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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

THE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 



The New York Botanical Garden 
LuEsther T. Mertz Library 

Gift of 

The Estate of 

Henry Clay Frick, II 
2007 




THE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE TREES WHICH GROW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



31lUi#traten taty tftgures attD ^natygejai Dratrw from Mature 

BY 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 

VOLUME XI 
CONIFERS 

(Pinus) 




f i » iiTii T^""""'H i l"'""'""i i i ii il l l!!i|! BM»S 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

ۤt iHitoergitie $tt$$ f Cambridge 



MDCCCXCVn 



Copyright, 1897, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 

All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton and Company. 



NEW YORK 

BOTANSCAL 

GARDEN 



TO 

JOHN MUIR 

LOVER AND INTERPRETER OF NATURE 
WHO BEST HAS TOLD THE STORY OF THE SIERRA FORESTS 
THIS ELEVENTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Synopsis of Orders 
Pinus Strobus 

PlNUS MONTICOLA 

Pinus Lambertiana 
Pinus strobiformis 
Pinus flexilis 
Pinus albicaulis 
Pinus quadrifolia 
Pinus cembroides 
Pinus monophylla 
Pinus edulis 
Pinus Balfouriana 
Pinus aristata 
Pinus resinosa 
Pinus Torreyana 
Pinus Arizonica . 



Pinus Chihuahuana 
Pinus contorta 
Pinus Sabiniana . 
Pinus Coulteri 
Pinus radiata 
Pinus attenuata 
Pinus Tjeda . 
Pinus rigida . 
Pinus serotina 



Plates dxxxviii., dxxxix. 
Plates dxl., dxli. 
Plates dxlii., dxliii. 
Plates dxliv., dxlv. . 
Plates dxlvi., dxlvii. 
Plate dxlviii. . 
Plate dxlix. . 
Plate dl. . 
Plate dli. . 
Plate dlii. 
Plate dliii . 
Plate dliv. 
Plates dlv., dlvi. . 
Plates dlvii., dlviii. . 
Plate dlix. . 



Pinus ponderosa Plates dlx., dlxi., dlxii., dlxiii., dlxiv., dlxv. 



Plate dlxvi. . 
Plates dlxvii., dlxviii. 
Plates dlxix., dlxx. 
Plates dlxxi., dlxxii. 
Plates dlxxiii., dlxxiv. . 
Plates dlxxv., dlxxvi. 
Plates dlxxvii., dlxxviii. 
Plate dlxxix. . 
Plate dlxxx . 



Pinus Virginiana Plate dlxxxi. 



Pinus clausa. 
Pinus glabra . 
Pinus pungens 
Pinus muricata 
Pinus echinata 



Plate dlxxxii. 
Plate dlxxxiii. . 
Plate dlxxxiv. 
Plates dlxxxv., dlxxxvi. 
Plate dlxxxvii. 



Pinus diyaricata Plate dlxxxviii. 

Pinus palustris Plates dlxxxix., dxc. 

Pinus heterophylla .... . Plates dxci., dxcii. 



Page 
vii 

17 

23 

27 

33 

35 

39 

43 

47 

51 

55 

59 

63 

67 

71 

75 

77 

85 

89 

95 

99 

103 

107 

111 

115 

119 

123 

127 

131 

135 

139 

143 

147 

151 

157 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME XI. 

OF THE SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class III. GYMNOSPERM^J. Resinous trees or shrubs. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Flowers unisexual, naked. 
Stamens numerous. Ovules 2 or many not inclosed in an ovary. Cotyledons 2 or more. Leaves usually straight-veined, 
persistent, or deciduous. 

58. Coniferae. Flowers monoecious, usually solitary, terminal, or axillary. Ovules 2 or many. Fruit a woody 
or rarely fleshy strobile. Cotyledons 2 or many. Leaves scale-like, linear or subulate, solitary or clustered. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PINUS. 

Flowers naked, monoecious, the staminate involucrate, fascicled ; stamens indefi- 
nite, anther-cells 2 ; the pistillate lateral or subterminal, solitary or clustered, their 
scales spirally disposed ; ovules 2 under each scale. Fruit a woody strobile maturing 
in two or rarely in three years. Leaves dimorphic, the primordial scattered, the 
secondary fascicled, persistent. 

Pinus, Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 121 (1755). — Adan- Pinus, Linnaeus, Gen. 293 (in part) (1737). — Endlicher, 
son, Fam. PI. ii. 480. — Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, Gen. 260 (in part). — Meisner, Gen. 352 (in part). — 

157. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 438. — Engelmann, Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 44 (in part). 

Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 161. — Eichler, Engler & Apinus, Necker, Elem. Bot. iii. 269 (1790). 

Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. i. 70. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Cembra, Opiz, Seznam, 27 (1852). 

Soc. xxx. 37. Strobus, Opiz, Lotos, iv. 94 (1854). 

Trees, or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed and sometimes laminate or with thin and scaly 
bark, hard or soft heartwood often conspicuously marked by dark bands of summer cells impregnated 
with resin, pale nearly white sapwood, stout branches and branchlets, large terminal and axillary 
branch-buds formed during summer and covered with numerous loosely imbricated scarious usually 
chestnut-brown thin ovate acute accrescent scales, the outer empty and persistent on the growing 
branch, the inner inclosing the leaf-buds, 1 and fibrous rootlets. Primary leaves subulate from a broad 
base, flat, keeled above and below, usually serrulate, stomatiferous on both surfaces, scarious or hyaline, 
marcescent, spirally disposed in many series, on some species occasionally produced on vigorous stump 
shoots and branches ; 2 secondary or foliage leaves clustered, the clusters borne on rudimentary 
branches in the axils of primary leaves or of bud-scales, and surrounded at the base by sheaths of 
two lateral keeled scales and from six to ten inner accrescent scales more or less united by their 
thin edges, inclosing the leaf-clusters in the bud, persistent with the leaves, or loose, spreading, and 
deciduous during the first season ; leaf-clusters composed of two, three, or five, or rarely of six or seven 
leaves, or of a single leaf, the number usually definite in each species, or on a few species regularly 
variable, deciduous during their second season or persistent for many years ; leaves acicular, elongated, 
acute, spinescent, or occasionally somewhat obtuse and entire at the apex, generally sharply serrulate 
on the margins and on the keel of the upper surface ; in two-leaved clusters, semiterete, convex below, 
flat above, in clusters of three or more, triangular and more or less keeled above, or terete when 
solitary ; stomatiferous, the stomata disposed in longitudinal bands on one or on both surfaces ; fibro- 
vascular bundles solitary or in pairs ; resin ducts peripheral or parenchymatous or internal, often 
varying in number in the same species ; hypoderm or strengthening cells scattered under the epidermis, 
usually at the angles and keel of the leaf, and occasionally also in the fibro-vascular region. Flowers 



2 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

monoecious, very rarely androgynous, 3 appearing in early spring. Staminate flowers fascicled at the 
base of leafy accrescent shoots of the year in the axils of bracts, yellow, orange-color, or scarlet, oval, 
cylindrical, or more or less elongated, composed of numerous sessile two-celled anthers imbricated m 
many ranks, their cells parallel, extrorse, opening on the sides longitudinally and surmounted by crest- 
like transverse semiorbicular or almost orbicular connectives, entire, denticulate, lacerate, or rarely short 
and tuberculate or dentate, each flower surrounded at the base by an involucre of scale-like bracts 
varying from three to sixteen, usually definite in number on each species, the two external bracts 
lateral, strongly keeled on the back ; pollen-grains bilobed, with lateral air sacs. 4 Pistillate flowers 
subterminal or lateral, solitary, geminate, or clustered, erect or recurved, sessile or pedunculate, borne 
near the apex of branchlets of the year in the axils of bud-scales, composed of numerous carpellary 
scales each in the axil of a small bract, spirally disposed in many series, rounded, obtuse and appressed 
at the apex, or produced into longer or shorter or much elongated subulate often scarious tips, bearing 
on the inner surface near the base two naked collateral inverted ovules. Fruit a woody pendulous 
horizontal, or occasionally erect, subglobose oblong or elongated conical symmetrical or, by the greater 
development of the scales on one side than on the other, oblique woody strobile maturing at the end of 
the second or rarely of the third season, and persistent on the branch after the escape of the seeds, or 
on some species remaining closed for many years, composed of the now hard and woody scales of the 
flower more or less thickened on the free exposed surface terminating in a blunt umbo or acicular with 
a weak or strong caducous or stout persistent mucro, or furnished with a much thickened elongated 
often curved or twisted spine ; 5 floral bracts now thickened and corky, much shorter than the scales, 
partly inclosing the seeds in depressions at the base. Seeds geminate, reversed, attached at the base in 
shallow depressions on the inner face of the scales, obovate or obliquely triangular, occasionally nearly 
cylindrical, often somewhat compressed, smooth or frequently slightly ridged or tuberculate below, 
destitute of resin vescicles, in falling bearing away portions of the membranaceous lining of the scale 
forming wing-like attachments often several times longer or as long or shorter than the seeds, or 
reduced to a narrow rim frequently remaining attached to the scale after the f ailing of the seed ; testa 
of two coats, the outer crustaceous, or thick, hard, and bony, pale gray, yellow-brown, or black, 
sometimes produced into a narrow wing-like border, the inner membranaceous, light chestnut-brown, 
and lustrous. Embryo axile in copious fleshy albumen ; cotyledons from three to fifteen or rarely 
eighteen, 6 usually much shorter than the inferior radicle. 7 

About seventy species of Pinus can now be distinguished. 8 The genus is widely distributed 
through the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the West Indies 9 and the highlands of 
Central America 10 in the New World, and in the Old World to the Canary Islands, which are inhabited 
by one endemic species, 11 northern Africa, Burma, and the Philippine Islands, where one species 
occurs, 12 and to the mountains of the Indian Archipelago, where a single species crosses the equator. 13 
Pine-trees form vast forests on high mountain slopes and maritime plains, and are generally scattered 
through the forests of deciduous-leaved trees in most northern countries. The principal centres of 
distribution of Pinus are the western United States, where twenty-one species are recognized, the eastern 
United States, where thirteen species grow, and the highlands of Mexico, which are often covered with 
great forests of Pine-trees. 14 In the Old World Pine-trees abound in the regions bordering the Medi- 
terranean, where there are five species, and constitute great forests on the mountains of central Europe 
and the plains of northern Europe and Asia. In southern Asia the genus is comparatively poorly 
represented in number of species, although on some of the outer ranges of the Himalayas the forests 
are largely composed of Pine-trees. 15 It is widely distributed with a few species through eastern con- 
tinental Asia, 16 and Pine-trees are common in all the elevated regions of Japan. 17 The genus has 
representatives in all parts of eastern North America except the basin of the central Mississippi and 
the elevated plains east of the Rocky Mountains; in the north one species only braves the arctic 
winter ; four inhabit the St. Lawrence basin and northern New England ; the number increases to five 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 3 

in the middle Atlantic states, and in the lowlands of the south eight species are found. In western 
North America Pine-trees are distributed over all the mountain ranges and elevated valleys from 
Alaska to the Mexican boundary, which is crossed by five Mexican species finding their northern home 
on the mountains of southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. At the north Pine-trees form 
great forests on many of the interior ranges of the Pacific states, and at the south, mingled with 
Junipers, frequently cover elevated plains and mesas ; they are found at the timber line on all high 
mountains, maintaining a foothold where no other tree can live ; they bear uninjured the fiercest ocean 
gales, and flourish in the arid valleys of the interior, where neither cold nor drought is able to check 
their vigor. 

The type is an ancient one. Represented by a few species in the cretaceous flora of North 
America and Europe, it became abundant in the miocene period, when at least one hundred species of 
Pines are believed to have existed. 18 

Pinus contains some of the most important timber-trees of the world ; and the straight-grained 
moderately hard resinous wood of many species is used in immense quantities. The most valuable 
timber-trees of the genus are the eastern American Pinus palustrls, Pinus Strobus, and Pinus echi- 
nata, the western American Pinus Lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus monticola, the tropical 
American Pinus heteropliylla, Pinus sylvestris 19 of northern Europe and Asia, Pinus Laricio 20 of 
southern Europe, the Himalayan Pinus JSTepalensls, 21 and the eastern Asiatic Pinus Thunbergii 22 and 
Pinus densijlora? 3 Resin from which turpentine is distilled is obtained by drawing off the juices of 
several species, the largest part of the world's supply being obtained from the eastern American Pinus 
palustrls and Pinus heterop)hylla ; it is also obtained from Pinus Pinaster 24 and Pinus Halepensis ^ 
of the Mediterranean basin, and from the Himalayan Pinus Roxburghli™ Tar 27 is manufactured 
by the slow combustion of the wood of Pines and other conifers. Oil of turpentine 28 and other 
products distilled from the resins of several species of Pinus are stimulant, diuretic, and anthelmintic, 
and are employed in the treatment of human diseases, 29 and for illuminating purposes. Rosin, the 
residue left from the distillation of turpentine from resin, is used in plasters, and in the manufacture 
of soap, sealing-wax, varnish, and cement ; 30 and an essential oil used medicinally is distilled from 
the leaves and young shoots of different Pine-trees. 31 The large slightly resinous edible seeds of 
several species are important articles of human food, the best being produced by the Nut Pines of 
western North America, by Pinus Plnea 32 of the Mediterranean region, Pinus Cemhra 33 of Europe 
and Asia, and Pinus Gerardiana 3i of northwestern India. Pine wool, a coarse fibre manufactured 
from the leaves of Pinus Laricio, Pinus sylvestris, and other European species, is used to stuff mat- 
tresses and cushions, and, woven with animal wool, is made into hospital and military blankets and 
into underclothing which is believed to possess valuable medical properties. 3 ^ In the southern United 
States coarse carpets are woven from the leaves of Pinus palustrls. 36 In China different species of 
Pinus are used in medicine. 37 The bark of several species contains sufficient tannic acid to make them 
valuable for tanning leather, and in the Old World Pine-bark is occasionally employed for this 
purpose. 3S 

The cultivation of Pine-trees for the production of timber has long occupied the attention of 
Japanese 39 and European silviculturists ; and Pine-trees are used to decorate the parks and gardens of 
all temperate countries. 

In the United States Pinus is preyed on by many insects, 40 and is attacked by numerous fungal 
diseases. 41 

Pine-trees can be easily raised from seeds, which, however, must not be allowed to become dry, as 
they soon lose their vitality. Easily transplanted while young, their long fibrous rootlets do not hold 
the soil firmly when disturbed, and make the operation of moving large plants difficult and uncertain. 

The classical name of the Pine-tree was adopted by Tournefort 42 for this genus as it is now 
limited. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



1 Henry, Nov. Act. Acad. Cces. Leop. xix. 93, t. 12 ; xxii. pt. i. 
247, t. 23. 

2 Pinics rigida and Pinus echinata are the species of the United 
States which generally bear primary leaves on branches, or pro- 
duce freely shoots from the stumps of cut trees. These shoots, 
which are clothed with primary leaves, grow vigorously for a few 
years and then usually perish. On the sandy sterile plains in 
Burlington and Ocean Counties, New Jersey, however, the coppice 
growth over large areas is principally composed of such stump 
shoots. They are usually destroyed at the end of a few years by 
fires which do not kill the stumps ; and these often live to a great 
age, producing successive crops of shoots, and show the wonderful 
recuperative power of these trees under what would seem to be 
most unfavorable conditions. (See Fernow, Garden and Forest, 
viii. 472 ; x. 209.) 

3 Near Bluffton, South Carolina, Dr. J. H. Mellichamp has no- 
ticed two trees of Pinus heterophylla producing during several 
successive seasons well developed pistillate flowers at the tips of 
the staminate flowers (Christ, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. xxxiii. pt. ii. 
88. —J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, viii. 222, f. 33, 2). 

4 The pollen of Pinus can float in the air for a long time, and is 
sometimes wafted great distances by the wind. Engelmann ( Trans. 
St. Louis Acad. iv. 169) found after a southern storm in March 
Pine pollen in the streets of St. Louis which must have been car- 
ried from the forests of Pinus palustris on the Red River, a distance 
of four hundred miles in a direct line ; and the decks of vessels off 
the coast of the south Atlantic states are sometimes covered with 
Pine pollen in early spring. 

5 According to Celakovsky, the umbo of the cone-scale of Pinus 
is the apophysis of the scale of the first year, which becomes woody 
and ceases to grow at the end of the first season, the apophysis of 
the mature cone being developed the second year from tissue at 
the base of the umbo (Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1893, 314, t. 14, f. 11- 
14). 

6 In germinating the empty hood-like testa of the Pine seed from 
which the wing has usually fallen is raised on the tip of the coty- 
ledons ; the axis soon commences to elongate and to bear primary 
leaves from whose axils the clusters of foliage leaves begin to ap- 
pear in the second season, although in the case of Pinus palustris 
of the southeastern United States, as noticed by Engelmann, the 
axes during six or eight years thicken without elongating and bear 
in the axils of the primary leaves numerous clusters of long sec- 
ondary leaves (I. c. 174). 

7 By Engelmann (Z. c. 175) the species of Pinus are grouped in 
the following sections, his arrangement being based on the form of 
the cone-scales, the internal structure of the leaves, and the posi- 
tion of the cones : — 

Sect. 1. Strobus. Cones subterminal ; exposed part of the 
cone-scales thin, rarely reflexed, furnished with a marginal unarmed 
umbo. Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, the sheaths loose and decidu- 
ous. Anthers terminating in a, knob, in a few teeth, or in a short 
crest. Wood soft and light-colored. White Pines. 

Eustrobi. Leaves sharply serrulate or rarely nearly entire ; 
resin ducts peripheral. Inhabitants of eastern and western 
North America, Mexico, Japan, the Himalayas, and southeastern 
Europe. 

CEMBRiE. Leaves sparingly serrulate ; resin ducts parenchy- 
matous. Inhabitants of northeastern and northern Asia and cen- 
tral Europe. 

Sect. 2. Pinaster. Exposed portion of the cone-scales thick- 
ened, the dorsal umbo usually aristate. Leaves in from 1 to 5- 
leaved clusters, the sheaths usually persistent. Anthers generally 



terminating in semiorbicular or nearly orbicular crests. Wood 
hard, heavy, and resinous. Pitch Pines. 

Integrifolle. Cones subterminal, their scales thick, un- 
armed or in one species furnished with long slender awns. 
Leaves in from 1 to 5-leaved clusters, entire ; resin ducts pe- 
ripheral. Anthers terminating in a knob or in a few teeth. 
Inhabitants of western North America and of northern Mexico. 

Sylvestres. Cones subterminal. Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved 
clusters, serrulate, the sheaths persistent ; resin ducts peripheral. 
Anthers crested or in one species knobbed. Inhabitants of 
Europe, southeastern Asia, the Philippine Islands, and eastern 
North America. 

Halepenses. Cones lateral, their scales much thickened with 
prominent umbos or smooth. Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, 
the sheaths deciduous or persistent ; resin ducts peripheral. In- 
habitants of northern China, the northwest Himalayas, and the 
basin of the Mediterranean. 

PoNDEROSiE. Cones subterminal, their scales umbonate. 
Leaves in 2, 3, or 5-leaved clusters, the sheaths persistent or 
deciduous ; resin ducts parenchymatous. Inhabitants of western 
North America, Mexico, the Canary Islands, southern Europe, 
and Japan. 

Tmdje. Cones lateral, their scales much thickened, and armed 
with stout and persistent or with weak deciduous prickles or 
with stout elongated hooked or twisted spines. Leaves in 2 or 
3-leaved clusters, the sheaths persistent ; resin ducts parenchy- 
matous. Inhabitants of eastern and western North America, 
Mexico, and southern Europe. 

Atjstrales. Cones subterminal or lateral, their scales umbo- 
nate. Leaves in from 2 to 5-leaved clusters, the sheaths decid- 
uous ; resin ducts internal. Inhabitants of southeastern North 
America, the West Indies, and Mexico. 

8 Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 378. — Engelmann, 
I. c. 175. 

A tendency to hybridize has not been observed in the North 
American species of Pinus ; but in Europe supposed hybrids be- 
tween Pinus sylvestris and Pinus montana have been noticed in the 
Swiss Engadine (see Christ, Flora, xlvii. 145, t. 1. — Beissner, 
Handb. Nadelh. 230) ; and Mayr found in Japan what he believed 
to be hybrids between Pinus Thunbergii and Pinus densiflora (Mo- 
nog. Abiet. Jap. 83, t. 7, f. 2, 3, 4 ; 84, t. 7, f. 3, 4). 

9 A. Richard, Fl. Cub. iii. 233. — Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 217. — 
Sauvalle, Fl. Cub. 151. 

10 Morris, The Colony of British Honduras, 56. 

11 Pinus Canariensis, Buch, Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins. 159 
(1825). — De Candolle, PL Rar. Sard. Geneve, 1, t. 1, 2. — D. 
Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Webb & Berthelot, Phytogr. Canar. 
sect. iii. 280 ; Atlas, t. 6. — Forbes, Pinetum Wobum. 57, t. 21. — 
Link, Linncea, xv. 508. — Antoine, Conif. 33, t. 15. — Endlicher, 
Syn. Conif. 165. — Carriere, Traite Conif 348. — Gordon, Pine- 
tum, 191. — Parlatore, I. c. 393. — Christ, Bot. Jahrb. ix. 172, 486 
(Spicilegium Canar.). — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, iii. 723, 
f. 94. 

Pinus Canariensis inhabits the mountains of Teneriffe, and at 
elevations of from five to six thousand feet above the sea forms 
extensive forests on Grand Canary Island. It is a tree seventy 
or eighty feet in height, with a stout trunk covered by thick deeply 
furrowed bark, a broad round-topped head of spreading branches, 
slender dark green leaves in clusters of three and from eight to 
ten inches in length, and oblong-ovate lustrous cones. It grows 
with great rapidity while young, and has been largely planted in 
the gardens of southern Europe and other warm countries. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



12 Pinus insularis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 157 (1847). — Carriere, 
Traite Conif. 353. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
390. — Vidal y Soler, Sin. PL Len. Filipinas, t. 98 f . C. 

Pinus Tceda, Blanco, FT. Filip. 767 (not Linnseus) (1837). 

Pinus Timoriensis, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2269 (1838). 
Pinus insularis, which is still imperfectly known, is described as 
a large tree, with slender dark green leaves in clusters of three 
and from six to nine inches in length, and small ovate obtuse 
cones. 

18 Pinus Merkusii, De Vriese, PI. Nov. Ind. Bat. 5, t. 2 (1845).— 
Endlicher, I. c. 176. — Miquel, PI. Jungh. i. 1 ; FT. Ind. Bat. ii. 1069 ; 
Suppl. 252, 588. — Carriere, I. c. 380. — Gordon, Pinetum, 169. — 
De Boer, Conif. Archip. Ind. 5. — Parlatore, I. v. 389. — Kurz, For- 
est FT. Brit. Burm. ii. 499. — Vidal y Soler, I. c. t. 98, f. B. 

Pinus sylvestris, Willdenow, Loureiro .FT. Cochin, ed. 2, ii. 709 
(not Linnseus) (1793). 

Pinus Finlaysoniana, Blume, Rumphia, iii. 210 (1837). 

Pinus Latteri, Mason, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. i. 74 (1849). 
Pinus Merkusii, which is widely distributed through the Malay 
Peninsula and over the high mountains of the Indian Archipelago, 
is closely related to and perhaps only a geographical form of the 
south China and Malayan Pinus Massoniana, Lambert. It is a 
tree which is often more than a hundred feet in height, with very 
slender leaves in clusters of two and from eight to ten inches in 
length, and small ovate acute cones. 

14 Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 186. 

Great confusion still exists with regard to the specific characters 
and distribution of the Pines of Mexico, which can claim perhaps 
twelve or fourteen species. This confusion has been greatly 
increased by seed collectors, who have distributed seeds of these 
trees under different names, Roezl alone having described, and 
distributed the seeds of, ninety-two species of Mexican Pines (see 
Catalogue des Graines de Conif eres Mexicains en vente chez B. Roezl 
et Cie, Horticultures a Napoles pres Mexico pour automne 1857 et 
printemps 1858, 10) ; and it will probably never be cleared up until 
these trees have been specially studied in their native forests by 
competent observers. 

15 Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 505. — Kurz, I. c. 498. — Hooker f . 
FT. Brit. Ind. v. 651. 

16 Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 503 (Conifers of Japan). — 
Franchet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. ser. 2, v. 285 (PL. David, i.). 

17 Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Miinch. iv. pt. iii. 235. — 
A. Murray, The Firs and Pines of Japan, 5. — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PL Jap. i. 464. — Masters, I. c. — Mayr, Monog. Abiet. Jap. 
67. 

18 Lesquereux, Rep. U. S. Geolog. Surv. vii. 72, 83, t. 7, f. 25- 
33. — Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 60. — Zittel, 
Handb. Palaiontolog. ii. 337. 

19 Linnaeus, Spec. 1000 (excl. var.) (1753). — Lambert, Pinus, i. 
1, t. 1. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 494. — De Candolle, Lamarck 
FT. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 271. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 230, t. 66. — Bro- 
tero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e Abetos, 6. — Link, Abhand. Akad. 
Berl. 1827, 165 ; Linncea, xv. 484. — Ledebour, FT. ATt. iv. 199 ; 
FT. Ross. iii. 674. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 7. — Antoine, Conif 
9, t. 4, f. 3.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 376. — Visiani, FL Dahn. i. 
199. — Schouw, Ann. Set. Nat. sdr. 3, iii. 231 (Conif eres d'ltalie). — 
Endlicher, I. c. 171. — Hartig, Forst. Culturpfl. Deutschl. 53, t. 4. — 
Reichenbach, Icon. FL German, xi. 1, t. 521. — Carriere, L c. 372. — 
Turczaninow, FT. Baicalensi-Dahurica, ii. 142. — Koch, Syn. FL 
German, ed. 3, ii. 576. — Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad. Sci. 
St. Petersbourg, ix. 263 (Prim. FL A mur. ). — Willkomm & Lange, 
Prodr. FT. Hispan. i. 17. — Tchihatcheff, Asie Mineur, iii. pt. ii. 



497. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 46 ; De Candolle Prodr. 1. c. 385.— 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 273. — Masters, I. c. 505. — Laguna, 
Coniferas y Amentdceas Espanolas, 28 ; Fl. Forestal Espanola, i. 
60, t. 6. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 694. — Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. 
i. 375, f . 58-64. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Strducher, i. 120, 
f. 58-67. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 225, f. 57, 58. 

Pinus rubra, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). — Nouveau Du- 
hamel, v. 233, t. 67, f. 1. — De Candolle, I. c. '272. 

Pinus Tartarica, Miller, I. c. No. 4 (1768). 

Pinus Mugo, Turra, Fl. Ital. Prodr. 67 (1780). 

Pinus montana, G. F. Hoffmann, Deutschl. Fl. 340 (not Miller) 
(1791). 

Pinus binato-folio, Gilibert, Exercit. Phyt. ii. 414 (1792). 

Pinus borealis, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 

Pinus resinosa, Savi, FT. Pis. ii. 354 (not Aiton) (1798). 

Pinus humilis, Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 170 (1830). 

Pinus Armena, K. Koch, Linnoza, xxii. 297 (1849). 

Pinus Pontica, K. Koch. I. c. (1849). 

Pinus Frieseana, Wichura, Flora, xlii. 409 (1859). 
Pinus sylvestris, which is usually known to English-speaking peo- 
ple as the Scotch Fir, the Scotch Pine, or the Riga Pine, attains 
under favorable conditions a height of one hundred and fifty feet, 
and produces a trunk three or four feet in diameter, free of 
branches for seventy or eighty feet, and clothed, except at the base, 
with red scaly bark, a comparatively narrow open round-topped 
head of small branches, stout rigid bluish or grayish green leaves 
in clusters of two and from an inch and a half to two inches and a 
half in length, and broadly ovate cones from an inch to an inch and 
a quarter long. It is widely distributed through Europe and Rus- 
sian Asia from the Arctic Circle to the Sierra Nevada of southern 
Spain, central Italy, Dalmatia, Asia Minor, and northern Persia, 
and from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the valley of the 
Amoor River, forming in northern Europe and Siberia vast forests 
on sandy plains and at the south covering mountain slopes, which 
it sometimes ascends to elevations of from six to seven thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. Pinus sylvestris is the principal 
timber Pine of Europe and Asiatic Russia, and its wood is of great 
commercial importance in all the countries of northern Europe, 
whence it is exported in large quantities. When produced under 
the best conditions the wood is light, elastic, strong, and durable ; 
it is used for the masts of vessels, in all sorts of construction, for 
railway-ties, and for fuel. It differs, however, greatly in quality, 
and European silviculturists have carefully studied these variations 
of the wood of Pinus sylvestris in connection with variations in its 
external characters, and have distinguished a number of geographi- 
cal forms which are rather nominal than real, it being now well 
understood that the character of the wood depends on the climate 
and soil of the region where it is produced rather than on any 
modifications in habit, foliage, or organs of reproduction. (See, for 
the races of Pinus sylvestris, Don, Mem. Caledonian Hort. Soc. i. 
121. — Delamarre, Traite Pratique de la Culture des Pins, 23. — 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2455. — L. Vilmorin, Mem. Soc. d'Agric. 
1863, pt. i. 297 [Expose Historique et Descriptif de VEcole Forestiere 
des Barres'].) 

In some of the countries of northern Europe resin is obtained 
from Pinus sylvestris, and tar is also manufactured from its wood 
in great quantities (Clarke, Travels, ed. 4, xi. 299). The inner 
bark and the branchlets are used to feed cattle and hogs ; in time 
of famine the bark serves in the extreme north as human food 
(Clarke, I. c. 528) ; and the outer bark is employed to thatch 
houses. 

Pinus sylvestris was introduced into the United States early in 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



conifers. 



the present century and has been largely planted in the northern 
states as an ornamental tree, and to make wind-breaks on the 
prairies and plains of the central west. Extremely hardy in the 
northern states and in Canada, it grows here while young with 
great rapidity, but soon succumbs to disease and the attacks of 
boring insects, and rarely lives more than thirty or forty years. 
In Europe Pinus sylvestris has been much used in the decoration of 
parks, and a number of abnormal forms are distinguished and 
propagated by gardeners. (See Hoopes, Evergreens, 104. — Beiss- 
ner, Handb. Nadelh. 225.) 

20 Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 339 (1804). — De Candolle, Lamarck 
Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 274. — Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 174 ; 
Linncea, xv. 494. — Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, i. t. 4. — Forbes, Pinetum 
Woburn. 23. — Antoine, Conif. 3, 1. 1, f. 1-3. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 
384 (excl. var. 7). — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, iii. 234 (Coni- 
feres d'ltalie). — Endlicher, Syti. Conif. 178. — Reichenbach, Icon. 
FL German, xi. 2, t. 524. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 384. — Gordon, 
Pinetum, 168. — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 18. — 
Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 52 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 386. — 
Laguna, Coniferas y Amentdceas Espanolas, 28 ; Fl. Forestal Espa- 
nola, i. 77, t. 8. — Beissner, I. c. 238. 

Pinus sylvestris, e maritima, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 366 (1789). 
Pinus maritima, Aiton, I. c. ed. 2, v. 315 (not Miller) (1813). 
Pinus Pinaster, Moris, Stirp. Sard. Elench. i. 42 (not Aiton) 

(1827). 

Pinus Laricio is a tree frequently one hundred feet in height, 
with slender dark green often twisted leaves in clusters of two 
and from four to six inches in length, and ovate cones solitary or 
in pairs and three or four inches long. It covers with its several 
varieties many of the mountain ranges of southern Europe and of 
Asia Minor, forming vast but usually isolated forests from the 
Pyrenees to the Taurus. The wood of this tree is hard and strong, 
and is valued for all sorts of construction, although the abundance 
of its resinous secretions detracts from its value for masts for 
vessels and material for the interior finish of buildings. Pinus 
Laricio first attracted the attention of European silviculturists in 
the middle of the last century, and has been largely cultivated in 
France, southern Germany, and Great Britain (Loudon, Arb. Brit. 
iv. 2200). The attempts which have been made to introduce it 
into the United States have usually been unsuccessful, and in New 
England its southern forms are not generally hardy. 

The Austrian Pine, a, native of the mountains of southern Aus- 
tria, Servia, and Roumania, is now usually considered a geographi- 
cal variety of Pinus Laricio. It is : — 

Pinus Laricio, £ Austriaca, Endlicher, I. c. 179 (1847). — Hempel 
& Wilhelm, Bdume und Straucher, i. 148, f. 74-78, t. 6. 

Pinus Pinaster, Besser, Fl. Gal. ii. 294 (not Aiton) (1809). 
Pinus sylvestris, Baumgarten, Enum. Stirp. Transs. ii. 304 (not 

Linnseus) (1816). 
Pinus Austriaca, Hoss, Anleit. 6 (1830) ; Monog. der Schwarz- 

fdhre. — De Chambray, Traite Arb. Res. Conif. 327, t. 3, f. 13- 

15, t. 5, f . 6, 7. — Hartig, Forst. Culturpfl. Deutschl. 74, t. 6. — 

Carriere, I. c. 387. — Gordon, I. c. 162. 
Pinus nigra, Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 173 (not Aiton) 

(1830). 
Pinus nigricans, Host, Fl. Austr. ii. 628 (1831). — Tenore, Fl. 

Nap. v. 139. — Link, Linnoza, xv. 491. 
Pinus maritima, Koch, Syn. Fl. German. 667 (not Miller) 

(1837). 
Pinus Laricio, Koch, I. c. ed. 2, 767 (not Poiret) (1843). 
Pinus Laricio, p nigricans, Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 53 (1867) ; 

De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 387. 



The Austrian Pine, which differs from the typical Pinus Laricio 
of Corsica in its shorter, stouter, and more rigid leaves, grows on 
plains and low mountain slopes, flourishing on limestone soil, rapidly 
attaining a large size, and producing strong coarse-grained resinous 
wood useful for all sorts of rough construction. The rapid growth 
of this tree, its shapely habit while young, and the denseness of its 
dark foliage, have made it a favorite for the decoration of parks, 
and it has been largely planted in northern and central Europe and 
in the northern United States. In America, however, it suffers 
early from boring insects which destroy its vigor, and, although it 
is very hardy and grows rapidly while young, is not long-lived or 
satisfactory either as a timber or an ornamental tree. 

Other geographical forms of the Corsican Pine are Pinus Laricio 
Calabrica (Beissner, I. c. 241 [1891]) of the mountains of southern 
Italy ; Pinus Laricio Pallasiana (Endlicher, I. c. 179 [1847]) of the 
Crimea ; and Pinus Laricio Cebennensis (Grenier & Godron, Fl. 
Franc, iii. 153 [1855]) of the Ce'vennes. 

21 De Chambray, I. c. 342 (1845). 

Pinus excelsa, Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, i. t. (not Lamarck) 
(1828). — Wallich, PI. As. Rar. iii. 1, t. 201. — Forbes, I. c. 
75, t. 29. — Antoine, I. c. 42, 1, t. 20, f . 1. — Link, I. c. 515. — 
Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. Ind. iv. pt. iv. 226 ; vii. pt. ii. 
80 (Himalayan Conif eroz). — Endlicher, I. c. 145. — Carriere, I.e. 
300. — Gordon, I. c. 222. — Hoopes, I. c. 128, f. 17. — Parlatore, 
De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 404. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 
321. — Aitchison, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 97 (Fl. Kuram Valley'). — 
Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 698. —Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 651.— 
Beissner, I. c. 283, f. 69. 

Pi?ius Griffithii, McClellan, Griffith Notul. iv. 17 (1854) ; Icon. 
PI. Asiat. t. 365. 

Pinus Nepalensis, the Himalayan representative of that group 
of five-leaved Pines of which the North American Pinus Strobus 
and Pinus Lambertiana are the best known members, inhabits 
mountain slopes from Afghanistan to Bhotan between elevations 
of five thousand and twelve thousand five hundred feet above the 
sea, where it is scattered through the forests of deciduous-leaved 
trees, or is mixed with other conifers, or sometimes covers con- 
siderable areas nearly to the exclusion of all other trees. It attains, 
under favorable conditions, a height of one hundred and fifty feet, 
with a tall straight trunk often three or four feet in diameter and 
covered with dark-colored fissured bark, slender drooping blue- 
green leaves from five to eight inches in length, and elongated 
cones, and produces light brown straight-grained resinous wood 
which is easy to work. This is much used in northern India in 
building and for shingles, water-channels, troughs, and agricultural 
implements ; it is largely made into charcoal for iron smelting, and 
is employed for torches, smtll pieces used for lighting houses being 
sold in considerable quantities. The bark is employed for the 
roofs of huts ; the leaves and young branches supply domestic ani- 
mals with litter, and the leaves are mixed with mortar (Brandis, 
Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 510. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 398. — 
Balfour, Encyclopaedia of India, ed. 3, iii. 220). 

Pinus Nepalensis, or the Bhotan Pine as it is often called, is a 
favorite ornament of the parks and gardens of temperate Europe, 
and of the eastern United States, where it is hardy as far north as 
Massachusetts. Growing in cultivation with great rapidity while 
young, it often suffers in the United States from the splitting of 
the bark, and is usually short-lived in the north ; in the middle 
states it promises to be longer lived, and handsome specimens 
already from forty to fifty feet in height exist in the neighborhood 
of New York and Philadelphia. 

22 Parlatore, I. c. 388 (1868). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PI. Jap. i. 464. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 504 {Conifers of 
Japan).— Mayr, Monog. Abiet. Jap. 69, t. 5, f. 16, t. 7, f. 1.— 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 24S. 

Pinus sylvestris, Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 274 (not Linnseus) (1784). 
Pinus Pinaster, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2218 (in part) (not 

Aiton) (1838). — Gordon, Pinetum, 176 (in part). 
Pinus Massoniana, Siebold & Zuecarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 24, t. 113, 

114 (not Lambert) (1842 ?). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 174. — Car- 
riere, Traite Conif. 378. — A. Murray, Pines and Firs of Japan, 

23, f. 39-54. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. 166 (Prol. 

Fl. Jap.). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 282. — Gordon, I. c. ed. 

2, 241. 

Pinus Thunbergii, the Kura-matsu or Black Pine of Japan, in- 
habits northern China and Corea. In Japan it is extremely rare 
except in cultivation, if it ever grows naturally, but has been exten- 
sively planted and appears as a tree frequently eighty feet in height, 
with a trunk three feet in diameter covered with deeply furrowed 
dark bark, a broad head of stout contorted often pendulous 
branches, thick dark green leaves in clusters of two, white branch 
buds, and small clustered cones. 

It is with this tree that the plantations on the sandy coast-plains 
of Japan are chiefly made ; it shades many of the principal high- 
ways of the country, and is used to cover arbors with its artificially 
elongated branches, or to hang over the sides of moated walls ; it 
is to be seen in every garden, where it is frequently dwarfed or 
trained in fantastic shapes, and by the Japanese is the most revered 
of all Pine-trees. The wood is moderately strong but coarse- 
grained and resinous, and in Japan is used in large quantities in the 
construction of buildings and for fuel, being rendered cheap by 
the rapid growth of the tree on sterile sandy soil unsuitable for the 
production of other crops (Dupont, Essences Forestieres du Japon, 
10. — Rein, Industries of Japan, 236, 273. — Sargent, Forest Fl. 
Jap. 79). 

Pinus Thunbergii has flourished for many years in the gardens of 
Europe, and in those of the eastern United States, where it is per- 
fectly hardy as far north, at least, as eastern Massachusetts (Sar- 
gent, Garden and Forest, vi. 458). 

28 Siebold & Zuecarini, I. c. 22, t. 112 (1842?). — Endlicher, 
I c. 172. — Carriere, I. c. 376. — Gordon, I. c. Suppl. 58. — A. Mur- 
ray, I. c. 32, f. 55-68. — Miquel, I. c. 165. — Parlatore, De Can- 
dolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 388. — K. Koch, I. c. 285. — Franchet & 
Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. i. 464. — Masters, I. c. 503. — Mayr, I. c. 
72, t. 5, f. 17, t. 6, f ., t. 7, f . 5. — Beissner, I. c. 247. 

? Pinus Japonica, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 33 (1839). — An- 

toine, Conif. 23. 
Pinus scopifera, Miquel, Zollinger Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 82 

(1854). 
Pinus Pinea, Gordon, I. c. 179 (in part) (not Linnseus) (1858). 

Pinus densiflora, the Aka-matsu or Red Pine of Japan, is common 
in the mountain forests of central Hondo at elevations of from 
three to four thousand feet above the sea-level, where it is very 
generally distributed among deciduous-leaved trees ; it also grows 
in Corea and northern China. It is a tree seventy or eighty feet 
in height, with a slender trunk covered toward the top and on the 
short slender contorted branches with thin light red bark separating 
in loose scales, with thin light green leaves in clusters of two, and 
small crowded cones. The Red Pine is generally planted with the 
Black Pine in the artificial forests of Japan, but is less frequently 
used in Japanese gardens. In commerce the wood is not distin- 
guished from that of Pinus Thunbergii. and is used for the same 
purposes (Dupont, I. c. 10. — Rein, I. c. — Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 
79). Pinus densiflora, which often appears in gardens under the 



name of Pinus Massoniana, is perfectly hardy in New England, 
where it produces cones in great profusion, and already begins to 
show the picturesque habit which distinguishes it in its native land 
(Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 538). 

24 Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 367 (1789). — Lambert, Pinus, i. 21, t. 
9. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 496. — Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 
1827, 175 ; Linnoza, xv. 498. — Forbes, I. c. 29. — Antoine, I. c. 18, 
t. 6, f. 1. — Visiani, Fl. Balm. i. 199. — Sehouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
se"r. 3, iii. 235 (Conif "eres d'ltalie). — Endlicher, I. c. 168. — Reich- 
enbach, Icon. Fl. German, vi. 2, t. 575. — Carriere, I. c. 365. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 176. — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 
19. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 37 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
382. — K. Koch, I. c. 290. — Laguna, Conif eras y Amentdceas Es- 
panolas, 29 ; Fl. Forestal Espanola, 89, 1. 10. — Beissner, I. c. 221. — 
Hempel & Wilhelm, Bdume und Strducher, i. 167, f. 92, 95. 
Pinus sylvestris, 0, Linnaeus, Spec. 1000 (1753). 
Pinus Laricio, Santi, Viagg. 59, t. 1 (not Poiret) (1795). — 

Savi, Fl. Pis. 253. 
Pinus glomerata, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 
Pinus maritima, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 337 (not Miller) 

(1804). — Brotero, Fl. Lusitan. ii. 284 ; Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, 

Larices e Abetos, 8. — De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 

273. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 240, t. 72, 72 bis. 
Pinus Syrtica, Thore, Promenade en Gascogne, 161 (1810). 

Pinus Pinaster, which is usually called the Maritime Pine, is a 
tree sixty or seventy feet in height, with a stout and often more 
or less inclined or crooked trunk covered with very thick deeply 
fissured dark bark, a dense round-topped head, stout rigid dark 
green leaves in clusters of two and from five to eight inches in 
length, and large ovoid cylindrical lustrous dark brown cones borne 
in whorls in close many-coned clusters. It inhabits sandy plains 
generally near the coast in western and southern France, Spain, 
and Portugal, Corsica, Italy, Dalmatia, Greece, and Algeria, and 
has been largely planted to protect the shifting sands of the coast 
dunes and to cover the Landes of southwestern France. These 
plantations, commenced by Bre'montier in 1789, now extend over 
at least three hundred square miles, and stretch along the shore 
of the Bay of Biscay from the Gironde to the Adour ; they have 
proved entirely successful and one of the greatest triumphs of 
modern agriculture, Pinus Pinaster being especially fitted to hold 
loose sands by its power to grow freely from seeds planted in ex- 
posed situations, its rapid growth in sterile soil, and the strong grasp 
of its powerful deep descending and spreading roots. 

The wood of the Maritime Pine is hard, strong, coarse-grained, 
very resinous, and reddish brown, and is used in the construction 
of buildings, for railway-ties, telegraph-poles, and piles, and for 
fuel. This tree, however, is most valuable for its resinous pro- 
ducts which are chiefly obtained in the planted forests of south- 
western France, which are systematically worked for this crop and 
afford the principal employment to the inhabitants of the region. 

In the French pineries trees with a trunk diameter of from 
twelve to eighteen inches are considered large enough to work 
profitably for resin. This is obtained by making near the ground 
a cut a few inches wide and about five inches high through the 
bark into the wood ; at the base of the cut a small earthen pot is 
hung to receive the resiu, which flows into it over a flat piece of 
zinc ; during the season, which lasts from March until the middle 
of October, the cut is slightly enlarged upward once or twice a 
week to improve the flow of resin, until at the end of five or six 
years it is ten or twelve feet long, the pot being raised as the cut 
is carried upward and the workman being obliged to use a ladder 
made by cutting notches in a small pole in order to empty it. The 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



cut is then abandoned and a fresh one is made on the opposite side 
of the tree, and when this has reached a height of ten or twelve 
feet a third and then a fourth cut is made. In this way the tree 
continues productive for many years, the old cuts healing over by 
the formation of fresh bark so that eventually second cuts may be 
made in their places. By this system only one wound is worked 
at the same time, but when trees are to be cut down a number of 
wounds are made and worked simultaneously in order to obtain 
the largest yield of resin in a short time. Broad fire-paths are 
kept clean through these pineries to check the spread of fires, 
which always menace forests worked for the production of resin. 

The resin collected from the trees in the small pots is poured 
into large pits lined with planks, and later is boiled in copper 
kettles to free it from impurities ; it is then filtered into barrels 
through a layer of straw spread horizontally and four or five inches 
thick, and in this state is the brown resin of commerce. During 
the summer months the resin is sometimes purified by exposing it 
to the sun in large square wooden boxes. The heat liquefies the 
resin, which drips through a number of small holes made in the 
bottom of the boxes into vessels placed beneath them, leaving 
the impurities behind. Yellow resin is made by gradually adding 
cold water to the boiling product ; this causes it to melt and over- 
flow into a trough fixed on one side of the kettle, through which it 
passes into a second vessel, and is then ladled back into the first, 
the operation being repeated several times until the whole mass 
becomes clear and yellow, when it is filtered through straw into 
moulds made in the sand, in which it hardens and is then ready for 
market. 

When the trees can be no longer profitably worked for resin 
they are felled, and the stems and roots are cut up into small pieces 
which are piled on gratings, covered with a, thick coat of wet clay, 
and burnt. In this manner tar, which, however, is considered 
inferior to that produced from Pinus sylvestris, is obtained. Oil of 
turpentine is made by distilling the resin of the Maritime Pine ; 
and lamp-black by burning the straw used in filtering the resin in 
specially made furnaces, which deposit the soot of the smoke on the 
walls of small chambers through which it is passed. From the 
buds and young shoots syrups are distilled which are used locally 
in the treatment of catarrhal and pulmonary complaints. (For de- 
scriptions of the pineries of Pinus Pinaster in southwestern France 
and their products, see Bremontier, Memoire sur les Dunes et par- 
ticulierement sur celles qui se trouvent entre Bayonne et la Pointe de 
Grave. — Chaptal, Instructions sur la maniere d'extraire le Goudron et 
autres principes resineaux du Pin. — Ve'tillart, Observations Pratiques 
sur la Culture du Pin Maritime. — A. Richard, Hist. Mat. Med. iii. 
168. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2213. — Lorentz, Annales Forestieres, i. 
57, 119 [Notice sur le Pin Maritime']. — De Chambray, Traite Arb. 
Res. Conif. 201. — Trochu, Creation de la Ferme et des Bois de Brule 
sur un Terrain des Landes. — Brongniart, Annales Forestieres, xi. 169, 
197, 225, 253, 281 [A/em. sur les Plantations Forestieres dans la 
Sologne~\. — Boitel, Du Pin Maritime. — Demaude, Du Gemmage 
des Pins et de la Plantation des Bois en Sologne. — Hippolite Dive, 
Monograpliie Industrielle et Commerciale du Pin Maritime. — Sama- 
nos, Traite de la Culture du Pin Maritime. — Dessort, Du Pin 
Maritime et de ses Produits. — Paul Dive, Essai sur un Arbre du 
Genre Pinus qui croit spontanement dans les Landes de Gascogne. — 
Reveil, Annales Forestieres, xxiv. 143, 176 [Du Pin Maritime']. — 
Guibourt, Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 259. — J. C. Brown, Pine Plantations 
on the Sand-Wastes of France. — Mathieu, Fl. Forestiere, ed. 3, 
532. — Spons, Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, 
and Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1688. — Poore, Essays on Rural 
Hygiene, 298 [The Story of Bremontier].) 



Pinus Pinaster was introduced into Great Britain in the middle 
of the sixteenth century, and is frequently cultivated in central and 
western Europe as an ornament of parks and gardens. It is not 
hardy in the northern United States, but may be expected to 
thrive on the coast of the south Atlantic states. In California it 
grows very rapidly on the sand dunes of the coast in the neighbor- 
hood of San Francisco, and promises to attain a large size there, as 
well as in the gardens in the central and southern parts of the 
state. It has become common in southern Africa, and appears to 
be better suited for cultivation and more generally naturalized in 
many warm countries than any other Pine-tree (F. Mueller, Select 
Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture or Naturalization in 
Victoria, 174. — Nicholson, Garden and Forest, ii. 208). 

26 Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 8 (1768) ; Diet. Icon. 139, t. 208.— 
Desfontaines, Fl. Atlant. ii. 352. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 15, t. 11. — 
Nouveau Duhamel, v. 238, t. 70. — Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 
177 ; Linnoza, xv. 496. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 25, t. 8. — 
Antoine, Conif. 2, t. i. f . 3. — Visiani, Fl. Dalm. i. 200. — Schouw, 
Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 3, iii. 237 (Conif eres d'ltalie). — Endlicher, Syn. 
Conif. 180. — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 2, t. 576. — Car- 
riere, Traite Conif. 393. — Gordon, Pinetum, 165. — Willkomm & 
Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 19. — Christ, Flora, xlvi. 369. — Par- 
latore, Fl. Ital. iv. 40 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 383. — K. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 294. — Laguna, Conif eras y Amentdceas Es- 
panolas, 29 ; Fl. Forestal Espanola, 83, t. 9. — Boissier, Fl. Orient. 
v. 695. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 221. — Hempel & Wilhelm, 
Baume und Straucher, i. 162, f . 85-89, t. 7. 

Pinus sylvestris, Gouan, Fl. Monsp. 418 (not Linnaeus) (1765). 
Pinus maritima, Miller, I. c. No. 7 (1768). — Lambert, I. c. ii. 

30, 1. 10. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 497. — Brotero, Fl. Lusitan. 

ii. 284. — Sibthorp & Smith, Prodr. Fl. Grose, ii. 47 ; Fl. Graze, x. 

39, t. 949. — Link, Abhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 177 ; Linncea, xv. 

495. — Endlicher, I. c. 181. — Reichenbach, I. c. 3, t. 527. — Lede- 

bour, Fl. Ross. iii. 676. 

Pinus Alepensis, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 338 (1804). — De 

Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 274. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. 

Pinheiros, Larices e Abetos, 12. 

Pinus Pityusa, Steven, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 49 (1838). — 

Strangways, Gard. Mag. n. ser. vi. 638. — Carriere, I. c. 395. 

Pinus Halepensis is a tree usually from twenty to thirty feet tall, 
with a trunk generally not more than eighteen inches in diameter, 
and covered while young with smooth lustrous silver gray bark 
which in old age becomes thick, deeply furrowed, and dark red- 
brown, and a round-topped irregular crown of thin light-colored 
foliage. The leaves are borne in two-leaved clusters, and are slen- 
der, from two to four inches in length, gray or blue-green, and about 
as long as the distinctly stalked recurved reddish brown cones, 
which are lateral and solitary or borne in few-coned clusters. 

Pinus Halepensis inhabits the Mediterranean basin, where it is 
distributed from Portugal and northern Africa to Syria, Arabia, 
and Asia Minor. On the Taurus it ascends to elevations of 3,500 
feet above the sea-level, and here, in Greece on the rocky hills 
of Attica, on the shores of the Gulf of Lepanto and on the islands 
of the Archipelago, and on the mountains of southern Spain, it 
forms great open forests. It is the most widely and generally 
distributed Pine-tree of northern Africa, sometimes attaining in 
Tunis a height of nearly a hundred feet. (See Legrand, Nouv. 
Ann. de la Marine et des Colonies, 1854 [Mem. sur les Richesses 
Forestieres de VAlgerie, 60]. — Livet, La Tunisie ses Eaux et ses 
Forets, 25. — Lamey, Forets de la Tunisie, 152.) Hardy and robust, 
it flourishes in all soils and exposures, and on dry exposed sun- 
baked slopes, where other trees cannot maintain a foothold. The 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



Aleppo Pine requires, however, light and heat, and does not endure 
the winters of cold countries. Its great value consists in the pro- 
tection it is able to afford the soil of steep dry hillsides. The 
wood, although coarse-grained and resinous, is somewhat used in 
construction, especially in northern Africa, and largely for fuel. 
In southern France and in the eastern Mediterranean countries the 
forests of Aleppo Pine are worked for the production of resin, 
which, however, it yields in smaller quantities than Pinus Pinaster. 
(See Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2233. — Mathieu, Fl. Forestiere, ed. 3, 
529.) 

26 Pinus Roxburghii. 

Pinus longifolia, Lambert, Pinus, i. 29, t. 21 (not Salisbury) 

(1803). — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 247. — Willdenow, Spec, iv.pt. 

ii. 500. — Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, iii. 651. — Royle, 111. 353, t. 

85, f. 1. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 55, t. 20. — Antoine, Conif 

29, t. 9. — Link, Linncea, xv. 507. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 

158.— McClellan, Griffith Notul. iv. 18 ; Icon. PI. Asiat. t. 369, 

370. — Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. Ind. iv. pt. iv. 223 ; 

vii. pt. ii. 75 (Himalayan Conif erce). — Carriere, Traite Conif. 

332. — Gordon, Pinetum, 200. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 

xvi. pt. ii. 390. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 652. — Beissner, 

Handb. Nadelh. 251. 

Pinus Roxburghii often forms open forests on the outer ranges of 
the Himalayas, where it is distributed from Afghanistan to Bho- 
tan, usually at elevations of from fifteen hundred to six thousand 
feet above the level of the sea, although in Kamaon occasionally 
ascending fifteen hundred feet higher, and flourishing equally in 
the humid semitropical valleys of Sikkim and on the arid sandstone 
hills of the upper Punjab. It is a tree sometimes a hundred feet 
in height, with a tall and usually naked trunk occasionally four 
feet in diameter, although it is generally smaller and often gnarled 
and stunted ; it has thick and deeply furrowed bark, a round- 
topped open head of stout branches often ascending at the extremi- 
ties, dark or light green leaves in clusters of three and from nine 
to twelve inches in length, and long solitary or whorled cones. It 
produces moderately hard and strong easily worked yellow or red- 
brown resinous wood, which, although not durable, is largely used 
in many of the northern districts of India in construction, for shin- 
gles and tea-chests, and in the manufacture of charcoal. This tree 
furnishes the largest part of the resin produced in India ; it is 
obtained by making triangular-shaped incisions or cups in the 
trunk, or by stripping off the bark, the usual product from an 
average sized tree being from ten to twenty pounds in the first 
year and about one third as much in the second year, after which 
the tree generally dies. Tar is obtained by the slow combustion of 
chips of the resinous wood in earthen pots closed and covered with 
wet soil ; dried cow-dung is used as fuel, and the tar, running 
through holes in the bottom of the pot, flows into a second jar bur- 
ied in the ground below it. Spirits of turpentine is distilled in 
some of the northwest provinces from the crude turpentine yielded 
by this tree (Pharmacographia Indica, vi. 378). Pieces of the 
wood of stumps of trees which have been worked for turpentine 
are used for torches, and as candles in houses and mines. The 
bark contains considerable quantities of tannin identical with that 
of oak bark, and is used in India in tanning leather, and as fuel in 
smelting iron (Bastin & Trimble, Am. Jour. Pharm. lxviii. 139). 
Charcoal made from the leaves mixed with rice water serves as 
a substitute for ink ; and the seeds are edible, sometimes furnishing 
in times of famine an important supply of food (Brandis, Forest 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 506. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 396. — Bal- 
four, Encyclopaedia of India, ed. 3, iii. 221). 

Pinus Roxburghii is cultivated on the plains of northern India, 



but it has not proved hardy in Europe except in exceptionally 
favorable positions, or in the eastern United States ; and it is 
rarely seen in the gardens of temperate countries. 

~ 7 Tar by distillation yields pyroligneous acid and oil of tar, the 
residue being pitch, which is largely used commercially in caulking 
vessels and medicinally as a gentle stimulant and tonic. Tar is 
employed in cases of chronic catarrh ; its vapor is inhaled in the 
treatment of bronchitis ; and ointment of tar is sometimes applied 
to relieve cutaneous diseases (U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1174). 

28 Oil of turpentine is used as a solvent for several resins and 
for sulphur, phosphorus, caoutchouc, wax, and fats, and is largely 
consumed in the manufacture of varnish and paint. 

29 Woodville, Med. Bot. iii. 572. — Fliickiger & Hanbury, Phar- 
macographia, 545. — Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 256. — Mills- 
paugh, Am. Med. Plants in Homoeopathic Remedies, ii. 163-2. — 
U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1485. 

80 Spons, Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 
Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1408. 

81 Spons, I. c. 1680. 

32 Linnaeus, Spec. 1000 (1753). — Desfontaines, Fl. Atlant. ii. 
352. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 11, t. 6-8. — Brotero, Fl. Lusitan. ii. 286 ; 
Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e Abetos, 11. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. 
pt. i. 497. — De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Franc, ed. 3, iii. 273. — 
Nouveau Duhamel, v. 242, t. 72 bis, f. 3, t. 73. — Link, Abhand. 
Akad. Berl. 1827, 178 ; Linno&a, xv. 499. — Antoine, I. c. 20, t. 3, 
f. 2. — Visiani, Fl. Dalm. i. 199. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 3, 
iii. 236 (Conif eres d'ltalie). — Endlicher, I. c. 182. — Reichenbach, 
Icon. Fl. German, xi. 3, t. 528, 530. — Koch, Syn. Fl. German, ed. 
3, ii. 578. — Carriere, I. v. 402. — Gordon, I. c. 179. — Willkomm 
& Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 20. — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 34 ; 
De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 381. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 
270. — Laguna, Coniferas y Amentdceas Espanolas, 29 ; Fl. Forestal 
Espanola, 49, t. 4, 5. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 694. — Beissner, I. c 
220. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Straucher, 170, f . 94, 95. 
Pinus fastuosa, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 
Pinus Maderiensis, Tenore, Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. 1854 ; Ann. 

Sci. Nat. se"r. 4, ii. 379. 

Pinus Pinea now inhabits the Mediterranean basin from Portugal 
to Syria, growing usually in the neighborhood of the coast and 
often forming pure forests of considerable extent, although it is not 
improbable that the region it occupied naturally has been extended 
westward through ancient cultivation, as this Pine, which was valued 
by the Greeks and Romans for its picturesque habit as well as for 
its edible seeds, in southern France and Spain rarely grows far 
from human habitations. It is a, tree with a stout erect or often 
inclining trunk free of branches for fifty or sixty feet, covered with 
thin smooth reddish bark, and surmounted with a. flat parasol-like 
head of spreading branches ; it has deep dark green leaves in 
clusters of two and seven o/ eight inches in length, stout ovate 
obtuse cones, almost as long as the leaves, which do not mature 
until the third season, and thick-shelled nearly cylindrical seeds 
three quarters of an inch in length. The wood is almost white, 
slightly resinous and easily worked, and in southern Europe is 
sometimes used for the interior finish of buildings, in cabinet- 
making, and for water pipes and the outside sheathing of boats. 
The Stone Pine, as this tree is commonly called in English, is most 
valued, however, for its abundant crops of seeds. These furnish » 
large amount of food to the inhabitants of southern Europe, who 
eat them roasted, or grind them into flour ; they are exported in 
small quantities to northern Europe and the United States, and the 
large Pine seeds sold in the markets of eastern American cities are 
the product of Pinus Pinea. 



10 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFEKJE. 



The Stone Pine is cultivated often on a large scale in southern 
Europe for its seeds ; as an ornamental tree it has heen freely used 
to decorate the gardens of Italy and the other countries of southern 
Europe, which owe roach to its peculiar and picturesque habit. 
(See Gilpin, Forest Scenery , i. 83. — Loudon, A rb. Brit. iv. 2224, t.) 
It was introduced into British plantations before the middle of the 
sixteenth century, but, although it survives the winters in favored 
localities in southern England and Ireland, it does not flourish 
there ; in the United States it is not hardy in the middle and north- 
ern Atlantic states, but in California the Stone Pine, although still 
young, promises to grow rapidly to its largest size. 

88 Linnseus, Spec. 1000 (1753). — Lambert, Pinus, i. 34, t. 23, 
24. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 500. — De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. 
Franc, ed. 3, iii. 275. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 248, t. 77, f. 1. — 
Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e Abetos, 20. — Link, Abhand. 
Akad. Berl. 1827, 179; Linncea, xv. 513. — Ledebour, Fl. Alt. iv. 
200 ; Fl. Ross. iii. 673. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 69, 73, t. 27. — 
Antoine, Conif. 45, t. 20, f. 2. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 
3, iii. 238 {Conif Ires d'ltalie). — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 141. — 
Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 3, t. 530. — Hartig, Forst. 
Culturpfl. Deutschl. 11, t. 7. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 295. — 
Koch, Syn. Fl. German, ed. 3, ii. 578. — Gordon, Pinetum, 219. — 
Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 55 ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 402. — 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 316. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 
505 {Conifers of Japan). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 276, f. 
65-67. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Strducher, i. 173, f. 99- 
106, t. 8. 

