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Full text of "The silva of North America ?a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent ... illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon ..."

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All rights reserved* 

The River&ide Press^ Cambridge^ Mass,^ U. S. A, 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghtoa and Company- 







Carica papaya 
Opuntia fulgida 
Opuwtia spihosiok 
Opuntia veesicolok 


Coiawus aspe:bifolia 

Viburnum kufidulum 

Cephalawthus occidentalis 
Elliottia kacemosa 

FEtAXINUS cobiacea 

Fraxikus profunda 

Fraxinus Biltmoreana 


XJlmus serotina - . 

HiCORIA Texana ... 



quercus ellipsoidalis o 

quercus pagodiefolia 

Eetula Kenatca - . . • 


Plate dccv. .• .« • ■ * - -6 

Plate dccvi- - 15 

Plate dccvii- , .17 

Plate dccviii. ..•.,.•. 19 
Plate dccix. • . , , . . . . .21 

Plate dccx. - - 23 

Plate dccxi, •..,,..,. 26 
Plate dccxii. . , . . , . . . 31 

Plate dccxiii ......... 33 

Plate dccxiY.j dccxv, .,..,., 35 

Plate dccxvi 37 

Plate dccxvii- . • . , . • . . 39 
Plate dccxviii. ..,...-. 41 

Plate dccsix. ...•••., 43 

Plate dccxx - 45 

Plate ceclv- (vol. vli-) . . « . • ■ . . 47 
Plate dccxxi. . ... . . • . . .49 

Plate dccxxii. . , . . . . . . 51 

Plate dccxxiii. . . . • , * , .53 

Betula papyriferAj var. cordifolia 


Betula Alaskana . , . . 

Plate dccxxiv- 



Plate dccxxv. ..-••-.•. 57 

Alnus sitchensis . 
Salix balsamifera 
Salix Alaxensis . 
Sajdix amplifolia 

Plate dccxxvl 


Plate dccxxvii, . . . . • . . .61 

Plate dccxxviii, 

Plate dccxxix, 

Plate dccxxx. 



PopuLus Mexicana 

Serenoa areorescens 
Thrinax Floridana 

Thrinax Keyensis 



General Index 

Plate dccxxxi. . - . . . . • - 69 

Plate dccxxxii- . , 71 

Plate dccxxxiii. .*...... 73 

Plate dccxxxiv- .•,..•.. 77 
Plate dccxxxv- . . • ; . . . .81 

Plate dccxxxvl. - . . . . - - . 83 

Plate dccxxxvii. ...•..•. 87 

Plate dccxxxviii. . . . . . . . . 89 

Plate dccsssix. ........ 93 

Plate dccxl 95 





Flowers regular, monoecious or polygamo-dioecious, in axillary cymose panicles ; 
calyx minute, S-lobed ; petals 5; stamens 10; filaments in two series, free; ovary 
1-celled; ovules numerous. Fruit baccate, fleshy. Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, 
palmately lobed or digitate, rarely simple, destitute of stipules. 

Caricaj Linnseus, Gen. 309 (1737). — Meissner, Gen. pt. ii. 

89. — Endlicher, Gen. 933. — Eoemer, Fam. NaL Syn. 

il. 121. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 815. — Solms-Lau- 

bach, JEngler & Prantl JPflanzenfam. iii. pt. vi. a, 98. 
Papaya, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 357 (1763). — A. L. de Jus- 

sieu, Gen. 399. — Baillon, Hist. Fl. iv- 320 (excl, Jaca- 

ritia) . '':.■'■ 

Vasconcellea, Saint-Hilaire, Mem. Acad. Scl xv. 324 

Vasconcellosia, Caruel, Mcov. Gior. Bot. Ital. viii. 22 

Mocinna, La Llave, La Naturalesa, vii. Appx. 70 (not 

Lagasca nor Bentham) (1885). 

Small short-lived trees, filled with hitter milky juices, with erect simple or rarely hranched stems 
composed of a thin shell of soft fibrous wood surroundiag a large central cavity divided by thin soft 
cross partitions at the nodes and covered with thin green or gray hark marked hy the ring-like scars of 
fallen leaf-stalks, and stout soft fleshy roots, or rarely herbaceous, with tuberous roots.^ Leaves crowded 
toward the top of the stem and branches, alternate, large, flaccid, long-petiolate, subpeltately palmately 
nerved, usually deeply and often compoundly lobed, or occasionally digitate and seven or eight-foliate, 
or rarely ovate-lanceolate, destitute of stipules. Flowers white, yellow, or greenish white, in axillary 
cymose panicles, the staminate elongated pedunculate and many-flowered, the pistillate abbreviated 
and few usually three-flowered, generally unisexual and dicecious, occasionally polygamo-dicecious, each 
flower in the axil of a minute ovate acute flat bract. Staminate flower : calyx minute, five-lobed ; coroUa 
salverform, gamopetalous, the tube elongated, five-lobed, the lobes oblong or linear, valvate or contorted 
in aestivation ; stamens ten, inserted on the throat of the corolla, in two rows ; filaments free, those of 
the outer row alternate with the lobes of the corolla, elongated, the others alternate with them, abbre- 
viated; anthers attached below the middle, introrse, two-ceUed, erect, opening longitudinally, often 
surmounted by their slightly elongated connective ; pollen grains globose, grooved ; ovary rudimentary, 
subiflate. Pistillate flower : calyx minute, five-lobed, enlarged, thickened and persistent under the fruit ; 
corolla polypetalous ; petals five, linear-oblong, erect, ultimately spreading above the middle, deciduous j 
staminodia wanting. Ovary free, sessile, one-celled or more or less spuriously five-celled by the projection 
inward of the ^yq parietal placentas ; style wanting or abbreviated ; stigmas ^yq, linear, radiating, 
dilated and subpalmately lobed at the apex, or simple and stigmatic over the whole upper surface; 
ovules indefinite, inserted in two rows on the placenta, anatropous, long-stalked, micropyle superior, 
raphe ventral. Hermaphrodite flower : corolla gamopetalous, tubular-campanulate, the lobes erect and 


1 The stems of Carica caudata (Brandegee, Zoe^ iv, 401 [1894]) of Lower California are described as herbaceous, from eighteen 
inches to three feet tall^ and as produced from tuberous roots. 





spreading or subreflesed ; stamens ten^ in two ranksj or five ; ovary obovoid-oblong^ longer than tbe tube 
of the corolla^ more or less spuriously five-celled below. Fruit baccate^ yellow, orange-colored^ purple, 
or crimson, slightly five-lobed, one-celled or more or less completely five-celled, filled with soft pulp or 
containing a large central cavity, many-seeded, that produced from hermaphrodite flowers long-stalked, 
pendulous, usually un symmetrical, or gibbous by the abortion of one of the placentas, and smaller than 
that from the pistillate flowers. Seeds drupaceous, ovoid, inclosed in membranaceous silvery white 
sac-like arils, occasionally germinating within the fruit ; ^ testa erustaceous, closely investing the mem- 
branaceous inner coat, the outer portion becoming thick, rugose, succulent, and ultimately dry and 
leathery. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen ; cotyledons ovate, f oliaceous, compressed, longer than 
the terete radicle turned toward the minute pale subbasilar hilum.^ 

Carica inhabits southern Florida and the West Indies, the slopes of the coast mountains which 
border the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea, the Andes from Mexico to Chili, the valleys of the 
Pacific coast of tropical South America, southern Brazil, and Argentina.^ Twenty species have been 
described, but it is probable that the forests which clothe the Cordilleras of South America, where this 
genus is represented by the largest number of species, hide others still unknown to science/ 

The milky juice of Carica, which is most abundant in the unripe fruit, contains an enzyme, papain, 
which, like pepsin, has the power of digesting albuminous substances, and Carica leaves are commonly 
used in tropical countries to make tough meat more tender-^ The fruit of Carica Papaya^ the pawpaw. 

1 Masters, Gard, Chron, ser, 3, ii. 716, f . 138, 139 ; xii. 618, f . 92, 
93. —Fritz Miiller, Flora, 1890, 332, f. 

^ The species of Carica have beeu grouped by Solms-Laubach 
{Martins FL BrasiL xiii. pt. iii. 177; Engler ^ Prantl PJianzenfam, 
iiL pt, vi. a, 98) in three sections, 

(1,) Vasconcellea. Divisions of the corolla contorted or valvate 
in aestivation ; stigma linear, undivided ; ovary and fruits spuriously 

(2-) Hemipapaya (A. de CandoUe, Prodr. xv, pt- i- 415 [sect. 
Vasconcellea]). Divisions of the corolla contorted in estivation; 
stigma dilated and divided at the apex ; ovary and fruits spuriously 

(3.) EuPAPAYA. Divisions of the corolla contorted in sestivation; 
stigmas irregularly divided to the base; ovary and fruits one-celled. 

^ See Hieronymus, PL Diaphor, Argent. 121. — Solms-Laubach, 
Martins FL BrasiL L c. 178, — Donnell Smith, Bot, Gazette, xxiii. 


^ Spruce (Jour. Linn. Soc, x. 7) in an account of the distribution 
of the PapayacecBf in addition to the twenty-five species described in 
1869, alludes to eleven others which had been seen by him in the 
forests of the Andes and on the Pacific coast of South America. 
What proportion of these belong to the genus Carica does not 
appear. In the Flora Brasiliensis Solms-Laubach describes twenty- 
two species in this family, eighteen of these belonging to Carica. 

In addition to the species, there is a hybrid Carica described 
by Van Volxem and obtained by him in 1876 by impregnating 
the flowers of Carica erythrocarpa (Andr^, IIL Hort xviii. 33, t. 51 
[1871]), a small scarlet-fruited species of the warmer parts of Co- 
lombia and Peru, with the pollen of Carica Candamarcensis. From 
this cross a number of plants were raised which displayed their 
hybrid origin in the character of the leaves, intermediate in form 
and texture between those of the two parents. In the summer of 
1879 two of these hybrid plants flowered; one produced one female 
and a number of male flowers, and the other only two female flow- 
ers. The female flower of the first plant was impregnated with the 


pollen of Carica CandamarcensiSy and those of the other with pollen 
taken from its own male fiowers. All three grew into red fruits 
and produced seeds from which many seedlings were raised. These 

seedling plants produced male and female flowers almost exclusively 
on different individuals, although in the case of both their parents 
the same plant produces male and female flowers. The fruit of 
this second cross was bright red, fragrant, oblong-obovate, slightly 
ribbed, five-sided, four inches long, and two and a half inches in 
diameter. It remained on the plants for more than a year, and is 
described as very ornamental. (See Van Volxem, Card. Chron. n. 
ser. xiv. 729 ; xix. 445, f. 68. —Masters, I c. il L 139.) 

5 See Holder, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist Soc. iiL 245 {Account of 
the Effects of the Juice of the Papaw Tree \^Carica Papaya"} in Tnten^ 
erating Butcher's Meat). — Endlicherj EncUrid. Bot 487; Med. Pfi. 
457, — Martin, BriL Med. Jour. 1885, ii, 150 ; Pharm. Jour, and 
Trans, ser. 3, xvi. 129; Am. Jour. Pharm. Ivii. 569; Iviii. 439. — 
Rushy, Druggist's BulL iii. 220, f . — U. S. Dispens. ed. 16, 1883. 

Experiments made by Morong (BulL Pharm. v, 166) to determine 
the digestive potency of the leaves of Carica Papaya and of Carica 
quercifoUa showed the following results : — 

Small cubes of cooked fresh lean beef were inclosed in several 
folds of the leaves of Carica Papaya, numerous incisions being made 
with a razor across the epidermis of some of the leaves in order 
to secure an outlet for the milky secretions, while others were left 

in a natural state. At the end of two days it was found that the 
largest cubes inclosed in the uncut leaves were considerably cor- 
roded and their edges rounded, while the minute pieces of meat had 
been reduced to a pulpy mass and, in some instances^ dissolved into 
a greasy slime which had become widely spread over the surface of 
the leaves. At the end of five days the digestive process had re- 
duced the largest pieces of meat to pulp, and at the end of a week 
all that could be seen of the meat was a thin greasy liquid covering 
the portions of the leaf in contact with it. The cut leaves soon lost 
their potency and made but little impression on the meat, probably, 
as Dr. Morong suggests, because owing to the admission of air the 
leaves soon became dry and lost their power of inteneration. Pieces 
of meat placed within the folds of the split petioles, from which 
milky juice exuded freely, were not influenced by it at all, the meat 
simply drying up. It is probably essential, therefore, for diges- 
tive action that the meat should be closely wrapped in the leaves to 
exclude the air from it, and so insure perfect contact with their 




is considered one of the most wholesome of all tropical fruits, and Carica Candamarcensis ^ is cultivated 


on the Andes of Ecuador as a fruit-tree. In Argentina the juice of Carica quendfolia,^ like that of 
Carica Papaya, is considered a valuable anthelmenticj and is thought useful in the treatment of 
pulmonary affections j the flowers are esteemed as pectorals and the leaves are employed in washing as 
a substitute for soap.^ 

In Florida Carica is not known to be injured by insects or attacked by fungal diseases*^ 
The generic name is from the Carib name of Carica Papaya in use in Hispaniola when the 
Spaniards first invaded that island.^ 

gastric secretions. Tlie leaves of Carica quercifolia were found to 
be even more potent than those of Carica Papaya in their effects 
upon meat, the dissolution proceeding more rapidly, as much being 
accomplished in one day as in two days by the leaves of Carica 
Papaya, Experiments made with the whites and yolks of hard- 
boiled eggs showed that the leaves of the two species acted with 
equal potency and far more rapidly than they had on the pieces of 
meat. In twenty-four hours the outside layers of the albuminous 
particles had slimed off, and at the end of three days small pieces 
had become entirely dissolved, remaining on the surface of the leaf 
in the form of a thin liquid. At the end of three or four days only 
a slight decomposition was noticed on the surface of the yolk of 
the egg, and the leaves withered before any decisive effect was pro- 

Papain and papayotin were at one time recommended in the 
United States as substitutes for pepsin in the treatment of diphthe- 
ria, to assist digestion, and as a galactagogue. (See Parke, Davis & 
Co., Organic Mat Med. ed. 2, 43.) Recent experiments show, how- 
ever, that in starch-digesting properties papain is really inferior to 
pepsin^ and although good results have followed its use In the treat- 
ment of dyspeptic conditions, the same results are now obtained 
with greater certainty by the use of other agents, while in the cure 
of diphtheria it has been replaced by antitoxin treatment and the 
local application of germicides, 

1 Hooker f. BoL Mag, ci. t. 6198 (1875), — Solms-Laubach, 
Martins FL BrasiL xiiL pt. iii. 184, 

Carica Candamarcensis is a common species of the equatorial 
Andes, where it is cultivated as a fruit-tree up to elevations of nine 
thousand feet above the sea-level. The fruits are described as 
bright yellow, eight or nine inches long and sometimes nearly as 
broad, with white soft flesh usually of pleasant flavor, although 
sometimes acid when the plant has grown In cool situations- (See 
ValascOj Historia Natural de Quito^ 58. — Spruce, Jour, Linn, Sbc. 
X. 11-) 

2 Hieronyraus, PL Diaph, Fl. Argent, 122 (1882). — Solms- 

Laubach, /. c, 178. 

Vasconcellea quercifolia^ Saint-Hilaire, Mem, Acad. Sci. xy, 324 
(1S38).~A. de Candolle, Prodr, xv, pt, i. 416, 

Carica hastatay Brignoli, Mem, Soc. Ital. Set, Modena^ ser. 2, i, 
77 (1862). 

Vasconcellosia hastata^ Caruel, Nuov, Giorn, Bat. Ital. viii. 22, 

t. 2 (1876)- 

^ See Morong, Bull. Pharm. v- 163, t, 

^ There is no record of any fungi infesting Carica Papaya in the 
United States, although a number of species attack it in other 
parts of the world, and probably some of these will be found in 
this country. 

^ Oviedo, Hist, Gen, Nat. Ind. lib. viii. cap. 33- 






Stigma divided to the base into 5 radiating lobes, dilated and 3-parted at the apex. 
Fruit 1-celled, Leayes oyate or orbicular, deeply 5 to 7-lobed. 

Carica Papaya, Linnaeus, Spec. 1036 (1753). — Miller, 
Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Aublet, PL Gtdan. ii. 909.--Aiton, 
ffori. Kew. iii. 409. — WiUdenow, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 814. — 
Persoon, Si/n. ii. 626. — Lunan, Sort. Jam. ii. 36.— 
Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 565. — Humboldt, Bonpland & 
Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 124. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 
243. — Lindley, Bot. Reg. vi. t. 459. — Kunth, Syn. Ft 
Mquin. i. 430. — Vellozo, Fl. Flum. ed. 2, 427; Icon. x. t. 
130. — Sprengel, Sijsi. iii. 905 — Hooker, Bot. Mag. lyi. 
t. 2898, 2899. — Don, Gen. Syst. iii. 44. — Schnizlein, 
Icon. iii. t. 200, f. 1-3, 14-18. — Spach, Hist. V6g. xiii. 
316. — Eoemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. ii. 122. — Bentham, 
Bot. Yoy. Sulphur, 100. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald, 
128. — Grisebach, Fl Brit. W. Ind. 290. — Sauvalle, Fl. 
Cub. 54. — Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 5Q {Fl. 
St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). — Lefroy, Bull. JJ. S. 
Nat. Mus. No. 25, 76 {Bot. Bermuda). ^'KievonymMS, 
PI. Diaph. Fl, Argent. 121. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent. i. 481. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 621. — Wien. 
Ill Gart. Zeit. ix. 448, f . 66. — Solms-Laubach, Martins 
FL Brasil fasc. cvi. 188, t. 49. — Duss, Ann, Inst, CoL 
Marseille, iii. 310 {Fl. Antill Frangaises). 

Papaya cucumerina, Norona, Verhand, Bat. Genoot. 
Konst. Wet. v. 23 (1790). 

Papaya communis, Norona, Verhand. Bat. Genoot. 
Konst. Wet. v. 23 (1790). 

Papaya Carica, Gjertner, Fruct. ii. 191, t. 122, f. 2 

(1791). — BaiUon,//{si!.PZ.iv. 283, f. 332-336. — Otto 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI i. 253. 

Papaya vulgaris, De Candolle, Lamarck Diet. v. 2 
(1804). — Poiret, iamarc/*; iZ^. iii. 410, t. 821.— Nut- 
tall, Sylva, iii. 47, f . 96. -— Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 
1858, 264. — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xv. pt. i. 414. 

Papaya sativa, Tussac, FL Med, Antill iii. 45, t. 10, 11 

Caryca mamaya, Vellozo, Icon. x. t. 131 (1827); FL Flum. 

■ ed. 2, 427. 

Carica hermafrodita, Blanco, Fl Filip. 805 (1837) ; ed. 3, 
iii. 212. 

Papaya edulis, a macrocarpa, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 277 

Papaya edulis, /? pyriformis, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 277 

The Pawpaw, "which lives only for a few years, although the original trunk is sometimes replaced 
by others from the same root, in Florida rarely attains a greater height than twelve or fifteen feet, and 
its simple stem is seldom more than six ^ inches in thickness ; in the West Indies and other tropical 
countries it often grows to twice this size, and the stem occasionally divides into a number of stout 
upright branches.^ The bark is thin, light green except toward the base of the stem, where it finally 
becomes gray, and closely invests the thin layer of woody fibres which give to the stem its only 
strength and within which a layer of soft tissues often half an inch in thickness forms the wall of the 
broad central cavity divided at the nodes by thin porous cross partitions. The stem is supported by a 
stout tap-root which penetrates the soil to the depth of twelve or eighteen inches, and by numerous 
thick fleshy lateral roots spreading under the surface for a distance of two or three feet. The leaves 
are ovate or orbicular in outline, deeply divided into from f^ye to seven lobes which are themselves 
more or less deeply divided into acute lateral lobes, these secondary divisions being entire or rarely 
lobed ; the lowest of the principal lobes are smaller than the others, nearly parallel and form deep 
sinuses at the base of the leaf; the leaves are thin and flaccid, yeUow-green, and from fifteen to twenty- 
four inches in diameter, with broad flat yellow or orange-colored primary veins radiating from the end 
of the petiole through the lobes, and small secondary veins extending to the points of the lateral lobes 
and connected by conspicuously reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout yellow hollow petioles, 

1 See Gard. Chron. n. ser. xxili. 141. It is probable that Carica Papaya does not develop branches unless the terminal growing point ■ 
of the stem is injured. ^ & v 




enlarged and cordate at the base, whichj continuing to grow, sometimes become three or four feet in 
length before the leaves fall. The flowerSj which often begin to appear on plants only three or four 
feet high and a few months old, are pale yellow, with minute or f oliaceous calyx-lobes/ and are produced 
continuously throughout the year, the males in many - flowered racemose cymes borne on slender 
s-preading or pendulous peduncles which vary from four to twelve inches in length, and the females 
in one to three-flowered short-stalked cymes.^ The staminate flowers are fragrant and contain large 
quantities of nectar ; and their corolla is from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a quarter long, 
with a slender tube and acute lobes which in the same cluster are in some flowers dextrorse and in 
others sintrorse in sestivation. The anthers are oblong, orange-colored, and surmounted by the rounded 
thickened end of their connective, those of the inner row being almost sessile and one third larger than 
those of the outer row ; these are rather shorter than their flattened filaments which are covered, like 
the connectives of the anthers, with long slender white hairs. The rudimentary ovary is subulate and 
much shorter than the tube of the corolla. The pistillate flower is about an inch long, with linear 
lanceolate erect petals free to the base, dextrorsally contorted in sestivation, and reflexed above the 
middle at maturity ; it is destitute of staminodia, and the ovary is ovoid, ivory white, slightly and 
obtusely five-angled, one-celled, and narrowed into a short slender style crowned by a pale green 
stigma divided to the base into five radiating lobes, which are dilated and deeply three-cleft at the 
apex ; the ovules are raised on long stalks. The fruits, which hang close together against the stem at 
the base of the leaf-stalks, are obovate, ellipsoidal, and obtusely short-pointed, and vary in color from 
yeflowish green to bright orange-color ; on trees cultivated in the tropics they are sometimes from ten 
to twelve inches long, while on the trees which grow spontaneously in southern Florida they are 
occasionally four inches in length and three inches in thickness, although usually smaller. Their thick 
skin closely adheres to the firm sweet rather insipid flesh which varies greatly in amount and quality on 
different plants and forms a thin layer outside the central cavity, which is fifled with a mass composed 
of the nearly black seeds. These are full and rounded and about three sixteenths of an inch in 
length ; when the fruit is full grown but still green the outer rugose portion of the testa is ivory 
white, very succulent, and easily separable from the smooth paler chestnut-brown lustrous interior 
portion, but as the fruit ripens the outer part of the testa turns black, and, becoming dry and leathery, 
adheres closely to the inner portion which closely invests the thin lustrous light red-brown inner seed- 
coat. The fruit decays on the tree, and, then drying up, finally splits open, letting the seeds fafl to 
the ground. 

Carica Papaya now inhabits southern Florida from the southern shores of Bay Biscayne on the 
west coast and Indian River on the east coast to the southern keys, growing sparingly in rich hummocks 
under the shade of Live Oaks, Mulberries, Bay-trees, and Magnolias ; it is very common in all the 
"West Indian Islands, in Mexico, and in the tropical countries of South America ; and it has now 
become naturalized in most of the warm regions of the Old World.^ 

^ The calyx-lobes of Carica are described as miuute, but on 
specinaens taken from two trees growing in hmnmocks near Miami 
on the shores of Bay Bxscayne, Florida, from which the plate in 
this work has been made, two of the calyx-lobes of both staminate 
and pistillate flowers were much enlarged and foliaceous, 

^ In Florida, so far as I have been able to learn, the staminate 
and pistillate flowers of wild plants of Carica Papaya are produced 
on different individuals, but on cultivated plants in Florida and in 
other countries they are often andro-diceeious ; that is, the male 
plants occasionally bear at the apex of the principal branches of 
the inflorescence hermaphrodite flowers which differ from the pis- 
tillate flowers chiefly in their tubular-campanulate corolla and in 
the ten or rarely five stamens inserted in two rows on its throat- 
The fruit, which is developed from these hermaphrodite flowers 
and which hangs on long peduncles, is usually smaller than that 

produced on the pistillate trees, and is nearly always nnsymmetri- 
cal. (See Correa de Mello & Spruce, Jour, Linn. Soc. x. 1 [Notes on 
PapayacemJ.—H. 0. Forbes, Jour, BoL xvii. 313.— Matthews & 
Scott, Trans. Bot Soc. Edinburgh^ xi, 287.) Andro-dicecious flowers 
of Carica Papaya^ the pistillate trees bearing also a few hermaphro- 
dite flowers, have been noticed by Ernst in Caracas (Jour. BoL iv. 
81) on Carica Papaya; and by Baillon on a plant cultivated in 
Paris {BulL Soc. Linn. Paris, No. 84, 665). 

^ Cultivated for its edible fruit no doubt long before the dis- 
covery of America by Europeans, and easily scattered by the facil- 
ity with which its seeds germinate in waste places, the original 
home in tropical America of Carica Papaya cannot be determined 
with any certainty. Correa de Mello & Spruce (L c, 8), who 
had excellent opportunities for studying the flora of large regions 
of continental South America, believed, however, that the West 




In all tropical countries the Pawpaw is universally cultivated for its fruit ^ and in waste places 
near human habitations it springs up in great ahundauce. 

In appearance one of the most remarkable of the plants of the New World^ the Pawpaw at once 
attracts the attention of travelers in the tropics, and after Oviedo y Yaldes wrote the first account^ of 
it during the first half of the sixteenth century many early explorers and many botanists before the 
time of Linnaeus described it. 

Indies was the true home of the Pawpaw, that it had spread south- 
ward across the continent by cultivation, and that it was nowhere 
truly wild on the mainland, although they had seen near Tarapota 
in the eastern Peruvian Andes, at the height of two thousand feet 
ahove the sea, the staminate plants growing in a continuous thicket 
of several acres in extent. In the forests of this reo'Ion, neverthe- 
less, no truly wild plants could be found. 

The Pawpaw was carried to Asia before the end of the sixteenth 
or very early ill the seventeenth century no doubt by the Portu- 
guese, for in 162G Petro de Yalle brought the seeds from the East 
Indies to Naples, where they produced plants- In 1651 these were 
described and figured hy Co\njnn^int}iG Rerum Medicarum Novcb 
Hispanifz Thesaurus of Prancisco Hernandez, 870, as Papaya Ori- 
entalise sive Pepo arhorescens. Twelve years later Dr, Paludanus 
wrote, in the third edition of Linschoten's Histoire de la Naviga- 
tion (chap, liv, 98), published in 1638: " 11 y a aussi un fruict ap- 
port^ des Indes Oecidentales par les Isles Philippines k Mallacca 
e de \k es Indes, appelM PapaioSy ayant presques la forme d'un 
Melon, et est de la grosseur d'un poing." Boyn, who first visited 
southern China in 1643, found the Pawpaw in great abundance on 
the island of Hainan and in the province of Canton, and in his 
Flora Sinensis he described it among other Chinese plants as Fan 
yay cv ou le Papaya. (See Th^venot, Relations de Divers Voyages 
Curieux^ i- [_Flora Sinensis^ 19]-) Eheede in 1678 {Rort. lad. Malah, 
i. 21, 23, t. 15) and Eumpf in 1741 {Herh. Arnboin. i. 145, t, 50, 51 
[see, also, Burmann, Tlies, Zeylan. 184]) showed that the Pawpaw 
was of American origin. In spite of this testimony many authors 
continued to regard the Pawpaw as an East Indian plant until Robert 
Brown, arguing In 1818 that it had no Sanscrit name, that as Bumph 
had pointed out the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago regarded 
it as an exotic plant, and that all the other species of the genus 
belonged to the New World, showed conclusively that it was Amer- 
ican and not Asiatic or African, (See Tuckey, Narrative of an Ex- 
pedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Co7igo, Appx. 
V. 471, See, also, A. de CandoUe, Geographie Botanique, ii. 917; 
Origine des Plantes Cultivees, 233. — Wittmack, Bot. Zeit. xxxvi. 
532, — Solms-Laubach, Bot. Zeit, xlvii, 709.) 

It is doubtful if Carica Papaya is a native of Florida and has 


not been introduced there on account of the value of its fruit ; 

yet if not indigenous it has become naturalized there as it has in 

so many other warm countries. The Pawpaw was first noticed 

in Florida in 1774 by William Bartram, who found it growing 

apparently in abundance on the east coast south of Mosquito Inlet, 

either near Hillsborough River or at the bead of Indian River 

(^Travels, 131). In this region, which was then uninhabited by 

whites, the Orange was naturalized at this time, and the Pawpaw 

might have been brought there by the Spaniards when they 

brought the Orange, It Is now very common in the wooded hum- 
mocks in the nelghborliood of Bay Biscayne, often remote from 

human habitation. Bay Biscayne, however, for more than a cen- 
tury has been frequented by boatmen from the Bahama Islands, 
who if they had carried ^pawpaws with them to eat might have 
left the seeds on the shore. The probability of recent introduc- 

tion into eastern Florida is, moreover, heightened by the fact that 
Bernard Romans in The Natural History of East and West Florida, 
published in 1775, makes no mention of the Pawpaw, although he 
visited those parts of Florida, both on the east and west coasts where 
it is now naturalized, and paid particular attention to the trees of 
the peninsula. On the other hand. Dr. Robert Kidgway, who found 
the Pawpaw in 1897 growing ou Chandler's Hummock in the 

Everglades near the northeast edge of Lake Okechobee, a region 
difficult of access and rarely visited, writes to me that *' there is not 
the slightest question that this tropical species is indigenous to this 
part of south Florida. I may add that I was unable to find it 
except at Fort Myers, where it was cultivated, in any part of Lee 
County, not even in the vicinity of Fort Thompson, nor in the Big 
Cypress District. I believe, therefore, it is confined to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Everglades, which are extended in a narrow 
strip known locally as the ' Saw Grass' region, along the western 
side of Lake Okechobee, quite to the mouth of the Kisslmmee 
River," It Is due to these observations made by Dr, Ridgway that 
Carica Papaya is admitted into The Silva of North America. 

^ Forskal, F'l. ^gypt. Arab, p, cxxll. — Loureiro, FL Cochin, ii. 
628. — Blume, Bijdr. FL Ned. Ind. ii, 941. — Roxburgh, FL Ind. 
ed, 2, iii. 824. — Wight, III Ind. Bot ii. 34, t. 106, 107. — Wight & 
Arnott, Prodr. FL Nepal 352. —Blanco, Fl Filip. 803; ed, 3, iii, 
212, — Hasskarl, Cat PI Bogor. 188; PL Jav, Far. 180.— Bojer, 
HorL Mauril 277.— Miquel, Fl Ned. Ind. i. 697. — Van Nooten, 
Fleurs Jav. t. — Hillebrand, FL Haw. Is. 139. — Bretscbneider, 
Jour. North China Branch Roy. Asiatic Sac, n, ser. xxv, 300 (BO" 
tanicon Sinicum^ pt, ii.). 

The fruit of the Pawpaw has been much improved by cultiva- 
tion and selection in the West Indies, Individual fruits with thick 
succulent flesh and weighing ten or twelve pounds are sometimes 
produced on cultivated trees, while on the plants which grow spon- 
taneously in Florida they are often not larger than a hen's ^Q^, 
with thin dry scarcely edible flesh. The fruit is eaten either raw 
or boiled with sugar, and acts as a mild cathartic. The seeds have 
an aromatic pepper-like taste and are considered anthelmentlcj 
and the juice of the unripe fruit has been employed in the treat- 
ment of psoriasis and other cutaneous afi^ections, (See Descourtllz, 
FL Med. AntilL i. 215, t, 47, 48. —Ernst, Jour. Bot ill, 319 [Vene- 
zuelan Medicinal Ptote].~-Guibourt, HisL Drog. ed. 7, iii. 266, f. 
659. — Baillon, Traife Bot. Med. 833, f. 2507-2511- —Fawcett, 
Economic Plants, Jamaica, 23.) 


2 " Del ^rbol que en esta Isla Espaiiola Uaman papaya, y en la 
Tierra-Firme los llaman los espanoles los higos del mastuerco, j en 
la provln^ia de Nicaragua llaman d tal ^rbol olocoton,^^ (Oviedo, 
Hist. Gen. Nat. Ind. lib- viii, cap. 33.) 

Mam(Era Lusitanorum, Clusius, Curm Posteriores, 41, f. 

Arlor Platani folio fructu peponis magnitudine eduliy C, Bauhin, 
Pinax, 431. 

" This fruit is (which a man would not thinke) a remedie against 
the flux, and so are their Papaies, a fruit like an Apple of a water- 
ish welsh taste." (Layfield in Purchas his Pilgrimes, iv. 1172 \_A 
large Relation of the Porto Rico Voiage'],) 




" There are store of good Koots and Plants with Fruites, as the 
Pina and Plantine, Potatoesj Nappoyes, and a fruite called of the 
Indians Poppoyes^ it is bigger than an Apple and very pleasant to 
eat" (Wilson in Purchas his Pilgrimes^ iv- 1264.) 

Papanesy Smith, Gen, Hist, 184. 

Mamcera mas ^feminay Gerarde, Herball^ ed- 2, 1608, f, ; Parkin- 
son, Theatr. 1649, f. 

" Pappaw is a fruite as higge as an Apple, of an Orange colour, 

and good to eate." (Parkinson, Theatr. 1671,) 

Mamamra mas Sf fcemina, Piso, Nat. HisL Bras, lib. iii. cap. vi- 

De Paya^ Francisco Hernandez, Rerum Med, Nov, Hisp, Tkesau- 
Tvs, 99 ; Hist PI Nov. Hisp. ed- Madrid, 1790, iii. 90. 
Papaie Peruvianis^ Banhin, Hist, PL L 147. 

De deux sortes de Papayers, Du Tertre, HisL Gen. AntilL ii. 187. 

The Papa, ''The Tree, though it may be accounted wood, yet 
the softest that yet I ever saw ; for with my knife, I can cut down 
a tree as big as a man's leg at one chop. The fruit we boyl, and 
serve it up with powdred pork, as we do turnips in England ; but 
the turnip is far the more savory fruit." (Richard Ligon, A 
True and exact History of the Island of Barbados, 71.) 

Pinoguacu mas ^ fcemina^ Piso, Nat, Hist. Bras. ed. 2, lib. iv. 
cap- xxiii. 159, f. 

Mamceira, Johnson, Dendrologiay 59, t, 25 ; ed, 2, i, 60, t, 25. 

De Arbore melonifera Mamcera ^ Papaia dicta, Kay, Hist. PL ii. 

Pepo arborescens fcemina sive fertilis, Hermann, Parad. Bat, Prodr, 
362 (ejccL syn.). 

Papaya major^flore ^ fructu majorihus pediculis curtis infidentibus, 
Sloane, Cat. PL Jam. 202 ; Nat. HisL Jam. ii. 164, 

Ficus arbor Utriusque Indite Platanifoliis fj^ovoar^Xcxv^ff^^^^^ Mali 
Cydo7iii, aut Melonis magnitudine^ Plukenet, Aim. BoL 145; Man* 
tissa, t. 278, f. 1- 

Papaja, Merian, Hist. Gen, Insects de Surinam, i. 40, t. 40; 62, t. 
62; 64, t. 64. 

Du Papayer, Kochefort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles An- 
titles, ed. 2, 65, f, 

Pcepol, Arbor Melonifera, Hermann, Mus. Zeylan. 58. 

Papolghaha, Papaya, Hermann, Mus. Zeylan. 66. 

Papaya fructu Melopeponis effigie, Tournefort, InsL i. 659, t. 441. — 
Boerhaave, Ind, Alt. HorL Lugd, Bat. ii. 170. 

Carica foliorum lohis sinuatis, Linnseus, HorL Cliff, 461; FL Zey^ 
Ian. 173.— Royen, Fl, Leyd, Prodr,225, 

Papaya mas, Trew, Plantce et Papiliones Rariores, t. 3, f- 1, 

The Popaw Tree, Griffith Hughes, NaL Hist Barbados^ 181, t. 
14, 15. 

Papaya, fructu oblongo Melonis effigie, Trew, PL Ehret, 2, t. 7. 

Carica, Fronde comosa, foliis peltato-lohatisy lobis varie sinuatis, 
Browne, Nat, HisL Jam. 360, 


Plate DCCV- Cakica Papaya. 

1. A staminate inflorescence, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminate flower- 

3. A staminate flower, the corolla laid open, enlarged. 

4- A pair of stamens, front view, enlarged- . 

5- A stamen^ side view^ enlarged. 
6. Pistillate flowers, natural size- 
7- Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

8. A pistillate flower, the corolla laid open, enlarged. 
9- Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged- 

10. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

11. A stigma seen from above, enlarged. 

12. An ovule, enlarged. 

13. A fruit, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a fruit, natural size- 

15. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size- 

16. A seed, enlarged. 

17. A seed with its aril laid open, enlarged. 

18. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged- 

19. A seed with the outer layer of the seed coat removed. 

20. An embryo, enlarged. 

21. A leaf, reduced. 

22- A seedling, natural size. 

• ^■ 



. V 



' \ 


;Silva of "North 

iTi erica. 

















, I 

I ' 

1 . ' 

J ' 

V- - 





X * 

/ -:• 

/; - 






^ - 

J^jxpLne^ JO, 




Ta^VB^j^, Par'U', 







Flowers perfect ; calyx-lobes numerous, imbricated in many series ; corolla rotate ; 
petals numerous, spreading ; stamens indefinite, inserted on the base of the petals ; 
ovary one-celled, many-ovuled. Fruit baccate. Brandies tuberculate, articulate, 
compressed, subcylindrical, or clayate. Leaves scale-like, caducous. 

Opuntia, Adanson, Farn. FL ii. 243 (1763), — Zaccarini, 
Abhand, Akad, Munch, ii, 687- — Meissner, Oen. 128. — 
Endlicher, Qen. 945. — Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad, iii- 
289. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen, i- 851. — Baillon, Sist 

PL ix. 40 (excl, sect. Nopalea), — Schuraannj Engler & 

Prantl Pfianzenfam. iii, pt. vi. 199- 
Consolea, Lemaire, Bev. Sort. 1862, 174, 
Tephro cactus, Lemaire, Les CacUes^ 88 (1868). 
Ficindica, St- Lager, Ann. Sac. Bot Lyon, vii. 70 (1880), 

Trees or usually shrubs^ often low and prostrate, with flattened or subcylindrical or clavate 
articulate tuberculate branches covered by a thick epidermis with small sunken stomata filled with 
copious watery juices/ and with or without sohd or tubular and reticulate woody skeletons, and thick 
and fleshy or fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, terete, subulate, small, early deciduous, bearing in their 
axils oblong or circular cushion-Hke areolae ^ of chaffy or woolly scales terminal on the tubercles of the 
branches and furnished above the middle with many short slender slightly attached sharp barbed 
bristles, and toward the base with numerous stout barbed spines ^ surrounded in some species, except 

^ The large thin-walled parenchyma cells which form a large 
part of the tissue of Opuntia take up water freely when the ground 
is moist, and the young branches become saturated with juices 
and are thick, plump, and smooth- During periods of drought, 
which frequently last for months in the regions where these plants 
grow in the greatest numbers, they gradually lose their moisture 
by evaporation and become withered and wrinkled. With the 
minute caducous leaves, thick epidermis, and small sunken stomata 
of Opuntia, this process is a very slow one, and branches severed 
from the parent plant and kept in a dry atmosphere have retained 
sufficient moisture to produce roots and branches at the end of 
nearly a year. This power to retain moisture aids in the dissemi- 
nation of the plant, for detached joints of the branches falling to 
the ground, as they often do either naturally or by being brushed 
against by cattle and other animals, retain, in periods even of the 
longest droughts, sufficient moisture to develop roots ; these anchor 
the joints to the ground and new plants begin to grow. (See Tou- 
rney, Bot. Gazette^ xx. 356 [^Vegetal Dissemination in the Genus 

^ '^ In Opuntia the pulvillus (which in its lower part is the spi- 
niferous, and in its upper part the floriferous areola combined) is 
the same in all stages of development ; only it is smaller on the 
lower part of each joint, and bears fewer or often no spines, and 
rarely any flowers or new shoots ; while the uppermost pulvilli have 
the longest and most numerous spines, and bear the flowers as well 
as the young branches." (Engelmann, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii, 46.) 

"The areolae continue to grow year after year, at least for a 
period of several years, and each year increase in size from the 
inner margin, several new spines developing above the old ones. 
The number of spines on an areola of a first year's joint is fairly 
constant in the same species, but a joint several years of age may 
in some species bear six or seven times as many spines as the 

former. In Opuntia fulgida the spines on an areola increase in 
numbers with succeeding years more rapidly than in Opuntia spino- 
sior. In the latter, however, they increase much more rapidly than 
in Opuntia versicolor. On this species frequently no additional spines 
are produced after the first year, and they are never produced in 
such numbers as on the two other species. In these three species, 
after several years' growth the vegetative activity of the areolae 
ceases, and they fall away with the outer scales of the bark," 
(Tourney, in litt.^ 

^ The spines of Opuntia, which are produced on most of the spe- 
cies and are usually stout and rigid, are barbed backward, and 
make these plants the most difficult and dangerous of all the Cac- 
tus family to handle, or even to approach, and render several of 
the large-growing specimens valuable for the protection of fields 
and gardens against browsing animals. The short sharp bristles 
mixed with soft scales, which cover the areolae above the middle, 
are also barbed backward, and being very feebly attached come off 
with the slightest touch, penetrating the skin or adhering to the 
clothes of persons brushing by the plants- (See Engelmann, /, c. 45,) 

The spines and, in a less degree, the bristles of Opuntia and of 
many other members of the Cactus family, which often contain the 
only moisture to be found in the deserts of America, have evidently 
been developed to protect these plants against animals suffering 
from thirst, who would soon exterminate them without this protec- 
tion- They also play an important part in the dissemination of Opnn- 
tias, the barbed spines attaching themselves to passing animals, who 
carry oS the easily detached joints of the branches, which sooner or 
later reach the ground and often form new plants. Certain species 
with strongly developed and numerous spines and feebly attached 
joints rarely produce seeds and appear to depend almost entirely 
on this method of propagation, {Teste Toumey, in litt. See Ganong, 
Bot. Gazette^ xs. 133.) 




at the apexj by a loose papery sheath^ on a few species broad, flat, fleshy, and spreading/ rarely thin, 
flat, paper-like, and elongated.^ Flowers lateral, produced from areolse on branches of the previous 
year between the bristles and spines, sessile, diurnal, or rarely nocturnal, cup-shaped, often large and 
showy. Calyx-lobes numerous, flat, erect, deciduous. Corolla rotate ; petals numerous, obovate, united 
at the base, spreading, red, yellow, or purple. Stamens numerous, shorter than the petals, inserted 
in many series on their base ; filaments filiform, free or slightly united below ; anthers oblong, two- 
celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary inferior, one-celled ; style cylindrical, longer than the stamens, 
obclavate below, fistular above, divided at the apex into from three to eight elongated or lobulate lobes 
stigmatic on the inner face ; ovules indefinite, horizontal, anatropous, inserted on numerous parietal 
placentas. Fruit baccate, sometimes proliferous, covered by a thick skin, succulent and often edible, or 
dry, pyriform, globose or elliptical, concave at the apes, surmounted by the marcescent tube of the 
flower, tuberculate, areolate or rarely glabrous, truncate at the base with a broad umbilicus.^ Seeds 
numerous, immersed in the pulpy placentas, compressed, discoid, often margined with the bony raphe ; 
testa bony, white, sometimes marked by a narrow darker colored marginal commissure. Embryo coiled 
around the copious or scanty albumen ; cotyledons large, foliaceous ; radicle thin, obtuse, turned toward 
the hilum.* 

Opuntiaj which originally was confined to America^ has now become naturalized in many of the 
warm dry regions of the world.^ About one hundred and thirty species are now recognized.^ They are 

^ Subgenus Peireskiopuntia, Schumann, Monog. Cact. 651 

2 The broad'Spined species (Platyacanthte) appear to be confined 
to Argentina, and are still very imperfectly known. (See W. Wat- 
son, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xxiii. 339j f. 129.) 

^ Professor Tourney suggests (in litL^ that the so-called fruit of 
Opuntia is really a terminal branch of the joint containing the 
ripened ovary which is sunken into its apex, and that the mor- 
phology of the fruit of the whole Cactus family is probably simi- 
lar. In some cases the ovary-bearing branch is highly modified. 
In certain species, however, particularly in the cylindrical stemmed 
Opuntias, it resembles a sterile terminal joint in all respects, except 
in the concave flower-scar at the apex. The proliferous character 
of the fruit, a character common in a greater or less degree to 
nearly all species of Opuntia, and occasionally found in other 
genera, would seem to indicate that this view is correct. Opuntia 
spinosior and Opuntia versicolor frequently produce proliferous fruits, 
and those of Opuntia fulgida are almost constantly proliferous. In 
the case of these species plants can be propagated by using the 
green fruits and even the ripe fruits as cuttings- Occasionally 
flat-stemmed Opuntias are found with an ovary developed in the 
apex of a branch resembling in all respects one of the narrow 
flat sterile stems of the plant. In Opuntia versicolor the ovary is 
frequently in the apex of a long joint, and there are innumerable 
transitions between these long fruit-joints and the typical pear- 
shaped fruit of the species. Ovaries in such stems are generally 
sterile, but occasionally contain one or many seeds. 

^ By Engelmann the species have been arranged in the following 
subgenera : — 

Platopuntia (Proc, Am. Acad, iii. 289 [1856]), now usually 
extended to include his Stenopuntia (L c). 

Joints of the branches compressed, without a woody skeleton ; 
spines without sheaths. Fruit pulpy or rarely dry; raphe form- 
ing a prominent and bony margin round the seed. Embryo curled 
round the scanty albumen ; cotyledons contrary to the sides of the 

Cy^jndropuntia (Engelmann, L c, [1856]). 

Joints of the branches cylindrical or clavate, more or less tuber- 

culate, with or without a solid or tubular and reticulated ligneous 
skeleton. Spines inclosed in a loose sheath or in some species 
naked. Fruit fleshy or dry, setulose or spinescent. Seeds hard- 
shelled, smooth, often marked by a conspicuous marginal commis- 
sure, usually marginless, embryo forming less than a circle round 

the copious albumen ; cotyledons contrary, oblique, or parallel to 
the side of the seed. 

^ Opuntias were probably among the first plants carried from 
America to the Old World, where they soon became naturalized in 
southern Spain ; from Spain they were carried by the Arabs to 
northern Africa, and they have gradually and generally extended 
through all the warm dry parts of the world- (See A, de Candolle, 
Origine des Plantes CuUivees^ 218.) 

In some countries naturalized Opuntias have become dangerous 
weeds, destroying the value of the land which they occupy with 
impenetrable thickets of spiny branches. In New South Wales, 
where the Opuntia was introduced more than a century ago, differ- 
ent species have become such pests that in 1886 an act was passed 
compelling persons, under penalty of fine and imprisonment, to 
clear their laud of these plants. (See Maiden, Agric. Gazette New 
South Waks^ ix. 979.) In South Africa Opuntias have spread to 
such an alarming extent that their destruction has been a subject 
of serious government investigation. (See Kew Bull Miscellaneous 
Information, July, 1888, 165 ; September, 1890, 186.) In India, 
where Opuntias have long been naturalized, it is supposed through 
early Portuguese introduction, they spread rapidly and are eon* 
sidered dangerous weeds (see Brandis, Forest FL Brit, Jnd. 246) ; 
and in southern Texas hundreds of square miles of grazing land 
have been overrun and entirely ruined by different species of dwarf 
Opuntias. (See Bentley, U, S. Dept. Agric. Farmers^ Bull. No. 72, 14 
[Cattle Ranges of the Southwest'].) On the other hand, the roots of 
Opuntias are said to have disintegrated the lava on the slopes of 
Mt, ^tna iu Sicily, and, enriching it by the decay of their stems, 
to have gradually changed barren wastes into productive vineyards. 
(See Bois, Bull. Soc, Nat, d^ Acclimatation de France, s^r. 4, v. 643,) 

^ See De Candolle, Prodr. iii. 471. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald^ 
293. — Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 289 ; Boi. Mex. Bound. Surv. 
ii. 45 ; King^s Rep. v, 118 ; Brewer ^ Watson Bot. Cat i. 247. — 




distributed from southern New England southward in the neighborhood of the coast to the "West Indies, 
and from southern British Columbia through western North America to Chili, the Galapagos Islands,^ 
Brazil, and Argentina, the largest number of species occurring in the arid region near the boundary 
between the United States and Mexico. Of the species of the United States three attain on the deserts 
of southern Arizona the size and habit of small trees. 

• CochineaP is derived from a scale-insect, Coccus Cacti, which feeds on the juices of Opuntia 

Phllippi, Linncea, xxxlli. 82 ; Cat. PI. Chil. 93. — Hemsley, Bot. 
Biol. Am. Cent. i. 549. — Scbumaim, Martins Fl. Brasil. iv. pt. ii. 
302 ; Monog. Cact. 650. ~ Coulter, Conirih. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 

^ On the Galapagos Islands, on tlie equator nearly seven hundred 
and fifty miles from the coast of Ecuador, the most isolated known 
station inhabited naturally by any Opuntia, occurs the largest repre- 
sentative of the genus. This is : — 

Opuntia Galapageia, Henslow, Mag. Zool. Bot. i. 467, t. 14, f. 2 
(1837). — Hooker f.' Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 223. — Andersson, Siockh. 
Akad. Handl. 1853, 95 (Om Galapagos- Oarnes Veg.'). — Hemsley-j 
Gard. Chron. ser, 3, xxiv, 265, f- 75- — Schumann, Monog- CacL 

Opuntia Galapageia^ which is one of the flat-branched species, 
although frequently shrubby grows under favorable conditions to 
the height of twenty feet, with a trunk two feet in diameter and 
stout spreading branches. (See Bauer, BioL Centralblattf xii. 247 
[-Em Besuch der Galapagos-'Inseln].') 

^ Cochineal, which consists of the females of Coccus Cacti, Liu- 
n^us, an hemipterous insect, is a dye used for the production of 
scarlet, crimson, orange, and other tints, and in the preparation of 
lake and carmine paints. It owes its tinctorial power to the pre- 
sence of cochinealin or carmanic acid, which is composed of hydro- 
gen, carbon, and oxygen. The male insect is half the size of the 
female, with long white wings and a dark red body terminating in 
two diverging set^e, and is devoid of a nutritive apparatus. The 
female has a dark brown body and no wings, and occurs in the pro- 
portion of from one hundred and fifty to two hundred to one of the 
males. When the Spaniards entered Mexico in 1518 they found 
cochineal employed by the inhabitants in coloring their dwellings 
and garments, the dry insects, which they reared with the greatest 
care on plantations of the Opuntias, forming one of the staple trib- 
utes from certain provinces, probably chiefly from Oaxaca, the 
little village of Cuilapan being usually considered the original 
home of the cochineal industry. (See Clavlgero, Storia Antica del 
Messicoy i- 114, nota. — Prescott, Conquest of Mexico, iL 136,) For 
a century and a half after its introduction into Europe cochineal was 
believed to consist of the seeds of a Cactus or some other vegetable 
substance (see Caneparius, 7)^ Atramentis^ 211), but in 1672 Martin 
Lister hazarded the conjecture that it might be a sort of kermes 
(PkiL Trans, vii. 5059) ; and in 1691 a letter containing Observa- 
tions on the making of Cochineal^ according to a Relation had from 
an Old Spaniard at Jamaica, published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions (xvii. 502), pointed out that cochineal was really an insect. 
In this communication instructions for propagating the plants on 
which the insects feed were given, and their use in hedges de- 
scribed- A little later, in 1704, Leeuwenhoek with the aid of his 
miscroscope showed conclusively the animal nature of the dye and 
finally settled the question of the origin of cochineal (PhiL Trans- 
xxiv. 1614). The cochineal industry once flourished in Central 
America, Peru, and other parts of South America, and in 1858, 
after the destruction of their vineyards, its cultivation was success- 
fully introduced into the Canary Islands, which in 1869 exported 

six and a half million pounds of the dye, about seventy thousand of 
the dried insects weighing one pound. Cochineal has also been 
produced in southern Spain, Algeria, India, and the Dutch East 
India Islands. 

In Mexico the insects are sometimes gathered from wild plants, 
but the product is of poor quality, and the best cochineal is ob- 
tained by regular cultivation. The insects are reared in winter in 
huts, and from the end of May until the beginning of August are 
put out on plants carefully cultivated in inclosed gardens or nopal- 
ries by hanging on the branches of the Opuntias small gauze bags, 
each containing about a tablespoonful of the impregnated females. 
The young as fast as they are born escape from the bags and 
spread over the surface of the branch, where they absorb its juices 
and grow rapidly until their legs, antennae, and probosces are almost 
indistinguishable. As soon as insects show signs of spawning, they 
are rapidly brushed into bags or baskets and are killed by immer- 
sion in hot water, by exposure to the sun, or in heated ovens, the 
quality of the product depending largely on the method and care 
used in killing and curing the insects. Two or three crops are 
produced in a season. The " grain," as the dried cochineal is 
called, is sifted to free it of an adherent white powder ; it is then 
picked over to remove all foreign matter and packed in bags for 
export. There are two principal varieties recognized in com- 
merce: silver cochineal, which is of a grayish red color, with the 
furrows of the body covered by a whitish bloom, and black cochi- 
neal, which is of a darker red. 

The plant chiefly used to feed the cochineal insect in Mexico 
and Central America is Nopalea cochenillifer, Salm-Dyck, Cact. 
Hori, Dyck. ed. 3 (1850) {Cactus cochenilUfer, Linnseus, Spec. 468 
[1753], Opuntia cochinelifera, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 6 [1765]), 
which differs from the flat-leaved Opuntias in its erect petals 
much shorter than the long stamens, and which is probably a 
native of Peru, although now widely spread by cultivation through 
the warmer parts of America and through other warm dry coun- 
tries. The cochineal insect is also reared on Opuntia Ficus-Indica 
and on Opuntia Tuna, which, according to Lowe (Hooker Jour, Bot. 
i. 40 ; Man. FL Mad. 313), is the only species used in the Canary 
Islands for the purpose. In a wild state the cochineal insect or 
some of its allies are found on many other species of Opuntia. 
(For accounts of Coccus Cacti, and of the cochineal industry, see 
Melchior de la Ruusscher, Natuerlyke historie van de Couchenille. — 
Rutty, PhiL Trans, xxxvi. 264 [ The Natural History of Cochineaf] . — 
Thiery de Menonville, Traite de la Culture du Nopal et de V Educa- 
tion de la Cochenille dans les colonies franpaises de VAmerique. — 
Francisco Hernandez, Hist, PL Nov, Hisp. ed. Madrid, 1790, ii. 
177. — Staunton, Account of the Embassy of the King of Great Britain 
to the Empire of China, i. 186, Atlas, t. 12. — Humboldt, Essai PoL 
Nouv. Esp. iii- 242, — Bancroft, Philosophy of Permanent Colors, i. 
410. — ^oyle^ Essay on the Productive Resources of India, 57. — Sig- 
noret, Ann. Soc. Ent France, sdr, 4, viii, 846 [Essai sur les Cochen- 
illes~\- — Vett, Woordenhock van Nederlandsch-Tndie Cochenille. — 
Spons, Encyclopmdia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw 
Commercial Products, i, 856. — Ober, Travels in Mexico, 529. ■ 




Tuna,^ Opuntia Ficus-Indica,'^ and of other species. The fruit of Opuntia Ficus-Indica, now natural- 
ized m most warm dry regions, and of several other species is refreshingj and is consumed in considerable 
quantities in semitropical countries ; ^ and Opuntia Opuntia,^ which grows on the Atlantic coast from 

Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, ii. 398. ~ Cock- 
erell, Am. Nat. xsvii. 1041 [Notes on the Cochineal Insect].) 

Since the introduction of aniline dyes cochineal has so depre- 
ciated in value that its production on a large scale is no longer 
profitable, and the industry has lost its commercial importance. 
(See A. S. Brown, Social and Economical Condition of the Canary 
Islands, 5, 24 [Parliament of Great Britain, Sessional Papers, Ixxx. 
1892, Miscellaneous Series, No. 246].) 

1 Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 3 (1768). — Haworth, Syn. PL Succ. 
188. — De Candolle, ProtZr. iii. 472.— Pf eiffer, Enum. Cact. 161. •— 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xiii. 407, t. 46. — Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
ed. 3, m. ~ Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 302. — "Willkomm & 
Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. iii. 129. — Hemsley, BoL Biol. Am. Cent. 
i. 554. — Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herh. iii. 420. — Duss, Ann. 
Inst. Col. Marseille, iii. 318 (Fl. Antilles Franpaises) . —, 
Monog. Cact. 723. — Maiden, Agric. Gazette New South Wales, ix. 
994, t. 

Cactus Tuna, Linn^us, Spec. i. 468 (1753). 

Cactus Opuntia Tuna, Tussae, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii. 213, t. 31 

Cactus Bonplandii, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. 
et Spec. vi. 69 (1823). — Kunth, Syn. PL jEquin. iii. 372. 

Opuntia horrida, De Candolle, L c. iii. 472 (1823). ~ FfeifEer, 

1 c. 162. 

Opuntia Ficus-Indica, Webb & Berthelot, Phytogr. Canar. iii. 

pt. ii. sect. i. 208 (not Miller) (1836^0). 

Opuntia Tuna, a native probably of some of the warmer parts of 
Central or South America, has become widely naturalized in most 
warm countries. One of the handsomest of the Opuntias, it is 
almost arborescent in habit, with a short stem, broad flat branches, 
stout yellow spines, and insipid fruit. It is this species which is 
perhaps most generally employed in hedges ; and it is frequently 
cultivated in southern Florida, the West Indies, northern Mexico, 
Lower California, southern California, and many of the countries 
of Central and South America, in the Mediterranean basin, India, 
Australia, southern Africa, and the Canary Islands. Although 
the fruit is insipid, in the West Indies its juice is sometimes em- 
ployed to give a scarlet color to liquors and to fruit used in confec- 
tionery. (See Fawcett, Economic Plants, Jamaica, 59.) Tuna, the 
specific name of this plant, is the common Spanish- American name 
of the fruits of all the flat-branched Opuntias. 

2 Miller, I. c. No. 2. — Haworth, L c. 191. — De Candolle, L c. 
iii. 473. — Pfeiffer, I c. 152. — Salm-Dyck, L c. 66, 235. — Chap- 
man, FL 144. — Grisebach, I. c. 302. — Lowe, Ma7i. FL Mad. 317. — 
Brandis, Forest Fl. BriL Ind. 246. ■— Willkomm & Lange, L c. 
129. — Hemsley, L c. i. 551. — Coulter, ;. c. 419. — Schumann, I. c. 
719. — Maiden, L c. ix. 990. 

Cactus Ficus-Indica, Linnaeus, Spec. 468 (1753), 
Cactus Opuntia suhinermis, Tussae, I. c. ii. 220, t. 34 (1818). 
Opuntia Tuna, Webb & Berthelot, L c. 209 (not Miller) 

Cactus Opuntia, Gussone, Fl. SicuL Prodr. 559 (not linnjeus) 

Opuntia vulgaris, Tenore, SylL FL Neap. 239 (not Miller) 

« The pulp of the fruit of the flat-leaved Opuntias is sweet and 
acidulous, and contains assimilable matter in the form of mucilage. 

albumen, and large quantities of sugar, and is free from all astrin- 
gent and toxic properties. (See De Graff e. Am. Jour. Pharm. Ixviii. 
169, t. ; also Light, Am. Jour. Pharm. Ivi. 3 [The Fruit of Opuntia 
vulgaris']. — Maisch, ^m. /our. P,^arm. Ixiii. 2 [Fruit of Opuntia]:) 
That of Opuntia Ficus-Indica, the so-called Indian Fig, which is 
extensively cultivated for its fruit in Mexico and other warm 
countries, is perhaps more esteemed than that of other species. It 
is often three or four inches long and two inches wide, and is yel- 
low or orange-colored, more or less tinged with pink or red, and 
covered with small tufts of bristles, which are easily rubbed off. 
In northern Mexico it forms an important part of the food of the 
poor, being sold in immense quantities by street-venders daring all 
the summer months. (See Palmer, West American Scientist, vi. 67.) 
It is also used as food in many parts of South America (see 
Hieronymus, PI. Diaph.Fl. Arge't. 128), and largely in Italy and 
the other countries bordering tbe Mediterranean. (See Varvaro, 
II Fico d'India in Sicilia.) 

The fruit of many other Opuntias is gathered and eaten by the 
North American Indians, especially by the tribes which inhabit the 
desert regions of the southwest. (See Newberry, Popular Science 
Monthly, xsxil 37 [Food and Fibre Plants of the North American 
Indians].) By the Pawnees and Papigos it is gathered before it is 
fully ripe, allowed to dry, and used in cooking meat. The fresh 
unripe fruit is often boiled in water and then allowed to ferment, 
when it becomes stimulating as well as nutritious. 

In Mexico, ealonche, an intoxicating drink similar in taste to 
hard eider, is made from the fruit of several species of Opuntia by 
pressing out the juice, passing it through straw sieves, and heating 
it by fire or the sun, when it soon begins to ferment. (See Havard, 
BulL Torrey Bot. Club, xxiii. 33 [Drink Plants of the North Ameri- 
can Indians].) 

*■ Coulter, L c. 432 (1896). — Britton & Brown, IIL Pt. ii. 463, f. 


Cactus Opuntia, 'Linusens, L c. 468 (in part) (1753).— Wal- 
ter, Fl. Car. 146. — Michaux, FL i. 282. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 
22. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. i. 327. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 296. — El- 
liott, SL i. 537. ~ Sims, BoL Mag. 1. 1. 2393. 

Opuntia vulgaris, Miller, L c. No. 1 (1768); Icon. t. 191. — 
Haworth, L c. 190. ~ De Candolle, L c. iii. 474. — Pfeiffer, L c. 
149. — Salm-Dyck, L c. 69. — Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 
297. — Engelmann & J. M. Bigelow, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 
42, t. 10, f . 1, 2, t. 23, f . 13. — Chapman, L c. 144. — Watson & 

Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 197. ~ Schumann, L c. 714. —Maiden, 
I. c. ix. 992. 

Cactus Opuntia vulgaris, De Candolle, PL Grasses, 138, t. 

Opuntia maritima, Rafinesque, Med. FL ii, 247 (1830). 

Opuntia Italica, Tenore, L c. 241 (1831). 

Opuntia intermedia, Salm-Dyck, CaL Hort Dyck, 364 (1834) ; 
CacL Hort. Dyck. ed. 3, 69, 243. — Pfeiffer, L c. 150. 

Cactus nana, Visiani, FL Dalm. iii. 143 (1852). 

Opuntia vulgaris, ^ nana, Schumann, l. c. 715 (1898). 
Opuntia Opuntia, which grows on sandy and occasionally on rocky 
soil, usually only in the immediate neighborhood of the coast, from 
the island of Nantucket off the southern shore of Massachusetts 
to South Carolina, is a dwarf plant, with short procumbent flat- 
tened branches armed occasionally with a few small spines, and 




Massachusetts to South Carolina^ and Opuntia Dillenii ^ have heen believed to possess valuable medical 
properties. The large-growing Opuntias with flat leaves are employed in many countries to form 
hedges for the protection of gardens and fields against browsing animals ; and the branches of Opuntia^ 
which are saturated with watery juices, are sometimes stripped of their spines and bristles and fed to 

Opuntia, which forms the principal food of a number of scale-insects, is not known to suffer from 
them or from serious fungal diseases.^ 

Opuntia, used by Theophrastus as the name for some plant which grew in the neighborhood of the 
city of Opus in Boeotia, was bestowed by Tournefort on the Prickly Pears of the New World,^ 

small yellow flowers- It is chiefly interesting as the most northern 
representative of the genus in eastern America. Eafinesque {Med. 
FL iL 247) described the use of the split branches in the treatment 
of acute rheumatism and as a remedy for chronic ulcers, gout, and 
wounds, and stated that the juices and gummy exudations were 
used in the treatment of gravel. A tincture prepared from the 
fresh flowers and green ovaries is ^'^metimes used in homceopathic 
practice. (See Millspaugh, Am, Med, PL in Homceopathic Reme- 
dies^ i, 61, t. 61.) 

In the southern states the quality of tallow candles has been 
sometimes improved by boiling the split branches of Opuntia Opun- 
tia with the tallow, which is hardened by their juices. (See Porcher, 
Resources of Southern Fields and Forests, 66.) 

Opuntia Opuntia is said to have been introduced into English 
gardens before the beginning of the sixteenth century (see Alton, 
Hort Kew. ii. 153), but it is not improbable that the early refer- 
ences to this plant apply to some West Indian or Mexican species 
and not to that of the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, 
which from its small size and comparative rarity might easily have 
escaped the notice of the first explorers of our coast. Opuntia 
Opuntia, or a dwarf species closely allied to it, is now naturalized 
in many of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. (See Bro- 
tero, Fl Lusitan. ii. 245, — Visiani, FL Dalm. iii. 143. — Will- 
komm & Lange, Prodr- FL Hispan, iii. 128. — Caruel, Parlatore 
FL ItaL X. 1430 

In the region adjacent to the Rio Grande the flat branches of 
Opuntias are frequently used to poultice ulcers and sores of all 
kinds. The branch is first heated to remove the bristles and spines 
and to warm and softeu the pulp; it is then opened through the 
middle or one of the surfaces is shaved off, and the exposed portion 
is applied to the part requiring treatment. Opuntia branches heated 
and mashed into pulp are employed in the same region to clarify 
water, and sometimes as food (see Havard, Proc, U. S. Nat. Herb, 
viii- 521) ; and on the Isthmus of Panama, where a species of Opun- 
tia is often planted in hedges, the split branches are also believed 
to possess medical virtues- (See Seemann, Bot, Voy, Herald^ 131.) 

^ Opuntia Dillenii^ Haworth, SuppL PL Succ, 79 (1819), — De 
CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 473- — PfeifEer, Enum. CacL 162. — Wight & 

Amott, Prodr. FL Ind. 363.— Wight, IlL ii. t, 114. — Lowe, ilf an, 
FL Mad, 318, — Clarke, Hooker f . Fl. BHt Ind, ii. 657- — Maiden, 
Agric, Gazette New South Wales^ ix. 1002. 

Cactm Dillenii, Kerr, BoL Reg, iii, t. 255 (1817), 
Cactus Indicusy Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 475 (1832). 
Opuntia Tuna^ Schumann, Monog, CacL 724 (in part) (not 
Miller) (1898), 

Opuntia Dillenii, which is believed to be indigenous in tropical 
America, has become widely naturalized in India, extending to 
Jhelan in the northwest and ascending the Himalayas to elevations 
of five thousand feet above the sea-level. It has been largely used 
as a hedge plant- The fruit is esteemed as a refrigerant ; the 
crushed branches are used as poultices to reduce heat and inflamma- 
tion; a syrup prepared from the fruit is employed in the treatment 
of whooping-cough to increase the secretion of bile and to control 
spasmodic coughing and expectoration. The juice has been suc- 
cessfully employed as a purgative and as a demulcent in the treat- 
ment of gonorrhcea, and the pulp of the crushed branches to relieve 
ophthalmia. (See Brandis, Forest FL BnL Ind. 245. — Watt, Dic- 
tionary of the Economic Products of India^ v. 490.) 


2 See Havard, L c. — MacOwan, Kew Bull. Miscellaneous Infor- 
mation^ July, 1888, 167- — Bourde, Revue Tunisienne, 1894 (Projet 
d^Enquete sur le Cactus considere comme Plante Fourragere), — 
Maiden, L c, vii. 651. — Boyce, Agric, Gazette New South WaleSf 
viii. 260, 504. — Geunadius, Agric, Gazette New South Wales^ ix. 38 
(The Prickly Pear in Cyprus), 

^ Little can be said with regard to the fungi which attack 
the larger species of Opuntia in this country, Sph(Bria Cacti^ 
Schweinitz, which forms black spots arranged in groups on the 
leaves, is probably common on several species, but its botanical 
characters are not well understood, Teichospora Opuntim, Ellis & 
Everhart, a small Pyrenomycete, attacks Opuntia arhorescens^ and 
Glceosporium Opuntice, Ellis & Everhart, has been found on Opuntia 
Brasiliensisy Haworth, in the United States. A peculiar morbid 
growth on Opuntia and other Cactacete has been described by 
Sorauer (Monat. KakL vii, 1). It is due, however, not to the action 
of fungi but to the successive formation of corky tissue. 

* Inst. i. 239, t- 122. 

14: SILVA OF NOBTH AMEBIC A. cactace^. 



Joints of the branches cylindrical, tuberculate, with reticulated ligneous skeletons ; spines inclosed in 
loose sheaths ; fruit fleshy, setulose, or occasionally spinescent ; seeds marginless, marked by a 
conspicuous narrow marginal commissure. 
Tubercles of the branches full and rounded below the areola. 

Joints pale olive-colored, easily separable, their tubercles broad, mamillate ; spines yellow ; flowers 

pink ; fruit proliferous, usually spineless, often sterile 1. O. fulgida. 

Joints green or purple, their tubercles narrow, ovate ; spines white to reddish brown ; flowers purple ; 

fruit yellow, sparingly spinescent, rarely proliferous . 2. O. spinosiok. 

Tubercles of the branches not full and rounded below the areolffi. 

Joints elongated, dark green, or purple, their tubercles elongated ; spines brown or reddish brown ; 

flowers green, tinted with red or yellow ; fruit green, spinescent, rarely proliferous 3. 0. versicolor. 




Joints of the brandies pale olive -colored, easily separable, their tubercles broad, 
mamillate, full and rounded below the areolse ; spines yellow. Flowers pink. Fruit 
dull green, proliferous, usually spineless. 

Opuntia fulgida, Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 306 Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. i{{. 448. — Schumann, i¥ono^. 

(1856) ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii. 57, t. 75, f. 18 ; Cact. 676. 

Wheeler's Hep. vi. 131. — Walpers, Ann. y. 56. — Hems- Opuntia fulgens, Engelmann, Brewer & Watson Bot. Cat. 

ley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 551. — Tourney, Garden and i. 250 (1876). 
Forest, viii. 324, f. 46 ; Bot. Gazette, xxv. 119. — Coulter, 

• A tree, with a more or less flexuous trunk occasionally twelve feet in height and sometimes a foot 
in diameter, a symmetrical head of stout wide-spreading branches/ and thick pendulous joints which 
are sometimes almost hidden by their long conspicuous spines and which begin to develop their woody 
skeletons during their second or occasionally liot until their third season. The bark of the trunk and of 
the large limbs is about a quarter of an inch in thickness and separates freely on the surface into 
large thin loosely attached scales which vary in color from dark yellow-brown to nearly black on the 
largest stems, and is nearly destitute of spines which mostly fall with the outer layers when the 
branches are from three to four inches in thickness. The terminal or ultimate joints of the branches 
are ovate or ovate-cylindrical, tumid, crowded at the ends of the limbs, pale olive-colored, from three 
to eight inches long and often two inches in diameter j their tubercles are ovate-oblong, broad, and 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, with areola of pale straw-colored matted 
tomentum, and short slender pale bristles ; when they first appear each areola bears from f[.Ye^ to fifteen 
stout stellate-spreading light yellow spines of nearly equal length, from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch long, and inclosed in loose lustrous sheaths ; during succeeding years additional spines develop at 
the upper margins of the areola, and tubercles on old branches are sometimes furnished with from forty 
to sixty spines which remain on the branches from four to six years. The leaves are light green, 
from one half of an mch to nearly an inch in length, and taper gradually to the acuminate apex. The 
flowers appear from June to September, the first being produced from tubercles at the ends of the 
branches of the previous year, the later from the terminal tubercles of the immature fruit developed 
from the earliest flowers of the season. They are an inch in diameter when fully expanded, with 
ovaries nearly an inch long, from eight to ten orbicular obtuse erenulate sepals, five erect stigmas, and 
eight light pink petals,^ those of the outer ranks being cuneate, retuse, erenulate on the margins, and 
shorter than those of the inner ranks, which are lanceolate and acute, the whole corolla becoming 
strongly reflexed at maturity. The fruit, which is proliferous, hangs in pendulous clusters usually 
with sis or seven fruits, and occasionally with forty or fifty, in a cluster, one growing from the other in 
continuous succession, the first of the cluster being the largest and containing perfect seeds while the 

1 "I suspect that the long surface roots enable these plants to species Is said to have yellow petals. (See K. Brand egee, Ery^ 
get their moisture from the rains which seldom penetrate the soil thea, v. 122 \_Notes on Cactem].) 

to a greater depth than from six to twelve inches. I have never In the early descriptions of this species the petals were said to 

seen tuberous enlargements on the fibrous roots." (Tourney, in be purple, but according to Professor Tourney, who has had the 

best opportunity of studying the Cacti of Arizona and adjacent 
The plant of Lower California which is believed to be of this regions, aud to whom I am indebted for my knowledge of these 

tree Opuntias, they are purple only after they are dried. 

■ 3 




secondary fruits are frequently sterile ; it is dull green when fully ripe, with dry flesh, and falls usually 
during the first winter, although occasionally a fruit remains on the branches during a second season 
and develops flowers from its tubercles ; the fruit is oval, rounded, and from an inch to an inch and a 
quarter in length, nearly as broad as it is long, more or less tuberculate,^ conspicuously marked with 
large pale tomentose areolae bearing numerous small bristles and, although usually spineless, occa- 
sionally small weak spines. The seeds are compressed, thin, very angular, and from one twelfth to one 
sixth of an inch in diameter.^ 

Opimtia fulgida, which is a plant of the plains, and is not rare m Arizona south of the Colorado 
plateau and m the adjacent region of Sonora, apparently is most abundant and grows to its largest 
size on the mesas near Tucson, at elevations between two thousand and three thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. It is said to grow also at Cottonwood Springs in southern Nevada and at Calamuget, 
and on Magdalena Island in Lower CaKfornia. 

The wood of old trunks, which contains a thick pith, is Hght, hard, and pale yellow, with broad 
conspicuous medullary rays and well marked layers of annual growth.^ , 

This Cactus, the Vera de Coyote of the Mexican Indians, was first made known to science by the 
botanists attached to the commission which defined the boundary between the United States and 
Mexico. It is one of the most conspicuous and interesting plants of the mesas of southern Arizona, 
where in the clear atmosphere of the desert the lustrous sheaths inclosing its numerous spines glistening 
in the sunlight make it visible for many miles. 

^ The depth of the tubercles on many of the cylindrical Opun- 
tias, especially on the mature or nearly mature fruit, depends 
almost entirely on the amount of moisture. During exceedingly 
dry seasons the tubercles are deep and the fruit small and 
shriveled. On the same plants during a moist season the fruit is 
large and plump, and the tubercles are scarcely raised above the 
remainder of the surface. This is true, only not to so great a 
degree, of the younger branches of the plant itself. (Tourney, in 

^ On the foothills of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona and 
northern Sonora a form of this plant occurs with thicker shorter 
joints, more prominent but shorter tubercles, and fewer spines, 
usually only from four to six spines being developed from the tuber- 
cles of the terminal joints, although from those of older joints as 
many as twenty or thirty are produced. The flowers and fruit of 

the two forms appear to be identical, but the foothill variety is a 

smaller plant than that of the mesas. It is : — 

Opuntia fulgida mamillata. Coulter, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

iii. 449 (1896). — Toumey, Bot. Gazette, xxv. 121. 

Opuntia mamillata, Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad, iii. 308 
(1856); Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii. 58, t. 75, f. 19; Brewer Sr 
Watson Bot. CaL i. 250. — Walpers, Ann. v- 57- — Hemsley, 
Bot BioL Am. Cent L 552, — Tourney, Garden and Forest^ viii. 

^ The log specimen In the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New Tork, 
cut by Professor Toumey in the neighborhood of Tucson, is seven 
inches in diameter inside the bark, with fourteen layers of annual 
growth in the solid exterior layer of wood, which is about two and 
a half inches in thickness. 


Plate DCCVI- Opuntia ftjlgida- 
1- A flower, natural size- 
2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size- 

3- End of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

4- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

5, A fruit laid open transversely, natural size- 

6. A seed, enlarged. 

7- A seed showing raphe, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 




Silva of North Am 






,.r. \ 









■ ' 



C.S.FcucoTV dely. 






-A.Hioot'euay cHrecc-^ 

Ir72p. J, Tojz&tcr^ FoT^uf. 






Joints of the branches green or purple, their tubercles ovate, narrow, full, and 
rounded below the areolae ; spines white or reddish brown. Flowers pink. Fruit 
yellow, sparingly spinescent, rarely proliferous. 

Opuntia spinosior, Tourney, Bot. Gazette, xxv. 119 (1898). Opuutia arborescens, Engelmann, PaciJiG R. It. Rep. iv. 

Opuntia Whipple!, /3 spinosior, Engelmann, Proc. Am. 
Acad. iii. 307 (1856) ; Fadfic B. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 51, t. 
17, f. 1-4; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii, 57. — Hemsley, 
Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 554. — Coulter, Contrib. JJ. S. 
Nat. Herb. iii. 461. — Schumann, Monog. Cact. 670. 

51, pt. V. 1. 17, f. 5, 6 (not Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir 
of a Tour to Northern Mexico [Senate Doc, 1848], Bot. 
Appx. 6). ■— Toumey, Garden and Forest, ix. 2, f . 1. 

A tree, with an erect trunk occasionally ten feet in height and from five to ten inches in diameter, 
and numerous stout vertically spreading branches which form an open irregular head. The bark of 
the trunk and of the large limbs is about a quarter of an inch in thickness, spineless, nearly black, 
broken into elongated ridges, and finally much roughened by numerous thin closely appressed scales. 
The joints of the branches are cylindrical, from four to twelve inches in length and from three quarters 
of an inch to an inch in thickness, covered with a thick epidermis which varies in color from green 
to purple, and usually develop woody skeletons during their second season ; their tubercles are promi- 
nent, compressed, ovate, and from one third to one half of an inch long, with oval areola clothed with 
pale tomentum and short light brown bristles ; their spines, which vary in number from ^ve to fifteen 
on the tubercles of young joints and from thirty to fifty on those of older branches, are slender, from 
white to light reddish brown in color, closely invested in white gHstening sheaths, stellate-spreading, and 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, those in the interior being sometimes considerably 
longer than the radical spines. The leaves are terete, about a quarter of an inch long, and taper grad- 
ually to the setulose apex ; they remain on the branches from four to six weeks. The flowers, which 
unfold during April and May, remain open for two or three days, and appear to depend on the visits of 
bees and other insects for f ertifization ; ^ they are from two to two and a haH inches in diameter when 
fully expanded, with ovaries about an inch in length, obovate sepals, broadly obovate dark purple petals, 
sensitive red stamens,^ and six to nine-parted stigmas. The yellow fleshy acrid fruits are clustered at 
the ends of the branches of the previous year, and when ripe make them pendulous by their weight ; 
they are oval or rarely globose or hemispherical, and frequently two inches long and an inch and a half 
thick, with from twenty to thirty tubercles ; during the summer these are very prominent, but as the 
fruits ripen they enlarge and become succulent and the tubercles nearly disappear, leaving the fruits 
marked only by the small oval areolae covered with short bristles and armed with numerous slender 
spines, which are deciduous in December as the fruits begin to turn yellow. The seeds vary from one 
fifth to one sixth of an inch in diameter and are nearly orbicular, sHghtly or not at all beaked, and 

^ "These insects, attracted to the flower, enter between the style 
and stamens, passing down to the base of the style to get the nectar. 
The numerous sensitive stamens immediately bend forward toward 
the style, closing over the insect and hiding it from view. It neces- 
sitates quite an effort on the part of the insect to escape, but it 
finally forces its way from beneath the stamens and climbs to the 
top of the elongated stigma, whence it makes its escape, thoroughly 
dusted with the pollen from the numerous stamens. In a few 

minutes the stamens assume their normal condition and the flower 
is ready for the reception of other insects. I have frequently seen 
as many as three honeybees inclosed in a single flower." (Toumey, 
Garden and Forest, ix. 3.) 

2 Professor Toumey points out the facts that the stamens of all 
the Opuntias with cylindrical branches are sensitive, and that when 
disturbed they close tightly round the style a few lines below the 
stigma. (See Bot. Gazette, xxv. 123.) 


marked with linear conspicuous commissures. The fruits remain on the branches during the winter 
and occasionally during the following summer, and then sometimes become proliferouSj bearing flowers 

and fruits.^ 

Ojnmtia spinosior is widely scattered over the mesas of southern Arizona south of the Colorado 
plateau and over the adjacent region of Sonora. 

. The wood of Opuntia spinosior is light, soft, pale reddish brown, and conspicuously reticulated 
with inconspicuous medullary rays and well-defined layers of annual growth.^ It is sometimes used in 
the manufacture of light f urniturej canes^ picture-frames^ and other small articles. 
Opuntia spinosior Avas discovered in Sonora in 1855 by Mr- A. Schott,^ 

^ Professor Tourney recognizes as var, Neo-Mexicana (BoL Ga- ^ The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
zette^ XXV, 119 [1898]) a variety of this species which grows with Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New Yort, is 
the ordinary form to the same size hut is distinguished from it by five and a half inches in diameter inside the bark, with seventy- 
longer tubercles, more numerous spines with looser sheaths, flow- two layers of annual growth in the outer woody portion, which is 
ers with more numerous and much narrower petals varying in color two and one sixteenth inches in thickness. 
from red to yellow, and larger fruits often more or less tinged with ^ See x, 18, 


Plate DCCVII. Opuntia sfinosior. 

1. A flower, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower^ natural size. 

3. The end of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruitj natural size- 
5- A fruit divided transversely, enlarged- 

6. A seed, enlarged- 

7. A seed showing the raphe, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a seed? enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 

f . 

A . 

Silva of Noptli Am 



Tat.DCCVIl. _ 






CSJ.J^aazorz deZ^. 

- -I 



. '' 

tn& j'Cy. 


' A . Rio 07"' ei.i^n^ direay 


Imp . <J, TcLn^ur^ RarLr . 



Joints of the branches dark green or purple, elongated, their tubercles flattened, 
elongated ; spines brown or reddish brown. Flowers green tinged with red or yellow. 
Fruit green, spinescent, rarely proliferous. 

Opuntia versicolor, Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat, Berh. iii. 452 (1896). — Tourney, Bot, Gazette, xxv. 121. — Schumann, 

Monog. Caot. 674. 

A tree, with an erect trunk occasionally in well-developed specimens six or eight feet high and 
eight inches in diameter, and numerous stout irregularly spreading often upright branches. The bark 
of the trunk and of the large branches is smooth, light brown or purple, usually unarmed, from one 
half to three (quarters of an inch in thickness, and ultimately separates into numerous small closely 
appressed nearly black scales. The terminal joints of the branches are cylindrical, generally from six 
to twelve inches but sometimes two feet in length, and from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch 
in diameter ; their woody skeletons are usually formed during their second season, and they are covered 
with a thick epidermis which varies from dark green to purple, and is marked by linear flattened 
tubercles terminating in large oval areolae which are clothed with gray wool and generally bear a cluster 
of small bristles ; their spines are slender, stellate-spreading, the inner from one to four in number, 
usually deflexed and unequal in length, the longest being about one third of an inch long and much 
longer than the radiant spines ] they are brown or reddish brown, with close early deciduous straw- 
colored sheaths, and vary on young joints from four to fourteen in number, while the tubercles of old 
branches often bear from twenty to twenty-five. The leaves are terete, from one third to one half of 
an inch in length, abruptly narrowed to the spinescent apex, and remain on the branches from four 
to six weeks. The flowers open in May, and when fully expanded are about an inch and a half in 
diameter, with ovaries five eighths of an inch long, broadly ovate acute sepals, and narrow obovate petals 
rounded above and green tinged with red or with yellow. The fruit is usually clavate, from two inches 
to two inches and a half in length and nearly an inch and a haK in diameter, with areolae generally only 
above the middle and usually furnished with from one to three slender reflexed persistent spines about 
half an inch long, or occasionally spineless ; rarely the fruit is nearly spherical and only about three 
quarters of an inch in diameter. When mature the fruit is of the same color as the joints on which it 
grows and ripens from December to February ; usually it withers and dries on the tree and frequently 
splitting open shows the irregular angled seeds with their narrow commissures. In some cases it does 
not wither during the first winter, but remains fleshy and adheres to the branch until the end of the 
following summer and sometimes through a second winter ; or often it is imbedded in the end of a more 
or less elongated joint. 

Opuntia versicolor is the most abundant of the cylindrical Opuntias of the foothills and low 
mountain slopes of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, although it does not appear to have attracted 
the attention of botanists until 1880, when it was found in the neighborhood of Tucson by George 
Engelmann^ and C. C. Parry .^ 

The wood of Opuntia versicolor is reticulate, hard, compact, light reddish brown and rather 
lustrous, with thin conspicuous medullary rays, well-determined layers of annual growth, and thick pale 
or nearly white sapwood.^ 

1 See viii. 84. 2 gee vli. 130. foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains near Sabina Canon, is 

3 The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American five and seven eighths inches in diameter inside the bark, with 

Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, seventy-nine layers of annual growth ; of these twenty-eight are 

which was cut by Professor Toumey in southern Arizona on the of sapwood, which is three quarters of an inch in thickness. 



Plate DCCVIII. Opuntia versicolor. 

1. The end of a flowering branch, natural size, 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

3. The end of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. "Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 
6. A seed, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

Silva of North Am 



L -I 





-" . 




<C E.FojzkDTi^ d&L. 

RapirLey sc 




r ' 

A.RLocreuzo dirs^C'. 











Leaves oblong-ovate, acute, scabrous on the upper surface. 

Cornus asperif olia, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 93 (1803) . — 
Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 156. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. 
Suppl. ii. 356. — Piirsh, Fl. Am. Sept. l 108. — EUiott, 

Sk. i. 209 Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 322. — Spreng- 

el, Syst. i. 451. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 651. — 
Rafinesque, Alsograjph. Am. 61. — Chapman, Fl. 167. — 
K. Koch, Dendr. i. 692. — "Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 214. — Coulter & Evans, Bot. Gazette, xv. 
35. ~ Coulter, Contrib. JJ. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 150 {Man. Fl. 
W. Texas). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 437. — Dippel, 
Handb. Lauhholzk. iii. 253, f. 135. — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, x. 104, f . 13. — Britton & Brown, HI. FL ii. 
544, f. 2715. — Britton, Man. 690. — Gattinger, Fl. Ten- 
nessee^ 130. 

Cornus serioea, y asperifoliaj De Candolle, Frodr. iv. 272 
(1830). — Don, Gen* Syst. iii- 399. — Loudon, Arh, Brit. 
ii. 1013. 


Cornus alba, Hooker, Compan. Bot. Mag. i. 48 (not Lin- 

nseus) (1835). 
Cornus Drummondi, C. A. Meyer, Bull. Phys. Math. 

Acad. St. Petershourg, iii. 372 (1845) ; Ann. Sci. Nat. 

s^r. 3, iv. 64. — Walpers, Eep.y. 933. 
Cornus asperifolia, var. Drummondi, Coulter & Evans, 

Bot. Gazette, xv. 36 (1890) . ~ Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 

Nat. Herb. ii. 151 {Man. PI. W. Teims). — Koehne, 

Deutsche Dendr. 437. 

Usually shrubby in habit, Cornus asperifolia on the rich bottom-lands of southern Arkansas and 
eastern Texas is frequently a tree sometimes nearly fifty feet in height, with a short trunk eight or ten 
inches in diameter, and slender erect wand-Hke branches forming a narrow irregular rather open head.^ 
The bark of the trunk is about an eighth of an inch in thickness and is divided by shallow fissures 
into narrow interrupted ridges, and broken into small closely appressed dark red-brown scales. The 
branchlets are slender, marked by numerous small pale lenticels, pale green and puberulous when 
they first appear, pale red, lustrous and puberulous during their first winter, light reddish brown in 
their second year, and ultunately light gray-brown or gray. The winter-buds are acute, compressed, 
pubescent, sessile or stalked, about an eighth of an inch long, with two pairs of opposite scales, 
and about twice as large as the much compressed lateral buds. The leaves are opposite, involute in 
vernation, ovate or oblong, gradually or abruptly contracted at the apex into long slender points, 
gradually narrowed and rounded or cuneate at the base, and slightly thickened and undulate on the 
margins; when they unfold they are coated with lustrous silver-white tomentum, and nearly fully 
grown when the flowers open from the middle of May in Texas to the middle of July at the north, 
they are then dark green and roughened above by short rigid white hairs, and pale often glaucous and 
rough-pubescent below ; and in the autumn they are membranaceous, scabrous on the upper surface, 
pubescent or puberulous on the lower surface, from three to four inches long and from an inch and a 
half to two inches wide, with thin midribs and from four to six pairs of slender primary veins nearly 
parallel with their sides, and stout grooved pubescent petioles usually about half an inch in length. 
The flowers are produced on slender pedicels in loose broad or narrow often paniculate pubescent cymes 
raised on peduncles frequently an inch in length j they are cream color, with an oblong cup-shaped 
obscurely toothed calyx covered with fine silky white hairs and narrow oblong acute corolla lobes about 
an eighth of an inch long and reflexed after the flowers open, elongated slender filaments with nodding 
anthers, and a columnar style thickened at the apex into the prominent stigma. The fruit is borne in 

1 The tree only twenty years old, cut by Mr. B, F, Bush near Natural History, New York, was forty-five feet high, with a trunk 
Columbia on the Brazos River in Texas in 1901 for the Jesup Col- seven inches in diameter, 
lection of North American Woods in the American Museum of 




loose spreading red-stemmed clusters, and ripens from the end of August until October ;.it is subglobose, 
white, tipped with the remnants of the style, and about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
nutlets, which are covered with a thin coat of dry bitter flesh, are full and rounded, broader than high, 
somewhat oblique, and slightly grooved on the edge.^ 

The wood of Cornus asperifolia is close-grained, hard, solid, and pale brown, with thick cream- 
colored sapwood. 

Cornus asperifolia is distributed from the northern shores of Lake Erie, where it is abundant 
on Point Pelee,^ to Minnesota,^ eastern Nebraska* and Kansas,^ and through Missouri and the Indian 
Territory to eastern Texas, and to Mississippi, Alabama,' South Carolina, and Florida. 

Cornus asperifolia, although it was discovered by the elder Michaux more than a century ago, is 
still rare in gardens. It was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum in 1884, and is perfectly hardy in 
eastern Massachusetts. 

^ The size and shape of the nutlet have been used to separate the 
trans-Mississippi plant as a variety of the eastern species (Coulter 
& Evans, Bot. Gazette, xv. 36). In Arkansas and Texas the nut 
is sometimes rather smaller and broader in proportion to its height 
than it is usually in the fruit of eastern plants, but the nuts vary so 
much in size and shape that it is hardly practicable to base varietal 
characters on them. 

2 Macoun, Cat Can. PI 191. 

^ MacMillan, Metaspermce of the Minnesota Valley, 400. 
^ Eessey, Bull Exper. Stat. Nebraska, iv. art. iv. 15. 
^ Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, plate xiii. 

6 Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 650 (Plant Life of 




Plate DCCIX- Cornus asperifolia 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A nutlet, enlarged. 




^ilva of T^optli America. 









/ ^ 


. I 







ivi 1 c nx 





Imp . <y. Taunez^LT^ Fari<r. 





Black Haw. 

Leaves elliptical-ovate or elliptical- obo vat e, their petioles winged. Winter-buds 

short-pointed, ferrugineo-tomentose. 

Viburnum rufidulum, Eafinesque, Alsograph. Am. 56 

Viburnum prunifolium, /3 ferrugineum, Torrey & 
Gray, M. N. Am. ii. 15 (not Viburnum ferrugineum, 
Rafinesque) (1841). 

Viburnum prunifolium, Chapman, M. 171 (not Linnteus) 
(1860) . — Sargent, Forest Trees JSf. Am. 10th Census 
U. S. ix. 94 (in part) ; Silva N. Am. v. 99 (in part), t, 
225, f. 11.— Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 156 
{Man. PI. W. Texas). 

Viburnum ferrugineum, Small, Mem. Torreij Bot. Club, 
iv. 123, t. 78 (not Rafinesque) (1894) ; Bull. Torrey Bot. 
' Club, xxi. 306. — Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, v. 

Viburnum rufotomentosum, Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Ghcb, xxiii. 410 (1896).— Britton & Brown, ///. Fl. iii. 
233, f. 3446. — Molir, Contrib. V. S. Nat. Serb. vi. 743 
{Plant Life of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 872. — Gat- 
tinger, Fl. Tennessee, 156. 

