch to an inch and a half long and from 
one third to nearly two thirds of an inch broad ; the cup, which incloses from one third to nearly two 
thirds of the nut, is deeply cup-shaped or hemispherical ; it is light brown and pubescent within, and is 
covered by ovate pointed scales coated with pale or rufous tomentum ; these, except on the upper part 
of the cup, are generally much thickened, united and tuberculate, and are sometimes furnished with 
thin free acute tips ; above they are small and thin with minute free hairy tips which form a slight fringe 
to the rim of the cup, or frequently the basal scales are scarcely or not at all thickened and are 



furnished with larger free tip 



In 



Califo 



d 



ally in southern California, a variety of Q 



dumosa 



3 



th rounder, thicker, and paler leaves, which are concave and covered with hoary tomentum 



labrous on the upper surface and strongly revolute with entire or spinescent margins, and 



lually 



with less pointed nuts and rather shallower cups 



Q 



dumosa is sometimes found 



the 



slop 



of the S 



Nevada Mountains 



California ; * it is common on the coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay, inhabits the islands off the 
coast of the southern part of the state, where it grows to its largest size, and extends inland to the 
borders of the Mohave Desert and the canons of the desert slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto 
Mountains, rang-ino^ southward in Lower California to the hills near San Telmo.^ North of San Fran- 
cisco Bay it is replaced by the variety revohita^ which ranges as far north as Mendocino County and to 
Napa Valley. 

Querciis dumosa was discovered by Thomas Nuttall on the hills near Santa Barbara in the spring 

of 1835. 



1 No one could imagine simply from an examination of herba- acute entire or dentate thick and rigid leaves about three quar- 

rium specimens that the insular foiun, with lobed leaves (Plate ters of an inch long, slender elongated nuts and comparatively 

cccxciii. f. 1, 4) resembling those of some forms of Quercus Gam- shallow cups with thin scales, appears distinct in extreme forms, but 

helii, could belong to this species. When the plants, however, are more spinescent leaved forms with thicker and more tuberculate 

seen in the canons of Santa Catalina Island it becomes apparent cups grow with it, and I cannot jfind varietal characters by which 

that the occasional trees with large lobed leaves are only more to separate them. I have not seen this plant alive. 



vigorous individuals of a species which in the same thickets pro- 



2 A monstrous condition (^Quercus dumosa polycarpa) noticed by 



duce small and entire or spinescent or slightly lobed leaves ; in Professor Greene, who believed it to be a second flowering from a 
these tliickets individual plants bear entire, spinescent, and variously second annual growth. 



lobed large and small leaves on the same or on different branches, 



3 



Quercus dumosa, var. revoluta, Sargent, Garden and Forest^ viii. 



and vigorous shoots on plants with otherwise mostly small entire 93 (1895) (Plate cccxcii. f. 5, 6). 



leaves often bear large lobed leaves ; and these large-leaved indi- 
viduals seen from a little distance cannot be distinguished by habit, 
color, or general appearance from their smaller leaved associates. 
Half a dozen species or well marked varieties might be established 
from as many isolated branches selected from plants of Quercus 



Quercus durnosa, var, hullata, Engelmann, Trans, St, Louis 
Acad, iii. 393 (not Quercus Robur bidlata, A. de Candolle) (1877); 
Brewer tV Watson Bat, CaL ii. 96. — Wenzig, Jahrb, Bot. Gart, 
Berlin^ iii. 204. — Greene, Man. Bot. Bay Region, 302. 
^ A common small-leaved form of Quercus dumosa was collected 



dumosa on Santa Catalina Island (Plate cccxciii.), and all their at Sherlock, in Mariposa County, by Mr. J. W. Congdon, in the 



characters might be found on a single plant. 



form 



spring of 1894. 

5 Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 209. 



tain 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Pl^TE CCCXCIL QUERCUS DinVIOSA. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruiting branch of the variety revoluta^ natural size. 

5. The end of a branch of the variety revoluta^ with nearly 

entire leaves. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 



Plate CCCXCIIL Quercus dumosa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. The end of a vigorous shoot with sharply dentate 

leaves. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

5. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 

9. A fruit, natural size. 

10. A fruit, natural size. 

11. A fruit, natural size. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCXCII 




2 






8 




C.E.FaxDoru del 




hne^ so. 



QUERCUS DUMOSA,l^utt 



A, Hio creucz> direay^ 



Imp . L Tanstir, Parip 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCXCIII 




'^h *--■> r*^' ' 



C.E.Faccon deL. 



gUERCUS DUMOSA,Nutt. 



Mi^na^uur- so. 



A.RiocreiMz^ direcc^ 



Imp . J. TariBUT, Paris 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



QUERCUS VIRGINIANA 



Live Oak. 



Leaves oblong, elliptical or obovate, entire or remotely spinose-dentate, pale or 
silvery white on the lower surface. 



Quercus Virginiana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 16 (1768). 

Evelyn, Silva^ ed. Hunter, i. 72, — Du Mont de Courset, 

Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 426. — Koch, Dendr. \i. pt. ii. 57. 

Dippel, Handb. Laiihholzk. ii. 91, f- 39. — Sudworth, 

Rep. Sec. Agric. U. S. 1892, 328. — Coulter, Contrib. 

U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 416 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 
Quercus Phellos, /S, Linnaeus, Spec. 994 (1753). 
Quercus Phellos, c, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 255 (1770). 
Quercus Phellos, y obtusifolia, Lamarck, Diet. i. 722 

(1783). 
Quercus Phellos sempervirens, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 

124 (1785). — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 345. 
Quercus sempervirens, Walter, FL Car. 234 (not Miller) 

(1788). 
Quercus virens, Alton, Hort. Kew. 



111. 



356 (1789). 



Michaux, Hist. CMnes Am. No. 6, t. 10; FL Bor.-Am 
ii. 196. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 425 ; Emtm. 974. 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 567. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i 



Nouveait Duhaviel^ vii. 151. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 595. 
Sprengel, Syst. iii. 858. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 177. 
Scheele, Roemer Texas, 446 ; Linncra, xxii. 147. 



Die. 



trich, Syn, v. 307. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Sui'v^ 

Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Suri\ N. Car. 1860, iii 



206. 
35. 



Chapman, FL 421. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi 



pt. ii. 37. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. 
Kjobeiih. 1866, 69 ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trap. t. 33, 
f. 50-57.— Vasey, Am. Ent. and Bot. 282, f. 175. 
Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii. 383. — Hemsley, 
Bot. BioL Am. Cent. iii. 178. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 145. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. 
Gart. Berlin,, iii. 181. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 
302, t. — Watson & Coulter, Grat/s Man. ed. 6, 477. 
Quercus oleoides, Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linncea^ v. 
79 (1830). — Martens <& Galeotti, BulL Acad. Sci. Brux. 
X. 208. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 
1866, 69. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin^ iii. 218. 



718. 
342. 



Bosc, Mem. Inst. Nat. Sci. Phys. Math. viii. pt. i. Quercus Sagraeana, Nuttall, Sylva, i. 17 (1842). 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 507. — Poiret, Lam. Quercus Cubana, A. Richard, FL Cub. iii. 230 (1853). 



Diet. Suppl. ii. 213. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 404. 



Michaux f. Hist 



Pursh, FL Am 



Sept. ii. 626. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214 ; Sylva^ i. 16. 



Quercus retusa, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk 
Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 187. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. 
fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 69. 



A tree^ forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter above its swollen 
and buttressed base, and usually dividing a few feet from the ground into three or four great horizontal 



covermg an area 



f 



rom one 



wide-spreading limbs which form a low dense round-topped head often 
hundred to one hundred and fifty feet across ; occasionally sixty or seventy feet tall, with a trunk 
diameter of six or seven feet, but often shrubby, and sometimes not more than a foot high. The bark 
of the trunk and large branches is from half an inch to an inch in thickness and is dark brown tinged 
with red and sHghtly furrowed, the surface separating into small closely appressed scales. The 
branchlets are slender, rigid, marked with pale lenticels, and coated at first with hoary tomentum which 
soon begins to disappear, and during their first winter are ashy gray or light brown and pubescent or 
puberulous, becoming darker and glabrous the following season. The winter-buds are globose or 



htly obovate, about one sixteenth of an inch long, and covered by thin light chestnut-b 



scales 



with scarious white margins. The leaves are revolute in the bud, oblong, elliptical or obovate, gradu- 
ally narrowed and wedge-shaped or, in Texas and Mexico, sometimes rounded or cordate at the base, 
rounded or acute at the apex, and usually entire with thickened and conspicuously revolute margins, 
or rarely furnished above the middle with a few rigid spinose teeth; when they unfold they are 
thin, light green tinged with red, covered with scattered pale stellate hairs on the upper surface, and 
coated on the lower with thick hoary tomentum ; and at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, very 
dark green and lustrous above, pale or silvery white and pubescent or puberulous below, from two 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



to five inches in length and from half an inch to two inches and a half in breadth, with narrow yellow 
midribs, few slender obscure primary veins forked and united at some distance from the margins, and 
conspicuous or inconspicuous reticidate veinlets ; they are borne on stout petioles, grooved and flattened 
on the upper side and rarely more than a quarter of an inch long, and, gradually turning yellow or 
brown at the end of the winter, fall with or soon after the appearance of the new growth in the spring. 
The stipules are linear-obovate or lanceolate, hairy, brown and scarious, and about half an inch in 
length. The flowers appear in March and April, and are borne, the staminate in the axils of linear- 
lanceolate pubescent bracts in hairy aments from two to three inches in length, the pistillate in sj)ikes 
on slender pubescent peduncles from one to three inches long. The calyx of the staminate flower is 
light yellow, hairy, and divided into from five to seven ovate rounded segments shorter than the 
stamens, which are composed of slender filaments about as long as the large oblong emarginate hirsute 
yellow anthers. The involucral scales and ovate calyx-lobes of the pistillate flower are coated with 
hoary pubescence, and the stigmas are bright red. The fruit is usually produced in from three to five- 
fruited spikes, or sometimes in pairs or singly, on stout light brown puberulous peduncles marked with 
pale lenticels, enlarged toward the apex, and from one to five inches in length ; the nut is oval or 
slightly obovate, narrowed at the base, rounded or acute at the narrow apex, dark chestnut-brown and 
very lustrous, and about an inch long and one third of an inch wide, with a sweet seed and light yellow 
connate cotyledons; the cup, which incloses about a quarter of the nut, is turbinate, light reddish 
brown and puberulous within, and covered with thin ovate acute scales slightly keeled on the back, 
coated with dense lustrous hoary tomentum and produced into smaU closely appressed reddish tips. In 
germinating, the petioles of the cotyledons grow from one to two inches long, the plumule forcing its 
way up through a sHt near their base ; the radicle and the upper part of the fruit, by absorbing the 
sweet and starchy matter contained in the cotyledons, enlarges and forms a spindle-shaped tuber often 
two inches long which furnishes the young plant with an immediate supply of nourishment and, when 
this function has been performed, becomes merged with the root.^ 

Querciis Virginiana is distributed from the shores of Mobjack Bay in Virginia southward on the 
islands and in the neighborhood of the coast to those of Bay Biscayne in Florida ; it abounds in all parts 
of the Florida peninsula, and, ranging from Cape Romano along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to 
beyond the mouth of the Rio Grande, spreads inland through Texas to the valley of the Red River and 
to the Apache and Guadaloupe Mountains in the extreme western part of the state, and to the mountains 
of northeastern Mexico; it inhabits the island of Cuba and the mountains of southern Mexico, Central 
America, and Lower California.^ On the Atlantic and east Gulf coasts, where it is very abundant and 
attains its largest size, the Live Oak grows on rich hummocks and ridsres a few feet above the level of 



the ocean with the Water Oaks, the Hickories, the Red Bay, and the Mulberry ; it is abundant in 
Texas, growing in the coast region near the banks of streams in low rich soil, and farther westward 
toward the valley of the Rio Grande often forming on low moist soil the principal part of the shrubby 



gr 



owth. 



In sandy barren soil in the immediate vicinity of the coast, or on the shores of salt water 
estuaries and bays, the Live Oak is often a shrub with numerous stout contorted stems and thick rigid 
branchlets. Such shrubby forms bear leaves which, except in their smaller size, resemble the leaves of 
the large trees, or on some individuals the leaves are thin and but sUghtly or not at all revolute and 
frequently not more than an inch in length,^ and on others, sometimes bearing fruit on stems not 
more than a foot high, they are obovate-oblong, often spinosely toothed, three or four inches long and 

1 Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv. 190. Quercus Phellos (maritima), Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 7, 

These tubers are eagerly sought for and eaten by the negro ehil- t. 13, f. 3 (1801). 



dren in the southern states. 



Quercus maritima, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 424 (1805). 



2 Quercus Virginiana was collected by Mr. T. S. Brandegee at Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214 ; Sylva, i. 13. 



Miraflores, Lower California^ November 14, 1890. 
^ Quercus Virginiana, var. maritima. 



Quercus virens, var. maritima. Chapman, FL 421 (1860). — En- 
gelmann, 7ran5, St. Louis Acad. iii. 383. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



half an inch wide. On one form ^ growing from one to two feet high and spreading hy underground 
stemsj which is common in the sterile Pine barrens of the south Atlantic and eastern Gulf coasts^ the 
lower leaves are ohlong-obovate^ gradually narrowed at the base, acute at the broad apex, coarsely 



repand-serrate with large triangular spreading or obhque teeth, or three-toothed at the 
entire below, and three or four inches long, while the 



apex 



and 



slio^htly re volute mars'ins. 



t) 



& 



upper leaves are oblong-lanceolate with entire 
On these dwarf forms the fruit is usually larger and borne on shorter 
peduncles than that of large trees. 

Qiiercus Virginiana is one of the most valuable timber-trees of North America. The wood is 
very heavy, hard, strong, tough, and close-grained, with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish, but is rather difficult to work ; it is light brown or yellow, with thin nearly white 
sapwood, and contains numerous small open ducts arranged in short broken rows parallel to the broad 
conspicuous medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being hardly distinguishable. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.9501, a cubic foot weighing 59.21 pounds. Formerly it was 
largely used in ship-building, and is still occasionally employed for this purpose.^ 

The sweet acorns were gathered and eaten by the Indians, and afford valuable food for hogs.^ 
The importance of the Live Oak as a timber-tree was recognized in the seventeenth century,^ and 
the first description of it was published by Plukenet in 1696.^ It was cultivated by Phihp Miller in 



Quercus Virginiana^ var. minima (Plate cccxcvi,). 



ern Florida, including the island of Santa Rosa, were withdrawn 



Quercus virens, var. dentata. Chapman, FL 421 (not Quercus from entry on October 23, 1830 ; two years later the reservations 



dentata, Thunberg) (1860). 



were increased by 26,218 acres on tbe coast of Mississippi, includ- 



2 The President of the United States having been authorized by ing Round Island, and by two hundred and forty acres in soutb- 
an Act of Congress approved March 27, 1794, to procure four ships ern Alabama; on October 21, 1845, 9,170 acres in three islands 
of war for the purpose of protecting American commerce against on the coast of Louisiana were added to the reservations. 



the attacks of Algerian pirates, the attention of the government 



Previous to the War of Secession large quantities of Live Oak 



was called to the value of Live Oak timber in ship-building (see timber were cut from the reservations and used in the construction 
Am, State Papers [Docs. Legislative and Executive], i. 8). Writing of war-ships or stored in the shops of the different navy-yards, but 
on the 11th of January, 1797, to the committee on naval questions, the substitution of iron for wood in naval architecture diminished 
James McHenry, Secretary of War, argued that " early precaution their value, and they were gradually neglected and occupied by 
should be taken to secure to the United States a lasting fund of squatters who cleared the land for agricultural purposes. On 
live oak for future use " (ibid. 27) ; and by an Act of Congress March 3, 1879, an act was passed providing that all lands in Florida 
approved February 25, 1799, $200,000 were appropriated by Con- reserved for the use of the navy should be restored to the public 
gress for the purpose of purchasing growing or other timber or domain ; no action was taken under this authority, however, but 
lands on which timber was growing suitable for the navy. Under under an act passed by the Fifty-third Congress, approved in Febru- 
this act, Grover Island, of three hundred and fifty acres, on the ary, 1895, all the naval timber reservations in Louisiana, Missis- 
Georgia coast, was purchased by the President for $7,500 in sippi, and Alabama were transferred by the Secretary of the Navy 
December, 1799 ; and in the following year Blackboard Island, of to the Secretary of the Interior on the 15th of March, 1895, and 
sixteen hundred acres, also on the Georgia coast, was bought for opened to the public for entry and occupation, the Florida reser- 
$15,000. The acquisition of Louisiana by the United States in- vations being still retained by the Navy Department for further 
creased the available supply of live oak, and on the 1st of March, 
1817, an act was passed authorizing the withdrawal from entry of » « It bears a prodigious quantity of fruit ; the acorn is small, 
lands in the new territory covered with Live Oak and Cedar suita- but sweet and agreeable to the taste when roasted, and is food for 
ble for naval construction which might be designated by the Presi- almost all animals. The Indians obtain from it a sweet oil, which 
dent. Under this act Cypress and Six Islands in Louisiana, of about they use in the cooking of hommony, rice, &c., and they also roast 
nineteen thousand acres in extent and estimated to contain thirty- them in hot embers, eating them as we do chesnuts." (W. Bartram, 



investigations. 



seven thousand Live Oaks suitable for naval use, were reserved. 
The ceding of Florida to the United States called attention to the 



Travels, 85.) 



building 



value of its Live Oak trees and to the great quantities of this tun- those and many more which we have not nam'd ; they have all 



xported ann 



such as we in England esteem Good, Lasting and Serviceable, as 



eign countries. The land was so covered by private titles, however, the Oak of three sorts, the White, Black and Live Oak, which for 
that no timber-land could be reserved in the new territory imtil 



Touo-hness and the Goodness of its Grain is much esteemed." 



1825, when Congress appropriated 810,000 to purchase land on (Thomas Ash, Carolina, or a Description of the Present State of that 



Santa Rosa Sound and cultivate Live Oak timber. The cultivation 
appears to have consisted chiefly in clearing the ground about young 



Country, 10.) 

^ Quercus Virginiana sempervirens, foliis oblongis sinuatis, Sr nan 



trees to improve their growth. Attempts to transplant seedlings sinuatis, Aim, Bot, 310. — Ray, Hist. PL iii. Dendr. 8. 



were not successful, but large quantities of nuts were planted and 
experiments in pruning young trees were made. 

Under the Act of 1817, 208,224 acres of Live Oak land in west- 



Quercus sempervirens, foliis oblongis non sinuati.^, Catesby, Nat. 
Hist. Car. i, 17, t, 17. 



102 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



the Physic Garden at Chelsea, near London, in 1739,^ and, although now rare in European plantations,^ 
the Live Oak is said to have produced fruit in the King's Garden at Kew early in the present century.^ 
In the southern United States its beauty has been appreciated for more than two hundred years ; and 
noble single specimens or avenues of Live Oaks guarding the approaches to the stately colonial man- 
sions of Carolina and Georgia, and unsurpassed in majesty by planted trees of any other kind, testify 
to the ornamental value of this species, which surpasses the other Oaks of North America in grandeur 
of port, beauty of outline, and solidity of trunk and branches.* No American Oak grows more rapidly^ 
or is more easily transplanted, and its general use as a shade-tree, with the scarcely less beautiful Laurel 
Oak, in the streets of southern cities, gives them their greatest charm. 



1 Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1918, f. 1802, 1803, t. « The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 



Woods 



^ Nicholson, Garden and Forest, i. 136. 

8 Cobbett, Woodlands, No. 446. obtained from northern Florida, is eighteen inches in diameter 

4 Sargent, Garden and Forest, i. 476, f . 74. — Lamborn, Garden inside the bark, with sixteen layers of sapwood, and is only forty- 

and Forest, v. 483, f . 82, 83. — Garden and Forest, vi. 2, f . 2. four years old. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXCIV. Quercus Virginiana 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A germinating nut, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural si 



8. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Plate CCCXCV. Quercus Virginla^na. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. End of a young shoot with small oblong lanceolate leaves 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 



Plate CCCXCVL Quercus Virginiana, var. minima. 

1. A fruiting plant, natural size. 

2. Portion of a plant, showing the large obovate lower leaves and the small 

oblong-lanceolate upper leaves, natural size. 

3. A leaf, natural size. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A peduncle and cups, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.CCCXCIV. 




C» H. J^aoDon. deL, 



Rapirhe^ so. 



QUERCUS VIRGINIANA.Mill. 



^,Iiiocreua> dzreayp' 



Imp, J. raneur,FcLris. 



Silva of North America.' 



Tab. CCCXCV. 




C £. FctcDOTv del^. 




so. 



QUERCUS VIRGIN lANA, Mill. 



A. JHocreujy direa> . 



Imp. J. TcLneur, Fares 



Silvaof North America 



Tab. CCCXCVl. 




C.KFezxorvdel, 



Hune-ly sc 



QUERCUS VIRGINIANA.var. MINIMA, Sarg 






Imp. J, TanezLT, Paris'. 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



103 



QUERCUS EMORYI 



Black Oak. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, entire or repand-serrate, coriaceous, dark green 



Quercus Emoryi, Torrey, Emory's Eep. 151, t. 9 (excl. f. 
2) (1848) ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 206 ; Pacific E. E. 



OaJcs, 45. 

(Man. PL W. Texas). 



Nat. Serb 



Eejo. iv. pt. i. 138 ; Ives' Eep. 28. — Engelmann, Trans. Quercus hastata, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. Vidensk 



St. Louis Acad. iii. 382, 387, 394 ; Eothrock Wheeler's 
Eep. vi. 250. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 170 
(excl. syn. Quercus pungens) . — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 146. — Greene, West Am. 



Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 171. — A. de Candolle, Prodr 



xvi. pt. ii. 36. — Orsted, 



Medd. fi 



Kjobenh 
Wenzig, 



Liebmann Chmes Am. Trop. 22. 



A tree, usually thirty or forty feet in height, with a short trunk two or three feet in diameter and 
b rigid rather drooping branches which form a round-topped symmetrical head ; sometimes sixty 
iventy feet high, with a trunk-diameter of four or five feet and a head occasionally one hundred 

across ; and often at high elevations or on exposed mountain-slopes reduced to a low shrub. ^ The 
bark of the trunk is from one to two inches in thickness, very dark brown or nearly black, and deeply 



feet 



divided into large oblong thick plates separating 



rface into small thin closely appressed 



scales. The branchlets are slender, rigid, and marked with small pale 



d when they first 



appear 



are coated with close hoary tomentum, which covers them during the summer ; in their first 
they are rather bright red and pubescent or tomentose, and then gradually become glabrous 

an inch lone*, and 



d dark red-brown or black. The winter-buds are oval, acute, nearly a quarter of 



covered by closely imbricated thin light chestnut-b 
point of the bud clothed with loose pale pubescence 



n scales, ciliate with pale hairs, and toward the 
The leaves are revolute in vernation, oblong-lan- 



d mucronate at the apex, cordate or rarely rounded at the slightly narrowed base, and 



itely rep and 



with from one to five pairs of acute rigid oblique teeth j when they 



unfold they are thin, light green, more or less tinged with red and coated with silvery white tomentum, 
which is thickest on the lower surface and on the petioles ; this rapidly disappears, with the exception 
of two large persistent tufts of white hairs, which usually remain on the under surface at the base of 
the midrib, and at maturity they are thick, rigid and coriaceous, dark green, very lustrous and glabrous 
or coated with minute stellate hairs above, and below pale and glabrous, or puberulous especially along 
the slender midribs, which are raised and rounded on the upper side, and the primary veins, which are 
often more prominent on the upper than on the lower surface of the leaf and are arcuate and united 
close to the thickened revolute margins ; they are obscurely reticulate-venulose, and vary from one to 
two and a half inches in length and from half an inch to an inch in width, and, borne on stout slightly 
pubescent petioles, fall gradually in April with the unfolding of the flowers. The stipules are obovate- 



oblong or linear-lanceolate, brown 



and scarious, ciliate on the margins, from half an inch to an inch 
long, and caducous. The staminate flowers are produced in hoary-tomentose aments, from two to three 
inches in length ; the calyx is light yeUow, hairy on the outer surface, and divided into from five to 
seven ovate acute lobes ; the stamens are composed of short slender filaments and large oblong, acute, 
or rounded yellow glabrous anthers. The pistillate flowers are sessile or borne on short peduncles, 
clothed, like the involucral scales, with hoary tomentum. The fruit, which matures during the first sea- 
son, ripens irregularly from June until September, and is sessile or short-stalked j the nut is oblong, oval 
or ovate, narrowed at the base and rounded at the narrow pilose apex, from one half to three quarters 

^ Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 13. 



104 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulieer^. 



of an inch long and about a third of an inch wide, hght dull green when fidly grown and dark chestnut- 
brown or nearly black when ripe, but soon becoming Hght red-brown in drying, with a thin brittle outer 
coat and an inner coat hned with thick white tomentum, abortive ovules which are sometimes basal and 
sometimes are scattered irregularly over the side of the seed, and sweet yellow cotyledons ; the cup, 
which incloses from one third to nearly one half of the nut, is deeply cup-shaped or nearly hemi- 
spherical, light green and pubescent within, and covered with closely imbricated broadly ovate acute 
thin and scarious light brown scales clothed with short soft pale pubescence. 

Quercus Emoryi grows on the mountain ranges o£ western Texas, on those of New Mexico and 
Arizona south of the Colorado plateau, and on those of Nuevo Leon, Chihuahua, and Sonora/ In 
Texas it is common in the canons and on the southern slopes of the Limpio Mountains, and is the 
only tree in some of the caiions of the Chisos Mountains.^ It is the most abundant Oak of southern 
New Mexico and Arizona, forming a large part of the open forests which clothe the mountain-slopes, 
and extending from the upper limits of the mesa, where it is mingled with Quercus ohlongifolia, nearly 
to the highest ridges ; often a shrub at these high elevations, it attains its greatest size and beauty 
in the moister soil of sheltered caiions. 

The wood of Quercus Emoryi is very heavy, although not hard, strong, brittle, and close-grained ; 
it is dark brown or almost black, with thick bright brown sapwood tinged with red, and contains bands 
of several rows of small open ducts marking the layers of annual growth and connected by narrow 
groups of similar ducts parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.9263, a cubic foot weighing 57.73 pounds. 

The sweet nuts, called by the Mexicans biotis, are an important article of food for Mexicans and 
Indians, and are sold in large quantities in the towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico. 

Quercus Emoryi was discovered on October 15, 1846, in the valley of Pigeon Creek in southern 

New Mexico, by Colonel W. H. Emory,^ while in command of a military reconnaisance from Fort 
Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, California. 

One of the most beautiful of North American Oaks in its symmetry of outline and in the rich color 
of its foliage, Quercus Emoryi forms with Quercus Arizonica the principal part of the open forests 
which clothe with perennial green the stony sun-baked lower slopes of the mountains of southern 
Arizona and New Mexico. 



1 Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 142 ; iii. 338. s See iv. 60. 

2 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii, 505. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCXCVII. Quercus Emoryi. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Sections of a pericarp showing the tomentum on the inner 

surface, enlarged. 

6. A seed with basal, abortive ovules, natural size. 

7. End of a branch, the leaves removed, showing winter-buds, 

natural size. 



Silva of North Ammca. 



Tab. cccxcvir 




CE.FaccoTv deL, 




so. 



QUERCUS EMORYI , Torr. 



j^.Riocretuc. direcC'f' 



Imp. iZ Tcuieicr, J^aris. 



CUPU LIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



lo: 



} 



QUERCUS CHRYSOLEPIS 



Live Oak. Maul Oak. 



Leaves oblong, acute or cuspidate, entire, dentate or sinuate-toothed, fulvous- 
tomentose and ultimately pale below, persistent. 



Quercus chrysolepis, Liebmann, Overs ir/t DansJc. Vidensk. 
Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 173. — Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 



• « 



336 



Torrey, Bot. Ilex. Bound. Surv. 207 ; Bot. Wilkes 
ExploT. Exped. 459. — Kellogg, Proc. CaL Acad. ii. 
45 ; Forest Trees of California^ 73. — A. de Candolle, 
Prodr. xvL pt. ii. 37. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 



11. 



97. 



Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot Gart. Berlin^ iii. 204. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. 



U. S. ix. 



146. 



Wi 



Bay Region^ 302. — Coville, Contrlb. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
iv. 196 {Bot. Death Valley Fxped.).~S. B. Parish, Zoe^ 
iv. 346. 



231. 



Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. KjobenJu Quercus fulvescens, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. i. 67 



1866, 69 ; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. 23, t. 47. 



(1855). — Newberry, Pacific E. B. Rep. vi. 27, f. 5 ; 89. 



Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 383, 393 ; Roth- Quercus crassipocula, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. 



W. 



i. 137 (1856) ; V. 365, t. 9. 



This California Live Oak is usually not more than forty or fifty feet in height^ with a short trunk 



from three to five feet in diameter dividing into great horizontal hmhs^ sometimes 



space 



hundred and fifty feet across, and often sweeping the ground with 
occasionally at 



slender often pendulous branches ; 
low elevations in sheltered canons it produces trunks eight or nine feet in diameter ; 
on exposed mountain-sides it forms dense thickets fifteen or twenty feet high ; and on high subalpine 
slopes it is a low prostrate shrub. The bark of the trunk varies from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch and a half in thickness, and is hght or dark gray-brown slightly tinged with red, the generally 
smooth surface separating into small appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and rigid or flexible, 



and are marked with occasional elevated lenticels ; when they first appear they are coated with thick 
fulvous tomentum, and during their first winter are dark brown somewhat tinged with red, and 
tomentose, pubescent or glabrous, ultimately becoming light brown or ashy gray. The winter-buds are 
broadly ovate or oval, acute, about an eighth of an inch long, and covered by closely imbricated light 
chestnut-brown and usually puberulous scales pale and scarious on the margins. The leaves are involute 
in the bud, oblong-ovate to elhptical, cordate, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, acute or cuspidate 
at the apex, mostly entire on old trees and on young ones often dentate or sinuate-dentate, with one or 
two or many spinescent teeth, or on vigorous shoots the two forms frequently appear together 3 when 
they unfold they are clothed with a thick tomentum of fulvous articulated hairs which soon disappears 
from the upper and more gradually from the lower surface, and when fully grown they are thick and 



coriaceous, bright yellow-green 



and glabrous on the 



upper surface, and on the lower more or less 



f ulvous-tomentose during the first year, ultimately becoming glabrate and bluish white ; they are from 
one to four inches long and from half an inch to two inches wide, with slender yellow midribs sHghtly 



impressed above, obscure primary veins running to 



the teeth or forked near the thickened revolute 



margins, and slender inconspicuous reticulate veinlets; they are borne on slender yellow grooved 
petioles rarely half an inch in length, and do not fall until the third or fourth year. The stipules are 
oblong-obovate or linear-lanceolate, clothed with fulvous tomentum, hairy at the apex, from one half to 
three quarters of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers open in May and June, the staminate in 
the axils of linear-lanceolate acute bracts on slender tomentose aments from two to four inches in 
length, the pistillate sessile or subsessile or rarely borne in short few-flowered spikes. The calyx of the 



staminate flower is hght yellow and pubescent, and is divided usually into from five 



broadly 



106 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



ovate acute lobes ciliate on the margins and often tino^ed with red above the middle. The stamens are 
composed of slender filaments and large oblong acute cuspidate glabrous yellow anthers. The broadly 
ovate involucral scales of the pistillate flower are coated with fulvous tomentum, and the stigmas are 
bright red. The fruit, wliich ripens in the autumn of its second year, is usually solitary, and is sessile 
or short-stalked ; the nut is oval or ovate, acute or rounded at the full or narrow slightly puberulous 
apex, light chestnut-brown, from half an inch to nearly two inches long and about half as wide, with a 
thick shell covered on the inner surface, especially toward the apex, by a thin coat of loose pale tomen- 
tiun, abortive ovules scattered irregularly over the side of the seed, and distinct or sometimes connate 
cotyledons ; the cup is thin, hemispherical or turbinate, or thick and saucer-shaped, with a thick broad 
rim ; it is pale green or dark reddish brown within, and covered by small triangular closely appressed 
scales which are clothed with hoary pubescence or are often hidden in a dense coat of fulvous tomentum, 



and are produced into short free tip 



Q 



chrysolepisy although 



gregarious tree, and often grows singly 



It 



distributed from Cow Creek Valley in southern Oregon along the California coast ranges and the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Cuyamaca Mountains, and south- 



d to Mt. San Pedro Martir in Lower California 



2 



d as a low shrub or occasionally 



from 



twenty to thirty feet tall it grows on the high summits of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona 
and New Mexico and of northern Sonora. Generally a small tree in Oregon, or often a shrub producing 
small leaves and small fruit with thin deep cups clothed with pale tomentum, Qiiereiis chrysolejns 
attains its greatest size with large leaves and large thick-cupped acorns on the steep rocky slopes of the 
canons of the coast ranges of central California and on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, which it 
ascends to from eight to nine thousand feet above the sea, gradually decreasing in size and producing 
smaller leaves and fruit ; ^ at its highest elevations it is reduced to a shrub,* which sometimes extends 
over great areas in dense thickets of slender rigid or semiprostrate stems often only two or three feet 
tall, with entire or remotely dentate oblong or oval leaves acute or rounded at the base, acute or rounded 
at the apex, and rarely an inch in length, ovate or oval acute nuts sometimes not more than half an 
inch long, with purple separable cotyledons, and shallow cup-shaped or turbinate cups. Near the boun- 
dary between California and Lower California a form of this species, discovered by Dr. Edward Palmer ^ 



The cups of cliflPerent individuals of this species vary more than 



W 



those of any other North American Oak. In Oregon and often at sentatives in the Sixteenth Congress, His love of flowers could for- 

high elevations in California they are clothed with hoary pubescence tunately be gratified by several good gardens in the neighborhood 

and produced into long light red tips ; in the coast ranges and on of Cleveland, in which he passed all of his spare time. In 1853 he 

the foothills of the Sierra Nevada they are more often flat, very was appointed collector to an expedition sent by the government 

thick, sometimes fully an inch across, with broad rims, and so cov- of the United States to Paraguay. Two years later he returned 

ered with fulvous tomentum that the scales are indistinguishable ; to Cleveland and obtained some instruction in medicine. In 1861, 

aud on the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona, and on the Siski- having previously resided in Colorado, he went to San Francisco, 

you and other high mountain ranges of northern California, they and, connecting himself with the Geological Survey of California, 

are small and deeply cup-shaped and are covered with red-brown was stationed at San Diego. Anxious, however, to take some part 

slightly pubescent scales, much thickened on the back toward the in the Civil War, he returned to the East and secured the position 

base of the cup, aud towards its rim produced into short free tips. of hospital steward in a Colorado regiment, serving in the west in 



2 Brandegee, Zoi'^ iv. 209. 

8 Garden and Forest, v. 121, f. 20. 



ifolia, Ee 
^ Watson 



this capacity until 1865, when he was appointed one of the 
tract surgeons of the army and stationed in Kansas, and in Arizona 
where he remained for several years, beginning at this time his 
real work as a collector. Since leaving the army Dr. Palmer has 



Weuzig, Jahrb. Bot, Gart. Berlin, iii. 204. 
A^. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 146. 



ifoli 



West 



Wilton 



Sargent, Forest Trees devoted himself to collecting plants and other natural objects, prin- 
cipally in the employ of the Smithsonian Institution and the De- 
partment of Agriculture of the United States. He has made large 
and important collections along the southern boundary of the United 
States from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to those of the Pacific 



1833. 



