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With All 100 of the Plates 
RAFINESQUE, Constantine S. Medi- 
cal Flora; or, Manual of the Medical 
Botany of the United States of North 
America. . . 100 Full-Page Woodcuts, 
printed in Green. 2 vols., 12Tno, contemp. 
inottlcd sheep (worn), leather labels. 

Phila., 1828-30, FIRST EDITION. 
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One of Raf'nesque's most important -.vorks 
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mSTORT, &C. : AND NOTI|^ ( 


IN TWO jfl) 






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Meuical Plants 

nd Medicines prepared by the hands of 
', ^c— Med. Princ. 3L 



Ex-Prpf. of BoWi^SratOTal 'History, &c. in Transylv. University of Lex- 

iflgtoij the Frankliu Institute of Philadelphia, &c. 

Member of the Medical Societies of Cincinnati and L€X%ngtonr^t)u 
PkiJos, Soc. and Lyceum af New York—the Acad, of Nat, Sc. of 
Phi^adelpMor—the Amer, Antiq, Society— -the Kentucky Institute— ths 
Unnean Soc, qf Paris— the Imp. Nat. Cur, Soc. of Bonn.— the Imp. 
Eeanomical Soc. of Vienna—the R, Italian InsU—the K Inst. </ 
Nat. Sc. of Naplesj 4-c. ^c- 




No, Ml Chesnut Street, 




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JSa$tedi Dhtrict^f Pennsylvania, to -wit: 

EE^IT REMEMBFRED, tliat on the eleventh day 
of JannaVy, in the fifty-second year of the Independence 
of the United States of America^ A. D. 1828, Atkinson 
and Alexander of the said Dialrict, have deposited in 
this office the Title of a Book the right whereof thej 
claim as Proprietors, in the wonls following;, to wit: 

Medical Flora; or. Manual of the Medical Botany of the United Slates 
of America. Containing A. selection of above one hundred figures and 
flescriptlnns of n^.edical 'plants, vith their names, qualities, properties, 
history, &cc. : and notes or remarks on nearly five hundred equivalent 

substitutes. — In two volumes. * ^ 


Volume the first, A \f. with fifty-two Plates. 

Medical Plants are compound medicine^ prepared by the hands of Nature, Sc€> 

. Med. Princ, 31. 

» 4 

By C S. Rafiuesque, A. M.^ — Ph, D.jpx-Prof. of Botany, Natural His- 
tory, &c. in Trans}- Iv. University of Craini^ton, the Franklin Institute of 
Philadelphia, &c. Member of ihcMt-iUcal Societies of Cincinnati and 
Lexington — the Phiios. Soc. and Lyceum of New York^ — the Acad, of 
Nat. So. of Philadelphia — the Amer. AntiqfSociety — the Kentucky In- 
stitute — the Linnean Soc. of Paris — the Imp. Jf^t. Cur. Soc. of Bonn. — 

the Imp. Economical Soc. of Vienna — the Iljltalian Inst. — the R. Inst. 
of Nat, So. of Naples, &c. &c. &c. ^ 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United Slates, intituled, 
« An Act for the Encouragement of Leaiiiln^Cj ^y securii^g the copies of 
Maps, Charts, and Books, to the Authors and Proprietois of such Copies, 
during the times therein mentioned"— And Also to the Act, entitled, 
«An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, «An A^for the Encou- 
ragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and 
Books, to the Authors and Propriefois of such Copies during the limes 
therein mentioned,"and extending the benefits thereof to the arts 6f de- 
ugning, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 


Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



Frofetior of Chemistry and Botany y in the Medical School ^ 

the University ofJVew-York: 


Pro/esior of Materia Medica and Medical Botany^ in the Med 

School of Transylvania University , in Lexitigton^ 

Kentucky : and 


Frofesior of Botany, ^c. in the Medical School of CharU^iom., 

in South Carolina : 








CJ« S* R* 


1. The Science of Botany was at all times 
intimately connected with medical knowledge. 

2. Several ancient nations, such as the Gre- 
cians, Romans, Hindoos, Chinese, &c. consi- 
dered Medical Botany as equivalent to both 
botanical and medical knowledge. 

3. Medicine was then, and is still among 
rude nations, nothing more than the application 
of an empirical knowledge of vegetable sub- 

4. Thence the usual vulgar division of Plants, 
into the five great Classes of Aliments, Sim- 
ples, Poisons, Flowers and Weeds, or ali- 

cal, poisonous, ornamental and 


useless plants. 

5. At the revival of learning in Europe, thii 
notion being general, thetirst works on Botany 
were of couise mere sketches of Medical Bo- 

and comments on Grecian or Roman 


6. When Tournefort and Linnaeus, about a 
century ago, became botanical reformers, and 
made Botany a separate Science, their efforts 
and improvements were resisted by those who 
at all times contend against useful innovations. 



7- Linnjeu8 in his Materia Medica, gave a 
model of systematical Medical Botany, equally 
concise, perspicuous and accurate; but desti- 
tute of the help of figures. 

8. This model was followed by Schoepf in 
his Materia Medica of North America, the 
first general work on our medical plants, pub- 
lished in Germany and in Latin towards I787. 
This small work of Schoepf has never been 


anslated nor republished in America, although 
ighly deserving of it. 

9. When America was settled, the native 
•ibcs were in possession of many valuable ve- 
etable remedies, discovered by long experi- 
ence, the knowledge of which they gradually 
imparted to their neighbours. 

10. This knowledge partly adopted even as 
far as Europe, and partly rejected by medical 
skepticks, became scattered through our country 
in the hands of country practitioners, Herba- 
lists, Empirics and Botanists. 

11. Schoepf collected his materials from them, 
and noticed about three hundred and sixty plants 
as medical; but he did not go every where nor 
exhaust the subject, since nearly double'that 

ally in common use in different 

States of the Ui 

IS. Since the United States have become an 
independent and iourishing nation, much has 

been done to teach and spread correct medical 


13. The establishment of Medical Schools, 
Chairs of Materia Medica, of Medical and 
Systematical Botany, Medical and Botanic 
Gardens, Infirmaries, Hospitals, have largely 

* • 


contributed to impart Medical and Botanical 
knowledge, through the professional class. 

14. This purpose has been aided by nume- 
rous publications of learned Physicians and 
Botanists, Medical Works, Pamphlets and 
Journals, Pharmacopeias, Dispensatories, In- 
augural Theses, &c. 

±5. Notwithstanding all these means, it is a 
positive and deplorable fact, that but few medi- 
cal practitioners, apply themselves to the Study 
of Botany, and therefore are deprived of the 
aid of comparative Medical Botany. 

16. It is not less certain, but still more de- 
plorable that beyond the immediate sphere of 
medical knowledge, the majority of the people 
are yet in prey to medical credulity, supersti- 
tion and delusions, in which they are confirraed 
by the repeated failures of Theorists, aud the 
occasional success of Empirical Rivals. 

17. Even in large cities and in the centre of 
medical light. Empirics are thriving, because 
they avail theniselves of the resources aflbrded 
by active plants, often neglected or unknown to 
the regular practitioners. 

18. It is not perhaps so w ell known that there 
are in this Age and in the United States, Ame- 
rican Marabouts who like the Marabouts of 
the wilds of Africa, attempt in some remote 
places, to cure diseases by charms, prayers, 
blowing, spitting, &c. 

19. It is therefore needful to spread still 
further correct medical knowledge; and the 
state of medical science is such in the United 
States, as to require a greater diffusion of the 


^1- J I _ 


acquired knowledge, aided by freedom of en- 
qniry, liberal vievvsj and rauttial forbearance, 

50. The practice of medicine is now exer- 
cised in the United States by three sets of men 
or Classes of Practitioners, 1. The IIationals, 
S. Ihe Theorists, anil 3. the Empirics. 

51. The Rational medical men are liberal 
and modest, learned or well informed, neither 
intolerant nor deceitful, and ready to learn or 
impart information.. They -comprise the Zm- 
provers^ K^clectias, and Experimeiitalists. 

2S. The Improvers study nature and the hu- 
man franie, write their observations, and im- 
prove medical knowledge. 

23. The Eclectics are tliose who select and 
adopt in practice, whatever is found most bene- 
ficial, and who change their prescriptions ac- 
cording to emergencies, circumstances and ac- 
quired knowledge. 

24. While the Experimentalists are those 
who arc directed by experience and experi- 
ments, observations, dissections and facts. 

S5. But the Theorists are often illiberal, 
intolerant, proud and conceited ; they follow a 
peculiar theory and mode of practice, with little 
deviation, employing but few vegetable reme- 
dies, and enlisting under the banner of a teacher 
or sect. 

^6. They are divided into many Sects, al- 
ways at war among themselves and their rivals : 
such are the JBroumists, Gahnists, Mesme- 

rians, Skepticks, Chemicalists, Calomelists, 
Entomists, &c. 

^ S7. The Empirics are commonly illiterate. 
Ignorant, deceitful and reserved ; they follow a 


secret or absurd mode of practice, or deal in 
patent remedies. 

28. They include the Herhalists, vulgarly 
called Indian or Hoot Doctors, and the Steam 
Doctors, who follow the old practice of the na- 
tives, the Quaclcs or dealers in Nostrums, the 
Patent Doctors, the Prescrihers of receipts, 
the Marabouts, &c. 

29. All these classes need instruction on the 
natural knowledee of medical substances, and 

it ought to be afitbrded to them, that they may 

become properly acquainted with those which 
they employ or may avail themselves of. 

30. Medical Sciences have lately been widely 
enlarged, by borrowing the help of all the Na- 
tural Sciences ; and the enlightened physicians 
begin to avail themselves of all the materials 
they can command, rendering all the Sciencea 
subservient or auxiliaries to their pursuits. 

31. By Botany, the great majority of medi- 
cal Substances are ascertained and become 
available : while the study of natural affinities 
enables to detect and compare botanical and 
medical Equivalents. 

32. Medical Botany teaching to know and 
appreciate the greatest number of articles em- 
ployed in Materia Medica, is become indispen- 
sable to the enlightened physician. 

33. Vegetable Chemistry analyses vegetable 
substances, discovers their active principles, re- 
lative medical value, and ascertains the equi- 
Talent or incompatible substances. 

34. Even Pharmacy is become a science, by 
the aid of Botany and Chemistry. Druggists 
and Pharmacians who sell vegetable Articles or 

A 2 


Drugs ougbt to be botanically acquainted with 

them, so as to distinguish the genuine kinds, 
and detect the frauds or blunders of the collec- 
tors and- herbalists. 

^^. Works on Medical Botany are of two 
kinds, with or without figures. This last kind 

includes all the Materia Medicas, Dispensa- 
tories, Pharmacologies, Pharmacopeias, &c. 
which try to convey the knowledge of medical 
substances by mere descriptions. 

36. The other kind, and the most useful, em- 
ploy, Iconography or figures, besides descrip- 
tive references, to give a complete knowledge 

of the officinal plants: such are the HerbalSf 
Medical Botanies, Medical Floras, &c. 

37. A Critical List shall be given of such 
Works or Essays relating to our Plants, which 
have been consulted: but the three principal 
works with figures, deserve perhaps a separate 

38. Bigel6w and W. Barton published some 
years ago, and towards tlie same time, two vo- 
luminous and expensive Works on Medical 
Botany. Barton's Work in two volumes quarto, 
contains only fifty plants and figures, and Bige- 
low's sixty in three volumes quarto. 

39. Several plants aie descvibed and figured 
in botli works, reducing the total number of 
medical plants given to about eighty, for which 

the price is about forty dollars or half a dollar 
for every plant. 

40. These imperfect and costly works have 
each their merit, and although not free from 
errors and omissions, are useful assistants to 
those who can afford to buy them. Bi'^elow'i 


r m 

is the most learned, accurate and useful, while 
Barton's ha^ often the btst figures. 

It is to be regretted that these authors by 

an of Woodville's 


Medical Botany have lessened their utility 

public circulation. 

43. Some years before the above publications, 
a herbalist or spurious Botanist, Samuel Henry, 
printed in New York, 181 Jr, a Medical Herbal, 
comprising in one octavo volume of five dollars, 
about one hundred sixty medical plants, with 
small fictitious figures. 

43. This Work is merely mentioned here to 
warn against it. It is a worthless book, with 
incorrect names, wrong descriptions^ erroneous 
indications, *and figures mostly fictitious or 
misapplied. It is of no medical nor botanical 
account; yet it contains some of the Empirical 
concealed knowledge, available in a few in- 

44. Works of general utility ought to be ac- 
curate, complete, portable and cheap. Such 
alone can spread the required correct know- 
ledge, and suit every class of readers. 

45. The popular knowledge of the natural 
sciences has been prevented in the United 
States, by the first works published on them, 
having followed the model of the splendid Eu- 
ropean publications intended for the wealthy or 
public libraries. 

46. It is time that we should return to the 
pristine Linnean simplicity, and by the addition 
of cheap but correct figures of objects, engraved 
on copper, zinc, pewter, stone or wood, speak 
to the eyes as well as the mind. 

9 •* 



47. Such is the aim of the actual work, which 
is intended as a portable manual of Medical 
Botany, for the daily use of medical Students, 
Physicians, Drui^gists, Pharmacians, Chemists, 
Botanists, Florists, Herbalists, Collectors of 
herbs, heads of families, Infirmaries, &c. 

48. It was many years in contemplation; and 
publicly proposed ever since 18 16. It is now 
offered to the public, as a humble attempt to 
render one of the popular branches of medical 
and natural science, attainable and available 

by all. 

49. The author has been collecting his mate- 
rials for many years, while travelling through 
fourteen stales of the Union, and lecturing on 
medical plants in Transylvania University. 

50. His qualifications for the task result from 
fifteen years of botanical and medical obser- 
vations and researches, and 8000 miles of bo- 
tanical travels, wherein he diligently enquired 
and elicited from the learned and the illiterate, 
the result of their practical experience. 

51. He has never despised knowledge because 
imparted by an uncouth mouth, and has often 
made experiments on himself and others to test 
peculiar facts. 

52. Several Physicians and Botanists in Phi- 
ladelphia, Baltimore, Washington City, Wil- 
mington, Winchester, Alexandria, Bethlehem, 
Pittsburg, Wheeling, Lexington, Bowling- 
green, Sandusky, &c. have at different timet 
communicated to him additional facts, or con- 
firmed the properties of some plants, 

53. He feels particularly indebted to the ob- 
Iigiug kindness of several friends for many im- 


portant facts or valuable communications, for 
which he feels happy to tender this public tes- 
timony of gratitude. 

94. They are Dr. JVtease, and Z. Collins of 

Drs. Short and Brown of Lexington. 

Dr. Eoff of Wheeling. 

Dr. Muller of New Harmony. 

Dr. Drake of Cincinnati. 

Dr. Crockett of Frankfort. 

Dr. Graham of Harrodsburg. 

Dr. Mac Williams of Washington City. 

Dr. Hales of Troy. 

Dr. Lawrence of New Lebanon. 

Drs. L. Beck and Tully of Albany. 

Drs. Mitchell and T'orrey of New York. 

53. It has been ascertained that there are 

nearly six hundred medical plants actually 

known and nsed as such l^ the United States: 

many of which are merelj" medical equivalents. 

56. This number being too great for the pur- 
pose of a manual, one liuudred and five of the 
most active and efficient medical Types have 

iired and described. 

57. Tlie others have been referred to these 
as substitutes or succedanea, when they possess 
nearly the same ostensible qualities and pro- 
perties. In fact they are mostly used for each 
other throughout the country. 

58. Those selected include all the species of 
Bigelow and W. Barton, with twenty-five addi- 
tional species. It had been advised to reduc 

the whole number to fifty active plants; but 

reduction would have left out many 



luable plants and not offered a sufficient quan- 
tity of generic Types t>r typical Equivalents. 

59. AVhen a Genus contains several medical 
species, on]y one is figured^ unless their pro- 
perties are quite different^ and the others are 
mentioned with some remarks as equivalent 
substitutes. The plants of genera not figured 
are inserted in the general table or appendix. 

60. Tlie Botanical alphabetic order has been 
adopted, as the most easy, obvious and service- 
able, since no scientific arrangement could hare 
been equally available. 

61. The medical arransrements are as nume- 
rous as the writers oti Materia Medica. Every 
plant having commonly many properties, cannot 
be classed into any definite medical order, but 
should belong to several at the same time. 

62. The defective and indelicate sexual sys- 
tem of Linnseus is now too obsolete for the state 
of the science. 

63. The natural method would have been 
preferred, if the novelty of the attempt had not 
been anticipated as an obstacle to practical use. 

64. Most of the figures have been drawn by 
the author, and a few reduced from Bigelow or 
Barton ; they have been engraved and printed 
in a style suited to the assumed purpose, 

65. For the sake of perspicuity and conveni- 
ence every article is divided into sections. The 

names are at the head, and the Botanical name 
is the first. 

66. The English, French and German names 
are given, next the officinal names used iu 
Pharmacopeias, and last the vulgar or common 

names of the country, which are variable in al- 



most every section or state. When a plant had 
received several botanical names^ the obsolete 
are given as synonyms. 

67. After the names follow the botanical and 
medical authorities connected, the generic and 
Bpeciiic characters, the complete botanical des- 
criptions, the locality or native places of growth, 
with the general history of the genus and spe- 


forming the botanical sections of each 

The medical division contains the sen- 


sible and chemical qualities of the plant, 

the medical properties, including uses, dosea 

and preparations. 

69. Equivalent substitutes, and various re- 
\s conclude the article. The plan of adding 
medical substitutes is borrowed from the ex- 


cellent French work of Feyrilhe on Medical 
Natural History. 

70. The knowledge of those medical Equi- 
valents will be found very useful, when the re- 
quired plants are not obtainable, while some 
substitute may perhaps be procured. It fol- 
lows of course that each Equivalent is vice- 
versa a mutual substitute in most cases: although 
the plants are seldom identical in power and 

71* Botanical accuracy has been strictly at- 
tended to throughout, and all the descriptions 
are original. To avoid other novelties, but few 
improvements have been attempted or sugges- 
ted iu nomenclature or criticism. The locali- 
ties are however greatly extended. 

72. In the medical part, brevity has been 
adopted, without impairing accuracy. All the 


matter of Schocpf and subsequent writers has 
been incorporated. Nothing essential has been 
omitted, but discussions arc avoided, and ex- 
periments merely stated in result. 

73. This order and plan has enabled to give 
a complete knowledge of the objects in all their 
botanical, medical, chemical and historical 
points of view: while tiie general principles of 
the science are prefixed as preliminary guides. 

7-i. If this labour may suit all the classes of 
readers and all those who employ medical 
plants, the wishes and object of the author will 
be fulfilled. 





1- BOTANY 13 the science and knowledge of vegetable bodies 

or plants. 

2- A botanical species Is formed by the collective association 

of all the individual bodies, which have a similar form. 

3. VARIETIES Ere mere occasional deviations from this spe- 
cific typical form, 

4. All the individuals of the same species, have the sante 
forms, qualities and properties, but modified in some varieties. 

5. The principal branches of Botany, are, Glossology, No- 


HisToaY and Philosophy. 

6. Glossology gives names or Botanical terms to every Organ 
of plants, and to all their modifications of form or structure. 

7» These names must be sought for in special botanical works; 
it is beyond this scope to notice them here, cjcept in general, 

8. NoMEKCLATURE applics names to every specie^ and succes- 
sive groups of species, referring their Synonyms to each- 

9. These names derived chiefly from the Latin and Greek 
languages, become universal, and common to all languages and 

10. Synosyms are of wo kinds, 1. Erroneous or obsolete 
botanical names, 2. Local or variable Vulgar names employed 
by each nation. 

11. Classiftcatioit teaches how to co-ordinate the species in 
Genera, orders and classes by methodical or systematical arrange- 



12. Genera are groups of species having the same essential 
Organs of fructification or reproduction, and affording the same 
collective characters in their structure and form. 

13. Okdebs and Classes are successive groups of Genera af- 
fording some similar general characters. Families, Sections, 
Subclasses are Divisions of these groups based upon some pecu- 
liar considerations, 

14. A Method studies, seeks and preserves all the natural 
affinities of plants, grouping together, those which have the 

greatest resemblance* 

15. Ststems follow a peculiar theory, or are based upon a sin* 
gle consideration, without attending to natural affinities. 

16. Descriptive Botakt gives accurate descriptions of all the 
species and their varieties. Genera and Groups of Genera, 

17' These Descriptions consist of two modes or parts 1. 
Complete Descriptions, 2. Definitions or abridged Descrip- 
tions, being the analytical epitome of the principal descriptive 

18, Botanical histort includes many details and considera- 
tions comprising the Etymology of names, mode of growth, time 
of flowering and seeding, cultivation, collection, discovering, 
introducing, authors who have described plants, their biography, 
bibliography or knowledge of Botanical Books, criticism, 8cc. 

19- The Locality of plants is a branch of Botanical history, 
which has lately been separated and called Botanical Geogba- 
PHT 5 it teaches the soils, climates and places where plants grow 
spontaneously, and also their migrations, naturalization, &c- 

20. BoTANicAi..riiizosoPHr considers plants under all their 
points of view, which are many ; forming the following branches : 

1. OroakoloctT, studying their organization, 

2. Phtsioiogx — their vital functions. 
. A> ^Toxr — their internal structure* 

4. CHE^tisTKY— their component elements, 

5. Pathologt— their diseases. 

6. CuLTivATioji— their culture. 

7- Utilitt— iheir useful or noxious properties. 

21. The ORGANS are external or internal ; the internal be- 
long to botanical anatomy : the external or the most conspicuous 


afford the obvious descriptive characters, and form several series 
according to their vital use, as follows : 

22. NuTJftiTivE Organs are the Cotyledons, Roots, I*eaves, 
&c. The Hoots are commonly under ground, and the LEAvxa 
above : while the Cottleboi^s are within the seed. 


23. Rephoducttve Organs which are the Flowers, Fruits and 
Seeds, with the Buds, Bulbs, and Gems, 

24. Upon the flowers, fruit and seeds are chiefly based the 
generic and other general characters ; being present and conspi 
cuous in every plant except those of the lowest orders* 

25. The Roots, Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits assume a great 
variety of shapes, which have all pecuhar names, and offer the 
specific characters and distinctions usually resorted to. 

26. UpHOLDtxG Organs such as the stem and branches, the 

Scapes or leafless radical stems. Petioles, Pedicles, Nerves, S;c. 

27. PttESERviXG Organs as the Barks, Cuticles, 8cc. 

28. CiRcuiATiVE Organs which are the Wood, Liber, Pith, 
Fibres, Vessels, Sec, The woody plants are called Trees or 

29. Secretory Orgat^s, such as Glands, Pores, Hairs, &c. 

20. Accessory Organs are the thorns, bracteoles, stipules, 
tCRdrils, tubercles, down, wool. Sec. 

0I4 Inflorescexck is the mode In which the flowers are dis- 
posed and unfolded. 

32. The essential parts of the flowers are the Staxixa or Sta- 
mens and Pistils : a complete flower has both ; when they are 
separate, the flowers are called Staminate or Pislilate. 

33. The essential part of the Stamest is the Anther; when the 
filament or support is missing-, the anther is called sessile. 

34. The essential parts of the Pistil are the Germ or Germzit, 
and the Sttg^ia. The germ is the bud of the fruit ; it is usually 
sessile; when it has a support or, it is called stipitated. 

35. The Germ is usually free and central ; but when it is 
connected or coherent with the perigone, it is called adherent or 
inferior, and the perigone becomes symphogyne or superior. 

36. The Stigma is a pore, gland or appendage upon the 
Germ, single or multiple, sessile or supported by a base called 




37. The accessory parts of the flowers are the Pertgoite, N«- 


38. The PfiniGOjfi: around the Stamina and Pistils is either 
fiingle, double or multiple. When single it retains that name; 
but when double the exterior is called Calix, and the interior 
CoROL or Corolla, In the multiple perigone, the inner range 
is the true Corol. 

39. The segments of the perigone and calix are called Sefals, 
or folioles, and those of the Corol Petals, 

40. The NECTARTBa are Glands, scales^ crowns, disks and other 
appendages within the flower. 

41. The Bbacteoies are small leaves, scales, involucres, &c. 
around the flowers, when they resemble a perigone and sur- 
round many flowers, they are called Pekiastue or common calix» 

42. Plants being organized bodies like Animals, perform the 
same vital functions, three of which are essential to life, and 
dommon to all plants, 1. NtrTuiTioK, 2. Growth, 3, REPRoutrc- 


43. The others are less essential, or less evident; they arc 
1. Circulation, 2. Respiration, 3. Secretion, 4. Irritability, 5. Ca- 

lorificatibn, 6. Solidification, 8tc. 

44. Plants are also like Animals subject to Sleep, hyemalTor- 
por, Diseases, Necropsy and Death, 

45. The xVN ATOMIC AL structure of plants offers a multitude 
of internal apparatus (about thirty kinds) formed by the aggve- 
gation of vessels, fibres and tissues. 

46. The principal are the Cellular, fibrose, glandular, absor- 
bing, moving, vital, nutritive, reproductive, &c. 

47. CHEMICAL BOTANY detects almost all the simple clc- 
fhents in the vegetable substances: the most abundant and pre- 




^vegetable Life are very numerous, the principal are "Water, Air, 
Oils, Acids, Aromes, Tannin, Extractive, Alkalis, Resins, Muci- 
lage, Sugar, Fecula, &c, 

49. Diseases in plants are as numerous as among Animals, i^ 
not Men ; they have only been attended to as yet with fruit trees, 
and useful cultivated plants; many are easily curable. 



50» Agriculture and Horticulture are two arts, having for spe- 
cial object the cultivation of useful or ornamental planfs. 

51. These arts are closely connected with Botany, from which 
they borrow their niaterials. The general cultivation of medical 
plants in medical gardens is highly desirable. 

52. Useful plants have three kinds of properties, 1, Alimen- 
tary, 2. Economical, 3. Medical. The noxious and poisonous 
properties are included with the medical. 

53» We are dependent upon vegetables for our food and drink* 
our solid and liquid aliments; they furnish us materials for our 
dress, dyes, fuel, buildings, arts and manufactures. 

54. Every plant has two names Stnd two characters, both Ge- 
neric and Specific. 

55. The Generic name is the first and is a substantive, the 
Specific follows and is an adjective appellation. 

56. The Generic character is the collective definition ©f the 
principal organic indications of each Genus, which constitute 
the TYPE of the Genus. 

57. The Specific character is an abridged description of all the 




58. Orders and Families, Classes and Sections have also sub- 
stantive names, and peculiar characters assigned to each. 

59. Three great natural classes constitute the vegetable King- 
don, l.DlCOTTLES, 2. MozroCOTTtXS, 3, AcOTTtES. 

60. The DICOTYLES are Ysscvlar plants, with concentric 
fibres and vessels, and a bilobe or multilobe germination. They 
comprise two thirds of all the plants, shrubs and trees. 

61. The MONOGOTYLES are Vasctcak plants with fascicu- 
lar fibres and vessels, and a lateral unilobe germination. Such 
are the Palms, Lilies, Grasses, Perns, and Mosses. 

62. The ACOTYLES are Cei.itji.ab plants without vessels no» 
fibres, and destitute of lobes in the germination. Such are the 
Lichens, Algae and Fungi. 

63. These natural classes may be divided in other less natural 
classes, and these into natural orders and families, by the botani- 
cal process of analysis. 

64. The natural orders of Linnaeus were fifty-eight, Jussienhas 

B 2 


ertlOihSf^tad one hundred, now upwards of one hundred and Rft^ 
are known or designated. 

65. Many of these being rather natural families may be reduced 
to about sixty -four great natural orders, including upwards of two 
hundred natural families* 

66. Each natural family and order hat some qualities and pro* 
perties, common to all theirgenera, and may therefore serve of 
Medical Indication. 


1. The knowledge of the s^ubstances which enter into the 
bodily composition of Plants, form a branch of Chemical Sciences 
called Vegetable Chemistry, 

2. This branch of Chemistry is intimately connected with Me- 
dical Botany, and becomes an essential part of it. 

3. By it, the three Sciences of Botany, Chemistry, and Patho- 
logy are rendered subservient to each other, 

4. Chemistry borrows from Botany the true inowledge of the 
Plants, while Chemistry teaches Botany the nature of the Sub- 
stances in these plants, 

5. The Medical Sciences receive from Vegetable Chemistry 
the more intimate knowledge of the greatest proportion of Sub- 
stances employed in practice. 


6. Chemistry acrjuires this knowledge by tests, analytical dC- 
tompositions, and reaching the first Elements or elementary 
bodies evolved in the plants. 

7. Vegetable life assimilates or produces nearly all the Naturri 
Bodies andc^entes many Siibstanc«s peculiar to itself. 

8* Tliis is ihe foundation of three great Divisions or Classes io 

Vegetable Substances or their proximate Elements. 



2. Class. ANIMAL, foreign to Minerals, but common to 

Plants and Animals. 

3. PECULIAR. Not found either in Animals nor Minerals. 


9. These Classes may be divided into Orders, Genera and Spe- 
cies of Chemical Bodies, each possessing peculiar properties and 

10. Vegetable Chemistry has not yet obtained the same cer- 
tainty and attention as Mineral Chemistry. It is now emerging 
from the Clouds of ancient errors, and becoming a Science ofde* 
cided importance, 

11. A small portion as yet of the endless chemical Constituenta 
of all the plants, has become known. 

12. A long time will be required before the 60,000 knowtl 
plants be^analyzed, or even the 5000 Speciesdfisrorth America. 

13. But some Substances are common to many different plants, 
and each active Genus has generally the same active principles. 

14- The special knowledge of this branch of Medical Botany 
must be sought for in the Chemical Works. We shall merely 
give here a small Table of*" the principal Orders and Genera, 
lately detected and well ascertained. 

15. It must be remembered that every plant contains many 
Elementary bodies, and that these Bodies are all reducible to 
their pristine Si nple Elements. 

16. It is not our purpose to designate the properties of these 
Vegetable Substances. This knowledge constitutes Medical 
Chemistry, a new Science, or branch of Pharmacy. 



I. Class— MINERAL ELEMENTS— 5 Orders, 

1. Order. SIMPLE ETHERIAL. G. Caloric. Light, Oxi^ 
gene. Hydrogene. Azote. 

2. Order. SLMPLE and COMBUSTIBLE. G. Sulphur. Car- 
bone. Phosphore* 

3. Order. SIMPLE and oklDABLE. G. The Metals. 

4. Order. OXIDES. G. Airs. Waters. Limes, Potashes. 
Ahimines. Chalybates. Silicates, &c, 

5. Order. SALTS. G. Carbonates. Citrates, Fungatfes, Muri- 
4tes. Malates. Gallates. Nitrates. Oxalates. Phosphates. Sul* 

fates. Tartrates, &c. 




II. Class— ANIMAL EIXMENTS— 1 Order. 

1. O. COMPOUNDS of Carbone, Hydrogene, Oxigene and 
Azote. G. Glutten, Albumine. Gelatine. Adipocire. Fungin, 8tc. 

III. Class.— PECULIAR ELEMENTS.— 4. Orders. 

1. Order. AZOTES or Vegetable Alkalies, •containing Azote. 
3 Families. Carbonits. Oxigenits. Ammonits or true Alkalis. G. 
Ferment. Narcotine. Asparagine. Morphium. Quinine. Eupato- 
rine. Comlne. Daturine, &c, 

2. Order. ACIDS, formed by Carbone, Hydrogene, with Cxi- 
gene in excess. G. Acetic. Malic. Oxalic* Benzoic. Citric. Tar- 
taric, Gallic. Mor*c. Fungic, Sec. 

3. Order. WATERS, formed by Carbone with Hydrogene and 
Oxigene in the proportion of Water. G. Lignites. Fecules. Sac- 
charines. Gums. Amarines. Polychromites. Tannines. Extrac- 
tives. Mucilages. &c. 

4. Order. OILS, formed by Carbprte, Oxigene, with Hydrogene 
in excess. G. Gluines. Wax. Fixed Oils. Aromes. Resins. Picrines. 
Acrines. Camphors, Sec, ^ 



1. Every vegetable substance produces effects on the human 
frame ; but these effects can only take place by actual contact of 
the parts, or their effluvia, 

2. These effects are either grateful, or unpleasant, or noxious, 
and either nutritive, or medical, or poisonous. 

3. Nutritive substances sustain life, the noxious impair it ; 
while the medical preserve or restore health. 

4. Plants may be noxious toman, while they are innocent 

or nutritious for animals or cattle, and the everse may as often 
occur • 1 

5. The popular belief that every country produces simple* 
suitable to cure all their prevailing focal diseases, is not devoid 
of truth.' 

6. There are many modes of effecting cures by equivalent re- 



tnediea ; but vegetable substances afford the mildest, most cffi- 
clent, and most congenial to the human frame. 

7. A vegetable substance is called active when producing 
strong or quick effects, and inactive or inert, when producing; 
weaker or slower effects. 

8. But there is hardly a plant totally inert, and not producing 
in large doses sfeme sensation or effect. 

9. Active plants and substattces are commonly known by the 
senses of smell or taste ; while inert plants are scentless and 

10. The most active plants are not always the best for use, be- 
ing less grateful than others, and more liable to impair the func- 
tions of life* 

11. Poisonous plants are all available as medicinal, and often 
the most active ; but they are liafile to the same objection, In a 
greater degree. 

12. Active and poisonous plants, must be used with care and 
judgment, sparingly and in small doses only. 

13. Similar or consimilar tastes or smells, indicate similar or 
consimilar Qualities and Properties. 

14. The sensible Qualities o^ plants are the results of their or- 
ganization, and chemical composition ; their medical Properties 
arise from these Qualities. 

15. Plants of the same Genus have commonly the same quali- 
fies and properties, more or less unfolded. 

16. Genera of the same Natural Family or Order, have often 
consimilar qualities and properties. 

17. Modifications or Deviations from these two last rules occur 
when the organization and locality are very different. 

18. Artificial Systems, like the sexual system of Linnsrus 
separating the most related Genera, and uniting the moat remote, 
cannot indicate medical affinities. 

19. Where the artificial systems coincide with the natural me- 
thod; they may both answ'er the purpose of medical indications. 

20. Few plants possess a single property ; many are commonly 

blended in the same plant* 
21. Diffe 


parate qualit 


'2, Incompatible Substances are seldom or never found in the 
same plant. 

23. Every plant has a peculiar and specific mode of action on 

the human body, in health or disease. 

24. Even cong^eneric and consimilar species have their modi- 
fied effects at equal doses, which a difference in the dose msy 

25. The medical effects of the same plant are also modified by 
the soil, climate, season, and age ; also by exhibition and dose. 

26. Botanical affinities indicate medical equivalents, which may 
be substituted to each other. 

27. But Experience alone can decide If the substitution will 
be available and efficacious, and teach when and how it ought to 

be made- 
^28. Vegetable Equivalents a*re either botanical or medical, and 

each of three degrees. 

29. In Botanical Equivalents these three degrees are : 1st Co2f- 
0£j!fEBic, belonging to the ^&me genus : 2d Affii-iated belong- 
ing to different genera of the sajiie family- 3d Rejiote, belonging 

to remote genera. 

20. Medical Equivalents have the degrees of 1. Specific or 
having exactly the same value, 2. Simieak or producing the same 
effects, 3. CoxsiatiEAR or producing effects somewhat different. 


BT THE HAsDs OF XATURE, in the most Suitable form for exhibi- 
tion and efficacy in suitable cases. 

32, Medical substances becoming more powerful by admixture, 
those which enter by vital action into the organs of plants, are 
rendered more powerful by intimate combination. 

33, By combining several medical plants in prescriptions their 
effect is increased. 

34, Nauseous or noxious plants may be rendered grateful and 
available by combination with others of a different character. 

35, But all combinations must either coincide op correct each 
other, else they are superfluous and useless. 

36, When too many substances are mingled, or several that do 
not well coincide, they often impair each other. 

Sr. The combination of substances which exert a chemical ac- 


lion on each other, must be avoided, unless a peculiar medical 

result is required. 

38. When an unexpected result happens by a combination of 

substances, it must be corrected by suitable changes. 

39. The active principles of medical plants may be obtained in 
a concentrated form by chemical operations. 

40. Wh^n these active principles are obtained, their effects 
are stronger and quicker; but less congenial to the human frame, 
than in their natural pristine combination. 


1, The medical properties were detected by chance, or as- 
certained by indication, and confirmed by experience. 

2, There are four kinds of indications, 1. Botanical, 2. Che- 
mical, 3. Medical, 4. Evident. 


proximate or remote, and teach us Botanical Equivalents. 

4, Chemical indications result from analysis and decomposi- 
tion : when the same elements and substances are found in equal 
proportions ; the presumption must be that chemical equivalents 
have been detected. 

5. Medical indications are the result of medical inference ; 
Tfvhen substances act alike or produce similar effects In some 
cases, they may do the same in other cases. 

6» The most obvious indications are however, those which 
arise from the Evidbsck of the sensible qualities of plants. 

7. These qualities are constituted by chemical elements, and 

% ^ 

evinced to our senses by contact or effluvia. 

8. Each plant, and sometimes each part of a plant, has a pecu- 
liar smeli and taste, hardly alike in any two of them. 

9. No plant is absolutely scentless or tasteless, even the most 
insipid evince themselves to our nose and palate- 

10. The vegetable Orders and Sapors may be classed under 
two great divisions, GRATEFUL or UNPLEASANT. 

11. Orders may be further divided into six series, and one hua- 


dred and fifty Genera: Sapors into ten series and as many genen 
%t least. 

12. The GRATEFUL Odors or Smells indicate wholttsome 

properties, the three Series are 

1. Fbagranp, indication of stimulants and sudorifics, 8tc# 

2. Aromatic — of stomachics, warm stimulants, &c. 

3. Sweet — of Pectorals, Demulcents, &c. 

13. The UNPIXASANT Odors indicate active properties, 
their three Series are 

1. Fetii>, indication of noxiows planls, emetics, &.C. 

2. GuATEot-E^sT — of powerful medical plants- 

3. INSIPID — of EmolVients, inert plants, &c- 

U. GRATEFUL SAPORS or Tastes, belong to pbnts of miW 

properties. Their five Series are 

1. Flavored, belonging to palatable substances- 

2. Spicy — ^to stimvdants, sudorifics, stomacbicsj &c, 

3. Acid — toRefrigersnts, Diluents, &c. 

4. Sweet— to Nutrients, Demulcents, 8cc. 

5. Sapie or Saltish — to Antiscorbutics, &c. 

15. UNPLEASANT SAPORS belong to plants of active pro- 
perties. Their five Series are 

1. NAXJSEors, belonging to Narcotics, Emetics, Cathartics, 
Antispasmodics, &c. 

2. AcTiiD — to Salivatories, Stimulants, Epispastics, Anthcl- 
ininthic«, Emenagogues, See. 

3. BiTTEn — to Tonics, Corroborants, See. 

4. Acerb — to Astringents, Diuretics, &c# 

5. I:ssiyiD— to Emollients, Demulcents, Diluents, &c, 

16. The sense of feeling is susceptible of ascertaining at le*jrt 

five qualities in substances. 

1< Coozxess, belonging' to Refrigerants. 
2. Heat — ^to Stimulants and Rubefacients. 
3- Stiisoisg— to external stimulants. 

4. Vesicatio:^ — toEpispatics, &c. 

5. CoBROSioiff — to E.scharotics, and Caustics. 

17. These difTerent qualities variously combined and modified 
by each other, form all the immense variety perceptible in plantJ. 

18. Medical Properties of a corpcsnnnr!in«- not.,*^ u^XtMr c-.o- 


existent with these sensible qualltlep, are obviously indicated by 

19. Yet some plants of weak qualities and seemingly inert, are 
often possessed of unindicated active propeities, resulting from 
chemical combinations orgazeous emanations, 

20. Classifications of medical properties and remedies are end- 
less, and of little use. Every writer on Materia Medica common- 
ly contrives a new one. 

21. As much could be done here, or some one adopted ; but 
it will be sufficient to mention that the most general Distribu- 
tion is at present in three Classes, 1 Stimulant, 2 Cheki- 
CAL, and 3 Mechanical Properties or Remedies. 

22. The following alphabetical Glossary of the principal medi- 
cal properties, will probably be more useful for reference. 


ABSORBENT, absorbing or involving noxious matter. 

ABSTERGENT or DETERGENT, cleaning foul ulcers and 

ANODYNE, soothing the nerves, allaying pain, yery similar 
to Sedative and Nervine. 

ANTACID, chemical remedies, neutralizing Acids. 

AGGLUTiNANT, uniting divided solids. 

ALTERATIVE, producing a change in the whole system, or 
altering the appearance of local diseases. 

AMBROSIAL, of exquisite smell or taste, very palatable and 

ANALEPTIC, gentle stimulant of the nerves. 
ANTIBILIOLS, correcting the Bile. 

ANTIDOTE or ALEXITERlAL, commonly counter poisons, 
chemical remedies correcting the efFecfs of poisons. 

ANTI-DYSENTERIC, against dysentery and bowel complaints, 
local and mechanical, unless astringent, 

ANTILtTHIC, curing the gravel and stone. 

ANTISPASMODIC, diffusible stimulant, acting on the muscles, 
curing spasms, pains, &.c. 

ANTHELML\TIC, expelling worms. 

ANTISCORBUTIC, useful in scurvy. 

ANTISCROFULOUS, useful in scrofula. 



ANTEROTIC, sedatives of venery, 

ANTISEPTIC or ANTIFUTRID, Tonic useful to prevent 
external or internal mortification. 

ANTALKALINE, neutralizing alkalies. 

APERIENT, promoting excretions. 

APHRODISIAC, stimulating Venery. 

AROMATIC, diffusible stimulant,heatlng the stomach and body. 

ASTRINGENT, permanent stimulant, corrugating the fibres. 

ATTENUANT, or DEOBSTRUENT, local stimulant, remoy- 
ing obstructions of the glands, liver, See. 

BALSAMIC, mild healing stimulant. 

CALEFACIENT, local stimulant, heating the parts. 
^ CAR>UNATIVE, or RUCTANT, local stimulant, expelling 


CARDIAC or CORDIAL, acting on the heart, and increasing 

its muscular action- 

CATHARTIC or PURGATIVE, local stimulants cleaning the 

CAUSTIC, local stimulants, burning the parts. 

Cephalic, curing the head ache- 
CHOLOGOGUE, purging the bile. 

CONSOLIDANT, a kind of tonic, repairing defects in solids- 
CORROBORANT, a kind of stomachic, giving strength. 
COSMETIC, smoothing or lubricating the skin. 
DEMULCENT, mechanical remedy, shielding the surfaces 
from acrid matter, and lubricating the organs. 
DEPILATORY, removing the hair. 

DIAPHORETIC, increasing the insensible exhalation of the 
skin and lungs. 

DIFFUSIBLE, spreading through the -whole frame. 

DILUENTS, diluting and expelling morbific matter, increas' 
ing the ftuidity of the bloody Stc. 

DISCUTIENT, healing sores of the skin. 

DIURETIC, stimulant, increasing the discharge from the 
bladder and kidneys, expelling accumulated fluids, and promoting 

dropsical discharges, 

DRASTIC, cathartics purging with violence and pain. 

EFf LUYIAL, producing gazeous emanations which affect the 


EMENAGOGUE, increasing the menstrual discharge. 

EMETIC or VOMITIVE, local stimulant producing a dis- 
charge from the stomach, 

EMOLLIENT, the opposite of tonic, relaxing the fibres. 

EPISPASTIC or BLISTER, local stimulant, acting on the 
skin and membranes, blistering them, &c. 

ERODENT, removing spots and warts of the skin, 

ERRHINE, promoting sneezing and a discharge from the nose. 

ESCHAROTIC, corroding and decomposing the skin and 
other solids. 

EXHANTHEMATIC, useful for Exhanthems, 

EXHAURIENT, exhausting vital powers. 

EXCITANT, stimulant exciting the vital functions, 
EXPECTORANT, promdting expectoration. 

FEBRIFUGE, curing fevers, one of the effects of tonics, 
HEPATIC, useful in diseases of the Liver, 
HUMECTANT, a kind of Diluent moistening the solids. 
HYDRAGOGUE, a kind of Diuretic,- discharging waters. 
INCITANT or INCISIVE, stimulant, acting on the glandular 

INEBRIATING or EXHILARATING, producing intoxication 

in different degrees. 

INVISCANT or COAGULANT, mucilaginous remedies, thick- 
ening the fluids. 

LAXATIVE, useful against constipation and mild purgatives. 
LITHONTHRH^TIC, chemical remedy, dissolving the gravel 
or stone In the bladder, or bezoars of the liver. 
LOCHIAL, a mild Menagogue. 

NARCOTIC or STUPEFIANT, diffusible stimulant, acting 
on the nervous and vascular system, producing sleep, stupor and 
death In large doses. 

NAUSEANTS, producing Nausea without Emesis. 

NEPHRITIC, local stimulant of the kidneys. 

NERVINE, acting particularly on the nerves, and soothing 
pain, promoting sleep, useful in hysterics, epilepsy, &c. 

NOXIOUS or DELETERIOUS, or Pebnicious, or BASErrjL, or 




NUTRIENT, furnishing nourishment to the body. 




ODOJITALGIC, allaying or curing the tooth-ache. '\ 

OPHTHALMIC, useful In diseases of the Eves. 
PECTORAL, useful in diseases of the breast and lungs. 
PELLENT or REPELLENT, charging the course of dischar- 

ges, or repelling the -morbid fluids. 

PHTI1IRL\C or PSORIC, destroying Lice and Itch. 

PHRENETIC or PHANTASTIC, acting on the brain, pro- 
ducing delirium and dreams. 

PROPELLENT, moving the fluids. 

PROPHYLACTIC, preserving health, or preventic, a peculiar 

disease. i 

P^EFRIGERANT, cooling, lessening the heat of the body, al- 
laying local or general inflammations. 
RESTORATIVE, restoring strength. 
REVIVING, difTusible stimulant, relieving from faintness, 


torpors, and necropsy, 

IIEPERCUSIVE, throwing back an eruption, a kind of repel- 



REVULSIVE, a local stimulant, promoting a change or re- 
vulsion in a disease- 

RUBZPASCIENT, topical remedy, exciting redness and heat. 

SEDATIVE, albying inordinate motions and pains, by lessen- 
ing the actioa of ths heart and circulation of the blood, 

SIALOGOGUE or SALlVATQiiY, exciting salivation. 

SOLVENT or RESOLVENT, a kind of Diluent, promoting 
solution of the solids, acting on the lymphatic system, useful ii^ 
scrofula, &c. 

SOPORIFIC or HYPNOTIC, promoting sleep. 
SORBEFACIENT, raising pimples, &c. 

SPECIFIC, a remedy supposed to act especially on a disease- 
STIMULANT, acting by stimulating the body or some parts 

of it. 
STINGING, acting like nettles by producing a burning pain. 

STOMACHIC, promoting appetite, useful in diseases of the 
stomach, and cholics. 

STYPTIC, sloping bloody discharges. 

SUDORIFIC, promoting a copious perspiration. ' 

SUPPURATIVE or RESOLUTIVE, promoting suppuration ol 
ulcers, tumors, S;c, 


SVPHILITIC, useful in syphilis and venereal diseases. 

TONIC, permanent stimulant, acting on the whole body, in* 
creasing the tone of the fibres, &c. 

TOPICAL, a remedy acting by external application. 

UTERINE, acting on the uterus. 

URETHRAL or STRANGURIAL, a local stimulant, acting on 
the Urethra, producing Strangury, Sec. 

VIRULENT, of strong active properties, producing powerful 
and somewhat noxious effects. 

VULNERARY, healine: wounds and sores. 


1. Physicians do not agree on the mode of action of the pro- 
perties, nor the proximate and intricate operation of remedies ; 
but the ultimate effects and results being ascertained, they are 
sufficient for practical use, 

2. Drugs are Vegetable substances prepared for use, and kept 
for sale by Druggists or Pharmacians. 

3. Those which are imported, are often adulterated, or in- 
ferior kinds are substituted ; for instance Peruvian Bark or Cik- 
cHOKA, and Saffron or Cnocrs, are hardly to be met with in the 
U. S, — Caribean bark or Poetlandia, and Bastard Saffron or Cak- 
TUAMus, are usually sold instead, which are very weak substitvites. 

4. This arises from a want of medical inspections and officinal 
know^ledge : the results are, that prescriptions fail, physicians 
are disappointed, and patients suffer. 

5.. To avoid in part these evils, it is desirable to employ our 
own genuine medical substances, whenever they afford sufficient 
remedies and suitable equivalents, 

6, Medical substances being often impaired by age. It is de- 
sirable to obtain them fresh, or in yearly rotation. 

7- Fresh and genuine substances can only be obtained at all 
times from medical gardens, or honest dealers. 

8. The best medical gardens in the United States are those 
established by the Communities of Shakebs, or modem Esse- 
nians, who cultivate or collect about one hundred and fifty kinds 
of medical plants. 

9. They sell them cheap, fresh and genuine, in a compact and 

c 2 


portable form, Pharmacians would do well to supply themselves 
with them, or to imitate their useful industry, t 

10. Several of our medical plants and drugs are already an 
object of trade to Europe and elsewhere. Many more may be- 
come in demand, when their valuable properties will be better 

H. Anew branch of trade may thus be opened, which it is 
our duty to encourage, by collecting and cultivating our medical 

12. Herbalists and Collectors are often ignorant and deceitful. 
The best way to prevent their frauds^and correct their blunders 
5s, by enlightening them, adopting botanical names, and refusing 
spurious drugs. 



AnAxsoN families of plants. Paris. 

AiTo;^, hortus kewensis — had many new American plants- 

Amebicais- PttARarACOPEiA, or rather of the United States, 

Atlee, Dissertation on Monarda punctata. Fig. 

B. Baiito:^, collections towards a Materia Medica of the United 
States. Phil. 1798, and Suplt. 1804— ?nany medical plants and 
properties indicated, no descriptions nor figures. 

W. BAuxoy, 1. Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States. 
Phih 2 vols. 4'.o. 50 fig.— 2. Flora of North America, 3 vols. 4to. 
106 fig.— Another costly woi-k 'mentioning about 1 plant in 40 
of N. Amer. Descriptions short and flimsy. 

Bartjiax— Travels in Florida and the Southern States. Pliila. 

Beck, plants of Missouri, in Silliman's Journal. 

BrcELo^v, 1. American Medical Botany, 3 vols. 4to. Boston, 
1817, See. 2. Sequel to the American Pharmacopeia, 1 vol. 8vo. 
1822. 3. FloruU Bostoniensis, 1 vol. 8vo — deficient in species 
and descriptions. 

BHicKEii., Essay on the plants of Georgia and N. Carolina. 
Bphsox, Dissertation on 7 medical plants. 
Cadet, Materia Medica Veget. Guyamensis, 1816. 

Cabtjkh. Travels in XnrfK Xmam'^^n 


Cahpenter, on Cinchonas, &c. 

Chapman-, Materia Medica. Fhilad. — mentions some American 

Charleyoix, useful plants of Canada, with figures. 

Claxtok, Flora Virginica, with medical indications. 

CoELJT, Specifica Canadensis, in Amenit, Acad, 

CoEDEJT, useful plants of New York. 

CoRirirT, Plants of Canada, in I-atin and French. 

CoxE, American Dispensatory, Tth Edit. Philad. 182r.— Use- 
ful compilation, few original indications on plants. 

CuEEEa-, Materia Medica, Amer. Ed. Philad. 

Cutler, Plants of New England, rude attempt, many botanical 
mistakes, some medical indications. 

Decasdoxle. 1, French Flora. 2. Species Plantanum. 3, Si- 
nopsis pi. 4. Theory of Botany. 5. Medical Natural Families, &c. 

■All classical works, following and improving the natural me- 
thod, the species pi. is not yet completed. 

DicTioxATHE des Sciences Medicales. Paris. 

DispEjrsAHiEs, or American Edition of European Dispensatories. 

Dissertations on Medical Plants, Inaugural and others, by 
Shultz, Eberle, Tully, Mead, Atlee, Cogswell, Burson, Watkins, 
Dupuy, Horsefield, Macbride, Mease, &c. he. 

Drake, Picture of Cincinnati with a list of medical plants. 

DHATTojf, View of South Carolina, with ditto. 

Duaio^T-CouRSET, Botanlste Cultivateur, 7 vols, 8vo. Paris, 

Df^cak, Amer. Ed. of New Edinburg Dispensatory. 

DniAMEt, Arbres et Arbustes. Paris. 

Eatok, Manual of the Botany of the Northern and Middle 
States, 4th Ed. Albany, 1824 — A popular elementary work as 
good as a Flora. 

EEE>iE2fxs of Botany, by B. Barton, Wildenow, Necker, 
Mlrbel, Scopoli, Sprengel, Link, Sumner, Smith, Lea, Thornton, 
Locke, Nuttal, DecandoUe, Richard, &c. — the best are by De- 
candolle, Sprengel, Wildenow, Mirbel, and Necker, 

ExxioxT, Sketch of the Botany of Carolina and Georgia, 5 vols. 
8vo. Charleston, 1818 to 1822.— Under that modest title, we 
have the best Flora of the Southern States, full of New Species, 
good descriptions and with several medical indications. 


Gardes^, Observations on the plants of Carolina* 

Grqxovixis, Flora Virginica from Clayton's, 

Hekrt, Medical herbal, 1 vol, 8vo. New York, 1814.— Empe- 
rlcal, erroneous in names, descriptions, facts and figures, some 
medical facts, and local names- , I 

HxTNTEB, Narrative, 1 vol. 8vo, Philad. 1824.— Another impos- 
tor, he has given a list of western medical plants with Osage 
names, not to be depended upon nor ascertained. 

Ik AUGURAL Theses of Medical Students, some on medical plants 
with experiments. 

A. Ives, Aroer. Ed. of Paris Pharmacology, 2 vols. 8vo. New 
York, 1825. — Many medical plants introduced. 

E. Ives, Tracts and Observations in Journals. 

Journals, Many Medical and Scientific, Med. Repository* 
Med. Recorder, Med. Register, Med. Museum, New Eng. Med. 
Journal, Silliman's Journal, Philad. Journal of Med., B. Barton's 
Journal, &c, 


JijssTEu, Genera phantarum. Paris, 1789. 
Kalm, Travels in North America. 
Lamark, Dictionary of Botany, 8cc. 

Lauhekce, Catalogue of Medical Plants, cultivated at the Medi- 
cal Garden of New Lebanon, New York. 

Lewis and Clarke, Travels to the Pacific Ocean. 

LiNSiEtrs, 1. Philosophy of Botany. 2. Genera Plantaruin- 
3. Species Plantarum. 4. Materia Medica. 5. Amenitates Acadc- 
mica. Sec, 6. Systema Vegetabilium, &c. — All classical works. 

Mac BRIDE, Medical remarks in Elliott's Flora. 

Marsraitl, American Grove. Philad. 1785. 

Mease, Medical Tracts and Dissertations. 

MicHAUx, Flora boreal! Americana, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1803.^ 
Edited by Richard, incomplete, some figures. 

MicHAux, Junior, American Sylva, 3 vols. 8vo. Paris.^ — Good 
work ; but many trees are omitted. 

MrrcHiLL, Many Tracts and Dissert, in Med. Repository, &c. 
MuHLESBUHtt, 1. Catalogue of Amer. Plants. 2. Gramineft. 



Mchbat, Amer. Ed. cf his Materia Medica. 

NcTTALL, 1. Genera of North American Plants, 2 vols, l2mo 



'Philacl. 1819. Good botanical work.— 2. Elements of Botany. 
1 vol. Bost. 1827 unworthy of him, not keeping pace with ac- 
tual knowledge. 

Vehsoos, Sinopsis Plantarum, 2 vols. Paris, 1805 & T.— Excel- 
lent manual, 

PtXRiLaz, Medical Natural History in French, 2 vols. 8vo. 
1805.— Excellent work and plan, including- the officinal plants. 

Phah:macoi'£ias of London, Dublin, Edinburg, Paris, America, 
Thatcher, Coxe, Dr, Paris, &c. 

PuasH, Flora Americ. Septentr. 2 vols. Svo. Lond. 1815;— good, 
but many oversights, classical, till a better Flora is given j has 
some figures and medical indications. 

II.iris^stiUE, 1, New Gen. Sc Sp. of Amer. plants, and remarks 
on Amer. and Naturalized plants, in Med. Repository, N, York, 
1808.— 2. Precis des Decouvertes Pal. 1814.— 3. Principles of 
Semiology Pal. 1814.— 4. EncycL Journal of Sicily, 1814.— 5. 
AualysisofNature, 1815.— 6. Florula of Lonisian.-^. N.York, 1817- 

7, Plorula Kentuckensis, 1825,— S. Many Tracts and Disserta- 
tions, &c. 

RoBix, Travels in Louisiana, 3 vols. Svo. in French, with an 
Account of the Plants at the end. 

Homeu, SystemaSegetabilium, Zurich, 1818. 

Saltsbuht, Tracts and Botanical Dissertations. 

ScuozpF, Materia Medica Americana potissimum regni vegeta- 
bilis, Erlaiig, 1787,~CIassical on our Materia Medica. 

ScopoLi, Materia Medica, and Botanical works, 

Peter Smith, the Indian Doctor, Dispensary, Cincinnati, 1813. 
A guide for Empirics, some medical facts ; but it is difficult to as- 
certain to what species they apply, no descriptions nor figures, 
nor correct names are given, 

SwEDTATTR, Materia" Medica, Paris, Sec, in Latin. 

Thatchek, Pharmacopeia,— the first to introduce many new 
medical plants. 

Samuel Thompsost, New Guide to Health. Boston, 1825.— An 
Empiric who has introduced some efficient plants in practice. No 
descriptions nor figures, names local. 

ToRRKT, 1. Flora of the Northern and Middle States, 1st voL 
N. Y. 2, Compendium of the same, including all the Species to 


Cryptogamia, N. Y. 1826.— 3. Many Botanical Tracts.— An accu- 
rate writer; classical works. 

TciiT, Medical Tracts in Journals, Stc. 
ViTMAx, Summa plantarum, 6 vols, 8vo- Milan, 1789. 

■only a florula. 

Laborious heavy work on 

.the linnacan plan, carried as far as the Ferns* 

WooDvitiE, Medical Botany, in 4 vols. 4to. with coloured 
figures, London.— Expensive work, noticing about one tenth of 
the medical plants known. 

ZotLicKOFFER, Materia Medica of the United States. Bait. 
1826, No descriptions, and many errors. 




AchenCy a single seed like wheat. 
Jicuminate, abruptly sharp. — Jlcvte, same as sharp. 
Jldnate^ connivent or growing together. 
Alternate^ situated on two sides, but not opposite. 
Amenty catkin or spike of the oak, willow, &c, 

AticipitaU having two sharp sides like a sword. 
Angular, forming angles. 
Annual, lasting only one year. 
Anomalous^ out of order or irregular. 

Axillary, situated at the corner between the stem and loaves- 
Biennial, lasting two years. 
Bijid, divided in two, trifid when in three, &c. 
Binate^ twin leaves or flowers. 
Braety a floral leaf, bracteole a small one. 
Bulby scaly thick root like Onions, Tulips, &c, 
Campanulatey shaped like a bell. 
Capsuh a dry fruit opening by valves or holes. 
Cellsy the internal divisions of the fruit, one celled or unilocu- 
lar, two celled or bilocular, three celled or trilocular, &c. 
Ciliatey having hairs on the edges. 
Clustery or tkyrsusy a bunch of flowers or fruit, like Lilac 

Cordate, shaped like a heart. 

Corymb, umbel wun scattered shafts. 

Cuspidate or mueronate havinor a hrisOp nf iU,. «^,i 

Cylindricy long and round like a 
Deciduous y falling off. 
Decomposedy cut up in many sue 
Deltoidy triangular like a Delta, 
JDickotomey forked several times 
Didinousj with etaminate and n 



Dioicaly having staminate and pistilate flowers on different in- 

Disky the flat part of a leaf or petal, &c. 
Discolor, leaves having two colors, 
Distichal, in two flat rows. 
Drupe, a stone fruit like Peach or Plumb. 
Elliptic^ oblong with rounded ends as an ellipgis. 
Exsert^ protruding out of the flowers, &c. 

Fascicle^ a small bundle of leaves or flowers, called then fasci- 
culate. , 

Filiformy shaped like a thread. 

Fistulose^ a hollow stem, &c, 

FlexnosCi bent in many ways, or crooked. 

Floret ar Floscule^ a small flower in compound flowers. 

Foliole or leaflet^ a small leaf of compound leaves. 

FrondCi leaves bearing the fructification, or stems shaped like 

Fusiform^ shaped like a spindle. 
Glabrousy same as smooth. 
Gladiate, sword shaped. 
Glandular^ having glands. 
Glume-) the perigone of grasses. 
Hastate^ halbert shaped. 

Imbricate^ slanting over each other, like tiles or shingles. 

Inferior^ below something. 

Inflorescence, mode in which the flowers grow. 

Involucre, bracteoles surrounding or annexed to several flowers 

Labiate^ flowers with one or two lips uni or bilabiate^ 

Lanceolate y shaped like a lance. 

Legume J the pods of Peas, Beans, &c. 

LigidatCi like a small tongue. 

Lobe^ a rounded segment, lobed with lobes. 

Lyrate, shaped like a lyre. 

Monoical, having staminate and pistilate flovt'ers on the same 

Muricate, covered with short prickles. 

JV'erveSj prominent fibres in the leaves, &c. 

JVentraly flowers without Stamina nor pistils and stenie 

Oblique or Ohliqual^ having a slanting position, oblique leaves 
like those of the Elm, have two unequal sides. 

Obtuse, not sharp, blunted or rounded, 

OppositCy situated one over the other. 

Orbicular^ perfectly round. 

Ovah shaped like an e^gg^ 

Panicle, a loose bunch of flowers, much divided. 

Pappus, the doAvny or bristly calix of florets. 

Parted, cut into segments, 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 parted, kc. 

Pedicel, a small peduncle, or a branch of it. 

PeduncUy the foot stalk of flowers and fruits. 

Perianthe, the involucre or calix of compound flowers. 


Fetal, parts or leaves of the Corolla, monopetal or peripetal 
having only segments ; 2—3—4—5 petal, having as many leaves 
or petals \polypetal having many petals. 

Per€7mial, lasting several years. 

Persistent, not falling oft' 

Petiole, support of the leaf: petiolate having a petiole. 

Phoranthe, the central part of compound flowers bearm? the 

florets. I f 

Pinnate, leaves having many foliolcs. 
Pinnatifid, having many deep lateral segments. 
Piiinnle, the segments of pinnatifid parts. 

Polygamous^ having complete flowers, as well as some either 
S^amjnate or pistillate, 

PomCi fruit similar to an apple. 
Raceme, a spike with pedicels to the flowers, 
Radiate, having rays or ligulate flowers around the florets. 
Radical, growing from the root. 
Ramose^ branching, divided into branches. I 

Receptacle, the place where the seeds are attached. 
Reniform, shaped like a kidney. 
Refuse, blimt and notched. 
Rugose, wrinkled or roughened by nerves, ice, 
Rimcinate, cut up into sharp segments like a barbed arrow. 
Sagittate, shaped like a forked arrow, 
Scape\ stern, surrounded by radical leaves. 
Segment, a part not quite divided. 
Sepals, the folioles of the Calix or Perigone. 
Sessile, having no support. 
Serrate, toothed like a saw. 
Stliq7i€, the pods of Turnip, Cabbage, &c. 
Sinnafey having sinuses. t 

Solitary, standing by itself. 

Sjyadixy a thick support of many crowded flowers, } 

Spatha, Involucre surrounding a Spadix, or involving flowers. 
Spur, a hollow appendage to some flowers. 
Stipule, appendage to some leaves. t 

Subulate, shaped like an awl. 
SiiperioTy standing above something. 
Terminal, standing at the end, 
Ternate, three by three. , , 

Tomentose^ covered with woolly hairs like cloth. 
Trioical, bearing complete, staminate and pistilate flowers ii^ 
three different individuals. ' 







Tuberous, thick roots like Potatoes and Turnips. 
" ' forming a tube. 



Carrot and Fennel. 


Undulate, having waved margins. 

Veins, fibres of leaves not prominent like nerves. 

Verticillatet forming whorls. 




Xo. 1. 






No. 1. 


'-^* ♦ #'^tV,. 


FiiENCH Name — Acore ODORANT.i..^ ^/ 
German Name — Kalmus, 

Officinal Names — Calamus Aromaticus, Calami 

Vulgar Names — Flag-root, Sweet Cane, Myrtle 

Flag, Sweet Grass, Sweet Root, Sweet Rush. 


Authorities— Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Dispen- 
saries, Schoepf, Woodville, Thacher, Coxe, Swediaur, 
Bigelo\v*s Sequel, W. Barton fig. 30 bad, &c. «S'c. 

Genus Acorus— Spadix cylindrical with crowded 
flowers. Perigone simple, six-parted persistent. 
Stamina six pericentric. Germen one, no style, stig- 
ma punctiform. Capsuls three celled, many seeded. 

Species A. Calamus Var. A-aiericanus— Leaves 
and stems sword shaped, ancipital, stems longer. 
Spadix cylindrical, obtuse, solitary, oblique, subme- 

dial lateral. Capsu)^ oblong acufe. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, horizontal, 
jointed, rugose, nearly cylindrical, from six to 
twenty-four inches long, joints from half an inch to 
an inch long, white, with triangular shades, or rings 
of brown and rose ; the inside is spongy, and loses 
much by dessication ; bunches of coarse fibres hang 








26 ^ 7 i^COaUS. No. 1, 

^ ^ 

1 ne leaves are alt .radical sl^efith 
and variegated of white, rose'a^i- 

w I tlyi 

each side in the middle, the end is -veV'y sharp, 
length from one to three feet. The stems ar/similar 
to the leaves; but commonly longer and bearing 
near the middle on one edge, the spadix or thict 
spike of flowers. 

Spadix solitary, oblique, cylindrical from one to 
three inches long, both ends tapering but obtuse. 
Flowers small, cjowded spirally on it, and yellow 
Perlgone with six equal and truncate segments 
Stamina six, filaments thick, anthers bilobe— Ger 
men one gibbose, oblong, stigma sessile, pointed 
Capsuloblong with many minute, slender seeds. 

HISTORY— The Genus Acorus is so perfectly 
natural that the few species belonging to it, are hardly 
distinguished from each other. The Chinese Acorus 
{^. gramineus) has narrow leaves and the spadix 
nearly terminal. The .Asiatic and Malabar species 
(.^ verus,) has a slender root and thin Iphvp^ 


lilar r 

to the North \merican, and yet differs as much from 
it as the Chinese. The above specific character ap- 
plies to our American variety or species ; while the 
European plant may be distinguished by the follott'- 
ing definition. 

A. Calamus Var. Europeus—L^^xes and stems . 
sword-shaped, nearly equal, hardly ancipital. Spadi* ' 
cyhncWcal, obtuse, oblique, lateral, often double. ' 
i.f CapsuLs trigone obtuse. 




No* 1. ACORUS. 27 

These distinctions hardly amount to specific diifer- 
ence> and therefore the genus might properly be con- 
sidered as having a single type, which being widely 
spread has undergone some variations in China, India, 
Europe and North America. This surmise will be 


confirmed by the habit of these plants being perfect- 
ly identical, and all possessing the same aromatic 
smell and medical properties. 

AcoRUs is a name derived from the Greek and 
alluding to a former belief that it was beneficial for 
disorders of the eyes. Calamus meant a Reed or 
Rush in Greek and Latin. 

This genus belongs to Hexandria Monogynia of 
Linnaeus ; but In the natural arrangement to the tribe 
of Oroivtides, a branch of Typhides, next to the 

growing on the borders of streams and ponds or mea- 
dows, ditches, &c. throughout North America, from 
Canada to Louisiana, east and west of the mountains, 
in company with the Iris or Flags, Typha^ Sparga- 
niitmy Orontium, Juncus^ and other Rushes. The 
fine smell of the leaves and roots, enables to distin- 
guish it from all other Flags and Rushes at any time. 
The roots are the most essential part. They form 
an article of trade in China, Malabar, Turkey. &c. 
In the early stage of the North American Colonies, 
it was exported to England ; and is even now occa- 
sionally sent abroad. It might be carried to China 
where it is esteemed. It grows so copiously that 
there will be no need to cultivate it ; but when it 
may become expedient to produce more, it will be 

gg ACORTTS. ^^^•*- 

very easy to raise it by planting slips of the roots m 
ilitches and swampy grounds. To prepare the roots 
for use or exportation they must be dug, cleaned and 
dried. The best time to collect them is the spring 

and falK 

Cattle will not eat this plant, and it is noxious to 
insects ; the leaves, therefore, maybe used to advan- 
tage agralnst moths and worms. This is owing to 

o^ "» 

their strong smell. Leather can be tanned by the 

whole plant. 

The blossoms appear in May or June ; they are 

yellow and crowded on a thick spike or spadix. 

Qualities — -A chemical examination of the roots, 
evinces the presence of Tannin, Amarine, and an es- 
sential Oil, in which resides the aromatic smell ; but 

this la«t CAVi only bo obtained in tLo prnpnrtinn Oi 

half per cent. The bitter principle is better soluble 
in water than alcohol. 

PROPERTIES— The roots are warm, aromatic, 
pungent and bitter. They are deemed stomachic, to- 
nic, corroborant and carminative. The infusion in 
wine or spirits becomes bitter, but;icquires a nauseous 
flavour. The infusion in water preserves the fine 
smell, and becomes pleasantly warm and bitter. 

It is useful in disorders of the stomach, flatulency, 
vertigo, cholics, dyspepsia, &c. ; candied roots and 
the extract, or chewing the roots and swallowing 
the juice, are efficient in those ca^Nes. — ^The warm 
infusion like tea, cures the wind cholic of infants, 
5?ailors, &:c. 

The dose of the extract is half a drachm. When 

No, 1. ACORUS. gg 

the root is masticated, a copious salivation is produc- 
ed, which has cured the tooth ache- Children are 
fond of this root in many places, and may be indulged 
with it ; the taste is spicy and pleasant. The can- 
died roots are palatable and much used in Asia. 
This root enters into many compound preparations, 
theriaca, mithridate, &c. 

It has been recommended in intermittents, which it 
has cured when the bark had failed , but more effec- 
tual tonics, may be used. 

Substitutes — Panax qidnquefolium or Gin- 
seng — ^inisiim or Aniseed — Jiiigelica — JlUchim 
Solidago odora or Golden Rod — Frasera or Colum- 

bo — with all mild tonics and aromatic-bitter sub- 

Remarks — ^The Iris pseud o-Ji cor us of Europe 

doe<3 not grow in America, and cannot be mistaken 

there for this. Some other Iris roots (I, Jloreniina^ 

/. versicolor^ &c.^ which are also sweet scented, but 

more agreeable, may be distinguished by the violet 

Henry calls this ^^crons ! and gives a bad figure 
of it. 





No. 2- 



French Name — Capillaire du Canada. 

German Name — Frauenhaar. 

Officinal Names — Capil Veneris, HerbaYenerls. 

Filix Veneris. 

Vulgar Names — Maiden-hair, Rock-fern, Sweet- 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 


Charlevoix, French Dispensaries, &e. not in Barton 
nor Bigelow. 

_ * 

Genus Adianttjm — Fern with divided Frond. 
Fructification in small interrupted marginal lines. 
Integument univalve, opening below. 

Species A. Pedatum — Petiole glossy pedale dich- 

etome. Frondules pinnate, folioles alternate, pe- 

tiolate, oblong, trapezoid, entire before and below, 

jagged and fructiferous on the upper margin, obtuse 

and crenate at the end. 

DE:SCRlP'riON— Hoot Perennial, large, fibrous, 
trown. Frond about a foot high ; stems or petioles 
of the Frond smooth, compressed, contorted, shin- 
ing or glossy cliesnut color, forked upwards, and 
each blanch bearing upwards from four to seven 
frondules, the first being the largest, which gives 
the pedale appearance. These frondules are Dinnalc, 



No, 2. 




No. 2. ASXANTUZUC. 31 

elon^^ated, having each from twenty to sixty clistichaL 
foHoles, which are inserted by a corner, and a small 
petiole. The shape is oblong quadrangular, the out- 
side or end being rounded and crenate^ while two 
sides are square and entire ; but the upper side is 
jagged and bears the fructification. Color pale green, 
surface smooth, with many oblique nerves. 

The fructification is marginal on the upper border 
of the folioles, of a pale yellowish color, formed by 
unequal and irregular marginal lines. The integu- 
ment is membranaceous, growing from the margin in 
transversal lines, which extends under it, and open 
Iransversally below, showing the cluster of small 
granular capsuls which they inclose, 

HISTORY— The Jidiantiim Capilveneris of 
Europe is the type of this genus, and has long held 
there a rank in medical plants, as a mild pectoral. 
The specific name meaning hair of Venus, is of old 
standing; the English, French and German namee 
derive from it. 

.?. pedatum possessing the same qualities, being 
larger, and more common, has long been an article 
of exportation from Canada, &c. to Europe; where 
it has gradually superseded the other, although it is 
less fragrant. The specific name indicates the pe- 
dale appearance of the Frond or foliage, the whole 
of which is used and being very easily dried, like all 
ferns, is packed up in bags. It is from Canada and 
Nova Scotia that most is sent, and spread all over 
Europe ; but it could be sent from many other quar- 
ters since it grows all over the United States from- 


New England to Missouri and Virginia. It becomes 
more scarce in the South, being confined to the 
mountains. It delights in rich soil and deep woods, 
but is also found on hills and among rocks. It may 
be collected at any time; but must not be mistaken 


nor blended with the Sweet fern shrub, Comptonia 
Asphni folia, which is a shrub with fragrant leaves. 

This genus belongs to CRrpxoGAMiA Filices of 
Linnaeus. The natural order of Ferns or Filices Is 
very easily known by having a Frond or flat foliage, 
bearing an inconspicuous fructification in lines or 
dots without flowers. All the ferns have a peculiar 
smell, rather grateful, and more or less fragrant ; it 
is very perceptible in the Brake or Pteris aquilina, 
the Thelipteris, Driopteris, &c. Although but 
slightly unfolded in the ^. pedatum, yet it gives a 
flavor to its decoction or syrup. 

QUALITIES— The active qualities of this fern, 
reside in its mucilage united to a small portion of 
aroma and tannin. The same principles are found In 
various proportions in all the other medical ferns. 

PROPERTIES — Pectoral and expectorant, muci- 
laginous, subastringent, ?ubtonic. It 'is used in decoc- 
tion or syrup. The celebrated Syrop de Capillalre 
of the French is made with it, which is a pleasant 
summer drink, and popular pectoral remedy throuo-h- 
out Europe, although little known in America ex- 
cept among the French and Germans. It is found 
useful in all coughs and hoarseness, also in asthma 
and tickling of the throat, and even in pleurisy and 

all disorders of Uie bronchia, lar>nx and breast. 

No. 2. ADIANTtriUC. 33 

Its properties as a promoter of secretions, and a 
cure for the jaundice are doubtful. But it strength- 
ens the fibres and promotes expectoration. It is a 


very good vehicle and auxHiary for pectoral remedies, 

and even for cathartics, such as Croton-oil, Castor-oil, 

&c. which are rendered palatable by it* liiquorice 

may be added to the decoction, instead of sugar, to 

render it more efficient. 

Influenza is often cured by using some of the 

syrup to sweeten its own decoction or any other 

suitable herb tea. It has the advantage that it may 

be used ad libitum, or in any chosen dose. My own 

experience has tested the value of this plant and its 

syrup, in cough and influenza, and I can recommend 

the following cathartic, as one of the most effectual 

and withal pleasant to the taste : One single drop of 
Croton Oil dissolved in a spoon-tull or cup-iun of this 


Substitutes — Althea officinalis or Marsh Mal- 
low — Jlgrimonia — Violet flowers — GauUheria pro- 
cumbens or Mountain Tea — Tnssilago or Coltsfoot 

Pulmonaria yirgiiiica ovjaxxngwovi — Inula He- 
lenium or Elecampane — Evonynitis atropurpnreus 
or Wahoon — Crategvs crusgnfli or American Haw- 
thorn — Marrubium Vulgar e or llorehound, -and 
many sweet Filices, &c. &c 

Remarks — In Ifenry's herbal the figure of this 
plant is nothing like it ; perhaps the ^, capilveneris 

is meant J which, however, does not grow in 


34i AGRZmONXA. No. 5. 

No. 3. 



French Name — Aigremoine Commune. 

German Name — Gemeine Oderminig. 

Officinal Names — Herba Agrimonia. 

Vulgar Names— Cockle-bur, Stickwort, &c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Decandolle, Michaux, 

Pursh, Henry, Schoepf, Dispensaries, &c Not in 

Bigelow nor Barton. 

Genus Agrimonia — Calyx permanent urceolate 
'e toothed, bristly outside. Corolla with five petals 

H^ertetrmrme caiyxT^STamina twelve to fifteen in- 
serted on the calyx. Two germens, two styles, and 
two seeds surrounded by the calyx — Leaves pinnate. 
Species A. Eupatoria— Stem simplej leaves inter- 
rupted pinnate, folioles opposite, sessile, oval, oblong, 
deeply serrate, the terminal petiolate; interfolioles 
short and jagged 

DESCRIPTION— Root Perennial— Stem hairy, 


Leaves alternating, the inferior larger, hairy, pinnate 
pr compound, having from five to nine larger folioles 
and some smaller ones interposed, which are broad 
but short, and much divided. All the folioles are 
ses.sile and opposite except the last. Shape oval or 
oblong, acute it both ends, margin deeply and une- 


IVo. 3 . 




^^'^ 3, AaRXMOKIA. 35 

qually serrated. Inflorescence in a terminal slender 

Flowers small, sessile. 


Corolla and Stamina, bristly, five toothed. Corolla 
yellow, with five oblong petals. Stamina yellow, 
short, anthers oval. Fruit, a small green bur, fi^rm- 
ed by the permanent Calyx, enclosing two seeds, 
convex outside, flat inside, and crowned by the two 
styles. This bur often sticks to clothes, like other 
bristly burs. 

This plant has a wide range, being 
found in Europe, Asia, and North America, with 
hardly any change. It has been deemed medical 
very anciently, and although not very powerful, is 
not destitute of efficiency. 




probably equal in properties ; it merely differs from 
this by narrower leaves, more numerous folioles, 
longer slender spike, and smaller flowers, but more 
fragrant. The ^grimonia Eupatoria is spread 
from Canada to Missouri and Carolina, and grows in 
woods, fields, glades and near streams. The Sgri- 
mo nia parvi flora is raovQ common in the west and 
south. Both blossom in summer. The whole plant 
is used and is slightly fragrant. 

The Genus belongs to the natural order of Rosacea 
or Rhodanthes, next to Poterhtm and Waldstei- 
nia. In the Linnean arrangement it is placed in 
DoDKCAKDRiA Di^yma The name is a classical one, 

and Eupatoria comes from Eupator, to whom many 

36 AORXMOKZA. No. 3. \ 



useful plants were dedicated by the Greeks : here it 
is employed for the species, while in Eupatorium 
it becomes a generic denomination. 

QuALiTi£S — Similar to Adiantum ; hut it has 
less mucilage, and more tannin, with some gallic 
acid. The Aroma is different, rather similar to that 
of Melilot or Clover. 

PROPERTIES— A mild astringent, tonic and cor- 
roborant* Useful in coughs, and bowel complaints. 
Being a very mild astringent it may be given 
diarrhea, dysentery and relaxed bowels. It has ; 
been recommended in many other complaints, and is 
said to have cured the asthma. The best way to 
take it, is in a strong decoction sweetened with honey 
or Maiden-hair syrup. The dose is four cups every 
day- Both root and plant may be boiled. 

Substitutes — Adiantum pedaiiim or Maiden- 
hair — Solidago odora or Golden-rod — Geum vif- 
ginicum—Gkvhoma Hederacea or Ground Ivy 
Rose flowers and all mild vegetable astringents. 

Remarks — This is one of the few plants which 
Henry has not altogether mistaken either in name or 
figure ; yet his figure has both leaves and flowers too 
large and too sharp. 

No. 4 


imSiMJiUZ Sjfiil&WOJ^T. 

No. 4. 



No. 4. 


English Name— MEALY STARWORT. 

French Name — Aletris Meunier. 

German Name — Mehlige Sterngrass. 

Officinal Name — Aletris Radix. 

Vulgar Names — Star-Grass, Blazing Star, Alo- 
root, Bitter Grass, Unicorn Root, Ague Root/ Ague 
Grass, Star-root, DeviPs-bit. 

Authorities— Linnseus, Wildenow, Michaiir; 
Schoepf, Pursh, Elliot, Cutler, Bigelow Mat. Med. 
fig. 50 bad, Bigelow Sequel, &c. 

Genus •Aletris — Perigone simple, corolliform, 
tubular, persisten , six cleft, wrinkled, six stamina 
inserted at the base of the segments. Germ one 
oblong. Style one triangular tripartible Capsul 
three celled, many seeded, opening at the top — Leaves 
radical, stem simple, scaly, flowers in a slender spike. 

