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Full text of "An illustration of the genus Cinchona ?comprising descriptions of all the officinal Peruvian barks, including several new species, Baron de Humboldt's Account of the Cinchona forests of South America, and Laubert's Memoir on the different species of quinquina ? to which are added several dissertations of Don Hippolito Ruiz on various medicinal plants of South America ... And A short account of the spikenard of the ancients ... /by Aylmer Bourke Lambert."

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AN 



ILLUSTRATION 



OF THE 



* - 



"■ 



GENUS CINCHONAr 



COMPRlSXNa 



DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE OFFICINAL PERUVIAN BARKS, 

T 

INCLUDING SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 



BARON DE HUxSlBOLDT'S 

r 

h 

ACCOUNT OF THE CINCHONA FORESTS OF SOUTH AMERICA 



m- 



AND 



/- 



LAUBERT's MEMOIR 

ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF QUINQUINA 




TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 



SEVERAL DISSERTATIONS OF IK) 




IIPPOLITO RUIZ, 



ON VARIOUS MEDICINAL PLANIS OF SOUTH AMEEICA. 




1 i 



■ > 



WITH SEVERAL PLATES. 




AND A SHORT ACCOUNT OF 



THE SPIKENARD OF THE ANCIENTS, 



fTJTH A PLATE,. 



BY AYLMER BOURKE LAMBERT, ESQ. F.R.S. A.S 





G 



riC£-rRES10ENT OF THB MNN^AN SOCIETY, AND MEMBER OF TUt aOTAL ACAPEWY 

OF SeiCNCE9 OF MADRID, &C. &C. ScC. 



■:^■' 



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LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR JOHN SEARLE, 77, LOWER GROSVENOR-STREETi 
A.ND LONGMAN, HURST, R£E3, ORJUE, AND DROWN, rATER.\0;>TErwRO\V. 

1821. 



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Printed by R, Wilks, 89> Chancery Lane 



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♦ 



TO 



THE CELEBRATED 



BARON 



DE 



HUMBOLDT 



3 



THE MOST SCIENTIFIC TRAVELLER THIS OR ANY OTHER AGE HAS PRODUCED, 



% 



WHO, AS SUCH, 



HUMAN KNOWLEDGE TILVN 



THAT HAS PRECEDED HIM, 



AND 



REMAIN ONE OF THE BRIGHTEST IN THE ANNAI5 

TILL THE END OF TIME, 




XHZ5 "WrOJR 




/ 



IS INSCRIBED, 



\\ ITH THE GREATEST ESTEEM AND RESPECT, 



BY 



"E>J 



AYLMER BOURKE LAMBERT. 



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1 

A. 

L 

CONTENTS. 

J . / - • 

I ^ J- 4 

-■ ^ \ i . . ' 

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t r 

1 

Ji ESC RiPt IONS of the species o^ the genm fimchotia.. By A. B: 
Lambert, Esq. &c. &c. . ....... ^ ............. .. !. ... Page I 

An account of tlie Cinchona Forests of South America; drawn u'p 
ilurino- five years residence and travels on the South American conti- 
nent. By Alexander Baron von Humboldt. Translated from the Ger- 
man „ ,« 

• •• • ' '. *»jrage }9 

T 

T 

Memoir on the different species of Quinquina. By M. Laubert, Chief 
Physician to the Spanish army. Translated from the French. .... Page GO 

Description of the tree vvliich prodilcei the^ Balsam of ToUi and 
Peru, and known under the name of Qumquino in the kingdom of Peru 
By Don Hippolito Ruiz, First Botanist to the King of Spain in the 
Expedition to Peru. Translated from the Spanish Page 92 

Memoir on the virtues and H^es of the plant called in Peru Cala- 

guala. By the same Author ............ d 

■ • • i age 98 

On the virtues and uses of the Monnina Polystachya, called Yallho^i 
3n Peru. By the same Author , p y^^ 

On the virtues and ^xsQ^ o^ Aristolochia Frag'ranlissima, c^Wq^ hy Ih^ 
natives of Peru B^juco de la Esirella.' By the same Author. . ..Page 175 

An account of the Spikenard of the Ancients. By A. B. Lambert 

Ei^n. &e. &c rT" ' 

.,Pagell7 






PREFACE. 



» 



/' 




X 




HE great additions made to the ireniis Cinchona sXnce tl 



t5 



publication of the auth 



former account 



* 



by th 



lebrated 
u i z and 



authors of the Flora Peruviana,' Don Hippolito Ruiz 
Bon Jose Pavon, and by the illustrious travellers Humboldt 
and Bon plan d, have induced him to give the following Illustra- 

as supplementary or is 



tion 



hich may be either considered 



y^ 



forming a distinct work. He has entirely confined himself to the 
botanical definitions of the species, and hopes he has been sue- 
cessful, in many instances, in giving more correct diagnoses of the 
species than has hitherto been done. The very valuable memoirs 

the first 



> T 




f Humboldt and Xaubert (of which 



eiven translations) wnnSiord" every othef information re- 

" es of their barks 



lating 



their history, and the various qualit 



The DissertatiQUS of Don Hippolito Ruiz on various plants of 
South America, esteemed for their medicinal virtues, are almost 



holly unknown in this country 



They are highly deserving at 



tention as they contain much valuable and instructive informa- 
tfon, not onlv to medical men but to the general reader. Many 

* ftp % 

orthographical errors have, he fears, unavoidably crept into the 

♦ Description of the genus Cinchona^ Londaiij 1707. 

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7' PREFACE. 

L 

translations of these Memoirs; but these the candid and liberal- 
minded reader will rather be inclined to pardon than condemn. 
If he has succeeded in giving the meaning of his authors, his 
chief wish will be attained. 

The Author has lately received an extensive Herbarium, con- 
taining nearly the whole of the plants collected by the celebrated 
authors of the Flora Peruviana, and their pupils, in Peru, Chili, 
and Mexico; the number of which amounts to five thousand seven 
hundred species. The specimens are in the highest state of pre- 
servation ; and with several duplicates of most of the species. 
It will not, perhaps, prove uninteresting to the botanical reader 
to, have a general view of the extent of this magnificent collect, 
tion, he therefore shall subjoin the number of species in some 

of the natural orders, and also m_ some of t he ^ene.^— 

l' 
— y 

■■J ^ " 

Natural Orders, 

r 

Cyperoidete, Junceae, etGraminese.. .... ., .. ,. .. 230 

Labiatge 

■ •• •• '•'^' •• .. 2.^0 

Ericinae et Rhodoracege 

, ^ ' 2o 

Compositae ^ 

Fmbelliferae • 

Cruciferae •• ., ..... 

:• •• 1.5 

Malvaceye 

^ • •• 168 

X^eguminosae •• •. 

Orchideae 

™. 150 

rihces •* •• .. .. ,. .. .... .. s 

• •• • •• •' 208 



r " 



_.i 



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\ 



PREFACE 



Yll 



I 



t 



• 

Convolvulus 62. 



Genera. 
Psychotria 54. Solanum 90. Alchemilla 



5. 



Lobelia 30. Verbena 26. Laurus 38. 



Croton 61. 



Tournefortia 12. Mimosa 121. Salvia m, 

ciis 19. Urtica 29. Ficus 30. Passiflora and Ta 



Buddleja 10. 



CI 



ome 11. 
chum 27 



Bignonia 32. Gentiana 20 



Melasto 



Asclepias 22 



41 



Eupliorbi 
Aster 54. 



Myrtus 29. My 



Quer- 

ia 31. 
ca 6. 



Theophrasta 5. Bamadesia4. Gnaphalium 19 



.T 



Eupatoriuin 79. Senecio 41. Hel 



30 



Ste 



via 27 
Biden 



Cacalia 37. Werneria 20. Tagetes 15. Verbesina 25 



20 



Melampodium 12. Culciti 



5 



A calyplia 24 
ITiis 



Cecrop 



11 



C] 



2 



Aralia et Actinophyllum 15 



coll 



also contains 



numei 



specimen 



botlr 



flower and fruit, of all the species of the highly interesting^en 
Cinchona, collected by the above::m^timred celebrated bot 
1 lists ar 

lection 



d their pifpils. He has, besides, received part of 



hich was tak 



a Spanish prize bound from L 



to Cadiz 



part of whose cargo was sold in Lond 



anion ii" 



which was a fi 



collection of Cinchonee, purchased by M 



o 



Thompson, of Sloane Square, who had the kindness to 



h 



* The author daily expects from his friend M. Pavon, specimens of the plant called Aracachn, 
about which so much has been said in our newspapers arid periodical works. It is his iuttu- 
tion to give a description and %ure as soon as Jhey arrive. The letter of M. Pavon relating to 
this plant is as follows:—" The Aracacha I conceive to be a species of Daucus ; its root I 
have frequently eaten, the tuste resembles that of parsnip. The plant is cultivated by the 
Indians, who make much use of it. There exists in Peru a small quadruped which the Indians 
call Mhsti, and which is very fond of the root of the Aracacha. They sometimes destroy in 
one night a whole field that is planted with it. I once possessed one of these auimuls, which I 
domesticated from having it young. I decided that it belonged to the genus Mus^ and the spe- 
cies called Mus aguti by Linnieus, and described by M. Valmont de Bomare in his Dictionary 

of Natural History." 



♦ 



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PREFACE. 



the 
tain 



duplicates 



Hell 



bee 



4 

abled by these means to 



sfactorily all those figured in the Flora Peruviana, be 



sides Several new species; and in many instances 



to cl 




p the many doubts and 



have long pervaded tl 



r ^ 



valuable but intricate genuS of plants 



He has divided the 




wholfe into five sections, and given to each of the species spe- 
cific differential characters. The author has, in several cases, 
been obliged unwillingly to differ from the opinion of his friend 



figured in 



the 



the Baron de Humboldt, regarding the species 
Flora Peruviana ; but the accidental advantage of his being 
in possession of the specimens from which, these fiigures were 
taken, and ofhavingothefs named by M . Bonpland himself, will, 
he hopes, justify him in doing so. He intends hereafter to give 




figures of all the species here described. It was a Vefy fortunate 
circumstance fonhim, that the celebrated Don Francisco Antonio 
^ea, whose authority is of such weight in this genus^ was re- 
siding very lately for a considerable time in this country; and 
to whom he had shown all his 



him 



of the statements he has g 



specimens, and who agrees with 

ven. At the end of the 



specific descriptio 



added 



list of the different kinds 



f 



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V 

Peruvian barks with their names, fine samples of which, amoiiiit- 
ing to forty-four sorts, he received from his much valued friend 
l)on Jose Pavon. 

^ 

The interesting pamphlet of Don Hippolito lluiz, on the 
Myroxylon Peruiferum, he has here for the first time presented in 
the English language, and has added to it a plate, taken from very 
fine specimens, received from his often mentioned friend Pavon. 

J* 

may here be interesting for botanists to learn, that the plates 
are finished of the fourth and fifth unpublished volumes of the 




:V 



PREFACE 



IX 



Flora Peruviana, containing in all two Iiundred and twenty- 
three figures. ' 



In the last place, Tie may notice a circumstance, wliicli, althougl 



1 



foreign to the present subject, will 



theless be interestin 



_> '^ 



information to all the lovers of botany in this country. 



Ill 



a letter he lately received from his friend Don Mariano Lagascji, 
Professor and Director of the Royal Botanic Garden at Ma- 
drid, he notices the safe arrival there of the whole collections 

x)f the celebrated Don Jose Coelestino Mittis, of Santa Fe de 
Bogota, New Granada, comprising six thousand seven hundred 

S 

and sixty-nine splendid drawings of his intended Flora Bogo^ 
itensis ; besides eighty^five boxes containing specimens of plants, 
gums, woods, fruits, seeds, &c. with many very valuable manu 

L 

scripts. 



Just as this work was printing, appeared~m two volumes 




octavo, The CorrespemlenceojLiHnceu^i edited by Sir James Ed- 
ward Smith, the learned President of the Linnrean Society, among 

i 
9 

which are several letters of Mutis, containing many observations 
•on the plants sent by him to Linnae^us from South America; but, 
«*vhat is to be lamented, many of his letters never reached Lin- 
njKus ; mention is made, however, of copies of them being kept 

r 

by Mutis ; and it is to be hoped that when his immense collec- 



tions, which 



ived at Madrid, shall be examined, these 



to tl 



letters may be found and given 
acknowledge my thanks to Mr. D. D 



publ 



I h 



nly to 



for his kind assistance 



in this work. 



' London, June 2, 1821. 


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ERRATA 



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3, read lucurnmfoUa for cucumcefoUa. 

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4, near the bottom, read ^^/j/ti for dupol. 



diffusH read /I 



+ 

glanduUft 



12, near the top, after Kunth, expunge the point,, and instead of FL read PL 
27, at the end of the note, insert £f//Y. 



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DIRECTION FOR THE PLATES. 







MyroxyTon Peruiferuni 



■i. f^T- 



T J 



Polypodium Calaguala 
Monnina Polystachya 
aAristolochia Fragrantissima 



-■ 97 



- 124v 

- 147 

- 175 



^bT 



Valeriana Jatamansi 



177 




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SYNOPSIS 



SPECIERUM CIJVCHOjyM GENERIS. 




Sect. I. 



Corollis extus sericeo-tomentosts, limbo supra barbatis. 



1. Condaminea. 

2. cordifolia. 

3. rotundifolia. 

4. ovalifolia. 

5. purpurea. 



6. pubescens. 

7. micrantha. 

8. Humboldtii. 

9. Pavonii. 

10. macrocarpa. 



jrs!ii^- 



Sect. II. Corollis exim pilosisy limbo supra barbaiis 

11. Mutisii. 



12. hirsuta. 



Sect. III. 



Corollis extus sericeo-tomentosis, limbo supra glahris. 



AY r 



13. magnifolia. 

14. caduciflora. 
3.5, oblongifolia. 



16. acutifolia. 

17. stenocarpa. 

18. dicliotoma. 



Sect. IV. — Corollis omninb glahris 



19. grandiiflofa 

20. acuminata. 



21. rosea. 



Sect. V. 



Corollis omnino glahris; geniialihus long^e exsertis e 



hasi ttihi 



ortis; stigmate capitato integro ; seminibusmembran& integer rim&cinctis. 



22rf' tri flora. 



B 



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DESCRIPTIONES SPECIERUM 




^ 



3 . C Condamhwa, foliis ovali^anceolafis acutis utrinque 
ramulisqiie deaudatis hitidissimis, panicula brachiata ramo- 



sissim^ laevij dentibus caljcinis ovatis acuminatis, laciniis co- 




rolJae lineari-lanceolatis, stigmate emarginato, capsulis ovatis 



costa 




C Condaminea. Humh, et Bonp. Plantce JEquinoct. 1. 33. 
/. 10. Humh. in Mag. der Gesell. Naturf. Freunde. Berlin 
1807, p. 112. JVova Gen. et Spec, Plant. 3. 400. Cinchona 
officinalis Linn. Sp. PL ed. W. 2. p. 244. Sijst. Veg. ed. 10. 
p, 929. Condamine in Mem. de VAcadem. de Paris, 1738, p. 114. 
Lam. III. t, 164. f. 1. Vahl Skrivt. afNatur. Selfkab. 1. t. 1. 

C stupea Pavon Mss. Cascarilla fina 



Lambert. Monog. 



t. 1. 



'de Uritusinga Plispanorum, 




. lanceolata, foliis lanceoJatis utrinque ucutis. C lanceo'- 
^ata Ft. Periivinna 3. jj. 1. t. 223. C, land folia Miitls, period, 
'de Santa Fe, j)- 465. ejusd. Ft. Bogot. Mss. Humh. in Mag. 
der Gesell. Nat. Fr. zu Berlin 1807, p. 116. Alih. Traite des 
Fievres. p. 374. J. Pomho Naticias var. sohre las Quinas ojfi- 



cm 



P 



66. C. nitida Fl. Peruviana 2. p. 50. t. 191. C. atigus 



tifolia Buiz et Pavon. Quinol. SuppL p. 14. cum tahula f. a. 
C. glabra Ruiz Quinol. 2. p. 04. C cucumafolia Pavon Mss. 
, Qnina ^aranganda Bogoiensium. Quinquina Orange. Quina 
primitiva directamente fehrifuga. Mut. Quinol. (Jide Humb.J 
Cascarilla officinal. Buiz Quinol. p,bQ. Cascarillo Lampind 
Buiz Quinol. 2. p. 64:. 




T 



y 



foliis ovatis utrinque acutis, floribus m:ijoribus. 



C. htlea Pavon Mss. C. colorata ejusd. Mss. 



k^ 



L 

J. foliis subrotimdis basi rotundatis apice acutmsciilis. 



O 



habitant in montibus L 



in Recrno Quiten 



et 



r 

uliis reirionib 



» 



frigid 



Regno 



Novo-granatensi inter Gviad 
legit celeberrimns M 



Peruvife. /3 etiam in 

^t Santa Fe de Bogota, ub 



V 



This species varies extremely in the form of its leaves, so^that 
specific mark can be derived from their fig 



1 am 



^ 



^H 



clined 



believe even that the 



are 



1 



they J 
scrobic 



permanent, but I have thought best to 
appeared among my specimens 



as a permanent differential 



ieties I have marked 

parate them as 
Bonpland regarded the 

character. 



th 



nthstanding their being found more or 
leaves of almost every species of th 



less 
genus 



umerous on 
I have no 



hesitation in reducing to this species the C. lancealata, nilida 



glah 



and an^ustifoUa of Ruiz and Pavon 



proved by th 



pecimens 



both in flower and fruit, I h 



from the 



oned botani 



as 



their 



i received 
published 



lutea. colorata, cucumcrfolia, and sinp 



A great part of th 



specimens 



from the mountainous forests of Loxa, and in 



all probability collected and sent home by their pupi 



Don 



Juan Tafal 



These specimens agree in every respect with the 
fi^e^nHumboldtand Bonpland^s Planted. ^quinoci tales; many 

which were taken in a Spanish prize, as 1 have men- 



of them 

tioned in 



tlie *hort preface to tl 



work, I submitted to th 



nation of M. Bonpland while in this country, who con 



sidered them 



dentical 



«orees exactly with those sj 



his C. Condami 

I h 



more 



and which 



-X^ 



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> 



\ 




received from the celebrated author of the Flora Peruviana et 
Chilensis, Don Jose Pavon. The celebrated Matis has, and I 
think too with great propriety, considered his C. lancifolia the 
'Quina Naranganda^ or Quinquina Orans^e of Santa Fe, as iden- 
tical with the quina fina de Uritucinga, or Humb. and Bon- 
pland's C Condaminea. No description is given of the 
C lancifolia of Mutis in the Nova Genera et Species Plan- 
iarum of Hiimb. Bonpl. and Kunth, and it is probable that they 
wiere made acquainted with it o«ly from the drawings of Mutis. 
The sWrt specitic character given in the above work does not 
distinguish it in the least from their Condaminea. 

2. C cordifoliay foliis subrotundo-ovatis acutis basi cordatis 
attenuatisve subtus ramulisqne pilosiusculis supra denudatis 
nitidis,^ panicula brachiata diffusa pubescente, dentibus caly- 
cinis late-rotundatis Hiucronulatis, stigmate bilobo, capsulia 
oblongo-ovatis cylindrlcis ecostatis. 



C. cordifoUa Mut. Mss. Humb, in JVIagazin, ^c. p. 117^ 
Itohde Monog. j). 58. Humh. Bonpl. et Kunth. JVova Gen. et 
Spec. Plant. 3. p. 401 feccchis. Synonyinis omnibus Fl. Pe- 
rttviance, nee non Linn. Syst.Nat. Vahl et Lambert. J 



C. 



nova vulgo palo hlanc 
tensiiim. 



sp. 



Pavon Mss. Quina amarilla 



Bogo 



Habitat nemora montosa Loxae in Regno Quitensi Peruvia 
rum (Pavon) in Regno Novo-granatensi, ubi legit Mutis. 



sa, lilamenta plana dilatata antheris linearibus 
stigmatis lobis oblongo-ovatis obtusis. 



Genitalia incli 

dupol breviora ; 

This species is totally different from the Cinchona purpurea, 
hirsuta, and ovata fpubescens Vahl) of Flora Peruviana, which 
Humboldt and Bonpland in their before-mentioned work have 



t 



given as synonyms of Mut 



plant 



of it h 



been examined 



The specimens I possess^^ 



d named by M. Bonpland wh 



N 




England 



From 



C. puhescens (C. ovala Ft. Peruv.J of 



Vabl, with which it has the greatest affinity, it is distinguished 
by its shorter petioles, by the broader round teeth of its calyx, 
by the filaments being twice longer, and lastly, by its capsules 



being 



til and without rib 



3. C. rotundifolla, foliis subrotundis supra denudati 



nitid 



ubtus ramulisq 



P» 



sis, panicula brachiatA pubescente, den 



tibus calycinis brevissimis niucronulatis, stylo exserto, stigmate 



(Pavon.) 



^ 



bipartito, capsulis linearibus teretibus, 
C rotundifolla, Pavon Mss, 

Habitat in nemoribus in Loxa Quitensium Peruviae. 
Laciniis corollae ovatis ; antherge filamentis breviores ; stig- 

matis lobis linearibus planis obtusis. 

This is a very distinct species, being easily distinguished from 

all its congeners by its narrow cylindrical capsules, and by the 
narrow linear divisions of its stigma. 

4. C. ovalifoliay io\\\s ovalibus obovatisve supra denudatis 
nitidis, subtus ad venas pilosis, dentibus calycinis ovatis acutis, 
antheris filamentis duplo longioribus, stigmate bipartito, cap- 
sulis ovalibus apice constrictis. 

C. ovalifoUa, Humb. ct Bonpl. Plantw JEqutnoct. 1. p. 65. 
i. 19. Ejusd. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Plant. 3. p. 403 (exclus. Synon. 
Mutisii. Thnnh. in Magazin, ^c. Vahl et Lambert, nee non 
llolide Monog.) C. sp. nova Pavon Mss. 



f* 



Habitat nemora montosa ad Loxam in Regno Quitensi Peru- 

r ^^^ 

vianorum (Pavoni ; in Andibus Peruviae prope Cuenca (Humb. 

«t Bonpl.)- 

> Panicula brachiata pubescente ; laciniee corollae lineares j 

stieraatis lobis linearibus obtusis. 

- . 

This plant must not be confounded with the C. ovalifoUa of 



Muti 



s 



the C macrocarpa of Vahl, or Quinquina hlanc of NevV 



c 



/ 





'^ 



r 



GmnaJa, which is totally diffi 
given on that species. 



Vide the remai^ks I h 



5. C. purp 



que 



d 



nte. anther 



foliis ovalibus ovatisve acutis basi attenuatis 
denudatis nitidis, panicul4 corymbose pube- 

4 

lilamentis brevioiibua faucem superantibus, 



/ 



gtigmate biloba inchiso, capsulis anguste ovato-oblongis api 
attenuatis. 



C. purpurea, Fl, Peruviana, 2. p. 52. 1. 103 



C. serohiculata 



Humb. et Bonp. Plant^^Mcinm r\ , p. 165. t, 47. Ejusd. JSTov. 

Cascarilla Jina Bracqmorensium. 
Quinol. p. 67. Cascarilla boba de 



Gen. et SpTVlan 




Cascarilla \ 
1io(ramorado 



ada: R 



Habitat in Andium montibus imis nemorosis et nocte frigidius^ 

(^ulis passim ad Chinchao, Pati, Mnna, Casape, Iscutunam, 

Casapillo et.ChihuamocuIa tractus (Ruiz et Pavon) in Peruvian 

Andibus, juxta urbem Jaen de Bracamoros (Hunib. et Bonpl.). 

' Capsulae bisulcae junioribus pubesrentibus demum laevibus. 

To this- species I have, without hesitation, reduced the C. scro-< 

distinguished 



IS 



are ovato- oblong nar 



hiculata of Humboldt and Bonpland. It 

from the preceding species by its more acute, smoother, and 

shining leaves ; by its corymbose panicles ; by its filaments 

F 

being longer than the antherge, and these surpassing the faux 
of the corolla ; by the capsules, which 
rowed, and without ribs ; and lastly, by the shorter and broader 
divisions of its stigma. 

6. C. puhescenSf foliis late ovatis subrotundo-ovatisve acutis 
supra longe petiolatis basi rotundatis subacutisve, supra denudatis 

+ 

nitidis, subtus ramulisque piloso-toraentpsis, panicula brachiato- 
diffusa ferrugineo-tomentosis, antheris subsessilibus, stigmate 
bilobo, capsulis ovali-oblongis obsolete costatis tomentosis. 



\ 



/ 



Cn pubescens^ Vahl in Act. Havn. 1. /?, 19,^.2, Lambert 



I 




\ 



N 



"k 



Sk 



4 



* . 




C. ovaia, Fl. Peruviana, 2. p. 52. t, 195. 



74. 



Vernaculi Cascarillo de 



JWoiiog. t. 2. 

earillo palldo, Ruh Quinol. p 
Pata de Gallareta. 

i 

i 

Habitat in Andium moiitibus imis nemorosis calidis versus 
Poziizo et Panao (Ruiz et Pavoii), et etiam in iiemoribus 

1 

Huanuci Peruvianorum (Pavon Mss.). 

Petioli biunciales ; dentes calycis brevissimi acuti ; laciniae 



CorolltB ovatse obtusiE 



genitalia inolusa 



s^tyhis 



antheras 



sup e ran s 



stigmatis lobis ovatls. 



7. C micrantha, foliis late ovalibus obovatisve snpra denu- 
datis nitidis subtus in axil las venarum pilosis, panicul4 conferta, 
pubescente, antheris filamentis brevioribus vix exsertis, stylo 
brevissimo, stigmate bilobo, capsulis ellipticis apice attenuatis. 

C. micrantha, Fl. Peruviana, 2./;. 52./. 194. vulgd Cascarillo Jino. 

Habitat in Andium montibus altis frigidis et nemorosis, versus 
vicum Sanoti Antonii de Playa Grande, ubi observavit Joanne* 

Tafalla (Ruiz et Pavon.). 

Corollae laciniis ovatis ; dentes calycis brevissimi acuti ; stig- 
Hiatis lobis ovatis; capsulae bisuleae ecostatae. 

This has some affinity witli C. Gondaminea ; but its small 
flowers and elliptical ecostate capsules, together with its 
short style and other marks, readily distinguish it. 

8. C IJumb oldtiana , foliis lanceolatis utrinque acutis supra de- 

r 

nudatis subtus ramulisque villosis, paniculd glomerata villosd, 
dentibus calycinis brevissimU acutis, antheris sessilibus inclusis, 



stisrmate exserto emarginato, capsulis ovatis hirtis glomeratis. 



4 



very 



C. villosa^ Pavon Mss, 

Habitat ad urbem Jaen de Bracamoros, nemora in Regno 
Qui tensi Peruvianorum. (Pavon.) 

This is a strongly marked and very distinct species ; ther^ is 
pone with which it can.be confounded, 



_r" 



^ 



% 




T). C Vuvon 



M 



orbicul 



subtil 



ISO 



feiTUiriiieo-tomeiitosis 



o 



■ ' 

latisve supra (ienudati 

corymbis ferrugineo 



tomeutosis, calyoibus urceolatis integ 



absoUite denticulatis 



rolIiK tubo lonmssimo. antlieris sessilibus, sligmate profund 



o 



bipartito, capsulis lougissiniis teretibus. 
C. cava, Pitvon AIss, vulgd Canela, 

Habitat in memoribus ad Loxam in Regno Quitensi Peruvi 
norum. Pa von. 



-^ -^4-1:-^ ~ 



Corjmbi confertiflori ; corgUae magnae sericeae, laciniis ovato 



oblongiB— obtnsis 



rnosis 



; antherse inclusae lineares obtusae 
subsessiles, apicibus vix faucem superantibus ; stylus inclusus ; 



revolutis ; capsulae 



stigmatis 



margine 



following. 



lobis linearibus obtusis 
longitudine et crassitudine digiti. 
. This species has considerable affinity with the 

r 

The form of its leaves, its deeply bipartite stigma, its very long 
cylindrical capsules the size of one's finger, however, widely 
separate it. . 

10. C. macrocarpa, foliis late ellipticis obtusissimis subtus 
ramulisque dense scabre tomentosis, calyce integro, dentibus 
prominulis, corollse ampliatse laciniis lanceolatis apice recurvis^ 



/ 



genitalibus inclusis, 
tomentosd. 



stigmate 



emarginato, capsuM pyriformi 



) 



C. macrocarpa, Valil in Act. Havn. 1. p, ^0. t. 3. (exclusis 
Synonymic) Lamh. Monog, p. 22. t, 3. C ovalifolia, Mtitis 
Mss. Humh. in Magazin, etc. p. 118. ItoJide Monog. p. Gl, 
non Humh. et Bonpl. Plantw jlS,quinoct. nee JVor. Gen. et Sp, 
Plant, eftfsd. Cosmibwena sp. nova, Pavon J\Iss. vulgd Quina 
hlanca, vel Quinquina blanc de Santa Fc. 

Habitat in nemoribus Loxensibus, Huaquilensibus et Cuencen- 
sibus (Pavon.); in Regno Novo-granatensi (Mutis.). 

Corymbi pauciHori ; calyx urceolatus integer ; stylus sulcatus. 



i 




-» 



\ 



This belongs to the genus Cosmibuena of the Flora Peruviana; 
but, for the want of more distinctive differential generic murks, It 
have thouglit best to keep it still united to the genus Cinchona, 
This is certainly the Cinchona ovaUfolia of Mutis, which, how- 
ever, must not be confounded with the C.ovali folia of Bonpland, 
a species totally diff'erent : of this Bonpland was well aware iu 
describing his plant in Planice JEquinoctiales. Professor Kunth 

if arum, has 



recently, in the J^ova Gen 



et Sijecics Pla 



^ 



been led into an error in considering Mutis's plant the same with 
that of Bonpland, an opinion which is quite at variance with 
the figure in Plantce .Aquino ctiales, which has not Uie least 
resemblance to Mutis's plant, and which Bonpland has there 
distinctly stated to l)elohg to the genus Cosmibuena of the Flora 

h respect to the C 



Peruvian 



Th 



note of Humboldt 



wi 




'ora, Flor. Peruv.J at the end of the descript 



gran 

the Nova Genera et Sp 



m 



PI an tar u 



has no reference to 




described, but distinctly to the 



li folia of 



therefore, ought to be expunged alto 



the plant 

Mutis. The synonyms 

gether, as they belong to the present species. 

11. C. Mutisii, foliis ovalibus utrinque subacutis snpra demi 



clatis nitidis subtus ramulisque valde 




margine undulatis 



^ubrevolutis, panicul^ brachiata valde pilosa, dentibus calycini 
brevissimis mucronulatis, coroUae laciniis ovatis, stigmate emar 



T nv 



ginato, capsulis ovatis c 
C. microphylla, Mut 



Ml 



CA 



Zea,) 



C. quercifolia 



PavonMss. C, glandulifera, Fl. Peru 



p. I 



224 




. foliis ovalibus obtusis basi rotundatis subcordatisve. 
C. quercifolia var. crispa, Pavon Mss. 
Habitat ad Loxam in Reano Quitensi Peruvianorum. (Pavon.) 



Antherce exsertge filamentis brev 



tylus incl 



My specimens of this truly distinct species I submitted to 



% 



D 



10 ' 



the examination of my intelligent firiend Don Francisco Antonio 



Z 



no reco2:nised them to be the Cinch 



published species of Mutis 



h 



gave the B 



opTit/lla, 
►n de H 



an 



boldt a drawing of it when the latter was at Santa Fe 



Having 



ed specimens of the C. glandulifera of the JF/. Pei 



mana, I therefore give it 



synonym with considerable doubt 



12 



C. Jdrsuta, foliis ovalibus basi acutis ramulisque valde 
pilosis supra venosis demuin denudatis, floribus glomer^tis 



psulis ovatis. 



setoso-pi 
bilobo. c 



C h Irs iitUy Fl. , 

gado, Ruiz Qainolog. p. 60 



laciniis calycinis lanceolatis acuminatis, stigmate 





2. « 



51 



t. 192. Cascarillo del 



Habitat in Andium montibus nemorosis. 



versus Pill 



Acomayo. (Ruiz et Pa\ 



altis et frigidis locis 



Humboldt and Bonpland, in their often-quoted woi^k, h 



th 



foil 



ty af Zea, referred this species to 



C 



di 



of Mutis, with which it has not the least resemblance 



this^ could only b 



pected fl 



th 



knowing the plant 



merely from the figure and description in the Fl. Peruviana, 
without ever seeing specimens of it. Having, therefore, obtained 
very fine specimens from the author of the Flora Peruviana, and 



which I liave sho 



to D 



Z 



he 



me m considering it a very different species 



quite accords with 



d 



13. C.jnaoni folia, foliis late 



otundo-oyalibus supra denu 



bosa tomentosa, d 
rollae lanceolatis, anth 



ubtns dense tomentosis, panicula brachiato-corym 



calj 
inci 



brevibus acutis, laciniis co 



partito, capsulis linearibus teietibu 



tyl 



exserto^ stigmate bi 



C. magni folia, FL P 



2 



p. 52 



et BonplJ Cascarillo amarillo, Ruiz Quinolog. p 



196. fnon Ilumb 



1 



Hab 



in Andium nemorib 



calidissimis prope torrentes 



copiose ad Chinchao, Cuchero et Chacahuassi. ^Ruiz et Pavon ) 






V 



11 



Laciniis corolla tubi longitudine ; antlierte limbo 'mult6 bre- 



viores 



stisrmatis lobis linearibus obtusis marir 



» 



olutis 



The celebrated authors of the Flora Pet 



have 



ill tliat 



work, confounded th 
Flor de Azahar, the 



species with that called by the natives 



C ohlong'lfoUa of JM 



a 



ery different 



plant, the bark of which had bee 



Sebastian Joseph Lop 



R 



a 



first 



sent fo Spain by Don 



of Santa F 



d 



e 



Bogota. M. Bonpland has confounded it with his C. caditci 



ft' 



hich he at first described under 



folia of the Flora Peruv 
opinion afterwards in his 



f C. mag 



but he very properly altered his 
C scrohiculata, Plantce JEqui- 



_r 



noct. 1. p. 167 



Th 



plant by 



form of 



prese 
s leai 



sp 



?cies differs from Bonpland 
by tlie acute teeth of its caly? 




» 



corolla, whose lanceolate lacini^ are equal to the 



length of the tube ; by 



thers being inclosed in the tube 



r 



by the style being exserted ; and especially b} 
drical capsules. 

14. C. caduciflora^ 



^} 



foliis late obovatis basi 



supra d 



datis nitidis subtus ad axillas venarum pilosis, paniculA brachiata 
pubescente, dentibus calycinis 



ovatis obtusi 



lac 



coroUae 



iineari-oblong'is,autherisparum exsertiSj stylo brevissimo, stigraah 
biparti to, capsulis ovali-oblongis. 

C. caduciflora, Bonpl. in Plants jEqifinoct. 1. p. 167. Tlumh 
BonpL et Kunth. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Plant. 3. p. 402. 



C. mao 



foil 



Humh. et Bonpl. Fl. JEq 



J 



V 



m 



39. (ex 



clus. Sy 



Fl. Peruv. ) Cascarilla hova Per 



Habitat in Peruvi® Andibus juxta urbem Jaen de Bfacamoro 
(Humb. et Bonpland.) 



"T* 



Corollas laciniis tubo brevioribus; stigmatis lob 



p' 



■l 



/ 



12 



15. C. oltlongifoUa, foliis oblong-is rordatlsve iitrinque ramn* 



lisqne d 



scabre pil 



cabre 



P 



is, panicula bi 
e pilosae linef 

n w 

tlieris filameiitis triplo longioiibu 



laciniis 



roll 



>-corvmbo 
geiiilalib 
mate bipt 



tito, capsulis ovatis 



i 



C. oblong ifolia^ Mutis Mss. Humh. in Mag 



p. 118 



Hohde, Alonog.) p,^7. (exclus. Synonym. Fl. Peruv. J Htimb 

^ 

Sonpl. et KnntJi. Nova Gen. et Sp. Fl. 3. p. 401, (ex<ilus. Sy- 



91 any 



Fl Pel 



et R 



Quinalog.J vulgo 

jyiss. 



Q 



rog 



Cinchona vulgd^ zuhar, Pavon 

. Habitat nemora in montibus Loxsb Pertivianorum (Pavon) 
prope Maraqiiita Novo-Granatensium. (Humb. et Bonpland.) 

This plant is certainly very distinct from the C. magnifolia 
of Flora Peruviana, It is distinguished from it by its leaves 



being rounded at the base, often cordate, covered on both sides 
with roug-h pilose torn en turn, sometimes the older leaves, how- 

ri 

ever, become nearly naked above ; the corolla is covered on the 
outside with bristly pilose hairs, while that of magnifolia has 
short pubescence; the laciniae are also much narrower; the style 
is inclosed with the stamens in the tube of corolla ; the lobes 



-\ 



of the stigma are cylindrical, and the capsules are ovate : those 

* * 

of magnifolia are linear and cylindrical. - All these characters 
are constant in all the specimens I possess of both species, 
and I therefore think myself justified in separating them, 
although I am extremely unwilling io be at variance with so 
high authority as Humboldt justly is. 

16. C. acutifoUttj foliis lanceolatis acuminatis supra denu- 



ilatis nitidis ad venas 




laciniis calycis lineari-oblongis 



obtusis, laciniis corollge linearibus acutis, genitalibus inclusis, 
stigmate bipartite, capsula pyriformi hirsuta basi attenuata. 



\ 



/ 



13 



C acufifolin, Ft. Peruviana, 3. p. 1. t. 225. Cdscarillo de 

^ ■ ■ — 

hoja aguda, tiuiz et Pavon Supplem. Quinolog, p. 8. 

Habitat in Peruvioe Andium nemoribus imis ad Chicoplayit 
fluvium, Taso dictum. (Ruiz et Pavon.) 




V 



Panicula Brachiata, dense pilosa ; stigmatis lobis linearibus. 



obtusis. 






1^ 



/ 



C" stenocarp 



fol 



iis lanceolatis utrinque "Scutis 




denudatis subtus ad venas pilosis, deiitibus caljcinis ovatis 



brevissimo, s^iifniat 



a 



inato, cap 




antberis sessilibus, stylo 

sulis linearibus teretibus. 

C. sp. nova, Pavon Mss. 

Habitat nemora juxta urbem Jaen de Bracamoros in Hegno 
Quitensi Peruvianorum. (Pavon.) 
• Panicula diffuse ramosissima pubescens ; lacinias corollae 

lineares obtusae. 

Facies C. Condamin€(E , at diversissima. 

I 

18. C dicJiotoma, foliis ellipticis breviter acuminatis utrinque 
demuiTl denudatis basi acutis; junioribus sericeis, pedunculis 
tenninalibus dicbotomis paucifloris, dentibus calycinis brevis- 



simis 



psulis linearibus longissimis teretibus 



C. dichotoma, FL Peruviana, 2. p. 53. M97. 

r 

Habitat in Andium nemoribus versus Pueblo Nuevo in Chico- 
nlaya tractibus, ubi Joannes Tafalla speciem detexit, et ind^ 



exemplaria sicca nobis anno 1797 misit 
loc. cit.) 



(R 



et Pavon 



All the specimens o 



f tl 



kable species of Cinchona 

authors of the Flora Pe 



sent by Don Juan Tafalla to the 

ruviana, appear to have been fruit-bearing ones only, so" that 

its flowers still remain unknown; and on that account I krft 



doubtful whether it belongs to this section 



M^ 



pecimens 



agree exactly with the excellent figure in the above work 



£ 



! 







J" 



k 



14 



19. C. grandifloray fo\ns obovatis obtusissimis utrinque petio 
lisque denudatis nitidis, corymbis paucifloris glaberrimis/dentibu 



caly 
1 n cl 1 



acutis,^ corollse tubo ampliato, antheris sessilibus 



stigmate bilobo, capsulis elongatis teretibus 



Cinchona grandiflora, Fl. Peruviana^ 2. p. 54. t. 198 
buena obfusifolia, ejtisd. oper. 3. p. 3. f. 198. 



Cos 



Habitat ii 
ad Pozuzo fl 



Andium nemoribus calidissimis Pemvi 



afl^ati m 



margines (Ruiz et Pa von.) ; etiam ad novum 



Pueblo Nuevo de S. Antonio de Chicoplay 



Corollae laciniis late 



stylus 

nudse; 



planis, carnosis ; antherae lineares 



tus 



stigmatis lobis ovatisj obtusis, crassis; capsute 



^ 



This is the Cosmibuena ohtusifoUa of the third vol. of Flora 
Periwiana, It is widely different from tlie C. macrocarpa of 
Vahl, the C. ovalifoJia of Mutis, with which Humboldt, in his 



account of the Bark Forests 



The flowers 



app 



to have 



founded it 



of 



brilliant white, the largest of the whol 



genus, which, together with its green shining leaves, forma strik 
ing contrast in. its native forests. 



It delights in the warmest 



gions of Peru 
20. C. acumi 



foliis ovatis breviter acuminatis utrinque 
petiolisque denudatis nitidis, floribus terminalibus subsolitariis, 
dentibus calycinis oblongo-ovatis obtusiusculis, corollae tubo Ion- 
gissimo ajigustato, genitalibus pariim exsertis, stigmate bilobo, 
capsulis oblongis cylindricis. 
Cosmibuena acuminata, Fl. Peruv. et Chilen. 3. p. 4. t, 226. 

nemoribus imis, ad Chicoplaya 



Habitat 



Peruviae Andium 



specimina sicca nobis 



1798 



tractus, unde Joannes Tafalla 
nusit. (Ruiz et Pavon loc. cit, 

Corollae laciniis late ovatis; antherae lineares, sessiles; stigmatis 

lobis oblongis, crassis, obtusis. 