His father was a commercial florist, and he early acquired Ocean, and in many of the Mexican states. 



knowledg 



He 



came 



In his long, laborious, and arduous career as a collector, Dr. 



to America in 1849 with a family of friends and settled in Cleve- Palmer has discovered many valuable and important plants, 
land, Ohio, where he was first occupied as attendant and nurse to Palmerella, a genus of Californian herbs of the Mint family, was 



cupuLiFERiE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



107 



in 1875, Quercus chrysoUpis, var. Palmeri^ is less often a tree than a shrub, with stems usually 
fifteen or twenty feet tall, forming on low hills or on the plateau at the foot of the mountains laro-e 
nearly unpenetrable thickets. It has rigid branches, rigid coriaceous oblong or semiorbicular and 
mostly spinose-dentate leaves, pistillate flowers sometimes borne on long slender peduncles sub- 
sessile or pedunculate fruit, with ovate acute nuts from an inch to an inch and a half lono- and from 



& 



one third to two thirds of an inch wide, clothed on the inner surface of the shell with thick or thin 
pale tomentum, abortive ovules generally scattered on the side of the seed, and purple separable 
cotyledons. 

More valuable as a timber-tree than the other Oaks of central California, Querelas chrysoleiyh" 
jDroduces heavy very strong hard tough and close-grained wood ; it is light brown, with thick rather 
darker colored sapwood, and contains many small open ducts arranged in wide bands parallel to the 
broad conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.S493, a cubic 
foot weighing 52.93 pounds. Although difficult to cut and work, it is used in the manufacture of 
agricultural implements and wagons. 

Quercus chrysolepis was discovered by the German collector Karl Theodore Hartweg on the 
mountains near Monterey in 1846,^ and was probably first noticed in New Mexico by Professor Edward 
L. Greene. The most beautiful of the California Oaks as it grows in the sheltered valleys of the coast 
ranges or on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Quercus chrysole^ns is surpassed in majestic dignity 
and massive strength by no other American species except the Live Oak of the south Atlantic and Gulf 
states. 



dedicated to him by Asa Gray, and his name, by its association Mary K. Curr 

with many species of plants, is inseparably connected with the bot- Am. Oaks, 46. 



146 ri885y — Greene. West 



any of southwestern North America, which he has labored long and Quercus Palmeri, Engelmann, Brewer ^ Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 97 



faithfully to make known. 



(1880). — Greene, I. c. pt. ii. 55, t. 25. 



Quercm chrysolepis, subspec. Palmeri, Engelmann, Trans. St. - In Kern County, California, Quercus chrysolepis is called the 



Louis Acad. iii. 393 (1877). 



Hickory Oak. 



Quercus Dunnii, Kellogg, Pacific Rural Press, June 7, 1879. — ^ See Jour. Hort. Soc. London, ii. 124. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCXCVIIL Quercus chrysolepis 

branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
6- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Plate CCCXCIX. Quercus chrtsolepis 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A sterile branch, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Plate CCCC. Quercus chrtsolepis, var. vaccinhfolia, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A sterile branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 



Plate CCCCI. Quercus chrtsolepis, var. Palmeri 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, enlarged. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 



Silva of NoTtli America 



Tab. CCCXCVIIl 




C,£.F*a.3Zorv cieZ. 



gUERCUS CHRYSOLEPIS, Benth. 



Mi^7te^zii;a> sc^ 



A. Riocrezi3> direa: . 



Imp, J. Taneur^ Paris . 



Silva of North AmericsL 



Tab. CCCXCIX. 




C. E. Faazorv dat. 



Rapirte j-c 



gUERCUS CHRYSOLEPIS. Bentli. 



A. Riocreua> dire^c- f 



Imp. J. Tcuh&ur ^ F arir , 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCC. 




C.E,Fa3u>rv det 




so. 



QUERCUS CHRYSOLEPIS,var.VACCINnFOLIA. En6elm 

O 



AJiiocreuay direa>^ 



Imp . i7[ TcLrtettr, Par'w, 



Silva of "North America. 



Tab. CCCCI 




C.E. Faa^OTL del . 



Migneazca> so. 



QUERCUS CHRYSOLEPIS,var.PALMERI,EnSelm. 




A.Riocreua: direcat 



Imp , J. Taneur, Paris. 



CUPULIFER-E. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



109 



QUEROUS TOMENTELLA. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, crenate-dentate or entire, conspicuously veined, 
pubescent on the lower surface, persistent. 



Quercus tomentella, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
iii. 393 (1877) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. CaL ii- 97, 



Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 471. — Franceschi, Zoe^ 
iv. 138. 



Wenzig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 209. — Greene, Quercus chrysolepis, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 119 



Bull. Gal. Acad. i. 218 ; West Am. Oaks, 45, pt. ii. 57, 
t. 26. — Brandegee, Froc. CaL Acad. ser. 2, i- 217. 



(not Liebmann) (1876). 



A tree, as now known, thirty or forty or occasionally sixty feet in height, with a trunk from one 
to two feet in diameter and a shapely round-topped head.^ The bark of the trunk is thin, reddish 
brown, and broken into large closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and roughened with 
small elevated lenticels, and at first are coated with hoary tomentum which sometimes entirely disap- 
pears during the summer, or continues to cover vigorous shoots until their second year, when they are 
light brown tinged with red or orange-color. The winter-buds are ovate, acute or obtuse, nearly a 
quarter of an inch long, and covered by numerous loosely imbricated light chestnut-brown scales more 
or less clothed with pale pubescence. The leaves are involute in the bud, oblong-lanceolate, broad and 
rounded or gradually narrowed and abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, acute and sometimes cuspidate 
or occasionally rounded at the apex, and remotely crenate-dentate with small acute spreading or incurved 
callous-tipped teeth, or entire ; when they unfold they are light green tinged with red, covered above 
with scattered pale stellate hairs, and below and on the petioles with dense hoary tomentum, and at 
maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, and 
pale and covered with stellate hairs on the lower surface which, however, especially on vigorous shoots^ 
is sometimes clothed with close pale pubescence sparingly mixed with articulate hairs ; they are from 
two to four inches long and from one to two inches wide with thickened and strongly revolute 
margins, stout pubescent midribs, and numerous prominent primary veins which are often forked and 
which run to the points of the teeth or are arcuate and united within the entire margins and are 
connected by inconspicuous cross veinlets ; borne on stout flattened pubescent petioles about half an 
inch in length, the leaves remain during at least two years on the branches. The stipules are oblong- 
obovate or linear-lanceolate, brown and scarious, covered with pale hairs, and caducous. The flowers 
appear in April ; the staminate are borne in the axils of linear-lanceolate scarious bracts on pubescent 
aments which are from two and a half to fourteen inches in length and are produced from the axils 
of the scales of the terminal bud or from those of young leaves, and the pistillate are subsessile or 
in few-flowered spikes on short or elongated pubescent peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower 
is light yellow, stellate-pubescent, and divided into from five to seven ovate acute lobes shorter than the 
nine or ten stamens composed of slender filaments and oblong acute cuspidate glabrous yellow anthers. 
The involucral scales and the calyx of the pistillate flower are coated with stellate hairs, and the stigmas 
are red. The fruit ripens at the end of the second season, and is subsessile or borne on a short stout 



^ It is probable that under favorable conditions this tree once ago a company of United States soldiers was stationed on Santa 

grew to a much larger size. The only plants I have seen are in a Catalina, and a great deal of wood is said to have been cut at this 

sheltered canon opening toward the sea on the eastern side of the time, when the tree whose stump produced these suckers was prob- 

island of Santa Catalina south of Avalon, where there is a small ably destroyed. Had this great tree been spared, it would have 

grove of stems about thirty feet high growing in a regular circle given a better idea of the species than can be obtained from the 

twelve feet in diameter and evidently shoots from the stump of a small and often stunted individuals scattered over the California 

large tree, the remains of which can still be traced. Thirty years islands, which preserve it from extinction. 



110 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupuLirERiE. 



peduncle ; the nut is oval, broad at the base, full and rounded at the apex, and about an inch and a 
half long and three quarters of an inch wide, with a thick shell slightly scurfy-pubescent on the inner 
surface and purple separable cotyledons ; the cup, which embraces only the base of the nut, is cup- 
shaped, shallow, thickened below and thin at the rim, light brown and pubescent on the inner surface, 
and covered by thin ovate acute scales, with free chestnut-brown tips more or less hidden by a thick 



of hoary tomentum. 

Quercus tomentella inhabits deep 



d high wind-swept slopes on Santa Rosa and 



Santa Cruz Islands south of Santa Barbara and on Santa Catalina Island south of Cape St. Vincent in 
California, and on Guadaloupe Island off the coast of Lower California, where it was discovered by Dr. 
Edward Palmer in the spring of 1875. 

The wood of Qiiercus tomentella is heavy, hard, close-grained, and compact, with a satiny surface ; 
it is pale yellow-brown, with lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad bands of open ducts parallel 
with the wide conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7214, 
a cubic foot weighing 41.95 pounds.^ 



I 



Sargent, Garden and Forest, iii. 355. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCIL Quercus tomentella 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A nut, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCII. 



'I 




C, E.Faxcon. del. 




sc 



QUERCUS TOMENTELLA.EnSelm. 




JL.Iiiocreua> direa:^^ 



Imp. J^. Tcuiezcr , P oris . 



CUPULIFEIL^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



111 



QUERCUS AGRIFOLIA 



Live Oak. Encina. 



Leaves oval, orbicular, or oblong, entire or sinuately spinose-dentate, convex on the 
upper surface. 



Cienc. Nat 



cion de varias Especies mievas de Encina) (1801), 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 431. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 568. — 
Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 627. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214 ; 



Sylva^ i. 5, t. 



Noitveait Duhamel^ vii. 156. 



Sprengel, Syst. iii. 859. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 



Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 167. — Kellogg, Forest 
Trees of California^ 78. — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bat. Gart. 
Berlin^ iii. 203. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 146. — Greene, West Am. Oaks^ 7, t. 5 ; 
Man. Bot. Bay Region^ 303 ; Pittonia^ ii. 114. — Dippel,. 
Handh. Lauhholzkj ii. 124, f. 61. 



894. 

55, 



Bentham, PZ. ^ar^^^;^^^. 337 ; Bot. Voy. Sidphur^ Quercus oxyadenia, Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 172, t. 17 



Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 377. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. 



(1853). 



Voy. Beechey, 391, — Dietrich, S^jn. v. 308. — Carriere, Fl. Quercus berberidif olia, Liebmann, Oversigt Dansk. 



des Serres, vii. 137, f. — ToTvej, Sitgreaves' Rep. 173; 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. i. 138 ; v. 365 ; vii. 20 ; Bot. Mex. 
Bound. Saw. 206; Ives' Rep. 2^ \ Bot. Wilkes Explor. Quercus arcoglandis, Kellogg, Proc. CaL Acad. i. 25 



Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 172. — Orsted, Liebmann 
Chenes Am. Trap. 22. 



Exped. 460. — Paxton, Brit. Fl. Card. ii. 44. — New- 



(1855). 



berry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. 32, f. 9. — Bolander, Proc. Quercus agrifolia, var. frutescens, Engelmann, Brewer & 



Cal. Acad. iii. 229. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii 



37. 



Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra not. For. Kfohenh 



Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 98 (1880). — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot 
Gart. Berlin^ iii. 203. 



1866, 69; Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. t. 44. — Engel- Quercus agrifolia, y berberifolia, Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot 



mann, Trans. St. Lonis Acad. iii. 383 ; Rothrock Whee- 
ler's Rep. vi. 374 ; Bretver & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 98. 



Gart. Berlin, iii. 203 (1885). 



This is a low round-topped tree, occasionally eighty or ninety feet in height, with a short trunk 
three or four or rarely six or seven feet in diameter, dividing a few feet above its base into numerous 
great limbs which often rest on the ground and frequently cover an area one hundred or one hundred 



d fifty feet 



the stem 



height of thirty or forty feet, is crowned by 



year 



narrow head of smaller branches ; or often it is much smaller, or shrubby in habit, with slender stems 
only a few feet high. The bark of the trunk is from two to three inches in thickness, dark brown 
slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded ridges separating on the surface into small 
closely appressed scales ; that of the young stems and the branches is much thinner, and is close, light 
brown or pale bluish gray. The branchlets are slender, dark gray or brown tinged with red, and 
coated at first with hoary tomentum which often does not entirely disappear until the second or third 

The winter-buds are globose and usually about a sixteenth of an inch in length, or ovate-oblong, 
acute, and sometimes on vigorous shoots nearly a quarter of an inch long, and are covered by thin 
broadly ovate closely imbricated light chestnut-brown glabrous or pubescent scales. The leaves are 
revolute in the bud, oval, orbicular or oblong, rounded or cordate at the base, rounded or acute and 
apiculate at the apex, and entire, or sinuate-dentate with slender rigid spinose teeth ; when they unfold 
they are tinged with red and coated with caducous hoary tomentum which in disappearing sometimes 
leaves conspicuous clusters of white hairs in the axils of the primary veins on the lower surface of 
the half-grown leaves ; and at maturity they are subcoriaceous, convex, dark or pale green, dull and 
obscurely reticulate on the upper surface, and on the lower surface paler, rather lustrous, glabrous or 
stellate-pubescent, and often furnished with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the principal veins ; or^ 
on occasional individual trees, they are covered above with pale stellate hairs and coated below with thick 
hoary pubescence ; usually from two to two and a half inches long and about an inch and a half wide, 



112 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



CUPULIFER^. 



they vary from three quarters of an inch to four inches in length and from half an inch to three inches 
in width, with slender midribs and few primary veins often forking near the thickened strongly revo- 
lute margins and running to the points of the teeth, and obscure reticulate veinlets ; borne on stout or 
slender pubescent or glabrous petioles from half an inch to nearly an inch in length, they fall gradually 
during the winter, disappearing entirely from some individuals before the appearance of the new growth 
in the spring, or on others persisting several weeks longer. The stipules are ob ovate-oblong or linear- 
lanceolate, brown and scarious, about half an inch long, and caducous. The flowers open early in the 
spring and sometimes, when insects ^ have injured the early foHage or abundant autumn rains have stim- 
ulated a second growth, again late in the season ; the staminate are borne in slender hairy aments three 
or four inches long from the axils of bud-scales or from those of leaves of the year, and the pistillate 
are sessile or short-pedunculate. The calyx of the staminate flower, which in the bud is bright purple- 
red and sometimes furnished with a tuft of long pale hairs at the apex, is thin, scarious, glabrous or 
glabrate, and divided nearly to the base into from five to seven ovate acute segments reddish above the 
middle and shorter than the stamens, which vary from six to ten in number, and are composed of slen- 
der filaments and oblong emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate 
flower, like the stigmas, are bright red, and are coated with thick hoary tomentum or are sometimes 
glabrous or puberulous. Rarely the flowers are perfect and are produced in elongated spikes.^ The 
fruit is sessile or subsessile, solitary or in few-fruited clusters, and ripens in the autumn ; or the smaU fruit 
of autumnal flowers sometimes remains on the branches during the winter and increases in size in the 
spring, but falls before reaching maturity ; the nut is elongated, ovate, abruptly narrowed at the base, 
gradually narrowed to the acute puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and one half long and from one quarter to three quarters of an inch wide, with a thin shell 
lined with a thick coat of pale tomentum, abortive ovules at the apex of the seed, and yellow cotyledons ; 
the cup, which embraces about a third or rarely only the base of the nut, is thin, turbinate, light brown 
and coated on the inner surface with soft pale silky pubescence, and is covered by thin papery scales 
rounded at the narrow apex and slightly puberulous, especially toward the base of the cup. 

Quercus agrifoUa, which usually forms open groves often of great extent, is distributed from Men- 
docino County, California, southward through the coast ranges and islands to Mt. San Pedro Martir in 



Lower Cahfornia.^ Less common at the north, it is very abundant and grows to its largest size in the 
valleys south of San Francisco Bay, and with low semiprostrate and contorted stems frequently covers 
the sand-dunes on the coast of the central part of the state. In southwestern California it is the largest 
and most generally distributed Oak-tree between the mountains and the sea, often covering low hiUs 
and ascending to an elevation of twenty-eight hundred feet above the level of the ocean in the canons 
of the San Gorgonio Pass.* 

The wood of Quei^cus agri folia is heavy, hard, and close-grained, but very brittle ; it is lio-ht brown 



reddish brown, with thick darker colored sapwood, and 



many large open ducts arranged 



several rows paraUel with the broad conspicuous medullary rays, the layers of annual o-powth beino- 
hardly distinguishable. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.8253, a cubic foot weio-h- 



51.43 Dounds 



Valued and largely used for fuel, it is httle esteemed for other purposes. The 



,n important article of food to the Indians of Lower CaHfornia 

The first authentic reference to Quercus agrifoUa was published in 1798 in the narrative of the 



In the neighborhood of the Bay of San Francisco, trees of this » Brandegee, Zoe iv. 209. 



species are often stunted by the annual destruction of the foliage 



4 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 346. 



Californica, Packard (Fifth 



Comm. 122. 
Inhabitants, 1). 



jf Berkeley and Some of 



tntomolog. 6 The nuts of Quercus agrifoUa are considered by the Indians of 

heir Insect Lower California superior to those of all other acorns. After 

taking off the shells they grind the seeds into flour, which is 
Oaks, 8) thoroughly washed to remove its astringency, and then boiled 
found a tree on the island of Santa Cruz with perfect spieate flow- with water into mush or rolled into balls and baked in the ashes 
era on erect rigid peduncles (Plate cccciv. f. 4). (Palmer Am. Nat. xii. SPB^l 



West 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



113 



voyage of Vancouver, who arrived in the Bay of San Francisco in November, 1792, and obtained a 
supply of the wood of this tree for fuel,^ and the following year, being at Santa Barbara on the Califor- 



had some of the trees cut to repair one of his ships 



2 



The valleys and low hills of the California coast owe their greatest charm to this Oak-tree, which, 
dotting their covering of vernal green or their brown summer surface with its low broad heads of pale 
contorted branches and dense dark foHage, gives them the appearance of incomparably beautiful 
parks. 

into the gardens of England in 1849 ^ by Karl Theodore Hartweg, it is occasionally 



Introduced into 
cultivated in the temperate countries of western and southern Europ 



1 



" A tent was immediately pitched on the shore, wells were dug 



46) 



for obtaining water, and a party was employed in procuring fuel the Evergreen Oak seen by Fathers Kino and Juan de Torquemada 
from small bushy holly-leaved oaks, the only trees fit for our pur- between the Colorado River and the coast of California, and men- 



pose 



j> 



(ii. 5.) 



ing 



» 



(ii. 454.) 



Noticia de la Califc 



2 "We here procured some stout knees from the holly-leaved ( 

oak, for the security of the Discovery^s head and bumkins; this, and h 

other occupations fully engaged our time until the evening of the E 
17th, when preparations were made for sailing on the day foUow- 



Wislizen 



ifolia 



^ Jour. Hort. Soc, Londouy vi. 157, t. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCIII. Quercus agrifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlai'ged. 

4. A spike of perfect flowers, natural size 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. End of a sterile branch, natural size. 

7. End of a sterile branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 

9. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCCIII. 




2 





3 



C.E.Fcucorv del. 



MinneazLSi so 



gUERCUS AGRIFOLIA, N6e. 



A.RLocreus^ dzrea>^ 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris 



CUPULIEEK^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



115 



QUERCUS PUMILA. 



Running Oak. 



Leaves oblong or elliptical, lanceolate or oblong-obovate, usually entire, glabrous or 
coated with pale pubescence on the lower surface. 



Quercus pumila, Walter, Fl. Car. 234 (1788). — Michaux 
f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 84, t. 15. — Persoon, Syn.ii. 567. 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 594. — Engelmann, 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 384. 

Quercus Phellos (pumila), Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. 
No. 7, t. 13, f. 1 (1801). — Spach, Hist. V6g. xi. 161. 



syn, Aiton). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 626 (excl. syn. 
Alton). — Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 150. — Sprengel, Syst. 
ill. 858. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 307 (excl. habitat). 
Quercus cinerea, var. pumila, Curtis. Rep. Geolorj. Surv. 
N. Cor. 1860, iii. 37. — Chapman, Fl. 421. — A. de Can- 
dolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 74. 



Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk. ii. 107. — Koehne, Deutsche Quercus Phellos, e nana, A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii 



Dendr. 131. 
Quercus sericea, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 424 (excl. syn 

Aiton) (1805). — Poiret, iam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 212 (excl 



74 (1864). 



Quercus pumila, var. sericea, Engelmann, Tran^. St. 



Louis Acad. iii. 384 (1876). 



A shrub, spreading by underground stolons into broad thickets sometimes several acres in extent 
and occasionally rising to the height of ten or twelve feet, with many slender intricately branched stems 
one or two inches in diameter ; usually smaller and often producing flowers and fruit when only a few 
inches high. The slender rigid branchlets are coated at first with hoary tomentum or are covered with 
scattered caducous stellate hairs, but soon become glabrous and during their first winter are bright or 
dark reddish brown or ashy gray. The winter-buds are acute, from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch 
in length, and covered by numerous thin bright chestnut-brown closely imbricated scales. The leaves 
are revolute in the bud, oblong, elliptical, lanceolate, or obovate-oblong, wedge-shaped or rounded at 
the narrow base, and acute or rarely rounded and apiculate at the apex ; or on vigorous young shoots 
they are sometimes ovate or oblong and deeply and very irregularly lobed with acute spreading apiculate 
lobes, or are sometimes broadly obovate and entire or slightly sinuate-dentate toward the rounded 
apex ; when they unfold they are coated with hoary tomentum which is thickest on the lower surface or 
with scattered stellate hairs, and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green and rather lustrous 
above, yellow-green and glabrous or coated with pale lustrous pubescence below, from one to four inches 
long and from one half to three quarters of an inch wide, with stout yellow midribs slightly rounded on 
the upper side, obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the margins, and fine reticulate veinlets ; 
they are borne on stout yellow grooved petioles rarely a quarter of an inch in length and fall gradually 
in the spring with or after the appearance of the new growth. The stipules are obovate-oblong, brown 
and scarious, from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers appear in 
April with the first unfolding of the leaves, the staminate borne in villous aments two or three inches 
in length, the pistillate sessile or raised on short peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is light 
yellow, thin and scarious, and divided into broadly ovate slightly ciliate segments shorter than the 
stamens, which are usually four in number, with slender filaments and ovate emarginate glabrous yellow 
anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are coated, like its peduncles, with hoary 
tomentum, and the styles are long and recurved. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn of the first 
season, is sessile or subsessile and usually solitary ; the nut is subglobose, generally rather longer than 
broad, full and rounded at the apex, which is covered with pale pubescence, about half an inch long 
and dark chestnut-brown, lustrous, and sometimes striate at maturity, but becoming light brown in 
drying, with a thick shell lined with pale tomentum and bright orange-colored cotyledons ; the cup is 



IIG 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A 



CUPULIFERiE 



shaped 



more 



deeply cup-shaped, light brown and piiberulous within, and covered 



by thin ovate-oblong- closely appressed red-brown 



ded at the apex and glab 



or coated with soft pale silky pubescence.^ 

Quercus inimlla inhabits sandy barren soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast from North 
Carolina to northeastern and western Florida. 

Stunted by fires which every spring sweep over the region that it inhabits, destroying the growth 
of the previous year, the Running Oak is usually dependent on an annual growth for its existence, and 
is able only under exceptionally favorable conditions of location to grow to its full size. 



^ Two forms of this shrub, distinct in appearance but so couuected broad and flat, and covered by closely appressed glabrous light 

by intermediate forms that they must be considered merely varie- brown scales dark red-brown above the middle. On the second 

ties of one species, grow together at Bluff ton, South Carolina, in form (Quercus sericea, Willdenow, Plate cccciv. f. 4, 6) the young 

the same thickets and intermingled in such a way that it is difficult branchlets and leaves are coated with hoary tomentum, the lower 

to decide that they have not sprung from the same root. On the surface of the mature leaves is clotlied with silky pubescence, and 

first (Quercus pumila of Walter and Engelmann, Plate cccciv. f. 5, the cups of the acorns, which vary from saucer-shaped to deeply 

7) the young branches and leaves are stellate-pubescent but soon cup-shaped and sometimes inclose two thirds of the nut, are covered 

become glabrous, and the cups of the acorns, which mature two or by more loosely imbricated scales clothed with pale silky pubes- 



than 



cence. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCIV. Quercus pumila. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 
3o A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. A leaf from the base of a vigorous shoot, natural size 

9. A leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 
10. A leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCCIV. 




C,E. 





Rapine' so. 



QUERCUS PUMILA.Walt. 



A.RLocreLoay £rea>!^ 



Imp. J. Tane^u^, Paris. 



CUPULIFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



QUERCUS HYPOLEUCA. 



Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, entire, or spinose-dentate above 
the middle, coated below with pale or Mtous tomentum. 



Quercus hypoleuca, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. Quercus confertifolia, Torrey, Bot. 3Iex. Bound. Su 
iii. 384 (1876) ; Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 251. — 207 (not Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth) (1858). 

Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 78. — Sargent, Forest Quercus Mexicana, y confertifolia, Wenzig, Jahrh. B 



*lf 



n 



Trees N. Am. IQt'l 
Am. Octks^ 9^ t- 6. 



West Gart. Berlm, iii. 209 (iii part) (1883). 



A tree^ usually from twenty to thirty or^ sometimes^ sixty feet in height^ with a tall trunk from ten 
to fifteen inches in diameter, and slender branches which spread into a narrow round-topped inversely 
conical head ; or frequently reduced to a shrub. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an 
inch to an inch in thickness, nearly black, and deeply divided into broad ridges broken on the surface 
into thick plate-like scales. The branchlets are stout, rigid, covered with minute pale lenticels and 
coated at first with thick hoary tomentum which gradually disapj)ears during their first winter, when they 
become tomentose or glabrous, light red-brown and are often covered with a glaucous bloom, growing 
darker during their second year and ultimately nearly black. The winter-buds are ovate, obtuse, about 
an eighth of an inch long, and covered by thin light chestnut-brown scales with pale scarious margins. 
The leaves are revolute in the bud, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, occasionally somewhat 
falcate, wedge-shaped or rounded or cordate at the narrow base, acute and often apiculate at the apex, 
and entire or repandly serrate above the middle with a few small minute rigid spinose teeth, or on 
vigorous shoots they are serrate-lobed with oblique acute lobes ; when they unfold they are light red, 
covered with close pale deciduous pubescence above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum, and 
at maturity are thick and firm, dark yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, clothed on the 
lower with thick silvery white or fulvous tomentum, from two to four inches long and from half an 
inch to an inch wide, with slender midribs raised and rounded on the upper side, numerous stout 
primary veins forked near the much thickened and revolute margins, and fine closely reticulate veinlets ; 
they are borne on stout flattened yellow pubescent or tomentose petioles abruptly enlarged toward the 
base and varying from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in length, and turn yellow or brown 
and fall gradually during the spring after the appearance of the new growth. The flowers aj)pear in 
April, the sterile borne on slender aments coated with loose pale tomentum and four or five inches in 
length, and the pistillate mostly solitary, and sessile or raised on short tomentose peduncles. The calyx 
of the staminate flower is thin and scarious, slightly tinged with red, covered on the outer surface with 
pale hairs, and deeply divided into four or five broadly ovate rounded lobes shorter than the four stamens 
Avith slender filaments and ovate acute apiculate glabrous anthers which are bright red as the flower 
opens and gradually turn yellow. The involucral scales and the calyx-lobes of the pistillate flower are 
thin and scarious and coated with soft pubescence, and the stigmas are recurved and dark red. The 
fruit, which ripens irregularly during the second summer,^ is sessile or borne on a stout peduncle some- 
times nearly half an inch long, and is usually solitary ; the nut is ovate, acute or rounded at the narrow 
apex, which is covered with hoary pubescence, dark green and often striate when ripe, but becoming" 
light chestnut-brown in drying, and from one half to two thirds of an inch long, with a thick shell lined 
with white tomentum ^ the cup, which incloses about a third of the nut, is turbinate, rather thick, pale 



The 



first 



maturation is biennial, the fruit beginning to ripen in June and 
July. 



118 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



and pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by thin broadly ovate light chestnut-brown scales 
rounded at the apex and clothed, especially toward the base of the cup, with soft silvery pubescence. 

Quercus lujpoleuca is distributed from the Limpio Mountains in western Texas over the mountain 
ranges of New Mexico and Arizona south of the Colorado plateau, and on those of northern Chihuahua 
and Sonora. Nowhere very abundant, it is scattered through the Pine forests on the slopes of canons 
and high ridges usually between six and seven thousand feet above the level of the sea, but sometimes 
in shrubby forms descending a thousand feet lower. 

The wood of Quercus hyi^olmca is heavy, very strong, hard, and close-grained ; it is dark brown, 
with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous medullary rays, the layers of annual 
growth being marked by narrow bands of small open ducts. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.8009, a cubic foot weighing 49.91 pounds. 

This tree, one of the most distinct and beautiful of the small Oaks of North America, was 
discovered on the mountains of southern New Mexico by Charles Wright,^ one of the botanists of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, in 1851. 



1 See i. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCCCV. Quercus hypoleuca. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. End of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCV. 




C. E.Fcuroru d^ 




riLTi. sc 



QUERCUS HYPOLEUCA.Engelm. 



A.BiocreiuC' iJi^ea:.^ 



Imp. J. Tanaur, Paris 



CUPULEFEE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



119 



QUERCUS WISLIZENI 



Live Oak. 



Leaves usually oblong-lanceolate, entire, serrate or sinuate-dentate, dark green 



and lustrous. 



Quercus Wislizeni, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 67 
(excl. habitat) (1864). — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd.fra nat. 
For. Kjohenh. 1866, 73. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 396 ; Breiver & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 98. — Wen- 
zig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 219. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 147. — Kellogg, Forest 
Trees of California, 134. — Greene, West Am. Oaks, 5, 



Fauna, No. 7, 334 {Death Valleij Exped. ii.). — Coville, 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 197 (Bot. Death Valley 
Exped.). 



Wislizeni 



Wi 



Cal. 
219. 



u. 



98. 



Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii 



S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 346. 



t. 3, 4; Man. Bot. Bay Region, 303. — Mayr, Wald. Quercus parvula, Greene, Pizl^oma, i. 40 (1887). 
Nordam. 262, t. 2, 3. — Merriam, North American 



lighter colored. 



A tree, occasionally seventy or eighty feet in height, with a short trunk from four to six feet in 
diameter and stout spreading branches which form a round-tojDped head ; usually much smaller and 
sometimes reduced to an intricately branched shrub with numerous stems only a few feet tall. The 
bark on old trunks is from two to three inches thick, and is divided into broad rounded often connected 
ridges separating on the surface into small thick closely appressed dark brown scales shghtly tinged 
with red ; on younger trunks and on large branches it is much thinner, generally smooth and rather 

The branchlets are slender, rigid, and marked with minute pale scattered lenticels, 
and when they first appear are coated with hoary tomentum or covered with loose scattered stellate 
pubescence ; during their first season they are puberulous or glabrous and rather light red-brown or 
gray-brown slightly tinged with red, and in their second year begin to grow darker. The winter-buds 
are ovate or oval, acute, from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch long, and covered by closely 
imbricated light chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins with occasional soft white hairs, especially 
on those near the apex of the bud. The leaves are revolute in vernation, mostly oblong-lanceolate but 
varying from narrowly lanceolate to broadly oval, rounded or truncate or gradually narrowed and 
wedge-shaped at the base, acute or rounded and generally apiculate at the apex, and entire, serrulate 
or serrate, or sinuate-dentate with spreading rigid spinescent teeth ; when they unfold they are thin, 
dark red, ciliate on the margins, and covered with pale scattered caducous stellate hairs, and when fully 



grown they are thick and coriaceous, glabrous and 



lustrous, dark green on 



the upper and paler and 



yellow-green on the lower surface, usually an inch or an inch and a half long and about two thirds of 
an inch wide, but varying from half an inch to five inches in length and from one third of an inch to 
an inch and a half in width, with narrow yellow midribs rounded and raised on the upper side, 
obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the thickened slightly revolute margins, and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender nearly terete petioles coated at first with hoary tomentum 
and usually pubescent or puberulous at maturity, and from an eighth of an inch to nearly an inch in 
length, and fall gradually during their second summer and autumn. The stipules are obovate-lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, brown and scarious, ciliate with pale hairs, nearly an inch long, and caducous. The 
flowers appear in early spring with the unfolding of the leaves, the staminate borne in hairy aments three 
or four inches in length, the pistillate being sessile or short-stalked. The calyx of the staminate flower is 
tinged with red in the bud, and is deeply divided into broadly ovate ciliate glabrous light yellow lobes 
shorter than the stamens, which vary in number from three to six and are composed of slender filaments 
and oblong slightly apiculate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistiUate flower and 



120 



SILVA OF NOB TIT AMEBIC A. 