Species Al. Farinosa — Leaves lanceolate mucro- 
nate membranaceous, scales adpressed, subulate, 
flowers cylindrical, xvhite, farinaceous. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial small, black 
outside, brown inside, ramose, crooked — Radical 
leaves from six to twelve, ^spreading on the ground 
like a star ; but all ^mcqnal in size, sessile, lanceolate, 
entire, very satoolb, memoraoace.*us, with many 
longitudinal veins, sometimes canaliculate, very 



Ko. 4. 

sharp at the end : they are of a pale green or glan- 
cous, and bleach in winter or by drying; the longest 
are four inches — Stem from one to two feet high, 
very simple and upright, scapiform or nearly naked, 
with remote scales, whitish, adpressed, sometimes 
changing into leaves, subulate, acute. 

Flowers white, forming a long slender scattered 
spike ; each flower has a minute bract and very 
short pedicel; shape oblong, spreading into six acute 
segments like a star at the top, the outside has a 
mealy, rugose appearance — six short stamina are in- 
serted near the mouth, anthers cordate. Germ 
one, central (not inferior) pyramidal. Style one, 
separable into three. Capsul triangular, clothed by 
the perigone, triangular, three valved at the top, 
ihree celled, and with many central minute seeds. 

HISTORY — A true natural genus peAiliar to 
North America, and containing two species very 
similar to each other. The ^. ^urea differs merely 
by narrower leaves, and yellow flowers more cam- 
panulate. The ^. fragratiSy and others of Africa, 
must form a peculiar genus, the OsmantheSj diflferent 
from this in habit and fruit. Both American species 
have the same properties. 

This genus does not belong to Liliacea nor •>^^- 

phodelides ; but to Aloides, next to j9fo€s and Cri- 

num^ in the natural arrangement. In the Linnsean 

it ranks in Hexandria Mdnogynia. Aletris means 

a miller in Greek, and farinosa means mealy in 

Latin ; boih names allude to the mealy appearance of 
(he flowers. 

No. 4. 


This species has a wide range, being found from 
New England to Georgia, and west to Kentucky and 
Missouri. 13iit the A* Aurea is confined to the south 
from Carolina to Alabama. The A. farinosa is also 
inore abundant in the south, and always confined to 
ixiy and poor soils, in sunny glades and iields. It is 
unknown in the rich lunestone soils and alluvial re- 
gions. In Kentucky and the west it is confined to 
the hilly glades, open prairies and barrens of the 
knob-hills. It is estival, blossoming in June and 


Many vulgar names given to it are common to 
other plants, dissimilar in properties if not in aspect. 

The Veratritm luttum or dioicum which is also 
ealled Star-grass, may be distinguished by its thick 
plumose dioical spike. The Sisyrinchium^ another 
Star-grass, has single, blue and triandrous flowers, 
besides long grass leaves. Unicorn -root is also a 
name of Vtrairum and oi Neottia. Ague-root is a 
name applicable to a dozen- roots. Such is the con* 
fusion arising from vulgar names. The root is the 
part employed, and being small, does not afford much 
hope to become an article of trade. 

Qualities — The root contains an intense bitter 
emulsive resin, soluble in Alcohol, somewhat similar 
to Aloes, but less cathartic. This bitter principle is 
also partly soluble in water. The tincture is render- 
ed milky by water. 1 he resin is therefore different 
from Amarine and Aloine, and is perhops a peculiar 
compound, Jlhtrine^ formed by Amarine* an oil and 
ti gum. 

40 AZ.X:TRXS. ^ No. 4. 

PROPERTIES— The root is intensely bitter, like 
Quassia and Aloes. It is a pure resinous bitter, and 
not cathartic like Aloes. It is tonic, stomachic, nar- 
cotic and repercussive. It is employed by many coun- 
try physicians, and Indian Doctors, and highly valued 
by them as well as the Indians. But small doses 
only must be used, because large ones produce nausea, 
dizziness and narcotic effects ; twelve grains of the 
powdered root is to be the largest dose. In repeated 
small doses it invigorates the appetite. The infusion 
or decoction is still preferable and may be substituted 
to Quassia. It cures the flatulent and hysteric cholic 
jind is said to relieve the chronic rheumatism, either 
in powder, tincture or cordial. In fevers it avails 
speedily. Bitters made of it are too powerful. A 
mild cordial is the best spirituous preparation. Dose 
three small glasses each day. 

Substitutes — Quassia — Frasera or Colombo 
Gentians — Sabbatia annularis or Centaury, &c. and 
all the pure intense bitter plants. 

Remarks— The figure given for Aletris by Henry 
is perhaps the Neotlia Cernua ; and his account is 
full of blunders as usual with him. Bigelow's figure 
makes the root green, the leaves too green and too 
broad, &c. 

Schoepf calls it a mild cathartic, and one of the 
plants used against the bite of rattle-snakes. 

No. 5. 



h - 


No. 5. ANDROMEDA. 41 

No. 5. 


English Name— SORREL TREK. 


French Na^te — Andromeoier. 

German Name — Sauer Bausi. 

Officinal Name — Andromeda foHa, lignum, &c' 

Vulgar Names — Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk 
Tree, Elk Wood, Sorrel Wood, Sour Leaf. 

Authorities — Linaseus, Clayton, Michaux Flora 
and Sj^lva, Pursh, Elliot, Schoepf, W. Barton Flora 
fm. 30, 

Genus Andromeda — Calix minute five parted* 
Corolla ovate or cylindric, border five cleft. Stami- 
na ten inclosed equal. One Pistil superior inclosed, 
style pentagonal. Capsul five celled, five valved, 
valves septiferous, many minute seeds. 

Species A» Arborea — Leaves petiolate, oblong 
acuminate, smooth, beneath glaucous ; Panicle termi- 
nal and loose, flowers racemose and lateraL Co- 
rolla ovoid pubescent, anthers -linear mutic. 

DESCRIPTION— A small tree from fifteen to 
forty feet high, seldom fifty to sixty. Branches fiy- 
lindrical, slender. Bark^of thfi stem light brown, of 
the old branches reddish, of the young shoots green. 

Leaves large, crowded, alternate and petiolate, 
from three to six inches long, from one to two broad, 
oblong, base acute, end acuminate, margin often Ufi- 



4^ ANDHOMSD A. No. 5. 

dulate, entire, or sometimes serrulate, nerve with 
regular veins, surface smooth^ glossy, green above, 
glaucous beneath, the young leaves are slightly 

downy at first. 

Flowers white, terminal, one third of an inch long, 
forming a large, loose panicle, composed of many 
long and loose racemes, bearing each from twelve to 
twenty flowers pedunculate, alternate and secund 
Calix small, greenish, with five acute teeth — Corolla 
pubescent ovate with five acute teeth — Stamina and 
Pistil inside of the Corolla; ten equal filaments, an- ^ 
thers small mutic linear — Pistil one, germ oval, 
style pentagonal persistent, stigma obtuse — Capsuls 
ovate mucronate, reddish brown, with five cells con- 
taining many small subulate seeds, imbricate and 

HISTORY— The Genus .Andromeda belongs to 
the natural order of Ericides or extensive heath 
tribe; and to Decandkia Monogi/nia of Linnaeus. 
The name is poetical or mythological, being dedicated 
to the Nymph Andromeda. 

T4iis species is the largest and the only tree of the 
genus, whence its specific name ; all the others being 
shrubs, many of which are ornamental like this, and 
mostly native of North America. This tree attains 
its largest size in the most southern states ; but be- 
comes almost a shrub in Tennessee and Kentucky* 
It blossoms in May. 

The common names of this tree have all a reference 
to the acidity of the leaves and w ood. The elk and 
deer eat tiiose leaves, and even cattle like them* 

No. ^. ANIDHOMEDA. 43 

They are palatable and allay thirst when chewed by 
the hunters in want of water. 


Locality — The Alleghany mountains, and the 
hills and valleys diverging from them, as far as their 
most southern limits in Georgia and Alabama ; but 
seldom met north of Virginia and Kentucky, although 
Schoepf gives New York as its northern ran^e. It 
is unknown in the alluvial and limestone regions. 

Qualities — A fine acid, (is it the malic acid ?) 
similar to that of the cranberries and whortleberries 
is diffused throughout this tree, and most unfolded in 
the leaves ; but united to some astringency owing to 
a mixture of gallic acid. 

PROPERTIES— The leaves and wood are a fine 
astringent acid, refreshing, cooling, allaying thirst, 
and antifebrile, Clayton says that a decoction of 
the leaves mitigates the ardour of fevers, and helps 
their cure. It is useful in all cases where a refriae- 
rant astringent is needed. A kind of lemonade can 
be made with it* It may be substituted to the Rhus 

glabrum^ov shumac, and the cranbeiries. Like shu- 
mac the leaves impart a black color to wool- The wood 
is soft, reddish, and will not burn j but like the buck- 
eye wood may be used to make chip hats and paper. 

Substitutes — Shumac berries — Pomegranate 
Strawberries — Cranberries — Currants — Sorrels^&c. 
with many other mrld vegetable astringents and adds. 

B. Barton mentions the J3. Mariana 
another species as pernicious, but a decoction of it 


useful in ulcers of the feet, for which this might be 

perhaps substituted. 


41; AlTTBXrMZS. No. 6. 



English Name— WILD CAMOMILE. 

French Name — Camomile Puante. 

German Name — Stinket^de Kamille. 

Officinal Names — Cotula, Camomila Spuria. 

Vttlgar Namer — May-Weed, Dog's Fennel, Dil* 
ly, Dilweed, Field weed, &:c. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Wildenow, Pursh, La- 
mark, Schoepf, Dispensaries, Bigelow Seq. W. Bar- 
ton Mat Med. fig. 14. 

Genus Anthemis — Flowers compound radiate 

Perianthe hemispherical imbricate. Rays above five, 
female, Phoranthe conical, chafiy. Seeds naked. 

Species A- Cotula — Annual puberulent, stem 
angular, furrowed, branched. Leaves bipinnatifid, 
^sessile, carinate, pinnules linear, acute. Peduncles 
grooved, naked, thicker above j chaflf bristly, seeds 
abovate, four sided, furrowed. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, crooked, fibrous. 
Stem and leaves ^jovered witl^ short, adprcssed, wooly 
Ivairs. Stem from one to two feet high, erect and 
very much branched, irregularly angular and striated ; 
branches corymbose. l-*eavcs alternate sessile, flat, 
doubly pinnatifid, or afmost pinnate, carinate beneath 
in the middle j pinnules flat unequal, linear, acute, 
entife or trifid. 





No, 6. 



Flowers many, forming a terminal corymb; eich 
on a naked ppduncle, erect, grooved and- thicker up- 
wards- Perianthe or common calyx, hemispherical, 
imbricatfed hairy, rough ; scales lineai', pale green^ 
nearly equal, scariose on the margin and end. The 
central florets of the disk are numerous and bright 
yellow ; those of the rays are ligular, from seven to 
twelve, and while, Phoranthe or common recepta- 
cle conical, covered with short bristly chaflf, or palea. 

Central florets tubular, glandular, five-toothed, with 

five stamina, anthera united. Germ inferior obo- 

vate. Style filiform bifid. Stigmas two filiform 

Rays or ligular florets without stamina, oblong, 
tvyo nerved, bidentate or tridentate at the end. 

Seeds brown, obovate, four sided, grooved and 

HISTORY — The genus Cotula of Tournefort has 
been blended with Anthemis by Linnaeus, from 
which the naked seeds, without a membranaceous 
appendage, and the conical instead of convex phoran* 
the, partly distinguish it, so as to allow of a subgenus 
or section at least. 

There appears to be some differences between the 
^i. Cotula of the north and south of Europe and 
our American plant ; but although the various bota- 
nical descriptions offer several trifling diversities, 
they hardly amount to specific distinctions. Our de- 
scription applies to the American plant. The Euro- 
pean is smoother, more fetid, and sometimes describ- 
ed with bipinnate leaves, and trifid folioles. 1 have 

46 ANTHEMIS. No, 6. 

seen both, and once had distinguished this by the 
name of %^-. Cotuloides ; but being unwilling to inno- 
Tate in this work, I have followed our Botanists in 
uniting the plants of both continents, although I great- 
ly doubt the botanical propriety of it. 

It blossoms from June to November, affording a 
profusion of flowers in succession, of the size of 
Cafnomile, but never double-' The whole plant has a 
strong graveolent smell, disagreeable to some per- 
sons, but not fetid. It is not eaten by cattle nor 
domestic animals. . 

The name of Jinthemis is Greek, and applies to the 
profusion of flowers. Cotula is a diminutive of Coia% 
another plant of the same genus. 

•diithemis belongs to the natural tribe of Radiates, 
section oi Jinthemides. In the Linnean system it is 
placed in class Sxngenesia. Order Polygamia Sii- 

Abundant as it is, the collection of it bej:omes easy; 
the whole plant may be dried when in bloom, or the 
blossoms alone may be collected. 

Locality — Our plant is indigenous and not natu- 
ralized as mentioned by some Botanists. It is spread 
all over the United States from Maine to Louisiana ; 
l)ut confined almost every where to open fields. I* 
is never found in woods, but delights in the sun, road 
sides, stony places and old fields, or near towns and 
Tillages. It is scarce iti mountains, but prefers the 
limestone soils and plains. It is extremely abundant 
on the Ohio and in the Western States, covering ne- 
glected fields, and alternating in fallows with the Iron- 

No. 6. 


weed or Vernonict. It is deemed a troublesome 
weed, although being annual it is easily destroyed by 
early ploughings. 

Qualities — Graveolent, bitter, and nauseous ; 
the smell of the plant resides in a Volatile Oil, pos- 
sessed of a strong or graveolent aroma, and diffused 
through out the plant, although more concentrated in 


the flowers- It is similar to the smell of Camomile, but 
more pungent, and less balsamic. This oil is bitter and 
communicates a bitterish acrid taste to the whole plant. 
PROPERTIES— The same as those of Camomile, 
but weaker and less pleasant to the taste ; it may be 
substituted thereto with safety. It is an active tonic, 
sodorific, stimulant, anodyne, emetic, and repellent; 
extensively used throughout the country for rheuma- 
tism, hj^sterics, epilepsy, dropsy, asthma, scrofula, &c. 
both internally and externally. The external use in 
warm baths or fomentations is pr6per in rheumatism, 
hysteric fits, suffocations, hemorrhoidal swellings, 
pains and contusions, Thedecoctfon and infusion are 
given for colds, fevers, rheumatism, asthma, &c. but 
a single cupful, if too strong, may produce vomiting, 
and even a weak infusion nauseates the stomach. It 
acts always as a sudorific, promoting copious sweating, 
and is often beneficial as an auxiliary to an emetic. 
In lar<^e doses it becomes emetic : in small ones it is 

a gentle tonic and diaphoretic, useful whenever it is 
needful to promote perspiration in fevers. Its advan* 
tages in epilepsy, dropsy and scrofula, are doubtful. 
The European plant is said to blister the hands, which 
u not llie case with oure. 

48 ANTEEMZS. No. 6. 

Substitutes — Camomile or Matricaria Chamo- 
Tnila — Evpaiorium ptrfoliatum — Rula vulgaris 
or Rue — Hedeoma pulegioides or \ enny^royal 
Marrubium Vulgare or Horehound — Achillea mil- 
Ufolium or Yarrow — Tanacetum or Tansey, with all 
the ^raveolent bitter tonics and sudorifics. 

I:emark;s — The figure in Henry's, under the name 
of Mayweed, is quite fictitious, having entire leaves; 
:but his article applies to this plant. 








No. 7 






No. 7 APOCltJit witt. 49 

No. 7. 



French Name — Apocyn Amer. 

German Name — Fliegen Fangemdes. , 

OiFiciNAL Name — Apocynum radix. 

Vulgar Names — Milk-weed, Bitter-root, Honey- 
bloom, Catchfly, Flytrap, Ipecac. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Kalm, Michaiix, Pursli, 
Schoepf, Elliot, Bigelow, fig. 36, &c. 

' Genus Apocynum— Calyx five clefl:. Corolla bell 
shaped, five cleft. Five Corpuscles surrounding the 
germ. Five Anthers alternating with them, conni- 
vent and jfdhering by the middle to the stegyne or 
cover of the pistils, which are two, small and conceal- 
ed ; succeeded by two follicles, with numerous downy 


Species A. Andbosemifolium — Smooth, stem 

erect, dichotome ; leaves petiolate, opposite, entire, 

acute-; cymes nodding, lateral, and terminal, beyond 

the leaves. Follicles linear. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, large, bitter 

and milky like the whole plant. Stem very smooth as 

well as the leaves, lactecent and with a tough fibrous 

, bark : from three to five feet high, with few branches 

' and leaves, cylindrical, often rose coloured : forked 

several times upwards. Leaves opposite, petiolate, 


oQ AFOCTNUM* No. 7. 

pale beneath, ovate, acute, entire, two or three inches 
long, with one large nerve. - 

Flowers on cymose racemes, lateral and terminal; 
always longer than the leaves, lax nodding and few 
flowered. Minute acute bracts on the peduncles. 
Calyx short, five cleft, acute.^ Corolla white, tinged 
with red, similar to a little bell, divided into five 
spreading acute segments at the top. Stamina five, 
with short filaments, anthers connivent arrow shap- 
ed, cohering with the stegyne or singular body co- 
vering and concealing the pistils, (mistaken for a stig- 
ma by many Botanists) : it is thick and round. Five 
glandular corpuscles, (called nectaries by some,) al* 
ternate with the stamina. Two pistils ovate, con- 
cealed, two sessile stigmas. Fruit a pair oi follicles, 

single stigma. 

^pocynum means dogsbane in Greek, and the 
specific name implies the similitude of the leaves to 
^ndrosemum. There are some other species of the 
same genus in North America, but none so pretty^ 

All have small white flowers, while in this the flo^'- 





slender, linear, acute, drooping, cylindrical. Seeds 

numerous, oblong, embricate, seated on a central re- 

ceptacle or spermophore, and crowned by a long 


HISTORY— A pretty and interesting plant be- , 
longing to a very distinct genus, which gives name to | 
a large natural tribe of plants the Apocynes, distin- 
guished by the singular stegyne, double follicles, &c. 
In the Linnaaan system they are put in PentandRI'* 
digyniaj although the stegyne was mistaken for » 




No. r. AP0C717UAK. 5i 



crs are larger, flesh or rose coloured. The ./^p. can^ 


has been used by the Americans to make 
a kind of hemp : the fibrous tough bark of all the spe- 
cies are calculated to afford it by maceration. All 
have a bitter milky juice, ahd yet the flowers smell 
of honey, and produce that sweet substance. 

Bees and other insects, collect this honey; bat 
small flies are often caught by inserting their probos- 
cis between the fissures of the anthers, where it i^ 
not easy for them to extricate it ; they are often seen 
dead in that confined situation, after unavailing strus:- 

gles. Whence one of the names of this plant, Catch- 
fly. No animals eat it. 

Locality — Rather a common plant, found from 
Canada to Georgia and Missouri. It grows in woods, 
hills, dry or sandy soils, along fences, and over old 
fields : it is rare in limestone soils, and rich land. It 
blossoms in summer from June to July. 

Qualities — Kalm has mentioned this plant to be 
poisonous and blistering like Rhus Vernix ; but it is 
quite harmless. The root when chewed ha^ an in- 


tensely bitter and unpleasant taste, perceptible in the 
whole plant in a lesser degree, except the flowers, and 
arising from the bitter milk it contains. The decoc- 
tion is of a red colour and very bitter. The spiritu- 
ous solution is colourless but bitter. It contains there- 
fore a bitter principle soluble in water and alcohol, 
and a colouring principle not soluble in alcohol ; be- 
sides a volatile oil and caoutchouc. 

PROPERTIES — This is a very active plant, high- 
ly valued by the Southern Indians. It is tonic. 

52 APOCYmritt. No. f. 

emetic, alterative and syphilitic. The root is the 
most powerful part : but it must be used fresh, since 
time diminishes or destroys its power. At the dose 
of thirty grains of the fresh powdered root, it acts as 
an emetic, equal to Ipecacuana ; in smaller doses it is 
a tonic, useful in dyspepsia and fevers. The Chicka- 
saw and Choctaw Nations employ it in syphilis, and 
consider it a specific, they use the fresh root chewed, 
.swallowing only the juice. This later use has beeu 
introduced into Tennessee and Kentucky as a great 
secret. It must act as a tonic in all those cases, to- 
nics being often emetic and anti venereal. An ob- 
jection to this plant is its nauseous bitter taste. Many 
substitutes may be found of a less disagreeable na- 

Substitutes — Ipecacuana — E up at or mm per Jo- 
liaium — Prenanthes opicrina— Lobelia siphilitka 

Aletris farinosa — Sanicula marilandica-^Eu- 

phorbia CoroUafa §* E. Ipecacuana Frasera 

Mezeyeon — Guayacum, &c. and all bitter tonics or 

Re^iarks — Barton and Henry have not mentioned 
this plant. Bigelow represents it with leaves too 
sharp or acuminate. All the other species of the same 
genus have the same properties in a lesser degree- 
The A. cannabinum is distinguished from this by 
smaller leaves and flowers in shorter panicles ; ^vhile 
the Jl. hypericifolium has prostrated sipms \vlth nar- 

and lakes. 


No. 8 




^o. 8. 


No. 8, 




French Name — Petit Nard. , 
German Name — Nardwurzel Aralie. 
Officinal Names — Aralia radix, Nardus Ameri- 


Vulgar Names — Spiknard, Sassaparil, Sarsaparil- 
la. Wild Liquorice, Sweet-root. 

Authorities — Linnasus, Wildenow, Michaux, 
Pursh, Schoepf, Colden, Dispensaries, Bigelow Se- 

Genus Aralia — Calix united or superior five- 
toothed. Petals five entire. Stamina five epigyne 
alternate. Pistil united to the calix, five styles and 
stigmas. Berry crowned hy the calix and styles, 
five celled, five seeded — Flowers in simple umbels. 

Species A. Nudicaulis — Stem naked, straight, 
smooth, bearing three umbels without involucrum : 
leaves radical, biternate ; folioles ovate, acuminate, 


DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, brown, yellow- 

ish, cylindrical, creeping twisted, sometimes many 
feet long, thickness of the finger. One stem and one 
leaf mostly rising together, and less than two feet 
high. The stem is straight, leafless, cylindric, with 
tliree small simple naked umbels at the end. Leaf 


5i} ARAXilA. No. 8. 


biternate or with nine folioles, the lateral ones sessile, 
the terminal ones petiolate^ all ovate, oblong, round- 
ed at the base, end acuminate, margin serrulate^ sur- 
face smooth. Sometimes some folioles are coales- 

Flowers from twelve to thirty in each umbel, pe- 
dunculate, small, yellowish. Calix greenish, obconi- 
cal, united to the pistil, crowned with five teeth. 
Petals five, oboval, obtuse, yellowish white. Five 
stamina and five styles filiform. Berries small, round, 

similar to Elder berries in size. 

HISTORY—The genus Jlralia is the type of a 
natural tribe the Aralides, to which Panax or Gin- 
seng belongs likewise ; this last diflfering only by hav- 
ing two styles and two cells instead of five. This 
family differs from the Umbellate by producing 
berries instead of two seeds. All the plants of this 
genus and family have active properties. Two other 
American species *^. racemosa and J3. hispida^ have 
the same properties as this, and may be used for each 
other. The A. spinosa pr Angelica Tree partakes of 
the same, and also of the properties of Angelica root 
and Xanthoxylum. 

Aralia belongs to Pentandria pentagynia of 


This species blossoms in summer. It is often called 
Sarsaparilla, the root being similar to that article, and 
having similar properties. It might become an arti- 
le of trade as such, and deserves to be cuUivated. 

LocALiTT— Found from New-England to Carolina, 
And Indiana, more common in the north than the 


No. 8. AHAtXA. 55 

south : it delights in deep woods, shady groves and 

valleys, good* soils, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant is balsamic, fragrant, 
and has a warm aromatic sweetish taste ; most un- 
folded in the root and berries* They contain muci- 
lage, aroma, and an essential milky oil or balsam. 

PROPERTIES— All the Spikenards or Aralias 
are popular medical plants throughout the United 
States : they made part of the Materia Medica of the 
native tribes, and are extensively used by country 
practitioners. They are vulnerary, pectoral, sudori- 
fic, stimulant, diaphoretic, cordial, depurative, &c. 
The roots and berries are most efficient ; in •/?• spi- 
nosa the bark. 

The roots bruised or chewed, or in poultice, are 
used for all kinds of wounds and ulcers by the In- 
dians. Fomentations and cataplasms are useful for 
cutaneous affections, erysipels and ring-worms* An 
infusion or a decoction of the same, are efficient sub- 
stitutes for those of SarsapariUa, (and more powerful,) 
in all diseases of the blood, syphilitic complaints, 
chronical rheumatism, local pains, cardialgy, belly- 
ache, &c. As a pectoral both roots and berries may 
be used in syrups, cordials, decoctions, Sec. and have 
-been found useful in coughs, catarrh, cachexia, lan- 
gour, pains in the breast, &c» The cordial of Spike- 
nard berries is recommended for the gout, and the 
juice or essentia] oil for the ear ache and deafness. 

Substitutes— All the Aralias— Elder— Sarsapa- 
riUa — Guayac — Angelica-root— Cw/ieVa mariana 
Sassafras~Ginseng~£:r^7^o•^MW aquaticum — Xan 


56 ARAX.ZA. No J. 

thoxylum or Prickly Ash — ^Magnolia Bark — Collin- 

sonia Canadensis, &c. and many aromatic stimu- 

Remarks — Henry calls this plant Nardus Ame- 

TicanuSy and his figure is fictitious, being like Fennel. 

Since all our species may be substituted to each 
other, and we can only give the figure of one at pre- 
sent, it may be well to add a i^hort notice of each. 

Root larger and 
thicker. Plant larger. Stem leafy, leaves similar to 

cordate folioles. 
Flowers in large axillary clusters, formed of many 
racemose umbels — Common from Canada to Alabama. 

Ji. hispida or Rough Spikenard — Stem hispid, 
leaves decomposed, folioles small oval, umbels ter- 



minal, &c.— Confined to Canada, New 



A. spinosa or Spikenard Tree, called also Angeli- 
ca Tree, Tooth-Ache Tree, and Prickly Elder— A 
small tree full of thorns, leaves ample, decomposed, 
prickly. Flowers terminal, forming an ample pani- 
cle of umbels—From New-York to Georgia, and 
west to Missouri, &c. 

No. 9. 



^ ■ l* iH 

No. 9. ABBI7TVS. 57 

No. 9. 


English Name—BEAR-BERRY. * 
French Name— Bousserole RAisin d*Ours. 
German Name — Erdbeartege Sandbeere. 

^ L 

Officinal Name — Uva-Ursi, 

Vulgar Names — Mountain Box, Redberry, Up- 
land Cranberry, 

Authorities — Linnaeus, WoodviUe, Michaux, 
Pursh, J. S. Mitchell, Murray, Girardi, Dispensa- 
ries, Schoepf, Ferriar, Dehaen, B. Barton, Bigelow, 
fig. 6, and Sequel, &c. 

Genus Arbutus — Calix five parted and free. Co- 
rolla ovate, five toothed. Stamina ten basilar, fila- 
ments hairy, anthers bifid, each part bipore. One 
pistil, one style, stigma simple* Berry free, five 

Species A. Uva-Ursi — Stem procumbent; leaves 
scattered, cuneate, obovate, entire, coriaceous : flow- 
ers in small clusters, peduncles reflexed, bracteolate: 
berries globular^ smooth, five seeded. 

DESCRIPTION— Roots perennial, creeping, slen- 
der. Stems procumbent, trailing, cespitose, radicate, 
the young shoots tending upwards, cylindric, cuticle 
pealing off. Leaves numerous, scattered, variable in 
shape, narrow or broad, always acute and alternate at 
the base, on short petiols, thick, coriaceous, evergreen^ 

58 AHBVTUS. No. 9. 


and smooth, shining above, pale beneath, margin en- 
tire, thick or rounded, and nearly obtuse. -^ 
Flowers nearly terminal in a small racemose clus- 
ter, from silc to twelve together, of a pale, rosy, flesh 
colon Peduncles shorter than the flowers, colored, 
reflexed, with some minute acute bracts, two ojf which 
in the middle. Calix colored, with five rounded 
acute segments. Corolla ovate, urceolate, white with 
a rosy tinge, transparent at the base, contracted above, 
hairy inside, with five acute, short, and reflexed scg- 

or teeth. Ten equal stamina inserted at the 
base of the corolla, with hairy, short, cuneate fila- 
ments, anthers equal in length, bifid, each part with 
two pores. Germ round, style straight, longer than 
the stamina, stigma obtuse. A black indented and 
persistent ring around the base of the germ, called 
nectary or gynophore. Berries globular, depressed, 
of a scarlet color, pulp insipid, mealy, five seeds al- 
most coalescent together. 

HISTORY — The G. Arbutus is very near to VaC' 
ciniumy (whortleberry,) differing chiefly by the free 
calix and berry, and to Andromeda, which has a cap- 
sul instead of a berry for fruit. It is divided into two 

ra.) 1. Unedo 



JIairaniay a smooth five seeded berry. To this 
last belongs our actual species. Arhutus is an an- 
cient name, Mahania is dedicated to the French phi- 
losopher Mairan, Uva-Ursi means Bear's-grape in 
Latm. It was known under this last name to the 

Greeks, and Galen mentions it as a medical plant. 

No. 9. ARBimrs. 09 

Belonging to the natural order of Ericines, (heath 
tribe,) section with berries : and to Decandria »w- 
nogynia of Linnaeus* 

Locality — This plant is scattered throughout the 
northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia and America. 
In Europe, found from Lapland to the Pyrenees and 
Apenines. In Asia, from Armenia and the Volga to 
Kamtschatka. While in America it grows from Ice- 
land and Greenland to Hudson Bay and Alaska, ex- 
tending south to Canada, New-England, the high* 
lands, and hills of north New-Jersey. It covers dry, 
stony and gravelly soilsj barren spots^ and even sandy 

It blossoms late, and the red berries are ripe in 
winter. These are eaten by bears, and many other 

The leaves are chiefly used, and may be easily dried. 
In Sweden and Russia they form an article of trade^ 
being used to tan Russia leather. They begin to be 
collected in America. 

The Indians smoke them like tobacco, and call 
them Sagack-homi in Canada. They dye black. 

QuAitiTiES — Taste astringent, styptic and bitterish; 
inodorous. It abounds in Tannin, which is the active 
principle, and is easily soluble in water. The other 
substances are mucus, resin, lime, and bitter extrac- 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, tonic and diuretic. 

It was extolled once in Europe as a remedy against 
gravel ; but has since been found to be only a toler- 
able palliative in nephritis, gravel, calculous cases, 

eo ARBUTUS. No. 9. 

L 4 

disury, strangury, acting as an astringent, useful even 
when other remedies fail. Dr. Wistar, B. Barton, 
Mitchell, Bigelow, &c. recommend it in those cases. 
It has also been used for leucorhea, gonorhea, the ci- 
tarrh of the bladder, menorhagia, debility, diabetes, 
ennuresis, disentery, ulcerations of the kidneys and 
bladder, and has often given relief or even cured } 
yet more efficient tonic remedies may be substituted. 

It was once recommended in pulmonary consump- 
tion ; but it only abates the hectic fever. 

The powder, decoction or syrup, may be used. 
The doses are from five to twenty-five grains of the 
powder, or a wine glass of the decoction ^very hour, 
A syrup of the leaves and berries is made in Sweden, 

which is preferable* 

Substitutes — Chimojjhila or Pipsisevor— ^^'i' 
geron Philadelphicinny &c. — Hencfiera or Alum- 
root — Geranium maculatum — Statice CaroUnid^^^ 

.Vsparagus — Strawberries — Tanniu — and many aS' 
tringehts, acids, tonics and diuretics. 


Remarks — ^The figure of iienry is fictitious. 


No. 10. 







No. 10. 



French Name — Sebpjsntaibje de Virginie. 
German Name — Schlangen Osterluzet* 

Officinal Name — Serpentaria Virginiana. 

Vulgar Names — Virginia Snakeroot, Snakeweedy 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Woodville, 
Pursh, Elliot, Catesby> Colden, Cornutus, Moseley, 
B. Barton, Bigelow fig, 49, W. Bart. 2. fig- 28, s^nd 
all the Dispensaries, Pharmacopeias and IVIateria Me- 
dicasj &c. 

Genus Aristolochia — Perigone tubular colored. 
base swelling, tuhQ tortaose, Vimh labiate, often ligu- 
lar. No corolla. Germ inferior : stigma sessile Iobe<l# 
surrounded by six stamina epigynous sessile. Capsu! 
six celled, many seeded. 

Species A. Serpentaria — Stem simple flexuose; 

leaves lanceolate, cordate, entire^ and acuminate : 
flowers bilabiate subradical, peduncles curved, uni- 
flore, scaly and jointed. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, knotty and gib- 

bose, brown and very fibrous, fibres long, small, yel- 
low when fresh — Stems round, slender, weak, flex- 
uose, jointed, less than a feot high, bearing from three 
to seven leaves, and from one to three flowers — Leaves 


6^ AzasToi-ocazA. no. iq. 

alternate and petiolate, oblong or lanceolate^ base cor- 
dolate, end acuminate, margin entire, sometimes un- 
dulate, surface smooth or pubescent, of a pale green. 
Flowers nearly radical and solitary, on peduncles cur- 
ved, jointed, colored, with some small scales- Germ 
inferior, perigone redish or purplish, tube crooked, 
limb bilabiate, upper lip notched, lower entire, both 
short and lobular. Six sessile anthers, oblong, ob- 
tuse, attached to the sides of a large round sessile 
stigma. Capsul oboval, with six angles, six cells, 


HISTORY — The genus Aristolochia requires a 

thorough investigation and reform, being rather a fa- 
mily than a genus : two subgenera at least must be 
made of it. 

1. Glossula. Flow^ers unilabiate and liiTuIar. True 
type of the genus. 

2. Pistolochia. Flowers bilabiate and ringent. To 
this belong A, serpentaria, A. ringens, A. bilahia- 
ta, &c. 

\yhile many species widely deviating from the ge- 
neric characters must form peculiar genera, such as 
Siphi^'ia, Flowers not labiate, limb equal triloba. 



dra, and perhaps Bigelow's A. serpentaria, 

Einomdu. With only five stamina, capsul five 
Celled, such as j3. pentandra, &c. 

The actual species is by no means very definite as 
yet. The \ irginia Snakeroot of Commerce is col- 
lected from half a dozen species or varieties, .9, hat- 



fatuy A. tomeniosa^ and many called A* serpenta- 
riay because they have consimilar leaves and roots, 
while the flowers are different. The A. serpentaria 
of W. Barton appears to be a peculiar variety, with 
long slender peduncles, having few scales and not co- 
lored, while the flowers are small, purple, and hard- 
ly bilabiate, 


Bigelow's plant, which is from the Southern States, 
has the leaves trinervate, less acuminate, and more 
undulate ; while the flowers are large, bilabiate and 
red, scales; many and broad, stamina twelve ! and stignxa 
lobed convolute. , This may be a distinct species be- 
longing perhaps to Endodeca, 

Our figure is from a large flowered" variety of the 
western glades ; but many other varieties exist there, 
one has broad leaves. 

All these plants blossom but seldom or once in their 
lives, in May or June; being very similar to each 
other, (except ji. tovientosaj) they are collected in- 
discriminately. The roots alone enter into Com- 
merce, and sell for more than the Seneca Snakeroot. 
They are an article of exportation to Europe. 

Aristolochia belongs with Asamm to the natural 
order of Asarides. Linnaeus has put it into Gi'nan-- 

DRiA hexandria. 

Locality— In shady wooda from New-England to 
Florida and Missouri, most abundant in the Allegha- 
ny and Cumberland mountains;, scarce in the alluvial 

and limestone regions. 

QtTAxiTiEs — The root has an agreeable, penetrating, 
aromatic smell, somewhat similar to Valerian and 


Spruce : and a warm bitterish pungent taste. It 
contains pure camphor, a resin, a bitterish extractive, 
and a strong essential oil. By distillation a pearly 
fluid is produced. By infusion in alcohol, it gives a 
yellow or green tincture ; and in water a brown li- 
quor : the tincture is most powerful. By decoction 
or distillation much of its active principles evaporate. 

PROPERTIES— Diaphoretic, tonic, anodyne, an- 
tispasmodic, cordial, antiseptic, vermifuge, exanthe- 
matic, alexitere, and a powerful stimulant of the whole 
system. It was first introduced into Materia Medica 
as a remedy against snake bites, whence its name, and 
was used as such by the Indians, with many other 
plants : it acts then as a sudorific and antiseptic. It 
is useful in the low stage of fevers to support strength 
and allay irregular actions : too stimulant in infiam- 
matory fevers and disorders ; but an excellent auxili- 
ary to Peruvian bark and other tonics in interniit- 
tents, enabling the stomach to bear them, and increas- 
ing their effects. In remittent fevers it is preferable 
to bark. It is deservedly a popular country remedy 
in infusion, for pleurisy, exanthems, cachexia, catarrh 
rheumatism, &c. acting as a sudorific. In bilious 
pleurisy it has been found highly serviceable : in 
Hous complaints it checks vomiting and tranquillizes 
the stomach. In typhus and typhoid pneumonia it 
has beneficial effects, promoting perspiration, check- 
ing mortification, and abating the symptoms. 

Thus the Snakeroot may be deemed an active and 
valuable medicine, it is often associated with other to- 
nics, and camphor, opium, valerian, &c. to increa?* 





No. 10. AXIXSTOZ.OCHXA. 6.^ 

their action* It is probably a good substitute for cam- 
pbor and valerian in many cases. The doses of the 
powder are from ten to thirty grains, often repeated, 
or an ounce of the warm infusion every three hours. 
Wine is an excellent vehicle for it in fevers. ISIany 
compound tinctures contain it. When too stimulant 
Spikenard {Aralia) and Elder {Sambucus) may be 
substituted to advantage* 

Substitutes Camphor Rosemarj^ Seneca 

Snakeroot — Eupatorhim perfoliatum — Asariim 
Canadense and Virgimciim — All the native Arts- 
tolochias — GauUheria procumbenSj and many otlief 
tonic and diaphoretic stimulants. 

RjcMxVRKS — The bark, seeds, and roots of the A- 
Sipho, (or Siphisia glabra y) called vulgarly Dutch- 
man-pipe flower or Pipe Vine, may be substituted, 
having the same properties. It is a tall vine, with 
lar^^e cordate smooth leaves, and brown flowers like 
a pipe with a trilobe mouth, growing on the Ohio, &c. 

»^. tomentosa (or Siphisia tomentosa) is a low 
vine, with cordate woolly leaves, growing in the 

Western States* 

A. hastata is a small plant, with long narrow 
leaves, having obtuse auricles at the base : it grows 
in the Southern States. The roots of these two last 
are often mixed with the common kind in the shops. 

Henry's figure represents probably the A. tomen- 
tosa, but the leaves are too sharp. 

y o 


66 Anuat. iNo.ii. 

No. 11. 





French Name — Pied-de-Veautriphyi-le. 
German Name — Dreyblattrige Aron. 
Officinai. Name — Arisarum trifolium, Arum ra- 


Vulgar Names — Indian Turnip, Dragon Root, 
Dragon Turnip, Pepper Turnip. 

Authorities — ^Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Elliotj 
Schoepf, Dispensaries, Bigelovv fig. 4, Sequel, &c. 

Genus Arum — Spathe univalve cucuUate, convo- 
lute at the base* Spadix naked above : no perianthe. 
Stamina and pistils naked separated at the base of the 
spadix : filaments with two or four anthers ; berries 
conglomerate, one celled, few seeded. 

Species A. triphylluTn — Leaves radical, ternate, 
folioles sessile, oval, acuminate, entire and smooth : 
scape with one spathe ovate acuminate, inflexed : spa- 
dix club shaped, shorter : flowers polygamous, trioi* 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, round, flatten- 
ed, tuberous, with many white fibres around the base: 
skin dark, loose, and wrinkled. — Leaves one or two 
on long sheathing petiols, three folioles very smooth 
and sharp, pale beneath, oval or rhomboidal or ob- 
long, entire or undulated, with re^lar oarallel nervesv 

No. It. 



No. 11. ARU««*. 67' 

Scape or leafless stem, tunicated at the base by vagi- 
nated membranaceous acute sheaths, supporting one 
large upright spathe, tubular at the base, hooded at 
the top, either green or purple, or variegated with 
both colours in stripes within. Spadix cylindric, ob- 
tuse at the top, also variable in colour, bearing the 
flowers at the base where it is contracted. Some plants 
have only stamina, others pistils, and others have 
both, wherefore it is polygamous trioicious. Anthers 
two or four on short crowded filaments. Pistils crowd- 
ed below, round, without styles, stigma punctiform. 
Sometimes abortive pistils and stamina intermixed. 
The upper part of the spadix withers with the spathe, 
while the pistils grow into a liirge compact head of 
shining scarlet berries. 

HISTORY — Arum is the type of a natural family, 
the Aroipes, among Monocotyle plants. In theLin- 
naean system it has been put in Gynandy^ia or in Po- 
li/andria ; yet many species are polygamous. Lin- 
na^ius did very improperlj^, and against his own bota- 
nical rules, change the previous name of Tournefort 
Arisariim into Arirmy which is a mere termination 
of many otlier genera, Asaru7n, Comarum^ Sic. : 
tTiphyllum means three leaved. 

The A. tryphillum blossoms w^ith us from May to 
July, and in the summer bears its bright scarlet ber- 
ries. The vulgar names are common to all the North 
'American species, which have similar roots. Their 
leaves are sensible to a harsh grasp like Onoclea sen- 
sibilis^ and the A. draconfAum coils them when pluck- 



68 ARUia. No.ii.- 

A. esculentiitn (notwithstanding their caustic pun- 
gency) by long coction ; they were eaten by the In- 
dians roasted and otherwise. 

Locality — All over North America in woods : it 
is said to extend to South America as far as Brazil ; 
but probably a different species is found there. All 
soils and regions appear to suit this plant : it delights 
however in good, rich, and shady grounds. 

Qualities — The whole plant, and particularly the 
root, is violently acrid, pungent, and even caustic to 
the tongue, but not to the skin. It burns worse than 

or Cayenne pepper. This active princi- 


At 01 

having no affinity with water, alcohol, oil or acids, 
and becoming an inflammable gas by heat or distilla- 
tion. The roots yield one fourth of their weight of a 
pure amylaceous matter, like starch or arrow-root, 
or a fine white delicate nutritive fecula, by the same 
process as Cassava or Jatropha manihot. 

PROPERTIES— Powerful acrid, stimulant, inci- 
sive, restorative, expectorant, calefacient, carmma- 
tive and diaphoretic. The fresh roots are too caus- 
tic to be used internally, unless much diluted, and 
when dry they are often inert, unless they have been 




lasse*^, since it does not impart its pungency to any 


to a pulp, with three times their weight of sugar, 
thus forming a conserve, Uie doac of which is a tea 
spoonful twice a day. 

No. 11. ARUM. 6§f 

In these forms it is used for flatulence, cramp in the 
stomach, asthmadc and consumptive aifections. It 
quickens circulation, and promises to be a useful to- 
pical stimulant when the acrid principle may be ren- 
dered available. It has been found beneficial in lin- 
gering atrophy, debilitated habits, great prostration 
in typhoid fevers, deep seated rheumatic pains, or 
pains in the breast, chronic catarrh, &:c. 

Substitutes — Capsicum — Salep — Erythronium 
Squill — Arrow-root — Polygonum hydroptper — Salvia 
iirtidfolia — Cyclamen europeum — Arum dracontium, 
and other native Arums — besides Ranunculus bulbo- 
misy and some other acrid pungent substances. 

Remarks — A^ dmcontium has a large pedate leaf, 
with five to fifteen oblong segments, and grows in the 
Southern and Western States- 

A. virginicum has sharp, wide, cordate leaves, and 

grows in Virginia, &c. 


gron\s from Ne 

All these 

have similar roots, seedsy and ^roiperiies. 

Henry has assumed the name and figure of the Eu 
ropean A. mactilatum for this plant* 


70 ASARU3ML No. 12 

T ■ 

No. 12. 



Frenxh Name — Asaret dtj Canada. 
German Name — Canadische Haselwurz. 
Officinal Names — Asari Canadensis, radix and 

Vulgar Names — Wild Ginger, Indian Ginger, Ca- 
nada Snakeroot, Heart Snakeroot, Coltsfoot, &c. 

Authorities — Linnteus, Schoepf, Michaux, Pursh, 
Cornut, Coxe, Dispensaries, B. Barton, W. Barton, 
% 32, Bigelow fig. 15 and Sequel. 

Synonyms— J. latifolium of Salisbury. A. caro- 
li?iianum of Walter. 

Genus Asarum — Perigone urceolate trifid. Sta- 
mina twelve epigynous, anthers adnate. Germ coa- 
lescent with the base of the perigone, style sdort, 
stigma stellated six parted. Capsul six locular, many 
seeded. — Stemless, leaves radical geminate, flowers 
solitary in the bifurcation. 

Species A. Canadense—'Le&ves broad, reniform, en- 
tire, puberulent : flower woolly, tripartite, segments 
lanceolate reflexed. 

DESCRIPTION-Roots perennial, creeping, 
fleshy, cylindric, jointed, with scattered fibres, brown 
outside, white inside— Radical leaves, geminate, pu- 
bescent, with long and round petioles, reniform or 

No. 1 2. 






Ko. 12. ASARX7M. Yi 


kidney shaped, broad, entire, tip often mucronatebut 
obtuse, surface puberulent, veined like a net work, 
and often spotted, glaucous beneath. No stems. 
Flower solitary between the two leaves, on a curved 
peduncle, tomentose, purple, darker inside. Peri- 
gone with three equal segments, acuminate reflexed. 
Stamina twelve unequal, filaments mucronate, an- 
thers adnate laterally. Three filiform nectaries or 
abortive stamina, alternating with the segments- 
Style conical grooved, or six coalescent styles, crown- 
ed by six thick revolute stigmas. Capsul round, hexa- 
gonal, crowned, and with many small seeds. 

HISTORY — A humble stemless plant, with flow- 
ers nearly concealed in the ground. It has many va- 
rieties, with small or large leaves, rounded or mucro- 
nate, spotted or unspotted ; the flowers also vary in 
colour from greenish purple to dark purple : they 
blossom in May and June. 


to a natural order Asarides, called Aristolochides 
by Jussieu, and Sarmentacea by Linnaeus. In the 
Linnean system it is placed either in Dodecandria or 
Gynandria. It has been called Canademe, because 
first noticed in Canada, the name latifoRa of Salisbury 

would be preferable. 

The names of Wild Ginp;er, Heart Snakeroot, &:c 

arc common to all the other species. The roots arq 
often collected and sold for Virginia Snakeroot, al- 
though very ditferent in appearance, but similar in 
taste, smell and properties. They deserve to be col- 
lected more extensively, as an article of trade and ex- 

yS ASAHTTM. No. 12. 

portation ; being an excellent substitute for ginger in 


From Canada to Carolina and Missou- 
ri, in shady woods, it is most abundant in hills, val- 
leys, and rich alluvions. 

Qualities— The whole plant, but particularly the 



but more pleasant, warm, and pungent. The smell 
is spicy and strong. The active substances are a vo» 

with a red and bitter resin, both soluble in alcohol; 
,they contain besides much fecula and mucilage, 

PROPERTIES— Aromatic stimulant and diapho- 
retic, cordial, emenagogue, subtonic, crrhine, &c.; 
but not properly emetic like the A. europeum, al- 
though often mentioned as such. It Is a grateful sub- 
stitute of the Serpentaria in many cases. It is useful 
in cachexia, melancholy, palpltalfons, low feversj 
convalescence, obstrucfions, hooping-cough, &c. The 
doses must be small and often repeated, since it be- 
comes nauseous in large doses. The best preparation 
is a cordial made with the tincture and syrup ; the 
tmcture is coloured dark rod by the resin. 

The dried leaves make a fine stimulating and ce- 
phalic snuff, when reduced to powder, which may be 
used in all disorders of the head and eyes. 

A grateful wine or beer may be made by the infu- 
sion of the whole plant, in fermenting wine or beer. 

Aralia species— j^e/t^w 

Spices— X«ii- 

No. 12. ASARVM* 73 

7'us benzoin, with many aromatic stimulants, and all 
the other American species of this genus. 

Remarks — A. Virginkum may be known by its 
smooth cordate leaves ; it is found from Maryland to 
Georgia and Tennessee, particularly in mountains, 
and is still more grateful than A. Canadense. 

Jl. arifoliwn has smooth, hastated, spotted leaves, 
and a tubular flower ; it is found in Carolina and Ten- 

The figure of Henry represents the leaves sharp, 
which is never the case, and he calls it Swamp Asfi^- 
f abocca, although never growing in swamps. 





No. 1j. 


No. 13. 


English Name— ORANGE SWALLO\V-W0RT, 

French Name — Houatte Tubereuse. 

German Name — Knollige Schwalbenwurz. 

Officinal Name — A. tuberosa radix. 

Vulgar Names — Pleurisy root, Butterfly weed, 
Flux root, Wind root, White root, Silk weed, Canada 
root, &:c. 

Ai^THORiTiES — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Michaux,Pursh, 
B. Barton, Chapman, Thacher, Dispensaries, Parker, 
TuHy, Bigelow, Med. Bot. fig. 26 & Seq. W. Bar- 
ton M. Med, fig, £2, &c. 

Genus Asclepias — Calix quinquefid. Corolla five 
parted, flat or retiexed, bearing five auricles with ap- 
pendages, and a large central truncate stegyne, sup- 
porting and concealing the five stamina, covering the 
two pistils : which are succeeded by two follicles. 

Species A. Tuberosa — Hairy, leaves scattered, 

variable, nearly sessile, oblong or lanceolate, entire : 

umbels with subulate bracts, flowers lax and orange 

DESCRIPTION—Root perennial, large, fleshy, 
white, of variable form, fusiform, crooked or brancb- 
ed-^Many stems either erect or ascending oi pro- 
cumbent, round, hairy, green or red— Leaves scat- 
tered, sessile, or on short petiols, very hairy, pa^« 

• No. 13. 


^ ^ 


^ ^ 


1 ^^ ^ 









^o.lS. ASOI.EPIAJS. 75 

beneath, entire or undulate, oblong or lanceolate, or 
nearly linear, obtuse or acute* 

Several terminal or lateral umbels, divaricate, with 
subulate bracts for involucre. Flowers erect, pedun- 
cled, and of a bright orange color. Calix small re- 
flexed, five parted. Corolla reflexed, five parted, seo-- 
ments oblong ; auricles erect, nearly as long, cuculate, 
with incurved appendages or horns. Stegyne tough^ 
pyramidal, having five coalescent stamina around, 
each with two cells and two masses of pollen suspend- 
ed by a threat Two pistils completely concealed bv 
the stegyne ; germs ovate with short styles, stigmas 
obtuse. — Follicles two^ often abortive^ lanceolate, 
acute, erect, downy, dehiscent ]ateral]y ; seeds many, 
imbricate, flat, ovate, connected to a longitudinal re- 
ceptacle by long silken hairs. 

HISTORY — The beautiful genus Asclepia^ be- 
longs to the natural order of Apocynes, section JIs- 
clcpides. In the Linnean system, it has been put in 
Pentandkia digynia; but the singular structure of 
the flower is such as to puzzle Botanists, and It mi^ht 
as well be considered as decandrous, or monadcl- 
phous ! the flowers appear to have a double corolla, the 
inner one has five lobes called nectaries or auricles. 
This structure renders, however, the genus very na- 
tural and easily recognizable. It is dedicated to Es- 
€ulapius^ the ancient god of medicine, under his 
Grecian name of Aselepias. 

This species is easily known at first sight by its 
bright orange flowers blossoming in July and Au- 
gust, among all the numerous American congeneric 


N», 1^. 

species ; which are upwards of thirty. It is a very 

ornamental plant, although inodorous, while many 
others are sweet scented- The roots which are near- 
ly tuberous, have given name to it, although the Ji> 
acuminata is also tuberous. The «/^. decumbens of 
some Botanists is only one of its varieties : it is very 
variable in the stems and leaves. 

All the Asclepias are milky ; but this less than 
others. They all produce a fine glossy and silky down 
in the follicles or pods ; which has been used for beds, 
bats, cloth and paper. This down makes excellent 
beds and pillows, being elastic, and one pound and an 
half occupying a cubic foot. Light and soft hats are 
made with it : the staple is too short to be spun and 
woven alone ; but it may be 'mixed with flax, cotton, 
wool and raw silk. It makes excellent paper, and the 
:>talks of the plants afford it likewise, as in flax and 
^pocynum. The ./2. syriaca or Silky Swallow-wort 
producing more of the down, has been cultivated iox 
the purpose, and a pound of down produced from 
forty to fifty plants. Its young shoots are edible 
like poke, and the flowers produce a honey by com- 


A. syriaca, •d' 

species, have similar medical properties, and may be 
substituted to this, although somewhat less active. 

Locality— Found all over the United States, but 
most abundant in the South ; it prefers open situa- 
tions, poor and gravelly soils, along gravelly streams 
and on hills. Rare in rich and loamy soils. 

Qualities— The root is brittle when drv, and easi- 

rvo. 13. 


ly reduced to powder ; it is somewhat bitter, but not 
unpleasant : it contains a bitter extractive and fecula, 
both salable in boiling water. When fresh the root, 
as well as the whole plant, is rather unpleasant, sub- 
acrid and nauseous. 

PROPERTIES— Subtonic, diaphoretic, expecto- 

rant, diuretic, laxative, escarotic, carminative, antis- 
pasmodic, &.c. It is a valuable popular remedy, and 
a mild sudorific, acting safely without stimulating the 
body. It is supposed to act specifically on the lungs, 
to promote suppressed expectoration, and to relieve 
the breathing of pleuritic patients. It appears to ex- 
.ert a mild tonic effect, as well as stimulant power over 
the excretories. It relieves t\\e dyspnoea and pains 
in the chest. It often acts as a mild cathartic, suita- 
ble for the complaints of children ; it is also useful in 
•cholie, hysteria, menorhagia, dysentery, &c. 

In the low state of typhus fever, it has produced 
perspiration when other stidorifics had failed. In 
pneumonia and catarrh it is always benefieiaL It re- 
stores the tone of the stomach and digestive powers. 
It has been given in astkma, rheumatism., syphilis, 

and even for worms. 

All tliese valuable properties, eiany of wlaich are 
well, attested, entitle it to general notice, lo become 
an article of commerce, be kept in shops, &c 

The doses are from tw^ity to thirty grains of the 
powdered root three times a day, or a gill of the de- 
coction and infusion every few hours ; a vinous infu- 
sion and a decoction in milk are also recommended? 

in some cases 


78 ASCLEFZAg. No. \i 

Substitutes — Snakeroots — Myrrh — Spikenard 

Squ il I Asarabaca — Sassafras — Tol u — ^pocy n um 

androsemifoliiim Liquorice — .-Ginsehg Many 

other Swallow-worts, &c. 

Remarks — It may be useful to notice some other 
species possessing the same properties. 

«^. syriaca or common Silkw^ed, grows all over 
the United States near streams ; it has large oblong 
opposite leaves, white beneath, and large globular 
umbels of sweet scented flowers of a lilac color. 

•^. incarnatay grows also near streams every 
where, has lanceolate leaves, opposite and acute ; 
ilowers flesh colored or red, scentless. 

A. acuminata^ also near streams in New-Jersey, 
&c. with opposite ovate acuminate leaves, flowers red 
and white. 

A. quadrifolia y from New-York to Kentucky in 
woods, beautiful little plant with leaves like the fore- 
going, but four in a whorl, flowers flesh coloured and 


very fragrant. 

Henry calls our plant ^. decumbenSj but his fi- 
gure is a very bad one of ^. incarnata. 

No. 14. 






» * 



Ko. 14. 


]%o 14. 


English Name— INDIGO-BROOM. 
French Name — Indigo trefle. 
German Name — Farbende Baptisia. 
Officinal Names — Baptisia tinctoria, herba k 

VuLGAR Names — Wild Indigo, Indigo weed, 
Horsefly weed, Yellow broonij Clover broom, Rat- 
tle-bush, Yellow Indigo. 

Synonyms — Sophora tinctoria^ Lin. Podalyrta tine- 

toriaj Mich. &c. 

Authorities — Linnseus, Michaux, Pursh, Elliot, 
Weems, Thacher Dispensary, Comstoclt, Schoepf, 
Bart M. Med. fig. 29. 

Genus Baptisia — Calix bilabiate, four cleft. Co- 
rolla papilionaceous, petals nearly equal, vexillum la- 
terally re3exed. Stamina ten, free unequal. Pistil 
stipitate, ventricose, many seeded — ^Leaves ternate. 

Species B. tinctoria — Very smooth and branched, 
leaves small nearly sessile, folioles cuneate, obovate, 
obtuse ; racemes terminal, few flowered ; pods ovate 

on long pedicles. 
DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, largeand woody, 

irregular, blackish outside, yellowish within, fibres 
lighter. Stems two or three feet high, round and 
smooth, yellowish ereen with black dots, very much 

80 BAFTZSZA. fto. u 


ramified; but branches thin and with small leaves. 
These leaves are alternate, and with three folioles 
nearly sessile, obovate, smooth, of a bluish green j 
stipules minute, evanescent, oblong, acute. — Flowers 
bright yellow, in small loose spikes at the end of 
branches, pea like, but smaller. — Calix campanulate 
bilabiate, upper lip entire or notched, lower trifid.- 
Stamina inclosed deciduous. — Pistil single and stipi- 
tate, succeeded by a swelled oblong pod of a bluish 
black color, with a row of small rattling seeds. 

History — This plant has the appearance of a 
small shrub and broom : it blossoms in July and Au- 
gust. The whole plant (even the flowers) often be- 
come black in the fall or in a herbarium ; it dyes a 
kind of blue like Indigo ; but greatly inferior. The 
young shoots are eaten like those of Poke in New- 
England, and are like it of a drastic nature. It is 
often used to keep off the flies from horses, as these 
insects appear to avoid it. 

Several other species grow in the Southern and 
Western States, which have probably similar quali- 
ties. The B. australis with large blue flowers, very 
ornamental, grows on the banks of streams: the B- 
nlba has white flowers, &c. These plants were an- 
nexed to Saphom by Linnaeus, and to Podalyrin by 

other botanists, until properly separated by Vente- 
nat, .&c. ■ 


■ ^"Piis'a belongs to the great natural ord^r oiU- 
CtJMiNosE plants, (bearing pods,) and to the section 
Lomentaceom, having free stamina: also to DecAN- 
DRiA monogynia of Lionaus. 


?ro. 14. BAPTISIA. 81 

Locality — Found all over the United States from 
Maine to Louisiana and Illinois, in woods, and on 
hills ; it prefers dry and poor soils, is unknown ift 
rich loamy soils, and seldom met in alluvions. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
root, is nauseous, subacrid, subastringent, but inodo- 
rous. It is active and dangerous In its fresh state, if 
taken internally; but loses much of its action by long 
keeping, and by boiling. Its active principles are lit- 
tle known ; it contains tannin, indigo, and an acid. 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, antiseptic, febrituge, 
diaphoretic, purgative, emetic and stimulant. It is 
a valuable remedy for all kinds of ulcers, even the 
foulest, either gangrenose, phagedenic, or syphilitic: 

also for almost every sore, such as malignant ulceroug 
sore throat, mercurial.sore mouth, sore nipples, aph- 
thous, chronic sore eyes, painful acrid sores, and every 
ulcerous affection. It must be used externally ia 
strong decoction as a wash or in fomentation, also in 
poultice, or ointment with lard or cream. 

This is one of the most powerful vegetable anti- 
septics in putrid disorder and in internal mortification, 
it may be given internally at the dose of half an ounce 
of a decoction, made with twenty times its weight of 
water. It stops gangrene, has cured Scarlatina angi- 
nosa, inverted uterus, and sometimes putrid and ty- 
phus fevers. As k cathartic and emetic, it is incon- 
venient and variable in results. 

Substitutes — Katmia latifolia — Charcoal— To- 
nic Bzx\Ls—Iixihus villosus— Colli nsonia Canaden 

sis — Solanum dulcamara &. S. virgmicum, ^c 


No. 15. 


No. 15. 


English Name—BARBERRY. 

French Name — Epike Vinette. 
German Name — Berberitze. 
Ofeicinal Name — Berberis baccae, &:c. 
Vulgar Name — American Barberry bush. 
Synonyms — Berberis Vulgaris Var. Canadensis 
of Linnaeus, MIchaux, &c. 

Authorities — Linnjeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 
several Dispensaries, and Mat. Med. 

Genus Berberis— Calix freg with six sepals or fo- 
lioles, and three small bracts outside. Corolla with 
six petals, b-glandular at the base. Stamina six, op- 
posite to the petals. One free pistil, germ oblong, 
stigma sessile and umbilicate. Berry one celled, 
two-four seeded. 

Species B. Canadensis — Shrubby, upright, bran- 
ches dotted, with triple thorns ; leaves fasciculate obo- 
vate, remote serrulate : racemes nddding or drooping' 

DESCRIPTION— A pretty shrub rising from four 
to eight feet high, with long bending branches, hav- 
ing many confluent dots and some small thorns, often 

The leaves are crowded and unequal 


in each fascicle : 


and glossy, oboval, obtuse, with small remote teeth 
4ne flowers arp An d^^j^^ _ i % -.u^ 

X racemes, either 

'So- r5. 






^m-^ r- 

*^ * 



J » 













Iso, 15, 



nodding or pendulous ; they are yellow, on long pe- 
dicels, and rather small, 'i he petals are oblong ob- 
tuse, and have each two glands and a stamen at the 
base. The berries hang in loose bunches, they are 
oblong and i ed, smaller and less juicy than in the com- 
mon garden Barberry of Europe. 

HISTORY — Berheris is an ancient name, it is the 
type of the natural order of Berberides. In the Lin- 
nean system it is placed in Hexakdria vionogynia. 
This species was considered a variety of the B. vuU 
garis of Europe, till Pursh separated it, and it hardly 
differs from it. It blossoms in April and May, and 
ripens the berries in June j but they are sometimes 


The stamina of the flowers are irritable, and bend 
with elasticity towards the pistil. It is supposed that 
the vicinity of this shfub is injurious to wheat, and 
this has been noticed as one of the ir^stances of vege- 
table antipathy or incompatible vicinity. It is liable 
to the rust, sterility, and many other diseases. 

Locality — From Canada to Virginia, in moun- 
tains, hills, among rocks, &:c. Common in New- 
England in rocky fields : rare in the West and in 

rich soils. 

Qualities — The whole shrub (even the root) is 

acid 5 in the berries this acid becomes very pleasant, 
and is probably the tartaric, but mixed with some as- 
tringency ; the bark is yellow and bitter. 

PROPERTIES— Antiseptic, acid, subasfring...* 
refrigerant, &c. The berries, leaves, bark and roots, 

may be used in putrid fevers, dysentery, bilious di- 



No- 15. 

arrhea^ summer flux, and all kinds of acute inflamma- 
tions A syrup, jelly, conserve, &c are made with 
them, which prove very palatable, cooling, and bene- 
ficial in those complaints, as auxiliary remedies. It 
has also been used in the jaundice and other diseases ; 
but with less success and certainty. The bark has 
very different properties : it is tonic and purgative; it 
has been given in Leucorhoea, aphthes, jaundice, &c. 
it also dyes of a yellow color. 

Substitutes — Red Currants — Pomegranate — Le- 

Cream of Tartar — Andromeda Arborea 
I Americana — Oxalis — Common Bar- 



also Elixir of Vitriol, &c. 


No. 16. 











No. 16. 







French Name — Serpentaire noire. 

Ger3IAn Name — Schwarz Schlaj^gewurz. 

Officinai. Name — Serpentaria nigra. 

VULGAR Names — Squaw root, Rich weed, Rattle 

weed, Rattle-Snake-root, Black Cohosh &c. ^ 

SrxoNFMs — Actea raceviosay Lm. &c. Clmicifu- 

ga Serpentaria^ Pursh, &:c, Macrotrys^ Sub-G. Ra- 

finesque and Decandolle. 

Authorities — Linnseus," Schoepf, Golden, JVIi- 
chaux, Pursh, B, Barton, Elliot, Decandolle, some 
Dispensaries, Tully, Big. Sequel, &c. 


1. Cal. four leaved Calix four leaved. Calix four leaved. 

2. Corolla, withlCorolla, with four Corolla with four 

^nany minute 

large flat petals. 

3. Stamina many. Stamma many. 

4. Pistil one. 

5. Capsul dehis- 
cent longitudi- 

urceolate petals. 

Stamina many* 
Pistil one. ^ [Pistils several 
Berry not open- Several dehiscent 


6. Seeds many la-jSeeds lateral. 


Seeds scaly. 



Species B. Serpentaria— Leaves ample, 
posed or tripinnate, folioles ovate acute, serrate or 



jagged J raceme terminal, very long, more or less 
bent: flowers scattered, peduncled, bracteolate. 

DESCRIPTION— Koot perennial, blackish, thick, 
with long fibres, — Stem simple straight, from three 
to six feet high^ smooth, angular, furrowed, often 
Crooked — leaves few^ and alternate, one nearly radical, 
remote, ample, decomposed, tripinnatc, .upper one 
bipinnate; folioles sessile, opposite, three to seven on 
each last division of the petiole, oval or lanceolate, 
acuminate, smooth, pale beneath, with yellowish re- 
ticulated veins, margin unequally, jagged, or sharply 
serrate, particularly outside : the last foliolc is Irifid. 
Flowers in a long terminal raceme, from one 
to three feet long, often with one or two shorter ones 
near its base- This raceme is cylindrical, while, al- 
ways bent or crooked at first ; the flowers are scatter- 
ed, lax, often geminate or fasciculate, on short pedun- 
cles, with a subulate bract. The calix is white, like a 
corolla, with four thick rounded and obtuse sepals ; 
the petals are very small, shorter than the calix 
and stamina : these last form a pencil, the filaments 
are white, club shaped ; the anthers yellow, oblong, 
terminal. Pistil oval, without style, stigma sessile, 
Jateral and flattened. Capsul blackish and dry, with 
one cell and a longitudinal receptacle, opposite to the 
opening, to which many flat seeds arc attached. 

^Thls plant has many varieties, one is dwarf, a foot 
high, with a triangular stem, leaves small, biternate, 
and with several racemes : growing in the moun- 
tains of New York. If it is a peculiar 'Species; it migbt 
be called H: T)umitfw 

No, 16. 9OTZIOPHZS. 87 

HISTORY — Notwithstanding my reluctance to in- 
novate In this work, I am compelled to separate this 
plant from the Genera Actea and Cimicifjigay to 
which it has been by turns united. I did so ever 
since ISOS, catlling it Macrotrys, which meant ion^ 
raceme^ vvh*ch name Decandolle has adopted as a 
subgenus oi Actea ; but this name being delusive, too 
harsh, and an abbreviation of Macroboirys, I have 
framed a better one, meaning Snake raceme : the ra- 
ceme or long spike of flowers being mostly crooked, 
and like a snake. To convince any one of the neces- 
sity of this change and impossibility of leaving this 
plant with Actea or Cimici/uga, I have given the 
characters of the three genera in opposition to each 
other, whereby the striking difference in the corolla> 
pistils and fruit, will be perceived at once. 

Actea and Botrophis belong to a peculiar natural 
family, the Acteides, having single pistils and fruits: 
while Cimicifuga belongs to Rakvnculides with 
several pistils. Botrophis must be put with Actea in 
PoLYANDRiA monogynia, while Cimicifuga belongs 
to PoLYANDRiA pcntagynia or poly gynia. 


Botronhis. The 

and was 

used by all the Indians. It blossoms in June and 
July. The whole plant, and even the flowers arr 


Locality— All over the United States, from 

Maine to Florida, Louisiana and Missouri, also in 
Canada and Texas ; very common in open woods, rich 
o-rounds and sides of bill« ; less common ia rocky 

88 BOTROPHIS. Xo. 16. 

mountains and sunny glades, very rare in moist and 
vvampy soils. 


QuALiTiJss-^The root and plant have rather an un- 
pleasant smell, and a disagreeable nauseous taste, 
Schoepf considers it as nearly poisonous^ and to be 
used with caution, yet powerful and heroic. It has 
not been analyzed, but appears to contain extractive 
and a fetid oil. 


PROPERTIES — Astringent, diuretic, sudorific, 
anodyne, repellent, emenagogue, subtonic, &c. It is 
an article of the materia medica of the Indians, much 
used by them in rheumatism, and also in facilitating 
parturition, whence its name of Squaw-root. It has 
been found useful in sore-throat, as a gargle : also in 
dropsy, hysterics and psora, in decoction alone, or 
^nited with Sanguinaria Canadensis. It is a bene- 
ficial auxiliary in the treatment of acute and chronic 
rheumatism. It is used by the Indian doctors for 
agues and fevers, vvlilcli it inures like Eupatorhm 
j)erfoUatum, by a profuse perspiration. Yellow fe- 
ver is said to have been cured by it, after an emetic 
had been taken. 

This is one of the numerous Indian cures for the- 
biles of snakes: they use the rwt chewed and ap- 
plied to the wound ; but they consider the Eryn^ 


Sr E. yuccefoUum ( 

root, or Rattle-snake flag) as by far more powerful 
and efficient. A decoction of the root cures the itch! 
It IS useful for the diseases of horses and cattle, is said 
topurge them, expel their worms and cure the mur- 
ram, givrn as a drench.. » 


No. 16, 


Substitutes — Jlctea alba 4' *^. ruhra—^Eryyig} 

11771 aquaticum 4* ^* yticcefolium — ^Eupatoriuni 
per/oliatum — Snakeroots — Spikenards or Aralias 
Cohosh or Caulophylhim — Juniper and other similar 
sudorliics and diuretics. 

Remarks — Not figured in Bigelow nor Barton's 
works. Henry's figure of the Squawroot, which he 
wrongly calls Asclepias 2^'^^'P'-^^(i^C€nSy Is a bad re- 
presentation of this plant; but his description and text 
apply to some other plant. 

The Jictea alba or Whiteberry Snakeroot, which 
has the same properties, will be known by a shorter 
stem, smaller leaves, short, oblong raceme, with 
round white berries like wax. It grows from New 
York to Tennessee, in rich woods. 

The A. rubra or Redberry Snakeroot, hardly dif- 
fers from J. albay but has red berries and is less 

These two plants are also called Baneberries, and 
their berries are poisonous. They aie called White 
and Red Cohosh by the Indians : the bhie<Johosh is 

the C^ulophyllum, and the black Cohosh thb Botro- 



H 2 

9tf BBASZiHZA. No. 17* 

No. 17. 


English Name— WATER-SHIELD, 

French Name — Hydropelte. 

German Name — Wasserschild. 

Officinal Name — Gelatlna aquatica, Brasenia. 

Vulgar Names — Frogleaf, Little Water Lily, 
Water Jelly, Deerfood. 

Synonyms — Hydropeltrs purpurea j Michaux, &c. 

Authorities — Schreber, Wildenow^ Persoorij Mi* 
t.haux, Pursh, Elliot^ Nuttal, &c. 

Genus Brasenia — Perigone simple, colored, co- 
roliforni, with six equal sepals or petals, stamina 
many, shorter, hypogynous, anthers adnate : many 
pistils, germs sessile with a style. Fruit, many 
,^maU one-seeded acheiies. 

Species B. Hydropeltis — ^Roots creeping, leares 
floating, alternate, peltate, elliptic, entire, gelatinous 
beneath : flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled. 

DESCRIPTION— The roots arc perennial, creep- 
ing Ainder water and mud, cylindric, jointed with 
bundles of fibres at the joints — Stems many, growing 
till the leaves reach the surface of the water, almost 
similar to the roots — Leaves alternate, on very long 
slender petioles, floating on the water, of a regular el- 
"liptic form, like an oblong shield, entire and obtuse, 
?-noothand lucid above, with res;ular radiatins veins. 

No. 17. 





:;o. 17, 


white and veinless beneath, but covered with a coat of 
pale ielly, sometimes purplish : the leaves are two or 

three inches long. 

Flowers on long axillary and solitary peduncles, 
similar to the petiofes: these flowers are of a dark pur- 
ple color, the six petals are oblong and acute : Stami- 
na from twenty to thirty, shorter than the petals, sur- 
rounding the pistils which are from twelve to twenty, 
germs oblong, styles short, stigma obtuse. Achenes 
or small nuts naked, maturing under water, oval ob- 

HISTORY — This plant was unknown to Linnaius; 

it was first described by Schreber, and called Bras- 
enia, from a German botanist, Brasen : Michau 
changed improperly that name into Hydropeltis^ 
meaning water-shield in Greek ; both names may be 
retained, but Brasenia has a prior claim to be the 
generic. Only one species is known. 

It belongs to the natural order of Ranuxculides, 
and to V01.Y x^-DViix poly gijnia of Linnaeus. It blos- 
soms in July and August. The flowers are pretty, but 
have no smell: the leaves are very singular, and af- 
ford one of the few instances of pure homogenous ve- 
getable jelly, being spontaneously produced, and co- 
vering the whole under surface of the leaves, the 
stems^and petioles are also more or less covered with 
it. I>eer and cattle are very fond of eating these 
leaves : they resort to the places where they grow 
plentifully, and even swim in the water in search ot 


'^ LocALiTT—From Carolina to Kentucky, and Flo- 

Q2 BRASfiMZA. No. 17. 

rida, rare in Virginia, Missouri and Kentucky, found 
only in some local places, but there extremely abun- 
dant, and spreading so as to cover the whole surface 
of ponds, lakes, marshes and sluggish streams. 

Qualities— The plant has no smell, but the taste 
is subastringent and bitterish ; the jelly is a pure muci- 
lage similar to that of Lichen and Sesamum^ and 
spontaneously evolved ; becoming gummose in dry- 

PROPERTIES— Mucilaginous, astringent, demul- 
cent, tonic, nutritive, &:c. Intermediate between 
Lichen Mandicics and the Water Lilies. The fresh 
leaves may be used like Lichen, in pulmonary com- 
plaints and dj'sentery : when dry the gelatinous mat- 
ter almost disappears, yet they impart mucilage to 
water. If no virose quality exists in this plant, as the 
taste of deer for it appears to indicate, it may become 
a useful substitute or auxiliary to Lichen in phthisis, 

inflammations, debility, &c. boiled into decoction or 


Substitutes — Lungwort or Pulmonaisa — Lichens 

•Arrow-root — ^alu^—Nymphea & Nelumhium 
Polypodiiim — Adianthum — Tussilago — Elecampan< 

Liquorice— Marshmallow — Sesamum — Flaxseed. 

Remarks — Unnoticed as yet by all medical wri 
ters, but w^ell known to the Indians. 

No. 18. 













No. 18 



No. 18. 


English Name— AMERICAN SENNA. 
Fkexch Name — Senne' B'AMERiQt'E. 
German Name — Marilandische Cassia. 
Officinal Names — Senna Americana^ folia, &c\ 
Vulgar Names — Wild Senna, Locust plant 
Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 

(:.'oxe, Thacher, Chapman, B* Barton, W, Bart. fig. 

12, Big. fig, 39, & Seq. &c. 

Genus Cassia — Calix five parted, colored, deci- 
duous and unequal. Corolla with five unequal pe- 

tals. Stamina ten, 


per sterile, the three lower longer, anthers lineaf 
curved. Pistil stipitate. Pod bivalve, curved, many 

celled transversally — Leaves even pinnule. 

Species C Marilandica — Herbaceous, leaves 
with eight or ten pairs of oblong mucronate folioles, 
petiole uniglandular : racemes axillar and terminal, 
panicled : pods linear, flat and pendulous. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, contorted, irre- 
gular, woody, black, fibrose— Stems many, nearly 
smooth, upright, from three to six feet high, cylindri- 
cal and simple— Leaves alternate, not many, large, 
horizontal ; petioles compressed, channelled above. 


eiffht to tea pairs 


gif CASSIA. No. 18. 


smooth, green above, pale beneath, with short uni- 
glaudular petioles, shape ovate, oblong or lanceolate 
entire, equal, mucronate at the end — stipules subu- 
late, ciliate, deciduous. 

Flowers of a bright or golden yellow, forming a 
panicle, although partly axillary and in short racemes, 
having each from five to fifteen flowers ; peduncles 
furrowed, pedicels long, glandular, with short bracts. 
Calix colored, with five oval obtuse and unequal seg- 
ments. Petals five, spatulate, concave, obtuse, une- 
qual, two lower larger. Stamina with yellow fila- 
ments and brown anthers, the three upper filaments 
have abortive anthers, the three lower filaments are 
longest, crooked, with long rostrated anthers, all the 
anthers open by a terminal pore. Germ deflexed with 
the lower stamina and hairy, style ascending, stigma 
hairy. The fruits or pods are pendulous, linear, hard- 
ly curved, flat and membranaceous, a little hairy, 
blackish, from two to four inches long, holding from 

twelv^e to twenty seeds, or small brown beans. 

HISTORY--The genus Cassia^ although very 
striking by the structure of its flowers, varies much 
in its pods, and must be divided into many genera ; 
Tournefort and Gaertnesr had separated the Cassia 
Jistida &c. with cylindrical, pulpy, evalve pods, cal- 
ling the others Stnna ; but Persoon, &c. called the 
^^-^-etissm fistula by the new name of Cathartocarpus, 
leaving the name of Cassia to the Sennas. This was 
superfluous, and if I was not unwillingto increase this 

confusion, I would call this species Senna rJparla, 
the nam*'*»r ^i/yT..;?^-. J- l.: i . :,.^,ii 

No. 18. CASSIA. 4^5 


given to it because sent first from Maryland to Eu- 

Cassia is an oriental name, derived from Ketslchy 
name of the Cassia hs^nea and fistula. The genus 
belongs to the natural order of Leguminose, section 
Lomcjitaceous. In thel/mnean system it is placed in 
Decanpria monogymay although it has only seven 
fertile stamina. 

This plant blossoms from June \o August j the best 
time to collect itj is in September, when the pods are 
ripe ; since they are with the leaves, the ejQ&cient 

parts of the plant. It has been ascertained that this 
plant is more efficacious than the Senna of Egypt ; it 
ou^'ht therefore, to supersele it altogether with us, 
and even to be exported to Europe : but the East In- 
dia senna is said by Bigelow^ to be a little stronger 
The Senna of the shops is obtained from different 
plants, Cassia lanceolata, C. Senna, C. itallcay &c. 
and even from Cynaiichum ole/olium. 

Locality — Found from Massachusetts to Mis- 
souri and Georgia, in rich moist and alluvial soils, 
near streams principally. Very common in the west- 
ern States. 

QTTA1.ITIES— The taste of the leaves is slightly nau- 
seous : they have no smell -, they contain resin ex. 
tractive and a volatile oil. The infusion and decoction 
have the taste of the plant ; the distilled water is nau- 
seous ; the tincture is dark brown and rendered tur- 
bid by water. 

PROPERTIES— All the Sennas are simple ca- 

thartic5, some kinds occasion gripings and yet are rxot 

96 CASSIA. No. IS 

so active as rhubarb or jalap. This kind operates with 
mildness and certainty^ at the dose of an ounce in de- 
coction : both the leaves and pods arc employed ; the 
infusion is weaker, the tincture is less available, al- 
though stronger. They may enter into coinpound 
laxatives and cathartics, &:c. 

Substitutes — Senna — Cassia fistula — Rhubarb 
Juglans Cinerea — Todophyllum pdtatum — Castor 
oil, and all mild purgatives, besides the following spe- 
cies of Cassia ; which arc, however, still left active. 

Remarks — Clayton and vSehoepf, mentions the C, 
ligustrhia as equal to Senna : it grows from Virginia 
to Georgia, has seven pairs of lanceolate, unequal fo- 
Holes, and oblong curved pods. 

C. chamecristuy small plant found every where iti 
dry soils ; it has many pairs of linear foHoTes, and 
large geminate flowers with two purple spots- 

C. nktifan^'y or sensitive Senna, similar to the fore- 
going, but with vQ^vy small flowers : common. 

C. taroidesy N. Sp. or sickle Senna, is perhaps the 
C. tora of some botanists ; found from Georgia to 
Kentucky, it has three pairs of ovate folioles and Ion 
fulcated axillary pods. 

All the American Sennas have yellow 6owers. 
Schoepf, says that the C. bijlorais antisyphilitic 


Henry's tigure of the American Senna is fictitious, 
having four pairs of folioles and regular terminal 





No. 19. 










»o. 19; oAUi.opHYii.uia. 97 

No. 19 



• French Name — Cohoche Bleu. 

Gerjian Name — Blau Cohosch. 

Officinal Name — Cauiophyllum radix. 

Vulgar Names — Cohosh, Cohush, Blueberry, 

Papoose root, Squaw root, Blue Ginseng, Yellow 

Synonyms — Leontice thaVictro^^des Linnaeus, &c. 

Authorities — Michaux, Pursh, Elliot and some 

dispensaries. Not in Barton nor Bigelow. 

Genus Caulophyllum — Callx colored with six 
equal sepals. Corolla with 6 small petals, opposite to the 
sepals of the calix and much shorter. Stamina six op- 
posite to the petals, anthers opening laterally. Ouz 
central free pistil, one Style ^wA Stigma. Fruit a glo- 
bular one seeded drupe. — Leaves three on a trifurcate 


Species C. thalictroides— Very smooth, three 

leaves with three dissected or lobed folioles, the ter- 
minal cordate: in the centre a dichotome corymb, 

shorter than the leaves. 