Pinus montana, Lamarck, Fl. Franc, iii. 651 (not Miller) 

(1778). 
Pinus Cedrus, Uspenski, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1834, 389 (not 

Linnseus). 
Pinus Cembra, y Helvetica, Forbes, I. c. 71 (1839). 

Pinus Cembra inhabits the mountains of central Europe, where, 
mingled on the lower slopes with the upper Spruces and Firs, it 
ascends above the Mountain Pine and the Larch, and with Alders, 
Rhododendrons, and alpine Willows forms scattered groves along 
the timber-line at elevations as high as seven thousand five hundred 
feet above the sea-level ; it is common in northern Russia and in 
Siberia, where it sometimes forms pure forests of great extent. It 
is an exceedingly slow-growing tree, with an erect trunk covered 
with smooth pale bark and clothed while young with short slender 
horizontal whorled branches forming a narrow symmetrical pyra- 
mid which becomes open and picturesque in old age by the turning 
up of the branches ; it occasionally attains a height of one hundred 
and twenty feet, although on the mountains of Europe it is rarely 
more than half this size. The leaves are borne in from three to 
five-leaved clusters and are short, stout, rigid, blue-green, clustered 
at the ends of the thick branchlets, and nearly as long as the ovate 
erect cones, which are about three inches long and two and a half 
inches wide, with broad thin scales and somewhat triangular seeds 
half an inch in length. The wood of Pinus Cembra is soft, close- 
grained, nearly white and slightly tinged with red, easily worked, 
and very durable ; it is valued in cabinet-making and turnery, 
and is largely employed in Europe for wood-carvings. The seeds 
are used as food, and oil employed as food and for illuminating 
purposes is pressed from them in Europe. (Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 
2274. — Mathieu, Fl. Forestiere, ed. 3, 543.) In Siberia the seeds 
often form an important article of diet and are employed medi- 
cinally. (See Gmelin, Fl. Sibir. i. 181.) Carpathian balsam, a 
colorless oleo-resin with a pleasant odor and an acrid bitter flavor, 
is derived from Pinus Cembra. 

Pinus Cembra, in spite of its slow growth, has long been valued 



as an ornament of parks and gardens, and is frequently planted in 
the eastern United States, where it is hardy in New England. 

The dwarf Pine, which covers the high summits of the mountains 
of northern Japan with broad almost impenetrable thickets four or 
five feet high, grows also in Saghalin, Kamtschatka, and the Kurile 
Islands, and is erroneously said to cross Bering Strait to the Aleu- 
tian Islands, has often been considered a variety of Pinus Cembra, 
but from its habit and geographical range is now usually consid- 
ered a species. It is : — 

Pinus pumila, Regel, Cat. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1858, 23 ; Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxxii. pt. i. 211 ; Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 48. — 
Trautvetter, Act. Hort. Petrop. ix. 210 (Incrementa Fl. Ross."). — 
Mayr, Monog. Abiet. Jap. 80, t. 6, f. 21. — Herder, Act. Hort. 
Petrop. xi. 91 (PI. Radd.). 

Pinus Cembra, b pumila, Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. 4, t. 2, f. E-H 

(1784). — Endlicher, I. c. 142. — Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. Mtr. 

Acad. St. Petersbourg, ix. 262 (Prim. Fl. Amur.). — Parlatore, 

De Candolle Prodr. I. c. 402. — Masters, I. c. 
Pinus Cembra pygmoza, Loudon, I. c. 2276 (1838). 
Pinus Mandshurica, Ruprecht, Bull. Phys. Math. Acad. Sci. St. 

Petersbourg, xv. 382 (1857). 

84 D. Don, Lambert Pinus, ed. 2, ii. t. (1828). — Forbes, I. c. 
53, t. 19.— Royle, 111. 353, t. 85, f. 2. — Antoine, I. c. 29, t. 10. — 
Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. India, iv. pt. iv. 228 ; vii. pt. ii. 
83 (Himalayan Conif erce). — Endlicher, I.e. 159. — Carriere, I.e. 
333. — Gordon, I. c. 195. — Parlatore, I. c. 391. — K. Koch, I. c. 
315. — Aitchison, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 98 (Fl. Kuram Valley). — 
Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 696. — Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 652. — 
Beissner, I. c. 250. 

Pinus Gerardiana is a tree, occasionally sixty feet in height, with 
a trunk four feet in diameter, although usually much smaller and 
generally only thirty or forty feet tall, with thin smooth gray-green 
or silvery bark exfoliating in long thin scales and exposing as they 
separate the smooth darker colored inner bark, a broad round- 
topped head of stout spreading or pendent branches ascending 
toward their extremities, smooth dark brown branchlets, dark 
green leaves in clusters of three, stout cones from six to nine 
inches in length, and cylindrical seeds an inch long. It inhabits 
the arid inner valleys of northwestern India, growing usually at 
altitudes varying from five thousand eight hundred feet to twelve 
thousand feet above the sea, often on dry steep rocky slopes ; and, 
although gregarious, it does not generally form pure forests, be- 
ing frequently associated with the Deodar. The seeds are so valu- 
able for food that the trees are rarely cut, and the hard resinous 
dark yellow-brown wood is little used. Baskets and water-buckets 
are, however, made from the bark. The cones are gathered be- 
fore they open and are heated to expand the scales and secure 
the seeds. These are stored for winter use, and are often ground 
and mixed with flour. In Kunawar they are a staple article of 
food, and they form a considerable article of Indian commerce. 
The seeds and the oil extracted from them are used medicinally 
in India in native practice (Balfour, Encyclopedia of India, ed. 3, 
iii. 221). 

In the gardens of western and central Europe Pinus Gerardiana 
survives, but grows very slowly ; and it has not yet shown its 
ability to endure the climate of the United States. 

35 Spons, Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and 
Raw Commercial Products, ii. 1427. — Jackson, Commercial Botany 
of the 19th Century, 136. 

36 Jackson, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, iii. 171. — Mohr, Bull. No. 13 For- 
estry Div. U. S. Dept. Agric. 48 (Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). 

87 Soubeiran & Thiersant, Mat. Med. Chin. 134. 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



88 Hohnel, Die Gerberinden, 15, 31, 45. — Neubrand, Die Gerb- 
erinden, 219. — Watt, The Art of Leather Manufacture, 86. 

30 The planting of Pines and other Conifers for the production 
of timber has been practiced in Japan for at least twelve hundred 
years, and the wood used in the empire is nearly all obtained from 
planted forests which cover sandy coast plains and other lands unfit 
for the production of agricultural crops. 

40 The different North American Pines are infested by many 
species of insects ; of these some are very destructive or are liable 
to become so. It is probable that only a small part of the insects 
affecting the trees of this genus in America are known. Packard 
{Fifth Rep. U. S. Entomolog. Comm. 1890, 674) enumerates nearly 
one hundred and fifty species found on Pine-trees in the United 
States, and since the publication of his report the number has been 
much increased. Borers in the trunk, branches, and bark make 
about half the number of species which injure Pine-trees ; they are 
chiefly coleopterous, those attacking the trunk belonging largely to 
the family Cerambycidae and Buprestidae, while numerous Seolyti- 
dae attack the sap wood and bark. Larvae of Monohammus confusor, 
Kirby, Monohammus titillator, Fabricius, Monohammus scutellatus, Say, 
and Monohammus marmoratus, Randall, are common in the trunks 
of Pines over a large extent of country, the first-named species being 
especially abundant. They sometimes do great damage, but usually 
prefer to attack dead trees or those which are already injured or 
diseased rather than perfectly healthy trunks. Asemum moestum, 
Haldeman, Criocephalus agrestis, Kirby, and Rhagium lineatum, Oli- 
vier, are sometimes destructive, however, to living trees. Larvae 
of Callidium antennatum, Newman, and numerous other Ceramby- 
cidae bore into the wood when dry. Among Buprestidae the larvae 
of Chalcophora Virginiensis, Drury, often girdle the trunks and 
cause their destruction, and other species of Chalcophora infest 
them. Various species of Dicerca, Chrysobothris, Melanophila, 
are often abundant and destructive to Pine-trees. The White 
Pine weevil, Pissodes Strobi, Peck, is one of the worst pests of 
young trees. The larvae live in the leading shoots or near the 
tops of the central stems and cause them to wither and die, or 
are found injuring the sapwood of older trees. Hylobius Pales, 
Herbst, is another weevil common in Pines over a large part of 
North America, and Pachylobius picivorus, Germar, is injurious in 
the southern states. 

Among Scolytidae, Gnathotrichus materiarius, Fitch, Gnathotrichus 
asperulus, Leconte, Xyloterus bivittatus, Mannheim, and various spe- 
cies of Carphoborus bore under the bark or iu the sapwood. Den- 
droctonus terebrans, Olivier, and other species of this genus, several 
species of Xyleborus, Tomicus Pini, Say, Tomicus cacographus, 
Leconte, Tomicus calligraphus, Germar, Hylurgops pinifex, Fitch, 
species of Pityophthorus, Polygraphus, Crypturgus, and other 
beetles bore in or under the bark. 

Among lepidopterous borers are several which injure the 
branches or the bark and sapwood of Pine-trees. Bembicia Se- 
quoias, H. Edwards, which bores into Sequoia, is said to seriously 
affect also Pinus ponderosa and Pinus Lambertiana in California. 
JEgeria Pinorum, Behrens, has been found in Pinus radiata in Cali- 
fornia ; and Harmonia Pini, Kellicott, attacks the bark and sap- 
wood of Pines in the middle states. The larva of a Pyralid, Ne- 
phopteryx Zimmermanni, Grote, bores under the bark and in the 
young wood of Pine-trees usually below the insertion of young 
branches, and causes resinous exudations. 

The branchlets, especially of Pinus rigida and its allies, are 
frequently affected by the larvae of small Tortricid moths chiefly 
of the genus Retinia ; their attacks are often accompanied by 
copious exudations of resinous juice and result in the death of the 



twigs, or by weakening them cause the leaves to turn yellow or 
brown. 

The foliage of Pine-trees is injured in the United States by 
many species of insects, although few of them are noticeably 
destructive. Saw-flies of various species, chiefly belonging to the 
genera Lophyrus and Lyda, are sometimes abundant and are likely 
to cause considerable damage. 

Among Lepidoptera, the larvae of Pieris Menapia, Felder, is occa- 
sionally extremely abundant on Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, 
and other species of the Pacific forests. 

Semiothisa bisignata, Walker, and other Geometridae, besides the 
insects belonging to other groups, are found on various species 
and occasionally cause considerable damage. 

Tortrix politana, Haworth, forms little tubes composed of the 
living foliage of Pinus Strobus, and devours the outer ends of 
the leaves which form the tube within which it lives. Gelechia 
pinifoliella, Chambers, in its larval state mines the leaves of Pinus 
rigida aud other species ; and the leaves of this tree and its allies 
are also infested by a gall gnat, Diplosis Pini-rigidos, Packard. 

The leaves of young twigs are affected by many species of He- 
miptera, among them spittle-insects, leaf-hoppers, aphids, and scale- 
insects. 

Lachnus Strobi, Fitch, is common on the White Pine and often 
destroys young trees ; and Lachnus australis, Ashmead, is found 
on twigs of Pinus palustris and allied species in the southern 
Atlantic states. A so-called "mealy-bug," Schizoneura pinicola, 
Thomas, also attacks Pinus Strobus. 

Mytilaspis pinifolioz, Fitch, is an elongated white scale common 
on the leaves of several species of Pines, and Chermes pinifolioz, 
Fitch, and Chionaspis pinifolioz, Fitch, sometimes injure these trees. 

Several insects still little known often infest the cones of North 
American Pines. 

41 The diseases of the different species of Pinus caused by fungi 
are very numerous, and in Europe have been carefully studied with 
regard to their pathological action. In the United States some of 
the same diseases prevail, and there are also a large number of 
native fungi which are parasitic on North American Pines, causing 
them considerable injury. The rotting of the wood of Pines is 
generally due to certain species of Polyporus and Trametes, which 
attack Spruces and Firs as well, and also sometimes deciduous- 
leaved trees. One of the most widely spread species is Trametes 
Pini, Fries, a long-lived fungus of dark yellow-brown color which 
appears in the form of small brackets on the branches and trunks 
of Pinus sylvestris in Europe and the United States, on Pinus con- 
torta, var. Murrayana, Pinus palustris, Pinus Strobus, and probably 
other species. It produces the disease known in Germany as Ring- 
schale, the mycelium extending up and down the trunk, especially 
in the annual rings, and forming brown streaks and zones. Poly- 
porus annosus, Fries, which in Europe is regarded as the most 
destructive fungus to conifers, occurring there on Pinus sylvestris 
and Pinus Strobus, has been recorded on the latter species in this 
country, but not often, although it is probably more common than 
has usually been supposed. It generally attacks the roots and 
extends upward into the trunk. The mycelium causes the wood 
to become red and rotten, and eventually forms dark-colored longi- 
tudinal streaks and cavities. The fructifying part of this fungus 
is generally found on or near the roots, and is usually resupinate, 
with small white pores. Polyporus Schweinitzii, Fries, which is 
apparently more common in the United States than in Europe, is 
generally associated with Pinus Strobus. In Europe it produces 
a disease of Pinus sylvestris, although in this country, in spite of its 
frequency, it is not generally supposed to cause serious trouble. 



12 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



This fungus seldom appears on the trunks, although it grows on 
their cut surfaces and is common on the ground under Pinus 
Strobus, being probably parasitic on its roots. It is a large species 
of a corky or spongy substance, at first covered with a yellow 
down but soon becoming dark brown. It is not improbable that 
it is a, native of North America, and has been introduced into 
Europe. There are also a large number of Hymenomycetes which 
attack Pines in this country, but at present little is known defi- 
nitely of their pathological effects. 

A number of interesting rust-fungi produce discolorations and 
deformities of the leaves of Pines in the United States, and, in some 
cases, the peculiar distortion known as witches' brooms, although 
this deformity is more common on Spruce-trees than on Pines. The 
determination of the Rusts which infest conifers is difficult, owing 
to the fact that the greater part of them are secidia, or cluster-cups, 
which resemble one another closely, but, according to recent writers, 
are genetically connected with teleutosporic fungi of quite different 
species. The rusts of Pines, with few exceptions, belong to the 
genus Peridermium which, like other aecidia, consist of orange or 
rust-colored spores arranged in chains contained within an en- 
velope composed of colorless cells. The old species, Peridermium 
Pini, Le'veille', was supposed to have two forms, one producing 
cups on the leaves and the other cups or irregular disks on the 
trunks and branches. It has been shown that the forms on bark 
are connected with species of Cronartium, but the leaf Peridermium 
of European Pines is now separated into several species connected 
with different species of Coleosporium which grow on different 
Composite, as Senecio, Tussilago, Inula, and on Euphrasia and 
other plants. Few experiments have been made with artificial 
cultures of the North American Periderrnia, and the determina- 
tion of our species must still be regarded as provisional. Perider- 
mium Strobi, common in Europe on Pinus Strobus introduced from 
North America, is not known to occur in this country, nor has 
Cronartium ribicolum, Dietrich, with which it is associated, been in- 
troduced here. Of North American corticolous forms may be men- 
tioned Peridermium Harknessii, Moore, which forms nodes covered 
with confluent masses of secidia on Pinus ponderosa, Pinus radiata, 
Pinus Sabiniana, and Pinus contorta, and Peridermium Cerebrum, 
Peck, on Pinus rigida. Of North American acicolous forms of Pe- 
ridermium the most common is perhaps identical with Peridermium 
oblongisporum, Fuckel. This is not uncommon on Pinus rigida in 
early summer, but the teleutosporic form with which it is said to 
be united in Europe, Coleosporium Senecionis, Persoon, is certainly 
very rare here, although it has been noticed on Senecio vulgaris 
near Providence, Rhode Island. Besides the Rusts belonging to 
the genus Peridermium, Coleosporium Pini, Galloway (Jour. Myc. 
vii. 44. — Bot. Gazette, xxii. 433), attacks the leaves of Pinus Vir- 



giniana in the middle states, causing bands of yellow discolorations 
and a premature shedding of the leaves. Unlike other Rusts of 
Pine-trees, this species is a teleutosporic and not an aecidial form. 
The Rusts which are often found in abundance on cones of vari- 
ous Pine-trees, especially in the southern and western states, need 
further study. 

A number of fungi of the order Hysteriaceae are found on Pine- 
trees, most of them being species occurring on the bark without 
causing special disease so far as is now known. Lophodermium 
Pinastri, Chevallier, found on Pinus contorta, Pinus palustris, Pinus 
rigida, Pinus Strobus, and probably on other species, which appears 
to the naked eye as small narrow black spots on the leaves, kills 
them and causes them to fall prematurely. Hypoderma brachy- 
sporum, Rostrup, a. species closely related to the last, produces a 
similar disease of Pinus Strobus in Europe, but is not known in this 
country. There are several other ascomycetous fungal parasites 
in the United States. Cenangium ferruginosum, Fries, occurs on 
the branches of Pinus radiata, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus Sabiniana, 
and Pinus sylvestris in this country. Under the name of Cenan- 
gium Abietis, Persoon, F. Schwartz (Die Erkrankung der Kiefern 
durch Cenangium Abietis) has given a full account of the epidemic 
caused by this fungus in Germany, the same disease having been 
previously observed by other botanists in that country and in 
Sweden. The species attacked were Pinus sylvestris, Pinus Lam- 
bertiana, Pinus montana, and Pinus rigida. In America no special 
epidemic has been observed, and most botanists have regarded the 
fungus as a saprophyte rather than a true parasite, although it ap- 
pears to be capable at least of assuming at times a truly parasitic 
growth. Phacidium crustaceum, Berkeley & Curtis, which should 
probably be referred to the older Phacidium Pini, Albertini & 
Schweinitz, is very common on the branches of Pinus Strobus, which 
it covers with small depressed silvery gray pustules. Chilonectria 
cucurbitula, Saccardo, a polysporic form, is abundant on the smaller 
branches of Pinus Strobus, which it covers with small clusters of 
deep red perithecia. The exact relation of this common fungus to 
the true Nectria cucurbitida, Fries, has not been fully determined. 
The latter species is recognized in Europe as a cause of a marked 
disease, the mycelium, making its way into the branches of Pinus 
sylvestris through wounds, especially those caused by certain in- 
sects. Caliciopsis Pinea, Peck, which is found on the bark of Pinus 
Strobus, and Polyporus volvatus, Peck, which grows on the bark of 
Pinus rigida, are peculiar to these trees, which, however, do not 
appear to be injured by them. In southern Europe the tumors 
sometimes found on the branches of Pinus Halepensis are supposed 
to be due to the growth of bacteria which cause similar tumors on 
Olive-trees. 

42 Inst. 585, t. 355, 356. 



conifers. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 13 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Strobus. Cones subterminal ; apophysis of the cone-scales thin, usually unarmed ; leaves in clusters 
of five, their sheaths loose and deciduous ; fibro-vascular bundle 1. Wood light-colored, soft. 
White Pines. 

Eustrobi. Resin ducts peripheral. 

Wings longer than the seeds ; leaves sharply serrulate, denticulate toward the apex. 
Hypoderm or strengthening cells of the leaves not surrounding the resin ducts. 

Leaves slender, glaucous, from 3 to 4 inches in length ; cones 5 or 6 inches long ... 1. P. Strobus. 
Leaves thick, rigid, from 1 \ to 4 inches in length ; cones from 5 to 11 inches long . 2. P. monticola. 

Hypoderm or strengthening cells of the leaves numerous, surrounding the resin ducts. 

Leaves stout, rigid, from 3£ to 4 inches in length ; cones from 12 to 18 inches 

long 3. P. Lambertiana- 

Wings much shorter than the seeds ; leaves mostly entire, or denticulate toward the apex. 

Leaves slender, from 3^ to 4 inches in length ; cones from 5 to 9 inches long, their 

scales reflexed 4. P. strobiformis. 

Leaves thick, rigid, from 1^ to 3 inches in length ; cones from 3 to 10 inches long, 

their scales thickened, light brown, pointed at the apex 5. P. flexixis. 

Leaves thick, rigid, from 1^ to 1\ inches in length ; cones oval or subglobose, from 
\\ to 3 inches long, their scales much thickened, dark purple, terminating in stout 

incurved nearly triangular tips 6. P. albicaulis. 

Pinaster. Apophysis of the cone-scales thickened, usually armed; leaves in clusters of 1 to 5, their 
sheaths usually persistent. Wood resinous. Pitch Pines. 
Resin ducts of the leaves peripheral. 

Integrifolise. Cones subterminal ; leaves entire, their sheaths deciduous ; fibro-vascular bundle 1. 
Cone-scales thick, unarmed ; seeds large, their wings minute. Leaves in 1 to 5-leaved 
clusters. Nut Pines. 

Leaves stout, glaucous, in 1 to 5, usually in 4-leaved, clusters, from \\ to \\ inches in 

length ; cones from \\ to 2 inches broad 7. P. quadrifolia. 

Leaves slender, in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, from 1-i- to 2 inches in length ; cones from 1 

to 2 inches broad 8. P. cembroides. 

Leaves stout, tipped with rigid spines, in 1 or 2-leaved clusters, from 1^ to 1\ inches 

in length ; cones from 1^ to 1\ inches long 9. P. monophtlla. 

Leaves stout, rigid, sharp-pointed, in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, from f of an inch to \\ 

inches in length ; cones from 1^ to 1 \ inches long 10. P. edulis. 

Cones dark purple, their scales somewhat thickened at the apex, armed with slender prickles ; 
seeds shorter than their wings ; leaves in crowded clusters of five, rigid, incurved. 

Leaves from 1 to \\ inches in length; cones subcylindrical, from Z\ to 5 inches long, 

their scales armed with minute incurved prickles 11. P. Balfouriana. 

Leaves from 1 to 1^ inches in length ; cones from 3 to 3^ inches long, their scales 

armed with long slender awn-like prickles 12. P. aristata. 

Sylvestres. Cones subterminal ; leaves serrulate, their sheaths persistent ; fibro-vascular bun- 
dles 2. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, slender, dark green, from 5 to 6 inches in length ; cones 
ovate-conical, from 2 to 1\ inches long, their scales slightly thickened, unarmed, seeds 

much shorter than their wings 13. P. resinosa. 

Resin ducts of the leaves parenchymatous. 

Ponderosse. Cones subterminal, their scales conspicuously umbonate ; leaves in 2, 3, or 5-leaved 
clusters, their sheaths persistent, or deciduous in No. 17 ; fibro-vascular bundles 2. 
Leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 

Leaves stout, dark green, from 9 to 13 inches in length ; cones broadly ovate, long- 
stalked, from 4 to 6 inches long, their scales much thickened, with broad reflexed 

umbos 14. P. Torretaka. 

Leaves stout, dark green, from 5 to 7 inches in length; cones oval, from 2 to 2^ 

inches long, their scales armed with small recurved spines . 15. P. Arizonica. 



14 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters. 

Leaves in 3 or in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, from 3 to 15 inches in length ; cones from 
3 to 12 inches long, in falling separating from the lower scales persistent on the 
peduncle 16. P. ponderosa. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, slender, pale green, from 2h to 4 inches in length, their 
sheaths deciduous ; cones broadly ovate, from l£ to 2 inches long, maturing at the 
end of the third season, their scales slightly thickened, furnished with small recurved 
deciduous prickles 17. P. Chihuahuana. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, closely serrulate, from 1 to 4 inches long ; cones oblong- 
oval, oblique, more or less serotinous, their scales often tuberculate, and armed with 

slender prickles 18. P. contorta. 

Taedae. Cones lateral, their scales much thickened, variously armed ; leaves in 2 or in 3-leaved 
clusters, their sheaths persistent ; fibro-vascular bundles 2 ; resin ducts parenchymatous. 
Leaves in 3-leaved clusters. 

Leaves slender, drooping, pale blue-green, from 8 to 12 inches in length ; cones oval, 
acute, from 6 to 10 inches long, their scales produced into prominent umbos armed 
with stout straight or slightly incurved spines 19. P. Sabiniana. 

Leaves stout, erect, dark blue-green, from 6 to 12 inches in length ; cones elongated- 
oval, acute, from 10 to 14 inches long, their scales much thickened into stout elon- 
gated umbos armed with thick spur-like incurved spines 20. P. Cotjlteri. 

Leaves slender, bright green, from 4 to 6 inches in length ; cones oval, oblique, 
from 3 to 6 inches long, persistent, their scales mammillate on the outer side, armed 
with minute incurved prickles 21. P. RADIATA. 

Leaves pale yellow-green, from 5 to 7 inches in length ; cones elongated-conical, 
oblique, clustered, from 3 to 5 inches long, serotinous, their scales unequally embossed, 
armed with stout prickles 22. P. Attenuata. 

Leaves slender, pale green, from 6 to 9 inches in length ; cones ovate-oblong, from 3 

to 5 inches long, their scales armed with stout recurved prickles 23. P. T.a)DA. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark yellow-green, from 3 to 5 inches in length ; cones ovoid- 
conical or ovate, often clustered, from 1 to 3^ inches long, their scales armed with 
short stout recurved prickles 24. P. RIGIDA. 

Leaves slender, dark yellow-green, from 6 to 8 inches in length ; cones usually sub- 
globose, or elongated, from 1\ to 3 inches long, serotinous, their scales armed with 

slender incurved deciduous prickles 25. P. SEROTINA. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, except in No. 31. 

Leaves stout, gray-green, from \\ to 3 inches in length; cones oblong-conical, often 
more or less curved, from 2 to 3 inches long, armed with slender straight or in- 
curved prickles 26. P. Virginiana. 

Leaves slender, flexible, dark green, from 2 to 3^ inches in length ; cones ovoid- 
conical, serotinous, persistent for many years, their scales armed with short stout 
straight or recurved spines 27. P. clausa. 

Leaves soft, slender, dark green, from 1 1 to 3 inches in length ; cones subglobose 
to oblong-ovate, from 1^ to 2 inches long, their scales thin, tipped with straight 
or recurved short often deciduous prickles 28. P. glabra. 

Leaves stout, blue-green, from 1^ to 1\ inches in length ; cones oblong-conical, oblique, 

from 2 to 2>\ inches long, their scales armed with stout hooked spines 29. P. pungens. 

Leaves rigid, dark green, from 4 to 6 inches in length ; cones ovate, oblique, serotinous, 

persistent, from 2 to 3^ inches long, their scales armed with stout incurved spines 30. P. mttricata. 

Leaves slender, dark blue-green, in 2 or in 3-leaved clusters, from 3 to 5 inches in 
length ; cones ovate or oblong-conical, from 1^ to 2\ inches long, their scales armed 
with minute slender prickles 31. P. echinata. 

Leaves stout, falcate, divergent, dark gray-green, from f to 1^ inch in length ; cones 
oblong-conical, oblique, usually erect, incurved, from 1^ to 2 inches long, their scales 

furnished with minute incurved often deciduous prickles 32. P. DIVARIGATA. 

Resin ducts of the leaves internal. 

Australes. Cones subterminal or lateral, their scales conspicuously umbonate ; leaves in 3, or 
in 2 and 3-leaved clusters ; fibro-vascular bundles 2. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 15 

Cones subterminal. 

Leaves slender, dark green, in 3-leaved clusters, from 8 to 18 inches in length ; scales 
of the branch-buds silvery white ; cones elongated-conical, from 6 to 10 inches long, 

their scales armed with short stout recurved spines 33. P. palustris. 

Cones lateral. 

Leaves stout, dark green, in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, from 8 to 12 inches in length ; 
cones ovate or elongated-conical, from 3 to 6£ inches long, dark brown and lustrous, 
their scales armed with short slender prickles 34. P. heterophylla. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



17 



PINUS STROBUS. 



White Pine. 



Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, slender, glaucous, 3 or 4 inches in length, 
from 4 to 6 inches long. 



Cones 



Pinus Strobus, Linnaeus, Spec. 1001 (1753). — Miller, Diet. 
ed. 8, No. 13. — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 221. — Du 
Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ii. 57. — Moench, Baume Weiss. 70 ; 
Meth. 365. — Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 142. — Evelyn, 
Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 274, t. — Wangenheim, Nordam. 
Holz. 1, t. 1, f . 1. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, 
ii. 312. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 213 ; Spec. iv. pt. 
i. 501 ; Enum. 989. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 205. — 
Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 440. — Lambert, Finus, 
i. 31, t. 22. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 341 ; HI. iii. 
369, t. 786, f . 3. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 579. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. ii. 612. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 
2, vi. 462. — Michaux, f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 103, t. 10. — 
Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 435. — Nouveau Duhamel, 
v. 249, t. 76. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 234. — Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. ii. 644. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223 ; Sylva, iii. 
118. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 175.— EUiott, Sk. ii. 638.— 
Lejeune, Rev. Fl. Spa, 200. — Jaume St. Hilaire, Traite 
des Arbres Forestiers, t. 62, 63. — Richard, Comm. Bot. 
Conif. 60, t. 12, f. 2. — Audubon, Birds, t. 39. — Die- 
trich, Forst. Fl. i. t. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 83. — 
Antoine, Conif. 43, t. 20, f . 3. — Link, Handb. ii. 477 ; 
Linncea, xv. 514. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 161 (excl. 
syn. Finus monticola). — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 228. — 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 394. — De Chambray, Traite Arb. 
Res. Conif. 262, t. 4, 5, f. 8. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 60; 



ed. 2, i. 73, t. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 146. — Gihoul, Arb. 
Res. 35, t. 5. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 34. — Lindley & 
Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 215. — Lawson & Son, 
List No. 10, Abietinea}, 26. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 396. — 
Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 290. — Gordon, Pinetum, 
239. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 71. — Chapman, Fl. 434.— 
Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 25. — 
Schlechtendal, Linncea, xxxiii. 395. — Henkel & Hochstet- 
ter, Syn. Nadelh. 92. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 130. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 136, f. 19. — Se"neclauze, Conif. 
115. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 405. — 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 319. — Veitch, Man. Conif 
183. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 187. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 116. — 
Regel, Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 50. — Schtibeler, Virid. 
Norveg. i. 392. — Watson & Coulter, Gray Man. ed. 6, 
490. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 199, t. 8, f. — Beissner, 
Handb. Nadelh. 288, f. 71, 72. — Masters, Jour. R. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 240. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xiv. 393 {Pinetum Danicum). — Hempel & Wilhelm, 
Baume und Straucher, i. 182, f. 107-109, t. 9. — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 30. — Britton & Brown, III. 
Fl. i. 50, f. 110. 

Pinus tenuifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 399 (1796). 

Pinus alba Canadensis, Provancher, Flore Canadienne, 
ii. 554 (1862). 



A tree, usually growing under favorable conditions to a height of one hundred or one hundred 
and twenty feet, with a trunk from three to four feet in diameter, or, exceptionally, to the height of 
two hundred and fifty feet, with a trunk six feet in diameter, 1 and with long stout tapering horizontal 
durable roots 2 clothed with thick gray bark covered by irregular rectangular plate-like scales, and in old 



1 " An. 1736, near the Merrimack River a little above Dunsta- 
ble, was cut a white pine straight and sound, seven feet eight 
inches in diameter at the butt-end." (Douglas, A Summary, His- 
torical and Political, of the First Planting, Progressive Improvements, 
and Perfect State of the British Settlements in North America, ii. 53.) 

D wight speaks of "white pine 6 feet in diameter and frequently 
250 feet in height," and reports a tree in Lincoln, New Hamp- 
shire, of which he had heard, two hundred and sixty feet high 
(Travels, 136). 

According to Williamson, " the White Pine has been seen 6 feet 
in diameter at the butt and 240 feet in height, and those over 4 
feet through are frequent " (History of the State of Maine, i. 110). 
This was in 1832. Such trees, if they still exist in New England, 
are exceedingly rare, and White Pines one hundred and fifty feet 



high with trunks four feet in diameter now excite astonishment 
and admiration. Among a number of trees in Pennsylvania re- 
cently studied by Pinchot and Graves, with a view of determining 
the silvicultural possibilities of the White Pine, the largest was one 
hundred and fifty-five feet tall, with a trunk diameter of forty-two 
inches at four feet six inches above the ground. This tree was 
three hundred and fifty-one years old, and produced a merchant- 
able log one hundred and fourteen feet in length, the total volume 
of the stem being five hundred and seventy-four cubic feet and 
scaling three thousand three hundred and thirty-five feet board 
measure (The White Pine, a Study, 4. — See, also, for dimensions 
of Pinus Strobus in Minnesota, Ayres, Garden and Forest, vii. 148). 
2 There has been a common saying in New England that no one 
ever lived long enough to see the stump of a White Pine rot, and 



18 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

age often rising above the ground near the tree into low buttresses, and furnished with few long tough 
pliable wand-like rootlets. During its youth the branches of the White Pine are slender and horizontal 
or slightly ascending, and are arranged in regular whorls, usually with five branches in a whorl, 
clothing the stem to the ground for many years or until destroyed by the absence of light, and forming 
a broad open conical head. When the tree, uncrowded by others, enjoys an abundance of light and 
air, the lower branches often grow to a large size, the trunk remains short and becomes much thickened 
at the base, and the breadth of the picturesque open head often equals the height of the stem ; but as 
the White Pine grows naturally in the forest the lower branches die at the end of a few years, and the 
trunk grows tall and straight, bearing branches only near the top. When it is pressed upon by trees of 
equal height the branches remain short and form a narrow head ; but when the White Pine, which is 
the tallest inhabitant of the forests of northeastern America, rises above the surrounding trees, the 
lateral branches lengthen, sweep upward in long graceful curves, the upper ones ascending, and form a 
broad open irregular head. 1 The bark on young stems and branches is thin, smooth, green tinged with 
red, and lustrous during the summer ; on fully grown trunks it is from one to two inches thick, or at 
the base of old trees often nearly four inches thick, and is deeply divided by shallow fissures into broad 
connected ridges covered with small closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, and when 
they first appear are usually coated with ferrugineous tomentum, which soon wears away ; and during 
their first winter they are glabrous or occasionally slightly puberulous and dark orange-brown ; 
gradually growing darker, in their second winter they are conspicuously marked by the small elevated 
darker colored scars which are left by the falling of the short lateral branchlets that form the base of 
the leaf-clusters and which do not entirely disappear until the end of four or five years. The branch- 
buds are ovate-oblong or slightly obovate, acuminate and abruptly contracted at the apex into short 
points, and are covered by ovate-lanceolate light chestnut-brown scales thin and scarious on the margins 
and narrowed into long slender thread-like more or less spreading tips ; the terminal bud is about half 
an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide, and is sometimes twice as large or often not much larger 
than the lateral buds which surround it. The leaves are borne in clusters of five, and during the 
winter are inclosed in minute broadly ovate bright green buds furnished at the apex with clusters of 
short soft white hairs and inclosed under the scales of the branch-bud. The buds of the leaf-clusters 
are covered by eight scales, which lengthen with the expanding leaves, increasing in length from 
without inward, those of the outer ranks being at maturity ovate, rounded at the narrowed apex, dark 
chestnut-brown, and much shorter than those of the inner ranks, which are oblong-obovate, rounded at 
the apex, thin, lustrous, light chestnut-brown, often three quarters of an inch long and about an eighth 
of an inch broad ; these scales soon fall, marking the abbreviated lateral branchlets with thin ring-like 
scars. The leaves are soft and slender, bluish green, and whitened on the ventral sides with from three 
to five conspicuous bands of stomata ; they contain a single fibro-vascular bundle and from one to three, 
usually two, dorsal resin ducts, 2 and are sharply serrate, mucronate at the apex with pale-colored callous 
tips, and from three to four inches in length ; they mostly turn yellow and fall in the September of 
their second season, but sometimes persist, especially on shaded branches, through a second winter, and 
then fall during the following June. The staminate flowers are oval, light brown, and about one 
third of an inch long, with anthers which terminate in short crests, and are surrounded by from six 
to eight involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are cylindrical, subterminal, and about a quarter 

the roots certainly remain sound in the ground for long periods. White Pine-tree with branches which are usually produced in 

Formerly very durable fences were made in northern New England whorls of three, and are short, slender, and nearly erect, forming 

by standing on their edges stumps of the White Pine pulled with a dense low round-topped symmetrical head. Plants have been 

their roots from the ground by oxen. (See Belknap, History of raised in the Arnold Arboretum from the seeds of this tree, and a 

New Hampshire, iii. 108.) sma ll percentage reproduce its peculiar habit. 

1 For many years there has stood near the banks of the Mer- 2 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 261, t. 8, f. 1. 
rimac River, in the town of Dracut, Massachusetts, a remarkable 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 19 

of an inch long, with thin scales bright pinkish purple on the margins; they are raised on stout 
peduncles nearly as long as the flowers and clothed with the ovate acute elongated bracts persistent 
throughout the summer. The young cones enlarge during the spring and early summer, while their 
peduncles lengthen and thicken and in the autumn begin to turn downward; during the winter they 
are nearly horizontal or slightly pendulous, about an inch long, and light chestnut-brown, the stems 
being from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; they begin to grow in very early spring, and when 
the flowers expand are from an inch and a half to an inch and three quarters long, light green, and 
pendulous by the recurving of their stems ; they now rapidly enlarge, reaching their full size about the 
first of July, when they are cylindrical, acute, often more or less curved, bright green except at the 
points of the scales, which are dark red-brown, from four to six inches in length, and about an inch in 
diameter at the middle ; their scales are from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long, about 
seven eighths of an inch wide, and oblong-obovate, with thin margins, the exposed portion being 
smooth, rounded, and only slightly thickened on the back, and furnished at the very apex with a dark 
resinous flat pointed umbo ; the cones open and discharge their seeds during September, and fall 
gradually during the winter and in early spring. The seeds are narrowed at both ends, nearly a quarter 
of an inch long, red-brown mottled with black, and about a quarter as long as the wings, with a thin 
crustaceous coat produced into a narrow margin ; the cotyledons vary from eight to ten in number. 

Pinus Strobus is distributed from Newfoundland and the northern shore of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the northward of Lake St. John and the head-waters of Moose River, and westward to 
Lake Nipigon and the valley of the Winnipeg River ; 1 southward it ranges through the northern 
states to southern Pennsylvania, the southern shore of Lake Michigan 2 and the banks of the Illinois 
River, 3 Illinois, the valley of the Iowa River in central Iowa, 4 and along the Alleghany Mountains 
to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, and to northern Georgia. Common in Newfoundland and the 
eastern provinces of Canada, the White Pine is rare and of small size in the country north of Lake 
Superior and on the Nipigon River ; it is scattered over the region between Lake Superior and the 
Winnipeg River and in the neighborhood of Lonely Lake, and grows to its largest size and greatest 
perfection in the valley of the St. Lawrence River, in northern New England, and in the region south 
of the Great Lakes. Sometimes on sandy drift it forms nearly pure forests, but more often it is found 
in groves, a few acres in extent, scattered through the forests of deciduous-leaved trees, on fertile 
well-drained soil, where its roots can reach abundant and constant moisture. Less commonly it grows 
on slight elevations and ridges surrounded by swamps, or along their borders and the banks of streams, 
on river flats overflowed during part of the year, and occasionally in swamps, where it does not reach a 
large size or produce valuable timber. South of Pennsylvania and of central Michigan and Minnesota 
it is smaller, and less abundant and valuable. 

The wood of Pinus Strobus is light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, very resinous, 5 easily 
worked, and susceptible of receiving a beautiful polish. It is light brown, often slightly tinged with 
red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous thin medullary rays and thin inconspicuous 
bands of small summer cells. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3854, a cubic 
foot weighing 24.02 pounds. It is manufactured into lumber, shingles, and laths, and is largely used 
in construction and cabinet-making, for the interior finish of buildings, in the manufacture of matches 
and woodenware, for the masts and spars of vessels, and for many domestic purposes. 6 The bark of the 

1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 57. — Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. where it was noticed in 1894 by Mr. S. R. Fitz, whose specimens 
1879-80, 49°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 464. from this locality are preserved in the herbarium of the Arnold 

2 Hill, Garden and Forest, iv. 304. Arboretum. 

3 A small indigenous grove of Pinus Strobus occurs at Starving 5 Mayr found that the wood of Pinus Strobus stands at the head 
Rock near La Salle in La Salle County. of all conifers in the amount of resin, 6.07 per cent., which it 

4 In Iowa Pinus Strobus grows near Davenport on the Mississippi contains (Popular Science Monthly, xxviii. 682). 

River, and is sparingly scattered through the central part of the 6 The so-called pumpkin pine is the close-grained satiny and 

state, at least as far west as Steamboat Rock on the Iowa River, very valuable wood of large trees which have grown to a great 



20 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



stem and roots and the leaves contain tannin. 1 From the bark is obtained the compound syrup of 
white pine, now largely used in the United States as an expectorant. 2 Coniferin, a glucoside, some- 
times employed commercially in the manufacture of vanillin, is obtained from the cambium layer of 
Pinus Strobus and from that of a few other conifers. 3 

During the seventeenth century the value of the White Pine as a timber-tree had been recognized 
by the settlers on the north Atlantic coast ; 4 and before the middle of the sixteenth the wood, on 
account of its reputed medicinal value, 5 had been carried to Europe by French navigators. The White 
Pine was first described by Plukenet 6 in 1696, and was cultivated by the Duchess of Beaufort 7 in 
1705 at Badminton. 8 



age in rich, well-drained soil and have been favored with abundant 
air. Such trees are usually scattered singly through forests of 
deciduous-leaved trees, and are nowhere abundant. 

1 Bastin & Trimble, Am. Jour. Pharm. lxviii. 28. 

2 Sherwin, Am. Jour. Pharm. lxviii. 233. 

H Hartig, Jahrb. Forst. i. 263. — Kubel, Jour. Prakt. Chem. xcvii. 
243. — Tiemann & Haarmann, Berichte Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. vii. 
608 ( Ueber das Coniferin und seine Umwandlung in das aromatische 
Princip der Vanille). — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1487. 

4 " Yellow and white pine timber, in all their varieties, is abun- 
dant here, and we have heard the Northerners say (who reside 
here) that the pine is as good here as the pine of Norway. But 
the pine does not grow as well near the salt water, except in some 
places. Inland, however, and high up the rivers, it grows in large 
forests, and it is abundant, and heavy enough for masts and spars 
for ships." {Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc. ser. 2, i. 151 [Adrien Van der 
Donck, Description of the New Netherlands].) 

" Board Pine, is a very large tree two or three Fadom about." 
(Josselyn, New England Rarities, 61.) 

" The Pine-Tree challengeth the next place, and that sort which 
is called Board-pine is the principal, it is a stately large Tree, very 
tall, and sometimes two or three fadom about : of the body the 
English make large Canows of 20 foot long, and two foot and a 
half over, hollowing of them with an Adds, and shaping of the 
outside like a Boat. Some conceive that the wood called Gopher 
in Scripture, of which Noah made the Ark, was no other than 
Pine, Gen. 6, 14. The bark thereof is good for Ulcers in tender 
persons that refuse sharp medicines. The inner bark of young 
board-pine cut small and stampt and boiled in a Gallon of water is 
a very soveraign medicine for burn or scald, washing the sore with 
some of the decoction, and then laying on the bark stampt very 
soft : or for frozen limbs, to take out the fire and to heal them, 
take the bark of Board-pine-Tree, cut it small and stamp it and 
boil it in a gallon of water to Gelly, wash the sore with the liquor, 
stamp the bark again till it be very soft and bind it on. The 
Turpentine is excellent to heal wounds and cuts, and hath all the 
properties of Venice Turpentine, the Rosen is as good as Frank- 
incense, and the powder of the dryed leaves generateth flesh ; the 
distilled water of the green Cones taketh away wrinkles in the face 
being laid on with Cloths." (Josselyn, Account of Two Voyages to 
New England, 64.) 

Silver shillings and coins of smaller denomination struck in the 
Massachusetts Colony during the latter half of the seventeenth 
century bore the device of n White Pine-tree. First known in 
Boston as Bay shillings, they were called Pine-tree money in 1680. 
(See Crosby, Early Coins of America, 56.) 

In the new charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1691, which was a 
union of several separate grants into one legislature and jurisdic- 
tion, " all trees fit for masts of 24 inches diameter and upwards 
12 inches from the ground, growing upon land not heretofore 
granted to any private persons, are reserved to the crown ; penalty 



for cutting any such reserved trees 100Z. sterl. per tree ; " and by 
an act of the British Parliament, anno 1722, this clause is extended : 
" That after Sept. 21, 1722, in New England, New York, and New 
Jersey in America, no person shall cut or destroy any white pine 
trees, not growing in any township or its bounds, without his ma- 
jesty's licence ; on pain to forfeit for every white pine tree, of the 
growth of 12 inches diameter and under, at 3 foot from the earth, 
51. sterl. for every such tree from 12 to 18 inches, 101., from 18 to 
24 inches, 20Z., from 24 and upwards, 501., to be sued before the 
judge of admiralty : and all white pine trees, masts or logs made 
of such trees, which shall be found cut or failed without the King's 
licence, shall be forfeited and seized for the use of the crown. By 
an act of parliament 1729, tbe penalty in this clause of the charter 
is confirmed ; and the act of 1722 is extended to all the British 
provinces in America ; and confines the exception to the property 
of private persons only, notwithstanding they grow within the limits 
of any township." (Douglas, A Summary, Historical and Political, 
of the First Planting, Progressive Improvements, and Present State of 
the British Settlements in North-America, i. 379.) 

In 1719 the surveyor-general of Maine caused Pine-trees fit for 
masts to be marked with the letter R, in order to protect them 
for royal use (Williamson, History of the State of Maine, ii. 98). 

When Maine was admitted into the Union in 1820 a White Pine 
as the noblest inhabitant of its forests, was made the central figure 
in the seal and arms of the new state. 

5 Belon (Arb. Conif. 21) satisfied himself of the worthlessness of 
this wood for medical purposes ; but in his investigations he found 
in the Royal Nurseries at Fontainebleau a single young specimen 
of a five-leaved Pine, very like Pinus Cembra, which he called the 
Pinaster, but with " folia exiliora." This little tree with thin leaves 
Dr. Bolle believes to have been the White Pine ; and it is not 
improbable that this tree, which could hardly have escaped the 
attention of the earliest European navigators in Canadian waters, 
was taken to France with the Arbor Vitse cultivated at Fontaine- 
bleau before the middle of the sixteenth century. (See Bolle, 
Gartenflora, 1890, 434 [ Wann erscheint die Weymouthskiefer zuerst 
in Europa ?]. — Garden and Forest, iii. 536.) 

6 Pinus Virginiana Conis longis non (ut in vulgari) echinalis, Aim. 
Bot. 297. 

Pinus Americana quinis ex uno folliculo setis, longis, tenuibus tri- 
quetris, ad unum angulum, per totam longitudinem minutissimis crenis 
asperatis, Plukenet, Amalth. Bot. 171. 

Pinus foliis longissimis ex una theca quinis : The White Pine Tree 
nostratibus, Colden, Act. Hort. Ups. 1743, 229 (PZ. Novebor.). 

Pinus Canadensis quinquefolia, floribus albis, conis oblongis Sf pen- 
dulis, squamis Abietifere similis, Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 127. 

Pinus foliis quinis cortice glabro, Clayton, Fl. Virgin, ed. 2, 152. 

' See ix. 19. 

8 Plukenet, Amalth. Bot. 171. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 369. — 
Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2280, f. 2193-2196. 

Pinus Strobus at once became popular with English planters 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



The most valuable timber-tree of northeastern America, Pinus Strobus has played a conspicuous 
part in the material development of the United States and Canada. Great fleets of vessels and long 
railroads have been built to transport the lumber sawed from its mighty trunks ; and men have grown 
rich by destroying it, building cities to supply the needs of their traffic, and seeing them languish 
as the forests disappear. Fifty years ago the pineries of Maine and lower Canada, of northern New 
York, of Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained stores of white pine which 
were believed to be inexhaustible ; but the best has already been cut, and the great trees which were 
once the pride of the northern forest no longer exist. The White Pine, however, is a tree of strong 
vitality and under favorable conditions reproduces itself freely, especially on New England hills which 
agriculture, weary of a hopeless struggle against difficult conditions, has given back to the forest. 1 

The White Pine has been largely used in the United States and Europe in the decoration of parks 
and gardens, and in the north Atlantic states no other cone-bearing tree surpasses it in beauty, rapidity 
of growth, and durability. 2 A number of forms of abnormal habit or with variously colored leaves have 
appeared in European nurseries and are occasionally found in gardens. 3 

The most beautiful Pine-tree of eastern America, our sylvan scenery owes the peculiar charm 
which distinguishes it from that of all other parts of the world to the wide-spreading dark green 
crowns of the White Pine, raised on stately shafts high above the level of the forest roof and breaking 
the monotony of its sky-line. 

The specific name given to the White Pine by Linnaeus is that of an incense-bearing tree of 
ancient Persia, the identity of which is now unknown. 4 



through the example of Thomas, Viscount Weymouth, second 
Marquis of Bath, who planted it on his estate at Longleat ; and 
it is now almost universally called in Europe the Weymouth Pine. 
The seeds produced in these early plantations were distributed 
over England, where, at one time, it was largely planted, but, al- 
though the White Pine flourishes in some favorite localities in 
Great Britain (see Goldring, The Garden, xxxi. 404. — Webster, 
The Garden, xxxiii. 522), it is less successful there than in northern 
and central Germany and northern Italy, and in southern Scandina- 
via, where large specimens of this tree exist. (See Hansen, Garden 
and Forest, v. 230.) 

The White Pine grows with the greatest vigor in northern Italy 
and in many parts of northern and central Germany, where large 
plantations have been made of this tree. In central Europe it has 
been found to grow more rapidly than any of the indigenous Coni- 
fers, with the exception, perhaps, of the Larch, and to bear while 
young better than most Pines the partial shade of other trees ; it 
supports without injury the severest cold of winter, and is not hurt 
by the frosts of spring or early autumn ; its abundant and soft 
leaves, which quickly decay after falling, make it valuable for the 
improvement of worn-out soils, and it has been successfully used to 
clothe the ground under thin Oak-trees in young plantations. But 
the wood produced in Europe, although it has been shown to pos- 
sess nearly the same qualities which distinguish it in its native 
forests, has never been highly esteemed, and the White Pine has 
not yet received from European silviculturists the attention its 
success after long trial and under various conditions seems to jus- 
tify (Hartig, Forst. Culturpfl. Deutschl. 81, t. 8. — Fiscali, Deutsch. 
Forstcult.-Pfl. 59, t. 2, f . 7-13. — Nordlinger, Forstiot. 401, f . — 
Mathieu, Fl. Foresticre, ed. 3, 546. — Lorentz, Culture des Bois, ed. 
6, 156. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 153. — Mayr, Garden and Forest, 
i. io. — Wesmael, Garden and Forest, iii. 494. — R. Hartig, Forst.- 
Nat. Zeit. i. 442). 



1 Although the White Pine does not quickly or abundantly re- 
produce itself when fires have been allowed to consume the surface 
soil of the forest, it succeeds itself on land which has not suffered 
from fire if sufficient shade is left to protect the young and tender 
seedlings. In New England it is now occupying great tracts of 
abandoned farm-lands, and these vigorous young forests, which 
have sprung up on land worthless for the production of other 
crops, promise prosperity to these rural regions. During the year 
ending June 30, 1880, at least one hundred million feet of second- 
growth white pine were manufactured in New Hampshire and 
Vermont, while Maine produced nearly as much more. The manu- 
facture of pails, boxes, and other small articles of second-growth 
white pine has become an important industry, and the young White 
Pine forests of central Massachusetts have made Winchendon, 
Worcester County, the great centre of this industry in the United 
States. (See Sargent, Rep. Sec. Board Agric. Mass. xxx. 276.) 

A few successful attempts have been made to cultivate the 
White Pine in New England on a comparatively large scale, and 
it will probably play an important part in any silvicultural opera- 
tions which may be undertaken in the northeastern United States 
(Lyman, Garden and Forest, v. 266 ; ix. 142. — Fernow ; Garden 
and Forest, v. 609 ; ix. 202. — R. Douglas, Garden and Forest, vi. 
106. — Garden and Forest, vii. 487). 

2 Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 291. — Sudworth, Bull. No. 14 Div. 
Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 13. 

3 Pinus Strobus nana (Knight, Syn. Conif. 34 [1850]), which is 
the most distinct of these abnormal forms of the White Pine, is a 
low compact round-topped bush seldom growing more than five or 
six feet high, with short crowded branches and abbreviated leaves. 

Pinus Strobus nivea (Carriere, Trail'e Conif. ed. 2, 400 [1867]) 
is characterized by denser foliage, shorter silvery white leaves, 
and lighter colored bark than those of the normal form. 

4 Pliny, xli°. 17. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXXXVIIL Pinus Strobus. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with young cone and pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8 and 9. Scales of a pistillate flower, lower side, with their bracts, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. A cluster of young leaves with its sheath. 



Plate DXXXIX. Pinus Strobus. 

1. An autumn branch with young cones, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 

4. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

5. A seed, enlarged. 

6. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

9. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

10. A cluster of winter branch-buds, natural size. 

11. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DXXXVIII. 




C.Z.Faxon. del. 



EffL.ITirrieZy jc. 



PINUS STROBUS ,L. 



A.RLocreu^c dir&c. 



Imp. J.Tarieur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXXXIX. 



4 

my h 

hi!* k 




C.E.Faazon, del. 



JUm. Tfimeh/ j-c. 



PINUS STROBUS 



A-JUocreiuc. dwecc. 



Imp. J. Tem&ur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 23 



PINUS MONTICOLA. 

White Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, thick, rigid, from 1J to 4 inches in length. Cones 
from 5 to 11 inches long. 

Pinus monticola, D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. (1837). — the Pacific Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 22. — 

Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2291, f. 2208, 2209. — Forbes, Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 232 (The Pines 

Pinetum Woburn. 81, t. 31. — Antoine, Conif. 40, t. of California).— Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 331, t. 7, f. — 

18, f. 3. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 394. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 293. — Masters, Jour. B. 

Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 148. — Lawson & Son, List No. Sort. Soc. xiv. 235. — Hansen, Jour. R. Eort. Soc. xiv. 

10, Abietinece, 26. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 396. — Carriere, 376 (Pinetum Danicum). — Merriam, North American 

Traite Conif 305. — Gordon, Pinetum, 233. — Cour- Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, 

tin, Fam. Conif 71. — Cooper, Pacific B. R. Rep. ^ii. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 222 (Bot. Death Valley 

pt. ii. 27 ; Am. Nat. iii. 410. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. Exped.).— Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 31. 

vii. 141. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 94. — Pinus Strobus, /3 monticola, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 118 

(Nelson) Senilis, PinaceoB, 120. — Hoopes, Evergreens, (1849). 

135. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 318. — Sendclauze, Pinus porphyrocarpa, A. Murray, Lawson Pinetum Brit. 

Conif. 114. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. i. 83, f. 1-8 (1866). 

405. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 322. — Hall, Bot. Ga- Pinus Grozelieri, Carriere, Rev. Bort. 1869, 126, f. 31. 

zette, ii. 94. — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. Pinus monticola, var. minima, Lemmon, Rep. California 

ii. 123. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 181, f. 41. — Lawson, State Board Forestry, ii. 70, 80 (Pines of the Pacific 

Pinetum Brit. i. 69, f. 1-10. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of Slope) (1888). 

California, 45. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Pinus monticola, var. porphyrocarpa, Masters, Jour. R. 

Census U. S. ix. 187. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, Hort. Soc. xiv. 235 (1892). 

116. — Schtibeler, Vivid. Norveg. i. 393. — Lemmon, Rep. Pinus monticola, var. digitata, Lemmon, West-American 

California State Board Forestry, ii. 70, 79, t. (Pines of Cone-Bearers, 22 (1895). 

A tree, frequently one hundred feet in height, with a tall straight trunk four or five feet in 
diameter, or occasionally one hundred and fifty feet high, with a trunk seven or eight feet in diameter, 
and comparatively slender spreading somewhat pendulous branches which in youth clothe the stem to 
the ground and form a narrow open pyramid, the symmetry of which is often broken in old age by the 
greater development of one or two of the upper branches. The bark of young stems and branches is 
thin, smooth, and fight gray, and on fully grown trunks is from three quarters of an inch to an inch 
and a half in thickness, and divided into small nearly square plates by deep regular longitudinal and 
cross fissures, covered on the surface by small closely appressed purple scales, which are often worn 
away by mountain storms, leaving exposed the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. The branches are 
stout and tough, and when they first appear are clothed with rusty pubescence ; during their first winter 
they are dark orange-brown and puberulous, becoming dark red-purple and glabrous in their second 
season, and for five or six years bearing the conspicuous scars of the fallen bud-scales. The winter 
branch-buds are broadly ovate, acute, from one third to one half of an inch in length, and covered by 
ovate-lanceolate light chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins and long-pointed and spreading 
at the apex. The leaves are borne in clusters of five, and during the winter are inclosed in minute 
ovate compressed pale green buds coated at the apex with hoary pubescence ; their scales lengthen with 
the youno- leaves, and when fully grown are thin, lustrous and light chestnut-brown, or white, forming 
a sheath about half an inch in length, and soon deciduous. The leaves are thick, rigid, blue-green and 
glaucous, from an inch and a half to four inches in length, with from two to six rows of ventral stomata 
and sometimes with also one or two dorsal rows, a single fibro-vascular bundle, and strengthening 



24 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

cells under nearly the whole epidermis ; they contain usually two but sometimes only a single dorsal 
resin duct, 1 and are serrate with small minute teeth ; the leaves fall partly during their third and partly 
during their fourth season. The staminate flowers are oval, about a third of an inch long, with anthers 
which terminate in short crests or knobs, and are surrounded by eight involucral bracts. The pistillate 
flowers are clustered, oblong-cylindric, and about half an inch in length, with thin scales, and are raised 
on stout peduncles nearly as long as the flowers and clothed with ovate-lanceolate long-pointed 
chestnut-brown bracts conspicuously keeled on the back, one third of an inch in length, and persistent 
during the season. In the autumn the young cones are from three quarters of an inch to nearly an 
inch long, brown tinged with red, erect on stout peduncles usually an inch in length ; they become 
reflexed when they begin to grow in early spring, and ripen and shed their seeds late in the summer or 
in the early autumn, when they are light green, 2 cylindrical, pointed, often curved, from five to eleven 
inches long and about two inches thick, and are borne on stout incurved peduncles from an inch to 
an inch and a half in length ; their scales are thin, oblong-obovate, from an inch to an inch and a 
half long, about three quarters of an inch wide, and slightly thickened and smooth toward the apex, 
which is gradually narrowed, rounded, and tipped with a small slightly thickened pointed dark umbo ; 
the cones fall during the winter and spring, the exposed portions of the scales having become light 
reddish brown and their bases dark dull red in the autumn. The seeds are narrowed at both ends, 
one third of an inch long and about one third the length of the pointed wings, and are covered by a 
pale red-brown coat mottled with black, and produced into a narrow obscure wing-like margin j the 
cotyledons vary from six to nine in number. 

The western White Pine is distributed through mountain forests from the basin of the Columbia 
River in southern British Columbia to Vancouver Island, 3 southward along the western slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains' to northern Montana, and to the Bitter Root Mountains of Idaho, westward along 
the mountain ranges of northern Idaho and Washington, reaching the sea-level near the shores of 
the Straits of Fuca, and southward along the Cascade Mountains and the Washington and Oregon 
coast ranges, extending eastward in Oregon to the high mountains east of Goose Lake, 4 and southward 
along both slopes of the California Sierras to the ridge between Little Kern and Kern Rivers in 
latitude 36° 25'. 5 In northern Idaho the western White Pine grows to its largest size, and is most 
abundant, often forming an important part of the forest at elevations of from two thousand to two thou- 
sand five hundred feet above the sea on the bottom-lands of streams tributary to Lake Pend Oreille ; 
farther east, in Montana, it is less abundant and smaller ; in the interior of British Columbia it is not 
abundant, although it sometimes is large ; it is scattered in considerable numbers through the coniferous 
forests of the coast ranges of British Columbia and through the interior of Vancouver Island ; and it 
is not rare on the Cascade Range, where it ascends to elevations of five or six thousand feet, nor on the 
California Sierras, first appearing singly or in small groups along the upper margin of the Fir forest, 
and attaining its noblest dimensions in California at elevations of about ten thousand feet above the 
sea, where trees ninety feet high, with trunks five or six feet in diameter, sometimes occur, and resist 
for centuries, with their massive trunks and short contorted branches, the fiercest Sierra gales. 6 

The wood of Pinus monticola is very light, soft, not strong, and close and straight-grained ; it is 
light brown or red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous obscure medullary rays. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3908, a cubic foot weighing 24.35 pounds. It is 
sometimes manufactured into lumber, especially in northern Idaho and Montana, and is used for the 
same purposes as white pine in the eastern states. 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 261. 4 During the summer of 1896 Dr. E. Hart Merriam found Pinus 

2 A form with purple cones and rather broader leaves, known monticola growing on the high peaks of the Warner Range east of 
only from a tree cultivated in Scotland, is the Pinus porphyrocarpa Goose Lake, Oregon. 

of A. Murray. 5 f este Lieutenant M. F. Davis, U. S. Army. 

8 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 328. — Macoun, Cat. Can. 6 See portrait of Pinus monticola on the mountains above the 

PI- 464. Yosemite Valley, California, in Garden and Forest, v. f. 1. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 25 

Pinus monticola was discovered by David Douglas * in 1831 on the mountains near the Columbia 
River, and was introduced by him into English gardens. It is perfectly hardy in central and northern 
Europe, where large specimens may now be seen ; 2 and in the eastern United States it is hardy, and 
produces its cones as far north, at least, as eastern Massachusetts. In eastern plantations it grows more 
slowly, and is less beautiful than Pinus Strobus, and is hardly distinct enough in habit from this 
species to make its cultivation as an ornamental tree desirable. 

1 See ii. 94. - Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1071. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXL. Plntjs monticola. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower with its peduncle, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A cluster of winter branch-buds, natural size. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Plate DXLI. Pinus monticola. 

