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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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THE 



\ "^ ^ X. 




ILVA 



OF 



NORTH AME 




ICA 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE TREES WHICH 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 




BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 



-M^.^ -^ 



BIRECTOK OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



31lltt!3trateD Mti) figures ann ^nan^m htmn from l^ature 



CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 



VOLUME XII 

CONIFEBM 

(Ahietinem after Pinus) 








BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCXCVin 



Mo.Bot. Garder, 



-Hd ./^ 



c;or> 



Copyright, 1898, 
Bit CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 

All rights reserved. 



\ 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge^ Mass., TL S, A, 
Electrotyped and Printed by H, O. Houghton and Company. 



TO 



WILLIAM MAREIOTT CANBY 



THIS TWELFTH VOLUME OF 



THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 



COMPANION IN MANY JOURNEYS 



THE FORESTS OP THE CONTINENT 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Synopsis of Orders 
Larix Americana 
Larix occidentalis 
Larix Lyallix 
PiCEA Mariana 

PiCEA RUBENS 

PicEA Canadensis 

PiCEA EnGELMANNI 
PiCEA PaRRYANA 

Picea Breweriana 

PiCEA SiTCHENvSIS 

TsuGA Canadensis 



Plate dxciii, 



Page 
Vll 

7 



Plate dxciv. . , 11 



Plate dxcv, 



15 



Plate dxcvi. 28 



Plate dxcvii 



33 



Plate dxcviii. . . . . . . . . . 37 



Plate dxcix 
Plate dc. 



Plate dci 



43 
47 
51 



Plate dcii •55 



Plate dciii 



TsuGA Caroliniana Plate dclv, 



TsUGA HETEROPHYLLA . 

TsuGA Mertensiana 
Pseudotsuga mucronata 
pseudotsuga magrocarpa 
Abies Fraseri 
Abies balsamea 
Abies lasiocarpa . 
Abies grandis . ' . 



Plate dcv. 



63 
69 
73 



Plate dcvi 77 



Plate dcvii 



87 



Plate dcviii. . . . . . • . . .93 



Plate dcix. 



105 



Plate dcx 107 



Plate dcxi, 



113 



Plate dcxii .117 



Abies concolor 
Abies amabilis 
Abies venusta 



Plate dcxiii 



121 



Plate dcxiv . . .125 

Plates dcxv., dcxvi. . . . . , 



Abies nobilis Plate dcxvii- 

Abies magnifica 

Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis 



.... 133 

Plates dcxviii., dcxix. ...•••• 137 
Plate dcxx 139 



SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS OF PLANTS CONTAINED IN VOLUME XII 

OF THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Class III. GYM NO SPERMS. Resinous trees or shrubs. 

Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Flowers unisexual, naked. 

Stamens numerous. Ovules 2 or many not inclosed in an ovary. Cotyledons 2 or more. Leaves usually straight- veined, 
persistent, or deciduous. 

58. Coniferse. Flowers monoecious, usually solitary, terminal, or axillary. Ovules 2 or many. Fruit a woody 
or rarely fleshy strobile. Cotyledons 2 or many. Leaves scale-like, linear or subulate, solitary or clustered. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



\ 



LARIX 



Flowers solitary, naked, monoecious, the staminate axillary ; stamens indefinite, 
anther-cells 2, surmounted by their connective ; the pistillate terminal, ovules 2 under 
each scale. Fruit a woody strobile, maturing intone season. Branchlets dimorphic. 
Leaves scattered or fascicled, deciduous. 



Larix, Adanson, i^a?/^. PZ. ii. 480 (1763). — Jjink, Abhand. Pinus, Linnseus, Gen. 293 (in part) (1737). — Endllcher, 
Akad, Berl. 1827, 183. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Gen. 260 (in part). — Meisner, Gen* 352 (in part). 

Acad, ii, 211. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 442. — Baillon, Hist. PI. xii. 44 (in part). 

Eichler, Engler & Frantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt, i. 75. — Abies, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 414 (in part) (1789). 
Masters, Jour, Linn. Sac, xxx. 31. 



Tall pyramidal trees, with thick sometimes furrowed scaly bark, hard heavy heartwood conspicu- 
ously marked by dark bands of summer cells impregnated with resin, thin pale sapwood, slender remote 
horizontal and often pendulous branches, elongated leading branchlets roughened by persistent leaf- 
scars, usually short thick spur-hke lateral branchlets disappearing at the end of a few years or 
occasionally developing into vigorous branches. Buds small, subglobose, covered by numerous broadly 
ovate thin chestnut-brown lustrous scales, those of the lower pair lateral and opposite, the others spirally 
disposed ; outer scales accrescent, marking the lateral branchlets with prominent ring-like scars, the 
inner deciduous with the appearance of the leaves and the falling of the staminate flowers.^ Leaves 
linear-subulate, triangular and rounded above or rarely tetragonal, keeled and stomatiferous below, 
articulate on low persistent ultimately woody bases, containing single fibro-vascular bundles, and two resin 
canals in their lateral angles close to the epidermis, slightly incurved in the bud, deciduous ; spirally 
disposed and remote on leading shoots, on short lateral branchlets in crowded fascicles, each leaf in the 
axil of a minute deciduous bud-scale. Flowers monoecious, solitary, terminal, the staminate on leafless, the 
pistillate on leaf-bearing lateral branchlets of the previous or of an earlier year, surrounded at the base 
by the reflexed inner bud-scales. Staminate flowers globose, ovoid or oblong, sessile or pedunculate 
composed of numerous spirally arranged short-stalked two-celled subglobose anthers opening longitu- 
dinally, their connectives produced above them into short points or gland-like umbos; pollen-grains 
lobose. Pistillate flowers appearing with the leaves, subglobose, subsessile, composed of few or 
numerous spirally arranged suborbicular stipitate scales bearing on their inner face near the base two 
naked collateral inverted ovules, each scale in the axis of a much longer mucronate membranaceous 
usually scarlet bract, the lowest bracts without scales and roughening with their persistent tumid closely 
imbricated bases the stalks of the cones. Fruit an ovoid oblong conical or subglobose short-stalked 
cone, at first nearly horizontal, finally assurgent by the incurving of the stout stalk, composed of the 
slightly thickened woody suborbicular or oblong-obovate closely or loosely imbricated concave scales of 



g 



2 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



CONIFERjE. 



the flower, more or less erose on the margins, often longitudinally striate, longer or shorter than their 
bracts, gradually decreasing in size from the centre of the cone to the ends, the small scales usually 
sterile, persistent on the central axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds. Seeds geminate, 
reversed, attached at the base in shallow depressions on the inner face of the scales, nearly triangular, 
rounded on the sides, in falling bearing away portions of the membranaceous lining of the scale f orm- 
ino" oblong or obovate-oblong wing-hke attachments longer than the seeds ; testa of two coats, the outer 
crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, light chestnut-brown and lustrous. Embryo axile 
in copious fleshy albumen ; cotyledons usually six, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Larix is now widely distributed over the boreal and mountainous regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere, ranging from the Arctic Circle to the mountains of Pennsylvania in the New World and 
to latitude 30° in the Old World. Eight species are recognized ; one inhabits northeastern North 
America, and two western North America; one^ grows on the mountains of central Japan and another^ 
on the eastern Himalayas ; on the mountains of central Europe there is one species,^ another ^ forms 
great forests on the plains of northern Russia and eastern Siberia, and eastward is replaced by another 
species ® which extends to Saghalin, northern Japan, and the Kurile Islands. The type is an ancient 
one, and its fossil remains have been found in miocene rocks of central Europe.^ 

Larix produces hard, durable, valuable timber, which is often of great commercial importance, 
turpentine, which is sometimes used in medicine,^ tar,® bark rich in tannin,^^ and a peculiar manna-Hke 
substance.^^ 

Larix is preyed on by numerous destructive insects ^^ and by serious fungal diseases.^^ 

Some species are considered valuable ornamental trees, and are often planted in northern countries 
for the decoration of parks. 

Larix, the classical name of the Larch-tree, was adopted by Tournefort,^* but was included by 
Linnseus in his genus Pinus. 



^ Henry, Nov. Act. Acad. Cces. Leap, xix, 98, t. 13 ; xxii. 246, 
t. 22. 

2 Larix Kmmpferi (not Gordon). 

Pinus Larix, Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 275 (not Linnaeus) (1784). 

Pinus Kcempferi, Lambert, Pinus^ ii. PrefaeOj p. v. (1824). 

Abies K(Bmpferi, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 34 (1833). 

AUes leptolepis, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 12, t. 105 
(1842). 

Pinus leptolepis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 130 (1847). — Parla^ 
tore, De Candolle Prodr. svi. pt. ii. 410. 

Larix Japonica, Carri^re, Traite Conif. 272 (1855). 

Larix leptolepis, Gordon, Pinetum, 128 (1858). — A. Murray, 

Proc. R. Hort. Sac. ii. 633, f. 154, 156-160 ; The Pines and Firs 

of Japan, 89, f. 172-177. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. 

166 {Prol. Fl. Jap.). — Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 102, t. 685, f. 5 ; 

Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 158 ; Beige Hort. xxii. 100, t. 8, f. 2. — Fran- 

chet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. i. 466. — Masters, Jmr. Linn. 

Soc. xviii, 522 (Conifers of Japan). — Trautvetter, Act. Hort. 

Petrop. ix. 212 (Incrementa Fl. Ross.). — Mayr, Monog. Ahiet. 

Jap. 63, t. 5, f. 14. — Beiasner, Handh. Nadelk. 318, f . 83. 

The Japanese Larch, which is a tree seventy or eighty feet in 
height, with a massive trunk from three to four feet in diameter, 
and pale blue-green foliage, is common on the mountains of central 
Hondo at elevations of from five to six thousand feet above the 
sea-level, where it is scattered usually in small groves through 
forests principally composed of Birches, Oaks, and Hemlocks. The 
hard durable wood, difficult to obtain from the inaccessible moun- 
tain forests, is used locally for the timber of mines and in the 
manufacture of many small articles. (See Rein, Industries of 
Japan, 238. — Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 83.) 



Larix Kcmipferi was introduced about forty years ago into the 
gardens of Europe and the northeastern United States, where it is 
hardy and vigorous and is chiefly distinguished by the brilliant 
yellow color assumed by its leaves in autumn. 

At the upper limits of tree growth, at elevations of between 
eight and nine thousand feet above the sea, a low form of this 
Larch, dwarfed by cold, with shorter leaves and smaller cones, 
grows on Mt. Fugi-san. This is 

Larix Kcempferi^ var. minor. 

AUes leptolepis, Lindley, Card. Chron. 1861, 23 (not Siebold & 
Zuccarini). 

Larix leptolepis, var. minor, A, Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. ii. 
633, f. 155 (1862). 

Larix Japonica, A. Murray, The Pines and Firs of Japan, 94, 
f. 178-188 (not Carrifere) (1863). — Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 104, 
t. 685, f. 7; Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 159; Beige Hort. xxii. 103, t. 9, 
f . 4. 

Larix leptoleph, /3 Murrayana, Maximowicz, Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Petrop. 1866, 3 (nomen nudum). ■ — Franchet & Savatier, I. c. — 
Beissner, I. c. 319, f . 84. — Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 217. 

Larix Japonica macrocarpa, Carrifere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 354 
(1867). 

3 Larix Griffitliii, Hooker f. III. Him. PL t. 21 (excl. staminate 
flowers) (1855); Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 655. — Van Houtte, FL desSerres, 
xii. 165, 1. 1267. —Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 39; ed. 2, 171. — Kegel, 
Gartenflora, xx. 106, t. 685, f. 1-4; AcL Hort. Petrop. i. 161; Beige 
Hort. xxii. 105, t. 10, f . 4-7. — Brandis, Forest FL Brit Ind. 531. — 
Beissner, L c. 316, f. 82. 

Larix GriffitUana, Carrifere, Traite Conif. 278 (1855). — Gor- 
don, Pinetum^ 126. 



CONIFEEjE. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



3 



Pinus Griffithii, Parlatore, De CandoUe Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 411 

(18G8). 

Larix Griffithiiy which is a tree from twenty to sixty feet in 
height, with long gracefully pendulous branches and elongated 
cones made conspicuous by long esserted deep orange-brown bracts, 
is scattered over the inner mountain ranges of Bhotan, Sikkim, and 
eastern N^epal at elevations of between eight and twelve thousand 
feet above the sea-level, growing usually near the heads of valleys 
on moraines, which it covers with scanty forests, and occasionally 
on well-drained grassy slopes. (See Hooker f. Himalayan Jour- 
nals^ new ed. i. 245; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 718, f . 157. — Gammie, 
Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 1. No. 2, 11.) The wood, which is considered 
more durable than that of the other Himalayan conifers, is exported 
from Sikkim and Thibet. (See Gamble, Man. Indian TimherSf 410.) 

Introduced into England in 1848, the Himalayan Larch has 
rarely flourished in cultivation, although occasionally a plant in 
son>e exceptionally favorable situation in Europe shows the beauty 
and interest of this tree as a garden ornament. (See Gard. Chron, 
n. ser. xxvi. 464, f . 95. — Bull. Soc. Tosc, Ort. xvii. 312.) 

* Larix Larixj Karsten, Pharm.-med. Bot. 326, f. 157 (1882). 
Pinus Larix, Linnseus, Spec. 1001 (1753). — Pallas, J^/. iJoss. 

i. 1 (in part), t. 1, f. A, B. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. PinheiroSj Larices 

e A betas, 22. — Ledebour, Fl. Moss. iii. 672. — Reichenbach, Icon. 

Fl. German, xi. 4, t. 532 (Larix Europcea on plate). — Christ, 

Verhand. Nat. Gesell. Basel, iii. 546 ( UehersicJit der Europaisclien 

Ahietineen). — Parlatore, Fl. ItaL iv. 59 ; De CandoUe Prodr, 

xvi. pt. ii. 411. 
Larix decidua. Miller, Diet. ed. 8, Ko. 1 (1768). — K.Koch, 

Dendr. ii, pt. ii. 258. 
Larix caducifolia, Gilibert, Exercit. Phyt. ii. 413 (1792). 
Pinus Iceta, Salisbury, Prodr. Z99 (1796). 
Abies Larix, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 511 (1804) ; III. iii. 368, 

t. 785. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 287, t. 79, f. 1. — ■ Richard, Comm. 

Bot. Conif. 65, t. 13. — Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 32, f. 
Larix Europcea, De CandoUe, Lamarck Fl. Frang. ed. 3, iii. 277 

(1805). — Link, Linncea, xv. 634. — Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4v. 

3, iii. 241 (Conif eres (i'imZ/e). — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 276.— 

Eiscali, Deutsch. Forstcult. PJi. 36, t. 1, f. 21-28. — Gordon, 

L 

Pinetum, 124. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 90. — Col- 
meiro, Enum. PI. Hispano-Lusitana, iv. 709. — Herder, Act. Hort. 
Petrop. xii. 102 (PL Radd.) ; Bot. Jahrh. xiv, 160 (Fl. Europ. 
Russlands). — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Straucherj i, 109, 
f. 53-57, t. 3. 

Larix pyramidalis, Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 314 
(1807). 

Larix Europcea commtmis, Lawson & Son, Agric. Man, 386 
(1836). 

Larix Europcea laxa, Lawson & Son, L c. (1836). 

Larix Europcea compacta, Lawson & Son, I. c. (1836). 

Larix vulgaris, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 432 (1842). 

Pinus Larix, a communis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 134 (1847). 

Pinus Larix, 5 laxa, Endlicher, I. c. (1847). 

Pinus Larix, e compacta, Endlicher, I. c. (1847). 
Pinus Larix, t] rubra, Endlicher, I. c. (1847). 

Pinus Larix, 9 rosea, Endlicher, I. c. 134 (1847). 

w 

Pinus Larix, i alba, Endlicher, I. c. 134 (1847). 

Larix decidua, a communis, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
130 (1865). — Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 100, t. 684, f . 3 ; Act. Hort. 
Petrop. i. 156 ; Beige Hort. xxii. 98, t. 7, f. 1. 

Larix Europcea, a typica, Kegel, Russ. Dendr. pt. i. 28 (1870). 

Larix Europcea pendula, Kegel, I. c. (1870). 

Larix communis, var. 5 pendulina, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 101, 



t. 684, f. 5, 6 (1871) ; Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 157 ; Beige Hort. xxii. 

99, t. 7, f. 5, 6. 

Larix Larix, the type of the genus, grows naturally only at high 
elevations on the mountain ranges of central Europe from south- 
eastern France to Servia and Hungary. In France, either alone 
or mixed with mountain Pines, it often forms great forests, but in 
Switzerland and on the Bavarian and Italian Alps it is less abun- 
dant, and is usualty associated with the Spruce, frequently growing 
to the upper zone inhabited by trees. The European Larch is from 
eighty to one hundred or exceptionally one hundred and fifty feet 
in height, with a tall trunk from three to four feet in diameter, 
and small spreading often pendulous branches, and produces strong 
heavy and very durable wood, which has been valued since the 
time of the Romans, and is largely used for beams, piles, water- 
pipes, posts, railway-ties, and shingles, in cabinet-making, and for 
painters' palettes. (See Tour d'Aigues, Mem. Soc. Agric. Paris, 
1787, 41. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 599.) 

During the last one hundred and fifty years the European Larch 
has been largely planted as a timber-tree beyond the limits of its 
natural home. In Scotland in particular great attention was given 
to the cultivation of the Larch by the Dukes of Athol on their 
estates of Athol and Dunkeld, and between 1738 and 1826 they 
covered about eight thousand acres with pure forests of this tree. 
(See Trans. Highland Soc. xi. 165. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2359.) 
In European plantations the Larch has grown with great rapidity 
while young, and, on the whole, these plantations have produced 
satisfactory results if the trees have been cut when they were from 
forty to sixty years of age. Removed from its native forests, how- 
ever, the Larch produces wood which deteriorates before the tree 
reaches maturity, and in recent years Larch plantations have suf- 
fered seriously from disease and the attacks of insects. (For culture 

L 

of the Larch in Europe, see Evelyn, Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 279. — 
R, Hartig, Forst. Culturpfi. DeutscU. 37, t. 3. ~ M'Corquodale, 
Trans. Scottish ArboricuUural Soc. ii. 43. — Gorrie, Trans. Scottish 
Arhoricultural Soc.y'm. 61. — Mathieu, FL Forestiere, ed. 3, 485.— 
Michie, The Larch. — McGregor, Trans. Scottish ArboricuUural Soc. 
ix. 234. — Lorentz, Culture des Bois, ed. 6, 159. — Mer, Rev. Eaux 
et Forets, xxiv. Ill [Culture du Meleze dans les Vosges']. — Schlich, 
Manual of Forestry, ii. 309. — J. B. Carruthers, Jour. R. Agric. 
Soc. England, ii. pt. ii. [The Canker of the Larch']. — Somerville, 
Trans. English ArboricuUural Soc. ii. 363.) 

The European Larch, brought to America probably early in the 
present century, flourishes in the north Atlantic states, where it 
grows rapidly to a large size and has proved one of the few Euro- 
pean trees which can really be successfully grown in the New 
World. It has been frequently planted here as an ornamental 
tree, and occasionally, on a comparatively small scale, for the pro- 
duction of timber. These plantations are still young and have 
not yet shown the quality of the material which the European 
Larch can produce in the United States. (See Sargent, Rep. Sec. 
Board Agric. Mass. ser. 2, xxiii. 276. — Warder, Am. Jour. For- 
estry, i. 11.) 

A form of the European Larch, with long pendulous branches 

(Larix Europcea pendula, Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 387 [1836]. 

Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2351. — Larix decidua, e pendula, Kegel, Gar- 
tenflora, XX. 102, t. 684, f. 11 [1871]), which is believed to have 
originated in the Tyrol, is often planted as an ornament of parks ; 
and nurserymen propagate other abnormal forms. (See Beissner, 
Handb. Nadelh. 327.) 

5 Larix Sibirica, Ledebour, Fl Alt. iv. 204 (1833). — Link, L c. 
535. — Carri^re, L c. 274. — Trautvetter, Middendorff Reise, i. pt. 
ii. 170 (PL /en.). — Trautvetter & Meyer, Middendorff Reise, i. 



4 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



CONIFERJE. 



pt. ii. 88 {Fl. OchoL). — Kegel, Russ. Dendr. pt. i. 30. — Masters, 
Jour, Linn. Soc. xviii. 523 {Conifers of /apan).— Herder, Act. 
Hort. Petrop. xii. 101 (PL Radd.) ; Bot. Jahrh. xiv. 160 {Fl. Europ. 

Russlands) . 

Pinus Larh, Pallas, FL Ross. i. 1 (in part), t. 1, f. C (not Lin- 

neeus) (1784). 

Larix Archangelica, Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 389 (1836). — 
Trautvetter, Act. Hort, Petrop. ix. 211 {Incrementa Fl. Ross.). 

Larix Europcea, var. Sibirica, Loudon, Art. Brit, iv. 2352 

(1838). 

Larix intermedia, Turczaninow, Bull, Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 101 
{Cat. PI Baical.) (not Lawson & Son) (1838). — K. Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 260. 

Larix Ledebouriij Ruprecht, Fl. Samojed, Cisural. 56 (1845). — 
Gordon, Pinetum^ 127. 

Pinus Ledebourii, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 131 (1847). — Lede- 
houTj Fl. Ross. iii. 672. — Turczaninow, Fl, Baicalensi-Dahurica, 
ii. 140. — Herder, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xli. 423. — Christ, Ver- 
hand. Nat. Gesell. Basel, iii. 546 (UebersicTit der Europatschen 
Ahietineen). — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr, xvi. pt. ii. 410. 

Larix Altaica, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacemy 84 (1866). — Traut- 
vetter, I. c. 

Larix communis, var. $ Sibirica, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 101, t. 
684, f. 1, 2 (1871) J Act. Hart. Petrop. i. 156 ; Beige Hort. xxii. 
o\j, X. i, r. ^, o. 

Larix communis, y Rossica, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 101, t. 684, 
f. 4 (1871) ; Act. Hort, Petrop. i, 157 ; Beige Hort. xxii. 99, t. 7, 
f. 4. 

Larix Rossica, Trautvetter, I. c. 212 (1884), 
Larix Sibirica, which many botanists have considered a geo- 
graphical form of the Larch of central Europe, is a large pyramidal 
tree, and forms great forests on the plains of northern Kussia and 
western Siberia, ranging northward to the seventy-first degree of 
latitude, and eastward to the Altai Mountains, on which it abounds 
at elevations of from two thousand five hundred to five thousand 
five hundred feet above the sea-level. The character of the wood 
is very similar to that of Larix Larix and is used for similar 
purposes. 

^ Larix DaJiurica, Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 101 
(Cat. PL Baical.) (1838). — Kegel & Tilling, Fl. Ajan. 119.— 
Carriere, Traite Conif. 271. — Gordon, Pinetum, 123 (excl. syn.). — 
Trautvetter & Meyer, Middendorff Reise, i. pt. ii. 88 {Fl. Ockot). — 

r 

Maximowicz, Bull. Pliys. Math. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, xv. 436 
{Bdume und Strducher des Amurlands); Mem. Sav. &r. Acad. Sci. 
St. Petersbourg, is. 262 {Prim, Fl, Amur.) ; Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
liv. 58. — F. Schmidt, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, s4t. 7, xii. 
63 {Reisen in Amurlande), 177 {FL Saclialinensis) . — K. Koch, 
L c. — Glehn, Act. Hort Petrop. iv. 86 {Verz. Witim-OleJcma- 
Lande).- — 'Masters,^, c. 522. — Kegel, i?wss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 
53, f. 13, b. h.— Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 328, f. 90. — Herder, 
Act. Hort. Petrop. xii. 98 {PL Radd.). — Korshinsky, Act. Hort. 
Petrop. xii. 424 {PL Amur.). 

Pinus Larix {Americanos), Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. 2, t. 1, f. E. 
(1784). 

Larix Europcea, var. Dahurica, Loudon, I. c. (1838). 

Pinus Dahurica, Trautvetter, Imag. PL Fl. Russ. 48, t. 32 
(1844). — Ledebour, FL Ross. iii. 673. — Endlicher, I. c. 128. -— 
Turczaninow, l. c. — • Parlatore, l. c, 

Larix Europcea^ Middendorff, Bull. Phys. Math. Acad. Sci, SL 
Petersbourg, iii. 255 (not De Candolle) (1845). 

Abies Gmelini, Kuprecht, l. c. (1845). 

Pinus Kamtschatika, Endlicher, I. c. 135 (1847). j 



Larix Kamtschatika, Carrifere, I. c. 279 (1855). — Gordon, Pine- 
tum, Suppl. 39. — Parlatore, I. c. 431. 

Larix Dahurica, a typica, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 105, t. 684, 
f. 8, 9 (1871) ; Act Hort Petrop. i. 160 ; Beige Hort xxii. 104, t. 
9, f . 5-6. 

Larix Dahurica, 0prostrata, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 105, t. 684, 
f. 9-10 (1871) ; Act Hort Petrop. i. 160; Beige Hort xxii. 104. 
Larix Dahurica, which is described as a small tree, becoming 
shrubby and semiprostrate in the extreme north, is generally dis- 
tributed through eastern Siberia, Kamtsehatka, Manchuria, north- 
ern China, and Saghalin, and in one form reaches the extreme 
northern part of Tezo, and the Kurile Islands. This form is 
Larix Dahurica, var. Kurilensis. 

Larix Dahurica, var. y Japonica, Kegel, Gartenflora, xx, 106, t. 
685, f. 6 (not Larix Japonica, Carri^re) (1871) ; Act. Hort. Pe- 
trop. i. 160 ; Beige Hort, xxii. 105, t, 10, f. 1. — Beissner, I. c, 
329, f. 91. — Miyabe, Mem. Bast Soc. Nat Hist iv. 261 {Fl, 
Kurile Islands). — Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 84, t. 26. 

Larix Kurilensis, Mayr, Monog. Ahiet Jap. QQ, t. 5, f. 15 
(1890). 

^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arhres, 72. 
5 The turpentine of the Larch, usually known in commerce as 
Venice turpentine, because it was formerly exported from Venice, 
is a thick pale yellow honey-like fluid with a bitter aromatic flavor. 
It is collected from Larix Larix, chiefly in the Tyrol, by boring in 
early spring, nearly to the centre of the trunk, a hole about an inch 
in diameter and a foot above the ground, and firmly closing the 
hole with a wooden stopper, which is taken out in the autumn, 
when the turpentine which has collected in the hole is removed 
with an iron spoon. The hole is then closed again, and the same 
process is repeated in the following autumn. A hole, which yields 
about half a pound of turpentine annually, continues to be produc- 
tive for many years, and, if it is kept carefully closed, does not injure 
the growth of the tree. Under the more wasteful methods which 
were long practiced on the Italian and French Alps a much larger 
annual yield was obtained for a short time from a number of larger 
holes made in the same tree ; this method, however, soon ceased to 
be productive, and if the holes were left open in order that the tur- 
pentine might flow continuously through wooden pipes into small 
pails, the value of the wood was soon impaired. 

Venice turpentine, once considered a sovereign remedy for many 
human diseases, is now rarely used except in veterinary practice, 
and the article sold under that name is usually a mixture of com- 
mon resin and oil of turpentine. (See Mattioli, Opera \_Apolo~ 
gia, 146]. — Woodville, Med. Bot iii. 576, t. 210.— Loudon, L c. 
2366. — Guibourt, Jour, de Pharm. xxv. 500 ; Hist Drog, ed. 7, ii. 
251.— Mohl, Bot Zeit xvii. 329. — FlUekiger & Hanbury, PAar- 
macographia, 549, — Bentley & Trimen, Med. PL iv. 260, t.260.— 
U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1489.) 

* A large part of the tar used in Europe is made in Scandinavia 
and northern Russia by burning the roots and lower parts of the 
trunks of Pinus sylvestris and Larix Sibirica. (See Fluckiger & 
Hanbury, L c. 560.) 

1** The bark of Larix contains from twelve to fifteen per cent, of 
tannic acid, and extracts of that of the European and eastern North 
American species are used in considerable quantities in tanning 
leather. The inner bark of the European Larch, chiefly in the 
form of a tincture, is used in medicine as a stimulating astringent 
and expectorant. (See Fluckiger & Hanbury, Z. c. 551. — U. S. 
Dispens. ed. 16, 870.) 

11 BrianQon manna is a white saccharine substance which is found 
often in considerable quantities on the leaves of the European Larch 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NOETE AMERICA. 



5 



near the town of BriauQon in southeastern France. Formerly it 
was used in medicine ; hut although it is still gathered bj the 
peasants of the region, it is helieved to have disappeared from trade 
and is no longer employed except locally. (See Fluckiger & Han- 
bury, Pharmacographia, 373.) Melezitose, a peculiar sugar analo- 
gous to that of the Cane, was detected in this substance by Berthelot 
(CompL Rend, xlvii. 224). (See, also, Bonastre, Jour, de Pharm. 
sdr. 2, xix, 443, 626. — Fliickiger & Hanbury, I. c. 373. — Bentley 
& Trimen, Med. PI. iv. 260, t. 260.) 

^^ In North America, Larix is seriously injured by several insects, 
but the number of species which attack these trees here and in 
the Old World is not large. Less than fifty species of insects 
are reported as living upon Larch-trees in North America, but it 
is probable that the number will be much increased by a more 
careful study of these trees in the region west of the Koeky Moun- 
tains. The trunks of living healthy Larches do not appear to be 
affected by borers, although several species of Scolytidse or Bark 
Beetles of genera like Dendroctouus, Hylesinus, and Toraicus live 
under the bark of dead, dying, or weak trees. The weakness and 
death of these trees, which make them liable to the attacks of bor- 
ing insects, is frequently caused by the ravages of foliage destroy- 

* ■ 

ers. The most destructive of these, which is also known in Europe, 
is the Larch Saw-ily, Nemaius Erichsonii, Hartig, whose larvae often 
entirely strip the trees of leaves. This pest does not appear to 
have been much noticed in this country before 1880, but in recent 
years it has attracted great attention on account of its abundance 
on both native and European Larches in the northeastern states 

r 

and Canada ; and in southern Labrador, Larix Americana has been 
almost totally destroyed by the ravages of this insect, which ap- 
pears to be spreading northward and eastward. (See Low, Rep. 
Geolog. Surv, Can. n. ser. viii. 36 L.) More abundant in some years 
than others, it is nevertheless a constant menace to the successful 
growth and development of the Larch in the region where it occurs. 
Other species of Saw-flies which occasionally feed upon the Larch 
are not known to be seriously injurious. 

The larvse of a minute moth known as the Larch Sack-bearer, 
Coleophora laricella, Hiibner, which has probably been introduced 
from Europe, have of recent years caused much injury to Larch- 
trees in the eastern states. The bodies of these larvse are pro- 
tected by small close-fitting cases of the same color as the bark of 
the twigs. The larvse hibernate and in early spring eat out the 
parenchyma of the young growing leaves, leaving on the branchlets 
thin dry gray or whitish epidermal skeletons. In Europe, the rav- 
ages of another small moth, Steganoptycha pinicolana, Zeller, often 
cause great damage to Larch-trees, particularly on the high Swiss 
Alps (Christ, Garden and Forest, viii. 238). 

I 



The Larches of western North America are sometimes injured 
by the larv« of a butterfly, Pieris Menapia, Felder, and the larvse 
of various moths of several families are found upon Larches, but 
rarely in sufficient numbers to cause permanent injury. 

Among Aphids, Lachnus laricifex, Fitch, and Ckermes laricifolice, 
Fitch, are sometimes more or less abundant on the twigs and 
leaves ; and Larch-trees cultivated in the eastern states are occa- 
sionally seriously affected by red mites, Tetranychus telarius, Lin- 

nseus. 

^3 The most serious disease of the Larch is a fungus, which 
attacks the European species and is known as Canker or Krebs, 
caused by Dasyscypha Willkommii, R. Hartig {Untersuch. Forst. 
Bot. Institut. MuncJien. i. 63). The mature condition of this fun- 
gus, consisting of small waxy cups, which are fringed on the outer 
surface and margins with minute whitish hairs, while the disk is 
yellowish red, is found in depressions on the surface of the stems 
and young branches. It does not appear to be able to make its 
way into the tree unless the surface of the branches has been 
injured by hail or the attacks of insects. It is said to occur also 
in the United States, but its range here is not well known, as Dasy- 
scypha Willkommii of earlier authors has not always been distin- 
guished from Dasyscypha calycina or from Dasyscypha Agassizii, 
Berkeley & Curtis. The leaves of the European Larch are at- 
tacked by the rust, Cceoma Laricis, Westendorp, which forms 
golden yellow cushion-like spots on their under surface. This 

r 

fungus is believed by mycologists to be connected genetically with 
Melampsora Tremulce, Tulasne, which forms insignificant spots on 
the leaves of Populus tremula in Europe and occurs also on species 
of Populus in the United States. 

A serious disease of the Larch in Germany, which causes the 

I 

leaves to fall in large quantities, is attributed by Hartig to the 
attacks of Sphmrella laridna, K. Hartig, and the discoloration and 
death of Larch leaves are caused by Hypodermella Laricis, Tubeuf. 
In general, the diseases of Larix Americana do not appear to be 
important, or at least they have not attracted the attention of 
mycologists to any extent. Species of Polyporus and Trametes, 
which Injure the trunks of the Tamarack, are not, however, peculiar 
to the Larch. (See P. M. Dudley, Bull No. 1, Div. Forestry U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Appx. 1, 52.) Polyporus officinalis, Fries, formerly 
used in medicine, forms white irregular masses on the Larch in 
Europe, especially in Russia. 

The diseases of the western American species of Larix have not 
been studied. 

14 Inst. 586, t. 357. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Cones small, subglobose; their scales few, longer than the bracts. 

Leaves triangular I.L.Americana. 

Cones elongated ; their scales numerous, shorter than the bracts. 

Young branchlets pubescent, soon becoming glabrous ; leaves triangular -■»....., 2. L. OCCIDENTALIS, 
Young branchlets tomentose ; leaves tetragonal , 3. L Lyaxlh 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



7 



LARIX AMERICANA. 



Tamarack. Larch. 



Cones small, subglobose, the scales few, longer than their bracts 



Larix Americana, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 203 (1803). 
Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 37, t. 4. — Audubon, Birds, 
t. 4. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 89 ; ed. 2, i. 105, t. 
Gihoul, Arh. Res. 51. — (Nelson) Senilis, Finaceoe, 
^Q. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 247. — Nordlinger, Forsthot. 
A21, f . — Eegel, Gartenflora, xx. 105, t. 684, f . 7, 8 ; Act. 
Hort, Petrop. i. 160 ; Beige Hort, xxii. 105, 1. 10, f. 2, 3. 
Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 5, xx. 90. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 215. — Watson & 



Med. iv. 435. — Aiton, Hort. Keiv. ed. 2, v. 321. — Bige- 
low, Fl. Boston. 235. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. Ii. 645. — 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Bendr. Fl. 175. — Spreng- 
el, Syst. iii. 887. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices 
6 Abetos, 27. — Meyer, PI. Labrador. 30. — Hooker, FL 
Bor.-Am. ii. 164. — Antoine, Conif. 54, t. 21, f. 1. — 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 132. — Lawson & Son, List No. lOy 
Abietinece, 21. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 395. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif. 66. 



Coxiiter,Gray^s Man. ed. 6,4:93. — Ma.jT, Wald. Nordam. Abies pendula, Toiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 514 (1804). 



221. — Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 329, f. 92. — Hansen, 

Jour, B. Hort. Soe. xiv. 413 {Pinetum Danicum). 

Koehne, Deutsche Bendr. 28. 
Pinus Larix Americana nigra, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 

226 (1770). 
Pinus laricina, Du Roi, Obs. Bat. 49 (1771) ; Harbh. Baumz. 

ii. 83, t. 3, f. 5-7. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 165. 

Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 42, t. 16, f . 37. — Schoepf, 

Mat. Med. Amer, 142. — Moench, Meth. 364. — Bork- 

hausen, Handh. Forstbot. i. 451. 
Pinus Larix Canadensis, Wangenheim, Besckreib. Nordam, 

Holz. 43 (1781). 
Pinus Larix rubra, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 103 (1785). 

Schoepf, Mat. Med. Amer. 142. 

^ 

Pinus Larix alba, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 104 (1785). 
Pinus Larix nigra, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 104 (1785). 



Nouveau Bukamel, v. 288. — Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 
33. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 213. 
Abies microoarpa, Poiret, Lamarck Bict. vi. 514 (1804). 
Nouveau Buhamel, v. 289, t. 79, f. 2. — Lindley, Penny 
Cycl. i. 33. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
V. 213. 



' I 



Larix pendula, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. iii. 771 
(1802). — Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 314. — Law- 
son *& Son, Agric. Man. 387. — Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 
137, t. 46. — Carri^re, TraitS Conif. 279. — ■ Gordon, 
Pinetum, 129. — Courtin, Fam. Conif 66. — S^ndclauze, 
Conif. 105. — SchiXhelex, Virid. Norveg. i. 441. — Will- 
komm, Forst. FL ed. 2, 156. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. 
SoG. xiv. 218. 

Larix tenuifolia, Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 314 
(1807). 



Pinus pendula, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 369 (1789). — WiU- Larix microoarpa, Desfontaines, ffisif. ^rS. ii. 597 (1809). 



denow, Berl. Baumz. 215 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 502. — Lambert, 
Pinus, i. 56, t. 36. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 579. — Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. ii. 645. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Sprengel, 
Syst. iii. 887. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e 
Abetos, 27. — Audubon, Birds, t. 90, 180. — Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. ii. 164.— Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 232. — Endlicher, 
Syn. Conif 132. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abieti- 
nece, 21. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 395. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 
66. — Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 409. 

Pinus Larix, p rubra, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, 
ii. 315 (1790). 

Pinus Larix, y nigra, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, 
ii. 315 (1790). 

Pinus Larix, S alba, Castiglioni, Viag negli Stati Uniti, ii. 
315 (1790). 



Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 388. — Forbes, Pinetum 
Woburn. 139, t. 47. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 436. — Link, 
Linnma, xv. 536. — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 275. — Gor- 
don, Pinetum, 129. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
137. — S^n^clauze, Conif. 105. — Eegel, Buss. Bendr. 
pt. i. 29. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 130. ■ — Lauche, Beutsche 
Bendr. ed. 2, 100. — Schtibeler, Virid. Norveg. i, 441. 
WiUkomm, Forst. FL ed. 2, 157. 

Larix intermedia, Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 389 (1836).— 
Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 141. — Link, Linnma, xv. 535. 

Laxix Americana rubra, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2400 
(1838). — Knight, Syn. Conif 40. 

Larix Americana pendula, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2400 
(1838).— Carrifere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 356. — S^n^clauze, 
Conif 101. 



Pinus intermedia, Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ed. 2, ii. 114 Larix Americana prolifera, Loudon, Arb. Brit, iv, 2401 



(1800). 



(1838).— Carribre, TraitS Conif. ed. 2, 356. 



Pinus microoarpa, Lambert, Pinus, i. 58, t. 37 (1803). — Larix decidua, y Americana, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 



Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 502 ; Fnwm. 989 ; Berl. Baumz. 



Nadelh. 133 (1865). 



ed. 2, 273. — Persoon Syn. ii. 579. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Larix laricina, K. Koch, Bendr. ii. pt. ii. 263 (1873). 



** 



8 SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. conifek^. 

H 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 99. — Sudworth, Eep. State Board Forestry /\\ul(}^ {Cone-Bearers of Calif or- 

U. S. Dept. Agric, 1892, 330. — Britton & Brown, III. ma) (1890). 

Flor, i. 54, f. 120. Larix laricina, var. pendula, Lemmon, Rep. California 

Larix laricina, var. microcarpa, Lemmon, Bep. California State Board Forestry, iii. 108 {Cone-Bearers of Califor- 

nia) (1890). 

A tree, from fifty to sixty feet in height, with a trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, but 
often much smaller toward the northern and southern limits of its range. During its early years the 
slender horizontal branches form a narrow regular pyramidal head, which continues to characterize this 
tree when it is crowded by its associates in the forest ; but where it can obtain abundant light and air 
some of the specialized upper branches grow more vigorously than the others and than those below 
them and sweep out in graceful curves, or often become much contorted and frequently pendulous and 
form a broad open head which is sometimes extremely picturesque. The bark of the trunk is from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and separates into thin closely appressed rather 
bright reddish brown scales. The slender leading branchlets are glabrous in their first summer and 
are often covered with a glaucous bloom ; during the following winter they are light orange-brown 
and conspicuous from the small globose dark red lustrous buds; during their second season they 
gradually grow darker, and in the third and fourth years become dark brown and dingy and begin to 
lose the spur-like lateral branchlets. The leaves are triangular, rounded above, prominently keeled on 
the lower surface, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in length and about 
one thirty-second of an inch in width ; they are bright green and conspicuously stomatif erous when they 
first expand, which is from the beginning to the end of May, according as the tree grows at the south 
or at the north, and, gradually becoming darker during the summer, they turn dull yellow in September 
or October not long before they fall' The staminate flowers are subglobose and sessile, with pale yellow 
anthers, and are principally borne on branchlets one or two years old. The pistillate flowers are 
oblong and short-stalked, with light rose-colored bracts produced into elongated green tips and nearly 
orbicular rose-red scales, and usually appear on branchlets from one to three years old. The cones 
when they are fully grown and begin to open in the autumn are raised on stout incurved stems, 
and are oblong, rather obtuse, and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and are 
composed of about twenty scales; these are largest near the middle of the cone, diminishing toward its 
extremities, and are very concave, slightly erose or nearly entire on the margins, semiorbieular but 
usually rather longer than broad, and about twice as long as their bracts, which are emarginate and 
furnished at the apex with short mucros; as the cone enlarges the scales gradually lose their red 
color, and when fully grown are light bright chestnut-brown ; growing darker after their first winter, 
during which they gradually scatter their seeds, they usuaUy fall. during their second year, although 
occasionally a few cones remain on the branches through another season. The seeds are an eighth 
of an inch in length, with a pale coat, and are about one third as long as the light chestnut-b^own 
wings, which are broadest near the middle and obliquely rounded at. the apex. 

From about latitude 58" north, near the coast of Labrador, Larix Americana ranges northwestward 
nearly to the southern shore of Ungava Bay ; the line which marks the northern limits of its range 
then extends westward, and, turning toward the south, reaches the shore of Hudson Bay a few miles 
south of the mouth of the Nastapoka Eiver,^ and from a point a little to the northwest of Port Churchill 
on the western shore' of Hudson Bay, in latitude 59° north, extends northwestward to the northern 
shores of Great Bear Lake, from which the Larch follows down the valley of the Mackenzie Eiver 
nearly to latitude 67° 30' north.^ West of the Rocky Mountains Larix Americana ranges westward 

1 The attribution oi Lari. Americana east of Hudson Bay as ^ Richardson, Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752 (as Finns micro- 

here la,d down .s partly taken fron> Dr. Robert Bell's paper on carpa) ; Arctic SearcMng Exped. ii. 318 

hshed ,n the ScotUsk Geographcal Maganne, xlii. 283. Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers, in latitude 67° 30' north Lari. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



9 



along the Dease River and along the upper Liard and Frances Rivers, and northward nearly to Finlayson 
Lake, reaching 65° 35' north/ Southward it spreads through Canada^ and the northern states to 
northern Pennsylvania,^ northern Indiana and Illinois and central Minnesota, and to about latitude 53° 
north in Alberta on the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.* Of the trees of the subarctic 
forest of America, Larix Americana best supports the rigors of the boreal climate, and at the extreme 
northern limits of the forest is still a little tree rising above its associate, the Black Spruce, which 
clings to the ground with nearly prostrate stems. In the interior of Labrador,^ where it is the largest 
tree, it is surpassed in numbers only by the Black Spruce, and grows in all the cold swamps, and in the 
southern part of the peninsula occurs occasionally on well-drained benches a few feet above the surface 
of rivers.^ It grows near the western shore of Hudson Bay with the White Spruce as far north as the 
mouth of Little Seal River, and northwest up to the very margin of the barren lands, the great rolling 
grass-covered plains which stretch beyond the subarctic forest to the shores of the Arctic Sea, 
extending down the Telzoa River as far north as Doobaunt Lake and down the Kazan nearly to Yath- 
kyed Lake, where it attains a larger size than its companion, the Black Spruce."^ West of the Rocky 
Mountains, where it is usually associated with the Black Spruce, it is abundant in cool swamps and on 
northern slopes ; it is common in swamps in Saskatchewan, through which it crosses from the eastern 
base of the Rocky Mountains to Manitoba, where it finds the southwestern limit of its range near 
Carberry, southwest of Lake Manitoba,^ and probably attains its largest size north of Lake Winnipeg 
on low benches which it occasionally covers with open forests. In the maritime provinces of Canada 
and in the United States it inhabits cold deep swamps, which it often clothes with forests of closely 
crowded trees rarely more than forty or fifty feet in height. 

The wood of Larix Americana is heavy, hard, very strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, and 
very durable in contact with the soil ; it is light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains 
broad very resinous dark-colored bands of summer cells, few obscure resin passages, and numerous 
hardly distinguishable medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0,6236, a 
cubic foot weighing 38.86 pounds. It is largely used for the upper knees of vessels, for ship timbers, 
fence-posts, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties. 

Although Larix Americana is said to have been cultivated by Philip Miller, in the Physic 



Histoire 



Nouvelle 



10 



known 



New England, as Josselyn described its merits soon after the middle of the seventeenth century." 



Americana, which here grows to a height of six or eight feet, with 

a trunk an inch in diameter, extends in smaU open groves above 

the Spruces and up to elevations of twelve hundred feet above the 

level of the sea. (See McConnell, Rep, Geolog. Surv. Can, n, ser. 
iv. 117 D.) 

1 G. M. Dawson, Garden and Forest, i. 58; Rep. Geolog. Surv. 
Can. n. ser. iii. pt. i. 112 Bj Appx. i. 187 B. — Macoun, Rep. Geolog. 
Surv. Can, n. ser. iii. pt. i. Appx. iii. 226 B. 

Larix Americana was not found by Dr. G. M. Dawson on the 
Pelley and Lewes Rivers, but he suggests that the Larch seen by 
Dall (Alaska and its Resources, 441, 592) on the lower Yukon is 
probably this species, which he thinks may be found to extend 
from the valley of the Mackenzie nearly to the shores of Behring 
Sea. 

2 Provancher, Flore Canadienne, ii. 558. — Brunet, Cat. Veg. 

Lig. Can, 59. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 475. 

^ Rothrock, Rep. Dept. Agric. Penn. 1895, pt. ii. Div. Forestry, 
284. 

In Pennsylvania Larix Americana grows sparingly in the coldest 
parts of Pike, Monroe, Luzerne, and Lackawanna counties, or on 
the Pocano Plateau and the adjacent regions. It grows in Tama- 



rack Swamp in the northern part of Clinton County, and it is said, 
on doubtful authority, to occur in Somerset County on the high 
Alleghanies up to elevations of three thousand feet above the 
sea. 

* The most southern station in Alherisi wheve Larix Americana 
has been seen by Mr. John Macoun is in a swamp forty miles south- 
west of Edmonton. 

^ On the Labrador coast trees grow in protected valleys at the 

heads of the inner bays up to latitude 58° north, although the 

western foothills of the Atlantic coast range are treeless. Two 

degrees farther south they grow on the coast and high up on the 

hills ; the headlands and outer hills remain, however, treeless as 

far south as HamUton Inlet. (See Low, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 
n. ser. viii. 31 L.) 

* Low, /. c. 36. 

7 Tyrrell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. ix. 214 F. 
^ Teste John Macoun. 

9 Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 369 {Pinus pendula). — Loudon, Arh Brit 
iv. 2399. 

10 Larix Canadensis, longissimo folio, ed. 12""*, iv. 371 f. 92. 

11 "Groundsels made of Larch-tree will never rot, and the 



10 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-ffi. 



Usually an inhabitant of lands saturated with water, Larix Americana, when transplanted to 
uplands, ^rows in good soil much more rapidly than it does in its native swamps, attaining a larger size 
and more picturesque habit, and of all the Larch-trees which have been tried in the northern states it 
best deserves attention as an ornament of parks and gardens. 



longer it lyes the baider ifc growes, that you may almost drive a 
nail into a bar of Iron as easily as into that." (Josselyn, An 
Account of Two Voyages to New England, 68.) 

" The turpentine that issueth from the cones of the Larch-tree 
(which comes nearest of any to the right Turpentine) is singularly 
good to heal wounds, and to draw out the malice (or Thorn, as 



Helmont phrases it) of any Ach rubbing the place therewith, and 
strewing upon it the powder of 5'a^e-leaves." (^Ihid, p. 67.) 

" I cured once a desperate Bruise with a Cut upon the Knee 

r 

Pan, with an Ungent made with the Leaves of the Larch Tree^ and 
Hogs Grease, but the Gum is best." (Josselyn, New England 
Rarities, 63.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXCIII. Lakix Americaka. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A starainate flower, enlarged, 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, enlarged, 

7- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

14. A seedling plant, natural size. 



^ 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Ta"b. DXCIII 



<' 



■-. 



/ 



r 



• . 




i 



J 



C. ^ . F'aaxyrh de-L. 



Rapi. 



vney scy. 



•, 



LARIX AMERIG'A'NA, 




A. Riocreuay direa^ 



t 




■ i 



. cZ Taneur, TojixP, 



I J 



V 



{ 



) 



I 



CONIFERffl. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



11 



LARIX OCCIDENTALIS. 



Tamarack. 



Cones elongated, the scales numerous, shorter than their bracts. Young branch- 
lets soon becoming glabrous. Leaves triangular. 



Larix Occident alis, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 143, 1. 120 (1849). 
Newberry, Facific B. E. Eep, vi. pt. iii. 59, f. 24, 25. 
Cooper, Am. Nat, iii. 412, — Lyall, Jour. Linn, Soc. vii. 
143, — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 91. — Hoopes, Ever- 

greens, 253. — Regel, Gartenjloray xx. 103, t. 685, f . 8-10 ; 
Act, Hort, Petrop, i. 158 ; Beige Hort, xxii. 101, t. 8, f . 
3-5. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 176. — Veitcb, Man. Conif, 



and Forest, ix. 491, f. 71. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
347. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board Forestry, 
iii. 108 {Cone-Bearers of California). — Beissner, Handb. 
Nadelh, 314, f . 80. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
218. — Hansen, Jour. E. Hart. Soc, xiv. 417 (Pinetum 
DanicuTn). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 25. — Leiberg, 
Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 50. 



130. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Kith Census U. S. Pinus Nuttallii, Parlatore, De CandoUe Prodr, xvi. pt. ii. 



ix. 216 ; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 652, f. 145 ; Garden 



412 (1868). 



When it has grown under the most favorable conditions on low moist soil, at elevations of between 
two thousand and three thousand feet above the sea-level, the western Larch often rises to the height 
■>? of two hundred and fifty feet, with a trunk from six to eight feet in diameter ; on drier soil and exposed 
mountain slopes it has an average height of about one hundred feet, with a trunk two or three feet in 
diameter. On young trees the remote elongated and nearly horizontal branches form an open pyramidal 
head ; usually they soon disappear from the lower part of the stem, and the full-grown tree is remark- 
able for its elongated tapering naked trunk, which is frequently free of branches for two hundred feet 
above the ground and is surmounted by a short narrow pyramidal head of small branches clothed with 
scanty foliage,* or occasionally at low altitudes the crown is larger, with elongated drooping branches. 
The bark of young stems is thin, dark-colored, and scaly, but when the tree is about one hundred years 
old the bark changes in character, and, beginning near the base, where on old trunks it is often five or 
six inches thick, it breaks into irregularly shaped oblong plates frequently two feet in length and covered 
with thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. The leading branchlets are comparatively stout, 
and when they first appear are covered with soft pale pubescence, which on some trees disappears 
during the first season and on others continues to cover the shoots until their second year; they are 
bright orange-brown in their first year and sometimes retain this color during a second season, 
although they more often then begin to assume the dark gray-brown color of the older branches and 
of the lateral branchlets, which, usually short, are occasionally nearly three quarters of an inch in length. 
The winter-buds are globose and about an eighth of an inch in diameter, their dark chestnut-brown 
scales being erose and often coated on the margins with hoary tomentum. The leaves are triangular, 
rounded on the back, conspicuously keeled on the lower surface, rigid, sharp-pointed, from an inch to 
an inch and three quarters in length, about one thirty-second of an inch in width, and light pale green, 
turning pale yellow early in the autumn. The staminate flowers are oblong, with pale yellow anthers, 



^ The most remarkable fact, perhaps, about this tree is the small- 
ness of leaf surface in comparison with height and thickness of 
stem, and there is certainly no other instance among the trees of 
the northern hemisphere where such massive trunks support such 
small short branches and sparse foliage. It is not, therefore, sur- 
prising that Larix ocddentalis grows slowly after the loss of its 
lower branches, usually at the end of forty or fifty years. The 



specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, is eighteen 
inches in diameter inside the bark and two hundred and sixty- 
seven years old. At the age of fifty years the trunk of this tree 
was nine inches in diameter ; the sapwood, which is half an inch 
thick, contains forty layers of annual growth. 



12 8ILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. C0Nn?EEiE. 

r 

and at maturity are raised on stout stalks about an eighth of an inch long. The pistillate flowers are 
ohlonff, almost sessile, with nearly orbicular scales, and with bracts which are produced into elongated 
tips. The cones are oblong, short-stalked, and from an inch to an inch and a half in length, with 
numerous thin stiff scales which are nearly entire or slightly erose and sometimes a little reflexed on 
the margins ; they are more or less thickly coated on the lower surface below the middle with hoary 
tomentum, and after the seeds are scattered stand out at right angles to the axis of the cone or often 
become reflexed. The seeds are nearly a quarter of an inch long, with a pale brown coat, and are from 
one half to two thirds the length of the thin and fragile pale wings, which are broadest near the middle 
and obhquely rounded at the apex. 

Scattered on the moist deep soil of bottom-lands through forests of Hemlocks, Firs, and Cotton- 
woods, and mixed with the Yeflow Pine^ the Lodge Pole Pine, and the Douglas Spruce on high 
benches and dry mountain sides, the western Larch grows at elevations of between two thousand and 
seven thousand feet above the sea-level, usually singly or in small groves. Its home is in the basin of 
the upper Columbia River, from which it crosses in southern British Columbia to the mountains over- 
looking the eastern shores of Shuswap Lake, one of the sources of the south fork of the Thompson^ 
where it finds the northern limits of its range in latitude 51° north, and is not abundant ; * in the 
United States it grows near most of the mountain streams which feed the Columbia, from the western 
slopes of the continental divide in northern Montana to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains, 
extending southward to the Blue and Powder Eiver Mountains and the eastern foothills of Mt. 
Jefferson in Oregon. Of comparatively smaU size and less generally multiplied northward and south- 
ward and on the Cascade Mountains, the western Larch is most abundant and attains its largest size 
on the bottom-lands of the streams which flow into Flat Head Lake in northern Montana, and in 
northern Idaho, where it is the characteristic and most interesting inhabitant of the great forests that 

cover this interior region. 

The noblest of the Larch-trees, surpassing all others in thickness and height of stem, splendid in 
massiveness and in the colors of the great plates into which its bark is divided, Larix occidentalis is 
one of the most valuable timber-trees of the continent, and no other North American coniferous tree 
produces such hard and heavy wood, well suited for use in furniture of the best quality. The wood is 
very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, susceptible of receiving a good polish, and very 
durable in contact with the soil ; it is bright Hght red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains 
broad dark-colored resinous bands of small summer cells, few obscure resin passages, and numerous thin 
medullary rays ; the specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7407, a cubic foot weighing 46.16 
pounds. It is largely used for railway-ties and fence-posts, and is manufactured into lumber used in 
cabinet-making and the interior finish of buildings. An exudation, which flows abundantly from 
wounds in the trunk and forms large sheets, has a sweetish taste, and is gathered and eaten by Indians 
in southern British Columbia.^ 

The earliest notice of Larix occidentalis is in the journal of Lewis and Clark, who, in their entry 
of June 15, 1806, record the occurrence of a Larch-tree in the forests on the upper Clearwater River, 
which they ascended in crossing the Bitter Root Mountains on their homeward journey.^ In 1827 it 

r 

was seen near Fort Colville on the upper Columbia by David Douglas, who mistook it for the Larch 
of Europe,* but to Thomas Nuttall, who found it on the Blue Mountains in 1834, belongs the credit of 

1 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 329. — Macoun, Cat. Can. ^ History of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and Clark, 

r 

P^- 475. ed. Coaes, iii. 1043, 1066. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 39. 

2 This substance, which is of a brownish yellow color, somewhat ^ Douglas, Companion Bot. Mag. ii. 109. 

porous, and possesses a moderately sweet taste with a terebin- Of this tree Douglas, in his journal, says : " I measured some 

thine flavor, is found by Trimble to be free from resin and not thirty feet in circumference ; and several which have been leveled 

identical with melezitose, as might have been expected, its physical to the ground by the late storms were one hundred and forty-five 

properties closely resembUng dextrin. (See Am. Jour. Pharm. Ixx. feet long, with wood perfectly clean and strong." If Douglas had 



152.) 



realized that he was in the presence of one of the great trees of 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



13 



first distinguishing this tree. Larix occidentalis was first cultivated in 1881 in the Arnold Arboretum^ 
where it is hardy and produces cones.^ 

In the struggle for supremacy between the different inhabitants of the Columbian forests under 
the changed conditions which have followed the white man's occupation of the country^ Larix occi- 

r ■ 

dentalis seems destined to hold its own and probably even to extend its sway, for in this struggle, in 
which fire now plays a controlling part, it is aided by the great thickness of its bark, which enables 
half -grown trees to bear without permanent injury the heat of annual fires, and by the power of its 
abundant seeds to germinate and of its seedlings to grow rapidly in the shade of other trees and in 
favorable situations often to overtop and finally to destroy them. 



the world, as remarkable as the Sugar Pine or any of his other 
discoveries, the western Larch would not probably have remained 
one of the least known of the important timber-trees of America. 
1 Seedling plants of Larix occidentalism transfeired from Oregon 



to the Arnold Arboretum in 1881, have remained small and stunted, 
but branches of these trees grafted on roots of the Japanese Larch 
have grown vigorously into shapely trees now nearly twenty feet 
in height and almost twice as large as the seedlings. 



■^ 4 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXCIV. Larix occidentalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, rear view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front vieW; enlarged. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and 

ovules, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract^ natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

13. A seedling plant, natural size. 



» 



\ 



Sil 



4 

va of North- America 



/ 



Tat. DXCIV 



^ ■ 



\ 




V 



C.E.Faa^^rv deL. 



\ 



LARIX OCCIDENTALIS 



/ 



Nutt 




sc< 



A, Rix) c^euay direa:^ 



6 




.J.Tc 



arhei^r, Parur. 



^ 



coNiFERiE, SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 15 



LARIX LYALLII. 



Tamarack. 



Cones elongated, their scales shorter than the hracts. Branchlets tomentose 
Leaves tetragonal. 



Xjarix Lyallii, Parlatore, Enum. Sem. Hort. Beg. Mus, Census ?7. S. ix. 216 ; Gard. Chron* n. ser. xxv. 653, 

Flor. 1863 ; Jour. Bot. i. 35 ; Gard. Chron. 1863, 916 ; f . 146 ; ser. 3, xxiii. 356, f . 136. — Mayr, Wald, Nordam. 

Gartenflora, xiii. 244. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 355. — Lemmon, Bep. California State Board Forestry, 

143. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 417. — Car- iii. 109 {Cone-Bearers of California). — Beissner, ^<z?m^6. 

, r 

rifere, TraitS Conif ed. 2, 361. — Hoopes, Evergreens, Nadelh. 316, f . 81. — Masters, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. slv. 

256.— Kegel, Gartenflora, xx. 103, t. 685, f. 11-13; 218. 

Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 158; Beige Hort. xxii. 102, t. 9, f. Pinus Lyallii, Parlatore, Be Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

1-3. — .Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 90. — Veitch, 412 (1868). 

Man. Conif. 130. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 



A tree, usually from forty to fifty and occasionally seventy-five feet in height, with a trunk 
generally eighteen or twenty inches but sometimes three or four feet in diameter, and remote elongated 

r 

palmately divided exceedingly tough persistent branches which, developing very irregularly, are 
sometimes decidedly pendulous and sometimes abruptly ascending at the extremities, one or two being 
frequently much longer and stouter than the others, and sometimes twenty feet in length. Until the 
tree is about fifteen feet high the bark of the slender stem and branches is thin, rather lustrous, smooth 
and pale gray tinged with yellow ; it is dark brown and broken into loose thin scales on larger stems 
and on the large branches of old trees, and on f uUy grown trunks it becomes from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in thickness, and is slightly divided by shallow fissures into irregularly shaped 
plates which are covered with thin dark red-brown loosely attached scales. The winter-buds are 
prominent, and conspicuous from the long white matted hairs which fringe the margins of their scales, 
and, protruding from between them, often almost entirely cover the bud. The leading branchlets are 
stout and coated with thick hoary tomentum, which does not entirely disappear until after their second 
winter ; they then begin gradually to grow darker, and sometimes become nearly black at the end of 
four or five years, when their stout lateral spur-like branchlets have occasionally attained the length of 
three quarters of an inch. The leaves are tetragonal, rigid, short-pointed, pale blue-green and from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length. The staminate flowers are oblong and about an eighth of an inch 
long, with pale yellow anthers, and are raised on short stout stalks. The pistillate flowers are ovate- 
oblong, with dark red or occasionally pale yellow-green scales and dark purple bracts which are abruptly 
contracted into elongated slender tips. The cones are ovate, rather acute, and from an inch and a 
half to nearly two inches in length, and are subsessile or raised on slender peduncles coated with hoary 
tomentum ; their bracts are dark purple, exserted and very conspicuous, with slender tips much longer 
than the oblong-obovate thin dark reddish purple or rarely green scales ; these are erose and their 
margins are fringed with matted white hairs, which are also scattered over their lower surface, being 
thickest near the middle ; at maturity the scales spread nearly at right angles from the stout axis of the 
cone, which is densely covered with pale tomentum, and frequently become much reflexed before the 
falling of the cone, which usuaUy occurs during the first autumn. The seeds are full and rounded on 
the sides, an eighth of an inch in length and about half as long as their light red lustrous wings which 
are broadest near the base, with nearly parallel sides. 

Larix Lyallii^ which grows only near the timber-line on mountain slopes between four thousand 



16 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



five hundred and eight thousand feet above the level of the sea, is distributed from southern Alberta 
and the interior of southern British Columbia ^ southward along the Cascade Mountains and through 
northern Washington to Mt. Stewart, one of their eastern spurs at the head of a north fork of the 
Yakima Eiver.^ In Alberta Larix Lyallii grows on steep mountain slopes and benches, usually on 
those which face the north, either singly or in groves of a few hundred trees, and alone or mixed with 
the Engelmann Spruce ; on the elevated plateau which extends from northern Washington into British 
Columbia, about the State Creek Pass through the Cascade Mountains, it is spread at an elevation of 
about six thousand feet above the sea over undulating grass-covered table-lands with Pinus albicaiilisy 
Abies lasiocarpay and Tsiiga Mertensiana, and on Mt. Stewart it forms a straggling hue of scattered 
trees at the upper limits of tree-growth, or, occasionally clinging to steep slopes facing the north, it 

q ■ 

forms small irregular groves at elevations of from five thousand five hundred to eight thousand feet 
above the sea.^ 

The wood of Larix Lyallii is heavy, hard, close-grained, and bright reddish brown, with thin 
nearly white sapwood. It contains broad dark resinous bands of small summer cells, few obscure resin 
passages, and many thin medullary rays. 
cubic foot weighing 44.10 pounds.^ 



The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0,7077, a 



Larix Lyallii was discovered on the Cascade Mountains in 1860 by David Lyall,^ the surgeon 



ommission 



west of the Kocky Mountains. It has not yet been cultivated. 



^ Macoun, Cat, Can. PL 476. 

2 In 1883 Larix Lyallii was found on Mt- Stewart by Mr. T. Si 
Brandegee, who reported that it sometimes formed there trunks 
four feet in diameter. This is much larger than any of the trees I 
have seen in Alberta, where, although they are often sixty feet in 
height, the trunks rarely exceed twenty inches in diameter. 

® The range of Larix Lyallii is still very imperfectly known. It 
is reported by Mr. John Macoun on a mountain six miles southwest 
of Morley, Alberta, at the unusually low altitude of four thou- 
sand five hundred feet above the sea-level. This is on the eastern 
slope of the Kocky Mountains, and the most easterly point where 
this tree has been seen. It is very abundant on the mountains 
near Laggan on the Canadian Pacific Railroad, not far from the 
continental divide, where it grows up to elevations of almost seven 
thousand feet above the sea; this is the most northerly point at 
which it has been reported. It is, however, so abundant here and 
of such large size that it probably ranges much farther northward 
along the Rocky Mountains, which are entirely unknown botani- 
cally from the line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad to the Atha- 
basca Pass, eighty miles to the northward. It might be expected 
to range along both slopes of the Rocky Mountains south to 
northern Montana, but, although this region has been visited by 
botanists, there is no record that it does occur there. 

* Sargent, Garden and Forest^ iii, 356. 

Larix Lyallii grows very slowly. The trunk in the Jesup Col- 
lection of North American "Woods in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, cut by Mr. T. S. Brandegee on Mt. 
Stewart, is sixteen and one half inches in diameter inside the bark 
and five hundred and sixty-two years old. The sapwood is three 
eighths of an inch in thickness, with thirty-two layers of annual 
growth. 

s David LyaU (June 1, 1817 -March 2, 1895) was born at 
Auchinblae, in Kincardineshire, and received a medical education 



at Aberdeen, where he took his degree, having been previously 

admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh. After 
graduating he made a voyage to Greenland as surgeon to a whaling 
ship, and, on his return, entering the Royal Navy in 1839, he was 
appointed assistant surgeon of H. M. S. Terror for service under 
Sir James Ross, in his scientific expedition to the antarctic regions. 
During this voyage, from which Dr. LyaU did not return until 
1842, he devoted much attention to botany, making several impor- 
tant collections, and discovering in Kerguelen's Land the plant 
which was named for him by his brother officer, the younger 
Hooker, Lyallia. After returning from the antarctic expedition. 
Dr. Lyall served in the Mediterranean, and then as surgeon and 
naturalist on the Acheron, which was detailed to survey the coast 
of New Zealand. At this time he discovered the great white- 
flowered Ranunculus Lyallii^ the largest of all the Buttercups. In 
1852 he was appointed surgeon and naturalist to one of the vessels 
in the squadron sent under command of Sir E. Belcher in search 
of Sir John Franklin ; and his collections of plants made in the 
American polar islands at this time added much to the knowledge 
of the distribution of the arctic flora. In 1858 Dr. Lyall served as 
surgeon and naturalist to the Boundary Commission under Sir John 
Hawkins, accompanying it in its survey of the boundary line be- 
tween British Columbia and the United States from the Gulf of 
Georgia to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. An account of 
his botanical collection made on the boundary, with descriptions of 
the various zones of vegetation, was published in the seventh 
volume of the Journal of the Linncean Society. After his return 
from North America he was on home duty until 1873, when he 
was retired. In addition to his paper on the botany of northwest- 
ern America, Dr. LyaU published, in the twentieth volume of the 

r 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society, a paper on the habits of 
Strigops hahroptiluSf a New Zealand bird. (See Hooker f. Jour. 
Bot. xxxiii. 209.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



J 



Plate DXCV. Lakix Ltallh. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, seen from below, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and 

ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



^% 






,_,— 1 



# 



\ 



Silva of North America. 



TaL.DXCY, 




, / 



\ 



< 




\ 



5 



2 




^ 



3 






•'12 



r 



8 



11 



y 



^'- 



6 




9 






10' 



C- jE. I^^cuz^oriy doly. 




urbe^' j'a: 



I 



LARIX LYALLII 




A.Riocreucc-' direa^- 



t 



Irnp. c/ ToTie^ur, Faj-i^, 



\ 



CONIFERS. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 19 



PICEA. 



Flowers solitary, naked, monoecious, the staminate axillary or terminal ; stamens 
indefinite, anther-cells 2, surmounted by their crested connectives ; pistillate flowers 

^ 

terminal or axillary ; ovules 2, under each scale. Fruit a woody strobile maturing in 
one season. Leaves angular or flat, spirally disposed. 

M ■ 

Picea, Link, Ahhand, Ahad, BerL 1827, 179 (1830). — sieu, Gen. 414 (in part). — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. 



Engelmann, Trans, St Louis Acad. ii. 211. — Bentham (1837). 

& Hooker, Gen, iii. 439. — Eichler, Engler & Prantl, Pinus, Linnaeus, Gen. ed. 5, 434 (in part) (1754). 

Fflanzenfam. ii. pt. i. 77. — Masters, Jour, Linn. Soc, licher, Gen. 260 (in part). — Meissner, Gen. 352 (in 



End- 



XXX. 28. 
Abies, Linnjeus, Gen. 294 (in part) (1737). — A. L. de Jus- 



part). — BaiUon, Hist. PI, sii. 44 (in part). 