A tree, often forty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and 
short thick branches forming an open irregular head. The bark of the trunk is from one quarter 
to one haL£ of an inch in thickness and is separated into narrow rounded ridges divided by numerous 
cross fissures and roughened by small plate-like dark brown scales tinged with red. The branchlets 
are stout and marked by numerous small red-brown or orange lenticels, and when they first appear 
are more or less coated with ferrugineous tomentum, which also clothes the obtuse winter-buds, the 
wings of the petioles, and the lower surface of the unfolding leaves ; during their first winter they are 
ashy gray, dark dull red-brown in their second season, and then gradually grow darker. The leaves 
are eUiptical-ovate or elliptical-ob ovate, rounded, occasionally acute or obtuse at the short-pointed apex, 
rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, finely serrate, with slender apiculate straight or incurved teeth, 
coriaceous, dark green and very lustrous on the upper surface, and pale and dull on the lower surface ; 
they are usually about three inches long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half 
wide, with stout yellow midribs, numerous slender primary veins and reticulate veinlets more or less 
covered below throughout the season with the rufous tomentum which is also occasionally found on the 
upper side of the midribs and which is characteristic of this species ; they are borne on stout grooved 
petioles which vary from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and are margined with broad 
or narrow wings. The inflorescence buds are broadly ovate, full and rounded at the base, abruptly 
narrowed above and short-pointed and obtuse at the apex, compressed, often half an inch long and a 
third of an inch wide, with four pairs of boat-shaped scales coated on the outer surface with ferrugineous 
tomentmn. The flowers are produced in compound sessile or stalked three to five but usually four- 
rayed thick-stemmed ferrugineo-pubescent corymbs often five or six inches in diameter, with minute 
subulate bracts and bractlets. The calyx is obconic, with short rounded lobes, and the corolla is 
creamy white and often a quarter of an inch in diameter when expanded, with orbicular or oblong 
rounded lobes. The stamens with slender filaments and light yellow anthers, are exserted, and the 
style is thick, conical, and terminated by a broad stigma. The fruit ripens in October, and is borne in 
few-fruited drooping red-stemmed clusters ; it is oblong or slightly obovate, bright blue covered with a 
glaucous bloom, and about half an inch long. The stone is corneous, much compressed, and concave.* 

^ The description of Viburnum prunifolium in the fifth volume of tomentose covering of its winter-buds, the larger and more coria- 
this work was made to include this southern tree. The shape and ceous leaves with more or less broadly winged ferrugineo-tomentose 




Viburnum rufidulum inhabits dry upland woods and the margins of river bottom-lands, and is 
distributed from southwestern Virginia ^ and southern Illinois ^ to Hernando County, Florida, south- 
eastern Kansas,^ and the valley of the Guadaloupe River, Texas. One of the common and most beauti- 
ful of the small trees of the southern forests, which it enlivens in early spring with its great clusters of 
flowers and lustrous leaves. Viburnum rufidulum is most abundant, and attains its largest size in 
southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and eastern Texas. 

Viburnum rufidulum was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum from Missouri in 1883, and has 
proved perfectly hardy in eastern Massachusetts, 

petioles, tbe wider flower-clusters and the odor of the freshly cut 
wood which is similar to that of the wood of Viburnum Lentago, are 
now known to be constant characters, and make it desirable to 
treat Viburnum rufidulum as a species. The range of the two trees 
is quite different. Viburnum prunifolium is northern, reaching the 
southern limits of its range in the foothill region of western North 
Carolina and in central Missouri, and southward is entirely re- 
placed by Viburnum rufidulum^ which is the only arborescent Vi- 

burnum of the low country of the south Atlantic and eastern Gulf 
states, and of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, 
and southern Missouri. 

1 The Pinnacle, Lee County, J. K, Small, July 27, 1892, 

^ G. H, French, Jackson County, June, 1878. 

^ Vibwmum rufidulum has been collected in Cherokee County, 
Kansas, by G. L, Clothier and H. N, Whitford. (Teste Herb. 


Plate DCCX. Viburitom rufidulum, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

4. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

5. A stone, enlarged- ^ 

6- A winter branchlet;^ natural size. 

7- A winter branchlet of Viburnum jjrunifolium^ natural size^ 

■* ^ 








Silva of Nortli AmericsL. 













zjza/ j-c^. 



A.RLOcrezLoy direa>. 


I/np . J^. Tcboezu^ , I^arLr 



J ■ 

Flowers perfect ; calyx unequally 4 or 5-tootlied or lobed; corolla gamopetalous, 
4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation; stamens 4 ; ovary inferior, 2 -celled ; ovule 
solitary, pendulous. Fruit obpyramidal, 2-coccous ; seeds arillate. Leaves opposite or 
verticillate, petiolate, stipulate. 

Cephalanthus, Linnaeus, Qen. 61 (1737). — Adanson, Fam. Endlicher, Gen. 530. - Meisner, Gen. 170. — Bentham & 

Fl. ii. 147. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 209; M%m. Mus. Hooker, Gen. ii. ^O. — Ba^illon, Hist. Fl. vli. 494. — Schu- 

vi. 402. — A. Eichard, MSm. Soc. Nat. Faris, v. 155. — mann, Encfler & Frantl Pflanzenfam. iv. pt. iy. 59. 

Small trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or in verticils of threes, petiolate j stipules triangular or 
ovate, interpetiolar, deciduous, or persistent. Flowers nectariferous, yellow or creamy white, sessile in 
the axils of glandular bracts, in dense globose pedunculate terminal or axillary solitary or panicled 
heads. Receptacle globose, setose. Calyx-tube obpyramidal, the short limb unequally four or five- 
toothed or lobed. Corolla tubular funnel-form or saucer-shaped, divided into four or fiYQ short spreading 
or reflexed lobes, usually furnished with a minute dark gland at the base or on the side of each shius, 
glabrous or puberulous on the inner surface of the tube. Stamens four, inserted on the throat of the 
corolla ; filaments short ; anthers linear-oblong, sagittate, apiculate at the base, attached on the back 
below the middle, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Disk thin or obscure, or annular and 
fleshy. Ovary bicarpellate, two-celled ; style fihf orm, elongated ; stigma clavate, entire or slightly 
bilobed ; ovules sohtary, suspended from the apex of the cell on a short thickened papillose funicle, 
anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit obpyramidal, coriaceous, dicoccous. Seeds 
oblong, pendulous, covered at the apex by white spongy arils ; testa membranaceous. Embryo straight, 
in cartilaginous albumen ; cotyledons linear-oblong, obtuse ; radicle elongated, superior. 

Five species of Cephalanthus are now recognized. One is widely spread over the temperate and 
warmer parts of North America and reaches the Antilles ; three species occur in South America from 
Uruguay to eastern Peru ;^ and one species ^ is distributed from the Sikkim Himalaya to China and the 
Malay peninsula and archipelago. 

Only the North American species is known to possess useful properties. 

The generic name, from Ke^aX-q and av6os relates to the capitate inflorescence. 

1 Schumann, ilfarf^■«5 K. £rasz7. vi. pt. vi. 127. Cephalanthus aralioides, Zollinger, Syst. Verz. 61 (1854).— 

2 Cephalanthus ietrandrus. Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. ii. 152, 344. 

Nauclea tetrandra, Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ii. 125 (1824). Cephalanthus occidentalism Forhes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

Cephalanthus naudeoides, De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 539 (1830). — xxiii. 369 (not Linn^us) (1888). 

Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burm. ii. 68. — Hance, Jour. Bot. sx. 
6. — Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 24. 





Button Bush. 

Calyx usually 4-lobed ; corolla tubular funnel-form, usually glandular. Leaves 
ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, membranaceous. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Linnseus, S'pec. 95 (1753) . — 
Miller, Diet. ed. 8. — Du Roi, Harhk. Baumz. i. 145. — 
Waiigenheim, Beschreih. Nordam. Holz. 140 ; Nordam. 

Holz. 101. — Lamarck, Diet. i. 678 ; III. i. 256, t. 59. — 
Castiglioni, Viag. negli Stati Uniti, ii. 222. — Marshall, 
Arhust. Am. 30- — Walter, FL Car. 84. — Sclikuhrj Handh. 
i, 665 t. 21- — Willdenow, Bert Baumz. 58 ; Spec. L pt. 
ii. 543; Emmu 143. — Borkhausenj Handh. ForstboU ii, 
1563. — Giertner, Fruct. ii. 41, t. ^Q, f . 7. — Michaux, FL 
Bor.'Am. i. 87. — Persoon, Syn. i. 119. — Du Mont de 
Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, iv- 330. — Desfontaines, Hist. 
Arb. i. 331- — Pursli, FL Am. Sept L 114. — Bigelow, Fl. 
Boston. ZX — miioti, Sk. i- 186. — Nuttall, Gen. i- 92- — 
Mordant de Launay, Herb. Amat. iv. 272, t. 272. — 
Hayne, Bendr. FL 5. — Barton, FL Am. Sept. iii- 56, t. 
91- — Sprengel, Syst. i. 377- — De CandoUe, Proton iv- 
638. — Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i- 288- — Darlington, FL 
Cestr. 98. — Spacb, Hist Veg. viii- 463, — Torrey & Gray, 
FL N. Am. ii. 31- — Emerson, Trees Mass. 349 ; ed. 2, ii. 

394, t. — Torrey, FL N. Y. i. 313. — Dietrich, Syn. I 
452- — Chapman, FL 176. — Curtis, Rep. Geolog. Surv. i^. 
Car. 1860, iii. 107. — - K. Kocli, Dendr. ii, 76. — Lauche, 
Deutsche Dendr. ed. 2, 185, f- 66- — Gray, Syn. FL i. 
pt- ii. 29- — Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzk. i. 163. — Watson 
& Coulter, Qray^s Man. ed. 6, 224. — Britton & Brown, 
HL FL iii. 216, f- 3403-— Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat 
Herb. vi. 739 {Flant Life of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 
863- ' — Gattinger, FL Tennessee^ 156- 

Cephalanthus oppositifolius, Moench- Jf^iA. 487 (1794)- 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, var. pubescens, Rafinesque, 
Med. FL 101 (1828)- 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, var, macrophyllus, Rafi- 
nesque, Med. Fl. 101 (1828). 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, var. obtusifolius, Rafi- 
nesque, Med. FL 102 (1828). 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, yar. braohypodus, De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. iii. 539 (1830). 

Usually a shrub only a few feet highj or very rarely arborescent at the north/ Cephalanthus 
occidentalis in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas, on the margins of river-bottoms and swamps 
and in their pond holes, often attains a height of from forty to fifty feet with a straight tapering 
trunk a foot in diameter and frequently free of limbs for twenty feet, and ascending and spreading 
branches. The bark of large trunks is dark gray-brown or often nearly black and divided by deep 
fissures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into elongated narrow scales. The branchlets 
are stout, with a thick pith, and are glabrous, marked by large oblong pale lenticels, and developed 
mostly in verticils of threes from the axillary buds of one of the upper nodes, the end of the 
branch dying back, at the north at least, in the autumn ; ^ they are light green when they first 
appear, pale rr idish brown covered with a glaucous bloom during their first winter, when they are 
marked by the small semicircular leaf-scars, which show semilunate fibrovascular bundle-scars, and are 
connected by the stipule-scars or by the persistent black stipules ; during the following season the 
branchlets become darker and dark brown in their third year, when the fissures usually appear and the 
bark begins to separate into the large loose scales which are found on the large branches and on 
the stems of small plants. The axillary buds are single or in pairs or in threes one above the other, 
minute and nearly immersed in the bark. The leaves are ovate or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or 
short-pointed at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base, membranaceous, dark green on the upper 
surface, paler and glabrous or puberulous on the lower surface, from four to seven inches long and from 
an inch to three inches and a haH wide, with stout light yellow midribs, %\e or six pairs of slender 

1 Britton, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i. 54, f. 11. 

2 Foerste, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xx. 162 ; Bot. Gazette, xx. 79, t. 8, f. 1, c-g. 




primary veins nearly parallel with the sides of the leaf, and stout grooved glabrous or puberulous 
petioles from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are minute, nearly triangu- 
lar, deciduous, or persistent during the winter. The flower-heads are panieled and from an inch to an 
inch and a half in diameter. The creamy white flowers, which open from the middle of May in Florida 
and Texas to the middle of August in the Atlantic states and Canada, and on the mountains of 
Cahfornia, are very fragrant. The calyx is usually four but occasionally five-lohed, with short rounded 
lobes, and is slightly villose toward the base. The corolla is tubular funnel-form, puberiJous on the 
inner face, and glandular or eglandular. The anthers are nearly sessile, included, and discharge their 
pollen before the flowers open.-^ The disk is thin and obscure, and the style is elongated, with an entire 
stigma. The heads of fruity which ripen late in the autumn, are from five eighths to three quarters of 
an inch in diameter, green tinged with red, and ultimately dark red-brown. 

Cephalanthus ocddentalis grows in swamps and the low wet borders of ponds and streams, and 
ranges from New Brunswick to Ontario^ and eastern Nebraska^ and Kansas/ and southward to Florida, 
Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona- It is also widely distributed in California,^ and grows in Mexico ^ 
and CubaJ 

The bark of Oephalanthtis ocddentalis contains tannin, and, although its medical virtues are 
problematical, it has been often used in the treatment of fevers ^ and in homoeopathic practice.^ 

The earliest account of Cephalanthus ocddentalis was published by Plukenet in 1691,^^ Accord- 
ing to Alton it was cultivated in England by PhiKp Miller in 1735,^^ 

1 Cross fertilization of the flowers of CepJialanthxis ocddentalis is 
secured by the early maturity of the anthers. These discharge 
their pollen before the buds open In a conical mass on the imma- 
ture stigma, which later is carried by the lengthening of the style 
to a point high above the flowers where it must come in contact 
with insects which are attracted in great numbers to the flower- 
heads by their fragrance and by the abundant nectar in the bottom 
of the corollas, and which carry the pollen masses from the imma- 
ture stigma of one flower to the mature stigma of another, (See 
Kobertsouj BoL Gazette^ xvi. 65. — Blanchan, Nature^s Garden^ 

251, t,) 

Meehan believed that the early discharge of the pollen on to the 
stigma resulted in self-fertilization, but his own observations do 
not appear to support his theory, as he found that only one in five 
flowers of a head were fertilized, a fact which Robertson takes 
as presumptive evidence against self-fertilization, (See Meehan, 
Proc, Phil Acad, 1887, 327 [^Contnhutions to the Life History of 


2 Provaneher, Flore Canadienne, i. 291. — Brunet, Cat, Veg. Lig, 

Can. 34, — Macoun, Cat- Can, PL 199. 

^ Bessey, Bull Exper, Stat Nebraska, iv, art- iv, 22. 

^ Hitchcock, FL Kansas, plate xvi, 

^ Gray, Brewer ^ Watson Bot, Cal i, 282. — Eastwood, Bull 
Sierra Club, iv. 58. 

^ Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am, Cent, ii, 6, 

In southern Arizona and in Mexico the leaves of Cephalanthus 

ocddentalis are often much narrower than those usually produced 
by northern plants, although the leaves vary greatly everywhere on 
different individuals. The narrow-leaved Mexican form is 

Cephalanthus ocddentalis^ var, salicifolius^ Gray, Syn. Ft. N, Am. 

i. pt. ii, 29 (1884). 

Cephalanthus salidfolius^ Humboldt & Bonpland, PL -Mquin, ii. 
63, t. 98 (1809), — Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 
Spec, iii. 381, — Kunth, Syn. PL jEquin. iii. 39. — De CandoUe, 
Prodr. iii. S39. — Dietrich, Syn, i, 452. — Hemsley, L c. 
^ Grisebach, Cat PI Cuba, 139, 

8 Rafinesque, Med. Ft, 100, t. 20. — GrifBth. Med, Bot, 356. — 
Johnson, Man, Med, Bot, N, Am. 168. — U. S, Dispens. ed. 16, 
1750. —Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat Med. 37. 

^ Millspaugh, Am. Med. PL in Somceopathic Remedies, i. 76, 

t. 76. 

^** Arbor Americana triphylla^ fructu Platani quodamviodo cemulantej 
Plukenet, Phyt, t. 77, f, 4 ; Almagest. BoL 47. 

Scahiosa dendroides Americana, ternis foliis circa caulem ambien^ 
tihus , Jiorihus ochroleucis, Plunkeuet, Almagest. Bat, 336. 

Platanocephalus tini foliis ex adverse ternis, Vaillaut, Mem, Acad. 
Sd. Paris, 1722, 191. 

Cephalanthus foliis temisy Linn£eus, Hort Cliff. 73. — Eoyen, Fl^ 
Leyd, Prodr, 187. 

Cephalanthus foliis oppodtis ^ ternis^ Clayton, Ft. Virgin, 15. 

CephalanthuSy Duhamel, Traiie des Arbres, i, 145, 

11 Hort. Kew. i. 132, ~ Loudon, Arb. BriL ii. 1061, f. 828, 829- 


Plate DCCXI. Cefhala:nthus occide^^talis- 

1. A flowering branchj natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower- 

3. A flower with bractlet, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged- 

5. A corolla laid open, enlarged- 

6- A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 
7, A head of fruit, natural size- 

8- A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10- A seed, rear view, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed cut at right angles with the back, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed cut parallel with the back, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 




;::3ilva of l^ortl:! America 

Tab . D C CXI . 





- / 


vne- so-. 

^ . liio or e-tta:^ i:2ire<z> 

- ' 


Imp . iJ.TaTzeur^ Pdrir 






Flowees perfect ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed or divided, the lobes imbricated in sestiva- 
tion ; petals 3 to 5, slightly imbricated or subvalvate in aestivation ; stamens 3 to 10 ; ovary 
superior, 3 to 5-celled ; ovules numerous. Fruit capsular, sessile, or stipitate. Leaves 
alternate, membranaceous, destitute of stipules. 

EUiottia, Elliott, Sh. i. 448 (1817).— NuttaU, Gen. ii. Addi- Tripetaleia, Siebold & Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Munch. 
tions. — Endliclier, Gen. 756. — Meisner, Gen. 247.— iii. 731, t. 3, f. 2 (1843). — Drude, Engler & Prantl 

Bentham & Hooker, Gen. ii. 598. — Baillon, Hist. PI. FJlanzenfam. iv. pt. i. 33. 

xi. 175. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pjlanzenfam. iv. pt. 
i. 32. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with terete or angled branchlets, scaly buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves 
alternate, obovate or elliptical, entire, glandular-apiculate, membranaceous, petiolate, destitute of 
stipules, deciduous. Flowers white or rose-colored, pedicellate, in erect terminal elongated racemose 
panicles ; bracts and bractlets minute, caducous, or f oliaceous and persistent. Calyx four or five-lobed 
or divided. Petals three to ^\q, linear-oblong, sessile, equal or very unequal, revolute after anthesis. 
Stamens four to ten, hypogynous ; filaments flattened ; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the 
base, two-ceUed, the cells free at the apex, opening longitudinally from above downward. Disk thin 
or much thickened. Ovary sessile or stipitate, subglobose, three to five-lobed, concave at the apex ; 
style elongated, slender or thickened, curved or declinate, gradually enlarged and club-shaped above ; 
stigma three to five-lobed, smaller than the thickened end of the style ; ovules numerous in each cell, 
attached on the inner angle of a tumid placenta, ascending, auatropous. Fruit capsular, subglobose, 
depressed at the apex, sessile or stipitate, three to five-lobed, opening septicidally from above downward 
into three to ^yq valves free from the placentiferous axis. Seeds compressed, ovoid, or ellipsoidal ; 
testa cellulose ; embryo minute, clavate, two-lobed, in fleshy albumen.* 

Three species of EUiottia are now known. One, the type of the genus, inhabits the states of 
Georgia and South Carolina^ and the others are small shrubs of central and northern Japan.^ 

The genus commemorates in its name Stephen Elliott/ the distinguished author of the Sketch of 
the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia. . 

^ The three species of EUiottia were arranged by Bentham & 
Hooker in three sections : — 

1. Calyx four-toothed, short, cup-shaped. Petals four. Sta- 
mens twice as many as the petals. Ovary sessile. Bracts and 
bractlets minute, caducous, (EUiottia racemosa.') 

2. Calyx five-lobed, short, cup-shaped. Petals three to five. 
Stamens three to six. Ovary stipitate- Bracts linear, (EUiottia 

3, Calyx five-parted, the divisions linear-oblong, longer than 

the fruit- Petals three to five. Stamens as many as the petals. 

Ovary sessile. Bracts foliaceous, persistent- (EUiottia brae- 


^ Maximowicz, BuU, Acad. Sci. St, PHersbourg, xi. 433 (MeL 
Biol vi. 206); xvi. 401; xvui. 52 (MeL BioL viii, 621) (Tripe- 
taleia).-^ Frauchet & Savatier, Enum, PL Jap, i. 294. 

s See xi. 159- 



Calyx short, cupular, 4-tootlied ; petals 4 ; stamens 8 ; ovary sessile on a thick- 
ened disk. 


BUiottia racemosa, Elliott, Sh. i, 448 (1817). — Chapman, Fl 273.— BaiUon, Adansonia, i. 205. — Gray, Syn. Fl. 

N. Am. ii, pt i. 44. —Sargent, Garden and Forest, vii. 207, f. 37. 

A tree, fifteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk four or five inches in diameter covered with 
thin smooth light gray hark, and short ascending branches which form a narrow pyramidal head ; or 
more frequently shrubby. The branchlets are erect, slender, and terete, and when they first appear 
light red-brown and pilose; during their first winter they are bright orange-brown, lustrous and nearly 
glabrous, light brown slightly tinged with red during their second season, and dark gray-brown the 
following year. The terminal winter-buds are broadly ovate, acute, and about an eighth of an inch 
long, with much thickened bright chestnut-brown shining scales conspicuously white-pubescent near the 
margins toward the apex. The leaves are oblong or oblong-ovate, acute at the ends or occasionally 
rounded at the apex, membranaceous, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and villose 
on the lower surface particularly along the thin yellow midribs and obscure forked veins, from three to 
four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide ; they are borne on slender flattened 
viUose petioles from one third to one half of an inch in length, and abruptly enlarged at the base,- 
which nearly covers the small ovate compressed axillary buds ; these are rounded or short-pointed at 
the apex. The leaf-scars are slightly raised and oblong-obovate, with conspicuous central fibrovascular 
bundle-sears. The flowers, which are about half an inch long, open from the middle to the end of 
June, and are borne on slender elongated pedicels, in loose many-flowered racemose panicles from seven 
to ten inches in length, with acute scarious caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx is short, cup- 
shaped, dark red-brown, and pubernlous, with broad apiculate teeth erose on the margins. The four 
petals are spatulate-hnear and white. The eight stamens are shorter than the petals, with elongated 
broad flattened filaments and oblong-ovate anthers callous-mueronate at the tips of the spreading lobes. 
The ovary is sessile on a thick fleshy disk, four-celled, and abruptly narrowed into the slender elongated 
style, incurved at the apex, and the ovules are numerous in each cell. The fruit is still unknown. 

Elliottia racemosa, which is one of the rarest North American trees, inhabits sandy woods in a 
few isolated stations in the valley of the Savannah River near Augusta, and in Burke and Bullock 
counties, Georgia. It was discovered early in the nineteenth century near Waynesboro, Georgia, 
and was included, but without a description, by Muehlenberg in his Catalogus Plantarum Americce 
Septentrionalis pubHshed in 1813.^ 

Three or four plants taken from the woods near Augusta in 1875 by Asa Gray and planted in 
Mr. Berckmans's nursery in that city have grown into shapely trees and are still flourishing. There is 
only one other record ^ of the successful cifltivation of this plant. 

^Elliottia racemosa was discovered near Waynesboro, Barke Bloys, EuUoek County, Georgia, about forty miles south of Waynes- 
County, Georgia, perhaps by Stephen Elliott himself. Much later boro, (See Small, Jour. N. F, Bot Gard, ii. 113, — Harper, Plant 
it was found near Augusta, and in 1853 Mr. S. T- Olney collected Worlds v. 87, f . 12,) Elliott states that he had also received speci- 
it at Hamburg on the South Carolina side of the Savannah River mens of Elliottia from the Oconee [River], {Sk. i. 448,) 
opposite Augusta. No trace of Elliottia has been found in these ^ Muehlenberg states that a Mr- Oemler " had the shrub, once, 
stations by the botanists who have visited thern in recent years but in his garden," (See letter of April 20, 1813, to Baldwin in Reli- 
in June, 1901, Mr. R. M, Harper found a colony of the plants near 'quiw Baldwinianm^ 79.) 


Plate DCCXII- Elliottia eacemosa. 

1» A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A petal, enlarged- 

4. A stamen, front and rear views, enlarged, 
6, Portion of a style and stigma, enlarged. 
6. An ovary, enlarged- 

7- Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged- 
8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

^ t 




Silva of l^ortli Am 



Ta"b. DC C XII 



^ ^ .FoM^^rh de^ty. 




^..Riooreuay direa:> 


Imp, J'^Taneicr^ Par'if, 



. \ ■ \ 




Leaflets 5, ovate to oblong, mostly coarsely serrate, long-petiolulate. 

Fraxinus coriacea, Watson, Am. Nat.Vn. 302 (1873); Fraxinus pistacisefolia, Sargent, -Forest Trees i^. ^m.lOz;A 

Cat. PL Wheeler, 15. — Eothrock, Wheeler's Bep. vi. Cemsws C/". yS. ix. 106 (in part) (not Torrey) (1884). 

185, t. 22. — Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herh. iv. 148 Fraxinus velutina, Sargent, Silva N. Am. vi. 41 (in part) 

{Bot. Death Valley Exped.). (not Torrey) (1894). 

Fraxinus pistacisefolia, var. coriacea, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 

Am. ii. pt. i. 74 (1878).— Wenzig, Bot. Jahrh. iv. 182. 

A tree, occasionally thirty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to sixteen inches in diameter, 
stout spreading branches forming a round-topped head, and comparatively slender ashy gray branchlets 
which, tomentose when they first appear and coated with soft fine pubescence for one or tw;© years, 
are ultimately glabrous. The leaves are generally about six inches long, with stout grooved pubescent 
petioles, and usually five leaflets ; these are ovate or oblong, acute, acuminate or rounded at the apex, 
broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, coarsely repand-serrate, long-petiolulate, coated as they appear 
with long pale hairs, which are most abundant on the lower surface, and at maturity thick and firm in 
texture, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and glabrous or pubescent on the lower 
surface, from two to three inches long and from one to two inches wide. On leading shoots the 
leaves are sometimes reduced to single long-stalked leaflets, or are three-foliolate, with a large termi- 
nal leaflet and small lateral leaflets. The flowers, which appear about the middle of April with or 
before the unfolding leaves, are produced in short compact panicles, the males and females on different 
individuals from buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, covered by broadly ovate scales 
rounded and often short-pointed at the apex, and coated on the outer surface with rusty tomentum. 
The calyx is cup-shaped and larger and more deeply divided in the pistillate than in the staminate 
flower. The anthers are oblong and nearly sessile. The ovary is abruptly narrowed into the slender 
style slightly divided into two stigmatic lobes. The fruit ripens late in the season, and is borne in 
narrow clusters from two to three inches in length ; it is slender, oblong, from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch long, and the wing, which is rounded and often emarginate at the apex and about an eighth , 
of an inch wide, is about as long as the terete wingless body.^ 

Fraxinus coriacea inhabits the desert region of southern Utah, northern Arizona, southern 
Nevada, and southeastern California, and has been coflected in the neighborhood of St. George, Utah,^ 
at Ash Meadows, Nevada,^ in the Devil Run Canon, Arizona,* and on Cottonwood Creek on the west 
side of Owen's Lake, California.^ 

1 la the sixth volume of this work Fraxinus coriacea was con- 2 By Dr. Edward Palmer in 1876, and by J. W. Carpenter in 

sidered a form of Fraxinus velutina. It differs from that species 1898- 

in its fewer longer-stalked leaflets which are more coriaceous and ^ By Lieutenant Wheeler, U. S. A., in 1871, and by Dr* Freder- 

more coarsely serrate, and in its range, Fraxinus coriacea being a ick V. Coville on the Death Valley Expedition in 1891. 

tree of the mesas and low plains, while Fro^Jcinus velutina is an in- ^ By Dr, J. M. Bigelow of the Mexican Boundary Survey {teste 

habitant of mountain canons; and with our still slight knowledge of S. Watson), who was probably the discoverer of this tree. 

the southwestern species of Fraxinus it is perhaps best to consider ^ By Dr. Frederick V. Coville on the Death Valley Expedition 

it a species, ^ 1891. 



Plate DCCXIIL Fraxinits cokiacea. 

1, A branch with staminate flowers, natural size- 

2, A staminate flower, enlarged- 

3, A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size- 
4- A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

6- A fruiting branch, natural size, 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

7- A winter branchlet, natural size- 





Silva of IX^orth Am 


Tat. Dccxrii. 


C.S.I^cucoTV deL, 


trie^ jcy. 




Imp . ^ Tixneuj^, PctrLr. 



Pumpkin Ash. 

^ Leaflets 7 to 9, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, pubescent on the lower surface, 

Praxinus profunda, Bush, Garden and Forest, x. 515 Fraxiiras Americana, var. profunda, Bush, Rep. Mis- 
(1897). — Britton, Man. 725. souri Bot Qard. v. 147 (1894). 

A tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a slender trunk occasionally 
three feet in diameter above the much enlarged and buttressed base, and small spreading branches 
which form a narrow and rather open head ; or often much smaUer.^ The bark of the trunk varies 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and is light gray and divided by shallow 
fissures into broad flat or rounded ridges broken on the surface into thin closely appressed scales. The 
branchlets are stout, marked by large pale lenticels, and coated when they first appear with hoary 
tomentum ; they are tomentose or pubescent during their first winter, and light gray and pilose or 
glabrous the foUowmg year. The large oblong slightly raised leaf-scars are rounded at the base and 
obconic at the apex, which nearly incloses the small ovate obtuse lateral buds. The terminal buds are 
broadly ovate, obtuse, Hght reddish brown, and covered with close pale pubescence. The leaves vary 
from nine to eighteen inches in length, with stout tomentose petioles and usually seven but occasionally 
nine long-stalked leaflets ; these are lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or abruptly long-pointed 
at the apex, and rounded or broadly cuneate, and usually unsymraetrical at the base ; when they unfold 
they are coated on the lower surface, Hke their stalks, with hoary tomentum, and are pilose on the 
upper surface, with short pale hairs, particularly along the midribs and veins, and at maturity they are 
thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous above, soft-pubescent below, from 
^■VQ to ten inches long and from two to ^yq inches wide, with stout yellow midribs deeply impressed 
and puberulons above, and numerous slender primary veins arcuate and connected near the margins, 
which are undulate and entire or slightly serrate, with small remote teeth. The staminate and pistillate 
flowers are produced on different trees in elongated much-branched pubescent panicles, with oblong or 
oblong-obovate scarious bracts and bractlets. The staminate flower is composed of a minute eam- 
panulate obscurely four-toothed calyx and two or three stamens, with oblong apiculate anthers and 
comparatively long slender filaments. The calyx of the pistillate flower is large, deeply lobed, accrescent 
and persistent under the fruit, and the ovary is gradually contracted into the slender style which is 
divided into two dark spreading stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which is produced in long drooping 
many-fruited clusters, varies from two and a half to three inches in length ; it is oblong, with a 
wing which is often half an inch wide and sometimes falcate, rounded, apiculate or emarginate at the 
apex, and decurrent to below the middle or nearly to the base of the thick terete many-rayed body. 

Fraxinus profunda grows in deep river-swamps often inundated during several months of the 
year in Dunkin and New Madrid counties, southeastern Missouri, in Clay and Lincoln counties in eastern 
Arkansas, and on the lower Appalachicola River in western Florida.^ 



1 The tree cut by Mr. Bush near Varner, Lincoln County, Arkan- the ground. It was two hundred years old, with eighty-one layers 

sas, to obtain a specimen for the Jesup Collection of North Amer- of sapwood, which was four inches in thickness. 

ican Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New ^ }?raxinus profunda appears to have been first collected on the 

York, was one hundred and eighteen feet in height, with a trunk Appalachicola River on June 7, 1897, by F. Roth. It was found in 

thirty-three inches in diameter at three feet above the surface of the same locality by B. F. Bush in August of the same year, and 

in March, 1898, by Dr. A. W. Chapman and C. S. Sargent. 




This magnificent tree, which surpasses the other American species of this genus in the size of its 
leaves and fruit and in the size of the calyx of the pistillate flower, was discovered in September, 
1893, by Mr. B. F. Bush at CampbeU, Missouri.' 

^ The Ash-tree from the Atlantic coast, referred to this species Mr. Ashe has sent to me from the bottoms of the Cape Fear 
by Ashe {BoL Gazette, xxviii. 271), judging by the small fruiting Kiver, North Carolina, is probably Fraxinus Americana. 
calyx and the glabrous leaves of the fragmentary specimens which 


Plate DCCXIV. Feaxestus profunda. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size, 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size- 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

Plate DCCXV. Fbasinus profunda. 

1. A cluster of fruit, natural size- 

2- A leaf, natural size. 

3. A winter branchlet, natural size. 





Silva of Nortli Am 

















I ;■; ■? 





^?. ' ^ 


': ^-'tf.T 

I -L 








U S il 


A.Iiu)cre^ca> di^'Sd:' 

Imp, lJ., ParLr, 





Silva of "Noptli America. 






C. S.Fcucorv dei^. 

^rrullime^ sCf. 


<• h 

I ^ 


1 1 

A.Iiiocr'euay<£rea> . 



Imp. J'.Tanetu^ FarLp, 










Leaflets 7 to 9, ovateloblong or lanceolate, acuminate, pale and pubescent below, 

Fraxinus Biltmoreana, Beadle, Bot. Ga^Mte, xxv. 358 (1898). -Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat Herb. vi. 666 {Plant Life of 

Alabama). — Britton, Man. 725. 

A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk seldom more than a foot in diameter covered with 
dark gray slightly furrowed rough bark, and stout ascending or spreading branches which form an open 
symmetrical head. The branchlets are stout, light or dark gray, soft-pubescent usually during two 
seasons and much roughened during the winter, and often for two or three years, by the large elevated 
mostly obcordate or somethnes orbicular leaf-scars which display a marginal Kne of fibrovascular bundle- 
scars.' The terminal winter-buds are ovate and usually broader than they are long and covered with 
bright brown scales, the two outer scales being keeled on the back and apiculate at the apex, and the 
others rounded, accrescent, and slightly viUose. The leaves are from ten to twelve inches long, with 
stout pubescent or puberulous petioles and seven or nine leaflets raised on stout elongated pubescent 
petiolules ; the leaflets are ovate-oblong or lanceolate, often falcate, acuminate at the apex, rounded or 
broadly cuneate and often ineqmlateral at the base ; when they unfold they are yellow-bronze color, 
nearly glabrous above, coated below particularly on the midribs and veins with long white hairs, and at 
maturity they are from three to four inches long and from two thirds of an inch to an inch wide, thick 
and firm in texture, dark green and slightly lustrous on the upper surface, pale or glaucous and puberu- 
lous on the lower surface along the slender yellow midribs and primary veins which are arcuate near the 
slightly thickened and incurved entire or remotely and obscurely toothed margins. The flowers appear 
with the leaves about the first of May, the males and females on different trees in rather compact 
glabrous or pubescent panicles, with scarious caducous bracts and bractlets, from the axils of leaves of 
the previous year. The staminate flower is composed of a minute cup-shaped very obscurely dentate 
calyx and nearly sessile oblong acute anthers. The calyx of the pistillate flower is much larger and 
deeply lobed, and the oblong ovary is gradually narrowed into the slender style which is divided at the 
apex into two short stigmatlc lobes. The fruit, which is produced in elongated glabrous or puberulous 
clusters, is from an inch and a half to an inch and three quarters long, with a wing which is only 
slightly narrowed at the ends, emarginate at the apex, about a quarter of an inch wide, and from two 
and a half to three times longer than the short elhptical marginless many-nerved body. 

Fraxinus Biltmoreana inhabits the banks of streams and rarely low river benches, and is dis- 
tributed from northern West Virginia ^ through the foothill region of the Appalachian Mountains to 
northern Georgia ^ and Alabama,* and to middle Tennessee.^ It was first distinguished in 1893 by Mr. 
C. D, Beadle *^ in the neighborhood of Biltmore, North Carolina, where it is the common Ash-tree. 

^ Until the plants are about four years old their stems and 
branches are quite glabrous. The branches, which are developed 
later, are covered with the pubescence which is one of the best 
characters by which this tree can be distinguished from Fraxinus 

2 In 1897 Fraxinus Biltmoreana was found by Professor A. D. 
Hopkins near Easton, Monongalia County, West Virginia. , 

^ In Georgia Fraxinus Biltmoreana has been collected by J. K- 

Small near Tacoa, Habersham County, in August, 1895, and by 
C. L. Boynton on Little Stone Mountain, De Kalb County. 

* In Alabama Fraxinus Biltmoreana has been collected by T. G. 
Harbison in Marshall, Jackson, and De Kalb counties ; and near 
Gadsden, where this tree is common, by C. D. Beadle. 

^ In the Herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum there is an un- 
dated specimen of Fraxinus Biltmoreana collected by Dr. A. Gat- 
tinger at Nashville. 

6 See siii. 66. 


Plate DCCXVL FBAximjs Biltmoreaka. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A cluster of fruits, natural size. 

6- Vertical section of a fruit, natural size, 

7. A seed, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter branchlet, natural size. 


^ ' 

Silva of North America 





' . 


C U.Fa/z:^/?^ dely 

Jtapi^is^ J\Cy^ 



jl.IiioareucD' dire^D 

iTTip . J. Tcui^ez/j^^ Pari/p . 





Water Ash. 

Leaflets usually 3 to 5, oblong, acuminate, long-petiolulate. 

Fraxinus Floridana/ Frasiuus Caroliniana, Sargent, Silva N. Am. vi. 55 (in 

Fraxinus platycarpa, yar, Floridana, Wenzig, ^o^. JaAr6. part) (not Miller) (1894). 

iv. 185 (1883). 

A small Ash-tree which grows in ponds and deep river-swamps in eastern and western Florida 
and in southern Georgia and which has usually been considered a form of the Water Ash, Fraxinus 
CaroUniana varies constantly from that species in the form of the fruit. It is desirable that a plate of 
this second species of Water Ash should appear in a Silva of North America^ and although the foliage 
and winter-buds do not afford characters by which the two trees can be readily distinguished in the 
herbarium^ it is convenient to treat them as species rather than as varieties. The fruit of Fraxinus 
CaroUniana is elliptical or spatulate and frequently three-winged^ with thin wings which surround the 
short slender compressed body^ and are acute at the apex^ not much more than twice as long as they 
are wide^ usually narrowed below into a short stalk-hke base, many-nerved^ and marked by conspicuous 
deeply impressed midnerves. The fruit of Fraxinus Floridana^ as the second species must be called, 
is lanceolate or oblanceolate, rounded and emarginate at the gradually narrowed apex^ and about four 
times as long as it is wide, with rather obscure midveins. 

Fraxinus Floridana was described by Wenzig from specimens collected in Florida by Cabanis^ 
more than sixty years ago. It has been collected in recent years near Jacksonville/ Eustis/ and Appa- 
lachicola/ Florida^ and in Charlton County, southern Georgia.^ 

^ Jean Cabanis (March 8, 1816) was born in Berlin of a family 
of French Protestants which had emigrated to Germany during the 
reign of Louis XIV. He began his scientific career as assistant in 
the Zoological Museum at Berlin during the administration of Pro- 
fessor Lichtenstein and under his direction visited the United States 
to collect birds. He remained in America from 1839 to 1843 and 
made large ornithological collections in South Carolina, where he 
spent most of his time during his American visit, and in Florida, 
His small collection of American plants is preserved in the Botan- 
ical Museum at Berlin. Cabanis has been a prolific writer on sys- 
tematic ornithology. He contributed the account of the birds in 
the third volume of Schomburgk's work on Guiana, published in 
1848, and the OmitJiologiscke Notizen in Wiegmann's ArcTiiv fur 
Naturgeschichtey published in 1847, and with F, Heine was the 
author of Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Museum 

Heineanum, 1850--63, His most important work appeared in the 
Journal fur Omithologie^ of which he was the editor from 1853 to 

2 By A. H. Curtiss, No. 2321, 

^ By G, V, Nash, August, 1894, and distributed as Fraxinm 

^ By J, Roth, May, 1897, and by Chapman and Sargent, March, 

^ By J, K. Small, January, 1895, in the St, Mary's River Swamp 
below Traders' Hill, and distributed as Fraxinus epiptera. 

A specimen collected by Fendler at New Orleans in April, 1846 
(in herb, Engelmann), with partly grown fruit is perhaps of this 
species, as are possibly specimens distributed by Ashe as Fraxinus 
epiptera from Bladen County, North Carolina (Nos. 1860 and 


Plate DCCXVIL Frasinus Flokibana, 

1. A branch with starainate flowersj natural size. 

2. A staminate flowerj enlarged- 

3. A branch, with pistillate flowers^ natural slze- 

4. A pistillate flowerj enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

6- A fruit, natural size. 

7- A fruit, natural size. 

8. A fruit, natural size. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 



Silva of North America ; 






CZJ.I'^aazoTi. d-eZ. 

Jtcipine^ j'o 


4.Iiiocrezuz> direa:^^ 

Imp . c/ Tcbnezcr, Pctriip 



Red Elm. 

Flowers autumnal, long-pedicellate. Fruit ciliate on the margins. Leaves oblong 

to oblong-obovate, acuminate. Bud-scales glabrous. Branchlets often furnished with 
corky wings. 

Ulmus serotina, Sargent, ^0^. Gase^ie, xxvii. 92 (1899) . — Ulmus racemosa, Chapman, i?7. ed. 2, Suppl. 649 (not 
Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 474 {Plant Life of Borkliauseu nor Thomas) (1883) ; ed. 3, 444. — Sargent, 

Alabama). — Gattinger, Fl. Tennessee, 69. SUva N. Am, vii. 47 (in part). 

A tree, with a trunk forty or fifty feet in height, and from two to three feet in diameter, and 
comparatively small spreading or pendulous branches which often form a broad and handsome head. 
The bark of the trunk is from one quarter to three eighths of an inch in thickness, light brown slightly 
tinged with red, and divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into large 
thin closely appressed scales. The branchlets are slender and pendulous, and when they first appear 
are glabrous or occasionally puberulous ; during their first year they are light reddish brown, lustrous 
and marked by occasional oblong white lenticels, darker the following season, ultimately dark gray- 
brown, and often furnished with two or three thick corky wings which are developed during their 
second or third years. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, and a quarter of an inch long ; their outer 
scales are oblong-ob ovate, dark chestnut-brown, and glabrous, and the inner scales are accrescent, often 
scarious on the margins, rounded or acute at the apex, pale yeUow-green, lustrous, and sometimes 
three quarters of an inch long when fully grown. The leaves are oblong or oblong-ob ovate, acuminate 
at the apex, very oblique at the base, and coarsely and doubly crenulate-serrate ; when they unfold 
they are coated below with shining white hairs and puberulous above, and at maturity they are thin 

but firm in texture, yellow-green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and puberulous 
along the midribs and principal veins on the lower surface, from two to four inches long and from an 
inch to an inch and three quarters wide, with prominent yellow midribs and about twenty pairs of 
primary veins extending obliquely to the points of the principal teeth and often forked near the margin 
of the leaf, and numerous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout petioles about a quarter of an 
inch long, and in the autumn turn clear orange-yellow before falHng. The stipules are abruptly 
narrowed from broad clasping bases, linear-lanceolate, usually about a quarter of an inch long, and 
persistent until the leaves are nearly fully grown. The inflorescence buds appear early in the season 


in the axils of leaves of the year, and the flowers open in September ; they are borne on slender 
conspicuously jointed pedicels often an eighth of an inch long, in many-flowered glabrous racemes from 
an inch to an inch and a half in length. The calyx is six-parted to the base, with oblong-ob ovate 
reddish brown divisions rounded at the apex. The ovary is sessile, narrowed below, and viUose. The 

■ ■ ■ ^ 

fruit ripens early in November, and is stipitate, oblong-elHptieal, deeply divided at the apex, fringed on 
the margins with long silvery white hairs, and about half an inch long. 

Uhnus serotina inhabits limestone hills and river banks from central Tennessee to northern Ala- 
bama and northeastern Georgia.^ 

^ Ulmus serotina was collected by Rugel (see ix. 110) on the its autumnal flowers, it was referred by bim to Uhnus racemosa. 

French Broad River near the boundary between North Carolina It was distributed without flowers or fruit as Ulmus racemosa from 

and Tennessee in October, 1842; it was found near Nashville by the Biltmore herbarium (No, 3634b) from collections made at Nash- 

Dr, A, Gattinger as early at least as 1879, and, although he noticed ville in 1897. On the 9th of October, 1898, a single large tree 


The wood of Ulmus serotina is hard, close-grained, very strong and tough, and susceptible of 
receiving a beautiful polish : it contains numerous obscure meduUary rays and bands of one or two 
layers of small open ducts marking the layers of annual growth, and is light red-brown, with pale yellow 

sap wood. ■' 

Ulmus serotina has been occasionally planted as a shade tree in the streets of Huntsville, 

Alabama, and Eome, Georgia, where it is distinguished by its broad handsome head of pendulous 
branches. In 1899 young plants raised from seeds gathered at Huntsville the previous autumn were 
distributed from the Biltmore nurseries. The hardiness of this handsome and distinct tree has not yet 
been sufficiently tested in the northern states. 


covered with fruit was seen by John Muir, W. M, Canby, and C- nessee, and the Ulmus racemosa for middle Tennessee of Sargent's 

S. Sargent close to the highroad which leads eastward from Hunts- Silva. 

ville, Alabama, across the ridge known as Monte Sano. Subse- ^ The specimen of Ulmus serotina in the Jesup Collection of 

quently it was found to be abundant on the hills near Huntsville North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural His- 

and on those in the neighborhood of Rome, Georgia, by Mr. C. L. tory, New York, is seventeen and a quarter inches in diameter 

Boynton of the Biltmore herbarium. It is the Ulmus racemosa inside the bark and one hundred and twenty-eight years old, with 

of Chapman's Flora so far as relates to the river banks of Ten- twelve layers of sapwood, which is three quarters of an inch in 



Plate DCCXVIII. Ulmus serotina. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size, 

2. A flower, enlarged- 

3- A pistilj enlarged- 

4- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

6. A seed, enlarged, 

7. An embryo, enlarged- 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size, 

9. Portion of a branchlet with corky wings, natural size. 



ilva of Nortli America 





i . 

. / 








vrte^ sa 



ji^TUoareii^ dire<z^. 

Jmp . J. Taziezir^ Tcur^s- 



Bitter Pecan. 

Leaflets 7 to 11, lanceolate, often falcate. Fruit 4-winged to the base ; nut oblong, 

compressed, thin-shelled ; seed deeply penetrated by the folds of the inner wall of the 

Hicoria Texana, Le Conte, Proo. PhU. Acad. 1853, Carya Texaoia, C. de Candolle, Ann. Sol Nat. s^r. 4, xviii. 
402, f. — Bntton, Bull Torrey Bot. Club, xy. 282. 33 (1862) ; Prodr. xyi. pt. ii. 145. 

A tree, on rich river-bottoms sometimes a hundred feet in height, with a tall straight trunk three 
feet in diameter and ascending branches, and on the borders of prairies in low wet woods usually from 
fifteen to twenty-five feet taU, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, and small spreading 
branches which form a narrow round-topped head. The bark of the trunk is from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in thickness, light reddish brown, and roughened by closely appressed variously 
shaped plate-like scales. The branchlets are slender, and when they first appear are coated with thick 
hoary tomentum which is sometimes persistent until the autumn, and during their first winter they are 
bright red-brown and marked by occasional large pale lenticels, darker in their second season, and 
dark or light gray-brown in their third year. The scales of the winter-buds are valvate and covered 
with hght yellow articulate hairs. The terminal buds are oblong, acute or acuminate, somewhat 
compressed, about a quarter of an inch long, and rather longer than the upper lateral buds ; these are 
usually stalked and two or three times as large as the lower lateral buds, which are nearly surrounded 
by the thin membranaceous border of the large concave obcordate leaf-scars. The leaves are ten or 
twelve inches long, with from seven to eleven leaflets and slender petioles which are slightly flattened 
and grooved on the upper side toward the base, thickly coated at first with hoary tomentum, and 
more or less villose in the autumn. The leaflets are lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, and finely 
serrate, with minute straight or incurved remote teeth, except on the upper side below the middle, 
which is entbe. The terminal leaflet is gradually narrowed and acute at the base and short-stalked, 
and the lateral leaflets are often falcate, rounded or sometimes broadly cuneafce on one side and 
narrowly cuneate on the other at the unsymmetrical base, and subsessile or short-stalked ; when they 
unfold the leaflets are puberulous above and tomentose below, and at maturity they are thin and firm in 
texture, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green and puberulous 
on the lower surface, from thi-ee to five inches long and about an inch and a half wide, with slender 
yellow midribs rounded and usually puberulous on the upper side toward the base, and numerous 
slender forked primary veins arcuate and united near the margin of the leaf, and connected by thin 
straight veinlets. The staminate flowers open about the first of May when the leaves are nearly a 
third grown, and are produced in slender villose aments from two to three inches long from buds 
formed in the axils of leaves of the previous year. The perianth is light yellow-green, and villose on 
the outer surface, with oblong-ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the ovate acuminate bract. The 
pistillate flowers are oblong, slightly four-angled, and villose, with an ovate bract, broadly ovate bractlets, 
and an ovate acute calyx-lobe. The fruit is produced in few-fruited clusters, and is oblong or oblono- 
obovate, acute at the ends, apiculate at the apex, slightly four-winged at the base, dark brown more or 
less covered with articulate hairs, and from an inch and a half to two inches long, with a thin four- 
valved husk. The nut is oblong-ovate or oblong-ob ovate, compressed, acute at the ends, short-pointed 
at the apex, apiculate at the base, obscurely four-angled, bright red-brown, rough and pitted, and 




usually from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long, with a thin brittle shell, thin papery 
walls, and a low basal ventral partition. The seed is bitter, bright red-brown, flattened, two-lobed at 
the apex, with lobes about as long as the short point of their connective^ rounded and sHghtly divided 
at the base, obscurely grooved on the inner face, lobed by two longitudinal grooves on the outer face, 
and deeply penetrated by the prominent reticulated folds of the inner surface of the wall of the nut. 

Hicoria Texana grows on the bottom-lands of the streams and in the low wet woods bordering 
the prairies of eastern Texas, where it is common in the Gulf region for a distance of from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty miles from the coast. 

The wood is close-grained, tough and strong, and hght red-brown, with pale brown sapwood.^ The 
nuts are not eaten even by hogs, and remain on the ground through the winter. 

First made known by Le Conte^ from a tree cultivated in Georgia^ and afterwards collected by 
Charles Wright ^ in Texas in 1848 or 1849^ Hicoria Texana was confounded by American botanists 
with the allied Hicoria Pecan until Mr. B* F, Bush rediscovered it at Columbia on the Brazos River in 
1899j andj attracted by the peculiar flattened nutSj pointed out its true characters. 

1 The specimen cut by Mr. Bush for the Jesup Collection of 
North American Woods in the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, is twenty-six inches in diameter inside the bark 
and one hundred and twenty-three years old. The sapwood is four 
and five eighths inches in thickness, with fifty-three layers of 
annual growth, 

2 John Eatton Le Conte (February 22, 1784^November 21, 
1860) was born near Shrewsbury, New Jersey, of a Huguenot 
family, his ancestor William, who left Normandy on the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes, having settled in New Jersey about the 
year 1692, John Le Conte and his brother Louis became interested 
in the study of natural history, and as young men spent several 
years in Georgia, where they had charge of a plantation belonging 
to their father and where they established a botanical garden. In 

1817 John Le Conte entered the United States army as a captain 
of topographical engineers, and at the end of ten years received 
the brevet rank of major. His health having become seriously 
impaired during a military expedition to the St. John's River in 

Florida, he visited Paris in 1827, and five years later, resigning 
his commission in the army, settled in New York, where he re- 
mained until 1852, and then moved to Philadelphia, where he died. 
Le Conte published a number of papers on botany and zoology, 
principally in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New 
York and in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia^ Of his botanical papers the most important are on 
The Species of Paspalum of the United States, published in 1820, on 
Utricularia^ Gratiola, and Ruellia, published in 1824, on Tillandsia' 
and Viola, published in 1826, on Pancratium, published in 1828, on 
The Vines of North America, published in 1852-53^ on Magnolia 
pyramidata, published in 1854-55, and on Nicotiana^ published in 
1859. His large herbarium was presented to the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences in 1852, 

Leconiea, a genus of Madagascar Kubiacese, was dedicated by 
Achille Richard to this refined, scholarly, and liberal man. (See 
Asa Gray, Bot, Gazette^ viii, 197-) 

« Seei. 94. , 



Plate DCCXIX. Hicokia Texana. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A staminate flower, front view, enlarged- 

4. An anther, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower^ enlarged. 

6. End of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A nut, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

9. A young leaf, natural size- 

10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

Silva of Nortli Am 

eri c a . 









C SJ^Gucorv deZ^, 







Imp . tJ. Tojze^ir^ P/xpiaS' . 



Shagbark Hickory. 

Leaflets usually 5, lanceolate. Fruit subglobose ; nut ovate, compressed, angled, 
thin-shelled, nearly white or pale brown. 

Hicoria Carolin^-septentrionalis, Ashe, Notes on the Mohr, Contrih. U. S. Nat. Herh. vi. 463 {Plant Life 

Hickories of the United States (1896); Bull No. 6, of Alahama). — Bviiion, Man. 324. — Gattinger, Fl. 

North Carolina Geolog. 8urv. 20 ; Bot. Gazette, xxviii. Tennessee, 65. 
271. — Britton & Brown, III FL iii. 511, f. 1154 a.— 

A tree, on moist bottom-lands sometimes eighty feet in height, with a trunk from two to three feet 
in diameter, and short small branches which form a narrow oblong head, or on dry hillsides usually not 
more than twenty or thirty feet tall, with a trunk which generally does not exceed a foot in diameter.^ 
The bark of the trunk is Hght gray, from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness and separates 
freely into thick strips which are often a foot or more long and three or four inches wide and which do 
not fall for a long time, giving to the trunk the shaggy appearance of the northern Shagbark Hickory. 
The terminal winter-buds are ovate, gradually narrowed to the obtuse apex, and about a quarter of an 
inch long, with glabrous bright red-brown lustrous acute and apiculate strongly keeled spreading outer 
scales and accrescent obovate inner scales which when fully grown are bright yellow and sometimes 
two inches in length and long-pointed. The axillary buds are oblong, obtuse, and not more than a 
sixteenth of an inch long. The leaves vary from four to eight inches in length and are composed of 
slender glabrous nearly terete petioles, and usually five but occasionally three leaflets, the terminal short- 
stalked and the lateral sessile. The leaflets are lanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at the apex, 
gradually narrowed at the base, which is acuminate and symmetrical, or rounded on the upper side and 
unsymmetrical, and coarsely serrate, with incurved teeth which are ciliate on the margins with long 
white caducous hairs when the leaves unfold; at maturity the leaflets are thin, dark green on the 
upper surface, and pale yellow-green and lustrous on the lower surface, the three upper being three or 
four inches long, from an inch to an inch and a half wide, and about twice as large as those of the 
lower pair. In the autumn the leaves turn dull brown or yellow-brown some time before falling. The 
flowers appear from the middle to the end of April when the leaves are nearly fully grown. The stami- 
nate flowers are borne in ternate slightly villose pedunculate aments from the base of the shoots of the 
year ; they are pedicellate, glandular-hirsute on the outer surface, with four stamens, and are much 
shorter than their linear acuminate villose bracts. The pistillate flowers, which are produced in usually 
two-flowered spikes, are oblong and covered with clustered articulate golden hairs, and their bract is 
linear and ciliate on the margins. The fruit is broader than it is high, or short-oblong, and is slightly 
depressed at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide, dark red-brown, and 
roughened by small pale lenticels, with a husk which varies from one eighth to nearly three eighths of 
an inch in thickness and splits freely almost to the base. The nut is ovate, compressed, prominently 
four-angled, acute at the ends, nearly white or pale brown, and from three quarters of an inch to an 

inch long, with a thin sheD and a large sweet seed. 

Hicoria Carolince-septentrionalis grows on dry limestone hills and on river-bottoms, and is dis- 

^ According to Small (in liit.^ Hicoria CaroUncE-septentrionalis in and forms a trunk four feet in diameter. I have not seen such 
limestone soil on the bottoms of Chickamauga Creek near Chatta- specimens. Hicoria ovata and Hicoria laciniosa grow to a great size 
nooga, Tennessee, grows to a height of more than one hundred feet on the alluvial bottoms of this stream. 




tributed from southern Dakota and central North CaroHna to northern Georgia and through western 
North Carolina to eastern Tennessee and central Alabama. Very abundant in all this region, it is 
easily recognized by its slender branehlets and small buds, and in the autumn by the peculiar brown 
color which the leaves assume several weeks before falling and which makes it easy to distinguish this 

tree from a distance. 

The wood is hard, strong, very tough, and light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood.^ 
Probably long confounded with Hicoria ovata, the Shellbark Hickory of the north, which in the 

southern Appalachian foothill region grows usually only on bottom-lands, the characters of Hicoria 

CarolincB-sejptentrionalis were first pointed out by Mr. W. W. Ashe.^ 

1 Two trees of this species were cut near Rome, Georgia, by Mr. 
C. L. Boynton for the Jeaup Collection of North American Woods 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, in the 
autumn of 1898 ; one was fourteen inches in diameter inside the 
bark and one hundred and forty-six years old, with sapwood which 
was three inches thick and composed of thirty-one layers of annual 

growth ; the other was twenty and one quarter inches in diameter 
inside the bark and one hundred and ninety-four years old, with 
sapwood which was two and seven eighths inches in thickness and 
composed of sixty-eiglit layers of annual growth. 
2 See xiii, 149. 



1, A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. A staminate flower, side view, enlarged, 

3- A staminate flower seen from below, enlarged. 

4- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A nut, natural size. 

7. A nut, natural size. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 


Silva of North America.' 




C. E.Faayorv deZ^. 

Rcipiney so. _ 





A,Iiiocr3iJ/i> dire^32^\ 


Im^, J.TaJzeuj\ Paricr. 




Leaflets 5 to 9, lanceolate or oblanceolate, pubescent and coated on the lower 
surface while young with silvery peltate scales. Fruit subglobose or pyriform ; husks 
thin ; nut small, angled, thick-shelled. 

Hicoria villosa, Ashe, Bull Torrey Bot. Club, xxiv. 481 167, t. 355 (1895). — Ashe, Hickories of the United 

(1897) ; Bull. No. 6, North Carolina Oeolog. Surv. States. 

21. — Britton & Brown, IlL Fl. iii. 512, f. 1156 a. — Hicoria pallida, Ashe, Hickories of the United States 

Mohr, Contrih. U. S, Nat. Herb. vi. 462 (Flant Life of (1896) ; Garden and Forest, s. 304, f. 39. — Britton, 

Alabama). — Britton, Man. 325. Man. 325. 

Hicoria glabra, var. villosa, Sargent, Silva N. Am. vii. Hicoria villosa pallida, Britton & Brown, Ml. Fl. iii. 512 


A tree^ usually not more than eighteen or twenty but sometimes forty or fifty feet in height, "with 
a short trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and small branches, the upper ascending 
and forming a narrow oblong head and the lower pendulous. The bark of the trunk is from one half 
to three quarters of an inch in thickness, light gray or grayish brown, and irregularly divided by deep 
fissures into broad connected ridges covered with closely appressed scales. The branehlets are slender, 
coated when they first appear with pale tomentum or pubescence mixed with silvery peltate scales which 
also occur on the under surface of the leaves and on the staminate inflorescence ; during their first winter 
they are glabrous or puberulous, bright purpfish brown, and marked by occasional oblong light gray 
lenticels, and rather dark-colored the following year. The terminal buds are sessile or stalked, ovate, 
acute, and from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch long, with imbricated scales puberulous 
and more or less covered on the outer surface with yellow glands. The leaves vary from six to ten 
inches in length, and are composed of slender petioles which are pubescent in the spring and fur- 
nished with conspicuous tufts of pale or brownish hairs, and are glabrous or puberulous in the autumn, 
and of from five to nine but usually seven leaflets j these increase in size from the lowest to the upper 
pair, and are sessile or very short-stalked, lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate, gradually or abruptly 
narrowed, nearly symmetrical or unsymmetrical at the entire base, and coarsely serrate above, with remote 
glandular incurved teeth ; when they unfold they are covered with deciduous resinous globules, and on 
the lower surface with soft hairs and with the peltate silvery scales which are characteristic of this tree 
in early spring, and which soon become indistinct and often disappear by the time the leaves are fully 
grown ; at maturity they are dark green and glabrous above, pale or bright yellow below, the largest 
from four to five inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide and more than twice as large 
as those of the lowest pair, with stout midribs and slender primary veins pubescent or tomentose below. 
The staminate flowers are produced in ternate hairy catkins from five to seven inches in length, with 
large acute scarious bracts, and are villose on the outer surface, with hairy anthers and elongated linear 
acuminate villose bracts. The pistillate flowers are oblong, prominently four-ribbed, and coated with 
scurfy yellow pubescence, with a lanceolate acuminate bract much longer than the ovate acute bractlets 
and the calyx-lobe. The fruit varies from subglobose to pyriform and from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and three quarters in length, and is four-winged and more or less thickly covered with 
yellow scurfy scales, with a thin husk which splits to below the middle or nearly to the base. The nut 




is slightly angled, often somewhat compressed, narrowed at the ends, and pale or light brown, with a 

thick shell and small sweet seed.^ 

Eicoria viUosa inhabits sandy plains or sterile rocky ridges and is distributed from southern 
New Jersey^ to eastern Florida,^ and from the valley of the Meramec Kiver in Missouri to eastern 
Texas.* It is the common Hickory on the sandy soil of southern Delaware, where it sometimes begins 
to bear fruit when only a few feet high ; and it is very abundant in the foothill region of the southern 
Appalachian Mountains and in southern Missouri and Arkansas, where on the dry flinty soil of low 

hills it is often the only Hickory-tree. 

The wood of Eicoria viUosa is hard, tough, rather brittle, and dark red-brown, with thick nearly 

white sapwood.^ 

1 When the seventh volume of this work was published in 1895 
this Hickory had been recognized only on the hills near AUenton, 
Missouri. The silvery scales on the young leaves and branchlets, 
which make this tree so conspicuous in early spring, are less uotiee- 
able in the Allenton trees than on those in some other parts of the 
country, and they were thought to be a form of the Pignut, Hicoria 
glabra (see vii. 167, t. eclv.). Now that this Hickory is known to 
be widely distributed and common in many parts of the country 
and its characters are better understood, I follow Mr. W. W. 
Ashe, who first noticed it in the east, in considering it a well 
marked species. 

2 Hicoria villosa was found by Mr. W. M. Canby near Cape May 
Court House, New Jersey, July 3, 1899, and by W. M. Canby, 
John Muir, and C. S. Sargent, near Millsboroagh, Delaware, in 
October, 1898. 

3 Hicoria villosa was collected by A. H. Cm?tiss at Oak Hill, 
Volusia County, Florida, July 31, 1900. 

^ The most southern stations in the Piedmont region where I 
have seen Hicoria villosa are Birmingham and Tuscaloosa, Ala- 

5 Hicoria villosa was found near Houston, Texas, April 17, 1900 

by Mr. B. F. Bush. 

6 The specimen of Hicoria villosa cut near Biltraore, North Caro- 
lina, for the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, is nine inches 
in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and forty-two years 
old, with forty-eight layers of sapwood, which is an inch and seven 
eighths in thickness. 



Leaves oval to obovate-orbicular, 5 to 74obed, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface. 

Quercus eUipsoidalis, E. J. Hill, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 204, Quercus coccinea, Sargent, Silva N. Am. viii. 133 (in 
t 2, 3 (1899). - Britton, Man. 334. part) (not MuencliLausen), t. 413, f. 2 (1895). 

A tree, sixty or seventy feet in height, with a short trunk rarely three feet in diameter, and much 
forked branches which are ascending above and often pendulous low on the stem, and form a narrow 
oblong head. The bark of the trunk is comparatively thin, internally hght yellow, close, rather 
smooth, divided by shallow connected fissures into thin narrow plates, dark brown near the base, dull 
gray above, and on the large branches gray-brown and only slightly furrowed. The branchlets are 
slender, covered with matted pale hairs when they first appear, bright reddish brown, and marked 
by small dark lenticels during their first year, and dark gray -brown or reddish brown in their 
second season. The winter-buds are ovate, obtuse, or acute, sometimes slightly angled, and about an 
eighth of an inch long, with ovate or oval red-brown lustrous slightly puberulous outer scales ciliate 
on the margins. The leaves vary from oval to obovate-orbicular in outline, and are truncate or 
broadly cuneate at the base, and deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into five or 
seven oblong lobes repandly dentate at the apex, with slender bristle-pointed teeth, or often, particularly 
those of the upper lateral pair, repandly lobulate; when they unfold they are slightly tinged with red 
and coated with thick hoary tomentum, and soon becoming glabrous with the exception of smaU tufts 
of pale hairs in the axils of the principal veins, at maturity they are thin and firm, bright green and 
lustrous on the upper surface, paler and sometimes entirely glabrous on the lower surface, from three 
to five inches long and from two inches and a half to four inches wide, with stout midribs and primary 
veins rounded on the upper side, and slender lateral veins connected by prominent reticulate veinlets ; 
they are borne on slender grooved glabrous or rarely puberulous petioles from an inch and a half to 
nearly two inches long, and late in the autumn before falHng turn yellow or pale brown more or less 
blotched with red or purple. The flowers open when the leaves are about one quarter grown, the 
staminate in puberulous aments from an inch and a half to two inches long, and the pistiUate on stout 
tomentose one to three-flowered peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is membranaceous, 
campanulate, usually tinged with red, from two to five-lobed or parted into oblong-ovate or rounded 
segments which are smooth or slightly villose, fringed at the apex with long twisted hairs, and about 
as long as the stamens. These are composed of short filaments and oblong anthers cordate at the base 
and blunt or emarginate and sometimes apiculate at the apex. The pistillate flower is red, with broad 
hairy oblong acute involucral scales, a four to seven-lobed tubular campanulate calyx ciliate on the 
margins, three spreading or recurved styles hairy near the base, and enlarged dark slightly two-lobed 
stigmas. The acorn, which ripens in the autumn of its second year, is short-stalked or nearly sessile, 
and solitary or in pairs, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch long ; the nut is eUipsoidal, 
varying from cylindrical to subglobose, chestnut-brown, often striate, and puberulous, with a thin shell 
lined with a thick coat of pale tomentum ; the cup, which incloses from one third to rather more than 
one half of the nut, is turbinate or cup-shaped, gradually narrowed at the base, thin, light red-brown 
and puberulous on the inner surface, and covered on the outer surface with narrow ovate obtuse or 
truncate brown pubescent closely appressed scales, and a thin hyaline deeply lobed margin. 


Mo- Ect Gar: Tjn 




Querms ellipsoidalis grows in the neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois,' and ranges to eastern Iowa 
and southeastern Minnesota.^ 

' This tree was first noticed in the suburbs of Chicago by Dr. E. 
J. Hill in the autumn of 1891 at Gardner's Park near the southern 
limits of the city. Here it grows on an ancient beach of Lake 
Michigan in thin sandy soil overlaying a heavy clay. South of the 
Calumet River, near Halsted Street, it spreads over an area of 
several acres, growing on clay soil with Quercus rubra, and it is 
common at Glenwood, where it is associated with Quercus coc- 
cinea and Quercus velutina, and where it grows also on clay soil. 

^ Quercus ellipsoidalis was collected by William D. Barnes in 
1895 at Big Kock, Scott County, Iowa. (See E. J. Hill, Bot. Ga- 

zette^ xxviii. 215.) 

s I first saw this Oak, which had been collected by Engelmann 
at the Falls of Minnehaha in September, 1878, at Brainerd on the 
Red River of the North, and near St. Paul, in September, 1882, 
At various times I have considered it an extreme form of both 
Quercus cocdnea and of Quercus velutina^ and as a possible natural 
hybrid between these species- Now that it is known to be much 
more generally distributed than I formerly supposed and to remain 
constant in its characters in widely separated regions, the idea of 

recent hybrid origin will have to be abandoned, and I am glad to 
follow Dr, Hill and consider it a species which possesses some of 
the characters of Quercus velutina, Quercus cocdnea^ and Quercus 
palustris. As Dr. Hill has pointed out, like Quercus palv^tris it has 
comparatively smooth bark, pendulous lower branches long-persist- 
ent on the trunk, and deeply lobed leaves. The dark color of the 
bark near the base of the trunk, the yellow color of the inner bark, 
the coarse-grained wood, the tufts of hairs in the axils of the leaves, 
and the dull color of the autumn foliage, suggest Quercus velutina. 
The bark, however, is much less rough and lighter colored than that 
of the Black Oak. The inner bark is of a lighter yellow color, and 
the winter-buds are much smaller and only slightly pubescent, not 
tomentose, and the fruits are of a different shape. From Quercus 
coccinea it differs in Its smooth bark, pubescent buds, in the autumn 
color of the leaves, in the shape of the fruit, and in the character of 

the cup-scales. 

A fruit of Quercus ellipsoidalis appears on the plate of Quercus 
coccinea in this work (viii. t. ccccxiii. f, 2). 


Plate DCCXXI- Quekcus ellipsoidalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

5. 6y and 7. Acorns, natural size. 




Silva of Nortli Am 



; r 








A , Hio or ez4/?y direa>. 


Irnp . J'. TaynezLT, J^arixr. 



L ■ 

Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak. 

Leaves oval to oblong, deeply 5 to 11-lobed, white-tomentose on the lower 

Quercus pagodsefolia, Ashe, Bot. Gazette, xxlv. 375 Quercus falcata, var. b pagod^efolia, Elliott, 8k. ii. 605 
(1897). — Mohr, Contrib. V. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 472 (1821). 

{Plant Life of Alabama). — -Qvitton, Man. 334. Quercus digitata pagod^folia, Ashe, ffandb. N. Car. 4.1 


A tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk four or five feet in 
diameter, and heavy branches which in the forest form a short narrow crown ; or when the tree has 
grown uncrowded on the bank of a river wide-spreading or ascending and forming a great open head. 
The bark of the trunk is an inch in thickness and is roughened by small rather closely appressed 
plate-like scales which are light gray or gray-brown. The branchlets are slender, coated when they 
first appear with thick hoary tomentum, tomentose or pubescent during their first winter, and dark 
reddish brown and puberulous during their second year. The winter-buds are ovoid, acute, often 
prominently four-angled, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with light red-brown puberulous 
scales sometimes ciliate at the apex. The leaves vary from oval to oblong and are gradually narrowed 
and cuneate or full and rounded or rarely truncate at the base, and deeply divided usually by wide 
sinuses rounded at the bottom into from five to eleven lobes ; these are acuminate, bristle-pointed, 
usually entire or rarely repandly dentate toward the apex, often falcate, and spread at right angles to 
the midrib or are pointed toward the apex of the leaf ; when they unfold the leaves are coated with 
pale tomentum which is thickest on the lower surface, and are dark red on the upper surface, and at 
maturity they are dark green and very lustrous above, pale and tomentose below, from six to eight 
inches long and five or six inches wide ; they are borne on stout pubescent or tomentose petioles from 
an inch and a half to two inches in length, with stout midribs rounded and usually puberulous on the 
upper side, slender primary veins arching to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets. 
The stipules are linear, viilose, and caducous. In the autumn the leaves often turn bright clear 
yellow before falling. The flowers appear with the unfolding of the leaves, the staminate in clustered 
slender viilose aments two or three inches long, and the pistillate on one to three-flowered tomentose 
peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is thin, scarious, pubescent on the outer surface, more 
or less deeply tinged with red, and divided into four or five rounded segments shorter than the 
stamens, which are four or five in number, with oblong emarginate yellow anthers. The involucral 
scales of the pistillate flower are coated with thick hoary tomentum and are about as long as the 
acute calyx-lobes ; the stigmas are elavate, slightly lobed at the apex, and dark red. The acorn ripens 
in the autumn of its second year and is short-stalked or nearly sessile ; the nut varies from short- 
ovate to subglobose, and is light yellow-brown, puberulous particularly toward the rounded apex, and 
about ^ve eighths of an inch in diameter, with a thin shell lined with pale tomentum tinged with 
red ; the cup, which incloses nearly one half of the nut, is flat on the bottom or slightly turbinate, 
with a thin somewhat lobed margin, and is glabrous on the inner surface and covered on the outer 
surface with oblong rather loosely imbricated scales which are rounded at the gradually narrowed apex 
and coated except on their dark margins with pale pubescence.^ 

1 I first saw this tree on the bottoms of the White River near eighth volume of this work published the following year under the 
Mt. Carrael, Illinois, in 1894, and allusion to it was made in the description of Quercus digitata, to which it is closely related. (See, 




Quercus pagodmfolia inhabits rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams, and is 
distributed from southeastern Virginia^ to northern Florida/ and through the Gulf states and 
Arkansas^ to southern Missouri^ western Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and Indiana, 
and is probably most abundant in the river-swamps of the Yazo basin and of eastern Arkansas, of 
which it is one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees. 

The wood of Quercus pagodmfolia is light reddish brown and unusually close-grained for that 
of one of the Black Oaks, with comparatively small open ducts and thin sapwood, and is valued by 

lumbermen almost as highly as white oak.^ 

Quercus pagodmfolia is one of the largest American Oaks; and few North American trees are 
more beautiful either in the dense forests which cover the alluvial bottom-lands of the Mississippi 
basin^ where its tall shafts tower high above its humbler companions, or on the banks of the Congaree 
or the Savannah, where its great branches spread far from the massive trunk and the ample leaves 
fluttering in the wind display first the dark green and then the silvery whiteness of their two surfaces. 

also, Ridgway, Proc. U, S. Nat Mus. v, 80 ; xvii, 413. — Garden 
and Forest, viil, 101, f. 16.) Later Mr, W- W. Ashe found this 
Oak-tree near Kaleigh, North Carolinaj and has shown that it is 
the Quercus falcataf y^t, pagodcsfoUaf of Elliott. The character of 
the bark and wood and the shape of the leaves with their silvery 
white lower surface serve to distinguish this tree from all the 
forms of Quercus digitata. That tree grows only on dry and usually 
sterile uplands, while Quercus pagodcefolia is a constant inhabitant 
of river-bottoms often inundated during several months of every 
year and of rich river banks, in all the great region which it is 
now known to inhabit, and I follow Mr. Ashe in considering it a 

^ Quercus pagodcefolia was collected near Virginia Beach, Vir- 
ginia, in May, 1900, by Mr. C. E. Faxon. 

^ Quercus pagodcefoUa was coUected by Mr- A, H. Curtiss near 
Chattahoochee, Florida, September, 1884. 

^ Quercus pagodcefolia was collected at Fulton, Arkansas, in May, 
1900, by Mr. B, R Bush (No. 243). 

* The specimen cut near Mt. Carmel, Illinois, by Dr, X Schneck 
for the Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York, is thirty-two inches in 
diameter inside the bark and one hundred and eight years old, with 
nine layers of sapwood, which is an inch and an eighth in thick- 


Plate DCCXXIL Quercus pagodj^folia, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A fraiting branch, natural size. 
5- A winter branchlet, natural size. 


. p 


Silva of North A 

m eric a. 







^. E. FcuzyoTV de^ly. 




A.Riocrezuc dire^z>. 

Imp . J, TojzBuf^ FcLpir, 






Red Birch. Black Birch, 

Strobiles cylindrical, erect, or spreading. Leaves ovate, acute, or acuminate, 
cuneate at the base. 

Betula Elenaica, Evans, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 481 (1899). 

A tree, from thirty to forty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to twenty inches in diameter 
covered with thin more or less furrowed very dark brown or nearly black bark, and wide-spreading 
branches. The branchlets, which are rather stout and marked by numerous small pale lenticels, are 
bright red-brown during two or three years, and then gradually become darker. The leaves are ovate, 
acute, or acuminate, broadly cuneate or somewhat rounded at the entire base, and irregularly, coarsely, 


and often doubly serrate above, with spreading teeth ; when they unfold they are puberulous on the 
upper surface and ciliate on the margins, with short soft white deciduous hairs, and in summer they are 
glabrous, dark dull green on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on the lower surface, from an inch 
and a half to two inches long and from an inch to an inch and three quarters wide, with slender 
yellow midribs, four pairs of thin primary veins, reticulate veinlets conspicuous on both surfaces, and 
slender petioles from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The scales of the staminate 
jElowers are ovate, acute and apiculate at the apex, puberulous on the outer surface, and dark red- 
brown.^ The pistillate aments are from one third to one half of an inch in length and about one 
sixteenth of an inch in width, and are borne on slender glandular pubescent peduncles from one haL£ to 
three quarters of an inch in length, and bibracteolate, with scarious caducous bractlets ; their scales 
are acuminate^ light green^ eiliate on the margins^ with long white hairs^ and strongly reflexed at the 
middle^ and the styles are bright red. The strobiles are cylindrical and about an inch long, and their 
scales are cuneate at the base^ longer than broad^ and ciliate on the margins with broad lateral lobes 
much shorter than the oblong-ovate terminal lobe which is narrowed and rounded at the apex. The 
nut is oval and somewhat narrower than its thin wing. 

Betula Kenaica inhabits the Kenai peninsula in the vicinity of Cook Inlet^ where it grows with 
Picea SitchensiSy and Kadiak Island. It was discovered during the summer of 1897 at Sunrise near 
the head of Turnagain Arm of Cook Inlet by Dr. Walter H. Evans/ and two years later it was distin- 
guished on Kadiak Island by Dr. F. V. Coville of the Harriman Alaska Expedition.^ , 

^ I have seen only young staminate aments of this tree collected 
when they were about an inch long and soon after the opening of 
the lowest flowers. 

2 Walter Harrison Evans (June 3, 1863) was born at Delphij 
Indiana, where he was educated in the common and high schools. 
In 1882 he entered Wabash College at Crawfordsvillej Indiana, 
Graduating in 1887, he took a post-graduate course in his college, 
becoming assistant to Dr. J, M. Coulter, at that time professor of 
botany, and receiving in 1890 the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 
In 1891-92 Dr. Evans made collections of Cacti in the region adjV 
cent to the boundary between the United States and Mexico for 
the Division of Botany of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, and since 1892 he has been the botanical editor of The 
Experiment Station Record published by that department. In 1897 
Dr, Evans was sent to Alaska as a special commissioner to inves- 
tigate the agricultural resources of the territory and to report on 

them to Congress. With Professor Coulter he has published A 
Revision of North American Cornacece in the fifteenth volume of 
The Botanical Gazette, and he is the author of a paper on The 
Effect of Copper Sulphate on Seed Germination in Bulletin No. 10 of 
the Division of Vegetable Pathology^ United States Department of 
Agriculture^ and of a number of miscellaneous papers. 

^ "I found Betula Kenaica abundant on a forested gravel point 
in Halibut Cove, Kachemak Bay, Cook Inlet, growing twenty-five 
to thirty-five feet high and a foot in diameter. There are a few 
trees still standing back of the village of Kadiak on Kadiak Island, 
and I found an abundance of them in one spot in the valley at 
the head of English or Woman's Bay, eight miles south of Kadiak 
village, the trees at this point having a maximum diameter of 
about one foot and a height of about twenty feet." (Coville, in 



Plate DCCXXIII. Betula Kenaica. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

2- A scale of the fruiting anient, enlarged- 

3- A nut, enlarged- 


' * 

Silva of North- America 







C . £ , ]^a,^:r^7V deL. 

£rrh.IIime^ j-c. 


A.Itu?cr-eua> direa:^. 






Canoe Birch. 

Leaves ovate, cordate at the base. 

Betula papyrifera, var. cordifolia, Fernald, Bhodora, iii. 

173 (1901). 
Betula cordifolia, Eegel, N'ouv. MSm. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 

xiii. 86, t. 12, f. 29-36 {Monograjphia Betulacearum) 


Betula alba, subsp. 6 cordifolia, Regel, Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. xsxviii. pt. ii. 401 {Gattungen Betula und Alnus 
[1865]) ; De Candolle Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 166. 

Betula papyrifera, yS minor. Gray, Man. ed. 5, 459 (in 

part) (not Tuckerman) (1867). 
Betula papyrifera, var. minor, "Watson & Coulter, Gray's 

Man. ed. 6, 472 (1890). — Sargent, Silva N. Am. ix. 

57. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. i. 509. — Britton, Man. 

Betula papyracea, a cordifolia, Dippel, Sandh. Lauhholzk. 

ii. 177 (1892). 

On the slopes of Mt. Katalidiii in Maine and on the "White Mountains of New Hampshire the 
Canoe Birch is usually not more than thirty or forty feet in height, and at the highest elevations 
which it reaches on these mountains it is reduced to a low shrub. The leaves of this mountain tree 


are cordate at the base, and farther north^ and in the northern Rocky Mountain region -where the 
Canoe Birch is not common; the leaves are sometimes cordate and sometimes wedge-shaped at the base. 
On plate ccccli, of this work the ordinary form of the Canoe Birch with leaves broadly cuneate at the 
base is figured^ and properly to illustrate this species a figure of this well-marked alpine^ northern and 
western form is needed. Except in the form of the leaves^ there seems to be no other constant 
characters by which the variety cordifolia can be separated from the typical Canoe Birch.^ 

^ A confusion which has existed in the name of this Birch is 
due to the fact that two plants have been confounded in the Betula 
papyracea, var. minoVy of Tuctermanj as shown by Mr. Fernald in 
his Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Mt. Katahdin (Rhodora, iii. 
173). Mr. Fernald identifies Tuckerman's specimens in Herb. Gray 
of Betula papyracea^ var, minor (^Am, Jour. Sci. xlv. 31 [1843]), 
with the plant which Kegel has called Betula alba, subsp. 8 tortuosa 

(Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxxviii. pt. ii. 404 \^Gattungen Betula und 
Alnus'] [1865] ; De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 168), an 01dVV"orld 
plant, while American botanists previously had considered the dwarf 
form of the Canoe Birch to be Tuckerman's plant. Kegel's name, 
cordifolia, therefore, based in part on specimens collected on Mt. 
Katahdin in 1846^ should be adopted for this variety. 


Plate DCCXXIV- Betula papykifeka^ var, coe^difolia, 

1. A flowering branchy natural size. 

2. A fruiting branchy natural size- 

3- A scale of a fruiting ament, enlarged- 
4, A nutlet, enlarged* 




Silva of 'Nortli Amenc 


Tat . D C CXXI V 





•m , 





C.E,Faaw7v del . 


so . 



AJUocreua:- dire^.'^ 


Imp. J.Ta7zezir,Farif 




Strobiles cylindrical, pendulous. Leaves ovate, acuminate, rounded or cordate at 
tlie broad base. 

Betula occidentalis, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 155 (in part) 8oc. Nat. Mosc. xxxviH. pt. ii. 400 (Gaftimgen Betula unci 

(1839).— Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 2, xv. 197 {Revisio ' Alnus) (in part) (1865) ; Be CandoUe Frodr. xvi. pt. ii. 

Betulacearum) (in part). — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 165 (in part). 

134. — Sargent, Bot. Ga&ette, xxxi. 237. Betula papyrifera, Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 436 (in part) 

Betula alba, subsp. 5 occidentalis, a typica, Kegel, Bull (1886). ~ Sargent, Silva N. Am. ix. 57 (in part). 

A tree, from one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk three or four 
feet in diameter, and comparatively small branches which while the tree is young are slightly ascending 
and form a narrow symmetrical pyramidal crown, and on old trees are often pendulous. The bark is 
thin, marked by large oblong horizontal dark-colored raised lenticels, light orange-brown, very lustrous, 
and separates freely into thin papery layers which disclose m falling the bright orange-yellow inner 
bark. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are pale orange-brown, more or less glandu- 
lar, and coated with long pale hairs ; during their first winter they are bright orange-brown marked by 
numerous minute pale lenticels, pubescent or puberulous, and nearly destitute of glands, and m their 
second year they are orange-brown, glabrous, very lustrous, and the lenticels begin to lengthen horizon- 
tally. The winter-buds are acute, bright orange-broAvn, and from one eighth to one quarter of an inch 
in length, and in expanding the inner scales, which are obovate or oblong, rounded at the apex, light 
yellow-brown, and scarious, sometimes become three quarters of an inch long. The leaves are ovate, 
acute, usually rounded but occasionally cordate or rarely cuneate at the broad base, and coarsely and 
generally doubly serrate, with straight or incurved glandular teeth; when they unfold they are light 
yellow-green covered with dark reddish resinous viscid glands and villose along the midribs and veins, 
with long white hairs which are most abundant on their lower side and in the axils of the primary veins, 
where they often form large tufts which are persistent during the summer ; at maturity they are thin 
but firm in texture, marked by the scars of the fallen glands, dull dark green on the upper surface, pale 
yellow-green on the lower surface, and puberulous on both sides of the stout yellow midribs and five or 
six pairs of slender primary veins, from three to four inches long and from an inch and a half to two 
inches wide ; they are borne on stout glandular grooved petioles at first tomentose, ultimately pubescent 
or puberulous, and about three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are oblong-ob ovate, rounded, 
or acute and apiculate at the apex, ciliate on the margins, with short white hairs, puberulous, glandular- 
viscid, about half an inch long and from an eighth to a quarter of an inch wide. During the winter the 
staminate aments are about three quarters of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with ovate 
scales rounded or abruptly narrowed and acute at the apex, puberulous on the outer surface, and ciliate 
on the margins, with long scattered pale hairs, and when they are fully grown and the flowers have 
opened in May they are from three to four inches long and about a quarter of an inch wide. The 
strobiles, which are produced on stout peduncles about three quarters of an inch long, are cylindrical, 
from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half in length and from a quarter to a half of an inch in 
thickness ; their scales are much longer than they are broad, gradually narrowed to the base, puberulous 
on the outer surface, and ciliate on the margins, with spreading lateral lobes, and an elongated terminal 




lobe rounded at the narrow apex. The nut is oval, about a sixteenth of an inch long, and nearly as 

wide as its wings.^ 

Betida oecidentalis inhabits the banks of streams and lakes in southwestern British Columbia and 

northwestern WashingtoUj and nowhere very common grows probably to its largest size on the alluvial 

banks of the lower Fraser River.^ 

Retida oecidentalis is one of the largest of all Birch-trees, and, with the exception of the Cotton- 
wood, it is the largest of the deciduous-leaved trees of northwestern North America. It was discovered 
on the shores of the Straits of Fuca by Dr. John Scouler^ between 1825 and 1827. In 1893 this tree 
was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum, where it has grown very rapidly and is perfectly hardy and 
where it already displays the orange-brown bark which best distinguishes it from the Canoe Birch of the 

^ In the ninth volume of this work published in 1896, while call- 
ing attention to the color of the bark of this tree, I considered it a 
western form oi Betula papyri/era. Since the publication of that 
volume I have had an opportunity to see this tree again on Van- 
couver Island and to compare the young plants in the Arnold Arbo- 
retum with plants of the Canoe Birch of the same age. These are 
so distinct in their bark, and in the color of the branchletSj which 
on the western tree are orange-brown and bright red-brown on the 
eastern tree, that it is not possible to consider them forms of the 

same species. 

From Betula papyri/era it can also be distinguished by the shape 
of the leaves, which are broad or rounded or on vigorous shoots 
slightly cordate, not cuneate at the base, and by the shorter and 
broader strobiles, with puberulous scales ciliate on the margins, the 
scales of Betula papyri/era being usually glabrous and destitute of 
marginal hairs, although on specimens which I collected several 
years ago on Prince Edward*s Island the scales are sometimes 


Betula oecidentalis was first described by Hooker from the speci- 
mens collected near the Straits of Fuca by Dr- Scouler, although 
with them he united a specimen collected by Douglas in the interior 
west of the Rocky Mountains. The tree from the Straits of Fuca 
appeared first in the description of Betula oecidentalis which was evi- 
dently drawn principally from the specimens of that tree and must 
therefore be considered the type of Hooker's species, while the 
second specimen included in this description appears to be one of 
the forms of Betula papyrif era. 

In the ninth volume of this work (65, t. ccccliii.) the half 
shrubby dark-barked Birch with spreading gracefully drooping 
stems which is common in eastern Washington and Oregon, and 
ranges as far south as Colorado, Utah, and northern California, was 
confounded with Betula oecidentalis of Hooter and was described 
and figured under that name. This plant was collected by Nuttall 

on the Sweet Water, one of the branches of the Platte, and was 
first described and figured by him as Betula occidentalism (See 
Sylva^ i. 23, t. 7.) Torrey in Fremont^s Report repeated this error. 
This same species was also described and figured in King's Report 
(v, 323, t, 35) as Betula oecidentalis by Watson, who repeated his 
error in The Botany of California^ and it is this plant which Is de- 
scribed and figured as Betula oecidentalis in the ninth volume of 
The Silva of North America, where an allusion only is made to the 
true Betula oecidentalis of the coast in a note under Betula papyrif- 


Nuttall found another small Birch in the Rocky Mountain region 
and on the plains of the Columbia which he described and figured 
as Betula rhomUfolia in the first volume of his Sylva published in 
1842. This plant, judging by one of NuttalFs original specimens 
in the Gray Herbarium, is the slender-fruited form of the plant 
described by Nuttall as Betula oecidentalis, which Is common in east- 
em Oregon and Washington and ranges eastward into Montana 
and Idaho. If the two forms, which seem to vary only in the thick- 
ness of the aments, really belong to one species this would have to 
bear Nuttall's name of Betula rhomUfolia had not Tausch four 
years earlier than Nuttall used that name for a European species. 
Some of the specimens of the tree called Betula oecidentalis by Nut- 
tall and Watson bear a strong resemblance to a fragmentary speci- 
men in the Gray Herbarium of the Asiatic Betula microphylla, Bunge, 
but the evidence of this specimen would hardly seem to warrant the 
adoption of Bunge's name for our tree, for which I have proposed 
the name of Betula fontinalis. (See Bot. Gazette, xxxi, 239-) 

2 The most eastern place from which I have seen a specimen of 
Betula oecidentalis is Donald on the Columbia Biver in British 
Columbia in about longitude IIS*^ west, where it was collected in 
1885 by Mr. John Macoun. 

3 Ix, 66. 


Plate DCCXXV. Betula occidektalis, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

3. A scale of a fruiting ament, enlarged. 
4- A scale of a fruiting ament, enlarged, 
6. A nut, enlarged. 



Silva of I^ortTi Ameri 


Tat. Dccxxv: 






kh 1 





.AJVx?cre-i/jz> direa>. 

Imp. iJ.Tane-ur^ larLr, 



White Birch. 

Strobiles cylindrical, pendulous. Leaves rhomboidal to deltoid, ovate, acumi- 

Betula Alaskana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxxi. 236 (April, tula und Alnus) (in part) (1865) ; Be Candolle Prodr. 

1901)* ■ svi. pt. ii. 164. 

Betula alba, subsp. verrucosa, var. resinifera, Kegel, Betula resinifera, Britton, Bidl. N. Y. Bot. Gard. ii. 165 

Bull Soc. Nat. Mosc. xsxviii. pt. ii. 398 {Gattungen B^ (not Eegel) (May, 1901). 

A tree, usually from thirty to forty but occasionally eighty feet in height, with a trunk from six 
to twelve inches in diameter, and slender erect and spreading or pendulous branches. The bark of the 
trunk, which is thin and marked by numerous elongated horizontal dark and only slightly raised lenti- 
cels, is dull, pale reddish brown or sometimes nearly white on the outer surface, light red on the inner 
surface, close and firm, and finally separable into thin plate-like scales. The branchlets are slender, 
glabrous, bright red-brown, more or less thickly covered during their first year with resinous glands 
which do not always entirely disappear until the second or third season, when the branchlets are lustrous 
and marked by numerous small pale lenticels. The winter-buds are ovate, obtuse at the gradually nar- 
rowed apex, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with light red-brown and shining outer scales 
sometimes ciliate on the margins, with long white hairs, and oblong rounded scarious inner scales 
which are hardly more than half an inch long when fully grown. The leaves vary from rhomboidal to 
deltoid-ovate, and are acuminate and long-pointed at the apex, truncate, rounded or broadly cuneate or 
on leading shoots occasionally cordate at the entire base, and coarsely and often doubly glandular-serrate 
above ; when they unfold they are yellow-green and covered with resinous glands, lustrous and villose 
above, with long scattered pale hairs, and slightly puberulous below ; and at maturity they are thin, 
dark green on the upper surface, pale and yellow-green on the lower surface, from an inch and a half 
to three inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with slender midribs and primary 
veins pubescent or ultimately glabrous below, and slender often bright red petioles which are at first 
somewhat hairy but finally glabrous and about an inch in length. The stipules are oblong, gradually 
narrowed and rounded at the ends, and villose particularly toward the margins. The aments of 
staminate flowers are clustered, sessile, about an inch long, and an eighth of an inch thick, and their 
scales are ovate, acuminate, puberulous on the outer surface, and light red with yellow margins. The 
pistillate aments are slender, cylindrical, glandular, about an inch long and an eighth of an inch 
thick, and are raised on stout peduncles nearly half an inch in length. The strobiles are cylindrical, 
spreading, or pendulous, from an inch to an inch and a quarter long, and from one third to one half 
of an inch thick ; and their scales are almost as long as they are broad and ciliate on the margins, 
with erect and acute or spreading and rounded lateral lobes, much shorter than the elongated acute or 
acuminate terminal lobe. The nut is oval and narrower than its broad wing.* 

Betula Alaskana is distributed from the valley of the Saskatchewan from about longitude 106° 

^ In 1858 Bourgeau collected specimens of this tree on the Sas- be unlike any of the Asiatic species, and with the scanty know- 

katchewan (teste Herb. Gray). These specimens were referred by ledge which now exists of many of the northern Asiatic Birches it 

Kegel to one of bis varieties of the Old World, Betula alha from does not seem possible to unite American and Asiatic forms until 

Udskai in eastern Siberia and from Transbaical, but the Alaskan a thorough study of them can be made in the forest and the difEer- 

specimens which I have sent to the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. ent species can be cultivated side by side. 
Petersburg are pronounced by the botanist of that establishment to 




west^ northwestward to the coast of Alaska, along which it extends from the Lynn CanaF to the 
shores of Cook Inlet.^ It is the common Birch-tree of the Yukon basin, where it grows sparingly 
near the banks of streams in forests of coniferous trees and in large numbers on sunny slopes and 


In 1898 Betula Alaskana was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum from seeds gathered near 


Skaguay^ Alaska. 

1 In July, 1876, Betula Alashana was collected at Prince Albert 
on the Saskatchewan in latitude 58^ north by Mr, John Macoun, 
In 1887 it was found by Dr. George M, Dawson on the Dease 
River and on the Lewis River "near the mountains." 

2 In August, 1897, Betula Alaskana was found at the foot of the 

White Pass above Skaguay at the head of the Lynn Canal, Alaska, 
by W. M. Canby, John Muir, and C. S. Sargent, 

^ During the summer of 1897 Betula Alaskana was found by Mr. 
W. H- Evans on the shores of Cook Inlet, 

^ Teste M- W. Gorman, in litt 


Plate DCCXXVI- Betula Alaskana. 

