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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

THE 

SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 



The New York Botanical Garden 
LuEsther T. Mertz Library 

Gift of 

The Estate of 

Henry Clay Frick, II 
2007 




THE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE TEEES WHICH GROW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



gjilutfttateti taty figures aut> Qnalym Draton from Mature 

BT 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 

VOLUME X 
LILIACEM — CONIFERM 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

Zty &ttjet0itie $re&e?, tfamfcri&ge 



MDCCCXCVI 



Copyright, 1896, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 

All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton and Company. 



I8ERT2 LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



TO 

EDOUARD-FRANCOIS ANDRE 

ARTIST, EXPLORER, AND STUDENT OF PLANTS 
THIS TENTH VOLUME OP 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

Synopsis of Orders vii 

Yucca aloifolia Plate ccccxcvii 6 

Yucca Treculeana Plate ccccxcviii 9 

Yucca macrocarpa Plate ccccxcix 13 

Yucca Mohavensis Plate d 15 

Yucca Schottii Plate di. 17 

Yucca arborescens Plate dii. 19 

Yucca gloriosa Plate diii 23 

Yucca constricta Plate div 27 

Oreodoxa regia Plate dv 31 

Pseudophosnix Sargenti Plate dvi. . 35 

Sabal Palmetto Plate dvii 41 

Sabal Mexicana Plate dviii 43 

Washingtonia fiiamentosa Plate dix. ......... 47 

Thrinax parviplora Plate dx. 51 

Thrinax microcarpa ....... Plate dxi 53 

Tumion TAXIFOLIUM Plate dxii. . 57 

Tumion Californicum Plate dxiii 59 

Taxus brevifolia ........ Plate dxiv 65 

Taxus Floridana Plate dxv 67 

Juniperus communis Plate dxvi 75 

Juniperus Caltfornica Plate dxvii 79 

Juniperus Utahensis Plate dxviii. . . . . . „ . . .81 

Juniperus flaccida ....... Plate dxix. 83 

Juniperus pachyphl.ea ....... Plate dxx. 85 

Juniperus occidentalis Plate dxxi 87 

Juniperus monosperma Plate dxxii 89 

Juniperus sabinoides Plate dxxiii. 91 

Juniperus Virginiana Plate dxxiv. 93 

Cupressus macrocarpa Plate dxxv 103 

Cupressus Arizonica Plate dxxvi. 105 

Cupressus Goveniana .....*.. Plate dxxvii 107 

Cupressus Macnabiana Plate dxxviii 109 

Cupressus thyoides Plate dxxix. Ill 

Cupressus Nootkatensis Plate dxxx 115 

Cupressus Lawsoniana Plate dxxxi. 119 

Thuya occidentalis Plate dxxxii 126 

Thuya gigantea Plate dxxxiii 129 

Libocedrus decurrens Plate dxxxiv. . 135 

Sequoia sempervirens Plate dxxxv 141 

Sequoia Wellingtonia Plate dxxxvi 145 

Taxodium distichum Plate dxxxvii. ....... . 151 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME X. 

OF THE SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class II. MONOCOTYLEDONOUS or ENDOGENOUS PLANTS. 

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them. Leaves mostly parallel-veined. Embryo with a single 
cotyledon. 

55. Liliaceae. Flowers perfect, 6-androus. Ovary superior, usually 3-celled. Ovules 2 or numerous. Fruit 
3-celled, capsular or baccate. 

56. Palmae. Flowers perfect, 6-androus. Ovary superior, 1 to 3-celled. Ovule solitary. Fruit 1 or rarely 2 or 
3-seeded, baccate or drupaceous. 

Class in. GYMNOSPERMiE. Resinous trees or shrubs. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Flowers unisexual, naked. Stamens 
numerous. Ovules 2 or many not inclosed in an ovary. Cotyledons 2 or more. Leaves usually straight-veined, persistent or 
deciduous. 

57. Taxacese. Flowers dioecious or rarely monoecious, axillary, solitary or umbellate. Ovule 1. Fruit surrounded 
by or inclosed in the enlarged fleshy aril-like disk of the flower. Cotyledons 2. 

58. Coniferae. Flowers monoecious, usually solitary, terminal or axillary. Ovules 2 or many. Fruit a woody or 
rarely fleshy strobile. Cotyledons 2 or many. Leaves scale-like, linear or subulate, solitary or clustered. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



YUCCA. 

Flowers perfect ; perigone 6-parted, the segments more or less united at the base ; 
stamens 6 ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; ovules numerous in each cell, horizontal. Fruit 
baccate, fleshy and indehiscent, or capsular and dehiscent. Leaves clustered at the 
summit of the stem, linear-lanceolate, entire, serrate or filamentose, exstipulate, per- 
sistent. 

Yucca, Linnaeus, Gen. 99 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Pl.n. iii. 17. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 778. — Engler, 

49. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 49. — Endlicher, Gen. 144. — Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. v. 70. 

Meisner, Gen. 398. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. Codonocrinum, Willdenow, Boemer & Schultes Syst. vii. 

pt. i. 718 (1829). 

Plants, with endogenous stems subterranean or barely emerging from the surface of the ground, or 
sometimes rising into tall simple or branched columnar trunks covered with dark thick corky bark, 
light fibrous wood in concentric layers, thick stoloniferous saponaceous root-stocks and thick rootlets, or 
long tough stout roots. Buds naked, in the axils of upper or of lower leaves, ovate, acute, flattened by 
pressure against the leaves, their lowest leaves white, scarious, and early deciduous, prolonging the stem 
after the death of its apex with the terminal inflorescence, often remaining dormant in the stem for 
years, and then producing lateral clusters of leaves. Leaves involute in the bud, alternate, mostly 
closely imbricated at the summit of the stem, erect at first, becoming reflexed, 1 elongated, linear- 
lanceolate, abruptly narrowed above the broad-clasping often much thickened base, usually widest 
near or above the middle, concave and involute toward the apex below the horny usually sharp-pointed, 
rarely obtuse, occasionally soft and herbaceous, terminal spine, thick and ridged or thin and flaccid, 
more or less concave and sometimes deeply channeled on the upper surface, convex and usually 
bluntly keeled toward the base on the lower surface, smooth or scabrous, the margins serrulate with 
small remote irregular cartilaginous teeth, or roughened while young with minute deciduous knobs 
and soon becoming discolored and brittle, or filamentose by the separation of the marcescent 
marginal fibres into thick or thin, straight or curved, white or reddish threads, bright or dull green or 
glaucous, persistent for one or many years, exstipulate. Flowers slightly fragrant or strong-smelling, 
entomophilous, 2 produced in large many-flowered terminal compound glabrous pubescent or tomentose 

1 The reflexion of the leaves of Yucca aloifolia and other species more dependent and depressed against the stem, and finally dying 

as studied by Webber {Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. vi. 98) is contem- at the end of several years, remain for several years more on the 

poraneous with the completion of the definite growths or phytome- plant. 

roids of the stem, only the leaves of the last phytomeroid being " The structure of the flower of Yucca, with stamens shorter 
erect. After this has produced its panicle of flowers and fruits, or than the ovary, precludes self-fertilization, and the large pollen- 
in about two years after the appearance of the bud at the base of masses cannot reach the stigmatic tube except through the agency 
the panicle of the previous growth, the leaves on this terminal of insects. Only one species is known to produce fruit when trans- 
phytomeroid all begin slowly to reflex, and, becoming more and ferred from its native region and deprived of the visits of the 



SUVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LILIACE^. 



erect or rarely pendulous panicles, or occasionally in simple racemes or spikes ; panicles nearly sessile or 
raised on short or elongated peduncles furnished with leaf-like bracts ; bracts of the inflorescence ovate, 
acute or acuminate, concave, thick and fleshy, white, often more or less tinged with purple, decreasing 
in size from below upward, those subtending the pedicels thin and scarious ; pedicels in two or three- 
flowered clusters, or single at the base of the panicle, simple or rarely forked near the middle, shorter 
than the flowers, curved, slightly spreading, pendulous, ebracteolate. Perigone cup-shaped, composed 
of six segments in two series, more or less united at the base into a short tube, expanding in the 
evening for a single night, marcescent ; * segments thick, ovate-lanceolate, creamy white or white tinged 
with green, and often flushed with purple on the back, usually furnished at the apex with small tufts 
of white hairs, those of the outer rank narrower, shorter, and more colored than the more delicate and 
petaloid segments of the inner rank. Stamens six, in two series, hypogynous, free or adnate to the 
base of the segments of the perigone, usually shorter than the ovary, white ; filaments clavate, fleshy, 
obtuse and slightly three-lobed at the apex, covered, especially above the middle, with one-celled 
transparent hairs, or acute at the apex and glabrous (Hesperoyucca), erect before anthesis, becoming 
recurved after the maturity of the anthers ; anthers sagittate or cordate at the base, rounded, entire or 
emarginate at the apex, glabrous, or furnished with tufts of apical hairs (Hesperoyucca), attached on 
the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally, curling backward, and expelling the 
large globose powdery or agglutinated pollen-grains. Ovary superior, sessile or rarely stipitate, 



peculiar moths which are necessary to insure the fertilization of 
the flowers of these plants. This is Yucca cdoifolia of the south- 
eastern United States, whose flowers are better adapted than those 
of the other species for self-fertilization. The stigmatic lobes are 
sessile, and the stigmatic liquid is abundant, often overflowing 
from the stigmatic tube, so that there is a chance that the pollen- 
grains may be carried accidentally from the comparatively longer 
stamens to the stigmatic secretions, or may fall on the papillose 
apex of the stigmatic lobes ; and this species often fructifies abun- 
dantly in cultivation in regions where the Yucca Moth does not 
exist, although in a case where the flowers were protected from the 
visits of all insects they were not fertilized. (See Riley, Rep. Mis- 
souri Bot. Gard. iii. 118.) 

So far as is now known, the flowers of all the species of the 
region east of the Rocky Mountains are fertilized by females of a 
nocturnal moth, Pronuba yuccasella, Riley (Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
iii. 56, f. 2) ; in California the flowers of Yucca arborescens are fer- 
tilized by Pronuba synthetica, Riley (I. c. 141, t. 41, f . 1, 2, t. 43, f. 
1), and those of Yucca Whipplei by Pronuba maculata, Riley (Proc. 
Am. Ass. Adv. Set. xxix. 633 [1881] ; Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 
139, t. 42,. f. 2). When the perigone opens in the evening, the 
anthers split and discharge the pollen-grains which adhere in the 
anther slits. The female moth now enters the flower and begins to 
gather the pollen with her peculiar maxillary prehensile spinose 
tentacles, visiting the stamens in turn, and forming a ball of pollen 
often three times as large as her head. When this is completed she 
visits a flower of another plant, selecting one that has just opened or 
which had opened during the previous night, and bearing her load 
of pollen held by the rolled-up palpi below and close to the head. 
In entering the flower she brings her abdomen against the pistil, 
with the body between two of the stamens, which she straddles 
with her legs, the head being usually turned toward the stigma, 
and in this position she pierces the ovary obliquely just below the 
middle, and deposits an egg with her ovipositor in the ovarian cell 
next the placenta. When the egg is deposited she slowly with- 
draws her ovipositor, and then runs to the tip of the pistil and 
pushes the ball of pollen collected in another flower down into the 
stigmatic tube. This operation she usually performs after deposit- 



ing each egg, although two or three eggs are occasionally laid 
before the pollen is transferred to the stigmatic tube. The larva 
hatches at the end of a week, and soon enters one of the developing 
ovules by its funicular base ; it matures with the ripening of the 
seeds, of which it has destroyed a dozen or less during its growth, 
and just before the fruit ripens it bores its way out, and reaches the 
ground, probably by the aid of a silken thread. Penetrating the 
soil to the depth of several inches, the larva then spins a tough 
silky cocoon, in which it remains until » few days before the 
Yuccas bloom in the following year, when it is transformed into a 
chrysalis armed on the head with an acute spine, and on the back 
with spatulate spines, by means of which it works its way to the 
surface of the ground, and the moth emerges. This wonderful cor- 
relation between the insect and the flower is all the more remark- 
able because the insect does not derive any direct benefit from it. 
She does not visit the flower in search of food and incidentally 
transfer the pollen from the stamens to the stigma. The flowers 
of Yucca either produce no nectar or produce it in the smallest 
quantity, and the Pronuba does not feed upon the pollen. Her 
labors appear to be purely maternal, and her only object in gather- 
ing the pollen of one flower and thrusting it down the stigma of 
another seems to be the development of the seeds which are to sup- 
ply her offspring with food. The action of this insect in fertilizing 
the flowers of Yucca, first noticed by Dr. George Engelmann, has 
been carefully studied by Professor C. V. Riley, and by Professor 
William Trelease, who has visited many of the species of Yucca in 
their native homes for the purpose of watching their pollination. 
(See Engelmann, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, iii. 33 ; Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 28. — Riley, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 55 ; Rep. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. iii. 99. — Kerner von Marilaun, Pflanzenleben, ii. 155, 
f. 1-5. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 181.) 

1 The flower of Yucca expands during the evening into a more 
or less widely opened bell, and soon after sunrise the next morning 
begins to close by the gradual bending in of the points of the 
segments, which, during the next two or three days, form a bladder- 
like perianth with six broader or narrower openings between the 
segments, and then withers and dries up. 



LILIACEJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



obscurely six-sided, nectariferous, 1 glabrous, dull greenish white, three-celled, the cells divided by the 
development from the back of the carpels of secondary dissepiments, obtuse, or gradually narrowed 
into a short or elongated three-lobed style, the lobes emarginate and bilobed at the apex, ivory-white, 
and clothed with short epidermal hairs, and forming a broad triangular stigmatic tube, or slender and 
elongated, and crowned with a capitate three-lobed hyaline-papillate stigma penetrated by a narrow 
stigmatic tube (Hesperoyucca) ; ovules in six series, numerous, compressed, horizontal, short-stalked, 
anatropous. Fruit oblong or oval, more or less distinctly six-angled, six-celled, pendulous or erect, 
usually more or less beaked at the apex, surrounded at the base by the remnants of the perigone, 
baccate and indehiscent, or capsular, three-valved and dehiscent, dividing as it opens through the 
primary dissepiments, the valves finally splitting at the apex, or through the carpels loculicidally 
(Hesperoyucca) ; pericarp of two coats, the outer at maturity thick, succulent, and juicy (Sarcoyucca), 
or thin, dry, and leathery, and usually easily separable from the firm membranaceous or rarely 
succulent inner coat (Clistoyucca), or thin and woody, and adherent to the rather thinner 
membranaceous endocarp (Chsenoyucca and Hesperoyucca). Seeds compressed, triangular, obovate 
or obliquely ovate or orbicular, thick with a narrow two-edged rim, or thin with a wide or narrow 
brittle margin ; testa thin, more or less opaque, black, slightly rugose or smooth. 2 Embryo straight 
or more or less curved, diagonal, in plain or rarely ruminate hard farinaceous and oily albumen; 3 
cotyledon much longer than the short radicle turned toward the small oblong white hilum. 4 



1 Septal nectar glands occur within the partitions which separate 
the cells of the ovary of Yucca, forming thin pockets extending 
from its summit nearly to the base, open at the apex, and, pouring 
their scanty secretions down through a capillary tube, discharge 
them through pores at the bottom of the ovary and opposite the 
inner segments of the perigone. (See Trelease, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club, xiii. 135, f. See, also, Brongniart, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, ii. 9 
\_Mem. sur les Glandes Nectariferes de VOvaire].} 

2 The three types of the fruit of Yucca correspond with three 
distinct methods by which the seeds are disseminated. In the first 
group (Sarcoyucca) the ripe fruit is thick, sweet, and pulpy, and is 
easily separated from the hard firm and core-like endocarp which 
closely invests the seeds. The fruits of this group, protected like 
those of all the arborescent species from the attacks of climbing 
animals by the decumbent sharp-pointed lower leaves, fall as soon 
as ripe, with the exception of those of Yucca aloifolia, while the 
succulent flesh is tempting to small animals and to birds, who, in 
carrying it away, disseminate the seeds. In Yucca aloifolia the 
endocarp becomes succulent at maturity, and the fruit does not fall 
when ripe, but dries up on the panicle when it is not eaten by birds, 
especially by the mocking-bird, who in feeding upon the pulp swal- 
lows many of the seeds, which it voids without affecting their vital- 
ity, and appears to be one of the principal agents for the dissemi- 
nation of the seeds of this species. (See Webber, Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. vi. 96.) 

The distribution of the seeds of Yucca aloifolia is also assisted by 
the larvae of the Bogus Yucca Moth (Prodoxus decipiens, Riley). 
The eggs of this moth are deposited in the stalk of the young 
flower panicle, in which the larvae burrow, and by their activity 
when preparing to hibernate late in the autumn when the fruits 
are dried up often cut it through, and, causing the panicle to fall 
to the ground, insure the spreading of the seeds. (See Webber, 
I. c. 103.) 

In the second group (Clistoyucca) the thick exocarp of Yucca 
arborescens becomes thin, dry, and spongy at maturity, and the 
lightness and roundness of the fruits which fall easily enable the 
wind to blow them about over the desert, thus breaking the peri- 
carp and scattering the seeds. 



In the fruit of the capsular species (Chsenoyucca and Hespero- 
yucca) the pericarp becomes woody at maturity, splits through the 
centre and at the apex through the backs of the carpels, or opens 
loculicidally, allowing the thin seeds to escape from the erect cap- 
sules sometimes raised high in the air. (See Trelease, Rep. Mis- 
souri Bot. Gard. iv. 223.) 

3 In germinating, the cotyledon remains partly under ground 
and within the seed, and does not grow into a leaf organ, the first 
leaf issuing from a split in the cotyledon opposite the remnants of 
the seed, and the leaves of the first season being in \ order. From 
the nodes of the first axis stout rootlets break through the back of 
the leaves, the earliest coming from the back of the cotyledon 
opposite the first leaf, and the radicle withers, or, in Hesperoyucca, 
the axis with the bases of the leaves swells out into a thickened 
bulb-like mass (Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. hi. 20). 

4 By Engelmann (I. c. 34) the species of Yucca are grouped in 
the following sections : — 

Euyucca. Filaments obtuse, papillose, free, or nearly so, from 
the segments of the perigone, spreading or recurved at maturity ; 
anthers cordate-sagittate ; pollen powdery ; style stout, papillose, 
rarely expanded at the apex. 

A. Sarcoyucca. Panicle usually sessile. Fruit baccate, pen- 
dulous ; exocarp thick and succulent ; seeds thick ; albumen 
ruminate. Stems generally arborescent. 

B. Clistoyucca. Panicle sessile or pedunculate. Fruit bac- 
cate, indehiscent, spreading or erect ; exocarp becoming dry and 
spongy at maturity ; seeds thick ; albumen entire. Stems arbo- 
rescent. 

C. CHiENOYUcCA. Panicles long-stalked. Fruit capsular, erect, 
septicidally dehiscent, ultimately splitting through the valves at 
the apex ; seeds thin ; albumen entire. Stems short or arbores- 
cent. 

Hesperoyucca. Panicle long-stalked ; filaments acute, gla- 
brous, erect at maturity ; anthers didymous, transverse, hirsute ; 
style slender ; stigma three-lobed, papillose. Fruit capsular, erect, 
three-valved, the valves entire ; seeds thin ; albumen straight. 
Stems subterranean. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LILIACE^E. 



Yucca, of which about eighteen species can be distinguished, is confined to the New World, where 
it ranges from Maryland, western Iowa, South Dakota, and southern California, to Lower California, 
Yucatan, and Central America, the region of its greatest development being in the territory adjacent 
to the boundary between the United States and Mexico. Twelve species 1 inhabit the United States, 
eight of them assuming the habit, and attaining the size of trees, while the others are stemless. At 
least one arborescent species 2 is endemic in northern Mexico, one 3 ranges from southern Mexico to 
Guatemala; the flora of Yucatan contains another arborescent Yucca, 4 and several still little known 
species have been found in Lower California. 5 The tertiary rocks of western Europe contain remains 
which indicate that Yucca is an ancient form, and that it was once more widely scattered over the 
earth's surface than it is at present. 6 

The saponaceous root-stocks of Yuccas are used by Mexicans and Indians as a substitute for soap. 7 
The fibrous wood is occasionally sawed into lumber, and has been manufactured into paper-pulp. 
The fleshy fruits of several species, which contain a large amount of sugar, are edible, and in Mexico 
are frequently made into a fermented beverage, which is occasionally distilled. 8 The tough fibres of 
the leaves of the Bear Grass, Yucca filamentosa? are used domestically in the United States in binding, 
and those of some of the Mexican species are made into ropes. The leaves of most of the species 
were woven into baskets by the Indians, who used them also in the manufacture of mats and whips ; 10 
and the tender ends of the growing stems are roasted and eaten in Mexico. 11 The young stems of 



1 By means of the artificial fecundation of different species per- 
formed in his garden at Marseilles several years ago, Monsieur 
Deleuil secured large quantities of seed, from which he has raised 
a number of hybrid Yuccas. (See Deleuil, Rev. Hort. 1880, 225. — 
Andre', Rev. Hort. 1883, 109.) One of these hybrids, produced by 
crossing Yucca laevigata, itself a hybrid of Yucca aloifolia and a form 
of Yucca glauca, with Yucca glauca is now cultivated in many gar- 
dens as Yucca Carrierei (Andre', I. c. 1895, 81, f. 21-23). 

2 Yucca Jilifera, Chabaud, Rev. Hort. 1876, 432, f. 97. — Car- 
riere, Rev. Hort. 1879, 262 ; 1884, 53, f . 12, 13. — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, i. 78, f. 13, 14. — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, iii. 743, f. 97, 
100. — Fenzi, Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ort. ser. 2, iv. 278, t. 9. — Baker, 
Bot. Mag. cxvii. t. 7197. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 
193. 

Yucca baccata, /3 australis, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 

iii. 44 (in part) (1873). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 252 (in 

part). — Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 229 (in part). 

Yucca australis, Trelease, I. c. iii. 162 (in part), t. 3, 4 (1892) ; 

iv. 190 (in part). 

Yucca Jilifera, the largest of the Yuccas now known, is a tree, 
often fifty feet in height, with a trunk frequently twenty feet tall 
and five feet in diameter, and many wide-spreading branches, and 
is distinguishable from all other species by its pendulous panicles 
of flowers and fruit, which are often six feet in length. It forms 
open forests of great extent on the plains which rise from the lower 
B,io Grande to the Sierra Madre, and ranges southward to San 
Luis Potosf. Introduced nearly forty years ago into the gardens 
of Europe, it is also occasionally cultivated in some of the Texan 
towns along the Rio Grande, and in northern Mexico, where it is 
often used in the neighborhood of Monterey and Saltillo to form 
stockades. 

3 Yucca Guatemalensis, Baker, Refugium Bot. v. t. 313 (1872) ; 
Jour. Linn. Soc. I. c. 222. — Engelmann, I. c. 38. — Watson, I. c. 
251. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 371. — Trelease, I. c. 162; 
iv. 184, t. 1, 2, 19. 

This arborescent much-branched species, which is little known in 
a wild state, is said to be one of the common Yuccas in the gardens 
of southern France and the Riviera, where it usually appears as 



Yucca Draconis, although it is not the Linnsean plant of that name. 
(See Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Information, January, 1892, 7.) 

4 Yucca Yucatana, Engelmann, I. c. 37 (1873). — Watson, I. c. 
251. — Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. I. v. 222. — Hemsley, I. c. — Tre- 
lease, I. c. 45 ; I. c. 

6 Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, ii. 208, t. 11 (PL Baja 
Col.) ; iii. 175. 

6 Bureau, Mem. Publies par le Soc. Philomathique a V Occasion du 
Centenaire de sa Fondation, 255, t. 23 (FJtudes sur la Flore Fossile 
du Calcaire Grossier Parisien). 

7 Loew, Wheeler's Rep. iii. 609. — Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 646. — 
Abbott, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. n. ser. xvi. 254 (A Chemical Study of 
Yucca angustifolia). — Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxii. 
42 (Food and Fibre Plants of the North American Indians'). 

8 Havard, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxiii. 37 (Drink Plants of the 
North American Indians). 

9 Linnjeus, Spec. 319 (1753). — Walter, Fl. Car. 124.— Bot. 
Mag. xxiii. t. 900. — Redoute', Liliacees, v. t. 277, 278. — Elliott, 
Sk. i. 400. — Loiseleur, Herb. Amat. iv. t. 258. — Chapman, Fl. 
485. — Engelmann, I. c. 51. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 
6, 524. 

This stemless and very variable species inhabits sandy barren 
soil and abandoned fields in the neighborhood of the coast from 
southern Maryland southward to Florida and westward along the 
southern borders of the Gulf states to Louisiana. It is the best 
known of all the Yuccas in northern gardens, which it enlivens in 
midsummer with its great panicles of large ivory-white flowers. 

The tough leaves of this species are twisted and used in the 
southern states for hanging hams and for other domestic purposes. 
Attempts have been made to utilize their fibre commercially ; but, 
though it is exceedingly strong and cheaply produced, the shortness 
of Yucca-fibre lessens its value, and it has not yet been success- 
fully introduced into commerce. (See Porcher, Resources of South- 
ern Fields and Forests, 530. — C. R. Dodge, U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Fibre Investigation Rep. No. 5, 70 \_A Report on the Leaf Fibres of the 
United States']^) 

10 Havard, Garden and Forest, iii. 631. 

11 Bartlett, Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in 



LiLiACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 5 

some of the arborescent species, which are often beset with leaves from the surface of the ground 
upward, are employed to protect dwellings and gardens from the intrusion of cattle. 

Yucca is rarely attacked by insects, 1 and is comparatively free from fungal diseases. 2 

Owing to their numerous clusters of beautiful large waxy white flowers and their habit, unfamiliar 
to northern eyes and the people of the Old World, Yuccas have become favorite garden plants, and 
many of the species may now be seen in the pleasure-grounds of the northern states, and of Europe, 
where they grow without protection in the countries bordering the Mediterranean. 

Yuccas can be raised from seeds, which germinate readily and quickly, by cutting off the terminal 
or lateral crowns of leaves and placing them on the surface of the soil of propagating beds, where they 
will soon develop roots, or from pieces of the stolons. 3 

The generic name is derived from the Carib name of the root of the Cassava. 4 

Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, ii. 490. — on other species also. It appears in the form of very numerous 

Rev. Hort. 1886, 508. minute spots which have a black border and a paler-colored centre 

1 In the coast region of the south Atlantic states Yuccas, espe- and hardly protrude above the surface of the leaf, and is one of 
cially Yucca aloifolia, are frequently injured by the larvae of Mega- tbe imperfect forms as yet unknown in a perfect condition. Ap- 
thymus Yuccas, Walker, which bore into the underground stems and, parently it attacks the living leaves, which it at first disfigures, and 
by weakening the trunk and inducing decay, frequently cause the ultimately destroys, and in the case of cultivated Yuccas it might 
prostration of the plant. The presence of the borer can be detected become a serious disease. A larger and more striking, although 
by its excrements at the base of the leaves and by chimney-like less widely distributed fungus, Dolhidea Pringlei, Peck, attacks the 
projections formed by the bases of the flower-stalk and of the leaves of Yucca aloifolia and Yucca Schottii, forming prominent 
tender partly devoured young leaves, through which they are hard black tubercles of considerable size. The other fungi which 
expelled. (See Riley, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 223 [Notes on the attack Yuccas are all small, the most characteristic being Nectria 
Yucca Borer] ; 8th Ann. Rep. Insects of Missouri, 169.) depauperata, Cooke, Leptosphama filamentosa, Ellis & Everhart, 

2 The fungi which are known to attack the different species of Phyllachora scapincola, Saccardo, and Anthostomella nigroannulata, 
Yucca belong almost exclusively to the Pyrenomycetes. The most Saccardo, belonging to the Pyrenomycetes, and the imperfect Cer- 
widely diffused among them is probably Kellermannia yuccaigena, cospora Yuccoz, Cooke, and Septoria Yuccoz, Saccardo. 

Ellis & Everhart, which infests the leaves of Yucca aloifolia, Yucca 3 Baines, The Garden, xxxiii. 487. 

arborescens, Yucca glauca, Yucca filamentosa, and probably occurs 4 Parkinson, Theatr. 154, 1624. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Euvtjcca. Filaments clavate, papillose, free from the perigone, spreading or recurved at maturity ; 
anthers cordate, emarginate, glabrous ; pollen powdery ; ovary sessile or stipitate ; style 3-lobed, 
short or elongated. 

Sarcoyucca. Panicle usually sessile. Fruit baccate, pendulous, the exocarp thick and succulent ; 
seeds thick ; albumen ruminate. 
Panicle glabrous or puberulous. 

Ovary stipitate. Leaves serrulate, slightly concave, smooth, dark green ..... 1. Y. aloifolia. 

Leaves concave, blue-green, rough on the lower surface 2. Y. Treculeana. 

Leaves flat, smooth, dark green 3. Y. macrocarpa. 

Leaves concave above the middle, smooth, light yellow-green 4. Y. Mohavensis. 

Panicle coated with hoary tomentum. 

Leaves concave, smooth, light yellow-green 5. Y. Schottii. 

Clistoyucca. Panicle stalked or sessile, inclosed at first in a large egg-shaped bud formed by 
its closely imbricated bracts. Fruit baccate, erect or spreading, the exocarp becoming thin 
and dry at maturity ; seeds thin ; albumen entire. 

Leaves concave above the middle, blue-green, sharply serrate 6. Y. arborescens. 

Leaves thin, flat or concave toward the apex, rough on the lower surface, dull or glau- 
cous green, more or less plicately folded 7. Y. gloriosa. 

Chsenoyucca. Panicle pedunculate. Fruit capsular, erect, septicidally and loculicidally dehis- 
cent ; seeds thin, albumen entire. 

Leaves thin and flat, filamentose on the margins, smooth, pale yellow-green .... 8. Y. constricta. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliace^;. 



YUCCA ALOIFOLIA. 

Spanish Bayonet. 
Ovary stipitate. Leaves serrulate, slightly concave, smooth, dark green. 

Yucca aloifolia, Linnaeus, Spec. 319 (1753). — Miller, 251. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 162; iv. 

Diet. ed. 8, No. 2. — Walter, Fl. Car. 124. — Aiton, 182, t. 18, f. 1-3. — Webber, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 

HorU Kew. i. 465. — Salisbury, Prodr. 246. — Willdenow, vi. 93, t. 45, 46, 47, f . 1-4. 

Spec. ii. pt. i. 184. — De Candolle, PI. Hist. Succ. i. t. Yucca serrulata, Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 70 (1812). — 

21. — Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 196. — Persoon, Syn. i. Roemer & Scbultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 716. — Kuntb, Enum. 

378. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 18. — Du Mont de iv. 270. — Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 35. 

Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 201. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. Yucca crenulata, Haworth, Suppl. PL Succ. 33 (1819). — 

i. 228. — Redouts', Liliacees, vii. t. 401, 402. — Bot. Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 717. — Kunth, Enum. 

Mag. xli. t. 1700. — Tussac, Fl. Antill. ii. 108, t. 29. — iv. 271. 

Nuttall, Gen. i. 218. — Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 32. — Yucca arcuata, Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 33 (1819). — 

Sprengel, Syst. ii. 41. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 717. — Kunth, Enum. 

i. 716 ; pt. ii. 1715. — Paxton, Mag. Bot. iii. 25, t. — iv. 271. 

Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1093. — Kunth, Enum. iv. 270. — Spach, Yucca tenuifolia, Haworth, Suppl. PL Succ. 34 (1819). — 

Hist. Veg. xii. 283. — Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 34. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 717. — Kunth, Enum. 

Chapman, FL 485. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Stir v. N. Car. iv. 271. — Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 35. 

1860, iii. 94. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. Yucca serrulata, a vera, Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 35 

34. — Hemsley, The Garden, viii. 131, f. ; Bot. Biol. Am. (1859). 

Cent. iii. 369. — Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 828, f. 154; Yucca serrulata, ft robusta, Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 35 

Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 221 ; Kew Bull. Misc. Informa- (1859). 
tion, January, 1892, 7. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, although usually much smaller, with a single erect 
or more or less inclining trunk, which is slightly swollen at the base and is simple or produces two or 
three short erect branches, rarely more than six inches in diameter, or with several spreading stems, and 
a long stout caudex. The leaves, which clothe the stem to the ground while the plant is young, are 
erect and rather remote except at the apex, where they are closely imbricated into a dense cluster ; and 
in old age only the base of the trunk is covered with thick rough dark brown bark, while the scars left 
by the falling leaves mark the remaining portion where it is not hidden by the withered decumbent 
leaves which press closely against it and usually do not fall until many years after their death. The 
leaves are linear-lanceolate, ridged, and conspicuously narrowed above the broad thin light green base 
which is from an inch and a half to two inches broad and marked with a red transverse band ; they are 
widest above the middle, slightly concave on the upper surface, finely and irregularly serrate with 
minute dark cartilaginous obtuse teeth, mucronate with a stout stiff dark red-brown spine-like tip one 
third of an inch in length, smooth dark rich green, from eighteen to thirty-two inches, but usually 
about twenty-four inches long, and from one and a quarter to two and a half inches wide. The flowers 
appear from June until August in nearly sessile glabrous or slightly pubescent panicles from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches in length ; their bracts are ovate or oblong, acute, mucronate, thick, white, leathery, 
and glabrous, and wither without falling, the largest being four or five inches long and often an inch 
wide, while those at the base of the pedicels toward the ends of the branches of the panicle are not more 
than half an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide ; they are borne on stout pedicels from one to 
two inches long, and vary from an inch to an inch and a half in length, and when expanded during the 
night are from three to four inches across. The base of the perigone is greenish and sometimes 
flushed with purple ; its segments are ovate, and thick and tumid toward the base : those of the outer 



liliace^e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 7 

rank are rounded and often marked with dark purple at the apex, and the inner are acuminate and 
short-pointed. The stamens are usually about as long as or sometimes a little longer than the light 
green ovary, which is raised on a short stout stipe/ and is crowned by the sessile stigmatic lobes. The 
fruit, which is often produced abundantly without the aid of the Yucca Moth, ripens from August to 
October ; it is elongated, elliptical, hexagonal by the spreading of the septal glands, the sides alternate 
with the carpels being sharply depressed, rounded at the base, and gradually narrowed at the apex, 
which is tipped with the stigmatic lobes ; it has a thick outer coat and a thin firm white membranaceous 
endocarp, and is from three to four inches long and from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half 
thick ; when fully grown it is light green and rather lustrous, and in ripening turns a deep dark rich 
purple throughout, the outer and inner coats of the pericarp forming a thick indehiscent succulent 
homogeneous tender mass of bitter-sweet juicy flesh, which finally turns black and dries up on the 
panicle. The seed is from one quarter to one third of an inch broad and about one sixteenth of an 
inch thick, with thin narrow Aving-like borders to the rim. 2 

Yucca aloifolia grows only in the neighborhood of the coast and on its islands, and is distributed 
from North Carolina southward to southern Florida, and along the Gulf to eastern Louisiana. In the 
Atlantic states it usually grows close to the sea, generally on the sand-dunes of beaches and the sandy 
borders of brackish swamps ; in Florida it is abundant on the sand-dunes of the coast, and occasionally 
occurs on rich hummocks, whither it may have been carried by the Indians, who used the fibres of its 
leaves ; and west of the Appalachicola River, where it attains its largest size, Yucca aloifolia is 
common on the islands and beaches of the coast, and extends inland for thirty or forty miles, growing 
with stunted Oaks in the dry sandy soil of the Pine forest. 

The wood of Yucca aloifolia has not been examined. 

The succulent fruits, which have a sweet and rather pleasant flavor, are eagerly devoured by 
birds, and are occasionally eaten by whites and negroes in the southern states, where they are often 
called bananas. 

Yucca aloifolia was one of the first Yuccas known to Europeans, and one form of it appears to 
have been described by Caspar Bauhin in 1623. 3 After the settlement of the southern coast of North 
America by Europeans it must soon have been carried to the West Indies, as it was thoroughly 
naturalized in Jamaica and other islands more than a century ago, and to the Mexican Gulf coast, 
where it is also naturalized and is believed by many authors to be indigenous. 

Yucca aloifolia is now a familiar object in the gardens of all temperate countries, and accidental 
forms with leaves variously striped with green, white, and yellow are common in cultivation. 4 

1 Trelease, Rep. Missouri ,Bot. Gard. iv. 184. 3 Draconi arbori qffinis Americana, Pinax, 506. 

2 A form of this plant which is said to bear longer, less crowded, Aloe Americana juccce foliis arborescens, Kigglaer, Cat. Hort. 
soft, and somewhat curved and pendulous leaves, and is known Beaum. 5. — K. Commelin, Prod. Bot. 64, t. 14. 

only in European gardens, is : — Aloe Yuccce foliis, caulescens, Hermann, Parad. Bat. Prodr. 

Yucca aloifolia, var. # Draconis, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 306. — Plukenet, Phyt. t. 256, f. 4 ; Aim. Bot. 19. 
Acad. iii. 35 (1873). Aloe; Americana; folio Yuccce; arborescens, Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. 

Yucca Draconis, Linnaeus, Spec. 319 (1753). — Miller, Diet. ed. Hort. Lugd. Bat. pt. ii. 131. 

8, No. 3. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 465. — Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 34, t. Yucca arborescens, foliis rigidioribus rectis serratis, Dillenius, Hort. 

85, f . 9. — Persoon, Syn. i. 378. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. Elth. 435, t. 323, f . 416. 

18. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, ii. 201. — Elliott, Sk. Yucca Draconis folio serrato reflexo, Dillenius, I. c. 437, t. 324, 

i. 401. — Ha worth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 32. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 41. — f . 417 (excl. syn. Commelin). 

Roenier & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 716. — Bot. Reg. xxii. t. Yucca foliorum mar gine crenulato, Linnfeus, Hort. Cliff. 130 (excl. 

1894. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1093. — Kunth, Enum. iv. 270. — Spach, syn. Sloane, ? J. Bauhin and ? Clusius) ; Hort. Ups. 88. 

Hist. Veg. xii. 284. — Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 828. Yucca foliis crenulatis, Linnaeus, Virid. Cliff. 29. 

Yucca Haruckeriana, Crantz, Dudb. Drac. Arbor. 29 (1768). C or dyline foliis pungentibus crenulatis, Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 221. 

Another form known only in gardens, with soft although not 4 Yucca tricolor, Yucca lineata lutea, Yucca quadricolor, Hort. — 

pendulous leaves, with green and less ridged points, is : — Yucca serrata, y argenteo-marginata, and 6 roseo-marginata, Kegel, 

Var. 7 conspicua, Engelmann, I. c. (1873). Gartenfora, viii. 35 (1859). 

Yucca conspicua, Haworth, I. c. 32 (1819). — Sprengel, I. c. — In gardens Yucca aloifolia sometimes appears as Yucca pur- 

Roemer & Schultes, I. c. 715. — Kunth, I. c. purea and as Yucca Atkinsi. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate CCCCXCVII. Yucca aloifolia. 

1. A branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A stamen, natural size. 

4. A pistil, natural size. 

5. Portion of a fruit-cluster, natural size. 

6. A fruit, basal view, natural size. 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A leaf-bud, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



TalD.CCCCXCVII 




C. E. Faason, del . 



ZiOveruLal so. 



YUCCA ALOIFOLIA, L 



A.ffiacreita? direa>. 



Imp. </. Ttzneur^ Paris. 



t^liacem. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 9 



YUCCA TRECULEANA. 
Spanish Bayonet. Spanish Dagger. 
Leaves concave, blue-green, rough on the lower surface. 

Yucca Treculeana, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1858, 580 ; 1869, Yucca aspera, Regel, Ind. Sem. Sort. Petrop. 1858, 24 ; 

406, f. 82. — Baker, Qard. Chron. 1870, 828; Jour. Gartenflora, viii. 35. 

Linn. Soc. xviii. 226. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Yucca canaliculata, Hooker, Bot. Mag. lxxxvi. t. 5201 

Acad. iii. 41, 210, 212. — Hemsley, The Garden, viii. 131, (1860). — Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1217. — Engel- 

f . ; xii. 328, t. ; Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 371. — Andre", mann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 43. — Watson, Proc. 

Rev. Hort. 1887, 369, f. 74. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Am. Acad. xiv. 252. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 

Bot. Gard. iii. 162, t. 47 ; iv. 185, t. 18, f . 4, 5. — Coulter, 10th Census U. S. ix. 218. 

Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 436 (Man. PL W. Texas). Yucca longifolia, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 8. 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes two feet in 
diameter, and numerous stout wide-spreading branches, but usually smaller, and often forming broad 
low thickets of simple stems four or five feet high. The bark of old trunks is from one fourth to 
one half of an inch in thickness, dark red-brown, and broken into thick oblong plates covered with 
small irregular rather closely appressed scales. The leaves are lanceolate, slightly or not at all 
contracted above the broad dark red lustrous base, concave, and tipped with short stout dark red-brown 
spines, their margins being at first dark brown, with a pale cartilaginous edge roughened by minute 
deciduous teeth, and ultimately separating into slender dark fibres ; they vary from two and a balf- to 
four feet in length, and from two to three and a quarter inches in width, and are stiff and rigid, dark 
blue-green, rough on the lower surface and nearly smooth on the upper, and do not fall for many years, 
the dead leaves hanging closely pressed against the trunk below the terminal crown of closely imbricated 
upright living leaves. The flowers appear in March and April, and are borne on slender pedicels from 
half an inch to an inch and a half in length, in a dense many-flowered much-branched glabrous or 
puberulous panicle from two to four feet long, and raised on a short stalk from one to two inches in 
diameter ; the bracts are ovate-oblong, gradually or abruptly contracted toward the apex, which is 
tipped with a long rigid brown spine, concave, white, and leathery, five or six inches long, from one 
to three inches wide, and often green above the middle, especially those at the very base of the 
inflorescence; on its ultimate divisions they are thinner, and flushed with purple above the middle, 
ovate-lanceolate, and about an inch long and a quarter of an inch wide, with stout soft points. The 
perigone when fully expanded varies from two to four inches across, and is from one to two inches in 
length j its narrow elongated segments are ovate-lanceolate or rarely ovate, about a quarter of an inch 
wide, thin and delicate, acute, and furnished at the apex with conspicuous tufts of short pale hairs. 
The filaments are slightly papillose, and about as long as the prismatic ovary, which is gradually 
narrowed above, and crowned by the deeply divided stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which ripens in the 
summer, is indehiscent, cylindrical, or obscurely hexagonal, somewhat sulcate or three-lobed, and 
abruptly narrowed at the apex into a short stout point ; it is from three to four inches long, and about 
an inch thick, and is borne on a stout recurved stalk from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; 
the outer coat is dark reddish brown, thin, and succulent, with a sweet, although slightly bitter, rather 
agreeable flavor, and easily separates from the thin light brown membranaceous inner coat. The seeds 
are about an eighth of an inch broad, and nearly a sixteenth of an inch thick, with slightly winged rims. 1 

1 No observations have been made on the pollination of Yucca undescribed species of Pronuba. (See Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 
Treculeana. Cultivated plants are habitually sterile ; and Professor 122 ; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vii. 96 ; Insect Life, iv. 371.) 
Riley believed that the flowers were fertilized by a distinct and 



10 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliace;e. 

Yucca Treculeana is distributed from the shores of Matagorda Bay southward through western 
Texas to the valleys of the Sierra Madre of Nuevo Leon, and westward up the valley of the Rio Grande 
to the high plateau at the eastern base of the mountain ranges of western Texas. Just within the 
coast dunes at the mouth of the Rio Grande in Texas Yucca Treculeana forms open stunted forests, 
and farther inland, where it is one of the common chapparal plants, it spreads into great impenetrable 
thickets. On the margins of the high plains and valleys, where they rise to meet the foothills of the 
Sierra Madre, Yucca Treculeana is the most conspicuous feature of the vegetation, 1 forming open 
forests, and growing to a large size ; in western Texas it is less abundant and smaller. 

The wood of Yucca Treculeana is light brown, fibrous, spongy, heavy, and difficult to cut and 
work. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6677, a cubic foot weighing 41.61 pounds. 

The fruit is cooked and eaten by the Mexicans of the valley of the Rio Grande, and the 
root-stock is used as a substitute for soap. 

Described from a plant cultivated in France, where it was probably first introduced by the 
French naturalist 2 whose service to botany its specific name commemorates, Yucca Treculeana has long 
ornamented the gardens of southern Europe, growing to a large size, and flowering profusely, 3 as it 
does in the gardens of Austin and other Texas cities, which it often enlivens in early spring with 
enormous abundant and splendid clusters of brilliant flowers. 4 

1 C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, iii. 338. France in the autumn of 1850. His collections made during the 

2 Auguste Adolph Lucien Tre'cul was born in Mondoubleau, near first year of his stay in America were lost in the wreck of the ship 
Vendome, in France, on the 18th of January, 1818, where his to which they had been intrusted ; but those made in Texas and 
father was a baker, and was educated in the primary school of his northern Mexico, where he passed the winter of 1849, reached 
native place and in the college at Vendome. On graduating from France in good condition, and included living plants of Ungnadia 
college he went to Paris to study pharmacy, and in 1841 was speciosa, Yucca Treculeana, Soplwra secundiflora, Guaiacum angusti- 
admitted as an assistant in the Paris hospitals, and began the study folium, Rhus virens, and several species of Cactus. Since 1850 
of natural history. A paper published in 1843 in the Annates des Tre'cul has devoted himself to morphology and physiology, and has 
Sciences Naturelles on the Fruits of Prismatocarpus and on that of published many papers on these subjects in the Comptes Rendus 
the Crucifers attracted the attention of the authorities of the Mu- de V Academie des Sciences, the Journal de Pharmacie, Annales des 
seum, who engaged him temporarily to assist in the arrangement Sciences Naturelles, Revue Horticole, etc. In 1851 he delivered a 
of the herbarium. At this time Tre'cul prepared a monograph of course of lectures on botany before the Institut National Agro- 
the Artocarpacese, published in the eighth volume of the third series nomique at Versailles ; but since his return from America has 
of the Annales, and continued his studies upon the organs of plants, occupied no official position. 

to which most of his attention as a botanist has been devoted. In •" Naudin, Manuel de V Acclimateur, 558. — Baker, Kew Bull. Mis- 

1814 he was sent by the Museum to North America to collect cellaneous Information, January, 1892, 8. 

plants and animals, being also commissioned by the Minister of In European gardens Yucca Treculeana is sometimes cultivated 

Agriculture and Commerce to study the esculent plants used by under the names of Yucca agavoides, Yucca concava, Yucca cornuta, 

the Indians of the western plains. Arriving in North America in Yucca revoluta, and Yucca undulata. (See Carriere, Rev. Hort. 

1848, he traveled through the region between the Mississippi River 1858, 580. — Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 226.) 

and the Rocky Mountains for nearly three years, and returned to 4 Sargent, Garden and Forest, i. 54, f . 10. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate CCCCXCVIIL Yucca Treculeana. 

1. Portion of a branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

4. A pistil, natural size. 

5. Portion of a branch of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a portion of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 

10. The base of a leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. CCCCXCVIII. 




Hirrtefy se>- 



YUCCA TRECULEANA, Carr. 



A.Hiocreua> direcC \ 



Imp. Jl Tajveur, Paris. 



liliace^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 13 



YUCCA MACROCARPA. 

Spanish Dagger. 
Leaves flat, dark green. Fruit long-beaked. 

Yucca macrocarpa, Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. Yucca baccata, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

202 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.) (1893). — Sargent, Gar- U. S. ix. 219 (in part) (not Torrey) (1884). — Hemsley, 

den and Forest, ix. 104. Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 370 (in part). 

Yucca baccata, var. macrocarpa, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Yucca filifera, Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 162, 

Bound. Surv. 222 (1858). (in part) (not Chabaud) (1892). 

Yucca baccata, (3 australis, Engelmann, Trans, fit. Louis Yucca australis, Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 

Acad. iii. 44 (in part) (1873). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 190, t. 4, 5 (excl. hab. Parras) (1893). — Coulter, Contrib. 

xiv. 252 (in part). — Baker, Jour. Linn. fioc. xviii. 229 U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 436 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 
(in part). 

A tree, often forty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes two feet in diameter above the broad 
abruptly enlarged base, from which hard tough roots a third of an inch in thickness and covered with 
bright red-brown lustrous bark descend deep into the soil, and simple, or divided into several short 
branches ; frequently smaller, and until ten or fifteen years old clothed from the ground with erect 
living leaves. Near the base the stems of old trees are covered with dark reddish brown bark from a 
third to a half of an inch in thickness and broken on the surface into small thin loose scales, and above 
are protected by a thick thatch of the pendent dry leaves of many seasons. The leaves are lanceolate, 
rigid, and from two and a half to four feet in length; they are abruptly contracted above the 
conspicuously thickened dark red and lustrous base, which is six or seven inches broad, and then 
gradually widen to above the middle, where they are from two and a half to three inches in breadth ; 
they are flat on the upper surface, thickened and rounded on the lower toward the base, tipped 
with short stout dark spines, smooth, and clear dark green, their margins, which at first are brown 
and entire, breaking later into numerous stout gray or brown fibres, short and spreading near the apex 
of the leaf and long and more remote toward the base, where they form a thick cobweb-like mass 
between the leaves. The flowers, which in Texas appear in April, hang on thin drooping pedicels 
from three quarters of an inch to nearly three inches long, forming dense many-flowered glabrous 
panicles from three to four feet in length, with elongated pendulous branches and short peduncles ; 
the bracts are ovate, acute or acuminate, mucronate at the apex, white, thick and leathery ; often from 
ten to fourteen inches long and from three to four inches broad at the base of the panicle, they 
decrease in size upward, those at the base of its branches being from four to six inches long and about 
an inch wide, and those at the base of the pedicels, which do not fall until after the flowers, from an 
inch to an inch and a half long, a quarter of an inch wide, and membranaceous. The perigone is 
about two and a half inches in length, with obovate thin concave acute white waxy segments, narrowed 
at both ends and united at the base into a short tube, those of the outer rank being not more than 
half as wide as those of the inner rank and about two thirds as long. The stamens are much shorter 
than the ovary, with slender filaments pilose above the middle with short rigid hairs, and abruptly 
dilated and clavate at the apex. The ovary is sessile, conspicuously ridged, light yellow, marked with 
laro-e pale raised lenticels, and gradually narrowed above into an elongated slender style deeply three- 
lobed at the apex. The fruit, which ripens in early summer, is indehiscent, slightly or not at all 
angled, abruptly contracted at the apex into a longer or shorter slender hooked beak, from three to 
four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half thick, light orange-colored and lustrous 



14 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliaceje. 

when it first ripens, and ultimately nearly black, with a thick succulent, although not juicy, bitter sweet 
and luscious outer coat and a thin light brown membranaceous inner coat. The seed is a quarter 01 
an inch in length and about an eighth of an inch in thickness, with narrow or nearly obsolete margins 

to the rim. 1 

Yucca macrocarpa, which is the largest of the Yuccas that inhabit the United States, is common 
on the hio-h desert plateau of southwestern Texas, where it is the most conspicuous feature of the 
vegetation, growing with Agaves, Nolinas, Cacti, and smaller Yuccas, in an open forest, and attaining 
its greatest size on the wide slopes leading up to the base of the mountains ; it ranges westward into 
New Mexico and southward over the highlands of northern Mexico. 2 

The wood of Yucca macrocavpa has not been examined. 

When slightly dried over a fire the green leaves of this plant become supple and can easily be 
slit into narrow shreds, which are used as withes, or substitutes for ropes in binding sheaves of grain, 
bundles of hay, and the loads of pack-saddles. Mexicans and Indians also obtain from the green leaves 
a strong smooth white fibre about three feet in length, by scraping them with a knife, leaving the 
shreds to dry for a short time upon the ground, washing them to remove the pith, and then combing 
the fibres or pulling them apart by hand. 3 

In the United States Yucca macrocarpa was first noticed in September, 1852, in southwestern 
Texas by Dr. J. M. Bigelow, 4 one of the botanists of the Mexican Boundary Survey. 

The arid and inhospitable region which is the home of this tree is made beautiful in early spring 
by its broad panicles rising above the dense clusters of long dark green sword-shaped leaves with their 
drooping branches and large closely crowded flowers, and gleaming in the sunlight like countless 
spray-covered fountains. 5 

1 No observations on the pollination of this species have been collected by Pringle on limestone hills in the Carneros Pass, Chi- 
made. It blooms with or a little later than Yucca Treculeana, and huahua, in 1889 and 1891 (Nos. 2841, 3912), and is perhaps the 
a month earlier than Yucca constricta, with which species it is No. 1571 of Coulter's Mexican collection in Herb. Gray, 
associated in western Texas, and the fruit shows the work of the 3 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 516 {Yucca baccata). 
larvse of a Pronuba (Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 192). 4 See i. 88. 

2 It is probably Yucca macrocarpa which attracts the attention of 5 Garden and Forest, viii. 301, f . 42. 
travelers on the Mexican Central Railway in Chihuahua. It was 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate CCCCXCIX. Yucca macrocarpa. 

1. Portion of a branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. A fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. The base of a leaf, natural size. 

5. The point of a leaf, natural size. 

6. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. CCCCXCIX. 







C. E. Faccorv- d&L. 



ffimeiij 



YUCCA MACRO CARPA , Cov. 



A. Riocreuay dzrezc 6 . 



Imp. J.Tcuveur, Paris. 



LiLiACEiE. SUVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 15 



YUCCA MOHAVENSIS. 
Spanish Dagger. 
Leaves concave, smooth, light yellow-green. 

Yucca Mohavensis, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ix. 104 (in part). — S. B. Parish, Garden and Forest, iv. 136 ; 

(1896). Zoe, iv. 348. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 

Yucca filamentosa ? Wood, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1868, 167 162 (in part), t. 2 ; iv. 185 (in part). 

(not Linnaeus). Yucca macrocarpa, Merriam, North American Fauna, 

Yucca baccata, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. No. 7, 358, t. 14 {Death Valley Exped. ii.) (not Yucca 

44 (in part) (1873). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. baccata, var. macrocarpa, Torrey, nor Yucca macrocarpa, 

252 (in part). — Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 229 (in Engelmann) (1893). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

part). — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Gal. ii. 164 (in part). — iv. 202 {Bot. Death Valley Exped.) (in part). 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \§th Census U. S. ix. 219 

A tree, rarely exceeding fifteen feet in height, with a trunk which is usually simple, or occasionally 
furnished with short spreading branches, and is six or eight inches in diameter, covered toward the 
base with dark brown bark, and generally surrounded by a cluster of shorter more or less spreading 
stems often clothed to the ground with living leaves, and thus forming small thickets, and thick 
branching root-stocks. The leaves are lanceolate, abruptly contracted above the thickened dark red 
and lustrous base, which is from three to three and a half inches wide, gradually narrowed upward 
to above the middle, where they are often an inch and a half in width, thin and concave except toward 
the slightly thickened base of the blade, the two edges being almost closed together near the apex, 
which terminates in a stout dark rigid sharp-pointed tip; they are light yellow-green, smooth on 
both surfaces, and from eighteen to twenty-four inches in length, with entire margins which at first 
are bright red-brown but soon begin to separate into numerous long pale smooth thick filaments. 
The flowers appear from March on the deserts of the interior to the beginning of May on the coast ; 
they are produced in densely flowered panicles which are glabrous or roughened with reddish brown 
scurfy pubescence, usually more or less flushed with purple, sessile or short-stemmed, from twelve to 
eighteen inches in length, and furnished near the base of the rachis and below the lowest branch with a 
pair of flowers, and are borne on slender nearly erect ultimately drooping pedicels from an inch to an 
inch and a half in length, and occasionally forked near the middle and two-flowered ; the bracts at the 
base of the panicle are linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, from eight to ten inches in length, white 
below and green and leaf-like above the middle ; those at the base of the short and rather slender 
branches of the panicle are from five to seven inches in length, creamy white on the inner surface, and 
more or less deeply tinged with purple on the outer ; and those at the base of the pedicels near the apex 
of the panicle are often not more than half an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide. The 
flowers vary much in size, even on neighboring plants, on some the perigone being two and a half 
inches and on others not more than an inch in length ; the segments are united at the base into a 
short tube, and are thickened and hood-shaped at the apex, which is furnished with a tuft of pale 
hairs; those of the outer rank, which are often deeply flushed with purple, are much thickened 
externally toward the base and keeled along the back with a stout keel extending slightly above the 
rounded apex, narrowed below, concave and slightly grooved on the inner face and but little longer 
than the less prominently ribbed usually wider and thinner segments of the inner rank. The stamens 
rise nearly to the base of the stigma, with filaments which are rounded or flattened on the back and 
more or less pilose from the base upward. The ovary is sessile, slightly three-lobed, pale green, 
gradually narrowed above into a short stout three-lobed style penetrated by a wide stigmatic tube, the 



16 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliace^. 

lobes deeply emarginate at the apex. The fruit, which is rather sparingly produced, ripens in August 
and September, and is pendidous, indehiscent, from three to four inches long, about an inch and a 
half thick, usually much constricted near the middle and abruptly contracted at the apex into a short 
stout point, and in ripening turns from green to a tawny yellow color, and then passes through shades 
of brownish purple, finally becoming dark dull brown or nearly black ; it has sweet succulent flesh, 
often half an inch in thickness, and a thin light brown inner coat. The seeds are a third of an inch 
wide, rather less than an eighth of an inch thick, and furnished with narrow borders to the rim. 

An inhabitant of the desert, where it is scattered either singly or in small groups, Yucca 
Mohavensis grows on mountain slopes, which it sometimes ascends to elevations of about four thousand 
feet above the level of the sea, and on the sides of the depressions made by sudden torrents, and is 
distributed from southern Nevada and northeastern Arizona across the Mohave Desert, where it attains 
its largest size, over the western rim of the Colorado Desert and from the southern base of the San 
Bernardino Mountains to the Calif ornia coast, along which it extends from northern Lower California l 
to the neighborhood of Monterey, being less abundant here than in the interior, and often remaining 
stemless in the California coast region. 

The wood of a plant from San Diego, California, is soft, spongy, light brown, and difficult to 
work. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.2724, a cubic foot weighing 16.98 
pounds. 

From the fibres of the leaves gayly decorated blankets are woven by the Indians of southern 
California, who also make them into cords. 2 

First noticed in California in 1852 by Dr. C. C. Parry, 3 one of the botanists of the expedition sent 
to determine the boundary between the United States and Mexico, Yucca Mohavensis was long 
confounded with the stemless Yucca baccata 4 of the Colorado plateau and with Yucca macrocarpa of 
western Texas and Chihuahua. 

1 Brandegee, Proc. Cat. Acad. ser. 2, ii. 208 (PL Baja CaL). species of Yucca now known, the perigone often exceeding four 

2 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 646. inches in length, and large indehiscent succulent fruits narrowed at 
8 See vii. 130. the apex into short beaks. Yucca baccata is an inhabitant of the 
4 Yucca baccata (Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 221 (in part) Colorado plateau, where it is distributed from southwestern Col- 

[1859]) is a plant with a subterranean stem, or a stem some eight orado to northern New Mexico and northern Arizona, being abun- 

or ten feet long lying prostrate on the surface of the ground, tufts dant on the high Pine-covered plains south of the canon of the 

of glaucous concave leaves much roughened on the back and from Colorado River, but apparently not extending south of the rim of 

three to four feet in length, larger flowers than those of any other the plateau or descending into the desert. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate D. Yucca Mohavensis. 

1. A branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Outer segment of the perigone, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A flower, natural size. 

4. A fruit, natural size. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. The base of a leaf, natural size. 

7. The point of a leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. D. 




C.E.Faccowdel- 



YUCCA MOHAVENSIS, Sarg. 



Rapine sa. 



XEiocreuca dire&' 



Imp. J. TaJb&ur, Paris. 



liliace^e. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 17 



YUCOA SCHOTTII. 

Spanish Dagger. 

Panicle coated with hoary tomentum. Leaves concave above the middle, smooth, 
light yellow-green. 

Yucca Schottii, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 46 Yucca baccata, Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 

(1873). — Watson, Proe. Am. Acad. xiv. 252.— Baker, 270 (in part) (1878). 

Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 228. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Yucca macrocarpa, Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vi. 224 (not 

Cent. iii. 371. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Qard. Yucca baccata var. macrocarpa, TorreyJ (1881). — 

iii. 162 ; iv. 185, t. 3. Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Information, January, 1892, 8. — 

Yucca puberula, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 221 Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iii. 162, 'i t. 46. — 

(not Haworth) (1859). Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 22. 

A tree, in Arizona rarely eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk which is often crooked 
or slightly inclining, and is simple or furnished with two or three short erect branches, not more than 
ten inches in diameter, covered below with dark red-brown scaly bark from a third to a half of an inch 
in thickness, roughened for many years by the persistent scars of the leaf-bases, and clothed above by 
the pendent dead leaves of many seasons. The leaves are lanceolate, from two and a half to three feet 
in length, and gradually narrowed upward from the thin lustrous red base, which is three or three and 
a half inches in width, to above the middle, where they are an inch and a half broad ; they are light 
yellow-green and smooth, with thick entire red-brown margins, which eventually separate sparingly into 
short thin smooth brittle threads, and are flat except toward the apex, where they gradually become 
strongly concave, and end in long rigid sharp light red-brown points, and toward the base, where they 
are slightly thickened and rounded. The flowers appear from July to September in an erect 
pedunculate panicle with a short rachis and stout slender branches growing from it at nearly right 
angles, and then turning abruptly upward, the whole clothed with loose hoary tomentum, which also 
covers the short stout erect or spreading pedicels ; the bracts are lanceolate, white and fleshy, and vary 
from eighteen inches in length at the base of the panicle, where they terminate in long rigid points, to 
less than an inch on its ultimate divisions, where they are thin and membranaceous, often falling before 
the flowers. The perigone is from an inch to an inch and three quarters long, and on the outer 
surface is pubescent at the base, its broad oval or oblong-obovate thin segments being tipped at the 
apex with conspicuous clusters of white tomentum, and often slightly pilose on the back. The stamens 
are not more than two thirds as long as the ovary, with flattened filaments pilose from the base, and 
only slightly enlarged at the apex. The ovary is cylindrical, gradually narrowed above, and crowned 
by a short stout deeply lobed style. The fruit, which in Arizona is produced sparingly, and ripens in 
October and November, is pendulous, indehiscent, slightly angled, from three and a half to four inches 
in length, about an inch and a quarter in thickness, often narrowed above the middle, tipped by a stout 
thick point, and surrounded at the base with the remains of the perigone ; at first pale green when 
fully grown, it turns orange-color and finally black in ripening ; the flesh is thin, sweet, and succulent, 
and closely invests the thin light brown inner coat. The seeds are a quarter of an inch broad, and 
about an eighth of an inch thick, with thin conspicuous marginal rims. 

In the United States, where it is nowhere abundant, Yucca Schottii inhabits the dry slopes of the 
mountain ranges of Arizona adjacent to the Mexican boundary, usually at elevations of between five 
and six thousand feet above the level of the sea, but occasionally following their canons down to the 
hio-h mesas at their base, and ranges southward through Sonora. 



18 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LILIACE^E. 



The wood of Yucca Schottii has not been examined. 

Yucca Schottii was discovered by Mr. A. Schott 1 in June, 1849, in the valley of the Santa Cruz 
River in northern Sonora. 



1 Arthur Carl Victor Schott (February 27, 1814-July 26, 1875) 
was born in Stuttgart, and educated in the gymnasium and the 
technical school of his native city. After graduating at the age 
of fifteen he worked as an apprentice for a year in the Royal 
Gardens of Stuttgart preparatory to entering the Institute of 
Agriculture at Hohenheim. When he had thus completed bis 
education Schott managed various rural estates in Germany, and 
then took charge of a mining property in Hungary, where he 
remained for ten years, devoting himself assiduously to the study 
of botany, geology, and zoology. In 1848 he traveled through 
southern Europe, Turkey, and Arabia, and in August, 1850, came 
to America, where he obtained employment in the office of the 
United States Topographical Engineers at Washington. A few 
years later, upon the recommendation of Dr. John Torrey, he was 
appointed a member of the scientific corps of the commission estab- 
lished to fix the boundary between the United States and Mexico, 
and was given charge of one of the surveying parties. In addition 
to his regular work as one of the surveyors of the Commission, 
Mr. Schott formed large botanical collections, made the sketches 
of the scenery which accompanied the reports of Lieutenant Mich- 



ler, published in the general Boundary Report and in separate 
memoirs, and also sketched the geology of the lower Rio Grande, 
and wrote the account of the geology of the territory lying between 
the one hundred and eleventh degree of longitude and the initial 
point on the Colorado River of the West. In 1857, his work in 
connection with the Mexican Boundary Commission being com- 
pleted, he became a member of a Government Commission to sur- 
vey the Atrato River in the United States of Colombia, serving 
there for several months, and returning with the Commission to 
Washington, where its report was completed in 1864. 