Pyramidal trees, with tall tapering trunks often strongly buttressed at the base, thin scaly or 
rarely deeply furrowed bark, soft pale wood containing numerous resin canals, slender whorled 
horizontal limbs clothed with pendent often elongated twice or thrice ramified lateral branches, their 
ultimate divisions stout, glabrous or pubescent, thick roots wide spreading near the surface of the 
ground, and long flexible tough rootlets. Branch buds usually three, surrounded with numerous 

L ■ 

more or less developed acicular scales articulate on persistent bases and generally deciduous before the 
opening of the buds, the two lateral in the axils of upper leaves, and much smaller than the terminal 
bud, ovate, acute or obtuse, covered by numerous spirally arranged light chestnut-brown accrescent 
scales acute or rounded and on some species strongly reflexed at the apex, those of the first pair 
minute, opposite and lateral; outer scales thickening and long persistent at the base of the branchlet, 
the inner thin, scarious, slightly united into a cup-like cover, deciduous in one piece from the end of 
the young branchlet.^ Leaves spirally disposed, densely packed and appressed in the bud and on 
the lengthening branchlets into cone-shaped clusters, ultimately extending out from the branch on all 
sides, or occasionally appearing two-ranked by the twisting of the petioles of those on the lower side, 
mostly pointing to the end of the branch, frequently somewhat incurved above the middle, acute or 
acuminate at the apex, with slender callous tips, or rarely obtuse, entire, longer and more slender on 
sterile branches than on fertile branches and leading shoots, articulate on persistent prominent rhombic 
ultimate woody bases, dark or light green and lustrous, or blue or bluish green, keeled above and 
below, tetragonal and stomatiferous with numerous rows of stomata on the four sides, or flattened 
and stomatiferous only on the upper surface and occasionally also on the lower, containing one or 
two lateral resin ducts close to the epidermis of the lower side, or destitute of resin ducts, persistent 
generally for from seven to ten years, deciduous in drying. Flowers appearing in early spring, 
monoecious,^ terminal or in the axils of upper leaves on branchlets of the previous year from buds 
formed during the summer, surrounded at the base by involucres of the numerous enlarged scarious 
scales of their buds. Staminate flowers oblong, oval or cylindrical, erect, short-stalked or often nodding 
at maturity on long slender pedicels, composed of numerous spirally arranged yellow or scarlet anthers 
opening longitudinally, their connectives produced into broad nearly circular toothed crests ; pollen- 
grains bilobed with lateral air-sacs. Pistillate flowers erect on short stalks, oblong-cylindrical, pale 
yellow-green or scarlet, composed of numerous rounded or pointed scales usually broader than long, 
entire or denticulate on the margins, spirally imbricated in many ranks, bearing on their inner face 
near the base two inverted collateral ovules, each scale in the axil of an oblong generally acute or 
acuminate or of a nearly orbicular bract, at first much longer but before the fecundation of the ovules 



20 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifer js. 

J 

L 

r 

usually much shorter than the quickly accrescent scales. Fruits ovoid or oblong-cylindrical pendulous 
sessile or short-stalked cones maturing in one season, crowded on the topmost branches, or on some 
species scattered over the upper half o£ the tree, deciduous during the first winter or persistent on 
the branch for many years, their scales obovate, rounded above with entire or denticulate margins, or 
oblong and often more or less narrowed to both ends, with nearly entire, dentate, erose or laciniate 
margins, much longer than their bracts, gradually decreasing in size to the two ends of the cone, 
the upper and lower usually sterile, persistent on the axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds. 
Seeds geminate, reversed, attached at the base in shallow depressions on the inner face of the cone- 
scales, ovoid or oblong, full and rounded on the sides, usually acute at the base, in falling bearing away 
portions of the membranaceous lining of the scale, forming oblong wing-like attachments longer than 
the seeds, and inclosing them except on their upper side ; testa of two coats, the outer crustaceous, 
light or dark brown, the inner membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown and lustrous. Embryo axile in 
conspicuous fleshy albumen , cotyledons from four to fifteen, and, like the primary leaves, denticulate 
on the margins.^ 

Picea, which often forms great forests on boreal plains and high mountain slopes, is widely 
distributed through the colder and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, ranging from the 
Arctic Circle to the high slopes of the southern Appalachian Mountains, and to New Mexico and 
Arizona in the ^ New World, and in the Old World to central and southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, 
the Himalayas, and Japan. Sixteen species are now usually recognized, but it is not improbable that 
a more accurate knowledge of the Spruce-trees of northeastern continental Asia than it is now 
possible to obtain may increase the number. The forests of North America contain seven species ; 



of these one species crosses the northern part of the continent from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean 
to those of Behring Sea ; another ranges from the east to beyond the Eocky Mountains ; one species 
is pecuKar to the Appalachian Mountain system ; two species belong to the silva of the Eocky 
Mountains ; another Is confined to the northwest coast, and one, probably the least widely distributed 
of the whole genus, grows only on a few of the high mountains of northern California and southern 
Oregon. In Japan Picea bicolor^ and Picea Torano^ are scattered, usually singly, through the 
forests of Beeches and Oaks which cover the mountains of central Hondo. Picea Jezoensis ® ranges 
from southern Yezo to the coast of Manchuria, and Picea Glehni ^ also reaches Yezo from the north. 
On the temperate Himalayas Picea Smithiana ^ forms gTeat forests, and on many of the mountains 
of Asia Minor and on the Caucasus is replaced by Picea orientalis ;^ farther westward Picea Omoriha^^ 
represents the genus on the Balkan ranges; and In western Europe Picea Abies^^ is a common 
inhabitant of mountain forests, and at the north often covers great plains, while in northern Asia its 
place is taken by Picea ohovataP The type is an ancient one, and Spruces very similar to those 
now living inhabited Europe during the miocene period.^^ 

Picea, which contains some of the most valuable timber-trees in the northern hemisphere, produces 
soft straight-grained pale wood and resinous exudations sometimes used In medicine. Many of the 
species, which can be easily raised from seeds and generally grow rapidly, are used to decorate the 
parks and gardens of all northern countries. 



Picea is often seriously injured by insects/* and is subject to a number of fungal dlseases.^^ 
Picea, which was probably the classical name of the Spruce, was first used by Link as the generic 
name of the Spruces as the genus is now limited.^*^ 

1 Henry, Nov. Act Cms. Leap. xlx. 97, 1. 13. be grouped in two sections, as suggested by Engelmann {Gard. 

3 Androgynous flowers of Picea Abies have been noticed by Chron. n. ser. xi. 334 [1879]), and by Willkomm {Forst.Fl ed. 2, 

Masters ( Vegetable Teratology, 192), and a similar phenomenon 66 [1887]) : — 

lias been found by J, G. Jack on two plants of Picea Canadensis. Eupicea. Leaves tetragonal, stomatiferous on all sides. 

(See Garden and Forest, viii. 222, f . 33, 1.) Omorika. Leaves flattened, usually stomatiferous only on the 

5 The species of Picea with tetragonal and with flat leaves may upper side. 



CONIFEEiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



4 Picea hicolor, Mayr. Monog. Abiet. Jap. 49, t. 3, f. 8 (1890). 

Abies Alcoquiana, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1861, 23 (in part).— 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 245 (in part). 

Abies hicolor, Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, x. 
488 (Mel. Biol. vi. 24) (1866). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL 
Jap. i. 467. 

Picea Alcochianay Carri^re, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 343 (1867.) — 
Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 212, f . 41, 43 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xviii. 508, f. 7-9 (Conifers of Japan). — Hennings, Gartenflora, 
xxxviii. 216, f. 40. 

Pinus AlcoquianOy Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. u. 417 
(1868). 

AUes Alcockiana, Gordon, Pinetunif ed. 2, 4 (not Lindley) 
(1875). 

Picea bicolor, which is probably rare and not widely distributed, 
is a tree seldom more than seventy or eighty feet in height, with 
a trunk sometimes two feet in diameter, tetragonal leaves, and 
stout cones five or six inches in length, with thin rounded scales 
which are slightly denticulate on the margins and become reflexed 
at maturity. It appears to exist in American gardens only in a 
very young state, and to be exceedingly rare in Europe. In the 
mountains of Japan the old trees with their feeble branches and 
sparse foliage possess little beauty. 

s Picea Torano, Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 22 (1893). 

? Pinus Abies, Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 275 (not Linnaeus) (1784). 
f Pinus Tkunbergii, Lambert, Pinus, ii. Preface, p. v. (1824). 
Abies Torano, Siebold, Verhand. Batav. Genoot. Konst. Wet. xii. 
12 (1830). — K. Koch, /. c. 233. 

-I ^ 

? Abies Thunbergii, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 34 (1833). 

Abies polita, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 20, t. Ill 
(1842). — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. 167 {Prol. Fl. 
Jap.). — Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 466. — Gordon, I. c. 16. 

Pinus polita, Antoine, Conif 95, t. 36, f. 1 (1840-47). — End- 
licher, Syn. Conif 121. — Parlatore, I. c. 

Picea polita, Csivvi^ve, Traite Conif 256 (1855). — Bertrand, 

Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 85. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 

xiii. 233, f. 44 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 507 (Conifers of Japan). — 

Mayr, Z. c. 46, t. 3, f. 7.— Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 380, f. 
102. 

Abies Smithiana, Gordon, Pinetum, 12 (in part) (not Loudon) 
(1858). 

On the Nikko Mountains Picea Torano is a stunted tree thirty or 
forty feet in height, with a thin top and short ragged branches ; it 
is distinguished by its stout rigid falcate tetragonal sharp-pointed 
yellow-green leaves, and by its broadly ovate cones from four to 
six inches in length, with rounded scales thin, entire or slightly 
fimbriated on the margins. Ugly and unattractive in its native 
forests, Picea Torano is one of the hardiest of the Asiatic Spruce- 
trees in the gardens of the United States and England, into which 
it was introduced thirty or forty years ago, and in which, still 
retaining the dense habit and the shapely form of youth, it pro- 
duces cones abundantly every season. 

F 

^ Picea Jezoensis, Carrifere, I.e. 255 (1855). — Beissner, I. c. 389. 
Abies Jezoensis, Siebold & Zuccarini, I. c. t. 110 (1842). — 
Miqnel, I. c. 

Pinus Jezoensis, Antoine, I. c. 97, t. 37, f. 1 (1840-47). — End- 
licher, I. c. 120. 

Abies Ajanensis, Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 
212 (1850). — Maximowicz, Bull. Phys. Math. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petershourg, xv, 436 (Baume und Strducher des Amurlands). 

Picea Ajanensis, Trautvetter & Meyer, Middendorff Reise, i. 
pt. ii. 87, t. 22-24 (Fl. Ochot.) (1856). — Carriere, I. c. 259.— 



Kegel & Tilling, Fl. Ajan. 119. — Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. iStr. 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ix. 261 (Prim. Fl. Amur.). — Hegel, 
Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ser. 7, iv. No. 4, 136 (Tent. Fl. 
Ussur.). — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser, xiii. 115, f. 22; xiv. 427, 
f. 80-84, ser. 3, iii. 52, f. 10 ; Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 508, f . 8-10 
(Conifers of Japan). — Trautvetter, Act. Hort. Petrop. ix. 212 
(Incrementa Fl. Ross.). — Hennings, I, c. — Mayr, I. c. 53, t. 4, 
f. 10. — Beissner, I. c. 385, f. 104. 

Picea Ajanensis, a genuina, Trautvetter & Meyer, I. c. (1856). 

Picea Ajanensis, $ subintegerrima, Trautvetter & Meyer, I. c. 
(1856). 

Abies microsperma, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1861, 22.— Gordon, 
Pinetum, Suppl. 12.— A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. ii. 429, f, 
111-118; The Pines and Firs of Japan, 69, f. 129-136. 

Abies Alcoquiana, Lindley, I. c. 1861, 23 (in part). — A. Mur- 
ray, Proc.R. Hort. Soc. ii. 426, f. 98-110 ; The Pines and Firs of 
Japan, QQ, f. 116-128. —Gordon, I. c. 8. 

Picea microsperma, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 339 (1867). 

Pinus Menziesii, Parlatore, I. c. 418 (in part) (not D. Don) 
(1868). 

Pinus Japonica, Parlatore, I. c. (1868). 

Abies Sitchensis, K. Koch, I. c. ii. pt. ii. 247 (in part) (not 
Lindley & Gordon) (1873). 

Abies Menziesii, Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 467 (not Lindley) 
(1875). 

Picea Ajanensis, var. microsperma, Masters, Gard. Chron. n. 
ser. xiii. 115 (1880); Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 509 (Conifers of 
Japan), 

Abies Ajanensis, var. microsperma, Veitch, Man. Conif 66 
(1881). 

Tsuga Ajanensis, Kegel, Russ. Dendr. ed. 2. pt. i. 39 (1882). 
Picea Hondoensis, Mayr, I. c. 51, t. 4, f. 9 (1890). 

Picea Jezoensis is a tree from eighty to one hundred feet in 
height, with slender branches, flat leaves dark green and lustrous 
below and silvery white above, and slender cones from two to four 
inches in length, with more or less pointed laciniately cut scales. 
It bears a strong superficial resemblance to Picea Sitchensis of the 
northwest coast of North America, from which it, however, diifers 
in its flatter and generally blunter leaves and in the minute sub- 
orbicular bracts of the cone-scales. 

This is the common Spruce-tree of Tezo, where, on low rocky 
hills, it is scattered through the forests of deciduous-leaved trees, 
either singly or in small groves, and in the western part of the 
island forms forests on swampy ground not much above the level of 
the ocean. It is also common on Saghalin and the coast of Man- 
churia, where it is said to grow in extensive forests. 

Picea Jezoensis is usually called in American and English gar- 
dens Picea Alcoquiana, one of the synonyms of Picea bicolor; in 
the eastern United States, where there are cone-bearing specimens 
from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, it has proved very hardy 
and one of the most beautiful of the exotic Spruces, especially in 
early spring, when it may be distinguished by the bright scarlet 
color of the young leaves when they first emerge from the buds. 

,' Picea Glekni, Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 300, f. 54 
(1880); Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 513, f. 13 (Conifers of Japan)-, Jour. 
R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 222. — Mayr, I. c. 56, t. 4, f . 11. — Beissner, I. c. 
377. 

AUes Glenhi, Fr. Schmidt, Mim. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, s4v. 

7, xii. 176, t. 4, f. 8-12 (FL Sachalinensis) (1868). —Veitch, I c. 80. 

Little is known of this tree, which was discovered on the island 
of Saghalin, and which grows, also, at a few points near the south- 
ern coast of Tezo. It is clearly related to the Siberian Picea 



22 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



obovatay of which it is, perhaps, only an extreme form. A large 
number of seedlings have been raised in the Arnold Arboretum, 
but they are still too young to show whether this tree is likely to 
flourish in the eastern United States. 

8 Picea SmitUana, Boissier, Fl. Orient v. 700 (1884). 

Pinus SmitUana, Wallich, PI. Asiat. Rar. iii. 24, t. 246 
(1832). — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. — Antoine, Conif. 95, t. 
36 big. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 416. 

Abies Smiihiana, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 31, f. (1833). — Lou- 
don, Arb. Brit. iv. 2317, f. 2229. ~ Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 103, 
t. 36. — Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. Ind. iv. pt. iv. 
230 ; vii. pt. iv. 87. — Gordon, Pinetum, 12. — Cleghorn, Jour. 
Agric, and Hort. Soc. Ind. xiv. pt. ii. 266, t. 5 (Pines of the North- 
west Bimalayas'). — Herder, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xli. 423. — K. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 232. 

Abies spinulosa, Griffith, Itin. i. 145 (1848); Icon. PI. Asiat. 
t. 363. 

Pinus Khutrow, Royle, III. 353, t. 84, f. 1 (1839). —Antoine, 
I. c. 94, t. 36, f . 2. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 122. 

Picea Morinda, Link, Linncea, xv. 522 (1841). — Carri^re, 
Traite Conif. ed. 2, 340. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 653.— 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 373. 

Abies Khutrow, Loudon, Encycl. Trees, 1032, f. 1951 (1842). — 
Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 21. 

Picea Khutrow, Carrifere, Traite Conif. 258 (1855). — Ber- 
trand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6v. 5, xx. 85. 

Abies Morinda, (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 49 (1866). 
Picea Smithiana is a tree from one hundred to one hundred and 
twenty or occasionally one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a 
trunk often four or five and occasionally seven feet in diameter, 
pale scaly bark, wide-spreading branches, long pendulous branchlets, 
slender four-sided pale green leaves, and cylindrical obtuse cones 
from four to six inches in length, with thin broadly obovate, rounded 
usually entire scales cuneate at the base. The Himalayan Spruce is 
generally found on northern and western slopes between elevations 
of six thousand and eleven thousand feet above the sea-level, grow- 
ing rarely in pure forests, but most commonly mixed with deciduous- 
leaved trees and with Cedrus Deodara^ Pinus Nepalensis, and Abies 
Webbiana • it is distributed from Afghanistan to Sikkim and Bho- 
tan, where it is found only in the valleys at elevations of from 
seven thousand eight hundred to ten thousand feet. 

The wood of Picea Smithiana, which is not durable, is used for 
packing-cases and the interior finish of buildings, and occasionally 
for shingles (Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers^ 407). The bark is 
employed for the roofs of huts and water-troughs, and the branches 
for fodder and manure. In northwestern India the young cones 
are used in medicine. (See Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 525.) 

Picea Smithiana vf^^ introduced into Scotland in 1818, and has 
proved a hardy, fast-growing, and desirable ornamental tree in the 
countries of temperate Europe, (See Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser, 
xxiv. 393, f . 85. — Webster, Trans. Scottish Arboricultural Soc. xi. 
57. — Dunn, Jour. E. Hort. Soc, xiv. 85.) 

In the middle Atlantic states, where the largest plants are still 
small (see Garden and Forest,\i. 458), and in California, the Hima- 
layan Spruce has proved hardy, but it has not succeeded in New 
England. 

9 Picea orientalis, Carrifere, I. c. 244 (1855). — Tchihatcheff, Asie 
Mineure, ii. 495 (excl. hab. northern Russia, Siberia, and the Ku- 
rile Islands). — Boissier, /. c. — Masters, I. c. xxv. 333, f. 62; ser. 
3, iii. 754, f. 101. — Beissner, I. c. 374, f. 100. 

Pinus orientalis, Linn^us, Spec. ed. 2, 1421 (1763). — Lambert, 

Pinus, i. 45, t. 29, t a. — MarschaU von Bieberstein, Fl. Taur.- 



Cauc. ii. 409. — Steven, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 48 ; Ann. Sci. 
Nat. sdr. 2, xi. 57. — Antoine, I. c. 89, t. 35, f. 1. — Endlicher, 
I. c. 116. — Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 671 (in part). — K. Koch, 
Linnma, xxii. 296. — Turezaninow, Fl. Baicalemi-Dahurica, ii. 
139. — Christ, Verhand. Nat. Gesell Basel, iii. 546 (l/ebersicht 
der Europdischen Abietineen). — Parlatore, I. c. 414. 

Abies orientalis, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 518 (1804). Lind- 
ley, I. e. — Jaubert & Spach, PL Orient, i. 30, t. 14. — K. Koch, 
Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 239. 

Pinus obovata, Turezaninow, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 101 (Cat. 
PL Baical.) (1838). 

A tree, frequently one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a 
trunk often four feet in diameter, Picea orientalis forms extensive 
forests up to elevations of six or seven tbousand feet above the sea. 
It is distinguished by its narrow pyramidal crown of slender limbs, 
which sweep upward in graceful curves and are clothed with short 
rigid lateral branches, by its short dark green and lustrous tetrar 
gonal leaves closely pressed against the pubescent branchlets, which 
therefore appear unusually slender, and by its narrow cylindrical 
acute cones from two to three inches in length, with broad rounded 
scales thin and entire on the margins. 

Picea orientalis was introduced into the gardens of western Europe 
in 1825, and for at least fifty years it has inhabited those of the 
eastern United States, where it has proved itself perfectly hardy 
as far north as eastern Massachusetts and one of the most beautiful 
and desirable of all the exotic conifers which have been well tested 

r 

here, 

A dwarf form and one with yellow leaves are occasionally culti- 
vated in European collections (Beissner, I. c. 376). 

^*^ Picea Omoriha, Bolle, Monats. Befdrd. Gartenb. Preuss. StatL 
1877, 124, 158 {Die Omorica-Fichte) (1877). — Purkyne, Osterr. 
Monats. Forstw. 1877, 446. — A. Braun, Sitz. Bot. Ver. Prov. Bran- 
denburg, 1877, 45. — Reichenbach f . Bot. Zeit. xxxv. 118. — Will- 
komm, Cent. Gesell. ForsU 1877, 365 {Bin neuer Nadelkolzbaum 
Europas); Forst. FL ed. 2, 99; Wien IlL Gart.-Zeit 1885,494.— 
Carri^re, Rev. Hort. 1877, 259. — P. Ascherson & A. Kanetz, Cat. 
7. — Boissier, L c. 701. — Masters, I. c. vii. 470, 620 ; xxi. 308, 
f. 56, 58; Jour. Linn. Soc. xxii. 203, t. 8; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
223. — Bornmiiller, Osterr. Bot. ZeiL xxxvii. 398. — P. Ascherson, 
Osterr. Bot. Zeit. xxxviil. 34. — Stein, Gartenflora, xxxvi. 13, t. 4, 
5. — Wettstein, Sitz. Math.-nat. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xcix. pt. i. 503, 
1. 1-5. — Beissner, I. c. 382, f . 109. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 20, 
f. 8, N. — Hempel & Wilhelra, Baume und Straucher, i. 82, f. 
41, 42. 

Pinus Omorika, Pancic, Eine neue Conifere in den Ostlichen 
Alpen, 4 (1876). 

Abies Omorika, Nyman, Conspect. FL Europ. 673 (1881); Suppl. 

ii. 283. 

Picea Omorika, which forms great forests and is probably gen- 
erally distributed at high elevations over all the region between 
the Adriatic and the Black Sea, is described as a lofty tree with 
short branches which form a narrow crown, red-brown bark sepa- 
rating freely in large thin scales, usually flat obtuse or acute leaves, 
dark green and lustrous below, and silvery white above from the 
numerous bands of stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, 
and oblong-oval cones at first horizontal and finally pendent, about 
two inches in length, violet-colored while young and ultimately red- 
dish brown and lustrous, with thin rounded striate scales slightly 
and irregularly denticulate on the margins. 

Although one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees of 
Europe, and particularly interesting in its relationship to a species 
of the coast of northeastern Asia and to the two species peculiar 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



23 



to the northwest coast of North America, Picea Omorika escaped 
the attention of botanists until comparatively recent years, but 
under the name of Omorika it has long been a familiar tree to the 

inhabitants of the region where it grows. 

In 1881 Picea Omorika was raised from seeds in the Arnold 

Arboretum, where ifc has proved hardy and has grown rapidly, 

promising to attain a large size; it also flourishes in Great Britain 

{Gard. Ckron. ser. 3, xxi. 153, f. 14). 
" Picea Abies, Karsten, Pkarm,-med. BoL 324, f. 155 (1881). 

Pinus Abies, Linnaus, Spec. 1002 (1753). —Lambert, Pinus, i. 

37, t. 25. — Wahlenberg, Fl. Lapp. 256; Fl Ups. 326. — Antoine, 

Conif. 90, t. 35, f. 2. — EndHcher, Syn, Conif. 117. — Ledebour, 

Fl. Ross. iii. 670. — Koch, Syn. Fl. German, ed. 3, 578. 

Abies Picea, Miller, Diet ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). — Spach, Hi^t. 

Veg. xi. 405. 
Pinus Abies Picea, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 223 (1770). 
' Pinus Picea, Da Roi, Obs. Bot. 37 (not Linnaeus) (1771) ; 
Harbk. Baumz. ii. 110. — Brotero, Hist Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e 
Ahetos, 30. — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 4, t. 532 {Abies 
excelsa on plate). — Christ, Verhand. Nat. Gesell. Basel, iii. 545 
{UebersicU der Europimclien Abietineen). — Parlatore, i^Z. JtoZ. iv. 

62; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 415. 
Pinus excelsa, Lamarck, Fl. Fran^. ii. 202 (1778). — Salisbury, 

Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 314. 
Abies pectinata, Gilibert, Exercit. Phyt. ii. 411 (1792). 
Pinus cinerea, Borkhausen, Forstbot. i. 398 (1800). — Koehling, 

DeutschL FL ed. 2, 519. 

Abies excelsa, De Candolle, Lamarck Fl. Fran^. ed. 3, iii. 275 
(1805). — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 518. — Nouveau Duhamel, 
V. 289, t. 80. — Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. 69, t. 14, f. 2, 15. — 
Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 31, f. — Sehouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4t. 3, 
iii. 239 (Coniferes d'ltalie). — Hartig, Forst. Culturpfl. DeutschL 
17, t. 1.— Fiscali, Deutsch. ForstculL-Pfi. 23, t. 1, f. 13-20.— 

Gordon, Pinetum, 3. — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 

i. 17. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 234. — Colmeiro, Enum. PL 

Hispano-Lusitana, iv. 709. 
Picea vulgaris, Link, Ahhand. Akad. Berl. 1827, 180 (1830). — 

Herder, Bot. Jakrb. xiv. 160 {Fl. Europ. Russlands), 
Picea excelsa. Link, Linncea, xv. 517 (1841). — Carrifere, Traite 

Conif. 245. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 5, sx. 85.^ — Beiss- 

ner, Handh. Nadelh. 351. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Bdume und 

Strducher, i. 58, f. 28-40, t. 1. 

Picea montana, Schur, Verh. Seibenb. Ver. Naturw. ii. 159 (1851). 
One of the loftiest of the trees of Europe, the type of the genus 
and its best known representative, Picea Abies frequently attains a 
height of one hundred and twenty and occasionally of one hundred 
- and fifty feet, with a trunk from four to six feet in diameter and 
wide-spreading lower branches which even old trees do not lose 
unless crowded in the forest, and which, sweeping over the surface 

of the ground in graceful upward curves, occasionally develop roots 
in moist soil and send up secondary stems, forming small groves 
around the parent tree. (See M'Nab, Gard. Mag. xiii. 249, f. 87- 
92. — Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 416, f. 73-77. — Christ, Garden 
and Forest, ix. 252.) The European Spruce is distinguished by its 
dark green lustrous sharp-pointed tetragonal leaves rarely more 
than an inch in length, yellow staminate flowers more or less 
tinged with red, obtuse bright scarlet pistillate flowers, and cylin- 
drical pointed cones which when fully grown are pale green or 
green shaded with red, especially on the side exposed to the light, 
' and at maturity are from five to seven inches in length and from 
an inch and a half to two inches thick, with rhomboidal incurved 
scales irregularly toothed at the apex. 

t 



Picea Abies is distributed from about latitude 67*^ north in Nor- 
way and 68° 15' in western Russia, southward to the Pyrenees, the 
Maritime Alps, the Euganian Hills in Lombardy, and central Rus- 
sia. Most abundant in Scandinavia, where at the north it grows 
at the sea-level, and in northern Germany, it also often forms exten- 
sive forests on the mountains of central Europe, which it frequently 
ascends to altitudes of six or seven thousand feet, but does not grow 
spontaneously in Denmark, Holland, Belgium, western France, or 
iu Great Britain, Turkey, or southern Russia. 

The wood of Picea Abies, known in England as white deal, is 
light, tough, elastic, more or less durable according to the soil on 
which it has grown, lustrous, and pale reddish or yellowish white, 
with straight even grain and few resin ducts ; it is employed in 
large quantities in construction and the interior finish of buildings, 
and for fuel. Its homogeneousness of structure, with its thin 
medullary rays, makes it especially valuable for the transmission 
of sonorous vibrations, and in Europe it is almost exclusively used 
in the manufacture of pianos, violins, and other musical instru- 
ments, the best wood for this purpose being obtained from old 
trees which have grown slowly at high elevations. It is also 
largely used in the manufacture of matches and for paper pulp. 
(See Mathieu, FL Forestiere, ed. 3, 471.) 

From the resinous exudations of Picea Abies Burgundy Pitch is 

r 

produced. This is an astringent* opaque yellow-brown hard and 
brittle substance with an agreeable aromatic odor, and is obtained 
by making in the stem numerous perpendicular incisions about an 
inch and a half in width and depth In which the resin collects. 
From time to time this is scraped off with an iron instrument and 
is purified by being melted with steam or in hot water and strained. 
Burgundy Pitch, which was well known in England three centu- 
ries and a half ago (see Parkinson, Theatr. 1542), and was in- 
cluded in the London Pharmacopceia of 1677, is used as a mild 
stimulant in the preparation of medical plasters, and in Germany, 
mixed with colophony or gallipot, is employed to line beer-casks. 
The wounding of the trees to obtain their resinous product has 
been shown, however, to be injurious to the timber, and it is no 
longer permitted in the German state forests ; and Burgundy 
Pitch is now largely replaced in commerce by artificial compounds, 
the one most frequently sold being made by melting colophony 
with Palm-oil or some other fat, opaqueness being obtained by 
stirring with water. (See Loudon, Arb. Brit iv. 2307. — Guibourt, 
Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ii. 256. — Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacopceia, 
556. — Bentley & Trimen, Med. PL iv. 261, t. 261. — Spons, Ency- 
cloposdia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw Commercial 
Products, ii. 1679. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1172. ~ Bastin & Trim- 
ble, Am. Joum. Pharm. Ixviii. 418.) 

The bark of Picea Abies is occasionally employed in tanning 
leather ; in Scandinavia the young shoots are sometimes used for 
the winter fodder of cattle and sheep ; baskets are made from the 
inner bark ; and from the long slender flexible roots, which are first 
split and boiled, strong cords are twisted. (See Loudon, l. c. 2304.) 

In the extreme northern portions of the Scandinavian peninsula, 
in Finland and northern Russia, the Spruce, which there rarely 
exceeds thirty feet in height, is distinguished from the tree of 
more southern countries, vdth which it appears to be connected by 
intermediate forms, by its shorter, thicker, and more rigid and 
obtuse leaves, conspicuously marked by four white stomatiferous 
bands, and by its short cones with thin scales rounded and entire 
on the margins. This is 
Picea Abies medioxima. 

Abies orientalis, Fries, Bot Notiser, 1857, 174 ; 1858, 61, 199 
(not Poiret), 



24 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Pinus AhieSy var. medioxima^ Nylander, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 

X, 501 (1863), 

Abies excelsa, var. medioxima, Hisenger, Bot. Notiser,lSQ7,4:9,t. 
Abies medioxima^ Lawson, Pinetum Brit ii. 159, f. 1-10 

(1870). 

Pinus Picea medioxima, Christ, Flore de la Suisse, 254 (1883). 

Picea exceisay ^ medioxima^ Willkoram, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 75 

(1887). ■— Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 356. — Koehne, Deutsche 

Dendr. 23. 

The same form occurs in more or less isolated clumps at high 

elevations on the central ranges of the Swiss Alps, where it is 

believed to have existed since the glacial period, and, with its 

northern prototype, to indicate the close relationship between the 

Spruce of Europe and the Siberian Picea obovata. (See Dammer, 

Gard. Chron. ser. 3, iv. 479. — Christ, Garden and Forest, ix. 273.) 

The tendency of Picea Abies to depart from its normal form is 
also shown by a number of curious varieties. Some of these are 
due to climatic influences and others to seminal variation. Of the 
former the most distinct are the small columnar trees with short 
tufted branches, stunted probably by the short summers and severe 
winters of northern Scandinavia and Finland, where individuals 
with this habit are not uncommon (see Sehiibeler, Virid. Norveg. 
i. 406, f. 66, 68. — Christ, I. c), and the numerous bushy plants 
dwarfed by cold which often grow near the timber line on the high 
mountains of central Europe. (See Brugg, Gartenflora, xxxvi. 
346. — Beissner, I. c. 357.) 

The most curious and remarkable seminal forms of Picea Abies 
are the so-called Snake Spruces, with long slender remote and usu- 
ally pendulous branches nearly destitute of lateral branchlets and 
covered with crowded closely appressed leaves, and elongated lead- 
ing shoots. A plant of this character was discovered by Alstroemer 
in 1777, near Stockholm, which he identified with Linnseus's y Abies 
procera viminalis (Fl. Suec. 288 [1745]). This is, therefore : — 

Picea Abies viminalis. 

Pinus viminalis, Alstroemer, Vet. ATcad. Handl. StockJi. 1777, 

310, t. 8, 9. — Borkhausen, Forsibot. i. 399. — Roehling, Deutschl. 

Fl. ed. 2, 629. 

Pinus Abies, 5 viminalis, Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. i. 507 (1805). — 
Wahlenberg, Fl. Svec. 630. 

Picea excelsa, $ viminalis, Willkomm, Forst. Fl. 66 (1877). — • 
Beissner, l. c. 360. 

A number of individuals of this character have been found dur- 

■ 

ing the last century in southern Sweden, and others have appeared 

from time to time in the forests of different parts of Germany. 

The best known form of these German trees is 

Picea Abies virgata. 

Abies excelsa, var. virgata, Jacques, Ann. Soc. Hort, Paris, xliv. 
653 (1853). 

Picea excelsa denudata, Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1854, 101, f. 7 ; 
Traite Conif. 249. 
AUes excelsa denudata, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 3 (1862). 
Picea excelsa, var. virgata, Caspary, Schrift. Phys. Oek. GeselL 
Konigsberg, xiv. 125, 1. 15, 16 (1873). —Willkomm, Forest Fl. 
ed. 2, 75. — Beissner, I c. 359. 

This is hardly different from the Swedish form except in the 
somewhat more remote branches which distinguish some individu- 
als, and Sehiibeler, who has given much attention to these mon- 
strous forms of Picea Abies, does not separate them. (See Virid. 
Norveg. i. 410, f. 69.) The plants grown in gardens under the 
name of var. monstrosa belong to the group of Snake Spruces and 
differ considerably among themselves in the degree of their varia- 
tion from the normal form of the Norway Spruce. 



Among other seminal forms of Picea Abies is one with branches 
which, ascending at narrow angles, give to the tree the form of 
the Lombardy Poplar. This occurs on the Swiss Alps (see Christ, 
I. c. 252), and is probably similar to the plant propagated by nur- 
serymen as var. pyramidalis, or perhaps identical with it. Another 
form which also grows sparingly on the Swiss Alps (see Christ, 
I. c.) is peculiar in its pendent limbs clothed with elongated slender 
branchlets which descend vertically. Plants of this general char- 
acter with branches more or less pendulous are frequently culti- 
vated as vars. pendula and inverta. Another specialized form of 
the Swiss Alps, var. strigosa (Picea excelsa, var. strigosa, Christ, 
I. c. [1896]), has numerous slender horizontal branches clothed 
with many branchlets which spread in all directions and give the 
trees the general aspect of a Larch. 

L 

Numerous dwarf varieties of Picea Abies with short crowded 
leaves are cultivated in gardens ; they are either low pyramidal 
bushes or cushion-like plants sometimes only one or two feet high, 
with branches hugging the ground and spreading out into broad 
mats. (For enumerations of the garden varieties oi Picea Abies, 
see Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 328. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 70. — 
Beissner, I. c, 357.) 

For centuries Picea Abies has been a favorite ornament of the 
parks and gardens of northern and temperate Europe ; and no 
other conifer has been more generally and successfully used in the 
mountain plantations of France, Germany, and Russia, although 
this Spruce suffers seriously from the ravages of the larvse of the 
Nun Moth, Liparis monarcha, Linnseus, which year after year, strip- 
ping it of foliage, has often destroyed thousands of acres of planted 
forests in Germany and Russia (Schlich, Manual of Forestry, iv, 
289, f. 149-151). The Norway Spruce, as this tree is always called 
in the United States, was introduced into this country toward the 
end of the eighteenth century, and during the last fifty years has 
been more generally planted in the eastern and northern states 
than any other coniferous tree. As an ornamental tree the Euro- 
pean Spruce has much to recommend it in these regions ; it is 
quickly and therefore cheaply raised in the nursery to a size suit- 
able for permanent planting out ; it is very hardy and grows with 
a rapidity which is surpassed by that of only, a few other trees ; 
it is not particular about soil and position, and young trees are 
shapely in habit and dark and rich in color. In America, however, 
at the end of twenty-five or thirty years the trees usually begin to 
lose vigor, their tops becoming thin and ragged, and it is only 
under specially favorable conditions and in the middle Atlantic 
states that the Norway Spruce retains its beauty here for more 
than fifty years. Except, therefore, as a nurse for slower growing 
and more valuable trees, the European Spruce has not proved suc- 
cessful as an ornamental tree in America, and its general introduc- 
tion here has interfered with the cultivation of more permanent 
and valuable species. 

12 Picea obovata, Lcdebour, Fl. Alt. iv. 201 (1833) ; III. Fl. Ross. 
V. 28, t. 499. — Link, Linncea, xv. 518. — Trautvetter, Middendorff 
Reise, i. pt. ii. 170 (PL Jen.), — Trautvetter & Meyer, Middendorff 
Reise, i. pt. ii, 87 (Fl. Ochot.). — Maximowicz, Mem. Sav. jStr. Acad. 
Sci. St. Petersbourg, ix. 261 (Prim. Fl. Amur.). — Regel, Mem. 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, sdr. 7, iv. No. 4, 136 (Tent.Fl. C/ssur.); 
Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt, i. 34. — Teplouchoff, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
xli. pt. ii. 244. — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 506 (Conifers of 
Japan).- — Herder, Bot. Jahrb. xiv. 160 (FL Europ. Russlands). — 
Miyabe, Mem. Bast. Soc. Nat. Hist. iv. 261 (FL Kurile Islands). 

Pinus Abies, Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. 6, t. 1, f. G. (not Linnseus) 
(1784). 

Abies obovata, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2329 (1838). — Maxi- 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMEBIC A. 



25 



mowicz, Bull. Pkys. Math. Acad, Sci. St. Petershourg, xv. 437 
(Bdume und Strducher des Amurlands). 

Pinus obovdta, Antoine, Conif. 96, t. 37, f. 2 (not Turczaninow) 
(1840^7). — Endlicher, Syn. Com/. 119. — Parlatore, De Can- 
dolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 415. 

Pinus orientalis, Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 671 (in part) (not 
Linnaeus) (1847-^9). 

Picea vulgaris, var. Altaica, Teplouchoff, Bull. Soc, Nat, Mosc, 
xli. pt. ii. 250 (1869).- 

Ahies excelsa, K. Koch, Dendr, ii. pt. ii. 238 (in part) (not 
Lamarck) (1873). 

Picea ohovata is a lofty tree of the size and habit of Picea Ahies, 
from which it differs chiefly in its short oval or oblong cylindrical 
cones, with rounded nearly entire scales, and is distributed from 
northeastern Kussia through Siberia to Manchuria and northern 
China, ranging northward in Siberia, to latitude 69° 30', and often 
forming vast forests on plains, and on the Altai Mountains, covering 
these from their foothills up to elevations of four thousand feet 
above the sea. 

What is perhaps a form of the Siberian Spruce, with longer 
leaves and usually smaller cones, of the desert mountains of south- 
western Siberia, is 

Var. j8 SchrencJciana, Masters, Jour, Linn. Soc. xviii. 506 (Coni" 
fers of Japan) (1881). 

Picea Schrenckiana, Fischer & Meyer, Bull. Acad, Sci. St. 
Petershourg, x. 253 (1842). — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 254. — Beiss- 
ner, Handh. Nadelh. 371. 

Pinus Schrenckiana, Antoine, I, c. 97 (1840-47). — Endlicher, 
I c. 120, 
Pinus orientalisj j8 longifolia, Ledebour, I, c. (1847-49). 
AUes Schrenckiana, Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond, 
V. 212 (1850). — Maximowicz, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. liv. pt. i. 58. 
Pinups ohovata, j8 Schrenckiana, Parlatore, l. c. (1868). — Car- 
ri^re, Traite Conif ed. 2, 338- 

1 Picea Tianschanica, Ruprecht, Mem. Acad, Sci. St, Peters- 
hourg, s^r. 7, xiv. No. 3, 72 (Sertum Tianschanicum) (1870). 
Little Is known of the Siberian Spruces in the gardens of the 
eastern United States and of western Europe. In Great Britain 
they grow badly and are often destroyed by spring frosts, while in 
New England, where they are now growing in the Arnold Arbore- 
tum, the oldest plants are still too young to give any idea of the 
value of these trees for our plantations. 

The curious dwarf Spruce, Picea Maximowiczii (Masters, Gard. 
Chron. n. ser. xiii. 363 [1880]), with very slender acicular spine- 
tipped leaves spreading on all sides from the glabrous brown 
branchlets, and minute cones, which was raised from seeds dis- 
tributed several years ago from the Imperial Botanic Garden of 
St. Petersburg and supposed to have come from Japan, and which 
has proved hardy in eastern Massachusetts, is perhaps an imma- 
ture or transitory form of Picea ohovata, from which, however, it 
differs in the position of the resin canals of the leaves, or of some 
still unknown species of continental Asia. 

^^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arhres, 80. 
^* In North America more than fifty species of insects are 
reported to be living on the various species of Picea, although 
comparatively little is yet known of those which prey on these trees 
in the western part of the continent. In Europe Kaltenbach records 
between three and four hundred species injurioiis to coniferous 
trees, and a large proportion of these feed on the Spruces, which, 
however, are principally injured by only a few kinds. Although a 
great majority of the insects which obtain their food from Spruce- 
trees are not abundant enough to inflict serious damage on them, 



there are several kinds which are sometimes widely destructive. 
(See Packard, bth Rep. U. S. Entomolog. Comm. 811.) 

r 

The living trunks of Spruce-trees are not exempt from borers, 
belonging chiefly to the longicorn group, which also affect the true 
Pine-trees. Among such beetles are Monohammus confusor, Kirby, 
and Monohammus dentator, Fabricius, while Rhagium Uneatum, 
Olivier, infests the dry timber. Larvae of beetles belonging to the 
Buprestidse also bore into the wood, both living and dead. The 
greatest damage to the trunk, however, appears to be caused by 
various species of several genera of small timber and bark beetles 
belonging to the family Scolytidse. Among these, Pityophthorus 
puherulus, Leconte, Xyloterus Uvittatus, Kirby, and Xylehorus ccela- 
tus, Eichhoff, are said to be most destructive, and are credited with 
causing great damage to the Spruce forests in Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and New York. Polygraphus rufipennis, Kirby, and Den- 
droctonus frontalis, Zimmerman, have been particularly destructive 
to the Red Spruce in northern New York and in West Virginia, 
(See Peck, Trans. Albany Inst, Yiii. 294. — Hopkms, Bull. No. 17, 
West Virginia Agric, Exper. Stat. 1891; Insect Life, iii. 1893, 187.) 

Other species of beetles of the same group also attack both 
living and dead wood, Dendroctonus rufipennis, Kirby, being said 
to damage seriously the Red Spruce in New Hampshire and the 
Engelmann Spruce in Utah. Hylesinus sericeus, Mannheim, Dry-- 
ochoetes affaher, Mannheim, and Tomicus Pini, Say, are common 
species, which bore into the trunks of Spruce-trees in the Rocky 
Mountain region. 

Spruces are not affected by many species of foliage-destroying 
insects, and few of these are ever abundant enough to do much 
damage. Several of them, however, are liable to become very 
destructive, 

A number of species of Saw-flies occur on Spruce-trees, their 
larvae occasionally stripping the leaves from individual branches or 
from whole trees. The larvse of various Noctuids and other Lepi- 
doptera feed on Spruce-trees without attracting attention, although 
several species of Tortricidae have proved serious enemies of their 
foliage. According to Packard, the Spruce-bud Worm, Tortrix 
fumiferana, Clemens, has at times been very destructive to Spruce- 
trees in Maine and in other Spruce producing regions. Gelechia 
oUiquistrigella, Chambers, Teras variana, Fernald, and Steganop- 
tycha Ratzhurgiana, Saxesen, are small moths, whose larvse feed on 
the foliage of Spruce-trees. Larvae of the Spruce-cone Worm, 
Pinipestis reniculella, Grote, feed upon and burrow in the young 
cones, several of them being often partially inclosed in a silken 
web, more or less covered with castings from the mining cater- 
pillars. 

Plant lice, like Lachnus Ahietis, Fitch, occur on Spruce-trees; and 
species of the so-called bud lice belonging to the genus Adelges, or 
Chermes, affect these trees, particularly in parks and gardens. 
Adelges Ahietis, Linnaeus, originally found on Spruces in Europe, is 
now also known in this country, and Adelges ahieticolens, Thomas, has 
been described as an American species. These insects attack the 
young growing buds and shoots, eventually causing them to assume 
on the twigs hollow cone-like forms, within which the insects live 
during the summer, each apparent scale of this cone-like growth 
corresponding to the distorted base of a leaf. These abnormal 
growths are sometimes very abundant, causing much injury to the 
trees. 

^5 Owing to the popular confusion in the nomenclature of the 
Spruces of the northeastern United States, which are vaguely 
termed Black, White, and Red, it is frequently difficult, if not 
impossible, to refer to different species of Picea, as now understood, 
the fungus parasites reported as infesting these trees. American 



26 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



Spruce-trees appear to be much less subject to the attacks of fungi, 
however, than the European Picea AUes, on which more than two 
hundred species of fungi have been recorded. The Spruce Rust, 
Peridermium abietinum, Fries, of Europe, is very common, in the 
form called by Peck var. decoloransy on the dwarf Spruces which 
inhabit the subalpine summits of the mountains of the northeastern 
states, and its cluster-cups are so abundant toward the end of 
August in many places that those who walk through the dense 
dwarf Spruce forests are covered with their orange-colored spores. 
Peridermium ahietinum, Fries, is considered in Europe to be con- 
nected with Chrysomyxa Rhododendri, De CandoUe, but in uorthem 
Europe it has been supposed to be connected with Chrysomyxa 
Ledi, Albertini & Schweinitz. In northern New Hampshire the 
Peridermium on Spruce, judging by its range and habitat, is proba- 
bly connected with Chrysomyxa Ledi, Albertini & Schweinitz, on 
Ledum Zafi/bZ^um, as no Chrysomyxa has been found on Rhododen~ 
dron Lapponicum in that region. Besides the species mentioned, 
the fungi definitely reported on the Ked Spruce, which are few in 
number, are principally Polypori, among which may be mentioned 
several varieties of Polyporus volvatus, Peck, and Polyporus piceinusy 
Peck, which attack the trunks of Spruce-trees, as does also the 
Ascomycete, Colpoma morhidum, Saccardo. Little is known of the 
fungal enemies of the Spruce-trees of western North America. 

3 The use sometimes of Picea and sometimes of Abies as the 
name of the Spruces still confuses the cultivators of these trees, 
although botanists now invariably call the Spruce-trees Picea and 
the Fir-trees Abies. Pliny and other classical writers possibly 
intended their Picea to designate the Fir-tree and their Abies the 
Spruce- tree, although Pliny's description of these two trees does 
not make this perfectly clear. In 1586 Camerarius (De Plantis 
Epitome^ 47, f.), and in 1616 Dodoens (Stirp. Hist 863, f.), used 
Picea as the name of the Spruce-tree and Abies as that of the Fir- 



tree. Tournefort, in 1719 (/nsi. 585), united the Silver Firs and 
the Spruces, including the American Hemlock, in his genus Abies. 
Linngeus, in the first four editions of his Genera Plantarum, followed 
the arrangement of Tournefort, but in the fifth edition, published 
in 1754, he merged his genus Abies, including Picea, into Pinus, to 

r 

which he also then referred Tournefort's genus Larix. In the 
first edition of the Species Plantarum, published in 1753, Linnfeus 
called the European Spruce Pinus Abies and the European Fir 
Pinus Piceay following what was probably the classical application 
of the two names. Du Roi, in 1771 (Harbk. Baumz. ii. 110), did 
the opposite, and called the Spruce Picea and the Fir Abies. In 
1830 Link, separating the Spruces from the Pines and Firs, made 
the genus Picea for these trees, thus reversing Linnseus's use of 
Picea and Abies, and following that of Du Roi. (See Abhand. 
Akad. Berl. 1827, 179 ; Linncea, xv. 516.) Endlicher, in 1836 {Gen. 
260), followed Link in the use of Picea as the name of the Spruces, 
although he considered the group as a section of Pinus, and Car- 
rlere and all subsequent Continental authors have adopted the 
same nomenclature. In 1837, however, D. Don, in the third vol- 
ume of Lambert's Genus Pinus, disregarding Link's application of 
the two names, called the Spruces Abies and the Firs Picea. Don's 
use of the two names was adopted by Loudon {Arb. Brit. iv. 2293), 
and later by Gordon, and has been in general use among English 
horticulturists ever since, although in the United States and in 
Continental Europe the Spruces are almost habitually called Picea 
and the Firs Abies. According to the rules of botanical nomencla- 
ture, this use is certainly correct without reference to the classical 
meaning of the two words, or to Linnseiis's use of Picea and Abies 
as specific names in his genus Pinus, because Picea is the oldest 
name under which the Spruce-trees have been generically distin- 
guished. (See Backhouse, Gard, Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 682, for a 
discussion of this subject.) 



CONIFERS, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



27 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 



3. P. Canadensis. 



EupiCEA. Leaves tetragonal, stomatiferous on the four sides. 
Cone-scales rounded at the apex. 

Cone-scales stiff and ridged at maturity ; branchlets pubescent. 

Cones ovate on strongly incurved stalks, persistent for many years, their scales arose or 

dentate ; leaves blue-green • . - • 1. P. Maeiana. 

Cones ovate-oblong, short-stalked, early deciduous, their scales entire or obscurely 

denticulate ; leaves dark yellow-green 2. P. EUBENS. 

Cone-scales soft and flexible at maturity ; branchlets glabrous. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, slender, their scales entire ; leaves blue-green 

Cone-scales usually oblong or rhomboidal ; leaves blue-green. 
Branchlets pubescent ; leaves soft and flexible. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, or oval, their scales narrowed to a truncate or acute apes, or 

occasionally obovate and rounded, erose-dentate or entire 4. P. Engelmanni. 

Branchlets glabrous ; leaves rigid, spinescent. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, their scales rhomboidal, flexuose, rounded or truncate at the 

erose apex 6. P. Parktana. 

Omokika. Leaves flattened, usually stomatiferous only on the upper surface. 
Cone-scales rounded, entire ; branchlets pubescent. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, slender ; leaves obtuse, stomatiferous only on the upper surface 6. P. BrewebiANA. 
Cone-scales oblong-oval, rounded and denticulate above the middle ; branchlets glabrous. 

Cones cylindrical-oval; leaves acute op acuminate, stomatiferous on the upper and 

occasionally also on the lower surface 7. P. Sitchensis. 



•i\ 



28 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONIFERJE. 



PICEA MARIANA. 



Black Spruce. 



Cones ovate, incurved at the base, persistent, their scales rounded, erose, or 
dentate. Branchlets pubescent. Leaves short, blue-green. 



Picea Mariana, Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg, Cat. FL 
N. Y, 71 (1888). —J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, x. 
62. 

Abies Mariana, Miller, DigU ed. 8, No. 5 (1768). 

Muenchbausen, Hausv, v. 224. — Wangenheim, Nordam. 
Holz. 75. — K. Koch, Dendr* ii. pt. ii. 240. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr, ed. 2, 92. 
Pinus Mariana, Du Roi, Ohs, Bot, 38 (1771) ; Sarhh, 



Agric. Man. 367. — Spach, Hist. Veg, xi. 410 (in part). 
Emerson, Trees Mass. 81 ; ed. 2, i. 96. — Knight, Syn, 
Conif. 36. — LIndley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
V. 211. — Gordon, Finetum, 11. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 292. — Henkel & Hochstetter, S^n. Nadelh. 191. 
(Nelson) Senilis, Finacece, 50. 
169. — Veitch, Man. Conif, 74. 
Norveg. i. 431. 



Hoopes, Evergreens, 
Schtibeler, Virid. 



Baumz. ii. 127. — Moench, Baume Weiss. 74. — Burgs- Abies denticulata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 206 (1803). 



WiUde- 



dorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 169. — Ebrhart, Beitr. iii. 23. 
Pinus -Abies Canadensis, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 103 

(1785). 
Pinus nigra, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 370 (1789). — 

now, Berl. Baitmz. 220 ; S;peG. iv. pt. i. 506 ; Enum, 
990. — '^ov\shviViSQn, Handh. Forsthot. i. 406. — Lambert, 
Finns, i, 41, t. 27. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 579. — Bigelow, 
Fl. Boston. 234. — Pursh, Fl Am. Sept. ii. 640. — - Nut- 
tall, Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 111. — Sprengel, 
Syst. iii. 885. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Finheiros, Larices e 
Abetos, 33. — Torrey, Fl. iV. T. ii. 230 (in part), 
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 163. — Antoine, Conif. 88, t. 
34, f. 3. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 115. — Lawson & Son, 
Dist No. 10, Ahietinece, 16. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 395. 
Courtin, Fam. Conif. 61. — Parlatore, De Candolle Frodr, 
xvi. pt. ii. 413. 



Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 524. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. 
Finheiros, Larices e Abetos, 36. 
Picea nigra, Link, Handb. ii. 478 (1831) ; Linncea, xv. 
520. — Carri^re, Traits Conif 241. — Brunet, Hist. Picea, 
10, t. — S^n^clauze, Conif 32. — Kegel, Fuss. Dendr. 
pt, i. 18. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4r. 5, xx. 85. 
Peck, Trans. Albany Inst. viii. 283 (in part). — Engel- 
mann, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xi. 334 (excl. var. rubra). 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. l^th Census U. S. ix. 202 
(in part). — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 96. — Watson & 
Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 491. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
218. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 332, f . 93, 94. —Masters, 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 222 (in part).^ — Hansen, Jour. 
R, Hort. Soc. xiv. 430 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koebne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 23, f . 8, L. — Rothrock, Fej). Dept. 
Agric. Penn. 1895, pt. ii. Div. Forestry, 282. 



Pinus Canadensis, p nigra, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Picea nigra, a squamea, Provancher, Flore Canadienne, ii. 



Uniti, 'ii.ZlB (1790). 



557 (1862). 



Pinus Americana, Gsertner, i^Vwcif. ii. 60, t. 91 (not Du Rol) Picea rubra, Britton, jBwZ^. Torrey Bot. Club, :s.xi. 27 (not 



(1791). 
Abies nigra, Du Roi, HarbJc. Baumz. ed. 2, ii. 182 (1800). 



Dietrich) (1894). — Britton & Brown, III. Fl.i. 55 (m 
part), f. 123. 



Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 520. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. Picea brevifolia, var. semiprostrata, Peck, Spruces of the 



ii. 580. — Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 475. 



Adirondacks, 12 (1897). 



Michaux f. ffis^. ^r&. Am. i. 123 (in part). — Nouveau Picea brevifolia, Peck, Spruces of the Adirondacks, 13 



Duhamel, v. 292, t. 81, f . 1. — Jaume Saint-Hilaire, Trait6 
des Arbres Forestiers, t. 74, f. 1-4. — Lindley, Fenny 
Cycl. i. 32. — Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 39. — Lawson & Son, 



(1897). 
122 a. 



Britton & Brown, III. Fl. iii. Appx. 496, f. 



A tree, usually twenty or thirty and occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a trunk from 
six to twelve inches and occasionally three feet in diameter, often small and stunted, frequently cone- 
bearing when only two or three feet high,^ and at the extreme north reduced to a low semiprostrate 



1 In northern Minnesota, on the borders of small forest lakes or 
muskeags, which are being gradually covered by sedges and sphag- 
num, the Black Spruce is able to exist without mineral soil, and to 
grow slowly to a great age on beds of floating plants. Such trees 



often produce cones when only two or three feet high; and as 
their energies appear to be entirely devoted to bearing seeds, the 
fertile branches become the only vigorous ones. " These are 
densely crowded near the top of the tree, while the trunk below is 



CONlFER-aE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



shrub. The branches^ which are slender^ comparatively short, and usually pendulous with upward 
curves, form the open and irregular crown which is characteristic of the Black Spruce, and sometimes, 
when the tree has grown in a favorable position, clothe the stem to the ground, or soon fall from its 
lower half when the tree has been shaded by neighbors or stunted by insufficient nourishment.^ The 
bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness, and is broken on the 
surface into thin rather closely appressed gray-brown scales. The branchlets when they first emerge 
from the buds in early summer are pale green, and, like the bases of the leaves, are coated with 
pale pubescence ; they soon begin to grow darker, and during their first autumn and winter they are 
light cinnamon-brown and covered with short rusty pubescence, their thin dark brown bark gradually 
becoming glabrous, and beginning to break up into small thin scales during their second year. The 
winter-buds are ovate, acute, Hght reddish brown, puberulous, and about one eighth of an inch in 
length, with ovate closely appressed acute scales. The leaves stand out from all sides of the branches, 
and are tetragonal, ribbed above and below, abruptly contracted at the apex into short slender callous 
tips, longer and more acute on sterile than on fertile branches, slightly incurved above the middle, 
pale blue-green when they first appear, bluish green and glaucous at maturity, from one quarter to 
three quarters of an inch in length, hoary on the upper surface from the broad bands of conspicuous 
stomata, and lustrous and sKghtly stomatif erous on the lower surface. The staminate flowers are 
subglobose and about an eighth of an inch in length, with dark red anthers, and the pistillate 
flowers are oblong - cyhndrical, with obovate purple scales rounded above, wedge-shaped below, 

r ' 

puberulous and tumid on the outer surface, and marked below the thin erose bright red margin by a 
conspicuous transverse glaucous band, and with oblong purple glaucous bracts rounded and denticulate 
at the apex. The cones increase rapidly in size, and are often almost fully grown in early summer 
before the young shoots have attained half their length ; at maturity they are ovate, pointed, gradually 
narrowed at the base into short strongly incurved stalks clothed with the persistent enlarged erose 
inner scales of the flower-buds, which increase in size from the base to the apex of the stalk, and 
gradually assume the appearance of the small sterile lower cone-scales ; usually about an inch long, 
the cones vary from one half of an inch to an inch and a half in length ; their scales are rigid, 
rounded or rarely somewhat pointed at the apex, and puberulous, with delicate more or less erose or 
notched pale margins ; in ripening the cones turn a dull gray-brown, and as the scales gradually open 
and slowly discharge their seeds they often become almost globose in form,and remain on the branches 
sometimes for twenty or thirty years, the oldest close to the bases of the branches near the trunk. 
The seeds are oblong, gradually narrowed to the acute base, about an eighth of an inch in length. 



often destitute of living branches, although unshaded and growing 
far from other trees. These dense tufts of dark branches like 
plumes upon poles present a strange spectacle to the traveler who 
for the first time crosses the larger muskeags, especially at twi- 
light, for he seems to be looking over a weird procession, stretching 
often mile after mile until lost in the distance." On the small 
muskeags there is often a regular gradation in the size of the 
trees, from little seedlings close to the water in the centre of the 
bog to tall slender specimens often sixty feet in height, with thiu 
drooping branches which are freely developed on the better soil of 
the high margins, and trunks which rarely exceed eight inches in 
diameter. (See Ayres, Garden and Forest^ vii. 504, f. 80 [The 
Muskeag SpruceJ). 

Cone-bearing Black Spruces not over two feet high are very 

I 

abundant also in the sphagnum-covered bogs of Prince Edward's 
Island. 

^ " There seems to be four forms of the Black Spruce in north- 
ern Minnesota. First, the unland form with pendulous branches : 



second, the common upland form with stiff branches, the two 
grading one into the other ; third, the dwarf tree with only fruiting 
branches and perhaps a few others at the base of the stem, grow- 
ing on very wet muskeags; fourth, the stiff-branched tree, growing 
mostly on drier land than number three, although still on sphagnum 
and usually on the borders of the same muskeags. I can see no 
distinct lines of separation between these forms, which seem to 
grade into each other, that is, intermediate forms are found in 
complete series, and I am inclined to believe that the variation in 
the development of the branches is due to the conditions under 
which the trees are grown. Plants of the branchless form of the 
muskeags are of remarkably slow growth. One of these I cut, and 
counted seventy-five layers of annual growth in the stem, which 
was about an inch and a half in diameter. Such wood is very 
compact and even in texture. Occasionally one of the upland trees 
is cut for log timber, but they are never large, and I have not seen 
one above twelve inches in diameter." (Ayres, in Utt.') 



30 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFEE^. 



and very dark brown, with delicate pale brown lustrous wings broadest above the middle, very oblique 
at the apex, often nearly half an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide. 

Picea Mariana inhabits sphagnum-covered bogs, and swamps and their borders, and at the north 
also well drained bottom-lands and the slopes of barren stony hills ; it is distributed from the shores of 
Ungava Bay southwestward to those of Hudson Bay, and from the mouth of the Nelson River north- 
westward to the valley of the Mackenzie in about latitude 65° north,^ and reappearing west of the Rocky 
Mountains on the interior plateau of British Columbia in latitude 53°,^ it is common in the interior 
of Alaska as far north at least as the shores of Frances Lake and the valley of the Pelly River ; ^ 
southward it ranges through Newfoundland, the Maritime Provinces, eastern Canada, and the north- 
eastern United States to Pennsylvania, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Virginia 3 * 
it occurs on the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta,^ and extends through Assiniboia, 
northern Saskatchewan, and northern Manitoba to central Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. In 
the Labrador peninsula the Black Spruce is the most abundant tree, growing both in cold sphagnum 
swamps and on high hills covered with sands or with rocks or heavy glacial drift, usually in dense 
thickets, with long slender naked stems, but along the border of the treeless plains, where, alone with 
the Larch, the Black Spruce holds the northern outposts of the forest, it grows in open glades, and its 
stout trunks are clothed to the ground with branches.*^ West of Hudson Bay the Black Spruce also 
reaches the margin of the barren lands, forming scattered groves along the Telzoa River down to 
Doobaunt Lake, in latitude 63°, the most northern plants being here low shrubs with wide-spreading 
branches, from which occasionally a small upright stem rises to the height of four or five feetJ On 
the alluvial bottom-lands of the Athabasca River, between latitudes 58° and 59°, the Black Spruce is 
abundant, with trunks often three feet in diameter and occasionally eighty feet in height. It is the 
largest coniferous tree of Saskatchewan and of northwestern Manitoba, frequently covering large areas 
and growing both on well drained bottoms, where it attains its largest size, and on low stony hills, 
where it is small and stunted. The Black Spruce is common in Newfoundland, and in all the provinces 
of eastern Canada except in southern Ontario, growing in cold wet swamps and rarely attaining a 
greater height than thirty feet.^ Farther south it is also almost exclusively an inhabitant of swamps 
and their borders, although occasionally a few stunted individuals maintain a foothold on the summits 



1 Richardson, Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752; Arctic Searching 
Exped. ii. 317. 

2 Picea Mariana was collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 1876, 
east of the coast mountains of British Columbia, near the Black- 
water River. 

^ See G. M. Dawson, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. iii. pt. i. 
112 B, 116 B, 118 B. — Macoun, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. iii, 
pt. i. Appx. iii. 226 B. 

^ Britton & Brown, III. Fl. i. 55 (as Picea rvhra). 

^ During the summer of 1897 Picea Mariana was found by Mr. 
John Macoun about thirty miles from Calgary, on one of the 
branches of the Elbow River. 

^ " The Black Spruce is the most abundant tree of the Labrador 
peninsula, constituting at least ninety per cent, of the forest, and 
it is found everywhere from the shores of the St. Lawrence north- 
ward to Ungava Bay, and from the Atlantic coast to Hudson Bay. 
The northern limit of its distribution, which coincides with that of 
the forest region, leaves the east coast of Hudson Bay in the 
neighborhood of latitude 57°, passes almost due east for about one 
hundred miles, until the watershed of Hudson Bay is crossed, when 
the course changes to nearly northeast, following the lower country 
of the Koksoak River, and reaches nearly to the shore of Ungava 
Bay, about fifteen miles north of the mouth of the Koksoak River, 
in about latitude 58° 30' north. The trees skirt the southern shore 
of Ungava Bay to George River, at its southeastern corner, and 



grow from five to ten miles from the shore. From the mouth of 
George River, in latitude 68°, the line passes eastward for a short 
distance to the western flanks of the high Atlantic coast range, 
which here rises from three thousand to six thousand feet above the 
sea-level, and is quite barren. The Black Spruce is found in small 
open glades along the western flanks of the range, in the valleys of 
the streams and on the shores of lakes, southward to latitude 54°, 
where the groves become connected and a continuous forest covers 
the lower ground, while the hilltops remain bare for upwards of 
one hundred miles farther south. 

*' On the Atlantic coast the islands and mainland are without 
trees to below latitude 58°, where small Spruce and Larch are first 

r 

found about watercourses, at tlie heads of the deep narrow fiords 
which penetrate far inland on this coast. At Davies Inlet, in lati- 

^ r 

tude 56°, the trees are found growing everywhere along the coast, 
covering the lower hills, up to an elevation of five hundred feet, 
but the islands are still barren. At Hamilton Inlet, in latitude 54°, 
the trees ascend the hills to an elevation of nearly one thousand 
feet; and the inner islands are well wooded, only those far out from 
shore remaining barren." (Low in litt. See, also, Low, Rep. Geolog^ 
Surv. Can. n. ser. viii. 35 L.) 

■^ Tyrrell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. ix. 214 F. 

s Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 58 (in part). — Macoun, Cat. Can. 
PL 468 (in part). 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



31 



of the high hills of northern New England and New York. In the United States it is most common 
and grows to its largest size in the territory adjacent to the Great Lakes, where, however, it is 
nowhere abundant, thriving only in the moistest situations, and rarely producing trunks a foot in 
diameter. It is far less abundant than the Red Spruce in all the Appalachian region, and everywhere 
east of the Alleghany Mountains the Black Spruce is a small and comparatively rare tree, although it 
extends farther south along the Atlantic seaboard than any other Spruce, and occupies numerous 
small swamps near the coasts of southern New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

The wood of Picea Mariana is Hght, soft, and not strong ; it is pale yellow-white, with thin 
sapwood, and contains thin resinous bands of small summer cells and narrow conspicuous medullary 
rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5272, a cubic foot weighing 32.86 pounds. 
It is probably rarely used, except in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, for other purposes than the manu- 
facture of paper pulp. Spruce gum, the resinous exudations of the Black and Red Spruces, and 
occasionally of the White Spruce, is gathered in considerable quantities, principally in northern New 
England and Canada, and is used as a masticatory.^ Spruce beer is made by boiliug the branches of 
the Black and Red Spruces.^ 

Picea Mariana was introduced by Bishop Compton, into his garden near London, before the 
beginning of the eighteenth century,^ although the earliest description of it was not published until 
1755.^ Still frequently cultivated in western Europe,^ and occasionally in the northern United States, 
the Black Spruce is one of the least desirable of all Spruce-trees for the decoration of parks and gardens, 
soon losing in cultivation the shapely habit and the vigorous beauty of its youth, which are replaced 
by a naked stem and a small open head of short straggling branches. In European nurseries a few 
abnormal forms of dwarf habit, or with pendulous branches, or with yellow or white leaves, are 
occasionally propagated.® 



^ The resinous exudations of the Spruee-trees of eastern North 
America are obtained from the cavities of decayed knots and other 
natural depressions extending to the heartwood in the trunks of 
these trees, and not from wounds made for the purpose. The 
gum is collected in winter by "gummers," men on snow-shoes, 
carrying long poles armed with chisels, with which the resinous 
masses are knocked or cut off and caught in small cups attached 
to the poles just below the chisels. (See Menges, Contrib. Dep, 
Pharm. University of Wisconsin, No. 2, 30; Am. Jour. Pharm. Iviii. 
394. — Bastin & Trimble, Am. Jour. Pharm. Ixviii. 413.) 

A tincture prepared by dissolving the resinous gum of the east- 
ern Spruce-trees in alcohol is occasionally used in medicine, al- 
though it has no official recognition in the Pharmacopceias. (See 
Millspaugh, Am. Med. PI. in Homceopaihic Remedies., ii, 163.) 

2 The preparation of a fermented beverage made by boiling 
Spnice branches with honey was probably familiar to the northern 
Indians before the settlement of the country by Europeans, who 
learned the art from them; and in 1672 the value of Spruce beer 
was recognized by Josselyn, who thus describes its virtues: — 

" The tops of Green Spruce Boughs boiled in Bear, and drunk, 
is assuredly one of the best Kemedies for the Scurvy, restoring the 
Infected party in a short time; they also make a Lotion of some 
of the decoction, adding Hony and Allum." {New England's Rari- 
ties, 64.) 

Spruce beer, which is considered a pleasant and agreeable drink 
in hot weather, and a useful preventive of scurvy, is now made 
from the essence of spruce, which is a liquid of the color and con- 
sistency of molasses, with a bitter astringent acid flavor, obtained 
by boiling the young branches of the Black and Red Spruces in 
water and evaporating the decoction, the disagreeable odor of the 



White Spruce making it unsuitable for this purpose. To prepare 
this beverage the essence of spruce is boiled in water flavored with 
various ingredients, and is then mixed with molasses or occasion- 
ally with sugar, allowed to ferment, and bottled. (See Duhamel, 
Traite des Arhres, i. 17. — Kafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 183. — Spons, 
Encyclopcedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw Com- 
mercial Products, i. 424. — Druggists^ Circular, New York, 1880, 120. 
— Mineral Water Revieio, 1881, 140. — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1487. 

^ Aiton, Hort, Kew. iii. 370. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2312, f. 
2225-2227. 

* Abies picecCffoliis hrevioribus, conis parvis biuncialihus laxis, Du- 
hamel, I. c. i. 3. 

Abies Picecefoliis brevioribus, Conis biuncialibus laxis^ Miller, Diet, 
Icon. i. 1, t. 1. 

^ In Great Britain the Black Spruce appears to be more com- 
monly cultivated than any other conifer of eastern North America, 
with the exception of the White Pine, and, judging from numerous 
specimens which have been sent to me from England and Scotland, 
it does duty in Europe as the Black, Red, and White Spruces. 

^ The most distinct of the garden forms of the Black Spruce, at 
least in its young state, is the variety Doumetii ^ this is a dwarf 
plant, with short crowded branches, forming a narrow and very 
compact pyramidal head, and with crowded leaves, which was first 
noticed about 1835 in the garden of the Chateau de Bal^ne, near 
Moulins, in France, and was described by Carrifere in the Traite 
Conif. 242, as Picea nigra Doumetii. (For other abnormal forms 
of the Black Spruce, see Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 337. See, 
also, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xi. 81, t., for a description of a remark- 
ably compact pyramidal form of the Black Spruce cultivated in 
the Wilhelmshbhe Park and in the Karlsane Park in Cassel.) 



\ 



V- 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXCVL Picea Mariana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A seed-wing, the seed removed, enlarged. 

11. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

12. Winter-buds, natural size. 

13. A seedling plant, natural size. 



■<''■■. 1 



Silva of North America. 



Tah 




■' 



\ 



/ 




' \ 







^ 



/ 




"^--^ti;: ' 



10 



2 



x^^ -. 




3 



5 



6 



8 



9 







^-/ 




J-r 



^. ^. Faa^ony deZy\ 



Ulrrze-h-/ s& 



PICEA MARIANA, 




.P 







w 




l7. TcL?2^zcr^ J^ccrlip 






-J- 



\ 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



33 



PIOEA RUBENS. 



Red Spruce. 



Cones ovate-oblong, early deciduous, their scales rounded, entire, or obscurely 
denticulate. Brancblets pubescent. Leaves dark yellow-green. 



Picea rubens. 



acutissiraa, 



(1770). 