1. A portion of a branch with cones, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva. of North America. 



Tab. DXL. 




C.E. Faxon del. 



J. Mign&cucz> so. 



PINUS MONTICOLA, D.Don. 



A.Hu>creu3> dir&2> ? 



Imp. xj. Taneiw l Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DXLI. 




C.£. Faxon, del. 



J. MigrvecLLtj} so. 



PINUS MONTICOLA, D.Don. 

A.IhocreuJ> direco. Irnp. J. Tosl&iu; Parir. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 27 



PINUS LAMBERTIANA. 

Sugar Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, from 3J to 4 inches in length. Cones 
from 12 to 18 inches long. 

Pinus Lambertiana, Douglas, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. 500 son Bot. Col. ii. 123. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 179. — Kel- 

(1827). — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. 16, 17. — logg, Trees of California, 47. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 77, t. 30. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 188. — Lauche, Deutsche 

Am. ii. 161. — Antoine, Conif. 41, t. 19. — Hooker & Dendr. eel. 2, 117. — Hooker, f. Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 

Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 394. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 11, f . 1. — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, i. 772, f. 144. — Schiibe- 

397. — De Chambray, Traite Arb. Res. Conif 346. — ler, Vivid. Norveg. i. 390. — Lemmon, Rep. California 

Endlicher, Syn. Conif 150. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 122, t. State Board Forestry, ii. 70, 80, t. {Pines of the Pacific 

114. — Linclley & Gordon, Jour. Sort. Soc. Lond. v. Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bearers. 21, t. 2. — Steele, 

215. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietinece, 25. — Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 232 (The Pines of Cali- 

Dietrich, Syn. v. 396. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 307. — fomhi). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 324, t. 7, £. — Beiss- 

J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 21. — Torrey, ner, Handb. Nadelh. 294. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. 

Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. Soc. xiv. 231. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 366 

210 ; Iv es' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. {Pinetum Danicum). — Merriam, North American 

vi. pt. iii. 42, 90, f. 14. — Gordon, Pinetum, 228. — Cour- Fauna, No. 7, 340 (Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, 

tin, Fam. Conif. 70. — A. Murray, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin- Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 222 (Bot. Death Valley 

burgh, vi. 369. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 47, t. 7, f. 1- Exped.). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 31. 
7. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 226, 317. — Henkel Pinus Lambertiana, var. minor, Lemmon, Rep. Calif or- 

& Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 95. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pino- nia State Board Forestry, ii. 70, 83 (Pines of the Pacific 

cece, 115. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 134. — Sendclauze, Conif. Slope) (1888) . 

114. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 406. — K. Pinus Lambertiana, var. purpurea, Lemmon, West- 

Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 323. — Engelmann, Brewer & Wat- American Cone-Bearers, 22 (1895). 

A tree, usually from two hundred to two hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk six or 
eight or occasionally ten or twelve feet in diameter. 1 During the first fifty years of its life the slender 
branches, arranged in remote regular whorls, frequently clothe the tapering stem to the ground and 
form an open narrow pyramid ; later some of the specialized branches near the top of the tree grow 
more rapidly than the others, and, becoming fruitful, bend with the weight of the great cones ; and 
long before the tree has reached maturity many of the upper branches lengthen faster than the lower 
ones, which eventually die from absence of light, and the tall massive trunk is surmounted with an 
open flat-topped crown, frequently sixty or seventy feet across, of comparatively slender branches 
sweeping outward and downward in graceful curves. On young stems and branches the bark is smooth 
and dark gray, while on old trunks it is from two to three inches in thickness, and is deeply and 
irregularly divided into long thick plate-like ridges covered by large loose scales which are rich 
purplish brown or often, on wind-swept slopes of the California Sierras, bright cinnamon-red. The 
branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are coated with short pale or rufous pubescence; 
durino* their first winter they are dark orange-brown and puberulous, becoming in their second year 

1 David Douglas, who discovered Pinus Lambertiana on the head- and thirty-four feet above the ground. (See Companion Bot. Mag. 

waters of the Uinpqua River in southwestern Oregon on October ii. 92, 106, 107, 130, 152.) It is hardly probable that a careful 

26 1826 having previously seen the seeds on the Columbia River and conscientious man like Douglas would have exaggerated these 

in the pouch of an Indian, describes a fallen tree measured by him measurements, although he attributed to some other trees also 

as two hundred and forty-five feet high, with a trunk fifty-seven what now appears an excessive size. Sugar Pines of the size he 

feet nine inches in circumference at three feet above the ground, describes are now unknown, and trunks twelve feet in diameter 

and seventeen feet five inches in circumference at one hundred are uncommon. 



28 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

dark brown tinged with purple, and for many years they are marked with the scars of the fallen leaf- 
bearing lateral braiichlets. The winter branch-buds are oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed to the 
rounded apiculate apex, one third of an inch long, about one eighth of an inch thick, and covered by 
ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales scarious and erose on the margins and terminating in long 
loose points. The leaves are produced in clusters of five, and during the winter are inclosed in ovate 
compressed pale green buds. The bud-scales are ovate-lanceolate, thin, white, or light chestnut-brown 
on the outer ranks, and when fully grown form a close deciduous sheath about half an inch in length. 
The leaves are stout, rigid, sharply serrate, especially toward the apex, which is tipped with a sharp 
callous point, and from three to four inches long ; they are dark green, and marked on each face with 
from two to six rows of stomata, and contain a single fibro-vascular bundle, two or sometimes three 
dorsal resin ducts, and occasionally one or more parenchymatous ventral ducts ; * they fall during their 
second and third years. The staminate flowers are oval, pale yellow, and half an inch long, with denticu- 
late crested anthers, and are surrounded by from ten to fifteen involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers 
are usually clustered, and are cylindrical, an inch in length, with thin light green scales, and are raised 
on stout peduncles an inch and a half long and covered by lanceolate long-pointed chestnut-brown bracts 
conspicuously keeled on the back and persistent during the winter. In the autumu the young cones are 
light red-brown, about two inches long and three quarters of an inch thick, and stand erect on peduncles 
from two inches to three inches and a half in length and half an inch in thickness bearing- elon- 
gated bracts now often' three quarters of an inch long ; in early spring the peduncles become reflexed, 
and the cones, which are now pendulous, grow rapidly, attaining their full size in August, when they 
are cylindrical, often slightly curved, from eleven to eighteen or occasionally twenty-one inches in 
length, about three inches in breadth, and light green more or less shaded with purple on the side 
exposed to the sun, 2 with obovate-oblong scales from two inches to two inches and a quarter long and 
about an inch and a half broad across the base of the exposed portion, which is slightly thickened, 
smooth and rounded on the back, gradually narrowed into a rounded point and tipped with a small 
thin dark umbo, and becomes after the falling of the seeds light red-brown and very lustrous, while the 
unexposed portions of the scales turn a dull dark purple ; the cones open and shed their seeds during 
September or October and remain on the branches during the winter, falling the following spring or 
during the succeeding summer and autumn. The seeds are from one half to five eighths of an inch in 
length, with a smooth thin and brittle dark chestnut-brown or nearly black coat, and about half as long 
as the firm dark brown wings, which are obtuse, and broadest below the middle, where they are about 
half an inch across ; the cotyledons vary from thirteen to fifteen in number. 

Pinus Lambertiana inhabits mountain slopes and the sides of ravines and canons ; in Oregon it 
is distributed from the valley of the Santiam River in Marion County, 3 southward along the Cascade 
Mountains and coast ranges at elevations of from two thousand five hundred to three thousand feet, 
sometimes descending to a thousand feet near the coast ; it extends eastward across the Cascade Range 
to the head-waters of the Des Chutes River and the western shores of upper Klamath Lake, where it is 
found at an elevation of two thousand two hundred feet, reappearing on the bluffs east of Klamath 
Lake 4 and in Drew Valley to the westward of Goose Lake ; 5 in California it inhabits the northern cross 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 262. 4 In 1894 Mr. John B. Leiberg found Pinus Lambertiana on the 

' Lemmon {West-American Cone-Bearers, 22) describes the cones head-waters of the Des Chutes River east of Crescent Lake and 

of his variety purpurea as purplish, shorter, and less attenuated southward along the eastern foothills of the Cascade Mountains to 

toward the ends than those of the typical form. When fully ex- upper Klamath Lake and on the bluffs to the eastward of Fort Kla- 

posed to the sun, however, the cones of Pinus Lambertiana are math. 

always more or less tinged with purple. <* During the summer of 1896 Dr. F. V. Coville and Mr. John 

3 During the autumn of 1896 Pinus Lambertiana was found to B. Leiberg, journeying westward from Steen Mountain in eastern 

the northward of the Santiam River in Marion County by Mr. Oregon, saw Pinus Lambertiana growing with Pinus ponderosa in 

S. W. Gorman in sufficient quantities to be valued commercially. Drew Valley, fourteen miles west of Goose Lake. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 29 

ranges, and extends southward along the high coast mountains to Sonoma County ; * it occurs on the 
highest peaks of the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County, where it is found at elevations of 
about six thousand feet and is not common, and on those of the San Rafael 2 and San Emigdio 
Mountains ; 3 it ranges along the whole length of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains at 
elevations of from three to seven thousand feet, in the middle of the range occasionally crossing to its 
eastern slopes ; it is common on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains at elevations of from 
four to seven thousand feet 4 and on the Cuyamaca Mountains in southern California, and finds its most 
southerly home on the high isolated Mt. San Pedro Martir near the middle of the peninsula of Lower 
California. 5 Frequently attaining a large size in southwestern Oregon, the Sugar Pine is small and 
comparatively rare east of the summits of the Cascade Mountains and on the California coast ranges, its 
true home being the western slopes of the California Sierras, where it rises over every ridge and from 
the sides of every canon, and, mingled in small isolated groves with the Yellow Pine, the Douglas Fir, 
the Incense Cedar, and the Sequoia, and occasionally forming a considerable part of the forest, it attains 
its greatest size and beauty at an elevation of about seven thousand feet above the sea. 

The wood of Pinus Lambertiana is light, soft, straight-grained, satiny, very fragrant, and easy to 
work ; it is light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin resinous conspicuous 
bands of small summer cells, numerous large prominent resin passages, and many obscure medullary 
rays. G The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3684, a cubic foot weighing 22.96 pounds. 
It is largely manufactured into lumber and used for the interior finish of buildings, for shingles, 7 doors, 
sashes, and woodenware, and in cooperage. A sweet sugar-like matter, to which this tree owes its 
popular name, exudes from the heartwood wounded by fire or the axe in the shape of irregular crisp 
kernels crowded together into masses of considerable size ; possessing powerful diuretic properties, 
it can be safely eaten only in small quantities. 8 

Pinus Lambertiana was introduced into English gardens in 1831 by its discoverer, 9 David 

1 In 1895 Mr. J. R. Watson found at an elevation of about two A log of Sugar Pine measured by Gen. Henry L. Abbot in the 
thousand feet a small grove of Pinus Lambertiana near tbe bead of summer of 1896, on the head-waters of Rogue River, Oregon, 
the canon of Austin Creek on Table Mountain, a part of the Shone showed the following rate of growth : — 

Ranch and about ten miles northwest of Cazadero in Sonoma When 6 inches in diameter it was 40 years old. 
County, California. (See Erythea, iv. 152.) 12 inches in diameter, 67 years old. 

2 Pinus Lambertiana was collected in 1894 on the San Rafael 18 inches in diameter, 87 years old. 
Mountains, east of Santa Barbara, by Dr. F. Franceschi, at an ele- 24 inches in diameter, 111 years old. 
vation of five thousand feet above the sea 30 inches in diameter, 191 years old. 

3 Teste Miss Alice Eastwood. 36 inches in diameter, 270 years old. 

4 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 350. 42 inches in diameter, 346 years old. 
6 Pinus Lambertiana was discovered May 13, 1893, by Mr. T. S. 48 inches in diameter, 423 years old. 

Brandegee, on Mt. San Pedro Martir. (See Zoe, iv. 201, 210)- 52-L inches in diameter, 473 years old. 

6 The Sugar Pine under the most favorable conditions increases ^jo inches in diameter, 593 years old. 

slowly in trunk diameter. The specimen from the northern Sierras The sapwood of this tree was four inches thick, with one hundred 

in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American and twenty layers of annual growth. 

Museum of Natural History, New York, is sixty-four inches in 7 Many of the best Sugar Pines of the Sierra forests have been 

diameter inside the bark, and three hundred and fifty-eight years killed by wandering shingle-makers, who fell trees on the public 

old, with three and five eighths inches and ninety annual layers of domain, and, after using only the butt cuts, which often split more 

sapwood. A tree seven feet in diameter grown on the California easily than the others, abandon the rest of the stem to rot on the 

Sierras was found by John Muir to be three hundred and thirty ground. 

years old ; one hundred and fifty feet above the ground the trunk 8 For the chemical composition of the sugar of Pinus Lambert i- 
of this tree had a diameter of three feet three inches. Other trees ana, see Berthelot, Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. se'r. 2, xlvi. 76 (Sur 
examined by Muir were five feet three inches in diameter, and four quelques Matieres Sucr'es, ii. Pinite). — Johnson, Am. Jour. Sci. se'r. 
hundred and forty years old ; three feet nine and one half inches in 2. xxii. 6 (Examination of two Sugars \Panoche and Pine Sugar'] 
diameter, and four hundred and twenty-four years old ; four feet from California). — Maquenne, Compt. Rend. cix. 812 (Sur un Nov- 
eight inches in diameter, and three hundred and fifty years old ; veau Sucre a Noyau Aromatique); Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. se'r. 6, 
three feet six inches in diameter, and two hundred and twenty-five xxii. 264 (Recherches sur la Pinite et Vlnosite Dextrogyre). — 
years old ; and three feet four inches in diameter, and two hundred Combes, Compt. Rend. ex. 46 (Sur la Matezite et le Mate'zodambose). 
and fourteen years old ; the trunk of this tree was two feet three 9 Lewis and Clark, in the journal of their journey across the con- 
inches in diameter when it was one hundred years of age. tinent during the years 1804-1806 (ed. Coues, iii. 832), mention u 



30 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Douglas ; and although it has proved perfectly hardy in western and central Europe, and in eastern 
America as far north as southern New England, it grows very slowly in cultivation, and gives little 
indication of assuming its true habit or attaining a large size. 

The Sugar Pine, the noblest of its race, surpassing all other Pine-trees in girth and length of stem, 
tosses its mighty branches, bending under the weight of its long graceful pointed cones, far above the 
silvan roof, and with its companion, the great Sequoia, glorifies those Sierra forests that surpass in 
majesty all forests of coniferous trees. 1 

The specific name commemorates that of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, 2 a munificent English patron of 
botany. 



Pine-tree with a cone sixteen or eighteen inches in length and about 
four inches in circumference on the north side of the Columbia River 
near the ocean. Judging by the size of the cone this tree must have 
been the Sugar Pine. No one, however, since the time of Lewis and 
Clark has seen Pinus Lambertiana growing north of the Columbia 
River, and their description was probably made from a cone in the 
possession of some of the Columbia River Indians, who were no 
doubt in the habit of obtaining the seeds of tins tree from the tribes 
living on the Umpqua or Rogue Rivers, by whom they were gath- 
ered for food. (See Garden and Forest, x. 39.) 

1 " In most Pine trees there is a sameness of expression which to 
most people is apt to become monotonous ; for the typical spiry 
form, however beautiful, affords but little scope for appreciable 
individual character. The Sugar Pine is as free from convention- 
alities of form and motion as any oak. No two are alike, even to 
the most inattentive observer ; and, notwithstanding they are ever 
tossing out their immense arms in what might seem most extrava- 
gant gestures, there is a majesty and repose about them that pre- 
cludes all possibility of the grotesque, or even picturesque, in their 
general expression." (Muir, The Mountains of California, 158.) 

2 Aylmer Bourke Lambert (1761-1842), the only son of Edward 
Lambert of Boynton House, near Haytesbury in Wiltshire, was 



born at Bath, and educated at St. Mary's Hall at Oxford. A col- 
lector from boyhood, he formed a museum before he went to 
school ; and after leaving college he devoted himself to the study 
of botany, using his abundant means in forming a large herbarium 
and botanical library, which for many years were under the care of 
Mr. David Don, and in encouraging science. In 1797 Lambert 
published an illustrated description of the genus Cinchona, and in 
1803 the first volume of his sumptuous description of the genus 
Pinus, a large folio with beautifully executed colored plates by 
which his name is best remembered ; the second volume, prepared 
by David Don, appeared in 1824. A second edition of this work 
was published in 1828 ; and in 1837 the first edition of a third vol- 
ume appeared, several of the plates representing the conifers dis- 
covered by Douglas in western America ; this was also written by 
Don. An octavo edition of the first two volumes was published 
in 1832. Lambert was one of the founders in 1788 of the Lin- 
mean Society, which he served as vice-president from 1796 until 
his death, and contributed many papers on botany and zoology to 
its Proceedings. 

A genus of Australian shrubs bears the name of Lambert, and it 
has also been commemorated by Martius in Aylmeria, a genus of 
the Portulaca family, now referred to Polycarpsea. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXLIL Pinxts Lambertiana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

7. Tip of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

11. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

12. A cluster of young leaves with its sheath, natural size. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DXLIII. Prsrus Lambertiana. 

1. A cone, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

3. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. DXLII. 




C.H.Faa&n, dei,. 



Rapine* sc. 



PINUS LAMBERTIANA, Dou61. 

o 

AHiocreua> cUrett? Imp J.raneur.Taru. 



X 
Q 

E-" 




i 



o 



CO 



f 





o 
Q 

< 

< 
i — i 

E-- 

W 
PQ 

P 

i — i 
PU 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 33 



PINUS STROBIFORMIS. 

White Pine. 



Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, slender, from 3J to 4 inches in length. Cones from 
5 to 9 inches long, their scales thin, renexed. 

Pinus strobiformis, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a ii. 406 (in part) (not Schlechtendal) (1868). — Hemsley, 



Tour to Northern Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. Appx 
102. — Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 228 ; Fl. des Serres, ix 



201 ; Traite Conif. 309. — Gordon, Pinetum, 238. — Eep. vi. 258 (1878) 



Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 116. — Pringle, Gar 
den and Forest, i. 430. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii 
496. 
Pinus Ayacahuite, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 



Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 186 (in part). 
Pinus flexilis, y reflexa, Engelmann, Bothrock Wheeler's 



Pinus reflexa, Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vii. 4 (1882) ; 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xvii. 260. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 189 (excl. hab. New Mex- 
ico). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 275. 



A tree, from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk rarely more than two feet in 
diameter, and short slender often somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal head. 
The bark of the trunk is from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, and is irregularly divided by 
deep connected fissures into narrow rounded ridges covered by small loose reddish brown scales. The 
branchlets are slender, and when they first appear are coated with short close rufous pubescence; 
during their first winter they are light orange-brown and slightly puberulous, and in their third year 
are purplish and sometimes coated with a glaucous bloom. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, 
and about a third of an inch long, and are covered by ovate-lanceolate long-pointed thin pale chestnut- 
brown scales scarious and erose on the margins. The leaves are borne in clusters of five, and during 
the winter are inclosed in minute ovate compressed light green buds. The bud-scales lengthen with 
the young leaves, and, increasing in length from without inward, are when fully grown oblong, acute 
at the apex, thin, lustrous, and pale chestnut-brown, forming a rather close deciduous sheath from 
three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in length. The leaves are slender, rigid, from three and a 
half to four inches long, sharply serrulate with minute remote teeth, especially toward the apex, or 
often nearly entire, and pale green ; they are marked on the ventral faces with three or four rows of 
stomata, and contain a large fibro-vascular bundle and two dorsal resin ducts ; 1 they begin to fall 
during their third season, and have usually disappeared before the end of their fourth year. The 
flowers open in Arizona at the very end of May. The staminate flowers are oval and a third of an 
inch in length, with anthers terminating in erect erose crests, and are surrounded by eight bracts. The 
pistillate flowers are subterminal and half an inch in length, with dark reddish purple slightly renexed 
scales, and are raised on slender peduncles from one half to three quarters of an inch long, and clothed 
with ovate-lanceolate light chestnut-brown bracts conspicuously keeled on the back and thin and erose 
on the margins. At the end of their first season the young cones are erect on stout mostly naked 
peduncles from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length, and are from an inch to an 
inch and a quarter long, half an inch broad, and light red-brown ; they grow rapidly the following 
spring usually remaining erect until after the appearance of the flowers, and at maturity are pendulous, 
from five to nine inches in length, about an inch and a half in breadth, and light green, with thin 
smooth scales about an inch and a quarter long, often nearly an inch wide at the base of the exposed 
portion, and narrowed and rounded at the much reflexed apex, which is tipped with a small rounded 
slightly thickened umbo ; after the scales open their upper parts turn light brown slightly tinged with 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 261. 



34 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



red and their bases dark dull red. The seeds are broadly ovate, slightly compressed, half an inch long 
and about a third of an inch wide, with a thin dark red-brown coat produced into a narrow margin, 
and are furnished with thin dark rounded wings about an eighth of an inch in width. 

Pinus strobiformis is scattered over the rocky ridges and the sides of the canons of the Santa 
Catalina, Santa Rita, and Chiricahua Mountains of southern Arizona, and of the Sierra Madre of 
Chihuahua, at elevations of from six to eight thousand feet above the level of the sea, never forming 
groves and usually growing singly along the lower margin of the forests of Pinus Arizonica. 

The wood of Pinus strobiformis is hard, although light, not strong, and close-grained ; it is pale 
red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin inconspicuous bands of small summer cells, large 
resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. 1 The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.4877, a cubic foot weighing 30.39 pounds. The rarity of this tree and the inaccessibility of the 
places where it grows in the United States prevent the use of its wood, which is as valuable as that of 
the other western White Pines. 

Pinus strobiformis was discovered by Dr. F. A. Wislizenus 2 in Chihuahua in October, 1846, 
and was first found in the territory of the United States by Dr. J. T. Rothrock 3 in 1874 on the Santa 
Rita Mountains of Arizona. 

1 Pinus strobiformis, considering the dryness of the region it in- only one hundred and seventy-nine years old, with an inch and five 

habits, appears to grow with comparative rapidity. The specimen eighths of sapwood showing forty-seven layers of annual growth, 

from the Santa Rita Mountains in the Jesup Collection of North 2 See vi. 94. 

American Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, 3 See viii. 92. 
New York, is thixty-one inches in diameter inside the bark, and is 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXLrV. Pinus strobiformis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower with its peduncle, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Plate DXLV. Pinus strobiformis. 

1. A portion of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DXLIV. 




C £.Faax>7i del. 



Errvlfim&iz/ so. 



PINUS STROBIFORMIS, En&elm. 



ARiocreiuy direJZ ^ 



Imp . J~. TcmeiLr, Parir 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DXLV. 




C.£. Faxon, del. 



Errb. fflrri&iy so. 



PINUS STROBIFORMIS, En6elm. 

o 



A.Riocreiuc direa>- 



Imp. J~.Tan&ur, Pcwi*r. 



CONLFEEJS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



35 



PINUS FLEXILIS. 



White Pine. 



Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, thick, rigid, from 1| to 3 inches in length. Cones 
from 3 to 10 inches long, their scales rounded or pointed at the apex. 



Pinus flexilis, James, Long's Exped. ii. 34 (1823). — Tor 
rey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 249 ; Pacific B. B. Bep. iv. pt 
v. 141. — Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a Tour to 
Northern Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. Appx. 102 
Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. 331 ; Linncea, xxxiii. 388 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 208 ; Bothrock Wheeler's Bep. 
vi. 257 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Col. ii. 124. — Nuttall, 
Sylva, iii. 107, t. 112. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. 
Soc. Lond. v. 220. — Carriere, Bev. Hort. 1854, 228 ; Fl. 
des Serres, ix. 201 ; Traite Conif. 310. — J. M. Bigelow, 
Pacific B. B. Bep. iv. pt. v. 6, 20. — Gordon, Pinetum, 
224. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 72. — Parry, Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. ii. 121. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
126. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 112. — Bolander, Proc. 
Cat. Acad. iii. 318. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 131, f . 18. — 
Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 112. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 403 (in part). — Watson, King's Bep. v. p. xxviii. 
332. — Rothrock, PL Wheeler, 27, 50 ; Wheeler's Bep. vi. 
9. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden Surv. Misc. 
Pub. No. 4, 130. — A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. iii. 
106 ; iv. 356 (in part), f. 75. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent. iii. 187. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 33, f. 1. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 
188. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 113. — Coulter, 
Man. Bocky Mt. Bot. 431. — Tweedy, Garden and For- 



est, i. 130 (Forests of the Yellowstone National Park). — 
Lemmon, Bep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 70, 84 
{Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bear- 
ers, 23. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 233 
{The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
348, t. 7, f . — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 273. — Masters, 
Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 229. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. 
Soc. xiv. 360 {Pinetum Danicum). — Coville, Contrib. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 221 {Bot. Death Valley Exped.).— 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 31. 

Pinus Lambertiana, (3 ?, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 161 
(1839). 

Pinus Lambertiana, ?B brevifolia, Endlicher, Syn. Co- 
nif. 150 (1847). — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. v. 215. — Carriere, Traite Conif ed. 2, 404. 

Pinus flexilis, var. a serrulata, Engelmann, Bothrock 
Wheelers Bep. vi. 258 (1878). 

Pinus flexilis, /3 macrocarpa, Engelmann, Bothrock 
Wheeler's Bep. vi. 258 (1878). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. iv. 221 {Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Lem- 
mon, West-American Cone-Bearers, 23. 

? Pinus reflexa, Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 80 
(1882). 

Pinus flexilis megalocarpa, Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Div. 
Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 16 (1897). 



A tree, usually forty or fifty feet in height, with a short massive trunk from two to four or rarely 
five feet in diameter, but occasionally seventy or eighty feet high, and stout long-persisting branches ; 
or at high elevations on the mountain ranges of central Nevada reduced to a spreading shrub with 
stems only two or three feet tall. During its early years the short stout flexible branches stand out 
from the stem at right angles in regular whorls, forming a narrow open pyramid ; but at the end of 
from fifty to one hundred years some of the lower branches begin to grow more rapidly than the others, 
pushing out in graceful upward curves, while several of the stoutest of the upper branches ascend, 
and thus a low round-topped broad-based head is formed. 1 On young stems and branches the bark is 
thin, smooth, and light gray or silvery white; on older trunks it breaks into small thin dark brown 
plates tinged with red and covered by small thin scales ; and on large trunks it becomes from one to 
two inches in thickness and dark brown or nearly black, and divides by deep fissures into broad ridges 
broken into nearly square plates, which are covered by small closely appressed scales. The branchlets 
are stout and very tough, and when they first appear are light orange-green and clothed with soft fine 
pubescence ; usually they soon become glabrous, and during their first winter they are light orange- 
brown or pale gray, gradually growing a darker orange-color or sometimes brown tinged with purple. 
The winter branch-buds are broadly ovate, and narrowed into slender points, and are covered by 

1 Garden and Forest, x. 162, f . 19. 



36 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

ovate-lanceolate loosely imbricated light chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins, the terminal 
bud being about half an inch long and a quarter of an inch broad and nearly twice as large as the 
lateral buds. The leaves are borne in five-leaved clusters, and during the winter are inclosed in minute 
compressed dark green buds covered with pale scurfy pubescence. The bud-scales when fully grown 
are thin, white and lustrous, or pale chestnut-brown, and form a close narrow sheath about three 
quarters of an inch long, and early deciduous. The leaves are stout, rigid, sharp-pointed with callous 
tips, entire, or rarely sparingly serrate toward the apex, dark green, and usually about two inches long, 
but vary from an inch and a half to three inches in length ; they are marked with from one to four 
rows of ventral stomata, and contain a single fibro-vascular bundle and two dorsal and occasionally also 
one ventral resin duct surrounded by thin-walled strengthening cells ; l they form dense tufts at the 
ends of the branches, and mostly fall during their fifth and sixth years. The staminate flowers, which 
are borne in short spikes, are oval and about half an inch long, with reddish anthers tipped with short 
spur-like crests, and are surrounded by eight or nine involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are 
subterminal, clustered, about half an inch long, bright red-purple, and nearly sessile or short-stalked, their 
thick peduncles being covered with ovate acute persistent chestnut-brown bracts scarious on the margins 
and from one third to nearly one half an inch in length. In the autumn the young cones are erect, 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch long, about half an inch broad, and light reddish brown ; 
they become horizontal, and grow rapidly during the following spring, and when the flowers open, 
which is late in June, or at the north early in July, they have attained about two thirds of their full 
size ; and when fully grown in September they are oval or subcylindrical, horizontal and subsessile, 
or slightly declining on stout peduncles sometimes half an inch in length, light green, from three to 
ten inches lon^ 2 and about an inch and a half wide, with thick scales rounded at the broad or somewhat 
narrowed apex, which is occasionally slightly reflexed, and is tipped with a thickened dark umbo, 
the lower sterile scales being narrow and strongly reflexed ; the cones ripen and shed their seeds in 
September ; the exposed portions of the scales then turn light brown, and the others dull light red, 
most of the cones falling from the branches late in the same autumn. The seeds are oval, compressed, 
and from one third to one half of an inch in length, and are covered by a dark red-brown coat mottled 
with black, and produced into a narrow margin ; their wings are thin, dark reddish brown, and about 
one twelfth of an inch wide, and generally remain attached to the scales when the seeds fall ; the 
cotyledons vary from six to nine in number. 

The Rocky Mountain White Pine is distributed along the eastern base of the continental divide 
from Bow River in Alberta, where it grows on the river cliffs from near Calgary to Morleyville, 3 
southward to western Texas, where it occurs on the Guadalupe and Limpio Mountains ; 4 it ranges 
westward, usually at elevations of from five to ten thousand feet above the sea-level, over the mountains 
of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and southwestern California, where it has been found 
on the Inyo and Panamint Mountains growing with Pinus aristata, 5 to the eastern slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, where it is rare from Mono Pass east of the Yosemite Valley at elevations of 
from eight to nine thousand feet above the sea southward to Kearsarge Pass, crossing the Sierras to 
the south side of the canon of the south fork of King's River, where it occurs at heights of from ten 
thousand five hundred to nearly twelve thousand feet above the sea ; 6 it spreads over the mountain 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 261. tains, varies greatly in the size of its cones and in the thickness of 

2 The longest cones are produced by trees growing on the San its leaves. It is probably tbe large-coned southern form which is 
Francisco Peaks of northern Arizona at elevations of about eight most common on the mountains of eastern Arizona and of New 
thousand feet above the sea-level and on the mountains of southern Mexico, and which has sometimes been referred to Pinus strohir 
Arizona (the var. macrocarpa of Engelmann and the var. megalo- formis. 

carpa of Sudworth). The same trees, however, bear cones varying 3 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 465. 

from four to ten inches in length (see plate dxlvii.), and although 4 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 503. 

the leaves on this form are slightly more slender and occasionally 5 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 340 {Death Valley 

somewhat serrulate toward the apex, it can hardly be considered a Exped. ii.). 

botanical variety, as Pinus flexilis, in the northern Rocky Moun- 6 Teste John Muir. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 37 

ranges of New Mexico and northern Arizona, generally at elevations of from seven to eight thousand 
feet, and is scattered through the forests of the Huachuca and Chiricahua Mountains of southern 
Arizona. Pinus flexilis most frequently grows singly or in small groves among other conifers, but is 
the principal tree on the upper foothills of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, 
where it remains low and round-topped, forming an open stunted forest ; and on many of the ranges 
of central Nevada on slopes and benches from seven to ten thousand feet above the sea-level it makes 
extensive open forests, and is the most valuable timber-tree, giving the name of White Pine to several 
mountain ranges and districts, 1 and attaining its largest size on the mountains of northern New Mexico 
and Arizona. 2 

The wood of Pinus flexilis is light, soft, and close-grained; it is pale clear yellow, turning red on 
exposure to the air, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains inconspicuous narrow bands of small 
summer cells, numerous large resin passages, and many prominent medullary rays. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4358, a cubic foot weighing 27.16 pounds. In northern Montana, in 
central Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico, it is sometimes manufactured into lumber which is full of 
knots but is used in construction and for various domestic purposes. 

Pinus flexilis was discovered in 1820 in Colorado near the base of Pike's Peak by Dr. Edwin 
James, 3 the naturalist and surgeon of Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains. It was probably 
introduced into cultivation by Dr. C. C. Parry, 4 who first visited Colorado in 1861, and gathered the 
seeds of several coniferous trees. In the eastern United States it has grown very slowly, and gives no 
promise of becoming a valuable garden ornament ; but in Europe it is more vigorous, and one specimen, 
at least, has produced cones in England. 5 

1 Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xvii. 420 {The Forests of Central 5 During the autumn of 1896 a specimen of Pinus flexilis in the 
Nevada). Royal Gardens at Kew produced cones {The Garden, li. 73). 

2 See Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 121. This tree is twenty-five feet high, with a trunk two feet nine inches 

3 See ii. 96. in circumference at the base, and two feet in circumference at six 

4 See vii. 130. feet above the surface of the ground. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXLVI. Pintjs flexilis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DXLVII. Pintjs flexilis. (From northern Arizona.) 

1. A branch with young cones, natural size. 

2. A cone, natural size. 

3. A cone, natural size. 

4. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab DXLVI. 




C KFcucon, del. 



Jlapisie' sc. 



PINUS FLEXILIS, James 



A.Rcocreua> dir&z>. 



Imp. J.TasLeur, J 3 aria: 



Silva of North America. 



Tab . DXLVII . 




C.JS.FaccoTvdel. 



ZrrL.ffimela/ so. 



PINUS FLEXILIS, James. 



A.RLocreua: direcc^ 



Imp. J. Taneur, J'aris . 



coNiFEEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 39 



PINUS ALBICAULIS. 

White Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, thick, rigid, from \\ to 2J inches in length. Cones 
oval or subglobose, from \\ to 3J inches long, their scales much thickened, dark 
purple, terminating in stout incurved nearly triangular tips. 

Pinus albicaulis, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 345 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 

209 (1863) ; Linncea, xxxiii. 390 ; Bot. Gazette, vii. 4. — Detitsche Dendr. 31. 

Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 94. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. Pinus flexilis, A. Murray, Rep. Oregon Exped. 1, t. 2, f. 1 
1, f. 1-4. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census (not James) (1853). — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 142.— 

U. S. ix. 189. — Hooker f. Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiv. 9, Parlatore, Be Oandolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 403 (in part). 

f . 1, 2. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry/, Pinus cembroides, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. 
ii. 70, 84, t. (Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West-American iii. 44, 90, f. 15 (not Zuccarini) (1857). 

Cone-Bearers, 24. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. Pinus Shasta, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 390 (1867). 

1889, 234 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wold. Pinus flexilis, var. albicaulis, Engelmann, Brewer & 
Nordam. 354, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 27 4.— Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 124 (1880). — Coulter, Man. 

Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 225. — Hansen, Jour. Rocky Mt. Bot. 432. 

A tree, twenty or thirty or rarely sixty feet in height, with a short or rarely elongated trunk from two 
to four feet in diameter, or often at high altitudes a low shrub with wide-spreading stems. During its 
early years the stout branches, which are so flexible that they may be tied into knots, are arranged in 
regular whorls and stand out from the stem at right angles, forming a narrow compact pyramid ; * later, 
several of the specialized upper branches grow much more rapidly than the others or than those below 
them, and, turning upward, stand at acute angles with the stem, forming an open very irregular compar- 
atively broad head. The bark at the base of old trunks is sometimes half an inch in thickness, although 
on the body of the stem, on young trees, and on the large branches it is usually not more than from one 
eighth to one quarter of an inch thick, and is broken by narrow fissures into thin light brown or 
creamy white plate-like scales which when they fall disclose the light reddish brown inner bark. The 
branchlets are stout, puberulous sometimes during two years, or glabrous before their first winter, dark 
reddish brown or rather bright orange-color, and after they shed their leaves much roughened by the 
prominent scars left by the falling of the bud-scales. The winter branch-buds are broadly ovate, 
acute, and covered by loosely imbricated pale chestnut-brown scales, the terminal bud being often half 
an inch long and from one third to nearly one half of an inch wide, and much larger than the lateral 
buds. The leaves are arranged in clusters of five, with deciduous pale chestnut-brown sheaths about 
half an inch in length, the inner bud-scales being oblong-obovate and rather prominently ribbed, and 
are borne in dense tufts at the ends of naked branches ; they are slightly incurved, stout and rigid, 
with a thick-walled epidermis, and are marked with from one to three rows of dorsal stomata ; they are 
dark green, acute, and entire on the margins, and usually about an inch and a half in length, although 
on trees in sheltered positions sometimes nearly three inches long, and contain a single fibro-vascular 
bundle and two dorsal and sometimes also a ventral resin passage surrounded by strengthening cells ; 2 
the leaves on some trees begin to fall in their fifth season and drop irregularly, many of them remaining 
on the branches for three years longer, while on other trees most of the leaves appear to persist until 

1 In exposed positions the branches sometimes lengthen only nia, Muir has found branches thirty-six years old and only an 
from one eighth to one quarter of an inch during the few weeks eighth of an inch in diameter. 
of the year when growth is possible ; and on Mt. Shasta, Califor- 2 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 260. 



40 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

the seventh or eighth year. The flowers open from the first to the middle of July, or as soon as the 
snow under which this tree is usually buried for many months of the year has melted sufficiently to 
expose its branches to the sun. The staminate flowers are borne in short spikes and are oval, with 
scarlet anthers tipped by spur-like crests, and surrounded by involucres of eight or nine bracts. The 
pistillate flowers are oblong, sessile, clustered, about one third of an inch thick, with bright scarlet 
scales, and are surrounded by oblong-lanceolate chestnut-brown bracts. The young cones grow but 
little during their first season, and in the winter are erect and hardly more than half an inch long ; 
the following summer they become horizontal, and, increasing rapidly in size during a few weeks, are 
fully grown by the end of August, when they are oval or subglobose, horizontal, sessile, and from an 
inch and a half to three inches and a quarter long, with much thickened gradually pointed purple 
scales, the exposed portion being contracted on both sides to a sharp edge bearing a stout nearly 
triangular more or less incurved dark tip ; they discharge their seeds early in the autumn and mostly 
fall before winter. The seeds are ovate, acute, subcylindrieal or somewhat flattened on one side by 
pressure against the bracts of the scales above, from one third to nearly one half of an inch in length 
and about one third of an inch in diameter, and are covered with a dark chestnut-brown hard thick coat 
produced into a narrow marginal border ; their wings are thin, chestnut-brown, and about one thirty- 
second of an inch wide, and remain attached to the scales when the seeds fall ; the cotyledons vary 
from seven to nine in number. 

Pinus albicauUs inhabits alpine slopes, growing on the most exposed ridges at elevations of 
between five thousand and nearly twelve thousand feet above the sea-level, and mingling in the 
northern Rocky Mountains below with Rums flexilis, and above with Abies lasiocarpa, and farther 
west with the Mountain Hemlock and Abies lasiocarpa. It forms the timber line on many of the 
high mountains of northwestern America, where it is distributed from about latitude 53° north in the 
Rocky Mountains 1 and from the valley of the Iltasyouco River, 2 southward over all the high ranges 
of southern British Columbia, sometimes descending near the sea to altitudes of five thousand feet ; in 
the United States it extends southward along the Rocky Mountains to the Yellowstone plateau in 
northwestern Wyoming, where it is common about the head-waters of the Gallatin, Madison, and Snake 
Rivers, often descending as low as seven thousand five hundred feet above the sea-level ; 3 it occurs 
on the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon, and on the Powder River and Warner Ranges in 
eastern Oregon, 4 and spreads along the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon, where it is 
usually found at elevations of about six thousand feet ; in California it forms extensive groves along 
the timber line on Mt. Shasta at eight thousand feet above the sea-level, ranges along the Sierra 
Nevada, where it is not common, to the slopes of Mt. Whitney, 5 and reappears on the San Bernardino 
Mountains, finding here its most southerly home, and forming on Grayback the upper border of the 
forest at altitudes of between ten thousand five hundred and eleven thousand six hundred and twenty- 
five feet. 6 

The wood of Pinus albicauUs is light, soft, brittle, and close-grained. It is light brown, with 
thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin bands of small summer cells, numerous inconspicuous 
resin passages, and obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4165, 
a cubic foot weighing 25.96 pounds. The sweet seeds were gathered and eaten by the Indians, 
although Clark's Crow, which tears the cones to pieces before they are ripe in order to devour the 
seeds, left them only scanty harvests. 7 

1 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI 465. 6 Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 221 (Bot. Death Valley 

2 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. u. ser. ix. 328. Exped.). 

3 Tweedy, Garden and Forest, i. 130 {Forests of the Yellowstone ° S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 350. 

National Park). 7 Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxii. 36 (Food and Fibre 

4 In the summer of 1896 Pinus albicauUs was found on the highest Plants of the North American Indians). 
peaks of the Warner Range east of Goose Lake by Dr. C. Hart 

Merriam. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



41 



Pinus albicaulis was discovered on the 23d of September, 1851, on the mountains rising from 
the valley of the lower Fraser River, 1 by John Jeffrey, 2 who sent the seeds to Scotland, where a few 
plants were raised. It grows very slowly in cultivation and has little to recommend it as an ornament 
of the park or garden. On bleak mountain slopes, however, struggling bravely on the advance line 
of the forest against the hardships which cannot subdue it, Pinus albicaulis is one of the most 
picturesque and interesting coniferous trees of North America. 



1 " Pinus sp. no. 398. Found on the summit of a mountain near 
Fort Hope, Fraser's River. I could only find a few specimens of 
this tree on which there were few cones. The few that were, Cor- 
vus Columbianus had deprived them of nearly all their seeds. 
Leaves in fives, short and rigid ; cones small, nearly round ; bark 
smooth ; tree 30 ft. by 1 foot diameter ; growing on granite de- 
cayed. Lat. 50° ; elevation 7,000 feet. Sept. 23d, 1851." (From 
an unpublished and undated letter of Jeffrey to Professor J. H. 
Balfour preserved in the herbarium of the Royal Gardens at Edin- 
burgh.) 

2 The birthplace of John Jeffrey and the dates of his birth and 
death are unknown. On the 22d of November, 1849, a, meeting of 
gentlemen interested in the promotion of arboriculture and hor- 
ticulture in Scotland was held at the Botanic Garden in Edin- 
burgh. At this meeting it was decided to send to western North 
America a botanist to collect the seeds of trees, shrubs, and other 
plants suitable for the decoration of gardens, in the regions trav- 
ersed by David Douglas, and " to complete his researches and to 
extend them into those parts of the country not fully explored by 
him." A fund was raised to pay the expenses of this expedition, 
the subscribers organizing under the chairmanship of Professor 
J. II. Balfour, and designating themselves the Oregon Botanical 
Association. John Jeffrey, a young gardener, was selected by the 
association to carry out its work ; and early in June, 1860, he 
sailed for Hudson Bay. On April 7, 1851, Jeffrey wrote to Pro- 
fessor Balfour, from Jaspar House on the head-waters of the 
Athabasca River in the Rocky Mountains, that he had left York 
Factory on the 20th of August of the previous year, and, travel- 
ing on foot, had reached Cumberland House, on the Saskatche- 
wan, on the 6th of October and had remained there until January, 
1851, when he proceeded up the Saskatchewan, reaching Jaspar 
House on the 21st of March. From Jaspar House Jeffrey crossed 



the Rocky Mountains by the Athabasca Pass, reached the Colum- 
bia River, and descended it to Fort Colville, a few miles above 
the mouth of Colville River, where he arrived about the 30th of 
May, 1851. Thence he traveled to the northwest to the Fraser 
River, which he descended to Vancouver Island, continuing to 
collect during the remainder of the season in southern British Co- 
lumbia and about Mt. Baker in northern Washington, and prob- 
ably exploring higher altitudes than any of his predecessors, as he 
discovered at this time such alpine trees as Pinus albicaulis and 
Patton's Spruce. The following year he went southward to Wash- 
ington and Oregon as far as Mt. Shasta, and on Scott Mountain 
in northern California discovered Pinus Balfouriana and Pinus Jef- 
freyi. In 1853 Jeffrey continued to collect in southern Oregon and 
northern California, and in the autumn of that year reached San 
Francisco. The plants collected by him in 1853 were the last that 
Jeffrey sent to Edinburgh, and his connection with the association 
ceased at this time. Afterward he appears to have gone to San 
Diego, California, with the intention of crossing the Colorado Desert 
to Fort Yuma ; and in attempting to penetrate the desert alone he 
probably perished of thirst, as nothing more was heard of him. 
(See Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xi. 57 [The Itinerary of 
John Jeffrey, an early Botanical Explorer of western North America].') 
In one of the printed lists of plants collected by Jeffrey sent 
out by Mr. Andrew Murray, the secretary of the Oregon Botani- 
cal Association, to the subscribers, and, although without date, ap- 
parently issued in 1853, are first described Abies concolor, here called 
Picea lasiocarpa (not Pinus lasiocarpa, Hooker), Pinus Balfouriana, 
Pinus Jeffreyi, Pinus Murray ana, and Pinus albicaulis, here referred 
to Pinus fezilis. This now rare paper contains figures of Pinus 
Jeffreyi, Pinus albicaulis, Pinus attenuata, here called Pinus tubercu- 
lata, Pinus Balfouriana, Pinus Murrayana, Abies concolor, Tsuga 
Pattonii, and Libocedrus decurrens, here called Thuja Craigana. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXLVIIL Pintjs albicaums. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, under side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DXLVIII. 




C.JE.Fcucorv de^. 



Rapine- sc 



PINUS ALBICAULIS, Engelm. 



A.JRio arenas' direo>t 



Imp: J]Tcui&ur , Poritf. 



CONIFERiE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



43 



PINUS QUADRIFOLIA. 

Nut Pine. Pinon. 

Leaves in 3 to 5-leayed clusters, stout, glaucous, l\ to If inches in length. Cones 
subglobose, 1J to 2 inches broad. 



Pinus quadrifolia, Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Div. Forestry, 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 17 (1897). 
Pinus Llaveana, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 208, t. 

53 (not Schlechtendal) (1859). — Bolander, Proc. Cal. 

Acad. iii. 318. 
Pinus Parryana, Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxriv. 

332 (not Gordon) (1862) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. 

ii. 124. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

402. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 49. — Sar- 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 189. — 
Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 72, 
89, t. (Pines of the Pacific Slojje) ; West- America)! Cone- 
Bearers. 28, t. 3. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 
1889, 234 {The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wold. 
Isordam. 277, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 255. — 
Masters, Jour. R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 236. — Hansen, Jour. 
R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 380 {Pinebum Danicuin). — Koehne, 
Deutsche JDendr. 33. — S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 350. 



A tree, from thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally eighteen inches in diameter. 
During its first years the young plant, like all the Nut Pines, bears only primary leaves ; these are 
linear-lanceolate, entire, strongly keeled, about an inch long, very glaucous, and marked with conspicuous 
bands of stomata; at the end of five or six years they are shorter and begin to bear in their axils the 
buds of leaf -clusters ; as these develop, the primary leaves, which gradually become smaller and bract- 
like, wither and fall, and the plant assumes its adult appearance. 1 The stout spreading branches form a 
compact regular pyramid, the broad base often resting on the ground, and in old age a loose round- 
topped irregular head surmounting the short stem. The bark of the trunk is dark brown tinged with 
red, from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and divided by shallow fissures into broad 
flat connected ridges covered by thick closely appressed plate-like scales. The branchlets are stout, 
and when they first appear are coated with short soft pubescence, and are made conspicuous by the 
large broadly oval light brown scales of the branch-buds, which cover them before the leaf-buds begin 
to lengthen and do not disappear until the end of their second season, when the branchlets become light 
orange-brown, growing darker and more or less tinged with red in their third year. In June, after the 
appearance of the flowers, the scales of the leaf -buds lengthen with the young leaves, forming close 
narrow pale chestnut-brown sheaths about half an inch in length, the scales soon becoming reflexed and 
usually persisting at the base of the leaf-cluster until the following spring. The foliage leaves are 
borne in from three to five or usually in four-leaved clusters and are incurved, sharp-pointed with 
callous tips, entire, pale glaucous green, from an inch and a half to an inch and three quarters in 
length and often one eighth of an inch in width, the dorsal side being wider than either of the others ; 
they contain a single fibro-vascular bundle and two large dorsal resin ducts surrounded by strengthen- 
in o* cells, and are marked on the ventral sides with from eight to ten rows of conspicuous stomata ; - 
they fall irregularly and mostly during their third season, although many of them persist until their 
fourth year. The staminate flowers, which are produced in elongated spikes, are oval and nearly a 
quarter of an inch long, their anthers terminating in laciniated crests, and are surrounded by an 
involucre of four conspicuous bracts rather longer than the bud-scales. The pistillate flowers are 
sub terminal, solitary or clustered, nearly sessile, subglobose, and from one eighth to one quarter of 
an inch in length, with broadly obovate scales gradually narrowed at the rounded apex into short 
broad points. The cones are subglobose and from an inch and a half to two inches broad, with 

1 Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xxi. f. 92. " Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 303. 



44 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

concave scales rounded at the apex; their exposed portion is thickened, conspicuously keeled trans- 
versely, narrowed into a central elevated knob terminating' in a truncate or concave umbo armed with 
a minute recurved tip, and bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, while the rest of the scale is dull red ; 
a few only of the central scales are fertile ; the others gradually decrease in size toward both ends of 
the cone, and those at its base, being much reflexed and remaining closed, form a broad flat base. The 
seeds are somewhat narrowed and compressed at the apex, full and rounded at the base, about five eighths 
of an inch long and one third of an inch wide, dark red-brown and more or less mottled, with a thin 
brittle shell and a sweet slightly resinous albumen ; their wings are thin, pale chestnut-brown, about an 
eighth of an inch wide, and remain attached to the scales after the seeds fall ; the cotyledons are usually 
eight in number. 

Pinus quadrifolia forms open forests on the arid mesas and low mountain slopes of Lower 
California, 1 extending southward to the foothills of Mt. San Pedro Martir, 2 on which it is almost the 
only tree, and northward into California, where only a few specimens have been found. 3 

The wood of Pinus quadrifolia is light, soft, and close-grained ; it is pale brown or yellow, with 
much lighter colored nearly white sapwood, and contains thin bands of small summer cells, many large 
conspicuous resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5675, a cubic foot weighing 35.37 pounds. 4 The seeds are eaten raw or are 
roasted, and form an important article of food for the Indians of Lower California. 

Pinus quadrifolia was discovered in June, 1850, by Dr. C. C. Parry, 5 one of the botanists of the 
commission appointed to establish the boundary between the United States and Mexico, sixty miles 
southeast of San Diego, California, at an elevation of about two thousand feet above the sea-level. It 
is occasionally cultivated in the gardens of California. 

1 From near the boundary line of the United States an open Mr. Carl Purdy reports it from the neighborhood of Julian at 
forest of Pinus quadrifolia about thirty miles wide extends south- the head of the San Diego River. 

ward for nearly fifty miles, covering, at elevations varying from 4 Pinus quadrifolia probably grows very slowly. The log speci- 

three thousand five hundred to seven thousand feet above the men in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 

sea-level, the wide table-lands which here form the backbone of American Museum of Natural History, New York, is twelve and 

the peninsula. (See Orcutt, Garden and Forest, v. 183.) one half inches in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and 

2 T. S. Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 201. sixty years old, the sapwood being an inch and a half in thickness 

3 Pinus quadrifolia was found by Mr. George R. Vasey in June, and containing forty-eight layers. 
1880, near Larkin Station, San Diego County, twenty miles south- 5 See vii. 130. 

east of Campo, not far from the Mexican boundary line ; and 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DXLIX. Pinus quadrifolia. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, upper side, natural size. 

13. A seed, natural size. 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

18. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXLIX. 




C.RFaazon, del. 



Rapine sc. 



PINUS QUADRIFOLIA,Sudw. 



AJ&ocreuJz direzit 



Imp . J. Taneur, Parir. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 47 



PINUS CEMBROIDES. 
Pinon. Nut Pine. 

Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, slender, from 1 to 2 inches in length. Cones from 
1 to 2 inches broad. 

Pinus cembroides, Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Munch, i. Pinus Llaveana, Schlechtendal, Linncea, xii. 488 (1838).— 

392 (1832) ; Flora, 1832, ii. Beibl. 93. — Bentham, PI. Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 49, t. 17. — Antoine, Conif. 

Hartweg. 58. — Link, Linncea, xv. 511. — Endlicher, 36, t. 16, f. 1. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 401. — Lindley & 

Syn. Conif. 182. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abieti- Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Carriere, Traite 

nece,45. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 401. — Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Conif. 405. — Gordon, Pinetum, 199. — Henkel & Hoch- 

ZkwcZ. i. 236, f . ; Fl. des Serres,iv. 324 b , f. 97. — Pinetum, stetter, Syn. Nadelh. 64 (excl. syn. Pinus edidis).— 

ed. 2, 265. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. Hoopes, Evergreens, 143. 

v. 216. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 404. — Courtin, Fam. Pinus osteosperma, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a 

Conif. 92. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece,107 . — Seneclauze, Tour to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. Appx. 

Conif. 146. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 89. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 

397. — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 158. — Hemsley, 216. — Carriere, Fl. des Serres, ix. 201 ; Rev. Hort. 1854, 

Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 186. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. 227. — Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 241. — Beissner, Handb. 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 190. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Nadelh. 253. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 380 

Soc. xiv. 227. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 356 (Pinetum Danicum). 
(Pinetum Danicum). — Lemmon, West-American Cone- 
Bearers, 28. 

A bushy tree, with a short stem rarely more than a foot in diameter and a broad round-topped 
head, usually from fifteen to twenty feet high, but in sheltered canons on the mountains of Arizona * 
and in Lower California occasionally fifty or sixty feet in height. The bark of the trunk, which is 
about half an inch in thickness, is irregularly divided by remote shallow fissures and separates freely 
on the surface into numerous large thin light red-brown scales. 2 The branch-buds are ovate, gradually 
narrowed and acute at the apex, and about a quarter of an inch long, with bright chestnut-brown 
lustrous scales thin and scarious on the margins and contracted into long tips ; these scales cover the 
lengthening closely imbricated leaf-buds in May or June, when the flowers expand, making the young 
branches at this time extremely conspicuous, and do not entirely disappear until the second or third 
season. The branchlets are slender, dark orange-colored, and covered with matted pale deciduous hairs 
when they first appear ; during their first winter they are dark brown or orange-colored, and then, 
gradually growing darker, are at the end of five or six years sometimes nearly black and still much 
roughened by the scars left by the fallen bud-scales. The leaves are borne in clusters of two or 
of three, with thin close sheaths scarious on the margins, about a quarter of an inch long and mostly 
persistent for one or for two years ; they are slender, usually much incurved, entire, acute with 
elongated callous tips, dark green, and from one to two inches in length ; they are marked on each 
ventral surface with from four to six rows of stomata, and contain two dorsal resin ducts surrounded 
by strengthening cells, and a single fibro-vascular bundle ; 3 they fall irregularly during the third 
and fourth year. The staminate flowers are produced in short compact clusters, and are oval, about 
a quarter of an inch long, with yellow crested anthers, and are surrounded by an involucre of four 
bracts. The pistillate flowers are lateral and erect on short stout peduncles covered by ovate acute 

1 Teste Dr. T. E. Wilcox, U. S. Army. is more or less deeply divided into connected ridges and separates 

2 The conspicuously scaly bark of Pinus cembroides readily distiu- slowly into small closely appressed scales, 
guishes it from the other American Nut Pines, on which the bark 3 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 303. 



48 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



light chestnut-brown bracts, and are oblong, acute, and about one eighth of an inch in length, with 
thick dark red scales. In the autumn the young cones are about half an inch in diameter and 
horizontal ; the following spring they grow rapidly, and by the time the flowers open they are sometimes 
nearly an inch long and three quarters of an inch broad ; when fully grown they are subglobose, 
from an inch to almost two inches in breadth, and short-stalked or subsessile ; the exposed portions of 
their light red-brown concave scales are rounded or acute at the apex, and much thickened and 
quadrangular on the back, with prominent horizontal and less prominent longitudinal keels, the central 
knob terminating in a dark-colored concave umbo bearing on its margin a small dark brown nearly 
triangular much reflexed tip ; only a few of the central scales, which are about three quarters of an 
inch broad, are fertile ; the others decrease in size toward both ends of the cone, and those at its base 
are much reflexed and remain closed. The seeds are subcylindrical or slightly triangular, more or less 
compressed at the pointed apex, full and rounded at the base, from one half to three quarters of an 
inch long, about three eighths of an inch wide, nearly black on the lower side, and dark chestnut-brown 
on the upper, where they are pressed upon by the bracts and scales above them ; the wings are light 
chestnut-brown, membranaceous, and about one thirty-second of an inch wide, and remain attached to 
the scales when the seeds fall ; the cotyledons vary from nine to fifteen in number. 

Pinus cembroides inhabits in southern Arizona the Santa Catalina, Rincon, Santa Rita, Huachuca, 
and Chiricahua 1 Mountains generally above elevations of six thousand five hundred feet, and covers 
their highest slopes and ridges, usually unmixed with other trees, and grows also on the Pinal, 
Superstition, Caliuro, and Gila Mountains near the centre of the territory. 2 It occurs in Lower 
California, 3 and spreads southward over the mountain ranges of northern Mexico, growing in the thin 
soil of the hottest and most arid slopes and ledges, 4 or in Nuevo Leon on the cooler slopes and summits 
of the foothills, often descending to within a few hundred feet of the level of the plain. 5 

The wood of Pinus cembroides is light, soft, and close-grained ; it is pale clear yellow, with thin 
nearly white sapwood, and contains thin inconspicuous bands of small summer cells, occasional small 
conspicuous resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.6512, a cubic foot weighing 40.58 pounds/ 1 

The large oily seeds supply the inhabitants of northern Mexico with an important article of food, 
and are sold in large quantities in the markets of most Mexican towns. 

Pinus cembroides was discovered on the high mountains near Sultepec in Mexico about 1830 by 
the Belgian naturalist Karwinsky ; 7 it was first found in the United States by Mr. C. G. Pringle 8 on 
the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, in June, 1882. It was introduced into European gardens by 
Karl Theodor Hartweg 9 in 1846, and is now occasionally cultivated in those of southern Europe and 
of northern Mexico. 

1 Pinus cembroides was collected on the Chiricahua Mountains 6 Pinus cembroides probably always grows slowly. The trunk in 
in 1894 by Professor J. W. Tourney. (See Garden and Forest, the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Vlii - 22 Museum of Natural History, New York, is eight and three quar- 

2 Tourney, Garden and Forest, x. 152. ters inches in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and forty- 

3 Pinus cembroides was found in 1890 by Mr. T. S. Brandegee on six years old, with sapwood five eighths of an inch in thickness 
the flat top of the Sierra de Laguna in Lower California, where it containing twenty-two layers of annual growth. 

sometimes grows to a height of fifty feet. (See Garden and Forest, 7 See i. 94. 

iv. 352, f. 59.) 8 See ix# 129 . 

4 Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 430. 9 See ii. 34. 

5 Pringle, I. c. iii. 338. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DL. Pinus cembroides. 

1. A branch with starainate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with-its bract, enlarged. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

16. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America., 



Tat. DL. 




C.H.Faccorv de&. 



PINUS CEMBROIDES, Zuce 



A RLocreuay direz> t 



Irrip. J Tasieur, Pcurir 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 51 



PINUS MONOPHYLLA. 
Nut Pine. Pinon. 

Leaves solitary or rarely in 2-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, spinescent, from 1 J to 2J 
inches in length. Cones from 1 J to 2 i inches long. 

Pinus monophylla, Torrey, FrSmonfs Bep. 319, t. 4 Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 254. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. 

(1845). — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 318. — Parla- Soc. xiv. 375 (Pinetum Danicum). — Coville, Contrib. 

tore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 378. — Lawson, Pine- U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 222 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — 

turn Brit. i. 65, t. 9, f. 1-12. — Watson, King's Bep. v. Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 33. 

330. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 271. — Rothrock, PI. Pinus Premontiana, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 183 (1847).— 

Wheeler, 28, 50. — Engelmann, Bothrock Wheele?*'s Bep. Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietinece, 45. — Dietrich, 

vi. 259, 375 ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 178 ; Brewer & Syn. v. 401. — Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 293, 

Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 124. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. f . ; Pinetum, 194. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 28. — Lind- 

xx. 48, f. 8 ; Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 234. — Sargent, ley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Car- 

Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 190. — riere, Traite Conif. 406. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 104. — Lemmon, Bep. Nadelh. 62. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 112. — Hoopes, 

California State Board Forestry, ii. 72, 88 (Pines of the Evergreens, 122. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 361 

Pacific Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 27. — (Pinetum Danicum). 

Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 234 (The Pines Pinus edulis, var. monophylla, Torrey, Ives' Bep. pt. iv. 

of California). — Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 241, t. 7, f. — 28 (1860). 