In 1864 Mr. Schott was commissioned by Governor Salazar of 
Yucatan to make a geological survey of that State, and was en- 
gaged on this work until 1866, when it was interrupted by political 
revolutions. He was afterwards employed in the Topographical 
Bureau of the War Department of the United States, and then, 
until his death, in the office of the Coast Survey. 

Mr. Schott is described as a man of many talents, a good lin- 
guist, an accomplished scholar and artist, and a thorough naturalist. 
He was an indefatigable worker, careful and systematic in his 
methods, and untiring in his efforts to advance the cause of science. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DI. Yucca Schottii. 

1. Portion of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A fruit, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. The base of a leaf, natural size. 

6. The point of a leaf, natural size. 

7. A bract from the base of an inflorescence, natural size. 

8. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab . CI 




C.E.Faxon, del . 



MLgn&azuE 



YUCCA SCHOTTII, Enjelm. 



A.Mocrevea> diresc 1 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris. 



liliacejs. SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 19 



YUCCA ARBORESCENS. 

Joshua Tree. 
Leaves concave above the middle, blue-green, sharply serrate. 

Yucca arborescens, Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. Nat. ix. 141, 351. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 

iii. 163, t. 5, 49 (1893). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 252. —Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 221. — Brewer & 

Herb. iv. 201, t. {Bot. Death Valley Exped.). Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 164. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 

Yucca Draconis, var. arborescens, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 218. — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, i. 

Rep. iv. pt. v. 147 (1857). 772, f. 145. — S. B. Parish, Garden and Forest, iv. 135; 

Yucca brevifolia, Engelmann, Watson King's Rep. v. 496 Zoe, iv. 349. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 

(1871) ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 47. — Parry, Am. 193, t. 6-9, 21. 

A tree, from thirty to forty feet tall, with stout tough roots descending deeply into the soil from a 
broad thick basal disk from which the trunk rises abruptly. Until the stem attains a height of eight 
or ten feet it is simple and clothed to the ground with leaves which are erect until after the appearance 
of the first panicle of flowers, when they spread at right angles, and, finally becoming reflexed, do not 
disappear for many years ; after flowering the stem forms two or three branches, ultimately becomes 
two or three feet in diameter, covered, like the short stout limbs, with gray bark from an inch to 
an inch and a half in thickness, and deeply divided into oblong plates frequently two inches in length, 
and bears a broad and often symmetrical head formed by the continued forking of the branches at the 
base of the terminal flower-clusters. The rigid leaves, which are crowded in densely imbricated clusters 
at the end of the branches, are lanceolate, and taper gradually or rarely are slightly contracted above 
the bright red-brown lustrous base, which is from an inch and a half to two inches wide ; they are from 
five to eight, or rarely on vigorous young plants ten or twelve inches in length, and from one quarter 
to one half of an inch in width ; they are concave above the middle, flat or only slightly concave 
toward the base, tipped with sharp gradually tapering dark red-brown points from one half to three 
quarters of an inch long, bluish green and glaucous, and smooth or slightly roughened, with thin 
yellow margins armed with sharp minute teeth. The flowers appear from March until the beginning of 
May, the creamy white closely imbricated bracts of the panicle, which are often flushed with purple at 
the apex, forming before its appearance a conspicuous conical cone-like bud eight or ten inches in 
length. The panicle is nearly sessile, pubescent, densely flowered, fifteen or sixteen inches long and 
about eight inches broad, with a stout rachis an inch and a half thick at the base, and gradually 
tapering to the apex, and short stout branches ; the lower bracts are sterile, and, although rather 
shorter, resemble the leaves except at the base, which is oblong, leathery, creamy white, about two and 
a half inches long and an inch and a quarter broad ; by the gradual lengthening of the wide base and 
the shortening of the green leaf-like tip, the inner bracts, from which the branches of the inflorescence 
spring, are oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate, acuminate, leathery, creamy white, and seven or eight 
inches long, and from one to two inches broad, gradually decreasing in size toward the apex of the 
panicle, those at the base of the upper branches being not more than three inches in length ; the lowest 
fertile bract bears one or two flowers in its axil ; and at the base of each branch are usually two solitary 
flowers, while the rest of its flowers, eight or ten in number, are arranged above its middle, each in the 
axis of a creamy white bract, the bracts decreasing in size toward the end of the branch, the largest 
beino- about an inch and a half long and a quarter of an inch broad, and the smallest not more than 
half that size. The flowers, which vary from globose to oblong in shape and from one to two inches in 
length, are greenish white, waxy, and dull or lustrous, and emit a strong and rather disagreeable odor ; 



20 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliace^e. 

the sea-merits of the perigone, which are united at the base into a short tube, are keeled on the back, 
thin below the middle, and gradually thickened upward above it to the much thickened concave 
incurved rounded tip, those of the outer rank being rather broader and thicker and more prominently 
keeled than those of the inner rank ; they are glabrous with the exception of a few scattered hairs at 
the base and at the apex, or are covered with pubescence on the outer surface. The stamens are about 
half as lono- as the ovary, with filaments which are villous-papillate from the base, flattened below by 
pressure against the ovary, spreading above and clavately thickened toward the apex, and with anthers 
which do not open and discharge their pollen until the second evening after the expansion of the 
flowers. 1 The ovary is sessile, conical, three-lobed above the middle, and bright green, with narrow 
slightly developed septal nectar glands, 2 and is crowned with a sessile nearly equally six-lobed star-like 
white stigma penetrated by a wide stigmatic canal. The fruit, which ripens in May or June, is 
spreading or more or less pendent at maturity, oblong-ovate, acute, and tipped at the apex by the point 
of the ovary and the stigma, surrounded at the base by the withered remnants of the perigone, slightly 
three-angled, from two to four inches long and from an inch and a half to two inches broad, light 
reddish or yellow brown and indehiscent, although when thoroughly dry showing a tendency to split 
between the primary dissepiments; the outer coat, which is sometimes a quarter of an inch thick, 
becomes dry and spongy in texture as the fruit ripens, and closely invests the light brown case-like 
inner coat. The seeds are sometimes nearly half an inch in length, rather less in breadth, and not 
quite one sixteenth of an inch in thickness, with broad well-developed margins to the rim, and large 
conspicuous hilums. 

Yucca arbor escens is distributed from southwestern Utah to the western and northern rims of the 
Mohave Desert in California, inhabiting the high gravelly slopes which border arid plains and the lower 
slopes of dry mountain ranges, and, in distinct zones and belts, forming open forests often of 
considerable extent. In Utah, where it rarely exceeds ten feet in height, it forms such a belt five or 
six miles wide on the western slope of the Beaverdam Mountains, at elevations of between 2,300 and 
4,400 feet above the level of the sea. In southern and southwestern Nevada it is not uncommon 
at the base of many of the mountain ranges, often growing in forests of considerable extent at 
elevations of nearly 7,000 feet, and ranging northward nearly to the thirty-eighth degree of latitude; 
in northwestern Arizona it is found in a scattered belt in the valley of the Virgin River, and extends 
southward over the low divide between the Detrital and Sacramento valleys; and in California it 
abounds on the Mohave Desert, where it grows to its largest size, making a belt several miles wide 
along the western margin of the desert, covering the northern foothills of the San Bernardino 
Mountains up to elevations of nearly 4,000 feet, spreading westward up Antelope Valley, and along 
the northern side of the desert to the foothills of the Tehachapi Mountains with forests sometimes 
twelve miles wide, and extending with small and isolated groves nearly to Walker Pass, where it 
becomes abundant again. 3 

The wood of Yucca arhorescens is light, soft, spongy, difficult to work, very light brown or nearly 
white. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3737, a cubic foot weighing 23.29 pounds. 
It has been made into pidp for the manufacture of paper, 4 and is cut into thin layers, which are used 
as wrapping material or manufactured into boxes and other small articles. 

The seeds are gathered and eaten by the Indians, who grind them into meal. 5 

1 Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. iv. 195. of Yucca arhorescens into paper-pulp. A quantity of paper was 

2 Trelease, I. c. made from the pulp, and it is said that several editions of the Lon- 

3 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 352, t. (Death Valley don Telegraph were printed upon it ; but the high cost of manufac- 
Exped. ii.). ture more than consumed the profits of the enterprise, and it was 

4 About twenty-five years ago at Ravenna in the Solidad Pass, soon abandoned. (See Shinn, Am. Agric. I. 689.) 
just south of the Mohave Desert in California, a company of Eng- 5 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 047. 

lish capitalists established a mill for the manufacture of the wood 



LiLiACEiE. SUVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 21 

First noticed by Fremont in 1844 on the Mohave Desert, 1 the Joshua Tree, as it was called by 
the Mormons of southern Utah, was not described until many years later. 

Railroads now cross the Mohave Desert, and from the window of his car the traveler can see the 
forests of Yucca arborescens stretching indefinitely into the hazy distance, unlike any other forest on 
the continent, and without a rival in singularity and weirdness. 

1 "We continued in a southerly direction across the plain, to Yucca trees gave a strange and singular character.'' (Fre'raont, 
which, as well as to all the country so far as we could see, the Rep. 257.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DII. Yucca arborescens. 

1. A branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. A small pubescent flower, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

4. A pistil divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. Portion of a branch of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 

10. A bract from the base of an inflorescence, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab.DII. 




C.U.Fascon, del . 



ffimefy so. 



YUCCA ARBORESCENS. Trel 



A.JUocreiuc- dis-ecc*: 



Imp. J.ToTieur, Paris. 



ULIACE.E. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



23 



YUCCA GLORIOSA. 

Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves thin, flat, or concave toward the apex, rough on the lower surface, dull or 
glaucous green. 



Yucca gloriosa, Linnaeus, Spec. 319 (1753). — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 1. — Schoepf , Mat. Med. Amer. 48. — Walter, 
Fl. Car. 124. — Aiton, Sort. Kew. i. 465. — Salisbury, 
Prodr. 246. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. pt. i. 183. — Michaux, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 196. — Persoon, Syn. i. 378. — Andrews, 
> Bot. Rep. vii. t. 473. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 18. — 
Bot. Mag. xxxi. 1. 1260. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. 
ed. 2, ii. 201. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 228. — Redouts', 
Liliacees, vi. t. 326, 327. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 218. — 
Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 37. — Elliott, Sk. i. 400. — 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 41. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. 
i. 720. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1094. — Kunth, Enum. iv. 
273. — Spach, Hist. Vig. xii. 286. — Regel, Gartenflora, 
viii. 36. — Chapman, Fl. 485. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
N. Car. 1860, iii. 94. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 38, 211, 213. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 343. — 
Hemsley, The Garden, viii. 133, f . — Watson, Proc. Am. 
Acad. xiv. 251. — Baker, Refugium Bot. v. t. 320 ; Jour. 
Linn. Soc. xviii. 225. — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. iii. 163, t. 6, 7, 50 ; iv. 199. 

Yucca integerrima, Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ii. 267 (1812). 

Yucca obliqua, Haworth, Syn. PL Succ. 69 (1812) ; Suppl. 
PL Succ. 37. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 41. — Roemer & 
Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. i. 721. — Kunth, Enum. iv. 274. — 
Spach, Hist. VSg. xii. 287. — Regel, Gartenflora, viii. 36 ; 
xvii. t. 580. 

Yucca acuminata, Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. ii. t. 195 
(1827). — Kunth, Enum. iv. 274. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xii. 
287. — Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1123 ; Refugium Bot. 
v. t. 316. 



Yucca gloriosa maculata, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859, 

430. 
Yucca gloriosa glaucescens, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 

360. 
Yucca gloriosa nobilis, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 360. 
Yucca gloriosa nobilis parviflora, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 

1860, 361. 
Yucca gloriosa minor, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 361. — 

Baker, Refugium Bot. v. t. 319 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 

225. 
Yucca gloriosa mollis, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 362. 
Yucca gloriosa tristis, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 363. 
Yucca gloriosa acuminata, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1868, 

157. — Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 226. 
Yucca gloriosa robusta, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1868, 158. 
Yucca patens, Andre', El. Hort. 1870, 121, t. 
Yucca tortulata, Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1122. 
Yucca pruinosa, Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1122. 
Yucca Boerhaavii, Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1217 ; Jour. 

Linn. Soc. xviii. 224. 
Yucca Ellacombei, Baker, Refugium Bot. v. t. 317 (1872). 
Yucca gloriosa, var. obliqua, Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xviii. 225 (1881). 
Yucca gloriosa, var. Ellacombei, Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xviii. 226 (1881). 
Yucca gloriosa, var. tortulata, Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xviii. 226 (1881). 
Yucca gloriosa, var. pruinosa, Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xviii. 226 (1881). 



On the coast of South Carolina a tree, with a stem which varies from a few inches to six or eight 
feet in height and from four to six inches in diameter, simple or rarely furnished with a few short 
branches, and usually clothed to the base with pendent dead leaves; or in the gardens of more 
temperate regions often larger, with a stout trunk covered with smooth thick light gray bark. The 
leaves are from two to two feet and a half in length, gradually narrowed above the broad base, and 
then gradually broadened to above the middle, where they vary from one and a half to two and a half 
inches in width ; they are thin, flat, or slightly concave toward the apex, which is tipped with a stout 
dark red point, frequently longitudinally folded, dull and often glaucous green, and roughened on the 
under surface, especially above the middle, with margins which at first are pale and serrulate toward 
the base of the leaf but soon grow dark reddish brown, and usually, losing their teeth and becoming 
brittle, crumble away or occasionally separate into thin fibres. The flowers generally appear in October, 
or occasionally on some plants as early as July, in pubescent or glabrous panicles tapering toward 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LILIACEiE. 



both ends, from two to four feet long, from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and raised on 
stout peduncles which are sometimes three or four feet in length, although frequently shorter, and are 
furnished with creamy white acute bracts often flushed with purple toward the apex, and forming 
before the panicle emerges a conspicuous egg-shaped bud from four to six inches long ; the first 
fertile bracts bear in their axils one or usually two flowers; higher on the panicle the bracts are 
smaller, and at the base of the pedicels at the extremities of its branches they are often less than an 
inch in length. The perigone when fully expanded is from three and a half to four inches across, with 
thin ovate acute or lance-ovate creamy white segments often tinged externally with green or purple, 
slightly united at the base, and pubescent at the apex. The stamens are about as long as the ovary, 
with filaments which at first are erect or patulous but commonly become recurved or variously twisted, 
and are hispid or slightly papillose, and with anthers which are usually deeply emarginate at the apex. 
The ovary is sessile, slightly lobed and six-sided, light green, and gradually narrowed upward into 
elongated divergent stigmatic lobes thickened on the back and emarginate at the apex. The fruit, 
which is rarely produced, 1 is indehiscent, pendulous, about three inches long and an inch in diameter, 
cuspidate at the apex, and raised on a short stout stipe ; when fully grown it is hexagonal, prominently 
six-ridged, with three wide sides corresponding to the backs of the carpels and three alternate much 
narrower depressed sides ; and at maturity the thick outer coat becomes thin, leathery, and almost black, 
and closely invests the thin firm light brown inner coat. The seeds are a quarter of an inch wide and 
about one thirty-second of an inch thick, with smooth testas and uniform albumen. 2 



1 Only two authentic instances of plants of Yucca gloriosa pro- 
ducing fruits are recorded. Several years ago Dr. J. H. Melli- 
champ noticed ripe fruit on a plant near Bluffton, South Carolina, 
which had bloomed early in the season, and in the autumn of 1873 
a plant in the congressional gardens in Washington bore a number 
of fruits which contained fertile seeds. Plants of Yucca gloriosa 
or of some of its forms are said to have borne abortive fruits and 
even mature fruits with fertile seeds in Europe (see Ellacombe, 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 21; xxiv. 628), but such statements must 
be accepted with caution, for the determination of the species of 
cultivated Yuccas is difficult and uncertain, and Yucca aloifolia, 
which frequently fruits in European gardens, is often mistaken for 
Yucca gloriosa or for one of its varieties. This habitual infertility 
is probably due to the absence of a, Pronuba in the autumn, when 
this species generally flowers ; and in the rare instances when it 
has fruited the plants had flowered early in the season before the 
disappearance of Pronuba yuccasella, which no doubt visits early 
blooming individuals and secures the pollination of their flowers. 
It is hardly possible that the existence of this species can always 
have been dependent upon the occasional production of summer 
flowers and the chances of their fertilization ; it seems more 
probable that it was formerly visited by an autumn Pronuba which 
has now become extinct, as Kerner von Marilaun suggests (Pflanz- 
enleben, ii. 155) ; or that it was brought without its peculiar 
Pronuba to Carolina by man or by ocean currents from the coast of 
some of the West Indian islands, or of Mexico or the Spanish main. 
The fact that Yucca gloriosa attains a larger size in warmer regions 
than on the Carolina coast may seem to indicate its introduction 
from a more southern latitude ; but, on the other hand, it has 
proved in cultivation one of the hardiest Yuccas, able to thrive, 
although in a stemless form, in regions with much severer climates 
than that of Carolina. It is not easy to account for its spontaneous 
spread along the Carolina coast from one or even several introduced 
individuals, as it usually produces no seed there ; and as it is not 
known to grow naturally or even spontaneously elsewhere, it may 
perhaps best be considered a native of the coast of Carolina, 



where, for at least a hundred and fifty years, it has been growing 
apparently naturally and as plentifully as at the present time. 

2 Slight variations in foliage or in the habit of young flowerless 
individuals of this species cultivated in gardens have been seized 
upon by European botanists as evidences of distinct species, and 
the greatest confusion in the names of cultivated Yuccas has 
resulted. The following forms, not known now to occur on the 
Carolina coast but frequently cultivated, are distinguished by 
Engelmann : — 

Yucca gloriosa, var. plicata, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1860, 359. — 
Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. hi. 39. — Baker, Jour. Linn. 
Soc. xviii. 225. 

In this form the leaves are conspicuously plicate, the upper 
and inner being erect and the lowest spreading. 

Var. y recurvifolia, Engelmann, I. c. (1873). — Baker, I. c. 
Yucca recurvifolia, Salisbury, Parad. Lond. i. t. 31 (1806). — 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 228. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 218. — Elliott, Sk. 

i. 401. — Kunth, Enum. iv. 272. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xii. 286. — 

Chapman, Fl. 485. — Baker, Refugium Bot. v. t. 326. — Hemsley, 

The Garden, viii. 133, f. 
Yucca recurva, Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 67 (1812) ; Suppl. PL 

Succ. 35. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 41. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 

vii. pt. i. 719. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1094. — The Garden, xlvii. 

337, f. 
Yucca rufocincta, Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 37 (1819). — Kegel, 

Gartenflora, viii. 36. 
Yucca superba, Haworth, I. c. 36 (1819). — Bot. Reg. xx. t. 

1690.— Roemer & Schultes. Syst. vii. pt. i. 720. —Kunth, I. c. 

273. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xii. 286. 
Yucca pendula, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859, 488, t. 104. — The 

Garden, xliii. 455, f. 
Yucca gloriosa nobilis, Carriere, I. c. 1868, 157. 
Yucca gloriosa, var. superba, Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 225 

(1881). 

In this, one of the commonest forms of cultivated Yuccas, the 
leaves are glaucous while young and are thin and recurved ; the 



LILIACE.E. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



25 



Yucca gloriosa inhabits the coasts and islands of South Carolina, in the immediate neighborhood 
of the sea, where it grows among sand-dunes and on the borders of beaches, and is exceedingly rare. 

The wood of Yucca gloriosa has not been examined. 

Yucca gloriosa, notwithstanding its rarity in its native country, was one of the first species of 
the genus cultivated in Europe, 1 where several forms are recognized, and it is now found in the 
gardens and pleasure grounds of all temperate countries. 2 



panicle is puberulous, and the filaments, which equal the pistil in 
length, are slightly papillose. 

By Engelmann (Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 41), Yucca emifolia 
(Baker, Garal. Chron. 1870, 1217 ; Refugium Bot. v. t. 318) and 
Yucca Ellacombei (Baker, Refugium Bot. t. 317 [1873] are con- 
sidered forms connecting his variety recurvifolia with the typical 
plant. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. 5 planifolia (Engelmann, I. c. 39 [1873]) is 
based on a single specimen, cultivated in the Botanic Garden at 
Genoa as Yucca glauca, with a short trunk, long, narrow, and not at 
all plicated leaves, smaller whitish flowers with filaments as long as 
the pistil, and small anthers entire above. 

1 Yucca or Jucca, Gerarde, Herball, 1359. — Ray, Hist. PI. ii. 
1201. 

Yucca foliis Aloes, C. Bauhin, Pinax, 91. — Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. 
Hort. Lugd. Bat. ii. 132. 

Iucca sive Yucca, India putata. — Parkinson, Theatr. 153, f. 



Yuca sive Iucca, Parkinson, Parad. 434, £ 

Yucca sive Iucca vera foliis Aloes, Morison, PL Hist. ii. 419, t. 23, 
f. 1. 

Yucca foliorum margino integerrimo, Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 130 ; 
Hort. Ups. 88. 

Yucca foliis integerrimis, Linnaeus, Virid. Cliff. 29. 

Cordyline foliis pungentibus integerrimis, Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 
22. 

Yucca Indica, foliis aloes, Barrelier, Icon. PI. 70, t. 1194 (teste 
Linnaeus, Spec. 319). 

2 Varieties with leaves striped with white or yellow are occa- 
sionally cultivated in European gardens as Yucca pendula variegata, 
Carriere (Rev. Hort. 1875, 400), Yucca gloriosa medio picta, and 
Yucca gloriosa marginata, Carriere (I. c. 1880, 259). 

In European gardens, Yucca gloriosa recurvifolia is sometimes 
cultivated as Yucca Japonica (see Carriere, I. c. 1859, 488). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DHL Yucca glokiosa. 

1. Branch of a flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. Portion of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. Dili 




C.JE.FaxoTL del. 



IfimeZy sc- . 



YUCCA GLORIOSAA.L. 



A.Ru>crewz> diresc* 



Imp . J. Taneur , Paris. 



liliace*:. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 27 



YUCCA CONSTRICTA. 

Spanish Dagger. 
Leaves thin and flat, filamentose on the margins, smooth, pale yellow-green. 

Yucca constricta, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 8. — Yucca angustifolia, /? elata, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Baker, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 229. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Acad. iii. 50 (1873) ; Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 270. 

Am. Cent. iii. 370. Yucca elata, Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, xu. 17 (1882). — 

Yucca polyphylla, Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870, 1088. Sargent, Forest Trees North Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

Yucca angustifolia, /3 radiosa, Engelmann, Watson King's 219 ; Garden and Forest, ii. 569, f. 146. — Coulter, 

Bep. v. 496 (1871). Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 437 {Man. PI. W. Texas). — 

Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 22. 

A tree, with a trunk often ten or twelve feet in height and seven or eight inches in diameter, 
covered above with a thick thatch of the pendent dead leaves of many years, and below with dark 
brown irregularly fissured bark broken into thin plates and about a quarter of an inch in thickness, 
often simple and sometimes beginning to flower when only a few inches tall, or branched with many 
short stout branches densely covered with leaves which are at first erect, then spread nearly at right 
angles and are pendulous at the bottom of the clusters, and a tough and much-branched underground 
stem penetrating deeply into the soil. The leaves are lanceolate and rigid, gradually diminish in 
width from the thin base, which is from two to two and a half inches broad and white and marked with 
an orange-colored band where it narrows into the blade, and taper toward the apex or are sometimes 
somewhat broader at the middle than below ; they are thin and flat on the upper surface, slightly 
thickened and rounded on the back toward the base, tipped with slender stiff red-brown points from 
one half to three quarters of an inch long, smooth, pale yellow-green, from twenty to thirty inches in 
length and from one quarter to one half of an inch wide, with thickened entire pale margins which soon 
split into numerous long slender filaments ; or on young plants or at the base of the panicle of flowers 
they are often not more than a foot long and an eighth of an inch wide. The flowers, which open in 
May and June, are borne on slender spreading or more or less recurved pedicels in glabrous much- 
branched panicles from four to six feet in length and raised on stout naked stems from three to seven 
feet long ; their bracts are ovate, acute, white, membranaceous, deciduous, and from four to six inches 
in length, or toward the apex of the panicle not more than an inch long. The perigone is ovate and 
acute in the bud, and when fully expanded is from three and a half to four inches across ; the segments 
are thin and creamy white and united at the base into a short slender distinct tube, ovate or slightly 
obovate and tipped by small pubescent mucros, those of the outer rank being usually acute and not 
more than half as broad as those of the inner rank, which are often an inch wide and are frequently 
rounded at the apex. The stamens are as long as the ovary or a little longer, with slender nearly terete 
villous-papillate filaments, and anthers which discharge their pollen when the flowers first open. 1 The 
ovary is sessile, almost terete, furnished with well developed active septal nectar glands, 2 pale green and 
abruptly contracted into a stout white style from one quarter to one third of an inch long and crowned 
by white stigmatic lobes slightly thickened dorsally. The fruit is an erect oblong capsule rounded and 
obtuse at both ends, tipped by a short stout mucro, raised on a short thickened stipe, conspicuously 
three-ribbed with rounded ridges on the backs of the carpels, from an inch and a half to two inches in 
length and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with a thin firm light brown ligneous outer coat 
closely adherent to the slightly thinner tough inner coat which is lustrous, light yellow, and marked with 

1 Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 203. 2 Trelease, Z. c. 202. 



28 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. liliace^e. 

broad brown bands on the inner surface ; in ripening the capsule splits from top to bottom between the 
carpels and through their backs at the apex only where a triangular opening is made from which the 
seeds are Gradually scattered, the empty capsule often persisting until the following season on the panicle, 
whose base often remains for many years pressed close against the side of the lengthening stem of the 
plant. The seeds are one third of an inch wide and about one thirty-second of an inch thick, with a 
smooth testa, thin brittle wide margins to the rim, and uniform albumen. 

Yucca constricta inhabits high desert plateaus, and is distributed from southwestern Texas to 
southern Arizona and southward in northern Mexico. Rarely exceeding six feet in height in Texas, 
where it is less abundant than farther west, Yucca constricta grows in the greatest profusion and attains 
its largest size on the eastern slope of the low continental divide in southern New Mexico and along the 
northern rim of the Tucson Desert in Arizona, and is found scattered in countless millions over the high 
mesas of many of the valleys of southern New Mexico and Arizona. 1 

The wood of Yucca constricta is light, soft, spongy, and pale brown or yellow. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4470, a cubic foot weighing 27.86 pounds. 

The young panicles, before their branches unfold, are eaten by Indians and Mexicans. 2 

Yucca constricta was discovered by Dr. A. Wislizenus 3 in the valley of the Rio Grande above 
El Paso in July, 1846, and the following April it was found in flower by Mr. Josiah Gregg 4 near the 
city of Chihuahua. 

In appearance Yucca constricta is one of the most remarkable of North American trees, with its 
trunk slender below but thick above from the mass of dead leaves which inclose it, and its broad 
disheveled head of long narrow crowded leaves ; and when its great flower-clusters, raised' high in the 
air on long slender staffs, wave like snowy banners over the desert, it perhaps surpasses all other Yuccas 
in beauty. 

1 The narrow-leaved stemless Yucca of southeastern Utah, which the Colorado plateau, over which, in so far as I have been able to 

has been referred to this species (Engelmann, King's Rep. v. 497. — observe, Yucca constricta does not extend. 
Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 358 [Death Valley Exped. ii.]. 2 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 646. 

— Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 203 [Bot. Death Valley Exped.] 8 See vi. 94. 

[as Yucca radiosa]), is probably an undescribed species common on 4 See vi. 33. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DIV. Yucca constricta. 

1. An end of a branch of the flowering panicle, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. An ovule, enlarged. 

6. The end of a branch of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

7. Portion of a capsule laid open. 

8. A seed divided transversely, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. The base of a leaf, natural size. 

11. The point of a leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DIV. 




C.E.Faxorh del- 



Jhzpina sc. 



YUCCA CONSTRICTA,BucH. 



A.RLocreuzo dzrecc- . 



Imp. J. Tcuieur, Paris . 



palm^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 29 



OREODOXA. 

Flowers monoecious, the staminate and pistillate on the same branches of an 
infrafoliar compound spadix ; staminate flowers symmetrical ; stamens 6, 9, or 12, 
ovary rudimentary ; pistillate flowers smaller ; staminodia 6, ovary subglobose, 2 to 
3-celled, ovule solitary, lateral, ascending. Fruit drupaceous, 1 -celled. Leaves alter- 
nate, equally pinnate. 

Oreodoxa, Willdenow, Mem. Acad. Berlin, se*r. 2, vi. 34 Prantl Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. iii. 67. — Baillon, Hist. PI. 

(1807). — Endlicher, Gen. 247. — Meisner, Gen. 355. — xiii. 356. 

Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 899. — Drude, Engler & 

Lofty, or small and alpine, unarmed trees, with stout endogenous stems cylindrical, or swollen at the 
middle, marked for many years with the remote conspicuous scars of fallen leaves, often abruptly 
enlarged at the base, and crowned with slender bright green cylinders several feet in length formed 
by the closely imbricated sheaths of the leaf-stalks. Leaves terminal, alternate, equally pinnate, the 
pinnae linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, plicately folded in aestivation, unequally two-cleft, inserted 
obliquely on the upper side of the rachis, folded together at the base, their midribs and margins 
thin ; rachises convex on the back, above broad and three-ridged toward the base of the leaf and acute 
toward its apex ; petioles semicylindrical, sulcate above, gradually enlarged into the thick elongated 
vaginas. Spadix large, decompound, produced near the base of the green part of the stem, its 
branches long and pendulous ; spathes two, the outer semicylindrical, as long as the spadix, the inner 
ensiform, splitting ventrally, inclosing the branches of the spadix. Flowers minute, white, in a loose 
spiral, toward the base of the branch in three-flowered clusters with a central staminate and smaller 
lateral pistillate flowers, above the staminate solitary or in two-flowered clusters ; bracts and bractlets 
obscure, caducous. Calyx of the staminate flower of three minute broadly ovate obtuse scarious 
sepals imbricated in aestivation, much' shorter than the corolla. Petals three, nearly equal, ovate, or 
obovate, acute, connate at the base, coriaceous, slightly valvate in aestivation. Stamens six, nine, or 
twelve, exserted ; filaments subulate, united below and adnate to the base of the corolla, slender and 
acute at the apex ; anthers large, ovate-sagittate, attached on the back, versatile, two-celled, the cells 
free below, opening longitudinally. Ovary rudimentary, subglobose, or three-lobed. Pistillate flowers 
much smaller, ovoid-conical. Sepals subreniform, obtuse, imbricated in aestivation. Corolla urceolate, 
divided nearly to the middle into three acute erect lobes, incurved at the apex, valvate in aestivation. 
Staminodia six, scale-like, united into a cup adnate on the mouth of the corolla. Ovary superior, 
subglobose, obscurely two or three-lobed, gibbous, two or three-celled, crowned with a thick three- 
lobed stigma, the lobes ovate, acuminate, erect, becoming subbasilar on the fruit ; ovule solitary, 
ascending, attached ventrally, semianatropous ; micropyle extrorse, inferior. Fruit drupaceous, obovoid 
or oblong-ovoid, curved, one-celled ; exocarp crustaceous, much thicker than the dry fibrous endocarp 
adnate to the seed. Seed oblong-reniform, marked with the conspicuous fibrous reticulate branches of 
the raphe radiating from the narrow basal hilum ; testa thin, crustaceous ; albumen uniform. Embryo 
cylindrical, minute, lateral, the radicle turned toward the base of the fruit. 

Oreodoxa is confined to the New World, where four species are now recognized. Of these Oreodoxa 



30 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



palm^:. 



regia inhabits southern Florida, Cuba, and the Isthmus of Panama, Oreodoxa oleracea 1 the Antilles, 
Oreodoxa Sancona 2 the mountain valleys of Colombia, and Oreodoxa frigida, 3 a small alpine tree, the 
Andes of Ecuador. 

The durable trunks of three of the species are used for wharf -piles and in construction ; and the 
buds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. The West Indian species are stately, graceful, magnificent 
trees, and are now cultivated in all tropical countries. 4 

The generic name, from opog and $6{;a, alludes to the lofty stature and mountain home of some of 
the species. 



1 Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. iii. 166, t. 156, f . 1, 2, ; t. 163 (1833- 
50). — Kunth, Enum. iii. 181. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xii. 67. — A. 
Richard, Ft. Cub. ii. 276. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. lnd. 517. 

Areca oleracea, Jacquin, Hist. Stirp. Am. 278, t. 170 (1763); 

Hist. Select. Stirp. Am. 135, t. 235. — Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 

ii. 730. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 596. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 

133. — Maycock, Fl. Barb. 371. 

Euterpe Cariboia, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 140 (1825). 

One of the tallest and most beautiful of American Palms, 
Oreodoxa oleracea, the Cabbage Palni of the Antilles, sends up 
a stout trunk, sometimes nearly two hundred feet tall, surmounted 
by a crown of long arching graceful leaves frequently twenty feet 
in length and nearly six feet broad. Young trees are often 
destroyed by removing the terminal buds, which are eaten raw in 
salads, boiled like cabbages, or pickled. The clasping sheaths of 
the petioles serve as cradles for negro children, and are split into 
surgeons' spHnts ; their thin inner coat when removed from the 
living leaf and dried resembles vellum, and can be used as a 
substitute for writing-paper, and from their fibres mats are woven. 
A sort of sago is manufactured from the pith of the stem, and an 
oil is obtained from the seeds. The stems split longitudinally, and, 
hollowed out by the removal of the spongy inner portion, are used 
for gutters ; and the thin hard rind-like exterior is manufactured 
into canes, ramrods, and many small articles. (See Seemann, Pop- 
ular History of the Palms, 277.) 

The tall columnar stem and enormous crown of waving leaves of 
this Palm have delighted all travelers in the Antilles, and for two 



centuries and a half their chronicles have praised its beauty and 
extolled its value. (See Rochefort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des 
Isles Antilles, 78. — Ligon, A true and exact History of the Island 
of Barbados, 125, t. — Labat, Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de VAme- 
rique, i. 420. — Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 176 ; Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 115, 
t. 215. — Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 342.) 

2 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. i. 304 
(1815). — Kunth, Syn. PI. JEquin. i. 306 ; Enum. iii. 182. — Roemer 
& Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1491. — Spach, I. c. 69. 

(Enocarpus Sancona, Sprengel, I. c. (1825). 
Discovered by Humboldt on the mountains near the city of 
Carthagena, Oreodoxa Sancona is remarkable for its lofty stem, 
sometimes more than one hundred and fifty feet in height, and the 
durability of its wood, which is used in construction and is said to 
be so hard that it may turn the edge of a sharp axe. (See Kerchove, 
Les Palmiers, 262.) 

3 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, I. c. (1815). — Kunth, Syn. PL 
JEquin. i. 307 ; Enum. iii. 183. — Roemer & Schultes, I. c. 

GEnocarpus frigidus, Sprengel, I. c. (1825). 
One of the most alpine of Palms, Oreodoxa frigida is not 
uncommon at elevations of ten thousand feet above the sea on the 
rocky slopes of the Andes of Zuindien, forming a stem only a few 
feet in height. 

4 H. Wendland, Index Palmarum, 31. 

The great avenue of Palms in the Botanic Garden of Rio de 
Janeiro, which all travelers praise, is composed of Oreodoxa ole- 
racea. (See L. & E. C. Agassiz, Journey to Brazil, 61, t.) 



palm^e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 31 



OREODOXA REGIA. 

Royal Palm. 

Spadix puberulous. Fruit oblong-obovate. Pinnae linear, acuminate. Stem en- 
larged near the middle. 

Oreodoxa regia, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, 

et Spec. i. 305 (1815). — Kunth, Syn. PI. JEquin. i. 307 ; Suppl. 651. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 

Enum. iii. 182. — Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. iii. 168, t. U. S. ix. 218. — Beccari, Reliquice Schefferiance, 147, 

156, f. 3-5. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xii. 68. — Roemer & 1. 11. 

Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1491. — A. Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. CEnocarpus regius, Sprengel, Syst. ii. 140 (1825). 

276. — III. Hort. ii. 28, t. — Walpers, Ann. v. 807. — Oreodoxa oleracea (?), Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1860, 

Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 517. — SauvaUe, Fl. Cub. 440 (1861). 
153. — Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 100 {Fl. 

A tree, from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk rising from an abruptly enlarged 
base, gradually tapering from the middle to both ends and often two feet in diameter, covered with 
light gray rind tinged with orange-color, marked with regular dark blotches and irregularly broken 
into minute plates, and surmounted with a slender dark green and lustrous cylinder eight or ten feet 
in length. The leaves are ten or twelve feet long, closely pinnate with numerous linear acuminate 
pinnae which are longest near the base of the leaf, where they are from two and a half to three feet 
in length and an inch and a half in width, and gradually decrease in size toward the apex of the leaf ; 
they are deep green, with slender rather conspicuous veins, and covered on the lower surface with 
minute pale glandular dots, and are inserted obliquely on the upper side of the rachis ; this is convex 
on the back and covered by dark scurfy scales, and nearly flat on the upper side, although slightly 
concave between the central and the prominent marginal ridges at the base, and, gradually decreasing 
in width from below upward, becomes thin and acute at the apex of the leaf ; the petioles are almost 
terete, except at the base, where they become concave with thin edges separating irregularly into pale 
fibres as they enlarge into the bright green cylindrical clasping bases which are eight or nine feet in 
length and more or less thickly covered on the back with dark chaffy scales. The spadix is about 
two feet long, with a nearly terete peduncle an inch in diameter and slightly ridged longitudinally, 
and primary and secondary branches compressed above, abruptly enlarged at the base, concave on the 
upper side and convex on the lower, the flower-bearing branchlets being simple, slender, terete except 
at the very base, flexuous, long-pointed, from three and a half to five inches long, pendent, and 
rather closely pressed against the secondary branches. The flowers, which in Florida open in January 
and February, are subtended by triangular subulate caducous membranaceous white bracts and are 
bibracteolate with minute triangular bractlets, the staminate flowers being nearly a quarter of an inch 
in length and rather more than twice as long as the pistillate. The fruit is oblong-obovate, full and 
rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base, which is surrounded by the remnants of the perianth of the 
flower, violet-blue, and about half an inch long, with a thin outer coat and a light red-brown inner 
coat loose and fibrous on the outer surface and closely investing the thin light brown testa of the seed, 
which is covered at the base by the numerous pale radiating branches of the star-like raphe. 

In Florida Oreodoxa regia inhabits hummocks on Rogue's River, about twenty miles east of 
Caximbas Bay, Long's Key off the southern coast, and the shores of Bay Biscayne, near the mouth of 
Little River. 1 It is common in Cuba and other West Indian islands, and in Central America. 

1 Garden and Forest, ix. 152, f. 21. 



32 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. palm^e. 

The wood of the interior of the stem is spongy, pale brown, and much lighter than the hard 
heavy exterior rim, which contains numerous dark conspicuous fibro-vascular bundles. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood of the exterior of the stem is 0.7982, a cubic foot weighing 49.73 
pounds, the specific gravity of the interior being only 0.2128. The outer rim is sometimes manufac- 
tured into canes, its hardness and strength and the beauty of the markings caused by the dark-colored 
fibro-vascular bundles adapting it for this use. 

The name of the person who discovered Oreodoxa regia in the United States is not known. 1 In 
Cuba it is often planted to form avenues, for which purpose its tall slender pale columnar stems and 
noble heads of foliage make it particularly valuable. It was cultivated in Europe as early as 1836, 2 
and now graces the gardens of all tropical countries. 3 

1 Nuttall, in his preface to The Sylva of North America (p. viii.), Garber subsequently collected it, and its existence on Rogue's 

states that he was informed of the existence of a Palm ninety River and Long's Key was established by Mr. A. H. Curtiss. 

feet high growing at some distance from the coast in east Florida. 2 H. Wendlaud, Index Palmarum, 31. 

This Palm must have been Oreodoxa regia. It was seen by Dr. J. 3 Gard. Chron. n. ser. iv. 302, f . 66. — Massart, Bull. Soc. Bot. 

G. Cooper, in 1859, on the shores of Bay Biscayne, where Dr. A. P. Belg. xxxiv. 159, f. 3. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DV. Okeodoxa regia. 

1. Portion of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, the perianth displayed, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

9. A pistil divided transversely, enlarged. 

10. Portion of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

12. A nutlet, enlarged. 

13. A seed, basal view. 

14. A seed, lateral view. 

15. Portion of a leaf, much reduced. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DV. 




C.F.Faccorv del. 



Afigrieazuc- jc. 



OREODOXA REGIA.,' Mart 



A. RiocreiuD direcc f 



Imp. Ji Taneur, Parir. 



PALM ^- 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 33 



PSEUDOPHCENIX. 

Flowers monoecious ; calyx of the pistillate flower cupular, 3-toothed ; petals 3, 
ovate, acute; staminodia 6. Fruit drupaceous, 1 to 3-lobed. Spadix compound, 
interfoliar. Leaves alternate, pinnatifid. 

Pseudophcenix, H. Wendland, Garden and Forest, i. 352 (1888). — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. iii- 
64. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xiii. 381. 

A tree, with an endogenous stem abruptly enlarged at the base, cylindrical, or tapering gradually 
from the middle to both ends, conspicuously marked at distances of five or six inches by the narrow 
ring-like dark scars left by the falling of the petioles, and thin pale blue or nearly white rind about one 
sixteenth of an inch in thickness. Leaves abruptly pinnatifid, terminal, alternate, erect and arching ; 
pinnae numerous, crowded, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, increasing in length and width from the ends of 
the leaf to the middle, springing from the rachis at acute angles, and pointing toward the apex of the 
leaf, convex and bright green on the upper side, concave and glaucous on the lower, folded together at 
the base, thick and firm in texture, with thickened pale margins, inserted obliquely on the sides of the 
rachis near its top, toward the base of the leaf in deep grooves and above the middle on its slightly 
rounded sides ; rachises near the base of the leaf convex below, and concave above, with thin margins, 
gradually decreasing in width upward, and toward the apex of the leaf flat and narrow below and acute 
above, marked on the sides at the base of the pinnae, with dark conspicuous gland-like excrescences ; 
petioles short, concave above, with thin entire margins separating sparingly into slender fibres, convex 
below, gradually enlarged at the base into broad thick vaginas composed of stout pale longitudinal 
brittle fibres. Spadix interfoliar, compound, pendulous, pedunculate, glabrous, light yellow-green, 
much shorter than the leaves, its primary branches spreading from the stem nearly at right angles, 
slightly zigzag, stout and much flattened toward the base, slender and terete above the middle, 
secondary branches slightly compressed below, and furnished at the base on the upper side with a 
thickened ear-like body ; ultimate branches short, rigid, spreading at right angles, densely flowered. 
Spathes and flowers unknown. Fruit drupaceous, globose, or two or three-lobed by the development of 
the second and third carpels, marked on the side near the base or centrally when the fruit is lobed with 
the remnants of the style, surrounded below by the withered obscurely three-lobed calyx, the ovate- 
oblong reflexed petals rounded or acute, thickened and apiculate at the apex, as long as the peduncle, 
and the six slender spreading staminodia tipped with minute acute abortive anthers, pedunculate, the 
peduncle slender, abruptly enlarged at the bottom, articulate from a persistent cushion-like body 
apiculate in the centre, its point penetrating a cavity in the base of the peduncle ; epicarp coriaceous, 
bright orange-scarlet; mesocarp grumose, adherent to the thin crustaceous brittle dark orange-brown 
endocarp. Seed subglobose, free, erect ; kilum basal, slightly depressed ; testa very thin, light red- 
brown marked with the pale conspicuous ascending two or three-branched raphe, closely investing the 
horny white uniform albumen. Embryo minute, basilar. 

The wood of Pseudophcenix is soft and light, with a thin solid outer rim and numerous large dark- 
colored conspicuous fibro-vascular bundles. It decays as soon as it is cut. It has not been examined 
scientifically. 

Pseudophoenix inhabits Elliott's Key, where it was discovered on April 19, 1886, 1 and Key Largo, 

Florida. 

1 Early on the morning of April 19, 1886, A. H. Curtiss, C. E. house Steamer Laurel at Mr. Henry Filer's plantation near the 
Faxon and C. S. Sargent landed from the United States Light- eastern end of Elliott's Key, and found Pseudophcenix growing on 



34 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. palm^. 

The genus, which owes its name to its fancied resemblance to Phoenix, belongs to another tribe, 
probably the Chamsedorse. It is represented by a single species. 

the border of a field which had recently been cleared for the culti- Andre* in the Revue Horticole (1887, 34) ; and also in the Bullettino 

vation of Pineapples. delta Societa R. Toscana di Orticultura (sii. 64). In 1889 Sprenger 

The first account of the genus without characters, based on a published a popular description, without characters, of this Palm 

letter from Dr. Hermann Wendland, to whom its discovery had under the name of Sargentia Aricocca in the Bullettino delta Societa 

been communicated, appeared in November, 1886, in The Botanical R. Toscana di Orticultura (xiv. 341). 
Gazette (xi. 314), and was afterward substantially reproduced by 



PALMiE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 35 



PSEUDOPHCENIX SARGENTI. 

Pseudophoenix Sargenti, H. Wendland, Garden and iv. 408, f. 56. — Andrd, Rev. Sort. 1888, 482, 574, f. 

Forest, i. 352, f. 55, 56 (1888). — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 140, 141. 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk twelve or fifteen feet long and ten 
or twelve inches in diameter. The leaves are five or six feet in length, with pinnae often eighteen 
inches long and an inch wide near the middle of the leaf, and at its extremities six or eight inches long 
and from one third to one half of an inch wide, rachises an inch wide at the base, and petioles six or 
eight inches in length. The spadix is three feet long and two and a half feet wide, and, as the fruit 
ripens in May and June, probably appears in the autumn. The fruit, which is showy in color, is from 
one half to three quarters of an inch across, and is raised on a peduncle a quarter of an inch long. The 
seed is a quarter of an inch in diameter. 

Pseudophoenix Sargenti inhabits the east end of Elliott's Key, Florida, where there are a few 
individuals ; and in sandy soil mingled with Reyriosia latifolia and Pisonia ootusata, on the eastern 
end of Key Largo, a short distance from the southern shore, it forms a grove containing about two 
hundred plants, varying from seedlings two or three feet high to full-grown trees. 

Attempts have been made to transfer young plants from the grove on Key Largo 1 into gardens, 
but they have not yet proved particularly successful, and unless Pseudophoenix Sargenti also inhabits 
some of the Bahama Islands, as is not improbable, it seems destined to speedy extermination. 

1 Curtiss, Garden and Forest, i. 279. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DVI. Pseudophcenix Sakgenti. 

1. A branch of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

2. A 1-seeded fruit, with subbasal lateral style and remnants of the 

flower, one of the petals removed, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a 3-lobed fruit, natural size. 

4. A stone, natural size. 

5. A seed, lateral views, showing the branching raphe, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

7. An embryo, much magnified. 

8. A calyx, and peduncle showing its articulation, enlarged. 

9. A leaf, much reduced. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DVI 




CE.Faa20n.del. 



Rapine- jc'. 



PSEUDOPHCENIX SARGENTI .Wendl. 



A.Riocreiuc- direcc] 



Imp. J. Tarveur, Paris. 



palma SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 37 



SABAL. 

Flowers perfect; calyx cupular, unequally 3-lobed; corolla 3-lobed; stamens 6, 
dilated and united at the base ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; ovules basilar, erect. Fruit 
baccate, globose, or 2 or 3-lobed. Spadix short or elongated, compound, interfoliar. 
Leaves alternate, flabellate, orbicular, or cuneate at the base, petiolate, the petioles 
unarmed. 

Sabal, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 495 (1763). — Endlicher, Gen. iii. 922. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. 

253. — Meisner, Gen. 357. — Benthara & Hooker, Gen. iii. 37. — Baillon, Hist. PL xiii. 313. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, with columnar and often stout or short annulated endogenous stems 
ascending while young from a subterranean thickened descending clavate caudex, clothed above for 
many years with the remnants of the sheathing bases of the petioles of the fallen leaves, and below 
with light red-brown rind, and long stout tough roots, which ultimately often form a great densely 
matted ball at the base of a short underground stem. Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, 
alternate, flabellate, orbicular, or cuneate at the base, tough and coriaceous, divided from the apex 
deeply or slightly into many narrow two-parted long-pointed segments plicately folded at the base, 
inserted obliquely on the sides of the rachis, often filamentose on the thickened margins, with narrow 
midribs prominent below, and numerous slender straight veins ; rachises on the lower surface rounded 
and broadly winged toward the base, nearly flat and wingless toward the apex, and gradually narrowed 
to above the middle of the blade of the leaf, thin and acute on the upper surface ; ligulas adnate to the 
rachises, short or elongated, acute, concave, with thin incurved entire margins ; petioles rounded on the 
back, biconcave with a central ridge on the upper side toward the apex, their margins acute, unarmed, 
concave and enlarged at the base into elongated chestnut-brown lustrous vaginas of stout tough fibres ; 
juvenile leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed into slender petioles, entire. Spadix 
axillary, pedunculate, elongated, decompound, at first erect, its rachis compressed and flattened 
horizontally; primary branches short and pendulous or decurved, angled or compressed, bearing 
numerous slender densely flowered secondary branches in the axils of ovate apiculate scarious persistent 
bracts; spathes numerous, the outer acuminate, inclosing the spadix in the bud, persistent on its 
peduncle, becoming hard and woody at maturity ; the second tubular, conspicuously veined, thick and 
firm in texture, scarious and oblique at the apex, prolonged on the lower side into a long narrow 
point, infolding the base of the rachis, each branch with its short thin spathe and the node of the 
rachis below it inclosed in a smaller although otherwise similar spathe. Flowers perfect, minute, 
glabrous, white or greenish white, solitary on the ultimate branches of the spadix, bibracteolate,in the 
axils of minute ovate acute persistent bracts. Calyx tubular, truncate at the base, unequally three-lobed, 
the lobes slightly imbricated in aestivation, acute. Corolla deeply three-lobed, narrowed at the base into 
a short tube, the lobes ovate-oblong, concave, acute, in the bud slightly imbricated below, valvate at the 
apex. Stamens six, those opposite the petals rather longer than the others ; filaments white, subulate, 
dilated at the base, united into a shallow cup adnate to the tube of the corolla ; anthers ovate, acute, 
bright yellow, attached on the back, introrse, two-celled, the cells free and spreading at the base, 
opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, sessile, composed of three carpels, three-lobed, three-celled, 
gradually narrowed into an elongated three-lobed columnar style, truncate and stigmatic at the apex, 
becoming subbasilar on the fruit ; ovule solitary in each cell, basilar, erect, semianatropous ; micropyle 
superior, extrorse. Fruit small, baccate, globose, or obovate and gradually narrowed below, black and 



38 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



YAJMM. 



rather lustrous, one or rarely two or three-lobed, raised on a short stout stem adjacent to the remnants 
of the style ; pericarp separable into three coats, the outer thin, sweet, and fleshy, mesocarp dry and 
spongy, closely investing the membranaceous inner coat lustrous on the inner surface. Seed depressed- 
globose, free, erect, marked on the side by the prominent micropyle, depressed near the minute basal 
light-colored hilum by a shallow pit rugose on the margins ; testa thin, light or dark chestnut-brown, 
and lustrous ; raphe ventral, its branches obsolete ; albumen uniform, horny, penetrated by a broad 
shallow basal cavity filled by the thickening of the testa. Embryo minute, dorsal. 1 

Sabal is confined to the New World, where it is distributed from the Bermuda Islands and the 
south Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America through the West Indies to Venezuela. 2 Of the 
seven species which are now distinguished, four inhabit the United States ; two of these are trees, and 
the others are acaulescent. 3 The type has survived from the period when Palm-trees abounded in 
North America and Europe, and traces of its ancestors have been found in the lower eocene of western 
Em'ope and in the lignitic formations of Colorado ; during the lower miocene period a large Sabal-like 
tree inhabited Europe as far north as 55 degrees, and existed in Italy until the later miocene. 4 

The large succulent leaf-buds of the arborescent species are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, 
although their removal kills the trees. Coarse hats, mats, and baskets are manufactured from the 
leaves, which also afford durable thatch for the roofs of buildings. Pieces of the spongy part of the 
stem are used as a substitute for scrubbing-brushes, and in the southern United States brushes are made 
with the stout strong fibres of the sheaths of the leaf-stalks. 

In North America dangerous insect enemies are unknown to Sabal, and it does not suffer seriously 
from fungal diseases. 5 

The generic name is of uncertain -origin. 



1 In germinating, the apex of the cotyledon is transformed into 
a spongy body, through which the albumen is absorbed, and the 
thick conical caulicle penetrates the pericarp of the fruit, carrying 
with it the plumule inclosed in the free cylindrical base of the 
cotyledon and descends two or three inches into the ground. From 
the interior part of the base of the cotyledon a protuberance is 
developed, which grows rapidly toward the surface, and is at last 
ruptured by the plumule, around which it forms a cylindrical 
sheath. The first leaf, which is alternate with the cotyledon, is 
white and scale-like, and incloses the base of the second leaf ; this, 
like the others formed during the first year, is lanceolate and en- 
tire. The caulicle withers, and disappears usually soon after the 
appearance of the second leaf, and a thick conical body appears at 
the base of the plumule, which, descending into the ground, forms 
a thickened club-shaped yellow caudex marked by the scars of 
fallen leaves, furnished with numerous slender tough roots, and 
closely pressed against the ascending axis of the plant. (For the 
germination of Sabal, see Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. i. t. Z ii. f. 3. — 
Micheels, Recherches sur les Jeunes Palmiers, 59, t. 1, f. 2 ; Holm, 
Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, ii. 76, t. xiii. f. 84, 86.) 

" Martius, I. c. iii. 245. — Kunth, Enum. iii. 245. — Karsten, Fl. 
Colomb. ii. 137 (Trithrinax). — Grisebach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 514. 
3 Sabal glabra. 

Chamcerops glabra, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2 (1768). 
Corypha minor, Jacquin, Hort. Vind. iii. 8, t. 8 (1776). — Mur- 
ray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14, 984. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 131. 
Corypla pumila, Walter, Fl. Car. 119 (1788). 
Chamcerops acaulis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 207 (1803). — 
Sheeut, Fl. Car. i. 383. 

Sabal Adansoni, Guersent, Bidl. Soc. Philom. iii. 206, t. 25 
(1803). — Bot. Mag. xxxv. t. 1434. — Trattinick, A rchiv. t. 362, 
362\ — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 239. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 230. — Roe- 
mer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1485. — Croom, Am. Jour. Sci. 
xxvi. 315. — Martius, I. c. iii. 246, t. 103, f. 2, i. t. Y, f. 4. — 



Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1201. — Kunth, I. c. iii. 246. — Chapman, Fl. 

438. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 65. 

Rhapis acaulis, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 1093 (1805). — 

Aiton, Hort. Keio. ed. 2, v. 474. 

Sabal minor, Persoon, Syn. i. 399 (1805). — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 

137. 
Sabal pumila, Elliott, Sk. i. 430 (1817). 

Sabal glabra is a low plant of the southern coast region of the 
United States, with a short subterranean stem, glaucous fan-shaped, 
slightly pinnatifid leaves nearly circular in outline, an erect spadix 
much longer than the leaves, and small fruit. 

The second shrubby species, Sabal Etonia, Nash (Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club, xxiii. 99 [1896]) is distinguished by its elongated con- 
torted root-stalk, small thin orbicular deeply cleft leaves, short 
spadix, and large fruit. 

4 Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. vii. 112, t. 11, f. 3, 3", t. 
12, f. 1, 2. — Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 118. — 
Zittel, Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 372. 

5 The most interesting fungi botanically which attack the Palms 
in this country are species of Graphiola which belong to a genus 
usually placed in the order of Smuts, although in certain pecul- 
iarities they differ considerably from the typical members of the 
order ; they form small black powdery tufts or cups sparsely scat- 
tered over the surface of the leaves, Graphiola congesta, Berkeley 
& Ravenel, attacking the leaves of Sabal Palmetto. 

In the tropics the leaves of Palms are frequently covered with a 
sooty black growth, caused by different species of Meliola, of 
which two species, Meliola palmicola, Winter, and Meliola furcata, 
Le'veille', are found on Sabal in North America. In addition to 
these, Sphosrella sabaligena, Ellis & Everhart, Venturia sabalicola, 
Ellis & Everhart, Helminthosporium Palmetto, Gerard, and Phyllo- 
sticta Palmetto, Ellis & Everhart, have been noticed on the leaves 
of Sabal Palmetto. 



palm;e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 39 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Spadix short. 

Fruit subglobose, 1-celled ; seed-coat light bright chestnut-color 1. S. Palmetto. 

Spadix elongated. 

Fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds ; seed-coat dark chestnut-brown ......... 2. S. Mexicana. 



palm;e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 41 



SABAL PALMETTO. 

Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto. 

Spadix short. Fruit subglobose, 1 -celled ; seed-coat light bright chestnut-color. 

Sabal Palmetto, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1487 Corypha Palmetto, Walter, Fl. Car. 119 (1788). 

(1830). — Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. iii. 247. — Dietrich, Chamserops Palmetto, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 206 

Syn. ii. 1201. — Kunth, Enum. iii. 247. — Spach, Hist. (1803). — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 1158. — Michaux, f. 

Veg. xii. 107. — Chapman, Fl. 438. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 186, t. 10. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 

Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 64. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 240. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 231. — Elliott, Sk. i. 431. — 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 217. — Nash, Bull. Torrey Sprengel, Syst. ii. 137. — Croom, Am. Jour. Sci. xxvi. 

Bot. Club, xxiii. 99. 315. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2532. 

A tree, with a trunk often thirty or forty feet in height and two feet in diameter, broken by 
shallow irregular interrupted fissures into broad ridges, with a short pointed knob-like caudex sur- 
rounded by a dense mass of contorted roots, often four or five feet in diameter and five or six feet 
deep, from which tough light orange-colored roots, often nearly half an inch in diameter, covered 
with thick loose rind easily broken into narrow fibres, and furnished with short slender brittle rootlets, 
penetrate the soil for a distance of fifteen or twenty feet, and crowned with a broad head of leaves 
which are at first upright, then spread nearly at right angles with the stem, and are finally pendulous. 
They are wedge-shaped at the base and broad at the apex, which is recurved and deeply divided into 
narrow two-parted segments, with thin pale margins which separate into long slender threads, and 
thin light orange-colored midribs ; they are thick and firm, dark green and lustrous, five or six feet 
long and seven or eight feet broad, and are borne on petioles six or seven feet in length and an 
inch and a half wide at the apex, the ligula being about four inches in length. The spadix is from 
two to two and a half feet long, with slender incurved branches, thin ultimate divisions, and thin 
secondary spathes flushed with red at the apex and conspicuously marked by pale slender longitudinal 
veins. The flowers, which are produced in the axils of minute deciduous acute bracts much shorter 
than the perianth, open in June, and are nearly a quarter of an inch across. The fruit, which ripens 
late in the autumn, is subglobose or slightly obovate, and gradually narrowed at the base, black and 
lustrous, one-seeded, raised on a short stout peduncle, and about a third of an inch in diameter, with 
rather thick sweet dry flesh. The seed is a quarter of an inch broad, with a light bright chestnut- 
colored coat and a small micropyle. 

Sabal Palmetto inhabits sandy soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast, and is distributed 
from Smith's Island at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to Key Largo, Florida, and 
along the Gulf coast to the mouth of the Appalachicola River. Often forming groves of considerable 
extent on the Atlantic coast, it is most abundant and grows to its largest size on the west coast of the 
Florida peninsula south of Cedar Keys. 1 

The wood of Sabal Palmetto is light, soft, and pale brown in color, and contains numerous hard 
fibro-vascular bundles which make it difficult to work, the outer rim of the stem, about two inches in 
thickness, being much lighter and softer. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4404, a 
cubic foot weighing 27.45 pounds. In the southern states the trunks are used for wharf-piles; 
polished cross sections of the stem sometimes serve for the tops of small tables, and the wood is largely 
manufactured into canes. From the sheaths of young leaves the bristles of scrubbing-brushes are made 
in Florida in considerable quantities. 2 

1 Wilson, Forest Leaves, iii. 53, f . bing-brushes now often used in the United States, three or four 

2 To obtain the fibre used in the manufacture of the coarse scrub- feet of the top of the tree, " the bud," as it is technically called, 



42 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PALM/E. 



The earliest description of Sdbal Palmetto appears in Catesby's Hortus Britano-Americanus, 
published in 1763. 1 According to Aiton,' 2 it was not introduced into English gardens until 1809, and, 
although occasionally cultivated in the cities of the south Atlantic states, it is still exceedingly rare in 
gardens. 3 

The survival of Scibal Palmetto, with its tall columnar trunk and broad crown of foliage, the 
most boreal of existing Palm-trees in a region where the flora is northern in its predominating types, 
gives special interest to the coast of the southeastern United States, where it is the most conspicuous 
feature of the vegetation. 4 



consisting of the closely imbricated young leaf-stalks, is cut off and 
trimmed down to a diameter of about eight inches. In this form 
the bud is received at the factory, where the soft edible core, con- 
sisting of the youngest leaves, is removed, leaving a cylinder with 
walls about three inches in thickness. This is boiled and shredded 
by machinery specially devised for the purpose, and when the fibre 
is dried, it is ready for the brush-maker. One factory in Jackson- 
ville, Florida, uses weekly 7,500 buds obtained principally from the 
west coast of the peninsula. As only young and healthy trees are 
used, and as the removal of the bud kills the tree, the industry is a 
wasteful and expensive one, destined to exterminate the Palmetto ; 
and its existence is also threatened by the use for culinary pur- 
poses of the cabbage, or terminal bud, which is considered a great 
delicacy by the negroes of the southern states. 

1 Palma Brasiliensis prunif era folio plicatili seu flabelli forma cau- 
dice squammato, 40. 

2 Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 490. 

3 It is remarkable that Sabal Palmetto, which might be expected 
to be the hardiest of all arborescent Palms, has remained so rare in 
gardens. A plant has long been cultivated in the Palm House of 



the Royal Gardens at Kew, in England, and the species is said to 
be established in Ceylon. In California, where nearly all the 
Palms of temperate regions grow vigorously, it has not proved a 
success ; and it appears to be unknown in the gardens of southern 
France and the Riviera, although it is said to flourish in those of 
southern Italy. (See Sprenger, Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ort. xiv. 318. See, 
also, Garden and Forest, ii. 136 ; v. 158, 215.) 

4 On June 28, 1776, a force of less than one hundred Caro- 
linians, under command of Moultrie, protected by the rude fortifi- 
cation on Sullivan's Island in Charleston Harbor, made of the 
trunks of the Palmetto, repulsed the attack of a British fleet under 
command of Sir Peter Parker, and when the state of South Caro- 
lina was organized, the state seal, which was first used in May, 
1777, was made to commemorate this victory. A Palm-tree grow- 
ing erect on the seashore represents the strength of the fort, while 
at its base an Oak-tree torn from the ground and deprived of its 
branches recalls the British fleet built of oak timber overcome by 
the Palmetto. (See John Drayton, Memoirs of the American Revo- 
lution, ii. 372.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DVII. Sabal Palmetto. 
Portion of a flowering spadix, natural size. 
Diagram of a flower. 
A flower, enlarged. 
Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
A corolla, with stamens displayed, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. Portion of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

11. A leaf, upper surface, much reduced. 

12. Diagram of a section of one of the divisions of a leaf. 

13. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab : DVII 




C.E.Faccen- del-. 



Zoveruial 



SABAL PALMETTO, R.x S. 

A.Biocreuco diresc. Imp.J.Tanour, Paris : 



palm;e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 43 



SABAL MEXICANA. 

Palmetto. 

Spadix elongated. Fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds ; seed-coat dark 
chestnut-brown . 