CUPULIEERiE 



peduncle are clothed with hoary tomentum, and the styles, often more than thr 



d 



The fruit, which rii^ens 



the autumn of the second 



season, is 



in number, are 
sessile, short- 



ped 



or 



nally spicate ; the nut is slender, oblong-oval, abruptly 



owed at the base 



gradually narrowed to the pointed pilose apex, from three quarters of an 
lonsr, about a third of an inch wide, and Hofht chestnut-brown and often str 



ch to an inch and a half 
5. with a thin hard shell 



o 



Hned with a scanty coat of pale tomentum ; the cup is thin, turbinate, sometimes tubular, and from half 

jen and puberulous within, and 



an 



ch to an inch deep, or rarely cup-shaped and shallow, light gi 



ered by oblong-lanceolate light b 



closely imbricated scales which are thin or sometimes toward 



the base of the cup are thickened and rounded on the back, and are 
especially above the middle, and frequently ciliate on the 



lly pubescent or puberulous 



Q 



w. 



is a distinct and handsome tree, and is distributed from the lower slopes of 



Mt. Shasta southward through the coast reo^ion of California to the Santa Lucia Mountains and to Santa 
Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, and along the foothills and lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada as far south 



Tejon Pass ; in shrubby forms 



in caiions on the desert slop 



San Jacinto/ and Cuyamaca Mountains, and finds its most 



home 



5 of the San Bernardino, 
Mt. San Pedro Martir in 



Lower Califo 



Although nowhere 



common, Qiiercus Wislizeni is most abundant and grows 



some of the valleys of the coast region of central Califo 



the sea and on the footh 



of the Sierra Nevada 



th Quercus diim 



the 



canons 



of 



desert slopes of the mountains of southern Califo 



nia at some distance from 

it is the common Oak in 

Near the coast and on the 



islands it is small and often shrubby. 

Individual trees ^ first noticed by Dr. Albert Kellogg^ in Lake County, California, are believed to be 

hybrids between this species and the deciduous-leaved Quercus 



itoDitca. 



1 In Snow Creek Canon, opening into the desert at the northern necticut, and passed his boyhood on his father's farm in that town- 

base of Mt. San Jacinto, are many small bushy trees of Quercus In early youth, after receiving a common-school education, he began 

Wislizeni, bearing fruit with shallow cup-shaped cups (Plate ccccvi- the study of medicine with a physician in Middletown, Connecticut, 

f . 6), a form that I have not elsewhere seen. 



2 Brandegee, Zot'^ iv. 209. 

* Quercus Wislizeni X Californica. 

Quercus Morehus, Kellogg, Pivc. CaL Acad, ii. 3G (1863). 



but delicacy of the lungs interfered with his studies and he went to 
Charleston, South Carolina, where he entered the Medical College. 
He received his medical degree, however, in Lexington, Kentucky, 
and then practiced his profession during several years in different 



Greene, West Am. Oaks, 3, 79, t. 2 ; Man. Bot, Bay Region^ parts of Kentucky, Georgia, and Alabama. His early taste for 



303. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 471. 



natural history was no doubt confirmed by a chance meeting with 



Quercus Wislizeni X Kelloggii, Mary K. Curran, Bull, CaL Audubon, whose companion he became in a long journey through 



Acad, i. 146 (1885). 



the Southwest, which eventually brought him to San Antonio, 



This is a small tree (Plate ccccvii.) rarely more than thirty feet in Texas, in 1845. He was in New England again when gold was dis- 

height, with wide-spreading branches, dark generally smooth bark, covered in California, and joining a party of miners, reached the 

and large ovate acute pubescent buds. The leaves are oblong, broad Pacific coast in August, 1849, having made the voyage from New 

and rounded or cordate at the base, acute at the apex, remotely and York in a small schooner. After passing three or four years in the 

coarsely sinuate-lobed with broad subulate and often toothed lobes, mining districts, Dr. Kellogg established himself in San Francisco, 

dark green and glabrous on the upper and yellow-green and gla- which was his home during the remainder of his life. In 1854 he 

brous or stellate-pubescent on the lower surface, from two to four was one of the seven founders of the California Academy of Sci- 

inches long and from one to nearly two inches broad ; and, borne ences, in which he was always deeply interested, and which he 

on slender glabrous or pubescent petioles sometimes an inch in faithfully served until his death as curator of the botanical depart- 

length, they fall during the winter or early in the spring with the ment. As a botanical collector Dr. Kellogg made many journeys 

appearance of the new growth. The fruit, which ripens at the end in his adopted state, and in 1867, being appointed surgeon and nat- 

of the second season, is sessile or produced on a short stout pedun- uralist of the United States Coast Survey, he visited Alaska, where 

cle, and is usually solitary ; the nut is from an inch to an inch and he made an important collection of plants. Never claiming to be 

a half in length, oblong-oval, and rather full at the acute apex ; the a scientific botanist. Dr. Kellogg was an ardent and devoted lover 

cup, which incloses two thirds of the nut or sometimes only its base, of nature. Particularly interested in trees, he was the author of 

is deep or shallow, cup-shaped, and covered by thin light brown a work on the forest trees of California which contains picturesque 

scarious glabrous or puberulous oblong-ovate scales rounded or accounts of many of the important inhabitants of the Pacific for- 



acute at the apex. 



ests ; and his drawings of western Oaks were published after his 



Quercus Morehus has also been found near Newcastle in Placer death by Professor Edward L. Greene in the first part of his West 
County, at Folsom in Sacramento County, on Mt. Tamalpais north American Oaks. 



of the Golden Gate, and on the hills near Berkeley. 
4 Albert Kellogg (1813-1887) was born at New 



Kelloggia, a monotypic genus of the Sierra Nevada dedicated to 
him by Torrey, will preserve among botanists the memory of a 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



121 



The wood of Quercus Wislize7ii is heavy, very hard, strong, and close-grained ; it is light brown 
tinged mth red, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains numerous large open ducts arranged 
in irregular bands parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.7855, a cubic foot weighing 48.95 pounds. Sometimes used for fuel, it is not 
distinguished for this purpose from the wood of Quercus acjr'tfolia. 

Discovered by Fremont on the Sierra Nevada in the winter of 1844-^5,^ Quercus Wislizeni, which 
was at first confounded with Quercus agrifoUa, was described from specimens gathered by Dr. F. A. 
Wislizenus^ in 1851 on the American fork of the Sacramento River. 



gentle, enthusiastic, and simple man of singular purity and upright- ^ Teste Herb, Torrey, in which Fremont's specimen is preserved, 

ness of character. (See Pitlonia, i. 145.) ' See vi. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



Plate CCCCVI. Quercus Wislizeni 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged, 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged. 



Plate CCCCVII. Quercus Wislizeni x Californica 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A winter branchlet, the leaves removed, 

natural size- 



Silva of North Americeu. 



Tab. CCCCVI 







VV"^'* 






C,E. FeixorL dei^. 



JiapiTie^ sc 



QUERCUS WISLIZENI, A.DC. 



A.Jii/?creua> direo},. 



Imp . J. Tanezcr, Paris, 



Silva of North America, 



Ta'b. CC<:CVII. 




C.£.J^azu>7v deL. 



OUERCUS WISLIZENI X CAUFORNICA 

(QUERCUS MO H RE US, Kellogg. 1 



ji.Ilzocrsii2> direcc^ 



Jfimely sc 



Imp, J. Taneur, Paris. 



cupuLiFERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



123 



QUERCUS MYRTIFOLIA 



Scrub Oak. 



Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, mostly entire, with thickened revolute margins 



Quercus myrtifoliayWilldenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 424 (1805). — Quercus Phellos, var. arenaria, Chapman, FL 420 
Poiret, Lam, Diet. SuppL ii. 213. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. (1860). 

ii. 626. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveaii Duhamel^ vii. Quercus aquatica, I *? 
151. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 597. — Sprengel, >S?/5i. iii. 858.— xvi. pt. ii. 68 {1^^^). — ^Neuz{g, Jahrb. Bot Gart. Ber- 

Dietrich, Syn. v. 307. — Engelraann, Trans. St. Bonis lui, iii. 182. 

Acad. iii. 396. 



myrtifolia 



An intricately branched shrub^ with slender rigid stems generally three or four or^ sometimes^ fif- 
teen or twenty feet high and from one to three inches in diameter, covered by smooth bark which near 
the ground is dark and slightly furrowed. The slender branches are coated at first with a thick pale 
or fulvous tomentum of articulate hairs which usually persists during the summer^ and in their first 
winter are Hght brown more or less tinged with red or dark gray and pubescent or puberulous^ becom- 
ing darker and glabrous in their second season. The winter-buds are ovate or ovab gradually narrowed 
to the acute apex and covered by closely imbricated dark chestnut-brown slightly puberulous scales. 
The leaves are involute in the bud^ oval or oblong-obovate^ gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or 
broad and rounded or cordate at the base^ acute and apiculate or broad and rounded at the apex, and 
entire^ with much thickened and revolute, sometimes undulate, but occasionally thin flat margins ; or 
sometimes, on vigorous shoots, the leaves are sinuate-dentate or lobed above the middle ; when they 
unfold they are thin, dark red, and coated below and on the petioles with a clammy rusty tomentum of 
articulate hairs and covered above with stellate pubescence, and when fully grown are thick and coria- 
ceous, lustrous, dark green, glabrous and conspicuously reticulate-venulose on the upper surface, and 
paler and yellow-green or light orange-brown on the lower surface, which is glabrous or pubescent 
and is generally furnished with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins ; often about an inch and 
a half long and an inch wide, they vary from half an inch to two inches in length and from a quarter 
of an inch to an inch in width, with conspicuous midribs raised and rounded on the upper side and 
few mostly obscure primary veins usually forked half way between the midrib and the margins ; they 
are borne on stout pubescent yellow petioles rarely more than an eighth of an inch long and fall grad- 
ually during their second season. The stipules are ovate-lanceolate, brown and scarious, and about half 
an inch in length. The flowers open in April ; the staminate are borne on hoary stellate-pubescent 
aments from an inch to an inch and a half in lengthy and the pistillate are sessile or subsessile, and soli- 
tary or in pairs. The calyx of the staminate flower is coated on the outer surface with rusty hairs and 
is divided into five ovate acute thin and scarious segments shorter than the stamens, which are generally 
two or three in number with small acute apiculate yellow glabrous anthers. The involucral scales of 
the pistillate flower are tomentose and tinged with red, and the stigmas are long and recurved. The 
fruit, which ripens usually at the end of the second season or occasionally during the first autumn,^ is 
soHtary or in pairs, and is sessile or borne on a stout peduncle rarely more than a quarter of an inch in 
length ; the nut is subglobose or ovate, acute, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, dark 



nni; 



finds 



flowering plants which habitually ripen their fruit in one season ; 



and specimens from Florida show on the same branch acorns that 
have ripened in one and in two years. 



12^ 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupuLiFERiE. 



brown^ lustrous and often striate^ and puberulous at the apex^ with a thin shell lined with a thick coat 
of rusty tomentum^ a red seed-coat and deep orange-colored cotyledons ] the cup, which embraces from 
a quarter to a third of the nut, is thin, saucer-shaped or turbinate, light brown and puberulous within, 
and covered by closely imbricated broadly ovate light brown pubescent scales ciliate on the margins 
and rounded at the broad apex. 

Quercus m}jrtffoUa grows on dry sandy ridges on the seashore and islands of the southern states, 
where it is distributed from South Carolina to eastern Florida and from the shores of Bay Biscayne to 
eastern Louisiana. It is most abundant on the islands ofl: the coast of Alabama and Mississij^pi, often 
covering large areas with low nearly impenetrable thickets. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCVIIL Quercus myrtifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch showing biennial maturation, natural size 

5. A fruiting branch showing annual maturation, natural size. 

6. A fruiting branch showing annual maturation, natural size. 

7. A winter branclilet, the leaves removed, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCVIII. 




C.E.J'eiccorL deL. 




SC'. 



QUERCUS MYRTIFOLIA.Willd. 



A,Bzocreua> dzrecct' 



iTTip. J. TaneiLr , Few is. 



CUPULrFEE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



125 



QUERCUS RUBRA 



Red Oak. 



Leaves oblong-obovate to oblong, pinnatifid-lobed, the lobes tapering gradually 
from broad bases, and acute and usually dentate at the ends. 



Quercus rubra, Linnaeus, Spec. 996 (1753). — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 8. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 251. — Du Roi, 



P 



Hi 



Obs. 35 ; Harhk. Baumz. ii. 265, t. 5, f. 2. 



Wan gen- 



3 (1772). 



heim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 134 (excL syn. Grono- Quercus rubra, a latifolia, Lamarck, Dzci. i. 720 (1783). 



vius). — Lamarck, Diet. i. 720. — Moench, Baume We 



Mont 



Alton,. 



94; Meth 
Walter, Ft 



Mat. Med 



EorU Kew. ed. 2, v. 292. — Loudon, Arb. Brit iii. 1877. 



234. 



Castiglioni, Viaff. negli Stati ? Quercus rubra, y subserrata, Lamarck, Diet i. 720 



U7iitiy ii. 347. — Willdenow 



(1783). 



Castiglioni, Viaff. negli Stati Uiiiti, ii. 348. 



•kh 



Michaux, Hist 



Walter) ; Spec. iv. pt. i 

Handb. Forstbot, i. 703. 

20, t. 35, 36 ; FL Bor.-Am. ii. 200. — Persoon, Syii. ii. 

569. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 511. — Du Mont de 

Courset, Bot. Cult ed. 2, vi. 423. — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. 

Am, ii. 126, t. 26. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 630. 

low, FL Boston. 227.— Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. 



Quercus rubra maxima, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 122 



(1785). 



Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 704. 



Mueh 



Bige- 



Nouveaic 



Dithamelj vii. 170. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 157. — Elliott, 



lenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. GeselL Nat. Fr. Ber- 
lin^ iii. 397. 
Quercus rubra montana, Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 
705 (not Marshall) (1800). — Aiton, ^or^ Kew. ed. 2, v. 
292.— Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1877. — Dippel, Handb. 
Lanbholzk. ii, 118. 



Sk. ii. 602. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 863. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- Quercus ambigua, Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 120, t. 24 



Am. ii. 158. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 165. — Torrey, FL 
N. T. ii. 189, t. 106. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 148, t. 10 ; 
ed. 2, i- 168, t. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. — Darlington, Fl. 



(1812). — Pursh, FL Am. Sept ii. 630. — Nuttall, Gen 



ii. 214. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1881, f . 1479, t. 
pel, Handb. Lanbholzk. ii. 120. 



Dip. 



Cestr. ed. 3, 269. — Brendel, Trans. III. Agric. Soc. iii. Quercus coccinea, ^, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 165 (1842). 
369, t. 9. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Siirv. N. Car. 1860, iii. Quercus coccinea, var. ambigua, Gray, Man. ed. 5, 454 



41. 



Chapman, FL 422 (in part). — A. de Candolle, 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 60 (in part). — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. 



(1867). — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 186. 
Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 478. 



fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 72 ; Liebmann Chenes Am. ? Quercus rubra, y Miihlenbergii, Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot^ 



Trop. t. A, B. — Wesmael, BtilL Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg. 



Gart. Berlin, iii. 186 (1885). 



1869, 345. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 70. — Engelmann^ Quercus rubra, a viridis, Dippel, Handb. Lanbholzk. ii 



Trans. St. Lonis Acad. iii. 394 (in part). — Lauche, 



118 (1892). 



Deutsche Dendr. 299. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Quercus rubra, c Schref eldii, Dippel, Handb. Lanbholzk 



XOth Census U. S. ix. 147 (in part). — Wenzig, Jahrb. 



ii. 118 (1892). 



Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 186. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Bel- Quercus rubra, d heterophylla, Dippel, Handb. Laub- 



giqne, 124, t. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 



477. 
Handb 

133. 



Nordam 



Dippel, 

Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 



holzk. ii. 118 (1892). 
Quercus rubra, e aurea, Dippel, Handb. Lanbholzk. ii 
119 (1892). 



A tree, usually seventy or eighty or occasionally nearly one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a 
trunk three or four feet in diameter and stout branches which^ spreading gradually, usually form a 
comparatively narrow round-topped head, or, growing nearly at right angles with the stem, a broader and 
more symmetrical head. The bark of the trunk is an inch or an inch and a half in thickness, dark 
brown tinged with red, and divided into broad thin rounded ridges broken into small thick appressed 
plates scaly on the surface ; on young stems and on the upper part of the limbs of large trees it is 
smooth and Hght gray. The branchlets are slender, lustrous, and marked with small scattered pale 
lenticels ; when they first appear they are bright green and lustrous and covered with pale scurfy caducous 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CUPULIFER^E. 



pubescence, and during their first 



are 



dark red, b 



more or 



less 



tinned with oUve 



t> 



in their second and third years^ and ultimately dark brown 



The 



buds are ovate^ gr 



adually 



wed to the acute apex, about a quarter of an inch long, and covered by numerous closely imb 



ted thin ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales. 



The 



obovate 



oblong in outline, abruptly or gradually wedge-shaped 



convolute in 
rounded at \ 



e bud, generally 
broad or narrow 



base, and usually divided about half way to the midribs by wide oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom 
into eleven, or sometimes into seven or nine acute oblique ovate lobes j these taper gradually from broad 
bases, and are mostly sinuately three-toothed at the apex with elongated bristle-pointed teeth, mcreasmg 
in size from the bottom of the leaf to those of the last pair but one, which are usually the largest ; or 
sometimes the leaves are oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the 



base and 



smu- 



lobed with broad acute 



lUally 



htly dentate lobes 



w^ 



hen 



ey unfold they are pink 



covered with soft silky pale pubescence on the upper surface and clothed on the lower with thick white 
tomentum, but soon become nearly glabrous, and when about one third grown are light green and very 
lustrous, and hang on their long stalks close against the branchlet ; at maturity they are thin and firm, 
dark green, dull and glabrous on the upper surface, and on the lower surface paler yellow-green, 
glabrous or rarely puberulous, and sometimes furnished with small tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the 



they are from five to nine inches long and from fo 



ches broad, with slender yellow 



dribs and primary veins which are rounded, conspicuous and often red above, especially the midrib 

3 lateral veins arcuate and united near the shghtly thickened 



toward the base of the leaf, obscur 



d 



they are borne on stout yellow or red petioles from 



two inches 



d fall rather early in the autumn after having turned a dull or sometimes a bright 



orange-color or brown. 



The stipules are linear-lanceolate, thin and scarious 



first white but 



& 



brown, about two thirds of an inch in leno-th and cad 



& 



The flowers appear when the 



are about half grown, the staminate borne on slender pedicels about one twelfth of an inch long in 



pubescent aments four or five inches in length, and the pistillate 



t> 



labrous ped 



The 



young bud of the staminate flower is pink but soon turns green and is furnished at the apex with a tuft 



of slender pale ha 



calyx is deeply divided into four or five 



ounded lobes shorter 



hich are usually four or five in number, with large oblong emarginate 



glabrous 



yellow anthers. The bud of the pistillate flower is bright red and tipped with a cluster of white hairs 



the 



broadly ovate, dark reddish brown 



than the 



linear 



bract of the flower, and as long as the lanceolate acute calyx-lobes or much shorter ; the stigmas are 
elongated, spreading, and bright green. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn of the second year, is 
solitary or in pairs and sessile or borne on a thick peduncle rarely more than a quarter of an inch in 



length ; 



the nut is oblong-ovoid or oval, with a broad base, and is full or gradually narrowed and 



rounded at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter long and from half an 
inch to an inch wide ; the cup, which embraces only the base or sometimes nearly a quarter of the nut, 
is thick, shallow and saucer-shaped, or turbinate, with a thin or thick rim, and is reddish brown and 
puberulous within and covered by thin closely imbricated ovate acute bright red-brown puberulous 
scales.^ 



1 A tree found by Dr. Engelmaun on the bottom-lands of the ance, as suggested by the discoverer, of being a hybrid between 
Mississippi River opposite St. Louis (Quercus rubra, j6 runcinata, Quercus rubra and Quercus hnbricaria. The leaves are three or four 
A. de Candolle, Prodr, xvi. pt, ii. 60 (1864). — Gray, Man, ed. 5, inches long, oblong-obovate, rounded at the base, sinuate-dentate 



454. 



— Engelmaun, Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 394. — Weuzig, with bristly pointed teeth, and pubescent on the lower surface. 
Jahrb. Boi. Gart. Berlin, iii. 186), with oblong narrow acutely dentate The fruit resembles in the shape of the nut and cup that of Quercus 



three 



or entire-lobed leaves and small fruit, recalls in the ferrugineous rubra, but is onlj 

color of the lower surface of the leaves and in their occasionally A tree about forty feet high found by Professor T. C. Porter 

falcate lobes some forms of Quercus digitata, and is possibly a on College Hill in Easton, Pennsylvania, has the winter-buds and 



hybrid between that species and Quercus rubra. 



the fruit of Quercus velutina, but the leaves resemble in general 



A tree, found in 1893 by Mr. B. F. Bush (Garden and Forest, outline those of Quercus rubra, although they are coated on the 
viii. 33) one mile east of Independence, Missouri, has the appear- lower surface when fully grown with pale pubescence and furnished 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



127 



rich 



Qiiercus riibra^ which is the most boreal of the Oak-trees 
uplands^ growing to a large size on glacial drift and the 



of eastern America, generally inhabits 
well-drained borders of streams and 



swamps 



It ranges from Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick throuorh Quebec, where it reaches 



& 



the banks of the St. Lawrence in about latitude 47° 50 



north, along the northern shores of Lake 



Huron to the neighborhood of Lake Namekagon on the divide 



of Lake Superior/ southward to 



middle Tennessee, and Virginia and along the high Appalachian Mountains 



westward to eastern Nebraska 



d central Kansas 



Rare 



to northern Georgia^ and 
d of small size toward the northern hmits 



of its range^ the Red Oak is abundant in Nova Scotia^ southern Quebec^ and Ontario ; it is one of the 
largest and most common trees in the forests of the northern states with the exception of those which 
cover the mountains of northern New England and New York^ and reaches its largest size in the states 
north of the Ohio River. Farther south it is less common and usually small, and on the southern 
Alleghany Mountains is exceedingly rare. 

The wood of Qitercits rubra is heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, and liable to check badly in 
drying ; it is light or reddish brown, with thin darker colored sapwood, and contains remote conspicuous 



medullary rays and bands of several rows of 



open ducts marking the layers of annual growth 



6 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6621, a cubic foot weighing 41.25 pounds. It is 
used in construction, for the interior finish of houses, and in the manufacture of cheap furniture. 

Qicerciis rubra was introduced* into Bishop Compton's garden^ near London before the end of 
the seventeenth century, and the earliest account of it, prepared from these cultivated trees, was 
published by Plukenet in 1692 

Endowed with a constitution which enables it to withstand climatic conditions unlike those of its 
native land, Qitercits rubra'^ has succeeded in Europe better than any other American Oak, and 
individuals more than a century old may be seen in England, France, and Germany.^ No Oak of the 
northern states grows more rapidly or can more easily be transplanted, and few trees are better suited 
to ornament the parks and roadsides of the northern United States. 



9 



with conspicuous tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins, and at 

maturity are glabrous or puberulous below; it is probably a hybrid 
between these species. 



5 See i. 6. 



foliis 



f. 4 ; Aim. BoL 309 (excl. syn.). — Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. 23, 



Usually well characterized by its large nut and flat shallow cup, t. 23 (fruit). 



and by the numerous lateral lobes of the leaf which taper gradu- 
ally from their broad bases, Quercus rubra near the northern bor- 
ders of the United States and British America often bears leaves 
with fewer lobes and smaller fruit with turbinate cups ( Quercus 
ambigua^ Michaux), but these extreme forms are so intermixed and 
inconstant that it does not seem practicable to consider them even 
varieties. 



? Quercus Virginiana rubris venis, muricata, Plukenet, Phyt. t. 
54, f. 5 ; Aim. Bot. 309. — Miller, Diet. No. 7. — Duhamel, Traite 
des ArbreSy ii. 203. 

? Quercus Carolinensis virentibus venis muricata, Catesby, Nat. 
HisL Car. l 21, t. 21. 

^ In Maine Quercus rubra is sometimes called Yellow Oak. 
^ Wesmael, Garden and Forest, iii. 129. — R. Hartig, Ausl. Holz. 



1 Bruuet, Cat Veg. Lig. Can. 49. — Bell, Geolog.Rep. Can. 1879- Bayer. Staatswald. 38 (Forst.-nat. Zeit. 1892). 



80, 51°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 442. 
2 Bessev, Rev. Nebraska State Boar 



In German collections a number of varieties, including one with 
yellow leaves, are occasionally cultivated (Dippel, Handb. Laub- 



8 Mason, Eighth Bieim. Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 272 (in holzJc. ii. 118). 



part). 

•* Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 357. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1877, f . 
1740-1744, t. 



9 Garden mid Forest, iv. 337, f. 58. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCIX. Quercus rubra. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A stanainate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stanien, front and rear view, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, the involucre removed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistillate flower before fecundation, enlarged 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 



Plate CCCCX. Quercus rubra, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, natural size. 

3. A fruit, natural size. 

4. A cup, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A seed, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A fertile winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silvaof North AmericsL. 



Tab. CCCCIX. 




V 



/ 



1 



--'Z 



/ 






/ 



I 



/ 



/ 



f 



^ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



y 



C.E.F'cucoru deL, 



LBbrtuv so. 



QUERCUS RUBRA, L. 



A.Hiocr. 




Imp. J. TarLeur, Paris 



Silva of North America 



Tab.CCCCX 




ai:,Fcucorv del. 



QUERCUS RUBRA .L. 



IfurLely sc. 



ji.Biocreuec. direccf^ 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris. 



CUrULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



129 



QUERCUS TEXANA 



Red Oak. 



Leaves obovate, truncate or abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, deeply pinnatifid- 
lobed with broad rounded sinuses, the lobes sinuate-dentate at the usually broad apex. 



Quercus Texana, Buckley^ Proc. Phil Acad. 1860, 444. 

Young, Bot. Texas, 507. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, 

vii. 514, f. 81, 82. 
Quercus palustris, Torrey & Gray, Pacific B. B. Bep. ii. 



mann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 394 (in part). 



Sar- 



part) . 
part) . 



'-est Trees N. Am. lO^A Census I 
Watson & Coulter, Chray's Man 



pt. iii. 175 (not Muenchhausen) (1855). — Chapman, FL Quercus coccinea. Chapman, FL 422 (in part) (1860). 



ed. 2, Suppl. 649. — Coulter, Contrih U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 

417 {Man. PL W. Texas). 
Quercus coccinea var. ? microcarpa, Torrey, Bot. Mex. 

Bound. Surv. 206 (1858). 
Quercus rubra, Chapman, FL 422 (in part) (1860). — A. 



de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 60 (in part). 



Engel- 



Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 156. — Sargent, Forest 



N. 



ida). 



Quercus rubra, var. Texana, Buckley, Proc. PhiL Acad. 



1881, 123. — Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vii. 14. — 
gent. Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 148. 



Sar- 



A tree^ occasionally almost two hundred feet in height, with a trunk free of branches for eighty 
or ninety feet and seven or eight feet in diameter above a much enlarged and strongly buttressed base, 
and comparatively small branches which spread into a narrow open head ; often much smaller and 
toward the western limits of its range in Texas usually not more than thirty or forty feet tall, or 
sometimes reduced to a shrub. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and 
a half in thickness, light brown tinged with red, and divided into broad ridges broken into thick square 
plate-like scales ; that of young trunks and branches is thin, smooth, and light gray. The branchlets 
are stout, brittle, and marked with oblong pale lenticels, and when they first appear are coated with 



hoary pub 



but 



become glabrous and bright g 



during their first winter they 



5 



eddish brown, and in their second 



shy gray or dark b 



The 



buds are ovate or obovate, full and abruptly rounded at the apex, and from one eighth to one quarter of 



inch long, with thin closely imbricated dark b 



scales. The 



are convolute in 



bud 



obovate in outline, truncate or abruptly or rarely gradually wedge-shaped at the broad base, and usually 



seven, rarely nine, or sometimes five-lobed by wide or n£ 
the terminal lobe is oblongf, dentate or entire toward the 



oblique sinuses rounded ; 
3 apex, and furnished with 



J bottom 
spreading 



lateral teeth ; the lateral lobes are contracted below the broad apex or occasionally taper from the base, 
and above the middle are coarsely repandly dentate with slender bristle-pointed teeth ; they increase in 
size from the lowest, which are frequently triangular and entire, to the upper, which are usually broader 
and longer than those below them, although frequently the middle lobes are the largest, or in western 
Texas, where the leaves are often five-lobed, the lateral lobes are often nearly triangular and entire or 
obscurely dentate ; when they unfold the leaves are light red and coated with pale scurfy pubescence 
which is thickest on the lower side ; this soon disappears, and when they are fully grown they are thin 
and firm, bright green, lustrous and glabrous above and on the lower surface paler and furnished with 
large tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the primary veins, from two and a half to six inches long and 
from two to five inches broad, with slender red or yellow midribs and primary veins raised and rounded 



the upper side, and obscure lateral veins arcuate and united within the thick cartilaginous marg 

are bo 



d connected by fine reticulate veinlets, which are more prominent above than below j they 



rne 



slender nearly terete reddish petioles from 



inches in length, and late in the autumn turn 



130 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^ 



gradually dark vinous red or brown, or often change color but slightly before falling. The stipules are 
oblong-obovate, Kght brown, thin and scarious, from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and 
caducous. The flowers appear from the middle of March in Texas to the beginning of May in Illinois, 
the staminate borne in slender shghtly pubescent aments from two to three inches in length, the pistdlate 
on short peduncles clothed with hoary tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is thin and 
scarious, viUous on the outer surface, and divided into four or five acute laciniately cut segments shorter 
than the stamens, which are usually four in number, with oblong shghtly emargiuate glabrous yellow 
anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are brown tinged with red and pubescent, and the 
stigmas are recurved and often bright red. The fruit, which ripens at the end of the second summer, 
is sessile or raised on a short peduncle occasionally half an inch long, and is usually solitary ; the nut is 
oval, abruptly narrowed and rounded at the base, full and rounded or gradually or abruptly narrowed 
and rounded at the apex, puberulous, light reddish brown and sometimes conspicuously striate with 
broad longitudinal dark bands, and from half an inch to an inch and a half in length ; the cup, which 
embraces from one third to one half of the nut, is turbinate or deeply cup-shaped, light reddish brown 
and puberulous within, and covered by thin closely imbricated ovate light brown scales rounded at the 
narrow ends and coated, except on the red-brown margins, with thick hoary tomentum. 

Quercus Texana is distributed from northeastern Iowa ^ and central Illinois, through southern Illi- 
nois and Indiana and western Kentucky and Tennessee, to the valley of the Appalachicola Kiver in 
Florida, and through southern Missouri, Arkansas," and Louisiana to the Limpio Mountains in western 
Texas.^ On the low river bottom-lands of the Mississippi basin, growing with the Swamp White Oak, 
the Red Maple, the Sour Gum, the Liquidambar, the Pin Oak, and the Swamp Cottonwood, it attains its 
largest size and is exceedingly common, especially in western Mississippi, southern Arkansas, and eastern 
Texas, where it frequently forms a great part of the lowland forest. It is less abundant in the southern 
portions of the eastern Gulf states and probably does not reach the coast. In western Texas it often 
grows on low limestone hills with the Post Oak and the Western Cedar, and is then a small tree or occa- 
sionally a shrub, or becomes a larger tree on the moister bottom-lands in the neighborhood of streams. 

The wood of a small specimen of Quercus Texana grown on the hmestone hills near Austin, 
Texas, is heavy, hard, and close-grained, light reddish brown, with few conspicuous medullary rays and 
bands of small ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.9080, a cubic foot weighing 56.59 pounds. This determination probably does not represent 
the value of the wood of Quercus Texana from the Mississippi valley, as lumbermen and manufacturers 
consider it more valuable than that of the eastern Red Oak, with which it has always been confounded. 

Quercus Texana was discovered near the mouth of the Pecos River in Texas by the botanists of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Commission in 1850. As a street tree it is frequently planted in 
Carrollton, a suburb of New Orleans, where it also grows spontaneously. 

Quercus Texana, which sometimes grows to a greater height than any other American Oak,^ may 



4 



1 Quercus Texana was discovered near Waterloo, Iowa, by Pro- and grandeur of these trees, would, I fear, fail of credibility; yet. 



fessor A. S. Hitchcock in 1889. 

2 Harvey, Am. Jour. Forestry, i. 454 {Quercus ruhra). 
8 Havard, P7-oc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 505. 



I think I can assert, that many of the black oaks measured eight, 
nine, ten, and eleven feet diameter five feet above the ground, as 
we measured several that were above thirty feet girt, and from 



4 There is still much to learn with regard to the distribution hence they ascend perfectly strait, with a gradual taper, forty or 

of this tree. The fact that it is so common and grows with such fifty feet to the limbs ; but, below five or six feet, these trunks 

luxuriance at the mouth of the White River in Indiana would indi- would measure a third more in circumference, on account of the 

cate that it might be looked for much farther north than it is now projecting jambs, or supports, which are more or less, according to 

known to grow in Indiana, and that it probably extends into Ohio. the number of horizontal roots that they arise from." I have 

Possibly, as suggested by Ridgway {Bot. Gazette, viii. 349, as Qxier- found, however, no evidence except Bartram's description of the 

cus rubra), it was this tree which was found by William Bartram enlarged and buttressed bases of these trees to prove that Quercus 

near Little Ptiver in Georgia, and which, without description, he Texana grows in any of the Atlantic states, 
called Quercus tinctoria. "To keep within the bounds," he says 

(^Travels, 37), "of truth and reality in describing the magnitude (( 



Nat. Mus 



uercus 



CUPULIEER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



131 



be easily distinguished from Quercus rubra by its shorter and broader winter-buds, by the deeper and 
■wider sinuses of its smaller and more lustrous leaves, and by its deeper, paler, and more tomentose cups. 
In Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri it is not possible to distinguish it from Quercus palustrls, with which 
it grows, except by its fruit and by the enlarged and buttressed base of its trunk. The leaves also 



resemble those of Quercus coc( 
probably not in the same region. 



although this species does not grow in the same situations and 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXL Quercus Texaka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flowerj enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit from the valley of the Pecos River, 

natural size. 