A tree, usually fifteen or twenty, but occasionally from forty to fifty feet in height, with a short 
trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter, and often divided near the ground into several stout 
spreading stems. The short thick branches form, while the tree is young, a broad rather compact pyra- 
mid, and in old age, when they frequently become pendulous, a low round-topped and often picturesque 
head. The bark of the trunk is about three quarters of an inch in thickness, and is divided by deep 
irregular fissures into narrow connected flat ridges broken on the surface into thin closely appressed 
light or dark brown scales tinged with red or orange-color. The branch-buds are ovate, obtuse, about a 
quarter of an inch long, and covered by pale chestnut-brown scales. The branchlets are stout, and 
before the lengthening leaves emerge from the leaf-buds are hidden under the closely imbricated scales 
of the branch-buds ; during their first winter they are light orange-color and then become light brown, 
gray, or brown tinged with green or orange-color, and at the end of three or four years dark brown. 
The primary leaves, which are the only ones produced during the first five or six years in the life of 
the plant, are linear-lanceolate, entire, strongly keeled, glaucous, and from three quarters of an inch to 
an inch in length, gradually becoming shorter as the buds of the earliest leaf-clusters are developed in 
their axils ; * the secondary leaves are solitary and terete, or occasionally in two-leaved clusters and 
semiterete ; they are rigid, incurved, entire, spinescent with long callous tips, pale glaucous green, and 
usually about an inch and a half long, although sometimes from one and a quarter to two and a quarter 
inches in length, with loose sheaths from a quarter to nearly half an inch long, the thin tips of the 
scales soon becoming much reflexed, and, when they fall, leaving the persistent bases of the sheaths ; 
they are marked with from eighteen to twenty-six rows of stomata, and contain two or three resin ducts 
and a single fibro-vascular bundle ; 2 the leaves sometimes begin to fall during their fourth and fifth 

1 Gard. Chron. u. ser. xx. f. 8. clusters (Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 295 ; Bull. Torrey Bot. 

2 The solitary terete leaf of Pinus monophylla was formerly usu- Club, xii. 81. — Hooker f. Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 136, f. 24). 
ally thought to consist of a pair of connate leaves, and this hypothe- But the internal structure of the leaf with its single fibro-vascular 
sis appeared reasonable as the trees occasionally bear two-leaved bundle shows that it is really one leaf, and the apparent anomaly 



52 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifer*. 

seasons, although some of them frequently remain on the branches until their twelfth year. The 
staminate flowers are oval, dark red, and about a quarter of an inch long, with anthers terminating in 
knobs or in minute teeth, and are usually surrounded by six involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers 
are lateral and oval, with thick rounded apiculate scales, and are raised on short stout peduncles 
covered by ovate lanceolate light chestnut-brown bracts. In the autumn the young cones are oblong, 
erect, and about half an inch long, and, beginning to grow very early the following spring, they are 
nearly half grown when the flowers open in May ; at maturity they are from one and a half to two and 
a half inches in length, somewhat less in breadth, and bright green, with concave scales rounded at the 
apex, the exposed portion being much thickened, four-angled, and gradually narrowed into a prominent 
knob terminating in a truncate or slightly concave umbo furnished with a minute incurved tip ; only a 
few of the middle scales, which are often three quarters of an inch across, are fertile ; the others are 
much smaller, and those below the middle, gradually decreasing in size and remaining closed, form a 
broad base to the mature cone; after opening and shedding their seeds the cones become light 
chestnut-brown and lustrous, giving a reddish tone to the tree when they are abundant. The seeds are 
oblong, full and rounded at the base, acute at the apex, dark red-brown and rounded on the lower side, 
slightly compressed and pale yellow-brown on the upper side, about five eighths of an inch long and a 
quarter of an inch broad, with a thin brittle shell, an oily resinous albumen, and an embryo with from 
seven to ten cotyledons ; their wings are membranaceous, light brown, from one third to one half of an 
inch wide, and remain attached to the scales after the seeds fall. 

Pinus monophylla inhabits dry gravelly slopes and mesas, and is distributed from the western 
base of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah westward over the mountain ranges of the Great Basin, on 
which it usually forms, above elevations of six thousand feet, open forests with Juniperus Utahensis, 
■ generally ascending to higher altitudes than that tree ; x on the eastern slopes of the southern Sierra 
Nevada it constitutes a nearly continuous belt between six and eight thousand feet above the sea, and 
crossing the range to the head-waters of King's River is common at an elevation of five thousand 
five hundred feet on the north wall of the canon and on Paradise fork of the south fork at heights 
of between six and seven thousand feet. 2 In California it is also abundant on the desert mountains 
of the southeast, usually at elevations of between five and seven thousand feet and mingled with 
Junipers below and with JPinus aristata above, and ranges southwestward to the northern slopes of 
the San Bernardino 3 and San Jacinto Mountains, 4 crossing the southern boundary of the state into 
Lower California and maintaining on the slopes from the central table-land of the peninsula to the 
plains of the Colorado Desert a precarious foothold, 5 and to the Tehachapi Mountains, from which, 
along the sides of the canon leading from the Tehachapi Valley to the Mohave Valley, it descends to 
three thousand seven hundred feet above the sea-level ; it also dots the northern slopes of the San 
Emigdio Mountains, 6 at elevations of from six thousand to seven thousand feet, mixed with Juniperus 
Californica, and extends to the San Rafael Mountains, growing here down to elevations of three 
thousand feet. 7 It is common on the mesas of southern Utah ; in Arizona it occupies a broad zone 
on the western slopes of the Virgin Mountains, grows in open forests along the southern rim of the 
Colorado plateau, and forms, on the Bradshaw, Mazatzal, and Mogollon Mountains south of the plateau, 

in this genus of a single cylindrical leaf occupying the apex of a 3 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 335. 

branchlet is explained by Masters (Ann. Bot. ii. 124), who, in study- 4 Pinus monophylla was found near the head of the San Felipe, on 

ing the early development of the leaf-bud of Pinus monophylla, the edge of the Colorado Desert, California, by Mr. T. S. Brande- 

f ound always two foliar tubercles, one of them usually overpassing gee in 1894. 

the other and obliterating all trace of a. second leaf. (See, also, 5 Orcutt, Garden and Forest, v. 184. 

Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. se"r. 5, xx. 102, t. 9, f. 5, 6. — Coulter & 6 Teste Miss Alice Eastwood. 

Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 302.) 7 Pinus monophylla was collected on the San Rafael Mountains, 

1 Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xvii. 419 (The Forests of Central a part of the great cross range which divides the central valley of 
Nevada). California from the southwestern part of the state, in May, 1894, 

2 Teste John Muir. by Dr. F. Franceschi. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 53 

at elevations of about six thousand feet above the sea, a broad belt below the forests of Funis ponderosa 
and above that occupied by small trees of Finus edulis. 

The wood of Finus monophylla is light, soft, weak and brittle, and close-grained ; it is yellow or 
light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains thin inconspicuous bands of small summer 
cells, a few resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5658, a cubic foot weighing 35.26 pounds. 1 It is largely used for fuel, 
furnishing the best wood 2 produced in the Great Basin for the manufacture of charcoal used in 
smelting. 

The seeds supply an important article of food to the Paiutes, Shoshones, Panamints, and other 
desert Indians, who gather the cones in the autumn, and, heating them slightly to open the scales, pick 
out the seeds, which they store for winter use, eating them raw or roasted or pounding them into coarse 
flour. 3 

Pinus monophylla was discovered by Fremont near the Cajon Pass in southern California on 
April 18, 1844. 4 It is said to have been introduced into European gardens in 1847, and is occasionally 
cidtivated in Europe and in the eastern United States, where it is hardy as far north, at least, as eastern 
Massachusetts. In cultivation, however, Pinus monophylla grows very slowly, and it is more valuable 
in gardens as a botanical curiosity than as an ornament. 

1 Pinus monophylla usually grows slowly. A specimen of the 2 Pinus monophylla perhaps grows to its largest size on Mt. 

wood of a tree grown in central Nevada, which I examined in 1878, Magruder, a high peak in Nevada northeast of Owen's Lake and 

was five and a half inches in diameter and contained one hundred not far from the boundary line of California, • vhere it forms a lux- 

and thirteen layers of annual growth. (See Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, uriant forest of trees forty or fifty feet in height, which is a favorite 

xvii. 419 [The Forests of Central Nevada].) The log specimen, resort of Indians, who assemble there to gather the abundant crops 

however, in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the of seeds. (See Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 337 [Death 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, brought from the Valley Exped. ii.].) 

same locality, is thirteen inches in diameter inside the bark and only G Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 594. — Deutcher, American Anthropolo- 

one hundred and seventy-eight years old, with sapwood which is gist, vi. 377 (Pinon-gathering among the Panamint Indians). 

two and seven eighths inches thick and contains fifty-nine layers. 4 Fremont, Rep. 258. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLL Prmrs monophylla. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, under side, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. A two-leaved cluster of leaves, natural size. 

15. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

16. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DLL 




C.J£ Faxon, del. 



PINUS MONOPHYLLA,Torr. 



Rapine- st>. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 55 



PINUS EDULIS. 

Nut Pine. Pinon. 

Leaves in 2 or 3-leayed clusters, stout, rigid, sharp-pointed, from f of an inch to 
lj inches in length. Cones from lj to lj inches long. 

Pinus edulis, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a Tour Man. Conif. 172. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 
to Northern Mexico {Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. Appx. 88 ; 186. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
Bothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 260. — Lindley & Gordon, ix. 190. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 432 ; Contrib. 
Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Carriere, Rev. Hort. TJ. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 554 (Man. PI. W. Texas). — Mayr, 
1854, 227 ; Fl. des Serres, ix. 201 ; Traite Conif. 408. — Nordam. Holz. 240, t. 7, f. — Merriam, North American 
Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 173, t. 20 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. Fauna, No. 3, 122. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 252. — 
iv. pt. v. 140 ; Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — J. M. Bigelow, Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 228. — Hansen, Jour. 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 3, 19. — Courtin, Fam. Conif R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 358 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 
92. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 415. — Hoopes, Deutsche Dendr. 33. — Lemmon, West American Cone- 
Evergreens, 142. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. Bearers, 26. 

pt. ii. 398. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Pinus monophylla, var. edulis, M. E. Jones, Zoe, ii. 251 

Siirv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 130. — Kothrock, Wheeler's Rep. (1891). 
vi. 9. — Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 106. — Veitch, 

A tree, rarely thirty or forty feet in height, -with a short often divided trunk occasionally two and 
a half feet in diameter, but usually much smaller, and often not more than twelve or fifteen feet tall. 
During its early years, when the branches are horizontal, it forms a broad-based compact pyramid, and 
in old age a dense low round-topped broad head. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in thickness and is irregularly divided into connected ridges covered by small 
closely appressed light brown scales tinged with red or orange-color. The branch-buds are ovate, 
acute, from one third to one half of an inch in length, with light chestnut-brown scales thin and 
scarious on the margins. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are covered with the 
conspicuous closely imbricated scales of the branch-buds, which, withering during the first season, do 
not entirely disappear until the third ; they are light orange-color during their first and second years, 
and then turn from light gray-brown to dark brown sometimes tinged with red. The sheaths of the 
leaf-clusters are close, light brown, scarious, more or less laciniate on the margins, and from one quarter 
to one half of an inch in length ; they begin to curl back during the first winter, and mostly disappear 
during the third and fourth years. The primary leaves are linear-lanceolate, entire, strongly keeled, 
glaucous, marked by numerous rows of stomata, and nearly an inch in length ; the secondary leaves are 
produced in two or rarely in three-leaved clusters, and are stout, semiterete, or triangular in the three- 
leaved clusters, entire, rigid, incurved, acute with callous tips, dark green, and from three quarters of 
an inch to an inch and a half long ; they are marked with from five to fifteen rows of stomata and 
contain a single fibro-vascular bundle and two resin ducts ; l the leaves begin to fall during the third 
or not until the fourth or fifth year, and drop very irregularly, some of them remaining on the branches 
for eight or nine years. The staminate flowers are oval and about a quarter of an inch long, with dark 
red anthers terminating in knobs or short spurs, and are surrounded by involucres of four bracts. 
The pistillate flowers are subterminal, oblong, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with slightly 
thickened rounded and apiculate scales, and are raised on short stout peduncles covered by ovate acute 
lio-ht chestnut-brown bracts. At the end of their first summer the young cones are oblong, erect, dark 
reddish brown, and about three quarters of an inch in length, and when fully grown the following 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 303. 



56 BILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

summer are from a quarter of an inch to an inch and a half long, almost as broad, and light green, 
with concave scales rounded at the apex, the exposed portion being much thickened, conspicuously 
transversely keeled, and narrowed into a four-angled central knob which terminates in the large light 
brown slightly concave umbo furnished with a minute incurved tip ; only the central scales, which are 
about half an inch broad, are fertile ; the others are smaller and below the middle decrease rapidly in 
size, and, remaining closed, form a broad base to the mature cone, which becomes light brown and lustrous 
in its exposed parts, the base of the scales being dull light red, while the umbos are usually covered with 
a thick coat of resin. The seeds are ovate, acute, full and rounded at the base, semicylindrical or more 
or less compressed by pressure against the bracts of the scales above them, dark red-brown on the lower 
and lio-ht orange-color or yellow on the upper side, and about half an inch long, with a thin brittle 
shell, an oily resinous albumen, and an embryo with from seven to ten cotyledons ; their wings are 
membranaceous, light reddish brown, about an eighth of an inch wide, and when the seeds fall remain 
attached to the cone-scales. 1 

Pinus edulls is distributed from the eastern foothills of the outer ranges of the Rocky Mountains 
of Colorado south of the divide between the waters of the Platte and the Arkansas Rivers, usually 
forming with Juniperus monosperma and Pinus ponderosa open forests at elevations between six 
and eight thousand feet above the sea-level, westward through Colorado to the eastern borders of Utah 
and to the valley of Little Snake River in southwestern Wyoming ; at the head of the Arkansas, at 
elevations between eight and nine thousand feet above the sea, it covers the broad Buena Vista 
valley with an open forest in which Pinus ponderosa is its principal associate ; mixed with Juniperus 
Utahensis it dots the hills and table-lands of western Colorado, descending in the valleys of White and 
Grand Rivers to elevations of less than five thousand feet above the sea-level ; it ranges southward over 
the Rocky Mountains of New Mexico to the Guadalupe, Limpio, Organ, and Chicos Mountains of 
western Texas, and grows also in Texas on the bluffs at the great bend of the Rio Grande, on the 
forks of the Nueces River, and on the border of the high plateau of the Staked Plain ; 2 it extends 
southward over the mountains of northern Mexico and westward to northern and central Arizona, 
where with Junipers it abounds on the Colorado plateau, and on the Bradshaw, Mogollon, Pinal, Super- 
stition, Caliuro, and other mountain ranges south of it, 3 forms a well marked forest belt at elevations 
between six and seven thousand feet above the sea and below the forests of Pinus ponderosa? 

The wood of Pinus edulis is light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, and durable in contact 
with the soil ; it is pale brown, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin inconspicuous bands 
of small summer cells, few resin passages, and many obscure medullary rays ; the specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.6388, a cubic foot weighing 39.81 pounds. It is largely used for fuel, 
for fencing, and in the manufacture of charcoal for smelting purposes, and in western Texas is 
occasionally sawed into lumber. 5 

The sweet edible seeds form an important article of food among Indians and Mexicans, 6 and are 

1 Some good observers have considered Pinus edulis as a two- Utah which I have been able to examine appear distinctly to be- 

leaved form of Pinus monophylla, and that the two forms are con- long to Pinus monophylla, which frequently produces leaves in 

nected by trees in southern Utah with foliage about equally divided clusters of two. (See Hooker f. Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 136.) 

between the one and the two-leaved clusters. (See Newberry, Bull. 2 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 503. 

Torrey Bot. Club, xii. 50 ; xiii. 183. — Meehan, Bull. Torrey Bot. 8 Tourney, Garden and Forest, x. 152. 

Club, xii. 81. — M. E. Jones, Zoe, ii. 251 ; Hi. 307.) 4 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 122. 

But in spite of the general resemblance in the habit and the 6 Pinus edulis grows slowly. The log specimen in the Jesup 

similarity in leaf structure of the two trees, Pinus edulis, in its Collection of North American Woods in the American Museum 

much more slender less spinescent usually shorter and darker of Natural History, New York, is six and three quarters inches 

green leaves sometimes borne in clusters of three, and in its in diameter inside the bark and has three hundred and sixty-nine 

smaller cones, appears to differ sufficiently from Pinus monophylla, layers of annual growth, with twenty-seven layers of sapwood 

which inhabits more arid regions, to justify their specific separa- which is half an inch in thickness. 

tion. I have never seen the two forms growing together or passing 6 Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxii. 35 (Food and Fibre 

one into the other, and all the two-leaved specimens from southern Plants of the North American Indians). 



conifer. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 57 

offered for sale in the markets of Colorado and New Mexico, and rarely in those of the cities of the 
eastern states. 

Pinus edulis was discovered in 1846 in the valley of the Rio Grande in New Mexico by Dr. F. 
A. Wislizenus. It is occasionally cultivated in the gardens of the eastern United States, where it is 
perfectly hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts, and in those of Europe. In cultivation, however, 
it grows very slowly, forming a rather compact pyramidal bush, and shows no tendency as yet to 
assume the picturesque habit of its mature years. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLIL Pinus edulis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. A cluster of leaves with its sheath, natural size. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

18. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLII. 




CJZ. Fcucotv deL. 



HirrieZy 



PINUS EDULIS, En6elm. 

o 



A.Riocreuay cUr&z> ■ 



Imp. J. ran&ur, Paris. 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



59 



PINUS BALFOURIANA. 



Foxtail Pine. 



Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, from 1 to lj inches in length. Cones 
subcylindrical, from 3J to 5 inches long, their scales furnished with minute incurved 
persistent spines. 



Pinus Balfouriana, A. Murray, Oregon Exped. i. t. 3, f . 1 
(1853). — Gordon, Pinetum, 217. — Henkel & Hochstet- 
ter, Syn. Nadelh. 109. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 
318. — Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 425. — (Nelson) 
Senilis, Pinacece, 104. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 149. — 
Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 179; Brewer & 
Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 125. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 175. — 
Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 11, f. 1-5. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 191. — Lemmon, 
Rep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 71, 86, t. 



(Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West-American Cone- 
Bearers, 26. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 
234 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
354, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 272. — Masters, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 225. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 
Soc. xiv. 349 (Pinetum Danicum). — Merriam, North 
American Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death Valley Exped. 
ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 221 (Bot. 
Death Valley Exped.). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 32. 



A tree, usually thirty or forty feet in height, with a short trunk from twelve to twenty-four 
inches in thickness, but occasionally ninety feet high, with a tall straight tapering stem five feet in 
diameter. 1 In early life the short stout branches stand out from the stem in regular whorls, and form 
a narrow compact pyramid ; later they turn upward, and in middle life a few of the specialized upper 
branches, growing more rapidly than the others and than those below them, push out and become long, 
pendulous, and often contorted, forming the open irregular and picturesque usually pyramidal head of 
the mature tree, with mostly erect upper branches and long rigid more or less spreading branchlets 
clothed at the extremities only with dense brush-like masses of lustrous foliage. On the stems and 
branches of young trees the bark is thin, smooth, and snow-white ; and on old trunks it is from one 
half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, dark red-brown and deeply divided into broad connected 
flat ridges broken by cross fissures into nearly square plates, separating on the surface into small closely 
appressed scales ; or, when the outer scales are worn away by the storms of the Sierras, the bark is 
bright cinnamon-red. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are slightly puberulous and 
dark orange-brown, becoming after a few seasons dark gray-brown or sometimes nearly black, and for 
many years are roughened by the persistent thickened dark brown bases of the scales of the branch- 
buds. These are broadly ovate, gradually contracted and long-pointed at the apex, and covered by ovate 
acute light chestnut-brown lustrous scales, the terminal bud being about one third of an inch in length 
and nearly twice as large as the lateral buds. The leaves are crowded, pressed against the branches, 
and borne in clusters of five, their bud-scales forming loose scarious sheaths about an eighth of an inch 
in length, the upper portion soon becoming reflexed, withering and falling off, while the thicker base 
does not entirely disappear until the end of several years ; they are stout, rigid, incurved, acute at 
the apex with thick callous tips, entire, dark green and lustrous on the back, pale and marked on 
the two ventral faces with numerous conspicuous rows of stomata, and from an inch to an inch and a 
half long; they contain a single fibro-vascular bundle and two dorsal resin ducts surrounded by 
strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis usually in two layers, but at the angles of the 
leaf often in three ; 2 forming dense brush-like tufts from twelve to eighteen inches in length at the 
extremities of the wand-like branches, they persist for ten or twelve years. The staminate flowers, 

1 Muir, The Mountains of California, 216 (as Pinus aristata). - Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 304. 



60 SUVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

which are borne in short crowded spikes, are oval and about half an inch in length, with dark orange- 
red anthers terminating in short irregularly denticulate crests, and are surrounded by four involucral 
bracts. The pistillate flowers are subterminal, oblong-oval, and nearly half an inch long, with dark 
purple ovate acute pointed scales, and are raised on stout peduncles from one half to three quarters of 
an inch in length and covered by thin light chestnut-brown ovate acute bracts. In the autumn the 
young cones are erect, dark purple, and from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in length ; 
they become horizontal the following spring, and, growing rapidly, are soon pendulous, and when fully 
grown at midsummer they are subcylindrieal, from three and a half to five inches long, from an inch 
and a half to an inch and three quarters wide, and dark purple, with elongated narrow slightly concave 
scales rounded at the apex, the much thickened exposed parts being conspicuously transversely keeled 
and terminating in oblong dark concave umbos furnished with slender minute incurved spines ; 
after opening, the scales, with the exception of the umbos, turn dull red-brown or mahogany color. 
The seeds are full and rounded above, acute and compressed at the base, pale and conspicuously 
mottled with dark purple, and nearly a third of an inch in length, with a thin crustaceous coat and an 
embryo with five cotyledons ; their wings are gradually narrowed and oblique at the apex, pale, an inch 
long, and about a quarter of an inch wide. 

Pinus Balfouriana, which grows always on rocky mountain slopes and ridges, inhabits Scott 
Mountain directly west of Mt. Shasta in Siskiyou County, California, where, below scattered groves 
of P'ums albicaulis, it forms an open forest at elevations between five and eight thousand feet above 
the sea-level ; it occurs near the timber line on the mountains at the head of the Sacramento River, on 
Yolo Bally * and on the southern Sierra Nevada along the slopes of Mt. Whitney and about the head- 
waters of King's, Kaweah, and Kern Rivers, where, either alone or mixed below with Pinus contorta, 
var. Murrai/ana, and above with Pinus monticola, it sometimes makes extensive open groves at eleva- 
tions between nine thousand and eleven thousand five hundred feet, growing here to its largest size, 
but on the upper borders of the forest, where it is usually the only species, sometimes reduced to a low 
shrub. 

The wood of Pinus Balfouriana is light, soft, close-grained, weak and brittle, with a satiny 
surface susceptible of receiving a good polish. It contains narrow dark-colored bands of small summer 
cells, few inconspicuous resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.5434, a cubic foot weighing 33.86 pounds. 

Pinus Balfouriana was introduced into Scotch gardens in 1852 by its discoverer, John Jeffrey, 
who found it in that year on Scott Mountain, but, like many other alpine trees, it grows very slowly 
at the sea-level, and, although hardy in Great Britain, gives no promise of attaining beauty or size. 2 

In its specific name this tree commemorates John Hutton Balfour. 3 

1 Pinus Balfouriana was found by Mr. T. S. Brandegee on Yolo teacher of botany. He was the author of a Flora of Edinburgh, a 
Bally, a high peak of the California Coast Range west of Red manual of botany, a class-book of botany, of other text-books which 
Bluff in latitude 40° 13' north, (Zoi ; , iv. 176). have exerted a wide and lasting influence upon the study of this 

2 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 973. science in Scotland, and of many papers published in the proceed- 

3 John Hutton Balfour (September 15, 1808-February 11, 1884) ings of learned societies. He greatly improved and enlarged the 
was born and died in Edinburgh, where he was long a prominent garden under his charge, which, during his administration, became 
member of the medical faculty of the University. In 1841 he sue- one of the chief horticultural and botanical centres of Europe ; and 
ceeded Dr. Hooker in the chair of botany at Glasgow, but four as secretary of the association which sent Jeffrey to America, he 
years later returned to Edinburgh as professor of botany in the was largely instrumental in the discovery and cultivation of several 
University and Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, and North American trees. Balfourodendron, a tree of southern Brazil 
continued to fill these positions until nearly the end of his life. In of the Rue family, was dedicated to Professor Balfour by Joaquim 
1836 Professor Balfour was one of the founders of the Botanical Correa de Mello. 

Society of Edinburgh, and for years he was a most successful 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLIIL Pinus Balfouriana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, side view, natural size. 

13. A seed, natural size. 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLIII. 




C£. Faxon, del. 



Hirrvely sc. 



PINUS BALFOURIANA, A.Murr. 



A.IUocreiu& direxl 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 63 



PINUS ARISTATA. 
Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, from 1 to lj inches in length. Cones 
ovate, from 3 to 3J inches long, their scales furnished with long slender awn-like 
prickles. 

Pinus aristata, Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. ley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 

331 (1862) ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 205, t. 5, 6 ; 220 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). 

Linncea, xxxiii. 383. — Kegel, Gartenfiora, xii. 391. — Pinus Balfouriana, Watson, King's Rep. v. 331 (not A. 

Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 417. — (Nelson) Murray) (1871) ; PL Wheeler, 17. 

Senilis, Pinacece, 103. — Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata, Engelmann, Eothrock 

424. — Seneclauze, Conif. 113. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Wheeler's Rep. vi. 375 (1878) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 400. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Cat. ii. 125. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 175. — Sargent, 

Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 130. — Gordon, Pine- Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 191. — 

turn, ed. 2, 291. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 5, f. 1. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 432. — Beissner, Handb. 

Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 392. — Steele, Proc. Am. Nadelh. 273. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 225. — 

Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 234 (The Pines of California). — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 349 (Pinetum Dani- 

Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 353, t. 8, f. — Merriam, North cum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 32. 
American Fauna, No. 3, 122 ; No. 7, 339 (Death Val- 

A bushy tree, occasionally forty or fifty feet in height, with a short trunk from two to three feet 
in diameter, or at high elevations usually reduced to a low shrub with gnarled semiprostrate stems. 
Strictly pyramidal while young, with regular whorls of short stout horizontal branches, later it becomes 
irregular in outline and often very picturesque by the greater development of some of the specialized 
upper branches, which are usually erect or slightly spreading and much longer and stouter than the often 
pendulous lower branches. On the stems and branches of young trees the bark is thin, smooth, milky 
white, and filled with resin vesicles which remain between the layers of old bark, and on mature trees 
it is from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, red-brown, and irregularly divided into 
broad flat connected ridges separating on the surface into small closely appressed scales. The branch- 
lets are stout, bright orange-colored, and glabrous or at first slightly puberulous, usually becoming dark 
gray-brown or occasionally nearly black, and for many years roughened by the blackened rigid bases 
of the ovate acuminate light brown scales of the branch-buds. These are broadly ovate and acute, 
with more or less reflexed scales, the terminal bud being often one third of an inch long and nearly 
twice as large as the lateral buds. The leaves are borne in clusters of five and are crowded and pressed 
against the branch, forming compact round brush-like tufts from twelve to eighteen inches in length at 
the extremities of the naked branches, their bud-scales lengthening into thin compact sheaths about half 
an inch long, white and scarious above and firmer and pale chestnut-brown below, the upper portion 
soon becoming reflexed and gradually disappearing ; they are stout or slender, incurved, from an inch 
to an inch and a half long, entire, acute with short callous tips, dark green and lustrous on the back, 
and marked with narrow rows of pale stomata on the two ventral faces ; they contain a single fibro- 
vascular bundle and one or two resin ducts situated near the middle of the dorsal face and usually 
surrounded by an interrupted row of strengthening cells which also occur in a single layer under the 
epidermis, or on the dorsal face and at the angles occasionally in two layers ; 1 they often begin to fall 
at the end of ten or twelve years, or are persistent for four or five years longer. The staminate flowers 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 304. 



64 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, conifers. 

are borne in short crowded spikes and are oval and about half an inch in length, with dark orange-red 
anthers terminating in obscurely denticulate crests, and are surrounded by four involucral bracts. The 
pistillate flowers are subterminal, solitary or in pairs, oblong-oval and about one third of an inch in 
length, with broadly ovate dark purple scales abruptly narrowed into long slender awns, and are raised 
on short stout peduncles covered by oblong pointed light chestnut-brown bracts. During the winter 
the young cones are broadly ovate, erect, and about an inch long and half an inch broad ; beginning 
to grow the following June when the flowers open, they soon become horizontal and then semipendent, 
and when fully grown at midsummer they are ovate, dark purple-brown, nearly sessile, and from three 
to three and a half inches long and about an inch and a half wide, with thin narrow scales rounded 
at the apex, the exposed portions being almost equally four-sided and only slightly thickened and trans- 
versely keeled, with central elevated knob-like umbos terminating in slender incurved light red-brown 
prickles often nearly a quarter of an inch in length and so brittle that they frequently break from the 
mature cone ; the cones open and shed their seeds late in September or in October, the exposed portion 
of the scales becoming dark purple-brown and the remainder dull red. The seeds are nearly oval, 
compressed, light brown conspicuously mottled with black, and about a quarter of an inch in length, 
with a thin crustaceous coat and an embryo with six or seven cotyledons ; their wings are broadest at 
the middle, light brown, about one third of an inch long and often a quarter of an inch broad. 

Nowhere very abundant and found only on a few mountain ranges, Pinus aristata grows on high 
rocky or gravelly slopes, and is distributed from the outer range of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
where it is scattered through the upper borders of the forest between eight and twelve thousand 
feet above the sea-level, 1 westward to the mountain ranges of southern Utah, central and southern 
Nevada, 2 southwestern California, 3 and the San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona. 4 It rarely forms 
pure forests, being usually mixed below with Pinus Jlexilis and above with Picea Engelmanni, and 
reaches the upper limits of tree-growth, where it is frequently shrubby with short contorted stems. 

The wood of Pinus aristata is light, soft, not strong, and close-grained ; it is red, with thin nearly 
white sapwood, and contains thin dark-colored inconspicuous bands of small summer cells, few resin 
passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. 5 The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.5572, a cubic foot weighing 34.72 pounds. It is occasionally used for the timbers of mines and for 
fuel. 

Pinus aristata was first made known to science by Dr. C. C. Parry, who discovered it on Pike's 
Peak, Colorado, in 1861, 6 and the following year sent seeds to the Botanic Garden of Harvard College. 
In the Atlantic States Pinus aristata grows very slowly, the plants raised from Dr. Parry's seeds 
being after thirty-five years only about two feet high ; in England it grows more vigorously and has 
produced cones. 7 

1 Parry, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 123. — Rothrock, Wheeler's Rep. line with Picea Engelmanni at about eleven thousand five hundred 
vi. 8, 9 (as Pinus Balfouriana). — Brandegee, Bot. Gazette, iii. 32. feet above the sea ; here it is only a prostrate shrub, but descend- 

2 The upper slopes of Prospect Mountain in central Nevada ing to nine thousand feet, where it is mingled with Pinus Jlexilis, it 
between seven thousand five hundred and eight thousand feet above frequently attains a height of thirty or forty feet. 

the sea-level were formerly covered with an open forest of Pinus 6 Pinus aristata probably always grows slowly. The log speci- 

aristata. These trees have nearly all been cut to timber the mines men in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 

in the neigboring town of Eureka. (See Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. American Museum of Natural History, New York, cut near 

ser. 3, xvii. 419 [The Forests of Central Nevada], as Pinus Bal- Eureka, in central Nevada, is eighteen inches in diameter inside 

fouriana.') the bark and two hundred and eighty-nine years old, the sapwood 

8 In California Pinus aristata occurs on the summits of the Pana- being five eighths of an inch thick, with forty-four layers of annual 

mint and Inyo Mountains, and it is said to grow on the high Sierra growth. 

Nevadas east of the Yosemite Valley (Lemmon, Rep. California 6 A Pine branch without cones collected by Captain J. W. Gunni- 

State Board of Forestry, ii. 71, 87 [Pines of the Pacific Slope] ; West- son, U. S. Army, in 1853, in the Coochetopa Pass, Colorado, at an 

American Cone-Bearers, 26), but I have not seen specimens of this elevation of ten thousand feet, was believed by Engelmann to be 

tree from any part of the Sierras. of this species. 

4 On the San Francisco peaks Pinus aristata forms the timber 7 Webster, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xx. 719, f. 126. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLIV. Pinus aristata. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

13. A seed, natural size. 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

18. A winter branch-bud, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLIV. 




CE-Faaxm. d&L. 



ZoverulaZ 



PINUS ARISTATA.Enfielm 

1 o 



A.Riocreua> direcc . 



Jmp. J. Tasi&ur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 67 



PINUS RESINOSA. 

Red Pine. Norway Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, slender, dark green, from 5 to 6 inches in length. 
Cones ovate-conical, from 2 to 2J inches long, their scales slightly thickened, unarmed. 

Pinus resinosa, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 367 (1789). — Lam- Forstbot. 396. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 

bert, Pinus, i. 20, t. 14. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 496 ; 179. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 159. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

Enum. 988; Berl. Baumz. ed. 2,267.— Poiret, Lamarck N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 191. — Lauche, Deutsche 

Diet. v. 339. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — Desfontaines, Dendr. ed. 2, 106. — Regel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 

Hist. Arb. ii. 612. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. 47. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 242. — Watson & Coulter, 

ed. 2, vi. 459. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 642. — Nuttall, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 491. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 211, 

Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 173. — Sprengel, Syst. t. 8, f . — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 246. — Masters, Jour. 

iii. 886. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 347 ; List No. 10, B. Sort. Soc. xiv. 238. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

Abietineo3, 41. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 19, t. 6. — 387 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 161 (in part). — Bigelow, Fl. 38. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. i. 51, f. 111. 

Boston, ed. 3, 384. — Antoine, Conif. 7, t. 4, f . 1. — Link, Pinus eylvestris, (3 Norvegica, Castiglioni, Viag. negli 

Linncea, xv. 501. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 178. — Knight, Stati Uniti, ii. 313 (1790). 

Syn. Conif. 27. — Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. Pinus rubra, Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. i. 45, t. 1 (not 

ii. 315. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. Miller) (1810). — De Chambray, Traite Arb. Bes. Conif. 

v. 519. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 400. — Gordon, Pinetum, 344. — Gihoul, Arb. Bes. 27. — Provancher, Fl. Cana- 

183 (excl. syn. Pinus Loiseleuriana) . — Hoopes, Ever- dienne, ii. 554. — Carriere, Traite Conif 401. — Se'ne'- 

greens, 102. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. clauze, Conif. 141. 

388. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 286. — Nordlinger, Pinus Laricio y, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 385 (1842). 

A tree, usually seventy or eighty feet high, with a tall straight trunk two or three feet in diameter, 
but occasionally attaining a height of one hundred and fifty feet, with a trunk five feet through, 
and stout spreading more or less pendulous branches which in youth clothe the stem to the ground, 
forming a broad irregular pyramid in old age becoming an open round-topped picturesque head. The 
bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in thickness and is 
slightly divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges covered with thin loose light reddish brown 
scales. The branchlets, which are stout and glabrous, are light orange-color when they first appear, 
darker orange in their first winter, brown tinged with purple during their second and third years, and 
later scaly and light reddish brown. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, from one half to three 
quarters of an inch long and about a quarter of an inch broad, and are covered with lanceolate loosely 
imbricated thin pale chestnut-brown scales, white, scarious and fringed on the margins, their firm 
dark bases being persistent on the branches for several years after the disappearance of the leaves, 
which fall during their fourth and fifth seasons. The leaves are borne in clusters of two, with close 
firm persistent sheaths half an inch long and at first pale chestnut-brown, and scarious above, but soon 
becoming dark purple-brown, and are slender, soft and flexible, serrulate, acute with short callous tips, 
dark green and lustrous, and five or six inches long ; they are obscurely marked on the ventral faces 
with bands of minute stomata, and contain two fibro-vascular bundles and numerous peripheral and 
parenchymatous resin ducts surrounded by small strengthening cells. 1 The staminate flowers are pro- 
duced in dense spikes about an inch long, and are oblong and from one half to three quarters of an 
inch in leno-th, with dark purple anthers terminating in denticulate orbicular crests, and are surrounded 
by involucres of six ovate acute bracts which are deciduous by articulations above their base before 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 305. 



68 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

the anthers open. The pistillate flowers are terminal, subglobose, and about a quarter of an inch long, 
with broadly ovate scarlet scales rounded and reflexed at the apex, and are raised on short stout 
peduncles covered by acute chestnut-brown bracts. During their first winter the cones are ovate, erect, 
about half an inch in length and a quarter of an inch in thickness, and light red-brown ; they begin 
to grow in May and June with the appearance of the new leaves and soon become horizontal, and when 
fully grown, at midsummer, they are ovate-conical, subsessile, bright green, and from two inches to 
two inches and a quarter long, with thin slightly concave scales rounded at the apex, the apophyses, 
which are conspicuously transversely keeled and slightly thickened, terminating in narrow transverse 
four-sided dark chestnut-brown unarmed umbos ; they ripen and shed their seeds early in the autumn, 
when the exposed portions become light chestnut-brown and lustrous and the remainder dark dull 
purple, and mostly fall during the following spring or summer, but sometimes stay on the branches 
until another winter. The seeds are oval, compressed, about an eighth of an inch long, dark chestnut- 
brown and more or less mottled, with a thin crustaceous coat and from six to eight cotyledons ; their 
wings are broadest below the middle, oblique at the apex, thin, light brown, three quarters of an inch 
in length and from one quarter to one third of an inch in breadth. 

Pinus resinosa, the only American representative of a peculiar Old World group of Pine-trees of 
which Pinus sylvestris is the best known, grows on light sandy loam or dry rocky ridges, usually 
forming groves rarely more than a few hundred acres in extent scattered through forests of other Pines 
and of deciduous-leaved trees. It is distributed from Nova Scotia, where it abounds on the broad sandy 
plains near Kingston, and New Brunswick, where it is common, to the upper valley of the Patapedia 
River in eastern Quebec and to Lake St. John in latitude 48° north, ,and westward through Quebec and 
central Ontario, where it is widely dispersed over sandy plains, to the shores of the Lake of the Woods 
and the valley of the Winnipeg River, being comparatively rare and growing only in small isolated 
groves west of central Ontario ; * it is common in northern New England and New York, and ranges 
southward with small scattered colonies to eastern Massachusetts, where there are isolated groves in 
B oxford, Essex County, 2 and in Chestnut Hill, Middlesex County, with occasional trees in the neigh- 
boring towns, to the mountains of Pennsylvania, and to central Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, 
being most abundant and growing to its largest size in the northern parts of these three states, and 
producing here on dry gravelly ridges harder and stronger timber than any other tree of the region. 3 

The wood of Pinus resinosa is light, hard, and rather close-grained ; it is pale red, with thin 
yellow or often nearly white sapwood, and contains broad dark-colored very resinous bands of small 
summer cells, few resin passages, and many thin inconspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4854, a cubic foot weighing 30.25 pounds. It is largely used in the 
construction of bridges and buildings, and for piles, masts, and spars, and is exported from Canada to 
Great Britain in considerable quantities. 4 The bark contains enough tannin to make it commercially 
valuable, and formerly it was occasionally used for tanning leather. 5 

The earliest description of Pinus resinosa was published by Duhamel 6 in 1755, and it was 
cultivated in England the following year. 7 In cultivation the Red Pine grows very rapidly, and its 
hardiness, its picturesque habit, and its long dark green leaves, make it the most desirable of all the 
Pitch Pines which flourish in the northern states for the decoration of their parks. 8 

1 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 56. — Bell, Geolog. Rep. Can. 6 Kalm, Travels, English ed. iii. 218. — Bastin & Trimble, Am. 
1879-80, 50°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 465. Jour. Pharm. xvi. 321, f. 28, 29. 

2 John Robinson, Bull. Essex Institute, xi. 103 ( Woody Plants of 6 Pinus Canadensis bifolia, conis mediis ovatis, Pin Rouge de 
Essex County, Massachusetts). Canada, Traite des Arbres, ii. 125. 

8 Ayres, Garden and Forest, i. 106. i Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2210, f. 2094-2097. 

* Laslett, Timber and Timber-Trees, ed. 2, 350. 8 Sargent, Rep. Sec. Board Agric. Mass. xxv. 267. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLV. Pinus resinosa. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A bract of a scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A cluster of winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DLVI. Pinus resinosa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLV 




C. £. Fazxirv del'. 



MigneaiLZ) j-o. 



PINUS RESINOSA,Ait. 



A. Riocreita> direa? . 



Imp. J\ Tcui&ur , Parur. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah DLVI 




CE Fcuzerv dels. 



J Mign&cuuo st>. 



PINUS RESINOSA.Ait. 

A. Riocreuzy chreco k Imp . J Tcut&ur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 71 



PINUS TORREYANA. 
Soledad Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, stout, from 9 to 13 inches in length. Cones broadly 
ovate, from 4 to 6 inches long, their scales much thickened into broad straight or 
reflexed umbos terminating in minute spines. 

Pinus Torreyana, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 210, t. Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 38. — Steele, Proc. 

58,59 (1859). — Carriere, Traite Conif. 326. — Gordon, Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1887, 242 {The Pines of Califor- 

Pinetum, 241. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 75. — Henkel & nia). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 275, t. 7, f. — Beissner, 

Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 117. — Bolander, Proc. Cat. Handb. Nadelh. 256. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

Acad. iii. 318. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 150. — Se'ne'clauze, 241. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 399 (Pinetum 

Conif. 122. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 34. 
181 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 125. — Veitch, Pinus lophosperma, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1860, 46. — 

Man. Conif. 173. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 69. — Henkel & Hochstetter, 

Census U. S. ix. 192. — Parry, Proc. San Diego Nat. Syn. Nadelh. 112. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinaceos, 117. — 

Hist. Soc. i. 37. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 391. 
Board Forestry, ii. 75, 106, t. {Pines of the Pacific 

A tree, usually thirty or forty feet in height, with a short trunk about a foot in thickness, and 
stout spreading somewhat ascending branches, but occasionally sixty feet tall, with a long straight 
slightly tapering stem two and a half feet in diameter, and a comparatively narrow round-topped head ; 
or sometimes, when fully exposed to ocean gales, semiprostrate with long contorted branches. The 
bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and deeply and irregularly 
divided into broad flat ridges covered by large thin closely appressed light red-brown scales. The 
branchlets, when they first appear, are from three quarters of an inch to an inch thick and light 
green ; in their second year they are light purple and covered with a metallic bloom which does not 
disappear until the following season, when they begin to darken, and finally become almost black. 
The winter branch-buds are cylindrical, and abruptly contracted and acuminate at the apex, the 
terminal bud being an inch long and a third of an inch thick, or rather more than twice as large as the 
lateral buds ; their outer scales are narrow and more or less tinged with purple ; those of the inner 
ranks are broader, pale chestnut-brown, white and coarsely fringed on the margins, and soon become 
reflexed, roughening with their enlarged thickened bases the branches, from which they do not entirely 
disappear for several years. The pale chestnut-brown lustrous scales of the leaf-bud, scarious and 
fringed on the margins, continue to inclose the lengthening leaves until they are sometimes two 
inches long, and form a loose sheath, from which the upper part soon wears away, leaving the base, 
which is from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, close and firm, dark brown or finally 
nearly black, and persistent. The leaves, which make great tufts at the ends of the branches, are borne 
in clusters of five and are acute with short callous tips, sharply serrate, from eight to thirteen inches 
long, about one sixteenth of an inch broad, and dark green ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles, 
usually three parenchymatous resin passages surrounded by strengthening cells, which also occur under 
the epidermis in from three to five layers, and are marked on their three faces with many rows of 
deeply set stomata. 1 The flowers appear from January to March, the staminate in short dense heads, 
the pistillate subterminal in pairs on stout peduncles an inch in length and covered by broadly ovate 
acute chestnut-brown bracts thin and scarious on the margins. The staminate flowers are cylindrical, 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 306. 



72 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

from two to two and a half inches long and about a third of an inch thick, with yellow anthers 
terminating in prominent denticulate crests, and are surrounded by involucres of fourteen broadly 
ovate acute chestnut-brown bracts. The pistillate flowers are oblong-oval, three quarters of an inch in 
length and about half an inch in width, with broadly ovate scales gradually narrowed into short 
points. The young cones grow slowly and remain erect during their first season, and at the end of 
the first year they are subglobose and about half an inch thick ; they enlarge more rapidly during 
their second year, and when two years old they are ovate, from two and a half to three inches long, 
and dark chestnut-brown, with thickened pointed incurved light red-brown scales, and are raised on 
stout peduncles perpendicular to the branch and from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; and at 
the end of the next season, when they are fully grown and open and discharge most of their seeds, 
they are broadly ovate, spreading or deflexed on stout peduncles, from four to six inches long, from 
three and a half to nearly five inches broad, and chocolate brown, with thick cone-scales almost an 
inch wide and short-pointed at the apex, the exposed portions being conspicuously four-angled and 
much thickened into central knobs terminating in short stout straight or elongated and reflexed umbos 
tipped by minute spines. The seeds are oval, more or less angled, from three quarters of an inch 
to nearly an inch in length, dull brown and mottled on the lower side and light yellow-brown on the 
upper side, with a hard shell about a sixteenth of an inch thick, sweet oily albumen, and an embryo 
with thirteen or fourteen cotyledons; they are nearly inclosed by the much thickened inner rim of 
the dark brown wings which extend beyond them from one third to nearly one half of an inch; 
during their fourth season the cones, which still contain some of the seeds, usually fall, generally leaving 
a few of their undeveloped scales on the peduncle attached to the branch. 

Pinus Torreyana, which is the least widely distributed Pine-tree of the United States, grows in 
southern California near the mouth of the Soledad River, where it is scattered along the coast for a 
distance of eight miles, ranging inland only about a mile and a half, 1 and on the island of Santa Rosa, 
one of the Santa Barbara group. 2 

The wood of Pinus Torreyana is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and coarse-grained ; it is light 
red, with thick yellow or nearly white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands of small 
summer cells, small resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.4875, a cubic foot weighing 30.41 pounds. It is sometimes used for fuel. 
The large edible seeds are gathered in considerable quantities and eaten raw or roasted. 3 

Pinus Torreyana was first made known to science in 1850 by Dr. C. C. Parry, who named it for 
Dr. John Torrey. 4 It was introduced into European gardens many years ago; but little is known of its 
value as an ornamental plant. 

1 The most northern specimen of Pinus Torreyana on the main- constantly springing up near the older groves show that Pinus 
land is isolated on a high mesa about a mile and a half from the Torreyana is unimpaired in vitality and likely to survive in the 
coast and three miles to the north and a little to the east of the well protected ravines into which it has probably been driven by a 
post-office of Del Mar. The most northerly grove is on the south gradual change of climate or by fires on the dry mesas, 
bank of the San Diequito River, a mile north of Del Mar, where - In June, 1888, Mr. T. S. Brandegee found a grove of about 
there are several fine trees, the tallest being about sixty feet high. one hundred trees on a bluff five hundred feet above the sea at the 
From this point southward, and never more than a mile from the east end of Santa Rosa Island. The trees of all sizes up to a 
ocean, stand groups of all sizes and ages on the borders of the height of thirty feet were in perfect health, and the numerous seed- 
broken mesa, and on the sides of deep ravines or washes extend- lings showed the vitality of the species at this place. (See Bran- 
ing down from it to the shore, the largest trees growing on rocky degee, Rep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 111.) 
slopes slightly protected from the sea breezes. From the San Die- 8 Palmer, Am. Nat. xii. 594. 

quito to the mouth of the Soledad there are between two and three 4 John Torrey (August 15, 1796-March 10, 1873) was born and 

hundred trees. South of the Soledad, upon high ground, sometimes educated in New York. He learned in early life the rudiments of 

several hundred feet above the level of the ocean, occur the largest botany from Amos Eaton, and studied mineralogy and chemistry ; 

groups, often of two or three hundred trees, stretching along the in 1815 he began the study of medicine, in 1818 obtaining a medical 

sides of ravines between high points jutting to the ocean, the most degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, 

southerly station being five miles south of Point Pinos, where there and engaged at once in the practice of medicine in his native city. 

are about a dozen trees (Belle S. Angier in litt.). Although now In 1817 he contributed to the Lyceum of Natural History a cata- 

so restricted in its distribution, the number of seedlings which are logue of the plants growing in the neighborhood of New York ; 



CONIFERiG. 



SUVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



73 



and in 1824, when he published the first and only part of his 
Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States, Dr. 
Torrey was chosen professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geol- 
ogy in the United States Military Academy at West Point, exchang- 
ing this position three years later for the chair of chemistry and 
botany in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, 
which he filled until 1857, when he resigned it to become United 
States assayer at New York. As state botanist of New York, 
Dr. Torrey made a botanical survey of the state, publishing the 
results in two illustrated volumes in 1843 ; and beginning in 1823 
with his account of the plants collected by Dr. James in the Rocky 
Mountains, he was actively engaged until nearly the end of his life 
in studying and making known the plants collected by the numer- 
ous government expeditions sent to explore the then unknown 



wilds of western North America. His most important work, The 
Flora of North America, undertaken in collaboration with Asa 
Gray, was only half completed, the first volume appearing in two 
parts in 1838-40, and the second in 1841-43. His herbarium, rich 
in the type-specimens of all his species and in all the early collec- 
tions made in the west, and his botanical library, were given by 
him several years before his death to Columbia College, with which 
his Medical School had been united and in which he became profes- 
sor emeritus. 

John Torrey was one of the wisest, most clear-sighted, and indus- 
trious systematic botanists America has produced, and his name 
will never be forgotten by students of American plants, many of 
which he first made known to science. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLVIL Pestus Torreyana. 

1. A cluster of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. A cluster of young leaves, with its sheath, natural size. 



Plate DLVIII. Pinus Torreyana. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, side view, natural size. 

3. A seed with its wing, side view, natural size. 

4. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

5. A seed-wing, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLVII. 




C E. Faasorv del. 



PINUS TORREYANA, Torr. 

A.Riocreua? dir&z> * ^P- <J- Taneur, Pas-ia: 



Rapine/ so: 



Silva of -North America. 



Tab.BLVIII. 




C.E. Faxon del. 



ffimely sc. 



PINUS TORRE YANA.Torr. 

A.RLocreux direcc? Imp. J.Tcui&ur, Paris. 



conifer*. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 75 



PINUS ARIZONICA. 

Yellow Pine. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, from 5 to 7 inches in length. Cones oval, 
from 2 to 2J inches long, their scales armed with slender recurved spines. 

Pinus Arizonica, Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 192. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 239, t. 8, f. — Beissner, 

260 (1878) ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 181 ; Rot. Go- Handb. Nadelh. 260. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 

zette, vii. 4. — Hemsley, Rot. Riol. Am. Cent. iii. 186. — xiv. 225. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 34. — Lemmon, 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. West-American Cone-Rearers, 35. 

A tree, from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a tall straight massive trunk from three to 
four feet in diameter, and stout spreading branches forming an irregular open round-topped or narrow 
pyramidal head. The bark on young trunks is dark brown or almost black and deeply furrowed, and 
on fully grown trees it is from an inch and a half to two inches in thickness and divided into large 
unequally shaped plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. 
The branchlets are stout and dark orange-brown when they first appear, growing lighter in their 
second and third years, and then dark gray-brown. The branch-buds are ovate, acute, nearly half an 
inch long, and covered by loosely imbricated dark chestnut-brown scales with pale fringed margins, 
which continue for many years to roughen the branches with their thickened bases. The sheaths of 
the leaf -clusters, which at first are loose and bright chestnut-brown and from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch in length, soon become thick and firm, pale brown below, silvery above, and about half an 
inch long by the falling of the inner bud-scales, and are persistent. The leaves are borne in clusters of 
five and are stout, rigid, acute with short callous tips, closely serrulate, dark green, stomatiferous on their 
three faces, and from five to seven inches in length ; they contain two flbro-vascular bundles and three 
parenchymatous resin passages, one in each of the angles, surrounded by strengthening cells, which also 
occur under the epidermis mostly in a single layer ; they form dense tufts at the ends of the branches 
and appear to fall during their third year. The staminate flowers are produced in short compact spikes 
and are oval and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length and about a quarter of an inch 
thick, with dark purple anthers terminating in orbicular denticulate crests, and are surrounded by an 
involucre of about twelve broadly ovate acute firm dark chestnut-brown lustrous bracts. The pistillate 
flowers are subterminal and usually in pairs on stout peduncles covered by ovate acute chestnut-brown 
bracts, and are about one third of an inch in length, with long-pointed dark purple reflexed scales. The 
cones remain erect and do not enlarge much during their first season, but when the flowers open the 
following spring they are horizontal, an inch and a half long and nearly an inch wide, with prominent 
strongly incurved tips to their scales ; when fully grown in the autumn they are oval, from two to two 
and a half inches long and an inch and a half wide, with thin slightly concave scales rounded or pointed 
at the apex, the apophyses being transversely keeled and much thickened into central knobs terminated 
by stout umbos armed with slender recurved spines, and much recurved on the small lower scales ; 
when the cones are open in the autumn the exposed portions of the scales are light red-brown and 
lustrous and the remainder dull red-brown on the upper side and dark purple on the lower. The 
seeds are an eighth of an inch long, full and rounded below, slightly compressed toward the apex, with 
a thick coat produced above into a narrow margin ; their wings are broadest above the middle, about 
a third of an inch long, nearly a quarter of an inch wide, thin and light chestnut-brown. 

In the United States Pinus Arizonica inhabits the cool high slopes and the sides of canons of the 



76 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

Santa Catalina, Rincon, Santa Rita, Huachuca, and Chiricahua Mountains of southern Arizona at 
altitudes between six and eight thousand feet above the level of the sea, forming a considerable part 
of their forests and on the Rincon Mountains a nearly pure forest some twenty-five square miles in area. 1 
On the mountains of Sonora and Chihuahua it is more abundant and grows to its largest size, ranging 
through three thousand feet of elevation over the Cordilleras of Chihuahua from the canons and valleys 
at their base to the highest summits, forming forests of great extent, and filling the place of the more 
northern Pinus ponder osa as a widely distributed, abundant, and valuable timber-tree. 2 

The wood of Pinus Arizonica produced on the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona is light, soft, 
not strong, rather brittle, and close-grained ; it is light red or often yellow, with thick lighter yellow or 
white sap wood, and contains broad very resinous conspicuous bands of small summer cells, numerous 
large resin passages, and thin obscure medullary rays. 3 The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.5038, a cubic foot weighing 31.40 pounds. In Arizona it is occasionally manufactured into 
lumber, and in Mexico is often largely used, although it is difficult to obtain from the high and often 
inaccessible mountain slopes which are the home of this tree. 

Pinus Arizonica was discovered by Professor John T. Rothrock 4 in 1874 on the Santa Rita 
Mountains of Arizona. 

1 See Tourney, Garden and Forest, x. 153. American Museum of Natural History, New York, cut on the 
Pinus Arizonica probably also grows on some of the mountain Santa Rita Mountains, is twenty-four inches in diameter inside 

ranges of southeastern New Mexico. the bark and one hundred and twenty-nine years of age, the sap- 

2 See C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 430. wood being eight and five eighths inches thick and one hundred 

3 Pinus Arizonica after its first few years grows slowly. The log and two years old. 
specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 4 See viii. 92. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLIX. Pinus Arizonica. 

1. A cluster of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. Tip of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules and bract, 

enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

12. A seed, natural size. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. A cluster of young leaves with its sheath, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat DLIX. 



15 




2illP^ 





14 



«-._ 




C £. Faaxin, del. 



IRrn&lz/ so. 



PINUS ARIZ0NICA,En6elm. 

o 



A.JRiocreua> direco. 



Imp. J. Tcuieur , ParLr. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



11 



PINUS PONDEROSA. 
Yellow Pine. Bull Pine. 



Leaves in 3 or in 2 and 3-leayed clusters, stout, rigid, from 3 to 15 inches in length. 
Cones oval, from 3 to 6 inches long, separating at maturity from their lower scales 
persistent on the peduncle. 



Pinus ponderosa, Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 355 (1836) ; 
List No. 10, Abietinece, 33. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 
2243, f. 2132-2136. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 44, t. 
15. — Antoine, Conif. 28, t. 8, f. 1. — Link, Linncea, 
xv. 506. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 114. — Spach, Hist. Veg. 
xi. 389. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 163. — Knight, Syn. 
Conif. 30. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
v. 217. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite 
Conif. 340. — Gordon, Pinetum, 205. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif. 79. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 
36. — Cooper, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii. pt. ii. 27, 68 ; 
Am. Nat. iii. 409. — Torrey, Rot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 
209 ; Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 
142. — Bolander, Proc. Cat. Acad. iii. 226, 317. — Hen- 
kel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 71, 415. — (Nelson) 
Senilis, Pinacece, 125. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 117. — 
Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 128. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 395 (excl. syn. Pinus Sinclairiana). — K. Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 310. — Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's 
Rep. vi. 261 ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 181 ; Brewer & 
Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 125. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of Cali- 
fornia, 51. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. vs.. 192. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 110. — 
Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 393. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 
191. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, 
ii. 73, 97, t. {Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West- American 
Cone-Bearers, 32. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 
1889, 237 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wold. 
Nordam. 308, f. 11, t. 7, f. — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 
3, viii. 557, f. 110, 111, 114, 115 ; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xiv. 237. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 260, f . 61. — Han- 
sen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 383 (Pinetum Danicum). — 
Hempel & Wilhelm, Bciume und Striiucher, i. 189, f. 
Ill A. — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 338 
(Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. TJ. S. Nat. 
Herb. iv. 223 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 35. 

Pinus resinosa, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 161 (in part) 
(not Aiton) (1839). 



Pinus Benthamiana, Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. ii. 
189 (1847) ; iii. 223. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abie- 
tineas, 30. — Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 212, t. ; 
Fl. des Serres, vi. 85, f. ; Pinetum, 188. — Courtin, Syn. 
Conif. 76. — Knight, Syn. Conif 30. — Lindley & Gor- 
don, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Carriere, Traite 
Conif 350. — A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. n. 
ser. i. 287, t. 8. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
84. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacea;, 104. — Se'ne'clauze, 
Conif. 123. 

Pinus brachyptera, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of a 
Tour to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. 
Appx. 89. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 
216. — Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 227 ; Fl. des Serres, ix. 
201; Traite Conif. 356. — J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. 
Rep. iv. pt. v. 18. — Gordon, Pinetum, 190. — Henkel & 
Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 85. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pina- 
cew, 105. 

Pinus Beardsleyi, A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. 
n. ser. i. 286, t. 6 (1855). — Carriere, Traite Conif 359. — 
Se'ne'clauze, Conif 123. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 
xiv. 351 (Pinetum Danicum). 

Pinus Craigana, A. Murray, Edinburgh Neiv Phil. Jour. 
n. ser. i. 288, t. 7 (1855). 

Pinus Engelmanni, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 
141 (not Carriere) (1856). 

Pinus Parryana, Gordon, Pinetum, 202 (1858). — Henkel 
& Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 88. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 
ed. 2, 446. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Benthamiana, Vasey, Rep. Dept. 
Agric. U. S. 1875, 178 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). 

Pinus ponderosa, (a) Benthamiana, Lemmon, Rep. Cali- 
fornia State Board Forestry, ii. 73, 97 (Pines of the 
Pacific Slope) (1888) ; West-American Cone-Bearers. 33. 

Pinus ponderosa, (c) brachyptera, Lemmon, Rep. Cali- 
fornia State Board Forestry, ii. 73, 98 (Pines of the 
Pacific Slope) (1888). 

Pinus ponderosa, var. (a) nigricans, Lemmon, West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 33 (1895). 



The typical form of this variable species when growing under the best conditions is a tree, usually 
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet in height, with a massive stem five or six feet in 



78 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers 

diameter, or exceptionally two hundred and thirty feet tall, with a trunk eight feet in diameter, 1 short 
thick many-forked often pendulous branches 2 generally ascending at the ends and forming a narrow 
regular spire-like head which constitutes from one third to one half the height of the tree ; or, when 
less favorably situated, producing a shorter trunk and stouter branches forming a broader and often 
round-topped head. During the first eighty or one hundred years of its life the bark of the trunk is 
broken into rounded ridges covered with small closely appressed scales, and is dark brown, nearly black, 
or lio-ht cinnamon-red ; and on older trees it is from two to four inches thick and deeply and irregularly 
divided into plates sometimes four or five feet long and twelve or eighteen inches wide, and covered 
with thick bright cinnamon-red scales. The branchlets are stout and more or less fragrant when cut, 
with the pungent aromatic odor of orange-peel ; when they first appear they are orange-color, but soon 
grow darker, frequently becoming nearly black at the end of two or three seasons, and are much 
roughened for several years by the thickened persistent bases of the ovate acute light chestnut-brown 
conspicuously fringed scales of the branch-buds, which are often half an inch long and soon become 
reflexed, those of the outer ranks being linear-lanceolate and dark or fight red-brown. The branch-buds 
are ovate, gradually narrowed and acute at the apex, the terminal bud being from one half to three 
quarters of an inch long and frequently twice as large as the lateral buds. The leaves form great tufts 
at the ends of the naked branches, and are borne in clusters of three in sheaths which are at first 
loose, pale chestnut-brown, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, but, soon losing the 
inner bud-scales, become about a quarter of an inch long and thick, dark brown or nearly black, and 
fall with the leaves, mostly during their third season ; they are acute with sharp-pointed callous tips, 
finely serrate, dark yellow green, stomatiferous on the three faces, and from five to eleven inches in 
length ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles and usually two or sometimes as many as five paren- 
chymatous resin ducts surrounded by strengthening cells, which also occur in from one to three layers 
under the epidermis. 3 The pistillate flowers are borne in short crowded spikes, and are cylindrical, 
flexuous, from an inch and a half to two inches long and about half an inch thick, with yellow anthers 
terminating in conspicuous semiorbicular obscurely denticulate crests, and are surrounded b}^ involucres 
of ten or twelve broadly ovate light chestnut-brown bracts scarious on the margins and rounded at the 
apex. The pistillate flowers are subterminal, clustered or in pairs, oval, dark red, and about one third 
of an inch long and one quarter of an inch broad, with ovate scales gradually narrowed into elongated 
slender tips and conspicuous orbicular bracts fimbriate on the margins. The young cones are erect in 
their first summer, and during the winter are from an inch to an inch and a quarter long and about 
three quarters of an inch thick, with light red-brown ovate scales produced into long or short slender 
incurved or straight awn-like spines ; when fully grown, at midsummer, the cones are oval, horizontal, or 
slightly declining, subsessile or short-stalked, from three to six inches long and from an inch and a 
half to two inches broad, often in clusters of from three to five, and bright green or purple, 4 with 

1 The largest specimen measured by Muir on the California nine years old, the sapwood being eight and a half inches thick and 

Sierras was two hundred and twenty feet high, with a trunk eight two hundred and eleven years old. 

feet in diameter ; other specimens measured by him in California 2 A seedling raised in the Knaphill Nursery, England, and planted 

were one hundred and eighty feet high, with a trunk three feet ten by Mr. Henry Winthrop Sargent in his garden at Fishkill-on-the- 

inches in diameter, and three hundred and eighty years old ; one Hudson, New York, in 1851, when a few inches high, grew into a 

hundred and seventy-five feet high, with a trunk five feet one inch tree with long drooping branches, forming a narrow column which 

in diameter, and two hundred and sixty years old ; a trunk three in forty years had attained a height of sixty feet, and become an 

feet six inches in diameter, and two hundred and thirty-five years object of beauty and interest before its ruin by fungal disease 

old ; a trunk two feet in diameter, and two hundred and thirty-one (H. W. Sargent, Gard. Chron. u. ser. x. 236, f. 42. — Sargent, 

years old ; a trunk three feet four inches in diameter, and one hun- Garden and Forest, i. 392, f. 62). 

dretl and eight years old ; and a trunk three feet three inches in 3 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 306. 

diameter, and one hundred years old. The log specimen in the 4 The cones of what may be considered the typical form of Pinus 
Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American Mu- ponderosa are usually green ; but in the Bitter Root valley, in Mon- 
seum of Natural History, New York, cut on the western slope of tana, trees bearing all green cones and all purple cones are mixed 
the northern Sierra Nevada, is forty-seven and three quarters together in about equal numbers, while on the plains north of Flat- 
inches in diameter inside the bark, and three hundred and seventy- head Lake in Montana most of the trees bear purple cones. 