Sabal Mexicana, Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. iii. 246, i. t. S, Chamaerops Palmetto, Schott, Mex. Bound. Surv. i. pt. 

f. 2-7, t. 5, f. 4 (1833-50). — Kunth, Enum. iii. 246. — ii. 44 (not Michaux) (1857). 

Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 410. — Sprenger, Bull. Sabal Palmetto (?), Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 

Soc. Tosc. Ort. xiv. 317. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 524 (not Roemer & Schultes) (1885). — Coulter, Contrib. 

xxv. 135. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 452 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 

A tree, with a trunk from thirty to fifty feet in height and often two and a half feet in diameter, 
marked with distinct rings, and covered below with bright reddish brown rind and above with the wide 
persistent sheaths of the leaf-stalks. The leaves are cuneate below, dark yellow-green and lustrous, five 
or six feet long, often seven feet wide, and divided nearly to the middle into two-parted segments, which 
are about two inches wide, with thickened pale margins separating into long thin threads; they are 
borne on petioles seven or eight feet in length and an inch and a half wide at the apex, the ligulas 
being about six inches long ; erect when they first unfold, they gradually spread at right angles to the 
stem and finally become pendulous. The flowers, which in Texas appear late in March or early in 
April, are borne in the axils of the acute scarious persistent bracts half as long as the perianth on the 
stout elongated simple or rarely branched secondary branches of a spadix which is seven or eight feet in 
length, with stout ultimate divisions. The fruit ripens early in the summer and is about half an inch 
in diameter, with thin dry flesh, and globose or often two or three-lobed by the development of the 
second and third carpels. The seed, which is nearly half an inch broad and about a quarter of an inch 
high, is very dark chestnut-brown, with a broad shallow basal cavity and a conspicuous orange-colored 
hilum, and is marked on the side with the prominent micropyle. 

In Texas, where it was first detected about seventy years ago by the Belgian botanist Berlandier, 1 
Sabal Mexicana grows in the rich soil of the bottom-lands of the Rio Grande from the neighborhood 
of Edinburgh nearly to the Gulf, with Ulmus crassifolia, Acacia Berlandieri Fraxinus Berlandieriana, 
Leuccena pulverulenta, and Erythrina herbacea ; and below the Rio Grande it ranges southward in 
the neighborhood of the coast to southern Mexico. 

The wood of Sabal Mexicana is exceedingly light, soft, and pale brown tinged with red, and 
contains thick light-colored rather inconspicuous fibro-vascular bundles, the outer rim, about an inch in 
thickness, being softer and rather fighter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.2607, a cubic foot weighing 16.25 pounds. 2 

On the Gulf coast the trunks of Sabal Mexicana are used for wharf-piles, and on the lower Rio 
Grande its leaves are cut almost as fast as they appear to supply thatch for houses. In southern 
Mexico it is cultivated to produce leaves which are manufactured into hats. 3 In Brownsville, 
Matamoras, and other towns on the lower Rio Grande, Sabal Mexicana is frequently planted as a street 
tree, and in some of the gardens of Monterey noble old specimens exist. 

1 See i. 82. " Garden and Forest, iii. 356. 8 Heller, Bonplandia, ii. 157. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DVIII. Sabal Mexicana. 

1. Portion of a flowering panicle. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. Perianth of a flower, with stamens displayed, enlarged. 

5. A pistil divided transversely, enlarged. 

6. Portion of a fruiting panicle, natural size. 

7. A 2-lobed fruit, showing a third abortive lobe, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, basal view, natural size. 

10. A seed, lateral view, with micropyle, natural size. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. A leaf, much reduced. 



Silva of "North America. 



Ta"b. DVIII. 




£.E.Faaorbdel. 



Rapine, so. 



SABAL MEXICANA.Mart. 

, „. j- i Imp.J.raneur,Parir. 

A.Rlocreua> diredz. r 



PALM ^- SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 45 



WASHINGTONIA. 

Flowers perfect ; calyx tubular, slightly 3-lobed ; corolla funnel-formed, 3-lobed ; 
stamens 6 ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; ovule solitary, erect. Fruit baccate, ellipsoidal, 
1 -celled. Spadix elongated, compound, interfoliar. Leaves alternate, flabellate, 
orbicular, long-petioled ; petioles spinose on the margins. 

"Washingtonia, H. Wendland, Bot. Zeit. xxxvii. 68 iii. 35 (in part) (1889). — Baillon, Hist. PI. xiii. 319 (in 

(1879). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 923. part). 

Pritchardia, Drude, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. 

Trees, with stout columnar endogenous trunks covered below with thick pale rind and above with 
the persistent sheaths of many dead leaves, long tough roots, and a broad terminal crown of erect, then 
spreading, and ultimately pendulous leaves. Leaves induplicate in vernation, alternate, flabellate, 
orbicular, divided nearly to the middle into many narrow deeply two-cleft recurved segments, separating 
on the margins into numerous slender pale fibres, long-petiolate ; those of the first year linear- 
lanceolate ; rachises short, slightly rounded on the back, gradually contracted from a broad base, their 
margins concave, and f urnished below with narrow erect wings, slender and acute above ; ligulas oblong, 
elongated, thin, broad and conspicuously laciniate at the apex ; petioles broad and thin, plano-convex 
or slightly concave on the upper side, rounded on the lower, armed irregularly with broad thin large 
and small, straight or hooked spines confluent into a thin bright orange-colored cartilaginous margin, 
gradually enlarged at the base into the thick elongated broad concave light bright chestnut-brown 
vaginas composed of a network of thin strong fibres. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, elongated, 
pedunculate, glabrous, its numerous branches flexuose and pendulous ; spathes numerous, narrow, 
elongated, glabrous. Flowers minute, white, articulate on thickened disk-like pedicels in the axils of 
ovate acute scarious bracts, slender and acuminate before anthesis. Calyx tubular, indurate at the base, 
gradually enlarged and slightly three-lobed at the apex, scarious, persistent under the fruit, the lobes 
retuse, scarious, erose, imbricated in aestivation. Corolla funnel-formed, the fleshy tube included in the 
calyx, half as long as the lanceolate acute striate lobes thickened and glandular on the inner surface at 
the base, reflexed, imbricated in aestivation, deciduous. Stamens six, inserted on the throat of the 
corolla ; filaments free and flattened below, much thickened near the middle, slender and terete toward 
the apex, exserted; anthers linear-oblong, attached on the back, versatile, pale yellow, two-celled, the 
cells spreading below, opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, sessile on a thin disk, depressed-obovoid, 
three-lobed, three-celled, crowned by an elongated flexuose exserted white horny style stigmatic at the 
apex ; ovule solitary in each cell, lateral, erect, anatropous. Fruit baccate, small, ellipsoidal, one-celled, 
one-seeded, short-stalked, crowned with the remnants of the abortive carpels and of the style ; pericarp 
of two coats, the outer thin, dry, black, and fleshy, the inner membranaceous dark orange-colored, 
lustrous on the inner surface. Seed free, erect, oblong-ovate, convex above, the base flat, depressed in 
the centre, marked by the minute sublateral hilum and the broad conspicuous raphe ; micropyle lateral, 
minute ; testa thin, light chestnut-brown, closely investing the uniform horny albumen. Embryo 
minute, lateral, the radicle turned toward the base of the fruit. 

Two species of Washingtonia are known ; one inhabits the interior desert region of southern 
California and the adjacent part of Lower California, and the second 1 the mountain canons of western 
Sonora and southern Lower California. 

1 Washingtonia Sonorce, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. 79 First collected by Dr. Edward Palmer in 1SS7 in secluded 

fl889^ • xxv. 136. canons of the mountains about Guaymas and subsequently at La 



46 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PALM^E. 



The fruit is eaten by Indians. 

The genus is dedicated to George Washington. 

Paz, Lower California, Washingtonia Sonorce, which is still very 
imperfectly known, is described as a tree twenty-five feet in 
height, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and glaucous filiferous 
leaves three or four feet in diameter, borne on comparatively slen- 
der petioles beset on the margins with variously curved spines, 
connected by a web of floccose hairs. The spadix is shorter, more 
slender, and more sparingly branched, and the perianth is thinner 
and more scarious than those of Washingtonia Jilamentosa. The 
seeds, which are flattened-globose, and about an eighth of an inch 
long, are used by the Indians of Lower California as food. 

Another species, Washingtonia robusta, has been described (H. 
Wendland, Berlin. Gartenzeit. ii. 198 (1883). — Andre", Rev. Hort. 



1885, 401, f. 73; 1895, 155. —Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xxv. 136.— 
S. B. Parish, Garden and Forest, iii. 52, 542 ; Zoe, iv. 350. — Orcutt, 
W. Am. Scientist, i. 63, 76). Washingtonia robusta appeared about 
1869, in Linden's nursery in Ghent, among a number of plants of 
Washingtonia Jilamentosa which were raised from seed believed to 
have been obtained from Lower California, and may be a seminal 
form of this species, as is now usually believed, or more probably 
a species from Lower California still unknown in a wild state. In 
gardens, where it has not flowered, Washingtonia robusta is a more 
vigorous and more rapid-growing plant than Washingtonia Jilamen- 
tosa, and its darker green and more lustrous leaves on shorter 
petioles give it a more robust appearance. 



PALM ^- SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 47 



WASHINGTONIA FILAMENTOSA. 

Desert Palm. Fan Palm. 
Leaves light green, their petioles stout and elongated. 

"Washingtonia filamentosa, 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL ii. Pritchardia filifera, Linden, El. Sort. xxiv. 32, 107 

737 (1891). (1877). 

Brahea dulcis (?), Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1860, 342 "Washingtonia filifera, H. Wendland, Bot. Zeit. xxxvii. 

(not Martius) (1861). 68 (1879). — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Col. ii. 211, 485. — 

Pritchardia filamentosa, H. "Wendland, Bot. Zeit. xxxiv. Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

807 (1876). — Fenzi, Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ort. i. 116, f. 217. — Sprenger, Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ort. xiv. 319, f. 37. 

A tree, occasionally seventy-five feet in height, with a trunk sometimes fifty or sixty feet tall, from 
two to three feet in diameter, covered with a thick light red-brown slightly scaly rind, and clothed 
layer over layer with a thick thatch of dead pendent leaves descending in a regular cone from the living 
crown sometimes nearly to the ground. 1 The living leaves, which vary from forty to sixty in number, 
are light green, slightly tomentose on the folds, five or six feet in length and four or five feet in width, 
and are borne on petioles from four to six feet long, about two inches broad at the apex, where they 
widen slightly into the ligulas, which are about four inches in length and cut irregularly into long 
narrow lobes, about five inches wide at the base, where they dilate into the sheaths, which are sixteen 
or eighteen inches long and twelve or fourteen inches wide, and are armed with broad thin large and 
small straight or hooked spines. The flower-clusters are from ten to twelve feet in length, three or 
four being produced each year from the axils of upper leaves, the slightly fragrant flowers opening late 
in May or early in June ; they are at first erect and spreading, becoming pendulous as the fruit matures, 
glabrous and light green ; the stems and branches are compressed and slightly wing-margined toward 
the base, slender and terete above, and divided into three or four primary branches bearing elongated 
pendulous secondary branches furnished with numerous long densely flowered branchlets, the upper 
being simple and erect, and the lower spreading and paniculate ; the outer spathe which incloses the 
panicle in the bud is narrow, elongated, and glabrous; and those of the secondary branches are 
coriaceous, yellow tinged with brown, laciniate at the apex, the upper being lorate and coated on the 
margins with loose pale caducous tomentum. The fruit, which is produced in great profusion, ripens 
in September, and is a third of an inch in length. The seed is a quarter of an inch long and an eighth 
of an inch thick. 

Washingtonia filamentosa, which is the largest of the Palms of the United States, sometimes 
forms extensive open groves 2 or small isolated clumps, and grows in wet usually alkaline soil along the 
eastern borders of the depression in the Colorado Desert, which an inland sea once filled, following the 
line of connection between this depression and the Gulf of California into Lower California, and 
sometimes extending for several miles up the canons of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains, 
a small grove in White Water Canon on the eastern slope of the San Bernardino Mountains marking 
the western and northern limits of its range. 3 

1 This thatch of dead leaves makes the best possible protection desert, and the vitality of this Palm is shown by its ability to with- 

for the trunk from the burning heat and drying winds of the stand the effects of such constant abuse, and the removal of its 

desert. Its inflammable material, however, is easily kindled by protective covering. (See S. B. Parish, Garden and Forest, iii. 51.) 

accidental fires, and is usually burned off by Indians in order to 2 Garden and Forest, viii. 472, f. 65. 

facilitate the ascent of the trunk to gather the fruit. The dead 3 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 349. 
leaves have thus been burned from nearly all the trees in the 



48 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. palma 

The wood of Washingtonia filamentosa is light and- soft, and contains numerous conspicuous 
dark orange-colored fibro-vascular bundles. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5173, 
a cubic foot weighing 32.24 pounds. It contains a quantity of sugar ; and the ashes, which amount to 
11.86 per cent, of the dry wood, contain 25 per cent, of salt. 1 

The fruit is gathered and used as food by the Indians, who also grind the seeds into flour. 2 
First cultivated by the Jesuit priests in their mission gardens of southern California long before 
this region became a part of the United States, 3 Washingtonia filamentosa was noticed by the botanists 
connected with the commission intrusted with the establishment of the boundary between the United 
States and Mexico, but was not described until many years later. It has now become one of the 
commonest trees in the gardens and streets of the southwestern part of California, growing rapidly and 
vigorously there, 4 as it does in southern Europe, where, in a comparatively short time, it has attained a 
large size and produced flowers and fruit, 5 and also in Rio de Janeiro. 6 

1 Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 133. 4 Garden and Forest, vi. 535, f. 77. 

2 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 598. 5 W. Watson, Garden and Forest, vii. 45. — Andre', Rev. Hort. 
8 Two specimens in San Pedro Street, Los Angeles, believed to 1895, 153, f. 40^42. 

have been planted by the Jesuit missionaries, with stems nearly 6 Nicholson, Garden and Forest, ii. 578. 

nine feet through at the ground, are estimated to be one hundred 
feet high. (See Kinney, Scientific American, lx. 263, f.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DIX. Washingtonia filamentosa. 

1. A branch of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, enlarged. 

6. Portion of a corolla laid open, showing the glands at the 

base of the petals, enlarged. 

7. Portion of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

8. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A seed, basal view, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, much magnified. 

12. A leaf, upper side, much reduced. 

13. Portion of a leaf-stalk, somewhat reduced. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DIX 




C.S.Fcucon. del. 



Rapi 



WASHINGTONIA FILAMENTOSA, O.K. 



A. Riocreiuo direx . 



frnp. <_/ Tizri&ur, Paris , 



i-auus. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 49 



THRINAX. 

Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla confluent into a short cup, 6-toothed on the 
margin; stamens 6 to 12; ovary usually 1 -celled; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit 
drupaceous ; pericarp dry or fleshy. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate. Leaves orbicular, 
or truncate at the base, petiolate, the petioles unarmed. 

Thrinax, Swartz, Prodr. 57 (1788). — Endlicher, Gen. Hemithrinax, Hooker f. Bentham & Hooker Gen. iii. 930 
253. — Meisner, Gen. 357. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. (1883). 

iii. 930. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. 
iii. 34. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xiii. 317. 

Small unarmed trees or shrubs, with simple or clustered endogenous stems marked below by the 
ring-like scars of fallen leaves, and clothed above with the long-persistent petiole-sheaths. Leaves 
terminal, induplicate in vernation, alternate, flabellate, orbicular, or truncate at the base, more or less 
deeply divided into narrow acute two-parted plicately folded lobes ; rachises short or wanting ; ligulas 
free, erect, concave, often apiculate ; petioles compressed, slightly rounded and ridged on both sides, 
their margins thin and smooth, gradually enlarged below into elongated vaginas of coarse fibres often 
forming an open conspicuous network and generally clothed while young with thicjs: felt-like hoary 
tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, elongated, pedunculate, its primary branches alternate, 
furnished with numerous short slender graceful flower-bearing secondary branchlets produced in the 
axils of scarious acute bracts; spathes numerous, tubular, coriaceous or papyraceous, splitting at 
the apex, inserted on the rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe and the node of the 
rachis below it inclosed in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of the node 
next below. Flowers solitary or rarely in two or three-flowered clusters, minute, articulate on slender 
elongated or short broad pedicels in the axils of caducous bracts, usually bibracteolate, the bractlets 
minute and caducous. Sepals and petals confluent into a cup-shaped or ring-like perianth, truncate at 
the base, six-toothed on the margin. Stamens six, nine, or twelve, inserted on the base of the perianth; 
filaments subulate, filiform or triangular, slightly united at the base, exserted, or wanting ; anthers 
oblong or linear-oblong, attached on the back, introrse or extrorse, two-celled, the cells free below, 
opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, ovoid, or globose, one or rarely two or three-celled, narrowed 
above into a slender columnar style crowned by a funnel-formed often oblique stigma ; ovule solitary in 
each cell, basilar, erect, semianatropous, the micropyle inferior or sublateral. Fruit subglobose, black, 
or light orange-colored, crowned with the remnants of the style, raised on a thickened stalk, 
surrounded at the base by the persistent perianth of the flower ; exocarp thick or thin, fleshy or 
crustaceous, closely investing the thin membranaceous endocarp. Seed free, globose or depressed- 
o-lobose ; testa thin, light tawny brown and vertically sulcate, or dark chestnut-brown and lustrous ; 
albumen horny, ruminate, or uniform and deeply penetrated by a broad basal cavity; hilum minute, 
or oblong and conspicuous, basilar or subbasilar ; raphe branched, inconspicuous. 1 

1 By Drude (Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. iii. 34) the thers sessile, extrorse ; pericarp crustaceous ; seed depressed at the 

following sections are proposed : — base, dark chestnut-brown and lustrous ; albumen uniform, pene- 

Euthrinax. Flowers solitary, long-pedicellate ; perianth lobes trated by a broad deep basal cavity, 
minute ; filaments elongated ; anthers introrse ; pericarp thin and Porothrinax. Flowers solitary, short-pedicellate ; perianth 

subsucculent, or thick and succulent ; seed vertically sulcate by lobes broadly ovate, acute ; filaments triangular ; anthers introrse, 

the infolding of the light tawny brown testa into the ruminate becoming reflexed and extrorse at maturity ; pericarp crustaceous ; 

albumen. seet ^ depressed at the base, dark chestnut-brown and lustrous ; 

Hemithrinax. Flowers solitary or rarely in 2 or 3-flowered albumen uniform, penetrated by a broad deep basal cavity, 
clusters, sessile or short-pedicellate ; perianth lobes setulose ; an- 



50 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. palma 

Thrinax is confined to the New World, where it is distributed from the Bahama Islands and 
southern Florida through the West Indies to the Isthmus of Panama. Twelve species are described, 
although with regard to several of them little is yet known. Four and probably five species * inhabit 
southern Florida, one of them being a low shrub. 2 

The large coriaceous tough fan-shaped leaves of many of the species are used to thatch the roofs 
of buildings ; and several of the species are cultivated as ornamental plants in the tropics and in the 
glass-houses of northern gardens. 3 

The generic name, from dplva£, alludes to the form of the leaves. 

1 In addition to the species of Thrinax described in this volume, lected by Dr. A. P. Garber at Cape Sabal in October, 1879, and 

there is another arborescent Euthrinax on the Marquesas Keys and preserved in the Gray Herbarium, indicate the presence of another 

probably on some of the keys east of Key West. It is a low tree, Porothrinax in Florida. 

with a thick trunk raised above the surface of the ground by a 2 Thrinax Garberi, Chapman, Bot. Gazette, iii. 12 (1878) ; Fl. ed. 

cluster of stout roots, large leaves, and fruit remarkable for the 2, Suppl. 651. 

thickness of the fleshy pericarp. 3 H. Wendland, Index Palmarum, 39. 

Portions of a leaf and a few fruits of a Thrinax-like Palm col- 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Euthrinax. 

Pedicels stout, elongated ; filaments filamentose ; fruit dark brown, with thin dry flesh ; seed 

light tawny brown, conspicuously sulcate ; albumen ruminate 1. T. parvTFLORA. 

Porothrinax. 

Pedicels short, disk-like ; filaments triangular ; fruit orange-brown, the pericarp crustaceous ; 

seed dark chestnut-brown and lustrous ; albumen uniform . 2. T. microcarpa. 



PALM ^- SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 51 



THRINAX PARVIFLORA. 

Silk-Top Palmetto. 

Pedicels stout, elongated; filaments filamentose. Fruit dark brown, with thin 
dry flesh ; seed light tawny brown, conspicuously sulcate. 

Thrinax parviflora, Swartz, Prodr. 57 (1788) ; Fl. Ind. Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1091. — Walpers, Ann. v. 818. — Grise- 

Occ. i. 614, t. 13. — Aiton, Sort. Kew. iii. 473. — Willde- bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 515. — Vasey, Rep. U. 8. Dept. 

now, Spec. ii. pt. i. 202. — Persoon, Syn. i. 383. — Lunan, Agric. 1875, 186 {Cat. Forest Trees U. S.). — Chapman, 

Sort. Jam. ii. 28. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vii. 635. — Tit- Bot. Gazette, iii. 12 ; Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 651. — Eggers, 

ford, Sort. Bot. Am. 112. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 20. — Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 118 (Fl. St. Croix and the 

Koemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1300. — Martius, Sist. Virgin Islands). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 

Nat. Palm. iii. 255, t. 103. — Kunth, Enum. iii. 253.— Census U. S. ix. 217. 

A tree, in Florida from twenty to thirty feet in height, with a slender stem four or five inches in 
diameter, covered with thin smooth blue-gray rind. The leaves are orbicular, from three to four feet 
in diameter, thin, bright green on the upper surface, paler and coated while young on the lower 
surface with pale caducous tomentum, and, except at the base, where they are split nearly to the ligula, 
divided for about two thirds of their diameter into laciniate lobes, with stout yellow midribs prominent 
on the upper side, and with much thickened reflexed margins ; the lobes near the middle of the leaf 
are from an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, diminishing in width toward the base of the leaf, 
where they are not more than a quarter of an inch wide ; the rachis of the leaf is reduced to a thin 
truncate undulate border, and the ligula is crescent-shaped, about an eighth of an inch long, a quarter 
of an inch thick, and an inch wide, and is furnished near the middle with a flat nearly triangular point 
half an inch long ; the petiole is thin and flexible, three quarters of an inch wide at the base of the 
blade, rounded and ridged on the upper and lower sides, about as long as the blade of the leaf, and 
enlarged below into the elongated sheath, which is coated while young with a thick felt-like hoary 
tomentum. Three or four panicles of flowers, from two to three feet in length, usually appear each 
year, the flowers opening in Florida in the autumn ; their secondary branches are much flattened, 
recurved, and from four to six inches in length, the slender flower-bearing branchlets being from an 
inch and a half to five inches long, and in the axils of ovate acute scarious brownish bracts about three 
quarters of an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide ; the spathes are coriaceous, pubescent above 
the middle, and often ciliate on the margins at the apex. The flowers, which are raised on rigid 
spreading pedicels an eighth of an inch in length, consist of a cup-like six-lobed perianth, six or nine 
stamens, with slender exserted filaments slightly united below and large oblong light yellow anthers, 
and a subglobose dark orange-colored ovary surmounted by an elongated style dilated into a broad 
oblique stigma. The fruit, which ripens in April, is dark chestnut-brown or nearly black, and rather 
less than a quarter of an inch in diameter, with a thin somewhat fleshy outer coat closely investing the 
rather thicker crustaceous light brown inner coat, and a deeply furrowed depressed-globose tawny 
brown seed an eighth of an inch in diameter, with ruminate albumen. 

In Florida Thrinax parviflora has been found only on the southern keys from Bahia Honda to 
Long's Key, usually growing in low moist sandy soil or in sandy swamps. It also inhabits the Bahama 
Islands and many of the Antilles. 

The wood of Thrinax parviflora is light, soft, and pale brown, with a hard outer rim about an 
eighth of an inch in thickness, and contains numerous hard inconspicuous fibro-vascular bundles. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5991, a cubic foot weighing 37.34 pounds. 



52 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. palm;e. 

In Florida the trunks are sometimes used in making sponge and turtle-crawls. 

Thrinax parviflora appears to have been first noticed in Florida by Dr. A. "W. Chapman 1 in 1875. 

1 See vii. 110. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DX. Thkinax parvefloka. 

1. Portion of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much magnified. 

6. A branch of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much magnified. 

10. A leaf, upper surface, much reduced. 



iilva of North Americ 



Tab. DX 




CE.Faicoro deLs 



ITim^Zy so. 



THRINAX PARVIFLORA, Sw. 

A. Riocreusc direx * Im f>- J - Taneur, Paj-is. 



palm^ SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 53 



THRINAX MICROCARPA. 
Silver-Top Palmetto. Brittle Thatch. 

Pedicels short, disk-like ; filaments triangular. Fruit orange-brown, the pericarp 
crustaceous ; seed dark chestnut-brown and lustrous. 

Thrinax microcarpa, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ix. 162 Roemer & Schultes) (1883). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 

(1896). Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 218. 

Thrinax argentea, Chapman, Fl. eel. 2, Suppl. 651 (not 

A tree, in Florida rarely more than thirty feet in height, with a trunk eight or ten inches in 
diameter, covered with thin smooth pale blue-green rind. The leaves are orbicular, coriaceous, pale 
green above, silvery white below, more or less thickly coated while young with hoary tomentum at the 
base, especially on the lower surface, from two to three feet across, and split to below the middle or 
near the base of the leaf almost to the rachis into divisions which are an inch wide at the middle of the 
leaf, and rather less than a quarter of an inch wide at its base, and are thickened and revolute on 
the margins, with midribs thickened and prominent on the upper side and slender veins ; the rachises 
are short, slightly convex, and gradually narrowed and rounded at the apex ; the ligulas are orbicular, 
thick, concave, an inch wide, and lined with a thick coat of white tomentum ; the petioles are thin and 
flexuose, an inch wide at the apex, and gradually widened below into elongated light brown sheaths of 
slender fibres. The flower-clusters, which appear in April, are elongated, with short compressed erect 
secondary branches, slightly spreading below, gracefully incurved above the middle, and furnished with 
numerous slender pendulous flower-bearing branchlets subtended by small lanceolate acute scarious 
bracts ; the spathes are elongated, acute, deeply parted at the apex, coriaceous, and coated above the 
middle with thick hoary tomentum. The flowers are solitary, articulate on short thick disk-like 
pedicels, and about an eighth of an inch long ; the cupular perianth is truncate at the base and 
six-lobed, with broadly ovate acute lobes half as long as the ovary. The stamens are six in number, 
with thin nearly triangular exserted filaments slightly united at the base and slender at the apex, and 
oblong anthers, which are attached on the back near the bottom and versatile, becoming reversed and 
extrorse at maturity. The ovary is ovoid, deep orange-colored, one-celled, and narrowed above into a 
short thick style dilated into a large funnel-formed stigma. The fruit, which ripens late in the autumn 
or during the winter, is globose, an eighth of an inch in diameter, dull yellow-brown, surmounted by 
the remnants of the style, surrounded at the base by the slightly enlarged obscurely six-lobed thickened 
perianth of the flower, and raised on a short thick stalk ; the outer coat is thin, brittle, and closely 
invests the much thinner membranaceous inner coat, which is light brown and lustrous on the inner 
surface. The seed is subglobose, with uniform albumen, bright dark chestnut-brown, and depressed 
and marked at the base by the conspicuous oblong pale hilum. 

The wood of Thrinax microcarpa is light and soft, and contains numerous small fibro-vascular 
bundles, the interior of the trunk being spongy and much fighter than the hard exterior rim, which is 
from half an inch to an inch in thickness, and, when absolutely dry, has a specific gravity of 0.7172, a 
cubic foot weighing 44.70 pounds. The stems are used for wharf-piles, and the thick coriaceous 
brittle leaves are employed as thatch, and manufactured into coarse ropes. 

Thrinax microcarpa grows in dry coral soil, and inhabits No-name Key, Bahia Honda Key, and 
the shores of Sugar Loaf Sound in southern Florida. It was discovered by Mr. A. H. Curtiss 1 in 1879. 

1 See ii. 50. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXI. Thrinax microcarpa. 

1. A branch of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A perianth with stamens, displayed, enlarged. 

5. A branch of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. A seed, basal view, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, much magnified. 

9. A leaf, upper surface, much reduced. 



Silva of North America. 



TaVDXl. 




Cfi.Paxorb del. 



ffimety j-c 



THRINAX MICROCARPA. Sarg. 



A.Riocreu2> direx. 



Imp . c/ Taneur, Paris. 



taxace^e. SILT A OF NORTE AMERICA. 55 



TUMION. 

Flowers naked, dioecious, solitary, axillary ; stamens numerous ; filaments dilated 
above into 4 anthers connate into a half ring ; ovule solitary, erect, surrounded by 
a fleshy aril becoming confluent with the woody testa of the seed. Leaves lanceolate, 
alternate, spreading in two ranks, persistent. 

Tumion, Rafinesque, Amen. Nat. 63 (1840). — Greene, i. 111. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 31. — Masters, Jour. 

Pittonia, ii. 193. Linn. Soc. xxx. 5. 

Torreya, Arnott, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 130 (not Rafinesque, Caryotaxus, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 365 

Sprengel, nor Eaton) (1838). — Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. i. (1865). 

1373. — Meisner, Gen. 353. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Fcetataxus (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 167 (1866). 

iii. 431. — Eichler, Engler & Pranll Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. 

Glabrous foetid or pungent-aromatic trees, with fissured bark, close-grained light-colored wood, 
ovate acute ternate buds in the axils of the upper leaves, the lateral rather smaller than the central, 
covered with numerous imbricated scales, increasing in size from below upward, the outer long-persistent 
on the base of the branchlet, those of the inner ranks scarious, accrescent, often erose on the margins, 
verticillate or opposite, spreading or drooping branches, slender terete branchlets marked in their fifth 
or sixth year with small slightly elevated oval transverse scars of fallen leaves, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves disposed in a subspiral, distichously spreading and suberect by the twisting of the short 
compressed petioles, linear-lanceolate, thin, gradually narrowed at the apex into long sharp rigid callous 
points, and abruptly contracted at the base, slightly rounded on the back, ecarinate, bisulcate below 
with a broad or narrow stomatiferous groove on each side of the midvein, revolute and slightly 
thickened on the entire margins, covered with a thick epidermis, dark green and lustrous on the upper 
surface, often rather paler on the lower ; resin-canal solitary, central ; fibro-vascular bundle semilunar, 
surrounded by an epiderm with thick-walled cells. Flowers appearing in very early spring, the 
staminate crowded in adjacent axils from globose buds formed in the autumn on branchlets of the year, 
and covered with numerous closely imbricated decussate ovate acute thick scales yellow tinged with red 
below, increasing in size from below upward, persistent, the inner accrescent, thin, erose on the 
margins ; the pistillate scattered, and less numerous in the axils of leaves of the year or of the previous 
year, covered with broadly ovate rounded or apiculate thinner scales persistent under the fruit. 
Staminate flower ovoid or oblong, composed of six or eight close whorls, each of four divaricate 
stamens, subverticillately arranged on a slender subsessile axis, surrounded at the base by the persistent 
bud-scales ; filaments short, flattened and expanded above into four globose pendulous anthers connate 
into a half ring, two-valved, introrse, their connective produced above the cells, slightly dilated, often 
denticulate on the upper margin ; pollen-grains globose. Pistillate flower sessile, surrounded by the bud- 
scales, composed of a single orthotropous ovule, surrounded by and finally inclosed in an ovate fleshy 
urceolate sack, becoming at maturity an ovoid or obovate drupe-like purple or green fruit short-pointed 
at the apex, and separating when ripe from the basal scales persistent on a short stout peduncle, with a 
thin resinous leathery purple or green outer coat, developed from the aril-like covering of the ovule, 
closely investing the seed. Seed ovoid, acute at both ends, apiculate at the apex, marked at the base 
by the large conspicuous dark hilum ; testa thick and woody ; tegmen membranaceous or laminate, its 



56 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



TAXACEiE. 



folds penetrating the fleshy more or less deeply ruminate white albumen. Embryo axile ; cotyledons 
two, semiterete, shorter than the superior radicle. 

Four species of Tumion have survived from the tertiary period, when the genus inhabited the 
Arctic Circle, and then, spreading southward, existed for a long time in Europe, whence it has now 
disappeared. 1 Of existing species, one, the type of the genus, inhabits Florida, a second is widely 
scattered through the forests of western California, one occurs on the mountains of central and 
southern Japan, 2 and another in northern China. 3 

Tumion produces handsome light-colored wood, occasionally used in cabinet-making, and sweet 
edible oily seeds. 

In North America Tumion is not injured by insects or affected by fungal diseases. 

The species can be easily raised from seeds, which, however, soon lose their vitality if allowed to 
become dry. They are occasionally cultivated, but as ornamental plants give little promise of attaining 
the size and beauty which they display in their native forests. 

The generic name, from 6v[iiov, is said to have been given by Dioscorides to a species of Yew-tree. 



1 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 59. 

2 Tumion nuciferum, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 194 (1891). 

Torreya nucifera, Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Munch. 
iv. pt. iii. 232 (1846) ; Fl. Jap. ii. 64, t. 129. — Endlicher, Syn. 
Conif. 240. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iii. 169 (Prol. Fl. 
Jap.). — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 505. — Franchet 
& Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 473. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xviii. 500 (Conifers of Japan). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 186. 

Taxus nucifera, Limueus, Spec. 1040 (1753). — Thunberg, FL 
Jap. 275. — Gsertner, Fruct. ii. 66, t. 91. — A. Richard, Coram. 
Bot. Conif. ii. t. 2, f. 3. 

Podocarpus (?) nucifera, Persoon, Syn. ii. 633 (1807). 
Caryotaxus nucifera, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 366 
(1865). 

Foztataxus nucifera (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 168 (1866). 
The Kaya, as Tumion nuciferum is called in Japan, is common in 
the forests of central and southern Hondo and in those of the 
southern islands, growing often as an undershrub or as a small tree 
from twenty to thirty feet high, but occasionally, especially on the 
banks of the Kisagawa in central Hondo, rising to the height of 
eighty feet, with a trunk four or five feet in diameter, and forming 



a tree unequaled in the massiveness of its appearance and in the 
beauty of its bright red bark and lustrous dark green, almost black 
foliage. 

The kernels of the seeds, which possess a slightly resinous pleas- 
ant flavor, are an important article of food in Japan, and by pres- 
sure yield an oil, Kaya-no-abura, which is used in cooking, and is 
of considerable commercial importance. The light yellow wood is 
straight-grained, and is employed in building and cabinet-making 
(Rein, Industries of Japan, 94, 157, 231. — Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 
76). 

3 Tumion grande, Greene, I. c. (1891). 

Torreya (?) grandis, Gordon, Pinetum, 326 (1858). — Parla- 
tore, I. c. — Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. se'r. 2, v. 292 (PL David. 
i.). — Masters, I. c. — Beissner, I. c. 185. 

Caryotaxus grandis, Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 367 (1865). 
Little is known in regard to the distribution and uses of this 
inhabitant of the mountain forests of northern China, which was 
introduced iuto English gardens by Fortune in 1847, and it is not 
improbable that it may prove to be specifically identical with the 
Japanese species. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale on the lower surface. Fruit purple. Leaves, branches, 

and wood foetid L T TAXIFO litjm. 

Leaves nearly flat, green below, elongated. Fruit green, slightly tinged with purple. Leaves 

and branches pungent-aromatic 2. T. Californicum. 



taxace^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 57 



TUMION TAXIFOLIUM. 
Stinking Cedar. Torreya. 

Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale on the lower surface. Fruit purple. 
Leaves and branches foetid. 

Tumion taxifolium, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 194 (1891). 10*A Census U. S. ix. 186. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 

Torreya taxifolia, Arnott, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 130, t. ed. 2, 49, f . 2. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pfianzen- 

(1838). — Hooker, Icon. iii. t. 232, 233. — Nuttall, fam. ii. pt. i. Ill, f. 70, a, b. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 

Sylva, iii. 91, t. 109. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 298. — End- 186, f. 46. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 254.— 

licher, Syn. Conif. 241. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 6. 

Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 226. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 514. — Caryotaxus taxifolia, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 

Gordon, Pinetum, 329. — Chapman, Fl. 436. — Hoopes, 367 (1865). 

Evergreens, 387, f . 62. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. Foetataxus montana (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 167 

xvi. pt. ii. 505. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 100. — (1866). 

Veitch, Man. Conif. 311. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 

A foetid tree, occasionally forty feet in height, with a short trunk from one to two feet in diameter, 
or usually much smaller, producing when cut many vigorous shoots from the stump and roots, and 
whorls of spreading slightly pendulous branches, which form a rather open pyramidal head tapering 
from a broad base. The bark of the trunk is about half an inch in thickness, brown, faintly tinged 
with orange-color, and irregularly divided by broad shallow fissures into wide low ridges slightly 
rounded on the back, and covered with thin closely appressed scales, which, in falling, disclose the 
yellow inner bark. The branchlets are slender, and are bright green for two or three years, and then 
gradually turn to a dark orange-red color. The winter-buds are covered with loosely imbricated scales ; 
those of the outer ranks are keeled and thickened on the back, narrowed at the apex into short callous 
tips, and light green, lustrous and more or less tinged with purple on the outer surface, those of the 
inner ranks being thin and scarious, erose on the margins, and from one half to three quarters of an 
inch long when fully grown. The leaves are slightly falcate, an inch and a half long, about an eighth 
of an inch wide, tipped with elongate slender rigid callous points, somewhat rounded, dark green and 
lustrous above, rather paler and marked below with broad shallow grooves. The flowers appear during 
March and April, the staminate being a quarter of an inch in length, with pale yellow anthers and thick 
rigid ovate acute scales rounded on the back, while the broadly ovate female flower, which is abruptly 
narrowed and short-pointed at the apex, with a dark purple fleshy covering to the ovule, is an eighth 
of an inch long, and inclosed at the base by broad thin rounded scales. The fruit, which is produced 
rather sparingly, attains its full size at midsummer, but does not fall from the branches until late in 
the autumn ; it is slightly obovate, dark purple, from an inch to an inch and a quarter long, and three 
quarters of an inch broad, with a thin leathery covering, a light red-brown seed furnished on the inner 
surface of the brittle woody testa with two opposite longitudinal thin ridges extending from the base 
toward the apex, 1 and conspicuously ruminate albumen penetrated by the red-brown inner seed-coat. 

Tumion taxifolium is distributed for a distance of forty miles on the eastern bank of the 
Appalachicola River, Florida, from River Junction 2 to the neighborhood of Bristol, Gadsden County, 

1 The projecting summits of these ridges on the inner surface of surface of the nut." I have not seen them on the other species 
the testa of Tumion taxifolium were found by Torrey, who first which I have examined. 

noticed them (Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 129), to be perforated and to com- - River Junction, which was formerly called Chattahoochee, is at 

municate "obliquely downwards with a foramen on the external the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, where their 

united streams form the Appalachicola. 



58 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. taxacm. 

arowina- in calcareous soil on the bluffs of the river and for a few miles along its tributaries, on the 
slopes of ravines, which open to the river through the bluffs, and on the borders of its swamps. 1 

The wood of Tumion taxifolium is hard and strong, although light and rather brittle, and is close- 
orained, with a satiny surface, susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it contains thin inconspicuous 
bands of small summer-cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. It is clear bright yellow, with thin 
lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5145, a cubic foot 
weighing 32.06 pounds. 2 Exceedingly durable in contact with the soil, it has been largely used locally 
for fence-posts, with the result that most of the large specimens have been destroyed. 

Tumion taxifolium was found in 1833 3 by Mr. H. B. Croom 4 on the bluffs of the Appalachicola, 
opposite the town of Aspalaga. Introduced by its discoverer into northern gardens, it has proved 
hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts, although a mild climate is necessary to develop all its 
beauty, and in western Europe. 

1 Gray, Scientific Papers, ii. 187 (A Pilgrimage to Torreya). — ated. Mr. Croom with his wife and three children passed tbe 
Chapman, Bot. Gazette, x. 251, with a map of the country occupied summer of 1836 in New York, and, embarking for Charleston on 
by this tree. the steamship Hope in September, the whole family was lost at 

2 Tumion taxifolium appears to grow comparatively slowly. The sea by the foundering of the vessel. 

specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in Mr. Croom published in The American Journal of Science in 1834 

the American Museum of Natural History in New York is fourteen and 1835 three papers ou the botany of the southern states, in 

inches in diameter inside the bark, and displays ninety-nine layers which several new species were proposed, and much information 

of annual growtb. Tbis tree, however, was probably shaded during upon the distribution of others was first printed. A paper by bim 

the first fifty years of its life, as it grew less rapidly then than in on the genus Sarracenia, in which he first described Sarracenia 

its second half century. Drummondii, appeared in the fourth volume of the Annals of the 

3 The first notice of Tumion was published in 1834 by Nuttall Lyceum of Natural History of New York. In 1837, after his death, 
(Jour. Phil. Acad. vii. 96), who suggested that it might be the his Catalogue of Plants, native or naturalized in the vicinity of New 
Mexican Taxus montana. Bern, North Carolina, appeared with a preface by Dr. Torrey, a 

4 Hardy B. Croom (1799-1836) was born of wealthy parents in previous edition prepared in connection with Dr. H. Loomis having 
Lenoir County, North Carolina, and was graduated with honor been issued in 1833. Intending to devote himself to the study of 
from the State University. He studied law in New Berne, and was botany and the exploration of Florida, Mr. Croom had begun 
admitted to the bar, but never practiced. Having married in New arrangements for the publication of that sequel to Micbaux's Sylva 
Berne, he devoted himself to the care of large cotton plantations, of North America which was afterwards executed by Nuttall. 

and became interested in planting in western Florida, which he Croomia, an humble herb found by him growing under the shade 

visited annually for several years, traveling from North Carolina of Tumion on the banks of the Appalachicola, with one species 

in his private carriage, attended by outriders, and accompanied by confined to the southeastern United States and another to Japan, 

a supply-wagon containing a tent and camping outfit. On one of recalls the name of a modest, amiable, and scholarly man. (See 

these journeys he discovered Tumion on the bluffs of the Appala- preface to Catalogue of Plants of New Bern, ed. 2.) 
chicola opposite Aspalaga, where one of his plantations was situ- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXII. Tumion taxifolium. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, natural size. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. End of a branch with winter-buds, natural size. 

12. Portion of a branchlet with leaf-scars, natural size. 

13. A leaf divided transversely, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tat . DXII 




CE.FacEon, del . 



Rapine so. 



TUMION TAXIFOLIUM. Greene. 



A.Ru>creiar> direao . 



Imp . J. Taneur, Paris , 



TAXACE2E. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 59 



TUMION CALIFORNICUM. 

California Nutmeg. 

Leaves nearly flat, green below, elongated. Fruit green, slightly tinged with 
purple. Leaves and branches pungent-aromatic. 

Tumion Californicum, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 195 (1891). — Board Forestry, iii. 186, t. 29 (Cone-Bearers of Cali- 

Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 343 (Death for n la). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 188. — Masters, 

Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 254. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 

iv. 225 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Lemmon, West- Soc. xiv. 318 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche 

American Cone-Bearers, 83. Dendr. 6. 

Torreya Californica, Torrey, N. Y. Jour. Pharm. iii. 49 Torreya Myristica, Hooker f. Bot. Mag. Ixxx. t. 4780 

(1854); Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 140. — J. M. (1854). — Van Houtte, Fl. des Serres. ix. 175, t. — Car- 

Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 24. — Kellogg, riere, Traite Conif. 515. — Gordon, Pinetum, 327. — A. 

Proc. Cat. Acad. i. 35. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. n. ser. x. 7, t. 3. — 

vi. 61, 90, f . 27. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 385. — Parlatore, Veitch, Man. Conif 311. 

De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 506. — K. Koch, Dendr. Caryotaxus Myristica, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Na- 
il pt. ii. 101. —Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 410. — Brewer delh. 368 (1865). 

& Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 110. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Foetataxus Myristica (Nelson) Senilis, Pinaceos, 168 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 186. — Lauehe, Deutsche (1866). 

Dendr. ed. 2, 50. — Hooker f. Gard. Chron. n. ser. Tumion Californicum, var. littorale, Lemmon, West- 

xxiv. 553, f. 125. — Lemmon, Rep. California State American Cone-Bearers, 84 (1895). 

A tree, from fifty to seventy or, occasionally, one hundred feet in height, 1 with a trunk one or two 
or rarely four feet in diameter, sending up from the stem when cut numerous vigorous stems, and 
whorls of spreading slender slightly pendulous branches, which form a handsome pyramidal or, in old 
age, a round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from one third to one half of an inch in thickness, 
gray-brown tinged with orange-color, and deeply and irregularly divided by broad fissures into narrow 
ridges covered with elongated loosely appressed plate-like scales. The slender branchlets are light 
green when they first appear, and become more or less tinged with olive-color during their first winter, 
and bright red-brown during their second season. The buds are ovate, acute, and a quarter of an inch 
long, and are covered by thick acute apiculate lustrous light red-brown scales. The leaves are slightly 
falcate, nearly flat, dark green and lustrous on the upper and somewhat lighter and marked with deep 
narrow grooves on the lower surface, tipped with slender callous points, from one inch to three inches 
and a half long, and from one sixteenth to nearly one eighth of an inch wide. The flowers appear in 
March and April ; the staminate are about a third of an inch in length, with thin broadly ovate acute 
scales, the inner being scarious and erose on the margins ; the pistillate are nearly a quarter of an 
inch long, with oblong-ovate rounded scales. The fruit is ovate or oblong-ovate, from an inch to an 
inch and a half in length, and light green more or less streaked with purple ; the testa is thin and 
brittle, with a pale laminate inner seed-coat, deeply infolded into the ruminate albumen, which, 
resembling in structure that of the Nutmeg, has given to this tree its common name. 

An inhabitant of the borders of mountain streams, and nowhere common, the California Nutmeg 
is widely distributed in California from Mendocino County to the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara 
County in the coast region, where, especially at the north, it grows to its largest size and is most 
abundant, and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Eldorado to Tulare County at 
elevations of from three to five thousand feet above the level of the sea. 

1 Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 3. 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



TAXACE.E. 



The wood of Tumion Californicum is light, soft, close-grained, and not strong. It is a clear 
light yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous obscure medullary rays and broad 
although not conspicuous bands of small summer cells. It is very durable in contact with the soil, and 
has a fine satiny surface susceptible of receiving a handsome polish. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.4760, a cubic foot weighing 29.66 pounds. It is occasionally used for fence- 
posts. 1 

It is not known who discovered Tumion Californicum? It was introduced into English gardens 
in 1851 by William Lobb, 3 and is occasionally cultivated in European collections, where, although it 
has produced its flowers, 4 it does not grow with much vigor or promise to acquire the beauty which 
distinguishes this noble tree in the forests of northern California. 



1 The log specimen of Tumion Californicum in the Jesup Collec- 
tion of North American Woods in the American Museum of Natu- 
ral History in New York is fourteen and one quarter inches in 
diameter inside the bark, and is two hundred and seven years old, 
the layers of annual growth having steadily diminished in thickness 
after the first forty years. 

2 In 1853 Dr. Torrey received from a Mr. Sheldon specimens of 
Tumion Californicum which had been collected on the headwaters 
of the Feather and Yuba Rivers on the Sierra Nevada, with the 
information that the tree had been discovered two or three years 
previously, and had attracted considerable attention owing to the 
resemblance of its seeds to those of the Nutmeg. At about the 
same time seedling plants raised in the Parsons' Nursery in Flush- 
ing, New York, were seen by Dr. Torrey. (See N. Y. Jour. 
Pharm. iii. 49.) 

3 William Lobb (1809-1863), a native of Cornwall, applied him- 
self to gardening as a young man, and entered the Veitchs' nursery 
at Exeter, where he devoted his leisure time to the study of bot- 
any. In 1840 he was sent by Mr. Veitch to South America for the 
purpose of collecting plants. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro, he ex- 
plored the Orgaos Mountains, where he discovered a number of 
orchids and the beautiful Pleroma elegans. From Brazil he went 
to Buenos Ayres, crossed by the pampas and the Chilian Andes to 
Valparaiso, and then visited the forests of Araucaria imbricata to 
gather seeds of that conifer, which had previously been extremely 
rare in European plantations. He afterwards proceeded to Peru 
and Ecuador, and for two years collected plants on the Pacific 



coast. Returning to England in 1844, he sailed again for Brazil in 
April of the following year, and then went to Valparaiso for the 
purpose of exploring southern Chili, a region at that time little 
known to botanists. From Chili he introduced into cultivation at 
this time Lapageria rosea, Escallonia macrantha, Philesia buxifolia, 
Embotkrium coccineum, Desfontainea spinosa, and several other 
plants, which have retained popular favor for garden decoration. 
He continued his explorations in Valdivia, Chiloe, and northern 
Patagonia, whence he introduced Libocedrus cupressoides, Fitzroya 
Patagonica, Saxegothea conspicua, Podocarpus nubigena, and the 
beautiful Berberis Darwinii. 

In 1848 Lobb returned to England, and was sent by Mr. Veitch 
to California to collect seeds of the then rare conifers known to 
science, and, if possible, to discover others. He landed in San 
Francisco in the autumn of 1849, and remained in California and 
Oregon for the remainder of his life, introducing into English gar- 
dens Abies venusta, Abies magnifica, Abies concolor, and Sequoia Wel- 
lingtonia. Of this last-named tree, he first sent cones and seeds to 
England, and when he returned home for a short visit in 1854, car- 
ried with him two living plants. In 1857 his connection with the 
Veitchs terminated ; but he remained in California, and died of 
paralysis in San Francisco. William Lobb was one of the most 
successful of the botanists and explorers who helped to make 
known the trees of western North America, and in this connection 
his name will always be gratefully remembered with those of 
Douglas and Jeffrey. 

4 Gard. Chron. ser. 3, v. 800, f . 126, 127. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXIII. Tumion Californicum. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. An embryo, much magnified. 

9. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DXII1 




C.E. Faccon, del 



ErruffuneZu so. 



TUMION CALIFORNICUM. Greene 



A,Jiiocreua> e&reas- ' 



Jmp ■ t/.Tan&ur, Paris . 



taxace^. S1LVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 61 



TAXUS. 

Flowers naked, dioecious or monoecious, solitary, axillary ; the staminate stipi- 
tate ; stamens 4 to 12 ; the pistillate sessile ; ovule erect on a ring-like accrescent 
disk becoming a fleshy aril nearly inclosing the ripe seed. Leaves alternate, linear, 
persistent. 

Taxus, Linnaeus, Gen. 312 (1753). — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. i. 112. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 31. — Masters, Jour. 

481. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 412. — Endlicher, Gen. Linn. Soc. xxx. 7 '. 

216. — Meisner, Gen. 353. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Verataxus (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 168 (1866). 
iii. 431. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. 

Long-lived slow-growing glabrous trees or shrubs, producing, when cut, numerous vigorous shoots 
from the stumps, with brown or dark purple bark, hard close-grained slightly resinous durable wood, 
slender terete green branchlets, small ovate acute buds in the axils of the two or three upper leaves, 
covered with numerous loosely imbricated acute light yellow-green scales increasing in size from below 
upward, the outer thick and firm, persistent on the base of the branchlet, the inner membranaceous and 
accrescent, and long fibrous roots. Leaves subspirally disposed, spreading, appearing distichous on 
lateral branchlets by the twisting of the short compressed petioles, 1 linear, often falcate, flat, acute and 
mucronate at the apex with slender ridged acute callous tips, gradually narrowed at the base, dark 
green, smooth and carinate on the upper surface, paler, papillate and stomatiferous on the lower, their 
margins slightly thickened and reflexed, vascular bundle single, ellipsoidal in section, without resin- 
canals, persistent for many years. Flowers opening in very early spring from globose buds covered 
with many thin ovate acute loosely imbricated light yellow-green scales often slightly tinged with red, 
decussate, appearing in autumn on branches of the year, the staminate numerous in adjacent axils, 
the pistillate scattered and less abundant. Staminate flower a quarter of an inch long, composed of a 
slender stipe surrounded at the base by the persistent bud-scales increasing in size from below upward, 
bearing at the apex a globose turbinate head of from four to eight pale yellow stamens ; anthers 
subglobose before opening, depressed above, four to six-angled, fight yellow, composed of from four 
to six conical pendent cells peltately connate from the apex of a short cylindrical filament, opening 
below introrsely, spreading and umbraculif orm after the discharge of the globose pollen-grains, their 
connectives scarcely mucronulate. Pistillate flower sessile in the axil of the upper scale-like bract of 
a short axillary simple or rarely two-forked branch, and close to its minute tip, 2 subtended by five 
broadly ovate rounded thin decussate scales, more or less connate into a cup persistent under the 
fruit ; ovule erect, orthotropous, sessile on an annular accrescent disk. Seed ripening and falling in 
the autumn, ovate-oblong, often obscurely three-angled, gradually narrowed and short-pointed at the 
apex, marked at the base by the large depressed triangular or oval hilum showing the ends of three 
fibro-vascular bundles, about a third of an inch long, entirely or nearly surrounded by, but free from, 
the now thickened succulent translucent sweet scarlet aril-like disk of the flower, truncate and open at 
the apex, separating in falling from the scales at its base and the short peduncle ; seed-coat thick, of 
two layers, the outer thin and membranaceous or fleshy, the inner much thicker, subligneous. Embryo 
axile in copious fleshy uniform albumen ; cotyledons two, shorter than the superior radicle. 

Taxus, which is confined to the northern hemisphere, is homomorphous, the six species which are 

1 On the leading shoots and on the fastigiate branches of some spiral arrangement of the leaves is apparent. (See Masters, Jour. 
of the forms of Taxus baccata the petioles are not twisted, and the Linn. Soc. xxx. 7.) 

2 Eichler, Bliithendiagramme, pt. i. 6i. 



62 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



TAXACEjE. 



now recognized being only distinguishable by trivial leaf-characters and by habit. Four species are 
found in North America ; one, 1 the type of the genus, is widely distributed through Europe, northern 
Africa, and Asia, and another 2 is confined to western continental Asia and Japan. In North America 



1 Taxus baccatu, Linnaeus, Spec. 1040 (1753). — De Candolle, 
Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 280. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 292, t. 
132. — Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 666. — Reichenbach, Icon. FL Ger- 
man, xi. 7, t. 538. — Hartig, Forst. Culturjjfl. Deutschl. 92, t. 9. — 
Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 23. — Parlatore, Fl. 
Ital. iv. 95 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 500. — Boissier, Fl. 
Orient, v. 711. — Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. se"r. 2, v. 293 (PL 
David, i.). — C on we ntz, A bhand. Landesk. Prov. Westpreussen, iii. 
1, t. 1, 2 (Die Elbe in Westpreusse?i). — Hempel & Wilhelm, 
Bdume und Straucher, i. 198, f. 117, 118, t. 11. 
Taxus lugubris, Salisbury, Prodr. 396 (1796). 
Taxus nucifera, Wallich, Tent. Fl. Nepal. 57, t. 44 (not Lin- 

nams) (1826). 

Taxus polyplcea, Spadoni, Xilolog. iii. 195 (1828). 

Taxus Wallichiana, Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Miinch. iii. 803, 

t. 5 (Beitr. Morphologie der Conifer en) (1837-43). 

? Taxus baccata, var. microcarpa, Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. Etr. 

Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ix. 259 (Prim. Fl. Amur.) (1859). 
Taxus orientalis, Bertoloni, Misc. Bot. xxiv. 17, t. 2 (1862). 

Taxus baccata, wbich usually grows in shady situations on the 
northern slopes of hills or under the shade of deciduous-leaved 
trees, and is rarely gregarious, sometimes attains a height of a 
hundred feet, with a tall straight trunk five or six feet in diameter, 
but is usually much smaller and of a bushy habit ; it is widely dis- 
tributed over western and central Europe and the mountains of 
southern Europe and northern Africa, reaching southern Scandina- 
via on the north, and ranging through western Asia to the temper- 
ate Himalayas, where it is common, especially in the northwest 
provinces, up to elevations of 10,000 or 12,000 feet above the sea- 
level and probably attains its largest size, and to northern China 
and Manchuria. 

The wood of Taxus baccata is strong and hard, with a fine close 
grain, and is flexible, elastic, and easy to split ; it is of a handsome 
orange-red or dark red-brown color, with thin almost white sap- 
wood, and is little affected by contact with the soil or atmosphere. 
From the time of the ancients the wood of Taxus baccata has been 
valued in the manufacture of bows, which, for centuries after the 
Anglo-Saxon conquest, were the principal weapons of the English, 
and before the introduction of firearms Yew wood was largely 
imported into England from southern Europe. (See Hansard, 
The Book of Archery, 325.) The wood is considered more valuable 
than that of any other European tree for cabinet-making, and is 
largely used for this purpose in the form of veneers ; it is also 
made into boxes, vases, musical instruments, and whip handles, and 
is employed for fence-posts, stakes, and palings. 

In some of the districts of northwestern India the Yew is vener- 
ated, and its wood is burned as incense ; in other parts of India 
its branches are sometimes carried in religious processions, and are 
used for the decoration of houses during religious festivals. The 
powdered bark is mixed with tea, and is employed as a red dye ; it 
is sometimes utilized in the treatment of rheumatism ; and the 
powdered leaves are used as a tonic and as an expectorant in the 
treatment of catarrh. The sweet covering of the seed is eaten by 
the mountaineers of northwestern India, and domestic animals 
browse on the leaves and branches. (See Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 541. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 413. — Balfour, Cyclo- 
paedia of India, ed. 3, iii. 827.) 



Of slow growth, Taxus baccata attains a great age, and the 
oldest trees in Europe are believed to be Yew-trees, which appear 
occasionally to live under favorable conditions for more than a 
thousand years. (See De Candolle, Bibl. de Geneve, xlvii. 30 [No- 
tice sur la Longevity' des Arbres~\. — Bowman, Mag. Nat. Hist. n. 
ser. i. 28, 85.) In England Yew-trees have been planted for cen- 
turies in the neighborhood of churches or have influenced the selec- 
tion of their sites, and some of these venerable Yews with enormous 
stems and broad picturesque heads of dark foliage were ancient 
trees when Columbus was born. (See Strutt, Sylva Britannica, 12, 
t. 21. — Bree, Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 47, f. — Loudon, A rb. Brit. iv. 
2073. — Selby, Brit. Forest Trees, 368.) 

During the seventeenth century Yew-trees, which can endure 
an annual shortening of the branches, were cut into all sorts of 
fantastic shapes to decorate the gardens of France, England, and 
Holland, and were largely employed in forming hedges, for which 
purpose they are admirably adapted and still frequently used. 

In the eastern United States Taxus baccata flourishes south of 
Cape Cod, and was probably introduced early in the eighteenth 
century, as large specimens are not uncommon in the neighborhood 
of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 

A number of abnormal forms of Taxus baccata have appeared- 
The most distinct of them is the Florence Court or Irish Yew 
(Taxus baccata fastigiata, Loudon, I. c. 2066, f. 1981 [1838]), distin- 
guished by its upright branches and its larger leaves, which are 
spirally disposed and not distichous, as in the common form. The 
plants of this variety are all female, and have been propagated 
from one of two trees found during the last century on the moun- 
tains of County Fermanagh, in Ireland, and planted in the garden 
of Florence Court, a seat of the Earl of Enniskillen. (See Gard. 
Chron. 1873, 1336.) 

Taxus baccata Dovastonii (Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1861, 175, f.), 
distinguished by its long pendulous branchlets and by the color and 
size of its leaves, which are longer and darker than those of the 
type, was purchased as a seedling from a peddler and planted by 
Mr. John Dovaston about one hundred and twenty years ago in his 
garden in Westfelton, near Shrewsbury, in England. It is a hand- 
some ornamental tree, now common in gardens. (See Loudon, I. c. 
2068, f. 1990.) 

A dwarf Yew (Taxus baccata adpressa, Carriere, Traite Conif. 
520 [1855]), with numerous spreading branches, distinguished by 
its short broad leaves, and known in plants of one sex only, is also 
frequently cultivated. Its origin has not been determined, but, 
although believed at one time to have been introduced from China 
or Japan, it is more probably a seedling form of Taxus baccata 
raised in some European nursery. Other seedling forms of dwarf 
or otherwise unusual habit, or with yellow or silvery leaves, are 
common in cultivation, and are prized by the admirers of abnormal 
plant-forms. (See Carriere, I. c. ed. 2, 731. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 
388. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 301. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 169.) 

2 Taxus cuspidata, Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Miinch. 
iv. pt. ii. 232 (1846) ; Fl. Jap. ii. 62, t. 128. — Endlicher, Syn. 
Conif. 243. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iii. 169 (Prol. Fl. 
Jap.). — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 502. — Franchet 
& Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 472. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xviii. 499 (Conifers of Japan). — Miyabe, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist. iv. 261 (FL Kurile Islands). 



TAXACEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



the genus is represented by a shrub * of the northern Atlantic region, by a small shrubby tree of 
western Florida, by a tree of the Pacific region, and by a little known species endemic in Mexico. 2 The 
genus is an ancient one, its fossil remains attesting the fact that Yew-trees have existed since miocene 
times. 3 

Taxus produces wood valued in the arts. The leaves and seeds contain taxine, an alkaloid to 
which actively poisonous properties are ascribed, 4 and the bark is rich in tannin. Several of the 
species have long been planted for the adornment of parks and gardens. 

In North America Taxus is not injured by insects, and has no serious fungal enemies. 5 

The different species can be propagated by seeds, and the varieties and abnormal forms multiplied 
by cuttings. 

The generic name, from Td£o$, is the classical name for the Yew-tree. 



Taxus baccata, Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 275 (not Linnaeus) (1784). 
Taxus baccata cuspidata, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 733 

(1867). — Beissner. Handb. Nadelh. 173. 

Taxus cuspidata inhabits Manchuria, Corea, and tbe island of 
Yezo, where, although not common, it is widely scattered through 
the forests of deciduous-leaved trees, often rising to a height of 
fifty feet, and forming a tall straight trunk frequently two feet in 
diameter. The wood, which resembles that of Taxus baccata, is 
used by the Ainos for their bows, and is also employed in cabinet- 
making and for the interior decoration of expensive houses. (See 
Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 76.) 

Taxus cuspidata is often used to decorate Japanese gardens, 
where it is frequently cut into fantastic shapes. It was introduced 
into the gardens of the eastern United States in 1862 through the 
agency of the Parsons' nursery at Flushing, New York, and is per- 
fectly hardy as far north at least as eastern Massachusetts, grow- 
ing in cultivation more rapidly than other Yew-trees, and promising 
to become a valuable decorative plant in the northern states. A 
dwarf form of this species with a more compact and upright habit 
and shorter leaves, of Japanese origin, and now common in Ameri- 
can gardens, is evidently a. seminal variety, and probably, in part 
at least, the Taxus tardiva of Parlatore (De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 502 [1868]). 

1 Taxus Canadensis, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 151 (1785). — Will- 
denow, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 856. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 647. — Bige- 
low, -FY. Boston, ed. 3, 399. — Emerson, Trees Mass. Ill ; ed. 2, i. 
127. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 296. — Parlatore, I. c. 501. — 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 494. 

Taxus baccata, £ minor, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 245 (1803). 
Taxus baccata, 0, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 167 (in part) 

(1839). 

Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis, Gray, Man. ed. 2, 425 (1856). — 

Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 463. 

Taxus minor, Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, v. 19 (1893). 

Taxus Canadensis is a shrub with prostrate wide-spreading 
branches and a stem occasionally one or two feet in height ; it is a 



common inhabitant of northern woods, often forming under their 
dense shade in low rich soil broad masses or sometimes nearly im- 
penetrable thickets, and is distributed from Newfoundland to the 
northern shores of Lake Superior and to those of Lake Winnipeg, 
and southward through the northern states to New Jersey and 
Minnesota. 

2 Taxus globosa, Schlechtendal, Linnrca, xii. 496 (1838). — End- 
licher, Syn. Conif. 244. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
v. 227. — Carriere, I. c. 524. — Parlatore, I. c. — Hemsley, Bot. 
Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 185. 

This south-Mexican species, which is described as a small tree, 
has not been seen by any of the botanists who have lately visited 
Mexico, and is very imperfectly known. 

3 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 59. — Zittel, Handb. 
Palozontolog. ii. 256. 