Pinus Mariana rubra, Du Koi; Ohs, Bot. 39 (1771) ; 

Harhk. Baumz. ii. 129. 
Pinus Americana rubra, Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz, 

75, t. 16, f. 54 (not Pinus rubra, Miller) (1787). 
Pinus rubra, Lambert, Pinus, i. 43, t. 28 (not Miller) 



Pinus alba, Elliott, Sh. ii. 640 (not Alton) (1824). 
Picea rubra, Dietrich, FL BerL ii. 795 (1824) .— Link, 
Handh. ii. 478 ; Linncea, xv. 621. — Carrlere, TraitS 

^ 

Conif, 240. — S^n^clauze, Conif, 34. — Kegel, Buss. 
Dendr, pt. i. 19. — Willkomm, Forst. FL ed. 2, 96. 
Beissner, Handh, Nadelh, 338, f. 95. — Hansen, Jour. 



B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 437 (Pinetum Danicum). 
Deutsche Dendr. 23. 



Koehne, 



(1803). — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. Ii. 507. — Persoon, Abies alba, Jaume St. Hilaire, TraitS des Arhres Forestiers^ 



Syn. ii. 579. — Alton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 319. — Pursh, 



t. 74, f. 7-9 (not Michaux) (1824). 



FL Am. Sept. ii. 640. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223. — Sprengel, Abies nigra, /? rubra, Si^stch., Hist. Veg. xi. 411 (1842). 



Syst. iii. 885. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros^ Larices e 



Hoopes, Evergreens, 170. 



AhetoSy 33. — Hooker, Fl. Bor-Am. Ii. 164. — Antoine, Abies alba, Chapman, FL 435 (not Polret) (1860). — Cur- 



Conif. 87, t. 34, f. 2. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 113. 



tis, Eep. Geolog. Surv. iV. Car. 1860, iii. 27. 



Gihoul, Arh. Ees. 44, — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Picea nigra, Provancher, Flore Canadienne, Ii. 557 (excl. 



Ahietinece, 18. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 394. — Courtin, Fam. 



Conif, 64. 
413. 



Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



Abies rubra, Poiret, Lamarch Diet. vi. 520 (1804). 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 580. — Rafinesque, New Fl, 



var. a squamea) (not Link) (1862). — Peck, Trans. 
Albany Inst. viii. 283 (in part). — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 202 (in part).- — Masters, 
Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 232 (in part). — Fox, Bep. 
Forest Comm. N. T., 1894, 121, t. 



i. 39. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 368. — Loudon, Picea nigra, var. grisea, Brunet, Cat. Veg. Lig. Can. 59 



Arh. Brit iv. 2316, f . 2228. — Forbes. Pinetum Wohurn. 



(1867). 



101, t. 35. — Knight, Syn. Conif 37. — Lindley & Gor- Abies Americana, K. Koch, Dendr. ii, pt. ii. 241 (not 



don. Jour. Hort. Soc. Bond. v. 211. — Gordon, Pinetum^ 



Miller nor Du Mont de Courset) (1873). 



11. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 189. — (Nel- Picea nigra, var. rubra, Engelmann, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 



son) Senilis, Pinacece, 51. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. 

ed. 2, 92. — Schtibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 435. 
Abies nigra, Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. i. 123 (in part), 

1. 11 (not Du Roi) (1810). —Gray, Man. 441 (in part). 

Chapman, FL 434. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 

1860, iii. 27. 
Pinus nigra, Elliott, Sk. ii. 640 (not Alton) (1824). 

Torrey, FL N. Y. Ii. 230 (m part). 



xi. 334 (1879). — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 

L 

492. — Eothrock, Bep. Dept. Agric. Penn. 1895, pt. ii. 

Div. Forestry, 281. 
Picea Mariana, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxi. 27 

(not Britton, Sterns & Poggenhurg) (1894). — Britton & 

Brown, BL FL i. 55 (in part), f. 122. 
Picea acutissiraa, J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, x. 63 

(1897). 



A tree, usually seventy or eighty and occasionally from one hundred to one hundred and ten feet 
in height^ with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter/ and slender spreading branches which, with 
abundant light and air, continue to clothe the stem to the ground, forming a narrow and rather formal 
conical head, or which soon perish on trees crowded in the forest, leaving the trunks naked for at least 
two thirds of their length, and at the timber-line of high mountains often reduced to a low semiprostrate 
shrub.^ The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to nearly one half of an inch in thickness, and is 



^ A Red Spruce tree near Meecham Lake, as reported by Mr. 
Fremont Fuller of Duane, Franklia County, New York, to the 
Secretary of the Forest Commission of that state, has a trunk 
circumference of ten feet three inches at four feet above the 



ground. This is the largest trunk of this species of which I have 
heard. 

2 In 1892 Mr. George Walker of Williamstown, Massachusetts, 
found near the base of Mt. Hopkins and about three miles from 



M 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERjE. 



t 

broken into thin closely appressed irregularly shaped red-brown scales. The branchlets, which are 
comparatively stout, are light green and covered with pale pubescence when they emerge from the buds, 
and during their first autumn and winter are bright reddish brown or orange-brown in color and clothed 
with rusty brown pubescence ; growing gradually darker during succeeding seasons, their bark loses 
its pubescent covering, and when they are three or four years old it begins to separate into thin scales. 
The winter-buds, which vary in size from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, are ovate and 
acute, with light reddish brown closely appressed acute scales, and are often surrounded by the elongated 

r 

acicular scale-like upper leaves, which easily separate from their prominent persistent bases. The leaves 
stand out from all sides of the branch, pointing forward, and are more or less incurved above the 
middle ; they are tetragonal, acute or rounded and tipped at the apex with a short callous mucro, pale 
bluish green when they first appear, dark green often slightly tinged with yellow and very lustrous at 
maturity, marked on the upper surface with four rows of stomata on each side of the prominent midrib 
and on the lower surface less conspicuously with two rows on each side of the midrib, from one half to 
five eighths of an inch long and nearly one sixteenth of an inch wide. The staminate flowers are oval, 
almost sessile, half an inch long and a quarter of an inch thick, with bright red conspicuously toothed 
anther-crests. The pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical and about three quarters of an inch in 
length, with rounded scales thin, reflexed and slightly erose on the margins, and obovate bracts rounded 
and laciniate above. The cones are ovate-oblong and gradually narrowed from near the middle to the 
acute apex, with concave rigid striate ob ovate-oblong scales rounded above and entire or slightly toothed 
on their thin and often flexuose edges ; they are usually from an inch and a quarter to two inches 
long, but vary from an inch to two and a half inches in length, and are borne on very short straight or 
incurved stalks ; when f uUy grown they are light green or green somewhat tinged with purple, but 
at maturity are light reddish brown and lustrous, and, beginning to fall as soon as the scales open late 
in the autumn or during the early winter, generally all disappear from the branches the following 
summer. The seeds are very dark brown and about an eighth of an inch long, with short broad wings 

full and rounded above the middle. 

The Red Spruce is distributed from the valley of the St. Lawrence River ^ and the northern shores 
of Prince Edward Island southward through Quebec, the Maritime Provinces, and along the Atlantic 
coast to southern Maine ^ and Cape Ann, Massachusetts,^ and through the hilly interior and the 
mountainous parts of New England and New York and along the Alleghany Mountains to the high 
peaks of western North Carolina. Comparatively rare and of small size north of the boundary of the 
United States and in the neighborhood of the coast, the Red Spruce, which is an inhabitant of high 
well drained gravelly slopes, is most abundant and attains its greatest dimensions in the elevated regions 
of northern New England and New York, where, mingled with the Hemlock, the White Pine and 
the Balsam Fir, the Larch, the Sugar Maple, the Yellow Birch and the Beech, it grows singly or in 
small dense groves, often forming a large proportion of the forest. On the uplands of Massachu- 
setts, especially on the Berkshire hills, and on the mountains which overlook the Hudson, it is not 
rare; it is common on the mountains of southern New York and northern New Jersey, and is widely 
scattered over the Alleghany Mountains in Pennsylvania, often forming a considerable part of the 



the northwest corner of the state of Massachusetts a plant of Picea 
ruhens with naked snake-like branches, similar in habit to some of 
the monstrous forms of the European Picea Abies, A portrait 
of this plant, which is the only example recorded of such a depar- 
ture from normal forms among the American Spruces, was published 
on page 45 of the eighth volume of Garden and Forest. Young 
plants raised by grafts from the Williamstown plant are now 
growing in the Arnold Arboretum. 

^ Picea ruhens was fonnd in 1895 by Mr. J, G. Jack at St. 
Catharines on the St. John's Railroad in Quebec. This is the 



most northern station from which this tree has been reported. It 
appears to be common on the slopes of the Laurentian hills in the 
St. Lawrence valley west of the Saguenay, as far west at least as 
the city of Ottawa. I have no evidence beyond Lambert's state- 
ment that the Red Spruce grows in Newfoundland. 

^ The Red Spruce is abundant on Gerrish Island off the mouth 
of the Piscataqua River^ Maine. 

^ In June, 1896, Mr. J. H. Sears found Picea ruhens growing 
singly and in small clumps over an area of about fifty acres near 
the town of Rockport, Massachusetts. 



CONIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



35 



forests which clothe their high slopes.^ It is also widely distributed over the mountains of West 
Virginia, forming on the head-waters of the Elk and Gauley Rivers a broad belt through which it is 
scattered often abundantly, sometimes occupying almost exclusively the high slopes, particularly those 
which face the north, and the summits of the mountains ; farther south it is small and less abundant, 
and at the southern limits of its range it is usually only forty or fifty feet in height and confined 
to the high mountains, where, occasionally forming pure forests, it usually grows in small groves near 
their summits with the Balsam Fir and the Yellow Birch, and rarely below elevations of five thousand 
feet above the sea-level. 

Picea rtibens, which is the principal timber Spruce of the northeastern United States, and, with the 
exception of the White Pine, the most valuable coniferous timber-tree of the region that it inhabits, 
produces light soft close-grained wood which is not strong, nor durable when exposed to the weather ; 
it is pale slightly tinged with red, with paler sapwood about two inches thick, and a satiny surface, 
and contains remote conspicuous medullary rays, few resin passages, and thin resinous bands of small 
summer cells. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4516, a cubic foot weighing 28.13 
pounds. Now that the most valuable white pine has been exhausted in the forests of the northeastern 
states, the Red Spruce is their most important timber-tree, and immense quantities of its lumber are 
manufactured every year from trees cut in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and northern New York, 
which supply the largest part of the Red Spruce logs, although red spruce is also manufactured in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is used largely for the flooring of houses and for joists, scantlings, 
and other square timbers employed in construction ; it is considered the most valuable wood produced in 
the United States for the sounding-boards of musical instruments, and it is one of the principal woods 
used in this country in the production of paper pulp. Like those obtained from the Black Spruce, the 
resinous exudations of the Red Spruce are used for chewing-gum, and from its branches Spruce beer 
is made. 

The first real description of the Red Spruce, with an excellent figure, was published by Lambert ; 
it had been prepared from a tree cultivated in England which was supposed to have been brought from 
Newfoundland. It was the Red Spruce, no doubt, brought down to the coast from the forests of 
Maine, which attracted the attention of Josselyn by its great size and its value for shipbuilding.^ 

Confounded for manv vears with Ficea Mariana.^ little attention has bfipn nairl tn th^ T?,pd SnmPA 



^ In the Mehoopany Creek basin in Wyoming County in the 
northeastern part of Pennsylvania the Red Spruce is abundant 
between elevations of one thousand five hundred and two thousand 
two hundred feet above the sea, growing with the Sugar Maple, the 
Beech, the Yellow Birch, and the Hemlock. Before its destruction 
to feed pulp-mills it grew in large quantities and in great perfection 
in Bear Meadows, Centre County, and it appears to be generally 
scattered at high elevations along the whole of the Alleghany 
range in Pennsylvania. 

2 " Spruce is a goodly Tree, of which they make Masts for Ships, 
and Sail Yards : It is generally conceived by those that have skill 
in Building of Ships, that here is absolutely the best Trees in the 
World, many of them being three Fathom about, and of great 
length." (Josselyn, New England's Rarities, 63.) 

" At Pascataway there is now a Spruce-tree, brought down to the 
water-side by our Mass-men, of an incredible bigness, and so long that 
no Skipper durst ever yet adventure to ship it, but there it lyes and 
Rots." (Josselyn, An Account of 7 wo Voyages to New England, 67.) 

2 Lambert, who first distinguished the Red Spruce intelligently, 
clearly understood the characters of the Spruces of eastern North 
America, and the figures in his Description of the Genus Pinus 
admirably show the distinctive characters of the three species, and 
have never been surpassed. Until recent years, however, the bota- 



nists who have written of these trees since Lambert have copied 
his descriptions, or have united the Red and the Black Spruces, or 
have considered the former a variety of the latter. The confusion 
with regard to these two trees dates from the time of the Michauxs. 
The elder saw in the northern states only Black and White 
Spruces, and the son makes his description of the Black Spruce 
include the Red Spruce, which he considered merely a form due to 
soil conditions, his figure of the Black Spruce being taken from 
a branch of the Red Spruce. Nuttall, in his Genera of North Amer- 
ican Plants^ and Pursh, in his Flora Americce Septentrionalis, retained 
Lambert's names, but evidently had little information about these 
trees, and Gray, in the early editions of the Manual of Botany of 
the Northern States, ignored the Red Spruce entirely, and in the 
fourth edition spoke of it as a northern form of the Black Spruce. 
The Red Spruce does not appear ever to have been common or 
to have flourished very often in European plantations, and the 
European writers on conifers, down to the time of Beissner, who 
have described this tree at all, have been obliged for want of mate- 
rial to follow Lambert or Michaux. Mr. William Gorrie, however 
(Trans. Bot. Sac. Edinburgh, x. 353), has well described the Red 
Spruce from trees which had been planted about 1855 near Tyne- 
head in Midlothian, Scotland, and which, fifteen years later, were 
from twelve to eighteen feet high and had produced cones. 



36 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONIFERS. 



as an ornament of northern parks and gardens, where, although it grows more slowly than most 
coniferous trees/ its great value is shown by the old specimens densely clothed with branches which 
are occasionally seen near farmhouses in the northern states.^ 



The two species are well distinguished by the size and shape of 
the staminate flowers, and by the size and shape of the cones, 
which on the Black Spruce are strongly hooked at the base and 
are persistent for many years, while on the Ked Spruce they are 
usually much larger, with nearly straight much shorter stems, and 
fall mostly during their first winter. The leaves of the Red Spruce 
are long, dark green, and lustrous, and those of the Black Spruce 
are shorter and blue. Forms intermediate in character between 
the Black and Red Spruces are not known to exist. The Black 
Spruce, except at the far north, inhabits only wet sphagnum- 
covered bogs, while the Red Spruce grows only on well-drained 
hillsides. The Black Spruce is a tree of the far north, only exist- 
ing precariously south of the northern border of the United States, 
while the Red Spruce is an Appalachian tree, attaining its greatest 
dimensions between northern New Hampshire and Pennsylvania. 
The distinctive characters of the two species have been well pointed 
out by George Lawson (Researches on the Distinctive Characters of 
the Canadian Spruces, 9. See, also, Canadian Researches of Science, 
vi. 172), and by J. G. Jack (Garden and Foresij x. 63). Fruiting 
branches of the two species are well figured by Beissner. 

The first specific name of the Red Spruce is that of Lambert, 
Pinus rubra, published in 1803. Pinus rubra, however, in 1803, 
was a synonym, as it had been used in 1768 by Miller for another 
tree. For the same reason the varietal name rubra, used by Da 
Roi in 1771, and by Wangenheim in 1787, is not available. The 
impossibility of identifying Muenchhausen's Pinus Abies acutissima, 
published in 1770, under which he quotes as a synonym Plukenet's 
Abies minor pectinatis foliis, which is shown by Plukenet's figure to 



be the Hemlock Spruce, makes the use of Muenchhausen's varietal 
name also inadmissible. No other specific or varietal name having 
been used by earlier authors for the Red Spruce, I propose to call 

it Picea rubens. 

1 The Red Spruce grows very slowly and probably attains a 

greater average age than any other tree in the forests of the 
northeastern states. From a number of measuxements made in 
the Adirondack region under the direction of Mr. William F. Fox, 
Superintendent of the State Forests of New Tork, it is shown that 
the Red Spruce, which in this report is called Picea nigra, may 
require three hundred and fifty-four years to produce a trunk only 
twenty-six inches in diameter on the stump. Of two hundred 
and thirty-seven trees examined in St. Lawrence County, twenty- 
four, with a maximum diameter of thirty inches, were from three 
hundred to three hundred and fifty-four years of age, while one 
hundred others were between two hundred and fifty and three 
hundred years old (Fox, Rep. Forest Coram. N. Y. 1894, 134). 

2 As an ornamental tree Picea rubens can be compared with 
Picea orientalis, which it resembles in its narrow pyramidal form 
and dense habit and in the rich dark coloring of its foliage. The 
White Spruce grows much more rapidly and is of a more open 
habit and livelier color than the Red Spruce, but it shows its high- 
est beauty and grows to a great age only in regions of shorter 
summers and colder winters than southern New England, where 
the Red Spruce, finding the climatic conditions which suit it, should 
prove the most valuable of the American Spruces in ornamental 
plantations. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DXCVII. Picea kubens. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged, 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters, 

13. Winter-buds, natural size. 

14. Winter-buds, showing leaf-like scales at their base, natural size. 

15. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of NortK Am 



eric a . 



; 



Tab. DXCVII. 



V 



X 





12 






' r 



- 1 



i' 




p ■ 



- ► 



». 



\ 



z 




■v 



5 



X 




:^\r'-^. 




5 




6 




\ 



2 



"t^.*"**'**^* 







9 



10 





11 




^. E.. Faccvny deZ'. 






Hune^ 



J'C/. 



PICEA RUBENS 



/ 




4 



A.Riooreuay direa>. 



Trap . J. Taneitr ,Tarup . 



( 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



37 



PIOEA CANADENSIS 



White Spruce. 

F 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, slender, their scales rounded, entire. Branchlets glabrous 
Leaves blue-green, strong-smelling. 



Picea Canadensis, Brltton, Sterns & Poggenburg, Cat, PL 
N, Y, 71 (1888).— Sudworth, Rep. Sec. Agric, U. S. 
1892, 329. — Britton & Brown, III M. I 54, f. 121. 

Abies Canadensis, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 4 (1768). 

Pinus Abies laxa, Muenchhausen, Mausv. v, 225 (1770), 

Pinus Canadensis, Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 38 (not Linnaeus) 



2. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 188. — (Nel- 
son) Senilis, Pinacece, 47. — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 471. 
A. Murray, Jour. Bot. v. t. 69, f . 2-7. — Hoopes, Ever- 
greens, 157, f. 20. — NOrdlinger, Forsthot, 442, f. 
Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 93. — Schtibeler, Virid. 
Norveg. i. 427. 



(1771); Sarhk. Baumz. ii. 124. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. Abies curvifolia, Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 314 



pt. ii. 168. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 5, t. 1, f. 2. 

Pinus laxa, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 24 (1788). 

Pinus alba, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 371 (1789). — Willde- 
now, Berl. Baumz. 221 ; Spec. Iv. pt. i. 507. — Borkhau- 
sen, Handh. Forsthot i. 402. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 39, t. 
26. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 579. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med, 
iv. 425. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 641. — Nuttall, Gen, 
ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. FL 177. — Guimpel, Otto & 
Hayne, Ahhild. Holz. 156, t. 131. — Sprengel, Syst, iii. 
885. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinkeiros, Larices e Abetos, 
34.- 



(1807). 
Abies rubra, Jaume St. Hilaire, TraitS des Arbres For- 



Hooker, FL Bor.-Am, 



estiers, t. 73, f. 7-10 (not Poiret) (1824). 

Picea alba, Link, Handh. ii. 478 (1831) ; Linncea, sv. 
519. — Carribre, Traite Conif. 238. — Van Houtte, Ft. 
des Serres, xxl. 157, t. 2251. — 'BTunet, Hist. Picea, 4,, 
t. — S^ndclauze, Conif. 22. — Kegel, Buss. Dendr. pt. i. 
19. — Engelmann, Ga/rd, Chron. n. ser. xi. 334. — Ber- 
trand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r, 5, xx. 85. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N Am. 10th Census Z7. S. ix. 204. — Willkomm, 
Forst. Fl. ed, 2, 97. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 
ed. 6, 492. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 219, f. 6. — Beiss- 
ner, Handh. Nadelh. 340, f . 96. — Masters, ifour. R, 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 220. — Hansen, tfour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
421 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
23, f . 8, J. K. Q. — Fox, Rep. Forest Comm. N. T. 1894, 
126, t. 

Picea nigra, var. glauca, Carri^re, Traite Conif. 242 
(1855). 

r 

Abies Americana, Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. iii. Pinus rubra, var. arctica, Lawson & Son, List No. 10^ 



— Meyer, PL Labrador. 30. 
ii. 163.- 



— Torrey, FL N. Y. ii. 231. — Bigelow, FL 

Boston, ed. 3, 386. — Antoine, Conif 86, t. 34, f . 1. 

Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 112. — Lawson & Son, List No. 10, 

Abietinece, 15. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 60. — Parlatore, 

De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 414. 

Pinus Americana, a alba, Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati 
Uniti, ii. 314 (1790). 

Pinus tetragona, Moench, Meth. 364 (1794). 



775 (not Miller) (1802). 



Abietinece, 19 (1851). — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 64. 



Abies alba, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 207 (not Miller) Pinus rubra, var. arctica longifolia, Lawson & Son, List 



(1803). — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 521. — Desfontaines, 



No. 10, Abietinece, 19 (1851). 



Hist. Arb. ii. 580. — Michaux, f. Hist. Arh. Am. i. 133, t. Pinus rubra, var. ccerulea, Lawson & Son, List No. 10, 



12, — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 291, t. 81, f . 2. — Rafinesque, 



Abietinece, 19 (1851). — Courtin, Fam. Conif 64. 



New FL i. 39. — Lindley, Penny CycL i. 31, — Forbes, Abies laxa, K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 243 (1873). 



Pinetum Wohurn. 95, t. 33. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 129. 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 412. — Emerson, Trees Mass. 84 ; 



Picea laxa, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 496 (1888). 
J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, x. 63. 



ed. 2, i. 99, — G'ihoul, Arh. RSs. 4:3. — Knight, Syn. Conif, Picea rubra pusilla, Peck, The Spruces of the Adiron- 



^Q. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Land. v. 211. 
Darlington, FL Cestr, ed. 3, 292. — Gordon, Pinetum, 



dacks, 10 (1897). 



A treej witli strong-smelling foliage/ sometimes one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a trunk 
three or four feet in diameter, but east of the Rocky Mountains, and especially toward the southeastern 



^ The foliage and young branchlets of the White Spruce emit a 
powerful polecat odor, which, although it varies in degree in differ- 
ent individuals, offers a sure method of distinguishing this tree at 
all seasons of the year from the other American Spruces, with the 



exception of Picea Fngelmanm. The foliage of this tree has also 
the polecat odor, but less strongly developed than in the White 
Spruce. 



38 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

L 

limits of its range, reaching an average maximum height o£ sixty or seventy feet and an average 
trunk, diameter of two feet. The long comparatively thick limhs sweep out in graceful upward curves 
and form a broad-based and rather open irregular pyramid which is often obtuse at the apex, and 
are densely clothed with stout rigid pendent lateral branches, the ultimate branchlets frequently 
incurving from near the middle. The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one half of an inch 
in thickness, and separates irregularly into thin plate-like scales which are light gray more or less 
tino-ed with brown on the surface. The branchlets are stout, pale gray-green when they first appear, 
and glabrous or slightly puberulous;* during their first autumn and winter they are orange-brown 
and then gradually grow darker and grayish brown. The winter-buds, which are broadly ovate and 
obtuse, are covered by light chestnut-brown scales rounded at the apex, with thin often reflexed cihate 
margins, and vary from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in length according to the vigor and 
stoutness of the branchlets. The leaves are crowded on the upper side of the branches by the twisting 
of those on the lower side, and point forward, especially those near the extremities of the branchlets; 
they are tetragonal, incurved, and acute or acuminate at the apex, which terminates in a rigid callous 

■ 

tip, and are pale blue and hoary when they first appear, becoming dark blue-green or pale blue at 
maturity, individual trees varying greatly in the depth and brightness of the shades of blue of their 
foliage ; they are marked on each of the four sides with three or four rows of stomata, and are from 

r 

one third of an inch in length on fertile upper branches to three quarters of an inch in length on the 
lower sterile branches of young and vigorous trees. The staminate flowers are oblong-cylindrical and 
pale red when they first emerge from the buds, but soon appear yellow from their thick covering of 
pollen ; they are from one half to three quarters of an inch in length at maturity, when they are 
suspended on slender pedicels nearly half an inch long. The pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical, 
with round nearly entire pale red or yellow-green scales broader than they are long, and nearly orbicular 
denticulate bracts. The cones, which are nearly sessile or are borne on very short thin straight stems, 
are oblong-cylindrical, slender, slightly narrowed to both ends and rather obtuse at the apex, and are 
usually about two inches long and from one third to two thirds of an inch in diameter, but vary from 
an inch to two inches and a half in length ; their scales are nearly orbicular or somewhat longer than 
they are broad, rounded, truncate, slightly emarginate or rarely narrowed at the apex, and obscurely 
striate, with thin usually entire margins ; when fully grown they are pale green, often somewhat 
tinged with red,^ and at maturity they become pale brown and lustrous, and are so thin and flexible 
that the dry cone is easily compressed between the fingers without injuring the scales ; they generally 
fall in the autumn or during the following winter, soon after the escape of the seeds. These are 
about an eighth of an inch in length and pale brown, with narrow wings which gradually broaden 
from the base to above the middle and are very oblique at the apex. 

The White Spruce inhabits the banks of streams and lakes and the borders of swamps, in rich 
moist alluvial soil, ocean cliffs, and less commonly at the north the rocky slopes of low hills; it 
ranges from the shores of Ungava Bay in Labrador westward to those of Hudson Bay, and from the 
mouth of Seal River not far to the north of Cape Churchill it is scattered along the northern frontier 
of the forest nearly to the shores of the Arctic Sea, and, crossing the continental divide, reaches 
Behring Strait in 66° 44' north latitude. Southward it extends down the Atlantic coast to southern 
Maine,^ growing often close to the shore, where it is constantly bathed in the spray of the ocean, 
and to northern New Hampshire, northeastern Vermont, northern New York, northern Michigan * and 
Minnesota and the Black Hills of Dakota, and through the interior of Alaska and along the Rocky 
Mountains to northern Montana. 



1 lu the interior of Alaska and in British Columbia the branch- 3 On the coast of Maine Picea Canadensis grows as far south as 
lets of the Wliite Spruce are sometinaes slightly puberulous; in the the shores of Casco Bay. (See Garden and Forest, ix. 351, f. 47.) 
east the branchlets appear to be always entirely glabrous. ■* In the southern peninsula of Michigan, Picea Canadensis is 

2 In a swamp near BanfB, Alberta, I have seen in August White common on the Au Sable River and northward (teste W. J. Beal). 
Spruce trees bearing bright red cones and others pale green coaes. 



CONIFERjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



39 



In Labrador the White Spruce is widely but not generally distributed, growing in the south in 
well-watered valleys and ascending rocky hills to elevations of two thousand feet above the sea-level, 
but north of the southern watershed it is confined to river-valleys.^ West of Hudson Bay it often 
grows to a large size on river terraces to the very borders of the barren lands, following down the 
Telzoa River nearly to the shores of Doobaunt Lake ; ^ it was found by Eichardson on the Copper 
Mine River, within twenty miles of the Arctic Sea, growing to a height of twenty feet,^ and its stems 
choke the mouths of every arctic American river, strewing the adjacent shores with heaps of driftwood 
and testifying to its abundance on their shifting banks. In the basin of the Yukon the White 
Spruce is the largest and most valuable tree, attaining a large size on alluvial bottom-lands, where it 
is very abundant, while on adjacent hills it remains small and stunted.* On the northwest coast the 
White Spruce is able to exist farther north than other trees, and to form scattered groves near the 
sea from the shore of Norton Sound to the Nootak River, where, with short stout trunks and crowded 
branches densely clothed with thick leaves, it lives through the long arctic winter and sometimes 
rises to the height of fifty feet.^ The White Spruce is common in Newfoundland and the Maritime 
Provinces, and on the streams which flow from the north into the St. Lawrence, and westward it 
ranges through Ontario to the borders of the treeless plains in Manitoba, where it occupies sand-hills 
and the dry slopes of river banks.® Less abundant and less generally distributed in the central region 
of British America than the Black Spruce, it forms groves sometimes of large trees on the alluvial 
bottoms of the Saskatchewan, Churchill, and Athabasca Rivers ; ' in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains 
of Alberta, British Columbia, and northern Montana, It lines the banks of streams and lakes up to 
elevations of five thousand feet, and attaining its largest size and Its greatest beauty, sends up tall 
spire-like heads of dark foliage. It grows in small groves on the Cypress hills in Assiniboine ; ^ and 



1 " The White Spruce is widely distributed throughout the 
Labrador peninsula, but, unlike the Black Spruce, it is not met 
■with in all localities, and its distribution appears to depend almost 
wholly on the character of the soil, and only to a limited extent 
upon climate. It is found on both the eastern and western sides 
of the peninsula, and its northern limit almost coincides with that 
of the Black Spruce. Aloug the St. Lawrence, and inland to about 
latitude 51°, large trees of this species are abundant in the valleys 
and far up the sides of the rocky and drift-covered hills (1,000 to 
2,000 feet), where they grow to commercial size along with White 
Birch and the Aspen. Farther northward the Black Spruce grad- 
ually replaces them on the rocky hillsides, and the White Spruce 
appears to be confined to the modified drift of the river terraces, 
where the trees are conspicuous for their size, being much larger 
and longer than the Black Spruce. On the central table-land 
(nearly 2,000 feet above sea-level) to the northward of latitude 52°, 

r 

White Spruce is rarely found on the great area of arehsean crystal- 
line rocks with its overlying soil of sandy glacial drift; and it is 
found only in small patches on the sides of the hills with small 
White Birches, and usually growing on the modified drift along 
the borders of the smaller mountain streams. 

" On the large areas of stratified Cambrian rocks, about the 
upper waters of the Hamilton Kiver, White Spruce grows freely 
and to large size (3 feet diameter) on the hillsides, with a heavy 
rich soil formed by the disintegration of the ferruginous lime- 
stones and shales beneath, and is here found as far north as 
latitude 54°. On the archeean area, northward of latitude 53° 
White Spruce is found onl}' in the river-valleys of the eastern, 
northern, and western watersheds, where it grows on the terraces 
that flank the rocky walls of the valleys, and Is nearly always 
associated with White Birch and sometimes with Aspen and Balsam 
Poplar. 



" White Spruce trees are the only conifers found growing on 
the outer islands of James Bay; and this is probably due to the 
soil being very similar to the modified drift of the river terraces 
of the mainland, as the islands are formed from the drift of a ter- 
minal moraine, rearranged by marine action during a post-glacial 
subsidence. The Islands aldng the east shore of Hudson Bay are 
often rocky, and, where wooded, the trees are mostly Black 
Spruces, with some White Spruce on the marine terraces." (Low 
in litt. See, also, Low, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. viii. 34 L.) 

2 Tyrrell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. ix. 214 F. See, also, 

Tyrrell, in The Canadian Magazine, vii. 524 (Through the Suh~ 
Arctics of Canada). 

8 Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752. 

* Dall, Alaska and its Resources, 439. — G. M. Dawson, Geolog. 
Surv. Can, n. ser. iii. pt. i. 112 B, 116 B, 121 B. 

6 As Abies arctica A. Murray has described the White Spruce 
of northwestern Alaska, which he distinguished by its broader 
pulvini, thicker leaves, and smaller cones, with more concave scales 
and bracts of a somewhat different shape (Jour. Bot. v. 253, t. 
269 [1867]). These are slight differences, which may well have 
been the result of the severe climate of the region where the offi- 
cers of H. M. S. Herald discovered this tree, which, judging from 
the figure, I cannot distinguish from ordinary northern forms of 
Picea Canadensis. 

It is also the Pinus alba, 3 arctica, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 
xvl. pt. ii. 414 (1868), and the Picea alba, var. arctica, F. Kurtz, 
Bot. Jahrh. xix. 425 (Fl. Chilcatgehietes) (1895). 

« Maeoun, Cat. Can. PL 469. 

7 Tyrrell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. n. ser. viii. 12 D. 

8 Macouu, L c. 470. 



40 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



CONIFEK^. 



among the Black Hills of Dakota it is the largest and one of the most abundant coniferous trees, 
often reaching a height of more than one hundred feet in the neighborhood of streams. It is common 
in the region north of Lake Superior, but east of the Mississippi it nowhere extends very far south 
of the northern boundary of the United States, and is not a large or valuable tree. 

The wood of Picea Canadensis is light, soft, not strong, and straight-grained, with a satiny 
surface ; it contains numerous prominent medullary rays, few resin passages, and thin inconspicuous 
bands of small summer cells, and is light yellow, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4051, a cubic foot weighing 25.25 pounds. In the 
eastern provinces of Canada, where it is probably the only Spruce which is cut in large quantities for 
lumber, it is used in construction and for the interior finish of buildings, and for paper pulp, and is 
largely exported to Europe. White Spruce lumber is also occasionally manufactured in Dakota and 
Montana, and from this tree the miners of the Yukon obtain their lumber and the logs for their huts. 
The Indians of the north used the long tough flexible roots of the White Spruce, and probably also 
those of the Black Spruce, to fasten together the sheets of Birch bark from which they made their 
canoes, and to weave water-tight baskets and vessels,^ and from the bark of young Spruce-trees they 
made canoes when the Birch could not be found.^ 

The Spruce-trees which Jacques Cartier saw as he sailed up the Saguenay River in the autumn of 
1535 were probably White Spruces,^ and it was the White Spruce which John Mason, writing in 1620, 
included among the valuable timber-trees of Newfoundland.* First described by Miller in 1731,^ the 
White Spruce is said to have been cultivated by Bishop Compton in England before the end of the 
sixteenth century.*^ 

Picea Canadensis excels the other Spruces of eastern North America in massiveness of trunk and 
in richness and beauty of foliage; and in regions sufficiently cold to insure the full development of all 
its charms, no other Spruce-tree grows more vigorously or better adapts itself, with persistent lower 
branches and shapely form, to decorate the parks and gardens of the north, although in the compara- 
tively mild climate of southern New England and the middle states, and of western and central 
Europe, it soon perishes or loses its value as an ornamental tree. 

A number of forms of the White Spruce,*^ some with leaves of darker or lighter shades of blue 
and others of dwarf habit or with erect or pendent branches, are occasionally propagated in nurseries. 



^ " Watape Is the name given to the divided roots of the sprace- 
fir, which the natives weave into a degree of compactness that 
renders it capable of containing a fluid. The different parts of the 
bark canoes are also sewed together with this kind of filament." 
(Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence and 
through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific 
Oceans in the Years 1789 and 1793, 37. See, also, Eichardson, 
Franklin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752.) 

2 Kichardson, Arctic Searching Exped. il. 316. 

3 "Depuis le 19 jonr jusques au 28, dudict moys nous auons 

estd nauigans a mont ledict fleuve sans perdre heure ny jour, 

durand lequel temp auos veu & trouv^ d'aussi beau pays & terras 

aussi vuyes que Ton scauroit desirer, plaine comme diet est des 

beaulx arbres du monde, scauolr chesnes, hormes, noyers, cedres, 

pruches, fresnes, briez, fandres, oziers, & force vignes." (Bref 

Recit et Succincte Narration de la Navigation faite in MDXXXV. 

MDXXXVI. Par le Captain Jacques Cartier aux lies de Canada 
24.) 

r 

* " The Land of the North parts most mountanye & woodye very 
thick of Firre trees, Spruce, Pine, Lereckhout, Aspe, Hasill, a kind 
of stinking wood; the three formest goodly Timber and most con- 
venient for building." (John Mason, A Briefe Discourse of the 

New-found-land.') 



5 Ahies; Picem foliis brevioribus, conis parvisj biuncialibus taxis. 
Diet. No. 6. 

Abies Canadensis, picece foliis hrevioribus, conis par vis ^ biuncialibus, 
laxis, Charlevoix, Hisioire de la Nouvelle France, ed. 12mo, iy. 369, f. 

6 Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2310, f. 2224. 

^ The handsomest of the numerous cultivated forms of the 
White Spruce is the tree with light blue leaves rather closely 
pressed against the branches, which has been known in gardens 
under one name or another for more than a century. It is : — 

Picea Canadensis glauca, Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Div. Forestry, 
U. S. Dept. Agric. 37 (1897). 

Pinus glabra, Moeuch, Bdume Weiss. 73 (1785). 

Abies rubra coerulea, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2316 (1838). 

Abies coerulea, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 99 (1839). 

Picea ccerulea, Link, Linncea, xv. 522 (1841). 

Pinus rubra, B violacea, Endlicher, Syn. Conif 114 (1847). 

F 

Abies alba ccerulea, Carrifere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 320 (1867). 

Abies Americana ccerulea, Beissner, Handb. Conif. 509 (1887). 

Picea alba cosrulea, Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 341 (1891), 
The other forms of the White Spruce found in European gar- 
dens, dwarf in habit or more or less abnormal in mode of growth 
or in the color of their foliage, have little to recommend them as 
ornamental plants. (For a description of these varieties, see Beiss- 
ner, I. c. 342.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



y 



Plate DXCVIII. Picea Canadensis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. ) 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

L 

J 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

J _ , 

11. A seed, lower side, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. Winter-buds, natural size. 

14. A seedling plants natural size. 



V 



\ 



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\ 



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ilva of North 




.Tiierica 



Tab. DXCVIII. 



r 



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"^ 





• ■ 



> 



13 



5 



2 




3 





6 




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7 











-«-'. 



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Q 




10 




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Ln..ey _S(y. 



PICEA CANADENSIS 



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D 



A . BJ.n c^'' ew2>- direa>. 



K^ 



4 

Imp. c./ Taj^i^iir\ Paris , 



V 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



43 



PIOEA ENGELMANNI. 



White Spruce. Engelmann Spruce. 

ri r 

Cones oblong-cylindrical or oval, their scales narrowed to a truncate or acute 
apex, or obovate and rounded, erose-dentate or entire. Branchlets pubescent. Leaves 
soft and flexible, blue-green, 



Picea Engelmanni, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, 

ii. 212 (1863); Gard. Chron. 1863, 1035; n. ser. vli. 
790 ; xi. 334 ; xvii. 145 ; Gartenflora, xiii. 244 ; Roth- 
rock Wheelers Rep, vi. 256. — Carrlere, Traite Conif. 
ed. 2, 348. — Sdn^clauze, Conif. 24. — G. M. Dawson, Can. 
Nat. n. ser. ix. 325. — Kegel, Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 
33. — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. 10th Census U. S. 

ix. 205. — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 431. — Mayr, 



Abies Engelmanni, Parry, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 
122 (1863) ; Am. Nat. viii. 179 ; Proc. Davenport Acad, 
i. 149. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 418. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens^ 111, f. 22. — Watson, King's Rep. 
V. 332 ; PL Wheeler, 17. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colora- 
do y Hayden's Surv. Misc. Puh. 130. — K. Koch, Dendr. 
ii. pt. ii. 242. — Hall, Bot. Gazette, ii. 95. — Veitch, 
Man. Conif. 68. — Lauehe, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 92. 



Wald. Nordam. 352. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Pinus commutata, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 



Board Forestry, iii. 113, t. 2 (Cone-Bearers of Califor- 



ii. 417 (1868). 



nia)\ West- American Cone-Bearers, 51; Bull. Sierra Abies commutata, A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. iii. 



Club, ii. 159, t. 23 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope), Beiss- 



106 (1875). — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 5. 



ner, Handh. Nadelh. 343, f. 97. — Masters, Jour. R. Picea Engelmanni, var. Pranciscana, Lemmon, West' 



Hort. Soc. xiv. 221. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 



American Cone-Bearers, 51 (1895). 



422 (Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. Picea Columbiana, Lemmon, Garden and Forest, x. 183 



24, f. 8, M. 
Abies nigra, Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. 330 
- (notDuRoi) (1862). 



(1897) ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 158 (Conifers of the Pa- 
ciflc Slope). 



A tree, often one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a trunk four or five feet in diameter, or 
frequently, on high mountains at the extreme upper limits of its range, reduced to a shrub with 
semiprostrate stems. During its early years the slender spreading branches, which are produced in 
regular whorls one close above another, form a narrow compact symmetrical pyramid, and in old age 
the trees, which generally grow only in dense forests, either gregariously or mixed with other alpine 
conifers, produce long naked trunks surmounted by narrow pyramidal heads of short small branches 
usually pendulous below, horizontal above, and nearly erect at the summit, and gracefully hanging short 
lateral branchlets. The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness, 
light cinnamon-red, and broken into large thin loose scales. The winter-buds are conical or often 
slightly obtuse, with pale chestnut-brown scales which are scarious and often free or slightly reflexed 
on the margins. The branchlets, which are comparatively slender, or on trees in high exposed 
positions often much thickened, are pubescent for three or four years; when they first appear they 
are pale greenish yellow, turning light or dark orange-brown or gray tinged with brown during 
their first winter, and then gradually become darker, the thin bark beginning to separate into small 
flaky scales in their fourth or fifth years. The leaves are soft and flexible, with a strong unpleasant 
polecat-like odor when bruised, and stand out from all sides of the branch, pointing forward; they are 
tetragonal, acute, with callous tips, slender, nearly straight, or slightly incurved on vigorous sterile 
branches, and stouter, shorter, and more incurved on fertile branches, and from an inch to an inch 

r 

and an eighth in length. They are marked on each face with from three to five rows of small stomata, 
which are more conspicuous on the upper than on the lower side ; when they first appear they are 
covered with a pale glaucous bloom, which disappears during their first summer, leaving them dark 



44 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERiE. 



blue-green or pale steel-blue. The staminate flowers are oblong-cylindricalj and about five eighths of 
an inch long and a quarter of an inch thick, with dark purple anthers, and are raised on slender stems 
often nearly a quarter of an inch long when fully grown. The pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical, 
bright scarlet, and from one third to five eighths of an inch in length, with pointed or rounded and 
more or less divided or entire scales, their bracts being oblong and rounded, or acute or acuminate 
and denticulate at the apex, or obovate-oblong and abruptly acuminate. The cones are oblong- 
cylindrical or oval, gradually narrowed to both ends and usually about two inches long, although they 
vary in length from one inch to three inches, with thin flexible striate scales which are slightly concave, 
very thin, and generally erose-dentate or rarely almost entire on the margins, and are usually broadest 
at the middle, wedge-shaped below, and gradually contracted above to a truncate or rarely acute 
apex, or occasionally they are obovate and rounded above ; the cones, which are sessile or very short- 
stalked, are borne in great numbers on the upper branches, even the prostrate shrubs at the upper 
limits of tree-growth being often covered with small cones ; they are horizontal and ultimately pendulous, 
and when fully grown are light green somewhat tinged with scarlet, with scales which are spreading or 
appressed, and light chestnut-brown and lustrous at maturity; they mostly fall in the autumn or 
early in their first winter and soon after the escape of the seeds.-' These are rather obtuse at the 
base, nearly black, and generally about half as long as their broad and very oblique wings. 

From the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia Picea Engelmanni is distributed 
southward over the interior mountain systems of the continent to northern New Mexico and Arizona, 
forming great forests at elevations of from five thousand feet at the north up to eleven thousand five 
hundred feet at the south, and westward through Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, where it 
is usually scattered among other trees.^ Attaining its greatest size and beauty north of the northern 
boundary of the United States, the Engelmann Spruce forms the largest part of the great forests which 
clothe the high mountains of southern Alberta, those which overlook the valley of the Columbia in 

r 

British Columbia, and the Selkirk Mountains.^ The Spruce forests are less extensive in the region 



^ In the size of its cones and in the shape of its cone-scales and 
their hracts, Picea Engelmanni shows greater variation than the 
other North American species of Picea. In Colorado, Utah, and 
Arizona the cone-scales are rhomboidal, more or less truncate at 
the apex, entire or erose-denticulate to a greater or less degree on 
the margins, and appressed or spreading, their bracts being usually 
oblong and rounded or acute at the apex, or rarely acuminate, 
while the cones vary from an inch to three inches in length on 
adjacent trees, (See Brandegee, Boi, Gazette, iii. 32.) Farther 
northward, especially in northern Wyoming, northern Montana, 
and in Alberta, some trees bear large cones with truncate scales, 
but others produce cones generally about an inch and a half long 
with oblong-obovate scales rounded above and frequently nearly 
entire on the margins, their bracts varying from oblong-rounded 
to acuminate. These cones, seen by themselves, might well sug- 
gest another species, but they are connected with those of the other 
extreme form by a long series of intergrading forms ; and in habit, 
bark, and foliage the trees which produce the different kinds are 
not distinguishable. 

2 On the mountains of the upper Columbia Basin, in the United 
States, Picea Engelmanni, although generally scattered, Is less 
common than it is on the Rocky Mountains, and often of smaller 
size, although on the northern slopes of Mount Hood in Oregon, 
where it is abundant in the Hemlock and Fir forests between alti- 
tudes of three thousand and six thousand feet, it frequently attains 
a height of one hundred and twenty-five feet and a trunk diameter 
of three feet on the shores of lakes and streams, while on dry 
hillsides it is much smaller and stunted in appearance. Farther 
southward Picea Engelmanni grows near Upper Klamath Lake in 



swampy ground down to elevations of about two thousand five 
hundred feet above the sea. This is the lowest station where I 
have seen it, except near Priest Lake in the extreme northern part 

r 

of Idaho, where it descends to two thousand three hundred feet. 
On the west side of the Cascade Mountains Picea Engelmanni, 
although not common, grows along the whole length of the range, 
and is usually found only in small groves in moist or swampy 
situations. It is said by Mr, A. J. Johnson to grow in the coast 
range on Saddle Mountain, a few miles south of Astoria, Oregon, 
between elevations of three thousand and six thousand feet above 
the sea-level. 

This western form is the Picea Columbiana of Lemmon (Gar^ 
den and Forestj x. 183), who has tried to distinguish it from the 
tree of the Kocky Mountains by its smaller size, rather different 
habit, scaly bark, and smaller cones with " thin obovate obtuse 
scales" with "scarious wrinkled edges." The cones, however, of 
the Spruce of the Cascades and of the Blue Mountains of Washing- 
ton and Oregon which I have seen do not differ materially in size 
and shape from those produced in Colorado and Arizona, showing 
less variation from them than from the cones on some trees in the 
northern Rocky Mountains. Mr. Lemmon describes the bark of 
Picea Engelmanni as " thick, brown, and deeply furrowed," but 
wherever I have seen this tree from Alberta and British Columbia 
to Arizona it has the scaly cinnamon-red bark which is character- 
istic of the trees of the Columbian basin and the western slope of 
the Cascade Mountains. 

I 

3 The most northern stations where I have seen Picea Engel- 

^ 

manni are on the mountains above Laggan, on the line of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railroad in Alberta, and on the Selkirk Mountains in 



COKTFERjE* 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



45 



immediately south of tlie boundary of the United StateS; although the Engelmann Spruce is a common 
tree in the mountain forests of Montana and Idaho/ and ranges westward along the high mountains of 
northern Washington and southward along both slopes of the Cascade Mountains to southern Oregon^ 
and over the Powder River and Blue Mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon. It is common 
on the Yellowstone plateau of northwestern Wyoming/ and southward occurs on all the mountain 
ranges which rise ten thousand feet above the sea-level. It is the principal and most valuable timber- 
tree of Colorado and Utah, forming great forests on all the high ranges^ generally growing to its largest 
size at elevations of between nine thousand five hundred and ten thousand feet, but occasionally 
descending to nine thousand feet and ascending to eleven thousand feet above the sea, and with Piniis 
aristata reaching the extreme upper limits of the timber-line, where, although usually semiprostrate, it 
sometimes develops a tall erect stem. It likewise forms forests on the high mountains of eastern 
Nevada, and on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona, where it ranges from nine thousand two 
hundred feet up to eleven thousand five hundred feet, reaching with Pinus aristata the highest limit 

r _ ■ 

of tree-growth ; ^ it also grows in Arizona on Mount Graham and the Sierra Blanca, and near the 
summit of the Mogollon Mountains in New Mexico.* 

The wood of Picea Engehnanni is very Hght, soft, not strong, and close and straight-grained, 
with a satiny surface 3 it is pale yellow tinged with red, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood, 
numerous conspicuous medullary rays, few minute resin passages, and inconspicuous bands of small 
summer cells. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.344:9, a cubic foot weighing 21.49 
pounds. It is largely manufactured into lumber for the construction of buildings, and is also exten- 
sively used for fuel and charcoal. The bark is employed locally in tanning leather. 

Picea Engelmanni^ which the botanists who first visited the Eocky Mountains ^ mistook for one of 
the Spruces of the east, was first distinguished in 1862 by Dr. C. C. Parry ,*^ who found it on Pike's 
Peak in Colorado. The following year he sent seeds to the Botanic Garden of Harvard University at 
Cambridge, where this tree was probably first cultivated. It grows more slowly in New England, 
where it is very hardy, than the other Spruces and Firs of the Eocky Mountains,*^ forming a narrow 
symmetrical compact pyramid beautiful in shape and color; and in the Arnold Arboretum it has 
already produced a few cones. Unfolding its buds very early in the spring, like other trees which 
grow naturally only at high elevations, Picea Engelmanni suffers in western Europe from late spring 
frosts, but in northern Eussia it has proved one of the hardiest of exotic conifers.^ 

In its specific name this tree, the fairest of its race, braving the fiercest mountain blasts, the ^ 
fiery rays of the southern sun and the arctic cold of the northern winter, with tall and massive shafts 



British Columbia; but in southern Alberta and southern British 
Columbia it grows to such a large size up to high altitudes aud is 

so generally distributed that no doubt it ranges much farther north- 
ward along the Rocky Mountains. By Macoun {Cat. Can. PL 470) 
it is stated that specimens collected on the Pease River plateau 
(latitude 55° 46' 54", longitude 120°, altitude 2,600 feet) are refer- 
able to Picea Engelmanni, while trees on the Athabasca (latitude 
54° 7' 34", longitude 118° 48') belong to Picea Canadensis, but I 
have not been able to see any specimen of Picea Engelmanni gath- 
ered north of the line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. 

1 See Leiberg, Contrib. U. S. Nat Berb. v. 47. 

2 Tweedy, Flora of the Yellowstone National Park, 12, 74. 
8 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 121. 

4 Rusby, Bull Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 80. 

^ On the 9th of September, 1805, Lewis and Clark, being then in 
the second year of their transcontinental journey, were crossing the 
Bitter Root Mountains by the Lolo Trail, and found that the timber 
was " almost exclusively pine, chiefly of the long-leaved kind, with 
some spruce and a sprinkling of fir resembling the Scotch Fir " 



(History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clarh, ed, 
Coues, ii. 690). This Spruce of the Bitter Root Mountains must 
have been Picea Engelmanni, which here first makes its appearance 
in literature. (See Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 29.) 

6 See vii. 130. 

^ Picea Engelmanni grows slowly also in its native forests. A 
tree near the mining town of Cripple Creek in Colorado, ex- 
amined by General Henry L. Abbot in 1896, had a trunk twelve 
inches in diameter five feet from the surface of the ground and six 
inches in diameter forty feet from the ground, and was two hundred 
and fifty years old. The log specimen cut in Colorado for the 
Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, is twenty-three inches in 
diameter inside the bark and four hundred and ten years old, with 
sixty-eight years of sapwood, which is three eighths of an inch in 
thickness. At the end of one hundred years the trunk of this tree 
was only five and a quarter inches in diameter, and at the end of 
its second century only eleven inches. 

8 Andr^, Card. Chron. n. ser. vii. 562. 



46 



8ILVA OF WORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



brilliant in color, and graceful spire-like crowns of soft foliage of tenderest hue, keeps green on a 
thousand mountain-tops the memory of a good and wise man/ 

1 See viii. 84. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



- / 



Plate DXCIX. Pice a Engelmanni. 

1. A branch with staininate flowerSj natural size. 

2. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

3. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

4. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A cone from Mount Hood, Oregon, natural size. 

8. A cone from the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

13. A seed, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

16. Winter branch-buds, natural size. 

17. A seedling plant, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Ta-b.DXCIX. 



/ 







F ■ J y 



\ 



W'' 



I 



>■ 



2 



/N^r^-J*«t 




4 







5 




9 



. - f^/1.. 




10 




11 




12 











13 



/--^: 



' "I 



U ' M 



r. ►■ 



^2 



III 




C,£.Faa:o7v deL 




rru. 




so. 



PICEA ENGELMANNI 



^ 



iip^elm 
o 



v4 . Rzo or0uay 





c/ Tcon^Lor^ Far if 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



47 



PIOEA PARRYANA. 



Blue Spruce. Colorado Spruce. 

GoNES oblong-cylindrical, their scales rhomboidal, elongated, flexuose, rounded or 

truncate at the erose apex. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves rigid, spinescent, blue-green, 
or silvery white. 



Picea Parryana. 

Abies Menziesii, Engelmann, Am. Jour, Sci, ser. 2, xxxiv. 

330 (not Lindley) (1862) ; Gard. Chron, n. ser. vii. 790. 

Watson, King's Bey. v. 333 (in part). — Andr^, Gard, 

Chron. n. ser. vii. 562. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; 

Hayden Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 131. — Brandegee, Bat. 

Gazette, iii. 33. 



725, f . 130 ; ser. 3, x. 547, f . 73, 74 ; Jour. B. Hort, 
Soo. xiv. 223. — Eegel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 37. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am, 10th Census U, 8. ix. 
205. — 



— Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 431. 
Wald. Nordam. 352. — 



— Mayr, 
Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 346. — 



Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 437 (Finetum Dani- 
cum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 24. 



Picea Menziesii, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. Abies Engelmanni glauca, Veitcli, Man. Conif. 69 (1881) 



214 (not Carribre) (1863). 
Abies Menziesii Parryana, Andre, III. Hort. xxlii. 198 

(1876) ; xxiv. 53, 119. — Roezl, III. Hort. xxiv. ^%. 
Picea pungens, P^ngelmann, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xi. 334 

(1879) ; xvii. 145. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xx. 



Picea , pungens, a viridis, Kegel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 
37 (1883). 

Picea pungens, /3 glauca, Kegel, Buss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 
37 (1883). 



A tree, usually from eighty to one hundred but occasionally one hundred and fifty feet in height, 
with a trunk which is rarely three feet in diameter, and is occasionally divided into three or four stout 
erect secondary stems. Until the age of thirty or forty years the branches of Picea Parryana^ the 
most variable of all the American Spruces in habit, are horizontal, stout, rigid, and disposed in remote 
■whorls, and, decreasing regularly in length from below upward, form a broad-based symmetrical 
pyramid, their short stout stiff branchlets pointing forward and making flat-topped masses of foliage ; 
later some of the branches near the middle of the tree often grow more rapidly than those below them, 
and, spreading widely, turn upward toward the ends in graceful curves, shading and eventually killing 
those below them. On old trees, which are generally destitute of lower branches, the crown is thin, rag- 
ged, and pyramidal, with short remote branches and stout pendent branchlets; sometimes it is rounded 
by the lengthening and spreading of the upper branches, and often the lowest branches are pendent and 
the upper branches erect. The bark of young trees is gray or gray tinged with cinnamon-red and 
broken into small oblong plate-like scales, and on the lower part of old trunks it is from three quarters 
of an inch to an inch and a half in thickness and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges covered with 
small closely appressed pale gray or occasionally bright cinnamon-red scales. The winter-buds are stout, 
obtuse, or rarely acute, and from one quarter to nearly one' half of an inch in length, with thin pale 
chestnut-brown scales rounded, scarious, and often more or less reflexed at the margins. The branchlets 
are stout, rigid, and glabrous, and when they first appear are pale glaucous green ; becoming bright 
orange-brown during the first winter, they gradually grow darker in their second season and ultimately 
become light grayish brown. The leaves, which stand out from all sides of the branchlets and point 
forward, are strongly incurved near the middle, especially those on the upper side of the branch which 
form a flatter and more compact mass of foliage than those on the lower side ; they are stout ri^id 
tetragonal, acuminate at the apex, which terminates in a long callous sharp tip, from an inch to an inch 
and an eighth long on the sterile branches of young vigorous trees, and often not more than half an 
inch long on the fertile branches of old trees ; they are marked on each of their four sides with from 



4S SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. coNiFEEiE. 

four to seven rows o£ stomata, more conspicuous on the upper than on the lower surface, and when 
they first appear are dull bluish green on some individuals and light or dark steel-blue or silvery white 
on others, the blue colors gradually changing to a dull blue-green at the end of three or four years. 
The staminate flowers are oblong-ovate, from one half to five eighths of an inch long and about one 
third of an inch thick, with yellow anthers tinged with red. The pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical 
and an inch in length, with broad oblong or slightly obovate scales which are pale green, truncate or 
slightly emarginate at the denticulate apex, and acute bracts. The cones are produced on the upper 
third of the tree and are sessile or short-stalked, oblong-cylindrical, shghtly narrowed at the ends, and 
usually about three inches long, varying, however, from two to four inches in length and from an inch 
to an inch and a half in thickness, with flat tough rhomboidal scales which are flexuose on the margins, 
and acute, rounded, or truncate at the elongated erose apex, green more or less tinged with red when 
fully grown at midsummer, and slightly spreading after they open early in the autumn, when they are 
pale chestnut-brown and lustrous ; they mostly do not fall from the branches until their second winter. 
The seeds are an eighth of an inch long and about half the length of their wings, which gradually 

widen to above the middle and are full and rounded at the apex. 

Picea Parryana grows along the banks of streams and on the first benches above them singly 
or in small groves at elevations of between six thousand five hundred and nine thousand or occa- 
sionally ten thousand feet above the sea-level. Nowhere very abundant, it is generally scattered 
along the mountain streams of Colorado and eastern Utah, and northward to those of the Wind River 
Mountains of Wyoming. 

The wood of Picea Parryana is very light, soft, weak, and close-grained, with a satiny surface; 

it is very light brown or often nearly white, with hardly distinguishable sapwood, and contains numerous 
prominent medullary rays, few small resin passages, and inconspicuous bands of small summer cells. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.374:0, a cubic foot weighing 23.31 pounds. 

Picea Parryana was discovered on Pike's Peak, Colorado, in 1862, by Dr. C. C. Parry, whose 
name it bears, and by whom seeds were sent the following year to the Botanic Garden of Harvard 
University at Cambridge. In the gardens of the eastern and northern United States and in those of 
the central prairie region of the continent, and of western and northern Europe, Picea Parryana has 
proved very hardy and has grown rapidly; its handsome pyramidal habit, with regularly whorled 
branches and broad frond-Hke masses of crowded leaves, and the blue color of the foliage on the young 
branches of some individuals, have commended it to the lovers of ornamental trees, and no conifer of 

^^ J ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

recent introduction has been so generally planted in the United States during the last twenty years.' 
The bluest individuals lose, however, at the end of a few years much of their peculiar color ; and the 
feeble growth of the lower branches on the oldest trees in cultivation, now thirty or forty feet in height, 
show that those branches will soon perish, and that Picea Parryana^ although charming in its early 
years, is less well suited to become a permanent ornament of parks and gardens than trees which, 
producing more vigorous lower branches, maintain to old age the conical form, perfect from the ground 
up, which is essential to the greatest beauty of conifers of pyramidal habit.^ 



^ In European gardens varietal names have been attached to 345), who also describes a plant with pendulous branches as Picea 

r 

seedling plants of Picea Parryana differing slightly in color from pungens glauca pendula, 

what is considered to be the typical form, but none of them have A long-leaved vigorous seedling plant raised in Germany is 

much value or significance, as seedlings of this tree are always described by Ledien as Picea pungens, var. Konig Albert von 

very variable and display innumerable tints in their foliage. Sachsen (^Gartenjiora, xl. 69, f. 22 [1891]). 

Several of the varieties are described by Beissner (Handb. Nadelh. ^ Garden and Forest^ iv. 190. 



; 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DC. Picea Pakryana. 

1. A branch with stammate flowers, natural size. 

2. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pLstillate flowers, natural size. 

L 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, writh its seeds, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf divided transversely, enlarged. 

13. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

14. Winter-buds, natural size. 



\ 



J 



( 



- 7 - 



•^ t 



Silva 



of INorth America. 



Tao . 





i 



/ 



f 




w 



^rs^^^ 



'■"^^^^^Kyj^^^ 



O. E. F'aax)rv deL. 



Em . Euri-e- 




•so. 



PICEA PARRYANA/Sar6. 



o 



A . EJx? cY'(3iJ^2> direay 



.* 



Imp . J, Tcui^^icr^ Paru 



CONIFER-aE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 51 



PICEA BREWERIANA. 



Weeping Spruce. 

F 

Cones oblong, acute, their scales rounded, entire. Branchlets slender, elongated, 
pendent, pubescent. Leaves flattened, stomatiferous only on the upper surface. 



Picea Breweriana, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 378 nia) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 52 ; Bull. Sierra 

(1885). — Sargent, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 498, f. 93; Club, ii. 158 {Conifers of the Pacific Slope). — Beissner, 

Garden and forest, ii. 496; iii. 63, f. 15, 16. — Mayr, Eandh. Nadelh. 350. — Masters, Jour. B, Hort. Soc. xiv. 

Wald* Nordam. 355. — Lemmon, Bep. California State 221. — St. Paul, Mitt. Deutsck. Dendr, Gesell, 1896, 42, t. 
Board Forestry, iii, 116, t. 4-6 {Cone-Bearers of Califor- 



A tree, usually from eighty to one hundred and occasionally one hundred and twenty feet in 
height, with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter above the swelling of its enlarged and gradually 
tapering base, and furnished to the ground with crowded branches ; at the top of the tree these are 
short and slightly ascending, with comparatively short pendulous lateral branchlets, and form a thin 
spire-like head, and below they are horizontal or pendulous, and are clothed with slender flexible whip- 
like branchlets which are often seven or eight feet in length and not more than a quarter of an inch 
in thickness, and are furnished with numerous laterals of the same character and habit. The bark of the 
trunk is from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness and is broken into long thin closely 
appressed scales which are dull red-brown on the surface. The winter-buds are conical, often a quarter 
of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with thin light chestnut-brown scales. When they first 
appear the branchlets are coated with fine pubescence, which generally does not disappear until their 
third season, and during their first autumn and winter they are rather bright red-brown, and then 
gradually grow dark gray-brown. The leaves are abruptly narrowed and obtuse at the apex, straight 
or slightly incurved, rounded or obscurely ridged and dark green and lustrous on the lower surface, 
flattened and conspicuously marked on the upper surface with four or five rows of small stomata on each 
side of the prominent midrib, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and one eighth in length and 

'r 

from one sixteenth to one tenth of an inch in width. The staminate flowers are oblong, about five 
eighths of an inch long and a quarter of an inch thick, and dark reddish purple, with conspicuously 
toothed anther crests. The pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical, obtuse, and an inch in length, with 
obovate scales rounded above and reflexed on the entire margins, and oblong bracts laciniately divided 
at their rounded or acute apex. The cones are oblong, gradually narrowed from the middle to both 
ends, acute at the apex, rather oblique at the base, from two and a half to five inches in length and 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch in thickness, with thin broadly obovate flat scales longer 
than they are broad and slightly thickened on the entire margins ; suspended on straight slender stalks 
about a quarter of an inch long, when fully grown the cones are deep rich purple or green more or 
less tinged with purple, and at maturity they are light orange-brown without lustre, and, opening late 
in the autumn, usually remain on the branches until the second winter, the scales becoming often 
strongly reflexed and so flexible that they can be easily compressed between the fingers. The seeds are 
acute at the base, full and rounded on the sides, about an eighth of an inch long, very dark brown and 
about one quarter the length of their wings, which are broadest toward the full and rounded apex. 

Picea Breweriana is scattered in small groves through an area of a few hundred acres of dry 
mountain ridges and peaks near the timber-line on the northern slope of the Siskiyou Mountains, at an 
elevation of about seven thousand feet above the sea, at the head of one of the small south forks of the 



52 



JSILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



Illinois River and just south of the northern boundary of California^ ^vhere it was discovered^ in June, 
1884, by Mr. Thomas Howell.^ There is a grove also a few miles farther south on the head-waters of 
a small northern tributary of the Klamath River and on the southern slope of the Siskiyou Mountains 
at an elevation of seven thousand five hundred feet.^ This tree covers a mile square of mountain side 

F 

at the head of Elk Creek, a tributary of the Klamath, on a high peak just west of Marble Mountain, 
in Siskiyou County, California, where it was discovered in 1897.* It grows on the Oregon coast 
ranges on the divide between Canon Creek and Fiddlers' Gulch at the head of one of the western forks 
of the Illinois River,^ and on the eastern end of the Chetco Range at elevations of between four 
and five thousand feet above the sea.® In Oregon it grows also on the north slopes of the Siskiyou 
Mountains on Sucker Creek, and on high mountain-tops south of Rogue RiverJ 

The wood of Picea Breweriana, which is considerably heavier than that of the other North 
American species of Picea, is soft, close-grained, and compact, with a satiny surface ; it is light brown 

^ 

or nearly white, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood, and contains numerous thin medullary rays, 
broad widely scattered conspicuous resin passages, and broad and conspicuous bands of small summer 
cells.^ The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5141, a cubic foot weighing 32.04 pounds.^ 
Picea Breweriana most resembles in leaf structure and in the form of its cone-scales the flat- 
leaved Picea Omorika of the Balkan peninsula, the least known of European conifers, as this Weeping 
Spruce is the most imperfectly known conifer of North America. Already less widely scattered and 
less multiplied than any other Spruce-tree, it seems destined soon to perish by fire, which has no doubt 
confined it to the few isolated and inaccessible mountain peaks where it has found its last resting- 
place.^® In its specific name this beautiful tree, which differs from all other Spruces in its long pendent 



1 The real discoverer of Picea Breweriana was probably Profes- 
sor William H. Brewer, who, in 1863, found a Spruce-tree with 
long pendulous branchlets on Black Butte to the north of Straw- 
berry Valley, and at the western base of Mt. Shasta, California. 
(See Engelmann, Brewer Sf Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 122.) Efforts to 
rediscover this tree have failed, and it is only known from the 
leaves and branchlets collected by Professor Brewer, who did not 
find cones. The branchlets resemble those of Picea Breweriana in 
their pubescent covering, and the leaves are undistinguishable 
from those of this species. If the surmise that the tree discov- 
ered by Brewer in 1863 is Picea Breweriana is correct. Black 
Butte would be the most southern station known for this species, 
which would have a range north and south of nearly one hundred 

. miles. 

2 Thomas Howell (October 9, 1842) was born in Cooper County, 
Missouri, and was the youngest of the five children of Dr. Benja- 
min Howell, the descendant of a Welsh family which had early 
settled in New Jersey, and a mineralogist of some reputation. 

Dr. Howell, with his family, left Missouri in 1850, crossed the 
plains with an ox-team to Oregon, and settled on Sauvie's Island 
* iu the Columbia River on one of the donation land-claims which 
then were given by the government to citizens of the United 
States in order to encourage American emigration to Oregon. 
A self-educated man, as schools were few and far between in 

4 

the Oregon of fifty years ago, Mr. Howell manifested a strong 
love for plants from his early boyhood, although he did not 
begin the study of botany until 1877. In 1881 he published 
a list of all the flowering plants of Oregon, Washington, and 
Idaho. This was followed in 1887 by a catalogue and check- 
list of all the plants then known to occur in Oregon, Washington, 
and Idaho, and embracing 2,152 species and 227 varieties. In 
1897 he began the publication of a Flora of Northwest America^ 
covering the same territory, and not yet completed. Fifty plants 
new to science discovered by Mr. Howell testify to his activity 



and success as a field botanist. His name is commemorated in 
twenty-eight species and one genus of his discovery. 

^ This small grove of scattered trees was found on the watershed 
of the Klamath in September, 1885, by Mr. T. S. Brandegee. 

w 

This is probably the most accessible station of this tree. It can 
be reached in a day from Waldo, in Josephine County, Oregon, by 
following the Happy Camp Trail, which crosses the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains from the waters of the Illinois River to those of the IClamath, 
and then taking one which near the summit leaves it for Big 
Meadows ; this place is about four miles to the westward of the 
point where the summit of the Siskiyou is crossed, and beyond it 
the trail passes close to the trees. 

* Jepson, Erythea, vi. 12. 

s T. H. Douglas, Garden and Forest, v, 591, f. 102, See, also. 

Garden and Forest, v. 506. 

+ 

® Teste A. J, Johnson. 

' Teste A. J. Johnson. The station above Rogue River valley, 
which was discovered by Mr. Johnson in 1896, is about fifty miles 
north of the Siskiyou Mountains. 

s Probably Picea Breweriana is a slow-growing tree, the log 
specimen cut by Mr. Brandegee in 1885, near Big Meadows, for 
the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, is thirteen and a quarter 
inches in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and sixty-six 
years old. The sapwood, which is hardly distinguishable from the 
beartwood, is three inches and seven sixteenths in diameter, with 
sixty-one layers of annual growth, 

® Sargent, Garden and Forest, iii. 356. 

10 Fires are prevalent and very destructive in all the dry moun- 
tain region which forms the natural boundary between northwest- 
ern California and southeastern Oregon, and which is now probably 
the only home of Picea Breweriana. They have already done in- 
calculable damage to the forests of this region and are increas- 
ing every year in frequency and destructiveness as the number of 



COMFERjE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



flexible branches, coramemorates the services rendered by Professor William H. Brewer ^ to American 



dendrology. 



settlers and of miners and mine prospectors increases. It seems 
hopeless, therefore, to expect that the few isolated trees of this 
species can long escape their ravages. 

The danger of the extermination of Picea Breweriana is height- 
ened by the fact that it has proved difficult to raise artificially. 
Several hundred thousand seedlings were grown by Mr. Robert 
Douglas of Waukegan in 1891, but they all gradually perished 
during their first and second years. An attempt to raise this tree 



on a large scale in the Arnold Arboretum from seeds has been 
equally unsuccessful, and all efforts to carry the seedlings through 
their early stages have failed in England. Mr. A. J. Johnson has 
transferred a few small trees from the Siskiyou Mountains to his 
nursery at Astoria, Oregon, where they are now growing thriftily ; 
and some of these plants are also flourishing in gardens near Port- 
land, Oregon. 
1 See viii. 28. 