15 



> 



A 

' Tl. C rosea, foliis lanceolato-ovatis utrinque acutis denudatis 

r 

nitidis^ paniculd confert^, calycibus integris denticulis obsoletis, 
laciniis C( 
sphtericis ! 



rollse late ovatis, filame 



basi barbat 



antheris 



exsertis> stigmate emarginato incl 



psulis ovati 



bisulcis glabris 



FL Peruv. et Chilens, 2. p, 54, 1. 199 



C rosea, 

C Tarantaron, Pavon Mss. Cascarilla Par do, Ruiz. Q 



log. p. 77 
Habitat 



Andium 



ibus imis, copiose ad Pozuzo et 



S. Antonii de Playa Grande tractvis. (Ruiz et Pavon.) 

I 

l^otwitlistanding the very accurate figure of tliis pla 



Flora Peru 



Humboldt 



tlie 



thority of Zea, has been 



led to join it with the Cinchona lancifolia of Mutis, with which 
it has not the least affinity, and forms one of the most distinct 
and strong-marked species of the whole genus. The corolla is 



^ 



quite smooth ; its filaments 



g, and bearded toward 



the 



y 



base : but what is the most striking character of all, is its spherical 
antherse, which no other genuine Cinchona yet known possesses. 
My friend Don F. A. Zea, to whom I showed my specimens of 
it, and who had never before seen any, agrees with me in reiirard- 



ing it as a species widely remote from the C. lancifolia of Mutis 
The description in 



Flora I 



states th 



f the 



corolla as being hairy at the margin ; this circumstance is not 



evident in thie fig 
my speoimei-s. 



neith 



I find the least trace of it in 



2 



C. trijli 



foliis lanceolatis obtusis 



que ram ul is que 



to 



laberrimis nitidis basi attenuatis, corymbis compositis tenui- 
floriSj pedunculis 3-2-floris, dentibus calycinis subulatis, corollas 
tubo longissimo filiformi: laciniis anguste linearibus longis de- 
pendentibus, capsulis obovatis. 

C. triflora, Wright in Edinb. 3[ed: Jburn. p. 240. 



« \ 



f 



/. 



<-' 



\ 



16 



Habitat in insula JamaicA, Wriglit et "VlTiles. 

Tliis belongs to the section o^ Island CinchonWy which 



Ijaps 



o 



here it 



per- 
ht to form a distinct genus. It is a native of Jamaica 

>vas first discovered by the late Dr. Wright of Edin 



burgh, an indefatigable botanist, who ascertained it to be a di 



stinct species, and afterwards described it in the Edinburgh Med 



cal Journal 



der th 



name of C. trifli 



from th 



pedun 



cles being mostly three-flowered. I possess 



of it both 



flower and fruit, which 



T^ 



seel lent specimens 
every respect with 



those I have received from Dr. Wright himself. The C floribunda 
of Swartz, with which it has the greatest affinity, difi'ers from 
it by the leaves being ovato-elliptical acuminate, hot attenuated 



at th 



base 



the 



ymbs of flowers 



h 

also much larger and 



closer ; ' the teeth of the calyx shorter and broader ; the tube of 



the corolla is much shorter and wider; and the 
cylindrical. 



psules oblong 




/■ 



\ 



\ 



.-■ _ 
r 



\ 



s. 



■< 




4 






17 



ri il 



/ 



% 



LIST OF BARKS 



1. Cinchona vuTgo Azaharito de Loxa. 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6 

7. 



I 



9 
10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15. 

16. 

17. 
18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 



Cascarilla crespilla de Jaen de Loxa. 
Cascarilla fina de Loxa. 
Cascarilla de Quiebro de Cuenca de Loxa. 
Tarantaron de Loxa: 



I 



- Puchon de Loxa. 
Flor de Azahar. 



8. Cinchona rosea del Peru 



con hojas rugosas deljCxa, 

con hojas de Lucuma de Loxa. 
Quina crespilla de Loxa. 
Margarita de Loxa. 

con hojas de Roble de Loxa. 
laccifera del Peru parecida k la R 
Azahar macho de Loxa. 
Pata de Gallinano, vulgo de Loxa 
Provincia, vu 



?. 



V .-r- 



de Mat 




de Loxa. 
Azahar hembra, vulgo de Jaen de Loxa. 
Cascarilla crespilla ahumada de Loxa. 
Cascarilla colorada de Jaen de Loxa. 
Cascarilla amarilla de Quito Loxa. 
Cascarilla crespilla de Latuna de Loxa. 
Quina parecida a la amarilla de Mutis. 
Quina crespilla parecida k la buena de Loxa. 
Quina con hojas un poco vellosas de los Azq 



\ 



de Loxa. 



F 



1^ 



28. 

29. 
30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34: 

35. 
36. 

37. 

38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 



18 



2G. Ciiirliona Cascarilla o Qiiina de Nagenal de Loxa. 
27. — 



*.< 



serrana de Huaranda Loxa. 

m 

con liojas de Palton de Loxa. 

con hojas redondas de Quiebro de Loxa. 

bola del Peru. 



• 1 



Quina colorada del Rey de Loxa. 
Quina dmarilla fin a del Rey de Loxa. 
Cascarilla cliauerguera de Loxa. 
Quina negra de Loxa. 

amarilla de Quito de Loxa. 

— : con hojas de Lambo de Loxa. 



- estopara de Loxa. i^ 

' blanca Pato de Gallinaso de Loxa. 



Cascarilla colorada de los Azques de Loxa 



colorada de Loxa. 
amarilla Uritusinga. 
crespilla mala de Macos de Lc 
Provinciana fina de Jaen de L 
amarilla del Rey de Loxa, 



-F*L 



X 



■» ^y tf 



^r 




■ft 




I 



\ 



ON THE 



CINCHONA FORESTS OF SOUTH 



AMERICA. 



BY A. VON HU3IBOLDT 



SECTION 1. 



T 



HE present Essay is written 



fr 



to examine the Cin 



chon 



tree 



as an object of physical or botanical geography 



Amongst the numerous writers mentioning the Cinchona, thele 
are none but La Condamine, Ruiz, Pavon, and Zea, who them- 
selves have observed this beneficial tree upon the South Ameri- 
can continent. Only the first of these gives a physical descrip- 
tion of this plant ; the others, as well as Jacquin and Swartz, 
wlio saw the Cinchonas in the West-India Islands, and Vahl and 
Lambert, who occupied themselves with dried specimens, have 
merely treated on the natural history and the botanical dia"-no- 



sis. 



During 



my stay of four years in South America, I had 
sside a long time in countries where the Cinchona 

■ 

M. Bonpland and myself have observed 

itor, in the liingdom of New 



occasion to res 

trees are indigenous. 

them north and south of th 



qu 



Granada, betwixt Honda and Santa Fe de Bo 
vince of Popayan, in the corr< 



the pi 



giment of Loxa, on the Ama- 



zon river, in the province of Jaen de Bracamoros; and 



the 



Don J 



ly part of Peru. 
Lse Celestino Mutis 



D 



mg 



abode in the house of 



p 

Santa Fe, the botanical treasures 



f that great natural philosopher were opened to 



In Spa 



4t 



S 



20 



\ 



al 



we were enabled to collect, from the editor of the Flot 



Peruviana 



in Guayaquil, (the harbour of Quito on the coast 
of the South Sea) from M. Tafalla, a pupil of Ruiz, in the little 



town of Loxa, from Don Vincente Olmedo 



yal 



pector of 



the Cinchona forests, many interesting accounts respecting objects 
which, but for the obliging communications from those friends. 



Id have remained unknown to 



ontroversy 



^■ 



Respecting the very 



question, whether the orange-coloured Cin 



\ 



chona bark of New Granada, or the Peruvian Ciwe/tow a nitida 

r X 

described by_Ruiz and Pavon, be identical with the genuine C 
chona of Uritusinga, famed already since 1638, he only can decide 
who has himself explored tlie regions producing these three plants. 
But of the contending parties, neither Mutis, Zea, nor Ruiz and 

Pa von , 

Thence it is, that each party has, with equal want of foundation 



h 



ever set their feet in the 



giment of Loxa 



\ 



asserted that the most effi 
tffpective districts was the 2:e 



Cinchona bark of their re 



from IT 



In the 



» 



second fasciculus of our J^quinoctial Plants* we have shown, that^ 

this latter, the Cascarillafina de Loxa, is entirely different from 
Cincliona 

Ciuchona 



lanciftdia of Mutis, and from all those Peruvi 



bark 



Peruviana, and in the 



described in Ruiz's Quhiolog 



in the Floi 



Supp I 



to the Quinolog 



Averse as we are from entering into competition with the above- 

k 

named excellent botanists, yet the accidental advantage has fallen 
to our lot, of having ourselves seen the Cinchona forests neai^ 



Santa Fe, as also those of Loxa 
since the time of Joseph de J\ 



In fact, for the last sixty years 



whose observat 



were 



moreover 



published 



\. 



avelling naturalist has preceded 



US in visiting the beautiful mountain plains of Loxa. Favoured 
by these circumstances, I think myself enabled to speak with 

* Planter ^quinoctiales, par ITesars. Bonpland et Humboldt. Troisieme Hvraisoo,"*?! 39. 



/ 



21 



I 



-L 



some confidence on so difficult a subject, wJiicli, by a variety of 
controversies, has become more and more perplexed. 

It would be superfluous to repeat tlie fictions concerning the 
history of the discovery of the medicinal powers of the Cinchona 

I 

bark. Some say a patient had drank out of a lake the waters 
of which had acquired a bitter taste from Cinchona trunks which 
had lain in them ; others, that a lion had cured himself of the 
ague by chewing Cinchona bark, and had thus directed the at- 
tention of the Indians to this tree. Lambert, in his Mono- 
grajili of Cinchona f* has 



collected all the 



op 



That 



animals have taught men, is a very common form of the traditions 
of nations. The valuable antidote Vijuco del guaco, a plant de- 
scribed by Mutis, which is related to the3/i7ffl«m, and has been 
erroneously confounded with the Ayapnna of Brazil, is also* said 



to have attracted the notice of 



Ind 



as is affirmed of 



Falco serpentariusj by the Falco guaco of New Granada ii 



with serpents 



However, that the crreat American 



mane; FelU concolor, should be subject to tl 



affue 



bold an hypoth 



as the assertion of 



inhab 



just 
of 1 



pestilential valley Gualla Bamba,t that even the vultures /Fm/- 
tur auraj in their neighbourhood were subject to that disorder. 
Indeed, in the regions of the Cinchona forests there is not even 
a Felis concolor so fond of warmth to be found ; but at the most 
the csd. Puma, not yet properly described, (La Condamine's 
Petit lion du volcan de P inchincha , which I should be inchned 
to call Felis andicolaj and which we have met with in heights 

r 

of 2,500 toises. 

The story, so often copied, respecting the Countess Chinchon 



queen 



of Peru, is probably still 



doubtful than it is 



generally supposed to be 



There certainly was a Count Chin 



A Description of the Genus Ciaclioiia, 1792, p. 39. f Near to the town of Q 



G 



1L 



- « 



N 



^22 



dion, Don Oeronimo Fernandez de Cabrera Bobadella y Mendoza, 



wli 



Viceroy in Lima from 1629 to 1639 



It 



IS 



bable that his wife, after ber retui 



to Spa 



y pro 



1640, was the 



iiist who introduced the Cinchona bark into Europe. The name 

ComiHsscB appears even more ancient than that of 

Mm. But I do not believe (and 



of Pulv 

JPulvis Jesuiticiis or Pulvis Pair 



M. Olmedo in I 



of th 



dor of Loxa, Don Ju 



same opinion with me) that the 



said to h 



Lopez de Can 



ho 



cured the Countess of the ague, received this 



medy from the Ind 

of this kind 
cinal 



of Amei 



ans. In Loxa tbere is no tradition wdiatever 

4ll8BiV^ 

L ^mmMM^^^ 

i it probable that tbe discovery of the medi- 
power of the Cinchona belongs to the primitive nations 



nor 



if it is considered that these nations 



k 



the Hin 



■ » 

doos) adhere with unalterable pertinacity to tlieir customs, to 
their food, and to their nostrums, and that, notwithstanding all 
this, the use of the Cinchona bark is entirely unknown to them 
in Loxa, Guancabamba, and far around. In the deep and hot 
valleys of the mountains of Catamas^o, Rio Calvas, and Macara, 
agues are extremely common. But the natives there, as well 

J 

cast, would die rather than have re- 
to Cinchona bark, which, together with opiates, they 

on. The Indians 



as in Loxa, of whate 



course 



place in the class of poisons exciting mortificat 
<.aire themselves by lemonades, by the oleaginous aromatic peel of 
the small green wild lemon, by infusions of ^STco^area dulcis, and 
by strong- coffee, t 



live, they begin to put cjonfid 



In Malacatis only, where many bark-peel 



the Cinchona bark 



In 



L 



there 



document to be found which 



history of the discovery of the Cincl 

* Flora PeruTiana, torn. ii.p. 2. 



elucidate the 



old tradition, how 



•t 



f' 



fcbrifug 



N. 



J 



/ 



r 



23 



ever, is current there, that the Jesuits at the felling of the wood had 
-distinguished, according to the custom of the countr}% the dif- 
ferent kinds of trees by chewing their barks, and that on such occa- 
•sions they had taken notice of the considerable bitterness of the 
Cinchona. There being always medical practitioners among the 
Missionaries, it is said they had tried an infusion of the Cinchona 
in the tertian ague, a complaint which is very common in that 
part of the country. This tradition is less improbable than the asser- 
tion of European authors, and among them the late writers Ruiz 



V3h 



and Pavon, who ascribe the discovery to the Indians. The medi- 
cinal powers of the Cinchona was likewise entirely unknown 

A __ ■-" 

to the inhabitants of the kingdom of New Granada: 

A century elapsed before any botanical description was ob- 
tained of the tree whose pvilverized bark yielded the Jesuit's 
Powder. The astronomer La Condamine, who ranged with in- 

describable vivacity through all departments of human know- 
ledge, and by whom there are several neat botanical drawings 
in the collection of Jussieu in Paris, was the first man of science 
who examined and described the Cinchona tree. In the 



% 



year 



173 



* 



he 



el led through Loxa to Li 



d his descript 



ppeared in 1738 in the Mem, de VAcademie. 
e year 1739, Joseph de Jussieu explored the 



There, and in the neighbou 



of the Cinchona i 

Afterwards, in th 

country in the vicinity of Loxa 

hood of Zaruma, he gathered a great number of specimens, which 

are still to be found in Jussieu*s collection at Paris, and which 

we have compared with our own, collected sixty years later on 

tlie same spot. Amongst these was the Cinchona puhcscens, 

which Vahl has described as new, but which, as we shall 

subsequently prove, is the first Cinchona officinalis of Liune^s 

Sy sterna Naturae (12th edition). In the year 1743 La Con- 

■ 

* Vojage a I'Equateur, p. 31, 75, 1S6, and 203. 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\. 



^ 



24 



dam 



was a 



second time in L 



from wli 



lie travelled 



did in the yeai 1802, to Tomepinda and the Amazon 



At 



that time the first and (what is singular enough) 



th 



last 



V 



attempt was made to bring young Cinch 



trees al 



to Eu 



rope. After the astronomer had carefully nursed them for eigl 
months during a passage of 1200 leagues. 



up by 



which washed 



>ues, they were swallowed 
the boat, near Cape Orange, 



th of Para 



Botanists for a long time were acquainted with only one sp^- 
s of Cinchona, which Linnaeus called officinalis, and in the 



^ 4 

descript 



f which, he united, without knowing it,, our C 



4, 



» 



The West India Islands, the South Seas, even the 



Condmninea and C. cordifolia Mutis ; for the specimen sent him 
from Santa Fe was yellow Cinchona, and totally different from 
tliat drawn, though imperfectly, by La Condamine. At last Jac- 
quiu's voyage made us acquainted with another species, viz. the 
C carihcta 

* 

East Indies, offered from time to time more specie 
to the traveller, but the most efficacious and the 
able ones of the continent of South America remained longest 

unnoticed. 

From 1638 to 1776 no other Cinchona bark was met with in com- 
merce, except that of the corregiment of Loxa and its neigl 



of Cinchona 
lost remark- 



bourhood. La Condamine makes mention of the bark from 



Riobamba and Cuenca in the province of Qviito 



from Ayavanca and Jaen de Bracamoros 



also of that 



But the bark from 



the interior of Pe 



IH 



and in the province La 



Paz) or even the bark from the kingdom of New Granad 
entirely unknown to 



him 



They did not suppose it possible for Cinchona trees to exist 



north of the Equator, and consequently i 
a fortunate accident led a man, who had 



hemisph 



till 



long 



time lived in 



■v 




Loxa, in some department 

s return to Spa 



barks, < 

cle Bog 



h 



nnected with the peeling of 
across Popayan to Santa Fe 



Th 



observing traveller was the upper Mint Di 



rector f Super infcndente general de moneda de Santa FeJ Dc 
Miguel de Santistevan, who, without any botanical knowledg 
discovered physiognomically, tliat is to say, by mere Imbitu 



the Cinchona 



fro 



to 2>N 



n Loxa up 
rial concerning the royal administration 
Cinchona bark (Estanco de Cascarilla) 



lat. In a memo- 
of the whole trade of 
ivhich in 1753 he ad- 



dressed to th 



i viceroy Marquis de Villar, he expressly 5?ays tJiat 
he had found Cinchona trees not only betwixt Loxa and Quito, 
for instance, easterly from Cuenca near the villages Paute and 



C^ualasco, westerly from Riobamba on tlie declivity of the Chim 



borazo 



Ansras, and on the C 



de S. Antonio, but also 



betwixt Quito and Santa Fe in all situations, where the ground 



wf an equal h 

level of the se 



with Lo 



consequently SOO 



The estimate of the height according to moden 
d even accordino; to the earlier ones of La Con 



damine,* is certainly too low by at least 250 toises ; but 



'^' 



observation 



pecting the mean h 



the Cinchona 



ti 



are always met witli on the mountainous declivity, is the 
striking, since even learned philosophers at that time paid 



the 






phy of plants, or to the height of their 



situation 



It is also to be observed, that although M. Santis 



1 



tevan, according to the manuscript accounts which I procured of 
him, speaks generally of Cinchona trees betwixt Quito and Santa 



4^ 



Fe, yet we can perceive from his enumerati 



i 



particular pi 



that he d 



th 



P 



produce only in the valley of 



Rio Tuanamba north of Pasto, in the forests of Be 



the vicinity of Popay 



G 



the dang 



pass of 



* Voyage de la Riviere de I'Arnazoue, p. 25, 



H 



/ 



"I 
"I 



\ 



20 



A 



ihe 



■ 

Allots, beUvixt the village of this name and tlie Sitia, de 



los CoiTales. 

Such was the state of the discovery of Cincl: 
equator until the year 177:2. All the Cinch 



I 



north of the 
bark of coin* 



from Loxa, Gauancabamb 



d C 



Th 



hoi 



nd Jaen, perhaps t 
i was shipped at 



from Riobaniba ai 

ports of the Pacili 

portant discovery in the provinces of Pasto and Popayan 

the year 1772 Don Jose Celestino Mutis discovered the Cinchona 



\, . 



No advantage was derived from the im 



In 



about Santa Fe ' and 



this epoch Europ 



ed C 



bark which did not double Cape H 

r 

of Carthairena de Indias to Cadiz. 



and which 



by way 



M. Mutis had resided already twelve years in the kingdom of 
Ts^ew Granada. He had travelled twice through the forests be- 
t\veen Guaduas and Santa Fe, where the Cinchona tree is surround- 
ed hy the beautiful Granada oaks. If we consider the diversity of 
plants which engage the attention of the botanist in these coun- 
tries ; if we reflect that in the tropics the height of the trunks 
withdraws from our eyes both leaves and blossomsp we shall be 
the less surprised that M. Mutis discovered the Cinchona only in 
1772, when he found it in blossom. This excellent explorer of 
nature, who is a native of Cadiz, studied three years in Madrid, 
and was induced by a love of botany to accompany the vice- 
roy Don Pedro Misia de la Cerda, as his physician, to Santa 
Fe. He lived a long time in the districts of Pampelona and 
de la Montuosa, a name which, to the greatest dissatisfaction 

■t 

of M. Mvitis, Linnceus has construed into Mexico ; so that 

1 

this Swedish botanist has quoted all the New Granada spe- 
cimens which he received from la Montuosa, as Mexican ones.* 
This error is the more singular, since Linnaeus, who correspond- 
ed with Mutis always by way of Carthagenade Indias; must have 



\ 



♦ Tor \nstVLntfy Mann€tiia recHnata, 



^-^ 



->L- 



27 



perceived tliat 



11 e ver 



(J 



M. M 



ill Mexico. 



TI 



10 



in the mines north of 



abs 



of 



from the Cinchona ft 



Ml 



f Mave, G 



Fe Uul kept him far 



and 



in a report to 



J: 



\ 



iceroy Bon Manuel Antonio Florez 



1^ 



P 



1772 he had 



f the later discovery of tlie €inch 
lirected all his botanical excnrsio 



., that 
out of 



of the first 5 degrees of N. lat., which he held to be th 

r 

country of the Cinchona in the northern hemisphere 
This great naturalist did not at that time suspect, that soon after 



wards the C 
mouth of th 



R 



Op 



would be found to exist even 

, and as far as Santa Martha. 



at th- 
conse 



quently in the 10th degree of N. lat 



! 



Mutis had procured th 



first dried specimens of the yellow 



Cinchona of Loxa fC. cordifoliaj from M. Santistevan, director 



of the Mint 



According to these, the srenus CincJi 



bed in such manner 



h 



)na was es 

communicated it to Linnseu^ 



In the year 1772, when M. Mutis 



in company with his friend 



Bon Pedro Ugarte, rode through the forest of Tena, not far from 



til 
tv 



mountainous declivity of Santa I 



discovered Cinch 



V 



d Guad 



A year afterwards he also found them betwixt Hond 

d presented to the viceroy Bon Manuel d 



Guirior, who had just embarked on the Magdalen river a fl 



ing branch of Cinch 



as a newly-discovered valuabl 



duct of that country, which nature bad 



riched with 



P 



I 



matic Nutmegs rMtjristica OtobaJ, witli an excellent C'\ 



CL 



aides Mut 



wi 



Tbdaspuie f Lauras* Putseri Mut.), w 

amygdaliferum Mut.), with four kinds of Styrax, with the Bal 



aromatic Puchcry or 

th Almonds (Caryocar 



d. The number of species of this genus figured in the fourtli vol. iued. of jhe Flora 



t. 352. in 

Peruviana, amoutits to thirty. 

L 

^.oii shops under the name of Sassafras nutg. 
t. 470c Mi/rospermum bahamiferum^ Fl. t 



same as the Laurus Pu^hert of Fl 



'ri IS frequently sold ia the Lon- 
iiferum, FL Peruv, vol. v. ined. 



■v 



( 



/ 



/ 



28 



sam of Tolu (Toluifera^ indicaj, with a* Tea tree (Ahionia 
the(pformis Mut.), with Ipecacuanha (Psycliotvia emetica Mut.), 
with Wax-palms C Ceroxy Ion anclicola llxmih.), with Carannia 
gum fMginetia cannifera Mut.), with Winter's bark (Wintera 
granadensisjy with Quassia simaroiibat and with the valuable 
dyeing woods. • 

r 

In the history of sciences, it often happens that the person 
who knows, how to diffuse, with a certain degree of boldness, 
the discovery of another, passes for the discoverer himself, in- 
sfead of iiim who made that discovery. M. Mutis, a man of a li- 
beral and enlightened mind, asked no reward from the Go- 
vernment. He occupied himself without ostentation in botani- 
eal examinations of tlie kinds of Cinchona which he discovered, 
and in the application of their barks through an extensive me-. 
dical practice. In the year 1783 only, he obtained a royal sa- 
laiy, when the botanical expedition of Santa Fe was organized 
by M.'Gongora, who was both archbishop and viceroy. 

In the year 1776, four years after M. Mutisms discovery, Don 
Sebastian Jose Lopez Ruiz, a cunning and petulant physician 
at .Santa Fe, a native of Ganama, found means to persuade- 
the Spanish Government that he had first discovered Cinchona 

P _ 

trees in New Granada. He sent samples of the new Cinchona 
to Madrid, spoke a great deal of the importance of this new 
article 6f commerce, and obtained a yearly pension of 2000 pias- 
tres for his reward. From records which M. Lopez remitted to 
me in the year 1802, by his brother, a canon in Quito, in order 
to prove to me the priority pf his discovery, I have found that 
he knew the Cinchona about Honda only in the year 1774, and 
that he made the first medicinal experiment with it in the year 
1775. M. Lopez did not long enjoy his full salary. The vice- 
roy Gongora, who besides esteemed M. Mutis greatly, and his 
first secretary Don Zenon de Alonzo, who was a zealous pro- 



» 



V 



♦ 



Mt/rosp^rmum balsamifcrum^ 



V. 



\ 



21) 



f 



moter of the sciences, represented to llie Courty that M. Lope?; 
was not the first discoverer of the New Granada Cinchona bark. 
Thej immediately withdrew one half of the royal pension, or- 
dered M. Lopez to travel to the Darien, where it was also pre- 
tended that Cinchona had been discovered ; and as he refused to 
undertake a journey to such a pestilential climate, the viceroy dis- 
continued the other half of his salary. Since this epoch a violent 
dispute has arisen respecting the priority of the discovery. Lopez 
made a voyage to Europe, and again contrived to procure for 
himself a salary of 1000 piastres. He ingratiated himself with 
M. Mutis's botanical opponents, and these have mentioned him 
frequently since as co-discoverer. It is still more remarkable, 

* _ 

that Colonel Don Antonio de la Torre Miranda wishes to prove, 
in his Topography of the province of Carthagena, [J^Toticia indi- 
vidual de los Pohlaciones nurvns fmidadns en la Prowincia de 
Carthagena^) by means of testimonies, that to him beh>ngs the 
honour of discovering the Cinchona bark in New Granada, be- 
cause in the year 1783 (consequently eleven years after M. Mu- 

^ 

tis) he had discovered it near Fusagasuga. M. Mutis had be- 

p 

i?un, in Mariquita, a plantation of Cinchona and of Cinnamon 



• 



of the Andaquia Missions, the remains of which we also saw. 
In the year 180*3 the Spanish Government commissioned a French 
physician, M. Louis Berieux, to continue these plantations ; to cul- 
tivate the indigenous 3Ii/ris(lca,-\ and to superintend generally 
the packing of the Cinchona bark in New dranada. Fie received a 
salary of 2000 piastres, with tlie title of Comniissionado y Encar- 
sada delnvestigaciones dellistoria Natural en el Nuevo Bey no 
de Granada. He possessed as little botanical knowledge as 
M. Lopez, but was a man of strong mind and intellectual capa- 



city. 



He had long before lived in Santa Fe, from whence he 

* Laurus cinnamomoides. Mulis. — Edit. 

t Myristica otoha, Huuib, et BonpU. Plant oe iEciuin, 2, p. 78. lab^ 103*— Edit^ 



# 



^ 



y 



! 



30 



\ 






was dra^rgetl in cliams to CartLageiia, and tlience to a pi 



€ad 



under th 



fal 



a(!Cusation of 



olutionaiy principl 



After his innocence had been aclvnovvledi»ed, the Minister of State 



■!Pon 3Iariano de TJrquijo conferred on him the 



dance 



of the Cinchona forests 



A 

I travelled with him upon the Magdal 



Biver, during which time his amiable son made several d 



Th 



*of plants for me 
and M. Lopez. 

p 

•chona excited the bitterest 



father stepped forth bet 



M. Mutis 



As the specific characters of the species of Cin 



*P 



putes betw 



Zea, R 



and 



at Madrid, so the Cinch 



bark, ever since its first 



discovery^ lias bee 



odious object of persecution in Santa f 



I have learned with great regret, 
America, M. Derieux had lost his 
compelled to leave the vice 



that soon after I left South 

_ L 

salary, and had even. been 
royalty, so that the Cinchona trees 



again grow 



out any superin tendance, which 



deed, has 



liitherto not promoted their increase or p 



In 



pie historical narrative we have sh 



Ih 



.tl] 

L 



till 



J 



1772 all Cinch 



bark was collected in the forests of 



w 

Ayavaca, and Jaen de Bracamoros, consequently betwee 



the 3rd and 5th deii^rees of south latitud 



d 



fi 



the 



y 



1 



the medicinal Cinchonas on th 



at only 
e South 



American continent became used 



in the northern hemisph 



which species of Cinchona were discovered between the 4th and 5th 

Until then, none were known in Peru 



degrees of soutli latitude 



Propel 
capital 



specially in the mountains situated nearer to Lima, the 



Th 



vale of Jlio Cal 



and 



village Ay 



m 



whose neighbourhood the Cinchona Condaminea grows, 



filmed 



snice th 



J 



1738 



belon 



situated 



g indeed in a political respect to 

close to the confines of the corregi- 
d the bark of Ayavaca, like that of Jaen, was 
sold by the name of Cascarilla fina de Uritusinga, as well as 
that which was shipped in Payta. 



Peru, but both 

T 

wT 

jinent of Loxa : 



/ 



I 



^ 



-* 



.> 



% 



\ 



31 



/ 



/ 



It was only in 177(> that the real coinnierce in Peruvian Cin- 

Don Francisco Rcnquifo discovered near 



€hona bark began. 



/ 



liuannco, on tlie mountain San Christo val <le Cuchero, the 
C nitlda of Ruiz, a species very nearly related to the oran/re- 
coloured one of Mutis {Cinchona Inncifolia). An enterprising 
man, Don Emanuel Alcarraz, brought the first sample of it to 
Lima, and turned the use of it to advanta2;e. The editors of 
the Flora Peruviana did certainly not ])enetrate, in 1779, as far 
^s the Amazon River itself, but oidy to those rivers which flow 
immediately into it. They visited the beautiful valleys of Thar- 



mTi, Xauxa, and Huamalies, and in 1779 determined the bota- 

L 

nical characters of the North Peruvian species. This was con- 
equently seven years after M. Mutis began his labours on the 
Cinchonae of New Granada. Shortly afterwards, medicinal 
Cinchona bark was discovered at almost one and the same 
time in the most northern and in the most soutliern part of South 
America, in the mountains of Santa Martha, and in the king- 
dom of Buenosayres, near La Paz and Cochabamba, where a 
naval officer, Rubin de Celis, and the German botanist Taddaeus 
Haenke, drew the attention of the inhabitants to this Valuable 

produce, 

After tlie year 1780, therefore, Europe was superabundantly 
supY)lied from the ports of Payta, Guayaquil, Lima, Buenosayres, 



Carthagen 



d Santa Martha, with Barks of various med 



pow 



Of th 



barks 



direct to Sp 



and some 



England 
mixed w 



transmitted by the smuggling trade to North America and 

occasionally 



1 



West-Indian Cinchona barks were also 
those of the continent. They gave the name of C 



chona to barks which indeed possess great febrifuge powers, but 
which are derived from trees which do not even belong to the genus 

Cinchona. Thus they spoke in Cadiz of Cascarilla or Quina de 







\ 



\ 



32 



Citmana and ofQuina de la Angostm^a. . They divided all bark 

spurious, witliout considering, that, al- 

possess equal medicinal power, yet 
that they are capable of displaying specific differences in the 
manner of their efficacy. They asked for bark like that of Loxa, 
without consijerin": that three or four kinds of Cinchona bark 



into genuine and into 
though true Cinchona barks 



had ever since 1738 come from Loxa itself to Europe, which were 
the produce of quite diiJerent species of Cinchona. They for*- 
got that the quality of the bark^ did not depend merely on its 
being from the C. lancifoUa or from C macrocarpa\ but that 
locality of growth, the age of the tree, quick or slow drying, 



determine its efficacy. They mistook the same species, if the 
bark was, instead of canutillos, i. e. in thin quills, in thick cor- 
tizones, or even powdered. They mixed, sometimes through mis- 



take, sometimes intentionally, the hixvk o^ Wintera granadensis 
and of tlje tanning Weikmannias, with the Cinchona bark, and 
even stained them witli an infusion of Brazil wood. 

I 

These circumstances gave rise to very singular prejudices 
iu judging of Cinchona bark. Certain mercantile houses in 



V 






Spain, which half a century since were in possession of the 
exclusive trade in Cinchona bark, endeavoured to throw disrepute 
on that from New Granada and soutliem Peru. They found com- 
plaisant botanists, who, by boldly exalting varieties ta species, 
proved that all Peruvian Cinchonas were specifically different from 
those which grow about Santa Fe. Physicians, like the Popes, 
drew lines of demarcation on the map. They insisted, that be- 
yond a certain degree of latitude in the northern hemisphere no 
efficacious Cinchona cwild grow. But as the commerce with 
Cinchona bark from Huamalies and Huanuco, which Ortega, 
Ruiz, Pavon, and Tafalla recommended, soon fell into the hands 
of those who had formerly carried on the South Sea trade in the 



( 



+■ 




Ciiicliona bark of L 



tl 



new Peruvian Cinchona barks na- 



turally gained easier access 



Sp 



tl 



th 



from Santa 



i 



The latter 



contrary, which the English and North 



Americans could easily procure in Carthag 



a port 



ble to the smuggling trade, obtained a preferable fame 



in London, German} 



d Italy 



Tl 



5 



the 




^Yent so far, that, at the royal 
orange-coloured Cine] 



bar! 



fj 



ffect of mercantile 

a quantity of 
ew Granada. 



N 



which M. Mutis had caused to be peeled at the expense of 



king, 



was burned, as a decidedly inefficacious remedj 



at a 



time when all the Spanish field-hospitals were in the greatest 



want of this valuable product of South A 
Cinchona bark condemned to destruction ^ 



A part of 
tly bought by 



English merchants in Cadiz, and puljllcly sold in London at 
high prices. Since M. Zea, the present director of the botanic gar- 
den at Madrid, has maintained, in the Annalcs deCiencias iVaiu 



rales 



but tha 

■ 

two or 



gainst the editors of the Fhra Pa 
species of Cinchona are ident 
t they h 

V 

three 



their Pe- 
th tho&e of M. Mutis 



described 



d the same speci 



1 < ' r 



names 



th 



dispute concerning 



tl 



quality of 



Cinchona bark from Santa Fe has again become very animated 
The Supplement of the Quinologia, by Ruiz and Pa^ 



ten with a bitterness which ought always to remain foreign to the 



calm course of scientific inquiries. 

Before we proceed from the history of the discovery of the C 

chona to its geographical difFusi 
sical relations, we must cast 



d their 



glance upon the specifi 



1% 

ffe 



of th 



veral kinds of Cinchona. A properly complet 



botanical disquisi 



is 



foreign to the purpose of this Treatise 



M. Bonpland and myself will attempt it on another occasion, 



K 



*v 



■^*«- 



^ 



V 



X 



■-1 



34 



VIZ. 



the description of the two thousand new species of plant 



discovered during our expedit 



and partly determined already 



hy our excellent friend M. Willdenow. As almost every spe 



cies of Cinchona is pecul 



its own region, to its own alti 



Andes 



tude on the mountainous declivity of the chain of the 
it is unavoidably necessary, for* the satisfactory treatment of 
the subject, to adjust at least the synonymy of the most impor- 
tant officinal species. I shall eertainlj- make mention of that 
only, which I have had the opportunity of observing with my 
own eyes. 



\ 




I 



/- 



4 ■ , 



- t 



/ 



i 



\ 



m 



ON THE 



CINCHONA FORESTS OF SOUTH 



AMERICA. 



BY A. VON HUMBOLDT. 



i ■ 



SECTION II, 



T 



HE genus Cinchona bel 



TL-F 



to those tribes of plants, whose 



species have been considerably multiplied 
knew but two of them, viz. C. officinalis 
Vahl.* in his treatise on Cinchona Bark, 



f late. Linnoeus 
and O. CaribcBa 



enum 



nine 



Lambert,t in his English Monograph; eleven 



Persoon 



liis little Enchiridium Botanicum 



+ 



and-twenty species 



m 
If 



we yet add to th 



tvv 



Cosmibuence of the Flora Per 



belonging formerly to the genus Cinchona, the Cinchona excelsa 
«f Roxburgh, found in the East Indies, my C. Condaminea,\^vas'' 

C. spinosa, and Willdenow's yet undescribed small-leaved 

for which we are indebted to Count Hoffmann- 



sour s 



C- hrasilien 

^egg ill th 



pedit 



nstituted by him for objects of natural 



liistory, then the number of species of Cinchona appeal 



eased to twenty 



The authors of the Flora Peru 



entertained the notion of describing thirteen new spe 



4 

€ies, while M. Mut 



has reduced all the Cinch 



examined 




him in South America, to seven only 



Even Professor Z 



X 



* Skrlvter of Naturhistorie Selskabet, B. i. H. i. p. 10. 
f Description of the genus Cinchona^ 1707, 

^ Synopsis Plantaruni, P. i. p. 19G^ 



^1 



*' 



/ 



\ 



36 



tTie Annates de Cienclas JVaturales de Madrid* has ventured' 



to prove that ahnost all the efficacious sp 



enumerated by 



Ruiz and Pavon, can be reduced to four, viz. C lancifolia, 
C oblongifolia, C cordifolia, and C. cvalifolia, described by 



Mutis, in the year 1793, m 



th 



terary news of Santa Fe d 



Bogota, t 



Indeed I hardly know any one tree varying more in the shap 
of its leaves than the Cinchona. Whoever determines single spe 
cimens of dried collections, and has no opportunity to examine o 



observe them iii their native forests, will 



th 



the 



JBroussonettia papyrife^^a, be led to discover different species by 



leaves which are of one and th 



branch. The yellow bark 



C. pubescens, Vahl, we have found at one and the same time with 
^ol. ovato-ohlangis, ovnto-lanceolatis, and ovato-cordatis. Mutis 
calls it C. cordifolia, because it is the only kind on which some^ 
times cordate leaves are faund.. The same species varies like the 



z' 



white Cinchona, C. ovalifolia, Mut. f C. macrocarp 



Vahl) 




His utrinque levib 



d foliis utrinque pubesceniib 



IS. These 

varieties are represented in those well executed coloured draw- 
ings which M. Mutis presented me during my residence in Santa 



Fe, 
hot 



and which h 
us siccus of 



my 



been deposited, togethe 
expedition, to the trop 



ith 



a 



complete 
in the Jardin 



des Plantes at Paris. Even the laurel-leaved C. Condaminea, 
the finest bark from Uritusinga, has very diversified leaves^ 
according to the altitude- at which it grows, and which equals 



_ _ ^ hT 

that of Saint Gothard's or Mount ^tna. It would deceive the. 
bark-peelers fcascariUerosJ. themselves, if they did not know 

'■ w 

the tree by the glands, left so long unobserved by botanists. la 
Gonzanama, not far from Loxa, we made a great number of inir^ 



* Anno 1801, No. 5. 

t Papel Perigdico de Santa Fe, 1793, No. 1 11:. 



V, 



37 



pressions, by means of printei 



nk, from these heterog 



which h 



order to prove how unsafe all those distin 



forms of J 

tions are, 

long- known but yet very imperfect method of ectyp 



been derived from the 1 



Illy 




advanta 



for this and similar purposes 



The 

parti - 
offers 



/ 



ch-occupied travellers the means of procuring in a few mi 



1^ 



t 



Th 



the most correct outlines. 

- more the Cinchona trees vary 



the 



si 1 ape and smooth 
of the leaves, accordin g to the altitude in which they grow 



to the severity or mildness of the climate 



the trees stand,.... 



ly, or being closely surrounded by other plants 



thfel 



of growth, and 



or 



less 1 



II 




of the soil 



the 



with reuard to tlie diaonostic ind 



necessary is it, 

attentioii to the form of the fl 



pay 

length of th 



d anth 



as 



of the filaments 



thers, to tlie propoi 

also betvveen the A 

It is not sufficient 



ch as have a smooth or hirsute coroll 
ed. or inclosed in the tube of the coroll 



particularly to the 
between the stamens 

id the adherent part 

amine the species in 
^r the stamens exsert- 



find 



almost every speci 



An attf 
difference 



th 



struc 



ofth 



Thus, the C, parvl/lora,Mnt. haspubes 



filaments^ and dilated at the ba 



C. macrocarpa, VahJ, anthe 



.....ly sessile, placed in the upper part of the tube "f rt^^^^"^^ 

C. ohlonMfoUa, Mut. filaments very short, anthers s.taatedbeW 



the niiddle of the tube of 



The Cinchona ova/ifoli 



Mut 



„. white Cinchona, varies frequently with from six t 

C Condaminca with from three to four stamehs only. 1 

,„b of the corolla is frequently found divided 

SIX or seven, ... that of the latter, mostly into four segment 

Z Cascarilafina de la Provincia de Jaen, which M Bonpland 
f^IeSXtly to describe, I found the anthers always shorter than 



fi 



the 



I 



L 



\ 



I 



\ 




+ 

free part of the jfilaments, and this free part again longer than 

adiierent one. 
Ilia firm de Ui 



Oh the other hand, I oberved that in the Cas 



C. Con dam 



twice the length of the free portion of 



fil 



the anthers 
its. and the 



free parts are two-thirds shorter than the adherent 



Th 



ly any mention of 



p r o p o rti 



th 



other 




cellent descript 
Vahl. Swartz, j 



of Cinch on te for which' we are indebted 



d the authors of the Flora Peruv 



In the 



mercantile world, several barks 



called Peruvian bark which 



^ 

do not belong to the genus Cinchona. Thus, the excellent remedy 
which the Catalan Capuchin friars of the missions on the River 
Carony first made known, was called in Spain Quina de la Guay- 



de la A 



a 



M. Mutis became acquainted with 



bark in 1759 in Madrid, at the house of Don Vincente Rodr 
de Rivas :* he employed it in his medical practice, and e 



o 



subs t a 



Loefling 

valuable 

It was afterwards ascribed, sometimes to the Srucea 

sometimes to the 



supposed that it did not belong to the genus Cinchona 
died in the missions of Carony without knowing th 



f err uginea, which however grows m Abyssinia; 
Magnolia glauca ; sometimes (which certainly was more probabl 



-^ 



to the Magnolia Plumieri. lii our expedition we had 



oppo 



tunity of examining botanically the Cusp 



which yield 



the 



AngosturcB. We discovered it to be a new gen 



on 



which our excellent friend Willdenow, in the Transactions of the 
Royal Academy of Berlin, has conferred the name oi Bonplandia.^ 
This name of my travelling companion has been retained for the 
Cuspare plant, since we have changed the Mexican Bonplandia 
^eminijlora, described by Cavanilles, to Cald<tsia heterophylla. 
The bark of Cumana, which for the last four or five years has 



J- 



* Pupel periodico de Santa Fe, No. 95. p. 337. 

t SammL Deutecher Abhandl. fur 1801 iind 1802, S. 3ft 



39 



I t 



been sent to Spain, tlirougli the exertious of Covernor Don \ 



Enii 



kewise different from C 



of Ca scar ilia dc ^ucva Andalu 
icliona. A chemist wonld liarJ 




be able to distinguish tliis Ciispa bark 



from 



t remedy in tlie a2;ue. 