4 No cases of poisoning by Taxus in North America appear to be 
recorded, and in India domestic animals are said to browse upon 
Taxus baccata without experiencing any bad effects (Brandis, For- 
est Fl. Brit. Ind. 541). On the other band, Taxus has been credited 
in Europe with toxic properties since the time of the Greeks, and 
numerous instances are cited of fatal results following the medi- 
cinal use of the leaves, and of the death of animals fed upon them. 
Other cases, however, are reported of animals, gradually accus- 
tomed to a diet of Yew, being nourished on tbe branches without 
bad effects. The sweet pulpy covering of the seed is palatable to 
most people, and is not poisonous, although often believed to be so, 
and flour made from the seeds is used to fatten poultry. (See 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2089. — Mamie", Liebig's Annalen, cxxv. 
71. — Redwood, Pharm. Jour. Trans, ser. 3, viii. 36. — Amato & 
Capparelli, Gazzetta di Chimica, x. 349. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. 
N. Am. 262. — Cornevin, Plantes Veneneuses, 43. — Pharmacogra- 
phia Indica, vi. 373. — Hilger & Brande, Berichte der deutsch. Chem. 

Gesell. xxiii. 464. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1933.) 

6 Leptosphozria taxicola, Saccardo, and Diplodea Taxi, De Notaris, 
two minute fungi, have been noticed on Taxus Canadensis. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE AKBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Leaves short, yellow-green 

Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green 



1. T. BREVIFOLIA. 

2. T. Floridana. 



taxacjlze. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 65 



TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. 
Yew. 
Leaves short, yellow-green. 

Taxus brevifolia, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 86, t. 108 (1849).— Taxus baccata, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 167, in part (not 
Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 140. — Newberry, Linnaeus) (1839). 

Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. 60, 90, f. 26. — Cooper, Pacific Taxus Boursieri, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 228, t. ; 
R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 26, 69 ; Am. Nat. iii. 414. — Car- Traite Conif. 523. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 47. 

riere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 742. — Hoopes, Evergreens, Taxus Lindleyana, A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. 
383. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 501. — Jour. n. ser. i. 294 (1855) ; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, 

K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 95. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, vi. 370. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 523. — Gordon, Pine- 

392. — Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 95. — Brewer & Watson, turn, 316; Suppl. 99. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Na- 

Bot. Cal. ii. 110. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 305. — Kel- delh. 360. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 174. 

logg, Forest Trees California, 6. — Sargent, Forest Trees Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis, Bentharn, PI. Hartweg. 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 185. — Lemmon, Rep. 338 (not Gray) (1857). 

California State Board Forestry, iii. 185, t. 30 {Cone- Taxus Canadensis, J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 
Bearers of California) ; West- American Cone-Bearers, pt. v. 25 (not Marshall) (1856). 

83. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 177. — Masters, Jour. R. Taxus baccata, var. a brevifolia, Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 249. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 6 (1893). 

312 {Pinetum Danicum). 

A tree, usually forty or fifty, but occasionally seventy or eighty feet in height, with a tall straight 
trunk one or two or rarely four and a half feet thick, frequently unsymmetrical, with one diameter much 
exceeding the other, and irregularly lobed with broad rounded lobes, and long slender horizontal or 
slightly pendulous branches, which form a broad open conical head. The bark of the trunk is about a 
quarter of an inch in thickness, and covered with small thin dark red-purple scales, which, in falling, 
disclose the brighter red-purple inner bark. The branchlets are slender, and in their fourth or fifth 
year turn bright cinnamon brown. The buds are from one sixteenth to nearly one eighth of an inch 
in length, with loosely imbricated pale yellow-green scales. The leaves are from one half to five 
eighths of an inch long and about one sixteenth of an inch wide, dark yellow-green above and rather 
paler below, with stout midribs, and slender yellow petioles one twelfth of an inch in length, and 
remain on the branches four or five years. 

Taxus brevifolia inhabits the shady banks of mountain streams, deep gorges, and damp ravines, 
growing usually under larger coniferous trees ; although nowhere abundant or gregarious, it is widely 
distributed, usually in single individuals or in small clumps, from Queen Charlotte's Islands and the 
valley of the Skeena River southward through the coast ranges of British Columbia, 1 through western 
Washington and Oregon, where it attains its greatest size, and the coast-ranges of California, as far 
south as the Bay of Monterey, and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, where it is found at 
elevations of between five and eight thousand feet above the sea-level, to Tulare County, and ranges 
eastward in British Columbia to the Selkirk Mountains and over the mountains of eastern Oregon and 
Washington to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana, being of smaller size in the 
interior than near the coast, and often shrubby in habit. 

The wood of Taxus brevifolia is heavy, hard, strong, although brittle, close-grained, very durable 
in contact with the soil, and susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. It is light bright red, with 
thin b>ht yellow sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored conspicuous bands of small summer cells and 

1 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 329. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 436. 



66 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. taxace^. 

many thin obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6391, a cubic 
foot weighing 39.83 pounds. 1 It is used for fence-posts and by the Indians of the northwest coast for 
paddles, spear-handles, bows, fish-hooks, and other small articles. 

Taxas brevifolia was discovered on the lower Columbia River by David Douglas 2 in 1825, and 
was introduced in 1854 by Mr. William Lobb into European gardens, where it is occasionally 
cultivated. 

1 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American eighteen inches and three quarters in diameter inside the bark, and 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is shows one hundred and eighty-seven layers of annual growth. 

2 See ii. 94. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXTV. Taxus brevifolia. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, seen from below, enlarged. 

5. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

6. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

7. A pistillate flower with its scales, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A fruit, enlarged. 

11. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

13. A seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 

15. A winter-bud, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXIV. 




C.E.Fazcon. det. 



Migrtecuuc SO. 



TAXUS BREVIFOLIA.Nutt. 



A.liiocreujz- direaz 4 



Imp.iS. Tasieiw, Paris. 



taxace^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 67 



TAXUS FLORIDANA. 

Yew. 
Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green. 

Taxus Floridana, Chapman, FL 436 (1860). — Carriere, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

Traite Conif. ed. 2, 741. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 384. — 186. 

A bushy tree, rarely twenty-five feet in height, with a short trunk, occasionally a foot in diameter, 
and numerous stout spreading branches ; or more often shrubby in habit, and twelve or fifteen feet tall. 
The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch in thickness, dark purple-brown, smooth and compact, 
occasionally separating into large thin irregular plate-like scales. The branchlets are slender and light 
yellow-green, and in their second or third year turn dark dull brown tinged with red. The buds are 
about one sixteenth of an inch long, and covered with loosely imbricated pale yellow scales. The leaves 
are usually conspicuously falcate, from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in length, from one 
sixteenth to one twelfth of an inch in width, dark green above and pale below, with rather obscure 
midribs, and slender petioles nearly one sixteenth of an inch long. The flowers appear in March and 
April, and the fruit, which is very sparingly produced, ripens in October. 1 

Taxus Floridana, growing with Tumlon taxifolium, inhabits the bluffs and ravines of the eastern 
bank of the Appalachicola River hi Gadsden County, western Florida, where it is distributed from 
Aspalaga to the neighborhood of Bristol, a distance of about thirty miles, and eastward to the woody 
borders of Flat Creek, six miles from Aspalaga. 

The wood of Taxus Floridana is heavy, hard, and very close-grained. It is dark brown tinged 
with red, with thin nearly wh'ite sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored inconspicuous bands of small 
summer cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.6340, a cubic foot weighing 39.51 pounds. 2 

Taxas Floridana was discovered near Aspalaga in 1833 by Mr. Hardy B. Croom. 3 One of the 
rarest of the trees of North America, and, except by its habit, not easily distinguishable from the 
northern Taxus Canadensis, it is still untried in gardens. 4 

1 Ripe fruit of Taxus Floridana was first collected by Dr. (xxvi. 314) by Mr. Croom, who considered it probably identical 
Charles Mohr in October, 1895. The pistillate flowers were gath- with the European Yew. It was next mentioned by Nuttall in 
ered by W. M. Canby and C. S. Sargent, March 16, 1890. 1849 (Sylva, iii. 92), who doubtfully attached to it the name of 

2 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Taxus montana, although Croom 's specimen in the herbarium of 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, the Philadelphia Academy was, he says, marked Taxus Floridana, 
is three inches and three quarters in diameter inside the bark, and the name adopted by Chapman when the species was finally de- 
has two hundred and seventy-five layers of annual growth, five of scribed in 1860. 

which are of sapwood. 4 During the winter of 1896 living plants of Taxus Floridana 

8 The first notice of this tree, without description or specific have been introduced into Mr. George W. Vanderbilt's Arboretum 
name, was published in 1834 in the American Journal of Science on his estate of Biltmore in North Carolina. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXV. Taxus Floridana. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, basal view, two of the cells open, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A half-grown fruit, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A leaf divided transversely, upper surface, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXV. 




C.E.Fcueotl deL . 



Rapine- so. 



TAXUS FLORIDANA, Chapm 



A.Riocreuz> direcc. 



Imp. J.Tan&ur^arLS . 



conifera SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 69 



JUNIPERUS. 

Flowers naked, usually dioecious, axillary or terminal, the staminate with numerous 
stamens verticillate or opposite on a central axis ; anther-cells 2 to 6 ; the pistillate of 
numerous scales bearing 1 or 2 erect ovules. Fruit a fleshy strobile. Leaves binate or 
ternate, subulate or scale-like, often of two forms on the same plant, persistent. 

Juniperus, Linnaeus, Gen. 311 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Sabina, Haller, Ruppius Fl. Jen. ed. 2, 336 (1745). 

PI. ii. 481. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 413. — Endlicher, Thuiaecarpus, Trautvetter, PI. Imarj. Fl. Russ. 11, t. 6 

Gen. 258. — Meisner, .Gen. 352. — Bentham & Hooker, (1844). 

Gen. iii. 427. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. Arceuthos, Antoine & Kotschy, Oestr. Bot. Wochenbl. 

ii. pt. i. 101. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 38. — Masters, Jour. 1854, 249. 

Linn. Soc. xxx. 12. 

Pungent-aromatic trees or shrubs, with thin shreddy, or rarely thick bark broken into oblong 
plates, soft close-grained durable fragrant wood, slender branches, scaly or naked buds, and fibrous 
roots. Leaves sessile, entire or denticulate, convex on the lower surface, concave and stomatiferous 
above, persistent for many years, linear-subulate, disposed in whorls of threes, free and jointed at the 
base, sharp-pointed, eglandular, channeled and white-glaucous above (Caryocedrus, Oxycedrus), or 
opposite and decussate or ternate, scale-like, closely imbricated, more or less appressed and adnate to the 
branch, frequently glandular-pitted on the back, on young plants or vigorous shoots often free and 
acicular, dying and becoming brown and woody on the branch (Sabina). Flowers minute, dioecious or 
very rarely monoecious, axillary or terminal on short axillary branches, opening from buds formed in 
the autumn on branches of the year. Staminate flower solitary, or rarely capitate in a three to six- 
flowered head (Arceuthos), oblong-ovate, composed of a slender sessile or stipitate axis bearing 
numerous crowded or remote decussately opposite or ternate stamens ; filaments short, enlarged into 
ovate or peltate scale-like light yellow connectives, entire or denticulate, bearing on the inner face 
near the base from two to six globose two-valved cells opening longitudinally ; pollen-grains simple. 
Pistillate flower ovoid, composed of from three to six opposite or ternate ovate pointed fleshy scales 
alternate with or bearing on the inner face at the base on a minute ovuliferous scale one or two 
erect free orthotropous ovules, and subtended by numerous minute scale-like bracts persistent and 
unchanged under the fruit. Fruit a berry-like short-stalked strobile ripening during the first or 
second or rarely the third autumn, formed by the coalition of the flower scales, blue, blue-black, or 
reddish, inclosed in a thick close or loose membranaceous epidermis covered with a glaucous bloom, 
smooth or marked with the points and margins of the scales of the flower, or with the pointed tips of the 
ovules, closed, or rarely open and exposing the seeds at the apex ; flesh succulent and juicy, penetrated 
by numerous large or small irregularly shaped resin glands, in one group becoming sweet, dry, and 
fibrous by the absorption or change of the fragrant resin. Seeds from one to twelve, ovate, acute or 
obtuse, terete or variously angled by mutual pressure, often longitudinally grooved by depressions 
caused by the pressure of the resin-cells of the pericarp, smooth, roughened or tuberculate, brown and 
lustrous above, marked below with large conspicuous usually bilobed hilunis, free, or united into a 
thick o-lobose woody stone-like mass separated into distinct one-seeded nutlets (Caryocedrus) ; seed- 
coat of two layers, the outer thick, indurate or bony, the inner thin, membranaceous or crustaceous. 



70 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Embryo terete, straight, axile in fleshy albumen ; cotyledons two or rarely five or six, the radicle 
superior. 1 

Juniperus is confined to the northern hemisphere, where it is widely scattered from the Arctic 
Circle to the highlands of Mexico, Lower California, and the West Indies in the New World, and to 
the Azores and Canary Islands, northern Africa, Abyssinia, and the mountains of east tropical Africa, 
SLkkim, and the mountains of southern Japan in the Old World. From thirty to thirty-five species are 
now distinguished ; 2 of these ten inhabit the United States ; one is endemic in Mexico ; 3 one occurs on 
the islands of Lower California 4 and another in Bermuda and the Antilles; 5 in the Old World the 
largest number of species are found in the Mediterranean Basin ; 6 the genus has several representatives 
in the Atlantic Islands, 7 and one in east tropical Africa ; 8 one endemic species 9 inhabits the Himalayas, 



1 By Endlicher (Syn. Conif. 8 [1847]) the species of Juniperus 
are grouped in the following sections : — 

Caryocedrus. Staminate flowers in 3 to 6-flowered heads, 
spreading after anthesis, their axes stipitate ; stamens 9 to 12, 
their connections ovate acute, incurved at the apex. Seeds joined 
into a thick globose woody 3-angled mass. Leaves acicular. 

Oxycedrus. Flowers axillary ; staminate flower solitary, its 
axis stipitate, the stipe clothed with minute scale-like bracts ; sta- 
mens opposite, decussate ; anther-cells prominent, subdorsal ; 
ovules three, alternate with the inner scales of the flower, their 
enlarged stigma-shaped tips persistent on the fruit. Seeds free, 
usually 3, or fewer by abortion. Leaves ternate, linear, acicular, 
free and jointed at the base, eglandular, channeled and white- 
glaucous on the upper surface. Buds scaly. 

Sabina. Flowers terminal on short axillary branches ; stami- 
nate flower solitary ; anther-cells basal ; stamens ternate or op- 
posite. Seeds 1 to 12, free. Leaves ternate or opposite, mostly 
adnate and scale-like, closely appressed, crowded and adnate on the 
branches, glandular or eglandular on the back, or on vigorous 
branches and young plants free and acicular. 

3 Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 2, xvi. 282 (Revision des Juniperus}. — 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 7. — Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen. — Par- 
latore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 475. 

3 Juniperus gigantea, K. Koch, Berl. Allg. Gartenzeit. 1858, 341. 
Juniperus Mexicana, Schlechtendal, Linncea, v. 77 (not Spreng- 

el) (1830) ; xii. 494. — Parlatore, I. c. 491. — Engelmann, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 589. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. 

iii. 184. 

Sabina gigantea, Antoine, I. c. 36, t. 48, 50, f. E-L (1857). 
Sabina Mexicana, Antoine, I. <:. 38, t. 51, 55 f. A-D (1857). 

This species, which appears to be common on the mountains of 
northeastern Mexico, is also abundant on the high plains lying 
inland from the mountain chain dominated by Mt. Orizaba in the 
state of Vera Cruz, flourishing in arid sterile calcareous soil, and 
varying in size from a broad low-branched shrub to a handsome 
shapely tree of medium size (C. G. Pringle, in litt.). 

4 Juniperus Cerrosiana, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. ii. 37 
(1863). — M. K. Curran, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 147. — Greene, Pit- 
tonia, i. 197, 207. 

? Juniperus Californica, var. osteosperma, Watson, Proc. Am. 

Acad. xi. 119 (1876). — Lemmon, West- American Cone-Bearers, 

79. 

This bushy tree, with large blue-black fruit containing three or 
four seeds, has given its name to Cerros Island, off the coast of 
Lower California. It is probably also the species of Guadaloupe 
Island of the same region, where a low Juniper covers the ravines 
and valleys in the central and southern part of the island. 

6 Juniperus Bermudiana, LinnEeus, Spec. 1039 (1753). — Willde- 



now, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 851. — Nouveau Duhamel, vi. 50. — Lunan, Hort. 
Jam. i. 83. — Maycock, Fl. Barb. 394. — Hooker, Lond. Jour. Bot. 
ii. 141, t. 1. — Lefroy, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 25, 108 {Bot. 
Bermuda). 

Juniperus Barbadensis, Linmeus, I. v. (1753). — Willdenow, 
I. c. — Maycock, I. c. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Lid. 503. 

Juniperus oppositi folia, Moench, Meth. 698 (1794). 

Juniperus pyramidalis, Salisbury, Prodr. 397 (1796). 

Sabina Bermudiana, Antoine, I. c. 65, t. 87, 88, f. A-D (1857). 

Biota Meldensis, Gordon, Pinetum, 37 (1858) ; ed. 2, 57. 
Juniperus Bermudiana, which is said to attain a large size on the 
mountains of Jamaica and on several of the other West Indian 
islands, is the most abundant and conspicuous tree of the Bermuda 
group, growing everywhere on the poor dry limestone hills, and in 
the brackish swamps common on some of the islands. It is a bushy 
tree, with stout tough spreading branches and pale blue-green 
leaves glandular on the back, and is occasionally forty or fifty feet 
in height, with an irregularly lobed trunk five or six feet in 
diameter, although individuals of this size are now rare, nearly all 
the large trees having been cut for timber. The wood is very 
durable, dark red-brown with thin nearly white sapwood and a 
close compact surface capable of receiving a beautiful polish. For- 
merly it was largely used on the islands for shipbuilding, for the 
interior finish of houses, and in cabinet-making. (See Garden and 
Forest, iv. 289, f. 51, 52.) 

6 Desfontaines, Fl. Atlant. ii. 370. — Brotero, Fl. Lusitan. i. 
126. — Sibthorp & Smith, Fl. Grcec. Prodr. ii. 262. — Willkomm & 
Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hi^pan. i. 21. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 75.— 
Laguna, Fl. Forestal Espanola, i. 96. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 
705. 

7 Link, Buck Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins. 159. — Webb & Berthe- 
lot, Phytogr. Canar. sect. iii. 277. 

8 Juniperus procera, Endlicher, I. c. 26 (1847). — A. Richard, 
Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 278. — Parlatore, I. c. 485. — Oliver, Jour. Linn. 
Soc. xxi. 404. 

Sabina procera, Antoine, I. c. 36, t. 47 (1857). 

9 Juniperus recurva, D. Don, Prodr. FL Nepal. 55 (1825). — Par- 
latore, I. c. 481. — Boissier, I. c. 708. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 
647. 

Sabina religiosa, Antoine, I. c. 47, t. 61, 62, f. C, B (1857). 
Sabina recurva, Antoine, I. c. 67, t. 88, f . E-M ; t. 90, 91 
(1857). 

Sabina recurva, var. a tenuifolia, Antoine, I. c. t. 88, f. N, t. 92 
(1857). 

Sabina recurva, var. densa, Antoine, I. c. (1857). 
Juniperus recurva is a tree twenty or thirty feet in height, with a 
conical crown of graceful pendulous branches (see figure in Hooker 
f. Himalayan Journals, ii. 51), which, at high elevations, becomes 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



71 



in whose forests Juniperus has four representatives, and in eastern Asia five or six species are widely 
distributed. 1 One of the endemic species of North America crosses the continent, another is confined to 
western Texas and the adjacent portions of Mexico, and the remainder belong to the forests of the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific side of the continent. Two species common to both hemispheres extend at 
the north across the continent, one of them a small tree and the other, in its American form, a prostrate 
shrub. 2 Impressions of Juniperus found in the tertiary rocks of Europe, although not abundant, 
indicate that the genus, nearly in its present form, has long inhabited the earth. 3 

The close-grained durable fragrant wood of Juniperus is used for posts, in construction, and in the 
manufacture of many small articles, the most valuable timber-trees of the genus being the North 
American Juniperus Virginiana and the Asiatic Juniperus excelsa ; 4 and the bark of many of the 



stunted, and assumes a decumbent or prostrate habit. It is then 
the : — 

var. squamata, Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 482 
(1868). — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 647. 

Juniperus squamata, D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 55 (1825). — 

Lambert, Pinus, ii. 17. 

Juniperus excelsa, £ nana, Endlicher, Syn. ConiJ. 26 (1847). 
Sabina squamata, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 66, t. 89, 90 

(1857). 
Juniperus densa, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 32 (1862). 

Juniperus recurva is distributed over high mountain-slopes from 
Afghanistan to Sikkim and Bhotan, rarely descending below alti- 
tudes of seven thousand feet, and often in its prostrate form reach- 
ing elevations of fifteen thousand feet. Common as a tree in Sik- 
kim between nine thousand and twelve thousand feet above the 
sea-level, it is shrubby on the northwestern Himalayas, where it 
often covers large areas with long decumbent stems running on or 
just below the surface of the ground, and numerous short erect 
branches. At high elevations the fragrant red wood is used as 
fuel. The young branches are employed in distilling spirits, and 
also for the decoration of temples during religious festivals. The 
fragrant resinous leaves are used in the manufacture of incense, 
and are gathered in large quantities in Sikkim and sent to the 
plains for this purpose. (See Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. hid. 537. — 
Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 412.) 

1 Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 264. — Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. 
Miinch.. iv. 233 ; Fl. Jap. ii. 55. — Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petersbourg, xii. 230 (Mel. Biol. vi. 374). — Miquel, Ann. Mus. 
Lugd. Bat. iii. 167 (Prol. Fl. Jap.). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. 
PI. Jap. i. 471. — Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. se'r. 2, v. 291 (PI. 
David, i.). 

2 Juniperus Sabina prostrata, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2498, f. 2361 
(1838). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 111. 

Juniperus Sabina, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 246 (not Linnreus) 
(1803). — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 166. 

Juniperus prostrata, Persoon, Syn. ii. 632 (1807). — Richardson, 
Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 753. — Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. 
States, 377. — Carriere, Trait'e Conif. 26. — Gordon, Pinetum, 
106. 

Juniperus Sabina, var. procumbens, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 647 
(1814). — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 591. — Macoun, 
Cat. Can. PI. 463. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. eel. 6, 494. 

Juniperus repens, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245 (1818). 

Cupressus thyoides, Hooker, I. c. 165 (not Linnaeus) (1839). 

Juniperus Sabina, humilis, Hooker, I. c. 166 (1839). 

Juniperus Hudsonica, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 208 (1839). 

Juniperus Virginiana prostrata, Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 235 
(1843). — Provancher, Flore Canadienne, ii. 559. 



Juniperus Virginiana, var. humilis, Gray, Man. ed. 2, 425 

C1856). 

Juniperus Sabina (Linnseus, Spec. 1039 [1753]), of which the North 
American plant is considered a prostrate form, is an erect shrub 
or small bushy tree occasionally twelve or fifteen feet tall, widely 
spread through central and southern Europe and Siberia, with bit- 
ter strong-smelling wood and branchlets. In North America the 
prostrate form is distributed from southern Maine northward to 
the shores of Hudson's Bay, and westward in British America from 
Newfoundland through Quebec and Ontario and across the central 
prairie region to the summits of the Rocky Mountains, and through 
northern New England and New York, along the shores of the 
Great Lakes to northern Minnesota, and over the mountain ranges 
as far west as the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Mon- 
tana. 

3 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 100. — Zittel, 
Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 329, f . 228. 

4 Marschall von Bieberstein, Beschreib. Land. Casp. Meer. 204, 
Appx. No. 72 (1800) ; Fl. Taur.-Cauc. ii. 425. — Willdenow, Spec. 
iv. pt. ii. 854. — Forbes, I. c. 205, t. 64. — Trautvetter, PL 
Imag. Fl. Russ. 21, t. 15. — Endlicher, I. c. 25. — Parlatore, I. c. 
484. 

Juniperus Sabina, Pallas, Fl. Ross. ii. 15 (not Linnaeus) 
(1788). 

Juniperus Sabina, var. excelsa, Georgi, Beschreib. Russ. Reichs, 
iii. 1358 (1802). 

Juniperus faztida, e excelsa, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. se'r. 2, xvi. 
297 (Revision des Juniperus) (excl. hab. America) (1S41). 

Juniperus polycarpos, K. Koch, Linnoza, xxii. 303 (1849). — 
Tchihatcheff, Asie Mineure, iii. 492. 

Juniperus isophylla, K. Koch, I. v. 304 (1849). — Tchihatcheff, 
I.e. 

Juniperus Olivieri, Carriere, I. c. 57 (1855). — Tchihatcheff, I. c. 
493. 

Sabina excelsa, Antoine, I. c. 45, t. 60, 62, f. E-T (1847). 
Sabina polycarpos, Antoine, I. c. 47, t. 63, G6, f. A-D (1857). 
Sabina isophyllos, Antoine, I. c. 48, t. 64, 65, 66, f. E-G 
(1857). 

Juniperus macropoda, Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 709 (1884). — 
Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 647. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 114. 
Juniperus excelsa is distributed from the islands of the Grecian 
Archipelago over the mountain ranges of Asia Minor, Arabia, and 
Persia to northwestern India and Thibet, where it inhabits bare 
arid regions at high elevations, sometimes ascending to 15,000 feet 
above the sea-level. In habit it varies from a low bush to a tree, 
which on the Himalayas is sometimes fifty feet in height, with a 
short gnarled crooked trunk occasionally ten feet in diameter, and 
an irregular head of short contorted branches. The wood is fra- 



<z 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



species is rich in tannin. 1 The fruits of Juniperus contain an essential aromatic oil ; they were used 
by the Greeks and Romans and by the Arabs in medicine, and are still gathered in Europe, especially 
in southern France, Italy, and Austria, and employed, generally as an adjuvant to more active 
medicines, as a diuretic and stimulant ; those of Juniperus communis, a native of both hemispheres, are 
used to give the peculiar flavor to gin. 2 Savin oil is distilled from the young tender fragrant branchlets 
of Juniperus Sabina, and is a powerful uterine stimulant employed in medicine; 3 and the ointment of 
savin is used as a stimulating dressing for wounds and sores. 4 Tar obtained by the destructive 
distillation of the wood of Juniperus Oxycedrus 5 was once utilized in southern Europe in veterinary 
practice. The large blue fleshy succulent fruits of Juniperus drupacea G of Asia Minor are edible. 

Several of the species of Juniperus are cultivated for the decoration of gardens, and during the 
eighteenth century were frequently cut into curious and fantastic forms. 

In North America the species of insects 7 attacking Juniperus are not numerous, although those 



grant, light or dark red, and close-grained ; in India it is used in 
building and in the manufacture of many small articles. It burns 
quickly, emitting a peculiar odor, and is used as incense and largely 
for fuel in some of the dry nearly treeless interior valleys. The 
resinous fruit is employed medicinally, and is also made into in- 
cense (Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. lnd. iv. pt. iv. 256; vii. pt. 
ii. 138 [Himalayan Conifer re]. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 538, 
t. 68. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 412. — Balfour, Cyclopozdia 
of India, ed. 3, ii. 455). In southern Afghanistan it forms nearly 
pure open forests sometimes of great extent. The soft light wood 
is used in building and largely for fuel ; strips of the thick bark 
are utilized by the Pathans for roofing their huts. The fruit is 
used in tanning leather and in the preparation of a spirituous 
liquor. (See Lace & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxviii. 296, 305, 
307, 320 [Veg. Brit. Baluchistan~\.) 

1 Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 162. 

2 Oleum Juniperi is of a greenish oily color, with a sweetish resin- 
ous flavor ; it is stimulant, carminative and diuretic, and is generally 
combined with more active remedies (Reeluz, Jour, de Pharm. xiii. 
215 [Note sur les fruits de Gen'evrier\. — Nicolet, Jour, de Pharm. 
xvii. 309 [Essais physiologique et chi?niijue sur les fruits du genre 
Juniperus~\. — Soubeiran & Capitaine, Jour, de Pharm. xxvi. 78 
[Essence de Genievre]. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1013). The pe- 
culiar flavor and diuretic properties of gin are due to the oil of 
Juniper berries, and are secured by adding the crushed, fruit, usu- 
ally that of Juniperus communis, to undistilled grain spirit, or by 
allowing the spirit vapor to pass over it before condensation 
(Spons, Encyclopaedia of the Manufactures, Industrial Arts, and Raw 
Commercial Products, i. 22). 

8 Fluckiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 565. — Johnson, Man. 
Med. Bot. N. Am. 261. 

4 Fliiekiger & Hanbury, I. c. 567. 

5 Linnaeus, Spec. 1038 (1735). — Desfontaines, Fl. Atlant. ii. 
370. — De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 278. — Willde- 
now, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 854. — Nouveau Duhamel, vi. 47, t. 15, f. 2. — 
Visiani, Fl. Dalmat. i. 202. — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 
6, t. 537. — Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 12, t. 11, f. A-J, t. 
12-15. — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 22. — Tehihat- 
cheff, Asie Mineure, iii. 489. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 80 ; De Can- 
dolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 477. — Laguna, Fl. Forestal Espanola, pt. i. 
98, t. 11 in (part). — Boissier, Fl. Orient, ii. 707. — Hempel & 
Wilhelm, Baume und Strducher, i. 192, f. 112, A, D, E, L, 
P,Q. 

Juniperus macrocarpa, Tenore, Syll. Fl. Neap. 483 (in part) 
(not Sibthorp & Smith) (1831). 



Juniperus rufescens. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif 11 (1847). — 

K. Koch, Linncea, xxii. 302. — Antoine, I. c. 18, t. 23-25. 

Juniperus Oxycedrus, a gibbosa, Antoine, I. c. 12, t. 11, f. T-V 

(1857). 
Juniperus rufescens, var. a Noei, Antoine, I. c. 18, t. 26 (1857). 

Juniperus Oxycedrus is a much-branched shrub common on arid 
mountain slopes in all tbe Mediterranean Basin, and distributed 
from Madeira to Asia Minor, northern Syria, and northern Persia. 

Pyroleum cadinum or huile de cade, so called from the French 
name of this Juniper, was popular two centuries ago in southern 
Europe as an external remedy, chiefly in veterinary practice. (See 
Olivier des Serres, Theatre d' Agriculture, 941. — Parkinson, Theatr. 
1033. — Pomet, Hist. Gen. Drog. 289.) The huile de cade now 
manufactured in France, and sometimes recommended for the 
treatment of skin diseases, is of unknown origin (Fluckiger & Han- 
bury, I. c. 563). 

6 La BUlardiere, Icon. PI. Syr. ii. 14, t. 8 (1791). — Nouveau 
Duhamel, vi. 47. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 2, xvi. 289 ; Hist. 
Veg. xi. 312. — Endlicher, I. c. 8. — Tchihatcheff, Rev. Hort. 1854, 
165, 10 ; Asie Mineure, I. c. — Boissier, I. c. v. 706. 

Arceuthos drupacea, Antoine & Kotschy, Oestr. Bot. Wochenbl. 
1854, 249 ; Conif. Cilic. Taurus, i. t. 1 to 3. — Antoine, I. v. 3, 
t. 4, 5. 

Arceuthos drupacea, var. a acerosa, Antoine, I. c. t. 1 (1857). 
Arceuthos drupacea, var. /3 obtusiuscula, Antoine, I. c. t. 2, 3 
(1857). 

Juniperus drupacea, which is a small shrubby tree, occasionally 
thirty feet in height, although usually much smaller, is the only 
species of the section Caryocedrus, distinguished by capitate stami- 
nate flowers and united seeds ; it is widely distributed through 
Greece, Asia Minor, and northern Syria, and is common on moun- 
tain slopes at elevations of from two to five thousand feet above 
the sea-level, where it is often gregarious, or is scattered through 
the forests of Oak or Pine. 

7 Packard (5th Rep. JJ. S. Entomolog. Comm. 1890, 904) records 
only twenty-two species as having been found on Juniperus in 
North America, and several of these probably attack only diseased 
or dead plants. Most of them are uncommon, and borers in the 
living wood are unknown. 

Phlceosinus dentatus, Say, has been found in its larval state as a 
bark-borer in dead or decaying trees, and in Kansas the beetles are 
said to do much damage by boring under the bark and by girdling 
young twigs. The larva of Callidium antennatum, Newman, is a 
common borer under the bark of dead or dying Junipers, which are 
supposed to be bored also by Hylotrupes ligneus, Fabricius. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



73 



affecting the trees of the Pacific forests are scarcely known; but the different species, especially 
Juniperus Virginiana, are the hosts of several conspicuous fungi x and of peculiar mistletoes. 2 

Juniperus can be raised from seed which require two years for germination, and the varieties can 
be propagated by grafting. 

Juniperus, the classical name of the Juniper, used by the pre-Linnaean botanists, was adopted by 
Linnaeus. 



The Bag-worm, Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis, Haworth, some- 
times strips the trees of their leaves. Dapsilia rutilana, Hiibner, a 
web-worm* introduced from Europe, injured Junipers on Long 
Island, New York, in 1877, and has since probably extended its 
range ; and an inch-worm, Drepanodes varus, Grote & Robinson, 
also lives upon the leaves. Other species of Lepidoptera and sev- 
eral Coleoptera are reported as feeding on Junipers, but rarely in 
sufficient numbers to be injurious ; and the larva of a saw-fly has 
been found on them. 

Scale insects occasionally infest Junipers, one of them, Diaspis 
Carueli, Targioni-Tozzetti, sometimes being very abundant and 
covering the leaves and green twigs with small circular white 
scales. The fruit is infested at times by small lepidopterous 
larvae. 

1 The species of Juniperus in the United States are hosts of a 
number of striking fungi interesting to mycologists, and of practi- 
cal significance in horticulture and arboriculture. These fungi be- 
long to the Uredinese, or Rust family, and are popularly known as 
Cedar-apples. The plants of this order have usually three differ- 
ent stages, the teleutosporic or final stage, the rust stage, and the 
cluster-cup, the different stages not always occurring on the same 
host-plant. Gymnosporangium, the genus to which the Cedar- 
apples belong, has but two stages, the teleutosporic, which is found 
only on Cupressinese, and the cluster-cup or secidial stage, which is 
confined to the pomaceous section of the order Rosacese. Juni- 
perus Virginiana is especially subject to the attacks of Gymnosporan- 
gia, five species being found on this host in the United States, while 
still others are suspected. The common Cedar-apple, Gymnospo- 
rangium macropus, Link, is a familiar object in the northern states in 
late spring and early summer, and still earlier in the south. It 
forms the tufts of bright yellow gelatinous club-shaped masses on 
the smaller twigs, which are often popularly believed to be the 
flowers of the tree. They are most apparent after the jelly has 
been swollen by rain, but in dry weather, when the gelatinous 
masses are contracted, they are seen to rise from kidney-shaped 
tumors composed of a spongy hypertrophied tissue of very young 
twigs. The cluster-cup stage of this fungus, jEcidium pyratum, 
Schweinitz, grows on the leaves of cultivated Apple-trees and on 
those of the wild Crab, Pyrus coronaria. The species is common 
from Maine to Mississippi, and occurs, although less frequently, as 



far west as Kansas. It is a source of danger to Apple-orchards in 
the vicinity of Juniper-trees. 

A similar but smaller and more compact Cedar-apple on Juniperus 
Virginiana is Gymnosporangium globosum, Farlow, whose cluster-cups 
are also found on apple-leaves and on those of Pyrus Americana 
and Crataegus tomentosa. Gymnosporangium clavipes, Cooke & Peck, 
a smaller species, is mainly confined to the branches of Juniperus 
Virginiana and Juniperus communis, which it does not distort to any 
great extent. Its cluster-cup is the brilliant Rcestelia aurantiaca, 
Peck, which attacks the fruit of several species of Crataegus, Ame- 
lanchier, and cultivated Quinces and Apple-trees. Gymnosporangium 
Nidus-avis, Thaxter, unlike the last species, causes the distortion of 
both branches and leaves of Juniperus Virginiana, and its presence 
can be recognized from a distance by the bird's-nest-like distortions 
scattered among the normal branches. In Mississippi Juniperus 
Virginiana is attacked by Gymnosporangium Bermudianum, Earle, a 
species in which both the teleutosporic and cluster-cup stages occur 
on the Juniper itself. The cluster-cup stage was first observed in 
Bermuda on Juniperus Bermudiana. Juniperus communis is also 
attacked by Gymnosporangium clavariaforme, De Candolle, in which 
the separate masses of jelly somewhat resemble those of Gymnospo- 
rangium macropus, but are borne directly on the branches, which are 
not hypertrophied. Gymnosporangium speciosum, Peck, occurs on 
Juniperus monosperma ; its development has not been observed. 
See Farlow, Anniversary Memoirs, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. [The Gym- 
nosporangia or Cedar-Apples of the U. <S.]). 

Besides the Rust fungi, Juniperus is infested by a number of 
fungi belonging to other orders. The bark of Juniperus Virginiana 
is often whitened in patches by Corticium acerinum, var. niveum, 
Thuemen. Streptothrix atra, Berkeley & Curtis, is also common on 
the bark of this tree, as well as Cenangium deformatum, Peck. 

The leaves of Juniperus communis are frequently attacked and 
killed by Lophodermium juniperinum, De Notaris, which, living on 
their lower surface, form short black oval spots. 

2 In the southern states and territories Junipers are often killed 
by different species of Phoradendron, which grows on them with 
the greatest luxuriance, Phoradendron juniperinum, Engelmann 
(Mem. Am. Acad. iv. 58 [Gray, PI. Fendler.] [1849]), growing 
exclusively on these plants in New Mexico, Arizona, and southern 
California. 



74 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Oxycedrtjs. Flowers axillary, monoecious ; stamens decussately opposite ; ovules 3, alternate with 
the scales of the flower, their tips persistent on the fruit ; seeds usually 3 ; leaves ternate, 
acicular, free and jointed at the base, eglandular. 

Fruit subglobose, bright blue covered with a glaucous bloom ; leaves spreading, dark 

yellow-green, channeled and white-glaucous on the upper surface 1. J. communis. 

Sabina. Flowers terminal on short axillary branches ; stamens binate or ternate ; ovules in the 
axils of small fleshy scales, often enlarged and conspicuous on the fruit ; seeds 1 to 12 ; leaves 
ternate or opposite, mostly scale-like, crowded, closely appressed and adnate on the branches, 
glandular or eglandular on the back, on vigorous shoots and young plants acicular. 
Fruit large, reddish brown, with dry fibrous sweet flesh. 

Seeds single or few, cotyledons 4 to 6 ; leaves fringe-margined or denticulate. 

Fruit usually oblong ; seeds 1 or 2 ; leaves ternate, rounded at the apex, conspicuously 

glandular on the back ; branchlets stout 2. J. Californica. 

Fruit mostly globose ; seeds usually solitary ; leaves ternate or binate, acute or 

acuminate, eglandular ; branchlets slender 3. J. Utahensis. 

Seeds 4 to 12 ; cotyledons 2 ; leaves slightly denticulate. 

Fruit oblong or globose ; seeds 4 to 12 : leaves binate, glandular, often slightly 

spreading at the acute or acuminate apex ; branchlets slender 4. J. flaccida. 

Fruit globose ; seeds usually 4 ; leaves binate, acute, glandular ; branchlets slender ; 

bark thick, broken into small oblong plates 5. J. pachtphl^A. 

Fruit small, blue or blue-black or rarely copper-colored, with juicy resinous flesh ; seeds 1 to 4 ; 
cotyledons 2. 

Leaves ciliate or denticulate. 

Fruit large, subglobose or oblong, the flesh filled with large resin glands ; seeds 2 or 

3 ; leaves ternate, acute or acuminate, conspicuously glandular ; branchlets stout . 6. J. OCClDENTALis. 
Fruit small, globose or oblong ; seeds 1 or rarely 2 ; leaves acute or acuminate at the 

apex, usually eglandular ; branchlets slender 7. J. monosperma. 

Fruit small, globose ; seeds 1 to 4 ; leaves binate, obtuse or rarely acute, closely 

appressed, carinate, glandular ; branchlets slender, sharply quadrangular .... 8. J. sabinoides. 
Leaves entire. 

Fruit small, subglobose ; seeds 1 to 4 ; leaves binate, acute, acuminate or rarely 

obtuse, glandular ; branchlets slender 9. J. Virginiana. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS. 
Juniper. Ground Cedar. 

Fruit subglobose, bright blue, covered with a glaucous bloom. Leaves ternate, 
spreading, dark yellow-green, channeled and white-glaucous on the upper surface. 



Juniperus communis, Linnaeus, Spec. 1040 (1753). — 
Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 
182. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 338. — Evelyn, Silva, 
ed. Hunter, ii. 8. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 625 ; III. iii. 416, t. 
829. — Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. pt. ii. 12, t. 4. — Gaertner, 
Fruct. ii. 62, t. 91. — Woodville, Med. Bot. ii. 259, t. 
95. — Moenoh, Meth. 699. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 
158 ; Spec. iv. pt. ii. 853 ; Enum. 1023. — Borkhausen, 
Handb. Forstbot. i. 763. — Georgi, Beschreib. Buss. Beiclis, 
iii. 1358. — Smith & Sowerby, English Bot. xvi. 1. 1110. — 
Vahl, Fl. Dan. vii. t. 1119. — De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. 
Prang, ed. 3, iii. 278. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 245. — 
Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 287, t. 338. — Brotero, Fl. Lusitan. 
i. 126. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 632. — Scblumbach, Abbild. 
Nadelbdume, 94, t. 14. — Marschall von Bieberstein, Fl. 
Taur.-Cauc. ii. 425. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 558. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 443. — Wahl- 
enberg, Fl. Lapp. 276. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 
511. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245. — Nouveau Duhamel, vi. 46, 
t. 15, f . 1. — Bigelow, Med. Bot. iii. 43, t. 44 ; Fl. Bos- 
ton, ed. 3, 399. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, Abbild. 
Deutsche Holz. ii. 271, t. 206. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 205. — 
Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. 33, t. 5. — Sprengel, Syst. 
iii. 908. — S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. ii. 226.— 
Smith, English Bot. iv. 251. — Dietrich, Forstbot. i. 
128, t. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 165. — Forbes, Pinetum 
Woburn. 202. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6v. 2, xvi. 289 
(Revision des Juniperus) (excl. c macrocarpa) ; Hist. 
Veg. xi. 308 (excl. var. e macrocarpa). — Roxburgh, Fl. 
Ind. ed. 2, iii. 839. — Visiani, Fl. Dalm. i. 206. — Tor- 
rey, Fl. N. T. ii. 234. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 
iii. 242 (Conifhres d'ltalie). — Emerson, Trees Mass. 
108 ; ed. 2, i. 124. — Ledebour, Fl. Boss. iii. 684. — 
Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 5, t. 535. — Lindley 
& Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 200. — Carriere, 
Traite Conif. 21. — Turczaninow, Fl. Baicalensi-Dahu- 
rica, ii. 144. — Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 26, t. 
38-40. — Koch, Syn. Fl. German, ed. 3, ii. 575. — Gordon, 
Pinetum, 93. — Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad. St. 
Petersbourg, ix. 264 (Prim. Fl. Amur.). — Willkomm & 
Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 22. — Provancher, Flore 
Canadienne, ii. 559. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
320. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 144. — Tchihatcheff, 
Asie Mineure, iii. 491. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 270, f. 

;U. Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 82 ; De Candolle Prodr. 

xvi. pt. ii. 479. — Fr. Schmidt, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. 
PStersbourg, se"r. 7. xii. 178 (Fl. Sachalinensis). — 



K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 114. — Nordlinger, Forstbot. 

467, f . — Mathieu, Fl. Forestiere, ed. 3, 448. — Veitch, 

Man. Conif. 274. — Regel, R^lss. Dendr. 12. — Masters, 

Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 497 (Conifers of Japan) ; Jour. 

R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 212. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 

2, 57, f. 6. — Laguna, Fl. Forestal Espafiola, i. 101, 

1. 12. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 707. — Macoun, Cat. Can. 

PI. 462. — Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 357. — Watson & 

Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 494. — Hooker, f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. v. 646. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 133, f . 31 , 32. — 

Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 290 (Pinetum Dani- 

cum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 52. — Hempel & Wil- 

helm, Bihume und Straucher, i. 191, f. 112, B, C, M, R, 

t. 10, f. 1-6. 
Juniperus deformis, Gilibert, Exercit. Phyt. ii. 216 (1792). 
Juniperus borealis, Salisbury, Prodr. 397 (1796). 
Juniperus oblonga, Marschall von Bieberstein, Fl. Taur.- 
Cauc. ii. 426 (1808) ; iii. 634. — Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 

685. — Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 24, t. 34, 35. 
Juniperus communis, a erecta, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 

ii. 146 (1814). — K. Koch, Linncea, xxii. 302. 
Juniperus hemisphcerica, Presl, Delic. Prag. i. 142 

(1822). — Tenore, Syll. Fl. Neap. 483 ; Fl. Nap. v. 

282. — Gussone, Fl. Sic. Syn. ii. 634. — Schouw, Ann. 

Sci. Nat. ser. 3, iii. 243 (Conif e~ res d'ltalie). — Endlicher, 

Syn. Conif. 12. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soe. 

Lond. v. 200. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 17. — Henkel & 

Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 318. 
Juniperus repens, Bigelow, Fl. Boston, ed. 2, 371 (not 

Nuttall) (1824). 
Juniperus depressa, Rafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 13 (1830). 
Juniperus dealbata, Loudon, Encyclopaedia of Trees, 1090 

(1842). 
Thuieecarpus juniperinus, Trautvetter, PI. Imag. Fl. 

Russ. 11, t. 6 (1844). 
Juniperus communis, a vulgaris, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 

15 (1847). 
Juniperus communis, /3 Hispanica, Endlicher, Syn. 

Conif. 15 (1847). 
Juniperus communis, y Caucasica, Endlicher, Syn. 

Conif 16 (1847). 
Juniperus communis, 8 arborescens, Endlicher, Syn. 

Conif. 16 (excl. Syn. Loudon) (1847). 
Juniperus communis, /? hemisphoerica, Parlatore, Fl. 

Ital. iv. 83 (1867) ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 479. 
Juniperus communis, 8 oblonga, Parlatore, De Candolle 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 479 (1868). 



76 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



COXIFER&E. 



A shrub, with many short slender stems prostrate at the base and then turning upward and 
forming broad dense mats sometimes fifteen or twenty feet across and three or four feet high ; or 
occasionally tree-like and from twenty to thirty feet in height, with a short eccentric irregularly lobed 
trunk rarely a foot in diameter, and slender erect branches forming an irregular open head ; or at high 
elevations and in boreal regions prostrate with long decumbent stems. 1 The bark of the trunk is 
about one sixth of an inch thick and dark reddish brown, separating irregularly into many loose papery 
persistent scales. The branchlets during their first and second years are slender, smooth and lustrous, 
and conspicuously three-angled between the short nodes ; light yellow tinged with red during their first 
season, they gradually grow darker and more suffused with red, and in the third season their dark red- 
brown bark begins to separate into small thin scales. The buds are ovate, acute, about an eighth of an 
inch long, and loosely covered with scale-like leaves. 2 The leaves are disposed in rather remote ternate 
whorls, and spread nearly at right angles to the branches ; they are linear-lanceolate, acute and tipped 
with sharp slender rigid cartilaginous points, articulate and truncate at the base, thickened, rounded, 
obscurely ridged and dark green and lustrous on the back, snowy white and covered with stomata on 
the upper surface, from one third to one half of an inch long, about one thirty-second of an inch wide, 
and persistent for many years ; they have a strong unpleasant slightly astringent flavor, and during the 
winter turn a deep rich bronze color on the lower surface. The flowers open late in the spring from 
buds formed in the autumn in the axils of leaves of the year. The staminate flower, which is about 
one sixteenth of an inch long, is composed of a slender short-stalked axis, its stipe being covered 
with minute closely imbricated scales, and of five or six whorls, each of three stamens, with broadly 
obovate acute and short-pointed connectives slightly thickened and keeled on the back, and bearing at 
the very base three or rarely four globose anther cells. The pistillate flower consists of three slightly 
spreading ovules abruptly enlarged and open at the apex, where a drop of clear stigmatic liquid is 
secreted when the ovule is ready for fecundation ; below the ovules and alternate with them are three 
minute obtuse fleshy scales slightly united at the base and with the ovules, and subtended by five or six 
alternate whorls of ternate leaf-like scales. During the first year the fruit does not enlarge, resembling 
the flower-bud in its first winter ; but, commencing to grow rapidly when the plant is in bloom in 



1 Juniperus communis, var. Sibirica, Rydberg, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. iii. 533 (1896). 

Juniperus communis, y, Linnaeus, Spec. 1040 (1753). 

Juniperus communis, /3, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 625 (1786). — Smith 
& Sowerby, English Bot. iii. t. 1086. 

Juniperus Sibirica, Burgsdorf, Anleit. ii. 124 (1787). — K. Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 116. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 57. 

Juniperus Canadensis, Burgsdorf, I. c. (1787). — Loudon, Arb. 
Brit. iv. 2490, f. 2347. —Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 204. — Car- 
riere, Traite Conif. 20. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 11. — Gordon, 
Pinetum, 92. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 318. — 
(Nelson) Senilis, Pinaceoe, 144. 

Juniperus communis, y montana, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 414 
(1788). — Spacb, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 2, xvi. 290 {Revision des 
Juniperus) ; Hist. Veg. xi. 309. 

Juniperus nana, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 159 (1 796) ; Spec. iv. 
pt. ii. 854 ; Enum. 1023. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 766. — 
Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 496, t. 338. — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, 
Abbild. Deutsche Holz. ii. 273, t. 207. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 205.— 
Smith, English Fl. iv. 252. — Ledebour, Fl. Alt. iv. 299; Fl. 
Ross. iii. 683. — Visiani, Fl. Dalm. i. 203. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. 
Nat. sdr. 3, iii. 243 (Conif eres d'ltalie). — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. 
German, xi. 5, t. 535. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. f. 200. — Carriere, I. u. 18. — Knight, I. c. 11. — Koch, Syn. 
Fl. German, ed. 3, ii. 575. — Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 30, 
t. 42, f . O-U, 43-45. — Gordon, I. c. 97. — Willkomm & Lange, 



Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 23. — Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 318. — 
(Nelson) Senilis, I. c. 145. — Regel, Russ. Dendr. 13. — Will- 
komm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 267. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
294 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 52. 

Juniperus communis, P alpina, Wahlenberg, Fl. Lapp. 276 
(1812). — Gaudin, Fl. Helv. vi. 301. — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
I. c. ; Hist. Veg. I. c. 309. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 273. — Parlatore, 
De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 480. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. 
ii. 113. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 429. — Macoun, Cat. 
Can. PI. 462 ; iv. 361. — Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 357. — 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 494. — Otto Kuntze, Rev. 
Gen. PI. ii. 798. 

Juniperus communis nana, Baumgarten, Enum. Stirp. Transs. 
ii. 380 (1816). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2489, f. 2344. — Hooker, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 165. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 203. — Veitch, 
Man. Conif. 275. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 707. 

Juniperus communis, j8 depressa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 646 
(1814). 

Juniperus alpina, S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. ii. 226 
(1821). — Grenier & Godron, Fl. France, iii. 157. 

Juniperus communis vulgaris, Loudon, I. c. iv. 2189 (1838). 

Juniperus nana, A montana, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 14 (1847). 

Juniperus nana, B alpina, Endlicher, I. c. (1847). — Regel, 
I. c. 13. 

Juniperus pygmcea, K. Koch, Linncea, xxii. 302 (1849). 
2 Henry, Nov. Act. Acad. Cozs. Leop. xix. 103, t. 14. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 77 

the following spring, its three upper scales "become consolidated above the ovules, and at the beginniDg 
of the second winter it is globose, hard, light green, and about three quarters of its full size, the 
albumen of the seeds being soft and milky ; it continues to develop during the following season, the 
albumen of the seeds gradually hardening ; late in the summer it becomes dark blue or bluish black 
and covered with a glaucous bloom, and at maturity is subglobose or oblong, tipped with the remnants 
of the enlarged points of the ovules and raised on a short stem clothed by the unchanged scales 
which formed the outer covering of the female flower ; the fruit is then about a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, with soft mealy resinous sweet flesh and from one to three seeds ; when not eaten by birds it 
often remains on the branches one or two years after ripening. 1 The seeds are ovate, acute, irregularly 
angled or flattened by mutual pressure, deeply penetrated by the numerous prominent thin-walled 
irregularly shaped resin-glands, and free from the flesh only near the bright brown lustrous apex, 
about an eighth of an inch long, with a thick bony outer coat, a membranaceous light chestnut-brown 
inner coat, and a large two-lobed basal hilum to which the flesh is firmly attached. 

Juniperus communis, which is the most widely distributed tree of the northern hemisphere, ranges 
in the New World across the continent and from southern Greenland 2 to the highlands of Pennsyl- 
vania on the Atlantic coast, and to northern Nebraska 3 and along the Rocky Mountains to Arizona, 4 
New Mexico, and western Texas, 5 and on the Pacific coast from Alaska 6 to northern California. 7 In 
the Old World it inhabits the Kurile Islands 8 and Kamtschatka, and is widely spread over the remainder 
of northern, central, and eastern Asia, ranging southward to the northwestern Himalayas, where it 
sometimes ascends to 14,000 feet above the sea-level ; it is common all through northern and central 
Europe, ascending mountain ranges to elevations of four or five thousand feet, and occurs, although 
less commonly, in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. In North America, although nowhere very 
abundant, it is generally distributed, growing, toward the southern limits of its range in the east, on 
gravelly sterile slopes or worn-out pastures, and in the west on high exposed mountain-slopes, and 
usually in shrubby forms only a few feet high, not assuming the habit of a small tree except in southern 
Illinois. Here on the bald and broken summits of conglomerate sandstone and limestone hills, in 
Union, Williamson, Johnson, Saline, Pope, Gallatin, and Hardin counties, it frequently attains a height 
of twenty-five feet and forms a trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, growing with Juniperus 
Virginiana, Acer spicatum, Crataegus cordata, Quercus minor, Quercus rubra, and Vaccinlum 
vacillans. In northern Maine and on the alpine summits of the mountains of New England and New 
York, in northern Minnesota, on the Rocky Mountains, where it sometimes ascends to elevations of 
10,000 feet, and on the mountains of British America and farther northward on both sides of the 
continent, it assumes its prostrate decumbent form on which the leaves are usually somewhat broader 
than on plants with erect stems. In northern and central Europe Juniperus communis inhabits plains 
and mountain-slopes, often ascending above the upper limit of the forest, and in some parts of northern 
Germany it is often gregarious, covering great areas with an open growth of shrubby plants which 
frequently, under the shade of trees, assume an arborescent habit and attain a height of thirty or forty 
feet ; 9 in the countries bordering the Mediterranean and in western Asia it is usually found only on 
high mountain-slopes, sometimes ascending to elevations of nearly six thousand feet, although on the 

1 J. G. Jack, Bot. Gazette, xviii. 369, t. 33. 6 Bongard, Mem. Phys. Nat. Pt. 2, Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ii. 
Mr. Jack's observations on the development of the flowers and 163 (Vey. Sitcha) {Juniperus nana). — Rothrock, Smithsonian Rep. 

fruit of Juniperus communis in the Arnold Arboretum first estab- 1867,455 (Fl. Alaska) (Juniperus nana). — F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrb. 

lished the fact that the fruit of this species, in New England at xix. 425 (Fl. Chilcatgebietes). 

least, does not mature until the third year. 7 Engelmann, Brewer $• Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 113. — Lemmon, 

2 Hooker f. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 302 (Arctic Plants). — Rink, Rep. California Slate Board Forestry, iii. 184 (Cone-Bearers of Cali- 
Danish Greenland, 410. fornia); West- American Cone- Bearers, 78. 

3 Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 101. 8 Miyabe, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. iv. 260 (Fl. Kurile Islands). 
* Juniperus communis occurs on the high San Francisco peaks. 9 Willkomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 261, f. 34. 

6 Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 555 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 



78 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



Italian Riviera occasionally descending to the sea-level. On the northwestern Himalayas and in Thibet 
it inhabits high dry steep slopes, often reaching elevations of twelve or fourteen thousand feet, and 
forming, far above the upper limits of the forest, great thickets a few feet high, growing gregariously 
or mixed with Juniperus recurva. 1 

The wood of Juni])erus communis grown in the United States has not been examined scientifically. 
It is hard, close-grained, very durable in contact with the soil, and light brown, with pale sapwood 
and a fine surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. In Europe it is sometimes used for 
vine-stakes, and is made into canes and other small articles. 2 In India it is burned, like the twigs, as 
incense, and on the high Himalayan passes is used as fuel. 3 The sweet aromatic fruit is gathered in 
northern Europe in large quantities for the sake of the peculiar flavor and diuretic properties which it 
imparts to gin ; and, although no longer believed to possess the peculiar virtues ascribed to it by 
herbalists two centuries ago, 4 it is still occasionally employed medicinally in the United States 5 and 
Europe, and in native Indian practice. 

Juniperus communis has long been cultivated in the gardens of Europe ; in the seventeenth 
century it was a favorite subject for topiary decoration, and it may still be seen in English and Dutch 
gardens cut into bowls, globes, animals, and other fantastic shapes. 6 Of the many forms which are 
recognized in gardens, the most distinct is the Swedish Juniper, 7 which, with erect branches making 
a narrow compact pyramidal head, occasionally attains a height of eighteen or twenty feet; other 
forms, distinguished by a columnar or a dwarfed and compact habit, by pendulous branches 8 or by 
yellow foliage, are also frequently cultivated. 9 



1 Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. Ind. vii. pt. ii. 153 (Hima- 
layan Conif erai). — Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 535. 

2 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2489. 

3 Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 411. — Balfour, Cyclopaedia of 
India, ed. 3, ii. 454. 

4 Parkinson, Theatr. 1030. 

5 Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 261, f. 156. 

6 Loudon, I. c. 2493. 

7 Juniperus communis Suecica, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2489, f. 
2343 (1838). — Knight, Syn. Conif. 11. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 
22. — Gordon, Pinetum, 24. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
321. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinaceoz, 145. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 
274. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 276. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 136. 

Juniperus Suecica, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2 (1768). — Forbes, 
Pinetum Woburn. 203. 

? Juniperus communis, Hispanica, Endlieher, Syn. Conif 15 
(1847). 

Juniperus communis, fastigiata, Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 479 (in part) (1868). — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xiv. 212 (in part). 



Juniperus communis pyramidalis, Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

293 (Pinetum Danicum). 

The Swedish Juniper, which is said to grow naturally in southern 
Scandinavia, and to reproduce its peculiar habit from seed, has 
long been a favorite garden plant. 

8 Juniperus communis oblonga-pendula, Carriere, Man. PL iv. 
310. — Beissner, I. c. 137. 

Juniperus oblonga pendula, Loudon, Arb. Brit. 2490, f. 2345 
(1838). — Carriere, Traite Conif ed. 2, 20. 

Juniperus communis, & refexa, Carriere, I. c. 22 (1855). — Par- 
latore, I. c. 

Juniperus communis, B reflexa, £ pendula, Carriere, I. c. 23 
(1855). 

Juniperus oblonga, Gordon, I. c. 98 (not Marschall von Bie- 
berstein). — Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 322 (excl. syn.). — 
Hoopes, I. c. 277. 

9 For other garden forms of Juniperus communis, see Veitch, I. c. 
275. — Beissner, I. c. 136. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 



Plate DXVI. Juniperus communis. 

7. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. A leaf, upper surface, enlarged. 

11. A bud, enlarged. 

12. A fruiting branch of the var. Sibirica, natural size. 



feilva-of "North America. 



Tat. DXV1 




CE.Faxcoru del . 



JTim&lzf so. 



JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS,!,. 



A.JRwcreuzc direx-^. 



Imp . J. TdnezLr, Paris. 



conifers. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 79 



JUNIPERUS CALIFORNICA. 

Juniper. 

Fruit usually oblong; seeds 1 or 2. Leaves ternate, rounded at the apex, 
conspicuously glandular. Branchlets stout. 

Juniperus Californica, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 352, f. Sabina Californica, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 52, 

21 ; Traite Conif. 58, ed. 2, 41. — Gordon, Pinetum, t. 71, 72 (1857). 

121. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 588 (excl. Juniperus tetragona, var. osteosperma, Torrey, Pacific 

syn. Juniperus Cerrosiana) ; Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 (1858) ; Bot. Mex. Bound. 

vi. 375 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 113. — Sargent, Surv. 210 ; Ives' Rep. 28. 

Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 180 (excl. Juniperus tetragona, Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 

syn. Juniperus Cerrosiana). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 263 (not Schlechtendal) (1859). 

129. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, Juniperus occidentalis, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 38 (in 

iii. 183, t. 28, f. 1 (Cone-Bearers of California) ; West- part) (1864) ; Pinetum, ed. 2, 162 (in part). — Henkel & 

American Cone-Bearers, 79. Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 345 (in part). — Hoopes, Ever- 

Juniperus pyriformis, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1855, 420. greens, 299 (in part). — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 

Sabina osteosperma, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, xvi. pt. ii. 489 (in part). — Veitch, Man. Conif '. 286 (in 

51 (1857). part). 

A conical tree, occasionally forty feet in height, with a straight large-lobed unsymmetrical trunk 
from one to two feet in diameter ; or more often shrubby, with numerous stout irregular often contorted 
erect branches which form a broad open head. The bark of the trunk is thin and divided into long 
loose shred-like scales which are ashy gray on the outer surface and persistent for many years, and in 
separating display the reddish brown inner bark. The branchlets are stout, light yellow-green at 
first, rather bright red-brown in their third or fourth season, and at the end of four or five years, after 
the leaves have fallen, covered with thin light gray-brown scaly bark. The leaves are usually in threes, 
closely appressed, thickened, slightly keeled and conspicuously glandular-pitted on the back, rounded at 
the apex, distinctly cartilaginously fringed on the margins, light yellow-green, and about an eighth of 
an inch long, and die and turn brown on the branch at the end of two or three years ; those on 
vigorous shoots and young plants are linear-lanceolate, rigid, sharp-pointed, from one quarter to one 
third of an inch long, and whitish on the upper surface. The flowers open from January to March. 
The staminate flower is from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch in length, with from eighteen 
to twenty-four stamens ; these are usually disposed in threes, with rhomboidal short-pointed connectives 
or anther-scales. The scales of the pistillate flower are ovate, acute, spreading, and usually six in 
number, and are obliterated or minute on the fruit. This ripens in the early autumn of the second 
season and is globose or oblong, from one third to one quarter of an inch long, reddish brown, with a 
membranaceous loose epidermis covered by a thick glaucous bloom, thin fibrous dry sweet flesh, and 
one or two large seeds. The seeds are ovate, acute, and short-pointed, irregularly lobed and angled, 
flattened by mutual pressure on the inner surface when more than one is produced, light chestnut- 
brown and lustrous toward the apex, marked below by a large bilobed whitish hilum, and thick-walled, 
the outer layer of the wall being hard and bony and the inner thin, white, and cartilaginous ; the 
cotyledons are from four to six in number. 

Juniperus Californica inhabits dry mountain-slopes and plains, and is distributed from the valley 
of the lower Sacramento River southward through the Calif ornia coast ranges to Lower California ; 
spreading inland along the coast mountains to their union with the Sierra Nevada, it ranges northward 
alono* the western slopes of these at least as far as the neighborhood of Kernville, descending as low 



80 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

as two thousand six hundred feet above the sea-level and ascending to the summit of Walker's Pass. 
It occurs on the desert slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains, and is abundant on the northern foothills 
of the San Bernardino Mountains, where it is scattered through the upper part of the forest of Yucca 
arborescens at elevations of three or four thousand feet. 1 It is common on the southern foothills of 
these mountains and on the seaward slopes of the San Jacinto and Cuyamaca ranges. 

The wood of Juniperus Califomica is light, soft, close-grained, and durable in contact with the 
soil ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays and dark inconspicuous bands of small summer-cells, 
and is light brown slightly tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.6282, a cubic foot weighing 39.15 pounds. In southern California it is 
used for fencing and fuel. 