1- A flowering branch, natural size* 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A scale of a fruiting amentj enlarged. 

5. A nutlet, enlarged- 

6. A winter branchlet, natural size. 



I N 



■*■ " 


SilvsL of Nortli America 

Tat , D C CXXVI 


'- J 




(i^ U,Fcia>orv dlreay . 

Za/-'taicc£ so. 



— O 

^. Riocrata^ dire^^ . 

--^7^. J^.Tan^ziT', Parur. 

• rV 






Leaves oyate, acute, sinuately lobed, doubly serrate, lustrous on tlie lower surface. 

Stamens 4. Nut broadly winged. 

r" _ 

Alnus Sitohensis. 

Alnus viridis, Bongard, Veg. Sitoha, 44 (not De CandoUe) 

(August, 1832) ; Mem. JPhys. Nat. Math. pt. ii. Acad. 

Sci. St. JPStershourg, ii. 162 (Veg. Sitcha). — IjyaM, tXour. 

Linn. Soc. vii. 134, — Rotlirock, Smithsonian M&p. 1867, 

454 {Fl. Alaska). — Macoun, Gat. Can. PI. 438. 

Alnus viridis, ^, Hooker, M Bor.-Am. ii. 157 (1839). 
Alnaster fruticosus, Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 655 (in part) 

Alnus viridis, /3 Sibirica, b Sitohensis, Eegel, Nouv. 

Mem. SoG. Nat. Mosc. xiii. 138 (Monograyphia Betula- 

cearum) (in part) (1861). 
Alnus viridis, S sinuata, Kegel, Bull. Soe. Nat. Mosc. 

xxxviii. pt. ii. 422 {Qattungen Betula und Alnus) (in 

part) (1866) ; De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 183 (in 

part) . 

Alnus viridis, ^ Sibirica, Eegel, Buss. Bendr. pt. i. 50. 

(in part) (1870). 
Alnus occidentalis, Dippel, Handh. Laubholzk. ii. 158, f. 

78 (1892). — Koehne, Deutsche Bendr. 114. 
Alnus rubra, Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. HerK iii. 345 

(not Bongard) (1895). 
Alnaster Alnobetula, F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrh. six. 405 {Fl. 

Chilcatgebietes) (not Schweinfurth) (1895). 
Alnus tenuifolia, Sargent. Silva N. Am. ix. 68 (in part) 

(not Nuttall) (1896). 
Alnus Alnobetula, Sargent, Silva N. Am. ix. 68 (in part) 

(not K. Koch) (1896). 
Alnus incana, var. virescens, Gorman, Pittonia, iii. 70 

(not Watson) (1896). 
Alnus sinuata, Eydberg, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxiv. 190 

(1897) ; Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i. 117 (Fl. Montana). 

A tree, sometimes forty feet in height, with a trunk seven or eight inches in diameter covered 
with thin close blue-gray bark which is bright red internally, and short slender nearly horizontal 
branches forming a narrow crown ; or often a shrub only a few feet tall spreading into broad thickets. 
The branchlets are slender and slightly zigzag, and when they first appear are puberulous and very 
glandular ; they are bright orange-brown, lustrous, and marked by numerous large pale lenticels during 


their first season, much roughened during their second year by large elevated crowded leaf-scars, and 
light gray-brown the following year. The winter-buds are acuminate, dark purple, covered, especially 
toward the apex, with close fine pubescence, and about half an inch long. The leaves are ovate, acute 
at the apex, full and rounded, often nnsymmetrical, and somewhat oblique or abruptly narrowed and 
cuneate at the base, divided into numerous short acute lateral lobes, and sharply and doubly serrate, 
with straight glandular teeth ; when they unfold they are glandular-viscid, and at maturity are 
membranaceous, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale and very lustrous on the lower surface, and 
glabrous or villose along the under side of the stout midribs, with short brown hairs which usually 
also form tufts in the axils of the numerous slender primary veins which extend obliquely to the points 
of the lobes ; they vary from three to six inches in length and from half an inch to four inches in 
width, and are borne on stout grooved petioles abruptly enlarged at the base, and from one half to 
three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are oblong or spatulate, rounded and apiculate at 
the apex, puberulous, and about a quarter of an inch long. The aments of staminate flowers are 
produced in pairs in the axil of the upper leaf, which is sometimes reduced to a small bract, and singly 
in the axil of the leaf next below it, and are nearly sessile ; appearing in summer, they are about 
half an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide during the winter, with dark red-brown shining 
apiculate puberulous scales, and when the flowers open in spring, or at midsummer at high elevations, 
when the leaves are nearly one third grown, they are four or five inches long, with a puberulous light 
red rachis and pedicels, and ovate acute apiculate three-flowered scales. The calyx is four-lobed with 




rounded lobes shorter than the four stamens. The pistillate aments are produced in elongated panicles, 
and are inclosed during the winter in buds formed the previous summer in the axils of the leaves o£ 
short lateral branchlets, and are long-pedunculate and about a third of an mch long and a sixteenth of 
an inch thick. The strobiles are raised on slender peduncles, and are borne in elongated sometimes 
leafy panicles from four to six inches in length ; they are oblong and from one half to live eighths of 
an inch in leno-th and about one third of an inch in thickness, with truncate scales thickened at the 
apex. The nuts are oval, and about as wide as their thin wings. 

Alnus Sitchensis is distributed along the northwest coast of North America from the borders of 
the Arctic Circle to Oregon ; it is common in the valley of the Yukon, and ranges eastward through 
British Columbia to Alberta, and through Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the 
Kocky Mountains. At the north, mingling with dwarf Willows, it forms great thickets,^ and in 
southeastern Alaska it often becomes a tall slender tree on the rich moist bottom-lands near the 


mouths of mountain streams, or, ascending nearly to the limit of tree-growth, at high elevations is 
reduced to a low shrub. In the valley of the Yukon it is very abundant on the wet banks of streams, 
where it is often arborescent in habit,^ and in British Columbia ^ and the United States it is generally 
small, growing usually only at elevations of more than three thousand feet above the level of the 
sea, and often forming thickets on the banks of streams and lakes.* 

Alnus Sitchensis, which was long confounded with Alnus Alnohetula, the Green Alder of the 
northeastern states and Europe, was found in 1827 on Baranoff Island in the neighborhood of the 
town of Sitka ^ by K. H. Mertens.^ 

1 Seemaun, Bot. Voy. Herald, 17, 41. See, also, Dall, Alaska and 
its Resources, 440. 


In the Gray Herbarium there are specimens of Alnus Sitchensis 
collected by John Muir at St. Michael on Norton Sound in 1881, 
and by M, W. Hasseyter on Popoff Island, one of the Shumagin 
group, in 1872. 

^ Gorman, in litL 

s Alnus Sitchensis was collected by Dr. George M. Dawson in 
1876 on the Iltasyonco branch of the upper Fraser River. It has 
also been collected by J. Macoun at Hector in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, at Lake Louise, and on Rogers Pass near Glacier, on the 
line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and oa Crow Mountain Pass, 


4 In 1883 Alnus Sitchensis was collected by W. M. Canby and 
C. S. Sargent near the head of the Jocko River in Montana, and 
in 1892 by J. H. Sandberg on Cedar Mountain, Lahat County, 

Idaho. In 1880 I found this Alder on Silver Peak near Yale, 
British Columbia, at elevations of forty-five hundred feet above the 
sea, and also on the banks of the Fraser in the same region. These 
specimens were after referred to Alnus tenuifolia, Nuttall, which 
does not approach the coast. In 1896 I found it on the banks of 
the Solduc River among the Olympic Mountains of Washington, 
on Mt. Hood, Oregon, at high elevations, on the Blue Mountains 
of eastern Washington, where it is very abundant, and on the shores 
of Avalanche Lake, Montana, at an elevation of four thousand feet 
above the sea-level, 

^ It is probable that Dr, John Richardson was the discoverer of 
this species during his journey with Captain John Franklin to the 
shores of the polar sea of North America during the years 1819- 
22, (See Franklin, Jour, Appx. No- 374, as Alnus glandulosa.') 
^ e See sii. 80. 


Plate DCCXXVIL Alnus Sitchensis, 

1. A flovi^ering branch, natural size. 

2- A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate fiowerj enlarged. 

4- A fruiting branchj natural size. 

5. A fruit-scale with its nuts, enlarged- 

6. A nut, enlarged. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 



va of .Nortli Am 









CI^.FaazoTV deZ 

Ha^ine^ sol. 



A . Hio or ezcz^ direa3- 


Imp. i7. Tartezir ^Pari^ 






Leaves ovate or lanceolate, acute, glaucous and conspicuously reticulate-veined on 
the lower surface. 

Salix balsamifora, Barratt, ex Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 
149 (1839) . — Bebb, Bot. Gazette, iv. 190 ; Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club, XV. 121, t. 81. — "Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 485. — Dippel, Handh. Lauhholzk. ii. 285, f. 
137. — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 97. — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, vi. 28, f. 5. — Rand, Garden and Forest, vi. 

105. — Britton & Brown, HI. FL i. 604, f. 1201. —Brit- 
ton, Man. 314. 

Salis cordata, /3 balsamifera, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 
149 (1839). 

Salix pyrifolia, Anderson, Svensk. Vetensh. Akad. Handl. 
ser. 4, vi. 162, t. 8, f . 93 (Monographia Salicum) (1867) ; 
De Candolle, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 254. 

Usually a shrub often making clumps of crowded slender erect stems, generally destitute of branches 
except near the top and only a few feet tall, Salix halsa'mifera in a hillside bog near Fort Kent on the 
St. John's River in Maine becomes arborescent in habit and, growing to a height of twenty-five feet, 
forms a trunk twelve or fourteen inches in diameter.^ The bark of the stem is thin, rather smooth, and 
of a dull gray color. The branchlets, which are comparatively stout, and glabrous during their first 
season, are reddish brown and lustrous or chestnut-colored when exposed to the sun, becoming olive- 
green the following year. The winter-buds are acute, much compressed, bright scarlet, very lustrous, 
and about a quarter of an inch long. The leaves are involute in the bud, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminaite at the apex, broad and rounded and usually subcordate at the base, finely serrate, 
with glandular teeth, and balsamic particularly while young ; when they unfold they are thin, pellucid, 
red, and coated on the lower surface with long slender caducous hairs, and at maturity they are thin 
but firm in texture, dark green above, pale and glaucous below, from two to four inches long and from 
an inch to an inch and a half wide, with stout yellow midribs raised and rounded on the upper side, 
thin primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout reddish or yellow petioles 
from one third to one half of an inch in length, which in falling leave narrow slightly raised leaf-scars 
marked by three conspicuous equidistant vascular bundle-scars. The stipules, which are often wanting, 
are sometimes produced on vigorous shoots and are foliaceons, broadly ovate, and acute. The aments 
are cyhndrical, from an inch to an inch and a half in length, with obovate acute rose-colored bracts 
coated with long white hairs, and are borne on slender leafy peduncles. There are two stamens with 
free filaments and reddish or ultimately yellow anthers. The ovary is narrow^ ovatej gradually con- 
tracted from above the middle to the apex which is crowned with nearly sessile emarginate stigmatic 
lobes. The scales are persistent on the fruiting aments which vary from two inches and a half to three 
inches in length. The capsules are ovate-conical, long-stalked, a quarter of an inch long, and dark 
orange color.^ . . 

^ See E. F, Williams, Rhodora, iii. 277- 

2 Bebb (BulL Torrey Bot. Cluhy xv. 124) proposes tbese varieties : 

" Typica. Leaves ovate, 2 to 3 inches long, sbort-pointed or the 
lower obtuse, rounded at base, at length rigid and glaucous beneath, 
■with raised reticulate veins, minutely glandular-serrulate ; fertile 
aments very loose, leaves of the peduncle few and large. This is 
the prevailing northern form. 

" Vegeta, Leaves broadly lanceolate, 4 to 5 inches long, acute or 
acuminate, truncate or cordate at the base, coarsely and irregularly 

repand-toothed, paler beneath ; aments less spreading, not so leafy 
at base, 

'* Lanceolata. Leaves lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, ^ to f inch 
wide ; aments more slender, otherwise as in/, typica. 

"Alpestris. Low bush, 2 to 4 feet high ; leaves small, 1 to 2 
inches long, lanceolate, pointed at both ends, rather coarsely and 
irregularly serrate, green both sides ; male ament slenderly cylin- 
drical, less silky. Eagle Lake, Mt, Lafayette, alt, 4,200 feet ; also 
on the coast of Labrador," 




8alix halsamifera is an inhabitant of cold wet bogs and is distributed from the coast of Labrador 
to northern Maine^ northern New Hampshire and New York/ and to the valley of the Saskatchewan/ 
northern Michigan/ and northern Minnesota. 

Salix halsamifera was first collected by Mr. Henry Little' in August, 1823, on the bank of the 
Ammonoosuc Eiver among the White Mountains of New Hampshire/ and was first distinguished by 

Joseph Barratt-^ 

In 1880 Salix halsamifera was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum, where it is perfectly hardy 
and one of the most beautiful of the shrubby Willows, particularly during the wmter, when the bright 
scarlet buds make the shining branches conspicuous- 

1 Salix halsamifera was collected on the shores of Lake Placid^ 
New York, by Mr. J. G-, Jack in August, 1894, 

^ Macoun, Cat Can. PL 445. 

^ Farwell, Garden and Forest, vi. 149. 

^ Henry Little (December 21, 1802-March 31, 1827) was the 
second child of Moses Little who was graduated from Harvard 
College in 1787, and studied medicine with Dr. Jonathan Swett of 
Newburyport. He married in 1799 Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Williams, a merchant of Salem, where he settled and became a 
prominent physician. He died in 1811 of pulmonary consumption, 
which proved fatal to his ten children. Henry Little was gradu- 
ated from the Harvard Medical School in 1825, and his interest in 
botany was no doubt due to an acquaintance with Dr. Jacob Bige- 
lowj who was connected with the school. He died during a voyage 
undertaken for his health. (See The Descendants of George Little 
who came to Massachusetts in 1640, No. 355, 94j by George Thomas 


^ Teste Bebb, Bot. Gazette, iv. 190- Mr. Little's White Moun- 
tain specimens were found by Bebb in the herbarium of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 

^ Joseph Barratt (January 7, 1797-June 25, 1882) was bom in 
Little Hallam, Derbyshire, England, and from 1825 to 1829 was 

professor of botany, chemistry, and mineralogy in the military 
academy at Middletown, Connecticut. He subsequently entered 
the Medical School of Yale College, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1834, and finally settled in Middletown, where he practiced 
medicine for many years and where he died. He had previously 
been a pupil of Torrey in the study of botany, devoting himself 
particularly to the genus Salix. In 1834 Dr. Barratt read before 
the Lyceum of Natural History of New York a Monograph of the 
North American Willows, which he proposed to illustrate with a 
figure of each species. The expense of this work caused it to be 
abandoned. In 1840 he published in Middletown the Salices Ameri- 
canm; North American Willows. In this paper twenty-nine species 
are arranged in eight sections. This arrangement, with Barratt's 
sectional characters, was adopted by Hooker in his Flora Boreali- 
Americana. This appears to be the only important botanical work 
accomplished by Dr. Barratt, although he made and distributed a 
large number of herbarium specimens of Willows. Later he de- 
voted attention to the geology of the region adjacent to Middletown 
and to the study of the languages of the American Indians. 
< Barrattia, established on a Texas Composite now referred to 
Enceliaj was dedicated to him by Asa Gray, who was his fellow- 
student under Torrey. 


Plate DCCXXVIII- Salix balsamifera. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2- A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3- A fruiting branch of the pistillate tree, natural size- 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A capsule, enlarged. 

7. A leafy branch, natural size. 




va of ^oTth America. - 



C^. _/ 'aauyrv d^ 




^ . Rio or eLLX> dir'e<i:> ^' 

Tr72p . J. Tane-ztr, Par 

If . 



Peltleaf Willow. 

Leaves usually elliptical-lanceolate and acute, covered below with a thick coat of 
matted lustrous snow-white hairs. 



Salix Alaxensis, Coville, Proe. Washington Acad. iScl ii. Aandl. xv. 119 {Bidr. Nordam. Pilarter) ; Proc. Am. 

280 (1900) ; iii. 311, t. 34 ; Bull. N. T. Bot. Gard. u. Acad. iv. 59. — Rothrock, Smithsonian Re'p. 1864, 454 

164. — Eastwood, Bot. Gazette, xxxiii. 133. {Fl. Alaska). 

Salix speciosa, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 130 Salix speciosa, /? Alaxensis, Andersson, De Candolle 

(not Host) (1832).— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 145.— ProcZr. xvi. pt. ii. 275 (1868). 

Ledebour, Fl. Hoss. iii. 625. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Her- Salix longistylis, Rydberg, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. ii. 163 

aid, 40, t. 10. — Andersson, Ofvers. VetensJc. Alcad. For- (1901). 

A tree, sometimes thirty feet in height, with a trunk from four to six inches in diameter, often 
shrubby and in the most exposed situations often not more than a foot or two high, with semiprostrate 
sterns.^ The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are coated with a thick covering of 
white matted hairs ; this gradually disappears and in their second season they are usually glabrous, 
dark purple, lustrous, marked by large elevated pale scattered lenticels, and much roughened by the 
large U-shaped scars left by the fallen petioles. The leaves are revolute in the bud, elliptical-lanceolate 
to obovate, acute or occasionally rounded at the apex, and gradually narrowed below into the short 
thick petioles ; when they unfold they are often glandular on the margins, coated above with thin pale 
deciduous tomentum, and covered below with a thick mass of snow-white lustrous matted hairs which 
remains on the mature leaves ; they are firm in texture^ entire and sometimes slightly revolute on 
the margins, often somewhat wrinkled by the reticulate veinlets, dull yellow-green on the upper surface, 
from two to four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with low broad yellow 
midribs and many obscure primary veins. The stipules are linear-lanceolate to filiform, entire, from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and usually persistent at least until midsummer. The 
flowers appear about the middle of June when the leaves are nearly half grown, and are produced on 
lateral branchlets whose leaves are well developed or often reduced to small hairy bracts ; they are 
borne in stout erect pedunculate tomentose amentsj those of the staminate plant varying from an inch 
to an inch and a half in length and being much shorter than those of the pistillate plant which at 
maturity are sometimes five inches long ; their scales are oblong-ovate, rounded at the apex, dark- 
colored, and coated with long silvery white soft hairs. The stamens are two in number, with slender 
elongated filaments. The ovary is ovate, acuminate, very short-stalked, covered with soft pale hairs, 
and gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style, crowned by the two-lobed stigmas. The 
capsule is nearly sessile, ovate^ acuminate, covered with close dense pale tomentum, and a quarter of an 

inch in length. 

Salix Alaxensis inhabits Alaska, where it is distributed along the coast from the northern part 
of the Alexander Archipelago to Cape Lisbourne, and in the interior to the valley of the Mackenzie 
Eiver and to the shores of Coronation Gulf.^ It has not been found on the wind-swept Aleutian 
Islands, but as far north as the eastern end of Kotzebue Sound it is said to sometimes grow to the 

^ The botanists of tbe Harriman Alaskan Expedition of 1899 covered with a growth of shrubs it had grown into a handsome 

. found Salix Alaxensis growing as an almost prostrate shrub on small tree. (See Coville, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci. ii. 281.) 
naked gravels at the Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay, while in the ^ gee Richardson, Arctic Searching Exped. ii. 313. 

same region and only a few miles distant on older gravel deposits 




height of twenty feet^ while at Cape Lisbourne it is a shrub not more than two feet tall.^ It attains 

^^ r 

its largest size from the Shumagin Islands eastward j and it is the only arborescent Willow in the 

coast region west and north of Kadiak Island.^ 

The wood of Salix Alaxensis has not been examined. It is often used as fuel by Indians and 

travelers on the headwaters of the Arctic rivers.^ 

jSalix Alaxensis, which is one of the most beautiful and distinct of the American Willows, was 
discovered on the shores of Kotzebue Sound during the summer of 1827 by the naturalists who 
accompanied Captain F. W. Beechej in the British ship Blossom on his voyage of discovery. 

^ See Seemaiin, Bot. Voy. Herald, 40. 

^ Dr. Frederick V, Covillej one of the botanists who accom- 
panied the Harriman Alaskan Expedition of 1899, obtained for the 
first time reliable information on the distribution of this Willow on 
the Alaskan coast, and established the fact that under favorable 

conditions it becomes truly arborescent in habit, (See Coville, 
Proc, Washington Acad, Sci. iL 280») Plate dccsxix. is made from 
drawings of specimens collected by Dr, Coville and preserved in 
the United States National Herbarium at Washington. 
3 Teste Coville, /. c- iii- 313, 


Plate DCCXXIX. Salis Alaxensis. 

1, A flowering brancli of the staminate tree, natural size- 
s' A staminate flower with its scale, enlarged- 

3. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

4. A pistillate flower with Its scale, enlarged- 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size- ^ ' 

6. A capsule, enlarged. 

7- A capsule with open valves, enlarged. 
8. A leafy branch, natural size. 

' . 

Silva of North Amen 














4 , 






ZartcLLui' j'O' 


h r 

A.Iiiocr&lz^i:> direa:> . 

^^^72^ . ^ Tan&u^ ^Pcwup 






Leaves oval to broadly obovate, nearly glabrous at maturity, glaucous on the lower 

Salix amplifolia, Coville, Froc. Washington Acad. Sd. ii. 282, t. 15 (1900) ; iii. 314, t. 35. 

A tree, occasionally twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diameter, often much smaller 
and sometimes shrubby. The branchlets are stout, conspicuously roughened by the large elevated 
U-shaped scars of fallen leaves, and marked by occasional pale lenticels ; when they first appear they 
are coated with thick villose pubescence which gradually disappears during their second and third 
seasons when the bark is of a dark dull red-purple color. The leaves are revolute in vernation, oval 
to broadly obovate, rounded or broadly acute at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed at the 
cuneate base, dentate-serrulate, particularly toward the base, or entire, densely villose above and below, 
with long matted white hairs, when they first appear, and at maturity glabrous or nearly glabrous, 
pale yellow-green on the upper surface, slightly glaucous on the lower surface, from two inches to two 
inches and a half in length and from an inch to an inch and a half in width, with short slender 
tomentose petioles, midribs broad and hoary toward the base of the leaf and thin and glabrous above 
the middle, and numerous thin arcuate primary veins. The stipules have not been seen. The flowers, 
which appear with the leaves from the middle to the twentieth of June, are produced on lateral leafy 
branchlets ; they are borne in stout pedunculate tomentose aments, those of the staminate plant varying 
from an inch and a haK to two inches in length, and shorter than those of the pistillate plant Avhich 
at maturity are about three inches long ; their scales are oblanceolate or lanceolate, dark brown or 
nearly black, and covered with long pale hairs. The stamens are tw^o in number, with slender elongated 
glabrous filaments. The ovary is ovate-lanceolate, short-stalked, glabrous or slightly pubescent, and 
gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style crowned with a two-lobed slender stigma. The 
capsule is ovoid-lanceolate, glabrous, short-stalked, and about a quarter of an inch in length. 

Salix amjylifolia inhabits the sand dunes which for a few miles skirt the beach on the west side 
of Yakutat Bay, Alaska, at the mouth of streams flowing from the glaciers of the St. Ehas Mountain 
range, where it grows with Salix Alaxensis, and where it was discovered by Dr. P. V. Coville^ on 
Jxme 22, 1899. It was also collected by Dr. Coville in Disenchantment Bay at Hubbard Glacier and 
on Haenke Island and Egg Island, and on the east shore at the head of Yakutat Bay. 

The wood of Salix am/plifolia has not been examined. 

1 Frederick Vernon Coville (March 23, 1867) was born on a 
farm in the township of Preston, Chenango County, New York, of 
a family of English and Scotch descent. In 1869, his father 
having moved to Oxford, New York, the son was educated in the 
academy of that town until his entrance at Cornell University, 
from which he was graduated in 1887. In the summer of that 
year Coville joined the Geological Survey of Arkansas as a volun- 
teer assistant, devoting his time to the study of the flora of the 
central and northern parts of that state. He was then instructor in 
botany at Cornell for one year, and in July, 1888, was appointed 
assistant botanist in the United States Department of Agriculture. 
In 1893, on the death of Dr. George Vasey, he was placed in 

charge of the division of botany of that department. Mr. Coville 
was botanist of the United States Death Valley Expedition of 
1891, and his important report, which greatly increased the know- 
ledge of the flora of southeastern California, forms the fourth vol- 
ume of the Contributions from the United States National Herbarium • 
in 1899 he was one of the botanists who accompanied the Harriman 
Alaskan Expedition. He is the author of several botanical and 
biographical papers published in the Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, in the Reports of the Department of Agri- 
culture, and in the Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sci- 
ence. In the last he has described in two papers the Willows of 



Plate DCCXXX. Salis amplifolia. 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower with its scale, enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of the pistillate tree, natural size. 

4. A pistillate flower with its scale, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 


6- A capsule, enlarged- 


Silva of Noptli Am 



-. ---'-'-■■^ 




^ ^. Faxzx?rb 

Jtapin^ j'O: 



^.Jtiocreuay dzre^c- 


Tmp . ^\ J^a^rLr. 







Leaves rhomboid-lanceolate, long-acuminate, green on both surfaces ; petioles 
slender, nearly terete. ^ 

Populus acuminata, Eydberg, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, sx. Sargent, Silva JSf. Am. ix. 172. — Britton & Brown, HI. 

46, 1. 149 (1893) ; Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 523. — Ft. i. 491, f. 1167. — Britton, Man. 309. 


A tree, sometimes fifty or sixty feet tall, with a trunk three feet in diameter, but usually not more 
than forty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter,^ and stout spreading 
and ascending branches which form a compact round-topped or pyramidal head. The bark of young 
stems and of the large branches is smooth and nearly white, and on old trunks it is pale gray-brown, 
about half an inch thick and deeply divided into broad flat ridges. The branehlets are slender, terete 
or slightly four-angled, pale yellow-brown, and roughened for two or three years by the elevated oval 
horizontal leaf-scars which contain three dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The winter-buds are resinous, 
acuminate, and about a third of an inch in length, with six or seven light chestnut-brown lustrous scales, 
the lateral buds being much flattened by pressure against the branch. The leaves, which are pendulous 
on slender nearly terete petioles from one to three inches in length, are rhomboid-lanceolate, abruptly 
acuminate, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate or concave-cuneate or rarely full and rounded 
at the mostly entire base, coarsely erenulate-serrate except near the apex, thick and leathery at maturity, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, dull green on the lower surface, from two to four inches 
long and from three quarters of an inch to two inches wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote 
primary veins and obscure reticulate veinlets. The stipules are ovate, acute and apiculate or acuminate 
at the apex, about an eighth of an inch long, and caducous. The aments of flowers, which appear before 
the leaves, are slender, short-stalked, and from two to three inches in length, with scarious light brown 
glabrous scales dilated and irregularly divided at the apex into filiEorm lobes, and caducous. The 
numerous stamens, with short filaments and dark red anthers, are inserted on a wide oblique membra- 
naceous disk. The ovary is broadly ovate, gradually narrowed to the apex, which is crowned with 
large laciniately lobed nearly sessile stigmas and inclosed nearly to the middle in the deep cup-shaped 
disk which is persistent under the fruit. The fruiting aments are four or five inches long and the 
capsules are pedicellate, oblong-ovate, acute, thin-walled, slightly pitted, about a third of an inch long, 
and three or occasionally two-valved. The seeds are oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, light brown, 
about one twelfth of an inch in length, and surrounded by long white hairs. 

Populus acwninata inhabits the banks of streams in the arid eastern foothiU region of the Eocky 
Mountains and, although probably nowhere common, is distributed from Assiniboia ^ to western Nebraska,^ 
eastern Wyoming,* and southern Colorado. Long confounded with Popidiis angtistifolia, it was first 
distinguished by Mr. P. A. Eydberg,^ who found in 1891 a number of trees of this Cottonwood in 
Carter Canon in Scott's Bluff County, northwestern Nebraska. 

^ The wood Specimen cut in nortliwestern Nebraska for the Jesnp ^ Bessey, Rep> Nebraska State Board Agric,^ 1894, 104; 1899, 

Collection of North American Woods in the American Museum of 85. 

Natural History, New York, is twelve and a half inches in diame- ^ See Nelson, BulL No. 40, Wyoming Exper, Stat- 92 (Trees of 

ter inside the bark and only twenty-eight years old. The sapwood Wyoming). 

is two and three eighths inches thick, with sixteen layers of annual ^ Per Axel Rydberg (July 7, 1860) was born in 0th Parish, 


Westergoethland, Sweden, and was the son of a farmer. At the 

^ Populus acuminata was collected by Mr, John Macoun at Leth- age of thirteen he was sent to the preparatory school of the Royal 
bridge, Assiniboia, June 5, 1894. Gymnasium at Skara, and in 1881 was graduated from the Gymna- 




Populus amminata is sometimes planted to shade the streets of Laramie^ Denver^ Colorado Springs^, 

and other cities in the region which it inhabits.^ 

Slum, He came to America in 1882, and from 1884 to 1890 and 
again from 1891 to 1893 was a teacher of natural sciences and 
mathematics at Luther Academy, Wahoo, Nebraska- The years 
1890-91 and 1893-95 he spent at the University of Nebraska, re- 
ceiving from that institution the degrees of Bachelor of Science in 
1891 and of Master of Arts in 1895. In 1895 Mr. Kydberg entered 
Columbia University and three years later obtained the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, From 1895 to 1896, while a student at Co- 
lumbia University, he performed the duties of Professor of Natural 
Sciences and Mathematics at the Upsala College in Brooklyn. 
During the summers of 1891, 1892, and 1893, he was a field agent 
of botany of the United States Department of Agriculture ; in 1895 
and 1896 of the Division of Agrostology of that Department, and 
in 1897 of the New York Botanic Garden, collecting plants in Ne- 

braska, South Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Montana. 
Mr, Kydberg is the author of a nuraber of botanical papers and re- 
ports, including a Flora of the Black Hills of South Dakota and of 
the Sand Hills of Central Nebraska^ a paper on the Grasses and 
Forage Plants of the Rocky Mountain Region^ with Mr, C, L. Shear, 
a Monograph of the North American Species of Physalis and Related 
Genera^ a Monograph of the North American Potentillm^ and a Cata- 
logue of the Flora of Montana and the Yellowstone National Park, 

1 The oldest specimen of Populus acuminata which I have seen 
was collected by Dr, F. V. Hayden on Keynolds's expedition to the 
headwaters of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers in 1859-60, 
and is preserved in the Engelmann herbarium. In 1874 it was col- 
lected by Engelmann at Denver, Colorado, and in 1880 I found it 
in the streets of Colorado Springs, 


Plate DCCXXXL Popultts acuminata. 

1- A branch with staminato flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3- The bract of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. A fruit, enlarged- 

8. A leafy branch, natural size. 

^■^ * *^ 

biiva of North A 

iXL eric a 








< I 

I r 

1: // 

-i' I. Ji /- 1/^ ' / / 



iriey j'o. 






Irnp . l/. Thui&ur, PfXrir. 




Pistillate flowers long-pedicellate. Leaves deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, coarsely 
crenulate-serrate, their petioles laterally compressed. 

Populus Wislizeni. Forest Trees N. Am. lO^/t Census U. S. ix. 175 (excl. 

Populus monilifera, Torrey, Bot Mex. Bound. Surv. 204 syn.). — Wesmael, Bull. Bot. Soc. Belg. xxvi. 377 {Be'O. 

(not Alton) (1859). Qen. Populus) (in part). — Coulter, U. S. Nat. Herh. ii. 

Populus Premontii, var. (?) Wislizeni, "Watson, Am. Jour. 420 {Man. Fl W. Texas). 

^ci. ser. 3, XV. 136(1878);Proc.^m.^m£^.xviii.l57.— Populus Fremontii, Sargent, Silva N. Am. ix. 183 (in 
Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 92 (in part). — Sargent, part) (1896). 

A large tree, with wide-spreading branches and pale gray-hrown bark deeply divided into broad 
flat ridges, stout light orange-colored glabrous branchlets, and acute lustrous buds. The leaves are 
broadly deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, truncate or sometimes cordate at the broad entire base, coarsely 
and irregularly crenuiate-serrate except toward the entire apex, coriaceous, glabrous, yellow-green and 
lustrous on both surfaces, from two inches to two inches and a half long and usually about three inches 
wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote primary veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they 
are borne on slender glabrous petioles compressed laterally, from an inch and a half to two inches long, 
and bright yellow in the autumn before falling. The stipules are broadly ovate, acute and apiculate or 
acuminate at the apex, scarious, and caducous. The aments appear before the leaves and vary from two 
to four inches in length, with caducous bracts which are scarious, light red, and divided at the apex into 
elongated filiform lobes. The numerous stamens with large oblong anthers and short filaments are 
inserted on a broad oblique disk. The ovary is long-pedicellate, ovate, full and rounded at the apex, 
crowned by three broad crenulate-lobed stigmas raised on the short branches of the style, and inclosed 
nearly to the middle in the cup-shaped disk which is irregularly toothed on the margins and persistent 
under the fruit. The aments of fruit are four or five inches long, with oblong-ovate thick-walled acute 
three or four-valved slightly ridged buff-colored capsules which are about a quarter of an inch long, 
and are borne on slender pedicels from one haK to three quarters of an inch in length, and placed rather 
remotely from each other on the slender glabrous rachis. 

Populus Wislizeni is the common Cottonwood of the Eio Grande vaUey in New Mexico and 
western Texas, and in the adjacent parts of Mexico.^ From the other Cottonwoods it can be easily 
distinguished by the elongated slender pedicels of the pistillate aments which are peculiar to this tree 
and, showing no tendency to become abbreviated, make it desirable to treat it as a species. 

Populus Wislizeni was discovered on the upper Rio Grande in July, 1846, by Dr. F. A. Wis- 

^ Specimens of a Cottonwood collected by Miss Alice Eastwood Utah, although beyond its usual range, appear to belong to this 

in July, 1895, on Recapture Creek, San Juan County, southeastern species (Eastwood, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, vi. 325). 

2 sgg Yi, 94^ 


Plate DCCXXXII. Populus Wislizeni. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 






Silva of Nortli Am 










z^n^^ ^^€y. 

A, Jhocre^uay direct' ^ 

Imp. J^rajzeur; J^arur . 




Pistillate flowers short-pedicellate, their disk large and cup-shaped. Leaves 
rhombic to broadly deltoid, elongated, acute or acuminate, green on both surfaces. 

Populus Mexicana, "Wesmael, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. pt. Brewer & "Watson, Bot. Gal. ii. 92 (in part). — Rusby, 

ii. 328 (1868) ; Mim. Soc. Sci. Rainaut, s6t. 3, iii. 240, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix. 79. — Sargent, Forest Trees 

t. 16 {Monogr. Po^mJws). — Hemsley, Bot. Biol, Am. N.Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 175 (in part); Silva N. 

Cent. iii. 181. Am. ix. 183 (in part). — AVesmael, Bull. Bot. Soc. Belg. 

Populus Fremontii, Watson, Proo. Am. Acad. x. 350 (in xxvi. 376 (in part) {Rev. Gen. Populus). 
part) (1875) ; Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, xv. 136 (in part). — 

A tree, sometimes eighty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter covered with 
pale gray or nearly white bark deeply divided into broad flat ridges and heavy gracefully spreading and 
ascending branches which form a broad open head. The branchlets are slender, and when they first 
appear they are pale green and more or less pubescent or villose, with long matted hairs, but soon become 
glabrous and are hght yellow-brown during their first season. The terminal winter-buds are narrow, 
acute, light orange-brown, puberulous toward the base of the outer scales, about one quarter of an inch 
long, and two or three tunes as large as the much compressed oblong lateral buds. The leaves are 
rhombic and long-pointed, especially when the tree is young, or broadly deltoid and acute or acuminate 
particularly on vigorous shoots, broadly or acutely cuneate or truncate or slightly cordate at the base, or 
often roimded at the apex and much broader than long, usually coarsely and irregularly crenulate-serrate 
except at the base and towards the apex, and finely crenulate-serrate above the middle when the leaves 
are broad and rounded ; when they first unfold the leaves are dark red covered on the lower surface 
with pale pubescence, puberulous on the upper surface, ciliate on the margins, with short white crowded 
hairs, and glandular on the tips of the teeth, with bright red caducous glands ; soon becoming glabrous, 
at maturity they are sub coriaceous, bright yellow-green, very lustrous, two or three inches long and 
somewhat narrower or much broader than long, with slender yellow midribs, obscure primary veins, 
coarse reticulate veinlets, and slender nearly terete petioles grooved on the upper side near the base, at 
first puberulous, soon glabrous, and from an inch and a half to nearly two inches in length. The 
stipules are ovate, acute or acuminate, scarious, villose, from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, 
and caducous. The flowers appear before the leaves late in February or early in March, the staminate 
in dense cylindrical aments usually from an inch to an inch and a haH in length, the pistillate in 
slender many-flowered aments from an inch and a half to two inches long. The ovary is ovate, rounded 
at the apex, slightly three or four-angled, short-pedicellate, and nearly inclosed in the cup-shaped 
membranaceous disk. The fruiting aments are three or four inches long, and the capsules are borne 
on short stout pedicels thickly placed on the rachis, and are round-ovoid, buff color, slightly three or 
four-lobed, deeply pitted, thin-walled, about one third of an inch long, and surrounded at the base by 
the much enlarged disk.^ 

1 Populus Mexicana is very closely related to the California may be found desirable to treat this north Mexican tree as a variety 

Populus Fremontii, differing chiefly from that species in the larger of the California species. 

disk of the pistillate flowers, in the rhombic leaves which are com- Populus Mexicana is the common Cottonwood of northern Mex- 

mon on young plants, and appear frequently on the same branch ico, and it is this tree which is planted in the streets of Mexican 

with broad deltoid leaves, and in its distribution ; and when the cities. (See Pringle, Garden and Forest, i. 105 f.) It is also the 

Poplars of the southwest are better known than they are now it common Cottonwood of the valleys of southern Arizona and south- 




Populus Mexicana inliabits the banks of mountain streams in southern Arizona and southwestern 
New Mexico, and is widely distributed through northern Mexico. 

Populus Mexicana appears to have been first coEected by Berlandier in northern Mexico. 

western New Mexico. In eastern New Mexico it appears to be 
replaced by Populus Wislizeni and by tbe Kocky Mountain form of 
Populus deltoidea, which in the ninth volume of this work was 
confounded with Populus Fremontii so far as relates to Colorado, 

eastern New Mexico, and western Texas, and which Professor Tre- 


lease has called var. intermedia in hia unpublished notes on the 
geuus Populus. 



Plate DCCXXXIIL Populus Mexicana. 

1. A flowering branch o£ a stamlnate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 
4- A pistillate flower^ enlarged- 

5. A fruiting branchy natural size. 

6. A fruit, enlarged- 

7- Leaf of a shootj natural size- 

^ .r ^ 



Silva of Nortli America.. 






'- ' 


C.U.I^cucon/ deZy. 







.A.RLoare^MZ> dJj^e^ . 

Imp . c/ laji.ej.w, I'cirLr. 





Flowers perfect ; calyx cupular, unequally 3-lobed ; corolla 3-parted, the lobes 
Talvate in ^ estivation; stamens 6, their filaments triangular, joined at the base; ear- 
pels 3, united above into an elongated style ; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit drupaceous, 
1-sceded. Spadix interfoliar, elongated. Leaves alternate, orbicular or truncate, 
petiolate, their petioles dentate. 

Serenoa, Hooker f. Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 926, 1228 (1883). - Drude, Engler & Prantl Pfianzenfam. ii. pt. iii. 

37. — Baillon, Hist. PL xiii. 314. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, with tall arborescent and often clustered or short or elongated subter- 
ranean endogenous stems clothed above for many years with the sheathing bases of the petioles of the 
fallen leaves, and stout tough deep - descending roots. Leaves terminal, indupHcate in vernation, 
semiorbicular, truncate at the base, coriaceous, green, or pale and glaucous on the lower surface, divided 
from the apex to below the middle into numerous two-parted segments plicately folded at the base ; 
rachis short, acute ; ligule thin, concave, obtusely short-pointed, furnished with a broad membranaceoul 
dark red-brown deciduous border ; petioles slender, flat above, rounded and ribbed on the lower surface, 
dentate on the margins ; vaginas thin and firm, bright mahogany red, lustrous, closely infolding the 
stem, their fibres thin and brittle. Spadix paniculate, interfoliar, elongated, its rachis slender, com- 
pressed ; branches numerous, slender, elongated, gracefully drooping, coated with hoary tomentum, the 
primary panicled at the base and simple toward the apex of the spadix, flattened, the secondary terete 
from the axils of ovate acute chestnut brown bracts ; spathes flattened, thick and firm, deeply two-cleft 
and furnished at the apex with a broad or narrow red-brown membranaceous border, inclosing the 
rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe and the node of the rachis below it inclosed 
in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of the node next below. Flowers 
perfect, small or minute, sessile on the ultimate branches of the spadix in the axils of ovate acute 
chestnut-brown bracts, solitary toward the ends of the branchlets, and in two or three-flowered clusters 
toward their base, bibracteolate, the bractlets minute, caducous. Calyx truncate at the base, unequally 
three-lobed, the lobes valvate in estivation, thickened and persistent under the fruit. Corolla three- 
parted nearly to the base, its divisions valvate in estivation, oblong-ovate, thick, concave, acute and 
thickened at the apex, grooved on the inner surface with two or three deep depressions, deciduous. 
Stamens six, included ; filaments nearly triangular, united below into a cup adnate to the short tube of 
the corolla ; anthers short-oblong, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-cefled, the cells 
opening longitudinally ; ovary oblong-ob ovate, of three carpels free beloAv, united above into a slender 
elongated style ; stigma minute, terminal on the fruit ; ovule solitary, erect from the bottom of the 
cell, anatropous. Fruit drupaceous, oblong-ovoid or globose, one-seeded, black, and lustrous, usually 
bearing at the base the two minute abortive carpels; exocarp thin and fleshy; mesocarp thin and 
fibrous, orange-brown, resinous and strong - smelhng, closely investing the pale brown crustaceous 
putamen. Seed erect, free, oblong, or subglobose ; testa hard, chestnut-brown, and lustrous, lio-hter 
colored on the ventral side with a conspicuous oblong or circular mark ; hilum small, subbasilar ; 
raphe ventral, elongated, undivided ; albumen homogeneous. Embryo lateral. 

Serenoa with two species is confined to the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf region of 




North America. One species ^ is a slender tree found only in the swamps and low hummocks adjacent 
to the Chockoliskee River in southwestern Florida, and the other, which is the type of the genus, is a 
low plant generally scattered over sandy barrens from South Carolina to Louisiana, often covering great 
areas almost to the exclusion of other plants. 

' Serenoa is not known to suffer from the attacks of insects or serious fungal diseases.^ 
The generic name commemorates the distinguished botanical services of Sereno Watson.^ 

^ Serenoa serrulata^ Hooker f . Bentham §* Hooker Gen. iii. 926 
(1888). — Langlois, Cat. PL Basse-Louisianey 17- — Chapman, -FY. 
ed. 3, 462. — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. NaL Herb. vi. 424 (Plant Life 
of Alabama). 

Chamcerops serrulata, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 206 (1803). ^^ 

Willdenow, Spec- iv. pt. ii. 1155, — AitORj HorL Kew. ed. 2, v. 

489. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept i. 239. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 231.— 

Elliott, SL i, 431. — Sprengel, SysL ii. 137. — Loudoiij Arb, 

Brit iv. 2532. 

Sahal serrulata^ Koemer & Schultes, SysL vii, pt- ii. 1486 

(1830). — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1201. — Kunth, Enum. nl 246. — 

Chapman, Fl 438. 

Brahea serrulata, H. Wendland, Kerchove Les Palmier,% 235 


Serenoa serrulata, the Saw- Palmetto, produces a horizontal stem 
which is sometimes sis or eight inches in diameter, and frequently 
extends for ten or twelve feet at a distance of from two to four feet 
below the surface of the ground. From this stem, which under spe- 
cially favorable conditions occasionally rises to the height of a few 
feet above the ground, numerous stout roots penetrate deep into 
the soil, and short secondary stems rise to the surface and bear 
heads of numerous leaves which are supported on slender rigid 
petioles, and are thick and firm, about a foot in diameter, and pale 
on the lower surface, especially while young. From April to June 
it produces irregularly its flowers in ample panicles, remarkable 
for the long thin membranaceous red-brown boat-shaped tips of 
the spathes; and in the autumn the oblong-ovoid fruit, which is 
often an inch in length, covers the now drooping panicles, and 
affords abundant food for birds and many animals. 

The fruit oS Serenoa serrulata possesses remarkable fattening pro- 
perties, and the domestic animals which feed on it soon become sleek 
and fat- In medicine it has been found sedative, nutrient, and 

diuretic, and about two hundred and fifty tons of Saw-Palmetto ber- 
ries are now consumed in the United States in the manufacture 
of fluid extracts used to improve digestion, increase weight and 
strength, to induce sleep, to relieve irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the throat, nose, and larynx, and to strengthen enfeebled 
sexual organs, and in the treatment of the enlarged prostate gland. 
(See Dupore, Medical Brief 1877, 123, — Goss, Therapeutic Gazette^ 
n- ser. i, 243- — Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat Med. ed, 2, 159 ; 
Pharmacology of the Newer Mat. Med, T^To. 52, 1141 ^Therapeutic 
Properties of Saw Palmetto'], — Rusby, Bastedo & Coblentz, Alumni 
Jour. N. F, College of Pharmacy, ii. 169 [The Pharmacology of Saw 

The stem of Serenoa serrulata contains tannin in considerable 
quantities, and excellent leather has been prepared from it, al- 
though the large amount of red coloring matter associated with 
the tannin has a tendency to make a dark leather, and the manu- 
facture of "syrup of tannin," an extract made from Serenoa serru- 
lata and sold a few years ago in northern markets, has been aban- 
doned. (See Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix- 182 [The Tannins of 
the Palmettos] ; Am, Jour. Pharm. Ixvlii. 397.) The flowers pro- 
duce a large amount of nectar, which is an important bee-food, 
and the superior honey made from them is sold as Palmetto honey. 
(See E-usby, Bastedo & Coblentz, L c. 171.) The collection and 
shipment to the northern states of the crowns of fresh leaves of the 
Saw-Palmetto for the decoration of churches and dwelling-houses 
has recently become a Florida industry of some importance- 

^ Most of the fungi which have been recorded as occurring on 
Serenoa are found on the petioles of the leaves. Of the seventeen 
species recorded some are found also on Sabal Palmetto. They 
are all small, and do not cause disease. Meliola palmicola, Winter, 
infests the leaves, covering them with a sooty black web. 

s See vU. 108. 





Fruit globose. Leaves green on both surfaces. 

Serenoa arboresceus, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 90 (1899). 

A tree, from thirty to forty feet in height, with one or several clustered erect inclining or 
occasionally semiprostrate stems three or four inches in diameter, and covered almost to the ground 
with the closely clasping bases of -the leaf-stalks and below with a thick pale gray rind. The leaves 
are thin and firm, bright yellow-green on the upper surface, blue-green on the lower surface, about two 
feet in diameter, and divided nearly to the base into numerous lobes which are half an inch wide near 
the middle of the leaf and are only slightly thickened at the pale yellow midribs and margins ; their 
petioles, at first erect, soon become spreading and are from eighteen inches to two feet in length, one 
third of an inch wide at the apex and an inch wide at the base, and are armed with stout flattened 
curved orange-colored teeth. The spadix is from three to four feet longj with a slender much flattened 
stalk, panicled lower branches eighteen or twenty inches in lengthy and six or eight thick firm pale 
green conspicuously ribbed spathes deeply divided at the apex^ which terminates in a narrow membrana- 
ceous border^ The flowers, which are about one twentieth of an inch long, are solitary toward the ends 
of the branches and in two or three-flowered clusters at their base ; their calyx is light chestnut-brown 
and the corolla is pale yellow-green. The fruit is globose and a third of an inch in diameter, with thin 
dry flesh covering the dark orange-colored fibrous strong-smelling resinous inner coat which closely 
invests the pale brown crustaceous nut. The seed is subglobose, somewhat flattened below^ with a pale 
vertical mark on the lower side, a minute hilum joined to the micropyle by a pale band, and an obscure 

oblong acute raphe. 

Serenoa arhorescens inhabits the great Cypress swamps and low hummocks adjacent to the 
Chockoliskee Kiver and its tributaries in southwestern Florida which, south of Cape Romano, extend 
from the neighborhood of the coast to the borders of the Everglades. Growing always in low 
undrained soil, it stands for many months of every year in water from one to eighteen inches deep. 
Occasionally occupying almost exclusively areas several acres in extent, it is more often scattered among 
Cypress-trees or southward among Royal Palms. 

Serenoa arhorescens was discovered^ in the spring of 1887 in the Royal Palm Hummock near the 
town of Everglade on the ChockoHskee River by Mr. Pliny W- Reasoner.^ 

^ At the time of its discovery neitlier flowers nor fruit were col- 
lected, but in October, 1888, Mr, E. N. Reasoner visited the 
Chockoliskee River and obtained a few seeds, a stem for the 
Jesup Collection of North American VP'oods in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York, and a few small plants. One 
of these has been grown in my garden in Brootlinej Massachu- 
setts, and is now about eight feet high. In the spring of 1898 Dr- 
Robert Ridgway, the distinguished ornithologist^ informed me that 
his guide on a recent journey which he had made to the southeast 
of Fort Myers on the Caloosahatehee River, Mr. R. G- Corbett of 
Immockalee, had told him of a tall slender Palm in the Cypress 
swamps thirty or forty miles to the southeast of Lake Trafford and 
near the head of the Chockoliskee ; and through Mr, Corbett I 
obtained in 1898 leaves, flowers, and ripe fruits of this interesting 
Palm, which proved identical with the one discovered by Mr, Rea- 
soner, and a second species of Serenoa, 

2 Pliny Ward Reasoner (May 6, 1863-September 17, 1888) was 

born in Princeton, Illinois, and was the son of Henry C. Reasoner, 
who moved in 1848 from South Egremont, Massachusetts, to Illi- 
nois, where he married and engaged in farming. Young Reasoner 
was educated in the high school at Princeton, and in 1881 went to 
Florida, where he established at Oneco near the Manitee River a 
commercial nursery in which he gathered together a large collec- 
tion of tropical and subtropical plants and where he died of yellow 
fever just when bis intelligence, industry, and energy had made him 
widely and favorably known and the usefulness and success of his 

career seemed assured. 

Mr. Reasoner was a constant contributor to the horticultural 

journals of the country, writing principally on exotic plants suit- 
able for cultivation in southern Florida, and he was the author of a 
report on Tropical and Semitropical Fruits in Florida and the Gulf 
States^ published in 1887 by the Department of Agriculture of the 
United States in Bulletin No, 1, Division of Pomology. 



Plate DCCXXXIV* Sekenoa AKBOitEsCEiirs. 

1. Portion of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2. A cluster of flowers, enlarged. 

3. A flower^ enlarged. 

4. A flower laid open, showing petals and stamens, enlarged, 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6- An anther, rear and front views, enlarged. 

7- A pistil, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a carpel, enlarged. 

9, Portion of a fruiting spadix^ natural size. 
10- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A fruit, the pericarp removed, showing the fibrous mesocarp, enlarged. 

12. A seed, enlarged, 

13. A seed, showing the hilum, enlarged. 

14. A leaf, much reduced. 

15- A ligule with its membranaceous border, enlarged. 



Silva of North Am 




C E. Ecucori deL. 

Srrv.JILrne^ j^c^^ 




A. Blocreuay cl^j^ea> . 

Imp . iJ^ToTieiir, Parir . 



Flowees perfect ; calyx and corolla confluent into a short cup, 6-lobed on the 
margin; stamens usually 6; ovary 1 -celled ; oyule basalar, erect. Fruit drupaceous, 
globose, ivory-white ; exocarp fleshy ; putamen crustaceous. Spadix interfoliar, elon- 
gated, paniculate. Leaves orbicular, or truncate at the base, petiolate, their petioles 

Tlirinax,Swartz,_pTO(?r.57 (1788). — Selireber,Ge?i. 772.— fam. ii. pt. iii. 34 (sect. Poro^/mma;).— Sargent, >S'i^m 

Martius, Palm. Fam. Gen. 8. — Endlicher, Gen. 253.— N. Am. x. 49 (sect. Porothrinax) ; Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 

Meisner, Gen. 357. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pfiansen- 83. 

Small unarmed trees, with simple endogenous stems marked below with the ring-like scars o£ fallen 
leaves and clothed above with the long-persistent sheaths of the leaf-stalks, and long tough wiry roots 
covered with thick orange-hrown loosely attached rind. Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, 
alternate, orbicular, or truncate at the base, thick and firm, usually silvery white on the lower surface, 
more or less deeply divided into narrow acute two-parted obhquely folded lobes, with thickened margins 
and midribs ; rachis reduced to a narrow border, with a thin usually undulate reflexed margin ; ligule 
thick, concave, pointed, often Hned while young with hoary tomentum ; petioles stout, elongated, flat- 
tened, rounded above and below, their margins thin and smooth, concave toward the base, and gradually 
enlarged into vaginas composed of coarse netted fibres covered with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix 
paniculate, interfoliar, pedunculate, elongated, its primary branches short, alternate, flattened, incurved, 
furnished with numerous slender terete alternate pendant secondary flower-bearing branchlets produced 
in the axils of ovate acute scarious deciduous bracts ; spathes numerous, tubular, coriaceous, two-cleft, 
and more or less tomentose toward the apex, each primary branch of the panicle with its spathe and the 
node of the rachis below it included in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of 
the node next below. Flowers solitary, minute, articulate on elongated, or short thick disk-like pedicels 
in the axils of ovate acute deciduous bracts. Perianth truncate at the base, six-lobed, the lobes obscure 
or broadly ovate and acute, persistent under the fruit. Stamens six or niue,^ inserted on the base of 
the perianth ; filaments subulate, thickened and scarcely united at the base, or nearly triangular and 
united below into a cup adnate to the perianth ; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening longitudinally, 
inserted on the back below the middle, introrse, becoming reflexed and extrorse at maturity. Ovary 
superior, ovoid, one-celled, gradually narrowed into a stout columnar style crowned by a broad funnel- 
formed flat or oblique stigma ; ovule solitary, basalar, erect, semianatropous ; micropyle lateral. Fruit 
drupaceous, globose, marked at the apex by the remnants of the style and bearing at the base the 
slightly thickened perianth of the flower ; sarcocarp thin, green, crustaceous, ultimately becoming thick- 
ened, ivory-white, juicy, bitter, easily separable from the thin putamen of two closely adherent coats, 
the outer crustaceous, pale tawny brown and slightly tuberculate, the inner membranaceous, silvery 
white, and lustrous. Seed free, erect, nearly globose, slightly flattened at the two ends, depressed at 
the base ; hilum subbasilar, oblong, pale, conspicuous ; raphe short, unbranched, inconspicuous ; testa 
thin, pale or dark chestnut-brown, and lustrous ; albumen uniform, more or less deeply penetrated by a 
broad basal cavity. Embryo lateral. 



^ In all the Florida species of Thrinax and in Thrinax parvifiora, Brit W. Ind. 515 [1864], — Hooker f, Bot Mag. cxv. t. 7088) of 
Swartz (FL Ind. Occ, i. 614, 1. 13 [1797]), the type of the genus, the Jamaica the number is said to be nine. 

number of stamens is six, but in Thrinax excelsa^ Grisebach (Fl, 


Thrinax is confined to the New World. Three species inhabit southern Florida ; ^ and ^\e or 
six species, still imperfectly known, are scattered through the Antilles and on the shores o£ Central 

The wood of the Florida species of Thrinax is light and soft, and contains numerous small fibro- 
vascular bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than the spongy interior. The stems are 
used for the piles of small wharves and for turtle crawls, and the leaves are employed as thatch and are 
manufactured into hats and baskets, and coarse ropes. 

The generic name from Oplva^ is in allusion to the form of the leaves. 

L n 

L ' 

^ For the third Florida species, Thrinax microcarpa^ see k. 53, t. ^ See Eoemer & Schultes, S^st, vii- pt. li, 1300, — Martius, Nat, 

511, where the fruit is described as orange-brown in color with a Hist. Palm, iii. 254. — Grisebach, FL W. Ind. 615 ; Cat^ PL Cub- 

crustaceous pericarp, the true characters of the fully ripe fruit 221. 
being then unknown to me (see Sargent, Bot Gazette^ xx:vii, 87)- 


Flowers long-pedicellate ; perianth obscurely lobed or nearly truncate ; filaments subulate, hardly united 

at the base ; stigma oblique 1- T- Floeidana. 

Flowers short-pedicellate ; perianth lobes broadly ovate, acute ; filaments nearly triangular^ united below 
into a cup adnate to the perianth ; stigma flat* 

Seeds three sixteenths of an inch in diameter, pale chestnut-brown ; leaves from three to four feet in 

diameter - 2. T- Keyi?:nsis* 

Seeds from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch in diameter, dark chestnut-brown ; leaves two feet 

in diameter or less 3. T. mickocakpA- 





Flowers long-pedieelkte ; perianth obscurely lobed or nearly truncate ; filaments 
subulate, hardly united at the base ; stigma oblique. 

Thrinax Floridana, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xsvii. 84 Chapman, ^oi. Ga^e;!;^, iii. 12 ; i^^. ed. 2, Suppl. 651 ; ed. 

^ ^^^^^^' 3, 462. — Sargent, Sihm N. Am. x. 51 (in part), t. 510 as 

Thrmax parviflora, Vasey, Eep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1875, to the leaf. 

186 {Cat. Forest Trees TJ. S.) (not Swartz) (1876).— 

A tree, with a slightly tapering stem, from twenty to thirty feet in height and from four to six 
inches in diameter, covered with a smooth pale blue-gray rind and generaUy clothed to the middle and 
occasionally almost to the ground with the long-persistent clasping bases of the leaf-stalhs. The leaves 
are thick and firm, nearly orbicular, or truncate at the base, from two and a half to three feet in 
diameter, rather longer than they are broad, yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery 
white on the lower surface, and divided to below the middle into numerous lobes which vary from an 
inch to an inch and a haH in width near the middle of the leaf ; the rachis of the leaf is a narrow 
reflexed undulate orange-colored border and the Hgule is long-pointed, bright orange-colored, and three 
quarters of an inch long and broad ; the petioles vary from four feet to four feet and a half in length 
and are pale yellow-green or orange-colored toward the apex, which is three quarters of an inch wide and 
coated at first with hoary deciduous tomentum, and much thickened and tomentose and from two inches 


to two inches and a half wide at the base. The flower-panicles, which in all the Florida species of 
Thrinax appear two or three months before the flowers open and lengthen very slowly, are when fully 
grown from three feet to three feet and a half in length, with primary branches from six to eight inches 
long and secondary branches from an inch and a half to two inches in length; these are ivory-white at 
the time the flowers open, turning light yellow-green before the fruit ripens, and orange-brown in drying. 
The flowers are raised on slender pedicels nearly an eighth of an inch long and are ivory-white and 
very fragrant, with a pungent aromatic odor ; their perianth is almost truncate or obscurely six-lobed ; 
the filaments of the six much exserted stamens are subulate and barely united at the base, and the 
stigma is very oblique ; they open in June and sometimes also irregularly in October and November, 
and the fruit ripens six months later. The fruit is from one quarter to three eighths of an inch in diam- 
eter, somewhat depressed above and below, with ivory-white and lustrous juicy bitter flesh, and the 
seed, which varies from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch in diameter, is dark chestnut-brown 
and penetrated almost to the apex by the broad basal cavity.^ 

In Florida Thrinax Floridana inhabits dry coral ridges and sandy shores, and is distributed from 
Long Key to Torch Key and the islands in its neighborhood, and on the mainland ranges from Cape 
Romano to Cape Sable. 

Thrinax Floridana was discovered by Dr. A. W. Chapman,^ who found it near Cape Romano in 
the autumn of 1875, and in October, 1879, it was found by Dr. A. P. Garber ^ on Cape Sable. It is 
now cultivated in gardens at Miami, Florida.* 

^ It is the leaf of this species which was figured on the plate of now established in the garden of the hotel at Miami ; and from 

Thrinax parvifiora in the tenth volume of this work (t. 510). flowers and fruits gathered from them Mr. Faxon has made the 

^ See vii. HO, , plate of this species. It is the Thrinax excelsa of some Florida 

^ See i. 65. nurserymen, but not of Grisebaeh. 
^ A number of trees of this Palm brought from Long Key are 

^ - 


Plate DCCXXXV. Thkinax Floridana. 


1. Portion of a flowering spadis, natural size. 

2, A flowepj enlarged. 

3. Perianth of a flower with its stamenSj laid open, enlarged. 

4, A stamen, enlarged. 

5- A pistil, enlarged. 

6- Portion of a fruiting spadis, natural size. 

7- Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8- A seedj enlarged. 

9, A leaf, much reduced. 
10. A ligule, natural size. 

Silva of Nortli. America. 






' r 

CE. FcucoTi^ deL. 



S.ap 6 . 

l^l^'y uf/y. 

A . Bzo or ez/M:^ dzrezc^ 




rnn. ^.7. Tcuisu^r^J^cirur. 



Flowers short-pedicellate ; perianth-lobes broadly ovate, acute ; filaments nearly 
triangular, united below ; stigma flat. Seeds pale chestnut-brown. 

Thrinax Keyensis, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 86 (1899). 

A tree, with an ashy gray stem, often twenty-five feet in height and from ten to fourteen inches in 
diameter, raised on a base of thick matted roots from two to three feet high and eighteen or twenty 
inches wide, and surmounted by a broad head of leaves, the upper erect, the lower, both living and 
dead, pendulous and closely pressed against the stem. The leaves are nearly orbicular, or truncate at 
the base, but rather longer than they are broad^ from three to four feet long, and divided for two 
thirds of their length into lobes which are often two and a half inches wide near the middle of the leaf, 
the lowest lobes being parallel with the petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles ; they are 
thick and firm, light yellow-green and very lustrous on the upper surface, with bright orange-colored 
midribs and much thickened orange-colored margins to the lobes, and on the lower surface they are 
coated when they unfold with hoary deciduous tomentum and at maturity are pale blue-green and more 
or less covered with loosely attached silvery white pubescence ; the rachis of the leaf is a thin undulate 
border and the ligule is thick, pointed, an inch in length and in width, and fined at first with hoary 
tomentum ; the leaves are borne on stout petioles flattened above, obscurely ridged on the lower surface, 
tomentose while young, pale blue-green, from three to four feet long, an inch wide at the apex and 
from three to four inches wide at the much thickened concave base, which is coated with a thick silvery 
white felt-fike tomentum which also covers the broad vaginas composed of thick loosely woven coarse 
tough fibres. The flower-panicles are usually about six feet in length and are stout, spreading, and 
gracefully incurved, with firm thick spathes more or less coated with hoary tomentum ; their primary 
branches are much compressed and vary in length from three or four inches at the base of the panicle 
to an inch and a half at its apex and, hke the short secondary branches, are bright orange color. The 
flowers, which open in June and occasionally also irregularly in November and are white and slightly 
fragrant, are raised on short thick disk-hke pedicels and are about an eighth of an inch long ; they 
consist of a cupular six-lobed perianth with broadly ovate acute lobes, six stamens with nearly triangular 
filaments united at the base, and oblong versatile anthers, and an ovate ovary gradually narrowed into a 
stout thick style dilated into a broad funnel-shaped flat stigma. The fruit, which ripens in October 
and also irregularly late in the spring or in early summer, is lustrous, ivory-white, and from one sixteenth 
to nearly one quarter of an inch in diameter, with thin flesh and a pale chestnut-brown seed three 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, penetrated only to the middle by the basal cavity. 

Thrinax Keyensis, which is the largest and handsomest of the fan-leaved Palms of tropical Florida, 
grows in dry sandy soil close to the beach on the north side of the largest of the Marquesas keys, where, 
mingled with Ooccothrinax jucimda^ it lifts its broad and stately head of massive foliage above the low 
shrubby undergrowth of Rhus Metopium, Conocarpus erecta, Jacquinia armillaris, and Eugenia huxi- 
folia. It grows also on Crab Key, a small island to the westward of Torch Key, one of the Bahia 
Honda group.^ 

' F 

^ This Palm was first seen by me on the Marquesas keys In 50) in the belief that the thick fleshy black fruit of Coccothrinax 
N"ovember, 1886, without flowers or fruit and was incorrectly re- jucunda belonged to it, 
ferred to Euthrinax (Garden and Forest^ ix. 1G2 ; Silva N. Am. x. 



Plate DCCXXXVL Thkikax Keyensis. 

1. A portion of a flowering spadix, natural size. 

2, A flower^ enlarged. 

3- Perianth of a flower laid open, with its stamens, enlarged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A portion of a fraiting spadix, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7- A seed, enlarged. 

8- A seed, enlarged. 

9. A leaf, much reduced. 
10. A ligule, natural sizeo 




Siiva of NortK Am 

















in '' 







?Si' ';■-:■'. 


- -'■■"^'■-ii 





'uie- so- 


Sar6 . 

^. Rlo creuz> dire^x- 


Imp . J, Tane^iT^^ J^arir. 







Flowers perfect ; calyx and corolla confluent into a six -toothed perianth ; stamens 
9 ; oYary 1-celled ; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit baccate, globose, black, and lustrous. 
Spadix interfoliar, paniculate. Leaves orbicular, or truncate at the base, petiolate, their 
petioles unarmed. 

Coccothrinax, Sargent, Bot Gazette, xxvii. 87 (1899). 
Thrinax, Endlicher, Gen. 253 (in part) (1836). — Meissner, 

Gen. 357 (in part). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 

930. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. ii. pt. iii. 

34 (sect. Euthrinax) . — 'QaiWon, Hist. PI. xiii. 317 (excel, 
sect. Hemithrinax). — Sargent, Silva N. Am. x. 49 (sect. 

Euthrinax) . 

Small unarmed trees, with simple or clustered endogenous stems marked below by the ring-like 
scars of fallen leaves and clothed above with the long persistent pe£iole-sheaths, or rarely stemless. 
Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, alternate, orbicular, or truncate at the base, pale or silvery 
white on the lower surface, more or less deeply divided into narrow acute two-parted plicately folded 
lobes ; rachis short ; ligule thin, free, erect, concave, rounded or long-pointed at the apex ; petioles 
compressed, slightly rounded and ridged on both sides, their margins thin and smooth, gradually 
enlarged below into elongated vaginas of coarse fibres, often forming an open conspicuous network, 
generally clothed while young with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, shorter than 
the petioles, its primary branches furnished with numerous short slender pendulous flower-bearing 
secondary branchlets from the axils of scarious acute bracts ; spathes numerous, tubular, papyraceous, 
two-cleft at the apex, inserted on the rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe and 
the node of the rachis below it inclosed in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger 
spathe of the node next below. Flowers perfect, solitary, minute, articulate on slender elongated 
pedicels in the axils of caducous bracts. Perianth cupular, truncate at the base, obscurely six-lobed, 
deciduous. Stamens nine, inserted on the base of the perianth, exserted ; filaments subulate, enlarged 
and barely united at the base ; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the middle, introrse, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, ovoid, one-celled, narrowed above into a 
slender columnar style crowned by a funnel-formed obhque stigma j ovule solitary, basilar, anatropous ; 
micropyle sublateral. Fruit subglobose, buccate, one-seeded, crowned by the remnants of the style, 
raised on the thickened torus of the flower; exocarp at first thin, of two closely united coats, the 
outer crustaceous, bright green, the inner membranaceous, silvery white ; in ripening becoming thick, 
sweet, juicy, homogeneous, black, and lustrous. Seed erect, free, depressed-globose ; testa thick and 
hard, vertically grooved, deeply infolded in the ruminate albumen ; hilum subbasilar, minute, and 
obscure ; raphe hidden in the folds of the testa. Embryo lateral. 

Coccothrinax is confined to southern Florida and to the Bahama and West Indian islands. Two 
species occur in Florida; one of them is a small tree, and the other a low nearly stemless plant.^ Cocco- 
thrinax ?'a(i^a^a ^ inhabits Cuba, Antigua, San Domingo, and Trinidad, and Coccothrinax argentea^ 

' Coccothrinax Garberi, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 90 (1899). 

Tkrinax Garheri, Chapman, Bot. Gazette, iii. 12 (1878); Fl. ed. 
2, Suppl. 651. — Sargent, Silva N. Am. x. 50. 

Thrinax argentea, var. Garberi, Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, 462 


5 Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 89 (1899). 

Thrinax radiata, Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1301 
(1830).— Martins, Nat. Hist. Palm. iii. 257. — Grisebach, _f Z. 
Brit. W. Znd. 515 ; Cat. PL Cub. 221. 
3 Sargent, I. c. (1899). , 

Thrinax argentea, Roemer & Schultes, /. c. (1830). — Mar- 
tins, /. c. 256. -— Grisebacb, I. c.j I. c. 




the Bahamas, San Domingo, and Cuba, where there appear also to be other httle known or undescribed 


The stems of Coccothrinax are used for wharf-piles and the sides of turtle crawls, and the tough 
coriaceous leaves are made into hats, baskets, and coarse ropes, and are used for the thatch of 

The generic name from kokkos and Thrinax is in allusion to the berry-hke fruit. 



Brittle Thatch. 

Pedicels stout, elongated ; filaments subulate, barely united. Fruit black, Avith 
thick juicy succulent flesh ; seeds light tawny brown, conspicuously sulcate. 

Coccothrinax jucunda, Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xzvii. 89 Silva N. Am. x. 61 (in part), t. 510 (excl. figure of the 

(1899). leaf). 

Thriuax parviflora, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Thrinax argentea, Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, 462 (not Koemer 

Census V. S. is. 217 (not Swartz nor Chapman) (1884) ; & Schultes) (1897). 

A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, and from fifteen to twenty-five 
feet in height, from four to six inches in thickness, and covered with a pale blue-gray rind. The 
leaves are nearly orbicular, the lower lobes being usually parallel with the petiole, but are rather 
longer than they are broad, thin and brittle, from eighteen to twenty-four inches in diameter, and 
divided below the middle of the leaf or towards its base nearly to the ligule into narrow lobes which in 
their widest part are an inch across, and are furnished with much thickened bright orange-colored 
midribs and margins ; the leaves are pale yellow-green and very lustrous on the upper surface and 
bright silvery white on the lower surface, which is at first coated with hoary deciduous pubescence ; 
the rachis of the leaf is thin, undulate, obtusely short-poiated, and dark orange-colored, and the ligule 
Is thin, concave, crescent-shaped, often oblique, slightly undulate, occasionally obtusely short-pointed, 
three quarters of an inch wide, one third of an inch deep, and Hght or dark orange-colored ; the 
petioles are slender, flexible, at first erect but soon spreading and then pendant, rounded on the upper 
side, obscurely ribbed on the lower side, with a low rounded rib, from two feet and a half to three 
feet long, pale yellow-green, an inch and a half wide at the base, and coated at first with silvery white 
deciduous tomentum toward the dark orange-colored apex which Is about five eighths of an Inch in 
width. The panicles are from eighteen to twenty-four inches in length, with flattened peduncles, 
slender much flattened primary branches from eight to ten inches long, and Hght orange-colored like 
the slender terete secondary branches which are from an inch and a half to three Inches long ; their 
spathes are thin, fibrous, and pale reddish brown, and are coated towards the ends with pale pubescence. 
The flowers, which expand in June and irregularly also in the autumn, are raised on ridged spreading 
pedicels an eighth of an inch in length and consist of a cup-iike six-lobed perianth, nine stamens 
with slender exserted filaments slightly united below, and large oblong light yellow anthers, and a 
subglobose orange-colored ovary surmounted by an elongated style dilated into a broad rose-colored 
stigma. The fruit, which ripens in about six months, is from one half to three quarters of an Inch in 
diameter, and bright green at first when fully grown ; it then turns deep violet color, and the flesh 
becomes very succulent and fifled with violet-colored juice ; ultimately it is nearly black and very lustrous, 
the whole pericarp becoming sweet with an agreeable flavor, and then shriveliQg it grows leathery in 
drying. The seed is light tawny brown, with a thick hard dull testa which is deeply infolded in the 
ruminate albumen. 

Coccothrinax jiicunda is now known only in Florida, where it inhabits dry coral ridges and sahdy 
flats from the shores of Bay BIscayne, along many of the southern keys, to the Marquesas group west 
of Key West. 

The stems are used for the piles of small wharves and for turtle crawls, and the soft tough 
young leaves are made Into hats and baskets. 


Coccothrinax jucunda was discovered in 1880 by Mr. A. H. Curtiss ^ on Bahia Honda Key. 
The specific name is in allusion to the sweet edible flesh of the fruit. 

, r 

1 See li- 50- 


Plate DCCXXXVIL Coccotheinax jucunda. 

1. A portion of a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

% Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. A leaf J mucK reduced. 

5. A ligule, natural size. 




va of North Ame 


T'--, \ "P. r ^" V' V" V" "^ f^ "T 












CSI.Fa^zion deL. 







. ■ O 

A.R/j:?cr'eua> direa:''^ 

Imp. J. Taneur , Fariy . 

- \ 


; ' 

f m 

• • - ■- 






Red Cedar. 

Staminate flowers elongated. Fruit small, subglobose ; seeds usually two. Leaves 
opposite, acute or acuminate, glandular. Branclilets slender, pendulous. 

Juniperus Barbadensis, Linnaeus^ Spec. 1039 (1753). — 
Lamarckj Diet. ii. 627- — Miehaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii. 245. — 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. iL 851. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 
647- ™ Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245 ; Sylva, iii. 96- — Sprengel, 
Syst. iii. 909- — Maycock, FL Barb. 394. — Loudon, Arb. 
Brit. iv. 2504. — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii- 
692.— Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 326 {Plant 
Life of Alabarna) ; BulL No. 31 Biv. Forestry U, S. 
Dept. Agric. 37, t- 3. 

Juniperus Bermudianaj Lunan, Hort. Jam. i. 84 (not Lin- 
naeus) (1814). — Rafinesque, Med. FL ii. 13 (in part). — 
Gordon, Finetiim, 101 (in part). — Henkel & Hochstetter, 
Syn. Nadelh. 328 (in part)- — Carriere, Traite Conif. ed. 
2, 49 (in part). — Parlatore, De Candolle Brodr. xvi. pt. 
ii. 490. — Sargent, Silva N. Am. x- 70 (in part). 

Juniperus Virginiana, B australis, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 

. 28 (1847). — Carriere, Traite Conif 44. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif 131. 

Juniperus Virginiana, Lindley & Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. V. 202 (in part) (not Linngeus) (1850). — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif. 130 (in part)- — Chapman, FL 435 (in 
part). — Carriers, Traite Conif ed. 2,43 (in part). — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lO^A Census U. S. ix. 182 
(in part) ; Silva N. Am. x- 93 (in part). — Masters, Jour. 
B. Hort. Soc. xiv- 215 (in part) ; Jour- Bot. xxxvii. 10. — 
Hansen, Jour. R. Hort. Soc. xiv- 298 {Pinetum Banicum) 
(in part). 

Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis, Gordon, Binetum^ 
114 (1858). — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 337. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens^ 293. 

Juniperus Virginiana, var. Bermudiana, Vasey, Bep. 
U. S. Dept. Agric. 1875, 185 {Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) 


Since the tenth volume of this work was pubHshed in 1896 I have had several opportunities to 
restudy in the field the Red Cedars of North America^ and it now seems necessary to separate Juniperus 
Virginiana as there described into three species ; — 

First; the Juniperus Virginiana of Linnseus^ the Red Cedar of the north, with comparatively stout 
branchletSj erect branches which usually make a narrow compact pyramidal head^ or sometimes in old 
age become more horizontal and form an open round-topped crown^ and fruit which ripens at the end 
of the first season.^ Second^ the Red Cedar of the Florida peninsula with more slender pendulous 
branchlets and long often pendulous branches which spread into a broad open head and smaller fruit 
ripening at the end of the first season. Third^ the Red Cedar of western America with rather stouter 
branchlets^ fruit which does not ripen until the end of the second season^ and hghter colored usually 
reddish brown wood. 

In Florida the Red Cedar^ which is not distinguishable from Juniperus Barbadensis ^ of the West 
Indies, is a tree sometimes fifty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally two feet in diameter covered 
with thin light red-brown bark which separates into long thin scales and small branches which are erect 
when the tree is crowded in the forest, but in open ground are ascending and spreading and form a 

^ As thus limited the range of Juniperus Virginiana is from 
southern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick westward to eastern 
Nebraska, KansaSj and the Indian Territory, and southward to the 
coast of South Carolina or Georgia, the limestone hills of the inte- 
rior of southern Alabama and Mississippi and eastern Texas. 

^ Linnseus's specimen of Juniperus Barbadensis preserved in his 
herbarium at London represents a thin-branched species which is 
not distinguishable from the West Indian and Florida tree, and this 
specimen may properly be considered the type of Juniperus Barba- 
densis in spite of the fact that Linnteus evidently confounded the 

West Indian and Bermuda species, both of which he described, for 
he refers to his Juniperus Barhadensis the '* Juniperus Barbadensis^ 
Cupressi foliis, ramulis quadratis" of Plnkenet (Aim. Bot. 201^ t. 
197j f, 4) and the Juniperus Bermudiana of Miller (CaU PL Hort. 
AngL i, 1, f. l)j which are both shown by these figures to be thick- 
branched species. Of the identity of the former there is some 
doubt, but the figure in the Cat. PL HorL AngL admirably repre- 
sents the Bermuda Jumper. Hermann's Juniperus Bermudiana 
(Cat. HorL Lugd. BaL 345, t.), which Linnaeus referred to his 
species of that name, is probably some other species. 




broad flat-topped head often thirty or forty feet in diameter. The secondary branches are long and 
slender, and are erect at the top of the tree and pendulous on the lower branches. The staminate trees 
are of open habit, with light-colored yellow-green foHage, and the pistillate trees are of naore compact 
habit, with dark green foliage. The branchlets are slender, four-angled, pendulous, and at the end of 
four or f[NQ years, when the leaves disappear, are light reddish brown or ashy gray. The leaves are 
opposite in pairs, closely impressed, narrow, acute or gradually narrowed above the middle and acumi- 
nate, and marked on the back by a conspicuous oblong gland. The flowers are dioecious and in Florida 
open early in March. The staminate flowers are oblong, elongated, and from an eighth to nearly a 
quarter of an inch in length, with rounded entire anther-scales which bear usually three pollen sacs. 
The scales of the pistillate flowers are gradually narrowed above the middle and acute at the apex, and 
become obliterated from the fruit. This is subglobose, dark blue, and covered when ripe with a glaucous 
bloom, and is usually only about an eighth of an inch in diameter, with sweet resinuous flesh and usually 
two seeds. 

In the United States Juniperiis Barhadensis is distributed along the Atlantic coast from southern 
Georgia to the shores of the Indian River, Florida, and on the Gulf coast from the northern shores of 
Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the valley of the Appalachicola, growing usually in inundated river-swamps 
and forming great thickets in forests of Taxodium, Eed Maple, Gordonia, Loblolly Pine, Swamp Oaks, 
Palmetto, and Liquidambar ; ^ and in the West Indies it grows on the Bahamas,^ San Domingo,^ the 
Mountains of Jamaica,* and on Antigua.^ 

The wood, which resembles that of the Red Cedar of the north in color and fragrance, is straighter- 
grained and more easily worked, and for many years and until the supply begun to become exhausted 
it was exclusively used by the German manufacturers of pencils, who have established large factories for 
cutting this wood at Cedar Keys and other places on the Florida coast. 

Juniperiis Barhadensis, with its long spreading branches and elongated gracefully drooping 
branchlets, is one of the most beautiful of all Junipers, and it has been largely used for the decoration 
of the squares and cemeteries of the cities and towns in the neighborhood of the coast from Florida 
to western Louisiana.^ -,, 


1 Near Tallahassee, Florida, and along the coast of Alabama, 
Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana Juniperus Barhadensis is common 
in the neighborhood of towns and appears to he thoroughly natural- 
ized and to he gradually spreading into adjacent woodlands. The 
fact, however, that west of the Appalachicola it does not grow in 
swamps or remote from human habitations seems to indicate that 
the Junipers now in this region have sprung from trees which were 
planted there not very long ago. Juniperus Barhadensis is the most 
universally planted coniferous tree in New Orleans and in the towns 
of western Louisiana, but there is even less evidence that it is indi- 
genous in the region beyond the Mississippi. 

2 Eggers, No, 4358 in herb. Kew. 

3 Eggers, No. 2320 in herb. Kew. 

^ "Juniperus Barhadensis is now somewhat rare on the Blue 
Mountains, but it is evident that it was confined to an elevation 
ranging between thirty-five hundred and six thousand feet in later 
years. Formerly it may have ranged much lower, as it grows well 
even near the sea-level if it gets plenty of water. The wood is 
valued so much that all the trees that were easily reached have 
been cut down. I think the height may be put down from forty to 
fifty feet and the girth of the trunk at from two to four feet." 
(W. Fawcett, in litt.) 

6 Grisebach, FL Bnt. W. Ind. 503. 

^ The Bedford Juniper which is occasionally cultivated in Euro- 
pean collections is possibly of this species. (For the synonymy of 
this plant see x. 96 ; see, also, Veitch, Man. Conif. ed. 2, 193.) 



Plat:ej DCCXXXVIIL Junipekus Bareadbnsis- 

1. A flowering branch, of a staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged- 

4. A branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 
5- A pistillate flower^ enlarged- 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged- 

9. A seed, enlarged, 

10. The end of a branchlet, enlarged. , 

11. A leaf, enlarged- 

Silva of North Am eric 









t •• 

C E . 2^aa::o TV dsZ-. 



i^ze' Siy. 




Imp. <J. TayZiSZ^Lr, J^arixp 





Red Cedar. 

Feuit subglobose, ripening at the end of the second season, usually 2-seeded. 

Leaves opposite, acute, glandular. Branchlets slender. 

Juniperus scopulorum, Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 
420, f. 54 (1897). — Nelson, Bull. No. 40, Wyoming 
Exper. Stat. 86, f. 16, 17 {Trees of Wyoming).— 'RyA- 
berg, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i. 13 {Fl. Montana). — 
Bessey, Re;p. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1897, 83. 

Juniperus escelsa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 647 (not Mar- 
schall von Bieberstein) (1814). ~ Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245. 

Juniperus Virginiana, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 250 
(not Linnaeus) (1838) ; Emory's Rep. Appx. No. 6, 412 ; 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 142; Bot. Mex. Bound. 
Surv. 211. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 144. — Cooper, 
Am. Nat. iii. 413. — Parlatore, De Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
pt. ii. 488 (in part). — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 591 (in part) ; Rotkrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 
263. — "Watson, King's Rep. v. 335. — Porter & Coulter, 
Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 132. — 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 182 
(in part) ; Silva N. Am. x. 93 (in part). — Tweedy, Flora 
of the Yellowstone National Park, 74:. — Macoun, Garden 
and Forest, i. 47 {The Forests of Vancouver Island). — 
Britten, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. viii. 74. — Masters, 
Jour. R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 215 (in part). — Hansen, Jour. 
R. Sort. Soc. xiv. 298 {Pinetum Danicum) (in part).— 
Britton & Kearney, Trans. N. Y. Acad. xiv. 22. — Lei- 
berg, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 65. 

Juniperus occidentalis, Porter, Sayden U. S. Geolog. 
Surv. Montana {5th Ann. Rep. of Progress), 494 (not 
Hooker) (1872). —Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 461. 

Juniperus Virginiana, var. montana, Vasey, Rep. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. 1875, 185 {Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (not J. 
communis, y montana, Aiton) (1876). 

A tree, thirty or forty feet in height, with a short stout trunk sometimes three feet in diameter, 
and often divided near the ground into a number of slightly spreading stems, and stout spreading and 
ascending branches covered "with scaly bark which form an open irregularly round-topped head.-^ The 
bark of the trunk is dark reddish brown or gray tinged with red, and is divided by shallow fissures 
into narrow flat connected ridges which break up on the surface into persistent shredded scales. The 
branchlets are slender and four-angled, becoming terete at the end of three or four years, when they 
are covered with smooth pale bark which a few years later begins to seperate into thin scales. The 
leaves are opposite in pairs, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, marked on the back by an obscure 
elongated gland, and dark green, or on trees in the southern Rocky Mountains often pale and very 
glaucous. The staminate flowers are oblong and about one sixteenth of an inch in length, and their 
anther-scales are rounded and entire, with four or %yq anther-sacs. The scales of the pistillate 
flower are spreading and acute or acuminate, and become obliterated on the mature fruit. At the end 
of the first season the fruit is about one sixteenth of an inch in length and blue or rose color, and 
beginning to grow the following spring it becomes before autumn from one quarter to one third of an 
inch in diameter, bright blue, and covered with a glaucous bloom, and has sweet resinous flesh, and one 
or generally two seeds. The seeds are ovate, acute, prominently grooved and angled, light chestnut- 
browiij about three sixteenths of an inch longj and lustrous, with a small two-lobed hilum* 

Juniperus scopulorum is distributed through the eastern foothill region of the Eocky Mountains 
from Alberta to western Texas^ and westward to the coast of British Columbia ^ and Washington^ and 

1 At Manitou at the base of Pike's Peak Juniperus scopulorum 
in sheltered positions develops long slightly pendulous branches, 
and is a handsome tree of open habit, while on the more arid wind- 
swept slopes the branches are short and rigid and form a compact 
round-topped head. 

^ In 1876 Juniperus scopulorum was collected by Dawson on the 
gravelly margin of Francois Lake in British Columbia in latitude 
54^ north. This is the most northern station from which I have 
specimens of this tree. (See G. M. Dawson, Garden and Forest^ i. 
59, as Juniperus Virginiana,^ 




to eastern Oregon^ Nevada^ and northern Arizona,^ Nowhere very common^ it grows on dry rocky 
ridgeSj and except near the coast usually at elevations of more than five thousand feet above the level 

of the sea. 

Juniperus scopulorwm was discovered in October^ 1804^ by Lewis and Clark during their journey 

across the continent.^ 

1 In 1846 Juniperus scopuhrum was found by Wisllzenus in New- 
Mexico (No. 503 in herb- Engelmann) ; and the following year by 
Fendler at Santa Fd (No- 835), where this Juniper is compara^ 
tively common. In April, 1874, it was collected by Dr. J. B, Ge- 
rard near Fort Apache, Arizona. (Teste herb. Engelmann.) 

^ Lewis and Clark's specimen preserved by the American Philo- 
sophical Society shows that the tree called by Pursh and by Nuttall 

Juniperus excelsa was Juniperus scopulorum, and not, as has usually 
been supposed, the Juniperus ocddentalis of Hooker, 


Plate DCCXXXIX. Juniperus scopulobum- 

1. A branch, with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. An anther, rear view, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural size- 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged- 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged* 

7- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9- A seed, enlarged. 

10. End of a branchlet, enlarged. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

Silva of North Aineri 










} . , 



, Sar5 


Ha^ina^ sc^. 

A. Jtu? CTBuay dire^t> ^ 

Imp. J.3hneaj^,Fari}. 








Scales of the fruit 6 to 10; seeds compressed, black. BrancMets stout. Leaves 
dark green, eglandular. 

Cupressus pygmaea, Sargent, Bot Gazette, xxxi. 239 Cupressus aoveniana, Sargent, Silva N. Am. x. 107 (in 

(1891). part) (not Gordon) (1896). 

Cupressus Goveuiana, var. pygmsea, Lemmon, Handh. 

West American Cone-Bearers, 77 (1895). 

A tree, sometimes thirty or forty feet in height, with a trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter, 
and ascending branches. The bark of the trunk is bright reddish brown, about a quarter of an inch in 
thickness, and divided by shallow fissures into flat ridges which separate on the surface into long 
thread-like scales. The branchlets, which are comparatively stout, are bright orange color when they 
first appear, bright reddish brown during one or two seasons, and then turning purple become dark 
reddish brown at the end of several years. The leaves are ovate, acute, or acuminate on vigorous 
shoots, dark green, and eglandular. The staminate flowers are obscurely four-angled, with broadly 
ovate peltate connectives, and the fertile scales of the pistillate flowers, which vary from six to ten in 
number, are acute and spreading. The fruit is short-oblong, usually sessile, and from three quarters to 
seven eighths of an inch in length, with from six to ten scales terminating in small bosses. The seeds 
are compressed, only about one eighth of an inch long, and black. 

Cupressus 'pygmma inhabits the high barren region near the coast of Mendocino County, California, 
which extends from Ten Mile Run on the north to the Navarro on the south. Here it grows on 
deposits of sand and a thin coat of peat, overlayiDg a heavy yellow clay in a narrow belt which, 
beginning about three quarters of a mile from the ocean, extends inland for three or four miles.^ 

The wood of Cupressus pygmma is soft, very coarse-grained, and pale reddish brown.^ 

1 On this poor soil the plants begin to bear cones when only a 
foot or two high, but on the borders of the barrens and of the deep 
gullies which penetrate them, where the plants occasionally escape 
for several years the fires which almost annually sweep over this 
region, they often grow in better soil to a height of thirty or forty 
feet, although from overcrowding they rarely develop the spread- 
ing branches which are peculiar to Cupressus growing in abundant 

The name pygmtea used by Lemmon to distinguish the dwarf 
plant stunted by overcrowding and insufficient nourishment is 
unfortunate as a specific name, for there is no difference between 

the smallest and the largest plants except in size; and it is proba- 
ble that individuals on the borders of the barrens, if they could be 
protected from fire, would in time grow to a large size, for the 
oldest plants now standing show no signs of maturity and none of 
them are thought to be more than fifty years old. (Teste Purdy, in 

'^ The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
is eleven and one half inches in diameter inside the bark, and is 
thirty-six years old. The sapwood is two inches thick, with thir- 
teen layers of annual growth. 


Plate DCCXL. Cuphessus pygm^a. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged- 

3- A scale of a staminate flower with its anthers, enlarged. 

4. A branch of a pistillate tree with flowers and fruitj natural size, 

5- A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A scale of a pistillate flower, upper surface, with its ovules, enlarged, 

7. A scale of a cone, side view, with its seeds, enlarged- 

8- Seeds, enlarged. 

9. Tip of a branch, enlarged- 


Silva of North Am 

enca . 



_ ' 

' 1 






A.IUocreucc dzreay 


trve^ j'Cy 

Imp . J.Ta:ne.^tr^ Farij' . 



INVESTIGATIONS made since the earKer volumes of this Silva were published have shown the 
necessity of correcting the descriptions of several species. A few of these corrections have already been 
prmted ; the others will be found in the following notes: — 

Magnolia foetida, i. 3. Magnolia grandiflora was first published by Linn^ns in 1T59 in the tenth edition 
of the Systema (ii. 1082). 

Magnolia glauca, i. 5. Magnolia glauca was first used by Linn^us as a name of a species in 1759 in the 
tenth edition of the Systema (ii. 1082). 

Extend range westward in Pennsylvania to swamps on the South Mountain at the head of the east fork of the 
Conococheague River, Frankhn County. {Teste Miss M. L. Dock, Garden and Forest, x. 402. See, also, Garden 
and Forest, vli. 398 ; viii. T9.) 

Magnolia acuminata, i. T. This name was first pubhshed by Linn^us in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 1082). 

Magnolia tripetala, i. 13. This name was first published by Linn^us in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 1082). 

Extend range to the valley of the Susquehanna River in York County, Pennsylvania, where it has been found 
near York Furnace and at Reed's Run by Professor T. C. Porter, and where it is rare and local. (See Porter 

Bidl. Torrey Bot. Club, xxv. 489.) ' . 

Liriodendron Tulipifera, i. 19. Add to the synonyms Tulipifera Liriodendron, Miller, Diet ed. 8 (1768). 

Asimina triloba, i. 23. Extend range to western New Jersey and to southeastern Nebraska, where it has 
been found in Pawnee, Richardson, Nemaha, Otoe, and Saunders counties. (See Bessey, F.ep. Sehraska State 
Board AgHc. 1899, 84.) 

" In eastern Pennsylvania Asimi?ia triloba is common along the lower Susquehanna and its tributaries, and 
on the Juniata in Mifflin and Huntingdon counties, where I found it at the head of a mountain stream sixteen 
hundred feet above the level of the sea." (Professor T. C. Porter, in Hit. See Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxv. 489.) 

Canella alba, i. 37. This tree was described by Linn^us In the first edition of the Species Flantarum, 
published in 1753 as Laurus Winterana, while the name Canella alba of Murray was not pubhshed until 1784, 
aud, under the rules of nomenclature adopted in this work, Canella Winterana of Gartner, published In 1788 
and already adopted by Sudworth, must be taken up for It. (See Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xx. 46 ; Bull. No. 14 
Biv. Forestry U.S. Bept. AgHc. 273 {Nomenclature of the Arborescent Flora of the United Statesl.-) 

Fremontia, i. 47. Fremontia having been a synonym when it was used in 1853 by Torrey as the name of his 
genus in Gheiranthodendrem, the name cannot be retained for this Cahfornia tree under the rules of nomenclature 
followed in this work ; and Fremontodendron of Coville is adopted. (See Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. Iv 74 \Bot 
Death Valley Fxped.'] [1893].) 

Fremontodendron Califomicum. Extend range northward to Siskiyou County, California, where it was 
collected by Miss A. M. Huntley In June, 1896, near SIsson, at the western base of Mt. Shasta, In August, 
1892, it was found by Mrs. T. S. Brandegee on Snow Mountain in Lake County, one of the highest peaks of the 
California coast ranges. 

Tilia heterophylla, I. 57. The northern limits of the range of this species In Pennsylvania are, according to 
Professor T. C. Porter, Pluntlngdon County, where It grows on the banks of the Juniata River; It also grows in 
Franklin County on the Conococheague. (Porter, in litt.') 

Xanthoxylum, i. Q&. The author of Fagara Is Linnaeus, Syst. ed. 10 (II. 897), published In 1759, and not 
Adanson, Fam. PI. published in 1763. 