" DESCRIPTION— Whole plant from two to four 

feet high.— Root perenniaU yellow inside, brow 

Dutsideriiard, irregular, knobby, branched, with i^ 




98 CAUI.OI»H¥IrI.XrM- No- 1?- 

— L 

fibres — Stem upright, straight, smooth, trifurcate at 
the top or dividing into three leaves, in the centre of 
which comes out the panicle of flowers — Leaves pe* 
tiolate smooth, pinnate lobed, with Qiree, very sel- 
dom five folioles, the lateral ones nearly sessile, oval 
or oblong, inequally bifid and acute: the terminal fo- 
liole separated, larger, aubcordate, with five, seldom 
three, unequal lobes or segments, oval and acute. 

Flowers in a short central loose corymb, yellowish 
green, rather small ; rachis slender, dichotome, with 
minute bracts at each division. Each flower pedun- 
cled, with six equal elliptic obtuse sepals — Petals six 
very small, opposite and notched, with each an op- 
p:;site longer stamen, filaments short, anthers elliptic 
bilocular, opening on each side^Germ globular, 
style short, stigma obtuse — Drupes resembling ber- 
ries succeed the blossoms; they are smooth of a dark 
felue, globular, rather large, with only one hard seed. 

HISTORY— This genus w^hich includes only one 
species, was united to Leontice by Linnseus ; but se- 
parated by Michaux; they both belong to the natural 
family of Bekberides, and to IIexajvdria monogy- 
nia. CaulophyUum implies that the stem and leaves 
are connected as it were, and the specific name alludes 
to the leaves being similar to many Thalictrums — Co- 
hosh was the indigenous name of this plant, and a 
better one than Blueberry, the usual one in many 
part?: it blossoms in IMay and June, while the leaves 
are yet tender and small, the berries are ripe in sum- 
mer ; they are dry, sweetish, insipid, similar io 
huckle berries^ but larger. 

' No. 19. CAtriiOPHYI.I.Uia. 99 

This is a medical plant of the Indians, and although 
not yet introduced into our offi<;inal books, deserves 
to be better known. I have found it often used in 
the country and by Indian Doctors; Smith and Hen- 
ry extol it 

Locality — AH over the United States, from Ca- 
nada and New England to Mis^souri and Georgia ; 
but chiefly on mountains and shady hills, rare in 
plains and glades, yet often found in deep fertile soiL% 
swampy and moist grounds ; in river islartds, &c. 

Qualities — The root is the only part used : in 
smell and taste, it partakes of Ginseng and Seneca 
root, and is sometimes mistaken for both. It is sweet- 
ish, a little pungent and aromatic: the infusion and 
tincture are yellow — it contains a gum, resin and oil^ 

Properties — Demulcent, antispasmodic, emena- 

It is used by the Indians and 

gogue, sudorific, &c. 

their imitators for rheumatism, dropsy, choUc, sore 
tion of uterus. 


able for female diseases, and Smith asserts that the 
Indian women owe the facility of their parturition, to 
a constant use of a tea of the root for two or three 
weeks before their time. As a powerful emenagogue 
it promotes delivery, menstruation, and dropsical 
discharges. It may be used in warm infusion, de- 
coction, tincture, syrup or cordial. 

Substitutes — Sanguinaria canadensis — Penny- 
ioy^\— Poly gala S'^ne^a— Snake roots— Red Cedar 

Spikenard — Camphor — Ginseng, &c. 

Remarks— The figure of Henry has trifoliate 
leaves and the berries on the leaves ? 


No. 20. 

No. 20. 


English Name— BUTTON- WOOD SHRUB. 

Fkench Name — Cephalanthb d'amerique. 
- German Name — AMERicAyriscHE Weissball. 

Officinal Names — Cephalanthus Cortex, &c. 

ViTLGAR Names — White Ball, Little Snowball^ 
Swampwood, Pond Dogwood, Globe flower, in Lou- 
isiana Bois de Marcns. 

x\uTH0RiTiEs — Lin, Mich* Pursh, Elliot, Robin, 
W. Bart.Fl. %. 91. 

Genus Cephalanthus — Flowers crowded on a 

globular and hairy phoranthe.,^ r?l^r^,^;v 
^ -o- 9 **^»*x^iti small iDuriootnea 

tubular-funnelform, four cleft, epigyne, bearing four 
stamina equal and protruding. Pistil one cohe- 
rent with the calix, style long, stigma globose. Cap- 
sule two celled, two seeded, nearly bipartible, and 
each cell nearly bivalve, valves uniserial. 

Species C. occideivtalis — Leaves ternate or oppo- 
site, petiolate, oval-apcuminate, entire and smooth: 
heads of flowers terminal, peduncled, upright, 

DESCRIPTION—A fine ornamental shrub from 
five to fifteen feet high, very branched ; bark yellow 
brown spotted with red, rough on the stems Leaves 
ternate or opposite, with red petiols from two to four 

No 20. 




-^ _ 





iGnraxoifwooD shrvp. 

No. 20. 025PHAI.ANTHUS. lOi 

inches long, oval, base acute, end acuminate, margin 
often undulate, smooth on both sides, but glaucous 
beneath, nerves often red, veins yellow. 

Flowers terminal peduncled, forming round balls 
of a cream white color, and sweet scented, fringed 
all over by the protruding Stamina and styles, nearly 
as large as a walnut Phoranthe or common recepta- 
cle globular and hairy, flowers crowded all over it. 
Calix coherent with the pistil, with four small 
acute teeth — Corolla inserted on the Pistil, tubular or 
nearly funnel form, with four ovate segments. Sta- 
mina and style filiform, double the length of the Co- 
rolla, anthers and stigma yellow— Capsuls small, 
cl-owded, formed by two semibivalve cells, the valves 
opposite to each other, the two outside valves angular, 
each cell has only one seed. 

Locality — All over the United States from Cana- 
cU to Louisiana, Missouri and Florida j mostly found 
near streams, ponds, swamps, lakes, &.c. 
" HISTORY — Cephalanthus means head-flower in 
Greek, alluding to the globular form of the blossoms. 
Linneus only knew this species, and gave to it the 
name of occidental. It is peculiar to North America ; 
the satne kind said to be found in Cochinchina is i 
different species ; but there are several varieties in 
the United States, not yet well noticed, some of 
which may be perhaps peculiar species ; such are ^ 

Var. puhesctns, with pubescent leaves, in Georgia, 

Var. macrophylla, with large leaves half a foot 
lonf^, corolla hairy inside : in Louisiana, &c- 

102 dEPHAXANTHtJrS. No. 2o 



Var. obtiisifoliay leaves oval-oblongs obtuse^ not 
undulate : in New York. 

They all blossom in summer, July and August: 

the flowers have a peculiar fragrant smell, similar to 
Jessamine. The wood is brittle and useless. 

The Genus belongs to the great natural order of 
RuBiACEOus, forming with Nauclea^ &c. a peculiar 
section or family, with capitate flowers. It ranks in 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Qualities — The whole shrub active^ and bitter- 
ish, the bitterness is most enfolded in the bark of the 
roots : this bark and the inner bark of the stem are 
brittle, somewhat resembling CascariIJa and Dog- 
wood, in appearance and qualities. It has not been 
analyzed ; but contains an essential oil, besides the 
usual principles of tonic barks : the oil is most abun- 
dant in the flowers. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, febrifuge, cathartic, dia- 
phoretic, &c. The flowers, leaves, bark of stems and 
roots, are used by the Southern Indians, and the 
French settlers of Louisiana. It has not yet been 
noticed in our materia medica, and is even omitted by 
Schoepf and Henry j but it deserves further atten- 
tion. A fine fragrant syrup may be made with tlie 
Cowers and leaves, which is a mild tonic and laxative. 
The most efficient part is the bark of the root. A decoc- 
tion of it, cures intermittent fevers, acting on the bow- 
els at the same time, is useful in relaxed bowels, &c. 

Substitutes— Cor*i?/5 or Dogwood — Magmlias 

Pinchneya—IJrio lendroa—CasmrUla, &c. 

Remarks— The Platonus occidentaUs or Syca- 
»nore, also called Button-wood is a lar-e tree. 

So. 21. 




N*o. 20 CHSKOPODHJia. 103 

No. 21. 



French Name — ^\kserine Vermifuge. 
German Name — Wurmsamen Gansefuss. 
Officinal Name — Chenopodium seu Eotrys An- 

Vulgar Names — Jerusalem Oak, Wormwood 
Worm seed, Stinking weed. 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Michaux, Pursh, Schoepf, 
B. Barton, Mease, Wilkins, Coxe, Thacher, Chap- 
man, Stoker, Big. seq. W. Bart. Mat. Med. fi^. 44. 


" Genus Chenopodium — Perlgone simple persistent, 
caliform,five parted, Stamina five perigyne. Pistil 
free with a bifid style. Seed single, lenticular, co- 
vered by the perigone. 

Species Ch< ANTHELMixT^iruM. — Leaves oval-ob- 
long, sessile, sinuate-toothed r flowers terminal, ses- 
sile, ill glomerules, forming leafless panicled slender 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial and branched 
Stem upright, grooved and branched, branches fasti- 
glate, giving a shrubby appearance to the whole plant, 
which rises from two to five feet in height — Leaves 
sessile, alternate or scattered ; attenuated at both ends, 
oval or oblong, rather thick, dotted beneath, margin 
sinuate by large unequal obtuse teeth, nerves very 


Flowers very small, numerous and yellowish green 

104 esENOPOsxuiur. no. n. 


like the whole plant, forming large^ loose leafless ter- 
minal panicles, composed of many slender alterning 
small spikes, and these of many small scattered une- 
qual glomerules, containing from five to twelve sessile 
flowers. Calix or simple perigone with five short 
oval segments; stamina opposite to the segments, 
and protruding. Styles bifid or trifid, filiform, lon- 
ger than the stamina. Seed flat, lenticular, shining, 
covered by the persistent calix. 

HISTORY— The whole plant has a strong, pun^ 
gent smell, somewhat like valerian, which is disgust- 
ing to many persons ; this smell is easily known and 
enables to distinguish it from some other consimilar 
species, which are often blended with it : such are the 
CA. ambrosioides^^Ch, botrys^ whose smell is agree- 
able and fragrant, although strong. 

The genus belongs to the natural order of Atripli- 
CBs, and to Petstandria digyyiia of Linfiseus. The 
generic name means Goosefoot in Greeks the specific 
refers to its value against worms. 

■ It blossoms from July to Septemijer, at which time 
the plant may be collected and dried ; but if the seeds 
are wanted, October is the best time, although they 
ripen in succession during all the autumn. The plant 
is now sometimes cultivated for medical uses, both in 
America and Europe. The dried plant retains the pe- 
culiar smell. 

Locality — From Xew England to Missouri and 
Georgia, more abundant and larger in the South : 
common in old fields, along fences, in alluvions, gra- 
vel, rubbish, and even in streets j but never in wood^ 
nor mountains. 

No. 21. CHENOPOr^IXnML 109 

Qualities — The strong and lasting smell of the 
whole plant, Is owing to an "essential oil, very pene- 
trating or pungent, and in which resides the medical 
property. It is diffused throughout the plant, parti- 
tfularly in the globular dots of the leaves, and the 
seeds. The taste is bitter, acrid and aromatic. 

PROPERTIES— A powerful vermifuge used both 
in America and Europe ; found equal lo the officinal 
wormseed, which is the Artemisia Sanlolina^ a very 
different plant, native of Syria and Africa. It expels 


speedily, the Lumbrlcs and other worms of the in- 
testiaes- It must be given in repeated small doses, 
and the most palatable form: the seeds and their es- 
sential oil are the most eiKeacious, eight or ten drops 
of the oil, mixed with sugar are a common dose for a 
ehild, or a table spoonful morning and night fasting, 
of an electuary mode of the pulverized seeds with 

^lonTn milk, of the leaves, (or even their juice,) are 


also used. Children often dislike the strons: smell of 
this medicine, and it must be disguised by orange peel 
or sweet substances. The seeds and oil are now kept 
in the pharmacies; but the last is often adulterated 
Avith oil of Botrys or of Turpentine; which lessen its 
power; it may then be known by a less pungent 


This plant has only been employed against worms, 
as yet, but it possesses probably all the properties of 
the Ch. Botrys and amb osicide^j which are pecto- 
ral, resolvent, carminative and emcnagogue: useful ii> 
asthma, suppressed menstrations, &c. 

SUBSTITUTES — Sniizelia or Pinkroot — Lobelia 

106 CBENOPODXUIVr. No. 21. 


cardinalis — Wormwood — Silene Virginica — Fola- 
nisia graveotens^ and all other vermifuges. 

Remarks — Many other species of Chenopodi- 
um are medical ; but none vermifuge like this : those 
which approximates in appearance and smell are the 
following; which must not be mistaken for this al- 
though useful in other respects. 

Ch. botrys or sweet Jerusalem oak, has oblong ob- 
tuse sinuate leaves, and crowded panicles. Common 

all over the United States, in sand and gravel near 

Ch. a77ihrosioides or Fragrant Jerusalem oak, has 
narrow or lanceolate toothed leaves, and leafy pani- 
cles, with a very fragrant smell, stronger than in the 
foregoing. Grows promiscuously with Ch. antheU 



The whimsical name of Jerusalum oak has been 

j lants, from a fancifu l similitude to the 

cliVv " ' ■ — , I, I 





No. 22. 








>m fm 


3 I 

^ i 








No. 22. CICUTA. 107 

* ■- 'T 




- Fre^tch Name — Cigue d'Amerique- 
CiERMAN Name — Americanische Schierlino. 
Officinal Names — Cicuta Americana. 
Vulgar Names — Snakeweedj Death of man, Wa- 
ter Parsley, Poison root, Wild hemlocl;, Children's 


Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Pursh, B. Bar- 
ton, Ely, Stockbridge, Bigelovv, fig, 1£. 


Genus Cicuta — Flowers umbellate : No invo- 

lucres, involucels many leaved and short ; calix sym- 
phogyne, crown five toothed : petals oboval, entire, 
inflexed ; five long stamina ; Fruit orbicular, crown- 
ed ; with ten furrows, bipartible, bisperme. 

Species C. maculata — Root fasciculate, tube- 
rose : Stem hollow and striated j leaves tripinnate, 

folioles lanceolote, senate, acuminate, teeth mucro- 
nate, veins exmedial: involucels acute, flowers lax. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, composed of 
many oblong fleshy tubers, of a finger's size— Stem 
from three to six feet high; hollow, striated, jointed, 

purple or green, smooth and branched. Leaves 

smooth, decomposed, alternate with petioles clasping 
at the base, bilobe, membranaceous ; decreasing in 
size upwards, where they are only ternate, while the 
lower are tripinnate or triternate, folioles sessile, op 

108 CICUTA. No. 32. 

posite, lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, with veins end- 
ing at the notches, which is very unusual. 

Flowers white in terminal umbelsjwithoutinvolucres, 
umbels with seven to twelve umbellules, each having 
from twelve to twenty flowers, upright, not crowd- 
ed : Involuceli: very short, oblong, acute ; calix con- 
nected with the pistil, crowned, crown with five 
minute segments. Petals five obovatcj white, entire, 
end inflexed. Filaments longer filiform, anthera 
oval. Twoshort recurved styles. Fruit nearly globular, 
divisible into two Seeds as in all the umbellate plants, 
each is flat inside, convex outside, vvith five furrows. 
Locality — In wet meadows, pastures, and ditch- 
es ; near streams and swamps, from New England to 
Georgia and Ohio : also in the mountains of Penn- 

-sylvania and Virginia. — Blossoming in summer, from 
July to August. 

HISTORY — The genus Cicvta is one of the poi- 
sonous hemlocks ; the Cmihim macnlalum, is, how- 
ever, considered as the true hemlock and the most 
virulent : but the deadly poison of that name (ren- 
dered famous by the death of Socrates) was a com- 
pound beverage. In the United States, the same 
name is capriciously give.i to a beautiful and useful 
species of Fir-tree. 

Both Cicxda and Conhtm belong to the natural or- 
der of c^^iBELLATE, or Umbelliferous plants, and to 
P£NTANDRiA digynia of Linnffius, although they 
have only one pistil. 

Ckuta was the old latin name, maculata mezns 
spotted ; but the plant not bein^ snntfpd. \t is a very 

No. 22. ClOUTA. lOy 



bad specific name ; which Bigelow wouM have 
changed into fasciculatay if changes of old names 
should not be avoided. 

Many umbellate plants growing near wafers are 
poisonous, although the Sweet Sisily or Myrrhis is 
not. The root of the last is often sought for by chil- 
dren, w^ho like its sweet taste ; but are apt to mistake 
this and many other poisonous plants for it, by which 
mistake several have been poisoned. It would be 
well to avoid all similar plants; or at least to attend 
to their different smell and taste, which is strong and 
disagreeable in all the pernicious kinds. 

These deleterious plants appear io lose some of 
their virulence when growing in a drier soil, or cul- 
tivated in gardens. Sheep and goats eat them with 
impunity, and even cattle do not appear injured by 
them when mixed with hay. 

Several persons searching for Angelica root, Sweet 
flag, Sweet Sisily (which have all a pleasant aromatic 
smell and taste,) have eaten this root by mistake, and 
sora^ have died in an hours time. The effects of the 
poison were violent convulsions, a frothing mouih, 
a bleeding nose, dilated pupils, fixed eyes, &c- y^aon 
vomiting was produced naturally, they were saved, 
after being very sick for. three days, w^ith stupor, 
paleness, &c- Persons poisoned in this way, ought 
therefore to ex^acuate the stomach, by tickling the 
throat, or taking an emetic ; sulphate of zinc is the 
most speedy. Vinegar or Lemon juice may also be 
given to neutralize the narcotic poison, and next Cas- 
tor oil, mild purgatives, strong coffee, &c. after vo- 


i i CICUT A. No. 22, 

Qualities — The root has a strong penetrating 
smell and taste, its bark contains a yellowish juice in 
small cavities. The juice of the root is viscid, resin- 
ous, dissolves in alcohol, and is precipitated by wa- 
ter. It produces a thick volatile oil by distillation, 
and a resin of a dark orange color is left. The de- 
coction of the root is whitish. The extract of the 
whole plant is dark and has a nauseous smell. 

PROPERTIES — A strong narcotic, solvent, and 
good substitute for the Conium maeulafum, being 
more powerful, and requiring a lesser dose. A few 
grains of the dried leaves or extract have been given 
in schirrose and scrofulous tumors and ulcers, with 
equal advantage j but a larger dose produces nausea 
and vomiting : the doses should be very small, often 
repeated and gradually increased. It has been used 
in gargle for the sore throat, but safer substances 
ought to be preferred. 

Substitutes— Conmw maculatum — Angelica 
cttropurpurca , and other violent narcotics. 

Remarks— The Indians when tired of life, are 





No. 23. 










:§ t 

m. 23. OOLLXNSONZA. 1 1 1 


No. 23- 


&GLISH Naiie—BROADLEAF collinsonia 

French Name — Collinsone du Canada. 
German Name — Canadische Colli>'so>'ie, 
Officinal Name — Collinsonia, 
Vulgar Names — Richweed^ RIchleaf, Heal-all, 
Horseweed, Knot-root, Stone-root, Knot-weed, &c. 
Authorities — ^Lin, Mich. Pursh, Schoejpf, Mease^ 

Genus Collinsonia — Calix eampanulate, bilabiate 

labiate, campaniilate, upper lip very short, notched? 
lower lip fringed. Stamina two or four, or rather 
four, tw^o of which are often sterile, or without an- 
thers. One pistil, one style, stigma lateral. Fruit, 
four seeds, often only one or two by abortion — Leaves 
opposite, flowers terminal panickd, commonly yel- 

Species C. canadensis — Smooth; leaves few, am- 
ple, petiolate, cordate, seri'a'e, acuminate; panicle 
lax, teeth of the calix subulate, e(jual to the lube of 
the corolla, two fertile stamina. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, knottj-, depres- 
sed, hard witli many slender fibres — Stjm simple, 
round, straight, about two [eet high — Only two or 

three pairs of lar^ethin leaves, on lon^ petioles, cor- 

113 C0Z.Z.XNSOinA. No 5 J. 


date at the base^ broadly ovate, acuminate, with broad 
teethj surface smooth, with small veins. 

Inflorescence in a terminal leafless panicle, formed 
by branched racemes — Flowers opposite on long pe- 
duncles, with short subulate bracteoles. Calix cam- 
panulate, with five subulate teeth, forming two lips, 
the lower lip h longer and wilii two segments. Co- 
rolla yellowish, tubular at the base, spreading above 
in two lips ; the upper lip is very short and notched, 
the lower lip is lobed on the sides, and fringed 
around. Two lx3ng protruding stamina, filaments fili- 
form, anthers oval. Style protruding. Seeds oftea 
abortive, and only one ripening. 

UISTORY—Col/insouiu is a genus peculiar ta 
North America, and dedicated to Coilinson, an En- 
glish botanist and phllosopiier. It was at iirst formed 
by this single species, but has since been increased by 
many others, which have all the same habit: where- 
by the genus is easily distinguished from the Salvia 
(Sage), Monarda and Lycopus, genera belonging to 
the same natural order af Labiate, and section ot 




having some tetrandrous species : wherefore It might 


mia of Llnn^us ! 

The species with four stamina are C ^nisatctj 
C. lonv^ijlora ^' C. Verticillaris ^. ludov. They 
must of course form a peculiar subgenus, which I have 
called Hypogon ; and perhaps conriistency requires to 
make a genus of it, in order to obviate the anomaly 
jjitclasisiucation. However, they aU possess thesa^^^* 


^o. 21 COtl-lNSONIA. ^ as 

jualities and properties, as well as the striking habit 
)f large leaves and panicled fringed ilowers often yel- 

The C. canadensis is a handsome estival plant, 
alossoming from July to September. 

Locality — Found from Canada to Carolina, ir; 
woods; rare towards the south and confined to rich 
v^alleys; very common in the mountains of Pennsyl- 
vania and New York. It disappears west of the moun* 
tains ; but is replaced by other congeneric species. 

QuALiTiirs — The whole plant has a strong balsamic 
smell, 'somewhat similar to that of Salvia Sclarea : it 



the root. It affords by distillation an essential oil, 
possessing the same smell. The taste is pungent and 



PROPFiRTIES — ^%^ulnerary, coroborant, carmina- 
tive, subtonic, diuretic, and a warm stimulant. It ap- 
pears to combine the properties of Sage, Mint and 
Woundwort: {Anthyllis Vulneraria^ therefore it may 
b6 substituted to them. It is one of the plants called 
lieal-ally in the United States, because they cure 
^ores and wounds : the Indians employ this plant for 
hat purpose. In the mountains and hills of Virginia, 
Jtentucky, Tennessee and Carolina, this genus is con- 
sidered as a panacea, and used outwardly and inward- 
ly in many disorders ; it is applied in poultice and 
wash for bruises, sores, blows, falls, wounds, sprains, 
contusions, and taken like tea for head aches, cholics, 

cramps, dropsy, indigestion, &c. The whole plants 


Hi COLZ.INSONZA. iSfo. 25. 

are used, botli fresh and dry : they are also employed 
for the sore-backs of horses. 

According to Schoepf, it Is useful in the dumb fe- 
ver, lochial cholic, bites of snakes, and for rheuma- 
tic pains, in strong frictions of the kaves. Dr. Mease 

relates that the root infused in cider has cured the 

Substitutes — ^corus Calamus — Aniseed— SVz/- 
vkt or Sage — Monarda or Horsemint — Mentha or 
M'mi—Cunila or Dittany— and many other labiate 
plants. — For -sores Baptisia tinctoria—Sohnum. 



Virginicum— Galax rotundifolia, &c. 

Remarks — All the other species of this genus have 
the same smell, taste and properties : they are equal- 
ly employed. The C. anisata has a rfiner smell, 
somewhat similar to aniseed, by which it may beeasi- 

vn. The other species are so much alike as 
to be easily blended, or taken for each other. They 
have, however, narrower leaves, often hairy : and 
the C. tubcrosa has a larger softer root. 

The most common and officinal in Kentucky, Ohio 
£^e. *s a new species, which I have called C. angusti- 
folia; it is about a foot high, has smooth lanceolate 
or oblong leaves, > three inches long, acute at both 
ends, margin crenate serrate ; racemes slender, flow- 
ers small, yellowish, teeth of the calix acute, shorter 
than the tube ; corolla less fringed than in the others 
two long stamina. 






F J 







^o 24, OOMFTOKZA. il§ 







■French Name — Comptonier odorant. 

^German Name — Streifenfarren. 

Officinal Names— Ccmptonia, Dtilcifilix folia. 

Vulgar Names — -Sweet-fern, Sweet-bush, Sweet- 
ferry, Fern-bush, Fern-gale, Spleenwort-bush, &c. 

Synonyms — Liquidamhar peregrmum 4' X. osple- 
nifolia of Linnaeus. My rica asphm folia (^xonovim. 

Authorities— Linnseus, Alton, Michaux, Pursh, 

6choepf, B. Barton, W. Barton, M. M. fig. 19, &c. 

Genus Comptonia — Monoical, amentaceous — M. 
H. in long cylindrical catkins, scales one flowered, 
perigone two-leaved, three forked stamina, six anthers. 


F. fl, in globular inferior catkins, scales one flowered, 
perigone six leaved, one pistil, two ^iyX^Sj fruit ovate, 
e valve, one-seeded nwt or achene* 

Species C- Asplenifolia — Shrubby, leaves crowd- 
ed, sessile, narrow lanceolate, alternately crenate-si- 


DESCRIPTION— A small shriib from two to five 
feet high, with many crooked branches and long hori- 
zontal roots — Leaves alternate, crowded, sessile, with 
two smdll oval acute stipules at the base, from three to 
"five inches long, 'half an inch broad, acute at both 

ends, with a strong niiddle nerve ,' each side regular- 


116 COlttPTOKlA. No. 24. 


ly sinuate by large equal obtuse lobules — Flowers ap- 
pearing before the leaves ; the male in many superior 
lateral and cylindrical catkins, the female inferior in a 
few globular or oval lateral catkins — scales of both 
catkins imbricated concave, reniform, acuminate, ca- 
ducous and one flowered. Male flowers with a two- 
leaved perigone, shorter than the scales, each part 
equal and keeled. Six stamina or anthers, on three 
short forked filaments. Female flow^ers with a bristly 
perigone of six filiform persistent segments, longer 
than the scales. Pistil oval, two capillary styles. 
Seeds evalve oval nuts or achenes^ compressed yel- 
low, forming a round burr. 

HISTORY— This pretty shrub forms by itself a 

solitary genus of the natural order amentaceous, de- 

dicated by Solander and Alton to Compton, an En- 

lish bishop, and friend of Botany. It may be placed 

in MoNOECiA tricnidria or htxandria or iriadel- 

phia ! 

It has been called Sweet-fern, owing to its singular 
leaves, similar to the Spleenwort fern, and having a 
pleasant spicy scent. It blossoms very early in March 
and April, before the leaves are unfolded. 

Linnaeus had united it to Liquidamhar or the sweet 
gum tree, and Gronovius before him to Myrica or wax 
shrub, which have a similar inflorescence. 

Locality — From New England to Carolina^ on 
hills and alluvial plains, in poor, locky and sandy 
soils, forming vast glades in thin woods. Common 

Jboth on the Allegheny mountains and the plains of 


^<>- 24. C0MPT02«X&. 117 

New Jersey, &c. but nearly disappearing west of the 
mountains, and unknown to the western plains. 

QfJALiTiEs— The whole plant, but chiefly the leaves 
have a peculiar strong smell, of a sweet and balsamic 
nature; becoming stronger by pressing or bxuisln*^ 
them* It contains the benzoic acid, tannin and a resi- 
nous substance. The taste is balsamic and pungent. 

PROPERTIES— Astringent, tanic, calefacient, 
cephalic, balsamic, expectorant, &c. It possesses all 
the properties of the tonic and astringent balsams. 
Barton recommends it for diarrhea, loose bowels and 
the summer complaint of children, or cholera infan- 
tum, in the form of a weak decoction ; but it is used 
in Pennsylvania and Virginia for many other diseases, 
such as all children's bowel comply.; nta, (where it 
•forn^fia gvatcful diinls ior them) in rhachitis, in debili- 
ty, in fevers as a diluent tonic; in rheumatism and 
contusions it is less available. The root chewed stops 
blood'Spltting, according to Schoepf. Upon the whole 
-this shrub appears to be deserving of further atten- 
tion, I have seen it employed throughout the country 
as a substitute or auxiliary to the more expensive bal- 
sams, in asthma, bronchitis, &c. 

Substitutes — Storax — Tolu — Sassafras — Laxirxta 
Jt'yrro/n— Agrimony — Mlfchella repeas — Gaultherim 
jjTQCianbensp and all mild balsamic astringents, 


118 CONXUM. No. 25. 

No. 25. 


English Name— COMMON HEMLOCK. 

French Name — Cic^ue commune, 
German Name — Gemeine Schierlin^g. 
Officinal Name — Gonium, Cicuta officinalis. 
Vulgar Names — Poison Parsley, Spotted Pars- 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Schoepf, Murray, Cul- 

len. Coxc, many Dispens. Bigelovv, figi II; and Seq- 

Genu$J^J!aiiM— Flowers umbellate, with many 


concrete with the pistil, margin entire. Petals five 
entire inflexed. Stamina five, Style? two. Fruit bi- 
, partible, two seeded, oval, compressed, ribbed, ribs 
wrinkled or crenate. 

Species C. Maculatum — Stem round, hollow, 
striated, and spotted : leaves decomposed, bi or 
tripinnate, folioles opposite, sessile, pinnatifid : fruit 
with undulated ribs, 

DESCRIPTION— Root biennial, elongated, branch^ 
cd or fusiform — Stem from two to four feet high, 
branched, smooth, round, striated, hollow, jointed, 
and with oblong purplish dotts — Leaves smooth, de- 
composed, two or three times pinnate, with short 
gheathing petioles, leaflets or folioles pinnatifid, oval. 
nearly obtuse, often confluent. 


No. 25. 



■^ .. 





i i lu 


No. 25. CONXXTM. lit) 

Flowers in terminal peduncled umbels, with an in* 
volucre of ten to twelve lanceolate, reflected, acute 
leaflets — Umbellules from six to nine on long pedun- 
cles, involucels with three or four similar leafietssitu- 
ated on one side. Flowers very small and white, 
Calix without apparent teeth — Petals five, oval, in- 
flexed, obtuse and entire at the end — Stamina five, as 
long as the petals. Pistil coherent with the calix, 
rounded, bearing the petals and stamina : Styles two, 
reflexed outside. Fruit nearly oval compressed, with 
erenate ribs, separating into two elliptical seeds, flat 
inside, convex outside, 

HISTORY— The Conhim of the Greeks and the 
Cicuta of the Romans, \vas a poisonous plant, the 
juice of which was used to produce death in Ceos and 
Athens. Socrates and Phocion, two virtuous, emi- 
nent and innocent Athenians^ were condemned to 
drink it, and their death has rendered famous, that 
poisonous potion. Either this plant or the Cicuia 
virosa of Europe aSbrded it, or a compound beve- 
rage was made from several poisonous umbelliferous 
plants, which procured a speedy but tranquil disso-* 


It has since been found, that these plants, like ma- 
ny other poisons, have valuable medical properties, 
nearly similar in all the deleterious species of this 
family. The Conium maculatum^ is the most em- 
ployed, and must be distinguished from others, either 
more or less active, by its botanical characters: be- 
sides its strong smell, spotted stems, parsley leaves, 
&c. The power of this plant vary exceedingly, ac* 

ito toatttiM. No. 2^ 

cording to the place and climate where it grows, the 
time when collected, and the preparations of it 

It is most powerftrl in warm climates, in the sum- 
mer, and when full grown. Some persons are hardly 
aflfected by it : while others are more susceptible ; on 
these it produces dizziness, nausea, disturbed sight, 
faintness, &c. which symptoms appear in half an 
hour and last half a day or more. A large dose pro- 
duces worse symptoms, vertigo, paralysis, convul- 
sions and death. There is little danger of being poi- 
soned by this plant through misstate, owning to its bad 
smell : yet there are instances on record that children 
have taken it for parsley and the root for carrot: 
whereby sickness and death have been produced. In 
the United States, the Cicuta macidata is more dan- 
gerous on that score. 

This plant blossoms in summer irom June to Au- 
gust. It belongs like all the LTivrBELLATK to Pe5- 
TANDRiA digynia of Linnasus. 

Locality- — Native of Europe j but now naturahV 
ed in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, &c. mostly found in old fields, near roads 
and fences, on the banks of rivers, &c. Very com- 
mon in some local spots ; but not found every where. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a disagreeable 
virose smell (somewhat like the urine of a cat) which 
becomes stronger when the leaves are bruised, ine 
rooi contains In the sj)rlng a milky juice, highly vir- 
ulent. The essential active acrid principle of this 
plant appear to reside in a green resinous substance, 
called ConemCf dissipating by exposure to air and 

No. 25. cbsrztrM. igi 

light, but not by fire. It contains Gum, Extractive, 
a green fecula, Resin, Albumen and many alkalies: 
but no essential oil. The taste is bitter and nau- 


PROPERTIES— A powerful acrid narcotic and 
resolvent; but the uncertainty of its action lessens 
Us value. It is never dangerous in very small doses, 
often repeated, and gradually increased. It is also an 
efficient anodyne, sedative and antispasmodic, useful 
to allay pain in acute diseases. It has been recom- 
mended in many chronic diseases, such as cancer, 
epilepsy, mania, syphilis, &c. but in those cases it 
acts only as a palliation to pain, like opium, to which 
it is often preferable, as less constipating. 

The diseases in which it has been found useful, are 
chronic abcesses, schlrrose tumors, foul ulcers, ric- 
kets, caries, repelled itch, abdominal and internal 
swellings, obstructions, hemicrania, dropsy of the 
joints, obstinate ophthalmia and cataracts, &c. In all 
these cases it acts as an efficient repellent and resol- 

True Schirrus and Cancer cannot be cured by it; 
but obstinate and scrofulous tumors or swelled testi- 
cles (which terminate in, or are mistaken for schir- 
rus) have been removed by its use. 

The effects of this plant are so variable, that some 
physicians have pronounced it inert or a mere diuretic, 
having been deceived in their prescriptions owing to 
bad preparations or otherwise. 

In tic douleureux it has afforded relief or even cfl 
fected a cure, when nothing else could avail. While 

1S3 CONZUM. No. 25. 


it is highly extolled in jaundice, removing the yel- 
lowness in a short time, and curing the disease, when 
cot too complicated. It has also a relaxing effect in 
facilitating the passage of biliary concretions. 

Although recommended for the whooping cough, it 
is not a safe medicine for children. 

The bast way to administer it, is that of the pow- 
dered leaves, beginning with two or three grains, anil 
increasing the doses gradually. The leaves must 
presei-v-e their green color to be efficient Yet the 
most usual form is the green extract, beginning with 
one to five grains ; but It is difficult to regulate the do- 
ses, each parcel having a different strength, and being 
even nearly inert when made with dry leaves, oryoung 
plants, or with too much heat, or when become old. 
It would therefore be desirable to procure the Coneine 
of a permanent strength. An extract from the seeds 
is said to be stronger and produces giddiness very 
soon. Externally it has been used in cataplasms for 



gar and lemon juice are the antidotes for the poisoa 
or over-doses of this plant. 

Substitutes — Ciciita maculata — Angelica atro- 
purpurea — Datura stramonium — Hyosciamus ?ii' 
ger — Solanum dulcamara — Opium, &c. 

Remarks — The white and milky root of this plant 

is considered a violent poison and not used, although 

t might be more efficient than the leaves. It cannot 

contain however the active principle called Coneine, 

^'Mch is green, and it is found that whenever the 

leaves or extract lose their greea color they become 

No. 26. 
















No. 26. CONVOX.WI.US. 

No. 26^ 


Frejn-ch Name — Liseron imechamec. 
German Name — Geigenblattrige winde. 
Opficinal Names — Convol\r. pandurati sen Pseu- 
do-mechoacana, radix. 

Vulgar Names— Wild Potatoe, Wild Rhubarb, 
Mechameck, Wild Jalap, Man in the ground, Meco- 
acan, Potatoe Vine, Kussander, Kassader, &c. 

Authorities — Linn^us, Schoepf, Coxe, Disp. 
Bigelow Secj. B. Barton, Nuttal, W. Bart. V. M 
M. fig. £3. ^ 

Genus Convolvulus — Calix five parted, segments 

unequal imbricated. Corolla bell or funnel shapetij 
iimbus equal, nearly entire, with five folds and teeUu 
Five unequal stamina on tlie corolla. One pistilsur* 
rounded by a glandular disk, one style, stigma bifid 
orbilobe. Capsule bilocularj few seeded. 

Species C. Panduratus — Root tuberose ; stcui 
twining; leaves cordate, acute, entire or pandurate ; 

peduncles multiflore, calix mutic, corolla funnel- 


DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, very large, cy- 
Ihidric or fusiform, from two to four feet lon^, txs 

thick as the arm, yellowish outside, whitish and mli- 
Jjy inside, wulh many fissurr*?. oflen branched below 

121 oonrvdZiVULES. no. ss. 

and attenuated above. — Stem procumbent or climbing, 
round, purplish, from three to twelve feet long, some- 
times branched — Leaves cordate at the base, broad, 
alternate, petiolate, margin entire or undulate, or 
lobed on the sides like a fiddle, ver}^ sharp, but hard- 
ly acuminate, smooth, deep green above, pale green 

Flowers in fascicles of two to six, on long pedun- 
cles, longer than the petioles, and axillary, pedicels un- 
equal. Calix with five unequal segments, ovate ob- 


tuse, concave, mutic, two smaller opposite outside 
Corolla large, funnel shaped, about two or three in- 
ches long, and as broad above, base tubulose, color 
white or incarnate or purplish. Stamina white, fila- 
ments filiform, unequal, inclosed, anthers oblong. 
Style white, filiform, stigma bipartite, segments li- 
near. Capsule oblong, >vilh two cells and four seeds. 
HISTORY — A great botanical confusion had arisen 
in this genus, and the natural tribe of Volvulides or 
Convolvuiaceay of which it is the type. The genera 
of this family had not been well fixed, and Ipomea 
particularly was so little distinguished from Co^ivol- 
Villus that many species were considered as belonging 
to both ! It is now ascertained (as I pointed out in a 
dissertation published in 1820) that the inequality of 
the stamina is the principal character of the family, 
and that Ipomea is distinguished, not by the variable 
corolla, but by the trilocular capsul and capitate or 
trilobe stigma. Both genera contain a multitude of 
species, many of which are medical, such as C Sea- 

mania, C. iurpeihum^ C.jalapa, kc. which are all 
iJrastic or cathartic. 

No. 26. C0HV0IiVT7LUS. l^j 

The true jalap of commerce has been ascribed to se- 
veral plants, and a controveisy exists on the subject. 
This plant is one of the false jalaps, the others are the 
/po?7t€a 7?iacrorhiza oi^ Mioh&ixxy found from Georgia 
to Yucatan on the sandy shores, and several Bind- 
weeds growing in South America. The true C.Ja- 
lapa appears to grow on the Andes of South America 
and ]Mexico» 

Our C, pandiiratiis has also been mistaken for Sca- 
mony. Rhubarb and Mecboacan. The native name 
of Mechameck ought to be given to it as a distinc- 
tive appellation. It blossoms in summer, from June 
to August* It was named panduratus by Linnaeus, 
])ecause the leaves are often lobed on the sides like a 
fiddle ; but this does not always happen, and some 
plants have all the leaves cordate and entire. 

The cathartic properties of this plant and of Ipo- 
Tnea macrorhiza have been denied by Bigelovv, 
Baldwin, &c. and even the latter considered as edible; 
but it appears that all the species of these two ge- 
nera, having milky roots, are more or less cathartic, 
particularly when fresh. 

They both belong to Pestandria monogynia of 
Linnaeus* Convolvulus^ (like ^£;o/va/w,s) derives from 

the twining habit of the genus. 

Locality — Common all over the United States^ 
from Canada and New England to Florida and Mis- 
souri, in poor and loose soils, sandy and slaty fields, 
gravelly hills and alluvions, open glades and thickets; 
but seldom in shady woods. 

Qualities — The taste and smell of the root, ap- 
proximate to Scamony and Jalap ; but are less nau- 


125 C0NV01.VUI.US. No. 26. 


seous and acrid. This root maybe known by itssize> 
yellowish color, and crevisses. It is milky when 
fresh. The extract from it resembles Scamony and 
"possesses the same properties. 

PROPERTIES— Cathartic, diuretic and pectoral. 
It acts like jalap, rhubarb, briony and scamony at a 
larger dose, when given in substance ; but the extract 
from the fresh root is more efficient, and is a mild ca- 
thartic at a small dose of ten or twelve grains. It is 
seldom used by physicians, but often by Indian doc- 
tors. It is a safe substitute for the more costly roots 
above mentioned, and as a root often weighs twenty 
pounds, it might be made an article of trade. *As a 
diuretic it is useful in gravel, strangury, dropsy, &c« 
it enables to evacuate small calculous granulations, 

and may be taken in substance or decoction. As a 
pectoral it has been used for consumptive coughs and 
asthma ; a syrup is made of it with Skunk cabba2:e, 
for that purpose. 

Substitutes Jalap Rhubarb — Scamony- 

Briony—Erz^eron Sp. — Pyrola umhellata— Jis- 
clepias tuber OS a J iSJ^c. 

Remarks — It is asserted that the Indians can han- 
dle Rattle-snakes with impunity, after wetting their 
hands with the milky juice of the root of this plant, 




5 Wiaiig 


The root must be collected at the end of summerj 

ghtto be cut ia slices. 

No. 27. 



Iki B^i 

oiar GoiJD 

No. 27. OOPTIS- 127 

No. 27^ 


French Name — Coptis triphylle, 
German Name — Kleinste christwurz. 

Officinal Names — Helleborus trifolius, Coptis, 
Fibraurea, &c. 

Vulgar Names — Gold-Thread, Mouthroot. 

SvNONVMs — Helleborus tnfoUus Linnaeus, &.c. 
Fibra aurea Golden and Schoepf. Anemone groeU 
andica Oeder. Chryza Jibraurea Haf. 

Authorities — Linnasus, Michaux, Pursh, Sails- 
bury, Schoepfj Pallas, Oeder, Thacher, Coxe, B. 
Barton, Bigelow, M. B. fig. 5, & Sequel, W- Bart 
V. M. M. fig 34. 

Genus Coptjs — Calix corolliform and caducous, 
with five or six leaves. Corolla with five or six nec- 
tariform cucullate petals. Many hypogynous stamina. 
Pistils five to eight, stipitate, germs oblong, styles re- 
curved. Capsuls as many, stipitate, oblong, beaked, 
one celled, many seeded, dehiscent longitudinally. 

Species C. trifolia — Roots filiform, creeping ; 
leaves sub-radical, ternate ; folioles sessile, rounded, 
crenate; scapes one flowered. 

DESCRIPTION— Roots perennial, creeping, fill- 
form, of a bright yellow, with many small fibres 

Caudex or base of the scapes and radical leaves, cover- 

128 C05TIS. No. 2/. 

ed with imbricate scales, ovate acuminate and yellow- 
ish — Leaves evergreen, on long slender petioles, pro- 
ceeding from the caudex, with ternate folioles, ses- 
sile, rounded or obovate, base acute, margin with 
unequal acuminate crenatures and lobes, surface 
smooth, firm and veined. Scapes as long as the leaves, 
slender filiform, with one flower and a minute mucro- 
nate bract under it.- 

Flowers about half an inch wide, with a white co- 
rolliform calix of five, six or seven sepals or folioles, 
oblong, obtuse, concave. Petals as many^ shorter, 
nectariform, obovate, hollow, yellow at the top. Sta- 
mina many, filaments slender and white, anthers 
rounded, adnate and yellow- Pistils fromfive to eight, 
stipitate germs shorter than the gynophore or base, 
oblong, acute, compressed. Styles short and curved, 
stigmas acute. Capsules like the pistils naked, the ca- 
lix having fallen off, umbellate, on long divaricate pe- 
dicels, oblong rostrate, unilocular, dehiscent on the 
inner side, and many seeds attached to the other 

HISTORY — This plant was erroneously united to 

HelhhoriLS by Linnaeus. I proposed to call it Chry- 
za^ in 180S : it was since called Copiis by Salisbury; 
although my name is anterior and more descriptive, 



I am so little tenacious as to admit the Copiis which 
has already been adopted by many. The principal 
distinctions are found in the stipitate pistils and cap- 
sules, besides petals not bilabiate. My new genus 
Enemion bitematum^ differs from Contis bv want of 

No. 27. CO^TlS. i^9 

petals, and two seeded capsuls. Many botanists call 
the petals of this plant nectaries, and the calix corol* 
la, thus saying that they have no calyx : but the na- 
tural affinities teach that wherever the perigone is dou- 
ble, the inner range is the corolla, whatever be its 

Both Copth and Hell eb or us h^\ox\^ toPoLYANDRA 
polygynia of Linnaeus, and to the Ranunculaceous 
tribe, or natural order Adnantheria, section Avith 
irregular petals, and dehiscent fruits. This plant blos- 
soms early in the spring of the cold regions or in May. 

The roots are the only parts lised ; they are of i 
fine golden color, whence the name. They ought to 
be collected in the summer, and are easily dried ; but 
not easily reduced to powder. The plant itself is a 
pretty evergreen, having the appearance of the straw- 
berry plant. 

Locality — A boreal plant found from Canada to 
Greenland and Iceland on the east, and to Siberia on 
the west. The most southern limits are New En- 
gland, New York, and the shores of Lake Erie. It 
is commonly found in mossy swamps and bogs of 



Qualities — A pure intense bitter, without smell, 

nor astringency, consisting of extractive matter and 

a bitter principle, soluble in water and alcohol : the 

tincture is yellow. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic and stomachic, promoting 

digestion, strengthening the viscera, useful in dyspep- 



130 OOPTIS. No. 2r. 

a pure bitter is required ; being a good substitute for 
Quassia, Columbo, Gentian, &c. A tincture made 
with an ounce of the roots in a pound of diluted alco- 
hol, is recommended in doses of a tea spoonful thrice 
a day, or ten to twenty grains of the powder: both 
agree with the stomach. 

It has been used for ulceration of the mouth, in gar- 
gle, &e. but Bigelow pretends that it is inert in that 
case, being devoid of astringency ; and to other arti- 
cles added to it, are to be ascribed the benefit it may 
have afforded. 

Substitutes — Quassia — Columbo — Menyanthes 
trifoUata — Frasera verticillata — Jlletrisfarinosa" 
Sabbatia angularisj and other pure bitters. 

No. 28. 



No .23. COBNXrS. 131 

No.. 28. 


English Name— COMMON DOGWOOD. 
French Name — Cornouiller fleuri. 
German Name — Schonbltjhender Hartriegel. 


Officinal Name — Cornus florida. 

Vulgar Names — Dogwood, Doglree, Boxtree, 

Florid Cornel, Monhacaniminschi, &c« 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Schoepf^ Gates- 
by, Thacher, Coxe, Carpenter, Elliot, B. Barton, Big* 
fig. 28, and Seq, W. Bart. fig. 3, &c. 

Genus Corxus — Calix symphogyne, four toothed. 
Petals four, small and broad. Stamina four, epigyne 
alternating with petals. One style and stigma. Fruit 

a drupe inclosing a bilocular two seeded nut. 

Species C. Florida — Asborescent ; leaves oppo- 
site, ovate, acuminate, base acute, glaucous beneath : 
Involucres corolliform, nearly obcordate j drupes 

ovate and scarlet, 

DESCRIPTION— Stem rising from fifteen to thir- 
ty feet, with a rough blackish bark full of fissures : 
branches opposite, spreading, with reddish bark and 
rings where the old leaves grew. — Leaves opposite, 
petiolate, oval, entire, base acute, end acuminate, pale 
beneath, with strong narallel veins. 

1 33 cozunrs. no. 2s. 

Flowers terminal^ appearing when the leaves are 
young, with a large four leaved involucre three in- 
ches broad, commonly mistaken for the blossom^ 
white, obcordate, veined. The true flowers are in the 
centre, small, crowded, sessile, yellowish. Calix cam 
panulate, symplrogyne, with four obtuse teeth. Co- 
rolla with four oblong, obtuse petals. Stamina four 
erect, anthers oblong, style short, erect, stigma ob- 
tuse. Fruits several oval scarlet drupes, with a nut 
inside having two cells and two seeds. 

HISTORY — The genus C^rnz/J or Cornel, must be 
divided into two sections, those species having the 
flowers capitate, sessile, and with an involucre, arc 
the true Dogwoods, (Cyno^ry /on), and those with cym- 
ose, naked flowers, are the true Cornels. It belongs 
with Hedtra to the natural family of Hed^races, and 
to Tetrandrta monogynia of Linnasus. Cornus \s 
the ancient latin name of the Cornel;*, and^or/z/a im- 
plies that the blossoms are more conspicuous than in 
any other species. 



w^oods in the spring by a profusion of large white 
blossoms, and bearing in the fall clusters of beautiful 
scarlet berries. In Louisiana, where it is called Bois 

, or Bois de fleche, (Bud wood and Arrow- 




lasts a fortnight in full bloom, and every where indi- 
cates according to the Indians, when Indian corn is to 

be nlant^fl 

No. 28. 001127173. 

This tree grows very slow, nnd the wood is hard, 
compact, heavy and durable ; it is white outside, and 
chocolate color in the centre, talking a very fine polish. 
It may be used like Boxwood, and when stained of a 
light yellow color, resembles it altogether. All kinds 
of tools and instruments are made with it, also co^js 
of wheels, teeth of harrows, spoons, &:c. 


Locality — All over the United States, and almost 
. in every soil, from Massachusetts to Louisiana, and 
. from Florida to Missouri. Most abundant in swampy 
and moist woods. 

Qualities— The bark o[ tlic root, stem and branches 
is bitter, astringent and slightly aromatic. By analj-sis 
it has been found to contain in different proportion 
the same substances as Cinchona^ having more of Gum 
mucilage, extractive and Gallic acid, and less of Re- 
sin, Quinine, and Tannin. The Quinine of the Cor- 
nus has been called Cornine, it has all the properties 
; of the genuine Sulphate of Quinine, but very little is 

afforded. The double distilled water o^ Cor mis is le- 
mon color, that of Cinchona is reddish. 

The extract of Cor72us is less bitter and more as- 
tringent than that of the best Cinchona^ but prefcra- 
ble to the extract of the inferior kinds. 

This extract contains all the tonic properties, the 
resin alone is merely stimulant. The bark of the root 
is the stron2:cst : it is more soluble in water than Cm- 
chona. The fresh bark frequently disagrees with the 
stomach, and is improved by keeping at least one year. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, astringent, antiseptic, co^ 
roborant and stimulant. It is one of the best native 

13-1 COR2nJS. No. 28. 

substitutes for Cinchona^ although evidently different 
in some respects ; the powdered bark quickens the 
pulse, and sometimes produces pains in the bowels ; 
but the Suiphale of Cornine and the extract are not so 
stimulant. They are used in intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers also, typhus and all febrile disorders. The 
doses of the powder are from twenty-five to thirty- 
five grains, often repeated. The Cornine like Quinine. 
In cases of debility it acts as a corroborant; it may 
be joined in practice vrilh Gentian, Colombo, Camo- 
mile, Liriodendron, Seneca root, &c. It is often used 
in decoction in the country, and even the tvvigs are 
chewed as a prophylactic against fevers. Drunkards 
use a tincture of the berries as a bitter for the same 

purpose and for indigestion. 

The flowers have the same properties, and are 
chiefiv used by the Indians, in warm infusion for 
fevers and cholics. All these preparations have a 
more agreeable bitterness than the Peruvian bark. 


It is said that the twigs rubbed or chewed, clean and 
keep sound the gums and teeth. A decoction of the 


bark Is used to cuie the distemper of horses called the 
j^ellow water. Joined with sassafras it is employed 
in strong warm decoction to clean foul ulcers and can- 
cers. Lastly, a kind of black ink can be made with the 
bark, in the usual way, instead of galls. 

Substitutes — Cinchoiia — Liriodendron Mag- 
nolia sp — PincJcncya — Cephala7}thit3j and most of 
the astringent tonics, besides several species of the 


^ame ecnus. 

Re:marks — Almost all the species of this gcnushave 
more or lc3s the same tonic properties, and may be 

No. 28. COHHUS. 135 

substituted to the C- florida. Three of the best 
known as most efficient will be mentioned here. 

1. Cornns Sericea or Blueberry Cornel, vulgarly 
called Sivamp Dogwood or Rose Willow, is a shrub 
from six to twelve feet high, growing from Canada 
to Virsjinia, near swamps and streams. There is a 
figure of it in W. liarton, fis;. 9. The leaves are like 

those of C. Jlorida^ and silky beneath, but the flowers 
are very different, in large terminal cymes, without 
involucrum, yellowish white, and succeeded by large 
clusters of small round blue berries. — The bai'k is less 
bitter, more astringent and pleasant to the taste than 
in C. Jlorida. 

2, C. circiniiata or Round leaved Cornel, also 
called Alder Dogwood, is a shrub with v,^arty twigs, 
large rounded leaves, w^oolly beneath: the fiov;ers 
are in cymes, without involucrum. It grows from 
Canada to Pennsylvania, — Prof. E Ives of New^ Ha- 
ven, and Dr. A. Ives of New York, extol this kind, 
they say it resembles the pale Peruvian Bark, Cin- 
chona lancifolia : an ounce of the bark yields by boil- 
in"' 150 grains, of an astringent and intensely bitter 
extract. In use it is found preferable to Colombo and 
Cinchona cordifoliay it is much employed in the 
Northern States, in substance and otherwise, for 
diarrhcBa, dyspepsia; but is too heating in fevers. 

3. C- alba or Wax-berry Cornel, is also a shrub, 
•rrowins: from New Endand to Siberia in Asia, with 
broad ovate leaves, white beneath, flowers in cymes, 
berries round, white like wax. — All these blossom 


from May to June: many birds are fond of their ber- 
ries and the beavers eat their bark. 

436 CUHILA. No. 29. 




French Name — Cu>-ile u'ameuique. 
Gekmax Name — Amektcaxische cunii-b. 
OrFiciNAL Name — Cunila herba. 
Vulgar Names— Mountain Dittany, Stone MinJ^^ 

WildBasilj Sweet Horsemint, &c. 

Authorities — Linnseus, Schoepf, Mich. Pursh; 
Elliot, Torrey, Stokes, W. Barton, fig. 42, &c. 

Genus Ccnila — Calix tubular, striated with five 
subequal teeth. Corolla tubular, ringcnt, tipper lip 
erect flat emarginatc, lower lip three parted. Two 
exerted fertile stan)ina, two sterile stam, very short. 
Germen four lobed, style exerted, stigma lateral. 
Four seeds Avilhin the calix closed by hairs. 

Species C. Makiaxa — Smooth, stems slender and 
branched; leaves opposite, sessile, punctate, ovate, re- 
mote, serrate; flowers in terminal fasciculate corymbs. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, fibrous, yel- 
low. — Stem about a foot high, smooth, yellowish 
or purplish; slender, hard brittle, with many brachi- 
ate remote branches. — Leaves remote, sessile, smooth, 
dotted, pale green, glaucous beneath, base subser- 
date, end acuminate or sharp, margin with small 
remote acute teeth, nerves regular, texture dry. 

Flowers small but hundsonit^ of a pink or white 





No. 29. CUI7II.A. isy 


r ■ 

colorj forming terminal clusters or corymbs, hy the 
union of several bimnched fascicles of three to seven 
flowers, with very small short oblong bracteoles- . 
Each flower peduncled and naked, calix green nearly 
cylindrical with ten farrows, and five small sharp 
'teeth nearly equal. Corolla twice as long as the 
calix, nearly cyllndric, with two short lips, lower 
lip larger with three rounded lobes, upper lip smaller, 
flat and notched. Four stamina, two of wdiich are 
long, slender and protruding with the style, bearin 
small didymous anthers: two small, very short, w^ithout 
anthers. — Fruit formed by four small obovnte seeds at 
the bottom of the persistent calix, mouth of it dosed 
by hairs. 

HISTORY — This genus belongs to the great na- 
tural order of Labiate, section with two fertile 
filaments, next to the genera Lycopus^ CoIUnsonia 
and Hedeoma. It ranks with them in Diandria 
vionogynia of Linnreus. It contains now only this 
species, wdiich has been called rsuiriaiia because first 
sent to Europe from Maryland. Linn.-cus had 
united it to Saturcja at first, and called li S. ori- 
ganoides. When he made a new genus of it, he 
united with it the C pulcgioidesj which is now 
Uedeoma puIegiGides: these are examples of the- 
botanical vacillations and errors, to which great 
writers are liable when they wish to improve the 
science, and are not ashamed of correcting them- 

- The C. mariana Is a pretty plant, with a very 
fragrant smell; similar to Marjoran and Dittany. It 

M 2 

138 CUN1I.A. No. 29, 

is commonly called by this last name throughout the 
United States ; but is very different from the Dit- 
tany of the gardens, which is the Dictamnus 
fi^axinellay and the other Dittanies of Europe, Ori- 


ganxnn dictamnus^ Marmibium pscitdodictamnuSy 
&c. Our Dittany is peculiar to Amcricaj and distin- 
guished by its corymbose flowers^ which blossom in 
summer from July to Septemlier. 

Locality — AH over the mountains and dry hills 
from New England to Kentucky and Carolina, com- 
mon among rocks and sides of hills^ unknown in the 
plains and alluvions. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a warm fragrant 
aromatic pungent taste and smell, residing in an es- 
sential oil, which can easily be extracted by distilla- 
tiottj and approximates to the oil of Origanii'm^ but 
is more balsamic^ It is the most frggrant of all the 
native labiate plants, and the essential oil has a very 
strong !)alsamic fra^jrance.^ 

PROPERTIES— Stimulant, nervine, sudorific, 
sublonic, vulnerary, cephalic, &:c. The whole plant 
'is used, and usually taken in warm infusion : Dit- 
tany tea is a popular remedy throughout tl;e Country 
for colds, headaches, and whenever it is requisite to 
excite a gentle perspiration. It partakes of the pro- 
perties of all the grateful aromatic labiate jdants, and 
also of Camomile, Snthemis Cotula^ and the Evpct- 
torixim jierfoliatum ; while it affords a more palata- 
ble drink. Its fragrant tea is preferable to that of 
Sage and Monarda^ it has neither the pungency of 

Mint, nor the nauseous snieJl of Pennyroyal or 

Ko.29. CUNILA. 139 

Hedeojna. Solidago Odora comes nearest to this, 
by its fragrance ; but is weaker and not so grateful. 
It relieves nervous headaches and hysterical disor- 
ders. It is used in Carolina, Kentucky, &c. in fevers 
to excite perspiration, and suppressed menstruations 
&c. It is a useful drink in nervous diseases, cholics 
and indigestion. Externally it is employed like CoU 
linsonia for bruiser, sprains, &c. but is not so effi- 

• cient. According to Schoepf, it was one of the plants 
resorted to for curing the bites of snakes j the juice 
was mixed with milk for this purpose. There are 
fifty plants in the United States, employed occasion- 
ally as an antidote for this purpose, which merelj' act 
as sudorifics The essential oil possesses all the pro- 
perties of the plant, and a few drops of it are sufficient 

■ to impart them to mixtures. 

Substitutes — Besides the plants mentioned above. 

all the 


Yarrow, Tansey, Snakeroots, Inula hehnium^ &c. 

140 OTrRlPEBXUM. No. 30. 

No. 30. 


English Name— Yellow Ladies' Slipper. 

French Name — Sabot de venus jaune. 

German Name — Gelb Frauenschuh. 

Officinal Name — Cypripedium radix. 

Vulgar Names — Mocasin flower, Yellows, 
Bleeding heart, American Valerian, Yellow Umbil, 
Male Mervine, Noah's Ark, &:c. 

Syxonyms — Cypripedium Calceolus Var, b. Lin. 

Cypr. luteum Aiton— C. Jlavesceiis Redoute— C. 
pubescens and C. parviJlGriimyi'M^x\o\Xj Salisbury, 
Persoon,rursh, Elliot, Torrey, Eaton, W.]3arton,&:c. 

Authorities — Wildenovv, Alton, Pursh, EllioU 
W. Bart, flora fig. 74, &c. 

Genus Cypripedium — Perigonc 53'inphogyne con- 
crete with the germen at the base, with five unequal 
sepals or divisions, superior and often colored ; the 
innermost or labellum larger, difTerent, yentricose, 
split. Central pillar or gonophorc bearing two Anthers 
and a terminal lobe. 

Species C. Luteum — Stem leafy, leaves broad, 
often acute and pubescent ; flowers v\ith the labellum 
shorter than the other sepals, saccate and compressed, 
two inner sepals linear spiral and very long, terminal 
central lobe deltoid nearly obtuse. 
DESCPvIPTlON— -Roots perennial with many long, 

thick, fleshy cylindrical and flexu^&e fibres, of a pale 

IVo. 30. 


t . 



^-„ _ji 



No. 30. CYPRlPEDIirM;, 141 

yellowish cast^ div^erging horizontally from the cau- 
clex. — Stems one to five from the same caudex, sim- 
ple, erect, often pubescent and angular, rising one or 
two feet, three to seven leaves, and one to three 
flowers. Leaves alternate, sessile, sheathing, ovate oi' 
oblong, acute pubescent or smooth, but always entire 
and with many parallel nerves, green above, paler be- 

Flowers sessile, when more than one, each has a 
bracteal leaf. Germen concrete or inferior, green, 
cylindrical, often curved. Perigone with five unequal 
and diflerent sepals, called petals by the Linnean Bo- 
tanists : two are external oblong or lanceolate, acute, 
longer than the labellum and green : two are internal 
longer, narrower, spirally contorted and green : the 
fifth or innermost and lower, called Labellum, is to- 


tally different from the others, shorter but larger, 
. yellow with or without red spots, hollow like a bag, 
convex beneath, rounded in front, split above with 
inflexed margins. Style and stamina concrete in 
the centre, above the germen, forming a central pil- 
lar, flattened above into an oblong deltoid lobe, sup- 
posed to be the stigma by some Botanists, and bear- 
ino- before two anthers, lodged in separate cells. — The 
fruit is an oblong capsul, with one cell, three valves, 
and a multitude of minute seeds, as in all the Orchi- 

deous tribe, . 

HISTORY— The natural order of the Orchideous 
to which this plant belongs, is a very striking and 
peculiar tribe of Monocotyle vegetables^ which even 

Linnaeus considered as natural, and put in his class 

lis OYPRIPEDXUM. No. 35. 

Gjjnandria and order iJiondriOy although most of 
them arc truly monandrous. IJe called their peri- 
gone, a corolla, bccnuse often colored, and deemed 
the labellum a nectary, while it is evidently a part 
of the pcrigonc or sexual covering. The generic 
name of Ci/pripcdhmty means Venus' Shoe ; it is a 
«plendid j^cnus containing several beautiful American 
and Asiatic species. JMany Dutanists have made two 
species, C. ptibcscevfi and C parvljlorurn of thi«, (o 
1^'hich the previous and better name of C iuieu/n 
•n^ht to be restored. I have ascertained that they 

form only one species^ aflfording many varieties, some 
of which are 

1. G. L. Var, pubcscens, entirely pubescent even 
the flowers. 

2- C, L. Var. g!abrumy nearly smooth. 

3. C. L. Var grandiflzrum^ slightly pubescent, 
labellum very large. 

4» C. I.. Var. ;>orr//7ort/m, slightly pubescent, !§• 
bcllum small. 

I 5. C, L. ^ ar. maculalumj labellum more or L-- 
spotted, ^vith xi^^ dots, lobule oflen red* 

6. C. L, Var. bijiorum^ with two flowers vd 


7. V L. Var. concolor, the whole flower yellow 
or yellowish, unspotted. 

8- C. L. Var. angusti folium ^ leaves and braC* 
♦eoles lanicwlate. 

A multitude of in*<^rmediate varieties or dfTtalioo* 

'^ay be .C4>n, with undulate or spiral mmm\^ obtyW "* 

r acute lobule, Leader ornarrower K^*w. kc 


No. 30. cYrnxFSBxuM. 143 

T— *■ 

This plant blossoms in May and June ; it Is much 
valued in gardens for its beauty and singularity, but 
it is difficult to cultivate : it will seldom grow from 
seeds; tlie roojs must be taken up with earth round 
them, and transplanted in a congenial rich light 
soil. For medical use^ they must be collected in the 
fall, or early in the springs carefully dried and re- 

' duced to powder. 

LocALiTT — Found all over the United States^ from 

* New England to Louisiana ; but very rare in some 
places, while it is common in the hills and swamps 
of New York, the Highlands, Green and Catskill 
Mountains, and also in the glades and prairies of the 

■^Yestern Slates. 

Qualities — ^The roots are the only medical parts: 
they have a pungent, mucilaginous taste, and a pe- 
culiar smellj somewhat nauseous. They contain ex- 
tractive, gum, fecula, and perhaps a small portion of 

essential oil. 

PROPEIITIES — It is with some satisfaction that 

I am enabled to introduce, for iho first time, tbistieau- 
tiful genus into our Materia ISIedica : a!l the species 
are equally medical ; they have long been known to 
the Indians, who called them ISIocasin flower, and 
were used by the Empirics of New England, parti- 
cularly Samuel Thompson. Their properties how- 
. ever have been tested and confirmed by Dr. Hales of 
Troy, Dr. Tully of Albany, &c. The most efficient 

• is the C. hUeum, next C, acaide, and last C. spec- 
■ ' tabile^xiAC. canciidii;n. Neither Sehoepf nor any 

other medical writer has mentioned them. 


14tfc CYPRIPEDIUM. No. 30. 

They are sedative, nervine, antispasmodic, <5'C. and 
the best American substitute for Valerian in almost 
all cases. They produce beneficial effects in all nerv- 
ous diseases ' and hysterical affections, by allaying 
pain, quieting the nerves and promoting sleep. They 
are also used in heniicrania, epiJopsy, tremors, 
nervous fevers, <Scc. They are preferable to Opium 
in many cases, having no baneful nor narcotic effects, ■ 
The dose is a tea spoont\il of the powder, diluted in 
sugar water, or any other convenient form. As in • 
Valerian, the nervine power is increased by combina- 
tion with mild tonics. The powder alone has been 
used ; but an extract might be also efficient, unless 
the active principle is very volatile. 

It is well known that the roots of all the tubercular 

Orchideous, afford the officinal Salep, which is so 

highly esteemed in Asia as aphrodisiac, nutritive and 
pectoral. Tlie roots of many species of Orchis could 
afford it in America. The C^pripeduim having 
long fleshy roots appear to afford a diffei'ent kind oi 
substance, by their efficiency as equivalents to Vale- 
rian and Opium. 

Substitutes — \l\ the species of this fine genus 
being equally nervine, it will be well to notice thcin, 
so as to be easily known. 

1. C acaule or Red Ladies^ Slipper, Dwarf fmbfl, 
&c. — Two radical leaves, one large red flower on a 
naked stem- Common in New Jersey, and on the 
alluvial plains of the Atlantic States. Best substitute* 
Roots smaller and brownish- There is a bad figure oi 
it in W. Barton's Am. Flora. 

No. 30. CYPlilPEDlITlW. 145 

2, C. spectabihj or Red and White Ladies' Slip- 
per, Female Nervine, &c. — Stem leafy, one or two 
flowers white and rose colored, sepals oval and short 
— Rare from New York to Louisiana. 

3. C candidumj or White Ladies' Slipper, White 
TJmbil, &c. — Stem leafy, flower white, sepals longer 
than the labellum — Rare in deep woods, Pennsylva- 
nia to Ohio. 

The other succedanea may be Valeriana officinalis 

Humulus lupxdus or hops — Ulmusfulva — Jirnt- 
ca Montana — Doronicum sp. — Ciinila mariana 
Inula heleniuniy &c. 

Remarks — The Orchideous plants which have 
long roots like the Cypripediiim^ appear to liave dif- 
ferent properties from those which have round or 
oval tubercles. The Goodytra is antiscrofulous. 

The Genus Cladorhiza or Corallorhiza^ which 
has fleshy branched roots, has also active properties, 
&c. The Habenaria Jimbriata has anthelmintic roots, 
and the Hab orbiculaia is one of the Heal-alls or com- 
mon Vulncraries. 

All the bulbs of our tubercular Orchideous are 
more or less like Salep, Aphrodisiac and Uterine. 
But one of them the Aplectrum hyemahy (called 
formerly Cymbidium and Corallorhiza by other 
Botanists,) commonly known by the vulgar name of 
Adam and Eve, furnishes a kind of Glue, and has ac- 
tive properties. A species of the same genus ^plec- 
trum lutescens which grows in the Western States, 
is said to be a powerful Uterine, employed by the In- 
dian Women to procure abortion. 


1 H3 DATURA. Ko. 31 . 

No. 31. 


French Name — Stramotne vulgaire. 
German Name — Gemeine Stechapfel. 

Officinal Name — Stramonium. 

Vulgar Names— Jamestownweed, Jimson, Stink- 
weed, Sec. 

Authorities — Linn, and all botanical writers, 
Schoepf, Stoerck, B. Barton, Marcet, Hufeland, 
Woodville, Fisher, Cullen, Murray, Chapman, Ar- 
cher, Thatcher, Coxe, A. Ives, Bigelow, fig. !• & Seq- 

Genus Datura — Calix tuhulnr, angular, deciduous, 
five toothed, Corolla funnel-shaped, plaited, five 
toothed: stamina five equal. Pistil one, style fill-. 
form, stigma bilobe* Capsule four celled, four valvcd? 
many seeded. 

Species D. Stramonium — Stem dichotomej leaves 
alterne oval, sinuate-angular, acute, smooth: fiowert 

solitary, capsuls erect, ovate, thorny. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, white, crooked. 
Stem erect, from one to eight feet high, branched 
by forts or dichotome, cylindrical, often hollow-, 
smooth or pubescent. Leaves alternate at the forks, pe. 
tiolate, oval or oval-oblong, base deci!>rrent, end acute, 
margin almost angular by large unequal acute teeth, 
ia^ases rounded, and irreguhir. — Flowers axillary 
9ohury, on short peduncles, erect, cr someUrnes 

No. 31. 




No. 31. DATURA. 14^7 

nodding, large, white or blueish. Calix monophylle, 
tubular, with five angles and teeth, deciduous, but 
leaving a rim at the base. Corolla twice as long, 
monopetalous, base tubular, subangular, limb with 
five angles, plaits and teeth, these last are acuminate. 
Stamina five, filaments coherent with the tube, fili- 
form, equal, anthers oblong erect. . Germen central, 
free, but the base concrete with the persistent rim of 
the calix, oval, hairy; one style filfform, as long as 
the stamina, one stigma bilobe at the base or sub- 
reniform. Fruit a large fleshy capsule, ovate, thorny, 
with four valves opening at the top, inside with four 
cells. Many black seeds filling each cell, and at- 
tached to a central receptacle in each cell, shape 

HISTORY— The Genus Datura belongs to the 
LuRiDES of Linnseus or Solanea of Jussieu ; but 
ought to be the type of a peculiar family Daturines, 
hardly different from the Convolvulides, except by 
having equal stamina. It is one of the numerous 
genera of the linnean Fentandria monogynia. 

Some obscurity appear to exist on this species and 
several others, owing to mistakes of the best botanists. 
Linnaeus blended the Datura tatula of Africa, with a 
variety oiD. Stramonium^ and the D. ?72e?e7 hardly 
difiers from both. Individual varieties answering to 
these three species, are found in the United States; 
but they have all the same properties, as well as the 
D.fastuosa and D.ferox of the East Indies. The 
following varieties are common with us, and are 
linked by imperceptible changes. 

i48 IJATURA, No. 31, 

1. Van Tatulotdes. Stem purple dotted with 
greeny leaves subtruncate at the base, flowers purplish. 
This is the D. tatula of some botanists, but not the 
real one of South Africa and Asia. 

2. Van Cordata. Leaves cordate at the base; 
stem ^reen, flowers pale bluish. 

3. Var- Jln^ustifolia^ Leaves obloiig-lanceolatej 
sinuate, flowers pale bluish^ 

4. Var. Physttloides* Leaves oblique at the base, 
viscid, flowers white. 

5* Var. Meteloides. Stem viscid, tall, leaves sub- 
cordate pubescent viscid, flowers white, nodding. 
This is the D. metel of some Botanists, but not the 
true kind of Africa, which has globose capsuls, and 
leaves nearly entire. 

6. Var. ^^Iba. Stem green without dots, flowers 
pure white. 

This plant has handsome flowers, sometimes four 
inches long, with leaver from three to seven inches 
long, oi a lurid as^tocL It has been formerly culti- 
vated for its beautiful blossoms, although they have a 
lurid smell. Children use them as yet for garlands, 
by forming strings of the flowers within each other. 
Notwithstanding its noxious qualities, I have seen 
Cows, Sheep and Goats browze on the leaves. 

It blossoms from May to September, in the Southern 
States, and in the Northern from July to October, 
bearing yet blossoms when the seeds of the first 
flowers are ripe. It is killed by the frost with us; 
hut ia warmer climates becomes a half biennial plant. 
The whole plant Is a narcotic poison, producing 

No. 31. DATURA. 14^9 

many strange effects on the human system^ according 
to the doses and constitutions. The leaves eaten 
boiled, have occasioned delirium and intoxication for 
many days, without producing death, or else madness 
or tetanus and death. The Antidotes of this poison 
*^re emetics, vegetable acids, and strong coffee. 

The vulgar name of Jimson is a corruption from 
Jamestown ; as it is said to have spread from the 
town of that name in Virginia. 

LocALiTr — One of the erratic or wandering plants, 
common to all the parts of the world, and spreading 
with the utmost facility. It is probably a native of 
Persia and India; but has spread to Europe, Africa 
and America. It was once thought to be a native of 
North America ; but it has spread in it only since its 
colonization: the Indians call it the White people^s 
plant. Its migrations and colonies might be traced 
from Virginia, and New England, In the Western 
States it has sprung only since their late settlement, 
and from seeds carried there as a pretty garden plant. 
It is now become a noxious weed, infesting the fields, 
&c.; but as it is annual, it might easily be destroyed 
by pulling it before seed time. It is commonly met 
with near houses*, along the roads, in commons, old 
fields, &c., never in woods nor mountains, and is 
found in all the States; also in Canada, and beyond 



Qualities — ;The whole plant has a fetid, lurid and 
narcotic smell, causing head aclie and stupor ; it has 
a bitter and nauseous taste. It contains gum, resin, 

K 2 

150 DATURA. No. 31. 

-carbonate of ammonia, nitrate of potash, malic acid, 
and a peculiar alkaline principle called Datuririy to 
which most of its activitjJ' is ascribed. Daturin cris- 
talizes in quadrangular prisms, and is only soluble 
in boiling alcohol : yet the plant yields its properties 
to Water and Alcohol, because the Daturin is com- 
bined with the acid and forms a soluble mallate of 

PROPERTIES— This loathsome weed is one of 
those bounties of nature scattered almost every where, 
andpossessingenergetic medical powers. Itis narcotic, 
phantastic, antispasmodic, anti-epileptic, anodyne, 
sedative, &c. and externally refrigerant, detergent, 
resolvent, &c. It has been recommended by Physi- 
cians in Asia, Europe and America, in Epilepsy, 
rheumatic pains, tic douleureux, Gout and all kinds oi 
pains, Mania, Convulsions, Asthma, Chorea, Sciatica, 
&c., and externally for burnings, scaldings, tumors, 
ulcers, cancer and piles. It is now a common article 
of Materia Medica every where; but it fails some- 
times and requires care in the exhibition, owing 
its noxious qualities when taken internally in too 
great quantity. It produces then Vertigo, confusion 
of mind, dilatation of the pupil, loss of sight, head 
ache, tremors of the limbs, loss of motion, dry throat, 
nausea, anxiety, faintness, delirium, convulsions, 
lethargy and death. Vinegar neutralizes the Datu- 
rin, as Well as all vegetable acids; but an emetic is 
always serviceable when poisoned by narcotics* 

The effects of this narcotic when administered in- 
ternally for medical purposes, and in proper doses, i5 


No. 31. DATURA. 451 

to lessen sensibility and pain, to cause a kind of ner- 
vous shock attended with some nausea, a feeling of 
intoxication and suffocation, to have little influence 
on the pulse, to relax the bowels, to dilate the eyes, 
&c., followed by a sensation of ease and quiet, which 


induces sleep. 

It has been too much extolled by some writers ; 

but the results of the numerous eases in which it has 
been o-iven, are as follows: — In asthma, it is only a ^ 
palliative, useful in the paroxysms, but useless in ple- 
thoric cases, it is commonly smoked like Tobacco, 
a practice likely to be attended with some danger, 
and suitable only for smokers. In Mania it is of little 
use except in some cases difficult to be ascertained; 
but in Epilepsy and Convulsions it cures the periodi- 
cal fits, while it avails not in the sudden fits. It is 
hio-hly serviceable in Chronic acute diseases, such as 
Sciatica, Syphilitic pains, disease of the spine, para- 
plegia, Cancer of the breast, uterine pains, rheuma- 
tism, &c., also in chorea and dysmenorhea, strangury 
and Calculus, acting in all thosei cases as an antispas- 
modic. In tic douleureux it has only afforded relief 
in some cases, and has required repeated doses, but 

it has failed in otheis. 

Externally it is a safer and certain remedy for 
burns, tumors, gout, ulcers, inflammations and some 
cutaneous eruptions. The leaves or their ointment 
are applied to the parts, they promote the granulations 
or cicatrization of the worse ylcers, and afford speedy 
relief in piles and painful hemorrhoidal tumors. Sur 
geons use them topically to enlarge the pupil of the 

15S DATUHA. No 31. 

tye previous to the operation of Cataract. It is said 
that the leaves applied to the head, produce sleep 
and dreams. The plant may be gathered for use at 
any time ; but it is best when in blossom. All the 
parts of the plant are efficient even the root; but the 
seeds contain more Daturln, and are preferable in 

some instances. 

Many preparations are made for internal usej but 
the distilled water is nearly inert. 'J he powdered 
' leaves, juice, extract, decoction, tincture, &:c. are all 
available; for external use an ointment is made by 
simmering one pound of fresh leaves in three pounds 
of lard. The doses for internal use are to be verv 
small. Dr. Bigelow recommends the following: one 



from the seeds; and from 15 to 20 drops of the tinc- 
ture. Marcet and others say that even one-eighth of 
% grain is a sufficient dose to begin with. One pound 
of speds afford two ounces of extract, and one pound 

of leaves three ounces. 

Substitutes — Hi/osciamus niger — Conium tnu- 
culaium — Laciuca elongata — Solanum Vir^ini- 
€um and •S'. dulcamara— Cj/pnpedium Sp — Opium 
and other active narcotics or sedatives. 








No. 32. SIOSPYHOS. 153 




French Name — Plaqueminier. 


German Name — Persimon Baum- 

Officinal Name — Diospyros. 

Vulgar Names— Persimons, Yellow Plums, Win- 
ter Plums, Guaiacan, Seeded Plums, Pisbmin, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Fl. and Sylva, Pursh, 
Eaton, Torrey, Elliott, Schoepf, Kalm, Catesby, 
Woodhouse, Coxe, Brickell, ZoIIickoffer, &c. 

Genus Diospyros — Diclinous, Calix 4 to 8 cleft. 
Corolla rotate or urceolate 4 to 8 cleft. Staminate 
flowers with 8 to 20 Stam. filaments free with one or 
two anthers. Pistilate flowers with one Pistil, a 
short style and 4 to 6 stigmas. Berry with 8 to 12 
seeds. — Trees with alternate leaves. 

Species D. Virginiaka — Leaves ovate oblong, acu- 
minate, entire, smooth, pale and reticulate beneath, 
petiolate, petiols pubescent; Berries solitary globose. 

DESCRIPTION— The Persimon is a common 
tree rising from 15 to 60 feet, with a smooth bark, 
and spreading branches. The leaves are from three 
to five inches long, shining above, whitish or pale 
and reticulate beneath, oval or oblong, base acute, 
end or tip acuminate, margin entire, on short alter- 
nate and pubescent petioles. These leaves vary in 

15 i DIOSPYROS. No. 32 


size, and some varieties have them glaucous or pu- 
bescent beneath. Buds smooth. 

Flowers lateral, extra axillary, solitary, nearly 
sessile or on a short pedicel. Calix spreading persis- 
tent, commonly 4 cleft, seldom 5 or 6 cleft, seg- 
ments oval acute shorter than the Corolla, which is 
yellowish, with as many segments as the calix, broad 
ovate, acute. Diclinous blossoms on separate trees 
or dioical, sometimes a complete flower occurs, in 
which are as many stigmas as segments to the Calix, 
and double the number of Stamina. The filaments 
are short, free or inserted on the calix instead of the 
corolla, depressed, anthers bilobe. One Pistil, ger- 
men round, style very short, stigmas obtuse, spread- 
ing. — Fruit a globular yellow berry, similar to a 
plum, with a thin skin, fleshy pulp and many com- 
pressed hard seeds. 