:rue CiucI 
Although 



bark. It is an excellei 

observed for abnost a twelvemonth the Cuspa trees 



Me 



f R 



Manzanario near C 



yet 



fell to our h»t to meet 



witl 



1 



flowers." We do not know, therefore, l>y what distinctiv 



ark it differs from the genus Bonplandia and Cinch 

, I- 

ant of stipuloe, however, the situation o 



f 



1 



w Ii ol e 



na. The 
and the 
Cuspa 



IS 



Ciil cJi 



ake it more than probable that the 
The absence of stipulae is particularly striking 

tr^e of Cuma- 



Yet notwithstanding its alternate leaves, the Bark 



na might still be a Cinch 



for the same reason that Co 



ItermfoUa stands isolated amongst twelve species ofCornus with 
pposite leaves. It has likewise remained doubtful 



wh 



ther the bark of Acatamez 



ill 



ated westward of Ville 



de Ibarra on the coast of the South Sea, betwixt Rio Verde and 



Rio Esmeraldita 



produce of a species of Cinchona 



Th 



q 



of this Acatamez bark 



d during 



stay 



with which we became ac 
town of Popayan, has not beei 
Mr. Brown, who lon.c: before u 



hitherto examined by botanists. 

was in the South Sea, (in 1793,) has already given 

Lambert's Monograph of Cinchon 



of th 



torrid zone. 



Either from 



of geographical 



species 

n formal 



of 



or 




1^1* 



con 



ption of the name, he calls it Bark of Teca 



I 



f Cascarilla of Acatamez 



± 



\ four 



tri]>e of plants producing Peruvian bark 



although 



of less medicinal power, is 



genus Cosmibuena of the Flora 



J 



To this belongs C*«c7<o/tfl longlflora,M^^' or C. g 



* I^ambert, p, 30* 



40 



di/iora, Ruiz. It is a tree of great beauty, which we have fre 
quently seen in deep hot valleys exhibiting its beautiful fragrar 



bl 



The 



corolla ; and the fructifi 



lie deep and hidd 



the tube of th 



^^ 



is so similar to that of the other 



1 

species of Cinchona, that the Cosmihiiena can hardly be admitted 
to constitute a distinct genus. 

On the other hand, it might be advisable to form the Ciri-^ 
cJionce with long stamina far projecting from the tube of the 



corolla, such as Jacquin's C Caribcea, S 



C. angustif 



lia, C, hrachycarpa, and C.Jlorihunda, into a sepai 



ly allied to Cinchon 



1 



species 



bel 



posse 



this 



pec 



that all of 



5'"S 



genus 

to it 



-y 



pt one, inhabit 



islands, viz. the Philippine, tlie West Indian, and the South Seat 
Islands, and that they prefer hot valleys, or even plains, to a higli 



mountainous situation. I know but 



A 



pecies upon the S 



t which have stamina exserfa. Lanibei 



C. longijlova from French Guiana, and the yet undescribeil C 



choi 
lac I 



dlsshn lll/li 



Mut. (stamlnih 



■ 

longe exsertiSy cor ol Ice 



ho langiorlhus, folds cordato-ohlongisj wh 



kingdom of New Granada, descends from the 



o 



3h, in tlie 

ty of the 



sea. 



of the 

West Ind 
ficiently t 



towards the plains as low as 200 toises above the level 
C Carib4xa and C angustifolia are found in tlie 



still lowei 



pots 



^-^ 



for plantations of sugar 



s which are suf- 
All these Island 



Cinchonas with projecting stamens h 



a smooth coroll 



AH 



of thi 
alone 



have 



a 



pitate or obtuse stigma, the C. Philip p 



pted, which M. Nee discovered at Santa Cruz de la 



La 



guna. 



Manilla. A divided 



gma is, 



on the contrary 



observed in all Cinchonae with inclosed stamen 
roUa of the latter is sometimes smooth, i 



oinetimes 



•*! 



Th 

hairy 



CO- 

M 



* C?ivatt5Hei Icoues, t, iv. p. 15, 1. 329, 



\ 



41 



Mutis has already proposed, in the literary News of Santa Fe 
separate the Cinchona with 



long projectin 



rr 



Test. 



I know 



}) 



stamina from the 
says he, *' what my friend Linmcus thonu^ht 



/ 



of the Cinchona of the South Sea, for 



plement only proves 



nt 



the Sup 



fav 



of 



whose opinion ha 



y 



not with me the weight of the opinions of the father." The au- 

■t 

r 

thors of the Flora Peruviana wish to make i\\*i Island-Cinchona?, 
Portlandice ;* but M. Swarz, in Schrader^s Journal fur die Bo- 
tanik,-\ proves, that in the Island-Cinch once, as in those of the 
continent, the capsule is a dissepimentum loculormn cxacte pa- 
rallelum, and in Portlandia a dissepimentum vere contrarium. 
Ruiz's Portlandia corymhosa is therefore no Portlandia^ but 
belongs to the Cinchonw filamentis e basi tuhi ortis, to C Ca-- 
rihcpa, C. Jloribunda, and C. brachi/carpa, a groupe of plants 

which M. Swarz also wishes to unite into a separate genus on ac- 
count of the floAver, but not on the score of fructification. The 
C excelsa, with enormous leaves, frequently of twelve inchef? 

^ _ 

leniith and fifteen inches breadth, discovered in the East Indies, 



stands almost in the middle, betwixt tlie West-Indian and South 



American Cinchona, and 



seems 



lissuade 



it 



were, from the proposed separation of the two tribes. IJ 
the C. excelsalloxb. approaches less to the Island-Cincho 
to the New Granada and Peruvian ones, corolla pubescei 



sta 



inibus medio tubi insertis, nee e basi tubi nascentibus, antlieris 



nee iilamentis exsertis, margine 



The antherce 



this East I 



seminum lacero, 
species arc eight 



balid integro 



Ion 



rr 



er 



\. 



than the filaments. It is difficult to find reasons for uniting th 



Island-Cinchonae 

fruit. 



parate 



in the formation of the 



They differ:!: from the Cinchonae of the continent of South 



* Flor. Peruv. t. ii. praef. and p. 4i), 
J Schrader, a. a. 0. S. 359. 



+ BaiiJ. I. p. 358 



Bi 



I 



m 



-^-4 



Ami 



42 

ft 

*• valvulis jnimi5? extrorsum 



unique marj>ine inte 



eiitibiis et recepta 



But except the smooth unindented coat of the seed win^^s which 
I mostly find, the r.mainin. forms of the fruits exhiblt^gLda- 



tion 
the 

ther 



hich link 



» 



it 



all th 



new genus of Island-Cinchon^e, deli-htina 



would 



qiiently remain 



Cinchonae 
in hot pi 



For 



longe exsertis ex basi tubi nascentibus 



^1 n eta 



staminibus inclus 



Stigma simplex capitatum 



corolla glabra, ' filamentis 
Semina margine integro 



glabram 



and C. 



gran difly 



But !*> 
ora R 



Many Cinchon^e 
, have corollam 



2«. 61 PhilUppina has far projecting filaments, stiir 



ina bilamellatum, and ye 



<)mcta 



3 



it appears, semina margine integ 



C. excelsa has stigma subcapitatum leviier emargi 



natum, the seed not indented, and th 



Under th 



Vt 



it 



inhes of plants so nearly allied 



uld 



filaments not projecting 



■> 



i^m\y be bold to 



parate 



Th 



gul 



prickly C. spinosa of St. Domin 



first sight to belong least to the genus Cinchona 

lully small-leaved, and h 

Another prickly Cinchona differs' still 



5 



appears 



genume Cinchona bark trees • it 



It is wonder- 
frequently folia terna verticillata. 

more in colour from the 



grows 



Guayaquil 



the 



coast of the Pacific, and >r TafaHa showed it to un„^"th; Jil 



of 1803, during our stay th 



This undescribed species 



is a 



S21l:T VT ""'"""* '" ■'^'"' ""^"'"^ ''^^'^^ ^» «- genus 

f T pT ^f^S^'-^^^ ^vhich Persoon ranks next in succession 
to the Porilandia , ,v^c^ the Pcedeira fragrans , more resembli... 



Tliis 



the C,ncj,ona ha^s bee,, separated from P<edeirafMda. .„,s „e 

Lr fl"' Tafalla has in other respects the complete fructi- 

jLve V 5 f^'T*^"" °'*^ physiognomy of p,antl 

iiie very same frn.t of the genuine Cinchona is also produced 






43 



hy Pinhnei/a pvhrns Mirliaux,* a tree ^^]nell I foiind cultivated 
i-ether witli C. Carihaa in the excellent botanic garden of Mr. 



13i 



Philadelpl 



1 



1 



of Georg 



( 



Pinknet/a grows 



and 



iVf; I r V 



IS 



m, pro 
by tlie 



alycis laciniam imiram fu 
i of Mussttenda Lracteoh 



V 
Vi 



for the cure 

I 

the genus C 



f ague I 



ly described by 

am bractetefor- 

The medicinal 



d 



by til is n 



nc 




have not yet been investigated 



growing without the trop 



On the 



ker has shown in two 
nus florida from Virg 
and South Carolina. 



d 3Ir. Wal 



<ixcellent treatises, that the bark of Cor 



and of C 



d even 



from Pensyl 



TnUpifeimJ may be used with advanta 



Tuhp tree fLiriodendi 



remedies against agues 



North America as 



hitherto 



In the kingdom of New Spain, where 



species of Cinchona has •l>een discovered 



as th 



rator of the Academical Botanic tjarden at Mexico has assured 
me, the yet undescribed Portlandiu me.vicana, discovered by 
M.Sesse, may supply the place of the Cinchona bark ofLoxa. In 
the East Indies (according to D. Klein in Tranquebar) the Sit; le- 



JTacq 



febrifuga, figured by Roxburgh, a plant of Swarz's and 



Portlattdia hexandra (Aublet 



Covtaria SneciosaJ 



nearly allied to Cinchona, produces the bark of French Gu^ 
known in France by the name of Ecorce febrifuge de Cay 



+ 



d which is no more derived from a Cinchona, than is the bark 



of Cumana or the Cuspare of An 



1 



much respecting the generic characters of th 



plants 



which approximate to Cinchona, and all of which belong to the 



* Flor, Americana, L p. 105. 

t Wallter on the virtues of the Comm and the Cinchona compared. Philad. 1603. llo'^cr&'s 
Diss, on the properties of the Liriodendron. Phil, 1802, 
J Ventenal Tableau du Regue Vegetal^ t.ii. p,578. 



I • 



/ 



44 



great family ofRubiacefB. We see that as Caoutchouc* is obtained 
in abundance from the juices of the most diversilied plants on 
the Orinoco and in Cayenne ; 



from the He 



mich 



the Canno Pi 



a branch of the N 



kingdom of New Granad 



5 



from the tree Jacio 



th 



G 



from 



a 



province of Popa\ 



species of Ficus in the 



near the Indian village La Ci 



from 



Lobelia (to be described by us) in Bengal; fit om the Urecola elas 
iica, figured in the 5th volume of Asiatic Researches 
gascar, from the Commiphora inada^ascarensis ; 



fFer 



; in Mada- 

so does nature 



ferabl 



the ague-caring principle, or that mixture co 
and absorbing oxygene, which we obtain of a pi 



quality from Cinchona Condami 



C puhescens, Vahl 



d C. lancifoUa, 3Iut. in plants which do not even belono- 



differences 

chona bark 



I the same g 



to 



A chemist would perhaps find greater 
bctv^een the West-Indian and S/> nth -American Cin 

between the Cuspa of Cumana and the Cin 
and yet the Cuspa tree, foliiR alternis 



th 



chona bark of Loxa 

V 

stipnlls nullis, is most probably a very 
chona. 






5 



from Ci 



t 



1 1. 

After we have separated with care, partly what In a bota 
cal point of view is nearly related to Cinchona, 



passes 



commerce 



partly what 

st different nations by the name of 

China, Cascarilla, Quinquina, orEcorce febrifuge ; after we have 

not growin 



parated the Cinchonas with inclosed filament 
from the lower end of the flower tube with divided stigma and 
indented margins of the seeds, from the Island-Cinchona, whose 



projecting filament 



grow from the bottom of the flower 



tube, and which have, together with unindented seed 



..$«. 



o 



an 



The Cecropia peltata Is frequently mentioned as a tree yielding a part of the American 

^"* ' •^o"'*^ whether any part of the new continent makes use of a jaice so dif- 



\ 



caoutchouc. 

ficult to inspissate^ 



! 



45 



^ 



undivided stlffma ; after we have examined the relation and 
supposed similarity of mixture of Cinchona, Portlandia, Couta- 
Tea, Cosmibuena, Pinkneya, Danais, Bonplandia, Cuspa, and the 
Acatamez tree, we pass to the definition of those species of Cin- 
Tjliona which have become an object of great importance in tlie 
practice of physic and in the intercourse of nations. Without 
the fundamental exposition of the specific characters, and with- 

T- i - a" 

but adjusting some part of the synonymy, every thing which I 
am going to state respecting tlie geographical diffusion of the 
Cinchonae, and their physical relations, would remain indi* 
stinct and dubious, since (as I have mentioned above) a pecu- 
liar region has been destined for almost every species, and 



great detriment of science, given 



/^ 



some botanists have, to the 

«ne and the same name to the most heterogeneous species. Thus, 

for instance. Cinchona longijlora, Mut. is totally different from 

C. longijlora, Lambert. It is true, they both have a smooth 

corolla, and belong to the Cinchonse which are fond of heat 

land possess fewer medicinal powers. But the first, from New 

Oranada, has inclosed stamens, and is probably identical with 

"C. grandijlora Flor. Peruv. On the other hand, the C longi^ 

flora, Lambert, from French Guiana, belongs to those species 

which have long projecting ^laments and very short capsules. 

Cinchona Carihwa, Jacq. is totally different from that Cinchona 

Carihaa described in the Journal de Physique, Oct. 1790. The 

-diagnoses which I add are not borrowed from works already 

publislied, but arise partly from my own observations made from 

nature itself, partly from an instructive intercourse with M. Mutis, 



\ 




■» *• 






rf ^ 



« 



N 



I 



m 



Characteristics of some Species of CincTioiMt 



Vahl, in Ills excellent Monograph, augmented by Lambert, 
divides all the species into two groupes of plants, floribus to- 
mentosis, staminibus inclusis, and floribus glabris, staminibus 
exsertis. This division possesses this fault, that two characters 



placed opT)osite each 



which are by no means observed 

)wn. Cer- 



at one and the same time in all the species at present known, 
tainly no Cinchona with tomentose flowers has long projecting sta- 
mens, for in the East Indian species the anthers are merely visi- 
ble; but there are Cinchonae which have, like C.pnrvlflora, Mut 
and C. grandl flora, Flor. Peruv. a smooth corolla and incl 




stamens 



With more 



although not 



with perfect j 



we 



might separate Cinchonae staminibus inclusis, stigmate bilamel 
lato, seminum ala denticulata vel 
tis insertis ex 



d Cinchonne filamen 



imo tubi nascentibus, seminibus membran 



inte 



However, it seems more correctly logical to divide 



gra cmctij 

the Cinchonas into those with smooth and into those wi 
corollas. 



h hairy 
The first division merely subdivides itself, according 



to the length of the stamens 



two smaller tribes, and (what 



is certainly an important object) all the useful and ague-curing; 

species associate into one groupe. 



V 



A. Cinchona corollis tomentosis. 



I.e. Condamlnea, corollce tub 
rinque glaberrimis, in ax\ 



hirto, foliis ovato-lanceotatis 
His nervorum inferne scrohieulatis. 



Humb, etBonpL Plant . jEquin , fas c . '\\ . p. 29. tab.\0 

This species, the fine bark of Uritusinga, could only be taken 



I 



47 



for the C. glaridulifl 

corolla solummodo in 



Fl 



Pi 



I 



tTi 



1 utter differs 



lanuginosa, tubo externe glaberrii 



foliis 



fei 



vill 



The inliabii 



also en I mi era te th 



C. glanduUfern, which is called (at Chicoplaya) Cascarilla 



grilla 



the less efficacious species of Cincho 



If any one species deserved 



vely tlie' nanie C 




na lis 



would be tlie 



which prod 



de Uritusin 



» 



bark which has alway 



lie Cascaril 
held in S[ 



fina 
1 as 



the most efficacious in tertian ai^ues, and which at present is ga 



thered only for the Royal Apothecaries' Hall, and is therefore 



with in trade by lawful channel 



Notwithstandinc; these 



prefer 



have, for 



ai reasons, preferred giving it a 



new 



derived from its quality or medicinar powers 



1 







soms 



Not one species, but all provided with hairy and woolly bios 
are Ciachon^ of the shops, and no species deserves an ab 



solute preference, since different species are to be applied accord- 
ing to the difference and form of the disease : for instance, in in- 
termittent fevers of long standing, the C. Conddmbica and C. lam- 



cifolia, Mut 



111 



diseases of the muscles or suppurating ulcers 



th 



C 



lap 



hlongifolia, Mut.; 
the more mild C 



in the after treatment, to prevent 



di folia, Mut 



2°. In botanical 



writings, spe 



f Cinch 



totally distinct h 



scribed by the name of C. officinalis, 
cHTTiP name on the Cinchona of Uritusin 



been de 



Had we bestowed the 



& 



would hare been 



founded with the yellow C. cor dif alia 



Mut 



the white 



a macrocarpa,^ah\, or even with the C nitida, Kuiz, which at 
different periods have been called C. officinalis. 

This latter point, equally important to the botanical synonymy 



and' to the materia pied 



men 



pi a 



nation 



It is asked. What plant did Linuseus, in the 12th edition 



♦^ Flor. Teruv, t. iii. p. 1. t. 224;. 



tr 



48 



Kii i\\e Sy sterna ^aturce, call C, officinalis? Vahl 'maintains that 
it was his (7. macrocavpa^ 



from the kinc^dbm of New Granada, 



which he received from Ortega. But since C macrocarpa, Vahl 
is nothinc: else but our white large-flowered Cinchona of Santa 



t? 



Fe, C. ovali folia, Mut. ; and as, 



accordino^ to M. Mutis s own 



..' 



testimony, it had never been seen by Linnaeus, then the C. tna- 
<;rocarpa, Vahl cannot be quoted as synonymous with V. oj^ci- 
nalis, Linn. Sysf. JVat. ed. 12. The great botanist of Copenha- 

^gen, wTiose «arly death is so justly deplored by all the friends 
of science, was misled to an erroneous synonymy in the follow- 
ing manner: l**/ He knew that Linnaeus had at a later period 
founded his description of C. officinalis on specimens which he 

.received from Santa Fe ; and 2*^. he erroneously presupposed 
that all the Cinchona forests in the neighbourhood of Santa Fe, 

-"discovered by M. Mutis^ consisted of white Cinchona, or C ma- 

i 

€rocarpa. 

• Linnaeus united, as already observed, two quite different 
plants under the denomination of C. officinalis. The dried spe- 
cimen of which he made use for establishing the diagnosis, 
was (as M. Mutis has repeatedly and orally assured me) yellow 
Cinchona, C cordifolia, Mut., and the same species which Vahl 
•calls C. puhescenSy but of which one variety has entirely smooth 
leaves, foUa utrinque glabra, Linnaeus quotes as synonymous 
the species described by Condamine in the J^Ietn. de I' Academic, 
J738 : he consequently united one species from Santa Fe with 
another which grows exclusively in the neighbourhood of Loxa. 

Ruiz, in his Qninol9gifiy'\ calls a species C. officinalis, which 
lie afterwards describes in the Flor. Peruv, by the name of 
C. nitida. He maintained at the time, that this tree, which 



S 



• Act. Ilavn. I. p, 19, Lambert, p, 22, 

f Cascarilla ofEciuaU Quinologr. Arct, II, p. 56, 



/ 



^■H^ 



■ 



49 



^rows 



the forests; of Hiiamalies and Xa 



consequently far 



from Loxa, between the 10th and 12th degree South 



was 



Cinchona described by La Condam 



In the Supple mento 



in Quinolo 



U.68 



botanical disputation which appeared 



gainst 



M. Zea; Muti 



d Cavanill 



thi 



s assertion is very 



justly withdrawn 



Indeed the C. nitlda or C officinalis R 



IS 



no otl 



Cascai 



nar a nj 



from Santa Fe, or 



C. lancifoUa Mut 



la de 
Vritusinaa. which Condamine has figured, C. ;iw6escens Vahl 



Since therefore four different species, the Cascarilla fi 



is 



C. nitlda R 

the name of C. officinalis, we 



and C. macrocarpa Vahl, have already received 



d the Cinchona of V 



tusiuffa, in commemoration of its first discoverer, C. Condam 



It 



> 



that M. R 



h 



in 



his Sujyplen 



a la Quinolo 



ts 



"*■- 



gives it as liis opinion, that the plant called at present Casca- 
rilla fina at Loxa, was not the plant described by the French 
astronomer ; but not only the unanimous testimony of all inha 
bitants of Loxa, Caxanuma, and Uritusinga, speaks against this, 
but also Jussieu's Horlus Siccus at Paris. M. Bonpland has 
carefully compared our C, Condaminea with the specimens which 

No 



%v 



collected by Joseph de Jussieu and La Condamine 



doubt remained concerning tlie identity of the species. 

The C. Condaminea, like Myristica, CaVijocar amrjgdalift 



rum, and many precious products of 
a very small space, and it 



opics, is 



fined 



h 



been hith 



most i:n perfectly 



described 
"nor Nee. 



No botanists, neither Ruiz and Pavon, nor Tafall 



Hanke 



Mutis; have observed it before us at 



» 



r ^ 

place of growth 



Th 



follow 



o 



may 



be 



dered as im 



perfect fig 



of th 



C. Condamin 



Mem. de I'Acad. de 



1738, p 



114 



Lamarck Encyclopedic, pi. 164. fig. 1 



Vahl 



Skrivt. af Naturh. Selfkabet I. tab. 1., and Lambert. ]\Ionog 

o 



^ 



50 



tab. 1 
where 



Tl 



true character of the leaves has. been missed 



ever^r 



(1 it would be bold to quote these synonyms, if 



j\ot possibl 



to 



fy them by 



specimens wh 



have served for the drawin 



» 



O 



C. Con dam 



g 



tude, on the mountain* 
tween QOO and 1200 toi 
the ( 
Fe. 



red Cinch 



vs under the 4th degree south lati- 
decliyity in the mean altitude be- 
lt requires a milder climate than 
na, C. land folia Mut,, from Santa 



Jt is exposed to a mean temperature from 15. to 16 de- 
grees Reaumur> whicli is about the mean warmth of the Canary 
Islands. 

I here insert an. exact diagnosis of the C. Condaminea, which 
I drew up at Gonzanama, and of which (as it remained buried 
beneath astronomical manuscripts) M. Bonpland could not avail 
himself in the publication of tjie second fasciculus of Planted 

j^quinoctiales. 

Calyx tubulosus basi angustatus subrS 

5-dentato, dentibus ovatis acuminatis 



subhirsutus ore 



acuminatis patentibus. Con. hypo^ 
crateri-formis tubo cylindrico rubro leevissime hirto 5-gono (ad 

w 

basin persaepe fisso) limbo 5-fidosaepissime 4-fido, laciniis ovati& 



acutis,apice etmargine 



b' 



vel tomentosis ciliis albis. Fi 



corollas et totius tubi pars interior rubra glabra, nee ciliata. 
Stamina quinque, raxjustria et quatuor. In corolla 4-fida saepius 
stamina quinque numeravi. l'7/«»rert^«, ex rubro. albescentia imo 
tubi adnata, cum eo cohoerentia, tertiam tubi partem aequantit 



eademque tantum tertia suae longitudinis parte liber^ 



planae lin 



parte libera filamenti duplo long 



Anther (B 

Germen. 



rotundum subdepressum rubescens, saepe punctatum et 5-snlca- 
turn. Stylus fere longitudine tubi, crassus, teres. Stigma tubum 
vix superans, viridescens, compressum, bifid um saepe bipartitum, 
Capsula calyce coronata, oblonga, flore tertia parte longior, bi^ 



51 






partibili 



striato-costata, de medio hiscens, dissepiinento pa 



rail el 



Se 



plura compressa al^ membran 



crenulat^ 



Rami cicatrisati pbst casum foliorum,sub-4-goiii ; j 



glaberrimi, subpulveruleiiti. Folia petiolata decussatim oppo 



sita lanceolata acuta, iute 



» 



utrinq 



id 



ull 



ve 



nis 



rubris picta, fere laurina, 



to 



laben 



inferne scrobiculata. Glandules null 



pii 



in pagma supei 



fol 



conspi 



in axillis nervorum 
obsite, convexitate 

le superantes. 



altitudi 



Pagina folii inferior scrobicvilum demonstrat. PetioU sfep 



ru 



bescentes, superne plani 
longae, car 



infer 



Stipuloi decidu^e, ob- 



natse 



Paniculu axillaris et terminalis, folio longior 



floribus breve ped 



Size of the parts in a tree flowering for the first tune 



Cal 



lines Ion 



e> 



coroll 



5.n 



psule, 8^ lines long 



3^ lines broad ; according to Parisian measure. Full-grown 1 
exclusive of the petioles, 4' inches 3 lines long, and 1 inch 9 line 
broad. The young leaves frequently have a length of 5 inches 
and the great breadth of 4 inches 7 lines 



Th 



C. Conda 



varies amazi 




in the leaves before 



the tree comes into floi 
we frequently find fol 
older the tree is, the i 
riance of growth 



In the shoots and very young trees 



late 



ata and ov£ 
are its leav 



•lanceolat 



The 



In irreat 1 



to 



the littl 



§ 



frequently 



ppear on the upper side of the leaf as convex gland 



anish, which 

5. On very 



broad leaves 



vhich the parenchyma is considerably extended 



How- 



even then, we al 



they are almost entirely wanting. , x. , 

ways meet- with single folia scrobiculata upon the same branch 



2. 
Santa F 



C. la net folia fol 



lanccolalis acntis utrinque glabei 



Mutis, Period, de S. Fe, p. 465. (et Flor. Bogot. Mss 



In 



it 



known by the names oi Quina naranjanda, Qmii 



^a*. 



52 



\ 



iquma orange, or orange-coloured Bark^ Next to C Condammea, 
dt is tlie most efficacious febrifuge of all the kinds of Cinchona; 
the species which M. Mutis, in his Quinologia, calls the Quina 
primitiva directamente febrifuga, because he prefers it to the 

■ w 

three following species, and because he thinks (what is errone- 
ous, however) the fine Cinchona of Uritusinga is the same species 
as Quina naranjanda of New Granada. The C. lancifolia has 
smaller leaves than the others with tomentose corollas. They are 
iilso continually smooth, when on the contrary the place of growth 



produces, in the yellow and white Cinchonas, varieties with hairy 
leaves. . 

The Quina naranjanda loves a rough climate. It grows be- 

p 

tween the 4th and 5th degree north lat. on mountainous decli- 
vities from 700 to 1500 toises high. The mean temperature of 

It 

amounts to 13° Reaumur ; however the Cinchona trees ascend- 



Ihfs place of growth is about equal with that of Kome. 



ing highest towards the summit of the mountains are mostly ex- 
posed to a temperature of from 8** to 9". During the cold at 
nights, the thermometer falls in these alpine forests for hours as 
low as the freezing point ; however, as far as 1500 toises high no 
snow falls in this latitude. / 

The Quina naranjanda, together with the C Condammea, be- 
longs to the more scarce species. Nature herself has produced 
them in the kingdom of New Granada in a much smaller num- 
ber than those of the yellow and red Cinchonce, which latter 
ones form here and there almost closely-connected shrubberies. 
C. lancifolia, on the contrary, -stands always single; and what 
is to be regretted in «o valual)le a produce is, that it does not 
increase so easily by shoots from the roof, as the C. cordifolia and 
<7. ohlon gifo lia. In the Monographs of Vahl and Lambert, no 
mention is made of the species called Naranjanda of Santa Fe. An 



s 




\ 



53 



/ 



mdisputable synoii} 



ary is Cinchona angustifoUa 



Raiz, Suppl. a la Quinologia, p. 21, where an excellent fig 



IS 2:1 ven. 



It is indeed surprising, that so e:?^act a botanist as 
M. Ruiz should change the old Mutisian name C lancifolia for 
C. angustifoUa, since that name has previously been given by 
Svvartz* to an Island-Cinchona witli a smooth corolla and long 
projecting stamens. 



'-^ 



Professor Zea thinks 
propriety, that several sp 



d 



appear 



me, with perfect 



of the Flora Peruviana de 



ly different 



of the Quina naranjand 



uch as depend 
The followin 



/ 



on the age, the climate, and the place of growth. 

appear to be varieties of the C, lancifolia Mat. 

Flor, Peruv.II. Icon. t. 191. (Ruiz, Quinol II. n. ^6.) R 



» 



1 



C. nitida 



Cascarilla officinal 



2 



C. lanceolata Flor. Per. II. p. 51 



d 



C. glahra Ruiz Qiiin. II p 



64 



Cascarilla lampina, of which 



no figure is given 



M. Zea thinks he may 



to add to 



these, the C. rosea Flor, Peruv. II, Ic. 199. a species which is 
said to be the most scarce in Peru, and (what agrees little with 
the nature of C. lancifolia) to descend from the mountains into 

^he lowest regions, t 

The Cinchona Bark so famous in Cadiz by the name of Cali- 

and of such particular medicinal power, belongs, accord- 



say a 



ing to Mutis, indisputably to C. lancifolia 



Ruiz considers 



th his C. glah 



But 



iji his Quinologia, as synonynious 

his disputation against Zea, he withdraws this opinion, and 



sures 



that there is no species growing in the neighbourhood 



of Huanuco which prod 



a bark sim 



to the Calisaya4 



The name Calisaya is fhat of the province producing this bark 



♦ Flor. lad. occ. I. p. 380. Lambert, "p. 29. PI. 9, 
+ Ruiz Supplem. a la Qainol. p. 54. • 



* v. 73 and 95^ 



S' 



F 



I 



V 



*_ * 



..■K 



54 



wl 



1 



tuated in the most southerly of Per 



the Intenden 



r ' 

X de la Paz. 

The second edition of a modem French work, Alibert's T, 



de F'i 



intermittentes, contains very 



exact figures of 



the 



J^ ^ 



olonred Cinchona, as well as of the three following Mn 

5. They have been made from dried specimens, de 



specie 



termined by M. Mutis/and supplied by M. Zea from his collection 



during his residence at Paris 



'% 



3, C. cordifoliafol. orhiculato-ovatis scepe suhcordatis suhtus 
fomentosis supra puhescentibus, Mut. Mss 



Q 



amarilla 



Quinquina j 



yellow Bark from Santa Fe, the species, as 



observed above, described by Linnaeus in Si/st. Nat. f.ii. ed.12 

p. 64. under the name of C. officinalis 

difolia and 0. lancifolia reach as far as the upper parts of th 



The anthers in C 



4. 



flower-tube : when on th 



trary 



the red Cinchona (C. oh 



JongifoliaJ they 



deeply hidd 



in 



th 



middle of th 



tub 



C. cor difolia h 

que glab 



Var. jQ foliis vix cordatis 



foliis utrinque hirsutls. By the common peo 




the kingdom of New Granad 



called Velvet Bark 



It grows under the 4th 
twixt 900 and 1440 toises. 

however. 



degree North latitude, in heights be 



Cordate leaves occur but seldom 



almost every branch exhibits 



of them. C 



1 

difolia Mut. is, 



ding to Bohpland's examination, identical 



with C. puhescens Vahl, as proved by Jussieu's collection, from 
Wliich Vahl received his specimen. Joseph Jussieu had coll 



1738, this sT)ecies of Cinch 



and C. Condam 



the 



ed, in 

forests of Loxa. 

The C. omta Flor, Peruv. II. t. 195. Cascarilla pallida 

Ruiz, Quinol Are.7. p. 74. called in the neighbourhood of 

-* Some oi these figures ar« evidently copied from those in Flora Peruviana.— Ex>iT^ 



-J 



i^ 



55 



Pozuzo Paia de Guallei 



is likewise a synonym of C 



/ 



difolia Milt. Ruiz and Pavon themselves have latterly acl 
leJged this identity.* 

The 
or C. I 



C. hirsiita llor. Peruv, II. Ic. 192. C 



ado 



R 



Quinol. II. p. 56. is, according 



Zea 



a 



iety of C cor difolia Mut. Does C. purpurea Flor. Per. II. 



193. or Cascai 



morado R 



belong 



This species 



s 



, Quinot. A 
urprisingly i 



p. 6 



/. 



also 
and 



and the 



too 



X 



4 



C. ohlongifolia follis ohlongis acuminalls 



to 



lahris, Jil 



h} 



antheris infra medium tuhi latentih 



M 



Mss. 
cifoli 



1 



r 

K2L, Quinquina rouge de Santa Fe, differt a C Ian 
foliis latioribns, majoribus oblongis nee lanceolatis 



2°. antheris haud in sunimo tubi latentibus. 

It grows under the 5th degree North lat. in heights from 600 
to 1300 toises, and is particularly common in the neighbourhood 
of Mariquita, a small town, which was for a long time 
of M. Mutisms botanical expedition. It frequently bears much 
lariyer fruit than the white Cinchona, C, ovalifolia, for which 

it would deserve the name of mucrocarpa with more pro- 



the seat 



reason 



priety than the latter 



Its bark is less efficacious than that 



f C. Con dam 



and C. lancifolia, yet more so than the yel 



low Cinchona, (C. cordifolta.J It is more stimulating, for weak 
constitutions, in inflammatory diseases frequently dangerous, but 



th 



more beneficial when applied externally 



diseases of the 



muscles, suppurating and sphacelous ulcers 



Til 



yell 



Cinchona, Cascarilla amarilla Quinol. Art 



p. 71, or C magnifoUa Flor. Per. II. Ic. 196. which, on ac 



• Supplein. a la QuiiioU p. 18, 



> 



56 



> 



1 T 

count of the fragrant and orange-flower smell of its blossoms 

T 

called in Peru, Flor. de Azfihar, and in I\)payan, Palo de 

queson 
tical 



isi 



re- 



* 



IS, 



according 



the latter confessions of Ruiz, id 



wi 



C. oblongi folia Mut, or with the red Cinchoi 



of 



Santa Fe 



/ 



1 

5. C. bvalifolia fol. ellipticis supra glaherrimis suhtus pu^ 
hescentibus antheris in parte tuhi superiori latentihus filamenUs^ 

vix ullis. Mut. Mss. 

Quina blanca. Quinquina blanc : White Ciacliona of Sants^ 



\ 



Fe. 



Var. 




^r 



. fol. utrinque pubescentibus; 
y. fol. ntrinque laevibus. 



Both varieties, particularly the first, have frequently a corolla 
with 6 or 7 divisions, and 6 or 7 stamens^ 

It grows under the 3d to the 6th degree North lat. in heights 
from betwixt 700 and I400toises. The variety with smooth leaves 
is frequent near San Martha. The Cinchona macrocarpa Vahl. 

■J 

(Lambert, p. 22, t. 3.) is a true synonym of this, acknowledged by 
Mutis and Ruiz themselves. f Amongst the Cinchonae with hairy 

' M 

corollas it is the largest-flowering one of all. It must not, hoW". 
ever, be confounded with C. grandiflora Flor, Peruv. II. p. 54. 
(Cosmibuena obtusifolia Flor. Peruv. III. t, 198. J having a quite 



=v- 



smooth corolla, 



6. C brasiliensis foliis oblongis acuminatis, vents subtus pu- 
bescentibus panicula terminalij tuba calycis longitudine. Willd, 

Mss. 

A very small-flowering species, for which we are indebted, as 
observed already, to Count Hofinui^nnsegg, together with Aublet's 



335 



t 



■-. 



57 



and Lambert^s C. longiflora from French G 



the only C 



which grows on the easterly coast of the South American 



continent 



Nothing decisive is known about the height of 



P 



of growtl 



but as it has been sent from the neighbour 



hood of the town of Gran Para, at the mouth of the Amazon river, 
and as in this region there are only low hills found, we are allowed 
to suppose that C.BrasUiensis belongs to the hot regions. 

The character of this species by M. Willdenow, tubeof tlie corol- 
la the length of the calyx, distinguishes this Cinchona from every 



hitherto described 



Throat of the coroU.Ee hairy 



hairs few 



t 



short, a 
lacinite 



ppressed 



tuated on the interior surface of the co roll 



e medio tubi na 



7. C. cvcelsa corolU puhescente, Jil 
scentibus, antheris exsertis, folds oblongis subtuspubescentib 
Roxb. Plant, of the Coast of Coromandel 



106 



The 




Cinchona hitherto discovered on the continent o£ 



th 



cient world, about whose 



dicinal use and its b 



no 



trials have however as yet been 



mad 



I 



very 



small 



o-reenish-white flowers, and of all Cinchonse the largest leav 



sometimes one foot long and live inches broad 
The a excelsa (Bundarvo of the Felinga 
the mountain chain of the Circars, which runs along the north 



Ind 



grows 



easterly coast c 

has at an earl 

byK( 
posite to 



f the great peiiinsul 



of Hindost 



Retzi 



from accounts communicated to him 



date, 

ed a Cinchona whicl 



IMalacc 



op 



.,. the coast of Coromandel, and which produces the ge- 
terra japonica, caWed CottaCambar, a vegetable produce 



which for 
cat a Pliik 



long time was erroneously ascribed to Mimosa spt 
Might not this Cinchona from Malacca be a ditfe 



species from C. excels 



* Observ. Bot. fasc. iv. p. 6. 



Q 



I 



I 



/ 



i 



s 



58 



B. Cinclionce corollis glaherrhnis. 
a. staminibus inclusis. 



^ 



C, grandifi 



tuho 



ollce Ion 



s 



fol. lanceolato 



hlongis utrinque glahris 



I liav 



retained the former name of the Fhr. Per. M. Ruiz 



calls this species at present Cosmibuena obtusifoUa. (Flor. Pei 
vol. iii.) It is identical with C. longiflora Mut 



ould cause confus 



which 
since Lambert enumerates as C. longi- 



flora the Island-Cinchona staminibus longe exsertis, described as 
C. CaribcBa in Journ. de Phys. Oct. 1790. 

It is fond of warm regions, and descends from the mountains 
in heii^hts from two aud three hundred toises. It grows in re- 
glons whose mean temperature is from 18 to 19 degrees. 

k ■- 

9. C. parviflora foUis ovatis glahris, filamentis hasi dilatatis 

et pubescentibus. Mut. Mss. 

It has the smallest fruit of all Cinchonas. 



~t 



b. staminih 



\ 



10. C dissimiliflora foliis cordalo-oblongis glaberrmiis, Umbo 



coro llaj i 

-I 

Mut. Mss 



bo 



levQ'iori, capsulis suhlineuribus angustissimis 



» 



Next to C. longijli 



Iamb, th 




sp 



of the con 



tinent which has stamina exserta. - G 
200 and 700 toises in warm ri 



in heights betwixt 



T r 



t 



11. C. Caribcoa Swartz. 

12. C longiflora Lamb. 

13. C. lineata Vahl. 

14. C floribunda Swartz 



\ 



/ 



--f. 



\ " 



^ 



59 



1 



C, 



st I folia S 



i 



f 



16. C. hr achy carp a Vahl. 

These six latter species grow all iu the West-India Island 

d love a temperature of from 17 to 22 degrees R. 



17. C. corifmhifera Forster. 
Native of the Friendly Islands. 



^ 



18. C. Philippica, discovered near Manilla by Nee. 

I do not venture to assert that all Cinchonas hitherto known 
are comprehended within the eighteen species arranged here. I 
have merely wished to enumerate those which are known to me, 
ptirtly in their natural state partly from good figures, and which 
to me appear indisputably specific from each other. C. acuti- 

folia, C micrantha, C. glanduliferay C, dichoiomaf C. (Cosmi- 
buenaj acuminata^ and C spmosa, deserve a closer investigation. 
The genus might perhaps increase to twenty-four species. 



t 




I 



4 



■^ 



^ 



« 



60 



■H 



MEMOIR 



ON THE 



4 

DIFFERENT SPECIES OF QUINQUINA. 



BY M. LAUBERT, 

CHIEF PHYSICIAN TO THE SPANISH ARMY 



^ 



Botanists recognise about twenty Barks of the genus Cm 
chona. but the number of those which are current in cominerc< 
is much more considerable. • < 

They are vended singly, or mixed with each other, under tl 



of Cascarilla de Laxa* Calisay 



Red Cascarilla 



d 



Huamico^ 



CASCARILLA DE LOXA 



N. 



