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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

THE 

SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 



The New York Botanical Garden 
LuEsther T. Mertz Library 

Gift of 

The Estate of 

Henry Clay Frick, II 
2007 



THE 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE TREES WHICH GROW 

NATURALLY IN NORTH AMERICA 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO 



BT 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

DIRECTOR OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



3]Uu0ttateD toiti) fiiq>wct& attti Snatygeg nrat»n from Mature 

BY 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 

SUPPLEMENT 

VOLUME XIII 
BHAMNA GEM—B 08 A OEM 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 



MDCCCCH 



Copyright, 1902, 
By CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT. 



All rights reserved. 



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton and Company. 



MERTZ LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



To 

THE TRUSTEES OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY 
FOR THE PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURE 

THIS THIRTEENTH VOLUME OF 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 

IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 
BY THEIR ASSOCIATE OF THIRTY YEARS. 



NOTE. 

The first volume of this work was issued in October, 1890. At that time it was believed that 
the forests of North America, exclusive of Mexico, contained only 422 species of trees and that these 
could be described in twelve volumes illustrated by 600 plates. 

The interest in trees and dendrologieal study have greatly increased in the United States since the 
first volumes of this Silva appeared ; and recent researches have disclosed the presence on this continent 
of a number of arborescent species whose existence was not even suspected ten years ago, and have 
added much to the knowledge of the geographical distribution of North American trees. Most of 
these additions to our silva are new to science ; others were formerly considered shrubs but are now 
known to be often arborescent in habit, and others regarded as varieties in earlier volumes are now 
believed to be best treated as species. Two supplementary volumes are needed for the description and 
illustration of these additions, and the completed work contains the descriptions of 585 trees, of several 
varieties of trees and of a number of shrubs, and 740 plates. 

C. S. SARGENT. 

Arnold Arboretum, 
June, 1902. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introductory Note v 

Ceanothus spinosus Plate dcxxi 1 

iEscuLUS austrina Plate dcxxii 3 

Sapindus marginatus ....... Plate dcxxiii 5 

Acer saccharum, var. leucoderme .... Plate dcxxiv 7 

Acer nigrum Plate dcxxv 9 

Acer rubrum, var. tridens Plate dcxxvi 11 

Gleditsia Texana Plate dcxxvii 13 

Prosopis juliplora, var. velutina .... Plate dcxxviii. ........ 15 

Leuc<ena Greggii Plate dcxxix 17 

Acacia tortuosa Plate dcxxx 19 

Prunus umbellata, var. injucunda .... Plate dcxxxi. ......... 21 

Prunus tarda Plate dcxxxii 23 

Prunus Alabamensis Plate dcxxxiii. 25 

Cercocarpus breviflorus ...... Plate dcxxxiv 27 

Cercocarpus Traskle Plate dcxxxv 29 

Crataegus s align a Plate dcxxxvi .37 

Crataegus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia . . . Plate dcxxxvii. 39 

Crataegus Canbyi Plate dcxxxviii. . 41 

Crataegus Engelmanni Plate dcxxxix. 43 

Crat^gus Peoriensis Plate dcxl 45 

Crataegus fecunda . Plate dcxli 47 

Crataegus erecta Plate dcxlii. 49 

Crataegus acutifolia . Plate dcxliii 51 

Crataegus signata Plate dcxliv 53 

Crataegus Bushii Plate dcxlv 55 

Crataegus edita Plate dcxlvi 57 

Crataegus Mohri Plate dcxlvii 59 

Crataegus pruinosa Plate dcxlviii 61 

Crataegus Georgiana Plate dcxlix 63 

Crataegus Boyntoni Plate del 65 

Crat^egus venusta Plate deli 67 

Crataegus Sargenti Plate dclii 69 

Crataegus suborbiculata Plate dcliii 71 

Crataegus collina Plate dcliv 73 

Crataegus sordida Plate dclv 75 

Crataegus Brazoria Plate dclvi. 77 

Crataegus Lettermani Plate dclvii 79 

Crataegus pratensis Plate dclviii 81 

Crataegus mollis Plate dclix 83 

Crataegus Arkansana Plate dclx 85 

Crataegus sera Plate dclxi 87 

Crataegus Canadensis ....... Plate dclxii 89 

Crataegus Berlandieri Plate dclxiii 91 



viii Table of Contents. 

Crataegus Texana Plate dclxiv 93 

Crataegus quercina Plate dclxv 95 

Crataegus pyriformis Plate dclxvi. ........ 97 

Crataegus corusca ........ Plate dclxvii. ......... "9 

Crataegus submollis ....... Plate clxxxii. (volume iv.) ...••• 101 

Crataegus Arnoldiana Plate dclxviii • 103 

Crataegus Champlainensis ...... Plate dclxix. . 105 

Crataegus anomajla Plate dclxx • 107 

Crataegus Ellwangerlana Plate dclxxi. ........ 109 

Crataegus Pringlei ........ Plate dclxxii. ......... Ill 

Crataegus dilatata ....... Plate dclxxiii. ........ 113 

Crataegus coccinioides Plate dclxxiv. ......-•• 115 

Crat^gus lobiilata ....... Plate dclxxv. ........ 117 

Crataegus Holmesiana Plate dclxxvi • • .119 

Crataegus pedicellata ...... Plate dclxxvii. ........ 121 

Crataegus scabreda ........ Plate dclxxviii. ........ 123 

Crataegus lucorum ....... Plate dclxxix. ........ 125 

Crat^gus lacera ........ Plate dclxxx. ......... 127 

Crataegus pentandra Plate dclxxxi 129 

Crataegus silvicola Plate dclxxxii. ........ 131 

Crat.egus cocclnea Plate dclxxxiii 133 

Crat^igus Jones;e Plate dclxxxiv 135 

Crataegus Margaretta Plate dclxxxv 137 

Crataegus succulenta Plate clxxxi. (volume iv.) 139 

Crataegus gemmosa Plate dclxxxvi 141 

Crataegus Illinoiensis Plate dclxxxvii. ........ 143 

Crataegus integriloba Plate dclxxxviii 145 

Crataegus macracantha Plate dclxxxix 147 

Crataegus Ashei Plate dcxc 149 

Crataegus Harbisoni Plate dcxci 151 

Crat^gus Vailim Plate dcxcii 153 

Crataegus flava Plate dcxciii 155 

Crataegus consanguinea Plate dcxciv 157 

Crataegus Floridana Plate clxxxix. (volume iv.) 159 

Crataegus lacrimata Plate dcxcv. 161 

Crat^gus Ravenelii Plate dcxcvi 163 

Crataegus dispar Plate cxc. (volume iv.) 165 

Crataegus senta Plate dcxcvii 167 

Crataegus aprica Plate dcxcviii 169 

Crat^gus opima Plate dcxcix 171 

Crataegus vulsa Plate dec 173 

Crat^gus glabriuscula Plate dcci 175 

Crataegus blanda Plate deeii 177 

Crataegus nthda Plate deciii 179 

Crataegus atrorubens Plate deciv. 181 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CEANOTHUS SPINOSUS. 
Lilac. 



Branchlets angled, spinescent. Inflorescence compound, on leafy branches. Leaves 
coriaceous, rarely 3-nerved, persistent. 

Ceanothus spinosus, NuttaU, Torrey & Gray Fl. N. Am. 411. — Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. v. 172. —Greene, 

i. 267 (1838). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 337. — Garden and Forest, v. 447. — K. Brandegee, Proc. Cal. 

Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 103. — Trelease, Proc. Acad. ser. 2, iv. 185 (excl. var. Palmeri). 
Cal. Acad. ser. 2, i. 109 ; Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 

Usually shrubby in habit, Ceanothus spinosus in the canons of the San Rafael Mountains 
sometimes becomes a shapely tree, eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a stem five or six inches in 
diameter covered with dark red-brown bark roughened by small closely appressed scales, and upright 
branches forming an narrow open head. The branchlets are slender, divaricate, angled, pubescent or 
puberulous when they first appear, soon glabrous, bright green, ultimately reddish brown, and frequently 
end in sharp leafless thorn-like points. The leaves are elliptical, full and rounded and apiculate or often 
slightly emarginate or gradually narrowed and pointed or rarely three-lobed at the apex, rounded or 
cuneate at the base, villose-pubescent below when they first unfold along the stout midribs and obscure 
primary veins, soon glabrous, coriaceous, and persistent ; they are usually about an inch long and half 
an inch wide, and are borne on stout petioles which vary from one sixth to one third of an inch in 
length and, at first villose, finally become nearly glabrous. On vigorous shoots the leaves are sometimes 
ovate, conspicuously three-nerved, irregularly serrate, with incurved apiculate teeth, or coarsely dentate, 
and often an inch and a half long and five eighths of an inch wide. The stipules are minute, acute, and 
early deciduous. The flowers, which vary from light to dark blue and are very fragrant, open from 
March until May, and are produced in lax corymbs from the axils of acute pubescent red caducous 
bracts on upper leafy branchlets of the year, the whole inflorescence forming an open thyrsus often five 
or six inches long and three or four inches thick and destitute of leaves toward the apex. The fruit 
is depressed, obscurely lobed, crestless, black, and from one quarter to one third of an inch in diameter. 

Ceanothus spinosus is a common inhabitant of mountain canons near the coast of southern 
California in Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Los Angeles counties, where it grows down nearly to the 
sea-level in forests composed of Quercus agrifolia, Platanus racemosa, Sambueus glauca, Umbellu- 
laria Californica, Alnus rhombifolia, Juglans Californica, and often forms a heavy undergrowth 
with other small trees and many species of shrubs, its large clusters of bright blue flowers enlivening 
these forests for many weeks in early spring, when it is one of the most beautiful of all the members of 
this genus. 1 

Ceanothus spinosus was discovered in 1836 by Thomas Nuttall, 2 near Santa Barbara, California. 3 

1 There appears to be no record of the introduction of Ceanothus 2 See ii. 34. 

spinosus into American or European gardens. 8 See Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, riii. 117. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXI. Ceanothus spinosus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DC XXI 




CE.Faccon dels. 



CEANOTHUS SPIN OSUS , Nutt. 

A. FUocreuay direa>? Imp. <7. Faneur, Parir 



Jiapine' s& 



sapindace^e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



^SCULUS AUSTRINA. 

Buckeye. 

Petals shorter than the stamens. Leaves 5-foliolate. Seeds pale yellow-brown. 

^Esculus austrina, Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxviii. ^Isculus octandra, var. hybrida, Sargent, Silva N. Am. 

359 (1901). ii. 60 (in part) (1891). —Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. 

iEsculus Pavia, /3 discolor, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. Am. i. pt. i. 447 (in part). 

i. 252 (in part) (not Msculus discolor, Pursh) (1838). 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a straight trunk five or six inches in 

diameter covered with pale smooth bark, and rather stout branches forming a narrow symmetrical head ; 

or often shrubby. The branchlets, which are unusually slender for those of a Horsechestnut, are marked 

by numerous small pale lenticels, and when they first unfold are green and puberulous, becoming gray 

slightly tinged with red during their first winter and only slightly darker in their second year. The 

winter-buds are broadly ovate, obtusely pointed, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with ovate 

rounded apiculate fight red-brown outer scales. The leaves are generally composed of five leaflets, 1 and 

are borne on slender grooved villose or pubescent usually ultimately glabrous petioles from three to 

five inches long. The leaflets are oblong-obovate or elliptical, acuminate at the apex, gradually 

narrowed from near the middle and acute at the entire base, finely or coarsely and sometimes doubly 

crenulate-serrate above, dark green, lustrous, and glabrous, except along the slender yellow midribs 

and veins, on the upper surface, lighter colored and coated on the lower surface, early in the season at 

least, with soft pale pubescence, nearly sessile or petiolulate, from four to five inches long and from an 

inch and a half to two inches wide. The flowers appear in southern Arkansas from the first to the 

middle of April, 2 and are usually from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, and bright red; 

they are borne on slender pubescent pedicels which become much thickened on the fruit and are 

sometimes a quarter of an inch long, and are mostly aggregated toward the ends of the short branches 

of the narrow pubescent inflorescence which varies from six to eight inches in length. The calyx is 

tubular, short and broad or elongated, puberulous on the outer surface and tomentose on the inner 

surface, with rounded lobes. The petals are connivent, unequal, oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, 

puberulous on the outer surface, and glandular, with minute dark glands, those of the superior pair being 

about half as wide as those of the lateral pair, with claws much longer than the calyx. The filaments, 

which are longer than the petals, and the ovary are villose. The fruit ripens and falls in October, and 

is borne on the much elongated thickened and now drooping rachis of the inflorescence, usually only a 

few fruits maturing. These are usually pear-shaped or occasionally subglobose, mostly two-seeded, and 

generally from an inch and a half to two inches and a half in length, with very thin pale brown slightly 

pitted valves. The seeds are sometimes an inch and a half in diameter, light yellow-brown, with a 

small hilum and a thin testa. 3 

1 On a specimen of iEsculus collected by B. F. Bush at Columbia, western Texas, with which Jlsculus austrina is now provisionally 
Texas, April 5, 1901 (No. 48), which should probably be referred united. 

to this species, the leaves all have six or seven leaflets. 3 It is with considerable hesitation and without having seen the 

2 At Fulton, Arkansas, where this red-flowered Horsechestnut is type of JEsculus austrina that I adopt this name for a common 
in bloom from the first to the middle of April, I found on the 23d Horsechestnut of the trans-Mississippi region, for too little is still 
of April, 1891, Horsechestnut-trees with leaves just beginning to known about it and about some other peculiar forms of iEsculus of 
unfold and minute flower-buds. The under surface of the leaflets the same region, especially those of eastern Texas, where fruit has 
of these trees was coated with thick silvery white tomentum similar not yet been collected. ABsculus austrina approaches on the one 
to that found on the young leaflets of the shrubby Horsechestnut of hand iEsculus octandra, var. hybrida, with which it has previously 



SILVA OF NOB Til AMERICA. 



SAPINDACE^E. 



JEsculus austrina grows in rich upland woods from Memphis, Tennessee, 1 and southern Missouri : 
to eastern Texas 3 and northwestern Alabama. 4 



been united, in the color of the flowers, in the short broad calyx of 
some iudividuals, and in the pubescence which covers the under 
surface of the leaflets, differing from the Appalachian tree in its 
exserted stamens. On the other hand, it approaches JEsculus Pavia 
in the long narrow calyx of some individuals and in the exserted 
filaments, differing from it in its pubescent leaflets and more 
numerous and crowded flowers. From all the American species, 
with the exception of JEsculus parviflora, it differs in the color of 
its light yellow-brown seeds, which furnish the best character for 
distinguishing this tree. 

1 A. Fendler, April 13, 1851 (in Herb. Gray). 

2 Butler County, G. W. Letterman, May 9, 1884. This speci- 
men has the long tubular calyx of JEsculus Pavia, but the leaves 



are very pubescent. Neeleysville, Butler County, B. F. Bush, April 
22, 1898 ; Grandin, B. F. Bush, May 6, 1901, with only slightly 
pubescent leaflets and a. long tubular calyx. Arkansas: Camden, 
A. Fendler, 1850 ; Little Rock, G. W. Letterman, May 6, 1881 ; 
Fulton, B. F. Bush, April 4, 1900 ; W. M. Canby, B. F. Bush, and 
C. S. Sargent, April 18, 1901. 

3 Rio Guadaloupe, Berlandier, April, 1828 (Nos. 1743 and 422, 
in Herb. Gray); near Boerne, C. S. Sargent, March, 1887 ; Colum- 
bia, B. F. Bush, April 5, 1901 (No. 48). 

4 A specimen collected in 1854, at Moulton, Lawrence County, 
Alabama, and preserved in the Gray Herbarium, appears identical 
with JEsculus austrina from southern Arkansas, except in its smaller 
leaflets. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXII. iEscuLtrs austrina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. An upper petal, natural size. 

3. A lateral petal, natural size. 

4. A stamen, natural size. 

5. The end of a cluster of fruit, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.TDCXXII. 




CE<Faccorv deL. 



I,artcuu£ so. 



^ESCULUS AUSTRINA, Small. 

A. Rlocreuv direa> .<* Im P- AE™*". P"^- 



SAPINDACELE 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDUS MARGINATUM 
Soapberry. 
Sepals rounded ; petals appendiculate. Fruit dorsally carinate. Leaflets 7 to 13, 



lance-oblong. 



Sapindus marginatus, "Willdenow, Enum. 432 (1809). — 
Muehlenberg, Cat. 41. — De Candolle, Prodr. i. 607. — 
Sprengel, Syst. ii. 250. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 665. — 
Spach, Hist. V6g. iii. 54. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 
255 (in part). — Nuttall, Sylva, ii. 72, t. 65. — Engel- 
mann & Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. v. 241 (PI. 
Lindheim. i.) (in part). — Gray, Gen. HI. ii. 214 (in 
part). — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 230, f. 22. — Chapman, Fl. 
79. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 214 (in part). — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census TJ. S. ix. 44 
(in part); Silva N. Am. ii. 71 (in part). — Robinson, 
Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 444. 



Sapindus Saponaria, Lamarck, HI. ii. 441, t. 307 (not 
Linnaeus) (1793). — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 242.— 
Poiret, Lamarck Diet. vi. 663 (in part). — Persoon, Syn. 
i. 444. _ p U r S h, FL Am. Sept. i. 274. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 
257. — Elliott, Sk. i. 460. 

Sapindus falcatus, Rafinesque, Med. Fl. ii. 261 (1830). 

Sapindus acuminatus, Rafinesque, New Fl. iii. 22 
(1836). — Radlkofer, Site. Akad. Munch. 1878, 316, 
393. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 116 (in part). 

Sapindus Manatensis, Radlkofer, Site. Akad. Munch. 
1878, 318, 400. —Nash, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxiii. 
102. 



A tree, rarely more than twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a trunk sometimes a foot in 
diameter, and stout pale brown or ultimately ashy gray branchlets. The leaves are six or seven inches 
long, with from seven to thirteen leaflets which are borne on a slender wingless or narrowly margined 
or marginless rachis, the lower leaflets being usually alternate and the upper opposite. The leaflets are 
lance-oblong, acuminate, more or less falcate, glabrous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
paler and glabrous or puberulous below along the slender midnerves, sessile or very short-petiolulate, from 
two to five inches in length and from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter in width. The 
panicles of flowers, which appear in early spring, are pyramidal, four or five inches long and usually 
about three inches wide, with villose stems and branches. The flowers, which are borne on short stout 
tomentose pedicels, are more or less tinged with red and are nearly an eighth of an inch in diameter. 
The sepals are villose on the outer surface toward the base and ciliate on the margins, the outer being 
rounded at the narrowed apex and much narrower than the inner, which are obovate and rounded at the 
broad apex. The petals are ovate-oblong, short-clawed, ciliate on the margins, and furnished on the 
inner surface near the base with a two-lobed villose scale. The berries are conspicuously keeled on the 
back, short-oblong, and often three quarters of an inch in length, with thin light yellow translucent flesh 
and obovate dark brown seeds villose at the hilum with tufted pale hairs. 1 



1 In the Synoptical Flora of North America (i. pt. i. 444 
[1897]), Dr. B. L. Robinson first pointed out the characters which 
separate Sapindus marginatus of Florida from the Sapindus of the 
region west of the Mississippi River, for which the name of Sapin- 
dus Drummondi must be adopted. In the second volume of The 
Silva of North America the Texas tree was confounded with the 
Florida species, and the description of Sapindus marginatus, includ- 
ing that of the wood, was largely drawn up from the former, which 
is figured on plates Ixxvi. and Ixxvii. of this work. 

From Sapindus marginatus the trans-Mississippi species can be 
distinguished by its wingless rachis, more numerous and narrower 
lanceolate leaflets, which vary from eight to nineteen in number 
and are pubescent or ultimately glabrate on the lower surface ; 
by its rhombic-lanceolate unguiculate petals and smaller berries, 



which are globose, destitute of the dorsal keel which distinguishes 
those of Sapindus marginatus, and in drying turn black. 

The range of Sapindus Drummondi, as laid down in the descrip- 
tion of Sapindus marginatus in volume ii., can now be extended 
northward to southwestern Missouri, where this tree is abundant on 
the Cowshed River, near Pineyville, McDonald County, and on 
White River in Barry County, and to central Kansas. (See Hitch- 
cock, The Industrialist, xxiv. 387 \_Flora of Kansas'].) Sapindus 
Drummondi was discovered in 1819 by Thomas Nuttall during his 
journey to Arkansas. 

The corrected synonymy of Sapindus Drummondi is, — 
Sapindus Drummondi, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 281 
(1838?). — Walpers, Rep. i. 417. —Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. 
Am. i. pt. i. 444. — Britton, Man. 610. 



6 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPINDACEJE. 



Sapindus marginatum inhabits the coast of Florida from the mouth of the St. John's River and 
Cedar Keys southward. 1 



Sapindus Saponaria, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 172 (not Lin- 
nams) (1827). 

Sapindus marginatus, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 255 (in 
part) (not Willdenow) (1838) ; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii. 162. — 
Engelmann & Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. v. 241 (PL 
Lindheim. i.). — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 214 (in part), t. 180; Jour. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 168 (PI. Lindheim. ii.) ; Smithsonian 
Contrib. iii. 38 (PL Wright, i.). — Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir 
of a Tour to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 1848, Bot. Appx.), 
96. — Torrey, Emory's Rep. 138; Marcy's Rep. 250 ; Pacific R. R. 
Rep. iv. pt. v. 74 ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 47. — J. M. Bigelow, 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 2. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. 
i. 214 (in part). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 337. — Sar- 



gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 44 (in part) ; 

Silva N. Am. ii. 71 (in part), t. 76, 77. — Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. viii. 508. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 402 (in part), f. 

2386. 

Sapindus acuminatus, Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 

116 (in part) (not Rafinesque) (1890). 

1 Knowledge of the range of Sapindus marginatus, which is 
probably everywhere a rare tree, is still unsatisfactory. It is not 
now known to grow north of the mouth of the St. John's River in 
Florida, although it was once believed to inhabit the coast of South 
Carolina and Georgia, where the elder Michaux is said to have 
discovered this tree. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXIIL Sapindus margtnatus. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower-bud, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. An outer sepal, enlarged. 

5. An inner sepal, enlarged. 

6. A petal, inner face, enlarged. 

7. A stamen, enlarged. 

8. A pistil, enlarged. 

9. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

11. A seed, natural size. 



Silva of North America 



Tat. DCXXIII 




C. E. Fcucon, deL Rapine* j& 

SAPINDUS MARGINATUS, Wllld. 

A.Riocreua> direa>P ■ Imp . J. TaruMr, Paris 



sapindacele. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ACER SACCHARUM, var. LEUCODERME. 

Sugar Maple. 
Leaves 3 to 5-lobed, yellow-green and pubescent on the lower surface. 

Acer Saccharum, var. leucoderme. Acer leucoderme, Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxii. 367 

Acer barbatum, var. Floridanum, Sargent, Silva N. Am. (1895) ; xxiv. 64. — Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. 

ii. 100 (in part) (1891). pt. i. 440. — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 606 

Acer Floridanum, var. acuminatum, Trelease, Rep. Mis- (Plant Life of Alabama). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 

souri Bot. Gard. v. 99, t. 11 (not Acer acuminatum, Wal- 116. 

lich) (1894). 

A tree, usually from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter, but 
occasionally attaining a height of forty feet and forming a trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, 
and with a rather compact round-topped head of comparatively short and slender branches. The 
bark on the trunk of old individuals, particularly near the ground, is dark brown or often nearly 
black, and broken by deep furrows into narrow ridges covered with closely appressed scales, but on 
younger stems and on the large branches it is close and light gray or grayish brown. The branchlets 
are slender and glabrous ; dark green when they first appear, they become bright red-brown and 
lustrous during their first summer, when they are marked by numerous small oblong pale lenticels, and, 
gradually growing darker in their second year, finally become light gray-brown. The winter-buds are 
ovate, acute, dark brown, glabrous, and rarely more than a sixteenth of an inch in length, with accrescent 
inner scales which are bright crimson and very conspicuous when the trees are in flower in early spring. 
The leaves are borne on elongated slender glabrous petioles and vary from two inches to three inches 
and a half in diameter ; they are usually truncate or slightly subcordate at the base, and more or less 
deeply divided into from three to five acute lobes which are caudate-acuminate and coarsely and sinuately 
dentate or undulate ; coated below as they unfold with long matted pale caducous hairs, at maturity the 
leaves are thin, dark dull green above and bright yellow-green and coated below with soft close velvety 
pubescence. In the autumn the leaves often turn bright scarlet on the upper surface before falling. 
The flowers are produced on slender glabrous pedicels, and are glabrous or slightly villose and rather 
smaller than those of the northern Sugar Maple. The carpels of the fruit are villose until nearly 
grown, with long scattered pale hairs, but are glabrous at maturity; their wings are wide-spreading 
or divergent. 

Acer Saccharum, var. leucoderme inhabits the banks of streams and rocky gorges, and is distributed 
from the valley of the Yadkin River in Stanly County, North Carolina, to northern Georgia, eastern 
Tennessee, central Alabama, western Louisiana, and southern Arkansas. It was long confounded with 
the variety Floridanum of the Sugar Maple, from which it chiefly differs in the yellow-green lower 
surface of the rather thinner leaves and in their less prominent secondary lobes. 1 

1 Acer barbatum of Michaux was adopted in the second volume almost universally adopted by American botanists as the name of 

of this work as the name of the Sugar Maple and its varieties. the Sugar Maple, and although the identity of Marshall's species is 

Acer barbatum, however, appears to have been based originally on certainly open to doubt, and the name is not distinct enough from 

two species, for Michaux's type of his Acer barbatum, preserved that of the Silver Maple, the Acer saccharinum of Linnaeus, to really 

at the Muse'um d'Histoire Naturelle, in Paris, consists of flowering justify its use, it will perhaps be best, for the sake of uniformity of 

branches of the Sugar Maple, a branch of the Red Maple with nomenclature, to adopt Marshall's name rather than to find another 

leaves only, and a branch with fruit of the Red Maple ; and the for tbe Sugar Maple. If this view is adopted, Acer barbatum, Sar- 

name, therefore, can hardly be used for the Sugar Maple. The gent, Silva N. Am. ii. 97, becomes Acer Saccharum, Marshall ; Acer 

older Acer Saccharum of Marshall (Arbust. Am. 4) has recently been barbatum, var. Floridanum, Sargent, becomes Acer Saccharum, var. 



8 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



SAPlNDACEiE. 



Acer Saccharum, var. leucoderme has been planted, with other forms of the Sugar Maple, along 
the streets of Rome, Georgia, where there are now many large and handsome specimens of this tree. 



Floridanum, Sargent ; and Acer barbatum, var. grandidentatum, Sar- 
gent, becomes Acer Saccharum, var. grandidentatum, Sargent. 

In the second volume of this work a, form of the Sugar Maple 
with somewhat coriaceous leaves of firm texture, usually rather 
broader than long, pale or glaucous and pubescent or rarely gla- 
brous below, cordate, with a, broad open sinus, or truncate at the 
base, and usually three-lobed with open round sinuses and acumi- 
nate generally nearly entire lobes, was confounded with the Black 
Sugar Maple, and figures 1-3 of plate xci. of this work represent 
this form and not the Black Maple. The synonymy of this form is 
as follows : — 

Acer Saccharum, var. Rugelii, Rehder, Cyclopaedia Am. Hort. i. 
13 (1900). 

Acer saccharinum, Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. i. 12, t. 8 (not Lin- 
naeus nor Wangenheim) (1792). — Elliott, Sk. i. 450. 
f Acer nigrum, Elliott, I. c. (not Michaux f.) (1817). 
Acer saccharinum, var. glaucum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 242 
(in part) (1886). 

Acer Rugelii, Pax, I.e. 243 (1886). — Schwerin, Gartenflora, 
xlii. 457. 

Acer palmifolium, var. nigrum, Schwerin, I. c. 456, f . 95, No. 4 
(1893). 

Acer saccharinum, subspec. saccharinum, var. glaucum, Wes- 
mael, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. xxix. 61 (in part) {Gen. Acer) (1890). 
Acer saccharinum, subspec. Rugelii, Wesmael, I. c. (1890). 
Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum, Newhall, Trees of N. E. Am. 
152 (in part), f. 76 (1890). 



Acer barbatum, var. nigrum, Sargent, Silva N. Am. ii. 99 (in 
part), t. 91, f. 1-3 (1891). 

Acer Saccharum, var. barbatum, Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. v. 94, t. 6 (not Acer barbatum, Michaux) (1894). — Robin- 
son, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 439. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, 87. 
This is the common and frequently the only form of the Sugar 
Maple in the region from North Carolina and Georgia to Missouri, 
and although rare at the north, trees with leaves like those of the 
southern tree occur as far north as Michigan and Prince Edward's 
Island, and, as Professor Beal has pointed out, such leaves some- 
times appear on the upper branches of trees which bear on their 
lower branches the typical leaves of the northern Sugar Maple. 
(See Rep. Sec. State Board Agric. Michigan, xxxiii. 148 [The Sugar 
Maple of Central Michigan"].) 

On the one hand, therefore, Acer Saccharum, var. Rugelii, passes 
into the northern Acer Saccharum, and on the other some of its 
forms seem to pass into the variety Floridanum, which replaces it 
from northern Florida to eastern Texas, and which in its turn 
passes through western Texas into the variety grandidentatum of the 
Rocky Mountain region. 

Acer Saccharum, var. Rugelii, is the form which is usually culti- 
vated in the southern states, and splendid specimens growing in 
the streets and gardens of Huntsville, Alabama, and other cities 
and towns of the southern Piedmont region show that this is one 
of the most beautiful of all Maple-trees, particularly in autumn, 
when the leaves assume the most brilliant tints of scarlet and 
orange. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXIV. Acer Saccharum, var. leucoderme. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DCXXIV 










C. E.Facoon, dels 



D. Jbchusn/ jc/. 



ACER SACCHARUM,var,leucoderme.Sar6. 



A-JHocreLuc direao. 



Imp. J. TarL&LW Parif. 



sapindacke. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ACER NIGRUM. 

Black Maple. 

Leaves 3 to 5-lobed, deeply cordate, the basal sinus often closed, pubescent below, 
stipulate. Branchlets light orange-colored. 

Acer nigrum, Michaux, f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii. 238, t. 16 Acer saccharinum, var. glaucum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. 

(1812). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 266. — Poiret, La- vii. 242 (in part) (1886). — Wesmael, Bull. Soc. Bot. 

march Diet. Suppl. v. 669. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 253. — De Belg. xxix. 61 {Gen. Acer) (in part). 

Candolle, Prodr. i. 595. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 225. — Don, Acer Saecharum, var. nigrum, Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. 

Gen. Syst. i. 650. — Spach, Hist. Veg. iii. 104; Ann. Sci. Set. ix. 9 (1889). — Trelease, Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 

Nat. se"r. 2, ii. 170. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1282. — C. Koch, v. 96, t. 7. — Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 

Dendr. i. 532. — Bailey, Popular Gardening, iii. 24 ; Bot. 439. 

Gazette, xiii. 213. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 382. — Acer barbatum, var. nigrum, Sargent, Garden and Forest, 

Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 398, f. 2376. iv. 148 (1891) ; Silva N. Am. ii. 99 (in part). — Beal, 

Acer saccharinum, y3 nigrum, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Rep. State Board Agric. Michigan, xxxiii. 148, t. 1, f. 

Am. i. 248 (1838). — Gray, Man. 80. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 8-10, t. 2, f. 4-6, t. 3 (The Sugar Maple of Central 

i. 136. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 411. — Sargent, Forest Michigan). 

Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 49. — Watson & Acer palmifolium, var. concolor, Schwerin, Gartenflora, 

Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 117. — Dippel, Handb. Laub- xlii. 457, f. 6, 7 (1893). 

holzk. ii. 439, f. 206. 

The Black Maple is a tree, sometimes eighty feet in height, with a trunk frequently three feet in 
diameter, and stout spreading or often erect branches. The bark of young trees is close, smooth, and 
generally rather lighter colored than that of the Sugar Maple of the same age, but on old trunks it becomes 
deeply furrowed and often nearly black. The branchlets are stout, marked by oblong pale lenticels, 
and when they first appear are orange-green in color and pilose, with scattered pale caducous hairs ; 
during their first year they are orange or orange-brown and lustrous, and in the following season become 
pale gray-brown and lose their lustre. 1 The winter-buds are sessile, ovate, acute, and an eighth of an inch 
long or less, with dark red-brown scales coated on the outer surface with hoary pubescence and often 
slightly ciliate on the margins. The leaves are cordate, with a broad basal sinus usually more or less 
closed by the approximation or imbrication of the basal lobes, generally three or occasionally five-lobed 
with acute or acuminate lobes undulately narrowed from broad shallow sinuses or rarely furnished with 
short spreading lateral lobes ; when they unfold they are coated below with thick hoary tomentum and 
clothed above with caducous pale hairs, and at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, dull green 
on the upper surface, yellow-green and soft-pubescent particularly along the yellow veins on the lower 
surface, and five or six inches across, with drooping sides ; they are often conspicuously pendant, and 
are borne on stout tomentose or pubescent sometimes ultimately glabrous petioles from three to five 
inches long, much dilated at the base and frequently nearly inclosing the buds, and in falling leave 
narrow scars which almost encircle the branchlet, and are furnished in their axils with tufts of long pale 
hairs. The stipules are triangular and dentate or foliaceous, sessile or stipitate, oblong, acute, tomentose 
or pubescent, sometimes sHghtly lobed, and frequently an inch and a half in length. 2 In the autumn 

i The Black Maple differs from the other forms of the Sugar it can perhaps best be separated from the other members of the 

Maple in the light orange-brown color of the young branchlets, Sugar Maple group and treated as a species. 

those of all the others being bright red-brown and very lustrous, 2 Gray, Am. Nat. vi. 767; vii. 422. — Sargent, Garden and For- 

in the presence of stipules and in important leaf characters; and as est, iv. 148, f. 27. 

these appear constant throughout the region occupied by this tree On the fertile branches found in herbaria the stipules are not 



10 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. sapindace^e. 

the leaves turn a dull yellow-brown color and fall rather earlier than those of the Sugar Maple. The 
flowers are produced in many-flowered nearly sessile umbel-like corymbs, the sterile and fertile flowers 
in separate or in the same clusters on the same or on different trees ; they appear with the leaves and are 
greenish yellow, and droop on slender thread-like hairy pedicels from two and a half to three inches in 
length. The calyx is broadly campanulate, five-lobed by the partial union of the sepals and pilose on 
the outer surface toward the base. There are seven or eight stamens with slender glabrous filaments 
which in the sterile flower are nearly twice as long as the calyx, and in the fertile flower are shorter 
than the calyx. The ovary, which is minute in the sterile flower, is obtusely lobed, pale green, and 
covered with long scattered hairs. The fruit is glabrous, with wings varying from one half of an inch 
to an inch in length, and convergent or wide-spreading. 

Acer nigrum is distributed from the valley of the St. Lawrence River in the neighborhood of 
Montreal x southward to the valley of Cold River, New Hampshire, 2 and through western Vermont, 3 and 
westward through northern New York, Ontario, 4 the southern peninsula of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Iowa, to northeastern South Dakota, 5 western Missouri, 6 and eastern Kansas, 7 and southward through 
western New York and Pennsylvania to southwestern Virginia 8 and Kentucky. Comparatively rare 
near Montreal and in Vermont, the Black Maple becomes more abundant farther west, and, growing with 
the Sugar Maple, it can be distinguished at a glance from that tree in summer by its heavy drooping 
leaves, which make it a conspicuous object in the forest or by the roadside, and at all seasons of the 
year by the color of its young branches. In Iowa it almost entirely replaces Acer Saccharum, and 
it is the only Sugar Maple of South Dakota. 

The Black Maple was first distinguished by the younger Michaux. It is often cultivated as a shade 
tree, particularly in those parts of the country where it grows spontaneously. 

always present, but they often occur on such branches, and they 5 In South Dakota Acer nigmm grows in Roberts County, where 

can always be found on vigorous shoots so far as I have been able it is abundant in deep ravines along the small streams which form 

to examine them on both cultivated and wild trees. the Little Minnesota. (See D. H. Saunders, Bull. 64, South Dakota 

1 Acer nigrum was collected by Mr. J. G. Jack in August, 1895, Agric. College, 169 [Ferns and Flowering Plants of South Dakota].) 
at Rockfield, Quebec. In the second volume of this work the range of the Sugar Maple was 

2 Acer nigrum was collected by Mr. M. L. Fernald in the allu- probably incorrectly extended to eastern Nebraska. Later obser- 
vium of Cold River, in Cheshire County, New Hampshire. (See vation indicates that the Sugar Maples of that state have been 
Rhodora, iii. 234.) planted since the settlement of the region by white men, and that 

8 Acer nigrum was collected by Mr. Ezra Brainerd in Middle- this tree, although reaching South Dakota and Kansas, is not a 

bury, Vermont, in 1879, and by Miss M. A. Day at Manchester, native of Nebraska. (See Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board 

Vermont, on June 25, 1898. The younger Michaux speaks of Agric. 1899, 89 [ The Forests and Forest Trees of Nebraska].) 

having noticed the Black Maple at Windsor, Vermont, on the Con- 6 Near Independence, Missouri, 1894, B. F. Bush (No. 130). 

necticut River, but I have seen no specimens from the eastern part 7 Lawrence, Kansas, J. H. Carruth, 1894. 

of the state. b Falls of the Holstom Smythe County, Virginia, John K. Small, 

* See Macoun, Cat. Can. PL i. 99. July, 1892. Alleghany Springs, C. Mohr, August 10, 1898. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXV. Acer nigrum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit, natural size. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of "North America 



Tab.DCXXV 




C.E.Facco/v del/. 



ErruHimelz/ 



ACER NIGRUM, Michx.l. 



sapindacejs. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 11 



ACER RUBRUM, var. TRIDENS. 
Red Maple. 
Leaves 3-lobed at the apex, usually rounded at the base. 

Acer rubrum, var. tridens, Wood, Class Book, 286 (1860); Soc. Bot. Belg. xxix. 29 {Gen. Acer) (1890). — Scbwerin, 

Am. Bot. and Flor. pt. iv. 74 ; Fl. Atlant. 74. Gartenflora, xlii. 166, f. 38, No. 4. 

Acer rubrum, /? Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 249 Acer rubrum, subspec. microphyllum, Wesmael, Bull. 

(1838). Soc. Bot. Belg. xxix. 29 {Gen. Acer) (1890). — Schwerin, 

Acer microphyllum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 180 Gartenflora, xlii. 167. 

(1886). Acer rubrum, Chapman, Fl. 81 (in part) (1860). — Sar- 

Acer semiorbiculatum, Pax, Engler Bot. Jahrb. vii. 181 gent, Silva N. Am. ii. 107 (in part). — Robinson, Gray 

(1886). Syn. Fl. i. pt. i. 437 (in part). 
Acer rubrum, subspec. semiorbiculatum, Wesmael, Bull. 

In the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf states the leaves of the Red Maple differ so 
much and often so constantly from those which are usually produced by this tree at the north, and 
which are figured on plate xciv. of this work, that a supplementary plate now seems necessary properly 
to illustrate this variable species. 

On the southern tree, which is generally smaller than the northern Red Maple, the leaves are 
normally obovate, usually narrowed from above the middle to the rounded or rarely cuneate base, three- 
lobed at the apex with acute or acuminate lobes which are simple or furnished with short lateral 
secondary lobes ; they are remotely serrate except toward the base, with incurved glandular teeth, and 
are often ovate by the suppression of the lateral lobes and acute ; they are thick and firm in texture, dark 
green above, very glaucous and usually pubescent or rarely tomentose below, from two to three inches 
in length and from an inch and a half to two inches and a half in width. 1 The flowers of the southern 
form are sometimes tawny-yellow in color, 2 and the fruit, which is usually much smaller on this form 
than on northern trees and on the variety Drummondii of the lower Mississippi basin, is rarely also 
yellow. 3 

Acer rubrum, var. tridens, is distributed from southern New Jersey southward through the coast 
region and the middle districts to southern Florida, and along the Gulf coast to eastern Texas. 4 

1 Individual leaves, similar in shape to those usually produced on planted were reported as growing naturally in this region, that the 
the southern tree, can generally be found on the Red Maple at the range of Acer rubrum as laid down on page 108 of the second 
north, particularly on the stunted trees which grow in swamps, volume of this work was extended to eastern Nebraska and Dakota, 
although the majority of the leaves of this tree at the north are The most western station in this part of the country where the Red 
mostly ovate, with broad bases, and from three to five-lobed. Maple is known by me to grow spontaneously is in the valley of the 

2 Darlington, Fl, Cestr. 245. Kickapoo River in western Wisconsin (L. H. Pammel), and in a 
8 In April, 1890, I found at Meridian, Mississippi, a Red Maple Tamarack swamp near La Crosse, Iowa, about seven miles from 

with bright canary-yellow fruit. the Mississippi River, where it was found in the summer of 1901 

4 It was by an error, due to the fact that trees which had been by Professor Pammel. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXVL Acer bubrum, var. tridens. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. End of a sterile branch, natural size. 

8. 9, 10. Leaves from one tree, natural size. 



-Silva of North Amenc 



Tat. DC XXVI 







■.£l£.Faaxm>.del,. 



-ZiOrtCEMJll, 



ACER RUBRUM VAR. TRI DENS , Wood . 



AJUoareiUD dzr&c?. 



Imp. J.TaneiLr.I'aris 



leguminosjb. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 13 



GLEDITSIA TEXANA. 
Locust. 

Legume straight, elongated, many-seeded, destitute of pulp, indehiscent. Leaflets 
oblong-oyate. 

Gleditsia Texana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 1 (1901). 

A tree, from one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
two feet and a half in diameter covered with pale smooth close bark, and erect slightly spreading 
branches. The branchlets, which are comparatively slender, more or less zigzag, and roughened by 
numerous small round lenticels, are light orange-brown when they first appear, gray or orange-brown 
during their first year, and ashy gray the following season. The leaves are six or seven inches long, 
with a slender rachis which is at first puberulous but ultimately glabrous, and from twelve to twenty 
two leaflets, and often bipinnate usually with six or seven pairs of pinnae, the lower pairs being 
frequently reduced to single large leaflets. The leaflets are oblong-ovate, often somewhat falcate, 
rounded or acute or apiculate at the apex, obliquely rounded at the base, finely crenulate-serrate, thick 
and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, and from 
one half of an inch to an inch in length, with short petiolules coated while young with soft pale hairs, 
which also occur along the base of the slender orange-colored midnerves. The staminate flowers are 
dark orange-yellow, and appear toward the end of April in slender glabrous often clustered racemes, 
which, lengthening after the flowers begin to open, are finally from three to four inches in length. 
The calyx is campanulate, with acute lobes which are thickened on the margins, villose-pubescent on the 
two surfaces, and rather shorter and narrower than the puberulous petals. The stamens are exserted, 
with slender filaments villose near the base, and green anthers. The pistillate flowers are still 
unknown. The legumes, which are four or five inches long and an inch wide, are straight, much 
compressed, rounded or short-pointed at the apex, full and rounded at the broad base, thin-walled, dark 
chestnut-brown, puberulous, only slightly thickened at the margins, many-seeded, and destitute of pulp. 
The seeds are oval, compressed, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, and nearly half an inch in length. 1 

A few individuals only of Gleditsia Texana are now known in a single grove on the bottom-lands 
of the Brazos River, near the town of Brazoria, Texas, where it grows in dense woods composed 
principally of Gleditsia triacanthos, Platanus occidentalis, and Populus deltoidea. The peculiar 
pods which distinguish this species were first noticed in February, 1892, by Mr. E. N. Plank, 2 and led 
to the study of this tree in 1899 and 1900 by Mr. B. F. Bush. 

1 Kesembling Gleditsia triacanthos in foliage and in the staminate nearly half grown on the lower Brazos before the flowers of de- 
flowers, Gleditsia Texana is distinguished from that species by its ditsia Texana open, while the flowers of Gleditsia aquatica do not 
spineless branches and smoother pale bark. From all species of open until ten or twelve days after those of Gleditsia Texana have 
the genus it differs in the legumes. These resemble those of the fallen. 

many-seeded species in their general form and color and in their 2 Elisha Newton Plank, a descendant through his father and 
numerous seeds ; they differ from them in their much smaller size, mother of old New England families which had furnished sol- 
thin compressed walls, with thinner margins, and in the absence of diers to the Continental army, was born on March 23, 1831, in 
the sweet pulp which surrounds their thinner lighter-colored seeds. Wolcott, Wayne County, New York, where his grandfather had 
From the compressed pulpless legume of Gleditsia aquatica they settled in 1813. Having received an academic education and 
differ in form and in their much more numerous seeds. studied law, he remained in New York until 1879, when he 

Known only in a single grove, and sharing something of the char- moved with his family to Kansas, where he became a journalist ; 

acter of each of the other American species which grow near it, the and then traveled for several years through Kansas and Texas 

hypothesis of the hybrid origin of this tree might be considered delivering popular and successful lectures on literary and philo- 

were it not for the fact that the legumes of Gleditsia triacanthos are sophical subjects. During these years he devoted much atten- 



14 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS^J. 



tion to botany, in which he had been interested from boyhood, 
and made large collections of many new and little known plants. 
From 1892 to 1896 Mr. Plank contributed a long series of im- 
portant papers on the flora of Texas to Garden and Forest, and he is 



the author of papers on pomology and forestry published in the 
reports of the Kansas State Horticultural Society, and of a paper 
on Buchloe dactyloides, printed in the nineteenth volume of the 
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXVII. Gleditsia Texana. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 



Silva of North. America 



^: 



Tab, DC XXVII 




C.E.Faaco7vdel' 



Raptsie/ sc/ 



GLEDITSIA TEXANA,Sar6. 

o 



A.JUocreua> direa>. 



Imp . J. Tasieur, Paris 



leguminosjs. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 15 



PROSOPIS JULIFLORA, var. VELUTINA. 
Mesquite. 
Leaflets crowded, cinereo-pubescent. Calyx pubescent. 

Prosopis juliflora, var. velutina. part) (not De Candolle) (1859). — Rothrock, Wheeler's 

Algarobia glandulosa, Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. vii. Rep. vi. 106 (in part). — Sargent, Silva N. Am. iii. 101 

pt. iii. 10 (not Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 192, t. 2) (in part) (in part). 

(1856). Prosopis velutina, Wooton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxv. 

Prosopis juliflora, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 60 (in 456 (1898). 

Prosopis juliflora was first described from trees growing on the island of Jamaica, where it is 
believed to have been introduced from the mainland before the middle of the eighteenth century. The 
Mesquite of western Texas, 1 where it is one of the most conspicuous features of vegetation, appears 
identical with the plant which grows on Jamaica ; but eastward and westward the Mesquite diverges 
from the western Texas plant, and its extreme forms, distinct enough when seen locally, are connected 
by intermediate forms which make it difficult to find characters by which these can be satisfactorily 
separated as species. The two extreme forms, however, can be well treated as varieties. 

The first of these varieties is the eastern and California tree, Prosopis juliflora, var. glandulosa. 2 
This is the common Mesquite of eastern Texas, where it is frequently a round-topped tree, twenty feet 
in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter and long gracefully drooping branches forming a symmetrical 
round-topped head, leaves with distant linear mostly acute glabrous dark green leaflets often two inches 
in length, and a glabrous calyx. 3 This form ranges westward to about the ninety-eighth meridian, 
northward into southern Kansas, 4 and southward into northern Mexico, 5 and with rather shorter and 
more crowded leaflets is common in southern California, extending southward into Lower California. 6 

The second variety, Prosopis juliflora, var. velutina, is a tree found only in the hot semitropical 

1 Prosopis juliflora in western Texas and eastern New Mexico is Wright, i., ii.) ; /ves' Rep. 11. — Torrey, Sitgreaves* Rep. 158 ; 
usually a shrub sending up a number of stout stems from enormous Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 60 (in part). 

roots, but occasionally becomes a low tree, with a trunk six or 3 The most constant character, perhaps, by which the Texas 

eight inches in diameter. The leaves are glabrous, with from and California Mesquite can be distinguished from the form of 

fifteen to twenty pairs of leaflets ; these are crowded or more or less southern Arizona is in the glabrous calyx, for the leaves of this 

remote, linear-oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, and from one form show great variations ; but on a specimen with typical leaves 

third to one half of an inch in length. The calyx is glabrous. collected by Pope in Texas, without other indication, from the 

Leaves and a flower-spike of Prosopis juliflora are figured on plate Thurber Herbarium and now in the Gray Herbarium, the flowers 

exxxvi. f. 27 of this work. and leaflets are tomentose ; and on specimens collected by N. A. 

On specimens collected along the shore of Corpus Christi Bay in Carlton in Oldham County, Texas, in 1891, also with leaves of 

March, 1894, by A. A. Heller, the leaves, with short and compara- the typical var. glandulosa, the calyx is puberulous. These species 

tively crowded leaflets, are not distinguishable from those of the seem to indicate a transition into the pubescent form of southern 

western Texas Prosopis juliflora. Arizona. 

2 Prosopis juliflora, var. glandulosa. 4 The Mesquite was first collected in Kansas in 1880 by Mr. E. 
Prosopis glandulosa, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 192, t. 2 N. Plank. See, also, L. F. Ward, Plant World, i. 48, and C. N. 

(1828) ; Emory's Rep. 139 (in part). — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 400. — Gould, Plant World, iv. 74, 193. 