6. A fruit from near the mouth of White River, 

Illinois, natural size. 

7. A leaf from western Texas, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat, CCCCXI 



\ 




C. £. Faoiorv del. 



OUERCUS TEXANA, Buckley. 




zne- so. 



A.Itiocreua> direct f' 



Imp. ^J. Taneur, Paris. 



CUPUUTEILE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



133 



QUERCUS GOCOINEA 



Scarlet Oak. 



Leaves oblong or obovate, light green and lustrous, deeply lobed, with broad 
rounded sinuses, the slender lobes coarsely repandly dentate toward the apex. 



Qnercus coccinea, Muenchhausen, Hmtsv, v. 254 (excL b) 
(1770). — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 44, t. 4, f. 9. 
Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neite SchrifL GeselL Nat. Fr. 
Berlin^ iii. 398. — Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No, 18, t. 
31, 32 ; FL Bor.-Am. ii. 199. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 
445; Fnu7n.976; BerL Baumz. ed. 2, 343. — Persoon, 
Syn, ii. 569. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 511- — Poiret, 
La7)i, Diet. Suppl. ii. 221. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. 
ii. 116, t. 23. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 630. — Bigelow, 
Fl. Boston. 221. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Noiiveau Bn- 
hamely vii. 171. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 157. — Elliott, aS'^. 
ii. 602. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 863. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. 

iii. 1879, f . 1746-1748, t. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 165. 

Torrey, Fl. N. T. ii. 189. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 144, 



Fl. 422. — Orsted, Vidensh. Medd. fra not. For. Kjobenh, 
1866, 72 ; Liebmann Chenes Ain. Trop. t. B. — Wesmael, 
Bull. Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg. 1869, 347 (excl. var. /3). 
Koch, Dendr, ii. pt. ii. 69. — Engelmann, Trans. St Louis 
Acad. iii. 394 (excl. var. tinctorla). — Houba, Chenes Am. 
en Belgique^ 203, t. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 299, f. 



120. 



N. 



ix. 148 (excl. hab. Florida). — Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. 



IS 



w 



Gray's Man. ed. 6, 477 (excl. var. tinctoria). 



Mayr, 



Wald. Nor dam. 147, t. 1, 



Dippel, Handb. Laiib- 



holzJc. ii. 119, f. 56. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 132. 



IB coccinea, Aiton, Hort. Kew 



(1789). 



t. 9 ; ed. 2, i. 163, t. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. — Curtis, Quercus coccinea, a coccinea, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi 



Ii,62J. Geolog. Sarv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 40. — Chapman, 



pt. ii. 61 (1864). 



A tree, seventy or eighty feet in height, with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter and 
comparatively small branches which spread gradually and form a rather narrow open head ; or usually 
much smaller. The bark of the trunk is red internally, from half an inch to an inch in thickness, and 
divided by shallow fissures into irregular ridges covered by small light brown scales slightly tinged with 
red ; that of the young stems and the branches is smooth and light brown. The branchlets are slender 
and marked by small scattered pale lenticels, and when they first appear are coated with loose scurfy 
caducous pubescence but soon become hght green and lustrous, and during their first winter are light 
red or orange-red and in their second year light or dark brown. The winter-buds are oval or ovate, 
gradually narrowed to the acute apex, from an eighth to a quarter of an inch long, dark reddish brown, 
and covered above the middle with loose pale pubescence. The leaves are convolute in the bud, oblongs 
obovate or oval in outline, truncate or wedge-shaped at the base, and deeply divided by wide sinuses, 
which are rounded at the bottom, into seven or rarely into nine lobes repandly dentate at the apex with 
slender bristle-pointed teeth ; the terminal lobe is ovate, acute and three-toothed, the middle division 
being much longer than the others and furnished with two 



two small lateral teeth near its narrow apex 
3 lateral lobes are obovate, oblique or spreading and sometimes falcate, and usually broad and obHqu 
the coarsely toothed apex, the middle lobes beii 



2" much larger than those below and above them 



or 



ally the leaves are shghtly sinuate-lobed with broad or acute dentate lobes ; when they unfold 



they are bright red, covered with loose pale pubes 



on the upper surface and coated on the 



with silvery white tomentum ; they become green at the end of a few days, and when half grown ar( 
thin and lustrous, pubescent above and still covered below with tomentum which now gradually disap 



pears \ and at maturity they are thin and firm, bright 



& 



& 



labrous and very lustrous above, pal 



and less lustrous below, where they are sometimes furnished with small tufts of rusty pubescence ii 
the axils of the veins,^ from three to six inches lonff and from two and a half to foiu- inches broad 



4 

1 111 tlie eastern states the mature leaves of Quercus coccinea are 



axils of the veins, and 



usually glabrous, but in Illinois and Minnesota they are often fur- are not distinguishable from those of Quercus Texana, 



134: 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



CUPULITEE^. 



with slender yellow midribs and primary veins rounded on the upper side and obscure lateral veins 



connected by coarsely 



they are borne on slender terete petioles from one and a half 



d a half inches in leno^th, and late in the autumn before falling turn a brilliant 



The 



are obovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, b 



and 



d from one half 



two 



of an inch long-. The flowers appear when the leaves are about half orown. the staminate borne 



& 



slender glabrous aments three or four inches 



th, the pistillate on pubescent peduncles some- 
times half an inch long. The calyx of the staminate flower is pubescent, and before opening is bright 
red and tipped with a tuft of pale hairs ; it is divided into four or five ovate acute segments shorter than 

The 



stamens, which are usually four in numb 



1 



piculate Hght yellow glabrous anthers 



pistillate flower is bright red, with ovate pubescent involucral scales shorter than the acute calyx-lobes 



and elongated spreading recurved stigmas. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn of the 



d year 



& 



peduncle sometimes almost an inch in length, and is solitary 
r hemispherical, truncate or roui 



is sessile or often borne on a 

pairs ; the nut is oval, oblon 

apex, from half an inch to 

light reddish brown and occasionally striate, with a thin shell lined with a thick coat of light reddish 

brown tomentum ; the cup, which incloses from one third to one half of the nut, is deeply cup-shaped 



ly an inch long and from one third 



ded at the base, rounded at the 
to two thirds of an inch broad. 



turbinate, thin, ligr-ht reddish b 



•own on the inner surface, and covered by closely imbricated oblong- 
ovate acute light reddish brown slightly puberulous scales. 

The Scarlet Oak inhabits Hght, dry, and usually sandy soil, and is distributed from the valley of 
the Androscoggin Eiver in Maine ^ through southern New Hampshire and Vermont and central New 
York to southern Ontario,^ westward through central Michigan and Minnesota to southeastern 
Nebraska,^ and southward to the District of Columbia * and northern Illinois, and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to North Carolina. It is extremely abundant in the coast region from the southern shores 
of Massachusetts Bay, where, on light sandy soil, it often forms a large part of the forest growth, to 
southern New Jersey ; it is less abundant in the interior, growing on dry gravelly uplands with the 
Black Oak, the Red Oak, and the Pignut Hickory j and in the prairie region of Minnesota it is mixed 
with the Bur Oak in the scattered groves that form the outposts of the eastern forests. 



The wood of Quercics cocclnea is heavy. 



hard, and strong but coarse-grained. 



and is light or 



reddish brown, with thick darker colored sapwood, and contains thin conspicuous meduUary rays and 
bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.7095, a cubic foot weighing 42.20 pounds. 

Quercus cocmiea is chiefly valuable for the brilliant scarlet color which its leaves assume late in 
the autumn after those of most of its companions have fallen, 
other American tree are more splendid or retain for a longer time their beauty, which is often intensified 
by the first snowflakes of winter. Less commonly planted in parks and pleasure-grounds than the Red 
Oak and the Pin Oak, the hardiness and rapid growth of the Scarlet Oak and the beauty of its foliage 
make it a most desirable ornamental tree. 



The autumn colors of the foliage of no 



1 At South Poland, teste M. L. Fernald. 

2 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 443. 



!y, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 110. 
Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 113 (Fl. Washingt 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



Plate CCCCXII. Quercus coccinea 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 



Plate CCCCXIIL Quercus coccinea. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit (from Minnesota), natural size. 

3. A nut (from Massachusetts), natural size 

4. Vertical section of a nut, natural size. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXII 




2 





[^ 




CE.Faccoru deL, 



Rapine^ sc 



QUERCUS COCCINEA.Wang. 



A.TUocreua> direccf' 



Imp, J, Taneur , F oris , 



F 

Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXIII 




C. E. Fcucon. deL 



Toulet 



J'O. 



QUERCUS COCCINEA.Wang. 



j4.,Riocreuci> cUrea:.^ 



Imp. c/ Tane-icr , Pur is 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



137 



QUERCUS VELUTINA. 



Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak 



Leaves ovate or oboyate, slightly or deeply lobed, with broad or narrow nearly 
entire or dentate lobes, usually pubescent on the lower surface. 



Quercus velutina, Lamarck, Diet. i. 721 (1783). — Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 68. — Lauclie, Deutsche Dendr. 299. 
Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric. U. S. 1892, 328. 

Quercus nigra, Ru Roi, Earbk. Baumz.n. 272 (excl. syn.), 



Fl. 422. — Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjdheiih. 
1866, 45, 72, f. 18 ; Liehmann Chenes Am. Trojy. 9, 



f. 6. 



N. 



ix. 149. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgirpie, 187, t. 



t. 6, f. 1 (not Linnaeus) (1772). — M.^.r^haXl, Arhust. Am. Quercus tinctoria, u, angulosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Avi. 



120. 



Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 79, t. 6, f. 16. 



Quercus discolor, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 358 (1789). 



ii. 198 (1803). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1885, f. 1753, 
1754. 



Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 274 ; Sjjec. iv. pt. i. 444 ; Quercus tinctoria, /3 sinuosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii 



Emtm. 976. — Abbot & Smith, Insects of Georgia, ii. Ill, 



198 (1803).— Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1885, f. 1755 



t. 56. 



Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 714. — Persoon, 



1757. 



Orsted, Liebviann Chenes Am. Trap. t. C. 



Syn. ii. 569. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 221. — Nut- ? Quercus Shumardii, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, 



tall. Gen. ii. 214. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 601. — Sprengel, Syst. 
iii. 863. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. 
Quercus tinctoria, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 13, 



444. 
Quercus coccinea, ^ nigrescens, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 61 (1864). 



t. 24, 25 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 198. — Willdenow, Spec. Quercus coccinea, y tinctoria, A. de Candolle, Prodr. 



iv. pt. i. 444 ; Fnum. 976. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. 
Bosc Mem. Inst. Nat. Sci. Phys. Math. viii. pt. i. 347. 
Desfontaines Hist. Arb. ii. 509. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 



xvi. pt. ii. 61 (1864). — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 454. — W 
mael, Bull. Fed. Sac. Hort. Belg. 1869, 347, t. 14. 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 477. 



Suppl. ii. 221. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 110, t. ? Quercus coccinea, 8 Rugelii, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi 



22. 
214. 



Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 629. — Nuttall, Gen. ii 



pt. ii. 62 (1864). 



Nouveau Dichamel, vii. 170, t. 47 f. 1. — Hayne, Quercus tinctoria, a discolor, Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk 



Dendr. Fl. 156. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 601. — Sprengel, Syst. 



ii. 121, f. 58 (1892). 



iii. 862. — Audubon, Birds, t. 82. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- Quercus tinctoria, )8 magniflca, Dippel, Handb. Laub- 



Am. ii. 158. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 164. — Torrey, Fl 



holzk. ii. 122, f. 58 (1892). 



N. Y. ii. 188. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 141, t. 7, 8 ; ed. Quercus tinctoria, y macrophylla, Dippel, Handb. Laub- 



2, i. 160, t. — Gray, Man. 416. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 



ed. 3, 268 



Morren, Belg. Hort. iii. 363, t. 54. 



Brendel, Trans. III. Agric. Soc. iii. 627, t. 8. — Curtis, 
Pep. Geolog. Suru. N. Car. 1860, iii. 39. — Chapman, 



holzk. ii. 123, f. 59 (1892). 
Quercus tinctoria, 8 nobilis, Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk 
ii. 124, f. 60 (1892). 



A tree, often seventy or eighty and occasionally one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a trunk 



th 



four feet in diameter and slender branches which spread gradually 



open head. 
Q inch and 



The bark of the trunk is deep orange-color internally, from three quarters of an inch to an ii 

a half in thickness, and is deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the surface into thick 



dark brown or sometimes nearly black closely appressed plate-like 



that of the young stem and 



the branches is smooth and dark brown. The branchlets are stout and marked with pale lenticels and 
coated at first with pale or fulvous scurfy tomentum which gradually disappears during the summer, 
and in their first winter they are dull red or reddish brown, growing dark brown in then- second year 
or brown slightly tinged with red. The winter-buds are ovate, strongly angled, gradually narrowed 
and obtuse at the apex, from one quarter to nearly one half of an inch in length, and clothed with 
hoary tomentum. The leaves are convolute in the bud, ovate or obovate, rounded, wedge-shaped or 
truncate at the base, mostly seven-lobed and sometimes divided nearly to the middle by wide rounded 
sinuses into narrow obovate more or less repandly dentate lobes with stout rigid bristle-pointed teeth, 



138 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER-S:. 



or into 



ated nearly entire mueronate lobes tap 



& 



adually from a broad base; or they are 



1 



lightly divided into broad dentate lobes or are sinuate-dentate ; the terminal lobe is oblong, elongated, 
LCiite, and furnished with large or small lateral teeth, or it is broad, generally rounded and coarsely 
epandly dentate ] when they unfold the leaves are bright crimson, covered above with long loose scattered 



d coated below vrith thick pale or silvery 



tomentum 



lob 



being tipped with 



tufts of long pale ha 



half grown the leaves, Hke the young shoots, are hoary-pubescent, and 



fully grown they are thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and 



on 



the 



upper sur- 



face, and yellow-green, brownish or dull copper-color on the lower, which is more or less thickly clothed 



th close pubescence, or is sometimes tomentose, or glabrous 



1 



iption of tufts of rusty 



the axils of the principal 



usually five or six inches long and three or four inches wide, they vary 



from three to twelve inches in leno^h and from two to ten inches in width, with stout midribs and 

vf^ins arcuate near the thickened 



primary veins raised and roiinfled on the upper side^ slender secondary 
revolute margins^ and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they 



are 



b 



on 



yellow glabrous or 



puberulous petioles generally flattened on the upper side and from three to six inches long^ and 
the autumn turn dull red, dark orange-color or brown, and fall gradually during the winter 



The 



stipules are linear-obovate or linear-lanceolate, coated with pale hairs, brown and scarious^ and about an 
inch in length. The flowers appear when the leaves are nearly half grown^ the staminate borne in the 
axils of linear acute villous brown scarious and caducous bracts in tomentose or pubescent aments from 
four to six inches in length, and the pistillate on short tomentose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate 



elongated stout umbo ; it is light reddish brown, 



flower is coated with pale hairs, and in the bud is green tinged with red and furnished at the apex with 
a tuft of pale hairs ; the lobes are ovate acute and shorter than the stamens, which are usually four in 
number with ovate acute apiculate glabrous yellow anthers. The bud of the pistillate flower is bright 
red, coated with soft pale pubescence, and tipped by a tuft of pale hairs ; the involucral scales are 
ovate and shorter than the acute hirsute calyx-lobes, and the stigmas are reflexed and bright red. The 
fruit, which ripens in the autumn of the second year, is sessile or borne on a short thick peduncle rarely 
more than half an inch in length, and is solitary or in pairs ; the nut is ovate-oblong, obovate, oval 
or hemispherical, broad and rounded at the base and full and rounded at the apex which is some- 
times depressed and is crowned with a short or 
often striate, frequently coated with soft rufous pubescence, and from one half to three quarters of an 
inch in length ; the cup, which embraces about half the nut, is thin, deeply cup-shaped or turbinate, 
dark red-brown and puberulous on the inner surface, and covered by thin light chestnut-brown ovate 
acute scales clothed with hoary pubescence ; at the base of the cup these are usually closely appressed, 
but above its middle are loosely imbricated with free scarious tips which form a fringe-like border 

to its rim. 

Querciis vehithui^ which inhabits dry graveUy uplands and ridges, is distributed from the coast of 
southern Maine to northern Vermont, southern and western Ontario,^ and central Minnesota,^ and 
southward to northern Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, 
and eastern Texas. One of the commonest species on the gravelly drift of the southern New England 
and Middle States, and in the foothiU regions of the southern Appalachian Mountains, where it some- 
times forms a large part of the forest-growth, it is also abundant in all parts of the Mississippi basin, 
probably growing to its largest size in the valley of the lower Ohio River.^ It is the only species of the 
Red Oak group which reaches the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts, where, although not common and 
never gregarious, it is generally scattered on dry ridges through the maritime Pine belt. 

The wood of Qiierciis veliitina is heavy, hard, and strong, although not tough, coarse-grained, and 
liable to check in drying ; it is bright brown tinged with red, with thin Hghter colored sap wood, and 



contains consj)icuous meduUary rays and broad bands of several rows of 



large 



open ducts plainly 



Macoun, Cat Can, PL 443, 
Macniillan, Metaspermce of 



Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus. v. 84 



cupuLiTERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



139 



marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.70i5, a 
cubic foot weighing 43.90 pounds. 

The inner bark, which abounds in tannic acid, is largely used in tanning ; ^ it furnishes a yellow 
dye, and medicinally is sometimes employed, in the form of decoctions, as an astringent and in external 
applications.^ 



According to Aiton,^ Q 



troduced into English plantations in 1800. Less 



stately than the Red Oak, and far less beautiful in foliage, especially in autumn, than the Scarlet Oak, 

the Black Oak* is rarely planted as an ornamental tree. 

None of the North American Oaks with biennial fruit vary in the form of the leaves as much as 

this species. The narrow-lobed leaves of some individuals are not distinguishable in outline from those 

of Quercus coccinea. It may be always recognized, however, in early spring by the deep red color of 

the unfolding leaves and by its pale silvery appearance a few days later at the flowering period when 

Quercus coccinea is bright green. The rusty lower surface of the mature leaves, the large tomentose 

winter-buds, the dark color of the outer and the deep orange-color of the inner bark, and the generally 

more loosely imbricated cup-scales also serve to distinguish the Black Oak from the Scarlet Oak, 

although the latter especially in Minnesota often produces fruit with comparatively loosely imbricated 
cup-scales. 



1 Porclier, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 238. — Trim- Bentley & Trimen, Med. PI. iv. 251, t. 251. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 



ble, The Tannins, 31, f. 20, 21. 



16, 1261. 



2 Hayne, Arzn. xii. 46, t. 46. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 586. — Gui- » Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 291. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1884. 

bourt. Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 288. — Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1196. — * The Black Oak is sometimes also called Quercitron Oak and 

YeUow Oak. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXIV. Quercus velutina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged 



Plate CCCCXV. Quercus velutijsta. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A cup, natural size. 

4. A nut, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. A seed, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXIV. 




C. E» Faax?rv det. 



Hapine- jo 



QUERCUS VELUTINA ,Lain. 



A.RLocreuco direa>r 



Imp, J, Tan&ur, Faris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXV, 




t-:^; 



C. E. FazcoTv det. 



QUERCUS VELUTINA.Lam. 




zne^ sc 



A.,Iizocreucc direccf 



Imp. J. TetTLeuJ^ ,Faris, 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



141 



QUERCUS CALIFORNIOA 



Black Oak. 



Leaves oblong or obovate, glabrous or pubescent 



on the lower surface, pinnatifid- 



lobed, the lobes tapering and acute or broad and obovate, repand-dentate or entire. 



Quercus Californica, Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 261 
(1859). — Sucl worth, Garden and Forest^ v. 98. — Coville, 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 196 (Bot. Death Valley 

Exped.). 
Quercus tinctoria, var. Calif ornica, Torrey, Pacific B. R. 

Rep. iv. pt. i. 138 (1856) ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Sttrv. 205 ; 

Ives' Rep. 28. 
Quercus rubra, Bentham, PI. Hartiveg. 337 (not Linnseus) 

(1857). 
Quercus Kelloggii, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 28, 
f. 6; 89 (1857). — Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 



463. 



R. Brown Campst. Horce Sylvance^ 58, f. 4-6. 



Engelmann, Br eiver & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 99. — Kellogg, 



Forest Trees of California^ 83. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 



Am, \^th Census U. S. ix. 149. 



Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot, 



Gart Berlin^ iii. 215. — Greene, West Am. Dales, 1, 1. 1 ; 
Man. Bot. Bay Region, 303. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 282, 
t. 2. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 117. — Koehney 
Deutsche Dendr. 132. — Merriam, North American Fauna^ 
No. 7, 334 {Death Valley Exped. ii.). — S. B. Parish, Zoly 



IV. o 



"46. 



Quercus Sonomensis, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 62 



(1864). 



Bolander, Proc. Cal, Acad. iii. 230. — Orsted, 



Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 72. 
gelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 374. 



En- 



A tree, occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter and 
stout spreading branches which form an open round-topped head; frequently much smaller, and at high 
elevations reduced to a small shrub. The bark of the trunk is from an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness, dark brown slightly tinged with red or nearly black, divided into broad ridges at the base of 
old trees, and broken above into thick irregular oblong plates covered with minute closely appressed 
scales ; that of the young stems and the branches is smooth and light brown. The branchlets are stout 
and marked with minute pale lenticels and are coated at first with thick hoary tomentum which soon 
begins to disappear ; during their first winter they are rather bright red or brown tinged with red and 
usually glabrous, but sometimes pubescent or puberulous or cove 
dark red-brown in their second year. The winter-buds are ovate 



ed with 



bloom, and grow 



adually narrowed and acute at the 



apex, about a quarter of an inch long, and 



ed by closely imbricated pale chestnut-br 



the thin scarious margins with pale hairs and pubescent toward the point of the bud 



scales 

The 



leaves are convolute in vernation, oblong or obovate, truncate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the narrow 



d oblique sinuses rounded at the bot- 

and the 



base, seven or rarely five-lobed by wide and deep or shallow ai 

tom ; the terminal lobe is ovate, three-toothed at the apex with acute bristle-pointed teeth 

lateral lobes, the central pair of which is usually much larger than the others, taper gradually from the 

base or are broad and obovate, and are coarsely repand-dentate with acute pointed teeth, or sometimes 



when they unfold the leaves are dark red or purple, and pilose on the upper surface, and coated 



on 



the 



and 



on 



the 



petioles with thick silvery white tomentum, and when half grown are bght 



pubescent above and pubescent or tomentose below ; at maturity they are thick and firm 



dark yellow-green and glabrous or rarely stellate-pubescent above, and hght yellow 



or 



brownish and glabrous or pubescent below ; or, on occasional individual trees, the mature leaves and 



their petioles are covered with hoary pube 



they are from three to six inches long and from 



four inches wide, and, borne on slender nearly terete yeUow petioles from one to two inche 



<r 



th 



yellow or brown in the autumn before fall 



& 



The stipules are oblong-lanceolate to lin 



late, brown and scarious, about three quarters of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers appear m 
April and May when the leaves are about half grown, the staminate borne in hairy aments four or five 



142 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



inches in lengthy and the pistillate on short tomentose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is 
pubescent and divided into four or five broadly ovate acute segments shorter than the stamens^ which 
are four or five in number^ with ovate acute apiculate glabrous anthers bright red when the flowers open 
and afterward yellow. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are ovate^ and^ like the acute calyx- 
lobes^ are coated with pale tomentum ; the stigmas are recurved and dark red. The fruit, which ripens 
in the autumn of the second season-, is usually borne on a stout peduncle rarely more than half an inch 
long, and is solitary or clustered ; the nut is oblong, oval or obovate, broad and rounded at the base, 
full and rounded or gradually narrowed and acute at the puberulous apex, from an inch to an inch and 
a half long, about three quarters of an inch broad, light chestnut-brown and often striate with dark 
longitudinal bands ; the thin shell is lined with a thick coat of pale f errugineous tomentum and the 
astringent seed is covered by a dark red-brown coat ; the cup, which embraces from one quarter to 
nearly two thirds of the nut, is cup-shaped, light brown and puberulous on the inner surface, and 
covered by thin ovate-lanceolate lustrous light chestnut-brown scales, which are sometimes rounded and 
thickened on the back toward the base of the cup ; their tips are elongated, thin and erose on the 
margins, and often form a narrow fringe-like border to the rim of the cup. 

An inhabitant of valleys and mountain-slopes, Qiiercus Californica is distributed from the basin 
of the Mackenzie River in western Oregon southward through the California coast mountains and along 
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, which it sometimes ascends to elevations of from seven to eight 
thousand feet, and the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains, finding its southern home on the 
Cuyamaca Mountains near the southern boundary of California. Comparatively rare in the immediate 
neighborhood of the California coast, Qitercus Californica is the largest and most abundant Oak-tree 
of the valleys of southwestern Oregon and of the Sierra Nevada, where it is often found scattered 
through the coniferous forests, sometimes forming groves of considerable extent, and growing to its 
largest size at elevations of about six thousand feet above the sea-level. 

The wood of Quercus Californica is heavy, hard, and strong, although very brittle ; it is light red, 
with thin lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad remote medullary rays and broad bands of several 
rows of large open ducts conspicuously marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.6435, a cubic foot weighing 40.10 pounds. Of little value for construc- 
tion, it is sometimes used for fuel, and the bark is occasionally employed in tanning leather. 

Quercus Californica was discovered in 1846 by Karl Theodore Hartweg near Sonoma, among the 
foothills of the California Sierras. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXVI. Quercus Californica 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXVI 




C, -E. Faa::o7V del. 



Mi^necuuC' sc. 



OUERCUS CALIFORNICA./Co_op. 



A.ItLOcreucx> dzrecc. 



Imp. J'. Taneu.r, Paris 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



143 



QUERCUS CATESB^I 



Turkey Oak. 



Leaves oblong, obovate, or triangular, glabrous, or rusty pubescent on tbe lower 
surface, deeply lobed with acute spreading often falcate lobes. 



Quercus Catesbaei, Michanx, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 17, t. 29, 
30 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 199. — Abbot & Smith, In- 
sects of Georgia, i. 27, 1. 14. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 



446. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. — Bosc, Mem. Inst. Nat. Sci. 
Phys. Math. viii. pt. i. 348. — Desf ontaines, Hist. Arb. 
ii. 511. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 221. — Michaux f, 
Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 101, t. 20. — Pursh, FL Am. Sejyt. ii 



630. 
172. 



Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 
Elliott, Sk. ii. 603. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 863. 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1889, f. 1762, 1763. 



Spach, 



Hist. Veg. xi. 162. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. — Curtis, 
Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 41. — Chapman, Fl. 
422. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 59. — Orsted, 
Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 72. — Wes- 
mael. Bull. Fed. Sac. Hort. Belg. 1869, 344. — Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 67. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Vdth 
Census U. S. ix. 151. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 
296, t. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 149, t. 1, 2. — Dippel, 
Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 114, t. 54. 



* 

A tree, usually twenty or thirty, or occasionally fifty or sixty, feet in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding two feet in diameter but generally much smaller, and stout spreading more or less contorted 
branches which form a narrow open irregular generally round-topped head ; or sometimes shrubby in 
habit. The bark of the trunk is from half an inch to an inch in thickness, red internally, dark gray 



& 



ed with red on the surface, or at the base of old trunks sometimes nearly black, deeply and 



larly furrowed, and broken into small thick appressed scales. The branchlets, which are stout and 
marked with minute lenticels, are coated at first with ferrugineous tomentum of stellate and articulate 
hairs which soon begins to disappear, and when the leaves are half grown they are nearly glabrous and 
deep red ; they are dark red in their first winter, and then gradually grow brown. The winter-buds 
are elongated, acute, half an inch long, and covered by light chestnut-brown scales with thin erose 
margins and coated, especially toward the point of the bud, with rusty pubescence. The leaves are 
convolute in vernation, oblong or obovate or nearly triangular in outline, gradually narrowed and 
wedge-shaped at the base, and deeply divided by wide rounded sinuses into three or five or rarely into 
seven lobes tipped with short stout bristles; the terminal lobe is ovate, much elongated, and acute and 
entire or repand-dentate toward the apex, or it is obovate and coarsely equally or irregularly three- 
toothed at the apex ; the lateral lobes are spreading, usually falcate, entire and acute, and taper 
regularly from their broad bases, or they are broad and oblique and repand-lobulate at the apex ; or 
the leaves are three-toothed at the broad apex and gradually narrowed to the base, or individual leaves 
are often slightly undulate-lobed or pinnatifid with oblique acute lobes ; when they unfold the leaves 
are coated with rufous articulate hairs which slowly disappear, and when they are fully grown they 
are thick and rigid, bright yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, and paler, lustrous, and 
glabrous, with the exception of large tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins, on the lower 
surface, which, however, is often covered with scurfy ferrugineous pubescence ; generally about five 
inches long and broad, they vary from three to twelve inches in length and from one to ten inches in 
width, with broad yellow or red-brown midribs and primary veins raised and rounded on the upper side, 
prominent secondary veins arcuate and united near the slightly thickened margins, and coarse reticulate 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout flattened grooved petioles from a quarter of an inch to nearly an 
inch in length, and turn brown or dull yellow before falling m the autumn. The stipules are coated 
with rusty tomentum, about an inch long, oblong-obovate, and are gradually narrowed into stalk-like 



lU 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



tasesj or those of the 

leaves are about half 



& 



the staminate borne in the 



The flowers open in March and April, when the 
axils of linear-lanceolate hairy caducous bracts 



der hairy red-stemmed aments from four to five inches in length, and the pistillate 



ped 



The calyx of the staminate flower is puberulous and 



divided 



fou 



r 



fi 



lobes shorter than the stamens, which are fo 



five 



number, with oblo 



yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flowers are bright red, pubescent, and hairy at 
the margins with long rusty hairs ; the elongated reflexed stigmas are darker red. The fruit, which 



ripens 



the autumn of the second year, is usually solitary and is borne on a stout peduncle marked 
with pale lenticels and rarely more than a quarter of an inch long. The nut is oval, full and rounded 

^n inch in breadth, dull lierht brown, and 



both ends, about an inch in length and three quarters of 



ed at the apex with a th 



of snow-white tomentum ; the cup, which embraces about a third 



of the nut, is thin, turbinate, and often gradually narrowed into a stout stalk-like base 



light red 



brown, lustrous and puberulous on the inner surface, and covered by ovate-oblong rounded scales which 




tend 



over 



th 



e rim 



d down 



third of the inner surface ; and are coated with de 



hairy pubescence, except along their thin bright red mar 



Q 



Catesb 



habits dry ba 




ridges and sandy bluffs and hummocks in the 
ghborhood of the coast from North Carolina to Cape Malabar and the shores of Pease Creek 



Florida, and to eastern Louis 



Comparatively rare toward the 



limits of its range 



most abundant and grows to its largest size on the high bluff -like shores of bays and estuaries in South 

Carolina and Georgia. 

Individual trees supposed to be hybrids between Quereiis Cateshcei and Querciis nigra have been 

same region 



observed 



of South Carohna/ and Dr. J. H. MeUichamp ^ has found 



the 



other tree^ which is supposed to be a hybrid between Querms Cateshcei and Qiiercus laurifi 



Quercus Catesbcei x nigra. indicates a cross with some other, e; 

Quercus Cateshcei x aquatica^ Eugelmann, Trans. St, Louis Ravenel believed, Quercus brevifolia. 



Mr 



Acad, ill ^00 (1877). 
? Quercus nigra, y sinuata^ Lamarck, DicL i. 721 (1783). 