Under th 



name are included all the most esteemed and se 



lect Quinquinas of the province of Loxa. Five species of it 

♦ The \vord Quinquina is not used in Peru, and is rarely employed in Spain amon- traders; 
they adopt the term Cascarilla, and those who gather the barks are called CascariUeras. The 
Croton chacariUa of Linn«us is known in Peru by the name of Chacarilla. It appears that 
the term Quinquina, as M. de Condamine has observed, has been taken from the febrifuge 



My 



if< 



bable, because the Quinquina at first was known also by the name of Jesuit's Powder, and the 



genus Myroxylon peruife rum has not been well 

sent day. 

We may just observe that M. Ruiz thinks the ik 

be comprehended uader the geueric teim Myroxylon, 



Toluifi 



« 



/ 



^ 



61 



known ; {li e yello 



the red, the Peruvian, the thin, and tl 



furred flampinaj. The two first have always obtained a pre 
ference in His 3Iajesty's pharmacy, and have been 
packets destined for foreign powers. 



d for the 



Tl 



Peruvian is the 



estimation ; but 



must not 



th the Peruvian bark of 



adulterated, ; 
ferior quality 



found this species of L 
;, which is rarely found 

lins Barks of 



d which almost invariably contains 
Lastly, the thin and the furred are also in great 

avian. M. Ruiz 



V 



■equest, and almost as much esteemed as the Pei 
has given a description of the three latter in his Quinologia* and 
has defined its botanic characters. 

To these five species may be added the lizard-shaped Cas- 
aarilia, less valued indeed, and unknown to botanists, but re- 
garded by them and in commerce as one of the fine Quinquinas 

of this province. 

The botanists of the expedition to Perut believe that the finest 
species of Loxa have been longest known and used in medicine ; 




- y 



y 



^ 



* A description of three of these species is to be found in the Quinologia of M. Ruiz. 
This work appeared, in 1792; it treats of the discovery of Quinquina; of its qualities, of 
the trade in it, and of its ralue in the different provinces of Peru, which in his time amounted 



000 



S the 



ing-, desiccation, and transport of the barks ; of the method practised in Peru for prepariii 
*xti'art of fresh barks, &c. He then gives the generic characters of the Quinquina, with a de- 
.scription of seven species, the characteristic qualities of the red Quinquina, of tlie Calisaya, of 
the Quinquina with olive leaves. In the Supplement, which appeared in 1801, under the names 
-of Messrs. Ruiz and Pavon, those learned butanists gave a description of four new species 
discovered by Tafalla ; the qualities of the bark known by the nan.e o{ Huanuco, and of the 

C. lacdfira; the description of the C. avgusti/olia, which appears to be of the same species 
mth the lanci/olia of Mutis; an answer to a Memoir of M. Zea, ou the Quinqrtinas oi Mutis 

or of Santa Fe ; and lastly, a Letter to M. Jussleu in answer to some observations of that learned 
botanist on i\\e genera, announced in the Prodromus of the Flora Peruviana, 



t 



Messrs, Ruiz and 



's. 



Pavon were appointed to this expedition as botanists. They were powerfully seconded in their 
researches by M. Dombey, a French physician and naturalist of rare merit. When the 



meiH- 



R 



y 



/ 



/ 



62 



they found their op 



J 

particularly on the preference whicYi 



they have always held in the royal pharmacy^ and on the trad 



1 



tion of the inhabitants of that kingdom, where 



the febrifug 



quality of tlie Quinquina was first proved 



* 



This 



is not the opinion of M. Zea and the botanists of the ex- 
pedition to Santa Fe.f They regard the C. lancifolia of Mutis 
as the most ancient/ and designate it by the epithet of primitive ; 
according to them, ' this Quinquina should also seem the most 
efficacious in intermittent fevers. 



\ 



I, CASCAHILLA AMARILLA (yellow). 

s. - .■ 

Tars Quinquina, known also in Peru by the name of Cas* 
carilla de Loxn, is the genuine Cinchona of Ruiz.:}: The tree 
to which it belongs grows in the provinces of Loxa, Cuenca, Jaen 
de Bracamoros, and others. 




'% 



bers of the expedition quitted America, M, Tafallia was intrasted by them with the continuance- 
of their botanical labours and researches. This gentleman, aided by M. Menzanilla, has en-- 
xiched botany with several interesting discoveries, and has greatly augmented the family of the- 
Quinquinas. 

* It is well known that the generic term was taken by Linnceus from the title of the vlce-- 
roy of Peru, Don Geronimo Fernandez de Cabrera Count Chinchon. The Viceroy ordered proof 
to be made of the febrifuge qualities of the Quinquina before he administered it to his lady, 
and greatly contributed to make its efficacy known.. 

f Don Joseph Celeslino MiUis went to New Granada in 1760, and in 1780 he was ap- 
pointed director of the botanic expedition of Santa Fe, which commenced its labours in 1784; 
his associates were Messrs.. Valenzuela, Laudat, and Gambler, To these botanists we owe 
a valuable collection cf materials. M. Mutis published in the periodical journals of Santa Fe his; 
medical observations on the four Quinquinas, designated by him under the terms orange-colour- 
ed, red, yellow, and white, and which he says he discovered. It is known that M. Lopez Ruii 
disputes with him the discovery of the two former. 

employed the word Chinchona instead of Cin* 



\ 



^A 



+ 



M.Ruiz thinks that Linnaeus should h 



cAona, which does not denote the real title of the Viceroy of Peru. 

The Quinquina de Loxa used in the„ royal pharmacy was procured latterly from the moun- 
tains of Urituzinga, Guatizinga^ and Caxanuma ; practitioners having found by experience that 



/ 



6a 



This bark 



about til 



of 



goose- qii 



well rolI( 
low grey 



and covered with a slight thin epidermis of 



pretty 
a fal- 



Its 



nal 



face has the fineness 



d 



pect of 



Ceyl 
side. 



fracture is very clear, 



pt 



which presents little fibrous filaments, extremely fi 



its 



ferable 



"k 



/ - 



D. Vicente Olmedo, a distinguished botanist, was appointed by the King to superintend the 
collection and desiccation of this precious bark. 

* The thickness, fineness, and roundness of the barks must Be taken into consideration 
when a good choice is to be made. It is necessary to ascertain not only whether a bark be 
of a good quality, but whether it has been well dried and preserved, whether it has be- 
longed to an old branch or to too younj a branch, &c. and these three characters may be 
useful in influencing our choice. The following are some general ideas on the iuforeuces de- 

ducible from them. 

The barks more than an inch and a half in width must proceed from the trunk or the 
great branches ; time and parasites may have altered these barks, and particular attentioa 
must be paid to the state in which they are found. Those which are not «. thick as a 

quill, must have belonged to branches still too young, which may not have acquired a suitable 
degree of maturity, according to the language of the Cascarilleras. 

The same observations are applicable to a bark which is too thin or too thick ; but in order 
to judge well of its thinness or thickness, regard must always be had to the species to which 



the bark belongs. 



As to the rdling or roundness, it is well known that tlie barks arc separated from the 
branches in longitudinal slips by means of a very fine knife. They roll themselves up, be- 
cause the internal surface being more fibrous, and charged with more humidity, must shrink 
more considerably than the external surface. 



Their 



have belonged to very ripe branches ; that is to say, neither too old nor too young, and that 
they have been carefully dried. A feeble rolling can accord only with old barks, or those 
which have been too slowly dried. Lastly, when the bark is loo much twisted, and forms 
as it were a spiral of a turn and a half or thereabouts, it may be supposed to have been dried 
too suddenly, or to have been gathered before the period of maturity. 

The Cascarilleras decide in the folhtving manner on the maturity of the harks, 
he^inbu extracting from each branch a strip of bark ; if after its extraction it beg 



Th ty 



ifallihle proof 
if after three or four minutes this colour is not manifested 



not in season. 



The Cascarilleras affect to distinguish the barks 
af ripeness, by the feeble colour of the inner surf 
hie tast£j the easier fracture, and the less consisten 



hich have not attained the 



»>. 



i 



-\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



/ 



^ 



^ 



64 



ell, wliicli is 



pulv 



or 



decoct 



lerably aromatic, becomes perceptibl 

iiess is successively d 



its bitter 



ped by a prolonged mastication^ but it is always very infer 



ill at of tbe Calisaya ; it is also stypt 



but 



tbout acerbity 



Tl 



Bark 



is 



ely found without mixture : on its external 



surface are to be observed some 
parallel fissures.* 




transversal 



d almost 



II. RED CASCARILLA. 

This is tlie name wliich ibis Bark bears in Peru ; it is more 
tiommon than the former, and is found in greater quantity 
among the barks used in the royal pharmacy. t 

n 1 

* It is astonishing (hat the botanic characters of this species have not yet been published, 
and that M. Ruiz has not given a description of its bark in his Quinologia. 3J. Pavon having 
Jiad the politejiess to shew us a drawing of this tree, carefully made under the inspection of 
M. TafaJIa, and which will be published in the fourth volume of the Flora Peruviana; we 
have the pleasure of indicating the most prominent specific characters which we have remarked 
on this plate, Cascarilla amarilla del rey, or Royal yellow Quinquina, is the name which it 



foliis 



fi 



M. Paronhas informed us that this bark detaches easily Yrom 



the wood, and that the most experienced barkers distinguish it by this separative character. 
Some days after the extraction it is nut to be distinguished from that of No. 2; when it is fresh 
gathered the colour of the internal surface is of a greenish whife, which soon changes into a 
.faiut yellow, augmenting in inteasity until the desiccation is complete. The tree or shrub 
•which produces it is of the same height and exhibits the same structure as that of the red; yet 
M. Tafalla designates them in his drawings as forming two different species. 

f M. Pavon having had the politeness to shew us the drawing of this shrub, we have re- 
cognised in it the following characteristics : C. foliis lancealatis glandulosis, petiolo nervoqne 
centrali sanguineis,Jlore ruhescente. The* two drawings appeared to us so similar that we 
found only a slight diflference iu the colour of the flower, and were unable to discern on what 
•character their specific difference could be established. 

At the moment of extraction this bark assumes internally the colour of saffron, though rather 
livid; during desiccation its colour heightens, and approaches more or less to that of Ceylon 
Cinnamon. The shrub grows to the height of about three yards. The trunk is generally sin- 
gle, and covered with a rather rough bark. M. Pavon has informed us that this bark adhere* 

«iore to the wood than the former ; but it is more compact, aud emits some little noise when 
•de lached from the wood« 



y 



*». 



V 



-L 



65 



We have 



I 



in it the following characters: the 



epidermis thin, but rather thicker than that 



f tlie 



nkled, of a chesnut brow 



J 



d covered with silvery flal 



and very small lichens ; transversal fissures more numerous and 



very 



di St 



ckness somewhat 1 



th 



1 



round 



rolling complete ; fracture cl 



with little filaments 



thfe 



internal part ; thicknes 
face not so fine, and of 



tlie same as the for 
greyish yellow ; no 



ternal 



; no perceptible differ 
from the former in the other qualities. It is often found ii 



commerce 



th the Per 



the slender 



the 



but forms 



rough 



and 



» 



ether with the first, the assortment most 



v 



esteem. 



III. THE PERUVIANA. 




This is the bark of the Cascarillo officinalis of Ru 



Ci 



cliona nit i da Flor. Per 



C. officinalis of Linn 



much 



teemed, and distinguished by the following characteristics : Fis 



orbicular and parallel 



face slightly rough ; of a clear 



grey, on account of the silvery lichens which almost entirely 



cover 




the parts not 



eyed by lichens are of a ch 



colour : in thickness from half 



1 



to a line ; size from a 



J 

goose-quill to an inch and a half, according to M. Ruiz 



the 



rolling complete ; internal surface of a yellowish red, approxi 



Foliis obovatis nitidis, paniculd brachiatd, eorollis albo-purpureis, limbo parum hirsuto. 



f 



It is the Quin- 



quina which was first discovered in the province of Loxa ; is much esteemed, and one of 
Aose most in request. The tree grows in the mountains of Panatahuas, Iluauuca, Xauxa, 
Loxa, &c.; it flowers generally in the months of May, June, and July, and grows to the height 
of ten or fifteen yards. 

I From this circumstance it doubtless derives its name of Quhiacana. bv which it is also 



known by the inhabitants, to distinguish 
colour- 



barks ivhich might be of the same 



\ 



s 



.f* 



/ 



66 



mat 



to common C 



* - 

fracture clear, witli very few 



fibres ill the internal part. It is in general thicker and more 
compact than the tw 



former 



its bitterne 



app 



rathe I 



s 



fainter, but its smell much more perceptible. M. Ruiz regard 
this bark as the richest in quinic acid, and least disagreeable to 
sick persons. 



fo 



We have already observed, that th 
unded with the Peruvian of comme 



bark must not be con- 
I, the goodness of which 



depends on the quality of the species of which it is composed 




IV. THE SLENDER (DELGADA). , 

The bark known by the term delgada or delgadilla, belongs 
to the C. hirsuta Flor. Petuv.f Its external surface is rather 
rough, with small transversal clefts, and is of a clear grey, from 
the whitish lichens, less silvery than those of the C nitida, by 
which it is mostly covered. The parts destitute of this covering 

-I 

exhibit a rusty colour, especially when viewed through 



■t 



a good 



lens ; it is remarkable for its finen 



being nearly half 



line 



thickness and two or three lines in diameter, the fracture cl 



and 



resmous, with some extremely small filaments in the inter 



nal part ; it is well rolled, and has much afiinity with the for 



* We have never been able exactly to ascertain what is the Peruvian lark of commerce. We 
have applied to all the druggists in the capital, and can affirm that all the Quinquinas they 
have shewn us have little itsemblance to each other. It is even to be found of different 
qualities at the same druggists. We have often met with thick barks of the good species of 
Loxa, some smaller barks of the same species, and a great quantity of inferior species. 

t Foliis ovalibus, crassis, margine reflexis, terminalibns, subcordatis,foribus cort/mho.si$: 
cQTdllis purpurascentibus tomentom, limbo hirsuto. 

i tree grows to the height of about five yards. Having attained its developenient, it 
becomes surrounded with shoots springing in a vertical direction from its root, and forming 
with the principal trunk an oval surface with the appearance of a dome. U grows ia the 
mountains of Pillao, Acomayo, and other places of Panatahuas. 



/' 



Th 



ff 



^\ 



67 



in bitterness and aroma. 



It is generally found mixed with other 



fine species, but is very rare.* 



J 

T 



V. THE LAMPINA.t 



P 



This is the name given by Ruiz to 



the Cascarilla hohoX of 



the bark of the C. lanceolata^ Flor. Pi 



II It IS 

distinguishable by its thickness, from one line to two, according 

an inch 



to its bulk, which varies from that of 



goose-quill to 



and a half; it is well rolled, and slightly rough on its exter 



al surface ; the epiderm 



ery fi 



and cracked 



of 



sal 



low colour, with spots more or less 



bright or dark, proceeding 



from some farinaceous lichens ; the internal surface rather roug 



and of 



pal 



d 



fi 



clear 



d 



tion 



Th 



easy in every direc 



bark is readily discerned when 



d 



wi 



the 



former, not only by its colour and thickness, but also by its 

more considerable, and approximates 



bitterness, which is much 



to that of the Calisaya ;§ its smell is not very perceptible 
occurs very commonly in the Peruvian of commerce. 



It 



* The cause of the rarity of this bark is its extreme fineness. The Cascarillerofi have little 
interest in procuring it, as a day labourer within the same period might obtain eight times more 



D 



t The 
botanists. 



lampina may be rendered by that of glabra used in the same sense by 



/^ 



The inhabitants have giren it this 



name because, having the same good qualities as the other Quinquinas, it has not their coloul". 



The 



ten yards; its habitats are the woods of Cuchero, Pillao, &c. Its bark is received in com- 



Del 



name of Cascarilla amarilla de muno. 



It is also known by the 



ftoTibus 



coroUis roseo'purpureis ; Umbo hirsuto. 

§ M. Ruiz formerly thought that the Calisaya was only the internal bark of the C. Unceo^ 
lata, perhaps on account of their resemblance in thickness, bitterness, and other charactc- 



« 



68 



/ 



VI. LAGATIJADA (lizard-colo 

P 

The species to which this bark belongs is 
M. Ruiz has not mentioned it in his Quinoh 



given us : 

with those who trad 



not known, 
gia. Yet he 
peciinens* by which to recognise it, and he regard 



nd 




as 



of the spe 



peculiar to 



province of Loxa. We have compared it with the preceding spe- 
cies, and have found that the Yellow is that with which it has 



most affinity by the fineness of 



pidermis, its size, its thick 



Tiess 



d its col 



as well as its bitterness and smell 



but 



the internal surface 



velvet tact 



of a less lively colour, and has less of the 



fi 



form 



ely lig 



If this bark 



parate species, it will be easily distinsjjuished from the 



-other species of Loxa, and particularly from the Yellow, by this 



striking ch 



and by the colour of its epidermis 



In 



the common Loxa which some druggists have shown us, we have 
found a considerable quanfity of this bark.f 

Such are the Quinquinas which are sold singly or mixed, under 
the name of Loxa, and which are at the same time the 



most 



TJstics : but the great diflference observable in the thickness of the epidermis of these two barks 
must render the identity of the species yery doobtful. It appears that the botanists of Peru 
now agree in regarding these two barks as belonging to two different species; and M. Ruiz 
Is of the same opinion, 

* When we undertook to describe the Quinquina of commerce, we were aware of the 
difficulty, or nthcr the impossibility, of establishin°r the distinctive characters of the species 
according to their barks. M. Ruiz, to whom we communicated our project, has had tbe 
goodness to give us samples of all the barks which in his opinion belong to the species of 
the genus Cinchona, with the names given by the natives to each species, and those of com- 
merce, as well as his opinion on their febrifuge qualities. We have also consulted his Quino' 
logia for all the species of which this learned botanist has given a description. 

t The chests sent to us from America, instead of a single species of Quinquina which 
each ought to contain, are filled with two, three, and often a greater number of different 
barks. This abuse has augmented in proportion as good barks have diminished, and as dis- 
r-oveiies have been made of new or jpretended new species. 



r^ 



^i 



69 



teemefl and in gi 
Detgada is very 
reputed to be of 
that of No. 5 



eatest request. We h 



observed that the 



d 



two last species 



h 



by the 



ferior quality, are easily distinguished 
ize and bitterness ( 



of No. 6 by its 



\y fibrous fract 



)f its bark, and that 
Hence it results that 



the fine Quinquina of Loxa is reduced to one of the three first 



specie 



to a certain mixture of 



barks, and that it may 



be designated by the foUowinsr character 



S 



that of 



goose-quill, or nearly; thickness less than a line ; surface slight 
ly rough and a little wrinkled with or without circular fissures 



sallow colour more oif less dark, spotted 

le : internal sur- 



Ihe epidermis fine, of a 

■with lichens or mucors of a silvery or greyish h 

face smooth or velvety, of the colour of ochre bordering on 



yellow or red ; the rolling perfect, the fracture clear, with 



I 



littl 



fil 



on 



th 



internal par 




taste bitter, rath 



aromatic, and styptic, without being disagreeable^ 



the bitter 



manifesting itself gradually 



mastication 



the 



«inell, tliat which is peculiar to good Quinquinas 



M.Zea thinks that a good distinction may be deduced from 



the 
but 



c? 



g 



of 



c 



olo 



wh 



th 



barks 



moistened 



d in Ool 



be ignorant that all dry vegetables are height 
when moistened, and we are of opinion 



that 



no 



ful deduct 



be made from a quality common 



vegetables. 



s 



We shall specify the chemical qualities o( each bark when we 
^tate our analyses.* 

* We may just observe by the way, that M. Zea bdieves that the authors of ,he Vlora 



difolla 



Mutis. 



xuuu. The C. hirsuta and ovata would form, according to him, one of the two varieties, 
and the C. purpurea ^^ii micrantha i\x^ other; it is only necessary to read the descriptions 
of Messrs. Ruiz and Pavou to see that M. Zea's supposition is groundless. 



T 



^ 



I 



^ 



70 



V 



CALTSAYA. 



F W 

The species to wliicli tlils bark belongs is unknown in Sp 



IS 



ly presumed that 31. Bezares, a botanist attached to 



It 



the expedition of Peru 



I the trees of 



the moun 



yet 
nolo 



of Monzon, but the descriptions and the samples have i 

e observed that M. Ruiz says in his Q 



y\ 



ha\ 



^lUy that the Calisaya might be only the bark of the C. Ian 
ceolala, or Ininpina, strip])ed of its epidermis ; he has reverted t 



V 



tl 



opinion after 



hich he has received from 



cessors in Ame 



M. Zea 



h 



fi 



ywhere the Q 



quina of Santa Fe, pretends that it is no other th 



mixture 



r»f the orange-coloured and yellow of M 
opinion of the botanists of Peru, who n 



itis.* This is not the 
gard the Calisaya and 



men 



e orange-coloured as species entirely distinct. 
We shall not enter into the discussions of these learned gentle^ 

It is not for us to pronounce on the botanical defini^ 

inerce ; our object is to 



of the 



sp 



circulating in com 



describe them, and to collect, with regard to arrangement, the 
opinions of those who have a right to give them in consequence 
of their long botanical excursions on the mountains where the 
Quinquinas grow. 

As the Calisaya is sold in commerce under three different 



names, and as th 



th 



barks, which appear to 



possess 



different characters, belong, according to the opinion of Ruiz, to 

* It is really extraordinary that, while the enthusiasts of Mutis regard the orange-coloured 
Quinquina of Santa Fe as extremely rare, they meet with it in a great number of common 
harks ; they tell us, on the one hand, that scarcely in a thousand trees of Quinquina is to be 
seen one of this species, and then they find it in every direction. May not this contrariety be 
tjie result of a little ill humour among some of the members of the two expeditions ? 



71 



three 



specids, we shall desciib 



iiapies which they be 



them, 
2e ; th 



tely, under tlie 
is to say, Calls at/ a 



llada, Calisai/a de PlancJia, and Calisaya dc Santa Fe 



I . Ca Usau 



J^ 



L 

llada (or rolled CalisayaJ hnown also hy th 



ante 



It 




piderm 



a 



Call say a de Quito 
d a half thick 



rough, 
pots 



almost taste 
d deep 



less, dark tawny colour, with some whitis 

cular clefts, through which are often perceived 'traces on the'liber 

or inward rind; the large barks are half rolled, and the small 



tirely. JDest 



for th 



part of epidermis, it pre 



sents a smooth surface of the colour of ochre inclining to yellow 



ternal col 



bark 



general more 



o 



piderm 



qual 



both 



quite 



' ; the rolled 

pact than the others; the frac- 

y small fibres; 
nt; it is less 




odour is very fa 



aromatic and styptic than the Quinquina of Loxa 



b 



more b 



Tl 



that of the C. lanceolat 



bark appears in most 



much 



pects to resembl 



II. Calisaya de Plancha 



A very tliick bark, know 



n also by 



k bark) and of Cascarilla CaUisalla 



ta Paz. 

r 

monly t\ 



It is generally met w 
lines in thickness and 



th 




name of Cortezon* 
the inhabitants of 



in 



large 



fl 



pieces com 



two inches Ion 



some 



slightly curved, almost always destitute of epidermis,t and th 

*■ M. Ruiz has described only tlie Cortezon in his Quinolagia ; but he has given us three 
different samples, and the barks to VThich they belong are sufficiently common in commerce. 

t The Cascanlleros would not find room for their barks if they were stripped of their epi- 
dermis. To extract the barks in such a state as they are demanded in commerce, it is nects- 



y 



72 



^ 



presenting a Very sniootl 



n 



Itsf] 



nvith long 



fibres extending into both the 



e IS very unequal 
pieces separated 



and which are -more distinct in the inner part; 

compact than the former, particularly in the intei 

is pounded, a very fine, fibrous, and subtle powder separates 



it is also less 
ior. When it 



from 



which peneti 



th 



pores of th 



si 



almost 



same manner as the fibres of 



Dolichas p 



th 
Under 



the pestle it yields a faintly-yellow powder, abounding in small 



fibres.* The genuine Calisay 



much esteemed 



it 



IS 



admi 



t 



nistered alone, and produces good eifects. Practitioners say that 
mixed with the Quinquina in the proportion of one part to three, 
it produces much more certain results. In this manner it was 
latterly employed in the royal pharmacy. 



III. Calisay a of Santa Fe. 

The name of Calisaya de Santa Fe has been given to the 
thick barks of a yellow Quinquina of that kingdom, very 
inferior in quality to the Calisayas of Quito and La Paz. It 
occurs in commerce mixed with the barks of the orange-co- 
loured Quinquina, and of two other yellow Quinquinas of the 



^sary to leave all the intermediate stripes, which in ihe sequel of the operation are deprived 
'of a part of fbtir epidermis towards the edges. By these means a considerable portion of the 
4>ark remains attached to the branch, and is rejected as useless. This loss is the more to be re- 
gretted, because it is aljuost certain that the epidermis has no influence on the febrrfuge qua- 
Jities of the Quinquina. 

The epidermis of the Calisaya is thick, rou'^h, and of a reddish brown covered with 

whitish lichens; its fracture is clear and resinous; it is easily reducible to powder, which is 

•of a deep red, presenting no fibres and hating no taste. The facility with which it separates 

from the rest of the bark will allow an exact analysis of it to be 'made. It is little esteemed, 

and for this reason the baiks are stripped of it. 

* This bark is very pliant, and the fibres resulting from its separation render its perfect 
^pulverization by the mortar very difficult ; it is much better operated on by the milU 



1- 



i 



y 



73 



pl 



F 

It is known by its yellowish colour, and especially 



by the facility with which it is bruised, or, 



zed. bet 



the fing 



Its fi 



may say, pul- 
quite ligneous 



and discloses in the interior a whitish fibre, whilst in good C 
saya this circumstance is scarcely perceptible. 



Th 



bitter 



of the Calisaya is developed almost instanta 



;ly and in all its intensity 



1st in the Quinquinas of 



Loxa the bark requires to be chewed and macerated in the mouth. 
This bitterness continues long after mastication, and is accom- 
panied with a certain disagreeable taste which excites nausea. 



Th 



rolled Calisa\ 



less disagreeable, though not less bitter 



•» 



o 



d appears to us to have a little smell 



r 



IV. Quinquina 



hling the Calisaya 



I- 



M. Tafalla has sent from Peru some specimens of a new Q 



quina 



Under this denomination, and under that of Cascarilla 



provinciana, he collected this bark in the woods of Chicoplaj 
The same species also occurs in the mountains of Monzon, wh 



belong to the pro 



of the Huamalies, and the discovery of 



it is to be ascribed to M. Bezar 



This bark h 



.. / 



perfect 



mblance to the orange-coloured Quinquina of Mutis 



and 



Messrs. Zea and R 



are rather 



ed to believe that they 



may belong to the same species. 

* It is said thaf M. Bezares discovered at Monzon this species of Calisaya; it is also sail 
that he discovered at Monzot) a Quinquina similar to the Calisaj-a, and which is thought to 
he of the same species with the Red Quinquina of Mutis. It is possible tliat iu the discovery 
of the Calisaya, which is ascribed to Bezares, the question may be only on the discovery of 
this new Quinquina resembling the Calisaya, which, according to M. Ruiz, is very different from 
the Calisaya, as well as the orange-coloured Quinquina of Mutis. This doubt can be cleared 
41P, only by the ariival of the specimens which M. Tafalla is to send. 



'V 



U 



74 



/' 



{ 



S 



CASCARILLA ROXA (red quinquina). 

I 

It is supposed that this species was discovered in 1785 or 1786 



"k 



at Riobamba, Cue 
This Quinquina 



nd Jaen. 

known in France than h 



very little in the interior commerce of Sp 



a 



very 



small number of practition 



Wh 



re, circulates 
used by only 
arrived from 



Lima for the first 



Cadiz, the dealers of the latter plac 



paid little regard to it, and it was purchased by the English 
and sent to England. Sir Joseph Banks wrote some time after 
"wards to Professor Ortega, to apprize him of the good result 
obtained from it, and to request some information on 
bark. Several known species are comprised under this 



th 



new 



I. Genuine red Cascarilla. 

This is the red Cascarilla of Ruiz, the red Quinquina of the 
French and English, the vermilion Quinquina of the Portugueze. 
It grows, as we have stated, in the mountains of Riobamba; 
Cuenca, and Jaen, on very elevated spots, cool at night, and 
well exposed to the sun, as do all the other fine species. Its 

exterior surface is rough and furrowed with very distinct trans- 
versal fissures ;* the epidermis of a sallow colour more or less 
dark, with whitish spots produced by lichens and inucors ; 
the internal surface dark red ; the thickness one or two lines ; 
tlie bulk from one inch to two inclies and a half; the small barks 



are well rolled^ the large ones little or not at all ; 



these three 



* The inspection of the plates sent by M^ Tafalla to Messis. Ruiz and Pavon, proves that 
the principal transvei"sal fissures are owing* to the insertion of the leaves and stipulse ; their 
proximity might form one of the characteristics for disiinguishino^ the young shoots* 



^ 



rT 



75 



J 

last characteristics of the Oalisaya have much analogy with those 
of the rolled Calisaya and of the Calisaya de Plancha : the 



ture of 



smaller barks is clear 



: the frac- 
of the larirer somewhat 



fibrous, particularly in the interior ; the smell agreeable, like 
that of the fine Quinquinas, and very perceptible on pulveriza- 
tion or decoction ; the taste sufficiently bitter, aromatic, styptic. 



without being nauseous. 



The species is unknown. 



III. Cascarillaof Jloivers of Azahar, (orange flowers,) Cas^ 
carilla amarilla of Ruiz, C magnifolla Flor. Per., oMon gifolia 
Mutis.* 

The exterior surface smooth and covered with mucors, which 



give it 
nal su 



pect much 



ke 



bark of the popl 



the inter 



face reddish, but internally it assumes a strong 



proportion as the parts approach the ep 



th 



thickn 



is of a line or somewhat more ; the bulk from that of a goose 
quill to an inch and a half; the rolling of the small barks en 



that of the large ones nearly 



fracture unequal, with not 



y long fibres on either part ; smell agreeable, and perceptibl 



nly 



mastication or decoction ; the taste 



greeable bit 



ter, and rather stypt 



very compact. This Quinq 



tie or not at all used by Spanish practitioners, is sent abroad, and 



particularly to northern countries ; 



probable that the epi 



dermis 



parated, which hinders its sale on account of 



fl 



albU : Umbo villoso. 



i 



This tree is one of the largest of the species* Its largest leaves are a foot long, and a)ore 
than half a foot broad ; the surface of the barks is always smooth ; it grows in the mountains 
of Panatahuas towards Cuchero, Chiuchuo, Chacahuassi, and Puruzu; in well-sheltered and 
low situations. This species is found also in Santa Fe, and [is designated by the natives by 
the name of Azahar; it was denominated by Mutis C, ohlongifoUa. In 1778 M. Ortega 
pent some specimens of it to the Royal Society of ^iedicine at Paris, 



\ 



76 



y 



1 



An extract is obtained from it wliicli is in considerabl 



pute, and 



used in putrid fevers 



III. lied Cascarilla of Santa Fe 



\ 



MR 



lias 



smitted to us a sample under the pe 



w 

name of Red Quinquina of Santa Fe, and which he does not 
confound with the former. Its colour 'partakes rather more of 
the tawny, its 



fracture is cleaner on th 



ed 



^ r 



and with 



long fibres on the interior. 

which is not perceptible in the former 



Its taste has something disagreeable 



In 
f 



IV. Cinchona laccifera of Tafalla, vulgo Socchi 



b- 

M. Tafalla, who discovered this species 



Europ 
that c 



1798; they are the 



high 



m 



t the barks of it to 
olour of all those 



rculate under the name of Red Quinquina. This new 



'Quinquina is more in repute in respect to its febrifuge qualities ; 
Ruiz places it among the inferior barks. , 

A thick spongy bark ; the external surface rough with annu- 

1 

lar fissures more or less approximated ; the epidermis very slen- 
der, of a tawny ash colour of different shades, the internal sur- 
face darker, of a colour resemblinir carmine or lake : the interior 



of the bark tawny, resembling rhubarb; thickness from iw6 



to fo 



1 



specific gravity 



siderabl 



otwithstandin 




it 



s 



spongy appearance 



fracture 



the 



bordered 



* This tree grows in the lower woods and iti the valleys of ChicopTaya, Its bark is known 
l)y the inhabitants untler the denomination of Socchi. The extract obtained from it is of a 



^ 



high colour and transparent. 



M, Tafalla says, that uu scraping the internal surface of the fresh 
t)arks a juice is obtained, which inspissated in the sun serves as a substitute for lake. A 
specimen of this inspissated juice has been sent from Lima to M. Ruiz, by Father Gou- 
aales, under the name of Laca Cinchonica. It is conjectured that the tree may belong to a 

new genns, between Macronemun and Porllandia, and materials are expected from M. Ta- 
Xalla which will decide this question. 



/ 



* 



"V 



/' 



1 



77 



with small slender points on the interior; the odour of Quin- 
quina extremely faint ; flavour slightly bitter^ and styptic with- 
out being nauseous. It is very little rolled. 



/ 



V. Cascarilla del Rey (Royal Cascarilla) 



V 



The species to which this bark belongs, which is sold also 

under the name of red Quinquina, is still unknown. We shall 

give a description of it according to the specimens of M. Ruiz; 

he does not sj)eak of it in his Quinologia. This bark, like the 
preceding ones, occurs in large and small pieces, the latter well 



^i 



rolled, the others only half, both pretty fine ; none are found ex- 
ceeding a line in thickness. Its epidermis is also very fine, tawny, 
greyish and smooth ; internal surface ochrey inclining to red ; its 
fracture clear, with a few fibres towards the interior edge ; its 
flavour styptic, and more disagreeable than bitter, with little or 
none of the aromatic odour peculiar to good Quinquinas. This 
bark presents on the internal surface almost the appearance of 
genuine red Quinquina ,; but externally it resembles the bark of 

the cherry-tree. 

The genuine red Quinquina is readily distinguished from the 

4- 

other false or real Quinquinas that are sold under the same 

The second, third, and fifth, have an extremely smooth 

there is not that uniformity 



name. 



\ 



surface; the epidermis greyish ; and there is not that 

of colour in the internal parts which is observed in the red Q 



q 






reyish 



ich 
adt 



ely, even in the thick barks, presents' a 



All these Quinquinas, moreover, eith 



the taste and smell of the first in a faint de 



have 



have 
nau- 



seous 



fl 



A.S to the bark of the C lacciferaj it is so thick 



X 



^ ^ 



m 



iy 



-^ 



_v 



78 



1 its colour so 



» 



that it cannot be 



any 



ay 



con- 



ibunded with the roxa verdadera H 



The Quinquina to which the name oHJuanvco has been gi\ 



was first known in Spain in 1799, and was brought by the fri- 
gate La Vilez, which landed 180 chests of it at Santander. 
M. Ruiz, who was appointed to examine this cargo, found in 
the chests a thick bark, till then unknown to the botanists of 
Peru, mingled with the barks of the C. nitida and the C lanceo- 
Jaia, and with those of the species which Tafalla has designated by 



the 



lav to Calisay 



He concluded from this mixture 



pecies 



that the Huanuco must be regarded as a new Peruvian : 
and that, united with other barks in certain proportions, it migl 
compose a powder of middling quality. The subsequer 



mis 



sions were 



arefully attended 



for M. Ruiz discovered 



in them a quantity of barks of inferior estimation to the former. 
On all these barks we are about to treat, commencing with that 
which has been particularly designated Huanuco. 



/ 



y 

I. Large BarJi, designated particularly/ ^ij the name of 

Huanuco. 

r 

i 

The s^urface veiy rough, with transversal fissures snear each 

other ; some lichens ; epidermis pretty slender, blackish, and al- 

most tasteless ; it separates easily from the bark in small scales ; 



^ 



* The quantity of Quinquina obtained annually from Peru, or which is wasted by the bad 
method of extracting the bark; the custom of felling: trees without providing a substitution 
of them, instead of stripping thepi in part and profiting by new shoots ;^these constitute 
the principal cause of the scarcily of the fine species, and of the introduction of a great num- 
ber of new species which the Cascarilleros think proper to Introduce, without having any idea 
4)f botany, and in th^ mere routine of their station, frequently even in subserrience to their 
.interests. It is .the principle of commerce to turn all to advantage, and we are inundated 



I 



^ 



■ 



\ 



70 



11 



/ 



B interna] surface Las a fibrous appearance, of a yellow colour 

L 

lietimes light and sometimes deep, occasionally reddish ; thick - 
5s from half a line to a line and a half; bulk from half an inch 

i 

three in circumference ; odour that of the good Quinquinas but 
y slight; bitterness inferior to tliat of the Calisaya, somewhat 
ptic and nauseous ; fracture considerably clean on the exterior 
^es of the two pieces ; but entirely ligneous within. 



is tolerably well rolled, somet 



the two sides roll 



the middle 



oliservations 



This bark 

separately 

It is thought that the materials and 

5 for 



pected from M. Tafalla may afford mean 



determining this species 



V*.- 



IT. Cascarilla ferruginea (iron-coloured). 



V 



Lj_ 



Well characterized by the name which it bears in commerce, 
liaving internally and externally the colour of ochre ; this co- 

r 

lour is more or less lively in the internal parts of the bark. 
The external surface rough and more tlian wrinkled; the e pi- 
dermis tawny, slender, adhering very well to the bark, and filled 
with numerous transversal clefts ; internal surface ligneous; frac- 
ture very clear towards the exterior edges, but very ligneous in- 
ternally ; it breaks with difficulty, and is with difficulty bruised 
between the teeth. In its other characters it resembles the slen- 
der barks of Huahuco, but is less bitter and more nauseous. 
The species to which it belongs is still unknown. The Huanuco 
of commerce is mostly composed of this bark. 



with unknown barks and mixtures, which render distinction almost impossible. Of all the 
mixtures, the least in consideration is that generally found under the name of Htianuco. It 
has sometimes portions of g^ood species, the barks of the C. nitida and lanceolata, as M. Rui 
and others have remarked in the expedition of Satitander in 1799; but most frequently the 
chests contain only barks in little rej)Ute, and almost the very refuse of commerce. 



/ 



80 



III. Cascarilla claro-amarilla, or Quinqvinh of a clear yellow 

This bark, of which the species is unknown, greatly resem 

epidermi 

sily sepa 



bles the orange-coloured Quinquina of Mutis 



The 



th 



covered witli some whitish lich 



and 



able from the rest of the bark 



th 



partaking of red 



of a faint b 



colour yellow slightly 
and considerably styp- 



tic without being nauseous 
bles the Calisaya'; but is eas 
bitter, and by the fineness of its epidermis 

^ ^ 

the HuanucQ. 



resem 



in its other characters it 
ly distinguished by a much weaker 



it is often found 



/ 



IV, Cascarilla pagiza. 



TJ 



bark of 



C 



Flor. Per 



Not bein 



i=> 



ved in commerce 



they 



mingle 



it 



ith the Huan 



and 



other barks ; but it is chiefly employed in forming the 



which is sent from Peru. When used al 



m 



th 



f 



Panao, it yields a stronger hitter than that of the C. magnifolia 

but not so transparent. 

M. Zea thinks that the yellow Quinquina or C. cordifclli 



/ 



is th 



same species 



but M. Ruiz, though of th 



sam^ op 



nion, is yet disposed to believe that the specimens and barks of 
the cordifolia, upon which he has founded his opinion, having 



suffered a 
identity . f 



ttle in the carriage still leaves sojue doubts as to 



* Foliis ovatis siihtus 



fi 



purpureis: Umbo hirsutOi. It grows in the woods of Puzuzu and Panao, flowers from June to 
October, attains the height of ten yards^ and is remarkable for the size of its leaves after the 



i/i 



t 



viana and by Mutis, seems to confirm the doubt of M, Ruiz. 



'^, 



^ 

^ 



81 



Tl 



le surface smooth ; llie epidermis fine, whitish, on account 



Jn- 



of the lichens which cover it; the other parts of the bark of a 
dark retlj and deeper than that of the Cinnamon of Manifla ; 
about a line in thickness ; the size from a goose-quill to an inch 
in circumference or rather more. This bark is well rolled, spongy, 
easy to break, and presents long fibres on the two separated edges ; 

it is also sufficiently styp- 



its bitterness is slight but agreeable ; 
tic ; it exhales an odour on decoction. 



\ 



I 



y 



-I 

T. Cascarllla hobo de tlojas J)Ioradas (Mu\heYv^-\e?i\ed). 

{C purpurea J Flor. Per. J* 

w 

Tliis species grows in the mountains of the Panatahuas and 
of Huanuco : its bark is not received singly in commerce. It has 
been found mingled with those of the three species denominated 
nitida, hlrsnta, and lanceolata, frequently also with the Hua- 
nuco of commerce. Some practitioners place it among the most 
efficacious barks ; but M. Ruiz considers this decision top hasty, 
and not yet confirmed by experience. The following are its di- 
stinguishing cliaracters : , 

Surface smooth, in some cases rather rough, covered with little 
lichens ; ' the uncovered parts of a tawny colour more or less 
rlear ; the internal surface yellow inclining more or less to red ; 
rarely a line in thickness, and commonly less than an inch in 
circumference ; easily broken, but not very spongy ; fracture ra- 
ther clean, only a few small fibres in its internal part ; commonly 
well rolled, considerably bitter, aromatic, and strongly styptic ; 
it exhales a strons: odour on mastication and in decoction. 