Dietrich Syn. ii. 1424. Walpers, Rep. i. 861. — Bentham, 5 Near Matamoras, Berlandier (No. 2344 equals 914), 1831, and 

Hooker Jour. Bot. iv. 348; Lond. Jour. Bot. v. 81. Gregg, May 10, 1847 (in Herb. Gray); San Luis Potosf, Palmer, 

Algarobia glandulosa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 399 1878; Parras, and near Saltillo, Palmer, 1880; Manzanilla, Palmer, 

(1838V Pacific R. R. Rep. ii. 164. — Engelmann & Gray, Jour. 1890; Monterey, C. K. Dodge, April and May, 1891 (in U. S. Nat. 

Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. v. 242 (PI. Lindheim. i.). — EDgelmann, Herb.). 

Wislizenus Mem. of a Tour to Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 6 The specimens collected by T. S. Brandegee at San Gregoria 

1848 Bot Appx.), 94. Gray, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 181 in Lower California, February, 1887, and distributed as Proaopis 

(PI. Lindheim. ii.) ; Smithsonian Contrib. iii. 60 ; v. 51 (PI. pubescens, probably belong to this form. 



16 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminosjl 

valleys of southern Arizona and Sonora, 1 where it often attains the height of fifty feet, with a 
trunk two feet in diameter covered with rough dark brown bark, and with heavy irregularly arranged 
usually crooked branches. This form grows to a larger size than any of the other Mesquites in the 
United States. The leaves are five or six inches long, often fascicled and cinereo-pubescent, with 
short petioles and from twelve to twenty-two pairs of oblong or linear-oblong obtuse or acute pale 
green leaflets from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and with densely flowered spikes of 
flowers two or three inches long. The calyx is villose. 2 

1 From Nogales to Guaymas, Rose, January, 1897 (No. 1296) ; 2 The earliest specimen of this pubescent form was collected by 

Guaymas, Rose, June, 1897 (No. 1296) ; El Grupo, Dr. W. J. Dr. George Thurber (No. 667) on the Gila River, and is preserved 
McGee, December, 1896. in the Gray Herbarium. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXVIIL Prosopis juliflora, var. velutina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistil, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a portion of a legume, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of "North America 



Tab. DCXXVIII 




C.E Faacon,deL 



Rapine/ jc 



PROSOPIS JULIFLORA,VAR.VELUTINA,Sarfi. 



A. Rbocreuay direct. 



Imp. J. Tasieur l farur 



leguminosjl SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 17 



LEUCCENA GREGGII. 
Leaves 10 to 14-pinnate, glandular, the pinnae 30 to 60-foliolate ; stipules spinescent. 

Leucaena Greggii, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 272 sus U. S. ix. 62 (in part) (not Bentham) (1884) ; Silva 

(1888). N. Am. iii. Ill (in part). — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 

Leucaena glauca, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cen- Herb. ii. 98 {Man. PL W. Texas) (in part). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a stem four or five inches in diameter covered 
with dark brown bark three eighths of an inch in thickness divided into low ridges and broken on 
the surface into small closely appressed persistent scales, and stout zigzag red-brown branchlets marked 
by numerous pale lenticels and coated at first with short spreading deciduous lustrous yellow hairs, 
which also clothe the young petioles, the lower surface of the unfolding leaves, and the peduncles of 
the flower-heads and their bracts. The leaves are six or seven inches long and broad, with slender 
rachises which are furnished on the upper side with a single elongated bottle-shaped gland between the 
stalks of each pair of pinnse. The pinnae are remote and short-stalked, and their leaflets are lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, often somewhat falcate, nearly sessile or short-petiolulate, full and rounded toward 
the base on the lower margin and nearly straight on the upper margin, gray-green, ultimately nearly 
glabrous, from one quarter to one third of an inch long and about one eighth of an inch wide, 
with narrow midveins and obscure lateral nerves. The stipules are gradually narrowed into long 
slender points which, becoming rigid and spinescent and from one third to nearly one half of an inch in 
length, continue to arm the branches for two or three years. The flowers are produced in heads from 
three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in diameter which are borne on stout peduncles furnished at 
the apex with two irregularly three-lobed bracts and are from two to three inches in length, and solitary 
or in pairs ; they are numerous, white, and sessile in the axils of small peltate bracts villose at the 
apex and raised on slender stalks which lengthen with the growing flower-buds and at maturity are 
as long as the calyx. This is coated with hairs only near the apex and is much shorter than the 
spatulate glabrous more or less boat-shaped petals. The stamens are much exserted, with small 
glabrous oblong anthers, and the ovary is villose, with a few short scattered hairs. The legume is 
linear, from six to eight inches long, from one third to one half of an inch wide, narrowed below 
to a short stout stipe, acuminate and crowned at the apex with the thickened style which varies 
from one third to three quarters of an inch in length, cinereo-pubescent until nearly fully grown but 
nearly glabrous at maturity, and much compressed, with narrow wing-like margins. The seeds are 
conspicuously notched by the hilum, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, half an inch long and a third 
of an inch wide. 

Leuccena Greggii inhabits mountain ravines and the steep rocky banks of streams, and is 
distributed in western Texas from the valley of the upper San Saba River to that of Devil's River, and 
southward into Mexico, where it was discovered in the neighborhood of Rinconardo in 1847 by Dr. 

Josiah Gregg. 1 

The wood of Leuccena Greggii is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and contains many small regularly 
distributed open ducts, the layers of annual growth and medullary rays being hardly distinguishable. 
It is rich brown streaked with red, with thin clear sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry 
wood is 0.9235, a cubic foot weighing 57.55 pounds. 2 

L q • no species, and the description was based partly on Mexican specimens 

a In preparing the account of Leuccena glauca for the fourth of Leucasna Greggii. Owing to this mistake, which was subse- 

volume of this work Leucama Greggii was confounded with that quently pointed out to me by Dr. B. L. Robinson of the Gray 



18 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



LEGUMINOS.E. 



Herbarium, Leuccena glauca was considered a native of Texas. In 
reality this species, which is now widely distributed through the 
warm parts of the world by cultivation, does not appear to have 
obtained a foothold in Texas, and probably grows spontaneously 
in the United States only on the island of Key West, where it 
is shrubby in habit. I have seen no flower or foliage of Leuccena 
Greggii from Texas, and this tree is now admitted into The Silva of 
North. America on the testimony of the late S. B. Buckley, who in 
1882 wrote to me that this tree, which he had previously collected 
on the Lampasas Mountains in Mexico, " is also quite common 
along Devil's River of western Texas, also in the valley of the 



San Saba River in San Saba County. On Devil's River I saw it 
as a small tree in 1875. It grows singly or in groups, single trees 
not being uncommon. It grows in limestone soils of the cretaceous 
period in Texas. It ought to be cultivated in all the southern 
states. It would certainly be a valuable acquisition to the orna- 
mental trees of the south." 

My description of the bark and of the wood of Leuccena glauca 
(Silva N. Am. iii. Ill) was drawn up from the wood specimen col- 
lected by Mr. S. B. Buckley on the San Saba River for the Jesup 
Collection of North American Woods in the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXIX. Leuccena Greggii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower with its bractlet, enlarged. 

3. A petal, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A cluster of legumes, natural size. 

6. A seed, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, enlarged. 



S'ilva of North. America 



Tab.DCXXIX 




CEFaecon, del 



LEUCiENA GREGGII, Wats. 

A.Biocreua> diretz, 1 ; I™P •* Tasveur, Pcwur 



Jlim&ly so 



leguminos^. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 19 



ACACIA TORTUOSA. 

Flowers in globose heads on elongated peduncles. Legume slender, elongated, 
puberulous. Branches armed with persistent spinescent stipules. 

Acacia tortuosa, Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1083 (1805). — De Am. Cent. i. 355. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

Candolle, Prodr. ii. 461. — Sprengel, Syst. iii. 144. — ii. 99 {Man. PI. W. Texas). 

Bentham, Lond. Jour. Bot. i. 392 ; Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. Mimosa tortuosa, Linnaeus, Spec. ed. 2, 1505 (1763). 
501 {Rev. Mim.). — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 62. — Acacia leucacantha, Sprengel, Syst. iii. 144 (1826). 
Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 222. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Acacia albida, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xvi. t. 1317 (not Delile) 

(1830). 

Usually shrubby in Texas, with numerous stems forming a symmetrical round-topped bush only 
a few feet high, Acacia tortuosa on the plain of the Rio Grande near Spofford occasionally becomes 
arborescent in habit and, reaching a height of from fifteen to twenty feet, forms a straight stem five or 
six inches in diameter covered with dark deeply furrowed bark and surmounted by an open irregular 
head of stout wide-spreading branches. The branchlets are slender, somewhat zigzag, slightly angled, 
roughened by numerous minute round lenticels, reddish brown, villose, with short pale hairs, and armed 
with thin terete puberulous spines developed from the persistent stipules and occasionally three 
quarters of an inch long. The leaves are alternate on the young branchlets and are fascicled from 
earlier axils ; they are generally less than an inch in length, short-petiolate, with slender puberulous 
rachises and with usually three or four pairs of pinnae, and are early deciduous ; the pinnae are sessile 
or short-stalked and remote, with from ten to fifteen pairs of leaflets. These are linear, somewhat 
falcate, acute, tipped with minute points, subsessile, light green, glabrous, and from one twentieth to one 
sixteenth of an inch in length. The peduncles appear in March with or just before the unfolding of 
the leaves and are axillary, solitary or usually clustered, slender, puberulous, from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in length, and furnished at the apex with two minute connate bracts. Before the 
flowers open the flower-heads are glabrous, and after the flowers open they are from one quarter to 
three eighths of an inch in diameter. The flowers are bright yellow and very fragrant, and are 
produced from the axils of minute clavate pilose bractlets. The calyx is only about one third as long 
as the corolla, with short lobes puberulous like those of the corolla, which is less than half as long 
as the filaments. The ovary is nearly sessile and covered with short close pubescence. The legumes 
are indehiscent, elongated, linear, slightly compressed, somewhat constricted between the numerous 
seeds, from three to five inches long and about a quarter of an inch wide, dark red-brown, and 
cinereo-puberulous. The seeds are in one series, obovate, compressed, dark red-brown, lustrous, and 
about a quarter of an inch long; their coat is crustaceous, with a thin testa and a thicker pale 
and harder tegmen. The embryo is pale yellow, with thick cotyledons and a short slightly exserted 
radicle. 

In Texas Acacia tortuosa is distributed from the valley of the Rio Cibolo to Eagle Pass on the 
Rio Grande. What is considered the same species is common in northern and southern Mexico, the 
West Indies, Venezuela, and on the Galapagos Islands. 1 

Acacia tortuosa was collected by Lindheimer on the Rio Cibolo in 1850. It had been 
previously collected by Berlandier in 1843 in Tamaulipas, probably in the Rio Grande valley, and it 

1 I have followed Bentham and Gray in considering this western the adjacent parts of Mexico appears to be so restricted, it is not 
Texas Acacia identical with the West Indian, Mexican, tropical improbable that a better knowledge than is now available of the 
American, and Galapagos species, but as its range in Texas and in tropical American species will show it to be distinct. 



20 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. leguminos^e. 

was collected on the Rio Grande by the botanists of the Mexican Boundary Survey at about the same 
time, and near Eagle Pass by Schott in 1854. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXX. Acacia tortuosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, with its bractlet, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Portion of a legume, natural size. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DCXXX 




C JZ.Faccon/deli Zartcucd/ so 

ACACIA TORTUOSA,Willd. 

A.RLocreua> direec^ IrnpJTaneur, Paris 



rosacea. SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 21 



PRUNUS UMBELLATA, var. INJUCUNDA. 

Sloe. 

Calyx-lobes entire, pubescent on the outer, tomentose on the inner surface. Fruit 
subglobose to short-oblong. Leaves oblong to obovate-lanceolate, tomentose below. 

Prunus umbellata, var. injucunda. Prunus injucunda, Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxv. 149 

(1898). 

A tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally six or eight inches in diameter 
covered with nearly black furrowed bark, and stout erect or ascending branches forming an open 
irregular head ; or often shrubby and spreading into broad thickets. The slender and frequently 
spinescent branches are coated with hoary tomentum when they first appear, and become reddish brown 
and pubescent during their first season, dark purple and puberulous in their second year, and ultimately 
dull gray-brown. The leaves are oblong or rarely obovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at the apex, 
gradually narrowed and cuneate at the base, finely serrate, with minute glandular teeth, and often 
furnished at the base with two large conspicuous dark glands ; when they unfold they are coated 
below with hoary tomentum and are villose above, and at maturity they are membranaceous, dark yellow- 
green, tomentose or pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along the stout yellow midribs and 
slender primary veins, roughened above by short pale hairs, and usually about two inches long and an 
inch wide ; they are borne on stout tomentose petioles a quarter of an inch in length. The stipules are 
linear, glandular-serrate, from one eighth to one quarter of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers 
appear from the tenth to the middle of April, just before the leaves, in subsessile usually five-flowered 
umbels on slender pubescent pedicels from one half to five eighths of an inch in length. The calyx- 
tube is narrowly obconic and villose, with acuminate entire lobes villose on the outer surface and 
tomentose on the inner surface. The petals are nearly orbicular and abruptly contracted into short 
claws. The filaments are glabrous, and the pistil is villose toward the base, with short pale hairs. The 
fruit ripens in July and is short-oblong or subglobose, dark purple, slightly pruinose, and about half 
an inch in diameter, with thin austere flesh. The stone is ovoid, pointed at the ends, somewhat 
compressed, only slightly rugose, acutely ridged on the ventral suture, with a broad grooved ridge, 
conspicuously grooved on the dorsal suture, and about one third of an inch long, with thin brittle walls. 

Primus umbellata, var. injucunda, is common about the base of Stone Mountain and of Little 
Stone Mountain in the granitic district of De Kalb County, central Georgia, 1 where it was first noticed 
in July, 1893, by Mr. John K. Small. 2 

From Prunus umbellata of the south Atlantic and Gulf states this Plum-tree differs only in its 

1 Leaves of a low shrubby Plum gathered by Dr. Charles Mohr early directed the thoughts of the boy to botany. From 1892 to 
on sandstone cliffs at the summit of the Alpine Mountains, Talla- 1894 he held a botanical fellowship in Columbia, and in 1895 he 
dega County, Alabama, in September, 1892, have been referred by received the degree of Ph. D. from that university, and was ap- 
Small to his Prunus injucunda. (See Mohr, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, pointed curator of its herbarium. He is now curator of the museum 
xxvi 118- Contrib. U. S.Nat. Herb. xi. 552 [Plant Life of Alabama].) and herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. Since 1888 

2 John Kunkel Small (January 31, 1869) was born at Harris- Mr. Small has been active in exploring the flora of the eastern 
burff Pennsylvania, of German ancestry, and was educated in pri- and southern states, and has published numerous botanical papers, 
vate schools in his native city, at Franklin and Marshall College principally in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, in which 
and Columbia University. A natural love of plants, fostered by many previously undescribed species have been distinguished, 
that of his father and mother and stimulated by visits at his home Species in Xyris, Smilax, Listera, Pentstemon, and Senecio com- 
from Professor Thomas C. Porter, who married his mother's sister, memorate his zeal in this field. 



22 SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. rosacea. 

tomentose young branches, its tomentose or pubescent leaves, in its hairy umbels, tomentose calyx and 
pistil, and in the shape of the fruit, which varies from subglobose to short-oblong. 1 

1 Prunus umbellata is often quite glabrous with the exception of the Plum-trees which grow about the base of Stone Mountain 

a few hairs along the under surface of the young leaves and the there are plants which are pubescent rather than tomentose, and 

tomentum on the inner side of the calyx-lobe, but more or less others which are nearly glabrous, 
pubescent individuals occur in widely scattered regions, and among 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXI. Prunus umbellata, var. injucunda. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, showing stone, natural size. 

5. A stone, natural size. 



Silya of North America 



Tab. DCXXX1 




CEFa-xorvdel. 



ITimely so 



PRUNUS UMBELLATA.VAR. INJUCUNDA, Sarg, 



A ' HzocreiLZ> dir&z: 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 23 



PRUNUS TARDA. 
Sloe. 

Calyx-lobes acuminate, entire, villose on the outer, tomentose on the inner surface. 
Fruit red, yellow, purple, black, or blue. Leaves oblong to obovate. 

Primus tarda, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 108 (1902). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall trunk eighteen or twenty inches in 
diameter, and wide-spreading branches forming an open symmetrical head. The bark of the trunk is 
light brown tinged with red, from one half to five eighths of an inch in thickness, and divided by 
shallow interrupted fissures into flat ridges broken on the surface into small loose plate-like scales. 
The branchlets are slender and marked by small scattered dark lenticels, and when they first appear 
they are light green and coated with hoary tomentum, becoming glabrous, light red-brown and lustrous 
during their first summer, and darker at the end of their second year, when they lose their lustre. 
The winter-buds are narrow, acute, the color of the branchlets, and from one sixteenth to one eighth 
of an inch in length. The leaves are oblong or occasionally somewhat obovate, acute or acuminate 
and short-pointed at the apex, gradually narrowed and rounded or cuneate at the base, and finely 
serrate, with straight or incurved teeth tipped with dark minute persistent glands ; as they unfold they 
are glabrous or rarely scabrous or puberulous above and cinereo-tomentose below, and at maturity 
they are thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and 
pubescent or puberulous on the lower surface, particularly along the prominent fight yellow midribs and 
thin primary veins, from an inch and a half to three inches long and from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and a quarter wide ; they are borne on stout tomentose or ultimately pubescent petioles 
which vary from one third to one half of an inch in length and are furnished at the apex with two 
large round stalked dark glands or are often eglandular. The stipules are acicular, often bright red, 
and about a third of an inch long. The flowers, which are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, 
appear early in April with or before the leaves, and are borne in subsessile two or three-flowered 
umbels, on slender glabrous pedicels from five eighths to three quarters of an inch in length. The 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, glabrous toward the base, villose above, with acute entire lobes villose on 
the outer surface and coated on the inner surface with thick hoary tomentum. The petals are oblong- 
obovate and gradually contracted below into short claws. The filaments and pistils are glabrous. The 
fruits, which ripen late in October or early in November and sometimes do not entirely fall until 
nearly the beginning of December, are borne on stout rigid peduncles, and vary from short-oblong to 
subglobose and from one third to one half of an inch in length. The skin is tough and thick ; and 
clear bright yellow on some trees, it is bright red on others, and on others either purple, dark blue, or 
black. The flesh is thick and very acid and adheres firmly to the stone, which is ovoid, more or less 
compressed, very rugose, obscurely ridged on the ventral suture and slightly grooved on the dorsal 
suture, acute and apiculate at the apex, and rounded at the base. 

Primus tarda inhabits glades and open woods in the neighborhood of Marshall, Texas, where it 
was discovered in April, 1901, by W. M. Canby, B. F. Bush, and C. S. Sargent, and ranges to western 
Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Resembling in many of its characters Primus umbellata, with 
which it has been sometimes confounded, Primus tarda is well distinguished from that species by its 
remarkable bark, which is unlike that of any other American Plum-tree and which is hardly to be 
distinguished from that of Castanea pumila, growing with it, by the pubescence of the leaves, which 



24 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



usually does not occur on those of the ordinary form of Prunus umbellata, and by its variously colored 
and unusually late-ripening fruit. 

The fruit, which is produced in great quantities, is used locally in pies and for preserves. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXII. Prunus tarda. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. A stone, natural size. 

6. A stone, divided transversely, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. LCXXXI1. 





k 6 

5 





C.S. Faxon? del* . 



Xartaud, 



PRUNUS TARDA r Sar§. 

A.Hiocreux> dir&c. t Jmp, J. Taneur.Faris. 



K0SACEJL 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 25 



PRUNUS ALABAMENSIS. 
Wild Cherry. 

Calyx-lobes persistent. Stone ovoid, compressed. Leaves oval, broadly ovate or 
obovate, pubescent below. 

Prunus Alabamensis, Mohr, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxvi. Prunus serotina neo-montana, Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
118 (1899); Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 552 {Plant Herb. vi. 552 {Plant Life of Alabama) (not Sud worth) 

Life of Alabama). (1901). 

A tree, from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a short trunk covered with dark rough bark 
separating freely into small thin scales and rarely ten inches in diameter, and spreading, somewhat 
drooping branches. The branchlets, which are slender and marked by numerous small dark lenticels, 
are coated when they first appear with pale tomentum and are dark red-brown during- their first 
season, nearly glabrous before winter, and much darker in their second year. The leaves are oval, 
broadly ovate, or occasionally obovate, acute, short-pointed or rounded at the apex, cuneate, rounded, 
or rarely slightly obcordate at the base, and finely serrate, with incurved teeth tipped with minute or 
sometimes near the base of the blade with larger dark glands ; when they unfold they are coated below 
and on the upper side of the midribs with fine pubescence, and at maturity they are thick and firm in 
texture, four or five inches long and usually about two inches wide, dark dull green and glabrous on 
the upper surface, and dull and covered on the lower surface with short simple or forked hairs which 
lengthen, are most abundant and sometimes rufescent on the slender midribs and primary veins ; they 
are borne on short grooved tomentose ultimately pubescent petioles which are eglandular or occasionally 
furnished near the apex with one or two large dark glands. The stipules are lanceolate, acuminate, 
glandular-serrate, bright red like the accrescent inner bud-scales, about half an inch long, and caducous. 
The flowers, which appear during the first week of May when the leaves are about half grown, are 
produced on spreading or erect pubescent racemes three or four inches long, and are borne on 
pubescent pedicels from the axils of ovate or obovate acuminate bright pink caducous bracts; they 
are about one quarter of an inch in diameter when fully expanded, with a broad cup-shaped puberulous 
calyx-tube, short almost triangular calyx-lobes, white nearly orbicular petals abruptly narrowed into 
short claws, glabrous filaments and pistil, and a thick club-shaped stigma. The fruit ripens late in 
September and is subglobose or short-oblong, surrounded at the base by the persistent calyx and 
filaments of the flower, one third of an inch in diameter, and dark red or finally nearly black. The 
stone is ovoid, somewhat compressed, ridged on the ventral margin, with a broad low ridge, slightly 
grooved on the dorsal margin, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Prunus Alabamensis grows on a few of the summits of the low mountains of central Alabama, 1 and 
was discovered in July, 1892, by Dr. Charles Mohr. 2 It is well distinguished from Prunus serotina 
by its usually oval comparatively broader and less acuminate dull leaves pubescent on the lower surface, 
by its pubescent racemes and calyx, and by the fact that it flowers and ripens its fruit several weeks 
later in the season than that species. 

1 Rocky heights of the Alpine Mountains, Talladega County, at piers' Mountain, Childershurg, Talladega County, C. D. Beadle, 
two thousand feet altitude, C. Mohr, September, 1892, and Septem- 1899. 

ber, 1893 ; summit of Red Mountain, Birmingham, at an elevation " See iv. 90. Dr. Mohr died at Asheville, North Carolina, on the 

of one thousand feet, C. Mohr, May, 1898, C. S. Sargent, October, 17th of July, 1901, only a few days before the publication by the 
1898, April, 1900, C. D. Beadle, July, 1899 ; Talladega and Crum- United States of his Plant Life of Alabama, his most important 

botanical work. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXIII. Pruntjs Alabamensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Part of a raceme of flowers, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A stone, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. DCXXXIII. 




C. E.Fcuccm, del. 



JZrrv.fiLmeZu 



PRUNUS ALABAMENSIS, Mohr 



A.Ru>creua> direz>? 



Imp.J.Taneur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 27 



OERCOCARPUS BREVIFLORUS. 

Mountain Mahogany. 
Leaves oblong-obovate to narrowly elliptic, rounded or acute at the apex. 

Cercocarpus breviflorus, Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. v. Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. breviflorus, M. E. Jones, 

54 (PL Wright, ii.) (1853). — Walpers, Ann. iv. 665. — Zoe, ii. 245 (1891) ; iii. 295. 

Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 373. Cercocarpus paucidentatus, Britton & Kearney, Trans. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. N. Y. Acad. xiv. 31 (probably not Cercocarpus parvifo- 

i. 374 (in part) (not Nuttall) (1879). — Sargent, Silva N. lius, var. paucidentatus, Watson) (1894). 

Am. iv. 65 (in part). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet tall, with a long straight stem sometimes six or eight 
inches in diameter, and erect rigid branches forming a narrow open or irregular head ; or frequently 
shrubby with numerous clustered stems often only a few feet in height. 1 The bark of the trunk is 
about one eighth of an inch in thickness, divided by shallow fissures and broken on the surface into 
small light red-brown scales. The branchlets are slender, rigid, bright red-brown, lustrous, marked 
irregularly by large scattered pale lenticels, and when they first appear are covered with a thick coat of 
hoary tomentum which, gradually disappearing, leaves them villose or pubescent for two or three years, 
and ultimately ashy gray or gray tinged with red, the spur-like lateral branchlets being much roughened 
by the ring-like scars of fallen leaves. The leaves vary from oblong-obovate to narrowly elliptic, and 
are acute or rounded and often apiculate at the apex, gradually narrowed from above the middle and 
acute at the base, with margins which are revolute, often undulate, and entire or dentate toward the 
apex, with few small straight or incurved apiculate teeth ; when they unfold they are coated with hoary 
tomentum, and at maturity they are thick, gray-green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, 
covered with soft pale hairs which are most abundant on the under side of the stout midribs and 
primary veins, from one half of an inch to an inch long, and usually about one quarter of an inch 
wide ; they are borne on stout tomentose petioles which ultimately sometimes become light red in 
color and are pubescent or nearly glabrous. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, tomentose, about as long 
as the petioles, and caducous. The flowers, which appear from March to May, and often again in 
August, are nearly sessile, and solitary or in pairs in the axils of the crowded leaves. The calyx-tube 
is slender and varies from one sixteenth to one quarter of an inch in length, and like the short rounded 
calyx-lobes is coated on the outer surface with dense white tomentum. The mature calyx-tube is 
stalked, spindle-shaped, light red brown, pubescent above, tomentose toward the base, deeply cleft at the 
apex, and about a quarter of an inch long. The akene is nearly terete and covered with long white 
hairs, which also clothe the persistent style. 2 

Cercocarpus breviflorus grows in forests of Pines and Oaks on the dry ridges of the mountains of 
southern Arizona and New Mexico, and of the extreme western part of Texas, 3 usually at elevations of 

1 The wood specimen of Cercocarpus breviflorus in the Jesup characters constant and the trees always easily distinguishable 
Collection of North American Woods in the American Museum from those growing in other parts of the country, I believe that it 
of Natural History, New York, is six inches in diameter inside can be best treated as a species ; or if it is still to be considered 
the bark, and shows forty-seven layers of annual growth, the sap- only a geographical variety of the extremely variable Cercocarpus 
wood being one sixteenth of an inch in thickness, with sixteen layers parviflorus, that it is worthy of a plate in The Silva of North 
of annual growth. America. 

2 Since the fourth volume of this work was published I have 3 Foothills of the Guadaloupe Mountains, Havard, 1882 (No. 
revisited southern Arizona and restudied the peculiar Cercocarpus 246 in Herb. Gray). 

which grows in the mountain forests of this region, and, finding its 



28 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

over five thousand feet above the level of the sea, and ranges southward over some of the mountains of 
northern Mexico. 1 It was discovered near Frontera, New Mexico, in July, 1851, by Mr. Charles 

Wright. 2 

1 Chihuahua, Thurber, August, 1852 (No. 772 in Herb. Gray). 2 See i. 94. 

Pinon, Sonora, Hartmann, 1894 (Archaeological Expedition to 
Northwestern Mexico, No. 366) (In Herb. Gray). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXIV. Cercocarpus breviflortjs. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

4. An anther, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DC XXXI V 




C-JS-Faau??^ del. 



JZTTi.Ifirrvefy so. 



CERCOCARPUS BREVIFLORUS, Gray. 



A. ftiocreuaz direaz . 



Imp. J. Tasieur, J^a/is . 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 29 



OERCOCARPUS TRASKL^J. 
Leaves broadly oval to orbicular, cinereo-tomentose on the lower surface. 

Cercocarpus Traskiae, Eastwood, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 3, i. 136, t. 11, f. la-le (1898). 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with stout wide-spreading branches, and with a trunk 
which is often inclining, usually much contorted, from two to ten inches in diameter and from six to 
eight feet long to the first branches, and which is covered with smooth light gray-brown bark sometimes 
slightly broken by shallow fissures and marked by irregular cream-colored blotches. The branchlets 
are stout, marked by numerous small scattered lenticels, coated at first with hoary tomentum, bright 
reddish brown during two or three years, ultimately dark gray-brown and conspicuously roughened by 
the enlarged ring-like leaf-scars. The leaves are oval or semiorbicular, rounded or acute at the apex, 
cuneate, rounded, or occasionally somewhat cordate at the narrow base, and revolute at the margins, which 
are entire below the middle and coarsely sinuate-dentate above, with slender teeth tipped with minute dark 
glands ; when they unfold covered above with soft pale hairs and below with thick hoary tomentum, 
at maturity they are coriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, cinereo-tomentose on 
the lower surface, from an inch and a half to two inches long and from an inch to an inch and a 
half wide, with prominent primary veins running obliquely to the points of the teeth and, like the 
stout midribs, conspicuously impressed on the upper side, and stout tomentose petioles about a 
quarter of an inch long. The flowers, which are nearly sessile in axillary many-flowered umbels and 
appear early in March, are coated on the outer surface with thick white tomentum, and vary from one 
half to three quarters of an inch in length. The calyx is broad and abruptly enlarged into the broad 
campanulate five-toothed border which is glabrous on the inner surface. The anthers are tomentose, 
with short-oblong cells united by a broad connective. The fruiting calyx is spindle-shaped, light 
reddish brown, villose-pubescent, deeply cleft at the apex, and about half an inch in length. The akene 
is slightly ridged on the back, one third of an inch long, covered with long lustrous white hairs, and 
tipped with the persistent hairy style which varies from an inch and a half to two inches in length. 

Cercocarpus Traskice inhabits the south coast of Santa Catalina Island, southern California, where 
it grows only on the steep sides of a deep narrow hot arroyo with walls only a few feet apart and rising 
to a height of from one hundred to five hundred feet, in a broken volcanic and inaccessible region. 
Here forty or fifty individuals of this tree, growing at elevations varying from two hundred to three 
hundred feet above the sea-level, with Adenostoma fasciculatum, Rhus integrifolia, Rhus ovata, and 
Ceanothus cuneatus, var. macrocarpus, were discovered in March, 1897, by Mrs. Blanche Trask. 1 

Cercocarpus Traskice, with its large leaves dark green and lustrous above and white below, and its 
numerous clusters of snow-white flowers, is the most beautiful species of the genus. 2 

1 Luella Blanche Trask was born Engle, July 25, 1865, at Wa- The Land of Sunshine, and has made several other contributions to 

terloo, Iowa. For seven years Mrs. Trask has lived at Avalon, on that magazine. 

Santa Catalina Island, which she has explored with enthusiasm and 2 Very unlike the other species which inhabit the United 

success. In 1897 she made a collection of plants on San Nicholas, States, Cercocarpus Traskiaz most resembles the Mexican Cerco- 

a small reef-bound island fifty miles to the westward of Santa carpus fothergilloides, from which it differs in its broader often 

Catalina, which she was the first woman to visit ; and on San Cle- orbicular thicker and more coarsely dentate leaves, in its larger 

mente she made interesting discoveries in 1896. (See Erythea, viii. and more tomentose flowers with stouter calyx-tubes and broader 

107.) Mrs. Trask has written The Heart of Catalina, published in calyx-lobes, and in its tomentose anthers. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXV. Cercocarpus Traskle. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 




C. E.Faxon, del. 



Em. HirneZy so. 



CERGOCARPUS TRASKLE.Eastw. 



A.HiocreuJ> d&va>t 



Imp. J.Tcmeur, Paris. 



bosacjle. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 31 



CRAT^GUS. 

In the fourth volume of this work, published in 1892, fourteen species with four varieties of 
Crataegus were described. During the ten years which have passed since that volume appeared, the 
genus has received much attention from the students of trees in the United States, and a large number 
of forms previously unknown have been characterized. A number of these are now described and 
figured in this volume. In addition to these are now known several shrubby species which do not 
necessarily find a place in a work devoted to trees, and a number of trees which are imperfectly known. 
To study these sufficiently to bring them into this Silva would require several years of additional field 
work, and an attempt to include them all would delay perhaps indefinitely the appearance of these 
supplementary volumes. The fact, therefore, must be recognized that this Silva does not include all 
the arborescent forms of Crataegus which are now known to exist in North America. These must find 
their places in some later work of North American dendrology. 

In this study of the genus particular attention is paid to the number of stamens and the color 
of the anthers as important characters for distinguishing species. The simplest arrangement of stamens 
in the flowers of Crataegus is in one series of five stamens which are opposite the sepals and alternate 
with the petals. In certain species these five stamens split, and there are then ten stamens in five pairs 
opposite the sepals, but in some individuals this division is only partial, and flowers of species which 
normally have ten stamens are occasionally found with from seven to nine stamens. In some species 
the one row of five pairs of stamens is supplemented by a second and inner row of five stamens which 
are rather shorter than the stamens of the outer row and are opposite the petals. Some of the stamens 
of this second row may not develop, and the whole number may vary from eleven to fifteen. In 
some species there is a third row of five stamens which are shorter than those of the second row and 
alternate with them. Species with the three rows of stamens have therefore normally twenty stamens, 
but one or more of the inner row may not develop, and species with normally twenty stamens have 
sometimes a number which may vary from sixteen to twenty. In a small group of shrubby southern 
species there is sometimes a fourth row and twenty-five stamens. The flowers of Crataegus then 
have normally five stamens in one row, ten stamens in one row of five pairs, fifteen stamens in two 
rows, twenty stamens in three rows, and rarely twenty-five stamens in four rows, the number in each 
group varying by the suppression of one or more of the stamens. 

The color of the anthers, which are either pale yellow or various shades of rose color or purple, 
generally affords a constant specific character. In Cratcegus punctata, however, the anthers are rose 
color on some trees and yellow on others, trees with yellow anthers usually producing yellow fruit and 
those with red anthers red fruit. In some parts of New England there is a Thorn which is still very 
imperfectly known, and which apparently differs from Crataegus pruinosa with its rose-colored anthers 
only in its pale yellow anthers, and there are indications that Crataegus Crus-galli in the middle states 
and in Missouri sometimes at least has flowers with yellow anthers. But these variations, except in the 
case of Cratcegus punctata, must not be considered conclusive, for it is not improbable that besides the 
color of the anthers there may be other characters which will make it possible to distinguish these plants 
specifically. Flowers with from five to ten stamens usually have two or three styles and nutlets, while 
the species with fifteen stamens or more have generally five but often four styles and nutlets. There are, 



32 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



however, several variations from this arrangement, and the number of styles and nutlets appears a less 
satisfactory character for distinguishing species than the number of stamens. The nature and amount 
of the hairy covering of the young branchlets, leaves, and calyx, and the time of flowering and of the 
ripening and falling of the fruit of Crataegus also afford useful characters for determining species. 1 

1 In this restudy of the genus Crataegus I have been assisted by city of Rochester, New York, Miss Emma J. Cole of Grand 

many correspondents, particularly by Mr. C. D. Beadle of the Rapids, Michigan, Mr. J. G. Jack of the Arnold Arboretum, Mr. 

Biltmore Herbarium, Mr. William M. Canby of Wilmington, Del- A. H. Curtiss of Jacksonville, Florida, Mr. Julius Reverchon of 

aware, Mr. B. F. Bush of Courtney, Missouri, Mr. E. J. Hill of Dallas, Texas, and Mr. J. B. S. Norton of the Missouri Botanical 

Chicago, Illinois, Mr. D. W. Beadle of Toronto, Ontario, Mr. C. Garden. 
C. Laney and Mr. John Dunbar of the Park Department of the 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Macrocabp^e. 

Fruit medium size, black or blue ; nutlets 5, grooved or ridged on the back ; corymbs many- 
flowered. Melanocarpce. 

Leaves broadly ovate to oblong-ovate. Fruit black 1. Douglasii. 1 

Leaves rhombic or oval. Fruit blue-black 2. saligna. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate. Fruit bright blue 3. BRACHYACANTHA. 

Fruit medium size, dull red or green tinged with red (except Nos. 6, 7, 10, 13, and 15), often 
slightly pruinose ; nutlets 2 or 3 (Nos. 9, 3-4, 11, 3-5), obtuse, prominently ridged on the 
back ; corymbs many-flowered ; leaves subcoriaceous (except Nos. 8, 11, and 13), dark green 
and lustrous. Crus-galli. 
Stamens 10. 

Anthers rose color or purple. 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform to broadly ovate 4. Crus-galli. 

Leaves oblong-oval to ovate, usually acute 5, Canbti. 

Leaves obovate or elliptical, villose g # Engelmanni. 

Leaves obovate, usually short-pointed 7. Peoriensis. 

Leaves thin, oblong-obovate to oval or broadly ovate 8. fecunda. 

Anthers probably yellow (No. 11 doubtful). 

Leaves broadly oval to obovate 9 ERECTA 

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate 10. acutifolia. 

Leaves thin, obovate, rounded or acute . 11. signata. 

Stamens 20. 

Anthers rose color. 

Leaves obovate to elliptical 12 BuSHn 

Leaves thin, obovate, rounded at the apex, villose 13. berberifolia. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, acute, scabrate 14 # ED ita. 

Anthers yellow. 

Leaves usually obovate, acute 15. Mohri. 

Fruit medium size, red or green, often slightly five-angled, pruinose; nutlets 5, more or less 
grooved on the back ; corymbs many-flowered ; stamens 20 ; anthers rose color ; leaves blue- 
green, subcoriaceous, nearly glabrous. Pruinosai. 

Leaves elliptical to ovate 16. pruinosa. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate 17. Georgiana. 

Fruit medium size, greenish red or yellow ; nutlets 3-5, ridged on the back ; corymbs few- 
flowered ; leaves subcoriaceous, yellow-green. Intricatce. 
Stamens 10 ; anthers yellow. 

Leaves ovate or oval 18 Boyntoni. 

Stamens 15-20 ; anthers yellow. 

Leaves oval to ovate, acute 19. venusta. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 33 

Stamens 20 ; anthers dark purple. 

Leaves ovate-oblong to elliptical 20. Sargenti. 

Fruit large, red or yellow, conspicuously punctate ; nutlets usually 5, prominently ridged on the 
back ; corymbs many-flowered ; stamens 20 ; anthers rose color (occasionally yellow in No. 
21). Punctatce. 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform, prominently veined 21. punctata. 2 

Leaves suborbicular to oval or rarely oblong 22. suborbiculata. 

Fruit medium size, globose (subglobose in No. 25), red or yellow ; nutlets 2 or 3, or 5, promi- 
nently ridged on the back ; corymbs many-flowered, villose. Collince. 
Stamens 20. 

Leaves obovate to oval, acute ; anthers pale yellow 23. collina. 

Leaves rhombic to obovate ; anthers rose color 24. sordida. 

Leaves oval to obovate ; anthers dark red 25. Brazoria. 

Stamens 10. 

Leaves obovate to broadly oval ; anthers white 26. Lettermant. 

Leaves obovate-oblong ; anthers rose-colored 27. pratensis. 

Fruit large, subglobose to pyriform, scarlet, often edible ; nutlets usually 5, occasionally 4, thin, 
pointed at the ends, usually obscurely grooved or slightly ridged on the back ; corymbs many- 
flowered, tomentose or pubescent ; leaves broad, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base. 
Molles. 

Stamens 20. 

Anthers light yellow. 

Leaves broadly ovate, thick and firm 28. mollis. 

Leaves oblong-ovate to oval, coriaceous 29. Arkansana. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, membranaceous 30. sera. 

Leaves ovate, cuneate at the base 31. Canadensis. 

Leaves oblong-obovate to oval, cuneate at the base 32. Berlandieri. 

Anthers rose color. 

Leaves broadly ovate, concave-cuneate at the base 33. Texana. 

Leaves oval to obovate, rounded or cuneate at the base 34. Quercina. 

Leaves oval to broadly ovate, cuneate at the base 35. pyriformis. 

Leaves ovate, lustrous, glabrous 36. corusca. 

Stamens 10. 

Anthers light yellow. 

Leaves ovate, cuneate at the base . 37. submollis. 

Leaves broadly ovate or oval, mostly rounded or truncate at the broad base .... 38. Arnoldiana. 

Leaves ovate, mostly rounded or truncate at the broad base 39. Ch A mplainensis. 

Anthers rose color. 

Leaves ovate, acute, mostly broadly cuneate at the base 40. anomala. 

Leaves oval, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base 41. Ellwangeriana. 

Leaves oval, rounded at the base 42. Pringlei. 

Fruit large, subglobose, scarlet ; fruiting calyx much enlarged, prominent, the lobes dark red 
on the upper side toward the base ; nutlets 5, ridged on the back ; corymbs many or few- 
flowered, slightly villose ; stamens 20 ; anthers rose color ; leaves membranaceous, on 
vigorous shoots as broad or broader than long. Dilatatce. 

Leaves broadly ovate ; corymbs broad, many-flowered 43. dilatata. 

Leaves broadly ovate ; corymbs compact, few-flowered 44. coccinioides. 

Fruit large to medium size, oblong, scarlet ; nutlets 3-5, prominently grooved and usually 
ridged on the back ; corymbs many-flowered, glabrous or tomentose ; stamens 5-15. Lobu- 
latce. 

Anthers dark purple. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acutely lobed, membranaceous, dark yellow-green . . 45. lobulata. 

Leaves oval or ovate, thick and firm, pale yellow-green 46. Holmesiana. 

Leaves broadly ovate or oval, dark green, scabrate 47. pedicellata. 

Leaves oval to obovate, acuminate • • • 4o. scabrida. 



34 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

Fruit medium size, oblong (globose and greenish red in No. 52), crimson ; nutlets 3-5, more 
or less ridged on the back ; corymbs many-flowered, glabrous or villose ; anthers dark red or 
rose color. Tenuifolice. 
Stamens 20. 

Leaves broadly ovate to oval 

Leaves rhombic to broadly ovate 50 ' LACERA - 

Stamens 5-10. 

t 1 <-~ „„„,„ . 51. PENTANDRA. 

Leaves oval to ovate 

t *„ o„„4.„ 52. SILVICOLA. 

Leaves ovate, acute 

Fruit medium-sized, subglobose (large and oblong in No. 54) ; nutlets 2 or 3, conspicuously 
ridged on the back ; corymbs many-flowered, glabrous or tomentose ; leaves coriaceous or 
subcoriaceous, lustrous. Coccinece. 
Stamens 10. 

Leaves elliptical to obovate ; anthers yellow 53 - COCCINEA. 

Leaves elliptical to ovate ; anthers rose color 54. Joneses. 

Stamens 20. 

Leaves broadly rhombic to oblong-obovate ; anthers yellow 55. Margaretta. 

Fruit medium size or small, usually scarlet (sometimes orange-red in No. 56), nutlets 2 or 3, 
penetrated on each of the inner faces by a longitudinal cavity ; corymbs many-flowered, gla- 
brous or villose; calyx-lobes glandular-serrate (except in No. 60); leaves coriaceous (mem- 
branaceous in No. 56), mostly pubescent on the lower surface. Tomentosce. 
Anthers rose color. 
Stamens 20. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong 56. tomentosa. 8 

Leaves elliptical, acute at the ends 57. succulenta. 

Leaves broadly oval or obovate 58. gemmosa. 

Stamens 10. 

Leaves broadly obovate or oval 59. Illinoiensis. 

Leaves broadly obovate to oval or rhomboidal 60. integriloba. 

Anthers yellow. 

Leaves broadly obovate to elliptical or oval 61. macracantha. 

Fruit large, red or orange-red ; nutlets 3-5, ridged on the back ; corymbs few or many- 
flowered, villose ; bracts conspicuous ; calyx-lobes f oliaceous ; stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. 
Bracteatoe. 

Corymbs few-flowered. 

Leaves broadly ovate or obovate 62. Ashei. 

Corymbs many-flowered. 

Leaves broadly oval to obovate 63. Harbisoni. 

Fruit large, globose, green or red ; nutlets 5, slightly grooved on the back ; corymbs one or 
few-flowered, tomentose ; calyx-lobes foliaceous ; stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. Parvifiorce. 

Leaves obovate-spatulate 64. tjniflora. 

Leaves oval or rarely obovate, acute 65. Vailim. 

Fruit medium size, globose or pyriform, green, orange or red ; nutlets, 3-5, mostly ridged on 
the back ; corymbs few-flowered, villose or tomentose (glabrous in No. 69) ; leaves, bracts, 
and inner bud-scales conspicuously glandular ; branchlets usually strongly zigzag. Flavce. 
Stamens 20. 
Anthers purple. 

Leaves elliptical to obovate, usually acute 66. flava. 

Leaves obovate to suborbicular 67. consanguineA. 

Anthers light yellow (Nos. 71 and 72 doubtful). 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform 68. florid AN A. 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform, glabrous 69. LACRIMATA. 

Leaves obovate, rounded or short-pointed or acute 70. Ravenelii. 

Leaves obovate to orbicular 71. dispar. 

Leaves obovate to obovate-cuneiform 72. senta. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 35 

Stamens 10. 
Anthers yellow. 

Leaves obovate to orbicular 73. aprica. 

Fruit large, globose, aestival ; nutlets 3-5, prominently ridged ; corymbs few-flowered, gla- 
brous ; stamens 20 ; anthers purple. Mstivales. 

Leaves elliptical to oblong-cuneiform 74. aestivalis. 

MlCROCARP.ffi. 

Fruit small, depressed-globose, scarlet ; nutlets 2 to 5, ridged or grooved on the back ; corymbs 
many-flowered, glabrous (villose in No. 77) ; stamens 20 ; anthers rose color or purple. 
Eumicrocarpce. 

Leaves broadly ovate to triangular 75. cordata. 4 

Leaves spatulate to oblanceolate 76. spathulata. 

Leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, pinnately 5-7-cleft 77. apiifolia. 

Leaves oval to ovate or nearly orbicular 78. opima. 

Fruit small (medium size in Nos. 83 and 84), globose ; nutlets 3-5, slightly grooved on the 
back ; corymbs few or many-flowered, glabrous ; stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow (No. 84 
doubtful). Virides. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or oblong-obovate 79. viridis. 

Leaves oval to ovate, acute 80. vulsa. 

Leaves oblong-ovate to semiorbicular, subcoriaceous 81. glabriuscula. 

Leaves oval to rhombic 82. blanda. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, acuminate 83. nitiba. 

Leaves ovate, acute 84. atrorubens. 

1 Crataegus Douglasii, iv. 86. The range of this species can now 2 Crataegus punctata, iv. 103. The range of this species can now 

be extended to Clifton, near the shores of Lake Superior in Kewee- be extended westward to eastern Minnesota, where it was found by 

naw County, in the extreme northern part of the upper peninsula Mr. E. P. Sheldon at Lakeville, Dakota County, in May, 1894, and 

of Michigan, where it is common on hills and bluffs, and where it near Cedar Lake, Hennepin County, in May, 1895. It probably 

was found in July, 1894, by Mr. O. A. Farwell ; to Michipicoten does not cross the Mississippi River. 

Island in Lake Superior, where it was collected on July 24, 1869, 3 Crataegus tomentosa, iv. 101. The range of this species can be 

by Mr. John Macoun (teste Herb. Gray) ; and to the shores of extended to southeastern Kansas. (See Hitchcock, The Industrial- 

Thunder Bay, Michigan, where it was found in August, 1895, by ist, xxiv. 383 [Flora of Kansas'].) 
Mr. C. F. Wheeler (teste Herb. Gray). 4 Crataegus cordata, iv. 107. The range of this species can be 

According to Meehan Crataegus Douglasii was discovered by extended to beyond the Mississippi River. It is common in south- 
Lewis and Clark on the Columbia River, April 29, 1806. (See eastern Missouri, where it was found on Birch Tree Creek in Shan- 
Proc. Phil. Acad. 1898, 24 [The Plants of Lewis and Clark's Expe- non County by Mr. B. F. Bush in 1893, and by Professor Trelease 
dition across the Country, 1804-1806].) in 1897 between Bismarck and Iron Mountain in Iron County, 

Crataegus Douglasii, var. rivularis. The range of this tree can be and at Williamsville, Wayne County. It has been found by Mr. 

extended eastward of the central divide in Wyoming to Caspar on J. B. S. Norton at Osage, Missouri, on the Missouri River, and 

a small tributary of the Platte River, to Paris Creek near the in northwestern Arkansas near Fayetteville by Professor F. L. 

northern boundary of the state, and to the eastern slope of the Harvey. 
Big Horn Mountains (teste Professor Aven Nelson). 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 37 



CRAT^GUS SALIGNA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves narrow, rhombic or oval, acute or acumi- 
nate, subcoriaceous, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus saligna, Greene, Pittonia, iii. 99 (1896). 

A tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a short stem and long slender spreading branches 
gracefully drooping at the ends ; or often forming clumps or small thickets with numerous stems, from 
eight to fifteen feet tall, springing from one root. The bark of the large branches and small stems 
is close and bright red or reddish brown, and on old trunks it separates near the ground into long 
slightly attached narrow plate-like gray scales. The branchlets are slender and wand-like, marked by 
large scattered pale lenticels, and armed with thin ridged nearly straight bright chestnut-brown shining 
spines from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they appear they are 
orange color deeply tinged with red and soon become bright red and very lustrous, and dull red-brown 
in their second season. The leaves vary from narrowly rhombic to oval, and are gradually narrowed at 
the ends, and acute or acuminate and apiculate at the apex, entire toward the base, and finely serrate 
above, with incurved teeth tipped with minute bright red glands ; they are nearly fully grown when 
the flowers open toward the middle of June, light yellow-green, covered on the upper surface with short 
pale hairs, and pale and glabrous below, with slender bright red petioles about a third of an inch in 
length, and usually furnished near the base with two or three large stipitate dark red caducous glands ; 
at maturity the leaves are thick and firm in texture, dark green, glabrous and lustrous above, pale below, 
from an inch and a half to two inches long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch wide, with 
stout midribs rose-colored on the under side, particularly toward the base, very obscure forked veins, and 
reticulate veinlets. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely serrate, 
often deeply and irregularly divided into one or two pairs of acute lateral lobes, from three inches to 
three inches and a half long and from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half wide ; and their 
stipules are foliaceous, lunate, stalked, coarsely dentate, and often three quarters of an inch in length. 
Late in the autumn the leaves turn to brilliant shades of orange and bright scarlet. The flowers are 
about five eighths of an inch in diameter and are produced on short slender pedicels, in compact 
glabrous few or many-flowered compound corymbs, with linear glandular bright red bracts and bractlets. 
The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes are nearly triangular, entire, and often 
bright red toward the apex. There are twenty stamens with small yellow anthers, and five styles. The 
fruit, which ripens toward the end of September and sometimes remains on the branches at least as late 
as the middle of October, is borne on stout peduncles, in compact few-fruited drooping clusters, and is 
globose, a quarter of an inch in diameter, dull vinous red and very lustrous when fully grown, and 
ultimately blue-black ; the calyx is small, with a narrow cavity and reflexed persistent lobes, and the 
flesh is thin, yellow, dry and sweet ? and of a pleasant flavor. The five nutlets are thick, rounded and 
slightly ridged on the back, and about three sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus saligna grows along the banks of the Cimmaron, Gunnison, and White rivers and other 
Colorado streams on both slopes of the continental divide at elevations varying from six thousand to 
eight thousand feet above the sea-level. 1 

1 Crataegus saligna appears to have been first collected by Fre - - Herb. Kew). It was collected by Hayden in 1869 (in Herb. Gray, 
mont in 1845 on his second transcontinental journey (No. 185 in without locality) and by Brandegee at Punch's Springs in August, 



38 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Late in the autumn, when the foliage has assumed its brilliant hues and the slender bright red 
branches droop under the weight of its abundant blue-black fruit, this Rocky Mountain Hawthorn 
enlivens the banks of mountain streams and is an object of striking and remarkable beauty. 

1877 (in Herb. Gray). It has also been collected by Crandall in White River plateau in October, 1896 ; by Purpus at Sapinero on 

Gypsum Creek Canon in August, 1894, and in the Black Canon of the Elk Mountains in July, 1898 ; and by Jack at Grant Park 

the Gunnison in August, 1896, and June, 1899 ; by Beadle at Wal- County, in October, 1898. 
cott on the Eagle River in July, 1896 ; by Sargent at Meeker on the 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXVI. Crataegus saligna. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

6. The end of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXXXVI. 




C.E.Faaon. d&Z>. 



Rapists' j:c. 



CRATAEGUS SALIG-NA, Greene. 



A.ffiooreuiv dtse& 



I-nr . T. Tanezcr. Pari 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 39 



CRAT-ffiGUS CRUS-GALLI, var. PYRACANTHIFOLIA. 

Cockspur Thorn. 

Stamens 10; anthers rose color. Leaves narrowly obovate, acute or sometimes 
rounded at the apex. 

Crataegus Crus-galli, (3 pyracanthifolia, Alton, Eort. part). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. 

Kew. ii. 170 (1789). — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 626. — ix. 76 ; Silva N. Am. iv. 92. 

Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 464. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. Mespilus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, Hayne, Dendr. 

ii. 820, f. 580. — Regel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 109 (in Fl. 80 (1882). 

This form of the Cockspur Thorn, which has been known in European gardens for more than a 
century, has recently been found in eastern Pennsylvania and in northern Delaware and appears to 
range southward to Florida and middle Tennessee. It has the ten stamens and rose-colored anthers of 
Cratcegus Crus-galli, but rather smaller flowers and smaller comparatively narrower and often bright 
red fruit. The leaves vary from elliptical to obovate and are acute or often rounded at the apex, and 
when young are sometimes slightly pubescent along the upper side of the midribs, a few hairs being also 
found occasionally on the young corymbs. Very distinct in its extreme forms, it appears to pass into 
the ordinary forms of Cratcegus Crus-galli, which is distinguished by its larger leaves, mostly rounded 
at the apex except on vigorous shoots, larger flowers, and larger and usually pruinose fruits, and with 
the present knowledge of this narrower-leaved form it is perhaps best considered a variety. 1 

1 The northeastern station of Cratcegus Crus-galli is near Mon- the name of Crataegus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia (Aiton, Hort. 

treal in Quebec, where it was first noticed by Mr. J. G. Jack in Kew. ii. 170), with thinner narrower and more elongated lanceolate 

August, 1892 ; it is rare in western Vermont (see Sargent, Rho- or oblanceolate leaves, has not yet been found growing naturally in 

dora, iii. 19), and with the exception of a few stations in Connecti- this country, and, like a number of other peculiar plants in this 

cut (E. B. Harger, East Haven, 1887, and Oxford, 1900, E. H. group known only in European and American gardens, it is perhaps 

Eames, Stratford, 1895, C. B. Graves, Waterford and Groton, the product of cultivation or hybridization. 

1901) it is not known to grow naturally in other parts of New Eng- In the fourth volume of this work Crataegus berberifolia of Tor- 
land. It grows probably naturally on the Shinnecock Hills and rey & Gray of western Louisiana was considered a variety of Cra- 
the shores of Peconic Bay, Long Island, where it was found in 1897 taigus Crus-galli. It varies from that species in its twenty not ten 
by Miss A. M. Vail, and is very abundant westward to Illinois and stamens, in its thinner and less lustrous leaves, in the persistent 
southward particularly in the Appalachian foothill region. West pubescent or tomentose covering of the young branches, leaves, and 
of the Missouri River, where there are a number of distinct species calyx, and in its orange-colored red-cheeked fruit, and with the 
of this group, Crataegus Crus-galli either does not grow at all or present idea of the limitation of species of Crataegus it should be 
varies constantly from the eastern tree in its yellow anthers. considered a species. 

Another form of the Cockspur Thorn cultivated in Europe under 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXVLI. Crat^gus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat.DCXXXVII. 




C.EFa/Bon> deL. 



Zartazul/ , 



CRATAEGUS CRUS-GALLI VAR. PYRACANTHIFOLIA, Ait. 

A.Hiocreua? direa> .* Imp. J.Taneur, Farur. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 41 



ORAT-ffiGUS CANBYI. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves oblong or oval to ovate, usually 
acute, coriaceous. 

Crataegus Canbyi, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 3 (1901). 

A bushy glabrous or rarely slightly villose x tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a trunk 
from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter covered with thin dark brown bark broken into small closely 
appressed scales, and heavy ascending and wide-spreading branches which form a broad open irregular 
head occasionally from thirty to thirty-five feet across. The branchlets are stout, elongated, slightly 
zigzag, marked by numerous pale conspicuous lenticels, and sparingly armed with thick usually straight 
chestnut-brown spines from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length. The leaves are 
oblong-ovate to ovate or rarely obovate, acute or rarely rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed, cuneate 
and entire at the base, and coarsely and doubly serrate above the middle, with glandular incurved 
teeth ; they are thin but coriaceous at maturity, dark green and very lustrous above, pale and dull 
below, from two inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, 
with thick pale midribs and four or five pairs of remote primary veins impressed on the upper 
surface and raised and conspicuous on the lower surface ; they are borne on stout petioles which are 
more or less winged above, grooved on the upper side, glandular, with scattered dark red persistent 
glands, red below the middle and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules 
are oblong-obovate to linear-lanceolate, glandular-serrate, and generally about half an inch long. On 
vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often deeply and irregularly divided into broad acute lobes and 
are frequently three or four inches long and two inches wide. The flowers, which are five eighths of 
?n inch in diameter and open about the middle of May, are produced in broad loose many-flowered 
long-branched compound corymbs, with linear finely glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. 
The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and the lobes are entire, or serrate, with minute scattered glandular 
teeth, and mostly reflexed after the flowers open. There are usually ten but occasionally twelve or 
thirteen stamens with slender elongated filaments and small rose-colored anthers, and from three to five 
styles. The fruit ripens during the month of October but does not fall until after the beginning of 
winter ; it hangs on elongated slender stems, in loose many-fruited drooping clusters, and is oblong to 
subglobose, full and rounded at the ends, with distinct depressions at the insertion of the stalks, lustrous, 
dark crimson, marked by occasional large pale lenticels, and from one half to five eighths of an inch in 
length ; the calyx-cavity is deep but narrow, and the lobes are nearly entire, reflexed and closely 
appressed, and often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, bright red, and very juicy. 
The nutlets vary from three to five in number and are prominently ridged, with broad rounded ridges, 
bright chestnut-brown, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Canbyi grows in hedges and thickets in the neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware, 
where it was first noticed in October, 1898, by Mr. William M. Canby ; 2 and on the shores of Chesapeake 

i Specimens of a plant collected by Mr. Alexander MacElwee on 2 William Marriott Canby (March 17, 1831) was born in Phila- 

the shores of Chesapeake Bay at Perry ville in Cecil County, Mary- delphia, and was the son of a merchant of that city but a native of 

land, in May, 1899, which is not otherwise distinguishable from Wilmington, Delaware, where his family had lived since 1742. In 

Crataegus Canbyi, have a few hairs scattered along the upper side that year it moved to Wilmington from Bristol, Pennsylvania* 

of the midribs and slightly villose corymbs. where the first of the family to come to America, a native of 



42 



SILVA OF NOETH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Bay in Cecil County, Maryland. It grows also in the meadows of Tohickon Creek at Quakerstown, 
Pennsylvania, and on Tenicum Island, at Haddington, and at Gray's Ferry, Philadelphia. 



Yorkshire in England, had settled in 1680. William M. Canby 
was educated principally at Westbouse, the Friends' School near 
Chansford in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and by private tutors. 
He was brought up on a farm, and when he was twenty years old 
he began to manage a farm for himself. In 1866, fifteen years 
later, family affairs carried him to Wilmington. Since that time 
he has been principally occupied in various business affairs there, 
having been receiver and afterwards president of the Delaware 
Western Railroad, director in the Union National Bank, and for 
more than twenty years president of the Wilmington Saving Fund 
Society. He acquired a taste for botany early in life from rela- 
tives and afterward in school, and since 1858, when he visited 
Florida for the first time in search of health and began to gather 
plants, he has been an active and assiduous collector in many 
parts of the United States during long and frequent journeys, and 



his specimens, which have been distributed with a lavish hand 
are found in all the large herbaria of the world. His own herba- 
rium of about 30,000 species, the harvest of many years of work in 
the field, supplemented by liberal purchases and by exchanges 
having outgrown the space at its disposal, is now in possession of 
the College of Pharmacy of New York ; and since 1893 Mr. Canby 
has been engaged in forming an herbarium for the Natural History 
Society of Delaware, which now contains about 13,000 species. 

Canbya, a genus of delicate and interesting annual plants of the 
Poppy family, natives of the deserts of the west, dedicated to him 
by his friend Asa Gray, will recall to botanists the name of Canby 
and his important and unselfish labors in increasing the knowledge 
of the American flora after the memory of his kindness, geniality 
and helpfulness has passed with the generations of his friends and 
associates. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXXXVIII. Crat^gus Canbyi. 

A flowering branch, natural size. 

Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

A fruiting branch, natural size. 

Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 



6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva'of North America. 



Ta"K nfYYYVTTT 







CEFaaxm del. 



Hapine* j-o. 



CRAmGUS CANBYI,Sar6. 

o 



A.JUocreuay direea* 



Imp. J ' Faneur.J^ar's 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 43 



CRATAEGUS ENGELMANNL 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly obovate or elliptical, coriaceous, 
villose. 

Crataegus Engelmanni, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 2 Crataegus berberifolia, Britton, Man. 519 (in part) (not 
(1901). Torrey & Gray) (1901). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a trunk five or six inches in diameter covered 
with dark red-brown scaly bark, and wide-spreading usually horizontal branches forming a low flat- 
topped or a rounded head ; or occasionally shrubby. The branchlets are slender, straight or somewhat 
zigzag, marked by large pale lenticels, and armed with few thin straight or slightly curved chestnut- 
brown lustrous spines from an inch and a half to two inches and a half in length ; when they first 
appear they are orange-brown or green tinged with red and covered with long pale hairs which soon 
disappear, and during their first summer they are nearly glabrous and bright red-brown, becoming 
lighter colored and gray or gray tinged with red during their second year. The leaves are broadly 
obovate or rarely elliptical, rounded or often short-pointed and acute at the apex, gradually narrowed 
or entire below, and finely crenulate-serrate usually only above the middle and generally only at the 
apex ; nearly fully grown when the flowers open about the middle of May, they are then roughened 
above by short rigid pale hairs, and at maturity they are coriaceous, dark green, lustrous, and scabrous 
on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, pilose above and below along the slender midribs and 
on the obscure primary veins and veinlets, from an inch to an inch and a half long and from half an 
inch to an inch wide ; they are borne on slender grooved glandular petioles winged above by the 
decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, at first slightly villose but soon glabrous, and usually about a quarter 
of an inch in length. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, glabrous, light red, one third of an inch long, 
and caducous. The flowers, which are three quarters of an inch in diameter, are produced on slender 
pedicels, in broad loose eight to twelve-flowered thin-branched villose corymbs, with linear-lanceolate 
or narrowly obovate tomentose or villose glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is 
narrowly obconic, villose, or nearly glabrous, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, entire, glabrous 
on the outer surface, usually puberulous on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. 
There are ten stamens with long slender filaments and small rose-colored anthers, and two or three 
styles. The fruit, which ripens early in November, hangs on slender pedicels, in drooping many- 
fruited glabrous clusters ; it is globose or short-oblong, bright orange-red, with a yellow cheek, and 
about a third of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a broad shallow cavity, and enlarged 
spreading lobes which usually fall before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, green, dry, and mealy. 
The two or three nutlets are thick, prominently ridged on the back, with high rounded ridges, and a 
quarter of an inch long. 

Cratcegus Engelmanni inhabits dry limestone slopes and ridges, and is common through central 
and southern Missouri. 1 Long confounded with Cratcegus Crus-gaUi, it appears to have been first 
collected at Kimmswick at the mouth of the Maramec River by Dr. George Engelmann. 

1 The first description of Crataegus Engelmanni was made to been referred by Mr. C. D. Beadle to his Crataegus sinistra (Bilt- 

include a number of specimens of Crus-galli-Kke species with more more Bot. Studies, i. 44 [1901]) ; and further study in the field is 

or less pilose leaves and villose corymbs collected at West Nash- needed before it can be satisfactorily determined whether any of 

ville Tennessee, in northern and central Alabama, and at Rome the forms of the Crus-galli group growing east of the Mississippi 

and Augusta, Georgia. The specimens from Nashville have since River belong with Crataegus Engelmanni. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXXXIX. Crataegus Engelmanni. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCXXXIX 



fN^-'tV, 




CEJhxoTv del. 



CRATAEGUS ENGELMANNI, Sar§. 



Zartazuls . 



j4.Rlocreiu& dzrea>f 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 45 



CRAT^GUS PEORIENSIS. 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves obovate, usually acute, coriaceous, dark 
green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus Peoriensis, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 5 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, usually from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk occasionally 
a foot in diameter covered with dark brown scaly bark, and stout spreading branches forming a broad 
flat-topped symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, somewhat zigzag, marked by numerous small 
pale lenticels, and armed with straight or slightly curved thin dull chestnut-brown spines from two inches 
to two inches and a half in length ; green more or less tinged with red when they first appear, they 
become light orange-brown and lustrous during their first season, fighter colored during their second 
year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are obovate, short-pointed or occasionally rounded at the 
broad apex, gradually narrowed, cuneate, and entire below, sharply and often doubly serrate, usually 
only above the middle, with straight or incurved glandular teeth, and sometimes irregularly lobed, with 
short broad terminal lobes ; when they unfold they are villose on the upper surface, particularly 
toward the base of the midribs, and are bright bronze color, and when the flowers open during the 
latter part of May they are nearly fully grown and still slightly villose ; in the autumn they are thick 
and firm, glabrous, dark green and very lustrous on the upper surface and pale on the lower surface, 
an inch and a half to two inches long and three quarters of an inch wide, with four or five pairs of thin 
primary veins raised and conspicuous on the under side, deeply impressed on the upper side, and 
extending very obliquely from the slender midribs to the ends of the lobes ; they are borne on broad 
deeply grooved petioles usually about a quarter of an inch in length, more or less wing-margined and 
slightly glandular above the middle, and covered early in the season with short pale deciduous hairs. 
The stipules are linear-lanceolate, glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the 
leaves are sometimes deeply divided into broad acute lateral lobes, and are from two to three inches 
long and an inch and a half wide, and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, coarsely glandular-serrate, 
and sometimes an inch in length. The flowers are cup-shaped and about half an inch in diameter, 
and are borne on slender elongated pedicels, in broad loose compound many-flowered thin-branched 
glabrous corymbs, with linear conspicuously glandular caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is 
narrowly obconic, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, entire or irregularly glandular-serrate, with 
minute scattered dark red glands, pubescent below the middle on the upper surface, and spreading or 
reflexed when the flowers open. There are ten stamens with slender elongated filaments and small 
rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. 
The fruit ripens early in October, and hangs in drooping many-fruited clusters, on slender elon- 
gated pedicels ; it is oblong or obovate, full and rounded at the ends, slightly depressed at the 
insertion of the stalk, bright scarlet marked by many small dark dots, and from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in length ; the calyx-cavity is broad and deep, and the enlarged lobes are usually 
erect and incurved and persistent ; and the flesh is thick, nearly white, firm, and dry. The two or 
rarely three nutlets are thick, prominently ridged on the back, with broad rounded ridges, and about a 
quarter of an inch long. 

Cratcegus Peoriensis grows in open woods by the moist borders of streams and depressions in the 



46 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea 

prairie and on hillsides in clay soils in Short and Peoria counties, Illinois, where it was discovered in 
September, 1897, by Mr. Virginius H. Chase. 1 

1 Virginius Heber Chase (January 8, 1876), a great-grandson of been a telegraph operator since 1893, devoting his spare time 

Philander Chase, the first Episcopal bishop of Ohio and Illinois to good advantage in studying the plants of central Illinois where 

and the founder of Kenyon College, Ohio, and of Jubilee College, he has discovered and distinguished three interesting species of 

Jubilee, Illinois, was born at Wady Petra, Illinois, where he has Crataegus. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXL. Crataegus Peoriensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXL. 





C. JJ. J^aason/ deL. 



ZcLrtcutds. 



CRATAEGUS PEORIENSIS, Sar6. 

o 



A.Biocreuay direas't' 



Imp. JTasveur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 47 



CRATAEGUS FECUNDA. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 10; anthers dark purple. Leaves oblong-obovate to oval or 
broadly ovate, thin, lustrous, coarsely serrate. 

Crataegus fecunda, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. Ill (1902). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter 
covered with thin bark broken into small closely appressed dark red-brown scales, and stout wide- 
spreading branches forming a broad symmetrical round-topped rather open head. The branchlets are 
stout, slightly zigzag, marked by large pale oblong lenticels, and armed with numerous very slender 
straight or slightly curved chestnut-brown shining spines which vary from two to two and a half inches 
in length ; covered when they first appear with soft matted pale hairs, they become during their first 
summer glabrous, lustrous, and light orange-green, and ashy gray in their second season. The leaves 
vary from oblong-obovate to oval or broadly ovate, and are acute, or rarely rounded and short-pointed 
at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed below, and coarsely and usually doubly serrate, with broad 
spreading glandular teeth except toward the base, which is ciliate with short scattered pale hairs ; when 
they unfold they are dark green, lustrous, and roughened on the upper surface by short pale appressed 
caducous hairs, and on the lower surface pale yellow-green, and villose along the midribs and primary 
veins, with occasional white hairs ; at maturity the leaves are thin but firm in texture, dark green and 
lustrous above, pale yellow-green below, from two to two and a half inches in length and from one inch 
and a half to two inches in width, with stout midribs and remote primary veins only slightly impressed 
on the upper surface and after midsummer often bright red below ; they are borne on stout more or less 
winged petioles which are grooved on the upper side, often glandular, coated with pale hairs when they 
first appear but soon glabrous, dull red at maturity, and from one half to three quarters of an inch 
long. The stipules are linear-lanceolate to narrowly obovate, and glandular-serrate. On vigorous 
leading shoots the leaves are often slightly lobed with short broad acute lobes, and appear convex by the 
hanging down of the margins ; they are from three to four inches long and from two to three inches 
broad, and their stipules are semilunate, coarsely glandular-serrate, and frequently three quarters of an 
inch in length. Late in the autumn the leaves turn to brilliant shades of orange and scarlet or assume 
a deep rich bronze color. The flowers, which are three quarters of an inch in diameter, open at the end 
of May and are borne in wide many-flowered compact slightly villose compound corymbs, with linear 
or oblong-obovate coarsely glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic 
and more or less villose, and the lobes are elongated, acute, and coarsely glandular-serrate, with stipitate 
dark red glands villose on the inner surface. There are usually ten but occasionally from twelve to 
fifteen stamens with small dark purple anthers, and two or three styles. The fruit ripens at the end of 
October and hangs on slender pedicels, which are often half an inch in length, in broad many-fruited 
drooping clusters ; it is short-oblong to subglobose, full and rounded at the ends, covered until nearly 
fully grown with long soft pale hairs, and at maturity dull orange-red marked by many small dark 
dots and from seven eighths of an inch to an inch in length ; the calyx-cavity is deep but com- 
paratively narrow, and the lobes are linear-lanceolate, erect and incurved, coarsely glandular-serrate 
above the middle, and dark red on the upper side toward the base ; the flesh is very thick, firm and 
hard pale green, dry, and sweet. The two or three nutlets are light-colored, rounded and prominently 
ridged on the back, and one third of an inch long. 



48 SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. rosacea. 

Cratcegus fecunda grows in rich woodlands near Allenton, Missouri, where it was first noticed in 
September, 1882, by Mr. George W. Letterman, and on the bottom-lands of the Mississippi River in 
Illinois opposite St. Louis. 

For many years this tree has inhabited the Arnold Arboretum, where it was raised from seeds 
collected by Mr. Letterman, and where in the autumn, when it is covered with its large showy fruits and 
lustrous brilliant leaves, it is a magnificent object. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLL Crataegus fecunda. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, showing the nutlets, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a vigorous leading shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXLI. 



V^^J^fe 




CE.Faasorv dels. 



Zartaud, sc 



CRATAEGUS FECUNDA, Sar6. 

o 



A-JUooreucc direa>* 



Imp. J ' ThTieur, faris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 49 



CRATAEGUS ERECTA. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oval to obovate, acute, thin, 
dull green. 

Crataegus erecta, Sargent, Bat. Gazette, xxxi. 218 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, usually from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a trunk a foot in 
diameter, but occasionally much larger, and thick ascending branches which form a wide open but 
rather symmetrical head. 1 The bark of the trunk is divided irregularly into thick plate-like scales, 
and is dark gray-brown, or nearly black near the base of large trees. The branchlets are spreading, 
slender, slightly zigzag, marked by numerous large oblong pale lenticels, and armed with thin straight 
chestnut-brown spines from one to two inches in length ; more or less tinged with red when they first 
appear, they are orange or reddish brown during their first season and gray or gray-brown during their 
second year. The leaves are oval or obovate, or on leading vigorous shoots nearly orbicular, acute and 
short-pointed at the apex, cuneate and entire at the base, and finely glandular-serrate ; when they unfold 
they are often villose, with a few short caducous pale hairs on the upper side of the midribs, and are 
nearly fully grown and dull green when the flowers open ; in the autumn they are thin but firm in 
texture, dark dull green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from an inch and a half to 
two inches long and from an inch to an inch and a quarter wide, with slender midribs and thin but 
prominent primary veins ; they are borne on slender deeply grooved petioles which are often wing- 
margined above, glandular, with minute dark glands, usually dark red after midsummer, and from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, glandular-serrate, about half an inch 
long, caducous, and turn red before falling. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are coarsely dentate, 
with broad nearly straight glandular teeth, and are sometimes three inches long and two inches and 
a half wide. In the autumn the leaves become a dull orange color. The flowers, which vary from 
one half to five eighths of an inch in diameter and open about the tenth of May, are produced 
in broad loose many-flowered very thin-branched compound corymbs, with linear glandular-serrate 
caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, and the lobes are narrow, elongated, 
acuminate, entire, or occasionally obscurely and irregularly serrate. There are usually ten but occa- 
sionally from eleven to thirteen stamens with slender filaments and small pale yellow anthers, and three 
or four styles which are surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of short pale hairs. The fruit is 
borne in few-fruited drooping clusters, on slender elongated pedicels ; it is subglobose and usually a 
little longer than broad, full and flattened at the ends, dark dull crimson, marked by occasional dark- 
colored dots, and from one quarter to one third of an inch in length ; the calyx-tube is short, with a 
broad shallow cavity and closely appressed lobes which are gradually narrowed from broad bases and are 
usually persistent on the ripe fruit ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The three or four nutlets 
are broad, prominently and doubly ridged on the back, and about three sixteenths of an inch long. 

Crataegus erecta inhabits the rich bottom-lands of the Mississippi River in Illinois opposite the 
city of St. Louis, where it was first noticed by me in October, 1899, and where it is common at least as 
far south as Fish Lake. 

1 In a field near Fish Lake, four miles south of the village of divides into a number of large ascending branches, which is three 
Cahokia Illinois, there is a tree of Cratcegus erecta which is at least feet in diameter at a point three feet above the surface of the 
forty feet in height, with a trunk now somewhat injured where it ground. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLLT. Crataegus erecta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North" America. 



Tat. DCXLII. 





5 



6 

A 



C.E.Fcucorv del. 



.Lcirtcuui' . 



CRATAEGUS ERECTA,Sar6. 

o 



A.IUocreiuC' direaz? 



Imp . ^J.TcmeitriJ^aritr. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 51 



CRAT^GUS ACUTIFOLIA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acuteor acuminate, 
thin, and lustrous. 

Crataegus acutifolia, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 217 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, often thirty feet in height, with a trunk eighteen inches in diameter, and 
stout wide-spreading branches forming a symmetrical round-topped rather open head. The bark of the 
trunk is thin, dark reddish brown, and broken into thick closely appressed scales. The branchlets are 
slender, usually straight, marked by oblong pale lenticels, and occasionally armed with scattered thin 
straight chestnut-brown spines which vary from one to nearly two inches in length ; during their first year 
they are dark chestnut-brown or orange-brown, and in their second season dull gray-brown. The leaves 
vary from oval to oblong-obovate, and are acute or acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, cuneate at 
the usually entire base, and finely crenulate-serrate often only above the middle, with gland-tipped teeth ; 
when the flowers open they are nearly fully grown, membranaceous, and lustrous above, with occasional 
short scattered pale caducous hairs along the upper side of the midribs, and at maturity they are thin 
and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on the lower sur- 
face, about an inch and a half long and an inch wide, with slender light yellow midribs compara- 
tively deeply impressed above and four or five pairs of thin slightly raised primary veins ; they are borne 
on slender deeply grooved petioles which are more or less winged above, glandular when they first appear, 
with minute dark caducous glands, and from one quarter to one half of an inch in length. The stipules 
are linear, elongated, glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are fre- 
quently divided toward the apex into two or three pairs of short acute lobes, and are often three inches 
long and two inches broad. The flowers, which are half an inch in diameter, open about the tenth of 
May and are borne on slender pedicels, in compound many-flowered compact corymbs, with linear 
glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and the lobes are lanceolate, 
acuminate, and entire or obscurely and irregularly glandular-serrate, with minute stipitate dark 
glands. There are ten stamens with small pale yellow anthers, and two or three styles. The fruit 
ripens and falls at the end of September and hangs on slender pedicels from one half to three quarters 
of an inch in length, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, 
bright scarlet, marked by occasional large dark dots, and about half an inch long ; the calyx-tube is 
prominent, with a broad deep cavity, and the lobes, which are reflexed and closely appressed, are often 
deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The two or three nutlets 
are thick, prominently ridged on the back, with broad rounded ridges, and about three sixteenths of an 
inch in length. 

Crataegus acutifolia inhabits bluffs on the Mississippi River in South St. Louis, Missouri, where 
it grows in open Oak woods and where it appears to have been first collected in May, 1887, by Mr. 
Henry Eggert. 1 

1 Heinrich Karl Daniel Eggert (March 3, 1841) was born at collections in the Harz Mountains and on short journeys to Kreuz- 

Osterwieck in Prussia. He was educated at the seminary in Hal- nach and in Bohemia. Dissatisfied with the small salary of a 

berstadt and became a teacher in the public schools in the neigh- German school-teacher, Eggert came to America in 1873, and for a 

boring city of Magdeburg. He early became interested in the few months worked on a farm in southern New York. From New 

study of plants, and before leaving Europe he had made botanical York he went to St. Louis, and for nearly twenty years devoted 



52 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



himself to unremitting labor in distributing newspapers, by which 
he secured a competence sufficient to enable him in recent years to 
devote his time to the collection and study of plants. Stimulated 
by the advice and assistance of Dr. George Engelmann, who became 
his friend soon after his arrival in St. Louis, Eggert explored the 
flora of the immediate neighborhood of the city during the early 



years of his residence in St. Louis, and at this time collected large 
quantities of the seeds of the native Grape-vines to stock European 
vineyards ravaged by the Phylloxera. After retiring from busi- 
ness Mr. Eggert made several annual journeys to southern Mis- 
souri and Arkansas and to Texas and the southeastern United 
States, and has discovered several interesting plants. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXLIIL Crataegus acutifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXLI11 







7 



C.E.Faxon, del. 



CRATAEGUS ACUTIFOLIA, Sar§ 

AHiocrecLX. dzreco^ 



Imp. •J.Tarveur, Paris. 



HimeZy 



kosacejs. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 53 



CRATAEGUS SIGNATA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 10. Leaves obovate, rounded or acute, thin, bright green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus signata, Beadle, Biltmore Bot. Studies, i. 42 Crataegus elliptica, Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 

(1901). 550 {Plant Life of Alabama) (not Alton) (1901). 

Crataegus Crus-galli, var. berberifolia, Sargent, Silva 

N. Am. iv. 93 (in part) (not Torrey & Gray) (1892). 

A tree, usually from fifteen to eighteen feet in height, with a tall stem four or five inches in diameter 
covered with ashy gray bark, which is often nearly black near the base of old stems, and separates freely 
into thin plate-like scales displaying when they fall the bright red inner bark, and many ascending or 
spreading branches forming a round-topped or oval compact head. The branchlets are stout, more or 
less zigzag, marked by numerous large pale lenticels, and armed with stout nearly straight bright 
chestnut-brown spines from one to two inches in length ; when they first appear they are dark green 
tinged with red and covered with long white matted hairs ; soon becoming glabrous, they are bright 
reddish brown during their first season, dull gray-brown during their second year, and ultimately ashy 
gray. The leaves are obovate, rounded and often short-pointed or acute at the apex, gradually 
narrowed from near the middle and cuneate at the entire base, and sharply glandular-serrate generally 
only above the middle ; when the flowers open early in April they are usually only half grown and are 
then gray-green, and coated on the upper surface and on the lower side of the midribs and principal 
veins with short pale hairs ; and at maturity they vary from an inch and a half to two inches in length 
and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in width, and are thin but firm in texture, dark green, 
lustrous, and slightly pilose on the upper surface, paler and pubescent below along the slender midribs 
and the two to five pairs of primary veins which extend toward the apex of the leaf ; they are borne 
on slender glandular grooved petioles winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf -blades, and 
usually about a third of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, coarsely glandular-serrate, bright 
red before falling, and caducous. On leading shoots the leaves are often broadly oval, more coarsely 
dentate than the leaves of lateral branchlets, sometimes incisely lobed, and frequently two inches and a 
half long and two inches wide, and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, and coarsely glandular-dentate. 
The flowers are about three quarters of an inch in diameter and bad-smelling, and are produced on 
slender pedicels coated with pale matted hairs, like the branches of the compound few-flowered compact 
corymbs and their linear glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and 
villose, with long matted hairs, and the lobes are narrow, acute, entire or irregularly glandular-serrate, 
usually glabrous on the outer surface, villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. 
There are ten stamens with slender filaments and small anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded 
at the base by a few pale hairs. The fruit ripens and falls toward the end of October and is borne in 
few-fruited drooping slightly villose clusters ; it is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, dark red, 
more or less pruinose, marked by numerous large pale dots, and about half an inch long ; the calyx is 
prominent, with a deep narrow cavity and elongated closely appressed lobes which are usually persistent 
on the ripe fruit ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and insipid. The nutlets vary from three to five in 
number and are prominently ridged and grooved on the back, and about a quarter of an inch in length. 
Crataegus signata inhabits open glades and dry copses of the Pine-covered coast plain of southern 
Alabama, where it is common in Washington and Mobile counties. Discovered many years ago by Dr. 
Charles Mohr, it has been variously considered one of the forms of the flava group and as a variety of 
Crataegus Crus-galli until its true characters were determined by Mr. C. D. Beadle. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLIV. Crataegus signata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXLIV 




QE.Faaxn>del/. 



Zartcuui/ 



CRATAEGUS SIGNATA, Bead. 



jL.Biocreuay eSrea>- 



Imp. I.Tanetw^aritr. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 55 



CRATAEGUS BUSHII. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose-colored. Leaves obovate to elliptical, broad and rounded 
or acute at the apex. 

Crataegus Bushii, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 109 (1902). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a trunk eight or ten inches in diameter covered 
with dark red-brown fissured bark broken on the surface into closely appressed scales, and small 
spreading branches forming a broad open irregular head. The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, 
marked by occasional oblong pale lenticels, and unarmed or sparingly armed with stout straight 
chestnut-brown spines varying from an inch and a half to an inch and three quarters in length ; when 
they first appear they are orange-green and glabrous, becoming bright red-brown and lustrous during 
their first season and dull gray-brown in their second year. The leaves are obovate, broad and rounded 
or acute at the apex, or elliptical and acute, gradually narrowed from near the middle, cuneate and 
entire at the base, and coarsely serrate above, with straight gland-tipped teeth ; when they unfold they 
are dark green above, pale below, and villose, with short white hairs on both sides of the midribs and 
veins ; nearly fully grown when the flowers open about the twentieth of April, they are then dark green 
and very lustrous on the upper surface and glabrous, with the exception of a few hairs on the upper 
side of the midribs, and at maturity they are coriaceous, very lustrous, glabrous, from an inch and a 
quarter to an inch and a half in length and from half an inch to an inch in width, with stout yellow 
midribs deeply impressed above and few slender prominent primary veins ; they are borne on stout 
grooved villose ultimately glabrous petioles margined above and usually about half an inch long. The 
stipules are linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, glandular-serrate or entire, about a quarter of an inch 
long, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are usually elliptical, acute, coarsely 
serrate, and frequently three inches long and an inch and a half wide, with stouter and more broadly 
winged petioles than those of the leaves of fertile branches. The flowers vary from three quarters of 
an inch to an inch in diameter and are produced in broad compound many-flowered glabrous corymbs, 
with linear entire caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and 
the lobes are elongated, linear-lanceolate, entire or occasionally slightly dentate, and reflexed after 
anthesis. There are twenty stamens with large bright rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles 
surrounded at the base by conspicuous tufts of white hairs. The fruit, which ripens late in October or 
in November, is borne on slender pedicels about half an inch long, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it 
is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, green tinged with dull red, and a third of an inch in length, 
with a broad shallow calyx-cavity and only slightly enlarged erect and incurved lobes which mostly fall 
before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, green, dry, and hard. The two or three nutlets are broad, 
prominently ridged on the back, with high rounded ridges, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Bushii inhabits rich upland woods near Fulton on the Red River in southern Arkansas, 
where it was discovered in April, 1900, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 1 

This tree, one of the most beautiful of the American Thorns, with its large and abundant pure 
white flowers and lustrous leaves, is fittingly associated with the name of its discoverer, who for many 
years has industriously explored the forests and prairies of the region immediately west of the lower 
Mississippi River. 

1 See vii. 110. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLV. Crataegus Bushii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a small-leaved form, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab. DCXLV 







C.E. Faxon, del. 



CRATAEGUS BUSH11, Sar£. 

A. RLocreuz> dzreay t Imp J. Hmezcr, Paris. 



JZartazuL 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 57 



CRATAEGUS EDITA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers rose-colored. Leaves oblong-obovate, acute, scabrous. 

Crataegus edita, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 110 (1902). 

A tree, in low moist ground sometimes forty feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter free of 
branches for eighteen or twenty feet and covered with dark red-brown fissured scaly bark, and stout 
horizontal branches forming a broad rounded symmetrical head ; or on the drier soil of low hills much 
smaller and generally from twenty to twenty-five feet in height. The branchlets are slender, nearly 
straight, marked by numerous large oblong dark lenticels, and armed with few scattered stout straight 
chestnut-brown ultimately dull gray spines which vary from one to two inches in length ; when they 
first appear the branchlets are orange-brown and villose, and in their second year they are dull red-brown 
and often sparingly villose, becoming dull light gray-brown during the following year. The leaves are 
oblong-obovate or rarely oval, acute at the gradually narrowed apex, gradually narrowed from near the 
middle and cuneate at the entire base, and coarsely and often doubly serrate above, with glandular 
teeth ; when the flowers open they are lustrous and scabrous above, with short rigid pale hairs, and are 
pubescent or puberulous below, particularly on the slender midribs and remote slightly raised primary 
veins ; and at maturity they are dark green, lustrous, and slightly roughened on the upper surface, 
pale yellow-green and scabrous on the lower surface, from an inch and a half to two inches in 
length and from one half of an inch to an inch in width j they are borne on stout grooved petioles 
winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, villose, ultimately pubescent or puberulous, and 
from one third to one half of an inch long. The stipules are linear, glandular-serrate, villose, and 
caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often slightly divided into lateral lobes, more 
coarsely serrate than the leaves of fertile branches, and sometimes three inches long and an inch and a 
half wide, with stouter and more broadly margined petioles. The flowers, which open from the 
fifteenth to the twentieth of April, vary from one half to two thirds of an inch in diameter, and are 
produced in villose few-flowered slender-branched compound narrow corymbs, with linear glandular 
caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, glabrous or slightly villose below, 
and the lobes are linear-lanceolate, usually entire or obscurely glandular-serrate, glabrous on the outer 
surface, puberulous on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty 
stamens with small rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles. The fruit ripens late in October or 
early in November, and is borne on stout glabrous or slightly villose pedicels usually about one half 
of an inch in length, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is short-oblong, full and rounded at the ends, 
slightly pruinose, dull green tinged with red, from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, and 
surmounted by the now prominent calyx-tube with a broad cavity and elongated spreading lobes which are 
puberulous on the inner surface and often deciduous before the ripening of the fruit ; the flesh is very 
thin green, dry, and hard. The two or three nutlets are thick, prominently ridged on the back, with 
broad low rounded ridges, light brown, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Cratcegus edita, which is one of the tallest and most beautiful of the Thorn-trees of the southern 
states inhabits low wet woods and the borders of streams, where it grows to its largest size, and the 
Oak and Pine forests which cover dry hills, and is distributed from the valley of the Sabine River in 
Texas to western Louisiana. 1 It was first distinguished in April, 1901, by W. M. Canby, B. F. Bush, 
and C. S. Sargent, near Marshall, Texas. 

1 Near Shreveport, Louisiana, Canby, Bush, and Sargent, April collected by me at Opelousas, Louisiana, March 29, 1900, is proba- 
21, 1901. A specimen of Cratsegus, with very young buds only, bly of this species. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLVI. Crataegus edita. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North "America 



Tab.DCXLVI 







C.EFcucon,del. 



Zartaztd, so. 



CRATAEGUS EDITA,Sar6. 



A.BiocreiuC' direa> 1 . 



Imp. J.TaneurJ'aris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 59 



CRATAEGUS MOHRI. 

Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers light yellow. Leaves usually obovate, acute, dark green, 
and lustrous. 

Crataegus Mohri, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxviii. 416 (1899). — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 548 (Plant Life of 

Alabama). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 98. 

A tree, from twenty to thirty feet in height, with a tall straight stem six or eight inches in 
diameter covered with thin ashy gray or light red-brown bark and sometimes armed with long simple 
or branched spines, and spreading, slightly pendulous branches forming a broad rather open sym- 
metrical head. The branchlets are slender, straight or slightly zigzag, marked by occasional dark 
oblong lenticels and armed with thin nearly straight bright chestnut-brown shining spines from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are dark green and glabrous 
or slightly villose, 1 and during their first season they are bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, and dark 
brown or gray in their second year. The leaves are obovate or rhomboidal, acute or acuminate 
at the apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the entire base, and coarsely and occasionally doubly 
serrate above, with straight or usually incurved eglandular teeth ; when they unfold they are glabrous 
and slightly villose along the midribs and the lower side of the principal veins, and at maturity 
they are thin and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and very lustrous above, pale below, from an 
inch to an inch and a half long and from two thirds of an inch to an inch wide, with usually four 
pairs of thin primary veins and stout midribs which in the autumn are bright red and sometimes 
puberulous on the under side ; they are borne on short stout grooved petioles more or less winged 
toward the apex and frequently red at maturity. The stipules are linear, finely glandular-serrate, 
and often half an inch long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are sometimes three inches long 
and two inches wide, and mostly broadly oval and rounded at the apex, or ovate and acute ; more 
coarsely and more generally doubly serrate than the leaves of lateral branchlets, they are frequently 
divided toward the apex into short broad acute lobes, and their petioles are broadly winged and 
occasionally glandular, with minute dark glands. The flowers, which open in the beginning of May 
when the leaves are nearly fully grown and are cup-shaped and about three quarters of an inch in 
diameter, are produced on slender elongated pedicels, in loose thin-branched many-flowered compound 
glabrous or villose lax corymbs, with linear-acute caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is 
narrowly obconic, glabrous or occasionally pilose below, and the lobes are linear-lanceolate, entire or 
finely glandular-serrate, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with small 
light yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale 
hairs. The fruit ripens about the middle of October and hangs gracefully on the elongated thin 
bright red pedicels, in many-fruited drooping clusters; it is subglobose or short-oblong, somewhat 
flattened at the apex, full and rounded at the base, bright orange-red, 2 and about a third of an inch 

1 At Birmingham, where this species is very abundant on the low These hairs seem to disappear early in the season, but on a speci- 

wet flats west of the city and on the dry hills which surround it, it men which I collected on the limestone hills of West Nashville, 

is quite glabrous with the exception of a few caducous hairs on the Tennessee, on October 12, 1899, the under side of the midribs was 

upper side of the midribs of very young leaves. The specimens, still puberulous. 

however, collected at Rome, Georgia, and distributed from the - Mr. Beadle describes the fruit of Crataegus Mohri as " dark 

Biltmore Herbarium are more or less villose while young along red or greenish red, or frequently covered with black spots and 
the midribs and veins, and the corymbs are pubescent or villose. 



60 SILT A OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a short tube, a deep broad cavity, and usually erect lobes 
which often fall before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The nutlets, which 
are generally three in number, are prominently ridged and grooved on the back and about a quarter of 
an inch long. 

Crataegus Mohri is distributed from western Georgia to central Alabama and Mississippi, 1 and 
northward to middle Tennessee. Attaining its largest size in the low flat woods of central Alabama 
where it is often very abundant, it also ascends into the poorer and drier soil of hillsides and low 
mountain slopes. This handsome tree will help to keep green the name of Charles Mohr, the student 
of the flora of Alabama. 

blotches," but at Birmingham, Alabama, where I first saw this tree Mohri was Dr. A. W. Chapman, as there is in his herbarium pre- 

on October 5, 1898, the fruit is bright orange-red. served at Biltmore a specimen of this species labeled Cratcegus Crus- 

1 A specimen of Cratcegus Mohri was collected at Columbus, galli collected at Rome, Georgia, without date or name of collector 

Mississippi, by Dr. Charles Mohr in November, 1893. He had but no doubt gathered by Chapman himself previous to 1890 dur- 

previously collected it in the Lookout Mountain region of north- ing one of his visits to Rome, 
eastern Alabama, but probably the earliest collector of Cratcegus 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLVIL Crataegus Mohri. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A flower before the expansion of the petals, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a flower with the petals removed, natural size. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 



.Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCXLVII. 





f. 







C.EFaccon, del/. 



CRATAEGUS MQHRI,Sar6. 



Himely j*>. 



AJtiocreuaydireay. 



Imp . J. Tasieur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 61 



ORAT^3GUS PRUINOSA. 

Scarlet Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers bright rose color. Leaves elliptical to ovate, acute, subcori- 
aceous, dark blue-green. 

Crataegus pruinosa, K. Koch, Verhandl. Preuss. Gart. ? Crataegus chlorocarpa, K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 

Verein. 246 (Cratcegus und Mespilus) (1854). — Koehne, 1855, 17. 

Deutsche Dendr. 232. — Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. Cra- Mespilus viridis, K.Koch, Dendr.l 148 (not Sweet) (1869). 

tcegi, 40, f. G. Crataegus viridis, Lauche, Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 573 (not 
Mespilus pruinosa, Wendland, Flora, 1823, pt. ii. 701. Linnseus) (1883). 

Phaenopyrum pruinosum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. Crataegus coccinea pruinosa, Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 

154 (1847). iii. 436 (1893). 

A nearly glabrous tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a stem a few inches in diameter 
covered with thin bark separating into large loose pale gray scales, and spreading horizontal branches 
forming a broad open irregular head ; or often shrubby with several intricately branched stems. 
The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, marked by oblong pale lenticels, and armed with numerous 
stout nearly straight light chestnut-brown spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when 
they first appear the branchlets are dark green more or less tinged with red, and gradually growing 
darker they are bright red and lustrous during their first winter, pale gray-brown in their second year, 
and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are elliptical, acute, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate 
at the entire base, irregularly and often doubly serrate above, with glandular straight or incurved 
teeth, and divided into three or four pairs of short acute or acuminate lateral lobes ; when they unfold 
they are bright red and glabrous with the exception of a few short caducous hairs on the upper side of 
the base of the midribs ; and nearly fully grown when the flowers open from the middle to the end of 
May, they are then membranaceous and bluish green ; in the autumn the leaves are subcoriaceous, 
dark blue-green and often glaucous on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from an inch to an 
inch and a half long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch wide, with midribs only slightly 
impressed on the upper side and three or four pairs of thin primary veins running to the points of 
the lobes ; they are borne on very slender glandular petioles slightly winged at the apex by the decurrent 
bases of the leaf-blades and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length, and in early spring 
and in the autumn often bright red. The stipules are linear, straight or falcate, deeply divided into 
slender teeth tipped with large dark glands, and often nearly half an inch long. On leading shoots 
the leaves are broadly ovate, often rounded at the base, more coarsely dentate and more deeply lobed 
than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and frequently two inches and a half long and wide, with stouter 
and more broadly winged petioles. Late in the autumn the leaves turn dull orange-red. The flowers 
are produced on long pedicels, in few-flowered thin-branched compound corymbs, with linear showy red 
glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and the lobes are gradually narrowed 
from wide bases, long-pointed, and finely glandular-serrate only below the middle. There are twenty 
stamens 1 with large light rose-colored anthers, and five styles surrounded at the base by a thick ring of 
hoary tomentum. The fruit, which is borne in few-fruited drooping clusters on long thin light green 
but ultimately bright red pedicels, is five-angled, apple-green, and covered with a glaucous bloom until 

1 Lange (Rev. Spec. Gen. Cratcegi) describes the number of Copenhagen, sent to the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum by 
stamens as ten to fifteen, but fruiting specimens from the Arbore- Lange's son, have twenty stamens, 
turn at Charlottesburg, connected with the Agricultural College at 



62 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

it is nearly fully ripe ; and at maturity late in October it is subglobose but rather broader than it is 
long, barely angled, with a deep depression at the insertion of the stalk, from one half to five eighths 
of an inch in diameter, dark purple-red marked by numerous small pale dots, and very lustrous after 
the bloom has worn off ; the calyx is prominent, with a long well-developed tube, a broad deep cavity 
and enlarged usually erect lobes which often disappear before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, light 
yellow, sweet, dry, and mealy. The five nutlets are light-colored, deeply grooved on the back, and a 
quarter of an inch long. 1 

Cratcegus pruinosa grows on the slopes of low hills often in limestone soil, and is distributed from 
southwestern Vermont southward to the foothill region of the southern Appalachian Mountains 
where it sometimes ascends to elevations of twenty-five hundred feet above the sea-level, and westward 
to central Illinois and central Missouri. First described nearly eighty years ago from plants cultivated 
in Europe, this beautiful and distinct species, which is now known to be one of the commonest and 
most widely distributed Thorn-trees of the eastern states, has until recently been confounded with 
Cratcegus coccinea by American botanists. 