Xanthoisylum Fagara, i. 73. Fagara Pterota was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 in the tenth 
edition o£ the Systenia (ii. 897), 

Xanthoxylum cribrosum, i. 71. According to Urban (^Bot. Jakrh. xi. 571) an older name for this tree is 
that of Vahl, Xanthoxylum flavum. The synonymy as corrected is as follows : — 

Xanthoxylum flavum, Yahl, Fclog. iii. 48 (1807) ; Shrivt. Nat. Selsh. Kjobenh. vi. 138. — Eggers, Bull. 
U. S. JSfat Herb, No. 13, 38 (^Fl. St. Croix and the Virgin Islands). — Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am, i. pt. 
i. 375. 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, De Candolle, Prodr. i. 727 (excl. syn.) (not Linnseus) (teste Urban, I. c.) 

Xanthoxylum cribrosum, Sprengel, jSyst. i. 946 (1825). — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 616 ; Silva JV. 
Am. i. 71, t. 30, 31. 

Xanthoxylum Floridanum, Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 14, t. 85 (1854). — Chapman, Fl, QQ, 

Xanthoxylum Sumach, Grisebach, Abhand, Konig. Gesell. Wiss, Gottingen, 190 ( Veg, Karaib.') (not 

Macfadyen) (1857) ; Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 138. — Walpers, Ann. vii. 528. — Eggers, Vidensk. Medd.fra Nat. 
For, Kjobenh. 1876, 108 {Fl. St. Croix). 

Xanthoxylum Caribmum, "Watson, Ind. 155 (not Lambert) (1878). 

Xanthoxylum Caribceum, var. Floridanum^ Gray, Ptoc. Am, Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 225 (1888). 

Fagara flava. Urban, Bot Jahrb. xxi. 571 (1896). 

Ptelea trifoliata, i. 76. Extend range southward in Florida to the neighborhood of Eustis, Lake County, 
where it was collected in June, 1894, by Mr. George B. Nash. 

Amyris maritima, i. 85. In the first volume of this work the name of Amyris maritima of Jacquin was 
adopted for this Florida tree. This name was first published in 1760 ; and the fact was overlooked that Linnseus 
had used for it the name of Amyris Elemifera in the tenth edition of his Systema, published three years earlier 
than the second edition of the Species Plantarum, Amyris Elemifera should therefore be adopted for the Florida 
plant, although Urban {Bot. Jahrb. xxi. 601) would separate the Amyris maritima of Jacquin from the Amyris 
Elemiflera of Linnaeus on the strength of the presence of a disk in the flower of the former and of the minute and 
variable pubescence of the latter, — differences which Kobinson has pointed out are of little value. The two species 
being united, the synonymy of our south Florida tree becomes, — 

Amyris Elemifera, Linnaeus, Syst. ed. 10, ii. 1000 (1759) ; Spec. ed. 2, i. 495 ; Amcen. Acad. vii. 65. — 
Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. iii. 279, t. 212. — Triana &■ Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 324. — Urban, 
Bot. Jahrb. xxi. 601. — Robinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 376. 

Amyris maritima, Jacquin, Enum. PL Carih. 19 (1760) ; Hist. Stirp. Am. 107. — Linnseus, Spec. ed. 

2, i. 496 (exoh syn. P. Browne). — Swartz, Obs. 148. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 218. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 

81. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. i. 231. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 174. — BaiUon, Hist. PL iv. 397, f. 447- 

451 ; Diet. i. 159, f. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 226. — Sargent, Silva N Am. i. 85, t. 36. 

Amyris Floridana, Nuttall, Am. Jour. Sci. v. 294 (1822) ; Sylva, ii. 114, t. 78. — Torrey & Gray, Fl N. 

Am. i. 221. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 561. — Chapman, FL 68. 

Amyris sylvatica, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 81 (1825). — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 174 (in part). — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 33. 

Amyris Plumieri, Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 66 (1866). — Sauvalle, Fl. Cub. 20. 
Amyris maritima, var. angustifolia, Gray, Proc. Am, Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 226 (1888). 
Amyris sylvatica, var. Plumieri, Maza, A7iaL Soc. Fsp. Hist. Nat. xix. 229 (1890). 
Elemifera maritima, Otto Kuntze, Rev. Gen. i. 100 (1891). 
XCGeberllnia spinosa, i. 93. Extend range westward through southern New Mexico and Arizona to the foot- 
hills and mesas in the neighborhood of Tucson, where it is very abundant as a broad low shrub. 

Ilex Paraguariensis, i. 104. For the synonymy of the different species of Ilex and other plants from which 
Mate or Paraguay Tea is obtained, see N. E. Brown, Few Bull. Miscellaneous Information, May and June, 1892, 

Ilex decidua, i. 113. Extend range to southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, xii. «). 

Evonymus atropurpureus, ii. 11. This tree occurs occasionally in woods in the valley of the Sioux River 
in the extreme southeastern part of South Dakota and ranges up the valley of the Missouri River into Charles Mix 
County (see Saunders, Bull. No. 64 South Dakota Agric. College, 169 [^Ferns and Flowering Plants of South 
Dahota'Y) ; extend range also to central Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, xii. a). 


Rhamnus Caroliniana, ii. 35. The range of this species from Long Island, New York, should be emended 
to read from Virginia. The northern station was admitted on the authority of the Catalogues of New York and of 
New Jersey Plants (Britten, Stearns & Poggenburg, Cat. PL JV. V. 11 [1888] ; Britton, Cat. PI JSf. J. T6 
[1889]) ; but it now appears that the Khamnus of Long Island and New Jersey referred to this species is Rham- 
nus Frangula, Linnaeus, which has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized. (See Britton, Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Cluh, xxi. 184, 233. — Britton & Brown, 111. FL ii. 406.) 

Rharamis Purshiana, ii. 27. It was not in Siberia, but at Grossenbain in Saxony, that Frederick Pursh 
was born on February 4, 1774. (See C. A. Pursch, Flora, 1827, ii. 491.) 

.ffisculus glabra, ii. 55. Extend range westward to Pawnee, Richardson, and Nemaha counties, southeastern 
Nebraska (Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agrk. 1899, 89), and to eastern Texas, 

The Texas form is, — 

jjEscuIus glabra, var. BucJdeyi. 

jTJscuIus arguta, Buckley, Proc. Phil Acad. 1860, 443 (not ^sculus Pavia, var. arguta, Lindley). — 
Britton & Brown, III FL ii. 401, f. 2383. 

^sculus glabra, var. arguta, Robinson, Gray Syn. FL N. Am. i. pt. i, 447 (1897). 
This variety, which ranges from Iowa to Kansas and eastern Texas, may be distinguished by its six to seven- 
foliolate leaves, with narrower lanceolate more acuminate and usually more sharply and generally doubly serrate 
leaflets than are usually found on j^sculus glabra. It was first distinguished at Larissa, Cherokee County, Texas, 
by S. B. Buckley. 

Hypelate trifoliata, ii. 77. Add specific gravity of absolutely dry wood 0.9102; and weight per cubic 
foot 56.72 pounds. 

Acer glabrum, ii. 95. Extend range northwestward along the Pacific coast to the passes at the head of the 
Lynn Canal, Alaska, or nearly to latitude 60° north. This plant is not rare on the coast of southeastern Alaska, 
although probably it is always shrubby. (See Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 81, as Acer rubrum ; see, also, 
F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrb. xix. 369 IFL Chilcatgebietes'].} Near Esquimo, Vancouver Island, on rocky sea cliffs 
this Maple grows to the height of forty feet and forms a trunk eighteen inches in diameter ; and I have seen it 
of nearly the same size on the banks of streams among the Blue Mountains of Washington at an elevation of 
about four thousand feet above the sea. Extend range southward along the Sierra Nevada to the eastern fork of 
the Kaweah River, where in September, 1896, I found it as a bush five or six feet high at elevations of from eight 
thousand to nine thousand feet above the sea-level ; and eastward to the elevated regions of Sioux and Scott's Bluff 
counties, northwestern Nebraska. (See Bessey, Rep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1899, 89.) 

Acer Negundo, ii. 111. " I am not certain if this tree is native in Pennsylvania. Around Easton it is 
spread everywhere over fields from the seeds of trees planted along the streets of the city." (T. C. Porter, in litt.') 

Cotinus Americanus, iii. 3. Extend range to southwestern Missouri where it is common on the bluffs and 
rocky banks of streams tributary to the White River, and was first found during the summer of 1897 by Professor 
William Trelease on Swan Creek in the neighborhood of Taney City. 

It is still common on the low limestone ridges about three miles east of Huntsville, Alabama. 

Rhus Metopium, iii. 13. This name was first published by Linn^us in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 964). 

Rhus typhina, iii. 15. The Staghorn Sumach was described by Linnteus in the first edition of the Species 
Plantarum under the name of Datisca Mrta, and it appears only in one of his later works as Rhus typhina. 
According to the rules of nomenclature followed In this work the first Linnsean specific name must be used and 
Rhus hirta, Sudworth, is therefore adopted for the Staghorn Sumach. The synonymy of this species as amended 
is as follows : — 

Rhus hirta, Sudworth, BulL Torr. Bot. Club, xix. 81 (1892). — Britton & Brown, IlL Fl. ii. 386, f. 2348. — 
Britton, Man. 600. 

Datisca hirta, LinnEeus, Spec. 1037 (1753). 

Rhus typhina, Linn^us, Syst. ed. 10, ii. 963 (1759) ; Amcen. iv. 311. 

Toxicodendron typhinum, O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. i. 154 (1891). 

To this species were referred by Watson (Index), on what authority I do not know, and by some later authors, 
Rhus Canadense, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, No. 5 (1768), Rhus hypselodendron, Moench, Meth. 73 (1794), and Rhus 
viridijlorum, Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 163 (1808?). — Poiret, Lamarch Diet. vii. 504. 

To his Rhus typhina, (i viridifiora, Engler, De CandoUe Monog. Phaner. iv. 378 (1883), refers the Rhus 
•uiridiflora of Poiret. 


Rhus copallina, iii. 19. Extend range to Richardson County, southeastern Nebraska (Bessey, Rep. 
Nebraska State Board Agric. 1899, 90) ; and to eastern and southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas^ 
xii. «). 

Cladrastis, iii. 55. It has usually been supposed that this genus was first published by Eafinesque in 1825 
in his Neogenyton^ or Indication of Sixty-six New Species of Plants of North America ; but it was really 
published by him on February 21, 1824, on page 60 of the first volume of the Cincinnati Literary Gazette 
{Neophyton No. 1). 

The buds of Cladrastis are naked and are not as described, " covered individually with thin lanceolate scales," 
and it is the young leaves and not bud-scales which are coated with lustrous tomentum. 

Cladrastis lutea, iii. 57. Extend range to northern Alabama, where it was found in 1892 on the bluffs of 
the Tennessee River near Elorence by Dr. C. Mohr as a shrub from six to eight feet high, and to Eagle Rock, 
Barry County, southwestern Missouri, where it was collected in June, 1897, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 

Add to the synonymy of this species : — 

.^ SopJiora Kentuelcea^ Du Mont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 56 (1811). 
Cladrastis frag rans., Rafinesque, Cincinnati Literary Gazette^ i. 60 (Feb. 21, 1824). 

Gleditsia triacanthos, iii. 75. Extend range to Houston County in the extreme southeastern part of Min- 
nesota. (See Wheeler, Minnesota Botanical Studies^ ser. 2, pt. iv. 392.) 

G-leditsia aquatica, iii. 79. Extend range to western Illinois, where it is common on the bottoms of the 
Mississippi River opposite St. Louis, and where it was found near Cahokia in 1877 by Henry Eggert ; and to La 
Pointe, St. Charles County, Missouri, where it was found in October, 1882, by Mr. Eggert. 

Cercis Canadensis, iii. 95. Extend range to southern Ontario, where it was found on July 27, 1892, on 
Pelee Island in Lake Erie by Mr. John Macoun ; and to eastern and southeastern Nebraska. QTeste Herb. 
University of Nebraska.) 

Cercis Texensis, iii. 97. In the first line of the description of this tree " twenty or nearly forty feet in height " 
should read, — rarely forty feet in height, — and in the eighth line it should read that the petioles are abruptly 
enlarged and not contracted at both ends. 

Pithecolobium, iii. 131. An older name for this genus is Zygia of Patrick Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 279 
(1756) ; and as Ichthyomethia (iii. 51) of Browne has been adopted in this work instead of the more commonly 
used Piscidium of Linnseus, the same rule must be applied in the case of Zygia, and the three North American 
arborescent species become Zygia Unguis-cati, Sudworth, Zygia trevifolia^ Sudworth, and Zygia flexicaulis, 
Sudworth. (See Bidl. No. 14 Div. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 248 \^Nomenclature of the Arborescent Flora 

of the United States'].') 

Pruniis nigra, iv. 15. Extend range to southeastern Minnesota, where it grows in Houston County on the 
bottoms of the north and south forks of Crooked Creek and on Winnebago Creek, and in East Burns Valley, 
Winona County. (See Wheeler, Minnesota Botanical St'tidies, ser. 2, pt. iv. 392.) 

Prunus hortulana, iv. 23. Extend range to eastern and southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, The Industrialist, 
ZSZ [Flora of Fansas]). 

Prunus subcordata, iv. 31. Extend range to the dry plains north of upper Klamath Lake iu southern 
Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains, where I found it in August, 1896, as a stunted shrub only three or four 
feet in height. 

Prunus emarginata, iv. 37. Extend range southward along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the 
head of Kern River. (See Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 90 \_Bot. Death Valley Fxped.'].) On the 
middle fork of the Kaweah River I found it in September, 1896, growing abundantly in dense thickets from four 
to six feet in height at an elevation of about eight thousand feet above the sea-level ; extend range also to the San 
Rafael Mountains in Santa Barbara County, California, where it was found by Dr. F. Franceschi in May, 1894, 
and to the neighborhood of Flagstaff and the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona, where it was collected in 
June and July, 1891, by Mr. D. T. McDougal. 

Prunus Caroliniana, iv. 49. In the second paragraph of the description of this tree Mississippi should be 
substituted for Missouri. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, iv. 63. Extend range to Snow Lake Valley, Klamath County, Oregon, where it 
was collected on June 9, 1896, by Mr. Elmer I. Applegate ; and to the Blue Mountains of Washington, where, on 
July 31, 1896, 1 found a single tree on the Touchet River at an elevation of about five thousand feet above the 


Pyrus sambucifolia, iv. 81. In tlie fourth volume of this work published in 1892 two species of Pyrus of 
the section Sorbus were admitted, Pyrus Americana, De CandoUe, a widely distributed eastern species, and a tree 
of the northeast, referred to Pyrus sambucifolia, Chamisso & Schlechtendal, which is a species of northeastern 
Asia and which was believed to be widely scattered also through western North America and to cross the continent 
to the shores of Labrador, An examination of the type specimen of Pyrus samhucifolia preserved in the herba- 
rium of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg shows that that species differs from the plant which was 
figured in this Silva as Pyrus samhucifolia and from the different shrubby species of Sorbus of western North 
America. From these the eastern tree may be distinguished by its abruptly acuminate leaves and larger fruits 
usually in broader and more numerously fruited clusters. 

The tree of the northeast, the Pyrus samhucifolia of the fourth volume of The Siha^ in its typical form is 
easily distinguished from Pyrus Americana by its broader abruptly acuminate blue-green leaflets, by its larger 
flowers which usually open eight or ten days later, and by its much larger fruits ; but there are forms which appear 
intermediate between the two or are possibly hybrids between them, and the best observers are still in doubt whether 
this tree should be considered a species or a variety of Pyrus Americana. For the present, therefore, it may be 
well to consider it a variety, for which I suggest the name of decora in allusion to its handsome fruit. 

The synonymy of this tree would then be : — 

Pyrus Americana^ var. decora. 

Sorhus aucuparia, ji Michaux, Fl. Bor.Am. i. 290 (1803). 

Pyrus aucuparia, Meyer, PI. Lah. 81 (in part) (not Linnseus) (1830). 

Pyrus samhucifolia. Gray, Man. ed. 5, 161 (in part) (not Chamisso & Schlechtendal) (1868). — Macoun, 

Cat. Can. PI. 146 (in part). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. Wth Census U. S. ix. 74 (in part) ; Silva 

N. Am. iv. 81 (in part), t. 173, 174. — Macmillan, Metaspermm of the Minnesota Valley, 283 (in part). — 

Eand & Eedfield, Fl. Mt Desert Island, 98. 

Sorhus samhucifolia, Britton & Brown, HI. Fl. ii. 233 (in part), f. 1976 (not Eoemer) (1897). — Brit- 
ton, Man. 515. 

Pyrus Americana, var. decora ranges from the coast of Labrador to the northern shores of Lake Superior 
and to Minnesota, and southward to the elevated regions of northern New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. 

Lyonothamnus floribundus, iv. 135. Extend range to San Clemente Island, California, where it was dis- 
covered in 1896 by Mrs. Blanche Trask. (See Erythea, v. 30.) 

Hamamelis Virginiana, v. 3. This name was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 90). 

Rhizophora Mangle, v. 15. The Mangrove grows in the United States probably only in Florida, and the 
previous statements that it grows on the delta of the Mississippi Kiver and on the coast of Texas are, I now believe, 

Eugenia procera, v. 47. Add specific gravity of absolutely dry wood 0.9453 ; and weight per cubic foot 


68,91 pounds. 

Cornus florida^ v. ^^. Extend range to southeastern Kansas (Hitclicock, Flora of S^ansas^ xiii.). 

Nyssa Ogeche, v. 79. Extend range to the basin of the lower Appalachicola Eiver, where it is very abundant 
on the borders of Cypress swamps down to within a few miles of the Gulf coast, and where it grows to the 
height of sixty or seventy feet, and usually forms several stems which are sometimes a foot and a half in 


The excellent quality of the honey made from the abundant nectar of the flowers of this tree is recognized, 
and bee farms have been established on the lower Appalachicola River in the neighborhood of the swamps where 

it grows. 

Nyssa aquatica, v. 83. Add to the bibliography of Nyssa aquatica of Linn^us, Linnseus, Syst. ed. 10, 

il 1313 (1759). 

Sambucus glauca, v- 91. Extend range eastward through northern Idaho to northern Montana, where in 
July, 1896, I found it growing as a shrub from four to six feet in height near Columbia Ealls, north of Flathead 


Viburnum Lentago, v. 96. Extend range to South Dakota, where it is common in the valley of the 

Minnesota Eiver and in the valleys of the Black Hills, and occurs near Sioux Falls in the Sioux River valley (see 

Saunders, Bull. No. 64 South Dakota Agric. College, 196 \_Ferns and Flowering Plants of South Dakota]) ; 

to the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, where it was found in August, 1900, by Mr. J. G. Jack, at an elevation 

of forty-three hundred feet above the level of the sea ; and to eastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, xvii.). 


h i 

Vaccinium arboreum, v. 119. Extend range to southeastern Kansas, where it has been found by E. N. 
Plank near Galena, Cherokee County. 

Arbutus Andrachne, v. 122. This name was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 1024). 

Andromeda ferrugiuea, v. 131, Extend range to Tampa, Florida, where it was collected March 29, 1898, 
by C. S. Sargent ; to Appalaehicola, where it was collected in low sandy Pine barrens March 10, 1888, by Dr. A. 
W. Chapman ; and to Mary Esther, Santa Eosa County, Elorida, where it was found by Dr. C. Mohr in October, 


Osydendrum arboreum, v. 135. Extend range to Exmore, Hampton, and Old Point Comfort on the 
east coast of Virginia, where it is abundant. QTeste W. M. Canby.) 

Chrysophyllum oliviforme, v. 161. What is probably the Elorida tree, judging from Plumier's figure 
{PL Am. ed. Burmann, t. 69), was first described by Linnseus as Chrysophyllum olimforme in the tenth edition 
of the Systema (p. 937), published in 1759, and not by Lamarck, 


Add to the synonyms : — 

Chrysophyllum Cainito /3, Linnseus, Spec. 192 (1753). 

Bumelia lanuginosa, v. 171. Extend range to Eustis, Lake County, Florida, where it was found in July, 
1895, by Mr. G. B. Nash ; to the neighborhood of Appalaehicola, Florida, where it was collected in June, 1897, 
by Dr. A. W. Chapman; and to southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas ^ xiii.). 

Fraxinus quadrangulata, vi. 35. Extend range to southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, 

Fraxinus anomala, vl. 39. Extend range to the canon of the Gunnison River at Grand Junction, western 
Colorado, where it has been found by Miss Alice Eastwood (see Zoe, ii. 232), to the banks of Grand River in 
Utah, where it has also been collected by Miss Alice Eastwood (see Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, vi. 305) ; to the 
southern rim of the Grand Canon of the Colorado River, where it was found at Talfrey, Arizona, in September, 
1894, by Tourney and Sargent; and to the Mogollon Mountains, New Mexico, where it was collected in April, 
1881, by Professor E. L. Greene. 

. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, vi, 49. Extend range to central Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, xiii.). 

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var, lanceolata, vi. 50. Extend range southward in Florida to the deep river- 
swamps of the lower Appalaehicola River basin, where it is very abundant and grows probably to its largest size, 
often forming trunks three feet in diameter ; and to Assiniboin, where it was collected by Mr. John Macoun on 
the shores of Old "Wives' Lakes in 1895 and south of Moose Jaw in 1896. (See Canadian Record of Science, 
vii. 281.) 

Large quantities of lumber manufactured from this tree in the sawmills of Appalaehicola are sent to the 
north, where it is used in the interior finish of houses and in cabinet-making. 

Catalpa Catalpa, vi. 86. Catalpa communis was first published in 1802 in the first edition of Du Mont 
de Courset's Bat. Cult. (ii. 189). 

Crescentia cuourbitina, vi. 99. Remove from the synonyms Crescentia ovata, Burmann, an East Indian 
species, and add Crescentia ovata, Sudworth {Bull. No. 14 JDiv. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 336 [Nomen- 
clature of the Arborescent Species of the United States'] [not Urban] [1887]). 

. Sassafras Sassafras, vii. 17. Extend range to the neighborhood of "Wells, York County, Maine, where it 
was found September 16, 1895, by Mr. "Walter Deane ; and to the neighborhood of Sarnia, Lambton County, 
Ontario. (See Canadian Record of Science, vii. 285.) 

TTlmus campestris, vii. 40. Add to the synonyms : — 
Vlmus nitens, Moench, Meth. 333 (1794). 
Ulmus surculosa, Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. ii. 35 (1812). 
TTlmus scabra, vii. 40. An older name for this tree is Vlmus glabra, Hudson, Fl. Angl. 95 (1762). 
Add to the synonyms : — 

Ulmus latifolia, Moench, Meth. 333 (1794). 
TTlmus iBBvis, vii. 40. Add to the synonyms : — 

Ulmus racemosa, Borkhausen, Handb. Forstbot. i. 851 (1800). 
TTlmus racemosa, vii. 48. This name was used by Borkhausen in 1800 for a European species of Elm 
{Handb. Forstbot. i. 851), and therefore was not applicable to the American tree, for which the name Ulmus 
Thomasi is proposed. 


Extend range to Woodruff's Gap, Sussex County, l^^vf Jersey, where it was found by Porter & Britton 
September 17, 1867 ; and to Marathon, Langlade, and Shawano counties, central Wisconsin, where it is still 
sufficiently abundant to be of commercial importance. {Teste G. B. Sudworth.) 

In western Missouri JJlmus Thomasi is not rare in the valley of the Missouri Eiver near Courtney, 
where it was found by Mr. B. F. Bush in April, 1894, and near Kansas City, where it was found the following 
year by Mr. William Mackenzie. It is not known to me to grow naturally in Tennessee, where it is replaced by 
Ulmus serotina. (See xiv. 41.) 

tJlmus fulva, vii. 53. Extend range to western and northern Kansas (Hitchcock, The Industrialist, 
xxiv. 323 \_Flora of Kansas'Y). 

Celtis occidentalis, vii. 67. Extend range to the extreme western part of Kansas (Hitchcock, The 
Industrialist, xxiv. 323 \_Flora of Kansas']^. 

Celtis Mississippiensis, vii. 71. Extend range into southwestern Kansas (Hitchcock, The Industrialist 
xxiv. 323 \_Flora of KansasJ). i 

Morus rubra, vii. 79. Extend range to Pownal in southwestern Vermont, where there are a few small 
plants which were first noticed about 1830 by William Oakes (see Thompson, History of Vermont, Natural, 
Civil, and Statistical, pt. i. 196), and rediscovered in August, 1898, by Mr. W. W. Eggleston (see Clark, Bull. 
No. 73 Vermont Agric. Fxper. Stat. 64. — Brainerd, Jones & Eggleston, Fl. Vermont, 35) ; and to the valley 
of the Sioux River in the southeastern county of South Dakota. (See Saunders, Bull. No. 64 S. Dakota Agric. 
College, 134 \Ferns and Flowering Plants of South Dahota'].^ 

Juglans cinerea, vii. 118. This name was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Sy sterna (ii. 1272). 

Juglans nigra, vii. 121. Extend range westward in Kansas to the latitude of the ninety-ninth meridian 
(Hitchcock, The Industrialist, xxiv. 323 [^Flora of Kansas'Y) • 

Hicoria minima, vii. 141. The statement on page 143 that " north of the coast Pine belt of Alabama and 
Mississippi it is the most multiplied species on the poor dry gravelly soil of the uplands " should refer to Hicoria 
villosa. (See xiv. 47.) In this region and in central Georgia Hicoria minima appears to be confined to river- 
banks, and, although it grows in this region to its largest Isize, it is not common. The most southern points from 
which I have seen specimens are the banks of the Appalachicola Eiver below Chattahoochee, Elorida, where it 

was found by Dr. Charles Mohr in June, 1880, and CuUman, Alabama, where it was collected by Dr. Mohr in 

March, 1884. 

Hicoria laciniosa, vii. 157. Extend range to southeastern Michigan, where it is abundant on Belle Isle in 
the Detroit River, and where it was found by C. S. Sargent in May, 1899, and to Ontario adjacent to the Detroit 
River ; to Richardson County, southeastern Nebraska, where it was first found in 1890 Qeste Herb. University 
of Nebraska) ; to the bottoms of Chattanooga Creek, Chattanooga, Tennessee, where it grows to a large size, and 
was found on October 6, 1898, by John Muir, W. M. Canby, and C. S. Sargent; and to the neighborhood of 
Farmington, Davis County, North Carolina, where it was found on the flats of Dutchman's Creek in 1895 by Mr. 
F. E. Boynton. Large trees of this species, some of them probably planted more than a hundred years ago are 
growing at Clalrmont, Brandon, Shirley, and other estates on the James River, Virginia, where this tree is 
called Gloucester Broad-nut- 

Quercus alba, viii. 16. Extend range westward in Canada to the shores of Rainy Lake, Ontario, where it 
was found in 1896 by Mr, W. Mclnness. (See Canadian Record of Science^ vii. 285-) 

Quercus macrocarpa, viii, 43. Extend range to Winslow and Waterville, Kennebec County, Maine, where 
it is abundant in dry woods and where it was found in September, 1898, by Mr, M- L, Fernald ; to the southern 
borders of Berkshire County, Massachusetts, where it is rare and local (see Averill, Rhodora^ ii. 36) ; and to 
the neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware, where a single large tree growing in the woods was first noticed in 
1890 by Mr. W. M, Canby. 

Quercus Douglasii, viii. 79- Quercus (Erstediana (R. Brown Campst. Ann. Mag. JVat. Hist. ser. 4, vii. 
250 [18T1]), doubtfully referred to Quercus Garryana (viii. 29), is shown to be Quercus Douglasii by Mr. 
Brown's specimens recently presented by his son to the Royal Gardens at Kew, 

Quercus chrysolepis, viii. 105. Quercus oblongifolia (R- Brown Campst. Ann. Mag. Nat Hist ser. 4, 
vii. 252 [notTorrey] [1871]), doubtfully referred to Q, Douglasii (viii. 79), is shown to be Quercus chrysolepis 
sub-species vacciniifolia^ by Mr. Brown's specimens recently presented by his son to the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

Quercus tomentella, viii. 109- Extend range to San Clemente Island, California, where it was discovered 
in 1896 by Mrs. Blanche Trask. (See Erythca, v. 30-) 


Quercus myrtifolia, viii. 123. On the sandy shores of St. George's Sound, near Carribel, to the eastward 
of the mouth of the Appalachicola River in Florida, Quercus myrtifolia sometimes assumes a treelike habit, rising 
to a height of twenty-five feet and forming a straight trunk from four to six inches in diameter. 

Quercus Texana, viii. 129. Extend range through northern Alabama, southeastern Tennessee, and northern 
Georgia to the banks of the Congaree River near Columbia, South Carolina, where it grows to a very large 
size and where it was found in May, 1897, by W, M. Canby and C. S. Sargent, to the Piedmont plateau of 
North Carolina (Ashe, Bot. Gazette^ xxiv. 376), and to the Atlantic coast plain in Onslow County, North 
Carolina (Ashe, Bot. Gazette^ xxviii. 271). It is common but of small size on dry limestone hills near Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, on Orchard Knob and other limestone hills near Chattanooga, Tennessee, on the dry banks of the 
Coosa River at Rome, Georgia, and near Atlanta, Georgia. Extend range also to Starkville, Oktibbeha County, 
Mississippi, where it was found in October, 1894, by Professor M. S. Tracy; to Post Oak, Lowndes County, 
Mississippi, where it was collected by Br. Charles Mohr in October, 1894 ; and to southeastern Kansas (Hitch- 
cock, The Industrialist^ xxiv. 323 \_FloTa of FansasY)- 

Quercus velutlna, viii. 137. Extend range to southeastern Nebraska, where it was collected near Nebraska 
City in 1894 by Mr. J. H. Masters. (^Teste Herb. University of Nebraska.) 
* Quercus palustris, viii. 151. Extend range to southwestern Tennessee, where it is common on bottom- 

lands in the neighborhood of Memphis. 

Quercus imbricaria, viii. 175. It was probably an error to consider this tree an inhabitant of Wisconsin. 
The neighborhood of Muscatine in southeastern Iowa is now believed to be the most northern station, where it 
grows in the Mississippi valley. (^Teste L. H. Pammel.) 

Fagus Americana, ix. 27. The range of this tree in Wisconsin is confined to the eastern counties, where 
it is common, especially near the shores of Lake Michigan. 

Ostrya Virginiana, ix. 34. Extend range southward in Florida to Lake City, Columbia County, where it 
was collected in July, 1895, by Mr. G. B. Nash. During the summer of 1899 Mr. C. G. Pringle found this tree 
in the neighborhood of Jalapa in southern Mexico. 

Carpinus Caroliniana, ix. 42. During the summer of 1899 Mr. C. G. Pringle found in Mexico Carpinus 
Caroliniana on the mountains near Jalapa and Orizaba at an elevation of about four thousand feet above the level 
of the sea and at an elevation of six thousand feet above the sea near Cuernavaca, where in the deep rich canons of 
the mountains which form the southern rim of the valley of Mexico this tree, surpassing in size all the known Horn- 
beams of the world, reaches a height of one hundred feet and forms a trunk from three to four feet in diameter. 

Betula lenta, ix. 60. Extend range to central Iowa, where it was found in 1900 at Steamboat Rock near the 
banks of the Iowa River by L. H. Pammel. 

Betula papyrifera, ix. 57. Extend range to central Iowa, where it was found in June, 1900, at Steamboat 
Bock near the banks of the Iowa River by L. H. Pammel. 

Alnus, ix. 67. Betula and Alnus were first united by Linnseus in the tenth edition of the Systema (ii. 
1265), published in 1759, and subsequently in the sixth edition of the Genera^ published in 1764. 

Alnus glutinosa, ix. 69. Betula glutinosa was first published in 1759 by Linnseus in the tenth edition of 
the Systema (ii. 1265), and subsequently by Lamarck in 1783. 

Alnus tenuifolia, ix. 75. Extend range northward in British Columbia to latitude 61, where it was found 
on the shores of Francis Lake on July 16, 1887, by Dr. G. M. Dawson; and eastward along the Saskatchewan to 
the neighborhood of Prince Albert, where it was found in July, 1896, by Mr. John Macoun. (See, also, xiv. 62.) 

Myrica cerifera, ix. 87. Extend range northward to Millsborough, Sussex County, Delaware, where it is 
common in sandy barrens as a low broad shrub, and where it was found on October 12, 1898, by John Muir, 
W. M. Canby, and C. S. Sargent ; and to Cape May, New Jersey, where it was found March 30, 1899, by Mr. 
W. M. Canby, and where in sandy soil close to the sea it is a tree from twenty-five to thirty feet in height. 

Salix Wardi, ix. 107. This is the common Willow of the Ozark mountain region of southwestern Missouri 
and northwestern and western Arkansas, where it is very abundant on rocky banks of all streams, often growing 
to the height of thirty feet, and forming a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. 

Salix Bebbiana, ix. 131. Extend range to the shores of Cook Inlet, Alaska. (See Coville, Proc. Wash- 
ington Acad. Sci, ii. 283; iii. 306.) 

Salix Missouriensis, ix. 137. Extend range eastward to Iowa, where this tree grows in the Mississippi 
River valley near Sioux City in the extreme northwestern part of Lyon County, and in the Mississippi River 
valley in the neighborhood of Davenport and Muscatine (see Ball, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sd. vii. 152) ; and through 
northeastern Kansas to Riley County, Kansas (Hitchcock, The Industrialist^ xxiv. 323 [Flora of KansasJ). 


Salix Sitchensis, ix. 149. In Alaska Salix SUchensis ranges northward and westward to the shores of 
Cook Inlet and Kadiak Island, ascending to elevations of at least fourteen hundred feet above the sea-level. The 
wood is sometimes used by the coast Indians of southern Alaska for frying salmon, as the smoke does not give a 
bad taste to the fish. The pounded bark is employed to heal the flesh of cuts and wounds. (See Coville, Proc. 

Washington Acad. Sci. ii. 278 ; iii. 307.) 

Populus tremuloides, ix. 158. Change range from southern Nebraska to Pine Ridge, northwestern Ne- 
braska. (Teste Professor C. E. Bessey.) " In the valley of the Yukon and its tributaries Populus tremuloides is 
abundant on old river levels and dry hillsides, but rarely occurs on the rich bottom-lands. It seldom exceeds 
twelve inches in diameter or fifty or sixty feet in height. Populus halsamifera is much less common, although it 
IS fairly abundant on all bottom-lands and creeks and river banks. It is a much larger tree than Populus tremu- 
lo'tdes, sometimes reaching sixteen or eighteen inches in diameter and about seventy feet or more in height when 
growing on rich alluvial soil." (M. W. Gorman, in litt.') 

Populus grandidentata, ix. 161. Extend range to northeastern Iowa and southward along the Mississippi 
River to the neighborhood of Muscatine, to Steamboat Rock on the Iowa River, in Hardin County, and to the 
Ledges, Boone County, in the central part of Iowa. (Teste L, H. Pammel.) 

Populus heterophylla, ix. 163. Extend range in Connecticut northward to Southington, where it was found 
during the summer of 1901 by Mr. C. H. Bissell. - 

Populus angustifolia, ix. 171. Extend range to the Chiricahua Mountains in the extreme southern part of 
Arizona, where it was found in 1897 by Professor J. W. Toumey. 

Oreodoxa regia, x. 31. In 1774 William Bartram visited the upper St. John River, Florida, and noticed 
Palm-trees which seemed to him "to be of a different species from the Cabbage-tree; their strait trunks are 
sixty, eighty, or ninety feet high, with a beautiful taper of a bright ash colour, imtil within six or seven feet of the 
top, where it is a fine green colour, crowned with an orb of rich green plumed leaves : I have measured the stem of 
these plumes fifteen feet in length, besides the plume, which is nearly of the same lengtK" (Travels, 115.) 

Of the Palms of Florida this description can apply only to Oreodoxa regia, although I cannot learn that it 
now grows anywhere near the St. John River or that it has been seen there by any later traveler. It is possible 
that it is these trees to which Nuttall alludes in the preface of his Syha of North America (p. viii.). 

Juniperus Utahensis, x. 81. Add to the synonymy : — 

Juniperus Knighti, Nelson, Bot. Gazette, xxv. 198, f. 1, 2 (1898) ; Bull. No. 40 Wyoming Exp. 

Stat. 88, f. 18, 19 (Trees of Wyoming^) ; and extend range into southern Wyoming, where it is common in 

the Red Desert region from the Seminole Mountains to Green River. 

Juniperus sabinoides, x. 91. This name as applied to this tree was first published by Nees von Esenbeck 
in Liniima, xix. 706, in 1847. The great Cedar Brake on the San Bernard River in Brazoria County, Texas, is 
composed of this species, which sometimes attains a height of a hundred feet here. (Teste B. F. Bush, who visited 
it in 1900.) 

Cupressus Macnabiana, x. 109. Extend range from central Napa County, California, where it has been 
found by Mr. Carl Purdy on Mt. iEtna, northward through Lake County, where it is now known to abound on 
the tributaries of the Lake, and on the slopes of Mt. Raynor, and to Red Mountain on the eastern side of Ukiah 
valley in Mendocino County, where it has been found by Mr. Purdy. In July, 1901, Miss Alice Eastwood found 
Cupressus Macnabiana on the road between Shasta and Whiskeytown, Trinity County, California, probably 
near the place where it was originally discovered by Jeffrey. (See Bull. Sierra Club, iv. 41.) 

Cupressus Nootkatensis, x. 115. Extend range eastward to Stevens' Pass in northeastern Washington, 
where it was found by J. H. Sandberg and J. P. Leiberg at elevations of from four thousand to six thousand feet 
above the sea in August, 1893 ; and northwestward to Khantaak Island in Yakutat Bay, where a single tree was 
seen by Frederick Funston in 1892. (See Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 328.) 

Thuya occidentalis, x. 126. Extend range to northeastern Tennessee, where it was found on the Holston 
River at Fishdam, Sullivan County, on June 10, 1897, by Mr. G. B. Sudworth. 

Thuya gigantea, x. 129. Yas Bay is the extrem.e northwestern station from which I have seen specimens of 
this tree. Southeast of Yas Bay it is not rare on the Alaska coast, growing from the sea-level up to elevations of 
fifteen hundred feet and surpassed only by the Tideland Spruce in size. 

Masters has shown that the oldest name for this tree is Thuya plicata, which should be adopted for it. (See 
Card. Chron. ser. 3, xxi. 101, 213, 258.) Thuya plicata was first used by James Donn in the fourth edition of 
the Tlortus Cantabrigiensis, published in 1807, but as the name was unaccompanied by any description it becomes 


a nomen nudum, and the author of the species is David Don, who described this tree in the second volume of Lam- 
bert's Genus Pinusy published in 1824, his description being based on a specimen collected by Nee (see viii. 25) 
and preserved in the British Museum. Nee's specimen is ascribed to New Spain, but, as Dr. Masters points out, 
this is clearly an error in the inscription on the label as there is no Thuya in Mexico, and Nee in his voyage with 
Malasplna also visited different parts of the northwest coast. Malaspina's voyage extended from 1789 to 1794, 
when he arrived on his return in Cadiz, so that it is Nee who discovered this tree and not Menzies, who was not at 
Nootka Sound until 1796. The Thuya plicata of northwestern America discovered by Nee and subsequently by 
Menzies must not be confounded with the Thuya plicata of gardens, which is a form of Thuya occidentalis of 

n r 

eastern America. 

Libocedrus decurrens, x. 135. Extend range eastward in southern Oregon to the eastern slope of the 
Cascade Mountains, where it is common above the shores of Upper Klamath Lake at elevations of about twenty- 
two hundred feet and where it does not grow to a large size. On the Warner Range still farther east it grows in 
the Yellow Pine belt, but it is not common and rarely forms a trunk exceeding two feet in diameter (C. Hart 
Merriam, in litt.^. Extend range in California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, to Mt. San Carlos near New Idria 
in San Benito County, and to the San Rafael Mountains in Santa Barbara County, where it was found in May, 
1894, at elevations of five thousand feet above the sea by Dr. F. Franceschi. 

Sequoia, x. 139. Emend description of the fruit to read "maturing during its first or second season." The 
fruit of Sequoia sempervirens appears always to ripen during one season, but in the case of Sequoia Wellingtonia, 
which flowers early in the year, the young cone grows during the first season to about half its full size and, beginning 
to grow again late in the winter or in very early spring, attains its full size in May, when the seeds are ready to 
germinate, although the cones do not open naturally until August or September after the hot dry season. (See 
Sargent, Garden and Forest, x. 514, f. QQ.') 

Finus quadrifolia, xi. 43. Extend range in California to the desert slopes of the Santa Rosa Mountains, 
Riverside County, where it is abundant at an elevation of five thousand feet above the level of the sea and where 
it has been found by Mr. H. M. Hail. (See Frythea, vii. 89.) 

Pinus clausa, xi. 127. Extend range southward along the east coast of Florida to five or six miles south of 
New River or Fort Lauderdale. 

Pinus glabra, xi. 131. Extend range to central Mississippi, where it is common on the low wooded borders 
of streams and swamps, and to the swamps adjacent to Bayou Phalia, eastern Louisiana. 

Pinus divaricata, xi. 147. Extend range to the eastern slope of Green Mountain, Mount Desert Island, 
Maine, where it was found by Mr. E. L. Rand in July, 1898. (See Rhodora, i. 135.) 

Larix Americana, xii. 7. Extend range southward to Preston County, West Virginia, where in May, 1897, 

it was found by Professor A. D, Hopkins near Cranesville at an elevation of about twenty-three hundred and sixty 

feet above the level of the sea growing in a sphagnum-covered swamp. (See lO^A Ann, Rep. West Virginia Agric. 

Fxp, Stat. 50.) 

Larix Lyallii, xii. 15. Extend range southward in the United States along the continental divide, where it 

has been found to extend in many scattered colonies, to the neighborhood of Camp Creek Pass at the head of the 
middle fork of Sun River. Here it forms a pure forest of considerable extent at an elevation of from seven 
thousand to eight thousand feet above the sea-level, and was found by Mr. H. B. Ayres in August, 1899 ; and to 
Pend d'Oreille Pass between the waters of the Clearwater River and those of the west fork of the south fork of the 
Flathead River, where it was found at an elevation of seven thousand feet by Mr. Ayres in September, 1899. 

Picea Mariana, xii. 28. Extend range as far north as least at the valley of the Klondike in the Yukon 
Territory, where it is very common from the Yukon valley as far west as the west bank of White River at a point 
two hundred and twelve miles above the mouth of that stream, and where it was first noticed in 1899 by Mr. Mar- 
tin W. Gorman. " West of the Yukon it occurs in all wet marshy localities and is to be found growing over buried 
glaciers wherever they occur in that region, but I did not observe it anywhere on the rich bottom-lands along the 
immediate banks of the Yukon. It is a much smaller tree than the White Spruce, seldom reaching eighty feet in 
height or producing a trunk exceeding twelve inches in diameter. Owing to the scarcity of timber it is sometimes 
cut and makes better lumber and fuel than the White Spruce, as it is darker, harder, and closer-grained." (Oorman, 

in litt.y 

Picea Canadensis, xii. 3T. Extend range southward in Wisconsin through the northern part of the state. 

{Teste L. S. Cheney.) ^ 

Tsuga Canadensis, xii. 63. In Wisconsin the southern station of the Hemlock is in Iowa County in the 



southwestern part of the state, where there is a grove of this tree on a bluff on the east bank of the Pecatonica 
E-iver about six miles north of Blanchardville, Lafayette County, and two miles east of HoUondale, Iowa County. 
(L. S. Cheney in Utt) 

Tsuga Mertensiana, xii. 7T, Extend range northwestward along the Alaska coast to the shores of Prince 
William Sound, where, during the summer of 1899, at the head of an icy ford, John Muir found trees of this 
species from eighty to one hundred feet in height with trunks from two to three feet in diameter forming a pure 
forest ; and eastward in Montana to the pass between the head of Sun River and the head of the Clearwater, and 
about fifteen miles east of McDonald's Peak, where at an elevation of five thousand feet above the sea-level a small 
grove of stunted trees was seen during the summer of 1899 by Mr. H. B. Ayres. 

Pseudotsuga Japonica, xii. 84. This name was first used by Beissner (Mitt. Deutsche Dendr. Gesell. Nr. 
5, 62 [1896]). 

Abies balsamea, xii. lOT. In Wisconsin this tree occurs only in the northern and central parts of the state, 
where it is common, and is entirely unknown in the southern counties, the station in northeastern Iowa being an 
isolated one. 





Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species and other proper names, in roman type ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 

Abele, ix. 154. 

Abies, xii. 95- 

Abi€s,:ul 1,19,59,83- 

Abies AjanensiSy xii. 21- 

Abies AjanensiSj var. microspermay ^n. 21, 

Abies alba, xii, 33, 37, 99. 

Abies alba ccerulea, xii. 40- 

Abies Albertiana, xii- 73- 

Abies Alcockianay 'sii, 21, 

Abies Alcoquiana, xii. 21- 

Abies amabilis, xii. 125. 

Abies amabilisf xii, 117, 137. 

Abies Americana^ xii, 33, 37, 63, 107. 

Abies Americana ccerulea^ xii- 40. 

Abies Apollinisy xii. 99- 

Abies ApoUinis^ $ Panachaicay xii- 99. 

Abies ApoUiniSy y Regince Amalice, xii. 99- 

A bies A raragi, xii- 60- 

Ahies arctica, xii- 39. 

Abies argentea, xii- 100- 

Abies Arizonica, xii. 113- 

? Abies aroTnatica, xii- 117. 

Abies Baborensis, xii- 96, 100. 

Abies balsainea, xii. 107 ; xiv, 106, 

Abies balsamea, xii, 113, 121, 

Abies balsamea^ $ Fraseriy xii. 105. 

Abies balsamea Hudsonia, xii. 109. 

Abies balsamiferay xii- 107. 

Abies bicolovj xii, 21. 

Abies bifida, xii. 101, 

Abies bifolia, xii. 113. 

Abies brachypJiyUa, xii- 102. 

Abies bracteata, xii- 129. 

Abies Bridgesiij xii, 73. 

Abies Brunonianay xii. 61. 

Abies Canadensis, xii. 37, 63, 

Abies Canadensis ? xii. 73, 

Abies Caroliniana, xii. 69. 

Abies Cephalonica, xii. 96, 99. 

Abies Cephalonica^ a Parnassica, xii. 99- 

Abies CepJialonicay ^ Arcadica, xii. 99- 

Abies Cephalonica robusta, xii, 99- 

Abies Cephalonica, var- ApoUInis, xii. 99. 

Abies CepJialonicay var. Reginm Amalim, xii. 

Abies Cilicica, xii. 96, 98. 
Abies ccerulea^ xii. 40- 
Ahies commutata, xii, 43, 
Abies concolor, xii. 121. 
Abies concolor, xii- 117. 
Abies concolor, var. lasiocarpa, xii- 121, 
Abies concolor, var. Lowiana, xii, 121, 
Abies curvifolia, xii. 37, 
Abies denticulata, xii. 28. 
Abies diversifolia, xii. 60. 
Abies Douglasiiy xii. 87. 
Abies Douglasiij var- macrocarpa, xii- 93. 
Abies Douglasii, var. taxifolia, xii. 87. 
Abies dumosa, xii, 61- 
Abies, economic properties of, xii. 96- 
Abies EicMeri, xii. 101- 
Abies Engelmanni, xii. 43. 

Abies Engelmanni glauca, xii. 47- 

Abies excelsa, xii. 23, 25, 99- 

Abies excelsa denudata, xii. 24. 

Abies excelsa, var. medioxima, xii, 24, 

Abies excelsa, var, virgata, xii. 24. 

Abies falcata, xii. 65. 

Abies firma, xii. 101, 102. 

Abies firma, var, bifida, xii. 101, 

Abies Fraseri, xii. 105. 

Abies Fraseri^ xii. 107, 

Abies Fraseri (B) nana^ xii, 109- 

Abies Fraseri, var, Hudsoni, xii- 109, 

Abies, fungal diseases of, xii. 101- 

Abies GleJini, xii. 21. 

Abies Gmelini, xii. 4- 

Abies Gordoniana, xii. 117. 

Abies grandis, xii. 117- 

Abies grandis, xii. 113, 121, 125- 

Abies grandis, a Oregona, xii, 117. 

Abies grandis, var- concolor, xii. 121, 

Abies grandis, var. densifiora, xii. 125. 

Abies grandis, var. Lowiana, xii. 121, 

Abies heierophylla, xii. 73- 

Abies hirtella, xii- 97- 

Abies Hispanica, xii. 100- 

Abies homolepis, xii- 96, 102. 

Abies Hookeriana, xii. 77- 

Abies, hybrid, xii- 97- 

Abies, insect enemies of, xii. 101. 

Abies insignis, xii. 97- 

Abies Japonica, xii. 102, 

Abies Jezoensis, xii, 21. 

Abies Kmmpferi, xii- 2- 

Abies Khutrow, xii- 22, 

Abies Larix, xii. 3. 

Abies lasioearpa, xii. 113. 

Abies lasiocarpa, xii. 125. 

Abies lasiocarpa, ys.t. Arizonica^ xii. 113. 

Abies laxa, xii. 37, 

Abies leptolepis, xii. 2- 

Abies Lowiana, xii. 121. 

Abies macrocarpa, xii. 93. 

Abies magnifiea, xii. 137. 

Abies magnifiea, var- Shastensis, xii. 138. 

Abies magnifiea, var, xanthocarpa, xii- 138- 

Abies Mariana, xii, 28. 

Abies medioxima, xii. 24. 

Abies Menziesii, xii- 21, 47, 55- 

Abies Menziesii Parryana, xii. 47- 

Abies Mertensia, xii. 77- 

Abies Mertensiana, xii. 73, 77. 

Abies microcarpa, xii- 7. 

Abies microphylla, xii- 73. 

Abies microsperma, xii, 21. 

Abies minor, xii. 99- 

Abies Momi, xii. 96, 101. 

Abies Morinda, xii- 22- 

Abies mucronata, xii. 87. 

Abies mucronata, y3.t, palustris, xii, 87. 

Abies nephrolepsis, xii- 101- 

Abies nigra, xii. 28, 33, 43. 

Abies nigra, rubra, xii- 33. 

Abies nobilis, xii. 133. 

Abies nobilis, xii. 137- 

f Abies nobilis robusta, xii. 138. 

Abies nobilis, var, glauca, xii, 138. 

Abies nobilis, var, magnifiea, xii, 137. 

Abies Nordmanniana, xii. 96, 98, 

Abies Wordmanniana speciosa, xii. 97, 

Abies Numidica, xii. 100. 

Abies obovata, xii, 24. 

Abies Omorika, xii. 22. 

Abies orientally, xii. 22, 23, 

Abies Pattoniana, xii. 77, 

Abies Pattonii, xii. 73, 77, 80. 

Abies pectinata, xii. 23, 63, 99. 

Abies pectinata, Apollinis, xii. 99. 

Abies pendula, xii. 7. 

Abies Picea, xii. 96, 99, 

Abies Picea, xii. 23. 

Abies Picea (B) AppolUnis, xii. 99. 

Abies Picea, economic properties of, xii. 100, 

Abies Pichta, xii. 98, 

Abies Pindrow, xii, 98, 

Abies Pinsapo, xii, 96, 100. 

Abies Pinsapo, var. Baborensis, xii. 100. 
Abies polita, xii, 21, 

Abies procera viminalis, xii. 24, 
Abies Regince Amalice, xii. 99. 
Abies religiosa, xii. 97. 
Abies religiosa, x. 141. 

Abies religiosa glaucescens, xii, 91. 
Abies rubra, xii, 33, 37. 
Abies rubra cmrulea, xii. 40. 
Abies Saehalinensis, xii, 97, 
Abies ScTirenckiana, xii. 25, 
Abies selinusia, xii. 98. 
Abies Shastensis, xii. 138. 
Abies Sibirica, xii, 96, 97. 
Abies Sibirica, var. alba, xii. 98. 

Abies Sibirica, var. nepJirolepis, xii, 101. 
Abies Sitchensis, xii, 21, 55. 
Abies Smithiana, xii. 21, 22- 
■ Abies species, xii. 61- 
Abies spectabilis, xii. 98. 
Abies spinulosa, xii. 22- 
Abies subalpina, xii, 113. 
Abies subalpina, Yav. fallax, xii, 113- 
Abies taxifolia, xii, 63, 87, 99, 
Abies taxifolia, var. paiula, xii. 63, 
? Abies Thunbergii, xii. 21. 
Abies Torano, xii, 21. 
Abies trigona, xii. 65. 
Abies Tsuga, xii. 60. 
^&26s Tsuga nana, xii. 60. 
4Jies umbellata, xii. 101, 
Abies Veitchi, xii- 96, 101. 
Abies Veitchi, var, Saehalinensis, xii- 97, 
Abies venusta, xii. 129, 
Abies vulgaris, xii, 99. 
Abies Webbiana, xii, 96, 98, 

Abies Webbiana, Pindrow, xii. 98. 
Abies Williamsonii^ xii. 77. 
Abietene, xi, 96. 



Acaela, lii, 39, 115, 

Acacia (Bsculenta, iiL 113* 

Acacia albiday xiii, 19- 

Aeacia Arabica, lii- 116- 

Acacia BaJiamensis, iii. 129- 

Acacia Keeps, iil. 111- 

Acaeia Catechu, iii. 116. 

Acacia Cumanensisy iii. 101. 

Acacia dipteral lii. 101, 

Acacia edulis, iii. 119. 

Acacia Farnesiana, iii. 119. 

Acacia Farnesianay var, pedunculata, iii. 119, 

Acacia Farnesianaj var. sempervirens, iii, 121. 

Acacia flexicauliSy iii. 137. 

Acacia Jlexuosay iii. 101. 

Acacia formosa^ iii. 127. 

Acacia frondosa^ iii. 111, 

Acacia fuTcatay iil, XQl, , 

Acacia glandulosay iii. 109. 

Acacia glauca, iii. Ill, 

Acacia, Green-barked, iii. 83, 85- 
Acacia Greggii, iii, 125, 
Acacia horrida, iii. 116. 
Acacia julijioray iii. 101, 
Acacia Icevigata, iii, 101- 
Acacia latisiliqua^ iii, 129. 
Acacia lenticellata, iii, 119, 
Acacia f leptophylla, iii, 119. 
Acacia leucacaniha^ xiii. 19. 
Acacia leucocephala, iii. 111, 
Acacia Melanoxylon^ iii, 116. 
Acacia nostras, iv, 10, 
Acacia pallida^ iii. 101. 
Acacia, Parasol, iii, 41, 
Acacia pedunculata, iii, 119. 
Acacia polyphylla J iii, 127. 
Acacia pulverulenta, iiL 113. • 

Acacia pyenantha, iii. 116, 
Acacia ? salinarum^ iii. 101. 
Acacia Senegal, iii. 116, 
Acacia Seyal, iii, 116. 
Acacia Siliquastrum^ iii. 101. 
Acacia stenocarpa, iii, 116. 
Acacia Suma, iii. 116, 
Acacia, Three-thorned, iii. 75. 
Acacia tortuosa, xiii, 19- 
Acacia Wrightii, iii. 123. 

Acanthoderes quadrigibbuSj vii- 133. 
Acer, ii. 79, 

Acer alho-variegatum, ii. 105. 
Acer alburn^ ii. 105, 

Acer argenteo-variegatuniy ii. 113. 

Acer aureo-variegatum, ii, 113, 

Acer barbatum, ii, 97. 

Acer harbatuTUy xiii, 7- 

Acer barbatum, var, Floridanum, ii, 100- 

Acer harbatum, var, Floridanum^ xiii, 7- 

Acer barbatum, var, grand iden tat um, ii, 100, 

Acer barhatum^ var, grandidentatumt siii, 8, 

Acer barbatum, var, nigrum, ii, 99. 

Acer barbatum^ var, nigrum, xiii. 8, 9. 

Acer Californicum^ ii, 112, 113. 

Acer Campbellii, ii, 80. 

Acer Canadense, ii, 85, 

Acer Carolinianum, ii, 107. 

Acer circinatum, ii, 93, 


Acer coccineum, ii. 105, 107. 

Acer cratsegifollum, ii. 80, 

Acer crispum, ii, 113. 

Acer dasycarpum, ii, 103. 

Acer dasycarpum monospermum, ii. 105, 

Acer diabolicum, ii. 80, 

Acer dissectum Wagneri, ii, 105. 

Acer Douglasii, ii, 95. 

Acer Drmnmondiiy ii. 109, 
Acer eriocarpum, ii, 103, 
Acer Floridanum, ii, 100, 105. 

Acer Floridanum, var. acuminatum, xiii. 7- 

Acer Floridum, ii, 105. 

Acer glabrum, ii. 95 ; xiv. 99. 

Acer glabrum^ var. tripartitum^ ii, 95. 

Acer glaucum, ii, 107. 

Acer grandidentatum, ii, 100. 

Acer Jieterophyllum, ii, 105. 

Acer Jtyiridum^ ii, 105. 

Acer Japonicum, ii, 80, 

Acer laciniatum Wieriij ii. 105- 

Acer leucoderme, xiii, 7. 

Acer longifoUum, ii. 105. 

Acer lutescens, ii. 105. 

Acer macrocarpum, ii, 105. 

Acer macrophyllum, ii, 89, 

Acer macrophyllum^ ii, 104. 

Acer Mexicanum, ii, 100. 

Acer microphyllum, ii, 107 ; xiii. 11. 

Acer montanum, ii, 83, 

Acer Negundo, ii. 111 ; xiv. 99, 

Acer Negundo, var, Californicum, ii, 112. 

Acer Negundo, var, Texanum, ii. 111. 

Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, ii. 113, 

Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, a, bicolor, ii. 113. 

Acer Negundo, var, vulgare, b. angustissi- 

mum, ii. 113. 
Acer nigrum, xiii. 9. 
Acer nigrum, ii. 99, 
f Acer nigrum^ xiii. 8, 
Acer niveum, ii, 80, 
Acer palmatum, ii. 80, 
Acer palmatum, ii. 89, 104, 
Acer palmifolium, var. concolor, xiii. 9, 
Acer palmifolium^ var, nigrum^ xiii. 8. 
Acer parvijlorum, ii. 83. 
Acer Pavia, ii, 104. 
Acer pendulum, ii. 105. 
Acer Pennsylvanicum, ii, 85. 
Acer Pennsylvanicumy ii. 83, 
Acer pictum, ii, 80. 
Acer platanoides, ii. 80, 
Acer polymorphum, ii, 80- 
Acer Pseudo-Platanus, ii. 80. 
Acer pulverulentumy ii. 105, 
Acer rubrum, ii, 107. 
Acer rubrum^ ii, 103 ; siii, 11. 
Acer rubrum, ^, xiii. 11. 
Acer rubrum, distribution of, xiii. 11, 
Acer rubrum mas, ii. 103. 
Acer rubrum^ subspec. microphyllum^ xiii, 11, 
Acer rubrum, subspec. semiorbiculatum, siii- 

Acer rubrum, var. clausum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, var, Drummondii, ii. 109, 
Acer rubrum, var, eurubrum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, var, micropJiyllum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum^ yflt. pallidijlorum, ii, 107, 
Acer rubrum, y3x. pallidum, ii, 103. 
Acer rubrum, var. sanguineum, ii- 107, 
Acer rubrum, var. semiorbiculatum, ii, 107. 
Acer rubrum, var. tomentosum, ii. 107, 
Acer rubrum, var. tridens, siii, 11. 
Acer rufinerve, ii. 85- 
Acer Uugelii, ii, 99 ; xiii. 8. 
Acer sacebarinum, ii. 103. 
Acer saccharinum, ii. 97 ; xiii. 8. 
Acer saccharinum, subspec, Uugelii, xiii. 8, 
Acer saccJiarinum, subspec, saccharinum, yq.v, 

glaucum, xiii, 8. 

Acer saccharinum, var. albo-maculatum, ii. 

Acer saccharinum, var. cuneatum, ii. 105. 
Acer saccharinum, var. dissectum, ii. 105. 
Acer saccharinum, var, Floridanum, ii. 100, 
Acer saccharinum, var, glaucum, ii, 99 : xiii. 

Acer saccharinum, var. laciniatum, ii. 105, 

Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum, ii. 99 ; xiii, 8, 

Acer saccharinum, var, uormale, ii. 104. 

Acer saccharinum, var. pseudo-platanoides, ii. 

Acer saccharinum, var, Rugelii, ii, 99, 

Acer saccharophorum, ii. 97, 

Acer Saccbarum, xiii, 7. 

Acer Saccharum, ii, 97, 103. 

Acer Saccharum, var, barbatum, xiii- 8, 

Acer Saccharum, var. Floridanum, xiii. 7- 

Acer Saccharum, var- grandidentatum, xiii, 8. 

Acer Saccharum, var, leucoderme, xiii. 7, 

Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum, xiii. 9, 

Acer Saccharum, var, Rugelii, xiii. 8- 

Acer Saira, ii. 105- 

Acer sanguineum, ii, 105, 107. 

Acer semiorbiculatum, ii. 107 ; xiii, 11, 
Acer spicatum, ii. 83. 

Acer spicatum, ii. 104, 

Acer spicatum, var, Ukurunduense, ii. 84. 

Acer striatum, ii. 85, 
Acer tomentosum, ii. 105, 
Acer tripartitum, ii. 95, 

Acer Ukurunduense, ii. 84. 
Acer versicolor, ii. 113. 
Acer violaceum, ii. 113. 
Acer virgatum, ii. 93, 
Acer Virginicum rubrum, ii. 105. 
Achras Baliamensis, v, 183, 
Achras Balata. v. 182. 
Achras costata, v. 163. 
Achras pallida, v. 165. 
Achras salicifolia, v. 179- 
Achras serrata, iv, 49, 

Achras Zapotilla, \'^t. parvijlora, v. 183. 
Acmena, v, 39. 
Acmophyllte, Ix, 96. 
Acoptus suturalis, ix. 41. 

Acrobasis Juglandis, vii. 118. 
Acronycta Populi, ix. 156. 
Acronycta rubricoma, vii, 64. 
Actias Luna, vii. 116, 
Adamaran, v. 19. 

Adelges abieticolens, xH. 25- 
Adelges Abietis, sii. 25. 
? Adnaria, v, 115. 
^cidium jEsculi, ii. 54. 
-^cidium elatiuum, xii. 101- 
-^cidium Fraxini, vi, 27,. 
^cidium myricatum, ix, 86. 
-^cidium pyratum, x, 73, 
-^cidium Sambuci, v. 87. 
^geria acerni, ii. 81. 
-^geria esitlosa, iv. 11, 
-3]geria Pinorum, xi, 11. 
^geria prosopis, iii, 100. 
f^gialea, v. 129, 
-^sculus, ii. 51- 
j^sculus alba, ii. 55. 
^sculus arguta, ii, 55 ; xiv. 99- 
jEscuIus Asamica, ii. 62. 
JEsculus austrina, xiii- 3. 
^sculus Californiea, ii. 61. 
j^sculus carnea, ii, 53, 
^sculus Chinensis, ii. 52, 53, 
-^sculus Columbiana, ii. 52. 
j^sculus discolor, ii. 60. 



^sculiis dissimiliSy ii. 52, 

jEscuIus echinata, ii. 65, 

jS^scuIus fiavay \i. 59, 

jEscuIus Jiavay var, purpurascenSf ii, 60. 

^Esculus glabra, ii, 55 ; xiv. 99. 

jEscuIus glabra, var, arguta, xiv. 99. 

iEsculus glabra, var. Buckleyi, xiv. 99. 

^sculus Hippocastaimnij ii. 52, 53. 

Msculus hyhrida^ ii. 60, 

^scuius Indica, ii. 52, 

^sculus lutea, ii. 59, 

jEscuIus macros tacky a, ii. 52. 

^sculus Mesicana, ii. 52, 

jEscuIus muricata, ii. 55, 

j^sculus neglecta^ ii. 59. 

jEscuIus ochroleuca, iL 55. 

-^seulus octandraj ii. 59. 

-Slsculus octandra, var. hybrida, ii. 60. 

jEscuIus octandra^ var. hybrida^ xiii. 3, 

^sculus OhioensiSy ii. 55. 

^sculus pallida, ii. 55. 

^sculus Parryi, ii. 52. 

.SIsculus parviflora, ii. 52, 

^sculus Pavia, ii. 52, 

JEscuIus Pavia, ii. 52, 

jEscuIus Pavia^ & discolor, xiii, 3. 

^s cuius Pavia, var. discolor, ii. 60, 

^scxilus Punduana, ii. 52. 

^sculus rubicunda, ii. 53. 

-^seulus turbinata^ ii. 52, 53, 

jEscuIus verrucosa, ii, 55, 

^sculiis Watsoniana, ii. 53. 

Agaricus adiposus, ix- 25. 

Agaricus Campanella, x. 101. 

Agaricus salignus, ix- 101. 

Agaricus ulmarius, vii, 42, 

Agastianis, iii- 59. 

Agastianis secundiflora, iii. 63. 

Agathisanthes, v. 73. 

A gathisanthes Javanica, v. 73. 

A gathophyllum, vii, 9. 

Ageria, i. 103. 

Ageria Cassena, i. 111. 

Ageria heterophylla, i. 109. 

Ageria ohovata, i. 109. 

Ageria opaca, L 107. 

Ageria palustris, i. 109. 

Aglaospora profusa, iii. 38. 

Aigeiros^ ix. 152. 

Aigiros, ix. 151. 

Aka-matsu, xi. 7. 

Alder, ix. 73, 75, 77, 79 • xiv, 61. 

Alder Blight, ix. 70. 

Alder, Seaside, ix. 81. 

Alders, European, wood of, ix. 70. 

Aldina, iii. 115. 

Aleppo Pine, xi. 9. 

Alerse, x. 134. 

Algarohia, iii. 99. 

Algarobia dulcis, iii- 101. 

Algarobia glandulosa, iii. 101 ; xiii, 15. 

Algerian Fir, xii, 100, 

Alligator Pear, vii. 2. 

Almond, the, iv. 8, 9. 

Almond Willow, ix. 111. 

Almond-oil, iv. 9, 

Almond-tree, Indian, v. 20, 

Almonds, Bitter, iv- 9. 

Almonds, Sweet, iv- 9, 

Alnaster, ix. 68- 

Alnaster Alnohetula, xiv, 61. 

Alnaster fruticosus, ix. 68 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnaster viridis, ix. 68, 

Alnohetula, ix, 67. 

Alnus, ix. 67, 68 ; xiv. 104. 

Alnus acuminata, ix. 79. 

Alnus acuminata, a genuina, ix, 79, 

Alnus Alnobetula, ix, 68. 

Alnus Alnoletula, xiv. 61. 

Alnus alpina, ix. 68, 

Alnus harbata, ix. 69. 

Alnus Brembana, ix, 68. 

Alnus communis, ix. 69. 

Alnus crispa, ix. 68. . 

Alnus denticulata, ix. 69, 

Alnus, economic uses of, ix. 69. 

Alnus elliptica, ix. 69. 

Alnus Fehruaria, ix. 69, 

Alnus fruticosa, ix. 68. 

Alnus, fungal diseases of, ix, 70. 

Alnus glauca, ix. 69. 

Alnus glutinosa, ix, 69 ; xiv. 104, 

Alnus glutinosa in the United States, ix, 70. 

Alnus glutinosa (vulgaris), ix. 69. 

Alnus glutinosa, y Sibirica, ix. 68. 

Alnus glutinosa, 5 serrulata, ix. 69. 

Alnus glutinosa, var. rugosa, ix. 69, 

Alnus, hybrids of, ix. 68. 

Alnus incana, ix. 68. 

Alnus incana, ix. 68. 

Alnus incana, a glauca, ix, 75. 

Alnus incana, &, ix. 69, 75. 

Alnus incana, tj rubra, ix. 73. 

Alnus incana, var. glauca, ix. 69. 

Alnus incana, var. virescens, ix. 75 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnus, insect enemies of, ix, 70. ■ 

Alnus Japonica, ix. 69. 

f Alnus Jorullensis, var. acuminata, ix. 79. 

Alnus lanuginosa, ix. 69. 

Alnus maritima, ix. 81. 

Alnus maritima, a typica, ix. 81. 

Alnus, medical properties of, ix. 69. 

Alnus Morisiana, ix. 69. 

Alnus Nepalensis, ix. 70, 

Alnus nigra, ix. 69. 

Alnus nitida, ix, 70. 

Alnus oblongata, ix. 81, 

Alnus oblongifolia, ix. 77, 79, 

Alnus occidentalis, xiv. 61. 

? Alnus occidentalis, ix. 75. 

Alnus Oregona, ix. 73. 

Alnus ovata, ix, 68. 

Alnus pubeseens, ix, 68. 

Alnus rhombifolia, ix. 77. 

Alnus rhombifolia, ix, 75, 79, 

Alnus rotundifolia, ix. 69. 

Alnus rubra, ix. 69, 73 ; xiv. 61, 

Alnus rugosa, ix, 69. 

Alnus serrulata, ix. 69. 

? Alnus serrulata, fi rugosa, ix, 75, 

Alnus serrulata, y oblongifolia, ix. 79. 

Alnu^ sinuata, xiv. 61. 

Alnus Sitchensis, xiv. 61. 

Alnus tenuifolia, ix, 75 ; xiv. 104. 

Alnus tenuifolia, xiv. 61. 

Alnus undulata, ix. 68. 

Alnus viridis, ix, 68, 75 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnus viridis, &, xiv. 61. 

Alnus viridis, jS Sibirica, ix, 68 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnus viridis, ^ Sibirica, b Sitchensis, xiv, 

Alnus viridis, S sinuata, xiv. 61. 
Alstonia, vi. 13. 
Alstonia theceformis, vi. 14- 
Altingia Chinensis, medical uses of, v, 8. 
Amelaucliier, iv. 125. 
Amelanchier alnifolia, iv. 131, 
Amelanchier Amelanchier, iv, 125. 

Amelanchier Asiatica, iv. 126. 

Amelanchier Bartramiana, iv- 127. 
Amelanchier Botryapium, iv, 127. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, iv. 127. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, iv, 131. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. alnifolia, iv- 131- 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. Botryapium, iv- 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. Japouiea, iv, 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifolia, iv. 

128, 131. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. obovalis, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, iv, 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. prunifolia, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, ■vb.t. pumila, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, Yar. rotundifolia, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. spicata, iv. 

Amelanchier diversifolia, var. alnifolia, iv. 



Amelanchier forida, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier, fungal enemies of, iv. 126. 
Amelanchier glabra, iv. 131, 
Amelanchier, insect enemies of, iv- 126. 
Amelanchier intermedia, iv. 128, 
Amelanchier oblongifolia, iv. 128. 
Amelanchier oligocarpa, iv, 126. 
Amelanchier ovalis, iv. 127, 129. 

A melanchier ovalis, var. semiintegrifolia, iv. 

Amelanchier pallida, iv. 131. 

Amelanchier parviflora, iv, 125, 

Amelanchier pumila, iv. 131. 

Amelanchier rotundifolia, iv. 125, 129. 

Amelanchier sanguinea, iv, 126, 127. 

Amelanchier spicata, iv. 128. 

Amelanchier vulgaris, iv. 125. 

Amelanchier Wangenheimiana, iv, 127, 

American Elm, vii. 45, 

Amerina, ix. 95. 

Amphibolips spongificaj viii. 12, 

Amphispbseria Wellingtoni^e, x. 140. 

Amphyllostieta Catalpse, vi, 84. 

AmygdaliiiEe, ix. 96, 

Amygdalophora, iv. 7- 

Amygdalopsis, iv. 7, 

Amygdalus, iv. 7, 8, 

Amygdalus, iv. 7. 

Amyris, i. 83. 

Amyris balsamifera^ i. 83, 

Amyris dyatripa, i. 85. 

Amyris Elemifera, xiv. 98. 

Amyris Elemifera, i- 85. 

Amyris Floridana, i. 85 ; xiv. 98. 

Amyris Hypelate, ii. 78. 

Amyris maritima, i. 83, 85 ; xiv. 98, 

Amyris maritima, xiv. 98. 

Amyris maritima, var. angustifolia, i, 85 ; xiv, 

Amyris parvifolia, i. 83. 
Amyris Plumieri, xiv. 98, 
Amyris sylvatica, i. 83, 
Amyris sylvatica, i, 85 ; xtv. 98, 
Amyris sylvatica, var. Plumieri, xiv. 98. 
Amyris toxifera, i. 83. 
Anacahuita, vi. 73. 
Anacahuita wood, medical properties of, vi. 

Anacaudiace^, iii. 1. 



Anamomis, v- 31. 

Anamomis dichotoma, v. 32. 

Anamomis esculenta, v, 31. 

Anamomis punctata^ v. 32, 

Anaqua, vi- 81. 

Andersson, Nils Johan, ix. 138. 

Androgyne, viiL 4. 

Androgynous flowers of Picea, xii. 20, 

Androgynous flowers of Pinus, xi. 4- 

Andromedaj v, 129. 

Andromeda, v. 133, 

Andromeda arboreajY. 135. 

Andromeda arborescens, v. 135. 

Andromeda elliptica, v. 130, 

Andromeda ferruginea, v. 131 ; siv, 102. 

Andromeda f err uginea, var, arborescens, v. 132, 

Andromeda ferruginea y yav. fruticosa, v, 132. 

Andromeda, fungal enemies of, v, 130- 

Andromeda glaucophylla, v. 130. 

Andromeda Mariana, v. 130, 

Andromeda ovalifolia, v, 130. 

Andromeda plumata^ ii, 3. 

Andromeda polifolia, v, 130. 

Andromeda pulchella, v. 130, 

Andromeda rhomhoidalis, v- 132. 

Andromeda rigida, v, 132. 

Andromeda rosmarinifoUa^ v. 130. 

Anisota pellueida, viii. 12. 

Anisota senatoria, viii. 12, 

Anisota Stigma, viii. 12, 

Annona, i, 28, 

Anona, i, 27- 

Anona, i. 21- 

Anona Cherimolia, i. 28. 

Anona glabra, i, 29- 

Anona laurifolia, i. 29. 

Anona rauricata, i, 28, 

Anona palustris^ i. 23. 

Anona pendula, i. 23. 

Anona reticulata, i- 28, 

Anona squamosa, i. 27. 

Anona triloba, i- 23. 

Anowace^, i. 21. 

Anonymos aquatica, vii- 61- 

AntJieischima, i. 49- 

Anther^ea Koylei, viii. 10. 

Anthodendron, v. 143. 

Anthodendron Jlavumj v. 145, 146. 

AnthomeleSy iv. 83. 

Anthomeles mstivalis^ iv. 119. 

Antkomeles Douglasii, iv, 86, 

Anthomeles Jiava^ TV . 113- 

Anthomeles glandulosa, iv- 113. 

Anthomeles rotundifolia^ iv. 95, 

Anthomeles turbinata, iv- 113, 

Anthonomus Cratsegi, iv. 84. 

Anthonomus quadrigibbus, iv. 11, 70, 

Anthostoma atropunctata, viii. 12, 

Anthostoma Oreodaphnes, vii, 20, 

Anthostomella brachystoma, xii. 61. 

Antbostomella nigroannulata, x, 5, 

Antispila cornifoliella, v. 65. 

Antispila nyss^ef oliella, v. 74. 

Ants' Wood, V- 175. 

Apate basilaris, vii. 133. 

Apatura Celtis, vii, 64. 

Apatura Clyton, vii. 64. 

Aphania, ii. 67. 

Aphis Diospyri, vi. 4. 

Aphis Viburni, v, 94. 

ApinuSy si, 1, 

Apirophorum, iv. 67, 

ApUlia, vi. 25. 

Apocarya, vii, 132, 

Apple, Crab, iv. 71, 75. 

Apple Haw, iv, 119. 

Apple, Rose, v. 41, 

Apple-tree Borer, iv- 70. 

Apricot, the, iv. 8, 9. 

Aquifollum, i, 103, 

Aquifolium, i. 103, 105. 

Aralia, v. 57. 

Aralia Callfornica, v. 57. 

Aralia canescens, v, 60. 

Aralia Chinensis, v. 60. 

Aralia cordata, v. 58, 

Aralia Decaisneana, v, 60. 

Aralia edulis, v. 58, 

Aralia elata, v. 60- 

Aralia hispida, v. 58, 

Aralia humilis, v, 57. 

Aralia hypoleuca, v, 58. 

Aralia Leroana^ v, 60. 

Aralia Mandshurica, v. 60. 

Aralia nudicaulis, v. 58- 

Aralia Planchoniana, v. 60, 

Aralia quinquefolia, v. 68. 

Aralia racemosa, v, 58. 

Aralia racemosa^ v, 57. 

Aralia racemosa, var. occidentalism v, 57. 

Aralia spinosa, v. 59. 

Aralia spinosa, v. 60. 

Aralia spinosa, fi, v. 59- 

Aralia spinosa, var. canescens, v- 60. 

Aralia spinosa, var, Chinensis, v, 60, 

Aralia spinosa, var, elata, v, 60, 

Aralia spinosa, var. glabrescens^ v, 60. 

Araliace-e, v. 57- 

Arbol de Hierro, iii, 49. 

Arbor Vita, x. 126, 

Arbor-vit£e, Japanese, x. 124- 

Arbutus, V, 121, 

Arbutus Andracbne, v- 122 ; siv- 102. 

Arbutus Andrachne, fruit of, v. 121. 

Arbutus Arizonica, v. 127, 

Arbutus integrifolia, v, 122. 

Arbutus laurifolia, v. 123, 125. 

? Arbutus macrophylla, v, 125. 

Arbutus Menziesii, v, 123, 

Arbutus Menziesii^ v. 125, 127- 

Arbutus mollis^ v, 125, 

f Arbutus obtusifolius, v. 119- 

Arbutus procera, v. 123. 

Arbutus prunifolia, v. 125- 

Arbutus serratifolia, v, 122- 

Arbutus Texana, v. 125. 

Arbutus Unedo, v, 121, 

Arbutus Unedo, fruit of, v, 121, 

Arbutus varians, v, 125, 

Arbutus Xalapensis, v, 125, 

Arbutus Xalapensis, v, 127, 

Arbutus Xalapensis^ var, Arizonica, v, 127. 

Arbutus Xalapensis, var. Texana, v, 125, 

Arceuthos, s, 69. 

Arceuthos drupacea, x. 72, 

Arceuthos drupacea, var. a acerosa, x, 72, 

Arceuthos drupacea, var, fi obtusiuscula, x, 72. 

Ardisia, v, 151. 

Ardisia Picheringia, v. 153. 

Areca oleracea, x. 30. 

Argentese, ix, 96. 

ArgoripSj ix, 95. 

Argyll, Duke of, i. 108, 

Argyresthia cupressellaj x, 100. 

Arhopalus f ulminans, ix. 10, 

Aria, iv. 67, 68, 

Aria, iv. 67. 

Armeniaca, iv, 7, 8- 

Armenaica, iv, 7. 
Arnold, James, xiii. 104. 
Aronia, iv- 67, 68, 
Aronia, iv, 67, 125- 

Aronia alnifolia, iv, 131, 
Aronia arborea, iv. 127. 
Aronia arbutifolia, iv. 123, 
Aronia Asiatica, iv, 126. 
Aronia Botryapium, iv, 127. 
Aronia cordata, iv. 127- 
Aronia ovalis, iv. 128, 129. 
Aronia rotundifoliay iv. 125. 
Arrow-wood, ii. 12. 
Arthrosprion, iii. 115. 
Asacara, iii. 73. 
Asacara aquatica, iii, 79. 
Asagrcea, iii, 33. 
Asagrcea spinosa, iii. 35- 
Asemum mcestum, xi. 11. 

Ash, vi- 29, 33, 39, 41, 53, 57 ; xiv- 33, 37- 
Ash, Black, vi. 37, 
Ash, Blue, vi, 35. 

Ash, Fringe-flowered, vi, 31. 

Ash, Mountain, iv. 69, 79, 81; vi. 47. 

Ash, Pumpkin, xiv. 35. 

Ash, Eed, vi. 49, 

Ash, Swamp, vi. 55. 

Ash, Water, vi- 55 ; xiv. 39. 

Ash, White, vi. 43- 

Ash-leaved Maple, ii. 111. 

Ashe, William WiUard, xiii. 149. 

Asimina, i, 21. 

Asimina angustifolia, i. 22- 

Asimina campanijiora, i. 23. 

Asimina euneata, i, 22. 

Asimina grandiflora, i. 21, 22. 

Asimina parviflora, i. 21, 22- 

Asimina pygm^a, i. 21, 22- 

Asimina triloba, i. 21, 22, 23 ; xiv, 97. 

Asimiue, i. 24- 

Asiminier, i. 22. 

Asp, Quaking, ix. 158, 

Aspen, ix, 155, 158, 

Aspidiotus Abietis, xii. 61, 

Aspidiotus Juglandis, vii. 116. 

Aspidiotus rapax, vii, 20. 

Aspidisca diospyriella, vi. 4, 

Aspidisca juglandiella, vii, 116- 

Aspidisca ostrytefoliella, ix. 32. 
Asterina nuda, xii. 101. 

Athrotaxis, x, 139. 

Athysanus variabilis, ix. 48. 

Attacus Promethea, vi. 20 ; vii. 15 ; x. 124. 

Aucuparia, iv, 67. 

Australes, xl. 4. 

Australian Black-wood, iii, 116- 

Australian Ladybird Beetle, vii. 20, 

Australian Myrtle, ix, 23, 

Austrian Pine, xi. 6. 

Avicenna, vi. 106. 

Avicennia, vi. 105. 

Avicennia Africaua, vi. 105, 106- 

Avicennia alba, vi. 106, 

Avicennia, economic uses of, vi. 106. 

Avicennia elliptica, vi- 106, 

Avicennia Floridana, vi. 107, 

Avicennia intermedia, vi, 106. 

Avicennia Lamarkiana, vi. 106. 

Avicennia Meyeri, vi. 107. 

Avicennia nitida, vi. 107, 

Avicennia oblongifolia, vi. 107, 

Avicennia officinalis, vi. 105, 106. 

Avicennia officinalis, var, alba, vi. 106- 

Avicennia resinifera, vi. 106. 



Avicennia iomentosaj vi. 105, 106, 107. 
Avocado Pear, vii, 2, 
Aylmeria, xi. 30.' 
Azalea, v. 144. 
Azalea, v. 143, 

Azalea arhorescens^ v. 146. 
Azalea hicolor, y. 146, 

Azalea calendulacea^ v- 146. 
Azalea canescens^ v, 146. 
Azalea fragransy v. 146. 
Azalea Indica, v. 146, 
Azalea Japonica, v. 146. 
Azalea Lappomca, v, 144. 
f Azalea lutea, t. 146. 
Azalea mollis, v, 146, 
Azalea nudiflora, v. 146, 
Azalea occidentalism v, 146. 
Azalea periclymenoides, v, 146. 
Azalea Ponticaj v. 145, 

Azalea Pontica^ var. Sinensis^ v. 146< 

^2a/ea Sinensis, v. 146, 

^za^ea viscosa, v- 146, 

Azaleas, Ghent, v. 146* 

Azaleas, Indian, v. 146, 

Azaleastrum, v, 144. 

Azarolusj iv. 67, 

Badamia, v- 19. 

Bag-worm, x. 73- 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, iv. 24- 

Balaninus caryatrypes, ix, 10. 

Balaninus nasicus, vii. 134 ; viii. 12* 

Balaninus Quercus, viii. 12. 

Balaninus rectus, vii. 134 ; ix. 10. 

Balaninus uniformis, viii, 12, 

Balata, v. 182, 

Balata-gunij y- 182, 

Bald Cypress, x. 151. 

Bald Cypress, Mexican, x. 150, 

Balfour, John Hutton, xi- 60. 

Balfourodendron, xi. 60. 

Balnij copalm, y. 8, 

Balm of Fir, xii. 109. 

Balm of Gilead Fir, xii, 107. 

Balsam, ix, 167, 

Balsam, Canada, xii. 109. 

Balsam, Carpathian, xi. 10. 

Balsam Cottonwood, ix. 175, 

Balsam Fir, xii. 105, 107, 113, 

Balsame(Bi xii, 97. 

Banister, John, i, 6- 

Barbarinaj vi. 13- 

Baretta, i, 8l. 

Barney, Eliam Eliakim, vi, 90, 

Barratt, Joseph, xiy, 64, 

Bartram, John, i. 8. 

Bartram, William, i, 16. 

Basket Oak, yiii. 67. 

Basswood, i- 52. 

Bastard Cedar, x. 136, 

Batodendron, v. 115. 

Batodendrony v. 115. 

Batodendron arioreum, v. 119- 

Bay, i. 41. 

Bay, Red, vii. 4- 

Bay, Rose, v. 148, 

Bay shillings, xi. 20, 

Bay, Swamp, vii, 7, 

Bayonet, Spanish, x, 6, 9- 

Bay-^tree, vii. 21, 

Beadle, Chauncey Delos, xiii. 66, 

Beam-tree, White, iv. 69. 

BeaHp Coral, iii, 63. 

Bean, Horse, iii, 89* 

Bean, Indian, vi. 86. 

Bean, Screw, iii. 107, 

Bearberrv, ii. 37, 

Bear Grass, x. 4. 

Bear Oak, viii. 155, 

Bear-wood, ii, 38. 

Beaufort, Duchess of, ix, 19. 

Beaufortia, ix. 19. 

Beaver-tree, i. 6- 

Bebb, Michael Schuck, ix. 132. 

Bedford Juniper, x, 96 ; xiv. 90. 

Bedford Willow, ix, 99. 

Beech, ix. 27. 

Beech, Blue, ix. 42. 

Beech, Bull, ix. 23. 

Beech, Copper, ix. 24. 

Beech, Cut-leaved, ix, 24, 

Beech, Evergreen, ix, 23. 

Beech, Fern-leaved, ix. 24. 

Beech, Japanese, ix. 22, 

Beech, New Zealand Black, ix. 23, 

Beech, New Zealand Silver, ix. 23. 

Beech, Purple, ix, 24, 

Beech, Red, ix. 23- 

Beech, Water, vii. 103, 

Beech, AVeeping, ix. 24. 

Beech-nuts, poisonous properties of, ix. 23, 

Beech-oil, ix, 24, 

Beech-tar, ix. 24. 

Beef Wood, vi. 111. 

Beer, Spruce, xii. 31- 

Bee-tree, i. 53, 57. 

Beleric myrobalans, v. 20, 

Belluccia, i. 75, 

Bembecia Sequoi^e, x, 140 ; xi. 11. 

Benthamiaf v- 63- 

Benthamia fragifera, v, 64. 

Benthamia Japonicaj v, 64, 

Benthamidia, v. 63. 

Bentliamidia florida, v. 66- 

Berberina, i. QQ. 

Berlandier, Jean Louis, i, 82. 

Berry, Miraculous, v, 164, 

Bessera, vi, 109, 

Bessera spinosa, vii. 27. 

Betula, ix. 45, 

Betula, ix, 67. 

Betula acuminata, ix, 46, 55, 

Betula Alaskana, xiv. 59, 

Betula alba, ix. 47, 

Betula alba, ix. 47. 

Betula alba, economic properties of, ix, 47, 

Betula alha in Japan, is. 48. ' 

Betula alba odorata, ix. 47- 

Betula alha, a vulgaris, ix. 47. 

Betula alba, ^ populifolia, ix. 65. 

Betula alha^ e papyri/era, ix. 57, 

Betula alba^ subspec. 5 occidentalism a typica, 

ix. 65, 
Betula alba, subspec, 5 occidentalism X typica^ 

xiv. 57. 
Betula alba, subspec. 5, jS commutata, ix. 57. 
Betula alba, subspec. 6 cordifolia, xiv. 55. 
Betula alba, subspec, 6, a communis, ix. 57, 
Betula alba, subspec. 6, j8 cordifolia, ix. 57, 
Betula alba^ subspec. populifolia, ix. 55, 
Betula alba, subspec. pubescens, ix. 47. 
Betula alba, subspec, verrucosa, a vulgaris, ix, 


Betula alha, subspec. verrucosa, var, resinifera, 

xiv. 59, 

Betula alba, var. populifolia, ix. 57, 
Betula Alnobetula, ix. 68, 
Betula alnoides, ix. 46- 

Betula Alnus (rugosa), ix, 69- 
Betula Alnus, $ glutinosa, ix. 69- 
Betula Alnus, ^ incana, ix, 69, 
Betula-Alnus glauca, ix. 69. 
Betula- Alnus maritima, ix. 81, 
Betula- Alnus rubra, ix. 69. 
Betula carpinifolia, ix. 50. 
Betula cordifolia, ix. 57 ; xiv. 55, 
Betula crispa, ix. 68. 
Betula cylindroslachys, ix, 46, 
Betula, economic properties of, ix. 48. 
Betula Ermani, ix. 48. 
Betula Ermani, ix. 57. 
Betula excelsa, ix, 53, 57. 
Betula excelsa Canadensis, ix, 55. 
Betula fontinalis, xiv. 58. 
Betula, fungal diseases of, ix, 49- 
Betula glandulosa, ix. 47, 
Betula glutinosa, ix. 47, 69 ; xiv. 104, 
Betula Grayi, ix. 46, 
Betula hybrida, ix. 46- 
Betula, hybrids of, ix, 46. 
Betula iiicana, ix- 69, 
Betula, insect enemies of, ix. 48. 
Betula intermedia, ix. 46. 
Betula Kenaica, xiv. 53. 
Betula lanulosa, ix, 61, 
Betula lenta, ix. 50 ; xiv. 104. 
Betula lenta, ix. 55, 57, 
Betula lenta, a genuina, ix. 53, 
Betula lenta, j8 lutea, ix. 53, 
Betula Littelliana, ix. 47, 
Betula lutea, ix. 53. 
Betula Maximovvicziana, ix, 48. 
Betula Maximowiczii, ix. 48. 
Betula, medical properties of, ix. 48. 
Betula microphylla, xiv, 58. 
Betula nana, ix. 45, 47. 
Betula nana, ix, 47- 
Betula nana, inflorescence of, ix. 45, 
Betula nana, var. flabellifolia, ix. 47. 
Betula nana x pubescens^ ix. 46. 
Betula nigra, ix. 61. 
Betula nigra, ix. 50. 
Betula occidentalis, ix. 65 ; xiv. 57. 
Betula occidentalis, ix. 57 ; xiv, 58, 
Betula odorata, ix. 47. 
Betula odorata, var. tortuosa, xiv, 55. 
Betula ovata, ix, 68, 
Betula papyracea, ix. 57. 
Betula papyracea, a cordifolia, ix, 57, 
Betula papyracea, $ minor, ix, 57, • 
Betula papyracea, ff occidentalis, ix. 57. 
Betula papyracea, x cordifolia, xiv, 55 
Betula papyrifera, ix, 57 ; xiv. 104. 
Betula papyrifera, xiv. 57- 
Betula papyrifera, j3 minor, xiv. 55, 
Betula papyrifera, var, cordifolia, xiv. 55. 
Betula papyrifera, var minor, ix. 57, 
Betula papyrifera, var. minor, xiv. 55, 
Betula populifolia, ix. 55. 
Betula pubescens, ix» 47. 
Betula pumila, ix. 45, 46, 
Betula pumila, ix. 47- . 
Betula pumila, inflorescence of, ix. 45, 
Betula pumila X lenta, ix. 46- 
Betula resinifera, xiv, 59. 
Betula rhombifolia, xiv. 58, 
Betula rubra, ix. 61, 
Betula serrulata^ ix. 69, 
^Betula torfacea, ix. 47, 
Betula viridis, ix. 68. 
Betulace^, ix. 45 ; xiv, 53. 
Betulaster, ix. 46. 



Betulaster, is. 45. 
Betulin, ix, 47. 
Beurreria, vi- 75, 
Bewickj Benjamin, i, 42, 
Bhotan Pine, xi. 6. 
Big Bud Hickory, vii. 161. 
Big Shellbark, viL 157- 
Big Tree, x, 145, 
Bigarreau Cherries, iv. 9. 
Bigelow, John Milton, L 88. 
BigginGf ix. 95. 
Bignonia Catalprij yi. 84, 86. 
Bignonia linearis^ vi. 95- 
Bignonia longissima^ vi. 84. 
Bignonia Quermis^ vi. 84- 

BlGKONIACEiE, vi. 83. 

Bilberries, v. 116. 
Billia^ ii. 51, 

Billia Columbiana^ ii. 52, 
Billia Hippocastanum, ii. 52. 
Bilsted, v. 10, 

Bineciariuy v. 181- 
Biographical Notes. 

Andersson, Nils Johan, ix. 138- 

Argyll, Duke of, i. 108. 

Arnold, James, xiii. 104. 

Ashe, William Willard, xiii. 149. 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, iv. 24. 

Balfour, John Hutton, xi. 60. 

Banister, John, i. 6- 

Barney, Eliam Eliakim, vi. 90. 

Barratt, Joseph, xiv. 64, 

Bartrani, John, i. 8. 

Bartram, William, i. 16. 

Beadle, Chauncey Delos, xiii. 66. 

Beaufort, Duchess of, ix. 19- 

Bebb, Michael Schuck, ix. 132- 

Berlaudier, Jean Louis, i. 82, 

Bewick, Benjamin, i. 42, 

Bigelow, John Milton, i, 88. 

Bligh, WilUam, ii. 18. 

Blodgett, John Loomis, i. 33. 

Boissier, Pierre-Edmond, vi, 74, 

Boynton, Frank Ellis, xiii. 66. 

Brainerd, Ezra, xiii, 112- 

Brewer, William Henry, viii- 28, 

Brown, Robert, viii. 62. 

Buckley, Samuel Botsford, iii. 3, 

Burke, Joseph, ix. 4, 

Burser, Joachim, i, 95- 

Bush, Benjamin Franklin, vii. 110. 

Cabanis, Jean, xiv. 39- 

Campbell, Archibald, i, 108. 

Canby, William Mariott, xiii. 41. 

Capel, Mary, ix. 19, 

Carey, John, i. 115- 

Carpenter, William M., iy. 93- 

Catesby, Mark, vi, 16, 

Cels, Jacques Martin, ii. 4. 

Chapman, Alvan Wentworth, vii, 110. 

Chase, Virginius Heber, xiii. 46. 

Chouteau, P, L., vii. 86- 

Cirillo, Domenico, ii. 2. 