/ 



* FoUis oblongO'-ovalibus ovaiisque purpvrasceniihuSypamcula hrachiatd magnfiy florlhus 

fuh'Corymhoshf coroUis albo-pnrpureis : Umbo kirsuto. Its baik is much sought in commerce, 
«Adis in considerable repute among practitioners, 

V 



t 



\ 



y 



82 



1 

VI. Cascarilla leonado ohscura (dark tawny) ^ 



A bark of 



unkn 



tlieH 



) very cammonly met with in 
It has obtained the name of leonado ohscura from 



specie 



pai 

cha 



I 

greyish-brown colour both 

3 colour is darkei 



th 



to the Pagiza ; but it 



hich with the colour is 



the epidermis and the internal 
thin ; it approaches in some 
las a strong disagreeable taste, 



r 

Pagiza. 
Panatah 



It grow 






IS 



and is not described by M. lluiz 



fficient to distinguish it from the 

Lintains of the Huamalies and of the 

garded as a Quinquina of middling quality. 



^ 



L 

VII. Cascarilla melada (honey-coloured) 



A species 



bark is pretty thick, and well rolled 



d not described by M. Kuiz 



^-W 



Its 



of a reddish grey, cut in 



al surface rougl 



clothed with an epidermis of half a 1 



al and very deep slip 



an 



d 



or 



liich separates easily 



early in thickness 



ternal surface- is rough, of a yellow 



red and unequal tint; it is strongly bitter, styptic, and very di 
agreeable when masticated. 



r - 



It 



IS 



VIII. Cascarilla fulva. 

_ ^ 

said that this species was discovered by M. Tafalla, but 
the specimens and description have not yet arrived. Its bark is 
one of those Which occur most commonly in the Huanuco. 

Barks well rolled, and bearing much resemblance to those of 



/ 



/ 



M 



are 



Cascarilla amarilla of Loxa in colour and thickness; but they 

ly distinguished and recognised, as being very conisder- 



ably styptic, and as having a very faint bittern 



and 



ell 



here is nothing disagreeable in their taste 
pecies amon§- the middling Quinquinas. 



M. Ruiz places thi 



''I 



\ 



83 



OTHER SPECIES, 

r 

MORE OR LESS KNOWN IN SPAIN 



\ 



Cascarilla 



jada de Santa Fe 



Cinchona lancifolia of 



Mutis, C. tunita of Lopez,* angmtifolia of Ruiz and Pavon.t 



The specimens brou 



by M. Lop 



h 



Am 



on h 



IS 



second voyage to Spain, under the 



of C. tunita, belong 



undoubtedly to the same species which Mutis has designated 
under that of lancifolia ; for M. Zea, who has so' often seen the 



* M. Lopez says that the discovery of the tree to which this bark belongs was made by him 
in 1776 at Santa Fe. Messrs. Ruiz and Pavon have given a botanical description of it accord*' 
iag to the specimens of M, Lopez. 

t Fgliis lanceolatis angustis, marginibus retroflexis, peJuncuHs axillarihus trifidts, laciniis 



ifl 



Habitat in Sanctis Fidentis regni sylvis, civitati confnibus, unde 7) 

Ruiz SuppJ. Quinologia. 



antam 



Great discussions have taken place oti the qualities of this Quinquina, its discovery, the time 



pupi 



or 



whom we remark M. Zea. The latter regards this Quinquina as the most ancient and the most 
rare; yet M. flJutis, in speaking of the first Quinquina that was used, says nothin- of 



its 



species. Early authors only say that the Bark had a red colour similar to that of Cinnamon^ 
which may equally tjpply to some species of Loxa, and to the orange-coloured Quinquina of 
J^!utis« 



As to its febrifuge and 



balsamic qualities, experience alone can pronounce upon 
thtm. We shall refer, by the way, to what Don Gregorio Banares, a Spanish chemist and 



strang-ei 



to the discussion vvhich has arisen between Zea and Ruiz^ says of the fiae 
Quinquinas cf Santa Fe: " The effects of these Quinquinas have not answered the wishes and 



exa 



with Ihose of Loxa and the Culisaya ; the orany^e Quinquina does net affect animal jelly; the 
yellow does nut decompose the jelly, but> as well as the white, often turns the solution of 
sulphate of iron green/' Wq iDtenJ to repeat these analyses, together with those of the other 
QyinquinaSv ' 



_r 



-r 



"v 



84 



latter on the spot, could scarcely remark any difference in tie 

* 

size of the leaves, 

r 

Surface roui^li, split transversely, and covered with mucors of a 



tjlear tawny colour with some blackish spots ; internal surface 

b r 

or less orange-coloured, pretty well rolled, from half a li 



to 



line in thickness, and from half an inch to an inch 



fei 



fracture fib 



frafi^ments being crowned 



\ 



little longitudinal fibres; it is with some difficulty frangible, 
though the circumference is spongy ; its smell is faint, and \my 



perceptible on pulveriz 



or decoction 



intly manifest and not agreeabl 
rJonsiderable resemblance exis 



not 



; th 

typt 



bitterness suffi 



J 



between this bark and that 



of the species discovered by Tafalla at Chicoplaya, of which wi 
have previously spoken. The only difference is, that the bark 
of the latter are cloven both transversely and longitudinally, pre 



size and thickness, and unor 



senting more inequality in 

iarity in the colour of their internal surface; in bth 

they are the same. 



^ r 



pect 



Quitia hlanca de Santa Fe. C. ovalifoUa Mutis 



M. Vahl has published the white Quinquina of Santa Fe under 

the specimens 

The 



the specific name of macrocarpa* according to 

of it which he received from Professor Ortega of Madrid 



barks of the macrocarpa have a greyish epidermis, very fine and 
soft to the touch: the internal' surface vellowish, smooth, shinii 



o 



and furrowed; the interior of the bark of a greyish yellow 



thickness from a quarter of 



to a 1 



■ 

they are rather 



spongy internally and in flat pieces; they crack 



ly between 



the teeth, and readily di 



m 



th 



mouth, which, perhaps 



causes them to be 



garded 



as very saponaceous 



ghtly 



* C macrocarpa, foliis ollongis, sultus puheseentibus costatis. Vahl. 



( 



I 



'-. # 



^ 



\ 



85 



X 



styptic, and of a very perceptible though not agreeable bitter 



ness. 



M. Pavon believes that the macrocarpa does not belong 



to the genus Cinchona. This Quinquina is little valued in Sp 
and is not current in commerce. 



ift 



Asmonich 



This is the name given by 



the natives of Puzuzu and Muna 



to the C.fusca of M. Ruiz, which is, according to M. Zea 
C. rosea of the Flor. Per * 



t -<^ 



Surface smooth ; epiderm 



cl 



ey, with spots more or 



less dark : the interior of this bark is of the col 



of choco 



late, very little or not at all rolled 



qiience of 



aridity; in thickness half a line ; breadth an inch or nearly; very 
light, fragile as glass, without leaving any fibrous trace; a faint 
odour of Quinquina, very little bitterness, but a very strong and 

peculiar sty pticity. 



♦ 



Cascarilla haya (bay Cascarilla) 



/ 



M. Ruiz has made known 



this bark, which 



from 



Santa Fe, and which must not be confounded with the cordis 
folia of Mutis, though it has a little affinity with it in colour. 
It has a fine epidermis, sometimes tawny, sometimes grey, and 
at other times a greenish grey ; its colour is of a yellowish tawny ; 
it is well rolled, has a clean fracture with some little fibres in the 
internal part only ; its bitterness is slight, but rather agreeable, as 

well as its smell, - 



/ 



m$: limbo margine tomentoso. It is one of the rarest species; we have not been able to 
procure its bark. It is described by M. Ruiz in his Quinologia. The Indians use its aowers 
to adorn their pagodas. ' ^ , . 



Z 



/ 



"V 



I 



>_ 



86 



In 1805 and ISOG there were considerable quantities in the 



commerce 



from America ; connoisseurs regard it as one of the 



4jest yellow Quinquinas. 



Cascarilla amarilla de Jut a. 

This yellow Quinquina is frequently received without admix- 
iure; it much resembles the /?«^^2;«. 

Its epidermis is very fine and of a reddish grey; external 
-surface smooth ; internal surface rough and of the colour of ochre ; 



X 



difficult to break : fracture clear 



slightly 



bitter without being 



jdisagreeable, very little aromatic, in considerable repute 




■^ 




^y 



V 



t. . 



B-V 



.-^ 



Jfr 



\ 



n 



87 



N 



/ y 



QUINQUINAS 



RECENTLY DISCOVERED BY TAFALLA. 



.*r-- 



I, Cascarilla de hoja agiida. C. ungustifoUa, ¥lor. Pew 



# 



Its bark is designated by the following characters 

jsures more or less deep ; 



fiice rongli with 
mis fine, ve 



•y adli 



ansversal fi 
isive. of a] 



Sur 
ipider 



sliy tawny, with whitish 



and 
blackish spots, t internally of rather a darker red than that of 



of the middl 



The thickest barks 



Manilla Cinnamon ; 

nearly an inch in cii 

of a goose-quill ; thickness a line or less ; fracture easy with some 



r 

mference. and the smallest are of the 



fibi 



filaments: taste bitter 



faint and disa^reeabl 

r 

little repute ; 



typt 



and 



nauseous 



smell 



This bark is not much rolled 



d 



it 



found mixed in considerable quantities in th 



chests of common Quinquina brought 



from America, or com 



pounded by the Europeans after their manner 



* Foliis ovatis acutis, paniculis terminaUbus brachial is, coroUis candidis glahrit. It 
grows in the lower woods of the Andes of Peru near the River Taso; flowers lu the months 
of April, May, and Juoe. 

f This character readily distinguishes when it is mingled with barks of red Quinquinas; and 
its nauseous taste decidedly separates it from the Quinquinas of Loxa, with which ils fineness 
and even its internal colour might cause it to be confounded. 






/ 



/ 



\ 



^ 



88 



II 



Ciiscarilla negrilla (black 



# 



This is the C. glanduUfera, Fl. Per 
Surface rough with some slight transversal fi 



epid 



> 



greyish with some tawny and blackish spots ; the parts destitute 



f epideri 



of the colour of 



temal surface of 



pale 



yeWow and rather smooth; size 
quill ; thickness below half a 1 
with small parallel fibres; 



smalJ, less than that of a goose 



^' 



fracture easy 



and 



ed 



b 



ble, slightly aromatic and extremely styptic, b 



sufficiently percepti 

it not dis 



aijreea 




e \ odour faint and agreeable as in the good Quinqui 



nas. 



It frequently appears among the Quinquinas of Loxa ; and 



ly known by 



potted surface. M. Tafalla having sent 



speciniens and samples of these two barks, they have been well 
described by the authors of the Flora Peruviana. 



4 



III. Cascarilta aharquillado. Dicliotomous.f 

w 

I 

In 1797 M. Tafalla sent from America the specimens of this 
new species, but he forgot the barks. This Quinquina is much 
esteemed at Chicoplaya, and is classed among the fine species. 



Foliis ovato-lanceolalis superne glandulosis, panicuUs sub^corymbosis, coroUls albc-roseis s 
Umbo intus lanuginoso. It grows in the Andes of Peru, in the woods of Chicoplaya and Mon^ 
zon; attains the height of three yards only ; flowers in February and March. Its bark is 
ranked amoni: those of middling quality, according to M. Ruiz. 

f C» dickotoma, foliis oblongo-lanceoiatis, pedunculis terminalibus dichotomis paudjloris^ 
capsulls angustis Unearibus longis, Flor. Peruv. Five yards in height; is found in the 
woods of the Peruvian Andes ; flowers from January until April, Its bark is in little esteem ; 

M. Tafalla gave it the specific name of pauci flora. 



\ 



/ 



* ^ 



89 



IV. Fine Cascarilla of Chicoplaya, de Flor pequena 

(with small flowers).* 

The spedmens arrived with those of the former species, but 
without the bark. This new species is much esteemed where it 

r 

growls . 



The bark of the C. Caribcea of Jacq 



not 



Sp 



It is thought that this might form a new genus between Cin 



botanists of Peru think 



chona and Portlandia. 

Lastly, we shall just observe that the 
that the C corymbifera of Forster should be a little better € 
amined on account of its axillary coiymbi, a character pecul 

to Portlandia. 



^ 



It remains fbr us to annex a Table of the species lately dis- 
covered by Tafalla, and known here by the drawings which he 
has caused to be carefully executed on the spot, and which he 

^ 

has addressed to the authors of the Flor. Per, These botanists 

have 

are waiting for 



published nothing on the new d 



because they 



specimens and barks which have been 



from America, and which are probably at Cadiz 



Being 



un 



able to copy the plates; we b 



noted the most distinctive 

in order to 



characters which each drawing has presented to us, in o 
give an idea of the new species. 

These notes have been made under the inspection of 31. Pai 



C. micrantha^ foliis ovalibus obtusisy paniculd maximdy Jloribus numerosis parvis^ co- 
roUis albis: Umbo lanafo, Flor. Peruv. It attains the height of twenty-five yards, and grows 
in the Andes of Peru, on the side of Chicoplaya. 

N.B. In the Flora Peruviana is found another species of Quinquina, under the name of 
rrandiflora^ foliis ovalibus obovaiisque subaveniis coriaceis siibtus albtdis^ corymhis terminali^ 
bus^ corollis ma<^ni$ ; but it appeai-s that it is reservi^l to form a new genus with one of the 
species recently discovered by Tafalla, 

2 A ' 



4 



\ 



\ 



90 



Spprific Names. 



^. 



\ 



V 



C. MICROPH^LLA 



C. VAINILLODORA 



C. ANGU3TIFOLIA 




_ J 

Names current in the Province of Quito, and Bolanic Characters. 

Cascarillas con hojas de rohle (oak-leaved). 

Fol. ovatis rugosis iiiinoribus. 
C. pata de galinazo.—Fo\. lanceolatis'glan- 
dulosis, petiolo nervoque central! sangui- 



neis. 



Id. id. Second species 



Fol. ovatis acu 



minatis, capsulis sanguineis. 
C parecidd a la huena. — It is not known 

whether this be a species or a variety. 
C. chahuar gaz (hiiW^n name).— Fol. glan- 
dulosis lanceolatis subrepandis, capsulis 

ovalibus. 
C con hojas de Palton (Pyri indicae genus). 

Fol. lanceolatis e^Iandulosis subtus lu- 

teo virescentibus, capsulis ferrugineis. 
C et'espilla mala (curled leaved), — Fol. 

ovato-lanceolatis obscure virescentibus, 

capsulis ferrugineis. 
C. con hojas de Lucuma. — Fol. Lucuma?, 



^^ 



capsulis ovatis. 




Id. id. Second species. — ^Fol. subpanduri- 

formibus, capsulis subglobosis. 

C. de Jlores grandes y hlancas qui huilen la 
vainilla. — Fol. lanceolatis obtusis ner- 
vosis, floribus albicantibus magnis, cap- 
sulis clavatis. 

C de hojas angusfas. — Fol. lanceolatis an- 
gustis nervosis glandulosis. 

C. palo bianco (white wood). — Fol. lanceo- 
latis undulatis venosis : marginibus re- 
flexis. 



j-^ 



\. 



"^ 



i 



91 



Specific Names. 



C ANGUSTIFOLIA 



C. RtJBlCUNDA. 



C^ MACROCARrA 



• * 




Names current in the Prorince of Quito, and Botanic Charaeters* 

Fol. 



ovatis integer 



C con hojas rugosas 

rimis rugosis. 
C. colorada. — Fol. inequaliter ovatis acu 

miiiatis nervosis glandiilosis, floribus in 

terne bicoloribus, capsulis virescentibus. 
C. crespilla ahumada. — Fol. obovatis iier 

vosis rugosis 
C. amarilla. 



Fol. 



obovatis acuminatis, 



into dilute 



■^j 




floribus interne incarnatis. 
C. crespilla. — Fol. subrotundo- 
ginibus convexis, floribus 

I 

rubris. 

C. con hojas poco velludas (villose-leaved). 

Fol. subvillosis glandulosis, floribus 

■ F 

interne violaceis. ' 

Fol. floralibus ovatis, floribus 

interne purpureis. 

Id. Second species. — Fol. floralibus sub- 

cordatis glandulosis, floribus purpureis. 



C negra. 



C ruhicunda. — Fol. ovatis, floribus inter 



ne rubescentibus. 



C. serrana 



(growing in 



the mountains). 



Fol. obscure viridibus, floribus obscure 
rubicundis. 

■i 

C. canelas. — Fol. cordatis rotundatis maxi- 
mis, floribus albicantibus niaximis, fruc- 
tu maximo. 

Cunas de gato. — Stipulis revolutis, floribus 

capitatis conglomeratis. 



w^ 



^, 




■\, 



^ J 



I 



m 



_^ 



y 



DESCRIPTION OF THE TREE 



\ 



KNOWN IN THE KINGDOM OF PERU UNPER THE NAME OP 

P 

QUINQUINO, 

AND OF ITS BARK, CALLED QUINQUINA, 



/ 



VHICH IS DISTINCT FROM THE QUINA OR CASCARILLA., 



BY DON HIPPOLITO RUIZ. 



T 



HE Quinqumo* is a branch 



to the height of thirty varas and upwards 



d elegant tree, which grow 



Th 



trunk is thick 



straight, smooth 



covered like the branches with a grey 



coarse, compact, heavy bark, granulated 
colour in the interior 



an d of 
filled with resin, which. 



it abounds more or less, chang 



th 



colour to 



ed 



a pale straw 
according as 
itron, yellow, 
the smell and taste are grateful, bal- 
samic, and aromatic, resembling those of the Red Peruvian Bal- 
sam sold in the druggists' shops under the name of White 
Balsam. The branches extend almost horizontally. The leave 



or dark ch 



:* 



Myroxylon peruift 



Flor. Per. Mss 



Myroxylon peruift 



pi 34 and 2:}3. Hoitziloxitt. Hernandez Hist. Mex. p. 5J. Edit. Matr 

The description and plafe of the Myrospermum of Jacq. Amer. 120. tab. 174. fi^. 34. com- 

Also the generic notes with whicli 



Myrosp 



-T 



Linnaeus forms his incomplete generic character of Toluifera, agree with those oi Myroxylon and 
Myrospermum. My observations lead me lo think that those three genera ou^ht to be placed 



scribed.f 



My 



t See my remarks on these Genera in Braude's Journal, Xo. 19, p,28.-'A.B. L. 



\ 



"\ 



V 



I 



\ 



93 



are alternate, ancf 



posed of 



three, four 



\ somei 



^^ r 

five pair of leaflets, nearly opposite, and ovato-lanceolate acute, but 



with 



th 



ape 



somewhat obtuse and 



smooth, sh 



ing, entire, 



face 



d 



ked with transparent spots, hairy on the und 



short footstalk 



qually, and in this case 



many leaves terminate 



of five 



six, or 



leaflets 



r 

The common petioles are thickish and hairy. The fl 
from the scars of the young branches, 



and from the axillae of the 



1 



4 

le racemes lar«^er than th 



3 leaves ; florets sparsed, 
pedicelled, erect, supported by a small ovate concave flexible 
bractea. The calyx is dark green, canipanulate, divided into 



sepa 



five small and nearly equal teeth, but one of them so far 

■ > 

rated from the rest as to be found placed under the germe 
and they all fall off when the flower withers. 

The corolla is composed of five white petals, four of these na 



-^ 



row, equal, lanceolate, and larger than the caly 



flexed, broad 



:l twice 



size of the others 



th< 
Th 



fifth 



re 



stami 



of ten filaments inserted into the calyx and inclining to 



one 



sid 



the antherse elongated, sharp-pointed 



d 



d 



1 



g germ en, supported on a curved 



the style 



The pistil consists of an obloi 

pedicle, inclining with the stamina to the same side 

short, subulate, and crooked, and the stigma simple. 

The pericarp pendulous, straw-coloured, nearly two inches in 
length, club-shaped, somewhat curved, globular near the top, and 



terminated by thq curved stj 



ted towards the base, and 



compressed into the form of a rough tube, wrinkled, ductile, thick 



I 



furnished with Ikvo ribs 



the globular part is composed 



of a simple cell, which contains one seed, which is crescent 



this 



d the 



sliaped, projecting from the cell, and between 
lining of the pericarp fs filled with a yellow liquid balsam, which 
Ja time dries and becomes as hard as resin. 

2b 



. ^ 



94 



T) 



Quiuqiiino grows in the mountains of Panataliiias 



/ 



forests of Puzuzu, Miiiia, Cuchero, Paxnten, Pampalierraosa, and 



many other countries near the 



M 



ow 



arm 



d 



and sunny situations ; it blossoms in August, September 
October. The natives of the countiy call the tree by the name of 
Quinquino, and its bark and fruit by that of Quinquina, a plant 
very different 



from our Qu 



C 



oth 



also Quinquina, but 
Quinquino. 



commonly known under that of 



The Indians of Puzuzu and tile abovementioned countries d 



ot collect the balsam of this 



whether 



they 



gnorant of 



method of obtainin 



n 



it 



d of its value, or be 



^^ 



cause few trees are found in the 



hbourliood of 



towns 



the only parts which they collect are the barks most filled 
with resin, condensed into drops and lumps, and the fruits, in 
order to sell them in the neighbouring provinces, both of whicb 
are used iov the purpose of perfuming cloth and apartments.. 
It is called Perfume of Quinquina, to distinguish it from the 
true perfume, which is a composition of Benzoin, Storax, and 
Ambergris, these substances being formed into a paste from which 

they make pastils. 



The fruit as well 



the bark being reduced to 2l coarse p 



der, they mix with it oil of Maria, C 



Jacamaca, Lera, or 



Sebo, and make with it little plasters, which they apply upon 
the temples and behind tjie ears to mitigate the pains of the head 
ache and the tooth-ache, particularly the hemierania or Jacqueia. 



I 



It 



closes recent wounds, strengthen 



pains proceeding from 
duced by fevers. 



; the brain, mitigates th 
and dissipates the shiverings pro 



r 

The other uses and virtues of the fruit, bark, and balsam may 
be read in the works of Dr. Hernandez. 



95 



Tlie balsam of Quinquino is procured by incision at tlie be- 
ginning of spring, when the showers are gentle, frequent, and 
short ; it is collected in bottles, where it keeps liquid for some 



years, in which state it is called White Liquid Balsam. 



But 



when the Indians deposit this liquid in mats or calibashes, whicli 
is commonly done in Carthagena, and in the mountains of Tolu, 
after some time it condenses and hardens into resin, and is then 



denominated Dry White Balsam, or Bal 
name it is known in the druggists* shops 



of Tolu, by which 



It is generally believed, and M. Valmont de Bo 



sav 



in 



his Dictionary of Natural History, that if an extract be mad 



from the bark by boiling; it in water, 



liquid and of 



a blackish colour, known und 



th 



name of Black P 



Bal 
ing 



There is no difference in tliese three balsams, except 



the name, colour, and 



The wood of the Quinquino is 
and durable, but on account of its 



iiely 



grain 



ipact, heavy 

is difficult U 



fashion into any shap 
injured, and is never 



it 1 



posed to th 



for many years without being 



attack of worms : it even 



remains sound for a long time when placed 



does it crack when exposed 



the sun : wherefore the Ind 



make use of the trunks for beams and stanchions. 

A species of sparrow called Poccochycnys, Kenychis, andHe- 
drondes, make their nests at the extremity of the branches of 
the Quinquinos, selecting for that purpose the most solitary 
and slender, without doubt to prevent monkeys, and other 
climbing animals which mount those trees, from plundering 
their ee;c:s and preying upon their young 



The texture of 



nests is 



thy of admiration 



for. besid 



th 



singularity 



of 



their resembling the pericarp or fruit of this tree, they form them 

with such art and neatness, with straw,, barli, and other flexible 



'^M 



E.w^^ 



14 



i 



m 



fnatei 



L 

iniervvoven in siicli iiiaiiner that tliey resemble purses 
of trellis work, a vara and a half in size, more or less ; and linin"- 



them at the bottom with ceibo 



tliey lea\ e them hanging from i 

pearaiice incapable of sustaining such a weight, and resisting 



1 other soft cottony substance*; 
branch, a support to all ap 



tated b\ 



and movements with which they are continually agi 



They 



ffer no other birds, that 



of 



the 



own species, to rest on the ti 



nests 



and they particularly dislodge from them the" larger birds and 

birds of prey by attacking 



Th 



birds are called Hedrondes, from the smell whicl 



1 ex- 

They 
called Kenychis, which signifies " adorned," on account of 



hales from them 



d which they leave in their nests 



the various colours of their feathers 



d Poccochycnys, which 



gnifies " become ripe," on account of that being a word fre 



quently heard in their scream or song, which 



d h 



some 



ogy to their nature ; for they always place themselves 



fruit on the point of becoming ripe, in such a 

seem to watch and guard them until they ripi 

pluck them and fly off with them to their young. The Ind 

who are not ignorant of this fact, avail themselves of 



manner that they 
and then they 



mark those places wh 



they 



with the fruits, which 



t to 
are 



commonly plantains, annonas, chyrimoyas, papayas, pine-appl 



or ananas. 



_ ^ 

If the Poccochycnys perceive any one picking the fruit 



^ 



coming near them, they give evident signs of the 



flying from side to side, and 



displ 



peatmg without ceasing the cry 



word Poccochycny, with other unintelligible screams first 



shrill and quick 



m 



and afterwards soft, slow, and mournful 



The Poccochycny is a bird of the size of a Polla Galina, with 

conical, convex, and 



tliebeak an inch and a 



half in length 



• 



I 



97 



strai alit 



very sliarp, and incl 
yellow spots in the front of 



^ to 
head 



liite colo 



Th 



r, with two 
black, wllh 



V 



four toeSj and the nails crooked ; the lower part of the neck is a; 
yellow as the yolk of an egg, the upper pnrt and the wings black 
with eyes between chesnut colour and yellow ] the rest of th( 



body of a dark chesnut, with the tips of the feathers white 
take short flights ; for when they fly highest they do not 



They 
ascend 



above 300 toises, forming a curve fi 



d 



point where they 



om the place whence they 

and though their wings are 

Those birds 



continually in motion, their velocity is not great, 
having perched themselves, begin to make the low sound Pocco- 
chycny ; they lower tlieir heads, and half-extending their wings, 
they grasp the branch with their claws, and suspend themselves 

ement they make every time they utter the 



1. 



from 



which 



mov 



L 

cry: they feed on pulpy fr 



They 



found on the 



la 



S 



of the Andes, in low and warm places near towns and vil 
. This species belongs to the genus Oriolus of Linnaeiis. 



/ 



I 




tx 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 



/ ■ 



a 



li A flower magnified. 

The curved germen surrounded at the base by the campanulatc calyx.. 
5. Part of the one-celled pericarpium, shewing the projecting seed. 

r 

4. The crescent-shaped seed. 




2^c 



'/ 



98 



I 



^' 



MEMOIR 



ON THE 



f 



^> 



GENUINE CALAGUALA, 

AND TWO OTHER ROOTS, 



WHICH ARE SENT UNDER THE SAME NAME FROM SOUTH AMERICA 



h- J 



BY BON HIPPOLITO RUIZ, 

FIRST BOTANIST TO HIS MAJESTY IN THE EXPEDITION TO PERU, 

&c. &c. &c. 



X 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE. 



A 



i 

T the repeated request of several prof< 



"branches of med 



both 



m 



Sp 



ssors of the three 
and in foreign states, for 



copies of the Memoir on the Genuine Calaguala which I inserted 



m the first volume of the Transactions of th 



Royal Medical 



Academy of Madrid, together with that on the Ratanhia, Can- 
chalagua, and China Peruviana, I have been encouraged to re- 
print it in a separate form. I have added some illustrations, 
"- d an accurate engraving from the original drawing, for the 




plete description of a vegetable hitherto not sufficieutly 



known to naturalists, and for which 



there have been and 



are current in commerce 



many 



f different 



'ypt 



plants of little or no virtue, to the disparagement of the effi 



■^ 



^L 



nT- 



99 



oious and genuine Galaguala, which casually lliongh rarely 
reaches Spain ; and if it comes to the liaiids of druggists and 
dealers, they unjustly decry it, preferring the roots of a plant of 
a distinct genus,?and of no virtue, as equivalent to the Calaguala; 
of which proof will be adduced in the proper place. 



ARTICLE T. 

Of the Calagualas commonly/ brought to lEurnpc from South 
America, the origin of their use, and the cii/mologi/ of their 
names. 



Little advantage can be derived from the knowledge and di- 
stinction of plants, or of any other natural productions, if we 
neglect the study of their uses and virtues. Nor can any great 

benefits arise from the knowledge of the uses and virtues of 
plants and other productions, without previously obtainincj a 



< 



clear and distinct idea of the plants themselves : hence, the ob- 
server who would acquire results adequate to his labours and 
researches, must indispensably unite to the knowledge and dis- 
crimination of natural substances, the investigation of their uses, 
virtues, and properties. 

L 

The ancients discovered and were aware of the virtues, uses> 



and properties of many vegetabl 



d other natui 



P 



appears from their writings ; but the liUle care they took 



transmitting to posterity a clear and 



distinct knowledge of 



tlie 



species, has occasioned the confusion, obscurity, and 



\ 



cioubts, which be 
treated. 



us 



pecting the objects on wh 



they 



10» 



^ 

Tlie CalaG^uala, wTiich is one of the simples used for many 



years past 



in medicine, is alsa one of those vegetables which 
have not been sufficiently distinguished by the Faculty, or even 
by botanists themselves, much less by dealers and druggists. 
It is owing to this want of distinction that vise is made in medi- 
cine, not of the genviine Calaguala, but of the roots of other 
plants of the same genus, or of others in affinity with it, which 
never can produce exactly the same effects which are experi- 
enced by the Indians and natives of Peru from usiiig the root of 



\ 



the 



real Calaguala ; 



.1* 



and hence too proceed the total neglect 

i ♦ 

and discredit into which the Calaguala has fallen among the pro- 
fession in Spain. 

The cupidity of dealers in drugs has probably introduced into 
medical use tke different species of Calaguala, now consumed- 
without any particular use or advantage, to remedy in some de- 
gree the injury likely to result to the public from the use of the 
supposed Calagualas sold by the druggists. I have undertaken 
in this Memoir to define exactly the three species of roots of' 
the Calaguala, which we receive most frequently and in the largest 
. proportion from the kingdom of Peru. 

Though it is very difficult to ascertain precisely the origin and' 



use of the 



genuine Calaguala,* 



exclusive of that which the 



Indians least civilized and most remote from the track of Euro- 
peans make of this root, it may justly be inferred, that the natives^- 
alre'ady used the Calaguala before the Spaniards^ entered those 

♦ Don Diego Perez Bravo, Member of the Royal Medical College of Seville, in a Bofa-. 
nico^pharmaceuiical dissertation on the Calaguala^ which be read in the year 1754 before the- 
Royal Society of that cify, and which merited the greatest applause, and was printed in the 
following year, sajs, that according to the testimony of the most respectable naturalists of 
Peru, the first discovery of the Calaguala, and of its medicinal use, was made in the province 

of.CaxamaIca, (now called Cacamarca,) and that afterwards its use was discovered and diffused 
through Cuzco, Huamanga^ and other districts,. 



/ 



1* 



/ 



/ 



*■ 



101 



countries, as a sudorific, solvent, deol).stment, and anti-rlieu- 
m at ic remedy. At the present day, not only those Indians who 
have very little communication and dealing with the Spaniards, 
but also the Spaniards themselves, and most of the Indians of 
Peru and people of other castes, make frequent use of the Ca- 
liaguala for the same purposes. 

The dealers, druggists, and professors of medicine include. 



under the name of CalagiiaJa, three species of .roots ?>rought 
from Peru ; but the Indians and natives of that kingdom distin- 
guisli these three species by very difterent names, derived, with 
sufficient propriety, from their respective plants. They call the 
first and genuine Calaguala, Ccallahuala; the second, Puntii- 
puntu ; and the third species HMUcsaro. 

The word Calctgunla, or rather Ccaltnhuald, as it is written and 
pronounced in the Quichoa or general language of Peru, is derived 
from the Indian noun ccallua, answering in Spanish to a trowel or 
batten, an iron instrinnent shaped like the head of a lance, with 
which the Indian female weavers press the threads of their webs, 
and from the noun huahua in the general language, or hu alas in 
that of Chinchaysayo, which in both signifies hoy ; and the 
>vords united into Ccallahuala signify a hoy^s hattoi, because 
children use the leaves of the Calaguala in their sports as bat- 
tens, from their similarity in shape, and with them imitate the 
labour which they often see their mothers perform. 

The name of Puntu-puntu, given to the second species of 

I 

Calaguala, signifies a thing of many points, because the lower 



I 



•side of the leaves of this species of Poly podium is found full of 
fructifications or orbicular points. Some natives of Peru are also: 
accustomed to call it Lengua de Ciervo, {Beer's tongue,) a name 
doubtless given to it by the Spaniards. 

The third species of Calaguala is called J/z^ac^arOj that is, a 

2d- 



'^ 







\ 



102 



<9 



liacl 



cred 



inaslved : be 



the frnctiii 



de or back of the leaves of the plant 



entirely 



Tiie dealers and traders distinguish them by th 



names of 



der Cala 



thick CalaGTuala, and middline: Cal 



or 



little cord from its fv^j: 



The tenn Calagnala is lik 



ded to all roots collected from di He rent genera and sp 



of 



the family of the Filices or F 

^feiuiine species of the Calagu 

In the provinces which I h 



pass 



traversed in Peru, I b 



tained that any use has been made of the third spe- 

lacsarOj thoui>-h it occurs in erreater 



cies of Calaguala, called H 
fre<|uency and abnnd 



the other two 



derabl 



poi 



of 



destined for Cadiz, whence 



brought from Payta and Iluayaquil to Lima 



is distributed through all the pr 



nces of Spain, and to foreign states 

The infusion or decoction of th^ Ptintu-puniu is used as an 

ti-pleuritie remedy, and it is only in pains of the side that this 

pecies is employed. Of the first or genuine Calaguala frequent 

a solvent, deobstruent, sudorific, and 



iise IS made in Peru as 

anti-rheumatic remedy ; and as such the Indians of the 



vmces of Canta and Huarocheri bring 



Si en 

and they never return to their homes 

course of one or two days disposed of the "^vhol 



species for 



pro- 
from 



to Lima, together with various other medicinal plants 

haviug in the 
in the neigh 



with 



bourhood ; which 



P 



tue IS 



quently the effects which they prod 



the great use made of its roots, and 



puted by 



though th 



Europe to be merely imaginary 



persons in Spain -and in other parts of 



I 



addition to the three species of Catagual 
this Memoir, collectors are accustomed to 



of which I treat 
procure and mix 



\ 



up with the roots of the first those ef other species of P% 



103 




first siglit, that tLe sole dilforeiice seems 



consist in tlieir hah 



aitd 



in 



the diffe 



coloni 



d size 



wl 1 i c\ 



1 



pear aniona^ tli 



Yet after 



exam 



d detail 



s 



hicli I 



1 



epeated 

x)f all tliree, notvvith 



at 



of 



ablisli 



as distinct 



5 



I 



had 
leav 



sp 



a 



as varieties, as 



ed 
I 



at first supposed, being misled by the disposition of tl 
es. In this respect I relied on the followinijr difference : 



The 2:enuine Cal 

J 

two longitudinal 1 



» 



fructifications 



are c 



posed in 



lines, pluced in cniincuux order, as are al:-o 
points of the fructiiications of these two otlier species of the 



\ 



Poli/podi 



ffei 



d colour of 



h 



them both not 



tude ai 

hills and rock 



leaves 



nlv 



in 



nd 



the mag 



ots. and its 



in 



dry 



g 






Iky soil or in caves, but al 



on 

in 



having crooked roots much more fibrous and scaly 




ed, and of ^asy mastication when dry ; tliey are of a more rn 



tense ' bitter 



the figure of the leaves is more lanceolate thaii 



that of the other two : the 1 



are also different in thick 



I 



^^ 



ness and consistency, the margins revolute, and the points or 
fructifications are more rectilinear, without deviating so mucli 



from th 



erv 



of 



leaf 



those 



f the other 



species 



which, moreover, grow in warm places, some leagues distant 



from the h 



s 



of 



r 

d wilds, and delight in rich soils or truiil^ 

:!aves. rather linear than Ian 



they have much lonc^er 1 



ceolate, of softer 



fl 



111 



cy, less tliirk, and with entirely 



marcjins ; the points ^^ fructifi 



wliich abound more 



th 



than 



in 



th 



genuine, have not the same 



in their disposi 



regularity 



some 



of them deviating from the 



oft] 
four 
ffula 



leaf towards th 



edires. 



c? 



fused 1 



and 



forming occasionally 



exterior ones almost alway 



nerve 

ee or 

irre- 



Though they are distinct species from the genuine, which 



/ 



/v 



. *$- 



10^ 



daily used in Peru, they might both 



substituted for it 



of necessity, b 



commerce, because their 

it, in consistency, colour, smeH 
degree. 



preference to all the other kinds current 

■ \ - _. . . _ - _ 



ely distinguishable fi 
taste, thou£:h in a less 



r-t 




ants which g 



/ 



Among the multitude of cryptogam 

the mountains of the Andes, are found many species of the genus 
I*oly podium, wli 



ch fi 



their single and very entire leaves 



V 



more or less lanceolate, are with difficulty distinguishable from 
each other without minute examination and comparison. In this 
and in similar cases, it is indispensable that the observer, in order 



to define well the diift 



of 



species of a genus bearing 



w 

great resemblance to each other, should 



himself of such 



comparison, since by defining them separately at different times, 
and places, he \^ liable t^y produce almost uniform definitions; 

1 " " 

r 

and consequently the readers, not finding sufficient marks of 
distinction, take them for mere varieties of the same species^. 
This may be presumed to have been the case with collectors of 
the different species of the Calaguala, whose roots are now sold, 
and used indiscriminately in medicine as roots of the genuine Ca- 
laguala, of which I have here given a description, explaining th«- 
specific difference. I am under the necessity of extending it, by 
availing myself of the examination and comparison of the Poly-^ 
podium Calaguala, with the other two species nearesf allied to it,^, 

_ 

which during my travels in South America I have observed to.be ^ 
mixed and sold as one species by traders and dealers. 



/ 



-f 



^' 



^' 



^ 



*" 






105 



■ffi 



ARTICLE II. 

Of the Hahitais ^fihe three Species of Cataguala, their Col fee 

tion, and Exportation. 



r 

The situations most favourable to tlie vegetation of the first 



species of Cal 



are 



iiills, p 



or wiMs 



I ' 



and places of cold temperature adjacent to tlie Cx>rdilleras of 
the Andes, or, as we may call them, the Alps of Peru, where 
the cold prevails throughout the year, especially by night, though 
the snow never settles or congeals -on them. This species gfe- 



ally gi 



in the clefts and sides of th 



ck 



or 



upon 



hem if they are covered with a thin stratum of earth, Jin 



dy, or clayey pi 



wh 



occur 




of other 



g 



and wliere the 



quarries, and gravelly, 

a very ie^w diminutive 

showers, though generally frequent, do not collect, on account 

of ithe declivity and the rocky nature of the ground, ft 



pontaneously and Very abundantly in many parts of tl 



grow 
i pro 



of Huarocheri, Caxatambo, Tarma, Oanta, Xauxa, fl 



elica. H 



"f^ 



6 



c 



H 



H 



Caxam 



Huayla 



Caxairiarquill 



1 many others situated amon^ 



the Cordilleras and mountains of the Andes, belonging to the 
kingdom of Peru, as well as those of Buenos Avres and San- 



ta Pe. The root of this Calagoala is gathered 



gh 



xery 



imall quantities 
aken dowis to t 



the 



I several of these provinces, from >vhence it 
ports of Huayaquil, Payta, and CaUao, O] 



I 



d 



exported to Cad 



'*V 



» 

The second species of Calaguala, known in Peru, as we have 
already observed, by the name of Puntu-puntu, and in some pro- 
vinces by that of Lengua de Ciervo (Deer's tongnc), grows near 

2 E 



106 



\ 



Ijase of the Aades in sheltered situati 



d 



stonv 



I 



/ 



rocky grounds generally covered with rich soil produced from the 
decomposition of the leaves and other remains of larger or smaller 




ants, and especially of mosses, the family of which is abund 
in those situations. They delight in airy and sunny places ; 
deed the Puntu-puntu is generally found in grounds that h 



m 



been cleared of 



shines freely daring most of 



the day, and where the cold is scarcely felt, except at night. This 
species abounds in the provinces of Xauxa, Tarma, Hiiaaiuco, 
Panatahuas, Huamalies, Huaylas, Caxamarquilla, Caxamarca, 
and other provinces contiguous to th« frontiers of the Andes, in 
many of which, quantities are gathered in full growth, and sent 
for sale to the traders at the sea-ports, who export them to Spain 
by way of Cadiz. 

The third species of Calaguala, denominated Huacsaro bv 
t;he Panatahuas Indians, is found in greater abundance than the 
two former, on extensive tracts, and on peaks less elevated than 
those where the first is found, though cold at night, and co- 
ered with pasturage and plants, such as the Ichus, a species of 



V 



Jarava, and other 



and Llamas 



gi 



on which the Vic 



H 



gi 



Sh 



species of Hyp 



acas, a species of llubus ; Chinehan- 
icum ; Ocssa Purga, a species of Sisy- 
a species of Mespilus ; Pucssato and 

Smnacmisquij a species of Thibaudia, a new genus of theEricege; 

Sogonches, species of Gardoquia, &c. The ground is gene- 



ryn 



i 



Milu 



K 



rally stony 



ed with a stratum 



e 



earth 



or 1 



thick 



11^ 



1 



H 



lik 



the air and sun 



; and wherever it grows, 
the spot is uniformly exposed to the morning and evening sun, 
or during the day when the weather is unclouded. 