1 The plate of this species is made from specimens of a tree Arboretum, where it was raised from seeds given to me by Dr 
which has been growing for more than twenty years in the Arnold Asa Gray without indication of their origin. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLVIII. Crataegus pruinosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 



_SiTva of \N orth Am eric a . 



Tab.DCXLVlII. 







'GKFcuoo7i> de&> 



Lartaud/ <rc>. 



CRATAEGUS PRUINOSA, C.Kock. 

AJUocreuco direa> t &¥■ J.Teuieur, faris. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 63 



CRATAEGUS GEORGIANA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, membrana- 
ceous, dark blue-green. 

Crataegus Georgiana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 113 (1902). 

A nearly glabrous tree, sometimes twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a tall trunk ten or twelve 
inches in diameter covered with dark red-brown scaly bark, and stout wide-spreading branches forming a 
broad symmetrical round-topped head. The branchlets are slender, straight or somewhat zigzag, marked 
by occasional small pale lenticels, and armed with straight or slightly curved thin bright chestnut- 
brown lustrous spines rarely more than an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are 
dark green tinged with red, becoming dull reddish brown during their first season and gray or fight 
reddish brown during their second year. The leaves are ovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, full 
and rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, finely and often doubly serrate, with straight or incurved 
gland-tipped teeth, and divided into numerous short acute lateral lobes ; glabrous with the exception 
of a few pale caducous hairs on the upper surface and bronze-yellow when they unfold, they are 
nearly half grown when the flowers open about the twentieth of April, and are then thin, dark yellow- 
green above and pale below, and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, dark blue-green on the 
upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from an inch and a half to two inches long and from an inch to 
an inch and a quarter wide, with slender yellow midribs and three or four pairs of thin primary veins 
only slightly impressed above ; they are borne on slender grooved petioles often short-winged at the 
apex by the abruptly decurrent bases of the leaf-blades and usually about three quarters of an inch in 
length. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, finely glandular-serrate, more or less deeply tinged with red, 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and caducous. On leading shoots the leaves are 
often three inches long and two inches wide, or are sometimes deltoid, and usually much more deeply 
lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and 
are produced on slender pedicels, in usually five to seven-flowered compact thin-branched compound 
corymbs, with linear glandular bracts and bractlets which turn bright red in fading. The calyx-tube is 
broadly obconic and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, and entire or 
obscurely and irregularly serrate. There are twenty stamens with small light rose-colored anthers, and 
five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens and falls 
early in October, is borne on slender pedicels, in drooping few-fruited clusters ; it is oblong, full and 
rounded at the ends, often obscurely five-angled, dull russet-green, and from three eighths to one half 
of an inch in length, with very thin light green dry hard flesh and only slightly enlarged calyx-lobes 
which mostly disappear before the fruit falls, leaving a well-defined ring at the summit of the short 
calyx-tube. The five nutlets are thin, rounded and irregularly grooved on the back, and about a 
quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Georgiana inhabits low rich river-bottoms and meadows in the neighborhood of Rome, 

Georgia. 1 

i In company with Mr. William M. Canby I first noticed a large following year I gathered the flowers and fruit from this tree from 
specimen of this tree growing near the road leading from Rome which the plate of this species has been made. 
to the cliffs of the Coosa River on the 6th of May, 1899, and the 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXLIX. Crataegus Georgiana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXLIX 



v / y* 



i/W, ^^1/t^m^.^f 








C.JH.Fcuson, del . 



CRATAEGUS GEORGIANA,Sar£. 

A.Riocrew dre* £ . Im P JTatw. Paris. 



ZoverulaZ jo. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 65 



CRAT^GUS BOYNTONI. 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves ovate or oval, subcoriaceous, yellow- 
green. 

Crataegus Boyntoni, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxviii. 409 Crataegus rotundifolia, Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 243 
(1899). — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 547 (Plant (in part) (not Moench) (1897). — Beadle, Bot. Gazette, 

Life of Alabama). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 98. xxv. 446. 

A nearly glabrous tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk six or eight 
inches in diameter and sometimes armed with long gray branched spines, and stout ascending branches 
forming a narrow open irregular or occasionally round-topped head ; or more often a shrub with 
numerous stems. The bark of the trunk is thick, slightly fissured, and broken into small plate-like 
scales which are gray often tinged with brown, or dark brown when the tree has grown in the shade of 
the forest. The branchlets are slender, straight or sometimes slightly zigzag, glabrous, marked by 
oblong dark lenticels, and armed with numerous thin nearly straight light chestnut-brown spines from 
an inch and a half to two inches in length; when they first appear they are light orange-brown, 
soon becoming dark red-brown and lustrous, and in their second season, losing their lustre, they are 
dark gray-brown, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are broadly ovate or oval, acute at the apex, 
full and rounded or cuneate at the entire glandular base, sharply and often doubly serrate above, with 
glandular teeth, and frequently divided into two or three pairs of short broad acute lateral lobes ; as 
they unfold they are slightly glandular, viscid, and deep bronze-red in color, and when the flowers open 
early in May they are nearly fully grown and are membranaceous and glabrous or occasionally slightly 
pilose, becoming at maturity thick and firm in texture, glabrous, yellow-green on the upper surface, 
pale on the lower surface, from one to two inches and a half long and from one to two inches wide, 
with thin pale yellow midribs and from four to seven pairs of slender veins ; 1 they are borne on stout 
petioles which are glandular, with bright red glands, slightly winged above by the decurrent bases 
of the leaf-blades, and usually about half an inch long. The stipules are linear, finely glandular-serrate, 
and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often as broad as they are long, truncate 
or cordate at the base, and more coarsely dentate and more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral 
branchlets; and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, and coarsely glandular-dentate. The flowers, 
which are about three quarters of an inch in diameter and bad-smelling, are produced on short slender 
pedicels in compact four to ten-flowered compound corymbs, with large obovate-oblong bracts and 
bractlets rounded or acute at the apex and deeply divided into slender teeth tipped with large bright 
red glands. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and the lobes are abruptly narrowed from broad bases, 
acute or rounded at the apex, and entire or obscurely and irregularly glandular-serrate above the 
middle. There are ten stamens with slender filaments and large pale yellow anthers, and from three to 
five styles surrounded at the base by a broad thick ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit ripens and 
falls early in October, and is produced in few-fruited erect clusters on short stout pedicels; it is 
depressed-globose, more or less angled, yellow-green flushed with russet-red, marked by small dark 
dots, and usually about half an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a broad deep cavity 
and large spreading lobes which often disappear before the fruit ripens. The nutlets vary from three 

1 The leaves of seedling plants are pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along the midribs and veins, and puberulous on the 
upper surface. 



66 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



to five in number and are prominently ridged on the back, with high rounded ridges, and about a quarter 

of an inch long. 

Crataegus Boyntoni inhabits the banks of streams, the borders of old fields and upland woods in 
the southern Appalachian foothill region from southern Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama, 
southeastern Kentucky and eastern Tennessee, sometimes ascending to elevations of 3000 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

First distinguished by Mr. C. D. Beadle a in the neighborhood of Asheville, North Carolina, where 
this tree is abundant, it was named by him for Mr. F. E. Boynton. 2 



1 Chauncey Delos Beadle (August 5, 1866) was born in the city 
of St. Catharines, Ontario, of New England parentage. His father, 
Delos White Beadle, a son of Dr. Chauncey Beadle, was a lawyer 
in the city of New York, and later a nurseryman at St. Catharines. 
His mother, Harriet Converse Steele, was the eldest daughter of 
Hon. Jason Steele of Windsor, Vermont. C. D. Beadle was edu- 
cated in the public and private schools of St. Catharines, the Agri- 
cultural College of Guelph, Ontario, and at Cornell University. 
Being obliged in order to support himself to leave Cornell, after a 
residence of two years at the university, Mr. Beadle found occupa- 
tion in nurseries in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, devoting 
his spare time to the study of botany and the formation of an 
herbarium, and in 1890 having been called to Biltmore, North 
Carolina, he was placed in charge of the planting operations on the 
estate of Mr. George W. Vanderbilt. At Biltmore he has estab- 
lished for Mr. Vanderbilt an important herbarium and botanical 
library and large nurseries, and now, in addition to his duties as 
head of the botanical and nursery departments of the estate, he is 
superintendent of the home grounds and gardens. During his 
residence at Biltmore Mr. Beadle has made the most of excellent 
opportunities for exploring the flora of the southern states ; he has 
rediscovered either himself or with the aid of his collectors many 



plants which had not before been seen for many years, and has 
found a number of entirely undescribed species particularly in the 
genus Crataegus, to which he has devoted special attention for the 
past three years. Mr. Beadle has published the results of these 
studies in The Botanical Gazette and in the Biltmore Botanical Studies, 
a Journal of Botany, the first number of which appeared in 1901. 
Through his efforts many rare southern plants are now common in 
gardens, and the Biltmore nurseries under his direction are becom- 
ing a potent factor in American horticulture. 

2 Frank Ellis Boynton (July 19, 1859) was born in Hyde Park, 
Vermont. When he was five years old his family moved to Vine- 
land, New Jersey, where he was educated in the public schools and 
then learned the carpenter's trade, at which he worked in New 
England until 1881, when he moved to Highlands, North Carolina, 
in search of a milder climate. Mr. Boynton's early taste for botany 
now had good opportunity for development, and he began to gather 
specimens for exchange and plants and seeds for sale, soon becom- 
ing a recognized authority on the flora of the southern Appalachian 
region. In 1893 he left Highlands to assume a position in the 
Biltmore Herbarium, where he has been active and remarkably 
successful in increasing the knowledge of the southern Appalachian 
plants, and where he is still employed. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCL. Crataegus Boyntoni. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet divided transversely, much enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCL. 




C^E-Fcucon, del. 



ZiortazuZ- sck. 



CRATAEGUS BOYNTONI, Bead. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 67 



CRATAEGUS VENUSTA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 15 to 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oval to ovate, acute, coriaceous, 
dark dull green. 

Crataegus venusta, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxx. 338 (1900). 

A bushy nearly glabrous tree, often twenty-five feet in height, with a short trunk a foot in 
diameter and horribly armed, like the large branches, with stout much-branched spines frequently six 
inches in length. The bark of the trunk is thick and broken into small closely appressed dark red- 
brown scales which near the base of old trees are frequently nearly black. The branches are thick, 
dark brown, ascending, and form a wide irregular rather compact head. The branchlets are stout, 
somewhat zigzag, and armed with numerous straight or slightly curved dark chestnut-brown shining 
spines which frequently point toward the base of the branch and are from an inch and a half to two 
inches and a half in length ; when they first appear they are dark green more or less tinged with 
red, light reddish brown or orange-brown during their first season, and often very lustrous during 
their second summer they become dark dull gray during their third year. The leaves vary in shape 
from oval to ovate or occasionally to oblong-obovate, and are acute at the apex, gradually or abruptly 
narrowed and cuneate or rounded at the entire base, finely serrate above, with usually incurved 
glandular teeth, and frequently slightly and irregularly divided above the middle into from one to three 
pairs of short broad acute lobes ; when they first unfold they are of a dark bronze color, with a few 
scattered pale caducous hairs on the upper surface, and when the flowers open about the twentieth of 
April they are yellow-green, smooth, and glabrous ; at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, dark 
dull green above, pale below, and about two inches and a half long and an inch and a half wide, with 
stout midribs deeply impressed above and from four to seven pairs of thin primary veins ; they are borne 
on stout glandular grooved petioles more or less winged above, from one half to three quarters of an inch 
in length, and in the autumn often bright red below the middle. The stipules are linear to linear- 
lanceolate, coarsely glandular-serrate, about half an inch long, and caducous. On vigorous leading 
shoots the leaves are generally broadly ovate, full and rounded at the base, deeply lobed with broad 
lobes, and often three and a half inches long and three inches wide. Late in the autumn before falling 
the leaves, especially those on leading shoots, turn deep orange or scarlet. The flowers, which are an 
inch in diameter and bad-smelling, are produced in from four to nine-flowered compact compound 
corymbs, with linear or linear-obovate bracts and bractlets which, like the inner bud-scales, are very 
coarsely glandular-serrate and turn bright red in fading. The calyx-cup is broadly obconic, and the 
lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, and coarsely glandular-serrate often only below 
the middle. There are from fifteen to twenty but usually fifteen or seventeen stamens with slender 
elongated filaments and small pale yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base 
by a ring of pale hairs. The fruit ripens and falls from the first to the middle of October and is 
borne on stout pedicels often nearly an inch long, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is oblong, full 
and rounded at the ends, dull red often with a bright russet face, and marked by occasional large dark 
dots • the calyx is prominent, with a long tube and a broad deep cavity, and the lobes, which are not 
greatly enlarged, are spreading and often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, yellow, 
dry, and mealy. The nutlets vary from three to five in number, and are thick, full and rounded on 
the back, and about a quarter of an inch long. 



68 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



kosace^;. 



Crataegus venusta grows in open Oak and Hickory woods on the dry slopes of a low hill known as 
Red Mountain in the southern part of the city of Birmingham, Alabama, where it was first collected in 
September, 1899, by Mr. C. L. Boynton of the Biltmore Herbarium, and by me in October of the same 
year and in the following April. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLI. Crataegus venusta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit divided transversely, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A leaf of a vigorous leading shoot, natural size. 



..Silva of "North America 



Tab.DCLI. 



•vs* 




CHJ'axoTudel. 



Hap-me? s^> . 



CRATy^GUS VENUSTA.Bead. 

A.HiocreuJs- dire&>. Irnp. J.Tariseur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 69 



CRATAEGUS SARGENTI. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers dark purple. Leaves ovate-oblong to elliptical, subcoriaceous, 
lustrous, yellow-green. 

Crataegus Sargenti, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxviii. 407 (1899). — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 547 (Plant Life of 

Alabama). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 98. 

An intricately branched nearly glabrous tree, rarely more than twenty feet in height, with a tall 
trunk six or seven inches in diameter, and stout ascending branches forming a narrow or sometimes a 
round or flat-topped head ; or often a large shrub with few or many stems. The bark of the trunk is 
thin, gray, or light brown, slightly fissured and broken into numerous thin plate-like scales or nearly 
smooth and covered with minute closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender, straight or 
occasionally somewhat zigzag, often short and frequently forked, marked by numerous small pale 
lenticels, and armed with thin straight or slightly curved dark chestnut-brown shining spines from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length ; glabrous and pale yellow-green when they first 
appear, they become bright red-brown and lustrous during their first summer, and dull gray-brown in 
their second season. The leaves vary from oblong-ovate to elliptical or rarely to ovate, and are acute 
or acuminate at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate or rounded at the nearly entire 
base, irregularly doubly serrate above, with glandular straight or incurved teeth, and usually irregularly 
divided into three or four pairs of short broad acute or acuminate lobes ; nearly fully grown when the 
flowers open late in April, they are then subcoriaceous, pale yellow-green, and villose along the midribs, 
with scattered pale caducous hairs, and at maturity they are lustrous, dark yellow-green on the upper 
surface, pale on the lower surface, from two to three inches long and from an inch and a half to two 
inches broad, with thin midribs only slightly impressed above and from five to seven pairs of thin light 
yellow veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender grooved glandular petioles 
more or less broadly winged toward the apex by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, and from one 
half to three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are linear or linear-lanceolate, glandular, and 
caducous, and on vigorous leading shoots they are often foliaceous, lunate, and coarsely glandular- 
dentate. Late in the autumn the leaves assume before falling bright yellow and red tints. The 
flowers, which are nearly an inch in diameter, are raised on long thin slightly villose pedicels, in from 
two to five-flowered but usually in three-flowered simple corymbs, with lanceolate coarsely glandular 
caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous or slightly villose, 
and the lobes are foliaceous, acute, coarsely glandular-serrate above the middle, and reflexed after the 
flowers open. There are twenty stamens with long slender filaments and large purple anthers, and 
from three to five but usually four styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale hairs. The 
fruit ripens and falls after the middle of September, often only a single fruit maturing from a flower- 
cluster ; it is subglobose or short-oblong, full and rounded at the ends, yellow or orange-yellow, 
generally more or less flushed with red, marked by occasional large dark dots, and from one third 
to one half of an inch in length ; the calyx is prominent, with an elongated tube and closely appressed 
lobes • and the flesh is yellow, thin, and firm. The nutlets, although usually four in number, vary 
from three to five, and are grooved and prominently ridged on the back, and about a quarter of an 

inch long. 

Crataegus Sargenti inhabits rocky woods and bluffs in the foothill region of northwestern 



70 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Georgia, southeastern Tennessee, and northeastern Alabama. It is very abundant in Alabama, at Valley 
Head, which is the most northern station where this species has been observed, and on the low ridges 
known as Sand Mountain southward to the neighborhood of Birmingham, which is its most southern 
known station. It was probably first collected by William M. Canby and C. S. Sargent on May 6, 1899 
on the high rocky cliffs of the Coosa River a few miles below the city of Rome, Georgia. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLII. Crat^gus Sargenti. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a leading shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLII. 




C.E.Fcucon, d&l. 



ZartaucL j-t>. 



CRATAEGUS SARGENTI.Bead. 



A.Rio creuay direa> . 



Imp. J.Thrieur, Parir . 



Rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 71 



CRAT-ffiGUS SUBORBICULATA. 

Red Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves suborbicular to oval or rarely oblong, 
short-pointed, thin, dark dull green. 

Crataegus suborbiculata, Sargent, Rhodora, iii. 72 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, rarely more than fifteen or sixteen feet in height, with a well-developed 
stem five or six inches in diameter covered with pale gray scaly bark, and stout spreading branches 
forming a broad low flat-topped head. The branchlets are stout, slightly zigzag, marked by oblong 
pale lenticels, and armed with thick straight or slightly curved bright chestnut-brown shining spines 
from one to two inches in length ; when they first appear they are dark orange or red-brown, soon 
becoming bright orange-brown and very lustrous, lighter colored during their second year, and 
ultimately dull ashy gray. The leaves vary from nearly orbicular to oval or rarely to oblong, and are 
short-pointed at the apex, full and rounded or broadly cuneate at the entire base, sharply and doubly 
serrate above, with slender straight or incurved glandular teeth, and often divided above the middle 
into three or four pairs of short acute lobes ; when they unfold they are pale yellow-green and some- 
what villose on the upper surface toward the base and below in the axils of the principal veins, with 
a few short caducous hairs, and in the autumn they are thin but firm in texture, dull dark green 
above, paler below, and usually about an inch and a half long and broad, with slender midribs 
and four or five pairs of thin primary veins deeply impressed above; they are borne on slender 
grooved slightly glandular petioles more or less winged above by the decurrent leaf -blades and from 
five eighths of an inch to an inch in length. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, coarsely glandular- 
serrate, and from one third to one half of an inch long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves 
are nearly orbicular or short-oval, more coarsely serrate and more deeply lobed than the leaves of 
lateral branchlets, and frequently three inches long and broad, and their petioles are often broadly 
winged and conspicuously glandular. The flowers open during the first week in June, when the 
leaves are about a third grown, and are three quarters of an inch in diameter ; they are produced on 
short stout pedicels, in compact six to twelve-flowered glabrous compound corymbs, with linear finely 
glandular serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, and the lobes are gradually 
narrowed from broad bases, elongated, acuminate, entire or occasionally obscurely denticulate, and 
reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with slender filaments and small rose- 
colored anthers turning dark purple in fading, and five styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring 
of hoary tomentum. The fruit is borne on short rigid pedicels, in few-fruited erect clusters, and falls 
in October without becoming mellow ; it is subglobose but often rather longer than broad, about five 
eighths of an inch in diameter, and dull red more or less blotched with green, or often wholly green on 
one face ; the calyx is enlarged and prominent, with a broad deep cavity and nearly entire wide-spreading 
often closely appressed lobes ; the flesh is yellow, thin, dry, and hard ; the five nutlets are broad and 
thick, obscurely and unequally grooved on the back, and about a quarter of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus suborbiculata grows opposite Lachine on low limestone ridges near the south bank of 
the St. Lawrence River in the Province of Quebec, where it was discovered at Caughnawaga in August, 
1899, by Mr. J. G. Jack. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLIII. Crataegus sttborbiculata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tat. DCLII1 







§ \ 



C.JE.FeuDort' del*. 



ZartatuZ- , 



CRATAEGUS SUBORBICULATA.Sarfi 

o 



A. I&oareuaz c&reas? 



Imp. J '. Taneur, Paris . 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 73 



CRAT^GUS COLLINA. 

Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves obovate to oval, acute, subcoriaceous, 
dull yellow-green. 

Crataegus collina, Chapman, Fl. S. States, ed. 2, Suppl. 2, Life of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 520. — Gattinger, 

684 (1892) ; ed. 3, 140. — Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxv. Fl. Tennessee, 100. 

357. — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 548 {Plant Crataegus collicola, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 

xvi. pt. ii. 75 (1900). 

A tree, usually from fifteen to twenty but occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with a tall 
straight stem often buttressed at the base, and frequently armed with many large much-branched spines 
sometimes six or eight inches long, and stout nearly horizontal wide-spreading branches forming a 
handsome flat-topped symmetrical head. The bark of the trunk is thin and covered with small closely 
appressed dark red-brown scales which in falling disclose the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. The 
branchlets are slender, slightly zigzag, marked by small oblong pale lenticels, and furnished with 
numerous stout lustrous spines from two to three inches in length; when they first appear they are 
dark red or green tinged with red, and villose, with long matted silky white hairs ; these soon disappear 
and during the remainder of the season they are rather bright red-brown and puberulous, becoming 
lighter-colored during their second season, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves vary from obovate to 
oval or occasionally to rhomboidal, and are acute at the apex, gradually narrowed or broadly cuneate at 
the entire base, irregularly and often doubly serrate above, with glandular incurved or straight teeth ; 
when they unfold they are bright red and covered with soft pale hairs which are most abundant along 
the under side of the midribs and principal veins, and in the autumn they are subcoriaceous, yellow- 
green on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, and glabrous with the exception of a few hairs 
on the under side of the stout yellow midribs and four or five pairs of slender primary veins which are 
only slightly impressed on the upper side of the leaf ; they vary from an inch and a half to two inches 
in length, and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in width, and are borne on slender villose but 
soon glabrous petioles more or less winged toward the apex by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades 
and from one quarter to one half of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, villose, entire, rarely 
glandular, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are frequently divided into short 
broad acute lateral lobes, are much more coarsely dentate than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and are 
often three inches long and two inches and a half wide, with stout petioles broadly winged above and 
generally bright red like the lower side of the base of the midribs ; and their stipules are often lunate, 
stipitate, and a quarter of an inch long. The flowers, which appear at the end of April when the leaves 
are less than a third grown, and earlier than those of the other species of the region, are three quarters 
of an inch in diameter and are produced on long stout pedicels, in broad compound many-flowered 
villose corymbs, with lanceolate or linear finely glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets which 
turn bright red before falling. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and villose, particularly toward the 
base, and the lobes are gradually contracted from broad bases, acuminate, usually glabrous on the outer 
surface, villose on the inner surface, finely glandular-serrate, with dark glands, bright red toward the 
apex and reflexed after the flowers open. There are usually twenty stamens with slender filaments and 
laro-e pale yellow anthers, and five styles. The fruit, which ripens in September and has mostly fallen 
before the middle of October, is borne in few-fruited erect or drooping puberulous clusters, on stout 



74 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

elongated pedicels ; it is globose but sometimes rather broader than long, dull red marked by small pale 
dots, and from one third to one half of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is enlarged and prominent, 
with a broad shallow cavity and closely appressed glandular-serrate usually persistent lobes ; the flesh 
is yellow, dry, and mealy. The five nutlets are thick, rounded, ridged, and often grooved on the back, 
and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Although perhaps nowhere very abundant, Cratcegus cottina is a common inhabitant of the foothill 
region of the southern Appalachian Mountains, where it grows on hillsides in rich soil from south- 
western Virginia 1 to central Georgia, 2 and westward to middle Tennessee 3 and central Alabama, 4 
ascending in western North Carolina to elevations of twenty-five hundred feet above the sea. Long 
confounded with Cratcegus Crus-galli and Cratcegus punctata, which it resembles in habit, Cratcegus 
collina was first distinguished at Rome, Georgia, by Dr. A. W. Chapman. 6 

1 On June 23, 1892, Crataegus collina was collected in the north 8 In Tennessee Crataegus collina ranges at least as far west as 
fork of the Holston River valley, Smythe County, Virginia, by Nashville, where it is common on the limestone hills west of the 
N. L. and E. G. Britton and Anna Murray Vail. city. 

2 In central Georgia Crataegus collina is abundant in Grant Park 4 The most southern point in Alabama where I have seen this 
and on the banks of the Chattahoochee River at Atlanta, and ranges tree is in the neighborhood of Birmingham. 

eastward at least as far as Augu9ta. The most southern point at 6 See vii. 110. 

which I have seen this tree is at Columbus on the Chattahoochee. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLIV. Crataegus collina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet divided transversely, enlarged. 

6. A spine from the trunk of an old tree, natural size. 



Silva of North Americ? 



Tab. DCLIV 







C.JZ.Fcucotv del*. 



CRATAEGUS COLLINA, Chapm. 

ABivcrewz, dir&cP J^p JTaneur Paris. 



■HirrLeZz/ so-- 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 75 



CRAT^GUS SORDIDA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves rhombic to obovate, subcoriaceous, dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface. 

Crataegus sordida, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 114 (1902). 

A slender tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall stem five or six inches in 
diameter covered with dark furrowed and scaly bark, and often armed with long branched spines, 
and small ascending branches forming a narrow oval head. The branchlets are very slender, nearly 
straight or slightly zigzag, marked by large oblong pale lenticels, and armed with numerous thin nearly 
straight bright chestnut-brown shining spines from one inch to two inches and a half in length, or 
often unarmed ; when they first appear they are dark orange-green and villose, with long scattered pale 
hairs which sometimes do not entirely disappear until autumn, and in their second season they are 
bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, becoming dull reddish-brown the following year. The leaves are 
rhombic, acute, or occasionally obovate and very rarely rounded at the apex, cuneate and entire below, 
serrate above, with narrow straight or incurved glandular teeth, and rarely irregularly divided above 
the middle into short acute lobes ; about half grown when the flowers open during the first week of 
May, they are then membranaceous, bright, lustrous, and glabrous with the exception of a few 
short caducous hairs on the upper surface, particularly along the midribs and principal veins ; and at 
maturity they are subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower 
surface, and generally about an inch and a half long and an inch and a quarter wide ; they are borne 
on stout grooved petioles slightly winged toward the apex by the decurrent leaf-blades, at first villose 
but soon glabrous, about half an inch long, and in the autumn often bright red. The stipules are linear, 
acuminate, glandular, with minute bright red glands, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the 
leaves are sometimes oblong-obovate or oval, coarsely dentate, usually divided above the middle into 
short broad acute lobes, from three to four inches long, from two inches to two inches and a half wide, 
and decurrent on the stout glandular petioles. The flowers, which vary from an inch to an inch and a 
quarter in diameter and are very fragrant, are produced on slender pedicels, in few-flowered compact 
compound slightly villose corymbs, with linear glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, villose on the inner surface, and 
reflexed after the flowers open. The petals are dull sordid white, and there are twenty stamens with 
slender elongated filaments and small rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles surrounded at the 
base by a narrow ring of pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens about the middle of September and soon 
falls, is borne on short pedicels, in few-fruited drooping clusters; it is globose, from one third to one 
half of an inch in diameter, and dark dull red ; the calyx is prominent, with a broad shallow cavity, 
and elongated coarsely serrate appressed or incurved lobes ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. 
The two or three nutlets are broad, rounded and ridged on the back, with low wide ridges, and a 
quarter of an inch long. 

Cratcegus sordida inhabits low woods and the gravelly banks of streams in Ripley County, 
southeastern Missouri, where it was discovered at Pleasant Grove in August, 1899, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLV. Crataegus sordida. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of Worth America. 



Tab DCLV. 








C.RFeucon, del. 



Zartazul 



CRATAEGUS SORDIDA.Saro. 



AJ&ocreuz> dzreoc-t 



Imp. J.Taneicr,FarTs. 



Rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 77 



CRATAEGUS BRAZORIA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers dark red. Leaves oval to obovate, acute, thin, dark green, 
and lustrous. 

Crataegus Brazoria, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 233 (1901). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall straight stem eight or ten inches 
in diameter, and numerous ascending branches forming a handsome symmetrical round-topped head. 
The bark near the base of large stems is thick, deeply furrowed, and nearly black, and on smaller stems 
and large branches it is ashy gray, and covered with smooth closely appressed scales. The branchlets 
are slender, slightly zigzag, marked by small oblong pale lenticels, and unarmed or occasionally armed 
with long thin gray thorns ; covered with matted pale hairs when they first appear, the branchlets 
soon become glabrous, and during their first season they are light red-brown and lustrous, and ashy 
gray in their second year. The leaves vary from oval to obovate and are acute or acuminate at the 
apex, gradually narrowed, cuneate and entire at the base, and coarsely and irregularly glandular- 
serrate above, with straight spreading teeth ; they are coated with hoary tomentum and often bright 
red as they unfold, and are nearly fully grown when the flowers open from the middle to the end of 
March, when they are covered with short soft pale hairs which are most abundant on the under side of 
the thin midribs, and three or four pairs of primary veins ; and at maturity they are thin and firm in 
texture, glabrous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, from two 
inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half wide ; they 
are borne on slender slightly grooved petioles, more or less winged toward the apex, at first tomentose 
but ultimately glabrous or puberulous, and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. The 
stipules are foliaceous, somewhat falcate, acuminate, usually entire, villose, and about a quarter of an inch 
long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly ovate or oblong, full and rounded or broadly 
cuneate at the base, very coarsely dentate, and often five inches long and two inches and a half wide ; 
and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, short-pointed, sometimes coarsely glandular-serrate, long-stalked, 
and frequently half an inch in length. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, on 
slender elongated pedicels, in broad thin-branched slightly villose corymbs, with long linear-obovate 
acuminate glandular villose bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and coated with 
long matted pale hairs, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, obscurely glandular-serrate or nearly 
entire, villose on both surfaces, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with 
slender filaments and small dark red anthers, and five styles surrounded at the base by a thin ring 
of hoary tomentum. The fruit, which ripens after the first of October, and is borne in spreading or 
drooping few-fruited clusters, is subglobose or often rather longer than broad, bright canary-yellow, 
marked by occasional dark dots, and from one third to one half of an inch in length ; the calyx is 
prominent, with a broad deep cavity and lobes which usually disappear before the fruit ripens ; the 
flesh is thin, light yellow, rather dry, but sweet and edible. The five nutlets are rounded and grooved 
on the back, and nearly a quarter of an inch in length. 

Crataegus Brazoria inhabits low rich woods near the banks of the Brazos River in Brazoria, 
Texas, where I first saw it on March 25, 1900, and where subsequently it has been collected several 
times by Mr. B. F. Bush. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLVL Crataegus Brazoria. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLVI. 







CJS.Faasons del/. 



ZartcuuJ; j&. 



CRATjEGUS BRAZORIA, SarS. 

o 



AfUocreuco direa> ? 



Imp. J.Thriew.Paria: 



R0SACE ^- 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 79 



CRATAEGUS LETTERMANI. 
Haw. 
Stamens 10 ; anthers white. Leaves obovate to broadly oval. 

Crataegus Lettermani, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 220 (1901). 

A tree, eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter covered 
with thin dark brown or nearly black bark separating freely into small plate-like scales, and often armed 
with thin much-branched spines frequently seven or eight inches long, and rather small erect branches 
forming a wide open head. The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, marked by minute pale lenticels, 
and armed with stout straight bright red-brown shining spines from an inch and a half to two inches 
in length ; coated when they first appear with hoary tomentum, they are dull red-brown and villose or 
pubescent during their first season, and dark gray-brown the following year. The leaves are obovate, 
acute or acuminate or rounded and short-pointed at the apex, gradually narrowed from near the middle 
and cuneate at the mostly entire base, coarsely and often doubly serrate, with straight or incurved 
glandular teeth, and frequently slightly and irregularly divided above the middle into three or four 
pairs of short acute lobes ; when they unfold they are strongly plicate and covered with a thick coat of 
hoary tomentum, and when the flowers open in May they are nearly half grown, roughened above by 
short pale hairs and pubescent below, and in the autumn they are about two inches long and an inch 
and a half wide, thick and firm in texture, bright yellow-green and scabrous on the upper surface, 
and pale and pubescent on the lower surface along the stout midribs, four or five pairs of primary 
veins, conspicuously forked secondary veins, and reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout grooved 
petioles more or less winged above the middle by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, at first 
tomentose, ultimately pubescent or nearly glabrous, and usually about three quarters of an inch in 
length. The stipules are linear, glandular-serrate, tomentose, about a quarter of an inch long, and 
caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly oval, acute or acuminate, more coarsely 
serrate than the leaves of fertile branches, from two inches and a half to three inches long and from 
two to two and a half inches wide, with broad lunate coarsely glandular-serrate stipules frequently 
half an inch in length. The flowers are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced 
in compact many-flowered compound thick-branched tomentose corymbs, with linear glandular-serrate 
caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and tomentose, and the lobes are 
narrow, acuminate, finely glandular-serrate, villose, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are ten 
stamens with small anthers, and five styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring of hoary tomentum. 
The fruit, which ripens early in October and is borne on stout pubescent pedicels, in few-fruited 
spreading or drooping clusters, is subglobose or occasionally slightly obovate, full and rounded and 
puberulous at the ends, dull orange-red, marked by large pale dots, and about half an inch in 
diameter ; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes, which often fall before the fruit ripens, 
are enlarged, coarsely glandular-serrate, and reflexed ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The 
five nutlets are acute at the ends, very prominently ridged on the back, with high rounded ridges, 
dark brown, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Lettermani grows in low rich soil among Oaks and Hickories in situations where it is 
often inundated during several weeks in winter, near Allenton, Missouri, where it was discovered in 
1882 by Mr. George W. Letterman. 1 

1 George Washington Letterman (1884), the son of John and County, Pennsylvania, of a family which had lived for three gen- 
Charlotte (Blair) Letterman, was born near Bellefonte, Centre erations in Pennsylvania, his father being of Dutch and his mother 



80 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



ROSACEA. 



of Irish descent. From the public schools he entered the State 
College in Centre County, but left before graduation to join the 
Union army, in which he enlisted as a private. Serving until the 
end of the war he was mustered out of the service with the rank of 
captain of volunteers. After crossing the plains to New Mexico in 
1866, he returned to Pennsylvania, and then going west again to 
Kansas, with the idea of becoming a farmer in that state, he finally 
in 1869 settled in Allenton, Missouri, a railroad hamlet about 
thirty miles west of St. Louis. Here Mr. Letterman taught in 
the public school uninterruptedly for twenty years, and then for 
two years served as superintendent of schools in St. Louis County. 
Shortly after settling in Allenton, Mr. Letterman met August 
Fendler (see xii. 123) the botanist, who had a. farm at this time in 
the neighborhood. This meeting with Fendler stimulated his inter- 



est in plants, especially in trees, and led to an acquaintance with 
Dr. Engelmann, for whom Letterman made large collections of 
plants in the neighborhood of Allenton, with many notes on the 
Oaks and Hickories. In 1880 he was appointed a special agent 
of the Census Department of the United States to collect informa- 
tion about the trees and forests of Missouri, Arkansas, western 
Louisiana, and eastern Texas, and later he was employed as an 
agent of the American Museum of Natural History in New York 
to collect specimens of the trees of the same region for the Jesup 
Collection of North American Woods. The distribution of the 
trees of this region before Mr. Letterman's travels was little 
known, and much useful information concerning them was first 
gathered by bim. Of his numerous discoveries, species of Ver- 
nonia, Poa, and Stipa also commemorate the name of Letterman. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLVII. Crataegus Lettermahi. 



A flowering branch, natural size. 
Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 
A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 
A fruiting branch, natural size. 
Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat.DCLVII. 






C.£.Faax>n, del. 



CRATAEGUS LETTERMANNI,Sar6. 

o 



Rapine* j&. 



A.Riocreua? cUreec r 



Imp. JTaneiw, JParur. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 81 



CRATAEGUS PRATENSIS. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves oblong-obovate, subcoriaceous, dark green, 
and lustrous. 

Crataegus pratensis, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 6 (1901). 

A tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a tall stem from three to seven inches in diameter 
covered with dark brown scaly bark, and often armed with long slender much-branched ashy gray 
spines, and spreading branches forming a broad round-topped symmetrical head. The branchlets are 
slender, somewhat zigzag, marked by many small pale lenticels, and furnished with numerous thin 
straight or slightly curved shining chestnut-brown spines from two inches to two inches and a half in 
length ; light yellow-green and occasionally slightly villose when they first appear, they soon become 
glabrous, and are light chestnut-brown or orange-brown and lustrous during their first summer, and 
dark gray-brown during their second year. The leaves are oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at the 
apex, gradually narrowed below from near the middle and cuneate and entire at the base, sharply and 
often doubly serrate, usually only above the middle, with straight or incurved teeth tipped early in the 
season with minute dark red caducous glands, and often more or less deeply divided toward the apex 
into short broad acute lobes ; when they unfold they are bright bronze-yellow or dark red, and covered 
on both surfaces with short pale hairs ; these soon disappear, and when the flowers open at the end 
of May the leaves are almost smooth, nearly fully grown, and membranaceous ; in the autumn they 
are glabrous, thick and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale on the lower 
surface, from an inch and a half to two inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with 
thin midribs and four or five pairs of primary veins which, extending obliquely toward the apex of the 
leaf, are deeply impressed on the upper side and raised and prominent on the lower side ; they are borne 
on slender grooved glabrous petioles usually about half an inch long and more or less winged above. 
The stipules are linear, straight or falcate, and finely glandular-serrate. On vigorous leading shoots the 
leaves are often oval or broadly ovate, and frequently three inches long and two and a half inches 
wide, with foliaceous, lunate, stalked, coarsely glandular-dentate stipules often an inch in length. 
The flowers are one third of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender elongated pedicels, in 
broad loose thin-branched many-flowered compound corymbs which are pubescent or puberulous at 
first but soon become glabrous, and are furnished with small linear glandular-serrate caducous bracts 
and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, coated particularly toward the base with long matted 
pale hairs, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, glabrous on the outer 
surface, villose on the inner surface, and reflexed when the flowers open. There are ten stamens with 
slender elongated filaments and small rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles surrounded at the 
base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens early in October but does not fall 
until November, hangs on the elongated pedicels, in loose drooping many-fruited clusters ; it is globose, 
bright scarlet, slightly pruinose, marked by occasional large pale dots, and about a third of an inch 
in diameter ; the calyx-cavity is deep and narrow, and the lobes are much enlarged, coarsely glandular- 
serrate, and often deciduous before the fruit becomes entirely ripe ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and 
mealy. The two or three nutlets are thick and broad, rounded and conspicuously ridged on the back, 
with prominent grooved ridges, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Cratcegus pratensis grows in open woods near the banks of small streams in the prairie region of 



82 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

Stark and Peoria counties, Illinois. It was first distinguished in May, 1895, by Mr. Virginius H. 
Chase. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLVIII. Crat^gus pratensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit divided transversely, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLVIII. 






/'e &: ) 




6 



C.U.F'cucotv del/. 



Hoping' so?.- 



CRATAEGUS PRATENSIS,Sar6. 

o 



A.Hiocreua> direa>. 



Imp. J.Tanew, Paris. 



Rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 83 



CRATAEGUS MOLLIS. 
Red Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers light yellow. Leaves broadly ovate, thick and firm. 

Crataegus mollis, Scheele, Linncea, xxi. 569 (1848). — Crataegus subvillosa ? Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep.'w. 86 

Walpers, Ann. ii. 523. — Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 99 (1857). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. — 

(in part), t. 182, f. 4. — Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. ii. Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 78 

436. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 232 (in part). — Brit- (in part), 

ton, Man. 521 (in part). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 97. Crataegus tomentosa, var. mollis, Gray, Man. ed. 5, 160 

Crataegus coccinea c, ? mollis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. (in part) (1867). 
i. 465 (in part) (1838). — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 165 (in part). 

A tree, sometimes forty feet in height, with a tall trunk often eighteen inches in diameter, and 
stout wide-spreading smooth ashy gray branches forming a broad round-topped and often symmetrical 
head. The bark of the trunk is thin and broken into small closely appressed scales usually dark brown 
near the base of old trees and light gray on young stems. The branchlets are stout, slightly zigzag, 
marked by numerous small pale lenticels, and unarmed or armed with occasional straight thick bright 
chestnut-brown shining spines from one to two inches in length ; when they first appear they are 
covered with a thick coat of long white matted hairs, and during their first summer they are orange- 
brown or reddish brown and villose, becoming glabrous and lustrous in their second year, and ultimately 
dark gray-brown. The leaves are broadly ovate, acute, usually cordate or rounded at the broad base, 
coarsely and generally doubly serrate, with straight glandular teeth, and more or less deeply divided 
into four or five pairs of acute lateral lobes ; when they unfold the upper surface is covered with short 
pale hairs and the lower surface is thickly clothed with hoary tomentum ; and about half grown when 
the flowers open early in May, they are then membranaceous, light yellow-green, and still hairy above 
and pubescent or tomentose below ; in the autumn they are usually from three to four inches long and 
broad, thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green and slightly rugose on the upper surface, and 
paler and pubescent or puberulous on the lower surface along the stout midribs and four or five pairs 
of slender primary veins which extend to the points of the lobes ; they are borne on stout nearly 
terete petioles tomentose at first, ultimately pubescent or nearly glabrous, often slightly glandular, with 
small dark caducous glands, and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length. The stipules 
are lanceolate, acuminate, straight or falcate, coarsely serrate, and frequently half an inch in length. 
On vigorous shoots the leaves are more deeply lobed, with a deeper basal sinus than the leaves of 
fertile branchlets, and frequently five or six inches long and broad, with foliaceous lunate coarsely 
serrate stipules sometimes an inch in length. The flowers are an inch in diameter and are borne in 
broad thick-branched compound many-flowered tomentose corymbs, with conspicuous oblong-obovate 
acuminate glandular-serrate slightly villose bracts and bractlets which are at first pale green, and turn 
red or brown in fading. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and covered with hoary tomentum, and 
the lobes are narrow, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, with bright red glands, villose on the outer 
surface, tomentose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the petals fall. There are twenty stamens 
with large light yellow anthers, and four or usually five styles surrounded at the base by a broad 
ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit ripens late in August and in September, and is borne on stout 
pedicels, in drooping few-fruited villose clusters ; it is short-oblong or subglobose, full and rounded at 
the ends, more or less pubescent, scarlet, marked by occasional large pale dots, from three quarters 



84 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



of an inch to an inch in diameter, and surmounted by the prominent hairy calyx, with a broad deep 
cavity and enlarged erect and incurved lobes which mostly fall before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is 
thick, yellow, subacid, dry, and mealy. The four or usually five nutlets are thin, rounded and some- 
times obscurely ridged on the back, light brown, and a quarter of an inch long. 1 

Cratcegus mollis grows in low rich soil usually on the bottom-lands of streams, and is distributed 
from northern Ohio 2 to eastern Dakota 3 and Nebraska, 4 eastern Kansas, and central Tennessee. 5 

1 In the fourth volume of this work several Thorn-trees which tilicefolia, Lange (Rev. Gen. et Spec. Cratcegi, 31), is not distin- 

are now believed to be distinct species were united with the Cra- guishable from specimens of Crataegus mollis gathered in Illinois 
tcegus mollis of Scheele, originally described from specimens gath- 2 E. L. Moseley, Perkins, Essex County, 1895. 

ered in Illinois. Scheele's description leaves little doubt of the 8 D. H. Saunders, Bull. 64, South Dakota Agric. Colleqe 157 

identity of his species with the common large-fruited Thorn of (Ferns and Flowering Plants of South Dakota). 
Illinois and the neighboring states, which I now call Crataegus i Bessey, Rep. Neb. State Board Agric. 1899, 87 (The Forests 

mollis, although it does not include an account of the flowers. and Forest Trees of Nebraska). 

A flowering specimen of a tree cultivated in Germany, sent to me 5 A. Gattinger, without date, 

by Professor Koehne of Berlin as a representative of Crataegus 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLIX. Crataegus mollis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a shoot, somewhat reduced in size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tah. DCLIX. 




QEFcueon, deb 



A.KU>craua> cSrea>. 



CRATAEGUS MOLLIS, Scheele. 

* Jmp.J.2hneur,Faritr. 



ZartcLud/ . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 85 



CRAT^IGUS ARKANSANA. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oblong-ovate to oval, acute, coriaceous, 
dull dark green. 

Crataegus Arkansana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 223 (1901). 

A tree, twenty feet in height, with a tall straight stem covered with pale scaly bark, and thick 
slightly ascending and wide-spreading branches forming a broad open irregular head. The branchlets 
are very stout, somewhat zigzag, marked by many small pale lenticels, and unarmed or armed with 
occasional straight light chestnut-brown shining spines gradually narrowed from broad bases, and 
usually from one third to one half of an inch in length ; dark green and covered when they first appear 
with long pale hairs, at midsummer the lateral fertile branchlets are coated with rusty pubescence, and 
the leading shoots are often glabrous and light orange-brown and lustrous, and during their first winter 
the branchlets are orange-brown and very lustrous, becoming ashy gray in their second year. The 
winter-buds are acute, about an eighth of an inch long, nearly as broad as they are long, dark red, and 
puberulous along the margins of the outer scales. The leaves are oblong-ovate or oval, acute at the 
apex, broadly cuneate, rounded or truncate at the base, usually divided above the middle into three or 
four pairs of short broad acute lobes, and serrate, sometimes to the base, with short straight glandular 
teeth ; when the flowers open about the middle of May they are nearly one third grown and are 
coated with soft white hairs which are most abundant on the under surface of the midribs and veins, 
and in the autumn they are thick and leathery, dull dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale 
yellow-green on the lower surface, from two to three inches in length and from an inch and three 
quarters to two inches in width, with stout light yellow midribs and primary veins deeply impressed 
above and slightly villose below, with scattered pale hairs, and conspicuous secondary veins and reticulate 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout deeply grooved petioles more or less winged toward the apex, glandular, 
with minute usually deciduous dark glands, at first tomentose but ultimately glabrous or puberulous, 
generally dark red after midsummer, and from an inch to an inch and a half long. The stipules 
are glandular-serrate, villose, linear-lanceolate or narrowly obovate, and about half an inch long. On 
vigorous leading shoots the leaves are usually broadly ovate, rounded or truncate at the base, and often 
four inches long and three inches wide, with foliaceous, lunate, coarsely glandular-dentate stipules 
sometimes nearly an inch in length. Late in October or early in November the leaves turn bright 
clear yellow. The flowers are an inch in diameter, and are produced on short stout pedicels, in broad 
rather compact many-flowered thin-branched villose compound corymbs, with oblong-obovate and acute 
or linear-lanceolate finely glandular-serrate often persistent bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is 
narrowly obconic, coated with long matted pale hairs, and the lobes are short, acute, very coarsely 
glandular-serrate, and glabrous or slightly villose. There are twenty stamens with slender filaments 
and large pale yellow anthers, and five styles. The fruit, which ripens at the end of October, and then 
remaining on the branches for several weeks falls gradually, hangs in few-fruited drooping clusters, on 
stout villose pedicels ; it is oblong or rarely obovate, full and rounded and slightly tomentose at the 
ends, bright crimson, very lustrous, marked by few large dark dots, from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch long, and about three quarters of an inch thick ; the calyx-cavity is deep but comparatively 
narrow, and the lobes are small, linear-lanceolate, coarsely glandular-serrate, red on the upper side 
toward the base, erect, and persistent; the flesh is thick, yellow, and subacid. The five nutlets are 



86 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

small in comparison to the size of the fruit, thin, rounded, or slightly and irregularly ridged on the 
back, and a third of an inch long. 

First distinguished from trees in the Arnold Arboretum raised from seeds collected in 1883 in 
Newport, Arkansas, by Mr. George W. Letterman, Crataegus Arkansana has not been rediscovered. 
Perfectly hardy in eastern Massachusetts, where it has grown rapidly to a large size, this handsome 
tree is unsurpassed late in the autumn in the beauty of its large brilliant and abundant fruits, which 
remain on the branches long after those of the other species of this group have disappeared, and make 
it one of the most desirable garden plants of the genus. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLX. Crataegus Arkansana. 

1. The end of a flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tib.DCLX. 




— CJUJFa/Bon, del*. 



Zartaud/ , 



CRATAEGUS ARKANSANA.SarJ. 



A.HiocrezM> direa>. 



Imp.J'.Tarteur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 87 



CRATAEGUS SERA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oblong-ovate, membranaceous. 

Crataegus sera, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 115 (1902). 