2 Joseph Hinson MeUichamp, the son of the Reverend Stiles 
MeUichamp, who for many years was preceptor of Beaufort Col- 



Quercus smwaia, Walter, Fl. Car. 235 (1788). — A. de Candolle, lege and afterwards pastor of St. James' Church on James Island 



Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 74. 



near Charleston, and of Sarah Cromwell of Charleston, was born 



A tree, about forty feet high, found by Dr. J. H. MeUichamp in St. Luke's Parish, South CaroUna, on the 9th of May, 1829. 

many years ago growing on a sandy ridge near Bluffton, South A large part of his boyhood was passed in Beaufort, and at this 

Carolina, with Quercus Catesbcei, Quercus digitata, and Quercus Vir- time he imbibed from his father, who was n lover of the woods 

giniana, and in the neighborhood of Quercus nigra and Quercus bre- and fields, that taste for botany which he has never lost. He was 

vifolia, and now destroyed, was believed by Dr. Engelmann to be a graduated from the South Carolina College in 1849 and from the 

hybrid between the Turkey and the Water Oaks and identical with Medical College of Charleston in 1852, and then established him- 

the Quercus sinuata of Walter (Plate ccccxviii.). The leaves varied self as a physician at Bluffton, South Carolina, where he has since 

from oblong to obovate or nearly rhombic ; they were gradually resided, except during the War of Secession, when he served as 

narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, and acute at the apex, with surgeon in the army hospitals of his native state. Absorbed in the 

sinuate shallow obtuse lobes, or sometimes they were dentate-lobed cares and anxieties of a large professional practice in a region of 

with spreading acute bristle-pointed lobes ; when they unfolded they scattered population and bad roads, Dr. MelUchamp has been able 

were covered, especially below, with rusty articulate hairs, and at to render his correspondents substantial assistance by his patient 

maturity were thick and firm, dark green and lustrous above, pale and critical study of the flora of a region particularly rich in inter- 

and glaucous below, with the exception of tufts of dark hairs in esting plants. A keen observer and tireless collector, with no 

desire beyond that of increasing knowledge, he has done a real 
service to science through the aid he has given other students, and 
or very short-stalked, with an oval nut full and rounded at the I am glad to take this opportunity to acknowledge my indebted- 
apex, about two thirds of an inch long, and inclosed for one third ness to him for the assistance he has rendered me by studying the 
of its length in the thin hemispherical turbinate cup covered by trees, and especially the Oaks, of the Carolina coast region. 



the axils of the primary veins, from four to six inches in length and 
from half an inch to three inches in width. The fruit was sessile 



thin ovate oblong scales rounded at the broad apex and coated with 



Mellichampia, a genus of Mexican Milkweeds, was dedicated to 



pale pubescence. In the winter-buds, the color of the branchlets, him by Asa Gray. 



and the articulate hairs of the young leaves, this tree resembled 



^ Quercus Cateshcei x laurifolia, Engelmann, Trans* St. Louis 



Quercus Cateshcei, but the thin cup of the fruit without the scales Acad. iii. 539 (1877). 
turning down into the interior, which are so marked in that species, 



CUPULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



145 



Tlie wood of Quereus Cateshcei is heavy ^ hard^ strongs and 



rather close-srrained ; it is light b 



t> 



tinged with red^ with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad bands o£ several rows of large 

short lines 



open ducts marking the layers of annual growth^ and many smaller ducts arranged in 



parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary rays 



Th 



e 



ipecific 



ity of the absolutely dry wood 



whose name it bears in his 



0.7294, a cubic foot weighing 45.45 pounds. It is largely used for fuel. 

Qicercics Cateshcei appears to have been first described by the naturalist 
Natural History of Carolina^ published in 1731.^ 

As an ornamental tree the Turkey Oak ^ has little to commend it, and it is chiefly valuable from 
ability to grow rapidly and produce good fuel on barren soil. 



This tree (Plate ccccxix.), which is about forty feet high, grows long and three or four inches wide, while on the upper they vary 

in the town of Bluffton close to a tree of Quereus laurifoUa, the two, from two to five inches in length and from one to two inches in 

seen from a little distance, appearing identical in form and general width. The fruit is sessile or short-stalked, with a subglobose nut 

appearance, in the color of their foliage, and in their smooth dark three quarters of an inch long and inclosed for about a quarter 

bark. The leaves are lanceolate to ovate or oblong-obovate ; on the of its length in a thin cup-shaped cup covered by ovate acute or 

upper branches they are narrow and entire or slightly lobed, or some- truncate scales coated with pale pubescence. In the winter-buds, 

times pinnatifid, and on the lower branches are broader and usually although rather smaller and more glabrous, this tree resembles 

furnished with one or rarely with two pairs of wide-spreading some- Quereus Catesbcei, but the thin cup-shaped cups indicate a cross with 

times falcate acute entire lobes ; or some leaves are broadly obovate, some other species, probably Quereus laurifolia, which it also resem- 

undulate, and fchree-lobed at the ends ; when they unfold they are bles in the leaves on its upper branches. 



pubescent below and fulvous-glandular but soon glabrate above ; 



Quereus Eseuli divisura foliis amplioribus aeuleatis, i. 23, t. 23 



and at maturity they are conspicuously reticulate- venulose, dark (not Plukenet). 



green and lustrous on the upper surface, and yellow and orange- 



2 The Turkey Oak is also called Scrub Oak, Black Jack, and 



color on the under surface, which is glabrous or slightly puberu- Fork-leaved Black Jack, 
lous. On the lower branches they are sometimes six or seven inches 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXVII. Quercus CATESBiEi 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A cup, natural 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size 



Plate CCCCXVIIL Quercus Catesb^i x nigra (Quercus sinuata) 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. End of a sterile branch, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXIX. Quercus Catesb^i x laurifolta. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural 

2. A sterile branch with narrow acutely lobed leaves. 



Q 



the lower branches. 



4. A lanceolate entire leaf like the leaf of Qiterctts laurifollay 
from the upper part of the tree. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXVII 




C, £', F'cucoTv del. 




zne- j-c 



OUERCUS CATESB^I.Michx. 



A,Iiiocreian dzrex^f- 



Imp. JT Tanezcr, Paris. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXVIII 




C. H. FcL3X>rt deL. 



Himela^ sc 



QUERCUS CATESB^I X NIGRA 

( QUERCUS SINUATA , Walt.) 



A.Ilu?creua> direcc.^ 



Imp. c/ Taneur ^ Paris 



Silva of North America.. 



Tab. CCCCXIX. 




C,£,J^a£C07z. del^. 




SC'. 



gUERCUS CATESB^I X LAURIFOLIA. 



A.Riocreua> direa>. 



Imp. J, Ta;rt&ur^ J^aris 



CUPULIFEE.^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH A3IERICA, 



147 



QUEROUS DIGITATA. 



Spanish Oak. 



Leaves oblong or obovate, 3 to 5-lobe(i, the lobes usually elongated and falcate, ful- 
i or pale-pubescent on the lower surface. 



Quercus digitata, Sudworth, Garden and Forest^ v. 98 
(1892) ; Bep. Sec. Agric. U. S. 1892, 328. — Coulter, 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 417 (3Ian. PL W. Texas). 

Quercus nigra digitata, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 121 
(1785). 

? Quercus rubra montana, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 123 
(1785). 

Quercus cuneata, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 78, t. 5, f. 
14 (1787). — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 64. — Lauche, 

Deutsche Dendr. 296. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 

Ill, f. 52, 53. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 132. 
Quercus rubra, ^ Hispanica, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 

Uniti, ii. 347 (excl. sy n.) (1790) . 
Quercus rubra, /?, Abbot & Smith, Insects of Georgia, i. 

27, t. 14 (1797). 



Liebmann Chenes Am. Trop. t. A, t. 22, f . 3. — Wesmael, 
Bull. Fed. Hort. Sac. Belg. 1869, 342. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 150. — Houba, Chenes 
Am. en Belgique, 243, t.— Watson & Coulter, Grai/s 



Man 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam 
Michaux, Hist. Chenes j 



14, t. 



Poiret, 



26 (1801). — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 443 ; Berl. 

Baumz. ed. 2, 341. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. — Bosc, Mem. 

Inst. Nat. Sci. Phys. Math. viii. 

Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 220. — Aiton, 

291. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 628. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 

Sprengel, Syst. iii. 862. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. 

alongata, WiUdenow, Muehlenberq & Willdenow 



Hort. Kew 



156. 



Neue Schrift. Gesell. Nat 

Snec. iv. T)t. i. 444. 



Quercus rubra, Abbot & Smith, Insects of Georgia, i. 99, Quercus falcata, (B triloba, NuttaU, Gen. ii. 214 (1818). 



t. 50 (not Linnaeus) (1797). 

Quercus falcata, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 16, t. 28 
(1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 199. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 221. — Michaux f. Hist. 
Arb. Am. ii. 104, t. 21. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 631. 
NuttaU, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau Duhamel, vii. 169. 
Elliott, Sk. ii. 604. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 269. 



EUiott, Sk. ii. 604. — A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi, pt. ii. 
59. — Wesmael, Bidl. Fed. Hort. Soc. Belg. 1869, 343. 
Quercus falcata, var, b pagodsefolia, Elliott, Sk. ii. 605 



(1824). 
39. 



Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii 



Quercus discolor, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 163 (not Alton) 
(1842). 



Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 39. — Chap- Quercus falcata, /5 Ludoviciana, A. de CandoUe, Prodr, 



man 



A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 58. 

Medd. fra nat. For. Kjbbenh. 1866, 'i 



xvi. pt. ii. 59 (1864). 



A tree, usually seventy or eighty feet tall, with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter and 
stout spreading branches which form a broad round-topped open head, but occasionally growing to a 
height of a hundred feet, with a trunk five feet in diameter. The bark of the trunk is from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and is dark brown tinged with red or sometimes pale, and is 
divided by shallow fissures into broad ridges covered with thin rather closely appressed scales. The 
branchlets are stout, marked with many minute lenticels, and coated at first, as are the young leaves, 
with a thick rusty or orange-colored clammy tomentum of articulate hairs ; during their first winter 
they are dark red or reddish brown, and pubescent or rarely glabrous or nearly so, and in their second 
year grow dark reddish brown or ashy gray. The winter-buds are ovoid or oval, acute, from an eighth 



to a quarter of an inch long, and 



are covered by bright chestnut-brown puberulous or pilose scales 
often ciliate with short pale hairs. The leaves are convolute in the bud, oblong or obovate in outline, 
and generally narrowed and wedge-shaped or abruptly wedge-shaped, or rounded and sHghtly narrowed 
at the base ; in one form they are divided by deep wide obHque sinuses rounded at the bottom into 
three, five, or seven bristle-pointed lobes ; the terminal lobe is then usually much elongated, often scythe- 
shaped, acute and entire or repand-dentate near the apex, with one or two large bristle-pointed teeth, 
and the lateral lobes are oblique or spreading and often falcate, gradually narrowed from a broad base 



148 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



and acute and entire, or in five or seven-lobed leaves, those of the middle or upper pairs, which are gener- 
ally the largest, are oblique and lobulate at the apex ; in another form the leaves are oblong-obovate 
and divided at the broad apex by wide or narrow sinuses broad and rounded at the bottom into three 
rounded or acute entire or dentate lobes, and are entire and gradually narrowed below into an acute or 
rounded base ; the leaves of the two forms usually occur on separate trees, although sometimes on the 



same branch ; when they first 



unfold they hang closely appressed against 



the stem, and when fully 



grown they are thin and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface and coated below with soft 
close pale or rusty pubescence ; those of the first form are six or seven 



inches long and 



fo 



ur or 



five 



inches in length and from two to five 



length, and in the autumn before falHng turn 



inches wide, and those of the second vary from three to eight 
inches in width ; they are obscurely reticulate-venulose, with stout tomentose midribs, and prunary veins 
which are stout when running to the points of the lobes or thinner in the entire portions of the leaf, 
and are then arcuate or forked within the revolute and slightly thickened margins j the leaves are borne 

on slender flattened petioles from one to two inches in 
brown, dull orange-color, or sometimes bright clear yellow. The stipules are oblong-obovate to hnear- 
lanceolate, brown and scarious, ciliate on the margins, especially toward the apex, and caducous. The 
flowers, which appear from March in the south to May at the north, open with the unfolding of the 
leaves, the staminate borne in the axils of acute hairy caducous bracts in tomentose aments from three to 
five inches in length, and the pistillate on stout tomentose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower 
is thin and scarious, pubescent on the outer surface, and divided into four or five ovate rounded 
segments shorter than the stamens, which are four or five in number, with oblong emarginate glabrous 
yeUow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are coated with rusty tomentum and are 
as long as the acute calyx-lobes or rather shorter ; the stigmas are 



elongated and 



dark red. The fruit 



ripens in the autumn of the second year and is sessile or borne on a short stout peduncle rarely half an 
inch in length ; the nut is subglobose to ellipsoidal, full and rounded at the apex, truncate and rounded 
at the base, about half an inch long, and rather light orange-brown ; the cup, which embraces only the 
base or sometimes a third of the nut, is thin and saucer-shaped, and flat on the bottom or often grad- 
ually narrowed from a stalk-like base, or it is deeper and turbinate ; it is bright reddish brown and 
puberulous on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate-oblong reddish scales, acute or rounded at 
the apex and covered, except on their margins, with pale pubescence. 

The Spanish Oak is distributed from southern New Jersey southward to central Florida, through 
the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, and through Arkansas and southwestern Mis- 
souri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and Indiana. Comparatively rare in the 
north Atlantic states, where it is found only in the neighborhood of the coast, in the south Atlantic and 
Gulf states it is one of the commonest inhabitants of the forests which cover the dry hiUs between the 
coast plain and the Appalachian mountains. Much less abundant in the maritime Pine belt of the south, 
it there produces, more generally than in other parts of the country, the broad obovate three-lobed 

and sandy barrens, in the southern 



Although usually an inhabitant of dry gravelly uplands 



leaves. 

states from the valley of the Appalachicola River in western Florida to Arkansas, Illinois, and Indiana, 
the Spanish Oak occasionally inhabits the rich and often inundated bottom-lands of streams, upon 
which it grows to its largest size with the Sweet Gum, the Pecan, the Swamp White Oaks, the Texas 



Oak, the Pin Oak, and the western Shellbark Hickory 



The wood of the upland 



is hard and 



fc> 



but 



durable 



with the ground 



with 



known 



^ The swamp form of Quercus digitata is peculiar in its pale scaly more loosely imbric 
bark, large buds, and oblong leaves deeply divided into from three trees. Little is yet 
to seven acute spreading entire or lobulate lobes. The leaves are wood produced by this swamp tree, but by lumbermen it is consid- 

3 White Oak (Ridgway, Proc. 
Garden and Forest, viii. 101, 



from six to nine inches long and from four to six inches wide, and ered 

in the autumn turn bright clear yellow before falling. The cups U. S. 

of the fruit are frequently flat on the bottom, although turbinate f. 16). 
cups also often occur on the same branch ; the scales are rather 



Nat. Mus. V. 80 : xvii 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



M9 



coarse-grained, and liable to check badly in drying ; it is light red, with thick lighter colored sapwood, 
and contains remote conspicuous medullary rays and bands of several rows of large open ducts marking 
the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6928, a cubic foot 
weighing 43.17 pounds. It is sometimes used in construction and largely as fuel. The bark is rich in 
tannin and is employed with that of other species in tanning leather,* and sometimes medicinally in 
domestic practice in the form of decoctions.^ 

The Spanish Oak was mentioned by Kalm ' in the account of his travels in North America during 
the middle of the last century, and appears to have been first described in the second edition of Clayton's 
Flora Virginica, published in 1762.* A year later, according to Aiton,^ it was introduced into English 
plantations. 

The Spanish Oak is one of the most distinct of the Black Oaks of North America which bear lobed 
leaves, and, in spite of the various forms its leaves assume, it may always be easily recognized by their 
drooping habit and the pecuHar rusty covering of their lower surface. Their ample size, curious forms, 
and distinct coloring make the Spanish Oak a conspicuous and a most desirable ornamental tree, and it 
is often used to shade houses and village streets in the upper districts of the south Atlantic and Gulf 
states, where noble old specimens may often be seen. 



1 Trimble, The Tannins, ii. 37, f . 23. 



* Quercus rubra sen Hispanica hie dicta, foliis amplis varie profun- 



2 Lindley, Fl, Med. 292. — Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields deque incisis. Cortex ad corium depsendum utilissimus, 149. 



and Forests, 256. 

8 Travels, English ed. i. 66. 



^ Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 291 {Quercus elongata). — Loudon, ^r J. 
Brit. iii. 1882, f. 1750, 1761. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXX. Quercus digitata 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A winter branclilet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXI. Quekcus digitata. 

1. A leafj natural size- 

2. A branch, natural size. 

3. A leaf, natural size. 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tal). CCCCXX. 




C H. Faau>rv dsL. 




uiC' so. 



A.Hio 



dir. 



6 



gUERCUS DIGITATA,Sudw. 



/mp. <7. Tan&LLT^ J^aris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXX! 



r^ 



1 t 



J _^ 




---•- 



I I 



' ■ " 



r.- ' 



C. ^.J^curoTv del. 



■ • 



IfimeZi/ sc. 



1^ 



gUERCUS DIGITATA, Sudw. 



. 1 



' '> _ 



' ^ 



-■- ■ 



^.Riocreiuc direca. 



r 

Imp. Ll.Taneur^ Faris. 



f. 



»i. 



. L ' 



T 



' H 



(J 



-,- 



-, .». 



L >. > 



''1 



* .- 



I ^ 



* 4- 



V. 



I- r 






CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



151 



QUERCUS PALUSTRIS. 



Pin Oak. Swamp Spanish Oak. 



Leaves obovate, sinuate-lobed by deep wide sinuses, the spreading lobes acute or 



obtuse, usually coarsely repand-dentate 



Quercus palustris, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 253 (1770). 
Du Roi, Ohs. 35 ; Harbk. Baumz, ii. 268, t. 5, f. 4. — 
Moench, Bdume Weiss. 95. — Wangenheim, Nordam. 
Holz. 76, t. 5, f. 10. — Borkhausen, Handh. Forsthot. i. 

Michaux, Hist. CMnes Am. No. 19, t. 33, 34; 



Medd. frcb nat. For. Kjohenh. 1866, 31, 72, £• 4 ; Lieb- 
mann Chenes Am. Trop. t. A. — Wesmael, Bull. Fed. 



Hoi 



706. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. Ii. 71. 

Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendr. 299. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOtli Census 



Mass 



FL Bor.'Am. ii. 200. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 446; 
Emim. 976 ; Berl. Baiimz. ed. 2, 343. — Persoon, Syn. 
ii. 569. — Bosc, Mem. Inst. Nat. Sci. Phys. Math. viii. pt. 
i. 349. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 511. — Poiret, Lam. 
Diet. Suppl. ii. 222. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 123, t. 



U. S. ix. 151. — W 



187. 



Houba, CMnes Am. en Belgiqite^ 169, t. 



Wat- 



son & Coulter, &i'ay's Man. ed. 6,478. — Mayr, Wald. 
Nordam. 148, t. 2. — Dippel, Handb. Lanbholzk. ii. 



115. 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 132. 



25. 



Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 292. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Quercus rubra dissecta, Lamarck, Diet. i. 720 (1783). 



Sept. ii. 631. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau Duhamel^ 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 423. 



vii. 172. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 158. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. Quercus rubra ramosissima, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 122 



863. 



Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1887, f. 1758-1761, t. 



(1785). 



Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift 



Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 166. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 190, t. 



GeselL Nat. Fr. Berlin^ iii. 398. 



107. 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 311. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. Quercus palustris, {3 cucuUata, Wesmael, Btill. Fed. Soc 



3, 269. — Brendel, Trans. III. Agric. Soc. iii. 631, 1. 10. 



Hort. Belg. 1869, 346. 



* • 



A. de Candolle, Prodr, xvi. pt. ii. 60. — Orsted, Vidensk. 



A tree, usually seventy or eighty feet in heiglit^^ with a trunk two or three feet in diameter^ often 
clothed with small tough drooping branches^ or^ when crowded in the forest by other trees^ sometimes 
one hundred and twenty feet high, with a clean trunk sixty or seventy feet tall and four or five feet 
in diameter near the ground. Until it is forty or fifty years old the slender elongated branches of the 
Pin Oak, which are beset with short ridged spur-like lateral branchlets a few inches in length, form a 
broad symmetrical pyramidal head, the lowest branches being generally shorter than those above them 
on the tree ; as it reaches middle Hfe the branches become rigid and more pendulous and are often 
covered with the small drooping branchlets characteristic of this tree, while the narrow head grows open 

in outline. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a 
quarter in thickness, and is light gray-brown, generally smooth and covered with small closely appressed 
scales ; that of young trunks and the branches is smooth, lustrous, and light brown, frequently tinged 
with green. The branchlets are slender, very tough, and marked with minute scattered pale lenticels ; 
they are dark red at first and covered with short pale silvery tomentum, but soon become green and 



d irregular 



glabrous, and in their first winter are lustrous, dark reddish brown 



& 



& 



wi 



t> 



darke 



r m 



year, wh 



en they are often tinged with olive-green and ultimately are dark gray-b 



their second 

The winter-buds are ovate, gradually narrowed and acute at the apex, about an eighth of an inch long, 

scales often puberulous toward the 



d covered by numerous closely imbricated light chestnut-brown scales 

in and sometimes ciliate margins. The leaves are convolute in the bud, obovate in outline, narrowed 

d wedge-shaped or broad and truncate at the base, and seven or often five-lobed by usually wide 



d deep but occasionally narrow shallow sinuses rounded at the bottom 



terminal lobe 



ovate, 



acute, three-toothed toward the apex or entire, and the lateral lobes are spreading or oblique, sometimes 
falcate, especially the lowest pair, gradually tapering and acute at the dentate apex, or obovate and 
broad at the apex, particularly those of the upper or of the middle pairs which are longer than the others 



152 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



and dentate-lobed, the lobes and teeth of the leaf terminating in long slender bristles ; when they 
unfold they are Hght bronze-green stained with red on the margins, lustrous and puberulous on the 
upper surface, and coated on the lower and on the petioles with pale scurfy pubescence, and at maturity 
they are thin and firm, dark green and very lustrous above, pale below and furnished with large tufts 
of pale hairs in the axils of the primary veins, from four to six inches long and from two to four inches 
wide, with stout midribs broad and rounded on the upper side, conspicuous primary veins running 
obliquely to the points of the lobes, and thin secondary veins arcuate and united within the slightly 
thickened and revolute margins and connected by obscure reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender 
nearly terete yellow petioles from half an inch to two inches in length, and late in the autumn turn 
gi-adually to a beautiful deep scarlet color over the entire or over only a part of their surface. The 
stipules, which are red and scarious but turn brown before falling, are tipped with clusters of soft white 
hairs, and are about half an inch in length. The flowers appear in May when the leaves are about a 



third grown, the staminate borne in hairy aments from two to three inches long and the pistillate on 
short tomentose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is puberulous and divided into four or 
five oblong rounded segments more or less laciniately cut on the margins and shorter than the stamens, 
which are four or five in number, with oblong slightly emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The 
involucral scales of the pistillate flower are broadly ovate, tomentose, and shorter than the acuminate 
calyx-lobes ; the stigmas are bright red and recurved. The fruit ripens in the autumn of the second 
season and is sessile or short-stalked and solitary or often clustered ; the nut is nearly hemispherical, 
about half an inch in length and somewhat less in breadth, and light brown and often striate, with a 
thin shell coated on the inner surface with pale ferrugineous tomentum ; the cup, which embraces only 
the very base of the nut, is thin and shaflow, saucer-shaped, dark red-brown and puberulous within, and 
covered by closely appressed ovate light reddish brown thin puberulous scales darkest along the margins 

and rounded at the ends. 

Quercus jxdustris inhabits the borders of swamps, and river-bottoms where the surface is frequently 
overflowed, growing in deep moist rich soil, and is distributed from the valley of the Connecticut River, 
where, near Amherst, Massachusetts, it finds its eastern home,^ to southern Missouri, and southward to 
the valley of the lower Potomac River in Virginia, and to central Kentucky, northern Arkansas, and the 
eastern borders of the Indian Territory. Rare and of small size in New England, and absent from the 
elevated regions of the interior, it is exceedingly common on the coast plain south of the Hudson River 
and in the basin of the lower Ohio River, where it grows to its largest size in the forests which cover 
the broad bottom-lands of the principal streams.^ 

The wood of Quercus j^cdustris is heavy, hard, strong, and coarse-grained, but liable to check and 
warp in drying j it is light brown, with thin rather dark colored sap wood, and contains numerous broad 
conspicuous medullary rays and broad bands of several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of 
annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6938, a cubic foot weighing 43.24 
pounds. It is sometimes used in construction and for shingles and clapboards in the regions where this 
tree is common. 

First described from a specimen cultivated in Germany, Quercus 2^ctlustris has been for more than 
a century an inhabitant of the parks of Europe, where it often grows vigorously and attains a large size. 
Although less commonly planted in its native land, its symmetrical habit and the beauty of its summer 
and autumn foliage make it always a distinct and desirable ornamental tree, and no other Oak is better 
suited to shade the highways or adorn the parks of the northern states. 

The Pin Oak, which owes its name to the small branches which are inserted on the limbs and trunk, 
is easily transplanted ; it grows rapidly and is hardy beyond the limits of its native home. 



3 



Stone, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 57. beautiful rows of this tree in the streets of the town of Flushing, 



Mus 



on Long Island, New York. 



2 The value of the Pin Oak for street-planting is shown by the 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXXIL Quercus palustris. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, the involucre removed, 

enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistillate flower before 

fecundation, enlarged. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXIIL Quercus palustris. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cup, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXXII. 




C, £. FojccorL deL . 



HimeZy sc. 



QUERCUS PALUSTRIS.Muench. 



A^Hiocreua:, direcc-r' 



Imp. J". ToTieur, Farts. 



Silva of North ATnericcL 



Tab. CCCCXXIII 




2 




3 





CE.Fcujcorv del 



Himeiy so. 



QUERCUS PALUSTRIS. MuencK. 



A^IUocreus:^ direcc^. 



Trnp. J. Taiteur, Paris 



CUPUHFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



155 



QUEROUS NANA. 



Bear Oak. Scrub Oak. 



Leaves obovate, mostl} 



tely 5-lobed, coated on the lower surface 



pubes 



ith pale 



Quercus nana, Sargent, Garden and Forest, viii. 93 

(1895). 
Quercus rubra nana, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 123 (1785). 

Muehlenberg & Willdenow, Neue Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. 

Berlin, iii. 401. 

Quercus ilicifolia, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 79, t. 6, f. 



17 (1787). — Willde 
i. 447 ; Eniini. 977. 



Handh 



1504. 



228. 



— Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 

-NuttaU, Gen. ii. 215.— Elliott, Sk. ii. 605. 
Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Ahbild. Holz. 67, t. 54. 
Spreiigel, Sijst. iii. 863. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 190. — 
Emerson, Trees Mass. 150, 1. 11 ; ed. 2, 170, t. — Dietrich, 
Syn. V. 311. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 268. — Curtis, 



Vide7isk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjdhenh. 186< 
mann Chenes Am. Troji. t. D. — Wesmael 



H07 



66. 



Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii 



Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 297, f. 121. — W 



Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 184. — Houba, Chenes Am. 
en Belgique, 262, t. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 
ed. 6, 478. — Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzh. ii. 113. 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 132. 

uercus Banisteri, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 15, 



t. 27 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 199. 



Arb. ii. 510. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 222. 



Hist. 
Mi- 



Sept, ii. 



Hist. 

631. 



Fl. 



Nouveau Duhamel, vii 



Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 158. 



Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 41. — Chapman, Fl. Quercus discolor, y Banisteri, Spaeh, Hist. V'eg. xi. 164 



423. 



A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 59. — Orsted, 



(1842). 



An intricately branched shrub, with numerous contorted stems from three to ten feet tall ; or 
occasionally rising with a single trunk five or six inches in diameter to the height of eighteen or twenty 
feet and forming a small tree with a round-topped spreading head.^ The bark of the trunk is thin, 
smooth, dark brown, and covered with small closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and 
marked with small pale or dark raised lenticels ; when they first appear they are dark green, more or 



less tinged with red, and coated with hoary pubescence, and during theh first winter are red-brown 



or 



ashy gray and pubescent or puberulous, growing glabrous and darker in their second year and ultimately 
dark brown or nearly black. The winter-buds are ovate, obtuse, about an eighth of an inch long, and 
covered by dark chestnut-brown rather loosely imbricated glabrous or pilose scales. The leaves are 
convolute in the bud, obovate or rarely oblong in outline, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped at the 
base, and from three to seven but mostly five-lobed, with acute bristle-tipped lobes and wide shallow 
sinuses ; the terminal lobe is ovate, elongated, and rounded and three-toothed or acute and dentate or 
entire at the apex ; the lateral lobes are spreading, mostly triangular and acute, or the upper pair, 
which are generally much larger than the others, are broad, oblique, and repand-lobidate at the apex ; 
or the leaves are broad at the apex and slightly three-lobed and entire below, or deeply three-lobed 
above and sinuate below, or occasional leaves are oblong or oblong-obovate and entire with undulate 
margins ; when they unfold they are dull red and puberulous or pubescent on the upper surface and 
coated on the lower and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum ; when half gi'own they are light 
yellow-green, lustrous, slightly pubescent above and tomentose below, with conspicuous tufts of silvery 
white bail's in the axils of the veins ; and at maturity they are thick and firm, dark green and lustrous 
above, and covered below with pale or silvery white pubescence, from two to five inches long and from 



^ Davis, Torrey Bot. Club, xix. 303. 



•cus 



central Pennsylvania, at the eastern base of the Alleghany Mouu- 
taius, (See iv. 28.) 



the dry ridges of the so-called " barrens " in Huntuigdon County in 



156 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFERiE. 



an inch and a half to three inches and a half wide^ with stout yellow midribs, slender primary veins 
rmming obliquely to the points of the lobes, and obscure secondary veins arcuate and united near the 
margins and connected by conspicuous primary reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender nearly 
terete glabrous or pubescent petioles from an inch to an inch and a half in length, and in the autumn 
turn dull scarlet or yellow before falhng. The stipules are linear-ob ovate to linear-lanceolate, brown 
and scarious, pubescent on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, and caducous. The flowers appear 
in April and May when the leaves are about half grown 3 the staminate in the axils of linear-lanceolate 
bright red caducous bracts furnished at the ends with tufts of long pale hairs are borne on hairy- 
stemmed aments four or five inches in length and often persistent until midsummer 3 the pistillate are 
raised on stout tomentose peduncles. The bud of the staminate flower is bright red and coated with 
matted soft white hairs ^ the calyx after opening is red or green tinged with red, and irregularly divided 
into from three to five ovate rounded lobes shorter than the stamens ; these are from three to five in 
number, with oblong sometimes apiculate anthers at first bright red but gradually becoming yellow. 



The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are ovate, about as long as the 
covered with tomentum, and the stigmas are darker red. 



acute calyx-lobes, red and 
The acorns, which are produced in great 
profusion and ripen during the autumn of the second season, are sessile or borne on stout peduncles 
sometimes half an inch long, and are in pairs or rarely solitary ; the nut is ovoid, broad, flat or rounded 
at the base, gradually narrowed and acute or rounded at the apex, about half an inch in length, and 
somewhat less in breadth, light brown, lustrous and usually faintly striate, with a thin shell lined with 
a thick coat of pale tomentum and light yellow astringent cotyledons ; the cup, which embraces about 
half the nut, is cup-shaped or saucer-shaped and often abruptly enlarged above the stalk-like base ; it is 
thick, light reddish brown and puberulous within, and covered by thin ovate closely imbricated reddish 
brown puberulous scales darker on the margins and acute or truncate at the apex, the minute free tips 
of the upper scales forming a fringe-like border to the cup.^ 

Querciis nana inhabits dry sandy barrens and rocky hillsides, and is distributed from the island 
of Mt. Desert, off the coast of Maine,^ southward through eastern and southern New England, where it 

it occurs on the shores of Lake George ^ and in the valley of the Hudson River in New 
York, and is abundant in the Pine barrens of New Jersey and in eastern Pennsylvania, and ranges 
along the Alleghany Mountains to southwestern Virginia.'* 

Discovered in Virginia by the English missionary John Banister,^ Qiierctis nana was included in 
his catalogue of American plants published by Ray in 1688,^ and was first described by Clayton in 
Flora VirginicaJ 



IS common 



the 



1 A tree, forty feet high, found by Dr. J. W. Robbins in 1855 in ance of being a hybrid between Quercus nana and Quercus velutina. 

a wood half a mile southwest of Whitinsville in IS^orthbridge, The leaves are oblong, sinuate-lobed with five acute nearly trian- 

Worcester County, Massachusetts, is believed to have been a hybrid gular bristle-pointed lobes which are entire or furnished with oeca- 

between Quercus nana and Quercus coccinea {Quercus coccinea X sional small teeth, from five to seven inches long and from three to 

iliclfoliay Gray, Man. ed. .5, 454. — Quercus ilicifolia X coccineay four inches wide, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface and 

Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 542). The leaves are ob- brown and pubescent on the lower. The winter-buds are ovate, 

long or oblong-obovate, sinuate-lobed with five acute bristle-pointed pilose with pale hairs, and intermediate in size between those of 

lobes, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, coated below with rusty the supposed parents. This plant is a shrub, with three or four 

pubescence, four or five inches in length and about three and a stems rising to a height of twelve feet. 

2 Rand & Eedfield, FL ML Desert Island, 145. 



^ Teste Herb. Engelmann, 



half inches in breadth. The nut is oval, narrowed and rounded at 
the apex, from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and in- 
closed to the middle in the turbinate cup, which is covered by thin ^ In 1894 Quercus nana was found by Mr. J. K. Small on King 
closely imbricated light chestnut-brown scales. The pubescence and Crowder's Mountains on the northern boundary of North Car- 
which clothes the branchlets during the first season and the lower olina, the most southern recorded stations for this species, which 
surface of the leaves resembles that of Quercus nana» The leaves, apparently does not reach central New York, nor cross the AUe- 
as Dr. Engelmann pointed out, are more like those of Quercus rubra ghany Mountains into the Mississippi Basin, 



than of Quercus coccinea in shape. The fruit, although the cups 
are a little deeper, is otherwise hardly distinguishable from that of 
some forms of Quercus nana. ' 

At Ocean Grove, New Jersey, in 1892, Mr. J, K. Hayward 189. 
found in a small wood a plant without fruit which has the appear- 



5 See i. 6. 

® Quercus pumilaj Hist, PL ii. 1927- 



Quercus pumila hipedalis, foUis ohlongis sinuatis subtus tomentosis, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



Plate CCCCXXIV. Quercus nana, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural si 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size- 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

12. An axillary winter-bud, enlarged 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCCXXIV. 




7 



5 






C.E.Facu>rL del 



QUERCUS NANA,Sarg. 



Zar>eru£aZ sc. 



A.Jlu?creua> direa:^. 



Imp, cZ Tojzeur , Paris. 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



159 



QUERCUS GEORGIANA. 



lobes 



Leaves glabrous, oval or obovate, variously sinuately lobed with usually acute entii 



M 



Acad. iii. 395. — "Wenzig 



vii. 406 (1849). — Chapman, Fl. 422. — A. de Candolle, 186. — Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk. ii. 116, f. 55. 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 60. — Orsted, Vidensh. Medd. fra nat. Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 132. 