HISTORY — This genus amply evinces the ab- 
surdity of the Linnean system, since hardly two spe- 
cies of it have the same number of stamina. Linnaeus 
put it In his class Polygamia; it is now put in Diot- 
cia octandria^ although many species have 10 or 12 
or 16 or 20 Stamina, and 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 Styles or 
Stigmas. It however belongs to a very natural family 
the Ebenaceous. The w^hole genus appears to need 
reform, and ought to be divided in many Sub Genera 
or Genera, such as 

Diospyros to which D. Loius, Virglnianay &c. 


Embriopteris (Gaertner) 20 stam. One cruciate 

No. 33. DZOSPYROS. 155 

Ebenum. Cal. 5 Segm, Stam. 10. Berry 10 locular. 
Dimiay with 2 or 3 Styles, type D, digyna. 

r ^^ 

ChloroxyloTiy type D. ditto. 

Go7iopy7'OSy Cal. and Cor. 5 fid. Berry angular or 

The D. Virgiiiiana is by no means a definite spe- 
cies. Pursh and Michaux, jun. have noticed that two 
species are probably blended under that name: to ono 
of them Pursh gave the name of D. puhescens» I 
have ascertained three principal varieties at least, (and 
there are more) which might almost be deemed spe 
cific; they are 

1. Van Macrocarpa. Leaves smaller, glauceous 
beneath, fruit very large — Southern States. 

2. Var. Concolor, Leaves middle size, hardly pale 
beneath, somewhat obtuse, fruit of a good size. 

3. Var. Microcarpa. Leaves large acute, pubescent 
beneath, fruit very small. — ^^"irginia, &c. This is the 
D. pubescens of Pursh, who says that the leaves are 
tomeutose beneath, petioles longer, &c. 

The blossoms are of a pale yellow or orange color, 
they appear in May and June, when the leaves are 
yet small and not quite unfolded. The berries are 
only ripe late in the fall, and after frost; they re- 
semble a yellow plum, but are globular: before their 
maturity they are exceedingly acerb and astringent; 
but when fully ripe and soft, become sweet, and have 
a fine flavor. These berries were one of the spon- 
taneous fruits used by the native Tribes ; who pre- 
served them in various ways, dried them and made 


paste with them : also a kind of Beer or Wine : this 

156 SZOSPYROS. Ko. 32, 

liquor contains alcohol, which has been attempted to 
be extracted; but too many substances afford it al- 

A gum exudes sometimes from the tree, but in 
small quantity. The Persimon Beer is made by 
forming the fruits into cakes with bran, drying them 
in an oven, and bruising these cakes afterwards in 
water. The large variety has fruits as big as an egg, 
and deserves to be cultivated on a large scale as a fruit 
tree. The wood is hard and fine, suitable for tools 
and many other domestic articles. To make Persimon 
Wine the skin of the ripe fruits ought to be taken off, 

as it contains too much astringency. 

Locality — From New York to Louisiana, rare 
beyond the 42d degree of latitute, common in the 
South, in woods and groves ; more common in the 
plains than the mountains. 

Qualities — Bark bitter and acerb, containing 
Tannin, Extractive, &c. Fruit sweet and well fla- 
voured when ripe, containing sugar, mucilage, gallic 
acid and several other substances. 

PROPERTIES — Bark astringent, styptic, tonic, 
corroborant, antiseptic, &c. Ripe fruits subastrin- 
gent, nutrient, antiseptic, anthelmintic, kc. The 
inner bark is the most oiFicinal part ; it is extremely 
bitter, and a good astringent tonic, useful in sore 
throat, fevers, intermittents, and Dysentery. In this 
last disorder it is -often united with rhubarb. It is 
much used in Carolina and Tennessee for intermit- 
tent fevers. It is also a powerful antiseptic, and 
:qual to the Cinchona : Some nb. 




No. 32. DIOSPTROS. 1 57 


it, as well as its equivalent the Sorbus Americana 
as the best succedanea to Cinchona. It has been 
useful in ulcers, and ulcerous sorethroat. The dosea 
are the same as common tonics either \n substance or 
extract. It has not yet been analysed ; but probably 
contains a peculiar principle, Diospyrine, which is 
by far more astringent than Cornine or even Quinine, 
owing to its union to the gallic acid. 

In the South of Europe the Diospyros Loius^ 
which is very much like the Var. Tnicrocarpa^ is 
called holy wood, and employed as a substitute for 
Guayac wood. This may perhaps possess similar 

The unripe fruit has nearly the same properties as 
the bark ; but is too austere and very styptic. The 
ripe fruit is very palatable, sweet and vinous 5 it has 
been used to kill the worms of children. 

Substitutes — Sorbus Jimericana — Prunus Vtr- 
giniana Quercus rubra Spirea tomentosa 

Pinckneya bracteata — Cinchona Sp. and most of 
the Astringent Tonics. 

Remarks — The Persimons, Wild Grapes, Papaws 
{Asimind) Hickorynuts, Pecans, Walnuts, Chesnuts, 
Chincapins, Filberts, Whortleberries, Cranberries, 
Strawberries, Mulberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, 
Crab Apples, Wild Plums, &c. were the fruits of the 
native tribes. Several have been introduced already 
in our gardens; but the Persimon has not yet been 
cultivated, although no fruit deserves it better : it pro- 
mises to improve in flavor and size under the care of 
the gardener, affording a fine table fruit, many pre- 
ftervesj and a peculiar kind of wine. 


158 DXRCA. No. 33. 

No 33. 



French Name — Dircier triflore. 

German Name — Leder-holz. 

Officinal Name — Dirca. 

Vulgar Names Leatherwood, Moosewood, 

Swampwood, Ropebark, (Bois de plomb in Canada.) 

Authorities — Linnaeus, Pursh, Kalm, Bartram, 
Duhamel, fig. £12. Torrey, Eaton, Elliott, Locke, 
B. Barton, Zollickoffer, Bigelow, fig. 37, &c. 

Genus Dirca — Perigone simple, colored or corol- 
liform, tubular, funnelshaped, nearly entire, sub-eight 
toothed. Stamina eight perigynous, exserted, four 
alternate longer. Germen free oval, style lateral* 
Berry one seeded. 

Species D. palustris — Shrubby, branches articu- 
lated; leaves alternate, subsessile, oval, entire; pe- 
duncles triflore drooplng. 

DESCRIPTION— Shrub, from three to seven feet 

high, with branches spreading, cylindrlc, flexuose 
articulate, green, smooth. Leaves alternate or scat- 
tered, distichal, nearly sessile, petioles very short; 
shape oval entire, acute at both ends, downy when 
young, smooth and membranous when full grown, 
pale beneath, unfolding after the flowers. 




No. 33. DIRCA. 159 

Flowers blossoming early and before the leaves 
come out, forming in the fall within terminal buds, 
where they hybernate, buds with many oblong hairy 
scales, and three flowers. Peduncle bearing a fascicle 
of three flowers, formed by three cohering pedicels. 
Each flower yellow, half an inch long, with a simple 
perigone, called Corolla by Linnaeus because it is co- 
lored; this perigone is drooping, tubular, contracted 
at the base and middle, campanulate at the end, with 
eight obscure teeth on the margin. Eight Stamina 
inserted on the perigone, with slender filaments, longer 
than the perigone, and alternately longer and shorter, 
anthers rounded. Gennen oval, central free, with a 
long filiform curved style inserted on one side of the 
base, Stigma acute. Fruit a small orange berry, oval, 
acute, with a single seed. 


HISTORY — One of the few American genera con- 
taining as yet a single species. It is a very distinct 
genus belonging to the natural family of Daphnides, 
called Thymelea by Jussieu and Vepreculse by Lin- 
naeus, and also to Ocfandrza monogynia of his sexual 
system. The specific name pahistris implies that It 
grows in swamps ; but it is oftener found on the banks 
of rivers and even among rocks. 

The blossoms are scentless and appear very early 
in the Spring, as soon as the Maples blossoms, long be- 
fore the leaves are unfolded. The bark is very tough, 
can hardly be broken, and tearing in long stripes is 
used as yet in many parts for ropes, a practice bor- 
rowed from the Indian tribes : the wood is also flexible. 

The berries are poisonous, children must avoid 

1 60 DiaCA. No. 33. 

them : if eaten by mistake, an emetic must be re- 
sorted to, 

LocALiTT — From Maine and Canada to Georgia 
near streams, and in shady swamps, rare west of the 
Alleghany mountains, yet occuring in Ohio and 

Qualities — The bark and root have a peculiar 

nauseous smell, and unpleasant acrimonious taste; 
they contain an acrid resin, bitterish extractive, mu- 
cilage, &c. : the resin or active principle, is only so- 
luble in boiling alcohol- The decoction and extract 
are bitter, but not acrimonious. 

PROPERTIES— Emetic, cathartic, rubefacient, 
epispastic, &c. and the berries narcotic. The fresh 
root and bark in substance at the dose of five to ten 
grains produce vomiting, with a sense of heat in the 
stomachy and sometimes act as a cathartic also. They 

are an active and dangerous medicine, to which less 
acrimonious substances ought to be preferred. Ap- 
plied to the skin they produce rubefaction and vesi- 
cation in thirty hours; this appears a more safe mode 
to use them, as they might become auxiliaries to the 
Spanish flies. The berries produce nausea, giddiness, 
stupor, dilatation of the pupil and insensibility like 
other narcotics. Bigelow considers this plant as a 
substitute for the Poly gala Senega j but this last is 
by far better and safer, and therefore preferable. Wc 
are not told whether it acts like the Polygala and is 
expectorant, sudorific, &c. Upon the whole this 
ii»rub possesses such active properties as to deserve 
•ttention ; but we do not possess as yet sufficient evi* 

No. 35. DIRCA. 161 

dence of its utility. When the bark is chewed it 
produces salivation^ it is so tough that it cannot be 
reduced to powder, but forms only a kind of lint. 
The watery preparations are nearly inert. 

Substitutes — All the milder emetics and acrid 


substances, Cantharides — Baptisia tinctoria — Coni- 

urn maculatum — ^-Polygala senega Jjpocynum 

androsemifolmni — Eupatoriiim perfoUatum — Ra- 
nunculus sp, — Euphorbia coroUata and E. Tpeca^ 
cnana — R/nis Sp. — Clematis Sp. &c. 

Remarks — Our native epispastics are little knawn 
as yet, and deserve attention. The Juglans Cinerea 
-and the Oil of Sassafras are with the JDirca most 
likely to become practically useful. 

We have also in the United States, several species 
of Cantharides, such as Cantharis Viitata^ C. mar- 
ginatay C. atrata^ C. cinerea^ &c. which are equal 
to the officinal Spanish flies, and would be available 
if not so scarce. 

B O 

163 ERZGEROK. No. 34 

No. 34. 



French Name — Erigeron de Philadelphik. 

German Name — Skewisch Berusungskraut. 

Vulgar Names — Skevish, Scabish, Sweet Sea- 
bious, Daisy, Cocash, Frostweed, Fieldweed, Squaw- 
weed, &c. 

Authorities — Linn. Mich. Pursh, Pers. Torrey, 
Eaton, B. Barton, Depuy, Hales, A. Ives, Bigelow 
Seq. Thatcher, Coxe. W. Bart. fig. 20. 

Genus Erigeron — Flowers compound radiate. Pe- 
rlanthe imbricated, folioles subulate unequal. Pho- 
ranthe naked. Rays ligulate, linear, entire, nume- 
rous, pistillate; central flowers of the disk tubular 
complete or staminate, five toothed. Seeds oblong 
crowned by a simple pappus. 

Species. E. Philabelphicum — Pubescent, leaves 
cuneate oblong obtuse, lower petiolate, upper semi- 
amplexicaule, nearly entire subciliate: flowers co- 
rymbose, rays twice as long as the hemispherical peri- 
anth e. 

DESCRIPTION Roots perennial yeUowish, 

formed by many branching thick fibres. The whole 
plant is pubescent and rises two or three feet, stems 
one to five, straight, simple, branched and corymbose 
*t the top, a little angular. Radical and lower leaves 





No. 34. ERZGSBOZr. 


oblong, base cuneate decurrent on a long petiole 
nearly obtuse, margin ciliate entire or seldom serrate : 
upper leaves sessile or nearly amplexicaule, cuneate, 
narrow oblong, obtuse, entire, alternate remote: floral 
leaves small lanceolate. 

Flowers numerous forming a panlcled Corymb, 
peduncles scattered, slender, bearing one to three 
flowers. Buds globular. Perianthe or common calix 
hemispherical, formed by many subulate, adpressed 
folioles. Flowers radiate, half an inch in diameter, 
with yellow disk and rays white, bluish or purplish. 
Rays or radial florets ligular numerous, spreading, 
crowding, narrow, entire, ■nistilate. Florets of 

entire, pistilate. Florets of /he 
disk, convex, crowded, the central ones sometimes 
staminate and abortive. Phoranthe or common re- 
ceptacle, bearing all the florets, flat, naked, pitted. 
Germen of the pistillate and complete florets oblong 
smooth, having a symphogyne calix forming above a 
pilose pappus which crowns the seeds. Each floret 
produces a single seed. 

LocAxiTY — Found all over the United States, al- 
though bearing the name of Philadelphian. Ii 




souri, and as far South as Louisiana and Georgia. It 
is a field plants seldom seen in woods and mountains; 
but covering sometimes whole fields, dry meadows, 
commons and glades. In old fields it is deemed a 
pernicious weed, like the other kinds which com- 
monly accompany it. 

HISTORY— Three species (if not more) of thii 
genus have similar properties, and will therefore be 
included in this article, the other two are. 

I64i EnXGERON. No. 34, 

1, Erigeron heterophylhiTn^ (Aster Annuus of 
Linnaeus) Jagged Fleabane, which merely differs 
from this by broader jagged difforme leaves^ the ra- 
dical and inferior ovate, sinuate dentate, acute, the 
upper one lanceolate subpinnatif, and the floral entire 
— Common in meadows, &c., mixed with E. phila- 
delphicum. Fig-ured by W. Barton, fig- 21. Biennual. 

2. Erigeron Canadense^ Canada Fleabane. It has 
linear crowded entire leaves; flowers paniculate, very 
small, with oblong perianthe and rays exceedingly 
shorts One of the most common weeds from Canada 
to Kentucky, and yet perhaps the most ^cient of 
th^ three. It infests old fields, and has been spread 
in Europe by chance. VerjrrarlaBTe, principal varie- 
ties 1. ITniflorum^ 2. Pusillum^ 3. Maritimum^ 
4. Virgatum^ 5. Serratumy 6. Lanceolatuniy &c. 

A multitude of vulgar names are applied to these 
plants, Fleabane is the true English name, Daisy 
alludes to the flowers which are similar to those of 
the true Daisy or BeUis perenniSj but the Bellis in- 
tegrifolia is the true American Daisy. Scabious is 
erroneous, since they are nothing like the genus 
Scabiosa^ Skevish derives perhaps from Scabious or 
from Cocash the Indian name. 

They all blossom from July to October, or until 
frost. They are deemed bad weeds; but are easily 
extirpated. The E. canadensis is annual. 

Erigeron is a genus of the Radiate Order next to 

^steTy of which it merely diflers by numerous narrow 

yays. Both belong to Syngtnesta Superfiua of 

Ko. 34. 


Qualities — These plants have a peculiar smell 
TOost unfolded by rubbing them, which is not dis- 
agreeable. Their taste is astringent, acrimonious and 
bitter: the smell and taste are most unfolded in 
M. canadense and E. philadelphicum. They contain 
Tannin, Amarine, Extractive, Gallic Acid and an 
essential Oil. This Oil is very peculiar, as fluid as 
Water, of a pale yellow color, a peculiar smell 
somewhat like Lemon, but stronger and a very acrid 
taste. It holds probably in solution Acrine or a pe- 
culiar substance Erigerine, 

PROPERTIES — These Weeds are valuable medi- 
caments, possessing very active powers; they are 
Diuretic, Sudorific, Astringent, Styptic, Menagogue, 
Pectoral and Tonic in a high degree, and act in a 
mode peculiar to themselves, by means of their acrid 
quality. Their Oil is so powerful that two or three 
drops dissolved in Alcohol, have arrested suddenly 
uterine hemorrhagy, in the hands of Dr. Hales of 
Troy, who employs the Oil of E, canadense. This 
kind is most used in New England and New York, 

New Jersey, The 

whole plants are available. 


plants are Chronic Diarrhoea, Ascites, Disury, Nephri- 



Eruptions, Hemorrhagies, Dimness, Rash, Cold hands 

and feet, &c. The whole plants are used fresh or 

' dried, in infusion, decoction or tincture. Their ex- 

X i :- «„+!,«». fai'iA mnr*» nctrinp-pjit than thc infusiou 

166 ZZRZGERON, No. 34. 

or tincture; but less than the Oil, which is one of the 
most efficient vegetable Styptics. This extract and a 
syrup of the plant have been given usefully in dry 
coughs, hemoptysis, and internal hemorrhages.- The 
dose is from five to ten grains of the extract, often 

As diuretic the infusion, decoction and tincture are 
preferable and more active ; they have increased the 
daily evacuation of urine from 24 to 67 ounces. A 
pint or two of the former may be taken daily; they 
agree well with the stomach, even when Squill and 
Digitalis are intolerable : the dose of the tincture is 
from two to four drachms daily; it is made by di- 
gesting one ounce of the leaves in a pound of proof 
Spirit. They are beneficial in all diseases of the 
bladder and kidneys, attended with pain and irritation, 
in which they give speedy relief. Also in all com- 
pound cases of gravel and gout. In rheumatism they 
have not been tried, although they are sudorific. In 
all Dropsical disorders they act as diuretic. In chro- 
nic Diarrhoea as astringent and have cured it without 

They are even useful externally in wounds, also in 
hard tumors and buboes, which a cataplasm of the 
fresh plants dissolve as it were. But the most valu- 
able property is the astringent and styptic power of 
the Oil, which has saved many lives in parturition 
and uterine hemorrhagy. A saturated solution of 
the Oil in Alcohol is applied and a^ little given in a 



No, 34. ERZaEROK. 167 

Since these plants appear to increase as well as to 
prevent several discharges from the body, they must 
not act as other diuretic and astringent remedies ; but 
^by a peculiar acrid effect on the system, worthy of 
investigation* I highly recommend these plants to 
medical attention. They were known to the North- 
ern Indians by the name of Cocash or Squaw-weed 
as menagogue and diuretics, and are often employed 
by Herbalists. They may be collected for medical 
use at any time when in blossom. 

Substitutes — Eryngium yncefolium and Aqua^ 
iicum^ or Corn-snake root, said to be the strongest 
diuretic and sudorific of the Southern States — Botro- 
phis Serpeniaria — Pyrola nmbellata, maculata^ 
&c. — Daucus Carota and other diuretics. — For as- 
tringents Spireatornentosa — Hexichera Sp. — Staticc 
Caroliniana — Jirhutus Uva Ursa — Geranium ma- 
culaium — Comptonia asphni folia ^ &c. 

Remarks — Other species of this genus may possess 
the same properties: they are very similar to each 
other. The following might be tried. 

E. hellidifoUum or Daisy Fleabane, a vernal kind. 

J5, IntegrifoUumy or Slender Fleabane, 

E. purpureuniy or Purple Fleabane. 

E. strigosumy or Rough Fleabane, &c. 

168 ERYTHRONIUM. No. 35. 

Ao. 35- 



French Name — Dent-de-Chien Jaune. 

Gei^man Name — Gele Hundzahn. 

Officinal Name — Erythronium. 

TuLGAK Names — Yellow Adder's tongue. Adder- 
leaf, Dog-Violet, Rattle Snake violet, Lamb's tongue, 
Scrofula root, Yellow Snow drop, &c. 

Synonyms — E. Jlavum Smith. E. americannm 
Ker, Nuttal, Torrey, &c. E. dens-cams Mich. 



E. longifoli 


AuTHOBiTiEs— Michaux, Pursh, Smith, Nuttal, 
Elliott, Torrey, Bigelow, fig. 58, and Sequel, W. 
Barton, flora fig. 33, Coxe, Zollickoflfer, &c. 

Genus Erythbonium — Perigone corolliform, with 
six deciduous colored sepals, subequal, eampanulate ; 
the three inner ones with a fiassule at the base. Sta- 
mina six subequal, inserted at the base of each sepal. 
One pistil, germ turbinate. Style fistulose. Stigma 
clavate three lobed, Capsul obovate, three celled, 
three valved, with many ovate seeds.— Stem with 
two opposite leases and one flower, root bulbous. 

Species E. Flavttm — Leaves subequal, subradical, 
lanceolate, mucronate, smooth, entire, flower nodding, 
aepaU oblong-lanceolate, obtusp. ihf> ir,n^r nnps bi- 

No. 35. 




No. 35. SRYTEROmnm. 169 

dentate near the base : Stigma with three united 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, a solid pyriform 


g the base 

the Stem, fibres of the root inferior, thick and short. 
Stem partly under ground with two leaves appearing 
radical because near the ground, the whole plant 
smooth and shining ; Stem white below, greenish pur- 
ple above, slender cylindrical from five to twelve inches 
long, two sessile leaves: on the first year of the 
growth only one leaf is produced, and it is commonly 
broader and elliptic. Leaves a little unequal, one 
being commonly narrower or smaller, they are from 
three to seven inches long, lanceolate or oval-lanceo- 
late, shining and glabrous, veinless and with a single 


nerve, often spotted by large irregular spots of a dull 
brown above, pale and unspotted below, and with 

an obtuse callous point, 

A single flower at the end of the Stem, one inch 
long, nodding, of a yellow colour, sometimes with a 
mixture of red outside by a stripe or veins on the 
external sepals or petals, which are lanceolate reflect- 
ed» sometimes acute, while the inner ones are oblong 
lanceolate, obtuse, quite yellow, veinless, with a cal- 
lous notch on each side at the base, and a furrow in 
the middle above the fossule or little pitt of the base, 
above the Stamina, which are inserted quite at the 
base, shorter than the sepals, yellow, with depressed 
subulate filaments, and depressed linear anthers. Germ 
turbinate triangular. Style fistulose, Stigma clavate 


170 ERTTHRONZUM. No. 35. 

prismatic trilobe above. The Capsul is naked; turbi- 
nate triangular^ with three cells and many large oval 



HISTORY — This pretty genus was long formed 
by a single species E. dens-canis growing in Europe 
and Asia, to which was referred this at first. Several 
species have since been discovered in America, and 
they afford many varieties, some of which may on 
further attention be deemed peculiar species. They 
all possess the same properties as well as a striking 
peculiar generic habit, somewhat similar to Clai/tontcty 

Clintonia, MayanthuSy Sfc. The Stem has been mis- 
taken for a Scape by many, because it is partly sub- 
terraneous. When this species was distinguished 
from E. denS'Canis^ several names were given to it 
by Botanists nearly at the same time, I have chosen 
the best if not the oldest also, applying to its yellow 
flowers, while all the others have white flowers ; the 
name of •/Smericanum so often proposed, is become 
absurd now. The varieties of this yellow species 
which I have detected are^ 

1. Var. Viperinum^ Leaves canaliculate with large 
reddish brown spots; external sepals acuminate, 
veined with red outside, all the sepals with small 
purplish dots inside, Stigma entire, trigone, pubescent. 
This is probably the kind figured by W. Barton, 

2. Var. Croceum, Leaves narrow flat with small 
spots, flower drooping, external sepals partly red out- 
side and obtuse. Stigma trilobe smooth. This is 
figured by Bigelow. 

3. Var. Bracteaium, Leaves unequal. Stem with 

No. 35. SIITTBB.0KXD1MC. 171 

a lanceolate bract, flower small. This is the B. brae- 
teatum of Boott and Bigelow, from Vermont and the 
Alleghany ; probably a peculiar species. 

4. Var. Lucidum, Leaves unspotted, flat shining, 
oblong lanceolate, flowers quite yellow. This is 
figured here. 

5. Var. Glaucum, Leaves unspotted glaucous, 
flower yellow with some red veins. 

6. Var. Latifoliuniy Leaves broad oval or elliptic, 
flat, seldom spotted, flower yellow. 

7. Var. Grandijlorum. 

8. Var. Parvifloruniy &c. 

Many strange vulgar names have been given to 
these plants, the spotted kinds are called Snakeleaf, 
Adder's tongue or leaf, because compared to Snake^s 
spots, while the unspotted kinds become Lamb's 
tongue. The Goodyera and Hieracium Penosum 
are also called Rattle Snake leaf and used as equiva- 
lents. Snow-drop alludes to its early blossoms, com- 
ing often through snow. In fact it is in the United 
States the representative of the Galanthus nivalis or 
true Snow-drop of Europe, blossoming in March and 
April, while snow is yet falling. The E. albidum 


is called White Snow-drop* They are both pretty 
Vernal blossoms, deserving to be cultivated in gardens 
although scentless. 

Erythronium is a generic name of Greek origin. 

applying to the red spots of the leaves* The 


Fritillaria. It belongs to HezaJidria 




173 ERYTBTRONlirnff. No 35. 


Locality — It grows from New England to Ohio 
and south to Carolina; in the Western States it is 
often superseded by the E. albidiimj which extends 
from New York to Missouri and Tennessee. They 
both grow in \voods, and under the shade of trees, 

shrubs or plants. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
root, contains fecula, mucilage, a resin, and some 
volatile principle rather acrid. When dry, the root 
is farinaceous and loses its unpleasant flavor^ 

PROPERTIES— The root or bulb and the leaves 
are emetic, emollient, suppurative and, antiscrofu- 
lous when fresh, nutritive when dry. The plant. 
Appears to possess nearly the same properties as the 
bulbs of many Lilies; but with the addition of an 
acrid emetic effect, which is lost by drying, boiling, 
roasting, &c. The dose to produce the emesis is 
-twenty-five grains of the fresh root, or forty of the 
recent dried root. As it loses its activity by keeping, 
it is an inconvenient and unsafe emetic. Bigelow 
proposes to try it as a substitute of Colchiciim: al- 
though they belong to different Natural Orders. This 
plant promises better as an antiscrofulous, for which 
purpose it is employed as well as the E* albidiim 
from New York to Kentucky, &c, tlie fresh roots 
and leaves are stewed with milk and applied to the 
scrofulous sores as a poultice, healing them speedily: 
this new medical property was first communicated to 
me by Dr. Crockatt. Many bulbs of Lilies have 
been used in the same way for sores, but the active 
acrid principle of this,, may act beneficially on the 



No. 35. 


sdrofulous sores. Bigelow mentions that eyen bulbs 
of Tulips and Daflfodilshave acted as emetics sometimes. 
The roots and leaves of this plant may be eaten after 
boilings like those of .£?. dens-cants; but the broth is 
emetic and nauseous, while it is said that the E. dens^ 
cants makes good broth in Siberia. Salep could be 
made of these roots by scalding them and drying 
them afterwards. 

SuBSTiTi^TEs — Erythronium albidum znd. Good-^ 
yera pubescens for Scrofula, Salep, Roots of Acrid 
Liliaceous plants, many Emetic roots, &c» 

Remarks — The E. alhidum^ White Snakeleaf or 
Snow-drop, will be known by its bluish white bios* 
soms, and trifid stigma. It offers as many varieties 
as the E.Jlavum^ such as 1. Cerulescens^ £• Candi* 
dum, 3. Maculatum^ 4. Angustifoliumy 5. Bract ea-^ 
tuniy 6. Grandiflorumy 7. Parviflorum^ 8. Clan-- 

destinum^ 9. Glaucumj &c. Found from New York 
to Missouri and Kentucky. 



F S 

174 EUPATORIUBU. No. 36. 


»ro. 36. 


English Name— BONESET. 

French Name — Eupatoike percefefille. 
German Name Durchwachsener Wasser- 


Officinal Name — Eupatcrium perfoUatum. 

Vulgar Names — ^Thorough- wort, Boneset, Joe- 
pye. Teazel, Feverwort, Sweating-plant, Thorough- 
stem, Crosswort, Indian Sage, Agueweed, Thorough- 
wax, Vegetable Antimony. 

Synonym — E. connatum Michaux. 

Aitthorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Golden, Schoepf, 
Cutler, Stokes, B. Barton, Torrey, Eaton, Elliott, 
Thatcher, Coxe, Anderson, Guthrie, Burson, A. 
Ives, all the Dispens. and Mat. Med. Bigelow, fig. 
2 and Sequel, W. Barton, fig. 37. 

Genus Eupatorium — Flowers compound floscu- 
lose. Perianthe imbricate, unequal, oblong or cy* 
lindric. Phoranthe naked. Floscules fiye toothed, 
Style exserted bifid. Seeds oblong angular. Pappus 
fubplumose. — X.eaves commonly opposite or yerticil- 



Stemvillose, cylindric; 

leaves opposite connate-perfoliate, oblong, tapering 
acute, serrulate, rugose above, 
flowers with a dozen of floscules 

JVo. 36. 












No. 36. EUFATORZUM. ±^5 

DESCRIPTION Root perennial, horizontal, 

crooked, with scanty fibres, and sending up many 
Stems, which are upright, simple at the base, branched 
above in a trichotome form, forming a depressed 
corymb ; from two to five feet high, round, covered 
with flexuose hairs ; the whole plant has a greyish 
green color, and even the flowers are of a dull white. 
Leaves opposite, decussate, connate at the base, or 
united to each other there, where broadest, and gra- 
dually tapering to a sharp point, from three to eight 
inches long, narrow oblong, rough above, woolly be- 
neath, margin serrulate, upper leaves often sessile, 
not united. 

Inflorescence in a dense depressed terminal Corymb 
formed by smaller fastigate corymbs, peduncles hairy, 
as well ^s the perianthe or common calix, each in- 
closing from twelve to fifteen floscules or florets, 
Scales lanceolate acute, florets tubulose white, five 
black anthers united into a tube. Seeds black, pris- 
matic, oblong, base acute, pappus with scabrous hairs. 

HISTORY — A very striking plant, easiJy recog- 
nized among all others, even when not in bloom, by 
its connate leaves, perforated by the Stem, as in the 
Teazel or Bipsacus fullonutn. It belongs to a genus 
containing nearly one hundred species, all very dif- 
ferent from this except the B. sessilifoUum which is 
nearly alike, but has smooth Stems, leaves rounded at 
the base, not united nor tomentose, flowers whiter, 
whereby they will be easily distinguished. 

One half of the Species grow in America, and many 
have medical properties; but this appears the most 

17^ Etrp ATOBxnnc. no. 36. 

efficient, and being also best known, deserves a pre- 
ference, although several are useful substitutes in 
som6 cases- It is by no means a handsome plant, 
while many congeneric are quite elegant plants, in- 
troduced into many gardens, Such are the E. celesii- 
num with beautiful azure blossoms, common all along 
the western streams, and the E. purpureum with 
large purple flowers, on a stem five to eight feet 
high, with whorled leaves. 

The genus belongs to the great Natural Order of 
Corymbose plants, family Flosculose^ or to Synge- 
nesia Equalis of Linnaeus. It takes its name from 
Mithridates Eupator, an ancient eastern king ; it was 
first given to the E. cannabinum, the Asiatic and 
European species, whose medical powers were made 
known by him j it is an emetic, purgative and altera- 
tive like this. 

They are all autumnal plants: this blossoms from 
August to October. 

Locality — Common in swamps, marshes, and 
near streams, from Maine to Florida, and from Ohio 
to Louisiana: where it appears to have been stationed 
by the benevolence of nature, wherever men are 
liable to local fevers. It is found also in Nova Scotia, 
Canada, Missouri, Arkansas, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, 
and flowers are intensely bitter, but not astringent; 
they have a peculiar flavor and faint smell. They 
have been analized by Anderson, Bigetow and Lau- 
rence, and found to contain Extractive, Amarine, a 
gum, a resin, an acid similar to the gallic. Acetate of 

No. 36. EUPATORinia. 477 

lime, some azote and tannin, and lastly a peculiar 
substance Eupatoriney brown, bitter, resiniform, 
soluble in water and alcohol, forming sulfates, ni- 
trates, &c. 

PROPERTIES— A valuable sudorific, tonic, al- 
terative, antiseptic, cathartic, emetic, febrifuge, cor- 
roborant, diuretic, astringent, deobstruent and stimu- 
lant. It was one of the most powerful remedies of 
the native tribes for fevers, &c. It has been intro- 
duced extensively into practice all over the country 
from New England to Alabama, and inserted in all 
our medical works, although writers differ as to the 
extent of its effects. It appears to be superior to »/^n- 

H_ - 

ihemis nohtlis or Camomile as a sudorific tonic, and 
preferable to Barks in the treatment of the local au- 
tumnal fevers of the cbuntry, near Streams, Lakes 
and Marshes. I have seen them cured efficiently 
by it when other tonics failed. It acts somewhat like 
Antimpny, without the danger attending the use of 
.this mineral- The cold preparations are powerful 


tonics and do not produce emesis as an over-dose of 
the warm decoction. It acts powerfully on the skin 
and removes obstinate cutaneous diseases. It has 
cured the following disorders in many instances. In- 
termittent and remittent fevers f petechial or spotted 
fever, called also malignant or typhoid pleurisy ; dis- 
eases of general debility, Ascites, Anasarca, Anorexia, 
and debility arising from intemperance; acute atod 
chronic rheumatism: violent catarrhs j bilious and 
typhus fever, particularly low typhus, incident to 
marshy places, and attended with a hot and dry skin j 

178 SUPATORZUUff. No. 35. 

also influenza, the Lake fever similar to the yellow 
fever, and the yellow fever itself; ring-worms, and 
Tinea Capites, Dropsy, Gout and Syphilitic pains : 
dyspepsia and complaints of the Stomach, and Bites 
6f Snakes. 

This plant may be so managed as to act as a tonic, 
a sudorific, a laxative or an emetic, as required. No 
other tonic of equal activity can be exhibited in fevers, 
with less danger of increasing excitement or produc- 
ing congestion : the only objection to its general use 
is its nauseous and disagreeable taste. In substance 

th aromatics 



powder are from 

to twenty grains, the decoction and infusion from 

three ounces. No 

cold preparations. 

Ample accounts of the beneficial effects of this 
plant, are to be " 


Burson says that in Anorexia consequent to drunken- 
ness, a cold infusion has speedily restored the tone of 
the stomach. Zollickoffer extols it as an alterative 
remedy in tinea capites, united to cremor tartar and 
sugar, two spoonfuls given three times a-day. Thatcher 
says that the cold infusion cures bilious cholic with 
obstinate constipation, a tea-cup full every half hour 
producing a cathartic effect The warm infusion 
causes a copiousT^erspiration, and often becomes a 

^irt 1"'^''" '"'''^'' ^^*P^*« '^1-teS that it 
wred the kmd of Muenza called Breakbone fever. 

^°' 36. STTPATORXUAK. I79 

acting as a diaphoretic, whence its popular name of 
Boneset. The name of Joepye is given to it, and to 
E. purpureum, in New England from an Indian of 
that name, who cured typhus with it, by a copious 
perspiration. Eberle says that catarrhal fevers may 


of it in 


going to bed. Tt is particularly useful in the Indi- 
gestion of old people: and may be used as an auxiliary 
to other tonics and emetics in all cases. The extract 
and syrup preserve all the properties, and 
disagreeable to the palate. 

Substitutes — Anthemis nobilis and Cotula 
Matricaria Camomila — Marrubium Vulgart or 
Common Horehound — ^sdepias tuberosa — Leptan-- 
dra — Botrophis — Yarrow, Tansey and Sassafras, &c. 
Besides the following species of the same Genus- 

1. E. teiicrifolium or Rough Boneset (Wild hore- 
hound, &c.) has rough sessile ovate leaves, with some 
teeth at the base, the flowers white with five florets- 
Common from New England to Georgia. — Milder, 
less bitter and disagreeable than the farmery a larger 
dose may be given, chiefly used in the South, in 
bilious remittent fevers, when Barks are inadmissibfe, 
dose two or four ounces of the infusion made by one 
ounce in a quart of water. 

2. -£. purpureuTTh or Purple Boneset (Joepye, Gra- 
vel root, &c.) Stem hollow, rough, five to six feet 
high, leaves whorled, four to five, petiolate, lanceo- 
late, serrate, rugose : flowers purple, many florets, — In 
meadows and near streams from New England to 

Kentucky. It has the same properties as JS. 
tum^ has been used in fevers and gravel, &:c 

r folia 

180 EyPATORIUlM- No. 36. 

S. E, vtrttcillatiim or Tall Boneset (Joepye, &c.) 
Stem solid J smooth^ five to eight feet high^ leaves 
whorled three to five^ sessile, ovate-lanceohte, base 
attenuate, unequally serrate, smooth : flowers pur- 
plish with many florets — With. E. purpurenm^ same 
properties often blended together, 

4. E. maciilahLm or Spotted Boneset. Stem solid 
sulcate, spotted ; leaves petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, 
pubescent beneath, four to five in a whorls — With 
the last, Stem four to five feet high. 

5. E. tnfoliatum or Wood Boneset. Stem solid, 
leaves petiolate, ternate, ovate, acuminate, serrate, 
punctate, rough. — In woods from New England to 
Kentucky, Stem three to four feet high. 

6. E. sessilifolium or Bastard Boneset Described 

above, common in dry and hilly grounds, \Yhile the 
E. perfoliatum is always found in damp and low 


7. JE. urfice/o/inm or Deerwort Boneset, Leaves 
opposite, petiolate, ovate, serrate, similar to nettle 

leaves, flowers white, many floscules In woods, 

exceedingly common in the Western States, eaten 
by Deer. 

S. J5. violac2%my Violet Boneset Leaves oppo- 
site, petiolate, cordate, toothed, undulate, pubescent. 
•In Louisiana, Alabama, &:c. a beautiful species^vith 

fine blossoms of "a violet color, deserving to be culti- 

These and many others are much weaker than the 
three first. 

No. 37; 






No. 57. 


No. 37. 



French Name — Tithymale rrEURi. 

German Name — Blum Woltsmilch. 

Officinal Names — Ipecacuana, Euphorbia radix. 

Vulgar Names — Milkweed, Ipecacuana, Picac, 
Hippo, Ipecac, Persely, Milk-purslain, White-pursely, 
Indian Physic, Purge-root, Emetic-root, Bowman- 
root, Apple-root, Snake's milk, and Peheca in Loui- 

AUTHORITIES — Lin. Clayton, Schoepf, Michaux, 
Pursh, Torrey, M*Keen, Zollickoffer, A. Ives, B. 
Barton, Coxe, W. Bart. Eberle, Bigelow, fig. 53, 
and Seq. 

Genus Euphorbia — Monoical. Perianthe persistent 
caliciform, ventricose, alternate Segments petaloid. 
Staminate flowers eight to sixteen in the Involucre, 
naked each has one bilobe anther with a filament 
articulated to a pedicel. Pistilate flowers solitary 
central, stipitate, one germ, three bifid styles. Cap- 
sul stipitate, three celled, cells formed by the involv- 
ed valves, one or two seeded. 

Species E. Corollata— Stem simple erect ; leaves 
scattered sessile, oblong-euneate, obtuse, entire; umbel 

with five rays and leaves, rays trifid with two oblong 

iS2 EUFBORBXA. No. 57. 

bracts J flowers pedicellate, rotate, five lobed, corolli- 
form ; capsuls smooth. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, large, one inch 
thick, two feet long, yellowish. Several Steins from 
two to five feet high, simple, round, erect, often 
smooth. Leaves sessile, entire scattered, often crowd- 
ed, oblong, obovate, cuneate or linear, flat or revolute, 


smooth or hairy, A large terminal umbel with five 
rays, and as many leaves in a whorl, similar to the 
stem, leaves. Rays Itifid and next dichotomous, each 
fork has two obiong bracts. Perianthc (mistaken for 
the Calix by Linnseus, &c-) large, rotate, white, with 
five rounded flat segments, looking like a corol. Five 
small inner segments (nectaries of Lin.) like obtuse 
projections at the base of the segments. A dozen of 
Stamina, evolving gradually, each is a true flower 
on a pedicel, with an articulate filament and a bilobe 


anther. Many perianthes without pistil, when ex- 
isting it is central, stipitate, nodding, rounded, with 
three bifid Styles. Capsul three cocca or formed by 
three valves rolkd in and making three cells, each 

with a seed convex outside, angular inside, ivhere it 
U inserted. 

LocALiTT — From Canada to Florida and Louisi- 
ana, in dry soils, barren fields, among stones and 
rocks, also in gUdes, seldom in woods and never near 
waters, nor in rich alluvial soils. 



article shall include three species, which have equi- 
valent properties, the two others are 

1- JS. Jpecacuana Lin. Ipecacuana Spurge. Pe- 

No. sr. zrcrPHORBZA. 183 

rennial, smooth, diffuse or procumbent, dichotome, 
articulated : leaves opposite, sessile, entire, variable, 
round, oboval, elliptic, oblong, lanceolate or linear: 
Flowers solitary at the forks, on long pedicels, peri- 
anthe small, campanulate five lobed : capsuls round 
and smooth. — Confined to the great Atlantic alluvial 
region extending from New Jersey to Florida and 
Mexico, along the Sea: very common there in sands 
and Pine woods. It blossoms from June to August, 
and affords a multitude of varieties, such as 1. Cespi- 

tosa, 2. Prostrata, 3. Kotiindifolia, 4, Lanceolate, 

5. Unijf 

flower, with procumbent stem, and obovate leaves 


described it in 1808, as a N. Sp. E. unijlora. 6. 


erect stems and oval leaves, described by Linnaeus as a 
peculiar species.— Root grey, while inside, very long. 


fig. 18. 

2. E. hyperidfoRo Lin. (also E. maculata of 
Lin.) Black Spurge, (or Spotted Pursely, black 
Pursely &c.) Annual, smooth, dichotome, erect or 
procumbent, divaricated: leaves opposite, petiolate, 
oblique, subfalcate, oblong, serrate, acute j flowers ter- 
minal fasciculate, perianthe four lobed and white, cap- 
suls smooth.— Common all over the United States, in 

fields, &c. 

tijlora, 3. Maculaia with a purple spot on each leaf. 

4. Simplex, &c. 

The varieties of E. corollata are 1. Linearis all 
the leaves linear obtuse. 2. Fubescens, Stems and 



i S4i EUPHORBIA, No, 57. 

leaves pubescent. 3. Rosea flowers tinged with rose 
color, 4* Pauciflora only 5 or 6 flowers, &c. They 
all blossom in Summer, from June to September, and 
make a pretty appearance by their fine umbels of 
snowy blossoms: they are bad weeds in some fields, 
and all animals avoid them. 

In these plants, we have quite efficient substitutes 
for the Brazilian Ipecacuana, Calicocca^ which is 
often adulterated or old in our shops. We could even 
export them as true Equivalents of the oificinal Ipe- 
cacuana. The E. hypericifolia^ however, which is 
an annual plant is available as an herb, while the 
E^ Ipecacuana has a large root from four to six feet 
long^ which might be exported and afforded cheap. 
It is a singular coincidence that the name given to 
these roots by tlie Indians of Louisiana is Feheca^ very 
similar to the .Brazilian native name of Ipeca, both 
meaning Emetic-root. The Psychotria emetica and 
Viola Ipecacuana furnish also similar emetics. 

The Genus Ettphorbia has been named after Eu- 
phorbus, physician of Juba, king of Mauritania, who 
brought the Euphorbium or Juice of the E. offici- 
nalis into practice. It is a very extensive and ano- 
malous genus, divided Into many sections. Esula^ 


It is the 

type of the Natural Order of Thicocca or Euphor- 
biaceous plants. Linnaeus put it in Dodeeandria 
moJiogyniay mistaking the perianthe for a Corolla, 
but it is now properly removed to Monoecia moiian- 
dria. Most of the species are medical, more or less 
drastic and emetic, but difficult to manage, and in large 

No. 37. 


doses they bring on violent pains, heat and thirst, de- 
bility, cold sweats and even death. The E. helios^ 
copia and a species akin to E. peplus grow also in 
the United States and have been used in Europe in 
small doses, as well as the E. esuluy dulczs, exigtca, 
characiaSy pahistrh^ ci/parissiasj &c. Each has a 
peculiar mode of action, and the E. officinalis of 
Africa produces a blistering gum. They are all 
milky plants. 

Qualities — These plants have been analysed by 
Barton, Bigelow and Zollickoffer j they contain mu- 
cilage, sugar, starch, Caoutchouc, Resin, an essential 
Oil, Tannin, and a peculiar principle similar to Emetay 
xvhich is soluble in Alcohgl and colors it yellow, 
but insoluble in AVater, forming oxalic Acid with 
Nitric Acid, it might be called Oxalemis. The ana- 
lysis of the true Ipecacuana differs from this and gives 
Starch forty. Gum twenty, Wax six, Fibrlne twenty, 
Oil two, Emetine or Acidified Emeta sixteen parts. 
The roots and leaves of these Euphorbia have a 
sweetish taste subastringent and not unpleasant, with 
a peculiar smell, when rubbed; but no nauseous taste 
nor smell: the milk is acrid. 

PROPERTIES— Emetic, cathartic, diaphoretic, 
expectorant, astringent, rubefacient, blistering, and 

stimulant. These plants are highly recommended by- 
some physicians as equivalent to the officinal Ipecac, 
which it is said they ought to supersede; but Bige- 
low contends that they are less mild and bland, and 
although equal or even stronger, are not so useful in 
all indications. They were formerly considered too 


186 EUPHORBIA. No. 37. 


violent in their operation; but have since been found 
to be manageable and safe; the action is always pro- 
portionate to the quantity taken, which does not hap- 
pen with common Ipecac. As a cathartic they have 
been found equal or better than Jalap or Scammony; 
requiring only half the dose, ten grains will com- 
monly purge well, while twenty-five to thirty grains 
produce repeated evacuations from the stomach. 
Given in large doses they excite violent vomiting, 
attended with heat, vertigo, dizziness and debility. 
The E. corollata. appears to be the most efficient 
since it purges at the dose of three to ten grains, and 
vomits at ten to twenty* But a diversity has been 
noticed in various constitutions, the same doses being 
sometimes inert, cathartic or emetic, or both in some 
instances; they often produce nausea even in small 
doses, and then act as diaphoretics like Ipecac, to 
which they are preferable by having no unpleasant 
taste, nor exciting pains and spasms. 

The medical properties reside in the thick bark of 
the root, which forms two thirds of the whole root, and 
produces one twelfth of watery extract, and one tenth 
of alcoholic extract. They may be substituted to 
Ipecac in all the pharmaceutical preparations, wine, 
tincture, extratt, &c.; the emetic dose of the wine is 
an ounce, of the extract three to five grains. When 
used as a diaphoretic and expectorant, the dose is 
three or four grains of the powder : it may be com- 
bined with opium or antimonials. The bruised root 
applied to the skin, produces vesication in about twelve 
tours, which lasts two or three days j this property 

No. sr. 


has not yet been applied to practical use; but might 
be equivalent to that of the officinal Euphorbium used 
by farriers. The niilk of all the species of this genus 
destroy Warts and cure Herpes, they may afford a 
kind of black Varnish^ or Gum Elastic. The other 
diseases in which these plants have been occasionally 
employed are Dropsy, asthma, also hoo2:)ing cough and 
fevers, but we have no great evidence of their success, 


except in Asthma when they act as pectoral sudorifics. 
The E. hijpericifolia appears to differ in its effects 
from the two others, it is an annual, the herb being 
employed instead of the root : it has been brought into' 
notice by Zollickoffer, who says that it is more astrin- 
gent and slightly narcotic ; but it is also purgative, &c. 
After evacuations, he prescribes it in tea-spoonfuls of 
the decoction, for Cholera infantum, diarrhea and 
dysentery. This plant is also one of those producing 
the salivation of horses, called Slabbering, when eaten 
by them through chance in meadows, and the remedy 
for which are Cabbage leaves. All our Spurges arc 
more or less active plants, those with large perennial 
roots are all emetic, while the annual kinds are altera- 
tive or pernicious. One species E. peploides QE. 
peplus Americana) is said to cause the milk fever, or 
disease of Cows and cattle which render their milk or 
flesh pernicious. It grows from New- York to Ten- 
nessee, on rocks near streams. By a strange mistake 
the capsuls of the E. lathyrus (Capper plant of New 
England) are pickled instead of Cappers, being mis- 
taken for the Capparis Spinosa or true Capper, and 

188 ElTPHOaBlA. No, 37. 

are not found unpalatable, although they cannot be a 
healthy condiment. 

Substitutes — Gillenia Sp. — Sanguinaria Cana- 
densis — Lobelia inflata — Asclepias Sp. — Erythro- j 
ilium Sp, — Eicpatorium perfoliatum — OfBcinal Ipe- 
cacuana and other active Emetics. 

Remarks — ^The figure of Henry, under the name 
of Bowman^s root is fictitious ; the true Bovvman^s 
root is the Leptandra^ 

The lielio^cQpia^ which grew in the Northern States? 
has nearly the properties of the E. hypericifoUa^ ^^ 
was well as the E. poly ^om folia a small annual plant, 
growing on the sea shores from New England to 
Florida, and spreading flat on the sand. 

No. 38 




Y « 

No. 38. FRAGAHXA. 189 



French Name — Fraisier Sauvage. 
German Name — Gemeine Erdbeerb. 
Officinal Name — Fragaria baccae. 
Vulgar Names — American Strawberry, Wild 


Synonyms — F. vlrginiana and F. canadensis, 

Wildenow, Persoon, Pursh, &c. 

Authorities Lin. Clayton, Colden, Cutler, 

Schoepf, Michaux, Pursh, Torrey, Eaton, many bo- 
tanical works and some Materia Med. Sic. 


Genus Fragaria— Calix ten cleft, subequal, bear- 
the corolla and stamina. Petals, five on the base 

of the calix. Many stamina, unequal, filaments fili- 
form, anthers round. Larg.e central gynophore, pulpy, 
deciduous, bearing many Pistils immersed in it, and 
forming together a pulpy many seeded berry.— Leaves 
trifoliate, serrate, stipulate. 

Species F. Vesca— Stoloniferous and hairy ; radi- 
cal leaves as long as the stems, stem leaves few, $ub- 
sessile : foliolcs subsessile, oboval, lateral ones oblique. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, creeping, knot- 
ty, bunches of fibres at the knots. Stems of two 
kinds, "some procumbent, stoloniferous, creeping, 

190 PRAGARIA. No. 38. 

rooting, slender, with few small leaves, and commonly 
sterile; true stems upright or reclined, short, with 
few leaves; both stems and leaves are more or less 
hairy. Leaves either radical or caulinal, the former 
on long petiols, the others nearly similar when at the 
base of the stem j but much smaller and with short 
petioles when higher up : stipules lanceolate or oblong, 
acute: three folioles sessile or nearly so, the middle 
one subpetiolate, nearly equal, but the lateral ones 
commonly oblique, and with fewer teeth inside ; shape 
oboval or oval or nearly round, margin Broadly ser- 
rate, surface with regular veins, lower surface pale 
and more hairy. 

Flowers one or many on each stem, with pedicels 
erect or drooping. Calix spreading or refle:Ked, di- 

vided into ten acute segments, the alternate somewhat 

shorter. Five white petals, obovaT^or obcorJate in- 
serted on the calix- Many small stamina inserted 
there also, with short filiform filaments and small 
round anthers. Pistils many, very small, oval, with 
a small sessile stigma, forming a convex head, being 
inserted on a fleshy gynophore, which grows, becomes 
pulpy and colored, involving the pistils or the small 
seeds succeeding them, and forming together the fruit 
or Strawberry, which is either round or oval, and 
scrobiculate or punctate by little pitts, each corres- 


or white. 

HISTORY-^Few plants are better known at first 
sight, and yet more difficult to describe, owing to the 
Tariable characters. Linnaeus and many botanists 

No, 38. 


thought that all the Strawherries of the five parts of 
the world, formed only one species, the actual one. 
Others have thought otherwise and attempted to dis- 
tinguish several species and varieties, among those 
found in America, Africa, Asia and Polynesia; hut 
the difficulty has been to ascertain (as among the 
Roses) which are the specific or constant forms and 
which are variable deviations. 

If every deviation of form, color, direction, pubes- 
cence and composition, was to he considered specific, 
we should have 100 kinds of Strawberries, and indeed 
some gardeners have described thirty or forty kinds, 
while more accurate botanists only acknowledge ten 
to fifteen species as yet. Meantime these species have 
all the same habit and flowers, differing only by some 

inconspicuous details. 

Our wild Strawberry was long thought the F. vescdy 
until Wildenow and Pursh made two new species of 
it. In attending to the many varieties which I have 
seen in my travels, I thought that three or four more 
species could be made from them ; but noticing that 
they are all connected by intermediate links, I came 
to the conclusion that they were only varieties of the 
/*. vescay and that the whole genus requires a revision. 
I could mention about twenty varieties of our wild 
Strawberries and seventeen from our gardens; but 
shall confine myself to seven of the most remarkable 

native kinds. 

1. Var. Uniflora, stems simple, one flowered, one 
leaved, as long as the radical leaves, folioles sessile, 
Buboval, incise-serrate ; calix spreading or erect, pe- 

192 PRAGARIA. No. SB. 


tab rounded, fruits rounded or depressed — Common 
in glades. This is figured here. 

2- Var. Clandestina. Nearly stemless, stems short 
leafless, two to five flowered^ concealed by large radi- 
cal leaves, folioles oboval, sessile; calix spreading or 
reflexedj fruit round or oval. — ^Rare in New Yorlc, 

Ohio; &c. 

3. Var. Pumila. Stems short, one to two flotver- 
ed, leaves shorter, very small oval and oboval^ with 
adpressed silvery hairs, calix spreading and small. 
In the mountains of Virginia &c. one or two inches 

4. Var. Glabra. Stems two to three flowered, 
leaves ample, longer, nearly smooth, folioles obovalj 
subsessile, fruit oval. On the banks of the Ohio, Ten- 


nessee, Cumbei^land, &c. 

5. Var. Sprica. Stems one to five flowered; leaves 
shorter, hairy, glaucous beneath, folioles subsessile 
oval and oboval, calix spreading, fruit suboval. — Very 
common in the western glades, and open fields froiu 
New Jersey to Virginia. 

6. Var. Sylvatica. Stems 1-5 flowered as long as 
the leaves, folioles broad oval, subsessile, smooth 
above, calix spreading, fruit round or oval — This i« 
probably the F. virginiana of many; common in 
woods and mountains. 

7. Var. Pendula. Stems three to five flowered, 
leaves ample, folioles broad oval, smooth above, sub- 
sessile, calix spreading; fruits pendulous, globular, 
pubescent. — In the mountains of New England, Penu- 

No. 5S. 


sylvania, &c. This must be the Fr. Canadensis of 
Purshj &c. 

All these varieties afford excellent fruits, rather 
small, but highly flavored, they are red, seldom white, 
and ripe from May to June, the blossoms appear in 
April and May. Strawberries are deservedly esteem- 
ed as pleasant and healthy fruits, and have long been 
tenants of gardens: the wild ones are always as good 
^s those cultivated. 

Fragaria belongs to the natural family of Senti- 
COSES next to Riibiis and Comariim. and to Icosan- 
dria polygynia of Linnaeus. 

Locality — Strawberries are scattered all over the 
globe, in cold climates, or on the high mountains of 
warm countries. They are found on the Himala 
mountains of the centre of Asia, arid from Natolia to 
Siberia and Japan in that Continent ; they grow all 
over Europe, on Mount Atlas of Africa, on the moun- 
tains of the Polynesia Islands, and in America all 
over the Andes from Oregon to Chili, also from Alas- 
ka to Canada. In the United States, they are found 
«very where in woods, glades, &c. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a subastringent 
taste, the flowers have a honey smell, the fruits have 
a peculiar fragrant smell, and ambrosial acid flavor. 
The plant contains tannin: and Strawberries contain 
the malic and tartaric acid, some sugar and much 
water, besides an essential oil giving the Aroma. 

PROPERTIES— Although Strawberries have been 



I9l! PRAOARIA. No. 38. 

deserve a place among medicaments, which are not 
the worse I should think for being palatable. Lin- 
naeus introduced them in his Materia Medica^ as well 
as Schoepf, &c. They are diluent, refrigerant, sub- 
astringent, analeptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral, 
eccoprotic, Sic, They are useful in fevers, Gravel, 
Gout, Scurvy, and Phthisis. They are cooling, pro- 
mote perspiration, give relief in diseases of the blad- 
der and kidneys, upon which they act powerfully, 
since they impart a violet smell and high color to 
urine* Hoffman and Linnaeus have long ago extolled 

them in gout and phthisis; persons labouring under 
these chronic complaints ought to ^at them frequently 
when in Season, and use at other times their Syrup. 
An excessive dose of either is however liable to pro- 
duce emesis or a painful stricture in the bladder, with 
red urine, as I have experienced myself/ But used 
moderately they are certainly a valuable medical diet 
in many cases. They possess also the property of 
curing chilblains, their water is used in France for 
that purpose as a wash,^ A fine wine can be made 
with them and some sugar* The Plant and leaves 
have nearly the same properties, although they are ^ 
less cooling and more*astringent. Both have been 
employed like Cinquefoil and Agrimony for sore 
throat, swelled gums, bowel complaints, jaundice and 
fevers in infusion and decoction. A Vinegar Infu- 
sion, Distilled Water, Syrup, Conserve, &c. 
berries are kept in shops in Iluronp. 


SuBSTiTUTEs—Raspberries best substitute, Black- 

No. 38. 


berries, Mulberries, Red Currants, Cranberries and 
other acid berries, but none is so good, lacking either 
the diuretic or diaphoretic property. 

Remarks — The Arhiitus Unedo or Strawberry 
tree of Europe, is a fine evergreen and ornamental 
shrub, producing large berries similar to Strawberries, 
but belonging to different orders of plants, the Bi- 
coRNES and Decaiidria Monogynia like the Arbutus 
Uva ursu These berries are edible but less acid than 
Strawberries, and they are eunetic even at a moderate 
dose, as I have myself experienced. This fine shrub 
does not grow in the United States, except in gardens. 

The Evonymiis Jlmericaniis is also called Straw- 
berry shrub with us; but erroneously, since the her- 
lies hardly resemble Strewberries, being depressed, 
with four or five warty lobes, not eatable, and without 
any of their properties. The leaves of this shrub, 
however, as well as of Evonymus atropurptireus (the 
Wahoon or Arrow wood of the West and South) make 
a fine pectoral tea, much used for colds, coughs, ca- 
tarrh, influenza, &:c. The leaves of the Crategus 
cniS'galliy or White-thorn are also used' for the same 


i9d FBASERA. No. 39 

No 39. 



Fke^s^ch Name — Fhasere Colombo. 

German Name — Colombo Wuhzel. 

Officinal Nam^e — Colombo. Frasera radix. 

YxjLciAR Names — Colombo-root, Columbia, In- 
dian Lettuce, Yellow GentiaD, Golden Seal, Curcuma> 
Meadow Pride, Pyramid, &c- ^ 

Syno-^yms — Siaeriia difformis Lin. Sw. frasera 
Smith in Rees* Cyb. Frasera caYoUnensis Walter. 
Fr* officinalis B. Bart. Fr. Walteri Mich. &c. 

AtJTHOHiTiEs — Walter, Bartram, Michaux, Pursh, 
Persoon, Nuttall, Torrej, Schoepf, 'EA\ioi\y Drake, 
Bigelow Sequel, Thatcher, Coxe, A, Ives, Hildreth, 

Zollickofier, many Dispens. B. Barton, W. Barton^ 

fig. 35 bad» 

Genus FRASERA-^Calix persistent, four parted^ 
Corolla spreading, rotate, four parted, segments ellip- 
tic, each having m the middle a large bearded gland. 
Stamina four short, alterne with the segments. One 
pistil, germen oval compressed, one style, two stig- 
mas, Capsvsi oval flat, one celled, two valved, several 
winged imbricate seeds inserted on the valves. 

Species Fr, verticiilata — Very smooth, leaves ses- 
sile, entire, radical leaves procumbent, elliptic, obtuse -y. 

stem leaves vesticillate by five to seven^ oblong oc 

No. 39. 


-n-»— L_ 


^^\^ y^'i^K'\^'"^ 


No, 39. 


lanceolate, acute: flowers in a pyramidal panicle, 

bracts opposite. 

DESCRIPTION— Root triennial, large, yellow, 

rugose, suberose> hard, horizontal, spindle shaped, 
two feet long sometimes, with few fibres. The whole 
plant perfectly smooth, stem from five to ten feet high 
cylindrical, erect, solid, with few bi'anches, except at 
the top, where they form a part of the pyramidal in- 
florescence. Leaves, all verticillate, sessile and entire, 
with a single nerve: the radical leaves form a star 
spread upon the ground, they are elliptical and obtuse, 
from five to twelve in number, from ten to eighteen 
inches long and from three to five broad, constituting 
the whole plant in the first years, or before the stem 
grows. The stem leaves are in whorls of four to eight 
seldom more or less, smaller and narrower than the 
radical leaves, the'lawest are narrow oblong, the up- 
per lanceolate, acute, and sometimes undulate^ 

Flowers yellowish v/hite, numerous, large, forming , 
an elegant pyramidal panicle, the branches of which 
are axillary to leaves or bracts, unequally verticillate 
or trichotome: this pyramid Is from one to five feet 
lono-: the bracts are ternate or opposite, shorter thaa 
the leaves, broader at the base, acute ; pedicels lax, 
longer than the flowers, cylindric. Calix deeply four 
parted, spreading, segments lanceolate, acute, per- 
sistent, nearly as long as the Corolla, which is one 
inch in diameter, apen, flat, deeply four parted, with 
four elliptic cruciate segments, margin somewhat in- 
flexed, end cucullate obtuse, a large gland in the mid- 
dle of each, convex on hoth side, ciliatc* The 



198 FKASSRA. No. 3^ 

stamina opposite to the sinuses and inserted on them^ 
filaments short, subulated^ anthers oval oblong, base 
notched- Germen central oval, compressed, desinent 
into a style as long, and having two thick glandular 
stigmas, Capsul yellowish, borne. on the persistent 
calix, oval, acuminate, very compressed, margin thin, 
sides subconvex, with a suture, opening in two flat 
valves, one celled. Seeds flat, elliptic, imbricated, 
winged around, inserted on the sutures of the valves^ 
Sometimes a few flowers have five or six stamina, and 
as many segments to the Corolla, 

Locality — It grows West, South and North of 
the Alleghany mountains j but neither on them, nor 
East of them. It is spread from the western parts of 
New Ydrk to Missouri and thence to Alabama and 
Carolina. It is found in rich woody lands, open 
glades and meadows. Rsire in some places, in others 
extremely ubunil^int. 

HISTORY — One of the handsomest native plants 
of America: I have seen it in the w^estern glades of 
Kentucky ten feet high, wuth a pyramid of crowded 
blossoms 4 or 5 feet long. They are scentless and In 
full bloom, from May to July. It is a true triennial,, 
the root sending only on the third year a stem and 

Linnasus did not know well this plant, and called 
it Swertia difformU: it is so large that botanical spe- 
cimens of it are generally defective like the patched 
figure of Barton. Walter gave it the name of Frasera, 
thinking that it w\is new, and dedicating it to an En- 
glish gardener, Mesadenim would have been a bettet 

No. 59. 


name, expressing its generic peculiarity, of having 4 
central glands, while Swertia has 8 glands, 2 at the 
base of each segment. Four specific denominations 
. have been given, among which I have selected the 
_ best. It bears also many vulgar names, but Colombo 
root is the most common, i^ince it has been found 
medical, and very similar to Calumba, oiice called 
Colombo also, the Cocculus palmatus. Tt is become 
a kind of substitute for it, and an article of trade on 

that account, being largely collected in the w*esteni 
states. ^^ 

It affords few varieties, and stands as yet alone in^ 
its genus, the varieties are, 1, Oppositifolia. 2. Un* 
dulata. 3. Pauciflora. 4. ^ngustifolia^ &e. the 
names expressing their deviations. It belongs to the 
jNTatural order of Geistiaxides next to Swertia , and 
to Tetrandria mo7iogy7iia of Linnaeus. 

QuAxiTiES — The root is the officinal part, it has a 
sweetish bitter taste like Gentian, and resembles Ca- 
lumba in appearance, having a thick yellow bark, and 
a yellowish spongy wood. But their chemical cha- 
racters are very diflferent, the Frasera contains Ex- 


tractive, Amarine, and Resin; while the Cocculiis 
palmatus contains Cinchonin, a bitter Resin, Oil, 
Starch, Sulfate of Lime, and Calumbine. I suspect, 
however, that the analysis of the Frasera has not been 
accurate, and that it contains Inuline or a peculiar 
substance, Fraseriney intermediate between Inuline 
and Calumbine. It yieFds its qualities ta water and 
alcohol. The leaves are also bitter. 

PROPERTIES— Emetic aad Cathartic when fr esh^ 

20 a 

No. 39. 

Tonic, antiseptic and febrifuge when dry. When first 
brought into notice it was supposed to be equal to the 
Calumba, and substituted thereto; but has been found 
to be inferior, A. Ives even contends that it is infe- 
rior to many other native tonics. It has however 
the advantage ov^er them to afford a very large root, 
often weighing several pounds, and to sell cheap: it 
is about equal to Gentian and Rhubarb, in diseases of 
the stomach, and Oebllity. It has cured a wide spread 
gangrene of the lower limbs hy internal use and ex- 
ternal application, when bark had failed. It avails in 
Interm^ittents like other pure bitters> and is exten- 
sively used'in the Western States in Fevers, Cholics, 
Griping, Nausea,, relaxed stomach^and bowels, Indi- 
gestion, &c. As a purgative it is substituted to Rhu-- 
barb iu many cases, particularly for Children and 
Pregnant Women, being fouud serviceable in the 
constipation of pregnancy, &c. It has the advantage 
of not heating the body. , Cold water is said to add to 
its efficiency and prevent nausea or emesis. A tea- 
spoonful of the powder in hot water and sugar wiU 
give immediate relief in case of heavy food, loading 
a weak stomach. It is a good corrector of the biW 
alone or united with other bitters* Clayton and 
Schoepf, calling it Sioertia dijfornin^ say that it is 
employed in jaundice, scurvy,, gout, suppressed men- 
struation and is a specific in hydrophobia 1 these indi- 
cations require confirmation. The root ought to be 
collected from the fall of the second year to the spring 
of the third year growth; when in blossom the root 
becomes softer and les* bitter^ The doses are twa 

Ha. 39 


drachms of the powder, one or two ounces of the 
infusion; an extract of it ought to be made which 
would probably be like that of Gentian j a Vinegar is 
made of it in the west, useful as a refrigerant tonic, &.c. 

trifolia — Xanthorhiza apt- 



m perft 




foliata Sabbatia angularis Gentiana Sp. 

Rhubarb, Common Gentian, Calumba or Coccubu 

r ■ 

palmatits and many other tonics, chiefly roots, rather 
than barks. 



for its beauty and utility. It grows easily from seeds. 
It begins to disappear like the Ginseng, from large 
tracts of country, by being wastefully gathered. Per- 
haps the true Calumba might also be cultivated ia 

Florida aad I^ouisiana, 


SOS eAUTXBRA, No. 40. 

No. 40. 


English Name— MOUNTAIN-TEA. 

FflEivcH Najie — Gautiere ramp ante. 

German Name — ^Bergbeeke. 

Officikal Names — Gaultheria, Gualtheria* 

Vux.aAR Names — Partridge-berry, Grouse-berry, 
Deerberry, Spiceberry, Teaberry, Redberry, Win- 
tergreen, Redberry-tea, Mountain-tea, Groundberry, 
Ground Ivy, Ground holly, Hillberry, Box-berry, 

Chequer-berry, &c. 

Sr^'OMYHs — Gualtheria or Gaultheria procum- 
bens of many Botanists, &e. * 

Authorities — Lin. Schoepf, Kalm, Duh. Golden, 
Mich. Pursh, Eaton, Torrey, B. Bart. fig. 15. Coxe, 
Zollickofier, Big. fig, 22 bad and Seq. 

Genus Gautiera — Calix campanulate five cleft 
persistent with two scales at the base. Corolla oval 


five toothed. Stamina ten equal, on the base of the 
Corolla, filaments hairyj anthers bifid above, ten 
scales alternate with the filaments. Germ en free 
lound, style filiform, stigma obtuse. Fruit a round 
berry formed by the persistent calix become globulous, 
fleshy, five toothed, inclosing a Gapsul five celled, 
five valved, many seeded. 

Species G. repess — Root creeping, Stems erect, 
leaves few, terminal, conferted. Pv*.ro-roAn. netiolate. 

No. 40. 


cnzsEPZurc poulom. 

No. 40. 


obovate, mucronate. Flowers few, terminal, with 

drooping peduncles. 

DESCRIPTION — Root horizontal, creeping, slen- 
der, yellowish, with few fibres. Stems several, up- 
right, few inches high, slender, base naked with a 
few scales. Leaves terminal, nearly fasciculate, un- 
equal, few, three to five on short petiols, scattered, 
coriaceous oval or oboval, pale beneath, acute, with 
some short mucronate teeth. 

Flowers few, terminal, subaxillary, on drooping 
downy peduncles- Calix double, external bifid, scaly, 
interior campanulate five cleft, changing afterwards 
into the fleshy covering of the fruit. Corolla ovate, 
white or flesh colored, wath five teeth. Ten Stamina 
of a rose color, filaments plumose, bent on the base of 
the corolla, alterne with ten small scales, anthers oh- 

^ ■ 

long orange color, bilobe two-horned, dehiscent out- 
side, pollen white. Germ round, depressed resting 
on a ring which bears the ten scales or teeth. Style 
erect, filiform. Stigma obtuse, moist. The fruit is 
a small five celled fire valved and many seeded cap- 
sul, inclosed within the fleshy calix, wliich assumes 
the appeai-ance of a round scarlet perforated berry, of 

the size of a pea. 

Locality — Onhills and mountains, in shady woods. 

Pine woods, roclky and sandy soils, from Maine to 
Carolina and Indiana ; unknown in rich alluvial or 

limestone plains. 

HISTORY— Dedicated to Dr. Gautier of Canada 
by Kalm, wrongly mispelt GaulUUria and Gualthe- 
ria by many ; but errors ought not to he copied for- 

SM GAtrriEaA. ^o.m. 


ever, thus the misname of procumbens given to it 
must at last be changed into G, repens, since it is 
creeping and not procumbent. It belongs to the Na- 
tural family of Ericines orBicoRNEs, and to Demn- 
dria monogynia o( Liinmeus. 

The whole plant has long been known and used as 
a pleasant common drink in the country by the name 
of mountain-tea. The berries have a peculiar grate- 
ful flavor, and are eaten fey children, although rather 
dry. They are eaten greedily by Game and birds, 
Deer, Rabbits, Partridges, Grouse, &c. and impart a 
^ine flavor. to their flesh, in the fall and winter, when 
ripe. The plant blossoms from June to September. 
It is known by a multitude of local names. 

Qualities — The whole plant has a peculiar taste 
and smell, aromatic and sweet. It contains sugar, 

^n^^x^ «v^»i«41<sr^*i «iT.fl *iv» ciocoriii'il on. in Avhir.h reside 


the taste, smell and properties. This Oil is very sin- 
gular and peculiar, it is very heavy, sinking in water, 
yet volatile, perfectly transparent of a greenish white, 
aromatic, sweet and highly pungent, containing a 
peculiar principle Gauiitrlne* 

PROPERTIES— Stimulant, anodyne, astringent, 
menagogue, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, lacteal, cor- 
dial, &c. A popular remedy in many parts of the 
Country. It is generally used as a tea, hut the essence 
3ind Oil possess eminently all the properties, and are 
kept in shops. The tea is used as a palliative in 
asthma, to restore strength, promote menstruation, 
also in cases of dehility, in the secondary stage of 
diarrhoia, and to promote the lacteal secretion of the 

No. 40. OAUTIERA. 205 

breast;, &c. : it is a very agreeable and refreshing be- 
verage, much preferable to imported China Teas. 
The Oil and Essence prepared by dissolving it in Al- 
cohol, are employed whenever warm and cordial sti- 
mulants are required. The Oil cures the tooth-ache 
or allays the pain of carious teeth, like other strong 
essential Oils. The Indians made great use of this 
plant as a stimulant, restorative, cordial, &c. It is 
injurious in fevers. 

Substitutes — Monarda Sp. — Panax or Ginseng 
Laurus benzoin — ^ristolochia serpentaria — Asa- 

rum canadense, &c. &c. 

Remarks — All the plants which have more or less 
the smell and taste of Gautiera^ contain the same 
Oil and principle, and may probably be available 
equivalents. They are Gautiera . hispidida and 
Spirea idmariay roots of Polygala paucifolia and 
Spirea lobata^ bark of Betula lenta or Sweet Birch 
tree, &c.:* They are called Pollom by the Indians. 

The Oil of Gautiera is now used in all the secret 
officinal Panaceas to disguise or cover the taste of the 
other ingredients, which are generally common arti- 
cles such as Guayacum, Solanum dulcamara^ Sarsa- 
parilla, Mezereon, SttlUngia sylvaticay Snake roots, 
Spikenards, &c 


306 6ENTXANA. No. 41. 

No. 41. 


French Name — Gentiane de Catesby. 
German Name — KATESBrs Enzian. 

Officinai- Name — Gentiana Catesbiana- 
Vulgar Names— Blue Gentian, Southern Gen- 


titn, Blue-bells, Bitter-root. 

Authorities — Catesby fig , Walter, Elliott, 

Macbride, Bigelow, fig. 34, and Seq. Coxe Disp. 
ZoHickoffer, &c. 

Genus Gentiana — Calix campanulate four or fire 
cleft, segments unequaL Corolla with a tubular base, 
and a variable limb, with four to fifteen lobes or * 
tteth. Stamina five equal, inserted on the -tube, not 
exserted. One stipitate Germen oblong, two stigma* 
sessile or with a style. Capsule 1 celled, 2 valved, 
many seeded. 

Species G, Catesbei — Stem rough, leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, ovate lanceolate, subtrinerve, acute, 
flowers capitate ; calicinal segments longer than the 
tube : Corolla tubular, ventricose, plaited, with tea 
teeth, five alterne larger acute, five smaller bifid. 

DESCRIPTION Root perennial, yellowish, 

Wanching, fleshy. Stem simple, erect, cylindric, 
^«gb, 1 or 2 feet high. Leaves remote, opposite, 
^ttstate, ovate or lanceolate, entire, slightly trinerre, 

No. 41. 




Ko. 41. CfrBNTZANA. S07 

acute, rough in the margin. — Flowers subsessile in a 
crowded terminal head, of six to twelve, surrounded 
by an involucrum of four leaves and some lanceolate 
bracts, often some axillary flowers below the head. Calix 
with segments longer than the base, linear-lanceolate, 
unequal, acute. Corolla large two inches long, of a 
fine azure blue, base short tubular, limb large, plaited, 
swelled, tubular, open at the top; border ten cleft 5 
five smaller lobes alternating with the others, but op- 
posite to the calicinal and stamina, bifid, acute, cili- 
ate: the five larger lobes rounded, acute, entire. 
Five Stamina shorter than the corolla, with subulate 
filaments and sagittate anthers. Germen oblong- 
lanceolate, comprdfesed, stipitate; style very short, 
two oblong reflexed stigmas. Capsule oblong, acute 
at both ends, one celled, two valved, many small 
seeds inserted on the valves or a longitudinal placenta 
on each valve. 

Locality — It grows from Carolina to Alabama 

and West Kenlucky, in glades and open plains. 

HISTORY — This species was long considered as 
a variety of the <?. Saponaria of the Northern States j 
but distinguished by Walter and Elliott, and named 
after Catesby, who gave an imperfect figure of it long 
before. It is one of our best native medical Gentians, 
but we have many others ; in the Northern States the 
<7. quinqueflora is the officinal kind. 
# All the Gentians are beautiful plants, more or less 
bitter in the roots or leaves. There are many species 
in the United States, some of which have only lately 

been noticed and many are as yet undescribed. The 

SOS 6ENTZANA. No. 41. 

Genus Gentiana took its name from Gentius, kins of 
Ulyria, it gives its name to a large Natural Family, and 
belongs to Pent andria digynia oilAnn^MSy although 
it has often more or less than five Stamina^ and seldom 
if ever two styles- That genus is a very heterogene- 
ous one, although striking by its habit j but the 
flowers have the peculiarity of being variable in shapes 
and numbers; wherefore many botanists have ration- 
ally divided it into subgenera, which might be rather 
deemed Genera. Almost all our species belong to 
the 5', G. Pneiimonanthe having oblong or tubular 
Corolla, and five Stamina, except the G. crinita 
which belongs to S. G, Exihlephts having four Sta- 
mi*ia and a hypocrateriform ciliated Corolla. While 
the officinal Gentian or G. hitea of Europe belongs to 
S, G. Rotularia having rotated Corolla, ^vith five to 
nine Stamina. 

^All our Gentians are autumnal plants, blossoming 
very late from September to November : They are 
all ornamental and would adoru our gardens, where 
some are already introduc&dv— 

Qualities — The root has a mucilaginous and 
sweetish taste, followed by an intense bitterness like 
that of the officinal Gentian, It contains Amarine, 
Extractive, Mucilage, Resin, Sugar, Oil, and the 
principle Gentia, which is soluble in Water and Al- 
cohol, as well as all the active parts^. the solutions are 
more bitter than the root in substance: No astriu- 

PROPERTIES Tonic, Sudorific, Antiseptic, 

Corroborant, Cathartic, &c. It is very little inferior 

Vo. 41. aSKTZANA. SOg 

to the 'officinal Gentian in strength and efficacy, it 
invigorates the stomach, and is very useful in de- 
bility of the stomach and the digestive organs : it in- 
creases the appetite, prevents the acidification of food, 
enables the Stomach to bear and digest solid food, 
and thus cures Indigestion or Dyspepsia. It is much 
used in the Southern States in hectic and nervous 
fevers, pneumonia, &c. acting as a sudorific tonic. It 
may be used like common Gentian in general debility, 
Marasm, Hysteria, and even Gout. Also united to 
astringents for intermittents and other fevers. The 
dose is in substance from 10 to 40 grains, in tincture 
one fourth of an ounce to one ounce, in extract 2 to 8 
grains. In large doses the Gentians prove cathartic 

like Frasera. They enter in all digestive pills and 


Substitutes — Frasera Verticillata^ Menyanthes^ 

Triostenniy Coptisy Sabhattaj Xanthorhiza^ &c., 

besides nearly all the native Gentians that follow. 

Hemarks — Our native Gentians being little known 
as yet, and all medical, I deem it proper to annex 

here a complete account of them, with notices on the 

new kinds. 

1. G. Quinqueflora Lin. or five flowered Gentian. 
Easily known by its branched winged Stemj small 
oval, clasping leaves ; flowers five cleft, small, axillary 
by bunches of tliree, four or five and blue — Common 
from New England to Kentucky, and the best sub- 
stitute, the whole plant may be used, being intensely 
bitter like Sabbatia angularis. Annual. 

3. G» JImarelloides Michaux or Yellow bunch 

2 s 



Gentian. Differs from the former by oval lanceolate 
leaves^ stem round with four small angles, flowers 
axillary and terminal, yellowish, calix longer foliace- 
ous. — In Kentucky, Illinois^ &c. Equal to the former. 

3. G. Crinita Wild, Fringed Gentian* Easily 
inown by its lanceolate leaves, large solitary flowers 
on long peduncles with a fringed four cleft corolla, 
5cc. — ^An elegant species found from New Yort to 
Carolina. Perennial like all the followin?. 

4. G. Saponaria Lin. Soap Gentian. Leaves 
oval lanceolate, acute, trinerve, flowers verticillate, 
sessile; calix with short oval segments: corolla ob- 
long, with ten teeth, the interior unequally trifid. 
Common from New England to Virginia, medical. 

5. G. Clausa Raf. Closed Gentian. Stem round 
smooth, leaves o-yate lanceolate, acuminate, subtri- 
nerv'e: flowers' verticillate, sessile 5 calix four to six cleft 
angular, segments foliaceous short : Corolla clavate, 
short, closed S-IQ teeth, internal teeth equally bilobe. 
On the Taconick and Green mountains, flowers blue, 
half the size of G. Saponaria and quite shut. Variety 
with ternate lanceolate leaves. 

6. G. Angusttfolia Michaux. Narrow leaved G. 
Stem simple, slender, one flowered, leaves narrovt 
linear spreading: Corolla funnel shaped ten cleft, 
with five internal lacerate segments, — Rare, beautiful , 
large flowers, in New Jersey, Carolina, &c. 

7. ff. Linearis Willd. Linear G. Stem rough, 
icaves linear lanceolate, undulate, ciliatej flowers ca- 
pitate, sessile. Corolla campanulate five cleft, with 

No. 41. 6SNTZA1TA. Sll 

the internal folds denticulate. — In the Alleghany 


hroleuca Wild. Pale d-. Stem rough an- 
gular, leaves elliptic rough ; flowers capitate, ses- 
sile: Corolla ventricose, closed, five cleft, inner folds 
simple, acute.— In New Yoik, Pennsylvania, &c. 

flowers yellow^ish white. 