CONIFERvE. 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



79 



thin narrow slightly concave scales usually rounded or sometimes pointed at the apex, the apophyses 
being transversely keeled and slightly or much thickened into central knobs terminating in com- 
pressed straight or recurved umbos armed with slender prickles ; at maturity the exposed portion of 
the scales turns light reddish brown and becomes lustrous, and the remainder dull red-brown on the 
upper side and deep purple on the lower ; after ripening the cones mostly fall during the first autumn 
and winter, usually leaving their lower scales attached to the peduncles. 1 The seeds are ovate, acute, 
compressed at the apex, full and rounded below, and about a quarter of an inch long, with a thin dark 
purple often more or less mottled coat produced above into a narrow rim ; their wings are usually 
broadest below the middle, thin, pale brown, gradually narrowed at the oblique apex, from an inch to 
an inch and a quarter in length and about an inch in width ; the cotyledons vary from six to nine in 
number. 

Pinus ponderosa inhabits mountain slopes, dry valleys, and high mesas from northwestern 
Nebraska and western Texas to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and from southern British Columbia to 
Lower California and northern Mexico. The typical form ranges from about latitude 51° north in the 
interior of British Columbia, 2 southward through western Montana and northern Idaho, and through 
Washington and Oregon, and along the slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the California coast ranges, 
growing in the interior on the arid soil of high valleys and on dry mountain slopes, and forming open 
forests often of great extent ; in western British Columbia and in Washington and Oregon west of the 
Cascade Mountains it is usually found only on dry gravelly plains, or rarely in swamps, where it is 
always small and stunted, with rough nearly black bark ; in California it attains its largest size on the 
basins of filled-up lakes on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, where it is common from an 
elevation of about two thousand feet above the sea nearly to the upper limits of tree-growth ; 3 crossing 
the range through the lowest passes, it extends down to its eastern base and out on to the hot volcanic 
plains beyond, sweeping with a great forest northward into Oregon, where it extends from the eastern 
foothills of the Cascade Mountains north of the Klamath Lakes at an elevation of about two thousand 
five hundred feet above the sea eastward to the mountains east of Goose Lake, covering them, with the 
exception of their highest peaks, with large trees. 4 

In southern Oregon, where it is common and is the largest tree on the dry volcanic foothills of the 
Siskiyou Mountains near Waldo, a form occurs 5 with more pungently aromatic juices, stifTer and more 



1 This peculiarity of the breaking away of the cone of Pinus pon- 
derosa from its lower scales seems common to nearly all individuals 
of its numerous forms ; but during the summer of 1896 Professor 
J. W. Toumey found a single tree on the Chiricahua Mountains in 
Arizona, from which the small cones had all fallen without break- 
ing. One of these cones is figured on plate dlxv. f. 3. 

2 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 326. — Macoun, Cat. Can. 
PL 466. 

8 Muir, The Mountains of California, 162, f. 

4 C. Hart Merriam in litt. 

6 Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi, Vasey, Rep. Dept. Agric. U. S. 

1875, 179 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). — Engelmann, Trans. 

St. Louis Acad. iv. 181 ; Brewer §• Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 126. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, A. Murray, Rep. Oregon Exped. ii. t. 1 (1853) ; 
Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. n. ser. xi. 224, t. 8, 9 ; Trans. Bot. 
Soc. Edinburgh, vi. 350, t. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 358. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 198. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 87. — 
(Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 115. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 115. — 
Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 126. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 393. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 45, t. 6, f. 1-4. — K.Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 314. — Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vii. 4. — Veitch, 
Man. Conif. 165. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 193. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 111. — Hooker f. 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxii. 814, f. 141. — Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. 



i. 390. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 192. — Lemrnon, Rep. California 
State Board Forestry, ii. 73, 99 (Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 34, t. 5. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. As- 
soc. 1889, 238 (The Pines of California). — Masters, Gard. 
Chron. ser. 3, v. 360, f . 65, 68 ; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 231. — 
Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 327, f. 15, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Na- 
delh. 263, f . 62. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 305 (Pinetum 
Danicum). — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Straucher, i. 189, f. 
Ill, B-D. — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death 
Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 222 
(Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 35. 

Pinus defiexa, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 209, t. 50 (in 
part) (1859). — Henkel & Hochstetter, I. c. 416. — Carriere, I. c. 
ed. 2, 455. — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 318. — Parlatore, 
I. c. 431. — A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. iii. 106. — Gordon, 
1. c. ed. 2, 289. — Beissner, I. c. — Hansen, I. u. 357. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. nigricans, Lemmon, Rep. California State 
Board Forestry, ii. 74, 100, t. (Pines of the Pacific Slope) (1888). — 
Steele, I. c. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (b) defiexa, Lemmon, I. c. (1888) ; West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 35. — Steele, I. c. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (c) montana, Lemmon, West- American Cone- 
Bearers, 35 (1895). 
In its extreme forms Pinus Jeffreyi is very distinct from any of 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



elastic leaves from four to nine inches in length and persistent on the glaucous stouter branches for 
from six to nine years, yellow-green staminate flowers, short-stalked usually purple cones from five to 
twelve inches in length, their scales armed with stout or slender prickles, usually hooked backward, and 
seeds often nearly half an inch long, with larger wings and from seven to eleven cotyledons. This tree 
forms a considerable forest on Scott Mountain in northern California, where it was discovered in 1850 
by John Jeffrey, and occurs on Snow Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Coast Range in Lake 
County ; * it is abundant in the great forests of Yellow Pine which cover the slopes of the valley of the 
upper Pitt River, growing to a large size on the margins of arid volcanic table-lands and Artemisia- 
covered plains ; it is the common form in the great yellow Pine forests which clothe the eastern slope 
of the central and southern Sierras, where it probably grows to its largest size, attaining a height of 
from one hundred to nearly two hundred feet, with a tall massive trunk from four to six feet in diameter 
covered with bright cinnamon-red bark deeply divided into large irregular plates ; it is also common at 
high elevations on the western slope of the Sierras, where it is able to maintain a foothold on the most 
exposed and driest ridges and cliffs, 2 here being often almost reduced to a shrub with stout semi- 
prostrate branches, or, when sprung from seeds washed down by mountain torrents, attaining fair 
proportions in sheltered canons at lower altitudes ; it abounds, too, on the San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto Ranges up to elevations of eight thousand feet above the sea and on the Cuyamaca 
Mountains ; and in northern Lower California it forms extensive forests on the San Rafael Mountains 
east of Todos Santos Bay at elevations between four and six thousand feet, 3 and finds its most 
southerly home on high dry slopes of Mt. San Pedro Martir, near the middle of the peninsula. 4 

A form 5 with nearly black furrowed bark or with bright cinnamon-red bark broken into large 



the other forms of Pinus ponderosa ; but the two are united by 
many intermediate varieties, which often make it impossible to dis- 
tinguish the two trees as they grow together. Trees of such inter- 
mediate characters are abundant in the Pine forest on the head of 
Pitt River, near the shores of Lake Tahoe on the eastern slope of 
the Sierra Nevada, and on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto 
Mountains, where forests of trees occur which may be as well 
referred to one form as to the other. 

1 K. Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 176. 

2 Garden and Forest, iv. 457, f. 73. 

8 This is the Pinus Jeffreyi, var. peninsularis, of Lemmon (Rep. 
California State Board Forestry, ii. 74 [Pines of the Pacific Slope'] 
[1888] ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 35. — Steele, Proc. Am. 
Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 239 [The Pines of California']), who describes 
it as growing only on the loose de'bris of white granite, and attaining 
a height of from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet, with 
a spire-like fusiform habit. " The bark is grayish or drab, thick, 
hard, deeply fissured. . . . Yearling cones very large, an inch to 
an inch and a half long, elliptical, and purple. Mature cones abun- 
dant, many years' crops lying under the trees, all large, broadly 
ovate, six to eight inches long, truncate at base, mahogany-colored, 
with prickles strongly deflexed " (Lemmon, Rep. California State 
Board of Forestry, I. c. 101. — Orcutt, Garden and Forest, v. 183, 
f. 28, 29). 

4 Brandegee, Zoii, iv. 201. 

5 Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum, Engelmann, Brewer Sf Watson 
Bot. Cal. ii. 126 (1880). —Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 432.— 
Lemmon, I. c. 73, 78; West-American Cone-Bearers, 34. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray Man. ed. 6, 734. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 263. — 
Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 238. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 
Soc. xiv. 384 (Pinetum Danicum). — Merriam, North American 
Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. iv. 223 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Britton & Brown, 
El. Fl. i. 51, f. 113. 



Pinus resinosa, Torrey, Am. Lye. N. Y. ii. 249 (not Aiton) 
(1820). — Winchell, Ludlow Rep. Black Hills, Dakota, 68. 

Pinus macrophylla, Torrey, Sitgreaves' Rep. 173 (not Engel- 
mann) (1853). 

Pinus ponderosa, Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. 332 
(not Douglas) (1862). — Watson, King's Rep. v. 331. — Porter & 
Coulter, -FY. Colorado; Hay den's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 129. — 
Gard. Chron. u. ser. ix. 796, f. 138. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. ii. 554 (Man. PI. W. Texas). 

Pinus scopulorum, Lemmon, Garden and Forest, x. 183 (1897). 
Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum, is a tree, usually from fifty to 
seventy-five feet in height, but under favorable conditions one hun- 
dred or one hundred and twenty-five feet tall, with a trunk two or 
three or rarely four feet in diameter, and stout branches which in 
youth form a broad open pyramid and in old age a round- topped 
picturesque head. The variations in the bark are best seen in 
northern New Mexico and Arizona, where among trees standing 
side by side, of the same size and probably of the same age, some 
have bright cinnamon-red bark broken into large plates, and others 
nearly black furrowed bark. On young trees of this variety the 
bark is usually dark and fissured, and in other parts of the country 
this form of bark may be found on half-grown individuals ; but I 
have seen it on large trees only on the Colorado plateau ; and here 
it should perhaps be considered a juvenile character, as the bark of 
the very largest trees is commonly cinnamon-red and broken into 
plates. 

The Yellow Pine of Nebraska, Colorado, and Texas is certainly 
distinct in its habit, in the length of its leaves, which are often in 
clusters of two, and in the size of its cones, from the trees of the 
western slope of the California Sierra Nevada ; but the two forms 
mingle and are often indistinguishable in the region west of the 
summits of the northern Rocky Mountains, and it is probably best 
to consider this Yellow Pine one of the numerous forms of the 
polymorphous and widely distributed Pinus ponderosa. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 81 

scaly plates, with rigid leaves in clusters of two or of three and from three to six inches in length, 
staminate flowers an inch long, and green cones two or three or rarely four inches in length, with thin 
scales armed with slender prickles hooked backward, is the Yellow Pine of Nebraska, where it is 
distributed from Long Pine Creek, a tributary of the Niobrara River a few miles east of the one 
hundredth meridian, through the western and northwestern parts of the state; 1 this is the most 
common tree of the mountain forests of the Black Hills of South Dakota ; it occurs on several of the 
mountain ranges of Wyoming and of eastern Montana, and is the Yellow Pine of Colorado, where it is 
common between six and ten thousand feet above the sea, forming open stunted forests with the Nut 
Pine, the Juniper, and the Douglas Spruce ; 2 and of the mountain ranges of eastern and southern 
Utah; it is also the Yellow Pine of western Texas, where it is common, and the most valuable 
timber-tree on several mountain ranges, 3 and of northern New Mexico and Arizona, forming on the 
Colorado plateau, at elevations from seven thousand to eight thousand two hundred feet, one of the 
most extensive Pine forests of the continent, here sometimes ascending to nearly nine thousand, and 
descending to four thousand five hundred feet above the sea-level. 4 

The Yellow Pine, 5 which often forms a large part of the forest on the mountains of southern 
Arizona, frequently differs from more northern forms of Pinus ponderosa in its much longer and 
broader leaves in clusters of three, which are sometimes fourteen or fifteen inches in length and one 
sixteenth of an inch wide, in the shape of its cones made more oblique by the greater development of 
the scales on their upper side, and in its mammillate projecting umbos armed with slender prickles. On 
the Chiricahua Mountains of southern Arizona a form 6 is common which appears to connect this tree 
with others of the species ; its leaves are more slender, and usually from twelve to fourteen inches long, 
in clusters of three or rarely of four or five, and its cones vary from three to five inches in length, their 
somewhat thickened scales terminating in prominently elevated or, toward the base of the cones, in 
mammillate umbos armed with straight slender prickles. 

Pinus ponderosa is the principal timber-tree of eastern Washington and Oregon, of western 
Montana, Idaho, and the Black Hills of South Dakota, and of western Texas, New Mexico, and 
Arizona. It produces heavy hard and strong but ultimately brittle comparatively fine-grained wood, 
which is not durable in contact with the soil ; it is light red, with almost white sapwood, which is 
sometimes more than two hundred years old, but varies greatly on different individuals and in different 
parts of the country in the number of its layers of annual growth. It contains broad or narrow very 

1 In Nebraska the Yellow Pine extends from the border of Wyo- This peculiar tree was discovered in the autumn of 1877 on the 
niing along Pine Ridge and the Niobrara River to the eastern southern slopes of the Santa Rita Mountains in southern Arizona, 
boundary of Rock and Keya Paha Counties, and on the North growing with Quercus hypoleuca just below the forests of Pinus 
Platte as far east as Deuel County. The remnants of its dead Arizonica and Pinus Chihuahuana, by Dr. Heinrich Mayr of the 
trunks in many canons of Loup River and in Custer, Valley, Greely, Bavarian Forest Department, who described it as a tree sixty feet 
and Lincoln Counties, show that it once ranged farther east, and high, with stout tortuous branches and deeply furrowed dark brown 
covered a larger part of the state (Bessey, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, bark. (See, also, Brandegee, Garden and Forest, v. 111. — Tourney, 
xiv. 189 ; Am. Nat. xxi. 928 ; Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. Garden and Forest, viii. 22, f. 4.) 

1894, 100 ; Garden and Forest, viii. 102). 6 This is probably the Pinus Apacheca of Lemmon (Erythea, ii. 

2 Brandegee, Bot. Gazette, iii. 32. 103, t. 3 [1894] ; West- American Cone-Bearers, 36), and is a com- 
8 Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 503. mon form of Yellow Pine on the mountains of southern New Mex- 
a Merriam, North American Fauna, iii. 121. ico and Arizona, varying greatly in the length and breadth of 
5 Pinus ponderosa, var. Mayriana. its leaves and in the size of its cones. A fruiting branch of this 

Pinus latifolia, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 496, f. 135 (not form, gathered by Professor J. W. Tourney on the Chiricahua 

Pinus sylvestris latifolia, Gordon, nor Pinus contorta, var. latifolia, Mountains in 1896, is figured on plate dlxv. f. 2. This Yellow 

Engelmann) (1889). — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 259. — Masters, Pine, which is the largest tree of these forests, often produces a 

Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 232 (excl. syn. Pinus latisquamd). — massive tall trunk covered with thick cinnamon-red bark broken 

Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 36. — Lemmon, West-American Cone- into great plates and stout tortuous branches which form a broad 

Bearers, 36. open round-topped head. The four or five-leaved clusters first 

Pinus Engelmanni, Lemmon, Erythea, i. 134 (not Torrey nor noticed by Professor Tourney on these trees on the Chiricahua 

Carriere [1893]). Mountains in the spring of 1897 appear to connect Pinus ponderosa 

Pinus Mayriana, Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Forestry Div. U. S. with the closely related Pinus Arizonica, which chiefly differs from 

Dent Aaric 21 (1897). *- na ^ species in the greater number of leaves in its leaf-clusters. 



82 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

resinous conspicuous bands of small summer cells, few small resin passages, and many obscure medullary 
rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of the California tree is 0.4771, a cubic foot 
weighing 29.72 pounds. The wood of Finns ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi, is coarser-grained, usually very 
resinous and light yellow, with pale yellow or nearly white and generally thinner sapwood. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of this form is 0.5206, a cubic foot weighing 32.44 pounds. 
The wood of Pinus ponderosa, var. scopidorum, is coarser-grained, harder, more brittle and resinous, 
with a specific gravity, when absolutely dry, of 0.4619, a cubic foot weighing 28.78 pounds. The wood 
of Finns ponderosa, var. Mayriana, is soft, brittle, and light red-brown, with thick pale sapwood, and 
contains broad dark bands of small very resinous summer cells, few resin passages, and obscure 
medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4970, a cubic foot weighing 30.96 
pounds. The wood of Finns ponderosa and its numerous forms is largely manufactured into lumber 
used for all sorts of construction, and is employed for railway ties, fencing, and fuel. 

Indians, when other food failed, stripped the bark from the trunks of Pinus ponderosa in early 
spring, and ate the mucilaginous layer of forming wood, which they scraped from its inner surface. 1 

The first published allusion to Pinus ponderosa is in the journal of Lewis and Clark, who, in 
ascending the Missouri River in September, 1804, at the outset of their transcontinental journey, found 
the cones of this tree, brought down from the pineries of northwestern Nebraska, floating on White 
River, and heard of the Pine forests on the Black Hills of Dakota. 2 It was not made known to science, 
however, until 1826, when it was found near the Spokane River in May by David Douglas, 3 who 
suggested its specific name, 4 and in the following year introduced it into European plantations. In 
cultivation Pinus ponderosa has usually grown slowly, but its ability to adapt itself to the climate of 
western and northern Europe is shown by the existence of a few fine specimens in European collections. 5 
In the eastern United States specimens of this Pine from the Pacific coast have not usually succeeded, 
and, although plants raised from seeds gathered in Colorado have proved hardy in the east, they grow 
slowly, and usually succumb at the end of a few years to various fungal diseases. Trees of some of the 
forms of the variety Jeffreyi are distinct and valuable park ornaments, thriving in central and northern 
Europe, where they have already produced their cones, 6 and in our eastern states, where they grow 
more rapidly and are less liable to disease than those of any of the other forms. 7 

Possessed of a constitution which enables it to endure great variations of climate and to flourish 
on the well-watered slopes of the California mountains, on torrid lava beds, in the dry interior valleys 
of the north and on the sun-baked mesas of the south, and to push out over the plains boldly, where no 
other tree can exist, the advance guard of the Pacific forest, Pinus ponderosa is the most widely 
distributed tree of western North America. Exceeded in size by the Sugar Pine of the Sierra Nevada, 
it surpasses all its race in the majesty of its port and the splendor of its vitality ; and, an emblem of 
strength, it appears as enduring as the rocks, above which it raises its noble shafts and stately crowns. 

1 " The Pine trees had heen stripped of their bark about the 4 Douglas, Companion Bot. Mag. ii. Ill, 141 (1836). 

same season, which our Indian woman says her countrymen do in 5 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872 (1326). — R. Hartig, Forst.-Nat. 

order to obtain the sap and the soft parts of the wood and bark for Zeit. i. 428. — J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, vi. 14. 

food." (History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and 6 Fowler, I. «,. 1071. — R. Hartig, I. c. 429. — Hansen, Garden 

Clark, ed. Coues, ii. 424. — See, also, Newberry, Popular Science and Forest, v. 231. — Bolle, Garden and Forest, vii. 95. 

Monthly, xxx. 46 (Food and Fibre Plants of the North American In- i Probably the finest plants of Jeffrey's Pine in the eastern 

dians). — Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 28. — Coville, Contrib. states are in Delaware Park in Buffalo, New York, where there are 

U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 89.) eight specimens, planted in 1871, varying in height from twenty- 

2 History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark, five to thirty-seven feet, with stems varying in girth at one foot 
I. c. i. 117, 119. (See Sargent, I. c. x. 28.) above the surface of the ground from one foot nine inches to three 

See n. 94. f ee t mne inches. 



EXPLANATIONS OF THE PLATES. 
Plate DLX. Pinus pondbbosa. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Portion of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flowers. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, under side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A seedling plant, natural size. 

Plate DLXI. Pinus ponderosa. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A seed, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

4. An embryo, enlarged. 

5. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

Plate DLXII. Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. Bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

7. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

Plate DLXIII. Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, under side, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, side view, natural size. 

4. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

5. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

6. A seed-wing, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 

Plate DLXIV. Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

3. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

Plate DLXV. Pinus ponderosa. 

1. A fruiting branch of var. Mayriana, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch from a tree on the Chiricahua Mountains of 

Arizona, natural size. 

3. A cone with entire base from a tree on the Chiricahua Mountains 

of Arizona, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLX. 




C.E.Fcuocrv del. 



HapisLe so. 



PINUS PONDEROSA,Laws. 



AJllocr&u3> direa> . 



Imp . J. TcLneiLr, Parts. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXI. 




C EFaocon deL. 



3fignea,ua> sc 



PINUS PONDEROSA, Laws. 

ARcocreuct> direa>* Imp. J. Tan&ur, Far if. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXII. 




C. £, Faasort ded. 



PINUS PONDEROSA,var.JEFFREYI , Vasey. 



j4..7iiocreua> direcc?" 



Imp. J'.Taneicr, Paris. 



■LcrvenzLaL . 




PINUS PONDEROSA,var JEFFREY!, Vasey. 



Imp.J.Taneiu;Pcu 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXIV. 




C. KFaason, del. 



Hapine/ s&. 



PINUS PONDEROSA,vap. SCOPULORUM, En§elm. 



A.RLocreuj? direa>. 



Imp. J~. Tasi&ur , Paris. 



Silva/ of North America 



Tat.DLXV. 




C.JS.Faaion, del. 



ErruTfimeZy jo. 



PINUS PONDEROSA, Laws. 

A.I&>creua> direcc*- Imp.J.raneur,Paris. 



coniferje. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 85 



PINUS CHIHUAHUANA. 

Yellow Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, slender, pale green, from 2J to 4 inches in length, 
their sheaths deciduous. Cones broadly ovate, from 1| to 2 inches long, maturing at 
the end of the third season, their scales slightly thickened, furnished with small 
recurved deciduous prickles. 

Pinus Chihuahuana, Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir of Nadelh. 86, 416. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 143. — Parla- 
a Tour to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 1848), Bot. tore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 397. — Sargent, 
Appx. 103 (1848) ; Bothrock Wheeler's Hep. vi. 262 ; Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 194. — Mayr, 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 181. — Lindley & Gordon, Wald. Nordam. 237, t. 8, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 
Jour. Sort. Soc. Lond. v. 220. — Carriere, Rev. Hort. 258. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 227. — Koehne, 
1854, 227 ; Fl. des Serres, ix. 200 ; Traite Conif. 357. — Deutsche Dendr. 34. — Lemmon, West-American Cone- 
Gordon, Pinetum, 193. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Bearers, 4A. 

A tree, in the United States rarely more than forty or fifty feet in height, with a tall trunk 
sometimes two feet in diameter, and stout slightly ascending branches forming a narrow open pyramidal 
or round-topped head of thin pale foliage. 1 The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and a half in thickness, and is dark reddish brown or sometimes nearly black and deeply 
divided into broad flat ridges covered with thin closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, 
glabrous, bright orange-brown when they first appear, soon becoming dull red-brown, and during their 
first summer much roughened by the large persistent reflexed bases of the scales of the leaf-buds, 
which mostly fall during their first winter, although their scars do not entirely disappear for many 
years. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, 
and covered by dark orange-brown scales with scarious more or less fringed margins. The leaves are 
borne in clusters of three, with loose chestnut-brown lustrous sheaths usually about half an inch long 
and deciduous during their first autumn ; they are slender, acute with short callous tips, sharply 
serrulate, pale glaucous green, and conspicuously stomatiferous with from six to eight rows of stomata 
on each face ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles and two parenchymatous resin passages sur- 
rounded by strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis, usually in a single often 
interrupted layer, and begin to fall during their fourth season. The flowers appear in Arizona in 
July, the staminate in short crowded clusters, the pistillate generally in pairs on slender peduncles 
about a quarter of an inch in length and covered by ovate acute dark chestnut-brown bracts. The 
staminate flowers are oval, from one quarter to one third of an inch long, with yellow anthers termi- 
nating in conspicuous nearly orbicular crests slightly undulate on the margins, and are surrounded by 
ten involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are oval, one third of an inch long, with broadly ovate 
yellow-green scales gradually contracted into long slender tips erect above and reflexed below the 
middle of the flower. During their first winter the young cones are erect and from one third to 
nearly one half of an inch in length ; the following autumn they are horizontal or slightly pendulous, 
subglobose, and almost an inch in diameter, and when they mature a year later they are broadly ovate, 
acute, dark green, from an inch and a half to two inches long, and nearly horizontal or occasionally 
slightly ascending and raised on slender rigid naked peduncles from one third to one quarter of an 
inch in length ; their thin flat scales, which are about a quarter of an inch wide, are only slightly 

1 See Tourney, Garden and Forest, viii. 22, f . 3. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXVI. Pinus Chihuahtjana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. End of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

12. A cone at the end of its second season, natural size. 

13. A cone with its peduncle, natural size, 

14. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

15. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

16. A cluster of young leaves, with its sheath, natural size. 

17. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

18. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab, DLXVI. 




C.H.Faason del. 



Jfimely 



PINUS CHIHUAHUANA, EnSelm 

o 



A. RLocreuaz direcc-. 



Imp. J'. TazLeur, Parir. 



conifers. SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 89 



PINUS CONTORTA. 

Scrub Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, dark green, from 1 to 2 inches in length. Cones oval or 
subcylindrical, oblique, from f to 2 inches long, their scales armed with slender prickles. 

Pinus contorta, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2292, f. 2210, 2211 Pinus inops, Bongard, MSm. Phys. Math, et Nat. pt. ii. 

(1838). — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 117. — Endlicher, Syn. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ii. 163 ( Veg. Sitcha) (not 

Conif. 168. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Aiton) (1831). — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 161 (in 

Conif. 364. — Torrey, Pacific B. B. Bep. iv. pt. v. 141. — part). — Ledebour, Fl. Boss. iii. 676. — Herder, Act. Sort. 

Gordon, Pinetum, 165. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 133, Petrop. xii. 86 (PI. Badd.). 

141 (in part). — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. Pinus Banksiana, Linclley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 

24. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 81 (in part). — Parlatore, De Lond. v. 218 (in part) (not Lambert) (1850). 

Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 381 (in part). — Watson, Pinus Boursieri, Carriere, Bev. Hort. 1854, 225, f. ; Fl. 

King's Bep. v. 330. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 301. — des Serres, ix. 200, £. ; Traite Conif. 398. — Se'ne'clauze, 

Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 182 ; Brewer & Conif. 132. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 82. — Hansen, Jour. 

Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 126 ; Gard. Chron. u. ser. xix. 351. — B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 351 (Pinetum Danicum). 

Veitch, Man. Conif. 145. — Kellogg, Trees of California, Pinus muricata, Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 227, 317 

65. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. (not D. Don) (1866). 

ix. 194. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 109. — Regel, Pinus Bolanderi, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 47. — Lemmon, Bep. California 379 (1869). 

State Board Forestry, ii. 72, 92, t. (Pines of the Pacific Pinus contorta, var. Bolanderi, Vasey, Bep. Dept. Agric. 

Slope) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 28. — Steele, Proc. JJ. S. 1875, 177 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (1876). — 

Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 236 (The Pines of Calif or- Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 37. —Lemmon, West- American 

nia). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. iii. 333, t. 8, f. — Beiss- Cone-Bearers, 29. 

ner, Handb. Nadelh. 219. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. Pinus contorta, var. (b) Hendersoni, Lemmon, West- 

xiv. 227. — Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 356 (Pine- American Cone-Bearers, 30 (1895). 
turn Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 36. 

A tree, usually fifteen or twenty or occasionally thirty feet tall, with a short trunk rarely more 
than eighteen inches in diameter and comparatively stout branches which form a round-topped compact 
and symmetrical or an open picturesque head, and sometimes fertile when only a few inches in 
height. 1 The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness and is 
deeply and irregularly divided by vertical and cross fissures into small oblong plates covered with 
closely appressed dark red-brown scales tinged with purple or orange-color ; on smaller stems and large 
branches it is thin, smooth, and dark or light red-brown. The branch-buds are ovate, acute, and from 
one quarter to nearly one half of an inch in length, and covered by long-pointed dark chestnut-brown 
scales scarious and more or less broken on the margins, those of the outer ranks being usually loosely 
imbricated and much reflexed above the middle ; while those of the inner ranks soon become reflexed on 
the growing shoots and, losing their tips, continue for years to roughen with their thickened dark brown 
bases the stout branches. These, when they first appear, are glabrous and light orange-color, and, 
gradually growing darker during their second and third seasons, finally become dark red-brown or 

1 Lemmon (Erythea, ii. 174) describes trees growing in rich loam miles along the coast of Mendocino County are covered with cone- 
near the mouth of the Noyo River in Mendocino County, Calif or- bearing plants of Pinus contorta and Cupressus Goveniana only a 
nia, near the southern limits of the range of this species, from fifty few inches high, while in the better soil and more abundant mois- 
to eighty feet tall, with trunks from two to five feet in diameter ture of depressions in this plain they sometimes rise to a height of 
covered with deeply rimose bark two inches thick. These trees are thirty feet, 
exceptionally large. The white clay barrens which stretch for 



90 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

occasionally almost black. The leaves are borne in clusters of two, with loose scarious sheaths from one 
quarter to nearly one third of an inch in length, their inner scales falling during the first summer or 
autumn and leaving only the narrow bases of the sheaths, which thicken and become almost black and 
fall with the leaves, usually in their seventh or eighth year ; they are acute with short callous tips, 
finely and sharply serrate, dark green, stomatiferous with from six to ten rows of deep-set stomata on 
each face, from an inch to an inch and a half long and about one twenty-fourth of an inch wide, and 
contain two fibro-vascular bundles and one or two parenchymatous resin passages surrounded by 
strengthening cells, which also occur in a single nearly continuous layer under the epidermis. 1 The 
staminate flowers are borne in short crowded spikes and are cylindrical and about half an inch long, 
with orange-red anthers terminating in semiorbicular nearly entire crests, and are surrounded by invo- 
lucres of six bracts. The pistillate flowers are subterminal or rarely lateral, clustered or in pairs, erect 
or nearly horizontal, borne on stout peduncles covered by ovate acute dark chestnut-brown bracts, and 
subcylindrical, with orange-red ovate scales gradually narrowed into elongated tips. During their first 
winter the young cones are oval, spreading or erect, and from one half to three quarters of an inch 
in length, with much thickened light red-brown scales produced into long slender points ; and when 
ripe in the following autumn they are oval or subcylindrical, usually very oblique at the base, horizontal, 
often clustered, light green, and from three quarters of an inch to two inches in length, with thin 
slightly concave scales rounded at the apex, their exposed parts being transversely keeled and slightly 
thickened into narrow oblong dark umbos armed with long slender more or less recurved often decid- 
uous prickles, or toward the base of the cone, and especially on the upper side, the exposed portions 
of the scales are developed into thick mammillate knobs ; at maturity they become light yellow-brown 
and lustrous, sometimes opening and exposing the bright red-purple inner portion of the scales, and 
losing their seeds as soon as ripe ; or more often they are serotinous, remaining unopened on the 
branches and preserving the vitality of their seeds for many years, although most of them eventually 
open before falling and continue to cover for many seasons longer the stems and branches. The seeds 
are oblique at the apex, acute below, dark red-brown mottled with black, and about one sixteenth of an 
inch in length, with a thin brittle coat and an embryo with four or five cotyledons ; their wings are thin, 
pale brown, widest above the base, gradually tapering toward the oblique apex, and half an inch long. 

Rimes contorta is distributed from Alaska, where it grows near the coast as far north, at least, as 
the shores of Cross Sound, 2 usually in sphagnum-covered bogs, southward in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the coast to the valley of the Albion River in Mendocino County, California, south of 
the northern boundary of the United States, generally inhabiting sand dunes and barrens, or occa- 
sionally, near the shores of Puget Sound, the margins of tide pools and sphagnum-covered swamps. 
Spreading inland, it ascends the coast ranges and western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, 3 where it 
is not common, and where it gradually changes its habit and appearance, the thick dark deeply 
furrowed bark of the coast form being found only near the ground, that which is higher on the stem 
being thin, light-colored, and more inclined to separate into scales, while the leaves are often longer 
and broader. In British Columbia, Oregon, and Washington such trees are found, either singly or 
in small groves, scattered over the coast ranges and on the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains 
up to elevations of four or five thousand feet above the sea. Farther east they grow taller, their 
bark is thinner, and their leaves broader, and insensibly through innumerable forms the Pine of the 
wind-swept coast dunes passes into the Lodge Pole or Tamarack Pine 4 of the interior. 5 This is a tree, 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 305. the best support for the Indian tepees, while in California it is as 

2 Rothrock, Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 455 (Fl. Alaska). — Meehan, generally known as Tamarac, from the resemblance of the narrow 
Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 92. — F. Kurz, Bot. Jahrb. xix. 425 (Fl. spire-like heads which it produces on the high Sierras to those of 
Chilcatgebietes). — M. W. Gorman, Pittonia, iii. 69. the Larch-tree of the eastern states. 

3 Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 94. — Henderson, Zoe, ii. 207. 5 Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, Engelmann, Brewer &f Watson 

4 In the northern Rocky Mountains this tree is almost universally Bot. Cal. ii. 126 (1880). — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 433. — 
called Lodge Pole Pine, because its long slender stems afforded 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



usually seventy or eighty but often one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a trunk generally 
from two to three but occasionally five or six feet in diameter, and slender much forked branches 
frequently persistent nearly to the base of the stem, which are light orange-color during their early 
years and somewhat pendulous below, and ascending near the top of the tree form a narrow pyramidal 
spire-topped head. In the extreme form the bark of the trunk is rarely more than a quarter of an inch 
in thickness, close and firm, light orange-brown, and covered by small thin loosely appressed scales. 
The leaves are yellow-green and usually about two inches long, although they vary from one to three 
inches in length, and are from one sixteenth to nearly one eighth of an inch in width. The cones 
occasionally open as soon as ripe but are usually serotinous, preserving the vitality of their seeds 
sometimes for twenty years. 1 



Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 219. — Masters, Jour. R. Hart. Soc. xiv. 
227. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 37. 

Pinus inops, Bentham, PL Hartweg. 337 (not Aiton) (1857). 
Pinus Murrayana, A. Murray, Rep. Oregon Exped. 2, t. 3, 62 
(1853) ; Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. n. ser. xi. 226 ; Trans. Bot. 
Soc. Edinburgh, vi. 351. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 1(M 
Census U. S. ix. 194. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board 
Forestry, ii. 72, 92, t. (Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West- American 
Cone-Bearers, 30, t. 4. — Steele, Proc. A m. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 
236 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 348, t. 
8, f. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 378 (Pinetum Dani- 
cum). — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death 
Valley Exped. ii.). 

Pinus contorta, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 34, 90, 
t. 5, f. 11 (not Loudon) (1857). — Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. 
ser. 2, xxxiv. 332. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 141 (in part). — 
Cooper, Am. Nat. iii. 409. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
pt. ii. 381 (in part). — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xix. 45, f. 5. 
Pinus Tamrac, A. Murray, Gard. Chron. 1869, 191, f. 1-9. 
Pinus contorta, var. latifolia, Watson, King's Rep. v. 331 
(1871). — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hoyden's Surv. Misc. 
Pub. No. 4, 129. — Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 262. 

Pinus Murrayana, var. Sargentii, Mayr, I. c. 349 (1890). 
It would probably be hopeless to try to convince a person who had 
seen these trees only on the high California Sierras, in the Yellow- 
stone National Park, and on the sand dunes of the Pacific coast, 
that Pinus Murrayana and Pinus contorta were forms of one species, 
although they do not differ in their organs of reproduction except 
in the size of the cones, which varies considerably on different 
individuals. The extreme forms vary in their habit, in the thick- 
ness, color, and nature of their bark, in the character of their 
wood, in the length and breadth of their leaves, and in the size of 
their cones ; one is a tall pyramidal tree of high mountains and 
plateaus with orange-colored bark thinner than that of any other 
Pine and soft straight-grained wood with inconspicuous summer 
cells and more like that of a White Pine or of a Spruce than of a 
Pinaster, and with broad yellow-green leaves ; the other is a low 
round-headed coast tree with stout contorted branches, thick dark 
deeply furrowed bark, coarse-grained wood conspicuously marked 
by broad dark bands of resinous summer cells, and slender dark 
oreen leaves. In the region, however, between the coast and the 
northern Rocky Mountains there are other forms, some with broad 
and others with narrow leaves, some with bark as rough as that of 
the coast tree, and others with the thin bark of the mountain tree ; 
on some trees dark thick bark occurs only at the base of the trunk, 
on others it extends several feet above it and gradually passes into 
the thin orange-colored bark of the mountain tree. The wood, too, 
of the trees of the Olympic and Cascade Mountains, of the ranges 



of western Washington and Oregon, and of northern Idaho and 
Montana, varies like the bark, and individuals may be found grow- 
ing under apparently identical conditions with the pale soft wood 
of one form and with the dark resinous wood of the other ; and 
after wandering for months among these trees and seeing them in 
all their aspects, on the Yellowstone plateau, in northern Montana 
and Idaho, on the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, on the Cas- 
cades and the Olympics, along the coast from the shores of the 
Straits of Fuca to those of Humboldt Bay, on the borders of alpine 
meadows and the moraines of the Sierra Nevada, and on the moun- 
tains of Colorado, the conclusion forced itself upon me that a single 
species, greatly changed in some respects by its surroundings in 
different localities, but always with the same organs of reproduc- 
tion, extends over this wide region. 

1 In 1874 Dr. George Engelmann gathered on the Rocky Moun- 
tains of Colorado a branch of Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, bear- 
ing closed cones, which had ripened during each of the previous 
nine years, with the exception of 1867, when none had been pro- 
duced. In the spring of 1879 seeds from the cones of each year 
were planted at the Arnold Arboretum. Those from the cones 
which had ripened in 1866 did not germinate, but a part of the 
seeds of later years produced seedlings, showing that the seeds of 
this tree may preserve their vitality in closed cones for as long a, 
period as nine years, although under ordinary conditions Pine seeds 
are extremely perishable. (See Sargent, Bot. Gazette, v. 54. — 
Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, v. 62.) 

This special arrangement for protecting the vitality of its seeds, 
and their power to germinate quickly on burnt soil after liberation, 
have enabled Pinus contorta to maintain itself against adverse con- 
ditions and to play a controlling part in determining the character 
of the forests over large areas in the northern Rocky Mountain 
region. Fires are constantly sweeping through these forests, kill- 
ing, without consuming, these highly resinous trees, of which they 
are now at certain altitudes often almost exclusively composed. 
The heat opens the cones and liberates the seeds of many years, 
and these, falling in immense numbers on the burnt surface of the 
ground, germinate quickly, and, growing rapidly, soon cover it to 
the exclusion of other plants, forming such dense forests that a 
man can hardly find passage between the slender stems of its trees. 
These trees begin to bear cones profusely when only a few years 
old, and are soon ready to furnish seeds to repair the damage of 
another fire. This alternate burning of older trees and springing 
up of crops of seedlings on the same ground may go on for genera- 
tions ; and it is common to see on the Rocky Mountains the dead 
trunks of three or four crops standing over a dense young growth. 
In this way the Lodge Pole Pine is not only able to hold its own on 
ground of which it has once taken possession, but also to gain and 
maintain a foothold where fire has destroved other trees less well 



92 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

Pinus contort a, var. Murray ana, is common on the Alaska hills, where it sometimes attains a 
height of one hundred feet and a trunk diameter of eighteen inches, 1 and finds its most northerly home 
in the valley of the Yukon River. It is the prevailing and characteristic tree on the interior plateau of 
northern British Columbia, crossing the Rocky Mountains to the hills between the Athabasca River 
and Lesser Slave Lake, and spreading southward along their eastern foothills at elevations of about 
four thousand feet above the level of the sea to the Cypress Hills in southern Assiniboia ; it is common 
in the interior of southern British Columbia on sandy benches and river flats and on mountain slopes 
above a level of three thousand five hundred feet, often covering with dense forests great areas of 
sandy soil in the basin of the upper Columbia. 2 In the United States the Lodge Pole Pine forms 
forests on both slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana ; it is the prevailing tree on the Yellowstone 
plateau in northwestern Wyoming, which at elevations from seven thousand to seven thousand five 
hundred feet it covers with a dense nearly continuous forest; 3 it is also common on the Big Horn 
and other mountain ranges of Wyoming, extending southward to those of southern Colorado, where 
it abounds at elevations from ten to eleven thousand feet above the sea, 4 and to eastern Utah ; from 
the western slope of the Rocky Mountains of Montana it spreads over the Bitter Root Mountains 
of Idaho and over the ranges of eastern Washington and Oregon, where, usually at elevations 
from four thousand five hundred to five thousand feet, it forms on high ridges great continuous 
forests ; it is common on the mountains of northern California and ranges southward along the Sierra 
Nevada, where it attains its greatest size and beauty and is the principal inhabitant of the alpine 
forest, growing above the Firs on moraines extending for miles along the sides of rocky valleys at 
elevations between eight thousand and nine thousand five hundred feet above the sea-level, and on 
the rich alluvium of sheltered lake bottoms, where, four or five inches in diameter and forty or fifty 
feet in height, 5 its stems are crowded like blades of grass ; on Gray Back of the San Bernardino Range 
in southern California it forms the timber line, at heights of about ten thousand feet, with a nearly 
continuous belt, descending three thousand feet lower with individuals scattered through the forest of 
Yellow Pine, and in Bear Valley among the San Jacinto Mountains it finds its most southerly home 
with small scattered groves at elevations of six thousand feet. 6 

The wood of Pinus contorta is light, hard, strong, although brittle and coarse-grained ; it is light 
brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad very conspicuous bands of 
small resinous summer cells, numerous small resin passages, and many obscure medullary rays. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5815, a cubic foot weighing 36.24 pounds. On the 
coast of California it is used for fuel. The wood of the variety Murrayana is light, soft, not strong, 
close, straight-grained, and easily worked but not durable ; it is light yellow or nearly white, with thin 
lighter colored sapwood, and contains narrow inconspicuous bands of small summer cells, few small 

able to reproduce themselves under unnatural conditions ; and re- ing abundantly on the Stikive immediately east of the coast moun- 

gions formerly clothed with Spruces, Firs, and other Pines appear tains and thence inland ; and on the Dease and upper Liard and 

destined to receive a forest-covering of Pinus contorta, which, al- from the mouth of the Dease down the Liard to Devil's Portage, 

though comparatively worthless as a timber-tree, is of inestimable some miles east of the range which apparently represents the 

value in preserving the integrity of mountain slopes and protecting northern continuation of the Rocky Mountains. Farther east Pinus 

the flow of mountain streams. divaricata is the Pine of the great valley of the Mackenzie, although 

1 M. W. Gorman, Pittonia, iii. 69. it does not extend west of the Rocky Mountains to the head-waters 

2 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. ser. 2, ix. 327. — Macoun, Cat. Can. of the Liard. Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, does not occur on 
PI. 466. the upper Pelly, in ascending which it was first met with by Dr. 

" On the authority of Mr. W. H. Dall the northern limit of this Dawson in longitude 133° 30'. From this point down the Pelly 

tree has been given at the confluence of the Pelly and Lewis Rivers and up the whole length of the Lewes it is moderately abundant 

(lat. 62° 49' north) ; but as it there shows no sign of having reached (G. M. Dawson, I. c). 

its extreme point, it may probably be found some distance farther 3 Tweedy, Garden and Forest, i. 129 (Forests of the Yellowstone 

northward in the Yukon valley, although not so far as the mouth National Park). 
of the Porcupine in latitude 63° 33'." (G. M. Dawson, Garden and 4 Brandegee, Bot. Gazette, iii. 32. 

Forest, i. 59.) 5 Muir, The Mountains of California, 200. 

Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, was found by Mr. Dawson grow- 6 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 351. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



93 



resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.4096, a cubic foot weighing 25.53 pounds. It is occasionally manufactured into lumber, and is 
also used for railway ties and mine timbers, and as fuel. 

In Alaska a sort of coarse bread is made from the inner bark ; 1 and in eastern Oregon the cam- 
bium layer of the variety Murray ana is sometimes eaten by Indians, who make baskets from sections 
of the bark of this tree to hold berries. 2 

Pinus contorta was discovered on the mountains above the head of the Jefferson River by Lewis 
and Clark in August, 1805, as they were crossing the Rocky Mountains ; 3 and on the second of 
November they encountered what was probably the coast form near the mouth of the Columbia 
River. 4 

Introduced into English gardens in 1831 by David Douglas, who first made it known to science, 
the coast tree is occasionally cultivated in Europe, although it has little to recommend it as an orna- 
mental plant. 5 The variety Murrayana, which in its name commemorates Andrew Murray, 6 was 
found by John Jeffrey on the Siskiyou Mountains in northern California and by him was introduced 
into Europe. This form has proved hardy in eastern Massachusetts, where it has been cultivated in 
the Arnold Arboretum since 1875, and has produced cones, although, like the other Pines from the 
Rocky Mountains, it suffers when transferred to the Atlantic seaboard from fungal diseases. 



1 When the sap rises at the end of June or early in July the 
Alaska Indians fell the trees of this Pine and of the Hemlock 
and strip off the bark in pieces ten or twelve feet long. The inner 
bark is then brought into camp in canoes, picked by the women into 
small pieces, mixed with water into a consistent mass, and moulded 
in frames into cakes about eleven inches square. A hole is then 
dug in the ground and sand or small stones placed on the bottom 
and thoroughly heated. The fire is then removed and a layer of 
the fresh leaves of the western Skunk Cabbage (Lysichiton Kam- 
tschatcensis, Schott) is placed over them. A layer of cakes is placed 
on these leaves, and this process is repeated until there are five or 
six layers of cakes. On top of the whole, damp moss or seaweed is 
piled, a fire is built, and the whole mass is cooked for about an 
hour. The cakes are then removed and placed on Thuya slats in 
a smoke-house, and smoked for four or five days, when they will 
keep indefinitely. After cooking and smoking, the cakes are put 
up in oblong bundles somewhat resembling a quintal of codfish, and 
are covered by long strips of matting made of Thuya bark, and 
securely tied by ropes of this bark for convenience of transport in 
canoes. The bread is used by breaking the cake into pieces, pour- 
ing hot or boiling water over them until they become soft, and then 
placing them on the snow to cool, and covering them with ulikon 
grease, when they are ready to eat. Sometimes the cake is broken 
into pieces, and these are put into stone mortars and reduced to 
powder, which is sprinkled over boiled smoked salmon or other 
food. Children and young adults eat the bread with apparent 
relish in its natural state ; but older people are unable to do this 
because their teeth are worn down by long-continued use in eating 
dried smoked salmon and other hard substances. 

This preparation from the bark of Pinus contorta is usually eaten 
within a few days after it has been cooked, as, if it is kept for any 
length of time, it develops a resinous flavor that is not palatable 
even to an Alaskan Indian. The Hemlock-bark bread, however, 
can be kept indefinitely, and is therefore usually put up for winter 
use (M. W. Gorman in litt.). 



2 Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 89. 

3 The " mountains continue high on each side of the valley, but 
their only covering is a small species of Pitch Pine with a short 
leaf, growing on the lower and middle regions, while for some dis- 
tance below the snow-tops there is neither timber nor herbage of 
any kind." (History of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and 
Clark, ed. Coues, ii. 457. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 28.) 

4 History. of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and Clark, 
I. c. 668. — Sargent, I. c. 29. 

5 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1070. 

6 Andrew Murray (1812-1878) was born in Edinburgh, and, 
being educated for the law, obtained the position of Writer to the 
Signet, although his predilections were for natural history, in which 
he became interested as a boy. While best known, perhaps, as an 
entomologist, he wrote a number of papers on botany, especially on 
the Conifers of Japan and of western North America. He was 
chosen secretary of the association which sent Jeffrey to America, 
and, with Professor Balfour, described many of the plants that he 
discovered. In 1858 Mr. Murray was elected president of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh, and two years later, having been 
made assistant secretary of the Horticultural Society of London, he 
established himself in that city, and devoted the remainder of his 
life to the affairs of the society and to the publication of numer- 
ous scientific papers and Lawson's Pinetum Britanicum, of which he 
was one of the editors. His most important dendrological papers 
are a circular addressed to the subscribers of the Oregon Associa- 
tion, probably printed in 1853, and containing the first descriptions 
and figures of several western American Conifers ; two papers on 
California Conifers, published in 1855 and 1859 in the Edinburgh 
New Philosophical Journal ; The Pines and Firs of Japan, first pub- 
lished in 1862 in the Proceedings oj the Royal Horticultural Society, 
and a paper on the Synonymy of Various Conifers, published a year 
later in the Proceedings of that society. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXVII. Pinus contorta. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, lower side, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. A cluster of young leaves, natural size. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

18. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Plate DLXVIII. Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone, from a tree of an intermediate form from the Siskiyou 

Mountains, Oregon, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, lateral view, natural size. 

12. Seeds, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

16. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

17. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXVII. 




C.E.Fatzorudel,. 



JlFigri&aua> 



PINUS CONTORTA,Loud. 

A.RLocreuco direo^ Imp.J.ran&ur.Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXVIII. 




CE-FcuEon d&L. 



MiffTieaiMz- jc. 



PINUS CONTORTA,var.MURRAYANA, EnSelm 



A.Riocreiia: dir&x.. 



Imp. I. Taneur l Paris. 



CONIPERiE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



95 



PINUS SABINIANA. 
Digger Pine. Bull Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, stout, pale blue-green, from 8 to 12 inches in length. 
Cones oval, acute, from 6 to 10 inches long, their scales produced into prominent 
knobs armed with stout straight or slightly incurved spines. 



Pinus Sabiniana, Douglas, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvi. 747 
(1833). — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Forbes, Pine- 
turn Woburn. 63, t. 23, 24. — Lawson & Son, Agric. 
Man. 353; List No. 10, Abietinece, 33. —Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. ii. 162. — Antoine, Conif. 30, t. 11. — Hooker 
& Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 393. — Link, Linncea, xv. 
509. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 110, t. 113. — Spach, Hist. 
Veg. xi. 390. — De Chambray, Traite Arb. Res. Conif. 
347. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 159. — Knight, Syn. 
Conif. 30. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
v. 216. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 398. — Planehon, Fl. des 
Serves, ix. 275, t. 964. — Carriere, Traite Conif 334. — 
Torrey & Gray, Pacific R. R. Rep. ii. 130. — J. M. Bige- 
low, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 25. — Torrey, Pacific 
R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 210, 
t. 57 ; Ives 1 Rep. pt. iv. 28. — Courtin, Fam. Conif 80. — 
Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 39, 90, f. 13. — 
Gordon, Pinetum, 208. — Walpers, Ann. v. 799. — Bo- 
lander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 226, 318. — Henkel & Hoch- 
stetter, Syn. Nadelh. 75. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 85, 



t. 11, t. 1-3. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 129. — Hoopes, 
Evergreens, 121. — Se'ne'clauze, Conif 129. — Parlatore, 
De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 391. — K. Koch ; Dendr. 
ii. pt. ii. 312. — Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 
375 ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 182. — Brewer & Wat- 
son, Bot. Cal. ii. 127. — Veitch, Man. Conif 169. — 
Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 55. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 195. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 111 — Lemmon, Rep. California 
State Board Forestry, ii. 75, 105, t. (Pines of the Pacific 
Slope) ; West- American Cone-Bearers, 39. — Steele, Proc. 
Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 241 (The Pines of California). — 
Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 277, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. 
Nadelh. 256. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 391. — 
Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 391 (Pinetum Dani- 
cum). — Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 339 
(Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S.Nat. 
Herb. iv. 223 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 35. 



A tree, usually forty or fifty but occasionally eighty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet 
in diameter divided generally fifteen or twenty feet above the ground into three or four stout secondary 
stems ; these spread at first at narrow angles, and then become erect and are clothed with short crooked 
branches which, pendent below and ascending toward the summit of the tree, form an open round- 
topped head remarkable among Pines for the sparseness of its foliage. The hark of the trunk is from 
an inch and a half to two inches in thickness, dark brown slightly tinged with red, or nearly black, and 
deeply and irregularly divided into great thick rounded connected ridges covered with small closely 
appressed scales. The winter branch-buds are oblong-ovate, acute and abruptly contracted at the apex 
into short points, the terminal bud, which varies from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in 
length, being about twice as large as the lateral buds ; they are covered with lanceolate light chestnut- 
brown lustrous scales more or less fringed on the scarious margins and soon deciduous, their thickened 
bases roughening the branches for many years ; these are stout and glabrous, and in their first year are 
pale glaucous blue, becoming dark brown or nearly black during their second season. The leaves are 
borne in clusters of two, with lustrous pale chestnut-brown sheaths at first an inch in length and after 
the first season thick, close and firm, nearly black, and not more than half an inch long, falling with the 
leaves, usually in their third and fourth years ; the leaves are acute with long slender callous tips, 
sharply and coarsely serrate toward the apex, mostly entire below, flexible, pendent, pale blue-green, 
from eight to twelve inches long and about one sixteenth of an inch wide ; they are stomatiferous 
with many rows of conspicuous stomata on each face, and contain two or three parenchymatous resin 



96 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

ducts surrounded with strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis, usually in a single 
layer. 1 The staminate flowers, which are produced in elongated spikes, are oblong and nearly an inch 
in length, with yellow anthers terminating in semiorbicular dentate crests, and are surrounded by 
involucres of from ten to fifteen bracts, those of the exterior pair being minute. The pistillate flowers 
are borne on stout glaucous peduncles which at first spread from the stem and then ascend and 
bend inward and are from an inch and a half to two inches long and covered by ovate acute light 
chestnut-brown bracts ; they are oblong-obovate, about half an inch long and a third of an inch thick, 
with ovate dark purple glaucous scales gradually narrowed into long slender incurved points. The 
young cones soon become reflexed, and during their first winter and the following spring they are 
subglobose or oblong, about an inch and a half in length, with pale glaucous much thickened scales, 
flattened and straight or incurved at the apex, which is furnished with a short stout sharp tip ; and 
when fully grown in the autumn they are oblong-ovate, full and rounded below, pointed, light red- 
brown, from six to ten inches long and from four to six inches broad, with thin and slightly concave 
scales about an inch wide at the rounded apex, their exposed portions being conspicuously trans- 
versely keeled and narrowed into prominent flattened knobs which are erect or incurved above the 
middle of the cone, strongly reflexed below, and armed with short sharp hooked spur-like incurved 
spines ; the cones ripen in the autumn and gradually lose their seeds, often remaining on the branches 
for several years. The seeds are oblong, full and rounded below, somewhat compressed toward the 
apex, about three quarters of an inch long and a third of an inch wide, and dark brown or nearly black, 
with a thick hard coat produced into narrow lateral ridges which are broadest above the middle of the 
seed, a resinous oily kernel, and an embryo with fifteen or sixteen cotyledons ; they are inclosed by 
their wings, which are much thickened on the inner rim, obliquely rounded at the broad apex, and 
about a third of an inch longer than the seeds. 

Pinus Sabiniana, growing singly or in small groups, is scattered over the dry foothills of western 
California, ranging from about five hundred up to four thousand feet above the sea-level and from the 
southern slopes of the great cross range which forms the northern barrier of the state southward to 
the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra de la Liebre ; 2 it is most abundant and grows to its largest 
size on sun-baked slopes in the middle of the state, where at an elevation of about two thousand feet, 
mixed with Quercus Douglasii and great thickets of Ceanothus and Manzanita, it is often the most 
conspicuous feature of the vegetation, differing from all other Pines in its habit and in its long pale 
blue tufted foliage so thin and sparse that the great branches loaded with massive cones stand out in 
bold relief against the sky. 

The wood of Pinus Sabiniana is light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, brittle and not durable ; 
it is fight brown or red, with thick yellow or nearly white sapwood and contains broad very resinous 
conspicuous bands of small summer cells, few large prominent resin passages, and numerous obscure 
medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4840, a cubic foot weighing 30.16 
pounds. 3 

Abietene, 4 a hydrocarbon, is obtained by distilling the resinous juices of Pinus Sabiniana. The 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. odor of oil of oranges. It is an article of commerce in San Fran- 

2 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 339 (Death Valley cisco, being sold under the name of abietene, evasine, aurantine, 
Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 223 (Bot. and theoline, and used for removing grease spots and other stains 
Death Valley Exped.). — S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 351. from clothing. It has been employed as an insecticide and is 

8 Pinus Sabiniana grows rapidly, especially during its early believed to possess powerful anaesthetic properties, although its 

years. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North Ameri- medicinal value has probably been overestimated. (See Wenzell, 

can Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New Am. Jour. Pharm. xliv. 97 [Abietene, a New Hydrocarbon]. — Sadt- 

York, is twenty-three inches in diameter inside the bark, with fifty- ler, Am. Jour. Pharm. Ii. 96, 293. — Thorpe, Jour. Chem. Soc. 

one layers of annual growth, the sapwood being three and three xxxv. 296 [On Heptane from Pinus Sabiniana'] ; Dictionary of Ap- 

quarters inches thick and twenty-two years old. plied Chemistry, i. 2.— Thorpe & Schorlemer, Jour. Chem. Soc. 

4 Abietene is a nearly colorless mobile aromatic liquid with the xxxviii. 213. — Trimble, Garden and Forest, x. 202.) 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 97 

large sweet slightly resinous seeds were an important article of food for the Indians of California, who 
gathered them in great quantities. 1 

Pinus Sabiniana was discovered in 1831 on the mountains near Monterey by David Douglas, who 
introduced it the following year into Europe and named it in honor of Joseph Sabine, 2 secretary of 
the Horticultural Society of London, in whose garden at Chiswick it was first cultivated. 3 Pinus 
Sabiniana may be occasionally seen in European collections, where it has attained considerable size, 4 
but the rich soil of the California foothills and the long, hot, dry summers of California are evidently 
required to develop its characteristic and peculiar beauties. 

1 Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxii. 35 (Food and Fibre him, than at any other period of its history. He was the author of 

Plants of the North American Indians). — Muir, The Mountains of a number of papers on botany and zoology published in the Trans- 

California, 148. actions of the Horticultural Society and of the Linnaean Society, 

- Joseph Sabine (1770-1837) was born in London, and, although including several devoted to the early history of the Chrysanthe- 

a lawyer by profession, devoted much attention to natural history. mum. Sabinea, a genus of trees and shrubs of the Pea family, 

In 1810 he was made secretary of the Horticultural Society of natives of the West Indies, was named for him by De Candolle. 

London, filling this position during the years when the society was 3 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2246, f. 2138-2147. 

more active and successful in introducing and cultivating exotic 4 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1326. — Gard. Chron. ser. 3, v . 44, 

plants in its gardens at Hammersmith and Chiswick, established by f . 6. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXIX. Pnsrus Sabiniana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. End of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A cone one year old, natural size. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DLXX. Pintjs Sabiniana. 

1. A cone, natural size. 

2. A seed, natural size. 

3. A wing of a seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DLXIX. 




CE-facDoru del. 



Ettl. Himehj so. 



PINUS SABINIANA, Douo-1. 

o 



AMi/screua? direa> . 



Imp. J. Toneur l Pas-it. 



Silva, of North America. 



Tab. DLXX. 




C. £ Faason, del. 



PINUS SABINIANA, Douo-1. 



Errulfimeiy 



A. Riooreuzy direcc . 



Imp. J. Ttuieur l Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 99 



PINUS COULTER! 

Pitch Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, dark blue-green, from 6 to 12 inches in 
length. Cones oval, acute, from 10 to 14 inches long, their scales much thickened into 
stout elongated umbos armed with thick spur-like incurved spines. 

Pinus Coulteri, D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 440 Kith Census U. S. ix. 195. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 

(1837). — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 67, t. 25, 26.— ed. 2, 111. — Schiibeler, Vivid. Norveg. i. 393. — Lem- 

Antoine, Conif. 31, t. 12, 13. — Link, Linncea, xv. mon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 75, 103, 

510. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 393. — t. (Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; West-American Cone- 

Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 112. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 160. — Bearers, 38, t. 6. — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 

Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietineoz, 31. — Dietrich, 1889, 240 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, Wald. 