/ 



y 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCL Picea Bbeweriaj^a. 

1. A branch with stamlnate flowers, natural size. 

2. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged, 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

9. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 



\ 



\ 



Silva of North 




merica. 



Tah.DCI 







\ 



''^'^^^iiii»mii:^v 



fir^- 



C.E.Faworv deZ 






PICEA BREWERIANA 



I 




9^L S . 



F I 



A . Rw or e^i^iay dir^eay . 






CONIFERjB. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



55 



PICEA SITCHENSIS. 



Tideland Spruce. Sitka Spruce 



Cones cylindrical-oval, their scales oblong-oval, rounded and denticulate above the 
middle. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves flattened, acute or acuminate, silvery white and 

r 

stomatiferous on the upper surface, often slightly stomatiferous below. 



Picea Sitohensis, Carri^re, Traiti Conif, 260 (1855). 

Bertrand, Arm. Sci, Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 85. — Engelmann, 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xi. 344 ; Brewer Sc Watson Bat. Cal, 



*4 

II. 



122. 



Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census 
Z7. S. ix. 206. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 338. — Lemmon, 
Rep. California State Board Forestry, iii. 115, t. 3 {Cone- 



6. — Cooper, Fadfie B. R. Rep* xii. pt ii. 25, 69 (in 
part). — Lyall, Jour, Linn. Soc. vii. 131, 133, 143. 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 187. — (Nelson) 
Senilis, Finaeece, 48. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 166 (in 
part). — Watson, King^s Rep. v. 333 (in part). — Veitch, 
Man. Conif. 73. — Schtibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 431, 



Bearers of California) ; West- American Cone-Bearers, Pinus Menziesii, D. Don, Lambert Finus, iii, t. (1837). 



52 ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 157 {Conifers of the Facific 



Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 162. — Antoine, Conif 85, t. 33, 



Slove).-~'BeissneT,E:andb. Nadelh. 390, LIOB.— Mas-, f. 1. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 394. 



ters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 224. — Herder, Act. Hort. 
Fetrop. xii. 113 {Fl. Radd.). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
24. — Hempel & Wilhelm, Bdume und Strducher, i. 85, 

f. 43. 



Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 112. — Lawson & Son, List No. 
10, Ahietinece, 15. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 394. — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif. 61. — Parlatore, De Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 418. 



Pinus Sitohensis, Bongard, Veg, Sltcha, 46 (August, 1832) ; Pinus Menziesii, var. crispa, Antoine, Conif. 86, t. 35, f. 



Mem. Fhys. Math. Nat. pt. ii. Acad. Sci. St. FSterS' 
hourg, ii. 164. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 164. — An- 
toine, Conif. 98, — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 123. — Lede- 
bour, Fl. Ross. ill. 672. — Dietrich, Syn, v. 395, 



2 (1840-47). 
Abies Sitohensis, Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort, Soc. 
Lond. V. 212 (1850). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii, 247 
(excl. syn.). — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 93. 



Abies trigona, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. 119 (Autumn, Pioea Menziesii, Carriere, Traiti Conif, 237 (1855), 



1832) ; New Fl. i. 37, — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 124. 
Abies falcata, Rafinesque, Atlant, Jour. 120 (Autumn, 

1832) ; New Fl. i, 38. — Endlicher, Syn, Conif 127. 

Carriere, Traite Conif. 268, 
Abies Menziesii, Lindley, Fenny Cycl. 1, 32 (1833). 

Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 378. — Forbes, Finetum 

Wobum, 93, t. 32. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 131, t. 116. 

Knight, Syn. Conif. 37. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour, 



Masters, Gard, Chron. n. ser. xxv. 728, f. 161, 162. 

Wilikomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 98. 
Pioea Menziesii, var. orispa, Carriere, Traiti Conif 237 

(1855). — Hoopes, Evergreens, 168. 
Picea Ajanensis, Bertrand, J[?i?z. Sci. Nat. s4t, 5, xx. 85 

(not Trautvetter & Meyer) (1874). 

Tsuga Sitohensis, Regel, Russ. Dendr, ed. 2, pt. i. 40 
(1883), 



Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 211. — Newberry, Facific R. R. Pioea Sitkaensis, Wittstein, Sitz. Math.-nat. Akad. Wiss. 



Rep. vi. pt, iii. 56, 90, f . 21, t. 9. — Gordon, Finetum, 



Wien, xcix. pt. i. 528 (1891). 



A tree, usually about a hundred feet In height, with a conspicuously tapering trunk which is 
often three or four feet In diameter above Its strongly buttressed and much enlarged base, the Tideland 
Spruce Is occasionally two hundred feet or more tall, with a trunk fifteen or sixteen feet In diameter, 
and at the extreme northwestern limits of Its range it is sometimes reduced to a low shrub.* The 
branches of young trees are slender and horizontal, with rigid leading shoots, and are set close together 
on the stem, forming a rather loose open pyramid ; on older trees the lower branches, which are 
thickly clothed with pendent slender lateral branchlets frequently two or three feet long, sweep out in 
lono* graceful curves; the upper branches are short, and, ascending, form an open spire-like head 
which surmounts a stem often naked for half its length or is frequently covered to the ground with 
branches which are occasionally thirty or forty feet long on trees which have grown In open situations. 

1 A good idea of the enlarged and buttressed base of a large wrongly called the Doiiglas Fir, is published on page 211 of the 
trunk of Picea Sitchensis, and of the bark of this species, here fourth volume of Garden and Forest. 



56 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

r 

The bark of tlie trunk is from one quarter to one half of an Inch in thickness, and is broken on the 
surface into large thin loosely attached dark red-brown or, on young trees, sometimes bright cinnamon- 
red scales. The winter-buds are ovate and acute or conical and from one quarter to nearly one half of 
an inch in length, with pale chestnut-brown lustrous scales which are ovate, acute and sometimes tipped 
with short mucros, scarious on the margins and often more or less reflexed above the middle. The 
branchlets are stout, rigid, glabrous and pale green when they first appear, becoming light or dark 
orange-brown during their first autumn and winter, and then gradually turn dark gray-brown. The 
leaves stand out from all sides of the branches, often nearly at right angles to them, and frequently bring 
their white upper surface to view by a twist at their base, and are straight or slightly incurved, acute or 
acuminate, with elongated callous tips ; they are slightly rounded on the lower surface, which is green 
and lustrous and occasionally marked, especially on the leaves of leading shoots and fertile branches, 
with two or three rows of small inconspicuous stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, and on the 
upper surface they are flattened, obscurely ridged, and almost covered with broad silvery white bands 
of numerous rows of stomata ; in length they vary from half ah inch on fertile branches to an inch and 
an eighth on vigorous lower branches and in width from one sixteenth to one twelfth of an inch. 
The staminate flowers are produced in great quantities toward the ends of the pendent lateral 
branchlets, and are oblong-cylindrical, dark red, short-stalked, surrounded at the base by the much 
enlarged bud-scales which form conspicuous involucres around both the male and female flowers^ 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length and often half an inch in thickness. 
The pistillate flowers are borne on the rigid terminal shoots of the branches of the upper half of 
the tree and are oblong-cylindrical, about an inch long and half an inch thick, with nearly orbicular 
denticulate scales often slightly truncate above and completely hidden by their elongated acuminate 
bracts. The cones hang on short straight stalks and are cyhndrical-oval, usually from two and a half 
to four inches in length and from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness, with thin stiff oblong- 
oval scales rounded toward the apex, denticulate above the middle and nearly twice as long as their 
lanceolate denticulate rigid bracts 3 when fully grown at midsummer the cones are yellow-green, often 
tinged with dark red, especially on the side exposed to the sun, and at maturity they are lustrous, pale 
yellow or reddish brown, and fall mostly during their first autumn and winter and soon after the 
escape of the seeds. These are full and rounded, acute at the base, pale reddish brown, and about 
an eighth of an inch long, with narrow oblong only slightly oblique wings from one half to one third 
of an inch in length, and four or five cotyledons which are three-sided, the two upper sides being 
concave and stomatiferous and the lower rounded. 

Picea Bitchensis usually inhabits moist sandy and often swampy soil, or, less frequently at the far 
north, wet rocky slopes. Maintaining itself farther to the northwest than any other coniferous tree of 
the Pacific forests, Picea Sitche7isis forms groves on the eastern end of Kadiak Island in longitude 
ISl'' west, and extends southward through all the coast region of Alaska^ and British Columbia 
west of the coast ranges,^ and through western Washington and Oregon to Mendocino County in 
California.^ Small and stunted, and sometimes only a shrub toward the extreme northwestern limits of 
its range, it becomes on the coast of southeastern Alaska, where its principal companion is the western 
Hemlock, the largest and most abundant tree in this part of the great coniferous forest which stretches 
from Cross Sound to Cape Mendocino, growing at the sea-level often to a height of more than a hun- 
dred feet and ascending to elevations of three thousand feet, but decreasing in size as it ascends or leaves 
the immediate neighborhood of the ocean.* Very abundant in the northern coast region of British 



1 Rothrock, Smithsonian Rep, 1867,433,455 (Fl, Alaska). — Mee- ^ The most southern point from which I have seen specimens of 
han, Proc. Phil. Acad. six. 92. — F. Kurtz, Bot Jahrh. xix. 425 (Fl. Picea Sitchensis is Caspar, on the coast of Mendocino County, Cali- 
Chilcatgiehetes). — Funston, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 328. fornia. The cones from this locality are the smallest 1 have seen, 

2 G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 326. — Macoun, Cat. Can. heing only an inch and a half long. 



PI. 470. 



^ See Gorman, Pittoniay iii. 67. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



67 



Columbia, farther south it is principally confined to the low sandy alluvial plains at the mouths of 
streams, on which, mingling with the western Arbor Vitse, it grows to its largest size along the coast 
of Washington and Oregon, and to moist bottom-lands which it follows inland to the foothills of the 
Cascade Mountains of Washington and northern Oregon, sometimes ascending on the Nisqually and 
other streams which flow into Puget Sound to elevations of two thousand feet above the sea. South 
of the valley of the Columbia River it is confined to the neighborhood of the coast, and although the 
Tideland Spruce grows in northern California to a very large size on the rich alluvial plains at the 
mouths of streams and in low valleys facing the ocean, where it is associated with the Eedwood and 
the White Fir, it is less common and of less magnificent proportions than on the shores of Puget 
Sound. South of Cape Mendocino it is not common. 

The wood of Picea Sitchensis is light, soft, not strong, and straight-grained, with a satiny surface ; 
it is light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood, and contains numerous prominent 
medullary rays, few resin passages, and inconspicuous narrow bands of small summer cells. The specific 
gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4287, a cubic foot weighing 26.72 pounds. It is the principal 
lumber manufactured in Alaska, where, as it splits easily, it is also largely used for fuel. It is 
manufactured into lumber on Puget Sound, and is used in construction, in the interior finish of 
buildings, for fencing, for the dunnage of vessels, in boatbuilding and cooperage, and for wooden- 
ware and packing-cases. 

Picea Sitchensis was discovered on the shores of Puget Sound in May, 1792/ by Archibald 
Menzies,^ the surgeon and naturalist of Vancouver, during his voyage of discovery round the world, 
although it was not described until forty years later. It was introduced into European gardens in 
1831^ by David Douglas,^ and has already grown to a large size in several of the countries of western 
and central Europe.^ In the eastern United States it suffers from the cold of severe winters and from 
heat and drought in summer, and rarely survives more than a few years. 

The greatest of all Spruce-trees, this inhabitant of the northwest coast is surpassed by few other 
trees in thickness and height of stem. No tree in the American forest grows with greater vigor or 
shows stronger evidences of vitality,® and there are few more beautiful and Impressive objects in the 
forests of temperate North America than one of these mighty Spruce-trees with its spire-hke head 



^ The " Norwegian Hemlock " mentioned by Vancouver among 
the trees he saw when he landed on the shore of Puget Sound was 
probably this Spruce {A Voyage of Discovert/ to the Northern 
Pacific Ocean and Around the World/i. 249). It was well described 
in the journal of Lewis and Clark, who passed the winter of 1806 
at the mouth of the Columbia River, where Picea Sitchensis is abun- 
dant, and who saw a specimen " forty-two feet in circumference, at 
a point beyond the reach of an ordinary man. This trunk for the 
distance of two hundred feet was destitute of limbs ; the tree was 
perfectly sound, and at a moderate calculation its stature may be 
estimated at three hundred feet" (Narrative of the Expedition under 
Command of Lewis and Clark, ed. Coues, iil. 829). 

2 See ii. 90. 

3 Loudon, Arl). Brit. iv. 2321, f. 2232. 

4 See ii. 94. 

^ M'Laren, Trans. Scottish Arhoricultural Society, x. 212. — Web- 
ster, Trans. Scottish Arhoricultural Society, xi. 57. — Dunn, Jour. R. 
Hort. Soc. xiv. 84. — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 438 {Pinetum 
Danicum). — J, G. Jack, Garden and Forest, vi. 14. See, also, K. 

Hartig. Forst.-Nat. Zeit. i. 428. 

^ On the shores of Puget Sound young trees often make leading 
shoots from three to four feet in length ; and so vigorous is the 
growth of this Spruce in the humid coast region of the north- 
west that the lateral branchlets sometimes develop into small trees 



and stand erect on the branches of large individuals. Of three 
trees measured by John Muir, at Wrangel, Alaska, one was seven 
hundred and sixty-four years old, with a trunk five feet in diame- 
ter ; the second was five hundred years old, with a trunk six feet 
three inches in diameter ; and the third was three hundred and 
eighty-five years old, with a trunk four feet in diameter. A tree 
measured by him, which had grown on the edge of a meadow on the 
Snoqualmie Kiver in Washington, was one hundred and eighty feet 
high, with a trunk four feet six inches in diameter, and was two 
hundred and forty years old. Another tree, also measured by him 
near the city of Vancouver, in British Columbia, was only forty- 
eight years old, but had a trunk three feet in diameter. Of two 
trees examined by Gorman in Alaska (Pittonia, iii. 67), No. 1, cut 
on the mainland, was one hundred and sixty feet tall, with a trunk 
diameter of three feet eleven inches, and was two hundred and 
seventy-seven years old, while No. 2, cut on Hassler Island, had a 
trunk four feet and , half an inch in diameter fourteen feet above 
the surface of the ground, and was four hundred and thirty-four 
years old. The first had grown in dense woods, well protected 
from the wind, and the second on a hillside exposed to fierce 
northeast gales in autumn and winter. The heart of the latter was 
thirty-two inches from the southwest side and only sixteen and 
one half inches from the northeast side. 



58 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

J r 

raised high above its broad base of widely sweeping and gracefully upturned branches resting on the 
surface of the ground, its slender branchlets loaded with handsome cones nodding in the slightest 

■ H 

breeze, and its leaves, now silvery white and now dark and lustrous, shimmering in the sunlight. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE, 



^ 






/ 



Plate DCIL Picea Sitchensis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

7. A scale o£ a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged, 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. A leaf divided transversely, enlarged, 

14. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. A seedling plant, natural size. 

16. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat.DCII. 





4- 









/■■r 



r 






14- 



' . 



2 




A 




^^ 



V 



(^. ^. I^aayOTV deL 




U. 



m^ 



IlimeZy 



so. 



PICEA SITCHENSIS 



; 




arr. 



ri F 



A.R£ocreuao^ dzrea> 



iTTip . c/ TarLeu.r\ TarU 



coNiEEE^. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 59 



TSUGA. 



Floweks solitary, naked, monoecious ; the staminate axillary, stamens indefinite, 
anther-cells 2, transversely dehiscent, surmounted by gland-like tips ; the pistillate ter- 
minal, ovules 2 under each scale. Fruit a woody strobile maturing in one season ; seeds 
furnished with resin vesicles. Leaves petiolate, persistent. 



Tsuga, Carri^re, Traite Conif. 1^5 (1855). — Engelmann, Pinus, Endllcher, Gen. 260 (in part) (1836). Melsner, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 211 (excl. sect. Peucoides). — Gen. 352 (in part). — Baillon, Hist. FL xii. 44 (in part) 

Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 440. — Eichler, Engler & (1892). 

Prantl. Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. i. 80 (in part). — Masters, Hesperopeuce, Lemmon, Rep. California State Board 
Jour, Linn. Sac. xxx. 28. Forestry, iii. Ill {Cone-Bearers of California) (1890). 

Abies, A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 414 (in part) (1789). — Link, Van Tieghem, BulL Soc. Bat France, s^r. 2, xiii. 414. 

Abhand. Akad. BerL 1827, 181 (in part). 

Tall pyramidal trees, with thick deeply furrowed astringent bark, bright cinnamon-red except on the 
surface, soft pale wood, elongated nodding leading shoots, slender scattered horizontal often pendulous 
branches with laterals three or four times irregularly pinnately ramified, the ultimate divisions slender, 
terete, glabrous, or pubescent, the whole forming broad flat gracefully pendent masses of foliage. Buds 
ovate, acute, minute, covered by closely imbricated dark chestnut-brown lustrous scales, the two outer 
minute, lateral, opposite, those of the inner ranks scarious, accrescent, early deciduous. Leaves flat or 
angular, obtuse and often emarginate or acute at the apex, spinulose-denticidate or entire, spirally 
arranged round the branch, appearing approximately two-ranked by the twisting of their petioles, those 
on the upper side of the branch then usually much shorter than the others, or in one species not 
distichous and of nearly equal length, narrowed abruptly into short petioles closely pressed against the 
stem and articulate on prominent and ultimately ligneous persistent bases, containing a single dorsal 
resin duct between the midrib and epidermis,^ stomatiferous only on the lower or in one species on 
both surfaces, persistent, but soon deciduous in drying. Flowers naked, monoecious, solitary, appearing 
in early spring before the leaves from buds formed the previous summer and covered by numerous 
chestnut-brown scales, those of the inner ranks chaff-like, persistent, and forming involucres at the 
base of the flowers. Staminate flowers in the axils of leaves of the previous year near the ends of 
the branchlets, subglobose, raised on elongated slender drooping stems, composed of numerous spirally 
arranged short-stalked two-celled subglobose anthers opening transversely, their connectives produced 
above the cells into short gland-like tips ; pollen-grains discoid or bilobed.^ Pistillate flowers ter- 
minal, short-stalked, or subsessile, erect, composed of spirally arranged nearly circular scales bear- 
ing on their inner face near the base two naked collateral inverted ovules, rather shorter than or as 
long as their membranaceous acute bracts. Fruit an ovate oblong, oval or oblong-cylindrical obtuse 
pendulous or rarely erect short-stalked or sessile cone maturing in one season, composed of concave 
loosely imbricated woody obovate-oblong or suborbicular scales, decreasing in size and sterile toward 
both ends of the cone, thin and entire on the margins, much longer than their minute bracts 
persistent on the central axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds. Seeds geminate, reversed 
attached at the base in shallow depressions on the inner base of the scales, ovate-oblong, compressed 

1 In the single species with rounded acute leaves the resin canal between the midrib and the epidermis. (See Van Tieghem BvlL 
is separated from the midrib by a few cells, while in the flat- Soc. Bot. France^ sdr. 2, xiii. 414.) 
leaved Tsugas the resin canal occupies nearly the whole space ^ Engelmann, Brewer ^ Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 120. 



60 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-iE. 



in falling bearing away portions of the membranaceous lining of the scale forming obovate-oblong 
■wing-like attachments longer than the seeds and nearly surrounding them 5 testa of two coats, the 
outer crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown and lustrous. Embryo 
axile in conspicuous fleshy albumen ; cotyledons from three to six, stomatiferous on the upper surface, 
much shorter than the inferior radicle.^ 

The genus Tsuga is now confined to temperate North America and to eastern and southern 
Asia, seven species being distinguished. In North America two species occur in the eastern part of 
the continent and two in the western ; in Japan Tsuga diversifolia ^ forms forests at high elevations 
in central and northern Hondo, and Tsuga Araragi^ is scattered over the southern mountains; and 
over the high inner ranges of the eastern Himalayas Tsuga dumosa^ is widely distributed. The 



1 The species of Tsuga may be grouped in two sections : — 
MiCROPEUCE (Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 424 [1842]. — Eutsuga, 

Engelmann, Brewer §■ Watson Bot. CaL ii. 120 [1880]), Leaves 
flat, obtuse, stomatiferous only on the lower surface, appearing 
two-ranked by the twisting of their petioles, of two lengths j 
cones ovate-oblong, fertile scales few. 

Hespekopeuce, Engelmann, l. c. 121 (1880). Leaves rounded 
or keeled above, acute, stomatiferous on both surfaces, their 
petioles slightly or not at all twisted ; cones oblong-cylindrical, 
fertile scales numerous. 

2 Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 514 (Conifers oj Japan) (1881); 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 255. — Mayr, Monog. Abiet Jap. 61, t. 4, 
f . 13. — Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 396. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 
11, — Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 491, f. 63.~ 

Abies diversifolia, Maximowicz, BulL Acad.. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 
xii. 229 (1868) (Mel. Biol. vi. 373). — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PI. Jap. i. 468. 

Tsuga diversifolia is a tree seventy or eighty feet in height, 
with a short trunk often three or four feet in diameter, dark 
red deeply furrowed bark, very slender brauchlets covered with 
rufous pubescence, short narrow emarginate leaves, and cones, 
which are rarely more than half an inch in length. On the Nikko 
and other high mountains of central Japan, it is the principal tree 
in great forests which extend from elevations of about five thou- 
sand feet above the level of the sea nearly to the upper limits of 
tree-growth, its most northerly home in Japan being on the moun- 
tains which surround the Bay of Aomori. (See Sargent, Forest 
Fl. Jap. 81, t. 25.) The Hemlock found by Br. Augustine Henry 
in the province of Hupeb in central China (No. 6907), although 
its leaves are rather longer, seems to be of this species. The 
woods produced by the two Japanese Hemlocks, which do not 
appear to be distinguished in commerce, are said to be hard, 
tough, and valuable. They are used only in the construction of 
expensive houses, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of the 
region where these trees grow make the transport of their wood 
difficult and expensive (Dupont, Essences Forestieres du Japouy 

17). 

Tsuga diversifolia was discovered in 1860 on the slopes of Mt. 
Fugi-san by Mr. J. G. Veitch, the companion of Sir Butherford 
Alcock in the first ascent of that mountain made by Europeans, 
although it was not distinguished from the other Japanese Hemlock 
until seven years later, (See J. G. Veitch, in Alcock, The Capital 
of the Tycoon, ii. Appx. E. 483.) Less commonly cultivated in the 
gardens of the United States and Europe than T. Araragi, it has 
proved perfectly hardy in New England, where, although still 
shrubby in habit, it has produced abundant crops of cones. 

» Koehne, h c. 10 (1893). — Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 
491, f. 62. 



Mas- 



Pinus Araragi, Siebold, Verhand. Batav. Genoot. Konst. Wet. 
xii. 12 (1830). 

Abies Tsuga, Siebold & Zuccarini, F7. Jap. ii. 14, t. 106 
(1842). — Gordon, Pinefum, 19. — Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1861, 
23. — A. Murray, The Pines and Firs of Japan, 84, f. 159-171. — 
Maximowicz, I. c. 230 (/. c. 374). — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. 
Lugd. Bat. iii. 167 (Prol. Fl. Jap.). — Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 
468. 

Abies Araragi, Loudon, Encycl. of Trees, 1036 (1842). — K. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii, 249. 

Pinus Tsuga, Antoine, Conif. 83, t. 32, f. 2 (1840-^7).— 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif 83. — Parlatore, De CandoUe Prodr. xvi, 
pt. ii. 428. 

Tsuga Sieboldii, Carri^re, Traiie Conif 186 (1855). — 
ters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 512 (Conifers of Japan). — Beissner, 
I c. 394 f. 106. 

Tsuga Tsuja, A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. ii. 508, f . 141-153 
(1862). 

Picea (Tsuga) Sieboldii, Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4r. 5, xx. 89 
(1874). 

Pinus Sieboldii, W. K. M'Kab, Proc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 
213, t. 23, f. 6 (1875). 

A species of more southern range and of lower elevations than 
Tsuga diversifolia, the second Japanese Hemlock, Tsuga Araragi, 
is found on the mountains of south central Hondo, usually in 
small scattered groves among deciduous-leaved trees or mixed 
with the Mountain Pine, Pinus densifora. It is a beautiful tree, 
from sixty to eighty feet in height, with a trunk usually not more 
than two feet in diameter, covered with pale bark, drooping 
branches, lustrous orange-brown glabrous branchless, leaves longer, 
broader, and more lustrous than those of Tsuga diversifolia, and 
cones nearly an inch in length. Introduced into Europe in 1853 
by Von Siebold, it is occasionally found in European collections, 
appearing, however, less successful in them than in the eastern 
United States, where this Hemlock is one of the most graceful and 
satisfactory of the exotic conifers cultivated in American gardens, 
and where it promises to grow to a large size. 

A dwarf bushy form of this tree with short branches and shorter 
and more crowded leaves, found by Von Siebold in Japanese gar- 
dens, has been introduced into those of the United States and 
Europe. It is 

Tsuga Araragi, var. nana. 
Pinus Tsuga, B nana, Endlicher, I. c. (1847). — Parlatore, I. c. 
Tsuga Sieholdiif B nana, Carri^re, I. c. (1855). — Beissner, I. c. 
395. 
Abies Tsuga nana, Gordon, I. c. Suppl. 13 (1862), 

r 

* Tsuga dumosa. 
^ Pinus dumosa, D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 55 (1825). — Lam- 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61 



genus probably once occupied a more important position in northern forests, for traces of what are 

believed to be extinct species have been found in the Jurassic rocks of Spitzenberg, northern Europe, 
and Siberia.^ 

The bark of Tsuga is rich in tannin, and that of the American species is largely used in tanning 

leather, and occasionally in medicine. As a timber-tree the most valuable of the genus is Tsuga 

heterophylla of the northwest coast region of North America. 

Tsuga is not injured by the attacks of many insects^ or by numerous fungal diseases.' 

All the species are cultivated for the decoration of parks and gardens, and no other conifers 

surpass the Hemlocks in grace and beauty. They can be easily raised from seeds, although the young 

plants grow slowly. 

Tsuga, the Japanese name of the Hemlock-tree, was first used by Endlicher* to designate a 
section in his genus Pinus, and afterward by Carriere, who separated the Hemlocks into a generic 

group, as the name of his genus. 



bert, Pinus, ed, minor, ii. 80, t. 46. — Parlatore, De Candolle 
Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 429. 

Pinus Brunoniana, Wallicli, PI. Asiat Rar. iii. 24, t. 247 
(1832). — Antoine, Conif. 82, t. 32, f, 1. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 
84. — W. E. M'Kab, Proc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 213, t. 23, 
f . 5. 

AUes Brunoniana, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 30, f. (1833). — 
Madden, Jour. Agric. and Hort. Soc. Ind. iv. pt. iv. 95 (Hima" 
lay an Conif erce). — Gordon, PinetuTUj 13. 

Abies dumosa, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2325, i. 2233, 2234 
(1838). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 252. 

Abies species, Griffith, It. Not. ii. 141 (1848) ; Icon. PI Asiat. 
iv. t. 375 (Taxi on plate). 

Tsuga Brunoniana, Carriere, Traite Conif, 188 (1855). — Mas- 
ters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 500, f. 101. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind, V. 654. — Beissner, Handh, Nadelh. 397. 

Picea {Tsuga) Brunoniana, Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, 
xs. 89 (1874). 

Tsuga dumosa is distributed over the inner ranges of the Hima- 
layas from Kumaon to Bhotan, at elevations of between eight 
thousand and ten thousand five hundred feet above the level of 
the sea, in Sikkim forming great forests with AUes Wehbiana. It 
is a stately pyramidal tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty-five 
feet in height, with a trunk eight or nine feet in diameter, spread- 
ing branches, pendulous bri^aehlets, and erect or horizontal cones. 
(See Hooker f. Bimalayan Journals, n. ed. ii. 121 ; Gard. Chron. 
n. ser. xxvi. 72, f. 14.) The wood is white, tinged with pink, soft, 
and not durable; in Sikkim it is made into shingles, and the thick 
rough bark is employed for roofing (Brandis, Forest Fl. Brit. 
Ind, 527. — Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers^ 408). 

In Europe, where it was introduced sixty years ago, the Hima- 
layan Hemlock has not proved very hardy, and usually suffers 
severely from late spring frosts, although it has produced cones 
in a few sheltered positions in southern England. (See Fowler, 
Gard. Chron. 1872, 75.) It has not yet shown itself able to with- 
stand the climate of the United States. 

^ Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 14:. 

2 The Hemlock-trees of eastern North America appear to be 
peculiarly exempt from attacks by boring insects in the living 
stems, and nothing practically is known of parasites on the two 
species which inhabit the northwestern part of the continent. The 



insects found in the trunks of Hemlocks are usually borers, which 
prey only upon dead or dying wood, and do not affect living trees. 
These insects are also found on the allied genera of conifers. 

Various species of leaf-eating insects occasionally feed upon the 
foliage of Tsuga, but few of them are sufficiently abundant to 
attract attention. The larvse of a Tineid, GelecUa abietisella, 
Packard, cut off small groups of Hemlock leaves, fasten them 
together by silken threads, and, living within the protecting case 
thus formed, devour the parenchyma of adjacent leaves. 

A scale-insect, Aspidiotus Ahietis, Comstock, is sometimes found 
in abundance on the lower surface of the leaves of Tsuga Cana- 
densis. 

3 Tsuga Canadensis is attacked by a number of interesting fungi 
peculiar to this host, besides several others found also on other 
related genera. Among the former is the rust, Peridermium PecJcii, 
Thuemcn. This secidium, or cluster-cup, is found in summer on 
the under side of the leaves, and resembles Peridermium columnare, 
Albertini & Schweinitz, of Europe, which infests the leaves of Abies 
Picea, and is connected with Calyptospora Gceppertiana, Kuehn, on 
species of Vaccinium. Peridermium Peckii appears to be a distinct 
species, although it is not known with what teleutosporic form it is 
connected. Two other rusts have been observed on the leaves of 
Tsuga Canadensis in Massachusetts (see Farlow, Proc. Am. Acad. 
XX. 322), one of them appearing to be the same as Chrysomyxa 
Ahieiis, Eees, which infests Picea Abies in Europe, and the other, 
Cmorna Abietis-Canadensis, Farlow, which is related to Coeorna 
Abieiis-pectinatce, Kees. A disease of the leaves of Tsuga Cana- 
densis appears to be due to the attacks of Propolidium TsugcB, Sac- 
cardo, a small dark brown Discomycete which is developed on the 
under side of the leaves, and causes them to fall in large numbers. 

Tsuga Canadensis is subject also to the attacks of a few other 
species of Ascomycetes, and of a considerable number of Poly- 
poreacese, mostly not confined to this host. Polyporus Pilotce, 
Schweinitz, infests Tsuga Canadensis on the mountains of the mid- 
dle states. 

Three species of fungi have been reported as infesting Tsuga 
Mertensiana, Anthostemella brachystoma, Ellis & Everhardt, Lasio- 
sphmria stuppea, Ellis & Everhardt, and Blitrydium signatum, Sae- 
cardo. 

* Syn. Conif. 83 (1847).' 



62 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERiE, 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NOKTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



MlCROPEirCB. 



Leaves flat, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, stomatif erous only on the lower surface ; 

^ 

cones ovate-oblong or oval. 
Cones pedunculate- 

Cone-scales orbicular-oblong, about as wide as long, their bracts broad and truncate. 1. T. Canadensis. 
Cone-scales oblong, much longer than wide, spreading at right angles after maturity, 

their bracts obtusely cuspidate , . 2. T, Caroliniana. 

Cones sessile. 

Cone-scales oblong, longer than broad, often abruptly contracted near the middle, 

, their bracts slightly cuspidate 3. T. heteeophyli«A. 

Hesperopeuce. 



Leaves convex or keeled above, bluntly pointed, stomatiferous on both surfaces. 
Cones oblong-cylindrical. 

Cone-scales oblong-obovate, longer than broad, their bracts short cuspidate 



4. T. Meetensiana. 



CONIFEE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



63 



TSUGA CANADENSIS 



Hemlock. 



Cones oyate-oblong, pedunculate, their scales orbicular-oblong, nearly as wide as 



long. 



Tsuga Canadensis, Carrl^re, TraitS Conif. 189 (excl. syn. 

Bongard) (1855). — S^n^clauze, Conif. 19. — Engelmann, 
BoL Gazette, vi. 224. — Regel, Euss. Dendr, ed. 2, pt. i, 
39, f. 10. — Sargent, Forest Trees iV. Am. 10th Census 
JJ. S, ix. 206. — Willkomm. Forsf, M. ed. 2, 103.—- 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 492. — Mayr, 



JBaumz. ii. 107. — Burgsdorf, Anleit. pt. ii. 139. — Cas- 
tiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 314. 

Piniis- Abies Americana, Marshall, Arhust, Am. 103 
(1785). 

Pinus Mariana, Gzertner, Fruct. ii. 59, t. 91, f . 1 (not Du 
Roi) (1791). 
Wald. Nordam. 195, t. 6, f. — Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. Pinus pendula, Salisbury, Frodr, 399 (not Aiton) (1796). 

Abies Canadensis, Michaux, FL Bor,-Am. ii. 206 (not 
Miller) (1803).— Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 522. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 580. — Du Mont de Courset, Bat,- 
Cult. ed. 2, vi. 474. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. 1.138, 
1. 13. — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 293, t. 83, f . 1. — Richard, 
Comm. Bot. Conif. 11^ t. 17, f. 2. — Link, Handh. ii, 
479. — Audubon, Birds, t. 197. — Lawson & Son, Agric 
Man. 378. — Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 39. — Forbes, Pine- 
turn Wohurn. 129. — Spach, Hist. Vig. xi. 424. — Em- 
erson, Trees Mass. 77; ed. 2, i. 92, t. — Nuttall, Sylva, 
iii. 133. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 37. — Lindley & Gordon, 
J'our. Hort. Soc. Land* v. 209. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 291. — Gordon, Pinetum, 14. — Chapman, Fl. 
434. — Curtis, Eep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 
27. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 153 (excl. 
syn. Abies aromatica). — (Nelson) Senilis, PinacecBy 
30. — Gray, Man. ed. 5, 471. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 184, 
f. 23. —K. Koch, Den&r. ii. pt. Ii. 249. -— Nordlinger, 
Forsthot. 457, fJ — Veitcb, Man. Conif 114, f. 29.-— 

L 

Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 94. — Schtibeler, Virid. 
Norveg. i. 429. • 



398, f. 107-109. — Masters, Jour. E. Hort. Soc. xiv. 
255. — Hansen, Jour. E. Hort. Soc. xiv. 442 (Pinetum, 
Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 11, f. 5, B, D-H, 
M. — Rothrock, Forest Leaves, iv. 169, t. ; Eep. Dept. 
Agric. Penn. 1895, pt. ii. Div. Forestry, 188, 282, t. 31, 
38. — Britton & Brown, HI. Fl. i. 56, f. 124. 
Pinus Canadensis, Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 1421 (excl. syn.) 
(1763). — Moench, Bdume Weiss. 72. — Wangenheim, 
Nordam. Holz. 39, t. 15, f. 36.— Schoepf, Mat. Med. 
Amer. 143. — Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 23. — Willdenow, Berl. 
Baumz. 219 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 505 ; Enum. 989. — Aiton, 
Hort. Kew. iii. 370. — Borkhausen, Handh, Forsthot. i. 
382. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 50, t. 32. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 
579. — Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 425. — Bigelow, Fl. 
Boston. 235. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 640. — Nuttall, 
Gen. ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 176. — Elliott, Sk. ii, 
639. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 885. — Brotero, Hist. Nat. 
Pinheiros, Larices e Ahetos, 32. — Nees von Esenbeck, 
PL Med. t. 83. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 164 (excl. hab. 
northwest America and var. /3). — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. ii. 
230. — Antoine, Conif 80, t. 32, f. 3. — Endlicher, Syn. 



■ n 

Conif. 86. — Gihoul, Arh. Ees. 46. — Lawson & Son, Abies pectinata, Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 523 (not Gili- 



List No. 10, Ahietinece, 9. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 392. 
Courtin, Fam. Conif. 54. — Pavlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 



, bert) (1804). — Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices 
e Ahetos, 36. 



xvl, pt. ii. 428 (excl. syn. Bongard). — W. R. M'Nab, Abies taxifolia, Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 38 (not Poiret) 



ProG. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 212, t. 23, f. 3. — Herder, 



(1836). 



Act. Hort. Petrop. xii. 119 (PL Eadd.) (excl. hab. Sitka). Abies taxifolia, var. patula, Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 39 



Abies Americana, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6 (1768). 



(1836). 



Pinus Abies Canadensis, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 223 Picea Canadensis, Link, Linnaea, xv. 524 (1841). 



(1770). 
Pinus Americana, Du Roi, 055. Bot. 41 (1771) ; Harhk. 



Picea (Tsuga) Canadensis, Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 
5, XX. 89 (1874). 



A tree, usually sixty or seventy and occasionally one hundred feet in height, with a trunk from two 
to four feet in diameter, gradually and conspicuously tapering toward the apex. During its early years 
the comparatively long and slender branches, which are horizontal or pendulous below and ascending 
above, form a broad based rather obtuse pyramid, and continue to clothe the stem to the ground unless 
they are overshadowed by other trees, which gradually destroy the lowest branches, until the trunk, 
often naked for two thirds of its length, bears only a small narrow spire-like crown of short ascending 



64 



SILVA OF NOETE AMERICA, 



CONIFER-S. 



branches. The bark of the trunt, Tphieh varies in color from cinnamon-red to gray more or less 
tinged with purple, is from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and deeply divided into 
narrow rounded ridges covered with thick closely appressed scales. The branehlets, which are very 
slender, when they first appear are light yellow-brown and coated with pale pubescence; during their 
first winter they are rather darker, and in their third season become glabrous and dark gray-brown 
tino-ed with purple. The winter-buds are broadest at the middle, rather obtuse, light chestnut-brown, 
slightly puberulous, and about one sixteenth of an inch in length. The leaves, which are light 
yellow-green when they first emerge from the bud, are oblong, rounded and rarely emarginate at the 
apex, entire or often obscurely denticulate above the middle, dark yellow-green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, which is obscurely grooved, especially toward the base, marked on the lower surface with 
five or six rows of stomata on each side of the low broad midrib, from one third to two thirds of an 
inch long and about one sixteenth of an inch wide, and fall during their third season from the 
persistent bases which at first are dark orange-color, and, gradually growing darker, continue to 
roughen the branches slightly for three or four years longer. The staminate flowers, which with 
their stalks are about three eighths of an inch long and have light yellow anthers, appear in May a 
little earlier than the pistillate flowers, which are an eighth of an inch in length, and pale green, with 
broad bracts coarsely laciniate on the margins and longer than their scales. The cones are suspended 
on slender puberulous peduncles often a quarter of an inch long, and are ovate-oblong, acute, from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length, pale green, with orbicular-oblong scales almost as wide 
as they are long, and broad truncate bracts shghtly laciniate on the margins ; late in the autumn 
those portions of the scales which have been exposed to the fight become dull gray-brown, while the 
remainder are bright red-brown ; opening and gradually losing their seeds during the winter, they 
mostly remain on the branches until the following spring. The seeds are one sixteenth of an inch 
in length and usually marked with two or three large oil vesicles, and are nearly half as long as their 
wings, which are broad at the base and gradually taper to the rounded apex. 

Tsuga Canadensis is distributed from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the northern end of 
Lake Temiscamang on the Ottawa Rlver,^ and westward through Ontario ^ to eastern Minnesota ; ^ south- 
ward It ranges through the northern states to Newcastle County In Delaware, southern Michigan and 
central Wisconsin, and along the Appalachian Mountains to northwestern Alabama.* Common in the 
maritime provinces of Canada, and most abundant in New England, northern New York, and western 
Pennsylvania, where it is frequently an important element of the forest, the Hemlock of northeastern 
America attains its largest size near streams on the slopes of the high mountains of North CaroHna 
and Tennessee. Often an inhabitant of rocky ridges, which it sometimes covers when they face the 
north with dark dense groves where other trees are rarely found, it loves also the steep rocky banks 
of narrow river gorges, and is scattered through upland forests of White Pine and deciduous-leaved 
trees and less commonly on the borders of swamps In deep imperfectly drained soil. 

The wood of Tsuga Canadensis is fight, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse, crooked-grained, difficult 



1 Provaneher, Fl. Canadiennet ii. 556. — Brunet, CaU Veg. Lig. 
Can. 58. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 471. 

^ Agassiz, Lake Superior, its Physical Character, Vegetation, and 
Animals, 165. 

^ Tsuga Canadensis was found in April, 1890, by Mr. H. B. 

r 

Ayres, to the westward of Lake Superior, in Carlton County, Min- 
nesota. (See Garden and Forest, iii. 496, 544.) 

In tlie journal of the expedition under General Lewis Cass, 
which traversed what is now Carlton County in 1820, the Hemlock 
is spoken of as being abundant in this part of Minnesota, from 
which it now appears to have almost completely disappeared. (See 
Schoolcraft, Narrative Journal of Travels from Detroit Northwest 
through the Great Chain of American Lakes, 206,207, 210. See, 



also, E. G. Hill, Garden and Forest, iii. 553. — Ayres, Garden and 
Forest, vi. 418.) Kicollet, in 1841, speaks of the occasional occur- 
rence of the Hemlock on the Mississippi River, above the Crow 
Wing, which is much farther west than it is now known (Rep. 
Hydrographic Basin Upper Mississippi River, 64 [Senate Doc. 
1843]) ; and Upham refers doubtfully to the existence of the Hem- 
lock at several places in eastern Minnesota {Rep. Geolog. and Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Minn. 1883, pt. vi. 132 [Cat. FL Minn.]), 

* In July, 1880, Tsuga Canadensis was found by Dr. Charles 
Mohr growing in deep rocky valleys and gorges at the head-waters 
of the western fork of the Sipsey Kiver in the northern part of 
Winston County, Alabama. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



65 



to work, Kable to wind-shake and splinter, and not durable when exposed to the air. It is light brown 
tinged with red or often nearly white, with thin somewhat darker sapwood, and contains broad 
conspicuous bands of small summer cells and numerous thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 0.4239, a cubic foot weighing 26.42 pounds. It is now largely manufactured 
into coarse lumber employed for the outside finish of buildings ; it is also used for railway-ties, and 
occasionally for water pipes.^ Two varieties, red and white hemlock, which, however, appear to be 
produced under precisely similar conditions, are recognized by lumbermen. 

The astringent inner bark affords the largest part of the material used in the northeastern states 
and Canada in tanning leather,^ and from it is prepared a fluid extract sometimes employed medicinally 
as an astringent.^ Canada pitch, an opaque resin obtained from the wood, was formerly used in 
medicine,* and from the young branches oil of hemlock is distilled.^ 



This Hemlock was first described by Plukenet in 1691 ^ from a tree cultivated in his garden In 
London by Bishop Compton,^ to whom it had been sent from Virginia by John Banister.^ Its 
value had been recognized, however, much earlier by the settlers of Canada and New England, and 
Pierre Boucher ^ and Josselyn ^° extolled its virtues soon after the middle of the seventeenth century. 



^ See Am. Jour. Pkarm. xxxiv. 377. 

2 The bark of Tsuga Canadensis^ which varies considerably in 
the amount of tannin it contains, is used in enormous quantities 
in the manufacture of heavy leather, and also in the production of 

the finer grades of leather, when it is mixed with Oak bark to 
modify the red color of leather tanned entirely with Hemlock 
bark. An extract of the bark is used by tanners instead of the 
bark itself, to strengthen their bark liquors. It is also employed 
by dyers to modify the shades of logwood coloring, especially 
when copper sulphide is used as a mordant. (See Bastin & 
Trimble, Am. Jour, Pharm. Ixix. 94. See, also, for the tannin of 
Hemlock bark, Procter, Text-book of Tanning, 31. — ■ Mulligan & 

Dowling, Chemical Gazette, xvii. 430. — Mafat, Bull. Soc. Indus- 
trielle de Mulkouse, Ixii. 130. — Olivier, Recherches pour servir a 
VHistoire Naturelle, Chimique et Industrielle du Hemlock.') 

2 See Johnson, Man. Med. Bat. N. Am. 259. — Millspaugh, Am. 
Med. PI. in Homoeopathic RemedieSy ii. 164, t. 164, — Parke, Davis 
& Co., Economic Mat. Med. ed. 2, 93. 

* Canada pitch, formerly often known as Hemlock resin, is an 
opaque brittle resin which is obtained from Tsuga Canadensis by 
boiling the wood and bark from around knots with water, and 
skimming off the resin which rises to the surface. It is also 
said to be obtained from incisions made in the trunks of living 

trees in the same manner that turpentine is obtained from Pine- 
trees. Canada pitch was formerly used as a substitute for the 
similar Burgundy pitch in the manufacture of medical plasters, 
and was collected in considerable quantities. It has now, how- 
ever, disappeared from the United States Pharmacopceia, and is 
replaced by asphalt or rubber in the manufacture of medical plas- 
ters. (See Ellis, Jour. Phil. College of Pharmacy, ii. 18 [On Hem- 
lock Resin]. — Stearns, Am. Jour. Pharm. xxxi, 28 [Medical Plants 
of Michigan']. — Bentley & Trimen, Med. PI. iv. 264, t. 264. — U. 
S. Dispens. ed 17, 1174. — Bastin & Trimble, I. c. 91.) 

5 Oil of Hemlock, which is contained in the leaves of Tsuga 
Canadensis, and appears to be identical in chemical composition 
with the volatile oil of Black Spruce leaves, is obtained in winter 
by distilling in water in small portable copper stills and worms 
set up in the woods the branches of Tsuga Canadensis cut up into 
small pieces. Eight pounds of branches yield on an average an 
ounce of oil, or about three pints to one running of a still, which 
occupies from thirteen to twenty-four hours. (See Stearns, I. c. — 
Bertram & Walbaum, ^rcSiy. de Pharm. ccxxxi. 294. — Hunkel, 
Pharmaceutical RevieWj xiv. 34. — Bastin & Trimble, I. c. 90.) Oil 



of Hemlock is used in considerable quantities as a flavoring and 
for disinfecting purposes, and occasionally in medicine to produce 
abortion. 

^ Abies minor pectinatis foliis, Virginiana, conis parvis, subrotun~ 
disj Plukenet, Phyt. t. 121, f. ; (excl. syn. Hernandez) Aim. Bot. 
2. — Bay, Hist. PL iii. Dendr. 8. — Miller, Diet. No. 3. — Duba- 
mel, Traite des Arbres, i. 3. 

Abies foliis solitariis confertis obtusis memhranaceis, Clayton, Fl, 
Virgin. 191. 

7 See i. 6. 

^ See i. 6. 

® '* II y a encore une autre espece qu I'on appelle Prusse; ce 
sont ordinairement de gros arbres qui ont trente ou quarante pieds 
de haut sans branches : ils ont une grosse ^corce et rouge: ce bois 
ne pourrit pas si facilement que les autres ; c'est pourquoy on 
s'en sert ordinairement pour bastir. Ce qu*il y a de mal dans ce 
bois, c'est qu'il s'en trouve quantite de rouiUe, ce que le fait 
rebuter. De celuy-lk il en vient par tout, en bonne et mauvaise 
terre ; il ne produit point de gomme." (Histoire Veritable et 
Naturelle des Moeurs et Productions du Pays de la Nouvelle-France 
vulgairement dite le Canada, ed. 3, 51.) 

10 " Then she Playstered it with the Bark of Board Pine, or Hem- 
lock Tree, boyled soft and stampt betwixt two stones, till it was 
as thin as brown Paper, and of the same Colour, she annointed the 
Playster with Soyles Oyl, and the Sore likewise, then she laid it on 
warm, and sometimes she made use of the bark of the Larch Tree,''^ 
(Josselyn, New England's Rarities^ 62.) 

" Hemlock Tree, a kind of Spruce, the bark of this Tree serves 
to dye Tawny ; the Fishers Tan their Sails and Nets with it. 

" The Indians break and heal their Swellings and Sores with it, 
boyling the inner Bark of young Hemlock very well, then knocking 
of it betwixt two stones to a Playster, and annointing or soaking it 
in Soyls Oyl, they apply it to the Sore : It will break a Sore Swell- 
ing speedily." (Josselyn, New England^s Rarities, 64.) 

" The Hemlock-Tree is a kind of spruce or pine ; the bark boiled 
and stampt till it be very soft is excellent for to heal wounds, 
and so is the Turpentine thereof, and the Turpentine that issueth 
from the Cones of the Larch-tree (which comes nearest of any to 
the right Turpentine) is singularly good to heal wounds and to draw 
out the malice (or Thorn as Helmont phrases it) of any Acb, rubbing 
the place therewith, and stro wing upon it the powder of *S'a^e-leaves." 
(Josselyn, An Account of Two Voyages to New England, p. 67.) 



66 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONIFERS. 



For a century and a half a favorite ornament of the parks and gardens of the United States and 
Europe ^ Tsuga Canadensis has shown in cultivation a tendency to seminal variation, and a number of 
the abnormal forms which have been produced in nurseries or have been found growing in the forest 
are preserved by the cultivators of curious plants.^ In beauty none of them, however, equals the 
normal form, which in stately grace has no rival among the inhabitants of the gardens of the northern 
United States, when, with its long lower branches sweeping the lawn, it rises into a great pyramid dark 
and sombre in winter and light in early summer, with the tender yellow tones of its drooping branchlets 

and vernal foliage. ^ 

Serious inroads have already been made into the Hemlock forests of the northern and middle 

states, and the best trees have everywhere been destroyed to supply the tanner, who finds in the 

astringent bark of this tree one of the most valuable materials for his industry.^ 



1 Loudon, Arb. Brit iv. 2322, t. (as Abies Canadensis). 

2 The abnormal cultivated forms of Tsuga Canadensis are dis- 
tinguished in some cases by a dwarf and compact habit, in others 
by fastigiate branches and by unusually broad or narrow leaves, 
or by foliage slightly marked with white. About eighteen of these 
forms are cultivated, but none of them has any particular beauty 
or value. (See Beissner, Handh. Nadelk. 402. — Sudworth, Bull. 
No. 14, U, S. DepU Agric. Div, Forestry^ 42,) More distinct 
is a variety with short pendulous branchlets forming a dense 
cushion from two to three feet in height and twenty feet across, 
which was found about thirty years ago on the Fishkill Mountains 
in New York, and which, introduced into gardens by Mr. Henry 

+ 

Winthrop Sargent, is occasionally to be seen in American coUee- 
tions, where it is usually known as Sargent's Hemlock. 

® Tsuga Canadensis, which is commonly distributed and was 
once abundant over a territory fully half a million square miles in 
area, is one of the most valuable trees of the eastern forest. It is 
estimated that in the year 1887 1,200,000 tons of bark of this tree 
were harvested ; and although a large part of the timber of the 
trees cut and stripped of their bark is allowed to rot on the 



ground, it is believed that the average annual value of the ma- 
terial of all kinds obtained from this Hemlock is not less than 

$30,000,000. 

The seeds of the Hemlock, although they are produced in great 
abundance, do not germinate freely in open situations or on 
ground which has been recently burned over, and the young 
seedlings grow slowly, plants under favorable conditions being not 
more than three or four inches high at the end of their fourth sea- 
son. The young plants are easily destroyed by fire and browsing 
animals, and the prospect for the natural restoration of the Hem- 
lock forests is not promising. (See Prentiss, Garden and Forest, 
'in, 157.) Even under the most favorable conditions the Hemlock 
increases slowly both in height and in trunk diameter. The 
specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, obtained in 
northern New York, is thirteen and one half inches in diameter 
inside the bark and one hundred and sixty-four years old, the 
sapwood being two inches in thickness with twenty-nine layers of 
annual growth. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCIII. Tsuga Canadensis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged, 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. A leaf divided transversely, enlarged. 

16. Winter branch-buds, enlarged. 

17. Seedling plants, natural size. 



r 

Silva of North America 



Tab. DCIII. 







^:^i:a,a*'' 



m^ 




3 



.^•^' 




th 











■■- y 



^..AVA*^''^' 





10 



7 



8 







■ : h' J 1 ' ' . .'. ' 




•n-- 













11 



I I 




12 



13 





C.E.Faa2orv d^L. 



tf 



- 



F-nv.IIi 




so. 



TSUGA CANADENSIS 



) 




arr. 



A,Riooreyua> direay 



i^ 



iTTvp . J', JhyTve^Lor^ J^oyris. 



CONIFERS. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 69 



TSUGA CAROLINIANA. 



Hemlock. 



Cones oblong, pedunculate, their scales longer than broad, spreading at right 

angles at maturity. 



Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelmann, Bot. Gazette, vi. 223 Hort Soc. xlv. 255. — Hansen, Jour, B, Mort, Soc. xiv. 

(1881). — Sargent, forest Trees -^. Am,. 10th Census 445 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 

U. S. ix. 207 ; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 780, f . 153 11, f . 5, O. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. i. h% f . 125. 

(excl. f, 5). — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 196, t. 6, f. — Beiss- Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, 458. 

ner, Randh. Nadelh, 406, f. 111. — Masters, Jour. E. Abies Caroliniana, Chapman, FL ed. 2, Suppl. 650 (1887). 



A tree, usually forty or fifty and occasionally seventy feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
two feet in diameter/ with comparatively short stout and often pendulous branches which form a 
handsome compact pyramidal head. The bark of the trunk is from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch and a quarter in thickness, and is reddish brown on the surface and deeply divided into broad 
flat connected ridges covered with thin closely appressed plate-like scales. The slender branchlets, 
when they first appear, are Kght orange-brown, coated with short dark pubescence which nearly entirely 
disappears during their first season or continues to cover them until they are three years old, when the 
bark is dull brown more or less tinged with orange and then begins to separate into the small thin 
loose scales of the older branches. The winter-buds are obtuse, nearly an eighth of an inch in length, 
dark chestnut-brown, and covered with pubescence which is thickest near the margins of the scales. 
The leaves are entire, retuse or often emarginate at the apex, very dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, which is conspicuously grooved, and marked on the lower surface with a band of seven 
or eight rows of stomata on each side of the midrib ; they are from one third to three quarters of an 
inch long, the difference in length between those on the same branchlet being usually less than in the 
other flat-leaved Hemlocks, and about one twelfth of an inch wide, with orange-red bases from which 
they fall during their fifth year. The staminate flowers are tinged with purple and the pistillate 
flowers, which are about an eighth of an inch in length, are purple, with broadly ovate bracts scarious 
and erose on the margins. The cones are oblong, from an inch to an inch and a half in length, and 
are suspended on short stout peduncles ; their scales are oblong, gradually narrowed and rounded at 
the apex, rather abruptly contracted at the base into distinct stipes, thin, concave, striately grooved and 
puberulous on the outer surface, twice as long as they are broad, and pale brown at maturity, when 
they spread nearly at right angles to the axis of the cone ; their bracts are rather longer than they are 
wide, wedge-shaped below and nearly truncate or slightly cuspidate at the broad apex. The seeds 
are one sixth of an inch in length, with from fifteen to twenty small oil vesicles on the lower side, and 
are one quarter as long as the pale lustrous wings, which, broad or narrow at the base, are narrowed 
to the rounded apex. 

An inhabitant of the rocky banks of streams, usually at elevations of between two thousand five 
hundred and three thousand feet above the level of the sea, but sometimes ascending a thousand feet 
higher, the Carolina Hemlock is nowhere very common, although it is widely scattered along the Blue 

1 The trunk of a tree of this Hemlock growing on the hanks of feet above the ground of eight feet nine and three quarters inches. 
Overflow Creek, near Highlands, North Carolina, measured sev- I have not heard of a larger specimen, 
eral vears ao-o bv Mr. F. H. Bovnton, had a circumference three 



70 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-ffi. 



Ridge from southwestern Virginia^ to northeastern Georgia;^ usually growing singly or in small 
scattered groves o£ a few trees, it is associated in the forest with the northern Hemlock, the White 
Pine, Gum-trees, Maples, and Hickories, and is probably most abundant in South Carolina on the 
streams which form the Savannah River.^ 

The wood of Tsuga Caroliniana is light, soft, not strong, brittle, and coarse-grained ; it is pale 
brown tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains narrow inconspicuous bands of 
small summer cells and numerous thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
is 0.4275, a cubic foot weighing 26.64 pounds.* 

Unnoticed by the botanists who frequently explored the southern Appalachian Mountains during 
the last half of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries, Tsuga Caroliniana was 

_ _ 

first distinguished in 1850^ by Professor L. R. Gibbes.^ It was introduced into northern gardens in 
1881 through the Arnold Arboretum and has proved perfectly suited to the climate of New England. 
Of denser habit than the northern Hemlock, and with longer darker green more lustrous and more 

r 

persistent leaves, it promises to excel even that tree as an ornament of parks and gardens. 



^ In June, 1892, Tsuga Caroliniana was found by N. L. and 
Elizabetli G- Britton and Anna Murray Vail in the north fork of 
the Houston Kiver valley, Smythe County, Virginia, at an altitude 
of two thousand two hundred feet above the sea ; and the follow- 
ing year it was detected by Mr. John K. Small near Broad Ford 
and along Comer Creek, Smythe County, and on Farmer Mountain 
on New River, Carroll County, in the same state. 

2 In August, 1895, Tsuga Caroliniana was found by Mr. John K. 
Small near Tallula Falls, Habersham County, Georgia, at an eleva- 
tion of only sixteen hundred feet above the sea-level. 

^ See Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 267, f . 

^ Probably Tsuga Caroliniana, like the northern Hemlock, 
usually grows slowly. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection 
of North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, procured from western South Carolina, is four- 
teen and one half inches in diameter inside the bark, and one hun- 
dred and seventy years old. During its last twenty years, however, 
this trunk increased four and a half inches in diameter, the sapwood 
being seven eighths of an inch in thickness, with only nine layers of 

annual growth. 

^ In 1842 a specimen of this Hemlock, without fruit, was col- 
lected by Professor Asa Gray on Bluff Mountain, North Carolina, 
but was not dlstingnished by him from the northern species. In 
1850 Professor Gibbes found it in both North and South Carolina ; 
and in 1856 he sent specimens to Professor Gray with the sugges- 
tion that the tree should be called Pinus laxa, a name which was 
never published. At a meeting of the Elliott Society, held in 
Charleston, South Carolina, in July, 1858, he reported his discov- 
ery. (See Proc. Elliott Soc. i. 286, where occurs the first printed 
mention of this tree.) 

« Lewis Beeve Gibbes (August 14, 1810-November 21, 1894), 
the oldest child of Lewis Ladson Gibbes and Maria Henrietta 



of his classical education was laid at the Grammar School of the 
University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia in the years 1821 and 
1822, but he was fitted for college at the Pendleton Academy, South 
Carolina, between 1823 and 1827. In this last year he was admit- 
ted to the junior class of the South Carolina College at Columbia and 
was graduated in December, 1829, with the highest honors. At the 
end of 1831, having previously performed the duties of principal 
of Pendleton Academy, giving instruction in the classics and in 
mathematics, he began the study of medicine at Charleston, but 
before the close of another year was appointed tutor in mathe- 
matics in the College of South Carolina. Losing this position by 
reason of a revolution in the college in December, 1834, when 
all the officers were requested to resign, on the following day he 
was made professor of mathematics in the new organization, but 
resigned during the next year, and in 1836 visited Paris for the 
purpose of completing his medical education and studying physics 
and botany. Returning to Charleston in 1838, with the intention 
of practicing medicine, he was appointed professor of mathematics 
in the College of Charleston, where he retained his chair until July, 
1892, teaching physics, chemistry, and mineralogy. Botany and 
various departments of zoology were also among his special studies. 
Between 1848 and 1853 Professor Gibbes was engaged in making 
observations for the Coast Survey to determine the differences of 
longitude between Charleston and various points on the Atlantic 
coast. He was the author of numerous papers on astronomy, 
physics, and zoology, printed In various scientific periodicals and 
in the Proceedings of learned societies. His most important bo- 
tanical papers are A Catalogue of the Phmnogamous Plants of Colum- 
bia, South Carolina, and its Vicinity, published in October, 1835, 
which contains the names of about nine hundred species, accom- 
panied in some cases by critical notes, and the Botany of Edings 
Bay, published in 1859 in the first volume of the Proceedings of 



Drayton, was born in Charleston, South Carolina. The foundation the Elliott Society. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCIV. Tsttga Caiioliniana. 

1. A brancli with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, lower side, enlarged. 

4. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

5. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

6. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter branch-buds, enlarged. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 






* 



Silva of Nortli America 



Ta"b. DCIV, 




-■- 



<^. 



/ 




\S 



\2 



13 . 




\^ 



3 




4 



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"i 



f^'. 






:^:^Li^ 








11 



8 



9 






^. £. J^aax}72y dely. 




in^ so. 



TSUGA CAROLINIANA 



EnSelm 
o 



A.JHooreuay direx^^ 



■ ^ L 

Imp. J, Tcbn£.wr^ Parij^ 



\ 



CONIFBE^. 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



73 



TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA. 



Hemlock. 



Cones oblong-oval, sessile, their scales longer than broad, often abruptly contracted 



near the middle. 



Tsuga heterophylla. ^ 

Pinus Canadensis, Bongard, Veg. Sitcha, 45 (not Liimseus) 
(August, 1832) ; Mem. Phys. Math. Nat. pt. ii. Acad, 
Sci. St. PHershourg, ii. 163 {Veg. Sitcha). — Hooker, FL 

Bor.-Am. ii. 164 (in part) Ledebour, Fl. Boss. iii. QQS 

(excl. syn.). — Herder, Act. Hort. Petrop. xii. 119 {PL 
Radd.) (in part). 

Abies heterophyUa, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. i. 119 
(Autumn, 1832) ; New Fl. i. 37. — EndHcher, Syn, Conif. 
124. — Carribre, Traite Conif. 265. 

Abies microphylla, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour, i, 119 (Au- 
tumn, 1832) ; New Fl. i. 38. — EndHcher, Syn, Conif, 
126. — Carribre, Traite Conif. 267. 

Abies Mertensiana, Gordon, Pinetum, 18 (excl. syn. Bon- 
gard) (not Lindley & Gordon) (1858). — A. Murray, Proc, 
R. Hort, SoG. iii. 144, f . 8, 10, 12, 14, 16. — Lyall, Jour, 



f. 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 (1863). — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, ii. 
Ill, t., £. 1-18. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinaeece, 31. 
Tsuga Mertensiana, Carrlere, Traite Conif, ed. 2, 250 
(1867). — Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii. 
120 ; Bot. Gazette, vi. 224. — Kellogg, Trees of Cali- 
fornia, 41. — Kegel, Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 39. — Sar- 
gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U, S. ix. 207. 
.Masters, Gard, Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 179, f. 35; ser. 3, 
xii. 11, f . 2 ; Jour, R. Mart. Soc. xiv. 255. — Mayr, 
Wald, Nordam. 338, t. 6, f. — Lemmon, Rep. Califor- 
nia State Board Forestry, iii. 125, t. 7, 8 {Cone-Bearers 
of California) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 53 ; Bull, 
Sierra Club, ii- 159 {Conifers of the Paciftc Slope). 
Beissner, Handh, Nadelh. 403, f. 110. — Hansen, Jour. 
R, Hort, Soc, xiv. 447 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr, 11, £. 5, J. 



Linn. Soc. vii. 133, 143. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Tsuga Albertiana, S^n^clauze, Conif, 18 (1867). 
Nadelh. 152. — Cooper, Am. Nat. iii. 412. — Hoopes, Pinus Mertensiana, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
Evergreens, 192. — K. Koch, Dendr, ii. pt. ii. 250. —HaU, 
Bot. Gazette, ii. 94. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 94. 



Abies Canadensis ? Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 262 



pt. ii. 428 (not Bongard) (1868). — W. R. M'Nab, Proc, 
R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 211, 212, t. 23, f. 4. — Herder, 
Act. Hort. Petrop. xii. 119 {PL Radd,), 



(not Miller nor Desfontaines) (1859) ; Pacific R. R. Rep, Pinus Pattoniana, W. R. M'Nab, Proc, R. Irish Acad. 



xii. pt. ii. 69. 
Abies Bridgesii, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad, ii. 8 (1863). 
Abies Albertiana, A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. iii. 149, 



ser. 2, ii. 211, 212, t. 23, f. 2 (not Parlatore) (1875). 
Abies Pattonii, W. R. M'Nab, Jour, Linn, Soc, xix. 208 
(1882). 



A tree, frequently two hundred feet in height, with a tall trunk from six to ten feet in diameter, 
and short slender usually pendulous branches which form a narrow pyramidal head. The bark on 
young trunks is thin, dark orange-hrown, and separated by shallow fissures into narrow flat plates which 
break into delicate scales ; and on fully grown trees it is from an inch to an inch and a half in 
thickness and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges covered with closely appressed scales 
which are brown more or less tinged with cinnamon-red. The branchlets, which are very slender and 
pale yellow-brown for two or three years, and ultimately become dark reddish brown, with thin scaly 
bark, are coated, when they first appear, with long pale hairs, and are pubescent or puberulous for 
five or six years. The winter-buds are ovate, about one sixteenth of an inch in length, and bright 
chestnut-brown. The leaves are rounded at the apex, entire or minutely spinulose-denticulate above 
the middle, conspicuously grooved, dark green and very lustrous on the upper surface, marked below 
with broad white bands of from seven to nine rows of stomata, abruptly contracted at the base into 
slender petioles, from one quarter to three quarters of an inch long and from one sixteenth to one 
twelfth of an inch wide. The staminate flowers are yellow, about an eighth of an inch in length and 
rather shorter than their slender pendulous stipes. The pistillate flowers are purple and puberulous, 
with broadly ovate bracts which are scarious and nearly entire on the margins and rather longer than 



74 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFEEiE. 



r 

the acute scales. The cones are oblong-oval, acute, sessile, from three quarters of an inch to an inch 
in length, and slightly puberulous on the outer surface of the scales, which are longer than they are 
broad, often abruptly narrowed near the middle, thin, striate on the outer surface, green more or less 
tino-ed with purple toward the margins until fully grown, and light reddish brown at maturity ; their 
bracts are dark purple, puberulous, and rounded and abruptly contracted at the apex into short points. 
The seeds are about an eighth of an inch in length, with only occasional oil vesicles, and are from 
one half to one third as long as their narrow wings. 

Tsuga heterophylla is common in southeastern Alaska/ where it forms with the Tideland Spruce 
the largest part of the great coast forest which extends from the sea-level up to elevations of about two 
thousand feet, sometimes one species and sometimes the other predominating. In British Columbia it 
is very abundant on the coast ; it extends up the valley of the Fraser and other rivers in the southern 
part of the territory to the Hmit of the region of abundant rains, and, reappearing on the Selkirk and 
Gold Rangesj spreads eastward along the Kicking Horse to the western slopes of the continental divide.^ 
It is one of the commonest and largest trees in the coniferous forest which extends from the coast 
of Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains,^ and in the Redwood 
forests of the California coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, finding its southern home in Marin 
County, In the interior Tsuga heterophylla ranges eastward along the mountains of northern Wash- 
ington to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana and to the Coeur d'Alene 
and Bitter Root Mountains of Idaho.^ Although it is most abundant and of largest size In the moist 
valleys and on low slopes near the coast, Tsuga heterophylla in the interior, where it sometimes ascends 
to elevations of six thousand feet above the sea, attains a large size when it is abundantly supplied with 
moisture, and in northern Montana and Idaho and in southern British Columbia often forms a consid- 
erable part of the forests, in which it is associated with the White Fir, the Douglas Spruce, the Mountain 
Pine, the western Larch, and the Engelman Spruce.^ 

The wood of Tsuga heterophylla is light, hard, and tough ; it is pale brown tinged with yellow, 
with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin inconspicuous bands of small summer cells and 



1 Kothrock, Smithsonian Rep. 1804,433 (FL Alaska). — Mee\i2m, 
Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 93. -- F. Kurtz, Bot Jahrh. xis. 425 {Fl. 
Chilcatgehletes). ■ — Gorman, Pitionia, iii. 68. 

The most western point on the Alaska coast where Tsuga hetero- 
phylla has been observed is on Hinchiubrook Island at the mouth 
of Prince William Sound in latitude 60° 13' north, where it was 
seen by Dr. J. M. Macoun on June 18, 1892. The Spruce forest, 
however, extends along the shores of Prince William Sound and cov- 
ers the eastern extremity of Kadiak Island, where the Pacific forests 
end, and it is not impossible that the Hemlock may still be found 
farther to the westward, although on the shores of Yakutat Bay, in 
latitude 60°, it is said to be less abundant and of smaller size than 
the Spruce. (See Funston, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herh. iii. 328.) It is 
common but of small size on the lower seaward slopes of the moun- 
tains at the head of the Lynn Canal, a hundred miles north of 
Sitka and also near the sixtieth degree of latitude. On Baranoffi 
Island it grows to a very large size a few feet above the sea-level ; 
and between Cross Sound and Cape Mendocino, a distance of 
nearly fifteen hundred miles, it is one of the commonest trees in 
the humid coast region, in Alaska usually ascending above the 
Spruce, its constant companion at the north, and southward min- 
gling also with the Douglas Spruce, the White Fir, and the Arbor 

Vitse, and in California with the Redwood. 

2 G, M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 324. — Macoun, Cat. Can. 
PI 471. 

On the western slope of the Selkirk Mountains of British Co- 
lumbia the Hemlock is abundant and of large size up to elevations 

r 

of about five thousand feet above the sea-level, often forming a 



large part of the forest growth, being mingled with the Engelmann 
Spruce, the Patton Spruce, and the Mountain Fir. 

^ The most southern point on the western slope of the Cascade 
Mountains at which Tsuga heterophylla has been noticed is at the 
northern base of Huckleberry Mountain in the valley of Union 
Creek and about twelve miles southwest of Crater Lake (Coville 

in litt.). 

* Leiberg, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 54. 

^ Without regular and abundant supplies of watex Tsuga hetero- 
phylla remains small and stunted, and in the search for moisture 
trees which have sprung up on dry slopes will send their roots for 
great distances near the surface of the ground to springs at lower 
levels. 