9. G. Heterophylla Raf. Grey G. Stem simple, 
erect, round, smooth ; leaves subtrinerve, lower ob- 
oval obtuse, medial ellipse, upper oblong acute: 
Flowers terminal, sessile two to four, calix campanu- 
late, segments cuneate obtuse; Corolla ventricose, 
five cleft, segments acute, bidentate on one side. — On 
the mountains of Virginia, East Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, flowers of a pale bluish grey. Sometimes 
called Flux-root and used for the Diseutery. 
' ~10. G. Serpentaria Raf. Snake-root G. Stem 
smooth, flexuose, subangular; leaves obovate or ob- 
long, subobtuse, subtrinerve, undulated: Flowers 
fascicled sessile, bracteoles petiolate, calix campanu- 
late, angular, segments linear and carinate: Corolla 
tubular five cleft, segments obtuse notched, inner 
' folds lacerated. — In Indiana, Illinois, &c. Root consi- 
dered a specific for men and cattle bitten by Rattle- 
snakes and Copper-heads ; it is also said to stupify 

11. G. Shortiana Raf. Shortian Gentian. Several 
assurgent stems, rough, ancipital, one^flowered ; leaves 
oblong or cuneiform, as long as the intervals, glau- 
cous beneath, edges rough, uninerve, the lower ob- 
tuse. Flower sessile bracteate, calicinal segments 

81S OBWTIANA* No. 41, 

short, oblong: Corolla nearly campanulate, five cleft, 
internal folds lacerated — Common in the glades of 


Stem sometimes 

only four inches, and flower above one inch, blue. 



to Dr. Short of Kentucky, who has communicated 
to me several of the fine following new species. 

12. G. Tbrrcyana or Torreyan. Stem erect, rough, 
quadrangular, leaves linear-lanceolate, obtuse, glau- 
cous, short, twice as long as the intervals, uninerve, 
clasping, often revolute. Flowers three to five, ter- 
minal, sessile, calicinal segments linear, as long as the 
tube : Corolla nearly campanulate, five cleft, segments 
acute, inner folds entire — In the glades with the fore- 
going, flowers blue, one inch long. Dedicated to Dr* 

13. G. Ri^da Raf. Stiff G. Stem stiff, round, 

rough; leaves lanceolate, acute, stifi", smal 


J, longer than the intervals. Flowers 
one to Ave terminal, calicinal segments linear, as long 
as the tube: Corolla campanulate five cleft, segments 
acute, inner folds entire — In West Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, &c. stem red, flower blue, one inch long> 
leaves glaucous beneath, small. 

14. G. Eliiottea Raf. or Elliottian G. Stem 
round, smooth, leaves oblong, narrow, subacute at both 
ends, as long as the intervals, subtrinerve, glaucous 
beneath: Flowers three to five terminal, sessile; cahx 
elongated, segments oblong acute, as long as the tube: 
Corolla campanulate, segments acute, inner folds lace- 


No. 41. GENTZAMA. 313 

rated — In West Kentucky, leaves few, three inches 
long, flowers 1 1-2 inches, blue. Dedicated to Elliott. 
15, G. Gracilis Raf. Slender G. Stem slender, 
rough, round ancipital; leaves twice as long as the 
intervals, not spreading, linear, uninerve, clasping, the 
lower obtuse, upper acute: Flowers two to five, ses- 
sile, long and slender, calicine segments linear, as 
long as the tube: Corolla slender, tubular sub-cam- 
panulate, five cleft, segments deep, acuminate, inner 
folds simple — In West Kentucky. It has neither the 
leaves ciliate and undulate as in G. linearis nor the 
glaucous short leaves of G. torreyana^ A variety of 
this with broader leaves, more spreading, may be the 
O, pneumonaiithe of Michaux, tut not Linnaeus, 
Leaves in both one inch long, and flowers two inches 


16* G. Axillaris Raf. Axillary G. Stem round, 

rough ; leaves oblong lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
trinerve, twice as long as the intervals : flowers axil- 
lary, pedicellate, shorter than the leaves; segments of 
the calix linear, as long as the tube : Corolla tubular, 
five cleft, segments acute, with a lateral tooth — Glades 
of West Kentucky. Leaves three inches long, flow- 
ers one inch, with* two lanceolate bracts. 

17. G. Co///n^/anaRaf. CollinsianG. Stem round, 
smooth ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, trinerve, longer 
than the intervals; flowers capitate, involucrate, seg- 
ments of the calix lanceolate, acute, as long as the 
ttibe: Corolla campanulate, five cleft, segments mu- 
cronate, inner folds rounded, notched. — A fine species, 

leaves three inches long, flowers two inches, blue. 

SI 4 eszrrzANA. ^oai 

In the glades of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and West 
Kentucky. Dedicated to Z. Collins. 

I have never seen the 6?. pneumonanthe nor G, 

^ _ 

Vilhsa of Linnseus. I suspect that the true G. pneu- 
monanthe of Europe, does not grow in America, all 
our species being different from ihe European, and 
that either G. gracilis or G. torreyana was meant by 
Michaux. As for G, villosa it is a doubtful plant, 
seen by very few botanists, all our Gentians have 
smooth leaves, I suspect that it may be a hairy variety 
of my G. heterophyllo. 

The above account may be considered as a concise 
monogfaphy of our Gentians j but there are some 
other species in the southern states. The perennial 
kinds, which are the most numerous, have their medi- 
cinal properties concentrated in the roots, which may 
safely be substituted to the officinal Gentian. The 
annual kinds have the whole plant intensely bitter and 
available Us in Sabbatia, Chelone glabra, Verbena 
haatata &c. They all ought to be cultivated for their 

beautiful blue blossoms, and officinal utility. 




Ko. 42. 

L J 




French Name — Geranium Macule. 
German Name — Geflecter Storchschnabxi.. 
Officinal Names — Geranium radix, Kino Ame- 


Vulgar Names — Crowfoot, Alum-root, Tormen- 
til, Storkbill. In Canada and Louisiana, Racint a 

^ Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Schoepf, Golden, 

Swn, Tbacher, B. Barton, Mease, Coxe, Eberle, 


withies, ZoUickoffer. Big. fig. 8, andseq. W. Barton 



W Genus Geranium— Calix five parted, equal, per- 
sistent. Corol five equal petals. Stamina 10, hypogy- 
nous, filaments monadelphous or united at the base, 
five alternate shorter. Germ central with five gland* 
at the base, a persistent style, five stigmas. Fruit five 
capsuls one se'eded, attached by a beak to the persist- 
ent style. 

Species G. Maculatum— Perennial, hairy, erect 

dichotome ; leaves few, opposite, three to five parted^ 
palmate, segments oblong acute, jag 
elongated, biflore, petals obovate. 
DESCRIPTION— Root perennial 


thick, rousch, knobby, brownish spotted 


S 1 8 a ER ANzirni. no. 43. 

few short fibres. Stem erect^ round, with few di- 
chotome branches and leaves^ covered as well as the 
petiols with retrorse hairs, and from one to three feet 
high. Several radical leaves on long petiols, the stem 
leaves opposite, at the distant forks, on shorter petiols; 
floral leaves nearly sessile: all are palmate, five parted, 
seldom three parted, segments oblong or cuneate, pu- 
bescent entire at the base, unequally jagged above, 
sometimes spotted: stipules linear or lanceolate, mem- 

branaceous ciliate. 

Flowers geminate on biflore peduncles, arising from 

the forks, erect, round, swelled at the base, with linear 
bracts, similar to the stipules. Calix formed by fiy 
deep segments, oval lanceolate, cuspidate, fivenerv 
hairy outside, margin membranaceous or cili 
Five equal petals, obovate, entire, red with p' 
veins, twice as long as the calix. Stamina 10, filam. 
erect, shorter than the petals, connected at the bat 
filiform above, five alterne shorter, anthers oblong 
violet — Germ ovate, * with five glands at the base, 
style erect, grooved, persistent, five oblong obtuse 
stigmas. Fruit a capsul divided into five cocoas or 
one seeded capsuls, attached inside to the style, and 
curling up at maturity, 

LocALiTT — All over the United States from Maine 
to Louisiana,. Missouri and Florida; very common in 
woods, copices, hedges, glades, &c- no where more 
abundant than in the western glades of Kentucky, &c. 

HISTORY— The genus Gerakium* of Linnaeus 
forms a most beautiful group of plants, of which nearly 
^00 kinds are known, and many adorn our gardens. 

No. 42. GEB ANXVXa. g I7 

They are now the type of a natural family Gruinalejj 
or GeranideSj divided into many genera; Erodium 
with five stamina, Pelargonium with seven, besides 
Gruinalmm, Monso7iia, Oxalis, &c. The name is 
now restricted to the species with ten stamina; it de- 
rives from a Greek name meaning Crane, The G. 
maculafum belongs to the true decandrous Geraniums : 
the specific name applies to the root and leaves which 
are often spotted or mottled ; but a variety is spotless. 

f ■ 

The varieties are many, such as !• Humile^ 2, Z)i- 
phylluviy 3. Viridey 4. ^Ibijlorum^ 5* Macrophyh 

lunif &c. - 

It is a beautiful plant, deserving cultivation, the 
flowers are large, but scentless, red, purple or white, 
with darker veins. It blossoms in the spring, from 
May to July. It has an extensive native range, and I 
have seen it growing by millions in the glades of 
West Kentucky, where it could be collected cheaply 
for use and exportation. The best time for collection 

is the fall. 




Qualities — Root nearly scentless, taste astringent, 
but not unpleasant; it contains much tannin, more 
than kino, extractive, lignine and kinic acid? or a 
peculiar acid differing from gallic acid in not redden- 
ing vegetable blues, and not passing over in distilla- 
tion. The active principles are soluble in water and. 
alcohol: the alkalies neutralize them. 

PROPERTIES— Powerful astringent, vulnerary, 

SIS OERANIinW. No. 45- 

subtonic and antiseptic. 


and is a pure^ pleasant and valuable astringent, equal 
to kino and catechu, and deserving not only the name 
of American Kino ; but to be introduced in Materia 
Medica as a superior equivalent* It is a better tonic 
than kino, and therefore preferable to it in the treat- 
ment of morbid fluxes connected with relaxation and 
debility. Its internal use is indicated in the secondary 
stages of Dysentery and Cholera Infantum : it Is ex- 
tensively used in the country for all bowel complaints; 
but sometimes improperly or too early. A gargle of 
the decoction is useful in cynanche tonsilaris and ia 
ulcerations or aphthous sores o[ the mouth and throat. 
The infusion is a valuable lotion in unhealthy ulcers 
and passive hcmorrhagy, also one of the best injec- 
tions in gleet and Icucorhea. It was once deemed » 
styptic in bleeding hemorrbagy, but has failed in man/ 

United to our native Gentians or to /Vfl- 
^era, it forms onr of the most efficient cures for inter- 
^iittents. A decoction in milk is very good in loose- 
ness of bowels and diarrhea. Our Indians value thi« 
plant highly, and u Jt for woun^^^, gonorrhcea, ulcer* 
on the legs, diabetes, bloody urine, involuntary di5- 
charge*^ of nriue, immoderate menstruations, &c. Tii*^ 
ral eF'cts on the system are to give tone to the 
bowr^ and stomach, stop "M immoderate dischar^^ 
and piw. nt internal morlirication. It has al been 


.^ r* 


i f 

and phthisical 
105C disorders- 

it ail stim^ hnt^ it t^ y be UM*tti when w 

tnng^at^ arc reuuii^JL It has Cii*<.d a j.^-^^hia 

No. 42. GERANiniXE. 319 

hemoptysis according to Dr. Harris. It is also used 
in Veterinary for the diseases of cattle or horses, and 
cures the bloody water of cattle- The doses are one 
to two ourtces in infusion or decoction, two to four 
drachms of the tincture, fifteen to forty grains of the 
powder, and ten to fifteen grains of the extract, which 
is a most powerful and efiScient astringent, equalled 
only by the extract of Spirea tomentosa. 

Substitutes— -OroSancAe Virginiana — -Statics 
Caroliniana — Tormentilla erecta — Hiibus villosus 

Heuchera species — Geum Sp. — Spirea tomentosa 

and Sp. opuUfolia — Kino, Catechu, Galls and all 
powerful vegetable astringents. 

Remaris — The officinal kinos are four. 1. African 

Kino or Pterocarpus erinacea^ 2. Botany Bay Xino 

or Eucalyptus resiniferay 3. Jamaica Kino or Butea 

frondosa^ 4. American Kino or Geranium macula- 
turn, this last is the most efficient and powerful, by 
far preferable to all the others, since it has no bitterish 
taste nor resinous matter, like the first and third, nor 
the disagreeable sweetish taste of the second. It ought 
to supersede them in our pharmacies at least, if not 
elsewhere. The Catechu or extract of Mtnosa Cat0- 
chu is merely equal to it. 

The Geranium robertlanum of Europe, grows also 
ia*North America from New England to Ohio, on 
stony hills, and is a weak equivalent of the G. macu- 
latum; but it is also diuretic, and therefore more 
available in nephritis, gravel, and diseases of the blad- 
der. It will be easily known by its musky smell, 
annual root, small flowers, &c. 

5^0 ©BUM. No. « 

IVo. 43. 


English Name— WHITE AVENS. 

French Name — ^BE^-oITE de ViRaiNiE. 

German Name — Bennet- 

Officinai. Name — Geum radix. 

Vulgar Names — Evan root, Avens, Chocolate 
root, Bennet, Cure-all, Throatroot. 

Authorities — Lin, Mich. Pursh, Kalm, Schoepf, 
Cutler, A. Ives, Buckhaven, Melandri, Zollickoffer, 
Bigelow seq. Coxe, &c. 

Genus Geum- — Calix ten cleft, spreading, the alter- 


natesegments^snaaUeFw Petals five on the calix. Many 
stamina inserted on the base of the calix. Many cen^ 
tral pistils, each with a long persistent style and ob- 
tuse stigma, and becoming a seed. Seeds forming a 
cluster, awned by the styles. 

Species G. Virginianum — Pubescent, stem erect, 
radical and lower leaves ternate, petiolate, upper ses- 
»ile and simple, folioles ovate, lanceolate, acute, un- 
equally serrate, stipules ovate, serrate or entire; 
flowers few, erect, petals oboval, shorter than the calixj 
awns uncinate, hairy, twisted. 

DESCRIPTION—Roots perennial, small, brittle, 

Wown, crooked, tuberculated, oblong, horizontal. 
Stem simple, erect, about two feet high, pubescent, 
few flowered. Radical leaves on long petioles, with- 

_ No. 43. 





No. 45, GfiDf SS^ §2 1 

out stipules, lower leaves with large stipules and 
shorter petioles, upper leaves sessile, simple, similar 
to the folioles of the lower leaves, which are oval, or 
oval-Ian ceolate, or lanceolate, base acute, and acumi- 
nate, border deeply and unequally serrate : stipules 
large, broad, sessile, ovate or rounded, serrate or near- 
ly entire* 

Flowers terminal, white, few, on, erect peduncles. 
Calix spreading, ten cleft, segments lanceolate, acute, 
five alternate smaller. Five yellowish white petals^ 
opposite to the short segments, shorter than the longest, 
and inserted on the base of the calix, oboval, entire, 
flat. Stamina many, short, unequal, perigynous ; fila- 
ments filiform, anthers roundish and yellow. Pistils 
many, conglomerate, oval, styles long, hairy, stigma 
hooked. Fruit a small burr or round cluster of achenes 
or single seeds, oval, brown, smooth, having a long 
tail or awn, formed by the persistent styles, filiform, 


hairy, twisted and uncinate at the top. ' 

LocAi^iTT — Common from Maine to Carolina and 
Kentucky, in -woods, groves, thickets, hills, &c. 

HISTORY — An estival plant blossoming in June 
and July, the flowers resemble those of Strawberries, 
but are smaller; a variety has them yellowish. The 
varieties are 1. UnrJlorUy 2, Macrophyllay 3. Lan- 
ceolata^ 4. Ochroleuca, 5. Hamosa, &c. 

The Geum rivale or water Av,ens, a boreal plant, 
spread from New England to Canada in damp places, 
is more commonly employed in the north, and this 
species in the south; they are both equivalents, 

Geum belongs to the natural order of Senticoses 


GEUXa. No. 45. 

near DryaSj Daliharda and Stylypus^ and to Iqp- 
iandria polygynia of Linnaeus. 

Qualities — ^The whole plant is available, but the 
root is principally used, it has a bitterish astringent 
taste, and a pleasant smell, somewhat like cloves, only 
perceptible in the spring, when it must be collected 
for use. It contains resin, gum, tannin, extractive, 
miicilage^^fibrin^- a volatile oil, &c. The Gmm Uf 
hanuniy a consimilar and equivalent species, has beea 
found to contain out of two ounces, 496 grains of Jig- 
nine, 118 of tannin, ISl extractive, 61 of saline and 
soapy matter, 92 of mucilage, 23 of resin, 76 of oil 
and water. It yields these principles to water and 
alcohol, and dies them red: the alcoholic preparations 
are scented, the watery scentless and merely astrin- 

PROPERTIES— All the Avens have nearly thr 

same properties, they are astringent, styptic, tonic, 
febrifuge, stomachic, &c. They are much used in 
the Northern States and Canada. In Connecticut 
they supersede the Chincona ; but they are weaker, 
although less stimulant, in fevers. They do not in- 
crease excitement and are therefore useful in hemop- 
tysis and Phthisis. They are decidedly excellent in 
dyspepsia and visceral affections; Ives states that its 
long use, restores to health the most shattered and 
enfeebled constitatioms. They are often used in de- 
eoction with sugar and milk, like chocolate or coffee, 
to which they resemble : and also for dysentery, chro- 
ftic diarrhea, colics, debility, asthma, sorethroat, leu- 
corhea, uterine hemorrhagy. They are the base of 

No, 43. OEnxki 

the Indian Chocolate of Empirics. The doses are a 
daily pint of the weak decoction, or about 60 grains 
of the powder daily, divided into three doses : this 
powder may be mixed with honey. A table-spoonful 
of the tincture is also given in some cases. These 
roots are sometimes put in Ale, as stomachics. 

Substitutes — Geranium TnacidatuTn and all the 
plants mentioned as equivalent to it; the GeuTn rivale 

and G. iirbanumy also the Stylypus Vernus. 

RemAsks — The E. iirhanuin does not grow in 
America, although indicated by some. The G. rivale 
of America is a peculiar variety. It Avill be known 
from this, by its locality in the north, near waters, 
the radical leaves pinnate, cauline three cleft, and 
large purplish nodding flowers. It is said to be more 
efficient than this kind. 

My Stylypus vernus is a new annual plant, grow- 
\n^ only in the Western States, from Ohio to Ten- 
nessee, in woods, and bears small yellow blossoms in 
March and April. ^ It has the properties of this plant 
and Agrimony. The generic and specific character 
are as follows. 

G. Stylypus. Calix persistent, campanulate, five 
cleft, segments refiexed. Five small petals and many 
Stamina inserted on the top of the calix, ^lany 


Pistils in a head borne by a cylindrical gynophore. 
Several Seeds or Achenes, with persistent smooth 
Styles. — Stylypus vernus Annual, n^any decum- 
bent Stems, leaves interrupted pinnate, folioles laci- 
niated, upper leaves simple jagged; flowers terminal, 
few, peduncled. 

224 CXZiLENIA. No. 4i 





French Name — Gillenia occidentale. 

Ger:man Name — Gillenwurzel. 

Ofeicinal Na:me — Gillenia radix. 

Vulgar Names — Indian Physic, Indian hippo, 
Ipecacj Beaumont root, Bowman's root, Meadow 
Sweet, &c. 

Synonyms — Spirea trifoliata Var. Auct. 

Authorities — Pursh, Wildenow, Schoepf, Thatch- 
er, Coxe, Duncan, Nuttal, Moeneh, Eberle, A, Ives, 
Baum, W.Bart, fig. 6, &c. 


Genus Gillenia — Calix campanulatc 5 cleft." Five 

narrow unequal petals inserted on the calyx. Many 
short Stamina inserted there also. Five coherent 
pistils, five Styles. ^Capsules five connate at the base, 
opening inside, unilocular, two seeded. 

Species G. Stipulacea — Lower leaves pinnatifid, 
upper leaves tri/oliolate, folioles lanceolate [incise 
serrate ; stipules foliaceous, ovate, oblique, jagged : 
flowers loosely corymbose. 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, dark brown, 
amorphous, with large and long fleshy fibres. Several 
Stems from two to three feet high, slender, smooth, 
brittle, reddish, branched. Leaves large, alternate, 
ewile, with three folioles and two larcrf* ct mules: 








wESTsnnr dropwort. 

Ko. U, 6XI1I.ENIA. S35 

these last are oblique, ovate, irregularly jagged, acute. 
Folioles smooth, lanceolate, acute at both ends, with 
a large nerve, border unequally serrate or jagged, and 
in the lower leaves often pinnatif. — Flowers in loose 
thin terminal corymbs, peduncles clingated, calix 
campanulate with five teeth; petals white, three times 
as long, linear lanceolate, a little unequal, base cunei- 
form, and nearly obtuse. Stamina short, inclosed, 
anthers round yellow. Pistil central free, five parted, 
five filiform Styles, five obtuse stigmas, five connected 

Capsuls, &c. &c. . 

LocALiTY-^Found only West of the Allegheny 

mountains, from Ohio and West Virginia to Missouri 
and Louisiana ; rare in. the limestone and alluvial re- 
gTons, very common in the hilly and sand-stone re- 
gions, growing always in poor or grltvelly soils, both 

in woods antlr^laiJeS' 

HISTORY — This genus contains two species, this 
and G. tnfoliata^ which has similar properties, and 
will be known by rts locality, growing on the moun- 
tains Alleghany, or north, east and south of them from 
Canada to Florida, but never west of them. It is a 
larger plant, with broader folioles, small linear sti- 
pules and fewer flowers, but larger. It has been figur* 
ed by Barton and Bigelow, but resembles this so 

much as not to need it. 

Both blossom in June and July, and are pretty 
plants, worth cultivation. They had formerly been 
united to Spirca^ FilipenduUi^ and Uhnaria, Moench 
proposed long ago the genus Giileniay but it was only 
lately adopted. It belongs to the Natural Order of 

2g6 GILLENIA. No. 44. 

Senticoses, family Spireadia, and to Icosandria 
pentagynia. The G. Siipulacea was only lately des- 
cribed. It offers many varieties, 1. Unijlora^ ^.Tin- 
natijiday 3» Virgata^ 4. Variegaia^ &c. Cattle do. 
not eat it. ' 


Qtjai-ities — Roots scentless, taste bitter but not 
unpleasant. Containing a resin, extractire, ligninc, 
fecula, amarine, and a coloring matter, which dies 

the solutions red, 

PROPERTIES — ^Both species are emetic, cathar- 

tic, and tonic; but the O. stipulacea is by far the 
best and strongest. It has even happened that the 
G. trifoliata has proved inert, in some cases, when 
old, or taken from cultivated plants : while the O* 
9tipulacea has never failed, and supersedes]the Ipecac 
in common practice throughout the West. It is as 

mild and f^ffiripnt^mildcr than the JEuphorbia COroU 

lata. The roots^ are collected in the fall, and kept 
in many stores: the bark of the root is chiefly used, 
but the woody part is not inert as supposed. The 
dose is from 15 to 30 grains of the powder. It ope- 
rates often also as a cathartic In small doses it be- 
comes a tonic, and is used in intermittents. The In- 
dians employed it, and look larger doses or strong 
decoctions of it, which operated violently; this prac- 
tice is yet followed and brings on debility: Eberle 
has successfully used the G. trifoliata in dyspepsia, 
also in dysentery with opium. It is given in decoc- 
tion to horses and cattle as a tonic and digestive. 

Substitutes — Euphorbia Sp, •Sanguinaria^'^ 

Ipecacuana and all the mild Emetics. 

No- 45. 





Ko. 45. HAMAXaBIiZS. S^ 

No. 45. 





French Name — Hamamelier d'htver. 

German Name — Hexehasel. , 

Officinal Name — ^^Hamaraelis Cortex. 

Vulgar Names — AVitch hazel, Snapping hazel- 
nut, Winter bloom, Pistachoe nut, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Pursh, Cutler, Schoepf, 
Mitchell, Colden, Catesby, fig. 2. Barton Flora, fi 
78, Elliott, &c. 



Genus Hamamelis — Calix four cleft, persistent, 
with scales at the base. Petals four long and linear. 
Stamina four opposite to the petals. Filaments broad 
and short, anthers adnate, two celled, dehiscent by- 
vertical valves, one pistil, two stigmas. Capsule coria- 
ceous nut-like, two celled, two lobed, two valved 
above, valves cleft : one oblong seed in each cell. 

Species St. Vieginica— Leaves obovate, obtuse, 
smooth, base obliquely cordate, margin erosej flow- 
ers in small remote clusters, calix and fruit pubescent 


DESCRIPTION— A shrub from six to ten feet 
high, with irregular branches, flexuose and knotty : 
bark smooth grey, with brown dots. Leaves rather 
large, smooth, alternate, petiolate, obovate, base with 
9L small sinus and unequal lobes, margin with unequal 

S^ BAMAn!CZ:i.XS. No. 45 


faint teeth, commonly obtuse, end obtuse, nerves pro- 

Flowers on short pedicels, clustered three to five 
together, in several places along the branches. Calix 
small, but enlarging with the fruit, with three or 

four scales at the base, divided into four thick oval 
pubescent segments. Petals yellow, much, longer; 
linear, obtuse, often undulate or revolute. Stamina 
four opposed to petals, shorter than the .calix. Pistil 
oval central, a short style, two stigmas obtuse. Fruit a 
nut-like Capsule, similar to a hazel-nut; but bilobed 
and split above, pubescent, yellowish, with two cells 
containing each an oblong black seed, with a broad 
arilla at the base. This capsule is one year ripening, 
and opens with elasticity and instantaneously witli a 
noise, by twp half valves, throwing the seeds off. ^ 

LocAiiTY — From New England to Carolina and 
Ohio, commonly on hills and mountains, near stony 
banks of streams- Rare in plains and alluvions. 

HISTORY — This is a very singular Genus, formed 
by Linnaeus with the Trilopus of Mitchell, which 
name he ought not to have changed for the actual, 
which is the Greek name of the Mespilus or Medlar 
tree. He knew only one species, several are now 
known, which are sometimes polygamous, monoical 
and even dioical. They all blossom in winter, when 
no other tree is in bloom ; the blossoms last from Oc- 
tober to February. The fruits stand on the whole 
year, till next fall, and then explode successively 
with a noise, like Hura crepitanSy scattering the 
s«edt around. These seeds are eaten bv the Indians, 

No. 45. HA1MIAI^SI.ZS. 


and in the South where they are called erroneously 
Pistaehoe nuts, although quite unlike the Pistacia 
vera or true Pistaehoe of the Mediterranean. They 
are similar in shape to the esculent Pine seeds of 
Finns picea^ cylindrical, shining black outside, white 
and farinaceous inside, rather oily and palatable. 

The shrub resembles very much in the appearance 
of the leaves and nuts, the common hazelnut, Cory- 
lus ^^7nericana ; but the blossoms are totally different. 
It has become in the United States the Witch hazel, 
affording the divining rods, employed by the adepts 
of the occult arts, to find or pretend to find Water, 
Ores, Salt, &c. unuer ground. The Alnxis and Cory^ 
lies are often substituted, a forked branch is used, the 
two branches held in both hands; when and where 
the point drops, the springs or metals sought for, are 
said to be! A belief in this vain practice is as yet 

widely spread. 

It belongs to the Natural Order of Bkreerides, 
distinguished by opposite petals and stamina, and to 
the section or family wiih capsular fruit like Jejferr 

soma* Also to Tetrandria rriojio^ynia of Lini.^us. 

Qualities — The bark and leaves are somewhat 
bitter, ^evy astringent, leaving a sweetish pungent 
taste: The smell is not unpleasant. It has not been 
analyzed as yet, but probably contains tannin, ama- 
rine, extractive, and an essential oil. 

PROPERTIES— Sedative, astringent, tonic, dis- 
eutient, &:c. The Indians value this shrub highly, 
and it is much used in the North by herbalists. The 
bnrl; nffords an exccF'^nt topicjl p-^nlicanon for p'*''M- 

230 HAMAMELIS. No. 45. 

ful tumors and piles, external inflammations^ sore and 
inflamed eyes, &:c* in cataplasm or poultice or wash. 
A tea is made with the leaves, and employed for 
many purposes, in amenorrhea, bowel complaints, 
pains in the sides, menstrual effusions, bleeding ot 
the stomach, &c. In this last case, the chewed leaves, 
decoction of the bark or tea of the leaves, are all em- 
ployed with great advantage. A strong infusion is 
«-iven in injection for bowel complaints. It is said to 
be a mild yet efficient astringent in all cases, and a 
safe substitute of Siatice, Myrica and Rubus. 

SuBsriTVTus—Conwm 7?iaculafum — Vibnrrnwi 
ccerifolium and F. denfatit?7i — Nijmphea odorata 
Myrica ccrlfcra — Agrimonia Eiipatorium — Geiivi 
Sp. — Rhus tyj^hinum and R. glahrum — Statice Co- 
roliniaiia and many other mild astringents. 

Rkmatiks — All the species of this genus have pro- 
bably the same properties. In the north the H. par- 
xifolxa is equally used. It is distinguished by smuHcr 
leaves, pubescent beneath, hardly cordate at ..' 
ba^e, undulate ^vA sinuate. The shrub is smaller, 


>\-ilh blossoms of a brighter yellow', and growi. in 


The //- macrophijUa or Bigleaf Witch hazel, i« 
ouly found in the Southern mountains, and will be 
know a by its large, rough and round leaves. 

No. 46. 




Ko. 45. 


No. 46. 



French Name — Hedeome Pouliot. 
Germax Name — Poleyblattrige.' 
Officixal Name — Hedeoma herba. 
VuLGAK Names — Pennyroyal^ Tickweed, Stink- 
ing Balm, Squaw-mlntj &c, 

Synontms — Melissa piihgioides Lin. Cunila pu- 

legioides Lin. and many botanists. 

Authorities — Lin. Mich. Piirsh, Pcrsoon, Kalrn, 
Schoepfj Thacher^ Cullen, Big. seq., Duncan.^ Ebcrlc, 
Zollickoffer, Chapman, Elliott, B. Barton, ^Y. Bar- 
ton, M. M. fig. 41. 

Genus Hedeoma — Calix bilabiate, ten striated, base 
gibbose, upper lip trifid, lower with two subulate 
teeth and ciliated bristles, corolla bilabiate, upper lip 
nearly entire, lower trilobe, middle lobe obcordate. 
Two fertile stamina as long as the corolla, two sterile 
and short. One style, four seeds. 

Species IL pulegioij>es — Annual, leaves subpe- 
tiolatc, oblong, acute, subserrate, a little rough. 
Flowers axillary, verticillate by six, on short pedi- 
cels, with two small bracteoles. 

DESCRIPTION— Root annual, small, yellowish, 
brnched fibrose. >Slem upright, about a foot high, 
with slender erect branches, terete, pubescent. Leaves 

2S2 HEDSOMA. No. 46. 

opposite, small, oblong lanceolate or suboval, on short 
petioles, base attenuated, end subacute, margin with 
small remote serratures, surface rough or pubescent, 


nftrved and pale beneath. 

Flowers all along the branches in axillary whorb 
of six, nodding, on short pedicels, very small. Calix 
as above, pubescent. Corolla very small, hardly 
longer, white, with the lips purple, base slender, then 
campanulatc wilh two small lips, the upper rounded, 
seldom notched, the lower with two rounded lateral 
lobes, and an obcordate middle lobe. Stamina and 
siyle filiform, autheis oblong. Stigma lateral acute. 
Fruit four small oblong seeds in the persistent calix, 
mouth closed by the ciliated bristles of the lower lip- 

Locality — Verj^ common and abundant all over 

the United States, and in Canada, in dry woods and 

hills chiefly, but also in plains, alluvions, roads, stony 

fields. Never in moist soils. Nb where more abun- 

'.dant than in lime soils or arid grounds. 

IIISTORY—Ilwns th- fate of this plant to be suc- 
cessively united by Linnieus and other botanists to 
Melissa and CunUay until distinguished and named 
by Persoon, and it is as yet commonly blended, even 
by medical writers, with the European Pennyroyal 
or Mentha puiei^htm, which docs not grow in Ame- 
rica; theshap^, smell, and properties being somewhat 
ftimllar, whence the same vulgar name; but our plant 
a])pcai'S to be more efficir!it. 

It Lv.]ong? to the natural order of Laetatk, and to 
Dl^.. ■ * ni^s, .jj^na of Linnaeus. It blc « *" 

twnu fro*. July to S leniucr. TI.. ua...^ of //^- 

Ko. 46. 



d€0?7ia means sweet smelling in Greek j the whole 
plant is scented ; but the smell far from agreeable, 
being strong and graveolent: many persons^, however, 
like it and call it pungent, reviving and pleasant: 
females are sometimes fond of it as well as of Rue or 
Jitfta graveolenSy although both very graveolenL 

Qualities — Tlie smell and taste are very warm, 
pungent^ strong, and hardly aromatic, but pleasant or 
disagreeable according to different personal aifections. 
The medical principle resides in an essential oil, pos- 
sessing, eminently the same smell and taste. 

PROPERTIES^Carminative, resolvent, pectoral, 
diaphoretic, antispasmodic, menagogue,pel]ent, stimu- 
lant, &c. It is a popular remedy throughout the coun- 
try for female complaints, suppressed menstru,ations, 
hysterics, &c. It is chiefly beneficial in obstructed 
ratamenia, and recent cases of suppressions, given as 
a sweetened tea, with the pediluvium. P'berle, how- 
ever, deems its menagogue property problematical, 
and useful only as a vehicle for other remedies: that 
he is mistaken, is proved by daily experience. It 
promotes expectoration in the whooping cough, it al- 
leviates spasms, pains in the hips, and the spasmodic 
or dyspeptic symptoms of menstruation. Schoepf 
mentions it for palpitations, fevers and gout; but it is 
too stimulant in fevers. A warm cataplasm of the 
herb is useful in severe pains, and thrilling palpita- 
tions. Zollickoffer says that it is a valuable medicine 
in some cases of diarrhea, but which? Some herbalists 
in the north, employ it extensively for colds, cholics 
of children, to remove obstruction, warm the stomach 


23 1 BZSDEOMA. D^o. «. 

and promote pfe^spiration. Although it affords one of 
the most popular graveolent tea, there are many other 
labiate plants which are equivalent to it and more 
agreeable withal: the best are Mint, Dittany, Balms, 
Sage, Monarda, Isanthus, &c. The oil is now kept 
in pharmacies, and often used instead of the infiision, 
in mixtures, &c. 

Substitutes — Moriarda Sp. — Mentha pukgiiim 
and M. piperita — Cuniia mariana — Isanthus ceni- 
ieus — Riita graveolens — Salvia officinalis — Melissa 
nepeta — Jnnvperns Sp, — Rosmarinus officinalis 
Jiuhia tinctoria — Polygala senega^ Sic, 

Remarks — This plant is also frequently used to 
kill the Ticks, (Ixodes) which attach themselves to 
men, 6oz?^ and cattle, in summer* These troublesome 
animals are found wlierever the Hedysarums and Le- 
spedezas or true Tickweeds grow, upon which they 
breed, but both are unknown in the limestone plains. 
By rubbing the legs or boots with this plant or its oil, 

these insects will avoid you, or if they have taken 
hold, the oil kills them. A strong decoction of the 
plant is equally convenient, and a strong decoction of 
Tobacco as good likevvise. 

No. 4:7. 



No 4r. HBI.ENIUM:. cg% 

No. 47. 



Frejvch Name — Helenie D'AUTOMNE.rr *v//^^>' 

German Name — Niessenkkaut. 

Officinal Name — Hclenium, 

VuLG ARNAMEs-^Sneezeweed, Sneezevvort^Swamp 
Sunflower, False Sunflower, Yellow Star, Oxeye. 

AuTiroRiTrES — Lin. Mich. Pursh. Torrey, E]li* 
ottj Cornut, Clayton, Schoepf, B, Barton, W. Bart, 
ft. fig. 26, Duncan, &c. 

Genus Helenitjm — Perlanthe many parted, seg- 
ments linear. Flowers radiate, rays cuneale trilobe, 
styliferous, from 15 to 20. Phoranthe hemispherical, 
naked, chaiTy on the margin. Florets complete, four 
or five cleft. Pappus with five chaffs. Seeds hairy. 

Species H. autumnale — Pubescent, Stem corym* 
bose above, winged: leaves lanceolate, serrate, de- 
current: peduncles thicker above, rays flat, floret» 

five cleft'. 

DESCRIPTION — Root perennial, fibrous. Seve- 

ral Stems from three to seven feet high, erect, angu- 
lar, winged by the decurrent leaves, branched and co* 
rymbose above: covered as well as the leaves with a 
very short and dense pubescence. Leaves glaucous, 
alternate, sessile, decurrent, lanceolate, acuminate, 
unequally serrate, dotted by small pits, subtrinervatie. 

236 HEtENnriW. No. 47. 

Flowers corymbose^ golden yellow^ large, one or two 
inches in diameter. Peduncles axillary, uniflore, 
with one oval lanceolate bract, clavate or thicker 
upwards. Perianths with many unequal linear ac«te 
segments. Phoranthe semiglobose, with chaffs near 
the .rays, lanceolate. Rays from five to tw^entyi 
spreading flat, or sometimes rather reflexed, shape 
cuneate, end broad trilobe, middle lobe often smaller. 
Disk greenish yellow convex, florets small crowded 
five cleft, with syngenesious stamina, a bifid style, 
oblong germ, pappus formed by three to five chaffs 
subulate £pnd awned. 

Locality — It grows all over the .United States, 
and from Canada to Texas and Florida, in wet mea- 
dows, and Savannas, damp fields, overflowed grounds, 

banlis of streams, &c. 

HISTORY — Linn^us has employed the specific 

name of the Inula helenium or Elecampane as a 
generic one in this instance, owing to a faint resem- 
blance. The Helenium was said by the Greeks to 
have sprung from the tears of the fair Helen, This 
was once a unique species, but now several others are 
added, which grow in the Southern States. It be- 

eat Order of Radiax^, where it is the 
type of a small family the Helenides y-lAnn^ws puts 
it in his Syngenesia suj}erjlua. 

It is a fine plant, rather ornamental, and adorning 
in the fall the meadows with its golden blossoms, ap- 
pearing from September to November. The Cattle 
do not touch it. The varieties are 1. J^illosaj 2. Pu- 
mila, 3. Prealta^ &c. 

5^ tU Lli^ 5 

No. 4r. 


Qualities — The plant has hardly any smell : the 
taste is bitter^ and a little pungent or even acrid. It 
has not been analyzed ; but. contains amarine, extrac- 
tive and an oil. 

PROPERTIES— Tonic, febrifuge, errhine. CIay« 

ton and Schoepf mention its use in intermittents j but 
it is not extensively employed as yet in fevers : while 
it is known and employed all over the country as a 
valuable Errhine. The whole plant reduced to pow- 
der act as such ; but the flowers and particularly the 
central florets are powerful sternutatory. A very 
small pinch of their powder produces a lasting sneez- 
in"-. The late B. Barton has eminently extolled it, 


as a substitute to more acrid Errhines, either alone 
or united to other ingredients. It may be used in 
diseases of the head, deafness, anavrosis, head-ache. 

heniicrania, rheumatism or congestions in the head 

and jaws, &c. Th^ shocks of sneezing are often use- 
ful in those cases, when other remedies can hardly 
avail. This plant has probably many other proper- 
ties, little known as yet, and deserving investigation. 
Substitutes— As a tonic Chelone glitbra, and 
other herbaceous tonics. As an errhine, ^sarnm 
Canadense, Sanguiiiaria canadensis, Mijrica ceri- 
fera, Tobacco and 'Cephalic Snuffs. Besides the 
Helenium quadrideniatum of Louisiana and Florida, 
which will be known by its lower leaves pinnatifid, 
upper entire, and the florets quadrifid or four cleft. 

S38 HEPATICA. ^°- ^^■ 





French Name — Hepatique trilobe. 
German Name — Leberkkaut. 
Officinal Name — Hepatica. 
Vulgar Names — Livervveed, Trefoil, Noble Li- 

Synonym — Jlnernone h-epntica Linn. &c. 

Authorities — Linn. Schoepf, Pursh; Toney? 


Eaton, Hereford, &c. 

Genus HepAtica — Involucre caliciforn), near th« 
flower, persistent, threeparted. Perigone coroHlform, 
with six to nine oblong petals. Many short Stamina. 
Many pistils. Styles short. Seeds awnless achenes. 

Species H. triloba — ^Leaves radical, cordate, three 
lobed, lobes entire, petioles and scapes equal in length 
and hairy, scapes uniflora, flowers drooping before the 

anthesis and pilose. 
^ DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, fibrose, fibres 

long fasciculate, brown. Leaves all radical, on long 
hairy petioles, somewhat leathery and partly persis- 
tent in winter, base cordate, divided into three equal 
entire lobes, rounded,, obtuse or acute, with obtuse 
or acute sinuses, nearly smooth, mottled of olivaceous 
and purplish above, glaucous and purplish beneath. 
i>ttveral scapes equal in length to the petiols, upright. 

No. 48. 





No. 43. 




four to eight inches long, invested at the base with 
several membranaceous sheaths, hairy, round^ bear- 
ing a single fiou-er. 

Flowers termlnalj drooping at first, spreading ^xhen 
unfolded. Involucre resembling a calix, very hairy, 
hairs ^rey and long, segments very deep, oval, entire, 

obtuse. Perigone like a Corolla bluish, purplish oi 
white, sepals elliptic obtuse, equal, but in two or 
three series. Filaments subulate, anthers elliptic, 
pale yellow. Pistils and seeds oval, acute. 

Locality — A boreal plant, native of the northern 
parts of Europe, Asia and America, spreading in this 
last continent from Labrador to Virginia and the 
Pacific Ocean, common in woods, hills and moun- 
tains of the United States from New England to 


HISTORY — A pretty vernal plant, the leaves stared 
the winter, and early in the spring the flowers come 
out, even when snow is yet falling: they last from 
March to May, are ratlier pretty and deserving culti- 
vation. The varieties are 1. ^Ibijlora. 2. ^Q.cidiloha, 
S. Farvijlora, flowers half the usual size and blue. 
In Kentucky, perhaps a peculiar species. 

Tournefort established this genus, Linnaeus wrongly 
klended it with Anemone, it has again been sepa- 
rated lately. The name derives from its hepatic pro- 
perties. It belongs to the Natural Order of Adxats* 
cr Ranunculaceous, and to Folyandria polygynia. 

QuALiTins— Scentless and nearly insipid, not bitter; 
fcut a little astringent and mucilaginous. It contaiuf 
tannin, mucilage, extractive, &c. 

!g40 HEPATICA. Xo. 48. 

PROPERTIES — Subtonic, subastringent, hepatic, 
deobstruentj pectoral^ demulcent. It was known to 
the ancleats as a^medlcal plant, and Linnssus has it in 
his Materia Medica; but it had fallen into disuse^ its 
propej'ties being very mild. It was formerly used in 
fevers, liver complaints^ indigestion, cachexy, hypo- 
chondria and hernia. It has lately been brought to 
notiee in America for hemoptysis and coughs, it has 
been used in Virginia with benefit in the form of 
a strong infusion, drunk cold. It may be serviceable 
in hepatisis and hepatic phthisis, as well as all com- 
plaints arising from dyspepsicand hypochondric affec- 
tions ; it may be used as a tea, warm or cold and ad- 
libltum ; but it has no effect on the lungs beyond that 
of a mild demulcent astringent. 

Substitutes — ^grimonia — Geiim Sp. — Lycopus 
Virginiviis — Tussilago — Symphytum — Leoyiiodon 
taraxacum dt Dandelion, — Sisymbrium or Water 
Cresses, &.e. 

No. 49. 






■ ^ 

i > 

No. 49. 



No. 49. 



Frexch Na3I£ — HsvcHEnE Ebable. 
Ger3IAn Najie — Alaus-vvurzel. 
Offici>'Al Name — Heuchera radix. 


VuLUAR Names Alumroot, Sauieley Ground 

Maple,, CliflVeed, Split-rock, &c. 

Authorities for the Genus — Lin, IMich. Purslv 
Niittal, Eaton, Torrey, EUlotty Dlspens. Murray, 
Stokes, B. Barton, \V, Barton, Bigelow seq., Zol- 
lickoffer, Coxe, &c. 



Genus Heucheha — Calix persistent, canipanulate, 
five cleft. Five entire equal lanceolate petals inserted 
oa the calix. Five stamina inserted on the calix. 
Pistil centra!, free, round, cleft, t\vo styles. Capsule 
bifid, bilocular, many seeded. Leaves radical, coy- 
flute Gnd Jagged, with radiating- lierveSy scape wilU 
a ter7ninal -panicle o/Jloivers, 

Species H. Acerifolia — Petioles hirsute, leaves 
smooth, glaucous beneath, acutely five cleft^ unequally 
toothed, teeth mucronate: scape smooth, panicle elon- 
gated, laxlflore, minutifiore, petals short, stamina ex- 

DESCRIPTION— Root perennial, yellowish, hori- 
zontal, crooked, with few fibres. Radical leaves on 
long petioles, slender and covered with shoi: sL'T 



No. 49, 

hairs : shaped like tiiose of the maple trees, base deeply 
and acutely cordate, circumference acutely five cleft, 
sometimes seven cleft or even nine cleft; segments 
angular, acute, unequally toothed, teeth short, round- 
ed, mucronate; only five branched nerves; both sur- 
faces smooth, upper green, lower glaucous. Scapes 
round, smooth, fistulose, straight, one or two feet 


Flowers very small, forming a long panicle, occu- 
pying the upper half of the scape, cylindrical, but 
loose, small pinnatifid or pectinated bracts at the base 
of the branches, which are scattered and irregularly 
divided with small subulate bracteoles at the lower 
divisions; pedicels longer than the flower. Calix with 
five acute teeth. Petals lanceolate, flesh colored, fila- 
ments subulate, erect, jutting out, anthers rounded. 
Pistil bifid with two long styles, stigma obtuse. Cap- 
sule with two beaks, opening inside of the beaks, with 
<.,.r. ^oTl« fnrmfift hv the involute valves. Manv small 

blaak seeds. 

Locality — In the mountains, hills, clifTs and fis- 
sures of rocks in Kentucky, Tennessee, "West Vir- 
ginia, and Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Sec. 

HISTORY— All the species of this very natural 
genus have the same properties, and are used indis- 
criminately under the name of Alumroot; they shall 
tlicrefore be united in this article. I have thought 
preferable to figure one of my nevv species, rather than 
to give another figure of the n^.ost common kind, 
v^rongly called H. americana. Since the H. dicho- 
toma iias beeu removed from this 2enu5, all the known 


No, 49. 


species are North American/ and possess the same 

peculiar habit 

Linnseus only knew one species, Michaux two^ 


Nuttal three, Pursh five, and I know seven, besides 
many varieties, without being sure of having seen all 
the .species of Pursh and Elliott. As this genus is 
yet in a great confusion and uncertainty, I shall men- 
tion licre only those which I have seen: they are be- 


sides the actuaU 

1. H. Viscida of Pursh, (or H. cortusa of Mi- 

chaux, the H. americmia of Linnseus, &c. and W. 
Bart. fig. 40.) Vicidly pubescent, scapes and leaves 
a little scabrous, leares oblong cordate ciliate, w'Ah 
many rounded lobes, and unequal mucronate teetri, 
surface concolor: panicle short and laxiflore, calix 
short, obtuse,^elals short lanceolate, stamina^ exsert- 

ed. The most common species east of the Alleghany 

mountains, rare to the west: petals rose. The varie- 
ties are 1. Macrophyllo, 2. Maculata, .*?. Scabra, &c. 

2. H. Villosa of Michaux, (or H, ^Mspida of 

Pursh.) Entirely hairy, leaves cordate, with acute 
lobes, panicle laxiflore, minutiflore, pedicels fdiform, 
calix acute, petals short, &c.— In the Alleghany moun- 
tains of Virginia, Carolina, &c. Flowers Y^xy small, 

petals w^hite. 

3. H. Pulveruhiita (or H. pubescens of Pm-sh, &c.) 

Leaves pulverulent-pubescent, cordate, with acute 

lobes, toothed, smooth beneath; scape smooth below, 

rough above, panicle crowded, petals longer than calix, 

stamina hardly exserted,— In the mountains from New 


No. 49. 

England to Pennsylvania : petals red and yellow, 
Var. 1- Rubra^ 2. Grandtjiora^ &c. 

4. H. Squamosa Haf. Petioles pilose, leaves sub- 
hirsute, ciliate, cordate, acutely seven lobed, denticu- 
late, glaucous beneatli : scapes hairy, with oval distant 
scales ; panicle short or ovaJ, crowded, and scaly, pe- 
dicels short, calix obtuse, stamina exserted. — lu thc^ 
mountains of Maryland and Virginia, the Cumberland 
mountains of Kentucky, &c. Leaves rather small, 
flowers middle size. Var- 1. Pumita, 2. Laxijloriiy 

3, Confertijlora. 

5. H. R€mformisV.i\L Petioles smooth, leaves rc- 
niform rounded, faintly lobcd and toothed, ciliolate, 
concclor, sub-liirsutc above, smooth beneath: scapes 
rough, panicle elongated, grandiflore, laxiflore, pedi- 
cels filiform, calix urccolate obtuse, petals and stamina 
exserted. — In the Cumberland mountains and Knob 
hills of Kentucky: leaves and flowers large, petals 


6. H. Glauca Raf. Smooth, glaucous, leaves cor- 
date obtusely lobcd, niucronate-dcnticulate ; panicle 
laxiflore, elongated, minutiflore, petals and stamina 
short. In the Cumberland mountains. 

They all growamonji; rocks and near streams, blos- 

soming in June and July. The genus has been dedi- 
cated to lieucher, a German botanist. It belongs to 
the natural order of Dicerks or Saxifragides, differing 

from Saxifraga merely by having five instead of ten 
stamina, and to Pcntandria Digynia of L. 

Q.UALITIES — The whole plants are astringent; but 
the roots strongly so, and biting on the tongue like 


NO. 49. HEUCHERA. 245 

alum, but nearly scentless. They contain nearly the 

same elements as Geranium maculaium, but more 

tannin and acid. 

PROPERTIES-^The root of these plants is a pow- 
erful astringent styptic, antiseptic, vulnerary and de- 
tero-ent, probably equal to Geranium maculatum 
and Sp'irea tomeniosa. It was used by the Indians, 
and is still used in Kentucky and the Alleghany moun- 
tains, in powder, as an external remedy in sores, 
wounds, ulcers, and even cancers : it is one of the 
bases of the cancer powders of Empirics ; united to 
Orohanche, Hydrastis, &c. It is einployed as a styp- 
tic in internal and external hemorrhagy, bleeding of 
the nose, foul or indolent ulcers, wounds and cuts. It 
is seldom taten internally the taste being so inten- 
sively astringent ; but it promises to be useful even 
in very small doses, whenever astringents are indi- 
cated. Coxe says that the Alumroot has been sold 
for the Colchicum, to which it bears no resemblance 

in form nor properties. ^ 

Substitutes— G^erfl«mw, Geum, Sj?irea, Sftahce 

^p. and other powerful astringents. 

2 X 

246 EtfMlTLUS. No. 50. 

^0. oO. 


English Name— COMMON HOP. 

Frexch Name — Houblon co3imun. 

Ctekman Name — IIorFEX. 

OmciNAL Names— Lupuli coni, humuli strobili- 

Vulgar Names— Hops, Wild-hopsj Hopvlne. 

Authorities- — Lhu Pursh, Nutta-l, A. Ives> 
Schoepf, Treaks, Bryorly^ Bigsby, niany Dispens. 
Alibert, Coxe, Eberle, MatoH; Roches, ZoIIickoffer, 
Elsrelovvj fi^- 60 and Seq. 

Genus Humulus — Diolcal, Staminate flowers with 
a five leaved perigone, Stamina five^ anthers bipore. 
Plstllate flowers strobilate: bracts biflore, perigone 
one leaved^ persistent entire, concave, invokite. One 
pistil, two styles, one seed. 

Species H. lupulus — Stem twining and rough, 
leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate, three or five 
lobed, acute, sharply serrate, rough: staminate flow- 
ers panicled, fertile strobiles axillary peduncled. 

DESCRIPTION—Root perennial. Stem annual, 
forming a climbing vine, twining from right to left, 
angular, rough with minute reflexed prickles. Leaves 
opposite, petiols crooked, smaller and floral leaves 
cordate, acuminate, serrate: the main leaves nearly 
palmate, trilobe, sometimes five lobej lobes large, 
oval acute, sharply serrate; sinusses obtuse, without 


No. 50. 













No. 50. HUiaUIiITS. 247 

teeth; surface very rough with three raain nerves and 

many veuis 


Flowers numerous and greenish. The staniinate 
on dijSerent individuals, forming axillary panicles, 
with two or four bracts, reflexed, opposite, petiolate, 
oval: each flower peduncled. Perigone caliciform, 
' with five oblong obtuse concave and spreading sepals : 
five stamina, filaments short, anthers oblong, opening 
by Jvvo terminal pores. Pistilate flowers forming 
oval, opposite, axillary, drooping and peduncled 
strobiles or cones. Scales imbricate, oval, acute, 
tubular at the base, each covering two sessile flowers. 
Perigone (Corolla of Linnaeus) shorter than the 
scales, lateral, oval obtuse, infolding the pistil by the 
edges. Germen rounded, compressed, two short 
styles, two long subulate and downy stigmas. Each 
flower produces a single round seed. 

Locality — Native of Europe and America, and 
cultivated also in both continents. Schoepf found it 
wild in Virginia, Nultal on the Missouri, and I have 
seen it spontaneous from New York to Kentucky in 
groves, thickets, coppices and banks of streams. 

HISTORY — This vine is ornamental and useful. 
It is extensively cultivated wherever malt liquors are 
used, and forms a profitable branch of agriculture. 
The fertile plants alone are raised, since the medical 
and economical parts are the strobiles of the seeds. 
The young shoots, when emerging from the ground, 
are however eaten like Asparagus in Italy and Ger- 
many. The fibres of the vine are also made into 
coarse cloth in Sweden and England. The blossoms 

248 * HUMUI.US. No.50- 

appear in the summer, and although uncolored are 
not devoid of elegance. 

Humulus belongs to the Natural Order Scabrides 
or Urticides, and to Dioecia pentandria. It has 
but this species, both names are ancient. 

Qualities — The whole plant, but particularly the 
strobiles have a fragrant sub-narcotic smell, and a bit- 
ter, astringent, aromatic taste. A. Ives has shown 
that this taste and smell reside in a fine impalpable 
yellow powder, sprinkled over the fertile plants, and 
chiefly on the strobiles, which may be separated by 
threshing and sifting. This powder has been called 
Lupulin^ although it is not a proximate principle, but 
q dry secretion from the plant, and a compound sub- 
stance containing the active principles and properties. 
The Lupidin contains out of 120 parts, 46 of lignin, 
S6 resin, 12 wax, 11 amarina, 10 extractive, 5 tannin, 
besides two per cent, of a singular essential oil, very 
volatile, partly soluble in water, very acrid, and 
having the narcotic smell of the Hop. The Lnpulin 
is very inflammable, it becomes soft and adhesive by 
handling: the strobiles contains one-sixth of their 
weight of it, and it may be available in brewing like 
the hops : one pound being equal to six pounds of 

PROPERTIES— The whole plant, but chiefly the 
Strobiles and the Lupulin are tonic, narcotic, phan- 
tastic, anodyne, sedative, alterative, astringent, anti- 
lithic, diuretic, corroborant, &c. The strobiles or 
feops have long been an ingredient of porter, ale and 
other malt lic^uors, to which the}'' impart a bitter and 

No. 50. samums. 249 

aromatic flavor, besides a small share of their proper- 
ties ; but by the habitual use of these liquors all the 
good effects are destroyed. The hop-beer made with 
molasses, hops and yeast, is a better liquor still, and 
an agreeable, refreshing, tonic beverage. 

As a medicinal article hops have been praised by 
many physicians, and employed in Nephritis, Gravel, 
Gout, Phrenitis, Alopecia, Luxations, articular Rheu- 
matism, Dyspepsia, Scrophula, Rachitis, Eresypelas, 
Debility, Strangury, Hysteric and Nervous com- 
plaints. Cancer, &:c. As tonic, stomachic and corro- 
borant, they are available in diseases depending on 
debility or a loss of tone in the stomach ; but their 
powers are weak in this as well as all the other pro- 
perties ascribed to ihem, which, however, may ren- 
der them useful vvh"en imTtTfemedies are Teqttired. 
As a narcotic and sedative they operate mildly, and 
are often preferable to opium : they induce sleep with- 
out producing the bad effects of opium. Even the 
external application of hops, produces thesame effect, 
and a pillow of hops is a popular mode of promoting 
sleep Poultices and fomentations of hops are common 
applications for painful swellings. Their antilithie 
and diuretic property is questionable, they can at ut- 
most act as palliative, and are sometimes injurious; 
but available in the strangury produced by Cantha- 
rides. Besides allaying pain and producing sleep, 
hops have been found to reduce pulsations from 96 to 
60, while rendering the pulse more firm. They are 
useful in the weakness and watchfulness of hysteric 

patients. An ointment of hops is a palliative in the 

gjO HUMULUS- No. 50, 

last stage of Cancer. They are said to act as antisep- 
tic and corroborant in bowel complaints. Some phy- 
sicians consider them as general alterative of the sys- 
tern- Schoepf mentions the seeds as used in Obstipa- 
tion. Zollickofferhas used the flowers to relieve the 

pains after parturition. 

Many preparations are made with them j the tinc- 
ture and extract of hops were formerly most used. 
Now the pills, syrup, infusion, tincture, extract and 
ointment of Lupulin are employed. Boiling water 
and alcohol dissolve the Lupulin. The doses must be 
small and gradually increased, beginning with one 
grain of Lupulin, four of the extract, a tea spoonful 
of the tincture, or two ounces of the infusion. An 
over dose produces sore throat^^ nausea, purging^ tre- 

Substitutes — ^The mild aromatic tonics and nar- 
cotics ; but none are similar, nor combine the same 
number of properties, the Lycopus virginicits alone 
comes nearest to it. 

Remarks — The malt liquors brewed in the L^nited 
States, instead of being a wholesome beverage, are 
often rendered deleterious by the substitution or ad- 
dition of bitter and narcotic ingredients: the harmless 
substitutes to Hops are. Liquorice, Wormwood, Quas- 
sia, Teucrium Virginicunij &c. but Datura Stramo^ 
nium^ Cocculus, Aloe, &c. that have been added in 
Pittsburg and elsewhere, are dangerous^ pernicious or 
useless ingredients. 

No. 51. 







» • 



No. 51. HYDRASTIS. g5l 

No. 51. 



English Name— YELLOW PUCOOX 

FfiENCH Name — Hydraste bu Canada. 


Gekjman Name — Gelb Puckuhn. 
Officinal Name — Hj'drastis radix. ■ 


Vulgar Names — Yellowrootj Ground Raspberry* 
Yellowpalnt, Golden Seal, Orange root, Indian paint, 


Eyebalm, &c. 

SrxoNY3is — TVary^era CanadenstsMXW^v — Hydro- 

phylluvi vtt'Um Linn* Hydrastis Ellis* 

AuTHOKiTiES — Linn. i\Iich. Pursh, Miller, EJJiot, 

Eaton, Torrey, Stokes, Coxe, B. Barton, W. Barton, 
fig. 26; bad- 

Genus Hydrastis — Perigone simple, petaloid, 

tijree leaved, caducous. Stamina many, unequal, 
linear. Pistils many forming an ovate bead, Styles 
very short, stigmas compressed. Fruit a compour.d 
berry, formed by acines or fleshy seeds. * 

Species //. Canadensis — Stem two leaved, uniflore: 
leaves unequal, alterne, lower petiolate, upper sessile, 
palmate, cordate, three to seven lobed, lobes acute, 
unequally serrate ; flower terminal on a short pedun- 

DESCRIPnOX— Root perennial, of a bright ye!- 
low, tortuose, knobby, wrinkled, wnth iffany long 
fibres. Stem a foot high or less, simple, straight, 

252 HYDRASTIS. No 51. 

round, pubescent, base naked, top with two unequal 
alterne leaves. First leaf petiolate, cordate, paln'iate, 
five or seven lobed, sinuses oblong and obtuse, lobes 
oval, unequal, acute, -with irregular sharp serratures, 
,five branched nerves. The upper or second leaf 
similar, but sessile and commonly trilobe. These 
leaves are not quite expanded when the blosson::s ap- 

Flowers single terminal, on a peduncle shorter than 
the upper leaf. Three petals or petaloid leaves, fiesh 
or rose colored, oval, obtuse, equal. Many unequal 
filaments, shorter than the petals, linear and com- 
pressed; anthers oblong, obtuse, compressed. Many 
Pistils oval, crowded forming an oval h5ad, styles 
very short, stigma dilated, compressed. Berry red and 
oval, formed by many oblong grains or acines ; fleshy, 
obtuse, muricatcd by the persistent styles, each one 

seeded, seeds oblong. 

Locality — From Canada and ISlaine to Carolina 

and Tennessee, in rich shady woods, on the banks of 

streams, sides of hills, deep valleys : very common 

in West Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, &c., rare in lime- 


stone pla'rt^s. 

HISTORY— A pretty and singular plant, easily 
known by its habit. It blossoms very early in the 
spring in March and April, and the petals are so ca- 
ducous and fugaceous that they fall off, as soon as the 
blossoms expands^ leaving the Stamina and pistils bare. 
The fruit ripens in May, and is very much like a 
Raspberry of a bright red color; but scarcely edible. 

Linnaeus knew so little of this plant, that he united 

No. 51. 



the name Hydrastts of Ellis, which is a very bad 
name meaning imbibing water, while this plant is 
not at all aquatic. The name of Miller Warnera 
would have been "better, and I should have adopted 
this last and called it Warnera diphylla or tinctoria 
if established errors were not so difficult to correct. 
The vulgar names of this plant are also various, and 
common to many others, yellow root is a name given 
to ten or twelve plants, Jeffersonia, Coptis, Xan- 

thorhiza, Sac. Pucoon is an Indian name for all roots 
dying red, orange or yellow, such as Sangui?zaria, 
Batschm, Galiuniy Ceanollms, &c. ; but this is their 
best yellow Pucoon, affording a juice of a brilliant yel- 
low color, which they use to stain skins and clothing; 
it inay become a valuable dye. 

Hydrastis belongs to the Racunculaceous Order 
where it forms a very distinct genus, by its berry 
like seeds. Also to Polyandria pohjgynia. 

Qualities— The root is only used, it is juicy when 
fresh, and loses two thirds of its weight by drying. 
The taste is exceedingly bitter, rather pungent and 

The smell is strong and virose. It con- 
tainsAmarine, Extractive, several salts, and a pecu- 
liar principle Hydrastin of a yellow color, 

PROPERTIi:S— Tonic, ophthalmic, detergent, 
&c. This plant is much used in Ohio, Kentucky, 
&c. for diseases of the eyes, the juice or an infusion 
are used as a wash, in sore or inflamed eyes. It Is 
considered a specific by the Indians for that disorder; 
they also employ it for sore legs, and many external 



254. HYDRiVSTlS. No. si 

complaints, as a topical tonic. Internally it is used as 
a bitter tonic, in infusion or tincture in disorders of 
the stomach, the liver, &c., and is equivalent to t^/e- 
iris and Coptis* It is said to enter into compound 
remedies for the Cancer, acting as a mild detergent 
tonic, and the Cherokees are supposed to use it in that 
disease ; but better detergents are known. The proper- 
ties of this plant are nt^t yet fully known, it appears 
to be slightly narcotic and available in many other 
disorders. Some Indians employ it as a diuretic, 
stimulant and escharotic, using the powder for blister- 
ing, and the infusion for the Dropsy. 

Substitutes — Jeffersonia binata — Coptis tnfolia 
Xanthorhiza^ •dietrisy Sanguinaria, Sigillariay 
Frasera^ Menyanthesy &c. But none of these is so 

efScacious for sore 


sonia. For Cancer Viburnum dentatutn, RumcsQ 
and Orobanche. 




s^aoh: sxavBANXL 

Ko. 52. HYOSczAmtrs. 255 




English Name— BLACK HENBANE. 
French Name — Jusquiame noire. 

German Name — -Schwarz Bilsenkraut. 
Officinal Name — Hyosciamus. 

Vulgar Names — Henbane, Poison-Tobacco, 
Stinking Nightshade, &c. 

Authorities — Lin. Pursh, Eaton, Torrey, Cullen, 
Murray, Fothergill, Kinglake, Withering, Schoepf, 
Thacher, Duncan, Coxe, and all Dispens. Eberle, 
A. Ives, Woodville fig. 52, Bigelow fig. 17 and seq. 

Genus Hyosciamus — Calix persistent, urceolate, 
with five unequal teeth. Corolla funneTshaped, with 
five unequal lobes. Stamina five, unequal. Pistil 
oval, stile filiform declinate, stigma obtuse. Capsule 
two celled, many seeded, operculate. 

Species H.niger — Viscid hairy, leaves clasping, 
lower oval oblong, acute, sinuate or undulate : flowers 
unilateral, sessile, calix with sharp teeth, corolla reti- 
culate, with rounded lobes. 

DESCRIPTION — Root biennial, fusiform, whitish. 
The whole plant glaucous, hairy, glutinous, lurid, and 
fetid. Stem one or two feet high, stiflf, round, branch- 
ed. Radical or first year leaves spread on the ground, 
oval or oblong, undulate, contorted, acute, sessile, 

sinuated hy large acute unequal teeth, nerve thick and 

256 EYOSCZAIXrUS. No. 52 

branched. Lower leaves of the stem similar, crowfled, 
alterne, clasping: upper leaves smaller^ narrower, 
nearly entire. 

Flowers forming unilateral rows on the branches, 
extra axillary and opposed to the leaves. Callx urceo- 


late with five short acute and stiff segments. Corolla 
irregular, funnel shaped, with five unequal, spreading, 
rounded and entire lobes, with acute sinuses: this co- 
rolla is of a dingy yellow, with a pretty net work of 
purple veins. Stamina inserted in the tube of the 
corolla; filaments filiform unequal; anthers oblong, 
large, yellow. Style slender, longer than stamina, 
with an obtuse stigma. Capsule rounded, invested 
by the calix, two celled, opening by a circular lid. 
Seeds numerous, unequal, small, oblong, brownish- 

LocALiTY — In the Northern and Eastern States 
' only, from Nova Scotia to Rhode Island, and extend- 
ingWest to New Yoi'k and Canada: very rare in Ohio 
and Pennsylvania; unknown in the South. It Is sup- 
posed to be a naturalized plant, being found merely 
near houses, roads, rubbish, in old fields and gardens. 
It is properly an European plant, scattered all over 
Europe and extending to Asia. 

HISTORY — This genus belongs to the natural order 
of LuRiDEs, and family VerbascideSf having irregular 
corolla or stamina, and capsular fruits. Also to Pe?i- 
tandria monogynta of Linnaeus. 

It was known to the ancients as a violent narcotic 
poison; horses, cattle, deer and s'wine eat it with im- 
punity, but it poisons rats. The appearance is lurid, 
the smell offensive and disgusting: there is therefore 


Ko. 52. KTOSCIAMUS. S57 

little danger of using it inadvertantly. The whole 
plant, roots and leaves, produce the usual effects of 
narcotics. It blossoms in June and July. The seeds 
are said to have the property of keeping long under 
ground, and germinating w^henever brought to light. 
Qualities — The taste is insipid, slightly acrid and 
mucilaginous; but the smell is virose, rank, strong, 
fetid, pernicious and narcotic, which, however, is lost 
by exsiccation : when burnt it smells like Tobacco. 
It contains resin, mucilage, extractive, gallic acid, 
nitrates and other salts, besides Hyosciam an alka- 
line and crystalline active principle, which does not 
decompose by red heat. Yet decoction is said to de- 
stroy the narcotic power of this plant, water and di- 
luted alcohol extract it. 

PROPERTIES — Narcotic, phantastic, phrenetic, 
anodyne, antispasmodic, repellent, discutient, &c. 
Tiie whole plant ma v J>e used; butjhe seeds contain 
more Hyosciam. Externally the bruised leaves are 
employed in cataplasm or an ointment made of them : 
while internally the extract and tincture are chiefly 
used. The extract ought to be made with the inspis- 
sated juice without boiling, the doses are from one to 
ten o^rains. This plawt operates as a powerful narcotic, 
andlf taken in large doses, it produces drowsiness, 
intense thirst, anxiety, head ache, irregular hard pulse, 
vertigo, intoxication, delirium, dilatation of the pupil, 
difficulty of breathing, aphonia, trismus, coma, a fall- 
ing sensation, risus sardonicus, double vision or blind- 
ness, convulsions, apoplexy, loss of speech, cold ex- 
tremities, blue face, typhomania, carphologla, gan- 


S53 H70SCXAIKEUS, No. 52, 

grene, and death. A single dose of one grain has 

even produced delirium in nervous persons. The root 

having been mistaken and eaten for Parsnip, has caused 

many of these alarming symptoms : the remedies are 

vegetable acids, sulphate of iron, &c. which neutralize 

the poison, and emetics which discharge it. 

The internal use of this poison has been recom- 
mended in epilepsy, hemoptysis, colica pictorum, 

rheumatism, hysteria, mania, melancholy, trismus, 
palpitations, spasms, arthritis, glandular swellings, 
obstinate ulcerations, asthma, spasmodic coughs, tic 
douleureux, &c, by many physicians, and deemed a 
good substitute to opium and stramonium in most 
cases ; but it is not so safe nor certain, and far less 
uniform In its operation: the smallest doses are apt to 
produce nausea, head ache, laborious sleep, confusion 
of ideas and even delirium* The stomach is inflamed 
and evinces dark gangrpnmi's spots when death follows 
overdoses, therefore i?"must be considered as one of 
the most dangerous narcotics. It ought to be handled 
by experienced physicians only, and always begun by 
minute doses gradually increased. It may be prefer- 
able to opium in some cases, as it is rather laxative 
than constipating, and does not stimulate the body. 
It has often failed in epilepsy and convulsions. It acts 
better in spasmodic coughs, the leaves are directed to 
be simmered in olive or almond oil, and the oil used 
in emulsions. It is highly praised in Tic united to 
Valerian and Oxide of Zinc. It has been found useful 
m some puerperal complaints, &c. 

The external use of Henbane is more safe, and equal 

No. 52. B70SCXAAIUS. £59 

to that of Stramonium. It may be safely employed 
in painful swellings, schirrous or scrofulous or can- 
cerous ulcers, inflamed piles, indolent tumcys or milk 
indurations of the breast, wandering rheumatic pains, 
inflamed eyes, spasms of the bowels ; inflammation of 
the kidneys, urethra, bowels, testicles, Sic; in chordee, 
blind piles, and all painful external affections, as a 
very efficient topical anodyne. The fresh or powder- 
ed leaves are used as well as poultices with bread and 
milk, or liniments in wax and oil. Injections of it 
for bowel complaints ought to be given in decoction 
of milk. The extract has been used to prepare for 
ophthalmic operations, by dilating the pupil, contract- 
ino- the iris and diminishing sensibility. The smoke 
of the leaves and seeds, directed by a funnel to a cari- , 
ous tooth, is said to cure odontalgy ; but the practice 
may be deleterious and attended with danger. 

Substitutes — Datura Stra?nojuum — Jltropa 
belladonna— Solanum Sp.—Conium — Cicuta- 

Tobacco, Opium and other powerful narcotics. The 
Hyosciamus alius of Europe is a milder equivalent, 
n« well as Humulus or hops. 

h - 





For the sake of brevity, several details had been omitted: and 
during the process of the work, many additional facts have been 
evolved or procured: some of which are of sufficient importajice 
to be added, and will be conveniently blended with casual cor- 
rections. -- ^ 

Some plants -might be looked for in this first volume which 
will be foui^ in the second, such for instance are Chimaphila and 
Gyromiay restored to Fvrola and Medeola. 

Other Medical Ppoperties. 

Abortive, producing abortion. 
Anti-emetic, preventing nausea and emesis. 
Antilacteai*, draining the milk in the breast. 
Bechic, serviceable against cough. 
Cosmetic, softening the skin. 
EccoPROTic, remedy for the gout. 

Herpetic, against ring-worms, &;c. 

Lacteal, promoting the lacteal secrethn. 

Officinal, medical substances in general kepi m pharmacit*. 

Otheh Works Consulted. 

A LIBERT, Ma! fere Medicale, Park 

Catesby, Animals and plants of Carolina, kc. %. 

Dancer, Medical assistant, and Med. plants of Jamaica. 

Kingston, 1801. 

DtrxcAx read Dyckman. 
EsaRLE, Materia Medica. Phil, 1S24, 2 Vol, 
Fleming, Medicinal plants of Bengal and Hindostnn. Cal- 
cutta. 1810. ^ 



Medical Plants. 

No. 1. AcoRUs Calamus — It contains also fecula anJ extrac-^ 
live; decoction destroys its activity: much employed in the East 
Indies in infusion for the bowel complaints of children. 

2. Adianthum Pedatum — Also corroborant and diuretiCs 
useful in obstructions. The Jl, trapeziforme is its substitute in 
the West Indies, a pectoral syrup is made from it, 

3. Agrimoxia EirPAToKiA — The roots and whole plant boil- 
ed in milk are used by herbalists far diabetes and incontinence of 
urine. One of their remedy for the tape-worm is Agrimony tea, 
with alum and honey. The roots are said to bo more astringent 
than the leaves, the Indians use them in fevers, and some empi- 
rics for jaundice with honey. It is said also to be^iuretic and 
vulnerary, * . 

4. Aletris Farinosa — Another vulgar name is Black root, 

* ■ 

and Himili one of its Indian names implies the same. It is a 
powerful and dangerous substance, drastic even in small doses, 
larger ones produce vertigo and bloody stools: it is also consider- 
ed abortive by the Indians. 

5. Ajvdromeda Arborea — This tree indicated a poor soil, 
the Indians make arrows with the wood and- smoke the leaves a^* 
Shumac and Tobacco, They also, use the leaves for dropsy in 
cold decoction maixt with Prunus Virginiana. 

€, Anthemis Cotula— Other names, Wild Camomile, Piss- 
weed, &c. The essential oil is bluish as that of Camomile. It 
contains also resin, extracthe and aniarine; boiling dissipates the 
active principles. The flowers and the disk florets particularly, 
are most active; they are impaired by keeping. A weak or cold 
infusion is anti-emetic, while a strong or warm one is emetic. 
They are sometimes used as an ext^srnal diseutient, and are bene- 
ficial in injections for dysentery, spasmodic th^cflics, kc, 

7. Apocynum zVndrosemifolium — There are several varie- 
ties of this plant. 1. Acutifolium, 2. Acuminatum, 3. OhHtsifo" 
Hum, leaves nearly elliptic, 4, Roseum^ &c. The milk of this plant 
13 acrid; when dried, it forms a kind of gum elastic, very intiam- 
mable. It bears also tha vulgar name of Snake's milk, and is 
called Ilovatte in Canada and Louisiana like Aschpias. The 
roots are creeping: the bark of these roots is the only active part, 


beinsr two thirds in welj^ht .of the whole. This hark is soluble in 
water and alcohol; as a tonic the dose is fifteen to twenty grains, 
as an emetic thirty to forty, it acts like Ipecac without inducing 
vertigo. It Is also employed as a cathartic, to purge the bile, and 
cure costivencss. ZollickotVer has used it in acute rheuniafismj 
pneumonia, and phrenitis, after cathartics, as an efficient diapho- 
retic, in doses often grains. Some Empirics use it in hemoptysis 
without adequate care. 

8. Arai-ia Nudicaulis— All t^ie species of Jralia bear also 
in New England the names of Life-of-man, Pettymorel, Pigeon 
weed, &c. and the A. spinosa Shot bush. They act sometimes as 
a tonic in a reUixed state of the stomach, debility ond loss of ap- 
petite; a decoction is used for a kind of eresypclas called Shingles. 
The roots arc also nutrient, carminative and vulnerary: the In- 
dians cat them in their war expeditions: a kind of beer can be 
niadc-A\ith them. The berries give a fme flavor to beer^ and a 
wine similar to Elder wine can he made with them. The fresh 
roots and leaves chewed and applied to wounds, heal them 
speedilji; Dr. Sp. informed me that he was once cured by them 
alone of a desperate accidental wound by a broad ax. Zollick- 
offer has erroneously blended the A. spinosa with Xanthoxylunu 

9. AaEUTUs UvA-URsi— Other vulgar names, Wortlebcrry, 
Foxberry, Checkerberry, &c. This plant often die>i the urine 
black; the berries are sometimes eaten in milk like those of the 
Vaccht.'U7n gennsi, they are aromatic and diuretic. 

10. AitisTOLOCHiA SERPK:vrARiA — Hiis" becii used also in 
all bilious disorders and fevers with advantage: it -^ anti-emetic 
in cold infusion. In dyspepsia it is only useful when the disease 
is not inflammatory. In the Wcdt Indies the .4". odorata is cm- 
ployed as a substitute, Jind in the East Indies the JI. iiidica, which 
are"^more bitter and also cathartic'. The Cor-uouiais stated to 
have been sold frauduiously for Snake root: much of this article 
k ' 'n stores is worthless, being old or badiy dried. 

11. Arum TRiPHVLi^trM— The root is not inert when dry, and 
even the powder is used by Empirics with honey for coughs, &c. 
Dr. Mease recommends it for asthma, croup and whooping cough, 
grateu m milk; it is said to promote the Bow of mucus. It has 
been used in mania: it is said to kill snakes. The Imlians nse it 
for coughs with Spikenard or Jraiia, and for fevers with Snake- 

264 , 

roots and Primus, Burson and Eberle prescribe it for chronic 
asthma and catarrh, aphthous sore throat, rheumatism, tinea 
capitis, tetters, &c. in consumption it is only a palliative, lesseninjCf 
the cough and djspnea. The dose of the powder is from twelve 
to forty grains; an electuary or emulsion are convenient forms. 
An ointment is made for external use in rheumatism, tinea, &c. 
The seeds appear to have all the properties of the root with 
double the strength, and being less liable to lose their activity, 
ou^ht to become the officinal substitute in half doses. The vulgar 
names of Wake robin and Devil's nip are also given to this plant. 
The ja. sequinmn or Dumb Cane of Brazil and the West Indies is 
used for the yaws, dropsy and gout, for which our Arums might 
b" perhaps substH\ited. 

12. AsAKUM Cakadense — ^Varieties, 1. Macrophyllum, 2, 
Ptimilum, 3. Jic%tifolium, I have lately seen this Var. with acute 
leaves in the Taconick mountains. The Westein Indians use it as a 
styptic for wounds, and an abortive also. A large dose producer 
pyrosis and water brash, besides nausea. It may be combined 

with tonics to advantage* 

13. Asci^EPiAsTuBEROSA— Varieties, 1. Frealta, 2. Decum- 
hens, 3. Undulata, 4. JlngustifoUa, &c. The Southern Indians 
employ it in dysentery, dropsy and asthma, also as an emetic in 
large doses, and they use the powder externally in venereal chan- 
cres as well as fungous ulcers. They make a kind of hemp with 
the stem, like that of j3- dehiUs and Apoeyntim cannabinum, and 
use it for strings to bows. The silk makes better wicks for can- 
dles than cotton- The ^. asthmatica of the East Indies, and 
A. cusassavica of the West Indies, are emetic also and used in 
clysters for dysentery and piles. Meaae says that oiu: A, tuberosa 

18 a safe and powerful diuretic. Burson extols it in Marasmus or 
Atrophy, Cholera Infantum, and diseases attending the dentition 
of infants as a mild cathartic destitute of smell and taste, he pre- 
scribes to unite it with aromatics. A. Ives considers it equivalent 
to Sanguinariaj but milder and leasoertain. Eberle, ZoIIickoffer, 
Hopkins, &c. confirm the valuable properties of this plant; yet it 
la only a palliative in Phthisis. The A. incarnata has been no- 
ticed by Tuliy and Anderson in a thesis as a useful emetic and ca- 
thartic. The A. syriaca has lately J)een employed as an anodyne 
m asthma, and a powerful diuretic in dropsy, Ives states many 



euros performed in New York, but it faib sometimes and relapses 
often happen. The A, serpentaria of Louisiana, is used by In- 
dians agahist snakes. 

14. BaVtisia Tinctoria — Useful against painful swellings in 

fomentations, and emploped against snake bites by the northern 

15. Berberis Canadensis — Other names Pipperidge bush 
and Sourberry. In the north the berries are pickled. A tea of 
the bark is used for indigettion, and an infusion in wine as purga- 
tive. The root and bark with alum or lye produce a beautiful 
yellow dye for leather and cloth. • 

16. BoTRopfus Seepknxaria — It "has been found to be nar- 
cotic, nervine and tonic. A full dose produces nausea, vertigo, 
anxiety, pains, I'estlessness, uneasiness, dilatation of pupil, quick 
small pulse, &c. These eflects are hnmediate hut transitory. It 
has been used as a substitute to Digitalis and Lycopus in alarm- 
ing symptoms of pulmonary phthisis, and with some success; it 
imparts tone to the system and lessens arterial action: the tinc- 
ture, infusion and powder have been iised, 

17. Brasenia Hydropeltis — It extends to some parts of 

New Englend and New York. Substitute of Hepatica. 