There are such tracts of the Huacsaro, that from one of them 



inay be gathered from 76 to 150 pounds of roots 



Though 



107 



C 



it 



is very abundant, aiul grows spontaneously in the pro- 
vinces of Tarma, Xauxu, Hu^nuco, Huamalies, and in that of 
the Panatiihnas, I have never hetird that the natives collect 

+ T 

its roots for trad^ or other pnrpOses, nor indeed those of an- 
other species of the same genus, which grows abundantly 
aihoiig the Huacsaro ; and collected in other parts, and mixed 

with it. ' ■■ ' . ' ' ■ • 

In the Custom-house of Lima I have seen portions of the roots 
ef Huacsaro, and of the other species which are brought by 
w ay of Payta and Huayaquil, as well as the capital of Peru, and 
shipped at Callao for Cadiz ; whence it follows that these roots 
are collected in the provinces oi Caxamarca, Huamachuco, Pa- 
tas, and Chachapoyas, belonging to the Bishopric of Truxillo, 
and in other places bordering on Huayaquil. - 

The common method of collecting the roots of the Calagualas 

the plants with a spade, and strip them of the 



119 



to di 



g up 



leaves, stalks, shoots, and fibrous parts, leaving only the trunk 
of the root, which is exposed to the sun, that it may be dried 
and cleared of the adherent earth : many persons, however, 
wash the roots before they strip the shoots and fibres ; a readier 
and safer operation for wholly clearing them from the soil, and 
enabling them to dry sooner, as the fibres ate more easily remo- 
ved when the roots have been washed and half dry, than when 
they are green and covered with soil. 



The drying of all the Calagualas is effected by 



exposing 



them to the sun immediately after ^they have been pulled up 
and washed ; for, on being left some days in the shade, they 
grow mouldy and Tose their due colour and consistency, which 
they retain when quickly dried in the sun, or, in case of neces- 
sity, in stoves or heated ovens, care being taken to turn and move 
tbeni occasionally, that the moisture exhaling from them may 



10S 



/ 



"' 



more readily evaporate 



Th 



roots af the Puntu-puiitu req 



mDi'^ til an a month's cirying in the sun and open 



genuine Calaguala some few day 



though 



air, and ilu 
roots are four 



^ 



or five times slenderer than those of the former ; but the roots 



of the Huacsaro, though rathei 



thick, become perfectly dry 




ree or four dav 



niis remarkable differ 



proceeds from 
. and from the 



the slight humidity and viscosity of the Huacsaro, 
quantity of viscoiis and very tenacious juice contained in the roots 

. w^hich, when fresh, are 



f 



of the Calacuala and the Puntu-punti 



tremely tenS 



whil« those of the Huacsaro 



woody, dr 



y 



¥ 



and bard, scarcely a degree less than when they liare been per 

feclly dried ; ^ 
«Kmmution*ln 



that their bulk sustains scarcely any perceptibi 



drying, whil 



that of the former is reduced 



third. The desiccation of both kinds may be pronounced com- 
plete, when they resist cutting or breaking, appear as ihard as a 
§&ck, and are not td%e bent or penetrated by the nails or teeth ; 
tml: the roots of ^e C!alagua:la are easily masticated. 

1 

When the collectors find the roots of the Calaguala sufficiently 
dry, they pack them in leather bags, 
eietre take <tbem to the sea-ports, whei 



\ 



and 



without any other 
they are forwarded 
by the traders *o Europe, witbout examining vvh ether they are 



t- 



perfectly dry •, wliich is Tery seldom the -case with those of the 



Cal 



(r 



ala and the Puntu-pu 



for the reasons already 




y A 



plained. 
From negligent or bad presei-vation proceeds the almost total 

ption of the greater part of the Calagualas which we obtain 



rn Sp 



d perhaps fliis may be 



of the principal 



sy\\y its effects 
genuine Calag 



qual to those produced in 



Pe 



ru 



byth 



when used 



-JA 




The deterioration of the 



though well dried, liiay also in a great measure arise from 



tl 



i 

bad practice of packiftg them in 1 




bags, which are 



< 



V 



■^ 



N 



109 



Ti TcTi 



et, and of transporting tliem by sea and land with 



<iny other protect 



Another cause of destructio 



of 



le 



Calagualas 



is, that the 



of P 



gh it may rain 

roots from 



on tlieir journeys, do hot protect the packages of roots 
showers: consequently the leather coverings get >yet, and the 
roots, by absorbing the moisture, become more or less injured. 

ver the packages 



1 



men, ign 



in such matters, del 



to the dealers without mentioning the accidents on the road 



and the 1 



fidently stoi 



the 



in rooms having little or 



tilati 



br in 



damp 



they h 



pport 



nity of shipping them; in which case they only receive a chang 
of place, as the supercargoes of the 



vessels stow the 



in 



th 



e 



hold, or in cdnfined or damp places, where the ambient humidity 
and heat increase the destruction of the roots. 



Finally 



reaching Cadiz or any other port, these packag 



stored in close cellars or warehouses frequently damp, wh 



they 



totally destroyed, so that the Calagualas now become 
» drug instead of a beneficial medicine. 

here stated is an absolute fact, which may be 

on opening a package of 



_What I have 
ascertained by any one in Cadiz 



for 



Calag 
roots 



, a foetid and corrupt odour will exhale, some of the 
be found mouldy, and others soft and flexible^ when 



they ought to be hard and brittle as a dry stick and free from 
offensive smell. 



The degree of care used in collecting. 



dry in 






packin 



cr 



and 



exporting roots, barks, fruits, and other vegetable substances, 
seems almost uniform in all countries, as experience has shown 
that the drugs which we receive from all parts of the world, are 
more or less injured.. The Government ought to take cognizance 
of these affairs, and not suffer medicinal articles to be shipped 

unless in good condition and well packed, nor admit them unless 



r 

o 



E 



*■ 




possessing all the requisites necessary for preventing so serious an 
injury to mankind, though apparently of slight irnportance, from 
the little regard we pay to our health unless when we are sick, and 
then we are anxious for medical aid, and for the best medicine. 
Dealers and traders in drugs ought to be skilled in distinguish- 
ing the good or bad state of what they buy and sell ; but the 



misfortune 



sh 



be 



til at this trade, which by ai 
rried on solely by apothe 



of Government 
md druggists, 



/ 



o 



properly qualified and experienced, is in the hands of empi 
rics, who attend only to their own interests ; hence the profit 
derived from the sale of drnjrs is the main consideration, and 
their good or bad quality. 

The conveyance of the roots of the Calaguala should be effected 
after the mode prescribed in my Quinologia, in treating of the 
package of the barks of the Cascarillas or Quinas, in chests 



th the seams or j 



well secured 



tide, to prevent all the damages already mentioned 



d covered with dry 



The 



of the genuine Calag 



used 



as 



uch 



Peru 



rcely ever occur in Europ 



monly sold by the 



druggists 



d 



^^ 



more commonly <5f th 



commerce, as those most com- 
d dealers in Cadiz are of the se- 

3S ; that is, of th'e 



tljird 



Puntu-puntu and H 



t 



d, there 



and 



sually roots of 



species ; 

among those of the se 



spe 



which from their great resemblance to each other are 
distiriiruishable. exc( 



o 



Tlie roots of th 



of Poly podium, 

scarcely' 
ept by their thickness. 

genuine Caltiguala differ remarkably from 
of the second species, or Puntu-puntu, and both differ 
wholly from the third, which is a species of a genus distinct from 
the other two ; and the roots of the Huacsaro, also, are usually 
mixed with those of two other species of its own genus* -Besides 
these species of CaUiguala sold by .'our druggists, other roots of 



th 



/ 



- ♦ . 



\ 



r 



»v 



111 



V€ry different species are met with, eitlier singly or mixed with 



each other, and among them two or three as slender'as the ge- 
nuine, from which tliey are easily distinguishable by their insipid 



taste. 



Probably fi 



and from 



pb 



y scanty "sup 



f the genuine Calaguata in Spain, has resulted its discredi 

all the Faculty ; many of whom have made experi 



with almost all the 

ments with it, hoping to produce the same effects and virtues which 

are daily observed in Peru : but as they have proceeded without 



deriiig 



or being aware of the mixtures, and without d 



knowledge and discrimination of the irenuine Calanaala,' they 



& 



o 



o 



the same reasons the 



Calag 



have unjustly taken up their pens to decry it ; and perhaps for 

from the materia 

It always hap- 

at present iii; 



medica of Linnaeus and from that of Berir 



th 



e 



Calagualas 



pens that effects follow causes : 

general use are, as already explained, species very different ; 

distinct from the genuine Calaguala employed in Peru ; he 



not surprising that their effects 



dely different 



y "■. 



Vari 



dissertat 



h 



and against the Calaguala,* 
wise arisen than from their 



been lately written in Italy for 
This difference cannot have other- 
experiments being made on roots 



o^ distinct species. From scarcely any of the apothecaries, and 
from none of the druggists of Madrid, have I been able to ob- 

i, which is generally 



root of the genuine Calagual 



r 

unkn 



the Faculty 



d 



f any 



had 



the Calagualas 



sold in Mad 



as a remedy in disorder 



or 



I 

* Dr. Gelmetti, a learned physician of Mantua, after various new experiments, wliich he has 
made and published, recommends the use of the Calaguala for various disorders. Dr. Bassiano 
Carininati published at Pavia, in 1791, a tract against the Calaguala, entitled, ^* Some i?<- 
searches on the Principles and Virtue of the Root of Catagualcu^^ 



i 



■I . 



f" 




112 



for cliemical observations and experiments, the failure in tlie re 
suits is to be attributed to no other cause than this. 

T 

Most of the Calagualas now sold by the druggists of Ma 
drid, who are supplied from Cadiz, have no perceptible bitter 
©r other taste or smell indicating any virtue ; they are actually 

F 

almost tasteless ; and if a root of some kind be casually found of 
^ bitter taste, it is so slight as not to merit the least attention, 
considering the peculiar bitterness of the genuine Calaguala. 

From what I have here stated, it is not to be inferred that I 
aim at excluding from medicine all the roots sold to us for Ca- 
lagualas, or to maintain tjiat among them there is not any which, 
possesses medicinal virtues ; for it is to be presumed that these do. 
exist in a species which has come into my possession, similar in, 
figure to the great orugaof the Elm and Ash, and whose roots are 
from two to three inches long and one inch thick, curved, with, 
small protuberances on the lower parts, and covered on the up- 
per with the bases of the shoots, disposed in three or four alter- 
nate orders^ and of considerable bitterness, but less intense than 

that of the genuine. 

My sole object in this Memoir is to remove the doubts and 
ambiguities which exist on this matter ; to illustrate^ by means 
of the subjoi .ed descriptions, an exact definition of the genuine 
€alaguala, and the difference existing between it and the other 
two species ; and, lastly, to shew that the opinions, experiments^ 
and observations on the virtues of the Calaguala, have not been 
well founded, and that most of the investigations have proceeded, 
according to a common expression, blindly, and prejudiced by 
Statements of little or no certainty. 



H 
% 



N 



% 



\' 



# 



r 



113 



ARTICLE III. 



Of the virtues and uses 



th 



admitted 




genuine Calaguala 
such in commerce ; 



other two Species 

the only criterion for remedying the Mixture ofothet 



)/ the 
nd 




1- 



with the genuine. 



There are feyy persons who have not some knowled 



deobsti 



of the Calagual 



Sp 



5 



t 



of the 
gene- 



h 



ally observable, that when any person receives a blow or a fall 

to it immediately. The Faculty, though many 

some of them pronounce it to be 



of them doubt its virtue, and 

vain and imaginary, generally prescribe, either before or after 
bleeding, in case of a blow or a fall 



tincture or decoction of the Calaguala. 



natives of P 



are convinced that 



obstruent, sudorifi 



no other medicine than the 

The Indians and other 
possesses really great de- 



call them in question would be 



venereal, and febrifuge virtues, and 



ijust, since they have been 



^. 



$ 



proved by the experience of so many yeai 

Many are persuaded that the family of the Filices have few 
or no virtues, and some have even a more unfavourable opinion, 
founded on the circumstance of their growing in shady and ill-, 
ventilated spots; but these persons may be reminded of the an- 
thelmintic and emmenagogical virtue of the root of the Fern, Po- 
ly podium Filix mas Linn., the emollient and pectoral virtue of the 
Folypodium vulgare Linn., the astringent virtue of the Spleen- 
wort, Asplenium Cceterach Linn., and the aperient virtue of the 



Maiden-1 



Adianthum Capillus 



ing, like the Calagual 



these, besides e?ro\\ 



m airy, pure 

2 G 



and 



il ubr 



situa 



% 



^ 



I 



\ 



f 



114 



tiofts, ought to be excepted from the general rule ; and for the 
same reason their principles must be more analogous to our na- 
ture, and of course favourable in their properties and effects, as 
observation and experience prove. 

The genuine Calaguala is universally used in Peru to thin 
the blood, to promote perspiration, and to mitigate rheumatic 
and venereal pains. It is frequently used in falls, blows, con- 
tusions, and in bodily strains caused by over-exertion, and 



its efficacy is 
humes. 



acknowledged 



in dispersing internal impost 



J 

I confine myself to these general notices, which T originally 
collected in Pern, as serving to instruct and enlighten those per- 
sons ill Europe who frequently attribute very different virtues to 
the Calaguala ; which, in my opinion, do not all merit belief, 
until they have been proved by experiments and researches made, 
with sound judgement.* 

The most common method of using this root in Peru is in 



\ 



* The Pharmacopoeia Matritensisy jivmted in 1762, states, that the Calaguala is chicfljs 
used in decoction, though sometimes administered in powder^ and that its virtue is aperient, 

F 

solvent, and sudorific. Don Diego Bravo, already mentioned, affirms in his Dissertation, that 
this root is one of the most powerful antisyjihilitic medicines, when administered in the form 
of a ptisan ; that it is the best deobstruent in medicine, the best specific hitherto met with for 
the total extirpation of internal and external imposlhurnes ; that it also readily dissipates or 
dissolves the accumulations of extravasated blood (especially in falls) ; that it is an excellent 
haemoptoic and wonderful emmcnagogue, of great effect in jaundice, in affections of the chest, 



and that it radically removes tertian and quartan agues ; that the powder of the Calaguala 
abates coughing, relieves oppression of the chest, and hoarseness; lastly, that it is diuretic^ 
&c. That it is to be administered in every species of gonorrhoea to heal and cleanse the inter- 
nal ulcers ; that it is given to promote menstruation, facilitate lochia, to solve scirrhous dis- 
positions and grumous concretions of the blood; that it is solvent and expellent ; that it 
assuages the tormenting pains which ensue after delivery, called by the vulj^ar after-pains; 
that in the latter cases the women drink the decoction sweetened with honey; that it is used 
with great advantage in removing pleuritic inflammation, and to facilitate expectoration : in 

fuppurations of the viscera it is taken with great benefit, mixing two ounces of honey and two 



* 



115 



> 



T^ 



morning fasting they are 



f ^ 



/ 



ffecoction or infusion, allowing to every six pints of water one 
ounce of fresh roots bruised; tliey boil it on a slow fire in a 
glazed pot, covered, until the liquid is diminished one half; 
and without straining, they take out, after it has settled, the 
quantity to be used each time, either hot or cold, as may be 
most suitable to the patient. In the 

I 

accustomed to take the decoction warm, sweetened with a little 

I 

; but in the course of the day they drink it ad libitum; 

-1 

cold and not sweetened, in syphilis; or for bruises, contusions^ 
and falls, to prevent the probable results of such accidents ; as 
the Faculty say that this specific operates as a powerful deobstru- 

i 

ent, solvent, balsamic, and diuretic remedy. TJie natives of Peru, 

and even the Faculty themselves, affirm, that much sediment is 

' observed in the urine of persons who have used the decoction of 

the Calac^uala. To employ it green as well as dry, it is not ne- 



\ 



sugar 



cessary to boil it as is commonly done ; it is sufficient only to 
bruise and infuse it in cold water for a few hours, as it readily 
yields its bitter and saline extract, especially if care be taken to 



shake the bottle or vessel in which tlie infusion, is made. 



The 



of butter with three pints of the decoction ; and in oth^r cases, equal parts are taken of the 

decoction and asses' milk, or, iu defect of that, cows' milk, with great benefit to patients. 
The Professor adds the various preparations used* of the Calaguala ; the rf.gimen and me- 

' ' 4 

ihod of administering- ; the results obtained on the analysis which he made of it; the dose; 
and lastly the experiments - and observations, made with great success on difTerent subjects, 
with the Calaguala,, communicated by Don Juan Felix de Andrade, and dispensed by the me- 
thod of Dr. Peralta, who, according to Bravo, was the first Spaniard who promulgated at 
Court the admirable virtues of the genuine Calaguala, which wns probably, that obtained hy- 
Bravo and Andrade from Bartholomew de Andrade, who stated to Professor Bravo that he 
- kad collected it with his own hands in the hills of Cuzco, as of a superior quality to that of 
Quito and the other provinces of Peru. In the Appendix to his Dissertation he inserts the 
operation for separating the essential salt, as he calls it, of the Cala^uala, having used the- 
hydraulic machine constructed by Count de la Garaye; and he affirms that the use of this salt, 
or rather saline extract, produces belter and stronger effects thau the ptisan and other modes 
of administerin°r the Calaguala. . 



** 



^ 



«( 

**:' 



116 



wise witli the other 



iiig well bruised, they n 

water to extract from them the littl 



quir 



wo Calagualas, since, after be- 
a long digestion to enable the 



VISCOUS 



d other 



pies of which they 



pi 



being naturally ligneous and 



hard wh 



dry 



the roots of the Huac 



are so, even Avhen 



iwly taken from the es 
The effects of the Cal 



'© 



when used fresh 



to be 



perceived 



prompt and efficacious than when dry ; but, when 



used in the latter state, it does not lose it 



tue 



has shown in Peru 



as experience 



Every experienced physician well knows 



many dried vegetables, collected and preserved with care and 
attention, produce equal effects as when used fresh, but operat- 



ing less quickly. There are many pi 



provided due skill and 



which, after dryins;' 



have been used in preservin 



o 



th 



impart to water or other liquids all their principles with greater 
facility than when they are fresh, and consequently produce bet- 

i root of the Calaguala, ad- 



ter effects. I have no doubt that th 



stered in powder as is the practice with some, will be equally 



effectual as when taken in infusion or decoction 



yet I shall 



prefer using the infusion or saline extract, well elaborated 



so 



long as the experience and observations of eminent 
men do not decide otherwise. 



professional 



From the account I have just 



must b 



th 



ferred that 



rtues of 



genuine Calaguala are not 



some physicians have supposed 



ho 



imaginary 



fluenced by groundless 



reasonings and statements, have judged «o unfavourably of 



medicine, which for a series of year 



to produce the results already stated; wherefore 



Pern, has been proved 



credulous physician is equally to blame with th 



my opinion 
3 incredu- 



lous ; since the fo 



ght 



require more than a superficial 



knowledge of the virtue of a simple or compound, in order not 



t- 



j^ 



\. ' 



J17 



to err in using it ; nor is it proper in the latter to depreciate 



^icli 



knowledire without previously ascertaining the truth or 



discovering the fallacy, hy means of experiments and obser- 
vations, undertaken with ,a clear and distinct knowledge of 
the medicine itself, of the state in which it is found, and of its 

L L 

constituent principles ; because, without these premises, rea- 
son may convince us how uncertain all the experiments must be 
which we may try for ascertaining the virtues and uses of any 
substance whatever. 

In order to remedy the mixtures made of other roots with those 
of the genuine Calaguala, it appears to me that the only ob- 
vious and practicable method for the present, is, that the traders and 
merchants of Cadiz, 

should charge their < 



z, as well as other individuals or companies, 

r correspondents in Peru, to take care that 
in those regions the very roots of the Calaguala should be col- 
lected which are sold fresh in the Square of Lima, and that there be 
left to each root, or to most of them, a leaf, which *lnay serve as a 



for the identity of the species, until such 



me as our 



merchants, druggists, and professional men, have acquired 



skill in distinguishing 



ot 



qu 



an indication wliich 



.IS 



present so important and necessarv 



r-j 



*> 






> 



N 



¥ 

1 



X 



lis 



\ 



ARTICLE IV 



Of the difference hehveen the Genuine Calagnala^and the other 

Roots with which it is confounded, and of the Reasons 
that exist for adopting the vulgar Names of Calagviala and 

F 

Huacsaro. 



- ^ 



The Polypodiuni Calagunla is a very different species from 
any of the Polypodia mentioned by Linnceus in his Species Plan- 
tai^ujn. It approaches nearest to the Polijpodiiim lanceolatum of 



or 



the Phu Hit is, folio lo 



ifo Ha, m as" 



tliat author, 

culis majorihus of Petiver Filic. 8. tab. 0. fig. 2. differs from i 

latter in this respect, that the spots of fructification do not p 



beyond the middle of the fr 



in 



qu 



that 



some 



contiguous to the principal 
spots are a little distant fro] 



d are disposed in two lines 

of the spots are alternately 
of the frond; the rest of the 
[► that they form two lines, one 



resting 



the 



the other somewhat rem 



Th 



fructification in P. lanceolatum, on 

two parallel lines along the whole of the frond 



each side of the 
trated in the fi 



there 



is 



t spots of 
the contrary, are placed ifi 

that is, on 
as is illus- 



ly one line of 



p r 



of Petiver. Calairuala likewise differs 



o 



margins of the fronds being 



c 



revolute. and th 



stipes being co 



vered with small squama?, which marks are wanting in P. lanceo 
latum. Though in some narrow frond of the Cal agual a only on 



line of 



is observable on each 



d 



of the midrib, and also 



the broadest fronds, which proceed from th 



root 



the 



row and middle-sized 



of the sori are seen to de 



1 

viate towards th 



they 



i margin of the frond out of th 
occupy the whole length of the frond. 



gul 



P. Ian 



K 



i 



^ 



119 



ceblatiimy but in general only the half of the frond ; and if 
they should exceed that, the additional space is so short as ih 

m 

he unworthy of notice, and at least one-third of the frond in the 
lower part is destitute of sori. 

The Poly podium PhyUitidls of Linn., considered by some as 
the genuine Calaguala, differs from it in havino^ narrower and 



proportionably shorter fronds. They also abound in transversa 
nerves, which are wanting in those of the Calaguala, in which 
their place is supplied by branching veins which are not readily 
distinguishable, and are quite different from the short lateral nerves 
commonly met with in other species of Poli/podium with simple 
fronds. The sori of Poli/podium Phyllitidis are scattered over 
the whole under surface of the frond, as liinnaeus observes in 
his Species Plant. 1543, and as they are represented in the figure 
of Petiver, Filic. 5. p. 6. f. 10, and by Quer in Flora Espan. 
tom. 6. p. 124. fig. 12. •• 

The Puntu-puntu, wdiich is the second species, of Calaguala 
brought to us from Peru, and which most resembles the P. Ame- 
ricanum of Quer, differs from the latter in the greater size and 
thickness of its fronds, and in its form not being so perfectly 
lanceolate. The spots of the fructification are successive, that 
is, between the transverse nerves there is no more than one se- 
ries of sori, whereas in P. Americanum there are two consistent 
series ; and finally the fructifications do not occupy the whole under 
surface of the fronds, as in those of the latter according to the plate 
of Quer, who reduced this species to the P. PhyUitidls of Linn. ; 
and my Puntu-puntu corresponds exactly with the definition 
ffiven by this author of Polypodium crassifolium, and with the 



fissure of the PhylUtidis mnculata, amplissimo folio of Petiver, 

The third species of root which is brought 

from Peru under the name of Calaguala, is a new species of 



Fit. 1 . p. 6. f. 8. 



V 



■7> 



> 



/ 



/" 



/ 



120 



AcrosficJiitm, b< longing to the division of Linnaeus, witli simple 
fronds, wMcIi <liffers entirely from 



tlie Calaguala, 



tlie Puntii 



■pun til, and all the other roots which are not species of the same 

I. 

genus. All others who have treated of the Calaguala have dif- 
fered in the description which they have given of it ; a proof 
that they have spoken solely from information regarding the ge- 
nuine Calaguala, and thi^ information is very doubtful, or appli- 
cable to various species of Poly p o ilium , 

Although the Indian words Cchallahuala, or Calaguala, as it 
is now written, and Huacsaro, are familiar only to a few per- 
sons, and those Americans, I have thought proper to adopt the 
first as the trivial name of the Polypodimn, and the second as 
that of the Acrostichuni ; naming the former species Poly podium. 
Calaguala, and the latter, Acrostichum Huacsaro, it appearing 
that these Indian words originate from concurrent indications in 
the plants themselves, as I have before shown. 



f 




ARTICLE V, 



V, 



Descriplion of the Polypodium Calaguala, which ought to hxi 



used in medicine. 



CLASS XXIV 



Filiccs. Polt/podium Calaguala. 

V. frondibus lanceolatis integerrimis : marginibus revolutis 



fructilicationibus a medio ad ap 



in quincuncem dispositis 



solitariis, parallel is. Flor, Per. edend. cum Icon 



Cala'niala 



order observed in 4he publieaiious; and as the plate will not be given before tbe last volume ol 



* 



/^ 



i 



\ 



121 



P. CCalafrucf 7a J ^Le^\es lanceolate 



olute 



y 



mar2 



spots of fructiii cation disposetl in a 




and parallel 



qum 



tary 



R 



Round 



-■ ^ 

creeping and fl 



somewhat compressed 



d 



th 



, slender, horizoni 
der surface with loi 



/ 



branching, dark-grey fibres, and on the upper surface with frond 
disposed in two rows alternatino- with each other: 



of 



ash CO 



lour on the exterior side, and covered almost throufthoat with 



d 



on 



the interior of a bright 



which extend throu2:hout 



spreading scales, ai 

furnished with many small 

centre. After slow desiccation it becomes on its exterior surfac 

or scurf have been re 
interior a compact sub 



of a dark ash col 



after th 



moved, and when cut it exhibits in the in1 
stance, in some degree resembling that of 



tron, and of 



pal 



aw col 



sugar-cane or 



more or less intense. 



Th 



/ 



taste is at first sweet, followed by a strong disagreeable bit 

It may readily be masticated without any 



somewhat viscid 



\ 



sistance ; at the time of 
kind of rancid oily odo 

> 

i^r<>wf/5— Disposed alternately in two series, 
from half a foot to a foot hiffh, and from th 



when cleared, it exhales a 



varying in length 



de 



in the middle ; stiff, lanceolate 



ree to seve 
hat curved 



tire, naked, fi 



d very juicy; without 



lines 
very 



having instead of them indistinct branchy veins, shininir, mar 



\ 



gins revolute, covered on 



urface with whitish dots 



d on the posterior side with fructification from the middl 



to 



ap 



HI 



fronds which have attained th 



full 



size 



w 

from the middle downwards is destitute of them 



In the young 



T 

the above work, the present anticipation of, the Plate ia this Memoir, has heeu permitted by 
the Minister of the Indies, in order that Naturalists as well as the Professors of the three branches 



made 



I 



■ » 



% ^ 



^ 



■-1 



122 



and Iialf-grown fronds fructification never occiirs. Stipes naked, 
rather shorter than the frond, plain on the anterior surface, and 
furrowed towards the base, the ridge of the posterior side extend- 
ing to the termination of the frond alone: its ini(h-ib 

Fruciijii 
die of the 



Disposed in little round spots, from the mid 



frond to its apex, in two lines in qu 



rder. or 



tely deviating from the line towards tne margin. 



the 



T 



^ '^ 



spots before the capsules can be readily distinguished with a 



/■ 



microscoT 



are of a bi 



chesnut colour, 



tl 



hen the spots have attained th 



full 



te 



alter by half 
th, in which 



state they are of a 
about the size of I 
seventy capsules, ai 
short hairsi 
, Caj) Sides — very 5 



1 



t colour, and sometimes tawnv 



a lentil : each spot consists of 
ed to a receptaculum covered 



very 



> T 

t ; pedicels orbicular, convex on 



botl 



sides, and somewhat compressed, about th 
of mustard, thin, papef-like, whitish ; surr 

by an 



of half 



ded almost wholly 



annular membran 



hich burs! 



lly, near th 



sertion of the piece 
a grub or maggot. 
Seeds 



two \ 



ppearing like the skin of 



ting 



very minute, oval, shining, whiti 



wi 



a 



of yellow, attached internally to the annular mem])rane, 



from which they spring elastically on the bursting of the val 



Obs 



For want of a good microscope, I 



pre 



ted from deciding on the fructification of both sexes, wh 



I suspect 



th 



genus Polypodium 



well 



A 



are 



iichum; because, with a common lens, two different bodies 
distinguishable, in some of which capsules are observable, ia 
others they remain as if blasted, and scarcely perceptible. 

It grows abundantly in the hollows of the Punas, and on the 
cold mountainous regions of the provinces of Canta, Huaro- 



\ 



^ 



_> 



V 



\ 



123 




, Caxatambo, TarLiia, Xauxa, Iluaiicaveliea, nuainaii*ia. 
Cuzco, Huanuco, Huamalies, Caxamarca, and other parts of the 
kingdom of Peru, and in the neighbourhood of the lakes of 
Lauricocha, Yauricocha, and Chinchaycocha, all situated in tlie 
province of Tarma; the first- scarcely ten leas^ues distant from the 



second, and tlie third only four leagues. 



Yet the waters which 



flow from them, and give rise to the three celebrated rivers, 
Maraiion, Huallaga, and Ucayali, run in a. winding direction for 
an immense distance, and after a course round our extensive 
mountains and those of the natives, the second, which is navi- 




gable for boats and canoes from the strand of the town of Cuchero 
distant ninety-five leagues from Lima, unites with the first in 

the countries of the Chamicuros and Marinas Indians, and the 

third with them in those of the Omaguas Indians. 



It is found 



throughout the 



year with fructificatioas or pro- 
tuberances, which in all their states are without integuments. 

The Indians give it the nahieof Cca//fl/<Ma/«, and the Spaniards 
that of ^iie Caldguala. ' ■ 



OBSERVATIONS: 



Havini? tak 



a 



of this root well bruised. I infused 



in 



th 



ounces of distilled 



which in a short time was 



ch 



i«-ed of a clear red colour ; in two hours it became of a clear 
esnut; but though I kept it two hours longer in cold infusion, 
d shook the vessel from time to time, I perceived no farther 



change in th 
ently bitter. 



ing the root o 



tint. 

The 

f th 



The flavour of 

rancid odo 




; infusion proved sutfi 
perceptible after bru 



Cal 



was 



tirely dissipated 



only a sfight scent proceeded 
treated with sulphate of iron, 
ta a greenish blue, an indication 



fro m th e 



fi 



and 
When 



the chesnut colour changed 



that the root contai 



an as 



X 



'^ 



124 



-*- 



y 



1 

Iring^ent pi 



Tl 



tincture of galls poured on tlie iiifu 



sion Jid not alter it in the 



slightest degree. 



Th 



ubst 



oluble in water being extracted, I proceeded to 



h 



tained any resinous principle ; for which purpose, afte 



having dried the residuum 



1 infused 



of rectified 



spi 



of wine. After an infu 



of fort\ -eight h 



it 



ac 



nor. 



when poured into water, did 

; no froth arose, as is the case with 

the contrary, the foam immediately 



quired no tincture whatever 

it give any indication of resii 

saponaceous substances ; on 

subsided, which I produced by repeatedly shaking with viole 

the infusion in the distilled water. 



V, 




EXPLANATION OF TIJE PLATE. 

1. Sorus of fructification magnified. 

2. A capsule very highly magnified, closed with its annular appendage. 

3. A very highly magnified capsule just opening, with its very short pedicel. 

4. A capsule entirely open. 

5. Seeds. 

6. Seed magnified. 

7. Receptacle magnified* 



/ 



r- 



^* 



125 



r-i?., 



>#. 



'U. 



V 



■^ 

r 



DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 



THICK CALAGUALA, or PUNTU-PUNTU. 



^ ^ 



^^ 




^" 



POLYPODIUM CRASSIF0LrU3f. 

P. frondihus lanceolatis integer fiikhsubundulMs.^fru^^^^ 
mibus serialibus a medio fere ad apicem. Flor. Peruv. edend 
m Icon. 

P. CcrassifoliumJ frondihus lanceolatis glahris integerrimis, 



H' 



■^ \ 



fructificationibus serialih 



Linn. Sp. Plant. 1543 



VhyWitismaculata, ampUssimo folio. Petiv. Fil. p. 6. fig. 8 
Poly podium (thick-leaved)— Fronds lanceolate, very entire 



slightly undulated ; fructifi 



disposed in transversal lines 



from the middle to the apex of the frond 



Root — Round, somewhat 



tal, fragile, of 



o 



membrai 
siccation 



pal 



pressed, long and thick, hor 



1 



or bright 



S 



col 



ered with 



ered 



which commonly fall off at the time of de- 

r 

upper surface with fronds, and on the 



under side with 



the 



illy fibres 



^ ft 



parate readily from the 



S 






principal root after dryii 

jPrortf/5— Disposed in two series along the whole root, and al 



ternating 

(yard) in 



th each other, from 



quarter to more than a vara 



o 



d from one to three inches broad, lanceolate 



o 



K 



X 



126 



plain, sliglitlj undulated at the margins, very entire, thick, stiff, 
fragile, naked, and shining, covered on the upper surfece with 
minute pellucid dots, the under side horizontally nerved, and 
covered with fructifications from the middle upwards, though 
in some fronds they descend within two or three inches of the 



base. 



■^ 



Stipes— \on^y semi cylindrical, naked, and shining, channelled 
on the upper side. -^- , 

• T'ructi/ication — In round spots, naked, about the size and 
shape of a lentil, disposed in transversal simple lines, that is, be- 
tween the transversal nerves. 

Capsules — Many in each spot, pedicelled, and in all respects 
similar to those of the preceding species, but smaller, interspersed 



V 



with hairs and filled with very small oval seeds. 

Grows — In the mountains and woodsof the provinces of Tarma, 
Panatahuas, and others in warm situations on gravelly and rocky 
grounds destitute of trees. 

It is found in fructification throughout the year. The Indians 

r I " rf 

denominate it Puntu-pnntit , arid some Creoles call it Deer's 
tongue. In commerce and with the apothecaries it is distinguish- 



/ 



jf 



ed from the first and the following by the designation of thick 

^ 1 

Calaguala. 

Uses — The natives of Peru use the decoction of Puntu-puntu 
,as a sudorific in pains of the side. 



OBSERVATION. 

The cold infusion and the decoction of this root,'made in glass 
vessels with distilled water, assume a clear red. The flavour both 
of the infusion and decoction, and of the root itself when mas- 

i 

:dcated, is somewhat viscous, with a degree of sweetness by 
010 means unpleasant; and without the slightest bitter. The in- 



/ 



/ 



^ 



127 



fusion and decoction treated with sulphate of iron manifest a very 
slight alteration. 



-h — ■ 



NOTE. 

The roots of the Puntu-puntu, after being slowly dried, are re- 
'duced to a fourth part of their thickness when fresh, wrinkled, 
or furrowed, forming tortuosities or undulations which they 
had not before, somewfiat compact,* heavy, and equal on 
cutting, having on the lower part very small protuberances 
proceeding from the fibres, and on the superior covered with 
the bases or insertions of the stalks, which are disposed iii two 
ranges, and nearly of a circular figure : externally they are 
of a rusty and rather chesnut colour, and internally of a clear 
gred, with some whitish little nerves which cross them longitudi- 
nally ; they have no perceptible odour, and the flavour is some- 
%v?i at sweet and glutinous. The root, on being masticated for 



some time, grows spongy, and causes, when chewed, a cer- 
tain harsh sound between the teeth. Choice should be made 
of the most compact^ heavy, difficult to cut, and of even fracture^ 
red within, and rusty or chesnut coloured without. Little value 
is to be placed on that which is light in weight, spongy, black* 
. ish, decayed, or worm-eaten, and which cuts easily or un- 
equally. 



\ 



/ 



t 



% 




* 



I^ 



* 



^ 



**- 



DESCRIPTION 



t - 




OF THE 



M 4 



-? 



V" 



^ 



CALAGUALA MEDIANA 



{ 



) 



« . 



.^f 



- *N. 




P t 



, i 



^ i * -^^ t # fc ^> H^ ji if 












. - - » 



^ -» 



* -■ 



. ft 



J 



ACROSTIC HtJM IHU ACS A RO : 



^ ^ •-"* "t I 1 



i •< 



r 



A. frondibus laneeolato-linearibus integeYrimis} fiuctifi 
angustioribus prominulis. Flor: Peruv. eclend, cum Icon. 

Plant — Caespitose. i : .. 

iJoo^— Horizontal, creeping, branched, about two feet long, 
of the thickness of a fiagerj. furnished with numerous slender 

fibres; surroui 

oth er, so as to 

out, and a dark tawny within. 

JFrotids — Numerous on the whole circumference of the root 



.^ 



ded by the ^stipesi which mutually fold overhead 
form a cord or braid, of a dark grey colour with 



h 



d erect by means of the upward curvature of the stip 



d 



posed in two rows, linear-lanceolate, very 



htly undu 



Jated 



tl 



marirms 



carcely juicy, rigid, smooth and shin 



d with the mid-rib carinated 



both sides of the frond 



sharper on the posterior side. Sterile fronds flat 



than half 



a yard (vara) 1 



o 



fertile ones narrower, almost doubl 



the 



length, at first revolute and carinated. afterwards straiiifht and flat 



o 



^^ 



\ 



\ 






129 



Stip es 



somevyliat long', 



folding over each other at the base, 



stiff, giving the root the appearance of a cord or braid, semi- 
cylindrical, flat onHbe anterior side, with a slight furro.\V, and 
when yonng covered with scurf or small loose scales. 

r 

Fructifications — veiy nnmerous, covering the whole back part 
of the fertile fronds ; of a ferrugineous and sometimes blackish 

colour, interspersed with hairs. 

' Capsules'— jpediceWed, orbicular, furnished with a nng,' and 
filled with many minute shining seeds. 
Grows abundantly on elevated hills where the temperature is 

cold during the year, in the neighbourhoood of Pillao, Panao, 
Acomayo, and Chaclla, towns of the province of the Panataliuas, 
and in various other provinces bordering on the Andes, as those 
of Xauxas, Tarma, Huamalies, Caxamarquilla, Caxamarca, &c. 
It is found with fructification throughout the 3 ear. In the pro 
vince of the Panatahuas this plant is known by the name of Huac 
saro. In other provinces where its roots are an article of com 
merce, it is called Calagtiala mediana. 



X 



. r 



OBSERVATION. 

The cold infusion and decoction of these roots made in gl 



\ 



with distilled water, assumes a red col 



without any 



perceptible odour, except an earthy scent, and of a rather astrin 



gent taste indicating the presence of gall 



cid 



proved 



by the alteration resulting in both liquors with sulphate of 
forming a black but not very high tint. 



NOTE. 

The roots of the Hnacsaro as they occur in commerce, di- 
vested of fibres and with remains of the stalks of the leaves, 
present the figure of braided cords of many plaits, more or 



2l 



) 



* 



/ 



130 



T J 



less perfect, twice as thick as a common quill, • and of ratlier 
compact consistence, but far from heavy, and hard to cut, either 
when dry or newly pulled from the earth, being naturally dry 
and of no manifest viscosity ; on the exterior they are of a dark 
grey with some thin blackish scales, and within of a dark tawny 
approaching to red ; wh^n cut horizontally they exhibit six or 
more whitish points between the centre and the circumference, 
which correspond to as many little nerves which traverse it 
lengthwise. No odour is perceptible in them except an earthy 
and musty scent, very feeble, and the taste somewhat harsh and 
astringen^t, though not at all unpleasant. 



> 




- V 



^■. 



131 



' ^ 



/ 



MEMOIR 



*ir 



ON THE 



YIRTUES AND USES OF THE ROOT 



OF 



THE PLANT called YALLHOY, 



IN PERU. 



'^^-^^ 



BY DON HIPPOLITO RUIZ, 

FIRST BOTANIST TO HIS MAJESTY IN THE EXPEDITION TO PE1XV, 

&c. &c. Sec. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 



1 HE inaptitude of the remedies coinmoiily applied to the cure of 
dysenteries, and the powerful antidote discovered in the root 
of the plant called Yallhoy for these severe disorders, encouraged 
me to write the present Memoir, with the object t)f publishing it 
for the general good. For the fulfilment of my wish, I presented 
it to the Royal Medical Atjademy of Madrid, in order that this 
learned body might examine it with their wonted critical atten- 



tion, 



and, if it incited their approbation, might insert it in 



the 



second volume of their Transactions. The Academy, after order- 
ing some experiments to be made, approved it, and permitted it 
to be incorporated in that volume, with other Memoirs intended 



y 



X 



\ 



/ 



X 



132 



for the press ; but tlie publication of the second volume beins: 
unavoidably retarded, and the Royal Academy desiring that this 

■ 

Memoir should appear as soon as possible,- favoured me with the 

necessary certificate for publishing it on my own account, as I now 
do, for the general benefit. 




*» 



Any discovery hi tlie vegetable kingdom, of qualities capable 

of supplying the first necessities, or curing the disorders inci- 
dent to human nature, is certainly of greater value than a hun- 
dred discoveries of no_ known utility. _ 

One of the first and most estimable is the plant called in Peru 
Yallhoy* and known in other parts of that kingdom by the 
name of Masca,f the bark of whose roots presents many medi- 
cinal and economic virtues. 



The abundant foa 



mil 



by the 
infused 



fresh 
in hot 



d 



to that of soap, which is yielded 
dry barks of the Yallhoy when pounded and 
cold water, and shaken slightly or for a lon^- 
time, shews that there exists in these barks a great proportion of 
saponaceous matter. 

This indication is in snmp degree proved by the circumstance 



^ 



r^-. 



}k 



of these barks being used as a substitute for 

;. For th 



d cleansing linen of all kind 



soap in washing 
purpose the fresh 
bark of the roots of the Vallhoy, is well pounded and moulded 

?, which are sold in the shops and great Square of Hua- 

d the dry barks are also sold in the markets for the same 



into ball 



purpose 



* Fi 



gnifjin;; to cleanse filth or impurities. 



t Eqinvaknt to tassel ; thus mascapaycha means the regal tasstl of the I 



ncas. 