Syn. v. 398. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 335. — Torrey, Nordam. 332, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 257. — 

Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — Corn-tin, Fam. Conif. 77. — Masters, Jour. B. Sort. Soc. xiv. 227. — Hansen, Jour. 

Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 76. — Bolander, R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 357 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 

Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 318. — Sendclauze, Conif. 125. — Deutsche Dendr. 35. 

Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 392. — Gor- Pinus macrocarpa, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxvi. Misc. 61 

don, Pinetum, ed. 2, 266. — Engelmann, Trans. St. (1840). — Knight, Syn. Conif. 30. — Lindley & Gordon, 

Louis Acad. iv. 182; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. Jour. Sort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Gordon, Pinetum, 

127. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 23, f . 1-5. — Kellogg, 201. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 117. — Hoopes, Ever- 

Trees of California, 59. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. greens, 115. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 166. 

A tree, from fifty to seventy feet in height, with a trunk sometimes four feet in diameter, 
although generally smaller, and stout limbs covered with dark scaly bark, which are long and mostly 
pendulous below and short and ascending above, the whole forming a loose unsymmetrical and often 
exceedingly picturesque head of stout branches sweeping upward, and clothed at the extremities with 
great tufts of erect rigid leaves. The bark of the trunk is from an inch and a half to nearly two 
inches in thickness, dark brown or nearly black, and deeply divided into broad rounded connected 
ridges covered with thin closely appressed scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute or abruptly 
contracted into short points, from an inch to an inch and a half long and from one half to two thirds 
of an inch broad, with lanceolate outer scales dark orange below, chestnut-brown above, scarious and 
fimbriate on the margins, and much narrower than the dark chestnut-brown scales of the inner ranks, 
which are often an inch long, and soon becoming reflexed and falling, leave their thickened persistent 
bases to roughen the branches for several years. The branchlets are often an inch in diameter, and 
when they first appear are dark orange-brown, but gradually growing darker, they sometimes become 
nearly black at the end of three or four years. The leaves are borne in clusters of three, with sheaths 
which at first are about an inch and a half in length, with thin light chestnut-brown lustrous scales 
scarious and fringed on the margins, and at maturity are thin, dark brown, half an inch long, loose and 
ragged above, and persistent with the leaves, which usually fall in their third or fourth season ; the 
leaves are stout, rigid, serrulate above the middle, mostly entire below, acuminate with long callous 
points, dark blue-green, from six to twelve inches in length, and frequently an eighth of an inch in 
width, and contain two fibro-vascular bundles, from four to ten resin ducts variable in size, sometimes 
internal, and usually surrounded with strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis in 
many layers broken into thick bundles by the numerous bands of stomata which conspicuously mark 
the three faces of the leaf. 1 The staminate flowers, which are produced in crowded clusters, are 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 306. 



100 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

cylindrical and about an inch and a half long, with yellow anthers terminating in orbicular obscurely 
denticulate crests, and are surrounded by involucres of eight or ten bracts. The pistillate flowers are 
oblong-oval, and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, with ovate dark reddish brown 
glaucous scales contracted into long incurved tips, and are raised on stout peduncles often an inch 
and a half long and covered by ovate acuminate scarious bracts. The young cones grow rapidly, 
soon becoming horizontal or pendent, and in the autumn they are oblong, full and rounded at the 
apex, about two inches long and an inch and a half thick, with broadly ovate incurved light yellow- 
brown scales rounded on the back and gradually narrowed into long rigid points ; when fully grown a 
year later the cones are oval, acute, from ten to fourteen inches long, four or five inches thick, short- 
stalked and pendent, with thick wide scales which are rounded above, their exposed portions being 
much thickened into transversely flattened elongated knobs straight or curved backward, and 
terminating in robust flattened more or less incurved spines from half an inch to an inch and a half in 
length ; they are light yellow-brown on the outer surface and dark dull purple on the covered parts of 
the scales, and, partly opening in the autumn and slowly losing their seeds, often remain for several 
years on the branches. The seeds are oval, compressed, half an inch long, from one quarter to one 
third of an inch wide, and dark chestnut-brown, with a thick coat produced into narrow lateral ridges ; 
they contain a sweet oily albumen and an embryo with from eleven to fourteen cotyledons, and are 
surrounded by their wings, which are thickened on the inner rim, thin and firm above, broadest above 
the middle, oblique at the apex, nearly an inch longer than the seeds, about five eighths of an inch 
wide, and lustrous and light chestnut-brown, with dark longitudinal stripes. 

Pinus Coulteri is scattered singly or in small groves through the coniferous forests on the dry 
slopes and ridges or the gravelly benches a of the coast ranges of California at elevations from three to 
six thousand feet above the sea from Mount Diabolo and the Santa Lucia Mountains to the Cuyamaca 
Mountains, being most abundant on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges, growing to its largest 
size at elevations of about five thousand feet on their forest-clad ridges with Pinus ponderosa, Pinus 
Lambertiana, and Abies concolor, and on dry southern slopes, where it is smaller but more abundant, 
with Pinus attenuata. 

The wood of Pinus Coulteri is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and coarse-grained ; it is light red, 
with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous very resinous bands of small summer 
cells, few large resin passages, and numerous prominent medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.4133, a cubic foot weighing 25.76 pounds. 2 It is occasionally used for fuel. 

The seeds were gathered and eaten by the Indians of southern California. 3 

Pinus Coulteri was discovered in 1832 by Thomas Coulter 4 on the Santa Lucia Mountains, and 
was introduced into English gardens, probably in the same year, by David Douglas. 5 Valuable as an 
ornamental plant only for the beauty of its massive cones, which are heavier than those of any other 
Pine-tree, Pinus Coulteri is perfectly hardy in western and central Europe, where it has already grown 
to a large size and produced its fruit. 6 

1 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 351. 3 Newberry, Popular Science Monthly, xxxti. 35 (Food and Fibre 

2 Pinus Coulteri grows rapidly, at least while young. The log Plants of the North American Indians). 
specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods, in the 4 See iii. 84. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, is twenty and 6 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2250, f . 2144, 2147. 

one half inches in diameter inside the bark, and only one hundred 6 Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 415, f . 74 ; 478 ; ser. 3, iv. 764, f. 

and eleven years old. The sapwood of this specimen is six and a, 109. 

quarter inches in thickness, with seventy-nine layers of annual 

growth. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXI. Pestus Coulteri. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A cone, one year old, natural size. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A seedling plant, natural size. 

13. A winter branch-bud, natural size. 



Plate DLXXIL Pinus Coulteri. 

1. A cone, natural size. 

2. Seeds, natural size. 

3. A seed-wing, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



■Tab.DLXXI. 




CJE.FazcoTi del. 



RcLpLTte' so. 



PINUS COULTERI, D.Don. 



A.RLocreua> direct 1 . 



Imp. J. Toneicr ,Parur . 



X 
X 
-J 

p 



O 

■ r- • 
?-• 

< 

o 
o 

GO 





o 

p 
p 



w 

E- 
P 

D 

O 

O 

CO 

p 

I — I 

fl. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



103 



PINUS RADIATA. 
Monterey Pine. 

Leaves usually in 3-leaved clusters, slender, bright green, from 4 to 6 inches in 
length. Cones oval, oblique, from 3 to 6 inches long, their scales mammillate on the 
outer side, especially below the middle, furnished with minute incurved prickles. 



Pinus radiata, D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 441 
(1836). — Lambert, Pinus, iii. t. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. 
iv. 2270, f. 2182. — Antoine, Conif. 33, t. 14, f. 3.— 
Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 392, 393 (in 
part). — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 116. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 
161. — Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iii. 226. — Law- 
son & Son, List No. 10, Abietinece, 33. — Gordon, Jour. 
Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 214, f . ; Fl. des Serres, vi. 43, f . ; 
Pinetum, 206. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 30. — Lindley & 
Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 216. — Dietrich, 
Syn. v. 398. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 337. — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif. 79. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 127. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 118. — Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 128. — K. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 307. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 
ed. 2, 110. — Sudworth, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 
328. — Lemmon, West-American Cone-Bearers, 40. 

? Pinus Californiana, Loiseleur, Nouveau Duhamel, v. 243 
(1812 ?). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2268. — Nuttall, Sylva, 
iii. 117. 

Pinus adunca, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. Suppl. iv. 418 
(1816). 

Pinus insignis, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2265, f. 2170-2172 
(1838). — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 51, 1. 18. — Antoine, 
Conif. 27, t. 8, f. 1. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. 
Beechey, 393. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 389. — Bentham, 
Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 55. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif 163. — 
Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 115. — Knight, Syn. Conif 30. — 
Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietinece, 31. — Lindley 
& Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Dietrich, 
Syn. v. 398. — Carriere, Traite Conif 339. —J. M. Bige- 
low, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 25. — Torrey, Pacific 
R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 209, 
t. 55 ; Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — Newberry, Pacific R. R. 
Rep. vi. pt. iii. 90. — Gordon, Pinetum, 197. — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif 78. — A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. 
Jour. n. ser. xi. 222 ; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vi. 
347. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 69. — Bolan- 
der, Proc. Cat. Acad. iii. 262, t. 317. — (Nelson) Senilis, 
Pinacece, 114. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 143. — Se'ne'clauze, 
Conif. 126. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



395. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 37, t. 1, 5, f . 1-14. — 
Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 182 ; Brewer & 
Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 127. — Veitch, Man. Conif 163, f. 
39. — Kellogg, Trees of California, 60. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. \§th Census TJ. S. ix. 196. — Lemmon, 
Rep. California State Board Forestry, ii. 76, 112, t. 
(Pines of the Pacific Slope). — Steele, Proc. Am. Pharm. 
Assoc. 1889, 242 (The Pines of California). — Mayr, 
Nordam. Holz. 273, t. 7, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 
271. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 230. — Hansen, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 364 (Pinetum Danicum). — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 34. 

Pinus rigida? Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 160 
(not Miller) (1833). 

Pinus Sinclairii, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 
392, 393, t. 93 (in part) (1841). — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 
141. 

Pinus tuberculata, D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 441 
(1836) ; Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 
2270, f. 2181. — Antoine, Conif. 33, t. 14, f. 2. — 
Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 394. — Endlicher, 
Syn. Conif 162. — Carriere, Traite Conif 338 (in part). — 
Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 394 (in part). 

Pinus Californica, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beecheyi 
393 (1841).— Endlicher, Syn. Conif 162. — Lawson & 
Son, List No. 10, Abietineos, 31. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 
398. — Carriere, TraitS Conif. 353. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif. 11. — Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 124. 

Pinus insignis macrocarpa, Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. iii. 226 (not Pinus macrocarpa, Lindley) (1846). — 
Carriere, Traite" Conif ed. 2, 440. 

Pinus Sinclairiana, Carriere, Traite Conif 355 (1855). 

Pinus insignis, var. (a) radiata, Lemmon, Rep. California 
State Board Forestry, ii. 76, 114 (Pines of the Pacific 
Slope) (1888). 

Pinus insignis, var. (b) laevigata, Lemmon, Rep. Califor- 
nia State Board Forestry, ii. 76, 114 (Pines of the Pa- 
cific Slope) (1888). 

Pinus radiata, var. (a) tuberculata, Lemmon, West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 41 (1895). 



A tree, from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a tall trunk usually two or three but 
occasionally five or six feet in diameter, and thick spreading branches which form an irregular narrow 
open round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from an inch and a half to two inches in thickness, 



104 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. coniferje. 

dark red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into thick appressed 
plate-like scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, from one third to one half of an inch long, 
and one quarter of an inch thick, with acuminate bright chestnut-brown scales only slightly fimbriated 
on the margins, their thickened persistent bases roughening for years the slender branchlets, which 
when they first appear are light or dark orange-color, often covered with a glaucous bloom, and 
gradually grow dark red-brown. The leaves are borne in clusters of three or rarely of two, with 
persistent sheaths which at first are thin, loose, scarious, and from one half to three quarters of an inch 
long, but soon, losing their inner scales, become thick, firm, dark brown, and about a quarter of an 
inch in length ; they are closely serrate, acute with short callous tips, bright rich green, from four to 
six inches long, about one twenty-fourth of an inch wide, and stomatif erous on the three faces ; they 
contain two fibro-vascular bundles and usually a single parenchymatous resin duct surrounded by 
strengthening cells, which also occur generally in a single interrupted layer under the epidermis ; * they 
mostly fall during their third season. The staminate flowers are produced in dense spikes from an inch 
to an inch and a half long, and are oblong and half an inch in length, with yellow anthers terminating 
in orbicular denticulate crests, and ten involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are lateral, clustered, 
raised on short stout peduncles covered by broadly ovate acute chestnut-brown bracts scarious on 
the margins, and are dark purple, with ovate scales gradually contracted into slender incurved tips, 
and conspicuous orbicular bracts. The cones at the end of their first year are ovate, horizontal, or 
slightly ascending, purple, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom, armed with minute incurved 
spines, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and about two thirds of an inch wide ; and when 
fully grown in the autumn they are short-stalked, deflexed, oval, pointed at the apex, very oblique at 
the base by a greater development of the scales on the outer than on the inner side, from three to five 
inches long and from two to three inches thick, with thin nearly flat scales deep purple below and 
rounded at the apex, their exposed portions, which are much thickened and mammillate toward the base 
on the outer side of the cone, and are thin and obscurely transversely keeled on its inner side and at 
its apex, terminating in small dark four-sided umbos furnished with minute thickened incurved or 
straight prickles ; the cones are deep chestnut-brown, lustrous, and persistent, often remaining closed 
on the branches for many years. The seeds are oval, compressed, about a quarter of an inch long, 
with a thin brittle tuberculate black coat and an embryo with from five to seven cotyledons ; their 
wings are thin, light brown, longitudinally striped, broadest above the middle, gradually narrowed 
and oblique at the apex, an inch long and about a quarter of an inch wide. 

Pinus radiata, which is most abundant and grows to its largest size on Point Pinos south of the 
Bay of Monterey, inhabits a narrow strip of the California coast from Pescadero to the shores of San 
Simeon Bay, forming an interrupted forest extending inland from the summits of sea cliffs and the 
margins of beaches and sand dunes for a distance only of a few miles, and grows also in a peculiar 
form 2 on the islands of Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz of the Santa Barbara group, and on Guadalupe 
off the coast of Lower California, on which great forests of this tree formerly existed at elevations 
between two and four thousand feet above the sea-level. 

The wood of Pinus radiata is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and close-grained ; it is light brown, 
with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains narrow conspicuous resinous bands of small summer cells 
and inconspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4574, a cubic 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. ward Palmer in 1875 on the island of Guadalupe, where it is a 

2 Pinus radiata, var. (b) binata, Lemmon, West-American Cone- large tree usually about seventy feet high, with wide-spreading 
Bearers, 42 (1895). branches, differs only in the number of the leaves, which are usu- 

Pinus insignis, var. binata, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 119 ally produced in clusters of two and sometimes on the same branch 

(1876). — Engelmann, Brewer Sf Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 128. — Sar- in clusters of two and of three, the cones appearing identical with 

gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 196. — Masters, those borne by the mainland tree. In June, 1888, this form was 

Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 231. — Franceschi, Zoe, iv. 138. found on Santa Rosa by Mr. T. S. Brandegee (Proc. Cal. Acad. 

The insular form of Pinus radiata, first discovered by Dr. Ed- ser. 2, i. pt. ii. 217). 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



105 



foot weighing 28.50 pounds. Formerly occasionally manufactured into lumber, it is now only used as 
fuel. 

Pinus radiata was introduced into English gardens in 1833 by David Douglas, who found it near 
Monterey. 1 The light green of its dense foliage and its compact bushy habit while young at once 
attracted the attention of planters; and one of the least beautiful of North American Pines as it 
grows naturally, it has been extensively used for the decoration of parks in western and southern 
Europe, where, although rather tender except in favorable positions, it has already attained a great size 
and produced noble specimens, with wide-spreading lower branches, often resting on the ground, and 
shorter and erect upper branches forming dense masses of bright green foliage. 2 Easily and cheaply 
raised from seeds and growing with remarkable rapidity, 3 the Monterey Pine has been more generally 
planted in the coast region of the Pacific states from Vancouver Island southward than any other 
conifer with the exception of the Monterey Cypress, and it has been successfully introduced into the 
southeastern states, Mexico, Australia, 4 New Zealand, and other regions with temperate climates. 



1 Colligon, a gardener who accompanied La Pe"rouse on his ill- 
fated voyage of discovery, in 1787 sent to the Muse'um d'Histoire 
Naturelle in Paris a Pine cone believed to have been gathered at 
Monterey, and said to resemble that of the Maritime Pine of 
Europe, but with the large seeds of Pinus Cembra. Twelve plants 
were raised from these seeds, and were described about 1812 by 
Loiseleur de Longchamps as Pinus Califomianu. Judging by the 
locality where Colligon is supposed to have obtained his cone, it 
might well belong to the Monterey Pine ; but the large seeds sug- 
gest another species, while the description of the plants raised from 
them might apply as well to several other trees as to this. It is 
necessary, therefore, to pass over what is perhaps the earliest name 
of this tree as well as the specific name, adunca, published in 1816, 
and supposed to refer to the Cultivated plants raised from Colli- 
gon's seeds. (See Nouveau Duhamel, v. 243. — Lemmon, Erythea, 
i. 224.) 

Pinus Sinclairii (Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 392, t. 
93), published in 1840 or 1841, was founded on a cone of Pinus 
Montezumce from Tepic in Mexico and on foliage of Pinus radiata, 
while Pinus radiata of these authors is made up from the leaves of 
the former species and the cone of the latter. (See Engelmann, 
Brewer §• Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 128.) 



2 Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1070. — Gard. Chron. n. ser. ix. 
108, f. 22, 23 ; xviii. 492, ser. 3, ix. 337, f. 77 ; xiv. 725, 757, 808 ; 
xv. 21. — The Garden, xxxvi. 47, f . — J. G. Jack, Garden and For- 
est, vi. 14. 

3 Pinus radiata grows with great rapidity even in the most ex- 
posed positions and on apparently barren soil. The log specimen 
in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, is seventeen and three 
quarters inches in diameter inside the bark, and twenty-eight years 
old ; the sapwood of this specimen is six and one eighth inches 
thick, with eighteen layers of annual growth. Many of the trees 
covering that part of Point Pinos called Pacific Grove had trunk 
diameters of two feet in 1888, when they were only from twenty to 
thirty years old ; and the largest trees on this point, with trunks 
from four to six feet in diameter, are not more than one hundred 
years old, some of their layers of annual growth being an inch in 
thickness. (See Lemmon, Rep. California State Board of Forestry, 
ii. 114 [Pines of the Pacific Slope}.') 

4 F. Mueller, Select Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture 
or Naturalization in Victoria, 175. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXIII. Pinub radiata. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Plate DLXXIV. Pinus radiata. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva. of North America. 



Tab. DLXXIII. 




C E. Faccon, d&l. 



PINUS RAD I ATA, D. Don. 

A.Riocreua} direcc^ Imp. J.Taneur, Parir. 



Rapine' so. 



Silva, of North America. 



Tab. DLXXIV. 




C.£.Taa>orv del. 



Em*. Jfimeh/ se>. 



PINUS RAD I ATA, D.Don. 

A. 7tu>creua> direcc*- Imp . J. Taneur, Paru. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 107 



PINUS ATTENUATA. 
Knob-cone Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, pale yellow-green, from 5 to 7 inches in 
length. Cones elongated-conical, oblique at the base, clustered, from 3 to 5 inches 
long, their scales unequally embossed, armed with stout prickles. 

Pinus attenuata, Lemmon, Mining and Scientific Press, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 394 (in part). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. 

Jan. 16, 1892 ; Garden and Forest, v. 65 ; Erythea, i. ii. 309. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 183 ; 

231; West-American Cone-Bearers, 42, t. 7. — Sudworth, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 128. — Veitch, Man. 

Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 329. — Coville, Contrib. Conif. 170. — Kellogg, Trees of California, 62. — Sar- 

XI. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 221 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.). gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 196. — 

Pinus Calif ornica, Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Bond. ii. Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 110. — Masters, Gard. 

189 (not Hooker & Arnott) (1847). Chron. n. ser. xxiv. 786, f. 183, 184 ; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. 

Pinus tuberculata, Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Bond. iv. xiv. 241. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board For- 

218, f. (not D. Don) (1849); Fl. des Serres, v. 517°, estry, ii. 76, 116, t. (Pines of the Pacific Slope). — Steele, 

f. ; Pinetum, 211. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietin- Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 243 (The Pines of Cali- 

ece, 35. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 398. — A. Murray, Rep. fornia). — Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 2? '4, t. 6, 7, f. — Beiss- 

Oregon Exped. 2, t. 2, f. 2. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. ner, Handb. Nadelh. 270. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 

Nadelh. 78 (in part). — Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. Soc. xiv. 399 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche 

262, 317. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i. 93, t. 13, f . 1-9. — Dendr. 34. 

Carriere, Traite* Conif \ ed. 2, 441 (in part). — Hoopes, Pinus tuberculata, var. acuta, Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 

Evergreens, 123 (excl. syn. Pinus Calif ornica). — (Nel- 275, t. 6, f. (1890). 

son) Senilis, Pinacece, 137. — Parlatore, De Candolle 

A tree, usually about twenty feet high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and often fruitful when 
only four or five feet tall, but occasionally from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a trunk two 
and a half feet in thickness and frequently divided above the middle into two ascending main stems. 
The branches are comparatively slender, and while the tree is young sweep out from the stem in regular 
remote whorls, at first horizontally and then in graceful upward curves, forming a compact or open 
broad-based pyramid which in old age becomes a narrow round-topped straggling head of sparse thin 
foliage. The bark of young stems and branches is thin, smooth, and pale brown, and on the lower 
portions of old trunks it is from a quarter to a half of an inch in thickness, dark brown often tinged 
with purple, slightly and irregularly divided by shallow connected fissures and broken into large loose 
scales, and on the upper part of the tree is smooth, close, and firm. The winter branch-buds are 
oblong-ovate, acute, from one half to two thirds of an inch long, and about a quarter of an inch thick, 
with ovate lanceolate dark chestnut-brown scales slightly fringed on the margins, those of the inner 
ranks soon becoming reflexed and falling away, while their much thickened bases roughen the branches 
for years. The branchlets are slender and glabrous, and when they first appear are dark orange-brown, 
growing darker during their second season. The leaves are borne in clusters of three, with thin close 
sheaths at first bright chestnut-brown and lustrous below, white and scarious above, and about five 
eighths of an inch long, and in their second season dark chestnut-brown, thick and firm below, loose 
and often reflexed on the margins, and about an eighth of an inch in length ; the leaves are slender, 
sharp-pointed with callous tips, coarsely and remotely serrate, firm and rigid, pale yellow, or bluish 
green, stomatiferous on their three faces, from three to seven inches but usually four or five inches 
lono- and about a sixteenth of an inch wide ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles and from two to 
five small resin passages surrounded by strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis, 



108 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

generally in a single layer. 1 The staminate flowers are produced in elongated spikes, and are 
cylindrical and about half an inch long, with orange-brown anthers terminating in irregularly toothed 
broad crests, and are surrounded by six involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are borne in fascicles 
of from two to four flowers, several fascicles often appearing on the shoot of the year, and are raised 
on short peduncles covered by broadly ovate dark chestnut-brown bracts scarious and fimbriate on the 
margins; they are oblong and about one half of an inch in length, with ovate scales terminating 
in long slender recurved points. At the end of the first season the young cones are erect, slightly 
spreading or nearly horizontal, broadly ovate, and about an inch long, with ovate incurved scales 
narrowed into slender rigid tips; and a year later, when fully grown, they are elongated-conical, 
pointed, very oblique at the base by a greater development of the scales on the upper side than on 
the lower side, short-stalked, strongly reflexed and incurved, from three to six inches long, from an 
inch and three quarters to two inches and a half thick, and light chestnut-brown, with thin flat scales 
rounded at the apex, those on the outside being enlarged into prominent transversely flattened knobs 
armed with thick flattened incurved spines, and turn upward above the middle of the cone, and are 
nearly straight below, while on the inner side of the cone the exposed portions of the scales are only 
slightly thickened and transversely keeled, and terminate in small dark umbos armed with minute 
recurved prickles. The cones remain on the stems and branches for thirty or forty years, often 
becoming completely imbedded in the bark of old trees, and usually not opening until the death of 
the tree, when they all open at once and scatter their seeds, although occasionally some of the oldest 
cones open during the life of the tree. 2 The seeds are nearly oval, compressed, rather acute at the 
apex, and a quarter of an inch long, with a thin black coat produced into a narrow margin, and an 
embryo with from five to eight cotyledons ; their wings are broadest at the middle, gradually narrowed 
to the ends, an inch and a quarter long and a third of an inch wide, light brown, lustrous, and marked 
with longitudinal narrow dark stripes. 

Pinus attenuata grows on dry generally sun-baked mountain slopes and is distributed from the 
valley of the Mackenzie River in Oregon over the mountains of southwestern Oregon, where at 
elevations between one and two thousand feet above the sea-level it is most abundant and grows to its 
largest size, often forming open nearly pure forests over large areas ; it ranges southward along the 
western slopes of the Cascade Mountains and over the cross ranges of northern California and the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, growing usually at elevations between fifteen hundred and three 
thousand feet on dry southern chaparral-covered slopes and ascending on Mt. Shasta to five thousand 
feet ; over the California coast ranges it is scattered from the Santa Cruz to the southern slopes of the 
San Bernardino Mountains, 3 where it forms a nearly continuous belt several miles long between two 
thousand five hundred and four thousand feet above the sea, mingling toward the upper limits of its 
growth with Pinus Coulteri and Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, and below forming open groves of small 
stunted trees of loose pyramidal habit, with wide-spreading lower branches. 4 

The wood of Pinus attenuata is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and coarse-grained; it is light 
brown, with thick white sapwood sometimes slightly tinged with red, and contains very broad rather 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. tion and perpetuity. (Muir, The Mountains of California, 148, as 

2 The closed cones of this tree, preserving the vitality of the Pinus tuberculata.) 

seeds for years, seem an admirable adaptation to the peculiarly 8 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 351. 

severe conditions of its surroundings, enabling it to survive the 4 Considering the dryness and exposure of the slopes it inhabits, 
fires which constantly sweep over the dry slopes where alone it Pinus attenuata grows with remarkable rapidity. The log speci- 
grows. When the trees are killed by fire, as is almost invariably men in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods, in the 
the case every few years, all the seeds produced during their lives American Museum of Natural History, New York, is twelve and 
are scattered at the same time over the ground, and, growing a half inches in diameter inside the bark and only fifty-four years 
rapidly, soon produce an abundant crop of seedlings ; in the same old. The sapwood on this specimen is one and seven eighths inches 
groves the trees are almost invariably of the same age and size, thick, with seventeen layers of annual growth. Young trees grow- 
there being no seedlings or younger plants among them to perish ing on the most arid slopes often make terminal shoots from two 
with the older trees and thus to diminish the chances of reproduc- to three feet long. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 109 

inconspicuous bands of small summer cells, numerous large prominent resin passages, and many thin 
medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3499, a cubic foot weighing 21.81 
pounds. 

Pinus attenuata was discovered in 1847 by Karl Theodor Hartweg, 1 about twenty miles north of 
Monterey on the Santa Cruz Mountains, and was introduced by him into European plantations in which 
it is still occasionally cultivated, although as an ornamental plant it has little to recommend it. 

1 See ii. 34. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXV. Pintjs attenuata. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. A cone one year old, natural size. 

12. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

13. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Plate DLXXVI. Pinus attenuata. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A scale from the inner side of a cone, side view, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. A scale from the outer side of a cone, side view, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DLXXV 




C.E. Faxon. deL. 



Rapisve so. 



PINUS ATTENUATA, Lemmon. 



A Biocreux- dire& $ 



Imp . ,_/ Tan&Lcr, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXVI. 




CE.Fcuz>oru del. 



PINUS ATTENUATA, Lemmon. 



Srrt.ffijTL&hj jc. 



A.BXooreuj} direct}'. 



Imp. J^.Taneur, Paris. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



PINUS T^JDA. 

Loblolly Pine. Old Field Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, slender, rigid, pale green, from 6 to 9 inches in length. 
Cones usually ovate-oblong, from 3 to 5 inches long, their scales armed with stout 
recurved prickles. 



Pinus Taeda, Linnaeus, Spec. 1000 (excl. hab. Canada), 
(1753). — Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 219. — Du Roi, 
Harbk. Baumz. ii. 48. — Wangenheim, Beschrieb. Nord- 
am. Holz. 210 ; Nordam. Holz. 41. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. 
Hunter, i. 277. — Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 142. — Burgs- 
dorf , Anleit. pt. ii. 162. — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 312. — Moench, Meth. 365. — WiUdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 210 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 498. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. ii. 205. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 23, t. 16, 17. — Per- 
soon, Syn. ii. 578. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 612. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 460. — Michaux, 
f . Hist. Arb. Am. i. 98, t. 9. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 245, 
t. 75, f. 2. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 644. — Nuttall, 
Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 174. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 
636. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 887. — Lawson & Son, Agric. 
Man. 351 ; List No. 10, Abietinece, 34. — Forbes, Pine- 
tum Woburn, 43, 1. 14. — Antoine, Conif. 25, t. 7, f. 1. — 
Link, Linncea, xv. 503. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 391. — 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 604. — Gihoul, Arb. Bis. 32. — End- 
licher, Syn. Conif. 164. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 30. — 
Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Die- 
trich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 344. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 210. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 81. — Chap 



man, Fl. 433. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 22. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 66. — 
(Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 136. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 
122. — Se'ne'clauze, Conif. 130. — Parlatore, De Candolle 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 393. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 304. — 
Nordlinger, Fortsbot. 399. — Bentley & Trimen, Med. PL 
iv. 259, t. 259. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 
183. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 172. — Lawson, Pinetum 
Brit. i. 89, t. 12. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 197. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 
109. — Schlibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 393. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 490. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
116, t. 7, f . — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 265. — Masters, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 241. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 
Soc. xiv. 397 {Pinetum Danicum). — Coulter, Contrib. 
V. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 554 {Man. PI. W. Texas). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 35. — Britton & Brown, HI. Fl. i. 53, f . 
118. — Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry V. S. Dept. 
Agric. 105, t. 17-20 {The Timber Pines of the Southern 
U. S.). 
Pinus Taeda, a tenuifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 368 
(1789). 



A tree, with a stout tap-root, and thick lateral roots descending deeply or spreading near the 
surface according to the nature of the soil, usually from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with a 
tall straight trunk about two feet in diameter, and in wet ground often tapering gradually from the 
slightly thickened base, or occasionally one hundred and seventy feet high, with a trunk five feet in 
diameter free of limbs for seventy or eighty feet above the ground, and with short stout much 
divided branches, the lower spreading horizontally, the upper ascending and forming a compact round- 
topped head. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness, bright red-brown, and irregularly divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges covered 
with large thin closely appressed scales. The winter branch-buds are widened from the base to above 
the middle, acute or acuminate at the apex, covered with ovate bright chestnut-brown scales contracted 
into long slender darker colored tips and separated on the margins into short filaments, the terminal 
bud, which is often twice as large as the lateral buds, being from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch in length and an eighth of an inch thick. The branchlets are slender and glabrous, and during 
their first season are brown tinged with yellow, covered with a glaucous bloom and clothed with the 
strongly reflexed ovate acute light chestnut-brown inner scales of the branch-buds, which usually fall 
during the autumn and winter, leaving their thickened bases to roughen for many years the branches, 
which grow gradually darker in their second year. The leaves are borne in clusters of three, with 



112 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

close thin sheaths at first pale chestnut-brown below, scarious above, and about an inch in length, 
and in their second year about half an inch long, dark below, and loose and lacerate on the margins, 
and are persistent with the leaves, which fall during their third year; the leaves are slender, stiff, 
slightly twisted, sharp-pointed with callous tips, closely serrulate, pale green and slightly glaucous, from 
six to nine inches long, about one sixteenth of an inch broad, and stomatiferous with from ten to 
twelve rows of large stomata on each face ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles, from three to five 
peripheral resin ducts placed irregularly, mostly near the angles of the leaf, 1 and surrounded by small 
strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis, usually in several interrupted layers and in 
clusters at the angles. The staminate flowers are crowded in short spikes and are cylindrical, incurved, 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and about three eighths of an inch thick, with yellow 
anthers terminating in nearly orbicular denticulate crests, and are surrounded by involucres of from 
eight to ten ovate lanceolate lustrous dark chestnut-brown fimbriate involucral bracts, those of the 
lower pair being much shorter than the others and strongly keeled. The pistillate flowers are lateral 
below the apex of the growing shoot, which is often five or six inches long before they appear, and are 
oblong, from one third to one half of an inch in length, solitary, in pairs or in clusters of three, with 
ovate lanceolate yellow scales gradually narrowed into long slender straight or incurved tips and minute 
orbicular bracts, and are raised on short peduncles, covered by broadly ovate dark chestnut-brown 
acuminate bracts pale and scarious on the margins. The flowers open from the middle of March on 
the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to the first of May in the middle Atlantic states. The young cones, 
after the pollination of their ovules, increase rapidly in size for a few days and then slowly during 
the remainder of the season ; 2 in their first winter they are erect or spreading, ovate-oblong, light 
reddish brown, about an inch in length and a quarter of an inch in breadth, with broadly ovate 
thickened scales rather abruptly narrowed into acicular incurved tips, and when fully grown the 
following October they are lateral, nearly sessile, ovate-oblong or broadly conical, usually about three 
but sometimes four or five inches in length, from an inch and a half to two inches in breadth, and 
light reddish brown, with thin slightly concave scales rounded at the apex and dark red or purple below, 
their exposed parts being thickened into low knobs transversely keeled and armed with short stout 
straight or reflexed prickles ; they open slowly, discharging their seeds during the autumn and winter, 
and usually remain on the branches until the end of another year. The seeds are rhomboidal, full and 
rounded, with a thin dark brown tuberculate coat blotched with black and produced into broad thin 
lateral margins, and an embryo with six or seven cotyledons, and are surrounded to the base by the 
narrow border of their wings, which are thin and fragile, pale brown and lustrous, broadest above the 
middle, an inch long and about a quarter of an inch wide. 

Pinus Tceda finds its most northerly home near Cape May in New Jersey, 3 and is common in the 
lower part of Newcastle County, Delaware, extending thence to the District of Columbia and southward 
through the maritime part of Virginia, and through eastern and middle North Carolina to Cape Malabar 
and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward through South Carolina and Georgia and the 
eastern Gulf states to the bottom-lands of the Mississippi River, spreading north a few miles beyond 
the boundary of Alabama and Mississippi into southern Tennessee ; west of the Mississippi River it 
ranges from southeastern Arkansas, where the northern limit of its distribution is near Little Rock on 
the Arkansas River, and the southwestern part of the Indian Territory, through western Louisiana to 
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and through eastern Texas to the valley of the Colorado River, finding 
its most southwesterly station in an isolated forest 4 in Bastrop County. 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. Bank, on the west side of Cape May, about three miles from the 

2 Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 115 {The beach. (See Garden and Forest, x. 192.) 

Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). i Fifty years ago low hills in Bastrop County, central Texas, 

3 A single tree of Pinus Tceda was found by Gifford Pinchot and were covered with forests of Pinus Tceda, which also spread into 
H. C. Graves in the spring of 1897, on the Price farm at Town the adjacent counties. Extensive lumbering operations were car- 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 113 

On the Delaware peninsula the Loblolly Pine generally inhabits low lands adjacent to tide-water, 
rarely forming continuous forests and growing in small colonies associated with Pinus echinata, and 
with Oaks, Hickories, and other deciduous-leaved trees ; in Virginia, restricted to the tertiary coast 
strata, it does not occur west of Richmond, but in the maritime districts it is often the prevailing tree, 1 
springing up on lands exhausted by agriculture, where it grows very rapidly and now furnishes the 
principal lumber supply of the region. It is exceedingly common over all the coast plain and maritime 
region of North Carolina, where it is frequently mixed with the Long-leaved Pine, especially south of 
Cape Fear ; and in the swamps along the streams flowing into Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and on 
the low ridges adjacent to them it attained its greatest size and perfection before its noblest specimens 
fell a prey to the axe of the lumberman. In the coast region of South Carolina and Georgia, and in 
the eastern Gulf states, the Loblolly Pine is mostly confined to the sandy borders of Pine barrens, 
where it is scattered through forests of Magnolias, Bays, and Gum-trees, appearing, however, as it does 
in many other districts, wherever its seeds are left undisturbed ; and in the interior it is scattered 
over the high rolling Pine uplands to the foot of the eastern and southern slopes of the Appalachian 
Mountains, attaining sometimes an elevation of fifteen hundred feet above the level of the sea. It is 
less common in the Florida peninsula, where Pinus clausa and Pinus heterophylla more often cover 
worn-out and abandoned fields. In southeastern Arkansas and the Indian Territory it is one of the 
most important timber-trees, growing in great nearly pure forests on rolling uplands and low tertiary 
plains ; and in western Louisiana and eastern Texas it forms considerable forests north of the region 
occupied by the Long-leaved Pine, and is scattered through the low woods which border the marshes 
of the coast. 2 

The wood of Pinus Tceda, which usually grows very rapidly, 3 varies much in quality in the 
different regions which it occupies and under differing conditions of growth. That of the great trees 
which once grew on Pamlico Sound and were valued in naval construction, and especially for the masts 
of large vessels, is said to have been very close-grained and durable, with thin sapwood. 4 A large part 
of the trees of original growth and the oldest and best matured second-growth trees now produce 
coarse-grained wood, nearly one half the diameter of the trunk being sapwood, while the wood of trees 

ried on here, all the towns of the central and western parts of the 4 These trees of eastern North Carolina, which vary remarkably 

state, before the building of the Texas railroads, being constructed from all others of the species in the character of their wood and 

from timber cut in these pineries, which, however, are now ex- especially in the thinness of the sapwood, were called Rosemary 

bausted as sources of commercial prosperity. Pines, and also Great Swamp Pines, Naval Timber Pines, and 

1 L. F. Ward, Bot. Gazette, xi. 33. Slash Pines. According to Edmund Ruffin, who in 1858 published 

2 Much of this information relating to the distribution of Pinus the best account of them in volume iv., page 139, of Russell's 
Tceda is derived from Dr. Charles Mohr's excellent monograph of Magazine, individuals from one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
this species quoted above. and seventy feet in height, with trunk diameters of five feet, were 

3 From the study of forty-seven trees made under the direction not uncommon. He describes a spar cut from a tree of this variety 
of the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, it appears in Bertie, North Carolina, which was eighty feet in length and 
that during its first ten years this tree reaches a height of from thirty-six inches square at the butt ; and sixteen sticks sent to New 
eighteen to twenty feet, and that it attains its maximum rate of York in 1856 for shipment to Amsterdam for naval construction, 
upward growth of rather more than twenty-four inches between under a contract with the Dutch government, which varied from 
its fifteenth and twentieth years, while during its third decade its forty-seven to eighty-eight feet in length, squared from nineteen 
annual growth is reduced to fifteen or sixteen inches. Trees thirty to thirty inches and were nearly all of heartwood. Mr. Ruffin 
and fifty years old were found to have an average height of fifty also describes two trees in Washington County, North Carolina, 
feet and of seventy feet ; those ninety years of age were about one of which was one hundred and forty-eight feet high, with a 
ninety-five feet high, later trowing slowly with shoots only three trunk diameter of thirty-five and one quarter inches, and two hun- 
or four inches long. One tree had attained a height of seventy- dred and eighty-three years old, with two hundred and seven years 
seven feet in thirty-six years, and another a height of seventy-six of heartwood ; while the other was one hundred and seventy feet 
feet in forty-four years ; and two trees one hundred years old high, sixty inches in diameter, and two hundred and eighty years 
were each one hundred and eighteen feet tall. The diameter old, with one hundred and seventy years of heartwood. A mast 
accretion was found to decrease with age, while the area accretion of the United States man-of-war Roanoke, cut in Bertie, had three 
remained nearly the same. The average trunk diameter at forty hundred and two layers of annual growth, one hundred and eighty- 
years of age was about ten inches, and at eighty years seventeen six being of heartwood, and was forty-one inches in diameter, 
inches. (Mlodziansky, Garden and Forest, ix. 93.) 



114 SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. conifers. 

which have grown rapidly on abandoned fields and now supply an important part of the timber 1 cut on 
the south Atlantic coast, whence it is shipped in large quantities to the north, is very coarse-grained 
and still more largely composed of sapwood. In the forests west of the Mississippi River it is of better 
quality, a considerable part of the Yellow Pine lumber shipped from southern Arkansas and western 
Louisiana to northern markets being of this species. The wood now attainable is generally rather 
weak, brittle, coarse-grained, and not durable ; it is light brown, with orange-colored or often nearly 
white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands of small summer cells, few inconspicuous 
resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The average specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood from four trees cut east of the Mississippi River is 0.5441, a cubic foot weighing 33.91 
pounds. 

Pinus Tceda contains large quantities of resin, but it does not flow rapidly when the trees are 
boxed and soon hardens on exposure to the air, and this species is probably not much worked 
commercially for the production of turpentine. 2 

The first description of Pinus Tceda 3 was published by Plukenet in 1696 ; 4 it was introduced 
into Europe before 1713 by Bishop Compton, 5 and has grown to a large size in European collections, 6 
where, although less commonly cultivated than it was several years ago, it may still be occasionally 
seen. 7 

1 Ashe, Bull. No. 5, North Carolina Geolog. Surv. 41 (The Pinus conis agminatim nascentibus, foliis longis ternis ex eadem 
Forests, Forest Lands, and Forest Products of North Carolina). theca, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 119. 

2 Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 112 (The 4 Tseda, the classical name of a resinous Pine-tree, was bestowed 
Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). by Linnasus on this species. 

8 Pinus Virginiana tenuifolia tripilis s. ternis plerumque ex unofolli- 5 See i. 6. 

culo setis, strobilis majoribus, The Frankincense Tree, Aim. Bot. 297. — 6 Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 368. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2237, f. 

Ray, Hist. pi. iii., Dendr. 8. 2118-2222, t. 

7 See Maurice L. de Vilmorin, Garden and Forest, x. 112. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXVII. Pinus Tjeda. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An involucre of the staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers and yearling cones, natural size. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

11. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DLXXVIII. Pinus Tjbda. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. An expanded cone, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 

6. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXVII. 




CEFaazon, del,. 



Rapine- so. 



PINUS TJEBA, L. 



A, Hiocreua> direa> ^ 



Imp. J.Fasieur, Paris. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXVIII. 




C.E.Foxotl deL. 



Himety 



PINUS TjEDA,L. 



A.Riocreua> direac. 



Imp. J Tcuieur, Parii. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



115 



PINUS RIGIDA. 

Pitch Pine. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, dark yellow-green, from 3 to 5 inches in 
length. Cones ovoid-conical or ovate, often clustered, their scales armed with short 
stout recurved prickles. 



Pinus rigida, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 10 (1768). — Muench- 
hausen, Hausv. v. 219. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ii. 46. — 
Marshall, Arbust. Am. 101. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 
162. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 41. — Borkhausen, 
Handb. Forstbot. i. 433. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 25, t. 18, 
19. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 498 ; Enum. 988 ; Berl. 
Baumz. ed. 2, 268. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — Desfon- 
taines, Hist. Arb. ii. 612. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. 
Cult. ed. 2, vi. 460. — Michaux, f . Hist. Arb. Am. i. 89, 
t, 8. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 244, t. 74. — Aiton, Hort. 
Kew. ed. 2, v. 317. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 233. — 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 643. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. 
Suppl. iv. 417. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. 
Fl. 174. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 634. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 
887. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 352 ; List No. 10, 
Abietinece, 33. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 41, t. 13. — 
Antoine, Conif. 26, t. 7, f. 2. — Link, Linncea, xv. 
503. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 388. — Torrey, Fl. N T. 
ii. 227. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 604. — Gihoul, Arb. RSs. 
31. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 164. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 
30. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 
217. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 
342. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 290.— Gordon, Pine- 



tum, 207. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 79. — Chapman, Fl. 
433. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 
21. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 67. — (Nelson) 
Senilis, Pinaceoz, 128. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 119. — 
Seneclauze, Conif 128. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 
xvi.pt. ii. 394. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 307. — Nord- 
linger, Forstbot. 399. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iv. 183. — Veitch, Man. Conif 169. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 197. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 109. — Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. 
i. 393. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 190. — Watson & Coulter, 
Gray's Man. ed. 6, 490. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 188, t. 
8, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 266, f. 63, 64. — Mas- 
ters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 239. — Hansen, Jour. R. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 389 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 35. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. i. 53, f . 
119. 

Pinus Tseda, (3 rigida, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 368 
(1789). — Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 313. — 
Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 210. 

Pinus Tseda, var. A, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 340 (1804). 

Pinus rigida, var. lutea, Kellerman, Bot. Gazette, xvii. 
280 (not Pinus lutea, Walter nor Gordon) (1892). 



A tree, fifty or sixty or rarely eighty feet in height, with a short trunk occasionally three feet in 
diameter, frequently fruitful when only a few feet high, and often producing freely from the stump or 
from the stem and branches after injury by fire many vigorous shoots 1 clothed with primary leaves 
from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length, about a sixteenth of an inch wide, serrate with remote 
callous teeth, and pale glaucous green. The branches of young trees are rigid and produced in regular 
remote whorls and, spreading horizontally, form an open narrow pyramid ; in old age they become 
stout, contorted, and often pendulous at the extremities, and covered with thick much roughened bark, 
and form a round-topped thin head usually occupying about three quarters of the height of the tree, or 
when an individual standing alone has enjoyed light, and space for lateral development, a broad low 
round-topped and often exceedingly picturesque crown. 2 The bark of young stems is thin and broken 
into plate-like dark red-brown scales, and on old trunks it is from three quarters of an inch to nearly an 
inch and a half in thickness, deeply and irregularly fissured and divided into broad flat connected 
ridges separating on the surface into many thick dark red-brown scales often tinged with purple. The 
winter branch-buds are ovate or obovate-oblong, rather obliquely narrowed and acute at the apex, from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length and about a quarter of an inch in thickness, with loosely 
imbricated ovate lanceolate dark chestnut-brown lustrous scales scarious and fringed on the margins, 

1 Pinchot, Garden and Forest, x. 192, f. 24. 2 Garden and Forest, iv. 397, f. 65. 



116 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

those of the inner ranks soon becoming reflexed on the lengthening shoots and falling from their bases, 
which become much thickened and dark brown or often nearly black and roughen the stout branches 
for years. The branchlets, which when they first appear are glabrous and bright green, during their 
first winter are dull orange-color, and then gradually growing darker, especially on the upper side, 
become dark gray-brown at the end of four or five years. The leaves are borne in clusters of three, 1 
and when they first emerge from the sheaths these are half an inch long, thin and close, pale chestnut- 
brown below and white and scarious above, but soon losing their inner scales become from an eighth to 
a quarter of an inch in length, thick, close, and dark brown or often almost black, and fall with the 
leaves during their second year ; the leaves stand out stiffly and at right angles with the branches and 
are firm, sharply and closely serrulate, acuminate with callous tips, dark yellow-green, stomatiferous on 
the three faces with many rows of deep-set stomata, and from three to five inches in length ; they contain 
two fibro-vascular bundles, from three to seven resin ducts, several being often smaller than the others 
and internal, surrounded by small strengthening cells, which also occur under the epidermis in bundles 
or in a single layer, and are numerous and clustered in the angles of the leaf. 2 The staminate flowers 
are produced in short crowded spikes and are cylindrical, flexuous, and about three quarters of an inch 
long, with yellow anthers terminating in nearly orbicular entire crests, and are surrounded by from six 
to eight involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are lateral, often clustered and raised on short stout 
peduncles covered with ovate oblong acute dark chestnut-brown bracts scarious on the margins, and are 
subglobose and about an eighth of an inch long, their ovate light green scales being more or less 
tinged with rose-color and contracted into long slender slightly spreading tips. The young cones 
grow slowly during their first season, and in the winter they are erect or spreading and about half 
an inch long, their much thickened scales terminating in long thin straight or reflexed spines ; 
beginning to grow the following spring before the expansion of the branch-buds, they turn dark green 
with the exception of the light brown umbos, and attain their full size in the early autumn, when they 
are ovate-conical or ovate, nearly sessile, often clustered, from one to three and a half inches long, with 
thin flat scales rounded or slightly narrowed at the apex, their exposed portions being somewhat 
thickened and conspicuously transversely keeled, with small dark elevated umbos terminating in slender 
recurved rigid prickles ; slowly opening and shedding their seeds throughout the autumn and winter, 
they turn from green to light brown on the exposed portions and upper side of the scales, and dull 
mahogany-red on the lower side, often remaining on the branches and on the stems of young trees for 
ten or twelve years. The seeds are nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides and about a 
quarter of an inch long, with a thin dark brown mottled tuberculate coat and an embryo with from four 
to six cotyledons ; their wings are broadest below the middle, gradually narrowed to the very oblique 
apex, three quarters of an inch long and a third of an inch wide. 

Pinus rigida is distributed from the valley of the St. John's River in New Brunswick to the 
northern shores of Lake Ontario, 3 where it is not abundant, southward through the Atlantic states to 
northern Georgia, crossing the Alleghany Mountains to their western foothills in West Virginia, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee. An inhabitant of sandy plains and dry gravelly uplands, or less frequently 
of cold deep swamps, the Pitch Pine is very abundant on the New England coast south of the Bay of 
Massachusetts, in southern New Jersey, where it forms extensive forests, 4 on the Delaware peninsula, 5 
through the middle districts of Virginia and of North and South Carolina, and in the interior wherever 
it finds the barren soil on which it is able to maintain itself against trees requiring more generous 
nourishment for the development of their full vigor, often ascending to the upper slopes of the 
Alleghany Mountains of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. 

1 On vigorous stump shoots the first foliage leaves are occasion- 3 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 57. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 467. 
ally borne in clusters of two, four, or five. * See Garden and Forest, i. 59. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, I 

2 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. — Bastin & Trimble, Am. 166, f . — Gifford, Rep. Geolog. Surv. New Jersey, 1894, 251. 
Jour. Pharm. 65, f. 8. s R ot hrock, Forest Leaves, ii. 83. f. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



The wood of Pinus rigida is light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, and very durable ; it is 
light brown or red, with thick yellow or often nearly white sapwood, and contains broad bands of small 
summer cells, many conspicuous resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5151, a cubic foot weighing 32.10 pounds. It is largely used 
for fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal, and is occasionally sawed into lumber ; in the middle states 
it was employed in early times for the sills and beams of buildings. 

The wood contains large quantities of resin, and before the products of the richer pineries of the 
south reached northern markets it furnished considerable quantities of turpentine and of tar, which 
in New England and the middle states was of some commercial importance up to the time of the 
Revolution. 1 

The earliest account of Pinus rigida was published in 1743, 2 and it was cultivated in England a 
few years later. 3 The ease and cheapness with which it can be raised from seeds, and its rapid growth 
in the northern states on soil too sterile to produce crops of other wood, give special silvicultural value 
to the Pitch Pine, and large areas of barren sands on Cape Cod and on the island of Nantucket, 
Massachusetts, have been successfully covered with forests of this tree. 4 In recent years it has been 
tried in forest-planting in Germany, where, however, it gives little promise of surpassing the indigenous 
species in any useful quality. 5 



1 " The Firre and Pine trees that grow in many places, shooting 
up exceeding high, especially the Pine : they doe afford good 
masts, good board, Rozin and Turpentine. Out of these Pines is 
gotten the candle-wood that is so much spoken of, which may serve 
for a shift amongst poore folkes ; but I cannot commend it for sin- 
gular good, because it is something sluttish, dropping » pitchie 
kinde of substance where it stands." (Wood, New England's Pros- 
pect, pt. i. chap. ii. 15.) 

The Pines alluded to here are probably both Pinus Strobus and 
Pinus rigida, the former supplying the masts and boards, and the 
latter resin, turpentine, and kindling-wood. 

At the first meeting of a company, held in Plymouth, Massachu- 
setts, on the 10th of March, 1679, which had recently acquired 
lands on Buzzard's Bay, where Pinus rigida is still common, it was 
agreed that those who " first settell and are Livers shall be allowed 
to make ten Barrells of tarr a peice for a year." (See Bliss, Colo- 
nial Times on Buzzard's Bay, 5.) 

" The Trade in Glocester-County consists chiefly in Pitch, Tar, 
and Rosin • the later of which is made by Robert Styles, an excel- 
lent Artist in that sort of Work, for he delivers it as clear as any 
Gum Arabick." (Gabriel Thomas, An Historical and Geographical 
account of the Province and County of Pennsylvania and of West- 
New-Jersey in America [The History of West-New-Jersey, 32].) 



2 Pinus foliis longissimis ex una theca ternis, Colden, Act. Hort. 
Ups. 1743, 230 (PL Novebor.). 

Pinus Canadensis trifolia conis aculeatis, Duhamel, Traite des 
Arbres, ii. 126 (excl. syn. Fl. Virgin.). 

Pinus Americana foliis prailongis subinde ternis, conis plurimis con- 
fertim nascentibus, Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 126. 

8 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2239, f. 2123-2126. 

4 Bowditch, Rep. Sec. Connecticut State Board Agric. 1877-78, 
235. — Garden and Forest, iv. 442. 

The trees in these plantations, raised from seeds sown in shallow 
furrows on barren land covered only with grasses and sedges and 
fully exposed to ocean gales, and in the aggregate covering several 
thousand acres, represent one of the most interesting and success- 
ful silvicultural experiments made in the United States, although 
the trees have suffered from the attacks of the larvae of Retinia 
frustrana, a small lepidopterous insect which has nearly extermi- 
nated those planted many years ago on Nantucket (Scudder, The 
Pine Moth of Nantucket). 

6 R. Hartig, Forst.-Nat. Zeit. i. 430. 

In recent years great quantities of the seeds of Pinus rigida have 
been imported into Europe for forest-planting in the belief that it 
was this tree which produced the pitch pine largely exported from 
the United States and the wood of Pinus palustris. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXIX. Pinus riglda. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 

12. Portion of a stump shoot with primordial leaves, natural size. 

13. Cross section of a primordial leaf, enlarged. 

14. A cluster of foliage leaves, natural size. 

15. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

16. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

17. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 

18. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta"b. DLXXIX. 




C E.Faccon, del. 



PINUS RIGIDA, Mill. 



Migrie<Lua> 



A.Biooreuas' direa>? 



Imp. J. review, Paria. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 119 



PINUS SEROTINA. 
Pond Pine. Marsh Pine. 

Leaves mostly in 3-leaved clusters, slender, dark yellow-green, from 6 to 8 inches 
in length. Cones subglobose or obovate-oblong, from 2 to 2J inches long, serotinous, 
their scales armed with slender incurved deciduous prickles. 

Pinus serotina, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 205 (1803). — 1860, iii. 21. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 

Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 499. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — 70. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 129. — Sene"clauze, 

Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 461. — Michaux, Conif. 129. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 86, t. 7. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 394. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 305. — Sargent, Forest 

246, t. 75, f . 1. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 643. — Poiret, Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 198. — Mayr, Wald. 

Lamarck Diet. Suppl. iv. 417. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Nordam. 115, t. 8, f . — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 634. — 239. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 392 (Pinetum 

Sprengel, Syst. iii. 887. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. Danicum). 

353 ; List No. 10, Abietinece, 34. — Forbes, Pinetum ? Pinus Taeda, 8 alopecuroidea, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 

Woburn. 47, t. 16. — Antoine, Conif. 27, t. 8, f. 2. — 368 (1789). — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2237. 

Link, Linnosa, xv. 504. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 389. — ? Pinus alopecuroides, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. iii. 

Gihoul, Arb. R6s. 32. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 163. — 763 (1802). 

Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Pinus rigida, var. serotina, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2242, 

Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif 341.— f. 2127-2130 (1838). — Hoopes, Evergreens, 120. — En^ 

Gordon, Pinetum, 209. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 80. — gelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 183. — Beissner, 

Chapman, Fl. 433. — Curtis, Rep. Oeolog. Surv. N. Car. Handb. Nadelh. 269. 

A tree, usually forty or fifty or occasionally seventy or eighty feet in height, with a short trunk 
sometimes three but generally not more than two feet in diameter, and stout often contorted branches 
more or less pendulous at the extremities, forming an open round-topped head, and when injured by 
fire often producing from adventitious buds on the stem and branches numerous vigorous shoots, which 
are also developed from the stumps of cut trees. 1 The bark of the trunk is from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in thickness, and is dark red-brown and irregularly divided by narrow shallow 
fissures into small plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed scales. The winter 
branch-buds are broadly ovate, gradually tapering and acute at the apex, from one third to one half of 
an inch long, and covered by ovate acute scales pale chestnut-brown below, darker above the middle, 
and fimbriate on the margins, those of the inner ranks being lanceolate, long-pointed and reflexed on 
the lengthening shoot, from which they soon fall, leaving their thickened dark bases to roughen for 
many years the slender glabrous branches ; these when they first appear are dark green, and during 
their first winter are dark dull orange-color ; then gradually growing darker, they become at the end 
of four or five years dark brown or often nearly black. The leaves are borne in clusters of three, or 
occasionally of four on vigorous young shoots, with sheaths which at first are thin, white and scarious, 
or pale chestnut-brown below, and from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in length, but after 
losing their inner scales become thick, firm, about a quarter of an inch long, and nearly black, falling 
with the leaves during their third and fourth years ; the leaves are flexuous, serrulate with minute close 
teeth, acuminate with callous tips, stomatiferous with many rows of deep-set stomata on the three 
faces, dark yellow-green, from six to eight inches long and about a sixteenth of an inch wide ; they 
contain two fibro-vascular bundles, from five to seven resin ducts unequal in size, some of them being 
often internal, and strengthening cells in bundles or in a single layer under the epidermis and in 
clusters at the angles of the leaf. 2 The staminate flowers are produced in crowded spikes from two 

1 Fernow, Garden and Forest, x. 209. - Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. 



120 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

to two and a half inches in length and are oblong, cylindrical, and nearly an inch long, with dark 
orange-colored anthers terminating in orbicular denticulate crests, and are surrounded by from six to 
eio-ht involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are lateral, clustered or in pairs on stout peduncles 
three eighths of an inch in length, and covered by broadly ovate acute dark chestnut-brown bracts 
scarious and lacerate on the margins, especially those of the inner ranks, and are ovate-oblong, with 
scales gradually narrowed into slender incurved tips. The young cones are horizontal during their first 
winter, and from one half to five eighths of an inch long, with thickened light brown scales armed with 
stout incurved spines ; when fully grown they are subglobose or obovate-oblong, full and rounded or 
pointed at the apex, bright green, from two to two and a half inches long, horizontal or slightly 
declinate, and subsessile or short-stalked, with thin nearly flat scales rounded at the apex, their exposed 
portions, which are conspicuously transversely keeled and slightly thickened, terminating in small 
oblong dark umbos armed with slender incurved mostly deciduous prickles; they turn light yellow- 
brown and remain closed until the end of one or two years more, and then remain on the branches for 
several years longer. The seeds are nearly triangular, often ridged below, full and rounded on the 
sides, and about an eighth of an inch long, with a thin nearly black tuberculate coat produced into a 
wide marginal border, and an embryo with from four to six cotyledons ; their wings are thin and fragile, 
dark brown, striate and lustrous, broadest at the middle, gradually narrowed at the ends, three quarters 
of an inch long and one quarter of an inch wide. 

Pinus serotina is distributed from North Carolina southward in the neighborhood of the coast to 
the shores of the St. John's River in northern Florida, growing on low flats with Pinus palustris, or 
in sandy or peaty swamps, where, associated with Magnolias, Bays, and Gum-trees, it is the only Pine 
of large areas, or is mingled with Pinus Tceda. 

The wood of Pinus serotina is very resinous, heavy, soft, brittle, and coarse-grained ; it is dark 
orange-color, with thick pale yellow sapwood, and contains broad bands of small summer cells, often 
constituting nearly one half the annual growth, large conspicuous dark-colored resin passages, and 
numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7942, a cubic 
foot weighing 49.49 pounds. It is said to furnish now a considerable part of the lumber cut on the 
coast of North Carolina, where this tree is also tapped for the production of turpentine, 1 and formerly 
was used for the masts of small vessels. 2 

1 Fernow, Garden and Forest, x. 209. 2 Ruffin, Russell's Magazine, iv. 144. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXX. Pintts serotina. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, under side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 

11. A seed, with its wing, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXX. 




ffvnely 



PINUS SEROTINA, Micbt. 



A.Biocreuzy dir&x, . 



Imp. J'.Taneus) Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 123 



PINUS VIRGINIANA. 
Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, stout, gray-green, from \\ to 3 inches in length. 
Cones oblong-conical, often more or less curved, from 2 to 3 inches long, their scales 
armed with slender straight or recurved prickles. 

Pinus Virginiana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 9 (1768). — 26. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 

Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 43 ; Harbk. Baumz. ii. 35. — Muench- 217. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 

hausen, Rausv. v. 218. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 102.— 360. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 290. — Gordon, 

Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 161. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Pinetum, 167. — Courtin, Syn. Conif. 83. — Chapman, 

Holz. 74. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 339. — K. Koch, Fl. 433. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 

Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 299. — Britton & Brown, HI. Fl. i. 52, iii. 20. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 22. — 

f • H5. (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 113. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 

Pinus inops, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 367 (1789). — Willde- 84. — Seneclauze, Conif. 136. — Parlatore, De Candolle 

now, Berl. Baumz. 208; Spec. iv. pt. i. 496; Enum. Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 380 (excl. syn. Pinus variabilis). — 

988. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 204. — Lambert, Pinus, Nordlinger, Forstbot. 397. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 158. — 

i. 18, t. 13. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — Du Mont de Cour- Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 

set, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 459. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. 198. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 108. — Schubeler, 

Am. i. 58, t. 4. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 236, t. 69, f. Vivid. Norveg. i. 390. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 242. — 

1. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 641. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 491. — Mayr, 

223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 173. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 633. — Wold. Nordam. 191, t. 8, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 

Sprengel, Syst. iii. 886. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 215. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 230. — Hansen, 

346; List No. 10, Abietinece, 36. — Audubon, Birds, t. Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 363 (Pinetum Danicum). — 

97. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 15, t. 4. — Hooker, Fl. Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 36. 