18. Cassia Marilandica' — It might be tried as a substitute 
of the C, herpetica or Ringworm bush of the West Indies, used ia 
baths and fomentations against herpetic eruptions. The (7. ocei-- 
dent alls of Florida and South America has a diuretic root, the 
juice is used against itch and yaws. The C chamecrista is be- 
lieved to be a counterpoison of the Nightshade in Jamaica. The 
seeds of the C. ciliata of Louisiana are used as a substitute for 


19. Caulophyllum Thalictroides. 

20. Cephalanthvs Occioentalis — Also called Button 


21. Chenopodium Anthelminthicum:— Not perennial as 
stated, but annual. It is said to extend to Mexico and South 
America. It is antispasmodic like Ck, oMum, useM in hysteria, 
and a tolerable substitute for Assafetida. Called sometimes Sow- 
bank in New England. 

22. CicuTA Maculata— It probably contains the Coneine. 
Preferred to Conium in practice by some physicians as safer and 


less liable io lose its activity. The powder of the leaves gathered 
when the seeds ^re i-ipe, and dried in the shade is the best exhibi- 
tion. Large doses produce vertigo, cardialgy? coma and even 


23. CoLi:.iNSojN-iA Caxahensis — Sometimes called Horse - 
balm in the north. The C. aiiisata is called Anise-root in the 
West and used for flatulency. 

24. CoMPTONiA Asp]LE]vrFoi-iA — Other names Meadow fern 
and Astringent root. The root is styptic, and the Indians chew 
it for hemoptysis: they make a tea of the leaves for female com- 
plaints. The Herbalist, Wliitlow, employs it for scrofula in his 
vapour batlis- Othev hcrbali ' - use the buds, blossoms or leaves 
simmered in cream ov butter for the itch and sores. A syrup is 
also made with it, 


25. CoNitTM MACTjLATtTM — Beneficial in internal ulcerations, 
scrophulous, malignant and sanious ulcers. Lepra and Elephan- 
tiasis, Mania, &c. It ought to be taken in sufKcient doses to 

produce vertigo- 

26. CoKvoLVUi.i7S Paivdur ATus — It is said that hogs eat the 

roots, and that Indians will handle snakes after washing their 
hands with the juice. The C. brasiliensls of South America is 
employed in decoction for dropsy, 

27. CoPTis Trifolia — Ives and otljers appear to doubt the 
assertion of Bigelow that it is inert in sore mouth: it is yet li.^ed 
extensively and alone for it and sore tliroat. It is also good for 
sore eyes like Hydrastis, of which it appears equivalent. 

2?. CoRjyus Florida — Called sometimes Bitter Redberry. It 
ought never to be taken fiesh, because it affects the bowels in 
that state: it is beneficial in debility of the stomach and less of 
appetite. The Southern Indians use it in poultice for sores. The 
C*. paniculaia is also another equivalent, and perhaps all our 
Cornels are such. 

29. CuiviLA Mariana — A good substitute to Mentha piperita 
in cholera morbus, useful in relaxed stomach and bowels: it is also 
carmmative, employed in fiatulency, and to allay nausea. Th© 
Southern Indians es;eem it highly for colds, coughs, fevers, &c.: 
they smoke and chew the leav- . ^., a fragrant substitute to To- 
bacco; it would be well to imitate them. Rabbits are said to feed 
on it. 


30. CypRiPEDiuM LuTEUM — Tho flowers of this fine geaus 

are favorites with the Indian women to deck their hair. I have 
been informed that in Onondaga and other western counties of 
New York, several physicians rely upon a decoction of the roots 
of C, spectubile as a valuable antispasmodic, which proves an 
cffjctual remedy in "many cases when the common. medicines have 
failed : doses a table spoonful of the decoction made by two ounces 
of the root in a pint of water. 

31. Datura Stramonixjm — Found also in the West Indies. 
The leaves applied to the head cure the head ache, and applied 
to the joints they relieve the gout. A tincture of the seeds is 
said to be preferable to Laudanum for convulsions, &c. and the 
extract by far superior to that of Conium. 

32. DiospYRos ViRGiNiANA — One of the remedies used by 
herbalists for the dysentery, is a syrup made with this, united to 
PrunuSy Rumex and Rhubarb. 

.33. DiRCA Palustris — Also called Poisonberry. 


34. Erigeron Philabelphicum. 

35. Erithrokium Flavum. 

36. Eupatorittm Perfoliatum. 

37. Euphorbia Corollata — Used by the Southern Indian* 

in fevers and bowel complaints. 

38. Fragaria Vesca. 

39. Frasera Vkticillato— Found also West of the Missis- 
sippi in the great plain of Arkansas, Missouri, &c. It is a favour- 
ite remedy of the Southern Indians with Prunus and Snake routs 
for fevers, debility, &c. also in female complaints, and for chil- 
dren to strengthen them while using anthelmintics. 

40. Gautiera rfpens — The Southern Indians are said to 
esteem this plant highly, and to use it even in fevers and breast 
complaints, although too stimulant; but it is useful in cough and 
catarrh. The oil of this plant has a powerful smell, very fragrant, 
and yet approximating to Noyau : does it contain an atom of prus- 

-^ic acid ? 

41. Gextiana CATESBEi—Pursh' considers the G-villosa^s 

identic with G, ochr oleiica. 

42. Geranium Maculatum. 

43. Geum Virgi>icum, 

44. GiLLENiA Stipueacea — Found also west of the Missis- 


^ppi, and used by the Indians as a valuable emetic and sudorific 
in fevers, bowel complaints, &c. ■ 

45. Hamamelis ViRGijfficA — Called Shemba by the Osage 
Indian?, and used for ulcers, tumors, sores, &c, in poultice. 



47. Helenium Autumnale 
4S, Hepatica Triloba. 

49. Heuchera Acerifolia. 

50. hu3iulu8 lupulus. 

51. Hydrastis CAXADE^fsis. 

52. Hyosciamus Niger. 


The second volume shall follow this in a few months, and con- 
tain from fifty to sixty plates and articles, many of which, upon 
medical Genera either new or omitted by Bigelow and Barton; 
<iuch as 







Scrophularia, Trillium, 

^elumdium, Pterospora, 




Viburnum y 
VitiSy &c. 

The last article including a monography of the North American 
Grape Vines, and the work concluding by a general table of all 
the Equivalents, with additional details. 






or THE 

ME Die Ali 











lajits are compound M^dicineSf prepared by the haruh of 

Nature, SfC, — 3Ied. Princ. 31, 

BY C. S. RAPINESftUE, A- M,— PH. D. 

Ex-Prof, of Botany, NE^turafHist'ory, &:c. in Transylv, University of Lex- 
ington, the Franklin Institute of PhiJadelphia, «fcc. 

MeTTiber of the Medical Societies of Cincinnati and Lejcijigton — tJie 
Philos. Soc, and Lyceum of New York—the Acad, of Nat. &. of 
Philadelphia — the Amer, Antiq. Society — the Kentucky Institute — the 
Linnean Soc. of Paris — the Imp. Nat. Cur. Soc. of Bonn. — the Imp. Eco- 
nomical Soc. of Vienna^the R, Italian Inst.—the R. Inst, of Nat. Sc. of 
Naples, 4*^- ^c. 



No. 112, Chesnut Street. 



-Eastern Biatrjft of P^efifisyifvaniaf to wit: 

BE IT REMEiVlBERED, th^ on the eleventh day of January, in the 
fifty-second year of ^the Infiepenaefcce of the United States of America, 
A. D. 1828, Atkinson aad AIe:5ander of the said district hath deposited in 
this office the Title of a Bookj'^e^rignt whereof ihey claim as Proprie- 
tors, in the words following-, to wit : 

Medical Flora; or Manual of thXM^caJ. Botany of the United States 
of N. America. Containing a seleAidfi of Above one hundred figures and 
descriptions of medical plants^with their names, qualities, properties, his- 

and notes or remarks on nearly five hundred equivalent sub- 
In two volumes. > * 

Volume the first, A H. with fifty-two PJjt^. 

Medical Plants are compound medicines prftparediy the hands of Nature, &c. 

*- ir r f^ Med.Princ.ZU 

By C. S. Rafinesaue, A. M.— Ph. D. Ex-Pfof. oLBolany, Natural His- 
tory, &c. in Transylv. University of Lexington, tffer Franklin Institute of 
Philadelphia, &c. Member of the Medical SofiefSes^ of Cincinnati and 
Lexington — the Philos. Soc. and Lyceum of iSew York — the Acad, of 
Nat. Sc. of Philadelphia — the Amer. Antiq. Society .-*the Kentucky In- 
stitute — the Linnean Soc, of Paris — the Imp. Nat. Cur. S8c^ of Bonn. — 
the Imp. Economical Soc. of Vienna — the R. Italian Icst^the R. Inst. 
of Nat. Sc. of Naples, &c. &c. &, , 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, ^milled, 
*' An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing th^opies of 
Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors ot such "copies, 
dunng the times therein mentioned." And also to the act, e^tided, An 
Act supplementary to an Act, entitled "An Act for the Encouragement of 
Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the au- 
thors ana proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned," 
and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, 
and etching historical and other prints." 


Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

Russell & Martien, 



1- After some delay arising from various causes, I 
have the pleasure to present to the public the second 

and last Volume of my Medical Flora of the United 


2. It will be seen that although this second Volume 

has assumed somewhat a different shape, it has lost 

nothing by the change, but rather improved in matter and 

3. The plan closely pursued in the first Volume was 
that of Bigelow and Barton, with the improvements of 
alphabetical order, separation and condensation of facts. 
This plan was by no means the best, and limited very 
much the number of medical selections. 

4. If I had pursued the same plan throughout, it was 
my intention to have added afterwards a third Volume 
or Supplement, including all the Medical plants omitted 
by this mode, with tables of Equivalents and other need- 
ful elucidations. 

5. By a trifling change effected in this Volume, I have 
been enabled to comprise these additional Plants and re- 
marks without further extension of the work. 

6. If I had followed my own inclinations at the out- 
set, I might have included all our Medical plants in a 
single thick Volume, and all the Figures in another Vo- 
lume by itself, so as to answer still better the purpose of 

7. To render this Volume adequate to answer the 
desirable purpose, it has been divided in two parts, the 
first of which contains the selected Articles and Plants 
that belong to the plan of the first Volume. 

8. While the second part shall include several other 
selected plants and figures, united to a general account of 
all our Medical plants and Equivalents, forming a second 


alphabetical series. Whereby this Volume majr become a 
work by itself, or a kind of Lexicon of our Medical Plants. 

9. This Lexicon will include the whole of our actual 
acquired knowledge on such useful plants, by blending 
the officinal details of Schoepf and the early writers, with 
those of the latter observers, besides many new and un- 
published facts collected by myself during many years of 
botanical and medical researches. 

10. I hope thereby to satisfy the wishes of those, who 
have so well received the first volume, notwithstanding 
its limited character, and have repeatedly urged me to 

complete this work- 

11. A list of our Medical equivalents was only promi- 
sed by me and expected by them ; but I have done more, 
and united together all our Medical plants, thus to be kept 
all in view, that by future experiments, their respective 
medical value may be further ascertained. 

12. It is a sad mistake of some Physicians to consider 
the increase of officinal tools as an evil. The lazy pro- 
pensity that would reduce our stock of remedies to a few 
well known plants, is to be deplored as rendering the 
science stationary and lessening our resources. 

13. A very different course is pursued by active and 
zealous investigators of medical properties; they enlarge 
our circle of usefulness, increase our medical means, in- 
dicate all the available substitutes, and ascertain the best 
equivalents in specific cases. 

14* In Europe they extend their researches to all the 

parts of the globe. The Society of Pharmacy of Paris 

has published a monthly journal since 1812, in which are 
found numberless discoveries and Analyses of medical 

plants from all the parts of the world. 

15. In London a Medico-Botanical Society has been es^ 
tabUshed, whose object is chiefly to ascertain the medical 
Properties of all the plants, and to send to the most re- 
mote regions in search of medical substances and equiva- 

16. It is therefore our duty at least to study our own, 
and to increase rather than diminish our actual know- 
ledge. Many of our medical substances are hardly known 
as yet, and require careful investigation; others will be 
discovered perhaps when inquiries and researches shall 
not be discouraged by lazy teacher^^ 


17. Thus we shall furnish our share towards a great 
work not yet undertaken, although greatly needed, a 
General and Comparative Account of all the Medical Plants 
of the whole globe, for which the Medical Floras of Europe, 
Hindostan, Brazil, West Indies, and the United States, 
begin to offer the materials. 

18. All our numberless officinal works on Materia 
Medica, are as yet mere rude or partial attempts of this 
kind. Not one has ever mentioned one tenth of the plants 
in actual usej the authors confining themselves to the 
narrow circle of their own experience or knowledge. 

19. During the period that has elapsed since the pub- 
lication of the first volume, I have been able to consult 
many additional works and authors, and thus availed 
myself of their help. A list of them will follow this in- 

20. I have received considerable assistance in that way 
from some public Libraries, such as those of the Philoso- 
phical Society of Philadelphia, and the Lyceum of Nat. 
History of New York for instance, and also from the 
Medical Library of my friend Dr. S. Betton of German- 

21. In Bartram's Botanical Garden near Philadelphia, 
now owned by Colonel Carr, which is the oldest and best 
of the kind in the United States, and particularly rich in 
native plants, I have met with the most liberal assistance, 
from the worthy owner. 

22. By these various means the practical value of this 
work has been increased; the first volume was well re- 
ceived, notwithstanding its limited range, and adopted as 
a text book in some Medical Institutions. I trust that 
this volume will be found still more practical and useful. 

23. The number of plates will amount to 100 as pro- 
mised, but including 106 figures. A few of the figures 
of Bigelow and Barton belonging to well known plants 
may be omitted, but the number of those rrot figured by 
them will be increased, amounting to 32 in this volume, 
while only 14 were in the first 

24. It might have been well if I had omitted the 
figures of the Dogwood, Persimon, and Hops in the first 
volume, being so well known to almost every body, and I 

will accordingly omit in this the Poke, Tobacco, TuHp- 

A 2 


tree. Sassafras, Blackberrj, &c. so ^yell known without 
this help. 

25. The other deviations from the previous plan will 
be easily perceived. None of them are very materiaU 
The chief aim has been to reduce the extent of the 
leading articles and to increase the indications. 

26. If the proposed extent of this volume allows of 
sufficient space, several useful tables will be added to it, 
with some Botanical Supplements. One of the additions 
will be an account of sucn doubtful medical plants as are 
only known as yet by their Indian or vulgar 

2r. The labour required to complete this work, in 
such enlarged and improved style has been great; but I 
trust to have fulfilled by it one of the aims in view, the 
production of a complete and correct practical work. 

Philadelphia, May, 1830. C. S. R. 


Agardh, Classes and Ordines Plantar, Lond. 1822. 
AiNSLiE, Materia Medica of the Hindoos. 
Annals of New York Lyceum, 1820 to 28- • 
Castiglioxe, Travels in the U. States, Milan, 178£ 



come almost a general Flora of the United States, but 
many omissions yet. 

Gameold, Medical Plants of the Cherokis. 

HiLAiRE, Medical Plants of Brazilj^'aris. 

JosSELYN, Early account of New England - 

Journal de Pharmacie, Paris, 1812 to 1830. 

Leconte, Monographies of Viola, Ruellia, &c. 

LoDDiGEs,^ Figures of Plants. 

Long, James and Keating, Travels in the U. States. 

Loudon, Encyclopedia of Plants, London, 1829. 

LuNAN, Hortus Jamaicensis, 1814. 

Schoolcraft, Travels in the United States. 
SiLLiMAK, American Jour. Sciences 1818 to 1830- 
TouRTELLE, Principles of Health. 
lANNER, Narrative and Indian plants. 
Ware and WiLLrAMs. Planfa nf i?]or,M« 





English Name^ American Holly. French Name^ Houx. 

Classification^ Nat. Order of Rliamnides. Tetran- 
dria tetragynia of Linnaeus. 

Genus Ilex. Calix minute, 4 or 5 toothed, corolla rotate 
4 or 5 parted. One ovary, 4 sestile stigmas, 4 or 5 sta- 
mina, opposed to the corolla. Berry one celled, four seed- 
ed. Shrubs or trees, leaves alternate. 

Sp- Ilex opaca. Leaves oval lanceolate, acute at both 
ends, evergreen, shining, spinose-dentate j fascicles of 
flowers loose on the young branches, peduncles com- 

DESCRIPTION. Atree from 10 to 40 feet high, small 
in the North, larger in the South: with handsome ever- 
green leaves, forming a compact foliage with spinose 
teeth, on short petioles, oval or oval -lanceolate, both 
ends sharp, texture firm. The flowers are small yellow- 
ish white, in small fascides on the small branches. The 
berries are scarlet, round and handsome. 

HISTORY. The Genus Ilex of Linnaeus contains 
many heterogeneous species, some are polygamous or 
dioical, have 1, 2 or 4 stigmas, a cell or 4 cells in the 
berry, a corolla or none, &c. It requires to be re- 
modelled. As early as 1817 I separated the Ilex Cana- 
densis^ calling it Nemopanthus^ wnich has dioical flow- 
ers, calix 5 leaved, 5 stamina, alternate, no corolla, one 
stigma capitate, 4 lobed, berry 4 celled 4 seeded, &c. 
The Ilex ohcordata has a single entire stigma- The 

8 ILEX. No. 53. 

Genera Pal^ria and Macucua united to it, are also dis- 
tinct. The llesc Casque ovVomitoria must form apar- 
ticuliar genus, jf it ha§ th^ corolla 4 lobed, the stamina 

alternate to itj^i^tta 4 celled berr^ as Elliot says: I pro- 
pose to call it Hierophyllus dtissine. 

Our Hex opaca wal* formerly bonded with the L aqui- 
folium of Europe, Alton separated it, although hardly 
different. It is however a larger fre^e in the Southern 
States, w^ith leaves less undulate,^ with fewer and smaller 
teeth, and the berries not on the oIH branches. I have 
however seen varieties connecting botll^-^ndPersoon says 
that the I. aquifolium grows also in Virgmi^ The /. 
opaca is found from Long Island to Elorida^^^hiefly on 
the Alluvial Region. The berries remain oS th^tree 
throughout the winter, and form a fine contrast with the 
deep green leaves. It blossoms in May. It is intro- 
duced in gardens as ornamental, and forms fine hedges. 
The bark of the branches is very viscid, and produces 
the best bird lime by boiling: it contains gum, wax, a 
yellow resin, many salts, &c. 

The figure 53 represents the variety 1- Macrodon^ 
with remote large teeth, very near to /. aquifolium^ if not 
the same. Other varieties noticed by me were 2. Latifo- 
Ha with broad ovate leaves with rounded base, and small 
teeth. 3. Acuminata, with narrow and very sharp leaves 
&c- 4. Globosa^ small, with a globose foliage, &c. 

PROPERTIES. Those of 7. aquifolium and / opaca 
appear to be the same. The root, bark, leaves, and berries 
are used. They are mucilaginous and a little bitter, par- 
ticularly the berries, which are reckoned resolvent, pec- 
toral, demulcent, and laxative. The decoction and wine 
has been used for coughs, pleurisy, colics, constipation, 
fever, gout, rheumatism, &c- and externally as a cata- 

filasm in tumours. Their juice also in jaundice. The 
eaves have the same but weaker effects. The bark gives 

a fine bitter mucilage, useful in fever, diabetes, and an 
external application in ffout. Kalm says the leaves 
boiled in small beer cure pleurisy. 

The Nemopanthus farcicularis or Hex cayiadensiSy 
found in the Alleghany Mountains and Canada, has per- 
haps some of the same properties, since the bark is also 
employed for bird lime, and the wood by turners, &c. 

No. 54. ILLICIUM. 9 

Among the Southern species, two, spread from North 
Carolina to Louisiana near tRe sea shore, are chiefly used 
1. Ilex Cassine of Michaux (my Hierophyllus) wrongly 
called L vomiioria by Lin. who gave the tiame of /• cas- 
sena to the 2d species, or /. Sahoon of Michaux, Walter, 
Elliot, &c. Both are evergreen shrubs, called Cassena^ 
Yapoon^ and Dahoon by the Indians. The true Cassena 
is reckoned a holy plant by many southern tribes, being 
used in their religious rites and solemn councils to clear 
tlie stomach and the head by emesis and diuresis. Wo- 
men are forbid .to use it* It is collected with care, and 
forms an article of trade among tribes. They often tor- 
rify slightly the leaves before using them. They are 
inodorous, taste subaromatic and fervid, useful in foul 
stomach, fevers, diabetes, smallpox, &:c. as a mild emetic; 
but the Indians' Black Drink is a strong decoction of it, 
and a violent, although harmless vomitive. In North 
Carolina, the inhabitants of the sea side swamps, having 
no good water to drink, purify it by boiling it with a 
little Cassena (perhaps Viburnum Cassinvides,) and use 
it constantly warm, as the Chinese do their daily tea 

The Dahoon is used as a substitute to the Cassena, and 
many other shrubs appear to be used indiscriminately for 
making the Black Drink, the C«55fnc ramulosa of the Flora 
of Louisiana for instance; which is a true Cassine of lAn* 
Genus distinguished from Hex by five petals, threestyles, 
and a three seeded berry- They are all powerful diure- 



Names. Florida Anisetree. /V. Badiane de la Florlde. 
Vulgar. Staranise, Sweet Laurel. 
Classijtcalion. Nat. Order of Magnolides. Polyandria 

polygynia L. 

Genus Ilucium. Calix 61eaved. Corolla 7 to 27 petals. 
Many stamina^ and pistils. Capsules ranged like a star 
around a central receptacle, bivalve, one seeded* 

10 ILLICIUM. No. 54, 

Sp. lllicium floridannm. Leaves subverticillate, sub- 
sessile, broad lanceolate, acuminate, entire, evergreen. 
Flowers geminate, nodding. Petals many, oblong, obtuse. 

DESCRIPTION. A handsome large evergreen, 10 to 
20 feet high, with fine purple flowers, similar to those of 
Calycanthus. The leaves grow in tufts or whorls three 
or four together, are similar to those of Kalmia, but sharp- 
er. The calyx is deciduous, shorter than the corolla, 
which has many (20 to 27) petals, oblong, linear or cu- 
neatej distorted, obtuse. The pistils form a kind of yel- 
low star in the centre- 

HISTORY. This Genus is nearly related to Magnolia 
and Liriodendron. Two species, are both found in 
Florida, equally fragrant in all their parts, like the /. 
anisatum of China. Their fragrance is however dif- 
ferent; the Asiatic species smell like Aniseed, the L 
floridanum somewhat between Coriander and Magnolia, 
and the /. parviflorum exactly like Sassafras. This last 
is distinguished by small yellow flowers with few (7 to 9) 
round petals, and the leaves alternate. Both grow in 
East and West Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. They 
are worthy of cultivation for beauty and use, but demand 
the shelter of a green house in winter north of Virginia. 
Their bark and seeds ought to be collected for an article 

of trade. 

PROPERTIES. The Bark of/, floridanum is bitter, 

fungent, and aromatic, with a spic;;?^ taste and smell. 
t is tonic, stimulant, and diaphoretic chiefly, like the 
barks of the Magnolias and of Cascarllla, to which \t is 
equivalent. Bigelowhas found in it mucilage, extractive, 
and an aroma soluble in the distilled water. The leaves 
and seeds have the same qualities. It may be substitu- 
ted for Cascarilla in some peculiar fevers, and for the 
Starry Anise of commerce, which the Chinese chew after 
dinner as a stomachic and sweetener of the breath. They 
mix it also as condiment in some dishes, in tea and sher- 
bet, besides burning it as a perfume and considering it as 
an antidote to various poisons. 

The /• parviflorum has the same properties, but par- 
takes also of the qualities of Sassafras, to which it may 

lately be SUbstitiifi^il aa a enrlnrifir nnrl nlfprafivp. 

No. 55. JEFFERSONIA. 11 


r -^ 

Names. Common Twinleaf. Fr, JeflFersone. Vulgar^ 
Yellow Root, Helmetpodj Ground Squirrel Pea 

Classify Nat. Order of Berberides, Octandria mono- 

gynia L. 

Genus JEFFERSONIA. Calyx 4 leaved, caducous, 

8 petals, 8 stamina opposed to the petals^ one pistil. 

Stigma sessile. Capsule obovate, substipitate, one celled, 

opening near the top by a transversal cutj top operculated. 

Seeds many, arillated, inserted on one side, opposite the 

fissure. Leaves all radical binate on long petioles. Scapes 


Only one species was known, but in 1820 I discover- 
ed the J. adorata in Kentucky, and in 1830, observed 
the/. /o6a/a in Carr's garden, near Philadelphia. Their 
habit and properties being identic, I include them all in 
this article, and give their specific differences. 

1. /. Bartoni^ Mx. Folioles pendulous, entire, ob- 
lique, acute. Scape subclavate, stigma fi)ur lobed, cap- 
sule angular behind. 

2. /. adorata^ ,Raf. Folioles pendulous, entire, ob- 
lique, acute. Scape filiform, stigma capitate, sessile, cap- 
sule oblong, obovate. Varieties — 1. Vndulata. Z. Par- 

vifolia. 3. Cespitosa. 

3. J. Lobata^ Raf. Folioles. erect, oblique, lobed on 
the outside, lobes acute, sinusses obtuse, petioles fistu- 
lose, cap'Sules compressed and short. From Georgia, 
the flowers are large and inodorous. 

DESCRIPTION oflhe S. bartoni. Root lai 
nial, yellow, multiform. Radical leaves on Fon^ erect 
petioles, binate or twin, wltl^two oblique folicles insert- 
ed on one side, each oval, acute, smooth. Scapes erect 
naked, thicker above, bearing one single flower,very much 
like that of Sanguinaria, wTiite, inodorous. Petals ob- 
long, lanceolate, obtuse, longer than the calyx. Anthers 
yelfow. Pod coriaceus, covered with a lid like a helmet, 

HISTORY. A very singular plant, mistaken by Lin- 
nseus for a Popdophylhim and called P. diphyllum^ dis- 
tinguished by Dr. 13. Barton, who dedicated it to the 

12 JUNIPERUS. No. 56. 

philosopher, naturalist, and Statesman, Jefferson. He 
called it binata, a name applying to all the species. 
Michaux gave it the actual name. It has since been 
wrongly united to the Nat. Order of Podophylacea*, but 
I ascertained in 1 820 that it belongs to Berberides, having 
the stamina equal, and opposed to the petals. It has a few 
varieties such as 1. Cespilosaj2. Grandiflora.^.Undulata^ 
4. Rosea^ &c. It is found from Virginia and Maryland to 
Ohio and Missouri, chiefly near streams and rivers; it 
appears to be unknown in Carolina, since Elliot has omit- 
ted it. By the singular leaves and seed-vessels, and the 
fragrant flowers of J. odorataj smelling like Narcissus 
jonquilla^ these plants deserve cultivation in gardens: 
they blossom early in April, and the flowers are very fu- 
gacious, lasting only a few days. The squirrels eat the 
seeds. The J. odorata is chiefly confined to the western 
states, Ohio, Kentucky,&c.,andthe/, /o&a/« to Carolina 
and Georgia. Their properties are alike. 

PROPERTIES. Similar to those of Hydrastis rather 
than Podophyllum^ of which Barton ascribes to the root 
the taste, smell, and properties. It is yellow like the Eye- 
root, but much larger, it tsains of a yellow colour, and 
might be used as a tinctorial root. It is bitterish, some- 
what pungent and nauseous, like Hydrastis and many 
other roots. It is not cathartic so far as I know. 
The Indians used this plant in Dropsy, and as a diure- 
tic The root alone is available. I have seen some 
weighing a pound: the shape is very variable, but fre- 
quently knobby. It is very efficacious as a topical to- 
nic in sore eyes and sore legs. Other properties little 
known as yet, but deserving investigation. 


Names, Common Juniper. Fr. Genievre commun. 

Classify Nat- Order of Coniferes. 
phia L- 

Genus Junipf.rus. Dioecious. Ament ovate, scales 
verticillate peltate, anthers three to eight, on a single 

Dieocia monadel- 

No. 56. JUNIPERUS. 13 

filament. Fertile filament, globose, three scales, coadu- 
nate, stigma gaping. Berry formed bj the united fleshj 
scales, inclosing one to three nuts. 

Sp, Juniperus communis, L. Shrubby erect, leaves 
alternate, spreading, linear, mucronate, shining above, 
glabrous beneath. Instead of giving the full description of 
this well known shrub, which the above, and the figure 
is amply sufficient to distinguish, I shall add the cha- 
racters of some other species, which possess similar 
qualities, and which I mean to include in this article. 

2. Sp. Juniperus depressa^ Raf. 1817. (/. com- 
munis Big. fig. 44.) Stems cespitose, depressed, spread- 
ing, decumbent. Leaves ternate, spreading, subulate, 
mucronate, with a white stripe above, convex beneath, 
as long as the berries: staminate, amentsternate, sessile, 
oboyate. Berries smooth, elliptic. Considered as a 
variety of the former by many botanists, but very dis- 
tinct, berries larger, branches trigone, forming circular 
bushes, twelve to fifteen feet round. In New York, 
New England, Canada, &c. The Dwarf Cedar, found 
by Lewis and Clarke on the Yellow Stone river, with 
branches spreading like vines, and rooted beneath, is per- 
haps the same, or a peculiar kind /. radicatus : or the 

3. Sp. Juniperus pro strata, N. Stems prostrate, creep- 
ing. Leaves imbricate in four rows, ovate, submucro- 
nate, glandular. Berries oblong, tubercular. On sea 
shores, lakes, &c. of the Northern States, called 
Dwarf Cedar. 

5. Sp. Junipems virginiana. L. (or common Red 
Cedar.) Arborescent. Leaves imbricate, in three or 
four scaly rows, ovate, lanceolate, young ones acerose, 
expanding. Berries globose, tubercular. This tree is 
spread all over North America^ in the South it reaches 
fifty feet. 

5. Sp. Juniperus bermudiana. L. (Sea side Red 
Cedar.) Arborescent, inferior, leaves ternate, upper 
leaves _ opposite in four rows, decurrent, subulate, 
spreading, pungent: berries purple. In the Bermuda 
Islands and the sea shore of Carolina, Florida, &c. The 
three last species called Cedars in America, (the true 
Cedar is the Larix Cedrus of Syria) have often been 


14 JUNIPERUS. No. 56. 

blended by writers and described for each other. They 
all have small rough berries, with only one or two seeds, 
three stamina, or rather anthers, three internal scales, 
(called corolla,) in the female ament, and three styles. 
They ought to form a peculiar sub-genus, which I pro- 
pose to call Euxylon^ meaning good wood- 

6. 'Sp. Juniperus Sabina (Savin.) Shrubby, leaves 
opposite, in four rows, glandular, lanceotate, commonly 
obtuse. On rocks in Canada and New England. Seve- 
ral species are blended here; the American, Asiatic, and 
European kinds are perhaps different 5 a low variety of 
specie 3d, has often been mistaken for it. 

HISTORY. A fine and useful genus of Evergreens, 
Trees, and Shrubs, highly valued as ornamental in gar- 
dens for hedges, the medical berries, and the fine wood 

_ i kinds. They are chiefly found in the cold 
climates of the two hemispheres. A great confusion 
exists among our Botanical writers respecting our Ame- 
rican species. The /. depressa has repeatedly been 
considered as /. communis, and figured even as such by 
Bigelow, who also can hardly distinguish the Savin from 
the Cedar. The characters must be sought for in the 
berries and flowers. The Cedar varies much with age 
and soil, and some even deem the fifth specie one of its 
varieties; but its purple berries are peculiar. I have 
no materials before me to notice the flowers of all the 
species; but the berries are as follows: 

1. J. communis. Berries globose, pediculated, small, 
much shorter than the leaves, smooth, three seeded, 

2. /- depressa. B» elliptic, subsessile, nearly as long 
as the leaver, smooth, tliree seeded, glaucous. 

3. Jprostrata. B. oval, oblong, warty, two seeded, 

4. /. virginiana. B. oval, globose, small, warty, one. 

or two seeded, glaucous, bluis 

5. /. bermudiana. B- globose, warty, purplish. 

6, J, sabina. Four kinds or sp. at lea^t. 1. Exceha 
or arboreous; berries blackish, one seeded, globular. 
Found in Asia and Oregon, in the U. S. 2. Rupe^tris^ 
or Rocky Savin of Canada; berries blue, ovoid, two 
seeded, (dark blue.) 3, Cupressiforme of Europe, with 

No. 56. JUNIPERUS. 15 

berries globular, three seeded. 4. True Savin with 
spreading leaves, berries compressed, bluish. 

The J. monfana of Europe, was once reckoned as one 
of the /. communis. It has crowded leaves, a cespitose 
stem, berries ovoid, not globular; while the J. communis 
has slender, remote leaves, stem erect, berries globular, 
dark blue. Our American kind appears intermediate 
bj having the stem erect, shrubby; but the leaves 
crowded and broader, with larger berries. It is found 
in Pennsylvania, Maryland, &c. on hills and mountains- 

PROPERTIES. ^ Alike in all the species, stronger in 
the Savins, less violent in /• virginiana and the Ce- 

dars, weaker in the true Junipers. They are stimulant, 
diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative, eccoprotic, anthel- 
mintic, emmenagogue, &c. The berries, leaves, and 
wood may be used; the berries have a strong, pungent, 
aromatic smell and taste, somewhat sweet and bitter, 
containing an essential oil, tannin, and a sweet muci- 
lage. The leaves and wood contain some of the oil 
also, in which resides the active properties. The 
leaves are more acrid and bitter than the berries. The 
wood has a weaker taste and a better smell, owing to a 
kind of resin called Sandarac, which it exudes in warm 
countries, and resembling Copal, 1>y a part being only 
soluble in Ether. This renders the wood very durable 
and obnoxious to insects- Boxes made of it preserve 
woollens from moths. The Cedar wood is light, close 
grained, reddish, much used for posts, tubs, pencils, &c. 
by carpenters, ship-builders, coopers, turners: it is one 

of our best timber, and preserves a long while its pecu- 
liar odour. 

The Oil of Juniper is chiefly distilled from the berries; 
the Italian berries arc the best; the American yield 
much less oil. They impart thefr flavour to alcoholic 
liquors, and form the well known gin, which acquires 
some diuretic properties. The oil is useful in dropsy, 
in debility of the stomach and intestines, palsy of tne 
bladder, and uterine obstructions. The doses must be 
minute; or a decoction of the berries and leaves may be 
substituted. A kind of beer is made with the berries in 
Lapland; they improve also the spruce beer. 



16 KALMIA. No. 57. 

The leaves of SaA in are the officinal parts. Those of 
our Cedars are used as equivalents with us, under the 
name of Saving but thej are weaker than the European 
Savin, and often fail as emmenagogue, because the doses 
are regulated upon the European prescriptions. They 
have all the properties of the Junipers in a higher and 
even violent degree; they increase all the secretions, 
but may produce hemorrhagy and abortion, acting chiefly 
on the uterus. Pregnant women ought never to use 
themj but they are very useful in dropsical complaints, 
menstrual suppressions, also in rheumatism, gout, worms, 
&:c. in powder, conserve, or tincture* None but expe- 
rienced physicians ought to prescribe them. Farriers 
use them frequently in diseases of horses. Externally* 
the powdered leaves may be applied to warts, venereal 
excrescences, ulcers, carious bones, psora, tinea, and 
gangrenous sores, to heal them. The fresh leaves mixed 
vrith lard and wax, form a good perpetual epipastic, 
applied to a vesicated surface, keeping it open, and 
changing the discharge from a serous to a puriform ap- 




Names. Broadleaf Kalmia. JFV. Grande Kalmie. 
Vulgar. Laurel, Mountain Laurel, Rose Laurel, Cali- 
cobush, Big Ivy, Spoonwood, Lambkill, Sheep-poison, 
Wicke, &:c. 

Ciasaif. Nat. Ord. of Rhodoracea. Decandria mono- 
gynia L. 

Genus Kalmia. Cal. five parted, corolla hypocrateri* 
form, five lobed, with ten cavities, ten stamina, anthers 
lodged in the cavities, one pistil, style, and stigma, cap- 
sule five celled, many seeded. 

Sp. Kalmia latifotia* L. Leaves clustered, petiolate, 
oval lanceolate, acute, entire: corymbs terminal, viscid, 

and pubescent. 

DESCRIPTION. A shrub, four to ten feet high. 
Leaves evergreen, thick, coriacious, very smooth, lucid 

No. sr. KALMIA- 

above, pale beneath, entire, acute at both ends, on short 
petioles, and growing at the end of the branches in clus- 
ters. Flowers very handsome, in terminal compound 
corymbs, trichotome, pubescent viscid, wuth sm^ll su- 
bulate tracteas. Flowers large, corolla of a rose colour, 
tube short, limbus like a cup, with five short acute lobes, 
ten long staminas, lodging their antlers in the ten cavi- 
ties of the corolla. 

HISTORY. A beautiful genus of evergreen shrubs, 
peculiar to North America, dedicated to Kalm, a Swedish 
traveller and botanist^ several species belong to it, all 
highly valued in gardens as ornamental: this is the 
largest and most splendid. Their vernal blossoms are 
beautiful, but scentless. The K latifolia grows all over 
the mountains and hills of the United States. It pro- 
duces many varieties, such as 1. Alba^ all the flowers 
white. 2. Maeulata, with purple spots. 3. Ternatay 
with teruate leaves- 4. Acuminata. 5. Ovatifolia^ 
6. Arbor ea^ &c. 

It has been by many deemed poisonous to men and 
cattle. It is certainly deleterious to horses, calves, and 
sheep feeding on it in winter, because indigestible to 
them. Sheep, if not soon relieved by oil, will swell 
and die. Yet deer and goats feed on the leaves, and can 
digest them. The American partridge, feeding on the 
buds in the winter, is said by some to become deleterious 
as food. Bees collect honey on the flowers. The wood 
is soft when fresh, but becomes hard and dense, nearly 
similar to box, much used for tools, instruments, and 
spoons. The Kalmia grows very slow, and lives a cen- 
tury or more. 

All the species of this genus having equal properties, 
ought to be slightly mentioned. 

2. K. angustifolia^ or Sheep Laurel. Leaves temate, 
oblong, obtuse, rusty beneath. 

3. K. glaucay or Swamp Laurel. Leaves opposite, 
oblong, glaucous beneath. 

4. K. rosmarinifolia. Leaves opposite, linear, revo- 

lute, green beneath. 

6, K. cuneala. Leaves scattered, sessile, caneate, 

oblong, pubescent beneath, tn Carolina, &c. 

B 2 

18 LEONTODON. No. 58. 

6. jfiT. hirsuta. Hairy, leaves opposite and alternate, 
lanceolate, flowers axillary, solitary. Southern States. 

PROPERTIES. Narcotic, errhine, antisiphylitic, 
antiherpetic, &c- Rather dangerous internally, if it be 
true that the Indians killed themselves by a strong de- 
coction of it. More useful externally^ powdered leaves 
employed in tinea capitis, and in some fevers: withlard, 
they form a good ointment for herpes. Bigelow found 
in them tannin, resin, and mucilage only, yet Thomas 
asserts its narcotic qualities, and that the decoction 
even in small doses, produced vertigo, which Bigelow is 
inclined to disbelieve. Elliot states that the negroes of 
Carolina use the K. angustifolia and K. hirsuta in a 
strong wash to cure the itch of men and dogs; it smarts, 
but cures eifectually. It has also been used in psora 
and other cutaneous affections. It is stated to have 
been used in syphilis, but how is not told, probably in 
sores and ulcers. The brown powder of the leaves and 
seeds are errhine. Their tincture is powerful and dan- 
geroA: a'few drops killed a rattle snake. 


Names. Common Dandelion. Fr, Pissenlit commun. 
Vulgar. Pissabed, Puflf-ball, &c. 

Classify Nat. Order of Cichoracca. Syngenesia 

Equalis L. 

Genus Leontodon. Perianthe, or common calyx 
double, both polyphylle, many ligular florets, phoranthe 
naked, pappus stipitate and plumose. 

Sp. Leontodon taraxacum. L. Outer calyx reflexed, 

scapes fistulose and one-flowered, leaves runcinate, with 
toothed divisions. 

DESCRIPTION. It is a perennial plant, with the 
leaves all radical, smooth, oblong, and acute, cut up on 
ft!f *^^^^ ^^ ^ runcinate form, sometimes almost pinnati- 
tid, the divisions acute, toothed, unequal, like teeth of 
a large saw, sinusses acute, only one large mid rib; 
scanes or radical naked stems erect, from six to eighteen 
mches high, cylindric, fistulose, smooth, milky when 

No. 58. LEONTODON. 19 

broken, bearing only one blossom, and growing in 
length while the blossom unfolds and decays. The two 
penanthes have lanceolate acute sepals, the outer ones 
shorter, lax, and spreading or reflexed, the inner one 
closely erect. Florets yellow, numerous, unequal, 
tigular, with five teethj succeeded by black seeds, bear- 
ing a white stipitate plumose pappus, forming a spheri- 
cal balL 

HISTORY, This well known plant is common to 
Europe, Asia, and America, in pastures and meadows; 
it is spread all over the United States, and is really a 
native, not introduced. It blossoms during the whole 
year in succession from April to October. Although 
deemed a weed, it is not injurious. It spreads very fast 
by its seeds borne to a great distance by winds. Chil- 
dren use the seed-balls for playthings, as they may be 
blown off at a single blast, the name of Dandelion 
derives from dent de /ion, an old French name, meanin 
lion's tooth. The leaves were compared to lion's teet 
by the Greeks and Romans. It affords many varieties: 
1. Laciniata. 2. Sinuata. 3.Lanceolata. 4. Polyphylla. 

5. Uniflora. 6, Longifolia^ &c. . 

PROPERTIES. Deobstruent, diuretic, he|)atic, sub- 
tonic, corroborant, aperient, &c. The taste is slightly 
bitter, but not unpleasant^ the leaves and root may be 
used. They contam a green resin, fecula, sugar, nitrate 
of potash and of lime, acetate of lime, &c. An excel- 
lent popular remedy for liver complaints, obstructions, 
jaunmce, dropsy, hypochondria, &.c- The most usual 
way is to eat the leaves in salad in the spring; they may 
be bleached like Endive, and in the same way. The 
juice of the leaves is also used, and their extract is very 
eflBcient. It promotes all the secretions, and remove* 
obstructions of the viscera and glands. It is an excel- 
lent diet for scrofulous, dropsical, and hypochondrical 
patients. It has been used in induration of the liver, 
gravel, itch, impetegines, dyspepsia, and consumption. 
In this last, it acts only as a mild deobstruent. It is 
very good for the spleen. The milky juice of the stems 
removes freckles of the skiu. 

20 LEPTANDRA. No. 59 



Names. Purple Leptandra. Fr. Leptandre rouge. 
Vulgar. Quite!, Hini, Physic-root, Black-root, Whorly- 
wort, Culvert-root, Brinton-root, Bowman-root. 

Classify Nat. Ord. Pederotia. Diandria monogynia L- 

Genus Leptandra. Calix 5 parted, corolla tubular, 
nearly equal, 4 fid, 2 stamina, and 1 style, both long and 
slender. Capsule oval, bilocula, semi-bivalve. Seeds 
many and central. Leaves verticillaie, flowers spiked. 

Sp. Leptandra purpurea. Raf. Smooth, stem round, 
leaves ternate, sessile, elliptic, both ends acute, unequally 
serrate, spike angular, verticillate, base interrupted. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, large, black, v^^ith 
many long fibres. Stem 15 to 20 inches high, simple, erect, 
smooth, round. Leaves whorled by three, sessile, smooth, 
lono-er than the intermodes below, shorter above : of a 
broad oblong form, breadth 3-5 ths of the length, somewhat 
cuneate and entire at the base, end acute, margin with 
unequal serrate teeth, sometimes double serrate in the 
middle ; nerved and pale beneath- Flowers in a hand- 
some single terminal, spike 3 to 4 Inches long, purplish, 
rachis angular, bearing crowded whorls of flowers, sepa- 
rated towards the base; each flower has a small bract, 
oval, acuminate. Calix with 5 equal divisions, oval acu- 
minate, somewhat ciliate, corolla tubular, cyllndric, lim- 
bus with 4 oval acute divisions, nearly equal. Two fila- 
ments twice as long as the corolla, anthers fulvous, ob- 
long, obtuse, sulcate. Style as long as filaments, stig- 
ma simple acute. 

HISTORY. The Veronica Virgimca of Linnxus was 

widely different from the genus in habit and characters, 
and 3 or 4 species were blended under that name. I 
formed with it the Genus Callistachya in 1803, but find- 
ing that Brown had established an Australian genus of 
that name, I changed it to Lustachya: both meaning fine 
apike. But in 1818 Nuttall called it Leptandra; that 
name meaning slender stamina, being equally good, and 
^?7 "^ ?^^ generally adopted. I have used it here, 
although I had published, in 1820, a Monography of 
the t.ustachya and its 4 species, wherein I first des- 

No. 59. LEPTANDRA. 21 

cribed the purple kind. The others were the Ve- 
ronica Sibirica of L. or Leptandra Cerulea^ and 
the K virginica of Thunberg, very different from 
ours, which must be called Z. japonica^ besides the true 
K virginica of L. which I designate as follows, and call 
2. Leptandra alba; stem angular and smooth, leaves 
verticillated, commonly by five, scmi-petiolate, lanceolate, 
acuminate, unequally and mucronately serrate, spikes 
dense, cylindrical, flowers white. 

This is therefore very different from my purpurea. It 
is, however, the most common species, being found all 
over the United States, while the L, purpurea is confin- 
ed to the savanas of the South and the West. They have 
both the same properties, and are used promiscuously* 

The Z. alba has many varieties, such as — 1. Qwa- 

drifolia. 2. MulticauUs. 3* Polystachya. 4. Macrosta 
drya. 5. Angustifolia^ &c. The Z. purpurea has 
fewer — 1, Heterophylla^ upper leaves opposite, ovate. 
2. Prolifera^ spike subramose- 3. Pallida^ with pale or 
whitish flowers - 

A third species of this genus appears to grow in the 
United States, very different from the Z. alba and pur- 
purea. It is the veronica virginica described by Vahl 
and Poiset, but not L. Mr. Schriveinitz has found it 

in North Carolina 5 it may be called and designated as 

3. Leptandra villosa. Stem round, branched, hairy, 
and brown^ leaves oval lanceolate, subpetiolate, suD- 
serrate, acuminate, hairy, and brownish beneath, lower 
whorls by five, upper by three or four, and sessile; 
spike cyhndrical, pubescent, base lax, bracts subulate, 
calix lanceolate, unequal, flowers white. 

These plants blossom in summer, and are very orna- 
mental, but scentless. They have many local names; 
the Delaware Indians call them Quitel} the Missouri and 
Osages Hini'y black root is a name common to many 
plants and liable to deceive/ the Pterocaulon is thu« 
called in the South, and the Botrophis in many parts. 
The local names of Bowman, Brinton, Culvert, were 
given from men who used tlie roots in practice. 

PROPERTIES. The root alone is medical; it is 
bitter and nauseous, has never been analyzed, and is 
commonly used in warm decoction as purgative and 

22 LOBELIA. ^ No. 60' 


emetic, acting somewhat like the Eupatorium and Vet- 
benahastata; some boil it in milk for a milder cathartic, 
or as a sudorific in pleurisy. A strong decoction of the 
fresh roots is a violeat and disagreeable, but effectual 
and ponular remedy in the Western States for the sum- 
mer bilious feversj some physicians depend upon it alto- 
gether. The roots loose much of their virulence by 
drying, and a drachm of the powder becomes an uncer- 
tain purgative: while, when fresh, they are drastic and 
dangerous in substance, and said to produce bloody 
stools, dizziness, vertigo, and abortion. The safest way 
18 to use it in weak and cold infusion. Employed also 
for rheumatism, spasms, and bilious complaints. 


Names. Common Lobelia. Fr. Lobelieenflee. Vul- 




J - , 

if. .Nat. Order of Lobelides. Syngenesia mo- 
nogamia L. 

Genus Lobelia. Calyx superior, five cleft. Corolla 
monopetalous, irregular, five cleft, tube cleft on one side, 
five stamina, epigyuous, monadelphous, and syngene- 
sious, one style and stigma, capsule two or three celled, 
cells opening by pores, many minute seeds. 

Sp. Lobelia injlata. L. Branching and hairy, leaves 
sessile, ovate, denticulate, flowers in slender racemes, 
axillary to oblong bracts, capsules swelled. 

DESCRIPTION. Biennial plant, one or two feet 
high, stem milky, erect, ramose, flexuose, subangular, 
hirsute; leaves alternate, oval or oblong, acute, sessile, 
or semi-amp! exicaule, unequally serrate or toothed, pu- 
bescent, racemes of flowers terminal, erect, foliose; 
flowers remote, each nearly sessile and axillary to a 
^act, somewhat similar to the leaves, but smaller, 
the upper ones smallest; lower flowers pedunculated; 

^^K^T ^^^^P^^' ^^^^^ globosej calyx with five unequal 
subulate divisions; corolla small blue. Capsule crowned 

by the calix, swelled, striated, two-celled, full of very 
minute seeds. ^ ^ » / 

No. 60. LOBELIA. 23 

HISTORY. The genus Lobelia is dedicated to Lo- 
bel, an old botanist It contains a great variety of 
species, fifteen of which grow in the United Statesj 
many are handsome ornamental plants. This species is 
not such, but has very important qualities. It grows all 
over the United States in fields and woods, blossoming 
from July to November ; the flowers are very small, but 
singular^ when broken, a milky acrid juice is emitted; 
the root is fibrous, yellowish white, acrid and nauseous: 
it is biennial, throwing out the first year only a few ra- 
dical roundish leaves. When horses and cattle eat it, 
they are salivated, producing what is commonly called 
the Slavers, which debilitates them, and for which cab- 
bage leaves are said to be a remedy. I was informed 
that some horses eat it on purpose to medicate them- 
fielves; several Euphorbias produce the same effect. It 

produces many varieties, such as — 1. Simplex* 2. Ela^ 
tior* 3. Jilbijlora. 4. Aigustifolia, &c. 

PROPERTIES. One of the most powerful and effi- 
cient emetic, narcotic, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, su- 
vorific, diuretic, anti-asthmaic, and sialagogue. It con- 

tains an acrid principle, caoutchoue, and extractive, ac- 
cording to Dr. Bigelow. In its effects it acts very much 
like tobacco, but the action is more speedy, diffusible, 
*nd shortj besides, affecting even those who are accus* 
tomed to tobacco. The herbalist, Samuel Thompson, 
claims in his guide of health to have discovered the pro- 
perties of this plant towards 1790; but the Indians knew 
sotne of themj it was one of their puke weeds, used by 
them to clear the stomach and head in their great coun- 
cils. Its medical properties have since been confirmed 
and elucidated by Doctors Cutler, Dorsey, Thatcher, 
Bigelow, Barton, Bradstreet, Randall, Eberle, &c. It 
is now extensively used, although many physicians con- 
sider it as a deleterious narcotic, uncertain and dange- 
rous in practice: while Thompson denies it, and consi- 
ders it as harmless, depending almost altogether upon it 
in his new and singular practice of medicuie, borrowed 
chiefly from the steaming and puking practice of the 
Indian tribes. The whole plant is used, but the most 
powerful part are the seeds, as in Hyosdamus. The 
medical effects are speedy and very powerful, but va- 

24 LOBELIA. No. 60. 

rious, according to the preparations, doses, and tempe- 
raments. In large doses, it is a deadly narcotic, hke 
tobacco and henbane, producing alarming symptoms, 
continual vomiting, trembling, cold sweat, and even 
death- It appears to act upon the brain rather than the 
stomach, as usual with narcotics, and is therefore dan- 
gerous in practice, unless prescribed with great care 
and caution. In strong doses it produces great relaxa- 
tion, giddiness, head-ache, debility, and perspiration; 
in moderate doses it causes sickness in the stomach and 
vomitine, a prickly sensation through the whole system, 
acting therefore on the nervous system, and being a 
very diffusible stimulant of it. 

It has been recommended in some shape or other for 
almost every disease; but those for which it is most effi- 
cient are spasmodic asthma, bronchial cough, tetanus 
or lockjaw, and strangulated hernia- In asthma parti- 
cularly, it appears to be almost a specific, although it 
has failed in some cases when the disease was not spas- 
modic; it has lately been introduced in Europe as a 
remedy for this complaint, and with decided advantage- 
It must be used in that case until it produces nausea and 
vomiting, while for the other diseases, it is better to give 
small doses, frequently repeated; it avails thus for 
pneumonia and cough caused by accumulated mucus in 
the bronchias. For hernia, it is given in injection, like 
tobacco, which produces a complete relaxation, when 

easily be reduced. Its effects in croup, 
heumatism, dyspepsia, hooping-cough, catarrh, leucor- 
hea, &c. are. more doubtful: although in catarrh it ap- 
pears to act like s<juill and antimony. Schoepf men- 
tions it only as astringent and useful in opthalmia, but 
probably by mistake. It has no cathartic effect, as once 
asserted. Thatcher has given a case of hydrophobia 
cured by it in the last stage; this deserves attention, as 
the plant, by its effects on the mouth and system, ap- 
pears calculated to avail in this fatal disease; but the 
subject has not yet been properly pursued. The prac- 
tice of Thompson to use it in every thing, fevers, con- 
eumption, measles, jaundice, &c. is preposterous. It is 
not even a proper emetic for common use, as we have 
M many much milder. In consumption it is baneful. 





No. 60. LOBELIA. 25 

because it prostrates the patient without relieving the 

symptoms. It is, however, the base of many quack 
medicines for consumption, which are violent and dan- 
erous; they are erroneously called Indian specifics, 
e Indians fiaving no specific for the disease, but only 

This plant loses its active properties by boiling or 
even scalding. It must be used in substance or tinc- 
ture ; the^ seeds and young leaves are strongest; the 
whole plant is commonly collected in ^he fall when in 
seed, and pulverised. One single grain is sdmetimes 
wifficient to produce emesis, while a moderate dose is 
said to be about ten grains of the powder. A tea spoon 
full of the tincture is the usual dosej when made with 
the seeds it is more efiicient, and Mn Cannon has told 
me that a single dose has cured the lockjaw, by relaxing 
instantly the jaws and the whole system^ it must be 
poured by the sides of the mouth. One pound of the 
plant is directed to be infused in a gallon of diluted 
alcohol. The aqueous cold infusion is equally good. 
I consider the best and most available use of this plant 
to be in all nervous diseases, fits, convulsions, spasms, 
asthma, tetanus, St. Vitus' dance, and perhaps hydro- 
phobia. I venture to recommend its trial in all these 
disorders, but not to depend upon it in any other. 

The other species of this genus ought to be investi- 
gated j some, by their taste, appear to have properties 
somewhat similar, but milder, and thus perhaps are pre- 
ferable,- such are the Lobelia siphilitica, L. cardinalis, 
L. claytoniana^ Sic. The two first named have already 
attracted some attention ; they are called blue and red 
Cardinal Flowers, and are handsome ornamental plants. 
They are figured by W. Barton fig. 47 and 53. 

Z. siphtUtico has large blue flowers in a foliose spike, 
calyx with reflexed sinusses and oblong leaves? com- 
mon in woods and roads. It has been analyzed in 
France, and found to contain a new substance similar to 
butter, sugar, mucilage, and malates, besides traces of 
amarine, silex, iron, muriate and phosphate of lime* 
lignin, Sec* It is a lactecent, acrid, and nauseous nlant 




26 LYCOPUS. No. 61. 


properties are rather similar to Z- inflata^ although less 
active,- it is chiefly sudorific and diuretic, and its pro- 
perties ace not so easily destroyed by heat, since it is 
used in decoction and extract- The root has been 
chiefly used instead of the plant ; dose, five to twenty 
grains of the extract in dropsy. The Northern Indians 
used it for the cure of syphilis, in conjunction with 
Pninus and Podophyllum^ and in strong decoction, wash- 
ing also the ulcers with it, and sprinkling them with the 
powder of CeanQthiis ; but it has failed in the hands of 
physicians, and only availed in some cases of gonorrhea, 
acting then as a diuretic. Henry recommends to unite 
to it Geranium faaculatum and willow b^rk as astrin- 
gents. It disagrees wdth the stomach, anH often causes 

griping, purging, and vomiting, 

i. cardinalis has large scarlet flowers in a long naked 
raceme, leaves oval lanceolate, acuminate at both ends. 
Found near streams and marshes. The taste is similar 
to X. inflata^ The. root has chiefly been employed in 
decoction by the Cherokee Indians in syphilis, and 
against worms. It is said to be equivalent lo. Spigelia 
or pinkroot. These properties deserve further inquiry, 
as the whole genus Lobelia appears to be more or less 
medical with us ; the other species have not yet been 
tried: one species (perhaps L. daytoniana) is said to be 
used as a mild diuretic in Carolina. 


Names. Bugleweed. Fr. Lycope de Virginie, Vul- 
gar. Water Bugle, Buglewort, Water Horehound, 
Gypsie Weed, Paul's Betony. 

Classif. Nat. Order of Labiate- Diandria monogy- 

nia L. 

Grenus Lycopus. Calls four or five cleft, corolla ta- 
bula, four cleft, nearly equal, upper segment broader 
and emarginate, two distant stamina, four retuse seeds? 
powers verticillate. 

Sp. Lycopus yirginiais. Stem, simple, angles obtuse, 
leaves broad lanceolate, serrate, base attenuated, entire, 

No. 61. LYCOPUS. 27 

end acuminate^ surface rough, dotted beneath, calix 
quadrifid, acute, shorter than the seeds. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, creeping, and 
fibrous, stem erect, commonly simple, somewhat rough, 
with four furrows and four obtuse angles, leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, acuminate, or attenuated and entire at both 
ends, remote serrate in the middle, broad lanceolate, as 
long as the internodes, somewhat rough, covered with 
glandular dots beneathj flowers sessile, m small axillary 
whorls, very small, two small subulate bracteas under 
each flower, calix with four ovate-lanceolate and acute 
segments, corolla white, tubular, with four small round 
lobes, upper larger and notched, two stamina, hardly 
exert, iiliform, style exert, four seeds longer than the 
calix, obovate, compressed, crenate at the top. 

HISTORY. The genus Lycopns merely differs from 

four. The name means Wolf-foot. This species must 
form a peculiar sub-genus, which I call Euhemus^ 
meaning good for the blood, distinguished from all the 
other species by the/owr cleft^ short calyx, and crenulale 
hng seeds. It affords many varieties, some of which 
might even be deemed species, they are: 

1. Var. Gracilis. Stem simple, one or two feet high, 
slender, leaves remote. ^ 

2. Var, Microphyhis. Rough, glaucous, leaves small, 

oval lanceolate, crowded, stem branched, six to ten 
inches high. 

5. Var. Rube 

tinged M-ith red, crowded, whorls multifl ore. 

4. Var. Latifolius. Rough, glaucous, afoot high, leaves 
ovate, with large teeth, very crowded, whorls multiflore, 
seeds large, almost cristated above. 

5. Var. Sylvaticus. Stem smooth, two feet high, 
often branched, flexuose, leaves subpetiolate, twice as 
long as the internodes, oval or obovate, acuminate, with 
large teeth. In the woods of Kentucky and Ohio. 

All these agree in the calix and seeds, as well as the 
medical properties, and must "be distinguished from the 
other species of the gerjus^ which have somewhat diffe- 
rent properties, and maybe easily known, although their 
habit is similar, by noticing the calix with Jive long and 

28 LYCOPUS. No. 61. 

spinose segments^ seeds shorter and obtuse, not crenu- 
lated. As they are also medical, I shall give their cha- 

1. Lycopus vulgaris. Pars, or L. sinuahis E. (JEuro- 
peus L.) Smooth, stem branched, with four sharp an- 
gles, leaves crowded, sinuate, lanceolate, with long 
acute teeth, both ends attenuated. Sa^eral varieties: 
J. Trachigonus with rough angles, teeth lanceolate. 
2.. Eepens (Lye. sinuahis of Elliot.) Creeping, leaves 
rugose, deeply sinuated,^ 3. ^ngustlfolius. Leaves nar- 
row lanceolate, .upper ones less sinuated. 4. Latifottits. 
Leaves broad, lanceolate, sinuate, serrate. Common to 
Europe and America. 

2. Lycopus heterophyllus, Raf. {Exaltatus, Elliot, not 
L.) Stem tall and branched, angles acute, leaves petio- 
late, pinnatifid, segments narrow, subserrate, upper 
leaves sessile, linear lanceolate, subserrate. Varieties 
1. Bipinnatijidus. 2. J)issecius. 3. Angustatus. 

3. Lycopus lo7igifoHits, Raf (angustifolms, Elliot.) 
Stem simple, hispid, angles striated and acute,- all the 
leaves sessile, linear, lanceolate, elongated, remote ser- 
rate, attenuated at both ends. Yar. 1. Gracilis. 2. Li- 
nearifolius. In the South and West. 

4. Lycopus paucijloms, Raf. {Pennsyhanicus, Mo-.) 
Stem nearly simple and smooth, angles striated and 
acute, leaves all similar, lanceolate, remote, serrate, sub- 
petioiate, acuminate, whorls pauciflore. Yar. 1. Hirsu- 
tus. 2,Flexuosus. 

5. Lycopus uni/iorus, Mx. Leaves lanceolate, sub- 
serrate, smooth, suckers pecumbent, flowers nearly 
solitarj. -^ 

6. Lycopus obtusifoUus, Vahl. Leaves lanceolate, 
obtuse, with remote obtuse teeth. These two last are 
boreal plants. 

All the species are estival plants, blossoming- in sum- 
mer, and growing near water, ditches, creeks, swamps, 

+?f*n 'M-T''"^ ^"^ ^™^'^^ *^ ""^*' their properties are 
totallT different, not being at all stimulant nor heating. 

^Lvl« V'v^ ^^""^ ""^""^^ glandular dots under tlfe 
Tott^a Ji vS.^^^ ^"^^^ and a peculiar essential oil. 

tieV it 5» :,^-f^^^/' J*'^ P^^^^^ °^^'« their active proper- 
ties. It la easily soluble in hot or boilinsr water. Thev 

No, 61. LYCOPUS. 29 

contain also a little tanniif, although they are scarcely 
astringent, yet Schoepf says they dye black with vitrioL 
PROPERTIES. The L. virginicus is an excellent 
sedative, subtonic, subnarcotic, and subastringent. It 
has only lately been taken notice of,^when the Z. rw^ 
garis was extolled in Europe for fevers. Schoepf only 
mentions its qualities, and it is omitted in all the books 
of Materia Medica, except Ives and ZoHickoffer, The 
first inquirers on its properties were Drs.^ Pendleton 
and Rogers, of New York, who have published several 
cases of, Hemoptysis and incipient phthisis cured by it. 
This has been confirmed by Drs. J. M. Smith, Ives, 
liawrence, and myself. It is now much used in New 
York and New Jersey- The -svhole plant is employed; 
it has a balsamic terebinthaceous smell, peculiar to itself, 
when bruised, w^hich is stronger in the seeds. The taste 
is pleasant, balsamic, and slightly bitter, but to some it 
appears mawkish and nauseating- It is described as 
partaking of the properties of tUgitalis^ Sanguinaria, 
SotrophiSj and Spigelia; but it is neither emetic nor 
anthelmintic, and is rather one of the mildest and best 
narcotics in existence. It acts somewhat like Digita- 
lis, and lowers the pulse, without producing any of its 
bad effects, nor accumulating in the system. It is, 
therefore, altogether preferable to it, and not only 
an equivalent, but even a valuable substitute, as I have 
ascertained upon myself and many others- Volumes have 
been written on the Digitalis, a rank poison, and this 
excellent substitute is hardly noticed yet. It has, how- 
ever, been used in the New York Hospital, and found 
very beneficial? it lessens the frequency of the pulse, 
allays irritation and cou^h, by equalizing the blood. It 
is said to be most useiul ^hen febrile excitement has 
been subdued^ but I have seen it to subdue it by itself, 
or with other tonics. I have made many experiments 
on this plant, and the results are, that although it does 
not cure the consumption, nor heal the lungs, it is very 
useful in hemoptysis, a plethoric habit, and internal in- 
flammation. I consider it as a very good substitute to all 
narcotics, Prussic acid, and even to bleeding, since it 
produces tlie same state of the pulse and arterial system, 


30 LYCOPUS. No. 61. 

without inducing any debility, nor acting on the heart or 
brain in any injurious manner. 

It may be used in many diseases, and whenever it is 
required to quell inordinate actions of the blood, or even 
other fluids. I have been informed that it is commonly 
used in New Jersey for diarrhoea and dysentery, which 
It helps to cure. It is a good adjunct to tonics in fevers. 

. ^ inflammatory 

ot tJie drunkards, m diseases of the heart, &c. I deem 
it the best sedative in almost all cases; it does not ap- 
pear to act on the nervous system, but chiefly, over the 
blood vessels. The usual way to take it has been in the 


diet drink, and without much nicety about the quantity. 
In hemoptysis, I prefer a lemonade made with a weak 
tea of it, or a syrup made with it A very strong infu- 
sion may also be used, by putting one or two spoonsful 
of it in tonic or. refrigerant drinks. 

The Lycopus vulgaris has lately been extolled in Eu- 
rope m fevers, and is said to have cured intermittents 
alone. As its qualities are very near alike those of Z. 
virgimcus, being only a little more tonic and astringent, 
and a little less narcotic and sedative: they may, per- 
haps, be tried as mutual equivalents in fevers and in- 
flammatory disorders. All the species appear to have 
somewhat similar qualities and properties; but it is best 
to trust to the L. virginims alone as a sedative. The 
dried plants preserve their properties for many years. I 
have prepared a compound syrup of it with Eupaionum 
and other tonics, which I have foun^d very useful in ca- 
tarrhs, pneumonia, hemoptysis, &c. It induces diapho- 
resis without debility, and acts as a tonic sedative, an 
article till now almost unknown in materia medica- 
LuUer says that the L. virginicits is used in New Eng- 
land to dye wool, linen, and silk of a black colour. I 
cannot tell why this plant has received the name of 
gugle, which properly belongs to the ^juga reptans of 

No. 62. mXGNOLIA. 31 


Names, Bigleaf Magnolia. Fr. Magnolia grande 
feuille. Vulgar. Laurel, Elk Wood, Itomico, Silver- 
leaf, Bigleaf, Whitebay, Beaver Tree, Elkbark, Big- 

Classif, Nat Ord. Magnolidia. Polyandria polygy- 

nia L. 

Genus Magnolia. Calix three leaved, six or nine 

petals, many stamina, pistils many, imbricate on a re- 
ceptacle oval or oblong, capsules many, united in iai-ge 
cones, bivalve, one or two seeded, seeds fleshy berry 
like pendulous. 

Sp. Magnolia macrophylla^ Mx. Branches brittle, 
mecmllar: leaves very ample, obovate or oblong, base 
subcordate, glaucous beneath, six petals oblong ob- 
tuse, cone oval. 

DESCRIPTION. A small tree from ten to fifty feet 

high, with few branches and leaves, bark smooth and 
white, leaves at the end of the branches very large, from 
a foot to a yard long, very smooth, white beneath, and 
bright green above, base narrow and cordate, end broader, 
but acute, margin entire, flowers solitary at the end of 
the branches, very large, sometimes one foot broad 
when expanded, petals six, white, with a red spot 
near the base, cuneate at the base, obovate oblong, ob- 
tuse or blunt, stamina and pistils yellow, pistils in a 
long cone, fruit a cone of a ro&e colour, ovate, about six 

inches long. 

HISTORY. The most wonderful species of the most 
beautiful genus of American trees- Altliough excelled 
in size by the Magnolia grandiflora^ it excels in the 
si'^e of its leaves and flowers, and has the largest leaf 
among all our trees except the palms. The flowers are also 
fragrant ; they blossom ip May and June. It was sup- 
posed that this tree was confined to a few districts of 
North Carolina, but it extends over the Allegheny and 
Cumberland mountains of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, and Alabama. I found it very common on the 
Rockcastle and Cumberland rivers, and at the Falls, 
where it forms a prominent feature in the scenery. It 

32 MAGNOLIA; No. 62, 

is rare in gardens, and highly valued j it requires a 
rocky and moist soil, grows quick, and begins to blos- 
som when only five feet high. 

The genus Magnolia is dedicated to a French bota- 
nist It includes about ten American species, and as 
many Asiatic; all are handsome, ornamental, and me- 
dical. Ours are chiefly found in the Southern States, 
but the M glauca extends to New England. They are 

Laurel " 

weet Bay, Cucumber Tree, Umbrella Tree, &c. and 
by the Southern Indians Itomico, which means royal 
tree; they consider it the emblem of peace, as we do 
the olive. Some are evergreen; all have blossoms and 
leaves more or less fragrant, an aromatic bark, and a 
white soft wood of little use, except the M. grandifloraj 
which has a hard compact wood of a straw colour, useful 
for plank and timber. All have vernal white flowers, 
except -M cordata^ which has yellow flowers. All our fol- 
lowing species are equally medical. 

2. M. grandiflora. Large evergreen tree, leaves oval 

lanceolate, thick, rusty beneath, sis petals obovate, cones 

3. M, fragrans. Raf. in fl- Lud. 1817. Evergreen 
tree, leaves oblong, acute at both ends, pale beneath, 
six to nine petals, obovate, cones oblong, flowers four 
inches in diameter. 

4. M. glauca. Shrubby, not evergreen, leaves elliptic, 
obtuse, glaucous beneath, nine petals, obovate, cones 

5. M, acuminata. Large tree, not evergreen, leaves 
oval, acuminate, pubescent beneath, nine obovate petals, 
cones cylindrical. 

6. M. tripetala. Small tree, not evergreen, leaves 

ample, cuneate, nine oblong petals, tliree reflexed, cones 

7. M. cordata. Small tree, not evergreen, leaves 
snial!, oval, acute, base cordate, submentose beneath, 
petels nine, lanceolate, acute, yellow, cones cylindric- 

8. 3/. anrimlata. Small tree, not evergreen, leaves 
cuneate, base auriculate, green beneath, nine petals, Ian- 

No. 63. . MENYANTHES. 33 

9, M. pyrmnidata. Large tree, not evergreen, leaves 
obovate, base sagittate, green beneath, petals and cones 

EROPERTIES. The medical parts in the order 
of their strength, are the bark of the root, bark of 
the trees, the cones, buds, and leaves- Thej contain 
a bitter extract, resin, and camphor. The taste is bitter 
aromatic, without hardlj any astringencj. The smell 
is pleasant, somewhat similar to Laurus^ Acorus^ and 
Benzoin^ fugacious, and soon lost in the dried bark: 
chieflj tonic, stimulant, diaphoretic, and stomachic. All - 
the kmds may be used, and are equal to Liriodendron, 
CascariUa, Cornus, &c. Extensively employed in the 
South and by the Indians in fevers ancl rheumatism^ 
The tincture of the fresh bark and cones is one of the 
best preparations: it avails in intermittents of an atonic 
nature, equally to cinchona: also in typhoid fevers, but 
above all in chronic rheumatism. The cones infused in 
spirituous liquors are a popular stomachic, and prophy- 
lactic against fevers. The powdered bark may be given 
in doses of a drachm four or five times a day, or in de- 

coQiiGns^and4nfasionsj it may be united to the snake 
roots with advantage. Their use is improper in all in- 
flammatory fevers, and the abuse of their tinctures is 
hurtful. The bark and cones ought to be collected and 
become an article of trade. The Liriodendron bark is 
often substituted as less stimulant. They arc equiva- 
lent; the M^^olia is preferable in great debility, ner- 
vous and rheumatismal atony. 




Names. American Buckbean. Fr. Menyanthe trefle 
d'eau. Vulgar. Marsh Trefoil, Water Shamrock, 
Bitter Root. / 

Classify Nat. Order of Gantianides. Pentandria mo- 

nogynia L. 

Genus MENVANnrHES. Calix five parted, persistent, 

corolla five cleft, with a short tube, segments fringed 

above, five stamens, shorter than the corolla, one style, 

34 MENYANTHES. . No. 63. 


stigma bifid, capsule ovate, one celled, bivalve, seeds 
numerous, inserted on the valves. 

Sp. Meriyanthes verna, Raf. Radical leaves friparted, 
segments oblong obovate, obtuse, erose, scapes o'ace- 
mose, longer than the leaves, raceme conical, bracts 
ovate, concave, shorter than the peduncles, corolla fring- 
ed at the base, not ciliated. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, creeping, jointed, 
leaves and scapes proceeding from the joints, sheathed 
at the base bj broad, oblong, obtuse stipules, leaves on 
long terete petioles, cut up into three deep segments or 
folioles, sessile, oblong, oboval, obtuse, somewhat repand 
or erose on the margin, thick and glabrous, scape as- 
cending, terete smooth, about a foot high, bearing a co- 
nical raceme of flowers. Peduncles scattered, streight 
axillary to shorter bracts, ovate, obtuse, concave, calix 
subcampansitate, five parted, acute; corolla white, with 
a red tinge, a short tube, five oval acute segments, 
spreading or revolute, fringed at the base above, by ob- 
tuse fibres, five short erect stamens, anthers sagittate, 
germ ovate, style terete, persistent, stigma compressed 
and bifid, capsule with two valves, bearing numerous 

minute seeds in lateral receptadres. __ 

HISTORY. This plant is common to the north of 
the two continents. The American plant, figured here, 
is confined to the North, in Canada, New England, New- 
York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, but it spreads in the 
mountains as far South as Virginia, It forms a peculiar 
species called variety Minor, by Michaux and Bigelow, 
which is well distinguished from the M. trifoliala of 
Europe, of which the characters are : 

M. trifoHaia. L. Leaves triparted, segments oval, 
obtuse, repand, scapes racemose, shorter than the 
leaves, raceme slender, bracts lanceolate acute, co- 
rolla ciliated and fringed all over above ; flowers 
rose colour, blossoming m summer. It is a beautiful 
plant, growing in or near marshes, bogs, ponds, and 
brooks, blossoming in April and May, The generic 
name means Moonflower ; it is one of the shamrocks, 
vegetable emblems of Ireland. 

. v^^^^.u^^^^- T^^^^^ stomachic, febrifuge, pur- 
gative, asthntic, antipsoric, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, 


No. 64. . MONARDA. 35 

&c- as in M, trifoliata. The whole plant is bitter, like 
Gentian, but the root is more intensely so. It contains 
a resin and an extractive matter, soluble in water and 
alcohol, much esteemed in Europe, and even esteemed 
a kind of panacea in Germany. In small doses of about 
ten grains, it imparts vigour to the stomach and the 
whole frame, cures intermittent and remittent fevers, &c. 
In large doses of a drachm, or a strong decoction, it acts 

like Eupatorium perfoliatum, producing pur^ng, vomit- 
ing, and profuse perspiration. Its unpleasant bitter 
taste renders it inconvenient for that purpose.. It has 
been used with success in many other disorders, gout, 
rheumatism, herpes, dropsy, scurvy, and worms. It 
keeps off the paroxysm of gout, and Boerhaave cured 
himself by drinking its juice with whey. Its tea was 
found good in cutaneous and scorbutic affections. It 
acts as a powerful bitter tonic, and may be used when- 
ever indicated? the powder, tincture, and infusion are 
equally efficient. In Lapland and Germany, it is sub- 
stituted for hops inbeerj one ounce is equal to one pound 
of hops. Sheep will sometimes eat it, notwithstanding 

its bitterness. 


Names. Scarlet Rosebalm* Fr. Monarde ecarlatte. 
Vulgar. Mountain Mint, Oswego Tea, ]!^IountainBalm, 
Horse Mint, Squarestalk, Red Balm. 

Classify Nat. Order of Labiate. Didj-namia gym- 

nospermia. L. 

Genus Moxarda. Calix tubular, five toothed, corolla 
ringent, with a long tube, upper lip linear, involving the 
filaments, lower lip reflexed trilobe, two long exert sta- 
mina, one style, one lateral stigma, four seeds in the 

persistent calix. 

Sp. Monarda cocctnea. Raf. Stem with four acute an- 
gles, leaves petiolate, oval or lanceolate, or subcordate, 
pubescent, subserrate; flowers capitate, involucrate, 
Dracts large, coloured, lanceolate ; corolla large and 
scarlet. Many varieties which have sometimes been 


63 • MONARDA. No. 64 

deemed species, but all the Monardas with scarlet flow- 
ers, appear to me to form onlj one species, and as the 
lAnnstan name of M. diibjma applies to only one varie- 
tj, I have changed it for a better one. 

1. Var. Cordata. Leaves subcordate, oval lanceolate, 


2. Var. Didyma, Leaves ovate, acuminate, heads 

^:.y^^' ^r'^^if^^a- Leaves oval or lanQeolate, heads 

4. Var. Grandiflora. Leaves oval lanceolate, acute, 
heads simple, very large. This is figured here. 

5. Var. Angustljolia. Leaves ovate lanceolate, acu- 
minate, base attenuated, stem slender. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, large fibrose stem, 
erect, three to four feet high, branched, tetragone, an^'les 
acute, somewhat pubescent; leaves opposite, petioltte, 
commonly oval lanceolate, but. sometimes almost ovate, 
base round or subcordate, end acute or acuminate, mar- 
gn with remote serratures, surface pubescent and nerved. 
Flowers in terminal multiflore heads, of a bright scarlet 
colour, the heads sometimes prolifei;ous, involucrate by 
large lanceolate bracts, coloured red, acuminate, mem- 
branaceous; flowers sessile, crowded, with smaller bracts 
mterjected; calix tubular, cylindrical, striated, with 

pre%?d htt'^r •''''';^ ^T^l" '''^ ^^'S^' *"b« "m^ 
pressed, th^ two Jjps elongated narrow, upper curved 

diannelled, notched, lower with three smalf Lbes^ sta- 
m^^lS-^^^'^""g and filiform. '' ' '*^ 

America wi?h* .S^'^l ^'"^ »^an^somest plants of North 
ofThri^hf f^e^le^ves and many heads of>flowers 

Ame^"cl an.?R *• ^r' 'I 'l^"^''^'^^ ^" '^' S^^^ens of 

llrf^R ^i ^"l^'^'^^^^ ^alue. The whole genus Mo- 
nardais beautiful, and peculiar to North Amfrica- it is 

Sf?*'"^ *f ^^"^^' ^ ^^^«<^^ botanist. There are 

found ^"^""^^r- -Ine M. cocanea is 
South in the ASeltn'' ^^^^^^^^^^^^a, and even further 
streams and ii rifh tofl."'°" "' ' '^ '^^^'"'^^^^ »«^^ P""'^ 


No. 64. MONARDA. S7 

This genus offers several anomalies, and must there- 

fore be divided into three subgenera, as follows : 

1. True Monarda. Calyx with five equal teeth, flow* 
ers capitate, involucrate, such as 1. M. coccinea. 2. M. 

Jistulosa^ 3. M. oblongata. 4. M. dinopodia. 5. M, 
purpurea. 6. M. bradburiana. 7. M. scabra. 8. M. ru- 

gosa. 9. M. mollis^ &c, 

2. Cheilyctis. Raf. Caljx with five unequal teeth, 
flowers verticillate, involucrate. M. punctata, 

3. Blephilia. Raf. Calyx bilabiate, upper lip shorter, 
bidentate, lower tridentate, flowers verticillate, brac- 



or varieties of this genus ; but I am not yet prepared to 
give a complete monography of them. I shall merely 
indicate here three presumed new species of mine. 

1. J/, rigida. R. Stem simple, stiff, rough, leaves 
sessile, amplexicaule, rough, oval, subcordate, nearly ^ 
entire, acute, head terminal ; involucre lanceolate, acu- * 
minate, stiff, flowers pale purple. In west Kentucky, 
among rocky hills. A true Monarda. 

2. M. virgata. R. Stems simple, smooth, fistulose, 
angles acute, leaves very far remote, petiolate, lanceo- 
late, acute, base subcordate, glaucous beneath, nearly 
entire j head terminal, small ; involucre oblong, acute, 
ciliate j flowers of a pale flesh, colouf. Prairies of Illi- 
nois and Arkansas. th^ ^^ * * V 

3. M. pralensis* 'R, (Blephilia.) Stem simple,. smooth, 
angles acute, leaves subsessile, linear lanceolate, en- 
tire, smooth, whorls terminal, apliyllous, bracts ovate O 
cordate, acuminate, reticulated, nearly smooth, colour- - 
ed. In east Kentucky, in meadows and pastures- 
Flowers purple as well as the bracts- 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant has a grateful 
smell, somewhat similar to Dittany and Balm j much 
stronger when bruised. The taste is pungent, warm, 
bitterish, &c. It is resolvent, tonic, febrifuge, nervine, 
sudorific, diuretic, antiseptic, carminative, aati-emetlc, 
&c- It yields a strong aromatic and volatile oil, of an 
amber colour, in which resides the properties j it con- 
tains in solution a camphor of a citron colour. Schoepf 
has long ago recommended this plant in intermittent 


38 MONARDA. No. 64. 

fevers; it appears to be equal to camomile, and makes a 
more palatable tea. It has been called Oswego tea, be- 
cause first used by the Indians near Oswego lake. It 
unites the properties of sage, Melissa^ and JlnthemiSy to 
which it is equivalent; but it is more effectual than 
either, particularly in fevers, pleurisies, &c. besides 
being used successfully in many other diseases, such as 
ardour of urine, piles, rheumatism, hemiplegia, paralysis,, 
coldness of limbs, cholic, &c. The properties have been 
investigated by Schoepf, Atlee, Eberle, and myself. 
The oil is become an oflBcinal article, kept in shops, as 
an excellent rubefacient. The Monarda oil is cniefly 
made from the M. punctata^ as strongest and most pun- 
gent, but all the other species yield it. 