In the coast region, where this tree delights in the humidity 
which every breeze brings in from the ocean, the forest floor is so 
deeply covered with mosses and with many strong growing shrubs 
that the delicate seeds of the Hemlock often find their only oppor- 
tunity to germinate on the trunks of fallen trees, which, in conse- 
quence, are frequently covered with miniature Plemlock forests. 
Some of these seedlings, more vigorous than their companions, 
survive the hardships of overcrowding, and, sending their roots 
into the jrround around the trunks which had been their seed-beds, 
grow into great trees. Like those of some tropical Fig-trees, the 
seeds of the Hemlock sometimes germinate in the humid coast 
forests high in tbe air on the broken stems of trees, and, sending 
stout and vigorous roots down to the ground, continue to live long 
after their hosts have disappeared. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



75 



numerous prominent medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.5182, a 
cubic foot weighing 32.29 pounds. Stronger, more durable, and more easily worked than the wood 
of the other American Hemlocks, it is now largely manufactured into lumber used principally in the 
construction of buildings. The bark, which is used in large quantities, furnishes the most valuable 
tanning material produced in the forests of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon.* From the 
inner bark the Indians of Alaska obtain one of their principal articles of vegetable food.^ 

The earliest mention of the western Hemlock was published in 1798 in the account of Vancouver's 

r 

voyage of discovery.^ In May, 1792, he had seen it near the shores of Puget Sound ; and in July of 
the following year Mackenzie,* in the first journey made by a white man across the continent of North 
America, noticed it near the Pacific coast in about latitude 52° north.^ The first description of this 
tree, however, was not published until 1814 in the journal of the transcontinental expedition under 
the command of Lewis and Clark, who passed the winter of 1805 near the mouth of the Columbia 
River, where the Hemlock is still one of the commonest trees of the forest.*' 

The noblest of Hemlock-trees in girth and height of stem, Tsuga heterophylla^ surpasses all its 



1 Bastin & Trimble, Jour, Pliarm. Ixi. 354. 

2 See xi. 93. 

2 " Tlie parts of the vegetable kingdom applicable to useful 
purposes appeared to grow very luxuriantly, and consisted of tbe 
Canadian and Norwegian hemlock, silver pines, the Turamahac 
and Canadian poplar, arbor-vitse, common yew, black and common 
dwarf oak, American ash, common hazel, sycamore, sugar, moun- 
tain, and Pennsylvanian maple, oriental arbutus, American alder, 
and common willow ; these, with the Canadian elder, small fruited 
crab, and Pennsylvanian cherry-trees, constituted the forests, which 
may be considered rather as encumbered, than adorned, with 
underwood." (Vancouver, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pa- 
cific Ocean and Round the World, i. 249.) 

* Alexander Mackenzie (1755 ?-March 12, 1820) is believed to 
have been born in Inverness, Scotland. At an early age he en- 
tered the employ of the Northwest Fur Company, and, coming to 
America, was first stationed in 1779 at Toronto, and then at Fort 
Chippewayau, at the head of Lake Athabasca, where he remained 
for eight years. In January, 1789, he started with a small party 
of Indians and half-breeds to explore the unknown country to the 
north. Skirting Great Slave Lake, which was still covered with 
ice, and floating down the river that has since borne his name, he 
reached in six weeks the shores of the Arctic Sea, whence he re- 
turned the same season to his post on Lake Athabasca. After a 
year spent in England studying astronomy and surveying in pre- 
paration for a more difficult journey, in which he hoped to cross 
the continent, Mackenzie left I*ort Chippewayan on July 10, 1792, 
and after great hardships and many dangers reached on June 22, 
1793, the shores of the Pacific Ocean, in latitude 52° 25' north. 
Fearing an attack of hostile Indians, he started homeward the 
following day, and retraced his steps to the east. 

Having amassed a comfortable fortune in tbe fur trade, Mac- 
kenzie returned to England in 1801, and published the account 
of his travels. He was knighted in 1802, and remained during 
the remainder of his life in the service of the Company in whose 
employ he had gained fame as one of the most undaunted and 
successful explorers who have trod the North American conti- 
nent. 

^ " Here the timber was also very large ; but I could not learn 
from our conductors why the most considerable hemlock trees were 
stripped of their bark to the tops of them. I concluded, indeed, at 
that time that the inhabitants tanned their leather with it. Here 
were also the largest and loftiest elder and cedar trees that I had 



»> 



ever seen." (Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal on the River Sf, 
Lawrence and through the Continent of North America to the Frozen 
and Pacific Oceans in the years 1789 and 1793, 317.) 

"The other wood was hemlock, white birch, two species of 
spruce, firs, willows, etc." {Ihid, 363.) 

^ See History of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and 
Clark, ed. Coues, iii. 830. 

^ An unfortunate confusion between the names of the two Hem- 
locks of western North America bas long existed. Bongard, in his 
Vegetation de VIsle de Sitka, first described three species of Pinus 
collected by Mortens on Baranoff Island, near the town of Sitka. 
This paper was read in May, 1831; before the Academy of St. 
Petersburg, and was first published as a pamphlet in August, 1832, 
the volume of the Memoirs of the St. Petersburg Academy, in 
which it finally appeared, being dated 1833. One of these species, 
Pinus Sitchensis, is the Picea Sitchensis of Carriere;' another, Pinus 
Canadensis, mistaken for the Hemlock of eastern North America, is 
clearly the western Hemlock; the third species, Pinus Mertensiana 
n. sp. with/o?m '^ ohtusiuscula, supra plana, subius nervo medio pro- 
minulo, integerrima,' ' and " strobili solitarii, sessiles, ohlongi, ohtusi, 
H, poUicares pi min." cannot be referred to the same plant as Bon- 
gard's Pinus Canadensis, although such a reference, first adopted 
hj Gordon in 1858, after the introduction of the western Hem- 
lock into English gardens, has been accepted by all subsequent 
authors who have written on this tree. The fact, however, that 
there are two species of Hemlock on BaranofE Island appears to 
have escaped the attention of botanists from Morten's time until 
the summer of 1897, when in company with Messrs. William M. 
Canby and John Muir I found the Tsuga Pattoniana of Sendelauze, 
Engelmann, etc., growing near the town of Sitka with the so-called 
Tsuga Mertensiana, and it became at once clear that Bono-ard's 
description of Pinus Mertensiana could belong only to the Patton 
Spruce. Therefore this tree should be known as Tsuga Mertensiana 
while another name must be found for Bongard's Pinus Canaden^ 
sis. That of Eafinesque, published in 1832, Ahies heterophylla, is 
the next oldest name. The possibility of identifying the tree de- 
scribed by Rafinesque under this name has usually been doubted, 
but his description was based on the following account in the 
journal of Lewis and Clark : — 

«' The second is a much more common species, and constitutes 
at least one half of the timber in this neighborhood. It seems to 
resemble the spruce, rising from 160 to 180 feet, and being from 
four to six in diameter, straight, round, and regularly tapering. 



76 



8ILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



CONIFERjE. 



associates in the forests of northwestern America in the graceful sweep of its long and drooping 
branches and in its delicate lustrous foliage. Introduced into cultivation in 1851 by John Jeffrey/ 
Tsuga heterophylla flourishes in the gardens of temperate Europe, where it has grown rapidly, and 
where, with long lower branches resting on the ground, slender drooping branchlets, and pendent 
leading shoots, it well displays the beauties of its vigorous youth.^ 



The bark is thin, of a dark color, much divided in small longitudi- 
nal interstices ; the bark of the boughs and young trees is some- 
what smooth, but not equal (in this respect) to the balsam-fir ; the 
wood is white, very soft, but difficult to rive ; the trunk is a sim- 
ple, branching, and diffuse stem, not so proliferous as pines and 
firs usually are. It puts forth buds from the sides of the small 
boughs, as well as from their extremities, the stem terminates, like 
the cedar, in a slender pointed top. The leaves are petiolate ; the 
foot-stalks short, acerose, rather more than half a line in width, and 
very unequal in length; the greatest length seldom exceeds one 
inch, while other leaves, intermixed on every part of the bough, do 
not exceed a quarter of an inch. The leaf has a small longitudinal 
channel on the upper disk, which is of a deep and glossy green, 
while the under disk is of a whitish green. It yields but little rosin. 
What is remarkable, the cone is not longer than the end of a man's 



thumb ; it is soft, flexible, of an ovate form, and produced at the 
ends of the small twigs." (Ed. Coues, iii. 830.) 

There is no other tree in the forests of Pacific North America 
but this Hemlock to which this description can be applied, and 
there seems to be no other course but to adopt Kafinesque's specific 
name and call the western Hemlock Tsuga heterophylla and Pat- 
ton's Spruce Tsuga Mertensiana, although such a change of names 
will certainly prove highly confusing. 

^ See xi. 41. 

2 See Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 75 (as Abies Alhertiana). — 
Dunn, Jour. R, Hist. Soc. xiv. 78 (as Abies Albertiand). 

In the eastern United States Tsuga heterophylla has not yet 
shown its ability to endure the hot dry summers or the changes of 
our uncertain winter climate, and rarely survives here more than 
a few years. 



EXPLAISTATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCV. Tsuga heterophylla. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged, 

8. A pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

13. Seeds, enlarged. 

r 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. An embryo, enlarged. 

16. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

17. "Winter branch-buds, enlarged. 

18. Seedling plants, natural size. 



V 



Si] 



va oT Nortli Am 



erica 



Tat. DCV. 



i— 




, F 



^ 



1 



2 




3 




^ 









\ 



11 



12 



* i 



8 







C.£.]^aax)ny deL 



TSUGA HETER0PHYLLA^Sar5 



o 




so. 



yi.ILLOOreuay direay 






ru". 



a 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



77 



TSUGA MERTENSIANA. 



Mountain Hemlock. Patton Spruce. 

r 

■ J 

J 

Cones oblong, cylindrical, sessile, their scales oblong-oboyate, longer than broad. 
Leaves bluntly pointed, stomatiferous on both surfaces. 



Tsuga Mertensiana (not Carriere). 

Pinus Mertensiana, Bongard, Fl. Sitcha, 54 (August, 
1832) ; Mem. Phys. Math. Nat. pt. ii. Acad. Sci. St. 

Petershourg, ii. 163 {FL Sitcha). — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. 
ii. 164. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 111. — Ledebour, Fl. 
Moss. iii. Q^^. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 394. 
Abies Mertensiana, Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort Soc. 
Land. v. 211 (1850). — A. Murray, Proc. E. Hort. Soc. 

iii. 145. 



Kegel, Huss. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i. 40. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 208. — Mayr, Wald. 
Nordaifn. 356, t. 6, f. — Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 407, f. 
112, 113. — Masters, Jour. M. Hort. Soc. xiv. 255. — Han- 
sen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 448 {Pinetum Danicum). 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 11, f . 5, A. — Coville, Contrih. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 223 {Bot. Death Valley Exped.). 
Lemmon, West-American Cone-Bearers, 53 ; Bull. Sierra 
Club, ii. 160, t. 23 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope) . 



Abies Pattoniana, A. Murray, Eep. Oregon Exped. 1, t. 4, Tsuga Hookeriana, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 252 

(1867). — S^n^clauze, Conif. 21. — Hansen, Jour. R. 
Hort. Soc. XIV. 446 {Pinetum Danicum) . — Lemmon, 
Erythea, vi. 78. 

Pinus Pattoniana, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 429 (1868). — W. R. M'Nab, Proc. E. Irish Acad. ser. 
2, ii. 211, 212, t. 23, f. 2. 

Tsuga RoezUi, Carriere, Eev. Hort. 1870, 217, £. 40. 

Masters, Jour* E. Hort. Soc. xiv. 256. 
Picea (Tsuga) Hookeriana, Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6t. 

5, XX. 89 (1874). 
Pinus Hookeriana, W. R. M'Nab, Proc, E. Irish Acad. 

ser. 2, ii. 211, 212, t. 23, f. 1 (1875). 
Hesperopeuce Pattoniana, Lemmon, Eep. California 

r 

State Board Forestry^ iii. 126, t. 12 (Cone-Bearers of 
California) (1890). 

Tsuga Pattoniana, var. Hookeriana, Lemmon, West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 64 (1895) ; Bull. Sierra Club, 
ii. 160 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope). — Gorman, Pitto- 
nia, iii. 69. 



f . 2 (1853) ; Edinburgh New Phil. Jour. n. ser. i. 291, 
t. 9, f . 1-7. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. ii. 157, t. 22, f. 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 172. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 
253. — Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 30, 421. — HaU, Bot. 
Gazette, ii. 94. — Veltch, Man. Conif. 116, f . 31, 32. — 
Lauche, Deutsche Dendr, ed. 2, 96. 

Abies Mertensia, Carriere, Traite Conif. 232 (1855). 

? Picea Californica, Carriere, Traite Conif. 261 (1855). 

Abies Hookeriana, A. Murray, Edinburgh New Phil. 
Jour. n. ser. i. 289, t. 9, f. 11-17 (1855). — Lawson, Pi- 
netum Brit. ii. 153, t. 21, 22, f. 1-22. — (Nelson) Senilis, 
Pinacece, 31. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 115, t. 32. 

Abies Wniianisonii, Newberry, Pacific E. E. Eep. vi. pt. 
iii. 53, t. 7, f . 19 (1857). — Cooper, Am. Nat. iii. 412. 

Abies Pattonii, Gordon, Pinetum, i. 10 (1858) ; Suppl. 6. — 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 151 (excl. syn. Abies 
trigona) . 

Tsuga Pattoniana, S^n^clauze, Conif. 21 (1867). — Engel- 

' mann. Brewer So Watson Bot. CaL ii. 121 ; Gard. Chron, 

n. ser. xvii. 145. — Kellogg, Trees of California, 37. — 



A tree, usually from seventy to one hundred but occasionally one hundred and fifty feet in 
height, with a slightly tapering trunk four or five feet in diameter/ or at high elevations nearly 
stemless, with stout wide-spreading almost prostrate branches. In youth and often on the margins of 
groves, or in other positions where it can enjoy abundant space for the free development of its lower 
Umbs, it is clothed for a century or two from top to bottom with gracefuUy pendent slender branches, 
which are furnished with drooping frond-like lateral branches with erect ultimate branchlets, and form 
an open pyramid surmounted by the long drooping leading shoots ; or when crowded in the forest 



crown 



The bark of the trunk is from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness and deeply divided into 
connected rounded ridges broken into thin closely appressed scales, and is dark cinnamon-red with 



1 The largest recorded measurement of this tree is o£ a speci- 
men growing on the California Sierras near the margin of Lake 
Hollow, at an elevation of nine thousand two hundred and fifty 



feet, which Muir found to be nineteen feet seven inches in circum- 
ference at four feet above the ground. (See Muir, The Mountains 

of California, 207.) 



78 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



blue or purple shadings. The buds are acute and about an eighth of an inch in length, with light 
chestnut-brown scales which in the outer ranks are furnished on the back with conspicuous midribs 
produced into slender deciduous awl-like tips. The branchlets are thin and flexible, or stout and rigid 
when the tree has grown slowly in exposed situations at high elevations ; for two or three years they 
are light reddish brown and covered with short pale dense pubescence which disappears as the thin 
bark begins to break up into loose scales, and at the end of four or five years they become grayish 
brown and usually very scaly. The leaves, which stand out from all sides of the branches and are 
remote on leading shoots and crowded on the short lateral erect branchlets peculiar to this species, are 
rather abruptly narrowed into nearly straight or slightly twisted petioles, and are raised on persistent 
bases as long or rather longer than the petioles ; they are rounded and occasionally obscurely grooved, or 
on young plants sometimes more conspicuously grooved on the upper surface and rounded and slightly 
ribbed on the lower surface, entire, rather bluntly pointed at the apex, often more or less curved, 
stomatiferous above and below with about eight rows of stomata on each surface, light bluish green or 
on some individuals pale blue, from half an inch to an inch in length, about one sixteenth of an inch 
in width, and irregularly deciduous during their third and fourth years. The staminate flowers are 
about one sixth of an inch long, with violet-blue anthers furnished with very short basal projections, 
and are borne on slender pubescent drooping stems from one quarter to nearly one half of an inch in 
length from buds produced in the axils of the crowded leaves near the extremities of the short lateral 
branchlets. The pistillate flowers are erect, about a quarter of an inch in length, with delicate lustrous 
dark purple or yellow-green bracts gradually narrowed above into slender and often slightly reflexed 
tips. The cones, which are produced in great profusion on all the upper branches, are sessile, 
cylindrical-oblong, narrowed toward the blunt apex and somewhat toward the base, erect until more 
than half grown, pendulous or rarely erect at maturity,^ from five eighths of an inch to three inches in 
length ^ and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter, with thin delicate scales which are 
as broad as they are long or somewhat narrower, gradually contracted from above the middle to the 
wedge-shaped base, rounded at the slightly thickened and more or less erose margin, striate and 
puberulous on the outer surface, and usually bright bluish purple or occasionally pale yellow-green in 
the exposed parts until the cones ripen, adjacent trees often producing exclusively cones of one and of 
the other color, especially those growing on the mountains of Washington and Oregon, where the form 
with yellow cones appears to be more abundant than in other parts of the country; the scales are four 
or five times as long as their bracts, which are rounded, rather abruptly contracted at the apex Into 
short points, wedge-shaped and thickened below, with prominent midribs, dark purple above the middle 
and brown below, or on the form with yellow-green cone-scales brown throughout; at maturity the 
scales turn dark brown and spread nearly at right angles to the axis of the cone or become much 
reflexed. The seeds are light brown, one eighth of an inch long, and often marked on the surface next 
their scale with one or two large' resin vesicles ; their wings are nearly half an inch in length, broadest 
above the middle, gradually narrowed below and only slightly or not at all obhque at the rounded apex. 
Tsitga Mertensiana is usually a tree of high altitudes, growing on exposed ridges and slopes at 
the upper border of the forest, where it is often completely burled in snow during many months of 
every year, and where its tough and flexible branches and slender leading shoots resist for centuries 



^ Apparently the erect cones are found only on trees which have 
grown slowly in exposed situations, and their position is evidently 
due to the thickness of the short lateral branchlets on which they 
are terminal and which are sometimes so rigid that the weight of 
the cones does not make them pendent. Trees with erect cones 
seem to have been first noticed by Mr. M. W. Gorman, who found 
them, in 1895, small and stunted on slopes and cliffs near the snow- 
line at altitudes of from three thousand to three thousand five hun- 
dred feet above the sea on the mountains near Yes Bay, Alaska. 



Similar trees have been seen by Mr. Gorman on the east slope of 
the Cascade Mountains above Lake Chelan in Washington at clevar- 
tions of seven thousand feet ; and I have seen a small tree at the 
sea-level near Sitka which displayed the same peculiarity. 

2 The cones of Tsuga Mertensiana are usually from two to two and 
a half inches in length. The smallest I have seen were gathered in 
August, 1895, by Professor S. V. Piper on dry ridges of Mt. Rainier 
in Washington at an elevation of seven thousand feet above the 
sea. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



79 



the fiercest mountain gales. In such exposed positions it forms low dense thickets, with wide-spreading 
limbs cHnging close to the ground, hut on more sheltered slopes at lower altitudes it sends up tall 
and stately stems and sometimes forms nearly pure forests of considerable extent. In southeastern 
Alaska, where it finds its most northerly home/ the Mountain Hemlock grows on the coast mountains 
up to elevations of nearly two thousand feet, and occasionally descends to the level of the sea;^ 
southward It ranges along the coast mountains of British Columbia ^ to the Olympic Mountains of 
Washington, usually growing only at elevations of more than two thousand five hundred feet above 
the sea. It is abundant on the western slopes of the Selkirk Mountains in the interior of southern 
British Columbia, where it is a conspicuous feature in the forests of Tsuga heterophyllay Abies 
lasiocarpa, Pinus albicauKs^ and Picea Engehnanni ; from the Selkirk Mountains it ranges to 
northern Montana * and to the Coeur d'Alene and Bitter Root Mountains of northern Idaho ; ^ 
southward it extends to the Powder River Mountains, and along the Cascade Mountains of "Washington 
and Oregon, growing with Abies lasiocarpa usually between five and seven thousand feet above the sea 
on ridges and along the margins of alpine meadows in groves of exquisite beauty,® and pushing the 
advance guard of the forest to the edge of living glaciers, while at lower altitudes it attains a large size 
and mingles with Abies amabilis and occasionally with hardy stragglers from the forest of Abies nobilis, 
which clothes the lower slopes of these mountains^ On the southern part of the Cascade Range it 
reaches an altitude of eight thousand feet above the sea, and a thousand feet lower and below Crater 
Lake, In latitude 42° 55', it forms the noblest forest of this Hemlock which has yet been seen, with 
trees often one hundred and fifty foet In height and from three to five feet in trunk diameter. It is 
common on Mt. Shasta, In northern California, where it forms extensive groves near the timber-line at 
eight thousand feet above the sea, and occurs near the high summits of the Siskiyou Mountains, and 
at an elevation of eight thousand feet on the mountains in the rear of Crescent City ; ^ on the Sierra 
Nevada it forms groves, usually on northern slopes and between elevations of from nine thousand to ten 

L ■ 

thousand feet above the sea, near the timber-line of all the high peaks, probably finding Its most 
southerly home in the canon of the south fork of King's River.^ 

The wood of Tsuga Mertensiana Is light, soft, not strong, close-grained, and susceptible of 
receiving a good polish ; it Is pale brown or red, with thin nearly white sapwood, and contains thin 
inconspicuous bands of small summer cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity 
of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4454, a cubic foot weighing 27.76 pounds. It is occasionally 
manufactured Into lumber.-^** 



^ See F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrh. xlx. 425 {Fl. Chilcaigebieies). 

The most western point on the Alaska coast where Tsuga Mer- 
tensiana has been seen is Baranoff Island, where it was first dis- 
covered and where it grows with Tsuga lieteropliylla and Picea 
Sitchensis. It probably extends, however, to the neighboring Chi- 
chagof Island and possibly to the westward of Cross Sound. It 
is common up to the snow-line on the mountains at the head of the 
Lynn Canal one hundred miles north of Sitka in latitude 60° north, * 
the most northerly station from which this tree has been reported 
(G. M. Dawson, Garden and Forest, i. 59; Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 
n. ser. iii. pt. i. Appx. i. 189 B. — Macoun, Mej). Geolog. Surv. Can. 
n, ser. iii. pt. i. Appx. iii. 226 B). 

2 The only stations at the sea-level for this tree which are known 
to me are Baranoff Island and the shores of Yes Bay in latitude 
55° 54' north, where it was first collected by Mr. M. W. Gorman. 

8 Macoun, Garden and Forest, ii. 525 ; Cat. Can. PL pt. iv. 362. 

* Tsuga Mertensiana was found in northern Montana by Mr. 
H, B, Ayres in September, 1893, on the divide between Thompson 
and Little Bitter Root Creeks, at an elevation of between six and 
seven thousand feet above the sea-level. 

6 Tsuga Mertensiana appears to have been first noticed in Idaho 



by Mr. Serene "Watson, who found it in 1880 on the Lolo Trail 
toward the northern extremity of the Bitter Boot Range. In Idaho 
it is confined to the high divides of the Bitter Root and Coeur 
d'Alene Mountains from that of the Clearwater River on the south, 
where it is said to form more than seventy-five per cent, of the 
forest growth, northward to the upper St. Joseph and to the divide 
between the St. Joseph and Cceur d'Alene Rivers, being more abun- 
dant on the Clearwater and the St. Joseph than farther north. 
(See Leiberg, Contrih. U. S, Nat. Herb. v. 53.) 

^ In August, 1896, I found Tsuga Mertensiana growing with 
Tsuga heterophylla on the east slope of the Cascade Mountains of 
Washington, near the mouth of the Cascade tunnel on the line of 
the Great Northern Railroad, at the remarkably low elevation of two 
thousand two hundred feet. 

^ See Piper, Garden and Forest, iv. 382, f. 63 ; also Garden and 
Forestj x. 1, f . 1, 2. 

^ Teste A. J. Johnson. 

^ Teste John Muir. 

^0 The inaccessibility of the alpine slopes which are the usual 
home of this tree has protected it from the lumberman, although 
the wood has considerable value for purposes of construction. On 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONIFERS. 



The bark contains enough tannic acid to make it commercially valuable as a tanning material. 

Tsuga Mertensiana was discovered on Baranoff Island in the neighborhood of the town of Sitka 
in 1827 by K. H. Mertens.^ It was next found on the mountains south of the Eraser Eiver^ in 1851 
by John Jeffrey/ by whom it was introduced into European gardens, where, as well as in those of the 
eastern United States, it has proved hardy. In cultivation, however, Tsuga Mertensiana grows very 
slowly,^ and, although it has already produced its cones in England,^ gives little promise of ever 
assuming the airy grace of habit which makes it the loveliest cone-bearing tree of the American forest. 



Kuiu Island, Alaska, small quantities of lumber known as red 
spruce have been made from it. (See Gorman, Pittonia, iii. 68.) 

1 Karl Heinrich Mertens (May 17, 1796-September 17, 1830) 
was tbe son of Dr. Franz Karl Mertens, who was the head of an 
institution of learning in Bremen and the author of botanical 
papers, and who is commemorated in the genus Mertensia. He was 
born in Bremen, where he received his early education, and ac- 
quired a fondness for natural history, especially botany, which he 
studied later in Paris with Jussieu, Desfontaines, Lamarck, and 
Mirbel, and where he made the acquaintance of Dawson Turner, 
by whom he was invited to London and introduced to Kobert 
Brown, Sir Joseph Banks, and the elder Hooker. Returning to 
Germany in 1817, he commenced the study of medicine in Gottin- 
gen and then in Halle, where he took his doctor's degree in 1820, 
and began to practice his profession in Berlin, which, however, he 
soon left to make his home in his native city. An intense love of 
natural history and a desire for travel made the prospect of a quiet 
professional life in Bremen unbearable, and Mertens went to St, 
Petersburg in the hope of being appointed naturalist to the explor- 
ing expedition which was fitted out there under command of Kotze- 
bue. Failing to obtain this position, he remained for two years 
in Russia practicing his profession, and finally in the spring of 
1826 was made naturalist and physician to the expedition which 
sailed that year under Captain Lutkf on the S^miavine to make 
a scientific journey of exploration around the world. During the 
liext four years Mertens visited England, Teneriffe, Rio de Janeiro, 
Cape Horn, Valparaiso, the coast of Alaska, Kamtschatka, the 
Caroline Islands, Manila, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena. 
Returning to St. Petersburg, he presented to the Academy of Sci- 
ences of that city a number of papers chiefly devoted to the inver- 
tebrates collected during his journey. He was still engaged in 
studying his collections when he joined, in 1830, his old commander 
Lutki on a cruise along the coast of France and Ireland, during 
which he contracted a nervous fever, from which he died shortly 
after his return to Russia. 

On Baranoff Island Mertens discovered, in addition to the Hem- 
lock-tree which bears his name, a number of other interesting 
plants which were described by Bongard in his paper on La Vegeta- 
tion de Vile de Sitka, based on Mertens's collection on that island 
and published in the second volume of the Memoires de VAcade- 
mie des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. A communication from Mer- 



tens on the flora of Karagin Island off the coast of Kamtschatka 
and the shores of Behring Strait, published in the third volume 
of Linncea, appears to have been his only botanical paper. (For a 
sketch of Morten's career see Voyage autour du Monde execute par 
ordre de sa Majeste V.Empereur Nicholas I. sur la Corvette Le Semi- 
avine dans les Annees 1826, 1827, 1828 et 1829, par Frederic Lutki, 
iii. 337.) 

^ ^* Abies sp. No. 430. Found on the Mt. Baker range of moun- 
tains. This species makes its appearance at the point where A. 
Canadensis disappears, that is at an elevation of about five thousand 
feet above the sea ; from that point to the margin of perpetual 
snow it is found. Along the lower part of its range it is a noble 
looking tree, rising to the height of one hundred and fifty feet, and 
thirteen and one half feet in diameter. As it ascends the moun- 
tains it gets gradually smaller, until at last it dwindles into a shrub 
of not more than four feet high. Leaves solitary, dark green 
, above, silvery beneath, flat and rounded at their points, thickly 
placed round the branches. Cones about an inch long, produced at 
the points of the branches. Branches pendulous. Bark rough, of 
a grayish color. Timber hard and very fine in the grain, of a red- 
dish color. Soil on which this tree was growing most luxuriantly 
was red loam, very stony and moist. If this tree proves unde- 
scribed, I hope it will be known under the name of Abies Pattonii." 
(From Report of John Jeffrey read at a meeting of the Oregon 
Committee, August 24, 1852, and printed in September following 
in a circular to its subscribers.) 

3 See xi. 41. 

* Like other alpine trees, Tsuga Mertensiana grows slowly. The 
log in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, from the Cas- 

r 

cade Mountains of Oregon, is eighteen inches in diameter inside 
the bark and one hundred and eighty-five years old, the sapwood 
being three inches and three quarters in thickness, with ninety-one 
layers of annual growth. Leiberg found that the trunk of a tree 
six inches in diameter, which had grown in Idaho in a very exposed 
position, was seventy-five years old, and trees in the same region 
which had grown under the most favorable conditions as to soil 
and situation were nineteen inches in diameter, and from two hun- 
dred to two hundred and fifty years old. (See Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. v. 63.) 

5 Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xii. 10, f . 1 ; xiii. 659, f. 96. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCVI. Tsuga Mektensiana. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

i 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. Portion of a top of a tree from BaranofB Island with erect cones, natural size. 

10. A cone from the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, Idaho. 

11. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

12. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

13. A scale of a small C(Bur d'AIene cone, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

14. A scale of a small Cceur d'Alene cone, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

15. A seed, enlarged. 

16. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

17. An embryo, enlarged. 

18. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



Tat. DCVI. 



/ 



9 




/ 



■ \ 



17 



2 




3 



' ^'m^>;^^^' 







\ 



\ -f 



7 



11 



■12 



15 








'r 




16 



C,E.l^aau:)7v d^. 



£777^. 




so 



TSUGA MERTENSIANA 



; 




are" 

o 



^. Rio orezar^ 





J. Ta^neur, Paris. 



coNiFERiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 83 



PSEUDOTSUGA. 



Flowers solitary, naked, monoecious ; the staminate axillary, stamens indefinite, 
anther-cells 2, surmounted by a short spur ; the pistillate terminal or axillary, their 
bracts elongated, 2-lobed, aristate, ovules 2 under each scale. Fruit a woody strobile 
maturing in one season. Leaves flat, petiolate, persistent. 



r 

Pseudotsuga, Carriere, TraiU Conif, ed. 2, 256 (1867). — Tsnga (sect. Peucoides), Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 441. — Masters, tTour. Linn. ii. 211 (1863). — Eichler, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. 



Soc. XXX. 35. 



ii, pt. i. 80 (in part). 



Abies (sect. Peucoides), Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 423 (1842). Pinus, Baillon, Hist. Fl. xii. 44 (in part) (1892). 

Pinus (sect. Tsuga), Endlicher, Gen. SuppL iv. pt. ii. 6 (in 
part) (1847). 

Pyramidal trees, with thick deeply furrowed scaly hart, hard strong yellow or red wood with 
spirally marked wood cells and broad dark resinous bands of small summer cells often occupying half 
the width of the layers of annual growth, slender usually horizontal irregularly whorled branches clothed 
with slender spreading pendent or rarely erect lateral branchlets forming broad flat-topped masses of 
foliage, stout wide-spreading roots, and thin tough rootlets. Branch-buds formed in early summer, 
ovate, acute, from three to five in number, the lateral in the axils of upper leaves and much smaller than 
the terminal bud, covered with numerous closely imbricated dark chestnut-brown spirally disposed scales 
rounded, entire, or somewhat erose on the thin often scarious margins, increasing in size from the bottom 
of the bud upward, the two outer minute, lateral, and opposite, the inner thin, accrescent, silvery white, 
withering and sometimes persistent on the base of the branch for three or four years and in falling 
marking it with ring-like scars. Leaves densely crowded in short clusters when they first emerge from 
the bud, spirally disposed but often appearing two-ranked on vigorous sterile branches by the twisting 
of their slender petioles, spreading nearly at right angles with the branch, straight or more or less 
incurved, flat, rounded and obtuse or acuminate at the callous apex, marked on the upper surface 
with a conspicuous groove and on the lower surface with a band of numerous rows of stomata on each 
side of the prominent midrib, containing two lateral resin ducts close to the epidermis on the lower 
side, articulate on low transversely oval concave ultimately woody pulvini, persistent for many years 
and in drying. Flowers appearing in early spring from buds formed the previous summer on branches 
of the year, erect, surrounded by conspicuous involucres of the lustrous oblong bud-scales rounded 
at the apex, increasing in size from below upward, the inner becoming much enlarged and silvery 
white. Staminate flowers axillary and scattered along the branchlets, oblong-cylindrical, raised on 
short, ultimately elongated stalks, composed of numerous spirally arranged short-stalked globose anthers 
opening obliquely, their connectives terminating in short spurs; pollen-grains ovoid, subglobose, 
without air-sacs.* Pistillate flowers terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, short-stalked, oblong, 
composed of numerous ovate rounded spirally imbricated scales much shorter than their narrow acutely 
two-lobed bracts variously laciniately cut on the margins, with midribs produced into elongated slender 
tips; ovules two under each scale, inverted, collateral. Cones maturing in one season, ovate-oblong, 
acute at the apex, rounded at the slightly narrowed base, pendulous on stout peduncles clothed with 
linear-acute bracts, their scales rounded, concave, rigid, decreasing in size and sterile at both ends of the 
cone, spreading at maturity almost at right angles with its axis, persistent ; bracts exserted, two-lobed, 
the lobes spreading, acuminate, their prominent midribs produced into long stifE linear lanceolate 

w ■ 

^ Engelmann, Brewer ^ Watson Bot Cal. ii. 119. 



84 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



flattened awns, rigid and woody at maturity, those at the base of the cone destitute of scales, becoming 
linear-lanceolate by the gradual suppression of their lobes.^ Seeds geminate, reversed, attached at 
the base in shallow depressions on the inner face of the cone-scales, nearly triangular, rather longer 
than broad, full, rounded, and dark-colored on the upper face, more or less flattened and pale on the 
lower face, destitute of resin vesicles, in falling bearing away portions of the membranaceous lining of 
the scale forming oblong wing-like ultimately deciduous attachments, and enveloping the upper side 
of the seeds in a dark covering adnate to the testa \ testa of two coats, the outer thick and crustaceous, 
the inner thin and membranaceous. Embryo axile in conspicuous fleshy albumen; cotyledons from 

■ V 

six to twelve, usually seven or eight, stomatiferous on the upper surface. 

Pseudotsuga is intermediate in character between Tsuga and Abies, resembling the former in its 
petioled leaves but differing from it in the exserted bracts of the cone-scales and in the absence of resin 
vesicles on the seeds, and from the latter in the spurred connectives of the anthers, and in the 
pendulous cones with persistent cone-scales. The genus is represented by three species 3 one is widely 
distributed over western North America from about latitude 53° north in British Columbia to northern 

r 

Mexico ; the second is confined to the dry sides of canons on the mountains of southwestern California, 
and the third, which is still little known, grows in Japan .^ 

Pseudotsuga produces hard durable valuable wood which is distinguished from that of other 
coniferous trees by its numerous spirally marked wood cells, and one of its species is one of the largest 



;mi 



Pseudotsuga is not known to be seriously injured by insects^ or fungal diseases.* 
Like the other Abietinese, trees of this genus can easily be raised from seeds, and Pseudotsuga 
mucronata^ the type of the genus, is one of the most splendid ornaments of the parks of temperate 

countries. 

The generic name, a barbarous combination of a Greek with a Japanese word, signifies the 

relationship of these trees with the true Hemlocks. 



1 See Lloyd, Bull. Torrey BoL Club, xxv. 90, t. 327 (On an Ab- 
normal Cone in the Douglas Spruce). 

2 Pseudotsuga Japonica. 

Tsuga (Pseudotsuga) Japonica, Shirasawa, Tokyo Bot, Mag. ix. 

86, t. 3 (1895). 

The Japanese Pseudotsuga, which was discovered only a few 
years ago by Mr. Homi Shirasawa near Yoshino, in the province of 
Kii, at an elevation of about two thousand feet above the sea, is 
distinguished by shorter and broader leaves and smaller cones than 
those of the American species, while the bracts of the cone-scales 
appear strongly reflexed in Mr. Shirasawa's plate. It is described 
as a tree from forty-five to sixty feet in height, with an erect 
straight trunk, horizontally spreading branches, and spire-like top, 
growing in forests of Birches, Hemlocks, Oaks, Magnolias, and 
Acanthopanax. (See Garden and Forest, viii. 129. — Gard. Chron. 
ser. 3, xvii. 462.) 

^ Very little is yet known of the insects which attack Pseudo- 
tsuga in its native forests, and there is no record of their mate- 
rially injuring cultivated trees. The species of Scolytitax, among 

them being Scolytus unispinosus, Le Conte, are known to burrow 
under the bark of Pseudotsuga mucronata in California, and it is 
probable that several of the insects which obtain their food from 
different species of Picea and Abies will be found to live also on 



Pseudotsuga. The larvse of the small moth GrapTiolitha hractea- 
tana, Fernald, has been reported as injurious to its cones in Oregon, 
nearly half the crop of the seeds of 1897 having been destroyed in 
one locality by this insect, and by the larvse of a cecidomyiid fly 
which accompanies it. (See BulL No. 10, n. ser. Div, Entomolog. 
U. S. Dept. Agric. 1898, 98.) 

* Pseudotsuga appears to suffer little in the United States from 
the attacks of fungi, where hardly a dozen species have been noted 
on it, and none of these are known to cause any serious disease or 
to be confined especially to this host. Possibly a species of Perider- 
mium which occurs on Pseudotsuga mucronata in Colorado may 
prove injurious to this tree, but its fungal characters are not yet 
well understood. Two species of fungi, however, are said to do 
considerable damage to Pseudotsuga mucronata when cultivated in 
Europe. In 1888 Von Tubeuf described a Boirytis Douglasii which 
appeared in Germany in widely separated localities, and caused the 
young leaves to wither and shrivel up. This disease has been occa- 
sionally noticed since, although mycologists are inclined to doubt 
whether Botrytis Douglasii is really distinguished from Botrytis cine- 
reay Persoon. Oudemans has recently described a mould, Oospora 
Abietum, which in Holland injures the leaves of Pseudotsuga mucro- 
nata and of different species of Picea. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



85 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves usually rounded and obtuse at the apex, dark yellow-green or rarely blue-green ; cones small, 

their bracts much exserted LP. muckonata. 

Leaves acuminate at the apex, bluish gray ; cones large, their bracts slightly exserted . . . . . . . 2. P. mackocakpa. 



V 



4 



CONIFEE-S;, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



87 



PSEUDOTSUGA MUCRONATA. 



Douglas Spruce. Red Fir. 



Leaves usually rounded and obtuse at the apex, dark yellow-green or rarely blue- 
green. Cones small, their bracts much exserted. 



Pseudotsuga mucronata, Sudworth, Contrih, U. S, Nat. 
Herh. iii. 266 (1895). 

Pinus taxifolia, Lambert, Finns, i. 51, t. 33 (not Salis- 
bury) (1803). — Willdenow, Spec, iv. pt. i. 505. — Pursh, 
M. Am. Sept. ii. 640. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 885. — Bro- 
tero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros^ Larices e Abetos, 31. 

Abies taxifolia, Poiret, Lamarck Diet vi. 523 (not Pinus 
taxifolia, Salisbury) (1804). — Nouveau Duhamel, v. 
293.— Presl, Epimel. Bot. 237 . —Torrey & Gray, Fa- 
cific R. R. Rep. ii. 130. 



Froc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 703, t. 49, f. 32, 32 a, 
32 b. 
Abies Douglasii, var, taxifolia, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 
2319, f. 2231 (not Ahies taxifolia, Rafinesque) (1838). — 
Gordon, Finetum, 16. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn, 
Nadelh. 156. 

Pinus Canadensis p9 Hooker, Fl. Bar.-Am. ii. 164 
(1839). 

Pinus Douglasii, var. taxifolia, Antoine, Conif. 85 (1840- 
47).— Courtin, Fam. Conif, 55 (1858). 



Abies mucronata, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. 120 (Autumn, Pinus Douglasii, var. brevibracteata, Antoine, Conif 



1832) ; New Fl. i. 38. — EndHcher, Syn. Conif 126. 
Carri^re, Traite Conif. 267. 

Abies mucronata, var. palustris, Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour, 
120 (Autumn, 1832) ; New Fl. i. 38. — Endlicher, Syn. 
Conif 126. — Carri^re, Trait6 Conif 268. 

Abies Douglasii, Lindley, Fenny Cycl. i. 32 (1833). — 
Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 375. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. 
iv. 2319, f . 2230. — Forbes, Finetum Wohurn. 127, t. 
45. — Bentham, Fl. Hartweg. 57. — Spach, Hist. VSg. 
xi. 423. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 129, t. 115. — Knight, Syn. 
Conif. 37. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. 
v. 209. — Torrey, Facific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 ; Bot. 
Mex. Bound. Surv. 210 ; Ives' Rep. pt. iv. 28. — New- 
berry, Facific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 64, 90, t. 8, f. 20. — 
Gordon, Finetum, 15. — Cooper, Facific R. R. Rep. xii. 
pt. ii. 24, 69. — Engelmann, Am, Jo%vr. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. 
330. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 131, 133, 143. — 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 155. — (Nelson) 
Senilis, Finacece, 32. — Rothrock, Fl. Wheeler, 28, 50 ; 
Wheeler's Rep. vi. 9. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 189. — 

Lawson, Finetum Brit. ii. 115, t. 17, 18, f. 1-23. 

Watson, King's Rep. v. 334 ; FL Wheeler, 17. — K 
Koch, Dendr. ii, pt. ii. 255. — NOrdlinger, Forstbot. 
458. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. 
Misc. Fub. No. 4, 131. — Veitch, Man. Conif 119, f. 
35. ~ Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 95, f. 19. — Schtt- 
beler, Virid. Norveg, i. 429, f. 81. 

Pinus Douglasii, D. Don, Lambert Finns, iii. t. (1837). 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 162, t. 183. — Antoine, Conif 
84, t. 33, f. 3. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 
394. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif 87. — Lawson & Son, List 



84, t. 33, f. 4 (1840-1847). 

Picea Douglasii, Link, Linncea, xv. 524 (1841). 

Tsuga Douglasii, Carri^re, Traiti Conif 192 (1855).— 

Sdndclauze, Conif 20. — Regel, Russ. Dendr. ed. 2, pt. i, 
40. 

Tsuga Douglasii, var. taxifolia, Carri^re, Traite Conif 

192 (1855). 

Tsuga Douglasii brevibracteata, Carrifere, TraitS Conif 

193 (1855). 

Tsuga Douglasii fastigiata, Carrifere, Traite Conif 193 

(1855). 
Tsuga Lindleyana, Roezl, Cat. Conif. Mex. 8 (1857). 

Carri^re, TraitS Conif ed. 2, 254. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, Carri^re, TraitS Conif ed. 2, 

256 (1867). — Engelmann, Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 

257 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 120 (excl. var. macro- 
carpa). — Kellogg, Trees of California, 38. — Hemsley, 
Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 190 ; iv. 89. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N. Am. 10th Census TJ. S. ix. 209 (excl. var. macro- 
carpa). — Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 431. — Beissner, 
Eandb. Nadelh. 411, f. 114, 115 (excl. var. macrocarpa). 
Masters, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 245 (excl. var. macro- 
carpa). — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 449. — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 11 (excl. var. macrocar2)a), f. 6. — Hem- 
pel & Wilhelm, Baume und Strducher, i. 105, f. 51. 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii taxifolia, Carrifere, TraitS Conif 
ed. 2, 258 (1867). 

Abies mucronata, Carri^re, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 312 
. (1867). 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii denudata, Carri^re, TraitS Co- 
nif ed. 2, 792 (1867). 



No. 10, AbietinecB, 9. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 393.— J, M. Pinus Douglasii, /B pendula, Parlatore, De Candolle 



Bigelow, Facific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 17. — Torrey, Sit- 
greaves' Rep. 173. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 65. — Parla- 
tore, De Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 430. — W. R. M'Nab, 



Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 430 (1868). 

Pseudotsuga Lindleyana, Carribre. Rev. Hort. 1868 
152, t. 



88 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA 



CONIFEE^, 



Picea (Pseudotsuga) Douglasii, Bertrand, -4w?^. jS^a. Nat, Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. glauca, Mayr, Wald. Nord- 



s^r. 5, XX. 87 (1874), 



aw. 307, t. 6, f. (1890). 



Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Britton, Trans. N, T. Acad. ScL Tsuga taxifolia, Otto Kuntze, i^ez;. Gen. PL ii. 802 (1891). 
viii. 74 (1889). — Lemmon, Bep. California State Board Pseudotsuga taxifolia, var. suberosa, Lemmon, Erythea, 



Forestry, iii. 130, t. 10, 11 {Cone-Bearers of California) ; 
West - American Cone-Bearers, 56, t. 9 ; Bull. Sierra 
Club,{i. 161 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope). 
ContriL U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 50. 



i. 48 (1893) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 57 ; Bidl. 
Sierra Club, li. 161 {Conifers of the Pacific Slope). 



4 

Leiberg, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, var. elongata, Lemmon, Erythea, 

i. 49 (1893). 



A tree, when grown under favorable conditions often two hundred feet in height, with a trunk 
three or four feet in diameter, and frequently much taller,-^ with a trunk ten or twelve feet in diameter; 
or in the dry interior of the continent rarely more than eighty or one hundred feet high, with a trunk 
two or three feet thick, and at high elevations occasionally reduced to a low shrub.^ The slender 
crowded limbs, which are densely clothed with long pendulous lateral branches, are horizontal or more 
or less pendulous below, and erect above ; when the tree is young and has grown in an open situation 
they form a narrow open handsome pyramid with its base resting on the ground, but when the Douglas 
Spruce is crowded in the forest its trunk, decreasing but slightly in diameter often for a hundred feet 
above the ground, is generally deprived of its branches for two thirds of its length and is surmounted 
by a comparatively small narrow head which on very old trees sometimes becomes flat-topped by the 
lengthening of the upper branches. On young trees the bark is smooth, thin, rather lustrous, and 
dark gray-brown ; beginning to thicken early near the ground and to divide into oblong plates, it 
ultimately separates into great broad rounded and irregularly connected ridges which are broken on 
the surface into small thick closely appressed dark red-brown scales, and, usually from ten to twelve 
inches in thickness on old trees, it is occasionally two feet thick near their base ; ^ or sometimes in arid 
regions the bark is paler colored and soft and spongy.* The winter-buds are ovate and acute, with thin 
scales rounded, entire, or occasionally slightly erose or denticulate on the margins, the terminal bud 
being often a quarter of an inch in length and nearly twice as large as the lateral buds. The branchlets 
are covered for three or four years with fine pubescence, and during their first season are pale orange- 
color and lustrous; turning rather bright reddish brown in the autumn, they gradually grow dark 
gray-brown after their second summer. The leaves are straight or rarely slightly incurved, rounded and 
obtuse at the apex, or on leading shoots and rarely on lower sterile branches acute, with short slender 
callous tips, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter long, from one sixteenth to one 
twelfth of an inch wide, light yellow when they first emerge from the bud, and dark yellow-green or 



^ I have not been able to obtain any reliable information con- 
cerning the maximum height of the Douglas Spruce. Lumbermen 
on Puget Sound habitually speak of trees from three hundred to 
three hundred and fifty feet tall, but their statements, unsupported 
by actual measurements, must be accepted cautiously. It is not 
impossible, however, that this tree may grow to even ia greater 
height than three hundred and fifty feet, as large specimens in 
some of the sheltered valleys at the base of the Olympic Moun- 
tains of northwestern Washington tower far above the surrounding 
forest, which undoubtedly has an average height of nearly three 
hundred feet. 

In this region and on the western slopes of Mt. Rainier in VSTash- 
ington, trunks from ten to eleven feet in diameter five feet above 
the surface of the ground and free of branches for two hundred or 
two hundred and fifty feet are not rare, two or three such trees 
sometimes standing on an acre of ground. Individuals twelve feet 
in diameter may occasionally be seen, although they are very rare, 
and lumbermen and prospectors tell of trees with trunks sixteen 
feet in diameter. The trunks of Picea Sitchensis, Thuya plicata, and 
of Taxodium mucronatum of Mexico are larger at the ground than 



those of Pseudotsuga mucronata, but they taper rapidly and soon 
lose their great girth, while the trunk of the Douglas Spruce car- 
ries its size to an immense height with a hardly perceptible reduction 
of diameter, and no other tree of the continent, excepting the two 
Sequoias, equals it in massiveness of trunk or in productiveness of 
timber. (See Garden and Forest, x. 292, f. 38.) 

^ In 1883 I found at an elevation of six thousand feet above the 
level of the sea, at the head of the Cutbank River, on the eastern 
side of one of the northern passes over the continental divide in 
Montana, a Douglas Spruce only eighteen inches in height but 
covered with cones of full average size. 

3 The thickest specimen of the bark of Pseudotsuga mucronata 
which I have seen was in Seattle, Washington, and was twenty- 
six inches in thickness. 

^ Upon the soft spongy character of the bark of the Douglas 
Spruce on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona and on 
some of the mountain ranges of northern New Mexico, Lemmon 
based his variety suberosa {Erythea, i. 48). On the San Francisco 
Peaks AUes cmcolor and Abies lasiocarpa have also soft spongy 
bark, which is probably the result of peculiar climatic conditions. 



CONIFEK^. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



89 



rarely light or dark bluish green at maturity,* and are usually persistent until their eighth year, when 
they begin to fall gradually and irregularly. The staminate flowers are from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch long, with orange-red anthers ; and the pistillate flowers are about three quarters of an 
inch in length and nearly half an inch in thickness, their slender elongated bracts being deeply tinged 
with red, which is darkest on the midribs. The cones, which hang on stout stems often half an inch 
in length, and mostly fall as soon as their seeds have escaped in the autumn, are from two to four 
inches and a half in length and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in thickness, with scales which 
are thin, slightly concave, rounded and occasionally somewhat elongated at the apes, thin and more or 
less erose on the margins, and usually rather longer than they are broad ; at midsummer, when the cones 
are fully grown, they are slightly puberulous, dark apple-green below, purplish toward the apex, and 
bright red on the closely appressed margins ^ and the pale green bracts, which are now slightly reflexed 
above the middle and from one fifth to one quarter of an inch wide, often protrude half an inch beyond 
their scales and begin gradually to turn brown. The seeds are a quarter of an inch long, nearly an 
eighth of an inch wide, light reddish brown and lustrous above, pale and marked below with large 
irregular white spots, and almost as long as their dark brown wings, which are broadest just below the 
middle, oblique above, and rounded at the apex. 

From the shores of Lake Tacla in the Rocky Mountains, a little to the north of the fifty-fifth 
degree of latitude and from the head of the Skeena River in the coast range in latitude 54"* north,^ 
Pseudotsiiga mucro7iata spreads southward through aU the Rocky Mountain system to the mountains 
of western Texas and to those of southern New Mexico and Arizona, along the Sierra Madre of Chi- 
huahua^ and the mountains of Nuevo Leon, where it forms dark groves in ravines and on northern 
slopes of the highest mountains,^ to San Luis Potosi 5 ^ in the coast region it extends southward at 
some distance from the sea to latitude 51° north, and then spreads over Vancouver Island, over the 
coast valleys and plains of southern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, and over their moun- 
tains, ranging in British America eastward to the eastern foothills of the- Rocky Mountains.*^ In 
California the Douglas Spruce extends southward in the coast mountains at least as far as Punta Gorda 
in Monterey County, near the lower end of the Santa Lucia Mountains,*^ over the cross ran^res in the 



+ F 



1 In Colorado and New Mexico the leaves of individual trees of 
Pseudotsuga mucronata, like those of many other conifers on the 
southern Rocky Mountains, are light or dark blue in color, espe- 
cially early in their first season. 

2 In British Columbia, where in the dry interior southern por- 
tion Pseudotsuga mucronata is confined to the high ridges which 
separate the river-valleys, and at the north descends to the pla- 
teaus, it occurs with a few individuals on the Skeena Kiver, but 
is absent from the Queen Charlotte Islands and the coast archi- 
pelago north of Vancouver Island, occurring here only on the 
shores of inlets at some distance from the sea. Southward from 
latitude 51° north, however, it is abundant in the coast region of 
the mainland and in all parts of Vancouver Island with the excep- 
tion of the exposed western coast ; and near the forty-ninth paral- 
lel it extends from the ocean to the eastern slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains, sometimes ascending to elevations of six thousand feet 
above the sea. It does not grow in the elevated and comparatively 
humid Cariboo region or on the higher portions of the Gold and 
Selkirk Ranges. The line which marks the northern limits of its 
distribution as now known is curiously irregular. It grows in the 
neighborhood of Fort George and northeastward as far as McLeod's 
Lake, but it has not been found on the Parsnip River ; it extends 
half way up Lake Tacla, occurs on the shores of Babine Lake, and 
is common about Fraser and Frangois Lakes. It ranges from the 
valley of the Fraser River to the coast mountains on the line of 
the Chilcotin and its tributaries, and occurs on the Nazco and up 



« 

the Blackwater to the mouth of the Iscultaesli, but is absent from 
the region northward from these streams to Francois Lake. The 
extension of its range to the northeast on the Rocky Mountains is 
still to be determined. (See G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat, n. ser. ix. 
323. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI 472.) 

^ "I saw heavy forests of Pseudotsuga on the cooler and more 
fertile slopes of the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua some two hundred 
miles south of our boundary." (C. G. Pringle in litt. See, also, 
C. G. Pringle, Garden and Forest, \. 441.) 

4 Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 158. — C. G. Pringle, I. c. iii. 
338. 

s Tsuga mucronata was collected by Parry and Palmer near the 
city of San Luis Potosf in 1878. 

^ In June, 1897, Mr. John Macoun found Pseudotsuga mucronata 
on Jumping Pond Creek, near Calgary, Alberta, which is the most 
eastern station in British America from which I have seen speci- 
mens of this tree. 

^ Pseudotsuga mucronata is common on the Santa Lucia Moun- 
tains at elevations of from twenty-five hundred to about three 
thousand feet above the sea, but I have not been able to hear of 
it at any point farther south on the coast mountains. It is not 
improbable, nevertheless, that it may extend along them into Sau 
Luis Obispo County or even to the northern part of Santa Barbara 
County. On the Santa Inez Mountains in the southern part of the 
last named county the Pseudotsuga is of the southern species. 



90 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifek^. 

r 

northern part of the state, and southward along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the main 
fork of the San Joaquin Eiver in latitude 37° 30' north, where it ascends to elevations of seven thousand 

i 

feet above the sea ^ but it is absent from all the arid mountains which rise in the great basin between 
the Sierra Nevada and the Wahsatch Ranges. In the dry interior region of the continent, where the 
Douglas Spruce grows only on rocky mountain slopes and benches, usually singly among other trees, and 
rarely forms an important part of continuous forests except in northern New Mexico and Arizona, it 
seldom attains a greater height than eighty feet ; northward it is generally found at elevations of from 
four to six thousand feet above the sea-level ; in Colorado it is scattered from the upper slopes of the 
foothills at elevations of about six thousand feet up to eleven thousand feet j ^ it is common on the high 
mountains of northern and central New Mexico,^ and on the San Fra;ncisco Peaks of northern Arizona 
it forms a large part of the forest between elevations of eight thousand two hundred and nine thousand 
feet;^ it is abundant on the Guadaloupe Mountains of western Texas, where in size and numbers it is 
surpassed only by Piniis ponder osa ;'^ and on the mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona, 
where it is comparatively rare and usually of small size, it seldom ascends higher than six or seven 
thousand feet. It is most abundant and of its largest size not far above the level of the sea in southern 
British Columbia and in the region between the coast of Washington and Oregon and the western 
foothills of the Cascade Mountains, where enormous trunks crowded close together rise to a great 
height, forming, either alone or mixed with the Hemlock, vast almost impenetrable forests 5 these are 
surpassed in productiveness only by the Sequoia forests of California, and appear to reach their maxi- 
mum development south of the Straits of Puca on the lower northern slopes of the Olympic Mountains, 
where rains falls more constantly and copiously than on any other part of the United States with the 
exception of the Alaska coast. On the Cascade Mountains and the California coast ranges the Douglas 
Spruce is less abundant and rarely more than one hundred and fifty feet in height, but it frequently 
grows to a large size on the California Sierras, where it seldom ascends higher than five thousand five 

^^ r 

hundred feet above the sea and is most often scattered among other trees, but sometimes forms small 
groves, especially on the rough boulder-covered slopes of earthquake taluses which occasionally it almost 
exclusively covers.^ 

The wood of Pseudotsuga mucronata varies greatly in density and quality and in the thickness of 
the sapwood. It is light red or yellow, with nearly white sapwood, and is marked by conspicuous dark- 
colored very resinous bands of small summer cells which generally occupy at least half the layers of 

J 

annual growth, and after the tree has been cut become hard and flinty, making the wood difficult to 
work. Two varieties of wood, red and yellow, the former coarser grained, darker colored, and less 
valuable than the latter, are distinguished by lumbermen, and appear to be largely due to the age of 
the tree, the wood of young trees being coarser grained and darker colored than that of old trees. The 

J. 

average specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood of twenty-one specimens cut in different parts of 
the country was 0.5157, a cubic foot weighing 32.14 pounds. The wood of Pseudotsuga mucronata^ 

■ r 

which furnishes most of the coarse lumber manufactured in southern British Columbia and in western 

r 

Washington and Oregon,® is largely used for all kinds of construction, for fuel, and for railway-ties; 
it supplies most of the piles used on the Pacific coast of North America, and spars and masts of 
unequaled strength.*^ The bark is sometimes used in tanning leather.® 

1 Brandegee, BoL Gazette^ iii. 33. - 8 The following unpublished analysis of a specimen of the bark 

■ 2 Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 79. of Pseudotsuga mucronata from Forest Grove, Oregon, has been . 

^ Merriam, North American Fauna^ No. 3, 121. made by Professor Henry Trimble of the Philadelphia College of 

* Havard, Proc. £/. S. Nat. Mus. viii. 503. ~ Coulter, Contrih. Pharmacy: — 
U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 555 (Man. PL W. Texas). 

^ Muir, The Mountains of California, 168. Moisture 6.05 per cent. 

^ In commerce the wood of Pseudotsuga mucronata is often called Ash in absolutely dry material . . 1.22 « 

Oregon puie. Tannin in air dry material . . . 15.25 « 

' Laslett, Timber and Timber Trees, ed. 2, 374. Tannin in absolutely dry material . 16.23 « 



CONIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



91 



Pseudotsuga Tnucronata was discovered in 1791 on the shores of Nootta Sound by Archibald 
Menzies, the surgeon of Vancouver in his voyage of discovery ; it was first described in the journal 
of Lewis and Clark.^ Rediscovered by David Douglas in 1827, it was introduced by him into the 
gardens of Europe, where it has become one of the best known and most valuable coniferous trees for 
park plantations.^ European sylviculturists have made numerous experiments with the Douglas Spruce 
in forest planting, but they are still divided in their opinions as to its value for this purpose.^ Early 
attempts to introduce it into the eastern United States by means of plants obtained in England and 
raised from seeds gathered in Oregon or from trees which had grown in Europe were generally unsuc- 
cessful, the young plants soon succumbing to the heat and dryness of the eastern summers or to the 
cold of eastern winters. But in 1862 Dr. C. C. Parry found the Douglas Spruce on the outer ranges 
of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and the following year sent seeds to the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard College. The plants raised from these seeds have proved perfectly hardy and have grown 
rapidly and vigorously in the neighborhood of Boston, and now give promise of surpassing all other 
exotic conifers in permanent beauty and usefulness 5 and in recent years the Douglas Spruce, raised 
from seeds gathered at high altitudes in Colorado, has been planted in considerable numbers in the 
northern states.* Of the numerous abnormal forms of Pseudotsuga miccronata which may be occa- 
sionally seen in European gardens and which are peculiar in the marking of their leaves or in their 
habit, none has any great permanent value.^ More beautiful are the plants from Colorado and from the 
mountains of Mexico with blue and glaucous foliage.® 

One of the most widely distributed trees of North America, the Douglas Spruce possesses a 
constitution which enables it to flourish through thirty-two degrees of latitude, to support the fierce 
gales and the long winters of the north and the nearly perpetual sunshine of the Mexican Cordilleras, 
to thrive in the rain and fog which sweep almost continuously from the Pacific over its lofty heads, 
and on arid mountain slopes In the interior, where for months of every year rain never falls. It is 
one of the most important elements of the American forest. No other American tree of the first 
agnitude is so widely distributed or can now afford so much timber, and the rapidity of its growth 



Combustion of the Tannin. 

Carbon . . 61.72 per cent. 

Hydrogen 5.73 " 

Oxygen 32.55 « 

100.00 



The amount of tannin, 15.25 per cent., in air dry material is 
higher than is usually found in other tan-barks. 

^ The History of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and 
Clark, ed. Coues, iii. 831. 

2 A Douglas Spruce, raised from one of the seeds sent to England 
by David Douglas iu 1827 and planted in 1830 where it now stands 
in the Piuetum at Dropniore, near Windsor, iu 1893, was one hun- 
dred and twenty feet high, with a trunk four feet in diameter and 
long lower branches sweeping the ground. For sixty years, there- 
fore, this tree has made an annual average upward growth of two 
feet and has added annually four fifths of an inch to the diameter 
of its trunk. Its upward growth has, indeed, really been greater, 
as part of the head was blown off several years ago in a winter 
storm. (See J. G-. Jack, Garden and Forest, vi. 14. See, also, 
Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 75 ; Card. Chron. 1872, 1323, f. 299.) 
A Douglas Spruce in the Garden of Penrhyn Castle in Wales, 
supposed to have been planted fifty-seven years before, had in 
1887 a trunk which girted thirteen feet eight and one half inches 



three feet above the surface of the ground, and another specimen 
on the same estate had a trunk eleven feet nine inches in circum- 
ference. (See Webster, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, i. 672, f. 130. See, 
also, Webster, I. c. n. ser. xxi. 59 ; Trans. Scottish Arhorlcultural 
Soc. xi. 56, 165.) 

^ See John Booth, Die Douglas Fichte j Die Naturalisation Aus- 
Idndisclier Waldbaume in Deutschland, 131; Zeitsch. Forst-Jagd. xxii. 
32 {Die Naturalisation der Douglasfchte) ; GartenJlorUj xl. 595.^ 
J. Brown, The Forester, ed. 5, 353, f. 123. — WiUkonim, Forst. Fl. 
ed. 2, 104, t. 19, f. 13, 18. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 290, t. 4, 6, 8, 
9. — K. Hartig, Forst.-nat. Zeit. i. 415. — Schlich, Gard. Chron, 
ser. 3, iv. 531, 568, 598 ; Man. Forestry, ii. 316. — Kohler, Garten- 
flora, xli. 114. — Duun, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 80. 

* See Garden and Forest, iv. 190. 

^ For an account of the garden varieties of Pseudotsuga culti- 
vated in Europe, see Carri^re, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 257. — Beissner, 
Handb. Nadelh. 418. — Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Div. Forestry U. S. 
Dept. Agric. 47. < 

<* The form of Pseudotsuga mucronata with glaucous leaves, which 
was introduced from Mexico into European gardens by Roezl 
about forty years ago, is said to be a distinct and handsome plant. 
This is the Pseudotsuga glaucescens, Bailly, Rev. Hort. 1895, 88, t., 
and probably the Picea glaucescens, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 47 
(1862), and the Picea religiosa glaucescens, Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 
213 (1870). It is also the AUes religiosa glauscescens, Carri^re, 
I c. 274. 



92 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



conifer-;e» 



and its power of reproduction under favorable conditions ^ make it the most valuable inhabitant of the 
great coniferous forest of the northwest^ which it ennobles with its majestic port and splendid vigor. 



^ In the coast region from southern British Columbia nearly to 
the northern borders of California seedling plants of Pseudotsuga 
mucronata soon cover the ground from which the forest has been 
cleared by fire, and, standing almost as close together as blades of 
grass, grow on good soil with astonishing rapidity, forming tall 
slender poles destitute of branches and foliage except at the very 
top. An average upward growth of five or six feet is not unusual 
on such trees, and leading shoots of Pseudotsuga mucronata ten feet 
long may be seen near the shores of Puget Sound. These young trees 
also increase their trunk diameter rapidly. A stem examined by 
General Henry L. Abbot on the Solduc Hiver in northwestern Wash- 
ington in 1896 had attained a diameter of six inches in ten years 
and of twelve inches in twenty-three years, and had increased to 



eighteen inches by its forty-fourth year. In the same region a tree 
only one hundred and forty-two years old had a trunk three feet 
four inches in diameter at three feet above the surface of the 
ground. This, however, is an exceptionally favorable region for 
the rapid growth of trees on account of the rich soil and the exces- 
sive rainfall. The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North 
American Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, procured in the neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, is 
twenty-nine inches in diameter inside the bark and three hundred 
and thirty-six years old, the sapwood, which is only an inch and 
three eighths in thickness, showing sixty-six layers of annual growth. 
In the dry interior part of the continent the Douglas Spruce in- 
creases much more slowly and is by no means a fast-growing tree. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCVII. Pseudotsuga muckonata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, 

enlarged. 

L 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone from Marvin Lakes, Colorado, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds and bract, natural size. 

10. Bracts from the base of a cone, natural size. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 

14. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter-buds, natural size. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 



/ 



/ 



\ 



Silva of North A 



m e r; c a . 



Tat. DCYII. 



-^. 





t 



\ 



f 



C.^.F'accorv dely. 



PSEUDOTSUGA 



MUCRONATA 



} 




Hapirve^ so. 



JL.Rzocr&u/Ty dzr^ay. 



Imp, J', rcLne-icr, FcltLt. 



/ 



CONIFEKiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



93 



PSEUDOTSUGA MAGROOARPA, 



Hemlock. 



Leaves acuminate at the apex, bluish gray. Cones large, their bracts slightly 
exserted. 

Pseudotsuga macrooarpa, Mayr, Wald. Nordam, 278 Abies macrocarpa, Vasey, Gardener's Monthly, xvili. 21 



(1890). — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board For- 
estry, iii. 134 {Cone-Bearers of California) ; West-Ameri- 
can Cone-Bearers, 57; Bull, Sierra Club, ii. 162 {Coni- 
fers of the Facific Slope). — Sudworth, Bep. U. S. Dept. 



(1876). 

Tsuga macrocarpa, Lemmon, Facific Rural Fress, xvli. 

No. 5, 75 (February 1, 1879). 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, Engelmann, 



Agric. 1892, 330. — Merriam, North American Fauna, Brewer & Watson BoU Cal. ii. 120 (1880). — Sargent, 



No. 7, 340 {Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Covllle, Contrih. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 223 {Bot Death Valley Exped.). 
Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 24, f. 5. 
Abies Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, Torrey, Ives' Rep. 
pt. iv. 28 (1861), 



Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 210. 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 411, — Koelme, Deutsche 
Bendr. 13. 



A tree, usually from forty to fifty and rarely eighty feet m height, with a trunk three or four feet 
in diameter, which is generally naked at the base for about one quarter of its length, but sometimes is 
clothed to the ground with branches. These are remarkably remote, elongated and pendulous below, 
with short stout pendent or often erect lateral branchlets, and, short and ascending above, forming an 
open broad-based symmetrical pyramidal head. The bark is from three to six inches in thickness, 
dark reddish brown, and deeply divided into great broad rounded ridges which are covered with thick 
closely appressed scales. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, usually not more than an eighth of an inch 
in length, often nearly as broad as they are long, with dark chestnut-brown lustrous scales which 
are thin and scarious on the margins. The branchlets are slender, dark reddish brown during their . 
first season, and covered with short scanty pubescence, which mostly disappears during their second 
year, when they are dark or light orange-brown and begin to grow lighter colored, becoming pale 
grayish brown at the end of four or five years. The leaves are acute or acuminate, terminating in 
slender rigid callous tips, apparently two-ranked by the conspicuous twisting at their base, incurved 
above the middle, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and one quarter in length, about one 
sixteenth of an inch wide, and dark bluish gray. The pistillate flowers are from three quarters of an 
inch to an inch in length, with pale yellow anthers, and are inclosed for half their length in the 
conspicuous involucres of the lustrous bud-scales. The staminate flowers are about an inch long and 
half an inch thick, with pale green bracts tinged with red. The cones, which are produced often in 
great numbers on the upper branches and occasionally also on those down to the middle of the tree, are 
short-stalked and from four to six and a half inches in length and about two inches in thickness; 
their scales, which near the middle of the cone are from an inch and a half to two inches across are 
stijff, thick, concave, rather broader than they are long, rounded above, abruptly wedge-shaped at the 
base, puberulous and striate on the outer surface, and frequently nearly as long as their bracts, which 
are comparatively short and narrow, with broad midribs produced into short flattened flexible tips • 
opening and loosing their seeds early in the autumn, the cones mostly remain on the branches for 
at least a year longer. The seeds are full and rounded on both sides, rugose, dark chestnut-brown or 
nearly black and lustrous above, pale reddish brown below, with a thick hard brittle outer coat from 
which the thin membranaceous nearly white lining is easily separable ; they are half an inch long and 
three eighths of an inch wide, with wings which are broadest near the middle, about half an inch long. 



94 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



nearly a quarter of an inch wide, and obliquely rounded at the apex ; the cotyledons being from nine 

to twelve in number.^ 

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa is a characteristic feature of the scanty forests which cover the lower 
western and southern slopes of the arid mountains of southern CaUforniaj where it grows above the 
banks of streams and on the steep slopes of narrow ravines usually between elevations of from three 
thousand to five thousand feet above the sea, and occasionally on high ridges, frequently forming 
open groves of considerable extent or mingling with Quercus chrysolepis^ Quercus WisUzeniy Pinus 

4 ■ L r 

L 

Coidteriy Pinus attenuatay and Pinus ponderosa, var. JeffreyL The westerly station where Pseudo- 
tsiiga macrocarpa has been observed is on the Santa Inez Mountains in Santa Barbara County.^ 
Farther to the eastward it is common on the San Emigdio Mountains and on the Sierra Pelona, the 



V 



San Gabriel, the Sierra Madre, the San Bernardino, the San Jacinto, and the Cuyamaca Mountains, 
which form a nearly continuous range extending in the arc of a circle from the neighborhood of Santa 
Barbara on the coast to the southern borders of the state. 