Bor.-Am. ii. 161 (in part). — Antoine, Conif. 17, t. 5, Pinus sylvestris, y Novo-Csesariensis, Castiglioni, Viag. 

£. 3. — Link, Linncea, xv. 500. — Spach, Hist. VSg. xi. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 313 (1790). 
386. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif 167. — Knight,. Syn. Conif. 

A tree, usually thirty or forty feet in height, with a short trunk rarely more than eighteen inches 
in diameter and long horizontal or pendulous branches in remote whorls, forming a broad open often 
flat-topped pyramid, or toward the western limits of its range frequently one hundred and ten feet 
tall, with a stem from two and a half to three feet in diameter. The bark of the trunk is from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in thickness, and is broken by shallow fissures into flat scale-like plates 
separating on the surface into thin closely appressed dark brown scales tinged with red. The winter 
branch-buds are ovate, acute, and from one third to one half of an inch in length, with ovate acute 
dark chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins and soon reflexed on the growing shoots, from 
which they fall during the summer, leaving their slightly thickened bases to mark for several years the 
branches. These are slender, glabrous, tough and flexible, and when they first appear are pale green 
or green tinged with purple and covered with a glaucous bloom, becoming purplish at the end of their 
first season, and a year later light gray-brown. The leaves are borne in two-leaved remote clusters, with 
sheaths which at first are thin, close and scarious, and about a third of an inch long, becoming before 
the end of the first season thick, dark brown, and not more than an eighth of an inch long, with 
loose fringed margins ; the leaves are twisted, soft and flexible, fragrant with a balsamic odor, closely 
serrulate, acute with short callous points, lustrous, pale yellow-green when they first emerge from the 
buds but dark gray-green during their first summer, stomatiferous with many rows of minute stomata, 
from an inch and a half to three inches but usually about two inches in length and a twelfth of an 
inch in breadth ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles, usually two resin ducts, and strengthening 



124 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

cells in one or two layers under the epidermis, 1 and fall gradually and irregularly during their third 
and fourth years. The staminate flowers are produced in crowded clusters, and are oblong and about 
one third of an inch in length, with orange-brown anthers terminating in semiorbicular fimbriate crests, 
and are surrounded by eight involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are produced near the middle of 
the shoot of the year, generally a little below and alternate with one or two lateral branehlets, and are 
borne on long opposite spreading or somewhat ascending peduncles covered by chestnut-brown bracts, 
those of the inner ranks being scarious on the margins and much reflexed ; they are subglobose, with 
ovate pale green scales narrowed into long slender slightly recurved tips tinged with rose-color, and 
with large orbicular bracts. The cones during their first winter are oblong, dark red-brown, and from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and when fully grown are oblong-conical, often 
curved, dark green and lustrous, with the exception of the bright red-brown umbos and prickles, and 
from two to three inches but usually about two inches and a half long and from an inch to an inch 
and a quarter thick, with thin nearly flat scales rounded at the apex, their exposed portions being 
only slightly thickened and conspicuously transversely keeled, with small dark elevated umbos armed 
with stout or slender persistent prickles ; opening in the autumn, the cones slowly shed their seeds, 
and, turning dark reddish brown on the exposed portions and dull red on the others, often remain on 
the branches for three or four years longer. The seeds are nearly oval, full and rounded, slightly 
ridged, and a quarter of an inch in length, with a thin pale brown rugose coat and an embryo usually 
with five cotyledons ; their wings are broadest at the middle, dark chestnut-brown, lustrous, striate, one 
third of an inch long and about one eighth of an inch wide. 

Pinus Virginiana is distributed from Middle Island, Long Island, and Clifton, Staten Island, 
New York, southward generally near the coast to the valley of the Savannah River in central Georgia 
and to northeastern Alabama, 2 and through eastern and middle Tennessee and Kentucky 3 to south- 
eastern Indiana. 4 Usually small in the Atlantic states, where it grows only on light sandy soil and, 
especially in Maryland and Virginia, spreads rapidly over fields exhausted by agriculture, it attains its 
greatest size west of the Alleghany Mountains, frequently rising on the low hills or knobs of southern 
Indiana to the height of over one hundred feet. 

The wood of Pinus Virginiana is light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, and durable in 
contact with the soil ; it is light orange-color, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad 
conspicuous resinous bands of small summer cells, few resin passages, and many thin medullary rays. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5309, a cubic foot weighing 33.09 pounds. In the 
country watered by the lower Potomac and James Rivers it is generally employed for fuel, 5 and in 
Kentucky and Indiana it is sometimes manufactured into lumber and is also largely used for water-pipes 
and pump-logs ; in Indiana tar was formerly obtained by burning the wood of this tree. 

The earliest account of Pinus Virginiana* was published by Plukenet in 1696 ; 7 and in 1739 it 
was cultivated by Philip Miller 8 in the Physic Garden in Chelsea near London. 9 It is hardy and 
ripens its seeds in eastern Massachusetts, but as an ornamental tree Pinus Virginiana has nothing to 
recommend it, its chief value consisting in its ability to cover rapidly sterile and worn-out soils in the 
middle Atlantic states. 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. Clarke County and about twenty-five miles north of the Ohio River, 

2 In July, 1881, Pinus Virginiana was found by Dr. Charles and spreads along all the crests of the knobs almost to Vienna in 
Mohr on rocky heights and hillsides, at an elevation of one thou- Scott County. 

sand and sixty-three feet above the sea, near Gadsden, Etowah 5 Ruffin, Russell's Magazine, iv. 37. 

County, Alabama. 6 p{ nus Virginiana is also sometimes called Cedar Pine and 

8 In Tennessee Pinus Virginiana ranges west to the valley of River Pine. (See Ruffin, I. c.) 

the Tennessee River in Hardin County, and occurs on the elevated 7 Pinus Virginiana binis brevioribus &f crassioribus setis, minori 

rolling hills of Stewart County ; and in Kentucky it is common in cono, singulis squamarum capitibus aculeo donatis, Aim. Bot. 297.— 

Boyle and Mercer, Barren and Edmonson Counties, in the northern Ray, Hist. PL iii. ; Dendr. 8. 

part of Christian County, and on Piney Creek in Trigg County. 8 See i. 38. 

4 In Indiana Pinus Virginiana extends northward to the Silver 9 Loudon. Arb. Brit. iv. 2192, f. 2068-2071. 
Hills in the southwestern part of Scott County, near the line of 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXI. Pinus Virginiana. 

1. A flowering branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

16. Expanding branch-buds, natural size. 

17. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America,. 



Tab. DLXXXI. 



in 




C.E.Faason del. 



Em,.Ifijriely sc. 



PINUS VIRGINIANA.Mill. 



*A.RLocreux> clirea>. 



Imp. J. Faneur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 127 



PINUS CLAUSA. 
Sand Pine. Spruce Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leayed clusters, slender, flexible, dark green, from 2 to 3 \ inches in 
length. Cones ovoid-conical, often recurved, serotinous, persistent for many years, 
their scales armed with short stout straight or recurved spines. 

Pinus clausa, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census Pinus inops, var. clausa, Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, ii. 125 
U. S. ix. 199 (1884). —Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 116, t. 8, (1877) ; Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 183. — Chapman, Fl. 

f . — Sudworth, Garden and Forest, v. 160, f . 24. — Mas- ed. 2, Suppl. 650. — Beissner, Eandb. Nadelh. 216. 

ters, Jour. B. Sort. Soc. xiv. 227. — Hansen, Jour. B. 
Sort. Soc. xiv. 356 (Pinetum Danicum). 

A tree, on the sandy dunes of the Florida coast usually fifteen or twenty feet tall, with a stem 
rarely a foot in diameter, generally clothed to the ground with wide-spreading slender branches which 
form a bushy frequently flat-topped head, or sometimes in more favorable positions rising to the height 
of seventy or eighty feet, with a trunk two feet in diameter. The bark on the lower part of the trunk 
is from one third to one half of an inch in thickness, and is deeply divided by narrow fissures into 
irregularly shaped but generally oblong plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed 
bright red-brown scales, and on the upper part and on the branches it is thin, smooth, and ashy gray. 
The winter branch-buds are oblong-cylindrical and rather abruptly narrowed at the full and rounded 
apex, rarely more than a quarter of an inch long, and covered by dark chestnut-brown lustrous scales 
clothed on the margins with pale matted hairs, those of the inner ranks soon becoming reflexed and 
separating from their bases, which continue for three or four years to mark the branches. These are 
slender, tough, and flexible, and are glabrous and pale yellow-green when they first appear, and rather 
bright red-brown during their first winter, becoming light orange-brown during their second year, and 
then gradually turning ashy gray. The leaves are borne in clusters of two, with sheaths which at first 
are loose, light chestnut-brown, and from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in length, but before 
the end of the first season become thick and dark brown, with loose scarious margins, and less than an 
eighth of an inch long ; they fall with the leaves during their third and fourth years ; the leaves are 
flexible, serrulate, acute with short callous tips, stomatiferous with from ten to twenty rows of stomata, 
dark green, from two to two and a half inches long, and generally not more than one thirty-second but 
occasionally one twenty-fourth of an inch wide ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles, and usually 
two resin ducts, one of which is frequently internal, and which are without strengthening cells, although 
these are occasionally scattered in the epidermal region. 1 The staminate flowers are produced in short 
crowded spikes, and are cylindrical, about a third of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with 
dark orange-colored anthers terminating in orbicular nearly entire or denticulate crests, and are 
surrounded by involucres of ten or eleven bracts. The pistillate flowers are lateral, from subglobose to 
oblong, with ovate acute scales gradually narrowed into long slender straight slightly spreading tips, 
and are raised on stout peduncles about a quarter of an inch in length and covered by dark chestnut- 
brown lustrous bracts scarious on the margins. During their first winter the cones are horizontal on 
stout peduncles, and are about half an inch long with sharp incurved spines, and when fully grown in 
the following autumn they are ovoid-conical, often oblique at the base, usually clustered and reflexed, 
dark green with the exception of the dark red-brown umbos and spines, from two to three and a half 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. 



128 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

inches long, from an inch to an inch and a quarter wide, and nearly sessile or short-stalked, with concave 
scales rounded at the apex, their exposed portions being conspicuously transversely keeled and thickened 
into central knobs terminating in elevated transversely flattened umbos armed with short stout straight 
or recurved spines which mostly disappear before the cones open ; turning dark reddish brown, some of 
the cones open as soon as they are ripe, some remain closed for three or four years before liberating 
their seeds, ultimately turning to an ashy gray color, and others, while still unopened, become in time 
enveloped by the growing tissues of the trunk or branches, which finally cover them unless fire in 
killing the tree opens their scales and scatters their seeds. The seeds are nearly triangular, compressed, 
and about a quarter of an inch long, with a black slightly tuberculate coat and an embryo with from 
four to six cotyledons ; their wings are thin and fragile, widest near or below the middle, dark red- 
brown, lustrous, three quarters of an inch long and about one quarter of an inch wide. 

Pinus clausa, which was first noticed in 1846 near Apalachicola, Florida, 1 by Dr. A. W. Chapman, 2 
is distributed along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico from southeastern Alabama 3 to the shores of Pease 
Creek, Florida, seldom extending thirty miles inland ; and in east Florida, from the neighborhood of St. 
Augustine to Halifax River, it occupies a narrow belt rarely more than a mile wide parallel with and 
not far from the coast, and ranges southward on sandy ridges to below Jupiter Inlet, where it covers 
sandy wind-swept plains. On the Gulf coast it is common on the sand dunes of Pensacola Bay, on 
the shores of Santa Rosa Sound and Choctawhatchee Bay and on Cedar Keys, and flourishes on pure 
white drifting sands, although it is rarely more than twenty feet high, and bent low in the direction of 
the prevailing winds is often nearly prostrate ; farther inland, on the dry ridges in the neighborhood of 
Pensacola and on uplands of better quality, where it grows with Magnolias, Hickories, Live Oaks, 
and Post Oaks, it is more vigorous, and often of a large size, probably attaining, however, its greatest 
development on the east coast near the head of Halifax River, where trees from seventy to eighty feet 
high, with trunks two feet in diameter, are abundant. 4 

The wood of Pinus clausa is light, soft, not strong, and brittle ; it is light orange-color or yellow, 
with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad very resinous conspicuous bands of small summer 
cells, numerous prominent resin passages, and many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.5576, a cubic foot weighing 34.75 pounds. 5 

The stems are occasionally used for the masts of small vessels. The chief value of Pinus clausa 
consists, however, in its ability to grow rapidly on the barren sands of the hot southern coast, and this 
tree will probably be found useful if it ever becomes necessary to protect their shifting surface with a 
forest-covering. 

1 The Pinus Abies Virginiana, conis parvis subrotundis, or the balm 4 Mohr, Garden and Forest, iii. 402. 

of Gilead pine which Bernard Romans saw on the coast of West 5 Pinus clausa grows very rapidly even in pure sand. The log 

Florida in December, 1771, is perhaps this species. (See Nat. specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 

Hist. Florida, 317.) American Museum of Natural History, New York, is thirteen inches 

See vu. 110. an( j a half in diameter inside the bark, and only thirty-nine years 

3 The most westerly station for this tree noticed by Dr. Charles old, its sapwood being two inches and one eighth in thickness, with 

Mohr is between Bon Secour and Perdido Bay in the extreme sixteen layers of annual growth, 
southeastern part of Baldwin County, Alabama. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXIL Pinus clausa. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. Diagram of the staminate flower. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

13. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. Section of an imbedded cone, natural size. 

16. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

17. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

18. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXXII. 




C.H.Faxon. del. 



Ifimely j-c. 



PINUS CLAUSA.Sarg. 



A.RLocreua> direaz. 



Imp . J Taneur, Paris. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 131 



PINUS GLABRA. 
Spruce Pine. Cedar Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, soft, slender, dark green, from \\ to 3 inches in length. 
Cones subglobose to oblong-ovate, from \\ to 2 inches long, their scales thin, tipped 
with straight or incurved short often deciduous prickles. 

Pinus glabra, Walter, Fl. Car. 237 (1788). — Poiret, La- Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 125 (The 

march Diet. v. 342. — Chapman, Fl. 433. — Hoopes, Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). — Mayr, Wold. 

Evergreens, 82. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. Nordam. 117, t. 8, f . — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 

iv. 184. — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. Am. 10th Census 229. 

U. S. ix. 200. — Mohr, Garden and Forest, iii. 295 ; Pinus mitis, ft paupera, Wood, CI. Book, 660 (1869). 

A tree, usually from eighty to one hundred or occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height, 
with a trunk from two to two and a half or rarely three and a half feet in diameter, and free of 
branches for fifty or sixty feet, comparatively small horizontal limbs divided into branches and branch- 
lets spreading at right angles, and numerous lateral roots extending from a weak tap-root for some 
distance close to the surface before they penetrate deep into the soil. The bark of the trunk is from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness and slightly and irregularly divided by shallow 
fissures into flat connected ridges, and is broken into small closely appressed light reddish brown 
scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, about one quarter of an inch long and one sixteenth 
of an inch thick, and are covered with ovate lanceolate dark chestnut-brown scales separating on the 
margins into numerous white matted shreds, those of the inner ranks mostly disappearing during the 
first winter and leaving their rather prominent somewhat thickened bases to roughen the branches for 
several years. The branchlets, which are slender and glabrous, when they first appear are flaccid, light 
red more or less tinged with purple, and during their first winter they are fight reddish brown, 
and then gradually grow darker and are often furnished with short lateral leafy branchlets from 
adventitious buds. The leaves are borne in clusters of two, with sheaths which at first are light 
chestnut-brown below, scarious above, and from one third to nearly one half of an inch long, but 
before the end of the summer become close, nearly black, and about an eighth of an inch in length, 
with loose ragged margins, and are persistent with the leaves, which fall partly at the end of their 
second season and partly in the following spring ; the leaves are soft, flexible, serrulate, acuminate 
with long sharp callous points, dark green, and from an inch and a half to three inches long and nearly 
one sixteenth of an inch wide, and contain two fibro-vascular bundles and usually two or three resin 
ducts, one being often internal, and strengthening cells scattered under the epidermis. 1 The staminate 
flowers are produced in short crowded clusters and are cylindrical, from one half to three quarters of 
an inch long and about one eighth of an inch thick, with yellow anthers terminating in orbicular 
denticulate crests, and are surrounded by an involucre of ten or twelve bracts membranaceous and 
lacerate on the margins, the lowest pair being much smaller than the others. The pistillate flowers are 
lateral, being commonly produced at some distance below the end of the branchlet, and are raised on 
slender slightly ascending peduncles covered by dark chestnut-brown lustrous bracts scarious and often 
torn on the margins ; they are subglobose and about a quarter of an inch long, with broadly ovate 
scales gradually narrowed into short stout tips, and elliptical bracts. The cones during their first 
winter are oblong, erect or slightly spreading, not often more than one third of an inch in length, and 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. 



132 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



dark brown and lustrous, their scales being armed with slender straight or incurved spines ; when fully 
grown in the autumn they are single or in clusters of two or of three, reflexed on short stout peduncles, 
from subglobose to oblong-ovate, dark green, from an inch and a half to two inches long and about 
three quarters of an inch thick, with thin slightly concave scales rounded at the apex, their exposed 
portions, which are only slightly thickened and inconspicuously transversely keeled, terminating in 
small dark flat umbos armed with minute straight or incurved usually deciduous prickles ; they are 
reddish brown and rather lustrous, and dark purple on the upper side of the base of the scales when 
they open and shed their seeds in the autumn, and remain on the branches for two or three years 
longer. The seeds are nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, somewhat roughened and 
ridged below, and about an eighth of an inch in length, with a thin dark gray coat mottled with black 
and an embryo with five or six cotyledons ; their wings are thin and fragile, broadest below the middle, 
dark brown and lustrous, about five eighths of an inch long and a quarter of an inch wide. 1 

Pinus glabra is distributed from the valley of the lower Santee River in South Carolina to middle 
and northwestern Florida and to the valley of Pearl River in eastern Louisiana, being usually found 
only in the neighborhood of the coast, where it grows, singly or in small colonies, on low terraces which 
rise above river-swamps subject to frequent overflow, and where it is associated with Magnolias, Gums, 
Hickories, and Beeches, and with the short-leaved and Loblolly Pines, flourishing while young in their 
dense shade, but finally pushing its stately crown into the light above its associates ; it is comparatively 
rare except in the region between the Chatahoochee and the Choctawhatchee Rivers in northwestern 
Florida, where it probably attains its greatest size and often covers areas of considerable extent, soon 
occupying abandoned clearings in the forest. 

One of the largest of the Pine-trees of eastern North America, Pinus glabra has little economic 
value, although it is occasionally cut for fuel and the saw-mill. 2 The wood is light, soft, not strong, 
brittle, very close-grained, and not durable ; it is light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, and 
contains broad bands of small summer cells, few rather small resin passages, and many obscure 
medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3931, a cubic foot weighing 
24.50 pounds. 

Pinus glabra appears to have been first noticed by Thomas Walter 3 who published the earliest 
description of it in 1788. Long overlooked by later botanists, it was not recognized again until three 
quarters of a century later, when an account of it was published 4 by Mr. H. W. Ravenel, 5 who found it 
near Walter's original locality. 

i Pinus glabra begins to produce flowers and seeds at the age of Parish, South Carolina, where he had a plantation on the banks of 

twelve or fifteen years, being most prolific from its twentieth to its the Santee River, and where he died in 1788, at the age of about 

fortieth year. The seeds germinate in the fall or at the beginning forty-eight years, being buried at his own request in his garden, 

of the following spring, the seedlings being often six inches high where he had cultivated many of the plants described in his Flora. 

early in April. Trees twenty years old are generally from thirty These meagre facts were gathered nearly fifty years ago by Mr. 

to thirty-five feet tall, with stems from four to four and * half Ravenel, from his tombstone erected by his only surviving chil- 

inches in diameter, and usually attain their full growth at the age dren, Ann and Mary. (See Ravenel, Proc. Elliott Soc. i. 53. - See 

of from sixty to seventy-five years (Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry also F. A. Porcher, Southern Quarterly Review, 1854 [History and 

U. S. Dept. Agric. 129 [The Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.]). Social Sketch of Craven County, So. Carolina].) Walter's herba- 

2 See Mellichamp, Garden and Forest, ii. 15. rmm i s preserved in the British Museum. 

8 Little is known of Thomas Walter, the author of the Flora a Ravenel, I. c. 51. 

Caroliniana, published in London in 1788. He was a native of 6 gee viii. 160. 
Hampshire, in England, and for many years a resident of St. John's 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXIII. Pinus glabra. 

1. A cluster of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A seed, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



TaVDLXXXIII. 




C. KFcucon, del. 



PINUS GLABRA, Walt. 

A. Hiocreuas- direx> r Imp . J. Tanetcr, Paris. 



Errv. Himeiy so. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 135 



PINUS PUNGENS. 
Table-Mountain Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, stout, blue-green, from 1J to 2J inches in length. 
Cones oblong-conical, oblique, from 2 to 3J inches long, their scales armed with stout 
hooked spines. 

Pinus pungens, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 61, t. 5 De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 379. — K. Koch, Dendr. 

(1810). — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 236, t. 67, f. 4. — ii. pt. ii. 304. — Meehan, Rep. Penn. Fruit Growers 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 643. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. Soc. 1877, t. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 

Suppl. iv. 416. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 635. — Sprengel, Syst. 183. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 158. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

iii. 886. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 347 ; List No. N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 199. — Lauche, Deutsche 

10, Abietinece, 41. — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Dendr. ed. 2, 109. — Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 393. — 

Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 17, t. 5. — Antoine, Conif. 18, Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 491. — Mayr, 

t. 5, f . 4. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 125. — Spach, Hist. Veg. Wald. Nordam. 192, t. 8, f. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 

xi. 387. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 166. — Knight, Syn. 214, f. 56. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 238. — 

Conif. 27. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 385 (Pinetum Dani- 

v. 217. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, TraitS Conif. cum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 37. — Britton & 

359. — Gordon, Pinetum, 181. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. Brown, 111. Fl. i. 53, f. 117. 

87. — Chapman, Fl. 432. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Pinus montana, Noll, The Botanical Class-Book and 

Car. 1860, iii. 20. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. Flora of Penn. 340 (not Miller, Lambert, nor Hoffman) 

21. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 127. — Hoopes, Ever- (1852). 
greens, 98, f. 13. — Seneclauze, Conif. 140. — Parlatore, 

A tree, when crowded by its neighbors in the forest occasionally sixty feet in height, with a trunk 
two or three feet in diameter, and a few short branches near the summit forming a narrow round-topped 
head ; or in open ground usually twenty or thirty feet tall, and often fertile when only a few feet high, 
with a short thick trunk frequently clothed to the ground with long stout horizontal branches, the 
lower pendulous toward the extremities, and the upper sweeping upward in graceful curves and forming 
a broad open flat-topped and often very irregular head. The bark on the lower part of the trunk is 
from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in thickness, and is broken into irregularly shaped 
plates separating on the surface into thin loose dark brown scales tinged with red ; higher on the stem 
and on the branches it is dark brown broken into thin loose scales. The winter branch-buds are 
narrowed from the middle to the ends, and rather obtuse at the apex, the terminal bud being half 
an inch long and nearly a quarter of an inch broad and usually two or three times larger than the 
lateral buds j their scales are ovate, lustrous, dark chestnut-brown, and scarious on the margins, and soon 
becoming reflexed on the lengthening shoots gradually disappear and leave their dark bases to roughen 
the branches for many years. The branchlets, which are stout and glabrous, when they first appear 
are light orange-color, and growing darker during their first year, become tinged with purple, especially 
on the upper side, in the following season, and then slowly turn dark brown. The leaves are borne 
in crowded clusters of two, with sheaths which at first are thin and scarious, light chestnut-brown, and 
about three eighths of an inch long, but before the end of the season become little more than an eighth 
of an inch in length, thick and nearly black, with a loose lacerated margin, and are persistent with the 
leaves, which fall irregularly during their second and third years ; the leaves are rigid, usually twisted, 
finely serrulate, sharp-pointed with short callous tips, dark blue-green, from an inch and a quarter to 
two inches and a half long and about a sixteenth of an inch wide ; they contain two fibro- vascular 
bundles from two to five parenchymatous resin ducts, some of them smaller than the others and often 



136 SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. conifers. 

internal, and strengthening cells in small bundles under the epidermis and between the numerous rows 
of stomata. 1 The staminate flowers are produced in elongated loose spikes, and are oblong and about a 
third of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with yellow anthers terminating in orbicular 
denticulate crests, and are surrounded by about eight involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers are 
clustered, lateral, and subglobose or oblong, with ovate scales narrowed into elongated slender tips, and 
large orbicular bracts, and are raised on stout peduncles a third of an inch in length and covered 
by broadly ovate acute light chestnut-brown bracts scarious on the margins. The cones, which become 
horizontal soon after the fertilization of their ovules, during the first winter are subglobose and about an 
inch in length, with elongated stout incurved spines, and when fully grown in the following autumn 
they are oblong-conical, oblique at the base by the greater development of the scales on the upper than 
on the lower side, sessile, deflexed, in clusters usually of three or four or rarely of seven or eight, from 
two to three and a half inches long and about two inches thick, and light green, turning when fully 
ripe light brown and lustrous, with thin tough scales ; these are dark dull purple on the lower side and 
mahogany-red on the upper, their exposed portions, which are armed with stout hooked spines incurved 
above the middle of the cone and recurved below it, being conspicuously transversely keeled, on the 
inner side of the cone slightly thickened and on the outer, especially near the base, produced into much 
thickened mammillate knobs ; the cones sometimes open as soon as they are ripe, and gradually shed 
their seeds, or often remain closed for two or three years longer, and frequently do not fall from the 
branches until the end of eighteen or twenty years. The seeds are almost triangular, full and rounded 
on the sides, and nearly a quarter of an inch in length, with a thin conspicuous rugose light brown coat 
and an embryo usually with six cotyledons ; their wings are thin and fragile, widest below the middle, 
gradually narrowed to the ends, pale, lustrous, and marked with narrow red-brown streaks. 

Pinus pungens usually grows on dry gravelly slopes and ridges of the Appalachian Mountains 
from Pennsylvania 2 to North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, sometimes ascending to elevations of 
three thousand feet above the sea-level, with isolated outlying stations in Virginia, 3 eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and western New Jersey, 4 and often forms toward the southern limits of its range nearly pure 
forests of considerable extent. 

The wood of Pinus pimgens is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and very coarse-grained. It is pale 
brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands of small summer 
cells, numerous large resin passages, and many prominent medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.4935, a cubic foot weighing 30.75 pounds. 5 It is somewhat used for fuel, and 
in Pennsylvania is manufactured into charcoal. 

First distinguished by the French botanist Michaux, 6 Pinus pungens was introduced into English 
gardens in 1804. 7 Although as an ornamental tree it has little to recommend it but the beauty of 
its abundant massive cones, it is sometimes cultivated in the United States, and has proved hardy as far 
north as eastern Massachusetts and as far west as central Kansas. 8 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 307. * On May 15, 1886, R. E. Schuh and G. N. Best discovered a 

2 In Pennsylvania Pinus pungens has been observed at Two Top small grove of Pinus pungens one mile east of Sergeantsville, Dela- 
on the east side of the Blue Mountain close to the Maryland line, ware Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey (Bull. Torrey Bot. 
at Fort Carbon on the Schuylkill River, and in the central part of Club, xiii. 121). 

the state, where it is abundant on the Tussey and Stone Mountain 6 Pinus pungens usually grows rapidly, although the log speci- 

ranges in Blair, Huntingdon, Centre, Mifflin, and Union Counties, men in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 

and in an isolated station at McCall's Ferry, Lancaster County, American Museum of Natural History, New York, which is eleven 

where it was found in 1892 by Mr. A. A. Heller. (See Porter, and one half inches in diameter inside the bark, is seventy-four 

Garden and Forest, vi. 204.) years old. In this specimen the sapwood is two and seven eighths 

3 In Virginia where Pinus pungens is common on the Blue Ridge, inches thick, with fifty-three layers of annual growth, 
near Charlottesville, and on the Massanutten Mountains, it was 6 See i. 58. 

found on June 17, 1794, between Alexander and Fredericksburg 7 Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 314. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2197, 

by the elder Michaux, who wrote a description of it in his Journal, f. 2077-2080. 

alluding to the fact that he had previously seen the same tree on 8 Sears, Garden and Forest, ix. 462. 

the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania. (See Michaux, Jour, in Proc. 

Am. Phil. Soc. xxxvi. 104.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXIV. Pinus pungens. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A seed, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. A cluster of leaves, natural size. 

14. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

16. Expanding branch-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DIXXXIV, 




£ KFaccoTt- del. 



Himely jc 



PINUS PUN GENS, Michx.F. 



A RiccreuX' dir&z>- 



Imp. J.Tasieur, Farif. 



cootfeil*. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 139 



PINUS MURICATA. 
Prickle-cone Pine. 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters, rigid, dark green, from 4 to 6 inches in length. Cones 
ovate, oblique, serotinous, persistent, from 2 to 3i inches long, their scales armed with 
stout incurved spines. 

Pinus muricata, D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 441 Conif. 151. — Kellogg, Trees of California, 64. — Mas- 

(1837) ; Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. ters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxi. 49, f. 7-9 ; Jour. R. Hort. 

2269, f . 2180. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, Soc. xiv. 235. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 

393. — Antoine, Conif. 32, t. 14, f. 1. — Nuttall, Sylva, Census U. S. ix. 199. — Lemmon, Rep. California State 

iii. 113. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 161. — Knight, Syn. Board Forestry, ii. 77, 118 {Pines of the Pacific Slope) ; 

Conif 26. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietineo3, West - American Cone-Bearers, 43. — Steele, Proc. Am. 

32. — Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iv. 216, f. ; Ft. des Pharm. Assoc. 1889, 244 (The Pines of California). — 

Serres, v. 517 b , f. ; Pinetum, 173 ; ed. 2, 246 (excl. syn. Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 275, t. 8, f. — Beissner, Handb. 

Pinus Murray ana). — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Nadelh. 213. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 378 

Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 398. — Carriere, (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 37. 

Traits Conif. 359. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. Pinus Bdgariana, Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. iii. 

209, t. 54 (Pinus Edgariana on plate). — Courtin, Fam. 217, 226 (1848). 

Conif. 78. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 60.— Pinus inops, var. ? Bentham, PL Hartweg. 337 (1857). 

(Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 121. — Hoopes, Evergreens, Pinus contorta, Bolander, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 227, 317 

92. — Sene"clauze, Conif. 127. — Parlatore, De Candolle (not Loudon) (1866). 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 379. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. Pinus muricata, var. Anthonyi, Lemmon, West- American 

302. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 183 •, Cone-Bearers, 43 (1895). 
Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 128. — Veitch, Man. 

A tree, usually forty or fifty feet but occasionally ninety feet in height, with a trunk from two to 
three feet in diameter, and stout spreading branches covered with dark scaly bark, in youth forming a 
regular pyramid and at maturity a handsome compact round-topped head of dark dense tufted foliage. 
The bark on the lower part of the trunk is frequently from four to six inches in thickness and is 
deeply divided into long narrow rounded ridges roughened with closely appressed dark purple or dark 
purplish brown scales. 1 The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, and covered with scales, which 
toward the apex of the bud are light red-brown and closely appressed, and below are darker with free 
reflexed tips, and are clothed on the margins with matted pale hairs, the terminal bud being about a 
third of an inch long, an eighth of an inch thick, and nearly three times as large as the lateral buds ; 
their inner scales, which are somewhat fimbriate on the margins and often an inch long when fully 
grown, become reflexed on the lengthening shoots and soon fall from their bases, which, growing thick 
and dark, roughen for many years the branches. These are stout and glabrous, and when they first 
appear are dark orange-green, turning orange-brown during their first summer and then gradually 
brown more or less tinged with purple. The leaves are borne in crowded clusters of two, with close 
firm sheaths at first pale chestnut-brown below, scarious and white above, and about two thirds of an 
inch long, and in their second year, when the leaves occasionally begin to fall, thick, dark, and not 
more than a quarter of an inch in length with loose broken margins ; the leaves are rigid, serrulate, 
acute with short callous tips, dark yellow-green, from four to six inches long and about one twelfth of 
an inch wide, and contain two fibro-vascular bundles, from two to nine resin ducts, and strengthening 
cells under the epidermis, usually in two layers, interrupted by the numerous bands of stomata. 2 The 
staminate flowers, which are produced in elongated spikes, are oval and about a quarter of an inch long, 

1 See Garden and Forest, x. f . 30, where the character of the 2 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 305. 

bark of this tree is well displayed. 



140 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifer*. 

with dark orange-colored anthers terminating in orbicular denticulate crests, and are surrounded by 
involucres of six or eight bracts, those of the outer rank being as long as the others. The pistillate 
flowers are lateral and whorled, two whorls being often produced on the shoot of the year ; they are 
raised on short stout peduncles furnished with ovate acute dark chestnut-brown bracts, with broad 
white scarious margins, and are oblong and about a third of an inch in length, with ovate scales 
gradually narrowed into long slender slightly spreading tips, and large nearly orbicular bracts. The 
cones are erect during their first winter, when they are nearly three quarters of an inch long, with light 
brown scales narrowed into slightly spreading and incurved tips, and on attaining their full size in 
the following autumn they are ovate-oblong, oblique at the base, sessile, in clusters of three or five or 
sometimes of seven, from two to three and a half but usually about three inches in length, from an 
inch and a half to nearly two inches in thickness, and dark orange-green, with lustrous chestnut-brown 
umbos and spines, later becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous ; the exposed portions of the scales 
on the outside of the cone are much thickened, transversely flattened, and produced toward the base 
into stout mammillate incurved knobs, or sometimes are armed with stout flattened spur-like spines 
incurved above its middle and recurved toward its apex, and on the inside of the cone are slightly 
flattened, the small dark umbos being armed with stout or slender straight prickles ; the cones often 
remain closed for several years and usually persist on the stem and branches during the entire life of 
the tree, but do not become imbedded in the wood, as their stems stretch and finally separate, leaving 
them held by the bark to be carried outward with the enlargement of the stem. 1 The seeds are nearly 
triangular, somewhat roughened and about a quarter of an inch long, with a thin nearly black rugose 
coat and an embryo with four or five cotyledons. 

Pinus muricata inhabits the California coast from the neighborhood of Fort Bragg in Mendocino 
County southward, in localities usually widely separated, to Tomales Point north of the Bay of San 
Francisco, and from Monterey to San Luis Obispo County, growing also in Lower California on 
Cedros Island 2 and on the coast between Ensanado and San Quintan. 3 Attaining its largest size 
near the northern limits of its distribution, it is the characteristic Pine-tree of the Mendocino coast, 
flourishing on steep bluffs and bold headlands in the full sweep of the ocean spray, on sandy plains, 
which it covers with forests of slender crowded trees, sometimes ascending on the better soil of uplands 
to elevations of nearly two thousand feet, and growing also on cold clay barrens, which it disputes with 
Pinus contorta and Ciqyressus Goveniana. On Tomales Point it grows on the most barren soil close 
to the ocean, and a mile inland forms small groves on the summits of low hills and ridges, or is mingled 
in more sheltered positions with Live Oaks, the Douglas Spruce, the Umbellularia, and the Madrona, 
attaining here a height of forty or fifty feet, with a short trunk often two and a half feet in diameter. 

The wood of Pinus muricata is light, very strong, hard, and rather coarse-grained; it is light 
brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad resinous bands of small summer cells, few 
inconspicuous resin passages, and many thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.4942, a cubic foot weighing 38.80 pounds. 4 In Mendocino County it is occasionally 
manufactured into lumber. 

Pinus muricata was discovered in 1831 by Dr. Thomas Coulter, in the neighborhood of San Luis 
Obispo, about thirty miles from the coast and nearly three thousand feet above the level of the sea, 
and in 1846 was introduced by Karl Theodor Hartweg into the gardens of Europe, where it is still 
occasionally cultivated, 5 its handsome compact head of dark foliage and its abundant cones making it 
a desirable feature for the parks and gardens of temperate regions. 

1 Lemmon, Erythea, ii. 160. the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is fifteen 

* Greene, Pittonia, i. 197, 207. and one half inches in diameter inside the bark, and seventy-six 

■' In 1889 Pinus muricata was found by Mr. A. W. Anthony on years old, with twenty-seven layers of sapwood which is three and 

the coast of Lower California. a quarter inches thick 

4 Pinus muricata grows rapidly even on barren soil. The log s Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 1164 

specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods, in 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXXV. Pinus muricata. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

5. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

7. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

8. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Plate DLXXXVI. Pinus muricata. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, enlarged. 

4. A cone-scale, side view, enlarged. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXXV. 




C E. Falcon, del. 



Rapirie< sc 



PINUS MURICATA,D. Don 



A, Hiocreuco dir&zz . 



Imp J'. Fczneur^ Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DLXXXVI 




£ JO. Fcucon, deh. 



£nvJfinie7y 



PINUS MURICATA, D.Don. 

A.RLocreutz, direcc*' J^ J.Taneur, Paris. 



CONIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



143 



PINUS ECHINATA. 
Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine. 

Leaves in clusters of 2 and of 3, slender, dark blue-green, from 3 to 5 inches in 
length. Cones ovate or oblong-conical, from 1J to 2 \ inches long, their scales armed 
with minute slender prickles. 



Pinus echinata, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 12 (1768). — 
Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 220. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 
100. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 161. — Wangenheim, 
Nordam. Holz. 74. — Britton & Brown, El. Fl. 52, f. 
116. — Mohr, Bull. No. 33, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. 
Agric. 85, t. 12-16 {The Timber Pines of the Southern 
U. S.). 

Pinus Virginiana, b echinata, Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 44 
(1771) ; Harbk. Baumz. ii. 38. 

Pinus squarrosa, Walter, Fl. Car. 237 (1788). 

Pinus Tseda, y variabilis, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 368 
(1789). 

Pinus Taeda, /? echinata, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 312 (1790). 

Pinus mitis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 204 (1803). — Mi- 
chaux, f . Hist. Arb. Am. i. 52, t. 3. — Poiret, Lamarck 
Diet. Suppl. iv. 416. — Antoine, Conif. 16, t. 5, £. 1. — 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 386.— Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 229.— 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 167. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 26. — 
Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Die- 
trich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 361. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 170 ; ed. 2, 243 (excl. syn. Pinus Boy- 
lei). — Chapman, Fl. 433. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. 



N. Car. 1860, iii. 19. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 
Nadelh. 23. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 88. — Sdndclauze, 
Conif. 138. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
380. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 300. — Nordlinger, 
Forstbot. 397. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 
184. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 
ix. 200 (excl. hab. Kansas). — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 
ed. 2, 108. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
491. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 118, t. 8, f . — Beissner, 
Handb. Nadelh. 216. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
233. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 374 {Pinetum 
Danicum). — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 554 
{Man. PL W. Texas). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 36. 
Pinus variabilis, Lambert, Pinus, i. 22, t. 15 (1803). — 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 498. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 460. — Nouveau 
Duhamel, v. 235, t. 69, f. 2. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 
643. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 633. — 
Sprengel, Syst. iii. 886. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 
349 ; List No. 10, Abietinece, 44. — Forbes, Pinetum 
Woburn. .35, t. 11. — Antoine, Conif. 15, t. 5, f. 2. — 
Link, Linncea, xv. 502. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 168. — 
Dietrich, Syn. v. 399. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 92. 



A tree, usually from eighty to one hundred or occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in height, 
with a tall slightly tapering stem and a short pyramidal truncate head of comparatively slender 
branches which are rarely more than twenty feet in length and frequently somewhat pendulous, often 
producing from the stump, or from the stem and branches when injured by fire, vigorous shoots * usually 
covered with lanceolate long-pointed pale gray-green primordial leaves. The bark of the trunk is from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, and is broken into large irregularly shaped plates 
covered with small closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate, and 
gradually narrowed to the rather obtuse apex, the terminal bud, which is twice as large as the lateral 
buds, being about a quarter of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick ; they are covered by 
closely imbricated ovate-lanceolate chestnut-brown scales darker above the middle and divided into 
pale matted filaments, those of the inner ranks, which are fimbriated on the margins, remaining on the 
branches for four or five years. The branchlets, which are stout and brittle, are pale green or violet 
color, and covered when they first appear with a glaucous bloom ; becoming dark red-brown tinged 
with purple before the end of the season, they then gradually grow darker, the bark beginning in the 
third year to separate into large scales, which when they fall disclose the light orange-brown inner bark. 
The leaves are borne in crowded clusters, usually of two but frequently of three, and rarely on vigorous 

1 Pinchot, Garden and Forest, x. 192. — Fernow, Garden and Forest, x. 209. — Gifford, The Forester, iii. 73. 



144 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

young trees of four, with sheaths which at first are half an inch long, thin, silvery white, and lustrous, 
and before autumn are close and firm except on the scarious margins, dark gray-brown, and about a 
quarter of an inch in length ; the leaves are closely serrulate, acute with short callous tips, soft and 
flexible, dark blue-green, from three to five inches long and about one sixteenth of an inch wide ; they 
contain two fibro-vascular bundles, from three to six small resin ducts, a single layer of strengthening 
cells under the epidermis, and numerous bands of stomata on each face ; * they sometimes begin to fall 
toward the close of their second season, and, dropping irregularly, often do not entirely disappear until 
their fifth year. The staminate flowers, which are produced in short crowded clusters, appear in very 
early spring just below the tip of the growing shoots, and are oblong-cylindrical and about three 
quarters of an inch in length and an eighth of an inch in thickness, with pale purple anthers 
terminating in orbicular obscurely denticulate crests, and are surrounded by from eight to ten involucral 
bracts, those of the outer rank being much smaller than the others and conspicuously keeled. The 
pistillate flowers, which are usually in pairs or in clusters of three or four and often appear on short 
lateral branchlets developed from adventitious buds on old branches, 2 are subterminal and raised on 
stout ascending peduncles covered by ovate-lanceolate dark chestnut-brown bracts, much spreading or 
reflexed in the inner ranks, and are oblong or subglobose and about one third of an inch in length, 
with ovate pale rose-colored scales gradually narrowed into short slender tips and large nearly orbicular 
bracts. Growing slowly at first, the cones during their first winter are horizontal or ascending, oblong, 
light chestnut-brown, and about half an inch long, with thickened scales terminating in slender rigid 
straight or recurved spines, and when fully grown early in the following autumn they are ovate or 
oblong-conical, subsessile and nearly horizontal, or short-stalked and pendent, generally clustered and 
usually about an inch and a half or rarely two inches and a half in length, with thin scales nearly flat 
below and rounded at the apex, their exposed portions, which are transversely keeled and only slightly 
thickened, terminating in small pale elevated oblong umbos armed with short straight or somewhat 
recurved and frequently deciduous prickles ; the cones, which are produced in great profusion, often on 
trees only twelve or fifteen years old, open when ripe, turning dull brown, the bases of the scales 
becoming mahogany-red and lustrous on the upper and dark dull purple on the lower side, and, soon 
shedding their seeds, remain on the branches for several years longer. The seeds are nearly triangular, 
full and rounded on the sides, slightly ridged, and about three sixteenths of an inch long, with a thin 
pale brown hard coat conspicuously mottled with black ; their wings, which are broadest near the 
middle, are thin, fragile, light red-brown, lustrous, half an inch long, and about an eighth of an inch 
wide. 

JPinus echinata is distributed from Staten Island, New York, 3 and eastern Pennsylvania 4 through 
New Jersey and Delaware, southward through the Atlantic states to the uplands of northern Florida, 
crossing the Alleghany Mountains to "West Virginia and to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
through the eastern Gulf states to the bottom-lands of the Mississippi River ; west of the Mississippi 
River, where it is most abundant and attains its noblest size, often forming pure forests over great 
areas, it ranges from northeastern Texas, northwestern Louisiana, and the eastern part of the Indian 
Territory, through western and central Arkansas and southern Missouri to southwestern Illinois, 5 and 
through Kentucky and Tennessee. Although found in nearly all parts of the state of New Jersey, 
Pinus echinata is rare north of the southeastern boundary of the red sandstone except on the western 

1 Coulter & Kose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. — Bastin & Trimble, of Albany. (See Hist. Arb. i. 52.) If these statements are cor- 
Am. Jour. Pharm. lxviii. 17. rect, it must have been exterminated in this territory, as the most 

2 See Mobr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 97 eastern station in which it is now known to occur is on Staten 
(The Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). Island, where a small grove of these trees exists. 

3 According to the younger Michaux, who carefully explored the * In Pennsylvania Pinus echinata is extremely rare, and has been 
forests of eastern North America at the beginning of the present reported only from Huntingdon and Lancaster Counties. (See 
century, Pinus echinata in his time occurred in Massachusetts and Rothrock, Rep. Penn. Dept. Agric. 1895, pt. ii. Div. Forestry, 280.) 
Connecticut, and ascended the Hudson River to the neighborhood 6 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 88 ; Bot. Gazette, viii. 351. 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 145 

slopes of Kittatinny or Blue Mountain, but from the Raritan to the shores of Delaware Bay large 
forests of this Pine, frequently mixed with Pinus rtgida, alternate with those of Oaks, Chestnuts, and 
other deciduous-leaved trees, often growing freely on sterile sands and clays. It is common, also, on 
the Delaware and Maryland peninsula; farther south it is rare in the coast region, being generally 
replaced by the Long-leaved Pine, and is confined chiefly to the middle and upper districts, where it 
is mixed with other Pines and with the prevailing Oaks and Hickories of the Appalachian forest, 
ascending in western North Carolina to an elevation of two thousand five hundred feet above the level 
of the sea. In Alabama and Mississippi the Short-leaved Pine rarely occurs in the lower part of the 
Pine belt of the coast; but common on the rolling hills of the central and upper regions, it here 
becomes a prominent feature of the forest. In western Louisiana it abounds on the uplands north of 
Red River, and sometimes forms pure forests or is mixed with Oaks, Hickories, and other deciduous- 
leaved trees, and with the Loblolly Pine ; and in eastern Texas from the prairies adjacent to the valley 
of the Red River and above the belt of Long-leaved Pine it spreads over hundreds of square miles of 
low undulating hills. It inhabits dry high ridges in the Indian Territory, and in Arkansas on both 
sides of the Arkansas River it is frequent in the forests of deciduous-leaved trees on broken hills, and 
often forms great forests on wide table-lands. In Missouri, where it is generally scattered over the 
southern part of the state, it is most abundant on the low hills and table-lands of the southern slope of 
the Ozark Mountains, where its tall stems rise high above its associates, and crossing the Mississippi it 
maintains a foothold on river bluffs in Union and Jackson Counties, Illinois, and is distributed with 
widely scattered colonies through Kentucky and Tennessee. 1 

One of the most generally distributed and valuable timber-trees of eastern America, Pinus 
echinata now supplies a considerable part of the hard pine lumber cut in the trans-Mississippi pineries 
used in the states of the central west. The wood, which varies greatly in quality and in the thickness 
of the sapwood, is heavy, hard, strong, and usually coarse-grained ; it is orange-color or yellow-brown, 
with nearly white sapwood, 2 and contains broad bands of small summer cells occupying nearly half the 
width of the annual growth, numerous large resin passages, and many conspicuous medullary rays. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6104, a cubic foot weighing 38.04 pounds. 3 
Among yellow pines it is only surpassed in quality by that of Pinus palustris, and being less resinous, 
softer, and more easily worked, it is often preferred to it for cabinet-making, for the interior finish of 

1 See Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 88 from one half to five eighths of its height. At the age of fifty 
{The Timber Pines of the Southern U. £.). years the height of the trees varies from forty to sixty feet, and 

2 The sapwood varies greatly in thickness in trees of the same the trunk diameter from ten to fourteen inches. Between sixty 
diameter, the variation being apparently dependent on situation, and seventy years of age the trees are from fifty to seventy feet 
soil, exposure, and moisture. Trees on high ridges and in dry high, with a trunk diameter of from twelve to fifteen inches, and 
sterile soil have usually the thinnest sapwood, although on ridges in their one hundredth year average from ninety to ninety-five feet 
it varies from two to six inches in thickness in trees growing side in height, with a trunk diameter of from sixteen to nineteen inches, 
by side ; and on lower land from three to twelve inches. In Between the ages of one hundred and twenty and one hundred and 
Arkansas lumbermen recognize two varieties of the wood, yellow thirty years trees from ninety to one hundred and ten feet occur, 
and bull, distinguishing them while the trees are still standing by with trunks from eighteen to twenty-four inches in diameter. The 
cutting into them with axes ; the bull pine, which is from low oldest tree examined by Mohr had two hundred and eight layers 
ground, grows more rapidly and is heavier with thicker sapwood, of annual growth, and was one hundred and nine feet in height, 
while the yellow pine, from sandy uplands, is lighter, straighter- with a, trunk twenty-four inches in diameter. The largest tree 
grained, and more easily worked, and is used as a substitute for felled by him was one hundred and seventeen feet high, with a 
white pine in sashes, doors, blinds, and the interior finish of houses. trunk diameter of twenty-five inches and one hundred and forty- 

8 It has been observed by Mohr (I. c. 98) that in Alabama the three layers of annual growth, 
plants of this species attain a height varying from three to five feet The log specimen, cut in Arkansas, in the Jesup Collection of 
at the end of their fifth year, the stem being from five eighths to North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural His- 
seven eighths of an inch in thickness, and that in ten years they are tory, New York, is twenty-three and a half inches in diameter 
from ten to sixteen feet high, with stems from two to two and a inside the bark, and two hundred and seven years of age. In this 
half inches in diameter. At the age of from fifteen to twenty specimen the sapwood is two inches and a half thick and seventy- 
years the trees are from twenty to thirty feet in height, with a stem four years old. 
diameter of four or five inches, the crown of the tree occupying 



146 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

houses, and in the manufacture of sashes, doors, and blinds. It is largely used for these purposes, for 
the framework of buildings, weather-boards, and for flooring and shingles, in car-building, and for 
railway ties. It contains a large quantity of resin, and in North Carolina young trees, which are the 
most prolific, are worked for the production of turpentine. 1 

Pinus echinata, 2 which was cultivated in England before the middle of the eighteenth century, 3 
was first described by Plukenet in 1696 ; 4 it is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree, and has 
proved hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts. Spreading now rapidly over abandoned fields in 
the upper districts of the south Atlantic and Gulf states, which it soon covers with healthy forests, the 
Short-leaved Pine seems destined to play an important part in restoring fertility to their lands and in 
supplying new crops of valuable timber. 

1 Ashe, Bull. No. 5, North Carolina Geolog. Surv. 88 (The Forest, 8 Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 316 (as Pinus variabilis). — Loudon, 
Forest Lands, and Forest Products of Eastern North Carolina). Arb. Brit. iv. 2195, f. 2072-2076 (as Pinus mitis). 

2 Pinus echinata is also known as Spruce Pine in Delaware, Mis- 4 Pinus Virginiana proslongis foliis lenuioribus cono echinato gra- 
sissippi, and Arkansas ; as Pitch Pine in Missouri, where it is the cili, Aim. Bot. 297. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, ii. 126. 

only Pine-tree ; and as Bull Pine in Virginia. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXVII. Pinus echinata. 

1. An end of a branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A seed, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXXVII. 




C. E FazcoTi, deL. 



JUttv. ffim&hj so 



PIN US ECHINATA, Mill. 



A.Iliocreuay direz>. 



Imp. J. Taneur, Paris 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 147 



PINUS DIVARICATA. 
Gray Pine. Jack Pine. 

Leaves in clusters of 2, stout, falcate, divergent, dark gray-green, from j of an inch 
to 1J inches in length. Cones oblong-conical, oblique, usually erect, incurved, from 1-J 
to 2 inches long, their scales furnished with minute incurved often deciduous prickles. 

Pinus divaricata, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. iii. Conif. 81. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 44. — 

760 (1802). — Sud worth, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xx. (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 104. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 

44 ; Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 329. 78. — Sendclauze, Conif. 132. — Engelmann, Trans. St. 

Pinus sylvestris, 8 divaricata, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 366 Louis Acad. iv. 184.— Veitch, Man. Conif. 158. — Regel, 

(1789). Buss. Dendr. pt. i. ed. 2, 46. — Schtibeler, Virid. Norveg. 

Pinus Banksiana, Lambert, Pinus, i. 7, t. 3 (1803). — Per- i. 392. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 242. — Sargent, Forest 

soon, Syn. ii. 578. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 611. — Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 201. — Watson & 

Nouveau Duhamel, v. 234, t. 67, f . 3. — Aiton, Hort. Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 491. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 

Kew. ed. 2, v. 315. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 642.— 214, t. 8, f . — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 218. — Masters, 

Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 886. — Lawson Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 226. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. 

& Son, Agric. Man. 345; List No. 10, Abietinece, 35. — Soc. xiv. 350 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche 

Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 13, t. 3. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- Dendr. 36. 

Am. ii. 161. — Antoine, Conif. 8, t. 4, f. 2. — Link, Lin- Pinus Hudsonia, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 339 (1804). 

ncea, xv. 491. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 379. — Endlicher, Pinus rupestris, Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. i. 49, t. 2 

Syn. Conif. 111. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 26. — Lindley & (1810). — Provancher, Fl. Canadienne, ii. 555. 

Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 218 (excl. syn. Pinus Pinus Hudsonica, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

contorta). — Dietrich, Syn. v. 400. — Carriere, Traite 380 (1868). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 298. — Lauche, 

Conif. 381. — Gordon, Pinetum, 163. — Courtin, Fam. Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 108 (1883). 

A tree, frequently seventy feet in height, with a straight trunk sometimes free of branches for 
twenty or thirty feet, and rarely exceeding two feet in diameter, 1 and long spreading flexible branches 
forming an open symmetrical head ; often not more than twenty or thirty feet tall, with a stem ten or 
twelve inches in diameter, generally fruiting when only a few years old, and sometimes shrubby, with 
stems not more than two or three feet high. The bark of the trunk is thin, dark brown slightly tinged 
with red, and very irregularly divided into narrow rounded connected ridges separating on the surface 
into small thick closely appressed scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate and usually abruptly 
narrowed at the full and rounded apex, the terminal bud being about a quarter of an inch long and 
an eighth of an inch thick and nearly twice as long as the lateral buds ; they are covered by ovate 
lanceolate pale chestnut-brown scales with spreading tips; soon becoming reflexed on the lengthening 
shoots, from which they fall before midsummer, leaving their dark thickened bases to roughen the 
branches for ten or twelve years. The branchlets are slender, tough and flexible, and pale yellow- 
green and glabrous in their first season, turning dark purple tinged with red during their first winter 
and becoming dark purple-brown the following year. The leaves are borne in rather remote clusters 
of two, with loose sheaths which at first are scarious, pale chestnut-brown below, silvery white above, 
and nearly an eighth of an inch long, and in their second year are black and often not more than 
one twenty-fourth of an inch in length; the leaves are finely serrulate, abruptly narrowed at the 
apex, which terminates in a short callous point, somewhat falcate, rounded on the back, nearly flat or 
slightly concave on the inner face, spreading from the base, at first light yellow-green but dark green 
at the end of their first season, usually about an inch but varying from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch and a quarter in length, from one twentieth to <5ne sixteenth of an inch wide, and persistent 

1 Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, x. 82. — Merriam, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xx. 503. 



148 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

until the second or third year, when they fall gradually and irregularly ; they contain two fibro-vascular 
bundles, one or two parenchymatous resin ducts, which are sometimes wanting, and strengthening cells 
under the epidermis between the numerous bands of deep-set stomata. 1 The staminate flowers are 
produced in crowded clusters usually about an inch and a half in length, and are oblong and from 
one third to one half of an inch long and about one eighth of an inch thick, with yellow anthers 
terminating in nearly orbicular obscurely denticulate crests, and are surrounded by from six to eight 
involucral bracts. The pistillate flowers, which are subglobose, with dark purple ovate scales gradually 
narrowed into short incurved tips, are produced in clusters of from two to four on the terminal shoot 
and on its numerous lateral branchlets, two clusters being often produced on the same leading shoot, 
and are raised on stout peduncles from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch long, and covered 
by large chestnut-brown broadly ovate acute bracts which immediately under the flower are scarious 
and spreading or reflexed. The cones during their first winter are erect, subglobose or oblong, and 
about a quarter of an inch in length, light yellow-brown, and armed with minute incurved prickles ; 
and when they are fully grown in the following autumn they are oblong-conical, acute, oblique at the 
base, sessile, erect and strongly incurved, or slightly spreading and occasionally recurved above the 
middle, from an inch and a half to two inches long, from one half to three quarters of an inch thick, 
dull purple or green when fully grown, and pale yellow-brown and lustrous at maturity, with thin stiff 
scales rounded at the apex, and below dark dull purple on the lower and bright mahogany-red and 
lustrous on the upper side, their exposed portions, which terminate in minute circular oblong concave 
dark umbos, furnished with minute incurved often deciduous prickles, being on the outside of the cone 
and especially near the base much thickened into large mammillate knobs, and on the inside smaller 
and mammillate near the base of the cone and above transversely keeled, slightly thickened, or nearly 
flat ; they usually remain closed for several years, opening very irregularly, and generally not falling 
for twelve or fifteen years. The seeds are nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, and about 
three eighths of an inch long, with almost black tuberculate coats and an embryo with four or five 
cotyledons ; their wings are pale, lustrous, broadest at the middle, full and rounded at the apex, one 
third of an inch long and one eighth of an inch wide. 

Pinus divaricata is distributed from the neighborhood of Halifax, Nova Scotia, to the shores of 
the Bay of Chaleurs and to those of Lake Mistassinnie, and westward south of a line about one hundred 
miles south of James Bay to the valley of Moose River, and then northwestward to the neighborhood 
of Fort Assiniboine on the Athabasca River and down the valley of the Mackenzie River, where it 
is the only Pine-tree, to about latitude 65° north; 2 southward it ranges to the shores of Schoodic 
peninsula in Frenchman's Bay 3 and Alamoosook Lake, 4 Maine, Welch Mt., New Hampshire, 5 to western 
Vermont 6 and the Adirondacks, 7 to the southern shores of Lake Michigan in Indiana and Illinois, 
the banks of the Lacrosse and Black Rivers in northern Illinois, 8 and to central Minnesota. In 
eastern Canada, where at the north it is often a mere shrub, and on the borders of the northeastern 
states, it usually grows in small widely scattered colonies. It is more abundant in central Michigan, 
covering great tracts of barren lands, 9 and on the sand dunes along the southern shores of Lake 
Michigan, where it mingles with Pinus Strobus and with stunted Oaks and other deciduous-leaved 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 308. Ferrisburg in Addison County, western Vermont, by Mr. Rowland 

2 Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 56. — Bell, Bull. Geolog. Rep. Can. E. Robinson of Ferrisburg. 

1879-80, 46°. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 468. » J. H. Sears, Bull. Essex Inst. xiii. 186. 

8 Redfield & Rand, Bot. Gazette, xvi. 294 ; Fl. Mt. Desert Island, 8 p amme i ) Garden and Forest, iv. 532. 

149. — Rand, Garden and Forest, ii. 579. » In the upper part of the lower peninsula of Michigan numer- 

4 Pinus divaricata was found several years ago at the outlet of ous barrens, the largest with an area of several hundred square 
Alamoosook Lake, Orland, Hancock County, Maine, by Mr. George miles, are covered with this tree and are known as Jack Pine 
H. Witherle of Castine, Maine. One tree at this place was about Plains from one of its common names. (See Garden and Forest, i. 
fifty feet high. 398.) 

5 Appalachia, iii. 65. — Bull Torrey Bot. Club, xviii. 150. In northern Michigan, "Wisconsin, and Minnesota, Pinus divari- 
c About 1860 a small grove of Pinus divaricata was found near cata forms a valuable nurse for seedling plants of Pinus resinosa on 



conifers. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 149 

trees ; north of Lake Superior it often grows to a large size and is common, but probably is most 
abundant, and attains its greatest size and beauty in the region west of Lake Winnipeg and north 
of the Saskatchewan, where it frequently stretches over great areas of sandy sterile soil, abounding in 
the valley of the Mackenzie as Pinus contorta does on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains 
in the same latitude. 1 

The wood of Pinus divaricata is light, soft, not strong and close-grained ; it is clear pale brown 
or rarely orange-color, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands 
of small summer cells, few small resin passages, and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4761, a cubic foot weighing 29.67 pounds. It is cut for 
fuel in the Province of Quebec, and sometimes is used for railway ties and posts ; occasionally it is 
manufactured into lumber. By the Indians of Canada it was valued for the frames of canoes. 2 

Pinus divaricata was probably cultivated in England before the middle of the eighteenth century. 3 
Its short spreading leaves and open habit do not, however, greatly commend it to the planters of 
ornamental trees, and a colder climate than that of any part of the United States south of its northern 
border is needed to develop its beauty and insure its long life. 4 

land from which the forest has been cut, until they are overtopped * Curious fancies concerning this tree have taken possession of 

by them at the end of a few years, and then as undergrowth serve the popular mind in some parts of the country. It is considered 

to prevent the development of limbs on the trunks of the more dangerous to those who pass within ten feet of its limbs, the danger 

valuable species ; and it is not improbable that large areas in these being greater for women than for men ; it is believed to poison the 

states would now be practically deserts but for the existence of soil in which it grows and to be fatal to cattle browsing near it ; 

this hardy and fast-growing tree. (See Ayres, Garden and Forest, and if any misfortune comes to a man who has one of these trees 

ii. 261. — See, also, Douglas, Garden and Forest, ii. 285.) on his land, or to his cattle, it must be burned down with wood, 

1 G. M. Dawson, Garden and Forest, i. 59. which is piled around it, for the prejudice against it is so strong 

2 Richardson, Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752. that no one possessed of this belief would venture to cut down a 

3 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2190, f. 2064-2067. Gray Pine. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DLXXXVIII. Pinus divaricata. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 

12. A cluster of young leaves, natural size. 

13. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. A winter branch-bud, enlarged. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DLXXXVIII. 