Clayton, John, i. 8, 

Clifton, Francis, ii, 5. 

Golden, Cadwallader, i. QQ^ 

Collinson, Peter, i, 8. 

Compton, Henry, i. 6. 

Oondal, Antonio, ii, 23. 

Cooper, J, G., i, 30- 

Cordus, Valerus, vi. 69- 

Coulter, Thomas, iii- 84, 

Coville, Frederick Vernon, xiv. 67. 

Crescenzi, Pietro de', vi, 98, 

Croom, Hardy B., x. 58. 

Curtiss, Allen Hiram, ii. 50. 
Dale, Samuel, iii. 34. 
Douglas, David, ii, 94- 
Douglas, Kobert, vi. 90, 
Drummond, Thomas, ii. 25, 
Dunbar, John, xiii. 121, 
Dunbar, William, vii. 86. 
Du Pont de Nemours, Eleuthfere-Irene, 
ix, 9. 

Eggert, Heinrich Karl Daniel, xiii, 51. 

Ehret, Georg Dionysus, vi, 80. 

Elliott, Stephen, xi. 159. 

Ellis, John, i, 40. 

EUwanger, George, xiii. 109. 

Emory, William Hemsley, iv. 60. 

Engelmann, George, viii, 84. 

Eschscholtz, Johann Friedrich, ii. 39, 

Evans, Walter Harrison, xiv, 53. 

Eysenhardt, Karl Wilhelm, iii. 30. 

Fairchild, Thomas, v. 68, 

Farnese, Odoardo, iii, 121. 

Fendler, August, xii. 123. 

Fothergill, John, vi. 16. 

Eraser, John, i. 8, 

Gambel, William, viii. 35. 

Garber, Abraham Pascal, i, 65, 

Garden, Alexander, i, 40, 

Gibbes, Lewis Reeve, xii. 70. 

Gleditsch, Johann Gottlieb, iii. 74. 

Gordon, James, i. 40. 

Gowen, James Robert, x. 108. 

Gray, Christopher, iv, 76. 

Greene, Edward Lee, viii, 84. 

Gregg, Josiah, iii. 126 ; vi, 33, 

Grisebach, Heinrich Rudolph August, ii. 13. 

Guess, George, x, 140. 

Guettard, Jean Etienne, v, 112, 

Harbison, Thomas Grant, xiii. 152, 

Hartweg, Karl Theodor, ii, 34- 

Havard, Valdry, i. 81. 

H^lie, Louis Thdodore, i. 79. 

Hill, Ellsworth Jerome, xiii, 99. 

Hinds, Richard Brinsley, ii, 44. 

Holmes, Joseph Austin, xiii. 120, 

Howell, Thomas, xii, 52. 

Jack, John George, xiii. 105. 

Jacqnin, Nicolaus Joseph, v, 155. 

James, Edwin, ii, 96. 

Jeffrey, John, xi, 41. 

Jones, Beatrix, xiii, 136, 

Kalm, Peter, ii, 86. 

Karwinsky, Willxelm Freiherr, i, 94. 

Kellogg, Albert, viii. 120, 

Kennedy, Louis, iv, 16, 

Knowlton, Frank Hall, ix. 38, 

Koeberlin, C. L,, i. 93. 

Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, xi, 30. 

Landreth, David, vii. 87, 

Lawson, Charles, x, 120, 

Leavenworth, Mellins C, iii. QG. 

Le Conte, John Eatton, xiv, 44< 

Lee, James, iv. 16, 

Lee & Kennedy, iv, 16, 

Lemmonier, Louis Guillaume, iii. 46. 

Le Page du Pratz, v. 17. 

Letterman, George Washington, xiii. 79. 

Lindheimer, Ferdinand, i. 74. 

Little, Henry, xiv. 64. 

Lobb, William, x. 60. 

Lowrie, Jonathan Roberts, iv. 28. 

Lyall, David, xii. 16. 

Lyon, John, v, 80. 

Lyon, William Scrugham, iv, 133. 

Macfadyen, James, ii. 73- 

Mackenzie, Alexander, xii, 75- 

MacMahon, Bernard, vii. 86- 

MacNab, James, x. 110, 

Magnol, Pierre, i, 2, 

Marggraf, Georg, v. 24. 

Marshall, Humphrey, viii. 39. 

Marshall, Moses, i, 46. 

Maximilian, Alexander Philipp, Prinz von 

Neuwied, ix, 138. 
Meehan, Thomas, ix. 82. 
Mellicharap, Josepk Hinson, viii, 144. 
Menzies, Archibald, ii. 90. 
Mertens, Karl Heinrich, xii. 80. 
Michaux, Andr^, i, 58. 
Michaux, Francois Andrd, xi. 155. 
Miller, Philip, i, 38, 

Mohr, Charles, iv- 90 ; xiii. 25. 

Muehlenberg, Gotthilf Heinrich, ii. 56. 

Murray, Andrew, xi, 93, 

N^e, Louis, viii. 25. 

Newberry, John Strong, vi. 39. 

Nuttall, Thomas, ii, 34. 

Olney, Stephen Thayer, iii. 47. 

Palmer, Edward, viii. 106, 

Parkinson, John, iii. 16, 

Parry, Charles Christopher, vii, 130. 

Patterson, Harry Norton, iv. 24, 

Petre, Robert James, Lord, i, 8. 

Pinekney, Charles Cotesworth, v. 103. 

Piper, Charles Vancouver, ix, 145. 

Piso, Willem, vi- 110, 

Planer, Johann Jakob, vii. 60, 

Plank^ Elisha Newton, xiii, 13. 

Poiteau, Alexandre, ii, 75, 

Porter, Thomas Conrad, iv, 28. 

Pratz, Le Page du, v. 17. 

Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey, ix, 129. 

Pursh, Frederick, ii. 117; xiv, 100. 

Ravenel, Henry William, viii. 160, 

Beasoner, Pliny Ward, xiv, 77. 

Reverchon, Julien, xiii, 175, 

Keynoso, Alvaro, ii, 19. 

Robin, Jean, iii. 38, 

Robin, Yespasien, iii. 38. 

Romans, Bernard, iv. 5. 

Rothrock, Joseph Trimble, viii. 92, 

Rugel, Ferdinand, ix, 110, 

Rydberg, Per Axel, xiv, 69. 

Sabine, Joseph, xi. 97. 

Sadler, John, viii, 62. 

SchaefEer, Jakob Christian, ii, 15, 

Schott, Artknr Carl Victor, x, 18. 

Scouler, John, ix, 66. 

Sequoyah, x, 140, 

Sherard, James, i, 77, 

Sieber, Franz Wilhelm, v, 184, 

Small, John Kunkel, xiii, 21. 

Swartz, Olof, V. 44, 

Swieten, Gerard von, i. 99. 

Thomas, David, vii, 48. 

Thurber, George, iii, 36. 

Torrey, John, xi. 72, 

Tourney, James William, viii. 93. 

Tradeseant, John, i. 20, 

Trask, Luella Blanche, xiii. 29. 

Tr^cul, Auguste Adolph Lucien, x. 10. 

Vahl, Martin, v. 33, 

Vail, Anna Murray, xiii. 154. 

Vauquelin, Louis Nicolas, iv. 57. 

Ventenat, Etienne Pierre, i, 58. 

Walter, Thomas, xi, 132, 

Ward, Lester Frank, ix. 108. 

Warder, John Aston, vi. 90. 

Ware, Nathaniel A,, i. 86- 

Watson, Sereno, vii. 108, 




Wislizenus, Friedrich Adolf, vi. 94. 

Woodhousej Samuel Wasliington, viiL 88. 

Wright, CharleSj i. 94. 
Biota, X, 124. 
BiotUf s. 123. 
Biota MeldensiSy x. 70, 
Biota orientalis, x, 124. 
Biota orientaliSy ^pendula, s, 124, 
Biota orientalis Jiliformis, s. 124. 
Biota pendula, x. 124. 
Bircli, xiv. 57. 

Birch, Black, ix. 50, 65 ; xiv. 53. 
Birch, Canoe, ix. 57 ; xiv. 55. 
Birch, Cherry, ix. 50. 
Birch, Fragrant, ix. 47. 
Birch, Gray, ix. 53, 55. 
Birch, Mahogany, ix. 52, 
Birch, Moor, ix. 47. 
Birch, Old Field, ix. 56. 
Birch, Paper, ix. 57, 
Birch, Red, ix- 61 ; xiv. 53. 
Birch, River, ix. 61. 
Birch, Sweet, ix. 52. 
Birch, White, ix, 47, 55 ; xiv. 59. 
Birch wine, ix. 47. 
Birch, Yellow, ix. 53, 
Birch'bark canoes, ix, 59. 
T3irch-bark oil, ix. 47. 
Birch -oil, manufacture of, in the United 

States, ix. 51. 
Birches in China, ix. 48. 
Birches in Japan, ix, 48, 
Bird Cherry, iv. 35. 
Bitter Bark, ii. 38- 
Bitter Pecan, vii. 149 ; xiv. 43. 
Bitter nut, vii. 141, 
Black Ash, vi. 37. 
Black Birch, ix. 50, 65 ; xiv. 53. 
Black Calabash, vi. 99. 
Black Cottonwood, ix. 163, 175- 
Black Cypress, x. 153, 154. 
Black Gum, v. 77. 
Black Haw, v. 99 ; xiv. 23, 
Black Hickory, vii. 163, 167. 
Black Iron-wood, ii. 29. 
Black Jack, viii. 145, 161. 
Black Jack, Fork-leaved, viii. 145. 
Black Knot, iv- 12. 
Black Locust, iii, 77. 
Black Mangrove, vi. 107, 
Black Maple, xiii. 9. 
Black Mulberry, vii. 77. 
Black Oak, viii. 103, 137, 141, 
Black Olive Tree, v. 21. 
Black Persimmon, vi. 11, 
Black Pine of Japan, xi. 7. 
Black Plum-tree, v. 41, 
Black Sloe, iv. 33. 
Black Spruce, xii. 28. 
Black Tree, vi. 1Q8. 
Black Walnut, vii. 121. 
Black Willow, ix. 103, 107, 113, 115, 141. 
Black Wood, vi. 108. 
Blackhumia, i. 65. 
Blaekman Plum, iv. 24. 
Blackthorn, iv. 10. 
Blackthorn canes, iv. 11. 
Black-wood, Australian, iii. 116- 
Bladhia^ v. 151. 
Bladhia paniculataj v. 153. 
Blastophaga grossorum, vii. 93. 
Blepliarida rhois, iii. 10, 
Bligh, William, ii. 18. 
Blighia, ii. 18, 

Blight, Alder, ix. 70. 

Blodgett, John Loomis, i, 33. 

Blolly, i. 42 ; vi. 111. 

Blue Ash, vi, 35. 

Blue Beech, ix. 42. 

Blue Jack, viii. 171. 

Blue Myrtle, ii. 43. 

Blue Oak, viii. 79. 

Blue Sprace, xii. 47. 

Blue-wood, ii. 25. 

Blueberries, v. 116. 

Blueberry, High-bush, v. 117. 

Blytridium siguatum, xii. 61. 

BobUf vi. 13. 

Bobuaj vi. 13. 

Bogus Yucca Moth, s. 3, 

Bois de St. Lucie, iv. 11. 

Bois Fiddle, vi. 101. 

Boissier, Pierre-Edmond, vi, 74, 

Boissiera, vi. 74. 

Bo7iellia, v. 155. 

Bontia, vi. 105. 

Bontia germinanSj vi. 106, 

Borellia^ vi. 67, 

Borer, Apple-tree, iv. 70. 

Borer, Flat-headed, iv. 70 ; viii. 11. 

Borers, Oak, viii. 11. 

BORKAGINACE^, vi- 67. 

Botryosph^eria Gleditschise, iii- 74. 

Botryosphseria Persimmons, vi. 4. 

Botrytis cinerea, xii. 84. 

Botrytis Douglasii, xii. 84. 

Bottom Shellbark, vii. 157. 

Bourreria, vi. 75. 

Bourreria glaira, vi. 68. 

Bourreria Havanensis, vi. 77. 

Bourreria Havanensis, var, radula, vi. 77, 

Bourreria ovata^ vi. 77. 

Bourreria radula^ vi. 77- 

Bourreria recurva, vi. 77, 78. 

Bourreria tomentosa, y Havanensis^ vi- 77- 

Bourreria virgata, vi- 77, 

Bow Wood, vii. 89, 

Box Elder, ii. 111. 

Box-wood, ii. 17. 

Boynton, Frank Ellis, xiii. 66. 

Bracteates, xii. 97. 

Brahea dulcis (f), x. 47, 

Brahea serrulata, xiv. 76. 

Brainerd, Ezra, xiii. 112. 

Bread from bark of Hemlock, xi. 93. 

Bread from bark of Pinus contorta, xi. 93. 

Brewer, William Henry, viii. 28, 

Brewerina, viii. 28. 

BrianQon manna, xii. 4. 

Brittle Thatch, x. 53 ; xiv. 87. 

Broad-leaved Maple, ii. 89. 

Broad-nut, Gloucester, xiv, 103. 

Broom Hickory, vii. 167. 

Broussonetia^ iii. 69. 

Broussonetia secundifiora^ iii. 63. 

Broussonetia tinctoria^ vii. 89- 

Brown Hickory, vii. 167. 

Brown, Robert, viii. 62- 

Bruchus desertorum, iii. 100- 

Bruchus prosopis, iii. 100- 

Brushes, Palmetto, x. 41. 

Buccalatrix thuiella, x. 124, 

Bucida^ v. 19- 

Bucida angustifolia^ v. 21. 

Bucida Buceras, v. 21, 29. 

Bucida Buceras, var, angustifoliay v. 21. 

Buckeye, ii. 61 ; xiii. 3. 

Buckley, Samuel Botsford, iii. 3. 

Buekleya, iii. 4. 

Buckthorn, v. 173, 

Buckwheat-tree, ii. 7. 

Bull Bay, i. 3, 

Bull Beech, ix. 23. 

Bull Nut, vii. 163. 

Bull Pine, xi. 77, 95, 146, 

Bullock's heart, i. 28. 

Bully Tree, v. 182. 

Bum Wood, iii. 14. 

Bumelia, v. 167. 

Bumeliay v. 177. 

Bumelia angustifolia, v, 175. 

Bumelia arachnoidea, v. 171. 

Bumelia arborea, v. 171. 

Bumelia chrysophylloides, v. 169. 

Bumelia cuneata^ v. 175. 

Bumelia dulcifica^ v. 164. 

Bumelia ferruginea, v. 171. 

Bumelia fcetidissima, v. 165. 

Bumelia lanuginosa, v. 171 ; xiv. 102. 

Bumelia lanuginosa, var. rigida, v. 172, 

Bumelia lycioides, v. 173. 

Bumelia lycioides, var. reclinata, v. 168. 

Bumelia Mastichodendron, v. 165. 

? Bumelia oblongifolia, v- 171, 

Bumelia pallida^ v. 165, 

Bumelia parvifoUa, v. 175, 

Bumelia reclinata, v. 168. 

Bumelia reclinata, v. 175. 

Bumelia salicifolia, v. 165, 179. 

Bumelia serrata^ iv. 49. 

Bumelia spinosa, v. 172. 

Bumelia tenax, v. 169. 

Bumelia tomentosa, v. 171. 

Bur Oak, viii. 43. 

Burgundy pitch, xii. 23. 

Burke, Joseph, ix. 4. 

Burkea, ix. 4. 

Bur less Chestnut, ix. 14. 

Burning Bush, ii. 11. 

Eurser, Joachim, i. 95. 

Burs era, i. 95, 

Bursera gummifera^ i. 97. 

Bursera Simaruba, i. 97. 

BlTRSEEACE^, i. 95. 

Bush, Benjamin Franklin, vii. 110, 
Bush, Button, xiv. 26. 
Bustic, V. 179. 
Butternut, vii. 118. 
Button Bush, xiv. 26. 
Button-ball tree, vii. 103, 
Buttonwood, v. 24 ; vii. 102, 
Buttonwood, White, v. 29. 

Cahanis, Jean, xiv. 39- 
Cabbage Palm, x. 30, 
Cabbage Palmetto, x. 41, 
Cabbage Tree, x. 41. 

CACTACEiE, V. 51 ; xiv. 9- 
Cactus Bonplandiiy xiv. 12, 
Cactus cochenilliferf xiv. 11, 
Cactus Dilleniiy xiv. 13. 
Cactus Ficas-IndicUy xiv. 12, 
Cactus JiexagonuSy v. 52. 
Cactus IndicuSy xiv. 13. 
Cactus nana, xiv. 12, 
Cactus Opuntia^ xiv. 12. 
Cactus Opuntia inermiSj xiv. 12- 
Cacius Opuntia Tuna^ xiv. 12. 
Cactus Opuntia vulgaris, xiv. 12. 
Cactus Peruvianus, v. 52. 
Cactus Tuna, xiv, 12. 
Cadamba, v. 111. 




Cadamba jasminijiora, v, 112. 
Caddo Chief Plum, iy. 26. 

Cade, huile de, x, 72, 

Cgeoma Abietis-CanadensiSj xit 61. 

Cseoma Abietis-peetinatEej xii. 61. 

C^oma LarieiSj xii. 5, 

CainitOy v- 159, 

Cainito pomiferum, v, 160. 

Cajeput, vii, 21. 

Calabash, Black, yi. 99, 

Calabash-tree, yi, 97, 

Calamander wood, yi, 3. 

Caliciopsis Pinea, xi, 12. 

Calico Bush, y, 140. 

Calico Wood, vi. 22. 

California Holly, iy, 124. 

California Laurel, vii. 21. 

California Lilac, ii. 43. 

California Nutmeg, x, 59. 

California Oliye, vii, 21. 

Caligula Japonicaj ix. 9. 

Callfeocarpus, ix, 2. 

Callmocarpus^ ix, 1. 

Callaphis betulella, ix, 48, 

Callidium sereum, ix, 10. 

Callidium antennatum, x. 72 ; xi. 11. 

Calligrapha scalaris, ix. 70, 

Callipterus Castanese, ix. 10, 

Calloides nobilis, ix. 10- 

Calocedrus^ s, 133. 

Calocedrus macrolepisj x. 134, 

Calonche, xiv, 12. 

CalotJiyrsus, ii. 51, 

Calothyrsus Californicay ii- 61, 

Calpidia, vi, 109. 

Calyptospora Goeppertiaua, sii. 61. 

Calyptranthes, v, 35. 

Calyptranthes aromatica, v. 35, 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, y. 36- 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, a genuina, y. 36, 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, j8 ovalis, v, 36. 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, y trichotoma,y. 36. 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, 5 pauciflora, y, 36. 

Calyptranthes Chytraculia, e Zuzygium, y. 36, 

Calyptranthes Jamholana, v. 41. 

Calyptranthes obscura, y, 35, 

Calyptranthes paniculata, v. 35, 

Calyptranthes Sehiedeana, v. 35. 

Calyptranthes Schlechtendaliana, v. 35, 

Calyptranthes Zuzygium^ v, 36. 

CalyptranthuSy v. 35. 

Camellia axillaris^ i. 39. 

Campbell, Archibald, i, 108, 

Campderia, yi. 113, 

Campderia^ yi. 113, 

CamphoroTtKEa^ vii, 9. 

Canada balsam, xii, 109. 

Canada pitch, xii. 65, 

Canada Plum, iy. 15. 

Canby, William Mariott, xiii, 41. 

Canbya, xiii. 41- 

Canel, i. 36, 

Canella, i, 35. 

Canella alba, i. 37 ; xiy. 97- 

Canella laurifolia, i. 37, 

Canella ohtnsifolia, i. 35, 

Canella Winterana^ i. 37 ; xiy. 97. 

CANELLACEiE, i. 35. 

Canker of Larch, xii. 5. 
Canoe Birch, ix. 57 ; xiv. 55- 
Canoe Cedar, x, 129. 
Canoes, Birch-bark, ix. 59, 
Canotia, i, 87. 
Canotia holacantha> i- 88. 

Capel, Mary, ix. 19. 

Cappamdace^, i, 31. 

Capparis, i. 31. 

Capparis aphylla, i, 32- 

Capparis Breynia, i. 32. 

Capparis cynophallophora, i, 31, 
Capparis Dahi, i, 32. 

Capparis emarginata^ i, 33. 

Capparis frondosa, i. 32, 

Capparis Jamaicensis, i. 32, 33. 

Capparis Jamaicensis^ var. emarginata^ i, 33. 

Capparis Mithridatica, i, 32. 

Capparis pulcherrima, i. 32. 

Capparis sepiaria, i. 32. 

Capparis spinosa, i. 31, 

Capparis Yco, i. 32, 

Capr(Ea^ ix. 95, 

Caprese, ix, 96, 

Caprification, vii- 93, 

Caprijicus, vii. 91. 

Caprificus insectifera^ vii. 93. 

Caprifig, vii. 93. 

Capkifoliace^j v. 85 ; xiy. 23. 
Capulin, ii. 23. 

Capulinos, iv, 47, 

Carden, v, 52. 

Cardiolepis, ii. 31. 

Cardiolepis ohtusa^ ii, 37. 

Carey, John, i, 115. 

Cargillia^ vi, 1, 

Carica, xiv. 1, 

Carica Candamarcensis, xiy. 3. 

Carica caudata, xiv. 1, 2. 

Carica, digestive properties of, xiv, 2. 

Carica erythrocarpa, xiy, 2. 

Carica, fungal diseases of, xiv. 3, 

Carica hastata, xiy. 3, 

Carica hermafrodita^ xiy. 5, 

Carica, hybrids of, xiv, 2. 

Carica, medical properties of, xiv. 3. . . 

Carica Papaya, xiv. 5. 

Carica quercifolia, xiv. 2, 3, 

Caricace^, xiv, 1. 

Carlea^ yi. 13. 

Carlomohria, vi. 19, 

Carlomohria Carolina^ yi. 21, 

Carlomohria diptera, vi. 23. 

Carlomohria parvijioray vi. 19. 

Carmenta Fraxini, yi 27, 

Carmona, yi. 79. 

Carpathian balsam, xi. 10, 

Carpenter, William M., iv, 93, 

Carpenteria, iv. 93, 

Carpinus, ix. 39. 

CarpinuSy ix. 31. 

Carpinus Americana^ ix, 42, 

Carpinus Americana^ var, tropicalis^ ix. 43. 
Carpinus Betulus, ix. 40. 
Carpinus Betulus^ ix, 42, 

Carpinus Betulus, horticultural forms of, ix, 

Carpinus Betulus Virginianaj ix. 42, 
Carpinus Caroliniana, ix. 42 ; xiv, 104. 
Carpinus Carpinizza^ ix, 40. 
Carpinus Carpinus, ix, 41. 
Carpinus, Chinese, ix, 40, 
Carpinus cordata, ix. 40, 41. 
Carpinus Duinensis, ix. 40. 

Carpinus, economic properties of, ix. 41. 
Carpinus erosa, ix, 41, 

Carpinus, fungal diseases of, is, 41. 
Carpinus, insect enemies of, ix. 41, 
Carpinus intermedia, ix. 40. 
Carpinus Japonica^ ix. 41. 

Carpinus laxiflora, ix. 40, 41. 

Carpinus orientalis, ix. 40, 

Carpinus Ostrya, ix. 32, 34. 

Carpinus Ostrya: Americana, ix. 34. 

Carpinus Tschonoskii, ix. 41, 

Carpinus Turczaninovii, ix. 40. 

Carpinus viminea, ix. 40, 41. 

Carpinus Virginiana, ix. 34. 

Carpinus Virginica^ ix. 34, 

Carpinus Yedoensis, ix, 41, 

Carria, i, 39, 

Carya^ vii. 131. 

Carya alha, vii. 153, 161, 

Carya amara, vii. 141, 

Carya amara, var. myristicmformis, vii. 145, 

Carya amara, var, porcina, vii, 165. 

Carya angustifolia, vii. 137- 

Carya aguatica, vii. 149. 

Carya catkartica, vii. 118, 

Carya cordiformis, vii, 157. 

Carya glabra, yii. 165, 

Carya Illinoensis, vii. 137. 

Carya integrifoliay vii. 149.' 

Carya Mexicana, vii. 132. 

Carya microcarpa, vii. 167. 

Carya myristiccEformis, vii, 145. 

Carya obcordata, vii, 165, 

Carya olivcEformisj vii, 137- 

Carya porcina, vii. 165, 

Carya pubescens, vii, 157. 

Carya sulcata, vii. 157, 

Carya tetraptera, yii, 137. 

Carya Texana, vii. 137 ; xiy. 43. 

Carya iomentosa, vii. 161. 

Carya tomentosa, var, maxima, vii, 161. 

Caryca maamya, xiv. 5. 

Caryocedrus, x. 70. 

CaryophylluSy v. 39. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus, v. 40. 

Caryotaxus, x. 55. 

Caryotaxus grandis, x, 56. 

Caryotaxus Myristica, x, 59. 

Caryotaxus nucifera, x. 56. 

Caryotaxus taxifoUa^ x, 57. 

Casanophorum, ix, 7. 

Cascara Sagrada, ii. 39, 

Cassada, v. 179. 

Cassena, i. 111. 

Cassie, iii, 119. 

Cassle, culture of, iii. 120. 

Cassine Caroliniana, i. Ill, 

Cassine Peragua^ i. 111, 

Cassine ramulosa, i. 111. 

Castagno dei Centi Cavalli, ix. 8. 

Castanea, ix. 7. 

Castanea, ix. 1. 

Castanea alnifolia, ix. 10. 

Castanea Americana, ix. 13, 

Castanea Americana, var, angustifolia, ix. 13. 

Castanea Americana, yar. latifolia, ix, 13. 

Castanea Bungeana, ix, 9, 

Castanea Castanea, ix, 8, 

Castanea Castanea, var, laciniata, ix. 9, 

Castanea Castanea, var. pubinervis, ix. 9. 

Castanea Castanea, var. variegata, ix. 9. 

Castanea chrysophylla, ix, 3. 

Castanea chrysophylla, yar. minor, ix, 3, 

Castanea crenata, ix, 9. 

Castanea dentata, ix. 13, 

Castanea, economic properties of, ix. 10. 
Castanea Fagus, ix, 22. 
Castanea, fertilization of, ix. 7. 
Castanea, fungal diseases of, ix, 10. 
Castanea, insect enemies of, ix. 10. 



Castanea Japonica^ ix, 9. 

Castanea, medical properties of, ix. 10, 

Castanea nana^ is, 10. 

Castanea pumilaj ix. 17. 

Castanea pumilaj j3 nanUy ix. 10, 

Castanea sativa^ ix. 8. 

Castanea sativa^ var, Americana^ ix. 13, 

Castanea sempervirensj ix, 3. 

Castanea stricta^ ix, 9, 

Castanea tJngeri, ix. 10, 

Castanea vesca^ ix, 8, 9, 13, 

Castanea vesca : Americana^ ix, 13- 

Castanea vesca^ P pubinervisy ix. 9, 

Castanea vulgaris^ ix. 8, 

Castanea vulgaris^ y Americanay ix, 13- 

Castanea vulgaris, e Japonicay ix. 9. 

Castaneopsis, viii, 4, 

Castauopsis, ix. 1. 

Castanopsis chrysophylla, ix, 3, 

Castanopsis chrysophylla, fi minor, ix, 3, 

Castanopsis chrysophylla^ y^t, pumila, ix, 3, 

Castanopsis, economic properties of, ix, 2< 

Castanopsisj fungal diseases of, ix. 2. 

Catalpa, vl 83, 86. 

Catalpa hignonioidesy vi. 86, 89. , 

Catalpa hignonioides^ var. Kcempferiy vi. 84, 

Catalpa Bungei, vi, 84. 

Catalpa Bungei, vi, 88, 

Catalpa Catalpa, vi, 86 ; xiv, 102. 

Catalpa Catalpa, garden forms of, vi. 88, 

Catalpa communis^ vi. 86 ; xiv, 102. 

Catalpa cordifolia^ vi. 86, 89. 

Catalpa crassif olia, vi. 84. 

Catalpa, fertilization of the flowers of, vi, 83, 

Catalpa, fungal enemies of, vi. 84, 

Catalpa, insect enemies of, vi. 84. 

Catalpa Kcempferi, vi, 84. 

Catalpa longisiliquay vi. 84, 

Catalpa longissima, vi. 84. 

Catalpa longissima, wood of, vi. 84, 

Catalpa, medical properties of, vi, 84- 

Catalpa, nectariferous glands of the leaves 

of, vi. 87. 
Catalpa ovata, vi. 84, 
Catalpa speciosa, vi. 89. 
Catalpa syringifoUa, vi. 84, 86, 
Catalpa, Teas' hybrid, vL 84, 
Catalpa, Western, vi. 89. 
Catalpium, vi- 83- 
Catappa, v, 19. 

Catastega hamameliella, v. 2, 
Catawbiense Rhododendrons, v. 146, 147. 
Catechu, iii, 116. 
Catesbsea, vi. 16- 
Catesby, Mark, vi. 16, 
Cathormiony iii. 131- 
Catinga, v. 39. 

Cat's Claw, iii, 123, 125, 133. 
Cattle in southern pineries, xi. 156, 

Cavanillea, vi. 1, 

Cavinium, v, 115, 

Ceanothus, ii. 41, 

Ceanothus, ii- 47- 

Ceanothus Americanus, ii, 42. 

Ceanothus arboreus, ii. 45-' 

Ceanothus Asiaticus, ii. 47- 

Ceanothus azureus, ii. 42- 

Ceanothus colubrinus, ii, 47, 

Ceanothus ferreus, ii. 29. 

Ceanothus Gloire de Versailles, ii. 42, 

Ceanothus, hybrids, ii. 42. 

Ceanothus IcevigatuSy ii- 21. 

Ceanothus Lobbianus, ii, 43. 

Ceanothus reclinatus, ii- 49, . 

Ceanothus sorediatus^ ii, 45- 

Ceanothus spinosus, xiii. 1, 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, ii. 43. 

Ceanothus Veitchianus, ii. 43, 

Ceanothus velutinus, ii, 45- 

Ceanothus velutinus, var- arboreus, ii. 45- 

Cecidomyia Cupressi-ananassa, x, 150. 

Cecidomyia gleditschife, iii, 74, 

Cecidomyia liriodendri, i, 18< 

Cecidomyia Salicis-siliqua, ix, 101. 

Cecidomyia Salicis-strobiliseus, ix. 101, 

Cecidomyia Salicis-triticoides, ix. 101. 

Cecropia moth, v. 9. 

Cedar, x, 91, 

Cedar-apples, x, 73, 

Cedar, Bastard, x. 136. 

Cedar, Canoe, x. 129- 

Cedar Elm, vii- 57. 

Cedar, Ground, x. 75. 

Cedar, Incense, x, 135. 

Cedar of Goa, x. 100- 

Cedar, Oregon, x, 120. 

Cedar Pine, xi. 131. 

Cedar, Port Or ford, x, 119. 

Cedar, Post, x. 136. 

Cedar, Ked, x. 93, 129 ; xiv. 89, 93, 

Cedar, Rock, x, 91. 

Cedar, Stinking, x. 57. 

Cedar, White, x. Ill, 120, 126, 135. 

Cedrella odorata, i. 101. 

Cedrus Mahogoni, i, 100, 

CELASTKACEie, ii, 9. 

Cels, Jacques Martin, ii. 4, 

Celt is, vii. 63, 

Celtis Acata^ vii- 64, 

Celtis aculeata, vii. 64. 

Celtis alba, vii. 71. 

Celtis Audibertianaj vii. 67. 

Celtis Audibertiana, var, oblongata, vii, 67. 

Celtis Audihertiana, var. ovata^ vii. 67. 

Celtis australis, vii. 64. 

Celtis Berlandieri, vii. 71- 

Celtis brevipes, vii, 72. 

Celtis canina, vii, 67. 

Celtis Caucasica, vii- 64, 

Celtis cordata, vii. 67. 

Celtis crassifoUa^ vii. 67. 

Celtis crassifolia, var. eucalyptifoHa, vii, 67. 

Celtis crassifoliay var, morifoliay vii. 67, 

Celtis crassifolia^ var. tilimfolia, vii. 67. 

Celtis Douglasii, vii. 67. 

Celtis Ehrenbergiana, vii, 64, 

Celtis eriocarpa, vii. 64. 

Celtis Floridana, vii. 67. 

Celtis, fungal diseases of, vii. 64- 

Celtis fuscata, vii, 71, 

.^ Celtis grandidentata, vii, 67. 

Celtis heterophylla, vii. 67. 

Celtis iguanseus, vii. 64. 

Celtis, insect enemies of, vii- 64, 

Celtis integrifolia, vii. 71. 

Celtis l(Boigata, vii. 71. 

Celtis Lindheimeri, vii. 71- 

Celtis longifolia, vii. 71. 

Celtis maritimUy vii, 67. 

Celtis Mississippiensis, vii- 71 ; xiv. 103- 

Celtis Mississippiensis, var, reticulata, vii. 72. 

Celtis morifoliay vii. 67, 

Celtis ohliqua, vii. 67- 

Celtis oceidentalis, vii. 67 ; xiv. 103. 

Celtis oceidentalis, vii. 71. 

Celtis oceidentalis, var. Audibertiana, vii. 68, 

Celtis occidentalism var, cordata, vii, 67. 

Celtis oceidentalis, var. crassifolia^ vii. 68. 


? Celtis oceidentalis, c grandidentata, vii. 68, 
? Celtis oceidentalis, var. grandidentata, vii. 67. 
Celtis oceidentalis, var. integrifolia^ vii, 71, 
Celtis oceidentalis, var, pumila, vii. 69. 
Celtis oceidentalis, var- reticulata, vii. 72. 
Celtis oceidentalis, var, scabriuscula, vii, 67, 
Celtis oceidentalis, var. serrulata, vii. 67- 
Celtis oceidentalis, var, tenuifoliay vii. 67- 
Celtis pallida, vii. 64- 
Celtis patula, vii. 67- 
Celtis procera, vii. 67. 
Celtis pumila^ vii. 69. 
Celtis reticulata, vii. 68, 72. 
Celtis rhamnoides, vii. 64. 
Celtis Tala, e pallida, vii. 64. 
Celtis tenuifoUa, vii. 67- 
Celtis Texana, vii. 71. 
Cembra, xi- 1. 
Cembrse, xi. 4. 
Cenangium Abietis, xi. 12- 
Cenangium deformatum, x- 73, 
Cenangium ferruginosum, xi. 12, 
Cenangium seriatum, ix- 49- 
Centrodera decolorata, vi. 27- 
Cephalanthus, xiv- 25. 
Cephalanthus aralioides, xiv- 25- 
Cephalanthus naueleoides, xiv. 25. 
Cephalanthus oceidentalis, xiv. 26, 
Cephalanthus oceidentalis, xiv, 25. 
Cephalanthus oceidentalis, medical properties 

of, xiv, 27. 
Cephalanthus oceidentalis, var. brachypodus, 
xiv. 26. 

Cephalanthus oceidentalis, var. macrophyllus , 
xiv. 26. 

Cephalanthus oceidentalis, var. obtusifolius, xiv. 

Cephalanthus oceidentalis <j var. puhescens, xiv, 

Cephalanthus oceidentalis, var. salicifolius, 
xiv- 27. 

Cephalanthus oppositifolius, xiv, 26, 

Cephalanthus salicifolius, xiv- 27. 

Cephalanthus tetrandrus, xiv- 25- 

Cephalocereus, v. 51. 

Cephalonian Fir, xii. 99- 

Cephalophorus, v. 51, 

Cephalotomandra, vi, 109. 

Ceraseidos, iv. 7, 8- 

Cerasin, iv. 11- 

Cerasophora, iv. 7, 8, 

Cerasus, iv- 8- 

Cerasus, iv, 7, 8. 

Cerasus Americana, iv- 19, 

Cerasus horealis, iv. 35- 

Cerasus Brasiliensis, iv. 51. 

Cerasus Californiea, iv. 38. 

Cerasus Capollin, iv, 46- 

Cerasus Capuli, iv. 46. 

Cerasus Caroliniana, iv. 49- 

Cerasus Chieasa, iv. 25. 

Cerasus demissa, iv, 42- 

Cerasu^ densiflora, iv. 41. 

Cerasus Duerinckii, iv. 41, 

Cerasus emarginata, iv. 37. 

Cerasus erecta^ iv. 37. 

Cerasus fmbriata, iv, 41. 

Cerasus glandulosa, iv, 37. 

Cerasus hiemalis, iv. 19- 

Cerasus hirsuta, iv. 41. 

Cerasus ilicifolia, iv- 53. 

Cerasus Laurocerasus, iv. 10- 

Cerasus Lusitanica, iv. 11, 

Cerasus Mahaleb, iv. 10. 



Cerasus micrantha, Iv. 41. 

Cerasus mollis^ iv. 38, 

Cerasus nigra, iv, 15, 19. 

Cerasus obovata^ iv. 4:1< 

Cerasus Padus, iv- 10. 

Cerasus Pattoniana, iv. 37, 38. 

Cerasus Pennsylvanica, iv. 35. 

Cerasus persicifoliay iv. 35. 

Cerasus reflexa^ iv. 51, 

Cerasus salicifolia, iv. 46. 

Cerasus serotina^ iv. 41, 42, 45, 

Cerasus spTicerocarpay iv. 51. 

Cerasus umhellatay iv. 33- 

Cerasus Virginiana^ iv. 41, 45, 

Cerasus Virginiana^ var. ^, iv. 41. 

CeratostachySy v. 73. 

Ceratostachys arhorea^ v. 73. 

Cercidium, iii. 81, 

Cereidium floridum, iii, 83, 

Cercidium Jioridumy iii. 85, 

Cercidium Texanum, iii. 81. 

Cercidium Torreyanum, iii. 85. 

Cercis, iii. 93. 

Cercis Canadensis, iii, 95 ; xiv. 100, 

Cercis Canadensis^ y^v. pubescens, iii, 95, 

Cercis Chinensis, iii. 93. 

Cercis Griffithii, iii. 93. 

Cercis occidentalis, iii. 94, 

Cercis occidentalism iii. 97, 

Cercis occidentalism var. iii, 97, 

Cercis occidentalism var, Texensisj iii. 97. 

Cercis racemosa, iii, 93. 

Cercis reniformis^ iii. 97. 

Cercis Siliquastruin, iii. 93, 

Cercis Siliquastrum^ var. iii, 94. 

Cercis Texensis, iii, 97 ; xiv. 100. 

Cercocarpus, iv. 61. 

Cercocarpus Arizonicus^ iv. 64, 

Cercocarpus hetulcefoliuSy iv, 66. 

Cercocarpus hetuloides^ iv. 66. 

Cercocarpus brevifiorus, xiii, 27, 

Cercocarpus hrevijiorus ^ iv, 64, 6Q, 

Cercocarpus fothergilloides, sili. 29. 

Cercocarpus foihergilloides, iv. 61, 65. 

Cercocarpus intricatus^ iv, 64, 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, iv, 63 ; xiv. 100. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, var, intrieatus, iv, 64, 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, iv, 65, 

Cercocarpus parvifoliusy xiii. 27, 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. hetuloides, iv. 66. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. brevifiorus, iv. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius^ var. brevifiorus^ xiii. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. glaber, iv. 66. 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, var. paucidentatus, 

iv. 66. 
Cercocarpus paucidentatus m xiii, 27. 
Cercocarpus Traski^e, xiii. 29. 
Cercospora acerina, ii. 81. 
Cercospora Catalpte, vi- 84, 
Cercospora Diospyri, vi. 4, 
Cercospora fuliginosa, vi. 4. 
Cercospora Hamamelidis, v, 2. 
Cercospora Juglandis, vii. 117- 
Cercospora Kaki, vi. 4, 
Cercospora Morieola, vii, 77. 
Cercospora purpurea, vii. 2. 
Cercospora Yuccse, x. 5, 
Cercosporella Persic^e, iv. 12, 
Cerdana, vi. 67. 
Cerdana alliodora^ vi. 68. 
Cereus, v. 51. 
Cereus giganteus, v. 53. 

Cereus Pecten-aboriginum, v. 52. 
Cereus Peruvianus, v, 52. 
Cereus Pringlei, v. 52. 

Cerocarpus, v, 39, 

Ceropliora, ix. 83. 

Ceropkora angustifolia, ix. 84. 

Cerophora inodora, ix. 91, 

Ceropkora lanceolata, ix, 87, 

Cerophora spicansy ix. 84, 

Cerris, viii, 4. 

Cerroides, viii, 4, 

Chsenoyucca, x, 3. 

f Ckcerophyllum arhorescenSj v. 59- 

Ch(Btoptelea, vii. 39, 

Chmtoptelea Mexicanay vii. 40. 

Chalcophora campestris, vii. 101. 

Chalcophora Virginiensis, xi. 11. 

Cbamsecyparls, s. 98. 

ChammcypariSf x, 97, 98. 

Chamwcyjmris breviramea, x- 98, 

Chamcecyparis ericoides, x, 112. 

Chamcecyparis Lawsoniana, x, 119. 

Chamcecyparis Lawsonii, x. 119. 

Chammcyparis JVutkmnsis, & glauca^ x. 115. 

Chamcecyparis Nutkatensis, x. 115, 

Chammcyparis obtusa, x. 98. 

Chammcyparis pendula, x, 98. 

Chammcyparis pisifera, x. 99, 

Chamcecyparis pisif era flif era, x, 99. 

Chammcyparis pisifera scpiarrosa^ x, 99- 

Chammcyparis sphmroidea, x. 111. 

Chammcyparis squarrosa, x. 98, 

Chammcyparis thyoides, x. 111. 

Chammmespilus, iv. 67, 

Chammrops acaulis^ x. 38. 

Chammrops glabra, x. 38. 

Chammrops Palmetto, s, 41, 43. 

Chammrops serrulata^ xiv. 76, 

Chapman, Alvan Wentworth, vii. 110. 

Cbapmannia, vii. 100, 

Cbapote, vi. 11, 

Chase, Virginius Heber, xiii. 46. 

Chasseloupia, vi, 13, 

Chebulic myrobalaiis, v. 20- 

Checkered-barked Juniper, x. 85, 

Cheiranthodendre^, i, 47. 

Cheiranthodendron, i. 47. 

Cheiranthodendron Californicum, i. 47. 

Cheirantliodendron platanoides, i. 47. 

Cheney Plum, iv, 20. 

Cberimoia, i, 28, 

Chermes laricifolite, xii, 5. 

Chermes pinifolise, xi, 11. 

Cherries, Bigarreau, iv. 9, ^ 

Cherries, Duke» iv. 9. 

Cherries, Heart, iv. 9. 

Cherries, Morello, iv. 9. 

Cherry, v. 153, 

Cherry Bircb, ix, 50, 

Cherry, Bird, iv. 35. 

Cherry, Choke, iv. 41. 

Cherry Cordial- water, iv, 10. 

Cherry, cultivation of, iv. 9. 

Cherry, Bog, vii. 69. 

Cherry, Marasca, iv. 10, 

Cherry, Mountain, iv. 26, 

Cherry, Mountain Evergreen, iv- 54. 

Cherry, Pigeon, iv, 36, 

Cherry, Pin, iv, 36. 

Cherry, Bum, iv, 45, 

Cherry, Spanish Wild, iv, 54. 

Cherry, Surinam, v. 41, 

Cherry, Wild, iv, 37, 41 ; xiii, 25. 

Cherry, Wild Black, iv- 45, 

Cherry, Wild Red, iv, 35. 
Cherry-gum, iv. 10, 
Cherry-oil, iv. 10, 
Cherry-tree, Mexican, iv. 46- 

Cherry-tree, New Mexican, iv, 46, 
Chestnut, ix, 13. 

Chestnut, American, cultivation of, ix. 14- 
Chestnut, Burless, ix. 14. 
Chestnut, Golden-leaved, ix, 3. 
Chestnut Oak, viii. 51, 55, 183- 
Chestnut Spinner, ix, 9. 
Chestnut-tree, Chinese, ix, 9.* 
Chestnut-tree, European, cultivation of, ix. 8. 
Chestnut-tree, European, introduction into 

the United States, ix. 9. 
Chestnut-tree, Japanese, ix. 9, 
Chestnut-tree, the Tortwortb, ix, 8. 
Chestnut-trees of Mt. Etna, ix. 8, 
Chestnut-wood, extract of, ix, 10. 
Chestnuts, Spanish, ix. 9. 
Chicharronia, v. 19. 
Chickasaw Plum, iv. 25. 
Chickasaw Plum, origin of, iv. 26. 
Chicot, iii, 70, 

Chilonectria cucurbitula, xi. 12. 
Chilopsis, vi. 93. 
Chilopsis glutinosa^ vi. 95. 
Chilopsis linearis, vi. 95. 
Chilopsis saligna, vi. 95. 
Chimantbus, iv. 7- 
Chimanthus amygdalina, iv, 49, 
Chinese Carpinus, ix, 40. 
Chinese Chestnut-tree, ix, 9, 
Chinese galls, iii. 9- 
Chinese Hemlock, xii. 60, 
Chinese Liquidambar, v. 8. 
Chinese white wax, vi. 26. 
Chinquapin, is. 3, 17. 
Chinquapin Oak, viii. 56, 59. 
Chion cinctus, vii. 133- 
Chionanthus, vi. 59, 
Chionanthus angustifolia^ vi. 60, 
Chionanthus Chinensis, vi, 59. 
Chionanthus cotinifoUa^ vi. 60, 61. 
Chionanthus fraxinifolia, vi. 31, 
Chionanthus heteropbylla, vi. 60. 
Chionanthus longifolia, vi. 60, 
Chionanthus maritima, vi- 60. 
Chionanthus, medical properties of, vi. 59- 
Chionanthus montana^ vi. 60. 
Chionanthus retusa, vi. 59. 
Chionanthus trifida, vi, 60. 
Chionanthus triflora, vi, 60, 
Chionanthus vernalis, vi. 60. 
Chionanthus Virginica, vi. 60, 
Chionanthus Virginica^ var. angustifolia^ vi. 

Chionanthus Virginica^ var. latifolia^ vi. 60. 
Chionanthus Virginica^ var. maritima, vi. 60, 
Chionanthus Virginica, var. montana^ vi. 60. 
Chionanthus Zeylonica, vi. 60, 
Chionaspis furfurus, iv. 70, 
Cbionaspis Nysste, v, 74, 
Chionaspis pinifoliee, xi, 11, 
Chionaspis Quercus, viii. 11. 
Chithonanthus^ iii. 115, 
Chittam Wood, iii, 3, 
Chittim Wood, V. 171, 
Cblamydobalanus, viii. 4- 
Chloromeles, iv, 67. 
Chloromeles sempervirens^ iv, 75. 
Choke Cherry, iv- 41. 
Cholla, xiv, 15. 
Chomellia^ i. 103. 



Choniastrum, v. 144. 
Choutean, Pierre, vii- 86. 
Chramesus IcoriEe, vii. 133. 
Christmas Berry, iv, 124, 
Chrysobalauus, iv, 1, 
Chrysohalanus ellipticus^ iv, 4- 
Cbrysobalanus Icaco, iv. 3. 
Chrysobalanus Icaco, a genuinus, iv. 4. 
Chrysobalanus IcacOj ^ pellocarpiis, iv, 4. 
Chrysobalanus Icaco, & purpurcus, iv. 3. 
Chrysobalanus Icaco, y ellipticus, iv- 4. 
Chrysobalanus luteus^ iv, 4. 
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius, iv. 1. 
Chrysobalanus orbicularis^ iv. 4. 
Chrysohalanus pellocarpuSf iv. 4. 
Chrysobothris femorata, ii. 81 ; iv. 11, 70 ; 
viii- 11. 

Chrysobothris octocola, iii. 100. 
Chrysobothris 6-signata, ix. 48. 
Chrysomela pallida, ix. 156. 
Chrysomela scalaris, i, 51. 
Chrysomyxa Abietis, isii. 61. 
Chrysomyxa Ledi, xii, 26. 
Chrysomyxa Rhododendri, xii. 26. 
Chrysophyllum, v. 159- 
Chrysophyllum Cainito, v. 160. 
Chrysophyllum CainitOj r. 161- 
Chrysophyllum Cainito, J3, xiv. 102. 
Chrysophyllum Carolinense, v. 169. 
Chrysophyllum ferrugineumy v- 161, 
Chrysophyllum Ludovicianumy v. 171. 
Chrysophyllum microphyllumy v, 161. 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenwji, v- 161. 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme, v. 161 ; xiv. 102, 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme^ var. monopyrenum, 

V. 161. 
Chrysophyllum Roxburghii, v- 160- 
Chii-ling, v. 8. 
Chuncoa, v. 19. 
Chytraliay v. 35, 
Cicada septendeciin, viii. 11. 
Cicada, The Seventeen-year, viii. 11. 
Cider, manufacture of, iv. 68. 
Ciderkin, iv, 68, 
Cilician Fir, xii, 99. 
Cimbex Americana, ix. 101. 
Cinchona Caribcea, v. 105. 
Cinchona Caroliniana, v, 109, 
Cinchona florihunda^ v. 103. 
Cinchona Jamaicensis, v. 105. 
Cinchona Luciana, v. 103, 
Cinchona montana^ v. 103. 
Cinctosandra, v. 116. 
Cinnamodendron corticosum, i. 37, 
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, i. 36. 
Cinnamon Bark, i. 37. 
Ciponima, vi. 13. 
Cirillo, Domenico, ii. 2, 
Cirrha platanella, vii- 101- 
Citharexylon, vi, 101- 
Citharexylon villosum, vi. 103. 
Citheronia regalis, vii. 116. 
Cladrastis, iii- 55 ; xiv. 100- 
Cladrastis fragrans, xiv, 100, 
Cladrastis lutea, iii. 57 ; xiv, 100- 
Cladrastis tinctorial iii. 57- 
Clammy Locust, iii. 45. 
Clavimyrtus, v- 39. 
Clayton, John, i. 8- 
CleistocalyXf v. 39. 
Clethropsis, ix. 68. 
Clethropsis, ix. 67. 
Clethropsis NepalensiSy ix. 70. 
Clethropsis nitida^ ix. 70. 

ClifE Elm, vii. 48. 

Clifton, Francis, ii. 5, 

Clif tonia, ii. 5, 

Cliftonia ligustrina, ii, 7. 

Cliftonia monopbylla, ii. 7. 

Cliftonia nitida^ ii. 7. 

Clisioeampa, ii. 36. 

Clisiocampa Californica, viii. 11. 

Clisioeampa constricta, viii. 11, 

Clisiocampa disstria, viii- 11 ; ix. 84. 

Clisiocampa sylvatica, i. 51. 

Clistoyucca, x. 3. 

Cloves, V- 40. 

Cloves, oil of, V. 41, 

Clove-stalks, v. 41, 

Clove-tree, v. 40, 

Clove-tree, cultivation of, v- 40. 

Cluster-cups, iv, 70. 

Coccifera^ viii. 4. 

Coccoloba, vi. 113- 

Coccolobis, vi. 113- 

Coccolobis Curtissiiy vi. 119. 

Coccolobis Floridana^ vi. 119. 

Coccolobislaurifolia, vi. 119. 

Coccolobis Leoganensisy vi, 115, 119. 

Coccolobis, medical properties of, vi. 114. 

Coccolobis parvifolia J vi. 119. 

Coccolobis tenuifolia^ vi. 119. 

Coccolobis Uvifera, vi, 115, 

Coccolobis Uvifera^ var. Leoganensis, vi, 115. 

Coccolobis Uvifera^ var. ovalifolia^ vi. 115. 

Coccomyces triangularis, viii. 13. 

Coccothrinax, xiv- 85. 

Coccothrinax argentea, xiv. 85, 

Coccothrinax Garberi, xiv. 85, 


Coccothrinax jucunda, xiv, 87, 
Coccothrinax radiata, xiv. 85. 
Coccus Cacti, xiv. 11. 
Coccus Ilicis, viii. 10, 
Coccus Pe-la, vi, 26. 
Cochineal, xiv. 11, 
Cockscomb Gall- louse, vii. 41. 
Cockspur Thorn, iv. 91 ; xiii. 39- 
Cocoa Plum, iv. 3, 
Codlin-moth, iv. 70, 
Codonocrinumy x, 1. 
Coffee-tree, ii. 37, 
Coffee-tree, Kentucky, iii. 69. 
Colden, Cadwallader, i, 66. 
Coleophora carysefoliella, vii. 133. 
Coleophora cornella, v. 65, 
Coleophora laricella, xii. 5. 
Coleophora Ostry^e, ix. 32. 
Coleophora viburniella, v. 94, 
Coleosporium Piui, xi. 12. 
Coleosporium Senecionis, xi. 12. 
Coleosporium Viburni, v. 94. 
Colleta Plum, iv, 26, 
Collinson, Peter, i. 8. 
CoUosphteria corticata, vii. 87. 
Colopha Ulmicola, vii, 41. 
Colorado Spruce, xii, 47. 
Colporaa morbidum, xii. 26, 
Colubrina, ii, 47. 

Colubrina Americana, ii, 47. ^ 

Colnbrina Asiatiea, ii. 47. 
Colubrina Colubrina, ii. 47, 
Colubrina Fermentum, ii, 47. 
Colubrina ferruginosa, ii- 47, 
Colubrina Greggii, ii. 47, 
Colubrina reclinata, ii, 49. 
Colubrina Texensis, ii. 47- 
Columella^ vi. 109. 


Compton, Henry, i. 6. 

Coraptonia, ix. 84, 

Comptonia, ix. 83. 

Comptonia asplenifolia, ix. 84. 

Condal, Antonio, ii, 23. 

Condalia, ii. 23, 

Condalia, ii. 19. 

Condalia ferrea, ii. 29. 

Condalia infectoria, ii. 23, 

Condalia Mexicana, ii. 23. 

Condalia microphylla, ii. 23- 

Condalia obovata, ii. 25. 

Condalia spathulata, ii. 23, 

CoNiFERiE, X. 69 ; xi, 1 ; xii. 1 ; xiv. 89. 

Conocarpus, v, 23. 

Conocarpus acutifolia, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var, arborea, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var. procumbens, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var. serieea, v. 24. 

Conocarpus procumbens^ v. 24, 

Conocarpus racemosa, v. 29. 

Conotrachelns Juglandis, vii. 116- 

Conotrachelus Naso, iv, 84. 

Conotrachelns Nenuphar, iv. 11. 

Conotrachelns posticatus, iv. 84- 

Consolea, xiv, 9, 

Cooper, J. G., L 30, 

Copalillo, ii. 74. 

Copalm balm, v^ 8. 

Copper Beech, ix. 24. 

Coral Bean, iii. 63. 

Coral Sumachj iii, 14. 

Cordia, vL 67. 

Cordia Africana, vi. 68, 

Cordia alliodora, vi. 68. 

Cordia alliodora, wood of, vi. 69. 

Cordia angustifolia, vi. 68. 

Cordia Boissieri, vi. 73, 

Cordia Bromnii, vi, 68, 

Cordia bullata, vi. 68. 

Cordia campanulata, vi. 68- 

Cordia Cerdana^ vi, 68, 

Cordia dichotoma, vi. 68- 

Cordia, economic uses of, vi, 68. 

Cordia Floridana^ vi. 77. 

Cordia Gerascanttus, vi. 68, 

Cordia globosa, vi- 68. 

Cordia hexandra, vi. 68. 

Cordia Indica, vi. 68. 

? Cordia juglandifolia, vi. 71. 

Cordia latifolia^ vi, 68. 

Cordia Myza^ vi. 68- 

Cordia Myxa, uses of, vi, 68, 

Cordia officinalis, Yi. 68. 

Cordia orientalis, vi. 68. 

Cordia paniculata, vi. 68, 

Cordia podocephala, vi- 68. 

Cordia reticulata, vi, 68. 

Cordia Rhumphii, vi, 68. 

Cordia Rothii, vi. 68, 

Cordia Sebestena, vi, 71. 

Cordia Sebestena, vi. 68. 

Cordia Sebestena, var. rubra, vi, 71. 

Cordia speciosa, vi. 71. 

Cordia subcordata, vi, 68. 

Cordia suhopposita, vi. 68- 

Cordia thyrsifiora, vi. 79. 

Cordia vestita, vi, Q8, 

Cordial- water. Cherry, iv, 10 

Cordus, Valerius, vi, 69- 

Cordyloblaste, vi, 13. 

Cork Elm, vii. 47. 

Cork, harvesting of, viii, 8, 



Cork Oak, viii, 8. 
Cork Wood, vii. 111. 
C0K:t^ACE^, V. 63 ; xiv. 21. 
Cornularia PersicEBj iv. 12, 
Cornus, v. 63. 
Comus, iv, 67, 
Cornus alba, xiv- 21. 
f Cornus alba, v- 64. 
Cornus alterna, v, 71- 
Cornus alternifolia, v, 71- 
Cornus Amomumy v. 64. 
Cornus asperifolia, xiv, 21, 

Cornus asperifolia, var, Drummondiy xiv. 21. 

Cornus australisy v- 64, 

Cornus hrachypoda, v, 64. 

Cornus capitata, v. 64. 

? Cornus ccerulea, y. 64, 

Cornus crispula, v. 64, 

Cornus cyanocarpay v. 64, 

Cornus Drumraondiy xiv- 21, 

Cornus florida, v, 66 ; xiv. 101, 

Cornus Jiorida^ v. 69- 

Cornus florida, pendulous variety, v. 68. 

Cornus florida^, red-bracted variety, v- 68- 

Cornus, fungal enemies of, v. 65, 

Cornus, insect enemies of, v- 65. 

Cornus Kousa, v, 64, 

Cornus lanuginosa^ v. 64. 

Cornus macrophylla, v. 64. 

Cornus mas, v, 64. 

Cornus Nuttallii, v, 69- 

Cornus ohliqua^ v- 64. 

Cornus officinalis, v, 64, 

? Cornus polygama, v, 64. 

Cornus punctata, v. 71- 

Cornus riparia, v, 71. 

Cornus riparia, var. rugosa^ v, 71- 

Cornus rotundifolia, v, 71. 

? Cornus rubiginosa, v- 64. 

Cornus sanguinea, v, 64- 

Cornus sericea, v. 64. 

Cornus sericea, y asperifolia, xiv, 21. 

Cornus undulata, v. 71. 

Coromandel wood, vi- 3- 

Corrections, xiv. 97, 

Corsican Pine, xi, 6. 

Cortex Canellfe alb®, i. 35. 

Cortex thymiamatis, v. 8, 

Corticium acerinura, var. niveum, x. 73. 

Corticium cruentum, ix. 101, 

Corticium Oakesii, ix. 101, 

Corticium pezizoideum, ix. 156, 

Corypha minor, x, 38, 

Corypha Palmetto, x. 41. 

Corypha pumilaf x. 38- 

Cossula magnifica, viii. 11. 

Cossus Centerensis, ix, 156. 

Cossus ligniperda, i. 50. 

Cossus Querclperda, viii. 11. 

Cossus reticulatus, viii. 11, 

Cossus robini£e, iii- 38. 

Costsea, ii, 2. 

Cotinus, iii, 1. 

Cotinus Americanus, iii. 3 ; xiv, 99. 

Cotinus Coggygria, iii, 2, 3, 

Cotinus Cotinus, iii, 2. 

Cotoneaster spaiJiulata, iv. 105, 

Cotton Gum, v. 83- 

Cottonwood, ix. 179, 183 ; xiv. 69, 71, 73. 

Cottonwood, Balsam, ix, 175, 

Cottonwood, Black, ix, 163, 175. 

Cottonwood, Narrow-leaved, ix, 171. 

Cottonwood, Swamp, ix. 163. 

Coulter, Thomas, iii. 84. 

Covellia, vii. 92. 

Covellia, vii, 91, 

Coville, Frederick Vernon, xiv. 67- 

Cow Oak, viii- 67, 

Crab, Fragrant, iv, 71. 

Crab, Soulard, iv. 72. 

Crab Wood, vii. 30, 

Crab-apple, iv. 71, 75, 

Crab-apple, Oregon, iv- 77, 

Cranberries, v. 116. 

Cranberry, cultivation of the, v. 116. 

Cratagus, iv. 83 ; xiii. 31, 

Cratmgus amrifolia^ iv, 107- 

Crateegus acutifolia, xiii, 51. 

Cratasgus sestivalis, iv. 119, 

Cratmgus Amelanchier, iv. 125. 
Crataegus anomala, xiii. 107. 
Cratmgus apiifolia, iv. Ill, 

Cratcsgus apiifolia minor, iv. Ill, 
Crataegus aprica, xiii, 169, 
Cratcegus arborescens, iv. 109, 
Cratmgus arbutifoUa, iv. 123, 
Crataegus Arkansana, xiii. 85, 
Crataegus Arnoldiana, xiii. 103, 
Crataegus Asbei, xiii. 149, 
Cratsegus atrorubens, xiii, 181, 
Cratmgus badiata, iv. 92, 
Cratsegus berberifolia, xui. 39- 
Cratmgus berberifolia, iv. 93 ; xiii- 43. 
Cratffigns Berlandieri, xiii. 91. . 
Cratsegus blanda, xiii. 177. 
. Cratmgus Bosciana, iv, 92. 
Crataegus Boyntoni, xiii, 65- 
Cratsegus braehyacantba, iv, 89. 
Cratsegus Brazoria, xiii- 77- 
Cratffigus Bushii, xiii, 55,. .. . 
Crataegus Canadensis, xiii. 89. 
Crataegus Canbyi, xiii, 41, 
Cratsegus Candida, xiii, 95. 
Cratcegus Caroliniana, iv. 113, 
Cratmgus Carrierei, iv. 91. 
Crataegus Cbamplainensis, xiii. 105, 
f Cratmgus chlorocarpa, xiii. 61. 
Cratsegus coccinea, iv. 95 ; xiii. 133, 
Cratmgus coccinea, iv, 96 ; xiii, 134. .. 
Cratmgus coccinea macracantha, xiii, 135. 
Cratmgus coccinea pruinosa^ xiii, 61. 
Crataegus coccinea rotundifolia, xiii. 134. 
Cratmgus coccinea subvillosa, xiii- 101. 
Cratmgus coccinea^ e ? mollis^ xiii. 83, 
Cratsegus coccinea, var- macracantha, iv. 96, 
Cratmgus coccinea, var, macracantha, xiii. 134, 
139, 147- 

Cratmgus coccinea, var. mollis, iv- 99 ; xiii. 

Cratmgus coccinea, var. oligandra, iv- 95. 

Crata3gus coccinea, var. populifolia, iv. 97. 

Cratmgus coccinea, var, typica, iv, 97- 

Cratmgus coccinea, var, viridis, iv, 95, 96- 

Crattegus coccinioides, xiii. 115. 

Cratmgus collicola, xiii, 73. 

Crateegus coUina, xiii, 73. ■ . ' 

Cratmgus Columbiana, xiii, 95 >■ '- 

Cratmgus consanguinea, xiil, 157. 

Cratsegus CQrdata, iv, 107- - '^ 

Cratsegus cordata, distribution of, xiii. 35. 

Cratmgus coronaria, iv. 71, .->-•. ■ ■ . .. 

Crataegus corusca, xiii. 99. 

' Cratmgus Coursetiana, iv. 92. 
Cratsegus Crus-galli, iv- 91. 

- Cratmgus Crus-galli,. iv. 103- 

Crat^egus Crus-galli, distribution of, xiii. 


Cratsegus Crus-galli, var, berberifolia, iv. 93, 

Cratmgus Crus-galli, var. berberifolia, xiii, 53- 

Cratsegus Crus-galli, var, Fontanesiana, iv. 

Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. linearis, iv, 92. 

Crataegus Crus-galli, var, ovalifolia, iv, 92. 

Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. prunifolia, iv, 92. 

Cratmgus Crus-galli, var, pyracanthifolia, iv, 
92 ; xiii. 39. 

Cratmgus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, iv. 

Cratsegus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, xiii. 39. 

Cratmgus Crus-galli, var- salicifolia, iv. 92. 

Cratmgus Crus-galli, var, splendens, iv. 91. 

Cratmgus cuneifolia, iv, 103. 

Cratsegus dilatata, xiii, 113, 

Cratagus dispar, xiii, 165, 

Crataegus Douglasli, iv, 86. 

Cratmgus Douglasii, iv. 96. 

Cratsegus Douglasii, distribution of, xiii, 35. 

Cratsegus Douglasii, var, rivularis, iv. 87- 

Cratsegus Douglasii, var, rivularis, distribu- 
tion of, xiii. 35, 

Cratmgus Downingii^ xiii. 140, 

Cratsegus edita, xiii. 57, 

Cratmgus Eggertii, xiii. 115- 

Cratmgus elliptica, iv- 114, 119 ; xiii. 53, 167. 

Cratsegus EUwangetiana, xiii, 109. 

Cratsegus Engelmanni, xiii. 43. 

Crataegus erecta, xiii. 49. 

Cratsegus fecunda, xiii, 47. 

Cratmgus flava, iv, 113 ; xiii. 155, 

Cratmgus flava, iv. 103, 114 ; xiil. 156, 159- 

Crat^gus flava, var, elliptica, iv. 114. 

Cratmgus fiava, var, elliptica, xiii- 165. 

Cratmgus fiava, var, lobata, iv. 113 ; xiii, 156. 

Cratmgus flava, TaT.pubescens, iv. 114, 

Cratmgus flexuosa, iv. 117. 

Cratsegus Floridana, xiii. 159, 

Cratsegus, fungal enemies of, iv, 84. 

Cratsegus gemmosa, xiii. 141, 

Cratsegus Georgiana, xiii. 63, 

Cratsegus glabriuscula, xiii. 175. 

Cratmgus glandulosa, iv. 96, 113, 114 ; xiii- 

Cratmgus glandulosa, d succulenta, xiii, 139, 
Cratmgus glandulosa, j8 macracantha, xiii. 147. 
f Cratmgus glandulosa, j3 rotundifolia, xiii. 134. 
Cratmgus glandulosa^ var. macracantha, iv, 

Cratmgus glandulosa, var. rotundifolia^ iv, 95. 

Crataegus Harbisoni, xiii. 151, 

Cratsegus Holmesiana, xiii, 119, 

CratmgUrS Holmesiana villipeSy xiii. 119. 

Cratmgus horrida, xui, 134, 

Cratsegus Illinoiensis, xiii. 143. 

Cratmgus, insect enemies of, iv. 84- 

Cratsegus integriloba, xiii. 145, 

Cratsegus Jonesse, xiii. 135. 

Cratsegus lacera, xiii. 127. 

Crata>gus lacrlmata, xiii. 161. 

Cratmgus latifolia, iv- 101, 103, 

Cratmgus laurifolia, iv, 91. 

Cratmgus Lavallei, iv. 91- 

Cratsegus Lettermani, xiii. 79. 

Cratmgus leucophlmos, iv. 101, 

Cratmgus linearis, iv, 92, 

Cratmgus lobata, iv. 113, 

Cratsegus lobnlata, xiii. 117, 

Cratmgus ludda, iv. 91, 119, 

Cratsegus lucorum, xiii, 125. 

Cratsegus macracantha, xiii. 147, 

Cratmgus macracantha, iv. 96, 

f Cratmgus macracantha, xiii, 139. 

Cratmgus macracantha, var, minor, xiii. 147. 



Cratffigus Margaretta, xiii. 137. 

CratcEgxis Michauxii^ iv- 114. 

Cratcegits microcarpa, iv. 105, ■ 

CratEegiis Mohrij xiii. 59- 

CratEegus molliSj iv. 99 ; xiii, 83, 84. 

Cratmgus mollis^ xiiL 93, 101, 

Cratsegus nitida, xiii. 179. 

Cratcegus obovatifolia^ iv, 103. 

Cratcegus opaca^ iv. 119, 

Crataegus opima, xiii. 171. 

Cratcegus ovalifoUa, iv, 92. 

CratEegiis Oxyacantha, iv. 84. 

Cratcegus Oxyacantha^ iv. 111. 

Cratmgus Oxyacantha^ var. Americana^ iv. 111. 

Cratcegus Oxyacantha^ var. apiifolia^ iv. 111. 

CratcBgus parvifolia, iv- 117. 

Crataegus pastorum, xiii. 134. 

Crataegus pedicellataj xiii. 121. 

Cratjegus peiitandra, xiii. 129. 

Crataegus Peoriensis, xiii. 45. 

Crataegus pinnatifidaj iv. 84. 

Cratcegus populifoUa^ iv. 97, 107. 

Crataegus prateiisiSj xiii. 81. 

Crataegus Pringlei^ xiii. 111. 

Crataegus, properties of, iv. 84- 

CratEegus pruinosa, xiii. 61. 

Cratcegus prunelli/oUay iv, 92. 

Cratcegus prunifoliay iv. 92, 

Cratsegus punctata, iv. 103. 

Cratsegus punctata^ distribution of, xiii. 35. 

Cratcegus punctata^ var. aurea, iv. 103. 

Cratcegus punctata^ var. brevispina, iv. 86. 

CratCEgus punctata y var. ruhra^ iv. 103. 

Cratcegus punctata^ var, xanthocarpa, iv. 103. 

Cratcegus pyrifoliay iv, 101, 

Crat:^gu8 pyriformis, xiii- 97. 

Crattegus quercina, xiii. 95. 

Cratcegus racemosa^ iv. 127. 

CratEegus Ravenelii, xiii. 1133. 

Cratcegus rivularis, iv. 86, 87. 

Cratcegus rotundifoliay iv. 95, 125 ; xiii. 65, 

Cratcegus rotundifolia^ a minora xiii. 147. 
Cratcegus rotundifolia, b succulentay xiii. 139- 
Cratcegus salicifoliay iv. 92, 
CratEegus saligna, xiii. 37- 
Cratcegus sanguinea, iv. 86, 96- 
Cratcegus sanguinea, var. Douglasiij iv, 86. 
Cratsegus Sargenti^ xiii. 69. 
CratEegus scab rid a, xiii. 123. 
Crataegus senta, xiii. 167. 
Crataegus sera, xiii. 87. 
Crataegus signata, xiii. 63. 
Crataegus sllvicola, xiii. 131. 
Cratsegus sinistra, xiii. 43. 
Crataegus sordida, xiii. 75. 
Cratmgus spatliulata, iv. 105. 
Cratcegus spathulata, iv. 89, 114, 
CratCEgus spicatay iv. 129. 
Crataegus stipnlosa, iv. 84, 
Crataegus submollis, xiii. 101, 
Crattegus suborbiculata, xiii. 71- 
Cratcegus subviUosay iv. 99. 
Cratcegus subvillosa ?, xiii. 83. 
Crataegus succulenta, xiii. 139. 
Cratmgus Texana, xiii. 93- 
Cratcegus Texana^ iv. 99- 
Cratcegus tilicefoliaj xiii. 84. 
Crataegus tonientosa, iv, 101. 
Cratcegus tomentosa, iv. 99, 117 ; xiii. 101- 
CratEGgus tomentosa, distribution of, xiii. 35. 
Cratcegus tomentosa, var. mollis^ iv. 99 ; xiii. 


Cratcegus tomentosa, ^^v.plicata^ iv. 103. 

Cratcegus tomentosa, var. punctata, iv. 103. 
Cratcegus tomentosa, y^t. pyrifoUa, iv. 101. 
Cratcegus turhinata, iv, 113. 
Crataegus uniflora, iv. 117, 

Cratcegus unilateralis, iv. 117. 

Cratsegus Vailiee, xiii, 153. 

CratsBgus venusta, xiii, 67. 

Cratcegus Virginica, iv. 114. 

Crataegus viridis, iv. 109. 

Cratcegus viridis, iv. 95, 114 ; xiii. 61, 179, 

Cratcegus viridis, var. nitida, xiii. 179. 

Cratsegus vulsa, xiii, 173. 

Cratcegus Watsoniana, iv. 91, 
Crematomia, vi, 75, 

Crepidodera Helxines, ix. 101, 156. 

Cresceutia, vi. 97. 

Crescentia acuminata, vi, 97. 

Crescentia alata, vi. 98. 

? Crescentia coriacea, vi. 99, 

Crescentia cueurbitina, vi. 99 ; xiv- 102, 

Crescentia Cujete, vi. 97. 

Crescentia Cujete, uses of, vi. 97, 

Crescentia cuneifolia, vi- 97- 

Crescentia latifolia^ vi. 99. 

Crescentia letliifera, vi. 99. 

Crescentia obovata, vi. 99. 

Crescentia ovata, vi. 99 ; xiv. 102. 

Crescentia, species, vi. 99, 

Crescenzi, Pietro de', vi. 98. 

Crioceplialus agrestis, xi, 11. 

Crcesus latitarsus, ix. 48. 

Cronartium asclepiateum, ix. 86. 

Cronartium ribicolum, xi. 12. 

Croom, Hardy B., x. 58. 

Croomia, x. 58, 

Cryptolechia cryptolecliiella, i. 108. 

Cryptolecbia faginella, ix, 24. 

Cryptolechia quercicella, viii. 12, 

Cryptolecbia Schlagenella, viii. 12- 

Cryptorhynchus Lapathi, ix. 100, 155. 

Cryptosporium epipbyllum, ix. 10. 

Cucumber- tree, i. 7, 

Cucumber-tree, Large-leaved, i. 11. 

Cucumber-tree, Long-leaved, i. 15. 

Cuiete, vi. 97, 98. 

Cumberland Plum, iv, 24, 

Cupania glabra, i. 42. 

Cuprespinnata^ x. 149. 

Cuprespinnata disticJia, x. 151. 

Cupressus, x. 97. 

Cupressus Americana, x. 115. 

Cupressus Arhor-vitce, x. 126. 

Cupressus Arizonica, x. 105, 

Cupressus Arizonica, var. bonita, x. 105, 

Cupressus attenuata, x. 119. 

Cupressus Balfouriana, x, 119, ^ 

Cupressus Benthami, var. Arizonica, x, 105. 

Cupressus Boursierii, x, 119. 

Cupressus Californica^ x. 107, 

Cupressus Californica gracilis, x. 107, 109- 

Cupressus conoidea, x. 99. 

Cupressus cornuta, x. 107. 

Cupressus disticha, x- 151. 

Cupressus disticha, imbricaria, x, 152. 

Cupressus disticha, var. nutans, x, 153- 

Cupressus disticha^ var. patens, x. 151. 

Cupressus, economic properties of, x. 98. 

Cupressus elongata, x. 100. 

Cupressus fastigiata, x, 99. 

Cupressus fragrans, x, 119. 

Cupressus funebris, x. 100. 

Cupressus, fungal diseases of, x, 100. 

Cupressus glandulosa, x. 109. 

Cupressus glauca, x, 100, 

Cupressus globulifera, x, 100, 
Cupressus Goveniana, x, 107 ; xiv, 95, 

Cupressus Goveniana, Y9iT,vygmcea, xiv. 95. 

Cupressus Guadalupe n sis, x, 98. 

Cupressus Guadalupensis, x, 105, 

Cupressus Hartwegii, x. 103. 

Cupressus Hartwegii, \&,v.fastigiata, x, 103, 

Cupressus horizontalis, x. 100. 

Cupressus horizontalis, ^ pendula, x. 100, 

Cupressus, insect enemies of, x, 100. 

Cupressus Lambertiana, x. 103, 104. 

Cupressus Lambertiana, \^v. fastigiata,x. 103. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana, x, 119, 

Cupressus lugubris, x. 99. 

Cupressus Lusitaniea, x- 100. 

Cupressus Macnabiana, x. 109 ; xiv. 105. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, x. 103. 

Cupressus macrocarpa Crippsi, x, 104. 

Cupressus macrocarpa flagelliformis, x. 104. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, ? var- Farallonensis, x, 

Cupressus macrocarpa, y^-£. fastigiata, x. 103. 
Cupressus macrocarpa, var, Guadaloupensis, 

X. 98- 
Cupressus macrocarpa, var, Lambertiana, x, 

Cupressus Nabiana, x. 109. 
Cupressus Nootkatensis, x. 115 ; xiv, 105, 
Cupressus Nutkana, x. 119. 
Cupressus Nutkaiensis, x, 115- 
Cnpressus obtusa, x. 98, 

Cupressus obtusa, economic properties of, x. 

Cupressus obtusa, var, hreviramea, x, 98. 
Cupressus palustr is, x. 111. 
Cupressus patula, x, 100, 124, 
Cupressus pendula, x. 100, 124. 
Cupressus pisifera, x. 98. 
Cupressus pisifera, var, a squarrosa, x. 99, 
Cupressus pisifera, var. c filifera, x, 99. 
Cupressus pygmfea, xiv, 95, 
Cupressus pyramidalis, x. 99, 
Cupressus ReinwardtHy x, 104. 
Cupressus sabinoides, x, 91. 
Cupressus sempervirens, x. 99, 
Cupressus sempervirens horizontalis, x, 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens stricta, x, 99. 
Cupressus sempervirens, a, x, 99- 
Cupressus sempervirens, a fastigiata, x, 99- 
Cupressus sempervirens, 0, x, 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens, y sphcerocarpa, x. 100- 
Cupressus sempervirens, 7 umbiiicata, x. 99. 
Cupressus sempervirens, 5 globulifera, x, 100, 
Cupressus sempervirens, e Indica, x, 99. 
Cupressus sphcerocarpa, x. 100. 
Cupressus squarrosa, x. 99- 
Cupressus Thuya, x. 124. 
Cupressus thyoides, x. Ill, 
Cupressus thyoides, x, 71, 
Cupressus thyoides aurea, x. 112, 
Cupressus thyoides ericoides, x, 112. 
Cupressus torulosa, x. 99. 
Cupressus torulosa, x. 103. 
Cupressus Tournefortii, x, 99- 
Cupressus umbiiicata, x, 99, 
Cupressus Whitleyana, x, 99, 
CupuLiFERJE, viii. 1 ; ix. 1 ; xiv. 49. 
Curtisia, i. 65. 

Curtiss, Allen Hiram, ii. 50, 
Custard apple, i. 28, 
Cutch, iii. 116. 
Cut-leaved Beech, ix. 24, 
Cyanococcus, v. 115. 
Cyclobalanopsis, viii. 4, 



Cydobalanopsisy viii. 1, 
Cyclobalanus, viii. 4. 
CyclohalanuSj viii. 1. 
Cylindropuntia, sdv. 10. 
Cylindrosporium castanicolunij ix. 10. 
Cylipogoriy iii- 33, 

Cyllene antennatus, iii. 100. ' 

Cyllene pictus, vii. 116, 133. 
Cyllene robinisej iii. 38. 
Cynips Gall® tinctori®, viii- 9- 
Cynoxylon, v. 63- 
Cyphella f ulva, ix- 70, 
Cypress, s. 105, 107, 109 ; ziv. 95. 
Cypress, Bald, s. 151, 
Cypress, Black, x. 153, 154- 
Cypress, Deciduous, x. 151. 
Cypress knees, x, 151, 
Cypress, Lawson's, s. 119, 
Cypress, Mexican Bald, x, 150. 
Cypress, Monterey, x. 103, 
Cypress of Montezuma, x. 150, 
Cypress of Peopatella, x. 150. 
Cypress of Tule, x, 150- 
Cypress, Pyramidal, x, 100. 
Cypress, Ked, x. 154, 
Cypress, Sitka, x. 115, 
Cypress, White, x, 153, 154. 
Cypress, Yellow, x. 115. 
Cypresses, Mexican, x. 98. 

Cyrilla, ii. 1. 

Cyrilla Antillana, ii. 2- 

Cyrilla Caroliniana, ii, 3- 

Cyrilla fuscata^ ii. 3, 

Cyrilla paniculatUy v- 153, 

Cyrilla parvifolia^ ii. 3. 

Cyrilla poly stacliia^ ii. 3, 

Cyrilla racemifera^ ii, 2, 

Cyrilla racemillora, ii, 3. 

Cyrilla racemosa, ii. 3, 

Cyrilla racemosa, var. racemifera, ii- 2. 

CYBILLACE.E, ii. 1. 

Cyrtophorus verrucosus, iv. 11. 
Cystogyney vii. 91. 


Dacrydium plumosum^ x. 134. 

Dactylus, vi. 1, 

Dactylus Trapezuntinus^ vi, 2, 

Dfedalia quereina, viii- 12, 

Dtedalla vorax, x. 134. 

Dagger, Spanish, x- 9, 13, 15, 17, 23, 27- 

Dahoon, i. 109, 

Dale, Samuel, iii. 34, 

Dalea, iii. 33. 

Dalea arborescens, iii. 33. 

Dalea spinosa, iii. 35, 

Daphniphyllopsis capitata^ v, 73. 

Dapsilia rutilana, x. 73. 

Darling Plum, ii. 21, 

Dasyscypha Agassizii, xii. 5, 101. 

Dasyscypha calycina, xii. 5, 

Dasyscypha Willkommii, xii. 5, 

Datana integerrima, vii. 116. 

Datana ministra, iv. 70 ; vii, 116, 133. 

Datisca hirta, xiv. 99. 

David's Oak, viii. 10. 

f Decadia^ vi. 13. 

Deciduous Cypress, x, 151. 

Deep Creek Plum, iv. 20. 

Deerberry, v- 117. 

Deilinia variolaria, ix. 101, 

Delastrea^ v- 181. 

Dendroctonus frontalis, xii- 25, 

Dendroctonus rufipennis, xii, 25. 

Dendroctonus terebrans, si. 11. 

Dendrodaphne, vii- 9. 

f Dendrodaphne^ vii. 9. 

Depressaria robiniella, iii- 38- 

Dermatophyllum^ iii. 59. 

Dermatopkyllum speciosum, iii. 63. 

Desert Palm, x. 47, 

Desert Willow, vi. 95. 

Desmanthus salinarum^ iii. 101. 

De Soto Plum, iv. 20, 

Devil Wood, vi. 65, 

DiamaripSy ix. 95. 

Diamond Willow, ix, 136. 

Diandree, ix. 96. 

Diaportbe Carpini, ix, 41, 

Diaspis Carueli, s. 73, 

Diatrype disciformis, ix. 49. 

Diatrypella Tocciteana, ix. 70, 

DicalyXy vi. 13, 

Dieerca divaricata, iv, 11. 

Didymococcus, ii, 67, 

Digger Pine, xi. 95. 

Dilly, Wild, V. 183, 

Dimerosporium pulcbrumj v. 65, 

Dimorphanthus^ v. 57- 

Dimorphanthus elatus, v- 60. 

Dimorphanthus MandshuricuSj v. 60. 

Diospyros, vi, 1. 

Diospyros Brasiliensis, vi. 3- 

Diospyros CaroUmanay vi. 7. 

Diospyros, cbaracter of the wood of, vi. % 

f Diospyros Chinensis^ vi. 4. 

Diospyros ciliata^ vi. 7, 

Diospyros concolor^ vi, 7. 

f Diospyros costata^ vi. 4, 

Diospyros Cunalon, vi. 3, 

Diospyros decandra^ vi. 3- 

Diospyros Dendo, vi. 3, 

Diospyros digyna^ vi. 3, 

Diospyros dubia^ vi. 3. 

Diospyros Ebenaster, vi, 3- 

Diospyros Ebenaster, vi. 2, 

Diospyros Ebenaster, fruit of, vi. 3, 

Diospyros Ebenum, vi, 2. 

Diospyros Ebenum^ vi. 3. 

Diospyros Embryopteris^ vi. 3- 

Diospyros ferruginea^ vi. 3, 

Diospyros, fungal enemies of, vi. 4, 

Diospyros gldberrima^ vi, 2- 

Diospyros glutinosa, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Guajacana, vi- 7. 

Diospyros, insect enemies of, vi- 4. 

Diospyros Japonica^ vi, 2, 

? Diospyros Kcempferi^ vi. 4. 

Diospyros Kaki, vi. 4. 

Diospyros Kaki^ var. j3, vi, 2. 

f Diospyros Kaki, var. costata^ vi- 4, 

Diospyros Kaki, wood of, vi. 4. 

Diospyros laurifolia^ vi. 3, 

Diospyros longifolia^ vi. 3. 

Diospyros Lotus, vi, 2, 

Diospyros Malabarica^ vi, 3, 

Diospyros Mazeli^ vi. 4- 

Diospyros, medical properties of, vi. 3, 

Diospyros melanosylon, vi. 3. 

Diospyros melanoxylon, vi. 2. 

Diospyros melanoxylon, wood of, vi. 3, 

Diospyros membranaceay vi. 3. 

Diospyros microcarpa, vi. 2, 

Diospyros nigra^ vi. 3. 

Diospyros nigricans^ vi. 3, 

Diospyros obtusifolia^ vi. 3. 

Diospyros oppo^sitifolia, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Paralea, vi- 3- 

Diospyros peregrina, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Persimon^ vi, 7. 
Diospyros Pseudo-Lotus, vi. 2. 
Diospyros puhescens, vi. 7. 
Diospyros qusesita, vi. 3, 
Diospyros reticulata, vi. 3, 
Diospyros revoluta, vi. 3, 
Diospyros Eoxhurghiij vi. 4. 
Diospyros Sapota^ vi. 3. 
1 Diospyros ScM-Tse, vi. 4. 
f Diospyros Sinensis, vi, 4- 
Diospyros tessellaria, vi. 3. 
Diospyros Texana, vi- 11, 
Diospyros toxicaria, vi. 3, 
Diospyros, uses of, vi. 3- 
Diospyros Virginiana, vi. 7- 

Diospyros Virginxana, medical properties of, 
vi. 9. 

Diospyros Virginiana^ var. concolor, vi. 7, 
Diospyros Yirginiana, var. macrocarpa, vi. 7. 
Diospyros Virginiana, var. microcarpa, vi. 7. 
Diospyros Virginiana, y^v> pubescens, vi- 7. 
Diospyros WigMiana, vi. 3. 
Dipbolis, V. 177. 

Dipholis salieifoliaj V. 179- 
Diplima, ix. 95, 

Diplisca, ii. 47- 

Diplisca elliptica^ ii. 49. 

Diplodea Taxi, x. 63, 

Diplosis Catalpffi, vi, 84, 

Diplosis Pini-rigidse, xi. 11, 

DiplusioUy jx. 95. 

Dipterospermum, i. 39. 

Dissemination of Yucca, x. 3, 

Distegocarpus, ix. 40. 

DistegocarpuSy ix. 39. 

Distegocarpus CarpinuSy ix. 41. 

Distegocarpus ? cordata, ix. 41, ' 

Distegocarpus laxijlora, ix. 41. 

Disterigma, v. 116. 

Doctor Gum, iii. 14. 

Dog Cherry, vii, 69- 

Dogwood, V. 69, 71 ; siv. 21. 

Dogwood, Flowering, v- 66- 

Dogwood, Jamaica, iii- 53, 

Dogwood, Poison, iii. 23. 

Donatia, vi. 105, 

Donkelaaria^ v. 111. 

Dorcbascbema Wildii, vii. 87, 

Dothidea Pringlei, x. 5. 

Douglas, David, ii. 94. 

Douglas, Robert, vi. 90- 

Douglas Spruce, xii. 87, 

Downward Plum, v. 175. 

Drepnodes varus, x- 73. 

DrimopTiyllum, vii, 19. 

DrimopJiyllum paucifiorurrby vii. 21- 

Drummond, Thomas, ii. 25. 

Drummondia, ii. 25. 

? Drupatris, vi. 13, 

Dryocampa rubicunda, ii- 81. 

Dryocbcetes affaber, xii. 25. 

Dryoptelea, vii. 40. 

Drypetes, vii. 23. 

Drypetes alba^ var. latifolia, vii, 27. 

Drypetes crocea, vii, 27. 

Drypetes crocea, ^ longipes, vii, 27. 

Drypetes crocea, y latifolia, vii. 27. 

Drypetes crocea, var. laiifoUa, vii, 25. 

Drypetes glauca^ vii. 25, 27, 

Drypetes Keyensis, vii. 25- 

Drypetes lateriflora, vii. 27. 

Drypetes latifolia, vii. 27, 

Drypetes sessilifiora, vii. 27, 

Dry rot of Taxodium, x. 150- 



Duck Oak, viii. 166. 

Diike Cherry, iv. 9. 
Dunbar^ John, xiii, 121, 
Dunhar,William, viL 86- 

Du Pont de Nemours, Eleuthbre-Irene, is. 9. 
Dutch Elm, vii. 40, 
Dwarf Maplej ii. 95. 
Dyuastes Tityus, vi, 27. 

Eacles imperialis, x. 150. 
Early Red Plum, iv. 26. 
Ebenace^j vi. 1. 

Ebony, iii. 137 ; vi. 2. 

Ebony, Indian, vi. 3. 

Eburia quadrlgeminata, iii. 74. 

Eccopsis fagigemmeeana, ix. 24, 

Echenopa binotata, i. 77. 

Echinocereus, t. 51* ^ 

Echinocereusy v. 51- 

Echinonyctantkus, v. 51, 

Echinopsis, v. 51, 

EcMnopsiSy v, 61, 

Edible seeds of Pinus, xi. 3. 

Edwardsiay iii, 59. 

Edwardsia ckrysophylla^ iii. 60. 

Eggert, Heinrieh Karl Daniel, xiii. 51. 

Ehret, Georg Dionysius, vi. 80. 

Ehretia, vi. 79. 

Ehretia acuminata, vi. 79. 

Ehretia acuminata, uses of, vi. 79. 

Ehretia Bourreria^ vi. 77, 78. 

Ehretia ciliata^ vi. 81, 

Ehretia elliptica, vi. 81, 

Ehretia exasperata, vi. 81, 

Ehretia glaira, vi. 68. 

Ehretia Havanensis^ vi. 77. 

Ehretia ovalifolia^ vi. 79, 

Ehretia pyrifoUa, vi. 79. 


Ehretia radula^ vi. 77. 

? Ehretia scabra^ vi. 81. 

Ehretia serrata, vi. 79. 

Eichleria, v. 181. 

Elaphidion villosum, vii. 133 ; viii. 11, 

ElaphriuMj i. 95. 

Elaphrium integerrimum^ i, 97. 

Elder, v. 88, 91. 

Elder, Box, ii. 111. 

Elder, Poison, iii. 24. - 

Elemifera maritima^ xiv. 98, 

Elk- wood, i. 13. 

Elliott, Stephen, xi. 159. 

Elliottia, ii. 2 ; xi. 159 ; xiv. 29, 

Elliottia bracteata, xiv, 29- 

Elliottia paniculata, xiv. 29. 

Elliottia racemosa, xiv- 31, 

Ellis, John, i, 40. 

Ellwanger, George, xiii. 109- 

Elm, American, vii. 45. 

Elm, Cedar, vii. 57. 

Elm, Cliff, vH. 48. 

Elm, Cork, vii. 47. 

Elm, Dutch, vii. 40. 

Elm, English, vii. 40. 

Elm, False, vii. 69- 

Elm, Hickory, vii. 48- 

Elm, Mountain, vii. 52. 

Elm, Red, vii. 52, 53 ; siv- 41, 

Elm, Rock, vii- 45, 47. 

Elm, Slippery, vii. 53. . 

Elm, Swamp, vii. 45, 

Elm, Water, vii. 43, 61. 

Elm, White, vii. 43, 48- 

Elm, Winged, vii. 51- 

Elm, Wych, vH. 40- 

Elm-leaf Beetle, vii. 41. 
Ematurga Faxonii, x. 124. 
Embryopterisy-vi. 1. 
Emhryopteris gelatinifera, vi. 3. 
Embryopteris glutinifera^ vi. 3. 
Emhryopteris Kaki^ vi. 4- 
Embryopteris peregrina^ vi. 3, 
Emetila ramulosa, i. 111. 
Emory, William Hemsley, iv, 60. 
Emorya, iv. 60. 
Emplectocladus, iv. 7, 8. 
Emplectocladus J iv, 7, 
Enallagma, vi. 97. 
Encina, viii. Ill, 
Encleistocarpon, viii. 4- 
Endotropis cleifolia, ii. 37, 
Engelmann, George, viii. 84. 
Eugelmann Spruce, xii, 43, 
Engelmannia, viii. 84, 
English Elm, vii, 40. 
English Laurel, iv. 11. 
English Walnuts, vii. 115, 
Entomosporium maculatum, iv- 70, 84. 
Epigynium, v. 116. 
Epigynium, v- 116, 
Ericaceae, v. 115 ; xiv, 29, 
Eriosma Cary^e, vii. 133. 
Eriosnia Querci, viii. 11. 
Erysiphe aggrcgata, ix, 71. 
Erythrina Piseipula^ iii. 53. 
Erythrobalanos, viii. 4. 
Erythrogyne, vii. 91. 

Eschscholtz, Johann Friedrich, ii. 39. 

Eschscholtzia, ii. 39. 

EsculuSy ii. 54 ; viii. 4, 

Euabies, xii. 97. 

Euandromeda, v. 129. 

Euaralia, v. 67. 

Eubetula, ix. 46. 

Eucarpinus, ix. 40. 

Eucarya, vii. 132- 

Eucast anopsia, ix. 2, 

Euceltis, vii. 63. 

Eucereus, v. 61- 

Eueoccoloba, vi. 113. 

Eucrescentia, vi. 97- 

Eucupressus, x. 97. 

Eudamus tityrus, iu. 38. 

Euf agus, is. 22. 

Eugenia, v. 39. 

Eugenia aromatica, v. 40. 

Eugenia axillaris^ v. 45. 

Eugenia BaruensiSj v. 47- 

Eugenia buxifolta, v. 43. 

Eugenia caryophyllata^ v. 40. 

Eugenia f dichotoma, v. 32. . 

Eugenia esculenta^ v. 31. 

Eugenia fragrans, v. 32, 

Eugenia Garberi, v. 49- 

Eugenia Jamb ol an a, v. 41. 

Eugenia Jambos, v. 41. 

Eugenia longipes, v. 40. 

Eugenia Michelii^ v. 41. 

Eugenia Montieola, v. 45- 

Eugenia Moorei, v, 41. 

Eugenia myrtoides^ v. 43- 

Eugenia pallenSy v. 36. 

Eugenia Parkeriana, v- 41. 

Eugenia procera, v. 47 ; xiv. 101. 

Eugenia procera, v- 49- 

Eugenia triplinervia^ v. 45. 