1 I 

The wood of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa is heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, and durable. It is 
dark red, with broad bands of small summer cells, numerous obscure medullary rays, and pale nearly 
white sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4563, a cubic foot weighing 
28.44 pounds. It is occasionally manufactured into lumber, and it is largely used for fuel. 

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa was discovered in 1858 by the expedition under command of Lieutenant 

J r 

J. C. Ives, sent by the government of the United States to explore the Colorado Eiver of the West. 
Although its seeds have been sent to Europe by collectors, Pseudotsuga macrocarpa does not appear 
to have been successfully cultivated, although it might be expected to thrive in regions where the 
summers are hot and dry and the winters mild with scanty rainfall.^ 



^ Pseudotsuga macrocarpa can be distinguished from the other 
American species by its comparatively longer and more remotely 
placed branches, by its sharply pointed peculiarly colored blue- 
gray leaves, by its shorter and stouter winter-buds, and larger 
cones, with thicker more concave cone-scales, comparatively shorter 

-r 

bracts with short broad tips, and by its larger and fuller seeds, 
which have a thicker and harder coat and are much darker on the 

4 

upper face. Intermediate forms are not known to exist between 
the two species, whicH occupy different regions, Pseudotsuga mu' 
cronata, having failed to reach the mountains of southwestern Cal- 
ifornia, which are the only home of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa either 
along the California coast ranges, the Sierra Nevada, or from the 
Kocky Mountains across the Colorado Desert. 



2 A single tree of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa was found in June, 
1898, by Dr. F. Franceschi in Mission Canon, above the Seven 
Falls, at an elevation of about fifteen hundred feet above the sea 
on the Santa Inez Mountains, about six miles from Santa Barbara. 

^ Like other trees of extremely arid regions, Pseudotsuga macro- 
carpa probably always grows slowly. The log specimen in the 
Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York, is twenty-eight and three 
quarters inches in diameter inside the bark and three hundred and 
thirty-six years old, with one and three eighths inches of sapwood 
which shows sixty-six layers of annual growth. 



r 
^ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCVIIL Pseudotsuga mackocarpa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and 
ovules, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

8. A seed with its wing, natural size. 

9. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

10. Winter-buds, natural size. 



I 



\ 



t - 




ilva 



f 




orth America 



m 




V, 




^. E. Faccoriy (£oZ. 



R 



apLrta^ scy. 



PSEUDOTSUGA MACROCARPA 



/ 



iVi a 




■ A. liJ./? creua:^'' direa> !^ 



Irrip . J', TcL-rtedx^r Pa^ 



L^. 



■ 



CONIFERS. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 95 



ABIES. 



Flowers solitary, naked, monoecious, axillary ; stamens indefinite, anther-cells 2, 
surmounted by short knobs ; scales of the pistillate flowers spirally disposed, ovules 2 
under each scale. Fruit an erect strobile maturing in one season, its scales longer or 
shorter than their bracts, deciduous from the central axis ; seeds furnished with resin 
vescicles. Leaves subdistichous, persistent. 

Abies, Linnseas, Gen. 294 (in part) (1737). — Adanson, Pinus, Linnaeus, Gen, ed. 6,434 (in part) (1754). — End- 

Fam. PL ii. 480 (in part). — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 414 liclier, Gen. 260 (in part). — D. Don, Lambert Pinus^ iii. 

(in part). — Link, Ahhand. Alcad. Berl. 1827, 181 ; iira- (sect. Pence), — Meissner, Gen. 352 (in part). — Baillon, 

ncea, xv. 525. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii. Hist. PL xii. 44 (in part). 

211 ; iii. 593. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 441. — Picea, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2329 (not Link) (1838). 
Eichler, Mngler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. i. 81. 
Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxx. 34. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with bark containing numerous prominent resin vesicles, and often thick and 
deeply furrowed in old age, pale usually brittle not durable wood, slender horizontal wide-spreading 
branches in regular remote generally four or five-branched whorls or rarely scattered, furnished with 
twice or thrice forked lateral branches forming flat-topped masses of foliage gradually narrowed from 
the base to the apex of the branch, the ultimate divisions comparatively stout, glabrous or pubescent, at 

+ 

right angles to the branch or pointing forward, wide-spreading roots, and slender elongated rootlets. 
Branch-buds usually three, or on the leading shoot four or five, the lateral in the axils of upper leaves, 
and much smaller than the terminal, generally thickly coated with resin, small, subglobose or oblong, 
acute or obtuse, or rarely large and acute, covered with numerous ovate acute closely imbricated 
accrescent rarely stomatlferous * scales increasing in size from below, the two lowest minute, opposite and 
lateral, the outer persistent on the base of the branch and In falling marking It with ring-like scars, the 
inner occasionally united and deciduous In one piece from the tip of the lengthening branchlet.^ Leaves 
spirally disposed, incurved in the bud, at first densely crowded on the young branchlets, lanceolate or 
oblanceolate, entire and often thickened and revolute on the margins, sessile, marked on the lower 
surface on each side of the midrib with bands of several rows of stomata, persistent usually for from 
eight to ten years, leaving in falling nearly circular scars 5 hypoderm cells large, in continuous or 
interrupted bands under the epidermis on the upper surface, usually present also on the edges and keel 
of the leaf and in some species in its interior ; resin ducts two, close to the epidermis of the lower 
surface, generally near the edge of the leaf, or in some species in the parenchyma and almost equidistant 
from the two surfaces; fibro-vascular bundles usually two or rarely one, occupying the interior of the 
leaf ; on young plants and on lower sterile branches leaves flattened and mostly grooved on the upper 
surface, or in one species nearly tetragonal, rounded and usually emarginate at the apex, appearing two- 
ranked from a twist near their base or occasionally spreading from all sides of the branch, only rarely 
stomatlferous on the upper surface ; usually on upper fertile branches and leading shoots crowded more 
or less erect, often incurved or falcate, thick, convex on the upper side, or quadrangular in some species 
obtuse or acute at the apex, and frequently stomatlferous on the upper surface ; often crowded arcuate 
and forming a thick cover over the winter-buds on the ends of leading shoots and branches.^ Flowers 
axillary, surrounded at the base by conspicuous involucres of their accrescent bud-scales, the Inner often 
much enlarged and white and lustrous, appearing in early spring from buds formed the previous summer 
on branchlets of the year 5 the staminate on their lower side, very abundant on branches above the 



96 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. conifers. 

J 

middle of the tree, the upper scales of their involucres falling early with the flowers, the lower often 
persistent for a year or two on the branches \ the pistillate usually on the upper side only of the topmost 
branches, generally from one to four flowers appearing on a branch, or in some species scattered also 
over the upper half of the tree, their involucres more or less persistent under the cone. Staminate 
flowers pendulous, pedicellate, their slender pedicels often becoming much elongated before falling, oval 
or oblong-cylindrical 3 anthers short-stalked, subglobose, opening transversely, surmounted by the short 
knob-like projections of their connectives, yellow or scarlet ; pollen-grains large, bilobed, furnished 
with two air -sacs. Pistillate flowers short-stalked, erect, globose, ovoid, or oblong, their scales 
spirally imbricated in many series, obovate, rounded above, cuneate below, much shorter than their 
acute or dilated and mucronate bracts; ovules two under each scale, collateral, inverted. Fruit an 
erect ovoid or oblong cylindrical strobile, maturing in one season, its scales thin, incurved at the broad 
rounded or rarely bluntly pointed apex, wedge-shaped, and gradually narrowed at the base into short 
or long stipes, closely imbricated, decreasing in size and sterile toward both ends of the cone, pale 
green, gray-brown, canary-yellow, or dark purple, puberulous or rarely glabrous on the exposed portions, 
longer or shorter than their membranaceous bracts, falling at maturity with their bracts and seeds from 
the stout tapering axis of the cone long persistent on the branch.^ Seeds two under each scale, 
reversed, attached at the base, ovoid or oblong, acute at the base, compressed, furnished with large 
conspicuous resin vesicles, covered on the upper side and infolded below on the lower side by the base 
of their parchment-Hke oblong-obtuse wings formed from the inner coat of the scale, and abruptly 
enlarged at the somewhat obliquely rounded apex ; testa thin, of two coats, the inner membranaceous, 
the outer thicker, coriaceous. Embryo axile in copious fleshy albumen ; cotyledons from four to ten, 
stomatiferous on the upper surface.® 

Abies is distributed in the New World from Labrador and the valley of the Athabasca River to 
the mountains of North Carolina, and from the mountains of Alaska to the highlands of Guatemala, 
and in the Old World from Siberia and the mountains of central Europe to southern Japan, the 
Himalayas, Asia Minor, and the mountains of northern Africa. Twenty-three species can now be 
distinguished ; ^ in America two species inhabit the eastern part of the continent ; seven occur on the 
mountains of the west, and one is found only in Mexico and Guatemala."^ Pour species are scattered 
through the mountain forests of the island of Hondo, and another forms large forests on the islands of 
Yezo and Saghalin.^ Abies Sihiriea^ is widely distributed through northern continental Asia, and on 
the Himalayas Abies Webbiana ^^ grows in great subalpine forests. Abies Nor dmanniana^^ and Abies 
Cilicica ^^ are important elements in the forest-covering of the Caucasus and the Cilician Taurus ; Abies 
Oephalonica^^ is spread over the mountains of Cephalonia and Greece, and is replaced on the mountains 
of central and southern Europe by Abies Picea}^ Abies Pinsapo^^ grows only on the mountain ranges 
of southern Spain, and Abies Baborensis'^^ is confined to the mountain forests of northern Africa. 
Traces of Abies in the tertiary rocks of Grinnell Land show that it once inhabited the Arctic Circle, 
from which it was driven southward by the refrigeration of the northern hemisphere to the mountains 
of the south, which are now its principal home ^'^ and on which in Europe there were probably more 
species than at the present time.^^ 

Abies produces soft perishable wood, sometimes manufactured into cheap lumber, and balsamic 
exudations employed in medicine and the arts. 

Abies in North America does not sufEer seriously from the attacks of insects ^^ or fungal diseases.^ 
All the species are beautiful garden plants in youth, although when removed from their native 
mountain forests they usually become thin and ragged in old age, and several of the Fir-trees are 
common inhabitants of the parks of temperate countries, especially those native to western North 
America, the Japanese Abies Momi^^ Abies Veitchi^'^ Abies homolepis^^ and the species of Europe 
and Asia Minor. 

Abies, the classical name probably of the Fir-tree, was used by Tournefort ^* as the name of the 



CONIFEE-ffi. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



^enus In which he united the Spruces, Firs, and Hemlocks, and was afterwards adopted by Linn^us, 
who, in his genus Abies, also united the Spruces and Hemlocks with the Silver Firs. 



1 A. P. Anderson, Bot. Gazette^ xxiv. 294, f. 

2 Henry, Nov. Act. Acad. Coss. Leop. xix. 100, t. 14. 

3 Bailly, Rev. Hort. 1894, 275, f. 102 {Du Role Protecteur du 
Feuillage chez les Coniferes). 

* The color of tlie coues of Abies cannot be depended on as a 
means of determining the species. The cones of the European 
Ahies Picea in the Black Forest, according to Engelmann, are of 
all variations of color between light green and dark purple (see 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 603), and on different trees of Ahies con- 
color of western America the cones are light or dark green, purple, 
or bright canary-yellow. Nor can good specific characters be 
found in the shape of the cone-scales, as these vary in the same 
species, some cones having scales which are longer and others 
which are shorter than they are broad. More constant in shape 
are the bracts of the cone-scales, which, although they are very 
nearly alike on certain species, usually vary only slightly on differ- 
ent individuals of the same species. 

^ The species of Abies may be grouped in three sections: — 
EuABiEs (Balsamece and Grandesy Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 

Acad. iii. 596 [1873]). Leaves flat, grooved above, stomatiferous 

on the upper surface only on upper fertile branches. 

Bracteates (Engelmann, I. c. in part). Leaves flat, slightly 

rounded and without stomata on the upper surface, alike on 

sterile and fertile branches. 

NoBiLE3 (Engelmann, I. c). Leaves stomatiferous on both 

surfaces, crowded, incurved, tetragonal on fertile and in one spe- 
cies on sterile lower branches. 

^ In France a hybrid Abies has been raised by Monsieur H. L. 
de Vilmorin, who fertilized in 1867 a female flower of Ahies Pin- 
sapo with pollen of Ahies Cephalonica. By this operation a single 
seed was obtained which produced a plant distinguished by its 
extreme vigor, resembling its pollen parent in habit, in the length, 
coloring, and subdistichous arrangement of the leaves, and in the 
shape of its cones, while in the shape and arrangement of its 
blanches and in the thickness of its leaves it resembles Ahies Pin- 
sapo. (See Bailly, /. c. 1889, 115. — Beissner, Handh, Nadelk. 
443.) 

Ahies insignis of French gardens is believed to be a hybrid 
obtained from seeds produced on a plant of Ahies Pinsapo In Mon- 
sieur Renault's nursery at Bulgn^ville and accidentally fertilized 
with the pollen of an Ahies Nordmanniana growing near it. An- 
other supposed hybrid, Ahies Nordmanniana speciosa, was created 
by the French nurseryman Creux by fertilizing the pistillate flowers 
of Ahies Nordmanniana with the pollen of Ahies Pinsapo. (See 
Bailly, I. c. 1890, 230. — Beissner, /. c. 437, 438.) 

' Ahies religiosaj Lindley, Penny CycL i. 31 (1833). — Carrifere, 
Traite Conif. 201. — Roezl, Cat. Conif. Mex. 9. — Engelmann, 
^ c. iii, 600. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. iii. 190. — Masters, 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 56, f. 13 ; ser. 3, ix. 304, f. 69, 70 ; Jour. 
Linn. Soc. xxii, 194, t. 6. — Beissner, I. c. 490. 

Plnus religiosaj Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 

Spec. ii. 4 (1817). — Kunth, Syn. PI. JSquin. i. 352. — Schlech- 

tendal & Chamisso, Linna^a, v. 77. — Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, ii. t. — 

Schlechtendal, Linniea, xii. 486. — Autoine, Conif. 75, t. 28, f. 

2. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 92. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. 

xvi. pt. ii. 420. — W. R. M'Nab, Proc R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 

676, t. 46, f. 2. 
Pinus hirtella, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, I c. (1817).— 



Kunth, I. c. — Schlechtendal, I. c. 487. — Antoiue, /. c. 80. — 
Endlicher, I c. 93. 

Ahies hirtella, Lindley, I. c. (1833). — Carriere, I. c. 203.— 
Roezl, I. c. 

Picea religiosa, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2349, f. 2257 (1838). — 
A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. v. 560, f. 100. 

Picea hirtellaf Loudon, I. c. (1838). 
A hies religiosa, which grows in forests on the highlands of central 
Mexico up to elevations of nine thousand feet above the sea and 
extends to the mountains of Guatemala, is a large tree sometimes 
one hundred and fifty feet in height, with acute or rarely obtuse 
leaves, dark green and lustrous above and silvery white below, and 
oblong-oval purple cones, their bracts being acute or cuspidate and 
longer than the scales. Discovered by Humboldt and introduced 
into the gardens of Europe by Hartweg in 1838, Abies religiosa 
flourishes in sheltered positions in the extreme southern part of 
Great Britain, where it has produced its cones, and on the shores 
of the Italian lakes where no other Fir-tree excels it in lustre of 
foliage or in the beauty of its brightly colored cones. The specific 
name of the Mexican Fir was given to it in allusion to the use of 
its branches in Mexico for the decoration of churches. 

^ Ahies SachalinensiSf Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 588, f. 

97 (1879); Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 517 (Conifers of Japan), — 

Veitch, Man. Conif. 100. — Mayr, Monog. Ahiet. Jap. 42, t. 3, f. 6. 

Ahies Veitchi, var. Sachalinensisj F. Schmidt, Mem. Acad. Sci. 

St. Petershourg, sdr. 7, xii. 175, t. 4, f. 13-17 {Fl. Sachalinensis) 

(1868). — Beissner, I. c. 461, f. 127. 

Ahies Sachalinensis is scattered among the deciduous-leaved trees 
which clothe the low hills of central Yezo, and forms extensive for- 
ests in the extreme northern part of the island and in Saghalin. It 
is a tall slender pyramidal tree, with pale bark and long narrow 
dark green leaves, oblong-cylindrical pale brown cones three or 
four inches long, with exserted bracts, and white winter-buds, by 
which it can always be distinguished from the other Japanese Fir- 
trees. The wood is used for building and for packing-cases. A 
curious form of this tree has been noticed by Professor Miyabe in 
central Yezo with red bark, dark red wood, and red cone-bracts. 
(See Sargent, Forest Fl. Jap. 83.) Ahies Sachalinensis is hardy 
in eastern Massachusetts, where it grows more rapidly than any 
other species of Fir-tree, but as it begins to open its buds early 
in the spring it is usually destroyed in western Europe by late 
frosts . 

s Ahies Sihirica, Ledebour, FL Alt. iv. 202 (1833); Icon. FL Ross. 
V. 28, t. 500. — Link, Lhinma, xv. 527. — Trautvetter, Middendorff 
Reise, i. pt. ii. 170 (PL Jen.). — Carriere, Lc. 225. — Trautvetter 
& Meyer, Middendorff Reise, ii. pt. i. 86 (Fl. Ochot.). — Maxi- 
mowicz, Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourgy ix, 260 (Fl. 
Amur.). — Regel, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, sdr. 7, iv. No. 4, 
136 (Tent. Fl. Ussur.). — Beketow, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxxvni. 
pt. i. 162, t. 5. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 95. — Masters, 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 619 (Conifers of Japan). — Herder, Bot, 
Jahrb. xiv. 160 (Fl. Europ. Russlands). 

Pinus Picea, Pallas, Fl. Ross. i. 7 (in part) (not Du Roi) 
(1784). 

Pinus Sihiricaj Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 101 
(Cat. PL Baical.) (1838). — Antoine, Conif. 64, t. 26, f. 1.— 
Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 669. — Christ, Verhand. Nat. Gesell. Ba- 
sel, iii. 545 (Uehersicht der Europaischen Ahietineen). — Parlatore, 



98 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



CONIFERS. 



De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 425. — W. R, M'Nab, Proc. R. 
Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii, 685, t. 47, f. 12. 

Picea Pichta, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2338 (1838). — Maximo- 
wicz, Bull. Phys. Math. Acad, Sci. St. Petersbourg, xv. 436 
(Bdume und Strducher des Amurlands). — Gordon, Pinetum, 

156. 
Abies Pichta, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 113, t. 39 (1839). 

Pinus Pichta, Endlicher, Syn. Conif, 108 (1847). — Turczani- 

now, Fl. Baicalensi-Dahurica, ii. pt. i. 138. 
Abies Sibirica, var, alba, Carri^re, Traite Conif. 225 (1855). 

Abies Sibirica, which is the only Fir-tree of northern Europe and 
northwestern Asia, ranges from northern and eastern Russia to 
Kamtschatka and Mongolia, and on the Altai Mountains is said to 
form great pure forests at elevations of about four thousand feet 
above the sea-level. It is a slender pyramidal tree, with pale bark, 
flat dark green leaves, and small cylindrical cones. In the north- 
eastern United States Abies Sibirica is very hardy and grows rap- 
idly, but usually loses its dense habit before it is twenty feet high, 
becoming ragged and unattractive in appearance. In western 
Europe it can scarcely be kept alive for many years, as the young 
shoots, which appear very early in the spring, are almost always 
injured by frost. 

10 Abies Webbiana, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 30 (1833). — Forbes, 
/, c. 117, t. 41. — Link, Linncea, xv. 532. — Lindley & Gordon, iTowr. 
Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 211 (excl. syn. Abies bifida'). — Carri^re, I. c. 
223. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 703. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 
xxii. 467, f. 86; ser. 3, x. 395, f. 47. — ■ Hooker f. Gard. Chron. n. 
ser. XXV. 788, f. 174, 175; Fl. Brit. Ind. v. 654. — Beissner, Handb. 
Nadelh. 479, f. 134. 

Pinits Webbiana, Lambert, Pinus, ed. 2, i. 77, t. 44 (1828). — 

Antoine, Conif. 61, t. 24, f . 1. — Endlicher, I. c. 106. — Parla- 

tore, I. c. — W. R. M*Nab, I. c. 691, t. 48, f. 18. 

Pinus spectabilis, D. Don, Prodr. FL Nepal. 55 (1825). — Lam- 
bert, I. c. ii. 3, t. 2. 
Picea Webbiana, Loudon, I c. 2344, f . 2251-2253 (1838). — 

Gordon, I. c. 160. 
Abies spectabilis, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 422 (1842). — K. Koch, 

Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 230. 

Abies Webbiana is a tree sometimes one hundred and fifty feet in 
height, with a trunk from three to five and occasionally ten feet in 
diameter, leaves very dark green and lustrous on the upper surface 
and silvery white on the lower, and cylindrical or ovoid dark pur- 
ple cones from four to six inches long. It is widely spread at high 
elevations over the Himalayas from Afghanistan to Bhotan, some- 
times, in cold damp glades facing the north, forming, either alone 
or with the Birch, the highest forest belt; it is often associated, 
also, with the Spruce, the White Pine and the Hemlock, and with 
Birches, Maples, and Rhododendrons in great subalpine forests. 
The wood of the Himalayan Fir-tree is soft, pale, and not durable 
when exposed to the weather; it is used in mountain regions in the 
construction of houses and for shingles, and from Sikkim it is sent 
into Thibet. The bark is employed for the roofs of shepherds' 
huts and the twigs and leaves for fodder; a violet dye has been 
obtained from the cones (Gamble, Man. Indian Timbers, 408). 

Brandis distinguishes two varieties of Abies Webbiana which 
other botanists have sometimes considered species. The first of 
them is a Webbiana (Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 528 [1874]), which he 
describes as a small tree with shorter and less bifid leaves and usu- 
ally shorter and thicker cones; this form grows on exposed rocky 
ridges at higher elevations than his 

^ Pindrow, I c. (1874). —Beissner, I c. 481. 

Pinus Pindrow,J>. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. (1837). — An- 



toine, I. c. 62, t. 24, f . 2. — Endlicher, I. c. 106. — Parlatore, I. c. — 
W. R. M'Nab, I. c. 690, t. 47, f. 17. 

Picea Pindrow, Loudon, I. c. 2346, f. 2254, 2255 (1838).— 
Gordon, I. c 157. 

Abies Pindrow, Spach, I. c. 423 (1842). — Royle, 7Z^. 350, t. 

86. ~ Carrifere, I. c. 221. — K. Koch, I. c. 229. — Bertrand, Ann. 

Sci. Nat. s^r. 5, xx. 95. — Masters, I. c. 691, f . 154. 

This is a larger tree found in sheltered places in good soil with 
longer leaves and usually cylindrical cones. 

First cultivated in Europe in 1822, Abies Webbiana, although in 
a few favorable positions in Great Britain it has grown to a size 
sufficiently large to produce cones, has not on the whole proved 
particularly valuable as an ornamental tree in Europe; in the 
United States it is not hardy at the north, and southward is de- 
stroyed by heat and drought. 

^^ Abies Nordmanmana, Spach, I. c. 418 (1842). — Carri^re, I. c. 
203. — Tehihatcheff, Asie Mineure, 494. — K. Koch, I. c. 218. — 
Boissier, I. c. — Masters, I. c. 142, f . 30. — Hooker, f . Bot. Mag. 
cxiv. t. 6992. — Beissner, I. c. 434, f. 120. 

■ Pinus Nordmanniana, Steven, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xi. 45, t. 2 

4 

(1838); Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 2, xi. 56; Gard. Mag. ser. 2, v. 225, 
f. 43. — Antoine, l. c. 74, t. 28, f. 1. —Endlicher, /. c. 97.— 
Ledebour, FL Moss. iii. 670. — K. Koch, Linncea, xxii. 295. — 
W. R. M'Nab, L c. 694, t. 48, f. 22. 

Picea Nordmanniana, Loudon, Encycl. Trees, 1042, f. 1900 
(1842). — Gordon, L c. 150. 

Picea Withmanniana, Carri^re, Z. c. 260 (1855). — Trautvetter, 
Act. Hort. Petrop. ix. 213 (Incrementa FL Ross.). 
. Pinus A bies, Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. QQ (in part) (not Du Roi) 
(1867) ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 420 (in part)* 
Abies Nordmunniana, which is the most eastern representative of 
a group of species of which Abies Picea of central Europe is the 
type, is a tree sometimes one hundred and fifty feet in height, with 

a trunk six feet in diameter, long crowded leaves dark green and 
lustrous on the upper surface and silvery white on the lower, and 
oblong-cylindrical or ellipsoidal dark orange-brown cones with con- 
spicuously exserted bracts. It is an inhabitant of the mountains on 
the southern and southeastern shores of the Black Sea, including the 
western spurs of the Caucasus, and is common at elevations of two 
thousand feet above the sea-level. Introduced in 1848 into the gar- 
dens of western Europe, Abies Nordmanniana has proved the most 
vigorous of all the eastern Fir-trees, thriving in soils and situations 
where the others do not flourish, and one of the most useful exotic 
conifers for the decoration of the parks and gardens of temperate 
Europe. (See Hutchinson, Trans. Agric. and Highland Soc. ser. 4, 
x. 141. — Masters, I. c. 147, f. 30. — Webster, Trans. Scottish Ar- 
boricultural Soc. xi. 61. — Dunn, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 86.) The 
Nordmann Fir is very hardy in the eastern United States as far 
north, at least, as eastern Massachusetts, but although dense in 
habit and very handsome while young, it is apt to become thin and 
shabby here at a comparatively early age. 

12 Abies Cilicica, Carri^re, L c. 229 (1855); FL des Serres, xi. 
67, t. — Tchihatcheff, L c. 494. — K. Koch, Dendr. li. pt. ii. 221. — 
Bertrand, L c. — Boissier, L c. — Beissner, L c. 448, f . 122. 

Pinus Cilicica, Kotschy, Oestr. Bot. WochenbL iii. 409 (1853). — 

Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. I. c. 422. — W. R. M'Nab, I. c. 

694, t. 48, f . 23. 

Abies selinusia, Carrifere, Fl, des Serres, xi. 69 (1856). 
Picea Cilicica, Gordon, L c. Suppl. 50 (1862). 

Abies Cilicica, which is described as a tree from forty-five to 
sixty feet in height, forms with the Cedar of Lebanon great forests 
on the Cilician Taurus at elevations of from four thousand five 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



99 



hundred up to six thousand feet above the sea-level, and grows also 
on the Anti-Taurus and the Lebanon. It bears slender flat leaves 
which are often an inch and a half long on sterile branches, and 
are dark green above and silvery white on the lower surface, and 
cones which are sometimes ten inches in length. 

AUes Cilicica has proved one of the hardiest and handsomest of 
the exotic Fir-trees which have been introduced into the northern 
United States, where it grows rapidly and forms a broad-based 
compact mass of branches gradually narrowed above into a slender 
pyramidal head (Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 538. — Davis, 
Garden and Forest, vi. 468). Beginning to expand its buds very 
early in the spring, the Cilieian Fir suffers in western Europe from 
spring frosts, which disfigure and often destroy it. 

13 Abies CepJialonica, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2325, f. 2235, 2236 
(1838). — Forbes, Pinetum Wohurn. 119, t. 42. — Link, iinnt^a, xv. 
530. — Carrifere, Traite Conif. 211. — Boissier, Fl. Orient, v. 702. — 
Masters, Gard. Chron. n, ser. xxii. 592, f . 105. — Beissner, Handh, 
Nadelh. 438. 

Picea CepTtalonica, Loudon, Gard. Mag. ser. 2, v. 238, f. 49-56 

(1839) ; Encycl. Trees, 1039, f. 1940-1946. — Gordon, Pinetum^ 
146. 

Finns CepJialonica, Endlicher, Cat. Hort. Vindoh. i. 218 (1842) ; 

Syn. Conif. 98. — Antoine, Coni/. 71, t. 27, f. 1. ~ W. K. M'JSTab, 

Proc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 695, t. 48, f. 24. 
Pinus Abies, e CepJialonica, Christ, Verhand. Nat Gesell. Basel, 

iii. 544 (UebersicJit der Europaischen AUetineen) (1862). — Parla- 

tore, De CandoUe Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 422. 
AUes CepJialonica robusta, Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 285 

(1867). — BaiUy, Rev. Hort. 1889, 309. 

Abies CepJialonica grows only on Mt. Enos in the Island of 
Cephalonia where, at elevations of from four to five thousand feet 
above the sea-level, it covers a ridge twelve or fifteen miles in 
length. (See Napier, TJie Colonies, 338.) It is a tree sixty or 
seventy feet tall, with wide-spreading branches, broad sharp-pointed 
rigid dark green leaves standing out from the branches nearly at 
right angles, and gray-brown cylindrical pointed cones six or seven 
inches in length, with exserted or rarely included bracts (Bailly, 
/. c. 1888, 578). 

Abies CepJialonica was first cultivated in 1824, when a few seeds 
were sent to England by General Sir Charles J. Napier, Governor 
of the Island of Cephalonia. In western Europe it is considered 
one of the most ornamental of the Old World Abies, and in the 
United States it has proved hardy as far north as eastern Massa- 
chusetts, healthy specimens thirty or forty feet in height existing in 
several American gardens. 

The Fir-tree which is common and generally distributed over the 
mountains of Greece and Roumelia, often forming extensive forests 
at elevations of from fifteen hundred to four thousand feet above 
the sea-level, differs only from the Cephalonian Fir in the usually 
narrower and blunter leaves of some individuals, and is now gen- 
erally considered a variety of that species. It is : — 

Abies CepJialonica, var. ApolUnis, Beissner, I. c. 440 (1891). 

Abies ApolUnis, Link, L c. 528 (1841). — Oarri6re, I. c. 209. — 
Boissier, /. c. 

Pinus ApolUnis, Antoine, /. c. 73 (1840-1847). 
Pinus Abies, j8 ApolUnis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 96 (1847). 
Abies Picea (B) ApolUnis, Liudley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. V. 210 (1850). — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. ii. 167, t. 24. 

Abies Reginos AmaUcB, Heldreich, Gartenfloraf ix. 313 (1860); 
X. 268. 

Picea ApolUnis^ Gordon, I. c. Suppl. 44 (1862). 
Pinus Abies, b Regince Amalioe, Christ, I. c. (1862). 



• Pinus Abies, 5 ApolUnis, Christ, I. c. (1862). 

Pinus Abies, S PanacJiaica, Christ, I. c. 544 (1862). 

Abies CepJialonica, a Parnassica, Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 
Nadelh. 181 (1865). 

Abies Cephalonica, ^ Arcadica, Henkel & Hochstetter, L c. 
182 (1865). 

Abies ApolUnis, $ Panachaica, Boissier, I. c. (1884). 

Abies ApolUnis, y Regince Amalice, Boissier, /. c. (1884). 

Abies Cephalonica, var. Regince Amalice, Beissner, I c. 441 
(1891). 

This Greek Fir is interesting in its power of producing vigorous 
shoots from adventitious buds. This peculiarity was first noticed 
in 1859 in the Fir forests of the district of Tripolitza in central 
Arcadia, where from time immemorial the inhabitants of the neigh- 
boring villages had been in the habit of obtaining their small 
timber by cutting out the tops of the trees at different heights 
according to the size required. It was found that from the side 
branches of these mutilated trees a number of vertical stems often 
from eighteen to twenty feet in height and from twelve to fifteen 
inches in diameter had been produced, and that young trees cut at 
the ground had thrown up, like Pinus rigida in New Jersey, a cop- 
pice growth of vigorous shoots. (See Kegel, Gartenflora, ix. 299, 
f . — Heldreich, I. c. x. 286, f .) 

The Greek Fir has proved hardy in eastern Massachusetts, where 
it has already borne cones. 

^* Abies Picea, Lindley, Penny Cycl. i. 29 (not Miller) (1833).— 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 217. ~ Karsten, Pharm.-med. Bot. 325, 
f.l56. 

Pinus Picea, Linnseus, Spec. 1001 (1753). — Lambert, Pinus, 

i. 46, t. 30. — Antoine, /. c. 68, t. 27, f. 2. — Ledebour, Fl. 
Ross. iii. 66. 

Abies alba, Millev, Diet. ed. 8, No. 1 (1768). 

Pinus Abies alba, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 222 (1770). 

Pinus Abies, Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 39 (1771); HarbJc. Baumz. ii. 
95. — Brotero, Htst. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e Abetos, 28. — Visi- 
ani, Fl. Balm. i. 200. — Endlicher, I. c. 95 (excl. syn. Pinus 
ApolUnis). — Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. German, xi. 4, t, 533 {Abies 
pectinaia on plate). — Parlatore, Fl. Ital. iv. 66 (excl. syn. 
Abies Cephalonica, Abies Nordmanniana, Abies ApolUnis, Abies 
Panachaica, and Abies Regince- Amalice) ; De CandoUe Prodr. I. c. 
420 (in part). 

Pinus pectinata, Lamarck, Fl. Frang. li. 202 (1778). — W. R. 
M'Nab, I. c. 693, t. 48, f. 20, 21. 

Abies minor, Gilibert, Exercit. Phyt. ii. 412 (1792). 

Abies vulgaris, Poiret, LamarcJc Diet. vi. 514 (1804). — Spach, 
Hist. Veg. xi. 415. 

Abies pectinata, De CandoUe, LamarcJc Fl. Fran^. ed. 3, iii. 
276 (not Gilibert nor Poiret) (1805). — Nouveau DuJiamel, v. 
294, t. 82. — Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif t. 2. — Link, I. c. 526. — 

Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat. s4r. 3, iii. 239 (Conif eres d^Itahe). 

Hartig, Forsf. Culturpfl. Deutschl. 26, t. 2. — Carrifere, I. c. 
205. —FiscaXi, Deutsch. ForstcuU.-Pf. 17, t. 1, f. 1-7. — WiU- 
komm & Lauge, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 16. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. 
Nat. s^r. 5, xx. 94. — Laguna, Conif eras y A mentdceas Espanolas, 
31; FL Forestal Espanola, pt. i. 24, t. 1. — Boissier, I. c. 701. — 
Colmeiro, Enum, PI. Hispano-Lusitana, iv. 707. — Beissner, I. c. 
428, f. 118, 119. ~ Herder, Bot. Jahrb. xiv. 160 {Fl. Europ. Russ- 
lands). — Hempel & Wilhelm, Baume und Straucher, i. 86, f . 44- 
49, t. 2. 

Abies taxifolia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 579 (not Lambert) 
(1809). 

Abies excelsa, Link, AbJiand. AJcad. Berl. 1827, 182 (1830). 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-^. 



Picea kuhinaria, Wenderoth, Pflanz. Bot, GarL Marb. 11 

(1831). 
Picea pectinata, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2329, f. 2237-2239 

(1838). 
AUes argentea, De Chambray, 7'raite Arh. Res. Conif. 17, 1. 1, 

f. 1, 2, t. 5, f. 1 (1845). 

Pinus AbieSy a pectinataj Christ, VerJiand. Nat. GeselL Basel, 

ill. 542 (JJebersicht der Europdischen Ahietineen) (1862). 

Abies Picea, which is the largest of the conifers of Europe, under 
exceptionally favorable conditions attains the height of two hundred 
feet, and forms a trunk eight feet in diameter. It is a tree with 
elongated horizontal lower branches, which, on the Jura and the 
Swiss Alps, occasionally develop lateral shoots that grow upward, 
and have the appearance of young perfectly developed trees (see 
Christ, Garden and Forest, ix. 273), and a pyramidal crown which 
m old age sometimes becomes round-headed. The leaves are flat, 
spreading in two ranks, dark green and lustrous on the upper sur- 
face and silvery white on the lower, and the slender cylindrical 
bluntly pointed cones are light green to deep purple and five or 
six inches long, with slightly exserted bracts. 

Abies Picea is an inhabitant of the mountains of southern and 
central Europe, forming forests on the mountains of Catalonia and 
Aragon, and on the northern slopes of the eastern Pyrenees, In 
Corsica it is the principal tree in the belt above that of Pinus 
Laricio and below the forests of Beech. It grows also at high alti- 
tudes in Sicily, on the Apennines, the Jura and the Vosges, and in 
the Schwarzwald, in Saxony, Thurlngia, the Tyrol, and Dalmatia. 

The wood of Abies Picea is white, sometimes tinged with reddish 
brown, with sapwood which is hardly distinguishable from the 
heartwood ; it is moderately elastic, soft, and easily worked, but 
not durable; it is used in the construction of buildings and boats, 
for masts, in cabinet-making and wood-carving, and for fuel and 
charcoal. The bark is employed for tanning leather. By punctur- 
ing the resin vesicles on the trunk Strasburg turpentine is ob- 
tained. Once highly esteemed in medicine, this substance was long 
ago dropped from the pharmacoposias of Europe, and is now almost 
forgotten. (See Belon, De Arboribus Coniferis, 28. ~ Dale, Phar- 
macologia, 395. — Stephenson & Churchill, Med. Bot. ii. t. 74. — 
Loudon, L c. — Fluckiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 555. — • 
Bentley & Trimen, Med. Bot. iv. 262, t. 262.) Strasburg turpen- 
tine is still occasionally used in the preparation of paints and 
varnish. 

Young plants of Abies Picea are able to survive for a long time 
in the shade of other trees, and therefore this species has been 
found especially valuable by French and German sylviculturists for 
the natural reproduction of forests. In artificial planting, how- 
ever, it usually proves more uncertain than the Spruce, although 
the great forest of this tree at Vallambrosa, overhanging the Arno 
and below the summits of the Apennines, has been perpetuated 
for centuries entirely by planting. 

Abies Picea was introduced into England at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and has since been a favorite with Eng- 
lish planters, who have produced many noble specimens. (See 
Strutt, Sylva Britannica, 31, t. 6. — Loudon, I c. 2332.) Abies 
Picea was brought to the eastern United States early in the present 
century, but it is not very hardy even in the middle states, and 
is not usually kept alive here for more than a few years without 
difficulty. 

A number of abnormal forms of Abies Picea are cultivated by 
European lovers of curious trees. The most distinct of these are 
the forms with erect and with pendulous branches, and one with 
short branches covered by short crowded leaves. (For a descrip- 



tion of the garden forms of Abies Picea, see Carri^re, Traite Conif. 
ed. 2, 280. — Veitch, Man. Conif. 104. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 
432.) 

15 Abies Pinsapo, Boissier, Bibl. Univ. Geneve, xiii. 167 (1838); 
Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ix. 167; ElencJi. PI. Nov. Hisp. 84 ; Voy. 
Espagne, ii. 584, 1. 167-169. — ■ Carrifere, Traite Conif. 227. — Will- 
komm & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. i. 17. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. 
pt. ii. 226. — Bertrand, Ann. Sci, Nat. s4v. 5, xx. 95. — Laguna, Conv- 
feras y Amentdceas Espanolas, 31; Fl. Forestal Espanola, pt. i. 35, 
t. 2, 3. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. sxiv. 468, f . 99. — Colmeiro, 
Enum. PI. Hispano-Lusiiana, iv. 708. — Beissner, I. c. 444, f. 121. 
Pinus Pinsapo, Antoine, Conif. 65, t. 26, f. 2 (1842-47).— 

Endllcher, Syn. Conif. 109. — Christ, L c. 645. — Parlatore, De 

Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 422 (excl. syn.) — W. K. M'Nab, 

Proc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 697, t. 48, f. 26. 

Picea Pinsapo, London, Encycl. Trees, 1041 (1842). — Gordon, 

Pinetum, 159. 

Abies Hispanica, De Chambray, /. c. 339 (1845). 

Abies Pinsapo is a tree seventy or eighty feet in height, with a 
stout trunk usually clothed with branches to the ground, and dis- 
tinguished by its stiff branchlets thickly set with short broad rigid 
sharply pointed erect bright green leaves spreading from all sides, 
and cylindrical gray-brown cones from four to six inches in length. 
It grows on the mountains of central and southern Spain, and 
forms great forests on the Sierra Nevada, at elevations of be- 
tween four thousand and six thousand feet above the sea. It was 
introduced into gardens in 1839 by Boissier, who first distinguished 
the Pinsapo as a distinct species. In central and western Europe, 
where it is one of the most generally cultivated and handsomest of 
the Fir-trees, it has already grown to a large size, but in the 
eastern United States it never really flourishes, although it is pos- 
sible to keep it alive for many years in favorable situations even 
as far north as eastern Massachusetts. (Sargent, Garden and For- 
est, vi. 458.) 

1^ Abies Baborensis, Letourneux, Cat. Arb. et Arbust. d^Algerie 
(1888). 

Abies Pinsapo, var. Baborensis, Cosson, Btdl. Soc. Bot. France, 

viii. 607 (1861); Annuaire Soc. Imp. d'Acclimatation, 1863,299 ; 

Rev. Hort. 1866, 144. —K. Koch, /. c. 227. 

Abies Numidica, Carrifere, Rev. Hort. 1866, 106, 203 ; Traite 

Conif, ed. 2, 305. — Veitch, I. c. 103. — Masters, ?. c. ser. 3, 

iii. 140, f. 23. — Trabut, Rev. Gen. Bot. i. 405, t. 17, 18. — 

Beissner, I. c. 447. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 16. 
■ Pinus Pinsapo, Parlatore, I. c. (in part) (not Boissier) 

(1868). 
Picea Numidica, Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 220 (1875). 
Pinus Baborensis, W. R. M'Nab, /. c. t. 48, f. 27 (1877). 
The Algerian Fir, mingling with the Mt. Atlas Cedar, in- 
habits the slopes of Mt. Babor and Mt. Tababor, in the Province 
of Constantine, at elevations of from four to six thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. It is a tree sixty or seventy feet in height, 
with a slender trunk, spreading branches forming a compact pyr- 
amidal head, crowded dark green flat pointed or emarginate leaves, 
and cylindrical dull grayish brown cones from five to eight inches 
in length, their bracts being shorter or longer than their scales. 
Introduced into the gardens of central Europe in 1864, Abies Ba- 
borensis has proved hardy in France and England, and one of the 
most attractive members of the genus as a garden plant. 

" The Cascade Mountains in Oregon must, perhaps, be regarded 
as the headquarters of the genus Abies, for on that part of the 
range which is south of the Columbia River, and which is not over 
one hundred and seventy miles long, are congregated six species, 



CONIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



101 



Ahies nohilis at the north, replaced southward by Abies magnifica, 
Abies grandis at the north replaced by Abies concolor at the south, 
and Abies amaUlis and Abies lasiocarpa, extending down from the 
Columbia nearly to the southern end of the range. 

^8 Saporta, Origine Paleontologique des Arbres, 77. 

" Practically nothing is known of the insects which probably 
dwell upon the different species of Abies in the western part of 
America, and those which infest the eastern, Abies lalsamea and 
Abies Fraseri, have been little studied. Many of the borers which 
attack Pinus and Picea also infest Abies, but no species peculiar to 
these trees has been reported. Nearly all the species of saw-flies, 
moths, and other insects which attack the foliage of Picea are also 
to be found on Abies, although a few species may be peculiar to 
Fir-trees. Various species of scale-insects are sometimes found on 
Abies, and a mite of the group Aerina commonly occurs on the 
young twigs, arresting the growth of the leaves and twisting and 
distorting them. 

In England a woolly Aphis causes gouty swellings upon the 
leading and other shoots of ^5zes nobilis, Abies amabilis, and other 
Fir-trees, preventing the formation of leaders and eventually killing 
the trees. (See Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xviii. 1091, f. 19, 20.) 
On the island of Mt. Desert, off the coast of Maine, Abies balsamea 
was attacked about a dozen years ago in a similar manner, and 
hundreds of trees were killed. 

2*> The most striking fungus which infests Abies balsamea^ the 
northeastern representative of the genus, is JEcidium elatinum, Al- 
bertini & Schweinitz, a rust which is common in cold and wet 
regions, especially in the mountainous districts from Newfoundland 
to Michigan, and southward to the mountains of North Carolina. 
Of all the so-called hexen-besen, or witches-brooms, sometimes 
called birds-nest distortions, those caused by this fungus are the 
largest that occur in the United States, being at times three feet 
high and three feet or more in circumference. On the affected 
branches is formed a node from which arise vertical dense tufts of 
fasciculated branches, so that the distortions which can be seen 
from a considerable distance look like small trees attached to the 
branches. In May and early June the branches are paler and 
more succulent, and the leaves are shorter and stouter than normal 
leaves, and show the yellow spots due to the spores of the fungus. 
Later in the season the spots disappear, the leaves shrivel, and the 
stems darken, although they last several years and produce suc- 
cessive crops of spores. This fungus has a very wide distribution, 
being common In Europe on Abies Picea and some other species, 
and extends to Siberia and Japan. 

Another rust, Peridennium balsameum, Peck, is common on the 
under side of the leaves of Abies balsamea, especially in the moun- 
tainous regions of New England and New York. The cluster-cups 
of this species are small and short, the spores are nearly white, 
and no noticeable distortion is produced. The fungus, therefore, 
is not easily seen except by a practiced eye, although ultimately 
the affected leaves become pale-colored. Beside the rust fungi, 
several peculiar small species attack the leaves and stems of Abies 
balsameaj es-pec\a.\ly Nectria balsamea, Cooke & ^eck, A sierina nuda. 
Peck, and Meliola balsamicola, Peck. Fusisporium Berenice, Berkeley 
& Curtis, the pycnidlal condition of some Discomycete, forms slate- 
colored cups with a thin raised margin on the smaller branches, 
while the trunks are often covered by the orange-colored cups of 
Dasyscypha Agasdzii, Saccardo, which seems to prefer this tree to 
any other, although It is found on other conifers. 

The European Abies Picea is attacked by many species of fungi, 
including a number of small species recently described by Vuille- 
min {Bull Soc. Mycol xii. 33). The parasites of Abies Fraseri 



have not been well studied, but this tree is attacked by Peziza 
croceaj Schweinitz, and Trichosphcm.a parasitica, R. Hartig. 

Little is known of the fungal enemies of the Abies of western 
America. 

^1 Abies Momi, Siehold, Verhand. Bat. Genoot. Konst. Wet. xii. 26 
(1830). — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 227. 

Abies Jirma, Siehold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap, ii. 15, t. 107 
(1842). — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 212. — A. Murray, The Pines 
and Firs of Japan, 53 (excl. Abies liomolepis), f. 96-115. — 
Miquel, Ann, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iii. 166 (Prol. Fl. Jap.). — 
Bertrand, A nn. Set. Nat. sdr. 5, xx. 95. — Franchet & Savatier, 
Enum. PI. Jap. i. 467. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 
198; Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 514 (Conifers of Japan). — Mayr, 
Monog. Abiet. Jap. 31, t. 1, f. 1. — Beissner, Bandh Nadelh. 
450, f . 123. 

Abies bifida, Siehold & Zuccarini, /. c. 18, t. 109 (1842).— 
Carri^re, I. c. 214. — Bertrand, I. c. 

Pinus frma, Antoine, Conif. 70, t. 27 bis. (1840-1847).— 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif 99. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
pt. ii. 424 (excl. syn.). — W. R. M'Nab, Proc. R. Irish Acad. 
ser. ii. 686, t. 47, f. 14 (excl. syn, Pinus brachyphylla). 

Pinus bifida, Antoine, I. c. 79, t. 31, f. 2 (1840-47). — End- 
licher, I. c 101. 

Picea firma, Gordon, Pinetum, 147 (1858). — A. Murray, Proc. 
R, Hart. Soc. ii. 351, f. 63-81. 

Picea firma, var. B, A. Murray, I. c, 409 (1862). 
Abies firma, var. bifida, Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 199 
(1879); Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 514 {Conifers of Japan). 
Pinus bifida, W. K. M'Nab, I. c. 688, t. 47, f. 15 (1877), 
Alnes umbellata, Mayr, I, c. 34, t. 1, f. 2 (1890). 
Abies Momi, the largest of the Japanese Fir-trees and an inhab- 
itant of the mountains of southern Hondo, where it is said to be 
abundant in the forests of deciduous-leaved trees, is the species 
best known to the JapanesOp furnishing them with the Fir-wood of 
commerce and one of the chief ornaments of their parks. The 
Momi has usually proved disappointing in the United States and 
Europe, where, although it is hardy enough, it early becomes thin 
and ragged, but the Momis in the temple gardens of Tokyo, often 
one hundred and twenty feet in height, with tall clean trunks from 
four to six feet in diameter and dense dark pyramidal crowns of 
rigid lustrous acute or bifid leaves, are certainly not surpassed in 
beauty by any other Fir-trees which men have planted. (See Sar- 
gent, Forest Fl. Jap. 82.) 

22 Abies Veitchi, Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1861, 23. — A. Murray, 
The Pines and Firs of Japan, 39, f . 69-79. — Gordon, I. c. Suppl 
56. — Carrifere, Traite Conif. ed. 2, 309. — K. Koch, I. c. 228.— 
Bertrand, I. c. — Franchet & Savatier, I. c. 468. — Masters, Gard, 
Chron. n. ser. xiii. 275, f. 50, 51; Jour, Linn. Soc. xviii. 515, t. 20 
(Conifers of Japan). — Mayr, I. c. 38, t. 2, f. 4. — Beissner, I. c. 

457, f. 125, 126. 

Picea Veitchi, A. Murray, Proc. R. Bort. Soc. ii. 347, f. 52-62 

(1862). 

Pinus selenolepis, Parlatore, I. c. 427 (1868). 

Pinus Veitchi, W. R. M'Nab, I. c. 686, t. 47, f. 13 (1877). 

Abies Eichleri, Lauche, Berlin Gartenzeit. i. 63, f, (1882). — 
Hemsley, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xvii. 145. — Bolle, Garden and 
Forest, iii. 434. 

Abies Veitchi, which is the prevailing tree in a forest belt be- 
tween elevations of seven thousand and eight thousand feet above 

r 

the sea on Mt. Fusi-san, appears to be of very local distribution in 
Japan, and is probably a northern tree finding its most southerly 
home only on the highest mountains of the empire, a little known 



102 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERiE. 



Fir-tree of the coast of Manchuria appearing to be identical with 

it. This is the 

AUes Sibirica, var, nephrolepiSf Trautvetter, Maximowicz Mem. 
Sav. jStr, Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, ix. 260 (Prim. Fl. Amur.) 

(1859). 

Abies nephrolepis^ Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg^ 

X. 486 (MeL Biol. ¥i. 21) (1866). ~ Beissner, Handb. Nadelh, 

457. 

Abies Veitclii was sent from Japan in 1876 by Mr. Thomas 
Hogg to the Parsons Nurseries at Flushing, New York, and for 
many years was cultivated in the United States under the unpub- 
lished name of Abies Japonica (Garden and Forest, vi. 525). In 
our gardens it is a handsome hardy fast-growing tree, distinguished 
from Abies homolepis, to which it bears a superficial resemblance, 
by its shorter and more crowded leaves, its slenderer branchlets 
clothed with soft fine pubescence, and its smaller cones. 

23 Abies homolepis, Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. ii. 17, t. 108 
(1842). — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 215. — Miquei, Ann. Mus. Bot. 
Lugd. Bat. iii. 166 (Prol. Fl. Jap.), — Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
s^r. 5, XX. 95. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 823, f. 136 ; Jour, 
Linn. Soc. xviii. 518 (Conifers of Japan). — M.3i.jVj Monog. Abiet. 
Jap. 35, t. 2, f. 3. 

Pinus homolepiSf Antoine, Conif. 78, t. 31, f. 1 (1840-47). — 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 101. 

Picea firma, var. A, A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. ii. 409 
(1862). 

Abies frma, A. Murray, Pines and Firs of Japan, 53 (in part) 
(not Siebold & Zuccarini) (1863). 

Abies brachyphylla, Maximowicz, I. c, 488 (1866) (J. c. 23). — 

Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap.i.4Sl. — Masters, Gard. 

Chron. n. ser. xii. 556, f. 91, 92; Jour. Linn. Soc. xviii. 515, f. 14, 



15 (Conifers of Japan). — Veitch, Man. Conif. 88. — Hooker f. 
Bot. Mag. cxvi. t. 7114. 

Pinus brachyphylla, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 
424 (1868). 

Pinus Tschonoshiana, Parlatore, I. c. 431 (1868). 

Picea brachyphylla^ Gordon, Pinetum, ed. 2, 201 (1875). 

Pinus Harryana, W. E,. M'Nab, Proc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 
689, t. 47, f. 16 (1877), 

Abies homolepis is the common Fir-tree of the Nikko and other 
mountain ranges of central Japan, on which, at elevations of be- 
tween four thousand and five thousand feet above the sea, it is 
scattered either singly or in small groves through the Oak and 
Birch forests that extend up to the great Hemlock belt which 
clothes the upper slopes of these mountains. It is a tree rarely 
more than eighty or ninety feet in height, with a massive trunk 
covered with pale bark, long distichously spreading leaves dark 
green on the upper surface and silvery white on the lower, and 
cylindrical purple cones usually about four inches in length. From 
other Japanese Fir-trees it may be distinguished in old age by the 
broad round-topped head formed by the upper branches, which 
grow more strongly near the top of the tree than those below 
them. The wood is occasionally used in the construction of huts 
in alpine villages. 

Abies homolepiSf which has been an inhabitant of the gardens of 
Europe and of the eastern United States for thirty years, grows 
vigorously in cultivation, and is very hardy in eastern Massachu- 
setts, where it has already produced its cones, and in its young 
state is one of the handsomest and most satisfactory of the exotic 
conifers, although on the oldest plants the middle branches have 
already overgrown and overshadowed those below them. 
2* Inst. 585, t. 353, 354. 



CONIFERS. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 103 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 



ExTAEiES. Leaves flat, grooved above, stomatiferous on the lower and sometimes on the upper sur- 
face, rounded and often notched, or on fertile branches frequently acute at the apex. 
Resin ducts of the leaves within the parenchyma remote from the epidermis. 
Bracts longer or shorter than the cone-scales. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, rounded and short-pointed at the broad denticulate apex, 
much longer than their scales, reflexed ; leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale 

below, obtusely short-pointed and occasionally emarginate 1. A. FkAseri. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, emarginate and short-pointed at the broad serrulate apex, 

r 

shorter or rarely slightly longer than their scales ; leaves dark green and lustrous above, 
pale below, rounded or obtusely short-pointed and occasionally emarginate, and on fertile 

branches acute or acuminate 2. A. baisamea. 

Bracts much shorter than the cone-scales. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-obovate, laciniate, rounded, emarginate, and long-pointed at 
the apex ; leaves blue-green and glaucous, stomatiferous above the middle on the upper 

F 

surface, obtusely pointed and occasionally emarginate, and on fertile branches thickened 

and acute " . . 3. A. lasiocaepa. 

Resin ducts of the leaves close to the epidermis of the lower side. 

Bracts of the cone-scales short-oblong, obcordate, laciniate and short-pointed at the apex ; 
leaves dark green and very lustrous above, silvery white below, conspicuously emargi- 

p 

nate, or on fertile branches sometimes bluntly pointed 4. A. GRANDIS. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, emarginate or nearly truncate at the broad denticulate 

r 

short-pointed apex ; leaves pale blue or glaucous, stomatiferous on the upper surface, 
rounded, acute, or acuminate; on fertile branches often falcate, and thickened and 

keeled above 5. A. concolor. 

Bracts of the cone-scales rhomboidal or oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed into long slen- 
der tips, half as long as their scales ; leaves crowded, dark green and very lustrous above, 
silvery white below, rounded, notched, or acute, or on fertile branches acute or acuminate, 

and occasionally stomatiferous on the upper surface 6. A. amabilis. 

BrACTEAT^. Leaves flat, slightly rounded, obscurely grooved, and without stomata on the upper 
surface, similar on sterile and fertile branches ; tips of the bracts of the cone-scales elongated ; 
winter-buds large, with thin loosely imbricated scales. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-obovate, obcordate, produced into elongated rigid flat tips, 
many times longer than their pointed glabrous scales ; leaves dark yellow-green above, 

silvery white below, acuminate 7. A. venustA. 

NOBILES. Leaves blue-green, often glaucous, stomatiferous on both surfaces, bluntly pointed, flat- 
tened and grooved above or tetragonal on sterile branches, tetragonal, acute, incurved, and 

crowded on fertile branches. 

Bracts of the cone-scales spatulate, full and rounded and fimbriate above, long-pointed, in- 
curved, much longer than and nearly covering their scales ; leaves distinctly grooved on 
the upper surface, rounded and often notched on sterile and acute or acuminate on fertile 

branches ' 8. A. nobilis. 

Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-spatulate, acute or acuminate, or rounded above with slender 
tips, shorter or longer than their scales ; leaves tetragonal, bluntly pointed on lower and 
acute on upper branches 9* -A- MAGNIFICA. 



y 



CONIFEKiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



105 



ABIES FRASERI. 



Balsam Fir. She Balsam. , 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, rounded, short-pointed at the wide denticulate 
apex, much longer than their scales, reflexed. Leaves dark green and lustrous above, 
pale below, obtusely short-pointed, or occasionally emarginate. 



Abies Praseri, Poiret, Lamarck Diet, Suppl. v. 35 



(1817). — Lindley, Penny CycL i. 30. 
New FL i. 39. - 



— Rafinesque, 
Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 374. 



Forbes, Pinetunt Wohurn. Ill, t. 38. 
531.- 



191. — Beissner, Handh. Nadelli. 462, — Hansen, Jour, 
R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 466 (Pinetum Danicuin). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr, 17, f . 7, J, K, L. — Britton & Brown, III. 
FL i. 57, f. 127. 
Pinus Fraseri, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 639 (1814). 

Sprengel, Syst. lii. 884. — D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. 



— Link, Linncea, xv. 
Gray, Man. 441 (in part). — Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 
139, t. 119. — Lindley & Gordon, Jou7\ Hort. Soc. Lond. 
V. 209. — Carri^re, Traite Conif. 200. — Chapman, Fl. 
434. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 26. 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 169. — S^ndclanze, 
Conif. 8. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 202. — Bertrand, Bull. 
Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 379 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 5, xx. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 684, t. 47, f. 10. 

95. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 216. — Engelmann, Trans. Abies balsamea, p Fraseri, Nuttall, Gen. ii. 223 (1818). 



Antoine, Conif. 76, t. 29, f . 1. 
9L- 



— Endlicher, Syn, Conif. 
Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Ahietinece, 12. — Cour- 



tin, Fam. Conif. 57. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 393. — Parlatore, 
De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 419. — W. R. M'Nab, Proc. 



St. Louis Acad. iii. 596; Proc. Phil. Acad. 1876, 173; 



Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 422. 



Gardener's Monthly, xix. 308. 
96.- 



Veitch, Man. Conif. Pinus balsamea, Elliott, Sh. ii. 639 (not Linnaeus) (1824). 



Pinus balsamea, fi Fraseri, Torrey, Compend. Fl. N 

States, 359 (1826). 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 84. — Schubeler, Virid. Norveg. Picea Fraseri, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2340, f. 2243, 2244 



— Kegel, Puss. Dendr. ed. 2, i. 43. — Sargent, Forest 

Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 210. — Lauche, 



i. 431. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 217. — Masters, Gard. 
Chron. ser. 3, viii. 684, f. 132 ; Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 



(1838). 
148. 



Knight, Syn. Conif. 39. — Gordon, Pinetum, 



A fast-growing, short-lived tree, usually from thirty to forty and rarely seventy feet in height, 
with a trunk occasionally two and a half feet in diameter.* The hark of the trunk is from one quarter 
to one half of an inch in thickness, and covered with thin closely appressed bright cinnamon-red scales, 
which generally become gray as the tree reaches maturity. The branches are slender and rather rigid, 
and spread in regular whorls, forming at first an open symmetrical pyramid, but frequently disappear 
from the lower part of the trunk before the tree has attained half its size. The winter-buds are obtuse, 
orange-brown, thickly coated with resin, and rarely more than an eighth of an inch in length. The 
branchlets, which are comparatively stout and covered for three or four years with fine pubescence, are 
pale yellow-brown during their first season, and then, becoming dark reddish brown during their first 
winter, gradually grow darker and often assume shades of purple. The leaves are crowded on the 
upper side of the branchlets, even on those of lower sterile branches, by the strong twist at their base, 
and are flat, obtusely short-pointed, or occasionally slightly emarginate at the apex even on fertile upper 
branches and leading shoots; they are very dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, marked 
on the lower with wide bands of from eight to twelve rows of stomata, and are from half an inch to 
nearly an inch in length, about one sixteenth of an inch broad, and often widest above the middle, 
with an almost continuous layer of hypoderm cells on their upper side and edges. The staminate 
flowers are oblong-cylindrical and about a third of an inch long, with yellow anthers tinged with red; 

1 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American and one hundred and four years old. The stem of this tree, how- 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New Tork, ever, was only an inch and a half thick at the age of thirty years, 
cut on Koan Mountain, near the boundary between North Caro- while the sapwood, which is two inches in thickness, shows only 
Una and Tennessee, is fifteen inches in diameter inside the bark eighteen layers of annual growth. 



< 



106 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS, 



and the pistillate flowers are oblong-oval, with scales rounded above, much broader than they are long 
and shorter than their oblong pale yellow-green bracts rounded at the broad apes which terminates 
in a slender elongated tip, and denticulate and strongly reflexed above the middle. The cones are 
oblong-ovate or nearly oval, rounded at the somewhat narrowed apex, usually about two and a half 
inches in length and an inch and an eighth in thickness, with scales which are five eighths of an inch 
broad and twice as wide as they are long, dark purple and puberulous on the exposed portions, and at 

F 

maturity nearly half covered by their pale yellow-green reflexed bracts. The seeds are an eighth of 
an inch in length and nearly as long as their dark lustrous wings, which are much expanded and very 
oblique at the apex. 

^ ■ 

Abies Fraseriy which grows only on the highest of the southern Appalachian mountains, where 
it is distributed from southeastern Virginia ^ through western North Carolina to Tennessee, often forms 
forests sometimes of considerable extent at elevations of between four and six thousand feet above the 
sea-level, giving to the upper slopes of these mountains their dark and sombre appearance^ or mingles 
with the Red Spruce, the Yellow Birch, and the Hemlock.^ 

The wood of Abies Fraseri is very light, soft, not strong, and coarse-grained ; it is pale brown, 
with nearly white sapwood, and contains broad inconspicuous bands of small summer cells and numerous 
thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3565, a cubic foot weighing 
22.22 pounds. It has been occasionally manufactured into lumber for the construction of hotels and 
other buildings at high elevations on the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Abies Fraseri^ wsis introduced into European gardens in 1811 by John Fraser,* who first made 
this tree known to science and whose labors as a botanical collector are kept green by its specific name. 
Short-lived and hardly distinct enough in habit and general appearance from the Balsam Fir of the 
north to be interesting to planters, Abies Fraseri has little to recommend it as an ornament of 

r 

parks, from which, since the early years of its first introduction, it has probably almost completely 
disappeared, Abies balsamea raised from the seeds of cones with slightly exserted bracts gathered in 
Pennsylvania and New England being usually cultivated in the United States and England as Abies 
FraserL It has proved entirely hardy in the Arnold Arboretum, where it produces cones in 
abundance. 



1 AUes Fraseri was found in May, 1892, on the slopes of Mt. ^ _^ii^g Fraseri is almost universally called the She Balsam by 
Kogers, in Grayson County, southwestern Virginia, by N. L. and the mountaineers of North Carolina, in distinction to He Balsam, 
E. G. Britton and Anna Murray Vail. the name given by them to the E-ed Spruce. 

2 See Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 472, f . 132. * See i. 8. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCIX. Abies Fkaseki. 

r 

4 

1. A branch with staminate flowers^ natural size. 

r 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 

.5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A bract of a pistillate flower, lower side, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds and bract, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

14. Winter-buds, natural size. 

15. A seedling plant, natural size. 



F 
F 

Silva of North America: 



Tab. DCIX.. 



(r 



/ 



\ 



\ 



. J 



15 



/ 



y 




2 




9 



10 



■ ^ 



3 









. .:M 




fe^^vi^' 



tegPHpsr 



■'T, 



1>A*^-" 




6 



7 




i^-\yti*^ '• : ^ 






11 



12 




C . E . FaccoTh deZ . 



* 
#' 






q 
tf 



£rrv. 




. sc. 



N. 



X. 



r 



ABIES FRASERI 



; 




oir 



A.Riocreuay direay. 



r 



Imp . J. Tan^Lu-, Paris. 



CONIFEK^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



107 



ABIES BALSAMEA. 



Balsam Fir. Balm of Gilead Fir 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, emarginate and short-pointed at the wide serrulate 
apex, shorter or slightly longer than their scales. Leaves dark green and lustrous 
above, pale below, obtusely short-pointed and occasionally emarginate, and on fertile 
branches acute or acuminate. 



Abies balsamea, Miller, Diet, ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). 
Lamarck Diet. vi. 521. — 



— Poiret, 
Desfontalnes, Hist, Arh. ii. 



579. — Du Mont de Coarset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 474. 
Noitveau Duhamel, v. 295, t. 83, f. 2. — Link, Handh. 
ii. 479 ; Linncea, xv. 530. — Richard, CoTnin. Bot. Conif. 
74, t. 16. — Ledebour, Fl. Alt. iv. 202. — Lindley, Penny 
Cycl. i. 30. — Lawson & Son, Agric. Man. 373. — Forbes, 
Finetum Wohurn. 109, t. 37. — Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 
421. — Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 
210. — Carribre, Traite Conif. 217. — Darlington, Fl 
Cestr* ed. 3, 291. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelk, 
176. — Sen^clauze, Conif. 6. — Hoopes, Fvergreens, 



i. 380. — Lambert, Pinus, i. 48, t. 31. — Persoon, Syn. 
ii. 579. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 639. — Nuttall, Gen, 
ii. 223. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 176. — Richardson, Frank- 
lin Jour. Appx. No. 7, 752. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 884. 
Brotero, Hist. Nat. Pinheiros, Larices e Ahetos, 31. 

r 

Lawson & Son, List No. 10, Abietinece, 11. — Torrey, Fl. 
m T. ii. 229. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 163. — Bigelow, 
Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 385. — Antoine, Conif. 66j t. 26, f . 3. 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 103. — Gihoul, A^'b. Res. 45, 
Dietrich, Syn. v. 394. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr* 
xvi. pt. ii. 423. — W. R. M*Nab, Proc. B. Irish Acad. 
ser. 2, ii. 684, t. 47, f. 11. 



r 



197. — Regel, Euss. Dendr, pt. i. 20. — Bertraud, Bull, Pinus Abies balsamea, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v. 222 



Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 379 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. s6v. 5, xx. 



(1770). —Marshall, Arhust. Am. 102. 



95. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 214. — NGrdlinger, Pinus taxifolia, Salisbury, Prodr, 399 (1796). 

Forstbot. 456. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. Abies balsamifera, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 207 (in part) 



597. — Veitch, Man. Conif 88. — Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendr. ed. 2, 84. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth 
Census U. S. ix. 210. — Schiibeler, Virid. Norveg. i. 
428. — Willkomm, Forst. Fl. ed. 2, 111. — Watson & 



(1803). — Michaux f . Hist. Arb. Am. \. 145, t. 14 (in 
part) . — Rafinesque, New Fl. i. 39. 
Pinus balsamea, var. longifolia, Lawson & Son, List No, 
10, Abietinece, 11 (1836). 



Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 492. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. Picea balsamea, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2339, f. 2240, 



220, f. 6. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 464. — Masters, 
Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 189 ; Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xvii. 
422, f. 57, 58. — Hansen, Jbwn B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 458 Picea balsamea, var. longifolia, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 



2241 (1838). — Knight, Syn. Conif. 39. — Gordon, Piwe- 
tum, 143. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 37. 



2339 (1838). 
Picea balsamifera, Emerson, Trees Mass, 85 (1846) ; ed. 

2, i. 101. 
Ohs. Bot. 40 ; Harhk. Baumz. ii. 103. — Moench, Baume Picea Fraseri, Emerson, Trees Mass. 88 (not Loudon) 



(Pinetum DanicuTn). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 18. 
Britton & Brown, III. FL i. 57, f. 126. 
Pinus balsamea, Linnaeus, ^^^ec. 1002 (1753). — Du Roi, 



Weiss. 71 ; Meth. 364. — Evelyn, Silva, ed. Hunter, i. 



(1846) ; ed. 2, i. 104. 



279. — Wangenheim, Beschreib. Nordam. Holz. 37 ; Abies Fraseri, Gray, Man, 441 (in part) (not Poiret) 



Nordam. Holz. 40. — Burgsdorf , Anleit. pt. ii. 167. 



(1848). 



Wmdenow, Berl. Baumz. 218 ; Spec. iv. pt. i. 504 ; Enum. Abies Americana, Provancher, Fl, Canadienne, ii. 556 
989. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii. 370. — Castiglioni, Viag. (excl. syri. Abies Fraseri) (not MiHer nor Du Mont de 



Aiton, HoH. Kew. iii. 370. — Castiglioni, Viag. 
negli Statt Uniti, ii. 314. — Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. 



Courset) (1862) 



A tree, fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk usually from twelve to eighteen inches in 
diameter, but occasionally eighty feet tall, with a trunk thirty inches in diameter. During its first 
twenty years the branches, which at this period are elongated, horizontal, and very slender, are disposed 
in regular remote whorls of four or usually of five, the whole forming a handsome symmetrical open 
broad-based pyramid. Later the lower branches die when the tree is crowded in the forest, or, with 
sufficient space for their growth, become somewhat pendulous, while those toward the top of the tree, 
Txrl.;^!. :^ ^^A ^«.^ ^^^ oT.^7.4: ^mw/lpd- and ascendinef-. form a regular sharp-pointed slim spire-like head. 



108 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFEBtE. 