A tree, from thirty to forty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk twelve or eighteen inches 
in diameter covered with pale slightly fissured bark, and thick branches forming a broad round- 
topped symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, somewhat zigzag, marked by small oblong pale 
lenticels, and unarmed, or armed with occasional straight slightly curved bright chestnut-brown lustrous 
spines from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half in length ; coated when they first appear with 
thick hoary tomentum, they are light red-brown and puberulous during their first summer, and ulti- 
mately pale orange-brown. The leaves are oblong-ovate, acute at the apex, rounded, truncate or 
slightly cordate, particularly on vigorous shoots, at the broad base, irregularly divided into four or five 
pairs of short acute lateral lobes, and sharply and sometimes doubly serrate nearly to the base, with 
straight glandular teeth ; unfolding about the first of May with the opening of the flowers, they are 
then covered above with short soft white hairs and coated below with thick hoary tomentum ; and at 
maturity they are membranaceous, dark yellow-green and glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent 
on the lower surface, from two to four inches long and from two and a half to three inches wide, 
with slender midribs slightly impressed above and thin remote primary veins extending to the points 
of the lobes ; they are borne on slender tomentose ultimately pubescent petioles which vary from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length. The stipules are linear, acute, glandular-serrate, villose, a quarter 
of an inch long, and on vigorous leading shoots often lunate, abruptly acuminate, and half an inch in 
length. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are borne in compact compound 
many-flowered tomentose corymbs, with lanceolate or oblanceolate coarsely glandular-serrate villose or 
tomentose bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and coated with long matted pale 
hairs, and the lobes are broad, acute or acuminate, glandular-serrate, with large dark glands, tomentose 
on the outer surface, and villose on the inner surface. There are twenty stamens with pale yellow 
anthers, and four or usually five styles. The fruit ripens about the first of October and is borne on 
stout puberulous pedicels, in drooping few-fruited clusters ; it is obovate or oblong, dull dark red, 
marked by small pale dots, usually slightly villose or pubescent at the ends, two thirds of an inch 
long and half an inch wide ; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes are enlarged, coarsely 
glandular-serrate, erect and incurved, and often deciduous before the ripening of the fruit ; the flesh 
is thick, yellow, dry, and mealy. The four or usually five nutlets are thin, light brown, irregularly 
depressed on the back, with broad shallow grooves, and a quarter of an inch in length. 

Crataegus sera grows in low moist ground in the neighborhood of streams on Belle Isle in the 
Detroit River, Michigan, and near Chicago, Illinois, on the bottoms of the Calumet and Desplaines 
rivers. 1 

1 I first noticed this handsome Thorn-tree on Belle Isle in May, sera will be found to be common in southern Michigan, northern 

1899. It had been previously collected by Mr. E. J. Hill in rich Indiana, and northern and central Illinois. From Crataegus mollis it 

woods adjacent to the Calumet River in 1896 and 1897, and near differs in its more oblong and much thinner leaves and in its late 

Glendon Park on the Desplaines River in 1900. It is probable that ripening fruit, 
it has often been confounded with Crataegus mollis, and that Crataegus 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXI. Crat^gus sera. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCLXI. 




CE.JTaaion, del,. 



ZortoiLd. 



CRATAEGUS SERA,Sar6. 



A.Riocreujy direcc . 



Imp. J. Tarteur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 89 



CRAT^JGUS CANADENSIS. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers white. Leaves ovate, cuneate at the base. 

Crataegus Canadensis, Sargent, Rhodora, in. 73 (1901). 

A tree, eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk six or eight inches in diameter covered 
with pale gray-brown scaly bark, and stout spreading branches which form a broad round-topped 
symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, conspicuously zigzag, marked by large oblong pale 
lenticels, and armed with numerous stout straight or slightly curved dark chestnut-brown shining spines 
which vary from two inches to two inches and a half in length ; dark green and covered with matted 
pale hairs when they first appear, they become light orange-brown and very lustrous during their first 
season, and turn ashy gray in their third year. The leaves are ovate, short-pointed at the apex, 
broadly cuneate or, on leading shoots, truncate at the base, slightly lobed usually only above the middle, 
with short broad acute lobes, and coarsely and frequently doubly serrate often nearly to the base, with 
spreading glandular teeth ; in early spring they are coated above with soft white hairs and below with 
dense hoary tomentum, and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, blue-green and glabrous or 
scabrous on the upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along the slender 
midribs and primary veins, from two inches to two inches and a half in length and from an inch and a 
half to nearly three inches in width ; they are borne on slender grooved glandular petioles which are 
often more or less winged above, tomentose at first but ultimately nearly glabrous, and from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch long. The stipules are linear, finely glandular-serrate, from one half 
to three quarters of an inch in length, and caducous. The flowers, which open at the end of May and 
are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, are borne in broad loose compact thin-branched 
tomentose corymbs, with linear-lanceolate glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets which become dark red 
in fading. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and villose, with long matted white hairs, and the lobes 
are lanceolate, glandular, with large red stipitate glands, villose on both surfaces, and reflexed after the 
flowers open. There are twenty stamens with small nearly white anthers, and five styles which are 
surrounded at the base by a thin ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens early in October and, falling 
gradually, does not entirely disappear until after midwinter ; it is borne in erect thick-stemmed slightly 
villose clusters, and is short-oblong or subglobose, crimson, lustrous, marked by large scattered pale 
dots, slightly villose toward the ends, from one half to five eighths of an inch long and from one 
third to one half of an inch wide ; the calyx-tube is prominent, with a broad deep cavity, and the 
lobes, which are gradually narrowed from broad bases, are elongated, glandular, villose, spreading or 
reflexed, and often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, pale yellow, dry, and mealy. 
The five nutlets are thin, rounded, and irregularly ridged on the back, and about a quarter of an inch 
in length. 

Cratcegus Canadensis inhabits limestone ridges near the St. Lawrence River at Chateaugay, 
Caughnawaga, and La Tortue, in the Province of Quebec, where it was found in October, 1899, by Mr. 
J. G. Jack. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXIL Crataegus Canadensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLXII. 








GE,Faccon,deZ,. 



Hapisie' j-&. 



CRATAEGUS CANADENSIS, Sara.. 

o 



A.JHocreuay direay*' 



Imp. J.Thneur, Parur . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 91 



CRATAEGUS BERLANDIERI. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves oblong-obovate to oval, gradually narrowed 
and cuneate below, thin, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus Berlandieri, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 230 (1901). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a tall straight stem eight or ten inches in 
diameter covered with thin dark brown furrowed bark, and spreading branches forming a broad open 
head. The branchlets are slender, slightly zigzag, marked by occasional oblong dark lenticels, and 
unarmed, or armed with few straight gray spines about an inch in length ; coated with hoary tomentum 
when they first appear, they become puberulous, dull reddish brown or yellow-brown by midsummer, 
and ashy gray late in the autumn or during the following season. The leaves are oblong-obovate or 
oval, acute or acuminate at the apex, and gradually narrowed, cuneate and entire below the middle, 
unequally divided above into numerous acute or acuminate lobes, and coarsely and often doubly serrate, 
with broad straight or incurved gland-tipped teeth ; when the flowers open from the middle to the end 
of March they are coated above with short pale caducous hairs, and below with thick hoary tomentum ; 
and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, glabrous, dark green, and very lustrous on the upper 
surface, pale and pubescent below, and usually about three inches long and two inches wide, with slender 
midribs, remote primary veins extending to the points of the lobes and only slightly impressed on the 
upper side, conspicuous secondary veins, and reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout petioles more 
or less winged toward the apex, tomentose at first but finally pubescent, and from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are falcate, long-pointed, entire or finely glandular-serrate, 
villose, and about a quarter of an inch long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often five 
inches long and three inches wide, with rounded or acute lobes, and foliaceous, lunate, coarsely 
glandular-dentate stipules frequently half an inch in length. The flowers are three quarters of an inch 
in diameter, and are produced on stout elongated pedicels covered with hoary tomentum, which also 
clothes the stout lax branches of the broad loose many-flowered compound corymbs, with oblong-obovate 
or lanceolate finely glandular-serrate villose conspicuous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly 
obconic, covered with thick pale tomentum, and the lobes are broad, acute, very coarsely glandular- 
serrate, tomentose on the outer surface, villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. 
There are twenty stamens with slender elongated filaments and small yellow anthers, and five styles 
surrounded at the base by tufts of white hairs. The fruit, which ripens after the middle of October 
and hangs in loose drooping clusters, is short-oblong to subglobose, scarlet, and about half an inch 
long ; the calyx-cavity is deep and broad, and the much enlarged lobes are coarsely serrate, villose, erect, 
and persistent ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The five nutlets are rounded and occasionally 
obscurely grooved on the back, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Berlandieri inhabits low rich woods on the bottom-lands of the Brazos River near 
Columbia and Brazoria, Texas, where it is not common and where it was first collected l in 1828 by 
Berlandier, 2 whose specimens of this handsome tree were usually referred to Cratcegus tomentosa until 
the collections made by Mr. B. F. Bush 3 in 1899 and 1900 showed its true characters. 

1 As shown by Berlandier's specimens in Herb. Gray (Nos. 267 2 See i. 82. 

and 356). 8 See vii. 110. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXIIL Crataegus Berlandieri. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLXIII. 



/'l4^</ 









CE.FaaoTt, dels. 



CRATAEGUS BERLANDIERI, Sar§. 



Hapine* jc 



A.Iiiocr>euay direayt' 



Imp . JT.Taneur, Paris. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 93 



CRATAEGUS TEXAN A, 
Scarlet Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers dark red. Leaves broadly ovate, cuneate at the base. 

Crataegus Texana, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1861, Crataegus mollis, Gray, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1862, 163 (not 
454. — Sargent, JBot. Gazette, xxxi. 225. Scheele). — Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 99 (in part). 

A tree, often thirty feet in height, with a tall trunk sometimes a foot in diameter covered with 
dark closely appressed scales, and thick branches which ascending while the tree is young form an open 
irregular crown and spread in old age into a broad symmetrical round-topped head. The branchlets 
are slender, slightly zigzag, marked by large oblong pale lenticels, and armed with occasional thin nearly 
straight bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines usually about two inches in length, or often unarmed ; 
dark bronze green and villose when they first appear, they soon become dull reddish brown, and, 
growing lighter-colored in their second season, are ultimately pale ashy gray. The leaves are broadly 
ovate, acute or rarely rounded at the apex, broadly concave-cuneate or on leading shoots sometimes 
truncate or slightly cordate at the entire base, coarsely and doubly glandular-serrate, and usually divided 
above the middle into four or five pairs of wide acute lobes ; when they unfold they are covered above 
with short soft pale hairs, and below with a thick coat of hoary tomentum, and are more than half 
grown when the flowers open late in March ; at maturity they are from three to four inches long 
and from two and a half to three inches wide, thick and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous 
on the upper surface, pale and pubescent or tomentose on the lower surface, particularly along the 
stout light-colored midribs and primary veins and on the prominent secondary veins and reticulate 
veinlets ; they are borne on stout deeply grooved petioles which are more or less winged above, at first 
tomentose but ultimately nearly glabrous, and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. 
The stipules are lunate, apiculate, often stalked, coarsely serrate, and from an inch and a quarter to an 
inch and a half in length. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced 
on elongated slender pedicels, in broad open many-flowered compound tomentose corymbs, with oblong 
or oblong-obovate broad acute villose conspicuous bracts and bractlets often half an inch long. The 
calyx-tube is broadly obconic and coated with pale tomentum, and the lobes are foliaceous, gradually 
narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, villose, with long matted pale hairs, 
and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with large dark red anthers, and five 
styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens toward the end of 
October, and is borne in drooping many-fruited tomentose ultimately glabrous clusters ; pear-shaped 
and tomentose until nearly grown, when fully ripe it is short-oblong or slightly obovate, rounded at 
the ends, bright scarlet, marked by occasional large pale dots, puberulous toward the apex, and from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch in length, with a broad deep calyx-cavity and much enlarged 
glandular-serrate usually erect lobes dark red at the base on the upper side, and often deciduous before 
the ripening of the fruit ; the flesh is thick, yellow, sweet, and edible. The five nutlets are thick, 
slightly grooved on the back, and from one quarter to one third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus Texana inhabits rich bottom-lands in central and western Texas, where it was first 
distinguished by Mr. S. B. Buckley. 1 

1 See iii. 3. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXIV. Crataegus Texana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DCLXIV. 




CJS.JF'aazorv de& 



CRATAEGUS TEXANA.Buckl 



Rapine? sty. 



jLULooremc dO"&z> * 



-#7zp. u.Ttzneur, Parir . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 95 



CRATAEGUS QUERCINA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers dark red. Leaves oval to obovate, membranaceous, dark 
green and lustrous above, canescent below. 

Crataegus quercina, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. Crataegus Columbiana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 229 
xviii. pt. i. 27 (1902). (not Howell) (1901). 

A tree, remarkable in early spring for the lustre of the white coating of tomentum on the 
branchlets and under side of the leaves, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with a tall trunk from 
six to eight inches in diameter, and ascending branches which form a broad symmetrical head. The bark 
of the trunk, which is light gray and broken into small closely appressed scales, becomes near the base 
of old trees deeply furrowed and nearly black. The branchlets are slender, somewhat zigzag, marked 
by many small lenticels, and armed with numerous straight or slightly curved chestnut-brown lustrous 
spines usually from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length ; coated when they first appear with 
hoary tomentum, they become light red-brown and more or less villose during their first season, glabrous 
and rather darker in their second year, and ultimately pale ashy gray. The leaves vary from oval to 
obovate and are usually acute or occasionally rounded at the apex, full and rounded and gradually or 
abruptly narrowed to the entire base, and irregularly doubly serrate above, with slender glandular teeth ; 
they are conspicuously plicate when they unfold, and the upper surface, which is coated with long soft 
pale hairs, is then often dark red and the lower surface is covered with a thick coat of silvery white 
shining tomentum ; and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, dark green, lustrous and scabrous 
above, pale and pubescent or tomentose below, and from two inches to two inches and a half long and 
broad, with slender midribs and four or five pairs of thin primary veins only slightly impressed on the 
upper side and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout tomentose petioles about half an 
inch long, and their stipules are narrow, falcate, acuminate, and finely glandular-serrate. On leading 
shoots the leaves are broadly ovate or oblong-oval, full and rounded at the base, somewhat divided into 
three or four pairs of short acute lobes, and frequently four inches long and broad, with foliaceous 
lunate coarsely glandular-dentate stipitate stipules frequently three quarters of an inch in length. 
The flowers open from the middle to the end of March when the leaves are only about one third 
grown, and are three quarters of an inch in diameter ; they are produced on long slender pedicels, in 
broad many-flowered thin-branched lax corymbs covered with hoary tomentum, with oblong-obovate 
glandular-serrate villose bracts and bractlets acute or rounded and apiculate at the apex. The calyx- 
tube is narrowly obconic and coated with hoary tomentum, and the lobes are short, acute, coarsely 
glandular-serrate, tomentose on both surfaces, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty 
stamens with slender elongated filaments and small dark red anthers, and five styles surrounded at the 
base by tufts of long snow-white hairs. The fruit ripens after the middle of October and hangs in 
few-fruited tomentose spreading clusters ; it is subglobose but often rather longer than broad, full and 
rounded at the ends, tomentose until nearly fully grown but glabrous at maturity, dark red, marked 
by numerous large pale dots, and about one half of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with 
a broad deep cavity and short spreading often deciduous lobes ; the flesh is thin, light yellow, hard, and 
dry, and generally shrivels before the fruit falls. The five nutlets are rounded and usually ridged on 
the back, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus quercina inhabits the sandy bottom-lands of the Brazos River at Columbia, Texas, where 
it grows in open Live Oak forests and where it was discovered in November, 1899, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXV. Crataegus quercina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCLXV 




CJS.Faeoon, d&L. 



JjartaiuZ' so. 



CRATAEGUS QUERCINA.Ashe 



A.RLocreuay direa> P 



Imp , J. Taneur, PtzrLr. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 97 



CRATAEGUS PYRIFORMIS. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale rose color. Leaves oval to broadly ovate, cuneate at 
the base. 

Crataegus pyriformis, Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i. 449 (1900) ; Man. 522. 

A tree, twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter covered with thick dark 
scaly bark, and spreading branches forming a broad symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, 
somewhat zigzag, marked by small oblong pale lentieels, and armed with occasional thin nearly straight 
bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines usually about an inch and a half in length ; light green and 
villose when they first appear, with long matted pale hairs, they are dull red-brown and pubescent in 
their first summer, light brown and glabrous the following year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves 
are oval or broadly ovate, acute and often short-pointed at the apex, gradually narrowed and concave- 
cuneate at the entire base, sharply and sometimes doubly serrate above, with straight glandular teeth, 
and often slightly and irregularly lobed above the middle ; when the flowers open about the tenth of 
May they are fully grown and membranaceous, light yellow-green, roughened on the upper surface by 
short rigid pale hairs and pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along the slender midribs and five 
or six pairs of remote primary veins ; and at maturity they are thin and firm, lustrous and scabrous on 
the upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface, and generally about three inches long and 
two inches wide ; they are borne on slender grooved tomentose ultimately pubescent petioles broadened at 
the apex by the decurrent bases of the leaf -blades, and from an inch to an inch and a quarter in length. 
The stipules are minute, linear-lanceolate, bright red, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the 
leaves are usually ovate, coarsely serrate, more deeply lobed than the leaves of fertile branchlets, and 
frequently four or five inches long and three or four inches wide, with foliaceous lunate acuminate 
villose coarsely serrate stipules sometimes half an inch long. The flowers are an inch in diameter, and 
are produced on elongated slender tomentose pedicels, in broad compound many-flowered lax corymbs, 
with linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate glandular-serrate elongated caducous bracts and bractlets. The 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and villose, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, glandular-serrate, and 
more or less villose. There are twenty stamens with pale rose-colored anthers, and four or usually five 
styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring of white tomentum. The fruit ripens in October, and 
hangs on long slender pubescent pedicels, in drooping few-fruited clusters ; it is obovate, full and 
rounded at the ends, bright cherry-red, lustrous, marked by occasional large pale dots, and about five 
eighths of an inch long and one half of an inch wide ; the calyx is prominent, with a broad shallow 
cavity, and linear glandular-serrate closely appressed lobes often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the 
flesh is thin, light yellow, and juicy. The four or usually five nutlets are deeply divided along the back 
into two rounded ridges, dark brown, and five eighths of an inch in length. 

Crataegus pyriformis grows on the rich bottom-lands of streams in Ripley County, southeastern 
Missouri, where it was discovered near Monteer in August, 1899, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXVI. Crataegus pyriformis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva. of North America 



Tab.DCLXVI 




C.JS.JTcuBon, dots. 



ZartcuuZ jc- . 



CRATAEGUS PYRIFORMIS.Britt. 



AHiocreujy direco* 



Imp. JlTaneur, Paris- 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 99 



CRATAEGUS CORUSCA. 

Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers pale pink. Leaves ovate, firm, bright, and shining. 

Crataegus corusca, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 117 (1902). 

A tree, eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, and 
wide-spreading branches which form a handsome symmetrical head. The bark of the trunk is thin, 
light gray-brown, and broken into small closely appressed scales. The branchlets are stout, marked by 
numerous small white lenticels, and armed with thick nearly straight bright chestnut-brown spines often 
three inches in length ; dark green and coated with matted pale hairs when they first appear, during 
their first summer they become bright red-brown, and in their second year light orange-brown and very 
lustrous. The leaves are ovate, acute, truncate, rounded or slightly cordate at the broad base, regularly 
divided into four or five pairs of short acute lateral lobes, and doubly serrate, with straight slender 
glandular teeth ; in early spring they are covered on the upper surface with short soft pale hairs and 
are glabrous on the lower surface, and at maturity, although thin, they are firm and rigid in texture, 
glabrous, dark yellow-green and very bright and shining above, pale yellow-green below, and from 
two inches to two inches and a half long and wide, with slender pale midribs and primary veins only 
slightly impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on slender, nearly terete, slightly grooved petioles 
which, villose at first, soon become glabrous and dark red below the middle, and are from one inch and 
a half to two inches and a half in length. The stipules are narrowly obovate, acute, and coarsely 
glandular-serrate. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are frequently divided into narrow acute 
lobes, and are from three and a half to four inches long and wide, with lunate coarsely dentate 
stipules from one half to three quarters of an inch broad. The flowers, which are three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, open about the middle of May and are borne in compact rather narrow compound 
many-flowered corymbs covered with matted pale hairs, and furnished with linear-lanceolate or narrowly 
obovate glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, and glabrous or 
villose below, and the lobes, which are gradually narrowed from broad bases, are acute, coarsely 
glandular-serrate, and villose on the inner surface. There are twenty stamens with small pale pink 
anthers, and four or five styles. The fruit begins to ripen and fall about the twentieth of September, 
and continues to fall until the end of October ; it is borne in glabrous drooping few-fruited clusters on 
stout pedicels which vary from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch in length ; it is oblong 
or obovate, bright cherry-red, lustrous, marked by scattered dark dots, from five eighths to three 
quarters of an inch in length and from one half to five eighths of an inch in width ; the calyx-cavity is 
deep but comparatively narrow, and the lobes are gradually narrowed, acute, slightly glandular-serrate, 
and usually deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, yellow, dry, and mealy. The four or 
five nutlets are dark-colored, rounded on the back, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus corusca inhabits the sandy shores of Lake Zurich in Lake County, Illinois, where it was 
discovered in September, 1899, by Mr. E. J. Hill. 1 

1 Ellsworth Jerome Hill (December 1, 1833) was born at Le becoming a teacher ; the summers were spent in helping his father 

Roy, New York, where his father, a descendant of one of the colo- in farm work. In order to secure a college education he engaged 

nists from England who settled at Guilford, under Nathaniel Whit- in teaching while still a boy, but his health breaking down he was 

field, had moved from Middlesex County, Connecticut. An early obliged to reside for three years in the south, and it was not until 

love of reading induced his parents to allow the boy to attend a 1860 that Mr. Hill entered the Union Theological Seminary in the 

village academy during the winter months with the idea of his city of New York. Graduating three years later, he went to Illinois 



100 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



and engaged in pastoral work in the Presbyterian Church until 
1869, when ill health compelled him to retire. Two years later he 
became a teacher again until 1888, when he found himself in a posi- 
tion to devote his time to the study of botany in which he had been 
interested, as well as in geology and other natural sciences, since 
boyhood. Mr. Hill's botanical work, which includes the collection 
of a large herbarium and valuable library, has been carried on 
chiefly in the region bordering the western shores of Lake Michi- 



gan, especially in the neighborhood of Chicago, where he has resided 
for several years. He has published the results of these studies in 
many papers communicated to the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical 
Club, The Botanical Gazette, Garden and Forest, The Naturalist, and 
other technical journals. For the last two or three years Mr. Hill 
has been particularly interested in the genus Crataegus, in which he 
has discovered a number of new and interesting forms. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXVII. Crat^gus corusca. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



^^K/^ 







C. E.Fcucon, del*. 



XartazuL jc 



CRATAEGUS C0RUSCA,Sar6. 

o 



A.Riocreua> direa>^ 



Imp . J.Teuiettr, 2°aru: 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 101 



CRATAEGUS SUBMOLLIS. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 10; anthers pale yellow. Leaves ovate, acute, membranaceous, dark 
yellow-green. 

Crataegus submollis, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 7 (1901). Crataegus mollis, Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 99 (in part), t. 

Crataegus tomentosa, Emerson, Trees Mass. 435 (not Lin- 182 (not Scheele) (1892). — Koehne, Herb. Dendr. No. 

naeus) (1846) ; ed. 2, ii. 494, t. 232. 

Crataegus coccinea, var. mollis, Watson & Coulter, Gray's Crataegus coccinea subvillosa, Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. 

Man. ed. 6, 165 (in part) (1890). Cratcegi, 31, f. (not Crataegus subvillosa, Torrey) (1897). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall trunk occasionally a foot in diameter 
covered with light gray-brown scaly bark, and ascending or spreading ashy gray branches forming a 
broad handsome head ; or often a tall intricately branched shrub. The branchlets are slender, more or 
less zigzag, marked by small oblong orange-colored lenticels, and armed with numerous thin straight or 
somewhat curved bright chestnut-brown shining spines from two inches and a half to three inches in 
length ; dark green and coated with hoary tomentum when they first appear, they become light or dark 
orange-brown by midsummer, when they are still slightly tomentose, and during their first autumn they 
are glabrous, lustrous, and light red-brown or dark orange-brown ; they are gray tinged with green or 
pale orange-brown during their second summer, and finally slowly losing their lustre turn ashy gray. The 
leaves are ovate, acute, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the nearly entire base, coarsely doubly serrate 
above, with straight glandular teeth, and divided into three or four pairs of short acute lobes ; at the 
end of May or early in June when the flowers open they are about half grown, and are then roughened 
on the upper surface by short stiff pale hairs and are soft-pubescent below, particularly along the 
midribs and veins, and in the autumn they are membranaceous, dark yellow-green and scabrous above, 
pale below, from three inches to three inches and a half long and from two inches to two inches and a 
half wide, with thick yellow midribs and remote primary veins only slightly impressed on the upper 
side and puberulous on the lower side ; they are borne on stout nearly terete grooved petioles more 
or less winged at the apex, tomentose when they first appear, puberulous at maturity, often bright red 
toward the base, and from one to two inches long. The stipules vary from linear to narrowly obovate 
and are acute, glandular-serrate, tomentose, and from one third to one half of an inch in length. On 
vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly ovate, cuneate, rounded, truncate or occasionally slightly 
cordate at the base, often four inches long and from three inches to three inches and a half wide, with 
lunate coarsely glandular-dentate stipules frequently nearly an inch in length. The flowers are an inch 
in diameter, in broad many-flowered thick-branched tomentose compound corymbs, with narrowly obovate 
acute coarsely glandular-serrate tomentose bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic 
and covered with a thick coat of long matted white hairs, and the lobes are gradually narrowed from 
broad bases and are acute, glandular, with large red stipitate glands, glabrous, or sometimes villose on 
the outer surface, and usually spreading when the flowers open. There are ten stamens with slender 
elongated filaments and small pale yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base 
by a narrow ring of long white hairs. The fruit, which ripens and falls in Massachusetts during the 
first half of September, hangs on elongated slender villose pedicels, in broad gracefully drooping many- 
fruited clusters ; it is pear-shaped, bright orange-red, lustrous, marked by large scattered pale dots, 
puberulous toward the base, and about three quarters of an inch long ; the calyx is much enlarged, 
and persistent, with a broad deep cavity and erect coarsely glandular-serrate lobes ; the flesh is yellow, 



102 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

thin, subacid, dry, and mealy. The nutlets, which are usually five in number, are rounded and slightly 
ridged on the back, and about a third of an inch in length 

Crataegus submollis inhabits rich damp hillsides and the borders of woods and roads, and is dis- 
tributed from the valley of the St. Lawrence River, where it has been found near Montreal and the city 
of Quebec, to the valley of the Penobscot River and Gerrish Island, Maine, and to eastern Massachusetts, 
where, although widely scattered in the neighborhood of the coast, it is not common. 1 



appears as Crataegus mollis on plate cuneate leaves, in its ten not twenty stamens, in its much less downy 

f this work, for it was then supposed smaller pear-shaped fruits drooping on slender pedicels, and in 

e was identical with the Crataegus mollis the color of its branchlets. Figure 4 on plate clxxxii. represents 

i that species it is now known to dif- one of the subglobose fruits of Crataegus mollis. 
2 deeply lobed and usually 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CRATAEGUS ARNOLDIANA. 



Stamens 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves ovate or rarely oval, thin, dark green 
and lustrous. 

Crataegus Arnoldiana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 221 (1901). 
A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a short trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter 
and stout ascending branches which form a broad open irregular head. The bark of young stems and 
large branches is thin, smooth, and light gray, but near the base of old trunks it becomes nearly black 
and is broken into large closely appressed thick scales. The branchlets are slender, very zigza ff and 
armed with many stout straight or slightly curved bright chestnut-brown shining spines which vary from 
two inches and a half to three inches in length and retain their brilliancy for four or five years • clothed 
with long matted pale hairs when they first appear and marked by numerous large oblong pale lenticels 
the branchlets become dark orange-brown and very lustrous before midsummer, glabrous or puberulous 
during their first winter, bright orange-brown or gray-brown during their second season, and finally ashy 
gray. The winter-buds are oblong, gradually narrowed to the obtuse apex, bright red and lustrous and 
about three sixteenths of an inch long. The leaves are broadly ovate or rarely oval, acute at the apex, 
irregularly divided above the middle into numerous short acute lobes, and coarsely doubly serrate, with 
straight glandular teeth except at the rounded truncate or occasionally cuneate base; when they unfold 
they are coated with dense matted pale hairs, and at maturity are membranaceous, smooth, very dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, from two to three inches long and 
broad, and slightly villose on the under side of the slender midribs and the thin although prominent 
remote primary veins which extend to the points of the lobes and are but little impressed above; they 
are borne on slender nearly terete petioles which vary from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a 
half in length, and at first densely villose are ultimately puberulous. The stipules are linear, coarsely 
glandular-serrate, often an inch long, and caducous. The flowers, which are three quarters of an inch 
in diameter, open during the last week in May and are borne on slender pedicels, in broad compound 
many-flowered thin-branched tomentose corymbs, with lanceolate or oblanceolate coarsely glandular-serrate 
bracts. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and densely tomentose, and the lobes are narrow, elongated, 
acuminate, glandular-serrate, villose on both surfaces, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are 
ten stamens with slender filaments and large pale yellow anthers, and from three to five but usually 
three or four styles which are surrounded at the base by a broad ring of thick white tomentum. The 
fruit, which ripens about the middle of August and falls before the first of September, is borne on stout 
pedicels, in erect spreading or rarely drooping few-fruited villose clusters ; it is subglobose, but rather 
longer than broad, bright crimson, marked by numerous large pale dots, villose particularly toward 
the ends, with long scattered white hairs, and three quarters of an inch long ; the calyx-cavity is broad 
and shallow, and the lobes are elongated, coarsely glandular-serrate, villose, wide-spreading, and often 
deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, bright yellow, and subacid. The three or four 
nutlets are thick, light-colored, prominently ridged on the back, with high rounded ridges, and about a 
quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Arnoldiana forms thickets on a dry bank in the Arnold Arboretum, where for many 
years it was confounded with the Crataegus mollis of Illinois, and grows in the valley of the Mystic 



104 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



River at Medford, Massachusetts. 1 It is now common in parks and gardens in the neighborhood of 
Boston, where it develops a tall straight stem and promises to grow to a large size. 

This handsome Thorn is named in memory of James Arnold, 2 through whose enlightenment and 
liberality the establishment of the Arnold Arboretum was made possible. 



1 Two large tree-like plants of Crataegus Arnoldiana have been 
found by Mr. L. L. Dame at the foot of a wooded bank on the 
Mystic River near the end of Hastings Lane, West Medford. 

' 2 James Arnold (September 9, 1781-December 3, 1868), a native 
of Providence, Rhode Island, was a strong member of a strong New 
England family, born neither to poverty nor riches. On October 
29, 1807, he married Sarah, daughter of William Rotch, Jr., of 
New Bedford, and removed to that town to become the business 
partner of his father-in-law, who was engaged in whale-fishing. 
Mr. Arnold devoted himself to his business with such energy and 
intelligence that he was able to retire from its active pursuit with 
a large fortune at the age of fifty. He was described as a man 
of acute and powerful intellect, able to compel success in whatever 
direction his judgment might determine. The book of nature had 
probably little charm for him, although his garden was long famous 
as the most beautiful in southern Massachusetts. Originally laid 
out on straight rectangular lines, it was transformed by an excel- 
lent Welsh gardener, Llewellyn, into a delightful retreat with wind- 
ing walks and shrubbery arranged to conceal the boundaries, to 
open and close vistas, and to give to an area of about three acres 
an idea of extent far beyond its true dimensions. 



One of Mr. Arnold's friends was George B. Emerson, the author 
of A Report on the Trees and Shrubs growing naturally in the Forests 
of Massachusetts. Mr. Arnold had great confidence in Mr. Emer- 
son's judgment in everything that related to agriculture and horti- 
culture, and there is little doubt that it was at his suggestion that 
this clause was inserted in Mr. Arnold's will : " To George B. 
Emerson, John James Dixwell and Francis E. Parker, Esqrs of 
Boston, in trust, to be by them applied for the promotion of agri- 
cultural or horticultural improvements or other philosophical or 
philanthropical purposes at their discretion, and to provide for the 
continuance of this Trust hereafter to such persons, on such con- 
ditions as they or a. majority of them may deem proper, to carry 
out the intention of the donor, one and one-quarter of one of said 
twenty-four parts." 

These trustees under the inspiration, no doubt, of Mr. Emerson, 
seconded certainly by John James Dixwell, who was a lover and 
successful cultivator of trees, conceived the idea of an arboretum 
to be established in Massachusetts, and made with the Corporation 
of Harvard College the arrangement by which the Arnold Arbore- 
tum was secured for the University. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXVIIL Crat^gus Arnoldiana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size."" 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCLXVIII 




C.JH.Faasoru deL. 



JOdvendaZ- 



CRATAEGUS ARNOLDIANA, Sar6. 



^..HiocrBuz} direa:? 



Jmp. J.Tcuieicr, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 105 



CRATAEGUS CHAMPLAINENSIS. 
Haw. 
Stamens 10 ; anthers light yellow. Leaves ovate, acute, thick, blue-green. 

Crataegus Champlainensis, Sargent, Rhodora, iii. 20 (1901). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a tall stem eight or ten inches in diameter 
covered with dark deeply fissured bark broken on the surface into thin loose plate-like scales, and 
stout wide-spreading branches which form a round-topped and often symmetrical head. The branchlets 
are slender, somewhat zigzag, marked by numerous large oblong pale lenticels, and armed with straight 
or slightly curved chestnut-brown spines from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; light green 
and coated with hoary tomentum when they first appear, they become glabrous and light chestnut- 
brown and lustrous during their first season and ashy gray during their second year. The leaves are 
ovate, acute, rounded, truncate, slightly cordate or broadly cuneate at the base, usually divided into 
two or three pairs of short narrow acute lobes, and coarsely and frequently doubly serrate, with glandular 
teeth ; in early spring they are roughened above by short pale hairs and are villose-pubescent below, 
and at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, conspicuously blue-green and glabrous on the upper 
surface, light yellow-green on the lower surface, which is somewhat pubescent on the slender midribs 
and remote primary veins, from two inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch to an 
inch and a half wide ; they are borne on slender deeply grooved petioles which, more or less 
tomentose at first, usually become glabrous and bright red below the middle before the autumn, and 
are from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The flowers, which are three quarters of 
an inch in diameter and open during the first week in June, are borne on short slender pedicels, 
in compact few-flowered compound densely villose corymbs, with lanceolate or oblanceolate coarsely 
glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and coated with 
thick hoary tomentum, and the lobes are lanceolate, finely glandular-serrate, tomentose on the outer 
surface usually only below the middle, villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers 
open. There are ten stamens with small light yellow anthers, and five styles surrounded at the 
base by tufts of pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens early in September and remains on the branches 
until after the new year, is borne on short pedicels, in compact erect villose clusters ; it is obovate 
or oblong, bright scarlet, marked by scattered pale lenticels, and more or less villose or pubescent 
toward the ends ; the calyx is prominent and persistent, with a long tube and broad shallow cavity, 
and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, finely glandular-serrate, villose, 
dark red on the upper side below the middle, and spreading or erect ; the flesh is thick, yellow, dry, 
and mealy. The five nutlets are thick, broadly ridged on the back, and five sixteenths of an inch in 
length. 

Crataegus Champlainensis grows on heavy clay soil, and is a frequent inhabitant of the limestone 
ridges of the Champlain valley, from Middlebury, Vermont, and Crown Point, New York, northward, 
and of the valley of the St. Lawrence, where it has been found at Chateaugay, Adirondack Junction, 
and Caughnawaga in the Province of Quebec, and where it was discovered in September, 1899, by 
Mr. J. G. Jack. 1 

1 John George Jack (April 15, 1861) was born at Chateaugay father's family about 1830, and later engaged in farming and in 
near Montreal in the Province of Quebec, the son of a Scotch fruit-growing until his death in 1900, testing during his career as a 
farmer of French Huguenot descent who came to Canada with his fruit-grower of more than forty years hundreds of varieties of 



106 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



fruits previously unknown in the Province of Quebec. J. G. Jack's 
early education was obtained principally in the schools near his 
home and in working on his father's farm, and later at Cambridge, 
where he spent two winters in studying entomology with Dr. H. A. 
Hagen. He spent the summer of 1883 in the private horticultural 
experiment grounds of Mr. E. S. Carmen, editor of The Rural New 
Yorker, at River Edge, New Jersey, and in 1886 he became con- 
nected with the Arnold Arboretum as an assistant and teacher of 
dendrology. He passed the summers of 1898 and 1900 as an agent 



of the Geological Survey and of the Department of Agriculture 
of the United States in exploring the forests of central Colorado 
and of the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming. In 1900 Mr. Jack 
became instructor in dendrology in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, in addition to his duties in the Arboretum. For many 
years he was a constant contributor to Garden and Forest. In the 
neighborhood of Montreal he has discovered a number of pre- 
viously unknown forms of Crataegus. (See Sargent, Rhodora iii 
71.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXIX. Crataegus Champlainensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. The end of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North. America. 



Tab. dclxi>: 



5 




C E.Faccon/ del>. 



CRATAEGUS CHAMPLAINENSIS,Sar6. 

o 



Ilapirie/ . 



A.Hzocr'eiuc' direeo^ 



Imp . J. Teuteur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 107 



CRATAEGUS ANOMALA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers bright red. Leaves ovate, acutely lobed, membranaceous, 
yellow-green. 

Crataegus anomala, Sargent, Rhodora, iii. 74 (1901). 

A bushy tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a short trunk six inches in diameter covered 
with pale gray-brown scaly bark, and stout ascending branches. The branchlets, which are slender 
and somewhat zigzag, are marked by pale lenticels and armed with numerous stout straight or slightly 
curved bright chestnut-brown spines from an inch and a quarter to two inches in length ; when they 
first appear they are dark green and villose, with long matted white hairs, and during their first season 
they are puberulous and light orange-brown, becoming in their second year orange-brown or bright red. 
The leaves are ovate, acute, divided above the middle into five or six pairs of short acute or acuminate 
lobes, and coarsely doubly serrate, with spreading glandular teeth except toward the broadly cuneate or 
occasionally rounded base ; as they unfold they are conspicuously plicate, scabrous above, with short 
appressed pale hairs, and villose below, particularly along the slender midribs and thin remote primary 
veins which arch to the points of the lobes and are only slightly impressed on the upper side ; at 
maturity they are membranaceous, yellow-green, smooth and glabrous on the upper surface, paler 
and villose on the lower surface, from two and a half to three inches long and from two to three 
inches wide ; they are borne on stout slightly grooved petioles glandular on the upper side, with 
scattered dark glands, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The stipules are 
linear-lanceolate or, on leading vigorous shoots, falcate and very oblique at the base, and often half 
an inch long. The flowers, which are half an inch in diameter and become distinctly saucer-shaped 
when fully expanded, open at the end of May, and are borne on elongated slender pedicels, in broad 
loose many-flowered thin-branched villose corymbs, with lanceolate or oblanceolate finely glandular- 
serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and covered with a thick coat of long 
matted pale hairs, and the lobes are elongated, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, pubescent on the 
lower surface, and tomentose on the upper surface. There are usually ten but occasionally seven or 
eight stamens with large bright red anthers, and four or five styles which are surrounded at the base 
by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens in October and hangs on slender stems from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length, in loose many-fruited slightly villose clusters ; it is 
obovate to oblong, gradually narrowed to the rounded base, crimson, lustrous, marked by large pale 
scattered dots, and slightly villose, particularly toward the full and rounded apex, from three quarters 
to seven eighths of an inch long and from one half to five eighths of an inch wide ; the calyx is large 
and prominent, with a broad shallow cavity, and elongated acuminate lobes which are abruptly narrowed 
from broad bases, dark red on the upper side, tomentose, finely glandular-serrate, spreading or closely 
appressed, and often deciduous before the ripening of the fruit ; the flesh is thin, light yellow, and 
somewhat juicy. The four or five nutlets are thin, prominently and irregularly ridged on the back, and 
from one quarter to five sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Crataegus anomala, of which only a few individuals are now known, inhabits the low limestone 
ridges near the banks of the St. Lawrence River in the Caughnawaga Indian Reservation opposite 
Lachine in the Province of Quebec. It was discovered in May, 1900, by Mr. J. G. Jack. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXX. Crat^gus anomala. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



•Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCLXX. 




G-E.Fcueow dei/. 



Rapine* so. 



CRATAEGUS AN0MALA,Sar6. 



A.Riocreica> direa>? 



Imp. J.Tari&ur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 109 



CRATAEGUS ELLWANGERIANA. 
Scarlet Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves oval, rounded or broadly cuneate at the 
base, membranaceous. 

Crataegus Ellwangeriana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 118 (1902). 

A tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk often a foot in diameter covered with 
pale gray bark broken into small closely appressed scales, and divided into several ascending branches 
which form a broad symmetrical head ; or frequently shrub-like, with numerous stems springing from 
a single root, and beginning to flower when only six or eight feet tall. The branchlets are slender, 
zigzag, marked by occasional small pale lenticels, and armed with stout straight or somewhat curved 
dark chestnut-brown shining spines from an inch and a half to two inches in length, or unarmed ; when 
they first appear they are dark green and covered with long matted pale hairs, and during their first 
summer they are light chestnut-brown and slightly villose, becoming dark chestnut-brown and very 
lustrous in their second year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are oval, acute at the apex, full 
and rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, irregularly divided, usually only above the middle, into 
numerous short acute lobes, and coarsely and often doubly serrate, with straight or incurved glandular 
teeth ; about half grown when the flowers open the middle of May, they are then roughened above 
by short pale hairs, and villose below along the slender midribs and primary veins, and in the autumn 
they are membranaceous, light green and scabrous on the upper surface, pale and nearly glabrous on 
the lower surface, from two inches and a half to three inches and a half long and from two to three 
inches wide ; they are borne on slender nearly terete petioles which, at first villose, are finally glabrous 
and vary from an inch and a half to two inches in length. The stipules are oblong-obovate, acute, 
villose, coarsely glandular-serrate, and half an inch long, those of upper leaves being mostly persistent 
until after the ripening of the fruit. The flowers are an inch in diameter, and are produced on short 
stout pedicels, in many-flowered densely villose corymbs, with lanceolate coarsely serrate caducous 
bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and villose, and the lobes are elongated, 
lanceolate, glandular, with small pale stalked glands, villose on both surfaces, and generally reflexed 
after the flowers open. There are usually ten but sometimes eight stamens with small rose-colored 
anthers, and from three to five styles. The fruit, which ripens and falls from the middle to the end of 
September, is borne on slender glabrous pedicels from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in 
length, in drooping villose many-fruited crowded clusters ; it is oblong, full, and rounded at the ends, 
bright crimson, very lustrous, covered, particularly near the ends, with scattered pale hairs, about an inch 
long and from one half to three quarters of an inch wide ; the calyx-cavity is narrow and shallow, and 
the lobes are elongated, glandular-serrate above the middle, villose on the inner surface, and spreading, 
or erect and incurved ; the flesh is thin, yellow, juicy, and acid. The nutlets, which vary from three to 
five in number and from one quarter to one third of an inch in length, are thick, pale brown, and 
deeply and often doubly and irregularly grooved on the back. 

Crataegus Ellwangeriana is common in the neighborhood of Rochester, New York. 

This handsome Thorn-tree, which is one of the largest and most beautiful in the northern states, 
was named for Mr. George Ellwanger, 1 the distinguished horticulturist, in whose nurseries at Rochester a 

1 George Ellwanger (December 2, 1816) was bom in the pic- Wiirtemburg, where be attended the village school until the age of 
turesque village of Gross-Heppacb in the valley of the Rems in fourteen, and from early childhood assisted his father, who was a 



110 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



tree of this species, still standing, was large enough sixty years ago to be an object of interest and 
consideration. 



vineyardist and small farmer. Realizing that his native land, im- 
poverished by the Napoleonic wars, offered to the rural population 
little opportunity for advancement, George Ellwanger, while still a 
boy, turned his thoughts to America, and having determined to emi- 
grate to the United States, apprenticed himself for four years in 
the principal horticultural establishment in Stuttgart, in order to 
learn the nursery and florist business, paying a hundred guilders for 
the privilege of working without pay from sunrise to sunset. 

In 1835 George Ellwanger landed in New York, and after a visit 
to relatives in Ohio settled in Rochester, which had attracted his 
attention on his journey westward over the Erie Canal. The fol- 
lowing spring he became the manager of Reynolds & Bateham's 
nursery in that town, then the only commercial horticultural estab- 
lishment in western New York, and in the spring of 1838, the pro- 
prietors having dissolved partnership, their nursery came into his 
possession. The following year Mr. Ellwanger purchased part of 
the land now occupied by the Mount Hope nurseries, and planted 
the best selected and most complete collection of fruit-trees which 
had been brought to this country. This standard and carefully 
named collection laid the foundation of the great usefulness and 
prosperity of the Mount Hope nurseries, which for more than sixty 
years have been an important factor in the development of horti- 
cultural and rural prosperity in the United States, and have made 
Rochester the chief horticultural centre in America. 

In 1840 Mr. Ellwanger associated with himself Mr. Patrick 



Barry, and although in 1843 a disastrous fire destroyed nearly all 
their growing stock and the buildings of the nursery, the career of 
the firm has been one of great and sustained enterprise and suc- 
cess ; and from the fruit-trees propagated at Mount Hope have 
sprung the orchards of the west and of Japan. The wealth which 
his industry, intelligence, and force of character has brought to Mr. 
Ellwanger has been liberally used for the benefit of the public. In 
1890 the firm presented to the city of Rochester Highland Park, with 
its great pavilion dedicated for all time to the children of the city. 
In 1890 Mr. EllwaDger established and endowed in Rochester a home 
for aged Germans, and in 1893 he restored the old church in his 
native village. He is vice-president of the Reynolds Library Asso- 
ciation of Rochester, and a trustee or director of many of the prin- 
cipal oharitable and financial associations of that city, to whose 
prosperity and fame he has largely contributed. 

1 The tree in the Mount Hope nurseries at Rochester which first 
attracted my attention to this species was measured in July, 1901, 
by Mr. C. C. Laney, the superintendent of the Rochester Parks, 
who found it to be 23.4 feet high, with a spread of branches of 26.6 
feet from north to south, and of 29 feet from east to west, and 
with a trunk circumference of 3.68 feet at the level of the ground, 
of 3.35 feet at 3 feet above the ground, and of 3.45 feet at 5.5 
feet above the ground at the point where it begins to divide into 
three principal branches. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXI. Crataegus Ellwangeriana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. A fruit cut transversely, showing the nutlets. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North Aiiierica 



Ta"b.DCLXXI 




C.JS.Facgon, deZ. 



CRATAEGUS ELWANGERIANA, Sar§. 

AJ&ocreuaz dir&r-^ Imp.J.Taneur f Paris. 



Rapine^ j&. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. Ill 



CRATAEGUS PRINGLEI. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 10 ; anthers dark purple. Leaves oval, acute, thin, bright 
yellow-green, drooping, and often convex. 

Crataegus Pringlei, Sargent, Rhodora, iii. 21 (1901). 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with a tall trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter 
covered with thin bark readily separating in large flakes broken into small loose dark red-brown 
scales, and stout branches which form a wide symmetrical head. The branchlets are of medium 
stoutness, slightly zigzag, marked by small pale lenticels, and armed with thick straight or somewhat 
curved chestnut-brown spines often an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are 
dark green and villose, and soon becoming glabrous they are chestnut-brown and lustrous during their 
first summer, bright orange-brown during their second year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are 
oval, acute at the apex, rounded or often abruptly narrowed and cuneate at the base, occasionally 
irregularly lobed above the middle, with short broad acute lobes, and coarsely and often doubly serrate, 
with glandular teeth ; as they unfold they are villose on both surfaces and often more or less tinged 
with red, and when the flowers open, usually during the last week of May, they are roughened above 
by short closely appressed pale hairs and glabrous below with the exception of a few hairs on the 
slender midribs and remote primary veins ; and at maturity they are thin, glabrous and bright yellow- 
green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from two inches to two inches and a half 
long and from an inch and three quarters to two inches and a quarter wide ; they are usually con- 
spicuously concave by the gradual turning down of the blades from the midribs to the margins, and 
droop on thin slender glandular petioles which, villose at first, are ultimately glabrous, and from an 
inch to an inch and three quarters in length. The stipules are slightly falcate, conspicuously glandular- 
serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are sometimes truncate or slightly cordate 
at the base, and frequently three inches long and broad. The flowers, which are about three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, are produced in many-flowered compound thin-branched villose corymbs, with 
linear acute straight or falcate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and villose, 
particularly toward the base, and the lobes are narrow, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, and villose 
on both surfaces or only on the inner surface, and generally reflexed after the flowers open. There are 
usually ten but occasionally from five to ten stamens with slender elongated filaments and small purple 
anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by conspicuous tufts of pale tomentum. 
The fruit, which ripens and falls late in September or early in October, is borne on stout pedicels 
often three quarters of an inch in length, in erect villose mostly few-fruited clusters ; it is oblong, dark 
dull red marked by a few large dark dots, villose at the ends, with long scattered pale hairs, three 
quarters of an inch long and about five eighths of an inch thick ; the calyx-cavity is deep and narrow, 
and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, glandular-serrate, and often erect ; 
the flesh is thick, yellow, dry, and acid, with a disagreeable flavor. The nutlets, which vary from three 
to five in number, are rounded and slightly ridged on the back, and a third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus Pringlei is distributed from southern New Hampshire through the Champlain valley, 
where it is common on both sides of Lake Champlain as far north at least as Burlington, Vermont, to 
Rochester, New York, and Toronto, Canada, and through the southern peninsula of Michigan to 
Barrington, Illinois. 