Eugenia triplinervia^ y huxifolia^ v. 43- 

Eugenia uniflora, v- 41- 

Eugenia ? Willdenowii^ v- 41- 

Eugenia Zeylanica^ v. 41. 
EugenioideSy vi. 13. 
Eugenioides tinctorium^ vi. 15, 
Eugonia subsignaria, vii- 41 ; ix- 10- 
Eugordonia, i. 39, 
Eukrania, v. 63. 
Euonic acid, ii. 10. 
Eupapaya, xiv. 2. 
Eupersea, vii. 1- 

EuPHORBiACE^, vii- 23. 
Eupicea, xii. 20- 

Eupithecia miserulata, x. 1*24. 

Eupsalis minuta, viii. 11. 

Eurhododendron, v. 143. 

European Hop Hornbeam, ix- 32, 40. 

European Larch, xii. 3, 

European Spruce, xii. 23. 

Eustrobi, xi, 4. 

Eusyoe, vii. 92. 

Euterpe Caribcea^ x. 30, 

Euthrinax, x. 49. 

EuthrinaXy xiv. 85. 

Euthuya, x. 123- 

Eutsuga, xii, 60. 

Euvacciuium, v. 115. 

Euyucca, x. 3. 

Evans, Walter Harrison, xiv. 53, 

Evergreen Beech, ix. 23. 

Evergreen White Oak, viii. 83- 

Everyx chcerilus, v. 74. 

Evonymus, ii. 9. 

Evonymus atropurpureus, ii. 11 ; xiv- 98. 

Evonymus Australianus, ii. 10. 

Evonymus Carolinensis^ ii. 11, 

Evonymus Europseus, ii. 9, 10. 

Evonymus Japonicus, ii. 10. 

Evonymus Japonicus, var. radieans, ii. 10. 

Evonym,us Javanicus, ii. 9. 

Evonymus latifolius, ii. 10. 

Evonymus latifolius^ ii. 11. 

Evonymus radieans, ii. 10. 

Evonymus tingens, ii. 10. 

Evonymus verrucosus, ii. 10, 

ExccBcariay vii. 29, 

ExccEcaria lucida, vii. 30. 

Exoascus amentorum, ix. 7L 

Exoascus flavus, ix. 49. 

Exobasidium Andromedte, v. 130- 

Exobasidium Azaleje, v. 147. 

Exobasidium discoideum, v. 147. 

Exobasidium SymplocI, vi. 14. 

Exobasidium Vaccinii, v. 117. 

Exostema, v. 103. 

Exostema CaribEeum, v. 105. 

Exostema fioribuudum, v. 103. 

Exothea, ii, 73. 

Exothea Copalillo, ii. 74. 

Exothea oblongifolia, ii. 75. 

Exothea paniculata, ii. 75. 

Extract of Chestnut- wood, ix. 10. 

Eysenhardt, Karl Wilhelm, iii. 30. 

Eysenhardtia, iii. 29. 

Eysenhardtia adenostylis, iii. 29. 

Eysenhardtia amorphoides, iu. 29, 31. 

Eysenhardtia amorphoides, var, orthocarpay iii. 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, iii. 31. 
Eysenhardtia polystachya, iii. 29- 

Fagara^ i. 65 ; xiv. 97- 
Fagarafiava^ xiv. 98, 
Fagara fraxinifolia/i. 67- 
Fagara lentiscifolia^ i. 73. 
Fagara Pterota^ i. 73 ; xiv. 98, 



Fagara tragodes, i. 73. 
Fagus, ix, 21. 

FaguSf ix. 7- 

Fagtis albay ix. 27. 

Pagus Americana, ix. 27 ; xiv.. 104. 

Fagus Americana latifoUa^ ix. 27. 

Fagus antarctica, ix. 22, 23. 

Fagus atropunicea^ ix. 27. 

Fagus betuloides, ix. 22. 

Fagus Castanea^ ix. 8, 9, 13, 

Fagus Castanea dentataj ix. 13. 

Fagus Castanea pumila, ix, 17. 

Fagus crenata, ix. 22. 

Fagus Cunniiighamiij is, 23, 

Fagus echinata, ix, 22. 

Fagus, economic properties of, ix. 23. 

Fagus ferrugineay ix. 22, 27. 

Fagus ferrugineay Caroliniana, ix. 27. 

Fagus ferrugineay latifolia^ ix. 27. 

Fagus, fungal diseases of, ix. 24. 


Fagus fusca, ix- 23, 

Fagus heterophylla^ ix. 27, 

Fagus, insect enemies of, ix. 24. 

Fagus Japonica, ix, 22. 

Fagus, medical properties of, ix. 24, 

Fagus Menziesii, ix, 23. 

Fagus nigral ix. 27, 

Fagus obliqua, ix, 23, 

Fagus proeera, ix. 23- 

Fagus pumilaj ix. 17. 

f Fagus pumila, var, prcBcox^ ix, 10, 

Fagus pumila^ var, serotina^ ix, 17* 

Fagus pygmsea, ix. 23, 

Fagus rotundifolia^ ix. 27. 

Fagus Sieholdi^ ix. 22. 

Fagus Solandri, ix. 23. 

Fagus sylvatica, ix, 22. 

Fagus sylvatica^ ix, 27. 

Fagus sylvatica^ atro-puniceay ix, 27. 

Fagus sylvatica foliis atrorubentibus, ix, 24. 

Fagus sylvatica, heterophylla, ix, 24. 

Fagus sylvatica^ c Americana^ ladfolia^ ix, 

Fagus sylvatica^ j8 Americana^ ix. 27. 
Fagus sylvatica^ & purpurea, ix, 24. 
Fagus sylvatica^ y Asiatica^ ix. 22. 
Fagus sylvatica, var. S Sieboldi, ix. 22. 
Fagus sylvestrisy ix. 22, 27, 
Fairchild, Thomas, v, 68. 
Fall Web-worm, v. 9 ; vii. 41, 77, 116 ; ix. 

10, 24, 32, 41, 48, 101. 
False Elm, vii. 69. 
Fan Palm, x. 47. 
Farkleberry, v, 119, 
Farnese, Odoardo, iii. 121. 
Farnesia, ili. 115, 
Farnesia odora^ iii. 119, 
Fat Pork-tree, iv, 4. 
Fatrea^ v. 19, 

Fatua denudata, vi. 27 ; ix, 70- 
Faya^ ix, 83, 
Faya fagifera^ ix. 85. 
Fayana^ ix. 83, 
Fayana Azorica^ ix- 85. 
Feltleaf Willow, xiv, 65. 
Fendler, August, xii, 123. 
Fendlera, xii, 124. 
Fenusa varipes, ix. 70, 
Fern-leaved Beech, ix. 24. 
Fern, Sweet, ix. 84. 
Fetid Buckeye, ii. 55- 
Ficindicay xiv. 9. 
Ficus, vii, 91. 
Ficus affinior^ vii. 94. 

Ficus aurea, vii. 95, 

Ficus Gwr^a, var. latifoliaj vii. 95. 

Ficus hrevifoliay vii. 97. 

Ficus Carica, vii. 93. 

Ficus Carica, cultivation of, vii. 93- 

Ficus caudata^ vii. 94, 

Ficus elastiea, vii, 93. 

FicuSj fertilization of, by insects, vii. 93. 

Ficus, gall-flowers of, vii 1)2. 

Ficus pedunculata, vii. 97. 

Ficus populnea, vii. 97, 

Ficus religiosa, vii. 94. 

Ficus Roxburghii, fertilization of, vii, 93, 

Ficus Sycomorus, vii, 93. 

Fiddle Wood, vi. 101, 103. 

Fig, vii. 93. 

Fig, Indian, xiv. 12, 

Fig-tree, vii. 93. 

Figs, vii. 93. 

Fir, Algerian, xii. 100, 

Fir, Balm of Gilead, xii, 107, 

Fir, Balsam, xii. 105, 107, 113, 

Fir, Cephalonian, xii. 99, 

Fir, Cilician, xii. 99. 

Fir, Greek, xii. 99. 

Fir, Himalayan, xii. 98- 

Fir, Mexican, xii. 97- 

Fir, Nordmann, xii. 98, 

Fir, Red, xii, 87, 133,137. 

Fir, Scotch, xi, 5. 

Fir, Silver, xii. 129, 

Fir, White, xii. 117, 121, 125. 

Firensia, vi. 67. 

Fires in southern pineries, xi. 156. 

Fistulina Hepatica, viii. 13. 

Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer, iv. 13. 

Flat-headed Borer, iv, 11, 70 ; viii. 11, 

Florence Court Yew, x. 62, 

Flowering Dogwood, v- 66, 

Floyd nut, the, vii. 157. 

Fluted Scale, vii, 20. 

FcetaiaxuSf x. 55, 

Fcetataxus montana^ x. 67. 

Fcetataxus Myristica, x. 69. 

Fcetataxus nucifera^ x, 56. 

Forest Garden Plum, iv. 20. 

Forest Rose Plum, iv. 20, 24. 

Forest Tent-caterpillar, ix. 24. 

Fork-leaved Black Jack, viii. 145- 

Forrestia^ ii. 41, 

Fothergill, John, vi. 16. 

Fothergilla, vi. 16. 

Foxtail Pine, xi. 59, 63, 

Fracchi^ea callista, ix. 41, 

Fragiles, ix. 96. 

Fragrant Birch, ix. 47, 

Fragrant Crab, iv, 71, 75. 

Frangula, ii, 31, 

Frangula Californica^ ii. 37. 

Frangula CaUfornica, var, tomentella, ii, 39- 

Frangula Carolimana, ii. 35, 

Frangula fragilisj ii. 35. 

Frangula Purshiana, ii. 37. ' 

Franklinia, i, 39, 45- 

Franklinia, i. 39, 

Franklinia Altamalia^ i, 45- 

Fraser, John, i, 8, 

Fraxinastrum, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus, vi- 25. 

Fraxinus acuminata^ vi- 43, 

Fraxinus alba, vi. 26, 43. 

Fraxinus albicans, vi. 44, 47. 

Fraxinus Americana, vi, 43. 

Fraxinus Americana^ vi, 50, 55, 

Fraxinus Americana^ subspec. Novce-Anglicej 
vi. 50. 

Fraxinus Americana, subspec, Oregona, vi. 57. 
Fraxinus Americana, var, acuminata, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Berlandieriana, vi, 

Fraxinus Americana, var, Caroliniana, vi. 55- 
Fraxinus Americana, var. epiptera, vi, 43. 
Fraxinus Americana, y2.T,juglandifolia, vi.50. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. latifolia, vi, 43, 
Fraxinus Americana, var. microcarpa, vi, 44. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. normale, vi. 43. 
Fraxinus Americana, var, pistaciqfolia, vi, 41, 
Fraxinus Americana, y3.v, profunda, xiv. 35. 
Fraxinus Americana, y^t. pubescens, vi- 49, 
Fraxinus Americana, var. quadrangulata, vi. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. quadrangulata ner- 
vosa, vi, 35. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. sambucifolia, vi. 37. 

Fraxinus Americana, var- Texensis, vi. 47, 

Fraxinus Americana, var. tripiera, vi, 55. 

Fraxinus anomala, vi. 39 ; xiv. 102. 

Fraxinus Berlandieriana, vi. 53, 

Fraxinus Biltmoreana, xiv, 37, 

Fraxinus Canadensis, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, vi, 55. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, vi. 50 ; xiv. 39. 

Fraxinus Caroliniana, latifolia, vi. 50. 

Fraxinus Caroliniensis, vi, 43, 

Fraxinus Chinensis, vi, 26, 

Fraxinus Chinensis, var. rhyncliopTiylla, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus cinerea, vi. 26, 

Fraxinus coriacea, xiv. 33. 

Fraxinus coriacea, vi, 41, 47, 

Fraxinus Cubensis, vi- 55, 56, 

Fraxinus Curtissii, vi. 44. 

Fraxinus curvidens, vi, 55, 

Fraxinus cuspidata, vi. 29, 

Fraxinus dipetala, vi. 31. 

Fraxinus dipetala, var. brachyptera, vi, 31. 

Fraxinus dipetala, var. trifoliata, vi, 31. 

f Fraxinus discolor, vi, 49. 

Fraxinus, economic uses of, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus elliptica, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus epiptera, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus excelsior, vi. 26, 27. 

Fraxinus excelsior, vi. 55. 

Fraxinus expansa, vi, 50- 

Fraxinus floribunda, vi. 27, 

Fraxinus Floridana, xiv- 39, 

Fraxinus florif era, vi- 26. 

Fraxinus, fungal enemies of, vi. 27, 

Fraxinus fusca, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus Greggii, vi. 33. 

Fraxinus, insect enemies of, vi. 27. 

Fraxinus juglandifolia, vi, 50, 

? Fraxinus juglandifolia, vi- 43, &^. 

Fraxinus juglandifolia, $ subintegerrima, vi. 

Fraxinus lanceolata, vi. 50. 
Fraxinus latifolia, vi. 57. 
Fraxinus longifolia, vi. 49. 
Fraxinus Mandshurica, vi. 26. 
Fraxinus Mariesii, vi. 25, 
Fraxinus, medical properties of, vi. 26. 
Fraxinus mixta, vi. 26, 
Fraxinus nigra, vi. 37. 
Fraxinus nigra, vi. 26, 

Fraxinus nigra, subspec, Caroliniana, vi. 65. 
Fraxinus nigra, subspec. nigra, vi. 37. 
Fraxinus nigrescens, vi. 55. 
f Fraxinus Nova Anglia, vi, 43, 
Fraxinus Novm-AnglicE, vi. 37, 50. 



Fraxinus NuUalli% vi. 55. 

Fraxinus oblongocarpa^ vi, 49. 

Fraxinus Oregona, vi. 57. 

Fraxinus Oregona, $, yL 57. 

Fraxinus Oregona^ var. riparian vi. 67, 

Fraxinus Ornus, vi. 26, 27. 

Fraxinus ovatay vi. 26, 

Fraxinus pallida^ vL 55. 

Fraxinus pannosa^ vi» 26. 

Fraxinus paucifiora^ vi. 55, 

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, vi. 49 ; xiv- 102, 

Fraxinus Penusylvanica, var. lanceolata, vi, 

50 ; xiv. 102, 
Fraxinus pistacimfoliaj vi. 41 ; xiv. 33. 
Fraxinus pistacice/olia^ var. coriacea, vi. 41 ; 

xiv. 33. 

Fraxinus platycarpa, vi. 55. 
Fraxinus platycarpa, var. Floridana^ vi. 55 ; 
xiv, 39, 

Fraxinus profunda, xiv. 35, 
Fraxinus puhescens^ vi. 49, 50, 55, 
Fraxinus pubescens, fi longifolia, vi, 49. 
Fraxinus pubescens^ y latifoUay vi. 49, 
Fraxinus pubescens, var. Berlandieriana, vi. 53- 
Fraxinus pubescens, var. Lindheimeriy vi. 63. 
Fraxinus pubescens, var. suhpubescens^ vi- 49. 
Fraxinus puhescens^ var. 3, vi. 57. 
Fraxinus pulverulenta, vi. 26. 
Fraxinus quadrangulata, vi. 35 ; xiv. 102. 
Fraxinus quadrangulata^ var. nervosa^ vi. 35. 

Fraxinus quadrangulata^ var. subpuhescens^ vi. 

Fraxinus rhyncophyllaj vi. 26, 

Fraxinus Eichardi, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus rotundifoliay vi. 26. 

Fraxinus rubicunday vi. 26. 

Fraxinus ru/a^ vi. 26. 

J^ra3:zn'W5 samhucifolia^ vi. 37. 

Fraxinus Schiediana^ var. parvifoliay vi, 33. 

Fraxinus subvillosa^ vi. 49, 

Fraxinus tetragona, vi. 35. 

Fraxinus Texensis, vi. 47. 

Fraxinus tomentosa, vi. 49, 

Fraxinus trialata^ vi, 53- 

Fraxinus tripteray vi. 55. 

Fraxinus urophylla^ vi. 27. 

Fraxinus velutina, vi. 41 ; xiv. 33, 

Fraxinus viridis, vi, 50, 

Fraxinus viridis, var, Berlandieriana^ vi, 53, 

Fraxinus viridis, var. pubescenSy vi. 49- 

Freireodendron, vii. 23. 

Fremontia, i, 47 ; xiv. 97. 

Fremontia Californica, L 47. 

Fremontodendron, xiv. 97, 

Fremontodendron Californicum, xiv. 97. 
Frijoiito, iii. 63. 

Fringe-flowered Ash, vi, 31- 
Fringe Tree, vi. 60. 
Fruit of Opuntia as food, xiv, 12, 
Fulham Oak, the, viii, 7. 
Fungal diseases of 

Abies, xii, 101, 

Carica, xiv. 3- 

Celtis, vii. 64- 

Hicoria, vii. 134, 

Juglans, vii. 116, 

Larix, xii> 5. 

Morus, vii- 77. 

Persea, vii- 2, 

Picea, xii. 25. 

Pinus, xi. 11. 

Platanus, vii. 101. 

Pseudotsuga, xii. 84. 

Sassafras, vii. 15. 

Serenoa, xiv. 76. 

Toxylon, vii, 87, 

Tsuga, xii- 61. 

Ulmus, vii, 42. 

Umbellularia, vii, 20. 
Fungal enemies of 

Amelanchier, iv. 126. 

Andromeda, v. 130. 

Catalpa, vi. 84. 

Cornus, v. 65. 

Cratsegus, iv, 84. 

Diospyros, vi, 4. 

Fraxinus, vi. 27. 

Hamamelis, v. 2, 

Liquidambar Sfcyraciflua, v. 9. 

Mohrodendron, vi, 20. 

Nyssa, v, 74. 

Prunus, iv. 11. 

Pyrus, iv. 70. 

Rhododendron, v. 147. 

Sambucus, v. 86. 

Symplocos, vi, 14. 

Vaccinium, v, 117, 

Viburnum, v- 94, 
Fusidadium Tremulmy ix- 166, 
Fusisporium Berenice, xii, 101, 

Gale, ix. 83, 
Gale, ix. 83- 
Gale Belgica, ix. 84. 

Gale Californicay ix. 93, 
Gale-oil, ix. 84. 
Gale uliginosa^ ix. 84. 
Galeruca decora, ix. 101, 

Galemea xanthomeljena, vii. 41. 
Gall-flowers of Ficus, vii. 92, 
Gallifera, viii. 4, 
Gall insects on Quercus, viii, 12, 
Galls, Chinese, iii. 9, 
Galls, Nut, viii, 9. 
Galls, Oak, viii. 9, 
Galls on Betula, ix. 48. 
Galls on Populus, ix. 156. 
Galls on Willow, ix. 101. 
Galoglychia^ vii, 91, 
Gambel, William, viii. 35, 
Gambelia, viii- 35. 
Garber, Abraham Pascal, i, 65. 
Garcinia Malabarica, vi. 3, 
Garden, Alexander, i, 40- 
Garfield Plum, iv. 24. 
Geiger Tree, vi. 71. 
Gelechia abietisella, xii, 61. 
Gelechia caryEevorella, vii. 133. 
Gelechia eereerisella, iii, 94. 
Gelechia obliquistrigella, xii. 25- 
Gelechia pinifoliella, xi, 11. 
Gelpkea, v. 39. 
Georgia Bark, v. 109, 
Georgia Pine, xi. 156, 
Gerascanthus, vi. 67. 
Germination of Pinus, xi, 4, 
Germination of Quercus, viii. 4- 
Germination of Tucca, x. 3, 
Ghent Azaleas, v- 146. 
Gibbes, Lewis Keeve, xii. 70- 
Gigantabies, x. 139, 
Giganiabies taxifolia^ x, 141. 
Gigantabies Wellingtoniay x, 145, 
Gimbernatia^ v. 19, 
Gin, flavoring of, x, 72, 78, 
Ginger Pine, x. 120. 
Ginseng, v. 57- 
Ginseng, American, v. 58. 

Ginseng, Chinese, v. 58, 
Ginseng quinquefolium^ v. 58, 
Glaucous Willow, ix. 133, 
Gleditscb, Johann Gottlieb, iii. 74, 
Gleditsia, iii. 73. 
Gleditsia Africana, iii. 73. 
Gleditsia aquatica, iii. 79 ; xiv. 100, 
Gleditsia hrachycarpa^ iii. 76. 
Gleditsia Bujotii, iii. 77, 
Gleditsia Carolinensis^ iii. 79, 
Gleditsia Caspica, iii. 73, 
Gleditsia elegans, iii, 75- 
Gleditsia ferox, iii, 75. 
Gleditsia heterophyllay iii, 75, 
Gleditsia inermisy iii. 75, 79, 
Gleditsia Japonica, iii. 73, 

Gleditsia Japonica, economic uses of, iii. 74. 

Gleditsia Melilobay iii. 75, 

Gleditsia mohosperma, iii. 79. 

Gleditsia spinosa, iii. 75, ■ 

Gleditsia Texana, xiii. 13- 

Gleditsia triacantliay iii. 79. 

Gleditsia triacanthos, iii, 75 ; xiv. 100- 

Gleditsia triacantkoSy p, 79. 

Gleditsia triacanthoSy p aquaticay iii. 79, 

Gleditsia triacanthos, economic uses of, iii, 

Gleditsia triacanthos, var, inermis, iii. 75. 

Gleditsia triacanthos, var. ^ brachycarpos, iii. 

^ 76. 

Glenospora Curtisii, v. 74. 
Glceosporium acerinum, ii, 81. 
Glceosporium Canadense, viii. 12. 
Glceosporium Celtldis, vii. 65. 
Glceosporium nervisequum, vii. 101, 
Glceosporium Opuntise, xiv. 13. 
Glceosporium Populi, ix. 156. 
Gloucester Broad-nut, xiv, 103. 
Glycobius speciosus, ii. 81. 
Glyptostrobus pendulusy x, 152. 
Gnathotrichus asperulus, xi. 11, 
Gnathotriehus materiarius, xi. 11, 
Gnomoniella tubiformis, ix. 70, 
Goa, Cedar of, x- 100, 
Gcebelia, iii. 59. 
Goes pulverulentus, ix. 24. 
Goes tigrinus, vii. 133, 
Golden Beauty Plum, iv. 24- 
Golden-leaved Chestnut, ix. 3. 
Gonosuke, vii. 91. 
Gopher Wood, iii. 57, 
Gordon, James, i, 40. 
Gordonia, i, 39. 
Gordonia acuminata, i- 39, 
Gordonia Altamaha, i. 40, 45, 
Gordonia anomala, i, 39, 40, 
Gordonia excelsa, i, 39, 
Gordonia Frankliniy i. 45. 
Gordonia Lasianthus, i, 39, 41. 
Gordonia obtusa, i. 39. 
Gordonia pubescensy i, 45. 
Gordonia pyramidaliSy i. 41. 
Gossyparia Ulmi, vii- 41. 
Gowen, James Robert, x. 108. 
Gracilaria juglandinigrseella, vii- 116- 
Gracilaria ostryseella, ix. 32. 
Gracilaria sassafrasella, vii. 15. 
Gracilaria superbifrontella, v, 2. 
GrandeSy xii. 97, 
Grape, Sea, vi. 115. 
Graphiola congesta, x, 38. 
Graphisurus triangulifer, vii. 64. 
Grapholitha bracteatana, xii. 84. 
Grapholithea caryana, vii. 134. 



Gray Birch, k, 53, 55. 

Gray, Christopher, iv, 76. 

Gray Pine, xi. 147- 

Gray Poplar, ix. 154. 

Great Laurel, v. 148. 

Great Swamp Pine, xi. 113, 

Greek Fir, xii. 99. 

Green-barked Acacia, iii. 83, 85- 

Greene, Edward Lee, viii. 84, 

Greenella, viii. 84. 

Gregg, Josiah, iii. 126 ; vi, 33. 

Greggia, yi. 34. 

Greggiay v. 39. 

Grisebach, HeinricL Kudolph August, ii. 13, 

Grisebachia, ii. 13. 

Ground Cedar, x, 75. 

Grueneraj ix. 95. 

Guaiacana, vi, 4. 

Guaiacidinm, i, 60, 

Guaiaco, i, 61. 

Gualacum, i. 59. 

Guaiacum angustifolium, i. 59, 60. 

Guaiacum arboreum, i. 60. 

Guaiacum Coulteri, i. 60. 

Guaiacum hygrometricum, i. 60. 

Guaiacum officinale, i, 59, 60- 

Guaiacum parvifloram, i. 59. 

Guaiacum resin, i, 60, 

Guaiacum sanctum, i. 59, 60, 63. 

Guaiacum sanctum^ var. parvifolium^ i, 63, 

Guaiacum verticale^ i. 63, 

Guaiacum wood, i, 60, 

Guanabanus, i. 28. 

Guapurium^ v. 39, 

Guayacau, i. 61. 

Guess, George, x, 140. 

Guettard, Jean Etiemie, v, 112- 

Guettarda, v. 111. 

Guettarday v. 111. 

Guettarda amlngua^ y. 112. 

Guettarda Blodgettii, v, 113. 

Guettarda elliptica, v- 113, 

Guettarda Havanensis, v, 112. 

Guettarda hirsuta, v. 111. 

Guettarda rugosa, v. 112. 

Guettarda scabra, v, 112. 

Guettarda speciosa, v. 111. 

Guiaharaj vi. 113. 

Guiana Plum, vii. 27. 

Guilandina, iii, 67. 

Guilandina dioica^ iii. 69- 

Gum, Black, v. 77, 

Gum, Cherry, iy. 10- 

Gum, Cotton, V. 83. 

Gum, Doctor, iii. 14. 

Gum, Elastic, v, 171, 

Gnm, Hog, iii. 13, 14. 

Gum, Ked, v. 12. 

Gum, Sour, V, 77. 

Gum, Spruce, xii. 31. 

Gum, Star-leaved, v. 12, 

Gum, Sweet, v. 10. 

Gum-tree, Hog, iii. 14. 

Gum, Tupelo, v. 83. 

Gumbo filet, vii. 14. 

Gumbo Limbo, i. 97- 

GunisanthuSf vi. 1. 

Gurgeon Stopper, v. 43. 

Gyminda, ii, 13. 

Gyminda GrisebacMl, ii, 14. 

Gyminda Grisebachii, var. glaucescens, ii. 

Gymnantbes, vii. 29. 
Gymnantlies lucida, vii. 30, 

Qymndbalanus^ vii. 9, 

? Gymnohalanus Cateshjanus, vii, 11, 
Gymnocladus, iii. 67. 
Gymnocladus Canadensis^ iii. 69, 
Gymnocladus Chinensis, iii. 67. 
Gymnocladus dioicus, iii. 69. 

Gymnocladus dioicus, economic uses of, iii. 

Gymnosporangium Bermudianum, x. 73. 
Gymnosporangium biseptatum, x. 101, 134, 
Gymnosporangium clavariffiforme, x. 73. 
Gymnosporangium clavipes, x. 73, 
Gymnosporangium Ellisii, x. 101, 
Gymnosporangium globosum, x. 73. 
Gymnosporangium maeropus, x. 73. 
Gymnosporangium Nidus-avis, x. 73. . 
Gymnosporangium speciosum, x. 73, 
GymnotJiyrsus, ix. 68. 
Gynaion, vi. 67. 
Gynaion vestitum, vi, 68. 

Gyroceras Celtidis, vii, 65. 
Gyrolecana^ viii. 4. 

Hackberry, vii, 67, 71. 

Hahniay iv. 67. 

Halepenses, xi. 4. 

Halesia, v. Ill ; vi. 19. 

Halesia Carolina^ vi. 21, 

Halesia diptera^ vi. 23. 

Halesia parviflora^ vi. 19. 

Halesia reticulata^ vi. 23. 

Halesia stenocarpa, vi. 21. 

Halesia tetraptera, vi. 21. 

Halesia tetraptera Meekani, vi. 22, 

Halesidota Cary^, v. 2 ; vii. 133. 

Hales' paper-shell Hickory nut, vii. 154. 

Halmia^ iv. 83. 

Halmia cornifolia^ iv. 103. 

Halmia Jiahellatay iv. 95. 

Halmia lohata^ iv. 101. 

Halmia punctata, iv. 103. 

Halmia tomentosa, iv. 101. 

Halmia tomentosa, ^ pyrifolia, iv. 101. 

Halmia tomentosa, 5 leucopMma^ iv. 101. 

Halmia tomentosa^ e CalpodendroUy iv, 101. 

Halodendrum, vi. 105. 

Halodendrum Thouarsii, vi. 106. 

Haltica biraarginata, ix. 70. 


Hamamelis, v. 1. 

Hamamelis androgyna, v. 3, 

Hamamelis arborea, v. 2. 

Hamamelis corylifolia^ v. 3. 

Hamamelis dioica^ v. 3. 

Hamamelis, fungal enemies of, v. 2. 

Hamamelis, insect enemies of, v. 2. 

Hamamelis Japonica, v. 2. 

Hamamelis macrophylla^ v. 3. 

Hamamelis mollis, v. 2. 

Hamamelis parvifolia^ v. 3. 

Hamamelis Virginiana, v. 3 ; xiv. 101. 

Hamamelis Virginiana, discharge of seeds of, 
V. 2- . 

Hamamelis Virginiana^ var. Japonica^ v. 2. 
Hamamelis Virginianay \dJ^. parvifolia^ v. 3. 
Hamamelis Zuccarinianay v. 2, 
Hanon, i. 28. 

Harbison, Thomas Grant, xiii. 152. 
Hard Pine, xi. 156. 
Harmonia Pini, xi. 11. 
Harpiphorus varianus, v. 65. 
Hartweg, Karl Theodor, ii, 34* 
Hartwegia, ii. 34, 
Havard, Valdry, i. 81» 

Haw, iv, 86, 101, 103, 109, 117 ; xiii. 37, 41, 
43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 63, 65, 
67, 69, 73, 75, 77, 79, 87, 89, 91, 95, 97, 
99, 105, 107, 111, 121, 123, 127, 131, 135, 
137, 141, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 159, 
163, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179. 

Haw, Apple, iv. 119- 

Haw, Black, v. 99 ; xiv. 23. 

Haw, Hog's, iv. 89. 

Haw, May, iv. 119. 

Haw, Parsley^ iv. Ill, 

Haw, Red, xiii. 71, 81, 83, 85, 101, 113, 115, 
117, 119, 125, 129, 133, 145, 181. 

Haw, Sandhill, xiii. 161. 

Haw, Scarlet, iv. 95, 99 ; xiii. 61, 93, 103, 
109, 139, 143, 147. 

Haw, Small-fruited, iv. 105. 

Haw, Summer, iv. 113, 114 ; xiii. 165. 

Haw, Yellow, iv. 113 ; xiii. 161. 

Hazel, Witch, v. 3. 

Heart Cherries, iv. 9. 

Helie, Louis Theodore, i. 79, 

Helietta, i. 79. 

Helietta apiculata, i. 79. 

Helietta multiflora, i. 79. 

Helietta parvifolia, i. 79, 81. 

Helietta Plseana, i. 79. 

Helminthosporium Palmetto, x. 38. 

Hemigymnia, vi, 67. 

Hemileuca Maia, viii. 12. 

Hemileuca yavapai, iii, 100, 

Hemiocotea, vii. 9- 

Hemipapaya, xiv. 2, 

Hemipersea, vii. 1, 

Hemithrinax, x. 49, 

HemithrinaXy x. 49. 

Hemlock, xii. 63, m, 73, 93. 

Hemlock, Chinese, xii. 60, 

Hemlock, Himalayan, xii. 61. 

Hemlock, Mountain, xii. 77. 

Hemlock, oil of, xii. 65, 

Hemlock resin, xii, 65. 

Hemlock, Sargent's, xii. QQ. 

Hemlocks, Japanese, xii- 60. 

Hepialus argenteomaculatus, ix. 70, 

Hercules' Club, V. 69. 

Hesperopeuce^ xii. 59, 60- 

Hesperopeuce Pattoniana^ xii. 77, 

Hesperoyucca, x. 3. 

Heterandra, vii. 1. 

Heteromeles, iv. 121. 

Heteromeles arbutifolia, iv. 123, 

Heteromeles Fremontiana, iv, 123. 

HexachlamySy v. 39, 

Hexantbera, vii. 1, 

Heyderia, x. 133. 

Heyderia decurrens, x. 135. 

Hibernia tiliaria, i. 61, 

Hicacos, iv. 5. 

Hickory, xiv. 47, 

Hickory, Big Bud, vii. 161. 

Hickory, Black, vii. 163, 167. 

Hickory Borer, vii. 116. 

Hickory, Broom, vii. 167, 

Hickory, Brown, vii, 167, 

Hickory Elm, vii. 48. 

Hickory, Nutmeg, vii. 145, 

Hickory Oak, viii. 107. 

Hickory, origin of the name of, vii. 134. 

Hickory Pine, xi. 63, 135. 

Hickory, Shagbark, vii. 153 ; xiv. 45. 

Hickory, Shellbark, vii. 153. 

Hickory, Swamp, vii. 141. 

Hickory, Water, vii. 149, 



Hickory, White Heart, viL 163. 
Hicoria, vii, 131. 

Eicoria acuminata^ \iL 157. 

Hicoria alba^ vii» 161, 

Hicoria alha^ vai\ maxima^ viL 161. 

Hicoria aquatica, vii, 149, 

Hicoria Carolin^-Septentrionalis, siv. 45. 
JJicoria Fernowiana, vu» 145, 

Hicoria, fungal diseases of, vii, 134, 
Hicoria glabra, vii. 165. 

Hicoria glabra, var, odorata, vii, 167, 
Hicoria glabra, var, villosa, vii, 167. 
Hicoria glabra, var, villosa, xiv. 47, 
Hicoria, insect enemies of, vii, 133, 
Hicoria laciniosa, vii, 157 ; xiv, 103, 
Hicoria laciniosa, hybrids of, vii. 158, 
Hicoria maxima, vii, 161, 

Hicoria, medical properties of, vii. 133. 
Hicoria Mexicana, vii. 132. 
Hicoria microcarpay vii, 167. 
Hicoria minima, vii. 141 ; xiv, 103, 
Hicoria myristicEeformIs, vii. 145. 
Hicoria odorata, vii. 167, 
Hicoria ovata, vii, 153, 
Hicoria pallida, xiv. 47, 
Hicoria Pecan, vii, 137, 

Hicoria Pecan, cultivated varieties of, vii, 

Hicoria Pecan, cultivation of, vii. 139. 

Hicoria Pecan, hybrids of, vii, 138, 

Hicoria sulcata, vii. 157. 

Hicoria Texana, xiv, 43, 

Hicoria Texana, vii. 137. 

Hicoria villosa, xiv- 47, 103. 

Hicoria villosa pallida, xiv. 47. 

Hicoria, wood of, vii. 132, 

Hicorius albus, vii, 161- 

Hicorius amara, vii. 141, 

Hicorius aquations, vli. 149, 

Hicorius glaher, vii. 165, 

Hicorius integrifolia, vii. 149- 

Hicorius minimus, vii. 141. 

Hicorius myristicmformis, vii- 145, 

Hicorius odoratus, vii. 167. 

Hicorius ovatus, vii. 153, 

Hicorius Pecan, vii. 137. 

Hicorius sulcatus, vii. 157. 

Hickory-trees in Europe, vii. 159. 

Hierophyllus Cassine, i. 111. 

High-bush Blueberry, v, 117. 

Hill, Ellsworth Jerome, siii. 99. 

Hilsenhergia, vi- 79. 

Himalayan Fir, xii, 98. 

Himalayan Hemlock, xii, 61. 

Himalayan Larch, xii, 3. 

Himalayan Spruce, xii. 22, 

Hinds, Hichard Brinsley, ii, 44, 

Hindsia, ii. 44, 

Hi-no-ki, x, 98. 

Hippocastanum^ ii. 51, 

Hippomane, vii. 33. 

Hippomane Mancinella, vii. 35. 

Hippomane, poisonous properties of, vii, 34. 

Hippomane, wood of, vii. 34. 

Hogberry, vii. 69. 

Hog Gum, iii, 13, 14. 

Hog Gum-tree, iii. 14. 

Hog's Haw, iv. 89, 

Holly, i. 107, 

Holly, California, iv. 124. 

Holmes, Joseph Austin, xiii, 120, 

Holts, Osier, ix, 100, 

Honey-drop Plum, iv. 24, 

Honey Locust, iii. 75, 101, 

Honey Shucks, ill. 77. 

Hop Hornbeam, ix, 34. 

Hop Hornbeam, European, ix. 32, 40, 

Hop Hornbeam, Japanese, Ix, 32, 

Hopea, vi. 13. 

Hopea tinctoria, vi. 15- 

Hop-tree, i, 76, 

fHorau, v. 27. 

Hormaphis Hamamelidis, v, 2, 

Hormaphis papyracea, ix, 48. 

Hormaphis splnosus, v. 2, 

Hornbeam, ix. 42, 

Hornbeam, European, horticultural forms of, 

ix. 40, 
Hornbeam, Hop, ix, 34, 
Horse Bean, iii. 89, 
Horse Sugar, vi. 15, 
Horse-chestnut, oil of, ii, 52, 
Horse-chestnut, the history of, ii. 53. 
Horse-chestnuts, fungal diseases of, ii, 54. 
Horseflesh Mahogany, iii. 127. 
Howell, Thomas, xii. 52. 
Huajillo, Hi, 135. 
Hudsonia, v, 19. 
Huile de cade, x. 72. 
Huisache, iii. 119. 
Humboldtlan^, is, 96. 
Hybrid Abies, xii, 97. 
Hybrid Walnuts, vii, 114, 
Hybrid Yuccas, x, 4. 
Hybrids of Pinus, xi. 4, 
Hybrids of Quercu,s, viii. 6. 
Hydnum coralloides, ix. 25, 
Hylesinus sericeus, xii. 25, 
Hylobius Pales, xi, 11. 
Hylotoma dulciaria, ix. 48. 
Hylotrupes ligneus, x. 72. 
Hylurgops pinifex, xi. 11. 
Hymenesthes, vi. 67, 
Hypelate, ii. 77. 
Hypelate, ii. 73, 

Hypelate paniculata, ii, 75, 

Hypelate trifoliata, ii, 78 ; xiv. 99, 

Hyperanthera, iii. 67. 

Hyperanthera dioica, iii. 69. 

Hypericum LasiantJtus, i. 41, 

Hyphantria cuuea, i. 51, 108 ; ii. 12, 36 ; iv. 

70 ; V. 9, 94 ; vii, 41, 77, 116 ; viii, 11 ; 

ix, 48, 184. 

Hypoerea rufa, x. 140. 
Hypoderma brachysporum, xi, 12, 
Hypodermella Laricis, xii, 5, 
Hyponomenta euonymella, ii. 12, 
Hypopogon, vi. 13. 
Hypoxylon multiforme, ix. 49- 
Hypoxylon pruiuatum, ix. 156. 
Hypoxylon Sassafras, vii, 2, 
Hypoxylon transversum, ix, 49, 
Hypoxylon turbinulatum, ix, 24, 

Icaco, iv, 1- 

Icacorea, v, 151- 

Icacorea paniculata, v. 153. 

Icaque, Prunier de, iv, 4. 

leagues. Prunes de, iv, 4. 

Icaqiiier, iv. 4. 

Icerya Purchasi, vii. 20. 

Icthyomethia, iii, 51. 

Icthyomethia Piscipula, iii. 53- 

Bex, i. 103. 

Ilex, viii, 4, 

Ilex (Bsiivalis, i. 113, 

Ilex amhiguus, i. 113, 115, 

Ilex angustifolia, i, 110. 

Hex AqujfoHum, i. 107. 
Ilex Aquifoliumj vi. 63. 
Ilex Cassena, i. 111. 
Ilex Cassine, i, 109, 
Ilex Cassine, I 111, 
Ilex Cassine, ^, i. Ill, 
Ilex Cassine, var. angustifolia, i. 110, 
Ilex Cassine, var. latifolia, i. 109. 
Ilex Cassine, var, myrtifolia, i, 110. 
Ilex cassinoides, i, 109. 
Ilex Dahoon, i, 109. 
Ilex Dahoon, var. angustifolia, I 110, 
Ilex Dahoon, var. myrtifolia, i. 110. 
Ilex daphnephylloides, v. 73. 
Ilex decidua, i. 113 ; xiv. 98. 
Ilex Floridana, i. 111. 
Ilex laurifolia, !. 109, 
Ilex laxiflora, i. 107. 
Ilex ligustrifolia, i. 110, 
Hex ligustrina, i. 110, 111, 
Ilex montana, i. 115. 
Ilex Monticola, i, 115, 
Ilex myrtifolia, i. 110, 
Ilex opaca, i. 107- 

Hex Paraguarleosis, i. 104 ; xiv. 98, 
Ilex prinoides, i. 113. 
Ilex prionitis, i. 113. 
Ilex quercifolia, i, 107. 
Ilex religiosa, i. 111. 
Ilex rosmarifolia, i. 110. 
Ilex spinescens, i. 104, 
, Ilex stenophylla, i. 104. 
Ilex vomitoria, I. 111. 
Hex Watsonia, i. 110. 
Ilicine^, i, 103. 
Imbricaria, v. 181. 
Incanse, ix. 97. 
Incense Cedar, x. 135, 
India Rubber from Ficus elastica, vii, 93. 
Indian Almond-tree, v, 20, 
Indian Azaleas, v, 146. 
Indian Bean, vi. 86, 
Indian Cherry, ii, 35. 
Indian Chief Plum, iv. 24. 
Indian Fig, xiv. 12. 
Indiana Chief Plum, iv. 24. 
Indiana Ked Plum, iv< 24, 
Inga forfex, iii. 133. 
Inga Guadalupensis, iii. 132, 
Inga microphylla, iii. 133, 
Inga rosea, iii. 133, ' 
Inga Unguis-cati, iii. 133. 
Ink-wood, il. 76. 
Insect enemies of 

AbieSj xii. 101. 

Amelanchier, iv. 126. 

Catalpa, vi. 84. 

Celtis, vii. 64, 

Cornus, v. 65. 

Crat^gus, iv, 84. 

Diospyros, vi, 4. 

Frasinus, vi, 27- 

Hamamelis, v. 2, 

Hicoria, vii, 133, 

Juglans, vii, 116, 

Larix, xii. 5, 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, v. 9. 
Mohrodendron, vi. 20, 
Morus, vii. 77. 
Nyssa, v. 74. 
Picea, xii. 25. 
Pinus, xi- 11- 
Platanus, vii. 101, 
Prunus, iv. 11, 



Pseudotsuga, xii, 84, 

Pyrusj iv. 70. 

Sassafras, vii- 15. 

ToxyloDj vii. 87- 

Tsuga, xii, 61, 

Ulmns, vii. 41, 

Umbellularia, vIL 20. 

Viburnum, v- 94. 
Integrifolife, xi. 4- 
loxylouy vii. 85. 
Irish Yewj x, 62, 

Ironwood, v- 169, 173 ; ix. 34, 37. 
Iron-wood, ii. 3, 7, 75. 

Iron Wood, iii, 49 ; iv- 135. 

Islay, iv- 53. 

Itaska Plum, iv. 20. 

Itea Cyrilla^ ii. 3. 

Itea racemiflora, ii. 2. 

Ivy, V. 140- 

Ivy, Poison, iii. 9- 

Jack, Black, viii. 145, 161. 

Jack, Blue, viii. 171. 

Jack, John George, xiii, 105. 

Jack Oak, viii. 161. 

Jack Pine, xi. 147, 

Jack Pine plains, xi, 148, 

Jack, Sand, viii. 172- 

Jaequin, Nicolaus Joseph, v, 155* 

Jacquinia, v- 155. 

Jacquinia arborea, v- 157- 

Jacquinia armillaris, v. 157- 

Jacquinia armillaris^ ^ arhorea^ v. 157. 

Jacquinia armillaris, fruits of, v. 155- 

Jamaica Dogvrood, iii- 53. 

Jamhos^ v. 39. 

Jamhosa^ v. 39. 

Jambosa vulgaris^ v. 41. 

James, Edwin, ii. 96. 

Jamesia, ii. 96. 

Japan, cultivation of Pines in, xi. 11. 

Japanese Arhor-vitse, x, 124. 

Japanese Beech, ix. 22. 

Japanese Birch, ix, 48. 

Japanese Chestnut-tree, ix. 9, 

Japanese Hemlocks, xii. 60. 

Japanese Hop Hornbeam, ix. 32. 

Japanese Larch, xii. 2, 

Japanese Persimmon, vi. 4, 

Japanese Pseudotsuga, xii- 84. 

Japanese Walnut, vii- 116. 

Jasminum Mrsutum^ v- 112. 

Javanese Ehododendrona, v. 146, 147. 

Jeffrey, John, xi- 41- 

Jennie Lucas Plum, iv. 26. 

Jersey Pine, xi- 123. 

Joe Wood, V, 157. 

Jones, Beatrix, xiii. 136. 

Joshua Tree, x. 19. 

Jossiniaf v. 39. 

Judas-tree, iii- 95- 

JUGLAKDACE^, vii. 113 ; xiv. 43. 

Juglans, vii- 113. 

Juglans ailantifolia, vii. 116. 

Juglans alha, vii. 153, 161- 

Juglans alba acuminata^ vii- 165- 

Juglans alba minima, vii- 141. 

Juglans alba odorata^ vii- 167- 

Juglans alba ovata^ vii. 153. 

Juglans alba^ e pacana^ vii. 137. 

Juglans amara, vii- 141, 

Juglans angustifolia, vii- 137, 141. 

Juglans aquatica^ vii. 149, 

Juglans Californica, vii. 129. 

Juglans Californicaj vii. 125. ■' 

Juglans catharticay vii. 118. 

Juglans cinerea, vii. 118 ; xiv. 103, 

Juglans cinerea, vii, 115- 

Juglans cinerea, medical properties of, vii, 

Juglans cinereo-nigra, vii, 114, 
Juglans compressa, vii. 153. 
Juglans cordiformis, vii. 116, 141. 
Juglans cylindrica, vii- 137. 
Juglans, fungal diseases of, vii. 116. 
Juglans glabra, vii. 165- 
Juglans, hybrids of, vii. 114. 
Juglans Illinoiensis, vii- 137. 
Juglans, insect enemies of, vii. 116- 
Juglans in South America, vii. 115, 
Juglans insularis, vii- 115. 
*? Juglans intermedia alata^ vii, 115. 
Juglans intermedia pyriformis, vii- 114- 
*? Juglans intermedia quadrangulata, vii. 115, 
Juglans intermedia Vilmoriuiana, vii- 114. 
Juglans laciniosa, vii- 157- 
Juglans macrophjlla^ vii. 116- 
Juglans Mandshurica, vii, 115. 
Juglans Mandshurica, vii, 116. 
Juglans Mexicana, vii. 115. 
Juglans minima, vii. 141, 
Juglans mollis, vii- 115, 
Juglans mucronata, vii. 141- 
Juglans myristicceformis, vii. 145. 
Juglans nigra, vii- 121 ; xiv. 103, 
Juglans nigra, vii. 116, 
Juglans nigra ohlonga, vii, 121, 
Juglans nigra, 0, vii. 118. 
Juglans nigra, var, Boliviana, vii. 115. 
Juglans ohcordata^ vii- 153, 165. 
Juglans ohlonga, vii, 118, 
Juglans oblonga alba, vii. 118, 
Juglans olivcqformis, vii, 137, 
Juglans ovalis, vii. 153. 
Juglans ovata, vii, 153. 
Juglans Pecan, vii. 137. 
Juglans Pitteursii, vii, 121. 
Juglans poTcina, vii- 165. 
Juglans porcina, a obcordata, vii. 165. 
Juglans porcina, $ Jiciformis, vii- 165. 
$ Juglans pubescens, vii. 161- 
Juglans pyriformis, vii- 115. 
Juglans regia, vii- 115, 

Juglans regia, cultivation and uses of, vii- 

Juglans regia gibhosa, vii- 114. 
Juglans regia intermedia, vii. 114. 
Juglans regia octogona, vi. 116. 
Juglans regia, var, Kamaonia, vii, 115, 
Juglans regia, var. Sinensis, vii. 115, 
Juglans rubra, vii- 161. 
Juglans rupestris, vii- 125- 
Juglans rupestris, var- major, vii. 125. 
Juglans Sieboldiana, vii, 116. 
Juglans squamosa, vii, 153, 165. 
Juglans squamosa, j3 microcarpa, vii. 167, 
f Juglans stenocarpa, vii. 115, 
Juglans sulcata, vii. 141, 157, 
Juglans tomentosa, vii. 161- 
Juniper, x. 75, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89. 
Juniper, Bedford, x, 96 ; xiv- 90, 
Juniper, Checkered-barked, x- 85- 
Juniper, Swedish, x, 78, 
Juniper, tar of, x. 72. 
Jnniperus, x- 69- 
Juniperus alpina, x, 76. 
Juniperus Andina, x, 87, 
Juniperus arborescens^ x. 93. 

Juniperus Barbadensis, xiv- 89, 

Juniperus Barbadensis, x. 70, 93, 

Juniperus Bedfordiana, x, 96. 

Juniperus Bermudiana, x, 70- 

Juniperus Bermudiana, x. 93 ; xiv- 89, 

Juniperus horealis, x. 75. 

Juniperus Californica, x. 79. 

Juniperus Californica, var. osteosperma, x. 70. 

Juniperus Californica, var, Utahensis, x. 81. 

Juniperus Canadensis, x. 76, 

Juniperus Caroliniana, x. 93, 

Juniperus Cerrosiana, x. 70, 

Juniperus communis, x. 75, 

Juniperus communis nana, x- 76. 

Juniperus communis oblonga-pendula, x. 78, 

Juniperus communis pyramidalis, x, 78, 

Juniperus communis Suecica, x. 78. 

Juniperus communis vulgaris, x. 76. 

Juniperus communis, B reflexa, ^ pendula, x. 

Juniperus communis, a erecta, x. 75. 
Juniperus communis, a vulgaris, x. 75- 
Juniperus communis, fi, x- 76- 
Juniperus communis^ p alpina, x. 76. 
Juniperus communis, p depressa, x- 76. 
Juniperus communis, pfastigiata, x. 78- 
Juniperus communis, ff hemispJimrica, x- 75, 
Juniperus communis, ^ Hispanica, x. 75, 78, 
Juniperus communis, ^ reflexa, x. 78. 
Juniperus communis, j, x, 76. 
Juniperus communis, y Caucasica, x. 75- 
Juniperus communis, y montana, x, 76- 
Juniperus communis, 5 arborescens, x. 75, 
Juniperus communis, 5 ohlonga, x- 75. 
Juniperus communis, var- Sibirica, x. 75. 
Juniperus dealhata, x, 75. 
Juniperus deformis, x. 75- 
Juniperus densa, x. 71. 
Juniperus depressa, x, 75. 
Juniperus drupacea, x, 72. 
Juniperus, economic properties of, x. 71. 
Juniperus, essential oil of, x. 72. 
Juniperus exeelsa, x. 71. 
Juniperus exeelsa^ x. 87 ; xiv. 93, 94. 
Juniperus exeelsa, ^ nana, x. 71. 
Juniperus flaccida, x- 83- 
Juniperus fmtida, e exeelsa, x. 71, 
Juniperus fcetida, t) Virginiana, x, 93. 
Juniperus fo^tida, 6 flaccida, x. 83. 
Juniperus fragrans, x, 93, 
Juniperus, fungal diseases of, s. 73. 
. Juniperus gigantea, x. 70. 
Juniperus glauca, x- 96. 
Juniperus Gossainihanea, x, 96. 
Juniperus gracilis, x, 83, 96- 
Juniperus hemispkcerica, x, 75. 
Juniperus Hermanni^ x. 87, 93- 
Juniperus Hudsonica, x, 71- 
Juniperus, insect enemies of, x- 72. 
Juniperus isopliylla^ x. 71- 
Juniperus Knighti, xiv. 105. 
Juniperus macrocarpa, x- 72- 
Juniperus macropoda, x- 71, 
Juniperus Mexicana, x. 70, 91- 
Juniperus monosperma, x. 89. 
Juniperus nana, x. 76- 
Juniperus nana, A montana, x- 76, 
Juniperus nana, B alpina, x. 76, 
Juniperus oblonga, x, 75, 78, 
Juniperus oblonga pendula, x, 78. 
Juniperus occidentalis, x- 87- 
Juniperus occidentalis, x- 79, 81, 89, 93 ; xiv. 

Juniperus occidentalis, a. pleiosperma, x- 87- 



Juniperus occidentalism monosperma, x. 89. 
Juniperus occidentalism var, gymnocarpay x. 89. 
Juniperus occidentalism var, Texana, x. 91. 
Juniperus occidentalism var. UtahensiSm s- 81. 
Juniperus occidentalism var. ? y conJungenSj x. 

Juniperus OUvierim x. 71, 
Juniperus oppositifoliam x. 70. 
Juniperus Oxycedrns, x, 72, 
Juniperus Oxycedrus^ a gibbosam x. 72. 
Juniperus paehj^plilfea, x. 85. 
Juniperus pendulGy x. 86, 
Juniperus plochydermam x, 85. 
Juniperus poly carposy x. 71. 
Juniperus procera, x, 70, 
Juniperus prostratam x, 71. 
Juniperus pygmma, s. 76, 
Juniperus pyramidalis^ x, 70. 

Juniperus pyriformism ^' 79, 80, , 

Juniperus recurvaj x. 70. 

Juniperus recurva, var. squamata, x, 71, 

Juniperus repens, x. 71, 75. 

Juniperus rufescens^ x. 72. 

Juniperus rufescenSm var, a iVoez, x, 72. 

Juniperus Sabina, x. 71- 

Juniperus Sabina^ x. 71, 

Juniperus Sabina prostrata, x. 71. 

Juniperus Sabina^ & JiumiliSy x. 71- 

Juniperus Saiina, var. excelsa^x. 71, 

Juniperus Sabina, var. procumhenSy x, 71, 

Juniperus sabinoides, x. 91 ; xiv, 105- 

Juniperus scopulorum, xiv. 93, 

Juniperus Sibirica, x, 76. 

Juniperus squamata, x. 71. 

Juniperus Suecica, x, 78, 

Juniperus tetragona, x. 79, 91. 

Juniperus tetragonay var. oUgosperma, x, 91. 

Juniperus tetragona, var, osteosperma, x. 79, 

Juniperus TJtabensis, x, 81 ; xiv, 105- 

Juniperus Virglniana, x. 93. 

Juniperus Virginianay x. 89 ; xiv, 89, 93- 

Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis, x. 96 ; xiv, 


Juniperus Virginiana Carolinianam x. 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana graciliSj x, 95. 
Juniperus Virginiana Hermanni^ x, 93, 
Juniperus Virginiana prostrata, x, 71. 
Juniperus Virginiana^ B australism x, 93 ; xiv. 

Juniperus Virginianay a vulgarism x, 93, 
Juniperus Virginianam ^ Carolinianam x- 93. 
Juniperus Virginiana, & glauca, x, 96, 
Juniperus Virginianam y Bedfordiana, x. 96. 
Juniperus Virginiana, distribution of, xiv. 89, 
Juniperus Virginianam var, Bermudiana, x. 93 ; 
. xiv, 89. 

Juniperus Virginiana^ var, humilis, x, 71, 
Juniperus Virginianam var. montanam x. 93 ; 

xiv. 93. 

Kcdera laurifoliam vii. 27- 

Kaki, vi, 4. 

Kakis, origin of the cultivated, vi, 4. 

Kakis, uses of, vi. 4. 

Kalm, Peter, ii, 86. ^ 

Kalmia, v. 137. 

Kalmia angustifolia, v, 138- 

Kalmia ericoides, v- 137- 

Kalmia glauca, v, 137. 

Kalmia latifolia, v, 139. 

Kalmia latifolia, fertilization of, v- 137, 

Kalmia latifolia, monstrous form of, v, 140. 

Kalmia polifolia, v- 137. 

Kampmania fraxinifoliam i- 67, 

Karwinsky, Wilhelm Freiherr, i, 94, 
Kaya, x, 56, 

Kaya-no-abura, x. 56. 

Kellermannia yuccsegena, x, 5, 

Kellogg, Albert, viii. 120, 

Kelloggia, viii. 120, 

Kennedy, Louis, iv. 16, 

Keunedya, iv. 16, 

Kentucky CofPee-tree, iii, 69. 

Kermes, the Oak, viii. 10, 

Keyserlingia, iii. 69. 

Keysia, v. 144. 

Khaya Senegalensis, i, 101. 

Kickapoo Plum, iv. 20, 

King nuts, vii. 157. 

Kinnikinnic, v. 64, 

Kirschwasser, manufacture of, iv< 10, 

Kiskythomas nut, vii. 134, 

Knackaway, vi. 81. 

Knafiam ix. 95, 

Knees, Cypress, x. 151. 

Kniphofia, v, 19. 

Knob-cone Pine, xi. 107, 

Knowlton, Frank Hall, ix. 38, 

Kceberlin, C. L., i. 93. 

Kteberlinia, i. 93, 

Kceberlinia, i, 88. 

Kceberlinia spinosa, i, 93 ; xiv- 98- 

Kura-matsn, xi. 7. 

Lahramia, v, 181. 

Lacathea, i. 39, 

Lacathea Jioridam i. 45- 

Lacbnea Sequoiee, x, 140. 

Lachnus Abietis, xii. 25, 

Laebnus australis, xi, 11. 

Lachnus Caryse, vii. 133. 

Laebnus laricifex, xii, 5, 

Lachnus Platanicola, vii- 101, 

Lachnus Strobi, xi. 11, 

Lacistema alternum, ix. 87, 

Lacistema Berterianum, ix. 87. 

Lacquer, manufacture of, iii. 8, 

Lacquer-tree, cultivation of, iii. 8. 

Ladybird Beetle, Australian, vii. 20- 

Lsestadia consociata, x, 140, 

Lagunculariaj v. 27, 

Laguncularia glabrifolia, v, 29- 

Laguncularia racemosa, v, 29. 

Lakh, iii, 116. 

Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, xi, 30. 

Lamp-black from Pinus Pinaster, xi. 8. 

Landreth, David, vii. 87- 

Langsdorjiam i. 65. 

Laplacea Htematoxylon, i, 42, 

Larch, xii. 7, 127, 133, 

Larch, Canker of, xii, 5. 

Larch, European, xii- 3. 

Larch, Himalayan, xii. 3, 

Larch, Japanese, xii. 2, 

Larch Sack-bearer, xii. 5, 

Larch, Saw-fly, xii. 5. 

Large-leaved Cucumber-tree, i. 11. 

Larix, xii. 1, 

Larix Altaica, xii. 4. 

Larix Americana, xii. 7 ; xiv, 106. 

Larix Americana pendula, xii. 7. 

Larix Americana proliferam xii. 7- 

Larix Americana, rubra, xii, 7. 

Larix Archangelica, xii. 4, 

Larix caduci/olia, xii, 3. 

Larix communis, y Rossicay xii. 4, 

Larix communis, var. j8 Sibirica, xii. 4- 

Larix communism var, SpenduUnam xii. 3. 

Larix Dahurica, xii, 4. 
Larix Dahurica, a typica, xii, 4. 
Larix Dahurica, p prostrata, xii, 4- 
Larix Dahurica, var. Kurilensis, xii. 4, 
Larix Dahurica, var, y Japonica, xii, 4. 

Larix decidua, xii. 3. 

Larix decidua, a communis, xii. 3. 

Larix decidua, y Americanam xii. 7- 

Larix decidua, ependula, xii, 3, 

Larix, economic properties of, xii. 2. 

Larix Europcea, xii. 3, 4, 

Larix EuropcEa communis, xii, 3, 

Larix Europcea compacta, xii. 3. 

Larix Europma laxa, xii. 3. 

Larix Europma pjendula, xii. 3, 

Larix Europcea, a typica, xii. 3, 

Larix Europma^ var, Dahurica, xii, 4. 

Larix Europcea, var. Sibirica, xii. 4, 

Larix, fungal diseases of, xii, 5. 

Larix Griffithiana, xii. 2. 

Larix Griffithii, xii. 2. 

Larix, insect enemies of, xii, 5, 

Larix intermedia, xii. 4, 7. 

Larix Japonica, xii, 2, 

Larix Japonica macrocarpa, xii. 2. 

Larix KEempferlj xii, 2, 

Larix K^empferi, var, minor, xii. 2^ 

Larix Kamtschatika, xii. 4. 

Larix Kurilensis, xii. 4- 

Larix laricina, xii. 7. 

Larix laricina, var, microcarpay xii, 8. 

Larix laricina, var, pendula, xii, 8, 

Larix Larix, xii. 3. 

Larix Larix, economic properties of, xii. 3, 4. 

Larix Ledebourii, xii, 4, 

Larix leptolepis, xii. 2, 

Larix leptolepis, ^.Murrayana, xii, 2, 

Larix leptolepis, var. minor, xii, 2. 

Larix Lyallii, xii. 15 ; xiv, 106. 

Larix microcarpam xii- 7. 

Larix occidentalis, xii. 11. 

Larix pendula, xii, 7. 

Larix pyramidalis, xii, 3, 

Larix Rossica, xii. 4. 

Larix Sibirica, xii. 3. 

Larix tenuifoliUm xii. 7. 

Larix vulgaris^ xii. 3, 

Lasiantbus, i, 42, 

Lasiosphferia stuppea, xii, 61, 

Laugeria, v. 111, 

Laugieria, v. 111. 

Laugieria hirsuta, v, 112, 

LauracejE, vii, 1. 

Laurel, v, 139, 

Laurel, California, vii. 21, 

Laurel, English, iv, 11, 

Laurel, Great, v, 148. 

Laurel, Mountain, v. 139 ; vii. 21, 

Laurel Oak, viii, 175. 

Laurel, Portugal, iv, 11. 

Laurocerasus, iv. 8. 

LaurocerasuSm iv, 7, 8, 

Laurocerasus Carolinianam iv. 49, 

Laurocerasus ilicifoliam iv- 53, 

Laurocerasus salicifolia, iv, 46, 

Laurocerasus sphmrocarpa, iv, 51, 

Laurocerasus sphEerocarpa, 3 Brasiliensis, iv, 

Laurus, vii. 1. 
Laurus albida, vii. 17. 
Laurus Borbonia, vii. 4. 
Laurus bullata, vii. 10, 
Laurus CaroUnensis, vii, 4, 7, 
Laurus CaroUnensis, a glabra, vii, 4. 



Laurus Carolinensis^ p puhescens, vii. 7- 

Laurus Carolinensis, y ohtusa^ vii. 4. 

Laurus Carolimana, vii. 4. 

Laurus CatesbtEij vii. 11. 

Laurus Cateshyana^ vii. 11, 

Laurus diversifoliay vii. 17. 

Laurus fmtenSf vii. 10. 

Laurus Indica^ vii. 2. 

Laurus Maderiensis, vii. 10. 

Laurus Persea^ vii. 2. 

Laurus Sassafras^ vii- 17. 

Laurus Teneriffwy vii. 2, 

Laurus Tilly vii. 10. 

Laurus variifolia^ vii. 17, 

Laurus Winieraiia^ i. 37 ; xiv- 97, 

Laurustmus, v. 94, 

Lawsoiij CharleSj x. 120, 

Lawson's Cypress, x. 119. 

Lazarolusy iv. 67. 

Leaf-miners on QuercuSj viii. 12. 

Leather-wood, ii- 3- 

Leavenworth, Mellins C, iii. 66. 

Leavenworthia, iii. 66. 

Lecanlum CarjEe, vii. 133. 

Lecanium JugTandifex, vii. 116. 

Lecanium Quercifex, viii. 11. 

Lecanium Quercitronisj viii. 11. 

Lecanium Tulipifergej L 18, 

Le Conte, John Eatton^ xiv, 44, 

Lee, James, iv. 16- 

Lee & Kennedy, iv. 16, 

Leea, iv, 16. 

Leea spinosa, v, 60, 

LEGUMiKOSiE, iii. 29 ; xiii, 13. 

Leitneria, vii, 109. 

Leitneria Floridana, vii. 111. 

Lkitneiuace^j vii. 109. 

Lemonnier, Louis Guillaume, iii. 46. 

Lemon-wood, i, 83, 

Lentago, v. 93. 

Lentago, v, 93. 

Le Page du Pratz, v- 17, 

Lepidobalanus, viii- 4, 

Lepidobalanus, buds of, viii. 4. 

Lepidocereus, v, 51. 

Leptalixy vi. 25. 

Leptocoris trivittatus, ii. 81, 

Leptodaphne^ vii, 9, 

Leptosphseria filamentosa, x. 5. 

Leptosph^eria taxicola, x, 63, 

Leptostroma hypophyllam, iii, 74. 

Leptostroma Sequoia, x. 140, 

Leptotharania, v. 116, 

Leptura vagansj ix. 48. 

Letterman, George "Washington, xiii. 79, 

Leuc^ena, iii. 109. 

Leucmna formosay iii. 127. 

Leucmna Fosteri, iii. 109, 

Leucsena glandulosa, iii, 109. 

Leuc£ena glauca, iii. 111. 

Leucmna glauca, xiii- 17- 

Leuc^ena Greggii, xiii, 17- 

Leucsena Greggii, stipules of, iii, 109. 

Leucffina macrophylla, stipules of, iii, 109, 

Leucifiua pulverulenta, iii, 113. 

Leucmna retusa, iii. 109- 

Leuce^ ix. 151, 152, 

Leucobalanus, viii, 4. 

LeucoideSy ix, 152. 

Leucothoe Mariana^ v. 130. 

Leucoxylum, vi, 1. 

Libocedrus, x, 133. 

LibocedruS; austro-caledonica, x. 133. 

Libocedrus Bidwillii, x. 134, 

Libocedrus Chilensis, x, 134- 
Libocedrus cnpressoides, x- 134. 
Libocedrus decurrens, x. 135 ; xiv. 106. 
Libocedrus Doniana, x. 134. 
Libocedrus, economic properties of, x. 134, 
Libocedrus, fungal diseases of, x. 134. 
Libocedrus macrolepis, x. 134. 
Libocedrus Papuana, x, 133. 
Libocedrus plumosa, x, 134, 
Libocedrus tetragonal x. 134, 
Libythea Baehmanni, vii. 64, 
Light wood, xi. 154. 
Lignum-vitse, i, 60, 63. 
Lilac, xiii. 1, 

LlIJACE^, X, 1. 

Limacia laurifolia^ vii. 27, 

Lime, Ogeechee, v, 79. 

Lime-tree, i, 53. 

Lin, i. 53, 

Lina Lapponica, ix. 101- 

Lina scripta, ix. 101, 156. 

Lina Tremulse, ix. 156. 

Linden, i. 52, 55, 57- 

Linden-bast, i. 50. 

Lindheimer, Ferdinand, i. 74. 

Linociera cotinifolia^ vi. 60, 

Liopus cinereus, vii. 133. 

Liopus Querci, viii. 11. 

Liparena^ vii. 23. 

Liparis monarcha, xii. 24. 

Liquidambar, v. 7, 8. 

Liguidamhar acerifoliay v. 8. 

Liquidambar asplenifolia^ ix. 84. 

Liquidambar Californicum, v. 7. 

Liquidambar, Chinese, v. 8. 

Liquidambar Formosana, v, 8. 

Liquidambar Formosaua, corky excrescences 

of, V. 8, 
Liquidambar Formosana, resin of, v, 8. 
Liquidambar imberbej v. 7. 
Liquidambar macrophylla, v- 10, 
Liquidambar Maximowiczii^ v, 8. 
Liquidambar, Oriental, v. 7- 
Liqnidambar orientalis, v. 7, 8, 
Liquidambar peregrina^ ix. 84- 
Liquidambar protensium, v. 7. 
Liquidambar^ species, v. 8. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, v. 10, 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, fungal enemies of, 

V. 9- 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, insect enemies of, 

Y. 9. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, medical uses of, 

V. 8. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, resin of, v. 8, 
Liquidambar Styracijlua, var. Mexicanaj v. 10. 
Liquidamber, v, 12. 
Liquid storax, v. 8. 
Liriodendron, i. 17, 
Liriodendron Procaccinii, i. 17. 
Liriodendron procerum^ i. 19- 
Liriodendron Tulipifera, i. 19 ; xiv. 97- 
Lithocarpus, viii. 4. 
Lithocarpus, viii. 1. 
Lithocolletis betulivora, ix, 48, 
Lithocolletis carysealbella, vii- 133, 
Lithocolletis carytefoliella, vii, 133. 
Lithocolletis celtifoliella, vii. 64, 
Lithocolletis celtisella, vii, 64. 
Lithocolletis crat^egella, iv. 84. 
Lithocolletis guttifinitella, var, tesculisella, 

ii, 63, 
Lithocolletis juglandiella, vii. 116. 
Lithocolletis ostrysefoliella, ix, 32- 

Lithocolletis populiella, ix, 156. 
Lithocolletis Umbellulariee, vii. 20, 
Little, Henry, xiv, 64, 
Live Oak, viii. 99, 105, 111, 119. 

Live Oak, U. S. reservations of, viii. 101, 

Lobadium, iii. 7, 

Lobb, William, x. 60. 

Loblolly, i, 42. 

Loblolly Bay, i, 41, 

Loblolly Pine, xi. 111. 

Loblolly-wood, i. 42, 

Lochm^eus manteo, viii, 12. 

Locust, ill, 39, 43 ; xlli. 13. 

Locust, Black, iii, 77, 

Locust, Clammy, iii, 45. 

Locust, Honey, iii, 75, 101- 

Locust, Sweet, iii. 77. 

Locust, Water, iii. 79, 

Locust, Yellow, iii. 39. 

Lodge Pole Pine, xi. 90, 91, 

Lodkra, vi, 13. 

Lodhra cratmgoideSy vi. 14. 

Log-wood, ii, 25. 

Lombardy Poplar, ix. 153, 

Lombardy Poplar in the United States, ix. 

Longifolise, ix. 96. 

Long-leaved Cucumber-tree, i, 15. 

Long-leaved Pine, xi, 151, 

Lophodermium juniperinum, x. 73. 

Lophodermium Pinastri, xi. 12. 

Lophoderus triferanus, vii. 87. 

LopJiozorda^ ix. 21. 

Lophyrus Abietis, x, 124. 

Louisa Plum, iv. 20, 

Louro, vi- 68, 

Lowrie, Jonathan Koberts, iv. 28. 

Loxostege Maclurffi, vii. 87. 

Loxot^enia rosaccana, iii, 10. 

Lucombe Oak, the, viii. 7. 

Luna moth, v. 9 ; vii. 116. 

Lusekia, ix. 95- 

Lyall, David, xii. 16, 

Lyallia, xii. 16. 

Lyon, John, v. 80, 

Lyon, William Scrugham, iv. 133- 

Lyonetia alniella, ix. 70. 

Lyonia, v, 80, 130. 

Lyonia, v, 129. 

Lyonia arborea, v. 135. 

Lyonia ferruginea, v, 131. 

Lyonia Mariana, v. 130. 

Lyonia rhomhoidalis, v- 132. 

Lyonia rigida, v. 132. 

Lyonothamnus, iv. 133, 

Lyanothamnus asplenifolius , iv. 135- 

Lyonothamnus floribundus, iv. 135 ; xiv- 101, 

Lyonothamnus fioribundus, var. asplenifoliuSj 

iv, 135. 
Lysjloma, iii. 127, 
Lysiloma Bahamensis^ iii. 129. 
Lysiloma latisiliqua, iii. 129, 
Lysiloma polyphylla, iii, 127. 
Lysiloma Sabicu, iii- 127. 

Maackia, iii, 66, 

Mabola, vi. 1- 
Macfadyeu, James, ii. 73, 

Maefadyena, ii. 73, 

Macielia, vi. 67- 

Mackenzie, Alexander, xii. 75. 

Madura^ vii, 85. 

Madura aurantiaca, vii. 89. 

MacMahon, Bernard, vii. 86, 



MacNab, James, x, 110, 
Macoucoua, i, 103, 
Macria, vi. 67. 
MacromyrtuSj v. 39, 
Macropelma, v. 116. 
Macropihalma, vii. 91. 

Macrosporium Catalpse, vi. 84, 
Macrothuya^ x, 123, 

MacrotliyrsuSy ii- 51, 

Madeira niahogaiiy, vii. 2, 

Madrofia, v, 123, 125, 127, 

Magiiol, Pierre, i. 2, 

Magnolia, i, 1, 

Magnolia acuminata, i, 7 ; xiv, 97. 

Magnolia acuminata, var. cordata, i, 8. 

Magnolia auricularisy i, 15, 

Magnolia auriculaia^ i. 15, 

Magnolia CampbelHi, i- 2, 

Magnolia eonspicua, i. 2, 

Magnolia cordata, i. 8, 

Magnolia De Candolliiy i, 7. 

Magnolia fcetida, i, 3 ; xiv. 97, 

Magnolia fcetida, var. angustifolia, i, 4. 
' Magnolia f<Btida, var. Exoniensis, i. 4. 

Magnolia fcetida, var. pr^ecox, i, 4, 

Magnolia fragransy i. 5, 

Magnolia Fraseri, i. 15- 

Magnolia frondosa, i, 13, 

Magnolia fuscata^ i. 2, 

Magnolia glauca, i. 5 ; xiv. 97- 

Magnolia glauca longifolia, i. 6. 

Magnolia glauca^ var. latifoliay i- 5- 

Magnolia glauca^ var. longifolia, i, 5, 

Magnolia glauca^ var. pumila, i. 5. 

Magnolia grandiflora, i. 3 ; xiv. 97- 

Magnolia grandifioraj var, ellipticay i, 3. 

Magnolia grandiflora^ var, lanceolata^ i, 3, 

Magnolia grandijlora, var, ohovata^ i- 3, 

Magnolia Harhaegus, i. 4. 

Magnolia hypoleuca, i. 2, 

Magnolia Inglefieldi, i, 3, 

.Magnolia longifolia, i, 5, 

Magnolia macrophjlla, i, 11, 

Magnolia, Mountain, i, 7, IS, 

Magnolia obovata, i. 2, 

Magnolia pyramidata, i- 15, 

Magnolia Thompsoniana, i, 6, 

Magnolia tripetala, i. 13 ; xiv, 97, 

Magnolia Umhrella, i. 13, 

Magnolia Virginiana, a glauca^ i, 5, 

Magnolia Virginianaj ^fostida, i- 3. 

Magnolia Virginiana, 5 tripetala^ i, 13. 

Magnolia Virginiana, e acutninata^ i, 7, 

Magnoliace^, i. 1, 

Mahagoniy i, 99, 
^ ilahogany, i. 100 ; iii, 27. 

Mahogany, African, i. 101, 

Mahogany, Bastard, i. 101, 

Mahogany Birch, ix. 52. 

Mahogany, Horseflesh, iii. 127. 

Mahogany, Madeira, i, 101 ; vii, 2, 

Mahogany, Mountain, iv- 63, 65 ; siii. 27. 

Mahonia, vii. 87, 

Mallodon melanopus, vii. 64 ; viii. 11- 

Malus, iv. 67, 68, 

Mains, iv- 67. 

Mains angustifolia, iv, 75, 

Malus communis i iv. 68. 

Mains coronaria, iv, 71, 

Malus diversifolia, iv, 77- 

Malus microcarpa coronaria, iv. 71. 

Malus microcarpa sempervirens^ iv, 75. 

Malus rivularis, iv. 77. 

.Mains sempervirens, iv. 75- 

Malns subcordata, iv. 77. 
Malus Toringo, iv. 69. 
Mancanilla, vii. 33. 
Manchiueel, vii. 35, 
Manchineel, Mountain, iii. 14. 
Mancinella, vii. 33. 

Mancinella venenata, vii, 35. 
Mangle, v. 13- 
Mangrove, v, 15. 
Mangrove, Black, vi. 107, 
Mangrove, White, v. 29, 
Manilkaray v. 181. 
Manna, vi. 26. 
Manna, Brian§on, xii, 4, 
Mannaphornsy vi. 25, 
Maple, Ash Leaved, ii. Ill, 
Maple, Black, xiii, 9. 

Maple, Broad Leaved, ii. 89. 

Maple, Dwarf, ii, 95. 

Maple, Mountain, ii, 83- 

Maple, Ked, ii, 107 ; xiii, 11. 

Maple, Red, distribution of, xiii. 11, 

Maple, Roek, ii. 97, 

Maple, ^Scarlet, ii. 107, 

Maple, Silver, ii. 103- 

Maple, Soft, ii. 103, 

Maple, Striped, ii, 85, 

Maple, Sugar, ii. 97 ; xiii, 7. 

Maple, Vine, ii. 93- 

Maplcs, fungal disease of, ii, 81. 

Maple-sugar, making of, ii. 98, 

Marasca Cherry, iv. 10. 

Maraschino, manufacture of, iv. 10. 

Marcgravia, v. 24. 

Marcorellay ii. 47- 

Marggraf, Georg, v. 24. 

Maritime Pine, xi, 7, 

Maritime Pine-belt, xi. 152, 

Marlberry, v, 153. 

Marrons, ix, 9, 

Marsh Pine, xi, 119. 

Marshall, Humphrey, viii. 39- 

Marshall, Moses, i. 46. 

Marshallia, viii. 39, 

Massaria Corni, v. 95. 

Mas sari a epileuca, vii. 77, 

Massaria Ulmi, vii, 42, 

Mastic, V- 165. 

Mastic, Young, iii, 2. 

Mastosuke, vii- 91, 

Matthiola, v- 111, 

Matthiola scahra, v, 112, 

Maul Oak, viii. 105, 

Maximilian Alexander Philipp, Prinz von 

Keuwied, is. 138, 
Maximiliana, ix. 138. 
May apples, v, 147, 
May Haw, iv. 119. 
Mecas inornata, ix. 155. 
Medical properties of Carica, xiv. 3, 
Medical properties of Serenoa serrulata, xiv, 

Medical uses of Opuntia, xiv, 13, 
Meehan, Thomas, ix. 82, 
Megathymus Yuccfe, x, 5, 
Melampsorabetuliua, ix. 49, 
Melampsora Goeppertiana, v- 117. 
Melampsora TremnlEe, xii. 5, 
Melampsora Vacciniorum, v- 117. 
Melanconis Alni, ix. 70. 
Melanobalanus, viii. 4. 
Melanocarya, ii. 9, 
Melanococca, iii, 7. 
Melanopsamma confertissima, x. 140, 

Melezitose, xii. 5, 
Meliace^, i. 99. 
Melicocca, ii, 73, 77, 
Melicocca paniculata, ii, 75, 
Melilobns, iii. 73. 

Meliloius heterophylla, iii. 75. 
Meliola balsamicola, xii. 101. 
Meliola furcata, x. 38. 
Meliola palmicola, x. 38 ; xiv. 76. 
Melllchamp, Joseph Hinsou, viii. 144, 
Mellichampia, viii. 144, 
Menestrata, vii, 1, 
Menzies, Archibald, ii. 90, 
Menziesia, ii, 90, 
Mertens, Karl Heinrieh, xii, 80. 
Mertensia, xii. 80. 
Mertensia, vii. 63, 
Mertensia rhamnoides, vii, 64, 
Mertensia zizyphoides, vii, 64. 
Mespiiodaphne, vii, 10, 
Mespilodaphne, vii. 9, 
Mespiiodaphne opifera, vii. 10, 
Mespilus acerifolia, iv. 107. 
Mespilus cestivalis, iv, 119, 
Mespilus Amelanchier, iv, 125, 127, 
Mespilus apiifolia, iv. 111. 
Mespilus arborea, iv, 127, 
Mespilus arbutifolia, iv. 68, 123, 
Mespilus arbutifoliay var. melanocarpa, iv. 68, 
Mespilus axillaris, iv. 117, 
Mespilus berberifolia, iv. 93- 
Mespilus Bosciana, iv. 92, 
Mespilus Calpodendron^ iv. 101, 
Mespilus Canadensis, iv, 127. 
Mespilus Canadensis^ var. cordata, iv, 127, 
■ Mespilus Canadensis, var. obovalis, iv, 128, 
Mespilus Canadensis, var. oUgocarpa, iv- 126. 
Mespilus Canadensis, var. rotundifolia, iv. 129. 
Mespilus Caroliniana, iv, 113, 
Mespilus coccinea, iv, 95, 99, 
Mespilus coccinea, ^ pubescens, iv. 99, 
Mespilus coccinea, var. viridis, iv, 95, 
Mespilus corallina, iv, 107, 
? Mespilus corallina, xiii, 139, 
Mespilus cordata, iv. 107- 
Mespilus cornifolia, iv- 103, 
Mespilus Crus-galli, iv. 91. 
Mespilus Crus-galli, var- pyracanthifoliay iv, 

92 ; xiii, 39. 
Mespilus Crus-galli, var. salicifoUa, iv. 92, 
Mespilus cuneifolia, iv. 91, 103, 
Mespilus cuneiformis, iv. 103, 
Mespilus elliptica, iv, 92, 114, 
Mespilus flahellata, iv, 95. 
Mespilus flava, iv. 113. 
Mespilus flexispina, iv. 113, 117, 
Mespilus fiexuosa, iv, 117, 
Mespilus Fontanesiana^ iv, 92, 
Mespilus glandulosa, iv. 96 ; xiii, 134, 
Mespilus kyemalis, iv. 114. 
Mespilus laciniata, iv. 117. 
Mespilus latifolia, iv, 101, 
Mespilus linearis, iv. 92. 
Mespilus lobata, iv. 101, 
Mespilus lucida, iv, 91- 
Mespilns lucida, var. angustifolia, iv, 92. 
Mespilus maxima, iv. 95, 
Mespilus Michanxii, iv. 114, 
Mespilus nivea, iv. 127.- 
Mespilus odorata, iv. 95 ; xiii. 147. 
Mespilus ovalifolia, iv. 92, 
Mespilus Oxyacantha aurea, iv. 117. 
Mespilus parvifolia, iv. 117, 
Mespilus Pheenopyrum, iv. 107, 



Mespilus populifoliay iv, 97. 

Mespilus pruinosay xiii. 61. 

Mespilus prunellifolia^ iv. 92, 

Mespilus prunif alia y iv. 92. 

Mespilus pubescenSf iv- 99. 

Mespilus punctata, iv. 103. 

Mespilus pyrifolia^ iv. 101, 103. 

Mespilus rivularisy iv. 87. 

Mespilus rotundifoliai iv. 95 ; xiii. 134. 

Mespilus salicifolia, iv, 92, 

Mespilus sanguinea, iv, 96, 

Mespilus spathulata, Iv, 105. 

Mespilus stipulosa^ iv. 84. 

Mespilus succulenta, xiii. 140, 

Mespilus tilimfolia^ iv. 99- 

Mespilus tomentosa, iv. lOlj 117. 

Mespilus turbinata, iv. 113, 

Mespilus uniflora, iv- 117, 

Mespilus unilateralisy iv. 117, 

Mespilus viridisy xiii. 61- 

Mespilus Watsoniana^ iv- 91, 

Mespilus Wendlandiiy iv. 95, 

Mespilus xanthocarpay iv. 117. 

Mesquite, iii. 101 ; xiii. 15. 

Mesquite, Screw-pod, iii. 107, 

MetagoniUj v. 115. 

Metagonia ovata^ v. 117. 

Metasphteria cavernosa, x. 150. 

Metopium, iii, 11, 14. 

MetopiuTRy iii. 7. 

Metopium Linnsei, iii. 13. 

Metopium Linnmiy var- Oxymetopium^ iii. 13, 

Mexican Bald Cypress, x, 150, 

Mexican Cherry-tree, iv. 46. 

Mexican Fir, xii. 97. 

Mexican Mulberry, vii. 83- 

Mexican species of Finns, xi. 5. 

Michaux, Andr^, i. 58. 

Michaux, Frangois Andr^, xi. 155. 

Michauxia sessilis^ i. 45- 

Michelia, i, 2, 

Micracis hirtella, vii. 20- 

MicrocerasuSj iv. 7, 8- 

Microjamhosay v- 39. 

Micromeles, iv. 67. 

MicTomelesy iv, 67- 

Mlcropeuce, xii. 60. 

Microptelea, vii. 40. 

Micropteleay vii. 39, 

Microptelea parvifoliay vii, 41- 

Microsphsera Alni, v, 65, 95 ; ix. 70- 

Microsphtera elevata, vi, 84. 

Microsph^ra erlneophila, ix, 25, 

Microsphsera querciua, viii, 13, 

Microsplijera Kavenelli, iii. 74- 

Microsphtera Vaccinii, v. 117. 

Microstroma Juglandis, vii. 117, 134, 

Microtinus, v. 93. 

MicrotinuSy v. 93- 

Miller, Philip, i. 38. 

Mimosa, iii. 113, 

Mimosa bicepsy iii. Ill, 

Mimosa Cumanay iii, 101, 

Mimosa Farnesianay iii, 119- 

Mimosa frondosay iii. 111. 

Mimosa furcatay iii. 101. 

Mimosa glandulosay iii. 109. 

Mimosa glauca, iii. 111. 

Mimosa julifloray iii. 101, 

Mimosa Icevigata^ iii. 101. 

Mimosa latisiliquay iii. 129, 
Mimosa leucocephala, iii. 111. 
Mimosa pallida^ iii- 101- 
Mimosa pedunculata, iii- 119. 

Mimosa roseay iii, 133, 
Mimosa salinarumy iii. 101, 
Mimosa scorpioidesy iii. 119- 
Mimosa tortuosay xiii, 19, 

Mimosa Unguis-caiiy iii. 133. 
Mimusops, V. 181. 
Mimusops Ealata, v. 182, 
Mimusops Balota^ v. 182, 
Mimusops Brownianay v. 182. 
Mimusops dissecta, v. 182, 183- 

Mimusops, economic properties of, v, 182, 
Mimusops Elengi, v- 182, 

Mimusops Floridanay v. 183. 

f Mimusops glohosay v. 182- 

Mimusops hexandra, v. 182. 

Mimusops Hookeriy v, 182. 

Mimusops Indicay v, 182. 

Mimusops Kauki, v, 182, 

Mimusops Kaukiy var. Brownianay v. 182- 

Mimusops parviflora, v. 182. 

Mimusops Sieberi, v, 183. 

Miner Hum, iv. 20, 24. 

Minnetonka Plum, iv. 20, 

Miraculous Berry, v, 164. 

Missouri Apricot Plum, iv. 24. 

Mistletoes on Juniperus, x. 73. 

Mocinna, xiv, 1. 

Mock Orange, iv, 49. 

Mockernut, vii. 161. 

Mohr, Charles, iv. 90 ; xiii. 25. 

Mohriuy vi, 19, 

Mohria Carolinay vi, 21. 

Mohria diptera, vi. 23. 

Mohria parvifloray vi, 19- 

Mohrodendron, vi, 19. 

Mohrodendron Carolluum, vi. 21. 

Mohrodendrou dipterum, vi. 23, 

Mohrodendron, fungal enemies of, vi. 20. 

Mohrodendron, insect enemies of, vi. 20. 

Mohrodendron parviflorum, vi. 19- 

Momi, xii, 101. 

Momisia, vii. 63. 

Momisia, vii. 63. 

Momisia aculeatay vii. 64. 

Momisia EJirenbergianay vii. 64. 

Monella caryella, vii 134. 

Mongeziay vi. 13. 

Monilia fructigeua, iv. 12, 

Monilia Linhartiana, iv, 12. 

MonilistuSy ix. 151, 

Monmeria, iii, 46, 

Monodaphnus bardus, vi, 27,' 

Monohammus confasor, xi. 11 ; xii, 25^ 

Monohammus dentator, xii. 25. 

Monohammus marmoratus, xi. 11. 

Monohammus scutellatus, xi, 11- 

Monohammus titillator^ xi. 11. 

Monterey Cypress, x, 103. 

Monterey Pine, xi, 103. 

Montezuma, Cypress of, x. 150. 

Moor Birch, ix, 47-. 

Moose-wood, ii. 85. 

MoraceEB, vii- 75. ' 

Morella, ix. 83. 

MorellQy ix. 83- 

Morello Cherry, iv. 9. 

Morelosiay vi. 75. 

Moronobea coccinea, iii. 14. 

MoropThorumy vii. 75. 

Morus, vii. 75. 

Morus alba, vii. 76. 

Morus alba, introduction into the United 

States, vii. 76, 
Morus alba Tatarica, vii- 76- 

MoTUS CanadensiSy vii. 79- 

Morus celtidifolia, vii. 83. 

Morus Constantinopolitanay vii, 76. 

Morus, fungal diseases of, vii. 77, 

Morus Indica, vii. 77. 

Morus, insect enemies of, vii. 77- 

Morus laevigata, vii, 77, 

Morus, medical properties of, vii. 77- 

Morus Mexicanay vii. 83. 

Morus microphyllay vii. 83, 

Morus multieaulis, cultivation of, vii, 76. 

Morus nigra, vii. 77, 

Morus nigra, uses of, vii. 77- 

Morus reticulata^ vii. 79. 

Morus ripariay vii. 79. 

Morus rubra, vii. 79 ; xiv. 103. 

Morus ruhray var, Jieterophyllay vii. 79. 

Morus ruhray var, incisa^ vii, 79, 

Morus ruhray var, pallida, vii. 79. 

Morus ruhray var. purpurea, vii- 79. 

Morus ruhray var. tomentosay vii. 79. 

Morus scahray vii, 79. 

Morus serrata, vii, 77. 

Morus Tataricay vii. 76. 

Morus tomentosay vii. 79. 

Mossy Cup Oak, viii. 43. 

Moth, Nun, xii. 24, 

Mother-cloves, v. 41. 

Mountain Ash, iv. 69, 79, 81 ; vi. 47- 

Mountain Cherry, iv- 26. 

Mountain Elm, vii. 52, 

Mountain Evergreen Cherry, iv, 54- 

Mountain Hemlock, xii. 77. 

Mountain Laurel, v. 139 ; vii. 21, 

Mountain Magnolia, i. 7, 15. 

Mountain Mahogany, iv, 63, 65 ; xiii. 27. 

Mountain Manchineel, iii. 14. 

Mountain Maple, ii. 83. 

Mountain White Oak, viii, 79, 

Muehlenberg, Cotthilf Heinrich, ii. 56. 

Muehlenbergia, ii, hQ, 

Mulberry, vii. 83. 

Mulberry, Black, vii. 77. 

Mulberry, Mexican, vii, 83. 

Mulberry, Ked, vii, 79, 

Mulberry, Russian, vii, 76. 

Mulberry, White, vii. 76. 
Murieay v. 181, 

Murray, Andrew, xi. 93- 
Myginda, ii. 13. 
Myginda integrifoliay ii, 14, 29. 
Myginda latifoliay ii. 14, 
Myginda latifoliay var. ii, 14. 
Myginda pallens^ ii, 14- 
Mylocarium, ii, 5, 
Mylocarium Hgustrinum, ii. 7. 
Myrcia f Balbisianay v. 32. 
Myrciariay v. 39. 
Myriea, ix. 83. 
Myrica alteruy ix. 87- 
Myrica arguta, ix. 85. 
Myrica argutay ^ macrocarpa^ ix. 85. 
Myrica arguta, y tinctoria, ix. 85. 
Myrica arguta, S Peruvianay ix. 85. 
Myrica asplenifolia^ ix. 84. 
Myrica Brahanticay ix. 84, 
Myrica Californica, ix. 93- 
Myrica Caracasana, ix, 85. 
Myrica Carollniensis, is. 84, 
Myrica Carolinensis, ix, 87, 
Myrica cerifera, ix. 87 ; xiv. 104. 
Myrica cerifera, ix, 84- 
? Myrica cerifera humilisy ix, 84. 
Myrica cerifera^ a angustifolia, ix. 87, 



Myrica cerifera^ a. arhorescens^ ix. 87. 

Myrica cerifera^ 3, ix. 84, 87, 88, 

Myrica cerifera^ j8 latifolia^ ix. 84. 

Myrica cerifera^ jS media^ ix, 84, 

Myrica cerifera/'y pumila, ix, 88. 

Myrica Comptoniaj ix. 84. 

Myrica cordifolia, ix. 85. 

Myrica Farquhariana, ix. 86. 

Myrica Faya, ix. 85. 

Myrica, fuDgal diseases of, ix. 86. 

Myrica Gale, ix, 84. 

Myrica Gale, ix. 84. 

Myrica Gale, economic properties of, ix. 84. 

Myrica Gale, medical properties of, ix. 84. 

Myrica Gale, jS tomentosa, ix, 84. 

Myrica Gale, y Portugalensis, ix. 84. 

Myrica Hartwegi, ix- 84. 

Myrica lieterophyllay ix. 87. 

Myrica, hybrids of, ix, 94, 

Myrica inodora, ix. 91. 

Myrica integrifolia, ix. 86. 

? Myrica Laureola, ix. 91- 

Myrica macrocarpa, ix. 85, 87. 

? Myrica macrocarpa, j3 angustifolia, is. 87, . 

Myrica, medical properties of, ix, 85- 

Myrica Nagi, ix. 86. 

Myrica ohovata, ix. 91- 

Myrica palustris, ix. 84, 

Myrica Pennsylvanica^ ix. 84. 

Myrica peregrina, ix. 84. 

Myrica peregrina, medieal properties of, ix, 

84. ' - 

Myrica pubeseeus, ix. 85. 
Myrica pusilla^ ix. 88, 
Myrica rubra, ix. 86- 
Myrica sapida, ix. 86. 
Myrica sessilifolia, ix. 84, 88. 
Myrica sessilifolia, var, latifolia, ix. 84. 
Myrica wax, ix. 85. 

MYRlCACEiE, ix- 83. 

Myrobalans, v. 20, 
Myrobalans, beleric, v. 20. . 
Myrobalans, chebnlic, v. 20, 
Myrobalanus, v. 19. 
Myrsineace^, v. 151. 
Myrtace^, v. 31, 
Myrtle, Australian, ix. 23. 
Myrtle, Wax, ix. 87, 91, 93, 
Myrtus, v. 31. 
Myrtus axillaris, v. 43. 
Myrtus Brasiliana, v. 41. 
Myrtus huxifolia^ v, 43. 
Myrtus Caryophyllus, y, 40, 
Myrtus ChytracuUa, v. 36- 
Myrtus dichotoma, v. 32. 
Myrtus Jarabos, v. 41. 
Myrtus Monticola, y- 45. 
Myrtus Poireti, v. 43. 
Myrtus procera, y. 47. 
Myrtu^s Willdenowii^ y. 41. 
Myrtus Zuzygium^ y. 36- 
Mytilaspis piuifoli^e, xi. 11. 
Mytilaspis pomicorticis, iY. 70, 
Myxosporium nitidum, y. 65- 

N^maspora aurea, ix, 41, 
Nfemaspora chrysosperma, ix. 156. 
Nffimaspora crocea, ix. 24- 
Naked-wood, ii, 49 ; y, 32, 
Nanny berry, y. 96, 
Narrow-leaved Cottonwood, ix, 171, 
Nauclea tetrandra^ xIy, 25. 
Kaval stores, xi. 154. 
Naval Timber Pine, xi. 113- 

N'ecalisiis, vii. 91. 