The bark of the trunk of young trees is thin, smooth, pale gray, and conspicuously marked by the 
swollen resin chambers ; on older trees it becomes, especially near the ground, sometimes nearly half an 
inch in thickness, and is reddish brown and much broken into small irregular plates separating on the 
surface into thin scales. The winter-buds are nearly globose and from an eighth to a quarter of an 
inch in diameter, with lustrous dark orange-green scales more or less tinged with red toward the apex. 
The branchlets are slender, and when they first appear are pale yellow-green and coated with fine 
pubescence which does not disappear for two or three years ; during their second season they are light 
gray tinged with red, and, gradually growing darker, are often when four or five years old tinged 
with purple and more or less lustrous. On young trees and on sterile branches of old trees the 
leaves are linear-lanceolate, straight, and, spreading at nearly right angles to the branch, are remote or 
crowded ; and on the upper branches of older trees they are often broadest above the middle, usually 
crowded, incurved and almost erect, and completely cover the upper side of the branchlets ; ^ at the 

L 

apex they are rounded or obtusely short-pointed and on vigorous young trees occasionally emarginate, 
or toward the top of the tree, especially on its leading shoot, they are acute or acuminate, with short 
or elongated rigid callous tips 3 they are dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, marked on the 
lower surface with bands of from four to eight but usually of six rows of stomata, which, silvery white 
and very conspicuous during the first season, lose much of their whiteness in their second year 3 the 
leaves are from half an inch in length on cone-bearing branches to an inch and a quarter on the 
sterile branches of young trees, and are nearly one sixteenth of an inch in width, their hypoderm 
cells, which are not numerous, being chiefly confined to the edges and the keel. The staminate flowers 
are oblong-cylindrical and about a quarter of an inch long, with yellow anthers more or less deeply 
tinged with reddish purple; and the pistillate flowers are oblong-cylindrical and about an inch in 
length, with nearly orbicular purple scales much shorter than their oblong-obovate serrulate pale 
yellow-green bracts, which at the broad apex are somewhat emarginate and abruptly contracted into 
long slender recurved tips. The cones are oblong-cylindrical, gradually narrowed to the rounded apex, 
puberulous, dark rich purple in color, from two and a half to four inches long and from an inch to an 
inch and a quarter thick, with scales which are usually rather longer than they are broad and generally 
almost twice as long as their bracts, although occasionally the ends of the bracts protrude from the 
scales of the mature cone. The seeds are about a quarter of an inch in length and rather shorter than 
their light brown lustrous wings. 

From the interior of the Labrador peninsula, in about latitude 56° north, Abies halsamea^ 
ranging southeastward, reaches the Atlantic coast near Cape Harrison, a degree farther south, and 
extends southwestward to the shores of Hudson Bay, near the mouth of the Great Whale River ; ^ 
west of Hudson Bay it ranges from latitude 54° north to northern Manitoba, and, crossing by the hills 
of western Manitoba, the basin of the Saskatchewan, near Cumberland House, to the valley of the 



* Two forms of Ahies halsamea, distinguished by Mr. Reginald 
C. Robbins of Boston in the region about Moosehead Lake, Maine, 
are probably generally distributed in the northeastern states ; in 
the first the leaves are crowded along the upper sides of the 
branches by the strong twisting of their bases, and in the other 
they are less crowded, longer, more distichously spreading, obtuse 
and often emarginate even on upper branches, of tougher texture 
and of a darker and richer shade of green. The form with crowded 
leaves is a much more rapid-growing and usually a taller tree, 
generally inhabiting dense forests and soon deprived of its lower 
branches, while the form with remote spreading leaves grows more 
slowly, is usually furnished to the ground with branches, and com- 
monly inhabits the borders of pastures and other open places. 
The two forms, however, often grow side by side under what 
appear to be precisely similar conditions. The fast-growing tree 



with crowded leaves is the only one cut in the neighborhood of 
Moosehead Lake for lumber. 

An interesting form of the Balsam Fir, which reproduces itself 
from seeds, derived originally from the Woolf River region of 
Wisconsin, has been cultivated for several years in the Douglas 
Nurseries at Waukegan, Illinois. It is distinguished from the 
ordinary form of the Balsam Fir by its longer and more crowded 
leaves, sometimes an inch and a quarter long on sterile branches, 
and by its longer cones, which are often four and a half inches in 
length. This Fir, which is of unusually compact habit, promises 
to retain its lower branches more persistently than the ordinary 
Balsam Fir, and to be more valuable for the decoration of parks 
and gardens. (See Garden and Forest, v. 274.) 

2 See Bell, The Scottish Geographical Magazine, xiii. 283 {The 
Geographical Distribution of Forest Trees in Canada). 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



109 



Vi 



Churchill, extends down the Churchill to the divide which separates the waters of that river from 
those of the Athabasca, down this stream to the shores of Lake Athabasca, and up the Athabasca to 
the neighborhood of Fort Assiniboine and Lesser Slave Lake, the most northern point where it has been 
observed being in latitude 62° north/ Southward the Balsam Fir is spread over Newfoundland, the 
Maritime Provinces of Canada, Quebec, and Ontario, over northern New England, and through northern 
New York, northern Michigan and Minnesota to northeastern Iowa j ^ leaving the Atlantic coast near 
Portland, in southern Maine,^ it ranges along the Appalachian Mountains through western Massachu- 
setts, over the Catskills of New York and western Pennsylvania'* to the high mountains of southwestern 
irginia.^ Li Labrador Abies balsamea is scattered about the margins of lakes and large streams 
usually in moist alluvial soil;® on the lower Rupert and in the country adjacent to Lake Mistassinie 
it grows in abundance with the Aspen, the Canoe Birch, and the White Spruce. It is common in 
Newfoundland, the Maritime Provinces, and in Ontario and Quebec, growing usually in swamps or on 
higher ground near their borders/ In Manitoba and Saskatchewan it forms with the White Spruce 
dense forests on alluvial bottom-lands, and it occurs also but not commonly on plateaus and low hills up 
to elevations of twelve hundred feet above the streams. In the northeastern states and in the region 
of the Great Lakes the Balsam Fir is a common tree in all northern and elevated parts of the country, 
growing on low swampy ground and on well-drained hillsides, sometimes singly in forests of Spruces, 
Hemlocks, Pines, Birches, and Beeches, and sometimes in small almost impenetrable thickets; and, 
occasionally ascending to high elevations on the mountains of New England and New York, it is reduced 
near their timber-line to a low nearly stemless shrub with wide-spreading prostrate branches.® South 
of Maine and New Hampshire the Balsam Fir is found only west of the Connecticut River, and is 
less abundant and of smaller size than farther north, growing in high cool situations, where its roots 
are rarely without the abundant supplies of moisture which are essential for its welfare. 

The wood of Abies balsamea is very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, and perishable ; it is 
pale brown often streaked with yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood, and contains conspicuous 
narrow bands of small summer cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.3819, a cubic foot weighing 23.80 pounds. It is occasionally made into 
cheap lumber, principally used for packing-cases. From the bark of this tree Canadian Balsam, or 
Balm of Fir, used in the arts, and in medicine chiefly in the treatment of chronic affections of the 
mucous membrane, is obtained.® ' 



^ Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 316. 

2 In 1882 Mr. E. W. D. Hoi way found a single tree of Abies 
halsamea near Decorah in Winneshiek County, Iowa. It has also 
been found in the adjacent county of Alamakee, in the extreme 
northeastern corner of the state. (Teste L. H. Pammel.) 

3 In May, 1881, Mr. John Robinson found Abies halsamea on 
Goose Island, Portland Harbor, 

^ Rothrock, Rep, Dept. Agric. Penn. 1895, pt. ii. Div, Forestry, 
284. 

s In June, 1892, Mr. John K. Small found A hies halsamea on the 
summit of Mt. Rogers, in Grayson County, Virginia, at an eleva- 
tion of five thousand seven hundred and nineteen feet above the 

level of the sea. 

^ Low, Rep, Geolog. Surv. Can. ser. 2, viii. pt. i. 35 L. 

^ Provancher, Flore Canadienne, ii. 555. — Brunet, Cat. Veg. 
Lig. Can. 57. — Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 473. 

8 One of these dwarf forms of the Balsam Fir, a low cushion- 
like plant which does not appear to have produced cones, has long 
been an inhabitant of gardens. It is : — 

Abies halsamea Hudsonia, Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
iii. 597 (1878). — Veitch, Man. Conif. 83. — Beissner, Handh, 
Nadelh. 465. 



Picea Fraseri Hudsonia, Knight, Syn. Conif. 39 (1850). 

Abies Fraseri (B) nana-j Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort, Soc, 
Lond. V. 209 (1850). 

Abies Fraseri, var. Hudsoni, Carri^re, Traite Conif. 200 (1855). 

Picea Fraseri Hudsonica, Gordon, Pinetum, 148 (1858). 
® The gathering of Canada Balsam, which is chiefly a Canadian 
industry, although it is sometimes collected in the northeastern 
United States, is carried on in the province of Quebec only by the 
poorest white people and by Indians, who camp in the woods from 
the middle of June until the middle of August, the season when 
it is usually gathered, the women cooking and keeping the camps, 
while the men and children gather the balsam. This is done with 
small iron cans, furnished at the top with iron tubes sharpened at 
the end. The tube is pressed against the resin blister, punctures 
it, and the gum flows down the tube into the can. The yield of a 
large tree is about one pound, although the average yield is not 
more than half a pound. One man can gather about half a gallon 
of the gum in a day, but with the assistance of his children, who 
climb into the upper limbs while the father works near the ground, 
the yield of a day's work for the family is often a gallon. Canada 
Balsam can be collected only on pleasant days and when the leaves 
of the tree are dry, as the water shaken from the branches, mixing 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



V' 



Plate DCX. Abies baisamea. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract 

and ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale of the long-coned Wisconsin form, upper 

side, with its bract, natural size. 

11. A seed, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. Winter-buds, natural size. 

14. A seedling plant, natural size. 



I 

\ 



y 



■ I 



Silva of North Am 



erica 



TaL.DCX 




t 




\2 




4 



V 



I 



\ ' 



■■1*1 vr..k' 




3 



^ 



# 








6 



8 



i&ltM* 



2 




H-'-- 




9 





11 



' -1 




C.E.FaayoTh deL 



Z or? eyTixZaZy so. 



ABIES BALSAMEA 



; 



Mill 



S 



A. . Hio orBiiay diraay 



Imp . <J. Taneyiir^ ParLs, 



\' L- 



■"J . 



\! 



J 

w 



CONIFERS. 



3ILVA OF NORTS AMERICA. 



113 



ABIES LASIOCARPA. 



Balsam Fir, 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-obovate, laeiniate, rounded, emarginate, and long- 
pointed at the apex, much shorter than the scales. Leaves blue-green and glaucous, 
stomatiferous on the upper surface, rounded or bluntly pointed and occasionally 
emarginate, and on fertile branches thickened and acute. 



Abies lasiocarpa, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 138 (1849). — Lindley 
& Gordon, Jour, Hort. Soc, Lond, v. 210. — Carrifere, Traite 
Conif, 221. — A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. iii. 313, 
f. 10-14 ; Gartenflora, xiii. 118. — Henkel & Hochstetter, 



34-39 (1863) ; Gartenflora, xHi. 119 ; Gard, Chron, n. 



ser. iii. 465, f. 
Nadelh. 420. 
f. 28-31. 



96, 97. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. 
Masters, Gard, Ckron. ser. 3, v. 172, 



Syn, Naddh. 161 (in part). — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. Pinus amabilis, Parlatore, De Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

426 (in part) (not Antoine) (1868). 

Picea bifolia, A. Murray, Gard, Chron. n. ser. iii. 106 
(1875). 
estry, iii. 149 {Cone-Bearers of California) ; West-Amer- Picea lasiocarpa, A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. iv. 135, 



ed. 2, 84. — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, v. 172, f . 23- 
27, 32 ; Jour, Bot. xxvii. 129, f . ; Jour, B. HorU Soc, 
siv. 192. — Lemmon, Rep. California State Board For- 



ican Cone-Bearers, 60 ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 163 {Coni- 



fers of the FacifiG Slope) . 
Herb. V. 49. 



f. 27, 194 ; f. 39 (1875). 



Leiberg, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Abies subalpina, Engelraann, Am. Nat. x. 555 (1876) ; 



Pinus lasiocarpa. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 163 (1839). 

Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 105. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 394. 

Courtin, Fam. Conif 57. — W. R. M'Nab, Froc. jE. Irish 

Acad. ser. 2, ii. 682, t. 46, f . 7, 7 a ; 47, f . 8, 9. 
Pinns sp., Torrey, Fremont's Rep. 97 (1845). 

+ 

Abies balsamea, J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep, iv. pt. 

V. 18 (in part) (not Miller) (1856). — Torrey, Pacific R. 

R. Rep. IV. pt. V. 141 (in part). 
Abies grandis, Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv. Abies subalpina, var. fallax, Engelmann, Trans, St. Louis 



Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 597 ; Rothroch Wheeler's Rep. 
vi. 255. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xv. 236, f. 43-45 ; 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxii. 183, f. 12-17. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees N, Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 211. — Coulter, Man, 
Rocky Mt. Bot. 430. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 355. 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 466. — Hansen, Jour, R. Hort, 
Soc. xiv. 477 {Pinetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendr. 17, f . 7, D-F. — F. Kurtz, Bot, Jahrb. xix. 425 
{Fl, Chilcatc/ebietes). 



330 (not Lindley) (1862). — Carri^re, Traite Conif. ed. 
2, 296 (in part). — Watson, King's Rep. v. 334 (in 
part), — Porter & Coulter, Fl, Colorado ; Hay den's Surv, 
Misc. Pub. No. 34, 131. 



Acad. iii. 597 (1878). 
Abies Arizonica, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
\. 115, f. 24,25 (1896). — Lemmon, ^w^^./Sterm Club, 
ii. 167 {Conifers of the Pacific Slope). 



Picea amabilis, Gordon, Pinetum, 154 (in part) (not Lou- Abies lasiocarpa, var. Arizonica, Lemmon, Bull. Sierra 



don) (1858). 
Abies bifolia, A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. iii. 320, f. 



Club, ii. 167 {Conifers of the Pacific Slope) (1897). 



A tree, occasionally one hundred and seventy-five feet in height, with a trunk five feet in diameter, 
but usually from eighty to one hundred feet tall, with a trunk two or three feet thick, and at high 

L 
L 

elevations often reduced to a low bush with spreading prostrate stems. The bark, which on young 
stems is thin, smooth, and pale gray or silvery white, on old trees is from three quarters of an inch to 
an inch and a half in thickness, divided by shallow fissures and roughened by thick closely appressed 
scales which are light reddish brown or nearly white on the surface, and occasionally soft and spongy.* 



^ Corky bark is particularly noticeable on trees on the San Fran- 
cisco Peaks of Arizona, where a similar peculiarity characterizes 
the bark of Abies concolor and Pseudotsuga mucronata. Upon the 
strength of the spongy bark of the Arizona trees and of some pe- 
culiarity in the form of their cone-scales Dr. Merriam established 
his Abies Arizonica. I have seen bark equally corky, however, on 



Abies lasiocarpa in Colorado and eastern Oregon and in southern 
Alberta and British Columbia, and also the scales of cones pro- 
duced by trees on the Blue Mountains of Oregon, which in shape 
cannot be distinguished from those which grow on the San Fran- 
cisco Peaks. 



114 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIPEE^. 



The short crowded tough branches, which are usually slightly pendulous below, generally clothe the 
trunks o£ the oldest trees to nearly their base and form dense spire-like sharp-pointed heads which are 
remarkable, even among Fir-trees, for their extreme slenderness ; ^ or sometimes the lower branches 
perish on the largest individuals, leaving the massive trunks naked for fifty or sixty feet. The winter- 
buds are subglobose, from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness, very resinous, and covered by 
light orange-brown scales. The branchlets are comparatively stout and are coated during three or four 
years with fine rufous pubescence, or rarely become glabrous before the end of their first season ; when 
they emerge from the buds they are pale orange-brown, and, growing lighter colored during their 
second season, become gray or silvery white. The leaves are flat, with hypoderm cells which form a 
broken band under the epidermis on the upper side and are crowded along the edges and keel; they are 
blue-green, very glaucous during their first season, marked on the upper surface but generally only 
above the middle with four or five rows of stomata on each side of the conspicuous midgroove, and on 
the lower surface with two broad bands each of seven or eight rows of stomata; they are crowded and 
nearly erect by the twist at their base, and on lower branches are from an inch to an inch and three 
quarters long, about one twelfth of an inch wide, and rounded and occasionally emarginate at the apex; 
and on upper and fertile branches they are somewhat thickened and usually acute, with short callous 
tips, and generally not more than half an inch long, while on the leading shoot they are flattened, 
closely appressed, and terminate in long slender rigid points. The staminate flowers are cylindrical, 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length and an eighth of an inch in thickness, with 
dark indigo-blue anthers turning to violet when nearly ready to open ; and the pistillate flowers are 
oblong-cylindrical and an inch in length, with dark violet-purple obovate scales much shorter than 
their bracts, which are contracted into slender tips about a third of an inch long, and strongly 
reflexed. The cones are oblong-cylindrical, rounded, truncate, or depressed at the somewhat narrowed 
apex, from two and a half to four inches long and about an inch and a half thick; their scales are 
gradually narrowed from the broad rounded or nearly truncate apex to the base, and, although usually 
longer than they are broad, are sometimes much broader than they are long; they are dark purple 
and puberulous on the exposed parts, and about three times the length of their bracts, which are 
oblong-obovate, laciniately cut on the margins, rounded, emarginate, and abruptly contracted at the 
apes into long slender tips, and dark red-brown.^ The seeds are about a quarter of an inch in length, 
with deep violet-colored lustrous wings which cover nearly the entire surface of the scales, and often 
become pale yellow-brown in drying. 

Abies lasiocarpa is an inhabitant of high mountain slopes and summits, and is distributed from 
at least latitude 61° north in Alaska ^ southward along the coast ranges to the Olympic Mountains of 
Washington, and over all the high ranges of British Columbia and Alberta ; it extends along the 
Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon,^ over the mountain rang-es of eastern Washing-ton and 



Oregon, and of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colora 

^ The slender spire-like habit of this tree, which always charac- 
terizes it and makes it easily distinguishable from the other Firs 
of western North America, is well shown in the illustration on 
page 380 of the fourth volume of Garden and Forest, which repre- 
sents it growing with Tsuga Mertensiana near the timber-line on 
Mt. Rainier in Washington. 

^ The cone-scales of Abies lasiocarpa vary more in shape than 
those of any other North American Fir-tree and are of little diag- 
nostic value. I have seen them in Montana seven eighths of an 
inch long and three quarters of an inch wide, and in Arizona 
and Oregon nearly an inch wide and half an inch long, while an 
examination of a large series of cones from different parts of the 

country has shown all sorts of variations within these extreme 
limits of size. 

^ See O. M. Dawson, Garden and Forest, I 58 ; Rep. Geolog. 



Surv. Can. n. ser. iii. pt. i. Appx. i. 186 B. — Macoun, Rep. Geolog. 
Surv. Can. n. ser. iii. pt. i. Appx. iii. 226 B. < 

^ The most southern point at which Abies lasiocarpa has been 
noticed on the Cascade Mountains is at an elevation of five thou- 
sand two hundred feet above the sea about ten miles south of 
Crater Lake, near the extreme southern end of the range (teste 
E. I. Applegate). 

Ifc is a curious fact that this tree has been unable to cross the 
lava-covered plains south of the southern end of the Cascade 
Mountains to Mt. Shasta, and that it is entirely absent from the 
high California mountains, although Tsuga Mertensiana, its con- 
stant companion on the northern coast mountains and on the Cas- 
cade Range, abounds on Mt. Shasta and extends far southward 
along the Sierra Nevada. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



115 



the San Francisco Peaks of northern Arizona. On tte coast mountains o£ Alaska* it forms the timber- 
line up to elevations of five thousand feet above the sea-level, growing almost habitually in the coast 
region with Tsuga Mertensiana, and near the head of the Lewes River, in latitude 60"", descending to 
the shores of Lake Bennett, where it is very abundant at elevations of two thousand one hundred and 
fifty feet. In southern British Columbia, on the Selkirk Mountains, where it grows perhaps to its 
largest size, Ahies lasiocarpa is scattered through dense forests composed principally of the western 
Hemlock, the Patton Spruce, and the Engelmann Spruce, and in all the northern Eocky Mountain 
region of the United States, where, north of Colorado, it is the only Fir-tree east of the continental 

L ■ 

divide, it grows on wet subalpine slopes and plateaus near the timber-line, sometimes forming groves in 
park-like openings of the forest, and with the Engelmann Spruce, at elevations of over eight thousand 
feet above the sea, covers the bottoms of deep caiions with continuous forests } ^ on the Cascade and 
Olympic Mountains it forms the timber-line with Tsuga Mertensiana on high wind-swept rocky ridges 
at elevations of from four thousand to nearly eight thousand feet above the sea,^ and on the Blue and 
Powder River Mountains and the other ranges in the interior of Washington and Oregon it grows with 
the White Fir and the Lodge Pole Pine, and reaches the upper limits of tree-growth ; in Colorado it is 
widely distributed, growing usually in the neighborhood of streams at elevations of between seven and 
ten thousand feet above the sea, sometimes forming small groves, but more often scattered among 
Aspens and Spruces, and occasionally ascending to eleven thousand feet above the sea.* On the San 
Francisco Peaks it principally inhabits northern slopes between elevations of nine and ten thousand feet, 
scattered singly or in small masses through the forests of Picea Engelman7ii and Pimis aristata.^ 

The wood of Abies lasiocarpa is very light, soft, and not strong nor durable ; it is pale brown or 
nearly white, with lighter colored sapwood, and contains inconspicuous narrow bands of small summer 
cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3476, 
a cubic foot weighing 21.66 pounds. It is probably little used except as fuel. 

Abies lasiocarpa was, no doubt, one of the Pine-trees which Lewis and Clark noticed in September, 
1805, when they crossed the Bitter Root Mountains in their journey to the Pacific Ocean.^ Nothing 



^ " Near Telegraph Creek, a tributary of the Skeena River, in 
about latitude 58° north on the east side of the coast mountains, 
the Firs grow higher than other trees, dwarfing at a height of 
about five thousand feet into low chaparral. This dwarfing seems 
to he due as much to heavy snow as to altitude, for at the same 
elevation on ridges where the snow can never be deep the dwarf 
and erect forms grow close together. This Fir forms beautiful 
chaparral, the flat thickly foliaged plumes, broad and fan-shaped, 
being imbricated over each other by the pressure of the snow, so 
that the high slopes seem to be neatly and handsomely thatched. 
In this form it is seldom more than three feet high, yet the bushes 
bear fertile cones and seem thrifty and happy as if everything were 
to their mind. In this dwarfed form it reaches a height of five 
thousand five hundred feet. At a height of four thousand feet the 
trees are erect and more than fifty feet high and one foot in diameter 
at the ground. The Pine and Spruce of the region lying between 
the head of Dense Lake and Telegraph Creek in great part give 
place to this handsome Fir around the lake, and upward to the 
north and on the mountains, the tallest being about one hundred 

L 

feet high and one foot in diameter at the ground and feathered 
with short branches from top to bottom. The cones, which are 
three inches long and one inch in diameter, are dark purple, with 
short dark-colored bracts and very dark seed-wings. The moun- 
tain side and the slopes on the west side of the lake is forested 
with this tree." (Muir in litt.) 

Ahies lasiocarpa^ which grows up to elevations of fully five 
thousand feet at the head of the passes which cross the coast 



mountains in latitude 60°, probably grows much farther north on 
the mountains of the valley of the Yukon River, although I have 
not been able to find any record of its existence on these mountains, 
which are still very imperfectly explored. 

It is stated by Dr. George M. Dawson, the director of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada, that AUes lasiocarpa crosses the Rocky 
Moimtains into the Peace River region, and grows in cold, damp 
situations in the country between Lesser Slave Lake and the Atha- 
basca River {Can. Nat n. ser. ix, 326. See, also, Macoun, Cat. 
Can. PL 474). I have not been able to see specimens, however, 
from any point east of the Rocky Mountains. 

2 Tweedy, Ft. Yellowstone National Parlz^ 11, 74. 

s On Mt. Rainier, in Washington, the highest of the volcanic 
peaks of the Cascade Range, Abies lasiocarpa grows from four 
thousand five hundred feet to the extreme upper limits of tree- 
growth, which is at nearly eight thousand feet. At its lowest 
levels it grows with Abies nohilis and Abies amaUlis ; leaving them 
between five and six thousand feet, it attains its best size two 
thousand feet higher, its associate at high elevations being always 
Tsuga Mertensiana ; above seven thousand feet it clings close to 
the ground with semiprostrate stems forming great mats of thick 
branches which, with dwarf plants of the Mountain Hemlock and 
Pinus albicaulis, cover the most exposed ridges. 

* Brandegee, Bot. Gazette, iii. 33. 

s Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 120, 

6 History of the Expedition wider Command of Lewis and Clark, 
ed. Coues, ii. 598. See, also, Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 29. 



116 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



more was heard of it until it was found by David Douglas, who collected in the "interior of N. W. 
America,'* during his second journey to this country in 1832, a meagre specimen from which the first 
description of this tree was made, although it was not well understood until 1876, when Engelmann 
was first able to point out its true characters. . 

Abies lasiocarpa was probably introduced into gardens by Dr. C. C. Parry, who found it in 

r 

Colorado in 1862 and collected its seeds the following year. Little is known of it as a cultivated plant. 
The Eocky Mountain Balsam probably always grows slowly,* and in western Europe it suffers from 

^ 

early spring frosts.^ It was first raised in the Arnold Arboretum from seeds gathered by Dr. Parry in 
Colorado in 1873, and although it is perfectly hardy in eastern Massachusetts, the largest of the plants 
raised from these seeds is now only ten feet high.^ 

The most widely distributed of the Fir-trees of the New World, ranging through thirty degrees of 
latitude, and from the coast mountains of the north, bathed in almost continuous moisture, to the arid 
mountains of Colorado and Arizona, Abies lasiocarpa lives on for centuries safe in its thin needle-like 
head, which offers the least possible resistance to the gales that sweep over it continuously, and in its 
tough branches, which no weight of snow can crush, rejoicing in its hardiness and vigor and seeming 
as enduring as the rivers of ice which often flow at its feet. . 



^ The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of Korth American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
cut in Colorado, is only fifteen and three quarters inches in diame- 
ter inside the bark and one hundred and thirty-eight years old, the 
sapwood, which is three quarters of an inch thick, showing twenty- 
eight layers of annual growth. 

2 At least one plant raised from seeds said to have been collected 



by Roezl somewhere in North America in 1874, and probably in 
Colorado, was alive in England in 1888. (See Syme, Gard. Chron. 
ser. 3, iii. 686.) 

8 Among the plants raised in 1873 in the Arnold Arboretum is 
one only a few inches high, with spreading prostrate stems, which 
promises to prove an interesting addition to the dwarf conifers 
that are highly prized by many lovers of curious trees. 



H 4 



^ r 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



'[ ' 



Plate DCXI. Abies lasiocarpa. 



A 



1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

V, - ■ ., - ' 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules and bract. 

7. A bract of a pistillate flower, lower side, enlarged. 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size (from 

the Blue Mountains of Oregon). 

12. A cone-scale, with its bract, lower side, natural size (from 

the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona). 

13. A cone-scale, upper side, with one seed removed, natural size 

(from the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona). 

14. A seed, natural size. 

15. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

16. An embryo, enlarged. 

17. The end of a lateral branch, natural size. 

18. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

r 

19. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DCXI 




.' . 




17 



«■ 



^ 







I 



I • 



r F 



C.E.Fcur^rv deL, 




lTO. 



\ 



\ 



ABIES LASIOCARPA H 



00 



1<. 



I 



1 

i 




(_/ TarbBur^ 7^ oris 



i" 



/ 



N^ 



\ 



CONIFEE^. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



117 



ABIES GRANDIS: 



White Fir. 



» ■ ■ 

Bracts of the cone-scales short-oblong, obcordate, laciniate and short-pointed at 
the apex, much shorter than their scales. Leaves dark green and very lustrous above, 
silvery white below, conspicuously emarginate, or on fertile branches sometimes bluntly 
pointed. 



Abies grandis, Lindley, Penny CycL i. 30 (1833). 
Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 123, t. 43. — Spach, Hist 
Veg, xi. 422. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 134. — Lindley & Gor- 
don, Jour, Hort Soc. Lond, v. 210. — Carri^re, TraiU 
Conif, 220. —- Cooper, Pacific E. E. Eep. xii. pt. ii. 
25, 69. — Lyall, Jour, Linn, Soc, vii. 143. — Henkel & 
Hochstetter, Syn, JSFadelh, 160, — (Nelson) Senilis, 
Pinacece, 38. — S^n^clauze, Conif, 9. — Hoopes, JEver- 
greens, 211. — Engelmann, Trans, St, Louis Acad. iii. 



trich, Syn, v. 394. — Courtin, Fam, Conif, 57. — Parla- 
tore, Be Candolle Prodr, xvi. pt. ii. 427 (excl. syn.). 
W. R. M'Nab, Proc, E, Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 678, t. 46, 
f . 4, 4 a. — Beissner, Handb, Nadelh, 476, f. 132. — Han- 
sen, Jour, E, Hort. Soc, xiv. 467 {Pinetum Danicum), 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr, 16. 
? Abies aromatica, Rafinesque, Atlant, Jour. 119 (Autumn, 

1832) ; New Fl. i. 38. ~ Endlicher, Syn, Conif, 125. 
Carri^re, Traite Conif. 266. 



598 (excl. var. densiflora) ; Gard, Chron, n. ser. xii. 684 ; Picea grandis, Loudon, Arh, Brit, iv. 2341, f. 2245, 2246 



XIV. 720, f. 138 ; Brewer & Watson Bot, Cal. ii. 118. 
Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xv. 179, f . 33-36, xvii. 400 ; 
xxiv. 563, f. 128-131 ; Jour, Linn. Soc, xxii. 174, t. 3, f. 
4, 5 ; Jour, E, Hort, Soc, xiv. 192. — Veitch, Man, Conif. 
97, f. 23, 24. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 



(in part) (1838). — Knight, Syn, Conif 39. — Gordon, 
Pinetum, 155 ; Suppl. 52 (excl. syn. Picea Parsonsii). 
Newberry, Pacific E. E, Eep, vi. pt. iii. 46, 90 (in part), 
f. 16, t. 6. — A. Murray, Gard, Chron, n. ser. iv. 135, f. 
28, 194, f . 40, 42. 



28. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr, ed. 2, 83. — Sargent, Abies amabilis, A. Murray, Proc, E. Hort, Soc, iii. 310, f. 



Forest Trees N, Am, IQth Census TJ. S. ix. 212. — Mayr, 



3-9 ; 321, f . 40 (not Forbes) (1863) ; Gartenflora, xiii. 118. 



Wald, Nordam. 334. — Lemmon, Eep, California State Abies Gordoniana, Carrifere, Traite Conif, ed. 2, 298 
Board Forestry, iii. 146 (Cone-Bearers of California); (excl. syn. Abies Parsonsii) (1867). — Sdu^clauze, Conif 

9. — Bertrand, ^mZ^. Soc, Bot. France, xviii. 379; Ann. 



West-American Cone-Bearers, 63 ; Bull, Sierra Club, ii. 
164 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope), 
Pinus grandis, Hooker, Fl, Bor.-Am. ii. 163 (not D. Don) 

Antoine, Conif 63, t. 25, f. 1. — Hooker & 

Endlicber, Syn, Conif, 

-Die- 



(1839). 

Arnott, Bot, Voy. Beechey, 394, 



105. — Lawson & Son, List No, 10, Abietinece, 12. 



Sci. Nat. sir. 5, xx. 95. 

Abies grandis, a Oregona, Beissner, Handb, Conif. 71 

(1887). 
Abies concolor, Leiberg, Contrib. U. S, Nat. Herb, v. 48 

(not Lindley & Gordon) (1897). 



4 

A tree, in the neighborhood of the coast from two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet in 
height, with a slightly tapering trunk often four feet in diameter, and spreading somewhat pendulous 
branches which sweep out in long graceful curves, and on the mountains of the interior rarely more than 
one hundred feet tall, with a trunk usually about two feet thick, or frequently smaller and much stunted. 
The bark of the trunk, which on young trees is smooth, thin, and pale, and is marked with conspicuous 
resin blisters, becomes sometimes two inches in thickness at the base of old trees, on which it is dull 
gray-brown or reddish brown, and divided by shallow fissures into low flat ridges, broken into oblong 
plates and roughened by thick closely appressed scales. The winter-buds are globose, very resinous, 
from an eighth to a quarter of an inch thick, and covered by thin pale reddish brown scales, those of the 
inner ranks being united into cup-like covers deciduous in one piece from the branchlets. These are 
comparatively slender, puberulous during their first year, pale yellow-green when they first appear, and, 
becoming light reddish brown or orange-brown in their second season, gradually grow darker. The 
leaves are thin and flexible, deeply grooved and very dark green and lustrous on the upper surface and 
silvery white on the lower surface, with two broad bands each of from seven to ten rows of stomata, and 



118 



8ILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



CONIEEBiE. 



hypoderm cells scattered in an interrupted layer under tlie epidermis of the upper side and only slightly 
developed on the edges and keels; on sterile branches the leaves are rather remote, rounded and 
conspicuously emarginate at the apex, from an inch arid a half to two inches and a quarter long and 
usually about an eighth of an inch wide, and spread in two ranks nearly at right angles to the 
branchlet y on cone-bearing branches they are rather more crowded, generally from an inch to an inch 
and a half in length, less spreading or often nearly erect, and bluntly pointed and often notched at 
the apex ; on the leading shoots of vigorous young trees they are from one half to three quarters of an 
inch long and acute or acuminate at the apex, which is furnished with a sharp rigid callous tip. The 
staminate flowers are oblong-cylindrical, and from one half to two thirds of an inch in length, with pale 
yellow anthers sometimes tinged with purple when they first emerge from the bud, and at maturity 
hang on slender pedicels one third of an inch long. The pistillate flowers are cylindrical, slender, from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch long, a quarter of an inch thick, and light yellow-green, with semi- 
orbicular scales and short oblong bracts, emarginate and denticulate or laciniate at the broad obcordate 
apex, which is furnished with a short strongly reflexed tip. The cones are cylindrical, slightly narrowed 
to the rounded and sometimes retuse apex, puberulous, bright green, from two to four inches in length, 
and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in thickness, with scales which are usually about two thirds 
as long as they are wide, and are gradually or abruptly narrowed from their broad apex, and three 
or four times as long as their short pale green bracts, which are only slightly contracted below the 
obcordate irregularly serrate apex, which is furnished with a short mucro. The seeds are three eighths 
of an inch long, light brown, with pale lustrous wings from one half to five eighths of an inch in length 
and nearly as broad at their abruptly widened rounded end as they are long. 

One of the most distinct of the American Fir-trees in its widely spreading elongated dark green 
emarginate leaves, and in its green cones with included bracts, Ahies grandis attains its greatest size 
on the alluvial bottom-lands of streams near the coast of southern British Columbia and of Washington, 
Oregon, and northern Cahfornia. It is distributed from the northern part of Vancouver Island^ 
southward to Mendocino County, California,^ and eastward along the mountains of northern Washington 
and Idaho to the western slopes of the continental divide in northern Montana, and southward in the 
interior along both slopes of the Cascade Mountains ® and to the Blue Mountains of Washington and 
Oregon, the Powder Eiver Mountains of Oregon, and to the Coeur d' Alene and Bitter Eoot Mountains of 



Idaho and Montana. 



White 



always on moist ground through the forests of Douglas Spruces and Hemlocks, and on the bottom-lands 
of streams with the Tideland Spruce and the Arbor Vitse ; in California, where it does not range inland 
many miles or beyond the direct influence of the fogs of the Pacific, its companions are the Eedwood, 
which with long naked stems it often rivals in height, and the Tideland Spruce. It is common in 
Washington and northern Oregon from the sea up to elevations of four thousand feet above it on 
the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains ; it is less abundant on their eastern slopes, but farther 
east is a common tree in forests of Spruces, White Pines, Hemlocks, and Arbor Vitses, on moist slopes, 
and in the neighborhood of streams from elevations of two thousand five hundred up to seven thousand 

feet above the sea-level. 

The wood of Abies grandis is very light, soft, coarse-grained, and neither strong nor durable ; it 



^ G. M. Dawson, Can. Nat. n. ser. ix. 326. — Maeoun, Cat Can. 
PL 474. 

2 Abies grandis is abundant and of large size on the banks of the 
Navarro River in Mendocino County from the seacoasfc for a dis- 
tance of about twelve miles inland {teste Carl Purdy). This is the 
most southern point on the coast of California at which I have 
heard of this tree. 

^ The southern limits of the range of Ahies grandis on the Cas- 
cade Mountains of Oregon are still uncertain, as it is not always 



easy to distinguish this tree by the meagre specimens usiially pre- 
served in herbaria from the nearly related Abies concolor, which 
replaces it in the interior of southern Oregon. It appears, how- 
ever, to extend along their western slopes to at least as far south 
as the head-waters of the Umqua Hiver, and along their eastern 
slope to Mt. Jefferson. Between Ashland on the west and Upper 
Klamath Lake on the east of the mountains, the White Fir is always 
Abies concoloTj which also replaces Abies grandis in the interior of 

■ ■ * 

California. 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



119 



is light brown, with thiu lighter colored sapwood^ and contains hroad dark-colored resinous conspicuous 
bands of small summer cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.3545, a cubic foot weighing 22.09 pounds. Occasionally manufactured into 
lumber in western Washington and Oregon, it is used for the interior finish of buildings, for packing- 
cases, and in cooperage. 

AUes grandis was probably one of the Pine-trees which Lewis and Clark saw in September, 1805, 
as they crossed the Bitter Root Mountains on their journey to the west.^ Introduced into English 
gardens in 1831 by David Douglas, who found it near the mouth of the Columbia River, it has since 
been occasionally cultivated in the parks and gardens of Europe, where it grows rapidly,^ and gives 
some promise of attaining the magnificent proportions and luxuriant growth which make this tree one 
of the stateliest and most splendid inhabitants of the forests of the northern hemisphere.^ 



1 The History of the Expedition under Command of Lewis and Clarh, 
ed. Coues, ii. 598. See, also, Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 29. 

Among the trees of large growth described by Lewis and Clark 
(I. c. iii. 831) the third species was said to resemble in all parts the 
Canada Balsam Fir, its trunk being described as from two and a 
half to four feet in diameter, and its height at from eighty to one 
hundred feet. This description might be supposed to refer to 
Abies grandis, which is the only Fir-tree that grows in the neigh- 
borhood of the camp at the mouth of the Columbia Hiver, where 
Lewis and Clark passed the winter, and where they had their best 
opportunities for the examination of trees ; but the leaves were said 
to be only one eighth of an inch long and one sixteenth of an inch 
wide. Dr. Coues, acknowledging the uncertainty of the determinar- 
tion, suggested that this tree might be Thuya gigasntea. The au- 
thors of the journal state that " this tree affords, in considerable 
quantities, a fine deeply aromatic balsam, resembling the balsam of 
Canada in taste and appearance. The small pistils, filled, rise like 
a blister on the trunk and the branches. The bark that envelops 
these pistils is soft and easily punctured ; the general appearance 
of the bark is dark and smooth, but not so remarkable for that 
quality as the white pine of our country. The wood is white and 
soft." This description evidently refers to some species of Fir, 
The statement that the leaves were only an eighth of an inch long 
may have been the result of a clerical error. But the travelers 
may have confounded Abies lasiocarpa, which they must have seen 
in crossing the Bitter Root Mountains, and probably also on the 
continental divide, with the coast species, and certainly it is not safe 
to accept Rafinesque's name of Ahies aromatica, based entirely on 
the description of Lewis and Clark's third species, for the White 
Fir of the coast, although it is a year earlier than Liudley's Abies 
grandis. 



2 Abies grandis is described as growing in Belgium sometimes 
at the rate of forty inches in height a year (see Wesmael, Garden 
and Forest, iii. 494) ; and in Mr. Schober's Piuetum in Putten, Hol- 
land, Abies grandis has surpassed all other conifers in rapidity of 
growth, a tree which in 1878 had a trunk circumference of twenty- 
two inches and a height of twenty-one feet four inches, having in 
1886 a trunk circumference of forty-four inches and a height of 
thirty-five feet three inches, and in 1892 a trunk circumference of 
sixty-nine inches and a height of fifty feet. (See Schober, Tijd. 
Nederl. Maatsch. Bevord. Nijver. September, 1892 \Pinetum Scho- 
berianum]. The tallest tree of this species reported in Great Britain 
in 1892 was at Riccarton, Midlothian, and was eighty-three feet 
three inches in heigh-" with a trunk three feet eight and one half 
inches in diameter. This tree is said to have grown fifty-three feet 
in twelve years, or an average of four feet five inches annually. 
Several other specimens in Great Britain were from sixty to sev- 



enty feet tall in 1892. [See Dunn, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 82. 
See, also, Webster, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiii. 670.]) 

In the Arnold Arboretum plants of Abies grandis, obtained in 
1880 by Mr. Sereno Watson in northern Idaho, have been kept 
alive in sheltered positions, but it is not probable that trees of this 
species, to which constant root moisture seems essential, can have 
a long life on the Atlantic seaboard. 

^ The log specimen of Abies grandly cut near Portland, Oregon, 
in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, is twenty-four and one 
half inches in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and twenty- 
eight years old, with an inch and one eighth of sapwood showing 
twenty-one layers of annual growth. 



' M 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXII. Abies gka^dis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 



\. 



4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract 

and ovules, enlarged. 

r ■ 

7- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 

12. A leaf of a fertile branch, natural size. 

13. A leaf of a sterile branch, natural size. 

14. A leaf from the leader of a young tree, natural size. 

15. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 



\ 



\ 



^ 



Silva of North America 



y 



Tal). DCXII. 




2 



♦ 
J 




9 



6 



10 



11 



^ 



U\ 




J 

f 








C.E.Fcucorv del^. 



'ZoT?erhdaZ sc. 



ABIES GRANDIS 



Li 



in 




A.Rivoreuco dcrea>^ 




7. cZ Tan.eicr^ Par If ^ 



\. 



CONIFERiE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



121 



ABIES CONCOLOR. 



White Fir. 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong, emarginate or nearly truncate at the broad 
denticulate short-pointed apex. Leaves pale blue or glaucous, stomatiferous on the 
upper surface, rounded, acute, or acuminate at the apex, on fertile branches often 
falcate, and thickened and keeled above. 



Abies concolor, Lindley & Gordon, Jour, Sort. Boc, Lond, 
V. 210 (1850), — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
iii. 600 ; Rothrock Wheeler^ s Rep. vi. 255 ; Gard, Chron. 
n. ser. xii. 684, f. 114, 115 ; Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. ii, 
118. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xlii. 648, f . 109, 110, 
XV. 660, f. 119 ; ser. 3, viii. 748, f. 147-151 ; Jour, Linn. 
Soc. xxil. 177, f. 8-11 ; Jour. E. Hort. Soc. xiv. 191. 
Veitch, Man, Conif, 93. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of Cali- 
fornia, 31. — Sargent, Forest Trees N, Am. 10th Census 



Abies Lowiana, A. Murray, Proc. R. Hort. Soc. iii. 317, 
f. 21-24 (1863) ; Gartenflora, xiii. 118. — Lemmon, Rep. 
California State Board Forestry, iii. 148, t. 15, 16 {Cone- 
Bearers of California) ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 164 {Coni- 
fers of the FacifiG Slope). — Masters, Jour. R. Eort. Soc. 
xiv. 192. 

Abies grandis, Carrifere, Traite Conif ed. 2, 296 (not Lind- 
ley) (1867). — Bertrand, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 
378 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 6, xx. 94 (excl. syn.). 

U. S. ix. 212 ; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 20. — Coulter, Pinus concolor, Parlatore, Be Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

426 (1868). — W. R. M'Nab, Froc. R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, 
ii. 681, t. 46, f. 6. 

Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 7, 340 {Death Picea Lowii, Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 394. 

Valley Exped. ii.). — Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 465 Abies grandis, var. concolor, A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. 

{Finetum Danicum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 16. — ser. iii. 105 (1875). 

Coville, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 224 {Bot. Death VaU Picea concolor, var. violacea, A. Murray, Gard. Chron. 



Man. Rocky Mt. Bot. 430. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 
334. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 470, f. 129, 130. 



ley Exped.). — Lemmon, West-American Cone-Bearers, 



n. ser. iii. 464, f. 94, 95 (1875). 



64 ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 167 {Conifers of the Faciftc Pinus Lowiana, W. R. M'Nab, Froc. R. Irish Acad, ser. 2, 



Slope) . 
Abies balsamea, J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. 

pt. V. 18 (in part) (not Miller) (1856). — Torrey, Pacific 

R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 141 (in part). 
Picea grandis, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi. pt. iii. 46, 

90 (in part) (not Loudon) (1857). 

Picea concolor, Gordon, Finetum, 155 (1858). ~ 

Gard. Chron. n. ser. iii. 563. — A. Murray, Gard. Chron. 
n. ser. iv. 135, f. 261 ; 194, f. 38, 41. 

Picea Lowiana, Gordon, Finetum, Suppl. 53 (1862), 



Syme, 



ii. 680, t. 46, f. 5 (1877). 
Abies lasiocarpa. Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xiii. 8, f. 

1 (not Nuttall nor A. Murray) (1880). 
Abies grandis, var. Lowiana, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xxii. 175, f. 6, 7 (1887). 
Abies concolor, var. lasiocarpa, Beissner, Handb. Conif, 

71 (not Abies lasiocarpa, Nutt.) (1887) ; Handb. Nadelh. 

473. 
Abies concolor, var. Lowiana, Lemmon, West-American 

Cone-Bearers, 64 (1895). 



A tree, on the Sierra Nevada of California from two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet in 
height, with a trunk often six feet in diameter, but in the interior of the continent rarely more than 
one hundred and twenty-five feet tall, with a trunk which seldom exceeds three feet in diameter. On 
young trees, which are very symmetrical, the bark of the tapering stem is thin, smooth, and pale gray- 
brown, and the comparatively short stout branches, disposed in regular remote whorls, stand out 
horizontally, and, furnished with long lateral branchlets which point forward, form great flat-topped 
frond-like masses of foliage ; on large trees, which are occasionally three hundred years old, the bark 
of the trunk becomes five or six inches thick near the ground, and is deeply divided into broad rounded 
ridges broken on the surface into irregularly shaped plate-like scales which below are dull reddish 
brown in color and above are ashy gray, the inner bark being dull orange-color, and the tall massive 
stems, often naked for one hundred feet, are surmounted by narrow spire-like crowns of short branches 

+ 

spreading near the very top of the tree and pendulous below. The winter^buds are nearly globose. 



122 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERJE. 



from one eighth to one quarter of an inch thick, very resinous and covered by orange-brown scales, 
those of the inner ranks being united into a cup-like cover on the lengthening branchlet and falling 
in one piece. The branchlets are glabrous, lustrous, and comparatively stout; during their first season 
they are dark orange-color, and, becoming light grayish green or pale reddish brown during their second 
season, they gradually turn gray or grayish brown. The leaves are crowded, distichously spreading, and 
more or less erect even on the lower branches of young trees from the strong twisting of their base, and 
are pale blue or glaucous, becoming dull green at the end of two or three years, marked on the lower 
surface by two broad bands each of from six to eight rows of stomata, and more or less stomatiferous 
on the upper surface, their hypoderm cells forming an interrupted layer under the epidermis on the 
upper side ; on lower branches they are flat, straight, rounded, acute, or acuminate at the apex, from 
two to three inches in length and about a sixteenth of an inch wide, and on fertile branches and on 
old trees they are frequently thick, keeled on the upper surface, usually falcate, acute or rarely notched 

L 

at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half long and often fully an eighth of 
an inch wide.^ The staminate flowers are oblong-cylindrical and from one half to three quarters of 
an inch long, with dark red or rose-colored anthers which turn yellow in fading; the pistillate flowers 
are cylindrical, and from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long, with broad rounded scales 
and oblong strongly reflexed oblong-obcordate bracts laciniate above the middle and abruptly contracted 
at the apex into short points. The cones are oblong, slightly narrowed from near the middle to the 
ends, and rounded and retuse at the apex, from three to five inches long, from an inch and one 
quarter to an inch and three quarters thick, puberulous, and grayish green, dark purple,^ or bright 
canary-yellow, with scales which are much broader than they are long, gradually and regularly 
narrowed at the denticulate sides from the rounded apex, and rather more than twice the length of 
their bracts ; these are oblong, emarginate or nearly truncate and denticulate at the broad apex, 
which terminates in a short slender mucro. The seeds are from one third to nearly one half of an 

r 

inch in length, very acute at the base and dark dull brown, with lustrous bright rose-colored wings 
which are widest near the middle, about one third longer than they are broad, and nearly truncate at 
the apex. 

Of the Fir-trees of North America, AMes eoneolor best endures heat and dryness, and it is 

r 

able to grow on arid mountain slopes where few other trees can maintain a foothold. Its northern 
home is on the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon.* It is common on the Siskiyou and other 



^ The leaves of Abies ' eoneolor are usually rounded and only 
exceptionally notched at the apex, but in dry regions they are often 
acute or acuminate, and are sometimes furnished with stiff callous 
tips. In California, on the San Kafael Mountains, some of the 
leaves of this tree are acute ; on the San Bernardino Mountains fer- 
tile branches bear acute leaves nearly an inch and a half long, 
terminating in long callous tips, and such leaves are also produced 
on trees growing on the San Francisco Peaks of Arizona, and ou 
the Huachuca Mountains of southern Arizona, and near Santa F^ 



be depended on to furnish constant specific characters, as English 
botanists have sometimes believed, for the separation of this White 
Fir into two species. Although trees east of the Sierra Nevada 
usually bear longer and more pointed leaves than those which grow 
on the western slope of the Sierras (the Ahies Lowiana of English 
gardens, see Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxvi. 755, f. 14G~148), 
I have gathered specimens in Strawberry Valley, in northern Cali- 
fornia, with acute leaves, and such leaves may be found all through 
the Sierras, while in Colorado and New Mexico trees with leaves 



r 

in New Mexico. On the upper slopes of the southern rim of the obtusely rounded at the apex are common. 



Grand Canon of the Colorado in Arizona, Ahies eoneolor sometimes 
produces very flat thin strongly falcate leaves gradually narrowed 
into slender callous-tipped points ; and on San Pedro Martir, in 
Lower California, its leaves are very thick and rigid, with prominent 
midribs on the upper side, strongly falcate, acute or acuminate, with 
callous tips, from an inch to an inch and a half long and rather 
more than an eighth of an inch wide. In Colorado and New 
Mexico the leaves, especially on young trees, are usually but not 
always of a more glaucous color than farther westward, but the 
color of the leaves can hardly be relied on to separate specifically 
the tree of the California Sierras from that of the interior any 



2 Brandegee, Bot Gazette, iii. 33. 

s In southern Oregon Abies eoneolor is very abundant on low 
hills at elevations of between two and three thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. Although I have not seen it north of a line 
drawn from Ashford on the west to Upper Klamath Lake, on the 
east of the Cascade Mountains, Ahies eoneolor will probably be^ 
found west of the Cascade Mountains as far north as the divide 
between the waters of the Umqua and Rogue Rivers, which, mark- 
ing the southern limits of distribution of many northern plants and 
the northern limit of many from the south, is the real northern 
boundary of the region occupied by the California flora. Speci- 



more than the length of the leaves and the form of their apex can mens gathered by Coville in 1897 at Fish Lake, which is one of 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



123 



cross ranges of southern Oregon and northern California, and on the high peaks of the California 
coast ranges.* With Abies magnifica it forms almost exclusively one of the principal forest belts on 
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada four hundred and fifty miles long and in breadth extending 
from five thousand up to nearly nine thousand feet above the level of the sea.^ It is abundant on all 

^^ r 

the cross ranges that divide the San Joaquin Valley from southern California, and on the San 
Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains between elevations of four and eight thousand feet above the 
sea/ and finds its most southerly home on the Pacific coast on Mt. San Pedro Martir in Lower 
California.* In Oregon, east of the Cascade Mountains, it occurs at an elevation of seven thousand 
seven hundred feet on the high mountains on the east side of Warner Lake with Piiius ponder osa^ and 
on the Warner Eange.^ It is common at high elevations on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
on the high desert ranges of the Great Basin, and in the caSons and on the slopes of the high 
mountains of Utah and western Colorado ; on the outer ranges of the Rocky Mountains east of the 
continental divide, it is found only south of the heights which separate the waters of the Platte from 
those of the Arkansas River, sometimes ascending to elevations of eleven thousand feet above the sea 
and southward often forming a large part of extensive forests. It is common, too, on the mountains of 
northern New Mexico and Arizona ^ up to elevations of six thousand feet above the sea-level, but 
it is less abundant on the mountains on both sides of the boundary between New Mexico and Arizona 
and Mexico, where it usually grows only in the bottoms of elevated canons. 

The wood of Abies concolor is very light, soft, coarse-grained, and not strong nor durable ; it is 
very pale brown or sometimes nearly white, with narrow inconspicuous resinous bands of small summer 
cells and numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.3638, 
a cubic foot weighing 22.67 pounds. It is occasionally manufactured into 
California is used for packing-cases and butter-tubs. 

Abies concolor was discovered by August Fendler'' near Sante Fe in 1847; in 1851 John 



lumber 



the most northern tributaries of the Mackenzie, and separates the 
waters of that stream from those of the Santiam, can doubtfully 
be referred to this species. On the east side of the Cascade 
Mountains AUes concolor probably ranges at least as far north as 
the head-waters of the Mitelius River southeast of Mt. Jefferson. 

1 K. Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 176. 

2 Muir, The Mountains of California^ 172, f. 

3 S. B. Parish, Zoe, iv. 352. 
* Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 210. 

^ Merriam, in Hit. 

6 Merriam, North American Fauna, No. 3, 120. 

^ August Fendler (January, 1813-1883), the son of a carver m 
wood and ivory, was born in Gumbinniu in eastern Prussia. Los- 
ing his father in infancy, he was sent to the town gymnasium 
when twelve years old, and at sixteen was apprenticed to the town 
clerk. Afterward he learned the trade of a tanner, believing that 
it would enable him to travel over Europe and America. In 1834 
Fendler obtained a nomination to the Royal Polytechnic School 
in Berlin, but was obliged to abandon his studies at the end of 
the year on account of delicate health, and in 1834 sailed from 
Bremen for Baltimore, where he arrived with only two dollars in 
his pocket. For ten years Fendler wandered over the eastern states, 
maintaining himself by working in tanneries or lamp factories and 
by teaching school. 

Returning to Prussia in 1844, he made the acquaintance at 
Konigsberg of Dr. Ernst Meyer, the botanist, who showed him the 
way to his career of usefulness by pointing out the fact that he 
could support himself by collecting for sale herbaria of the plants 
of the western United States. Returning to St. Louis, where he 
had previously lived for some time, he began collecting plants with 



the advice and assistance of Dr. Engelmann. In 1847 an oppor- 
tunity was obtained for him to accompany the United States 
troops, which during the Mexican War took possession of Santa 
Ed; here he remained during a year, and, after Wislizenus, was 
the first botanist to investigate the flora of the southern Rocky 
Mountains. Returning from Mexico, Fendler undertook a botani- 
cal journey to the region of Salt Lake, but lost his outfit before 
he reached the Rocky Mountains, and was obliged to go back to 
St. Louis, where he found that all his possessions had been de- 
stroyed in a great fire which had devastated the city. He next 
visited the Isthmus of Panama, making collections in the neighbor- 
hood of Chagres, and then, returning to the United States, estab- 
lished himself at Memphis, where for three years he carried on the 
camphine light business. This became unprofitable owing to the 
introduction of coal gas, and in 1854, craving new scenes, Fendler 
sailed for Venezuela, where at Colonia Tovar, at an elevation of 
six thousand feet above the sea, he remained for five or six years, 
making large collections of plants which now have a place in the 
principal herbaria of the United States and Europe. Returning to 
Missouri in 1864, Fendler cleared in the forest a farm for himself 
near AUenton. Here he lived for seven years, and then, selling his 
farm, returned to Prussia with the intention of remaining there. 
His love of the United States, however, brought hira again across 
the Atlantic, and in 1876 he settled in Delaware, where he devoted 
himself to botany, meteorology, to which he had always paid much 
attention, and to speculative physics, publishing at this time a book 
entitled, The Mechanics of the Universe. Repeated attacks of acute 
rheumatism compelled him to seek a warm climate again, and in 
1877 Fendler landed at Port of Spain, in the island of Trinidad, 
where he passed the remainder of his days, living mainly on the 



124 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-S;. 



Jeffrey^ found it on the mountains of northern California, but for many years his specimen was 
believed to have been gathered from a tree of Ahies lasiocarpa^ and it was not until 1873 that 
Engelmann was able to make known the true characters and the distribution of Ahies concolor. 
Introduced into England by Jeffrey and by Lobb in 1852, it has proved one of the handsomest and 
most satisfactory of garden conifers from southern Scandinavia to northern Italy .^ On the Atlantic 
seaboard it is hardy as far north, at least, as the coast of Maine ; and Ahies concolor from the Rocky 
Mountains growing here during the last twenty-five years always vigorously, compact in habit, beautiful 
in its varied shades of blue, and free from diseases and the attacks of disfiguring insects, is now more 
full of promise as an ornament of the parks of eastern America than any other Fir-tree.^ 



produce of a smaU piece of ground which he had bought, but 
maintaining his activity as a botanical collector. 

Many of the plants collected by Fendler in New Mexico were 
published by Asa Gray in the fourth volume of the new series of 
the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in a 
classical paper entitled Plantce Fendleriance Novi-MexicancB. The 
name of this honest, kindly, simple, earnest man is preserved in 
our gardens in Fendlera, a beautiful-flowered shrub of the Saxi- 
frage family, of Texas and New Mexico. (See Gray, Am. Jour. 
Sci. ser. 3, xxiv. 169. — Canby, Bat, Gazette, x. 285, 301 [An Auto- 
hiography and some Reminiscences of the late August Fendler^.y 

^ See xi. 41. 



European collections. A seedling form with erect branches (Abies 
concolor fastigiata, Carriere, Reu. Hort, 1890, 137) appeared in 
France a few years ago in the nursery of Thibault & Keteleer at 
Sceaux, near Paris. 

® In the eastern states Ahies concolor from Colorado is the only 
American Fir-tree which is really satisfactory in cultivation. There 
are a number of specimens of the California tree in different gar- 
dens from eastern Massachusetts to Pennsylvania. (See Parsons, 
Gardener's Monthly, xvii. 369 [as Picea Parsonsiana']. — Sargent, 
Garden and Forest, vi. 458.) These appear as hardy as the plants 
raised from seeds gathered in Colorado, but they grow with less 
vigor and rapidity, and the largest of them, which are from forty 



1 



^ Under the names of Ahies concolor violacea and Ahies violacea, to fifty feet tall, are already thin near the ground, and have passed 
the bluest leaved forms of the Kocky Mountain tree are found in the period of their greatest beauty. ' 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



" ? 



Plate DCXIIL Abies concolor. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

w 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, lower side, with its bract 

and ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with, its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

10. A seed, natural size. 

11. An end of a lateral branch, natural size. 

12. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. Winter-buds, natural size. 



J 



'■- 



y- 



t« 



Silva of North America. 



Tat.DCXIIl. 



-I 



,» 



1 



\ 




N 



C.£.Faau?7iy de^L. 



liaplne^ sa. 



ABIES CONCOLOR.Lmdl.&Gord. 



A,Rioc-rou^si> direa>^ 



-J 



.* 



Imp . c/ Ta-^neicr^ J^a^rur, 



CONIFERS, 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



125 



ABIES AMABILIS 



White Fir. 



Bracts of the cone-scales rhombic or oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed into long 
slender tips, half as long as their scales. Leaves dark green and very lustrous above, 
silvery white below, rounded, notched, or acute, or on fertile branches acuminate and 
occasionally stomatiferous on the upper surface. 



Abies amabilis, Forbes, Pinetum Wohurn. 125, t. 44 



(1839). 
210.— 



Lindley & Gordon, Jour, HorU Soc. Lond, v. 



— Carri^re, Traite Conif, 219. 
Soc, vii. 143. — 



Lyail, Jour. Linn, 



— Heiikel & Hochstetter, Syn, Nadelh. 
159. — Sdn^clauze, Conif, 5. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 209 
(excl. syn. Abies lasiocarpa), — K. Koch, l>ewc?r. ii. pt. ii. 



2248 (1838). — Knight, Byn, Conif. 39. — Gordon, Fine- 
turn, 154 (excl. syn. Tinus lasiocarpa) ; ed. 2, 213 (excl. 
syn.). — Newberry, JPacifie R, H. Rep, vi. pt. ii. 51, 
f. 18. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 36. 
Picea grandis, Loudon, Arb, Brit, iv. 2341 (in part) (not 
Abies grandis, Lindley) (1838). 



211 (excl. syn. Abies lasioGarpa), — 'EnQelma.Tin, Gard, Finns amabUis, Antoine, Com/. 63, t 25, f. 2 (1840-47). 



Chron, n. ser. xiv. 720, f. 136-146 ; JBof, Gazette, vii. 4. 
Veitch, Man, Conif 86. — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 
83. — Sargent, Forest Trees iV. Am, 10th Census U, S, ix. 
213. — Masters, Jour. Linn, Soc, xxii. 171, f. 1-3, t. 2 ; 
Gard, Chron. ser. 3, iii. 754, f. 102 ; Jour. R, Hort, Soc, 
xiv. 189. — MajT, Wald. Nordam, 351. — Lemmon, Rep. 



Hooker & Arnott, Bot Voy, Beechey, 394. — Endlicher, 
Syn, Conif 104. — Lawson & Son, List No, 10, Abie- 
tinece, 11. — Dietrich, Syn, Conif v. 394. — Parlatore, 
De Candolle Frodr, xvi. pt. ii. 426 (in part). — W. R. 
M'Nab, ProG. R, Irish Acad, ser. 2, ii. 677, t. 46, f. 3, 3 a 
(excl. syn.). 



California State Board Forestry, iii. 139 {Cone-Bearers Pinus lasiocarpa, A. Murray, Rep, Oregon Exped, 1, t. f. 

(Picea on plate) (not Hooker) (1853). 
Abies grandis, A. Murray, Proc, R, Hort, Sod, iii. 308, 

f. 1-2 (not Lindley) (1863) ; Gartenflora, xiii. 118. 
Abies lasiocarpa, A. Murray, Proc, R. Hort, Soc, iii. 314, 

f. 17 (1863). 

Abies grandis, var. densifolia, Engelmann, Trans, St, 
Louis Acad, iii. 699 (1878). 



of California) ; West-American Cone- Bearers, 61 ; Bull, 
Sierra Club, ii. 163, t. 24 (Conifers of the Pacific 
Slope), — Beissner, Handb, Nadelh. 468, f. 128. — Han- 
sen, Jour, R, Hort, Soc. xiv. 455 (Pinetum Danicum), 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 16. 

Pinus grandis, D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. (1837). 

Picea amabilis, Loudon, Arb, Brit. iv. 2342 (in part), f . 2247, 



A tree, often two hundred and fifty feet in heightj or at high altitudes and in the north usually 
not more than seventy or eighty feet tall, with a trunk from four to six feet in diameter, in thick forests 
often naked for one hundred and fifty feet, or in open situations densely clothed to the ground with 
comparatively short branches sweeping down in graceful curves and furnished with elongated lateral 
pendulous hranchlets. Until the tree is about one hundred and fifty years old, when, in favorable 
situations, it may be one hundred and twenty-five feet high, the bark of the trunk is thin, smooth, and 
pale or silvery white, and on old trees it becomes near the ground from an inch and a half to two 
inches and a half in thickness, and is irregularly divided into comparatively small plates covered with 
small closely appressed reddish brown or reddish gray scales. The winter branch-buds are nearly 
globose and from an eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness, with closely imbricated dark lustrous 
purple scales thickly coated with resin. The branchlets are stout, clothed for four or five years with 
soft fine pubescence, light orange-brown during their first season, dark purple in their second, and 
ultimately become reddish brown. The leaves are flat, deeply grooved, and very dark green and 
lustrous on the upper surface and silvery white on the lower, with broad bands of about six rows of 
stomata occupying the space between the prominent midrib and the recurved margins, resin ducts 
close to the lower side and hypoderm cells forming an interrupted border under the epidermis on both 
surfaces and on the edges ; on sterile branches they are obtuse and rounded and notched or occasion- 
ally acute at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in length, from one 



126 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERiE. 



sixteenth to one twelfth of an inch in width, often broadest above the middle, erect by a twist at their 
base and very crowded, those on the upper side of the branch being much shorter than those on the 
lower and usually parallel with and closely appressed against it; on fertile branchlets they are nearly 
erect, acute or acuminate, with callous tips, occasionally stomatiferous on the upper surface near the 
apex and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length ; on vigorous leading shoots they are 
acute, with long rigid points, closely appressed or recurved near the middle, about three quarters of an 
inch long and nearly one eighth of an inch wide. The staminate flowers are oblong-cylindrical and 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, with strawberry-red anthers, and at maturity hang 
on slender pedicels from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch long. The pistillate flowers are oblong- 
cylindrical, from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length and about a third of an inch thick, 
with broad rounded purple scales and rhombic dark purple lustrous bracts erose above the middle and 
gradually contracted into broad points. The cones are oblong, slightly narrowed to the rounded and 
often retuse apex, deep rich purple, puberulous, from three and a half to nearly six inches in length 



t. 



and from two to two and a half inches in diameter, with scales from an inch to an inch and an eighth 
wide, nearly as long as they are broad, gradually narrowed from the rounded apex, and rather more 
than twice as long as their reddish rhombic or oblong-obovate bracts terminating in long slender tips. 
The seeds are light yellow-brown and half an inch long, with obliquely cuneate pale brown lustrous 
wings which are three quarters of an inch in length and somewhat less in breadth.* 

Ahies amabilis inhabits both slopes of the Cascade Mountains,^ the coast ranges of Oregon ^ and 
Washington, and the mountains of southern British Columbia from Vancouver Island * to the valley 
of the lower Fraser River.^ On the Cascade Mountains it extends from elevations of three thousand 
up to about six thousand feet or nearly to the timber-line, mingling below with Tsiiga heterophylla, 
Plcea Engelmanniy Ahies nobilisy and Abies grandis^ and above with Pinus albicaulis^ Tsuga 
Mertensiana, and Abies lasiocarpa^ and at high altitudes it often grows alone on the margins of 
alpine meadows singly or in small isolated groves. On the Olympic Mountains of northwestern 
Washington, where it probably attains its greatest size, Abies amabilis is the most common Fir-tree, 
occupying well-drained slopes and benches and less commonly the banks of streams at elevations of 
from twelve hundred feet up to the timber-line, which is here about four thousand five hundred 
teet above the sea, being most abundant and, with the Hemlock, forming a large part of the forest 
between elevations of three and four thousand feet. On the mainland of British Columbia, associated 
with Tsuga heterophyllay Tsuga Mertensiana, Pinus alhicaulis, and Pimcs monticola, it is common 
above the forests of Pseudotsuga at elevations of from four to five thousand five hundred feet above 

the sea. 

The wood of Abies amabilis is light, hard, not strong, and close-grained; it is pale brown, with 



1 On a ridge of the Olympic Mountains separating the waters of 
the Solduc from those of the Quillyhute, I found, on August 19, 
1896, at an elevation of four thousand five hundred feet above the 
sea, an Abies from sixty to eighty feet in height, growing with 
Ahies lasiocarpa and Ahies amabilis, with the slender spire-like 
head and the foliage of the former and the cones of the latter. It 
was, perhaps, a natural hybrid between these species. 

^ A Vies amahilis ranges nearly to the southern end of the Cas- 
cade Mountains of Oregon, the most southern tree seen by Dr. 
Coville, in 1897, being "on the eastern slope of Old Bailey Moun- 
tain, which lies on the west side of Diamond Lake about twenty 
miles north of Crater Lake. Proceeding northward from this point, 
we did not see the tree again until we reached the extreme southern 
head-waters of the Willamette River, about twelve miles north of 
Diamond Lake. Here on the northern slope of the Calapooia Moun- 
tains, close to their junction with the crest of the Cascades, the tree 
grew in great abundance on northern slopes." (Coville, in litt.) 



3 The most southern point at which Ahies amahilis has been seen 
by Mr. A. J. Johnson of Astoria on the coast ranges is on Saddle 

+ 

Mountain, twenty-five miles south of the mouth of the Columbia 

Kiver. 

^ In 1887 Ahies amahilis was found on Vancouver Island by Mr. 
John Maeoun, on the summits of Mounts Monk, Benson, and Arrow- 
smith, where it grows with Tsuga Mertensiana. (See Maeoun, Cat. 
Can. PL iv. 336.) 

, 5 In July, 1880, Ahies amahilis was first found in British Colum- 
bia by Engelmann, Parry and Sargent, on the high mountains 
south of Yale on the lower Fraser River, 

The northern range of Ahies amahilis is still to be determined. 
It grows so abundantly to a large size at high elevations on the 
mountains rising above the lower Fraser River valley that it may 
be supposed to extend much farther north along the coast ranges 
of British Columbia. 



CONIFERS. 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



127 



nearly white sapwood, and contains dark-colored resinous bands of small summer cells and numerous 
thin medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is O.42285 a cubic foot weighing 
26.35 pounds. Under the name of larch it is occasionally used in Washington in the interior finish 
of buildings. 

Ahies amabilis was discovered on the Cascade Mountains just south of the Columbia Eiver in 
September, 1825, by David Douglas, who introduced it into English gardens.* 

Unsurpassed among Fir-trees in the beauty of its snowy bark, dark green lustrous foliage, and 
great purple cones, Ahies amabilis can never be forgotten by those who have seen it at midsummer 
towering high above alpine meadows clothed with Lilies "and great nodding Dogtooth Violets, Bryanthus 
and Cassiope, Rhododendrons, Lupins, Painted-cups, and all the other flowers which make the upper 
valleys of the northern Cascade Mountains the most charming natural gardens of the continent. When 
transferred from its mountain home Ahies amabilis does not really flourish, although a few of the 
oldest specimens in Europe have produced cones.^ On the Atlantic seaboard it grows very slowly and 
gives little promise of becoming an ornament of our gardens.^ 



^ Douglas, Companion Bat. Mag. ii. 93. See, also, Sargent, Ga 'd. 
Chron. n. ser. xvi. 7. 