The fruit is gathered in large quantities by Indians, who eat it fresh, or grind it into flour which 
they bake into nutritious fattening cakes. 2 

Long confounded with Juniperus occidentalis by European botanists, probably Juniper us Cali- 
fomica is not now cultivated in gardens. 3 

1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 340 {Death Valley have been discovered by a Monsieur Boursier de la Riviere. Lind- 
Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 224 (Bot. Death ley, in his description of Juniperus pyriformis (Gard. Chron. 1854, 
Valley Exped.). — S. B. Parish, Zo'e, iv. 352. 420), which from the characters and the locality must be referred 

2 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 594. to Juniperus Califomica, speaks of its introduction by William Lobb 
8 By Carriere, who first described this tree in 1854, it is said to into the Veitchs' nursery at Exeter, England, probably in 1852. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXVII. Juniperus Californica. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of the pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

13. End of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 



Silva. of North America 



Tab.HKVn. 




12 



CE.Fozcotv ddL. 



BirrLeZy 



JUNIPERUS CALIFORNICA, Carr. 



AJUocreuso direeo^. 



Imp . J. Taneicr^ariif \ 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 81 



JUNIPERUS UTAHENSIS. 
Juniper. 

Fruit usually globose ; seeds solitary or rarely in pairs. Leaves ternate or binate, 
acute or acuminate, eglandular. Branchlets slender. 

Juniperus Utahensis, Lemmon, Bep. California State vi. 264 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 113. — Sargent, 

Board Forestry, iii. 183, t. 28, f. 2 (Cone-Bearers of Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 180. 

California) (1890). Juniperus occidentalis, Watson, King's Rep. v. 336 (in 

Juniperus Calif ornica, var. Utahensis, Engelmann,2V<ms. part) (not Hooker) (1871); PI. Wheeler, 18. 

St. Louis Acad. iii. 588 (1877) ; Bothroch Wheeler's Bep. Juniperus occidentalis, var. Utahensis, Veitch, Man. 

Conif 289 (1881). 

A bushy tree, rarely exceeding twenty feet in height, with a short usually eccentric trunk 
sometimes two feet in diameter, and generally divided near the ground by irregular deep fissures into 
broad rounded ridges, and with many erect contorted branches which form a broad open head ; or more 
often with numerous stems springing from the ground and frequently not more than eight or ten feet 
in height. The bark of the trunk is about a quarter of an inch in thickness, ashy gray or sometimes 
nearly white, and broken into long thin persistent scales. The branchlets are slender and light yellow- 
green, and after the falling of the leaves are covered with thin light red-brown scaly bark. The leaves 
are opposite or occasionally in threes, closely appressed, rounded and eglandular on the back, acute or 
often acuminate, slightly toothed on the margins, light yellow-green, and rather less than an eighth of 
an inch long, and, dying and turning brown on the branches, are persistent for many years ; on young 
shoots they are often elongated and long-pointed, passing gradually into the acerose leaves of more 
vigorous shoots and of seedling plants. The staminate flower is composed of from eighteen to twenty- 
four opposite or ternate stamens, with rhomboidal connectives or anther-scales. The scales of the 
pistillate flower are acute, spreading, and often in pairs. The fruit, which ripens during the autumn of 
the second season, is subglobose or oblong, marked by the more or less prominent tips of the flower- 
scales, reddish brown, with a thick firm epidermis closely investing the thin dry fibrous sweet flesh, and 
covered with a glaucous bloom which often gives it, especially during its first season, a bluish 
appearance ; it is from one eighth to one quarter of an inch long, and contains one or rarely two 
seeds. The seed is ovate, acute, conspicuously and acutely angled, marked nearly to the apex by the 
two-lobed pale hilum, and from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, with a hard bony outer 
wall, a membranaceous pale brown inner coat ; the embryo has from four to six cotyledons. 

Juniperus Utahensis is found only in the desert region between the Rocky Mountains and the 
Sierra Nevada, where it is the most abundant and generally distributed tree, ranging from the western 
foothills of the Wasatch Mountains in eastern Utah to southeastern California, northern Arizona, and 
western Colorado. 1 In central Nevada it is the only tree which descends into the valleys, where it is 
often abundant and forms open stunted forests at elevations of about five thousand feet above the 
sea-level ; on the arid slopes of the mountains of this region it is still more common and of larger 
size, forming with the Nut Pine the forest growth at elevations up to eight thousand feet. 2 It is 
common on the mountain ranges of southern Nevada, clothing with the Nut Pine many of their 
summits, and occurs, although less abundantly, on those of southeastern California ; it covers with a 
continuous nearly pure forest twenty miles wide the Juniper Mountains, a rolling plateau six or seven 

1 Juniperus Utahensis is the common Jumper on the high plateaus 2 Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xvii. 418 (The Forests of Central 

of western Colorado, and the valley of Grand River. Nevada). 



82 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

thousand feet above the sea which extends from Nevada into southwestern Utah ; 1 abundant also on 
many of the other mountain ranges of southern Utah, it spreads southward over northeastern Arizona 
to the plateau immediately south of the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 2 where it grows with Juniperus 
monosperma, Phius ponderosa, and the Nut Pine. 

The wood of Juniperus Utahensis is light, soft, close-grained, compact, and very durable in 
contact with the soil. It is light brown, and slightly fragrant, with thick nearly white sapwood. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5522, a cubic foot weighing 34.41 pounds. 3 
The cheapest and most accessible fuel and the best fencing material of the desert region which it 
inhabits, this tree is rapidly disappearing to supply the wants of farmers and miners. 

The fruit is gathered by Indians, who eat it fresh or bake it into cakes. 4 

Usually considered a variety of Juniperus Californica, Juniperus Utahensis appears to be 
specifically distinct in its more slender branches and usually glandless opposite leaves, in its smaller and 
generally one-seeded fruit, and in its range, the two forms being separated by the Mohave Desert and 
never mingling. 

1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 120 {Death Valley average growth of a little less than one fiftieth of an inch (see Am. 
Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 224 (Bot. Death Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xvii. 418 [The Forests of Central Nevada']) ; while 
Valley Exped.). the log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods 

2 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 120. in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, collected 
8 Juniperus Utahensis grows very slowly. A specimen of the hy Mr. T. S. Brandegee at Fish Creek, near Eureka, Nevada, is 

wood which I collected on the Monitor Kange of mountains in eleven and three quarters inches in diameter inside the bark, and 
central Nevada, and which is four and a half inches in diameter, two hundred and fifteen years old. 
shows one hundred and five layers of annual growth, or an annual 4 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 594. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXVIII. Juniperus Utahensis. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of the pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. End of a branch, enlarged. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. A seedling, natural size. 



jiiva of North America. 



Ta"b.DXVIII 




C.E.Fatcoivdel. 



Hapirve, so. 



JUNIPERUS UTAHENSIS, Lemm. 



AJUocreuar direcc i 



Imp. J.Tcurteur, Paris, 



coniferjq. SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 83 



JUNIPERUS FLACCIDA. 
Juniper. 

Fruit oblong or globose ; seeds 4 to 12. Leaves binate, glandular, often slightly 
spreading at the acute or acuminate apex. Branchlets slender. 

Juniperus flaccida, Schlechtendal, Linncea, xii. 495 Mus. viii. 504. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 115. — Coul- 

(1838). — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 57. — Endlicher, Syn. ter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 556 {Man. PL W. 

Conif. 29. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. Texas). 

202. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 12. — Carriere, Traite Conif. Juniperus fcetida, 6 flaccida, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 

48. — Gordon, Pinetum, 103. — Henkel & Hochstetter, 2, xvi. 300 (Revision des Juniperus) (1841). 

Syn. Nadelh. 341. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. Sabina flaccida, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 37, t. 

pt. ii. 492. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 143. — Engel- 49, 50, f . M-T (1857). 

mann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 589. — Hemsley, Bot. Juniperus gracilis, K. Koch, Berl. Allg. Gartenzeit. 1858, 

Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 184. — Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. 341 (not Endlicher). 

A tree, occasionally thirty feet in height, with graceful spreading branches and long slender 
drooping branchlets covered, after the leaves have fallen, with thin bright cinnamon-brown bark 
separating into thin loose papery scales, or more often shrubby. The leaves are opposite, long-pointed, 
and sometimes slightly spreading at the apex, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, 
slightly denticulate, light yellow-green, and rather more than an eighth of an inch long, and turn 
cinnamon-red as they die on the branch before falling; on vigorous young shoots they are ovate- 
lanceolate, and sometimes half an inch in length, and terminate in elongated rigid callous tips. The 
staminate flowers are slender, quadrangular, and composed of from sixteen to twenty stamens, with 
ovate long-pointed connectives or anther-scales prominently keeled on the back. The fruit is globose 
or oblong, irregularly tuberculate, dull red-brown, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom, marked 
by the numerous reflexed tips of the flower-scales, and from one half to three quarters of an inch long, 
with a close firm epidermis and dry mealy flesh in which are imbedded in several tiers from four to 
twelve often abortive distorted seeds, with an embryo with two cotyledons, and about an eighth of an 
inch in length. 

In the United States Juniperus flaccida is known to grow only on the slopes of the Chisos 
Mountains in southwestern Texas, where it was found in September, 1883, by Dr. Valery Havard. 1 It 
is common in northeastern Mexico, growing at elevations of from six to eight thousand feet on the hills 
to the east of the Mexican table-lands, ranging from the state of Coahuila to that of Oaxaca, and 
extending eastward to about the distance of one hundred miles from the coast. 

The wood of Juniperus flaccida has not been examined. 

According to Carriere, 2 Juniperus flaccida was introduced into Europe in 1838 ; it is occasionally 
cultivated in the gardens of southern France, where it ripens its fruit, and in Algeria. 3 

i See i. 81. " Traite Conif. 48. 3 Carriere, I. c. ed. 2, 48. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

' Plate DXIX. Juniperus flaccida. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

12. End of a leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab . DXIX 




C.J2. Faxon* deZ . 



n&cuia> so. 



JUNIPERUS FLACCIDA, Sohlecht. 



A.Hiocrcuoo, dzrtxc. 



]mp . J Tan&ur, Paris 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 85 



JUNIPERUS PACHYPHL.ZEA. 
Juniper. Checkered-barked Juniper. 

Fruit globose ; seeds usually 4. Leaves opposite, closely appressed, rounded and 
apiculate at the apex, glandular. Branchlets slender. Bark thick, broken into small 
oblong plates. 

Juniperus pachyphlsea, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 130. — Lemmon, Rep. Califor- 

pt. v. 142 (1858) ; Rot. Mex. Round. Surv. 210 ; Ives' Rep. nia State Roard Forestry, iii. 182 (Cone- Bearers of Cali- 

28. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn Nadelh. 347. — Car- fornia) ; West-American Cone-Rearers, 81. 

riere, Traite" Conif. ed. 2,56. — Parlatore, De Candolle Sabina pachyphlaea, Antoine, Cupress ineen-Gattungen, 39 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 490. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 164. — (1857). 

Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 589 ; Rothrock Sabina plochyderma, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 

Wheeler's Rep. vi. 264. — Rusby, Rull. Torrey Rot. Club, 40, t. 52 (1857). 

ix. 79. — Hemsley, Rot. Riol. Am. Cent. iii. 184. — Sar- Juniperus plochyderma, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 

gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 181. — xvi. pt. ii. 492 (1868). 

A tree, in the United States often fifty or sixty feet in height, with a short trunk from three to 
five feet in diameter, and long stout spreading branches which form a broad-based, pyramidal, open, or 
ultimately a compact round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to 
almost four inches in thickness, and is dark brown tinged with red, deeply fissured and divided into 
nearly square plates an inch or two in length, which separate on the surface into small thin closely 
appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, and after the disappearance of the leaves are covered 
with thin light red-brown bark, usually smooth and close, but occasionally broken into large thin scales. 
The leaves are in pairs, appressed, ovate, rounded and apiculate at the apex, slightly denticulate, 
thickened, obscurely keeled and conspicuously glandular on the back, bluish green, and rather less than 
an eighth of an inch long ; those on vigorous shoots and young branches are linear-lanceolate, rigid, 
tipped with slender elongated cartilaginous points, and, like the young branchlets, pale blue-green. 
The flowers open in February and March. The staminate flowers are stout, about an eighth of an inch 
in length, with ten or twelve stamens, their connectives or anther-scales being broadly ovate, obscurely 
keeled on the back, and short-pointed. The scales of the pistillate flower are ovate, acuminate, and 
spreading. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn of the second season, is globose or oblong, often 
irregularly tuberculate, about half an inch long, usually marked with the short tips of the flower-scales, 
occasionally open and exposing the seeds at the apex, dark red-brown, and more or less covered with a 
glaucous bloom, especially during the first season, when it is often bluish in color ; it is inclosed in 
a thin firm epidermis, closely investing the thick dry mealy flesh, which is filled during the first season 
with small resin glands, and usually contains four seeds ; these are acute, conspicuously ridged and 
gibbous on the back, light brown at the apex, marked below by large pale bilobed hilums, and thick- 
walled, with a pale inner coat, and an embryo with two cotyledons. 

Juniperus jjachyphlcea inhabits dry arid mountain-slopes, where it grows with Pines and Ever- 
green Oaks, usually at elevations of from four to six thousand feet above the level of the sea, and is 
distributed from the Eagle and Limpia Mountains in southwestern Texas westward along the desert 
ranges of New Mexico and Arizona south of the Colorado plateau, but extending northward to the 
lower slopes of many of the high mountains of northern Arizona. 1 In Mexico it ranges southward 
along the Sierra Madre to the state of Jalisco and over the mountains of northern Sonora, often growing 

1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 120. — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 225 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). 



86 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

on the Mexican highlands to a height of fifty feet, and forming a trunk frequently three or four feet in 
diameter. Flourishing with the greatest luxuriance in rich well-watered canons, it thrives also on high 
dry elevated slopes and rocky ledges, ranging through nearly five thousand feet of elevation on the 
Cordilleras of Chihuahua. 1 

The wood of Juniperus pachyphlcea is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and close-grained ; it 
contains numerous obscure medullary rays and inconspicuous thin bands of small summer-cells, and is 
clear light red often streaked with yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5829, a cubic foot weighing 36.32 pounds. 2 

The fruit is gathered and eaten by Indians. 3 

Juniperus pachyphlcea was discovered in August, 1851, on the Zuni Mountains of eastern New 
Mexico by Dr. S. W. Woodhouse, 4 the surgeon and naturalist of Captain Sitgreaves' expedition down 
the Zuni and Colorado Rivers. 5 

The open shapely head, the cheerful color, and massive trunk of Juniperus pachyphlaza covered 
with thick checkered bark unlike that of any other Juniper, make it the most beautiful of the species 
of western America, and a handsome and always an interesting object in the elevated mountain canons 
which are its home. 

Juniperus pachyphlcea is occasionally cultivated in the gardens of Europe. 6 

1 Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 441. over by Sitgreaves' expedition (Sitgreaves' Rep. 35). On page 

2 The log specimen of Juniperus pachyphlcea in the Jesup Collec- 173 of the same report Torrey describes the tree briefly, without 
tion of North American Woods in the American Museum of Natu- giving it a name, and plate 16 of the volume is devoted to a por- 
ral History in New York is seventeen and three quarters inches in trait of one of the trees which, on the plate, is called Juniperus 
diameter inside the bark, and shows two hundred and forty-eight plochyderma. 

layers of annual growth, thirty-four of which are of sapwood. 6 Veitch, Man. Conif. 289. 

8 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 593. In England Juniperus pachyphlcea appears to be sometimes culti- 

4 See viii. 88. vated as Juniperus pendula. (See Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

5 The first mention of Juniperus pachyphloza appears in Dr. 214.) 
Woodhouse's report of the natural history of the country passed 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXX. Juniperus pachyphl^a. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit with protruding seeds, enlarged. 

8. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed,, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

13. End of a leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXX. 




"CKFaccoT^del. 



HlTTL&ly. SO. 



JUNIPERUS PACHYPHL^A.Torr. 



A.TlLocreiuz> direj^. 



Imp. <7. Tarveur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 87 



JUNIPERUS OCCIDENTALIS. 

Juniper. 

Fruit large, subglobose or oblong, the flesh filled with large resin glands ; seeds 
2 or 3. Leaves ternate, acute or acuminate, conspicuously glandular. Branchlets stout. 

Juniperus occidentalis, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 166 Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 213 (excl. syn. Juni- 

(1839). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 26. — Lindley & Gor- perus pyrif (trims). — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

don, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 202. — Carriere, Traite 294 {Pinetum Danicuvi). — Merriam, North American 

Conif. 42 (in part) ; ed. 2, 40 (in part). — Torrey, Pacific Fauna, No. 7, 343 (Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, 

R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 142. — Gordon, Pinetum, 117 (excl. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 225 (Bot. Death Valley 

syn.) ; Suppl. 38 (excl. syn.) ; ed. 2, 162 (excl. syn.). — Exped.). 

Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 345 (in part) . — Juniperus excelsa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 647 (not Mar- 
kelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 142. — Hoopes, Evergreens, schall von Bieberstein) (1814). — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245. 
299 (excl. syn. Juniperus Calif ornica). — Parlatore, Be Juniperus Andina, Nuttall, Sylva, hi. 95, 1. 110 (1849). — 
Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 489 (in part). — Engelmann, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 55. 

Breiver & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 113. — Veitch, Man. Sabina occidentalis, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 64, 

Conif. 289. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census t. 84-86 (1857). 

U. S. ix. 181. — Coidter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 429. — Juniperus Hermanni, K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 141 (excl. 

Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, iii. 183, syn. Juniperus Californica) (not Sprengel) (1863). 

t. 28, f. 1 {Cone-Bearers of California) ; West-American Juniperus occidentalis, ^ pleiosperma, Engelmann, 

Cone-Bearers, 80. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 128. — Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 590 (1877). 

A tree, occasionally sixty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk two or three feet in diameter, but 
more often not exceeding twenty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes ten feet in diameter, and 
enormous branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a broad low head ; or usually smaller, 
and frequently, when growing on dry rocky slopes and toward the northern limits of its range, shrubby 
with many short erect or seniiprostrate stems. The bark of the trunk is about half an inch in 
thickness, bright cinnamon-red, and divided by broad shallow fissures into wide flat irregularly connected 
ridges separating on the surface into thin lustrous scales. The branchlets are stout, and after the 
leaves fall are covered with thin bright red-brown bark which breaks into loose papery scales. The 
leaves are disposed in threes and are closely appressed, ovate, acute or acuminate, denticulately fringed 
on the margins, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, gray-green, and about an eighth 
of an inch in length. The staminate flowers are stout, obtuse, and about an eighth of an inch long, 
with from twelve to eighteen broadly ovate rounded acute or apiculate connectives or anther-scales thin 
and scarious or slightly ciliate on the margins. The scales of the staminate flower are ovate, acute, 
spreading, and mostly obliterated from the fruit ; this is subglobose or oblong, and from a quarter to 
a third of an inch in length, with a thick firm blue-black epidermis coated with a glaucous bloom, 
thin dry flesh filled with large resin glands, and two or three seeds. The seeds are ovate, acute, 
rounded and deeply grooved or pitted on the back, flattened on the inner surface, light brown and 
lustrous above, marked below by the large pale two-lobed hilums, and about an eighth of an inch long, 
with a thick bony outer coat, a thin firm light brown inner coat, and an embryo with two cotyledons. 

Juniperus occidentalis grows on the mountain-slopes and high prairies of western Idaho and 
eastern Washington and Oregon and along the summits and upper slopes of the Cascade and Sierra 
Nevada Mountains southward to the San Bernardino Mountains in California. Standing, most often 
singly, on bald rocky mountain domes, and rarely descending below an altitude of six thousand feet, 
it attains its greatest trunk-diameter on the wind-swept peaks of the California Sierras, where it often 



88 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

ascends to elevations of nearly ten thousand feet above the sea, standing like a sentinel with its massive 
stem and far-spreading branches impervious to the fiercest winter gales ; J in the company of Pinus 
ALurrayana and Pinus aJbkaulls it grows tall and symmetrical on rich moraine soil bordering alpine 
meadows ; and in Bear Valley on the northern slope of the San Bernardino Mountains, between six 
and seven thousand feet above the sea-level, it forms a nearly pure forest of considerable extent. 2 

The wood of Juniperus oecidentalis is light, soft, very close-grained, and exceedingly durable in 
contact with the soil ; it is light red or brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains thin 
inconspicuous bands of small sivmmer-cells and numerous very obscure medullary rays. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5765, a cubic foot weighing 35.93 pounds. It is used for 
fencing and fuel. 3 

The fruit is gathered and eaten by the Indians of California. 4 

Juniperus oecidentalis was discovered in 1806 by Lewis and Clark on the mountains of the basin 
of the Columbia River. 5 

1 Mr. John Muiv (The J\ fountains of California, 204, f.) points out The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
the fact that Juniperus oecidentalis has such a hold on the ground Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is 
and offers such resistance to the elements that " it dies standing, twenty-three inches in diameter inside the bark, and shows only one 
and wastes insensibly out of existence like granite, the wind exert- hundred and thirteen layers of annual growth, the tree from which 
ing as little control over it alive or dead as it does over a glacier it was cut having, after the first forty years, increased rapidly and 
boulder." regularly, many annual layers being an eighth of an inch thick. 

2 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 353. On this specimen the sapwood is seven and a quarter inches in 
8 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 594. thickness with eighty-six layers of annual growth. 

4 Juniperus oecidentalis grows very slowly, especially on exposed 5 In Coues's edition of the Journal of Lewis and Clark no mention 

rocky slopes, and Muir (I. c.) believes that some of the old speci- is made of this Juniper, but it was described by Pursh from speci- 
mens on the Sierra Nevada are over two thousand years of age. mens brought back by this expedition. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXL Juniperus occidentalis. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit with part of the flesh removed, enlarged. 
8 A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

12. End of a leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab.DXXI 




C.E.Taacon, d&l . 



Hitnehj so. 



JUNIPERUS OCCIDENTALIS, Hook. 



A.RLocreiLz>, direac ■ . 



Imp . J. Tan&ur, Parir . 



conifek^e. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 89 



JUNIPERUS MONOSPERMA. 
Juniper. 

Fruit small, globose or oblong ; seeds 1 or rarely 2. Leaves acute or acuminate 
at the apex, usually eglandular. Branchlets slender. 

Juniperus monospermy N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 181. — Coulter, Man. 

Juniperus occidentalis, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. Rocky Mt. Bot. 410. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 129. — 
xvi. pt. ii. 489 (in part) (not Hooker) (1868). — Watson, Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 213. — Lemmon, West- 
King's Rep. vi. 336. American Cone-Bearers, 80. 

Juniperus occidentalis, /? monosperma, Engelmann, Juniperus Virginiana, Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. vi. 6 

Trails. St. Louis Acad. iii. 590 (1877) ; Rothrock Whee- (not Linnaeus) (1878). 

ler's Rep. vi. 263. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 289. — Rusby, Juniperus occidentalis, var. gymnocarpa, Lemmon, West- 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 79. —Sargent, Forest Trees 'American Cone-Bearers, 80 (1S95). 

A tree, occasionally forty or fifty feet tall, with a stout much-lobed and buttressed trunk 
sometimes three feet in diameter, short stout branches which form an open and very irregular head, 
and often with one or two branches near the ground much more developed than the others ; or most 
frequently sending up numerous contorted stems which form a broad open unsightly bush from ten 
to twenty feet in height. The bark of the trunk is thin, ashy gray, divided into irregular narrow 
connected ridges which break up into long narrow persistent shreddy scales, disclosing by their 
separation the red-brown inner bark. The branchlets are slender and covered after the falling of the 
leaves with light red-brown bark which splits freely into thin loose scales. The leaves are disposed 
in pairs or rarely in threes and are often slightly spreading at the apex ; they are ovate, acute or 
occasionally acuminate, much thickened and rounded on the back, usually eglandular but occasionally 
furnished with rather obscure dorsal glands, gray-green, and rather less than an eighth of an inch in 
length, and turn a bright red-brown before they fall ; those on vigorous shoots and on younger plants 
are ovate, acute, tipped with long rigid points, thin, conspicuously glandular on the back, and often 
half an inch in length. The staminate flower consists of from eight to twelve stamens with broadly 
ovate rounded connectives or anther-scales slightly erose on the margins. The fruit is globose or 
oblong, from an eighth to a quarter of an inch long, and dark blue or occasionally copper-colored, 
with a thick firm epidermis covered by a conspicuous glaucous bloom, thin sweetish resinous flesh from 
which on some individuals the seed protrudes, and with one or rarely with two or three seeds. The seed 
is broadly ovate, often four-angled, with numerous slender grooves between the ridges, light chestnut- 
brown, lustrous at the somewhat obtuse apex, and marked below with the large pale two-lobed hilum ; 
it has a comparatively thin and brittle outer wall, a pale brown membranaceous inner seed-coat, and an 
embryo with two cotyledons. 

Juniperus monosperma is distributed from the divide between the Platte and Arkansas Rivers at 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, where, accompanied by the Nut Pine and the 
Yellow Pine, it clothes with an open stunted forest arid slopes between 5,500 and 7,000 feet above 
the sea-level, southward along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains to' the mountain ranges of western 
Texas ; it is common and the prevailing Juniper over the whole of the Colorado plateau, where in 
southern Colorado and Utah and in northern and central New Mexico and Arizona it often covers, 
usually with the Nut Pine or occasionally alone, great areas of rolling hills from six to seven thousand 
feet above the sea-level, forming a forest belt just above the desert and below the belt in which the 
Yellow Pine is the predominating tree, 1 and probably reaching its largest size in northern Arizona ; it 

1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 120. 



90 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifekje. 

grows at high elevations on the mountain ranges of southern Nevada, 1 and as a bush on the upper 
slopes of those of southern New Mexico and Arizona, where it is small and not abundant, 2 and of 
northern Mexico. 

The wood of Juniperus monosperma is heavy, rather soft, close-grained, slightly fragrant, and 
very durable in contact with the soil ; it contains numerous obscure medullary rays and thin inconspicu- 
ous bands of small summer-cells, and is light reddish brown, with nearly white sapwood and very 
eccentric layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7118, a cubic 
foot weighing 44.36 pounds. It is largely used for fencing, and furnishes the cheapest and most 
available fuel over much of the great arid territory which this Juniper inhabits. 

The fruit is gathered, ground, and baked into bread by the Indians, who utilize the thin strips of 
fibrous bark in making saddles, breech-cloths, skirts, and sleeping-mats. 3 

Juniperus monosperma was introduced into the Arnold Aboretum in 1882, and has proved hardy 
in eastern New England. 

Formerly united with Juniperus occidental is of the Pacific coast region, Juniperus monosperma 
differs from that species in its habit, in its thinner branchlets, and in its smaller and usually one-seeded 
fruit, and also in its range, and is best considered specifically distinct. 

1 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 343 (Death Valley W. Tourney on the high slopes of the Santa Rita and Chiricahua 
Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 225 (Bot. Death Mountains of Arizona. 

Valley Exped.). » Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1870, 411. — Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 

2 In 1894 Juniperus monosperma was collected by Professor J. 594. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXII. Juniperus monosperma. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit with protruding seeds, enlarged. 

6. A fruit laid open transversely, enlarged. 

7. A seed, enlarged. 

8. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

9. End of a leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . DXXII . 




C.&FacoorisdeZ. 



Rapirie so. 



JUNIPERUS MONOSPERMA. Sar 



s- 



.-tjlioorem: diraa>. 



Imp. J. Tcuxesxr.Pcwis . 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 91 



JUNIPERUS SABINOIDES. 
Cedar. Rock Cedar. 

Fruit small, globose; seeds 1 to 4. Leaves opposite, obtuse or rarely acute. 
Brancblets slender, sbarply quadrangular. 

Juniperus sabinoides (not Endlicher nor Grisebach). Sabina tetragona, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 40, 

Cupressus sabinoides, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, t. 53 (1857). 

Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 3 (1817). — Kunth, Syn. PI. Juniperus occidentalis, var. Texana, Vasey, Rep. U.S. 

ffiauin. i. 351. Bept. Agric. 1875, 185 {Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). 

Juniperus Mexicana, Sprengel, Syst. iii. 909 (1826). Juniperus occidentalis, var. ? y conjungens, Engelmann, 

Juniperus tetragona, Schlechtendal, Linncea, xii. 495 Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 590 (1877). — Veitch, Man. 

(1838). — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 57.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 289. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 158.— 

Conif. 29. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

v. 202. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 12. — Carriere, TraitS 182. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 556 (Man. 

Conif. 50. — Gordon, Pinetum, 120. — Henkel & Hoch- PI. W. Texas). 

stetter, Syn. Nadelh. 346. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. Juniperus tetragona, var. oligosperma, Engelmann, 

xvi. pt. ii. 491. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 591 (1877). 

340. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 184. — Beiss- 

ner, Handb. Nadelh. 115. 

A tree, in Texas occasionally forty feet, but generally not more than twenty feet in height, with a 
short or rarely elongated slightly lobed trunk, seldom exceeding a foot in diameter, and small spreading 
branches which form a wide round-topped open and irregular or a narrow pyramidal head ; or often 
shrubby, with numerous spreading stems. The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one half of an 
inch in thickness, brown tinged with red, and divided into long narrow slightly attached scales, which, 
persistent for many years, clothe it with a loose thatch-like covering ; on the young stems and on the 
branches it is gray tinged with red, and covered with a network of narrow flat plates, scaly on the 
surface, and broken along the margins into thin pale shreds. The branchlets are slender, sharply 
quadrangular, and after the fall of the leaves become terete, light reddish brown or ashy gray, with 
smooth or slightly scaly bark. The leaves are four-ranked, closely appressed, thickened and carinate 
on the back, obtuse or acute at the apex, slightly denticulate on the margins, usually eglandular, rather 
more than a sixteenth of an inch long, and dark blue-green ; those on vigorous young shoots and on 
seedling plants are lanceolate, long-pointed, rigid, and from one quarter to one half of an inch in 
length. The flowers appear from January in Texas until April on the mountains of Mexico. The 
staminate flower is composed of from twelve to eighteen stamens with ovate obtuse or slightly cuspidate 
connectives or anther-scales. The scales of the pistillate flower are ovate, acute and spreading, and very 
conspicuous when the fruit is half grown, but obliterated when it attains its full size. The fruit is 
subglobose, from a quarter to a third of an inch in diameter, and dark blue, with a thin epidermis 
covered by a glaucous bloom, sweet resinous flesh, and one or rarely two seeds. The seed is broadly 
ovate, acute, slightly or conspicuously ridged, rarely tuberculate, flattened on the inner surface by 
mutual pressure when more than one is formed, dark chestnut-brown and lustrous, nearly a quarter of 
an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with a small hilum, which does not extend far above the 
base, a thin outer coat, a membranaceous dark brown inner coat, and an embryo with two cotyledons. 

Juniperus sabinoides, in the valley of the Colorado River in central Texas, in the neighborhood 
of Austin, covers great areas of low limestone hills, with nearly pure forests, and ranges southward and 
westward over the low rolling Texas hills ; and in Mexico, where it is of small size, and usually shrubby 



92 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

in habit, it spreads at high elevations over the mountains of Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Chihuahua, and 
San Luis Potosi, and southward to the mountains in the neighborhood of the City of Mexico, ascending 
the high peaks of central Mexico to the limits of vegetation. 1 

The wood of Juniper us sabinoides from Texas is light, hard, not strong, close-grained, slightly 
fragrant, and very durable in contact with the soil ; it is slightly fragrant, and brown, often streaked 
with red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous obscure medullary rays and thin dark- 
colored conspicuous bands of small summer-cells. 2 The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.6907, a cubic foot weighing 43.04 pounds. It is largely used for fencing, fuel, telegraph-poles, and 
railway-ties. 

Discovered by Humboldt on the mountains in the state of Mexico, Juniperus sdbinoides appears 
to have been first noticed in Texas by Berlandier. 3 

1 Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 141, 441 ; iii. 338. bark, with one hundred and fifteen layers of annual growth, twenty 

2 The specimen of Juniperus sabinoides in the Jesup Collection of being of sapwood. 
North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural His- 3 See i. 82. 
ory, New York, is nine and a quarter inches in diameter inside the 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXIII. Juniperus sabinoides. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit with part of the fleshy covering removed, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

13. End of a leaf, enlarged. 



Bilva of North America. 




TaVDXXIII. 



C.E.Faocon, del. 



Rapine so. 



JUNIPERUS SABINOIDES, Sarg. 



A.RLooreuay, direa> 1 



Imp.J.Tan&iLr, Paris. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



93 



JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA. 

Red Cedar. Savin. 

Fruit small, subglobose ; seeds 1 to 4. Leaves opposite, acute or rarely obtuse, 
glandular. Branchlets slender. 



Juniperus Virginiana, Linnaeus, Spec. 1039 (1753). — 
Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 346. — Wangenheim, Be- 
schreib. Nordam. Holz. 51 ; Nordam. Holz. 9, t. 2, f . 5. — 
Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 151. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 
70. — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 55. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. 
Hunter, ii. 11. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 122. — Wal- 
ter, Fl. Car. 248. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 266. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 157 ; Spec. 
iv. pt. ii. 853 ; Enum. 1023. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 627. — 
Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 767. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. ii. 245. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 632. — Desfontaines, Mist. 
Arb. ii. 559. — Schlumbach, Abbild. Nadelbaume, 98, t. 
15. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 445. — 
Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 42, t. 5. — Bigelow, Fl. 
Boston. 242 ; Med. Bot. iii. 49, t. 45. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 
245. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 717. — Jaume St. Hilaire, TraitS 
des Arbres Forestiers, t. 36. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 908. — 
Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. 37, t. 6, f. 2. — Rafi- 
nesque, Med. Fl. ii. 13. — Audubon, Birds, t. 43. — 
Forbes, Pinetum Wobum. 199. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 
235 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 142. — Emerson, Trees 
Mass. 102 ; ed. 2, i. 118, t. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 27 
(in part). — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Sort. Soc. Lond. v. 
202. — Knight Syn. Conif. 12. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 295. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 43. — Gordon, 
Pinetum, 112. — Cooper, Am. Nat. iii. 413. — Chapman, 
Fl. 435. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 71. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 334. — 
(Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 153. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 
291. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 488. — 
Nerdlinger, Forstbot. 471, f. — Engelmann, Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. iii. 591 ; Bothrock Wheeler's Bep. vi. 263. — 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 138. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 
335. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. 
Misc. Pub. No. 4, 132. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 282. — 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 87. — Regel, Russ. 
Dendr. ed. 2, 15. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 
184. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 



ix. 182. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 257. — Watson & 

Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 494. — Beissner, Handb. 

Nadelh. 122, f. 30. — Masters, Jour. R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 

215. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 298 (Pinetum 

Danicum). 
Juniperus Caroliniana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 4 (1768). — 

Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 183. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. 
~\. 346. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 71. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. 

pt. ii. 123. 
Juniperus arborescens, Moench, Meth. 699 (1794). 
Juniperus fragrans, Salisbury, Prodr. 397 (1796). — 

Knight, Syn. Conif. 13. 
Juniperus Virginiana, /3 Caroliniana, Willdenow, Berl. 

Baumz. 157 (1796). — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 205. — Lou- 
don, Arb. Brit. iv. 2495. 
Juniperus Barbadensis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 246 

(not Linnaeus) (1803). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 647.— 

Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245 ; Sylva, iii. 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana Hermanni, Persoon, Syn. ii. 632 

(1807). 
Juniperus Virginiana, a vulgaris, Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 

205 (1822). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif 28. 
Juniperus Hermanni, Sprengel, Syst. iii. 908 (1826). 
Juniperus Bermudiana, Rafmesque, Med. Fl. ii. 13 (in 

part) (not Linnaeus) (1830). 
Juniperus fcetida, v Virginiana, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 

ser. 2, xvi. 298 (Revision des Juniperus) (1841) ; Hist. 

Veg. xi. 318. 
Juniperus Virginiana, B australis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 

28 (1847). 
Sabina Virginiana, Antoine, Cupressineen-Gattungen, 61, 

t. 83, 84 (1857). 
Juniperus Virginiana, var. Bermudiana, Vasey, Rep. U. 

S. Dept. Agric. 1875, 185 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). 
Juniperus Virginiana, var. montana, Vasey, Rep. U. S. 

Dept. Agric. 1875, 185 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). 
Juniperus occidentalis, Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 461 

(1886) (not Hooker) (1884). 



A tree, occasionally one hundred feet tall, with a long straight trunk three or four feet in diameter, 
often lobed and eccentric, and frequently buttressed toward the base, but usually much smaller, and 
averaging forty or fifty feet in height, and with short slender branches, horizontal on the lower part of 
the tree, erect above, and forming a narrow compact pyramidal head of tufted foliage, which in old age 
usually becomes broad and round-topped or irregular ; or with long slightly pendulous branches forming 
a broad open graceful crown ; or occasionally reduced to a low shrub with decumbent stems. The bark 



94 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

of the trunk is from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness, light brown tinged with red, 
and separated into long narrow scales, fringed on the margins, and persistent for many years. 
The branchlets are slender and four-angled, but after the disappearance of the leaves become terete, 
and are covered with close dark brown bark tinged with red or gray, or occasionally with brighter 
red slightly scaly bark. The leaves are opposite in pairs, closely appressed, acute, acuminate with short 
slender points or occasionally obtuse, rounded and eglandular or often glandular on the back, entire, 
about one sixteenth of an inch long, and dark blue-green or glaucous, turning russet or yellow-brown 
during the winter at the north, beginning usually in their third season to grow hard and woody, 
and remaining for two or three years longer on the branches ; those of young plants and vigorous 
branches are linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, light yellow-green, eglandular, and from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in length. The flowers are dioecious or very rarely monoecious, opening after the 
first warm days of spring from February at the south to May at the north. The staminate flower is 
about an eighth of an inch long, with from ten to twelve stamens, their connectives or anther-scales 
being rounded and entire, with four or occasionally five or six pollen-sacs. The scales of the 
pistillate flower are spreading and acute, and become obliterated from the fruit. This is subglobose, 
from a quarter to a third of an inch in diameter, pale green when fully grown, and dark blue and 
covered with a glaucous bloom at maturity, with a firm epidermis, thin sweetish resinous flesh, and one 
or two or rarely three or four seeds. 1 The seeds are ovate, acute and occasionally apiculate at the 
apex, nearly terete, or variously angled and grooved, light chestnut-brown and lustrous, marked below 
with comparatively small two-lobed hilums, and from one sixteenth to nearly one eighth of an inch in 
length, with a thick bony outer coat, a pale brown membranaceous inner coat, and an embryo with two 
cotyledons. 

Juniperus Virginiana, which is the largest and most valuable of the American Junipers, is the 
most widely distributed coniferous tree of North America. From southern Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick it ranges southward to Cape Malabar and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, westward to 
the valley of the lower Ottawa River and the shores of Georgian Bay, 2 eastern Dakota, 3 central 
Nebraska 4 and Kansas, 5 the Indian Territory, and the valley of the Colorado River in Texas, and from 
the Black Hills of Dakota and the hills of northern and western Nebraska through the mountain 
regions of Montana, Idaho, northern Washington, and southern British Columbia to Vancouver's 
Island, and southward along the Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico and to Utah, Nevada, and 
northern Arizona. 6 Comparatively rare in the maritime provinces of Canada, and in Quebec, where it is 
usually confined to rocky river banks, ascending for some distance the streams flowing into the St. 
Lawrence above Montreal, it is generally found in similar situations in Ontario, but is more common, 
especially in the neighborhood of the Bay of Quente, covering large areas around its shores. In the 
northern, middle, and south Atlantic states Juniperus Virginiana is scattered over dry gravelly slopes 
and rocky ridges often immediately on the seacoast, resisting with its stunted stem and short tough 
branches the fiercest gales, or grows in rich soil by the borders of highways and fences, when birds have 
scattered its seeds, but does not ascend the mountains of New England and New York nor the high 
Alleghanies ; in middle Kentucky and Tennessee and in northern Alabama and Mississippi it covers 
great areas of low rolling limestone hills, with nearly pure forests of small bushy trees ; in the coast 
region of the eastern Gulf states it grows in deep swamps to a large size, becoming a tall wide-topped 
tree, with graceful somewhat pendulous branches; in western Louisiana, Texas, and southern Arkansas 

1 The statement universally made that the fruit of Juniperus 3 Williams, Bull. No. 43 South Dakota Agric. College, 103. 
Virginiana does not ripen until the second season is probably cor- 4 Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1894, 101. 
reet for some parts of the country, but Mr. J. G. Jack has noticed 6 Mason, 8th Bienn. Rep. State Board Agric. Kansas, 273. 

that the trees in the neighborhood of Boston ripen their fruit dur- 6 Juniperus Virginiana was collected on the upper slopes of the 

ing the first autumn (Bot. Gazette, xviii. 372). Grand Canon of the Colorado by J. W. Tourney and C. S. Sargent 

2 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 60. — Provancher, Flore Canadienne, in September, 1894. 
ii. 559. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 462. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



it attains its greatest dimensions on rich alluvial bottom-lands, and in Kansas and eastern and central 
Nebraska grows usually on dry limestone river-bluffs, where, before the coming of white men, it 
often formed groves of considerable extent. Farther west it is smaller, and is usually scattered in 
isolated individuals along the rocky banks of canons and lakes, generally at elevations of six or seven 
thousand feet above the sea, sometimes, in the valley of the Columbia River in southern British 
Columbia, growing in bogs ; 1 in Utah, Nevada, and Arizona it is exceedingly rare. 

The wood of Juniperus Virginiana is light, soft, close-grained, brittle, and not strong ; it contains 
numerous very obscure medullary rays and broad conspicuous bands of small summer-cells, and is dull 
red, with thin nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, easily worked, and extremely durable in contact 
with the soil. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4826, a cubic foot weighing 30.70 
pounds. It is largely used for posts and railway-ties, the sills of buildings and the interior finish of 
houses, and for lining closets and chests in which woolens are preserved against the attacks of moths ; 2 
it is also employed in cabinet-making and almost exclusively in the manufacture of lead-pencils, 3 while 
its lightness, durability, cheerful color, and pleasant fragrance recommend it to the makers of pails and 
tubs and many other small articles. 

A decoction of the fruit and leaves is occasionally used medicinally, and an infusion of the berries 
as a diuretic, 4 and in homoeopathic remedies. 5 Oil of Red Cedar is distilled from the leaves and wood, 
and is used principally in perfumery. 6 

The virtue of the Red Cedar was extolled in Morton's New English Canaan, published in 1632 ; 7 
and other early European travelers praised its qualities; it was described in 1640 by Parkinson, 8 who 
united it with the Juniper of Bermuda, and, according to Aiton, 9 it was introduced into English gardens 
in 1664. 



1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 462 {Juniperus occidentalism. 

2 " The Dust and Shavings of Cedar, laid amongst Linnen or 
Woollen, destroys the moth and all Verminous Insects : It never 
rots, breeding no Worm, by which many other Woods are consumed 
and destroyed. Of Cedar there are many sorts ; this in Carolina 
is esteemed of equal Goodness for Grain, Smell and Colour with 
the Bermudian Cedar, which of all the West Indian is esteemed the 
most excellent." (Thomas Ashe, Carolina, or a Description of the 
Present State of that Country, 5.) 

8 The straightest grained and most easily worked Cedar wood 
is obtained from the swamps near the western coast of the Florida 
peninsula, and large factories have been established at Cedar Keys, 
Florida, and at other points in the southern states, by German 
manufacturers, to cut up the wood for pencil-making. 

4 Jenks, Am. Jour. Pharm. xiv. 235. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. 
N. Am. 261. 

An ointment is prepared by boiling the fresh leaves of Juniperus 
Virginiana with lard, which is occasionally employed in the United 
States as » substitute for savine cerate in the treatment of blis- 
ters, and the powdered leaves are used for the same purpose ( U. S. 
Dispens. ed. 16, 1833). 

Cases of poisoning from the use of the volatile oil, which has a 
reputation for producing abortion, are recorded. (See Boston Med. 
and Surg. Jour. xl. 469.) 

'° Millspaugh, Am. Med. PL in Homoeopathic Remedies, ii. 166, t. 
166. 

6 Burkett, Proc. Linn. Soc. i. 58. 

7 " Cedar, of this sorte there is abundance ; and this wood was 
such as Saloman used for the building of that glorious temple at 
Hierusalem ; . . . this wood cutts red, and is cut for bedsteads, 
tables and chests, and may be placed in the Catalogue of commod- 
ities." (Force, Hist. Coll. ii. No. 5, 44.) 

" There are oaks of very close grain ; yea, harder than any in this 



country, as thick as three or four men. There is Red-wood which 
being burned, smells very agreeably ; when men sit by the fire on 
benches made from it, the whole house is perfumed by it. When 
they keep watch by night against their enemies then they place it 
(the fire) in the centre of their huts to warm their feet by it ; they 
do not sit, then, up in the tree, but make a hole in the roof, and 
keep watch there to prevent attacks." {Documentary History of New 
York, iii. 40.) 

" Juniper, which Cardanus saith is Cedar in hot Countries, and 
Juniper in cold Countries ; it is hear very dwarfish and shrubby, 
growing for the most part by the Seaside." (Josselyn, New Eng- 
land Rarities, 95.) 

This probably relates in part to Juniperus communis. 

" Juniper grows for the most part by the Sea-side, it bears abun- 
dance of skie-coloured berries fed upon by Partridges, and hath 
a woody root. . . . They write that Juniper-coals preserve fire 
longest of any, keeping fire a whole year without supply, yet, the 
Indian never burns of it." (Josselyn, Account of Two Voyages 
to New England, 71.) 

8 Juniperus major Americana, Theatr. 1029 (in part). 

Cedrus Americana vulgo dicta. Juniperus Virginiana §~ Barbaden- 
sis, Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1413 (in part). 

Juniperus Virginiana Cupressi foliis rarioribus acutis Sabinam redo- 
lens, Plukenet, Aim. Bot. 201. 

Juniperus; Virginiana. Folio ubique, Juniperino. Cedrus; Vir- 
giniana, Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. Hort. Ludg. Bat. ii. 208. — Duha- 
mel, Traite des Arbres, i. 322. 

Juniperus; Virginiana ; foliis inferioribus juniper inis, superioribus 
Sabinam, vel Cypressum, referentibus, Boerhaave, I. c. — Duhamel, I. t . 

Juniperus foliis basi adnatis : junioribus imbricatis, xenioribus patu- 
lis, LinnaBus, Hort. Cliff. 464 (excl. syn. Plukenet & Sloane). — 
Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 90. — Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 194. 

9 Hort. Kew. iii. 414. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2495, f. 2357. 



96 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFEK^E. 



For two centuries Juniperus Virginiana has been a favorite garden plant, and numerous forms, 
varying in habit and in the color of the foliage, have appeared in cultivation. 1 The Red Cedar is one 
of the most familiar and picturesque objects in the landscapes of the northeastern United States, and in 
this region it is better adapted than any other tree for the production of those formal effects, sometimes 
desired by artists in gardening, which are secured in more temperate climates by the use of the Cypress- 
trees of the Old World. 2 



1 One of the best of the cultivated forms of Juniperus Virginiana 
known in European gardens is, — 
Juniperus Virginiana gracilis. 

Juniperus gracilis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 31 (1847). 
Juniperus Gossainthanea, Carriere, Traite Conif. 56 (1855). 
Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis, Gordon, Pinetum, 114 

(1858). 
Juniperus Virginiana, y Bedfordiana, Parlatore, De Candolle 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 489 (1868). — Veitch, Alan. Conif. 284. — 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 124. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
299 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 54. 
The Bedford Juniper is distinguished by long slender somewhat 
pendulous branches and bright green foliage. It has long been an 
inhabitant of European gardens, where it is known, not only by its 
published names, but also as Juniperus Bedfordiana and Juniperus 
Virginiana Caroliniana. This tree has at different times been con- 
sidered a native of Mexico, of the West Indies, and of India. Be- 



ing rather tender in England, it is not improbable that the seed 
from which it was raised there originated in the swamps of Florida. 

Forms with glaucous leaves, which are comparatively common 
on wild trees in the northeastern states, are distinguished in gar- 
dens as Juniperus Virginiana, /8 glauca (Carriere, I. c. 45 (1855). — 
Gordon, I. c. 113. — Parlatore, 1. c. — Veitch, I. c. — Beissner, I. v. 
126). This is the Juniperus glauca of Willdenow (Enum. Suppl. 
67), of Liuk (Enum. Hort. Berol. ed. 2, ii. 435), and of many gardens. 

Other varieties of Juniperus Virginiana are described by Car- 
riere (I. v. ed. 2, 45), Gordon (I. c. ed. 2, 155), and Veitch (I. c. 
284). Most of the twenty-six varieties described by Beissner 
(I. c. 125) as cultivated in European nurseries scarcely vary from 
the type, or are distinguished from it by trivial peculiarities, the 
only really distinct forms of this tree in cultivation being those 
with pendulous branches, with a dwarf compact habit, and with 
glaucous or variegated leaves. 

2 Forest Leaves, ii. 148, t. — Garden and Forest, viii. 61, f . 9. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXXIV. Juniperus Virginiana. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. A seedling, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Ta"b . DXXIV 




C.IE.J'ascoTi' dels. 



Hapine- sc . 



JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA,L. 



j4.Ru>creutr> direa: . 



Jmp . J.Tc&ieur, Paris . 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 97 



CUPRESSUS. 

Flowers naked, monoecious, terminal, the staminate solitary ; stamens numerous, 
opposite ; anther-cells 2 to 6 ; the pistillate solitary or rarely clustered ; scales opposite, 
bearing numerous or 1 to 5 ovules. Fruit a subglobose woody strobile. Leaves scale- 
like or subulate, persistent. 

Cupressus, Linnaeus, Gen. 294 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. licher, Gen. Suppl. iv. pt. ii. 4. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl 

PI. ii. 480. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 413. — Endlicher, Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. i. 100. 

Gen. 259. — Meisner, Gen. 352. — Bentham & Hooker, Platycladus, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 333 (in part) (1842). 

Gen. iii. 427. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. Thujopsis, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 32 (1842 ?). 

ii. pt. i. 99. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 34 (in part). — Mas- Retinospora, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 36 (1842 ?). 

ters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 18 ; xxxi. 325. Thuya, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 426 (in part) (not Lin- 
Chamsecyparis, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 329 (1842). — End- naeus) (1880). — Baillon, Hist. PL xii. 34 (in part). 

Resinous often aromatic polymorphic trees, with thin and scaly or rarely thick and deeply furrowed 
bark, usually pale straight-grained durable frequently fragrant wood, spreading or erect branches, slender 
often deciduous branchlets, quadrangular (Eucupressus) or flattened and two-ranked in one horizontal 
plane (Chamaecyparis), naked buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves ovate, small, scale-like, decurrent and 
adnate on the stem, thickened, rounded or carinate and glandular or eglandular on the back, denticulate 
or entire, acute, acuminate or rounded and appressed or slightly spreading at the apex, decussately 
opposite, closely imbricated, or on leading shoots often remote by the lengthening of the nodes, usually 
dying and becoming brown and woody before falling ; on vigorous sterile branchlets or young plants 
acicular or linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers minute, monoecious on separate branches, opening 
in early spring from buds formed the previous autumn. Staminate flower terminal on a leafy branch, 
oblong or cylindrical, composed of a subsessile axis bearing numerous decussately opposite stamens ; 
filaments short, enlarged into ovate or orbicular subpeltate yellow, brown, or scarlet connectives bearing 
on their inner face from two to six globose two-valved pendulous anther-cells opening below longitu- 
dinally ; pollen-grains simple. Pistillate flower terminal on a short axillary branch, solitary or rarely 
fascicled, subglobose, composed of ovate acute membranaceous peltate opposite scales verticillately 
disposed in from three to six ranks or decussate, those of the lower and sometimes of the upper ranks 
sterile, slightly thickened at the base on the inner surface by the ovuliferous scales bearing one to four 
or numerous free erect orthotropous bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit a short-stalked erect globose or sub- 
globose strobile maturing the second or the first year, more or less rugose and glandular, often covered 
with a glaucous bloom, formed by the enlargement of the ovuliferous scales, abruptly dilated, clavate 
and flattened at the apex, or obpyramidal, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales developed into 
short central more or less thickened mucros or bosses, closed before maturity, ultimately opening at the 
apex of the scales, persistent on the branch after the discharge of the seeds. Seeds numerous, in 
several rows (Eucupressus), or from one to five (Chamaecyparis), erect on the slender stalk-like base of 
the scale, thick, acutely angled (Eucupressus), or subcylindrical and slightly compressed ; seed-coat of 
two layers, produced into narrow or broad lateral wings, the outer thin and membranaceous, the inner 
thicker and crustaceous. Embryo axile, erect in copious fleshy equal albumen ; radicle superior, 
shorter than the two or rarely three or four cotyledons turned away from the conspicuous or minute 
hilum. 1 

1 The species of Cupressus may be grouped in the following numerous, in several rows with narrow wings, thick seed-coats, 

sections : an< ^ conspicuous hilums ; branchlets quadrangular ; leaves denticu- 

Eucupressus. Fruit large, maturing the second year ; seeds late. Inhabitants of California, Arizona, Mexico, Lower Califor- 



98 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEPdCA. 



CONIFERS. 



Cupressus, of which about eighteen species can be distinguished, inhabits eastern and western North 
America, Mexico, and Lower California, 1 eastern Asia, the temperate Himalayas, the Levant, and south- 
eastern Europe. Seven species are found in the territory of the United States ; of these one is 
widely distributed in the Atlantic and Gulf coast regions, and the others are confined to the Pacific slope 
of the continent. The genus is an ancient one, existing in Greenland in the tertiary period and later 
extending into western Europe, from which it has now entirely disappeared. 2 

Many of the species of Cupressus produce wood esteemed in the arts, the most valuable timber- 
trees of the genus being the North American Cupressus Lawsoniana, Cupressus Nootkatensis, and 
Cupjressus thyoides, the Japanese Cupressus obtusa 3 and Cupjressus pisifera, 4 the Himalayan Cu- 



nia, China, the Himalayas, southwestern Asia, and southeastern 
Europe. 

Chamcecyparis (Sections Chainsecyparis and Thuyopsis, Ben- 
tham & Hooker Gen. iii. 427). Fruit small, maturing the first 
year ; seeds 1 to 4, with broad wings, thin seed-coats, and minute 
hilums ; branchlets flattened, in one plane, often deciduous ; leaves 
entire, those of the lateral ranks conduplicate, nearly covering 
those of the other ranks. Inhabitants of the coast regions of At- 
lantic and Pacific North America and of Japan. 

1 Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 183. 

Little is known of the specific characters, distribution, or uses 
of the Mexican Cypresses which appear to be common in highland 
forests. Three species have been described, but two of them are 
perhaps merely forms of the same tree, and it is not improbable 
that the Arizona Cypress, included in this work, should be referred 
to one of the described Mexican species, although material to 
establish its identification is not available. 

Cupressus Guadalupensis (Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 300 
[1879]. — Engelmann, Brewer t V Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 114), of 
Guadaloupe Island and the mainland of Lower California, although 
sometimes considered a variety of the California Cupressus mac- 
rocarpa (Cupressus macrocarpa, var. Guadaloupensis, Masters, Gard. 
Chron. ser. 3, xviii. 62, f. 9, 11, 12 [1895]), appears distinct in its 
more flaky bark, more slender branchlets, and glaucous and more 
glandular foliage. 

This beautiful tree has been cultivated for the last twenty years 
in several gardens near San Francisco, and has been introduced 
into Europe. 

2 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 98. — Zittel, Handb. 
Palceontolog. ii. 323, 325. 

3 K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 168 (1873). — Masters, Jour. R. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 207. 

Retinospora obtusa, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 38, t. 121 
(1842?). 

Chamozcyparis obtusa, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 63 (1847). — 
Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iii. 168 (Prol. Fl. Jap.). — Parla- 
tore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 466. — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PI. Jap. i. 471. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 92. — Hansen, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 281 (Pinetum Danicum). 

Chamcecyparis breviramea, Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pe- 
tersburg, x. 489 (Mel. Biol. vi. 25) (1866). — Franchet & Sava- 
tier, I. c. 470. — Beissner, I. c. 97. 

Chamcecyparis pendula, Maximowicz, 1. «,-. (I. c.) (1866). — 
Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 471. — Beissner, I. c. 98. 

Thuya obtusa, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 491 (Conifers of 
Japan) (1881). 

Cupressus obtusa, var. breviramea, Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
I. c. (1892). 
Cupressus obtusa, the Hi-no-ki of the Japanese, a native of the 



southern mountain provinces, is the most valuable coniferous timber- 
tree of Japan. Sacred to the disciples of the Shinto faith, it is 
planted in the neighborhood of Shinto temples, which are built of 
its wood ; and it is also largely cultivated for its timber in central 
Japan, usually at elevations of two or three thousand feet above 
the sea on northern slopes and in granite soil. In the planted 
forests and in the temple gardens of Nikko the Hi-no-ki often 
attains the height of a hundred feet, with a tall straight trunk 
three feet in diameter near the ground and free of branches for 
fifty or sixty feet, a narrow round-topped head, and pendulous 
branchlets. The wood is light, strong, tough, and very durable 
in contact with the soil, straight-grained, free from knots and resin, 
pleasantly fragrant, and white, straw-colored, or pink, with a lus- 
trous surface. The palaces of the Mikado in Kyoto were made 
from the wood of this tree, and the roof was covered with strips of 
its bark ; it serves for the frames of Buddhist temples and the 
interior finish of the most expensive houses, and is considered the 
best wood to lacquer ; during festivals food and drink are offered 
to the gods on lacquered tables made of Hi-no-ki wood, and from 
a table of Hi-no-ki the victim of Harikari received the fatal 
dagger. (See Dupont, Essences Forestieres du Japon, 18. — Rein, 
Industries of Japan, 233. — Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 73.) 

Introduced into the eastern United States in 1862, Cupressus 
obtusa is hardy as far north as Halifax on the coast of Nova 
Scotia, although, like many other Japanese trees, it suffers in the 
New England and Middle States from summer droughts, and does 
not promise to attain a large size. 

In Japan Cupressus obtusa is a favorite subject for dwarfing, and 
is often cut into eccentric shapes. Many abnormal varieties or 
juvenile forms have long been cultivated, and have been introduced 
into American and European gardens. The most distinct of these 
abnormal forms are Retinospora lycopodioides (Gordon, Pinetum, 
Suppl. 92 [1862]), in which the stout erect branchlets are densely 
clothed with bluntly awl-shaped dark green leaves, and Retinospora 
filicoides (Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 363 [1875]), with long slender 
branches clothed with short broad sprays of quadrangular branch- 
lets. 

For other garden varieties of Cupressus obtusa, see Carriere, 
Traite Conif ed. 2, 135. — Gard. Chron. n. ser. v. 235. — Veitch, 
Man. Conif 242. — Beissner, I. c. 93. 

* K. Koch, Dendr. I. c. 170 (1873). — Masters, L c. 207. 

Retinospora pisifera, Siebold & Zuccarini, I. c. 39, t. 122 

(1842 ?). 

Chamcecyparis pisifera, Endlicher, /. c. 64 (1847). — Miquel, 

1. c. — Parlatore, I. c. 467. — Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 470. — 

Beissner, I. c. 83. — Hansen, I. c. 281. 

Thuya pisifera, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 489 (Conifers 

of Japan) (1881). 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



liressus torulosa, 1 and the Cupressus sempervirens 2 of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. 



Cupressus pisifera, the Sawara of the Japanese, is planted in 
forests, and in temple grounds with Cupressus obtusa, from which it 
can be distinguished by its smaller fruit and by its narrower and 
more ragged crown of looser and more upright branches. The 
wood is redder, with a coarse grain, and is less valuable than that 
of the Hi-no-ki, although in Japan the two species are planted in 
about equal numbers (Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 73). In the eastern 
United States, where it is rather hardier than Cupressus obtusa, it 
grows more rapidly, and promises to attain a larger size, but is 
less desirable as an ornamental tree. 

The most remarkable of the numerous abnormal forms of this 
tree cultivated in gardens is one on which the leaves are all short 
and acicular and disposed in decussate pairs, and are pale blue- 
green and spreading or slightly bent toward the branchlets. It 
is a low broad bushy tree or dense shrub with large divided and 
forked branches, and is : — 

Cupressus pisifera, var. «, squarrosa, Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xiv. 207 (1892). 

Eetinospora squarrosa, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 40, t. 

123 (1842 ?). — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 371. 

Chamcecyparis squarrosa, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 65 (1847). — 

Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 466. — Franchet & 

Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 471. 

Cupressus squarrosa, K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 171 (1873). 
Thuya pisifera, var. squarrosa, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 

490 {Conifers of Japan) (1881). 

Chammcyparis pisifera squarrosa, Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 85 

(1891). 

Almost as remarkable is a form with long slender pendulous 
thread-like branchlets clothed with subulate acute dark green 
leaves distributed in remote alternate pairs. This is : — 

Cupressus pisifera, var. c filifera, Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. I. c. 
(1892). 

Retinospora filifera, Gordon, 1. c. 365 (1875). — Syme, Gard. 

Chron. n. ser. v. 237, f . 43. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 243. 

Thuya pisifera, var. filifera, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. I. c. 491 

(1881). 

Chamascyparis pisifera filifera, Beissner, I.e. 90, f. 23 (1891). 

Other forms of Cupressus pisifera are distinguished by their 
yellow or silvery leaves, by their dwarf and compact habit, and by 
their more slender or stouter branches ; but the parentage of all 
these abnormal forms of the Japanese Retinosporas is sooner or 
later declared by the appearance of occasional branches covered 
with normal leaves. (For varieties of Cupressus pisifera, see Car- 
riere, Traite Conif ed. 2, 137. — Gordon, I. c. 362. — Veitch, I. c. 
242. — Beissner, I. c. 87.) 

1 D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 55 (1825). — Lambert, Pinus, ii. 
18. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2478, f. 2329-2331. — Forbes, Pine- 
tum Woburn. 189. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 329. — Flore des Serres, 
vii. 192, f . 236. — Endlicher, I. c. 57. — Griffith, Icon. PL Asiat. iv. 
t. 372. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 117. — Gordon, Pinetum, 69. — 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 233. — Parlatore, I. v. 469. — 
Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 645. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xvii. 11 (The Cedar of Goa). 

Cupressus Tournefortii, Tenore, Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 

xxv. pt. ii. 194, t. 1, 2 (excl. syn.) (1855). 

Cupressus torulosa inhabits dry slopes on the western Himalayas 
from Nepal to Chamba at elevations of from 5,500 to 8,000 feet, 
and is widely distributed, although less common than many of the 
other Himalayan Conifers. It is usually seventy or eighty feet 



tall, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter, but occasionally 
attains a height of one hundred and fifty feet, with a trunk five 
feet through ; its whorls of horizontal branches, pendulous at the 
extremities, form a broad pyramidal crown, and its thin bark 
separates into loug narrow scales which are often spirally twisted 
around the stem. The wood is soft and straight-grained but not 
strong ; it is nearly white tinged with red or yellow, and is occa- 
sionally used in building ; matches are made from it, and it is 
burned as incense. (See Madden, Proc. Agric. and Hort. Soc. India, 
iv. pt. ii. 129 [Himalayan Coniferaz\. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 533. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 410. — Balfour, Cyclopae- 
dia of India, ed. 3, i. 857.) 

2 Linnseus, Spec. 1002 (1753). — Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — 
Scopoli, Fl. Cam. ed.2, ii. 249. — Gartner, Fruct. ii. 64, t. 91. — 
Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 286, t. 310. — Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 2, t. 1. — 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 511. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. III. iii. 369, t. 
787. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 155, t. 155. — Richard, Comm. Bot. 
Conif. t. 9. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 3, iii. 241 (Conif eres 
bVItalie). — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 5, t. 534. — Will- 
komm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 20. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. 
iv. 71 ; De Candolle Prodr. 1. c. 468. — Boissier, FL Orient, v. 
705. — Hooker f . I. c. 645. — Masters, l. c. 

Cupressus sempervirens, a, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 241 (1786). 

Cupressus lugubris, Salisbury, Prodr. 397 (1796). 

Cupressus pyramidalis, Targioni-Tozzetti, Obs. Bot. iii. — v. 73 
(1810). — Savi, Tratt. Alb. Tosc. ed. 2, ii. 64. 

Cupressus fastigiata, De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, 
v. 536 (1815). 