Necklace Poplar, ix, 181. 

Nectandra coriacea, Yii. 11- 

Nectandra sanguinea, vii. 11. 

Nectandra Willdenoviana, vii. 11, 

Nectar glands of Yucca, x. 3, 

Nectolis, ix. 95, 

Nectopix, ix. 95. 

Nectria balsamea, xii. 101- 

Nectria cucurbitula, xi- 12. 

Nectria depauperata, x. 5. 

Nectria UmbellulariEe, vii. 20, 

Nectusion, ix. 95, 

N^e, Louis, viix. 25- 

Neea, viii- 25- 

Negundium, ii- 79. 

Negundium fraxinifolium, ii. Ill, 

Negundo, ii. 79. 

Negundo aceroides, ii. Ill, 112. 

Negundo aceroides^ var. Califomicurrif ii. 112. 

Negundo Californicum, ii. Ill, 112, 

Negundo fraxinifoliumy ii- 111. 

Negundo lobatum, ii. 111. 

Negundo Mexicanum^ ii. 111. 

Negundo Negundo, ii- 111. 

Negundo trifoliatum, ii. 111. 

Nematus Erichsonii, xii. 5, 

Nematus similaris, iii. 38. 

Nematus ventralis, ix. 101, 

NemodaphnCy vii. 9. 

Neoclytus Caprea, vi. 27, 

Neomorphe, vii. 92, 

Nephoteryx Zimmerraanni, xi. 11, 

Nephritic- tree, iii. 134. 

Nepticula amelancliierella, iv- 126, 

Nepticula carytefoliella, vii. 133. 

Nepticula Clemensella, vii, 101. 

Nepticula cratsegifoliella, iv. 84. 

Nepticula juglandifoliella, vii, 116- 

Nepticula maximella, vii. 101. 

Nepticula nyssjeella, v. 74. 

Nepticula ostryEcfoliella, ix. 32, 

Nepticula platanella, vii. 101, 

Nepticula ptele^eella, i. 77, 

Nestylix, ix. 95. 

Net tie -tree, vii. 69. 

Neurodesia, v. 116, 

Neuwied, Prinz von, ix. 138, 

Newberry, John Strong, vi- 39, 

Newberrya, vi. 40- 

Neweastle Thorn, iv. 91, 

New Jersey Tea, ii. 42. 

New Mexican Cherry-tree, iv. 46, 

New Zealand Black Beech, ix. 23- 

New Zealand Silver Beech, ix. 23, 

Nitidul^e, ix. 97. 

Niveas, ix, 97. 

Nobiles, xii. 97- 

Noltia, vi. 1- 

Nopalea cochenillifer, xiv, 11, 

Nordmann Fir, xii. 98. 

Norway Pine, xi, 67. 

Norway Spruce, xii. 24. 

Nothofagus, ix. 22, 

NotJiofagus, ix. 21. 

Nummularia Clypeus, viii. 12, 

Nuinmularia discreta, iv, 70, 

Nummularia microplaca, vii. 2, 

Nummularia punctulata, viii, 12. ■ 

Nun moth, xii. 24. 

Nussbaumer nut, the, vii. 157, 

Nut Pine, xi. 43, 47, 51, 55, 

Nut-galls, viii. 9. 

Nutmeg, California, x. 59- 

Nutmeg Hickory, vii. 145. 

Nuttall, Thomas, ii. 34- 
Nuttallia, ii. 34, 
Nux^ vii, 117, 
Nyctaginace^, vi. 109, 
Nyctanthes hirsuta, v. 111, 
Nycterisition, v. 159. 
Nyssa, v. 73, 

Nyssa angulisans, v. 83, 

Nyssa angulosa, v. 83, 

Nyssa aquatica, y. 83 ; xiv. 101. 

Nyssa aquatica, v. 75, 76, 83, 

Nyssa arborea, v. 73. 

Nyssa hifiora, v. 76, 

Nyssa Canadensis, v, 75, 

Nyssa candicans, v. 79, 

Nyssa candicans, var. grandidentata, v, 83. 

Nyssa capitata, v. 79, ■ 

Nyssa Caroliniana, v. 75- 

Nyssa coccinea, v. 79. 

Nyssa denticulata, v. 83. 

Nyssa, fungal enemies of, v. 74. 

Nyssa grandidentata, v. 83. 

Nyssa, insect enemies of, v, 74. 

Nyssa integrifoUa, v. 75, 

Nyssa montana, v. 79. 

Nyssa multijiora, v. 75. 

Nyssa muUiJlora, var. sylvatica, v. 75- 

Nyssa Ogeche, v. 79 ; xiv, 101. 

Nyssa palustris, v, 83, 

Nyssa sessilijlora, v. 73. 

Nyssa sylvatica, v, 75. 

Nyssa sylvatica, var. biflora, y, 76. 

Nyssa tomentosa, v. 79, 83, 

Nyssa unijiora, v. 83, 

Nyssa viUosa, v. 75, 

Oak-apple, viii. 12. 

Oak, Basket, viii. 67. 

Oak, Bear, viii. 155. 

Oak, Black, viii. 103, 137, 14L 

Oak, Blue, viii. 79, 

Oak, Bur, viii, 43, 

Oak, Chestnut, viii. 51, 55, 183. 

Oak, Chinquapin, viii. 56, 59. 

Oak, Cork, viii. 8. 

Oak, Cow, viii, 67. 

Oak, David's, viii, 10, 

Oak, Dtick, viii. 166, 

Oak, Evergreen White, viii. 83, 

Oak galls, viii. 9, 

Oak, Hickory, viiL 107. 

Oak, Jack, viii. 161, 

Oak kermes, viii. 10, 

Oak, Laurel, viii. 175, 

Oak, Live, viii. 99, 105, 111, 119. 

Oak, Maul, viii. 105- 

Oak, Mossy Cup, viii. 43- 

Oak, Mountain White, viii- 79. 

Oak of Mamre, viii- 10- 

Oak, Overcup, viii. 47. 

Oak, Pin, viii, 51, 56, 151, 181, 

Oak, Possum, viii. 166. 

Oak, Post, viii. 37. 

Oak, Punk, viii. 166, 

Oak, Quercitron, viii- 139. 

Oak, Eed, viii. 125, 129 ; xiv. 51. 

Oak, Eoek, viii. 56. 

Oak, Kock Chestnut, viii. 61. 

Oak, Running, viii. 115. 

Oak, Saul's, viii. 18. 

Oak, Scarlet, viii. 133. 

Oak, Scrub, viii. 75, 95, 123, 145, 155. 

Oak, Shin, viii, 27, 33, 75. 



Oak, Shingle, viii, 175. 

Oak, Spanish, viii, 147, 

Oak, Swamp Spanish, viii. 151 ; xiv. 51. 

Oat, Swamp White, yili. 47, 63. 

Oak, Tan Bark, viii, 183. 

Oak, the Fulham, viii. 7. 

Oak, the Lucombe, viii. 7. 

Oak, the Wadsworth, viii. 63, 

Oak, Turkey, viii, 143. 

Oak, Upland Willow, viii. 172. 

Oak, Valley, viii. 23. 

Oak, Valonia, viii. 8- 

Oak, Water, viii. 165, 169, 181. 

Oak, White, viii. 16, 23, 29, 33, 71, 87, 89- 

Oak, Willow, viii. 179. 

Oak, Yellow, viii. 55, 127, 139. 

Oak, Yellow-bark, viii. 137. 

Oaks, American, cultivated In Europe, viii. 

Ochroxylum^ i. 65. 

Ooneria dispar, i. 51 ; ii. 54. 
Ocotea, vii. 9, 
Ocotea bullata, vii. 10- 
Ocotea Catesbyana, vii. 11. 
Ocotea, economic uses of, vii. 10. 
Ocotea fostens, vii. 10. 
Ocotea Guianensis, vii. 10. 
Ocotea opifera, vii. 10, 

Ocotea sericeay vii. 10, 
Ocotea splendens, vii. 10. 
Oetandrse, ix. 96. 

Octimia^ ix. 151, 
Odontota dorsalls, iii, 38, 
(Edemasia concinna, iv, 70- 

(Enocarpus frigiduSy s, 30. 

(Enocarpus regius^ x. 31- 

(Enocarpus Sancona, x, 30. 

Ogeechee Lime, v- 79, 

Obio Buckeye, ii. 55. 

Oidium. radiosum, ix, 156, 

Oiketicus Abbotii, x. 150. 

Oil, Almond, iv. 9, 10. 

Oil, Apricot, iv. 10. 

Oil, Bircb-bark, ix, 47. 

Oil of Bircb, ix. 51, 

Oil of cloves, V, 41. 

Oil of Hemlock, xii. 65, 

Oil of Ked Cedar, x. 95. 

Oil of Sassafras, vii, 14- -^ 

Oil of turpentine, xi, 3, 9. 

Oil of Umbellularia, vii. 20. 

Oil, savin, x. 72. 

Oilnut, vii, 118. 

OiosodiXf ix, 95- 

Old Field Birch, ix- 56. 

Old Field Pine, xi. Ill, 

Old Man's Beard, vi. 60. 

Olea Americana^ vi. 65- 

Oleafragrans, vi, 63. 

Olea ilicifoliay vi. 63, 

Oleace^, vi, 25 ; xiy. 33. 

Oleum Juniperi, x, 72, 

Olive, California, vii, 21. 

Olive-tree, Black, v. 21, 

OIney, Stephen Thayer, iii. 47. 

Olneya, iii. 47, 

Olneya Tesota^ iii. 49. 

OluntoSj vii. 91. 

Olyntkiay v, 39, 

Omorika, xii. 20, 23, 

Oncideres cingulatus, vii, 133- 

Onygena faginea, ix. 25. 

Oospora Abietum^ xii. 84- 

Opa^ V- 39. 

Opulus, V, 93, 

Opulusy V. 93, 

Opuntia, xiv. 9. 

Opuntia arborescensy xiv, 17, 

Opuntia cockineliferaj xiv, 11, 

Opuntia Dillenii, xiv. 13. 

Opuntia Dillenii, economic uses of, xiv. 13. 

Opuntia Ficus-Indiea, xiv, 12. 

Opuntia, fruit of as food, xiv. 12, 

Opuntia fulgens, xiv. 15. 

Opuntia fulgida, xiv. 15. 

Opuntia fulgida mamillata, xiv. 16. 

Opuntia Galapageia, xiv. 11. 

Opuntia horrida, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia intermedia, xiv, 12, 

Opuntia Italica, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia mamillata^ xiv- 16. 

Opuntia maritima^ xiv. 12. 

Opuntia, medical uses of, xiv. 13, 

Opuntia Opuntia, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia spinosior, xiv. 17, 

Opuntia spinosior, var, Neo-Mexicana, xiv. 18 

Opuntia Tuna, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia Tuna, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia versicolor, xiv. 19. 

Opuntia vulgaris^ xiv. 12. 

Opuntia vulgaris^ j8 nana, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia Whipplei, ^ spinosior, xiv. 17- 

Orange, Mock, iv. 49. 

Orange, Osage, vii. 89. 

Orange, Wild, iv. 49. 

Orchidocarpum, i. 21. 

Orchidocarpum arietinumy i, 23, 
Oregon Cedar, x. 120. 
Oregon Crab-apple, iv. 77- 
Oregon Pine, xii, 90- 
Oreilles des Indes, iii. 9, 
Oreinotinus, v, 93, 
OreinotinuSy v. 93. 
Oreodapbne, vii. 10, 
OrmdapTmey vii. 9, 
Oreodaphne bullata^ vii. 10. 
Oreodaphne Californica, vii, 21. 
Oreodaphne fcetenSy vii. 10, 
Oreodaphne Guianensis, vii. 10- 
Oreodaphne opifera, vii, 10- 
Oreodaphne sericea, vii- 10. 
Oreodaphne splendens, vii. 10, 

Oreodaphne, subgen. Umbellularia, vii. 19, 
Oreodoxa, x. 29, 

Oreodoxa, economic properties of, x, 30, 
Oreodoxa frigida, x. 30- 

Oreodoxa oleraeea, x. 30, 

Oreodoxa oleraeea (?), x, 31, 

Oreodoxa regia, x. 31 ; xiv. 105- 

Oreodoxa Sancona, x, 30. 

Oreoptelea, vii. 40, 

Orgyia inornata, x. 150. 

Orgyia leucostigma, i. 51 ; vii. 41, 

Oriental Liquidambar, v. 7. 

Ornanthes, vi. 25- 

Ornix crat^egifoliella, iv. 84. 

Ornix quadripuuctella, iv. 126- 

Ornus, vi. 26. 

Ornus, vi. 25- 

Ornus dipetala^ vi- 31. 

Ornus Europcea, vi. 26. 

Ornus Jlorihunda, vi. 27. 

Ornus rotundifolia, vi. 26. 

Ornus urophylla, vi. 27, 

Osage Orange, vii, 89- 

Osier holts, ix. 100, 

Osmanthus, vi, 63, 

Osmantbus Americanus, vi, 65. 


Osmanthus Aquifolium, vi. 63, 
Osmanthus, economic uses of, vi- 63, 
Osmanthus fragrans, vi. 63. 
Osmanthus ilicifoliusy vi. 63, 
Osmothamnus, v. 143. 
Osmothamnus, v, 143, 
Ostrya, ix. 31, 

Ostrya carpinifoliay ix, 32. ■ 

Ostrya, economic properties of, ix. 32. 

Ostrya, fungal diseases of, ix. 32, 

Ostrya, insect enemies of, ix, 32. 

Ostrya Italica, ix. 32. 

Ostrya Japonica, ix. 32. 

Ostrya Knowltoni, ix, 37. 

Ostrya Mandshurica, ix. 32. 

Ostrya Ostrya, ix. 32. 

Ostrya Ostrya, ix. 34, 

Ostrya Yirginiana, ix. 34 ; xiv, 104- 

Ostrya Virginica, ix, 32, 34, 

Ostrya Virginica^ a glandulosa, ix. 34. 

Ostrya Virginica, ^ eglandulosa, ix. 34. . 

Ostrya vulgaris, ix, 32. 

Overcup Oak, viii. 47. 

Oxyacantha, iv, 83, 

Oxycedrus, x. 70, 

Oxycoccin, v. 117. 

Oxycoccus, V. 116. 

Oxy coccus, V, 115* 

Oxycoccus macrocarpuSf v, 116. 

Oxycoccus palustris, v, 116, 

Oxycoccus palustriSf var, (?) macrocarpuSy y. 

Oxycoccus vulgaris^ v. 116, 

Oxydendrum, v- 133, 

Oxydendrum arboreum, v. 135 ; xiv, 102. 

Paean, vii, 134. 
Pachylobius picivorus, xi, 11, 
Pachypsylla Celtidis-gemma, vii. 64, 
Pachypsylla Celtidis-mamma, vii, 64. 
Pachypsylla Celtidis-vesiculum, vii. 64. 
Pachypsylla venusta, vii. 64. 
Padus, iv, 8. 
Padus, iv, 7, 8, 
Padus Carolina^ iv, 49. 
Padus Caroliniana^ iv- 49- 
Padus cartilaginea, iv, 45. 
Padus demissa, iv. 42. 

Padus densiflora^ iv, 41. 
Padus Jimbriata, iv, 41, 
Padus hirsuta, iv. 41, 
Padus micrantka, iv, 41. 
Padus ohlonga, iv, 41. 
Padus obovata, iv, 41- 
Padus rubra, iv. 41, 
Padus serotina, iv, 45, 

Padus Virginiana, iv. 45. 
Palffiomorphe, vii. 92. 
Paleacrita vernata, vii, 41. 
PaliuruSy ii, 41, 47. 
Pallaviay vi, 109- 
Pallavia aculeata, vi, 110. 
Palm, Cabbage, x. 30, 
Palm, Desert, x. 47. 
Palm, Fan, x, 47. 
Palm, Royal, x, 31- 
Palm^, X. 29 ; xiv. 75, 
Palmer, Edward, viii. 106. 
Palmerella, viii- 106. 
Palmetto, x, 43. 
Palmetto brushes, x, 41. 
Palmetto, Cabbage, x, 41. 
Palmetto, Silk-top, x. 51. 
Palmetto, Silver-lop, x, 53. 



Palo Verde, iii, 85, 

Palioria, i- 103. 

Paluray vi. 13. 

Pameaj v, 19. 

Panax. Americanum^ v. 58. 

Panax Ginseng^ v. 58. 

Panax quinquefoliumj v. 58. 

PaniculatEBj vi, 113. 

Panus conehatusj ix, 25. 

Panus dealbatus, yii- 42, 

Panus dorsalis, is. 25. 

Pao Judeu, vi. 110, 

Pao Lepra, vi. 110, 

Papain, xiv. 2, 3- 

Papaw, i. 23 ; xiv. 5. 

Papaya, xiv. 1. 

Papaya Caricay xiv. 5, 

Papaya communis^ xiv. 5. 

Papaya cucumerinaj xiv. 5. 

Papaya edulisj pyriformiSy xiv. 5. 

Papaya edulis x macrocarpa^ xiv. 5- 

Papaya sativa^ xiv- 5, 

Papaya vulgaris, xiv. 5. 

Papayolin, xiv. 3- 

Paper Birch, ix. 57- 

Paper-pulp manufactured from Yucca arbo^ 

rescens, x- 20. 
Paper-shell Hickory nutj Hales', vii. 154. 
Papilio Eurymedon, ii. 36. 
Papilio Troilus, vii- 15. 
Paradigma^ vi. 67- 
Paradise-tree, i. 91. 
Paralea, vi. 1. 
Paralea Guianensis, vi, 3- 
Parasol Acacia, iii. 41. 
Paria aterrima, vii. 116. 
Parkinson, John, iii. 16. 
Parkinsonia, iii. 17, 87, 
Parkinsonia aculeata, iii. 89. 
Parkinsonia aculeata, native country of, iii. 

Parkinsonia Africana, iii, 87. 
Parkinsonia Jtorida, iii, 83. 
Parkinsonia microphylla, iii, 91. 
Parkinsonia microphylla, economic uses of, 

iii. 88. 
ParJdnsonia Texana, iii. 81, 
Parkinsonia Torreyana^ iii. 83, 85. 
Parmentiera alata, vi. 98. 
Parosella^m. 33. 

Parry, Charles Christopher, vii. 130. 
Parryella, vii. 130. 
Parsley Haw, iv. Ill- 
Parsons Plum, iv. 24. 
Pasania, viii. 4. 
Pasania, viii. 1. 
Pasania, buds of, viii- 4. 
Pasania densifiora^ viii. 183. 

Patrima, iii. 59. 

Patterson, Harry Norton, iv. 24. 

Patton Spruce, xii. 77. 
Pa via, ii. 51. 
Pavia hicolor, ii. 59. 
Pavia Californica, ii. 61. 
Pavia carnea, ii. 53. 
Pavia discolor, ii- 60. 
Pavia Jlava, ii, 59. 
Pavia fulva, ii. 59. 
Pavia glabra, ii. 65. 
Pavia hybrida, ii. 60- 
Pavia Indica, ii. 52, 
Pavia lutea, ii. 59. 
Pavia neglecta^ ii. 59. 
Pavia Ohioensis, ii, 65. 

Pavia pallida, ii. 55. 

Pavia rubra, ii. 62. 

Pavia Watsoniana^ ii. 63. 

Paviana Jlava, ii. 59. 

Pawcohiccora, vii. 134- 

Peach, cultivation of, iv. 9. 

Peach, properties of, iv. 10. 

Peach-tree Borer, iv, 11. 

Peach Willow, ix. 111. 

Pear, Alligator, vii. % 

Pear, Avocado, vii. 2. 

Pear-tree, iv. 68. 

Pecan, vii. 137- 

Pecan, Bitter, vii. 149 ; xiv. 43. 

Peireskiopuntia, xiv, 10. 

Pempelia gleditschiella, iii. 74. 

Pemphigus fraxinifolii, vi. 27, 

Pemphigus rhois, iii. 10, 

Pemphigus ulmifusus, vii, 41, 

PentandiEe, ix. 96, 

Pentaptera, v. 19. 

Peopatella, Cypress of, x. 150. 

Pepperidge, v. 75. 

Perfonon laurifolium, ii- 37, 39. 

Periderminm Ahietinum, 2x1- 26, 

Peridermium Abietiimm, var, decolorans, xii. 

Peridermium balsameum, xii. 101. 
Peridermium Cerebrum, xi. 12, 
Peridermium columnare, xii. 61. 
Peridermium Harknessii, xi, 12, 
Peridermium oblongisporum, xi. 12, 
Peridermium Peckii, xii. 61, 
Peridermium Pini, xi, 12- 
Peridermium Strobi, xi. 12. 
Perry, manufacture of, iv, 69. 
Persea, vii. 1. 
Persea argentea, vii. 10. 
Persea Borbonia, vii- 4. 
Persea CarolinensiSj vii. 4. 
Persea Carolinensis, a, vii. 7, 
Persea Carolinensis, a glabriuscula, vii. 4, 
Persea Carolinensis, ^ pubescens, vii. 7. 
Persea Carolinensis, N^v.palustris, vii. 7. 
Persea Catesbyana, vii- 11, 
Persea f miens, vii. 10. 
Persea, fungal diseases of, vii, 2, 
Persea gratissima, vii. 2. 
Persea Indica, L 101 ; vii. 2. 
Persea Lingue, vii, 2. 
Persea longipeda, iv, 1. 
Persea Persea^ vii. 2. 

Persea Persea, cultivation and uses of, vii. 2. 
Persea pubescens, vii. 7- 
Persea Sassafras, vii. 17. 
Persica, iv. 7. 
Persimmon, vi. 7. 
Persimmon, Black, vi. 11, 
Persimmon, Japanese, vi. 4. 
Persimon, vi. 1. 
Perula, vii. 91. 
Pestalozzia funerea, x, 124. 
Petalanihera, vii. 9- 
Petre, Robert James, Lord, i. 8. 
Peuplier Suisse, ix. 181- 
Pezicula carpinea, ix. 41. 

Peziza crocea, xii. 101. 

Phacidium crustaceum, xi. 12. 
Phacidium Pini, xi. 12. 
Pheenopyrum, iv. 83. 
Phamopyrum aceri/oUum, iv. 107. 
PTimnopyrum arborescens, iv. 109. 
Phcenopyrum Carolinianum^ iv, 113. 
PhcenopyruTn coccineuvi, iv. 95. 

? PTtcEnopyrum corallinum, xiii, 139- 
Phcenopyrum cordatum, iv. 107. 
Phmnopyrum ellipticum, iv, 114, 
PhcEnopy7'um parvi/olium, iv. 117. 
Phcenopyrum populifolium, iv. 97. 
Phmnopyrum pruinosum, xiii. 61. 
Phmnopyrum spathulatum, iv, 105, 
Phaenopyrum submllosum, iv. 99. 
Phmnopyrum unijlorum, iv. 117. 
PJicenopyrum Virginicum, iv. 114. 
Ph(Bnopyru7a Wendlandii, iv, 95. 
Phalacros, iv, 83, 
Phalacros cordatus, iv. 107. 
Pharmacosycea, vii. 91. 
Phegos, ix. 21, 
? Pklebolithis, v- 181. 
Phlehia radiata, ix. 25, 
Phleospora Aceris, ii, 81. 
Phleospora Celtidts, vii. 65. 
Phleospora Mori, vii. 77. 
Phleospora Ulmi, vii. 42, 
Phlceosinus cristatus, x, 100» 
PhlceosinuB dentatus, x. 72. 
Phoma minima, ii. 81, 
Phoradendron juniperinum, x. 73. 
Phorodon Humuli, iv. 11. 
Photinia arhutifolia, iv. 123. 
Photinia salicifolia, iv. 123. 
Phryganidia Californica, viii. 11, 112. 
Phycis rubrifasciella, vii. 133. 
Phylicifoliai, ix. 96- 

Pbyllaehora scapincola, x. 5. 

Phyllactinia guttata, v. 65- 

Phyllactiiiia suffulta, vi. 84 ; ix, 11. 

Phyllocalyx, v. 39. 

Phyllocnistis liquidambarisella, v. 9. 

Phyllocnistis liriodendrella, i, 18. 

Phyllocnistis magnoliBeella, i, 2. 

Phyllocnistis populiella, ix. 156. 

Phyllcecus integer, ix, 101. 

Phyllosticta acericola, ii. 81, 

Phyllosticta Caryse, vii. 134. 

Phyllosticta Celtidis, vii- 65. 

Phyllosticta Hamamelidis, v. 2. 

Phyllosticta micropunctata, vii, 2- 

Phyllosticta Palmetto, x. 38. 

Phyllosticta Saccardoi, v. 147- 

Phyllosticta Sassafras, vii. 15, 

Phyllosticta sphgeropsoidea, ii. 64. 

Phyllothyrsus, ix. 68, 

Phylloxera eary^caulis, vii. 133. 

Phylloxera Castane£e, ix, 10. 

Pkyteuma, v. 85. 

Phytoptus Fraxini, vi. 27. 

Phytoptus Thuyse, x. 124. 

Phytoptus Ulmi, vii. 42. 

Picea, xii. 19. 

Picea, xii. 95. 

Picea Abies, xii. 20, 23. 

Picea Abies, androgynous flowers of, xii, 

Picea Abies, economic properties of, xii, 23, 

Picea Abies medioxima, xii. 23. 
Picea Abies viminalis, xii. 24. 
Picea Abies virgata, xii. 24. 
Picea Abies, var. inverta, xii, 24, 
Picea Abies, var. monstrosa, xii. 24. 
Picea Abies, var. pendula, xii. 24. 
Picea Abies, var, pyramidalis^ xii. 24. 
Picea Abies, var, strigosa, xii. 24. 
Picea acutissima, xii, 33- 
Picea Ajanensis, xii. 21, 55. 
Picea Ajanensis, a genuina, xii. 21, 



Picea AJanensisy (3 subintegerrima, xil, 21, 
Picea AjanensiSy var. microspermay xii, 21. 
Picea albay xii. 37, 
Picea alba ccerulea^ xii, 40, 
Picea alha^ var. arctica^ xii. 39. 
Picea Alcockiana, xii. 21. 
Picea Alcoquiana^ xii, 21. 
Picea amabiliSj xii, 113, 125- 
Picea ApoUiniSf xii, 99. 
Picea halsamea^ xii, 107- 
Picea halsamea, var, longifoliay xii. 107- - 
Ac6a lalsamiferay xii. 107. 
Picea bicolorj xii, 20, 21. 
Picea hifolia, xii. 113. 
Picea brachypTiylla^ xii, 102* 
Picea hracteata, xii. 129. 
Picea brevifoliay xii. 28. 
Pzcea brevifolia, var. semiprostrata, xii. 28, 
Picea Breweriana, xii. 51, 
? Picea Californica^ xii. 77. 
Picea Canadensis, xii. 37 ; xiv. 106, 
Picea Canadensis, xiL 63, 
Picea Canadensis, androgynous flowers of, 
xii, 20. 

Picea Canadensis glaaca, xii. 40. 

Picea Cepkalonica, xii, 99. 

Picea Cilicica^ xii. 98, 

Picea cceruleay xii, 40- 

Picea Columbiana, xii. 43, 44. 

Picea concolor, xii. 121. 

Picea concolor, var, violacea, xii, 121. 

Picea Dougiasiiy xii. 87- 

Picea, economic properties of, xii, 20, 23. 

Picea Engelraanni, xii, 43, 

Picea Ejigelmanni, var. Franciscana, xii. 43. 

Picea excelsa, xii. 23. 

Picea excelsa denudata, xii, 24. 

Picea excelsa, fi medioxima, xii, 24. 

Picea excelsa, ^ viminalis, xii. 24- 

Picea excelsa, var. strigosa, xii. 24, 

Picea excelsa^ var, virgata^ xii- 24- 

Piceafirma^ xii. 101. 

Picea Jirma^ var. A, xii. 102. 

Picea firma^ var. B, xii, 101, 

Picea Fraseri^ xii. 105, 107. 

Picea Fraseri Hudsonia, xii, 109, 

Picea Fraseri Hudsonica^ xii- 109- 

Picea, fungal diseases of, xii, 25- 

Picea glaucescenSf xii, 91, 

Picea Glelmi, xii. 20,21. 

Picea grandiSy xii, 117, 121, 125. 

Picea hirtella, xii, 97. 

Picea Hondoensis, xii, 21, 

Picea, insect enemies of, xii, 25, 

Picea Japonica, xii. 102. 

Picea Jezoensis, xii. 20, 21. 

Picea Khutrow, xii. 22, 

Picea hukunaria, xii. 99. 

Picea lasiocarpa^ xii, 113. 

Picea laxa, xii. 37. 

Picea Lowiana, xii, 121. 

Picea Lowii,.idi. 121, 


Picea magnifica, xii. 137- 
Picea Mariana, xii. 28 ; xiv, 106, 
Picea Mariana, xii, 33. 
Picea Mariana, var. Doumetii, xii, 31. 
Picea Maximowiczii, xii. 25. 
■' Picea Menziesiiy xii, 47, 55. 
Picea Menziesii, var, crispa, xii. 55. 
Picea microsperma, xii, 21. 
Picea montana, xii. 23. 
Picea Morinday xii, 22, 
Picea nigra, xii. 28, 33, 
Picea nigra Doumetii^ xii. 31. 

Picea nigra, a squamea, xii, 28, 

Picea nigra, var. glauca^ xii. 37, 

Picea nigray var. grisea^ xii. 33, 

Picea nigray var. rubra, xii. 33. 

Picea nobilis, xii, 133. 

Picea nobilis (halsamea ?), xii. 134. 

Picea Nordmannianay xii. 98. 

Picea Numidica, xii, 100. 

Picea obovata, xii. 20, 24. 

Picea obovata, var, ^ Schrenckiana, xii. 25. 

Picea Omorika, xii. 20, 22. 

Picea orientalis, xii. 20, 22. 

Picea Parryana, xii. 47. 

Picea Parsonsianay xii. 124, 

Picea pectinata, xii, 100- 

Picea Pichta, xii. 98. 

Picea Pindrowy xii. 98. 

Picea Pinsapo^ xii. 100- 

Picea polita, xii, 21. 

Picea (Pseudotsuga^ nobilis, xii, 133- 

Picea pmigens, xii. 47. 

Picea pungens glauca pendula^ xii. 48- 

Picea pungens, a viridis, xii. 47, 

Picea punyensy ^ glauca, xii- 47. 

Picea pungens, var. Konig Albert von SackseUy 

xii, 48, 
Picea religiosa, xii. 97, 
Picea religiosa glaucescens, xii. 91. 
Picea rubens, xii. 33. 
Picea rubra^ xii. 28, 33- 
Picea rubra pusilla^ xii. 37, 
Picea Schrenckiana, xii. 25, 
Picea Sitebensis, xii. 55. 
Picea Sithmnsis, xii. 55. 
Picea Smithiana, xiL 20, 22. 
f Picea Tiansckanicay xii. 25- 
Picea Torano, xii, 20, 21. 
Picea Veitchi, xii, 101, 
Picea vulgaris, xii. 23. 
Picea vulgarisy var. Altaica^ xii. 25. 
Picea Webbianay xii. 98, 
Picea Withmanniana, xii. 98, 
Pickeringia paniculata, v. 153. 
Picrococcus, v. 115. 
Picrococcus elexiatusy v. 117. 
Picrococcus Floridanus, v. 117. 
Picrococcus stamineus, v. 117. 
Pieridiay v. 129- 
Pieris, V. 130. 
Pierisy v, 129, 

Pieris Menapla, xi. 11 ; xii. 5- 
Pieris ovaUfolia, v. 130. 
Pigeon Cherry, iv. 36. 
Pigeon Plum, vi. 119. 
Pigeon Wood, vi. 111. 
Pignut, vii, 165, 
Pigs' tubers, v, 8. 
Pileolaria eflliisa, iii. 10. 
Pileosiegia, i. 103, 
Pilocereus, v, 51, 
Pilocereus, v. 51. 
Pilocereus Bngelmanni, v- 53- 
Pilocereus giganteus, v, 53. 
Pin Cherry, iv, 36. 
Pin Oak, viii- 51, 56, 151, 181. 
Pinaster, xi, 4. 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, v= 108, 
Pinckneya, v. 107- 
Pinckneya pubens, v, 109- 
Pinckneya pubescens, v. 109. 
Pine, Aleppo, xi. 9. 
Pine, Austrian, xi, 6. 
Pine, Bhotan, xi. 6. 
Pine, Black, of Japan, xi, 7. 

Pine, Bull, xi, 77, 95, 146. 

Pine, Cedar, xi. 131. 

Pine, Corsican, si, 6. 

Pine, Digger, xi. 95, 

Pine, Foxtail, xi, 59, 63. 

Pine, Georgia, xi, 156, 

Pine, Ginger, x. 120- 

Pine, Gray, xi. 147. 

Pine, Great Swamp, xi. 113, 

Pine, Hard, xi. 156, 

Pine, Hickory, xi, 63, 135. ^ 

Pine, Jackj xi. 147. 

Pine, Jersey, xi. 123. 

Pine, Knob-cone, xi. 107. 

Pine, Loblolly, xi. 111, 

Pine, Lodge Pole, xi. 90, 91. 

Pine, Long-leaved, xi. 151. 

Pine, Maritime, xi. 7. 

Pine, Marsh, xi, 119- 

Pine, Monterey, xi, 103- 

Pine, Norway, xi. 67, 

Pine, Nut, xi, 43, 47, 51, 55. 

Pine, Old Field, xi. 111. 

Pine, Oregon, xii. 90, 

Pine, Pitch, xi. 99, 115, 146, 156- 

Pine, Pond, xi. 119. 

Pine, Prickle-cone, xi, 139- 

Pine, Pumpkin, xi. 19. 

Pine, Red, xi, 67. 

Pine, Red of Japan, xi, 7. 

Pine, Riga, xi. 5, 

Pine, Rosemary, si. 113. 

Pine, Sand, xi. 127. 

Pine, Scotch, xi- 5. 

Pine, Scrub, si, 89, 123. 

Pine, Short-leaved, xi. 143. 

Pine, Slash, xi. 113, 157. 

Pine, Soledad, xi. 71. 

Pine, Southern, xi, 151, 

Pine, Spruce, xi, 127, 131, 146. 

Pine, Stone, xi. 9, 

Pine, Sugar, xi- 27. 

Pine, Swamp, xi. 157. 

Pine, Table-Mountain, xi. 135. 

Pine, Tamarack, xi. 90. 

Pine, Weymouth, xi- 21. 

Pine, White, xi. 17, 23, 33, 35, 39. 

Pine, Yellow, xi, 75, 77, 85, 143, 156, 

Pine belt, maritime, xi, 152. 

Pine wool, xi. 3. 

Pine-bread from bark of Pinus contorta, xl 

Pine-tree money, xi. 20, 
Pineries, southern, cattle in, xi. 156- 
Pineries, southern, fires in, xi. 156. 
Pines, cultivation of, in Japan, xi. 11, 
Pinipestis reniculella, xii, 25, 
Piuon, xi. 43, 47, 51, 55. 
Pinsapo, xii. 100. 
Pinus, xi. 1. 

PinuSy xi. 1 ; xii. 1, 19, 59, 83, 95. 
Pinus Abies, xii, 23, 24, 98, 99. 


f Pinus Abies, xii. 21. 
? Pinus Abies acutissimay xii. 33. 
Pinus Abies alba, xii. 99. 
Pinus-Abies Americana, xii. 63. 
Pinus Abies balsamea, xii. 107. 
Pinus Abies Canadensis, xii. 28, 63, 
Pinus Abies laxa, xii. 37, 
Pinus Abies Piceay xii, 23. 
Pinus Abies, b Reginm AmalicE, xii. 99. 
Pinus Abies, a pectinata, xii, 100. 
Pinus Abies, p Apollinus, 3di. 99. 
Pinus Abies, 5 Apollinus, xii, 99. 



Pinus Abies, S Panacliaica, xii» 99- 

Pinus AMeSy S viminaliSj xiL 24, 

Pinus Abies, e Cepkalonica^ xii. 99. 

Pmiis ^Jze5, var, medioximuj xii, 24. 

Pinus adunca^ xi, 103. 

Pmus a?&cc, xii. 33, 37. 

Pinus alba Canadensis^ xi. 17, 

Pinus alba, P arcticay xii, 39. 

Pinus albicaulis, xi» 39- 

Pinits Alcoquiana, xii, 21. 

Pinus Alepensis, xL 8. 

? Pinus alopecuroides, xi. 119, 

Pmws amabilisy xii, 113, 125, 137, 

Pinus Americanaj xii, 28, 63. 

Pinus Americana rubra^ xii, 33, 

Pinus Americana, a alba^ xii. 37- 

Pinus Apachecay xi, 81. 

Pinus ApoUinisy xii. 99. 

Pinus Araragij xii. 60, 

Pinus aristata, si, 63. 

Pinus Arizonica, xi. 75. 

Pinus Armena^ xi, 5. 

Pinus attenuata, xi. 107, 

Pinus australis, xi. 151. 

? Pinus avstralis excelsa^ xi. 151. 

Pinus Austriaca, xi. 6. 

Pinus Ayacahuite, xi. 33. 

Pinus BaborensiSy xii. 100. 

Pinus Bahamensis, xi, 157, 

Pinus Balfouriana, xi, 59. 

Pinus Balfouriana, xi. 63. 

Pinus Balfouriana^ var. aristata^ xi. 63. 

Pinu^ balsamea^ xii. 105, 107, 

Pinus balsameaj var. Fraseriy xii, 105. 

Pinus balsamea^ var. longifolia^ xii- 107. 

Pinus Banksiana, xi, 89, 147. 

Pinus Beardsleyi, xi, 77, 

Pinus Benthamiana, xi. 77. 

Pinus hifiday xii. 101. 

Pinus hinato-folio, xi. 5. 

Pinus Bolanderiy xi, 89, 

Pinus borealis, xi. 5- 

Pinus Boursieriy xi. 89, 

Pinus bracJiypJiylla, xii, 102. 

Pinus brachyptera^ xi, 77. 

Pinus bracteata, xii, 129. 

Pinus Brunoniana, xii. 61. 

.^ Pinus Californiana, xii. 103. 

Pinus Califomicay xi. 103, 107. 

Pinus Canadensis, xii. 37, 63, 73. 

Pinus Canadensis, ?, xii, 87, 

Pinus Canadensis, P nigra, xii. 28. 

Pinus Canariensis, xi, 4. 

Pinus Cedrus, xi. 10. 

Pinus Cembra, xi. 3, 10, 

Pinus Cemhra pygmcea, si, 10, 

Pinus Cembra, b pumila, xi. 10, 

Pinus Cembra^y Helvetica, xi. 10, 

Pinus cembroidesj xi. 47. 

Pinus cembroides, xi. 39. 

Pinus Cephalonica, xii. 99, 

Pinus Cltihuahuana, xi. 85, 

Pinus Cilicica, xii. 98, 

Pinus cinerea, xii. 23. 

Pinus clausa, xi. 127 ; xiv. 106. 

Pinus commutata, xii. 43. 

Pinus concolor, xii. 121. 

Pinus contorta, xi, 89- 

Pinus contorta, xi, 91, 139. 

Pinus contorta, var. Bolanderi, xi. 89- 

Pinus contorta, var. latifolia,xi, 91. 

Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, xi. 90, 

Pinus contorta, var. (b) Hendersoni, xi. 89. 

Pinus Coulteri, xi. 99. 

Pinus Craigana, xi. 77. 

Pinns Cnbensis, i. 42. 

Pinus Cubensis, xi. 157. 

Pinus Cubensis, var. ? terthrocarpa, xi. 157- 

Pinus cupressoides, x, 134, 

Pinus DaJiurica, xii, 4. 

Pinus dejlexa, xi. 79. 

Pinus densiflora, xi. 3, 7. 

Pinus divaricata, si. 147 ; xiv. 106. 

Pinus Dougla&ii, xii. 87- 

Pinus Douglasii, pendula, xii, 87. 

Pinus Douglasii, var, brevibracteata, xii. 87. 

Pinus Douglasii^ var, taxifolia, xii, 87, 

Pinus dumosa, xii. 60. 

Pinus ecbinata, xi. 143, 

Pinus echinata, stump growtb of, xi, 4. 

Pinus echinata, turpentine from, xi. 146. 

Pinus, economic properties of, xi. 3, 

Pinus Edgarianaj xi, 139, 

Pinus, edible seeds of, xi. 3. 

Pinus edulis, xi. 55, 

Pinus edulis, var. monophylla, xi, 51. 

Pinus Elliottu, xi. 157. 

Pinus Engelmanni, xi. 77, 81, 

Pinus excelsa, xi. 6 ; xii. 23. 

Pinus excelsa^ 3 medioxima, xii, 24, 

Pinus fastuosa, xi. 9, 

Pinus Finlaysoniana, xi. 5. 

Pinus Jirma, xii, 101. 

Pinns flexilis, xi. 35. 

Pinus fiexilis, xi, 39, 

Pinus fiexilis megalocarpa, xi. 35, 36. 

Pinus Jiexilis, ^ macrocarpa, xi. 35, 36. 

Pinus fiexilis y y refiexa, xi. 33. 

Pinus Jiexilis, var. albicaulis, xi, 39. 

Pinus fiexilis, var. a serrulata, xi, 35. 

Pinus Fraseri, xii. 105. 

Pinus Fremontiana, xi. 51. 

Pinw^ Friesiana, xi, 5. 

Pinus, fungal diseases of, xi, 11, 

Pinus Gerardiana, xi. 3, 10. 

Pinus, germination of, xi, 4. 
Pinus glabra, xi, 131 ; xiv. 106. 

Pinus glabra, xii. 40. 

Pinus glomerata, si, 7. 

Pinus grandis, xii. 117, 125. 

Pinus Grifiithii, xi, 6 ; xii. 3- 

Pinus Grozelieri, xi. 23. 

Pinus Halepensis, xi. 3, 8, 

Pinus Harryana, xii, 102- 

Pinus heterophylla, xi. 157. 

Pinus heterophylla, androgynous flowers 
xi. 4, 

Pinus hirtella, xii, 97. 

Pinus homolepis, xii. 102, 

Pinus Hookeriana, xii. 77- 

Pinus Hudsonia, xi, 147- 

Pinus Hudsordca, xi, 147. 

Pinus Tiumilis, xi, 5. 

Pinus, hybrids of, xi, 4, 

Pinus inops, xi, 89, 91, 123. 

Pinus inops, var, ?, xi. 139- 

Pinus inopSf var, clausa, xi. 127. 

PinuSj insect enemies of, xi. 11, 

Pinus insignis, xi. 103. 

Pinus insignis macrocarpa, xi. 103. 

Pinus insignis, var, binata, xi. 104. 

Pinus insignis, var. (a) radiata, xi, 103. 

Pinus insignis, var, (b) Icevigata, xi. 103. 

Pinus insularis, xi. 5, 

Pinus intermedia, xii. 7. 

Pinus Japonica, xii, 21. 

? Pinus Japonica, xi, 7. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, xi. 79- 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var, nigricans, xi. 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. ^enmsw^arzs, xi, 80. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (b) defiexa, xi. 79. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var. (c) montana, xi. 79. 

Pinus Jezoensis, xii. 21. 

Pinus KcBmpferi, xii. 2. 

Pmii5 KamtscJiatika, xii. 4- 

Pinu5 Khutrow, xii, 22- 

Pinuslceta, xii, 3, 

Pinus Lambertiana, xi. 27. 

Pinus Lambertiana, ? B brevifolia, xi, 35, 

Pinus Lambertiana, ?, xi. 35, 

Pinus Lambertiana, var. minor, xi. 27, 

Pmus Lambertiana, yav, purpurea, xi, 27- 

Pinus Lambertiana, sugar of, xi, 29, 

Pinus laricina, xii. 7, 

Pinus Laricio, xi. 3, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, xi. 6, 7. 

Pinus Laricio in the United States, xi- 6. 

Pinus Laricio Calabrica, xi. 6. 

Pinus Laricio Cebennensis, xi. 6, 

Pinus Laricio Pallasiana, xi. 6. 

Pinus Laricio, $ Austriaca, xi. 6, 

Pinus Laricio, p nigricans, xi. 6, 

Pinus Laricio, y, xi. 67, 

Pinus Larix, xii. 2, 3, 4, 

Pinus Larix alba, xii. 7- 

Pinus Larix Americana nigra, xii, 7- 

Pinus Larix (AmericancB)^ xii. 4. 

Pinus Larix Canadensis, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix nigra, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix rubra, xii, 7- 

Pinus Larix, a communis, xii, 3. 

Pinus Larix, ^ rubra, xii, 7, 

Pinus Larix, y nigra, xii. 7, 

Pinus Larix, 5 aZ&a, xii. 7. 

Pmw^ Larix, S /aa:a, xii. 3. 

Pinus Larix, e compacta, xii. 3- 

Pinus Larix, 7} rubra, xii. 3, 

Pinus Larix, rosea, xii. 3. 

Pinus Larix, t alba, xii, 3, 

Pinus lasiocarpa, xii. 113, 125. 

Pimts laiifi)lia, xi. 81- 

Pinus Latteri, xi. 5- 

Pinw5 Za^ra, xii. 37, 70. 

Pinus Ledebourii, xii. 4. 

Pinus leptolepis, xii. 2. 

Pinus Llaveana, xi. 43, 47. 

Pinus longifolia, xi, 9, 151. 

PiniiS lophosperma, xi. 71. 

Pinus Lowiana, xii. 121. 
of, Pinus lutea, xi. 151. 

Pinus Lyallii, xii. 15, 

Pinus macrocarpa, xi. 99. 

Pinus macrophylla, xi. 80, 

Pmz£5 Maderiensis, xi. 9. 

P^?^w5 magnifica, xii, 137. 

Pinus Mandshurica, xi. 10. 

Pinus Mariana, xii, 28, 63. 

Pinus Mariana rubra, xii, 33- 

Pinus maritima, xi, 6, 7, 8. 

Pinus Massoniana, xi- 7, 

Pznt^ Mayriana, xi. 81. 

PinuSj medical properties of, xi. 3. 

Pmw5 Menziesii, xii. 21, 55. 

Pinus Menziesii, var. crispa, xii. 55. 

Pinus Merkusii, xi, 5, 

Pinus Mertensiana, xii. 73, 77. 

Pinus, Mexican species of, xi. 5. 

Pinus microcarpa, xii. 7. 

Pinus mitis, xi. 143, 

Pinus mitis, ^paupera, xi. 131. 

Pinus monophylla, xi, 51, 

Pinus monophylla, var. edulis, xi, 55, 



Pinus montanay xl. 5, 10, 135. 

Pinus monticolaj xL 23. 

Pinus monticolay var. digitatay xi, 23, 

Pinus monticola, var, minima^ xi. 23. 

Pinus monticola^ var, porpkyrocarpa, xi, 23, 

Pinus MugOy xi, 5. 

Pinus muricata, xi, 139, 

Pinus muricata, xi. 89. 

Pinus muricata, var, Antkonyi^ xl. 139, 

Pinus Murrayana^ xi. 91, 

Pinus Murrayana^ var, Sargentii^ xi, 91, 

Pious Nepalensis, xi, 3, 6. 

Pimis Nepalensis in the United States, xi, 6, 

Pinus nigra, xi. 6 ; xii, 28, 33- 

Pinus nigricans^ si, 6. 

Pinus nohilis, xii, 133. 

Pmu5 Nordmanniana^ xii, 98, 

Pinus Nuttalliij xii, 11. 

p29ZM5 ohovatUy xii. 22, 25, 

Pinus ohovata^ fi Schrenckiana^ xii, 25. 

Pinus Omorika^ xii, 22. 

Pinus orientalisy xii. 22, 25, 

Pinus orientalisy longifolia^'sii, 25. 

Pinus osteosperma, xi, 47, 

Pinus palustris, si, 151. 

Pinus palustris, railway ties from, xi. 154, 

Pinus palustris, turpentine from, si. 154, 

Pinus Parryana, xi, 43, 77. 

Pinus Pattoniana^ xii. 73, 77. 

Pinus pectinata, xii, 99, 

Pinus pendula, xii. 7, 63, 

Pinus Picea, xii, 23, 97, 99. 

Pinus Picea medioxima^ xii. 24. 

Pinus Pichta, xii. 98. 

Pinus Pinaster, si, 3, 7. 

Pinus Pinaster, si. 6, 7, 

Pinus Pinaster, cultivation of, xi, 8, 

Pinus Pinaster, resinous products of, xi, 7. 

Pinus Pindrow, xii, 98. 

Pinus Pinea, si, 3, 9, 

Pinus Pinea^ xi, 7, 

Pinus Pinsapo, xii, 100. 

Pinus Pityusa, xi. 8. 

Pinus polita, sii, 21, 

Pinus, pollen of, xi. 4, 

Pinus ponderosa, xi, 77, 

Pinus ponderosay xi, 80, 

Pinus ponderosa (a) Bentkamiana, xi. 77. 

Pinus ponderosa (c) hrackyptera^ xi, 77- 

Pinus ponderosa, var, (a) nigricans, xi. 77. 

Pinus ponderosa, var, Benthamiana, xi. 77. 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi, xi, 79- 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Mayriana, xi. 81, 

Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum, xi. 80. 

Pinus Pontica, xi, 5. 

Pinus porphyrocarpa, xi, 23, 24, 

Pinus pumila, xi, 10, 

Pinus pungens, xi, 135- 

Pinus quadrifolia, xi. 43 ; xiv. 106- 

Pinus radiata, xi, 103, 

Pinus radiata, var. (a) tuherculata, xi. 103. 

Pinus radiata, var. (b) binata, xi. 104, 

Pinus refiexa, si, 33, 

f Pinus refiexa, xl, 35- 

Pinus religiosa, xii. 97. 

Pinus rcsinosa, si, 67, 

Pinus resinosa, si. 6, 77, 80, 

Pinus rigida, xi, 115. 

Pinus rigida ?, xi. 103- 

Pinus rigida, stump growth of, xi. 4. 

Pinus rigida, var. lutea, xi. 115, 

Pinus rigida, var, serotina, xi. 119. 

Pinus Roxburghii, xi. 3, 9. , 

Pinus Koxburghli, turpentine from, xi. 9- 

Pinus ruhra, xi. 5, 67 ; sii, 33'. 

Pinus rubra, B violacea, xii. 40. 

Pinus rubra, var, arctica, ^di, 37- 

Pinus rubra, var. arctica longifoUa, xii, 37o 

Pinus ruhra, var, ccerulea, xii, 37. 

Pinus rupestris, si. 147, 

Pinus Sabiniana, xi. 95, 

Pinus Sckrenckiana, sii. 25. 

Pinus scopifera, si, 7. 

Pinus scopulorum, xi. 80, 

Pinus selenolepisy xii, 101. 

Pinus serotina, si. 119. 

Pinus Shasta, si. 39, 

Pinus Sibirica^ xii. 97- 

Pinus Sieboldii, sii, 60, 

Pinus Sinclairiana, xi, 103. 

Pinus Sinclairiiy si. 103, 105- 

Pinus Sitchensis, sii, 55. 

Pinus Smithiana, sii, 22, 

Pinus sp., xii, 113, 

Pinus spectabilis, xii. 98. 

Pinus squarrosa, xi, 143. 

Pinus strobiformis, xi, 33- 

Pinus Strobus, xi. 17. 

Pinus Strobus nana, xi. 21. 

Pinus Strobus nivea, xi. 21, 

Pinus Strobus, j8 monticola, h, 23. 

Pinus sylvestris, xi- 3, 5. 

Pinus sylvestris, xi. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Pinus sylvestris, j8, xi. 7, 

Pinus sylvestris, j8 Norvegica, xi, 67- 

Pinus sylvestris, y Novo-Cmsariensis, si, 123- 

Pinus sylvestris, S divaricata, xi. 147. 

Pinus sylvestris, e maritima, xi. 6. 

Pinus sylvestris in the United States, xi. 5. 

Pinus Syrtica, xi- 7. 

Pinus Tseda, si. 111, 

Pinus Tceda, xi, 5, 

Pinus Tceda, a tenuifolia, xi. 111. 

Pinus Tmda, $ ecliinata, xi, 143, 

Pinus Tmda^ ^ rigida^ xi. 115, 

Pinus Tmda, y variabilis^ xi. 143. 

? Pinus Tceda, S alopecuroidea^ xi, 119. 

Pinus Tmda, S palustris, xi. 151, 

Pmw^ Tceda, var. A (rigida), xi, 115, 

Pmz^ T<Eda^ var, heteropkylla, xi, 157. 

Pznus Tamrac, xi, 91. 

Pinus Tartarica, xi, 5. 

Pinus taxifolia, xii, 87, 107- 

Pinus tenuifolia, xi- 17, 

Pinus tetragona, xii, 37. 

Pinus Thunbergii, xi, 3, 7- 

? Pinus Thunbergii, xii. 21, 

Pinus Timoriensis, xi. 5, 

Pinus Torreyana, xi. 71. 

Pinus Tschonoskiana, xii, 102, 

Pinus Tsuga, xii. 60, 

Pinus Tsuga, B nana, xii, 60. 

Pinus tuberculata, xi, 103, 107. 

Pinus tuberculata, var. acuta, xi, 107. 

Pinus, umbo of the cone-scale of, xi, 4, 

Pinus variabilis, xi. 143, 

Pinus Veitchi, xii. 101- 

Pinus venusta, xii. 129. 

Pinus viminalis, xii, 24. 

Pinus Yirginiana, xi. 123. 

Pinus Virginiana, b echinata, xi. 143. 

Pinus Webbiana, sii, 98, 

Pipal Tree, vii, 94, 

Piper, Charles Vancouver, is. 145. 

Pirophorum, iv- 67. 

Pirus, iv, 70. 

Piscidia, iii, 61- 

Piscidia Carthagenensis, iii. 53, 

Piscidia Erythrina, iii. 53, ^ 

Piscidia Piscipula, iii. 63. 
Piscidin, iii. 51. 

Piso, Willem, vi, 110, 
Pisonia, vi. 109. 
Pisonia aculeata, vi, 109, 110. 
, Pisonia cuneifolia, vi. 111. 
Pisonia, eeonpmic uses of, vi. 110. 
Pisonia loranthoides, vi, 110. 
Pisonia noxia, vi, 110, 
Pisonia obtnsata, i, 42 ; vi. 111. 
Pisonia rotundata, vi. 110. 
Pisonia subcordata, i. 42. 
Pisonia tomentosa, vi. 110, 
Pisonia villosa, vi. 110. 
Pissodes Strobi, si, 11, 
Pistacia Simaruba, i. 90, 97- 
Pitch, Burgundy, xii. 23, 
Pitch, Canada, xii, 65, 
Pitch Pine, xi, 99, 115, 146, 156- 
Pithecolobium, iii. 131 ; siv. 100, 
Pithecolobium brevifolium, iii, 135. 
Pithecolobium dulce, iii. 132. 
Pithecolobium flexicaule, iii. 137 
Pithecolobium forf ex, iii, 133. 
Pithecolobium Guadalupense, iii, 132, 
Pithecolobium microphyllum, iii. 133- 
Pithecolobium Saman, iii, 132. 
Pithecolobium Texense, iii, 137- 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, iii- 133. 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, iii, 132. 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, economic uses of, 
iii. 132, 

Pitya Cupressi, x- 101, 125, 140. 
Pityophthorus puberulus, xii, 25, 
Pityophthorus pubipennis, viii, 11. 
Pityophthorus querciperda, viii, 11. 
Pladera, vi, 13, 

Plagiostigma, vii, 91, 

Planer, Johann Jakob, vii. 60, 

Planera, vii, 69. 

Planera aquatica, vii. 61, 

Planera parvijlora, vii. 41. 

Planera Richardi, vii. 61. 

Planera ulmifolia, vii, 61, 

Plank, Elisha Newton, xiii. 13. 

Platanace^, vii. 99, 

Platanus, vii. 99. 

Platanus Californica, vii, 105, 

Platanus, fungal diseases of, vii, 101. 

Platanus hybridus, vii. 102. 

Platanus, insect enemies of, vii. 101, 

Platanus lobata, vii. 102- 

Platanus Mexicana, vii, 101. 

Platanus Mexicana^ vii, 105, 107. 

Platanus occidentalis, vii, 102, 

Platanus occidentalis, vii, 105, 

Platanus occidentalis, p lobata, vii. 102- 

Platanus occidentalis, var, Hispanica, vii, 102, 

Platanus occidentalis, var- Mexicana, vii. 101- 

Platanus orientalis, vii. 100, 

Platanus racemosa, vii, 105, 

Platanus racemosa, vii. 107, 

Platanus vulgaris, vii. 100, 

Platanus vulgaris, € angulosa, vii. 102. 

Platanus Wrightii, vii. 107, 

Platopuntia, xiv, 10, 

Platyacanthse, xiv, 10, 

Platycladus, x. 97, 123. 

Platycladus stricta, s. 124, 

Platysamia Cecropia, iv. 11. 

Plectrodera sealator, is. 155. 

Pleiandrfe, is. 96, 

Pleiarina, ix, 95, 



Plethostephiay vi. 67. 
Plinia^ v. 39. 

Plinia pedunculatay v, 41. 
Plinia ruhraj y. 41. 

Plowrightia morbosa, iv. 12. 

Plum, Blackman, iv. 24, 

Caddo Chief, iv, 26- 

Canada, iv. 15. 

Chickasaw, iv. 25. 

Cocoa, iv. 3, 

Colleta, iv- 26. 

cultivation of, iv, 9. 

Cumberland, iv. 24, 

Deep Creek, iv. 20, 

De Soto, iv, 20. 

Downward, v, 175, 

Early Red, iv- 26. ' 

Forest Garden, iv. 20. 

Forest Rose, iv, 20, 24. 

Garfield, iv, 24, 

Golden Beauty, iv, 24, 

Guiana, vii, 27. 

Indian Cbief, iv, 24. 

Indiana Chief, iv. 24, 

Indiana Red, iv. 24. 

Itaska, iv. 20, 

Jennie Lucas, iv. 26. 

Kickapoo, iv. 20. 

Louisa, iv» 20. 

Miner, iv, 20, 24. 

Minnetonka, iv. 20. 

Missouri Apricot, iv. 24. 

Pigeon, vi. 119- 

Pottawattamie, iv, 26, 

Purple Yosemite, iv. 16, 

Quaker, iv. 16. 

Red, iv, 15, 

Sucker City, iv. 24, 

Transparent, iv. 26, 

Wayland, iv. 24, 

Weaver, iv. 16, 

Wild, iv, 19, 23, 31. 

Wild Goose, iv, 24, 
Plum-pockets, iv. 12> 
Plum-tree, Black, v. 41. 
PocophoTum^ iii, 7, 
Podocarpus (?) nucifera, z. 56. 
Podosesia Syringas, vi. 27- 
PodosphEera biuncinata, v, 2, 
Podosphsera Oxyacanthse, iv. 12. 
Pogonotrophe^ vii, 91. 
Pohlana, i. 65, 
Poison Dogwood, iii. 23. 
Poison Elder, iii. 24, 
Poison Ivy, iii. 9, 10. 
Poison Sumach, iii. 23- 
Poison Wood, iii. 13, 14. 
Poison- tree, iii- 24. 
Poitsea, ii. 75. 
Poiteau, Alexandre, ii, 75, 
Pol it a, ix. 9, 
Pollen of Pinus, xi. 4. 
Pollination of Yucca, x, 2, 

POLYGONACE^, vi. 113. 

Polygonum UviferUy vi. 115, 
Polygraphus ruiipennis, xii. 25. 
Polyphemus moth, v, 9. 
Polyporus amorphus, vi. 20. 
Polyporus annosus, xi. 11. 
Polyporus applanatus, ix. 49. 
Polyporus betulinus, ix. 49, 
Polyporus cinnabarinus, iv. 12. 
Polyporus conchifer, vii. 42, 
Polyporus graveolens, viii. 13. 


Polyporus Halesite, vi. 20, 
Polyporus officinalis, xii. 5, 
Polyporus piceinus, xii. 26. 
Polyporus Pilots, xii. 61, 

Polyporus salicinus, ix. 101. 

Polyporus Sehweintzii, xi. 11, 

Polyporus volvatus, xi. 12 ; xii. 26. 

Polyspora^ i. 39, 

Polyspora axillaris^ i. 39. 

Pomette Bleue, iv. 89. 

Pond Apple, i. 29. 

Pond Fine, xi. 119. 

Pond's Extract, v- 4. 

PonderosEe, xi. 4, 

Poplar, ix. 161- 

Poplar, Gray, ix. 154. 

Poplar, Lombardy, ix. 153. 

Poplar, Necklace, ix. 181, 

Poplar, Trembling, ix. 155. 

Poplar, White, ix. 154. 

Populin, ix, 155. 

Populus, ix. 151. 

Populus acuminata, ix. 172 ; xiv. 69. 

Populus alba, ix. 154. 

Populus alba, j8, ix, 154, 

Populus alha, ff pyramidalisj ix- 154, 

Populus alba, var. Bolleana, ix. 154. 

Populus alba X tremula^ b canescens^ ix. 154. 

Populus albo-tremulay ix, 154. 

Populus, androgynous aments of, ix. 151. 

Populus angulata^ ix. 179. 

Populus angulata tortuosa^ ix. 179, 

Populus angulata^ a serotina, ix, 179. 

Populus angulosa, ix. 179. 

Populus angustifolia, ix, 171 ; xiv- 105, 

Populus angustifolia, ix. 175. 

Populus argentea, ix. 163. 

Pcpulus AtkeniensiSy ix. 158. 

Populus australis, ix. 155. 

Populus balsamifera, ix. 167 ; xiv- 105, 

Populus balsamifera^ ix. 152, 163, 175. 

Populus balsamifera lanceolata^ ix. 167. 

Populus balsamifera suaveolensy ix. 152, 

Populus balsamifera viminalis, ix. 153, 

Populus balsamifera, a genuina, ix. 167- 

Populus balsamifera^ $ laurifolia, ix. 153- 

Populus balsamifera, y, ix. 175. 

P(ypulus balsamifera, var, angustifolia, ix, 171. 

Populus halsamiferaf var. (?) Californicay ix, 

Populus balsamifera, var, candicans, ix. 169, 
Populus betulifolia, ix. 153. 
Populus biformiSj ix. 155. 
Populus Bolleana, ix. 154- 
Populus Canadensis, ix. 179, 183- 
Populus Canadensis, discolor, ix. 179. 
Populus Canadensis^ y angustifolia, ix, 171. 
Populus candicans, ix. 169, 
Populus canescens, ix. 154. 
Populus Carolinensisj ix. 179. 
Populus caudina, ix. 153. 
Popnlus Certinensis, ix, 153, 
Populus ciliata, ix. 152, 
Populus cordifolia, ix. 163. 
Populus deltoidea, ix. 179. 
Populus dilatata, ix. 163, 
Populus dilatata, Carolinensis, is. 179. 
Populus diversifolia, ix. 155, 
PopuluSj economic properties of, ix. 155, 
Populus Euphratensis, ix. 155. 
Populus Euphratica, Ls. 155. 
Populus fastigiata, ix. 153. 
Populus Fremontii, ix, 183. 
Populus Fremontiij xiv, 71, 73, 

Populus Fremontii, var, (?) Wislizeni, ix, 183 ; 

xiv. 7L 
Populus, fungal diseases of, ix, 156- 
Populus glandulosa, ix. 179. 
Populus Gr(Eca, ix, 154, 158, 
Populus grandidentata, ix. 161 ; xiv, 105. 
Populus grandidentata, pendula, ix. 161. 
Populus heterophylla, ix- 163 ; xiv. 105, 
Populus heterophyllay ix. 179. 
Populus heterophylla, argentea^ is, 163- 
Populus Hudsonica, ix. 153- 
Populus hybrida^ ix, 154- 
Populus, hybrids of, ix, 152. 
Populus, insect enemies of, ix, 155. 
Populus Italica, ix- 153. 
Populus lc8vigata, ix. 179. 
Populus latifolia, ix. 161, 179. 
Populus laurifolia, ix. 153. 
Populus longifolia, ix. 153- 
Populus major, ix. 154. 
Populus Marilandica, ix. 179. 
Populus, medical properties of, ix. 165. 
Populus Mexieanaj xiv. 73. 
Populus mierocarpa, is, 162. 
Populus monilifera, is. 179, 183 ; xiv, 7L 
Populus monticola, ix. 162. * 

Populus monticola, wood of, ix, 152. 
Populus Neapolitana, ix. 153. 
Populus nigra, ix. 163, 
Populus nigra, ix. 179. 
Populus nigra Italica, ix, 153. 
Populus nigra, B Helvetica, ix. 179. 
Populus nigra, pyramidalisy ix. 153. 
Populus nigra, jS Virginiana, ix, 179. 
Populus nigra in the United States, ix. 163. 
Populus nivea, ix. 154, 
Populus pendula, ix. 165- 
Populus pseudobalsamifera, ix. 152, 
Populus pyramidalis, ix, 153, 
Populus pyramidata, ix. 153. 
Populus salicifolia, ix. 171. 
Populus serotina, ix. 179. 
Populus Sieboldij ix, 155, 
Populus snaveolens, vs. 152. 
Populus tremula, ix, 154. 
Populus tremula^ var. villosa, ix. 155. 
Populus tremula, var., ix. 158, 
Populus tremula pendula, ix. 155, 
Populus tremuliformis, ix, 168. 
Populus tremuloides, ix, 158 ; xiv. 105. 
Populus tremuloides, b, pendula, ix. 168. 
Populus trepida, ix. 158. 
Populus trichocarpa, ix, 175, 
Populus trichocarpa, var. cupulaia^ ix, 175. 
Populus versicolor, ix. 153, 
Populus villosa, ix. 155, 
Populus Virginiana, ix, 179. 
Populus Wislizeni, xiv. 71. 
Porcelia, i. 21. 
Porcelia parviflora, i. 29, 
Porcelia triloba, i. 23. 
Pork-Tree, Fat, iv- 4, 
Pork Wood, vi. 111. 
Porlieria, i. 59- 

Porlieria hygrometrica, i. 69, 60. 
Porothrinax, x. 49 ; xiv. 79- 
Port Orford Cedar, x. 119- 
Porter, Thomas Conrad, iv. 28. 
Portugal Laurel, iv. 11. 
Portuna, v. 130, 
Portuna, v. 129. 
Possum Oak, viii, 166. 
Post Cedar, x. 136- 
Post Oak, viii. 37. 



Pottawattamie Plum, iv- 26, 

Powcohlcoraj vii. 134. 

Prcealstonia, vl. 13. 

Prcealstonia themformiSy vi. 14, 

Pratz, Le Page du, v, 17. 

Prickle-cone Pine, xi. 139. 

Prickly Ash, 1. 67, 

Prince Wood, v. 105. 

Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey, ix. 129, 

Pringleophytum, ix. 130. 

Prinoides, i- 103. 

PrinoSj i. 103. 

PrinoSy i. 103. 

Prinos deciduus^ i. 113. 

Prinos montana^ i. 115, 

Prinz von Neuwied, ix. 138, 

Prionoxystus Robinise, viii. 11; ix. 10. 

Prionus laticollis, viii- 11; ix, 155. 

Pritchardia^ x, 45- 

pTitchardia Jilamentosay x. 47, 

Pritchardia Jiliferaj x. 47. 

Prodoxus decipiens, x. 3. 

Prometliea moth, v, 9, 

Pronuha maculata, x. 2. 

Pronuba synthetica, x, 2. 

Pronuba yuccasella, x. 2, 

Propolidiam Tsugse, xii. 61* 

Prosopis, iii. 99. 

Prosopis affinisj iii, 101. 

Prosopis hracteolatay iii. 101. 

Prosopis cinerascens, iii. 99, 

Prosopis CumanensiSj iii, 101, 

Prosopis DomingensiSf iii. 101. 

Prosopis dulcis^ iii. 101. 

Prosopis Emoryiy iii, 107. 

Prosopis flexuosay iii. 101. 

Prosopis fruticosa, iii. 101. 

Prosopis glandulosa, iii. 101 xiii, 15. 

Prosopis horrida, iii. 101, 

Prosopis inermisy iii. 101. 

Prosopis juliflora, iii. 101 ; xiii. 15. 

Prosopis julifloray xiii, 15. 

Prosopis juliflora, var, glandulosa, xiii. 15. 

Prosopis juliflora, var- velutina, xiii, 15. 

Prosopis oblonga, iii, 99. 

Prosopis odorata^ iii. 101, 107, 

Prosopis pallida y iii. 101. 

Prosopis pubescens, iii. 107. 

Prosopis Siliquastrumy iii, 101. 

Prosopis spicigera, iii. 99, 100. 

Prosopis Stephaniana, iii. 99. 

Prosopis velutina, xiii. 15. 

Proteoteras tesculana, ii. 53. 

ProtoJiopeay vi. 13. 

Protohopea tinctoria, vi, 15, 

Prainosse, ix. 96- 

Prune d'Am^rique, iv. 2. 

Prunes, iv, 9. 

Prunes d'IcaqueSj iv- 4. 

Prunier d'Ente, iv. 9. 

Prunier d'Icaque, iv. 4, 

PrunophorUy iv. 7. 

Prunus, iv. 7, 8, 

Prunus, iv, 7, 

Prunus Alabamensis, xiii. 25, 

Prunus AUeghaniensis, iv, 27. 

Prunus Americana, iv, 19. 

Prunus Americana, iv. 15- 

Prunus Americana^ var. (?), 23, 

Prunus Americana, var, mollis, iv. 19. 

Prunus AmygdaluSj iv. 8, 

Prunus angustif olia, iv, 25, 

Prunus Armeniaca, iv. 8, 

Prunus Avium, iv, 8, 9^ 10. 

Prunus Avium, var. macrocarpa, iv. 10, 

Prunus horealis, iv. 35. 

Prunus Brasiliensis, iv. 51. 

Prunus Canadensis^ iv, 46. 

Prunus Capuli, iv. 46. 

Prunus Capulin^ iv. 46, 

Prunus Caroliniana, iv. 49 ; xiv- 100. 

Prunus Caroliniana, city ordinance on, iv. 9. 

Prunus cartilaginea, iv. 45, 

Prunus Cerasus, iv. 8, 10. 

Prunus- Cerasus Canadensis j iv. 41, 

Prunus-Cerasus montana, iv. 35, 

Prunus Chicasay iv, 23, 25. 

Prunus demissa^ iv. 42, 

Prunus domestiea, iv. 8, 9, 20. 

Prunus domestica, var. Juliana, iv. 9. 

Prunus domestica, var, Pruneauliana, iv. 9. 

Prunus Duerinckiiy iv- 41, 

Prunus emarginata, iv. 37 ; xiv. 100. 

Prunus emargtnata, var. mollis, iv, 38. 

Prunus erectGy iv, 37- 

Prunus, fungal enemies of, iv. 11. 

Prunus hiemalisy iv. 19. 

Prunus Jiirsutay iv. 41. 

Prunus hortulana, iv. 23 ; xiv, 100. 

Prunus ilicifolia, iv. 53, 

Prunus ilicifolia, var. integrifolia, iv. 54, 

Prunus ilicifolia^ var, occidentalism iv. 54. 

Prunus injucunda, xiii, 21. 

Prunus, insect enemies of, iv. 11. 

Prunus insititia, iv. 9. 

Prunus insititia, iv, 25. 

Prunus lanceolata^ iv. 35. 

Prunus Laurocerasus, iv, 10, 11. 

Prunus Laurocerasus, properties of, iv, 10. 

Prunus-LaurO'Cerasus serratifoliay iv. 49- 

Prunus Lusitanica, iv, 11. 

Prunus Lusitanica, iv. 49, 

Prunus Lusitanica, var. serratifoUay iv. 49. 

Prunus Mahaleb, iv. 10, 11, 

Prunus maritima, var. ^, iv, 28. 

Prunus Mississippi, iv. 19. 

Prunus mollis, iv. 15, 38, 

Prunus Mume, iv, 8, 9, 11, 

Prunus nana, iv, 41. 

Prunus nigra, iv. 15 ; xiv. 100. 

Prunus nigra, iv, 19. 

Prunus obovatay iv. 41. 


Prunus occidentalisy iv. 54. 

Prunus mconomica, iv. 9, 

Prunus Padus, iv. 8, 10. 

Prunus Pennsylvanica, iv. 35. 

Prunus Persica, iv. 8. 

Prunus per sicifolia, iv, 35. 

Prunus pleuradenia, iv. 51. 

Prunus, properties of, iv. 9. 

Prunus Pseudo-Cerasus, iv. 11. 

Prunus pumila, iv, 33, 34. 

Prunus rubra, iv- 41, 

Prunus salicifolia, iv. 46. 

Prunus salicifoliay var. acutifolia, iv. 46. 

Prunus sempervirens, iv. 49, 

Prunus serotina, iv. 45. 

Prunus serotina, iv. 41. 

Prunus serotina neo-montana, xiii, 25, 

Prunus serotina, properties of, iv. 10. 

Prunus sphgeroearpa, iv. 51. 

Prunus spinosa, iv. 10, 11, 20. 

Prunus spinosay iv. 19. 

Prunus subcordata, iv. 31 ; xiv. 100. 

Prunus subcordata, var. Kelloggii, iv, 31, 

Prunus tarda, xiii, 23, 

Prunus umbellata, iv, 33. 

Prunus umbellata, var. injucunda, xiii, 21. 

Prunus Virginiana, iv. 41, 

Prunus Virginianay iv, 45. 

Prunus Virginianay var. demissay iv- 42. 

Prunus Virginiana, var, leucocarpa, iv. 42, 

Prunus Virginiana, properties of, iv. 10. 

Prunus, wood of, iv. 11, 

Psatheripsy ix. 95. 

Pseudacaciay iii, 38, 

Pseudacacia odorata, iii, 39. 
Pseudehretiay i, 103. 
Pseudopetalony i, 65. 
Pseudopetalon glandulosum, L 67- 
Pseudopetalon tricarpuniy i. 67. 
Pseudophosnix, x. 33. 
Pseudophceuix Sargenti, x. 35. 
Pseudotsuga, xii, 83, 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, xii, 87- 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii denudatay xii. 87. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii taxifolia, xii, 87. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var, glauca, xii. 88. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, xii, 
93, > 

Pseudotsuga, economic properties of, xii. 

Pseudotsuga, fungal diseases of, xii, 84. 

Pseudotsuga glaucescens, xii. 91. 

Pseudotsuga, insect enemies of, xii. 84. 

Pseudotsuga, Japanese, xii. 84. 

Pseudotsuga Japonica, xii. 84 ; xiv, 106, 

Pseudotsuga Lindleyanay xii. 87, 

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, xii, 93. 

Pseudotsuga mucronata, xii, 87, 

Pseudotsuga taxifoliay var, elongata, xii, 88. 

Pseudotsuga taxifolia, var. suberosay xii, 88. 

Psylla Diospyri, vi. 4. 

Psylla rhois, iii, 10. 

Ptelea, i. 75- 

Ptelea angustifolia, i. 75. 

Ptelea aptera, i. 75. 

Ptelea Baldwinii, i, 75. 

Ptelea mollisy i, 77, 

Ptelea monophylla, ii. 7. 

Ptelea parvifolia, i. 81. 

Ptelea pentaphy Hay L 76. 

Ptelea trif oliata, i, 75, 76 ; xiv- 98. 

Ptelea trifoliata, var, mollis, i. 77. 

Ptelea viticifoliay i, 76, 

Pterocarya sorbifolia, vii, 116. 

Pterostyrax, vi. 19- 

Pterotay i, 65, 

Pterota subspinosa, i. 73. 

Ptilinus basalis, vii. 20. 

Puccinia Linkii, v, 94. 

Puccinia Pruni-spinosEe, iv. 12. 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis, ii. 81 ; vii, 87. 

Pumpkin Ash, xiv. 35, 

Pumpkin Pine, xi. 19. 

Punk Oak, viii. 166. 

Purple Beech, ix. 24, 

Purple Haw, ii. 25. 

Purple Yosemite Plum, iv, 16. 

PurpureEe, ix. 97. 

Pursh, Frederick, ii. 39 ; xiv, 100. 

Putzeysia, ii. 51. 

Putzeysia rosea, ii. 52, 

Pyramidal Cypress, x, 100. 

PyrguSy v. 151. 

Pyroleum cadinum, x. 72. 

Pyrus, iv. 67, 68. 

Pyrus alnifolia, iv. 131." 

Pyrus Amelanchier, iv, 125. 

Pyrus Americana, iv. 79 ; xiv. 101. 

Pyrus Americana, iv. 81. 

Pyrus Americana, var, decora, xiv. 101. 



Pyrus Americana, var. microcarpa, iv. 80. 

Pyrus angustifolia, iv. 75. 

Pyrus arbutifolia, iv, 68. 

Pyrus arhutifolia, var. melanocarpa^ iv. 68, 

Pyrus arbutifoUa, var, nigra^ iv. 68. 

Pyras Aria, iv, 69. ' 

Pyrus aucuparia, iv. 69. 

Pyrus aucuparia, iv, 79, 81 ; xiv. 101, 

Pyrus baccata, iv. 69. 

Pyrus Bartramiana^ iv. 127, 

Pyrus Botryapiumy iv, 127, 

Pyrus communis, iv. 68. 

Pyrus communis^ iv, 69. 

Pyrus coronariaj iv. 71, 

Pyrus coronaria, iv, 75, 

Pyrus coronaria, var. angustifolia, iv. 75. 

Pyrus coronaria, var. loeusis, iv. 72. 

Pyrus diverHfolia, iv, 77. 

Pyrus, fungal enemies of, iv, 70. 

Pyrus fusca, iv. 77, 

Pyrus glandulosa, iv, 96. 

Pyrus, insect enemies of, iv. 70. 

Pyrus loensiSy iv- 72, 

Pyrus Malus, iv. 68. 

Pyrus microcarpa, iv. 80. 

Pyrus nigra, iv, 68, 

Pyrus nivalis, iv. 68. 

Pyrus occidentalism iv, 82, 

Pyrus ovaMSy iv, 128, 129, 

Pyrus prunifblia, iv. 68, 

Pyrus rivularis, iv- 77. 

Pyrus rivularis^ levipes, iv. 77. 

Pyrns salicifoliaj iv. 69. 

Pyrus sambucifolia, iv, 81 ; siv. 101. 

Pyrus sambucifolia, xiv- 101. 

Pyrus sambucifolia, var, pumila, iv, 82, 

Pyrus sanguinea, iv. 128, 131, 

Pyrus Sieboldii, iv, 69. 

Pyrus Sinensis, iv- 69, 

Pyrus Soulardiy iv. 72. 

Pyrus spectabills, iv. 69. 

Pyrus subcordata, iv- 77. 

Pyrus Toringo, iv. 69- 

Pyrus XJssuriensis, iv, 69. 

Pyrus Wangenheimiana, iv. 127. 

Quadrella, i, 33. 

Quaker Plum, iv. 16, 

Quaking Asp, ix, 158, 

Quercitron Oak, viii. 139, 

Quercus, viii. 1, 

Que reus acuminata, viii, 55. 

Quercus acuminata X macrocarpa, viii. 56, 

Quercus acxita, viii. 4, 11, 

Quercus acutidens, viii, 95. 

Quercus ^gilops, viii. 3, 8. 

Quercus jEgilops, viii. 7, 

Quercus ^gilops, j3 macrolepis, viii. 8, 

Quercus agrifolia, viii. 111. 

Querci^ agrifolia^ y berberifolia^ viii. 111. 

Quercus agrifolia, \2.v.frutescens, viii. Ill, 

Quercus alba, viii. 16 ; xiv. 103. 

Quercus alba, bybrids of, viii, 18. 

Quercus alba, medical properties of, viii. 3. 

Quercus alba(repandd), viii, 16. 

Quercus alba minor, viii. 37. 

Quercus alba palustris, viii. 63, 

Quercus alba pinnatifday viii. l6, 

Quercus alba, a pinnatifido-sinuata, viii. 16. 

Quercus alba, ? Gunnisonii, viii. 33. 

Quercus alba, & sinuata, viii. 16- 

Quercus alba, 7 microcarpa, viii, 16. 

Quercus alba X macrocarpa, viii. 18- 

Quercus alba X minor, vfii. 18. 

Quercus alba x Prinus, viii. 18, 19. 
f Quercus aliena, viii, 6. 

Quercus ambigua, viii. 125, 

Quercus annulaia, viii. 71. 

Quercus aquatica, viii. 165. 

Quercus aquatica, a cuneata, viii. 165. 

Quercus aquatica, a laurifolia^ viii. 169. 

Quercus aquatica, ^ heterophylla, viii. 180. 

Quercus aquatica, y elongata, viii. 165, 

Quercus aquatica, S indlvim, viii. 165. 

Quercus aquatica, e attenuata, viii. 165, 

Quercus aquatica, <" ? myrtifolia, viii, 123, 

Quercus aquatica, var. hybrida, viii, 165. 

Quercus arcoglandis, viii. 111. 

Quercus Arizonica, viii. 89, 

Quercus Austriaca, viii. 7. 

Quercus Ballota, viii. 7. 

Quercus Baloot, viii. 7. 

Quercus Balout, viii, 7. 

Quercus Banisteri, viii, 155. 

Quercus berheridifolia, viii. 111. 

Quercus bicolor, viii. 63, 67. 

Quercus bicolor, $ mollis, viii, 63. 

Quercus bicolor, ^ platanoides, viii, 63. 

Quercus bicolor, subspec. Michauxii, viii, 67, 

Quercus brevifolia, viii, 171, 

Quercus brevifolia x Catesbtel, viii, 172, 

Quercus brevifolia, hybrids of, viii. 172. 

Quercus breviloba, viii. 71. 

Quercus Breweri, viii. 27, 

Quercus Brittoni, viii, 162. 

Quercus, buds of, viii, 4. 

Quercus Buergerii, viii- 11. 

Quercus Bungeana, viii. 3, 10, 

Quercus calicina, viii. 7, 

Quercus Californica, viii. 141. 

Quercus Calliprinos, \ arcuata, viii. 10. 

Quercus Castanea, viii. 51, 55, 

Quercus Catesbjei, viii- 143. 

Quercus Cateshmi x aquatica, viii. 144, 

Quercus Catesbtei x laurifolia, viii, 144. 

Quercus CatesbEei X nigra, viii. 144, 

Quercus Cerris, viii. 3, 7, ■ 

Quercus Cerris, buds of, viii, 4. 

Quercus Cerris denticulata, viii, 7, 

Quercus Cerris Fulhamensis, viii. 7. 

Quercus Cerris, bybrids of, viii. 5- 

Quercus Chapmani, viii. 41. 

Quercus Chincapin, viii. 59. 

Quercus Chinensis, viii. 10. 

Quercus chrysolepis, viii. 105 ; xiv. 103- 

Quercus chrysolepis, viii. 109- 

Quercus cbrysolepis, subspec. Palmerij viii. 

Quercus chrysolepis, subspec, vacciniifolia, 

viii, 106, 

Quercus cinerea, viii. 171. 

Quercus xinerea, & dentato-lobata, viii. 171. 

Quercus cinerea, 7 liumilis, viii. 171. 

Quercus cinerea, y^v. pumila, viii. 115. 

Quercus coccifera, viii. 3, 10. 

Quercus coccifera, ( Palestina, viii. 10. 

Quercus coccinea, viii. 133, 

Quercus coccinea, viii- 129, 

Quercus coccinea, a coccinea, viii. 133, 

Quercus coccinea $, viii, 125, 

Quercus coccinea, /3 nigrescens, viii. 137, 

Quercus coccinea, y tinctoria, viii, 137. 

? Quercus coccinea, 5 Rugelii, viii- 137, 

Quercus coccinea, var, ambigua, viii. 125- 

Quercus coccinea var. ? microcarpa, viii. 129. 

Quercus coccinea x Hicifolia, viii, 156, 

Quercus confertifolia, viii, 117- 

Quercus crassipocula, viii, 105. 

Quercus crinita, viii, 7. 
Quercus crispula, viii, 6. 
Quercus Cubana, viii. 99, 
Quercus cuneata, viii. 147. 
Quercus cuspidata, viii. 4, 11. 
Quercus decipiens, viii. 91. 
Quercus densiflora, viii. 183. 
Quercus densiflora, viii. 183, 
Quercus densiflora, var. echinoides, viii. 183. 
Quercus dentata, viii. 3, 10, 
Quercus digitata, viii. 147. 
Quercus digitata pagodmfolia, xiv. 51. 
Quercus dilatata, viii. 3, 6, 
Quercus discolor, viii. 137, 147, 
Quercus discolor, y Banisteri, viii. 155, 
Quercus Douglasii, viii- 79 ; xiv- 103- 
Quercus Douglasii, fi f Gambelii, viii. 33. 
Quercus Douglasii, y Novomexicana, viii. 33. 
Quercus Douglasii, 5 1 Necei, viii. 29. 
Quercus Drummondii, viii, 37. 
Quercus dumosa, viii, 95, 
Quercus dumosa, y acutidens, viii, 95. 
Quercus dumosa^ var, hullata, viii, 96. 
Quercus dumosa, var, munita, viii- 95. 
Quercus dumosa, var. polycarpa, viii- 95. 
Quercus dumosa, var. revoluta, viii. 96. 
Quercus Dunnii, viii, 107. 
Quercus Durandii, viii. 71- 
Quercus echinacea, viii. 183. 
Quercus echinoides, viii. 183, 
Quercus, economic properties of, viii. 3. 
Quercns ellipsoid alls, xiv, 49. 
Quercus elongata, viii. 147. 
Quercus Emoryi, viii. 103. 
Quercus Emoryi, viii. 75, 89- 
Quercus Engclmanni, viii. 83. 
Quercus Esculus, ii, 54. 
Quercus Esculus, viii. 7, 
Quercus expansa, viii- 7. 
... Quercus falcata, viii, 147. 
Quercus falcata, fi Ludoviciana, viii, 147, 
Quercus falcata, j8 triloba, viii. 147. 
Quercus falcata, var. h pagodmfolia, viii, 147 ; 

xiv. 51. 
Quercus Fendleri, viii. 75- 
Quercus ferruginea, viii, 161. 
Quercus fulvescens, viii. 105. 
Quercus, fungal diseases of, viii- 4, 12. 
Quercus Gambelii, viii. 33. 
Quercus Gambelii, var- Gunnisonii, viii. 33- 
Quercus Garryana, viii, 29, 
Quercus Garryana, dwarf form of, viii. 30, 
Quercus Georgiana, viii. 159. 
Quercus Georgiana X Marilandica, viii. 159. 
Quercus Georgiana x nigra, viii. 159, 
Quercus, germination of, viii, 4, 
Quercus Gilberti, viii, 29, 
Quercus glabra, viii. 4, 11. 
Quercus glauca, viii. 4, 11. 
Quercus Gramuntia, viii, 7. 
Quercus Griffithii, viii. 3, 6. 
Quercus grisea, viii. 75, 89. 
Quercus grosseserrata, viii. 6- 
Quercus hastata, viii. 103. 
Quercus hemisphcerica, viii. 165, 
Quercus hemisphcerica, var. nana, viii. 165, 
Quercus heterophylla, viii. 180. 
Quercus Hindsii, viii. 23- 
Quercus humilis, viii, 171. 
Quercus, hybrids of, viii. 5. 
Quercus hypoleuca, viii. 117. 
Quercus Ilex, viii. 3, 7, 
Quercus Ilex suherosa, viii. 8, 
Quercus Bex, 7 Ballota, viii, 7. 



Quercua Ilex:, var, Ballotaj viii. 3. 

Quercus ilicifolia^ viii. 155. 

Quercus ilicifolia X coccinea, viii, 156. 

Quercus imbricariaj viii, 175 ; xiv. 104, 

Quercus imbricaria, jS spinulosaj viii. 175, 

Quercus imhricaria X coccinea^ viii. 176, 

Quercus imbricaria X Marilandicaj viii. 176- 

Quercus imhricaria X nigra^ viii, 176. 

Quercus imbricaria X palustris, viii, 177, 

Quercus imbricaria X velutina, viii- 176. 

Quercus ineana, viii. 3, 10, 

Quercus infectoriay viii. 9. 

QuercuSj insect enemies of, viii. 4j 11. 

Quercus Ithahurensis, viii. 8, 

Quercus, its increase in Kortb America^ viii, 

Quercus Jacohi^ viii, 29, 

Quercus Kelloggii^ viii, 141, 

Quercus lanata, a incana^ viii. 10, 

Quercus laurlfolia, viii, 169. 

Quercus laurifolia hyhrida^ viii, 169, 

Quercus laurifolia^ a acuta^ viii. 169, 

Quercus laurifolia^ $ obtusa^ viii, 169. 

Quercus Leana, viii. 176, 

Quercus lobata, viii. 23. 

Quercus lohata^ subspec./niizcosa, viii, 27, 

Quercus lohatUy var, Breweri^ viii, 27, 

Quercus lobata, var, Hindsiiy viii. 23, 

Quercus longiglanda, viii, 23. 

Quercus Lusitanica, viii, 3, 6, 

Quercus Lusitanica^ a genuina, viii. 9, 

Quercus Lusitaniea, a infectoria, viii, 9. 

Quercus Lusitanica, subspec, Bcetica^ a Mir- 

beckii, viii, 6. 
Quercus lyrata, viii. 47. 
Quercus MacDonaldi^ viii, 95, 
Quercus MacDonaldiy var. elegantula, viii, 95, 
Quercus macrocarpaj viii. 43 ; xiv, 103, 
Quercus macrocarpay ^ ahhreviata, viii, 43, 
Quercus macrocarpa, y minora viii- 43. 
Quercus macrocarpa^ var, olivceformis, viii, 43, 
Quercus macrolepisy viii, 8, 
Quercus marginata^ viii. 11. 
Quercus Marilandica, viii. 161. 
Quercus Marilandiea X nana, viii, 162. 
Quercus mariiima^ viii, 100, 
Quercus, medical properties of, viii, 3, 

Quercus Mexicana, y confertifoliay viii, 117, 
Quercus Michausii, viii, 67, 
Quercus minor, viii, 37, 
Quercus minor X alba, viii, 38. 
Quercus Mirhechii^ viii, 6, 
Quercus iVlongolica, viii, 3, 6, 
Quercus montana^ viii, 51- 
Quercus MoreJius, viii. 120, 
Quercus Muehlenhergii, viii, 55, 
Quercus MueMenhergii, var. JiumiUSf viii. 59. 
Quercus myrtifolia, viii. 123 ; siv, 103. 
Quercus nana, viii, 155, 
f Quercus nana^ viii, 165, 
Quercus nana X coccinea, viii. 156, 
Quercus nana X velutina, viii, 156, 
Quercus Necei, viii, 29. 
Quercus nigra, viii, 165, 
Quercus nigra^ viii. 8, 137, 161, 
Quercus nigra digitata^ viii, 147. 
Quercus nigra integrifolia^ viii. 161, 
Quercus nigra trifida^ viii. 165-- 
Quercus nigra^ a aquatica^ viii. 165, 
Quercus nigra, fi, viii. 161, 
' Quercus nigra^ ^ latifolia^ viii, 161. 
Quercus nigra, jS quinqueloha, viii, 161, 
Quercus nigra^ p tridentata^ viii, 176. 
f Quercus nigra, y sinuata^ viii. 144. 

Quercus nigra, var,, viii. 180. 
Quercus oblongifolia, viii. 87, 

Quercus ohlongifolia, viii, 75, 83 ; xiv, 103, 

? Quercus oblongifolia, viii. 79, 

Quercus oblongifolia, var. brevilobata, viii, 79. 

Quercus obovata, viii, 10. 

Quercus obtusa, viii. 169, 

Quercus obtusifolia, var. ? breviloba, viii, 71. 

Quercus obtusiloba, viii, 37. 

Quercus obtusiloba^ var, parvifolia, viii, 41. 

Quercus occidentalis, viii. 3, 9. 

Quercus CErstediana, xiv- 103, 

? Quercus CErstediana^ viii. 27, 29. 

Quercus oleoides, viii. 99. 

Quercus olivceformis, viii, 43. 

Quercus oxyadenia^ viii, 111. 

Quercus pagodsefolia, xiv. 51. 

Quercus Palestina, viii, 10. 

Quercus Palmeri, viii, 107, 

Quercus palustris, viii. 151 ; xiv, 104, 

Quercus palustris, viii, 129, 

Quercus palustris, )3 cucuUata, viii. 161. 

Quercus parvula, viii, 119- 

Quercus pedunculata, viii. 6, 

Quercus Perslca, viii. 8. 

Quercus Phellos, viii. 179. 

Quercus Phellos (maritima^y viii. 100, 

Quercus Phellos (pumila), viii, 115, 

Quercus Phellos sempervirensy viii. 99, 

Quercus Phellos (sylvatica), viii. 179. 

Quercus Phellos, c, viii, 99, 

Quercus Phellos, a longifolia, viii. 179, 

Quercus Phellos, a viridis, viii. 179, 

Quercus Phellos, $, viii- 99, 171. 

Quercus Phellos, ^ brevifolia^ viii- 171, 

Quercus Phellos^ fi humilis, viii. 171- 

Quercus Phellos^ j8 imbricaria, viii. 175. 

Quercus Phellos, p latifolia, viii. 171, 

Quercus Phellos, & sericea^ viii, 171. 

Quercus Phellos, p subimbricaria, viii, 181, 

Quercus Phellos, y obtusifolia, viii. 99. 

Quercus Phellos, 5 suhrepanda, viii, 179- 

Quercus Phellos, e nana, viii, 115. 

Quercus Phellos, e sublobata, viii. 179. 

Quercus Phellos, var, viii, 180. 