2 See Fowler, Gard. Chron. 1872, 286. 

Very few plants Laving been raised from Douglas's seeds, Ahies 
amabilis has always been rare in Europe until 1882, wben large 
supplies of seeds were sent to England from Oregon. 

® Probably the oldest plant oi Abies amabilis in the eastern United 
States is in the Pinetum of Mr. Josiah Hoopes of West Chester, 
Pennsylvania. It is a graft taken from the plant in the Edin- 
burgh Botanic Garden raised from seeds collected by Douglas. It 
has grown very slowly, and in 1893, when it was about twenty-five 
years old, it was only six feet high. (See Garden and Forest, ii. 
228 ; vi. 458.) In eastern Massachusetts, where Abies amabilis 



was introduced in 1880 through the Arnold Arboretum, it has 
proved rather tender and grows very slowly. 

Even in its native forests A hies amabilis is a slow-growing tree. 
The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
cut on the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, near the Columbia River, 
is seventeen and one half inches in diameter inside the bark and 
one hundred and eighty years old, with two and one eighth inches 
of sapwood containing seventy layers of annual growth. A tree 
cut in 1896, on the banks of the Solduc River, Washington, in a 
region of excessive rainfall specially favorable for the rapid growth 
of trees, was one hundred and twenty-five feet high, with a trunk 
nineteen inches in diameter, and one hundred and fifty years old. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXIV. Abies amabilis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 

4. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A bract of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and 

ovules, enlarged. 

L 
J , I 

L ' 

8. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

•J 

10. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. An embryo, enlarged. 

13. The tip of a leading shoot, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 

15. Winter-buds, natural size. 

16. A seedling plant, natural size. 



y 



Silva of North Am 



erica. 



Tab. DC XIV. 



I- 




t . 



I 



C. E. Faax)rv deL. 



Rapine^ so. 



ABIES AMABILIS 





oroes. 



n 
\ 






t 



^ ■ -Imp. c/ Tajzeur^ Pcu^is. 



** 



\ 



CONIFER-a:. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



129 



ABIES VENUSTA. 



Silver Fir. 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-obovate, obcordate, furnished with elongated 
rigid flat tips many times longer than the pointed scales. Leaves acuminate, dark 
yellow-green and lustrous above, silvery white below. Winter-buds large, with thin 
loosely imbricated scales- 



Abies venusta, K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 210 (1873). 
Lauche, Deutsche Dendr, ed. 2, 82, f. 16. — Sargent, 
Garden and Forest, ii. 496. — Lemmon, Rep. California 
State Board Forestry, iii. 151 (C oner-Bearers of Califor- 
nia^ ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 64 ; Bull. Sierra 
Cluh, ii. 166 {Conifers of the Faciflc Slope). 

Pinus venusta, Douglas, Companion BoU Mag. ii. 152 
(1836). 

Pinus bracteata, D. Don, Trans. Linn. Sac. xvii. 442 



(1837) ; Lambert Finns, iii. t. 

30. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 394. 



Antoine, Conif. 11^ t. 

-End- 



licher, Syn. Conif. 89. — Walpers, Ann. v. 798. — Die- 
trich, Syn. v. 393. — Courtin, Fam. Conif. 56. — Parla- 
tore, De Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 419. — W. R. 
M'Nab, Froc. B. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 674, t. 46, f. 1. 

Picea bracteata, Loudon, Arh. Brit. iv. 2348, f. 2256 
(1838). — Gordon, Finetum, 145. — Jjawson, Finetum 
Brit. ii. 171, t. 25, 26, f. 1-7. — (Nelson) SenUis, Fina- 
cece, 37. — Coleman, The Garden, xxxv. 12, f . 

Taxodium sempervirens ? Hooker, Icon. iv. t. 379 (not 
Lambert) (1841). 

Abies bracteata, Nuttall, S^jlva, iii. 137, t. 118 (1849). 



Hartweg, Jour. Sort. Soc. Lond. iii. 226. — Llndley & 
Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 209. — Carribre, 
Traite Conif. 196. — Hooker, Bot. Mag. Ixxix. t. 4740. — 
Lemaire, III. Hort. i. t. 5. — Naudin, Rev. Hort. 1%^4., 
31. — Planchon, Fl. des Serres, ix. 109, t. 899. — A. 
Murray, Edinburgh New Fhil. Jour. n. ser. x. 1, t. 1, 2 ; 
Gard. Chron. 1859, 928 ; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, 
vi. 211, t. 1, 2. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 
167. — S^neclauze, Conif. 7. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 
199. — Bertrand, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 379 ; Ann. 
Sci. Nat. s^r. 5, xx. 95. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 601 ; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 684 ; Brewer & 
Watson Bot. Cal. ii. 118. — Veitch, Man. Conif 89, 
f . 14, 15. — Kellogg, Forest Trees of California, 27. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. l()th Census U. S, ix. 
213. — Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 3 ; vii. 672, f. 112 ; 
Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 190. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam, 
337, t. 9. — Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 488, f. 138. 
Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 459 {Finetum Dani- 
cum). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 17. — Eastwood, Ery- 
thea, V. 73, 



A tree, from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes three 
* feet in diameter, and comparatively short slender usually pendulous scattered branches furnished with 
long sinuous rather remote lateral hranchlets sparsely clothed with foliage, and forming a broad-based 
pyramid which fifteen or twenty feet from the top is abruptly narrowed into a thin spire-like head, 
while the lowest branches often sweep the ground/ unless the tree has been excessively crowded by its 
neighbors. The bark of the trunk, which is smooth and pale above, near the base of the tree is from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, light reddish brown, slightly and irregularly 
fissured and broken into thick closely appressed scales. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch in length and from one quarter to one third of an inch in 
thickness, with very thin loosely imbricated pale chestnut-brown ovate acute boat-shaped scales 
increasing in size from below upward, the outer accrescent, persistent at the base of the young branch, 
and the inner united into a cup and deciduous in one piece. The hranchlets are stout, glabrous, light 
reddish brown for three or four years, and covered during their first season with a glaucous bloom. 
The leaves are thin, flat, rigid, linear or Hn ear-lanceolate, gradually or abruptly narrowed toward the 
base, which is enlarged into an oval disk, often falcate, especially on fertile branches, acuminate, with 
long slender stiff callous tips, dark yellow-green and lustrous and slightly rounded on the upper surface, 
which is marked below the middle with an obscure groove, and silvery white or on old leaves pale on 



130 SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. conifebje. 

the lower surface, with bands of from eight to ten rows of stomata occupying the space between the 
broad midrib and the thickened strongly revolute margins; they are remote, two-ranked from the 
conspicuous twist near their base, and spread at nearly right angles to the branchlets of lower sterile 
branches, or are somewhat ascending on upper fertile branches, and are from one inch and a half 
to two inches and a quarter long and from an eighth to a sixth of an inch wide, with resin ducts 
close to the epidermis and hypoderm cells in an interrupted band on the upper surface and at the 
angles and midrib ; on leading shoots they are rounded on the upper surface, and, standing out almost 
at right angles, are more or less incurved above the middle, from an inch and a half to an inch and 
three quarters long and about an eighth of an inch wide. The flower-buds resemble the branch-buds 
in shape and in the texture and color of their scales, which become scarious and silvery white in the 
inner ranks, forming very conspicuous involucres at the base of the flowers, which open early in May. 
The buds of the staminate flowers are produced in great numbers near the base of the branchlets on 
branches from the middle of the tree upward, while those of the pistillate flowers appear near the 
ends of the branchlets of the upper branches only. The staminate flowers are cylindrical, from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter long and a quarter of an inch in diameter, with pale 
yellow anthers which fade to a dark reddish brown and at maturity are suspended on slender pedicels 
often half an inch in length. The pistillate flowers are oblong and about an inch and a quarter 
in length, their scales being oblong, rounded above and nearly as long as their cuneate obcordate 
yellow-green bracts, with spreading lobes denticulate at the apex, and slender elongated erect slightly 
spreading or contorted or variously twisted awns. The cones, which are borne on stout peduncles 
sometimes half an inch in length covered by the scales of the flower-buds, vary from oval to 
subcylindrical in shape, and are full and rounded at the apex, glabrous and pale purple-brown, from 
three to four inches long and from an inch and a half to two inches thick, with thin scales strongly 
incurved above the body of their bracts, obtusely short-pointed at the apex, obscurely and unequally 
denticulate on the thin margins, f uU and rounded on the sides, which are gradually narrowed to the 
cordate base, and about one third longer than their oblong obovate obcordate pale yellow-brown bracts 
which terminate in flat rigid tips from an inch to an inch and three quarters long ; from above the 
middle of the cone these point toward its apex, and are often closely appressed to its sides, and 
spreading below its middle frequently are much recurved toward its base. Firmly attached to the cone- 
scales, the bracts fall with these from the thick conical sharp-pointed axis of the cone. The seeds are 
dark red-brown, about three eighths of an inch in length and nearly as long as their oblong-obovate 
pale reddish brown lustrous wings, which are rounded at the apex. 

Ahies venusta in its scattered branches, its large long-pointed buds covered by thin loosely 
imbricated scales, its broad sharply pointed leaves which are never crowded and are alike on all parts of 
the tree, and in its glabrous cones with the long exserted awns of the bracts and thick central axes, 
differs more from the usual forms of the genus than any other Fir-tree. Of the species of Abies now 

r 

known no other occupies such a small territory, for it grows only in a few isolated groves, the largest 
containing not more than two hundred trees, scattered along the moist bottoms of canons, which in 
summer often become completely dry, usually at elevations of about three thousand feet on both slopes 
of the outer western ridge of the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County, California, its associates 
being Quercus chrysolepis, Quercits densiflora, Quercus Wislizeni^ Arbiihis Menziesii, Umhellularia 
Californica, Acer macrophyllum, Pinus OouUeri, Pseiidotsicga mucronata, and Ainus rhombifolia} 

1 The most southern -point from which Ahies venusta has been Canon, and in a canon at the head of the Naeimiento, while ten 

reported is in Bear Canon, which faces the east, and is about twenty- miles farther north the presence of two trees has been reported. 

five miles south of Los Burros Mines, near Punta Gorda, where These stations are at elevations of about three thousand feet above 

there is a grove of about two hundred trees. It is scattered along the level of the sea, and I have been unable to hear of trees grow- 

the banks of the San Miguel Canon on the eastern slope of the ing above six thousand feet, as described by Douglas {Compamm 

coast ridge, just south of the trail from King's City to Los Burros Bot. Mag, ii. 152), or of the trees of which William Lobb wrote in 

Mines, and grows in a canon immediately north of the San Miguel 1853 : — 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 



131 



The wood of Abies venusta is heavy, not hard, and coarse-grained ; it is light brown tinged with 
yellow, with paler sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous resinous bands of small summer cells and 
numerous obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6783, a cubic 
foot weighing 42.27 pounds. Although it is perhaps occasionally used for fuel, the inaccessibility and 
steepness of the canons which this tree inhabits and the sparseness of the population of the region have 
prevented employment of the wood for other purposes. 

Abies venusta was discovered^ by Dr. Thomas Coulter^ in 1831; in 1853 it was introduced by 
"William Lobb ^ into English gardens. Fortunately this beautiful tree, one of the handsomest and most 
interesting of its race, has thus found a foothold in the Old World,* for the fires which are frequent 
and destructive in the forests of the dry coast ranges of southern California seem destined sooner or 
later to exterminate it from its last retreat in America.^ 



« Along the summit of the central ridges, and about the highest 
peats, in the most exposed and coldest places imaginable, where no 
other Pine makes its appearance, it stands the severity of the cli- 
mate without the slightest perceptible injury, growing in slaty rub- 
bish which, to all appearance, is incapable of supporting vegetation. 
In such situations it becomes stunted and bushy, but even then the 
foliage maintains the same beautiful dark green color, and when 
seen at a distance it appears more like a handsomely grown Cedar 
than a Pine." (See Gard. Chron. 1853,435.) Siuce Lobb's time 
fire has probably destroyed all the trees except those which were 
protected by the moisture in the bottoms of the deepest canons. 

1 Teste Hooker, Bot Mag. Ixxix. t. 4740. 

2 See iii. 84. " 

8 See X. 60. 

4 In sheltered positions in the milder parts of Great Britain and 

in northern Italy Abies ventisia has grown rapidly and vigorously 

and has produced cones. The tallest specimen in England of which 

I have heard is at Eastnor Castle, in Herefordshire, where there 

is a tree over sixty feet in height (A. H. Kent in lilt.). The largest 

specimen in the park at Tortworth Court, Gloucestershire, which 



was probably planted between 1858 and 1862, in May, 1897, was 
fifty-two feet in height, with a trunk two feet in diameter at one 
foot above the ground. (See Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xxi. 305.) Mr. 
Kent reports several other healthy specimens from forty to fifty 
feet in height in different parts of England and Scotland. For 
notes on Abies venusta in Europe, see, also, Fowler, Gard. Chron. 
1872, 286. — Nicholson, Garden and Forest^ ii. 567. — Masters, 
Gard. Chron. ser. 3, v. 242. — J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, iv. 

614. 

In the eastern United States Abies venusta has not proved hardy 
in any part of the country where it has been tried. 

^ Abies venusta probably always grows slowly, as might be ex- 
pected from the aridity of the region it inhabits. The log specimen 
in the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New Xork, cut by T. S. Brandegee 
in one of the canons of the Santa Lucia Mountains facing the 
ocean, is twenty-four and three quarters inches in diameter inside 
the bark and one hundred and twenty-four years old, with an inch 
of sapwood consisting of forty-one layers of annual growth. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate DCXV. Abies venusta. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 

5. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and 

ovules, enlarged. 

7. A bract of a pistillate flower, lower side, enlarged. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. Cross section of a leaf magnified fifteen diameters. 
10. Winter-buds, natural size. 



Plate DCXVL Abies venusta. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds and bract, natural size. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

5. Axis of a cone, with its neduncle. natural size. 



-■•* 




ilva of North 




m eric a 



Tat. DCXy. 






X 



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„vrt»» 1 1 ■■••'''■''? 



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O.E.F-aaxprv dely. 




SC^. 



ABIES VENUSTA 




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A . Itlv or e-u-o:-^ d/J^ea:^^ 



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7?7z^. c/ Tarve^ur^ Pclti/S 



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V 



Silva of North' iVmerica 



Te.b. DC XV 



r 



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C.E.FaccoTV dei/. 



s 



Ita.pzne^ jcy. 



ABIES VENUSTA, K. 



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A.IUx)creuay dlreay . 



Imp . J, Tconeiir^ Fcvris, 



\ 



CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



133 



ABIES NOBILIS. 



Red Fir. Larch. 



Bracts of the cone-scales spatulate, full, rounded, and fimbriate above, long- 
pointed, recurved, nearly covering their scales. Leaves light blue-green, distinctly 
grooved above, rounded and emarginate at the apex on lower branches, crowded, 
incurved, nearly equally 4-sided and acute on fertile branches. 



Abies nobilis, Lindley, Penny Cycl, i. 30 (1833). — Forbes, 
Pinetum Wohurn. 115, t. 40. — Link, Linncea, xv. 532, — 
Lawson & Son, Agric. Man, 374. 
419.- 



— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi. 
Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 136, t. 117. - 



— Lindley & Gor- 
don, Jour. Hort, Soc. Lond. v. 209. — Carrifere, TraitS 
Conif. 198. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 168. 
S^n^clauze, Conif. 10. — K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. ii. 209. 
Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 601 (in part) ; 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 684 (in part) ; Brewer & Wat- 
son Bot. CaL ii. 119 (in part) ; Bot. Gazette, vii. 4. 
Veitch, Man. Conif. 101, — Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 



the Pacific Slope). — Beissner, Handh. Nadelh. 484, 
f. 136, 137. — Hansen, Jour. B>. Hort. Soc. xiv. 470 
(Pinetum Danicum), — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 17. 
Pinus nobilis, D. Don, Lambert Pinus, iii. t. (1837). 
Hooker, PL Bor.-Am. ii. 162. — Antoine, Conif. 77, t. 29, 
f. 2. — Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Toy. Beechey, 394. 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 90, — Lawson & Son, List No. 
10, Ahietinece, 12. — Dietrich, Syn. v. 393. — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif 57. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 419. — W. R. M'Nab, Proc. B. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. 

699, t. 49, f. 29, 29 a, b. 



2, 83. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. Picea nobilis, Loudon, Arb. Brit. iv. 2342, f. 2249, 2250 



ix, 214. — Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiv. 652, f . 146 ; 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxii. 188 (excl. hab. Mt. Shasta and 
var. rnagnifica) ; Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 193. — 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 395. — Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 



Syme, 



(1838). — Knight, Syn. Conif. 39. — Lindley & Gordon, 
Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 209. — Gordon, Pinetum, 149 ; 
Suppl. 48. — Newberry, Pacific B. B, Bep. vi. pt. iii. 49, 
90, £. 17. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. ii. 181, t. 28, 29, £. 
1-18. — (Nelson) Senilis, Pinacece, 59. 



350. — Lemmon, Bep. California State Board Forestry, 

iii. 141 {Co7ie-Bearers of California); West-American Picea (Pseudotsuga) nobilis, Bertrand, Ann. Sci. Nat. 

Cone-Bearers, 61 ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 164 {Conifers of s^r. 5, xx. ^Q (1874). 

w 

A tree, in old age * with a comparatively broad and somewhat rounded head, and usually from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred and occasionally two hundred and fifty feet in height, with a massive 
trunk from six to eight feet in diameter, short rigid Kmhs disposed in regular remote whorls, and short 
stout remote lateral branches standing out at right angles, the ultimate divisions generally pointing 
forward and the whole forming great flat-topped masses of foliage. Until the tree is from eighty to 
one hundred feet in height the tapering stem is covered with thin smooth pale bark and clothed to the 
ground with branches which form a regular open pyramid gradually narrowed to the slender apex, 
but from the lower portion of the trunks of older trees the branches gradually fall, often leaving 
them naked for one hundred or one hundred and fifty feet when fully grown, the bark on the old 
trunks being from one to two inches in thickness, bright red-brown, and deeply divided into broad 
flat ridges irregularly broken by cross fissures and covered with thick closely appressed scales. The 
winter branch-buds are ovoid-oblong, about an eighth of an inch in length, and covered by ovate 
acute red-brown scales usually thickly coated with resin. The branchlets are comparatively slender, 
puberulous for four or five years, bright reddish brown during their first season, and then gradually 



1 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
cut on the Cascade Mountains near Portland, Oregon, is twenty and 
one half inches in diameter inside the bark and two hundred and 
ninety-two years old, with sapwood three and one eighth inches 



thick and with one hundred and twelve layers of annual growth. 
It is probable, therefore, that trees of this species live, under favor- 
able conditions, far beyond three hundred years, which has usually 
been considered the limit of the life of any of the American Fir- 
trees. 



134 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 



grow darker. The leaves are marked on the upper surface with deep sharply defined grooves which 
sometimes do not reach quite to the apex, and are rounded and ohscurely ribbed on the lower surface 
stomatiferous above and below with numerous rows of stomata, dark or light blue-green, and often very 
glaucous during their first season, with generally a single fibro-vascular bundle, resin ducts close to the 
epidermis of the lower surface and midway between the edges and the midrib, and hypoderm cells in an 
interrupted band chiefly confined to the middle of the leaf on the upper and lower surfaces and to its 
edges ; the leaves are crowded in several rows and are erect, those on the lower side of the branch by 
the twisting of their bases, shorter on the upper side than on the lower and strongly incurved with the 
points erect or pointing away from the end of the branch 5 on young plants and on the lower sterile 
branches of old trees they are flat, oblanceolate, rounded and usually slightly notched at the apex, from 
an inch to an inch and a half long and about a sixteenth of an inch wide; on fertile branches, M^here 
they are more crowded than on sterile branches, they are much thickened and often almost equally four- 
sided, acuminate and furnished at the apex with long rigid callous tips, and generally from one half to 
three quarters of an inch in length ; and on leading shoots they are flat, gradually narrowed from the 
base, which is about an eighth of an inch wide, acuminate, with long rigid points, and about an inch 
long. The staminate flowers are cylindrical and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, 
with reddish purple anthers, and at maturity are suspended on slender pedicels from one quarter to 
nearly one half of an inch long. The pistillate flowers, which are mostly confined to the upper 
branches, but are often scattered over those below them, are cylindrical, from an inch to an inch and a 
half long, and from one quarter to one third of an inch in diameter, with broad rounded scales much 
smaller than their nearly orbicular bracts, which are erose on the margins and contracted above into 
slender elongated strongly reflexed tips. The cones are oblong-cylindrical, slightly narrowed, but full 
and rounded at the apex, from four to five inches long and from two to two and a half inches in 
diameter, purple or olive-brown and pubescent, with scales which are about one third wider than they 
are long, and gradually narrowed from the rounded apex to the base, or more often are full at the 

r 

sides, rounded and denticulate above the middle and then abruptly contracted and wedge-shaped below ; 
they are nearly or entirely covered by their strongly reflexed pale green bracts which are spatulate, 
full and rounded above and fimbriate on the margins, with broad fohaceous midribs produced above 
the body of the bract into short broad flattened points. The seeds are half an inch in length, pale 
reddish brown, and about as long as their wings, which are gradually narrowed from below to the nearly 
truncate slightly rounded apex. 

Abies nohilis inhabits the Cascade Mountains from the slopes of Mt. Baker in northern 
Washington * to the valley of the Mackenzie River in Oregon,^ and the coast ranges from the northern 
slopes of the Olympic Mountains in Washington ^ as far south, at least, as the valley of the Nestucca 
River in Oregon. Probably attaining its largest size on the high coast mountains of Oregon, it is most 
abundant on the western slopes of the Cascade Range in Washington and northern Oregon, where it is 
common from elevations of two thousand five hundred up to five thousand feet above the sea^ and 
forms the largest part of the forest between elevations of three and four thousand feet, mingling below 



^ During the summer of 1897 Abies nohilis was found on the 
south side of Mt. Baker by Mr. A. J. Johnson. (See Coville, Gar- 
den and Forest, x. 517.) 

As the northern end of the Cascade Mountains has been very 
little explored, Ahies nohilis may be supposed to range somewhat to 
the north of Mt. Baker, which is the most northerly of the high 
volcanic peaks of the Cascades, and possibly to reach the borders 
of British Columbia. 

The Fir found by Lyall on the Cascade Mountains, near Lake 
Chilukweyuk, and doubtfully referred by him to Picea nohilis (pal- 



samea?) (Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 143), may possibly have been Abies 
nohilis at a more northern station than it has since been seen, and 
north of the boundary of the United States, but I have not seen the 
specimen. 

2 See Coville, l. c. 

3 In August, 1896, I found a single small plant of A hies nohilis 
on a slope above the Solduc River at an elevation of three thousand 
feet above the sea and near the northern base of the Olympic 
Mountains, and the following year this species was seen by Dr. 
C. Hart Merriam in the same region. 



> 



CONIFER-a;. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



135 



with Tsuga heterophyllay Pseudotsuga mucronata and Abies grandis, and above with Ahies 
amahilis, Ahies lasiocarpa and Tsuga Mertensiana. On the eastern and northern slopes of the 
Cascade Mountains it is less abundant and of smaller size. 

The wood of Ahies nohilis is light, hard, strong, and rather close-grained ; it is pale brown 
streaked with red, with rather darker colored sapwood, and contains broad conspicuous dark-colored 
resinous bands of small summer cells and thin obscure medullary rays. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0,4561, a cubic foot weighing 28.42 pounds. Occasionally manufactured into 
lumber, it is used under the name of larch for the interior finish of buildings and for packing-cases. 

Ahies nohilis was discovered on the Cascade Mountains just south of the Columbia River, in 
September, 1825, by David Douglas, on a day made memorable also by his discovery of Ahies 
amahilis} 

■ n 

Sent by Douglas to England, Ahies nohilis at once became a popular ornament of European 
parks, in which it has already grown to a large size and produced its beautiful cones in profusion.^ On 
the Atlantic seaboard it has grown well in the middle states,^ and proved hardy in sheltered positions m 
eastern Massachusetts, where, however, it gives little promise of growing to a large size or of displaying 
much of the beauty and vigor which make this Fir-tree one of the stateliest and most splendid 
inhabitants of the forests of the northwestern states. 



^ Donglas, Companion Bot. Mag. ii. 93. See, also, Sargent, 
Gard. Chron. n. ser. xvi. 7. 

2 The specimen in the Pinetiim at Dropmore, near Windsor, in 
England, planted where it now stands in 1837, was seventy-one 
feet in height in 1893, with its lower branches still sweeping the 
ground (J. G. Jack, Garden and Forest, vi. 14) ; and at Birr Castle, 
King's County, Ireland, in 1891, there was a specimen eighty-three 



feet in height. (See Dunn, Jour. R. Hort. Sac. xiv. 86. For other 
notes on Abies nohilis in Europe, see Hooker, Jour. Bot. and Kew 
Gard. Misc. ix. 85. — Hutchinson, Trans. Highland and Agric. Soc. 
ser. 4, xi. 24. — Gard. Chron. n. ser. xix. 14, f. 2; ser. 3, xx. 274, f. 
52. — Webster, Trans. Scottish Arloricultural Soc. xi. 61.) 
® See Garden and Forest, vi. 458. 



\ 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE, 



4 ■> 



Plate DCXVIL Abies nobilis. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size, 

2. An anther, end view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, seen from below, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, 

enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a scale of a pistillate flower, with its bract and 

ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

9. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds and bract, natural size. 

10. A seed, enlarged. 

F 

11. An embryo, enlarged. 

12. A leaf of a sterile branch divided transversely, upper side, enlarged. 

13. A leaf of a leading shoot divided transversely, lower side, enlarged. 

14. A leaf of a lower sterile branch, natural size. 

15. A leaf of a cone-bearing branch, natural size. 

16. Cross section of a leaf of a fertile branch, magnified fifteen diameters. 

17. A seedling plant, natural size. 



t 



Silva of Nortli A 



m eric a. 



TalD.DCXVII. 



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ABIES NOBILIS 




^.RLooreyi-iay direa^^. 



Imp. d. Toyn^u^r, Pa.rLy. 



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CONIFERS. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



137 



ABIES MAGNIFICA. 



Red Fir. 



Bracts of the cone-scales oblong-spatulate, acute, short-pointed, shorter than 
their scales. Leaves blue-green and often glaucous, tetragonal, bluntly pointed on 
sterile and acute, crowded and incurved on fertile branches. 



Abies magnifioa, A. Murray, Proc. B,. Hort. Soc. iii. 318, 

— Henkel & 



f. 25-33 (1863); Gartenflora, xiii. 119. 
Hochstetter. Syn. Nadelh. 419. 
ii. 213. - 



No. 7, 340 {Death Valley Exped. ii.). — Coville, Contrib. 
U. S, Nat. Herb, iv. 224 {Bot Death Valley Exped.). 
K. Koch, Dendr. ii. pt. Picea magnifica, Gordon, Finetum^ ed. 2, 219 (1867). 



Engelraann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 601 ; 



A. Murray, Gard. Chron. n. ser. iii. 105, 752, f. 156. 



Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 885, f . 116 ; Brewer & Watson Pinus amabilis, Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 



Bot. Cal. ii. 119 ; Bot. Gazette, vii. 4. — Veitch, Man. 



426 (in part) (not Antoine) (1868). — W. R. M'Nab, Proc. 
R. Irish Acad. ser. 2, ii. t. 46, f . 3-3 a. 



Conif, 99. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IWi Census 

JJ. S. ix. 214 ; Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 20. — Masters, Abies amabilis, Vasey, Hep. Dept. Agric. TJ. S. 1875, 34 

Gard. Chron. n. ser, xxiv. 652, f. 148; Jour. B. Hort. (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (not Forbes) (1876). 



Soc. xiv. 193. — Syme, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxv. 395. 
Mayr, Wald. Nordatn. 351. — Lemmon, Rep. California 



Pinus magnifica, W. R. M'Nab, Proe. B. Irish Acad. ser. 
2, ii. 700, t. 49, f. 30, 30 a (1877). 



State Board Forestry, iii. 142, t. 13 (Cone-Bearers of Abies nobilis, Engelraann, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xii. 684 



California) ; West-American Cone-Bearers, 61 ; Bull. 
Sierra Club, ii. 165 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope). — 
Beissner, Handb. Nadelh. 482, f . 135. — Hansen, Jour, 
B. Hort. Soc, xiv. 469 (Pineturti Danicum). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendr. 17. — Merriam, North American Fauna, 



(in part) (not Lindley) (1879) ; Brewer & Watson Bot. 
Cal. ii. 119 (in part). — Kellogg, Trees of California, 33 

(in part). 

Abies nobilis, var. magnifica, Kellogg, Trees of Califor- 
nia, 35 (1882). — Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxii, 189, t. 
5, f. 19-21. 



A tree, in old age * occasionally somewhat round-topped and often two hundred and fifty feet in 
height, with a trunk eight or ten feet in diameter and often naked for half the height of the tree, and 
comparatively small and short branches arranged in regular remote whorls, the upper slightly ascending 
and the lower somewhat pendulous and furnished with rigid remote lateral branches, the ultimate 
divisions pointing forward and the whole forming great broad stifE flat-topped frond-like masses of 
foliage. Until it is about one hundred feet high the tapering trunk of Ahies magnificay like its 
branches, is covered with thin smooth silvery white bark which, as the tree grows older, begins to darken 

r 

near the ground ; and, when fully grown, the bark of the trunk is from four to six inches thick and is 
deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken by cross fissures and covered by dark red-brown scales 
which in falling disclose the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. The winter branch-buds are ovate, acute, 
and from one quarter to one third of an inch long and are covered with bright chestnut-brown scales, 
those of the outer ranks being denticulate on the margins, with prominent midribs produced into short 
tips. The branchlets are stout, light yellow-green and slightly puberulous during their first season, and 
then light red-brown and lustrous for seven or eight years, finally becoming gray or silvery white. The 
leaves, which are persistent usually for about ten years and are pale and very glaucous during their first 
season, and later become blue-green, are almost equally four-sided, ribbed above and below, with from 
six to eight rows of stomata on each of the four sides, generally two fibro-vascular bundles, resin ducts 
close to the epidermis and midway between the sides and the midrib of the lower surface, and hypoderm 



^ The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American hundred and sixty-one years old, with sapwood three eighths of an 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, inch thick and ninety-seven years old. 
which is only twenty-five inches in diameter inside the bark, is two 



138 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFER-^. 



cells at the four angles ; on young plants and the lower branches of older ones they arc oblanceolate 
somewhat flattened, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch 
and one half long and one sixteenth of an inch wide, those on the lower side of the branch spreading 
in two nearly horizontal ranks by the twist at their base, while those on the upper side of the branch 
which are curved from below the middle, are often almost erect or bent forward at various ano-les to the 
branch ; on upper and especially on fertile branches the leaves are much thickened, with more prominent 
midribs, acute, with short callous tips, from one third of an inch in length on the upper side of the 
branch to an inch and a quarter on the lower side, crowded, erect and strongly incurved, completely 
hiding the upper side of the branch ; and on leading shoots the leaves are about three quarters of an 
inch long, arcuate, and acuminate, with their long rigid callous spinescent tips pressed against the stem, 
The staminate flowers are oblong-cylindrical, from one half to three quarters of an inch long and about 
a quarter of an inch thick, with dark reddish purple anthers. The pistillate flowers are oblong, an inch 
and a half long and nearly an inch thick, with rounded scales much shorter than their oblong pale green 
bracts which terminate in elongated slender tips more or less tinged with red. The cones are oblong- 
cylindrical, slightly narrowed to the rounded truncate or retuse apex, dark purplish brown,* puberulous, 
from six to nine inches long and from two and a half to three and a half inches in diameter, with scales 
often an inch and a half wide and usually about two thirds as wide as they are long, gradually narrowed 
to the cordate base, somewhat longer or often only two thirds as long as their bracts, which are oblong- 
spatulate, acute or acuminate, with slender tips, slightly serrate above the middle and often abruptly 
contracted and then enlarged toward the base. The seeds are dark reddish brown, three quarters of 
an inch long and about as wide as their lustrous rose-colored obovate cuneate wings, which are nearly 
truncate and often three quarters of an inch wide at the apex.^ 

Abies magmfica is distributed southward from southern Oregon,^ finding its most northerly home 
on the Cascade Mountains, where it is common at elevations of between five and seven thousand 



^ Mr. J. G. Lemmon has found in the neighborhood of Meadow- 
Lake, Sierra County, California, smaU and evidently stunted trees 
of Abies magnificat with cones averaging four or five inches in 
length, which he describes as " of a yellowish color until maturity " 
(Abies magnificaj var. xantJiocarpa, Lemmon, Rep. California State 
Board Forestry, iil. 145, t. 14 [Cone- Bearers of California'] [1890] ; 
West- American Cone-Bearers, 63 ; Bull. Sierra Club, ii. 166 \C(mi- 
fers of the Pacific Sloped). 

^ On the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, on Mt. Shasta and on 
the cross and coast ranges of northern California, the bracts of tlie 
cone-scales of Abies magnifica are full and rounded or obtusely 
pointed and not acute at the apex, and are nearly as long or usually 
longer than their scales, the exserted bracts becoming bright golden 
brown at maturity In their exposed parts and loosely refiexed, 
leaving a considerable part of the scales of the cone uncovered. 
This is : — 

Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis, Lemmon, Rep. California State 
Board Forestry, ill. 145 {Cone-Bearers of California) (1890) ; West- 
American Cone-Bearers, 62, t. 11. 

f Abies nobilis rohusta, Carri^re, Traite Conif ed. 2, 269 (1867). — 

Masters, Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxiv. 652, f. 147 ; Jour, Linn. Soe. 

xxii. 192, t. 5. 

Abies nobilis, var. glauca, Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxii. 189, f. 
18 (1887). 

Abies Shastensis, Lemmon, Garden and Forest, x, 184 (1897) ; 
Bull Sierra Club, ii. 165 (Conifers of the Pacific Slope). — Co- 
viUe, Garden and Forest, x. 516. 



orests or mingled with Tsuga Mertensiana at its 

under this name had not fruited, and it Is impossible to decide 
from his description whether it was tbe form with included or 
exserted bracts, and his varietal name, which is much older than 

m 

Lemmon's Shastensis, cannot therefore be safely adopted. 

At the lowest elevations on Mt. Shasta, where this tree is found, 
the cones are of the normal size and shape of the species, and the 
bracts, although full and rounded at the apex, are not exserted or 
protrude but slightly beyond the scales ; at higher elevations the 
cones are often oval in form and not more than four inches long and 
two and a half inches In diameter, with comparatively longer and 
much exserted bracts. On the southern Sierra Nevada at very high 
elevations the bracts of the cones of Individual trees of Abies mag- 
nifica are identical in their shape with those of the north and are 
much exserted, but in all the central part of the range occupied 

r 

by this tree its cone-bracts are acute and included ; and, except in 
the shape and length of the cone-bracts and in the oval form of the 
smaller cones produced on trees growing at high altitudes, I can 
hnd no characters to distinguish from the Fir of the central Sierra 
Nevada the var. Shastensis, whicli is the only form from Mt. Shasta 
northward. In habit, bark, and foliage the two forms seem iden- 
tical, nor have I seen trees with cone-bracts which appeared inter- 
mediate in form between those of the species and its variety. 

2 See Coville, I. c. 

The most northern point wliere Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis, 
was seen by Dr. Coville In 1897 was on the mountains east of Odell 
Lake and south of Davis Lake, at a point many miles south of the 
most southern station at which Abies nobilis has been observed 



The plant figured by Dr. Masters as Abies nobilis robusta is evi- (Coville, /. c). 
dently of this form, but the plant previously described by Carri&re 



/ 



CONIFERJE. 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



139 



+ 

upper limits, and below with Pinus contorta and Pinus ponderosa. It is common on the Trinity, 
Scott, and other cross ranges, and on the high peaks of the coast range of northern California ; ^ on 
the slopes of Mt. Shasta, at elevations of between six thousand five hundred and eight thousand feet 
above the sea, it is the principal inhabitant of great forests in which Ahies concolor, its constant 
companion at low elevations, often appears; southward it extends along the entire length of the western 
slope of the Sierra Nevada, on which it is the principal tree in the forest belt between elevations of six 
and nine thousand feet above the sea, sometimes descending in cool shady caSons a thousand feet 
lower; toward the southern end of the range it ascends to elevations of over ten thousand feet, although 
above eight thousand five hundred feet, where it attains its largest size on the fine soil of moraines 
and often forms continuous nearly pure forests, it is scattered and usually of smaller size;^ it is also 
abundant on the eastern slope of the northern and central parts of the Sierra range at high elevations 
and on the Washoe Mountains, one of its eastern spurs in Nevada.^ 

The wood of Abies magnijica is light, soft, not strong, comparatively durable in contact with the 
soil, but difficult to season ; it is light red-brown, with thick somewhat darker sapwood and a satiny 
surface, and contains broad conspicuous dark-colored bands of small summer cells and numerous thin 
medullary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4701, a cubic foot weighing 29.30 
pounds. It is largely used for fuel, and in California is occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber 
employed in the construction of cheap buildings and for packing-cases. 

Abies TYiagrvifica was discovered by Fremont in December, 1845, during his second journey to 
California, probably on the Sierra Nevada.* The variety Shastensis was discovered on Mt. Shasta by 
Jeffrey in October, 1852.^ Introduced into Europe nearly fifty years ago,*^ Abies magnijica has grown 
well in many parts of Great Britain "^ and in France and northern Italy ; in the eastern United States it 
is hardy in sheltered positions as far north as eastern Massachusetts, but, like many other trees of 
western North America, it gives little promise of long life on the Atlantic seaboard. 

Beautiful in its early years in its symmetrical shape and in its coloring, and massive and superb in 
its prime, with its tall dark stem and narrow crown, through which the light filters softly to the ground, 
hardly interrupted by its slender branches and their embracing leaves, the great Red Fir, the noblest of 
all its race, is a fit associate of the Sequoia, the Sugar Pine, the Yellow Pine, the Libocedrus, and the 
Douglas Spruce in the forests of the Sierra Nevada which these trees make glorious. 



1 On Snow Mountain in Lalce County, Ahies magnificay var. Shas- 
tensis, is the most abundant tree above elevations of six thousand 
feet. (See K. Brandegee, Zoe, iv. 176 [as Ahies nohilis'].) 

2 Muir, The Mountains of California y 173, f. 
^ Muir, in litt. 

* Teste Herb. Engelmann, 

* Teste Herb. Engelmann. 

® A hies magnijica is said to have been introduced into England in 
1851. (See Nicholson, Gard. Diet.) Jeffrey, perhaps, first sent 
the seeds to England, but probably of the var. Shastensis, as he does 



not appear to have visited the central Sierra Nevada. There was 
so much confusion, however, about the origin, the true character, 
and the names of many of the Pacific coast conifers when they 
were introduced into England, that it is hardly possible to decide 
who first sent the seeds of this tree to Europe. 

' Ahies magnijica is believed to be one of the hardiest of all the 
Fir-trees in Great Britain, where there are a number of specimens 
which, in 1892, were from thirty-five to forty feet in height. (See 
Dunn, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 84.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate DCXVIIL Abies magnifica. 

1. A branch with stammate flowerSj natural size. 

2. An anther, side view, enlarged. 

3. An anther, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

4 

5. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its bract and ovules, 

enlarged. 

6. A bract of a pistillate flower, lower side, enlarged. 



Plate DCXIX. Abies magnifica. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 

3. A cone-scale, upper side, with its seeds, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, enlarged. 

7. A leaf of a sterile branch divided transversely, enlarged. 

I 

8. A leaf from the upper side of a cone-bearing branch, natural size 

9. A leaf from the lower side o£ a cone-bearing branch, natural size. 

10. A leaf from a sterile branch of a young tree, natural size. 

11. End of a leading shoot, natural size. 

12. Cross section of a leaf, magnified fifteen diameters. 

13. Seedling plants, natural size. 



Plate DCXX. Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A cone-scale, lower side, with its bract, natural size. 
3- A cone-scale, upper side, with a seed, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. . 



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INDEX TO VOL. Xn, 



Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Abies, 95. 

Abiesy 1, 19, 59, 83. 

Abies AJanensiSf 21. 

Abies Ajanensis, var. microsperma, 21. 

Abies alba, 33, 37, 99. 

Abies alba coerulea, 40. 

Abies Albertiana, 73. 

Abies Alcockiana, 21. 

Abies Alcoquiana, 21. 

Abies amabilis, 125. 

Abies amabilis, 117, 137. 

Abies Americana, 33, 37, 63, 107. 

Abies Americana ccenilea, 40. 

Abies Apollinis, 99. 

Abies Apollinis, p Panachaica, 99. 

Abies Apollinis, y Regince AmalicBf 99. 

Abies Araragi, 60. 

A bies arctica, 39. 

Ahies argentea, 100. 

Abies Arizonica, 113. 

? Abies aromatica, 117. 

Abies Baborensis, 96, 100. 

Abies balsamea, 107. 

Abies balsamea, 113, 121. 

Abies balsamea, ^ Fraseri, 105. 

Abies balsamea Hudsonia, 109. 

Abies balsamifera, 107. 

Abies bicolor, 21. 

Abies bifida, 101. 

Ahies bifolia, 113. 

Abies brachyphylla, 102. 

Abies bracteata, 129. 

Abies Bridgesii, 73. 

Abies Brunoniana, 61. 

Abies Canadensis, 37, 63. 

A bies Canadensis ? 73. 

Abies Caroliniana, 69. 

Abies Cephalonica, 96, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica, a Parnassica, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica, & Arcadica, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica robusta, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica, var. Apollinis, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica, var. Regince Amalias, 99. 

Abies Cilicica, 96, 98. 

Abies ccerulea, 40. 

Abies com.mutata, 43. 

Abies concolor, 121. 

Abies concolor, 117. 

Abies concolor, var. lasiocarpa, 121. 

Abies concolor, var. Lowiana, 121. 

Abies curvifolia, 37. 

Abies deniiculata, 28. 

A bies diversifolia, 60. 

Ahies Douglasii, 87. 

A bies Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, 93. 

^?jies Douglasii, var. taxifolia, 87. 

Ahies dumosa, 01. 



Abies, economic properties of, 96. 

Abies Eichleri, 101. 

Abies Engelmanni, 43. 

^Zties Engelmanni glauca, 47. 

^Z»ies excelsa, 23, 25, 99. 

^Jzes excelsa denudata, 24. 

^ftees excelsa, var. medioxima, 24, 

.4 6zes excelsa, var. virgata, 24. 

Abies falcata, 55. 

Abies Jirma, 101, 102. 

Abies Jirma, var. bifida, 101. 

Abies Fraseri, 105. 

^fe/es Fraseri, 107. 

^6ies Fraseri (B) ?ia«a, 109. 

^6zes Fraseri, var. Hudsoni, 109. 

Abies, fungal diseases of, 101. 

j46fes Glehni, 21, 

Abies Gmelini, 4, 

.4&ies Gordoniana, 117. 

Abies grandis, 117. 

.462€s grandis, 113, 121, 125. 

Abies grandis, a Oregona, 117. 

^6tes grandis, var. concolor, 121. 

Abies grandis, var. densiflora, 125. 

^ fifes grandis, var. Lowiana, 121. 

^6zes heterophylla, 73. 

^6ies hirtella, 97. 

j4Mes Hispanica, 100. 

Abies homolepis, 96, 102. 

.4Z»ies Hookeriana, 77. 

Abies, hybrid, 97. 

Abies, insect enemies of, 101. 

Abies insignis, 97. 

^46265 Japonica, 102. 

^&2es Jezoensis, 21. 

^fiies Kcempferi, 2. 

Ahies Khutroio, 22. 

.^ fizes Larix, 3. 

Abies lasiocarpa, 113. 

^6zes lasiocarpa, 125. 

^Jzes lasiocarpa, var. Arizonica, 113. 

^ &2es Zaa:a, 37. 

^&zes leptolepis, 2. 

Ahies Lowiana, 121. 

-46ies macrocarpa, 93. 

Abies magnifica, 137. 

Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis, 138. 

^6zVs magnifica, var. xanthocarpa, 138. 

^ files Mariana, 28. 

^fizes medioxima, 24. 

^ fiies Menziesii, 21, 47, 55. 

^fiies Menziesii Parry ana, 47. 

.^fizes Mertensia, 77. 

jlfizes Mertensiana, 73, 77. 

^ fifes microcarpa, 7. 

ilfifes microphylla, 73. 

.^fiies microsperma, 21, 



Abies minor, 99. 

Abies Momi, 96, 101. 

.4 files Morlnda, 22. 

j4 fifes mucronata, 87. 

^fiies mucronata, var. palustris, 87. 

^ fifes nephrolepis, 101. 

^fifes nigra, 28, 33, 43. 

j4 fifes nigra, p rubra, 33. 

Abies nobilis, 133. 

j4fifes nobilis, 137. 

? Abies nobilis robusta, 138. 

^ fifes nobilis, var. glauca, 138. 

^fifes nobilis, var. magnifica, 137. 

Abies Nordmanniana, 96, 98. 

Abies Nordmanniana speciosa, 97. 

-4 fifes Numidica, 100. 

.4 fifes obovata, 24. 

^fifes Omoriha, 22. 

^ fifes orientalis, 22, 23. 

^fifes Pattoniana, 77. 

.4 fifes Pattonii, 73, 77, 80. 

Abies pectinata, 23, 63, 99, 

Ahies pectinata, ^ Apollinis, 99. 

Ahies pendula, 7. 

Abies Picea, 96, 99, 

j4 fifes Picea, 23. 

.4 fifes Picea (B) Appollinis, 99. 

Abies Pieea, economic properties of, 100. 

Abies Pichta, 98. 

.4 fifes Pindrow, 98. 

Abies Pinsapo, 96, 100. 

Abies Pinsapo, var. Baborensis, 100. 

.4 fif^s polita, 21. 

Ahies procera viminalis, 24. 

^ fifes Regince Amalice, 99. 

Abies religiosa, 97. 

j4 fifes religiosa glaucescens, 91. 

^fifes rubra, 33, 37. 

^ fifes rufira ccerulea, 40. 

Abies Sachalinensis, 97. 

.4 fifes Schrenchiana, 25. 

^ fifes selinusia, 98. 

^fifes Shastensis, 138. 

Abies Sibirica, 96, 97. 

^ fifes Sibirica, var. a/fia, 98, 

^fifes Sibirica, var. nephrol^is, 101. 

^ fifes Sitchensis, 21, 55. 

yH fifes Smithiana, 21, 22. 

^ fifes species, 61. 

j4 fifes spectabilis, 98. 

^ fifes spinulosa, 22, 

^ fifes subalpina, 113, 

^ fifes subalpina, var. fallax, 113. 

^fifes taxifolia, 63, 87, 99. 

^ fifes taxifolia, vkv. patula, 63. 

? Ahies Thunhergii, 21. 

id fifes Torano, 21. 



142 



INDEX. 



Abies trigona, 55. 

Abies Tsuga, 60. 

Abies Tsuga nana, 60. 

Abies umbellata, 101. 

Abies Veitcbi, 9Q, 101. 

Abies Veitchh var. Sackalinensis, 97. 

Abies venusta, 129. 

Abies vulgaris, 99. 

Abies Webbiaua, 96, 98. 

Abies Webbiana, y3 Pindrow, 98. 

Abies Williamsonli, 77. 

Adelges abieticolens, 25. 

Adelges Abietis, 25. 

^cidium elatinum, 101. 

Algerian Fir, 100. 

Androgynous flowers of Picea, 20. 

Antbostemella brachystoma, 61. 

Aspidiotus Abietis, 61. 

Asterina nuda, 101. 

Balm of Fir, 109. 
Balsam Fir, 105, 107, 113. 
Balsam, Canada, 109. 
Balm of Gilead Fir, 107. 
Balsamece, 97. 
Beer, Spruce, 31. 
Black Spruce, 28. 
Blue Spruce, 47. 
BIytridium signatum, 61. 
Botrytis cinerea, 84. 
Botrytis Douglasii, 84. 
Bracteates, 97. 
BrianQon manna, 4. 
Burgundy pitch, 23. 

r 

Cseoma Laricis, 5. 
Cseorna Abietis-Canadensis, 61. 
Cseorna Abietis-pectinatse, 61. 
Calyptospora Gceppertiana, 61. 
Canada balsam, 109. 
Canada pitch, 65. 
Canker of Larch, 5. 
Cephalonian Fir, 99. 
Chermes laricifolise, 5. 
Chinese Hemlock, 60. 
Chrysomyxa Abietis, 61. 
Chrysomyxa Ledi, 26. 
Chrysomyxa Rhododendri, 26. 
Cilician Fir, 99. 
Coleophora laricella, 5. 
Colorado Spruce, 47. 
Colpoma morbidum, 26. 

Conifers, 1. 

Dasyscypha Agassizii, 5, 101. 
Dasyscypha calycina, 5. 
Dasyscypha Willkommii, 5. 
Dendroctonus frontalis, 25. 
Dendroctonus rufipennis, 25. 
Douglas Spruce, 87. 
Dryochoetes affaber, 25. 

Engelmann Spruce, 43. 
Euabies, 97. 
Eupicea, 20, 
European Larch, 3. 
European Spruce, 23. 

Fendler, August, 123. 

Fendlera, 124. 

Fir, Algerian, 100. 

Fir, Balm of Gilead, 107. 

Fir, Balsam, 105, 107, 113. 

Fir, Cephalonian, 99. 



Fir, Cilician, 99. 

Fir, Greek, 99. 

Fir, Himalayan, 98. 

Fir, Mexican, 97. 

Fir, Nordmann, 98. 

Fir, Red, 87, 133, 137. 

Fir, Silver, 129. 

Fir, White, 117, 121, 125. 

Fungal diseases of Abies, 101. 

Fungal diseases of Larix, 5. 

Fungal disease's of Picea, 25. 

Fungal diseases of Pseudotsuga, 84. 

Fungal diseases of Tsuga, 61. 

Fusisporium Berenice, 101. 

Gelechia abietisella, 61. 
Gelecbia obliquistrigella, 25. 
Gibbes, Lewis Reeve, 70. 
GrandeSj 97. 

Grapholitha bracteatana, 84. 
Greek Fir, 99. 
Gum, Spruce, 31. 

Hemlock, 63, 69, 73, 93. 
Hemlock, Chinese, 60. 
Hemlock, Himalayan, 61. 
Hemlock, Mountain, 77. 
Hemlock, oil of, 65. 
Hemlock resin, 65. 
Hemlock, Sargent's, 66, 
Hemlocks, Japanese, 60. 
Hesperopeuce, 59, 60. 
Hesperopeuce Pattoniana, 77. 
Himalayan Fir, 98. 
Himalayan Hemlock, 61. 
Himalayan Larch, 3. 
Himalayan Spruce, 22. 
Howell, Thomas, 52. 
Hybrid Abies, 97. 
Hylesinus sericeus, 25. 
Hypodermella Laricis, 5. 

Insect enemies of Abies, 101. 
Insect enemies of Larix, 5. 
Insect enemies of Picea, 25. 
Insect enemies of Pseudotsuga, 84. 
Insect enemies of Tsuga, 61. 

Japanese Hemlocks, 60. 
Japanese Larch, 2. 
Japanese Pseudotsuga, 84. 

Lachnus Abietis, 25. 

Lachnus laricifex, 5. 

Larch, 7, 127, 133. 

Larch, Canker of, 5. 

Larch, European, 3. 

Larch, Himalayan, 3. 

Larch, Japanese, 2. 

Larch Sack-bearer, 5. 

Larch Saw-fly, 5. 

Larix, 1. 

Larix Altaicay 4. 

Larix Americana, 7. 

Larix Americana pendulaf 7. 

Larix Americana prolifera, 7. 

Larix Americana rubra, 7. 

Larix Archangelica, 4. 

Larix caducifolia, 3. 

Larix communis, var. j3 Sibirica, 4. 

Larix communis, y Rossica, 4. 

Larix communis, var. 6 pendulina, 3. 

Larix Dahurica, 4. 

Larix Dahurica, a typica, 4. 



Larix Dahurica, $ prostrata, 4. 

Larix Dahurica, var. Kurilensis, 4. 

Larix Dahurica, var. y Japonica, 4. 

Larix decidua, 3. 

Larix decidua, a communis, 3. 

Larix decidua, y Americana, 7. 

Larix decidua, e pendula, 3. 

Larix, economic properties of, 2. 

Larix Europcea, 3, 4. 

Larix Europma communis, 3. 

Larix Europma compacla, 3. 

Larix Europma laxa, 3. 

Larix Europcea pendula, 3. 

Larix Europcea, a typica, 3. 

Larix Europma, var. Dahurica, 4. 

Larix Europma, var. Sibirica, 4. 

Larix, fungal diseases of, 5. 

Larix Grijpihiana, 2. 

Larix Griffithii, 2. 

Larix, insect enemies of, 5. 

Larix intermedia, 4, 7. 

Larix Japonica, 2. 

Larix Japonica macrocarpa, 2. 

Larix Ksempferi, 2. 

Larix Ksempferi, var. minor, 2. 

Larix Kamtschatika, 4. 

Larix Kurilensis, 4. 

Larix laridna, 7. 

Larix laricina, var. microcarpa, 8. 

Larix laricina, var. pendula, 8. 

Larix Larix, 3. 

Larix Larix, economic properties of, 3, 4. 

Larix Ledebourii, 4. 

Larix leptolepis, 2. 

Larix leptolepis, $ Murrayana, 2. 

Larix leptolepis, var. minor, 2. 

Larix Lyallii, 15. 

Larix microcarpa, 7. 

Larix occidentalis, 11. 

Larix pendula, 7. 

Larix pyramidalis, 3. 

Larix Rossica, 4. 

Larix Sibirica, 3. 

Larix tenuifolia, 7. 

Larix vulgaris, 3. 

Lasiosph£eria stuppea, 61. 

Liparis monareha, 24. 

Lyall, David, 16. 

Lyallia, 16. 

J 

Mackenzie, Alexander, 75. 
Mainia, Brian^on, 4. 
Melampsora Tremulie, 5. 
Melezitose, 5. 
Meliola balsamicola, 101. 
Mertens, Karl Heinrich, 80. 
Mertensia, 80. 
Mexican Fir, 97. 
Micropeuce, 60. 
Momi, 101. 

Monohammus confusor, 25, 
Monohammus deutator, 25. 
Moth, Nun, 24. 
Mountain Hemlock, 77. 

Nectria balsamea, 101. 
Nematus Erichsonii, 5. 
Nobiles, 97. 
Nordmann Fir, 98. 
Norway Spruce, 24. 
Nun moth, 24. 

Oil of Hemlock, 65. 
Omorika, 20, 23. 



INDEX. 



143 



Oospora Abietum, 84. 
Oregon PinCj 90- 

Patton Spruce, 77. 

Peridermium Abietinum, 26. 

Periderniium Abietinum, var. decolorans, 26. 

Peridermium balsameum, 101. 

Peridermium columnare, 61. 

Peridermium Peckii, 61. 

Peziza crocea, 101. 

Picea, 19. 

Picea, 95. 

Picea Abies, 20, 23. 

Picea Abies, androgynous flowers of, 20. 

Picea Abies, economic properties of, 23, 24. 

Picea Abies medioxima, 23. 

Picea Abies viminalis, 24. 

Picea Abies virgata, 24. 

Picea Abies, var. inverta, 24. 

Picea Abies, var. monstrosa, 24. 

Picea Abies, var. pendula, 24. 

Picea Abies, var. pyramidaiis, 24. 

Picea Abies, var. strigosa, 24. 

Picea acutissima^ 33. 

Picea AJanensis, 21, 55. 

Picea AjanensiSj a genuina, 21. 

Picea AJanensis, j3 subintegerriinay 21. 

Picea AJanensiSi var. microsperma, 21. 

Picea alha^ 37. 

Picea alba coe,rulea, 40. 

Picea alba, var. arctica, 39. 

Picea Alcockiana, 21. 

Picea Alcoquiana, 21. 

Picea amabilis, 113, 125. 

Picea ApolliniSf 99. 

Picea balsamea, 107. 

Picea balsamea, var. longifolia, 107. 

Picea balsamifera, 107. 

Picea bicolor, 20, 21. 

Picea Hfoliay 113. 

Picea brackyphylla, 102. 

Picea bracteata, 129. 

Picea brevifolia, 28. 

Picea brevifoUa, var. semiprostrata, 28. 

Picea Breweriana, 51. 

? Picea Californica, 77. 

Picea Canadensis, 37. 

Picea Canadensis, 63. 

Picea Canadensis, androgynous flowers of, 

20. 
Picea Canadensis glauca, 40. 

Picea Cephalonica, 99. 

Picea Cilicica, 98. 

Picea carulea, 40. 

Picea Columbiana, 43, 44. 

Picea concolor, 121. 

Picea concolor, var. violacea, 121. 

Picea Douglasii, 87. 

Picea, economic properties of, 20, 23. 

Picea Engelmanni, 43. 

Picea. Engelmanni, var. Franciscana, 43. 

Picea excelsa, 23. 
Picea excelsa denudata, 24. 
Picea excelsa, $ medioxima, 24. 
Picea excelsa, $ viminalis, 24. 
Picea excelsa, var. strigosa, 24. 
Picea excelsa, var. virgata, 24. 
Picea jirma, 301. 
Picea firma, var. A, 102. 
Picea Jirma, var. B, 101. 
picea Fraseri, 105, 107. 
/-•icfia Fraseri Budsonia, 109. 
Picea Fraseri Hudsonica, 109. 
Picea, fungal diseases of, 25, 



Picea glaucescens, 91. 

Picea Glehni, 20, 21. 

Pinus grandis, 117, 121, 125. 

Picea hirtella, 97. 

Picea Hondoensis, 21. 

Picea, insect enemies of, 25. 

Picea Japonica, 102. 

Picea Jezoensis, 20, 21.. 

Picea Khutrow, 22. 

Picea kukunaria, 99. 

Picea lasiocarpa, 113. 

Picea laxa, 37. 

Picea Lowiana, 121, 

Picea Lowii, 121. 

Picea magnifica, 137. 

Picea Mariana, 28. 

Picea Marianttt 33. 

Picea Mariana, var. Doumetii, 31. 

Picea Maximowiczii, 25. 

Picea Menziesii, 47, 55. 

Picea Menziesii, var. crispa, 55. 

p2cea microsperma, 21. 

Picea montana, 23. 

Picea Morinda, 22. 

Picea nigra, 28, 33. 

P{ce« nz>/ra Doumetii, 31. 

Picea nigra, a squamea, 28. 

Pzcea nigra, var. glauca, 37. 

Picea nigra, var, grisea, 33, 

Pzcea nigra, var. rubra, 33, 

Pecea nohilis, 133. 

Picea nobilis (balsamea ?), 134. 

Picea Nordmanniana, 98. 

Picea Numidica, 100. 

Picea obovata, 20, 24. 

Picea obovata, var. j8 Schrenckiana, 25. 

Picea Omorika, 20, 22. 

Picea orientalis, 20, 22. 

Picea Parryana, 47. 

P/cea Parsonsiana, 124. 

Picea pectinata, 100. 

Picea Piclita, 98. 

Picea Pindrow, 98. 

Picea Pinsapo, 100. 

Picea poliia, 21. 

(Picea) Pseudotsuga nobilis, 133. 

Picea pungens, 47. 

Picea pungens, a viridis, 47. 

Picea pungens, ^ glauca, 47. 

Picea pungens glauca pendula, 48. 

Picea pungens, var. Konig Albert von SacJisen, 

48. 
Picea religiosa, 97. 
Picea religiosa glaucescens, 91. 
Picea rubens, 33. 
Picea rwftra, 28, 33, 
Picea rubra pusilla, 37. 
Picea Schrenckiana, 25. 
Picea Sitchensis, 55. 
Picea SitJcoinsis, 55. 
Picea Smitbiana, 20, 22. 
? Picea Tianschanica, 25. , 
Picea Torano, 20, 21. 
Picea Veitcbi, 101, 
Picea vulgaris, 23. 
Picea vulgaris, var. Altaica, 25. 
Picea Webbiana, 98. 
Picea Withmanniana, 98. 
Pieris Menapia, 5. 
Pine, Oregon, 90. 
Pinipestis reniculella, 25. 
Pinsapo, 100. 
Pinus, 1, 19, 59, 83, 95. 
Ptftus ilfeies, 23, 24, 98, 99. 



? Pinus A bieSj 21. 

f Pinus Abies acutissima, 33. 

Pinus Abies alba, 99. 

Pinus- Abies Americana, 63. 

Pinus Abies balsamea, 107. 

Pinus Abies Canadensis, 28, 63. 

Pinus Abies laxa, 37. 

Piniis ^6ies Picea, 23. 

Pinus ^&ies, a pectinata, 100. 

Pinus /4Z)ies, & Regince Amalice, 99. 

Pinus J6ies, j8 Apollims, 99. 

Pinus ^&ies, S Apollinis, 99. 

Pinus A hies, S Panachaica, 99. 

Pinus A bies, 5 viminalis, 24. 

Pinu^ ^ 5iC'S, e Cephalonica, 99. 

Pinus A bies, var. medioxima, 24. 

Pinus aZ&a, 33, 37. 

Pinus a/Ja, jS arctica, 39. 

Pinus Alcoquiana, 21. 

Pinus amabilis, 113, 125, 137. 

Pinus Americana, 28, 63. 

Pinus Americana rubra, 33. 

Pinus Americana, a alba, 37. 

Pinus Apollinis, 99. 

Pinus Araragi, 60. 

Pinus Baborensis, 100. 

Pinus balsamea, 105, 107. 

Pinus balsamea, var. Fraseri, 105. 

Pinus balsamea, var. longifolia, 107. 

Pinus bifida, 101. 

Pinus brackyphylla, 102, 

Pinus bracteata, 129. 

Pinus Brunoniana, 61. 

Pinus Canadensis, 37, 63, 73, 

Pinus Canadensis ^ ?, 87, 

Pinus Canadensis, ^ nigra, 28. 

Pinus Cephalonica, 99. 

Pinus Cilicica, 98. 

Pinus cinerea, 23. 

Pinus commutata, 43. 

Pinus concolor, 121. 

Pinus Dahurica, 4. 

Pinus Douglasii, 87. 

Pinus Douglasii, ^ pendula, 87. 

Pinus Douglasii, var. brevibractcata, 87. 

Pinus Douglasii, var. taxifolia, 87. 

Pinus dumosa, 60. 

Pinus excelsa, 23. 

Pinus excelsa, $ medioxima, 24. 

Pinus firma, 101, 

Pinus Fraseri, 105. 

Pinus glabra, 40. 

Pinus grandis, 117, 125. • 

Pinus Grijfithii, 3. 

Pinus Harryana, 102. 

Pinus hirtella, 97. 

Pinus homolepis, 102, 

Pinus Hookeriana, 77. 

Pinus intermedia, I. 

Pinus Japonica, 21. 

Pinus Jezoensis, 21. 

Pinus Kcempferi, 2. 

Pinus Kamtschatika, 4. 

Pinus Khutrow, 22. 

Pinus Iceta, 3. 

Pinus laricina, 7. 

Pinus Larix, 2, 3, 4. 

Pinus Larix alba, 7. 

Pinus Larix (Americance), 4. 

Pinus Larix Americana nigra, 7. 

Pinus Larix Canadensis, 7. 

Pinus Larix nigra, 7. 

Pinus Larix rubra, 7. 

Pinus Larix, « communis, 3. 



144 



INDEX. 



Pinus Larix, jS rubra, 7. 
Pinus Larix, y nigra, 7. 
Pinus Larix, 5 alba, 7. 
Pinus Larix, 5 laxa, 3. 
Pinus Larix, e compacta, 3. 
Pinus Larix, tj rubra, 3. 
Pinus Larix, 6 rosea, 3. 
Pinus Larix, i alba, 3. 
Pinus lasiocarpa, 113, 125. 
Pinus laxa, 37, 70. 
Pinus Ledebourii, 4. 
Pinus leptolepis, 2. 
Pinus Lowiana, 121. 
Pinus Lyallii, 15. . 
Pinus magnijica, 137. 
Pinus Mariana, 28, 63. 
Pinus Mariana rubra, 33. 
Pinus Menziesii, 21, 55. 
Pinus Menziesii, var. crispa, 55. 
Pinus Mertensiana, 73, 77. 
Pinus microcarpa, 7. . 
pinus nigra, 28, 33. 
Pinus nobilis, 133. 
Pinus Nordmanniana, 98. 
PmM5 Nuitallii, 11. 
Pmw5 obovata, 22, 25. 
Pmus ohovata, j8 Sckrenckiana, 25. 
Pinus Omorika, 22. 
Pinus orientalis, 22, 25. 
Pinus orientalis, ^ longifoUa, 25. 
Pinus Pationiana, 73, 77. 
Pinus pectinata, 99. 
Pinus pendula, 7, 63. 
Pmws P2cea, 23, 97, 99. 
Pinus Picea medioxima, 24. 
Pinus Pichta, 98. 
Pinus Pindrow, 98. 
Pinus Pinsapo, 100. 
Pinus politaj 21, 
Pinus religiosa, 97. 
Pinus rubra, 33. 
Pinus rubra, B violacea, 40. 
Pinus rubra, var. arctica, 37. 
Pinus rubra, var. arctica longifolia, 37. 
Pinus rubra, var. coerulea, 37. 
Pinus Sckrenckiana, 25. 
Pinus selenolepis, 101. 
Pinus Sibirica, 97. 
Pinus Sieboldii, 60. 
Pinus Sitchenshi, 55. 
Pinus Smiihiana, 22. 
Pinus sp. 113. 
Pinus spectdbilis, 98. 
Pinus taxifolia, 87, 107. 
\Pinus tetragona, 37. 
? Pinus Thunbergii, 21. 
Pinus Tschonoskiana, 102. 
Pinus Tsuga, 60. 
Pinus Tsuga, B nana, 60. 
Pinus Veitchi, 101. 
Pinus venusta, 129. 
Pinus viminalis, 24. 



Pinus Wehhiana, 98. 
Pitch, Burgundy, 23. 
Pitch, Canada, 65. 
Pityophthorus puberulus, 25. 
Polygraphus rufipennis, 25. 
Polyporus officinalis, 5. 
Polyporus piceinus, 26. 
Polyporus Pilotse, 61. 
Polyporus volvatus, 26. 
Propolidium Tsugse, 61. 
Pseudotsuga, 83. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, 87. . 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii denudata, 87. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii taxifolia, 87. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. glauca, 88. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, 93. 
Pseudotsuga, economic properties of, 84. 
Pseudotsuga, fungal diseases of, 84. 
Pseudotsuga glaucescens, 91. 
Pseudotsuga, insect enemies of, 84. 
Pseudotsuga, Japanese, 84. 
Pseudotsuga Japonica, 84. 
Pseudotsuga Lindleyana, 87. 
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, 93. 
Pseudotsuga mucronata, 87. 
Pseudotsuga taxifolia, var. elongata, 88. 
Pseudotsuga taxifolia, var. suberosa, 88. 

Red Fir, 87, 133, 137. 

Red Spruce, 33. • 

Resin, Hemlock, 65. 

Rhagium lineatum, 25. 

Rust, Spruce, 26. 

F 

Sack-bearer, Larch, 5. 
Sargent's Hemlock, 66. 
Saw-fly, Larch, 5. 
Scolytus unispinosus, 84. 
She Balsam, 105. 
Siberian Spruce, 25. 
Silver Fir, 129. 
Sitka Spruce, 55. 
Snake Spruces, 24. 
Sphserella laricina, 5. 
Spruce beer, 31. 
Spruce, Black, 28. 
Spruce, Blue, 47. 
Spruce-bud Worm, 25. 
Spruce, Colorado, 47. 
Spruce-cone Worm, 25. 
Spruce, Douglas, 87. 
Spruce, Engelmann, 43. 
Spruce, European, 23. 
Spruce gum, 31. 
Spruce, Himalayan, 22. 
Spruce, Norway, 24. 
Spruce, Patton, 77. 
Spruce, Red, 33. 
Spruce Rust, 26. 
Spruce, Siberian, 25. 
Spruce, Sitka, 55. 



Spruce, Tideland, 55. 
Spruce, Weeping, 51. 
Spruce, White, 37, 43. 
Spruces, Snake, 24. 
Steganoptycha pinicolana, 5. 
Steganoptycha Ratzburgiana, 25. 
Strasburg Turpentine, 100. 

Tamarack, 7, 11, 15. 

Taxodium sempervirens f, 129. 
Teras variana, 25. 

Tetranychus telarius, 5. 
Tideland Spruce, 55. 
Tomieus Pini, 25. 
Tortrix fumiferana, 25. 

Trichosphseria parasitica, 101. 
Tsuga, 59. 

Tsuga, 83. 

Tsuga Ajanensis, 21. 

Tsuga Albertiana, 73. 

Tsuga Araragi, 60. 

Tsuga Araragi, var. nana, 60. 

Tsuga Brunoniana, 61. 

Tsuga Canadensis, 63. 

Tsuga Caroliniana, 69. 

Tsuga diversifolia, 60. 

Tsuga Douglasii, 87. 

Tsuga Douglasii brevibracteata, 87. 

Tsuga Douglasii fastigiata, 87. 

Tsuga Douglasii, var. taxifolia, 87. 

Tsuga dumosa, 60. 

Tsuga, economic properties of, 61. 

Tsuga, fungal diseases of, 61. 

Tsuga heterophylla, 73. 

Tsuga Hookeriana, 77. 

Tsuga, insect enemies of, 61. 

Tsuga Lindleyana, 87. 

Tsuga macrocarpa, 93. 

Tsuga Mertensiana, 77. 

Tsuga Mertensiana, 73. 

Tsuga Pattoniana, 77. 

Tsuga Pattoniana, var. Hookeriana, 77 

Tsuga (Pseudotsuga) Japonica, 84. 

Tsuga Roezlii, 77. 

Tsuga Sieboldii, 60. 
Tsuga Sieboldii, B nana, 60. 
Tsuga Sitcfiensis, 55. 
Tsuga taxifolia, 88. 
Tsuga Tsuja, 60. 
Turpentine, Strasburg, 100. 
Turpentine, Venice, 4. 

Venice turpentine, 4. 

Watape, 40. 
Weeping Spruce, 51. 
White Fir, 117, 121, 125. 
White Spruce, 37, 43. 

Xyleborus coelatus, 25. 
Xyloterus bivittatus, 25,