Cupressus conoidea, Spadoni, Xilolog. i. 189 (1826). — Carriere, 
I. c. 128. 

Cupressus sempervirens stricta, Loudon, I. c. iv. 2465, f . 2320, 
2326, t. (1838). 

Cupressus Whitleyana, Carriere, I. c. 128 (1855). 

Cupressus umbilicata, Parlatore, Ind. Sem. Hort. Firenze, 22 
(1860) ; Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 4, xiii. 378. 

Cupressus sempervirens, e Indica, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 
I. c. 469 (1868). 

Cupressus sempervirens, y umbilicata, Parlatore, I. c. (1868). 

Cupressus sempervirens, a fastigiata, Beissner, I. v. 102 (1891). 
Cupressus sempervirens, which often grows to a great age, is a tree 
with erect branches pressed against the trunk and forming a nar- 
row compact cylindrical head, and occasionally attains the height 
of one hundred feet, but is rarely more than seventy or eighty feet 
tall. Unknown in a wild state, it has been cultivated since very 
early times, and was carried from Greece to Italy by the Romans. 
The wood is fragrant, light red-brown in color, and close-grained 
and very durable, although not hard or strong ; mummy cases are 
believed to have been made of it in Egypt, and it is said to have 
furnished the material from which the doors of the temple of Diana 
at Ephesus and the statue of Jupiter in the Capitol at Rome were 
made. The Romans used posts and stakes of Cupressus wood for 
many rural purposes, and in the countries of southeastern Europe it 
is now made into chests to protect woolens from the attacks of insects. 
Among the ancients the evergreen foliage of the Cypress and 
the fact that it would immediately rise again to an uprigbt position 
if bent down by the wind or by manual force, ranked it among the 
symbols of immortality ; it was also regarded as an emblem of 
mortality and bereavement because, when it was cut down, its 
stump threw out no fresh shoots. In mediaeval Persia the pyram- 
idal outline of the Cypress was thought to resemble a flame, and 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



Cupressus sempervirens and Cui^ressus funebris 1 have long been used to decorate gardens and burial- 
places, and Ciqjressns Lusitanica 2 and several of the American species are often planted in parks. 

In North America Cupressus is not seriously injured by insect enemies 3 or subject to destructive 



fungal diseases. 4 

it was planted near the temples of the fire-worshipers. The 
people of the Levant still plant Cypress-trees in their burial- 
grounds, and the Turks place one at either end of the grave. For 
centuries it has been cultivated in gardens in Afghanistan, Cash- 
mere, and the other states of northwestern India. The Romans 
used it for garden decoration, cutting it into fantastic shapes ; it is 
still one of the chief ornaments of the formal gardens of southern 
Europe, and its dark slender forms, rising singly or in groups or 
rows from the court-yards of houses, give charm and individuality 
to the towns of southern and southeastern Europe and southwestern 
Asia. (See Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2464. — Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 533. — Garden and Forest, ii. 458.) 

Botanists are now nearly unanimous in believing the pyramidal 
Cypress to be a form of the Cypress of the mountainous districts 
of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it is distributed from 
the island of Crete to northern Persia. This is : — 

Cupressus sempervirens horizontalis, Loudon, I. c. 2465 (1838). — 
Gordon, Pinetum, 68. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 72 ; De Candolle 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 468. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 102. 

Cupressus sempervirens, #, Linnaeus, Spec. 1003 (1753). — La- 
marck, Diet. ii. 242. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 372. — Spach, Hist. 

Veg. xi. 326. 
Cupressus horizontalis, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 2 (1768). — 

Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 6. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 511. — 

Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 56. — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 

5, t. 534. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 115. — Willkomm & Lange, 

Prodr. FL Hispan. i. 21. 

Cupressus elongata, Salisbury, Prodr. 397 (1796). 
Cupressus patula, Spadoni, Xilolog. i. 193 (1826). 
Cupressus horizontalis, /3 pendula, Endlicher, I. v. (1847). 
Cupressus globulifera, Parlatore, Ann. Sci. Nat. se'r. 4, xiii. 377 

(1860). 

Cupressus sphozrocarpa, Parlatore, I. c. 378 (1860). 

Cupressus sempervirens, y sphozrocarpa, Parlatore, De Candolle 

Prodr. I. v. 468 (1868). 

Cupressus sempervirens, 6 globulifera, Parlatore, I. c. 469 (1868). 

1 " These monuments of departed greatness are surrounded by 
trees, such as different species of Cypress, whose deep and melan- 
choly hue seems to have pointed them everywhere out, as well 
suited for scenes of woe : the Church-yard Yew did not, however, 
grow there, nor was it observed in any part of China : but a, 
species of weeping thuya, or lignum vitse, with long and pendent 
branches, unknown in Europe, overhung many of the graves." 
(Staunton, Embassy to China, ii. 445, t. 41 [1797].) This is the 
first reference in western literature to this tree, which is : — 

Cupressus funebris, Endlicher, I. c. 58 (1847). — Carriere, I. c. 
120. — Planchon, Fl. des Serres, vi. 90, t. — Gard. Chron. 1850, 
439, f. 31-33. — Gordon, I. t. 60. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 
Nadelh. 236. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. •xvi. pt. ii. 471. — 
Hooker f . FL Brit. Lid. v. 646. 

Cupressus pendula, Lambert, Pinus, ii. 115, t. 50 (not Thunberg 

nor L'Heritier [1824]). 

Cupressus funebris is a, tree, sometimes eighty feet in height, 
with a tall erect cylindrical trunk, and long slender pendulous 
branches which form a broad symmetrical head. Light glaucous 
acicular leaves clothe the young plants, and are followed by scale- 
like closely appressed yellow-green leaves ; erect in habit while 



young, its horizontal branches lengthen and become pendulous 
with age and develop long slender branchlets which descend to- 
ward the ground. Cupressus funebris appears to be indigenous in 
western China, and is frequently used in the Celestial Empire to 
mark graves and to decorate gardensiand temple grounds ; and in 
Nepaul, Sikkim, and Bhotan, at elevations of from four to eight 
thousand feet, it is planted near Buddhist temples. (See Hooker, f . 
Himalayan Journals, i. 314, f.) It was introduced into England 
in 1849 by Robert Fortune, who found it in a garden not far from 
Shanghai, and afterward also farther west, " frequently in clumps 
on the sides of the hills, where it has a most striking and beau- 
tiful effect on the Chinese landscape " (Fortune, Gard. Chron. 
1850, 228). In the United States and in Europe Cupressus fune- 
bris has not yet developed the beauty which it displays in its native 
country (Veitch, Man. Conif. 229). 

2 Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. 
i. 511. — Loudon, 1. c 2477, f. 2328. — Tenore, Mem. Soc. Ital. 
Sci. Modena, xxv. pt. ii. 189. — Carriere, I. c. 119. — Gordon, I. c. 
63. 

Cupressus pendula, L'He'ritier, Stirp. Nov. 15, t. 8 (not Thun- 
berg nor Lamarck) (1784). 

Cupressus glauca, Lamarck, Diet. ii. 243 (1786). — Brotero, Fl. 

Lusitan. i. 216. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 328. — Endlicher, I. c. 

58. — Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 235. — Parlatore, L c. 470. 

Cupressus Lusitanica, usually called the Cedar of Goa, is a, tree 
sixty or seventy feet tall, with spreading flexuose branches and 
pendulous branchlets clothed with glaucous leaves ; it has been 
cultivated in Portugal, where it has been naturalized for more 
than two hundred and fifty years, and near Coimbra in the forest 
of Bussaco it now forms an ancient grove in which more than 
five thousand trees are said to grow (Gomes, Jorn. Hort. Prat. 
ii. 64. — Magalhaes, Relatorio da Administracao geral das Mattas 
do Reino, 1872-73, 141. — Daveau, Rev. Hort. 1884, 184) ; in 
England it has been cultivated at least since 1680. Cupressus 
Lusitanica is not believed by Portuguese botanists to be a native 
of that country ; and it is probably, as its popular name indicates, 
a native of India, where it is still cultivated in the gardens of the 
western Ghats. Several Indian botanists believe it to be a form 
of Cupressus sempervirens or of Cupressus torulosa (see Dalzell & 
Gibson, Bomb. Fl. Suppl. 83. — Hooker f. I. c. 645), but Brandis 
(I. c. 534) considers that the specific distinctions between these 
species invite further investigation, and Masters, who has written 
the history of the Cedar of Goa, reaches the same conclusion. (See 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xvii. 1 [The Cedar of Goa~\.~) 

8 Few species of insects are known to affect Cupressus in North 
America, although these trees and their insect enemies have re- 
ceived little attention from entomologists. A bark beetle, Phlceosi- 
nus cristatus, Leconte, is said to be destructive to hedges and wind- 
breaks of Cupressus macrocarpa in Contra Costa County, California 
(Insect Life, v. 262) ; and a twig borer, Argyresthia cupressella, 
Walsingham, is described as causing the twigs of cultivated Cy- 
press-trees in the neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, to turn 
brown and die in the spring (Insect Life, iii. 116). Small cone- 
like swellings are found on the tips of twigs of Cupressus macro- 
carpa at Monterey, California, but the insects which cause them 
have not been studied. 

4 Little is known of the species of fungi which grow on the 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



101 



Cupressus may be raised from seeds, which germinate the first season, and by cuttings made from 
leading branchlets of the year. 1 

Cupressus, the classical name of the Cypress-tree, was adopted by Linnaeus from Tournef ort and 
other pre-Linnsean botanists. 



Cypress-trees of Pacific North America, although half a dozen are 
reported on the leaves and branches of Cupressus macrocarpa, 
including two species of Pestalozzia, which, however, are not con- 
fined to Cupressus. Cupressus thyoides of the Atlantic coast region 
is attacked, however, by two very characteristic Rust fungi, Gym- 
nosporangium biseptatum, Ellis, and Gymnosporangium Ellisii, Far- 
low. The former causes oval or nodular swellings on the branch- 
lets, attacking even the larger branches and sometimes the main 
trunk. These tumor-like bodies are often of a large size, so that 
a tree affected by this fungus can be recognized from a consider- 
able distance. Its cluster-cup, Rcestelia Botryapites, Schweinitz, is 
found on the leaves of Amelanchier Canadensis, Medicus. Gym- 
nosporangium Ellisii causes a fasciation of the smaller branches, 



which then resemble more or less fan-shaped brooms. The external 
portion of the fungus is smaller and less gelatinous than in any 
other species of this genus ; its cluster-cup stage is unknown. A 
few small fungi also attack the leaves and twigs of these trees, 
including two species of Hendersonia and Pestalozzia ; and Pitya 
Cupressi, Saccardo, appears on the leaves with small flat cups or 
disks of an agreeable orange-color. A rotting of railway-ties 
made of the wood of this species is reported to be due to the 
growth of Agaricus Campanella, Batsch, a small toad-stool common 
on the trunks of several trees in Europe and America. 

1 Daveau, Rev. Hort. 1887, 88. 

2 Inst. 587, t. 358. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Eucupressus. Cones large, maturing the second season ; seeds numerous ; branchlets quad- 
rangular; leaves denticulate. 
Leaves obscurely glandular. 

Branchlets stout ; leaves dark green 1. C macrocarpa. 

Branchlets stout ; leaves glaucous 2. C. Arizonica. 

Branchlets slender ; leaves dark green 3. C Goveniana. 

Leaves conspicuously glandular. 

Branchlets slender ; leaves dark green, often slightly glaucous 4. C. Macnabiana. 

Chamjecyparis. Cones small, maturing the first season ; seeds 1 to 4 ; branchlets flattened in 
one horizontal plane ; leaves entire. 
Bark thin, divided into flat ridges. 

Branchlets slender, compressed, their leaves often conspicuously glandular . . . . 5. C thyoides. 
Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or subterete ; leaves usually eglandular .... 6. C. Nootkatensis. 
Bark thick, divided into broad rounded ridges. 

Branchlets slender, compressed ; leaves conspicuously glandular 7. C. Lawsoniana. 



conifer*. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 103 



CUPRESSUS MACROCARPA. 

Monterey Cypress. 
Fruit large. Branehlets stout. Leaves dark green, obscurely glandular. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 286 (Pinetum Banicum). — Koehne, 

iv. 296, f. (1849) ; Pinetum, 65. — Lindley & Gordon, Deutsche Denclr. 50. 

Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 206. — Knight, Syn. Conif. Cupressus macrocarpa, var. fastigiata, Knight, Syn. 

20. — Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 337. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Conif. 20 (1850). — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. 

Bound. Surv. 211. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. pt. ii. 473. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 234. 

239. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 73. — Hoopes, Ever- Cupressus torulosa, Lindley & Paxton, Fl. Gard. i. 167, 

greens, 353. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. f. 105 (not D. Don) (1851) ; Fl. des Serres, vii. 192, f. — 

473. — K. Koch, Bendr. ii. pt. ii. 148. — Engelmann, The Garden, xxvii. 39, f. 

Brewer & Watson Bot. Col. ii. 113. — Veitch, Man. Cupressus Lambertiana, Carriere, Traite Conif 124 

Conif. 234. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. ii. 195, t. 32. — (1855) ; Rev. Hort. 1855, 233. 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 179. — Cupressus Lambertiana, var. fastigiata, Carriere, Traite 

Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, iii. 180, Conif 124 (1855). 

t. 25, 26 (Cone-Bearers of California) ; West-American Cupressus Hartwegii, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1855, 233 : 

Cone-Bearers, 76. — Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 271, f. 8. — Traite Conif ed. 2, 168. 

Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 103. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Cupressus Hartwegii, var. fastigiata, Carriere, Traite 

Soc. xiv. 206 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 342 (excl. var. Conif ed. 2, 169 (1867). 

Gimdeloupensis and var. Farallonensis). — Hansen, Jour. Cupressus macrocarpa, var. Lambertiana, Masters, 

Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 343 (1896). 

A tree, often sixty or seventy feet in height, with a short trunk two or three, or exceptionally five 
or six feet in diameter ; while it is young the branches are slender and erect, forming a narrow or 
broad bushy pyramidal head, and when un crowded by other trees they become stout and spreading in 
old age, and form a broad flat-topped head. 1 The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch in thickness, and irregularly divided into broad flat connected ridges, which separate freely 
into narrow elongated thick persistent scales ; on young stems and on the upper branches it is dark red- 
brown, but on old and storm-worn trees becomes at last almost white. The branehlets are stout, and 
when the leaves fall, at the end of three or four years, are covered with thin light or dark reddish 
brown bark, which separates sparingly into small papery scales. The leaves are broadly ovate, closely 
appressed or slightly spreading at the acute apex, thickened on the back, which is obscurely glandular- 
pitted, and frequently marked with two longitudinal furrows, about an eighth of an inch long, and 
dark green ; those on young plants are spreading and acicular, prominently ridged below, and from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in length. The flowers are yellow, and open late in February or early in 
March. The staminate flowers are oblong, quadrangular, and an eighth of an inch long, with six or 
eight decussately opposite stamens, their broadly ovate peltate connectives, which are slightly erose on the 
margins, bearing four or five dark orange-colored pollen-sacs. The pistillate flowers are oblong and 
about an eighth of an inch in length, with spreading acuminate scales. The fruit, which ripens in the 
second season, and is clustered, is raised on a stout peduncle from a quarter to a third of an inch in 
length, and is oblong, from an inch to an inch and a half long, and about two thirds of an inch broad, 
with four or six pairs of scales, slightly puberulous, especially on the margins, furnished with broadly 
ovate thickened or occasionally on the upper scales subconical bosses, the scales of the upper and lower 
pairs being smaller than the others and sterile. About twenty seeds are produced under each fertile 
scale ; they are angled by mutual pressure, light chestnut-brown, and about three sixteenths of an inch 



long. 



1 Hooker f. Gar d. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 176, f. 34. — Garden arid Forest, vii. 241, f. 7. 



104 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers 

Cupressus macrocarpa inhabits the coast of California south of the Bay of Monterey, where it 
occupies an area about two miles long and two hundred yards wide, extending from Cypress Point 
southward to the shores of Carmel Bay, and forms a smaller grove on Point Lobos, the southern 
boundary of the bay. In this restricted region the Monterey Cypress gives a peculiar picturesqueness 
to one of the most beautiful reaches of coast on the continent. The high bright red granite cliffs 
perpetually bathed in spray are crowned by solitary, sentinel-like trees, with low flat heads and branches 
contorted by the gales of the Pacific ; just back of the cliffs it forms a grove broken into grass-covered 
glades bright in early spring with countless flowers, where scattered individuals display the greatest size 
and beauty attained by this tree ; and farther inland it mingles gradually with Pinus insignis, which 
at this point is the principal inhabitant of the forests of the low rolling coast-hills. 1 

The wood of Cuptressus macrocarpa is heavy, hard, and strong, although rather brittle, very 
durable in contact with the soil, close-grained, easily worked, and slightly fragrant, with a satiny sur- 
face susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish ; it is clear bright brown streaked with red and yellow, 
with thin light yellow sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored conspicuous bands of small summer- 
cells and numerous hardly distinguishable medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.6261, a cubic foot weighing 39.02 pounds. 

Although its seeds appear to have reached England in 1838, 2 Ciqwessus macrocarpa was first 
made known to botanists in 1847 by Karl Theodor Hartweg, 3 who had found it at Cypress Point the 
previous autumn. 4 It is now the most universally cultivated coniferous tree in the Pacific states, where 
it has proved hardy from Vancouver's Island to Lower California, and grows with remarkable rapidity ; 
it is one of the chief ornaments of the parks and gardens of central California, and, enduring an 
annual shortening of the branches, it is often cut into fantastic forms, and is also successfully used in 
hedges and wind-breaks. Cupressus macrocarpa has proved hardy in the southeastern states, where, 
however, it has not been largely planted, in western and southern Europe, where it grows as rapidly as 
it does in California, and has already attained a large size, 5 and in temperate South America and Austra- 
lia. In European nurseries a few abnormal seminal forms have appeared, and are occasionally cultivated. 6 

1 The vigorous constitution which this tree shows in its ability 3 See ii. 34. 

to withstand long exposure to gales and saline spray on the cliffs 4 Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. ii. 187. 

of the Pacific Ocean, and in its unusual power to adapt itself to 5 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 285 ; n. ser. xx. 603. — Gard. 

very different climatic conditions, would seem to indicate that it Chron. ser. 3, xvi. 658. 

once occupied a. much larger area of central California, and has 6 Cupressus macrocarpa Crippsi (Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 93 

been restricted to the shores of Carmel Bay by the gradual drying [1875]) is distinguished by its compact habit and the silvery white- 

of the climate, or by the direct action of fire during comparatively ness of the young leaves. In Cupressus macrocarpa flagelliformis 

recent times. (Gordon, I. c. [1875]) the branches are long and slightly pendulous, 

2 Seeds of a Cupressus were given by Mr. Lambert to the Horti- with elongated branchlets clothed with light glaucous green foliage, 
cultural Society of London in 1838. These produced plants to For other varieties of Cupressus macrocarpa, see Carriere, Traite 
which the name of Cupressus Lambertiana was provisionally given, Conif. ed. 2, 167 ; Rev. Hort. 1870, 191, f. 37. 

and which afterwards proved to be Hartweg's Cupressus macro- In European gardens Cupressus macrocarpa is occasionally culti- 

carpa. (See Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 296.) vated as Cupressus Reinwardtii. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXV. Cupressus macrocarpa. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 8. An embryo, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 9. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 10. A leaf, enlarged. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, 11. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 

enlarged. 12. A seedling, natural size. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXXV. 






C.£. Faxon del. 



Hapi 



CUPRESSUS MACROCARPA. Gord. 



A.Riocreux dire^c .' 



Imp. J~.?cui&ur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 105 



CUPRESSUS ARIZONICA. 

Cypress. 
Fruit large. Branchlets stout. Leaves glaucous, usually eglandular. 

Cupressus Arizonica, Greene, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. Cupressus Guadalupensis, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 

64 (1882). — Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 79.— 10th Census U. S. ix. 180 (not Watson) (1884). 

Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 157. — Lemmon, Bep. Cupressus Arizonica var. bonita, Lemmon, West-Ameri- 

California State Board Forestry, iii. 179 {Cone-Bearers can Cone-Bearers, 76 (1895). 

of California) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 75. — Cupressus Benthami, var. Arizonica, Masters, Kew 

Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 204. Rand-List of Conifers, 37 (1896) ; Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xxxi. 340, f . 14, 17. 

A tree, usually thirty or forty, but occasionally seventy feet in height, with a trunk from two to 
four feet in diameter, and horizontal branches forming a narrow pyramidal or occasionally a broad flat 
head. The bark on old trunks is thin and dark red-brown, and separates freely into long shreds one 
or two inches in width, which often remain hanging upon it for years ; on young trunks and on the 
branches it breaks into large irregular thin scales, which, in falling, disclose the bright red inner bark. 
The branchlets are stout, and after the leaves have fallen are covered with smooth close thin light red- 
brown bark, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom. The leaves are ovate, acute, thickened, 
carinate and eglandular or occasionally obscurely glandular-pitted on the back, pale glaucous green, 
closely appressed or often slightly spreading, and about an eighth of an inch in length ; dying usually 
during the second season, they become light red-brown and glaucous, and remain on the branches for 
two or three years longer. The staminate flowers are oblong, obtuse, nearly a quarter of an inch in 
length, and composed of six or eight stamens, with broadly ovate acute yellow connectives slightly 
erose on the margins. The pistillate flowers are unknown. The fruit is subglobose, slightly puberu- 
lous, about an inch in diameter, dark red-brown, covered with a thick glaucous bloom, and raised on a 
stout peduncle from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, with six, or occasionally eight scales, 
furnished with stout cylindrical pointed often incurved prominent bosses. The seeds vary in shape 
from oblong to nearly triangular, and from one sixteenth to nearly one eighth of an inch in length, and 
are dark red-brown, with thin narrow wings. 

Cupressus Arizonica inhabits the mountains of central, eastern, and southern Arizona, often 
constituting, usually on northern slopes, almost pure forests of considerable extent, at elevations of from 
five to eight thousand feet above the sea, and also the mountains of northern Sonora and Chihuahua. 
Local in its distribution in Arizona, it forms a grove of several thousand trees at the natural bridge 
over Pine Creek, a tributary of the Verde River near Payson, in central Arizona ; * it grows on the 
Santa Rita, Santa Catalina, and Chiracahua Mountains in the southern part of the territory, and on the 
San Francisco Mountains in the extreme eastern part, where it was discovered in the neighborhood 
of the town of Clifton on September 1, 1880, by Professor Edward L. Greene; 2 and on the mountain 
ranges north of Mt. Graham it is common, and forms extensive forests. 

The wood of Cupressus Arizonica is light, soft, close-grained, and easily worked. It is gray, 
often faintly streaked with yellow, with thick light yellow sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous 
bands of small summer-cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.4843, a cubic foot weighing 30.18 pounds. 

Cupressus Arizonica was introduced into European gardens in 1882 through the agency of the 
Arnold Arboretum, and has proved hardy in England. 3 

1 Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 22. 2 See viii. 84. 8 Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, x. 364. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXVL Cupressus Abizonica. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. The end of a branchlet, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 
10. A leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DXX.VI 




GE.Fcucon, del. 



Hvmefy 



CUPRESSUS ARIZONICA, Greene. 



A.Biocreua> direcc 



Imp. J. Tarv&ur, Parts . 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 107 



CUPRESSUS GOVENIANA. 

Cypress. 

Fruit large or small. Branchlets slender. Leaves dark green, eglandular or 
obscurely glandular. 

Cupressus Goveniana, Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 346, f. 21, 22. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 284 

295, f. (1849); Pinetum, 60. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. (Pinetum Danicum). — Lemmon, West- American Cone- 

Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 206. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 125. — Bearers, 76. 

Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 211. — Bentham, PI. Cupressus Calif ornica, Carriere, Traite Conif. 127 (1855). 

Hartweg. 337. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. Cupressus Californica gracilis, (Nelson) Senilis, Pina- 

240. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 352. — Parlatore, De Candolle cece, 70 (in part) (1866). 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 472. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Cupressus cornuta, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1866, 250, f. 

Bot. Cal. ii. 114. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 230. — Sargent, Cupressus macrocarpa, ? var. Farallonensis, Masters, 

Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 179. —Mas- Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 344 (1896). 
ters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 205 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 

A tree, occasionally fifty feet tall, with a short trunk two feet in diameter, and slender erect or 
spreading branches which form a handsome open head ; usually much smaller, often shrubby in habit, 
and frequently producing fruit when only twelve or eighteen inches in height. The bark of the trunk 
varies from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness, and is dark brown tinged with red, and 
divided irregularly into narrow flat connected ridges which separate into thin persistent oblong scales 
displaying, when they fall, the bright red-brown inner bark. The branchlets are slender and covered 
with close thin smooth bark orange-colored at first, but soon turning bright reddish brown, and often at 
the end of two or three years becoming purplish in color, and finally a dark brown more or less tinged 
with gray. The leaves, which on vigorous young shoots are remote by the lengthening of the nodes, 
are ovate, acute, rounded and obscurely glandular-pitted or eglandular on the back, closely appressed, 
dark green, and from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in length ; in dying they turn bright red- 
brown, and fall at the end of three or four years ; those on young plants are acicular, spreading, and 
from one eighth to one quarter of an inch in length. The flowers are yellow, and appear in early 
spring. The staminate flowers are four-angled, with thin broadly ovate slightly erose peltate connectives ; 
and the pistillate are usually composed of six or eight acute slightly spreading scales, and are about an 
eighth of an inch long. The fruit is subglobose or oblong, from half an inch to nearly an inch in 
length, reddish brown or purple, lustrous, and slightly puberulous, especially along the margins of the 
scales ; these are six or eight in number, with broadly ovate, generally rounded and flattened, or rarely 
short and conical bosses. The seeds are light brown and lustrous, about one sixth of an inch in length, 
and flattened or four-angled, about twenty being produced under each fertile scale. 

Exceedingly variable in size and habit and in the thickness of its branchlets and the size of its 
cones, Cupressus Goveniana, although nowhere very abundant, is widely distributed through the 
California coast region, from the plains of Mendocino County to the mountains of San Diego County, 
frequently ascending the canons of the mountain ranges of central California to elevations of nearly 
three thousand feet above the level of the sea, and attaining its largest size near mountain streams, 
where it is often associated with the Douglas Fir and the Yellow Pine; more abundant at lower 
elevations, it often covers in Monterey and Mendocino Counties extensive tracts of sandy barrens or 
rocky slopes extending inland a few miles from the coast, growing as a low bush frequently only a few 
inches in height. 

The wood of Cupressus Goveniana is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and close-grained ; it is light 



108 SILT A OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

brown, with thick nearly white sap wood, and contains broad dark-colored conspicuous bands of small 
summer-cells and thin obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.4689, a cubic foot weighing 29.22 pounds. 

Cupressus Goveniana was discovered in 1846 by Karl Theodor Hartweg, by whom it was 
introduced into English gardens. It has proved hardy in western and southern Europe, where it is 
frequently cultivated as an ornamental tree, 1 and has attained a large size and produced its fruit. 
Forms abnormal in habit and in the color of the foliage which have appeared in European nurseries are 
occasionally cultivated. 2 

The specific name commemorates the services to horticulture of James Robert Gowen. 3 

1 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 285. Caernarvon" (Hooker, Bot. Mag. lxv. under t. 3676). Mr. Gowen 

2 See Carriere, ed. 2, 171. was a member of the council of the Horticultural Society of Lon- 

3 " Mr. Gowen is a gentleman of independent fortune, much de- don from 1836 to the end of 1856, and also served it as secretary. 
voted to Science, and well known in the most respectable circles in He was the author of several papers on the hybridization of 
London ; and under whose advice and direction many of the im- Amaryllis, published in the Transactions of this Society. 
provements at High Clere had been effected by the late Earl of 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXVII. Cupressus Goveniana. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, front view, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. A seed, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 

10. A leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 



Silva. of North America. 



Tab. DXXV11 




CJO.Faxari'deZ'. 



ZovendaZ sc 



CUPRESSUS GOVENIANA. Gord. 

A. JUocreiuz> dir&z, e . Bnp. J. Tevi&ur, Parir 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 109 



CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA. 

Cypress. 

Fruit large. Branchlets slender. Leaves dark green, often glaucous, conspicu- 
ously glandular. 

Cupressus Macnabiana, A. Murray, Edinburgh New Soc. xxxi. 347, f. 23, 24. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

Phil. Jour. n. ser. i. 293, t. 11 (1855). — Gard. Chron. 286 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 

1855, 420. — Gordon, Pinetum, 64. — Carriere, Traite 50. — Lemmon, West-American Cone-Bearers, 11. 

Conif. ed. 2, 165 ; Rev. Hort. 1870, 155, f . 26. — Hoopes, Cupressus glandulosa, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Na- 

Ever greens, 353. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. delh. 241 (1865). 

pt. ii. 473. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 150. — Engel- Cupressus Calif ornica gracilis (Nelson) Senilis, Pina- 

mann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 114. — Veitch, cece, 70 (in part) (1866). 

Man. Conif. 233. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cupressus Nabiana, Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, ix. 403, 

Census U. S. ix. 180. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. f. 90 (1891). 
100. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 206 ; Jour. Linn. 

A bushy tree, rarely thirty feet in height, with a short trunk twelve or fifteen inches in diameter ; 
or more often a shrub with numerous stems from six to twelve feet tall forming a broad open irregular 
head. The bark of the trunk is thin, dark reddish brown, and broken into broad flat ridges, which form 
a network of diamond-shaped depressions, and separate on the surface into elongated thin slightly 
attached long-persistent scales. The branchlets are slender, and are covered with close smooth compact 
bark, which is bright purplish red after the falling of the leaves, but soon becomes dark brown. The 
leaves are ovate, acute or rounded at the apex, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, 
closely appressed, or on vigorous young shoots long-pointed and more or less spreading, deep green, 
and often slightly glaucous, and usually not more than a sixteenth of an inch in length. The flowers 
open in March and April. The staminate flowers are nearly cylindrical, obtuse, and about a sixteenth 
of an inch long, with broadly ovate rounded peltate connectives ; and the pistillate are subglobose and a 
sixteenth of an inch long, with broadly ovate scales short-pointed and rounded at the apex. The fruit 
is oblong, from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, subsessile or raised on a rather slender 
peduncle often a quarter of an inch in length, dark reddish brown, more or less covered with a 
glaucous bloom, and slightly puberulous, especially along the margins of the scales ; these are six or 
rarely eight in number, with prominent bosses, which are thin and recurved on the lower scales, and 
much thickened, conical and more or less incurved at the apex on the upper scales. The seeds are 
numerous, dark chestnut-brown, variously flattened by mutual pressure, usually rather less than a 
sixteenth of an inch long, and furnished with narrow wings. 

Ciqiressus Macnabiana, which is one of the rarest trees of California, is now known to inhabit 
only a few dry slopes on the hills south and west of Clear Lake in Lake County. 1 At the southern 
base of Mt. Shasta, where it was discovered by Mr. William Murray in the autumn of 1854, it has not 
been again seen. 

The wood of Cupressus Macnabiana is light, soft, very close-grained, and pale brown, with thick 
nearly white sapwood ; it contains narrow dark-colored conspicuous bands of small summer-cells and 
thin obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5575, a cubic foot 
weighing 34.74 pounds. 2 

Introduced by its discoverer into English gardens, Ciqiressus Macnabiana is occasionally culti- 
vated in western and southern Europe. 

1 Purdy, Garden and Forest, ix. 232. 2 Garden and Forest, iii. 355. 



110 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERiE. 



The specific name commemorates the horticultural and botanical labors of James MacNab, 1 the 



distinguished curator of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 



1 James MacNab (April 25, 1810-November 19, 1878), the son 
of William MacNab, curator of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden 
from 1810 to 1848, was born in Richmond, near London, and 
learned the theory and practice of horticulture under his father at 
Edinburgh. From 1829 to 1834 he served as clerk and assistant to 
the secretary of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, and in 1834 
visited America, and traveled extensively in Canada and the United 
States, where he made a large herbarium and collections of living 
plants and seeds. An account of the interesting plants which he 
gathered during this journey was published in the Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Journal of 1835 and in the early volumes of the Transac- 



tions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Returning to Scotland 
in 1835, Mr. MacNab was appointed superintendent of the gardens 
of the Caledonian Horticultural Society at Inverleith, and held this 
position until the death of his father, whom he succeeded in the 
curatorship of the Edinburgh Botanical Garden, continuing to man- 
age this institution during the remainder of his life, and greatly 
improving and enlarging it. He was one of the founders of the 
Edinburgh Botanical Society, and in 1872 served as its president. 
One of the best practical gardeners of his time, James MacNab 
was also the author of numerous papers on botany, horticulture, 
and arboriculture. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXXVIII. Cupressus Macnabiana. 

1. A flowering and fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, front view, enlarged 

6. A scale of a cone with seeds, lateral view, enlarged. 

7. A seed, back view, enlarged. 

8. A seed, front view, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. A leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXXVIII. 




C. E. Foxotv del 



Rapine, jc. 



CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA, A.M-urr. 



A. Riocreua: direa> ' 



Imp . J. Taneur , Paris. 



conifer*: SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. Ill 



CUPRESSUS THYOIDES. 

White Cedar. 

Branchlets slender, compressed. Leaves dark blue-green, often conspicuously 
glandular. 

Cupressus thyoides, Linnaeus, Spec. 1003 (1753). — Mil- Ndrdlinger, Forstbot. 459. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 238. — 

ler, Diet. ed. 8, No. 5. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 148. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 63. — Masters, Jour. R. 

~DmK<A, Harbk.Baumz. ii.lW.— W^genheim, Beschreib. Sort. Soc. xiv. 208; Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 352.— 

Nordam. Holz. 45 ; Nordam. Holz. 8, t. 2, f . 4. — Mar- Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 150. 

shall, Arbust. Am. 39. — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 33.— Cupressus palustris, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 

Lamarck, Diet. ii. 243. — Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. Thuya sphaeroidea, Sprengel, Syst. iii. 889 (1826). 

144. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 228. — Thuya sphaeroidalis, Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. 45, t. 8, 

"Willdenow, Bert. Baumz. 92 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 512 ; Enum. f. 2 (1826). 

991. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 461. — Michaux, Chamsecyparis sphseroidea, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 331 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 208. — Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 286, t. 310. — (1842). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 61. — Lindley & Gor- 

Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 6, t. 2. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 580. — don, Jour. Hort. Soc. Bond. v. 207. — EJiight, Syn. Conif. 

Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 567. — Du Mont de Courset, 20. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 133. — Gordon, Pinetum, 

Bot. Cult. ed. 2, yi. 448. — Michaux, Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 49. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 248. — (Nel- 

20, t. 2. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 646. — Nuttall, Gen. son) Senilis, Pinacece, 69. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 

ii. 224. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 178. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 644. — xvi. pt. ii. 464. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- 

Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 156, t. 156. — Forbes, Pinetum sus U. S. ix. 177. — Watson & Coulter, Grafs Man. ed. 

Woburn. 183. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 165. — Bigelow, 6, 493. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 193, t. 6, f., t. 8, f . — 

Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 387. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 233. — Em- Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 65, f . 12-15. — Hansen, Jour. 

erson, Trees Mass. 98; ed. 2, i. 114. — Richardson, Arc- B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 281 {Pinetum Danicum). 

tic Searching Exped. ii. 318. — Chapman, Fl. 435. — Cur- Chamsecyparis thyoides, Britton, Cat. PI. New Jersey, 299 

tis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 28. — Hoopes, (1889). — Sudworth, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 328. 
Evergreens, 346, f . 55. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 162. — 

A fragrant tree, seventy or eighty feet in height, with a tall trunk usually about two, but 
occasionally three or four feet in diameter, slender horizontal branches which form a narrow spire-like 
head, graceful distichous branchlets disposed in an open flat fan-shaped more or less deciduous spray, 
bright red-brown roots, and long thin brittle rootlets. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of 
an inch to nearly an inch in thickness, light reddish brown, and divided irregularly into narrow flat 
connected ridges which are often spirally twisted round the stem, and separate into elongated loose or 
closely appressed plate-like fibrous scales. The branchlets are compressed during the first season, and 
then gradually become terete ; they are slender, light green tinged with red when they first appear, light 
reddish brown during the first winter and then dark brown, their thin close bark beginning to separate 
slightly at the end of three or four years into small papery scales. The leaves are ovate, acuminate 
with slender callous tips, and closely appressed or spreading at the apex, especially on vigorous leading 
shoots, on which they are often remote ; they are keeled and eglandular or conspicuously glandular- 
punctate on the back, dark dull blue-green, becoming at the north rusty brown during the winter when 
exposed to the sun, and from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in length ; dying and turning a 
bright red-brown on leading shoots during their second season, they remain for many years on the 
branches ; on seedling plants the leaves are linear-lanceolate, acuminate, light green above, marked 
below on each side of the prominent midrib with pale stomatiferous bands, and about a quarter of an inch 
long. The flowers appear in very early spring. The staminate flowers are oblong, four-sided, and about 
an eighth of an inch long, with five or six pairs of stamens, their connectives being ovate, rounded at 



112 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

the apex, and decreasing in size from below upward, dark brown below the middle, nearly black toward 
the apex, and furnished with two pollen-sacs. The pistillate flowers are subglobose, from one sixteenth 
to one eighth of an inch long, with usually six ovate acute spreading pale liver-colored scales bearing 
generally two black ovules. The fruit, which ripens at the end of the first season, is globose and 
about a quarter of an inch in diameter, sessile on a short leafy branch, surrounded at the base by the 
persistent lower scales of the flower, with six scales furnished with thin ovate acute often reflexed 
bosses : it is light green and covered with a glaucous bloom when fully grown, then bluish purple and 
very glaucous, and finally dark red-brown. The seeds, of which there are usually one or two under 
each fertile scale, are ovate, acute, full and rounded at the base, slightly compressed, and about an 
eighth of an inch in length, with a thin testa produced into wings as broad as the body of the seed 
and darker in color, and a minute pale hilum. 

Cupressas thy o Ides inhabits the cold swamps of the Atlantic and Gulf coast plains usually 
immersed during several months of the year, frequently covering them at the north with dense pure 
forests, or at the south mingling with the Bald Cypress. Rarely extending far inland, 1 it ranges from 
southern Maine 2 southward to northern Florida and westward to the valley of the Pearl River in 
Mississippi. Very abundant in New England south of Massachusetts Bay and in the middle and south 
Atlantic states, it is comparatively rare east of Boston aDd west of Mobile Bay. 

The wood of Cupressus thyoides is light, soft, not strong, close-grained, easily worked, slightly 
fragrant, and very durable in contact with the soil. It seasons rapidly and perfectly without warping 
or checking ; it is light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored sapwood, but grows darker 
with exposure, and contains dark-colored conspicuous narrow bands of small summer-cells and numerous 
obscure medullary rays. 3 The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3322, a cubic foot 
weighing 20.70 pounds. It is largely used in boatbuilding and cooperage, for wooden- ware, shingles, 4 
the interior finish of houses, telegraph and fence posts and railway-ties, and for other purposes where 
a light soft durable wood easy to work and of even grain is desired. 5 

The earliest account of Cupressus thyoides appears in Morton's New English Canaan, published 
in London in 1635 ; 6 it was first described by Plukenet 7 in 1700 from a plant in Bishop Compton's 8 
garden at Clapham, and, according to Aiton, 9 it was cultivated by Peter Collinson in 1736. The White 
Cedar is still found in European gardens, where a number of forms varying in habit and in the color 
and marking of the leaves have appeared and are prized by lovers of curious plants. 10 

One of the most beautiful of the coniferous trees of eastern America, the White Cedar is also one 
of the valuable timber-trees of the country, and its importance is increased by the fact that, attaining its 
greatest perfection in situations where no other useful timber-tree can flourish, it gives value to lands 
which without it would be worthless. 

1 The highest elevation at which the White Cedar has been " The white Cedar is a stately Tree, and is taken by some to be 
reported above the sea-level is at High Point in New Jersey, a Tamarisk, this tree the English saw into boards to floor their rooms, 
few miles from Port Jervis, New York, and close to the boun- for which purpose it is excellent, long lasting, and wears very 
daries of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, where at an smooth and white." (Josselyn, Account of Two Voyages to New 
elevation of fifteen hundred feet it grows in a cold deep swamp. England, 67.) 

(See Gifford, Garden and Forest, ix. 63.) 7 Cupressus nana Mariana fructu cceruleo parvo, Aim. Bot. Mant. 

2 Goodale, Proc. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist. i. pt. ii. 129. 61, t. 315, f. 1. 

3 Roth, The Forester, i. 15. Cupressus semper virens sen cupressus Thyoides, Romans, Nat. 

4 Kalm, Travels, Enghsh ed. ii. 174. — Porcher, Resources of Hist. Florida, 25. 
Southern Fields and Forests, 509. s See i. 6. 

5 The wood of trunks of the White Cedar, which have probably 9 Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 372. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2475, f. 
lain for centuries buried deep in the swamps of New Jersey and 2327. 

Pennsylvania, retains its character and furnishes excellent lumber, 10 Beissner (Handb. Nadelh. 67) describes twelve of these gar- 

and the mining of these trunks has proved a profitable industry. den forms, the most distinct, perhaps, being one which retains the 

6 "Cypress, of this there is great plenty, and vulgarly this tree juvenile leaves (Cupressus thyoides ericoides. Chammcyparis ericoides, 
hath bin taken for an other sort of Cedar : but now men put a dif- Carriere, Traite Conif. 140 (1855), and one in which the young 
ference between this Cypress and the Cedars, especially in the branchlets and leaves are blotched with yellow (Cupressus thyoides 
color." (Force, Historical Collections, ii. No. 5, 44.) aurea). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXIX. Cupressus thtoides. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit, enlarged. 
9» A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 

15. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North. America. 



Ta"b. DXXIX. 




JtapizL&- so. 



C.£.Faccon,.del. 



A.Ru>creutc> direa> 



CUPRESSUS THYOIDES.L. 

Imp. J. Taneur, Paris. 



coniferje. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 115 



CUPRESSUS NOOTKATENSIS. 

Yellow Cypress. Sitka Cypress. 
Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or subterete. Leaves usually eglandular. 

Cupressus Nootkatensis, Lambert, Pinus, ii. 18 (1824).— Thuya excelsa, Bongard, Mem. Phys. et Nat. Pt. 2, Acad. 

Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 105. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. Scl. St. Petersbourg, ii. 164 (Veg. Sitcha) (1831). 

165. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 64, f . 7. — Masters, Cupressus Nutkatensis, Hooker,^. Bor.-Am. ii. 165 

Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 206 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxi. 352. (1839). — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 63, f. 

Chamaecyparis Nutkatensis, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 333 28. — Gordon, Pinetum, 66. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 

(1842). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 62. — Ledebour, Fl. 74. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 345. — Lawson, Pinetum 

Ross. iii. 680. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Brit. ii. 199, t. 34, f . 1-12. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 235. — 

Lond. v. 207. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 134. — Wal- Schlibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 373. — Koehne, Deutsche 

pers, Ann. v. 796. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. Dendr. 50, f. 19. 

250. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 465. — Cupressus Americana, Trautvetter, PI. Imag. Fl. Russ. 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 12, t. 7 (1844). 

178. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 344, t. 6, f. — Beissner, Thuiopsis borealis, Carriere, Traite Conif 113 (1855). 

Handb. Nadelh. 79, f . 18, 19. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. , Chamaecyparis Nutkaensis, /3 glauca, Walpers, Ann. v. 

Soc. xiv. 280 (Pinetum Danicum). 796 (1858). 

A tree, often one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk five or six feet in diameter, 
horizontal branches which form a narrow pyramidal head, stout distichous branchlets, and crowded 
elongated deciduous spray. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch in 
thickness, light gray tinged with brown, irregularly fissured, and separated on the surface into large 
loose thin scales which in falling disclose the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. The branchlets are 
comparatively stout, somewhat flattened or subterete, light yellow often tinged with red when they first 
appear, dark or bright red-brown during their third season, when they are clothed with dead leaves, and 
ultimately paler and covered with close thin smooth bark. The leaves are ovate, long-pointed, rounded, 
eglandular or glandular-pitted on the back, dark blue-green, closely appressed, and about an eighth of 
an inch long, or on the vigorous leading branchlets somewhat spreading and often a quarter of an inch 
in length, with more elongated and sharper points ; beginning to die at the end of their second year, 
they usually fall during the third season ; those on seedling plants are acicular, spreading, light green, 
and from one quarter to one half of an inch in length. The flowers open in very early spring on 
lateral branchlets of the previous year, the staminate usually on the lower and the pistillate clustered 
near the ends of the upper branchlets. The staminate flower is oblong, nearly a quarter of an inch 
in length, and composed of four or five pairs of stamens, with ovate rounded slightly erose fight 
yellow connectives more or less covered with a dark blotch and bearing usually two pollen-sacs. 
The pistillate flower is one sixteenth of an inch long and consists of ovate acute spreading dark liver- 
colored scales, the fertile bearing at their base from two to four ovules each. The fruit, which ripens 
in September and October, is subglobose, nearly half an inch in diameter, surrounded at the base by 
the slightly enlarged upper leaves of the branchlet, dark red-brown, and covered by a thick glaucous 
or blue bloom, with usually four or six scales, which are tipped with prominent erect pointed bosses, 
and are frequently covered with conspicuous resin-glands. From two to four seeds are produced under 
each fertile scale ; they are ovate, acute, slightly flattened, about a quarter of an inch long, dark red- 
brown, and furnished with thin fight red-brown wings often nearly twice as wide as the body of the 
seed. 



116 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

Cupressus Nootkatensis is distributed from Sitka * southward through the islands and coast 
mountains of Alaska and British Columbia, along the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon 
to the valley of the Santiam River and the slopes of Mt. Jefferson, and in Washington eastward to 
the headwaters of the Yakima River on the eastern slope of the range. In southern Alaska and 
northern British Columbia it attains its largest size in the forests of Spruce and Hemlock, ranging 
from the sea-level to elevations of two or three thousand feet; it is abundant at the sea-level on 
the west coast of Queen Charlotte's Islands ; 2 it occurs sparingly in the interior of Vancouver's 
Island, 3 and on the high mountains immediately south of the Fraser River it grows to a large size in 
small isolated groups at an elevation of four thousand five hundred feet, and in small and shrubby 
forms a thousand feet higher. It is abundant in Washington on the Olympic Mountains and on the 
slopes of Mt. Ranier, frequently attaining the height of one hundred feet and forming a trunk three 
feet in diameter, while at high elevations it is reduced to a low shrub ; farther south it is seldom 
large and is rare and local, growing usually as a low contorted tree on rocky cliffs and slopes generally 
at altitudes of about five thousand feet, or occasionally around the bases of the high isolated volcanic 
peaks descending to four thousand feet. 

Cuptressus Nbotkatensis is one of the most valuable timber-trees of North America, producing 
wood which is unsurpassed for cabinet-making by that of any other inhabitant of the continent ; it is 
light and hard, rather brittle, very close-grained, exceedingly durable in contact with the soil, and easily 
worked, with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. It has an agreeable resinous 
odor, and is bright clear light yellow, with very thin nearly white sapwood, thin inconspicuous bands 
of small summer-cells, and numerous hardly distinguishable medullary rays. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.4782, a cubic foot weighing 29.80 pounds. In Alaska and British 
Columbia it is used in boat and ship building, the interior finish of houses, and the manufacture of 
furniture, and for many years was exported in large quantities to China, where it was employed as a 
substitute for satin wood. 

Cupressus Nootkatensis was discovered in October, 1793, on the shores of Nootka Sound by 
Menzies, 4 the surgeon and naturalist of Vancouver, on his voyage around the world. It was introduced 
into European gardens in 1850 through the Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg, 5 and has proved hardy 
in western and central Europe, where many forms with peculiar habit and abnormally colored foliage 
have been produced in nurseries, 6 and in the middle Atlantic states and in California, where it is 
occasionally cultivated. 7 

1 Rothrock, Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 455 (Fl. Alaska) (Thuya 5 Veitch, Man. Conif. 235. 

excelsa). — Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 92. — F. Kurtz, Bot. 6 Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 82. 

Jahrb. xbc. 425 (Fl. Chilcatgebietes). — Funston, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 7 In the gardens of the United States and usually also in those 

Herb. iii. 328. of Europe, Cupressus Nootkatensis is cultivated under the name of 

3 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. ser. 2, ix. 329. Thujopsis borealis. In European gardens it is also occasionally 

8 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 461 (Thuya excelsa). cultivated as Thujopsis Tchugatskoy and as Thujopsis Tchugat- 

* See ii. 90. skoyoz. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXX. Cupressus Nootkatensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A scale of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. • 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 



SiTva of North America . 



Tao.DXXX. 




13 



C.~E.Faaz>n, del . 



Rapine' so. 



CUPRESSUS NOOTKATENSIS, Lamb. 



^£,RLocreux> direa> . 



Imp . J. Taneur, Taris . 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 119 



CUPRESSUS LAWSONIANA. 
Port Orford Cedar. Lawson's Cypress. 

Branchlets slender, compressed. Leaves conspicuously glandular. Staminate 
flowers bright red. Bark thick, deeply furrowed. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana, A. Murray, Edinburgh New Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 464 (1868). — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 

Phil. Jour. n. ser. i. 292, t. 10 (1855) ; The Garden, vii. 85. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Pot. Cal. ii. 114. — 

508, t.— Bot. Mag. xci. t. 5581. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

Syn. Nadelh. 246. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 72. — 178.— Willkomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 247. — Mayr, Wald. 

Hoopes, Evergreens, 342, f. 53. — Veitch, Man. Conif. Nordam. 314, f. 12, t. 6, f. t. 8, f. — Lemmon, Rep. 

231. — Eichler, Monatsb. Acad. Perl. 1881, f. 29, 30. — California State Board Forestry, iii. 177, t. 24 (Cone- 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2,63. — Lawson, Pinetum Bearers of California); West-American Cone-Bearers, 

Brit. ii. 191, t. 31, f. 1-13. — Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. 74. — Beissner, Eandb. Nadelh. 70, f. 16, 17. — Hansen, 

i. 374. — Masters, Jour. R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 205 ; Jour. Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 278 {Pinetum Danicum). — R. 

Linn. Soc. xxxi. 353, f . 28. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 51. Hartig, Forstbot. Zeit. 1892, 21. 

Cupressus fragrans, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. i. 103 Cupressus Boursierii, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 125 

(1856). (1867). 

Cupressus attenuata, Gordon, Pinetum, 57 (1858). Cupressus Nutkana, Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Explor. Exped. 

Chamsecyparis Lawsonii, Parlatore, Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. t. 16 (1874). 

Firenze,i. 175, t. 3, f. 22-25 (Stud. Organ. Conif) (1864). ? Cupressus Balfouriana, Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 79 

Chamsecyparis Lawsoniana, Parlatore, De Candolle (1879). 

A tree, often two hundred feet in height, with a tall trunk frequently twelve feet in diameter 
above its abruptly enlarged base and often free of branches for one hundred and fifty feet, small 
horizontal or pendulous branches which form a narrow spire-like head, and slender branchlets clothed 
with remote narrow flat spray frequently six or eight inches in length. The bark of the trunk, which 
is often ten inches in thickness at the base of old trees, is three or four inches thick on smaller stems ; 
it is dark reddish brown, with two distinct layers, the inner being from an eighth to a quarter of an 
inch in thickness, darker, more compact and firmer than the outer, which is divided into great broad- 
based rounded ridges separated on the surface into small thick closely appressed scales ; on young stems 
and on the branches the bark is thin, dark reddish brown and slightly scaly. The branchlets are 
slender, compressed during the first season, light green for two years, and then light reddish brown. 
The leaves on lateral branchlets are ovate, acute, conspicuously glandular on the back, closely appressed, 
usually not more than one sixteenth of an inch long, and bright green ; on leading shoots they are 
long-pointed and often spreading at the apex, from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in length, 
and usually die, turn bright red-brown, and fall during the third year or occasionally remain another 
season on the branches ; on seedling plants they are linear-lanceolate, thin and spreading, acute or 
rounded at the apex, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and bright green with obscure 
midribs. The flowers appear in early spring, the staminate with bright red connectives bearing usually 
two pollen-sacs, and the pistillate with dark ovate acute spreading scales. The fruit, which is 
clustered on the upper lateral branchlets and is usually produced in great profusion, ripens in September 
and October ; it is globose, about a third of an inch in diameter, pale green and glaucous when fully 
grown, and red-brown and often covered with a bloom at maturity, with eight or ten rugose scales 
furnished with thin broadly ovate acute reflexed bosses. From two to four seeds are produced under 
each fertile scale ; they are ovate, acute, slightly compressed, an eighth of an inch long, and light 
chestnut-brown, with thin broad wings. 



120 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

Cujwessus Lawsoniana is distributed from the shores of Coos Bay in southwestern Oregon 
southward to the mouth of the Klamath River, California, and ranges inland for about thirty miles 
from the coast; it occurs on the mountains near Waldo in Josephine County, Oregon, and in small 
isolated groves on the slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains and on the southern flanks of Mt. Shasta in 
California, where, growing on the banks of streams and lakes at an elevation of about five thou- 
sand feet above the sea, it was discovered in the autumn of 1854 by Mr. William Murray. North of 
Rogue River on the coast of Oregon it is most abundant, and, mingled with Pseudotsuga taxifolia, 
Picea Sitchensis, Thuya gigantea, Tsuga Mertensiana, and Abies grandis, forms one of the most 
prolific and beautiful coniferous forests of the continent, unsurpassed in the variety and luxuriance of 
its undergrowth of Rhododendrons, Vacciniums, Raspberries, Buckthorns, and Ferns. Here Cupressus 
Lawsoniana grows on rather high dry sandy ridges, its seedlings soon covering the ground which 
has been stripped of its forest mantle, and flourishes even on the sand-dunes of sea-beaches, where it 
is often bathed in saline spray. It attains its largest size, however, on the western slopes of the Coast 
Range foothills, where, about three miles from the shore, between Point Gregory and the mouth of the 
Coquille River, it is the principal tree in a nearly continuous forest belt about twenty miles in length 
and twelve in width. 1 

Cupressus Lawsoniana, which is probably the largest and most valuable of the Cupressinese, and 
remarkable for the great thickness of the bark of its trunk, is one of the important timber-trees of 
North America. The wood is light, hard, strong, and very close-grained, abounding in fragrant resin, 
and is very durable in contact with the soil and easily worked, with a satiny surface susceptible of 
receiving a beautiful polish ; it is light yellow or almost white, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood, 
and contains thin inconspicuous layers of small summer-cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4621, a cubic foot weighing 28.80 pounds. It is 
largely manufactured into lumber, and on the Pacific coast is used for the interior finish and flooring 
of buildings, for railway-ties and fence-posts, in ship and boat building, and almost exclusively in the 
manufacture of matches. The resin is a powerful diuretic. 2 

Cujjressus Lawsoniana 3 was first cultivated in the nursery of Peter Lawson & Company of 
Edinburgh, where it was raised from seeds sent from California in 1854 by William Murray. With 
its delicate feathery branches, its graceful drooping leading shoots, and its light and cheerful color, 
Cupressus Lawsoniana in youth is one of the most beautiful of the conifers cultivated in gardens. 
In western, central, and southern Europe, where it has already attained a considerable size, it is a 
favorite ornament of parks and gardens, and under cultivation has developed many abnormal forms. 4 
It is occasionally planted in the middle and south Atlantic states, although here it displays less beauty 
than in western Europe. 

The specific name commemorates Sir Charles Lawson 5 of Bothwick Hall, Mid-Lothian, the 
distinguished rural economist, and Lord Provost of the city of Edinburgh. 

1 Sargent, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xvi. 8. been associated, in the management of the affairs of the firm, which 

2 The odor of the resin of the newly cut wood is so powerful by his intelligence and energy he soon made a power in the de- 
that men employed in the saw-mills where it is manufactured into velopment of Scottish agriculture, extending its connections to all 
lumber become, at the end of a few days, so weakened by diuresis parts of the world. He introduced many useful plants into his 
that they have to abandon work unless a change to some other native land, including the Italian Rye-grass, the Austrian Pine, 
wood is made. and Lawson's Cypress. He was the author of The A grostographia, 

8 In Oregon Cupressus Lawsoniana is also called Oregon Cedar, or Book of Grasses, which passed through several editions and was 

White Cedar, and Ginger Pine. long considered the standard British book on agricultural grasses, 

4 See Gard. Chron. 1870, 279, f. 49 {Cupressus Lawsoniana, erecta and of The Agriculturists Manual, published in 1836, and containing 

viridis). — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, i. 176, f. 41. — The Garden, xxx. familiar descriptions of the agricultural plants cultivated in 

75. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 72. Europe, with practical observations respecting those suited to the 

6 Charles Lawson (1794-1873) was a son of Peter Lawson, the climate of Great Britain. Some time before his death Mr. Lawson 

founder of the seed and nursery business of Peter Lawson & Sons, began the publication of the Pinetum Britannicum, an illustrated 

of Edinburgh. In 1821 he succeeded his father, with whom he had folio devoted to the description of the hardy coniferous trees cul- 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 1 - 1 



tivated in Great Britain. This book, which suffered a number of which he devoted to the public affairs of Edinburgh, becoming 

interruptions, was finally completed by several editors in 1884 in chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, Master of the Merchants 

three volumes, one hundred copies only being printed. Mr. Law- Company, and in 1861 Lord Provost. (See The Scotsman, Decem- 

son's active participation in the affairs of his firm ceased about ber 13, 1873.) 
1850, although he remained a partner during the rest of his life, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXL Cupressus Lawsoniana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A scale of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 

15. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of Worth America, 



Tab. DXXX1. 




CKFaxon. dels. 



ffzrrbeZy so . 



CUPRESSUS LAWSONIANA, A.Mutt. 



^..RCocreuio-ciireas- .■ 



Imp. J.Tcaiez&r, J* oris. 



conifers SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 123 



THUYA. 

Flowers naked, monoecious, terminal, solitary; stamens decussately opposite; 
anther-cells 2 to 4 ; scales of the pistillate flower 8 to 12, oblong, acute ; ovules 2 or 3. 
Fruit an erect strobile maturing in one season. Leaves dimorphic, persistent. 

Thuya, Linnseus, Gen. 378 (1737). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. ii. pt. i. 97. — Baillon, Hist. Pi. xii. 34 (in part). — Mas- 

413. — Endlicher, Gen. 258. — Meisner, Gen. 352. — Ben- ters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 19. 

tham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 426 (excl. sees. Thuyopsis and Biota, D. Don, Lambert Pimis, ed. 2, ii. 129 (1828). — 
Chamaecyparis). — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. Endlicher, Gen. Suppl. iv. pt. ii. 3: 

Platycladus, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 333 (in part) (1842). 

Resinous aromatic trees, with thin scaly bark, soft light yellow or red-brown durable straight- 
grained slightly fragrant wood, slender spreading or erect branches, pyramidal heads, flattened lateral 
pendulous or erect branchlets disposed in one horizontal plane forming an open distichous spray 
usually pale and stomatiferous below and often ultimately deciduous, naked buds and fibrous roots. 
Leaves opposite, imbricated in four ranks, scale-like, ovate, acute, glandular or eglandular on the back, 
persistent ; on leading shoots nearly equally decussate, appressed or spreading, remote by the lengthening 
of the nodes, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, acuminate with long slender points ; on lateral 
branchlets, those of the lateral ranks much compressed, conspicuously carinate, and nearly covering 
those of the other ranks ; on seedling plants linear-lanceolate, acuminate, spreading or reflexed, pale 
and stomatiferous on the lower surface. Flowers minute, monoecious, appearing in very early spring 
from buds formed the previous winter, the staminate and pistillate usually on different branchlets, 
terminal, solitary. Staminate flower ovoid, composed of a subsessile axis, with four or six decussately 
opposite stamens ; filaments short, enlarged into suborbicular eccentrically peltate connectives bearing 
on their inner face from two to four subglobose two-valved pendulous anther-cells opening below 
longitudinally ; pollen-grains simple. Pistillate flower ovoid or oblong, composed of from eight to 
twelve erect oblong acute slightly imbricated decussate scales, the central, or the lower (Biota) fertile, 
slightly thickened at the base on the inner surface by the ovuliferous scales bearing from two to four 
erect collateral orthotropous bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit ripening the first season, pale cinnamon 
brown, ovoid-oblong, erect ; scales thin, leathery, oblong, acute, marked near the apex by the thickened 
more or less free mucronulate border of the enlarged flower-scales, those of the two or three middle 
ranks larger than the others, and fertile, with two or rarely three seeds, or, under the lowest, with 
one (Euthuya) ; or oblong, somewhat fleshy when fully grown, becoming woody at maturity, with 
thicker conspicuously umbonate scales, the lowest four usually fertile, and bearing each from two 
to four seeds (Biota). Seeds erect on the base of the scale, ovate, acute, compressed, light chestnut- 
brown ; testa membranaceous, produced into broad lateral wings, distinct at the apex, often slightly 
unequal and lighter colored than the body of the seed ; hilum minute (Euthuya) ; or thickened, rounded 
or obscurely angled on the back, wingless, dark red-purple, marked on the oblique base by large 
oblono- pale hilums ; seed-coat thick, of two layers, the outer thick and crustaceous, marked externally 
with rufous fibres, the inner membranaceous (Biota). Embryo axile, 1 in copious fleshy albumen; 
cotyledons two, longer than the superior radicle. 2 

1 Mirbel & Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 2, xx. 261, t. 10. Gen. iii. 427). Fruit erect, its scales thin, leathery, oblong, acute, 

2 By Eichler (Engler & Prantl, P/ianzenfam. ii. pt. i. 97) Thuya mucronulate, those of the two or three middle ranks larger than 
has been divided into the following sections : — the others and fertile ; seeds compressed, light chestnut-brown, 

Euthuya. (Euthuya and Macrothuya, Bentham & Hooker, 



124 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Four species of Thuya are known ; one species, the type of the genus, inhabits northeastern North 
America, and one inhabits northwestern North America ; another grows on the mountains of central 
Japan, 1 and the fourth in China. 2 The type is an ancient one, and during the tertiary period Thuya 
was widely distributed through both hemispheres. 3 

Thuya produces valuable wood used in construction and for purposes where durability in contact 
with the soil is demanded. The eastern American species, which contains a volatile oil and thujin, a 
crystalline principle, possesses stimulating properties, and is occasionally used medicinally in the United 
States. The bark of Thuya is rich in tannin. 4 Its species are valuable ornamental trees, and with 
their varieties are cultivated in the parks and gardens of all temperate countries. 

In North America Thuya is not seriously injured by insects 5 or fungal diseases. 6 



the membranaceous testa produced into broad lateral wings ; hilum 
minute. 

Biota. Fruit erect, its scales thick, conspicuously umbonate, 
the lowest four usually fertile, and bearing from two to four seeds 
each ; seeds thickened, rounded or obscurely angled on the back, 
wingless, the thick seed-coat dark red-purple ; hilum large, oblong, 
conspicuous. 

1 Thuya Standishii, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 108 (1867).— 
Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 589, f. 102. — Beissner, Handb. 
Nadelh. 49. 

Thujopsis ? Standiskii, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 100 (1865). — 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 289. 

Thuya Japonica, Maximowiez, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pe'tersbourg, 
x. 490 (Mel. Biol. vi. 26) (1866). — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xviii. 486 (Conifers of Japan). 

Thuya gigantea, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 457 
(in part) (not Nuttall) (1868). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 176. 
Thuya gigantea var. Japonica, Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL 
Jap. i. 469 (1875). 

A rare inhabitant of the forests of central Hondo, the Japanese 
Arbor-vitae is a pyramidal tree occasionally thirty feet high, grow- 
ing by the borders of streams and lakes at elevations of from four 
to five thousand feet above the level of the sea. It was introduced 
into European and American gardens about thirty years ago, and 
in the United States has proved hardy in eastern Massachusetts, 
where a plant about eighteen feet high in Mr. Hunnewell's Pine- 
tum at Wellesley has ripened its fruit. 

2 Thuya orientalis, Linnaeus, Spec. 1002 (1753). — Thunberg, Fl. 
Jap. 266. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 509. — Richard, Comm. Bot. 
Conif. 40, t. 7, f. 2. — Siebold & Zuccariui, Fl. Jap. ii. 31, 1. 118. — 
Masters, I. c. 488. 