'^ 



^ 



133 



■-' 



Tlie natives o{ the province of Huanuco, and the Indians of 

the mountains of the Peruvian Andes, make use of these barks for 
washing the head and for cleansing it from dirt and scurf, fronx 
a persuasion (particularly among the fair sex) that with this 
lotion the hair is nourished, and acquires greater softness, flexi- 

' ' ' _ 

bility, and lustre. This fact is well founded in theory ; and ex- 
perience has fully demonstrated it by the long and beautiful 
hair generally observable 
use of such lotions. 



in those persons who make frequent 



■ 

For the same purpose of cleansing th 



h 



the inhabitants 



of the province of Tarma, as long ago as the year 1797, used the 

J root of another species of the genus Monninaj de- 



barks of th 



ated in that country Pahuata-huinac and Chissip -huinac 



that is, Growing hy night, and also Hacchiq 



all which is 



intimated in the first volume of our Si/ste ma Vegetahilium Florce 
Peruviance et Chilensis, page 172, at the* end of the specific de- 
finition of the Monnina salicifolia.. 

_ i _ 

In the city of Huanuco the barks of the Yallhoy are frequent- 



ly used for cleansing and polish 



wrought 



d the sil 



K. 



^ 



versmiths hold it in great estimation for that purpose. 

From the difl^erent sensations excited on the palate and tongue, 
on chewing the barks of the Yallhoy, from their sharp, acrid, acid, 

r 

bitter, mucilaginous, saponaceous, and somewhat nauseous taste, 
it is to be inferred that they contain many specific virtues. 

To be able to ascertain them, it is necessary to avail ourselves 



of those excellent 
tany in the immo 



is prescribed for us by the reformer of bo 
philosophy of this science, and, after wel 



considering them, to proceed to a pharmaceutlco-chemical 



lysis of its pa 



rder to deduce from the most obvious p 



pies manifested by that analy 



the 



q 



d properti 



of the plant, availing ourselves also of the analogy which it pos 
sesses with other vegetables whose properties are known, 

2 M 



.' 



134 



It sometimes occurs, that in tlie urgent necessity for alleviating 
pain, man is obliged to use whatever remedy he imagines effica- 
cious; and without reiiectingon the ill consequences that may en- 
sue, he affords to the scientific ohserver considerable light for pur 
suing his investigations with greater certainty and promptitude. 
. Such has been the case with the first trials of this new re 
niedy of the Yallhoy ; because the Faculty in Huanuco, finding 
that none of the remedies in medical use were adequate to arrest 
the fatal progress of an epidemical dysentery which prevailed in 
that city in the years 1788 and 1789, prescribed clysters of the 

I, 

root of the Yallhoy. They were in- 



decoction of barks of the 



4 ■■ 



duced to do this by observing that the 



already used th 



bark with success for evacuating the intestines when affected 



with irritatine: diarrhoeas 



Observing the good effects resulting 



from, these clysters, the Faculty made a further step, and admi- 
nistered internally the infusion of a small quantity of the barks 
made in hot water. * 

, By these aids a considerable amelioration was observed to take 
place among the sick in a few days ; and by frequent use the Phy- 
sicians succeeded in radically curing the epidemic, to their own 
great satisfaction, and to the admiration of all persons. 



i# 



Since that period the Phy 



in Peru have preferred 



V 



the bark of the root Yallhoy to that of the Simarouha or 



Quas 
th em 



of Linnaeus, as a cure for dysenteries; and some of 
jsoning solely from the effects produced by these barks. 



give them the improper 



of Shnaronha Peruv 



hich 



m 

ght not to be adopted in medical use ; because, though they 



'iD 



their effects, yet being 




of distinct classes botli 



turally and artificially, the common term would in time 



sion much doubt and confusion in 



ma 



medica: wherefor 



the terms Monnina polystachya and Yallhoy should always be 
■employed to designate the genuine anti-dysenteric plant of Peru. 



/ 



135 



It being the p 



of a botanist to estabb'sh permanently 



the exact knowledge and distinction. of any vegetable wh 



1 



he 



may 

rluc( 



d 



^y 



of a complete descript 



and to d 



its properties and 



fi 



affinity which th 



new 



etable may hold in class, order, and gen 



I 



al ready 



kn 



from the fl 



odour, colour, and habitat ; from 



most 



arkable principles and substances ascertained by pi 



macentico-chemical analysis, and from information obtained from 
the natives of the country where the plant spontaneously grows; 

v^ations of his own, made with great care 



my par 



the obliGfation of the 



and finally from observations 

and attention ; I believe that ^ 

botanist is in some measure discharged m this short dissertation 

with the methodical and historical description which I give 

the plant, with a diagnosis of the characters found in the 



f 



bark of its roots, and with an exposit 

—I 

and principles, found in it, by means 



of th 



substances 



t 



of a chemical analy 



performed (as 
ferable, and 1 



the root is inodorous) in the humid way 



posed than in the dry way 



to th 



s pre 
disad 



vantag 



f having its principles decomposed or destroyed by 



i^a. 



fire; and of obtaining in the result, substances and combinati( 
distinct from those which nature in her w isdom has deposited 



that part of the plant 

From the greater affinity which 



relation to other plants 



hitherto know 



th 



genus Monnina possesses 



th th 



genus 



Poli/oala* it must be 



ferred that the 



of the Yallhoy 



V 



coincide with those of the roots of the Poly gala Senega of L 



naeus, and, like them, may 



deobstruent in obstructions 



of the lunffs and other viscera, as a cure for dropsy, asthma, and 

■- I- 

X 

* From the incomplete descriptions that authors have as yet giyen us, who have treated of 
the Polygala Senega, it cannot be decided with certainty that this plant belongs to the genus 
Monnina. But from the characters exhibited in the plates given of the former by Miller in his ' 
Dictionary y torn. 3. tab. 5. and by Count Castiglioni in his History of Foreign Plants, tuni.S. 



/ 



\ 



^r 



^ 







I 



136 



otlier disorders in which use is made of the "Poly gala Senega, whicl 
is a plant seldom sold in Spain. 
To decide this well-founded coi 



ijecture, Phy 



should 



make a diligent and attentive use and application of the bark, 
in order that medical experience and observation may prove it 



satisfactorily 



If 



I hop 



th 



bark of the Yallhoy operate in Europ 



with the same effects which it produces in Peru against dy 
tery, ar 

buted t< 



attri 



d if it likewise be found to possess the properties 

r 

• the Poly gala Senega, the catalogue of Materia Med 



will be enriched by the addition of this new and powerful re- 
medy. 

With this view I submit to the Royal Medical Academy of 
Madrid the present Memoir, hoping that its learned members 



ill, with the 



r accustomed zeal, perfect and rectify a work so 
important to the welfare of humanity, which was begun but not 
concluded with due critical accuracy in PerUj and which I cannot 
accomplish satisfactorily myself. 

Henceforward there is reason to hope, that as the admirable 
styptic of the Ratanhia^'\ or Krameria triandray sanctioned by 

p. 177. tab. 70. It is very probable that the Polt/gala Senega is a species of Monnina^y as 
are also, I suspect, various other species which botanists have classed and confounded ainone- 
the PolygalaSy as will be stated in the sixth volume of the Flora Peruviana et Chiltnsis, when 



N 



we treat of botli genera in that work. 



i 



f resides the virtues of the extract of Ratauhia, mentioned in the dissertation which I pub- 
lished on that specific, it has been latterly observed by some of the Faculty* that it includes a cer- 
tain tonic virtue which renders it still more estijiiable and worthy the attention of medical 
men. It has also been found that a cataplasm of Ratanhia operates powerfully on tu- 

• Of this genus M. Bonplandhas described sixteen species under the name of Uebiandva In Mag. Natur. 
Figunde Zu Berlin, IbQd, which, with several new ones in the Lainbertian Hei barium from Don Jose Pavon 
IB ay increase the number of species to twenty-four. A careful examination of the fructification of Poly- 

:tured by M, Ruiz, it, however, ought to 



gala 



Lainbertian 



form, perhaps, witii some others, a genus distinct from Polygala, There ar» in the _ 

from Pavon twenty-three species of this latter genus, chiefly from Mexico, The genui Afonnina is' nCTCv 

met with in the colder or elevated TegioQs.*}::oiT. 



/ 



r > 



137 



the Royal Medical Academy t>f Madrid spread rapidly througli 
Spain, and throiigli many other parts of Europe, the use of the 
barks of the Yallhoy will be likewise propai^ated among all 

nations. 

Every day new productions are announced to us by Natu- 
ralists, but we seldom attain the mam object, of having their 
qualities, virtues, and applications made known ; and therefore a 
useful discovery, like that of the root of Yallhoy, in economy and 
medicine, ought to be more prized than an infinite number o£ 

discoveries of no known use. 
' For this reason it is proper that the use of this new production 



should be established and prop 



gated 



as a precious remedy 



dysenter 



sometimes so afflicting to h 



nature 



mours resolvino-and restorino^ tone to those debilitated and relaxed parts. And lastly it has 
been known to correct and cure all kinds of ulcers, when applied to them in light plasters. 

It is somewhat difficult to divest some professional men, of the vulgar and false no- 
tions that the extracts are a useless medley. Natural reason dictates, and sound chemistry 
proves to us, that in well elaborated extracts, as much as in good doctrines, the virtue of 
the veo^etable resides; and when plants are inodorous, or have little smell, it is indis- 
putable that the extracts of them contain all or nearly all their virtues, as is proved by the ex- 
tracts of opium, nettles, aloes, rhubarb, &c. with the additional advanta^^e of being ava^ilable 
in a small compass, and in pills, when the stomach of the patient will admit neither decoctions 
nor infusions hot or cold. The extract of Ratauhia operates with greater efficacy, exhibited iu 
all the prescribed modes, than decoctions of the root from which it is extracted, 
ricuce in administering the extract of Ratanhia has obliged some practitioners to suspend the ap - 
plication of this very powerful medicine, because its styptic virtue and bitterness are generally 
repu<^nant to the patient, or because he usually vomits the first doses given to him; wherefore 
it appears to me worthy of notice in this place, that, although at first there may be some re- 
uo-nance on the part of the patient, or he may involuntarily eject the first doses, it is necessary 
to persevere in repeating them, because the result seldom fails to be, as others of the faculty 
have experienced, that the stomach will retain the fourth and succeeding doses, especi- 
ally if the patient immediately chew a little lemon, and driak and gargle with vinegar, diluted 
in two parts of common water ; and if the object be not thus attained, let the e 
ia pills with tbe same corrective, and the desired result will be obtained. 



Waat 



^»* 4 



P 



■^•, 



gnrwi 



O 



N 



^ 



# 



/ 



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138 



The more valuable a medicine is, the simpler and less com^ 
plicated is its exhibition. In the bark of the Yallhoy we have 
this advantage, because, to ensure its good effects, it is not ne- 
cessary to mix or combine it with other simples or compounds, 
which rnight perhaps alter, lessen, or destroy its virtues, as is 
proved with respect to the Yallhoy, as well as other power- 
ful remedies, especially the styptic of Ratanhia already mention- 
ed, which operates alone with greater efficacy in bloody fluxes, 

than when mixed with the diiferent astringents which it has been 
the practice of some Physicians, perhaps unnecessarily, to add 
to it. Therefore, until this matter shall be further illustrated 
by experience, I propose for the dispensation of this new remedy 

the following formuhe : 



^ tf 



Anil-dysenteric Infusion of Yallhoy. 
Take of the barks of the Yallhoy •• 1 drachm and a half. 



Common water, boiling 



1 pint 



The barks, well bruised, must be infused in a jar or earthen 
vessel closed up for an hour, to be shaken occasionally. When 
almost cold, it may be filtered off for two doses. 



■^ 



"S 



Anti-dysenteric Powders of Yallhoy. 

Take of very fine powdered bark of Yallhoy •• 1 scruple. 
Common sugar •• 1 drachm; 

^ 

jLet them be mixed together for one dose. 



% 



Anti-dysenteric Pills of Yallhoy. 

Take very fine powdered bark of Yallhoy •• 1 scruple : 
Let it be mixed with 'gum tragacanth for one dose. . 




.y 



t39 



Anti-dysenteric Pills of Extract of Yallhoif. 



Take extract of Yallboy 



half a scrimle 



Form pills with gum tragacanth for one dose 



Anti-dy 



Clyster of Yalihoy 



Take dry bark of Yalihoy well bruised •• half 



Common water 



in 



Boil 
sumed 



close vessel 



11 



two pints: . 

fourth part of the liquor be con 



strain it through a linen cloth, for two clysters 



The Physicians of Huanuco usually prescribe as many as thr 



doses a day of 



fu 



and 



clysters, orderin«: at d 



tion the quantities of bark which the case may seem to require. 

orrectly the determinate 

I ■ 

ons and clys- 



Havinar been unable to ascertain 



quantities allowed by 



Phy 



for infus 



ters, 
of th 

able to oth 



I have proposed, as already stated, for 



dispen 



new 



med 



the above formulae, as most conform 



medicines now 



lated by experience, 
be daiJv administered 



in use/ until they shall be regu- 
and proper proof shall decide the doses to 



I have excluded, as usele 



IS for medicmal purposes, the lig 
part of the root of the Yalihoy, having found in it no per 



ptible smell, j 



or substance of any kind analogous with 



those found in the bark 



i 

* Doctor Thomas Garcia Suelto has been commissioned bj the Royal Medical Araflemy of 
Madrid to make experiments with this new anti-dysenteric remedy in the General Ilos^ ital of that 
metropolis, andhnsreporledto the Academy, that he has cured with this medicine two patients who 
were afflicted with dysentery; that he followed the method proposed in this dissendU'»n »rdered 
to be published in the second volume of the Academical Transactio..s. I h^ve also received com- 



\X7Ain 



i 



hat the 



Yalihoy has operated promptly and efficaciously in various cases io which they have dispensed 
this new anti^dysenteric remedy in the c^uantities and the method above prescribed. 



■V 



\ 



/ 



uo 



Itcsults olytdined from tlie larh of YaWioy 

Analysis. 




tlie foil Giving 



m 

1. I placed in a flask, capable of containing four pints, twen- 

fine powdered bark of the root of 



ty-four grains of very 
Yallhoy, with six ounces of cold distilled water, and having 
shaken it for a short time, the liquor was converted into a thick 
foam occupying the whole cavity of the flask. The foam re- 
mained in that state for a considerable time, and though after 
opening the flask it began to subside less slowly than when the 
flask was closed, and to re-assume the liquid state, the whole 
did. not entirely subside within the flask, even for the space 
of twelve hours ; but having placed the fluid in an open dish, 
all the foam disappeared in two minutes, doubtless from the 
greater influence of oxygen upon the liquor when exposed to the 
action of the atmosphere, than when "kept close. I returned the 
liquor again into the flask, and as often as the operation was 
repeated, there resulted the same quantity of foam and the same 
consequences. All which proves the existence of a portion of 
sajponaceous matter in the bark. - 

'The liquor dissolved more than half the weight of the bark, 
and assumed a tint similar to that of depurated whey when fil- 
tered without clarification ; and having added a little carbonate 
of potash, it acquired a yellow colour, similar to the Reseda lu- 
teola or woad. With sulphate of iron there was no remarkable 
alteration in the colour, nor any precipitate at ihe time ; but in 
a few minutes a mucous and greyish matter settled at the bot- 
tom of the vessel, and the liquor remained clear. In the resi- 
due the acrid bitter flavour was perceptible, though in a slight 



s 



V 



V 



^ 



141 



* 



^-H- 



J 

2; r infused for three days other twenty-four 



powders 



g 



4 

of llie 



m an ounce of alcohol, cold 



The 



quor 



in au 



short time tinged' of a clear yellow, and acquired a very percep 



tibl 



bitter 



d sh 



chewed 



arp 



id taste, like that of 



wh 



During the three days n9 foam was perceived 



not 



r^ 



ithstanding the liquor being shaken. The tincture, when diluted 
I distilled water, did not become turbid, nor was tlsere any per- 
^ptible sediment. 

H 

The alcohol dissolved half the weight of the powders, and 
tliey remained insipid. The excess in weight of the powders iit 



tlie former dissol 



shows that the alcohol could not dissolve- 



■-,* 



tlie mucilage that was soluble by the water. 

3. I infused half an ounce of the powders in four pints of co-Idf' 
distilled water ; after twelve hours I cfiiised it to beil a consi 
derable time in a suitable vessel without luting the junctures , 
when taken from the fire and sufficiently cooled, I strained and5 

r 

iiltered it ; and the result was a yellowish tincture^ like that 
produced by tbe infusion in alcohol. The liquor being evapo- 
rated, yielded a drachm and a half of extract of solid consisten- 
cy, without any adhesive property, shining, and ef a dark grey 
colour, somewhat resembling the resin of jalap, which in a few^ 
days became much harder, lost some of its lustre, and remaineci: 
friable and not so dark coloured,. 

4. From another half ounce of the powders I ebtainedj. after- 
repeated cold . infusions^, a pale gold-coloured t.'ucture> wliaclu 
when evaporated yielded three drachms of extract, less^ shining- 
wlien dry than before, and;, laminated^ but equallj^ friaye aftec^ 
some days, and of a rather ashy grey.. 

h^ Having burnt half an ounce of bark, it was wifh ditJieulty 
i*educed to ashes of a; blackish colour,, imtil tliey were consnmedl, 
ti>^ half .a. scruple^ wlieit they became somewhat white.. Th?jf 

2o>. 



I 



,* 



" 



\ 



y 



142 



/ 



contained little calcareous matter, some magnesia, and a small 
portion of silex. 
. 6. Though no aroma or fragrance of any kind was perceptible 



^'m 



the bark 



I placed two ounces of them for distillation in 



tial oil 



an 



d 



water, to ascertain if they contained any < 

though I purified the distillation", nothing was observable on the 

surface of the water when placed in a narrow 



7. From what is 



in a narrow-necked vessel, 
stated the result is, that in the barks of 



the root of the Yallhoy the extractive principle is most abundant 
and in it resides the stimtilant virtue perceptible in the bark it- 
self; that this extractive principle is mixed with a little mucilage 



for which reason at first the acrid flavo 



noticed, which 



i§ afterwards experienced on chewing the root, and Avhich is sub 
sequently manifested when after dilution 

I, 

extractive principle 
acrid bitter flavour is 



of the mucilag 



th 



is 



para ted. For the same reason the 



not perceptible in the aqueous as in 



the 



spirituous infusions, because 



the form 



th 



two principle 



remani 
gaged . 



ited, and in the latter the extract alone is di 



1 



8. That the stimul 



d the virtues of the bark reside in 



the extractive principle, is proved by its property of dissolving 
in water, and in pure spirit of wine or alcohol, and by its faci- 
lity of oxygenization ; 



since 



d to 



a 



littl 



time 



d it 



on adding a few drops of nitric 
on, its colour changed after some 
is already known, that the extractive principle is 



of the infu 



that which suffers most modifications by the oxygen, takin 
gularly a duller colour when exposed to the open air. 

9. I lastly proceeded 
of ascertaining whether 
abounded in it. 



examin 



V 



i the extract, for the purpose 

I suspected) th^ extractive principle 

I remarked that a portion of it did not dissolve 



\ _ 



in water ; and as I 



sure that this residuum 



not burnt 



143 



and was not of a carbonaceous ilature, since the greater part of it 



dissolved 



m alcohol, my suspicion was realized by means of am^- 
moniac and the solution of zinc; which precipitated it in foliaceous 
flakes of a dark colour. 



t ■ 




^ 
^ 



>-^ 



Diagnostic characters wJiich 



m 

good and well selected Bark 



Yalllioy ought to possess. 




It 



is to be remembered, that the barks of the root of the 



Yallhoy 



to be 



ely separated from 



the ligneous part in 



sticks or little tubes, from a sixth to half a yard in length, and 
they are to possess the following characteristics, when well col- 
lected and preserved. 

Thickness of the tubes — from half an 



inch to two inches in 



circumfere 



and the 



dg 



rolled inwards one 



and sometimes each by itself, forming 
fluted cane. 



in th 



case 



r another 
double o 



&r/flce— longitudinally furrowed, by a few fissures, caused 
by the separation of the little roots which were in those parts. 

between a straw and bay colour, and mostly 



Exterior colon j 



with clear greyish spots 



L 



coloui 



dark tawny. The liber of a pale white 
powder, of a whitish yellow colour. 

The liber — from half a line to a line ni thickness. 
Consistence — compact, like a thin cake of common glue 

K -1 

Fracture or cutting — of considerable resistance, and 
without being torn or fibrous at the edges. 



The 



r 

qual 



♦" 




'I, 



144 



Specijic gravifi/^-with respect to. the consistenee, someTviiat 

4?onsiderab]e* 
Concrete juice — abundant and glutinous. 

r 

Smell — earthy, weak, not unpleasant ; but when reduced to 
powder and taken into the nostrils, it stimulates actiyely, so as« 
to cause sneezing, and abundantly promotes the. raucous dis- 
charge. 

Taste — sharply acrid, acid, bitter, so soapy and mucilagi- 

> 

nous, that on chewing a little of the bark the mouth is filled. 

■ 

^ith a thick viscous and tenacious froth, especially on the lips, the 
acrimony remaining a long time both oi\ the tongue and palate^ 

so as in some decree" to excite nausea^ 




PESCRIPTIO BOTANICA YALLHOY. 



CI.ASS XVII, 



OIADELPHIA QCTANPRIA 



\ 



- * 



MONNINA. 

S^si. Veget, Flor, Per. et Chit. p. 169i 



^ 



Monnina polystachy 



'\ 



M\ Mils ovato-lanceolatis ovatisque, paniculis polystachy 



/ 



V. 



^upis apt 

Plan ta 



Syst. Veg. Flpr. Pemv, et Chil. p. 171 



fruticosa, villosa 



\ 



/farfi':u-bipedalis, perpendicukris, simplex, fusiformis, superne, 
l-^-j^oHicaris^ inf<5rne sensim angustata, albido-paUescen«, paucis 






/ 



J 



I 



« 



145 



V 



fibnllis, reiiiotis, tenuibus, longis, meditullio lignoso, albido, sub- 
insipido, facilius ajcortice secedente. Cortex crassitudine ut pluri- 
mum bilineari, diim siccus characteribus supra dictis pripditus. 

Canlis — erectus, 2-3-ulnaris, teres, inferne indivisus, superne 
ramosus. 

llami — teretes, flexuosi, difFusi, iiutantes: teneri villosissimi, 
parum purpurei, foliosi. 



FoU 



alter 



ma 



patentia, petiolata, ( 
lonnulla oblonira, obt 



lanceolata 



plu 



o 



du 



lata, mitia, supra glabriuscula, subtus vill 



venosa ; veins 



alternis 



plurimum bipollicaria, latitudme poll 



Petioli — 1-2-lineares, semiteretes, supra sulcati, basi 



par 



Pedunculi 



ex axiJlis superioribus terininalesque, polystacliyi 
paniculati, nutaptes, villosi. 

SpiccR — ilexibiles, 3-6-pollicares, multiflora^. 

Flores — co'nferti, brevissime pedicellati, erecti, bracteol^ subii 



Cal 



duplo breviori, stipat 



par 



albid 



deciduus, diphyllus: foliola 



upero ovato, acuto, coiicavo-cymbaefor 



bifid 



laciniis 



ui : infero brevi 
cymbaeformibus 



semi 



Corolla — pap 



Vexillum null 



iiisi cariiice apices 



parvi vices illius gerentes: ^Ztpduse, subrotuudo-obovatae, planae 



aeruleoB, deciduse 



Cari 



P 



concava. superne ventricosa, alba, apice 



luteo, decidua: Appendi 



iiife (aut staminum 



P 



olttta, basi carinae inserta 
lloso, pistillum amplexans. 



phylla 
brevi, 
partibns decid 

Fila 

jtttor ad singulum latus, alternis^ brevioribus. 
biloculares, apice veluti in duo labia dehisccntc 

2p 



nque acumine 



cum ceteris fi 



carinte api 



inserta, subulata 



quJi 



Anther te erectie, 



\ 



I 



\ 



146 



f7ei 



ovatnm 



pore 



tt 



duloso, versus foliolum caly 



iSTiperius productiori, persistente cinctum. Stylus simpl 



inferne attenuat 



Stigma simplex, latiusculiim, truncatum 



compressum, utrinque denticulo acuto, altero reflexo 



Drupa — pendula, ovata 
magnitudine, monosperraa 



da, laevigata, succosa, parvi pisi 



ilocul 



osseo-coriacea, fulvescens, obloiigo-ovata, subanceps, 
ris, punctis excavatis insequalibus rugosa. JVucleus 



ovatus, albus, cotyledone gemino. 

Hahitat — ^in Peru vise Andium montibus ad Panatahuarum 
provinciam, versiis Pati, Sirabamba, Acomajo, Pillao, Panao, 
Chaclla ; et in Tarmae provincia prope Huassahuassi, Palca, Hu- 
vayabal, Huychay, et Morocamcha. 

JFlor et^Angvisto, Septembri, et Octobri. 



Vernacule—in Huanuco, Yallhoy ; in Pillao, Masca. 



/ 



TJie Yallhoy grows on low peaks, and on the skirts of higl 

3s, and herbaceous plants 



ones, amon 



all shrubs, bush 



is easily distinguished from all others by its beautiful 

variegated with white and yellow, and 



of bl 



fl owers 



and 
spik 

'h^ its little fruits of a blueish purple, which when very ripe ap 

pear black. These spikes overtop many of the others consider 
ably, 

feath 



and inclining toward the earth like a plume of 



^ 



d for this reason th 



by the name of Masai 



plant 



distinguished in Pillao 



Those tracts of land, according to their greater or less eleva 



tion, are 
than other 



more 



I 



less fruitful, and consequently some are colder 
the cold tracts the plants are less villous, less 



branchy, and of smaller size than those which are found in lower 
more sheltered, and temperate situations. 

As such situations occur at the base of the Royal Mountain 



/ 



?' 



147 



the woody regions of the Andes of Peru, between the tropic of Ca 



d 



Equinoctial line, and from 9 



11 degrees south 



hts are considerably cold, it never snows or freezes 



the vegetation of the Yallhoy is there perennial ; for though the 

in those 

places, nor does the mercury or spirit of wine in Reaumur's ther- 
mometer descend lower than five degrees above 



and the 



* 



eatest heat 



four degrees of that thermometer 



perienced at mid-day does not exceed twenty 



There are frequent rains from October to May ; but the plants 



obtain 



sunshine, though for sliort and casual interval 
all the cloudy and rainy days of the year 



in 




EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 




1. Flower with the carina erect, and the afa> open. 2. Flower with the a1« and carina 
expanded, shewing the stamens. 3. Lateral view of the flower. 4. Calyx. 5. Calyx 



magnified. 



6. Petal seen on its interior face. 



7. The carina declinins:. 



8. The carina 



erect. Q. Appendix of the carina, with the stamens declined. 10. Appendix of the 
carina erect. 11. Stamen. I2. Stamen with the anther open. 13. Pistil. 14. Pistil 
magnifjed. 15. Drupe. iG. Nut. 17. Transverse section of the nut. 18. Kernel. 



■i - 



^■" 



^. 



/ 



/ 



148 



I 



V 



j^ T 



MEMOIR 



ON THE 



VIRTUES AND USES OF THE PLANT 



CALLED IN PERU 



THE STAR 



REED; 




(BEJUCO DE LA ESTRELLA.) 



BY DON HIPPOLITO RUIZ, 

FIRST BOTANIST TO HIS MAJESTY IN THE EXPEDITION TO PER^ 

&c. &c. &c. 



f 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE. 




s often as I have examined the Virginia Snake-roots brought 

to us from Virginia by the English for medicinal purposes, I 
jiave found them ill assorted, and mingled with different roots of 



oth 



nknown plants, so intimately intermixed with the 
that the most acute and discriminating physician ^ould 



genu 



ely distinguish them 



I 



immediately conceived the idea of 



announcing this observation by means of the Memoir which I 
was about to publish on the Star-reed, to be presented to th 



Royal Medical Academy of Mad 



order that, if approved 



it might be inserted in the second volume of their Transactions 



149 



The Royal Academy sanctioned it, and penniited its insertion 
in that volume, along with other Memoirs destined for tlie 
press ; but the publication being unavoidably delayed, and the 
Academy being desirous that the Memorial should appear as 
early as possible, they proposed to me to publish it myself sepa- 
rately ; which I now do for the benefit of mankind, and to sup- 
plant advantageously the highly lucrative branch of commerce 
carried on by the English in Virginian Snake-root to all parts of 
the world, by substituting the Star-reed, Avhich not only admits 

X)f no similar admixture of other roots like that, but, being a, 
species of the same genus, possesses the same virtues, and even 
in a stronger degree, and is besides susceptible of various other 
medical applications unknown in the Snake-root ; besides which, 
the Star-reed is a drug of greater interest to Spain ; because, 
growing abundantly in her American possessions, it will consti- 
tute, as already observ^ed, a new and considerable branch of na- 
tional commerce, if, according to reasonable expectation, the 



knowledge of its virtues and uses be diffused in Europe, and if 
that preference be given to it over the Virginian Snakerrout 
which it deserves for the reasons above stated. 



Note.— -It would be of the greatest importance if Government would order tlie Vice- 
roy of Peru to send supplies of the Star-reed, in order to contravene the exclusive trade of 
the English in Virginian Snake-root, or at least to save Spain the annual sum drawn from 



her by ihem for this article. 



Meantime ifie Virginian root might be tolerated, on condiliuit 



of not adunlt.ng into our ports, and through the frontiers of Portugal or Fiance, any 
supply of it without strict scrutiny that it be clear of other roots with which it is ahvnj» 
found mixed ; and that it be always of the pale straw colour natural to that which is m 
good condition; because it would be a less evil to be without Snake-root, than to admi- 
nister it to the sick in a decayed state, or mixed perhaps with deleteiious roots. 



O 



^ 



150 



.y 



4- * 



Ariqng the multitude of vegetables which grow spontaneous! 

and clothe on every hand the cascades, rivulets, banks, valley? 
and high and low peaks of the extensive and rugged mountain 
of the Andes of Peru, not a few are found, which by their pro 

uses, merit a preference in the attentioi 



perties, virtues 

-I -• 

of naturalists, phy 



d 



and 



chants 



One of these vege 



tables is the plant called in Pozuzo and other towns borderin"" 

C7 



on the frontiers of the native Indians, the Star-reed 
de la Estrella : 



sent on both 

-2 

the licrneous 



or Bejt 
because its root and stalks, transversely cut, p 
actions many rays, diverging from the centre 



(yf 



i ligneous part to tlie circle formed by the bark, with which 
they represent a star, or rather wheel with many radii. ^ ^^ 



The nati 



of Poz 



Guchero, Puebl 



Nuevo, and Hua- 



mico, give this plant the name also oi Contraijervn de Bej 
jperhaps from its efficacy in those diseases in which the Contra 
yei-va of the apothecaries, or the Borstenla Contrayerva of Lin 
naeus, is administered, or from some resemblance to the latter in th^ 
peculiar and grateful franriance which it exhal 



of Con tray 



pplied by th 



not to be admitted 



But this name 

b 

to the Star-reed, owv^lii 



a 



pplied 



desig 



Materia Medica, it having bee 



o 



as has been before show 




the root of 



very different plant. 

The independent Indians of Peru greatly value the root and 
stalks of the Star-reed, as a remedy for dysenteries, malignant 
inflammatory feyers, colds, rheumatic pains, and the various dis-^ 



arising 



from fatigue. 



For each dose they take of the roots 






OT small accord 



o 



ta their 



F _ 



r fresh stalks a handful 
This quantity they in- 



N 



/ 



/ 



lol 

■ 

fuse in boiling water, keeping the vessel roverea for four or six 
Lours, and at bed-time the infusion is taken warm, either by itself 



1 covered for fou 



su jrar . 



\ 



with 



Tliey say that it causes th 



few hours it 



■ 

to perspire abundantly, and 



alleviates their pains, srenerally effect 



mg a cure within three days. In cases whei 

obtained, they repeat the medicine two or tliree times 
are freed from pain or other inconvenience. 



relief 



they 



The Ind 



al 



»o apply the Star-reed pounded or broised^ 
fresh, to the bites and stings of reptiles and insects, as a powerful 



antidote against 

. The great estimati 



poison 



Ind 



for sucli disorder 



^ — ^ 

hales on putting, and the exquisite cainph< 



the Star-reed is held by the 
peculiar fra;:»rance which it ex- 

rous, balsamic and 



bitter fl 



which I discovered in it, excited in me th 



oods. I 



lively wish to make myself acquainted with the plant. 

Notwithstanding the most diligent researches in the v 
was for two years unable to meet with the plant in ^ower or in 
fruit, and had at lens^th recourse to the expedient of transplant- 



ng some speci 



of 



into the garden at Buenamuerte d 



Lima, distant a hundred and five leagues from Pozuzo, where 



it flowered 



th 



months of January and February 



a 



period 



which, on account of the continual 



was by no means fa 



onrable for exploring the mountains where it abounds, as I had 



done in 



hen 



were few 



By its flower I perceived that the Star-reed belongs to the 



genus Aristolochia of Linnaeus. The genus being ascertained, 



no impropriety could arise in recommending to the Faculty the 
use of this new remedy, according to the application made of it 
by thie Indians. ' • ' ' 

In my recommendation I added a suggestion that Physicians 



«: 



r^ 



■, V 




JTiiglit use if instead of the Arlstolochia'serpenlaria, es^ec'm}]^ 
against nervous, intermittent, and putrid fevers. 

A short tune after liaving remitted to Lima some stalks and 
TOots to the celebrated Dr. Cosme Bueno, with a' notice on the 
use made of them by the Indians, and on that to which this new 
medicine might be applied, I had the satisfaction to receive re- 

L ~ L 

peated thanks from him, with an intimation that the Star-reed 
operated with greater efficacy and certainty than the Virginian 
Snake-foot. . . -■ 

From that period I diligently continued to make daily obser- 

; and having a few 
months before my departure from Peru for Spain, remarked that 
on being masticated it caused an abundant and viscous saliva, 
I inferred that it might be useful against tooth-ache, and ad- 

F 

vised several persons, frequently subject to that complaint, to 



ations and experiments on the Star-reed 



of this new medicine 



The patients in a few h 



small piece into the mouth, and repeatedly emit- 
actually experienced considerable relief, and, bv 



make use 

after takii 

ting the sj 

continuing the use of it, were cured for the time of this disagree- 
able pain. 

• Well assured by repeated experiments of its odontalgic, anti- 
septic, and soothing properties, I transmitted to R. P. Francisco 
Oonzalez L 



member of the religious order of the Ago- 
nizantes of Lima, and a commissioned correspondent of the Royal 
Botanic expedition, a packet of the Star-reed from the mountains of 

and experiments might be 



Poz 



dirtier that observations 



Inade upon it in the capital of Peru. 

So many persons daily flocked to the cell of this friar, as soon 
as the remedy became known, that in a short time the packet 
of Star-reed was consumed, and the father requested of me an- 
other packet, that he might distribute gratuitously, as be bad 



L-t 



\ 



\ 



m 



1 53 



t 



! 



sick 



the former, tins new and . efTicacious med 
On my departure from Lima for Sp 



ply Lad been already distributed 



odontalgic. 



a proof of its virt 



ong tlie 
•nd 5 ap- 
is as aii 



Lastl 



tlie bark of 



1 

I found tliat by frequently keep 



piece of 



Star-reed in the mouth, its pungency and fra 



grance prevented the perception of th 



bad 



11 and putrid 



d 



peculiar to the breath and perspiration of some person 



especially that odour which is perceived on 
and rooms of sick persons which are ill 



entering hospi- 

ntilated: there- 
fore this plant deserves to be recorded as one of the best vegetable 
medicines against foetid miasmata, and preferable to the roots 
of the Iris Florentina, Gins^er, Calamus aromaticus, Galan- 



gUy &c. and as an efficacious remedy by which 



P 



ect or remove the smell of bad breath 



may 



duced 



Peru were 



The effects pro- 
perienced in Madrid by several who 
used the Star-reed for the tooth-ache, keeping in the mouth a 
small piece of the bark, in which, as is the case with many roots 
and stalks, the virtue resides; because in the ligneous part, where 



there 



manifest j 



F 

the flavour peculiar to the bark is 



arcely perceived, after the latter has been well separated from 

it remains entirely 



s 



mortar till 



the former by pounding it 
clear from the ligneous part 
Some physicians of the court of Madrid, to whom the propertie 

virtues, and uses of the Star-reed in Peru were represented, hav 



already begun to administer the powder of 



bark in th 



^^ 



cases in which that of the Virginian Snake-root is prescribed, 
substituting for half an ounce of the latter two drachms of the 
former with two ounces of bark for opiates; and they assert that 

the bark of the Star-reed takes effect more promptly and forcibly 
than the Snake-root. 



o 



R 



cf 



< 



>x 



154 

The same gentlemen of the faculty ha^e atlmmistered thi 



med 



powder, without the addition of Per 



bark or 



other medicines, the dose being from half a drachm to a drachm 
and its effects have always answered expectation. 

' The Star-reed, like the Virginian Snake-root, belon 



as we 



h 



observed, to the genus 



Arlstolochia of Linnaeus; hence 



the resemblance of their properties and virtues cannot be doubted 
but the Star-reed has the advantage of a more fragrant, grateful 



and permanent odour, and of a more 



balsam 



and bitter flavour than the Snake 



quisite camphorous 
-root : it must there 



fore be more active in its effects 



all cases requiring the exhi 



bition of Snal 



and 



prefe 



consequently Star-reed is more estimabl 

the Snake-root in Materia Medica. 



In addition to tbese solid reasons, there 
powerful, for substituting 



th 



are others still more 
use of the Star-reed for that of 



Snake-root 
1. Becau 



th 



cuttings of 



stalks and roots of the Star 



gathered by the Indians, long^ thick, and with strongly 



reed, as 

marked characters, admit of 

founded with parts of other vegetables, as 

Snake-r 



nor can they be 

the case with the 



whicb being very slender can readily be mingled 



with those of many other plants having roots equally slendei 



and simi 

properti 



n 



m 



form and colour, though very different 



their 



2 



Because the thick bark peculiar to the stalks and 



of 



the Star-reed, is eas 
from the woody part 
most insipid and inert 



ly separated by twisting or breaking them 



hich like that of the Snak 



is al 



; and the whole bark may be reduced to 
powder alone, without any particle of the ligneous heart: this ope- 
ration is impracticable with the small roots of the Snake-root, 



t 



^ 



155 




4 

reasoQ of tlieir extreme tenuity; and for this reason tliey 



always ground with the ligneous part 

3. Because in Spain we seldom obtain the Snake-root 



<< 



condition 



it 



good 



commonly blackish, instead of a pale straw 



/ 



lour, full of earth and bits of the stalks, leaves, and 



of th 



ripe fruit 



plant; and, what is much worse, mingled with cuttings^ 



of forked stalks 
dicated to be of 



which by their fig 



seeds 



d 



all species of Euphoj^b 



with 



numerous 



d other unknown substai 



d 



multitude of littl 



oots of different plants, so 



—I 

tely entangled with those of 



th 



Snake 
mstani 



as to appear one and the same; from which 



it 



IS 



diffi 



from the spurious 



for physicians to distinguish the ge- 
n if they all, as it is to be hoped^ at- 
tend to the selecting and cleansing of them ; because they are 

or packages, broken. 



ommonly, when taken out of 



cases 



wi 



mixed 
or at le 

and f rag- 



earth and dust, and almost 



ways half decayed 



mostly deprived of that natural colour, fl 



perceptibl 



those which 



packed and 



carefully preserved. 

r 

4. Because merchants and druggists, who never attend as they 




ht to prevent their being damaged, to 



the cleansinic of the 



simpl 



hich they dispose of, at an arbitrary and exorbitant 



profit, not only to apotl 



b 



also to those who cannot 



discriminate, as they do, between the useful and beneficial and 
the useless and noxious, sell the 



Snak 



as well as most 



« 



ither vefi^etable drugs, in a broken and almost pulverized 



and with little roots and filaments* of other plants g 



o* 



imone- them, together with other spurious 



substance 



> # 



s 



and 



in 



this condition the medicine is administered to the sick by ^>ersons 



ignorant of phy 



not a few of whom often purchas 



druggists with the prescript 



of medical men. not 



i from 
lily it. 



S. 



) 



% 



i 



\m 



in common use. 



well 



otl 



but the otli( r simples 

r" 

componncls and preparations eitlier in lart^er or smaller quantitie 
■ Tlier6 is no other reason for these irregular sales and p 

are to be obtained cheaper fr 



■ 

chases. 



pt that 



druggists than from apothecaries 
who send them, not reflectinir that 

r 

some of them ill assoi 



the 



P 



o 



ted and in worse cond 



rated or oi debased qual 



•s, and thos( 
e not genuine 
others adulte 



i > 



pulverized Peruvian bark, and 



that of the worst quality, the damaged and deteriorated, which 



they 
all pulverized 



be sent in the natural state to the intelli^ 



to those whichjiave n^ltstringency or good 



colour are added portions of the very bitter bark of Calisaya 



and almost always bitter almonds 



away in d 



and that the colour and fl 



that they may not waste 



to suit the prejudice of the vul 
bark is the most efficacious : 



may be revived 



J- 



adicate from the ignorant multitude 



who think that the bitterest 
an error indeed very difficult to 



as many persons end 



of bark which 
merchant 



propagate it, for the purpose of vending the quantitie 



nfortunately have been 



troduced among us b\ 



Loxafina, Pa 



with the view of offering them cheaper than tho^e of 



legitima, Delgadilla, Anteada colorada, 

acknowledged 



and tliat of Calisaya, which have been hitherto 
as the most efficacious in med 

Purchasers also find extract of hark to be cheaper with the 
druggists than with the apothecaries ; but they are ignorant that 
it commonly contains one-third part of impurity, and is also 
burnt, and not of a proper consistency. Having all these defects, 
the current price of the Extract in commerce is three dollars a 
pound, and the merchants and druggists derive greater profit 
from this than from the well elaborated extract, which costs them 
eiglit or ten dollars a pound. 



y 



y 



-^ 



157 



The druggists are also 



opi um 

l)y thoi 
and to 



mixed 
e who 

give it 



stomed to sell t!i 



wi 



1 n portion 
k for the d 



tract of 



f 



gum arabic, which is added 



ggists, to 



gment its weight 



ght to have, and hence arises 



greater consistence and brilliancy than it 



1 - 

aflbrded by the dru 



tlie low price at which it 



IS 



■effects 



hieh the Faculty 



Such an Extract cannot prod 



the 



purchasers from the druggists 



^ 



pect, because neither they nor the 
can know the relative quantities 
of opium and of gum in each portion of such a mixture. 