For. Kjohenh. 1866, 72. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 



A bush, with stems usually six or eight feet tall spreading into broad thickets ; or rarely of arbo- 
rescent habit and thirty feet in height, with a trunk twelve or fourteen inches in diameter. The bark of 
the trunk is thin, light brown, and covered with small appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and 
marked with minute pale lenticels ; glabrous and dark green more or less deeply tinged with red when 
they appear, in their first winter they are red and lustrous, and grow darker in their second season, and 
ultimately dark brown or gray. The winter-buds are ovate, acute or obtuse, about an eighth of an inch 
long, and covered by light chestnut-brown scales thin and scarious on the margins. The leaves are 
convolute in the bud, oval or obovate in outHne, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, and 
divided, generally about half way to the midribs, by wide or narrow obHque sinuses, which are rounded 
at the bottom, into from three to seven bristle-tipped lobes ; the terminal lobe is ovate, acute or rounded, 
and entire or frequently furnished with one or two small lateral teeth ; the lateral lobes are oblique or 
spreading, mostly triangular, acute and entire, or those of the upper or of the middle pair which are 
usually much larger than the others are often broad and repand-lobulate at the oblique endsj sometimes 
the leaves are slightly three-lobed at the broad apex and gradually narrowed and entire below, or are 
equally three-lobed with broad or narrow spreading lateral lobes, or occasionally they are pinnatifid, and 
entire and often undulate ; when they unfold they are bright green tinged with red, ciliate on the margins 
and coated on the midribs, veins, and petioles with loose pale stellate pubescence ; and at maturity they 
are thin, bright green and lustrous above, and paler below and glabrous or furnished with tufts of villous 
hairs in the axils of the primary veins; usually about two and a half inches long and an inch and a haH 
wide, they vary from one to four inches in length and from half an inch to three and a half inches in 
width, with slender yeUow midribs and primary veins rounded on the upper side, obscure secondary 
veins arcuate and united near the thin firm margins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne 
on slender slightly grooved petioles from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and turn dull 
orange and scarlet in the autumn before faUing. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, about half an inch 
long, brown and scarious, and caducous. The flowers appear in April when the leaves are about half 
grown, the staminate borne in slender glabrous or pubescent aments two or three inches in length, and 
the pistillate on short glabrous slender peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is divided into 
four or five broadly ovate rounded segments rather shorter than the stamens, which are four or five in 
number with oblong slightly emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate 
flower are rather shorter than the acute calyx-lobes and are pubescent or puberulous ; the elongated 
stigmas are bright red. The fruit ripens in the autumn of the second season and is borne on a stout 
peduncle rarely more than a quarter of an inch in length ; the nut is eUipsoidal or subglobose, from one 
third to one half of an inch long, and light reddish brown and lustrous ; the cup, which incloses from 



one third to nearly one half of the nut, is cup-shaped, thick, Hght red-brown and lustrous on the inner 
surface, and covered by thin ovate bright hght red-brown truncate scales erose on the margins.^ 



[uercus 



xxii. 75, t. 233), who foimd 



Small (Quercus 



northern slope of Stone Mountain in January, 1894. 



160 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFEKiE. 



of 



Qiiercus Georgiana inliabits the sloiDes of Stone Mountain, an isolated granite rock with an altitud 



■ly 



hundred feet above the level of the sea, in De Kalb County in central Geor 



& 



few other 



between the Yell 



where it was discovered by Mr. H. W. Ravenel/ and on a 

and Oconee Rivers in the region immediately south and east of Stone Mountain.^ 

Introduced into the Arnold Arboretum in 1876, Querciis Georgiana has proved perfectly hardy 
eastern Massachusetts^ growing as a tall shrub, and flowering and ripening its fruit. 



1 Henry William Kavenel (1814-1887) was born in the Parish in which he was associated with Mr. M. C. Cooke, an English mycol- 

of St. John's, Berkeley, South Carolina, and was graduated from ogist, of which eight volumes devoted to the species of South Caro- 

the South Carolina College in 1832. After twenty years devoted lina, Georgia, and Texas were issued. His name is also preserved 

to planting in his native parish, Mr. Kavenel moved to Aiken, South by Ravenelia, a genus of the Uredinese, and by many species of 

Carolina, where the remainder of his life was passed. Born with Cryptogams. 

a fondness for natural history, he devoted himself to botany with No other American botanist, perhaps, has minutely studied so 

enthusiasm and success, exploring minutely in his youth the region many forms of the vegetable kingdom as Ravenel, and none has 

about St. John's, and later with equal care the vicinity of Aiken. been more respected or beloved. Ruined financially by the War of 

He critically studied flowering plants and Mosses, Lichens, Fungi, Secession and afflicted for many years by deafness, which almost 

and Algae; a large number of cryptogamous and a, few flowering deprived him of the sound of the human voice, he bore bis misfor- 

plants were discovered by him, and his knowledge of the crypto- tunes with cheerfulness and equanimity, and labored industriously 



gamic flora of the southern states was unsurpassed. Mr. Ravenel 



life to increase knowledge 



was at one time the agricultural editor of the Weekly Neios and (See Fai^low, Bot. Gazette, xii. 194.) 



Courier of Charleston, and at the time of his death was botanist to 



- For many years known only on Stone Mountain, in July, 1893, 



the Department of Agriculture of his native state. Although not Quercus Georgiana was found by Mr. John K. Small on Little Stone 



a voluminous writer, Mr. Ravenel was the author of a number of 



miles 



critical botanical papers, but he is best known by his Fungi Caroli- ite hill eighteen miles east of Stone Mountain, and on a second 
niani Exsiccati in five volumes, the first published series of named granite hill twelve miles east of the first, 
species of American Fungi. This was followed by a second series 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXXV- Quercus Georgiana 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower^ enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
6. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter brancblet, natural size. 



Silvau of North AmericaL. 



Tab. CCCCXXV, 




CE.FaccoTv deL. 



Rapine^ so. 



QUERCUS GEORGIANA.M.A.Curtas 



A,IiL 





t 



Imp. J". rcune^MT^ Paris. 



CUrULIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NOnTH AMERICA. 



161 



QUERCUS MARILANDICA 



Black Jack. Jack Oak. 



Leaves broadly obovate, dilated and often 3 
pubescent on the lower surface. 



ely 5-lobed at the apex, rusty 



Quercns Marilandica, Muenchliausen, Haitsv. v. 253 



(1770). 
f. 2. 



Dli Roi, Obs. 36 ; Harbk. Baumz. ii. 274, t. 6, 
Moench, Bdume Weiss, 94. — Muehlenberg & 



Willdenow, Neite Schrift. GeselL Nat. Fr. Berlin^ iii. 

399. 

Quercus nigra, /?, Linnseus, Spec. 996 (1753). — Wangen- 
heim, Nordam. Holz. 77, t. 5, f. 13. 

Quercus nigra, Wangenheim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 

133 (1781). —Evelyn, Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 70. — Schoepf, 



Castigli- 



Mat. Med. Amer. 137. — Walter, Fl. Car. 234. 
oni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 346. — Abbot & Smith, 
Insects of Georgia, ii. 115, t. 58, — Michaux, Slst. Chenes 
Am. No. 12, t. 22, 23 ; FL Bor.-Am. ii. 198. — Bork- 



Syn. 



V. 



310. 



Darlington, FL Gestr. ed. 3, 267. 



Brendel, Trans. IlL Agric. Soc, iii. 625, t. 7. — Curtis, 
Bejy. Geolog. Surv. N, Car. 1860, iii. 38. — Chapman, 
FL 421. — A. de CandoUe, Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 63. — Orsted, 
Vldensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjbbenh. 1866, 72 ; Lieb- 
mann Chenes Am. Trop. t. A. — Wesmael, BxdL Fed. 
SoG. Hort. Belg. 1869, 350. — Vasey, Am. Ent. and Bot. 
ii. 313, f. 198. — Koch, Bendr. ii. pt- ii. 61. — Ridgway, 
Froc. TJ. S. Nat. Miis. v. 82. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 



296. 



IX. 



150. 



g^ent. Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U 
Houba, Chenes Am. en Belglqiie, 251, t 



Watson & Coulter, Ch^ay's Man. ed. 6, 478. 
ercus nigra, B latifolia, Lamarck, Diet, i 



hausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 712. — Willdenow, /Spec. iv. Quercus nigra integrifolia, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 121 



pt. i. 442. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 408. — Persoon, 



(1785). 



Syn. ii. 569. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 509. — Du Quercus ferruginea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 92, t. 



Mont de Courset, Bot. Cidt. ed. 2, vi. 424. — Pursh, FL 



Am. Sept. ii. 629. — Nouveaic Duhamel, vii. 168. 



EUi- 



18 (1812) . — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 296. — Dippel, 
Handb. Laubholzk. ii. 110, f. 51. 



ott, Sk. ii. 600. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 862. — Spach, Hist. Quercus nigra, ^ quinqueloba, A. de Candolle, Prodr 



VSg. xi. 162. — Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 188 ; Bot. Mex. 
Bound. Surv. 206. — Audubon, Birds, t. 116. — Dietrich, 



xvi. pt. ii. 64 (1864). 



A tree^ twenty or thirty, or occasionally forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk rarely more than 
eighteen inches in diameter, and short stout spreading often contorted branches which form a narrow 
compact round-topped or sometimes open irregular head. The bark of the trunk is from an inch to an 
inch and a half in thickness, and is deeply divided into nearly square plates from one to three inches 
in length and covered with small closely appressed dark brown or almost black scales. 



scales. The branchlets 

are stout and marked with minute pale lenticels, and are coated at first with a thick pale tomentum of 
articulate and stellate hairs ; during the summer they are light red and scurfy pubescent, and durmg 
their first winter light or dark reddish brown, and glabrous or puberulous, gradually growing dark 
brown or ashy gray. The winter-buds are ovate or oval, prominently angled, acute, light reddish brown, 
covered with rusty brown hairs, and about a quarter of an inch long. The leaves are convolute in the 
bud, broadly obovate, and rounded or cordate at the narrowed base, and are usually three or rarely five- 
lobed at the broad and often abruptly dilated apex, with short or elongated, broad or narrow, rounded or 
acute, entire or dentate, bristle-tipped lobes ; or they are entire or dentate at the apex ; some individual 
leaves are oblong-obovate, undulate-lobed at the broad apex and entire below; others are almost equally 
three-lobed with elongated spreading lateral lobes broad and lobulate at the apex, and others are sinuate- 
lobed or deeply divided by shallow sinuses into broad oblique rounded lobes ; when they unfold they 
are coated with a pale clammy tomentum of articulate hah's and are bright pink on the upper surface ; 
when half grown they are thin, covered with pale pubescence, dark green above and rusty brown on the 
lower surface, which is furnished in the axils of the veins with large tufts of whitish hairs ; and at 
maturity they are thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark yellow-green and very lustrous above, and yellow, 



162 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPDLIFER^. 



orange-color, or brown and scurfy-pubescent below ; usually six or seven inches long and broad, they vary 
from three to eight inches in length and from two to eight inches in width, with thick broad orange- 
colored midribs much raised and rounded on the upper side, primary veins that are stout when they run 



the points of the lobes and slender and arcuate on the 



part of the leaf, thin 



dary veins 



d coarsely reticulate 



they are borne on stout yellow glabrous or pubescent petioles grooved 



on the upper side and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and turn brown or yellow 
the autumn before falling. The stipules are oblong-obovate or linear-lanceolate, coated, especially abc 
the middle, with long hairs, about three quarters of an inch in length, brown and scarious, and caduco 
The flowers appear from March in the south to May in the north, when the leaves are about half grov 



the staminate bo 



hairy aments from 



four inches 



the pistillate on short peduncl 



clothed with thick rusty tomentum. The calyx of the staminate flower is thin and scarious, tinged with 
red above the middle, coated on the outer surface with pale pubescence, and divided into four or five 
broad ovate rounded lobes ; the stamens are usually four in number, with oblong apiculate dark red 



glabrous anthe 



The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are coated with rusty tomentum and 



about as long as the acute calyx-lobes ; the short broad stigmas are reflexed and dark red. The acorns, 
which ripen in the autumn of the second year, are solitary or in pairs and are generally borne on stout 
peduncles rarely half an inch in length ; the nut is oblong, full and rounded at both ends, rather 
broader below than above the middle, about three quarters of an inch long, light yellow-brown and 
often striate, with a thin shell Hned with a coat of dense fulvous tomentum ; the cup, which incloses 
from one third to nearly two thirds of the nut, is thick, turbinate, light brown and puberulous on the 
inner surface, and covered by large reddish brown loosely imbricated scales often ciliate with long hairs, 
and coated with loose pale or rusty tomentum ; inserted on the top of the cup in several rows smaller 
scales stand erect and form a thick rim around the inner surface, or occasionally are reflexed and cover 
the upper half of the inner surface of the cup. 

The Black Jack grows on dry sandy barrens or sometimes in the southwest on heavy clays, and is 
distributed from Forbell's Landing and Pine Island, Long Island, New York, through northern Ohio 
and Indiana to southeastern Nebraska,^ central Kansas ^ and the Indian Territory, and southward to 
the shores of Matanzas Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida, and to the valley of the Nueces River in Texas. 
Rare in the north, it is very abundant in the south, and west of the Mississippi River, forming on 
sterile soil in some parts of western Missouri and eastern Kansas, in the Indian Territory and central 
Texas, a great part of the forest-growth, and attaining its largest size in southern Arkansas and eastern 
Texas.^ 

The wood of Quercics Marilandica is heavy, hard, and strong, but checks badly in drying ; it is 
dark rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous medullary rays 
and broad bands of several rows of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7324, a cubic foot weighing 45.64 pounds. It is largely used 
as firewood and in the manufacture of charcoal, but has little value for other purposes. 

Qiierciis Marilandica appears to have been first described by Ray in the Mistoria Plantarumy 



^ Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric, 1894, 110. 

2 Mason, Eighth Bienn. Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 272. 



they are red and covered on the upper surface with pale stellate 
hairs, and are pale and tomentose on the lower, with large tufts of 



3 A group of small shrubby trees discovered in September, 1892, whitish hairs in the axils of the primary veins ; and when fully 

at Watchogue, Staten Island, New York, by Mr. William T. Davis grown they are about four inches long and from three to four 

and described by him as Quercus Brittoni (Bull Torrey BoL Club, inches broad, dark green and lustrous above and rusty brown and 

xix. 301) were believed by the author to be hybrids between Qwercus scurfy-pubescent below. The fruit I have not seen. From the 

Marilandica and Quercus nana which grow together at this place. pale color of their bark, these supposed hybrids are said by Mr. 

The leaves are broadly obovate, gradually narrowed to the wedge- Davis to present a lighter appearance than Quercus Marilandica, 

shaped base, sinuately lobed toward the broad apex with bristle- which they resemble in the general aspect of their leaves, 
tipped mostly entire or remotely dentate lobes ; when they unfold 



cupuLiFER^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



163 



published in 1704.^ According to Aiton/ it was cultivated by Philip Miller in the Physic Garden 
at Chelsea, near London, in 1739. 

The Black Jack is one of the most distinct Oaks of North America. Its presence indicates sterile 
soil, but it is often handsome in habit, and its large lustrous and peculiarly shaped lea\'es are always 
beautiful. 



^ Quercus (forte) Marilandica folio trijido, ad Sassafras accedente, " Hort. Kew. iii. 357. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iii. 1890, f. 1764, 

iii. Dendr. 7. — Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. 19, t. 19. — Charlevoix, 1765. 
Histoire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 12™, iv. 334, f . 44, — Romans, 
Nat. Hist. Florida, 18. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXXVL Quercus Marilandica 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate inflorescence, enlai'ged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXVIL Quercus Marilandica 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cup, natural size. 

3. A cup, natural size. 

4. A leaf, natural size. 

5. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXXVI 




C. E. FacooTL deL. 



Hapine^ so. 



OUERCUS MARILANDICA.Muencli. 



ji.Biocr^icz> direa:>^ 



Imp. J, TarLBur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXXVII 




CE.FaccoTV del 



Hunely sc 



QUERCUS MARILANDICA.MuencK. 



A.Biocreuay direa> 



Imp. J, ToTieur, Paris, 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



165 



QUERCUS NIGRA. 



Water Oak. 



Leaves glabrous, usually oblong-obovate, entire or obscurely 3-lobed at the broad 
rounded apex. 



Quercus nigra, Linnseus, Spec. 995 (1753). — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 10. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 252. — Mueh- 
lenberg & Willdenow, Neiie Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Ber- 
lin, iii. 399. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 61 (in part). 

Quercus nigra, a aquatica, Lamarck, Diet i. 721 (1783) 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 346. 

Quercus nigra trifida, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 121 (1785). 

Quercus uliginosa, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 80, t. 6, 
f. 18 (1787). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 131. — Dippel, 
Handh. Lauhholzh. ii. 109, f. 50. 

Quercus aquatica, Walter, Fl. Car. 234 (1788). 



Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjohenh. 1866, 72 ; Lieh- 
mann Chenes Am. Trop. t. D. — Vasey, Am. Ent. and 
Bot ii. 312, f. 197. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th 

Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. 



Census U. S. ix. 152. 

ed. 6, 478. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 150, 1. 1, 2. — Coulter, 



Nat. Herh. ii. 417 (Man. PI. W. 



hemisphserica, Willdenow 



iv. pt 



1. 



443 



(1805). — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 220. — Pursh, i^'Z. 
Am. Sept. ii. 628. — NuttaU, Ge7i. ii. 214. 
? Quercus nana, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 443 (1805). 
Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 220. 
& Smith, Insects of Georgia^ ii. 117, t. 59. — Michaux, Quercus aquatica, a cuneata, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v, 



Abbot 



Hist 
198. 



henes Am. No. 11, t. 19, 20, 21 ; Fl Bor.-Am. ii. 290 (1813). 

Persoon, Syn. ii. 569. — Bosc, Mem. Inst. Nat. Quercus aquatica, y elongata, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 



Sei. Phys. Math. viii. pt. i. 346. — Desf ontaines, Hist 



290 (1813). 



Arh. 
424. 



u. 



509. 



Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. Quercus aquatica, 8 indivisa, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 



Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 220. — Michaux f . 



290 (1813). 



Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 89, t. 17. — -Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. Quercus aquatica, € attenuata, Aiton, Hort. Keiv. ed. 2, 



628. 
599. 



Nouveau DuJiamel^ vii. 168. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 
Sprengel, Syst. iii. 862. — Audubon, Birds^ t. 24. 



Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 161. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 310. 



Cur- 



V. 290 (1813). 

? Quercus hemisphserica, var. nana, NuttaU, Gen. ii. 214 
(1818). 



tis. Hep. Geolog. Sicrv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 37. — Chapman, Quercus aquatica, var. hybrida, Chapman, Fl. 421 



Fl. 421. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 67. — Orsted, 



(1860). 



A tree^ occasionally eighty feet in height^ with a trunk from two to three and a haK feet in diame- 
ter and numerous rather slender branches which^ spreading gradually from the stem^ form a symmetrical 
conical round-topped head, or often, on young trees, spreading nearly at right angles, form a flat and 
broader head. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, with a 
smooth light brown surface slightly tinged with red and covered with smooth closely appressed scales. 
The branchlets are slender, glabrous, marked with minute lenticels, Hght or dull red during their first 



winter and grayish brown in their second 



The winter-buds 



ly angled 



and covered by loosely imbricated dark red-brown puberulous scales slightly ciliate on the thin scarious 
margins. The leaves are convolute in the bud, usually oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped at the base, enlarged, sometimes abruptly, at the broad generally rounded or sometimes pointed 



entire or slightly or deeply three-lobed bristle-tipped apex 



to the 



ds, or on upper branches 



often linea 



they often taper from near the middle 
^eolate or linear-obovate and acute or 



rounded at the apex ^ on the same shoot they are frequently divided above the middle by deep wide 
sinuses rounded at the bottom into elongated lanceolate acute entire lobes, or are pinnatifid above the 
middle ; and on vigorous shoots they are often oblong-obovate, sinuately lobed with numerous acute 
dentate lobes, and four or 



five times as larg 



on fertile branches, or are linear-lanceolate 



or furnished with a few small rounded lateral lobes; when they unfold they 



thin, light green 



less tinged with red, covered with fine caducous pubescence, and furnished on the lower surfac 



166 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the veins ; and at maturity they are thin but firm 
in texture^ dull bluish green^ paler below than on the upper surface^ and glabrous or marked with 
axillary tufts of rusty hairs ; usually about two and a half inches long and an inch and a half wide^ 
they vary on fertile branches from an inch and a half to six inches in length and from one to two and a 
half inches in width^ with midribs raised and rounded on the upper side^ slender primary veins generally 
arcuate and united within the slightly revolute margins^ and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are 
borne on stout flattened grooved petioles from one eighth to nearly one half of an inch long and fall 
gradually during the winter. The flowers appear from February to April^ the staminate borne on red 
hairy-stemmed aments from two to three inches in length, and the pistiUate on short tomentose pedun- 
cles. The calyx of the staminate flower is thin and scarious, coated on the outer surface with short 
hairs, and deeply divided into four or five ovate rounded segments ; the stamens are four or five in 
number, with oblong emarginate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower 
are a little shorter than the acute calyx-lobes and are coated with rusty hairs j the stigmas are reflexed 
and deep red. The fruit ripens late in the autumn of the second season and is sessile or borne on a 
stout peduncle rarely more than an eighth of an inch long, and is usually solitary ; the nut is ovoid, 
broad and flat at the base, full and rounded at the apex, which is covered with rufous pubescence, light 
yellow-brown and often striate, from one third to two thirds of an inch in length and a little less in 
breadth, with a thick sheU lined with fulvous tomentum, and bright yellow cotyledons ; the cup is thin 
and flat on the bottom and is generally saucer-shaped, embracing only the very base of the nut, but 
occasionally is cup-shaped and incloses fully a third of the nut ; it is coated on the inner surface above 
the large yellow scar with pale silky tomentum, and is covered by ovate acute closely appressed light 
red-brown scales which are clothed with pale pubescence, excej)t on their darker colored margins, and are 
sometimes slightly thickened toward the base of the cup. 

Qiierctis nigra inhabits the high sandy borders of swamps and streams and the rich bottom-lands 
of rivers, and is distributed from southern Delaware southward to CajDe Malabar and the shores of 
Tampa Bay, Florida, ranging inland through the south Atlantic states to the base of the Appalachian 
mountains, and westward through the Gulf states to the valley of the Colorado River in Texas, through 
the eastern borders of the Indian Territory and through Arkansas to the vaUey of the Black River in 
southeastern Missouri, and to central Tennessee and Kentucky. 

The wood of Qiterciis nigra is heavy, hard, strong, and close-grained ; it is hght brown, with thick 
lighter colored sap wood, and contains thin conspicuous medullary rays and broad bands of open ducts 
marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7244, a 
cubic foot weighing 45.14 pounds. Except as fuel it has Httle value. 

Qiiercus nigra'^ was first described by Catesby in the Natural History of Carolina^ pubhshed in 
1731,^ although according to Aiton ^ it was cultivated by Mr. Thomas Fairchild * in England before 
1733. The ease with which it can be transplanted and the rapidity of its growth have made this Water 
Oak a favorite shade-tree in the southern states, and it is frequently planted in the streets and squares 
of towns and in pleasure-grounds. 



Quercus nigra is also sometimes called Duck Oak, Possum Oak, Le Chene d'eau, Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 



and Punk Oak. 



12^\ iv. 335, f . 47. 



2 Quercus folio non serrato, in summitate quasi triangulo, i. 20, t. ^ //^p,,^_ ^^^^ ^^ 2, v. 291. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1892, f. 1767, 

20. — Romans, Nat Hist Florida^ 18. 1768. 

Quercus foliis cuneiformibus obsolete trilobis, Clayton, FL Virgin. ** See v. 68. 
117. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXXVIIL Quercus nigra 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A leaf, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silya of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXXVIII. 





TV 




ZebrtuL sc. 



QUERCUS NIGRA, L. 



A,Iiiocreua> dzrea^. 



Imp. lZ Taneur, Paris, 



CUPULIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



169 



QUERCUS LAURIFOLIA 



Water Oak. 



Leaves oblong-oval or oblong-obovate, narrowed at both ends, dark green and 



lustrous. 



Quercus laurifolia, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 10, t. Quercus laurifolia, a acuta, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i 



17 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 197. — WiUdenow, Spec, iv 



428 (1805). —Alton, HoH. Kew. ed. 2, v. 288. 



pt. 



1. 



427. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 567. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Quercus laurifolia, /? obtusa, WiUdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i 



Sept. ii. 627. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau Duhcv- 



428 (1805). — Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 288. 



mel, vil. 153. — Elliott, Sk. 11. 597. — Sprengel, Syst. ill. Quercus obtusa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 11. 627 (1814). 



857. 

N. ( 



Dietrich, Syn. v. 306. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Quercus Phellos, var. laurifolia, Chapman, Fl. 420 



Orsted, Liebmann Chenes Am 



(1860). 



Troj).tT>. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, iil 386, Quercus aquatica, a laurifolia, A. de CandoUe, Prodr 



395. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Census U. S- 



ix. 152. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 150, t. 1, 2. 



xvi. pt. ii. 68 (1864). — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 
306, t. 



Michaux, Hist 



No. 10, t. 18 (1801). 



A tree, occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a tall trunk three or four feet in diameter 
and comparatively slender branches which spread gradually into a broad dense round-topped shapely 
head. The bark at the base of old trees is one or two inches in thickness, nearly black, and divided 
by deep fissures into broad flat ridges j higher up on the trunk and on the main stems of young trees 
it is from half an inch to an inch in thickness, dark brown more or less tinged with red and roughened 
with small closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, covered with pale lenticels, glabrous, 
dark red when they first appear and dark red-brown during their first winter, becoming reddish brown 



dark gray in their second year. The winter-buds are broadly 



or 



apex, from 



sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, and 



closely imbricated bright red-brown scales ciliate on the mar 



val, abruptly narrowed and 
covered by numerous thin 
The leaves are involute in the bud. 



oblong-oval or oblong-obovate 
the base, acute 



sometimes falcate, gradually narrowed and acute or rarely rounded 



acute or occasionally rounded at the bristle-pointed apex, and entire with slightly thickened 
cartilaginous often undulate margins, or near the extremities of the vigorous branches of young trees 
they are frequently unequally lobed, generally below the middle or near the base, with small almost 
triangular acute bristle-pointed lobes j when they unfold they are thin, green tinged with dark red, 
and shghtly puberulous, especially on the lower surface, and at maturity are thin but firm in texture, 
een and very lustrous above and light green and less lustrous below ; usually three or four inches 
ig and three quarters of an inch wide, they vary from an inch and a half to six inches in length 
d from half an inch to two inches in width, with conspicuous yellow midribs much raised and rounded 



gr 



the upper side, and obscure primary 



and united near the margins and connected by 



inch long, and fall 



many closely reticulated veinlets which are more conspicuous on the upper than on the lower surfac 
they are borne on stout grooved yellow petioles rarely more than a quarter of an 
irregularly during the winter. The flowers appear in March and April when the leaves are about one 
third grown, the staminate borne in red-stemmed hairy aments from two to three inches in length, and 



the pistillate on 



iabrous pedu 



The 



lyx of the 



min 



flower is thin and 



ounded lob 



pubescent on the outer surface, and deeply divided into four ovate 

four or five in number^ with oblong shghtly emarginate yellow glabrous anthers 

of the pistillate flower are brown and hairy and about as long as the acute calyx-lobes ; the stig 



es ; the stamens 
The involucral s( 



170 



SILVA OF NOBTE A3IERICA. cupulifer^. 



short, recurved, and dark red. The acorns ripen early in the autumn of the second year and are sessile 
or subsessile, and generally solitary ; the nut is nearly ovoid or hemispherical, broad and shghtly rounded 
at the base, full, rounded and puberulous at the apex, dark brown when first ripe, but as it dries some- 
times becoming striate with brown and dark olive-green stripes, and about half an inch in length and in 
breadth, with a thin shell lined with a sHght coat of pale tomentum and bright orange-colored bitter 
cotyledons ; the cup, which embraces nearly a quarter of the nut, is thin, saucer-shaped, and reddish 
brown and silky-pubescent on the inner surface, with a large bright orange-colored scar, and is covered 
by thin ovate light red-brown scales rounded at the ends and coated with pale pubescence except on 
their darker colored margins. 

Quercus laurifolia inhabits the sandy banks of streams and swamps and rich hummocks in the 
neighborhood of the coast, and is distributed from the Dismal Swamp in Virginia ^ southward to the 
shores of Mosquito Inlet and Cape Romano in Florida^ and along the Gulf coast to Louisiana. Nowhere 
very abundant, it is most common and attains its largest size in eastern Florida. 

The wood of Quercus laurifolia is heavy, and very strong and hard, but coarse-grained and liable 
to check badly in drying ; it is dark brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and 
contains broad conspicuous medullary rays and bands of small open ducts marking the layers of annual 
growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7673, a cubic foot weighing 47.82 pounds. 
It is probably used only as fuel. 

Quercus laurifolia appears to have escaped the notice of early botanists, although among American 
species it is surpassed in beauty only by the Live Oak, with which it frequently grows on sandy coast 
hummocks. It is the common Water Oak in the streets and squares of the cities of the south Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts from Wilmington, North Carolina, to New Orleans, often adorning them with its tall 
column-like shafts and noble heads of lustrous dark green fohage. 



Quercus laurifolia was collected in the Dismal Swamp in 1877 by Mr. L. F. Ward. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXXIX. Quercus laurifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A leaf of a sterile branch of a young tree, 

natural size. 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXX. Quercus laurifolia 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America.. 



Tab. CCCCXXIX 




C. £. FaccoTv deL, 



HimeZy so. 



QUERCUS LAURIFOLIA.Michx. 



A.Iiiocrei6z> direa>. 



Imp. J, Taneur, Paris, 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXXX 




C.E^FaoDOTv deL. 



Himeb^ so. 



QUERCUS LAURIFOLIA.Michx. 



A,RiocreiLa> direa^f' 



I?72p. J, TojieuT^, Paris. 



CUPULIFERiB. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



171 



QUERCUS BREVIFOLIA 



Blue Jack. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong-obovate, pale and tomentose on the lower 



surface . 



Quercus brevifolia. 

Quercus Phellos, ^ brevifolia, Lamarck, Diet. i. 722 

(1783). 

Quercus humilis, Walter, Fl. Car. 234 (not Lamarck) 



(1788). 



Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 58. 



Quercus Phellos, /? sericea, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 354 



(1789). — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iii. 1895, f. 1773. 
Hist. Veg. xi. 161. 



Spach, 



Quercus Phellos, j8 latifolia, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 



Marshall) 



Quercus Phellos, 3 



& Smith 



^f 



Georgia, ii. 103, t- 52 (1797)- 



Quercus cinerea, Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 8, t. 14 



vii. 151. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 594. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 857. 
Scheele, Roemer Texas j 447. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 306. 
Curtis, Eep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 37. — 



— Chap- 
man, FL 421. — A. de CandoUe, Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 73. 

■ * 

Orsted, Vidensk. Medd. fra nat. For. Kjohenh. 1866, 
73. — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 452. — Engelmann, Trans. St. 



Louis Acad. iii. 386, 395. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 
Am. 10th Census U. S. \x. 153. — Dippel, Handb. Lauh- 
holzk. ii. 105, f . 47. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 131. 
Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 417 {Man. PL W. 
Texas). 
Quercus Phellos, (i humilis, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 625 
(1814). — A. de CandoUe, Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 74. 



(1801) ; FL Bor.-Am. ii. 197. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. Quercus cinerea, fi dentato-lobata, A. de CandoUe, 



425. 



11. 



212. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 567. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. 
Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 82, t- 14. 

Pursh, FL Am. Sept. 



Hort. Kew 



Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 73 (1864). 
Quercus cinerea, y humilis, A. de CandoUe, Frodr. xvi 
pt. ii. 74 (1864). 



11. 



626. 



NuttaU, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau 



A tree, usually fifteen or twenty feet tall, with a trunk five or six inches in diameter and 



occasionally rising to the height of fifty feet 



rigid branches which form a narrow irregular head, but 

and forming a trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter and a broad round-topped shapely head 



The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch 



inch and a haH in thickness, and 



divided into thick nearly square plates from one to two inches long and 



ed with small dark brown 



ly black scales sHghtly 



ged 



th red. The branchlets are stout, rigid, and roughened by 



numerous elevated lenticels, and are coated at first with dense fulvous hoary tomentum of articulate and 



stellate hairs ; their covering gradually disappears, and during their first winter they 
sometimes tinged Avith red, and glabrous or puberulous, becoming darker in 



their second 



dark brown 
sason. The 



buds are ovate, acute, covered by numerous rather loosely imbricated bright chestnut-brown 



ciliate on the margins, and often a quarter of an inch 



vigorous branches, or frequently 



obtuse and much smaller. The leaves are involute in the bud, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-obovate, 
radually narrowed and wedge-shaped or sometimes rounded at the base, acute or rounded and 

undulate marerins, or on the extremities of 



g 



apiculate at the apex, and 



with shghtly thickened 



vigorous sterile branches occasionally three-lobed at the apex and variously lobed on the margins ; when 
they unfold they are bright pink and pubescent on the upper surface, and coated on the lower with 
thick silvery white tomentum, and when fuUy grown are firm in texture, blue-green, lustrous, and con- 
spicuously reticulate-venulose above and coated below with pale tomentum, from two to five inches long 
and from half an inch to an inch and a half wide, with stout yellow midribs raised and rounded on the 
upper side and remote obscure primary veins forked and united within the margins ; they are bo 



on 



& 



oved and flattened petioles from one quarter to one half of an inch in length and fall irregularly 

ly in winter. The stipules are oblong-obovate or linear-lanceolate, from one 



172 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIFER^. 



half to three quarters of an inch 



& 



brown 



d 



d cad 



The flowers appear with 



the imfolding of the leaves, the staminate produced in the axils of linear acute hairy caducous bracts in 
hoary tomentose aments two or three inches in length, and the pistillate borne on short stout tomentose 



ped 



The calyx of the staminate flower before 



d furnished at the apex with a thick tuft of silvery white hairs 



bright red, coated with pubescence 
it is divided into four or Ave ovat( 



acute segments and becomes yeUow as it unfolds and turns brown before faUing ; the stamens are four 
or five in number, with ovate acute apiculate glabrous anthers which are dark red in the bud and yellow 
at maturity. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are about as long as the acute calyx-lobes, and 
are coated with pale tomentum ; the stigmas are dark red. The fruit, which ripens late in the autumn 
of the second year and is occasionally found on branches three or four years old, is usually produced in 
great profusion and is generally sessile or is sometimes raised on a short stem rarely a quarter of an inch 

ovate, fuU and rounded at both ends, or subglobose, about half an inch in length, 
1 striate, and coated at the apex with hoary pubescence ; the cup is thin and saucer- 



& 



the 



lieht brown, ofte 



& 



half 



shaped^ embracing only the bottom of the nut^ or it is cup-shaped and incloses its lower 
bright red-brown and coated with lustrous pale pubescence on the inner surface^ and is covered by thin 
closely imbricated ovate oblong scales coated^ except on the dark red-brown margins, with hoary tomen- 
tum.^ 



Q 



hrevifoUa inhabits sandy barrens and upland ridges, and is distributed from North 



Carohna southward to Cape Malabar and the shores of Pease Creek in Florida, and westward along the 
Gulf coast to the valley of the Brazos River in Texas. In the 



Atlantic and 



Gulf 



usually confined to a maritime belt from forty to fifty miles in width/ although it extends across the 
Florida peninsula, and in Texas ranges as far inland as the neighborhood of Dallas in about thirty- 
three degrees north latitude. 