Thuya acuta, Moench, Meth. 692 (1794). 
Thuya decora, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 
Cupressus Thuya, Targioni-Tozzetti, Obs. Bot. iii.-v. 72 (1808- 
10). 

Platycladus stricta, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 335 (1842). 
Biota orientalis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif '. 47 (1847). — Carriere, 
Traite Conif. 92. — Gordon, Pinetum, 32. — Henkel & Hochstet- 
ter, Syn. Nadelh. 270. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. iii. 167 
(Prol. Fl. Jap.). — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
461. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 181. — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PI. Jap. i. 470. 

This slender dense bushy bright green tree inhabits the mountain 
forests of central and northern China, and in cultivation rarely at- 
tains a height of twenty feet. Although it has generally been con- 
sidered indigenous in Japan, it was probably introduced there by 
Buddhist priests. For centuries it has been a favorite garden plant 
in Japan, where numerous seminal varieties have been propagated 



and whence it was carried to Europe about the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century ; it is now one of the most generally cultivated 
coniferous plants in the gardens of all temperate countries. Curi- 
ous among the innumerable varieties which have been raised from 
its seeds, and which are mostly distinguished by their more open 
or their dwarfer habit and by the color of their foliage, which in 
some forms is bright golden, is the tree with long slender flexible 
pensile branchlets found by Thunberg in the temple gardens of 
Japan, and for many years believed to be a distinct species. It is : 
Thuya orientalis, var. pendula, Masters, I. v. (1881). 
Cupressus pendula, Thunberg, I. c. 265 (1784). 
Cupressus patula, Persoon, Syn. ii. 580 (1807). 
Thuya pendula, Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, ii. 115, t. (1828). — 
Siebold & Zuccarini, I. c. 30, t. 117. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 
197, t. 63. —Miquel, I. c. 

Thuya filiformis, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxviii. t. 20 (1842). 
Biota pendula, Endlicher, I. c. 49. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. 
Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 205. — Carriere, I. c. 97. — Gordon, I. u. 35. 
Biota orientalis filiformis, Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 272 
(1865). 

Biota orientalis, fl pendula, Parlatore, I. c. 462 (1868). 
For other varieties of Thuya orientalis, see Veitch, Man. Conif. 
252. — Beissner, I. v. 56. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 252. 

3 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 98. — Zittel, Handb. 
Palaontolog. ii. 320. 

4 Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 162. 

° Few species of insects are known to live upon Thuya in North 
America, and only two or three cause serious injury to healthy 
trees. No borers in the living wood are recorded, although the 
larvae of several species of beetle live under the bark of dead trees. 
Among foliage destroyers, the Bag-worm, Thyridopteryx ephemerm- 
formis, Haworth, sometimes injures trees planted in the regions 
south of Massachusetts ; but it does not seem to thrive in the north 
or to affect trees growing naturally. Among other Lepidoptera 
found feeding on Thuya, but not known to be specially injurious to 
it, are Attacus Promethea, Harris, Eupithecia miserulata, Grote, Ema- 
turga Faxonii, Minot, and Bucculatrix thuiella, Packard. Lophyrus 
Abietis, Harris, and probably the larvae of other sawflies, are also 
occasionally found on this tree. A mite, Phytoptus Thuya;, Garman, 
has been described as occurring on Thuya occidentalis, cultivated in 
Illinois. 

6 Little is known of the fungi which attack the western Thuya 
gigantea in its native forests, but planted trees in Germany have 
suffered from Pestalozzia funerea, Desmazieres, which causes the 
death of the young branches (see Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xix. 554) ; and 
Thuya occidentalis does not suffer seriously from fungal disease. 
The species which have been noted on this tree are mostly small 
forms of Discomycetes, Hysteriacese, and various Fungi Imperfecti 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 125 

Plants of the species can be easily raised from seeds, and the varieties can be propagated by 
cuttings made from young branches. 

Thuya, 1 the classical name of some coniferous trees, was adopted by Tournef ort 2 and afterward by 
Linnaeus for this genus. 

which also attack related genera, like Pitya Cupressi, Saccardo, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 480), Thuja (Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 449 
which also occurs on Cupressus thyoides. [1737] ; Spec. 1002), and Thuia (Scopoli, Introduct. 353 [1777]). 

1 Thuya has been written Thya (Rumphius, Fl. Jen. 315 [1718]. — 2 Inst. 586, t. 358. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Euthuya. Fruit erect, its thin scales mucronulate ; seeds compressed, the thin testa produced 
into broad lateral wings. 

Fruit small, with usually four fertile scales L T - occidextalis. 

Fruit larger, with usually six fertile scales 2 - T - gigantea. 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



THUYA OCCIDENTALIS. 

White Cedar. Arbor- VitsB. 
Fruit small, with usually 4 fertile scales. Wood light yellow-brown. 



Thuya occidentalis, Linnaeus, Spec. 1002 (excl. hab. Sibe- 
ria) (1753). — Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Muenchhausen, 
Hausv. v. 333. — Wangenheim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 
49 ; Nordam. Holz. 7, t. 2, f. 3. — Marshall, Arbust. 
Am. 152. — Moench, Baume Weiss. 135. — Evelyn, 
Silva, ed. Hunter, ii. 35. — Walter, El. Car. 238. — 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 386. — Gaert- 
ner, Fruct. ii. 62, t. 91. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 
383; Spec. iv. pt. i. 508; Enum. 990. — Borkhausen, 
Handb. Forstbot. i. 456. — Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 12, 
t. 4. — Michaux, El. Bor.-Am. ii. 209. — Schkuhr, 
Handb. iii. 287, t. 309. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vii. 639 ; 
HI. iii. 369, t. 787. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 580. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 575. — Du Mont de Courset, 
Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 452. — Titf ord, Hort. Bot. Am. 
98. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 437. — Michaux f. 
Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 29, t. 3. — Pursh, El. Am. Sept. ii. 
646. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 224. — Hayne, Dendr. El. 111. — 
Elliott, Sk. i. 641. — Jaume St. Hilaire, Traite des Arbres 
Forestiers, t. 87. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. 150, t. 150. — 
Sprengel, Syst. iii. 888. — Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. 43, 
t. 7, f. 1. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 193. — Hooker, 
El. Bor.-Am. ii. 165. — Bigelow,i<7. Boston, ed. 3, 388. — 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 339. — Torrey, El. N. Y. ii. 234. — 
Emerson, Trees Mass. 96; ed. 2, i. 112. — Endlicher, 



Syn. Conif. 51. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Bond. v. 206. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 16. — Darlington, 
El. Cestr. ed. 3, 294. — Carriere, Bev. Hort. 1854, 225 ; 
Traite Conif. 103. — Gordon, Pinetum, 323. — Chap- 
man, El. 436. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
278. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 68. — R. Brown 
Campst. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, ix. 363. — Hoopes, 
Evergreens, 317. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
pt. ii. 458. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 76, f . 2. — K. Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 173. — Nordlinger, Forstbot. 465, f. — 
Veitch, Man. Conif 261. — Regel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, 
18. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 176. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 67, f. 8. — 
Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 370. — Willkomm, Eorst. Fl. 
ed. 2, 249. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
494. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 196, t. 6, f., t. 8, f. — Beiss- 
ner, Handb. Nadelh. 32, f. 3-5. — Masters, Jour. B. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 252. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
272 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
48. 

Thuya odorata, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 152 (1785). 

Thuya obtusa, Mcench, Meth. 691 (1794). 

Thuya procera, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 

Cupressus Arbor-vitse, Targioni-Tozzetti, Obs. Bot. iii.-v. 
71 (1808-10). 



A tree, fifty or sixty feet in height, with a short often lobed and buttressed trunk occasionally six, 
although usually not more than two or three feet in diameter, often dividing into two or three stout 
upright secondary stems, and with short horizontal branches which soon turn upward and form a narrow 
rather compact head, and deciduous pendulous lateral branchlets three or four inches in length. The 
bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one third of an inch in thickness and is light red-brown often 
tinged with orange-color and broken by shallow fissures into narrow flat connected ridges which separate 
into elongated fibrous more or less persistent scales. The branchlets when they first appear are light 
yellow-green and paler on the lower surface than on the upper, changing with the death of the leaves 
during their second season to light cinnamon-red and growing darker during the following year ; grad- 
ually becoming terete and abruptly enlarged at the base, they are finally covered with smooth lustrous 
dark orange-brown bark and marked by conspicuous elevated scars left by the falling of the lateral 
branchlets. On leading shoots the leaves are often nearly a quarter of an inch in length, long-pointed, 
and usually conspicuously glandular ; on lateral branchlets they are much flattened, rounded and apiculate 
at the apex, eglandular or obscurely glandular-pitted, and about an eighth of an inch long. The flowers 
open in April and May and are liver-colored. The fruit ripens and discharges its seeds in the early 
autumn, but remains on the branch until after the appearance of the new growth the following spring ; 
it varies from one third to nearly one half of an inch in length ; the scales of the two oentral ranks are 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. VN 

fertile, although those of the lower of these ranks often bear only single seeds. The seed is about 
an eighth of an inch long and nearly surrounded by thin wings as wide as its body. 

Thuya occidentalis is distributed from the neighborhood of Annapolis, Nova Scotia, through New 
Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, where it is abundant, northward nearly to Lake _Mistassinni and the 
shores of James Bay, the line of the northern limits of its range, then crossing the Albany River at 
some distance from its mouth, trends south westward to the southern borders of Lake Winnipeg, its 
most northwesterly recorded station being on the shores of Cedar Lake, near the mouth of the Saskatch- 
ewan ; 1 it ranges through the northern states to southern New Hampshire, central Massachusetts and 
New York, northern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois and central Minnesota, and along 
the high Alleghany Mountains to southern Virginia. Very common in the north, except in the 
elevated mountain regions of northern New England and New York, and the coast region south of 
New Hampshire, it is frequently spread over great areas of springy swamp-land, which it covers with 
nearly impenetrable forests, and often occupies the rocky banks of streams where its roots can penetrate 
between the crevices of the ledges and obtain an abundant supply of moisture. Toward the southern 
limits of its range it is less abundant and smaller, and on the southern Alleghany Moun tarns it is 
found only at high elevations on the borders of streams where individual trees sometimes grow to a 
large size. 

The wood of Thuya occidentalis is light, soft, brittle, and rather coarse-grained, and very 
durable in contact with the soil ; it is fragrant and light yellow-brown, turning darker with exposure, 
with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored bands of small summer-cells and 
numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3164, a cubic 
foot weighing 19.72 pounds. It is largely used in Canada and the northern states for fence-posts and 
rails, railway-ties, and shingles. The thick layers of sapwood, which are easily separated, are 
manufactured by the Canadian Indians into baskets and are used to strengthen birch-bark canoes ; 2 
and the fresh branches frequently serve as brooms. 3 Fluid extracts and tinctures are made from the 
young branchlets, and are sometimes employed in the treatment of amenorrhcea and catarrhal affections, 
and externally to remove warts and fungal growths, 4 and also in homoeopathic practice. 5 

Thuya occidentalis, which was probably the first North American tree introduced into Europe, 
was cultivated in Paris before the middle of the sixteenth century, and the earliest account of it was 
published by Belon in 1558. 6 For at least a hundred years it has been a favorite garden plant, and in 
cultivation has produced many forms distinguished by their abnormal habit and by the coloring of the 
leaves, which sometimes are bright yellow ; 7 in the northern United States it has been largely planted 
to form hedges, 8 although on high dry ground, or when fully exposed to the wind, these frequently suffer 
during severe winters. 

1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 59. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. Arbor Vitae, sive Paradisiaca vulgb dicta, odorata ad Sabinam 
1879-80, 47°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 459. accedens, J. Bauhin, Hist. PL i. lib. ix. 286, f. 

2 Provancher, Flore Canadienne, ii. 558. — Porcher, Resources of Thuja strobilis Icevibus : squamis obtusis, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 
Southern Fields and Forests, 507. 449; Hort. Ups. 289. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 87. 

8 Kalm, Travels, English ed. iii. 173. 7 Beissner (Handb. Nadelh. 32) enumerates forty varieties of 

4 Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 143. — Rafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. Thuya occidentalis, and there are several others which are known 

268. Griffith, Med. Bot. 609. —Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. only in American gardens. Many of them show their distinctive 

260. U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1492. peculiarities only while young, and soon grow into the normal 

6 Hamilton, FL Homceopathica, ii. 202, t. 63. — Millspaugh, Am. form, and to several originating independently in different nurseries 

Med. PL in Homceopathic Remedies, ii. 165, t. 165. more than one name has been given. Although interesting as show- 

6 Arbor Vita;, Belon, Arb. Conif. 13. — Dodoens, Hist. Stirp. ing the tendency of the tree to vary in cultivation, none of these 

Pemp. 857, f. — Gerarde, Herball, 1186, f . — Clusius, Hist. PL i. forms equals in beauty the original typ», which, stiff and formal in 

30 Parkinson Theatr. 1478, f. outline when planted as an isolated specimen on high ground, is 

Cedrus Lycia. Arbor vitas, Lobel, Stirp. Hist. 630, f. admirably suited for massing on the borders of streams and lakes. 

Arbor vita; Gallis, Dalechamps, Hist. Gen. PL i. 60. 8 Downing, Landscape Gardening, ed. H. W. Sargent, 267.— 

Thuya Theophrasti, C. Bauhin, Pinax, 488. Warder, Hedges and Evergreens, 42, 260. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXII. Thuya occidentalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A pollen-sac, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit, enlarged. 

9. A scale of fruit with its seeds, front view, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a branchlet, enlarged. 

15. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North. America. 



Tab. DXXXII. 




C.H.Faason. del. 



Hinxeh/ so . 



THUYA OCCIDENTALIS.L 



A.RLocreua> ctireco. 



Imp . J. TazLeus , i Fcvris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 129 



THUYA GIGANTEA. 
Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar. 
Fruit large, with usually 6 fertile scales. Wood dull red-brown. 

Thuya gigantea, Nuttall, Jour. Phil. Acad. vii. pt. i. 52 Man. Conif. 256. — Regel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, i. 20. — 

(1834) ; Sylva, iii. 102, t. 91. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

ii. 165. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 342. — Endlicher, Syn. 111. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 68. — Mayr, 

Conif. 52. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. Wald. Nordam. 319, f . 13, t. 6, f ., t. 8, f . — Lemmon, Rep. 

v. 206. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. ii. 56, f. California State Board Forestry, iii. 171, t. 20, 21 (Cone- 

22. — Carriere, Traite Conif 105 (in part). — Gordon, Bearers of California). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 46, 

Pinetum, 321 (in part) ; Suppl. 102. — Torrey, Bot. f . 6, 7. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 251. — Han- 

Mex. Bound. Surv. 211. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. sen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 270 (Pinetum Danicum). — 

xii. pt. ii. 69 ; Am. Nat. iii. 413. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 48. 

Soc. vii. 133, 144. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. Thuya Menziesii, Carriere, Traite Conif. 106 (1855). — 

280 (in part). — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 67. — Parla- Gordon, Pinetum, 323. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 

tore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 457. — R. Brown 67. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 281. 
Campst. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, ix. 367. — Hoopes, Thuya plicata, Sudworth, Rep. TJ. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 328 

Evergreens, 315. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 176. — En- (probably not D. Don) (1893). — Lemmon, West-Ameri- 

gelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 115. — Veitch, can Cone-Bearers, 72. 

A tree, with short horizontal branches, usually pendulous at the extremities, which often clothe the 
stem nearly to the ground until it is sixty or seventy feet tall, frequently attaining a height of two 
hundred feet, with a broad buttressed base sometimes fifteen feet in diameter and tapering gradually 
until the trunk is not more than five or six feet thick at twelve or fifteen feet above the ground ; 1 in old 
age the trunk often separates toward the summit into two or three erect divisions, and forms a dense 
narrow pyramidal spire, or, when the tree has been crowded in the forest, a short narrow crown. The 
bark of the trunk is bright cinnamon-red, from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and 
irregularly divided by narrow shallow fissures into broad ridges rounded on the back and broken on 
the surface into long narrow rather loose plate-like fibrous scales. The branchlets are slender, much 
compressed, often slightly zigzag, light bright yellow-green during their first year, then cinnamon- 
brown, and when the leaves have fallen, usually in their third year, lustrous and dark reddish brown 
often tinged with purple ; the lateral branchlets, which turn yellow and fall generally at the end of 
their second season, are often five or six inches in length, light yellow-green and lustrous on the upper 
surface, and somewhat paler on the lower. On leading shoots the leaves are ovate, long-pointed, often 
conspicuously glandular on the back, and frequently a quarter of an inch in length, and on the lateral 
branchlets they are ovate, apiculate, eglandular or obscurely glandular-pitted, and usually not more 
than an eighth of an inch long. The flowers are about one twelfth of an inch in length and dark 
brown. The fruit, which ripens early in the autumn, is clustered near the ends of the branches and 
much reflexed, and is half an inch long, with thin leathery scales conspicuously marked near the apex 
by the free border of the flower-scales, which are furnished with short stout erect or recurved dark 
mucros. The scales of two or of three of the central ranks bear seeds ; there are often three in number 
under each scale, and rather shorter than their wings, which are nearly one quarter of an inch in 
length, and usually slightly unequal. 

Thuya gigantea is widely and generally distributed, but nowhere forms pure forests, growing 
singly or in small groves generally on low moist bottom-lands or near the banks of mountain streams, 

1 Garden and Forest, iv. 109, f . 23. 



130 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

and also, although less commonly, on dry ridges and mountain slopes, which in the interior it sometimes 
ascends to elevations of six thousand feet above the level of the sea. It is distributed from the coast 
region of southern Alaska, 1 where it is scattered through the forests of Spruce and Hemlock, southward 
along the coast ranges and islands of British Columbia, through western Washington and Oregon, 
where it is most abundant and grows to its largest size on low lands in the immediate neighborhood of 
the coast associated with the Tide-water Spruce, and through the California coast region, where its 
ordinary companions are the Redwood, the Douglas Fir, and the White Fir, to Mendocino County ; it 
spreads eastward along many of the interior ranges of British Columbia to the western slope of the 
continental divide, which, as a low shrub, it sometimes ascends to elevations of six thousand feet, 2 and 
along those of northern Washington and the Cceur d'Alene, Bitter Root, and Salmon River Mountains 
of Idaho, to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana, where it rarely descends 
below elevations of five thousand feet. 

The wood of Thuya gigantea is very light, soft, not strong, brittle, rather coarse-grained, easily 
split, and very durable in contact with the soil ; 3 it is dull brown tinged with red, with thin nearly 
white sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored distinct bands of small summer-cells and numerous 
obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3796, a cubic foot 
weighing 23.66 pounds. It is largely used in Washington and Oregon for the interior finish of 
buildings, for doors, sashes, fences, and shingles, and in cabinet-making and cooperage. From the trunks 
of this tree the Indians of the northwest coast split the planks used in the construction of their lodges, 
carved the totems which decorated their villages, and hollowed out their great war canoes. From the 
fibres of the inner bark they made ropes, blankets and cloaks, and the thatch for their cabins. 4 

Thuya gigantea was discovered by Menzies, the surgeon and naturalist of Vancouver in 1796. 5 
It was not described until many years later, when it was found by Douglas on the lower Columbia 
River. Introduced into English gardens about half a century ago, Thuya gigantea 6 has proved 
hardy in western and central Europe, where it has already attained a large size; 7 and occasionally 
cultivated in the middle and northern United States, it survives the winters of eastern Massachusetts. 

The noblest of its race and one of the most valuable timber-trees of northwestern America, Thuya 
gigantea is rapidly disappearing with the spread of forest fires, which, burning through their thin bark, 
soon kill these trees. 

1 Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 93. — F. Kurtz, Bot. Jdhrb. turn, ed. 2, 406. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 457. — 
xix. 424 (Fl. Chilcatgebietes). Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 44). There is great uncertainty in regard 

2 J. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 324. — Macoun, Cat. Can. to the true character of the plant originally described by Don, but 
PI. 460. most of the individuals now cultivated under this name are forms 

3 The durability of the wood of Thuya gigantea is shown by the of Thuya occidentalis, although Thuya gigantea is also occasionally 
sound condition of logs which must have lain on the ground for cultivated as Thuya plicata. No tree resembling the Thuya plicata 
more than a century, as other trees sprung from seed deposited of gardens has been found in northwestern America, and this plant, 
upon them after they had fallen have in one recorded instance at- like most of its varieties, is best considered a garden form referable 
tained a trunk diameter of from three to four feet ; and near the to Thuya occidentalis rather than to Thuya gigantea. 

shores of Shoal Water Bay, Washington, submerged by the grad- 6 In English gardens Thuya gigantea is frequently cultivated as 
ual sinking of the land, the trunks of Thuya long stood erect as the Thuya Lobbii and as Thuya Lobbiana ; and in most European gar- 
last witnesses to the fact that forests had once covered the spot. dens the names of Thuya gigantea and of Libocedrus decurrens have 
(See Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 25.) been exchanged through a mistake in identification made by one of 

4 R. Brown Campst. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, ix. 369. the early collectors of the seeds of these trees. (See R. Brown 

5 A small compact Thuya, regular in outline, and said to have Campst. Gard. Chron. 1873, 8.) Forms slightly differing in habit 
been discovered by Menzies on Vancouver's Island in 1796, as well and in the color of the branchlets are occasionally cultivated in 
as several forms raised in gardens, has long been cultivated in European collections. (See Beissner, I. c. 48.) 

Europe under the name of Thuya plicata (D. Don, Cat. Hort. Can- 7 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1527. — Webster, Trans. Scottish 

tab. ed. 6, 249 [1811]. — Lambert, Pinus, ii. 19. — Spach, Hist. Arboricultural Soc. xi. 66 (Thuja Lobbii). — R. Hartig, Forst.-Nat. 

Veg. xi. 342. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 51. — Carriere, Traite Conif. Zeit. 1892, 28. 
102.— Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 277. — Gordon, Pine- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXIII. Thuya gigantea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A scale of a fruit, front view, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

12. Seedlings, natural size. 



Siiva of North America 



Tab.DXXXlII. 




C.E.Fazcorv del. 



Himety so. 



THUYA GIGANTEA, Nutt. 



AtMwcreutz> direa> 1 



Imp . J.Tcuieur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 133 



LIBOCEDRUS. 

Flowers naked, monoecious or dioecious, terminal, solitary ; stamens numerous, in 
many ranks, decussately opposite ; anther-cells usually 4 ; scales of the pistillate flower 
4 or 6, acuminate ; ovules 2. Fruit a strobile maturing in one season. Leaves 
dimorphic, persistent. 

Libocedrus, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 42 (1847) ; Gen. Suppl. Heyderia, K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 177 (1873). 

iv. pt. ii. 3. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 426. — Eichler, Calocedrus, Kurz, Jour. Bot. xi. 196 (1873). 

Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. i. 95. — Masters, Thuya, Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 34 (in part) (not Linnseus) 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 19. (1892). 

Resinous aromatic trees, with scaly bark, soft straight-grained durable fragrant wood, spreading 
branches, flattened branchlets disposed in one horizontal plane forming an open distichous spray, and 
often ultimately deciduous, naked buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves scale-like, opposite, imbricated in 
four ranks, glandular or eglandular on the back, entire with thin cartilaginous margins, persistent ; on 
leading shoots nearly equally decussate, closely appressed or spreading, often remote by the lengthening 
of the nodes, dying and becoming woody before falling ; on lateral flattened branchlets those of the 
lateral ranks much compressed, conspicuously carinate and nearly covering those of the other ranks ; 
on seedling plants linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers appearing in winter or very early spring 
from buds formed the previous autumn, monoecious, with those of the two sexes on different branchlets 
or dioecious, solitary, terminal. Staminate flower subsessile, globose or ovoid; stamens from twelve 
to sixteen, decussately opposite on a slender axis ; filaments short, dilated into scale-like broadly ovate 
or orbicular eccentrically peltate connectives bearing usually four subglobose two-valved anther-cells 
opening on the back ; pollen-grains simple. Pistillate flower subglobose, ovoid or oblong, terminal on 
a short lateral branchlet, often subtended by several pairs of leaf-like scales slightly enlarged and 
persistent under the fruit, composed of four or rarely of six decussately opposite scales, acuminate with 
long or short points ; scales of the upper or of the middle rank much longer than those of the lower 
rank, ovate or oblong, fertile, bearing at the base on a minute accrescent ovuliferous scale two erect 
collateral orthotropous ovules. Fruit maturing in one season, ovoid or oblong, surrounded at the 
base by the somewhat enlarged upper leaves of the branchlet, persistent after the discharge of the 
seeds until the following season, its scales subcoriaceous, marked at the apex by the free slightly 
thickened mucronulate border of the enlarged flower-scale ; the lowest pair thin, ovate, reflexed, much 
shorter than the oblong or ovate thickened woody scales of the second rank widely spreading at 
maturity ; those of the third rank, when present, confluent into an erect woody septum. Seeds in 
pairs or solitary by abortion, erect, oblong-lanceolate, compressed ; testa coriaceous, produced into 
lateral membranaceous wings, the one narrow, the other broad, oblique and nearly as long as the 
scale, free, or united, with a conspicuous suture ; embryo axile in fleshy albumen ; cotyledons two, 
radicle cylindrical, superior. 

Eight species of Libocedrus, which is perhaps too closely connected with Thuya to be con- 
sidered generically distinct, are now distinguished ; one is widely scattered through the mountain 
forests of western North America ; two inhabit western South America, where they are distributed from 
Chili to Patagonia ; two occur in New Zealand, two in New Caledonia, 1 and one in southwestern 

1 Libocedrus austro-caledonica, Brongniart & Gris, Bull. Soc. ii. 32 (Records of Observations on Sir W. McGregor's Highland- 
Bot. France, xviii. 140 (1871), and Plants from New Guinea) (1889). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 31. 

Libocedrus Papuana, F. Mueller, Trans. R. Soc. Victoria, i. pt. 



134 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



China. 1 Species of Libocedrus analogous to those now existing in South America inhabited Greenland 
during the cretaceous period and then spread over Europe, well-defined traces of their existence in tertiary 
times appearing in the miocene rocks of Spitzenbergen and in central Europe, and in amber deposits. 2 

Libocedrus produces durable wood used in construction and for many rural purposes, the most 
valuable timber-trees of the genus being the South American Libocedrus cupressoides, 2, the New 
Zealand Libocedrus Bidwillii 4 and Libocedrus plumosa, 5 the North American Libocedrus decurrens, 
and the Chilian Libocedrus Chilensis. 6 

The North American Libocedrus is not known to suffer from insect enemies, but its value as a 
timber-tree is seriously impaired by fungal disease. 7 

The species of Libocedrus can be propagated by seeds and by cuttings made from branches of 
the year. 

The generic name, from ^t^dg and Cedrus, relates to the resinous character of these trees. 



1 Libocedrus macrolepis, Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 426 
(1880). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 30. 

Calocedrus macrolepis, Kurz, Jour. Bot. xi. 196, t. 133 (1873). 

2 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 97. — Zittel, Handb. 
Palceontolog. ii. 315. 

8 Libocedrus cupressoides. 

Pinus cupressoides, Molina, Saggio sulla storia naturale del 

Chile, 168 (1782). 

Thuya tetragona, Hooker, Lond. Jour. Bot. iii. 148, t. 4 (1844). 
Libocedrus tetragona, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 44 (1847). — Par- 

latore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 454. 

Libocedrus cupressoides, the Alerse of Chili, which in the shel- 
tered ravines of the Valdivian Andes is a tree from eighty to one 
hundred feet high, with a trunk occasionally ten feet in diameter, 
and at high elevations and on the shores of the Straits of Magellan 
a low much-branched bush, is distributed from southern Chili to 
Patagonia. The soft straight-grained wood is easily split and 
worked, and is almost indestructible by the action of weather. 
The trunks of the Alerse are used for the masts and spars of 
vessels, and are often manufactured into shingles and lumber 
employed for fencing and in construction of all sorts. The inner 
bark, which is imperishable in water, is used to calk the seams 
of boats and small vessels. (See P. Parker King, Narrative of the 
Surveying Voyage of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, i. 
282. — C. Gay, Fl. Chil. v. 407.) 

4 Hooker f. Fl. New Zeal. i. 257 (1867). 

Libocedrus Bidwillii is a tree from fifty to eighty feet in height, 
with a trunk sometimes three feet in diameter, which is widely 
scattered through the mountain forests of New Zealand, some- 
times ascending on the west coast of the Southern Island to ele- 
vations of nearly four thousand feet. The wood is red, straight- 
grained, light and brittle, but extremely durable ; in New Zealand 
it is used in construction and for piles, the posts and rails of 
fences, railway-ties, telegraph-poles, shingles, and weather-boards. 
(See Kirk, Forest Fl. New Zeal. 159, t. 82% f. 2, 83.) 

6 Libocedrus plumosa. 



Dacrydium plumosum, D. Don, Lambert Pinus, ed. 2, ii. Appx. 

143 (1828). —A. Cunningham, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 213. 

Thuya Doniana, Hooker, Lond. Jour. Bot. i. 571, 1. 18 (1842). — 

Hooker f . I. c. 231. 

Libocedrus Doniana, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 43. — Parlatore, 

De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 454. 

Libocedrus plumosa, a comparatively rare tree and confined to 
the Northern Island, is distinguished while young by its much 
flattened crowded branchlets giving a plume-like appearance to 
the branches, and is often one hundred feet high, with a straight 
naked trunk four or five feet in diameter, covered with the long 
ribbon-like loose scales of the reddish bark. The wood is light, 
strong, very durable, straight-grained, and dark red handsomely 
marked with darker stripes ; it is used in fencing, in construction, 
and for shingles, and is highly esteemed for cabinet-making and 
the interior finish of houses. (See Kirk, I. c. 158, t. 82, 82% f. 1.) 

6 Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 44 (1847). — Parlatore, De Candolle 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 455. 

Thuya Chilensis, D. Don, Lambert Pinus, ii. 19 (1824). — 
Hooker, Lond. Jour. Bot. ii. 199, t. 4. 

Thuya Andina, Poeppig & Endlicher, Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 17 
t. 220 (1845). 

Libocedrus Chilensis is a tree fifty or sixty feet in height, with 
a short trunk frequently branched from the base and a compact 
symmetrical pyramidal head, growing on the lower slopes of the 
Andes of southern Chili from latitude 34° south to Valdivia. The 
soft straight-grained red wood is largely used in Chili in the interior 
finish of houses. (See C. Gay, I. c. 406.) 

7 The trunks of Libocedrus decurrens are frequently honey- 
combed and its value as a timber-tree destroyed by Dazdalea vorax 
(Harkness, Pacific Rural Press, Jan. 25, 1879), which destroys 
rounded masses of the wood, disposed in long rows sometimes 
extending through the length of the trunk, reducing them to cin- 
der-like powder. It is also said to be attacked by Gymnosporan- 
gium biseptatum, Ellis, which in the eastern states lives upon Cu- 
pressus thyoides, and by a few other unimportant fungi. 



conipee^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 135 



LIBOCEDRUS DECURRENS. 

White Cedar. Incense Cedar. 
Fruit pendulous, composed of six scales ; seeds two under each fertile scale. 

Libocedrus decurrens, Torrey, Smithsonian Contrib. vi. Nadelh. 28, f . 1, 2. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

7, t. 3 (PI. Fremont.) (1854) ; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 219. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 268 (Pinetum 

140 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii. 211. — Lindley, Gard. Danicum). — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 

Chron. 1853, 695. — Bentham, PL Hartweg. 338. — New- 340. — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 224 (Bot. 

berry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 63. — Walpers, Ann. v. Death Valley Exped.). 

795. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 456. — Thuya Craigana, A. Murray, Rep. Oregon Exped. 2, t. 5 

R. Brown Campst. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, ix. 373. — (October, 1854). 

A. Murray, The Garden, ii. 540, f. — Hoopes, Ever- Thuya gigantea, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 224, f. 12, 14 

greens, 309, f. 40. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. (in part) (not Nuttall) ; Flore des Serres, ix. 199, f. 3-5 

Cal. ii. 116. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 181. — Veitch, Man. (in part) ; Traite Conif. 105 (in part). — Gordon, Pine- 

Conif. 267. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Censtis turn, 321 (in part) ; Suppl. 102 (in part). — Henkel & 

U. S. ix. 176. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 280 (in part). 

Forestry, iii. 173, t. 22, 23 (Cone-Bearers of California) ; Heyderia decurrens, K. Koch, Dendr. pt. ii. 179 (1873). — 

West- American Cone-Bearers, 73. — Beissner, Handb. Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 70, f. 9. 

A tree, frequently one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a tall straight slightly and irregularly 
lobed trunk tapering gradually from a broad base and sometimes seven or eight feet in diameter ; 
during its first century the slender branches are erect at the top of the tree and below sweep downward 
in bold curves, forming a narrow open feathery crown, but in old age it becomes irregular in outline by 
the greater development of a few branches which, at first horizontal, soon turn upward and form 
secondary stems. The bark of the trunk is from one half of an inch to nearly an inch in thickness, 
bright cinnamon-red, and broken into irregular ridges covered with closely appressed plate-like scales. 
The leading branchlets are rather stout, and when they first appear are somewhat flattened and light 
yellow-green, turning light red-brown during the summer and ultimately brown more or less tinged 
with purple, and bearing for many years the nodal leaves or their narrow ring-like scars ; the lateral 
branchlets are much flattened, and form an open pale yellow spray from four to six inches in length 
and usually deciduous at the end of the second or third season. The leaves are decussately opposite, 
with two pairs at each joint, and are oblong-obovate, decurrent and closely adnate on the branchlet 
except at the free callous apex, and from one eighth of an inch in length on the ultimate lateral 
branchlets to nearly one half of an inch on leading shoots, those of the lateral ranks being gradually 
narrowed and acuminate at the apex, and keeled and glandular on the back, and nearly covering those 
of the inner ranks, which are flattened, obscurely glandular-pitted, and abruptly pointed ; on young 
seedlino-s the leaves are linear-lanceolate, acuminate, conspicuously ribbed, from one quarter to one half 
of an inch lono-, spreading and light yellow-green ; and on the earliest flattened branchlets they are 
elongated and spreading. The flowers appear in January on the ends of short lateral branchlets of 
the previous year, the staminate, which are produced in great numbers, tingeing the tree with gold during 
the winter and early spring. The staminate flower is ovate, nearly a quarter of an inch long, and 
composed of from twelve to sixteen stamens with nearly orbicular or broadly ovate connectives rounded, 
acute, or acuminate at the apex and slightly erose on the margins. The pistillate flower is subtended 
by from two to six pairs of leaf-like scales slightly enlarged and persistent under the fruit, and is 
about an eighth of an inch in length, with six ovate acute light yellow-green slightly spreading scales, 
those of the second rank bearing two pale yellow ovules. The fruit ripens and discharges its seeds in 



136 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifeiue. 

the autumn, but does not fall until the following spring or summer ; it is oblong, more or less gibbous 
at the base, from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, pendulous, light red-brown, and 
composed of six scales mucronulate below the apex ; those of the lowest rank are thin, broadly ovate, 
much recurved, and rather less than a quarter of an inch in length ; those of the second rank are 
ovate-oblong, thick and woody in texture, nearly as long as the fruit, and often a third of an inch in 
width, wide-spreading at maturity from the thick erect woody septum formed by the union of the 
upper scales and marked at the base on the inner surface with two oblong collateral depressions caused 
by the growth of the seeds ; these are two in number under each of the two middle scales, and are 
oblong-lanceolate, from one third to one half of an inch in length, semiterete and marked below by 
conspicuous pale basal hilums extending up both sides of the seed to above the middle ; the seed-coat 
is membranaceous, of two layers, the inner being penetrated by large elongated resin-chambers filled 
with red liquid balsamic resin, and the outer produced into a light red-brown membranaceous very 
oblique wing as long as the scale of the fruit and marked by a dark longitudinal suture. 

IAbocedrus decurrens is distributed from the basin of the North Fork of the Santiam River in 
Oregon southward along the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains and the California Sierra Nevada, 
and along the California coast ranges from the southern borders of Mendocino County to the San 
Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Cuayamaca Mountains, finding its most southern home on the high Mount 
San Pedro Martir, half way down the peninsula of lower California, 1 and occasionally crossing the 
Sierra Nevada of central California to western Nevada. 2 Although widely scattered and not rare, it 
usually grows singly or in small isolated groves and does not form forests. It is comparatively rare in 
Oregon, where it ascends to altitudes of about five thousand feet, and also in the California coast 
ranges, growing on the San Jacinto and San Bernardino Mountains at elevations of from five to seven 
thousand feet ; 3 it is most abundant and attains its greatest size on the western slopes of the Sierras of 
central California, where it thrives in all sorts of soils at elevations of from three to five thousand feet. 
Although able to support more moisture at the roots than most of the other California conifers, 4 it 
attains its greatest perfection on warm dry hillsides, on plateaus, and on the floors of open valleys, 
where, mingled with the Yellow Pine and the Black Oak, it is a magnificent feature of the forest, with 
its symmetrical crown of graceful yellow-green branchlets and its bright red-brown bark. 

Although often injured by dry rot, Libocedrus decurrens when in a healthy condition is 
one of the most valuable timber-trees of western North America. The wood is light, soft, close- 
grained, and very durable in contact with the soil, but not strong ; it contains thin dark-colored 
conspicuous bands of small summer-cells and numerous obscure medullary rays, and is light reddish 
brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4017, a 
cubic foot weighing 25.03 pounds. It is largely used for fencing, for laths and shingles, for the 
interior finish of buildings and for furniture, and in the construction of flumes. The bark is rich in 
tannin. 5 

Libocedrus decurrens 6 was discovered by Fremont on the upper waters of the Sacramento River 
in 1846, and appears to have been first cultivated in 1853 at Edinburgh. It is now a common 
inhabitant of the parks and gardens of western and central Europe, where it grows rapidly and promises 
to attain a large size ; it is also occasionally cultivated in the eastern United States, growing luxuriantly 
in the neighborhood of the city of Washington, and proving precariously hardy as far north as the 
valley of the lower Hudson River. Forms of Libocedrus decurrens of abnormal habit and with 
glaucous foliage which have originated in European gardens are occasionally cultivated. 7 

1 Branclegee, Zoii. iv. 210. 6 Iu California Libocedrus decurrens is sometimes also called 

2 Watson, King's Rep. v. 335. Bastard Cedar and Post Cedar. 

8 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 352. 7 Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 30. 

4 Muir, Mountains of California, 169, f. In European gardens Libocedrus decurrens is still frequently cul- 

6 Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 162. tivated as Thuya gigantea. (See R. Brown Campst. Gard. Chron. 

1873, 8.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXIV. Libocedbus decurrens. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fertile scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A scale of a fruit, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a fruit with its seeds, front view, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf, enlarged. 

13. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

14. Vertical section of a branchlet, enlarged. 

15. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tab . DXXXIV 




C. S.J^etazon. deZ . 



Rapin& sc>. 



LIBOCEDRUS DECURRENS . Toit. 



A.IHocr'euzo dzrezz . 



Imp, J.TaJi&ur-, Pa^zs . 



conifer*. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 139 



SEQUOIA. 

Flowers naked, monoecious, solitary, the staminate terminal or axillary ; stamens 
numerous ; anther-cells 2 to 5 ; the pistillate terminal ; scales numerous, bearing 3 
to 7 ovules. Fruit a woody strobile. Leaves alternate, often dimorphic, persistent. 

Sequoia, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 197 (1847) ; Gen. Suppl. Wellingtonia, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1853, 823. 

iv. pt. ii. 7. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 429. — Eich- Gigantabies (Nelson), Senilis, Pinacece, 77 (1866). 

ler, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. i. 85. — Masters, Athrotaxis, Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 39 (in part) (not G. 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 22. Don) (1892). 

Resinous aromatic trees, with tall massive lobed trunks, thick bark of two layers, the outer deeply 
lobed and composed of fibrous scales, the inner close and firm and from half an inch to an inch in thick- 
ness, soft durable straight-grained dark red heartwood, thin nearly white sapwood, stout short horizontal 
branches, slender terete branchlets deciduous in the autumn, scaly or naked buds, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or linear and distichously spreading, especially on young trees and branches, or 
linear, acute, compressed and keeled on the back, closely appressed or spreading at the apex, the two 
forms sometimes appearing on the same branch or on different branches of the same tree. Flowers 
minute, solitary, monoecious, appearing in early spring from buds formed the previous autumn. Stami- 
nate flowers terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, ovoid or oblong, stipitate, subtended by numerous 
decussately imbricated scale-like bracts, their axes bearing in many series numerous spirally disposed 
spreading stamens ; filaments short, dilated into ovate acute subpeltate connectives incurved at the apex, 
often denticulate on the margins, bearing on their inner face at the base from two to five but usually 
three pendulous globose two-valved anther-cells opening below dorsally ; pollen-grains simple. Pistillate 
flower terminal, ovoid or oblong, composed of numerous ovate scales bluntly keeled on the back, the keels 
produced into short or elongated points, spirally imbricated in numerous series, closely adnate to the thick 
fleshy much shorter ovuliferous scales rounded above and bearing below their upper margin in two rows 
from five to seven free orthotropous bottle-shaped ovules erect at first but afterward horizontal and finally 
reversed. Fruit an ovoid or shortly oblong pendulous strobile, maturing during its first season, 
persistent after the opening of the scales and the discharge of the seeds ; its scales, formed by the 
enlargement of the united flower and ovuliferous scales, indurate and woody, contracted at the base into 
slender stipes or gradually enlarged upward, widened at the apex into narrow thickened transverse 
oblong rugose disks, transversely depressed through the middle, and often mucronulate. Seeds from 
five to seven under each scale, reversed and pendulous, oblong-ovate, compressed ; testa membranaceous 
or slightly crustaceous, produced into broad thin wings. Embryo axile, straight in copious fleshy 
albumen ; cotyledons from four to six, longer than the inferior radicle, turned away from the small 
depressed pale hilum. 

Sequoia, which inhabited the Arctic Circle during the cretaceous and tertiary epochs, and was 
then a conspicuous feature of the vegetation of Europe and of the interior regions of North America, 
where several species existed, 1 is now confined to the mountain forests of California, and reduced to two 
species, one inhabiting the northern and central coast ranges, and the other the western slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada. 

1 Gray, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. xxi. 1 {Sequoia and its His- 15-18". — Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 89. — Zittel, 
tory) ; Scientific Papers, ii. 142. — Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 296, f. 205. 
Sui-v. vii. 75, t. 7, f. 3-16" ; t. 65, f. 1-4 ; t. 61, f. 25-29 ; t. 62, f. 



140 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONEFERJE. 



The trunks of Sequoia are largely manufactured into lumber used in construction and the interior 
finish of houses, and for fencing and railway-ties. 

Comparatively few insects 1 prey upon Sequoia, which is free from serious fungal diseases. 2 
Sequoia can be easily raised from seeds, which germinate usually at the end of a few weeks. 
The name of the genus immortalizes Sequoyah, 3 the inventor of the Cherokee alphabet. 



1 Little is known of the insects which attack Sequoia. The most 
destructive is Bembecia Sequoia?, Henry Edwards, which, it is said, 
" is devastating the Pine forests of Mendocino County, California, 
and is particularly destructive to Sequoia sempervirens, Pinus pon- 
derosa and Pinus Lambertiana. The eggs appear to be laid in the 
axils of the branches, the young caterpillar boring in a tortuous 
manner about its retreat, thus diverting the flow of sap, and caus- 
ing large resinous nodules to form at the place of its workings. 
These gradually harden, the branch beyond them dies, and the tree 
at last succumbs to its insignificant enemies. Hundreds of fine 
trees in the forests of the region indicated are to be seen in various 
stages of decay." (Bull. No. 7, U. S. Dept. of the Interior, 1881, 261 
[Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees~\.) 

2 Both the species of Sequoia are infested by a number of small 
characteristic fungi, although none of them are known to cause 
serious diseases. More than thirty species have been recorded on 
Sequoia sempervirens and about ten on Sequoia Wellingtonia. Among 
the latter may be mentioned Scleroderris Sequoia;, Saccardo, which 
occurs on the trunks, and Lachnea Sequoias, Saccardo, and Lazstadia 



consociata, Cooke, on the leaves. Sequoia sempervirens is attacked 
by such widely spread species as Hypocrea rufa, Fries, Pitya Cu- 
pressi, Saccardo, Stictis versicolor, Fries, and by special parasites 
like Amphisphceria Wellingtonioz, Berlese & Voglino, Leptostroma 
Sequoia?, Cooke & Harkness, Melanopsamma confertissima, Saccardo, 
and other small species not found upon other hosts. Young plants 
of Sequoia Wellingtonia cultivated in Europe are said to suffer from 
attacks of a species of Botrytis, and a species of the same genus 
has been reported on wild trees in this country, although it is not 
known whether or not the same species attacks these trees in Cali- 
fornia and Europe. 

3 George Guess or Sequoyah (about 1770-August, 1843), a 
Cherokee half-breed, was first known as a small farmer in the 
Cherokee country of Georgia, and as a skillful silversmith. In 
1826 he published his syllabic Cherokee alphabet of eighty-five 
characters, each representing a single sound, which was afterward 
used in printing The Cherokee Phoenix, a journal devoted to the 
interests of the Cherokee nation, and a portion of the New Testa- 
ment. Guess moved with his tribe to the Indian Territory, and 
died in San Fernando in northern Mexico. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Scales of the pistillate flower usually about 20, long or short-pointed ; leaves dimorphic, 

mostly distichously spreading, acute or acuminate ; buds scaly 1. Sequoia SEMPERVIRENS. 

Scales of the pistillate flower usually from 25-30, long-pointed ; leaves ovate, acute, or 

lanceolate, slightly spreading or appressed ; buds naked 2. Sequoia Wellingtonia. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 141 



SEQUOIA SEMPERVIRENS. 
Redwood. 

Scales of the pistillate flower usually about 20. Cone-scales abruptly enlarged 
into the terminal discs. Leaves dimorphic, mostly distichously spreading, acute or 
acuminate. Buds scaly. 

Sequoia sempervirens, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 198 Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xix. 556, f. 86. - Hansen, Jour. R. 

(1847). — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. Hort. Soc. xiv. 309 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 

222. — Decaisne, Rev. Hort. 1859, 9, f. 2. — Carriere, Deutsche Dendr. 44, f. 14, A-G. 

Traite Conif. 164. — J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. Taxodium sempervirens, Lambert, Pinus, ii. 24, t. 7 
iv. pt. v. 23. — Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. (1824). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2487, f. 2340, 2341. — 

140 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 210 ; Ives' Rep. 28. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 164 ; Icon. iv. t. 379. — Hooker 

Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 57, 90, f . 23. — & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 392. — Henkel & Hochstet- 

Gordon, Pinetum, 303. — A. Murray, Edinburgh New ter, Syn. Nadelh. 262. 

Phil. Jour. n. ser. xi. 221 ; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, Abies religiosa, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 160 
vi. 346. — Seemann, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, iii. (not Lindley) (1841). 

165. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 244. — Parlatore, Be Can- Schubertia sempervirens, Spach, Hist. VSg. xi. 353 
dolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 436. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. (1842). 

193. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 116.— Sequoia gigantea, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 198 (1847). — 
Veitch, Man. Conif. 212. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. iii. t. Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 222. — 

52, f. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 338. 

ix. 184. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 79. — Lem- Sequoia religiosa, Presl, Epimel. Bot. 237 (1849). — 
mon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, iii. 163, t. 18 Walpers, Ann. iii. 448. 

{Cone-Bearers of California); West-American Cone- Gigantabies taxifolia, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinaceas, 78 
Rearers, 68. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 247; (1866). 

A tree, from two to three hundred feet in height, with a slightly tapering and irregularly lobed 
trunk, usually free of branches for seventy-five or one hundred feet, and from ten to fifteen or rarely 
from twenty to twenty-eight feet in diameter at the much buttressed base, and three hundred and 
fifty * feet tall, throwing up from the stump when cut and from fallen stems many vigorous long-lived 
shoots. On young trees the slender branches are erect above, and below sweep downward in graceful 
curves, forming an open slender pyramid of distichous flat spray, but long before the tree attains its full 
size the lower branches disappear, and those toward the summit become stout and horizontal, and the 
narrow rather compact and very irregular head is remarkably small in proportion to the height and size 
of the trunk. The bark of the trunk, which is from six to twelve inches in thickness, is divided into 
rounded ridges corresponding to the ridges of the trunk and frequently two or three feet wide, and 
separates on the surface into long narrow dark brown fibrous scales, often broken transversely, and 
disclosing in falling the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. The branchlets are slender and distichously 
spreading, and when they first appear are light yellow-green like the young leaves, but soon become 
dark green, and during their third or fourth season are covered with thin cinnamon-brown bark 
which breaks irregularly into loose papery scales. The buds are about one eighth of an inch in 
length, and are covered with many loosely imbricated ovate acute scales, prominently keeled on the 
back, slightly accrescent and persistent on the base of the branchlet. The leaves, which are persistent 
for two or three years, on the lateral branchlets of lower branches and of young trees are lanceolate, 
more or less falcate, acute or acuminate and usually tipped with slender rigid points, decurrent at the 
base, distichous and spreading at right angles to the branchlet by a half-turn at the base, from one 

1 The Redwood, which is the tallest American tree, probably tallest specimen I have measured was three hundred and forty 
occasionally attains the height of four hundred feet or more. The feet high. 



142 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

quarter to one half of an inch in length, about one eighth of an inch in width, obscurely keeled, and 
marked above with two narrow longitudinal bands of stoniata, and glaucous and stomatiferous below, 
with slightly thickened revolute margins and conspicuous midribs; on leading shoots they are disposed 
in many ranks, frequently scale-like, more or less spreading or appressed, ovate or ovate-oblong, 
incurved at the rounded apiculate apex, thickened, rounded and stomatiferous on the lower surface, 
concave, prominently keeled and covered with stomata on the upper surface, and usually about a 
quarter of an inch long, and die and turn red-brown at least two years before falling. Such scale-like 
leaves often occur on isolated branchlets among those bearing leaves of the normal form, and frequently 
cover entire branches, especially the upper branches of large trees, or rarely all the branches of trees 
growing at high elevations. 1 The flowers open late in the winter or in very early spring. The 
staminate flower is ovate, obtuse, about one sixteenth of an inch long, raised at maturity on a slender 
elongated stipe, and surrounded by numerous broadly ovate scales, which are acute and apiculate at the 
apex, rounded and obscurely keeled on the outer face and concave on the inner ; the connectives are 
ovate, rounded or short-pointed at the apex, and denticulate. The pistillate flower is oblong, and 
composed of about twenty more or less broadly ovate acute scales tipped with elongated incurved or 
short points. 2 The cone is oblong, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and half an inch 
broad, with scales which are abruptly dilated above into disks penetrated by deep narrow grooves, 
usually destitute of mucros, about a third of an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide, and furnished 
on the inner surface with numerous resin glands. Usually from three to five seeds are produced under 
each scale; they are about one sixteenth of an inch long and light brown, with wings as broad as the 
body. 

Sequoia sempervirens is distributed from the southern borders of Oregon 3 southward near the 
coast to Salmon Creek Canon about twelve miles south of Punta Gorda, Monterey County, California, 
rarely ranging more than twenty or thirty miles from the coast or beyond the influence of ocean fogs, 
or ascending more than three thousand feet above the sea-level. In this narrow mountain forest belt, 
which the Redwood has made the most prolific in the world, 4 it often forms at the north, on moist 
sandstone soil, pure forests, occupying the sides of canons and ravines watered by abundant springs, 
and the banks of streams, the trees being separated by only a few feet, and at the south grows 
usually in small groves scattered among Pines and Firs, the Madrona, and the Tan Bark Oak. Usually 
confined to the western slopes of the coast ranges, it is most abundant and attains its largest size north 
of Cape Mendocino; and south of the Bay of San Francisco it is comparatively rare and usually 
small, although large individual trees were once scattered throughout the entire Redwood region. 

Sequoia sempervirens is the most valuable timber-tree of the forests of Pacific North America. 
The wood is fight and soft, brittle and not very strong ; it is close-grained, easily split and worked, 
very durable in contact with the soil, and susceptible of receiving a good polish. 5 It is clear light red, 
with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin conspicuous dark-colored bands of small summer- 
cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4208, 
a cubic foot weighing 26.22 pounds. Largely manufactured into lumber, it is the most common and 
most valuable building material produced in the Pacific states, and in California is used almost 
exclusively for shingles, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, railway-ties, wine butts, tanning and water tanks, 
and coffins. It is largely exported to Australia, the Pacific islands and China, and is now frequently 
used in building in the states east of the Rocky Mountains, and is occasionally exported to Europe, 

1 Eastwood, Proc. Cat Acad. ser. 2, v. 170, t. 15-17 (Heteromor- Chetco River, about four miles from its mouth. The Redwood 
phic Organs of Sequoia sempervirens). also grows in Oregon on the Winchuck River, just within the bor- 

2 Eastwood, I. c. 173, t. 18. — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, six. ders of the state. 

656, f. 86. 4 Alvord, Garden and Forest, v. 237 (The Forests of California). 

3 What is probably the most northern Redwood grove stands in 5 Fremont, Geographical Memoir upon Upper California, 36, 37 
Oregon, about eight miles north of the California state line on the (Senate Doc. Miscellaneous, No. 148, 30th Congress U. S. 1st Sess.). 



conifers SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 143 

where it is employed as a substitute for red cedar in the manufacture of lead pencils. Logs with 
curled or contorted grain are cut into veneers, which are valued by the cabinet-maker. In California 
the bark has been utilized to stuff furniture, and to cover the logs of corduroy roads and of bridges 
over forest streams. 1 

Sequoia sempervirens was discovered in 1796 by Archibald Menzies, the surgeon and naturalist of 
Vancouver's voyage of exploration, probably on the shores of the Bay of San Francisco, where it was 
once common and a conspicuous feature of the vegetation, and was rediscovered by David Douglas. It 
was introduced into English gardens in 1846 by Karl Theodor Hartweg, and flourishes in the regions 
of western and southern Europe, 2 and in the southeastern United States, where it has proved hardy in 
the neighborhood of Charleston, South Carolina. In European nurseries a few abnormal seedling 
varieties have appeared, and are occasionally cultivated by the lovers of curious trees. 3 

Among American trees the Redwood is exceeded in size only by Sequoia Wellingtonia. 
Towering above its companions in the forest, with its bright colored massive trunk and its lustrous 
foliage, it is unsurpassed in magnificence by any other conifer, and no coniferous forest of the continent 
equals in impressiveness, beauty, and luxuriance the Redwood forests of northern California. The 
demand for the wood of this tree, and its accessibility to tide- water, are rapidly destroying the best 
forests, which soon will be dim memories only ; but the peculiar and remarkable power of the Redwood 
when cut to reproduce itself by numerous shoots from the stump, which soon attain a large size, and 
often coalesce, forming circular groves, which mark the site of the original trunk, promises to insure 
its existence as long as the California coast ranges are bathed in the fogs of the Pacific Ocean. 

i Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 26. 3 Veitch, Man. Conif 212. 

2 Gard. Chron. ser. 3, vi. 240 ; viii. 302. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXV. Sequoia sempervirens. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A branch, with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a scale of a pistillate flower, with ovules, 

front view, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a scale of a pistillate flower, side view, 

enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A scale of a cone with seeds, front view, enlarged. 

12. A scale of a cone with seeds, rear view, enlarged. 

13. A seed, enlarged. 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, much magnified. 

16. A branch with winter buds, natural size. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified. 

18. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXXXV. 




C.H.Facz>on,del. 



Mig7iecuea> so. 



A.IUocreu3> ctireee- . 



SEQUOIA SEMPERVIRENS.Enal. 

Imp. J. Ton&ur, Forts 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



145 



SEQUOIA WELLINGTONIA. 
Big Tree. 

Scales of the pistillate flower, usually from 25 to 30, long-pointed, 
acute, or lanceolate, slightly spreading or appressed. Buds naked. 



Leaves ovate, 



Sequoia Wellingtonia, Seemann, Bonplandia, iii. 27 
(Jan. 1855) ; vi. 343 ; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, iii. 
165. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. iii. 299, t. 35, 51, 53, f. 
1-37. 

Sequoia gigantea, Decaisne, Rev. Hort. Jan. 1855, 9, f. 
1 (not Endlicher). — Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. 
v. 140. — Carriere, TraitS Conif. 166. — Bloomer, Proc. 
Cal. Acad. iii. 399. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 239, f. 29. — 
Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 437. — Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 194. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson 
Bot. Cal. ii. 117. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 184. — Lemmon, Rep. California State 
Board Forestry, iii. 165, Frontispiece, 1. 19 {Cone-Bearers 
of California) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 69, t. 
12. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 44, f. 14, H-K. — Masters, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 247 ; Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xix. 
556, f . 85. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 306 {Pine- 
tum Danicum). — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 



7, 340 {Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. TJ. S. 

Nat. Herb. iv. 224 {Bot. Death Valley Exped.). 
Wellingtonia gigantea, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1853, 

823. — Bot. Mag. lxxx. t. 4777, 4778. — Lemaire, III. 

Hort. 1854, 14, t. — Naudin, Rev. Hort. 1854, 166 ; Fl. 

des Serres, ix. 93, t. 892, 893. — Planchon, Fl. des Serres, 

ix. 121, t. 903. — Floricultural Cabinet, 1854, 121, t.— 

J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 22. — Gordon, 

Pinetum, 330. — A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. 

n. ser. xi. 205, t. 3-9 ; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vi. 

330, t. 6, f . 8, 9. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 

222. — Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 217. — Nordlinger, 

Forstbot. 463, f. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 204. — Lauche, 

Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 78, f . 14. — Schubeler, Virid. 

Norveg. i. 445. 
Taxodium giganteum, Kellogg & Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. 

i. 51 (May, 1855). 
Gigantabies Wellingtoniana, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 

79 (1866). 



The average height of Sequoia Wellingtonia 1 is about two hundred and seventy-five feet, and its 
trunk diameter near the ground twenty feet, although individuals from three hundred to three hundred 
and twenty feet tall, with trunks from twenty-five to thirty-five feet thick are not rare. 2 During four 
or five centuries the tapering stem is clothed with slender crowded branches, which are erect above and 
horizontal near the middle of the tree, and below sweep toward the ground in graceful curves, thus 
forming a dense narrow strict pyramid. Gradually the lower branches disappear, and those at the top 
of the tree lose their aspiring habit ; the trunk, which is much enlarged and buttressed at the base, and 
fluted with broad low rounded ridges, becomes naked for one hundred or one hundred and fifty 



1 Dr. C. F. Winslow, who visited the Calaveras grove in August, 
1854, proposed in a letter to The California Farmer, a weekly jour- 
nal published in San Francisco, that the Big Tree, if it should be a 
Taxodium, should be called Taxodium Washingtonianum, or if it 
proved to be the representative of an undescribed genus, that, as 
Washingtonia Californica, it should commemorate the name of 
George Washington. (See Hooker, Jour. Bot. and Kevo Gard. 
Misc. vii. 29.) Neither of these names, however, was ever pub- 
lished technically, and Lindley's and Decaisne's specific name gigan- 
tea being unavailable from previous use in connection with the other 
species of this genus, the first available specific name for the largest 
and one of the most interesting trees of North America is that of 
the English general in whose honor the genus Wellingtonia was 
established on this tree. 

2 In the Calaveras grove there are three trees over three hundred 
feet high, the tallest measuring three hundred and twenty-five feet. 
The largest tree measured by Muir is standing in the King's River 



forest, and four feet above the ground has a trunk diameter of 
thirty-five feet eight inches inside the bark. Muir's examination 
of the trunk of this tree, which is burned nearly half through, 
showed that it has lived not less than four thousand years, although 
the layers of annual growth were in places so contorted and in- 
volved that it was impossible to count them all ; and he believes 
that other trees now standing are at least five thousand years old. 
The layers of annual growth, counted by Asa Gray on the stump 
of a tree which was cut several years ago in the Calaveras grove in 
order that the top of the stump might serve as a dancing-floor, 
showed that it had attained a diameter of twenty-four feet inside 
the bark in about thirteen hundred years. A tree of nearly the 
same size, which had been cut down, in the King's River forest, 
examined by Muir, was twenty-three hundred years old. (See 
Muir, The Mountains of California, 179. See, also, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. iii. 94.) 



146 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

feet; and the narrow rounded crown of short horizontal branches loses its regularity, and gains 
picturesqueness from the eccentric development of some of the branches or the destruction of others. 
The bark of old trees is from one to two feet in thickness, and is divided into flat rounded lobes four 
or five feet wide, corresponding to the lobes of the trunk, and separating into loose fibrous scales ; it is 
light cinnamon-red, and the outer scales are slightly tinged with purple, which is more conspicuous on 
the much thinner bark of young trees. The leading branchlets are stout, pendulous, and furnished 
with numerous slender crowded much-divided rather closely appressed lateral branchlets, forming dense 
masses of spray ; dark blue-green, like the leaves, when they first appear, at the end of two or three 
years and after the disappearance of their leaves the branchlets are reddish brown, more or less tinged 
with purple, and covered with thin close or slightly scaly bark. The leaves are ovate, acuminate, or 
lanceolate, rounded and thickened on the lower surface, concave on the upper surface, and marked with 
bands of stomata on both sides of the obscure midribs, rigid and sharp-pointed, decurrent below, 
spreading or closely appressed above the middle, and from one eighth to one quarter of an inch, or on 
stout leading shoots often half an inch in length ; on young seedling plants they are linear-lanceolate, 
short-pointed, thin, spreading, pilose, often ciliate on the margins, and from one half to three quarters 
of an inch in length. The flowers, which open late in the winter or in early spring, are produced in 
great profusion, especially the staminate, which often cover the whole tree, and dust the forest and the 
ground below it with their golden pollen. The staminate flower, which is usually terminal, varies from 
one sixth to one third of an inch in length, with ovate acute or acuminate denticulate connectives, and 
is subtended by broadly ovate scales rounded or acute at the apex, keeled on the back, concave on the 
inner face, and slightly erose on the margins. The pistillate flower is about one third of an inch long, 
with from twenty-five to thirty, or rarely from thirty-five to forty pale yellow scales, slightly keeled on 
the back, gradually narrowed into long slender points, and bearing from three to seven ovules under 
each scale. The fruit is ovate-oblong, from two to three and a half inches in length, from an inch and 
a half to two inches and a quarter in width, and dark red-brown ; the scales are furnished on the upper 
side, near the base, with two or three large deciduous dark resin glands, 1 and are gradually thickened 
upward from the base to the apex, which is only slightly dilated, and is from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and a quarter long, and from one quarter to one half of an inch wide, deeply pitted in the 
middle, which is often furnished with an elongated reflexed mucro, and frequently transversely ridged ; 
at maturity they remain straight and rigid and open only slightly, the cone retaining its original form 
even when dry. From three to seven seeds are produced under each scale ; they are linear-lanceolate, 
compressed, from one eighth to one quarter of an inch in length, light brown, and surrounded by 
lateral united wings broader than the body of the seed, apiculate at the apex, and often unequal. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia is the largest inhabitant of the American forests, and the most massive- 
stemmed although not the tallest tree in the world. It grows in an uninterrupted belt, chiefly associated 
with the Sugar Pine, the Douglas Fir, and the Incense Cedar, from the middle fork of the American 
River southward along the western flank of the California Sierras for a distance of about two hundred 
and sixty miles to the head of Deer Creek, the northern limit of this belt being near the thirty-ninth 
and its southern just south of the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude, and its elevation from five 
thousand to eight thousand four hundred feet above the level of the sea. North of King's River it 
appears in isolated groves, sometimes standing from forty to sixty miles apart, and the largest covering 
an area of three or four square miles ; on the rim of the canon of the South Fork of King's River it 
constitutes a forest six miles long and nearly two miles wide ; and in the broken rugged basins of the 
Kaweah and Tule Rivers it forms forests which for a distance of seventy miles are interrupted only by 
deep canons and attain their greatest perfection on the North Fork of the Tule. Restricted to small 

1 These resin glands are thus described by Muir (in lilt.) : " a soluble in water, and colors it a beautiful purple. It makes good 
dark gritty astringent substance is produced in the cones, and falls ink ; and letters which I wrote with it twenty years ago are still 
out with the seeds, when they are dry, in irregular grains. It is legible." 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



147 



isolated groves * at the north by the topography of the country and by the unexplained absence of 
seedlings and sapling plants, its existence at the south is assured by numerous seedlings and by young 
trees in every stage of development. 