Among the many articles which are usually bought from drug- 
gists by the uni ~ 



bl 



purification 



kilfiil. Opium is found without that indisp 

' ■ ' it requires when intended to be used 



ternally, by means of which phy 



m 



parate the quantity 



which it contains of wax, sand, earth, leaves, seeds, and other 



impurities added by the Asiatic factors for th 



sake of gain 



w 

And, to conclude this digression, they also vend Tau^r ^ju^^^. 
and other medicines, all prepared without careful attention 



and without the relative quantities of each 



gred 



pre 



scribed by the Pharmacopoeias ; and they are all dispatched em 
piricaily, without order, without method, and without the re- 

apothecaries : from all which 



sponsibility required fi 
abuses there must nec€ 



the 



which are sometimes attributed to the phy 
ragement of their reputation and interests. 



ly result continual disappointments 



to the disp 



\ 



I have in almost 



e ve r y 




pa rated from two to fi 



of earth and other impurities from each pound of Vir^r 



Snake-root 



O 



1 the present occasion I separated from four 
pounds of Snake-root which I purchased, twelve ounces of earth 
and six ounces oi various little roots, stick 



<lown^ moss, and numerous oth 
I .-ffive 



s, bits of straw, wool, 
spurious substances, which 



as evidence of the fact to this iHu^tmus Academj 



/ 



15S 



I also separated from the same four pounds of Snake-root, six 
ounces of the root itself black and putrid, like that in the pre- 
sent sample, which cannot in any way be used internally. 

i result of the examinations which I have repeatedly made 



The 

is, that in 



the 



Virginian Snake-root, a fourth part commonly 



ts of impurities 



d 



of some roots which, though very 



like the trenuine ones, belong to different plants, as well as of 

3, size, colour, and fla- 



t? 



other roots differing in thickness, shap 
vour, intimately interwoven with the others during their growth 
the properties of which are with difficulty ascertainable, thougl 
each specimen be individually subj ecte d tq_ a deliberate exami 
nation and analysis. ,^ 



1 




-^■^-JF 



F 



the 



-'^i^-r- 



_TTJ( 



order to 



d the evil consequences 



sultinc: to mankind from the use of roots so ill assorted and 
ditioned, it 



las 



t -ai 



ppeared to me highly important to present 
to this learned body a Memoir on the Star-reed, as preferable 
for medical use to the Virginian Snake-root, being a plant of 
the same genus, and more effica 



its 



because it 



admits no mixture 



th oth 



either naturally or artificially. 



d becau 



possess it in South America 



abundan 



that all Europe may be supplied with it, as soon as the com 



merce is established, and 



much lower 



price 



our own co- 



in order 



lonies than we pay to the English for the Snake-root ; 

that, if the Academy think fit, they may enjoin their members 



^ 



exami 
prod u ( 



d make the necessary experiments 



this vegetable 



and the virtues of the Star-reed being ascertained 

; Memorial in their 



by so illustrious a body, they may insert the 

Academical Transactions, and recommend its use in preference 

to that of the Virginian Snake-root. 

The approbation of the Royal Academy, should this paper de 

serve it, will serve as a compensation for my labour, and as th 



^' 



% 






/ 



« 



\ 



159 



-\ 



greatest stimulus to my perseverance, with 



I have hitherto used, and 



th 



le frankncsi- 
availing myself of any re^ 



men 



serves, as others have done to exalt unduly their 
secrets, in preparing and giving to the public dissertations on 
other new and valuable remedies ; such as the Extract of Bark, 
made in Peru by the simple and exact method which I ex- 



/ 



plained in my Quinolo 
trees, the use of which 



with the barks newly cut from the 
well as of the bark, has been admi- 



rably diffused throughout Europe since the publication of that 
treatise ; and they form at the present day two considerable 
branches of commerce, highly productive to the royal revenue 



and to Sp 
ful styptii 



the Root and Extract of the Ratanhi 



for 



restraining bloody A 



I, a power- 

xes in whatever way they 



originate, if the medicine be opportunely administered, and in 

■ 

proper doses ;* to give firmness to the teeth, and to consolidate 
relaxations and fractures ; through which efficacious virtues its 



use 



extending in all part 



d forms another branch of com 



merce sufficiently , important. The admirabl 



dy of the 



root of Yallhoi/ against dysentery, in which disorder it ope- 
rates with singular energy, as has been proved by experiments 
in Peru, as well as in the general hospital of this city by an 
individual of this Academy, and at the Society's expense; 

The remedy of the Calaguala, under which name have been 



^* I hare observed, tliat through want of skill with some persons in making- a Jecoction of 

F 

the roots of the Ratanhia, by depriring the dose prescribed in my dissertation of its extrac- 
tive part, the mediciae has sometimes failed of producing its effect so promptly as might 
be wished. 1 have also observed, that some of the Faculty having prescribed the Extract 
of the Ratanhia in small quantities, aud diluted in much wuter, it has not operated with 
the efficacy desired, especially in ui^nl cases ; in which the dose of the Extract, well 
elaborated, luust be one drachm, or the ei^hih of an ounce, re^>eated four or more times a 
clay, or every hour, as practitioners administer this remedy either in powder infused or boiled 
in water, or in the form of pills, when the patient or bis stomach cannot admit it in the other 
teodes. 



i 



/ 



/ 



100 



t\y sold 



yptogamous roots, species of 



and are ignorar 

the same p^eniis, and others wholly different, as, for instance, t] 



common Calasmala of commer 



» 



which is almost insipid 



d 



of little or no virtue : hence the 
and very bitter 



d virtue of th 



genuine 



plant of Peru have be^n unjustly depreciated 



and occasion has been given for various physicians 
l>oth for and against its sudorific and solvent propert 



to write 
es : that 



of the China I 



th an 



fusion or decocti 



of 



which, taken abundantly for some days, the Indians and oth 
tribes cure themselves of rheumatic pains, and obstinate inflan 
matory and herpetic affections; that of the Canchalagua, the 



fusion of which is frequently used for tempering, purifying 
attenuating the blood, for restoring the relaxed stomach 
tone, and for abating intermittent fevers 
of great use in j)ains in 



and 



sudorific also it 



the side without fever 



d finally the 



the 



Sargazo, a remedy against the scurvy. 
3Iay the present paper be useful to man'kind ! for that is 

reward to which I aspire. 

Although, for the admission of the Star-reed into medical use, 
the single fact was sufficient, of its being, like the Virginian 
Snake-root, a species of the genus Aristolochia of Linnaeus, and 



of possessing a frag 
ceptible in tlie 



and taste much surpassing those per 

proper, for tin 



Snake-lroot : I have 



thought 



greater satisfaction of phy 



to give some chemical expe 



riments on the Star-reed, in order to exhibit its component parts 
and the most important results for medical use, as follows: 



161 



V 




Chemical Analysis 



STAR - REED, 



tlie 



As no metliod has been hitherto devised for exactly and com 
pletely analysing vegetable substances, without exposinj? 



their 



constituent principles, during the manifestation, by fire or by fer- 
mentation, to various alterations, and consequently producing 
results and new combinations which did not previously exist in 
them, I have confined myself to the 
tlie Star-reed, because. 



following operations on 




for ascertaining the properties, virtues, 

and uses of this new species oi Aristolochia, they appear to be 
adequate, and have the least tendency to the destruction or de- 
composition of their principles. 

1. In an ounce of pure alcohol I infused for three days twelve 
grains of powders of the bark of Star-reed, agitating it repeatedly, 
in order that the liquor might more easily extract from the pow- 
ders the substances soluble in it. The alcohol became in a short 
time tinged with a beautiful gold colour, without acquiring any 
perceptible smell or taste ; but a little 

distilled water, a milky mixture was produced, having the 
fr agr a nee 



of it being diluted in 



and bitter taste of the bark, and thus indicating 
that the bark contained much camphorous resino-balsamic and 
extractive substance. The alcohol dissolved six grains, and the 
other six of the residuum remained without odour and tasteless. 
I infused these for eight days in an ounce of distilled water ; it as- 

w 

,sumed no tinge, but in a short time afterwards became light blue, 
and remained so for eight days without perceptible fragrance or 
taste ; a certain proof that the alcohol had dissolved all the 

extractive, colouring, camphorous, and resino-balsamic part of 

2 T 



^ * 



1G2 



the powders, and that only a 



ttl 



ty had 



ed 



tlie residuum, which imparted the light bhie colour to tlie 



water. T 



h 



in tlie water, and ther 



)wever, of the residuum were dissolved 

w 

remained insoluble in the two fluids 
three of the twelve grains of pulverized bark which I had origi- 
nally infused. 

' 2. I placed other twelv^e grains of the powders in a cold in- 
fusion in an ounce of distilled water for forty-eight hours ; it 
was tinged of a dull yellow colour, and the liquor and residuum 



-> 



possessed the smell and taste of the bark, though in, a less 
active de£>ree than had been emitted from the diluted alcohol in 



the former operation. With carbonate of potash, the filtered 
infusion was raised to a clear gold colour, but less beautiful 
than the tincture in the alcohol. With sulphate of iron it im- 
mediately became turbid, and formed a greyish precipitate ; thus^ 



manifesting that the bark contains, though in a very small quan 

or the astringent principle. The water dis 



V 



tity, gallic acid, 

solved five grains, and the seven grains of the residuum 



I 



m 



fused in half an ounce of pure alcohol, which became immediately 
tinged, and in a few hours acquired a gold colour almost equal 
to that of the first infusion in alcohol: when diluted in distilled 
water, the mixture became turbid, as in the first experiment 
presenting the fragrance and bitter taste of the bark. The 
alcohol dissolved four grains of camphorous, resinous colour- 
ing and extractive substance ; and there remained three grains 

From these 



L- 



of residuum from the twelve grains of bark infused. 

operations the result is, that in both fluids nine parts out of twelve 

are dissolved, and three remain insoluble. 

3. In an ounce and a half of alcohol I infused for three days 
forty-eight grains of pulverized bark of the Star-reed, and the 
liquor acquired a reddish obscure tinge : when diluted in water 



/ 



V 



/ 



103 



■ 

tlie mixture became entirely milky, having the fragrance and 



/ 



^ 



ery b 



fla\ 



the bark 



derable por 



an evident proof 
of resinous substa 



the bark 



and 



JJ 



forniably to the results of the anterior operations, it may be 



eulated tliat tlie bark of 



of 



Pl 



d 



Star-reed coi 
balsamic sub 



tain 



sixth 



pai 



t 



extractive substa 



Th 



tincf 



itancf, aiTd ^^ parts of 
diluted in common water. 



produces a very bitter flavour, but not ungrateful or repugnant 
to the palate; and as soon as taken into 



frag 



m into the stomach it pro 
piration, and excites eructations with very remark abL 



4. I infused twelve grains of 



ese 



po^\ 



in announce of 



d or distilled vinegar: after some hours the liquor began to 
very clear gold tinge, the fragrance was faint, and there 



bitter flavour perceptible. The acid dissolved one g 



of the powders, the other eleven grains remaining insolubl 
fused a 

acid no 



I 



sixth part of the pulverized bark in six parts of acetic 
distilled; and by means of distillation in a retort, after 

airrance, not 



six days, a vinegar was obtained of very grateful frag:rance 
at all resembling the vinegars of other vegetable substances 



5. For th 



space of forty hours I infused in t\A enty 



f 



/ 



tilled water, half an ounce of pulverized bark of the Stai 



reed 



1 placed it for distill 



[1 a gl: 

At th 



tubul 



receiver over a moderate fire. 

distillation, I perceived that every time 



nen cement of 
topper of the 



re- 



ed, there was 



a 



panied by the fi 



of the bark 



ght evolution of gas, acco 
; this fragrance increased 



the 



proceeded. Having distilled about 



I suspended the operation, and when the vessels were cold trans- 
ferred the distilled liquor to two phials, in which manipnlatiori 



certain white slender film, like cobweb, wh 



floated on the 



up. 



164 



T ' 



31quor, separated into wLite particles or flakes, siicli as are formed 
wljen camplior dissolved in the sun is poured upon water. In 
one of the pliials which I kept closed and at rest for more than 
two months, the liquor remained clear, its fragrance unaltered, 
and the floating particles entire as on the day when the liquor 
was put into the phial. In the other, which I frequently 
unclosed and shook gently to observe the substance of the flakes 
and the fragrance^ they both diminished gradually and slowly, 
the liquor still remaining clear, and only becoming rather turbid 

when the phial was gently shaken ; but as soon as the larger flakes 
ascended to the surface o^Jiie water, and the smaller ones by their 
greater tenuity descended, the liquor again became clear. It is 
to be inferred from this result, that in the bark of the Star-reed 

"1 

there is a considerable portion of a concrete camphorous sub- 



stance or essential oil, which floats on the surface of water, and 
which cannot beheld in solution. 

L 

6. Having filtered the liquor remaining in the retort after 
the preceding operation, and evaporated it to the consis- 
tence of honey, I placed it in the sun under a glass, where it 
assumed the solid consistence of pure extract in small crystals 
x>f various facets, brilliant and transparent, much resembling in 
colour and consistence the resin of jalap, and having a bitter 

acrid taste with little fragrance. The quantity of very pure ex 

tract was forty-eight grains. In the residuum there remained a 
hundred and eight, so that in distillation the half ounce of the 
powders lost in weight a hundred and thirty-two grains. We 

■ 

must infer that a part of this quantity combined with the water, 
part floated in the form of a camphorous substance, and part 
was dissipated in gas. The remainder was without taste or smell, 
the colour of the powders having varied little, and become 
somewhat paler. 



^, 



1 






/ 







km 



7. I infused half 



ounce of the pulverized bark in thirty 



two ounces of very hot water for the space of 



took 



ff 



liquoi 



which was well tinned 



liours ; I then 
d put to the 



remaining powders the same quantity of boiling water for tl 
same ; 



pace 



f time 



shaking it 



ally 



d Wh 



it 



had settled, I separated the second infusion, wh 



more 



slightly tinged than the form 
poured sixteen ounces of 
more frequently than the two precedin 
was not at all coloured. 



was mucb 

On the residue I 

hot water, and thouah I shook it 

J water 



J- 

infus 



ions, 



th 



cold, and 



I filtered the three liq 



he 



porated them to the 



afterwards in the sun under a 



sistency of honey 



d 



Th 




to a solid 



-\ J 



onsistency 



ulted forty-three grains of pure dry extract, having all 



the characters of that produced by the sixth operation. The 



sidue weighed tw 



drachms and a half, having 



ght bit 



V 



ter taste with very little smell. The original half ounce 

powders lost sixty-five grains of its weight. 
8. In twelve ounces of pure alcohol I infused for ten days ii 
glass vessel, two ounces of the pulverized bark, and on shak 



of 



a 



^ 



ing it repeatedly a beautiful and rather lively reddish tint 
was produced, which after filtration was finely transparent, and 
of a inuch brighter colour than the tincture of amber. The resi- 

was clearer than the powders before infusion, with a 



duum wa 
ter taste 



d 



ery 1 



sm 



ell. 




a bit- 
infused this residuum in 



an 



qual quantity of alcohol, which assumed a pretty strong 



tinge; but when poured 



water it did not become turbid 



manifest 



slightest resinous or milky appearance, lik 



that 



of the first infusion, a few drops of which immediately imparted 

of distilled water ; a proof that the 

resinous part, and the second was 



this milk 



first alcohol dissolved all the 



2 



V' 




I 

• 



^ 



**fc 



r-^ 



16G 



/ 



J- 

tinctured witli tlie colouring- and extractive part which tiie iormer 
had not completely dissolved, being already well saturated. 

V 

9. 1 placed half an ounce of the powdered bark to burn in a cru- 
cible, and it yielded thirteen grains of greyish ashes well charged 
with potash, which immediately manifested itself by pouring 
to a grain of the ashes, diluted sulphuric acid; a considerable 
effervescence was produced each time that the operation was re 
peated. From half an ounce of the ligneous part of the Star- 
reed, also burnt in a crucible, there resulted nine grains of ashes 

with potash, perceptible by the ef- 



less irrey 



o 



but also char^-ed 



fervescence produced by the same acid. 

10. In order to ascertain the quantities of pyrol igneous acid 
and empyreumatic oil contained in the bark of the Star-reed, 
I placed for distillation half an ounce of the powder in a small 
retort. There remained in the retort tAVo drachms of carbon 

^ 

quite black ; in the tubular receiver I found two scruples of 
empyreumatic oil, thick and of a black reddish colour ; and 

a drachm of pyroligneous acid of a pale colour, inclining to that 

the form 

Some 



V. 



About the weight of a scruple escaped in 



of honey. 

of gas through the tube or the stopper of the receiver. 



4 

drops of the pyroligneous acid being" placed in half an ounce 



^. 



^r, 



of blue tinctiire of flowers of mallows, the fluid immediately be- 
came red, as is the case with sulphuric acid ; but the lively co- 
lour gradually faded into that of white wine. I repeated five 
times the addition of the tincture of mallows to the liqnor whick 

t- 

had lost its red colour, and eiach time it again became red, with 
the ditference of alterini? and losing colour more readily on the 
second additioii, and so progressively in the succeeding ones, and 
the liquor contained in the glass remained of a bay colour, each 
time becoming darker. In another glass I put an equal quan- 
tity of the same tincture of flotvers of mallows, which having 



ir-'^ 



167 



become red by the addition of a few drops of pyroligiieons acid, as- 
sumed a beautiful green, on the addition of carbonate of potash ; 
but in a short time it lost this green colour, as the red had dis- 
appeared in the former operations, and subsided into the colour 
of mead or white wine. 

I' 

From these chemical products it must be inferred that the virtues 
of the Star-reed reside in the extractive resinous and aromatico- 
camphorous properties ; and from this conclusion it appears to me. 



at to make proper medical 



of 



medi 



S 



* 

pie prepav 



or formulas will be 



the present ; meantime skillful physicians may 

others. more appropriate. 




le, the fol- 
fficient for 

them, ore 



■_ ^ 



FORMULAS ; 



OR 



t * 



SI a 



«.! 



PHARMACEUTIC PREPARATIONS FOR THE USE OF THE 

STAR-REED. 



Powders of the Star-reed, 
Take any quantity of Star-reed, break it sufficiently to sepa- 

s may be separated as 



r^" 



th 



^ate the bark from the woody part 

useless in the present preparation, or may be laid 

purpose of preservin 



for 



the little extract whi«h it contains 



Re 



duce the bark to a fine powder, and preserve it, in a glass vessel 
well stopped, for use when required. 

The reirular dose is from half a scruple to half a drachm, in- 
stead of a drachm and a half of pulverized Virginian Snake-root 

well assorted and conditioned, and it will produce better effects. 



\ 



J 



\ 



V 



168 



/ 



Jnfr 



Takeoftlie Star 



on of the fitar-reed 

d well bruised •» •• •• 



half 



Gominon water, boiling •• twelve oi 

Infuse in a vessel well-stopped for three hours, shaTi 
peat^dly. Strain it when cold through a Hneh cloth. 



t re 



It will serve for two d 



■rs 



Decoction of the Star-ree(!. 

Take of Star-reed well bruised half 

Common water 



-eighteen ounces 

boil gently for half an h 
take it from the fire, and when cold strain it throuffh linen. 



Place in a well-closed 




It will do for two doses 



t 



i 



I 

Essential Water of Star-reed, 

Take of Star-reed 'well bruised •• •• 4 ounces. 

Common alcohol ■• •• - .. •• 6 ounces 

Common water '• •• •• •• •• •• .. .. * ^••- 6 pints: 

Infuse in a vessel for three days ; distill to one half in a retort 

^ 

with a tubular receiver to give passage to the gases, and with 
a moderate fire. When cold, put the distilled liquor into a 
^well-stopped flasTi, and reserve it for use. 

This water is preferable to that of the simple camphorated 
Melissa, and to other palliative Temedies usually administered 
against flatulency and hysterics, on account of the greater tjor- 
tiort of camphorous substance \vhich it holds in solution by 
means of the alcohol, which is wanting in Melissa, and also 
on account of the resi no-balsamic substance with which it is ira^- 
pregnated, and which is likewise wanting in Melissa, 
^ Jhe dose m one ounce. 

■ 

V 

L 

r 
^^^^^ 

r 

m 

t 

-f 

L 

I 

^ 

4 




169 



t: 



Tal 



yf Star-reed. 



V 
1 



Star-reed well bruised 



Common water, boiling g 



1 pohnd 



pint 



Infuse for two hours in a suitable matrass or vessel, shaking it 
repeatedly. Leave it to settle, and when cold pour off the liquor: 

to the residuum add boiling water four pints. 
Shake, and proceed alto2:ether as befo 



and 



add 



I 



If 



the 



pints of boiling water, 
third quantity of water comes 



ff 



tured 



opei 



colour. 



til the water is withdrawn without taste 



peat 



or 



Hr 



Unite the liquo 

r I 

[id, let them h 



and having filtered tliem through pap 



■-»-'■ 



evapoiated 



part acquires 



solid 



the consistency of honey ; then transfer the extract to a dish, and 
the solar heat, era stove, will reduce it, to 
which may be ascertained by pulverizing a littl 
mortar, or rubbins: it between the finjrers. 



of it in a gl 



y 



In this state it may 



^ 



be wrapped in paper and preserved for use. 

' The dose is from ten to eighteen grains. 
It may be administered in pills, or dissolved in boiling water 



as 



must be done with all vegetable extracts, that they may 



b 



V 



veil dissolved 



^ 



Essence or Tincture of Star-reed 
Take of the pulverized bark o{ Star-reed •• • 

Pure alcohol •• •• - 



4 

2 ounces, 

17 ounces 



Infuse for eight days in a matrass, shaking it from time to time, 
that the whole tincture may be the more effectually extracted 
by the alcohol. Filter, and keep for use in a glass vessel well 
stopped. 

This beautiful essence is a digestive and corroborant stomachic, 

2x- 



; 



170 



of admirable use against flatulency; it promotes digestion 



and 



general causes eructation for sometime. 

Put for eacli dose, in a tumbler of common water, from twelv 



to forty drops, as the case may require. 

This medicine may be kept iu store, for domestic 
of Carmelite Water, or other tinctures or elixirs. 



instead 



. ,t 



Vineoar of the Star-reed: 



"T^ 



Take of the Star-reed well bruised 



18 ounces. 



■- F 

Acetic acid or common vinegar, very s tron g •• 9 pints ^ 

istil in a retort with a 




Infuse for four days in a glass flas 

tubular receiver^ to two- thirds; keep it well stopped in glass 

vessels for use. 

L 

r 

' It is an excellent preservative against putrid miasmata, and 
by its fragrance neutralizes the bad smells of hospitals and rooms 
ill ventilated. 



V 



r * 



f 



Compound Vinegar of Star-reed. 
Take Star-reed well braised- •• • -S 

* 

Heads of lavender and thyme, each •• 



• •♦ 



Acetic acid 



6 ounc 
9 pints 



receiver^ 



Infuse for four days in a glass vessel with a tubular 

to two-thirds, and keep it in phials well stopped for use. 

It answers the same purposes as the former, and when diluted 
in a sufficient quantity of common water, serves to 'refresh and 
wash the hands and face, especially in hot weather, and, on a 



s^ 



journey, to remove from th 



ski 



the tan, caused by the air 



and 



sun. 



^T^ 



X 



/' 



/ 



« * 



171 



\ 



*^- 



Characters peculiar to the cuttings of the Stalks and Roots of 



the Star-reed wh 



good condition 



r 

Length-^k^ the Indians,^ in order to preserve the roots and 
the lower and useful part of the stalks of the Star-reed, are ac- 
customed to cut them in pieces of various sizes without attend- 
ing to any fixed standard, the length of the cuttings, varying 
from nine to eighteen inches, is no certain character : neither is 
thdr fcrooke(inۤrbf some of them, since others are more or less 
-straight. , 




Thickness — As there are stalks and roots from 



one to eight 



inches in circumference, the thickness is no exact criterion of 
distinction. - . , ^ ^ , 




J 

Surface— AY \\e\i the stalk and roots are well nourished, the 
Surface is more or less smooth, and free from the scurf or fissures 
with which the stalk is covered when it has not attained its due 
maturity, and from the- furrows and wrinkles that are formed 
^fter drying, when they have been untimely gathered. The 
bark within is full Of wrinkles impressed on it by the layers of 
the ligneous heart. "When the stalks are very old, they are covered 
with wrinkles and a shrivelled substance wholly useless. 



Outside, or exterior colour^^Ash~^rey and earthy, imifi>riji 



tliroughout its 1 



v'" H 



# • -^* 



> 



Interior colour — On the two ends or sections of each piece the 



bark 



more 



or less of a whitish ash col 



and the heart of 



a pale straw colour ; though the interior of the bark, through- 
out its length, is greyish brown inclining to purple, and the heart 
or ligneous part between livid and dark grey. 

Consistence — very ccirpact and solid in the bark, and spongy 



^ 



.?■ 



n^ 



^ 



172 



in tlie fi^neous tieart ; from which the former separates easily om 



twistinc^ tlie piece 



; and the heart remj 
posed of a multitude of layers or 1 



twisted like a cord 
tiidinal sections, in 



laid 



ly with each other, so that a tr 



section 



presents the figure of a star, or a wheel of many rad 



Solidity — from one 



to fo 



1 



in 



prop 01 



as the bark is 



thick 



well seasoned harks 

pact, frangible 



d 
d 



separable from tlie ligneous body, in respect to the thickness of 
tlie cuttings will those cuttings be valuable^ because in this case 
they have been gathered in the right season : but if the bark be 
thin, furry, wrinkled will 
lieartT 



aft^hnof^asily separable from 



the cTiltings will have been from tender and unripe stalks 
and for this reason there will not be the same fragrance and bit 



the others 



d^ the virtue will be less effi 



In the interstices of the layers of the heart, there is a sub- 
stance of the nature of bark, though in small quantity, which is 
with difficulty disengaged on pounding the woody part well, but 
it remains almost wholly reduced to powder. 



^ 



Cutting 



Tl 



bark from its solidity cuts every whe 



without leaving rough edg 



or 



qual 



th 



hea 



alik 
bein 



\ 



cr. 



woody and laminous, cuts always unequally. 

TFeig-^— Well-grown and seasoned pieces are rather heavy in: 
proportion to their thickness ; on the contrary, the ill-seasoned 



r*' 



very light. 



Ji 



extractive, resinous, concrete, abundant throughout 



►,^ 



bark, forming with it a solid paste with brilliant points 
ficiently distinguishable on examining the cutting with a sc 



f 



reflecting microscope.. 

Smell — very fragrant, grateful, camphorous, 
much more active than that of the Virginian Snake-root 



and balsamic 



173 



Taste^dit first sweetisl 



stimulant 



but afterwards becoming very bitter 



ammy, aromatico-bal 



conformable to its de 



li^htful odour 




DESCRIPTIO BOTANICA 



CLASSIS XX 




GYNANDRIA HEXANDRIA. 



y 



ARISTOLOCHTA pragrantissima. 

A. foliis cordatis acuminatis mitibus, caule fruticoso scandente, 
pedunculis l-3nis unifloris brevibus. Flor. Per. et Chil. edend, 
Planta — fruticosa, scandens. 

Radix — fusiformis, perpendicularis, longissima, usque ad sex 
pollices crassitudine, inferne ramoso-fi brosa, cinereo-fusca. 
tex a linea ad quatuor lineas crassus. Parenchyma transverse 
sectum in stellae formam radiatum, albidum, post exsiceationem 
fuscum, funiculiforme, in plurimas lamellas flexibiles longitudi- 
naliter scissile. 



Cor 



Caules 3-6 



radice, ad arborum summitates scandendo 



surgentes, aut procumbentes, valde diffusi^ teretes, fl 

pollict 

nudi ; 

radice. 



ixuosi, 3-8 
s crassi, fusco-ferruginei ; inferne magis minusve ramosi, 

J 

superne ramosi, striati. Cortex et Parenchyma, ut in 



Rami — Ion 



mj" 



teretes, striati, pubescentes, mites, tandem 



lanug 



2 Y 



* 



i 



174 



V 



f 

Folia-— aUemay remota, longe petiolata, deflexa, cordata, acu- 
mine longo acuto, integerrima, membranacea, veposissima ; 
supra glabra, asperiuscula ; subtus reticulata, pubescentia, 
mitia, aliquando subferruginea ; 2-3-palmaria, latitudine sesqui- 

palmari. 

Pe//o/i— foliis triple breviores, teretes, striati, contorti, fusco- 

ierruginei. 
Pe dtincul I— ^axiWares, gemini, solitarii ternique, uniflori, teretes, 

petiolis quadruple breviores. 

yillosa, tubulosa: 



Corolla — fiisco-rosea, bipollicari 

basi ventricosa, obtuse 





^^ 



ona. Tubus teres, superne sensim 



ampliatus. Limhus obliquus, lingulatus, apice reflexo. 
Anthercp — lutege, oblongae. 
Capsula — oblonga^ obtuso-sexangularis. 
Habitat — copiose m Peru viae Andium nemoribus, ad Pozuzo, 

T 

Monzon, Chicoplaya, Tulumayu, et Huallaba. 

Floret — in Januario et Februario Limae, quo a me translatae 
etcultse fueruntnonnullge plantaejuniores. 

Vernacule — Bejuco de la Estrella et Contrayerha de Bejuco 
audit. 

Observ. — Tndi Caules, qui funiculorum formam, si a cortice 
spoliantur, referunt, ad crassas restes conficiendas adhibent, et ex 
ipsis pontium funes construunt; quin etiara tuguriorum trabes 
totamque compagem vinciunt, firmantque cum praedictis caulibus, 
quos incolsB vernacule Bejucos nuncupant, ubi ceteras quoque 
plantas scandentes, aut volubiles ; quas tamen singulas aliquo 
semper appellative nomine insigniunt. 



\ . 



- 






- 


y 




"1 

r 


1 


/ 

/ 


^ 
T 


f 

f 

1 


■ 


1 

h 










t- 












ri- 


w 


f-^ _ 




J 




^ 


r 




\ 




4 




\ 




t 


-^ 








- 


J- 


I, 
1 


i 




r 



N" 



N. 



i- 



r 



^ 



175 



DESCRIPTION. 



CLASS XX. 



GYNANDRIA HEXANDRIA. 



i' 



\ 



ARISTOLOCHIA fragrantissima. 

A. leaves cordate pointed smooth, stem shrubby scandeiil 
peduncles 1-3 short 1-flowered. FL Peruv. et ChiL edend. 

P/aw^— climbing, shrubby. 
Root — fusiform, perpendicular. 



very long, about six inches 



thick, furnished at the base with branching fibres; of a grey ash 



-* 



colour 



Bark — firm, from one to four 



thick, the centre, wh 



transversely cut, radiated, whitish, and, after drying, grey, and of 

splitting longitudinally into flexible la- 



/- 



of 



cord 



the ^, 

mellee 

Stems — three to six from each root, climbing up trees, or, whei 
wanting support, spreading along the ground, round, flexaose 



from three to 



ght inches thick, grey or ferrugi 



naked 



less fissured below ; striated and branched above, with 



J- 



the heart and bark as in the root. 

, Branches— '\exy long, round, striated, 
at the extremities. 





scent, and woolly 



Leav.es — alternate, remote, on long footstalks, deflexed, cor- 
date, acuminate, smooth, thin, veined, naked above, roughish 
and reticulated beneath; soft and pubescent, sometimes ferru- 
glneous; from two to three hands long, and one and a half 
broad. 

Petioles — one-third the length of the leaves, thick, striated, 
twisted, of a brownish ferrugineous colour. 



fi 



I 







N 



/ 



170 



Peduncles 



llary in pairs 



r 

sometimes three, 1-flowered 



round, one-fourth the length of the petioles. 

Coro//«— reddish brown, two inches long, downy within, tu- 
bular, ventricose at the base, and obtusely hexagonal ; tube 
round, widening gradually above, limb or border oblique, tongue- 
shaped, apex reflexed. 

Anther CE — ^long and yellow. 

Capsule — oblong, obtusely six-sided. 

Grow*— spontaneously and abundantly in the Andes of Peru 



Monzon, Chicoplaya,^ Tulumay 



and 




in the woods of PozuzOj 

the banks of the famou 

1 

Flowers^in January and February at Lima, whither T trans- 
planted and cultivated some young plants. 

Vulgarly known in those mountains and at Lima by the name 
of Star-reed and Contrayerva de Bejuco. 

Oh serv .—The stalks, resembling cords when stripped of the 
bark, are used by the Indians for making thick ropes, and for 
forming traces and hand-rails to bridges ; they also tie and in- 
terlace the posts and beams of their dwellings with these stalks, 
called by those tribes bejucos, in common with every climbing or 
voluble plant, though they are each distinguished by some appeU 
lative name. 



^ 



\ 




EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 




\ 



I 

L 

1. Root. 2. Transverse sectioij of the base of the stems. 3. Centre of the stem stripped 
of its bark. 4. Branch. 5, Iloweis. 6, Flower longitudinally cut. "t. Stamens and 
pisfil. 8. Capsule closed. 



"\ 



177 



1^ 



> 



V. 



AN ACCOPNT OF 



VALERIANA JATAMANSI. 



THE SPIKENARD OP THE ANCIENTS 




_V 



It 



J 

long been a desideratum among the moderns, to know 



to what order and gen 



the plant belongs, which produced the 



Spikenard of the ancients. We are indebted to that learned Orien 



tal 



the late Sir William Jones, for having first pointed it 



satisfactorily ; although he confounded with 



^ 



totally distin 



^rV J" 



d from which he has taken his botan 



nother species 



ical de- 
scription and figure. This mistake arose from his not having 

received perfect specimens himself; but trusting wholly to the ac- 

and drawing given him by a friend, who was entirely un- 



versed in botany, and who therefore could not be 
to distiiiguish accurately two plants of the same 



upposed 
The Jfl- 



Jatamangsi he] on s^^GT tYie 



genus Valeriana, and 



sembles in several respects the Celtic Nard, Valeriana CelHca Linn. 

_ ( 

The plant is perennial and caespitose. The roots are simple, per- 
pendicular, from four to six inches lone: : the upper half is very 



thickly covered with the reticulated remains of past leaves, resem 



bling the hair of an animal 



w 

the lower half is destitute of Ih 
2z 



N 




/ 




but is fnrnislifid sviih many short fibres which link them together 
Tlieir thickness varies: at the top they are generally that of one'? 

b 

finger, but taper gradually towards the base, and altogether re- 
semble the tail of some aiii^mals. The radical leaves are long, 

r 

nerved, somewhat" coriaceous^ very entire. 



lanceol 



acute 



slightly pubescent, of a lively green cole 



The stalks are sol 



tary, arising 



from the centre of the leaves, varying from four to 
six inches in height,^ although they sometimes attain a foot ; they 
are erect, very simple, cylindrical, furnished always, whatever 
their height may be, with two pair of leaves, pubescent, espe- 
cially tovs^ards the top and leaves. 



of nearly the same shape -sts 




Stem leaves opposite 



but much shorter 



especially the uppermost pair: at the base they unite into a short 
sheath. The flowers are purple, eollected into a crowded ter- 
Ininal cluster. The smell of the "roots is peculiar to the genus, 
but more especially to Valeriana Celtica and officinalis ; that of 



however, be considered as possessing 



th^ 



the Jatamansi may, 
most agreeable of any. This smell, which to many would liot, 
perhaps, prove grateful, has led some to doubt its being the 
Spikenard of the ancients. My learned friend Dr. Francis Ha- 
milton, in his account of Nepal, has expressed some doubts on 



the subject; but he says, " As there can be no disputing about 
taste, I cannot take upon myself to say how far the encomiums 
beistowed on the Spikenard are applicable to this Valerian ; 
and the native women, no doubt, consider the smell very agree- 
able, because most of such as can afibrd it, use oil impregnated 
with this root for perfuming their hair. All I can say is, that, 
if this root was the Spikenard of the Roman ladies, their lovers 
must have had a very different taste froni the youth of modern 
Europe." Notwithstanding the objections that might be raised 



> 



V 



v-- 



ru 



179 



against the Jatamansi oh tlie ground that the perfume produced 

its roots, would hot prove, perhaps, so grateful to our mo- 

dern ladies, yet to the ladies of ancient Rome it might Jiave 
been 




highly 



grateful, as it is to those of Nepal at the pre 
sent day. The late Sir William Jones, in two learned disserta 
tions published in the second and fourth volumes of the Trans 
actions of the Asiatic Society, of which he was the able pre 



sident, has, indeed, so fully demonstrated, by so many proofs. 



that the Valeriana Jatamansi is identical with the Spikenard of 

the ancients, and this opinion is supported by so many con- 

'Curring circumstances, that there can, I think, be uo doubt now 
left on the subject. 

The Valeriana Hardwickii, with w 




iJIiam Jones 



confounded it, has short fleshy roots sending out numerous cy 
lindrical fibres. The radical leaves are cordate on long petioles 
those of tlie stem pinnate or tern ate. The flowers panicled, triah 



drous. Filaments and thi 



of the corolla quite smooth 



Th 



stigma 3-lobed. In other respects it difl^ers widely. The roots 



have a strong scent like those of the common Valerian, and, as 



we are informed by Dr. Wallich 



Roxburgh's Flora Indica 



\ 



sed by the natives of Nepal for medical purposes. I have 



the satisfaction of presenting to the public a very accurate figure 
of the whole plant, taken from fine. Nepalese specimens sent to 
me by my excellent friend Dr. Wallich, the worthy and indefa- 



able superintendant of theXJalcuttaTBotanic Garden 



Ih 



likewise, given 



the 




a 



represe 



formerly sold in the Lond 



shop 



of the Spikenard 
hich. after severa 



years search, 1 was fortunate to meet with in the shop of the 
late Mr. Godfrey, chemist, in Southampton Street. It will be 



h 



ilv the tv\ 



roots coincide. 1 shall now conclude 



/ 



180 



this short account, by adding a v^ery accurate description of the 
plant by Mr. David Don, from his manuscript Prodromus Florm 
NepalensiSy in which he has described the greatest part of the 
Nepal plants sent to me by my friend Dr. Wallidi. 



TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 





ALERiAxXA De Cand. 

> 

* 

Valerianae Species. Linn, 



1. V. Jatamansiy floribus fasciculatis tetrandris, corollas fauce 
barbata, ovariis tomentosis, stigmate simplici capitato, foliis lan- 
ceolatis acutis integerrimis pubescentibus ; radicalibus petiolatis; 
caulinis sessilibus. D. Don, Mss, 

V. Jafamansh Jones in Act. Sac. Asiai. 2. p. 405, et 4. p. lOa 

IS. de-* 



\ 



Roxh. ihid. 451. V. Si 



Vahl. Enum. 1. p. 13, (excl 



scriptionibus omnino, quae potiiis ad V. Hardwickii spectant.) 

Habitat — in Bootaniae et Nepal ii£ Alp ibus. %. (V. S.) 

Planta perennis, ccespitosa — Radices fusiformes, longae, eras 

tudine variantes, saepiiisfere digiti ; parte superiore rudimentisi 

tiformibus foliorum emarcidorum densissime tecta ; inferiore fib 



brevibus instructa : fig 



ad caudas aliquorum anima 



lium spectans. Ctfu/e* erecti, simplicissimi, cylindracei, fistulosi 
pube brevi juxta folia et versus apicem dehsiore undique suppediti 
'Folia radicalia plerumque elongato-lanceolata, rarissime ellip 



> 



L 



■m--" 



181 



tica. acuta 



tegerrima, coriacea, 5-6 



basi in pettoTiimi 



attenuata, utrinque sub oculis armatis leviter pubescentia 
sessilia, opposita : basi in vaginam brevissiuiam juncta ; 



ima 



dicalibus conformi 

Flores terminales 



suprema multo breviora saepissim^ ovata 



tomen to 



Den tes 



glomerati, purp 



Pedicelli ovariisque 



caly 



brevissimi, trianirulares, liirsut 



o 



CorolloB tubo ampliato : limbo inaequali, 5-lobo : fauce villis 



\ 



clau 
gior 



Stamina 4, exserta ; filamenta barbata. Stylus iis 1 



Stigma simplex capitatum 



Pappus b 



facile cad 



Gus.. D. D 



Mss 





EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 




t. Whole plant, natural size. 

2. A specimea of the Spikenard root formerly sold in the London shops* 

3. Corolla magnified^ shewing the stamens. 

4. Calyx. M'ith the pistil; beneath are the bracteoid scales. 



I 



w 



THE ETSD. 




_E -^ 




_> 



3A^ 



^, 



A . 



r . n 



4 



r 

t 



■ ' 



■-' 



■r t 



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r > 



H 



r . 



J 






k F 



^' 



-^ 



^ ^ 



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^L *" 



«.^ 



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It 



^^ , 



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it- 




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# 




rRINT£X) BY R. WItKS, CHANCERY LAWE 



/