The M. punctata is easily known by its lanceolate 
leaves and many whorls of yellow flowers, with red dots- 
It is plentiful in dry soils from New Jersey to Missouri, 
and Louisiana. Dr. Atlee, in 1829, published a memoir 
of it in the Medical Recorder, with a good figure j he 
recommends the oil chiefly, and states that it is very 
active, producing heat, redness, pain, and vesication 
when applied to the skin ; he had used it with much 
advantage as a rubefacient liniment in chronic rheuma- 
tism, paralytic affections, cholera infantum, difliculty of 
hearing, periodical headache, and typhus. It must be 
dissolved in alcohol, and rubbed. A liniment made 
with camphor and opium, cured the periodical head- 
ache. The simple liniment rubbed on the head, cured 
a hard hearing similar to deafness ; it produces in a few 
minutes a comfortable glow when the arms, leo^s, and 
breast are bathed with it in the sinking state of typhus. 
With cold limbs. It relieves the gastric irritability in 
cholera infantum, by bathing the abdomen and limbs. 
Atlee states that it has cured a maniac- Internally, two 
drops of the oil in sugar and water, act as a powerful 
carminative, and stop emesis or profuse vomiting. The 
plant is used in New Jersey in cholic, and in gravel as a 
diuretic, being often united to onion juice in gravel and 
dropsy. The root of M. coccinea is said to be a stronger 
A^r^^K ^-^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ emenagogue ; the Indians use it 
S: on tli 'So^^T^ ^^^^^' ^* ^^^^ sometimes as a cathar- 

No. 65. NASTURTIUM. 39 

Upon the whole, all the Monard 

peculiar attention, having so many powerful 

properties. The M. punctata 

taste is less agreeable. The M. coccinea^ M fistulosa^ 
M. mollis, &c. are somewhat weaker, but more fragrant. 
The species of the subgenus Blephilia, are the weakest. 
The Indians, and the empirics Henrj and Smith, extol 
the M. coccinea above all, and I have found it quite effi- 
cient in catarrhs, cholic, rheumatism, &c. The M. 
citrodora of Louisiana, distinguished b^ its sessile cor- 
date leaves, smelling like citron, and six leaved involu- 
cres to the heads, is frequently used as a pleasant sto- 
machic tea, and the dried flowers are strongly errhine ; 
perhaps all the species are such, as their properties ap- 
pear identical, differing only by more or less intensity- 


Names. Yellow Water cress. Fr. Cresson jaune. 

siliquosa L. 


Genus Nasturtium. Calix with four equal spreading 
folioles, corolla with four equal petals, stamina six te- 
tradidynamous, siliqne subterete and short, with convex 
valves, not carinate nor lievvose. * 

Sp. Nasturtium palustre. Root fusiform, stem branch- 
ed, leaves lyrate pinnatifid, smooth, with unequal teeth, 
petals as long as the calyx and yellow, siliques short 

and turgid. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, fusiform. Stem 

one or two feet high, branched, nearly dichotome, leaves 
alternate, nearly sessile, smooth, spreading, lyrate or 
pinnatifid at the base, with confluent oval lobes, last 
segment large, oval, oblong, sinuate, subacute, with 
many unequal teeth and gashes, racemes of terminal 
flowers, pedicels short, calyx and corolla obtuse and 
equal, siliques divaricate, oblong, acuminate, turgid, or 

HISTORY. The genus Nasturtium or Water cress, 

is one of those established by Tournefort, &c- which 

40 NASTURTIUM. No. 65. 

Linnaeus thought proper to reject ; tbig was united to 
Siaymbrhm, and thus this plant is the Sis^/mbrium pa- 
lustre of the Linnaean botanists 5 but Jussieu, Decan- 
dolle, &c. have found needful to restore the G. nastur- 
tium. The common Water cress is the N, officinale or 
Sm/mbrium naaturllum of L.; it differs from this by- 
white flowers and pinnate cordate leaves. They both 
grow near, or in water brooks, swamps, ponda, in Nortli 
America and Europe. The N. amphihiiim is also com- 
mon to both continents, and a few peculiar spcci«^» or 
.^rieties are spread through the United States, not yet 
veil distinguished. My N. diffusum and N. arcualum 
ow in the Western States. The iV. tuberosum of my 
lora Ludov. belongs to a peculiar subgenus, with a 
rounded notched silique ; I call it Brachobium. All these 
plants blossom generally in June and July, but the JV. 
tuberosem in February. They are alike in taste and 
properties. They can all be eaten in sallad, and form a 
good spring diet. Their taste is warm, pungent, and 
somewhat acrid, like that of Lepidium and Radishes, 

but by no means unpalatable, and mixed with a sweet 
juicy flavour. 

PROPERTIES. A mild stimulant, diuretic, anti- 
scorbutiMc, deobstruent, abstergent, hepatic, and stoma- 
u '?■ r The whole plants must be used fresh, in sallad or 
their fresh juice, since these properties are lost by dryine 
and boding. The leaves may be found all 4e year 
round, but are best in the spring ; they are then a very 
useful diet for those who have scorbutic affections and 
spots, spungy gums, liver complaints, scorbutic rheuma- 
tism, pitmtous asthma, &c. Water cresses are excellent 
and mi der substitutes to horse radish or cochlearia, 
mustard, and scurvy grass, in almost all cases, except 
palsy. Their active properties reside, as in all the 
^.ucderous, m an acrid volatile oil, containing sulnhur 
and an ammoniacal salt. *^ 

Water cresses were formerly used f;)r many other dis- 

Sion ^'T'^' **^'*«!;^*^^^ affections, diarrhia, and ob- 
suSiS P^jyP"^'/;d even worms; but these are not 

Theya^e Zh^ ■''^ ^^T T^^*^^ ^" *^«^« complaints, 
war^ id t^^^yrltl 'S?/'^'" t"'^'hs, which the V 

« revive. All the cruciferous plants which 


No. 66. NELUMBIUM. 41 

have the same taste, are good equivalents ; such are 
many species o£ Xepidinm^ Cardamine, Arahiz^ Sisym- 
briunij Cochlearia^ &c. Those which have edible tube- 
rous roots, like N. paUntre^ N. tuberosum^ Arabia tube- 
rosa^ &c» ought to be cultivated, these roots being a 
good condiment, somewhat like radishes, but milder ; 
the root of N.palustre has a stronger taste, and has been 
wrongly deemed injurious by some. 




gar. Yellow Water Lily, Pond Lily, Water Shield, 
Water Nuts, Water Chincapin, Rattle Nut, Sacred 
Bean, Lotus, &c. 

Classif. Nat. Order of Nymphacea. Polyandria Po- 
lygynia L. 

Genus Nelumbium. Calix petaloid, four to six leaved. 
Many unequal petals and stamina. Torus or receptacle, 
turbinate, spongy, truncate, bearing above many pistils 
immersed in cells, each pistil becoming a large nut. 
RooU creeping^ hearing many radical pelt at ed leaves and 


Nelumbium lutenm. W. Petioles and scapes terete 

and rou^h, leaves peltate, orbicular, entire, smooth, and 
flat, calix five leaved^ unequal, many rows of elliptic 
petals, exterior shorter, anthers appendiculated. 

DESCRIPTION- Roots perennial, creeping, cylin- 
drical, brownish, white inside, fleshy and knobby. Leaves 
radical, on long cylindrical rough and spongy petioles, 
orbicular, entire, peltate, centre like a knavel, • a little 
excentric, from which radiate many branched nerves 
beneath j above of a fine green, perfectly smooth. Pe- 
tioles from three to five feet long, limbus floating on the 
water from six to twenty inches m diameter. Scapes uni- 
flere, similar to the petioles, flower pale yellow, from six 
to eight inches in diameter, and erect above water. Calix 
small, with ovate obtuse folioles, corolla with many im- 


D 2 


42 NELUMBIITM. No. 66. 

ihe torus, and shorter, filaments linear, anthers adnate 

below the end, so as to leave a linear appendage at the 

end ; central torus spongy, becoming the fruit, and 

then large, three to four inches diameter, obconical sul- 

cated, summit truncate, flat, with a waved margin, and 

haying many perforated cells, containing nuts of an 

elliptic shape, with the persistent short style and obtuse 

stigma, as big as filberts, of a black colour, but white 

HISTORY. This beautiful genus is known from the 
most remote antiquity, as a holy emblem of the fecun- 
dity of nature^ has only lately been properly designated. 
Linnseus hardly knew it, since he united it to Nymphea. 
Jussieu distinguished and named it properly, from one 
of its Hindu names. Several English and American 
botanists have since attempted to change the name into 

Cyamnsj (meaning a bean) already the name of a crus- 


taceous animal. If good local names are to be changed, 
we ought to change also Cojia^ Fucca, &c. There are 
several species in Asia, blended under the name of N. 
indimm, with rose, blue, and white blossoms. Ours is 
not a variety of it, but a peculiar species. We have 
three or four species in North America ; the others are 

2. K codophyllum. Raf. in Flor. Louis. Petioles 
rough, furrowed inside, thicker above ; leaves pelta'te 
campanulate, tomentose beneath, calyx four leaved. 
First described by Robin, who gave a long account of it 
under the name of Napoleon plant } admitted by De- 
candoUe. Flowers yellow. 

3. K pmtapetalum. Walter. Leaves peltate, orbi- 
cular, entire, calix five leaved, five to eight petals; 
Considered a doubtful species by many,but 1 have found 
It again in west Kentucky ; it has yellow leaves also, 
calix equal, from five to eight petals nearly so, concave, 
smaller than in iV. luteum. 

4. N. reniforme. Walter. Leaves reniform, corolla 
polypetalous. '-•'•" 

a Nuph 



flnSpL^i }*^i^^ offers several varieties :" 1. Pallidum, 

iiu^erv, oT a straw colour. 2. Jllbiffnnmn fln«,^« ^Klf- 

^ ; ^ ^^'■^'^ colour. 2. Albifforum. 

No. 66. NELUMBIUM. 43 

dulcUuniy with waved leaves. 5. Levigatum with petioles 
and scapes nearly smooth. 

The Asiatic species are called Lianhua by the Chi- 
nese, Padma in the Sanscrit language, Nelumbo in 
Malabar: formerly the sacred Lotus or Bean of Egypt. 
The Hindus gods are represented sitting on them: in 
their mythology they were the first plants that sprung on 
the waters covering once the whole earth, and gave birth 
to many gods. They were the mystical bean of Pytha- 
goras. The Chinese also venerate them as sacred plants. 
Cultivated in China and India for food and beauty. 
They all grow in lakes and ponds only. 

Our American species are al^ deemed holy plants by 
some tribes of Indians, who feed on them likewise. They 
are called Terowa and Taluwa by the Otos and Qua- 
paws. The iV* codophyllum is peculiar to Louisiana, 
while the N^ luteum is spread from New Jersey and 
Carolina to the Mississippi river and^beyond it, irf lakes, 
ponds, deep swamps, bayous, and ditches. As it is scarce 
m the Atlantic States, it is said to have been planted in 
some ponds by the Indians. It ought to be cultivated for 
beauty and use in all our ponds, which it would embel- 
lish and utilize. It is dijfficult to transplant unless the 
roots are taken in large portions, or the capsules and seeds 
buried in the mud when quite fresh. But when once 
rooted, it lasts forever, the roots creep deeply in the mud, 
and extend twenty or thirty feet. It thrives in Bartram's 
garden. The seeds germinate in the capsule, which was 
used as a Rattle by the Florida Indians in the Maraca 
or Rattle worship. The blossoms have a sweet smell, 
somewhat like ISymphea odorata, they open only in the 
middle of the day, shutting at night and in cloudy wea- 
ther in the shape of an egg. They blossom in summer. 

PROPERTIES. Alike in all the Asiatic and Ameri- 
can species. The roots, leaves, and nuts are edible, cool- 
ing, laxative, diuretic, emollient, &c. The Chinese and 
Hindoos make many dishes with them. The roots have 
some acrimony when raw, which they lose by roasting or 
boiling: they taste like Artichoke and Colocasia or 
Edoes. A kind of bread and cakes are made with them; 
the Otos like them very much. The petioles and young 
leaves may be eaten as greens; but the nuts are chiefly 

44 NYMPHEA. No. 6r. 

valued, even in our country; children, negroes and Indians 
collect them for use under the name of water chineapins. 
They are as good as filberts and chesnuts even raw, 

cooling, and rather laxative; but still better when roasted* 
The Chinese make preserves with thenu They are said 
to check emesis|and diarrhoea, to produce diuresis and be 
anti-erotic. The leaves are very cooling and emollient 
applied to the head and skin; tlie upper surface can 
never be wetted, water runs out of it like quicksilver: 
those of the iV. codophyllum are used as a kind of cool 
hat by hunters and negroes: they hold rain water pure for 
a while in their hollow. 




Naifius. Sweet Water Lily. Ft, Nenuphar odorant. 

Vulgar. White Pond Lily, Toad Lily, Cow Cabbage, 
Water Cabbage. 

Classif, Nat. Order Nymphacea. Polyandria monogy- 
nia, L. 

Genus Nymphea. Calyx four or five leaved, many 

petals in several rows inserted on the torus as well as 

the many stamina. Torus rounded, radiated above, with 

a central hollow and tubercle, becoming a many-celled 

spongy berry, containing many polypermous cells like 

membranaceous follicles. Leaves radical, scapes uni- 

Sp. Nymphea odoraia. Smooth, leaves orbicular, 
base split, lobes acuminate, calyx four leaved, equal to 
the petals, which are unequal white, elliptic, obtuse* 

BESCRIPTION. Roots perennial, creeping, rough 
and blackish, thick and knotty. Petioles semiterete, 
one to six feet long, spon^ or fi'lled with oblong tubes: 
leaves floating on the surface of water, nearly round and 
?»tire, with a cleft at the base, subpeltate, lobes ending 
m short acuminate points: upper surface glossy with- 
out veins, lower redish, with radiating nerves. Petioles 
rlfvt^ur^^^ bearing one large white floating flower, 
while ^th/r' T^\ ^^^^"S obtuse folioles, green outside. 


No. 67. NYMPHEA. 45 

the inner ones shorter, oblong, obtuse, flat, or concave ; 
stamina numerous, in several rows, with oblong petaloid 
filaments, and yellow adnate twisted anthers, bilocular, 
opening inside ; pistil formed by a torus or radiated re- 
ceptacle, with twelve to twenty-four rays, which appear 
to be as many stigmas : fruit singular, berry like, in- 
closing as many polyspermous utricles as rays and 

HISTORY. A beautiful genus of aquatic plants, and 
this species is one of the handsomest, the flowers being 
very large, three to four inches in diameter, and of a 
delicious fragrance. It grows all over the United States, 
trom New England to Louisiana, in ponds, ditches, 
rivers, &c. It blossoms in summer ; the flowers shut at 
night ; the seeds ripen under water. It is very orna- 
mental, . both in its native and cultivated state. The 
perfume is similar to Magnolia, and very fugacious j it 
is destroyed by heat. The varieties are, \ . Parviflor^, 
flowers much smaller. 2. Eubella, tinged with rose. 
3. Chlorhiza, with yellow roots. The roots are fleshy 
and as thick as the arm, but in drying they become sponsy 
and friable. r &/ 

There are three other new species of Nymphea in 
North America, which have similar properties. They 

1. Nymphea rosea. Raf. Leaves orbicular, split at the 
base, lobes divaricate, acute, lower surface red, petals 
rose coloured- In New York, Ohio, &c. with smaller 
flowers, less odorous. 

9. Nymphea maculafa. Raf. Leaves orbiculate, sub- 
undulate, dentate, base cordate, lobes obtuse, a brown 
central spot on the leaves, petals white. In Canada and 
New York, near Lake Ontario. Flowers nearly ino- 
dorous, smaller, with many narrow oblong obtuse petals. 

3. Nymphea spiralis. Raf- {N alba, Mx*and N. odo- 
rata, Elliot.) Leaves orbicular, emar^nate, base split, 
colorate, lobes divaricate obtuse, petioles and scapes 
spiral, calix four leaved, equal to the corolla. In the 
Southern States. Flowers white, smell strong. 

PROPERTIES. Similar to those of N. alba of Eu^ 
rope, but much more efficient and decided. The roots 
are chiefly used, and are kept in shops in New England. 

46 NYMPHEA. No. 67. 

They are astringent, refrigerant, demulcent, anodyne, 
hypnotic, emollient, antiscrofulous, &c. Taste styptic 
and bitter when fresh ; they dye of a dark brown and 
black colour with iron, and contain a large quantity of 
tannin and gallic acid; also starch, tnucilage, sugar, 
resin, ammonia, ulmine, tartaric acid, &c. The variety 
with yellow roots is mildest and best. It is said to be 
preferable to Statice and Geranium maculalmn, in 
almost all cases, being milder and quite as efficient. 
Externally, the roots and leaves are used for poultices 
in biles, tumors, scrofulous sores, lockjaw, and inflamed 
skin. Internally, the roots are useful in diarrhoea, dis- 
sentery, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, scrofula, and many fe- 
vers. It may be taken in decoction alone or with tonics. 
The fresh roots act sometimes as a rubefacient exter- 
nally ; the dry ones are best for use. The fresh leaves 
are excellent for cooling and emollient cataplasms; 
they are eaten by cows and cattle, and in Canada they 
are eaten in the spring, boiled for greens. The fresh 
root is used sometimes like soap. A conserve of the 
flowers is said to be very cooling and even anti-erotic. 
The syrup made with them is nearly useless, but the 
eyrup of the roots is very good. The fresh juice of the 
roots, mixed with lemon juice, is said to be a good cos- 
metic, .and to remove pimples and freckles of the skin. 
It may be united to Ulmusfxilva and other discutients, 
ior white swellings. Upon the whole, this plant has 
important properties, and deserves the attention of the 
medical practitioners, although many writers have to- 
taiiy omitted it. ^ j 

The yellow Water Lilies belonging to the genus 

cK'"'' '^"*^ properties, although les? effi- 


luif ""'*^* , Common Woodsorrel. Fr. Oxalide alle- 
B-el, uS.^tLlC'"'''' ''"^'^^ ^^^^'' ^'^^^ 

No. 68. OXALIS. 47 


Classify Nat Order of Geranides. Decandria pen- 

taa:vnia, L. 

enus OxALis. Calix five parted, persistent. Corolla 
of five petals, slightly connected at the base. T.en stami- 
na, monadelphous at the base, five alternate shorter. 
Five styles and stigmas, capsule pentagone, dehiscent 
at the angles, five Tocular cellsj two or many seeded j 
seeds with an elastic axilla. 

Sp- Oxalis acetosella, Stemless, creeping, petioles 
and scapes long, filiform and pilose^ leaves with three 
folioles, broad obcordate pilose, ciliate, scapes uniflore, 

DESCRIPTION. Roots perennial, creeping, white, 
juicj, with some little fleshy knobs, leaves nearly radi- 
cal, on long slender filiform hairy petioles, three fo- 
lioles, subsessile, more or less pilose, ciliated, obcor- 
date, Inroad, glaucous beneath: scapes similar and equal 
to the petioles, with two small adpressed bracts on the 
middle, one terminal flower, white, with purple veins- 
The five longest stamina equal to the styles. 

HISTORY. This plant is scattered in both conti- 
nents, in woods, groves, and hedges^ but in America 
seems confined to the boreal and mountain regions. It 
blossoms in summer. It has many varieties — 1. Minor , 
(figured here) with small leaves, not very broad nor 
pilose, small erect flowers, with obtuse petals* In Ca- 
nada, New York, New England. 2. Montana^ with 
large, very broad, and short leaves, nearly glabrous and 
reticulated, but ciliated, flowers large, erect, with retuse 
petals, and a yellow spot at tlie base of each. On the 
Catskill and Alleghany mountains. These appear almost 
different species, but they are connected by the Enro- 

ean varieties, such as, 3. Cespitosa, Leaves cespitose, 

owers bluish-white. 4. Nutans, Leaves broad, pilose, 
flowers nodding, smaller, &c. Many other species are 
found in North America, which have mostly yellow 
flowers on a stem, except the O. violacea^ which is 
stemless, and has purple blossoms. The O. sanguino- 
laria of Louisiana, has yellow blossoms, with bloody 
spots inside. They are all called Wood-sorrelj are small 
scentless plants, with a sharp acid tastes, and have all 
similar properties. 

48 OXYCOCA. No. 69. 

PROPERTIES. Acid, refrigerant, attenuant, anti- 
putrid and diuretic. Useful in decoction as a coolin 
drink in inflammatory disorders, fevers, piles, putri 
diseases, . &c. Boiled in milk they form a good acia 
whey, very cooling- They may also be eaten m sallad; 
they are peculiarly useful in diseases of the kidneys, 
bladder, and urethra, when they are inflamed and pain- 
ful, acting as cooling diuretics. They are often substi- 
tuted to common sorrel and sheep sorrelj but they must 
not be eaten to excess, becau&e they contain a violent 
poison, the oxalic acid; in small quantity, however, 
since 100 pounds of leaves give only 30 pounds of juice, 
and this only 10 ounces of the super oxalate of potash, 
which is sold and used by the wrong name of Salt of 
Lemons, for making a bad and dangerous imitation of 
lemonade, and for taking off ink stains from linen, cloth 
and paper. A ^ood conserve and syrup of oxalis leaves 
were made, which are pleasant medical preparations; 
they are now, however, superseded by currant jelly and 
other preparations of acid fruits. 


Names I^arge Cranberry. Fr. Canneberge d'Ame- 
nque. Vulgar. Common Cranberry, Mossberry, Swamp 
Hedberry. Atoca in Canada. Sourberry. 

Classif. Natural Order of Vaccinides. Octandria 
monogynia- L, 

Genus Oxycoca. Calyx superior four toothed. Co- 
rolla four parted, segments revolute. Eight stamina; 
tlaments connivent; anthers bicorne, tubular. One 

^P ]f ^^^^^ obtuse. Berry one celled many seeded. 
^mall Evergreens. 

^ ^p.Oxycoca macrocarpa. Creeping, branches ascend- 
?^; ^,^^^^^^ oblong, obtuse, spreading, petiolate, nearly 
^at glaucous beneath: pedicels elongated geminate, 


foSuT^^l'^'^^^^ Ait. V. oxycocvs, Var. Sbior^gi 

T *■ 


No. 69. OXYCOCA. 49- 

Instead of a long description of this well known fruit, 
I add the definitions of two other species, one of which 
lately discovered is new. 

2, Sp^. Oxycoca vulgaris. Stem filiform, creeping, na- 
ked, leaves ovate revolute, obtuse, entire; segments of 
the corolla oval; berrj purple, oval, and small. In the 
North of Europe and Boreal America, in bogs. 


. Sp- Oxycoca Berberidea, Raf. Stem filiform branched, 
suberect; leaves oblong, obtuse, revolute, entire, hardly 
glaucous beneath; peduncles solitary, elongated, style 
incurved; berries red, oblong, oblique at the base. Dis- 
covered by Mr. John Carr, in Raccoon Swamp, in New 
Jersey, cultivated in Bartram's garden. 

4. Sp. Ozycoca erytlirocarpa. Pers. Stem erect, leaves 
oval, acuminate, serrulate, ciliated: berries scarlet- In 
the mountains of North Carolina. 

Sub-genus. Glyciphylla, Raf. 1817- {PoIIomia^ Raf, 
1820. Lasierpa^ Torrey, 1825.) Corolla campanulate 
quadrifid . Flowers and berries caliculated, calicule 




berry, White Pollom, Sweetberry.) Stem procumbent, 
hispid; leaves oval, rounded, acuminate, hispid, entire, 
sessile: corolla campanulate, quadrifid: berries subsessile, 
caliculate, white, globular and hispid. In Boreal Ame- 
rica, Canada, Catskill and Alleghany mountains. A 
multitude of names was given to it, having been united 
to the genera Vaccinium^ Jtrbutus^ Gautiera^ &.c. It is 
probably a peculiar genus, and the name of Oxycoca 
(Sourberry) does not apply to it, since it has sweet ber- 
ries and leaves like Gautiera, 

HISTORY. Another old genus wTongly abolished by 
Linnseus, and united to Vacciniumj but restored by 
Persoon, &c. The name must be modified into Oxycoca^ 
since there is a genus of insects called Coccus. The 
Vacciniums or Whortleberries, are larger shrubs, with 
urceolate quinquefid corolla, ten stamina, berries blue or 
black, less acidf and more pleasant. All the Cranberries, 
(except the white kind) are very acid and somewhat 
acerb, yet become very palatable with sugar in the form 
of tarts, preserves, kc. They are cooling, slightly lax- 
ative, and form an excellent diet both in healtli an^ dis- 


60 OXYCOCA- No. 69. 


1 Cranberries pec 

exported to Europe and the West Indies: keeping pretty 
well in barrels, and still better in bottles. They grow 
from Labrador to New Jersey, Michigan, and the moun- 
tains of Carolina in swamps, called Cranberry Swamps, 
when bearing them in abundance* They are usually as 
large as cherries, and somewhat similar in shape and 
color, although there appears to be some varieties of 
them. 1. Coccinea^ almost scarlet- 2. Macidala^ spotted 
of yellow and red. 3. Oyafa, fruits oval, 4. C/o6o5a, fruits 
globular. The second or European species is not larger 
than a pea. The third is similar in size and shape to 
Barberries. But the white or sweet Cranberry has very 
different qualities, the berries are snowy white, and 
similar to those of the Snowberry or Symphoria alba; 
they are quite sweet and taste somewhat like those of 
the Red Pollom or Gautiera. The Indians iised to dry 
these fruits for use, they were called ^toca and £topa 
in Canada, Smpimecan by the Chippeways^ Pollom was 
the name of the sweet kind. 

PROPERTIES. Refrigerant, laxative, anti-bilious, 
anti-putrid, diuretic, sub-astringent, &c. Useful in fe- 
vers, diarrhcea, scurvy, dropsy, and many other dis- 
eases. Their acid is said to be the oxahc and malic 
acid. Cranberry tarts are one, of the American table 
luxuries. Their juice mixed with sugar or alcohol keeps 
a long while, and forms a fine acidulous drink with wa- 
ter, allaying thirst, and lessening the heat of the body. 
The berries last throughout the winter on the bushes, 
and are found in our markets from September to April 5 
when gathered early and unripe, they are less red and 
acid, with more astringency. A rob and syrup is made 
also with them. 

The Huckleberries, Bilberries or Whortleberries pro- 
duced by nearly-thirty species of the genus Vaccimum, 
are commonly round and black; their taste is sweet, sub- 
acid sub-astringent and vinous. The V. corymbosum, 
bronS'''"' ^- resino^wm, &c. furnish most of those 
wkh mU"" """^ ^^^^^^^^ and extensively eaten alone, ot 
i^ade a kind '"? *^''' P^?'.' ^^^ puddings; the Indians 
Ties T vi 'T^ ^'^^' ^^^"^^ and "dried them in 


No. 70. OXYRIA. 51 

blue berries. They are all equivalents. Schoepf relates 
that a woman with the dropsy, was cured by eating a 
large quantity of berries of l\ Jiondosnm, The O. his- 
piatcla appears equivalent of Gautiera, but has not yet 
beea tried as such. 



Names. Boreal Sourdock. Jr. Oxvrie reniforme. 
Vulgar. Mountain Sorrel, Welsh Sorrel. 
' Classif. Nat. Ord. Polygonia. Diandria digynia L. 

Genus Oxyria. Calix simple four leaved^ two inner 
folioles larger; no corolla ; 2 to 6 stamens ; two styles, 
stigmas plumose ; nut compressed, with a broad winged 

^ Sp. Oxyria reniformis. Stem branched erect ; radical 
and lower leaves on long petioles, reniform, undulate, 
upper rounded lobed } flowers in slender racemes. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial 5 stem a foot high 
or less, erect, slender, with alternate branches ; radical 
leaves on very long petioles, kidney shaped, obtuse, 
thick, smooth, with waved margin; stem leaves alter- 
nate petiolate, subcordate, rounded, emarginate, sinuate 
or lobed ; flowers in slender terminal and naked ra- 
cemes, often geminate, opposite, reddish ; calyx with 
two outer oblong folioles, and the two inner ones double 
the size, and obovate ; fruit one seeded, nut-like, wing- 
ed around, lenticular, wing membranaceous ; stamina 
from two to six. 

HISTORY. This plant was the Eumex digynus of 
Linnseus, lately made a peculiar genus by R. Brovra, 
and very properly. It grows in the North of Europe, 
and the Boreal part of America, in Greenland, Labra- 
dor, and Canada. It blossoms in the spring. The 
whole plant has a sour austere taste, like Sheep-sorrel 
or Rumex acetosella^ so common in the United States, 
and the same medical properties. I shall include them 

in this article, 

PROPERTIES. Refrigerant, antiseptic, antiscorbu- 
tic, subastringent, discutient, diuretic, &c. They con- 
tain oxalate of lime, and owe their properties to it; also 

52 PANAX. No. n. 


to a little sulphur. Thej are useful in scurvy, sores, 
and ulcers, cutaneous eruptions, diarrhoea, putrid and 
inflammatory disorders, &c. They have also been used 
in itch, wens, ring-worms, and even cancer. The juice 
or decoction is used externally and internally. Chiefly 
good in scorbutic affections, and equivalent of Oxah's in 
other respects. 


Names. American Ginseng. Fr. Ginseng d'Ame- 
rique. Vulgar* Ginseng-root, NInsin, Garantogen, Red- 
berry, Five-fingers, Gensang. 

Classif. NatOrd. Araliacea- Pentandria dig}^nia L. 

Genus Panax. Calyx superior five toothed. Corolla of 
five petals. Stamens five. Styles twoj berry two seeded; 
some flowers only staminate, or with one or three styles 
and seeds. 

Sp. Panax quinquefolhim. Root fusiform, wrinkled ; 
stem with three verticillate leaves, digitate with five un- 
equal petiolate folioles, umbel central pedunculate. 
Many varieties, 

1. Var. Americanum, Raf. or Cvneatum^ (figured 
here.) Three large folioles, cuneiform or oblong obovate, 
acuminate, equally serrate, two at the base much small- 
er, ovate, acuminate, sometimes missing; flowers white- 
In North America, in the Western States. 

2. Var. Obovatum. Raf. (figured by Barton fi^- 45.) 
Three large folioles, obovate, acuminate, unequally and 
duplicate serrate, two smaller folioles, ovate or missing; 
flowers white. In North America, in the Atlantic States. 

3. Var. Asiaticiim, Raf. or Ovatum. (figured by Du- 
halde, &c.) Folioles nearly equal, all oval lanceolate, 
acute, serrulate; flovv^ers purplish. In Central and 
Eastern Asia, in Manchuria, Corea, &c- 

DESCRIPTION of the variety Amerkanum. Root 
P^renmal, fleshy, yellowish white, fusiform, wrinkled 
transversely, often forked, sometimes fasciculated in 
two or three spindles, ending in thick fibres, from two 
^o s^x mches loag. Stem one or two feet high, simple, 
erect, rouad, smooth, divided into three petioles, and a 

No. 71. PANAX. 


central peduncle at the end, petioles swelled at the base 
bearing five folioles, each also petiolated, (sometimes 
only three, verj seldom seven,) unequal, smooth, with 
some scattered bristles on the veins above ; the two 
Jower ones very small oval acuminate, the three middle 
ones larger, cuneiform or oblong, broader above, acumi- 
nate; all ^vith shaip equal serratures, except at the 
base ; flowers in a ^obose umbel, supported bj a cen- 
tral erect peduncle, and a short involucrum, subu- 
late; these flowers are small, with white petals; ovary 
oval, adherent, with a five toothed calyx, and two styles 
clavate recurved ; petals five, oval, oblong, obtuse; 
five erect stamens, with round anthers; fruit, red ber- 
ries, commonly bilobed, with two semi-globose seeds ; 
sometimes only one style, and a dimidiate berry, or 
three styles with a trilobe and three seeded berry ; some 
flowers are abortive, or simply staminate, and some 
plants produce only such with larger petals; calyx 
nearly entire, &c. . '^ 

HISTORY. This plant is the famous Ginseng of the 
Chinese, whose name, meaning man^s healthy has been 
adopted in English and French. The Manchus call it 
Orhota, meaning queen of plants. The Jesuits, who 
had known this plant in Tartary, found it afterwards in 
Canada,_ towards 1718, and a profitable trade was begun 
with China, which has since undergone many fluctua- 
tions. In 1748, the root sold over one dollar the lb- in ' 
Canada, and nearly five dollars in China ; it has since 
been reduced as low as twenty-five cents, and some 
shipments to China have not paid the cost and duties. 
The Chinese, who have many kinds of Ginseng, admit- 
ted the American, but soon found out that it was an in- 
ferior kind. The large yellow forked roots, and those 
dried in their peculiar manner so as to be semi-transpa- 
rent, were, and are yo^t^ the most saleable. Almost all 
the botanists have admitted to this day, that the Ameri- 
can and Chinese roots were produced by the same spe- 
cies, Lourein was the first to doubt the iact, and I have 
ascertained by a more close inspection of the Chinese 
accounts and our plants, tliat they are at least distinct 
varieties, if not peculiar species- Whoever will com- 
pare the published figures may become convinced of 

£ 2 

54 PANAX. No. 71- 

this. Nay, it appears that there are even several varie- 
ties or species in North America, of which the figures of 
Bigelow (or mme) and of Barton, form two at least. 
The same happens probably in Asia ; we have only the 
figure of one Asiatic kind to ascertain well this fact j. 
but the medical writers of China distinguish at least ten 
kinds of Ginseng, some of which must be produced by 
very difterent plants : they are, 

1. The true Ginseng of Manchuria, my variety Asia- 
ticum^ with large juicy forked roots, yellow and strong. 
. 2. Ginseng of Corea, with large soft roots, commonly 
four leaves* 

3. Of Petsi and Taighan, white firm small roots, taste 

mild, leaves purple- 

4. Of Sinlo, roots one foot long, with branches similar 
to the arms and legs of a man. 

5. Of Chantan^, long and thin roots, with many 
branches, very valuable. 

6. Of Leaotong, roots smooth and yellow outside, 
white inside. 

r* Of Hiang, with sweet roots. 

8. Of Chaochu, small short roots, of little value. 

9. Of Chaseng, roots dry, insipid, with little strength. 

10. Of Kikeng, firm, but bitter root. 

There is, besides, a great difference in these roots, 
according to the soils where growing, the time and mode 
of gathering. &c. This explains, at least, the variety of 
opinions among medical men, on the value and proper- 
ties of this plant. It has always appeared strange to 
me, that our medical sceptics should doubt the Chinese 
accounts i they may be a little exaggerated, but the ex- 
penence of many ages ought not to be ridiculed, because ' 
we are ignorant in Botany, have never properly analyzed 
thjs root, and have even none but an inferior kind to 
try. It is preposterous in Bigelow to call the Ginseng 
a mere demulcent, while it contains a kind of camphor, 
which he could not detect. The best Chinese kinds may 
contam other active substances, and although their high 
pnce precludes our using them, we ought, instead of 
S?^ ^* the Chinese for paying once glOO the lb. for 

f^r Anr ""'^ t^^""^ Quinine and other drugs) to try how 
lar our own kmds may be equivalents. ^ ^ ^ 
^ne American Ginseng has the same form, taste, and 

No. n. PANAX. 55 

smell i it must, therefore, possess nearlj the same pro- 
perties, although in an inferior degree perhaps ; our In- 
dian tribes did employ them : we may tlius avail our- 
selves of them, and their cheapness ought not to make 
them the less available, as probably larger doses will 
answer all the indications. The Huron tribes call this 
root Garantogen^ meaning root like a man. They are 
scattered all over the Northern and Western States, 
from Canada to Missouri and Alabama, also in the Alle- 
ghany mountains as far as Carolina ; the first variety is 
the most common, the second is found in Pennsylvania, 
and the South, seldom mixed with the other. They are 
rare plants in some parts, while in some districts they 
were \qvj abundant, delighting chiefly^ in deep and rich 
woods J but they have been nearly extirpated from seve- 
ral places by the collectors, and tlie annual supply is 
now much lessened, coming chiefly from the remote 
western regions. It may soon be needful to cultivate 
them, which can easily be done, by transplantation, and 
the Shakers have begun the attempt, under the shade of 
trees. These plants are, however, of very slow growth, 
the shoots of the three first years has only one leaf, from 
four to seven years only two, and at eight years of age 
the root sends forth the three leaves, and begins to blos- 
som ; it is stated that when twenty years old, it often 
acquires four leaves, and even seven folioles in each 
leaf. All the roots that have not blossomed are small, 
and of little value ; the best for use must be from ten to 
fifteen years old. The stem and leaves are also useful ; 
but the berries are of no use, and not even edible .The 
blossoms appear in the spring, and the berries are ripe in 
the summer; they require two years to germinate. 

PROPERTIES. The roots have a pleasant campho- 
rated smell ; the taste is sweet and pungent, with a 
slight degree of aromatic bitterness. They are a fine 
gentle and agreeable stimulant, both fresh and dryj 
also nervine, cordial, restorative, analeptic, demulcent, 
edulcorant, expectorant, stomachic, attenuant, deobstru- 
ent, &.C. They owe their active properties to anecu- 
liar substance, very similar to camphor, which I call 
Panaciney white, pungent, soluble in alcohol and water, 
and more fixed than camphor ; they contain also a vola- 
tile oil, sugar, mucilage, resin, &c. 

56 PANAX. No. 71. 

This is one of the plants upon which I have made 
many experiments, and ascertained that some of the 
properties ascribed to the roots by the Chinese are not 
exaggerated, although I cannot vouch for the whole. I 
shall, tlierefore, begin by giving the Chinese account of 
them. Tlie Chinese medical writers, who have written 
volumes on these roots, say that the test of the best 
kinds consist in not feeling tirfed by walking while you 
chew them, or even keep them in your mouth* Our 
American Ginseng cannot stand this test, I believe. The 
best Giasen» warms the cold stomach and bowels j it 
cures the belly-ache, disorders and obstructions in the 
breast. It attenuates the blood and humours, revives 
the body, repairs emaciation and debility, sustains ex- 
cessive labours of the body andraind, preventing weari- 
ness and dejection. It quenches thirst, atid assuages 
hunger- It prevents dropsies and obstructions of the 
vessels and bowels. It fortifies a weak stomach and 
weak lungs. It gives appetite, and assists digestion, 
preventing troublesome dreams, faintingfits, palpitations 
and sudden frights. It renovates the vital spirits, di- 
lates the heart, clears the sight, strengthens the judg- 
ment, making the body light and active, and the mind 
stronger and vigorous. It invigorates old people, and 
prolongs their life. It is useful for feeble breathing, 
short breath, and asthma. It removes all the disorders 
of weakness and debility, nay, is also aphrodisiac, and 
cures hypochondriacal, nervous, and hysterical affec- 
tions. It removes also vertigo, 'dimness, head-ache, 
tenesmus, fainting, sweating, fevers, windy bowels, dys- 
pepsia, and vomitmg, &c. Such are the wonderful pro- 
perties ascribed to this plant by the Chinese authors, 
after the experience of 2000 years or more. The physicians 
often unite it to orange peel, ginger, liquorice, cinna- 
mon, peach-kernals, honey, &c. to aid the effects, and 
they prescribe it in powders, electuary, extract, pills, and 
decoction. The only detrimental property ascribed to 
]^ IS that the excessive use may bring 




requisite qualities of the roots. Dos% about a drachm. 

No. 72. PINCKNEYA. 57 

These properties must more or less belong also to our 
American kinds ; nay, the Chinese consider the Comfrey 
root as often equivalent to Ginseng. The Ginseng appears 
to partake of the propertiesof camphor, valerian, zedoary. 

rosemary, and comfrey, of which it ma^ be the substi- 
tute. The European and American physicians who have 
tried ours, differ in opinion on the subject, which may 
be ascribed to some using only young or bad roots. 
Many consider it as a mere aromatic demulcent j others 
as a gentle stimulant, or recommend it in nervous disor- 
ders, debility, marasm, and the senile cough. The In- 
dians of Canada and our empirics use it for asthma, 
weak stomach, debilitv, pains in the bones, excessive 
venery, gravelly complaints, &c. It is often used as a 
masticatory and answers the purpose of Angelica, as a 
restorative stomachic. A tincture is used by drunkards. 
The watery decoction preserves all the properties as 
well as the extract, which is a very good preparation- 
In mv experiments, I have chiefly used the powder, 
mixed with equal quantity of honey or sugar candy in 
powder. I have found it a good stomachic, restorative, 
and nervine remedy. It acts upon the nervous system 
m a mild manner, and revives it. Our American Gin- 
seng is so mild that it may be used in pretty large doses, 
nay, as far as an ounce. Dr. Cutler and Dr. Greenway 
have long ago stated to have found it useful, even in 
small doses of ten to twenty grains. In convulsions, ver- 
tigoes, nervous affections, palsy, and even dysentery. 
The leaves form a very grateful medical tea, which is 
reserved for the noble and wealthy in China ; ours make 
equally good lea, and are sometimes used in Canada, 
Kentucky, and Virginia. Dr. Hales, of Troy, has used 
the roots and leaves as a good analeptic and restorative 
in fevers. Some Indians have a notion that it makes 
women fruitful. This article appears, therefore, to de- 
serve further attention, instead of total neglect. 


Names, Pinckney Bark. Fr. Quinquina Pinckney. 
Vulgar. Bitter Bark, Georgia Bark, Florida Bark, Fe- 

58 PINCKNEYA. No. 72. 

Classify Nat. Order of Rubiacea* Pentandria monog. L. 

Genus Pinckneya. Calyx superior five parted une- 
qual colored, one or two segments, larger bracteiform. 
Corolla tubular, border five cleft recurved. Stamens five 
exserted, inserted at the base of the tube. One style ; 
capsule rounded bivalve bilocular, dissepiment double ; 
seeds winged. 

Sp. Pinckneya piihens. Leaves opposite petiolate, 
oval, acute at both ends, subtomentose beneath j flowers 
terminal cymose. 

DESCRIPTION. Large shrub, with many stems, 
from fifteeil to twenty -five feet high, branches opposite 
tomentose. Leaves opposite, with stipules and petioles, 
ovaU four or five inches long, acute at both ends, pe- 
tioles and lower surface very pubescent, or nearly to- 
mentose, margin entire ; flowers terminal, eymose, rather 
large, one or two inches long ; calyx pubescent, colour- 
ed of yellow and red, four segments, smaller, angular, 
acute, one or two larger, obovate, obtuse, reticulate with 
red ; corolla w^hite, spotted with red ; five long stamens, 
filaments filiform, erect, white, anthers brown j pistil 

yellow ; capsule round, compressed, thin, cartilaginous; 
seeds round, flat, and winged. 

HISTORY. Discovered by Bartram, in Georgia and 
Florida, called by him Mussmda bracteata. Michaux 
established the genus, dedicated to General Pinckney, a 
botanist, philosopher and statesman ; it is intermediate 
betw^een Cinchona and Mussenda. Only one species is 
known, found from Carolina to Louisiana, along the sea 
coast, in cool, shady groves and swamps, on the banks 
ol rivers, &c. It blossoms in June and Jiily, and is very 
ornamental. The genus Cinchona, producing- the Peru- 
vian bark, extends no further north than the West In- 
dies ; this shrub appears to be the representative and 
substitute of it on the noTth continent, by its near orga- 
nization and qualities. 

PROPERTIES. Nearly similar to those of the Pe- 
ruvian barks ; the inner bark is bitter, and contains 

I:'^^^''''^ ' *^'?® '^ *''^ officinal part. It has long been 
u.ea lu Georgia and Florida, in intermittent fevers with 

Th^^S . ^^""^^ ^^^^^y ^q«^l *o the officinal bark. 
ims property has been confirmed by Barton and Law. 


No. 73. PODOPHYLLUM. 59 

Si!t cases out of seven are said to have been cured. The 
powder, infusion, and decoction are equally available. 
Doses from twenty to sixty grains of the powdery the 
best vehicle must be mild wine, as for common bark. 
We have no account of any other use being attempted ; 
but there is little doubt that it will be found a general 
tonic, antiseptic, and stimulant, like the Pale Bark or 
Cinchona landfoliuj to which it is nearest alike, and it 
may be safely tried in fevers, rheumatism, gangrene, 
and all the diseases where Pale Bark is employed or in- 


Names. Mountain May Apple. Fr. Podophylle de 
Montagne. Vulga:r. -Mandrake, Wild Lemon, Ducks- 
foot, Raccoon Berry, Yellow Berry, Peca, Ground Le- 
mons, &:c. 

Classify Nat. Order of Acteacea. Polyandria mo- 
nogynia L. 

Genus Podophyllum. Calyx three leaved deciduous. 
Six to nine petals- Eight to fifteen stamina, antliers ad- 
nate. One pistil, no style, stigma sessile multilobe. 
Berry with one cell and many seeds, all inserted on one 
side. Creeping root^ stem tivo leaved, nniflore^ single 
Jlower between the leaves. 5 species, 

1. P. peltatum,!^. and auct. Stem cylindric, not fur- 
rowed, thick, longer than petioles; leaves peltate pal- 
mate, sinus obtuse, segments cuneate, bilobe, and tooth- 
ed at the end ; petals obovate, concave, seven to nine j 
stamina twelve to fifteen ; berry ovate, yellow. The 
most common kind found all over the United States, 
many varieties : 1- Pumilum* 2. Elatior. 3. Grandi- 
florum^ 4. Odoratunu 5. Hetorophyllum. 6. Otigo- 
don. r. Triphyllum. 8. Extraxillare. 

2.S.montanum. Raf. (See the figure.) Stem elongated, 
deeply furrowed ; leaves palmate, not peltate, sinusses 
acute, segments unequal, ends acutely bifid, with many 
unequal teeth j petals oblong, obtuse, six to seven, sta- 
mina seven to nine, berry oblong, yellowish. In the 

60 PODOPHYLLUM. No. 73. 

Alleghanj mountains, from New York to Virginia. Va- 
riety 1. .Acuminatum. 2, Parviflorum. 

3. P. callicarpum. Raf. in Flor. Lud. sp. 20. Stem 
short, equal to the petioles ; leaves peltate palmate, six 
segments, obovate, bifid, with unequal teeth 5 petals six 
round, concave ; stamina ten ; berry oblong, white and 
rose coloured. In Louisiana and Texas. Flowers large, 
smelling like orange flowers ; berry small. 

All these species have cylindrical, creeping, and pe- 
rennial roots, of a yellowish brown. Stem erect, two 
unequal smooth leaves, glaucous beneath, with five to 
nine segments, a nodding peduncle, the petals white, 
veined, reticulated, and a berry good to eat. 

HISTORY. A fine natural genus, considered as hav- 
ing a single species (since the P. dip hy Hum was called 
Jefersoma) to which I have added two others of the 
same habit, but well distinguished ,• the P. montanum, 
by the slender furrowed stem, sharp bifid leaves, not 
peltate, and narrow petals -, the P. callicarpum, by the 
short stem and leaves, small white fruit, &c: They are 
all equally medical, and I hav% figured the second as 
most novel and interesting. 

vpi^«?ir^/*K/''"'''^- ^" ."'J^ ''^^^^' ^^« perennial and 
vernal_ plants, blossoming in May and June ; the fruit is 

wh^t iK t P *^' '"'^^l'-.' ^"^^ '' ^^^We, t'asttng some- 

a sweet smell j the generic name means leaf 


it i^S^™,'- ^.f °V^^ ^^^^ "-^-'^ ^-thartics ; 
QVie?.fp.n1-'fPV^^**'°HSt ^little more drastic, but 

?t is -T^- ^i'" '■"^^ '« "«^d 5 when diT, 
sant ll.' ^Tly P^^dered ; the taste Is unplea- 

pJiSl^'^n^^'^'^^l ^ »t contains resin, fecula, bitter 

extractive gallic acid :.n';ZZ.^^.l;::it ''Z 
Ztf.^rrjA'f ""^ -«^l"e a. leen wet asler! 


curial Bierarafl™. V''«iiir. Those who employ mw- 




No. 73. POLANISIA. 61 

is equally good. In smaller doses, it proves a gradual 
and easy laxative. Ten grains alone of the powder, 
taken at night, purges the next morning. It is chiefly 
useful in bilious complaints, and by its decided opera- 
tion supersedes the use of a previous emetic; nay, some- 
times emesis is produced by it, when the dose is large. 
It may be united to Cremor Tartar in all fevers where 
active purging is required. It has been found very 
useful m dropsical complaints, ascites, anasarca, rheu- 
matism, chorea^ epilepsy, &:c* by Dr. Burson and others. 
The Cherokees use it against worms, >vhich are expelled 
by its drastic effects. Dr. ZoUickoffer denies this pro- 
perty. The leaves are said to be narcotic. No cattle 
ever eat them. A drench of the whole fresh plant in 
decoction, will purge a hotse completely. Two ounces 
of the leaves in decoction killed a dog. The Cherokees 
employ the fresh juice of the root for the cure of deaf- 
ness, by putting a few drops in the ear. The Osage In- 
dians consider it as a cure for poisons, by driving them 
through the bowels. They are very fond of the fruit, 
like all the Indian tribes* A fine preserve is made of 
them in Louisiana. . To me, this fruit is hardly palata- 
ble, and the root is so nauseous that I employ a syrup of 
it like the Cherokees, wliich becomes then a mild and 
not unpleasant purgative, two spoonsful being a dose. 
Small doses of it, or of the extract, lower the pulse from 
77 to 64, and are useful in cough and pleurisy. 


Names. Common Clammy-weed. Fr, Polanise gra- 
veole. Vulgar. Stink-weed, Worm- weed, Clammy 

Mustard, False Mustard* 

Classify Nat. Order of Capparides. Dodecandria 

monogynia L. 

Genus Polanisia. Calyx with four unequal folioles. 
Four unequal petals. Stamina eight to fifteen, unequaL 
Ovary oblong, sessile, one style and stigma. Oblong 
silique or pool, with many seeds. 


62 • POLANISIA, No. 74. 

Sp. Polanisia graveolms^ Raf. Pubescent viscid, 
erect. Leaves petiolate, trifoliate, folioles sessile, ob- 
long, acute : raceme foliose, siliques oblong, acute, 
glandular, reticulated. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, white, branched. 
Stem erect, simple or branched, one to three feet high, 
pubescent viscose, terete. Leaves alternate petiolate, 
with three sessile oblong acute, unequal and entire 
folioles, viscid like the stems. Flowers in terminal ra- 
cemes, lengthening by degrees, rather crowded by 
leaves, becoming very smalfabove, each flower axillary 
and solitary on a long peduncle- Calyx coloured of 
white and rose, with four unequal folioles, two narrow 
acute, two broader unequal. Petals white, erect, a lit- 
tle longer, unequal, cuneate, emarginate 5 stamina eight 
to fifteen, some longer and some shorter than the petals, 
fastigiate, filiform, red, anthers round. Pistils and sili- 
ques as abover The whole plant has a strong graveolent 

HISTORY* A new genus of mine, indicated in 1 807, 
established in 1817, and confirmed by Decandolle; itcon- 
tains many species blended bv Linneeus under the name of 
Cleome dodecandra^ native of Asia, the tropics, &lc.; while 
this is peculiar to North America, and is found all over it, 
from Canada to Louisiana, on the sandy and gravelly 
banks of rivers and lakeg. It is one of the most com- 
mon plants on the banks of the Ohio. It blossoms in 
summer, from June to August. The generic name 
means many unequalities ; the specific applies to its 
strong smell, similar to Erigeron graveokns of Europe. 
This plant is properly perennial 5 but as it blossoms on 
the first year of its growth, it resembles then an annual, 
and has been mistaken for such by Schoepf and Barton. 
It has some varieties : !• Elatior, three or four feet 
high, and much branched. 2. Simplex, 3. Cespitosa. 
4. Glabriuscula^ &c. 

PROPERTIES. Very few authors have noticed this 
plant, except Schoepf, who first stated tlie root to be 
anthelmintic. The fact is, that the whole plant is such, 
even the seeds, and its effects are similar to those of 
^nenopodium antlielminthicunu The decoction, powder, 
or confection, May be used in the same doses. An ac- 

No. 75. POLYGALA. 63 

tive oil may be distilled from it ; but it is not yet in 
use. It is a popular remedy in some parts of Ohio and 
Canada j but I am not prepared to state whether it may 
be equally sure as the worm seed- We want experi- 
ments on it ; I do not believe that it is narcotic, except 
in a very harmless degree, although W. Barton states 
that it is a deleterious active plant : his observations 
have never been published- By its smell, it appears to 
have similar properties with the Erigeron graveoiens of 
Europe, and thus it maybe diuretic and antispasmodic. 




Names. Dwarf Milkwort. Fr. Polygale naine. Vul- 
gar. Little Pollom, Evergreen Snakeroot, 

Classif, Nat. Order Polygalides. Diadelphia, L. 

Genus Polygala- Calyx persistent, five parted, une- 
qual. Corolla monopetalous, unequal, six to twelve 
stamens on the corolla, divided in two equal fascides. 
One pistil- Capsule two celled, two valved. 

Subgenus Triclispekma. Raf- 1814- Corolla three 
parted, two segments like wings, one semi-tubular cari- 
niform, base nectariform, top fimbriate. Six stamina. 
Style clavate, stigma bilabiate truncate. Seeds covered 
with a trivalve arilla, not pubescent- 

Sp. Polygala paticifolia. Mx- or Tridisperma grandi- 
flora, Raf- 1814. Creeping, stems surculose, assurgent, 
leaves few, terminal, sessile, ovate acute, glaucous cl* 
liate : flowers one to four terminal, 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, creeping, jrellow, 
terete. Stems procumbent at the base, naked, with one 
or twosurculi, with abortive small leaves, and sometimes 
flowers J top of the stem assurgent, erect, three to six 
inches hio;h, simple, smooth, terete, with three to five 
leaves at tlie end, fasciculated alternate, ovate acute at 
both ends, entire and smooth, unlner\'e, glaucous, mi- 
nutely ciliate on the margin- Flowers terminal, one to 
four, mixed with the leaves, large, red, handsome, but 
scentless, pedunculated ; wings large oval acute, keel 

64 POLYGALA. No. 75. 

shorter ; onlj six stamina in two fascicles of three. Pis- 
tils and seeds as described in Trlclisperma- 

HISTORY. A pretty little plant, found commonly 
in granitic hills, from New England to Carolina, chiefly 
in the Blue mountains j rare in the Alleghany or Secan- 
dary mountains. It blossoms in the spring- Many va- 
rieties : 1. j9pogonia, nearly beardless, probably the P. 
nniflora of Mx. 2. Procumbens. 3. Heterantha. Sur- 
'culi with apterous flowers. 4- Quadriflora. 5. Mhi- 

fiora^ &c. 

The genus Polygala is a cahoS, rather a family than 
a genus^; the Heistcria^ abolished by L. must be restor- 
ed. The stamina are far from being always eight, as 
stated by L. I ascertained as early as 1803, that this 
plant was hardly a Polygala, except in habit, the arilla 
and stamina being the chief differences, and I established 
the genus TricUsperma in 1314, which must be a sub- 
genus at least. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant, but chiefly the 
root, has a sweet pungent taste, and somewhat the smell 
of Gautiera. Its properties are similar to it, and to Po- 
lygala senega. It is stimulant, sudorific, restorative, 
&c. It may be used in tea or decoction : being milder 
than either; it may be Tery useful when the Senega 
would be too stimulant, and it may perhaps answer all 
its effects in asthma, rheumatism, dropsy, &c. It must 
contain the Gautiera oil, but it has not been distilled 
from it as jQt, 

Several North American species of Polygala are me- 
dical ; such as P. senega, P* rubella^ P. sangiiinea, &c. 
The first is the common oflicinal Senega Snake-rooty 
well known in materia medica, and kept in all the shops. 
It is stimulant, diuretic, sialagogue, expectorant, sudo- 


emetic. It was first brought to notice in 1785, as a 
cure for rattle snake bites, among the Senekas. Many 
physicians have since investigated its properties, and 
u:^ed it iu dropsies, ascites, croup, typhus, with pneumonic 
symptoms, peripneumonia, rheumatism, lethargy, pleuri- 
tis, gout, marasm, asthma, &c. The Indians use it besides 
snake bites, for syphilis and malignant sorethroat. The 
powder, decoction, tincture, wine, and svrun are em- 

No. 76. POLYGONUM. 65 


plojed. The taste and smell is very pungent and nau- 
seating. A resin and the Senegine, a peculiar sub- 
stance, are the most active constituents. Ten grains of the 
powder is a dosej a larger one will often prove emetic* 
It produces sometimes a plentiful evacuation by stool, 
urine, and perspiration. It is injurious in consumption 
and inflammatory disorders. Some compare its action 
to calomel, and consider it a general alterative. In 
croup, it often disengages the morbid membrane. It is 
very beneficial in chronic rheumatism, the asthma of old 
people, and inveterate dropsy ; small and moderate 
doses prove good sudorifics. The P. sangiiinea has the 
same taste and properties, being a milder equivalent j 
but the P. rubella or poly gama^ figured by Bigelow fig. 
54, has different properties, being bitter and tonic, al- 
though likewise stimulant and expectorant; it appears 
to resemble much more the P. vulgaris of Europe. 


Names. Common Knotweed. /V. Renouee vulgaire. 
Vulgar. Knotgrass, Bird weed. 

Classify Nat. Order of Pylygonea. Octandria tri- 

Genus Polygonum. Perigone simple, unequal, co- 
lored and five parted. Stamens six to eight. One pis- 
til, two or three styles and stigmas- One seed. 

Sp. Polygonum aviculare. L. Annual, stem pro- 
cumbent, branched, leaves lanceolate, scabrous on the 
margin ; flowers axillary, eight stamens, three styles, 
seed triangular striated. 

DESCRIPTION- A well known annual plant, very 
variable, procumbent or erect, diffuse, with many slen- 
der branches, leaves narrow lanceolate, sessile, acute at 
both ends, with nervose and membraneceous stipules- 
One to three axillary flowers on short peduncles, white 
or redish. Perigone persistent, with five unequal obtuse 
segments, &c. The varieties are ; 1. Proatratum. 2. 
Erectum. 3. Diffuaum. 4. Rubmnu 6. ParvifoUum. 



66 POLYGONUM. No. 76. 

HISTORY. This genus includes the genera Fago- 
, pyrum or Buckwheat, Persicaria and Hdxine^ united 
bj Linnaeus with little propriety, The Persicaria with 
two styles and a lenticular seed, form a very distinct 
subgenus at least The Fagopyrum has an equal pe- 
ri^one, with a glandular nectarium- Polygonum means 
with many knots- This species is found every where 
in Europe and America, m fields, blossoming all the 
year round. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant is astringent, vul- 
nerary, diuretic, subtonic, &c. although it has little 
smell and taste. It is useful in wounds, faintness, 
dropsies, prolapsus, hemorrhagy, and whenever mild 
astringents are re*quired* In China, it is used as well 
as the A chinense and F. harbatum^ to die of a black 
and brown color. The P. convoloulus^ distinguished by 
climbing stems and sagitate leaves, is called ChizahaWy 
by the Osages, and is used in dropsies, producing a pro- 
fuse diuresis ; large doses of a tea are taken i the 
leaves are smoked as a luxury and a fine tobacco* The 
P. bistortay found in Long Island, according to Schoepf, 
is an officinal plant of Europe ; the root is a strong as- 
tringent and styptic, equal to Geranium and Statice^ 
useiul in dysentery, leucorrhea, hemorrhagy of the sto- 
mach and uterus, &c. 

The Polygonum persicaria^ (or Persicaria maculatd) 

is figured here No. 7^^ fig, 2. It has, as well as the 
other species of Persicaria (called Asmart, Smartweed, 
and Water-pepper) very strong properties, is an acrid 
diuretic, burning the tongue and even the skin, rubefa- 
cient, vermifuge, stimulant, incisive, &c. They have 
been much used in gravel, commonly infused in wine j 
are said to have cured odontalgy, sores of the ear, and 
aphthous sore mouth. Cutler relates, that the ashes make 
a soap which has been used as a nostrum to dissolve the 
stone in the bladder. Their tea is good in gravel, coughs, 
colds, and a good vermifuge. All cattle avoid them ; 
they kill fish in ponds, and even snakes fear them. They 
die wool of a fine yellow, with alum ; called Curage in 
Louisiana, and much esteemed. Schoepf says they 
cure the ulcers and sores of horses. The P- persicaria 
grows near waters all over the United States^ and is 

No. 77. POLYPODIUM. 67 


easily known by its lanceolate leaves, with a black spot 
above, and oblong spikes of red flowers. The P. hydro- 
piperoides^ P. amphibitim^ P. pennsylvanicnmj &c. are 
equally medical and equivalent to P. persicaria. 


Names. Common Polypody. Pn Polypode common. 
Vulgar* Fern Root, Rock Brake, Brake Root, Female 

Classif. Nat. Order of Ferns. Cryptogamia Fi- 

lices, L. 

Genus Polypodium. Fern with round scattered 
sores or clusters of capsules under the frond, without 


Sp. Polypodium vulgar e. L, CauHex chaffy, stipe 
smooth, frond deeply pinnatifid, segments linear lanceo- 
late, obtuse, crenulate, approximate, the upper ones 


DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, creeping, irregu- 
lar, brown, with chaffy scales extending to the caudex 
or base of the stipe- Frond six to twelve inches high, 
distiched as usual in ferns, deeply cut in approximated 
seorments j oblong or lanceolate, obtuse, smooth, cre- 

nulate, upper ones gradually coherent and smaller. 
Lower surface wnth two rows of sores on each seg- 
ment, round, naked, brown, formed by a crowd of 
small capsules. 

HISTORY. This genus was formerly very exten- 
sive, but now contains, since the reform of the ferns, 
the species without involucrum j the others forming the 
genera, ^spidiuniy Nephrodium^ HypopeUw^&ic. Xin- 
n^us had called our American plant P. virginicum^ but 
it is a mere variety of the European. It grows on rocks 
from Canada to Carolina ; the varieties are, 1. Leviga- 
turn* 2. MuUicaute. 3. Latifolium^ &c. 

PROPERTIES- The root is the officinal part; it 
has a sweet mucilaginous taste j it is pectoral, demul- 
cent, purgative and vermifuge- The syrup of it is very 

68 PTEROSPORA. No. 78. 

pod in violent coughs, the rickets of children, and the 
umbago. A poultice of it with Thuya has been found 
useful in violent rheumatic pains. A strong decoction 
will act as a mild cathartic, and expel also the worms 
of children. The Aspidium Jilixmas^ or Male Fern, 
once a i^ olypodium^ is not a native of America : the 
root has been used with success, united to cathartics, 
to expel the tenia or tapeworm ; perhaps this species is 
equivalent to it. 


Names. Scaly Dragonclaw. Fr.^ Pterospore para- 
doxe. Vulgar. Dragon Root, Fever Root, Albany 

Classif. Nat. Order of Monotropes. Decandria mo- 
nogynia Iv. 

Genus Pterospora. Calyx five parted. Corolla 
ovate, five toothed. Ten stamina, inserted on the recep- 
tacle, anthers peltate, two celledf adnate, bisetose. 
One pistil, one style, stigma five lobed. Capsule five 
celled, seeds minute winged. 

Sp. Pterospora (mdromedea. Nuttal, Stem simple, 
viscid, and scaly 5 flowers irregularly racemose, nod- 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, large, white, 
amorphous, full of irregular curved fleshy tubercles, re- 
sembling the claws of animals. Stem erect, one or two 

feet high, simple, straight, covered with short brown 

viscid hairs, cylindrical, without leaves, but some small 
scattered and subulate scales. Flowers in a long ter- 
minal raceme, flowers scattered, some fesciculated, 
axillary to linear bracts, color reddish white, pe- 
duncle curved, nodding. Calyx with five ovate ci- 
liate segments. Corolla resembling Andromeda^ mar- 
ascent, ovate, with five reflexed oval obtuse teeth. 
A^n stamina inclosed, filaments subulate, flat, arising 
irom below the pistils ; anthers singular, semi-adnate, 

til tr *f '1*^^^ ceils opening transversely inside. Pis- 
rree, style columnar, stigma capitate, nearly five 

No. 78. PTEROSPORA. 69 

lobed. Capsule globose, five celled^ semi five valvedy 
valves septiferous, receptacle central, five lobed. Seeds 
minute, obovafe, with a, terminal wing, membranaceous 
and reticulated- 

HISTORY. A very singular plant, similar in habit to 
ffypopythisy but with flowers like Androrneda* It had 
long been known to herbalists, yet was unknown to bo- 
tanists, when discovered by Dr. James, in 1816, near 
Albany, and called Monotropa procera. In 1818, Nut- 
tal established the genus, but mistook it for annual. It 
has as yet been ft)und only in some sterile hilly sides, 
in the State of New York, in Genessee, near Albany, 
&c. It blossoms in July. It affords some varie- 
ties, I. FlavicauUs. 2. Leucorhiza. S.Elatior. 4. Fau- 

PROPERTIES. The root is the officinal part, re- 
sembJing thttt of Monotropa j it has a vapid smell, and a 
mucilaginous astringent taste. It is employed by the 
Indians, the herbalists, and the Shakers of New Leba- 
non, as a valuable vermifuge, sudorific, anodyne, deob- 
struent and menagogue. They distinguish two kinds 
with purple and yellow stems, (called male and female) 
pretending that the first is best, but obviously wrongly. 
It is said to avail in all remittents, typhus, and nervous 
fevers ; it produces a profuse perspiration, and often 
stops the fever in a few hours. It also relieves the night 
hectic fever, without debilitating the patients. ^ It avails 
in pleurisies^ and erysipelatose fever. It is chiefly good 
in all low stages of fevers- Employed also in coughs, 
pains in the breast, arid other diseases of the breast, 
made into a syrup. It is the base of some pectoral bal- 
sams. Also taken in decoction and^ii> powder- My 
experiments on this root in diseases olf the lungs, have 
not yet satisfied me of its utility ; it appears useless in 
scrofulous consumption, but is beneficial in hectic fever 
and pains in the breast, much more so than Hepahca. 
This plant being rare, is sold high by the Shaker* and 
herbalists. The Eiipatorium^^ much more common, is 
probably also a preferable equivalent. 


70 PYROLA. No. 79 


Names. Spotted Pipsiseway. /V. Pjrole blanche- 
Vulgar. Wintergreen, Whitefeaf, White Pipsiseway. 
Psiseva, Kingcure, Ground Holly, Rheumatism Weed, 


Classif. Natural Order of Bicornes. Decandria 

moaogynia- L. 

Genus PvKOLA. Calyx five cleft. Five petals, slight- 
ly united at the base. Ten stamina, anthers opening 
by two pores. One pistil- Stigma capitate. Capsule 
five celled, five valved. Many arillate seeds. 

Sp, Pyrola maculata* L. Leaves ovate lanceolate 
acute, base rounded, remotely serrate, variegated with 
white : flowers two or three, style very short, 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, creeping, con- 
torted, yellow. One to three perennial stems, three to 
six inches high, simple, erect. Leaves evergreen, but 
few, subverticillate, on short petioles, the lower sub- 
ovate, the upper ovate lanceolate, sharply serrate, very 
acute, variegated above by a broad longitudinal glau- 
cous stripe, with lateral branches. Flowers white, two 
or three subumbellate, pedicellated, drooping, at the 
end of a long terminal naked peduncle. Calyx five 
toothed. Five ovate concave petals, often red at the 
base. Ten stamens, wdth villose filaments. Pistil glo- 
bular, umbjlicated. Style short and thick, almost con- 
cealed. Stigma large, depressed, urceolate, viscose? 

HISTORY. This species belongs to the genus Chi- 
maphi/a of Pursh, which Bigelow has shown to be based 
on mistaken characters. The genus, however, must be 
divided into several subgenera ; such as, 

1. Streptylia. Raf. Calyx five parted, style crooked, 
declinate, stigma annulate. P , rotimdifoUay P. asarifoli^r 
P* eMiptica, has calyx five toothed. 

2. Orthylia. Raf. Calyx five parted, style straight, 
stigma peltate. P. minor. P. sectmda. P. nnijiore. 

3. Psiseva. Raf. 1808. Calvx five leaved, style thick 
and short, stigma annular. P. umbellata. 

No. 79. PYROLA. 71 

4^ ChimaphUa, Calyx five tootliedj style immersed, 
stigma urceolate. P. maculata* 

All these species are common to both continents, ex- 
cept the P. maculata^ whick is spread in woods from 
Canada to Florida and Missouri. It blossoms in July, 
^ and has very fragrant blossoms, which, with the painted 
leaves, renders it the prettiest species of the genus. 
The -P. umbellata has also sweet scented flowers j it is 
easily known by its green cuneate leaves. Both spe- 
cies have the same properties, and will be included 

PROPERTIES. The whole plants, but chiefly the 
leaves, have a pungent bitter-sweet taste. Chemi- 
cal components, bitter extractive, resin, tannin, gum, 
fibrine, &c. 5 the resin is brown, adhesive, and odorifer- 
ous. Water arid alcohol dissolve the active properties ; 
the last still better. They are diuretic, sudorific, sti- 
mulant, and. tonic. Dr. Wolf, in Germany, has drawn 
the attention to the P. umbdlata^ as an equivalent to 
•Bsbutus uva wrsf, in Ischuria and Dysuria, a table spoon- 
ful of a strong infusion, given hourly with some syrup, 
gave immediate relief. Many physicians in Europe and 
America have investigated and confirmed the valuable 
properties of these plants, and the P.maculata has been 
found almost equal to A umbellata. They have been 
used in dropsy, nephritis, hepatitis, hydrothorax, ascites, 
anasarca, strangury, hysteria, rheumatism, and low fe- 
vers. Thev have availed more or less in all these dis- 
orders, and^have the decided advantage of beinggrateful 
to the stomach, while almost all other diuretics disagree 
with itj they invigorate the appetite, and strengthen the 
body, increase the flow of urine aftd all secretions. 
Schoepf states that the P- maculaia is used in intermit- 
tents in Pennsylvania, and that the P. umbellata is 
styptic, astringent, corroborant ; useful in ischias. It 
was also used in typhus, and as a popular remedy for 
rheumatism in the United States. The decoction is 
generally used, and often in lar^e doses ; but the extract 
is equally good 5 doses about fitteen grains. They have 
even been deemed antilithic j but this property has not 
been confirmed, although thev alleviate the symptoms of 
gravel. Also very useful in hematuria. Externally de- 

72 RANUNCULUS. No. 80. 

cidedlj useful in tumors, malignant ulcers, and chronic 
indurated spellings, acting as a topical stimulant, and 
sometimes thej vesicate j but utterly useless in cancer 
and scrofula, for which some empirics have employed 
them* Both a cataplasm and the decoction must be used 
for these external diseases. An obstinate cure of tinea 
capitis was cured by an ointment of an unguent made 
with the leaves. The Indian tribes of Canada and Mis- 
souri esteem highly these plants ; they are called Paignt 
and herbe a pisser in Canada. They are used chiefly for 
^avel and retention of urine, rheumatism and fevers. 
They die urine of a greenish black color. The exter- 
nal application commonly produces redness, vesication, 
and desquamation of the skin. A drench of the leaves 
is used in veterinary, for the disease of horses unable 
to stale. 

Tlie P. rotundifolia^ P, elliptica^ and P. imiflora^ are 
called vulgarly Wild Lettuce^ Roimdleaf^ and Uonsump- 
tion Weed. They possess some of the above properties, 
but in a much less degree. The Indians and empirics 
employ them as sudorific, astringent, anodyne, ana ner- 
vine, m diseases of the breast^ colds, wounds, ophthal- 
mia, bad humours, weak nerves, and externally as blis- 


Names. Acrid Crowfoot. Fr. Renoncute apre. Vid- 
gar. Buttercups, Yellow Weed, Blister Weed, Pilewort, 
Burwort, MeadowBloom, Yellows, &c. 

Classif. Nat. Order of Ranunculaceous. Polyandria 

Genus Ranunculus. Calyx five leaved. Five petals, 
with a scale or pit at the base. Many stamina. Many 
pistils and seeds, united in ahead. 

Sp. Ranunculus acris. L. Pubescent, stem multiflore, 
erect, branched j leaves triparted, segments laciniate 
acute, upper ones linear j peduncles not sulcated. calyx 

spreading, hairy. . "^ 

No. 80. RANUNCULUS. 7 

DESCRIPTION. Root fibrose, fasciculate, peren- 
nial. Stem two feet high, with many branches and 
flowers, terete, pubescent, erect. Leaves alternate, pe- 
tiolate, broadly tripai-ted, pubescent, segments broad 
lanceolate, with many unequal gashes, all acute i the 
upper leaves almost sessile, with three linear entire seo-- 
ments. Flowers corymbose, large and yellow, pedun- 
cles unequal, not furrowed. Calyx with five spreadino- 
folioles, hairy, oval, obtuse. Petals rounded, entire! 
Seeds in a globose head. 

^ HISTORY. An extensive genus ; nearly all the spe- 
aes have similar active properties, except R. auricomus, 
R^ lanuginosns^ R.fammula^ R. aquatilis, and a few 
others which are mild and not acrid. The R. scelerahcs^ 
R. bulbosusy R. repens, R, fascicular is^ R.pennsylvainciis^ 
&c. are chiefly used with us ; the two first, as well as 
R. acris^ are supposed to have been imported from Eu- 
rope with grass seeds, but now grow abundantlv in our 
meadows and pastures, which they adorn with"^ yellow 
blossoms in the spring. Although very acrid when fresh 
they become mild by drying, and do not spoil the hay' 
becoming harmless to cattle, who, avoid them carefully 
when growing. Sheep and goats, however, eat the R. 
acrts^ and hogs like the roots of R. bulbosiis. The mild 
kinds are liked by cattle, and cows fed on them o-ive 
ood milk. The R. sceleratus is very similar to R. acris^ 
lit with smooth leaves and grooved peduncles. The R. 
bulbosus is easily known by its bulbous root, and the R. 
fascicularis by a bundle of fleshy roots. They are com- 
mon alt over the United States- 

PROPERTIES. The ivhole plant, but chiefly the 
roots, of all those species, are of a burning, acrid, and 
corrosive taste when fresh. They act on the skin as 
rubefacient and escharotics. These properties were 
known very anciently, and they were used for common 
blisters before Spanish flies became in general use. The 
acrid principle, like that of .^ rum, is volatile, and disap- 
pears by the application of heat or even desication, but 
may be preserved by distillation : the distilled water 
being very acrid, and holding in solution a peculiar sub- 
stance, AcroiJe, which crystallizes, is inflammable, and 
hardly soluble in any menstruum. The acrimony of 


74 RANUNCULUS. No. 80. 


■these plants is so powerful that it inflames and corrodes 
the lips and tongue of men and cattle, acts as a violent 
steruntatorv, and if swallowed, they bring on great pain, 
heat, inflammation of the stomach, and even death. 
Applied to the skin, thej produce redness, erosion, and 
ulceration, but little pain : the beggars in Europe em- 
ploy them to produce uglj sores and ulcers, w^hich are 
neither painful nor dangerous, in order to excite com- 
passion. When used for blisters, they operate in half 
an hour, and never cause strangury like cantharides. 
They however act very differently on different indivi- 
duals, sometimes and^beneficially, sometimes 
violently, producing deep and bad ulcers, difficult to 
heal- To prevent the effect from spreading, the blister 
must be applied through a perforation in an adhesive 
plaster. Like the poison of the Bhus^ it has hardly any 
effect on some individuals, while in others it spreads 
fast, inflames the parts, and even causes gangrene. 
They have, however, often been used as external stimu- 
lants, in rheumatism, hip disease, sciatica, piles, hemi- 
crania, fixed pains, &c.j when applied to the scalp 
for hemicranla, it tumifies the hair without breaking the 
skin. A singular practice once existed in Europe, to 
cure intermittent fevers by applying them to the wrists 
or hands. They are useful to destroy warts, corns, and 
wens, in veterinary, they are employed to cure the fis- 
tulous ulcers, and biles on the bacK of horses. Although 
very dangerous internally, the distilled water has been 
used as an instantaneous emetic, equivalent to sulphate of 
zinc, mustard, and pepper. Also as a powerful but un- 
certain vermifuge. Henry mentions that the decoction 
thrown on the ground, makes the ground worms used 
in angling, come out of it. 

Schoepf says, that H. abortivtis is diaphoretic, and 
used in syphilis along with Lobelia. The J?- auricomus 
and other mild species arfe eaten in Europe as sallad, 
and all the worst species, even E. sceleratus^ as greens, 
lo&ing ail the acrid property by coction. Children are 
fond of gathering and playing with the blossoms ; but 
this practice may be attended with some d 


No. 81. RUT A. 75 


Names. Common Rue- Fr* Rue vulgaire. 


Decandria mono- 

■ gynia L. 

Genus RuTA. Calyx four or five parted. Corolla 
four or five concave petals. Stamens eight or ten. Pis- 
til surrounded by eight or ten melliferous nectaries. 
One style and stigma. Capsule four or five lobed, four 
or five celled. 

Sp. Ruta graveolens^ L. Sufruticose, leaves decom- 
pound, folioles oblong obtuse, the terminal obovate : 
flowers dichotomous, octandrous, the central one decan- 
drous, petals entire. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial. Stem shrubby at 
the base, three to four feet high, branched, terete. 
Leaves alternate, smooth, glaucous, decompound or bi- 

funnated and tripinnated, folioles sessile, unequal, ob- 
ong, obtuse, and entire, the last foliole larger obovate. 
Flowers yellow, in a terminal cynose and dichotome 
panide. Petals large, rounded, entire, concave. Sta- 
mens equal- Only one central flower, the first unfold- 
ed has five petals and ten stamens j all the others have 
four petals and eight stamens- 

HISTORY. This shrubby plant is a native of the 
south of Europe and north Africa; it is cultivated in our 
gardens, is become naturalized and even spontaneous 
with us. It blossoms in summer. The whole plant has 
a strong peculiar smell, almost fcctid when bruised, yet 
there are some persons, chiefly females, who like it. 

PROPERTIES. A foetid oil, strongly impregnated 
"" " ^ -als easily, and is 

almost corrosive, forms the active element of th'is plants 
it is distilled from the whole plant when in blossom or 
seeds. The leaves and their extract are also used j 
their taste is acrid, bitterish, very penetrating and un- 
orateful : yet some persons can eat the leaves as a relish, 
while others are blistered by mere handling.^ They arc 
anti-spasmodic, deobstruent, stimulant, heating, rubefa- 
cient, and blistering, useful in spasmodic afFection>j 

T6 SABBATIA- No. 82. 

hysteria, hypocondria, obstructionSj obstructed secre- 
tions : also in rheumatism of the joints, feet, and loins, 
applied externally. Their effects in gout and hepatitis 
are more doubtful. 


Names. Angular Centaury. Fr. Centauree angu- 
leuse. Vulgar. Rosepink, Wild Succory, Bitterbloom. 

Classif. Nat. Order of Gentianides. Pentandria mo- 
nogynia L. 

Genus Sabbatia. Calyx persistent, four to twelve 
parted. Corolla rotate, four to twelve parted. Stamens 
four to twelve, anthers revolute. One pistil and style, 
two spiral stigmas. Capsule one celled, bivalve. 

Sp. Sabbatia angtdaris. P. Stem erect corymbose, 
square and winged : leaves clasping, ovate, acute : seg- 
ments of the calyx lanceolate, half as long as the corollaj 
stamens five. 

DESCRIPTION. Root annual, fibrous, and yellow. 
Stem one or two feet high, with opposite branches, form- 
ing a corymb, smooth, square, with small wings on the 
angles. Leaves opposite, quite sessile, subcordate, and 
clasping, very smooth, nerved, ovate acute, very entire. 
Flowers terminal, handsome, inodorous, forming a large 
corymb. Calyx base pentagone, five lanceolate seg- 
ments. Corolla with obovate spreading segments, twice 
as long as the calyx, of a fine rose colour. Stamens 
live, erect, filaments short filiform, anthers oblonp-, re- 
volute after the anthesis. Pistil ovate, style terete, two 
Im^ar styles, twisted together. Capsule with many 
8eed*v inserted on the two valves. 