Quercus Phellos, var, arenaria, viii. 123. 

Quercus Phellos, var, laurifolia, viii, 169- 

Quercus Phellos X coccinea, viii, 180, 

Quercus Phellos X ilicifolia, viii. 181, 

Quercus Phellos X Marilandiea, viii, 181. 

Quercus Phellos X nana, viii. 181. 

Quercus Phellos x nigra, viii, 181, 

Quercus Phellos x rubra, viii. 180, 

Quercus Phellos x tinctoria, viii, 180. 

Quercus Phellos x velutina, viii, 180. 

Quercus pinnatif da, viii. 10. 

Quercus platanoides, viii, 63. 

Quercus prinoides, viii, 59. 

Quercus prinoides, viii, 55, 

Quercus Prinus, viii. 51. 

Quercus Prinus^ viii, 67. 

Quercus Prinus acuminata, viii, b^. 

Quercus Prinus Chincapin, viii. 59. 

Quercus Prinus discolor, viii, 63. 

Quercus Prinus humilis, viii. 59. 

Quercus Prinus (monticola), viii, 51, 

Quercus Prinus (^palustris), viii, 67, 

Quercus Prinus (pumila^, viii, 59, 

Quercus Prinus tomentosa, viii, 63. 

Quercus PrinuSy a lata, viii, 51. 

f Quercus Prinus, a parvifolia, viii. 51, 

Quercus Prinus, ^ bicolor, viii, 63, 

? Quercus Prinus, oblongata, viii, 51- 

Quercus Prinus^ ^platanoides, viii. 63. 

Quercus Prinus, var. discolor, viii, 67. 

Quercus Prinus, var. Michauxii, viii, 67. 

Quercus Pryami, viii. 8, 

Quercus pseudo-coccifera, viii. 10, 

Quercus puhescens, viii. 8. 

Quercus pumila, viii, 115, 

Quercus pumila, var. sericea, viii. 115. 

Quercus pungens, viii, 75. 

Quercus Pyrenaica, viii. 8. 

Quercus Ransomi, viii. 79, 

Quercus reticulata, viii. 91. 

? Quercus reticulata, & Greggii, viii. 91. 

Quercus retusa, viii, 99, 

Quercus Robur, viii, 3, 6. 

Quercus Robur, viii, 6, 

Quercus Robur pedunculata, viii, 6, 

Quercus Kobur, subspec. pedunculata, viii, 6. 

Quercus Kobur, subspec. sessiliflora, viii, 6, 

Quercus rotundifolia, viii. 7, 

Quercus rubra, viii, 125, 

Quercus rubra, viii, 129, 141, 147. 

Quercus rubra dissecta, viii. 151. 

Quercus rubra maxima, viii. 125, 

Quercus rubra moniana, viii, 125, 

? Quercus rubra montana, viii. 147. 

Quercus rubra nana, viii. 155. 

Quercus rubra ramosissima, viii. 151, 

Quercus rubra, a viridis, viii, 125. 

Quercus rubra, h, viii. 125, 

Quercus rubra, c Schrefeldii, viii. 125^ 

Quercus rubra, a latifolia, viii. 125. 

Quercus rubra, p, viii- 125, 147. 

? Quercus rubra, & coccinea, viii. 133. 

Quercus rubra, ^ Hispanica, viii. 147, 

Quercus rubra, 3 runcinata, viii. 126, 

? Quercus rubra, y Muhlenbergii, viii., 125. 

Quercus rubra, y subserraia, viii. 125. 

Quercus rubra, 5 heterophylla, viii, 125, ' 

Quercus rubra, € aurea, viii. 125, 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana, viii, 129, 

Quercus rubra X digitata, viii, 126. 

Quercus rubra x imbricaria, viii. 126. 

Quercus rubra x velutina, viii, 126, 

Quercus Rudhini, viii. 181, 

Quercus, saccharine exudations from, viii, 8. 

Quercus Sadleriana, viii, 61, 

Quercus Sagrmana, viii. 99, 

Quercus San-Sabeana, viii, 71- 

Quercus, sections of, viii, 4, 

Quercus sempervirens, viii, 99. 

Quercus sericea, viii, 115, 

Quercus serrata, viii, 3, 10, 

Quercus serrata, viii. 10, 

Quercus serrata, a. Chinensis, viii, 10, 

Quercus serrata, ^ Koxburghii, viii. 10. 

Quercus sessiliflora, viii. 6, 

Quercus sessiliflora, var. Mongolica, viii, 6. 

Quercus Shumardii, viii. 137. 

Quercus sinuata, viii, 144, 

Quercus Sonomensis, viii, 141, 

Quercus spicata, viii, 91, 

Quercus stellata, viii. 37, 41, 

Quercus stellata, $ Floridana, viii. 37, 

Quercus stellata, y depressa, viii, 45. 

Quercus stellata, 5 Utahensis, viii. 33. 

Quercus stolonifera, viii, 8. 

Quercus Suber, viii. 3, 8, 

Quercus Tauzin, viii. 8- 

Quercus Texana, viii. 129 ; xiv. 104, 

Quercus tinctoria, viii, 137, 

Quercus tinctoria, a angulosa, viii, 137, 

Quercus tinctoria, « discolor, viii, 137, 

Quercus tinctoria, ^ magnifca, Yiii. 137, 

Quercus tinctoria, $ sinuosa^ viii, 137. 



Quercus tinctoria, y macrophylla^ yiii, 137. 
Quercus tinctoria, S nobilis, -viii. 137. 
Quercus tinctoria^ vai\ Californica, viii, 141, 
Quercus tomentella, viii, 109 ; xiv. 103. 
Quercus Toumeyi, viii, 93, 
Quercus Tournefortii, viii. 7, 
Quercus Toza, viii. 3, 7. 
Quercus triloba^ viii, 147. 
Quercus Trojana, viii. 8- 
Quercus turbinella^ viii, 75, 95, 
Quercus uliginosa^ viii. 165, 
Quercus undulata, viii, 75, 
Quercus undulata, viii, 33, 71, 
Quercus undulata, a GambeUij viii, 33- 
Quercus undulata, j8 ohtusifolia, viii, 75, 
Quercus undulata^ yJamesn, viii, 75, 
Quercus undulata^ y pedunculata, viii. 75. 
Quercus undulata, 3 grisea, viii, 87. 
Quercus undulata^ 3 WrigJuii, viii. 75, 
Quercus undulata^ var. grisea^ viii, 75, 87, 89, 
Quercus undulata, var, oblongata^ viii. 75, 

Querc4^5 undulata, yb^t. pungens, viii, 75, 95, 
QMerc^iS Ungeri^ viii. 8. 
Quercus vacciniifolia, viii. 106. 
Quercus Vallonea, viii, 8. 
Quercus velutina, viii- 137 ; xiv, 104. 
Quercus venustula, viii. 33- 
? Qwer<:ws villosa^ viii. 37, 
Quercus virens, viii, 99. 
Quercus virens, var, dentata, viii- 101- 
Quercus virens, var, maritim.a, viii. 100. 
Quercus Virginiana, viii, 99, 
Quercus Virginiaua, var. maritima, viii. 100, 
Quercus Virginiana, var. minimaj viii, 101. 
Quercus Wislizeni, viii. 119. 
Quercus Wislizeni, ysuT, frutescens, viii, 119, 
Quercus Wislizeni x Californica, viii, 120, 
Quercus Wislizeni x Kelloggii, viii. 120, 
Quick Beam, iv. 80. 

RachUj vi, 105. 

Railway ties from Pinus palustris, xi, 154. 

Raki, iv. 10, 

Ramularla albo-maculataj vii. 134, ' 
'Ramularia Celtidis, vii. 65. 
Eamularia Hamamelidis, v, 2. 

Eamularia monilioides, ix, 86. 

Rattle Box, vi, 22. 

Rauwolfia, vi, 101. 

Ravenel, Henry William, viii, 160, 

Ravenelia, viii. 160, v 

Reasoner, Pliny Ward, xiv, 77. 

Red Ash, vi, 49. 

Red Bay, vii, 4, 

Red Beech, ix, 23. 

Red Birch, ix, 61 ; xiv- 53, 

Redbud, iii. 95, 97. 

Red Cedar, x, 93, 129 ; xiv. 89, 93. 

Red Cedar oil, x. 95, 

Red Cypress, x, 154. 

Red Elm, vu, 52, 53 ; xiv. 41. 

Red Fir, xii. 87, 133, 137- 

Red Gum, v. 12. 

Red Haw, xiii, 71, 81, 83, 85, 101, 113, 115, 

117, 119, 125, 129, 133, 145, 181. 
Red Iron- wood, ii, 21, 
Red Maple, ii, 107 ; xiii, 11. 
Red Maple, distribution of, xiii, 11. 

Red Mulberry, vii, 79. 

Red Oak, viii. 125, 129 ; xiv, 51, 

Red Pine, xi, 67. 

Red Pine of Japan, xi, 7, 

Red Plum, iv. 15. 

Red Spruce, xii, 33, 

Red Stopper, v, 49, 

Redwood, X, 141. 

Rephesis, vii- 91. 

Resin, Hemlock, xii. 65, 

Resin of Liquidambar Formosana, v. 8- 

Resin of Liquidambar Styraciflua, v, 8. 

Resinous products of Pinus Pinaster, xi. 7- 

Retama, iii. 89. 

Retinia frustrana, xi, 117, 

Retinospora, x. 97, 

Reiinospora JilicoideSy x, 98, 

Retinospora filifera, x. 99, 

Retinospora lycopodioides, x, 98. 

Retinospora obtusa, x, 98, 

Retinospora pisifera, x. 98, 

Retinospora squarrosa, x. 99. 

Retinosporas, Japanese, forms of, x, 99, 

Peverchon, Julien, xiii- 175, 

Reynosia, ii, 19. 

Reynosia latifolia, ii, 21, 

Reynoso, Alvaro, ii, 19, 

Rhagium lineatum, xi, 11 ; xii. 25. 

Rhamnace^, ii. 19, 

Rhamnidium, ii, 27. 

Rhamnidium ferreum, ii, 29, 

Rhamnidium revolutum^ ii, 21, 

Rhamnus, ii, 31, 

Rhamnus alnifoliay ii, 37, 

Rhamnus Californica^ ii, 37, 39- 

Rhamnus Californicaj var. rubra, ii. 37, 

Rhamnus Californicay var- tomentella, ii, 39, 

Rhamnus Caroliniaua, ii, 35 ; xiv, 99, 

Rhamnus cathartica, ii. 32, 

Rhamnus chlorophora, ii. 32. 

Rhamnus coluhrina, ii, 47. 

Rhamnus crocea, ii, 33, 

Rhamnus crocea, ii. 34, 

Rhamnus crocea* var, insularis, ii, 34. 

Rhamnus crocea, var, pilosa, ii, 33, 

Rhamnus Davurica, ii, 32, 

Rhamnus elliptica, ii, 49. 

Rhamnus ferrea, ii, 29, 

Rhamnus Prangula, ii, 32, 36, 

Rhamnus iguaneus, vii, 64, 

Rhamnus ilicifolia, ii. 33, 

Rhamnus infectoria, ii. 32, 

Rhamnus insularis, ii, 34. 

Rhamnus Icevigatus, ii, 21, 

Rhamnus laurifolia, ii, 37- 

Rhavmus oleifolia, ii. 37, 

Rhamnus Purshiana, ii, 37 ; xiv, 99. 

Rhamnus Purshiana, var, tomentella, ii, 39. 

Rhamnus rubra, ii. 37, 38, 

Rhamnus tinctoria, ii, 32, 

Rhamnus tomentella, ii, 39. 

Rhamnus utilis, ii. 32. 

Rhapis acaulis, x. 38, 

Rhetinophlceum, iii, 81, 

Rhigia, vi, 113. 

Rhizococcus Quercus, viii, 11. 

Rhizophora, v- 13- 

Rhizophora Americana^ v, 15. 

Rhizophora apiculata, v, 14. 

Rhizophora candelaria, v. 14, 

Rhizophora conjugata, v, 13, 

Rhizophora macrorrhiza, v- 14, 

Rhizophora Mangle, v, 15 ; xiv, 101, 

Rhizophora Mangle, v, 14, 

Rhizophora Mangle, a, v, 15, 

Rhizophora Mangle, var, racemosa, v, 15, 

Rhizophora mucronata, v. 14. 

Rhizophora racemosa, v. 15, 

Rhizofhorace^, V, 13- 

Rhododendron, v. 143, 
Rhododendron, v. 143, 
Rhododendron mruginosum, v. 145- 
Rhododendron Afghanicum, v. 145, 
Rhododendron Anthopogon, v, 145, 
Rhododendron arborescens, v. 146, 
Rhododendron arboreum, v. 145- 
Rhododendron aureum, v. 145. 
Rhododendron azaleoides, v, 146- 
Rhododendron bicolor, v- 146. 
Rhododendron calendulaceum, v, 146- 
Rhododendron calendulaceum, v. 146, 
Rhododendron campanulatum, v, 145, 
Rhododendron Camtschaticum, v. 144. 
Rhododendron canescens, v, 146, 
Rhododendron Catawbiense, v. 147, 
Rhododendron chrysanthum, v, 145. 
Rhododendron cinnabarinum, v. 145. 
Rhododendron Due de Brabant, v, 160- 
Rhododendron elceagnoides, v. 145. 
Rhododendron ferrugineum, v. 144, 
Rhododendron flavum, v, 145- 
Rhododendron, fungal enemies of, v, 147- 
Rhododendron hybrid, Delicatissimum, v, 

Rhododendron Indicum, v. 146, 147, 
Rhododendron jasminiiiorum, v, 147. 
Rhododendron Javanicuni, v. 147. 
Rhododendron Lapponicum, v, 144. 
Rhododendron lepidotum, v, 145, 
Rhododendron, Madame van Houtte, v. 150. 
Rhododendron maximum, v- 148, 
Rhododendron maximum, var, album, v, 149- 
Rhododendron maximum, var. purpureum, 

V- 149- 
Rhododendron maximum, var, roseum, v, 149. 
Rhododendron, medical properties of, v. 145. 
Rhododendron molle, v. 146, 
Rhododendron nudiflorum, v. 146, 
Rhododendron occidentale, v- 146, 
Rhododendron odoratum, v. 146- 
Rhododendron officinale, v, 145, 
Rhododendron, poisonous properties of, v. 



Rhododendron Ponticum, v. 147. 
Rhododendron Ponticum, v. 145. 
Rhododendron procerum, v, 148- 
Rhododendron purpureum, v, 149, 
Rhododendron Purshii, v, 149, 
Rhododendron salignum, v. 145, 
Rhododendron Sinense, v. 146. 
Rhododendron speciosum, v, 147. 
Rhododendron viscosum, v, 146, 
Rhododendron Wellsianum, v. 150, 
Rhododendrons, Catawbiense, v, 146, 147. 
Rhododendrons, cultivated, v. 145. 
Rhododendrons, hybrid, v. 145. 
Rhododendrons, Javanese, v. ?46, 147- 
Rhododendros, v, 129, 137- 
Rhodora, v, 143- 
Rhodorastrum, v- 144- 
Rhodothamnus Kamischaticus, v, 144. 
Rhus, iii. 7, 
Rhus, iii, 1, 

Rhus aromatica, iii. 10. 
Rhus Canadensis, iii, 10 ; xiv, 99- 
Rhus copalllna, iii. 19 ; xiv. 100, 
Rhus copallina, var- angustialata, iii, 21. 
Rhus copallina, var, angustifolia, iii- 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. integrifolia, iii, 21. 
Rhus copallina, var, lanceolata, iii. 20. 
Rhus copallina, var. latialata, iii. 21. 
Rhus copallina, var- latifolia, iii, 21, 
Rhus copallina, var, leucantha, iii. 21, 



Khus copallina, var. serrata, iii, 21. 
Khus Coriaria, iii. 9, 

Rhus cotinoideSy iii. 3. 
Rhus Cotinus^ iii. 2, 3- 
Rhus glabra, iii. 9, 16. 
Khus hirta, xiv. 99. 
Rhus hypselodendrorif xiv. 99» 
Khus integrifolia, iii. 27- 

Rhus integrifolia^ iii. 10. 

Rhus integrifoUa^ var, serrata, iii, 27, 

Rhus leucantha, iii. 21. 

Rhus lucida, iii. 10, 

Khus Metopium, iii. 13 ; xiv. 99. 

Khus ovata, iii. 10. 

Rhus Oxymetopium^ iii- 13- 

Khus semialata, iii, 9, 10, 

Rhus succedauea, iii. 8- 

Rhus Toxicodendron, iii, 9, 10. 

Rhus Toxicodendron, poisonous properties of, 

iii. 10. 
Rhus typhina, iii. 15 ; xiv- 99, 
Rhus typhina, xiv. 99. 
Rhus typhina^ jS viridiflora^ xiv. 100. 
Rhus typhinUy var. arborescens^ iii- 15- 
Rhus typhinay YB^v./rutescens^ iii, 15- 
Rhus venenatay iii. 23. 
Rhus vernicifera, iii. 8. 
Rhus Vernix, iii, 23. 
Rhus VerniXy iii. 8. 
Rhus viridiflorum, xiv. 99, 100, 
Rhus-tallow, iii. 9. 
Rhytisma acerinum, ii, 81, 
Rhytisma punctatum, ii, 81. 
Rhytisma salicinum, ix. 101. 
Rhytisma Sassafras, vii. 15, 
Rhytisma Vaccinii, v. 117. 
Riga Pine, xi. 5. 
Rigidse, ix, 96, 
Kingschale, xi, 11, 
Ripselaxis, ix. 95,^ 
Ripsoctis, ix, 95, 
River Birch, ix. 61. 
Rohertia, v, 163, 
Robirij Jean, iii. 38. 
Robin, Vespasien, iii, 38. 
Robiniaj iii. 37. 
Robinia bella-rosea, iii, 46. 
Robinia dubia, iii. 46. 
Robinia fastigiatay iii, 42. 
Robinia fragiliSf iii. 39. 
Robinia glutinosaj iii. 45. 
Robinia hispida, iii. 37- 
Robinia inermis, iii, 41. 
Robinia Neo-Mexicana, iii. 43. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, iii. 39. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. crispa, iii. 42. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var, Decaisneana, iii, 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. dissecta, iii. 42. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. inermis, iii. 41. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var, latisiliqua, iii. 42, 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. macrophylla, iii, 42. 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. microphylla, iii. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. monophylla, iii- 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var- pendula, iii. 42, 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. pyramidalis, iii. 

42, . 

Robinia Pseudacacia, var. tortuosa, iii- 42, 
Robinia Pseudacacia, var. umbrae ulif era, iii. 

Robinia spectabilis, iii. 41- 
Robinia stricta^ iii, 42. 

Rohinia Utterharti^ iii. 41- 

Robinia viscosa, iii, 45- 

RobuTy viii. 4, 

Rock Cedar, x, 91. 

Rock Chestnut Oak, viii, 51. 

Rock Elm, vii. 45, 47. 

Kock Maple, ii, 97. 

Rock Oak, viii. 56, 

Rcestelia aurantiaca, x. 73. 

Roestelia Botryapites, x. 101, 

Rcestelia cornuta, iv, 70. 

Rcestelia pyrata, iv, 70, 84. 

Rcestelise on Pyrus and Crataegus, iv- 70, 84 

Romaleum atomarium, vii, 64. 

Romans, Bernard, iv. 5. 

Rosacea, iv. 1 ; xiii. 21, 

Rose Apple, v, 41. 

Rose Bay, v. 148, 

RoseEe, ix. 96. 

Rosemary Pine, xi. 113. 

Rosin, xi, 3, 

RospidioSy vi. 1. 

Rothrock, Joseph Trimble, viii. 92. 

Roumea coriaceay vii- 27, 

Rowan-tree, Scottish, iv. 69. 

Royal Palm, x. 31- 

RuBiACE^, V. 103 ; xiv, 25. 

Rudbeckiay v, 23- 

Rugei, Ferdinand, ix. 110. 

Rugelia, ix. 110, 

Rugenia, v, 39. 

Rum Cherry, iv, 45, 

Running Oak, viii. 115. 

Russian Mulberry, vii. 76- 

Rust, Spruce, xii. 26. 

Rusts on Pyrus, iv. 70, 

RuTACE^, i, 65, 

Rydberg, Per Axel, xiv. 69. 

Sabalj X. 37, 

Sabal Adansoni^ x. 38, 

Sabal, economic properties of, x, 38. 

Sabal Etonia, x. 38. 

Sabal, fungal diseases of, x. 38* 

Sabal, germination of, x. 38- 

Sabal glabra, x. 38. 

Sabal Mexicana, x. 43. 

Sabal minoTy x. 38. 

Sabal Palmetto, x. 41. 

Sabal Palmetto (?), x, 43. 

Sabal pumiluy x. 38, 

Sabal serrulatUy xiv, 76* 

Sabicii, iii- 127, 

Sabina, x. 70. 

Sabinay x, 69. 

Sabina Bermudianay x, 70, 

Sabina Californicay x, 79, 

Sabina excelsa, x, 71- 

Sahina flacciday x. 83, 

Sabina gigantea, x, 70, 141, 145- 

Sabina isophyllosy x. 71. 

Sabina Mexicana, x. 70, 

Sabina occidentalisy x. 87. 

Sabina osteospermay x, 79. 

Sabina pachyphl(eay x, 85. 

Sabina plochy derma y x. 85. 

Sabina polycarposy x. 71. 

Sabina proceray x. 70. 

Sabina recurva, x- 70, 

Sabina recurvay var- a tenuifoliay x. 70. 

Sabina recurvay var. fi densay x. 70. 

Sabina religiosay x. 70. 

Sabina squamatay x. 71. 

Sabina tetragonay x. 91. 

Sabina Virginiana^ x. 93, 
Sabine, Joseph, xi, 97. 
Sabinea, xi- 97. 

Sacidium Symploci, vi. 14. 
Sack-bearer, Larch, xii. 5. 
Sadler, John, viii. 62. 

Salicace^, ix, 95. 
Sallcine, ix. 100, 
Salix, ix. 95. 
Salix jEgyptiacay ix, 98. 
Salix Alaxensis, xiv. 65, 
Salix alba, ix, 98. 

Salix alba, economic properties of, ix. 98. 

Salix alba in the United States, ix. 98- 

Salix alba, )3, ix, 98. 

Salix albay & vitellinUy ix, 98* 

Salix albay y, ix, 98. 

Salix albay subspec, PameachianUy ix, 97, 

Salix alba, var. ccerulea, ix. 98. 

Salix alba x lucida, ix, 97, 

? Salix ambigua, ix. 103, 

Salix amplexicaulisy ix, 100. 

Salix amplif olia, xiv- 67* 

Salix amygdaloides, ix. 111. 

Salix, androgynous aments of, ix, 95. 

Salix angustata, ix, 136. 

Salix angustata crassa, ix. 136. 

Salix argutay ix. 116- 

Salix arguta lasiandray ix. 115. 

Salix argyrocarpa X phylicifolia, ix, 97* 

Salix argyrophylhy ix, 124, 

Salix australisy ix. 98. 

Salix Austriacay ix- 100. 

Salix balsamifera, xiv. 63. 

Salix balsamifera alpestris, xiv. 63* 

Salix balsamifera lanceolata, xiv, 63. 

Salix balsamifera typica, xiv, 63. 

Salix balsamifera vegeta, xiv, 63, 

Salix Baumgarteniana^ ix, 100. 

Salix Bebbiana, ix, 131 ; xi'' 104- 

Salix bifurcaiay ix, 100. 

Salix Bigelovii, ix. 139. 

Salix Bigeloviiy a latifoliay ix. 139. 

Salix Bigeloviiy b angustifolia, ix. 139. 

Salix Bigeloviiy var. fusciory ix. 139- 

Salix higemmis, ix, 99. 

Salix Bonplandiana, ix. 119. 

Salix Bonplandianay ^ pallida, ix. 119, 

Salix Bonplandianay BnhB^ec, palliday ix. 119. 

Salix brachystachysy ix. 142. 

Salix hrachystachySy Scouleriana crassijuUsy 

ix. 142. 
Salix brachystachySy subspec. Scoulerianay ix* 

Salix brachystachySy subspec. Scouleriana 

tenuijuliSy ix. 142. 
Salix Cantoniensis, ix, 98* 
Salix Capensisy ix, 98. 
Salix capreoidesy ix, 142, 
Salix Carniolicay ix. 100, 
Salix Carolinianay ix. 103. 
Salix cinereay ix, 99. 
Salix ccerulea, ix. 98. 
Salix concoloTy ix. 100, 
Salix cordata, ix, 135. 

Salix cordata, ^ angustatay 1° discolor^ ix. 107, 
Salix cordata, y Mackenzieana, ix, 135, 
Salix cordata, subspec. angustata, ix. 136. 
Salix cordata, subspec. angustata discolory ix. 


Salix cordatay subspec. angustata viridula, ix. 


Salix cordatay subspec. angustata vitellina, ix, 






Salix cordata^ subspec. Mackenzieana^ ix. 135, 
Salix cordata^ subspec, rigida^ ix. 136, 
Salix cordata^ subspec. rigida, a laiifoliay is. 

Salix cordata^ subspec, rtgida^ h angustifolia^ 

is. 136, 
Salix cordata^ subspec. rigiday d vestilat ix, 

Sctlix cordata^ var. ialsamiferay xiv, 63. 
Salix cordatGy var, luteUf ix, 136. 
Salix cordata, var, Mackenzieana, ix. 135. 
Salix cordataj var. myricoides, ix. 97. 
Salix cordata, var. rigida, ix, 136. 
Salix cordata^ var. vestila, ix, 136, 137. 
Salix cordata x Candida, ix. 97- 
Salix cordata X incana, ix. 97- 
Salix cordata x petiolaris, ix. 97, 
Salix cordata X rostrata^ 135. 
Salix cordata X sericea, ix, 97. 
Salix cordata X vagansj ix, 135- 
Salix Coulterij ix. 149. 
Salix crassa, ix. 134, 
Salix cuneata, ix, 149, 
Salix daphnoides, ix. 99. 
Salix daphnoidesj economic properties of, ix. 

Salix decipiensy ix, 99. - 
Salix discolor, ix. 133. 
Salix discolor, ix, 100. 
Salix discolor^ subspec. eriocepJiala^ ix, 134, 
Salix discoloTf subspec. eriocephala var. parvi- 

Jloraj ix. 134. 
Salix discolor, subspec, eriocephala^ var- 

ru/escens, ix. 134, 
Salix discolor, subspec. prinoides, ix, 134, 
Salix discolor, var, eriocephalaj ix. 134, 
Salix discolor, var, prinoides, ix. 134. 
Salix, economic properties of, ix. 100. 
Salix Elbrusensis, ix. 100, 
Salix eriocephala, ix, 134, 
Salix excelsa, ix. 99. 
Salix exigua, ix, 124, 
Salix falcaia, ix. 97, 104, 
Salix Fendleriana^ ix, 116, 

Salix Jissa, ix, 99- 

Salix JlavescenSy ix. 141, 142. 

Salix JiavescenSiY&x. capreoides, ix. 142, 

Salix Jlavescens, var. Scouleriana, ix. 142, 

Salix flavo-vir ens, ix. 103, 

Salix fiexihilis, ix. 98. 

Salix fluviatilis, ix. 123. 

Salix fluviatilis, var, argyropbylla, ix, 124. 

Salix fluviatilis, var. exigua, ix. 124. 

Salix Forhyana, ix. 99. 

Salix fragilior, ix. 99, 

Salix fragilis, ix, 99. 

Salix fragilis in the United States, ix, 99. 

Salix frag illima, ix, 99. 

Salix, fungal diseases of, ix. 101. 

Salix Gariepina, ix. 98. 

Salix Gmelini, ix. 99. 

Salix Helix, ix. 99- 

Salix heterophylla, ix. 98. 

Salix Hindsiana, ix. 127- 

Salix Hindsiana tenuifolia, ix. 127. 

Salix hippophaefolia^ ix. 100, 

Salix hirsuta, ix. 98. 

Salix Hoffmanniana, ix. 115. 

Salix Hookeriana, ix. 147. 

Salix Houstoniana, ix. 103- 

Salix Humboldtiana, ix. 97. 

Salix Humboldtiana, suhs-pee. falcata, ix. 98. 

Salix Humholdtiana, subspec. Martiana^ ix. 


Salix Humholdtiana^ subspec. oxyphylla, ix. 

Salix, hybrids of, ix, 97. 
Salix, insect enemies of, ix. 100. 
Salix Kochiana^ ix. 100. 
Salix laevigata, ix. 113. 
Salix l£evigata, var. angustifolia, ix. 113. 
Salix laevigata, var. congesta, ix, 113. 
Salix Lamhertiana^ ix. 99. 
Salix lancifolia, ix, 116. 
Salix lasiandra, ix. 115. 
Salix lasiaodra, var, caudata, ix. 116. 
Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana, ix. 116, 
Salix lasiandra, var. lancifoliay ix, 116, 
Salix lasiandra, var. Lyallii, ix. 116, 
Salix lasiandra, var. typica^ ix, 115, 
Salix lasiolepis, ix. 139. 
Salix lasiolepis, var. Bigelovii, is. 139, 140, 
Salix lasiolepis, var. (?)fallax, ix. 139, 140. 
Salix Ledebouriana, ix, 100, 
Salix ligustrina, ix, 103. 
Salix longifoliay ix. 99, 123, 
Salix longifolia angustissima, ix. 124. 
Salix longifolia argyropJtylla, ix. 124. 
Salix longifolia opaca, ix. 124. 
Salix longifolia pedicellata, ix. 123, 
Salix longifolia, var. exigua, ix- 124. 
Salix longipes, ix. 109. 
? Salix longipes pubescens, ix, 103. 
Salix longistylis, xiv. 65. 
Salix lucida, ix. 121. 

Salix lucida angustifolia lasiandra, ix. 116. 
Salix lucida latifolia, ix, 121. 
Salix lucida ovatifolia^ ix. 121. 
Salix lucida pilosa, ix. 121, 
Salix lucida rigida^ ix. 121. 
Salix lucida tenuis, ix, 121. 
Salix lucida, subspec. macrophylla, ix. 116. 
Salix lucida, var. angustifolia, forma pilosa, 

ix. 121, 
Salix lutea, ix. 136- 
Salix Madagascariensis, ix. 98. 
Salix Magellanica, ix, 97, 
Salix Martianay ix. 97, 
Salix, medical properties of, ix. 100. 
Salix membranacea, ix. 99. 
Salix micropTiylla^ ix. 129. 
Salix mirabilis, ix. 100. 
Salix Missouriensis, ix, 137 ; xiv. 104. 
Salix mollissima, ix, 99, 
Salix monadelpha, ix. 100. 
Salix monandra, ix. 99- 
Salix Monspeliensis, ix. 99, 
Salix mueronata, ix- 98. 
Salix myricoides, ix. 97, 136. 
Salix myricoides, a cordata, ix. 136. 
Salix myricoides^ b rigida, ix. 136. 
Salix myricoides, c angustata, ix, 136. 
Salix Nevadensisy ix. 123. 
Salix nigra, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra amygdaloides, ix. 111, 
Salix nigra venulosa, ix. 109. 
Salix nigra, a angustifolia^ j3 longifolia, ix, 

Salix nigra, b latifolia, a brevijulis, ix, 103. 
Salix nigra, b latifolia, fi longijulis, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra^ b latifolia, y brevifolia, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra, b latifolia, y brevifolia testacea, 

XX. 103. 
Salix nigra, j8 latifolia, ix. 103, 
Salix nigra, subspec. longipes, ix, 109. 
? Salix nigra, subspec. longipes gongylocarpa, 

ix, 103. 
Salix nigra, subspec. longipes venulosa, ix. 109. 

Salix nigra, subspec. marginata, ix. 103. 

Salix nigra, subspec. Wrightii, ix. 109. 

Salix nigra, var, falcata, ix. 104, 

Salix nigra, var. Wardi, ix, 107. 

Salix nigra x alba, ix: 97. 

Salix nigra X amygdaloides, ix. 97- 

Salix Nuttallii, ix. 141. 

Salix Nuttallti, var. brachystachys, ix. 142. 

Salix Nuttallii, var. capreoides, ix, 142. 

Salix occidentalis, ix, 109- , 

Salix occidentalis, var. longipes, ix. 109. 

Salix olivacea, ix. 99, 

Salix oppositifolia, ix. 100. 

Salix oxyphylla, ix. 97, 

Salix pallida, ix. 98, 100, 119. 

Salix pendulina, ix. 100, 

Salix peniandra, (?) ix. 103. 

Salix pentandra, caudata, ix. 116. 

Salix persicifolia, ix. 99. 

Salix petiolaris X Candida, ix, 97. 

Salix Piperi, ix, 145. 

Salix Pomeranica, ix. 99. 

Salix Pontederana, ix. 100. 

Salix prmcox, ix. 99. 

Salix pratensis, ix, 99, 

Salix prinoides, ix. 134, 

Salix purpurea, ix, 99, 

Salix purpurea, v Lamhertianaj ix. 100. 

Salix Purshiana, ix. 104. 

Salix pyrifolia, xiv- 63. 

Salix Reuteri, ix. 99, 

Salix rigida, ix. 136. 

Salix rosea, ix. 100. 

Salix rostrata, is. 131. 

Salix rubra, ix. 99, 123- 

Salix Russelliana, ix. 99. 

Salix Scouleriana, ix. 142, 149# 

Salix sensitiva, ix. 133- 

Salix serotina, ix. 99. 

Salix sessilifolia, ix. 127. 

Salix sessilifolia Hindsiana, ix. 127. 

Salix sessilifolia, 3 villosa, ix, 127. 

Salix Sitchenis, ix. 149 ; xiv- 105. 

Salix Sitchensis congesta, ix. 149, 

Salix Sitchensis denudata, ix. 149, 

Salix speciosa, ix. 116 ; xiv. 65. 

Salix speciosa, Alaxensis, xiv. 65. -■ 

Salix splendens, ix. 98. 

Salix taxifolia, ix. 129. 

Salix taxifolia, var. a sericocarpa, ix. 129. 

Salix taxifolia, var. j3 leiocarpa, ix, 129, 

Salix tenuijulis, ix- 100. 

Salix Torreyana, ix, 136. 

Salix vagans, b occidentalis, ix. 131. 

Salix vagans, $ rostrata, ix. 131. 

Salix vagans, subspec. rostrata, ix. 131. 

Salix viminalis, ix. 99- 

Salix virescens, ix- 99. 

f Salix virgata, ix. 103, 

Salix vitellina, ix. 98- 

Salix Wardi, ix. 107 ; xiv. 104. 

Salix Wargiana, ix. 99, 

Salix WImmeriana, ix. 100. 

Salix Woolgariana, ix. 100, 

Salix Wrightii, ix. 109- 

Samarpses, vi. 25. 

Samarpses triptera, vi, 55. 

Sambucus, v. 85. 

Sambucus adnata, v. 86. 

? Sambucus australis, v. 86- 

Sambucus bipinnata, v, 86- 

Sambucus bipinnata, v. 89, 

Sambucus Californica, v. 91. 
? Sambucus callicarpa, v. 91. 



Sambucus Canadensis^ v. 88. 

Sambncus Canadensis, var. Mexicana, v. 88, 

Sambucus cerulea^ v. 91, 92. 

Sambucus ChinensiSy v. 86. 

Sambucus Ebulus, v, 86. 

SambucuSj fungal enemies of, v. 86. 

Sambucus Gaudichaudiana^ v. 86. 

Sambucus glauca, v- 91 ; xiv. lOl, 

Sambucus glauca^ v. 88, 89, 

Sambucus graveolens, v. 86. 

Sambucus Jium^ilis^ v- 89. 

Sambucus Javanicaj v. 86. 

Sambucus Madeirensis, v- 86, 

Sambucus Mexicana, v. 88, 91, 

Sambucus nigra, v. 86. 

Sambucus nigra, v. 85, 89. 

Sambucus Palmensis, v, 86. 

Sambucus Peruviana, v, 86. 

Sambucus pubens, v. 85. 

Sambucus pubens, var, arborescens^ v. 85, 
Sambucus pubescens, v. 85, 
Sambucus racemosa, v, 85- 
Sambucus repens, v. 89. 
Sambucus TTiunbergiana, v. 86. 
Sambucus velutinay v. 88. 
Sambucus vulgaris, v. 86. 
. Sambucus Williamsii, y. 85, 
Sambucus xantbocarpa, v. 86. 
Sand Jack, viii. 172. 
Sand Pine, xi. 127- 
Sand-bar Willow, ix. 123. 
Sandhill Haw, xili, 161, 
Saperda bivJttata, iv. 70, 
Saperda calcarata, ix, 155, 
Saperda discoidea, vii, 133. 
Saperda tridentata, vii, 41, 
Saperda vestita, i. 50, 
Sapindace^, ii, 51 ; xiii. 3. 
Sapindus, ii- 67- 

Sapindus acuminatus, ii- 71 ; xiii. 5, 6. 
Sapindus Drummondi, xiii, 5. 
Sapindus Drummondi, ii. 71. 
Sapindus falcatus y ii. 71 ; xii, 5- 
Sapindus lucidus, ii. 75. 
Sapindus Manatensis, ii, 71 ; xiii, 5, 
Sapindus marginatus, ii. 71 ; xiii- 5- 
Sapindus rmrginatus, xiii, 6, 
Sapindus Mukorossi, ii. QS, 
Sapindus Saponaria, ii. 69. 
Sapindus Saponaria, ii. 71 ; xiii, 5, 6, 
Sapindus Saponaria, detersive properties of, 
ii. 68. 

Sapindus trifoliatus, ii. 68, 
Sapotace^, v. 159- 

Sapota costata, v, 163, 

Sapota MuUeri, v. 182. 

Sapota nigra, vi. 3. 

SarcompJialuSy ii. 31, 

Sarcomphalus Carolinianus, ii. 35. 

Sarcoyucca, x- 3, 

Sargentia Aricocca, x. 34, 

Sargent's Hemlock, xii. QQ. 

Sariava, vi. 13. 

Sassafras, vii. 13, 17. 

Sassafras albidum, vii. 17, 

Sassafras, fungal diseases of, vii- 15. 

Sassafras, insect enemies of, vii, 15. 

Sassafras, medical properties of, vii. 14, 


Sassafras officinale^ vii- 17- 
Sassafras, oil of, vii. 14, 
Sassafras Sassafras, vii. 17 ; xiv. 102. 
Sassafras variifolium^ vii- 17. 
Satinwood, i. 71, 

Saul's Oak, viii- 18, 
Savicii, iii. 127- 
Savin, x. 93, 
Savin oil, x. 72. 
Sawara, x- 99- 
Saw-fly, Larch, xii. 5. 
Saxifragace^, iv. 133. 
Scale, Fluted, vii. 20. 

Scarlet Haw, iv. 95, 99 ; xiii. 61, 93, 103, 

139, 143, 147- 
Scarlet Maple, ii. 107. 
Scarlet Oak, viii, 133- 
Sceura, vi, 105. 
Sceura marina, vi- 106- 
SchaefEer, Jakob Christian, ii. 15. 
Schffifferia, ii, 15. 
Schmfferia huxifolia^ ii. 17. 
Schmfferia completa, ii. 17. 
Schsefferia cuneata, ii. 15- 
Schsefferia frntescens, ii, 17. 
Schmfferia lateriflora^ vii. 27. 
Schinus Fagara^ i. 73- 
Schizoneura Americana, vii. 41- 
Schizoneura pinicola, xi. 11. 
Schizoneura tessellata, ix- 70. 
Schmalzia, iii, 7- 
SchoUera, v. 115. 
SckoUera Oxycoccus^ v, 116. 
Schott, Arthur Carl Victor, x. 18. 
Schousboa commutata, v. 29. 
Schuhertia, x. 149. 
Schubertia disiicha, x, 151- 
Schuberlia distichia, ^, x. 152. 
Schubertia disticJia, y, x. 152. - 
Schubertia sempervirens, x. 141- 
Sciadophila, ii. 31. 
Sciadophjllum Jaequinii, i, 42, 
Sciapteron robinise, iii, 38. 
Sclerocladus, v. 167- 
Sclerocladus tenax, v. 169. 
Scleroderris Sequoias, x, 140, 
Sclerozus tenax, v- 169, 
Seolytus Fagi, vii- 64. 
Scolytus 4'Spinosus, vii. 133- 
Scolytus unispinosus, xii- 84- 
Seopelosoma Moffatiana, v, 2. 
Scoria, vii. 131, 134. 
Seorias spongiosa, is, 124. 
Scotch Fir, xi, 5, 
Scotch Pine, xi, 5. 
Scouler, John, ix. 66. 
Scouleria, ix, 66. 
Screw Bean, iii, 107- 
Screw-pod Mesquite, iii. 107- 
Scrub Oak, viii. 75, 95, 123, 145, 155. 
Scrub Pine, xi. 89, 123. 
Scurfy Bark-louse, iv. 70. 
Scutia ferrea, ii. 21, 29. 
Sea Grape, vi, 115- 
Seaside Alder, ix. 81. 
Sebastiania lucida^ vii- 30, 
Sebesten, vi. 67, 
Sebestena officinalis, vi. 68- 
Sehestena scabra^ vi. 71, 
Sebestens, vi. 68. 
Seiridium Liquidambaris, v- 9. 
Selandria Cerasi, iv, 11, 
Selandria Quercus-alba, viii, 12. 
Semidopsis^ ix. 67, 

Semiothisa bisignata, si. 11. 
Senneberia, vii- 9, 
Septoria acerina, ii. 81- 
Septoria cerasina, iv. 12. 
Septoria cornicola, v. 65. 

Septoria Liquidambaris, v. 9, 
Septoria ochroleuca, ix. 10, 
Septoria Symploci, vi, 14, 
Septoria Yuecee, x, 5, 
SeptospbEeria Madura^, vii, 87. 
Sequoia, x- 139 ; xiv- 106. 
Sequoia, fungal diseases of, x. 140. 
Sequoia gigantea, x. 141, 145, 
109, Sequoia, insect enemies of, x. 140. 
Sequoia religiosa, x, 141, 
Sequoia sempervirens, x. 141 ; xiv, 106. 
Sequoia Wellingtonia, x, 145 ; xiv. 106, 
Sequoia Wellingtonia, weeping, x- 147, 
Sequoyah, x, 140, 
Serenoa, vii. 108 ; xiv, 75. 
Sereuoa arborescens, xiv, 77, 
Serenoa, fungal diseases of, xiv, 76, 
Serenoa serrulata, xiv. 76. 

Serenoa serrulata, economic properties of, 
xiv- 76. 

Serenoa serrulata, medical properties of, xiv- 

Service Berry, iv- 127, 131. 

Seventeen^year Cicada, viii. 11, 

Shad Bush, iv. 127. 

Shagbark Hickory, vii- 153 ; xiv. 45. 

She Balsam, xii. 105. 

Sheepberry, v, 96. 

Shellbark, Big, vii. 157. 

Shellbark, Bottom, vii, 157- 

Shellbark Hickory, vii. 153- 

Sherard, James, i. 77, 

Shibu, vi- 4- 

Sbii-take, cultivation of, viii. 11, 

Shillings, bay, xi, 20. 

Shin Oak, viii- 27, 33, 75. 

Shingle Oak, viii. 175. 

Shining Willow, ix. 121. 

Shittim-wood, ii. 38. 

Short4eaved Pine, xi. 143, 

Siberian Spruce, xii. 25. 

Sideroxylon chrysophylloides, v, 169. 

Sideroxylon decandrum,^. 173. 

Sideroxylon IcEve, v- 173. 

Sideroxylon lanuginosum, v. 171. 

Sideroxylon lycioides, v. 173- 

Sideroxylon reclinatum, v, 168. 

Sideroxylon salicifolium, v, 179, 

Sideroxylon sericeum, v. 169. 

Sideroxylon tenax, v. 169, 

? Sideroxylon tenax, v- 171. 

Sideroxylum, v. 163- 

Sideroxylum attenuatum, v- 164. 

Sideroxylum costatum, v, 163, 

Sideroxylum dulcificum, v, 164. 

Sideroxylum inerme, v. 163- 

Sideroxylum Mastichodendron, v. 165. 

Sideroxylum Mermulana, v. 163. 

Sideroxylum pallidum, v. 165- 

Sieber, Franz Wilhelm, v. 16^. / 1^/- 

Siliquastrum, iii, 93, 94. 

Siliquastrum cordatum^ iii. 95. 

Silk-culture, vii, 76-. 

Silk-top Palmetto, x, 51. 

Silk-worms, Oak, viii, 3- 

Silk-worms on Toxylon, vii. 87- 

Silver Bell Tree, vi, 21, 23. 

Silver Fir, xii, 129- 

Silver Maple, ii, 103- 

Silver-top Palmetto, x. 53- 

Simarouba, i- 90- 

Simaruba, i. 89- 

Simaruba amara, i- 89. 

Simaruba glauca, i. 89, 91. 



Simaruha medicinalisj i. 91. 
Simaruha officinalis^ i. 91. 
Simaruba Tulte^ i. 89. 
Simaruba versicolor^ i, 89- 

SlMARUBE^, i, 89- 

Sinoxylon basilare, vii. 133. 

Sinosylon decline, vii. 20. 

Siphoneugena, v. 39. 

Siphonophora liriodendrij i. 18, 

Sitka CypresSj x. 115. 

Sitka Sprace, xii. 55. 

Slash Pine, xi. 113, 157. 

Slippery Elm, i. 47 ; vii. 53- 

Sloe, iv. 10, 27, 33 ; xiii, 21, 23. 

Sloe, Blackj iv. 33. 

Small, John Kunkel, xiii. 21, 

Small-fruited Haw, iv. 105. 

Smerinthus Juglandis, vii- 116. 

Smilia Castanete, ix, 10. 

Smoke-tree, iii, 2. 

Snake Spruces, xii. 24. 

Snowdrop Tree, vi. 22, 23, 

Soapberry, ii, 69, 71 ; xiii. 5. 

Soft Maple, ii, 103, 

Sokolojiaj ix. 95, 

Soledad Pine, xi, 71. 

Solenandra, v. 103. 

Solenostigma, vii. 63, 

Solenostigma, vii. 63, 

Soleiiotinus, v- 93, 

SolenotinuSy v. 93. 

Sophora, iii. 59. 

Sophora affinis, iii. 65. 

Sophora chrysophylla, iii- 60- 

Sophora Europ^a, iii, 60, 

Sophora glauca, iii. 60, 

Sophora heptaphylla, iii. 60. 

Sophora Japonica, iii. 60, 

f SopJiora KentucJcea^ xiv, 100, 

Sophora secundifiora, iii, 63. 

Sophora seeuudiflora, economic uses of, iii. 

Sophora Sinica, iii. 60. 
Sophora speciosa, iii. 63, 
Sophora tetraptera, iii. 60. 
Sophora tomentosaj iii. 60. 
Sophora velutinay m. 60, 
Sophori, iii. 60, 
Sorbus, iv, 67 
SorbuSy iv. 67. 
Sorbus Amelanchier^ iv. 125. 
Sorhus Americana, iv. 79- 
Sorhus Americana^ var. microcarpa^ iv. 80, 
Sorbus aucupariay iv. 69, 79, 81. 
Sorbus aticuparia, i8, xiv. 101. 
Sorhus aucnparid, var, Americana, iv, 79- 
Sorhus aucuparia^ var. a, 80. 
Sorhus aucuparia, var. ;S, 81. 
Sorbus microcarpa, iv. 80. 
Sorbus occidentalism iv. 82, 
Sorhus pumilay iv. 82. 
Sorbus ripariay iv. 80. 
Sorbus sambucifolia^ iv. 81. - 
Sorhus SilchensiSy iv. 81. 
Sorrel Tree, v- 135, 
Soulard Crab, iv. 72. 
Sour Gum, v. 77, 
Sour Tupelo, v. 79. 
Sour Wood, V. 135- 
Soursop, i. 27. 
Southern Pine, xi. 151. 
Soymida febrifuga, 1. 101. * 

Spanish Bayonet, x, 6, 9- 
Spanish Buckeye, ii, 65, 

Spanish Chestnut, is. 9- 

Spanish Dagger, x. 9, 13, 15, 17, 23, 27, 

Spanish Oak, viii. 147. 

Spanish Oak, Swamp, xiv. 51, 

Spanish Stopper, v. 43. 

Spanish Wild Cherry, iv, 54. 

Sparkleberry, v. 119. 

Sph^erella laricina, xii. 5- 

Sphterella Maclurfej vii. 87. 

Sphterella sabaligena, x. 38. 

Sph^rella Taxodii, x. 150. 

Sphterella Umhellularia, vii, 20. 

Sphasria Cacti, xiv. 13. 

Sphairia collecta, vii. 87. 

Spbseria Collinsii, iv, 126. 

Spheeria morbosa, iv. 12. 

Sphteronema Robimte, iii- 38, 

Spheeronema Spina, vi. 27. 

Spheeropsis Gleditschise, iii. 74- 

Spbieropsis mamillaris, iii. 74. 

Sphseropsis minima, ii. 81. 

Spheerotheca lanestris, viii, 13. 

Sph^erotheca phytoptophylla, vii, 65. 

SphenocarpjuSj v. 27. 

Sphinx Catalpte, vi, 84- 

Sphinx drupiferarum, iv- 11, 

Sphyrapicus varius, ii. 109. 

Spice Tree, vii. 21, 

Spindle-tree, ii. 10, 12- 

Spiniluma, v. 163. 

Spmner, Chestnut, ix. 9, 

Spircea CalifomicUy iv, 59. 

Spirits of turpentine, xi. 9. 

Sponioceltis, vii. 63. 

Spoon Wood, V. 140, 

Sporocybe Robiniffi, iii, 38, 

Spruce beer, xii. 31. 

Spruce, Black, xii. 28. 

Spruce, Blue, xii. 47- 

Spruee, Colorado, sii. 47. 

Spruce, Douglas, xii. 87, 

Spruce, Engelmann, xii. 43. 

Spruce, European, xii. 23. 

Spruce gum, xii. 31. 

Spruce, Himalayan, xii- 22, 

Spruce, Norway, xii. 24, 

Spruce, Patton, xii. 77. 

Spruce Pine, xi. 127, 131, 146, 

Spruce, Red, xii. 33. 

Spruce Rust, xii. 26. 

Spruce, Siberian, xii. 25, 

Spruce, Sitka, xii. 55. 

Spruce, Tideland, xii. 55. 

Spruce, Weeping, xii. 51- 

Spruce, White, xii. 37, 43, 

Spruee-bud Worm, xii. 25, 

Spruce-cone Worm, xii. 25, 

Spruces, Snake, xii, 24, 

Stag Bush, V. 99, 

Staghorn Sumach, iii. 15, 

Star-apple, v. 160. 

Star-leaved Gum, v. 12, 

Steganoptycha claypoleana, ii. 53, 

Steganoptycha pinlcolana, xii, 5- 

Steganoptycha Ratzburgiana, xii, 25. 

Siemmatosiphum, vi- 13. 

Stenocalyx, v, 39. 

Stenocalyx Michelii^ v. 41. 

Stenosphenus notatus, vii. 133. 

Stictis versicolor, x. 140, 

Stink-bout, the, vii. 10- 

Stinking Cedar, x. 57, 

Stisseria, v. 181. 

Stone Pine, xi, 9. 

Stopper, V. 45, 47. 

Stopper, Gurgeon, v, 43, 

Stopper. Red, v. 49. 

Stopper, Spanish, v. 43. 

Stopper, White, v. 45, 

Storax, liquid, v. 8. 

Strasburg Turpentine, xii. 100. 

Streptothrix atra, x. 73, 

Striped Maple, ii. 85. 

Strobus, xi. 4, 

StrohuSy xi. 1. 

Stromhocarpa cinerascens, iii. 99. 

Strombocarpa odorata, iii. 107. 

Stromhocarpa pubescensy iii- 107. 

Strong Back, vi. 77. 

Strong Bark, vi. 78. 

Strongylocalyx, v. 39. 

Strychnodaphne, vii. 9. 

Stump growth of Pinus, xi. 4- 

StypJinolohium^ iii. 59. 

Styphnolohium affine, iii- 65. 

Styphnolobium Japonicum^ iii. 60- 

Styphonia, iii. 11. 

Styphonia^ iii, 7. 

Styphonia integrifolia, iii. 10, 27. 

Styphonia serrata, iii. 27. 

Stykace^, vi. 13. 

Styrax liquida folio minore, v, 8. 

Suber, viii. 4. 

Sucker City Plum, iv. 24. 

Sugar Apple, i. 27. 

Sugarberry, vii. 67, 71- 

Sugar Maple, ii. 97 ; xiii. 7. 

Sugar of Pinus Lambertiana, xi, 29. 

Sugar Pine, xi. 27, 

Sumac, iii, 11. 

Sumach, iii. 19. 

Sumach, Coral, iii. 14. 

Sumach of commerce, iii. 9- 

Sumach, Poison, iii. 23. 

Sumach, Staghorn, iii. 15. 

Sumach, Venetian, iii. 2. 

Sumach-beetle, Jumping, iii. 10. 

Summer Haw, iv. 113, 114 j xiii. 165. 

Surinam Cherry, v. 41. 

Suwarro, v- 53- 

Swamp Ash, vi. 55. 

Swamp Bay, i. 5 ; vii, 7, 

Swamp Cottonwood, ix. 163. 

Swamp Elm, vii. 45. 

Swamp Hickory, vii. 141. 

Swamp Pine, xi. 157, 

Swamp Spanish Oak, viii. 151 ; xiv. 51. ' 

Swamp White Oak, viii. 47, 63, 

Swartz, Olof, v. 44. 

Swartzia, v. 44. 

Swedish Juniper, x. 78. 

Sweet Bay, i. 5. 

Sweet Birch, ix, 52. 

Sweet Buckeye, ii. 69. 

Sweet Fern, ix. 84, 

Sweet Fern, medical properties of, ix. 84- 
Sweet Gum, v, 10. 

Sweet Leaf, vi. 15. 

Sweet Locust, iii. 77, 

Sweetsop, i. 27. 

Swieten, Gerard von, i. 99, 

Swietenia, i. 99. 

Swietenia Angolensis, i. 99. 

Swietenia humilis, i. 99. 

Swietenia macrophylla, i. 99, 100. 

Swietenia Mahagoni, i. 99, 100. 

Sycamore, vii. 102, 103, 105, 107, 109. 

Sycidium, vii. 92. 





Sycomorphe^ vii, 91, 
Sycomorus, vii- 103. 
Sycomorus, vii. 91, 
Sycomorus antiguorum, vii- 93. 
Syllysium^ v, 39, 
Sylvestres, xi. 4. 
Symplocos, vi. 13. 
SymplocoSf vi. 13- 
Symplocos Alstoniay vi- 14, 
Symplocos cratsegoides, vi, 14- 
Symplocos, economic uses of, vi. 14. 
Symplocos, fungal enemies of, yi, 14. 
Symplocos Hamiltonianay vi, 14, 
Symplocos Loha, vi. 14. 
Symplocos, medical properties of, vi. 14, 
Symplocos nervosa^ vi, 14. 
Symplocos phylloealyx, vi. 14. 
Symplocos polycarpUj vi. 14. 
Symplocos propinqua, vi. 14. 
Symplocos racemosa, vi, 14. 
Symplocos spicata, vi, 14. 
Symplocos theseformis, vi, 14, 
Symplocos tinctoria, vi. 15, 
Synmdrisy viii, 1. 

Synandrffi, ix. 97. 

Synarrhena^ v. 181, 

Synchytrium Vacciuii, v. 147. 

Syncecia, vii. 92, 

Synacia^ vii. 91, 

Syzygium^ v. 39. 

Syzygium Jamholanum, v, 41, 

Table-Mountain Pine, xi. 135. 

Tacamahac, ix. 167, 

Tacamahaca^ ix. 162, 

Tsedas, xi. 4. 

Tallow, Rhus, iii, 9. 

Tamala^ vii. 1. 

Tamala Borhonia^ vii, 4- 

Tamala palustrisy vii. 7, 

Tamarack, xii. 7, 11, 15. 

Tamarack Pine, xi, 90. 

Tamarind, Wild, iii. 129, 

Tamarinds, Manilla, iii, 132, 

Tan Bark Oak, viii. 183, 

Tan-bark, viii. 6. 

Tanihouca^ v, 19. 

Taphrina ccerulescens, viii. 13 ; ix, 2. 

Taphrina deformans, iv. 12. 

Tapbriua deformans, var. Wiesneri, iv. 12. 

Taphrina OstryEC, ix. 32. 

Taphrina Pruni, iv, 12. 

Taphrina purpurascens, iii. 10. 

Taphrina rhizophora, ix, 156, 

Tar, xi, 3, 8, 9. 

Tar of Juniper, x, 72. 

Tassajo, xiv. 17. 

TauzLu, viii. 8. 

Taxace^, 5. 55, 

Taxine, x. 63- 

Taxodium, s. 149, 

Taxodium ascetidensy x, 152, 

Tasodiam, buds of, x. 149, 

Taxodium, economic properties of, x, 150. 

Taxodium distichum, x, 151. 

Taxodium distichum^ x, 150, 

Taxodium distichum Mexicanum, x. 150, 

Taxodium disticJium pendulum, x. 152. 

Taxodium distichum Sinense pendulum^ x, 152. 

Taxodium distichum^ A patens ^ x. 151. 

Taxodium distichum, var, imbricarium, x, 

Taxodium, dry rot of, x, 150. 
Taxodium, fungal diseases of, x. 150, 

Taxodium giganteum^ x, 145. 
Taxodium, insect enemies of, x. 150, 
Taxodium Mexicanum^ x. 150. 
Taxodium microphyllum^ x. 152. 
Taxodium mucronulatum, x. 150, 
Taxodium sempervirensj x, 141. 
Taxodium sempervirens ?, xii. 129. 
Taxodium Sinense^ x, 152, 
Taxodium Sinense, y pendulum^ x, 152, 
Taxodium Waskingtonianum^ x. 145. 
Taxus, X. 61. 

Tasus baccata, x. 62, 

Taxus baccata^ x, 63, 65. 

Taxus baccata adpressa, x, 62, 

Taxus baccata cuspidata, x. 63. 

Taxus baccata Dovastonii, x, 62, 

Taxus baccata, economic properties of, x. 

Taxus baccata fastigiata, x. 62. 

Taxus baccata, poisonous properties of, x. 

Taxus haccatay jS, x. 63, 

Taxus haccatay minor^ x. 63. 

Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis, x. 63, 65. 

Taxus baccata, var. microcarpa, x. 62. 

Taxus baccata^ var. a brevifolia, x. QB. 

Taxus Boursieri, x. 65. 

Taxus 1)revifolia, x. 65, 

Taxus Canadensis, x, 63. 

Taxus Canadensis^ x, 65. 

Taxus cuspidata, x. 62. 

Taxus, economic properties of, x. 63. 
Taxus Florldana, x. 67. 
Taxus, fungal diseases of, x. 63. 
Taxus globosa, x. 63, 
Taxus Lindleyana, x. QQ. 
. Taxus luguhriSf x. 62. 
Taxus minor, x, 63. 
Taxus montana, x. 58, 67, 
Taxus nuciferay x, 5Q, 62. 
Taxus orientalis, x. 62. 
Taxus polyplcea, x, 62, 
Taxus tardiva, x, 63. 
Taxus Wallichiana, x. 62. 
Teichospora OpuntiEe, xiv. 13. 
Telea Polyphemus, viii. 12 ; ix, 32. 
Teleiandra, vii. 9. 
Telesmiay ix. 95, 
Tenoreay vii, 91. 

Tent-caterpillar, Forest, ix, 24. 
TephrocactuSy xiv, 9. 
Teras hastiana, vii, 87. 
Teras variana, xii. 25. 
Terminalia, v. 19, 
Terminalia, v. 19, 23. 
Terminalia Belerica, v. 20. 
Terminalia Buceras, v, 21. 
Terminalia Catappa, v. 20. 
Termiualia Chebula, v, 20. 
Tesota, iii, 49. 

Tetracheilos, iih 115. 

Tetraneura Ulmj, vii. 41. 

Tetranthera albida, vii. 17. 

Tetranthera? Californica, vii. 21. 

Tetranychus telarius, viii. 12 ; xii. 5. 

Tetraspermse, ix, 96. 

Thatch, xiv. 81. 

Thatch, Brittle, x, 53 ; xiv, 87. 

Therlna fervidaria, vi. 20, 

Therorhodion, v. 144. 

Thomas, David, vii. 48, 

Thorn, Cockspur, iv, 91 ; xiii, 39, 

Thorn, Newcastle, iv. 91. 

Thorn, Washington, iv. 107. 

Thorn, White, iv. 95. 

Three-thorned Acacia, iii, 75, 



Thrinax, x. 49 ; xiv. 79. 

Thrinax, xiv, 85. 

Thrinax argentea, x, 53 ; xiv. 85, 87. 

Thrinax argentea, var. Garheri, xiv, 85. 

Thrinax, economic properties of, x, 50. 

Thrinax excelsa, xiv- 79. 

Thrinax excelsa, xiv. 81. 

Thrinax Floridaua, xiv. 81. 

Thrinax Garheri, x. 50. 

Thrinax Garberi, xiv, 85. 

Thrinax Keyensis, xiv. 83. 

Thrinax microcarpa, x. 53 ; xiv. 80. 

Thrinax parviflora, x. 51 ; xiv. 79. 

Thrinax parviflora, xiv. 81, 87. 

Thrinax radiata, xiv. 85. 

Thuiay X. 125. 

. ThuicEcarpus, x, 69. 

Thuimcarpus JuniperinuSy x. 75. 
. Thuiopsis borealis, x. 115, 
Thuja, X. 125, 

Thujin, X. 124, 

Thujopsis, X. 97, 

Thujopsis borealis, x. 116. 

Thujopsis ? Standishii^ x. 124. 

Thujopsis Tchugatskoy, x. 116. 

Thujopsis Tchugatskoymy x. 116. 

Thurber, George, iii, 36. ' 

Thurberia, iii. 36. 

Thuya, X, 123. 

Thuya, X. 97, 133, 

Thuya acuta, x. 124. 

Thuya Andina, x. 134. 

Thuya Ckilensis, x. 134, 

Thuya Craiganay x, 135, 

Thuya decora, x, 124, 

Thuya Doniana, x, 134, 

Thuya, economic uses of, x. 124. 

Thuya excelsa, x, 115, 

Thuya fliformis^ x. 124, 

Thuya, fungal diseases of, x. 124. 

Thuya gigantea, x. 129 ; xiv. 105. 

Thuya gigantea, x, 124, 135, 136. 

Thuya gigantea, var, Japonica, x. 124. 

Thuya, insect enemies of, x. 124, 

Thuya Japonica, x. 124, 

Thuya Lobbiana, x. 130. 

Thuya Lobbii, x. 130. 

Thuya Menziesii, x- 129. 

Thuya ohtusa, x. 98, 126. 

Thuya occidentalis, x. 126 ; xiv. 105. 
Thuya odorata, x. 126. 

Thuya orientalis, x, 124. 

Thuya orientalis, var. j8 pendula, x. 124. 

Thuya pendula, x. 124, 

Thuya pisiferuy s, 98. 

Thuya pisif era, var. filifera, x. 99, 

Thuya pisif era, var, squarrosa^ x. 99, 

Thuya plieata, xiv. 105- 

Thuya plieata, x. 129, 130 ; xiv. 106. 

Thuya proeera, x. 126. 

Thuya sphmroidalis^ x. Ill, 

Thuya sphceroidea, x. 111. 

Thuya Standishli, x, 124. 

Thuya tetragona, x. 134. 

Thuyopsis, X, 98, 

Thya, X, 125. 

Thyridopteryx ephemerfeformis, x. 73, 124. 

Thyrsosma, v. 93. 

Tideland Spruce, xii, 55. 

Tilia, i, 49. 

Tilia alba, i. 50, 57. 

Tilia Americana, i, 52. 

Tilia Americana, i, 55, 

Tilia Americana Moltke, i. 53. 




Tilia Americana^ var. heterophylla^ i, 57. 

Tilia Americana^ var. puhescens^ i. 55. 

Tilia Americana^ var. Walteriy i, 55. 

Tilia argentea, i, 50, 

Tilia Canadensis^ i. 52. 

Tilia Carolinianaj L 52. 

Tilia dasystyla, i. 50. 

Tilia eucMora^ i. 50. 

Tilia glahra, i. 52. 

Tilia grata, i. 55. 

Tilia heterophjila, i. 50, 57 ; xiv. 97. 

Tilia heterophylla-nigray i, 57. 

Tilia lieterophylla^ var. alba^ i, 57. 

Tilia hybrida superba, i. 53, 

Tilia latifolia^ i. 52, 

Tilia laxiflora^ i, 55. 

Tilia Malmgreni, i. 49. 

Tilia Mexicana, i. 49, 

Tilia neglecta^ i. 52, 

Tilia nigra, i. 52, 

Tilia parvi/oUa, i- 50. 

Tilia paucifolia, i, 50. 

Tilia petiolaris, i, 50, 

Tilia platyphyllos, i, 50. 

Tilia pubescens, i, 55. 

Tilia pubescens, i. 52. 

Tilia pubescens, var, leptophylla, i. 56. 

Tilia stenopetala, i. 52. 

Tilia truncata, L 55, 

Tilia ulmifolia, i, 50, 

Tilia vulgaris^ i. 50. 
TiLiACE^j i. 49, 

Timeroya, vi. 109. 
Tingis Juglandis, vii. 116. 
Tinus, V. 93. 

Tinus, V. 93. 

Titi, ii. 7. 

Tobinia^ i. Q5, 

Tollon, iv- 123. 

Tomicus cacographus, xi. 11. 

Tomicus calligraphus, xi. 11. 

Tomicus Pinij xi. 11 ; xii. 25. 

Toothache-tree, i, 67. 

Torch-wood, i. 85. 

Torminalis, iv- 67. 

TorminariUj iv. 67- 

Tornillo, iii. 108. 

Torrey, John, si. 72, 

Torreya, x. 57. 

Torreya, x. 55. 

Torreya Californica^ x, 69. 

Torreya (?) grandis^ x. 56. 

Torreya Myristica, x, 59. 

Torreya nucifera, x. 56. 

Torreya taxifoUa^ x. 57, 

Torrubia, vi. 109, 

Tortrix fumiferana, sii. 25, 

Tortrix politanaj xi. 11. 

Tortrix quercifoliana, viii. 12. 

Tortworth Chestnut-tree, ix, 8. 

Toumeyj James William, viii. 93. 

Toxicodendron^ iii. 11. 

Toxicodendron pinnatum^ iii, 23. 

Toxicodendron typhinum, xiv. 99. 

Toxylon, vii, 85. 

Toxylon aurantiacum, vii. 89, 
Toxylon, economic uses of , vii. 86. 
Toxylon, fungal diseases of, vii. 87. 
Toxylon, insect enemies of, vii, 87, 
Toxylon Madura, vii. 89. 
Toxylon pomiferum, vii. 89- 
Toyon, iv, 123. 

Tradescant, John, i. 20, 
Tragia Alni^ ix. 70. 

Tragia crispa, ix. 70. 

Trametes Pini, xi, 11, 

Trametes suaveolens, ix. 101. 

Transparent Plum, iv. 26. 

Trask, Luella Blanche, xiii. 29. 

Tr^cnl, Auguste Adolph Lucien, x. 10. 

Tree, Lacquer, iii, 8, 

Trembling Poplar, ix. 155. 

Tremex Columba, vii. 133 ; ix. 24. 

Tremotis, vii. 91, 

Tremula, ix. 151. 

TricTiocarpus, iv. 7. 

Trichopodium, iii. 33, 

Trichosph£eria parasitica, xii, 101. 

Trilopus, V. 1. 

Trilopus dentata, v. 3. 

Trilopus estivalis, v. 3, ^ 

Trilopus nigra, v. 3. 

Trilopus parvifolia, v, 3. ,^ 

Trilopus rotundifolia, v. 3, 

Trilopus Virginica, v, 3. 

Trxmmatostroma Americanum, ix. 101, 

Trimmatostroma Salicis, ix. 101, 

Tripetaleia, xiv. 29. 

Tripetelus, v, 85. 

Tripetelus Australasicus, v. 86. 

Trithrinax, x. 38, 
Tsuga, xii. 59. 

Tsuga, xii, 83- 

Tsuga AjanensiSy xii, 21. 

Tsuga Albertiana, xii. 73. 

Tsuga Araragi, xii. 60. 

Tsuga Araragi, var. nana, xii, 60. 

Tsuga Brunoniana, xii. 61, 

Tsuga Canadensis, xii. 63 ; xiv. 106, 

Tsuga Caroliniana, xii, 69. 

Tsuga diversifolia, xii- 60. 

Tsuga Douglasii, xii. 87. 

Tsuga Douglasii brevibracteata, xii, 87,. 

Tsuga Douglasii fastigiata, xii. 87. 

Tsuga Douglasii, var, taxifolia, xii. 87. 

Tsuga dumosa, xii. 60- 

Tsuga, economic properties of, xii. 61. 

Tsuga, fungal diseases of, xii. 61, 

Tsuga heterophylla, xii. 73. 

Tsuga Hooheriana, xii, 77. 

Tsuga, insect enemies of, xii, 61. 

Tsuga Lindleyana, xii, 87. 

Tsuga macrocarpa, xii, 93. 

Tsuga Mertensiana, xii, 77 ; xiv. 106. 

Tsuga Mertensiana, xii. 73. 

Tsuga Pattoniana, xii. 77, 

Tsuga Pattoniana, var. Hooheriana, xii. 77- 

Tsuga (Pseudotsugd) Japonica, xii, 84. 

Tsuga Roezlii, xii. 77. 

Tsuga Sieboldii, xii. 60. 

Tsuga Sieboldii, B nana, xii, 60, 

Tsuga Sitchensis, xii. 55. 

Tsuga taxifolia, xii. 88. 

Tsuga Tsuja^ xii. 60. 

Tsusia, V. 144. 

Tuber brumale, viii. 7, 
Tuber melanosporum, viii. 7. 
Tubopadus, iv. 7, 
Tule, Cypress of, x. 150. 

Tulipastrum Americanum, i. 7, 

Tulipastrum Americanum, var. subcordatum, 
i. 8. 

Tulipifera, i, 17. 

Tulipifera Liriodendron, xiv. 97. 

Tulip-tree, i. 19. 

Tulip-tree, Chinese, L 17. 

Tumion, x, 55. 

Tumion Californicum, x. 59. 

Tumion Californicum, var. littorale, x, 59. 

Tumion, economic properties of, x, QQ, 

Tumion grande, x. 56. 

Tumion nuciferum, x. 56, 

Tumion taxifolium, x, 57. 

Tupelo, V. 75, 

Tupelo, V. 73, 

Tupelo Gum, v. 83. 

Tupelo, Sour, v. 79. 

Turkey Oak, viii, 143. 

Turpentine from Pinus echinata, xi. 146- 

Turpentine from Pinus palustris, xi, 154. 

Turpentine from Pinus Roxburghii, xi. 9. 

Turpentine, oil of, xi. 3, 8, 9. 

Turpentine, spirits of, xi. 9. 

Turpentine, Strasbnrg, xii. 100, 

Turpentine, Venice, xii. 4. 

Turpinia^ iii. 7. 

Tussock Moth, ix. 10, 101, 156, 

Tussock Moth, White-spotted, vii. 41. 

Ulmace^, vii. 39 ; xiv. 41, 

Ulmus, vii. 39. 

Ulmus alata, vii, 51, 

Ulmus alba, vii. 43, 

Ulmus Americana, vii. 43. 

Ulmus Americana, vii. 47. 

Ulmus Americana, a glabra, vii. 43- 

Ulmus Americana, a rubra, vii. 53, 

Ulmus Americana, j3 alba, vii. 43. 

Ulmus Americana, 3 scabra, vii. 43, 

Ulmus Americana, y alata, vii, 51, 

Ulmus Americana, y f Bartramii, vii- 43, 

Ulmus Americana, y pendula, vii, 43. 

Ulmus Americana, var. ? aspera, vii. 43. 

Ulmus aquatica, vii. 61. 

Ulmus campestris, vii. 40 ; xiv, 102, 

Ulmus campestris, vii. 40, 41. 

Ulmus campestris Chinensis, vii, 41, 

Ulmus campestris parvifolia, vii. 41, 

Ulmus Chinensis, vii. 41. 

Ulmus ciliata, vii. 41. 

Ulmus crassif olia, vii. 57. 

? Ulmus crispa, vii, 53. 

? Ulmus dentata, vii. 43. 

? Ulmus dimidiata, vii. 51, 

Ulmus, economic uses of, vii, 41, 

Ulmus effusa, vii. 41, 

Ulmus excelsa, vii, 40. 

Ulmus Floridana, vii. 43. 

Ulmus foUaceay vii, 40. 

Ulmus fulva, vii. 53 ; xiv. 103- 

Ulmus fulva, medical properties of, vii. 

Ulmus, fungal diseases of, vii, 42. 
Ulmus glabra, xiv. 102. 
Ulmus glabra, vii. 40. 
Ulmus Hollandica, vii. 40. 
Ulmus Hooheriana, vii, 40. 
Ulmus, insect enemies of, vii, 41. 
Ulmus Isevis, vii. 40, 41 ; xiv. 102. 
Ulmus lancifolia, vii. 40, 
Ulmus latifolia, xiv. 102, 
f Ulmus longifoUa, vii. 51. 
Ulmus Mexicana, vii. 40. 
Ulmus mollifolia, vii. 43, 
Ulmus montana, vii, 40, 
Ulmus nitens, xiv. 102, . 
Ulmus nuda, vii. 40. 
f Ulmus ohovata, vii, 43, 
Ulmus octandra, vii. 41. 
Ulmus opaca, vii. 57. 
Ulmus parviflora, vii. 41. 
Ulmus pedunculata, vii, 40, 



Ulmus pendula^ vii. 43. 

f Ulmus pinguis, vii. 53, 

f Ulmus pubescens ?, 53. 

Ulmus pumila, vii. 61. 

Ulmus racemosa^ vii. 47 ; xiv. 41, 102. 

Ulmus Tuhra^ vii- 53. 

Ulmus sativa, vii. 40, 

Ulmus scabra, vii. 40, 41 ; xiv- 102, 

Ulmus scabra, var. laciniata, vii. 40- 

Ulmus serotiua, xiv. 41, 102. 

Ulmus suherosa^ vii. 40, 

Ulmus surculosa^ xiv, 102, 

Ulmus tetrandray vii. 40. 

Ulmus Tbomasij xiv, 102. 

I Ulmus tomentosay vii. 43. 

Ulmus virgata^ vii. 41. 

Ulmus vulgaris, vii. 40, 

Ulmus Wallichiana, vii. 41- 

UmbelluJaria, vii. 19. 

Umbellularia Califormca, vii, 21, 

Umbellularia, fungal diseases of, vii. 20, 

Umbellularia, insect enemies of, vii. 20. 

Umbellularia, medical properties of, vii- 20. 

Umbellularia, oil of, vii, 20. 

Umbellulic acid, vii, 20. 

Umbo of PinuSj xi. 4. 

Umbrella-tree, i, 13, 

Una de Gato, iii. 125. 

Uncinula Aceris, ii, 81, 

Uncinula circinata, ii, 81, 

Uncimila flexuosa, ii, 54. 

Uncinula geniculata, vii. 77. 

Uncinula intermedia, vii- 42. 

Uncinula macrospora, vii. 42, 

Uncinula polychteta, vii, 64. 

Uncinula Salicis, ix. 101, 156. 

UnedOy V. 121. 

Unedo edulis^ v. 122. 

Ungnadia, ii- 63. 

Ungnadia heptaphylla^ ii. 65. 

Ungnadia heteropTiylla^ ii. 65. 

Ungnadia speciosa, ii. 65* 

Upata, vi, 105. 

Upata^ vi. 105. 

Upland Willow Oak, viii, 172. 

Uredinese on Pyrus, iv. 70, 

Uredo Citri, vii, 87. 

Uredo Quercus, viii, 13, 

Urnectisy is. 95- 

Uromyces brevipes, iii. 10, 

Urostigma, vii. 92. 

Urostigma, vii. 91, 

Urostigma affine^ vii, 94, 

Urostigma populneum^ vii, 97, 

Urostigma religiosum, vii, 94. 

Usionisy ix. 95. 

Uvaria^ i, 21. 

Uvaria triloba^ i. 23. 

Uvifera^ vi. 113, 

Uvifera Curtissii, vi, 119, 

Uvifera laurifolia, vi. 119. 

Uvifera Leoganensis^ vi. 115. 

Vaccinium, v. 115, 

Vaceinium album, v, 117, 
Vaccinium arboreum, v. 119 ; xiv. 102, 
Vaccinium corymbosum, v- 117. 
Vaccinium diffusum, v, 119, 
Vaccinium disomorphum^ v, 117, 
Vaccinium elevatum, v. 117- 
Vaccinium, fungal enemies of, v, 117. 
Vaccinium hispidulum, v, 116. 
Vaccinium lanceolatum, v, 117. 
Vaccinium macrocarpon, v. 116. 

Vaccinium mucronatum^ v. 119. 
Vaccinium MyrtUlus, v. 116, 
Vaccinium occidentale, v. 116. 
Vaccinium ovatum, v. 117. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccus, v. 116. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos, v. 116. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccus^, var, oUongifoliumy v. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccus^ var. ovalifolium^ v. 116, 

Vaccinium pubescens y v. 116, 

Vaccinium punctatumj v. 116, 

Vaccinium Sednense, v. 116, 

Vaccinium stamineum, v, 117, 

Vaccinium uliginosum, v- 116. 

Vaccinium Vitis Id^ea, v, 116. 

VacheUia, iii, 115, 

Vachellia Farnesiana, iii, 119. 

Vahl, Martin, v. 33. 

Vahlia, v. 33, 

Vail, Anna Murray, xiii, 154. 
Valley Oak, viii, 23. 
Valonia, viii, 8. 
Valonia Oak, viii. 8, 
Valsa ceratopliora, iii, 38, 
Valsa Liquidambaris, v- 89. 
Valsa Maclur®, vii. 87. 
Valsa nivea, ix. 156, 
Valsaria Diospyri, vi, 4, 
Valsaria HobiniEe, iii. 38. 
Vanessa Antiopa, ix. 100, 
Varach seeds, iv, 4. 
Varennea, iii, 29, 

Varennea polystachya^ iii. 29. 
Varinga^ vii. 91. 
Varroniay vi. 67, 
Varronia bullaia^ vi, 68. 
Vo,rronia globosa, vi. 68. 
Vasconcellea, xiv, 2. 
Vasconcellea, xiv, 1, 
Vasconcellea quercifolia, xiv- 3, 
Vasconcellosiaf xiv, 1. 
Vasconcellosia Tiastata, xiv. 3, 
Vanquelin, Louis Nicolas, iv. 57. 
Vauquelinia, iv. 57, 

Vauquelinia Californica, iv. 59- 
Vauquelinia corymbosa, iv. 57. 
Vauquelinia corymbosa, iv, 59, 
Vauquelinia Karwinskyi, iv. 57. 
Vauquelinia Torreyi, iv. 59. 
Vedalia cardinalis, vii, 20. 
Vegetable wax, iii. 8. 
Venetian Sumacb, iii. 2- 
Venice turpentine, sii, 4, 
Ventenat, Etienne Pierre, i. 58. 
Venturia Orbicula, viii. 13. 
Venturia sabalicola, x. 38. 
Vera de Coyote, xiv, 16, 
Verataxus, x, 61. 
Verbekace^, vi. 101, 
Vernix, iii, 7. 
Vetrixy ix, 95. 
Viborquia^ iii, 29, 
Vihorquia polystachya, iii, 29. 
Viburnum, v. 93, 
Viburnum, v, 93, 
Viburnum amblodes, v. 99- 
Viburnum Americanum, v. 94. 
Viburnum edule, v. 94. 
Viburnum ellipticum, v. 94. 
Viburnum ferrugineum^ xiv. 23- 
Viburnum, fungal enemies of, v. 94. 
Viburnum, insect enemies of, v, 94. 
Viburnum Lantana, v. 94. 
Viburnum Lentago, v. 96 ; xiv. 101. 

Viburnum Opulus, v. 94, 

Viburum Opulus Americanum, v. 94. 
Viburnum Opulus edule, v, 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Europeanum, v. 94. 
Viburnum Opulus Pimina, v. 94, 

Viburnum Opulus Pimina, var. subcordatum, 
V, 94, 

Viburnum Oxycoccus, v. 94. 
Viburnum prunifolium, v, 99. 

Viburnum prunifolium, xiv, 23, 

Viburnum prunifolium, & ferrugineum, xiv, 23. 

Viburnum prunifolium^ y^v. ferrugineum, v, 99, 

Viburnum pyrifoUum, v. 96, 99, 

Viburnum rufidulum, xiv. 23. 

Viburnum rufotomentosum, xiv, 23, 

Viburnum Tinus, v, 94, 

Viburnum tomentosum, v- 84. 

Viburnum trilobum, v, 94. 

Vieillardia, vi. 109. 

Vimen, ix. 95. 

Viminalis, ix. 97. 
Vinatico, vii. 2. 
Vine Maple, ii. 93. 
Vireya, v. 143. 
Virgilia, iii, 57, 
Virgilia lutea, iii. 57. 

Virgilia secundifloray iii. 63, 
Visiania, vii, 91- 
Vitis Idtea, v. 116. 
Vitis Idma, v. 115. 
Vyenomus, ii, 9. 

Wadsworth Oak, the, viii. 63. 

Wafer Ash, i, 76. 

Wahoo, ii, 11, 38 ; vii. 51. 

Wallia, vii- 113. 

Wallia cinerea, vii. 118. 

Wallia fraxinifolia, vii. 121. 

Wallia nigra, vii. 121, 

Wallia nigra macrocarpa, vii. 121, 

Wallia nigra microcarpa, vii. 121, 

Wallia pyriformis, vii. 115. 

Walnut, vii. 125, 129. 

Walnut, Black, vii, 121- 

Walnut Case-bearer, the, vii, 116. 

Walnut, Japanese, vii, 116, 

Walnuts, English, vii. 115, 

Walnuts, hybrid, vii, 114. 

Walter, Thomas, xi. 132, 

Walteriana Caroliniensis, ii, 7. 

Ward, Lester Frank, ix, 108. 

Warder, John Aston, vi, 90, 

Ware, Nathaniel A., i, 86, 

Washington Thorn, iv, 107- 

Washingtonia, x, 45, 

Washingtonia Californica, x. 145, 

Washingtonia filameiatosa, x. 47. 

Washingtonia flif era, x. 47. 

Washingtonia robusta, x. 46, 

Washingtonia Sonorse, x. 45. 

Watape, xii, 40, 

Water Ash, vi. 55 ; xiv. 39. 

Water Beech, vii. 103. 

Water Elm, vii. 43, 61. 

Water Hickory, vii, 149, 

Water Locust, iii, 79, / 

Water Oak, viii. 165, 169, 181, 

Watson, Serene, vii, 108. 

Wax, Chinese white, vi. 26. 

Wax, Myrica, ix- 85- 

Wax Myrtle, ix, 87, 91, 93. 

Wax, vegetable, iii. 8. 

Wax-tree, cultivation of, iii, 9. 

Wayland Plum, iv. 24. 



Weaver Plum, iv. 16. 
Weeping Beech, is. 24. 
Weeping Spruce, xii. 51. 
Weevil, White Pine, xi. 11. 
Wellingtonia, x. 139. 
Wellingtonia gtgantea, x. 145. 
West India Birch, 1. 97. 
Western Catalpa, vi. 89. 
Weymouth Pine, xi, 21. 
White Ash, vi. 43. 
White Beam-tree, iv. 69. 
White Birch, ix. 47, 55 ; xiv. 59. 
White Buttonwood, v. 29. 
White Cedar, x. Ill, 120, 126, 135. 
White Cypress, x. 153, 154. 
White Elm, vii. 43, 48. 
White Fir, xii. 117, 121, 125. 
White Heart Hickory, vii. 163. 
White Iron-vrood, ii. 77. 
White Mangrove, v. 29. 
White Mulberry, vii. 76. 

White Oak, viii. 16, 23, 29, 33, 71, 87, 89. 

White Oak, Evergreen, viii. 83. 

White Oak, Swamp, viii. 47, 63. 

White Pine, xi. 17, 23, 33, 35, 39. 

White Pine Weevil, xi. 11. 

White Poplar, ix. 154. 

White-spotted Tussock Moth, vii. 41. 

White Spruce, xii. 37, 43. 

White Stopper, v. 45. 

White Thorn, iv. 95. 

White Willow, ix. 139. 

White Wood, vii. 25. 

Whitewood, i. 37, 53. 

Wild Ash, iv. 80. 

Wild Black Cherry, iv. 45. 

Wild Cherry, iv. 37, 41 ; xiii. 25. 

Wild China Tree, ii. 71. 

Wild Cimiamon, i. 37. 

Wild DiUy, V. 183. 

Wild Goose Plum, iv. 24. 

Wild Lime, i. 73. 

Wild Orange, iv. 49. 

Wild Plum, iv. 19, 23, 31. 

Wild Red Cherry, iv. 35. 

Wild Tamarind, iii. 129. 

Willow, ix. 109, 119, 127, 129, 131, 135, 137, 

145, 147, 149 ; xiv. 63, 67. 
Willow, Almond, ix. 111. 
Willow, Bedford, ix. 99. 
Willow, Black, ix. 103, 107, 113, 115, 141. 
Willow, cultivation of, for basket-making, 

ix. 100. 
Willow, Desert, vi. 95. 
Willow, Diamond, ix. 136. 
Willow, Feltleaf, xiv. 65. 
Willow, Glaucous, ix. 133. 
Willow Oak, viii. 179. 
Willow Oak, Upland, viii. 172. 
Willow, Peach, ix. 111. 
Willow, Sand-bar, ix. 123. 
Willow, Shining, ix. 121. 
Willow, White, ix. 139. 
Wine, Birch, ix. 47. 
Winged Elm, vii- 51- 
WirUeraniaj i, 35. 

Winterania Canella^ i. 37, 
Wislizenia, vi. 94. 

Wislizenus, Friedricli Adolph, vi. 94. 
Witch Hazel, v. 3, 

Woodhouse, Samuel Washingtoiij viii. 88. 
Wool, Pine, xi. 3. 
Wright, Charles, i, 94. 
Wych Elm, vii. 40. 

Xantbopicrite, i. 66. 

Xanthoxylum, i, 65 ; xiv. 97. 

Xantboxylum Amerieanum, i. 65. 

Xanthoxylum aromaticunt, i- 67. 

Xanthoxylum brachyacanthum, i< GG, 

Xanthoxylum Caribceum^ i. 68, 71 ; xiv. 98. 

Xanthoxylum CaribcBum, var, Floridanum^ xiv, 


Xanthoxylum Carolinianumy i. 67. 

Xanthoxylum Cateshianum^ i. 67. 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, i. 67. 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis^ xiv. 98. 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, var. frutico- 
sum, i. 68. 

Xanthoxylum cribrosum, i. 71 ; xiv. 98, 

Xanthoxylum cribrosum^ xiv. 98. 

Xanthoxylum elatum, i, &Q. 

Xanthoxylum emarginatum, i. 65. 

Xantboxylum Fagara, i. 73. 

Xantboxylum flavum, xiv. 98. 

Xanthoxylum Floridanum^ i. 71 ; xiv. 98, 

Xanthoxylum fraxinifoliumy i. 67. 

Xanthoxylum hirsutum^ i. 68. 

Xanthoxylum nitidum, i. GG. 

Xantboxylum piperitum, i. 66. 

Xanthoxylum Pterota^ i. 73. 

Xanthoxylum Rhetsa, i. 74. 

Xanthoxylum Sumach^ xiv. 98. 

Xanthoxylum tricarpum^ i. 67- 

Xyleborus ccelatus, xii. 25, 

Xylodalea, iii. 33. 

Xylosma nitidum^ vii, 27- 
Xyloterus bivittatus, xi. 11 ; xii. 25. 

Yaupon, L 111. 

Yellow Bircb, ix- 53- 

Tellow Cypress, x. 115. 

Yellow Haw, iv- 113 ; xiii. 161. 

Yellow Locust, iii, 39- 

Yellow Oak, viii. 55, 127, 139. 

Yellow Pine, xi. 75, 77, 85, 143, 156. ' 

Yellow Poplar, i, 19, 

Yellow Wood, iii. 57. 

Yellow-bark Oak, viii. 139- 

Yellow-wood, ii. 17, 

Yew, X. 62, G5, 67- 

Yew, Florence Court, x. 62. 

Yew, Irish, x. 62. « 

Young Mastic, iii, 2. 

Yucca, X, 1- 

Yucca acuminata^ x. 23. 

Yucca agavoideSy x. 10- 

Yucca aloifolia, x, 6- 

Yucca aloifolia, var. & Draconis, x, 7, 

Yucca aloifolia, var, y conspicua, x. 7, 

Yucca angustifoliay j8 elata, x, 27. 

Yucca angusiifoUa, fi radiosa^ x. 27. 

Yucca arboreseens, x. 19. 

Yucca arcuata^ x. 6, 

Yucca aspera^ x. 9. 

Yucca AtJcinsiy x, 7- 

Yucca australiSj x. 4, 13, 

Yucca baccata, x, 16. 

Yucca baccata^ x. 13, 15, 17- 

Yucca iaccaia, fi austratis^ x. 4, 13. 

Yucca baccata^ var. macrocarpa^ x. 13. 

Yucca Boerhaaviiy x. 23- 

Yucca hrevifolia^ x. 19- 
Yucca canaliculata^ x. 9. 
Yucca Carrierei, x. 4, 
Yucca concava, x. 10, 
Yucca conspicua, x. 7. 
Yucca constricta, x, 27. 
Yucca cornuta, x. 10- 

Yucca crenulata, x. 6. 

Yucca, dissemination of, x. 3. 

Yucca Draconis, x. 4, 7, 

Yucca Draconis, var. arboreseens^ x. 19, 

Yucca, economic properties of, x. 4. 

Yucca data, x. 27. 

Yucca Bllacombei, x. 23, 25. 

Yucca ensifolia, x, 25- 

Yucca, fertilization of, x, 1. 

Yucca fibre, x. 4, 

Yucca filamentosa, x, 4, 

Xucca Jilamentosa f, x, 15, 

Yucca filifera, x, 4, 

Yucca filif era, x. 13. 

Yucca, fungal diseases of, x. 5- 

Yucca, germination of, x, 3. 

Yucca glauca, x. 25. 

Yucca gloriosa, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa acuminata^ x. 23, 

Yucca gloriosa, fructification of, x. 24- 

Yucca gloriosa glaucescens, x, 23^. 

Yucca gloriosa maculata, x. 23- 

Yucca gloriosa marginata, x. 25. 

Yucca gloriosa medio picta, x, 25. 

Yucca gloriosa minor, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa mollis, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa nobilis, x. 23, 24, 

Yucca gloriosa nohilis parvijlora^ x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa robusta, x. 23- 

Yucca gloriosa tristis^ x, 23, 

Yucca gloriosa^ var. Ellacombei, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa^ var. obliqua, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var, plicata, x. 24, 

Yucca gloriosa, var. pruinosa, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. superba, x. 24. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. tortulata, x, 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. y recurvifolia, x, 24. 

Yucca gloriosa, var, B planifolia, x, 25. 

Yucca Guatemalensis, x. 4. 

Yucca Haruckeriana, x. 7. 

Yucca, hybrids of, x. 4. 

Yucca, insect enemies of, x, 5, 

Yucca integerrima, x. 23. 

Yucca Japonica, x. 25, 

Yucca lineata lutea, x. 7. 

Yucca longifolia, x. 9- 

Yucea macrocarpa, x. 13, 

Yucca macrocarpa, x. 15, 17. 

Yucca Mobavensis, x- 15- 

Yucca Moth, X. 2- 

Yucca Motb, Bogus, x, 3. 

Yucca, nectar glands of, x. 3. 

Yucca, nocturnal opening of the flowers of, 
X. 2, 

Yucca obliqua, x. 23- 

Yucca patens, x, 23. 

Yucca pendula, x. 24. 

Yucca pendula variegata, x. 25, 

Yucca, pollination of, x. 2. 

Yucca polyphylla, x. 27. 

Yucca pruinosa, x. 23- 

Yucca puherula, x, 17. 

Yucca purpurea, x. 7, 

Yucca quadricolor, x, 7. 

Yucca radiosa, x, 28. 

Yucca recurva, x. 24. 

Yucca r curvifolia, x. 24. 

Yucca, reflexion of the leaves of, x. 1. 

Yucca revoluta, x- 10. 

Yucca rufocincta, x. 24, 

Yucca Schottii, x, 17. 

Yucca serrata, y argenteo-marginatay x. 7. 

Yucca serrata, S roseo-marginata, x. 7. 

Yucca serrulata, x. 6. 



Yucca serrulata^ a vera^ x. 6. 
Yucca serrulata^ & rohusta^ x, 6. 
Yucca superba, x. 24. 
Yucca tenuifolia^ x, 6. 
Jwcca tortulata, x. 23, 
Yucca Treculeaua, x. 9. 
Yucca tricolor^ x, 7. 
Yucca undulata^ x, 10- 
Xucca Yucatana, x, 4; 

Zanthoxylum, i, 66. 

Zanthyrsisy iii. 59. 

Zden, the Algerian, viii. 6, 

Zenobia, v- 130- 

Zenobia, v, 129, * 

Zeuzera seseull, i, 50. 

Zeuzera pyrina, ii. 54 ; vii. 41 ; ix. 10. 

Zizyphus commutata, vii, 64. 

ZhypJius DomingensiSy ii, 49. 

Zizyphus emarginatusj ii. 29. 

Zizyphus iguanea^ tIi, 64. 
Zolisma, v, 129. 
Zugilus Virginica, ix. 34. 
Zwetsehenwasser, iv. 10. 
Zygia, xiv- 100. 
Zygia brevifoliaj xiv. 100. 
Zygia flexicaulis, xiy, 100. 
Zygia Unguis-cati, xiv, 100. 


Zygophyllum arhoreum, t 60, 

4 I 

' T 

h H 

1 \