112 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



First collected in May, 1877, at Charlotte, Vermont, by Mr. C. G. Pringle, 1 it has been 
confounded with both Crataegus tomentosa and Cratozgus mollis until its distinct characters were 
first pointed out in 1900 by Mr. Ezra Brainerd. 2 



i See ix. 129. 

2 Ezra Brainerd (December 17, 1844) was born at St. Albans, 
Vermont, where he passed his early life and was prepared for col- 
lege. In the autumn of 1860 he entered Middlebury College, from 
which he was graduated in 1864 with the highest honors, and was 
appointed a tutor for the following year. After serving his college 
for two years as tutor Mr. Brainerd entered the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover, Massachusetts, and in 1868 was appointed to the 
chair of rhetoric and English literature in Middlebury, a position 
which he filled until 1880, when he was made professor of physics 



and applied mathematics. Six years later he was elected the eighth 
president of his college. President Brainerd has devoted much 
study to natural sciences, and has contributed to the knowledge 
of the botany and geology of Vermont. During the last three 
years he has made a, careful and thorough investigation of the 
numerous species of Crataegus in the upper Champlain valley, and 
has discovered several new and interesting forms, including the 
handsome shrub which connects his name with the flora of his 
native state. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXII. Crat^sgus Pringlei. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of "North America. 



Tat. DGLXX1I. 



,/V/v, 



A/" \ ^M /A \ , 




C.jE.FcLxor^ del. 



-Zartcvucl- j 



CRAT^GUS PRINGLEI, Sar§. 

A.72u?oreux> direct}? Imp. J-Tcmesur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 113 



CRATAEGUS DILATATA. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly ovate, membranaceous, dark 
green. 

Crataegus dilatata, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 9 (1901). 

A tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a tall straight stem covered with light gray-brown 
bark broken into small thick plate-like scales, and spreading branches which form a wide round-topped 
symmetrical head ; or often a tall broad shrub with many stout stems. The branchlets are slender, 
glabrous, slightly zigzag, marked by numerous large pale lenticels, and armed with few stout straight 
light chestnut-brown shining spines from one to two inches in length, or occasionally nearly spineless; 
when they first appear they are dark green more or less tinged with red, and during their first summer 
they become light chestnut-brown and very lustrous and ashy gray in their second year. The leaves 
are broadly ovate, acute, truncate, cordate or slightly rounded at the broad base, coarsely and except at 
the base generally doubly and irregularly serrate, with straight teeth tipped with large dark glands, and 
unequally lobed, usually with two or three pairs of acute or acuminate lateral lobes ; when the flowers 
open at the end of May they are about a third grown and are then light yellow-green, conspicuously 
plicate, roughened on the upper surface by short stiff white hairs and glabrous on the lower surface, 
and in the autumn they are smooth and glabrous, dark green above, pale below, from two inches to two 
inches and a half long and almost as wide as they are long, with slender midribs and four or five pairs 
of thin primary veins only slightly impressed on the upper side j they are borne on slender grooved 
somewhat glandular petioles, at first villose but soon glabrous, often dark red toward the base after 
midsummer, and from one to two inches long. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, glandular, with dark 
red glands, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often four or five inches long 
and frequently rather broader than they are long, and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, and often 
half an inch in length. The flowers are from an inch to an inch and an eighth in diameter, and are 
produced on slender elongated pedicels, in broad loose many-flowered compound slightly villose corymbs, 
with lanceolate bracts and bractlets glandular, like the inner bud-scales, with dark red glands. The 
calyx-tube is broadly obconic, covered toward the base with matted pale hairs or nearly glabrous, and 
the lobes are broad, acuminate, coarsely glandular, with large stalked dark red glands, glabrous on the 
outer surface and generally slightly villose on the inner surface. There are twenty stamens with slender 
elongated filaments and large rose-colored anthers, and usually five styles surrounded at the base by 
small tufts of white hairs. The fruit, which ripens and falls early in September, hangs in many- 
fruited drooping clusters, and is subglobose, bright scarlet, lustrous, marked by numerous small dark 
dots, and about three quarters of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is much enlarged, with a broad 
shallow cup and spreading coarsely serrate lobes bright red on the upper side of their broad bases ; the 
flesh is thin, sweet, and yellow. The five nutlets are comparatively small for the size of the fruit, 
rounded and prominently ridged on the back, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus dilatata grows along the low borders of salt marshes and estuaries from Ipswich to 
Somerset, Massachusetts, on the shores of Mount Hope Bay in Tiverton, Rhode Island, on rich hillsides 



114 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, rosacea. 

in the Champlain valley of southwestern Vermont, and probably ranges northward to the valley of 
the St. Lawrence River. 1 

1 Specimens of what is probably this species have been collected September, is described, however, by Mr. Jack as pink and juicy, 

by Mr. J. G. Jack at Caughnawaga on the southern bank of the St. The flesh of the fruit of the earlier ripeniug Massachusetts plant 

Lawrence River opposite Lachine. The flesh of the fruit of the appears to be always dry and yellow. 
Canadian plant, which does not ripen and fall until the very end of 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXIII. Crataegus dilatata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. Leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat.DCLXXIII. 




C.KFeuaon del 



Rapine so. 



CRATAEGUS DILATATA, Sarfi. 



A.RLocreucD dtrea> '. 



Imp. J. TaneiLr .Tar'tf 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 115 



CRATAEGUS COCCINIOIDES. 

Red Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly ovate, acute, sharply lobed, thin, 
dull green. 

Crataegus coccinioides, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Crataegus Bggertii, Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i. 447 
Soc. xvi. pt. ii. 74 (February, 1900). (in part) (March, 1900) ; Man. 520. 

A tree, sometimes twenty feet in height, with a stem eight or ten inches in diameter covered with 
dark brown bark broken into small closely appressed scales, and stout spreading light gray branches 
forming a broad handsome head. The branchlets are stout, nearly straight, marked by small scattered 
pale lenticels, and armed with thick dark reddish purple shining spines which are rather remote from 
each other and from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; when they first appear the branchlets 
are glabrous, dark green, and more or less tinged with red, becoming bright chestnut-brown and very 
lustrous before autumn, gray or reddish brown during their second year, and dull ashy gray during 
their third season. The leaves are broadly ovate, acute, full and rounded or truncate, and on vigorous 
shoots frequently more or less cordate, at the base, sharply and often doubly serrate, with straight 
glandular teeth, and divided above the middle into a number of short acute lobes ; as they unfold they 
are conspicuously plicate, very lustrous, yellow-green, and villose on the lower side of the midribs, with 
a few short pale hairs which are usually persistent during the season ; they soon lose their lustre, and at 
maturity the leaves are thin but firm in texture, rather rigid, dull dark green and smooth on the upper 
surface, pale on the lower surface, from two inches and a half to three inches long, and on vigorous 
shoots often three inches and a half long and broad, with thin pale yellow midribs deeply impressed 
above and often bright red toward the base after midsummer, and slender primary veins arching to the 
points of the lobes ; they are borne on slender ridged petioles slightly grooved and glandular on the 
upper side, with minute stalked dark red glands, at first villose but soon glabrous, often bright red or 
pink toward the base, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The stipules are 
coarsely serrate, with gland-tipped teeth, and are lanceolate, and on leading shoots often lunate. Late 
in October the leaves turn gradually bright orange and scarlet. The flowers, which open early in May 
and are an inch and a quarter in diameter, are produced in very compact five to seven-flowered 
glabrous or slightly villose corymbs, with coarsely serrate oblong-obovate acute bracts and bractlets, 
conspicuous like the inner bud-scales from their large bright red glands. The calyx-tube is broadly 
obconic and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, and coarsely glandular-serrate. 
There are twenty stamens with stout filaments and large rose-colored anthers, and five styles surrounded 
at the base by a ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens early in October and falls gradually 
during a month or six weeks, is borne on stout bright red pedicels about half an inch long, in few- 
fruited erect compact clusters ; it is subglobose, much flattened at the ends, with a deep cavity at the 
insertion of the stalk, often obscurely five-angled, dark crimson, very lustrous, marked by numerous 
large pale dots, and about three quarters of an inch long and seven eighths of an inch broad ; the calyx 
is much enlarged and conspicuous, with a broad deep cavity and spreading or erect lobes bright red 
on the upper side near the base ; the flesh is thick, firm, subacid, and more or less deeply tinged with 
red. The five nutlets, which are small in comparison with the size of the fruit, are light-colored and 
are rounded and slightly ridged on the back, and about one third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus coccinioides inhabits rather dry woods, and is distributed from the neighborhood of St. 



116 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Louis to eastern Kansas. 1 It appears to have been first noticed in October, 1882, at Allenton, Mis- 
souri, by Mr. George W. Letterman, by whom the following year seeds were sent to the Arnold 
Arboretum, where this interesting tree has grown to a large size and flowers and fruits profusely every 

year. 2 

1 In April and October, 1895, Crataegus coccinioides was collected by the large leaves. It is beautiful, however, in the autumn when 



by Mr. J. B. S. Norton in Riley County, Kansas (No. 146). 

2 In spite of its large and very beautiful individual flowers and 
fruits and handsome foliage, Crataegus coccinioides is not one of the 
showiest of the American Thorns, as the flowers and fruits are pro- 
duced in such compact clusters that they are often nearly hidden 



the foliage is turning, and the brilliancy of the bright orange and 
scarlet leaves at the ends of the leading branches is heightened by 
contrast with the dark green leaves with their red petioles on the 
lateral branchlets. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXIV. Crataegus coccinioides. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, the petals removed, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DCLXXIV. 



V^A 




CH.Faason, del. 



Hapin& so. 



CRATAEGUS COCCINIO IDES, Ashe 

A.RLocreux> cSreayf Imp.J.TaJveur.Parir. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 117 



CRATAEGUS LOBULATA. 

Red Haw. 

Stamens usually 10 ; anthers dark red-purple. Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 
acutely lobed, membranaceous, dark yellow-green. 

Crataegus lobulata, Sargent, Ehodora, in. 22 (1901). 

A tree, occasionally thirty-five feet in height, with a straight trunk often a foot in diameter 
covered with dark red-brown fissured bark broken into small thick plate-like scales, and stout generally 
ascending light gray-brown branches forming an open usually narrow irregular head. The branchlets 
are thin, slightly zigzag, marked by many small pale lenticels, and armed with numerous stout nearly 
straight chestnut-brown spines rarely more than an inch in length ; dark green and coated with matted 
pale hairs when they first appear, they become bright chestnut-brown and very lustrous during their 
first season, and light orange-brown in their second year. The leaves vary from oval to oblong-ovate, 
and are acute at the apex, broadly cuneate or rounded at the entire base, sharply and often doubly 
serrate above, with straight glandular teeth, and deeply divided into numerous narrow acute or acuminate 
lobes, with tips which are spreading or point to the apex or to the base of the leaf ; when they first 
appear and until after the opening of the flowers during the last week in May, when they are about 
half grown, the leaves are covered above with short soft pale hairs and are slightly pubescent below 
along the slender midribs and thin primary veins arching to the points of the lobes, and at maturity 
they are thin, dark yellow-green and glabrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, with 
occasional short white hairs toward the base of the midribs, from two inches and a half to three 
inches and a half in length and from two inches to two inches and a half in width ; they are borne on 
slender nearly terete slightly grooved petioles tomentose at first, particularly toward the base, and at 
maturity pubescent or nearly glabrous, bright red, and from an inch to an inch and a half in length. 
The stipules are linear, acuminate, bright red before fading, and caducous. The flowers are three 
quarters of an inch in diameter on elongated slender pedicels, in rather compact many-flowered thin- 
branched tomentose compound corymbs, with linear-lanceolate glandular-serrate bright red bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, glabrous or villose toward the base, and dark red, and 
the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, glabrous, and coarsely glandular-serrate, with 
large dark red stipitate glands. There are usually ten but occasionally from five to ten stamens with 
slender elongated filaments and small dark reddish purple anthers, and from three to five styles 
sometimes surrounded at the base by a ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens and falls early 
in October, is borne in erect compact slightly tomentose clusters, on short stout pedicels ; it is oblong, 
somewhat flattened at the full and rounded ends, bright crimson, very lustrous, marked by occasional 
small white dots, and about three quarters of an inch long and five eighths of an inch thick ; the 
calyx-cavity is deep and narrow, and the lobes are small, lanceolate, coarsely glandular-serrate, tomentose 
on the upper surface, erect and incurved, and persistent ; the flesh is thick, yellow, sweet, and juicy. 
The nutlets vary from three to five in number, and are thin, dark-colored, ridged and often grooved 
on the back, and a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus lobulata inhabits the Champlain valley, where it is not rare, from Middlebury, 
Vermont, and Crown Point, New York, as far north at least as Burlington, Vermont, and ranges 
southward through western Massachusetts to northern Connecticut. 1 It is one of the largest of the 

1 Crataegus lobulata was collected on August 29, 1901, by Mr. C. H. Bissell ou Shelden's Cove near Lyme. 



118 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

Thorns of the northern states, and in the autumn, when it is covered with its large and abundant fruits, 
it is not surpassed in beauty by many other species of the genus. 

Crataegus lobulata appears to have been first collected in September, 1899, by Mr. Ezra Brainerd 
at Crown Point, where a number of trees of this species have grown to a large size on the slopes and 
in the ditch of the abandoned fort, which is now nearly covered with great thickets of Crataegus of 
several species. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXV. Crataegus lobulata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of "North America. 



M^\ 



Tab.DCLXXV. 







CU.FazDorudels. 



GRATiGGU-S LOBULATA , Sar^ 

. _. ,. -t Imp. J.Tarueurfaris. 



JLapirie/ sc<. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 119 



CRATAEGUS HOLMESIANA. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens usually 5 ; anthers dark reddish purple. Leaves oval or ovate, acute, 
thick and firm, pale yellow green. 

Crataegus Holmesiana, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. xvi. pt. ii. 78 (1900). — Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 10; 

Rhodora, iii. 76. 

A tree, often thirty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk from ten to fifteen inches in diameter 
covered with pale gray-brown or nearly white bark broken into small thin closely appressed scales, and 
stout ascending branches forming an open irregular or a broad compact head. The branchlets are 
stout, nearly straight or sometimes zigzag, marked by small oblong dark lenticels, and armed with 
infrequent thick mostly straight bright chestnut-brown shining spines from an inch and a half to two 
inches in length ; when they first appear they are glabrous or rarely puberulous 1 and dark green more 
or less tinged with red ; and during their first season they become bright chestnut-brown or orange- 
brown and lustrous, lighter colored during their second season, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves 
are oval or ovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, coarsely and, 
above the middle, doubly serrate, with spreading teeth tipped at first, with prominent dark red caducous 
glands, and usually lobed with three or four pairs of short acute or acuminate lateral lobes ; generally 
dark red and glabrous or sometimes villose on the lower surface and coated with rigid pale hairs on the 
upper surface when they unfold, they are scabrous above, pale yellow-green and nearly half grown when 
the flowers open early in May, and in the autumn they are thick and firm in texture, almost smooth, 
conspicuously yellow-green, and usually about two inches long and an inch and three quarters wide, 
with prominent midribs often bright red on the lower side toward the base of the leaf, and from four to 
six pairs of slender primary veins arching to the points of the lobes and deeply impressed on the upper 
side ; they are borne on slender nearly terete slightly grooved glandular petioles which are glabrous or 
sometimes puberulous while young, and from an inch to an inch and a half in length. The stipules 
are linear or lunate and are small, glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the 
leaves are often broadly ovate, truncate or slightly cordate at the base, frequently four inches long and 
three inches wide, and more coarsely serrate and more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets. 
The flowers are cup-shaped and from one half to three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced 
on slender elongated pedicels, in loose compound glabrous or rarely puberulous many-flowered corymbs, 
with oblanceolate or linear acute glandular caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly 
obconic, glabrous, more or less deeply tinged with red, and the lobes are elongated, acuminate, 
glandular-serrate or often nearly entire, and generally reflexed after the flowers open. There are 
usually five but sometimes six, seven, or eight stamens with stout filaments and large dark reddish 
purple anthers, and generally three styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. 
The fruit ripens and falls early in September, and hangs gracefully on slender pedicels, in many- 
fruited drooping clusters ; it is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, crimson, very lustrous, marked 
by occasional small dark dots, and crowned with the conspicuous erect and incurved glandular-serrate 

1 Crataegus Holmesiana is usually glabrous with the exception of and veins (Crataegus Holmesiana villipes, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell 

the upper surface of the young leaves, but on the trees which grow Sci. Soc. xvii. pt. ii. 11 [1901]). A few hairs can occasionally be 

in meadows at Sellersville, Pennsylvania, the young branchlets, found on the corymbs of New England plants, although they are 

petioles, and corymbs are often puberulous, and the under surfaces generally glabrous. 
of the leaves are more or less villose, particularly along the midribs 



120 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

calyx-lobes, which are bright red toward the base on the upper side ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and 
mealy, with a disagreeable flavor. The nutlets are usually three in number and are light chestnut- 
brown, prominently grooved and ridged on the back, with broad rounded ridges, and about a quarter of 
an inch long. 

Crataegus Holmesiana grows on rich moist hillsides and the borders of streams and swamps, and 
is easily distinguished by its pale bark and the distinctly yellow color of the leaves, and in eastern 
New England by its large size. It is distributed from the neighborhood of Montreal and from 
southern Ontario to the coast of Maine, central and western Massachusetts, western New York, Ehode 
Island, and eastern Pennsylvania, being perhaps most abundant and attaining its largest size on the 
hills of Worcester County, Massachusetts. 1 

This handsome tree was named for Joseph Austin Holmes, 2 director of the Geological Survey of 
North Carolina. 

1 Crataegus Holmesiana is one of the species which has been long 2 Joseph Austin Holmes (November 28, 1859) was born in Lau- 

confounded with Crataegus coccinea of Linnaeus. The oldest speci- rens, South Carolina, where he received his early education. He 

men which I have seen is one in the Gray Herbarium, without was graduated from Cornell University in 1881, and was at once 

date or name of collector, from northern New York. A specimen appointed professor of geology and natural history in the Univer- 

collected at Haverhill, New Hampshire, by Mr. Edwin Faxon in sity of North Carolina. From this position he retired in 1891 to 

June, 1885, led to the investigation of this tree in New England, become director of the geological survey of that state, a position 

and its subsequent discovery in other parts of the country. which he still fills. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXVI. Crataegus Holmesiana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of TSSorth 'America. 



Tatj.DCLXXVI. 




C.E.JFaaso7z>del/. 



CRATAEGUS HOLME SI ANA, AsKe. 

A.Jhocreuay dtrea>? Imp.t/.Tcuieur.JPcwur, 



£artaAu£> . 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 121 



CRAT^JGUS PEDICELLATA. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly ovate or oval, dark green, 
and scabrous above. 

Crataegus pedicellata, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, m i. 226 (1901). 

A tree, eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk sometimes a foot in diameter covered 
with close red-brown scaly bark, and comparatively slender elongated ascending or spreading branches 
which form a broad handsome symmetrical head. The branchlets are thin, somewhat zigzag, marked 
by numerous small pale lenticels, and armed with straight or slightly curved shining chestnut-brown 
spines from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; when they first appear they are dark chestnut- 
brown and slightly villose, and during their first season become very lustrous, and ashy gray in their 
second year. The winter-buds are nearly globose, bright red, and an eighth of an inch in diameter. 
The leaves are broadly ovate or occasionally obovate or rhomboidal, acute or acuminate, broadly 
cuneate or rounded, and on vigorous leading shoots sometimes truncate or slightly cordate at the base, 
divided above the middle into four or five pairs of short acute or acuminate lobes and coarsely and 
often doubly serrate, except toward the base, with spreading glandular teeth ; in early spring they 
are roughened above by short rigid pale hairs and are glabrous below, and at maturity they are mem- 
branaceous, dark rich green and scabrous on the upper surface and pale on the lower surface, from three 
to four inches long and from two to three inches wide, with slender midribs only slightly impressed 
above and thin remote primary veins arching to the points of the lobes ; they are borne on slender 
slightly grooved nearly terete petioles which are glandular, with obscure scattered minute dark glands, 
at first villose, ultimately glabrous, and from an inch and a half to two inches and a half in length. 
The stipules on vigorous shoots are strongly falcate, stipitate, coarsely glandular-serrate, and one third 
of an inch long. The flowers, which open during the last week in May when the leaves are nearly two 
thirds grown, are half an inch in diameter and are borne on thin pedicels, in loose lax many-flowered 
slender-branched slightly villose corymbs, with lanceolate glandular caducous bracts and bractlets. The 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes are broad, acute, very coarsely glandular- 
serrate, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are usually ten stamens with elongated filaments 
and rose-colored anthers, and five styles surrounded at the base by a conspicuous ring of pale tomentum. 
The fruit, which mostly falls before the end of September, hangs in few-fruited drooping glabrous 
clusters, on slender pedicels generally about three quarters of an inch in length ; pyrif orm until nearly 
fully grown, it is oblong when ripe, full and rounded at the ends, bright scarlet, lustrous, marked by 
numerous small dark dots, three quarters of an inch long, and from one half to five eighths of an 
inch thick ; the calyx-cavity is broad and deep and the lobes are much enlarged, coarsely serrate, and 
usually erect and incurved ; the flesh is pale, thin, dry, and mealy. The five nutlets are rounded and 
deeply grooved on the back and about one third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus pedicellata is not rare in the neighborhood of Rochester, New York, where it was first 
distinguished in 1899 by Mr. John Dunbar. 1 

1 John Dunbar (June 4, 1859) was born in the parish of Rafford, several large estates in England. Coming to the United States 

Elginshire, Scotland, and was bred a gardener first in the gardens in 1887, he found employment in the garden of Mr. Charles A. 

of Sir William Gordon Cumming at Altyre in his native parish, Dana at Dosoris on Long Island, where he had an excellent oppor- 

which he entered when he was seventeen years old, and then on tunity to become familiar with the trees and shrubs which grow 



122 



SUVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



in the north Atlantic states. This knowledge he has turned to During the last three years Mr. Dunbar has carefully studied the 

good account in Rochester, where he is now assistant superin- numerous species of Crataegus which abound near Rochester in the 

tendent of the city parks, and has charge of the Pinetum and the valley of the Genesee River, where he has first distinguished a 

large shrub collection in Highland Park. number of interesting forms. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXVIL Crataegus pedicellata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



AT, y$ \ 



Tab.DCLXXVII. 




CE.Fcueon, del. 



Zartcuu£> so. 



CRATAEGUS PEDICELLATA, Saro. 



A.Iliocreuap cHrea^i 



Imp. i7. Tajieur, Parut. 



rosacea. BILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 123 



CRATAEGUS SCABRIDA. 

Haw. 

Stamens usually 10; anthers dark red-purple. Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, 
acuminate, thick and firm, dark green and scabrous above. 

Crataegus scabrida, Sargent, Rhodora, iii. 29; 76 (1901). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a short trunk six or eight inches in diameter 
covered with lustrous pale gray-brown bark broken into large thin plate-like scales, and horizontal 
branches which form a broad round-topped head ; or often shrubby, with numerous small stems. The 
branchlets are stout, somewhat zigzag, glabrous, marked by oblong pale lenticels, and armed with 
slender straight or slightly curved light chestnut-brown spines from an inch and a half to two inches in 
length ; dark orange-green when they first appear, they become dark chestnut-brown or orange-brown 
and lustrous before midsummer, and mostly ashy gray during their second year. The leaves vary from 
oval to oblong-obovate, and are acuminate, gradually narrowed from near the middle to the cuneate 
entire base, irregularly and often doubly glandular serrate above, and usually divided, generally only 
above the middle, into several short acute or acuminate lobes ; glabrous below and coated above with 
short soft pale hairs when the flowers open at the end of May, when they are about half grown, the 
leaves are thick and firm in texture at maturity, dark green and scabrous on the upper surface, pale 
yellow-green on the lower surface, from two to three inches long and from an inch and a half to two 
inches wide, with slender midribs deeply impressed above and often more or less tinged with red below, 
particularly on vigorous shoots, and four or five pairs of thin prominent primary veins running to the 
points of the lobes ; they are borne on slender grooved petioles which are sometimes glandular, often 
slightly winged toward the apex, glabrous or occasionally villose, and from one half to three quarters 
of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, acuminate, and caducous. The flowers are three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender elongated pedicels, in loose broad many-flowered 
thin-branched glabrous or somewhat villose corymbs, with linear acute glandular-serrate bracts and bract- 
lets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes are linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
finely glandular-serrate, and reflexed and bright red at the tips after the flowers open. There are 
usually ten or rarely from five to ten stamens with slender filaments and small dark red-purple anthers, 
and two or three styles surrounded at the base by a thick ring of pale tomentum. The fruit hangs 
in loose drooping many-fruited clusters, on long thin pedicels, and ripens and mostly falls from the 
middle to the end of September ; it is subglobose or short-oblong, full and rounded at the ends, and is 
usually about an inch long ; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and generally only the bases of the 
elongated reflexed lobes are found on the ripe fruit ; the flesh is thick, dry, and mealy. The two or 
three nutlets are thick, rounded and prominently ridged on the back, and a third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus scabrida inhabits limestone ridges and is distributed from the neighborhood of Mon- 
treal 1 to southwestern Vermont and southwestern New Hampshire. Of the specimens of this species 
which I have seen the first was collected by Mr. J. G. Jack in August, 1899, at the village of Caughna- 
waga in the Province of Quebec. 

1 The specimens collected by Mr. Jack at several points opposite petioles and corymbs, but do not otherwise appear to differ from 
Lachine on the St. Lawrence are slightly pubescent on the young the Vermont and New Hampshire trees. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXVIIL Crataegus scabrida. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab.DCLXXVIII 







CE.JF'aeDon, dels. 



ZartaiuL . 



CRATAEGUS SCABRIDA,Sar6 

o 



A.Rlocreua? dzrea>f 



Imp. J. Tan&ur, Pari? 



rosacea SILVA OF NORTE AMERICA. 125 



CRAT^GUS LUCORUM. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers dark purple. Leaves broadly oyate to oval, membranaceous, 
dull dark green. 

Crataegus lucorum, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 227 (1901). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall straight stem six or eight inches in 
diameter covered with close dark red-brown bark, and slender ascending branches forming a narrow 
open head. The branchlets are thin, zigzag, marked by many oblong pale lenticels, and occasionally 
armed with straight or slightly curved bright red-brown lustrous spines from an inch to an inch and a 
half in length ; dark green and somewhat villose when they first appear, they become dull orange-brown 
in their first summer, and ultimately dark gray-brown. The leaves vary from broad-ovate to obovate or 
rarely to oval, and are acute or acuminate at the apex, gradually narrowed and broadly cuneate or full 
and rounded at the entire base, coarsely serrate above, with straight teeth tipped with large persistent 
bright red finally dark glands, and deeply divided above the middle into three or four pairs of wide 
acute or acuminate lobes ; in early May when the flowers open they are more than one third grown and 
are then light yellow-bronze color, covered on the upper surface with short soft pale hairs and glabrous 
on the lower surface, and in the autumn they are membranaceous, smooth, dark dull green and glabrous 
above, pale yellow-green below, about two inches long and an inch and a quarter wide, with slender 
yellow midribs only slightly impressed on the upper side and three or four pairs of thin primary veins 
extending obliquely to the points of the lobes ; they are borne on slender glandular petioles often some- 
what winged toward the apex and from an inch to an inch and a half in length. The stipules vary 
from linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate and are glandular-serrate, from one quarter to one half of an inch 
in length, and caducous. On leading vigorous shoots the leaves are usually ovate and rounded at the 
broad base, more deeply lobed than the leaves of fertile branchlets, and sometimes three inches long 
and broad. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter and are produced on thin pedicels, 
in narrow compact few-flowered thin-branched small villose corymbs, with narrow acuminate finely 
glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and 
the lobes are narrow, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, villose on the upper surface, and reflexed 
after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with slender filaments and small dark purple anthers, 
and four or five styles. The fruit, which ripens about the middle of September and soon falls, is borne 
in erect few-fruited slightly villose clusters, on short stout pedicels ; it is pear-shaped until nearly fully 
grown, and at maturity it is oblong or somewhat obovate, full and rounded at the ends, crimson, 
lustrous, marked by small pale dots, and from one half to five eighths of an inch in length; the 
calyx-cavity is deep but narrow and the lobes are elongated, coarsely glandular-serrate, villose above, 
spreading and closely appressed, and often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, yellow, 
dry, and mealy. The four or five nutlets are thin, rounded and sometimes obscurely ridged on the back, 
and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus lucorum grows in rich moist soil along the margins of Oak groves on the banks of 
sloughs near Barrington, Illinois, and was probably first collected in May, 1899, by Mr. E. J. Hill. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXIX. Crataegus lucorum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of Worth America 



Tab.DCLXXIX 






C£.faaao7if dei , 



Zartazul 



CRATAEGUS LUC0RUM.Sar6. 



A.J&ocreux> d£r&ccs. 



Imp. J.TaTLewr, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 127 



CRATAEGUS LACERA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves rhombic to broadly ovate. 

Crataegus lacera, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 123 (1902). 

A slender tree, from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a tall trunk only four or five inches 
in diameter covered with pale gray-brown scaly bark, and small short branches forming a narrow head. 
The branchlets are slender, slightly zigzag, marked by small oblong pale lenticels, and armed with thin 
straight bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from three quarters of an inch to an inch and three 
quarters in length ; when they first appear they are dark olive-green and villose, becoming light red- 
hrown and glabrous during their first summer, and ultimately dull light gray. The leaves vary from 
rhombic to broadly ovate or rarely to obovate, and are acute at the apex, broadly cuneate and entire at 
the base, divided above the middle into numerous acute lobes, and coarsely and often doubly serrate, 
with straight glandular teeth ; coated below with thick hoary tomentum and villose above when they 
unfold, they are nearly fully grown when the flowers open about the twentieth of April, and are then 
glabrous on the lower surface and covered on the upper surface with short scattered pale hairs ; and at 
maturity they are glabrous, light yellow-green, paler below than above, thin but firm in texture, about 
an inch and a half long and an inch and a quarter wide, with thin yellow midribs and few remote 
primary veins only slightly impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on slender grooved villose 
ultimately glabrous or puberulous petioles slightly winged at the apex, often red toward the base, and 
from one quarter to one third of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, acuminate, villose, and 
caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly ovate, often deeply three-lobed, very 
coarsely serrate, and from three to four inches long and broad, with lunate long-pointed coarsely glan- 
dular-serrate villose stipules sometimes a quarter of an inch in length. The flowers are three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, and are produced in somewhat villose many-flowered compound corymbs, with 
linear caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes 
are linear lanceolate, elongated, coarsely glandular-serrate, glabrous on the outer surface, villose on the 
inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with small rose-colored 
anthers, and four or five styles. The fruit, which ripens toward the end of October, is borne on short 
stout glabrous pedicels, in erect few-fruited clusters ; it is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, bright 
cherry-red, lustrous, marked by occasional large dark dots, and half an inch long; the calyx-cavity 
is broad and shallow, and the lobes are small, nearly triangular, villose above, spreading, and mostly 
deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick and orange color. The nutlets, which vary from 
three to five in number, are thin, broad, only slightly ridged on the rounded back, light brown, and five 
sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus lacera inhabits the low rich glades between the rolling hills which rise above the bottoms 
of the Red River near Fulton, Arkansas, where I first found this handsome and distinct tree on the 
second of October, 1900. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXX. CitATiEGus lacera. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. The end of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America . 



Tab.DCLXXX. 






G 2?. Falcon, del*. 



Zartaud' j-c. 



CRATiEGUS LACERA,Sar6. 



-A. Hiocreua> cSreeof' 



Imp. Jllaneur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 129 



CRATAEGUS PENTANDRA. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens usually 5 ; anthers dark red-purple. Leaves oval to ovate, acuminate, 
dark green and scabrous above. 

Crataegus pentandra, Sargent, Ehodora, iii. 25 (1901). 

A tree, rarely more than fifteen feet in height, with a straight trunk five or six inches in diameter 
covered with thin bark separating into papery lustrous pale scales, and stout branches which form a broad 
rather open head irregular in outline. The branchlets are slender, often zigzag, marked by large pale 
lenticels, and armed with many thick straight or curved bright chestnut-brown or red-brown spines 
from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are dark yellow-green and 
glabrous, becoming in their first summer bright chestnut-brown or sometimes light orange-green when 
the shoots have grown vigorously, and ashy gray in their second year. The leaves are oval or ovate, 
acuminate, broadly cuneate or rarely rounded at the entire base, divided above the middle into numerous 
short acute or acuminate lobes, and coarsely and often doubly serrate, with straight or incurved teeth 
tipped with small dark glands ; nearly fully grown and very thin when the flowers open at the end of 
May, at maturity they are membranaceous, dark green and roughened above with short rigid pale hairs, 
pale and glabrous below, from two inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch and a half 
to two inches wide, with slender yellow midribs and thin primary veins extending to the points of the 
lobes and only slightly impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on slender grooved petioles often 
winged toward the apex, glandular, with minute dark glands, and usually about an inch long. The 
stipules are linear, glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are more 
deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and are often four inches long and three inches 
wide, and their stipules are foliaceous, lunate, very coarsely glandular-serrate, and often half an inch in 
length. The flowers are produced on elongated slender pedicels, in compact compound thin-branched 
few-flowered glabrous corymbs, with linear or oblong-obovate acute glandular bright red bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, glabrous, and dark red, and the lobes are linear- 
lanceolate, entire or finely glandular-serrate, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are usually 
five but occasionally from six to ten stamens with slender filaments and large dark red-purple anthers, 
and three styles surrounded at the base by a thin ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit, which ripens 
about the middle of September and soon falls, is produced in drooping narrow clusters ; it is oblong, 
full and rounded at the ends, dark crimson, lustrous, marked by minute pale dots, and usually about 
five eighths of an inch long and half an inch thick ; the calyx is enlarged and persistent, with elongated 
strongly incurved lobes which are frequently deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is yellow, 
thick, dry, and mealy. The three nutlets are thick, with broad and prominent dorsal ridges, and a 
third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus pentandra is not a rare inhabitant of low hills and limestone ridges in the Champlain 
vaDey of Vermont, where it is distributed from Bennington and Rutland to Charlotte. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXXI. Crataegus pentandra. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 






Tat. DCLXXXI. 










CKFaaori del/. 



Rapine/ sty. 



CRATAEGUS PENTANDRA f Sar6, 



■A.Fiiocreuas' direto^ 



Imp. JT.Tanew, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 131 



CRAT^gEGUS SILVICOLA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers purple. Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, membranaceous, 
yellow-green. 

Crataegus silvicola, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xrviii. 414 (1899). — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 549 {Plant Life of 

Alabama). 

A tree, sometimes thirty feet in height, with a tall straight stem six or eight inches in diameter 
covered with close or slightly fissured bark broken into small gray or red-brown scales, and often armed 
with long stout branched gray spines, and ascending or spreading branches forming a narrow irregidar 
or round-topped head ; or on the dry soil of upland forests usually a shrub with several stems. The 
branchlets are slender, nearly straight, marked by small pale lenticels, and armed with few or many 
thin straight or somewhat curved bright chestnut-brown spines from an inch and a half to nearly two 
inches in length ; when they first appear they are dark green more or less tinged with red and covered 
with long pale scattered white hairs ; soon becoming glabrous, they are bright red-brown during their 
first year, and then gradually growing lighter colored they are ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are 
ovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, full and rounded at the entire base, sharply and often doubly 
serrate, with gland-tipped teeth, and slightly and irregularly divided into short acute lateral lobes ; when 
they unfold they are dark red and coated with short soft pale hairs which are most abundant on the 
upper surface, and are about half grown when the flowers open at the end of April, when they are 
nearly glabrous, and in the autumn they are thin, dark yellow-green and smooth or scabrous above, pale 
and glabrous below or occasionally villose along the under side of the slender midribs and three or 
four pairs of thin primary veins extending to the points of the lobes, about two inches long and from an 
inch and a half to an inch and three quarters wide ; they are borne on very slender grooved glandular 
petioles which are about an inch in length. 1 The stipules are narrow, acuminate, straight or falcate, 
conspicuously glandular-serrate, and bright red like the inner bud-scales. On vigorous leading shoots 
the leaves are often deltoid and truncate or slightly cordate at the base, more coarsely serrate and 
more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and frequently two inches and a half long and 
broad. The flowers are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender 
pedicels, in compact few-flowered thin-branched compound glabrous corymbs, with linear glandular 
caducous bright red bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and glabrous, and the 
lobes are gradually narrowed, acuminate, glabrous, and entire or glandular-serrate. There are ten 
stamens with long filaments and large purple anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at 
the base by a narrow ring of short pale hairs. The fruit, which ripens late in September and soon 
falls, is borne on short pedicels, in erect few-fruited clusters, and is subglobose but often a little 
broader than it is long, red or greenish yellow with a rosy cheek, and about half an inch in diameter, 
with a broad shallow calyx-cavity and spreading calyx-lobes which usually disappear before the fruit 
ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The nutlets vary from three to five in number, and 
are thick, prominently ridged and grooved on the back, with a high broad ridge, and about a quarter 
of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus silvicola is common in the low moist flat woods of northern Alabama and northwestern 

1 Mr. C. D. Beadle has observed that the leaves from the lower branches and of young plants are much rougher to the touch than the 
leaves from upper branches and of large and old trees. 



132 SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. rosacea 

and central Georgia, and is occasionally found in the drier uplands of the surrounding country. It 
was first collected near Dalton, Georgia, in May, 1899, by Mr. F. E. Boynton. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXXIL Crataegus silvicola. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLXXXII. 







CB.Fcucon. deL. 



CRATAEGUS SILVICOLA Bead. 



ZartcuuL so- . 



A.Jiiocreua}' direaz. 



Imp. JTasheur, Paris . 



Rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 133 



CRATAEGUS COCGINEA. 
Red Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves elliptical to obovate, coriaceous, dark 
green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus coccinea, Linnaeus, Spec. i. 476 (1753). — Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 11. 

A bushy tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in 
diameter covered with dark red-brown scaly bark, and stout ascending branches forming a broad 
round-topped symmetrical head ; or often a shrub with many intricately branched stems spreading into 
broad thickets. The branchlets are slender, straight or somewhat zigzag, marked by oblong pale lenti- 
cels and armed with numerous stout straight or slightly curved chestnut-brown lustrous spines from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are light green and covered with 
long matted pale hairs, and soon becoming glabrous they are bright red-brown and lustrous during 
their first year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are elliptical or obovate, acute or acuminate at 
the apex, gradually narrowed from above the middle to the cuneate and entire base, finely and often 
doubly serrate above, with incurved or straight teeth tipped with minute dark glands, and divided 
above the middle into several short acute lateral lobes ; when the flowers open at the end of May 
the leaves are about half grown, and are then membranaceous, light yellow-green, covered on the 
upper surface with soft pale hairs and pubescent along the under side of the thin midribs and four 
or five pairs of arcuate primary veins extending to the points of the lobes ; and in the autumn they 
are coriaceous, dark green, smooth and very lustrous on the upper surface, paler and rarely pilose 
on the veins below, from an inch and a half to two inches long and from an inch to an inch and a 
half wide ; they are borne on slender glandular petioles slightly winged at the apex by the decurrent 
leaf-blades, villose at first but usually glabrous before the autumn, often dark red toward the base, and 
from three quarters of an inch to an inch long. The stipules vary from lanceolate to oblanceolate, 
and are straight or falcate, conspicuously glandular-serrate, with dark red glands, and from one half to 
three quarters of an inch in length. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are oblong-ovate, oval or 
often nearly orbicular, more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and frequently from 
two inches and a half to three inches long. The flowers vary from one half to three quarters of 
an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender pedicels, in broad loose compound thin-branched 
many-flowered villose or tomentose corymbs, with linear-lanceolate coarsely glandular-serrate caducous 
bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and tomentose or villose, and the lobes are 
gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, coarsely glandular-serrate, glabrous or villose, and often 
bright red toward the apex. There are ten stamens with slender filaments and small pale yellow 
anthers, and three or four styles. The fruit ripens and falls late in October, and is borne on short stout 
pedicels, in drooping many-fruited pilose clusters ; it is subglobose but occasionally rather longer 
than broad, dark crimson, marked by scattered dark dots, and about half an inch in diameter ; the 
calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes, which are bright red on the upper side toward the 
base, are wide-spreading or erect ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and sweet. The three or four nutlets 
are prominently ridged on the back, with high grooved ridges, and about a quarter of an inch long. 1 

1 The name Cratcegus coccinea was first used by Linnjeus in the angulatis serratis glabris," had, however, appeared in 1737 in his 
first edition of his Species Plantarum (i. 476) published in 1753. Hortus Cliffortianus. In both works a species of Plukenet (Phyt. 
His description of this species, " Crataegus foliis ovatis repando- Bot. t. 46, f. 4) and a species of Miller (Cat. PL Hort. Angl. t. 13, 



134 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA 



Crataegus coccinea inhabits the slopes of hills and the high banks of salt marshes, growing 
usually in rich well-drained soil from Essex County, Massachusetts, to Newfoundland, usually in the 
neighborhood of the sea, and through the valley of the St. Lawrence to western Quebec. 

A variety of this species, Cratcegus coccinea rotundifolia? often grows with it in the same 
thickets, and can only be distinguished by its glabrous young branches, leaves, and corymbs, while 
connecting these glabrous plants with those which are extremely villose are others which display all 
degrees of variation in the development of their villose covering. Crataegus coccinea rotundifolia is 
one of the commonest New England shrubby Thorns, and ranges southward to eastern Pennsylvania. 2 



f. 1) were referred by Linnaeus to his Crataegus coccinea. Pluke- 
net's plant is preserved in the British Museum. It belongs to the 
mollis group, but the specimen is so meagre that I have been 
unable to identify it. Miller's figure perhaps represents a species 
of the mollis group, but it is certainly not the same plant as the one 
figured by Plukenet, and I am unable to recognize it. The only 
representative of Crataegus coccinea in Linnaeus's herbarium, a 
specimen so labeled by him, is an entirely different plant from 
either of those represented in Plukenet's or Miller's figures which 
Linnaeus had referred to his species. Moreover, the specimen is 
not glabrous but villose on the leaves, corymb, and young branches, 
and the leaves can hardly be described as " repando-angulatis ser- 
ratis." The Linnsean specimen is not dated, and it is therefore 
possible that it was not from this specimen but from Plukenet's or 
Miller's figure that Linnaeus drew his description of Cratcegus coc- 
cinea. There seems in this case, therefore, but one of two courses 
to follow in considering this name. Either the specimen in Lin- 
naeus's herbarium must be ignored as not agreeing with his de- 
scription, and the name dropped entirely because it was given to a 
species founded on two distinct plants, neither of which can be sat- 
isfactorily determined, or the specimen in the Linnsean herbarium 
labeled Crataegus coccinea by Linnaeus himself must be accepted as 
his type of this species. In view of the fact that the name Cra- 
taegus coccinea is one of the best known of the names which have 
been applied to American species of the genus, and as the plant 
labeled Crataegus coccinea by Linnaeus is now known to be a com- 
mon and widely distributed species in the north Atlantic coast 
region, it is perhaps best to consider the specimen in the Linnaean 
herbarium as the type of Crataegus coccinea. 

1 Crataegus coccinea rotundifolia, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 14 
(1901). 

Crataegus rotundifolia, Moencb, Baume Weiss. 29, t. 1 (1785). — 

Poiret, Lamarck Diet. iv. 447. — K. Kocb, Verhandl. Preuss. Gart. 

Vereins, 236 (Crataegus und Mespilus). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 

231. — Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. Cratcegi, 66. 



Mespilus glandulosa, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii. 20 (1788). — Willde- 
now, Enum. 523. — Schmidt, Oestr. Baumz. iv. 33, t. 213. — Wat- 
son, Dendr. Brit. i. 58, t. 58. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 507 (excl. syn. 
Crataegus sanguinea, Pallas). — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 62. — Poiret, 
I. c. Suppl. iv. 69. — K. Koch, Dendr. i. 145 (excl. syn. Crataegus 
sanguinea, Torrey & Gray). 

Crataegus glandulosa, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 84 (excl. syn. 
Crataegus sanguinea}. — Pursh, Fl. i. 337 (excl. syn. Crataegus 
sanguinea). — Wendland, Flora, 1823, ii. 700. — Torrey, Fl. 
Northern and Middle States, 475. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 627 
(excl. syn. Cratosgus sanguinea). — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 1012. — 
Hooker, FL Bar. Am. i. 201. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 817 (in 
part). — Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. i. 120. 

Crataegus horrida, Medicus, Gesch. Bot. 84 (1793). 
Mespilus rotundifolia, Du Roi, Harbk. Baumz. ed. 2, ii. 607 (excl. 
syn. Crataegus glandulosa, Aiton) (1795). — K. Koch, I. c. 148. 

Crataegus coccinea, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiii. t. 1957 (not Lin- 
naeus) (1837).— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 465 (in part) 
(not Linnaeus). 

? Crataegus glandulosa, /8 rotundifolia, Kegel, Act. Hort. Petrop. 
i. 120 (1870). 

Crataegus coccinea, var. macracantha, Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 
96 (in part) (not Dudley) (1892). 

2 The description of Crataegus coccinea in an earlier volume of 
this work (iv. 95) includes a number of forms which are now 
believed to be distinct, although among them is not the plant which 
was called Crataegus coccinea by Linnaeus as shown by his her- 
barium. The description of Crataegus coccinea, var. macracantha 
in that volume was partly drawn from the form now called Cra- 
taegus coccinea rotundifolia. The plate of Crataegus coccinea (t. 130) 
represents one of the thin-leaved shrubby species long confounded 
with Crataegus coccinea, which I have recently described as Cra- 
taegus pastorum (Rhodora, iii. 24 [1901]). 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXXIII. Crataegus coccinea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America, 



Tab. DCLXXXIII. 




^Bf 

1 



6 



C. E.Fazcon, del, . 



CRATAEGUS COCCINEA. L. 

AJlzocreuaz cUrecot Imp. J~.Tarveur, Paris. 



lartazuL so. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 135 



CRATAEGUS JONES-ffi. 

Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves elliptical to ovate, coriaceous, dark green 
and lustrous. 

Crataegus Jonesae, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 14 (1901). Crataegus coccinea macracantha, Kand & Redfield, Fl. 

Mt. Desert Island, 98 (1894). 

A bushy tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a short trunk a foot in diameter covered 
with dark brown scaly bark, and ascending branches forming a broad open irregular head ; or more 
often a tall broad shrub with numerous thick stems. The branchlets are stout, zigzag for many years, 
armed with stout straight or occasionally curved bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from two to three 
inches in length, and usually pointed toward the base of the branch ; when they first appear they are 
dark green, tomentose, and marked by light red oblong lenticels, becoming orange-brown, glabrous, and 
very lustrous during their first season, and light gray in their second year. The leaves vary from 
elliptical to ovate and are acute at the apex, gradually narrowed or broadly cuneate at the entire base, 
coarsely and doubly serrate above, with spreading or incurved teeth tipped with deciduous dark red 
glands, and usually divided above the middle into two or three pairs of short acute or acuminate lobes ; 
when the flowers open during the first week of June they are more than half grown, membranaceous, 
and coated with soft pale hairs, which are most abundant on the under side of the midribs and principal 
veins, and in the autumn they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and very lustrous on the upper 
surface, pale and puberulous on the lower surface, from three to four inches long and from two to three 
inches broad, with stout midribs deeply impressed on the upper side and from four to six pairs of 
primary veins and conspicuous secondary veinlets ; they are borne on stout deeply grooved petioles 
more or less winged toward the apex by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, villose, ultimately 
glabrous, tinged with red below the middle, from an inch and a half to two inches long, and after 
midsummer often twisted near the base, thus bringing the lower surface of the leaves to the light. 
The stipules are linear-lanceolate, entire, from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, and dark 
green, fading red. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often more coarsely serrate and are usually 
much more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, with broadly winged petioles and falcate 
coarsely glandular-serrate stipules sometimes an inch in length. The flowers, which are an inch in 
diameter and bad-smelling, are produced on long slender pedicels, in broad loose lax compound many- 
flowered thin-branched tomentose corymbs, with linear finely glandular-serrate caducous bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and tomentose, and the lobes are abruptly narrowed 
from broad bases, elongated, acute, entire, villose, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are ten 
stamens with long slender filaments and large pale rose-colored anthers, and two or generally three styles 
surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens usually early in October 
and hangs on the slender elongated pedicels, in broad many-fruited drooping glabrous or puberulous 
clusters ; it varies from oblong to oblong-obovate and is full and rounded at the ends, bright carmine 
red, marked by occasional large dark dots, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long and three 
quarters of an inch broad ; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes are elongated and 
closely pressed against the fruit ; the flesh is thick, yellow, sweet, and mealy. The three or rarely two 
nutlets are thick, rounded and ridged on the back, with high broad ridges, and about seven sixteenths 
of an inch long. 



136 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Cratcegus Jonesce, inhabits the rocky shores of ocean sounds and bays in southeastern Maine, where 
it is distributed from Belfast Bay to the island of Bar Harbor. 1 This handsome and distinct species has 
been named for Miss Beatrix Jones, 2 landscape-gardener. 