The wood of Querciis hrevifoUa is hard, strong, and close-grained, and is light brown tinged with 
red, with thick darker colored sapwood ; it contains thin conspicuous medullary rays and bands of small 
open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.6420, a cubic foot weighing 40.00 pounds. It is probably only used as fuel. 

The Blue Jack ^ was first figured and described by Mark Catesby in his Natural History of Caro- 
lina^ pubhshed in 1731.^ 



Specimens of two plants found by Mr. George V. Nash in Au- apiculate lobes or teeth, or at the base of the shoot three-lobed at 



gust, 1894, on the road between Umatilla and Lake Ella in Lake 
County, Florida, are considered hybrids of Quercus hrevifoUa and 



gradually 
green and 



Quercus Catesbm by Mr. J. K. Small. The first {Bull. Torrey BoL and paler and glabrous below with the exception of occasional tufts 

Club, xxii. 76, t. 234) has pubescent branchlets, and ovate acute and of hairs in the axils of the veins, and are not distinguishable from 

entire or undulate-lobed leaves sometimes three-lobed at the apex, the leaves sometimes produced on vigorous stump-shoots of Quercus 

glabrous on the upper and pale and stellate-pubescent on the lower nigra. 



surface, and, except in the character of the covering of the lower 



2 A specimen without flowers or fruit gathered by Mr. John K. 



surface, not unlike those of some forms of Quercus hrevifoUa. The Small in July, 1893, on the Yellow River in Guinett County in 
scales of the half-grown fruit, however, are large and nearly gla- northern Georgia, is probably of this species, although far outside 
brous, and in shape and size resemble those of Quercus Catesbcei its range as otherwise known* 

^ Quercus hrevifoUa is also sometimes called Upland Willow Oak 



rather than those of Quercus hrevifoUa, 



The second of these supposed hybrids (Bull. Torrey Bot. Cluhy and Sand Jack. 



L c. t. 235) has oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate leaves three or four 
inches in length, variously sinuately lobed or dentate with acute 



Quercus humilior salicis folio hreviore^ i. 22, t. 22. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXXXL Quercus brevifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A nut, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta'b.CCCCXXXI. 




C. £, FcucoTv del. 



Jtapirte^ so. 



QUERCUS BREVIFOLIA,Sarg. 



A.RLocreucC' direa>r' 



Imp. I,Taneur,Paris. 



CUPULIFEE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



175 



QUERGUS IMBBRIOARIA. 



Shingle Oak. Laurel Oak. 



surface. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong-obovate, usually entire, pubescent on the lower 



Quercus imbricaria, Michaiix, Hist. Chenes Am. No. 9 
15, 16 (1801); Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 197. — WiUdenow, Spec. 
pt. i. 428 ; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 338 ; Enuvi. Suppl. 64. 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 567. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 

Pursh, 

Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 627. — NuttaU, Gen. ii. 214. — Nouveau 
Buhamel, vii. 154. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 155. — Elliott, 
Sic. ii. 598. 

306. 



214. 



Michaux f . Hist 



Sprengel, Syst. iii. 857. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 
Brendel, Trans. HI. Agric. Soc. iii. 623, t. 6. 

Chap- 



N. 



man, Fl. 420. — A. de Candolle, Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 63. 



Vidensk. Medd. fra not. For. Kjobenh 
nn CMnes Am. Trop. t. D, t. xxii. f. 



Wes 



Hort 



Vasey, Am. Ent. and Bot. ii. 312, f. 196. — Koch, Dendr. 
ii. pt. ii. 60. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 296. — Sargent, 



N. 



Wen 



zig, Jahrh. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iii. 182. — Watson 



G^^av's Man 



Handb 



150, 1. 1,2. 

Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 131. 



Mayr, Wald. Nordam 



B imbricaria, Spach, Hist 



(1842). 



Quercus imbricaria, /3 spinulosa, A. de Candolle, Frodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 63 (1864). 



A tree, usually fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding three feet in diameter, or 
occasionally on low rich ground a hundred feet in height, with a stem clear of branches for fifty or sixty 
feet and from three to four feet in diameter. In its youth the Shingle Oak, unless greatly crowded by 
other trees, forms with tough slender horizontal or somewhat pendulous branches a broad pyramid taper- 
ing gradually from near the ground, and in old age a narrow round-topped open picturesque head. The 
bark on young stems and on their branches is thin, Hght brown, smooth and lustrous, and on old trunks 
it is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and sUghtly divided by irregular 
shallow fissures into broad ridges covered with thick closely appressed Hght brown scales somewhat 
tinged with red. The branchlets are slender, marked with pale lenticels, puberulous and dark green 
and lustrous at first and often suffused with red, but they soon become glabrous, and during their 



first winter are rather Hsrht reddish bi 



& 



hght brown, growing dark b 



their second year 



The winter-buds are ovate, acute, about an eighth of 



inch 



& 



obscurely angled and covered 



with closely imbricated Hght chestnut-brown lustrous scales erose and often ciliate on the scarious 

The leaves are involute in the bud, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-obovate, graduaUy narrowed 



margins 



and wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, apiculate and acute or rounded at the apex, and entire, with 
slightly thickened and revolute often undulate margins, or they are sometimes broader and more or less 



three-lobed, or on vigorous sterile branches 



onaUy irregularly repand-lobulate ; when they first 



unfold they stand at nearly right angles with the stem and are bright red, soon becoming light yellow- 
green and covered with scurfy rusty pubescence on the upper surface, and on the lower with thick hoary 
tomentum ; and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, glabrous, dark green and very lustrous 
above, pale green or light brown below and coated with soft fine pubescence, from four to six inches 
long and from three quarters of an inch to two inches wide, with stout yeUow midribs broad and 
grooved on the upper side, numerous slender yellow veins arcuate and united at some distance from the 
margins, and fine reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout pubescent petioles flattened and grooved 
above and rarely more than half an inch in length, and late in the autumn before faUing the upper 
surface resembles dark red leather, while the lower remains pale, and the beauty of the leaf is height- 
ened by the darker and more brilliantly colored midribs. The stipules are oblong-obovate to lanceolate, 



176 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



CUPULLFERJE. 



acute, scarious; from one half to two thirds of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers open in April 
and May when the leaves are about one third grown, the staminate borne in the axils of linear lanceo- 
late scarious caducous bracts on hoary tomentose aments two or three inches in length, and the pistillate 
on slender tomentose peduncles.^ The calyx of the staminate flower is light yellow, pubescent and 
divided into four acute segments j the stamens number four or five, with oblong emarginate and shghtly 
apiculate glabrous yellow anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are about as long as the 
acute calyx-lobes and are coated with pale pubescence ; the stigmas are short, reflexed, and usually 
greenish yellow. The fruit, which ripens during the autumn of the second year, is solitary or in pairs 
and is borne on a stout peduncle sometimes nearly half an inch long; the nut is nearly as broad as it is 
long, full and rounded at the base, gradually narrowed but full and rounded at the apex, dark chestnut- 
brown, often obscurely striate, and from one half to two thirds of an inch in lei 



& 



th, with a thin shell 

lined with rusty tomentum,and dark orange-brown cotyledons; the cup, which embraces from one third 
to one half of the nut, is thin, cup-shaped or turbinate, bright red-brown and lustrous on the inner 
surface, and covered by thin ovate light red-brown scales rounded or acute at the apex and coated with 
pale pubescence except on their darker colored margins. 

Quevcus imhricaria is distributed from Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, westward through southern 
Michigan and Wisconsin to northern Missouri ^ and northeastern Kansas,^ and southward to the District 
of Columbia,^ along the Alleghany Mountains, which it ascends to elevations of about four thousand 
feet, to northern Georgia and Alabama and to middle Tennessee and northern Arkansas.^ It inhabits 
rich uplands and occasionally the fertile bottom-lands of rivers, and, comparatively rare in the east, is 
one of the most abundant Oaks of the basin of the lower Ohio, growing probably to its largest size in 
southern Indiana and Illmois.^ Trees which are believed to be hybrids between Quercus imhricaria 
and Quercus Marilandica^ Quercus velutina^^ and Quercus palustris ^ have been observed. 



1 On a young tree in the Arnold Arboretum the pistillate flow- 
ers are occasionally scattered at the base of the staminate aments. 

2 Broadhead, BoL Gazette^ iii. 60. 

3 Mason, Eighth Bienn. Rep, State Board Agric. Kansas, 272. 

4 L. F. Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 113 (FL Washing- 
ton). 

^ Harvey, Am. Jour. Forestry, i. 454. 
6 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 80. 
' Quercus imiricaria X Marilandica. 



Quercus Leanay Nuttall, Sylva, i. 13*, t. 6 bis (1842). — Lea, 
Cat. PL Cincinnati, 30. — A. de CandoUe, L v. 62. — L. F. Ward, 
Field and Forest, i. 41: Bot. Gazette, v. 123: Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 



Washing t 



Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 471. 



gelm 



ccccxxxiv 



nati, Ohio, sixty or seventy years ago by Mr. Thomas G. Lea, and 
has since been found, usually in solitary specimens, in widely sep- 
arated localities from the District of Columbia and the banks of 
Quercus nigra, P tridentata, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 64 the Tuckasegee and of the Tennessee in western North Carolina 



(1864). 



to southern Michigan, central and northern Illinois and southeast- 



Quercus imhricaria X nigra, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ern Missouri. The winter-buds are acute, puberulous, and about 



iii. 539 (1877). 



half an inch long. The leaves are convolute in the bud, from ob- 



A small tree (Plate ccccxxxiii.) found by Dr. Engelmann eight long-obovate to lanceolate, entire, sinuate-dentate or dentate-lobed 

miles west of St. Louis in the autumn of 1849, and soon afterwards with acute or rounded bristle-tipped lobes acute or rounded or 

destroyed, was believed by him to be a hybrid between the Shingle broad and slightly three-lobed at the apex and gradually narrowed 

Oak and the Black Jack. The leaves were elliptical to obovate in and wedge-shaped or rounded at the base ; when they unfold they 

outline, entire or three-toothed or lobed at the apex and occasion- are scurfy-pubescent on the upper surface, and coated on the lower 

ally furnished with lateral teeth, rounded or acute at the base, with thick pale tomentum, and at maturity are thick and firm, dark 

dark green and lustrous above, pale and glabrate below, from four green and lustrous above and rusty brown and puberulous below, 

from four to six inches long and from two to three inches wide, 



to seven inches long and from two to three inches broad. The fruit 
was sessile with a p'lobose nut inclosed to the middle in a hemi- 



with 



spherical turbinate cup covered by thin rather closely imbricated one to two inches in length. The fruit is subsessile or is borne on 

a stout peduncle rarely half an inch long and is usually solitary; 



with 



with 



W 



Letterman the nut is oblong, full and rounded at both ends or subglobose, and 

near AUenton, Missouri ; shoots of Quercus imhricaria with large is inclosed nearly to the middle in the turbinate hemispherical cup 

obovate three-toothed leaves were collected at Lancaster, Penn- covered by ovate loosely imbricated pubescent light red-brown 

sylvania, by Mr. John K. Small, in August, 1890; and it is not scales. Some individual leaves of this tree are not distinguishable 

improbable that all these individuals are extreme forms of Quercus from those of Quercus imhricaria, which it resembles in habit and 

imhricaria rather than hybrids, as this species shows a strong ten- g 

dency to leaf and cup variation. 
^ Quercus imhricaria x velutina. 



velutina 



® Quercus imhricaria x palustris, Engelmann, Z. c. 

A single small tree noticed by Dr. Engelmann near St. Louis in 



CUPULIFERjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



177 



The wood of Qiiercus imhricaria is lieavy and hard but rather coarse-grained^ and checks badly in 
drying; it is light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood, and contains broad 
conspicuous medullary rays and wide bands of large open ducts marking the layers of annual growth. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7529, a cubic foot weighing 46.92 pounds. It is 
occasionally used in construction and for clapboards and shingles. 

Qicercus imhricaria was first described by Andre Michaux, who found it among the southern Alle- 
ghany Mountains toward the end of the last century, although, according to Aiton,^ it had been intro- 
duced into English gardens by John Fraser ^ in the year when Michaux first visited the mountains of 
Carolina. 

Quercus imhricaria^ with its symmetrical habit, smooth bark, and lustrous dark green entire leaves, 
is one of the most beautiful of the American Oaks and a most distinct and desirable ornament of the 
parks and gardens of eastern America, where it is perfectly hardy as far north at least as the shores of 
Massachusetts Bay. 



1870, and afterwards destroyed, was believed by him to be a hybrid a stout peduncle sometimes half an inch in length; the nut was ob- 

between Quercus imhricaria and Quercus palustris, (See Braun, Sitz. long, full and rounded at the apex, almost as broad as it was long, 

GeselL Nat. Fr. Berlin, 1870, 82.) The leaves were broadly Ian- light brown, and inclosed for about one third of its length in the 

ceolate, mostly acute at the apex, and entire or usually furnished thin cup-shaped or turbinate cup covered by ovate scales rounded 

with coarse triangular-toothed acute bristle-pointed teeth ; they at the apex and clothed, except on the bright red-brown margins, 

were pubescent at first especially on the lower surface but soon be- with hoary pubescence. 



came glabrate, and at maturity were thin, dark green and lustrous 



1 HorL Kew. ed. 2, v. 288.— Loudon, Arh. BriL iii. 1898, f. 



above, paler below, from four to six inches long and from one to 1777, 



two inches wide. The fruit was mostly solitary and was borne on 



2 See i. 8. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXXXIL Quercus imbbicabia 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXXIIL Quercus imbbicabia x Mabilandica, 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXXIV. Quercus imbbicabia x velutina 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.CCCCXXXII 




C.E.FaccoTv del 



Totdet 



sc. 



QUERCUS IMBRICARIA.Miclix. 



A.Bzocreua> dtreccf' 



Imp, J. Tane'icr. Paris. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXXXlIi. 




C. E. F'accon. deZ^ . 



Ifime^ 



so 



OUERCUS IMBRICARIAXMARILANDICA 



A, Riocreiia> direa> ^ 



Imp. J^. Taneur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXXXIV 




C.E.FcuziOTt del 



Mig 



neazia:^ sc. 



QUERCUS IMBRICARIAXVELUTINA 



(QUERCUS LEANA.Nutt.) 



j1. Riocreicay dirpi-r . 



Imp. J, Taneiir, Paris, 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



179 



QUERCUS PHELLOS 



Willow Oak. 



Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, glabrous, usually entire. 



Quercus Phellos, Linnaeus, Spec. 994 (excl. vars.) (1753) . 

Muenchhausen. Hausv. 



Harbk 



Wan- 



Miller, Diet. 

254 (excl. c). 

genheim, Beschrieh. Nordam. Holz. 132 ; Nordam. Holz. 

76, t. 5, f. 11. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 70. — Schoepf, 

Mat. Med. ^mer. 137. — Walter, i?"/. Car. 234. — WUlde- 
now, Spec. iv. pt. i. 423 ; Enum. 974 ; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 
337. 
507. 



pt. ii. 59. 
Dendr. 296. 
U. S. ix. 154. 



■tenflora, xxix 



Lauche, Deutsche 
N. Am. IQth Census 



Wenzig 



(excl. vars.) . — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 212, t. 



Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 479. 



May 



Wald. Nor 



Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 



131. 



Persoon, Syn. ii. 567. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 424. 



Dippel, Handb. Lauhholzk. ii. 106, f. 48, 49. 
Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 417 (Man. PL W. 



Texas) . 



Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. ii. 74, 1. 12. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Quercus Phellos, a longifolia, Lamarck, Diet. i. 722 



Sept. ii. 625 (excl. var. jS) . — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214. — Nou- 



(1783). 



veau Duhamel, vii. 150. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 155. — El- Quercus Phellos, S subrepanda, Lamarck, Diet. i. 722 



liott, Sk. ii. 593. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 857. — Spach, Hist. 



(1783). 



Vig. xi. 160 (excl. vars.). — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 187, Quercus PheUos, e sublobata, Lamarck, Diet. i. 722 



t. 104. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 306. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 36. — Chapman, Fl. 420. 



(1783). 

Quercus Phellos, a viridis, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 354 
(1789). 
Videtisk. Medd.fra nat. For. Kjobenh. 1866, 73. — Wes- Quercus Phellos (sylvatica) , Michaux, Hist. Chenes Am. 



A. 

de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 63 (excl. vai\ /3). — Orsted, 



mael, Bull Fed. Soc. Hort. Belg. 1869, 348, t. 15, 16. 
Vasey, Avi. Ent. and Bot. ii. 311, f . 195. — Koch, Dendr. ii 



No. 7, t. 12 (1801) ; Fl. Bor.^Am. ii. 197. 



scarious margins. 



A tree^ occasionally seventy or eighty feet in height^ with a trunk two or three or rarely four feet 
in diameter, but usually much smaller, and slender branches spreading gradually into a comparatively 
narrow open or conical round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three quarters 
of an inch in thickness, light reddish brown slightly tinged with red, and generally smooth but broken 
on old trees by shallow narrow fissures into irregular plates covered with small closely appressed scales. 
The branchlets are slender, roughened with dark lenticels, glabrous and reddish brown, and in their 
second year grow dark brown tinged with red or grayish brown. The winter-buds are ovate, 
acute, about an eighth of an inch long, and covered by dark chestnut-brown scales, with pale 

The leaves are involute in the bud, ovate-lanceolate or rarely lanceolate-obovate, 
often somewhat falcate, gradually narrowed and acute at the base, acute and apiculate at the apex, 
and entire with slightly undulate margins ; when they unfold they are light yellow-green and lustrous 
on the upper surface, and coated on the lower with pale caducous pubescence, and at maturity are 
glabrous, light green and rather lustrous above, dull and paler, or rarely coated with hoary pubescence 
below,^ conspicuously reticulate-venulose, from two and a half to five inches in length and from a quarter 
of an inch to an inch in width, with slender yellow midribs raised and rounded on the upper side and 
obscure primary veins forked and united about half way between the midribs and the margins ; they are 
borne on stout grooved petioles from one eighth to one quarter of an inch in length and turn pale 
yellow in the autumn before falling. The flowers open when the leaves are about a quarter grown, the 
staminate borne in haiiy slender-stemmed aments from two to three inches in length and the pistillate 
on slender glabrous peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is yellow and hairy, and is divided 
into four or five ovate acute se^nents ; the stamens are four or five in number, with oblong glabrous 



specimen collected near Wilmingt 



Herbarium. 



180 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CUPULIPER^. 



yellow sliglitly apiculate anthers. The involucral scales of the pistillate flower are brown and covered 
with pale hairs^ and about as long as the acute calyx-lobes ; the stigmas are much reflexed and bright 
red. The fruit ripens in the autumn of the second year and is short-stalked or nearly sessile, and 
solitary or sometimes in pairs ; the nut is hemispherical^ half an inch in diameter^ light yellow-brown^ 
and coated with pale pubescence ; the cup^ which embraces only the base of the nut^ is thin^ saucer- 
shaped or subturbinatC; light reddish brown^ clothed with lustrous silky pubescence on the inner surface, 
and covered by thin elongated ovate truncate hoary pubescent scales dark red-brown on their margins. 

The Willow Oak inhabits the low wet borders of swamps and streams and rich sandy uplands, and 
is distributed from Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, to northeastern Florida, through the Gulf 
states to the valley of the Sabine River in Texas, and through Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, 
central Tennessee, and southern Kentucky.^ Usually confined in the Atlantic states to the low 
maritime plain, without, however, approaching close to the seacoast, it is less common in the middle 
districts, and rarely ranges to the Appalachian foothills. 

Trees believed to be hybrids between Querciis Pliellos and Qitercus velittina^ and between 



The occurrence of Quercus Phellos in Schuyler County, western 
lois, is mentioned by Worthen (Geology of Illinois y i. 443), but 



These trees are usually thirty or forty feet high, with trunks 
eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, although the specimen in 



I have seen no specimens of this species from the region north of Marshall's arboretum is nearly twice this size ; the bark is from 



the Ohio River. 
Gazette, viii. 349.) 



Nat 



2 Quercus Phellos x velutina (Plate ccccxxxvi.). 



three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, gray or light 
brown tinged with red, smooth and covered with small closely 
appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, marked with pale len- 



Quercus Tieterophylla^ Michaux f. Hist, Arb. Am. ii. 87, t. 16 ticels, and tomentose at first, but soon become glabrous and turn 

(1812). — Pursh, FL Am, Sept, ii. 627. — -Barton, Compend. Fl. bright red-brown during their first winter and ultimately dark 

PML ii. 167. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 214; Sylva, i. 15. — Loudon, Arh. brown. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, slightly angled, rather 

Brit, iii. 1894. — Gale, Proc. Nat. List, 1855, 70, f. 1. — Buckley, more than an eighth of an inch long, and covered with light red- 



■ * 



Proc. Phil, Acad, 1861, 361 ; 1862, 100. — Orsted, Chenes Am, brown scales scarious on the margins, glabrous on some individuals 
Trop, t. B. — Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 62. — Meehan, Proc. Phil. and pilose or pubescent on others. The leaves are revolute in 
Acad. 1875, 437, 465 ; Bot, Gazette, vii. 10. — Leidy, Proc, Phil. the bud, lanceolate or oblong-obovate in outline, entire, sinuately 



Acad. 1875, 415. 



Notes 



spinulose-dentate, coarsely serrate, or lobed with spreading or fal- 



Gazette, vi. 303. — L. F. Ward, Bull, U, S. Nat, Mas, No. 22, 114 cate acute entire bristle-pointed lobes, the different forms appearing 
(^FL Washington). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census on the same tree and on the same branch, the leaves on upper 
U. S. ix. 153. — Houba, Chenes Am. en Belgique, 224, t. — Mayr, branches, however, being usually entire ; when they unfold they 



Wald. Nordam, 150. — Dippel,' Handh, Laubholzk, ii. 108. 
Coulter, Contrib, U. S. Nat, Herb. ii. 417 {Man, PL W. Texas), 



are pubescent on the upper surface and tomentose on the lower, 
and at maturitv are dark srreen and lustrous above and rustv brown 



Quercus aquatica, P heterophylla, Aiton, Hort, Kew, ed. 2, v. below, and glabrous with the exception of occasional tufts of hairs 



290 (1813). — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 68. 



in the axils of the veins on the lower surface. The flowers open 



Quercus nigra, var., Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 255 (1859). when the leaves are about a third grown, the staminate borne in 



Quercus Phellos X tinctoria, Gray, Man. ed. 4, 406 (1863). 
Quercus Phellos^ var., Gray, I. c, ed. 5, 453 (1867). 



hairy aments from two to three inches in length, and the pistillate 
on short tomentose peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is 



Qy^rcus Phellos X coccinea, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. hairy on the outer surface and is generally divided into four ovate 



iii. 541 (1877). 
(X rubra?). 



Watson & Coulter, Graves Man 



acute lobes ; the stamens are four or five in number, with ovate 
acute slightly apiculate anthers. The involucral scales of the pis- 



A specimen of this peculiar tree, growing in a field belonging to tillate flower are covered with pale hairs and are rather shorter 

John Bartram on the Schuylkill, near Philadelphia, was first de- than the acute calyx-lobes ; the stigmas are reflexed and dark red. 

scribed by the younger Michaux in 1812, although it appears to have The fruit, which is produced sparingly, ripens in the autumn of the 

been known much earlier, as " that particular species of Oak that second year and is sessile or short-stalked ; the nut is oval to sub- 

Dr. Mitchell found in thy meadow," seeds of which Peter Collinson globose, half an inch long, light yellow or reddish brown, and 

asked from "my good friend John " in March, 1750, was probably puberulous ; the cup, which incloses nearly half the nut, is thin, 



hemispherical 



imbri 



this tree. (See Darlington, Memorials of Bartram and Marshall, turbinate or almost 

183.) It was destroyed long ago, but a seedling from it which was the inner surface, a 

planted by Humphry Marshall in his arboretum at Marshallton cated acute scales coated with hoary tomentum. On trees discov- 

more than a century since still survives, and offsprings of Bartram's ered by Mr. Arthur HoUick at Tottenville, Staten Island, New 

tree have also been grown in Europe, About twenty-five years ago York, in 1888 (^Quercus Phellos X rubra. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xv. 

several individuals of apparently the same parentage were found in 303, t. 84, 85), the more oblong fruit and the shallower cups, with 

the woods on both banks of the Delaware east of Camden, New less tomentose scales glabrous and bright red on their margins, 

Jersey, and others were subsequently discovered near Wilmington, indicate perhaps, as he suggested, the influence of Quercus rubra, 

Delaware, on Staten Island, New York, in the District of Columbia, although the leaves do not differ from those on trees one of whose 

in western North Carolina, northern Alabama, and near Houston, parents was evidently Quercus velutina. 

Texas. 



CUPULIFER^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



181 



Qiiercus Phellos and Qiiereus MarilandiccL^ have been 



with Q 



2 



ipeatedly found, and the species apparently 



The wood o£ Qiicrcus Phellos is heavy and strong, although not hard, rather coarse-grained, and 
light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood, and contains thin medullary rays and 

The specific gravity 



bands of several rows of small open ducts marking the layers of annual growth 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7472, a cubic foot weighing ^Q.SQ pounds. It : 
construction, for clapboards, and for the fellies of wheels. 



ionally used 



An Oak-tree with narrow entire leaves seemed 



1 



ntury, and the W 



emarkable object to Europeans of the seventeenth 



Oak attracted the attention of some of 



America 



botanical explo 



of 



It was included in the catalogue of Virginia plants which John Banister sent to 



England in 1680,^ and was first described by Ray in the third volume of the Hi^toria Plantaru 
published in 1704.^ According to Aiton ^ it was in cultivation in England in 1724. 

A distinct and beautiful, fast-growing, hardy tree, the Willow Oak,^ although admirably suited 
embelhsh the parks and gardens of eastern North America, is rarely cultivated in the northern stal 
Associated with the Water Oaks, it may sometimes be seen shading the streets of southern towns and 
European plantations.^ 



1 



Quercus Phellos x Marilandica, 



in August, 1892 ; and one found by Mr. Ravenel near Aiken, South 



Quercus Phellos, $ subimbricaria, A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. Carolina, is believed to have had the same origin by Dr. Britton, 



pt. ii. 63 (1864). 



who considers that all trees in New Jersey and on Staten Island 



Quercus Rudkini (^Quercus Phellos x nigra), Britton, Bull, Tor- which have been referred to Quercus imbricaria are hybrids of this 
rey Bot. Club, ix. 13, t. 10-12, figs. 1-5 (1882). 



parentage 



First distinguished as a hybrid in 1881 between Keyport and ^ Specimens of an Oak without fruit collected at May's Landing, 

South Amboy, New Jersey, where a number of individuals were New Jersey, by Mr. J. C. Gifford and Mr. J. E. Peters in July, 



XX 



seen by W. H. Rudkin and W. Bower, this peculiar tree is now 1890 (^Quercus Phellos x ilicifolia 

thought to be comparatively common on Staten Island and in 

southern New Jersey. The leaves vary in outline from ovate- nished with a large lateral acute or rounded lobe, silvery white and 

lanceolate to oblong-oval and to broadly obovate, and are entire pubescent on the lower surface, four or five inches long and from 

or furnished with one or more irregular lateral lobes, or are three- an inch and a half to two inches wide, have every appearance of 

lobed at the apex with acute lobes, or repand-dentate at the broad belonging to a hybrid between Quercus Phellos and Quercus nana. 



apex, or sinuate-lobed with wide or narrow sinuses, the different 
forms appearing on the same tree and sometimes on the same 



^ Quercus Lini aut Salicis foliis, Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1927. 

^ Quercus, an potius Ilex Marilandica folio longo angusto Salicis, 



branch ; they are from three to five inches in length, and from one lii- Dendr, 8. — Catesby, NaL Hist, Car. i. 16, t. 16. — Charlevoix, 
to three inches in width, and thick and rather firm in texture, and Histoire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 12°'°, iv. 333, f. 41, 



are sometimes glabrous on the lower surface, like the leaves of Quer- 
cus Phellos, but more frequently are covered below with the rusty 
pubescence of Quercus Marilandica, The nuts vary on different trees 
from subglobose to ovate-acute, and are inclosed at the base only 
or for more than half their length in shallow saucer-shaped, cup- 



Quercus foliis lanceolatis integerrimis, Clayton, FL Virgin. 117. 



Quercus folio longo angusto salicis, Romans, Nat, Hist, Florida, 



25. 



^ Hort, Kew. iii. 3o-4. — Loudon, Arb, Brit, iii. 1894, f. 1774, t. 
^ In Arkansas the Willow Oak is sometimes called Water Oak 



shaped, or turbinate cups with rather loosely imbricated ovate acute and Pin Oak (Harvey, Am. Jour, Forestry, i. 454). 



scales clothed, except on their dark red-brown margins, with pale 



^ Nicholson, Garden and Forest, i. 136. — J. G. Jack, Garden and 



tomentum, A tree, probably of similar parentage, was found by Forest, v. 602. 
Mr. J. K. Small at the falls of the Yadkin River in North Carolina, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate CCCCXXXV. Quercus Phellos. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged, 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A leaf from a young vigorous shoot, natural size 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXXVI. Quercus Phellos x velutina (Quercus heterophylla) 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Plate CCCCXXXVI I. Quercus Phellos x Marilakdica (Quercus Rude:ini) 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A leaf, natural size. 

3. A leaf, natural si 



4. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CCCCXXXV. 






Himei^ so. 



QUERCUS PHELLOS,L. 



iA,JUocreua> dir0a>. 



Imp . J. TanBur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXXXVl 




C.E.FaaxiTvdel 




vrte- so. 



QUERCUS PHELLOS X VELUTINA 



(QUERCUS HETEROPHYLLA.Michx.f.) 



A . RLocreiLX. dzrecc^^ 



Irnp. J^s ToTLeitr, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. CGCCXXXVII 



lE 



I; 



1 







'?• 



In 






* r 



CE.FaccoTh det. 



Jifini&la^ so. 



QUERCUS PHELLOS X MARILANDICA 

(QUERCUS RUDKINI.Britt.) 



A.Iiiocreuay direscc-. 



Imp, J'. Tanezir, Paris. 



CUPUUFEE^, 



SILVA OF NORTH JJIJSEICA. 



183 



QUERCUS DENSIFLORA. 



Tan Bark Oak. Chestnut Oak. 



Leaves oblong, entire or dentate, tomentose on the lower surface, persistent 



Quercus densiflora, Hooker & Arnott, JBot. Voy. Beechey, 
391 (1849). — Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 380. — NuttaU, Sylva, 



N. 



Census ?7. S> ix. 155. — Wenzig, 



i- 11, t. 5- 

Bot. Wilkes 



Pacifi 



Hart- 



Jahrb. BoU GarU Berlin^ iii. 219. — Greene, Wi 
Oaks, 41, t. 23 ; Man. Bot. Bay Region^ 303. - 
Wald. Nordam. 263, t. 2, 5. 



Mayr, 



weg. 337. — Newberry, Pacific B. B. Bep. vi. 31, 89, Quercus echinacea, Torrey, Pacific B. B. Bep. iv, pt. i 



f. 8. 



A. de Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 82. — ' Bolander, 

Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 



137, t. 14 (1856). 



Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 231. 