The wood of Sequoia Welllngtonia is very light, soft, not strong, brittle, and coarse-grained, but 
very durable in contact with the soil. 2 It is bright clear red, turning darker on exposure, with thin 
nearly white sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored conspicuous bands of small summer-cells and 
numerous thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.2882, a cubic foot 
weighing 17.96 pounds. Manufactured into lumber, it is used locally for fencing and in construction, 
and is made into shingles. 

More than one white man 3 has claimed the honor of discovering this tree ; but the first authentic 
account of it was obtained from William Lobb, who visited the Calaveras grove in 1854, and succeeded 
in introducing this Sequoia into English gardens. It is now one of the most universally cultivated 
coniferous trees in all the countries of central and southern Europe, but while it has grown rapidly, it is 
already beginning to show that the existing climates of Europe do not suit it, and that this glory of 
the Sierra forests need fear no rival among the emigrants of its race. It has been also occasionally 
cultivated in the eastern United States, where it does not flourish, although it has occasionally survived 
in a few sheltered or peculiarly favorable situations. 4 In European nurseries a number of abnormal 
forms have been produced, the most distinct being one in which all the branches are pendulous and 
closely pressed against the stem. 5 



1 Wherever the Big Trees now grow are long deep depressions 
in the ground, caused by the fall and subsequent disappearance 
through decay or through the action of fire, of giant trees of older 
generations. The fact that such trenches do not exist except in the 
Big Tree forests and near the Big Tree groves seems to show, as 
Muir has pointed out, that this tree has not been more widely dis- 
tributed since the glacial epoch than it now is ; and on this hypoth- 
esis he explains the isolation of the northern groves by the corre- 
spondence of the gaps between them with the beds of glaciers, 
which continued to fill the broad basins of streams long after the 
ice-sheet had melted from the intervening ridges. Upon these 
ridges the first post-glacial Sequoias must have found a foothold 
in the very places where their descendants are growing to-day, the 
greatest development of the Big-Tree forest occurring " just where 
the ground had been most perfectly protected from the main ice- 
rivers that continued to pour past from the summit fountains long 
after the smaller local glaciers had been melted." (See Muir, The 
Mountains of California, 195. See, also, Muir, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci. xxv. 242 [Post Glacial History of Sequoia gigantea].) 

2 The wonderful durability of the wood of Sequoia Wellingtonia 
is shown by the fact that it has remained perfectly sound in fallen 
logs, above which trees have grown for three or four hundred years, 
and which may have lain on the ground for centuries before the 
germination of the seeds from which these trees sprang. (See 
Muir, The Mountains of California, 179.) 

3 The first white man who saw one of these trees was probably 
John Bidwell, the proprietor of the well known Rancho Chico, near 
Chico, California, a pioneer in California fruit-farming, and in 1891 
the nominee of the Prohibition party for President of the United 
States. In 1841 Bidwell crossed the Sierra Nevada from the east ; 
descending the Stanislaus River, he became separated from his 
party while hunting, and in the evening of October 20th, when it 



was too dark to see distinctly, he came upon an enormous fallen 
tree, which many years afterward he recognized in the tree of the 
Calaveras grove known as " The Father of the Forest." Bidwell 
entered the grove, and found a hiding-place for the night near its 
eastern side without, however, noticing the standing trees, being 
disturbed, as he supposes, by want of provisions and by the dread 
of Indians, signs of whom he had seen during the day, and because 
the trees of the Sierra forests were all new and wonderful to him 
(Bidwell in litt.). Mr. A. T. Dowd, a hunter of Murphy's Camp 
in Calaveras County, stumbled into the Calaveras grove in the 
spring of 1852 ; and a few weeks later Dr. Albert Kellogg ex- 
hibited before a meeting of the California Academy of Sciences in 
San Francisco branches of the Big Tree, which he had received 
from Mr. J. M. Hutchins, who was living at that time in or near 
the Yosemite Valley. (See Shinn, Garden and Forest, ii. 614.) 
These specimens were shown by Dr. Kellogg to William Lobb, 
the English botanical collector, who immediately started for the 
Sierras, where he secured specimens and two living trees, which he 
carried to England on the first steamer leaving San Francisco. 
(See Kellogg, Trees of California, 21.) 

4 Several of these trees have lived for many years in the nursery 
of Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry, in Rochester, New York, where, how- 
ever, they have grown very slowly. There are small specimens in 
the Central Park and in other New York gardens, and a tree near 
West Chester, Chester County, Pennsylvania. This was probably 
the largest specimen in the eastern states until a few years ago, 
when a negro cut off the top for a Christmas-tree and ruined its 
symmetry. 

5 The weeping Sequoia Wellingtonia, which is common in Euro- 
pean collections, was raised in the nursery of Lalande jeune near 
Nantes, France, in 1863. (Ed. Andre* in litt.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXVI. Sequoia Wellingtonia. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovules, side view, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A scale of a cone with seeds, front view, natural size. 

10. A seed divided transversely, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. A leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified. 

15. A seedling, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tao. DXXXVI. 




C. S. Faasoiv dels. 



mzgriacuuc jo 



SEQUOIA GIGANTEA.Decne. 



A.RLocreuas- direa>. 



Imp. J.Tan&ur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 149 



TAXODIUM. 

Flowers naked, monoecious, the staminate panicled ; stamens 6 to 8 ; anther-cells 
4 to 8; the pistillate terminal, solitary; scales spirally disposed; ovules 2. Fruit a 
globose or obovoid woody strobile ripening in one season. Leaves alternate, linear- 
lanceolate or scale-like, deciduous or subpersistent. 

Taxodium, Eichard, Ann. Mus. xvi. 298 (1810). — End- Schubertia, Mirbel, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. iii. 123 
licher, Gen. 259. — Meisner, Gen. 352. — Bentham & (1812). 

Hooker, Gen. iii. 429. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pfian- Cuprespinnata, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 61 (1866). 
zenfam. ii. pt. i. 90. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 37. — Mas- 
ters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 24. 

Resinous polymorphic trees, with furrowed scaly bark, light brown durable wood, erect, ultimately 
spreading branches, deciduous, usually distichous lateral branchlets, scaly buds, 1 stout horizontal roots, 
often producing erect woody projections, and fibrous rootlets. Leaves alternate, subspirally disposed, 
pale and stomatif erous below on both sides of the obscure midribs, dark green above, linear-lanceolate, 
spreading distichously, or scale-like and appressed on lateral branchlets, the two forms appearing on the 
same or on different branches of the same tree or on separate trees, deciduous in the autumn or in the 
spring. Flowers opening in very early spring from buds formed the previous year, and covered with 
numerous thin broadly ovate concave scales increasing in size from below upward, or in the autumn. 
Staminate flowers short-pedicellate or subsessile in the axils of scale-like bracts in long terminal 
drooping panicles, obovate before anthesis. Stamens from six to eight, distichously opposite on a 
slender elongated stipe; filaments slender, abruptly enlarged into broadly ovate eccentrically peltate 
membranaceous yellow connectives truncate below, bearing at the base on the inner surface in two 
rows four or five or from six to nine globose two-valved pendulous anther-cells opening on the back 
longitudinally; pollen-grains simple. Pistillate flowers scattered near the ends of branches of the 
previous year, solitary, terminal on abbreviated axillary scaly branchlets, subglobose, composed of 
numerous ovate spirally imbricated scales long-pointed and spreading at the apex, adnate below to the 
thickened fleshy ovulif erous scales bearing at their base two erect collateral bottle-shaped orthotropous 
ovules. Fruit a globose or obovoid short-stalked woody strobile, maturing the first year, and persistent 
after the escape of the seeds, formed by the enlargement and coalescence of the flower and the ovu- 
liferous scales abruptly dilated from slender stipes into irregularly four-sided thin disks, conspicuously 
marked when half grown with the reflexed tips of the flower-scales, often mucronulate at maturity, 
furnished on the inner face, especially on the stipes, with numerous large dark glands filled with blood- 
red fragrant liquid resin. Seeds in pairs under each scale, attached laterally to the stipe by large pale 
hilums, erect, unequally three-angled; testa Hght brown and lustrous, thick, coriaceous or corky, 
produced into three thick unequal lateral wings, and below into a slender elongated point. Embryo 
axile in copious fleshy albumen ; cotyledons from four to nine, shorter than the superior radicle. 

1 Taxodium rarely if ever forms a terminal bud in the United ered with linear-lanceolate apiculate green leaf-like scales persist- 

States, the branches being continued by axillary globose buds, usu- ent on the base of the branchlet, and inclosed in two broadly ovate 

ally two in number, produced in summer or autumn in the axils of rounded concave membranaceous scales ; on the branchlets of the 

the upper scale-like leaves of leading shoots, and covered with year they are produced in the axils of its primary leaves, and in 

numerous loosely imbricated ovate acute carinate scales accrescent succeeding years usually close to the small elevated scars left by 

and persistent during the summer on the base of the branchlet. fallen branchlets. (See Henry, Nov. Act. Acad. Cces. Leop. xix. 

The deciduous lateral branchlets, which continue to appear for 101, t. 14.) 
three or four years, are developed from minute globose buds, cov- 



150 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Taxodium during the miocene and pliocene times flourished in the Arctic Circle, and was widely 
distributed over central Europe, which it inhabited until the late miocene period, the interior of North 
America, Kamtschatka, and the Aleutian Islands, but is now confined to the coast region of the 
southern United States and to Mexico. 1 Two species are distinguished ; one is an inhabitant of the 
United States and the other of the Mexican highlands. 2 

Taxodium produces wood valued in construction and the arts, and its bark is rich in tannin. 3 

In the United States Taxodium is not seriously injured by insects 4 or attacked by dangerous 
fungal diseases. 5 

Taxodium can be easily raised from seeds, which germinate at the end of a few weeks. 

The generic name, from rd^og and «&)$, indicates the resemblance of the leaves to those of the 
Yew-tree. 



1 Heer, Fl. Foss. Arct. 12. — Lesquereux, U. S. Geolog. Surv. 
vii. 73, t. 6, f. 12-14". — Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 
89. — Zittel, Handb. Palceontolog. ii. 294. 

2 Taxodium mucronulatum, Tenore, Ann. Sci. Nat. se'r. 3, xix. 
355 (1853) (Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. 1853) ; Mem. Soc. Ital. Modena, 
xxv. pt. ii. 203, t. 1, 2. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
441. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 185. — K. Koch, Dendr. 
ii. pt. ii. 198. 

Taxodium distichum, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. 

et Spec. ii. 4 (not Richard) (1817). — Kunth, Syn. PL JEquin. i. 

351. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald, 335. 

Taxodium Mexicanum, Carriere, Traite Conif. 147 (1855). — 

Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 261. — Beissner, Handb. 

Nadelh. 155. 

Taxodium distichum Mexicanum, Gordon, Pinetum, 307 (1858). 
The Mexican Bald Cypress, which I have seen growing only in 
the neighborhood of Monterey iu Nuevo Leon, where I was unable 
to distinguish it by habit or foliage from the species of the southern 
states, differs from this tree in its flowering season, which is the 
autumn, in the persistence of its leaves during the winter, in its 
more elongated panicles of staminate flowers, and in its more nu- 
merous anther-cells, often from seven to nine in number. The 
autumnal flowers and more persistent leaves might be accounted 
for by the warmer climate of Mexico ; the greater or lesser number 
of anther-cells is a character of little stability, and further inves- 
tigation will probably show that the tree of the swamps of the 
southern states and the tree of the Mexican highlands are specifi- 
cally identical, although with the scanty information at my disposal 
it seems necessary to adopt the opinion of the best European bota- 
nists who have seen the Mexican tree in Italian gardens, where it 
was first distinguished, and consider it specifically distinct. 

Taxodium mucronulatum is said to be widely scattered over east- 
ern and southern Mexico, where it grows near streams, and to form 
extensive forests on mountain slopes. It is best known by a few 
individuals which have attained a great age and size. The largest 
of these trees of which authentic measurements are recorded stands 
within the grounds of the village church in the centre of the little 
town of Tule on the road from Oaxaca to Guatemala by way of 



Tehuantepec. According to latest measurements, its trunk at five 
feet from the ground has, in following all its sinuosities, a circum- 
ference of one hundred and forty-six feet, while the actual girth 
is one hundred and four feet, the greatest diameter forty feet and 
the least twenty feet. Its height is one hundred and fifty feet, and 
the spread of its branches one hundred and forty-one feet. It is 
believed to be two thousand years old. 

The Cypress of Montezuma, which is the largest of the Cypress- 
trees in the gardens of Chepultepec, standing near the spring from 
which the water-supply of the Aztec capital was obtained, was a 
noted tree four centuries ago. It is about one hundred and seventy 
feet high, with a trunk to which different travelers have ascribed a 
circumference varying from forty to nearly fifty feet. It has been 
estimated that this tree has lived through seven centuries. In the 
valley of Peopatella a Taxodium with a trunk about twenty feet in 
diameter raises its head, now shorn by decay of much of its gran- 
deur, high above the little church built to commemorate the battle 
in which the soldiers of Cortes went down before the Aztec hordes. 
(See Humboldt, Essai Pol. Nouv. Esp. ed. 2, 54. — A. De Candolle, 
Bib. Univ. Geneve, lxvi. 392. — Gray, Scientific Papers, ii. 113. — 
Garden and Forest, iii. 150, f. 28.) 

8 Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 162. 

4 Borers in the living trunks of Taxodium are undescribed, but 
the larvae of Eacles imperialis, Drury, Orgyia inornata, Beutenmul- 
ler, Oiketicus Abbotii, Grote, and other insects have been found on 
the foliage. A gall, Cecidomyia Cupressi-ananassa, Riley, has been 
described as abundant on these trees in Tennessee {Am. Entomol. 
ii. 244). 

5 Taxodium in the United States seems to be remarkably exempt 
from the attacks of fungi. About a dozen species have been re- 
corded upon it, but they are insignificant in their effects. Sphosrella 
Taxodii, Cooke, and Metasphceria cavernosa, Ellis & Everhart, are 
the principal parasitic fungi attacking Taxodium distichum, the for- 
mer injuring the leaves and the latter the branches. A species of 
dry rot in living timber often diminishes its value, and in Louisiana 
and Mississippi is said to affect at least one third of all the trees. 
(See Dickson & Brown, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, v. 15 (On the Cypress 
Timber of Mississippi and Louisiana.) 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



151 



TAXODIUM DISTICHUM. 

Bald Cypress. Deciduous Cypress. 
Anther-cells usually 4 or 5. Leaves dimorphic. 



Taxodium distichum, Richard, Ann. Mus. xvi. 298 (1810) ; 
Comm. Bot. Conif. 52, t. 10. — Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, ii. 
t. — Brongniart, Ann. Sci. Nat. sex. 1, xxx. 182. — Lou- 
don, Arb. Brit. iv. 2481, f. 2335. — Forbes, Pinetum 
Woburn. 177, t. 60. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 68 (in 
part). — Scheele, Eoemer Texas, 447. — Lindley & Gor- 
don, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 207. — Knight, Syn. Co- 
nif. 20. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 294. — Carriere, 
Traite Conif. 144. — Morren, Belg. Hort. vi. 305, t. 74. — 
Gordon, Pinetum, 305. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. 
Surv. 210. — Chapman, Fl. 435. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 29. — Henkel & Hochstetter, 
Syn. Nadelh. 25Q. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 364, f . 58. — 
Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 440. — Lawson, 
Pinetum Brit. ii. 205, f. 1-9. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. 
ii. 195. — Nordlinger, Forstbot. 460, f. — Regel, Buss. 
Dendr. ed. 2, i. 28, f . 8. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 183. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 
ed. 2, 74, f. 12. — Schtibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 374.— 
Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 120, f . 3. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray Man. ed. 6, 493. — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 
vii. 324, f . 49 ; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 248. — Hansen, 
Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 303 {Pinetum Danicum). — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 43, f. 13, A-J. 

Cupressus disticha, Linnaeus, Spec. 1003 (1753). — Miller, 
Diet. ed. 8, No. 4. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 149. — Du 



Roi, Harbk. Baumz. i. 201. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 
39. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 244. — Wangenheim, Nordam. 
Holz. 43. — Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 143. — Walter, 
Fl. Car. 238. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 372. — Castiglioni, 
Viag. negli Stati TJniti, ii. 228. — Willdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 91 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 512 ; Enum. 991. — Borkhau- 
sen, Forstbot. i. 460. — Nouveau Duhamel, iii. 8. — Mi- 
chaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 208. — Schkuhr, Handb. iii. 
286. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 567. — Cubieres, Mem. 
Cyp. Louisiane, f . — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 
2, vi. 449. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 438. — Michaux, 
f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 4, t. 1. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 
645. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 224. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 178.— 
Jaume St. Hilaire, Traite des Arbres Forestiers, t. 24, 
25. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 642. — De Chambray, Traite" Arbr. 
Res. Conif. 349. 

Cupressus disticha, var. patens, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 
372 (1789). 

Schubertia disticha, Mirbel, MSm. Mus. xiii. 75 (1825). — 
Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 151. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 890. — 
Spach, Hist. VSg. xi. 349. 

Taxodium distichum, A patens, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 
68 (1847). - Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2481. 

Cuprespinnata disticha, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 61 
(1866). 



A tree, with a tall lobed gradually tapering trunk, rarely twelve and generally four or five feet in 
diameter above the abruptly enlarged strongly buttressed and usually hollow base, and occasionally one 
hundred and fifty feet in height. In its youth the short and comparatively slender distichously forked 
branches are erect and spreading, forming a narrow strict formal pyramid; later they are often 
elongated and slightly pendulous, and as the tree reaches maturity the lower branches disappear, 
while those above spread out into a broad low rounded crown often a hundred feet across, or, when the 
trees grow close together, into crowns remarkably narrow in proportion to the height of the tall stems. 
From the stout wide-spreading horizontal roots woody cylindrical projections, rounded at the apex and 
often a foot in diameter, rise in great numbers, frequently to a height of several feet above the surface 
of the ground. 1 The bark of the trunk is from one to two inches in thickness, light cinnamon-red, and 



1 These developments, called " Cypress knees," on the roots of 
Taxodium distichum, are produced when the tree grows in wet 
places, and vary in size and number with the depth of the water or 
the amount of moisture in the soil. From fifty to one hundred 
knees spring from the roots of one tree, rising sometimes to a, 
height of ten or twelve feet in order to emerge from the water ; 
or, when the tree grows on land covered with shallower water or 
on ground merely saturated with moisture throughout the year, the 
knees remain low, but increase in number ; while trees transplanted 



to high dry ground often develop small knees, barely rising above 
the surface of the soil. 

W. P. Wilson (Proc. Phil. Acad. 1889, 67) has noted that the 
knees develop by two distinct methods : by the first the roots of 
seedling plants in wet places, when only six or eight inches below 
the surface, grow upward at angles varying from twenty to thirty- 
five degrees, and then on reaching the surface turn and grow down- 
ward again at about the same angle ; if the soil is very wet or 
submerged during a portion of the year, some of the roots repeat 



152 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges, which separate on the surface into long thin closely 
appressed fibrous scales. The branchlets are slender, light green when they first appear, light red- 
brown and rather lustrous during their first winter, and darker during the following year, when the 
thin bark separates irregularly into fibrous scales. The deciduous lateral branchlets are three or four 
inches in length, and spread at right angles to the branch, or in the form with acicular leaves they are 
pendulous or erect, and often six or seven inches long. 1 The leaves on the distichously spreading 
branchlets are linear-lanceolate, apiculate, from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, 
about one twelfth of an inch in width, and fight bright yellow-green on both surfaces, or, especially on 
trees growing toward the southwestern limits of the range of the species, silvery white below ; and on 
the form with pendulous or erect branchlets they are compressed, long-pointed, keeled and stomatiferous 
below, concave above, more or less spreading at the free apex, and about half an inch in length ; in the 
autumn the branchlets with their leaves turn dull orange-brown before falling. The panicles of 
staminate flowers are four or five inches long and from an inch and a half to two inches wide, with 
slender light red-brown stems ; the flower-buds are obovate, nearly an eighth of an inch in length, pale 
silvery gray during the winter, and purple when the flowers expand in the spring. The cones, which 
are usually produced in pairs at the extremity of the branch, or are irregularly scattered along it for 
several inches, are nearly globose, or obovate, rugose, usually about an inch in diameter, and generally 
destitute of mucros. The seeds with their wings are about a quarter of an inch long, and nearly an 
eighth of an inch wide, but vary considerably in size. 



this downward and upward growth several times within a distance 
of six or eight feet ; and at each point where the root approaches 
the surface of the soil a knee grows from its upper side. By the 
second method knees are produced by the more active growth of the 
upper surface of old roots of submerged trees at certain definite 
points. When the ascending and descending parts of the roots are 
close together they become, with increased diameter, united in the 
formation of the knees ; several knees which began their growth 
near together often become consolidated into one ; and the root 
between the tree and the knee is smaller than it is beyond the knee, 
at the base of which a cluster of roots is frequently developed, later 
becoming consolidated with it. 

The most usually accepted belief with regard to the functions of 
these root-developments is that they serve to aerate the submerged 
roots, which, without their aid, would be entirely deprived of air. 
(See Berkeley, Gard. Chron. 1857, 549, f . — Shaler, Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zobl. xvi. No. 1 [Notes on Taxodium distichum]. — W. P. 
Wilson, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1889, 67; Forest Leaves, ii. 110, f . — 
Lotsy, Studies Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins Univ. v. 269, t. 17, 18.) 

The hypothesis has also been advanced that the function of the 
knees is mechanical, aiding the roots to anchor the tree in the soft 
muddy ground in which it grows. (See Lamborn, Garden and For- 
est, iii. 21, f. 4. — Shaler, Garden and Forest, iii. 57.) 

Cypress knees, which are frequently hollow in old age, consist of 
soft spongy pale fibres, covered with thin red-brown scaly bark, 
and are exceedingly light, the average of four determinations, two 
from the top of a large knee and two from the base of the interior 
of the same knee, giving a specific gravity of only 0.2303. They 
have been occasionally manufactured into razor strops, which, how- 
ever, are soon ruined unless preserved from dust, as this adheres 
to the soft wood and becomes imbedded in the grain. (See Gar- 
den and Forest, i. 480.) 

1 No one unfamiliar with the fact that branches of the two forms 
occasionally appear on the same individual would imagine that the 
Cypress-trees with erect or pendulous thread-like branchlets and 
closely appressed acerose leaves belong to the same species as those 



with spreading distichous branchlets and flat leaves. The acerose 
form, which, so far as I have been able to observe, is not uncom- 
mon in South Carolina, in northern Florida, and in the neighbor- 
hood of Mobile, Alabama, but does attain a. large size, appears to 
have been first noticed by Nuttall ; it has long been an inhabitant 
of the gardens of the eastern United States and Europe, and is 
generally cultivated as Glyptostrobus pendulus, and believed to be a, 
native of China. The synonymy of this form is : — 
Taxodium distichum, var. imbricarium. 

Cupressus disticha, fi imbricaria, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 224 (1818) ; 
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. ser. v. 163. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 643. — 
Croom, Am. Jour. Sci. xxviii. 166. 

Taxodium microphyllum, Brongniart, Ann. Sci. Nat. xxx. 182 
(1833). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 68. 

Taxodium ascendens, Brongniart, I. c. (1833). — Endlicher, I. c. 
69. 

Taxodium distichum Sinense pendulum, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 
2482 (1838). 

Taxodium Sinense, y pendulum, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 180 
(1839). 

Schubertia disticha, /3, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 349 (1842). 
Schubertia disticha, y, Spach, I. c. 350 (1842). 
Glyptostrobus pendulus, Endlicher, I. c. 71 (1847). — Lindley & 
Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 208. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 21." — 
Carriere, Traite Conif. 152. — Bot. Mag. xcii. t. 5603. — Hoopes, 
Evergreens, 369, f. 59, 60. 

Taxodium Sinense, Gordon, Pinetum, 309 (1858). 
Taxodium distichum pendulum, Carriere, I. c. ed. 2, 182 
(1867). — Veitch, Man. Conif 215. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 
152. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 304 {Pinetum Danicum). 
Elliott (I. c.) describes this as a small tree growing in Pine-bar- 
ren ponds, and producing more numerous knees than individuals of 
the more common form. He noticed that the branchlets on upper 
branches were often distichous. 

It is possible that it was this tree, which was described by Aiton 
(Hort. Kew. iii. 372 [1789]) and figured by Loudon (Arb. Brit. iv. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 153 

Taxodium distichum inhabits river-swamps, usually submerged during several months of the year, 
the low saturated banks of streams, and the wet depressions of Pine barrens. It is distributed from 
southern Delaware, where it grows on the banks of the Nanticoke River near Seaford, and covers the 
great swamp of Sussex County at the head of the Pocamoke River, where trees of almost the largest size 
stood until a few years ago, southward near the coast to the shores of Mosquito Inlet and Cape Romano, 
Florida, through the coast region of the Gulf states to the valley of the Devil River in Texas, 1 and 
through Louisiana and Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, eastern Mississippi and Tennessee, western 
and northwestern Kentucky, southern Illinois, and Knox County in southwestern Indiana. In the south 
Atlantic and Gulf states, where it attains its largest size, Taxodium distichum often covers with nearly 
pure forests great areas of river-swamps, from which the water rarely disappears ; 2 in drier situations it 
grows with the Red Maple, the Water Ash, the Liquidamber, and the Bay, and in the Mississippi valley 
its common associates are the Swamp Poplar and the Water Locust. 

The wood of Taxodium distichum is light and soft, close, straight-grained, not strong, easily 
worked, and very durable in contact with the soil. It is light or dark brown, sometimes nearly black, 
with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands of small summer-cells 
and numerous very obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4543, 
a cubic foot weighing 28.31 pounds. It is largely used in construction and cooperage and for railway- 
ties, posts, and fences, and is one of the most valuable woods produced by the forests of North America. 
Most of the wooden houses in Louisiana and the other Gulf states are made from the wood of this tree, 
and it is now sent in large quantities to the northern states, where it is used principally in the 
manufacture of doors, sashes, balustrades, and the rafters of glass houses. 3 From the trunks of the 
Bald Cypress the Indians of the lower Mississippi valley formerly hollowed their canoes. 4 

The resin which can be obtained from the stems and from the cones is said to possess balsamic and 
healing properties. 5 

William Strachey, who visited the English colony on the James River in 1610, probably wrote the 
first account of the Bald Cypress, 6 and it was first described by Parkinson 7 in 1640 from a plant 

2481, f. 2336, 2337) as Cupressus disticha, var. nutans, although I swollen bases, and trim off the branches. This work must be done 

have no means of determining the fact. in winter when the water is high so that the trunks may be towed 

1 Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 555 (Man. Bot. W. Texas). through the swamps into the rivers to reach the mills. 

2 In the great river-swamps of the Gulf coast, where the Bald 8 Two varieties of Cypress wood, the black and the white, are 
Cypress grows to its greatest size, the water is so deep through recognized by lumbermen. The former, which is rather harder 
nearly the whole year that its seeds cannot germinate, and there than the other and is considered more durable, appears to be pro- 
are no young trees and comparatively few small ones growing up duced near the base of large trees. But no differences in the habit 
to replace the old ones, which are being fast converted into lumber. or in the external aspect of the trees indicate a difference in the 
Some of the large inhabitants of these swamps must have attained color of their wood ; and this seems to be due either to the age at 
a great age, for the Bald Cypress, after its early years, grows which the tree is cut or to unknown individual causes. 

slowly. (See Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 96.) The log specimen in 4 "On en fait commune'ment des Pirogues d'un seul tronc d'un 

the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American pouce & plus d'dpaisseur, qui portent des trois & quatre milliers, il 

Museum of Natural History, New York, is seventeen and three s'en fait encore de plus grosses : il y a un de ces arbres au Baton 

quarters inches in diameter inside the bark, and shows two hundred Rouge, qui a douze brasses de tour & une hauteur tout-a-fait 

and thirty-four layers of annual growth, having increased only five extraordinaire." (Le Page du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, ii. 31.) 

and one half inches in diameter during the last one hundred and 6 Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 12 mo . iv. 300, t. — 

thirty-four years of its life. When these old swamp trees began Porcher, Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 508. 

their career the seeds from which they sprung must have fallen on 6 " There is a kynd of wood which we call cypres, because both 

ground warmed by the sun, and the present depth of the water the wood, the fruict, and leafe, did most resemble yt ; and of these 

beneath them can be explained only by the hypothesis that the trees there are some neere three fathome about at the root very 

whole Gulf coast of the United States is gradually sinking. streight, and fifty, sixty, or eighty foote without a braunch." 

The depth of water in these southern swamps prevents natural (William Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, ed. 

reproduction, and facilitates the operation of the lumber-getter, Major, 129.) 

who would otherwise be unable to drag the heavy logs through the 7 Cupressus Americana, Parkinson, Theatr. 1477, f. — Catesby, 

swamp mud. As the trees when cut alive sink to the bottom of Nat. Hist. Car. i. 11, t. 

the water and are lost, it is necessary to kill them standing by Cupressus Virginiana, foliis Acacia deciduis, Hermann, Cat. Hort. 

girdling them the year before the negro wood-choppers, balancing Lugd. Bat. 207. — J. Commelin, Hort. Amst. i. 113, t. 59. — Boer- 

themselves in frail canoes, cut through the stems above their haave, Ind. Alt. Hort. Lugd. Bat. ii. 181. 



154 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. coniferje. 

cultivated in England, where it had been introduced by John Tradescant. 1 It is often cultivated in the 
parks and gardens of the eastern United States, especially in the form with acicular leaves, and is hardy 
as far north as eastern Massachusetts. In Europe it has been a favorite ornamental tree for at least a 
century and a half, and in France, Italy, southern Germany, and Great Britain large specimens, which, 
however, still retain their juvenile pyramidal habit, are often conspicuous objects in old parks and public 
gardens. 2 Numerous abnormal seminal forms have appeared in Europe, 3 the most distinct being one 
with pendulous branchlets closely appressed to the trunk. 

The glory of the maritime forests of the south and one of the most valuable and interesting trees 
of the continent, the Bald Cypress, 4 with its tall massive trunk rising high above waters darkened by the 
shadows of its great crown draped in streamers of the gray Tillandsia, is an object at once magnificent 
and mournful. 5 

Cupressus Virginiana, foliis Acacice cornigerce paribus, fy deciduis, 3 Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1859, 62, f . 10-12. — Beissner, Handb. Na- 

Plukenet, Phyt. 85, f. 6 ; Aim. Bot. 125. delh. 152. 

Cupressus Virginiana, foliis Abietis mollibus atque deciduis, Breyn, 4 Taxodium distichum is also called Black Cypress, Red Cypress, 

Prodr. Sec. 40 ; ed. 2, ii. 59. and White Cypress. 

Cupressus foliis disticha patentibus, Linnseus, Hort. Cliff. 449. — 6 " The Cupressus disticha stands in the first order of North Amer- 

Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 119. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 88. ican trees. Its majestic stature is surprising, and on approaching 

Cupressus Americana foliis deciduis, Romans, Nat. Hist. Florida, them, we are struck with a kind of awe at beholding the stateliness 

25. of the trunk, lifting its cumbrous top towards the skies, and casting 

1 See i. 20. a wide shade upon the ground, as a dark intervening cloud, which, 

2 Veitch, Man. Conif. 214. — J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, v. for a time, precludes the rays of the sun. The delicacy of its color, 
232. and texture of its leaves, exceed everything in vegetation." (W. 

Bartram, Travels, 88.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXXXVII. Taxodium distichum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A scale of a staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A scale of a staminate flower, front view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower with ovaries, front view, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a scale of a pistillate flower, side view, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A partly grown fruit, enlarged. 

11. A scale of a cone with its seeds, side view, natural size. 

12. A scale of a cone, its seeds removed, natural size. 

13. A seed, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

15. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

16. An embryo, enlarged. 

17. Staminate winter flower-buds, natural size. 

18. Pistillate winter-buds, natural size. 

19. Winter leaf-buds, enlarged. 

20. Vertical section of a branch with leaf-bud, enlarged. 

21. A seedling, natural size. 

22. Portion of a branch with acicular leaves, natural size. 



Silva-of North America. 



Tab. DXXXV1I 




CJS-FasziorL dels. 



TAXODIUM DISTICHUM, Rick. 

A.BiocreiaE direay 1 . Imp .J. Taruntr , Paris . 



Rapine' so. 



INDEX TO VOL. X. 



Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Abies religiosa, 141. 

JEcidium pyratum, 73. 

Agaricus Campanella, 101. 

Alerse, 134. 

Amphisphseria Wellingtonise, 140. 

Anthostomella nigroannulata, 5. 

Arbor Vitse, 126. 

Arbor-vitse, Japanese, 124. 

Arceuthos, 69. 

Arceuthos drupacea, 72. 

Arceuthos drupacea, var. a acerosa, 72. 

Arceuthos drupacea, var. obtusiuscula, 72. 

Areca oleracea, 30. 

Argyresthia cupressella, 100. 

Athrotaxis, 139. 

Attacus Promethea, 124. 

Bag-worm, 73. 

Bald Cypress, 151. 

Bald Cypress, Mexican, 150. 

Bastard Cedar, 136. 

Bayonet, Spanish, 6, 9. 

Bear Grass, 4. 

Bedford Juniper, 96. 

Bembeeia Sequoise, 140. 

Big Tree, 145. 

Biota, 124. 

Biota, 123. 

Biota Meldensis, 70. 

Biota orientalis, 124. 

Biota orientalis, /3 pendula, 124. 

Biota orientalis filiformis, 124. 

Biota pendula, 124. 

Black Cypress, 153, 154. 

Bogus Yucca Moth, 3. 

Brahea dulcis (f), 47. 

Brittle Thatch, 53. 

Brushes, Palmetto, 41. 

Bucculatrix thuiella, 124. 

Cabbage Palm, 30. 
Cabbage Palmetto, 41. 
Cabbage Tree, 41. 
Cade, huile de, 72. 
California Nutmeg, 59. 
Callidium antennatum, 72. 
Calocedrus, 133. 
Calocedrus macrolepis, 134. 
Canoe Cedar, 129. 
Caryocedrus, 70. 
Caryotaxus, 55. 
Caryotaxus grandis, 56. 
Caryotaxus Myristica, 59. 
Caryotaxus nucifera, 56. 
Caryotaxus taxifolia, 57. 
Cecidomyia Cupressi-ananassa, 150. 
Cedar, 91. 



Cedar-apples, 73. 

Cedar, Bastard, 136. 

Cedar, Canoe, 129. 

Cedar, Ground, 75. 

Cedar, Incense, 135. 

Cedar of Goa, 100. 

Cedar, Oregon, 120. 

Cedar, Port Orford, 119. 

Cedar, Post, 136. 

Cedar, Red, 93, 129. 

Cedar, Rock, 91. 

Cedar, Stinking, 57. 

Cedar, White, 111, 120, 126, 135. 

Cenangium deformatum, 73. 

Cercospora Yuccse, 5. 

Chgenoyucca, 3. 

Chamsecyparis, 98. k 

Chamazcyparis , 97, 98. 

Chamazcyparis breviramea, 98. 

Chama>cyparis ericoides, 112. 

Chamazcyparis Lawsoniana, 119. 

Chamaicyparis Lawsonii, 119. 

Chamazcyparis Nutkaensis, )8 glauca, 115. 

Chamaicyparis Nutkatensis, 115. 

Chamcecyparis obtusa, 98. 

Chamaicyparis pendula, 98. 

Chamaicyparis pisifera, 99. 

Chamazcyparis pisif era Jilif era, 99. 

Chamazcyparis pisifera squarrosa, 99. 

Chamazcyparis sphozroidea, 111. 

Chamcecyparis squarrosa, 98. 

Chamazcyparis thyoides, 111. 

Chamazrops acaidis, 38. 

Chamazrops glabra, 38. 

Chamazrops Palmetto, 41, 43. 

Checkered-barked Jumper, 85. 

Clistoyucca, 3. 

Codonocrinum, 1. 

Coniferae, 69. 

Corticium acerinum, var. niveum, 73. 

Corypha minor, 38. 

Corypha Palmetto, 41. 

Corypha pumila, 38. 

Croom, Hardy B., 58. 

Croomia, 58. 

Cuprespinnata, 149. 

Cuprespinnata disticha, 151. 

Cupressus, 97. 

Cupressus Americana, 115. • 

Cupressus Arbor-vitaz, 126. 

Cupressus Arizonica, 105. 

Cupressus Arizonica, var. bonita, 105. 

Cupressus attenuata, 119. 

Cupressus Bal/ouriana, 119. 

Cupressus Benthami, var. Arizonica, 105. 

Cupressus Boursierii, 119. 

Cupressus California, 107. 



Cupressus Californica gracilis, 107, 109. 

Cupressus conoidea, 99. 

Cupressus cornuta, 107. 

Cupressus disticha, 151. 

Cupressus disticha, /3 imbricaria, 152. 

Cupressus disticha, var. nutans, 153. 

Cupressus disticha, var. patens, 151. 

Cupressus, economic properties of, 98. 

Cupressus elongata, 100. 

Cupressus fasligiata, 99. 

Cupressus fragrans, 119. 

Cupressus funebris, 100. 

Cupressus, fungal diseases of, 100. 

Cupressus glandulosa, 109. 

Cupressus glauca, 100. 

Cupressus globulifera, 100. 

Cupressus Goveniana, 107. 

Cupressus Guadalupensis, 98. 

Cupressus Guadalupensis, 105. 

Cupressus Hartwegii, 103. 

Cupressus Hartwegii, var. fastigiata, 103. 

Cupressus horizontalis, 100. 

Cupressus horizontalis, j8 pendula, 100. 

Cupressus, insect enemies of, 100. 

Cupressus Lambertiana, 103, 104. 

Cupressus Lambertiana, var. fastigiata, 103. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana, 119. 

Cupressus lugubris, 99. 

Cupressus Lusitanica, 100. 

Cupressus Macnabiana, 109. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, 103. 

Cupressus macrocarpa Crippsi, 104. 

Cupressus macrocarpa flagelliformis, 104. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, ? var. Farallonensis, 107. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, var. fastigiata, 103. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, var. Guadaloupensis, 

98. 
Cupressus macrocarpa, var. Lambertiana, 103. 
Cupressus Nabiana, 109. 
Cupressus Nootkatensis, 115. 
Cupressus Nutkana, 119. 
Cupressus Nutkatensis, 115. 
Cupressus obtusa, 98. 

Cupressus obtusa, economic properties of, 98. 
Cupressus obtusa, var. breviramea, 98. 
Cupressus palustris, 111. 
Cupressus patula, 100, 124. 
Cupressus pendula, 100, 124. 
Cupressus pisifera, 98. 
Cupressus pisifera, var. a squarrosa, 99. 
Cupressus pisifera, var. c filifera, 99. 
Cupressus pyramidalis, 99. 
Cupressus Reinwardtii, 104. 
Cupressus sabinoides, 91. 
Cupressus sempervirens, 99. 
Cupressus sempervirens horizontalis, 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens stricta, 99. 



156 



INDEX. 



Cupressus sempervirens, a, 99. 

Cupressus sempervirens, a fastigiata, 99. 

Cupressus sempervirens, fi, 100. 

Cupressus sempervirens, y sphcerocarpa, 100. 

Cupressus sempervirens, y umbilicata, 99. 

Cupressus sempervirens, 8 globulifera, 100. 

Cupressus sempervirens, e Indica, 99. 

Cupressus sphcerocarpa, 100. 

Cupressus squarrosa, 99. 

Cupressus Thuya, 124. 

Cupressus thyoides, 111. 

Cupressus thyoides, 71. 

Cupressus thyoides aurea, 112. 

Cupressus thyoides ericoides, 112. 

Cupressus torulosa, 99. 

Cupressus torulosa, 103. 

Cupressus Tournefortii, 99. 

Cupressus umbilicata, 99. 

Cupressus Whitleyana, 99. 

Cypress, 105, 107, 109. 

Cypress, Bald, 151. 

Cypress, Black, 153, 154. 

Cypress, Deciduous, 151. 

Cypress knees, 151. 

Cypress, Lawson's, 119. 

Cypress, Mexican Bald, 150. 

Cypress, Monterey, 103. 

Cypress of Montezuma, 150. 

Cypress of Peopatella, 150. 

Cypress of Tule, 150. 

Cypress, Pyramidal, 100. 

Cypress, Red, 154. 

Cypress, Sitka, 115. 

Cypress, White, 153, 154. 

Cypress, Yellow, 115. 

Cypresses, Mexican, 98. 

Dacrydium plumosum, 134. 

Dsedalia vorax, 134. 

Dagger, Spanish, 9, 13, 15, 17, 23, 27. 

Dapsilia rutilana, 73. 

Deciduous Cypress, 151. 

Desert Palm, 47. 

Diaspis Carueli, 73. 

Diplodea Taxi, 63. 

Dissemination of Yucca, 3. 

Dothidea Pringlei, 5. 

Drepnodes varus, 73. 

Dry rot of Taxodium, 150. 

Eacles imperialis, 150. 
Ematurga Faxonii, 124. 
Eucupressus, 97. 
Eupithecia miserulata, 124. 
Euterpe Caribcea, 30. 
Euthrinax, 49. 
Euthuya, 123. 
Euyucca, 3. 

Fan Palm, 47. 
Florence Court Yew, 62. 
Fcetataxus, 55. 
Fcetataxus montana, 57. 
Foztataxus Myristica, 59. 
Fcetataxus nucifera, 56. 

Germination of Yucca, 3. 
Gigantabies, 139. 
Gigantabies taxifolia, 141. 
Gigantabies Wellingtonia, 145. 
Gin, flavoring of, 72, 78. 
Ginger Pine, 120. 
Glyptostrobus pendulus, 152. 
Goa, Cedar of, 100. 



Gowen, James Robert, 108. 
Graphiola eongesta, 38. 
Ground Cedar, 75. 
Guess, George, 140. 
Gymnosporangium Bermudianum, 73. 
Gymnosporangium biseptatum, 101, 134. 
Gymnosporangium clavariseforme, 73. 
Gymnosporangium clavipes, 73. 
Gymnosporangium Ellisii, 101. 
Gymnosporangium globosum, 73. 
Gymnosporangium macropus, 73. 
Gymnosporangium Nidus-avis, 73. 
Gymnosporangium speciosum, 73. 

Helminthosporium Palmetto, 38. 
Hemithrinax, 49. 
Hemithrinax, 49. 
Hesperoyucca, 3. 
Heyderia, 133. 
Heyderia decurrens, 135. 
Hi-no-ki, 98. 
Huile de cade, 72. 
Hybrid Yuccas, 4. 
Hylotrupes ligneus, 72. 
Hypocrea rufa, 140. 

Incense Cedar, 135. 
Irish Yew, 62. 

Japanese Arbor-vita?, 124. 

Joshua Tree, 19. 

Juniper, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89. 

Jumper, Bedford, 96. 

Juniper, Checkered-barked, 85. 

Juniper, Swedish, 78. 

Juniper, tar of, 72. 

Juniperus, 69. 

Juniperus alpina, 76. 

Juniperus Andina, 87. 

Juniperus arborescens, 93. 

Juniperus Barbadensis, 70, 93. 

Juniperus Bedfordiana, 96. 

Juniperus Bermudiana, 70. 

Juniperus Bermudiana, 93. 

Juniperus borealis, 75. 

Juniperus Californica, 79. 

Juniperus Californica, var. osteosperma, 70. 

Juniperus Californica, var. Utahensis, 81. 

Juniperus Canadensis, 76. 

Juniperus Caroliniana, 93. 

Juniperus Cerrosiana, 70. 

Juniperus communis, 75. 

Juniperus communis, B reflexa, fi pendula, 

78. 
Juniperus communis, a erecta, 75. 
Juniperus communis, a vulgaris, 75. 
Juniperus communis, fi, 76. 
Juniperus communis, fi alpina, 76. 
Juniperus communis, fi depressa, 76. 
Juniperus communis, $ fastigiata, 78. 
Juniperus communis, fi hemisphoerica, 75. 
Juniperus communis, fi Hispanica, 75, 78. 
Juniperus communis, fi reflexa, 78. 
Juniperus communis, y, 76. 
Juniperus communis, y Caucasica, 75. 
Juniperus communis, y montana, 76. 
Juniperus communis, 8 arborescens, 75. 
Juniperus communis, 8 oblonga, 75. 
Juniperus communis nana, 76. 
Juniperus communis, oblonga-pendula, 78. 
Juniperus communis pyramidalis, 78. 
Juniperus communis Suecica, 78. 
Juniperus communis, var. Sibirica, 75. 
Juniperus communis vulgaris, 76. 



Juniperus dealbata, 75. 

Juniperus deformis, 75. 

Juniperus densa, 71. 

Juniperus depressa, 75. 

Juniperus drupacea, 72. 

Juniperus, economic properties of, 71. 

Juniperus, essential oil of, 72. 

Juniperus excelsa, 71. 

Juniperus excelsa, 87. 

Juniperus excelsa, fi nana, 71. 

Juniperus flaccida, 83. 

Juniperus fcetida, e excelsa, 71. 

Juniperus fcetida, flaccida, 83. 

Juniperus fcetida, v Virginiana, 93. 

Juniperus fragrans, 93. 

Juniperus, fungal diseases of, 73. 

Juniperus gigantea, 70. 

Juniperus glauca, 96. 

Juniperus Gossainthanea, 96. 

Juniperus gracilis, 83, 96. 

Juniperus hemisphoerica, 75. 

Juniperus Hermanni, 87, 93. 

Juniperus Hudsonica, 71. 

Juniperus, insect enemies of, 72. 

Juniperus isophylla, 71. 

Juniperus macrocarpa, 72. 

Juniperus macropoda, 71. 

Juniperus Mexicana, 70, 91. 

Juniperus monosperma, 89. 

Juniperus nana, 76. 

Juniperus nana, A montana, 76. 

Juniperus nana, B alpina, 76. 

Juniperus oblonga, 75, 78. 

Juniperus oblonga pendula, 78. 

Juniperus occidentalis, 87. 

Juniperus occidentalis, 79, 81, 89, 93. 

Juniperus occidentalis, a pleiosperma, 87. 

Juniperus occidentalis, fi monosperma, 89. 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. gymnocarpa, 89. 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. Texana, 91. 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. Utahensis, 81. 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. ? y conjungens, 91. 

Juniperus Olivieri, 71. 

Juniperus oppositifolia, 70. 

Juniperus Oxycedrus, 72. 

Juniperus Oxycedrus, a gibbosa, 72. 

Juniperus pachyphkea, 85. 

Juniperus pendula, 86. 

Juniperus plochyderma, 85. 

Juniperus polycarpos, 71. 

Juniperus procera, 70. 

Juniperus prostrata, 71. 

Juniperus pygmaia, 76. 

Juniperus pyramidalis, 70. 

Juniperus pyriformis, 79, 80. 

Juniperus recurva, 70. 

Juniperus recurva, var. squamata, 71. 

Juniperus repens, 71, 75. 

Juniperus rufescens, 72. 

Juniperus rufescens, var. «, Noei, 72. 

Juniperus Sabina, 71. 

Juniperus Sabina, 71. 

Juniperus Sabina prostrata, 71. 

Juniperus Sabina, fi humilis, 71. 

Juniperus Sabina, var. excelsa, 71. 

Juniperus Sabina, var. procumbens, 71. 

Juniperus sabinoides, 91. 

Juniperus Sibirica, 76. 

Juniperus squamata, 71. 

Juniperus Suecica, 78. 

Juniperus tetragona, 79, 91. 

Juniperus tetragona, var. oligospermia, 91. 

Juniperus tetragona, var. osteosperma, 79. 

Juniperus Utahensis, 81. 



INDEX. 



157 



Juniperus Virginiana, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, 89. 
Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis, 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana Caroliniana, 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana gracilis, 95. 
Juniperus Virginiana Hermanni, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana prostrata, 71. 
Juniperus Virginiana, B australis, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, a vulgaris, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, & Caroliniana, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, & glauca, 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana, y Bedfordiana, 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana, var. Bermudiana, 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, var. Jiumilis, 71. 
Juniperus Virginiana, var. montana, 93. 

Kaya, 56. 

Kaya-no-abura, 56. 
Kellermannia yuccsegena, 5. 
Knees, Cypress, 151. 

Lachnea Sequoise, 140. 
Lsestadia consociata, 140. 
Lawson, Charles, 120. 
Lawson's Cypress, 119. 
Leptosphseria filamentosa, 5. 
Leptosphseria taxicola, 63. 
Leptostrorna Sequoise, 140. 
Libocedrus, 133. 

Libocedrus, austro-caledonica, 133. 
Libocedrus Bidwillii, 134. 
Libocedrus Chilensis, 134. 
Libocedrus cupressoides, 134. 
Libocedrus decurrens, 135. 
Libocedrus Doniana, 134. 
Libocedrus, economic properties of, 134. 
Libocedrus, fungal diseases of, 134. 
Libocedrus macrolepis, 134. 
Libocedrus Papuana, 133. 
Libocedrus plumosa, 134. 
Libocedrus tetragona, 134. 

LlLIACE^E, 1. 

Lobb, William, 60. 
Lophodermium juniperinum, 73. 
Lophyrus Abietis, 124. 

MacNab, James, 110. 
Macrothuya, 123. 
Megathymus Yuccas, 5. 
Melanopsamma confertissima, 140. 
Meliola furcata, 38. 
Meliola palmicola, 38. 
Metasphceria cavernosa, 150. 
Mexican Bald Cypress, 150. 
Mistletoes on Juniperus, 73. 
Monterey Cypress, 103. 
Montezuma, Cypress of, 150. 

Nectar glands of Yucca, 3. 
Nectria depauperata, 5. 
Nutmeg, California, 59. 

CEnocarpus frigidus, 30. 

(Enocarpus regius, 31. 

CEnocarpus Sancona, 30. 

Oiketicus Abbotii, 150. 

Oil of Red Cedar, 95. 

Oil, savin, 72. 

Oleum Juniperi, 72. 

Oregon Cedar, 120. 

Oreodoxa, 29. 

Oreodoxa, economic properties of, 30. 

Oreodoxa frigida, 30. 

Oreodoxa oleracea, 30. 



Oreodoxa oleracea (?), 31. 
Oreodoxa regia, 31. 
Oreodoxa Sancona, 30. 
Orgyia inornata, 150. 
Oxycedrus, 70. 

Palm, Cabbage, 30. 

Palm, Desert, 47. 

Palm, Fan, 47. 

Palm, Royal, 31. 

Palmae, 29. 

Palmetto, 43. 

Palmetto brushes, 41. 

Palmetto, Cabbage, 41. 

Palmetto, Silk-top, 51. 

Palmetto, Silver-top, 53. 

Paper-pulp manufactured from Yucca ar- 

borescens, 20. 
Peopatella, Cypress of, 150. 
Pestalozzia funerea, 124. 
Phlceosinus cristatus, 100. 
Phlceosinus dentatus, 72. 
Phoradendron juniperinum, 73. 
Phyllachora scapincola, 5. 
Phyllosticta Palmetto, 38. 
Phytoptus Thuyse, 124. 
Pine, Ginger, 120. 
Pinus cupressoides, 134. 
Pitya Cupressi, 101, 125, 140. 
Platycladus, 97, 123. 
Platycladus stricta, 124. 
Podocarpus (?) nucifera, 56. 
Pollination of Yucca, 2. 
Porothrinax, 49. 
Port Orford Cedar, 119. 
Post Cedar, 136. 
Pritchardia, 45. 
Pritchardia filamentosa, 47. 
Pritchardia filifera, 47. 
Prodoxus decipiens, 3. 
Pronuba maculata, 2. 
Pronuba synthetica, 2. 
Pronuba yuccasella, 2. 
Pseudophoenix, 33. 
Pseudophcenix Sargenti, 35. 
Pyramidal Cypress, 100. 
Pyroleum cadinum, 72. 

Red Cedar, 93, 129. 
Red Cedar oil, 95. 
Red Cypress, 154. 
Redwood, 141. 
Retinospora, 97. 
Retinospora filicoides, 98. 
Retinospora filifera, 99. 
Retinospora lycopodioides, 98. 
Retinospora obtusa, 98. 
Retinospora pisifera, 98. 
Retinospora squarrosa, 99. 
Retinosporas, Japanese, forms of, 99. 
Rhapis acaulis, 38. 
Rock Cedar, 91. 
Rcestelia aurantiaca, 73. 
Rcestelia Botryapites, 101. 
Royal Palm, 31. 

Sabal, 37. 

Sabal Adansoni, 38. 

Sabal, economic properties of, 38. 

Sabal Etonia, 38. 

Sabal, fungal diseases of, 38. 

Sabal, germination of, 38. 

Sabal glabra, 38. 

Sabal Mexicana, 43. 



Sabal minor, 38. 

Sabal Palmetto, 41. 

Sabal Palmetto (?), 43. 

Sabal pumila, 38. 

Sabina, 70. 

Sabina, 69. 

Sabina Bermudiana, 70. 

Sabina Californica, 79. 

Sabina excelsa, 71. 

Sabina flaccida, 83. 

Sabina gigantea, 70, 141, 145. 

Sabina isopkyllos, 71. 

Sabina Mexicana, 70. 

Sabina occidentalis, 87. 

Sabina osteosperma, 79. 

Sabina pachyphlcea, 85. 

Sabina plochyderma, 85. 

Sabina polycarpos, 71. 

Sabina procera, 70. 

Sabina recurva, 70. 

Sabina recurva, var. a tenuifolia, 70. 

Sabina recurva, var. /3 densa, 70. 

Sabina religiosa, 70. 

Sabina squamata, 71. 

Sabina tetragona, 91. 

Sabina Virginiana, 93. 

Sarcoyucca, 3. 

Sargentia Aricocca, 34. 

Savin, 93. 

Savin oil, 72. 

Sawara, 99. 

Schott, Arthur Carl Victor, 18. 

Schubertia, 149. 

Schubertia disticha, 151. 

Schubertia disticha, 0, 152. 

Schubertia disticha, y, 152. 

Schubertia sempervirens, 141. 

Scleroderris Sequoia?, 140. 

Septoria Yuccse, 5. 

Sequoia, 139. 

Sequoia, fungal diseases of, 140. 

Sequoia gigantea, 141, 145. 

Sequoia, insect enemies of, 140. 

Sequoia religiosa, 141. 

Sequoia sempervirens, 141. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia, 145. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia, weeping, 147. 

Sequoyah, 140. 

Silk-top Palmetto, 51. 

Silver-top Palmetto, 53. 

Sitka Cypress, 115. 

Spanish Bayonet, 6, 9. 

Spanish Dagger, 9, 13, 15, 17, 23, 27. 

Sphaerella sabaligena, 38. 

Sphserella Taxodii, 150. 

Stictis versicolor, 140. 

Stinking Cedar, 57. 

Streptothrix atra, 73. 

Swedish Juniper, 78. 

Tar of Juniper, 72. 

Taxace^e, 55. 

Taxine, 63. 

Taxodium, 149. 

Taxodium ascendens, 152. 

Taxodium, buds of, 149. 

Taxodium, economic properties of, 150. 

Taxodium distichum, 151. 

Taxodium distichum, 150. 

Taxodium distichum Mexicanum, 150. 

Taxodium distichum pendulum, 152. 

Taxodium distichum Sinense pendvlum, 152. 

Taxodium distichum, A patens, 151. 

Taxodium distichum, var. imbricarium, 152. 



158 



INDEX. 



Taxodium, dry rot of, 150. 

Taxodium, fungal diseases of, 150. 

Taxodium giganteum, 115. 

Taxodium, insect enemies of, 150. 

Taxodium Mexicanum, 150. 

Taxodium microphyllum, 152. 

Taxodium mucronulatum, 150. 

Taxodium sempervirens, 141. 

Taxodium Sinense, 152. 

Taxodium Sinense, y pendulum, 152. 

Taxodium Washingtonianum, 145. 

Taxus, 61. 

Taxus baccata, 62. 

Taxus baccata, 63, 65. 

Taxus baccata adpressa, 62. 

Taxus baccata cuspidata, 63. 

Taxus baccata Dovastonii, 62. 

Taxus baccata, economic properties of, 62. 

Taxus baccata fastigiata, 62. 

Taxus baccata, poisonous properties of, 63. 

Taxus baccata, 0, 63. 

Taxus baccata, £ minor, 63. 

Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis, 63, 65. 

Taxus baccata, var. microcarpa, 62. 

Taxus baccata, var. a brevifolia, 65. 

Taxus Boursieri, 65. 

Taxus brevifolia, 65. 

Taxus Canadensis, 63. 

Taxus Canadensis, 65. 

Taxus cuspidata, 62. 

Taxus, economic properties of, 63. 

Taxus Floridaua, 67. 

Taxus, fungal diseases of, 63. 

Taxus globosa, 63. 

Taxus Lindleyana, 65. 

Taxus lugubris, 62. 

Taxus minor, 63. 

Taxus montana, 58, 67. 

Taxus nucifera, 56, 62. 

Taxus orientalis, 62. 

Taxus polyploea, 62. 

Taxus tardiva, 63. 

Taxus Wallichiana, 62. 

Thatch, Brittle, 53. 

Thrinax, 49. 

Thrinax argentea, 53. 

Thrinax, economic properties of, 50. 

Thrinax Garberi, 50. 

Thrinax microcarpa, 53. 

Thrinax parviflora, 51. 

Thuia, 125. 

Thuiozcarpus, 69. 

Thuicecarpus juniperinus, 75. 

Thuiopsis borealis, 115. 

Thuja, 125. 

Thujin, 124. 

Thujopsis, 97. 

Thujopsis borealis, 116. 

Thujopsis ? Standishii, 124. 

Thujopsis Tchugalskoy, 116. 

Thujopsis Tchugatskoyce, 116. 

Thuya, 123. 

Thuya, 97, 133. 

Thuya acuta, V2A. 

Thuya Andina, 134. 

Thuya Chilensis, 134. 

Thuya Craigana, 135. 

Thuya decora, 124. 

Thuya Doniana, 134. 

Thuya, economic uses of, 124. 

Thuya excelsa, 115. 

Thuya filiformis, V2A. 

Thuya, fungal diseases of, 124. 

Thuya gigantea, 129. 



Thuya gigantea, 124, 135, 136. 

Thuya gigantea, var. Japonica, 124. 

Thuya, insect enemies of, 124. 

Thuya Japonica, 124. 

Thuya Lobbiana, 130. 

Thuya Lobbii, 130. 

Thuya Menziesii, 129. 

Thuya obtusa, 98, 126. 

Thuya oceidentalis, 126. 

Thuya odorata, 126. 

Thuya orientalis, 124. 

Thuya orientalis, var. pendula, 124. 

Thuya pendula, 124. 

Thuya pisifera, 98. 

Thuya pisifera, var. filifera, 99. 

Thuya pisifera, var. squarrosa, 99. 

Thuya plicata, 129, 130. 

Thuya procera, 126. 

Thuya sphozroidalis, 111. 

Thuya sphozroidea, 111. 

Thuya Standishii, 124. 

Thuya tetragona, 134. 

Thuyopsis, 98. 

7%a, 125. 

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, 73, 124. 

Torreya, 57. 

Torreya, 55. 

Torreya Californica, 59. 

Torreya (?) grandis, 56. 

Torreya Myristica, 59. 

Torreya nucifera, 56. 

Torreya taxifolia, 57. 

Tre'cul, Auguste Adolph Lucien, 10. 

Trithrinax, 38. 

Tule, Cypress of, 150. 

Tumion, 55. 

Tumion Calif ornicum, 59. 

Tumion Californicum, var. littorale, 59. 

Tumion, economic properties of, 56. 

Tumion grande, 56. 

Tumion nuciferum, 56. 

Tumion taxifolium, 57. 

Venturia sabalicola, 38. 
Verataxus, 61. 

Washingtonia, 45. 
Washingtonia Californica, 145. 
Washingtonia filamentosa, 47. 
Washingtonia filifera, 47. 
Washingtonia robusta, 46. 
Washingtonia Sonorse, 45. 
Wellingtonia, 139. 
Wellingtonia gigantea, 145. 
White Cedar, 111, 120, 126, 135. 
White Cypress, 153, 154. 

Yellow Cypress, 115. 

Yew, 62, 65, 67. 

Yew, Florence Court, 62. 

Yew, Irish, 62. 

Yucca, 1. 

Yucca acuminata, 23. 

Yucca agavoides, 10. 

Yucca aloifolia, 6. 

Yucca aloifolia, var. # Draconis, 7. 

Yucca aloifolia, var. y conspicua, 7. 

Yucca angustifolia, /3 elata, 27. 

Yucca angustifolia, /8 radiosa, 27. 

Yucca arboreseens, 19. 

Yucca arcuata, 6. 

Yucca aspera, 9. 

Yucca Atkinsi, 7. 

Yucca australis, 4, 13. 



Yucca baccata, 16. 

Yucca baccata, 13, 15, 17. 

Yucca baccata, australis, 4, 13. 

Yucca baccata, var. macrocarpa, 13. 

Yucca Boerhaavii, 23. 

Yucca brevifolia, 19. 

Yucca canaliculata, 9. 

Yucca Carrierei, 4. 

Yucca concava, 10. 

Yucca conspicua, 7. 

Yucca constricta, 27. 

Yucca cornuta, 10. 

Yucca crenulata, 6. 

Yucca, dissemination of, 3. 

Yucca Draconis, 4, 7. 

Yucca Draconis, var. arboreseens, 19. 

Yucca, economic properties of, 4. 

Yucca elata, 27. 

Yucca Ellacombei, 23, 25. 

Yucca ensifolia, 25. 

Yucca, fertilization of, 1. 

Yucca fibre, 4. 

Yucca filamentosa, 4. 

Yucca filamentosa ?, 15. 

Yucca filifera, 4. 

Yucca filifera, 13. 

Yucca, fungal diseases of, 5. 

Yucca, germination of, 3. 

Yucca glauca, 25. 

Yucca gloriosa, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa acuminata, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, fructification of, 24. 

Yucca gloriosa glaucescens, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa maculata, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa marginata, 25. 

Yucca gloriosa medio picta, 25. 

Yucca gloriosa minor, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa mollis, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa nobilis, 23, 24. 

Yucca gloriosa nobilis parviflora, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa robusta, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa tristis, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. Ellacombei, 23. 

Fwcca gloriosa, var. obliqua, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. plicata, 24. 

Fwca gloriosa, var. pruinosa, 23. 

Fwcca gloriosa, var. superba, 24. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. tortulata, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. -y recurvifolia, 24. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. 5 planifolia, 25. 

Yucca Guatemalensis, 4. 

Fwcca Haruckeriana, 7. 

Yucca, hybrids of, 4. 

Yucca, insect enemies of, 5. 

Yucca integerrima, 23. 

Yucca Japonica, 25. 

Fwcca lineata lutea, 7. 

Fwcca longifolia, 9. 

Yucca macrocarpa, 13. 

Fwcca macrocarpa, 15, 17. 

Yucca Mohavensis, 15. 

Yucca Moth, 2. 

Yucca Moth, Bogus, 3. 

Yucca, nectar glands of, 3. 

Yucca, nocturnal opening of the flowers 

of, 2. 
Yucca obliqua, 23. 
Yucca patens, 23. 
Yucca pendula, 24. 
Yucca pendula variegata, 25. 
Yucca, pollination of, 2. 
Yucca polyphylla, 27. 
Yucca pruinosa, 23. 
Yucca puberula, 17. 



INDEX. 159 

Yucca purpurea, 7. Yucca rufocincta, 24. Yucca superba, 24. 

Yucca quadricolor, 7. Yucca Schottii, 17. Yucca tenuifolia, 6. 

Yucca radiosa, 28. Fucca serrata, y argenteo-marginala, 7. JTwcca tortulata, 23. 

Fucca recurva, 24. Fweca serrata, 5 roseo-marginata, 7. Yucca Treculeana, 9. 

Fucca recurvifolia, 24. Fucca serrulata, 6. Fucca tricolor, 7. 

Yucca, reflexion of the leaves of, 1. Fucca serrulata, a vera, 6. Fucca undulata, 10. 

Fucca revoluta, 10. Fucca serrulata, /3 robusta, 6. Yucca Yucatana, 4. - 



■ n,1 w Vork Botanical Garden Libra 



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