1 In my original description of Cratcegus Jonesce it was said to 
grow at Orono on the Penobscot River, a fruiting specimen of an- 
other species having been mistaken for it. I now know Cratcegus 
Jonesoz only in the neighborhood of the ocean. 

2 Beatrix Jones (June 19, 1872), the daughter of Frederick 
Rhinelander Jones and Mary Cadwallader Rawle, was born in 
New York. On her father's side she is descended from the Rhine- 
lander and Stevens families of New York, who for several genera- 



tions have been interested in horticulture. On her mother's side 
she is descended from the Rawle and Cadwallader families of 
Pennsylvania. Endowed with unusual natural gifts, cultivated by 
a liberal education, and carefully trained in the United States and 
Europe to a technical knowledge of the art of landscape-gardening, 
Miss Jones is the first American woman who has successfully prac- 
ticed that art as a profession. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXXIV. Crataegus Jonesce. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. A calyx removed from a ripe fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. End of a winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tat. DCLXXXIV. 







GE.Faa3oru.deL 



Hrruffimebj ja. 



CRATAEGUS JONESiE, Sara 



A.Hiocreua> direozr 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 137 



CRATAEGUS MARGARETTA. 
Haw. 

Stamens usually 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves broadly rhombic to oblong-obovate, 
thick and firm, dark green. 

Crataegus Margaretta, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. xvi. pt. ii. 72 (1900). — Gattinger, Ft. Tennessee, 100. 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with a straight trunk from four to six inches in 
diameter covered with thin dark gray-brown bark broken into small plate-like closely appressed scales, 
and thin rather erect branches which form a narrow open head; or sometimes a wide bush with 
numerous stout spreading stems. The branchlets are slender, generally nearly straight, marked by small 
oblong pale lenticels, and armed with thin straight or slightly curved bright chestnut-brown spines from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length, or occasionally unarmed ; when they first 
appear they are orange-green, and glabrous or sometimes pubescent for a short time, and during their 
first summer they become bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, and ashy gray or gray tinged with red 
during their second year. The leaves are broadly rhombic, oblong-obovate or rarely ovate, acute or 
rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed and usually entire below, coarsely and often doubly crenulate- 
serrate above, with mostly glandless teeth, and often divided above the middle, or frequently only at the 
apex, into short broad rounded or acute lobes ; when the flowers open early in May they are membrana- 
ceous, roughened above by short pale hairs and glabrous below, and in the autumn they are firm and 
rather leathery in texture or subcoriaceous, glabrous, smooth, dark green and somewhat lustrous on the 
upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from an inch to an inch and a quarter long and about an inch 
wide, with yellow midribs and from three to five pairs of thin primary veins extending very obliquely to 
the points of the lobes and deeply impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on slender grooved 
petioles often slightly winged toward the apex, glandular at first on the upper side, with minute dark 
red caducous glands, and from half an inch to an inch in length. The stipules are linear, acuminate, 
glandular-serrate, and soon disappear. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly ovate or 
semiorbicular, usually more deeply and more generally lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, often 
three inches long and from two to three inches wide. The flowers are about three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, and are produced on slender elongated pedicels, in three to twelve-flowered compound 
thin-branched slightly villose corymbs, with narrow oblong-obovate acute or acuminate conspicuously 
glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic and slightly villose toward the base, 
or glabrous, and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate or short-pointed at the 
apex, finely and irregularly glandular-serrate, glabrous, or villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after 
the flowers open. There are usually twenty stamens with slender filaments and small yellow anthers, 
and two or three styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum and villose below the 
middle with occasional long spreading hairs. The fruit ripens and mostly falls toward the end of 
September and is borne in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is short-oblong and full and rounded at the 
ends or subglobose and flattened at the ends, dull dark red or rusty orange-red marked by occasional 
dark dots, and about half an inch long; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes are 
spreading or erect and frequently deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and 
mealy. The two or three nutlets are thick, conspicuously grooved and ridged on the back, with broad 
rounded ridges, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus Margaretta grows by the banks of streams and on open hillsides. It has been found in 



138 



SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A. 



ROSACKE. 



central Michigan, 1 central Iowa, 2 along the Des Peres River at Webster, St. Louis County, Missouri, 3 at 
Springfield, Missouri, and in middle Tennessee. 4 

The specific name is formed from the Christian name of Mrs. J. 0. Wilcox of Ashe County, North 
Carolina. 5 



1 Crataegus Margaretta was collected near Lansing, Michigan, in 
May, 1901, by Professor W. J. Beal. 

2 Quarry, Iowa, F. W. Forest, May 19, 1900 (No. 1996) ; Steam- 
boat Rock, Iowa, L. H. Pammel, June 14, 1900 (No. 1989). 

8 In the Gray Herbarium there is a specimen of Crataegus Mar- 
garetta collected in Missouri by E. Hall in 1870, the place of 
collection being not otherwise given ; and in the Gray Herbarium 
there is also an Iowa specimen collected by M. Jones in 1877. 



Crataegus Margaretta was first collected on the Des Peres River 
by H. Eggert in the spring of 1886 ; and in Springfield, Missouri, 
where this tree grows to a large size and is abundant, it was first 
noticed by Professor Trelease and myself in September, 1900. 

4 Crataegus Margaretta was collected on limestone hills in West 
Nashville, Tennessee, where it is a low shrub, on May 2, 1900, by 
Mr. T. G. Harbison. 

5 W. W. Ashe, in litt. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXXV. Crataegus Margaretta. 

1. Portion of a flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Bilva of North America.. 



Tab. DCLXXXV. 




C \E ' Faason, del'. 



ZartaiuZ 



CRATAEGUS MARGARETTA.Aslie. 

A.Hzocreu& direa>* Imp. J~.To*i&ut; Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 139 



CRATAEGUS SUCCULENTA. 
Scarlet Haw. 

Stamens 20; anthers rose color. Leaves elliptical, gradually narrowed at the 
ends, coriaceous, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus succulenta, Link, Handb. ii. 78 (1831). — Crataegus glandulosa, d succulenta, Lauche, Deutsche 

Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. Cratcegi, 82, t. 8 B. Dendr. ed. 2, 573 (1883). 

? Mespilus corallina, Tausch, Flora, 1838, ii. 717 (not Crataegus coccinea, var. macracantha, Sargent, Garden 

Desfontaines). and Forest, ii. 412 (in part) (1889) ; Silva N. Am. iv. 

? Crataegus macracantha, Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 819, f. 96 (in part) t. 131. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 

572 (not Lindley) (1838). ed. 6, 165 (in part). 

? Phcenopyrum corallinum, Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. iii. Crataegus rotundif olia, b succulenta, Dippel, Handb. 

154 (1847). Laubholzk. iii. 441 (1893). 

A bushy tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a short stem five or six inches in diameter 
covered with dark red-brown scaly bark, and stout ascending branches forming a broad irregular head ; 
or usually shrubby and much smaller and often flowering when only a few feet in height. The 
branchlets are stout, more or less zigzag, marked by large oblong pale lenticels, and armed with 
numerous stout slightly curved bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from an inch and a half to two 
inches and a half in length ; when they appear they are glabrous, green tinged with red or orange, 
becoming dark orange-brown and very lustrous before midsummer, dull gray-brown in their second 
season, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves are elliptical, acute or acuminate at the apex, gradually 
narrowed from near the middle and entire at the base, coarsely and usually doubly serrate, with 
spreading glandular teeth, and divided above the middle into numerous short acute lobes ; nearly 
fully grown when the flowers open at the end of May or early in June, they are then membranaceous, 
covered above with soft pale hairs and puberulous or rarely nearly glabrous on the lower surface, and 
at maturity they are coriaceous, dark green, glabrous and somewhat lustrous above, pale yellow-green 
and mostly puberulous along the stout yellow midribs and four to seven pairs of slender veins 
extending obliquely to the points of the lobes and deeply impressed on the upper side, usually from 
two inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide ; or on leading 
shoots occasionally ovate and often three inches and a half long and three inches wide ; they are 
borne on stout grooved petioles more or less winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, 
generally about half an inch long and frequently bright red after midsummer. The stipules are linear, 
acuminate, finely glandular-serrate, and caducous. The flowers are about two thirds of an inch in 
diameter, and are produced on long slender pedicels, in broad lax compound many-flowered villose 
corymbs, with linear-acuminate glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly 
obconic, villose or glabrous, and the lobes are broad, acute, laciniate, glandular, with large bright red 
glands, generally villose, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are usually twenty but sometimes 
only fifteen stamens with slender filaments and small rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles 
surrounded at the base by a ring of pale hairs. The fruit, which begins to ripen about the middle 
of September and sometimes does not fall until the end of October, is borne on slender elongated 
pedicels, in broad loose many-fruited drooping clusters; it is globose, bright scarlet marked by 
occasional large pale dots, and from one third to two thirds of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is 
prominent, with a broad shallow depression and much enlarged coarsely serrate closely appressed 
persistent lobes ; the flesh is thick, yellow, very juicy, sweet, and pulpy. The two or three nutlets are 



140 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea 

broad, prominently ridged on the back, with broad rounded ridges, and penetrated on each of the inner 
faces by a broad deep depression. 

Crataegus succulenta is common from the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Montreal to the 
coast of New England, and through northern New York and southern Ontario to northern Illinois, 
growing on open hillsides often on limestone. First distinguished in Europe from cultivated plants, 
and long an inhabitant of American and European gardens, it was formerly confounded with Crataegus 
coccinea by American botanists. 

1 The earliest mention of Crataegus succulenta was in the seed-list has probably never been published. Plate No. cxxxi., in the fourth 

of the Gdttingen Botanic Garden for the year 1823, when the name volume of this work, purporting to represent Cratcegus coccinea, var. 

only is mentioned; and a, Mespilus succulenta appears without de- macracantha, properly represents Cratcegus succulenta, as I now 

scription in the second and third editions of Sweet's Hortus Botani- understand this species. 

cus published in 1830 and 1839. This species is sometimes found The range of Crataegus succulenta is still very imperfectly known, 
in gardens under the name of Crataegus Downingii, a name which 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA 141 



CRATAEGUS GEMMOSA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly oval or rarely obovate. 

Crataegus gemmosa, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 119 (1902). 

A tree, occasionally thirty feet in height, with a tall trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter covered 
with dark brown scaly bark, and stout spreading or ascending branches forming a broad rather open 
symmetrical head ; or often shrubby and frequently flowering when only a few feet tall. The branchlets 
are stout, zigzag, glabrous, marked by numerous oblong pale lenticels, and armed with straight or 
slightly curved thick chestnut-brown spines usually about two inches in length ; dark orange-brown 
when they first appear, the branchlets are bright red-brown or gray-brown and lustrous for two or 
three years, and ultimately become dark brown. The winter-buds are globose, and sometimes nearly 
a quarter of an inch in diameter, with broad ovate rounded shining bright red-brown outer scales pale 
and scarious on the margins. The leaves are broadly oval or rarely broadly obovate, acute or 
acuminate, gradually narrowed and cuneate or occasionally rounded at the base, sharply and usually 
doubly serrate from below the middle, with straight glandular teeth, and often slightly lobed toward 
the apex, with short acute lobes ; dark red and villose as they unfold, they are nearly fully grown when 
the flowers open from the middle to the end of May, and are then membranaceous, light yellow-green, 
nearly glabrous above and pale and villose below, and at maturity they are thick and firm in texture, 
very dark dull green on the upper surface, and pale and pubescent on the lower surface along the 
stout yellow midribs which are deeply impressed and occasionally puberulous on the upper side and 
along the four or five pairs of slender primary veins extending obliquely to the apex of the leaf ; they 
vary from an inch and a half to two inches and a half in length and from an inch to two inches in width, 
and are borne on stout deeply grooved villose or pubescent petioles more or less winged above, glandular 
while young, with minute bright red caducous glands, usually pink in the autumn, and from one quarter 
to one half of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, acuminate, glandular, bright red, and 
caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are more coarsely serrate, frequently divided into 
short acute lateral lobes, and often four inches long and three inches wide, with rose-colored midribs 
and stout spreading primary veins ; and their stipules are often lunate, acuminate, coarsely glandular- 
serrate, and frequently a quarter of an inch long. The flowers vary from one half to three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, and are produced in slender-branched open compound villose many-flowered 
corymbs, with lanceolate or oblanceolate acuminate glandular-serrate conspicuous bracts and bractlets. 
The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, more or less villose, with matted pale hairs, or nearly glabrous, and 
the lobes are lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or villose on the outer surface, villose on the inner surface, 
coarsely glandular-serrate, with bright red glands, and reflexed after anthesis. There are twenty 
stamens with small rose-colored anthers, and two or three styles surrounded at the base by a narrow 
ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens early in October and becomes very succulent just 
before it is ready to fall, is borne in drooping many-fruited glabrous or puberulous clusters ; it is 
subglobose or short-oblong, scarlet, lustrous, half an inch in diameter when fully ripe, and crowned by 
the persistent calyx with an elongated narrow tube and reflexed villose lobes which are bright red 
toward the base on the upper side ; the flesh is thick, yellow, sweet, and succulent, and only slightly 
adheres to the two or usually three nutlets. These are broad and flat and a quarter of an inch in 
length, with prominent rounded dorsal ridges, and are penetrated on each of the inner faces by a short 
broad deep cavity. 



142 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Cratcegus gemmosa grows in rich forest glades and on the margins of woods usually in low 
moist rich soil, and is distributed from the neighborhood of Rochester, New York, 1 and Toronto, 
Ontario, through Ontario 2 to the southern peninsula of Michigan, 3 where it is very abundant as far 
north at least as the neighborhood of Saginaw, 4 and where it probably grows to its largest size. 5 



1 Cratcegus gemmosa was found in October, 1901, by Mr. John 
Dunbar in the Genesee Valley Park, Rochester. 

2 In Ontario Crataegus gemmosa is common in the neighborhood 
of Toronto, where it was collected in May and October, 1901, by 
Mr. D. W. Beadle, and near London, where it was found by C. S. 
Sargent in September, 1901. 

8 The earliest specimen of this tree which I have seen was col- 
lected near Grand Rapids, Michigan, by Mr. C. W. Fallass in 
May, 1895. 



4 Teste Miss E. J. Cole. 

5 The largest specimen of Crataegus gemmosa which I have seen 
is growing at the southeast corner of Curtis and Forests streets in 
Grand Rapids, Michigan. This tree as measured by Miss Cole 
of that city in the autumn of 1901 is thirty feet high, with a 
trunk circumference two feet above the ground of thirty-four 
inches, and a spread of branches in one direction of twenty-five 
feet and seven inches, and of twenty-two feet in the other direc- 
tion. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCLXXXVI. Crataegus gemmosa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, inner face, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 




C E.Fcucotv del/. 



Zartaud, , 



CRATAEGUS GEMM0SA,Sar6. 

o 



A. RLocreuec direa> .* 



Imp. J. raneur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 143 



CRATAEGUS ILLINOIENSIS. 
Scarlet Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers rose color. Leaves broadly obovate to oval, acute or rounded 
at the apex, subcoriaceous, dark green. 

Crataegus Illinoiensis, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. xvi. pt. ii. 76 (1900). 

A tree, rarely more than seventeen or eighteen feet in height, with a stem four or five inches in 
diameter covered with thin close bark broken on the surface into pale plate-like scales, and divided into 
several virgate branches forming a wide open-topped head. The branchlets are stout, somewhat zigzag, 
marked by small dark lenticels, and armed with numerous slender straight or somewhat curved bright 
chestnut-brown shining spines from an inch and a half to nearly three inches in length ; dark orange- 
green and covered with scattered pale caducous hairs when they first appear, they become bright orange- 
brown and lustrous during their first season, dark brown in their second year, and ultimately ashy gray. 
The leaves vary from broadly obovate to oval, and are rounded or rarely acute at the wide apex, broadly 
cuneate and entire at the base, coarsely and often doubly serrate above, with straight or incurved teeth 
tipped with minute deciduous glands, and sometimes slightly and irregularly divided toward the apex 
into short acute lobes ; when they first unfold they are covered on the lower surface with a thick coat 
of hoary tomentum and are pilose on the upper surface, and when the flowers open about the twentieth 
of May they are membranaceous, yellow-green, and covered above with short pale hairs and pubescent 
below ; in the autumn they are thick and firm in texture, dark green and glabrous above, pale and 
pubescent below, particularly along the stout midribs and four to six pairs of primary veins deeply 
impressed on the upper side, from two inches to two inches and a half in length and from an inch and 
a half to two inches in width ; they are borne on stout grooved petioles slightly winged toward the 
apex by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, usually from one half to two thirds of an inch long, and 
generally bright red below the middle after midsummer. The stipules are linear, acuminate, finely 
glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are usually elliptical, acute, or 
acuminate, more coarsely dentate and more often lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, sometimes 
decurrent nearly to the base of the stout petioles, from three to four inches long and from two inches 
and a half to three inches wide, with foliaceous, lunate, coarsely glandular-dentate, stipitate stipules 
often three quarters of an inch in length. The flowers are about five eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and are produced on slender pedicels, in broad compact many-flowered villose compound corymbs, with 
narrow obovate acute or acuminate glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly 
obconic and coated with long matted pale hairs, and the lobes are broad, acuminate, very coarsely 
glandular-serrate, with large stipitate bright red glands, glabrous on the outer surface except at the base, 
villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are ten stamens with small rose- 
colored anthers, and two or usually three styles. The fruit, which ripens early in October but does not 
fall until after the beginning of winter, is borne on stout bright red pedicels, in few-fruited drooping 
villose clusters, and is globose, scarlet, lustrous, marked by occasional dark dots, more or less villose 
at the ends, and half an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a short villose tube, a deep 
narrow cavity, and spreading lobes which are lanceolate from broad bases, sparingly glandular-serrate 
or nearly entire, villose and mostly deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, 
and mealy, and very firm and solid until after the fruit falls. The two or three nutlets are broad 
and thick, prominently ridged and grooved on the back, with broad high ridges, penetrated on each of 
the inner faces by a broad deep depression, and a quarter of an inch long. 



144 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

Crataegus Illinoiensis grows in open woods along the gravelly banks of small streams in Stark and 
Peoria counties, Illinois, where it is not common. It was first collected in May, 1889, by Mr. Virginius 
H. Chase. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXXVII. Crataegus Illinoiensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCLXXXVTI. 




CU.Fcucorv del/. 



-Lartai 



CRATAEGUS ILLINOIENSIS.Asho. 



A.Hiocreuzc- direa>!: 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 145 



CRATAEGUS INTEGRILOBA. 

Red Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers pink ; calyx-lobes entire. Leaves broadly obovate to oval or 
rhomboidal, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus integriloba, Sargent, Rhodvra, iii. 78 (1901). 

A tree, occasionally eighteen or twenty feet in height, with a straight erect stem six or eight inches 
in diameter, and wide-spreading or erect branches forming an open irregular head. The branchlets are 
stout, nearly straight or occasionally slightly zigzag, marked by small scattered pale lenticels, and armed 
with stout nearly straight bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from an inch and a half to two inches 
and a half in length and often pointed toward the base of the branch ; dark orange-green and glabrous 
when they first appear, the branchlets become very lustrous and red-brown or orange-brown during their 
first summer, and ultimately dull ashy gray. The leaves are broadly obovate, oval or rhomboidal, acute 
at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate below the middle, entire toward the base, 
coarsely doubly serrate above, with spreading glandular teeth, and irregularly divided into numerous 
short acute or acuminate lobes ; in early spring they are coated with soft pale caducous hairs, and in 
the autumn they are glabrous, thin but firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
pale yellow-green on the lower surface, from an inch and a half to three inches long and from an inch 
and a quarter to two inches wide, with slender midribs often dark red at the base, and with from four 
to six pairs of slender primary veins deeply impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on stout 
grooved petioles more or less broadly winged toward the apex, puberulous at first but soon glabrous, 
often red on the lower side, and from one third to three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules 
are linear, finely glandular-serrate, villose, light red, from three quarters of an inch to an inch long, 
and caducous. The flowers open during the first week in June, when the leaves are nearly fully grown, 
and are three quarters of an inch in diameter ; they are produced in broad open many-flowered com- 
pound thin-branched villose corymbs, with linear glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The 
calyx-tube is broadly obconic, coated toward the base with long matted white hairs and glabrous above, 
and the lobes are linear-lanceolate, elongated, entire, or very rarely furnished with an occasional 
caducous gland. There are ten stamens with stout slender filaments and large rose-colored anthers, 
and two or three styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of soft white hairs. The fruit ripens 
at the end of September or early in October and is borne on short stout pedicels, in drooping or erect 
many-fruited slightly villose clusters ; it is subglobose, bright scarlet, lustrous, rarely marked by large 
pale dots, and from one third to one half of an inch in diameter; the calyx is prominent, with a 
comparatively broad deep cavity and elongated entire lobes which are dark red on the upper side at 
the base, much reflexed and persistent ; the flesh is thin, yellow, sweet, and pulpy. The two or three 
nutlets are thick and broad, prominently and often doubly ridged on the back, penetrated on each of 
the inner faces by a broad deep longitudinal groove, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crataegus integriloba grows on low limestone ridges in the region south of the St. Lawrence River 
near the Lachine Rapids, where it was discovered at Beauharnois in August, 1899, by Mr. J. G. Jack, 
who has found it also at Caughnawaga, Rockfield, and Adirondack Junction. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXXVIIL Crataegus integriloba. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America 



Tab. DCL XXXVIII 




C. E.FaeDon, 'del,. 



ZcurtaiccL 



CRATAEGUS- INTEGRILOBA, Sard. 

o 



ABiocreuay direa>f 



Imp . J. TanezLr, Paris. 



aosAOLE. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 147 



CRATAEGUS MACRACANTHA. 

Scarlet Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves broadly obovate to elliptical or oval, 
coriaceous, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus macracantha, Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 236 Crataegus coccinea, var. macracantha, Dudley, Bull. 

(in part) (not Loudon) (1893). — Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. Cornell Univ. ii. 33 (Cayuga Flora) (1886). — Sargent, 

Cratcegi, 67, t. 8 A. Garden and Forest, ii. 412 (in part) ; Silva N. Am. iv. 96 

Mespilus odorata, Wendland, Flora, 1823, ii. 700 (not (in part). — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 165 

Cratcegus odorata, Bosc). (in part). — Lange, Rev. Spec. Gen. Cratcegi, 30. 

Crataegus glandulosa, /3 macracantha, Lindley, Bot. Reg. Crataegus rotundif olia, a minor, Dippel, Eandb. Laub- 

xxii. t. 1912 (1836). holzk. iii. 440, f. 215 (1893). 
Crataegus macracantha, var. minor, Loudon, Arb. Brit. 

ii. 819, f. 573 (1838). 

A tree, occasionally fifteen feet in height, with a tall stem five or six inches in diameter covered 
with pale close bark, and stout wide-spreading branches forming an open rather irregular head ; or more 
often a tall broad shrub sometimes flowering when only a few feet high. The branchlets are stout, 
slightly zigzag, marked by large pale lenticels, and armed with numerous slender usually curved very 
sharp bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from two inches and a half to four inches in length ; when 
they appear they are glabrous and dark green more or less tinged with red, and during their first 
season they become fight chestnut-brown and very lustrous, and dull reddish brown the following 
season. The leaves vary from broadly obovate to elliptical or oval, and are acute or rounded and 
sometimes short-pointed at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at the entire base, 
coarsely and often doubly serrate above, with straight or incurved gland-tipped teeth, and usually 
divided above the middle into numerous short acute or acuminate lobes ; coated on the upper surface 
with soft pale hairs and often bright red when they unfold, they are more than half grown when the 
flowers open late in May, and are then dull yellow-green and nearly glabrous on the upper surface and 
pale and puberulous below, particularly along the midribs and veins, and in the autumn they are 
coriaceous, dark green, lustrous, and glabrous above, frequently puberulous below along the stout 
midribs and four to six pairs of slender primary veins extending obliquely to the points of the lobes 
and deeply impressed on the upper side, and usually from two inches to two inches and a half long 
and from an inch and a half to two inches wide ; they are borne on stout grooved petioles more or 
less winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, generally about half an inch long and 
frequently bright red after midsummer. Their stipules are linear, finely glandular-serrate, and caducous. 
On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often full and rounded at the base, coarsely dentate, from 
three to four inches long, and from two inches and a half to three inches wide. The flowers are about 
three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on long slender pedicels, in broad loose thin- 
branched more or less villose many-flowered compound corymbs, with linear acuminate finely glandular- 
serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, more or less villose or 
nearly glabrous, and the lobes are narrow, elongated, acuminate, glandular, with minute dark glands, 
glabrous on the outer surface, slightly villose on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. 
There are usually ten but occasionally from eight to twelve stamens with pale yellow anthers, and two 
or three styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit, which ripens at 
the end of September and often does not entirely fall until a month later, is borne in broad erect 



148 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



KOSACE.E. 



many-fruited usually slightly villose clusters j it is globose, often hairy at the ends until nearly ripe, 
•when it is crimson, very lustrous, and from one quarter to one third of an inch in diameter ; the calyx- 
cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes, which are much enlarged, are coarsely serrate, reflexed, and 
persistent ; the flesh is thin, dark yellow, dry, and mealy. The two or three nutlets are ridged on 
the back, with broad high ridges, and are penetrated on each of the inner faces by a deep irregular 
depression. 

Crataegus macracantha is distributed from the valley of the St. Lawrence River in the neighbor- 
hood of Montreal through New England, and southward to eastern Pennsylvania and through the 
region south of the Great Lakes to northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin, growing usually on rich 
hillsides often in limestone soil, and near the banks of streams. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCLXXXIX. Crataegus macracantha. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCLXXXIX 




C. JE. Fcucon. dels. 



Rapi*i& sc 



CRATAEGUS MACRACANTHA,KoehTie. 

ABiocreiuo dve*.* *"*>■ J Ta^vs-.Parir. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 149 



CRAT^3GUS ASHEI. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves broadly ovate or obovate, lustrous, dark 
green, thick, and firm. 

Crataegus Ashei, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxx. 339 (1900). 

A tree, rarely more than twenty feet in height, with a slender trunk covered with smooth light 
gray or red-brown bark which becomes fissured and scaly on old individuals, and stout ascending 
branches forming a pyramidal or oval head ; or often shrubby with numerous stems. The branchlets 
are slender, somewhat zigzag, marked by small oblong pale lenticels, and armed with straight or slightly 
curved thin dark red-brown shining spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they 
first appear they are light red-brown and coated with long pale matted reflexed hairs which gradually 
disappear, and during their first season they become nearly glabrous, lustrous, and orange-brown or red- 
brown, and light gray or gray tinged with red during their second season. The leaves are broadly 
ovate or occasionally obovate, acute, and generally short-pointed at the apex, gradually or abruptly 
narrowed and cuneate and usually entire at the base, coarsely and occasionally doubly serrate above, 
with straight or incurved teeth tipped with small dark glands, roughened on the upper surface by short 
pale hairs and pubescent below, particularly on the thin midribs and slender primary veins ; nearly fully 
grown and membranaceous when the flowers open, at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, and about two inches long and an 
inch and a half wide. They are borne on stout petioles which are broadly winged above by the 
decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, glandular, pubescent at first but ultimately nearly glabrous, and about 
half an inch long. The stipules are narrowly lanceolate, straight or falcate, and glandular-serrate. On 
vigorous leading shoots the leaves are usually broadly oval or nearly orbicular, rounded or short-pointed 
at the apex, from two inches and a half to three inches long and from two inches to two inches and a 
half wide. The flowers, which open early in May and are three quarters of an inch in diameter, are 
produced in three to ten-flowered simple or compound thin-branched villose corymbs, with large wide 
conspicuous glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, thickly coated with 
long matted reflexed white hairs, and the lobes are foliaceous, broad, acute, nearly glabrous on the outer 
surface, villose on the inner surface, glandular, with small dark long-stalked glands, and strongly reflexed 
after the petals fall. There are twenty stamens with elongated slender filaments and small yellow 
anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale hairs. The fruit, 
which ripens and falls late in September or in early October, is borne on stout villose or glabrous 
pedicels, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is globose or often rather longer than broad, bright red, 
marked by large scattered dots, more or less villose toward the ends, and about an inch in diameter ; 
the calyx-cavity is broad and deep and the lobes are elongated, coarsely glandular-serrate, erect, and 
incurved or reflexed ; the flesh is thick and yellow. The nutlets, which vary from three to five in 
number, are deeply grooved and ridged on the back, rather thin, and a third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus Ashei inhabits abandoned fields and woods, growing usually on clay soils in the neigh- 
borhood of Montgomery, Alabama, where it was first collected in September, 1899, by Mr. C. M. 
Boynton of the Biltmore Herbarium. It has been named for Mr. W. W. Ashe. 1 

1 William Willard Ashe (June 4, 1872), a descendant of a family born in Raleigh, in that state. He was educated at the University 
famous in North Carolina during the Revolutionary period, was of North Carolina, where he was graduated in 1891, and at once 



150 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



became an assistant in the Geological Survey of the state. The 
following winter he spent at Cornell University, studying geology 
and botany, obtaining the degree of Master of Science. The 
following year Mr. Ashe was appointed forester of the North 
Carolina Geological Survey, a position which he still holds, and 
began a study of the Pine lands of the eastern part of that state. 
He has also become connected with the Forestry Division of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and has made numerous 
journeys, principally through the southern states, for the purpose of 



examining their forest resources and of studying their flora. Among 
his numerous publications are papers on The Forests and Forest Lands 
of Eastern North Carolina, Forest Fires and their Prevention, Timber 
Trees of North Carolina, and The Manufacture of Maple Syrup and 
Sugar, published in the Bulletins of the North Carolina Geological 
Survey. He has also published a, number of botanical papers, 
chiefly in the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, in 
which he has described many species of plants, principally in the 
genera Panicum and Crataegus. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXC. Crataegus Ashei. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXC 






y^^^f^Vu 




C. E.Faa&n, del,. 



CRATAEGUS ASHEI.Bead. 

AJtiocrezuc <£rea>? Imp . J. Taneur Posit . 



Ifim&ly so. 



rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 151 



CRATAEGUS HARBISON! 
Haw. 

Stamens 20; anthers light yellow. Leaves oval to ohovate, lustrous, subcoria- 
ceous, dark green, and scabrous above. 

Crataegus Harbisoni, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxviii. 413 (1899).— Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 98. 

A tree, sometimes twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk ten or twelve inches in diameter covered 
with light gray or gray-brown fissured and scaly bark, and often armed with straight or much-branched 
spines, and stout wide-spreading fight gray or reddish branches forming a wide rather open and 
symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, nearly straight or occasionally slightly zigzag, marked 
by large scattered oblong pale lenticels, and furnished with numerous usually stout straight dark 
red-brown lustrous spines from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; when they first appear 
they are dark red-brown and coated with long spreading white hairs, and during their first summer 
they are pubescent or glabrous and light reddish brown or orange-brown, becoming light or dark 
gray during their second year. The leaves are oval or broadly obovate, acute at the apex, cuneate or 
full and rounded at the entire base, coarsely serrate above, with straight glandular teeth, roughened 
on the upper surface by stout rigid pale hairs and soft and pubescent below ; nearly fully grown 
early in May when the flowers open, they are then thin, dark yellow-green above and pale below, and 
in the autumn they are thick and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale 
on the lower surface, from two inches to two inches and a half long and from an inch to an inch and 
a half wide, with stout midribs and primary veins deeply impressed on the upper side of the leaf, and 
conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout villose petioles more or less winged above, 
furnished like the base of the leaf -blade with numerous large stipitate dark glands, and from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in length. The stipules are acute, straight or falcate, and conspicuously 
glandular-serrate. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often broadly ovate, cuneate and decurrent 
below on their stouter petioles, three or four inches long and from two inches and a half to three 
inches wide, and their stipules are lunate, coarsely glandular-dentate, and frequently half an inch in 
length. The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced in broad loose long- 
branched compound many-flowered villose corymbs, with broad acute glandular-serrate bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, densely villose at the base and glabrous or pubescent 
above, and the lobes are foliaceous, elongated, gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, bright 
green, more or less villose, and coarsely glandular-serrate, with large stipitate dark red glands. There 
are usually twenty or from ten to twenty stamens with elongated filaments and large light yellow 
anthers, and from three to five styles. The fruit ripens and falls early in October, and is subglobose 
but often rather longer than broad, bright red or orange-red, and marked by numerous large dark 
dots; the calyx is enlarged with a broad shallow cavity and wide-spreading glandular lobes which 
often fall before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is yellow, thick, dry, and mealy. The nutlets vary from 
three to five in number, and are thin, rounded and sometimes prominently ridged on the back, and 
about a quarter of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus Harbisoni inhabits the dry limestone hills and ridges of West Nashville, Tennessee, 



152 



8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



where it is common. It has been named for Mr. T. G. Harbison 1 of the Biltmore Herbarium, by whom 
it was collected in May, 1899. 2 



1 Thomas Grant Harbison (April 23, 1862) was born in Lewis- 
burg, Union County, Pennsylvania, where he attended the public 
schools and acquired a love for plants from one of his teachers, 
Mr. C. E. Edmonds, an enthusiastic amateur botanist. After 
leaving school Mr. Harbison taught in the public schools of Union 
County for seven years, pursuing at the same time studies in 
science under a private tutor. In the spring of 1886 he made a 
botanical tour on foot along the Appalachian Mountains from Penn- 
sylvania to Georgia, and in the autumn of that year settled at 
Highlands, North Carolina, where for several years he conducted a 



private school, which was afterwards removed to Waynesville, 
North Carolina. In the spring of 1897 Mr. Harbison became con- 
nected with the herbarium on Mr. George W. Vanderbilt's estate 
at Biltmore, North Carolina, where he is employed as a botanical 
collector. 

2 In the Engelmann herbarium there is a specimen of Cratcegus 
Harbisoni collected at Nashville in September, 1877, by Dr. A. 
Gattinger, who was therefore probably the discoverer of this spe- 
cies. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXCL Crat^igus Harbisoni. 



A flowering branch, natural size. 

Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

A fruiting branch, natural size. 

Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCXCI. 




CE.Feucon, del. 



CRATiEGUS HARBISONI.Bead. 

A.RLocreu*> dtreayt- Imp.jrcLneur.Parif. 



Jjartcuui, sc^. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 153 



CRATAEGUS VAILIJE. 

Haw. 

Stamens 20; anthers yellow. Leaves oval or rarely obovate, acute, coriaceous, 
dark green, and lustrous. 

Crateegus Vailise, Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxiv. 53 (1897). — Britton & Brown, III Fl. ii. 245, f. 2005. — Britton, 

Man. 522. — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 100. 

A shrub, sometimes eight or nine feet in height, but usually much smaller, with intricately branched 
stems covered with thin bark which near their base is ashy gray and broken into small plate-like scales. 
The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, marked by occasional pale lenticels, and armed with 
numerous thin straight or slightly curved bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from an inch and a 
half to two inches and a half in length ; dark green and coated with long matted pale hairs when they 
first appear, they are dark red-brown and puberulous during their first year, and then gradually become 
dark gray-brown or reddish brown and glabrous. The leaves are oval or rarely obovate, acute, 
gradually or abruptly narrowed to the entire base, and crenulate-serrate generally only above the middle, 
with glandular teeth ; they are villose on the upper surface and tomentose on the lower surface as they 
unfold ; more than half grown when the flowers open about the middle of May, they are then thin, 
dark yellow-green, and covered above with short appressed hairs and paler below ; and at maturity 
they are coriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on the lower 
surface, from an inch to an inch and a half long and about three quarters of an inch wide, with stout 
midribs and usually four pairs of primary veins only slightly impressed above and pubescent or 
puberulous below, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout grooved petioles more 
or less winged toward the apex, at first tomentose but ultimately puberulous, and from an eighth to a 
quarter of an inch in length. The stipules are narrow-obovate, usually somewhat falcate, very oblique 
at the base, bright red, coarsely glandular-serrate, about a quarter of an inch long, and caducous. 
On vigorous leading shoots the leaves often vary from broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, and are 
generally divided into several short broad acute lobes ; they are more coarsely serrate than the leaves 
of lateral branchlets and are frequently two inches long and broad, with stout midribs often tinged 
with red on the lower side toward the base, and foliaceous lunate coarsely glandular-serrate stipules 
sometimes half an inch in length. The flowers are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are 
produced on short stout pedicels in sessile compact simple four or five-flowered tomentose corymbs, 
with small lanceolate glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic 
and villose, particularly toward the base, and the lobes are broad, foliaceous, acute, laciniately divided, 
glandular, with minute dark red glands, glabrous on the outer surface, villose on the inner surface, 
and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with stout filaments and large pale 
yellow anthers, and five styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit, 
which ripens at the end of September, is borne in erect compact clusters, on short stout villose pedicels, 
and is subglobose, red sometimes more or less tinged with green, and about a third of an inch in 
diameter, with thin bright yellow flesh ; the calyx is much enlarged, with a broad deep cavity and 
reflexed persistent glandular-serrate lobes. The five nutlets are thick, rounded, and slightly grooved 
on the back, and about a quarter of an inch long. 

Crateegus Vailice, which was long confounded with Crateegus unifiora, grows in dry soil along 
the borders of woods and fields, and is distributed from southwestern Virginia to western North 



154 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Carolina, where it is common up to elevations of twenty-five hundred feet above the sea and to eastern 
Tennessee. 

Crataegus Vailice was named for Miss Anna Murray Vail, 1 who gathered it in May, 1890, on the 
banks of the Roanoke River near Roanoke, Virginia. 2 



1 Anna Murray Vail (January 7, 1865), the librarian of the New 
York Botanical Garden and the author of a number of phytogra- 
phical papers published in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 
was born in New York, the daughter of David Olyphant Vail, for 
many years a merchant in China, and through her mother a de- 
scendant of the first Patroon of Rensselaerwyck through Hendrick 
Van Rensselaer of the Greenbush Manor. 



2 The oldest specimen of Crataegus Vailice that I have seen is 
preserved in the Gray Herbarium, and was collected by Asa Gray 
on the French Broad River, probably in 1841 or 1842. This species 
was gathered by C. E. Faxon at KittrelFs Spring, North Caro- 
lina, in 1873 ; and by C. S. Sargent in September, 1885, on the 
Little Tennessee River and on Callisaga Creek, North Carolina, in 
September, 1886. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXCII. Crat^igus Vailice. 
1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

A fruiting branch, natural size. 

A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXCII. 




C.IS.Fcujooti, dels. 



Rapine* so. 



CRATAEGUS -VAILIiE.Britt. 

AJUacreuay direa> ? Imp. J.Tartevr, Pari,. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 155 



CRATAEGUS FLAVA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers purple. Leaves elliptical to obovate, usually acute, membra- 
naceous, yellow-green. 

Crataegus flava, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 169 (1789). 

A tree, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk eight or ten inches in diameter 
covered with thick dark brown bark tinged with red, and deeply divided into narrow rounded ridges, 
and stout wide-spreading branches forming an open and somewhat irregular head sometimes twenty 
feet across. The branchlets are slender, slightly zigzag, glabrous, marked by numerous small pale lenti- 
cels, and armed with thin nearly straight bright chestnut-brown spines from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and a quarter in length ; they are dark green deeply tinged with red when they first 
appear, and dull red-brown or orange-brown during their first season, becoming gradually darker the 
following year, and ultimately dark gray-brown. The leaves are elliptical or broadly obovate, acute or 
rarely rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the base, coarsely and doubly serrate, 
with broad straight or incurved teeth tipped with large dark red stipitate glands which are also con- 
spicuous on the entire base ; when they unfold they are bronze color, villose above with occasional short 
pale caducous hairs which are most abundant near the base of the midribs, and pubescent below on the 
midribs and veins ; they are about half grown when the flowers open from the tenth to the twentieth of 
April, and at maturity are membranaceous, yellow-green, usually about two inches long and an inch 
and a half wide, with slender yellow midribs and three or four pairs of thin primary veins usually 
puberulous on the under side and only slightly impressed above ; they are borne on slender grooved 
glandular petioles winged often nearly to the base by the decurrent leaf-blades, generally about half an 
inch long, more or less villose, and after midsummer often light red on the lower side. The stipules 
are linear, acute, and, like the inner scales of the leaf-buds, bright red and glandular. On vigorous 
leading shoots the leaves are frequently three inches long and two inches wide, and are sometimes 
broadly ovate, and three-lobed or divided into two or three pairs of lateral lobes, with petioles which 
vary from an inch to an inch and a half in length and are broadly winged and conspicuously glandular, 
and foliaceous lunate or elliptical coarsely glandular-serrate stipules. The flowers are about three 
quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on short slender pedicels, in few-flowered simple or 
compound slightly villose compact corymbs, with lanceolate acute coarsely glandular-serrate bracts and 
bractlets which become light red before falling. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and 
the lobes are wide, acute, usually laciniately divided, and very glandular. There are twenty stamens 
with long filaments and large purple anthers, and five styles. The fruit, which ripens early in October 
and soon falls, is produced in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is oblong, full and rounded at the ends, 
dark orange-brown, from one half to five eighths of an inch long and from one third to one half of an 
inch wide ; the calyx is prominent, with a long narrow tube and enlarged closely appressed lobes often 
deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thick, orange-colored, dry, and mealy. The five nutlets 
are ridged and deeply grooved on the back, with high narrow ridges, and about a quarter of an inch 
long. 

Cratcegus flava grows in dry sandy soil and is now known to me only in the neighborhood of 



156 



SILVA OF NOBTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



Kiver Junction, Florida, and on the sand hills of Summerville west of the city of Augusta, Georgia. 
According to Aiton it was cultivated in London in 1758 by Philip Miller. 1 



1 Aiton's specimen of Crataegus fiava is in the British Museum, 
and although it was made some time after the petals had fallen, it 
evidently represents the plant which now grows at River Junction 
and Augusta. Eighty years ago this species was cultivated in Eu- 
rope, as specimens of cultivated plants in different herbaria show, 
but I can find no indication of its existence now in any of the Eu- 
ropean collections of living plants which I have examined. The 
Crataegus fiava of authors later than Aiton may be his species, but 
it is impossible to judge of this from their descriptions. The Cra- 



taegus fiava of Lindley (Bot. Reg. xxiii. t. 1939) is evidently not 
Aiton's species, and is probably the same plant as his Crataegus fiava, 
var. lobata (I. c. 1. 1932). This plant, which is not now known to me 
in a wild state, is still cultivated in the Royal Gardens at Kew. It 
differs from Crataegus fiava in its ten stamens and pear-shaped hard 
green fruits which do not fall until January or February. It is 
probably this plant which was figured by Loudon as Crataegus fiava. 
The plant figured for Crataegus fiava in the fourth volume of The 
Silva of North America is Crataegus Floridana, Sargent. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCXCIII. Crat^gus flava. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



H?r^w 



Tab. DCXCIII. 



'■ Tv 




C.JSJi'ascons del' . 



CRATAEGUS FLAVA, Ait.. 

AJUocretuo direa> * Irnp JTaneur, Paris . 



■Lartazod, 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 157 



CRATAEGUS CONSANGUINEA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20 ; anthers purple. Leaves obovate or suborbicular. 

Crataegus consanguinea, Beadle, Biltmore Bot. Studies, i. 34 (1901). 

A tree, often twenty feet in height, with a tall trunk six or eight inches in diameter covered with 
nearly black deeply furrowed bark broken into short thick closely appressed scales, and wide-spreading 
and often pendulous branches forming a broad symmetrical handsome head. The branchlets are slender, 
slightly zigzag, marked by small pale lenticels, and armed with short nearly straight gray or chestnut- 
brown spines varying from one third to three quarters of an inch in length ; green more or less tinged 
with red and covered with pale caducous hairs when they first appear, they soon become bright red- 
brown and lustrous, and in their second season are dull reddish brown. The leaves are broadly ovate, 
nearly orbicular, or occasionally oval or rhombic, acute and generally short-pointed at the apex, 
gradually narrowed and concave-cuneate or sometimes rounded at the entire base, finely and often 
doubly serrate, with glandular teeth, and frequently irregularly divided above the middle into short 
acute lobes ; nearly fully grown when the flowers open at the end of March or early in April, they are 
then very thin, blue-green, and slightly villose, particularly along the midribs and veins, and at maturity 
they are thin but firm in texture, bright green, glabrous with the exception of a few hairs on the under 
sides of the slender midribs and thin primary veins extending very obliquely toward the apex of the 
leaf, about an inch in length and from three quarters of an inch to seven eighths of an inch in width, 
or on vigorous shoots from an inch and a half to two inches long and wide ; they are borne on slender 
grooved glandular petioles broadened above by the gradually narrowed base of the leaf-blades, at first 
villose, ultimately glabrous, and from one third to three quarters of an inch long. The stipules vary 
from linear to lunate, and are glandular, often bright red before falling, small, and caducous. The 
flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender elongated villose pedicels 
in simple one to five-flowered corymbs, with oblanceolate acuminate bright red caducous bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and sparingly furnished with long pale caducous hairs, 
and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, glandular, with minute bright red 
glands, glabrous, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with small purple 
anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of short pale hairs. 
The fruit, which ripens and falls about the middle of September, is borne on slender glabrous pedicels, 
often only a single fruit of a cluster developing ; it is globose or depressed globose, bright red, marked 
by small dark dots, and nearly half an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a narrow deep 
cavity and enlarged appressed lobes ; and the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The nutlets vary 
from three to five in number, and are thick, ridged on the back, with low broad rounded ridges, and 
about five sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus consanguinea inhabits dry upland Oak woods in western Florida, and is distributed from 
the neighborhood of Tallahassee to the Appalachicola River. It is very abundant in the neighborhood 
of River Junction and at Aspalaga, where it was probably first collected in April, 1897, by Dr. A. W. 
Chapman. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCIV. Crataegus consangutnea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of- North -America 



Tat.DGXCIV. 






CJE.Faxon,del. 



F-ritel, 



CRATAEGUS CONSANGUINEA.Bead. 



A.IUocreu& dzrea> . 



Imp. JTemeur^aris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 159 



CRAT^IGUS FLORIDANA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20; anthers light yellow. Leaves obovate-cuneate, acute, and often 
lobed at the apex. 

Crataegus Floridana. Crataegus flava, Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 113 (in part), 

t. 189 (not Aiton) (1892). 

A tree, rarely more than fifteen feet in height, with a tall straight stem six or eight inches in 
diameter covered with thick nearly black deeply furrowed bark broken into short thick plate-like scales, 
and small drooping branches forming a handsome symmetrical head. The branchlets are slender, very 
conspicuously zigzag, pendulous, and armed with long thin straight spines, or unarmed ; when they 
first appear they are coated with long pale matted hairs which gradually disappear, and during their 
first summer they are dark red-brown and more or less villose, becoming dull dark brown the following 
season. The leaves are obovate-cuneate and frequently three-lobed at the apex, with short rounded 
lobes, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the entire base, finely serrate above, with straight or incurved 
teeth tipped with showy bright red ultimately dark persistent glands and three-nerved, with slender 
nerves, and with numerous thin secondary veins and reticulate veinlets ; slightly villose above as they 
unfold, they are nearly fully grown when the flowers open about the middle of March, and are then 
light yellow-green and glabrous, with the exception of a few mostly persistent hairs along the upper and 
the lower sides of the nerves and in their axils, and in the autumn they are thick and firm, dark green 
and lustrous on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, from an inch to an inch and a half long 
and about half an inch wide ; they are borne on slender tomentose ultimately pubescent or glabrous 
glandular petioles more or less broadly winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, and 
usually about half an inch long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are frequently two inches long 
and an inch wide, and are sometimes divided by deep rounded sinuses into numerous narrow lateral 
lobes, and their stipules are lunate, foliaceous, pointed, and coarsely glandular-serrate. The flowers, 
which are about five eighths of an inch in diameter, are produced in few usually three-flowered simple 
compact tomentose corymbs, with linear - lanceolate or oblanceolate glandular caducous bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, coated with long matted white hairs, and the lobes are 
narrow, acuminate, glandular, with bright red stipitate glands, villose toward the base on the outer 
surface and on the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens 
with small pale yellow anthers, and four or usually five styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring 
of long shining white hairs. The fruit ripens from the middle to the end of August, and is solitary 
or in two or three-fruited drooping clusters, on short stout pubescent pedicels ; it is obovate, usually 
about three quarters of an inch in length, bright orange-red, lustrous, and marked by numerous pale 
dots; the calyx is prominent, with a wide elongated tube, puberulous on the outer surface, and 
reflexed glandular-serrate lobes ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The four or five nutlets 
are rounded and occasionally slightly ridged on the back, and about one third of an inch in length. 

Crataegus Floridana inhabits the dry sandy soil of the Pine barrens of northeastern Florida, 
where it is very abundant in the neighborhood of Jacksonville, and probably extends northward along 
the coast of Georgia. 

Formerly confounded with the Crataegus flava of Aiton, Crataegus Floridana was figured in the 
fourth volume of this work for that species. 