Acad. iii. 380 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. n. 99. 

logg. Forest Trees of California^ 85. — Sargent, Forest 



Vidensk. Medd. f 



Kel- 



Kjobenh 



The Tan Bark Oak is usually seventy or eighty but sometimes nearly one hundred feet in height, 
and although its trunk generally does not exceed three feet in diameter, individuals with stems double 
that size occasionally occur ; on trees 



1 



occur ; on trees in dense coniferous forests the stout branches ascend and form a 
narrow spire-like top, or in more open positions and when space permits, the lower branches spread 
horizontally, and the head is broad, symmetrical, dense, and round-topped ; or sometimes it is reduced 
to a shrub with slender stems only a few feet high.^ The bark o£ the trunk is from three quarters of 
an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and is deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad rounded 
:idges broken transversely into nearly square plates covered with closely appressed Hght reddish brown 
scales. The branchlets are stout, covered with minute pale lenticels, and coated at first with thick 
fulvous tomentum of stellate hairs which often does not entirely disappear until the second or third 
years, when they are dark reddish brown and frequently covered with a glacous bloom. The winter- 
buds are ovate, obtuse, from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, covered with tomentose 
loosely imbricated scales, and often surrounded by the persistent stipules of the upper leaves ; the scales 
are Hnear-lanceolate in the outer ranks, but increasing in width toward the interior of the bud, those of 
the inner ranks are ovate or obovate and rounded at the apex. The leaves are convolute in the bud 
and oblong or oblong-obovate, rounded or acute or rarely cordate at the base, acute or occasionally 
rounded at the apex, and repand-dentate with acute callous teeth, or entire, with thickened revolute 
margins, dentate and entire leaves often appearing on the same branch ; when they unfold they are 
coated with fulvous tomentum and furnished on the margins with dark caducous glands, and when 
fully grown are pale green, lustrous and glabrous or more or less covered with scattered stellate 
pubescence on the upper surface, and coated on the lower with rusty tomentum, but ultimately become 
glabrous above and glabrate and bluish white below j they are from three to five inches long and from 



t> 



three quarters of an inch to three inches wide, with stout midribs raised and rounded on the upper side. 



densifl 



and a half to two inches in length and from one half to two thirds 



ser. 4, vii. 251 (1871). 
Quercus densiflora^ G: 



npst. -4nn.and Mag, Nat. L 
Man, Bot, Bay Reoion, 304 



width 



primary 



ccccxxxvui 



Feins. The nut is ovate, grad- 
ually narrowed and acute at the apex, nearly an inch long, and 
inclosed at the base in the cup-shaped cup covered by long slender 
ticed by Robert Brown on Canon Creek in southern Oregon and recurved scales. Very distinct in the shape, size, and covering of its 
said by him to ascend on the Siskiyou Mountains to elevations of leaves from the large-leaved forms of Quercus densiflora, this shrub 
eight thousand feet, is not rare on the slopes of Mt. Shasta or on is connected with them by small trees which produce leaves inter- 
the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The leaves are oval or mediate in shape, dentation, size, and coloring. The fruit of the 
oblono--obovate, narrowed at both ends or occasionally rounded shrub differs from that of the tree only in its usually smaller size 
at the apex, entire or obscurely sinuate-dentate, from an inch and less hairy cup-scales. 



184 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cupulifer^. 



and thin or thick primary veins running obliquely to the points of the teeth^ or in entire leaves usually 
forked and united near the margins^ and connected by straight secondary veins and fine conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets j they are borne on stout rigid tomentose petioles from one half to three quarters of 
an inch in length and do not fall until the end of the third or sometimes not until the end of the fourth 
year. The stipules vary from oblong-ob ovate to hnear-lanceolate^ and are brown and scarious^ coated 
on the outer sm^face^ especially along the midribs^ with long pale hairs^ and caducous^ or those of the 
last leaves are frequently persistent during the winter. The flowers usually appear in early spring and 
frequently also irregularly during the autumn and winter^ and are borne in unisexual staminate and in 
androgynous aments which are produced from the axils of leaves of the year or from the inner scales 
of the terminal bud^ or sometimes from separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, and 
are erect, stout-stemmed, tomentose, and three or four inches in length. The staminate flowers are 
borne in three-flowered clusters crowded on the aments, covered before anthesis with thick hoary 
tomentum, and subtended by ovate rounded tomentose bracts, the two lateral flowers in the cluster 
being furnished with similar although smaller bracts j the calyx is tomentose and divided into five 
nearly triangular acute lobes ; there are ten stamens with slender elongated filaments, small oblong 
emarginate anthers, minute pollen grains, and an acute hairy abortive ovary. The pistiUate flowers, 
which are scattered at the base of the upper aments, are sohtary in the axils of acute tomentose bracts, 
and are furnished with two acute bractlets ; the ovary is ovate-oblong, slightly contracted below the 
six rounded calyx-lobes, coated like them with pale hairs, and inclosed in the tomentose involucral 
scales ; at the base of each calyx-lobe is inserted a bright red stamen with a slender exserted filament 
and a minute abortive anther ) the styles are elongated, slightly spreading, three in number, Kght green, 
and dark and stigmatic at the apex. The fruit, which ripens at the end of the second season, is solitary 
or often in pairs, and is borne on a stout tomentose peduncle from half an inch to nearly an inch in 
length ; the nut is oval or ovate, full and rounded at the base, gradually narrowed and full and rounded 
or acute at the apex, coated when fully grown with scurfy pubescence, but glabrous light yellow-brown 
and lustrous at maturity, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half long and from half an 
inch to nearly an inch broad, with a thick hard shell lined with a thick coat of fulvous tomentum, a 
thick red-brown seed-coat, abortive ovules near the apex of the seed, and light yellow bitter cotyledons ; 
the cup, which embraces only the base of the nut, is thin and woody, shallow and cup-shaped, tomentose 
with lustrous red-brown hairs on the inner surface, and covered by long linear rigid spreading or 
recurved light brown scales coated with pale stellate hairs, often tipped, especially while young, with 
dark red glands, and often clothed near the base of the cup with thick pale or fulvous tomentum. 

Querciis densiflora is distributed from the valley of the Umpqua River in southern Oregon south- 
ward through the coast ranges to the Santa Inez Mountains ^ east of Santa Barbara, California, and 
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, which it ascends to an elevation of four thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, to Mariposa County. Exceedingly abundant in the humid Cahfornia coast 
region north of San Francisco Bay, the Tan Bark Oak grows to its largest size in the Redwood forests 
of Napa and Mendocino Counties ; farther north and south, and on the Sierras, it is much less abundant 
and of smaUer size. 

The wood of Qiierciis densiflora is hard, strong, and close-grained but brittle ; it is bright reddish 
brown, with very thick darker brown sapwood,^ and contains broad bands of small open ducts parallel 
to the thin dark conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6827, 
a cubic foot weighing 42.55 pounds. Of little value for construction, it is largely consumed as fuel. 

The bark, which is exceedingly rich in tannin, is largely used for tanning leather,^ and is preferred 
for this purpose to that of any other tree of the forests of Pacific North America. 



Barclay Hazard, Erythea, i. 159. 



and twenty-seven layers of annual growth, of which one hundred 



2 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American and one are sapwood. 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, « The value of the bark has caused the destruction of most of 

is eighteen inches in diameter inside the bark, with one hundred the large specimens of Quercus densiflora in all accessible situa- 



cupuLiFERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



185 



The only American representative of a peculiar group of Asiatic trees in which are combined the 
characters of the Oak and the Chestnut^ Qitercits densiflora is^ from the point of view of botanical 
geography and botanical archaeology, one of the most interesting inhabitants of the forests of the 
United States- No Oak-tree, moreover, of western North America excels the best representatives of 
this species in massive beauty/ in symmetry of outline, or in richness of color ; and in early spring the 
elongated tender shoots and unfolding leaves coated with bright hairs, appearing Hke masses of flowers 
against the dark background of foliage, light up the dark coniferous forests where the Tan Bark Oak 
finds its most congenial home. 



tions, but the shoots which spring profusely from the stumps and ^ See Garden and Forest^ v. 617, f- 89. 

grow with remarkable vigor will prevent the extermination of the 

species. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate CCCCXXXVIIL Quercus densiflora. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate inflorescence. 

3. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

4. Portion of an androgynous ament, enlarged. 

5. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 



8. A fi^uiting branch, natural size. 
9- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A leaf, natural size. 

11. A winter-bud, enlarged. 



enlarged 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. CCCCXXXVIIL 




C.E.Faa:orL del 




iTLe^ so 



OUERCUS DENSIFL0RA,Hoolc.8cArn. 



A,Iiwcreua> direor 



Imp. x/. Taneur, Paris. 



INDEX TO VOL. VIIL 



Names of Orders are in small capitals; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Amphibolips spongifica, 12. 
Androgyne^ 4. 
Anisota pellucida, 12. 
Anisota sanatoria, 12. 
Anisota Stigma, 12. 
Anthersea Roylei, 10. 
Anthostoma atropunctata, 12. 



David's Oak, 10. 
Duck Oak, 166. 



Balaninus nascicus, 12. 

Balauinus Quercus, 12. 

Balaninus uniformis, 12. 

Basket Oak, 67. 

Bear Oak, 155. 

Black Jack, 145, 161. 

Black Jack, Fork-leaved, 145. 

Black Oak, 103, 137, 141. 

Blue Jack, 171, 

Blue Oak, 79. 

Borer, Flat-headed, 11. 

Borers, Oak, 11. 

Brewer, William Henry, 28. 

Brewerina, 28. 

Brown, Robert, 62. 

Bur Oak, 43. 

CastaneopsiSy 4. 
Cerris, 4. 
Cerroides, 4. 

Chestnut Oak, 51, 55, 183. 
Chinquapin Oak, 56, 59. 
Chionaspes Quercus, 11. 
Chlamydobalanus, 4. 
Chrysobothris femorata, 11. 
Cicada septendecim, 11. 
Cicada, The Seventeen-year, 11 
Clisiocampa Californica, 11. 
Clisiocampa constricta, 11. 
Clisiocampa disstria, 11. 

Cocci/era, 4. 

Coccomyces triangularis, 13. 

Coccus Ilicis, 10. 
Cork, harvesting of, 8. 
Cork Oak, 8. 
Cossula magnifica, 11. 
Cossus Querciperda, 11. 
Cossus reticulatus, 11- 
Cow Oak, 67. 

Cryptolechia quercicella, 12. 
Cryptolechia Schlagenella, 12. 

CUPULIFERiE, 1. 

Cyclobalanopsis, 4. 

CyclobalanopsiSy 1. 

Cyclobalauus, 4. 

Cydobalanus, 1. 

Cynips Gallse tinctorise, 9. 



Elaphidion villosum, 11. 

Encina, 111. 
EncleistocarpoUy 4. 
Engelmann, George, §4. 
Engelmannia, 84. 
Eriosma Querci, 11. 
ErythrobalanoSj 4. 
EsculuSj 4. 

Eupsalis rainuta, 11. 
Evergreen White Oak, 83. 



Fistuliaa Hepatica, 13. 
Flat-headed Borer, 11. 
Fork-leaved Black Jack, 145 
Fulham Oak, the, 7. 



GalUferay 4. 

Gall insects on Quercus, 12. 
Galls, Nut, 9. 
Galls, Oak, 9. 
Gambel, William, 35. 
Gambelia, 35. 
Germination of Quercus, 4. 
Gloeosporium Cauadense, 12 
Greene, Edward Lee, 84. 
Greenella, 84. 
GyrolecanQy 4. 



Hemileuca Maia, 12. 
Hickory Oak, 107. 
Hybrids of Quercus, 5 
Hyphantria cunea, 11. 



IleXy 4. 



Jack, Black, 145, 161 
Jack, Blue, 171. 
Jack Oak, 161. 
Jack, Sand, 172. 



Dsedalia quercina, 12 



Kellogg, Albert, 120. 
Kelloggia, 120. 
Kermes, the Oak, 10. 

Laurel Oak, 175. 
Leaf-miners on Quercus, 15 
Lecanium Quercifex, 11. 
Lecanium Quercitronis, 11. 
Lepidobalanus, 4. 
Lepidobalanus, buds of, 4. 

Leucobalanus, 4. 

Liopus Querci, 11. 
Lithocarpus, 4. 
LithocarpuS} 1. 



Live Oak, 99, 105, 111, 119. 
Live Oak, U. S. reservations of, 101 
Lochmseus manteo, 12. 
Lucombe Oak, the, 7. 



Mallodon melanopus, 11, 

Marshall, Humphry, 39. 

Marshallia, 39. 
Maul Oak, 105. 

Melanobalanus, 4. 

Mellichamp, Joseph Hinson, 144. 
Mellichampia, 144. 

Microsphsera quercina, 13. 

Mossy Cup Oak, 43. 

Mountain White Oak, 79. 



N^e, Louis, 25. 

Neea, 25. 

Nunmiularia Clypeus, 12. 

Nummularia punctulata, 12. 

Nut-galls, 9. 



Oak-apple, 12. 

Oak, Basket, 67. 

Oak, Bear, 155. 

Oak, Black, 103, 137, 141. 

Oak, Blue, 79. 

Oak, Bur, 43. 

Oak, Chestnut, 51, 55, 183. 

Oak, Chinquapin, 56, 59. 

Oak, Cork, 8. 

Oak, Cow, 67. 

Oak, David's, 10. 

Oak, Duck, 166. 

Oak, Evergreen White, 83- 

Oak galls, 9. 

Oak, Hickory, 107. 

Oak, Jack, 161. 

Oak kermes, 10. 

Oak, Laurel, 175. 

Oak, Live, 99, 105, 111, 119, 

Oak, Maul, 105. 

Oak, Mossy Cup, 43. 

Oak, Mountain White, 79. 

Oak of Mamre, 10. 

Oak, Overcup, 47. 

Oak, Pin, 51, 56, 151, 181. 

Oak, Possum, 166, 

Oak, Post, 37. 

Oak, Punk, 166. 

Oak, Quercitron, 139. 

Oak, Red, 125, 129. 

Oak, Rock, 56. 

Oak, Rock Chestnut, 51. 

Oak, Running, 115. 

Oak, Saul's, 18. 

Oak, Scarlet, 129. 



188 



INDEX. 



Oak, Scrub, 75, 95, 123, 145, 155. 

Oak, Shin, 27, 33, 75, 

Oak, Shingle, 175. 

Oak, Spanish, 147. 

Oak, Swamp Spanish, 151. 

Oak, Swamp White, 47, 63. 

Oak, Tan Bark, 183. 

Oak, the Fulham, 7. 

Oak, the Lucombe, 7. 

Oak, the Wadsworth, 63. 

Oak, Turkey, 143. 

Oak, Upland Willow. 

Oak, Valley, 23. 

Oak, Valonia, 8. 

Oak, Water, 165, 169, 181. 

Oak, White, 16, 23, 29, 33, 71, 87, 89. 

Oak, Willow, 179. 

Oak, Yellow, 65, 127, 139. 

Oak, Yellow-bark, 137. 

Oaks, American, cultivated in Europe, 11 

Overcup Oak, 47. 



Palmer, Edward, 106. 

Palmerella, 106. 

Pasania, 4. 

Pasania, 1. 

Pasania, buds of, 4. 

Pasania densijlora^ 183. 

Phryganidia Calif ornica, 11, 112. 

Pin Oak, 51, 56, 151, 181. 
Pityophthorus pubipennis, 11. 
Pityophthorus querciperda, 11. 
Polyporus graveolens, 13. 
Possum Oak, 166. 
Post Oak, 37. 
Prionoxystus Robiniae, 11, 
Prionus laticoUis, 11. 
Punk Oak, 166. 



Quercitron Oak, 139. 

Quercus, 1. 

Quereus acuminata, 55. 

Quercus acuminata X macrocarpa, 56. 

Quercus acuta, 4, 11. 

Quercus acutidens, 95. 

Quercus iEgilops, 3, 8. 

Quercus jEgilops, 7. 

Quercus jEgilopSy macrolepis, 8. 

Quercus agrifolia. 111. 

Quercus agrifolia^ y berberi/olia^ 111. 

Quercus agrifolia, YSiV.frutescenSj 111. 

Quercus alba, 16. 

Quercus alba, hybrids of, 18. 

Quercus alba, medical properties of, 3. 

Quercus alba, a pinnatifido-sinuata, 16. 

Quercus alba^ p ? Gunnisonii, 33. 

Quercus alba, fi sinuata, 16. 

Quercus alba, y microcarpaj 16. 

Quercus alba palustris, 63. 

Quercus alba x macrocarpa, 18. 

Quercus alba x minor, 18. 

Quercus alba X Prinus, 18, 19. 

Quercus alba minor, 37. 

Quercus alba pinnatijida, 16, 

Quercus alba (repanda^y 16. 

f Quercus aliena, 6. 

Quercus ambigua, 125. 

Quercus annulata, 71. 

Quercus aquatica, 165. 

Quercus aquatica, a cuneata, 165. 

Quercus aquatica, a laurifolia, 169. 

Quercus aquatica, P heterophylla, 180. 

Quercus aquatica, yelongata^ 165. 

Quercus aquatica, d indivisa, 165. 

Quercus aquatica^ € attenuata, 165. 



Quercus aquatica, ( ? myrtifolia, 123. 

Quercus aquatica, var. hybrida^ 165. 

Quercus arcoglandis, 111. 

Quercus Arizonica, 89. 

Quercus Austriacay 7. 

Quercus Ballota^ 7. 

Quercus Baloot, 7. 

Quercus Balout, 7. 

Quercus Banisteri, 155. 

Quercus berberidifolia. 111. 

Qu£rcus bicolor, 63, 67. 

Quercus bicolor, jQ mollis, 63. 

Quercus bicolor, ^ platanoides, 63. 

Quercus bicolor, subspec. Michauxii, 67. 

Quercus brevifolia, 171. 

Quercus brevifolia x Catesbsei, 172. 

Quercus brevifolia, hybrids of, 172. 

Quercus breviloba, 71. 

Quercus Breweri, 27. 

Quercus Brittoni, 162. 

Quercus, buds of, 4, 

Quercus Buergerii, 11. 

Quercus Bungeana, 3, 10. 

Quercus calicina, 7. 

Quercus Californica, 141. 

Quercus Calliprinos, \ arcuata, 10. 

Quercus Castanea, 51, 55. 

Quercus Catesbsei, 143. 

Quercus Catesbcei x aquatica, 144. 

Quercus Catesbsei x laurifolia, 144. 

Quercus Catesbsei x nigra, 144. 

Quercus Cerris, 3, 7. 

Quercus Cerris, buds of, 4. 

Quercus Cerris denticulata, 7. 

Quercus Cerris Fulhamensis, 7. 

Quercus Cerris, hybrids of, 5. 

Quercus Chapmani, 41. 

Quercus Chincapin, 59. 

Quercus Chinensis, 10. 

Quercus chrysolepis, 105. 

Quercus chrysolepis, 109. 



Quercus discolor, y Banisteri^ 155, 

Quercus Douglasii, 79. 

Quercus Douglasii, $ ? Gambelii, 33. 

Quercus Douglasii, y Novomexicana, 33. 

Quercus Douglasii, var. Necei^ 29. 

Quercus Drummondii, 37. 

Quercus dumosa, 95. 

Quercus dumosa, y acutidensy 95. 
Quercus dumosa, var. bullata, 96. 

Quercus dumosa, var. munita, 95. 
Quercus dumosa, var. polycarpa, 95, 
Quercus dumosa, var. revoluta, 96. 
Quercus Dunnii, 107. 
Quercus Durandii, 71. 
Quercus echinacea, 183. 
Quercus echinoides, 183. 

Quercus, economic properties of, 3. 

Quercus elongata, 147. 

Quercus Emoryi, 103. 

Quercus Emoryi, 75, 89. 

Quercus Engelmanni, 83. 

Quercus Esculvs, 7. 

Quercus expansa, 7. 

Quercus falcata, 147. 

Quercus falcata, p Ludoviciana, 147. 

Quercus falcata, ^ triloba, 147. 

Quercus falcata, var. h pagodcefolia, 147. 

Quercus Fendleri, 75. 

Quercus ferruginea, 161. 

Quercus fulvescens, 105. 

Quercus, fimgal diseases of, 4, 12. 

Quercus Gambelii, 33. 

Quercus Gambelii, var. Gunnisonii, 33. 

Quercus Garryana, 29. 

Quercus Garryana, dwarf form of, 30. 

Quercus Georgiana, 159. 

Quercus Georgiana x Marilandica, 159. 

Quercus Georgiana x nigra, 159. 

Quercus, germination of, 4. 

Quercus Gilberti, 29. 

Quercus glabra, 4, 11. 



Quercus chrysolepis, subspec. Palmeri, 107.*^ Quercus glauca, 4, 11. 
Quercus chrysolepis, subspec. vacciniifolia, Quercus Gramuntia, 7. 



106. 
Quercus cinerea, 171. 
Quercus cinerea, j8 dentato4obata, 171. 
Quercus cinerea, y humilis, 171. 
Quercus cinerea, var. pumila, 115. 
Quercus coccifera, 3, 10. 

Quercus coccifera, ^ Palestina, 10. 
Quercus coccinea, 133. 
Quercus coccinea, 129. 

Quercus coccinea, a coccinea, 133. 
Quercus coccinea $, 125. 

Quercus coccinea, nigrescens, 137. 
Quercus coccinea, y tinctoria, 137. 
? Quercus coccinea, S Rugelii, 137. 
Quercus coccinea, var. ambigua, 125. 
Quercus coccinea var. ? microcarpa, 129. 
Quercus coccinea x ilicifolia, 156. 
Quercus confertifolia^ 117. 
Quercus crassipocula, 105, 
Quercus crinita, 7. 
Quercus crispula, 6. 
Quercus Cubana, 99. 
Quercus cuneata, 147. 
Quercus cuspidata, 4, 11. 
Quercus decipiens, 91. 
Quercus densiflora, 183. 
Quercus densiflora, 183. 

Quercus densiflora, var. echinoides, 183. 
Quercus dentata, 3, 10. 

Quercus digitata, 147. 

Quercus dilatata, 3, 6. 

Quercus discolor, 137, 147. 



Quercus Griffithii, 3, 6. 

Quercus grisea, 75, 89. 

Quercus grosseserrata, 6. 

Quercus hastata, 103. 

Quercus hemisphcerica, 165. 

Quercus hemisphcerica, var. nana^ 165. 

Quercus heterophylla, .180. 

Quercus Hindsii, 23, 

Quercus humilis, 171. 

Quercus, hybrids, 5. 

Quercus hypoleuca, 117. 

Quercus Ilex, 3, 7. 

Quercus Ilex, y Ballota, 7. 

Quercus Ilex, var. Ballota, 3. 

Quercus Ilex suberosa, 8. 

Quercus ilicifolia, 155. 

Quercus ilicifolia x coccinea, 156. 

Quercus imbricaria, 175. 

Quercus imbricaria, j8 spinulosa, 175. 

Quercus imbricaria x coccinea, 176. 

Quercus imbricaria X Marilandica, 176. 

Quercus imbricaria x nigra, 176. 

Quercus imbricaria X palustris, 177. 

Quercus imbricaria X velutina, 176. 

Quercus incana, 3, 10. 

Quercus infectoria, .9. 

Quercus, insect enemies of, 4, 11. 

Quercus Ithaburensis, 8. 

Quercus, its increase in North America, 6. 

Quercus Jacobi, 29. 

Quercus Kelloggii, 141. 

Quercus lanata, a incana^ 10. 



INDEX, 



189 



Quercus laurifolia, 169. 

Quercus laurifoliay a acukiy 169. 
Quercus laurifolia, P dbtusa^ 169, 
Quercus laurifolia hybridan 169. 
Quercus Leana^ 176. 
Quercus lobata, 23. 
Quercus lobata^ siihsi^ee. fruticosa, 2 
Quercus lobata, var. Breweri, 27. 
Quercus lobata^ var. Hindsii^ 23. 
Quercus longiglanda ^ 23. 
Quercus Lusitanica, 3, 6. 
Quercus Lusitanica^ a genuina, 9. 
Quercus Lusitanica, a infectoria, 9. 



Quercus parvula, 119. 
Quercus pedunculatay 6. 
Quercus Persica, 8, 
Quercus Phellos, 179. 
Quercus Phellos, a longifolia^ 179. 
Quercus Phellos^ a viridis^ 179. 
Quercus Phellos &, 99, 171. 
Quercus PhelloSy p brevifolia, 171, 
Quercus Phellos, p humilis, 171. 
Quercus Phellos, ^ imbricaria, 175. 
Quercus Phellos, p latifolia, 171. 
Quercus Phellos, sericea, 171. 
Quercus Phellos, 3 subimbricaria, 181. 



Quercus Lusitanica, subspec. BcBtica, » Mir- Quercus Phellos, c, 99. 



beckii, 6. 
Quercus lyrata, 47. 
Quercus MacDonaldi, 95. 
Quercus MacDonaldi, var. elegantula, 
Quercus macrocarpa, 43. 
Qwercws macrocarpa, $ abbreviata, 43. 
Qwercws macrocarpa, y minor, 43. 
Qw6rcii5 macrocarpa, var. olivceformis, 
Quercus macrolepis, 8. 
Quercus marginata, 11. 
Quercus Marilandica, 161. 
Quercus Marilandica x nana, 162. 
Qusrcus maritimay 100. 
Quercus, medical properties of, 3. 

Quercus Mexicana, y confertifolia, 11 
Quercus Michauxii, 67. 
Quercus minor, 37. 
Quercus minor x alba, 38. 
Quercus MirbecHi, 6. 
Quercus Mongolica, 3, 6. 
Quercus montana, 51. 

Quercus Morehus, 120. 

Quercus Muehlenbergii, 55. 

Quercus Muehlenbergii, var. humilis, I 

Quercus myrtifolia, 123. 

Quercus nana, 155. 

f Qu£rcus nana, 165. 

Quercus nana x coccinea, 156. 

Quercus nana X velutina, 156. 

Quercus Necei, 29. 

Quercus nigra, 165. 

Quercus nigra, 8, 137, 161. 

Quercus nigra, a aquatica, 165. 

Qu£rcus nigra )3, 161. 

Quercus nigra, jS latifolia, 161. 

Quercus nigra, )3 quinqueloba, 161. 

Quercus nigra, P tridentata, 176. 

? Quercus nigra, y sinuata, 144. 

Quercus nigra ( 

Quercus nigra integrifolia 

Quercus nigra trifida, 165 

Quercus nigra, var., 180. 

Quercus oblongifolia, 87. 

Quercus oblongifolia, 75, < 

? Quercus oblongifolia, 79. 

Quercus oblongifolia, var. 

Quercus obtusa, 169. 
Quercus obtusifolia, var. ? 
Quercus obtusiloba, 37. 



« • 



ifolia 



Quercus obovata, 10. 
Quercus occidentalis, 3, 9. 



CErstediana 



Quercus 



olivcefc 



Quercus oxyadenia. 111 
Quercus Palestina, 10. 
Quercus Palmeri, 107. 
Quercus palustris, 151. 
Quercus palustins, 129. 
Quercus valustrisn B cue 



Quercus Phellos, y obtusifolia, 99. 
Quercus Phellos, S subrepanda, 179. 
Quercus Phellos, e nana, 115. 
Quercus Phellos, e sublobata, 179. 
Quercus Phellos (maritimd), 100. 
Quercus Phellos (pumila), 115. 
Qt^rcws Phellos sempervirens, 99. 
Quercus Phellos (sylvatica), 179. 
Quercus Phellos, var., 180. 
Quercus Phellos, var. areuaria, 123. 
Quercus Phellos, var, laurifolia, 169. 
Quercus Phellos x coccinea, 180. 
Quercus Phellos x ilicifolia, 181. 
Quercus Phellos x Marilandica, 181. 
Quercus Phellos X nana, 181. 
Quercus Phellos x nigra, 181. 
Quercus Phellos x rubra, 180. 
Quercus Phellos X tinctoria, 180. 
Quercus Phellos X velutina, 180. 

Quercus pinnatifida, 10. 
Quercus platanoides, 63. 
Quercus prinoides, 59. 

Quercus prinoides, 55. 
Quercus Prinus, 51. 

Qwercws Prinus, 67. 

Quercus Prinus acuminata, 55. 

Quercus Prinus Chincapin, 59. 

Quercus Prinus discolor, 63. 

Querci*5 Prinus humilis, 59. 

Quercus Prinus (^Monticola) , 51. 

Quercus Prinus (palicstris), 67. 

Quercus Prinus (pumila}, 59. 

Quercus Prinus tomentosa, 63. 

Quercus Prinus, a lata, 51. 

? Quercus PHnus, apaivifolia, 51. 

Quercus Prinus, ^ bicolor, 63. 

.^ Quercus Prinus, j8 oblongata, 51. 

Quercus Prinus, fi platanoides, 63. 

Qiierci*5 Prinus, var. discolor, 67. 

Qiiercws Prinus, var. Michauxii, 67. 

Qt^rci«5 Pry ami, 8. 
Quercus pseudo-coccif era, 10, 

Qnercus pubescens, 8. 

Quercus pumila, 115, 

Quercus pumila, var. sericea, 115. 

Quercus pungens, 75. 

Quercus Pyrenaica, 8. 

Quercus Ransomi, 79. 

Quercus reticulata, 91. 

.^ Quercus reticulata, j3 Greggii, 91. 

Quercus retusa, 99. 

Quercus Robur, 3, 6. 

Quercus Robur, 6. 

Quercus Robur pedunculata, 6. 

Quercus Robur, subspec. pedunculata, 6 

Quercus Robur, subspec. sessiliflora, 6. 

Quercus rotundifolia, 7. 

Quercus rubra, 125. 

Quercus rubra, 129, 141, 147. 

Qwercu5 rubra, a latfolia, 125. 

Q«erct/5 rw&ra, a viridis, 125. 



Quercus rubra, b, 125. 
Quercus rubra, j8, 125, 147. 
? Quercus rubra, & coccinea, 133. 
Qii€rci^5 rubra, $ Hispanica, 147. 



\uercus 



Schrefeld 



? Quercus rubra, y Miihlenbergii, 125. 

? Quercus rubra, y subserrata, 125. 

Quercus rubra, d heterophylla, 125. 

Quercus rubra, e aurea, 125. 

Quercus rubra dissecta, 151. 

Quercus rubra maxima, 125. 

Quercus rubra montana, 125. 

? Quercus rubra montana, 147. 

Quercus rubra nana, 155. 

Quercus rubra X velutina, 126. 

Quercus rubra ramosissima, 151. 

Quercus rubra, var, Texana, 129. 

Quercus rubra X digitata, 126. 

Quercus rubra X imbricaria, 126. 

Quercus Rudkini, 181. 

Quercus, saccharine exudations from, 8. 

Quercus Sadleriana, 61. 

Quercus Sagrceana, 99, 

Quercus San-Sabeana, 71. 

Quercus, sections of, 4. 

Quercus sempervirens, 99, 

Quercus sericea, 115. 

Quercus serrata, 3, 10. 

Quercus serrata, 10. 

Quercus serrata, u Chinensis, 10. 

Quercus serrata, j8 Roxburghii, 10. 

Quercus sessiliflora, 6. 

Quercus sessiliflora, var. Mongolica, 6. 

Quercus Shumardii, 137. 

Qwerctfs sinuata, 144. 

QwercifS Sonomensis, 141. 

Quercus spicata, 91. 

Quercus stellata, 37, 41. 

Quercus stellata, j8 Floridana, 37. 

Quercus stellata, y depressa, 45, 

Quercus stellata, 5 Utahensis, 33. 

Quercus stolonifera, 8. 

Quercus Suber, 3, 8. 

Quercus Tauzin, 8. 

Quercus Texana, 129. 

Quercus tinctoria, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, a angulosa, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, a discolor, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, $ magnifica, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, fi sinuosa, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, y macrophylla, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, 5 ndbilis, 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, var. Califomica, 141. 

Quercus tomentella, 109. 



HUU' 



Quercus Tournefortii, 7. 
Quercus Toza, 3, 7. 
Quercus triloba, 147, 
Quercus Trojana, 8. 
Quercus turbinella, 75, 95. 
Quercus uliginosa, 165, 
Quercus undulata, 75. 
Quercus undulata, 33, 71. 
Qwercu5 undulata, a Gambelii, 33. 
Querelas undulata, fi obtusifolia, 75. 
Quercus undulata, y Jamesii, 75, 
Quercus undulata, y pedunculata, 75. 
Querci^ undidata, 5 grisea, 87. 
Querelas undulata, 5 Wrightii, 75. 



gnsea 



luercus 



Quercus undulata, var. pungens, 75, 95. 



uercus 



Quercus vacciniifolia 



190 



INDEX 



Quercus Vallonea, 8. 

Quercus Vallonea j3 macrolepis, 8. 

Quercus velutina, 137. 

Quercus venustula, 33. 

? Quercus villosa, 37. 

Quercus virens^ 99. 

Quercus inreiiSy var. dentata, 101. 

Quercus virens^ var. maritiyna, 100. 

Quercus Virginiaua, 99. 

Quercus Virgiuiana, var. maritima, 100. 

Quercus Virginiana, var. minima, 101. 

Quercus Wislizeni, 119. 

Quercus Wislizeni, v^v./rutescens, 119. 

Quercus Wislizeni x Californica, 120. 

Quercus Wislizeni X Kelloggiiy 120. 



Ravenel, Henry William, 160. 
Ravenelia, 160. 
Red Oak, 125, 129. 

Rhizococcus Quercus, 11. 

Robur, 4. 

Rock Chestnut Oak, 51. 

Rock Oak, 56. 

Rothrock, Joseph Trimble, 92, 

Running Oak, 115. 



Sadler, John, 62. 

Sand Jack, 172. 

Saul's Oak, 18. 

Scarlet Oak, 129. 

Scrub Oak, 75, 95, 123, 145, 155 

Selandria Quercus-alba, 12. 

Seventeen-year Cicada, 11. 

Shii-take, cultivation of, 11. 

Shin Oak, 27, 33, 75. 

Shingle Oak, 175. 

Silk-worms, Oak, 3. 

Spanish Oak, 147. 

Sphaerotheca lanestris, 13, 
Suber, 4. 

Swamp Spanish Oak, 151. 
Swamp White Oak, 47, 63. 
Syncedris, 1. 



Tan-bark, 6. 

Tan Bark Oak, 183. 

Taphrina ccerulescens, 13. 

Tauzin, 8. 

Telea Polyphemus, 12. 

Tetrauychus telarius, 12. 

Tortrix quercifoliana, 12. 

Tourney, James William, 93. 



Tuber brumale, 7. 
Tuber melanosporum, 7. 
Turkey Oak, 143. 



Upland WUlow Oak, 172 
Uredo Quercus, 13. 



VaUey Oak, 23. 
Valonia, 8. 
Valouia Oak, 8. 
Venturia Orbicula, 13. 



Wadsworth Oak, the, 63. 
Water Oak, 165, 169, 181. 
White Oak, 16, 23, 29, 33, 71, 
White Oak, Evergreen, 83. 
White Oak, Swamp, 47, 63. 
Willow Oak, 179. 
Willow Oak, Upland, 172. 
Woodhouse, Samuel Washiugt 



YeUow Oak, 55, 127, 139. 
Yellow-bark Oak, 139. 



Zden, the Algerian, 6. 




New York Botanical Garden Library 






3 5185 00287 8849 



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