C.E.Fcucorv dels. 



Rapine' s&. 



PIN US DIVARICATA, Du Mont. 



A. Biooreua> direct* . 



Imp. J. Tan&ur, Faria, 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



151 



PINUS PALUSTRIS. 

Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine. 

Leaves in clusters of 3, slender, flexible, dark green, from 8 to 18 inches in 
length. Cones cylindrical or conical, oblong, from 6 to 10 inches long, their scales 
armed with short recurved spines. 



Pinus palustris, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 14 (1768).— 
Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 220. — Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. 
ii. 49. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 163. — Wangenheim, 
Nordam. Holz. 73. — Walter, Fl. Car. 237. — Aiton, 
Hort. Kew. iii. 368. — Abbot & Smith, Insects of Georgia, 
i. 83, t. 42. — Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 211 ; Spec. iv. pt. 
i. 499. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. 434. — Michaux, 
Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 204. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 27, t. 20. — 
Poiret, Lamarck Diet. v. 341. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 578. — 
Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 461. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 612. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 
644. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 174. — 
EUiott, Sk. ii. 637. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 887. — Forbes, 
Pinetum Woburn. 59, t. 22. — Link, Handb. ii. 477 ; Lin- 
ncea, xv. 506. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 604. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 201. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 491. — Masters, Jour. B. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 236. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
ii. 554 {Man. PI. W. Texas) .— Britton & Brown, HI. 
Fl. i. 51, f . 112. — Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry 
U. S. Dept. Agric. 26, t. 2-7 {The Timber Pines of the 
Southern U. S.). 

Pinus lutea, Walter, Fl. Car. 237 (1788). 

Pinus Tseda, 8 palustris, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 313 (1790). 



Pinus longifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 398 (1796). 

Pinus australis, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i. 64, t. 6 
(1810). — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 246, t. 75, f. 3. — Law- 
son & Son, Agric. Man. 350 ; List No. 10, Abietuwce, 
30. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2255, f. 2156-2160. — An- 
toine, Conif. 23, t. 6, f . 2. — Spach, Hist. V6g. xi. 392. — 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 165. — Carson, Med. Bot. ii. 43, t. 
87. — Gihoul, Arb. Pes. 33. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 30. — 
Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 217. — Die- 
trich, Syn. v. 399. — Carriere, Traite Conif. 345. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 187. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 76. — Chap- 
man, Fl. 434. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 24. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 65. — (Nel- 
son) Senilis, Pinacece, 103. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 109. — 
Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 392. — Nord- 
linger, Forstbot. 401. — Bentley & Trimen, Med. PI. iv. 
258, t. 258. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 
185. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 172. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
109, t. 7, f. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 346 {Pine- 
tum Danicum). 

? Pinus australis excelsa, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2256 
(1838). — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 62. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif 76. 



A tree, growing to an average height of about one hundred feet and to a maximum height of one 
hundred and twenty, with a tall straight slightly tapering trunk usually from two to two and a half 
feet but occasionally three feet in diameter, a massive tap-root penetrating deep into the ground, thick 
lateral roots spreading widely near the surface or descending deeply, and stout slightly branched 
gnarled and twisted limbs covered with thin dark scaly bark, and forming an open elongated and 
usually very irregular head from one third to one half the length of the tree. The bark of the trunk 
varies from one sixteenth to one half of an inch in thickness, and is light orange-brown and separated 
on the surface into large closely appressed papery scales, or when much thickened broken by shallow 
longitudinal and cross fissures into oblong scaly plates. The winter branch-buds gradually widen from 
the base to above the middle and then narrow to the acute apex, the terminal bud, which is often twice 
as large as the lateral buds, being from two to two and a half inches long and half an inch thick ; they 
are covered by elongated linear-lanceolate silvery white lustrous scales divided on the margins, except 
near the apex, into long spreading filaments which form a cobweb-like network over the bud through 
which spread the slightly reflexed tips of the scales ; the inner scales, which at first densely cover the 
lengthening shoots, become much reflexed and, slowly changing to a dull orange-color, usually remain 
at the base of the leaf-clusters until these fall, leaving their much thickened bases to roughen the 



152 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

branches for several years longer. The leaves are borne in crowded clusters of three, forming dense 
tufts at the very ends of the branches ; their sheaths, which consist of eight pairs of bud-scales, are 
thin during their first year, pale orange-color, and loose and scarious on the free margins, and later 
become dark brown, falling with the leaves at the end of the second year ; the leaves are serrulate, 
acute with short callous tips, soft and flexible, pendulous and dark green ; on old trees they are usually 
about eight inches, but on young and vigorous trees generally from twelve to eighteen inches in length, 
and are about one sixteenth of an inch in width ; they contain two fibro-vascular bundles, usually from 
three to five, generally internal resin ducts occasionally surrounded with strengthening cells which, 
however, mostly occur on the ventral side of the fibro-vascular region, and many bands of deep-set 
stomata on their three faces. 1 The flowers are produced in very early spring before the appearance of 
the new leaves, the staminate in short dense clusters from the axils of the lowest scales of the branch- 
bud before it has begun to lengthen, the pistillate subterminal just below the apex of the lengthening 
shoot and usually in pairs or in clusters of three or four, the staminate and pistillate flowers being 
occasionally produced on the same branch. The staminate flowers are cylindrical, incurved, from two 
to two and a half inches in length and about a quarter of an inch in thickness, with dark rose-purple 
anthers terminating in almost orbicular denticulate crests, and are surrounded by involucres of from 
ten to twelve bracts ; withering, they remain for several months on the branches. The pistillate flowers 
are raised on short stout peduncles covered by numerous membranaceous bracts scarious, spreading, 
and often reflexed at the apex, and are oval and about a third of an inch in length, with broadly ovate 
dark purple scales gradually narrowed into slender tips, and nearly orbicular bracts as large as the base 
of the scales. As soon as their ovules are fertilized the young cones grow rapidly for a few weeks, 
becoming about two thirds of an inch in length, and then increase very slowly, remaining erect during 
the winter, when they are not more than an inch in length, and dark red-brown ; beginning to 
grow again in early spring, they soon become horizontal ; and when they have attained their full size 
in the autumn they are cylindrical or conical-oblong, slightly curved, nearly sessile, horizontal or 
pendent, dark green, with chestnut-brown umbos and prickles, from six to ten inches long and 
about two inches thick, with thin flat scales rounded at the apex, their exposed portions, which 
are conspicuously transversely keeled and somewhat thickened, terminating in elevated transversely 
compressed slightly incurved dark umbos armed with small reflexed prickles ; turning dull brown when 
fully ripe, the base of the scales being now dark rich purple on the lower side and reddish brown and 
lustrous on the upper, they open and shed their seeds late in the autumn, and remaining on the 
branches until the latter part of the following winter, leave in falling a few of their basal scales 
attached to the stem. The seeds are almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, prominently 
ridged and about half an inch long, with a thin pale coat marked with dark blotches on the upper side 
and a sweet slightly resinous embryo with from seven to ten cotyledons ; their wings are thin, fragile, 
pale reddish brown and lustrous, widest near the middle, gradually narrowed to the very oblique apex, 
about an inch and three quarters long and seven sixteenths of an inch wide. 

Pinus palust?*is, which is chiefly confined to a belt of late tertiary sands and gravels stretching 
along the coast of the south Atlantic and Gulf states and rarely more than one hundred and twenty- 
five miles in width, is distributed from the extreme southeastern part of Virginia 2 southward to Cape 
Canaveral and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward to the uplands east of the bottoms of 
the Mississippi River, 3 in Alabama extending northward to latitude 34° 30' north and ascending the 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 309. — Bastin & Trimble, Am. the Mississippi River into three divisions, based on their topo- 
Jour. Pkarm. lxviii. 74, f. 14. graphical features and on the mechanical and physical conditions 

2 Pinus palustris extends only a few miles north of the southern of their soils. 

boundary of Virginia into the southeastern counties. (See Ruffin, (1.) The coast plain, an imperfectly drained tidal region of 

RusseWs Magazine, iv. 35.) low Pine barrens, extending inland from ten to thirty miles and 

3 Dr. Charles Mohr, who has carefully studied the distribution covered with open forests of the Long-leaved Pine, interrupted by 
of Pinus palustris, separates the great maritime Pine belt east of inlets from the sea, brackish marshes, and numerous swamps bear- 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



153 



southern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to an altitude of two thousand feet above the level 
of the sea ; * west of the Mississippi River it ranges to the valley of the Trinity River, and from the 
neighborhood of the coast to the thirty-second degree of north latitude in Texas, and in western 
Louisiana nearly to the northern borders of the state. 2 

The most valuable of the Pitch Pines and one of the most important timber-trees of North 
America, Pinus palustris produces heavy, exceedingly hard very strong tough coarse-grained durable 
wood ; it is light red or orange-color, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains broad bands of 
small resinous summer cells occupying about half the width of the annual growth, few inconspicuous 
resin passages, and many conspicuous medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.6999, a cubic foot weighing 43.62 pounds. 3 It is largely used for masts and spars, and in the 



ing White Cedars, Bays, "Water Oaks, Live Oaks, Magnolias, and 
Gum-trees. On slightly higher and better drained levels the Long- 
leaved Pine was once more abundant, but it has now almost entirely 
disappeared from all parts of the coast plain and has been replaced 
by Pinus Tceda and Pinus heterophylla. 

(2.) The rolling Pine hills or upland Pine barrens rising in the 
Atlantic states some six hundred feet above the sea-level, and 
spreading in the Gulf states into broad undulating lower table- 
lands. These hills and table-lands were once covered exclusively 
by forests of the Long-leaved Pine, extending without interruption 
over hundreds of square miles in gloomy monotony. 

(3.) The upper division or region of mixed growth. In this 
interior region, where the Long-leaved Pine grows to its largest 
dimensions with the largest proportion of trees of maximum size, 
it is confined to ridges covered by drifted sands and pebbles, to 
rocky heights, alternating with open Oak woods growing on cal- 
careous loams and marls, and to areas on which the drifts have 
mixed with these loams and marls, where it mingles with deciduous- 
leaved trees and with the Loblolly and Short-leaved Pines. (See 
Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 30 [The Timber 
Pines of the Southern U. £.].) 

1 On Blue Mountain or Talladega Mountain Range in Talladega 
County, Alabama, Pinus palustris flourishes up to an elevation of 
two thousand feet above the sea, although in this part of the state 
it usually disappears at from three to five hundred feet lower 
(Mohr, I. v. 73). 

2 West of the Mississippi River the forests of Pinus palustris 
are also confined to the sands and gravels of the latest tertiary 
formations, occupying in Louisiana two distinct regions ; in one, 
south of Red River, it extends from the borders of the treeless 
savannas of the coast to the bottoms of Red River, and from the 
eastern boundary of Calcasieu Parish to the Sabine River, which it 
crosses into Texas ; in the other, north of Red River, it extends 
nearly to Arkansas, and from the uplands bordering the bottoms of 
the Ouachita westward along the shores of Lake Catahoula until it 
is stopped again by the alluvial deposits of Red River. The Pine 
flats near the Louisiana coast, which are imperfectly drained and 
often covered with water, produce an open forest of comparatively 
small trees, which have already been cut and, owing to the un- 
fa vorable nature of the soil, are not replacing themselves. Farther 
from the coast in all the region south of Red River, on low ridges 
the Long-leaved Pine, crowded in dense forests, grows to a great 
height and produces timber of excellent quality. The undulating 
uplands immediately north of the Red River bottoms are still 
covered with pure nearly unbroken forests of this tree ; farther 
north Pine-covered ridges rise between flats clothed with White 
Oaks and Hickories, and still farther north the forests are more 
open and the Long-leaved Pines, which grow here in great perfec- 



tion, are mixed with the Short-leaved Pine and with deciduous- 
leaved trees. 

In Texas, as in Louisiana, the imperfectly drained coast flats 
have been stripped of their Pine forests, but farther inland, on 
gentle undulating low hills, this tree grows rapidly to a large size, 
producing timber equaling that produced in the adjacent pineries 
of southwestern Louisiana. (See Mohr, I. c. 44.) 

3 During their early years the seedlings of Pinus palustris devote 
most of their energies to the development of the powerful root sys- 
tem peculiar to this tree, the stem at the end of the first year being 
rarely over three quarters of an inch in length, although the tap- 
root at this time is often from eight to ten inches long. At the 
end of another year the tap-root is often from two to three feet 
long, while the stem is scarcely an inch and a half high ; and at the 
end of the fourth year the average plant is not more than five 
inches in height, while the tap-root has constantly gained in thick- 
ness and length. In its seventh year the plant enters a period of 
vigorous growth, the stem increasing rapidly in length and produ- 
cing branches in regular whorls, its upward growth during several 
seasons varying at this period from ten to twenty inches. Trees 
grown on abandoned farms, and from thirty to thirty-five years of 
age, have a height of from forty-five to fifty feet and a trunk 
diameter of ten and a, half or eleven inches, their leading shoots 
being sometimes two feet in length, while trees of the same age 
grown in the forest on land which has never been cleared require 
almost twice as long to attain the same size. When twenty years 
of age the trees begin to produce flowers and fruit, and during the 
following ten or fifteen years attain an average height of from 
forty to forty-five feet, with clear stems free of branches for a 
considerable distance above the ground. Growing upward rapidly 
with an average yearly increase of fourteen or fifteen inches dur- 
ing its first half century, the average upward growth during the 
next fifty years is not more than four or five inches, and between 
the ages of one hundred and two hundred and fifty years the usual 
increase is only about an inch and a, half, the decrease in the ac- 
cretion of wood corresponding with the production of the upward 
growth of the stem and branches. After they have reached the 
age of two hundred years the trees generally become wind-shaken 
and defective, while the exhaustion of the soil lessens their vitality 
and increases their danger from disease and the attacks of insects, 
and trees over two hundred and seventy-five years old are excep- 
tional. (See Mohr, I. c. 55, for an elaborate account of the rate 
of growth of Pinus palustris in different parts of the country, and 
for a discussion of the conditions essential to its best development. 
See, also, Mlodziansky, Garden and Forest, ix. 72.) 

The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
cut in southern Georgia, is seventeen inches and three quarters in 



154 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



building of bridges, viaducts, and trestle-work, in the construction of railway cars, for which it is 
preferred in the United States to any other wood, for railway ties, 1 fencing, flooring, and the interior 
finish of buildings, and for fuel 2 and charcoal. 

Rich in resinous secretions, Pinus palustris supplies the world with a large part of its naval 
stores. 3 



diameter inside the bark, and two hundred and twenty years old. 
The sapwood of this specimen is an inch in thickness, with forty 
layers of annual growth, and the bark is only an eighth of an inch 
thick. 

1 Railway ties of hard pine are every year in greater demand ; 
they are used almost exclusively in the south, and are now laid 
on many of the principal lines in the northern states, which a few 
years ago depended on local supplies of white oak and chestnut. 
This makes constant and increasing drafts upon the forests of 
Long-leaved Pine, enormous quantities of young trees being cut 
every year for ties. The trees used are generally fifteen or sixteen 
inches in diameter at three feet above the ground, and, as rule, 
only the butt cuts are used, usually not more than ten ties being 
obtained from an acre. The best trees are therefore sacrificed 
long before they reach the period of greatest value. 

2 Of late years a profitable industry has been developed in the 
south by cutting the resinous stumps of trees in abandoned turpen- 
tine orchards into long narrow strips about three quarters of an 
inch thick, steaming them, and rolling them into small bundles, 
which are shipped to the north, and sold for kindling wood. Pine 
wood, called light wood, abnormally filled with resin, the result of 
working the tree for turpentine, is very durable in contact with the 
soil, and is often used in the southern states for fence-posts. 

8 The production of turpentine in the pineries adjacent to the 
coast of North Carolina had become an industry of considerable 
importance before the Revolution, most of the crude turpentine 
being sent to England. After the war it was distilled in clumsy 
iron retorts in North Carolina and in some of the northern cities, 
and as early as 1818 the demand had greatly increased the supply, 
although the field of operation was not extended south of Cape 
Fear River nor more than a hundred miles from the coast until 
1836 ; but the introduction of the copper still in 1834 and the de- 
mand for spirits of turpentine in the manufacture of india rubber 
goods and for illuminating purposes, rapidly developed this indus- 
try, which gradually spread farther inland and began to move 
southward, although Wilmington, North Carolina, remained the 
chief centre for the distribution of naval stores until a few years 
ago, when ports nearer to the productive forests superseded it. 
The manufacture of naval stores under the influence of ruinous 
competition has often exceeded the demand, and as thus only the 
most wasteful methods, having in view large and immediate re- 
turns without regard for future supplies, have been profitable, wide- 
spread ruin has been caused in the southern pineries. Searching 
always for virgin forests, the industry has gradually spread until it 
has now invaded every state where Pinus palustris grows. Although 
it is not probable that the drawing off of the resinous juices of the 
trees has an injurious effect upon the heartwood, the formation of 
the resin taking place only in the sapwood, the timber of boxed 
trees is almost invariably ruined, as if left standing they are at- 
tacked by fire, which so weakens them that they are soon blown 
over, or are destroyed by the boring of Capricorn beetles or by the 
spread of fungal diseases over the wounds on the trunk. 

The trees selected for boxing are usually from twelve to eighteen 
inches in diameter, although trunks only eight inches through are 
now sometimes worked. A deep notch or box is made in the trunk 



of the tree by a cut generally made at twelve inches above the 
ground, slanting downward about seven inches in depth, and joined 
by a second cut started ten inches above the first, and extending 
down from the bark to meet it. In this way a segment is removed 
from the trunk, and a triangular trough formed four inches deep 
and four inches wide at the top, with -*, capacity of about three 
pints. Two such boxes, or upon a large trunk sometimes four, 
are made on each tree. A crop, the unit of production, consists of 
ten thousand boxes. They are cut early in November with a nar- 
row-bladed axe specially manufactured for the purpose, and the 
trees are worked on an average during thirty-two weeks. As soon 
as the upper surface of the box ceases to exude freely, it is hacked 
over and a fresh surface exposed, the dried resin adhering to the 
wound having been first carefully removed with a sharp narrow 
steel scraper, the hacking being done with a strong dull knife fas- 
tened to the end of a short handle which is furnished at the lower 
end with an iron ball weighing about four pounds to give increased 
force to the strokes and thus lighten the labor. The boxes, espe- 
cially after the first season, are frequently hacked as often as once 
a week, and are thus gradually extended upward until upon trees 
which have been worked during a number of seasons the upper end 
of the box may be ten or twelve feet above the ground. Once 
every few weeks the resin caught in the bottom of the box is re- 
moved into a bucket with a small sharp oval steel spade attached 
to a short wooden handle. The product of these dippings, as this 
operation is called, is placed in barrels and transported to the dis- 
tillery. During the first season the boxes are usually dipped eight 
times, yielding an average of three hundred barrels of turpentine 
to the crop of ten thousand boxes. The second year the number 
of dippings is usually reduced to five, the product falling off to one 
hundred and fifty barrels, while for the third season one hundred 
barrels are considered a fair yield from three dippings. To this 
must be added the yield of the scrapings, which for the first year 
is estimated at from sixty to seventy barrels of two hundred pounds 
each from a crop, and for the succeeding years at one hundred bar- 
rels. The resinous flow is most abundant during July and August, 
diminishing as the nights become cooler, and ceasing in October or 
November. Trees are profitably worked in North Carolina during 
four or five years, and in that state, where the industry has been 
longest practiced, trees are sometimes worked for more than ten 
years, and then after a rest of several years are worked again with 
new boxes cut between the old ones. Farther south the trees seem 
to possess less recuperative power, and in South Carolina orchards 
are rarely profitably worked for more than four seasons, while in 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi they are frequently 
abandoned at the end of the second and almost invariably at the 
end of the third year. The copper stills generally used in this 
country have a capacity of eight hundred gallons, or a charge of 
from twenty to twenty-five barrels of crude turpentine, and in 
order that a still may run night and day trees on about four thou- 
sand acres of average Pine land are worked. 

The following grades of turpentine are recognized : " Virgin 
Dip," or " Soft White Gum Turpentine," the product of the first 
year ; " Yellow Dip," the product of the second and succeeding 
years, growing darker colored and less liquid every year ; and 



CONIFERjE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



155 



Plants of Pinus palustris four or five feet high, cut at the level of the ground, are sold every 
winter in large numbers in the markets of northern cities for the decoration of churches and living- 
rooms. 1 

Pinus palustris appears to have been first described by Duhamel in 1755, 2 although the value 
of its resinous products had been recognized more than a century earlier. 3 By the advice of F. A. 
Michaux, 4 the French government distributed, about 1830, large quantities of the seeds of this tree 



" Scrape " or " Hard Turpentine," the product of the scraping of 
the boxes. Rosin is graded as follows : " W," window glass ; " N," 
extra pale ; "M," pale ; " K," low pale ; "I," good No. 1 ; "H," 
No. 1 ; « G," low No. 1 ; " F," good No. 2 ; " E," No. 2 ; " D," 
good strain ; " C," strain ; " B," common strain ; " A," black. 
Window-glass, which is the highest grade, is produced only from 
the first dippings of virgin trees; the resinous exudation becomes 
darker in color and less volatile with every succeeding year, and 
the rosin darker and less valuable. Trees worked during several 
years produce dark brown or black rosin. Spirits of turpentine 
distilled from the resinous exudations of virgin trees is pale-col- 
ored, light in weight, and free from any taste ; the resinous matter 
yielded in succeeding years gains more and more body, and the 
greater heat required in distilling it throws off some resin combined 
with the spirits, producing a bitter taste and greater weight. 

Tar, produced by burning the dead wood and most resinous 
parts of the Long-leaved Pine in covered kilns, is graded as fol- 
ows : " Rope Yellow," or rope-makers' tar, — the highest grade, — 
produced with a minimum of heat from the most resinous parts of 
the wood ; " Roany," or " Ship Smearing," the next running of the 
kiln; "Black "or "Thin," the lowest grade, made from inferior 
wood, or the last running of the kiln, and therefore produced with 
a maximum of heat. (See Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pkarmacograpkia, 
546. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 517. — 
Dunwoody, Am. Jour. Pharm. lxii. 284. — Murray, Am. Jour. 
Pharm. lxii. 393. — Ashe, Bull. No. 5, North Carolina Geolog. Surv. 
73 ( The Forests, Forest Lands, and Forest Products of Eastern North 
Carolina. — Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 67 
[Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.]. — Bastin & Trimble, Am. 
Jour. Pharm. lxviii. 242, f . 23-27.) 

1 Garden and Forest, iii. 12. 

2 Pinus Americana palustris trifolia, foliis longissimis, Traite des 
Arbres, ii. 126. 

3 That the production of tar and turpentine was an occupation of 
some importance on our southern coast in the seventeenth century 
appears from the following passage on the fifteenth page of Samuel 
Clarke's A True and Faithful Account of the Four Chief est Planta- 
tions of England and America, to wit, Virginia, New England, Ber- 
mudas and Barbadoes, published in London in 1670 : " Pot-ashes, 
and Soap-ashes; Pitch and Tar for making whereof divers Po- 
landers were sent over." 

* Francois Andre" Michaux (August 16, 1770-October 3, 1855) 
was born at Satory, a royal seat near Versailles, and was the only 
son of Andre" Michaux, famous for his botanical explorations in the 
Orient, North America, and Madagascar. Francois accompanied 
his father to North America, where he was sent to examine its 
flora and to gather the seeds of trees and other plants for the royal 
nurseries, and landed in New York on the 1st of October, 1785. 
He remained with his father, sharing many of his long journeys, 
until 1790, when he returned to France, and devoted himself to the 
study of medicine in Paris under Corvisart with the intention of 
returning to the United States, where he proposed to establish him- 
self as a physician. But the government becoming dissatisfied 



with the results obtained from the nurseries of young trees which 
the elder Michaux had left in New Jersey and South Carolina, 
Francois Michaux was invited to return to America to ship their 
contents to France and sell the land. He reached Charleston on 
the 9th of October, 1801, and remained in the United States until 
1803, devoting his time after the fulfillment of his commission to 
exploring the forests, traveling as far westward as Nashville, Ten- 
nessee. Returning to Paris, he published in 1804 his Voyage a 
VOuest des Monts Alleghany s, which describes the country he had 
traversed two years before, and in the following year a Memoire 
sur la Naturalisation des Arbres Forestiers de VAmerique du Nord, 
in which he insisted on the advantages to be derived from natural- 
izing the most valuable American trees on a large scale in France. 
In order to put this idea into operation, he was again sent to the 
United States, embarking on the 5th of February, 1805, although 
owing to the capture of his vessel by a British man-of-war he did 
not reach his destination until the end of May, having in the mean 
time passed some time at Bermuda. Michaux now remained 
nearly tbree years in America, studying the trees of the eastern 
states, familiarizing himself with their characters and uses, and 
gathering seeds of the most valuable, from which more than two 
hundred and fifty thousand plants were raised in France. On his 
return Michaux began the preparation of the Histoire des Arbres 
Forestiers de VAmerique Septentrionale, the work by which he is best 
known. This classical book was published in three volumes, with 
one hundred and forty-four colored plates engraved on copper. 
Based on accurate knowledge gained in the forests and workshops 
of the New World, it is a monument to the energy, patience, and 
knowledge of its author, and must always be consulted by all stu- 
dents of the trees of eastern North America. The first volume 
appeared in 1810 when Michaux was forty j'ears of age, the second 
in 1812, the third in 1813. An English edition in three volumes 
appeared in Paris and Philadelphia in 1817-19 under the title 
of The North American Sylva, with a few additional plates and 
some fresh observations by the author. The plates of the illus- 
trations were bought in Paris by Mr. William McClure of Phil- 
adelphia and brought to this country, and in 1841, an edition was 
printed from them at New Harmony, Indiana ; another edition 
appeared in Philadelphia in 1852 with notes by Mr. J. Jay Smith ; 
and in 1865 this edition was republished in Philadelphia with a re- 
print of the two volumes of Nuttall's Sylva. After the publication 
of his Histoire des Arbres, Michaux devoted the remainder of his 
life to the propagation and cultivation of trees on a small estate of 
his own and on the grounds of the Socie"te" d' Agriculture, to which he 
was always deeply devoted. In recognition of the hospitality and 
kindness he had received in the United States, Michaux bequeathed 
to the American Philosophical Society the sum of fourteen thousand 
dollars for special purposes connected with the object of his con- 
stant ambition, " the progress of agriculture with reference to the 
propagation of useful forest trees ; '' and to the Massachusetts 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, of which he was an hon- 
orary member, he left the sum of eight thousand dollars for similar 
purposes. 



156 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

to land-owners in central and southern France in the expectation that its cultivation on sterile soil 
would increase the prosperity of the country. 1 It has not, however, flourished in Europe, where only 
a few of the trees planted at that time survive in southwestern France 2 and in northern Italy. 3 

Invaded from every direction by the axe, a prey to fires which weaken the mature trees, destroy 
tender saplings and young seedlings, and impoverish the soil, 4 wasted by the pasturage of domestic 
animals, 5 and destroyed for the doubtful profits of the turpentine industry, the forests of Long-leaved 
Pines, 6 more valuable in their products and in their easy access than any other Pine forests in the world, 
appear hopelessly doomed to lose their commercial importance at no distant day. 

1 See Annates de Fromont, ii. 308 (Rapport fait a la Societe Roy ale matter raked away from the tapped trees to protect the boxes from 
et Centrale d' Agriculture, par F. A. Michaux, Sur le Pinus austra- accidental conflagrations. These fires often spread widely, killing 
lis). — Annales de la Societe d' Horticulture de Paris, 1831, 192. — young trees, and stunting the growth of older ones, and burning 
Soulange-Bodin, Annales de Fromont, ii. 381 (Observations sur la deeply into the gashes made in the trees of abandoned turpentine 
Culture du Pinus australis) ; iii. 176 (Resultat de Semis de Pinus orchards, hasten their death or so weaken them that they fall with 
australis). — Annales de Fromont, ii. 377. — Ivoy, Annales de Fro- the first gale. (See Ashe, Bull. No. 7, North Carolina Geolog. 
mont, iv. 284. — Me'ron, Rev. Hort. 1841, 51. (See, also, Journal Surv. [Forest Fires : Their Destructive Work, Causes, and Preven- 
d' Horticulture Pratique de Victor Paquet, i. 280. — Poiteau, Rev. tion\.) 

Hort. 1843, 109.) 5 Cattle have been turned into the Pine forests of the south 

2 M. L. de Vilmorin, Garden and Forest, x. 112, f. 14. since white men inhabited the country ; indirectly pasturage has 

3 Nicholson, Garden and Forest, ii. 567. inflicted enormous injury to these forests through fires set in the 

4 Fires, which have long ravaged the forests of Long-leaved spring when the Pine seeds are germinating to burn off the old 
Pine, threaten their extermination. Lighted in early spring in all herbage. The direct loss by cattle breaking down young trees and 
parts of the maritime Pine belt, first by the Indians and then by by biting off their tops is also considerable. Hogs, which in the 
their white successors to improve the scanty pasturage of the forest southern states are habitually pastured in the forest, inflict great 
floor, they are gradually consuming the fertility of the soil and injury on the Long-leaved Pine forests by devouring the sweet 
destroying all seedling Pines and other undergrowth, and seedlings seeds of this tree, of which they are particularly fond, and by dig- 
and young plants are now scarce except in regions which have been ging up the seedlings for their thick succulent tap-roots, which 
protected by natural barriers. Fires are especially destructive in they also find palatable. 

the forests which are worked for turpentine, where they are set in 6 Pinus palustris is also often called Georgia Pine, Yellow Pine, 

spring for the purpose of destroying chips and other combustible Hard Pine, and Pitch Pine. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DLXXXIX. Pinus palustris. 

1. A cluster of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. An end of a branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, side view, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A terminal winter branch-bud, natural size. 

Plate DXC. Pinus palustris. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone one year old, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, lower side, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 

7. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DLXXXIX. 




C.JZ.Faccon, del,. 



JtapirvB sc. 



PINUS PALUSTRIS.Mill. 



A.Riocreux> direa>. 



Imp. J.Taneicr, Paris 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXC. 




C.E.Taccon, de£. 



Rapine' sc. 



PINUS PALUSTRIS, 



A.Riocreiuz> direcc. 



Imp. J.Taneur.Paris . 



conifer* SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 157 



PINUS HETEROPHYLLA. 

Slash Pine. Swamp Pine. 

Leaves in 2 and in 3-leaved clusters, stout, dark green, from 8 to 12 inches in 
length. Cones ovate or elongated-conical, from 3 to 6| inches long, their scales armed 
with short slender prickles. 

Pinus heterophylla, Sudworth, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 10th Census U. S. ix. 202. — Mayr, Wold. Nordam. 115, 

xx. 45 (1893) ; Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1892, 329. — t, 7, f . — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 228. 

Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 75, Pinus Bahamensis, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 503 
t. 9-11 {The Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). (1864). — Baker, Hooker Icon. xix. t. 1807. 

Pinus Taeda, var. heterophylla, Elliott, Sk. ii. 636 Pinus Cubensis, var. ? terthrocarpa, Grisebach, Cat. PL 
(1824). Cuba, 217 (1866). 

Pinus Cubensis, Grisebach, Mem. Am. Acad. viii. 530 Pinus Elliottii, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iv. 186, 
(1863) ; Cat. PI. Cuba, 217. — Parlatore, Be Candolle t. 1-3 (1879). — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2', Suppl. 650. — Han- 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 396. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. sen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 358 (Pinetum Danicum). 

A tree, from one hundred to one hundred and fifteen feet in height, with a slightly tapering trunk 
from two and a half to three feet in diameter and free of branches for sixty or seventy feet above the 
ground, a comparatively small tap-root furnished with stout lateral roots spreading widely near the 
surface of the ground, and heavy horizontal branches forming a handsome round-topped head forty or 
fifty feet across. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness, and is irregularly divided by shallow fissures into broad flat plates separating on the surface 
into thin dark red-brown scales which in falling disclose the light orange-brown inner bark. The 
winter branch-buds are cylindrical and gradually narrowed at the apex, the terminal bud being an inch 
and a half long and a third of an inch thick and much larger than the lateral buds, and are covered 
by ovate acute light chestnut-brown lustrous scales terminating in slender spreading dark tips and 
separating on the margins into long slender white filaments which form over the bud a cobweb-like 
covering thickest near its base ; the inner scales, becoming much reflexed, are persistent for at least two 
years and then fall, leaving their elevated and thickened dark bases to roughen for many years the 
stout glabrous branches, which, pale orange-color when they appear, are orange-brown during their first 
winter and then slowly grow darker. The leaves are borne in crowded clusters of two or of three, the 
two-leaved clusters being most common on young vigorous trees and on fertile branches, with sheaths 
which at first are thin, close, scarious, pale chestnut-brown below and from half an inch to nearly an 
inch in length, and which, becoming shorter, and ragged on the margins, fall with the leaves at the end 
of their second season ; the leaves are closely serrulate, acute with short callous tips, dark green and 
lustrous, stomatiferous with numerous bands of stomata on each face, from eight to twelve inches but 
usually about nine inches in length and about one sixteenth of an inch in breadth ; they contain two 
fibro-vascular bundles, from four to six internal resin passages, and strengthening cells usually in a 
single layer under the epidermis and in clusters at the angles of the leaf. 1 The flowers open in 
January and February some time before the appearance of the new leaves, the staminate in short 
crowded clusters from the lowest scales of the branch-buds, the pistillate subterminal on stout peduncles 
from one half of an inch to an inch in length and covered by ovate acute chestnut-brown bracts 
scarious on the margins, those immediately under the flower being broader than the others, rounded 
at the apex spreading, reflexed, and membranaceous. The staminate flowers, which fall as soon as 

1 Coulter & Rose, Bot. Gazette, xi. 309. 



158 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifeiue. 

their pollen has been discharged, are cylindrical, incurved, and from an inch and a half to two inches 
in length, with dark purple anthers terminating in broad rounded crests denticulate on the margins, 
and are surrounded by involucres of about twelve concave bracts, those of the lowest pair being not 
more than half the size of the others and strongly keeled. The pistillate flowers are oval and about 
half an inch long, with broadly ovate pink scales gradually narrowed into short stout tips and bracts 
as large as the base of the scales. The cones begin to grow rapidly as soon as the ovules are fertilized, 
and become horizontal at the end of three or four weeks, when the shoots bearing them, although much 
lengthened, are still usually leafless ; during the autumn they are pendent, about three quarters of an 
inch long, one third of an inch thick, and light reddish brown ; when the flowers open in the following 
winter they are an inch long and three quarters of an inch thick, with thickened scales armed with 
stout straight or incurved prickles ; and before the end of the following summer they have attained 
their full size and are ovate or elongated-conical, gradually narrowed to the somewhat obtuse apex, 
bright green, with dark brown umbos and prickles, short-stalked, pendent, from three to six and a half 
inches in length and from two to two and a half inches in thickness, with thin flexible flat scales 
rounded at the apex, their exposed portions, which are conspicuously transversely keeled and slightly 
thickened, terminating in small transversely flattened umbos armed with minute prickles incurved on 
the basal scales and recurved on the others ; they turn dark rich lustrous brown, the base of the 
scales being dark dull purple on the lower side and dull mahogany-red on the upper, and, opening 
and shedding their seeds in the month of October, remain on the branches until the beginning of the 
following summer. The seeds are almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, slightly ridged and 
rough below, and from one sixth to one quarter of an inch long, with a thin brittle dark gray coat 
mottled with black and an embryo with from six to nine cotyledons ; their wings are thin and fragile, 
dark brown, striate, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and about one quarter of an inch 
wide, with nearly parallel sides, their thickened bases inclosing the seeds and often covering a large 
part of their lower surface. 

Pinus heterophylla is distributed from about latitude 33° north in South Carolina southward over 
the coast plain to the keys of southern Florida and along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl 
River in Louisiana. It is common on the Bahamas and on several of the West Indian islands, and 
forms great forests on the highlands of Central America. 

In the south Atlantic states Pinus heterophylla skirts with scattered groves the shores of the 
numerous inlets and estuaries, 1 and the adjacent islands, and is mingled with the Long-leaved and 
Loblolly Pines in the open forests of the littoral Pine flats, ranging inland nearly to the limits of the 
maritime Pine belt, and in Georgia ascending the valley of the Ocmulgee River a hundred miles from 
the sea ; in Florida, south of Cape Canaveral and Tampa Bay, where it is the only Pine-tree, it crosses 
the peninsula with pure forests near the coast, and in the interior with small colonies scattered among 
Live Oaks and other broad-leaved evergreens ; and on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, where it is 
principally confined to the coast plain, it follows watercourses inland for fifty or sixty miles. 2 

As a timber-tree the Slash Pine, which produces straight sound spars of large dimensions, is little 
inferior to the Long-leaved Pine, the wood of the two trees being usually manufactured and sold 
indiscriminately. It is heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, tough, durable, and coarse-grained ; it is 
rich dark orange-color, with thick often nearly white sapwood, and contains broad resinous bands of 
small summer cells occupying at least half the width of the annual growth, few and not large resin 
passages, and many prominent medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.7504, a cubic foot weighing 46.76 pounds. 

Pinus heterophylla, which is now generally worked for turpentine in the south Atlantic and Gulf 

1 See Garden and Forest, v. 73, f. 14. 2 Mohrj BulL No# 13j DiVi Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 75 (The 

Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.~). 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



159 



states, is rich in resinous products, yielding freely a limpid pale yellow turpentine, less viscid and 
probably richer in volatile oil than that of the Long-leaved Pine. 1 

Pinus heterophylla was first distinguished in the United States early in the century by Stephen 
Elliott, 2 who considered it a variety of the Loblolly Pine ; overlooked again for half a century, its true 
characters were finally made known through the observations of Dr. J. H. MeUichamp 3 of South 
Carolina, although the West Indian tree had been described a few years earlier. 

The most beautiful of the Pines of the southern states, the broad compact shapely dark heads 
of the Slash Pine raised on massive trunks stand out boldly among the more open-headed and less 
symmetrical Long-leaved and Loblolly Pines, which it seems destined gradually to replace and to 
become a chief factor in the restoration of the southern pineries. For its seedlings, produced in great 
numbers every year, are able to thrive without direct sunlight, and, overcoming the more slowly growing 
seedlings of the other species, sooner attain sufficient size to resist the fires which endanger all young 
plants in the maritime Pine belt of the south. 4 



1 Mohr, Bull. No. 13, Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 76 {The 
Timber Pines of the Southern U. S.). 

2 Stephen Elliott (November 11, 1771-March 28, 1830) was a 
direct descendant of William Elliott, a leading merchant of 
Charleston, who arrived from England in 1670, and on the mater- 
nal side a great grandson of John Barnvillc. He was born in Gif- 
ford, South Carolina, was graduated from Yale College at the age 
of twenty, and studied medicine, although he never practiced the 
profession. In 1793 he was elected a. member of the legislature 
of South Carolina, continuing to represent his district until 1812, 
when he was chosen president of the New State Bank of South 
Carolina, a position which he filled until his death. In 1813 Mr. 
Elliott took an active part in establishing the Philosophical Society 
of South Carolina, of which he was the president. He was a con- 
stant contributor and probably the real editor of the Southern 
Review ; and in 1825, on the organization of the Medical College 
of South Carolina, he was appointed professor of natural history 
and botany in that institution. Interested from boyhood in liter- 
ary and scientific studies, Mr. Elliott devoted particular attention 
to the plants of his native state, the result of these observations 
being published in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and 
Georgia, a classical work upon which his reputation as a man of 
science now rests. It appeared in parts in two volumes, between 
1816 and 1824, and contains accurate descriptions in Latin and 
English of the plants of the region, with numerous observations 
upon their medicinal properties furnished by Dr. Thomas McBride. 
Mr. Elliott's herbarium is preserved in the Charleston Museum. 

The name of Stephen Elliott is also preserved by Elliottia, a 
genus of plants of the Heath family of his discovery, which was 
established by Muehlenberg and consists of three shrubs, the type 
being one of the rarest of North American plants, and the others 
common inhabitants of the forests of northern Japan. (See Garden 
and Forest, vii. 204, f. 36, for portrait of Stephen Elliott.) 

8 See viii. 144. 

4 Germinating easily, the seedlings appear in great numbers 



from early spring to the beginning of summer in old fields and in 
openings of the forest wherever the rays of the sun can reach the 
ground. As soon as the cotyledons have expanded, the terminal 
bud develops quickly and the first internode of the stem, lengthen- 
ing rapidly, is covered with soft linear acute primary leaves about 
an inch long. Before the end of the second month clusters of the 
foliage leaves make their appearance in the axils of some of the 
primary leaves, and at the end of the first season the young plants 
are from eight to nine inches high, with slender tap-roots and 
many lateral rootlets. At the end of their second year they are 
from twelve to fifteen inches in height, with slender tap-roots not 
more than four inches in length, and at the end of their third year 
they are often nearly two feet high, with lateral branches devel- 
oped in regular whorls. Trees from ten to twelve years of age 
measure from ten to eighteen feet in height, with stems clear for 
half their length and from two to four inches in diameter. Trees 
from eighteen to twenty years old are from forty to fifty feet high, 
with stems eight or ten inches in diameter at the ground. Second- 
growth trees examined by Dr. Mohr near Mobile, forming open 
groves on soil deficient in drainage, were found to vary from sixty- 
five to eighty-five feet in height, and from fifteen to twenty inches 
in diameter breast-high, while trees of second-growth sprung up on 
better drained soil, with free exposure to sunlight and air, reach 
their full size in half the time required by trees growing naturally 
in forest-covered swamps. 

From Dr. Mohr's observations it appears that the greatest mass 
of wood for any decade is formed by this species when the trees 
are about fifty years old, the annual growth and volume being 
nearly fifteen cubic feet for the preceding ten years, that at the 
age of ninety the growth and volume are only about two thirds of 
the maximum ; and that when the trees are one hundred years old 
the average annual growth nearly equals the current growth, indi- 
cating that they are then ripe for the axe as far as probable de- 
velopment, represented in volume accretion, is concerned. (See 
Mohr, I. c. 81.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate DXCL Plntjs heterophylla. 

1. A cluster of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. Diagram of the involucre of the staminate flower. 

3. An involucre of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers and yearling cones, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 



Plate DXCII. Pinus heterophvlla. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

3. A seed, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXCI. 




C. JO. Faxon. deL. 



PINUS HETEROPHYLLA.Sudw. 

A.JUocreua> direa>t Imp. J. Taneur, Paris. 



Hap trie' so. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DXCII. 




C £ Falcon del. 



Rapine- so. 



PINUS HETEROPHYLLA, SudA 



A.Riocreuz> direcc .' 



Imp. x/. Taneur ) Paris. 



INDEX TO VOL. XL 



Names of Orders are in small capitals; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Abietene, 96. 

-35geria Pinorum, 11. 

Aka-matsu, 7. 

Aleppo Pine, 9. 

Androgynous flowers of Pinus, 4. 

Apinus, 1. 

Asemum mcestum, 11. 

Australes, 4. 

Austrian Pine, 6. 

Aylmeria, 30. 

Balfour, John Hutton, 60. 

Balfourodendron, 60. 

Balsam, Carpathian, 10. 

Bay shillings, 20. 

Bembicia Sequoiae, 11. 

Bhotan Pine, 6. 

Black Pine of Japan, 7. 

Bread from bark of Pinus contorta, 93. 

Bread from bark of Hemlock, 93. 

Bull Pine, 77, 95, 146. 

Caliciopsis Pinea, 12. 
Callidium antennatum, 11 
Carpathian balsam, 10. 
Cattle in southern pineries, 156. 
Cedar Pine, 131. 
Cembra, 1. 
Cembrse, 4. 

Cenangium Abietis, 12. 
Cenangium ferruginosum, 12. 
Chalcophora Virginiensis, 11. 
Chermes pinifolise, 11. 
Chilonectria cucurbitula, 12. 
Chionaspis pinifolise, 11. 
Coleosporium Pini, 12. 
Coleosporium Senecionis, 12. 
Conifers, 1. 
Corsican Pine, 6. 
Criocephalus agrestis, 11. 
Cronartium ribicolum, 12. 

Dendroctonus terebrans, 11. 
Digger Pine, 95. 
Diplosis Pini-rigidse, 11. 

Edible seeds of Pinus, 3. 
Elliott, Stephen, 159. 
Elliottia, 159. 
Eustrobi, 4. 

Fires in southern pineries, 156. 
Fir, Scotch, 5. 
Foxtail Pine, 59, 63. 
Fungal diseases of Pinus, 11. 

Gelechia pinifoliella, 11. 



Georgia Pine, 156. 
Germination of Pinus, 4. 
Gnathotrichus asperulus, 11. 



Oil of turpentine, 3, 9. 
Old Field Pine, 111. 



Gnathotrichus materiarius, 11. 


Pachylobius picivorus, 11. 


Gray Pine, 147. 


Peridermium Cerebrum, 12. 


Great Swamp Pine, 113. 


Peridermium Harknessii, 12. 




Peridermium oblongisporum, 


Halepenses, 4. 


Peridermium Pini, 12. 


Hard Pine, 156. 


Peridermium Strobi, 12. 


Harmonia Pini, 11. 


Phacidium crustaceum, 12. 


Hickory Pine, 63, 135. 


Phacidium Pini, 12. 


Hybrids of Pinus, 4. 


Pieris Menapia, 11. 


Hylobius Pales, 11. 


Pinaster, 4. 


Hylurgops pinifex, 11. 


Pine, Aleppo, 9. 


Hypoderma brachysporum, 12. 


Pine, Austriau, 6. 




Pine, Bhotan, 6. 


Insect enemies of Pinus, 11. 


Pine, Black, of Japan, 7. 


Integrifolise, 4. 


Pine, Bull, 77, 95, 146. 




Pine, Cedar, 131. 


Jack Pine, 147. 


Pine, Corsican, 6. 


Jack Pine plains, 148. 


Pine, Digger, 95. 


Japan, cultivation of Pines in, 11. 


Pine, Foxtail, 59, 63. 


Jeffrey, John, 41. 


Pine, Georgia, 156. 


Jersey Pine, 123. 


Pine, Gray, 147. 




Pine, Great Swamp, 113. 


Knob-cone Pine, 107. 


Pine, Hard, 156. 


Kura-matsu, 7. 


Pine, Hickory, 63, 135. 




Pine, Jack, 147. 


Lachnus australis, 11. 


Pine, Jersey, 123. 


Lachnus Strobi, 11. 


Pine, Knob-cone, 107. 


Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, 30. 


Pine, Loblolly, 111. 


Lamp-black from Pinus Pinaster, 8. 


Pine, Lodge Pole, 90, 91. 


Light wood, 154. 


Pine, Long-leaved, 151. 


Loblolly Pine, 111. 


Pine, Maritime, 7. 


Lodge Pole Pine, 90, 91. 


Pine, Marsh, 119. 


Long-leaved Pine, 151. 


Pine, Monterey, 103. 


Lophodermium Pinastri, 12. 


Pine, Naval Timber, 113. 




Pine, Norway, 67. 


Maritime Pine, 7. 


Pine, Nut, 43, 47, 51, 55. 


Maritime Pine belt, 152. 


Pine, Old Field, 111. 


Marsh Pine, 119. 


Pine, Pitch, 99, 115, 146, 156. 


Mexican species of Pinus, 5. 


Pine, Pond, 119. 


Michaux, Francois Andre", 155. 


Pine, Prickle-cone, 139. 


Monohammus confusor, 11. 


Pine, Pumpkin, 19. 


Monohammus marmoratus, 11. 


Pine, Red, 67. 


Monohammus scutellatus, 11. 


Pine, Red, of Japan, 7. 


Monohammus titillator, 11. 


Pine, Riga, 5. 


Monterey Pine, 103. 


Pine, Rosemary, 113. 


Murray, Andrew, 93. 


Pine, Sand, 127. 


Mytilaspis pinifolise, 11. 


Pine, Scotch, 5. 




Pine, Scrub, 89, 123. 


Naval stores, 154. 


Pine, Short-leaved, 143. 


Naval Timber Pine, 113. 


Pine, Slash, 113, 157. 


Nectria cucurbitula, 12. 


Pine, Soledad, 71. 


Nephopteryx Zimmermanni, 11. 


Pine, Southern, 151. 


Norway Pine, 67. 


Pine, Spruce, 127, 131, 146. 


Nut Pine, 43, 47, 51, 55. 


Pine, Stone, 9. 



162 



INDEX. 



Pine, Sugar, 27. 

Pine, Swamp, 157. 

Pine, Table-Mountain, 135. 

Pine, Tamarack, 90. 

Pine, Weymouth, 21. 

Pine, White, 17, 23, 33, 35, 39. 

Pine, Yellow, 75, 77, 85, 143, 156. 

Pine belt, maritime, 152. 

Pine-bread from bark of Pinus contorta, 93. 

Pineries, southern, cattle in, 156. 

Pineries, southern, fires in, 156. 

Pines, cultivation of, in Japan, 11. 

Pine-tree money, 20. 

Pine wool, 3. 

Pinon, 43, 47, 51, 55. 

Pinus, 1. 

Pinus, 1. 

Pinus adunca, 103. 

Pinus alba Canadensis, 17. 

Pinus albicaulis, 39. 

Pinus Alepensis, 8. 

1 Pinus alopecuroides, 119. 

Pinus Apacheca, 81. 

Pinus aristata, 63. 

Pinus Arizonica, 75. 

Pinus Armena, 5. 

Pinus attenuata, 107. 

Pinus australis, 151. 

? Pinus australis excelsa, 151. 

Pinus Austriaca, 6. 

Pinus Ayacahuite, 33. 

Pinus Bahamensis, 157. 

Pinus Balfouriana, 59. 

Pinus Balfouriana, 63. 

Pi?ius Balfouriana, var. aristata, 63. 

Pinus Banksiana, 89, 147. 

Pinus Beardsleyi, 77. 

Pinus Benthamiana, 77. 

Pinus binato-folio, 5. 

Pinus Bolanderi, 89. 

Pinus borealis, 5. 

Pinus Boursieri, 89. 

Pinus brachyptera, 77. 

? Pinus Californiana, 103. 

Pinus Californica, 103, 107. 

Pinus Canariensis, 4. 

Pinus Cedrus, 10. 

Pinus Cembra, 3, 10. 

Pinus Cembra, b pumila, 10. 

Pinus Cembra, y Helvetica, 10. 

Pinus Cembra pygmoza, 10. 

Pinus cembroides, 47. 

Pinus cembroides, 39. 

Pinus Chihuahuana, 85. 

Pinus clausa, 127. 

Pinus contorta, 89. 

Pinus contorta, 91, 139. 

Pinus contorta, var. Bolanderi, 89. 

Pinus contorta, var. (b) Hendersoni, 89- 

Pinus contorta, var. latifolia, 91. 

Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, 90. 

Pinus Coulteri, 99. 

Pinus Craigana, 77. 

Pinus Cubensis, 157. 

Pinus Cubensis, var. ? terthrocarpa, 157. 

Pinus defiexa, 79. 

Pinus densiflora, 3, 7. 

Pinus divaricata, 147. 

Pinus echinata, 143. 

Pinus echinata, stump growth of, 4. 

Pinus echinata, turpentine from, 146. 

Pinus, economic properties of, 3. 

Pinus Edgariana, 139. 

Pinus, edible seeds of, 3. 



Pinus edulis, 55. 

Pinus edulis, var. monophylla, 51. 

Pinus Elliottii, 157. 

Pinus Engelmanni, 11, 81. 

Pinus excelsa, 6. 

Pinus fastuosa, 9. 

Pinus Finlaysoniana, 5. 

Pinus flexilis, 35. 

Pinus fiexilis, 39. 

Pinus flexilis megalocarpa, 35, 36. 

Pinus flexilis, # macrocarpa, 35, 36. 

Pinus flexilis, y reflexa, 33. 

Pinus flexilis, var. albicaulis, 39. 

Pinus flexilis, var. « serrulata, 35. 

Pinus Fremontiana, 51. 

Pinus Friesiana, 5. 

Pinus, fungal diseases of, 11. 

Pinus Gerardiana, 3, 10. 

Pinus, germination of, 4. 

Pinus glabra, 131. 

Pinus glomerata, 7. 

Pinus Griff thii, 6. 

Pinus Grozelieri, 23. 

Pinus Halepensis, 3, 8. 

Pinus heterophylla, 157. 

Pinus heterophylla, androgynous flowers of, 4. 

Pinus Hudsonia, 147. 

Pinus Hudsonica, 147. 

Pinus humilis, 5. 

Pinus, hybrids of, 4. 

Pmus mops, 89, 91, 123. 

Pinus inops, var. ?, 139. 

Pinus inops, var. clausa, 127. 

Pinus, iusect enemies of, 11. 

Pinus insignis, 103. 

Pi?ius insignis macrocarpa, 103. 

Pinus insignis, var. (a) radiata, 103. 

Pinus insignis, var. (b) laevigata, 103. 

Pinus insignis, var. binata, 104. 

Pinus insularis, 5. 

? Pinus Japonica, 7. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (b) deflexa, 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (c) montana, 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. nigricans, 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. peninsularis, 80. 

Pinus Lambertiana, 27. 

Pinus Lambertiana, j8 ?, 35. 

Pinus Lambertiana, ? B brevifolia, 35. 

Pinus Lambertiana, var. minor, 27. 

Pinus Lambertiana, var. purpurea, 27. 

Pinus Lambertiana, sugar of, 29. 

Pinus Laricio, 3, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, 6, 7. 

Pinus Laricio in the United States, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, 3 Austriaca, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, P nigricans, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, y, 67. 

Pinus Laricio Calabriea, 6. 

Pinus Laricio Cebennensis, 6. 

Pinus Laricio Pallasiana, 6. 

Pinus latifolia, 81. 

Pinus Latteri, 5. 

Pinus Llaveana, 43, 47. 

Pinus longifolia, 9, 151. 

Pinus lophosperma, 71. 

Pinus lutea, 151. 

Pinus macrocarpa, 99. 

Pinus macrophylla, 80. 

Pinus Maderiensis, 9. 

Pinus Mandshurica, 10. 

Pinus maritima, 6, 7, 8. 

Pinus Massoniana, 7. 

Pinus Mayriana, 81. 



Pinus, medical properties of, 3. 

Pinus Merkusii, 5. 

Pinus, Mexican species of, 5. 

Pinus mitii, 143. 

Pinus mitis, & paupera, 131. 

Pinus monophylla, 51. 

Pinus monophylla, var. edulis, 55. 

Pinus montana, 5, 10, 135. 

Pinus monticola, 23. 

Pinus monticola, var. digitata, 23. 

Pinus monticola, var. minima, 23. 

Pinus monticola, var. porphyrocarpa, 23. 

Pinus Mugo, 5. 

Pinus muricata, 139. 

Pinus muricata, 89. 

Pinus muricata, var. Anihonyi, 139. 

Pinus Murrayana, 91. 

Pinus Murrayana, var. Sargentii, 91. 

Pinus Nepalensis, 3, 6. 

Pinus Nepalensis in the United States, 6. 

Pinus nigra, 6. 

Pinus nigricans, 6. 

Pinus osteosperma, 47. 

Pinus palustris, 151. 

Pinus palustris, railway ties from, 154. 

Pinus palustris, turpentine from, 154. 

Pirats Parryana, 43, 77. 

Pinus Pinaster, 3, 7. 

Pinus Pinaster, 6, 7. 

Pinus Pinaster, cultivation of, 8. 

Pinus Pinaster, resinous products of, 7. 

Pinus Pinea, 3, 9. 

Pinus Pinea, 7. 

Pinus Pityusa, 8. 

Pinus, pollen of, 4. 

Pinus ponderosa, 77. 

Pinus ponderosa, 80. 

Pinus ponderosa (a) Benthamiana, 11. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. (a) nigricans, 11. 

Pinus ponderosa (c) brachyptera, 11. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Benthamiana, 11. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi, 79. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Mayriaua, 81. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum, 80. 

Pinus Pontica, 5. 

Pinus porphyrocarpa, 23, 24. 

Pinus pumila, 10. 

Pinus pungens, 135. 

Pinus quadrifolia, 43. 

Pinus radiata, 103. 

Pinus radiata, var. (a) tuberculata, 103. 

Pinus radiata, var. (b) binata, 104. 

Pinus reflexa, 33. 

f Pinus reflexa, 35. 

Pinus resinosa, 67. 

Pinus resinosa, 5, 77, 80. 

Pinus rigida, 115. 

Pinus rigida ?, 103. 

Pinus rigida, stump growth of, 4. 

Pinus rigida, var. lutea, 115. 

Pinus rigida, var. serotina, 119. 

Pinus Roxburghii, 3, 9. 

Pinus Roxburghii, turpentine from, 9. 

Pinus rubra, 5, 67. 

Pinus rupestris, 147. 

Pinus Sabiniana, 95. 

Pinus scopifera, 1. 

Pinus scopulorum, 80. 

Pinus serotina, 119. 

Pinus Shasta, 39. 

Pinus Sinclairiana, 103. 

Pinus Sinclairii, 103, 105. 

Pinus squarrosa, 143. 

Pinus strobiformis, 33. 



INDEX. 



163 



Pinus Strobus, 17. 

Pinus Strobus nana, 21. 

Pinus Strobus uivea, 21. 

Pinus Strobus, j8 monticola, 23. 

Pinus sylvestris, 3, 5. 

Pinus sylvestris, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Pinus sylvestris, &, 7. 

Pinus sylvestris, j8 Norvegica, 67. 

Pinus sylvestris, y Novo-Ccesariensis, 123. 

Pinus sylvestris, 5 divaricata, 147. 

Pinus sylvestris, e maritima, 6. 

Pinus sylvestris in tbe United States, 5. 

Pinus Syrtica, 7. 

Pinus Tfeda, 111. 

Pinus Tceda, 5. 

Pinus Tceda, a tenuifolia, 111. 

Pinus Tceda, /8 echinata, 143. 

Pinus Tceda, rigida, 115. 

Pinus Taida, y variabilis, 143. 

? Pinus Taida, 8 alopecuroidea, 119. 

Pinus Taida, 8 palustris, 151. 

Pinus Ta;da, var. A (rigida), 115. 

Pinus Tceda, var. heteropliylla, 157. 

Pinus Tamrac, 91. 

Pinus Tarlarica, 5. 

Pinus tenuifolia, 17. 

Pinus Thunbergii, 3, 7. 

Pinus Timoriensis, 5. 

Pinus Torreyana, 71. 

Pinus tuberculata, 103, 107. 

FHnus tuberculata, var. acuta, 107. 

Pinus, umbo of the cone-scale of, 4. 

Pinus variabilis, 143. 

Pinus Virginiana, 123. 

Pinus Virginiana, b echinata, 143. 

Pissodes Strobi, 11. 

Pitch Pine, 99, 115, 146, 156. 



Pollen of Pinus, 4. 
Polyporus annosus, 11. 
Polyporus Schweinitzii, 11. 
Polyporus volvatus, 12. 
Pond Pine, 119. 
Ponderosse, 4. 
Prickle-cone Pine, 139. 
Pumpkin Pine, 19. 

Railway ties from Pinus palustris, 154. 

Red Pine, 67. 

Red Pine of Japan, 7. 

Resinous products of Pinus Pinaster, 7. 

Retinia frustrana, 117. 

Rhagium lineatum, 11. 

Riga Pine, 5. 

Ringschale, 11. 

Rosemary Pine, 113. 

Rosin, 3. 

Sabine, Joseph, 97. 
Sabinea, 97. 
Sand Pine, 127. 
Schizoneura pinieola, 11. 
Scotch Fir, 5. 
Scotch Pine, 5. 
Scrub Pine, 89, 123. 
Semiothisa bisignata, 11. 
Shillings, bay, 20. 
Short-leaved Pine, 143. 
Slash Pine, 113, 157. 
Soledad Pine, 71. 
Southern Pine, 151. 
Spirits of turpentine, 9. 
Spruce Pine, 127, 131, 146. 
Stone Pine, 9. 



Strobus, 4. 

Strobus, 1. 

Stump growth of Pinus, 4. 

Sugar of Pinus Lambertiana, 29. 

Sugar Pine, 27. 

Swamp Pine, 157. 

Sylvestres, 4. 

Table-Mountain Pine, 135. 

Tsedse, 4. 

Tamarack Pine, 90. 

Tar, 3, 8, 9. 

Tomicus cacographus, 11. 

Tomicus calligraphus, 11. 

Tomicus Pini, 11. 

Torrey, John, 72. 

Tortrix politana, 11. 

Trametes Pini, 11. 

Turpentine from Pinus echinata, 146. 

Turpentine from Pinus palustris, 154. 

Turpentine from Pinus Roxburghii, 9. 

Turpentine, oil of, 3, 8, 9. 

Turpentine, spirits of, 9. 

Umbo of Pinus, 4. 

Walter, Thomas, 132. 
Weevil White Pine, 11. 
Weymouth Pine, 21. 
White Pine, 17, 23, 33, 35, 39. 
White Pine Weevil, 11. 
Wool, Pine, 3. 

Xyloterus bivittatus, 11. 

Yellow Pine, 75, 77, 85, 143, 156. 



New York Botanical Garden Libra 




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