KOSACEiE. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 161 



CRAT^JGUS LACRIMATA 
Yellow Haw. Sandhill Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves obovate, round or acute at the apex, subco- 
riaceous, dark yellow-green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus laerimata, Small, Torreya, i. 97 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, occasionally twenty but usually not more than ten feet in height, with 
a tall stem from four to six inches in diameter covered with thick deeply furrowed nearly black 
bark broken on the surface into thick plate-like closely appressed scales, and long slender drooping 
branches forming a narrow handsome symmetrical round-topped head. The branchlets are thin, very 
zigzag, and armed with numerous small nearly straight dark chestnut-brown spines from one half to 
three quarters of an inch in length ; when they first appear they are light orange-brown, soon becoming 
reddish brown and lustrous, and dark gray-brown in their second year. The leaves are obovate, 
rounded or acute and glandular-serrate at the apex, usually with incurved teeth, entire and glandular 
below, gradually narrowed from above the middle to the base, and three-nerved, with slender yellow 
nerves, and with numerous thin secondary veins and reticulate veinlets ; when the flowers open early 
in April they are nearly fully grown, and are then light yellow and glabrous, with the exception of 
small tufts of pale caducous hairs on the lower side in the axils of the nerves, and at maturity they 
are subcoriaceous, yellow-green and lustrous, from one half to three quarters of an inch long and 
about one third of an inch wide ; they are borne on slender grooved petioles which vary from one 
quarter to one half of an inch in length, and are winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf- 
blades, dark orange-brown and at first puberulous, soon become glabrous. The flowers are about two 
thirds of an inch in diameter, and are produced on short stout pedicels, in from three to five-flowered 
simple glabrous corymbs, with long linear entire caducous bracts and bractlets which turn red in 
fading. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, 
acuminate, entire, tipped with large dark glands, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty 
stamens with slender filaments and large fight yellow anthers, and usually three styles surrounded 
at the base by a narrow ring of pale hairs. The fruit ripens toward the end of August, and is 
subglobose or short-oblong, full and rounded at the ends, dull brownish yellow marked by occasional 
large dark dots, and about a third of an inch in diameter, with a prominent elongated calyx-tube and 
spreading lobes which usually disappear before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and 
mealy. The three nutlets are very broad, rounded and sometimes obscurely grooved on the back, about 
three eighths of an inch long, and usually three in number. 

Cratcegus laerimata inhabits western Florida, where it is common and often a conspicuous feature 
of the vegetation from Pensacola to De Funiak Springs, sometimes growing in moist sand, but more 
often in dry barrens covered principally with a stunted growth of Qicerciis Catesbcei. It appears to 
have been first collected at Crest View on May 11, 1898, by Mr. A. H. Curtiss. 1 

i See ii. 50. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCV. Crataegus lacrimata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXCV. 




£JS.FeuB0n,del. 



£art£LiuL_ 



CRATAEGUS LACRIMATA. Small 



ji.7Uocreuz> direz>. 



Jmp. J.Taneur, Parif. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 163 



CRATAEGUS RAVENELII. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves obovate, rounded, and abruptly short- 
pointed or acute at the broad apex. 

Crataegus Ravenelii, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 122 (1902). 

A tree, twenty-five or thirty feet in height, with a trunk often fourteen or fifteen inches in diameter 
covered with thick dark brown bark deeply divided into narrow interrupted ridges broken on the surface 
into short thick plate-like scales, and stout spreading or ascending branches forming a broad open 
irregular head. The branchlets are stout, somewhat zigzag, and armed with thick straight dull gray- 
brown spines usually about an inch and a half in length ; thickly coated with hoary tomentum when 
they first appear, they are dark purple or reddish brown and pubescent during their first summer and dark 
red-brown and glabrous the following season. The leaves are obovate, rounded and abruptly short- 
pointed or acute at the broad sometimes slightly lobed apex, gradually narrowed from above the middle 
to the elongated cuneate base, which is more or less undulate on the margins, and coarsely and usually 
doubly glandular-serrate above, with large bright red ultimately dark persistent glands ; they are nearly 
fully grown when the flowers open about the middle of April, and are then coated with long scattered 
pale hairs which mostly soon disappear, and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, yellow-green, 
scabrous on the upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface along the slender veins, from an 
inch to an inch and a half long and about three quarters of an inch wide ; they are borne on slender 
glandular petioles winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, tomentose at first but ulti- 
mately pubescent, and from one quarter to one half of an inch in length. The stipules vary from 
linear to lunate, and are conspicuously glandular-serrate, tomentose, and caducous. On vigorous leading 
shoots the leaves are often two inches long and an inch and a half wide, and are frequently divided 
above the middle into two or three pairs of broad lateral lobes. The flowers are about three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, in few-flowered simple tomentose corymbs, with linear glandular caducous bracts 
and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, thickly coated with long white hairs, and the lobes 
are lanceolate, villose on the outer surface, glabrous on the inner surface, glandular with small red 
glands, and reflexed after anthesis. There are twenty stamens with small pale yellow anthers, and five 
styles surrounded at the base by a broad ring of pale tomentum. The fruit, which ripens early in 
October, is borne on short thick pedicels, in few-fruited drooping or spreading clusters, and is globose 
or short-oblong, bright orange-red marked by occasional large dark dots, puberulous at the ends, 
and from one third to one half of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is prominent, with a broad shallow 
cavity and enlarged spreading and appressed lobes, and the flesh is thick, yellow, and subacid. The 
five nutlets are ridged on the back, with narrow elevated ridges, pale brown, and a quarter of an inch 

long. 

Crataegus Ravenelii inhabits the sand hills near Aiken, South Carolina, and in Summerville, the 

western suburb of Augusta, Georgia. 

Long confounded with Crataegus flava of Aiton, Crataegus Ravenelii was collected by William 
Henry Ravenel * as early as 1880, and the name of this distinguished South Carolina botanist may 
fittingly be associated with this handsome tree. 

1 See viii. 160. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCVI. Crataegus Ravenelii. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of North Americj 



Ta"b. DCXCVI. 




■C.E.Fcucoti, del. 



ZarteuuL s&. 



CRATAEGUS RAVENELII, Sar6. 

o 



A.mocreuce> c&reay? 



Imp.J.Faneur^aris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 165 



CRATAEGUS DISPAR 
Summer Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers light yellow. Leaves obovate or orbicular, incisely lobed, 
blue-green. 

Crataegus dispar, Beadle, Biltmore Bat. Studies, I 28 Crataegus flava, var. elliptica, Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 
(1901). 114 (excl. syn.) t. 190 (1892). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a short trunk a foot in diameter, and stout 
ascending branches forming a broad irregular head ; or often shrubby and beginning to flower when 
only a few feet tall. The bark of the trunk is thin and separates freely into large pale reddish brown 
or gray-brown scales which in falling disclose the bright red-brown inner bark. The branchlets are 
stout, zigzag, and armed with thick or thin nearly straight dark red-brown ultimately gray spines from 
an inch and a half to two inches in length ; when they first appear they are coated with thick hoary 
tomentum, and during their first summer they are dark red-brown and pubescent, becoming darker 
colored and glabrous the following season. The leaves are usually three-nerved, broadly ovate or 
orbicular, acute or rounded at the apex, generally narrowed and cuneate or concave-cuneate at the 
glandular entire base, serrate or doubly serrate above, with straight or incurved glandular teeth, and 
mostly divided above the middle into several short acute lobes ; when they unfold they are coated with 
long matted snow-white hairs which are more abundant on the lower than on the upper surface, and 
when the flowers open about the middle of April they are more than half grown, blue-green and villose 
above and still tomentose below ; in the autumn they are thin but firm in texture, blue-green and 
glabrous on the upper surface, pale and slightly pubescent on the lower surface, particularly along the 
slender nerves, and usually about an inch long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch wide ; 
they are borne on slender tomentose ultimately pubescent or villose broadly grooved glandular petioles 
slightly widened above by the decurrent bases of the leaf-blades, and usually about a third of an inch in 
length. The stipules are lunate, coarsely glandular-serrate, from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch 
long, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are broadly ovate or suborbicular, full and 
rounded at the broad base, coarsely serrate, often deeply divided above the middle into three wide acute 
lobes, and frequently broader than they are long. The flowers are about five eighths of an inch in diam- 
eter, and are produced on slender tomentose pedicels, in simple three to seven-flowered corymbs, with 
narrow obovate acute glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, coated with 
pale tomentum, and the lobes are narrow, acute, glandular-serrate, with minute bright red glands, tomen- 
tose on the outer surface, glabrous on the inner surface, and reflexed after the petals fall. There are 
twenty stamens with small light yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a 
ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens late in August or early in September, and is borne on slender 
pubescent pedicels, in few-fruited clusters ; it is subglobose or oblong, fight red, puberulous toward the 
ends, and about a third of an inch in diameter, with a prominent calyx, and thin subacid yellow flesh. 
The nutlets vary from three to five in number, and are thick, rounded, and obscurely ridged on the back, 
dark brown, and a quarter of an inch long. 1 

Crataegus dispar grows on the dry sand hills near Aiken and Trenton, South Carolina, and near 
Augusta, Georgia, where it is very abundant in Summerville its western suburb. 

1 Crataegus dispar is one of several species which has long been of this work it appears on plate cxc. as a variety of that species. 
confounded with Crataegus jiava of Aiton, and in the fourth volume It is easily distinguished from the species of the flava group which 



166 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

The fruit is gathered in large quantities and is made into jelly, which can hardly be distinguished 
from that made in the West Indies from the fruit of the Guava. 

grow with it in great quantities near Augusta and Aiken by its flaky light red or gray-brown bark which is unlike that of any 
blue-green laciniately divided leaves coated while young with snow- other species of the flava group. 
white hairs, by its early flowers and early ripening fruit, and by its 



kosace^e. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 167 



CRATAEGUS SENTA. 
Haw. 
Stamens 20. Leaves obovate to obovate-cuneiform. 

Crataegus senta, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxx. 341 (1900). Crataegus elliptica, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxv. 447 (not 

Alton) (1898). 

A tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes a foot in diameter covered 
with deeply furrowed bark, often nearly black near the base of old trees and dark gray above, and stout 
pendulous or recurved branches forming a broad open irregular head ; or more frequently a large 
shrub with few or numerous stems. The branchlets are slender, zigzag, marked by occasional small 
pale lenticels, and armed with nearly straight thin bright chestnut-brown ultimately gray spines from 
three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they first appear they are coated 
with long matted white hairs which gradually disappear, and before the autumn they are rather bright 
reddish brown and pubescent, growing glabrous and dull red-brown in their second season, and finally 
dark gray slightly tinged with red. The leaves are obovate or obovate-cuneiform, acute or sometimes 
rounded and frequently slightly divided into several short acute lobes at the broad apex, gradually 
narrowed from above the middle to the base, and serrate or doubly serrate, with incurved conspicuously 
glandular teeth ; when they unfold the upper surface is often dark red and is covered with long pale 
caducous hairs which also occur on the under surface of the midribs and veins, and when the flowers 
open from the first to the tenth of May they are nearly fully grown, bright yellow-green, and almost 
glabrous with the exception of the tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the veins, which are mostly 
persistent through the season ; in the autumn they are thin but firm in texture, dark green and 
lustrous above and paler below, and usually about an inch and a half long and an inch wide, with 
prominent orange-colored midribs, generally three pairs of slender primary veins extending obliquely to 
the points of the lobes, and dark conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on slender deeply 
grooved glandular petioles which are more or less broadened above by the gradually narrowed bases of 
the leaf-blades, tomentose at first, ultimately pubescent or nearly glabrous, and about three quarters of 
an inch in length. The stipules are lanceolate, acuminate, glandular, about an eighth of an inch long, 
and caducous. On vigorous shoots the leaves are broadly ovate or often nearly orbicular, more deeply 
lobed than the leaves of fertile branches, with broad rounded or acute lobes, and from two to two 
and a half inches in diameter, with foliaceous lunate coarsely glandular-dentate stipules sometimes half 
an inch in length. In the autumn the leaves turn red, yellow, and brown before falling. The flowers, 
which are about three quarters of an inch in diameter, are produced on slender elongated pedicels 
coated with long matted pale hairs which cover the branches of the lax compound three to six- 
flowered corymbs, with lanceolate straight or falcate glandular bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube 
is broadly obconic and villose, particularly toward the base, and the lobes are narrow, elongated, 
acuminate, nearly glabrous, and coarsely and irregularly glandular-serrate. The petals are longer than 
broad, and there are twenty stamens and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a broad 
ring of hoary tomentum. The fruit ripens and falls at the end of September or early in October, 
and is produced on slender slightly hairy elongated pedicels, in few-fruited drooping clusters ; it is 
globose, bright red, and from one third to one half of an inch in diameter, with a broad deep calyx- 
cavity, closely appressed calyx-lobes, and dry mealy flesh. The nutlets vary from three to five in 
number, and are slightly grooved on the back, and about a quarter of an inch in length. 



168 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

Cratcegus senta grows in abandoned fields and in open Oak and Pine woods near Asheville, 
North Carolina, at elevations of about twenty-two hundred feet above the sea-level, where it was 
first distinguished by Mr. C. D. Beadle. 1 

1 What appears to be the same species, judging by the imperfect material which I have seen, grows near Aiken, South Carolina, and 
on the banks of the Savannah River at Augusta, Georgia. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCVII. Crataegus senta. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva.of North America-. 



Tab. DCXCVII. 








CHLFazxtn, dels. 



CRATAEGUS SENTA. Bead. 



Xartaud 



AJ&ocreuaa direa>^ 



Imp. >J.TajieiLr l Paris . 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 169 



CRATAEGUS APRICA. 

Haw. 

Stamens 10 ; anthers yellow. Leaves obovate to orbicular, subcoriaceous, dark 
green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus aprica, Beadle, Bot. Gazette, xxx. 335 (1900). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 99. 

A tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a stem six or eight inches in diameter covered 
with deeply furrowed bark broken irregularly into small persistent plate-like scales, and dark gray or 
on old stems often nearly black, and spreading more or less contorted elongated branches forming a 
broad open irregular head ; or frequently a much-branched shrub with several stout spreading stems. 
The branchlets are slender, zigzag, marked by many small oblong dark lenticels, and armed with thin 
nearly straight chestnut-brown spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; when they first 
appear they are dark green tinged with red, and villose ; soon becoming nearly glabrous, at midsummer 
they are light orange-brown, dark reddish brown or purple before winter, and ultimately ashy gray. 
The winter-buds are globose, bright red-brown, and about an eighth of an inch in diameter. The 
leaves are broadly obovate, oval, or rhomboidal, acute and short-pointed or rounded at the apex, 
gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at the base, dentate usually only above the middle, with 
small incurved teeth terminating in conspicuous rose-colored ultimately dark red persistent glands, and 
often somewhat lobed toward the apex, particularly on vigorous shoots, with short acute lobes ; when 
they first unfold they are of a deep orange color, roughened above by short pale appressed hairs and 
sparingly villose below, particularly along the slender midribs and remote primary veins, and at maturity 
they are thick and firm in texture, glabrous, very smooth, dark yellow-green on the upper surface, paler 
on the lower surface, from an inch to an inch and a quarter long and an inch wide ; they are borne on 
stout grooved conspicuously glandular petioles, which are more or less winged above by the decurrent 
bases of the leaf-blades, at first villose, ultimately nearly glabrous, usually bright red on the lower 
side and toward the base after midsummer, and about half an inch long. The stipules are linear or 
linear-lanceolate, acute, and glandular-serrate. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often nearly 
orbicular, more frequently and more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and from an 
inch and a half to two inches long and wide, with stout broad-margined petioles and foliaceous lunate 
stipules. The flowers, which open about the tenth of May, when the leaves are nearly fully grown, 
are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender pedicels, in small three to 
six-flowered villose nearly sessile corymbs. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, villose at the base, 
glabrous above, and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, glabrous, coarsely 
glandular-serrate, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are ten stamens with short slender 
filaments and small bright yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a 
narrow ring of pale hairs. The fruit ripens late in the autumn, and is borne on stout glabrous or 
slightly villose pedicels from one quarter to one half of an inch in length, in erect or drooping 
usually two or three-fruited clusters ; it is subglobose, rarely rather longer than broad, dull orange- 
red, often slightly villose at the ends, and marked by numerous small dark dots ; the calyx is much 
enlarged, with a broad prominent deep tube and wide-spreading coarsely glandular acuminate lobes 
which are bright red at the base on the upper side ; the flesh is thin, light yellow, sweet, and rather 
juicy. The nutlets, which are large in proportion to the size of the fruit, vary from three to five in 



170 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

number, and are light-colored, about a qimrter of an inch long, and rounded and ridged on the back, 
with a broad low ridge. 

Crataegus aprica inhabits dry woods in the foothill region of the southern Appalachian Mountains, 
where it is common from southwestern Virginia through western North Carolina to eastern Tennessee, 
northern Georgia, and Alabama, growing usually at elevations between fifteen hundred feet and thirty- 
five hundred feet above the sea-level. 

Lono- confounded with Crataegus flava of Aiton, its true characters were first made known by Mr. 
C. D. Beadle of the Biltmore herbarium. Since 1876 Crataegus aprica has inhabited the Arnold 
Arboretum, where it is perfectly hardy and produces its flowers and fruit in the greatest abundance. 1 

1 In the Arnold Arboretum this tree was raised from seeds given the flava group which has proved hardy in the northern states, 

to me by Dr. Asa Gray under the name of Crataegus unifiora, and Crataegus aprica is particularly beautiful in the Arboretum late in 

without any indication of its origin. One of the most distinct and October and in early November, when the long branches are loaded 

interesting species in the collection and the only representative of with their abundant fruits, and the leaves turn to a deep purple color. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCVIII. Crataegus aprica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, front view, enlarged. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCXCVm. 



/ l 

( \ 




CKIaavn. del. 



Zcmtaud* so. 



CRATAEGUS APRICA.BeaA. 



Alfcocreua? direa>. 



Imp, lZ Thsieur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. Ill 



CRATAEGUS OPIMA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers purple. Leaves oral to ovate or nearly orbicular, acute, 
membranaceous, bright green. 

Crataegus opima, Beadle, Biltmore Bat. Studies, i. 40 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall slender often spiny 
stem covered with ashy gray bark generally blackened near the base of old trunks, and spreading or 
ascending branches forming a round or oval usually open head. The branchlets are small, nearly 
straight, marked by minute pale lenticels, and armed with numerous thin nearly straight bright chestnut- 
brown lustrous spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; green more or less tinged with 
red when they first appear, they soon become bright red-brown, and during their second season grow 
gray tinged with red or brown. The leaves vary from oval to ovate or to nearly orbicular, and are 
acute at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at the entire base, finely serrate above, 
with incurved teeth, and usually divided above the middle into several short acute acuminate or rounded 
lobes ; they are half grown when the flowers open about the middle of April, and are then glabrous with 
the exception of a few short caducous hairs along the midribs and veins, which are most abundant on the 
upper side ; and at maturity they are thin but firm in texture, light green on the upper surface, pale on 
the lower surface, about an inch and a half long and an inch and a quarter wide, with slender midribs 
only slightly impressed above, and five or six pairs of arcuate primary veins spreading to the points of 
the lobes ; they are borne on very slender grooved glandular petioles narrowly winged at the apex by the 
decurrent bases of the leaf -blades, and usually about three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules 
are linear, straight or falcate, glandular-serrate, and caducous. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves 
are sometimes rounded or nearly truncate at the base, and from an inch and a half to two inches long 
and broad. The flowers are about two thirds of an inch in diameter, and are produced on short slender 
pedicels, in compact few-flowered thin-branched compound corymbs, with linear glandular bracts and 
bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes are gradually narrowed from 
broad bases, acute, entire, or sparingly glandular-serrate, tipped with dark red glands, puberulous on 
the inner surface, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with purple anthers, 
and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of snowy white tomentum. The 
fruit is borne on short stout pedicels, in compact few-fruited erect or drooping clusters, and, ripening 
about the first of October, hangs on the branches for several weeks before falling ; it is subglobose but 
often rather longer than it is wide, bright red, and about a quarter of an inch in diameter ; the calyx is 
prominent, with a well-developed tube, a broad deep cavity, and much enlarged closely appressed lobes 
which often fall with the tube before the fruit becomes entirely ripe ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and 
mealy. The nutlets vary from three to five in number, and are thin, slightly grooved and ridged on the 
back, and an eighth of an inch in length. 

Crataegus opima is abundant in the neighborhood of Greenville, Alabama, where it grows in open 
woods in clay soil and where it was discovered in April, 1900, by Mr. C. L. Boynton. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCXCIX. Crataegus opima. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCXCIX 






D 



C.EJ p accon, del. 



CRATAEGUS OPIMA.Bead. 

A.Biocreujc direcc* Im P J ' Ttvrvatr, Pans 



ZartazuL jc 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 173 



CRATAEGUS VULSA. 

Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers pale yellow. Leaves oval or ovate, acute, membranaceous, 
bright green. 

Crataegus vulsa, Beadle, Biltmore Bot. Studies, i. 39 (1901). 

A nearly glabrous tree, occasionally twenty feet in height, with a tall stem five or six inches in 
diameter covered with thin fissured bark broken on the surface into light gray scales tinged with brown, 
and often armed with long compound spines, and ascending or spreading branches forming an oval 
usually compact symmetrical head ; or sometimes a shrub with numerous stems. The branchlets are 
slender, nearly straight, marked by small scattered pale lenticels, and armed with thin nearly straight 
bright chestnut-brown shining spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; dark yellow-green 
and glabrous when they first appear, they are bright reddish brown and lustrous during their first season, 
and light gray-brown in their second year. The leaves are oval or ovate, acute at the apex, full and 
rounded or broadly cuneate at the entire base, irregularly and often doubly serrate above, with straight 
or incurved gland-tipped teeth, and often divided into several short acute lateral lobes ; as they unfold 
they are dark bronze-red and pilose, with scattered caducous hairs, and furnished with tufts of pale 
often persistent hairs in the axils of the principal veins ; they are nearly fully grown when the flowers 
open late in April, and at maturity they are thin, bright green on the upper surface, paler on the lower 
surface, about two inches long and an inch and a half wide, with slender midribs and four or five pairs 
of thin pale yellow primary veins ; they are borne on slender grooved petioles somewhat villose at first 
but soon glabrous, and about three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are linear, straight, or 
falcate, finely glandular-serrate, and turn bright red in fading. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves 
are broadly ovate, acute, or acuminate, full and rounded or occasionally truncate or broadly cuneate at the 
base, more coarsely dentate and more deeply lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, and often three 
inches long and two inches and a half wide, with stout winged often glandular petioles and narrow 
falcate acuminate glandular stipules. In the autumn before falling the leaves turn yellow or brown. 
The flowers are three quarters of an inch in diameter, and are produced on slender pedicels in compact 
compound three to ten-flowered corymbs, with linear acuminate glandular red bracts and bractlets. 
The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and the lobes are gradually narrowed from broad bases, acuminate, 
and entire or occasionally obscurely serrate toward the apex. There are twenty stamens with small 
pale yellow anthers, and from three to five styles surrounded at the base by a thin ring of pale hairs. 
The fruit ripens at the end of September or early in October, and is borne on slender pedicels, in few- 
fruited drooping clusters ; it is globose, yellow-green flushed with red, and a third of an inch in diameter ; 
the calyx is prominent, with a well-developed tube, a broad and comparatively deep cavity, and closely 
appressed lobes ; the flesh is yellow-green, thin, dry, and mealy. The nutlets vary from three to five 
in number, and are thin, rounded, and sometimes slightly ridged and grooved on the back, and about 
three sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Crataegus vulsa grows in rich moist soil on the borders of Horseleg Creek at Rome, Georgia, and 
in the low flat woods in the neighborhood of Gadsden on the Coosa River in northeastern Alabama, 
where it was discovered in the spring of 1899 by Mr. C. L. Boynton. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCC. Crataegus vulsa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

9. A leaf of a vigorous shoot, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DCC. 




CE.ftucon, deL. 



ZcLrtaiuL so. 



CRATAEGUS VULSA,Beaa. 



A.IUocreua> direa>} 



Imp. if.Tanew, Parir. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 175 



CRATAEGUS GLABRIUSCULA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers white. Leaves oblong-ovate to semiorbicular, subcoriaceous, 
dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus glabriuscula, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 235 (1901). 

A tree, from twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a tall straight stem often a foot in diameter 
covered with thin dark brown scaly bark, and long ascending branches forming a narrow head. The 
branchlets are slender, nearly straight or rarely somewhat zigzag, marked by numerous small pale 
lenticels, and unarmed or furnished with occasional very thin straight chestnut-brown lustrous spines 
generally from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The leaves vary from oblong-ovate to 
semiorbicular, and are acute and often short-pointed or rarely rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed 
from below the middle and decurrent on the long slender slightly grooved glandular petioles, coarsely 
and often doubly serrate usually only above the middle, with broad straight gland-tipped teeth, and 
sometimes divided toward the apex into two or three short acute lobes ; when the flowers open about the 
first of April they are nearly fully grown, and are membranaceous and slightly pilose above, with scattered 
pale hairs which are most abundant along the base of the midribs and soon disappear ; and at maturity 
they are subcoriaceous, hard, and firm in texture, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale on 
the lower surface, from an inch and a half to two inches long and from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch wide, with thin light yellow midribs and primary veins extending obliquely toward the apex of the 
leaf and conspicuous secondary veins and reticulated veinlets. The stipules are linear, entire, and about 
a third of an inch in length. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often ovate, broadly cuneate 
at the base, much more coarsely dentate and more frequently lobed than the leaves of lateral branchlets, 
and from two inches to two inches and a half long and wide, with foliaceous lunate coarsely glandular- 
dentate stipules sometimes an inch broad. The flowers, which are about half an inch in diameter, are 
borne on long slender pedicels, in few-flowered rather compact thin-branched corymbs, with minute linear 
finely glandular-serrate caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic, and the lobes 
are short, gradually narrowed from broad bases, acute, entire, villose on the upper surface, and reflexed 
after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with elongated filaments and nearly white anthers, 
and five styles. The fruit, which ripens in September and often does not fall until late in the winter, 
hangs on slender stems in compact many-fruited drooping clusters ; it varies from short-oblong to 
obovate or to nearly globose, and is dull orange color marked by minute dark dots, and about a 
quarter of an inch long ; the calyx is conspicuous, with a deep broad cavity and spreading or closely 
appressed lobes which are but slightly enlarged, dull red on the upper side at the base, and often 
deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is very thin, yellow, dry, and hard. The five nutlets are 
rounded and sometimes obscurely grooved on the back, and about three sixteenths of an inch long. 

Cratcegus glabriuscula inhabits the dry parts of the bottom-lands of the Trinity River and its 
branches near Dallas, Texas, where it grows in forests of Ulmus crassifolia and Celtis Mississijyriensis, 
and where it was discovered in June, 1899, by Mr. Julien Reverchon. 1 

1 Julien Reverchon (August 3, 1837) was born in the little vil- tution of the first French Republic, and his father and uncle active 
lage of Diemoz near Lyons in France, of a family well known for participants in the Revolution of 1848. In 1855 he came with his 
its strong republican principles, his grandfather Jacques Reverchon father to Texas, where the family purchased a farm in the neighbor- 
having been a member of the convention which framed the consti- hood of Dallas. Here he was able to turn the knowledge of botany 



176 



SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ROSACEA. 



which he had acquired in his native village as a boy to good use in 
making large collections of the then little known plants growing in 
the neighborhood of his home. These brought him the correspond- 
ence of Asa Gray and other botanists, who induced him to extend 
his botanical excursions, and in 1885 he was able to devote several 
months to exploring a part of southwestern Texas which had not 
been previously visited by botanists. After this jouruey, rich in 
many discoveries, his profitable dairy farm kept him at home for 
several years, but now relieved from the cares of business, Mr. 



Reverchon has recommenced botanical work and is devoting him- 
self to collecting the still imperfectly known plants of eastern 
Texas. Reverchonia, a genus of the Euphorbia family, was named 
in his honor by Asa Gray, and the name of Reverchon is also asso- 
ciated with the flora of his adopted state in species of Gyrostaehys, 
Andrachne, Aristida, Muehlenbergia, Panicum, Vicia, Hedeoma, 
Campanula, Psoralea, Petalostemon, and Astragalus, discovered by 
him. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate DCCL Crataegus glabriuscula. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. Leaf of a shoot with a stipule, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 



Tab. DC CI. 




C. E. Fcucon, deL 



■Rapine' so. 



CRATAEGUS GLABRIUSCULA.Saro. 

o 



AJiiocreua> direa>. 



Imp. J.Taneur, Paris. 



rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMEBIC A, 111 



CRATAEGUS BLANDA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 20 ; anthers canary-yellow. Leaves oval to rhombic, acute, or acumi- 
nate. 

Crataegus blanda, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 121 (1902). 

A nearly glabrous unarmed tree, from twenty-five to tbirty feet in height, with a tall trunk ten 
or twelve inches in diameter covered with dark brown or nearly black bark divided by shallow fissures 
and broken on the surface into small plate-like scales, and stout ascending branches forming a broad 
open irregular head. The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, glabrous, and marked by large 
scattered pale lenticels ; and when they first appear they are dark orange-green, becoming dull red- 
brown during their first season, and darker brown the following year. The leaves vary from oval to 
rhombic, and are acute or acuminate and occasionally slightly lobed toward the apex, broadly cuneate 
or concave-cuneate at the entire base, and coarsely crenulate-serrate above the middle, with gland-tipped 
teeth ; coated with soft pale hairs when they unfold, they are fully grown when the flowers open about 
the first of May, and are then membranaceous, dark green and lustrous above and glabrous below, 
with the exception of large tufts of snow-white tomentum in the axils of the primary veins, from an 
inch and a half to two inches in length and from an inch to an inch and a half in width, and in the 
autumn they are subcoriaceous, yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface and paler on the lower 
surface, with slender midribs deeply impressed above, and two or three pairs of thin primary veins 
extending very obliquely toward the apex of the leaf ; they are borne on slender petioles slightly winged 
above, villose at first along the upper side but soon glabrous, and from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch long. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves are often broadly ovate, full and rounded at the 
base, more deeply lobed above the middle, from two inches to two inches and a half in length, and 
from an inch and a half to two inches in width. The stipules are linear-lanceolate, entire, from one 
third to one quarter of an inch long, and caducous. The flowers, which are an inch in diameter, are 
borne on slender elongated pedicels, in broad many-flowered compound glabrous corymbs, with linear 
entire bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube is broadly obconic and glabrous, and the lobes, which are 
gradually narrowed from broad bases, are acuminate, entire or obscurely dentate, glabrous, and reflexed 
after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with small canary-yellow anthers, and five styles. 
The fruit ripens about the middle of October, and is produced in many-fruited drooping clusters ; it is 
subglobose or short-oblong, bright orange-red, marked by few large pale dots, a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, and crowned by the prominent calyx, with a broad deep cavity and spreading lobes which 
are usually deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh is thin, yellow, dry, and mealy. The five 
nutlets are thin, deeply grooved on the back, pale brown, and three quarters of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus blanda was discovered in April, 1901, by W. M. Canby, B. F. Bush, and C. S. Sargent, 
growing on dry uplands and low rolling hills near Fulton on the Red River in southern Arkansas. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCCII. Crataegus blakda. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

8. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva: of Korth .America. 



Tab.DCCIL 




GJZ.Fa/corv del/. 



RabouUles s&. 



CRATAEGUS BLANDA,Sarg. 

A.Bu?creuay t£rea>*' Imp.J.Teuuxw^arir. 



Rosacea. SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA, 



179 



CRATAEGUS NITIDA. 
Haw. 

Stamens 15 to 20 ; anthers yellow. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-obovate, acuminate, 
coriaceous, dark green, and lustrous. 

Crataegus nitida, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 231 (1901). — Crataegus viridis, var. nitida, Britton & Brown, Ml. Fl. 

Britton, Man. 520. ii. 242 (1897). 

Crataegus viridis, Sargent, Silva N. Am. iv. 109 (in part) 
(not Linnaeus) (1892). 

A nearly glabrous tree, often thirty feet in height, with a tall straight trunk sometimes eighteen 
inches in diameter covered with close dark bark broken into thick plate-like scales, and stout spreading 
lower branches and erect upper branches forming a broad open rather irregular head. The branchlets 
are slender, nearly straight, marked by small pale lenticels, and are unarmed or armed with occasional 
straight thin bright chestnut-brown lustrous spines from an inch to an inch and a half in length ; 
during their first and second seasons they are bright orange-brown and lustrous, becoming pale reddish 
brown during their third year, and ultimately ashy gray. The leaves vary from lanceolate to oblong- 
obovate, and are acuminate, abruptly or gradually narrowed and cuneate at the entire base, coarsely 
serrate above, with straight or incurved glandular teeth, and often more or less divided into two or 
three pairs of broad acute lobes ; when they unfold they are membranaceous, slightly villose along the 
upper side of the midribs, with scattered pale caducous hairs, and dark red ; soon becoming green and 
lustrous, at maturity they are thick and coriaceous, dark green and very lustrous on the upper surface, 
pale and dull on the lower surface, from two to three inches long and from an inch to an inch and a 
half wide, with prominent midribs usually red on the lower side and few thin prominent • primary 
veins slightly impressed above and generally running to the points of the lobes ; they are borne on 
stout grooved glandular petioles which are more or less winged above, villose while young on the upper 
side, and from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. On vigorous leading shoots the leaves 
are frequently five inches long and two and a half inches wide, and more deeply lobed than the leaves 
of fertile branchlets, with lunate, stipitate, coarsely glandular-serrate stipules occasionally half an inch 
in length. The flowers, which open early in May when the leaves are nearly fully grown and are 
about three quarters of an inch in diameter, are borne on slender elongated pedicels in broad compound 
very thin-branched many-flowered corymbs, with minute linear bracts and bractlets. The calyx-tube 
is narrowly obconic, and the lobes are narrow, elongated, acuminate, entire or sparingly and irregularly 
glandular-serrate, and reflexed after the flowers open. There are from fifteen to twenty stamens with 
slender pale yellow anthers, and from two to five styles. The fruit ripens at the end of October, 
and hangs on slender elongated pedicels, in many-fruited drooping clusters ; it is oblong, full and 
rounded at the ends, dull brick red, pruinose, with a slight glaucous bloom, marked by small dark dots, 
from one half to five eighths of an inch in length and about one third of an inch in thickness ; the 
calyx-cavity is deep and narrow, and the lobes, which are only slightly enlarged, are dark red at the 
base on the upper side, usually erect and often deciduous before the fruit ripens ; the flesh' is thick, 
yellow, dry, and mealy. The nutlets, which vary from two to five in number, are rounded and ridged 
on the back, with low broad rounded ridges, light-colored, and a quarter of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus nitida is a common tree in the woods which cover the higher parts of the bottoms of 
the Mississippi River in Illinois opposite the city of St. Louis, where it was first collected in June, 



180 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. rosacea. 

1881, by Mr. G. W. Letterruan, by whom seeds were sent in 1883 to the Arnold Arboretum, where 
this tree is now fully established. 

1 In the Arnold Arboretum the flowers of Crataegus nitida open ing gradually turned to a rich orange-yellow color through shades 

during the first week in June, and the fruit ripens toward the end of bronze and orange-red, while the leaves on the shoots of lateral 

of October, and falls gradually. At this season of the year it is a branchlets are still green and very lustrous, and make a beautiful 

handsome object, the large leaves of the long vigorous shoots hav- contrast with the abundant but rather dull-colored fruits. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCCIII. Crataegus nitida. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, enlarged 



Silva of North America. 



Tab.DCCIII. 




G.E.JF'cucoTi, deZ, 



Errulfunely 



CRATAEGUS NITIDA,Sar6. 

o 



A.Hiocreua> direa> '. 



Imp.if.7emeur,Parif. 



Rosacea. 8ILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 181 



CRATAEGUS ATRORUBENS. 
Red Haw. 
Stamens 20. Leaves ovate, acute, membranaceous. 

Crataegus atrorubens, Ashe, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. xvi. pt. ii. 78 (1900). 

A tree, sometimes thirty feet in height, with a tall trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in 
diameter covered with dark red-brown scaly bark, and comparatively thin erect and spreading branches 
forming a compact rather narrow head. The branchlets are slender, nearly straight, marked by 
occasional oblong dark lenticels, and usually unarmed ; dark green and more or less tinged with red 
when they first appear, during their first season they become dark chestnut-brown and very lustrous, 
and bright reddish brown in their second year. The leaves are ovate, acute, usually full and rounded 
but sometimes broadly cuneate or truncate at the entire base, coarsely and usually doubly serrate, and 
often divided into two or three pairs of short acute lobes ; about half grown when the flowers open late 
in April or early in May, they are then slightly roughened above by short scattered white hairs, and are 
furnished below with conspicuous tufts of pale tomentum in the axils of the principal veins ; and at 
maturity they are very thin, glabrous, dark dull green and smooth on the upper surface, light yellow- 
green on the lower surface, and about two inches long and an inch and a half wide, and on leading 
shoots frequently three inches long and two inches and a half wide, with thin midribs and four or five 
pairs of slender primary veins only slightly impressed on the upper side ; they are borne on slender 
nearly terete slightly grooved petioles which, more or less densely villose at first, soon become glabrous 
and vary from an inch to an inch and a half in length. The flowers are about five eighths of an inch 
in diameter, and are produced on slender elongated villose pedicels, in broad loose compound glabrous 
or villose corymbs, with oblong-obovate acute minutely glandular-serrate bracts and bractlets. The 
calyx-tube is narrowly obconic, coated throughout or only at the base with hoary tomentum, and the 
lobes are short, acute, finely glandular-serrate, villose particularly on the inner surface, and reflexed 
after the flowers open. There are twenty stamens with slender filaments and small anthers, and four 
or five styles surrounded at the base by a narrow ring of pale tomentum. The fruit ripens and falls 
early in October, and is borne in drooping few-fruited clusters; it is subglobose or short-oblong, full 
and rounded at the ends, and dark red ; the calyx-cavity is broad and shallow, and the lobes are 
spreading and usually disappear before the fruit ripens. The four or five nutlets are thin, rounded, 
and sometimes obscurely grooved on the back, and about three sixteenths of an inch in length. 

Cratcegus atrorubens inhabits the rich bottom-lands of the Mississippi River in East St. Louis, 
Illinois, 1 where it is not common, and where it was first collected in 1882 by Mr. G. W. Letterman. 

1 Cratcegus atrorubens was described by Mr. Ashe as growing in and I have not been able to find any specimen of this tree from 
St. Louis County, Missouri. This is probably a mistake, as bis Missouri, 
type specimen was collected by Eggert in East St. Louis, Illinois, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Plate DCCIV. Crataegus atrorubens. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A calyx-lobe, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a fruit showing the nutlets, natural size. 

6. A nutlet, side view, enlarged. 

7. A nutlet, rear view, enlarged. 



Silva of Worth America. 



Tat.DCCIV. 



^-ww x 



^^v^'4^,. 





6 7 



C.E.I'cudoti, deL. 



CRATAEGUS ATRORUBENS, Ashe. 

j4Jliocreua> direa> ? Imp . J'. Tan&ur, J°tzrLr. 



ZartaucL 



INDEX TO VOL. XHI. 



Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 



Acacia albida, 19. 

Acacia leucacantha, 19. 

Acacia tortuosa, 19. 

Acer barbatum, 7. 

Acer barbatum, var. Floridanum, 7. 

Acer barbatum, var. grandidentatum, 8. 

Acer barbatum, var. nigrum, 8, 9. 

Acer Floridanum, var. acuminatum, 7. 

Acer leucoderme, 7. 

Acer microphyllum, 11. 

Acer nigrum, 9. 

? Acer nigrum, 8. 

Acer palmifolium, var. concolor, 9. 

Acer palmifolium, var. nigrum, 8. 

Acer rubrum, distribution of, 11. 

Acer rubrum, 11. 

Acer rubrum, 0, 11. 

Acer rubrum, subspec. microphyllum, 11. 

Acer rubrum, subspec. semiorbiculatum, 11. 

Acer rubrum, var. tridens, 11. 

Acer Rugelii, 8. 

Acer saccharinum, 8. 

Acer saccharinum, subspec. Rugelii, 8. 

Acer saccharinum, subspec. saccharinum, var. 

glaucum, 8. 
Acer saccharinum, var. glaucum, 8, 9. 
A cer saccharinum, var. nigrum, 8, 9. 
Acer Saccharum, 7. 
Acer Saccharum, var. barbatum, 8. 
Acer Saccharum, var. Floridanum, 7. 
Acer Saccharum, var. grandidentatum, 8. 
Acer Saccharum, var. leucoderme, 7. 
A cer Saccharum, var. nigrum, 9. 
Acer Saccharum, var. Rugelii, 8. 
Acer semiorbiculatum, 11. 
iEsculus austrina, 3. 
JEsculus octandra, var. hybrida, 3. 
JEsculus Pavia, /3 discolor, 3. 
Algarobia glandulosa, 15. 
Arnold, James, 104. 
Ashe, William Willard, 149. 

Beadle, Chauncey Delos, 66. 
Black Maple, 9. 
Boynton, Frank Ellis, 66. 
Brainerd, Ezra, 112. 
Buckeye, 3. 

Canby, William Mariott, 41. 
Ceanothus spinosus, 1. 
Cercocarpus breviflorus, 27. 
Cercocarpus fothergilloides, 29. 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, 27. 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. breviflorus, 27. 
Cercocarpus paucidentatus, 27. 
Cercocarpus Traskise, 29. 



Chase, Virginius Heber, 46. 
Cherry, Wild, 25. 
Cockspur Thorn, 39. 
Cratsegus, 31. 
Crataegus acutifolia, 51. 
Crataegus anomala, 107. 
Crataegus aprica, 169. 
Crataegus Arkansana, 85. 
Crataegus Arnoldiana, 103. 

Crataegus Ashei, 149. 

Crataegus atrorubens, 181. 

Cratsegus berberifolia, 39. 

Cratcegus berberifolia, 43. 

Crataegus Berlandieri, 91. 

Crataegus blanda, 177. 

Crataegus Boyntoni, 65. 

Crataegus Brazoria, 77. 

Crataegus Bushii, 55. 

Crataegus Canadensis, 89. 

Crataegus Canbyi, 41. 

Crataegus Candida, 95. 

Crataegus Champlainensis, 105. 

? Crataegus chlorocarpa, 61. 

Crataegus coccinea, 133. 

Cratcegus coccinea, 134. 

Cratcegus coccinea macracantha, 135. 

Crataegus coccinea pruinosa, 61. 

Crataegus coccinea rotundifolia, 134. 

Crataigus coccinea subvillosa, 101. 

Cratcegus coccinea e, ? mollis, 83. 

Crataigus coccinea, var. macracantha, 134, 139, 
147. 

Cratcegus coccinea, var. mollis, 101. 

Crataegus coccinioides, 115. 

Crataigus collicola, 73. 

Crataegus collina, 73. 

Cratcegus Columbiana, 95. 

Crataegus consanguinea, 157. 

Crataegus cordata, distribution of, 35. 

Cratsegus corusca, 99. 

Crataegus Crus-galli, distribution of, 39. 

Crataigus Crus-galli, var. berberifolia, 53. 

Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, 39. 

Crataegus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, 39. 

Cratsegus dilatata, 113. 

Cratsegus dispar, 165. 

Crataegus Douglasii, distribution of, 35. 

Cratsegus Douglasii, var. rivularis, distribu- 
tion of, 35. 

Cratcegus Downingii, 140. 

Cratsegus edita, 57. 

Cratcegus Eggertii, 115. 

Crataigus elliptica, 53, 167. 

Crataegus Ellwangeriana, 109. 

Cratsegus Engelmanni, 43. 

Crataegus erecta, 49. 



Crataegus fecunda, 47. 

Crataegus flava, 155. 

Cratcegus flava, 156, 159. 

Crataigus flava, var. elliptica, 165. 

Cratmgus flava, var. lobata, 156. 

Crataegus Floridana, 159. 

Cratsegus gemmosa, 141. 

Crataegus Georgiana, 63. 

Cratsegus glabriuscula, 175. 

Cratcegus glandulosa, 134. 

Crataigus glandulosa, £ macracantha, 147. 

? Cratcegus glandulosa, /3 rotundifolia, 134. 

Cratcegus glandulosa, d succulenta, 139. 

Cratsegus Harbisoni, 151. 

Cratsegus Holmesiana, 119. 

Crataigus Holmesiana villipes, 119. 

Crataigus horrida, 134. 

Crataegus Illiuoiensis, 143. 

Crataegus integriloba, 145. 

Cratsegus Jonesae, 135. 

Cratsegus lacera, 127. 

Crataegus lacrimata, 161. 

Cratsegus Lettermani, 79. 

Cratsegus lobulata, 117. 

Cratsegus lucorum, 125. 

Crataegus macracantha, 147. 

? Crataegus macracantha, 139. 

Cratcegus macracantha, var. minor, 147. 

Crataegus Margaretta, 137. 

Cratsegus Mohri, 59. 

Crataegus mollis, 83, 84. 

Cratcegus mollis, 93, 101. 

Crataegus nitida, 179. 

Cratsegus opima, 171. 

Cratsegus pastorum, 134. 

Cratsegus pedicellata, 121. 

Cratsegus pentandra, 129. 

Cratsegus Peoriensis, 45. 

Crataegus pratensis, 81. 

Crataegus Pringlei, 111. 

Crataegus pruinosa, 61. 

Crataegus punctata, distribution of, 35. 

Crataegus pyriformis, 97. 

Cratsegus quercina, 95. 

Crataegus Ravenelii, 163. 

Cratcegus rotundifolia, 65, 134. 

Cratcegus rotundifolia, a minor, 147. 

Crataigus rotundifolia, b succulenta, 139. 

Cratsegus saligna, 37. 

Crataegus Sargenti, 69. 

Crataegus scabrida, 123. 

Crataegus senta, 167. 

Crataegus sera, 87. 

Crataegus signata* 53. 

Cratsegus silvicola, 131. 

Cratsegus sinistra, 43. 



184 



INDEX. 



Crataegus sordida, 75. 

Crataegus submollis, 101. 

Crataegus suborbiculata, 71. 

Crataegus subrillosa? 83. 

Crataegus succulenta, 139. 

Crataegus Texana, 93. 

Crataegus tiliavfolia, 84. 

Crataegus tomentosa, distribution of, 35. 

Crahegus tomentosa, 101. 

Crataegus tomentosa, var. mollis, 83. 

Crataegus Vailiae, 153. 

Crataegus venusta, 67. 

Crataegus viridis, 61, 179. 

Crataegus viridis, var. nitida, 179. 

Crataegus vulsa, 173. 

Dunbar, John, 121. 

Eggert, Heinrich Karl Daniel, 51. 
Ellwanger, George, 109. 

Gleditsia Texana, 13. 

Harbison, Thomas Grant, 152. 

Haw, 37, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 
63, 65, 67, 69, 73, 75, 77, 79, 87, 89, 91, 95, 
97, 99, 105, 107, 111, 121, 123, 127, 131, 
135, 137, 141, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 159, 
163, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179. 

Haw, Red, 71, 81, 83, 85, 101, 113, 115, 117, 
119, 125, 129, 133, 145, 181. 

Haw, Sandhill, 161. 

Haw, Scarlet, 61, 93, 103, 109, 139, 143, 147. 

Haw, Summer, 165. 

Haw, Yellow, 161. 

Hill, Ellsworth Jerome, 99. 

Holmes, Joseph Austin, 120. 



Jack, John George, 105. 
Jones, Beatrix, 136. 

Leguminos^e, 13. 

Letterman, George Washington, 79. 

Leucazna glauca, 17. 

Leucaena Greggii, 17. 

Lilac, 1. 

Locust, 13. 

Mahogany, Mountain, 27. 

Maple, Black, 9. 

Maple, Red, 11. 

Maple, Red, distribution of, 11. 

Maple, Sugar, 7. 

? Mespilus corallina, 139. 

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, 39. 

Mespilus glandulosa, 134. 

Mespilus odorata, 147. 

Mespilus pruinosa, 61. 

Mespilus rotundifolia, 134. 

Mespilus succulenta, 140. 

Mespilus viridis, 61. 

Mesquite, 15. 

Mimosa tortuosa, 19. 

Mohr, Charles, 25. 

Mountain Mahogany, 27. 

? Phoznopyrum corallinum, 139. 
Phoznopyrum pruinosum, 61. 
Plank, Elisha Newton, 13. 
Prosopis glandulosa, 15. 
Prosopis juliflora, 15. 
Prosopis juliflora, 15. 
Prosopis juliflora, var. glandulosa, 15. 
Prosopis juliflora, var. velutina, 15. 
Prosopis velutina, 15. 



Prunus Alabamensis, 25. 

Prunus injucunda, 21. 

Prunus serotina neo-montana, 25. 

Prunus tarda, 23. 

Prunus umbellata, var. injucunda, 21. 

Red Haw, 71, 81, 83, 85, 101, 113, 115, 117, 

119, 125, 129, 133, 145, 181. 
Red Maple, 11. 

Red Maple, distribution of, 11. 
Reverchon, Julien, 175. 
Rosacea, 21. 

Sandhill Haw, 161. 

SapindacevE, 3. 

Sapindus acuminatus, 5, 6. 

Sapindus Drummondi, 5. 

Sapindus falcatus, 5. 

Sapindus Manatensis, 5. 

Sapindus marginatus, 5. 

Sapindus marginatus, 6. 

Sapindus Saponaria, 5, 6. 

Scarlet Haw, 61, 93, 103, 109, 139, 143, 147, 

Sloe, 21, 23. 

Small, John Kunkel, 21. 

Soapberry, 5. 

Sugar Maple, 7. 

Summer Haw, 165. 

Thorn, Cockspur, 39. 
Trask, Luella Blanche, 29. 

Vail, Anna Murray, 154. 

Wild Cherry, 25. 

Yellow Haw, 161. 



New York Botanical Garden Libra 



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