HISTORY. This genus, dedicated to a Roman bo- 
dW^rl r^' u.^^ted to C/iiroma byLinnseus; it hardly 
t^Z ?™ '*' ^""^ ^^^ 'P^"^^ ^-^i^^^ ^ave seven to 
ctvyrs?.lr^''%^ ^f ^"^ ^** ^'^^^^e parted corolla and 

ra, and outhf?^"''*'^^*' approximate to the genus CA/o- 

I call PZu^aH« '"^f -P"^"*"^'' subgenus at least, which 

'^«n«. This species is very common in the 

No. 8£. SABBATIA. 


meadows of the United States, and blossoms in summer 
It has some varieties : 1 . Albiflora. 2. Latifolia. 3 Paii- 
ciflora. 4. Elatior. It resembles exceedindy the S 
centaurium of Europe, which differs only bj the round 
stem, and the S. corymbosa of our swamps, which has 
a square stem without wings, and a subulate calyx. AH 
the species of this genus are handsome ornamented 
plants ; my S. maritima, as well as S. stellar is of Pursh 
have a beautiful central star of two colors in the flower.' 
All the species are medical, and nearlv equivalents' 
although the S. angularis is the most bitter''and strongest; 
next to it are S. corymbosa, S. gracilis, and mv two 
tollowmg new species : 

1. S. maritima. Raf. 1802. Stem dichotome terete ; 
leaves lanceolate acute ; calyx campanulate, segments 
linear, subequal to the corolla, which is white, with 
Jobes ovate oblong, and a central yellow and rose star. 
On the sea shore of New Jersey, New York, &c. This 
plant has been erroneously blended with the S. stellaris, 
which has a corymbose stem, leaves narrower, calyx 
tiirbmate, corolla three times as long, lobes rose obovate 

obtuse, the central star yellow and red. In the Southern 

2. S.nivea. Raf. Stem slender, with four ano-les : 

leaves distant, cuneate, oblong ; flowers trichotome" ca- 

lyx turbinate, segments equal subulate, corolla double 
m length, snowy white, segments narrow, cuneate ob- 
tuse- Discovered in 1824, in east Kentucky, near the 
river Cumberland. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant is used ,• it is de- 
cidedly better than the European 8. centaurium, lone 
used for fevers before the Peruvian Bark was known. 
Every part of the plant afford a pure strong bitter, solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. It has no astringency, and 
hardly any aroma. The property resides in the extrac- 
tive principle. It is a popular remedy throughout the 
country as a stomachic febrifuge, and a cure For inter- 
mittent fevers. It is useful in all kinds of fevers, re- 
mittent, nervous, typhus, and even yellow fever, and 
may be given in every stage. It promotes appetite and 
digestion. It is said also to be a menagogue and vermi- 

fuge in a warm decoction. The most usual wav to take 

G 2 

7^8 SANGUINARIA. No. 83. 

it 13 in cold infusion. A good stomachic and febrifuge 
tincture is made with it, calamus, and orange peel. In 
powder, the dose is from ten to twenty grams, W 
IS a good vehicle for it, a wine glass being a dose, ^ 
equivalent of Gentian. 



Names. Common Bloodroot. Fr. Sanj 
nada. Vulgar. Red Puccoon, Blood wort- 

son, Turmeric. 

nogynia L 

Polyandria mo- 

enus Sanguinarxa. Calyx two leaves deciduous. 
Corolla with seven to fourteen petals. Many stamina. 
Pistil oblong, stigma sessile bilobed. Capsule one celled, 
bivalve* seeds anllate. 

Sp- oanguinaria canadensis. L. RadicaL leaves cor- 
date, sinuate, multilobe, obtuse, scapes uniflore, petals 

oblong, obtuse. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, horizontal, fleshy 
and thick, knobby, with some fibres, brownish red out- 
side, pale within, emitting a bright orange juice ; end 
truncate or obtuse, many buds sending off leaves and 
scapes. Leaves erect, on long channelled petioles, cor- 
date or subreniform, very smooth, sinuated into many 
rounded repand lobes, obtuse as well as the sinusses r 
color glaucous, almost white beneath, and reticulated by 
veins. Scapes erect, terete unfolded by the young leaves, 
one terminal flower. Calyx with two ovate, obtuse, and 
concave folioles, falling as soon as the corolla ex- 
pands. Corolla spreading, commonly with eight white 
petals, oblong obtuse, four alternate internal ones, a lit- 
tle shorter. Stamens many and short, anthers oblong, 
+K- 1 ^* Pistil oblong, compressed. No style, stigma 
tmc^ sessile, nearly bilobe. Capsule oblong, both ends 

Twlli ^"^ ^^^^^^- ^^^^s ™a^yt ^ownd, red, base with 

has onl V ?J' '^^^.^ §^^^^ ^^"^^d f^om its bloody root, 
nas omy one species known, with several varieties : 

No. 83. SANGUINARIA. 79 

1. Parviflora. 2. Cespitosa, 3. JRentformis. 4. Repens, 
5. Multipetalay with double petals. 6. Stenopetala with 
a narrow linear acute petals. Is it a new species? It 
IS a vernal plant, blossoming in April and May, found 
in woods from Canada to Louisiana, Florida, and Mis- 
souri. It is handsome, but inodorous. When the plant 
is in blossom, the leaves are small j they continue to 
grow larger afterwards. 

PROPERTIES. The root is the officinal part : it is 
one of the most valuable medical articles of our country, 
and already begins to be introduced into general prac- 
tice. It is an acrid narcotic, emetic, deobstruent, dia- 
phoretic, expectorant, vermifuge, escharotic, and at the 
same time stimulant, tonic. The chemical analysis has 
detected in it chinconin, a resin, an acrid gum resin, 
gallic acid, fecula, extractive and a peculiar bitter alkali 
called Sanguinarine, by Dana, which is of an orange 
color, and forms colored salts with acids. Alcohol dis- 
solves the color of the root better than water; paper and 
cloth dipt in these solutions are dyed of a salmon color. 
The Indians used the red juice to paint themselves, and 
dye or stain skins, baskets, &c. It has not yet been 
much used in dyeing, although it stains wool of a fine 
orange color ; the mordants are alumine and muriosul- 
phate of tin, for silk, cotton, &c- The taste of this root 
13 acrid and bitter, burning the mouth and throat : in 
powdering the dried root, the nose and throat are effect- 
ed. A large dose, from eight to twenty grains, is dan- 
gerous, causing heartburns, nausea, faintness, vertigo, 
dimness, and emesis. In small doses of two to four 
grains, it produces nausea without vomiting, and acce- 
lerates the circulation, while in minute doses of less than 
a grain, it acts like a tonic, and lessens the frequency of 
the pulse like Digitalis. The best way to use it is in 
tincture, diluted in wine or other vehicles. Ten drops 
of it acts as stimulant, diaphoretic, and deobstruent. 
When used as an emetic, it expels the worms from the 
stomach. It is, however, a violent and dangerous eme- 

be preferred- Schoepf mentions 

that a decoction of the root was used in gonorrhoea, bites 

of serpents, jaundice, and in bilious diseases j these 
properties are doubtful. The juice being acrid and cor- 

80 SANGUINaRIA. No. 83. 

rosive, was used for warts. Thatcher says it is the base 
of Baivson^s biiters, a remedy for jaundice. From thirty 
to eighty drops of the tincture in wine, twice a day, is a 
good prophylacted for intermittents, marshy fevers, and 
inward fevers. It is very bitter, increases the appetite 
and tone of the stomach. But it is beneficial in many 
other diseases of the liver and lungs, typhoid pneumo- 
nia, hooping cough, torpor of the liver, hydrotliorax, 
croup, amenorrhea, asthma, peripneumonia trachealis, 
incipient consumption, ulcerous sorethroat, cynanche 
trachealis, dysentery, inflammatory rheumatism, and 
externally in ulcers, polypus of the nose, fleshy excre- 
senses, and fungous tumors. 

Few medical plants unite so many useful properties ; 
but it requires to be administered with skiuiil hands, 
and may become dangerous in empirical hands. Dr. 
Tully has investigated them very carefully : he says 
that it unites all the beneficial effects of Squills, Seneka 
root, Digitalis, Gua;facum, and Ammoniacum, without 
their badT effects. 'In moderate doses, it excites the san- 
guiferous and lymphatic systems. Snuffed in the nose 
it excites sneezing. Applied externally to ulcers or dis- 
eased skm, it promotes absorption and changes action. 
In severe and protracted cynanche, pneumonia, pertysis, 
phthisis, &c. when the inflammatory symptoms are part- 
ly subdued, it acts as a tonic, expectorant, diaphoretic, 
and sedative, lessening the pulse from 112 to 80. Tully 
considers it as inestimable in these diseases, because it 
invigorates and strengthens the powers of the system, 
instead of weakening them. 

Externally, it is certainly a valuable escharotic ; 
either m powder or as a wash, it has cured ill condition- 
ed ulcers, with callous edges and ischorous discharges. 
It removes fungous tumors and excresences, nay, even 
sott pol;yT)us, by being used like snuff, and producing detu- 
mescence. A host of physicians have recommended this 
root, and none appears so well deserving of peculiar at- 
tention. Many rely entirely upon it to cure the croup, 

to nfr? ""^ *^" ^^ i''^}''^ S'"^^"^ «f tJ^e powder so as 

cLbhiT^-T'"'"- ^* ^^^ ^"""ed acute rheumatism. 

S acthfTn? ^""^l although it must become dangerous 

actne inflammation, because it is always somewhat 

No. 84. SCUTELLARIA. 81 

stimulant. In confirmed phthisis, it is only a palliative. 
It must not be given to pregnant women, since it is 
known to act on the uterus powerfully, and even cause 
abortion j whence its use in amenorrhea. It may be 
used in powder, electuary, pills, syrup, extract^ decoc- 
tion, wine tincture, and common tincture ; but the 
doses must be regulated by the cases : it loses much of 
its strength by keeping, after powdering or preparing in 
any way j but the dry roots keep very well. 

Although the roots alone are commonly used, the 
leaves have some of the same properties, and are power- 
ful, nay, deleterious stimulants. The farriers use them 
in diseases of horses, to make them sweat, shed their 
coat, &c. The seeds are violent narcotics, similar to 
those of Stramonium^ producing fever, delirium, diluted 
pupil, &c. They have been used as incitants, diapho- 
retics, and diuretics, but are dangerous and deleterious- 
They are seldom collected, although the roots are com- 
monly collected in summer, when they are ripe. 


_ ■ 

Name^. Officinal Scullcap* Fr. Toque lateriflora 
Vulgar. Madweed, Hoodwort, Blue Pimpornel. 
Classijfl Nat. Order of Labiate. Didynamia gjTn- 

nospermia L. 

Genus Scutellaria. Calyx bilabiate, persistent, up- 
per lip with a lid covering the seeds like an operculum. 
Corolla bilabiate, upper lip concave entire, lower tri- 
lobe. Stamens cliclynamom. Four seeds in the closed 

calyx - 

Sp. Scutellaria lateriflora. L. Branched and smooth ; 

leaves petiolate and thin, ovate dentate, the lower ones 
subcordate : racemes axillary, leafy- 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, fibrous, yellow. 
Stem erect, one to three feet high, much branched, dif- 
fuse, smooth, quadrangular : branches opposite divari- 
cate. Leaves on long petioles^ thin or nearly membra- 
naceous, opposite distichal, subcordate on the stem, 
ovate on the branches, dentate, acute, somewhat rugose. 

82 SCUTELLARIA- No. 84. 

Flowers pale blue, on long lateral axillary racemes, 
bracteated by bracts ovate acute, entire, subsessile, each 
flower axillary to one bract and pedunculated, bracts 
distichal, flowers unilateral. - Calyx scutellate. Seeds 
oval verrucose- 

HISTORY. A remarkable natural genus, with many 
species, easily known by the calyx. This species is 
found all over the United States, in woods, meadows, 
near waters, &:c.; it blossoms in summer- The juice of 
the plant is a little colored of red- It has hardlj^ any 
smell, and the taste is vapid bitterish- The varieties 
are: 1. Membranacea. 2- Pumila. 3. Ramosissima. 

* PROPERTIES. Schoepf states the S. lateriflora, S. 
galerictdatay S.integrifolia, and S.hyssopifolia^ to have 
similar properties, being abstergent and tonic j useful in 
intermittent fevers- The S. lateriflora is laterly become 
famous as a cure and prophylactic against hydrophobia- 
This property was discovered by Dr. Vandesveer, to- 
wards 17r2, who has used it with the utmost success, 
and is said to have till 1815, period of his death, pre- 
vented 400 persons and 1000 cattle from becoming hy- 
drophobous, after being bitten by mad dogs- His son is 
stated to have thus relieved or cured 40 persons in three 
years, in New York and New Jersey. Many empirics, 
and some enlightened physicians have employed it also 
successfully. But several sceptical physicians have since 
denied altogether these facts, and pronounced the plant 
totally inert, because it has no strong action on the sys- 
tem, and has failed in their hands. Dr. W. Barton and 
Dr. Tully /lave strenuously asserted this, but without 

analyzing the plant, and denying, instead of provin^ 
This plant has since been carefully analyzed by Cadet, 
in Paris, and found to contain many powerful chemical 
principles, which evince active properties. 

The dried plant gave one fourth of soluble matter, and 
a very active extract. The substances found in it by 
Cadet were : 1. A yellow-green oil, fixed and soluble in 
ether. 2. A bitter principle, soluble in water, alcohol, 
and ether. 3. Chlorophylle- 4. A peculiar volatile mat- 
ter, smelhngand tasting like the principle of antiscorbu- 
uc plants. 5, An essential oil- 6. Albumine. T- A sweet 


- ■ * 

mucous substance. 8. A peculiar astringent principle. 
9. Lignine. When burnt, the ashes afford the chlorure 
of soda, and seven other salts. It is, therefore, preposter- 
ous to deem such a plant inert. The facts already known 
prove that it is tonic, astringent, anti-spasmodic, and 
an ti -hydrophobic at least. It has been used chiefly of 
late, in all nervous diseases, convulsions, tetanus, St. 
Vitus' dance, tremors, &c. and has availed in many in- 
stances. In hydrophobia, it appears to be a good pro- 
phylactic, if not a certain cure : a physician, (Dr. 
White; of Fishkill) bitten by a mad dog, has assured me 
that himself alone avoided the disease by using it, while 
others bitten by the same dog died. Many instances of 
the same kind are on record : na^, many Nvho believe in 
this property, say that it never falls. We lack, how- 
ever, a series of scientific and conclusive experiments, 
made by well informed men ; they have been discourag- 
ed by the ridiculous denial of sceptics ; but let us hope 
may jet be performed. The plant was used fresh or 
dry, m infusion or tea, a gill four times a day, and the 
plant applied to the wound. A purgative of flour of sul- 
pher is often given at the same time. This plant is now 
almost neglected like the j9nagaiUs phenicea dind Jjtlis- 
ma plantago^ which enjoyed once a reputation for hy- 
drophobia J but we have so few presumed remedies for 
this dreadful disease, and it is so desirable to confirm 
the properties of those supposed available, that it is 
needful to encourage rather than discourage every at- 
tempt to throw light on the subject- 


Names. Multiflore Sealwort. Fr. Sigillaire multi- 
flore. Vulgar. Solomon Seal, Sealroot, Dropberry. 
Classify Nat. Order of Asparagoides. Hexandria mo- 

nogynia L. • t r c 

Genus Sigill\kia. Perigone tubular, six cleft. Sta- 
mens six, inserted in the upper part of the tube. One 
pistil, one style, one stigma. Berry three celled, cells 
*«r^ Ir^^AoA axillary to Stem leaves. 

84 SIGILLARIA. No. 85. 


Sp- Sigillana multiflora. Raf- Stem terete, leaves 
clasping oblong ovalj acute, smooth, peduncles nodding 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, horizontal, thick, 
wrinkled, premorse. Stem simple, erect, two or three 
feet high, smooth and round. Leaves alternate, longer 


or suboval, 

base clasping, entire, multinerve, very smooth. Flowers 
white, pretty large, nearly one inch long, several on 
axillary reflexed peduncles, three to five sessile- Berry 
round, red, dotted. 

HISTORY. Linnseus and the Llnneen botanists have 
united half a dozen genera under the name of Convalla- 
ria^ which thus has no characters of its own j they are 
^ 1. Convallaria* L. Perigone corolliform campanulate, 
six cleft- Six stamens. Berry three celled. Scapes 
racemose. Lillies of the valley. C. majalis and C. 

2. Globeria. Raf. Perigone corolliform dobular, six 
toothed. Six stamens. Scape spicated. C. spicata of 

3. Sigtllaria.'Rsit 1817- See above: the Polygonatum 
of Tournefort, bad name, same as Polygonum. All the 
species vulgarly called Solomon Seal. A genus of anti- 
diluvian plant has been called Sigillaria by Bronffniart, 
which ought to be called Sigillites. If any name must 
be changed, I offer another substitute as good, Axillaria. 

4. Mayanthemum. Pers. {Similacina, Desf. a bad 


) Perigone corolliform, six 

the base of the segments. Berry three'^celled. ji stem, 
Jlowersterminal racemose. M. stellatum, M. racemosum, 
M. tnfohum, &c. 

5. Sty ratidra. Jiaf. 1817. Perigone corolliform, four 
parted, spreading, four stamens divergent. Berry two 
celled. Habit as the last. St. bifolia. 

6. Clinlonia. Raf. 1817. Perigone corolliform, six 

?w„ ^^'"P'-essed, stigma bilobe, compressed. Berry 
t^o celled, cells polysperm. ~ ^ - ' 

Jiower,. Several sVcies callec 

Scape with umbellate 


No. 85. SIGILLARIA. 85 

Convallaria umhellata bj authors, distinguished by my- 
self, 1* CI nvians. 2. CI odorata. 3. CL podanhta^ 
4. CL parvijtora. 5. CI multiflora. 

It is absurd to consider all these genera as one genus, 
without any collective characters j they are not even 
subgenera, since their habit and flowers are widely dif- 
ferent. , 

The S, muUiflora is found all over the United States^ 

on hills I it blossoms in June and July- The other Ame- 
rican species of Sigillaria^ such as S. bi/iora, S. tatifo- 
lia^ S. pubescensj &c. are all called Solomon Seal, and 
having similar properties, will be included here. 

PROPERTIES. The roots of those plants are chiefly 
used. They are demulcent, restringent, corroborant, 
depurative, vulnerary, cosmetic, cephalic, nervine, &c. 
Their smell is vapid, the taste rather macilagiuou^ and 

sweetish : they contain gum, sugar, mucilage, and fe- 
cuTa- Their properties are so mild that they can be 
eaten, particularly when dry or cooked. In Sweden, a 
flour and sood bread is made with them- Oar Indians 

collected them a^ an article of food- The Indians of 

Oregon or Columbia river eat the berries, cauii _ 
Solmq.^ which name is surprisingly similar to ours. The 
young shoots may be eaten like Asparagus and Poke, 
according to Cutlen Sc^oepf says that the bruised root 
is employed in ophthalniy or sore eyes. They are also 
useful in poultice, for piles, wounds, and inflammations 
of the skm, A vinous infusion of them witli Comfrey 
roots is useful as a restringent in fluor albus, leucor- 
rhea, and immoderate flow of the menses. The powder- 
ed roots purify the blood ; their extract has been used 
by Dr. Arnold for coughs and pains in the breast. They 
appear to be equivalent to ITlmus fulva^ and u.ay per- 
haps be used in bowel complaints. Schoepf says that 
one species (more probably Uvularia grandijlord) is em- 
ployed in Pennsylvania against the bites of rattle snakes. 
The berries arc cephalic and cardiacal, like tho^e of 
Mayanthemum racemosumy mentioned by Clayton. 


86 SOLANUM. No. 86 


Names, Bitter-sweet Nightshade. Fr* Solane dou- 

ceaniere- Vulgar. Bitter-sweet Vine, Nightshade Vine, 
Violet bloom, Scarlet Berry. 

Classify Nat- Order of Lurides. Pentandria mono- 

gynia L. 

Genus Solanuk- Calyx five cleft, persistent. Co- 
rolla rotate, five cleft. Stamens five, anthers coherent, 
with two pores above. One pistil, style and stigma. 
-Berry two celled, many seeded. 

Spl Solarium dulcamara. L. Stem shrubby, twining, 
Inerme, flexuose : leaves ovate, subcordate, commonly 
with two auricles at the base : panicles cymose. 

DESCRIPTION. Woody vme, creeping or climbing 
to the extent of five or six feet, base woody, end or last 
shoots herbaceous, flexuose, without thorns, smooth, te- 
rete. Leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate acute, entire, base 
subcordate, and often with one or two small lobes like 
auricles at the base, with obtuse sinusses. Flowers on 
peduncles opposed to the leaves, bearing a loose cluster 
or cymose panicle of many flowers, of a pretty violet 
color, with yellow anthers- Calyx small, acute- Corolla 
nearly five parted, segmeats acute, ovate, lanceolate, 
each with two whitish dots or glands at the base, often 
reiiexed. Filaments very short, anthers erect, forming 
a yellow conical tube. Pistil oval, style filiform, exert 
stigma obtuse, simple. Berries oval, of a bright scarlet 

HISTORY. The genus S'o/anwm includes a. multi- 
tude of species of opposite characters and properties, 
very wrongly blended by Linneeus, who abolished the 
genera Lycopersicon^ Melongena^ &c. of Tournefort. 
They must be re-established, and the whole genus re- 
vised ; the following genera must be separated at least: 

I. Lycopersicon, Calyx and corolLl, 6 to 12 parted, 
and stamens from six to twelve. Berry multilocuiar. The 
tomato belongs here and S.ftrgax, &c. 

3. Melongena. Calyx unequal, three to six cleft- 
Corolla campanulate, four to six cleft. Stamens four to 
six, equal. Berry spongv. S. rnelongeno. S. stelia- 



No. 86. SOLANUM. ST 

3. Otilix. Raf. Calyx appendiculated* Stamens five, 
not connivent. Seeds osseous. S. Ucioides^ &c. 

4. .^nrfrocera. N. Calyx swelled, caducous* Corolla 
subringent- Stamens unequal, anthers free, hornlike. 
Style declinated. Berry dry. Jl, lobata or S. heteranthum 


The S. dulcamara is a true Solanum. It is a native 

of Europe, Asia, and North America/where it grows in 
the Eastern and Northern States, from New England to 
Ohio, 6s. c. in shady fertile grounds, blossoming from 
June to August. "^The berries stand on the vme till 
very late. There are many varieties of this plant, such as, 
l.Heterophylla, common kind. 2.IsopIiyUa^ledL\es consi- 
milar not auriculated. S.Maritima^ with pubescent leaves. 
4. Hepens, stem procumbent and creeping. 5. Pandnratay 
leaves lyrate, pandurate. These two last most frequent 
in the wild state in America. It is a handsome vine, 
often cultivated in gardens. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant is used as a depu- 
rative, deobstruent, antiherpetic, narcotic, diuretic, ano- 
dyne, repellent, &c. The taste is sweetish and bitter, 
whence tlie name ; the smell is somewhat nauseous, but 
much less so than in 5. m^rwm and other species. Its 
active principles are the solanic acid, a peculiar sub- 
stance, called Solania, a mucous extractive, &c.: they 
are more soluble in water than in alcohol. A very be- 
neficial article in many diseases, now neglected by the 
chemical school, but adequate to produce nearly all the 
good effects of sulphur, antimony, and mercury, in 
chronic rheumatism, ^out, secondary syphilis, incipient 
phthisis, asthma, jaundice, herpes, lepra, and all cutaneous 

affections. It has also been used in pleurisy, peripneu- 
monia, dyslochia, amenorrhea, and scrofula. While ex- 
temallv, it is very useful in contusion, the itch, herpetic 
sores, sore nipples, schirrous swellings, nay, even the 
cancer, and the wprst kinds of ulcers. The common 
way to use it is in decoction ; but the American varie- 
ties are very powerful j Bigelow states that a few grains 
of the fresh*' leaves, or a small cup of the decoction have 
been known to vomit. A great difference in stren^h 
is observed in the various parcels kept in the shops ; the 
plants growing in a dry soil and warm climates are 

38 SOLANUM. No. 86. 

■ n 


strongest j by drying, much of their strength is lost. A 
slight nausea, vertigo, and palpitation, are evidences of 
its operation. A palatable syrup may be made with it 
and some aromatic substances. In general, it increases 
all the secretions and excretions, excite the heart and 
arteries, and in large doses, produces emesis, spasms, 
delirium, giddiness^ palpitations, convulsions, and in- 

The first doses ought to be always moderate and gra- 
dually increased, beginning with one ounce of the de- 
coction, or five grains of the extract, three times daily. 
Dr. Haller and others have cured the cancer, by topical 
application of the juice and green leaves. It is pernaps 
the best cure for the loathsome lepra, by using it inter- 
nally, and externally as a wash, also for all kinds of 
herpetic eruptions, ulcerous sores, &c. in the same wav. 
It is deemed a valuable auxiliary to mercury in syphilitic 
eruptions. Thus it avails iij all cutaneous diseases of 
tl^e skin ; twenty-one cases of lepra were cured out of 
twenty-three, by Dr, Chricton. It increases the power 
of sarsaparilla in all cases, and is an ingredient in all 
depurative medicines and panaceas. It is a palliative in 
^ituitous and tubercular phthisis. It always acts as a 
diuretic and aperient. It has been found useful in chro- 
nic venereal pains, osteocopic pains, inflammatory fe- 
vers, violent asthma, chronic rheumatism, and stiffness 
in the muscles and joints. 

^ The Solanum virginianum^ which some deem a va- 
riety of S. nigmm^ and grows all over the United States 
in fields, road sides, &c. is easily knowtf by its herba- 
ceous winged erect stem, small white flowers, berries 
black, and ovate repand leaves. It possesses nearly all 
the properties of S, dulcamara^ nay, is more narcotic 
^nd virulent, also hypnotic, sedative, &c» One to three 
grains of the leaves infused in water, produce a copious 
perspiration, profuse diuresis, and often purge next day; 
a larger dose affects the nervous system. Therefore, 
tbis plant is very active, and if substituted, must be 
given carefully and gradually. The berries are poison- 
o^^ causing coma, torpor, burning in the stomach, fever, 

il^rf' ft^''^' insensibility. The extract is less vio^ 
lent, but highly sedative. "The leaves poison hogs and 

No. 87. SPIGELIA. 89 


fowls. They have been used internally for inflammation 
of the stomach and bowels, ardor of urine, dropsical 
complaints, internal and syphilitic pains, obstinate her- 
petic and scorbutic eruptions, ulcers of a cancerous na- 
ture, &c. The dose, one or two grains. Externally, 
they are still more useful in poultice, for headache, 
phlegmon, schirrous, erysipelas, painful inflamed sores, 
even scrofulous and cancerous, foul chronic ulcers, and 
every other disease of the skin. 


Names. Common Pinkroot. Fr, Spigelie ofiicinale. 
Vulgar. Carolina Pink, Starbloom, Indian Pink, Worm 
Root, Unstitla- 

Classif. Nat. Order of Gentianea. Pentandria mo- 
nogynia L. 

enus Spigelia. Calyx five parted persistent. Co- 
rolla funnel shape, five cleft. Stamens five, inserted near 
the opening. One style, exert, stigma fusiform. Capsule 
bilobed bilocular, many seeded. 

Sp. Spigelia marilandica. L. Perennial, stem simple, 
quadrangular, leaves opposite sessile, ovate lanceolate ; 

terminal raceme of unilateral fusiform flowers. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, yellow, with many 
branched fibres in a bunch- Several stems, with four 
sides? erect, simple, smooth. Leaves all opposite and 
sessile, oval elongate, very sharp or acuminate, entire 
and smooth. A raceme, seldom two, with few flowers, 
five to twelve, one sided, on short pedunales, without 
calyx, with five subulate serrulate segments. Corolla 
very handsome, one inch long, of a bright scarlet out- 
side, but yellow above or inside, tube fusiform or swell- 
ed, and an^lar above, border with five acute spreading 
segments, like a golden star. Stamens five, short, in- 
serted near the mouth, but decurrent, anthers cordate, 
oblong. Pistil ovate, small, style long filiform, jointed 
below, with a fusiform pubescent acute stigma. Capsule 
on the reflexed calyx, with two globular lobes and cells, 
and many seeds. 

H 2 

90 SPIGELIA. No. 8r. 

HISTORY. A beautiful plant, very ornamental by 
its bright blossoms, although scentless. Found in the 
Southern and Western States, from Maryland to Ken- 
tucky and Florida; very abundant in some peculiar 
places, such as the glades of Carolina and west Ken- 
tucky, where it is collected as an article of trade. It 
blossoms in June and July. It has the following varie- 
ties : 1. Listachya. 2. Fubera, stem, neryes, and margin 
of leaves pubescent. 3* Pallida^ with pale red flowei^s- 
4. Mbiflora^ very rare. 5 .Angustifolia^ leaves nearly 
lanceolate- 6. Parviflora. The genus is dedicated to 
Spigeli, an Italian botanist. The Cherokees call it Un- 
stitla, the Osages Mekaa or Starflower. It has been ex- 
tirpated in many places b^ collectors, and is now very 
rare in Maryland and Virginia. 

PROPERTIES. The root is the officinal part, and 
is an article of trade. It is narcotic, vermifuge, seda- 
tive, cathartic, and febrifuge ,• but the stem and leaves 
have the same proj^erties. When fresh, they are always 
narcotic, like Digitalis and Datura / but when dry they 
lose their strength, the roots even quicker than the 
leaves, and when the article has long been exposed to 
the air, it becomes nearly inert, whence the various 
opinions on its effects. As a narcotic, it is preferable 
to Digitalis, and milder, never causing sudden prostra- 
tion, yet it lessens and .soothes the morbid irritability of 
the heart, arteries, and nerves. In lar^e doses, it causes 
vertigo, dilatation of the pupil, headache, stupor, flushed 
face, intoxication, and delirium. The chemical analysis 
gives as constituent, mucus, extractive, gallic acid, and a 
peculiar volatile substance called Spigelian. Water is the 
best menstruum. The smell is not nauseous, the taste 
IS mucilaginous and sweetish, and thus it is not disliked 
by children like laany vermifuges. The Cherokees made 
known the properties of this plant, and they have been 
<^^firmed by many physicians. It has chiefly attracted 
Rotice as a vermifuge and for diseases of children, con- 

VUlSiCms. wnrm f^Trai^ kr^ 14- l„ 11 •. i . . 





rWk!^ very mild, and by no means certain ; senna 
rnubarb are the best adjuncts : the warm infusion is 


No. 88- SPIREA. 9t 

ed ; dose of the powder 10 to £0 grains, in honey ; a 
ood worm syrup is made also with it, united to mild 


purgatives. Much used in Louisiana, where it is called 
Serpentine. The Osages use it as a sudorific and seda- 
tive in acute diseases. Ives recommends it in the fever 
of children, called worm fever, (although not always at- 
tended with worms) seated in the bowels, and known by 
flushed cheeks and lips ; he also deems it useful in 
dysentery. A vinous infusion has been found useful in 
intermittents, the protracted remittent fever of infants, 
convulsions of children, &c. It appears peculiarly suita- 
ble for their diseases. The S. anthelmica of the West 
Indies, is also vermifuge, as the name implies. 




Names. Red Meadow-sweet* Fr. Ulmaire discc 
Vulgar. Hardhack, Steeple Bush, Rosy Bush, Vi 


Classif. Nat. Order of Spiracea. Icosandria penta- 
gynia L. 

Genus Spirea. Calyx 6 cleft. Five petals, equal 

rounded. Many stamens ovi the calyx, exserted. ris- 

tils 3 to 12. Capsules 3 to 12, one celled, bivalve, each 
i or two seeded. 

Sp, Spirea tomentosa. L- Stem simple, shrubby, erect; 
leaves ovate lanceolate, unequally serrate, tomentose 
beneath : spikes terminal compound, flowers crowded, 

DESCRIPTION. Small shrub, with many sterna, 2 

or 4 feet high, simple, upright, purplish, downy, terete. 
Leaves alternate, crowded, on very short petioles, ob» 
long or oval lanceolate, subacute at both end», with un- 
equal acute serratures, dark green or brownish above, 
and rugose, white and tomentose beneath. Flowers ter- 
minal, m a kind of terminal panide, of a handsome red 
color, formed by compound spikes of small subsessile 
flowers. Calyx campanulate, with 5 acute segments. 
Five round petals. Five pistils and capsules. 

92 SPIREA. No. 88. 

HISTORY. A fine genus, containing several pretty 
shrubs ^ this is one of the prettiest, and is very orna- 
mental, by its leaves of two colors, and large panicles of 
red blossoms. It blossoms in July and August, and is 
common from New England to Carolina and Kentucky, 
in moist grounds, meadows, &c. The varieties are, 
\. Pumila. Q. Pankulata. S. ^Ibiflora. A. Ferruginea. 

5. Virgata. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant is inodorous, but 
the taste is pleasantly bitter and powerfully astringent. 
It contains tannin, gallic acid, bitter extractive, &c. all 
soluble in water. Formerly used by the Mohegan tribe 
of Indians and the herbalists ; brought to notice only 
towards 1810, by Dr. Cogswell, of Hartford. Schoepf 
and Cutler have omitted it. Drs.Mead, Ives, and TuUy 
have since recommended it as a very good astringent and 
tonic. ■ The whole plant may be used, but the root is the 
least valuable part. The extract of it, prepared by the 
Shakers and others, is the best form ; dose 4 to 6 grains, 
every two or three hours, in dysentery and chronic diar- 
rhoea, cholera infantum, debility of the bowels and the 
system, hemorrhage of the bowels, and other diseases 
where astringents are required. It appears to be equal 
if not superior to Kino and Catechu, because it never 
disagrees with the stomach,- all its virtues are soluble in 
water, is a bitter tonic, and can be had pure and genuine. 
It IS jpeculiarly useful in the secondary stages of bowel 
complaints, when the inflammation has b*een partly sub- 
dued, either alone or combined with ipecac, opium, Sec. 
It has been used abroad by seamen, with great benefit, 
in the cholera morbus and chronic diarrhoea of tiie tro- 
pical climates, evea in the first stage. United to milk 
and sugar, it forms a very pleasant drink for the pro- 
tracted stage of cholera. It is said to be equivalent to 
Geranium maculatim and Cornus circinata in most 
caa«ft, but the first is less tonic, and the last a better 
^^r!hu^ . ? ^O'^^okaogacha of the Osage Indians is 
nnw^rfS . ^l''"''^ 5 *^^y "se the dry root and stems as 
monb'i, K^l^'' ^-""^ astringents, to stop blood and he- 
Se woL? ''^^'^'"g*^^"^' «■■ drinking the cold infusion; 

Plaints ns»"'' l""- *" ^"^ =^"'1 ^^ ^ ^^'^sh ^^^ fen^ale com- 
piamis, as a restnngent, &c. 

No. 89. STATICE. 9 


The Spirea opulifolia^ a larger shrub, growing oa the 
banks of streams, with trifid leaves and white corymbose 
trigjnous blossoms, and commonlj called Ninebark^ has 
nearly the same properties, and is an equivalent. I 
have used the extract with equal success. It is chiefly 
used by the herbalists in external applications for fomen- 
tations, poultices, burns, mortification, swellings. If it 
is the Sindesneni of the Osages (or is it Prinos ? or 
Hydrangea?) it is also cathartic, febrifuge, sudorific^ 
and anthelmintic j the roots, bark, and twigs are used 
in asthma, colds, fevers, bowel complaints, &c. chiefly 
in warm infusions. But many shrubs bear the name of 
Nineback in the United States. 




Names. American Thrift. JFr. Statice d'Ameriquc. 
Vulgar. Marsh Rosemary, Marsh Root, Seaside Thrift, 
Inkroot, Sea Lavender. 

Classif. Fat Order of Staticea- Pentandria mono- 

Genus Statice. Calyx monophyllous, scarious, and 
plaited. Petals 5. Stamens 5, inserted on their claws. 
One pistil, 5 styles- One seed, invested by the calyx. 

Sp- Statice carolinianu. Walter. Radical leaves pe- 
tiolate cuneate obtuse, acutely mucronate, smooth and 
flat : stem round panicled, flowers geminate, in unilate- 
ral spikes. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial, large, fleshy, fu- 
siform or branched, premose or obtuse, purplish brown. 
Radical leaves, erect on long petioles, cuneiform, very 
smooth^ with only one nerve, end broader obtuse, but 
with an acute point, quite entire and flat on the margin. 
Scapes round, smooth, one or two feet high, loosely pa- 
nicled above, branches alternate, ramules unilateral, 
pointing upwards, flowers the same at the ends of ^e 
ramules, small, subsessile, each axillary to an ovate mu- 
cronate scaly bract, commonly geminate, Ujpon a short 
scaly and forked peduncle. Calyx funnel shaped^ 5 
anHed, 5 teethed, angles ciliate. Petals blue, spatulate 

94 STATICE. No. 89 

obtuse. Pistil small obovate, 5 stvles shorter than the 
stamens. Seed oblong. 

HISTORY. This plant is deemed by many a variety 
of St. liminium of Europe, which, however, differs by 
the leaves oblong undulate and larger flowers, while the 
St. gmeiini or Asiatic, akin species, has obovate leaves 
and angular scapes. It was first distinguished by Wal- 
ter, and grows on our sea shores, near salt marshes, 
from New England to Florida. It blossoms in summer. 
The varieties are ; 1. Jllbi/Iora. 3. Cespitosa, S.Fumila. 
4. Hamosissima. 3. Longifolia. It is strange that the 
name of Rosemary, belonging to a very different shrub, 
the Rosmarinus officinalis, should be given to this plant 
in America : the true English name is Thrift. Neither 
the root nor plant has any smell. 

PROPERTIES. The root is the officinal part j it is 
one of the most powerful vegetable astringent and styp- 
tic, even stronger than St. Kmonium, Geranium macula- 
tmn, and Kino, and equal to Galls, since an equal quan- 
tity of both makes ink equally black. It contains tan- 


and alcohol are both solvents of it, but tlie last is even 
stronger, and the cold infusion more powerful than the 
hot. The roots are kept in shops : they are chiefly used 
m aphtha, ulcers of the mouth and throat, debility, he- 
morrhage, cynanche maligna, relaxed bowels, cholera 
infantum, chronic dysentery, &c. in which they are emi- 
nently beneficial, being also antiseptic. It often avails 
when other astringents and tonics have failed. It is a 
Kmd of specific, as a gargle, in ulcerous sorethroat or 
scarlatina anginosa. In dysentery, it must be given after 
purgatives. It has been employed also in a wash or in- 
jections, in gonorrhea, gleets, and immoderate flow of 
menses. For internal use, the decoction or infusion 
sw-eetened (or a syrup) may be employed in small re- 
peated doses. The taste is very styptic and somewhat 

tic?'^ Vi* "^^^ ^^ "^^^^ "^°^® palatable by some aroma- 
mirt<«il ^^^ "^^^"^ properties are well attested and ad- 
ic ' ^ ^ ' ,^^l Pliysicians. Zollickoffer alone states that it 
' ^^ swionfic and emetic, but probably by mistake. 

No. 90. SYMPHYTUM. 95 


Numes^ Common Comfrey. Fr* Consoude usuelle. 

Classif. Nat. Order of Borragines or Asperifolia. 
Pentandria raonogynia L. 

. Genus Symphytum. Calyx five parted, persistent. 
Corolla funnel shaped, limbus tubulate ventricose, orifice 
closed by 5 subulate appendages. Five stamina in the 
tube. Pistil 4 lobed, one style and stigma. Four seeds. 

^^. Symphytum qffidnale. L. Stem erect and winged: 
leaves oval lanceolate, all sessile, decurrent, acute, ru- 
gose: racemes nodding, glomerated, and secund. 
^ DESCRIPTION. Root jperennial, whitish, thick, cv- 
lindrical, tapering or branched. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, 
upright, branched, angular and winged, rough j branches 
erect. Leaves alternate, sessile decurrent, oblong, at- 
tenuated, and rugose. Flowers in terminal racemes, 
glonerated, nodding, recurved. Corolla yellowish white, 
base tubular, end ventricose, 5 toothed. 

HISTORY. This plant ia a native of Europe, but has 
been naturalized from New England to Ohio and Vlr- 

inia, growing spontaneously in thickets, meadows, &c. 

t blossoms in June and July. The varieties are, 1. Ptir- 
ptirenm^ with purple flowers and spreading calyx. 2, Ni- 
grum, root black. S.Elaiior. A.Pumihim. 5. JHhiflorum. 

We have a native American species of this genus, 
found west of the Mississippi, in the prairies and glades, 
and cultivated at Bartram-s garden. 1 call it and dlstin- 
guisli as follows : 

Symphytum hirsutum. Whole plant hirsute. Stem 
erect, somewhat winged, lower leaves petiolate, oblong 
lanceolate, upper leaves sessile decurrent, oval acumi- 
nate ; racemes germinate, erect, convolute at the end. 
Size 4 feet, lower leaves a foot long, flowers white. 

PROPERTIES. The whole plant, but chiefly the 
roots are in use j the 'S'* hirsutum is probably equivalent. 
They have no smell ; the taste is mucilaginous, gluti- 
nous, a little sweetish, and austere, but grateful. The 
principles are mucilage, fecula, gallic acid, &c. They 
are inspissant, demulcent, vulnerary, astringent, and be- 
neficial in dysentery, nephritis, haciuatuna, hemoptysis, 

P6 TRILLIUM. No. 91. 

strangury, and many other diseases internally, while ex- 
ternally they are useful bruised and applied to ruptures 
and sprains. The mucilage of these roots is equal to that 
oidlthea or Marshmallows, but much more useful, beir 
united to astringency. The Comfrey may be used with 
great advantage in hemorrhage of the bowels, stomach, 
and lungs, erosions of the intestines, salt rheum, gonor- 
rhea, and fluor albus, ardor of urine, &c- It is much va- 
lued in Europe and China, also b^ our herbalists, but 
wrongly omitted by all our medical writers, except 
Schoepf and Cutler. In China it is called Tihoang, and 
considered equal to Ginseng in many cases, particularly 
in preserving health ; pills, lozenges, and bolus are made 

en daily m the morning, by people of weak 
and debilitated habits. In Europe, a conserve and syrup 
is used. The infusion, decoction, &c- are equally goodj 
the doses need not be very nice, as the effects are mild. 
Our herbalists unite it to Burdock and Yarrow, to cure 
the clap, using at the same time injections of Statice or 
Tormentil- Boiled in milk, it becomes the best prepara- 
tion for diseases of the bowels and urinary organs. It 
may be safely employed in all diseases of debility, re- 
taxation, and overflowing- It is said to act as a pallia- 
tive at least in nephitic pains and gravel, to prevent the 
recurrence of bleeding from the lungs and stomach, and 
to strengthen while it lubricates all the solids. 


Names. Broadleaf Bethroot, Fr, Triole dilatee. Vul- 
gar. Bethroot, Rattlesnake Root, Wakerobin, Cough- 
root, Indian Balm, Ground Lily, Jews Harp, Indian 
Shamrock, Pariswort, Truelove. 

Classif, Nat. Ord. of Asparagoides. Hexandria tri- 
gyn\a L. 

Genus Trillivm. Perigone double marcescent, each 
3 parted, exterior caliciform, interior coroUiform. Six 
stamina inserted at the base of the segments, nearly 
equal, anthers linear. Pistil oval, 3 linear stigmas, (seU 
dom a style.) Berry 3 celled polysperm. Constant habit 

No. 91. • TRILLIUM. 97 

of the whole genus. Boot perenniaL Stem terete 
smooth, ered^ with 3 verticUlale leaves and one terminal 

Sp. Trillium latifolium. See sp. 25* 

HISTORY. This beautiful natural genus is peculiar 
to North America j the nearest genera are the European 
Paris, differing merely by perigone 8 parted, 8 stamens, 
4 stigmas, and 4 leaves. 2. The American Medeola^ 
which has a simple caducous 6 parted perigone, whorl 
of several leaves, flowers umbellate. Linnseus had on- 
ly 3 species of Trillium. Tr. sessile, Tr. erectum, and 
Tr. ccrnuum. Michaux, Pursh, Nuttal, Elliot, Beck, 
&c. have increased them to about 15 ; but having paid 
particular attention to this interesting genus, I have as- 
certained as many as 33 species, with a multitude of 
varieties j all bear the above vulgar names, and are 
ornamental, but scentless. Many are scarce species, 
chiefly found in the Alleghany, Cumberland, Cherokee 
or Apalachian mountains, the western glades, &c. They 
are all vernal, blooming in the spring. I propose to 
give here the Prodromus of their monography. I divide 
the genus into 3 subgenera. 

L Sessilinm. Petals erect, anthers adnate, filaments 
flat,^ stigmas sessile. Flowers sessile, erect, (the Tr. 
sessile of L. 

S- Antiiopium. Petals spreading, anthers terminal, 

filaments not flat, stigmas sessile. Floivers pedunculate, 
erect or drooping. 

3, Deloslylium. A style, 3 stigmas. Flower pedun- 

L S. G. Sessilium. 
l.Sp. Trilium longi^orum.U^f. Leaves sessile, spread- 
ing, ovate acute, 5 nerved : petals lanceolate, twice as 
long as the calyx, sessile, acute and purple. The Tr^sessile 
of modern authors, which name is wrong and illusive. 
Found from Lake Onurio to Carolina. Root thick pre- 
mose, and berry purple, as in most all the species ; many 
varieties: l.Macidatum. 2.^tropurpureum, S. Farvifo' 
Hum. 4. Purnilum. 5*FubricauU. 6, Uiulnlatunu T.La- 

2. Tr. rotundifoliurn. Raf. Leaves spreading, sessile, 
rounded ovate, obtusely acuminate, 5 nerved : calyx 

98 TRILLIUM. 'No. 91. 

erect lanceolate, petals rather longer lanceolate, obtuse, 
undulate, dark purple, sessile ; stamens short. From 
Lake Erie to Tennessee. Var. 1. Mexicatile. 2. Rubri- 
caule. 3. Maculatum. 4. Orhiculatum. 5. Pallidum. 
6. Undulatiim. 

3. TV. isanthum, Raf. Leaves drooping sessile, oval 
elliptic, with an obtuse point, 5 nerved. Calyx and pe- 
tals equal, erect, oblong acute ; stamens nearly as long. 
In Ohio, Kentucky, Arkansas. Petals pale purple- Var. 
1. jSlbiJforum. 2- Parvijtorum. 

4. Tr. tine for ium. B.a(. Root concatenate, red inside: 
leaves drooping sessile, oval lanceolate, acute trinerve : 
calyx and petals equal erect, oval lanceolate acute. In 
the islands of the Missouri river. Is it a variety of TV. 

5. Tr. viride. Beck- Leaves ovate acute, maculate ; 
Calyx ovate lanceolate erect obtuse, petals green, ra- 
ther longer, spatulate and thick : stamens short. In 

6. TV. recitrvahim. Beck. Leaves subpetiolate, ovate 
lanceolate acute trinerve. Calyx recurved lanceolate 
acute, petals equal to it, ovate lanceolate, purple : sta- 
mens short. From Kentucky to Missouri. Variety 
1. Sessilifoliiim. 2. Obovatum. o. Maculatum. 4. Un- 

7. Tr. angustifollum. Raf, Stem slender, leaves lan- 
ceolate acuminate, trinerve, undulate, often erect : ca- 
lyx erect linear lanceolate acute, petals equal, white, 
lanceolate obtuse j stamens short- In Kentucky, &c. 
Variety 1. Gracile. 2. Stenopetalum. 3. Maculatum. 
4- Roseum. 

8. TV- membranaceum. Raf. Stem slender, leaves 
sessile, thin, and membranaceous, ovate elliptic, obtuse 
trinerve : calyx erect, ovate lanceolate, obtuse, petals 
pale, subequal, cuneate acuminate. Glades of Ken- 
tucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Flower smalU petals of 
a dirty pale purple. Van 1. EUiptkum. 2. Obovatum. 
3» Parvifolium. 

, ^ ^^- ^nguicidatum. Raf. Leaves petiolate, oval, 
tmth ends acute, trinerve: calyx reflexed,. lanceolate 
obtuse : petals subequal to H, unguiculate, oval, oblong, 
oDtuse, and purple. In the glades of Indiana, west 

No. 91. TRILLIUM. 99 


Kentucky, &c. Van 1. Crassicaule. 2. Undulatum. 
3. Maculatum, 

10. TV. petiolatum, Pursh. Leaves long petiolate 
oval lanceolate acute trinerve : calyx erect, petals 
lanceolate linear acute, longer than the calyx. In the 
mountains Taconick, Alleghany, &c. 

2. S. O. Anthophim. 

11. Tr. acuminatum. Raf. 1807". Leaves sessile, 
ovate acuminate, undulate, trinerve ; peduncle erect, 
equal to the leaves, calyx and petals subequal lanceo- 
late acuminate. In the mountains Alleghany. Petals 
red, not reflexed. 

♦ 12. Tr.pictum. Pursh. {Tr.vrythrocarpiim.MicheiUxJ) 
Leaves oval acuminate, base rounded, subpetiolate, five 
nerved, peduncle nearly erect, shorter than the leaves, 
calyx lanceolate acute, petals recurved, oval lanceolate 
acute, twice as long as the calyx. From Canada to 
Carolina, petals white, with purple veins, berries bright 
red, Van 1. Undulatum, 2. Rosewn, 

13. TV. amblopsis, Raf. Leaves petiolate, ovate, with 
a long obtuse acumen, trineri^e : peduncle erect, shorter 
than the leaves : calyx and petals subequal, narrow lan- 
ceolate, obtuse. In the mountains Alleghany, &c. Pe- 
tals white. Y^v.l. Zongifolium. Q. Incaimatum. 5. Un- 
dulatum. 4. Stenopetalum, 5,^ngustifolium, G.Fumi- 
lum^ 7. Cuneatum. Petals cuneiform. 

Michaux. Leaves sessile, oval ob- 

long, obtuse, trinerve : peduncle erect and short, calyx 

oval lanceolate obtuse, petals subequal, undulate, cu- 
neate obtuse. From Pennsylvania to Arkansas, in 
glades, stem flexuose, purple, 3 or 4 inches high,* leaves 
small, petals of a pale flesh colour. 

15. TV. nutans. Raf. (TV. erectum of many botanists.) 
Leaves subsessile, subrhomboidal, very wide, base acute, 
end acuminate, trinerve : peduncle nearly as long, in- 
clined, flower nodding, calyx and petals subequal, oval 
lanceolate acute. From Canada to Carolina, large 
plant, leaves and flowers. Petals red or white. Var. 
\! Jltropurpureum. 2. Bicolor^ flower smaller, white, 
pistil red. 3. Obovatian. 4. Undulatum. 5, flhom- 

boideum. 6. Flexuosum. 7. Alburn. 

100 TRILLIUM. No. 91. 

16. Tr.flavum. Raf. Leaves sessile, rhomboidal acu- 
ininatCj trinerve : peduncle as long, erect, flower nod-. 
ding : caljx narrow lanceolate, petals longer lanceolate, 
yellow, acute- In the mountains from New York to 
Virginia, rare- 

17. Tr, pendulum. Wildenow\ Leaves sessile, rhom- 
boidal acuminate, base acute, trinerve: peduncle in- 
clined, flower drooping; caljx and petals subequal, 
oval acuminate, petals white, with red veins. In the 
mountains Catskill, Alleghany, &c. 

18. TV. iindulatiirn. Raf. 1807. W. and Elliot. Leaves 
sessile, ovate acuminate, undulate, trinerve : peduncle 
erecty calyx lanceolate, petals much longer, undalat^ 
oblong, obtuse, dark purple. Mountains Alleghany in 
Pennsylvania, &c. 

19. TV. hrevvpetalum. Raf. Leaves, sessile, ovate 
rhomboidal acuminate, base acute, trinerve : peduncle 
erect, elongated, calyx lanceolate acute j petals shorter, 
ovate, undulate, acute, white. Near the lakes Ontario 
and Erie. Var. L Latifolinm. 2. Boseum. 

20. Tt. ovatum, Pursh. Leaves sessile, ovate, gra- 
dually acute, trinerve : peduncle erect, calyx linear, 
petals longer and larger, oblong lanceolate acute, and 
purple.^ Southern States. 

21. TV. obovatum. Pursh. Leaves sessile, ovate rhom- 
boidal, acuminate : peduncle erect, calyx oval lanceo- 
late, petals equal obovate obtuse flat, flesh colored. 
From Canada to Ohio. 

22.TV.g-m?^r//^omm.Salisbury.(TV. rhomboidum Mx.) 
Leaves sessile, ovate rhomboidal, acuminate, base acute, 
5 ner\'ed, reticulate: peduncle inclined, elongated, ca- 
lyx ovate, lanceolate acute, petals longer, obovate acute, 
white. From lake Ontario to Virginia and Kentucky, 
Petals thin, reticulate, forming a campanulate flower, 
base connivent. Var. 1. Roseum. 2. Elatior. 3. Rhom- 
boideum. A, Fumihmi. S.ParviJforitm. G. Meter opium. 
T.Obovalum. 8. Longifolium. Often called Ground 

l^uy, as well as the following species. 
23.^ T'r, lirioides. Raf. Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate 

acuminate, base rounded, trinerve and reticulate : pe- 

""f.l I '''' ^"^ *^*'^^*^ calyx oval lanceolate obtuse ; 
peiais larger, oblong cuneate obtuse, white. Near lake 

No. 91. THILLIUM. 101 

Eric, in the glades of Ohio, Illinois, &c. Commonly 
smaller than the last, flower also nearly campanulate. 
Var. \. ParvifloTum. 2. Pumitum. S^Moseunu 4. Cras- 
sicaule. 5. Longifolium, 6. Macidatum. 7- Undulatum. 

24. TV. obcordatum. Raf. Stem short and thick, leaves 
sessile obcordate, trinerve reticulate ; peduncle as long, 
inclined, calyx lanceolate obtuse, petals equal in length, 
obovate obtuse, white. In the mountains Alleghany? is 
it a variety of TV. grandiflorum? only 4 inches high- 

25. TV. latrfollum, Raf. (figured here.) Leaves sub- 
sessile, very broad, dilatate, wider than long, subrhom- 
boidal, undulate, both ends shortly acuminate, many 
nerved and reticulate; peduncle reflexed and short, 
calyx and petals subequal, oval acuminate reflexed and 
revolute; stamens shorter than the pistil. In Kentucky? 
stem thickj 18 inches high, petals dark purple. This 
and all the next species, belong^o the Tr. cernuum of 
Linnseus, while the foregoing 14 species answer to his 
^r. erectum. 

26. Tr. spatulatum. Kd^f, (Tr. pnrpureum. Kin. and 

Elliot.) Leaves sessile, spatulate ovate acuminate, 
trinerve reticulate : peduncle drooping, petals dark pur- 
ple, longer than the calyx, ovate lanceolate. In the 

mountains Alleghany. 

27. Tr, nervosum. Elliot. Leaves sessile, ovate lan- 
ceolate, both ends acute, membranaceous, reticulated : 
peduncle recurved, petals oblong lanceolate, larger than 
tlie calyx, rose colored. In Carolina and Georgia. 

28. TV, CalesbeL Elliot, Leaves sessile, oval and obo- 
vate, both ends acuminate ; peduncle recurved, petals 
lanceolate. larger than the calyx, rose colored. In Ca- 
rolina, figured by Catesby 1. fig. 45, perhaps the type of 
TV. cernuum of Linnteus. Var. 1. Obovattim. 2. /near- 


29. TV. hamomm. Raf. Leaves sessile, rhomboidal 

rounded, base acute, end sharply acuminate, membra- 
naceous, trinerve j peduncle very short, reflexed, crook- 
ed like a hook, calyx and petals oblong lanceolate ob- 
tuse, petals larger and white- In the Pocono mountains 
of Pennsylvania; root fasciculate, fibrose, stem 6 inches 
only, leaves and flowers small, discovered by Mr. Stein- 


I 2 

102 TRILLIUM; No. 91 

30.^ TV. medium. Raf. (Tr. cernuum of our modern 

botanists.) Leaves shortly petiolate, broadly rhomboidal. 
both ends abruptly acuminate, 5 nerved, reticulate j pe- 
duncle recurxxd short, calyx and petals equal, ovate 
lanceolate acuminate, flat white. From New England 
to Virginia. Var. 1. Gracile. 2. Pudicum. 3. Undula- 
turn. 4. GrandiflorUm, 

31. TV. glaucum. Raf. Leaves sessile, broad deltoid, 
both ends acute, glaucous beneath, 5 nerved and reticu- 
late : peduncle reflexed, calyx and petals subequal, 
oval obtuse, calyx erect, petals reflexed back, and 
white. In Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, Maryland, 
Virginia, &c. This is the TV. cernuum of W. Barton, 
Fl. Am. fig. 40. _ 

32,^ TV. divaricatum. Raf. Leaves sessile, obovate 
acuminate: peduncle divergent, horizontal, petals lan- 
ceolate acute, longer than the calyx, flat and purple. 

In the Alleghany and Cumberland mountains, six inches 

3. & G. Belostylium. 
33. TV. stylosum. Nuttal. Leaves with short petioles, 
oval lanceolate, acute at both ends ; peduncle recurved, 
very short, petals oblong obtuse, undulate, larger than 
the calyx, a style as long as the stigmas. In the South- 
ern States. Stem a foot high or less, slender, petals 
rose colored. This is probably the TV. cernuum of 

PROPERTIES. I have the pleasure to introduce 

tins fine genus into Materia Medica. It has been ne- 
glected by all our writers, although well known to our 
herbalists. Schoepf merely says that the Indians consi- 
der the TV. cernuum as poisonous, which is not true ^ 
and that the acid berries T)f TV. sessile stain of a red 
color, or dye blue with alum. A popular remedy in the 
Northern States, and used also by the Shakers. The 
roots are the officinal parts ; almost all the species may 
4K ^^V^ indifferently, although the Indians have a notion 
that those with red blossoms (which they call male) are 
t'=e best, and those with white blossoms (called /^w£r/^) 
rmnmnfi ^«™en^s complaints. The species most 

/m,, --fJ -" ''?^'^' because most common, aie the TV. nu- 
tmu, Jr. pxctum, Tr, grandiflorum, Tu medium, Tr. 

No. 91. TRILLIUM. 



longiflonm^ Tr.rotundifolmm^ &c. Thej are all astrin- 
ent, restringent, pectoral, tonic, antiseptic, alterative 

to. Their roots are commonly oblong or terete, tube- 
rose, broM^n outside, white inside, from 1 to 5 inches 
long, with a few branches or fibres ; they jiave a faint 
smell, somewhat like cedar, and a peculiar aromatic 
taste, somewhat like copaivi. Being chewed, thej pro- 
duce salivation and tears, with heat in the throat, and 
next a sensation of coolness over the whole system. 
These are indications of active properties. They have 
not yet been analyzed. They are employed internally 
in hematuria or bloody urine, uterine hemorrhage, immo- 
derate menstrual discharge, blood spitting, hectic fever, 
asthma, catarrhal cough, |)rofluvia, &c. either in powder^ 
dose a tea spoonful, or in infusion. Externally, they 
are \ery beneficial in tumors, indolent and putrid ulcers, 
carbuncles, and mortification, in a poultice by itself, or 
still better united with Sajiguinaria. As an astringent 
and restringent, they are milder or weaker than Gera- 
nium and Erigeron, but not so Tieating. As a tonic 
they appear very beneficial, nay, a certain cure, with 
bloodroot, for inflamed carbuncles and ulcers, after a 
purge J it is said that they obviate or prevent gangrene 
and the need of cutting oft' mortified limbs. Even tJie 
leaves are useful applied to tumors. In female com- 
plaints, such as leucorrhea^ menorrhea, and after partu- 
rition, thev act as good restringents ; the Indians value 
them mucfi as such, both in Canada and Missouri. They 
say in Canada that the loots chewed, will cure instantly 
the bite of rattle-snakes, both in men and cattle. Mr. 
Hawkins saw an Indian make the experiment foragi!! 
of rum : how it acts was not stated. The Indians of 
Missouri call them Mochar Neivachar, meanino- heat 
and cold : it is their palliative for consumption. The 
sessile species are called Jewsha^y in Kentucky, and 
used for sores and ulcers. The Tr. tinctorium is'^one pf 
the red paints of the ^Vestern Indians j the roots stain 
the hands, and dye red with alum. 

N. B. Sp. omitted among the SessiUnm. 

34. TV. maculatum. Raf. {Tr. sessile^ Elliot.) Stem 
spotted, leaves sessile ovate acute, trinerve, spotted : 
calyx erect oblong, petals spatulate, twice as long, dark 
purple. In Carolina, &c. 

104 TUSSILAGO. No. 92. 


Barnes. Boreal Coltsfoot- /V- Tussilageglaciale. 

Classify Nat- Order of Corymbiferotis. Sjngenesia 
superflua L. 

G^nus TussiLAGo. Perianthe simple, equal, multipar- 
tite, membranaceous, swelled befow. Phoranthe naked. 
Pappus simple sessile. Manv narrow female rays. 

Sp. Tussilago frigida. L. Jladical leaves on long pe- 
iioles, cordate, unequally toothed, woolly beneath. 
* Scapes multiflore, thyrsus oblong fastigiate bracteate, 
flowers radiate. 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial. Leaves all radi- 
cal, petioles long, thick, canaliculate j leaves cordate 
rounaed or subdeltoid, nearly obtuse, many unequal 
teeth, green and rugose above, woolly and white be- 
neath. Scape longer than the leaves, terete and thick, 
9 to 12 inches hign, with some remote lanceolate acute 
scales J many flowers, forming a thyrsus or oblong ra- 
ceme, peduncles shorter than the flowers, axillary to su- 
bulate bracts, rays white, disk purple. 

HISTORY- A genus with many anomalies, often po- 
lygamous or dioical, with evident or obsolete rays, 
whence the subgenera l^Farfara^ flowers radiate- 2, Pe- 
tasites, flowers discoidal. 3. ^nandria^ dioical. This 
species is a native of the boreal regions of the three con- 
tinents, Europe, Asia, and America, in the mountains of 
Lapland, Norway, Siberia, Canada, Maine, Labrador, 
Greenland, &c. It blossoms in June. We have also in 
America the common Coltsfoot or T. farfara of Europe, 
found in New England, New York, Ohio, &c. It blos- 
soms in April, before the leaves spring up ; easily known 
by its yellow radiate flowers, scapes uniilore and scaly, 
leaves cordate, angular. Both species will be included 
here, havin^similar medical qualities. Tussilago. de- 
'^^'^l>V^?I'^ ^^^^*'' ^^ Cough, as useful for it 
rllJ^fu^^^'^^^^- The"^ whole plants are used, but 
:l!:r.VT ^^^^^ ^^d leaves ; their smell and taste 


VZlxn^^^J^''^''^ aromatic, bitterish, austere, and mu- 
cila^inous. They contain mucilage, extractive, tannin, 

No. 93. UNISEMA. 105 

&c. They are reckoned demulcent, restringent, cepha- 
lic, errhine, pectoral, diaphoretic, deobstruent, &.c. 
Often used in Europe and America for coughs, com- 
plaints of the breast and lungs, asthmatic affections, 
hooping cough, and also in scrofula : either in tea or 
decoction, conserve or powder. A small pinch of the 
powdered leaves is a very mild errhine, and a good 
cephalic, removing diseases of the head, giddiness, ob- 
structions in the nose, headache, &c. ^ It is the base of 
the** herb-tobacco,' used for that purpose in New England. 
Our medical writers have neglected the Coltsfoot, or 
spoken of it as nearly inert, but it is a mistake ; Cutler 
and Henry alone mention it as useful 5 the Shakers and 
herbalists use it beneficially. Their powers in diseases 
of tlie breast are not strong, but available for consump- 
tive coughs and hooping cough, in warm infusion, sweet- 
ened with honey, or boiled in milk. A strong decoc- 
tion has tured scrofula (along with Nymphea^ as a poul- 
tice, over the swellings of the neck) half a pint 01 the 
decoction was'taken three times a day. 


Names* Shovel Pickerelweed. Fr. Uniseme deltine. 
Vulgar. Pond Shovel, Shovel Leaf, Water Plantain- 
Classif, Nat. Order of Unisemous. Hexandria mo- 

iiogynia L-. 

Genus Unisema. Perigone simple corolliform, 6 cleft, 

bilabiate, marcescent, each lip unequally trifid, upper 
lon^j-est. Stamens 6, unequal, inserted on the tube. 
Pistil oblong, one filiform style and stigma. Fruit a 
single oblong seed, coated by the marcescent perigone. 
Roots creq)mgy perenniaL Stem one leaved^ with a ter- 
minal vaginate spike. 

Sp. Unisema deltifolia. Raf. See sp. 1'. 

HISTORY. This striking genus is formed with the 
Pontedoria cordalu of L. I observed as early as 1802, 
the singular one seeded fi-uit, and established the genus 
in 1807 and 1817* Nuttal, in 1818, confirmed my ob- 
servation J but choose to retain the Linneean name, and 


106 UNISEMA. No. 93. 

consider this as the type of the genus Pontedoria^ al- 
though L. positivelj says that the fruit of it is 3 locular 
and many seeded. All the servile American botanists, 
and even Torrev^ who has verified the fruit, have fol- 
lowed this absurdity. The Linnsean genus Pontederia, 
was, and is yet, a cahos ; many genera have been taken 
from it, Phrynium, Heterandra^ Leptanthus^ Sckollera, 
&c,; the first, which is monandrous, belong to the Dry- 
mirhezous, the others form the natural order^of Ponte- 
derides, along with the true G. Pontederia, of which the 
type is P. asnrea^ P. natans, P. dilatata^ P. vaginalis^ 
&:c. of the tropical climates, with a trilocular polysperm 
capsule. The whole genus, however, must be carefully 
examined again, as some species may have a different 
fruit or flower* I have already ascertained two other 
new genera blended with it 

l.Lunania. Raf. Corolla tubular, 6 cleft, unequal, 
3 filaments and anthers in the tube, one style, 6 stigmas, 
capsule 3 locular, 3 valve polysperm. My Z.imywre is 
the P. limosa of L. native of Jamaica, Mexico, and 
Texas, different from the Leptanthus ovalis of North 
America } mistaken for it by some. It has leaves cor- 
date ovate, scapes lateral unifiore. Dedicated to Lunan, 
author of the hortus Jamaicensis. 

2. Cakarunia. Raf. The P. hastata L. of Asia, 
which has one of the 6 filaments witli a spur, and three 

^ My genus Unisema is quite peculiar to North Ame- 
rica, and perfectly natural in habit. It must be the 
V P^^f a new natural order indicated in 1815 by me, 
and distinguished from all the monocotyle plants by p^n- 
gone and stamens unequal^ a single seed, which ha^ 
several affinities with the orders of Alismaceous, Dra- 
contides, Orontides, Piperides, Comelines, and Ponte- 
dendes, but differs from them all. It has many species, 
ascertained by myself, which our Linn^an botanists, 
and even Torrey, persist to consider as more varieties, 
Because they have a general natural habit They all 

fmll'^ T^*^*"' P^"^*' streams, &c. and are perfectly 
^^r ' }r^ perennial roots creep like those of Nym- 
tinul ^^^, throw out tufts of radical leaves on long pe- 
wuies, witb a terete articulated stem, bearing one leaf, 


No. 93. UNISEMA, lOr 

with a variegated petiole and a terminal dense spike, 
with a membranaceous oblong obtuse vagina below the 
base, thus almost resembing- a spatha and spadis. These 
flowers are blue, with a yellowish white spot on the 
lower lip, and blossonl in summer from June to August- 
They are fine ornamental plants, but scentless j the 
seeds, which resemble those of some grasses, are white, 
oblong obtuse, farinaceous, with a central cylindrical 
embryo ; they germinate only under water, and when 
fresh. I have already noticed as many as 9 species. 

1. Sp. Unisema deltifoUa. Raf. Radical leaves, per- 
fectly oblong deltoid or shovelform, base acute, end ob- 
tuse ; stem leaf oblong deltoid, undulate, base subreni- 
form, lobes rounded : spike elongated, segments of the 
flower oval obtuse. In west Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, &.c. Stem about three feet high, leaves 5 to 
8 inches long, spike 3 inches. 

2. Sp. U, piirshiana. Raf. {P. angustifolia of Pursh.) 
Leaves elongated triangular, base truncate subcordate. 
tnd acute. Segments of the flower linear lanceolate. 
In the Southern States. , 

3. Sp. U, media. Raf. Leaves oblong cordate, base 
cordate, end obtuse ; stem leaf consimilar, spike cylin- 
drical, segments of the flower oblong obtuse. From New 
York to Carolina. Var. 1. Mbiflora* 2. Angustifolia. 

4. Sp- U. obliqiiata. Raf. Leaves more or less oblique, 
with unequal sides; radical oblong deltoid, base sub- 
hastate, end obtuse t stem leaf cordate oblong : spike 
short oblong, segments of the flowers linear obtuse. In 
New Jersey and Virginia. About 2 feet high. 

5. Sp. If. latifoUa. Raf. Leaves broad cordate, very 
obtuse, spike cylindrical, elongated, segments of the 
flower oval. Very common, chiefly in the Southern 
States. Stem 3 to 5 feet hi^h. Var. 1. Elatior. 2. Un- 
dulata. 3. Slhijlora. 4. Pallida, 

6. Sp- U. acutifoUa* Raf. (figured in Lamark lllustr. 
as P cordata,) Leaves cordate acute, spike cylindrical, 
segments of the flowers oval oblong. Found by Bose in 
Carolina ; I have never seen it. 

7. Sp. U. mucronata. Raf. 1807- Leaves narrow ob- 
long, base broader cordate, end\vith a long obtuse point: 


108 VERONICA. No. 94. 

spike cylindrical, segments oblong. In Virginia, found 
by Mr. Kingston in 1800, seen in his herbarium in 1804. 

8. Sp. U. heterophylla. Raf. Leaves narrow, oblong or 
lanceolate, base subcordate or nearly rounded, end ob- 
tuse, spike oblong, segments linear oblong. From New 
York to Louisiana. Stem only 12 to 18 inches high. 
Var. 1- Lanceolata. 2. Stenocardia. Leaves small, of- 
ten variable on the same plant. 

9. Sp. U. rotundifolia. Raf. Leaves rounded obtuse, 
base hardly cordate ; spike oblong, segments oval, per- 
haps a variety of the last. In the Western States, rare, 
stem weak and short- This is not the PonUderia rotun- 
difolia of L. which has orbicular cordate leaves, and 
grows in South America, but it may be a tenth specie of 
this genus ; if so, it may be called U. orbiculata, 

^ PROPERTIES. I have the pleasure to introduce this 
singular genus to medical notice. All the species have 
similar properties j they reside chiefly in the roots, 
which are emollient, restringent, and anti-scrofulous. 
The leaves form an excellent cooling topical applicatioif 
for inflammations on the surface of the body ; they can 
be eaten boiled as greens, although rather austere when 
raw ; the Indians use them along with Tradescantiaj 
Commelina^ Orontium^ NympJiea^ &c. The seeds are 
edible farinaceous, and were used by them for cakes and 
other dishes, like the seeds of Orontium. The roots are 
nearly equivalent to Nymphea^ but much milder and 
mucilaginous. They may be employed in the same dis- 
eases, gleets, leucorrhea, fluxes, and externally for scro- 
fulous tumors and sores. No medical writer has noticed 
these plants ; they are only known to a few herbalists, 
and have not yet been analyzed. 


Names. Water Speedwell. Fr. Veronique aqua 

^^ . ^ Wate 

C^as5i//Nat. Order of'Veron 
nogjnia L, 

Diandria mo- 

No. 94. VERONICA. 109 

Genus Veronica, Calyx 4 parted, unequal persistent. 
Corolla rotate, 4 lobed, unequal. Stamens 2, equal ex- 
ert. One pistil, style and stigma. Capsule bilocular 

Sp. Veronica becabiinga. L. Stem erect, creeping ; 
leaves subsessile, ovate oblong, smooth^ racemes axillarv, 
opposite, multiflore, capsules obcordate, compressed. " 

Var- Americana. Raf. (or Froeumb ens.) Stem pro- 
cunibent, rooted at the base; leaves elliptical, acute 
petiolate, subserrate, capsules swelled, obcordate. 

DESCRIPTION of the American variety. Root pe- 
rennial, fibrose, v^hite. Stem creeping at the base, as- 
surgent afterwards, about a foot high, with few branches, 
round and smooth. Leaves opposite, on short petioles, 
very smooth, oblong base rounded, end acute, subser- 

rate. Racemes on long axillary opposite peduncles, lax, 
elongate,^ and multiflore; flowers on long pedicels, axil- 
lary to linear bracts, corolla blue. Capsules bibbed, 
swelled, although subcompressed. 

HISTORY. The genus Veronica is pery prolific in 
species, and was fruitful in anomalies. The genera 
Hebe and Leptandra^ have been divided from it. I have 
long ago reformed it still further, by establishing some 
other j^enera and subgenera with it. The genera are : 

1, Panoxis. Raf. Calyx equal, 4 parted. Corolla tu- 
bular, quadrilid equal. Capsule oblong acute, type V. 
salicifolia, F. cataracta, and F. macrocarpa, 
^ 2- Ponaria. Raf, Calyx 5 parted, equal. Corolla 4 
lobed, equal. Type F. pona, V, latifolia^ F. lacinia- 
ta, &c. 

3. JUlophia. Raf. Calyx campanulate, 4-5 cleft. Co- 
rolla subrogate, unequal,'^ 4-5 parted. Stamens 5 or 4, 
incurved. Stigma truncate. Capsule obcordate. F. 

rotundifolia, R. & P. 

After these needful subtractions, this genus contains 
vet 100 species or more, which may be divided into two 


1. *y. G. Becabunga, Corolla rotate, 4 lobed. Cap- 
sule obcordate or notched bivalve. Mostly all the 



no VERONICA. No. 94. 

2, S. G. Endasia. Raf. Corolla 4 parted, undulate 
cuneate, tube hairy. Capsule oval, 4 valved. F. crenu- 
lata^ V. mautimaj V, spuria, F. spicata, V. complicata. 
Is it also a N. G.? 

The actual species is native of the two continents, 
but in America it is at least a striking variety, if not spe- 
cies. It grows from Canada to Virginia and Kentucky, 

near waters, brooks, &c. blossoming in June. 

Many other European species, equally medical, are 
found all over the United States, such as the F. serpyl- 

T •/■. J.' .. TT _' T^ ^.^^77«^— T7" ™- -^ •- TT 

lifolia^ F. 

from the European types. The V. officinalis or common 
Speedwell, the most valuable, is distinguished by stem 
creeping, hairy, with ovate rounded crenate leaves, and 
flowers spicate lateraL I have discovered a new species 
in west Kentucky, near to F. scutellata, which I call 
F connata, Raf. it has divaricate branches, leaves con- 
nate, linear lanceolate and sharp. 

PROPERTIES. The F. becabunga, F peregrina, 



highly valued in Europe, and the base of the Faltrank 
or Swiss herb tea, is deemed tonic, vulnerary, astrin- 
gent, aperient, pectoral, diuretic, &c. All the species 
appear to me to possess nearly similar properties ; the 
V. officinalis being, however, a little astringent, as the 
austere taste sho^vs, while the others are nearly insipid, 
and may even be eaten in sallad, or boiled as meens. 
All are scentless. In New Jersey they are called Neck- 
weed, because usefully applied to the scrofulous tumors 
of the neck. Eaten in sallad, they are beneficial in scor- 
butic complaints, obstructions, and jaundice. Their 
decoction and tea, which are green, are equally availa- 
ble. The V. officinalis is employed chiefly as a tea or 
m powder, and in many more complaints, such a& disor- 
' i of the breast, both catarrhal and ulcerous, cachexy, 
gravelly complaints, bloody urine, choHcs, hypocondria, 

tuSf "T' ^"- ®"* ^h« ^'' becabunga is olten substi- 

Tur. 'r "^^.^''^ ^" "^nvou^ the V. chamedrys, V. teuc- 

'' ^c. They alt purify the blood and humor-, act 

No. 95, VICIA- 


as mild stimulants, strengthen the stomach, promote 
diuresis, and are said to correct the secretions of the^ 
liver, so as to remove melancholy or hypochondrical 


No. 95. VICIA FABA. 



Names. Horse Bean. Fr, Feve commune. Vulgar, 
Windsor Bean, Big Bean, Sweet Bean. 

Classify Nat. Order of Leguminose. 
candria L. 

Diadelphia de- 

Genus ViciA, Calyx tubular, bilabiate, upper lip 
• notched, lower trifid. Corolla papilionaceous, vexillum 
notched, adpressed. Stamina 9, monadelphous, 1 free. 
Stigma bearded transversely below. Pod oblong poly- 
sperm, seeds round or compressed. 

Sp. Vidafaba. L. Leaves without tendrils, with few 
foUoles, ovate, entire, stipules sagittate, base toothed : 
flowers ternate sessile : pods erect, turgid, seeds com- 

DESCRIPTION. Root annual. Stem erect, 2 to 
5 feet high, flexuose terete, seldom branched. Leaves 
alternate, with sigittate acute stipules, tootlied at the 
base, from 4 to 6 folioles, alternate sessile, ovate acute* 
entire, no tendrils. Flowers axillary, sessile, commonly 
ternate, or from 2 to 10 racemose, large, erect, oblong, 
white, with two fine black spots on the wings. Pods 
large, 3 to 8 inches long, oblong turgid, thicker above, 
membranaceous tomentose, end mucronate, from 3 to 8 
large seeds, shaped like a bean, reniform compressed^ 
thicker at both ends, of a bright brown color, 

HISTORY. The genus Victa requires revision; the 
species are more connected by habit than characters. 
This species hardljj^ belongs to it; Brotero calls it Orobus 
faba; some botanists jPd?a sativa, restoring the genu^ 
Faba of the elder botanists. It must, at any rate, form 
a subgenus thus : 

\.SuG. FfAa. Pod oblong, swelled and turgid, seeds 
compressed reniform. 

113 VIC I A. No. 95. 


1. S. G. Vicia. Pod elongate compressed, seeds glo- 

The Faba is the true Bean of the ancients, and not 
the Fhaseolus. It is a native of Persia, but has been 
cultivated in Europe, from the most remote antiquity. It 
^ is cultivated also in the United States, the gardens of the 
North, or fields in the South, and I have seen it become 
spontaneous there. It is, however, not yet valued as it 
ought, and not given to horses, maize being used instead. 
It has many varieties, like all long cultivated plants: 
the best are hardly known with us. It blossoms in the 
spring? the flowers are very pretty and sweet scented. 
The varieties are : 1. Megasperma^ tall plant, with long 
pods and seeds an inch long. 2. Equina, folioles ovate 
oblong, seeds elliptical, 3. Turgicla. 4. Obtusifolia^ 
5. Rubra, with red seeds. 6. Media. 7. Nigra. 8. Ba- 
cemosa. 9. Odoratissima. It is a valuable plant for 
farmers ; it grows any where, never fails to give a good 
crop, an acre may produce 100 bushels of seeds and la 
tons of fodder. It is food for men and cattle, a delicacy 

when green, ornamental, medical, and improves the land 
as a manure. 

PROPERTIES. The wjiol^jplant i^ useful, leaves, 
flowers, and seeds. As a fodder, it is equal to clover ; 
horses and cattle eat it agreeably, fresh or dry. Buried 
by the plough, or burned on the ground, it improves it 
like manure. The flowers are a good cosmetic ; their 
distilled \vater is fragrant and smoothens the skin. The 
green unripe seeds are a delicacy, similar to green peas, 
and as highly valued in Europe j in Italy they are eaten 
, with salt, or boiled and cooked in fifty ways. They 
scarce in our markets, although as easily cultivated 
as peas. When ripe and dry, they become a little flatu- 
lent, out not more so than other beans j they form then 
the chief food of the Italian, Spanish and Greek pea^ 
santry, m soups, mush> olios, cakes, and other dishes : 
they are also roasted abd. eaten like chesnuts. The 
Cireeks mix the flour with their black ljread^_jaT de- 
piiving the seeds of their thick skin, the inside is a ten^ 
«er farinaceous food. Barley and beans are the chiefi 

n^f I '^^^ ^" ^''^^ ^^^^^' Af"ca and South Europe i 
oats and mar^^e the substitutes with us, ^re bv no means 



No. 96. XANTHOXYLON. 11 

equally nourishing. The flour of beans is one of the four 
resolvent flours of the Galenic school, employed medi- 
cally for poultices over tumors, swelled glands, impos- 
thumes, and even cancer, to promote suppuration. The 
internal use is said to be useful in gravelly and nephitic 

The Vicia sativa or Common Vetch, a native with us, 
is cultivated in Europe for fodder, and the small round 
seeds similar to Peas ; it is also neglected as yet with 
us, and being inferior to Vicia faha^ is not so commenda- 
ble : it can, however, be cultivated broad cast, while 
the Bean requires to be drilled, unless it is wanted for 
mere fodder. We have several other species of native 
Viciaj V. craccoides^ V. americana, F. caroliniana^ all 
much liked by cattle, and whose cultivation might be 
attempted. My F. craccoides is the F cracca of our 
botanists, but is very different from the European species. 


Names. Shrubby Prickly Ash- Fr. Xanthoxyle frene. 
Vulgar. Toothache Bush,'^Pellitory, Yellow Wood, Su- 


Classif. Nat, Order of Cnestides. Peatandria tri- 

gynia L. 

Genus Xanthoxylon'. Calyx 5 parted- No corolla. 

A central disk bearing 3 or 5 stamens and 2 to 5 pistils, 
becoming 2 to 5 capsules, bivalve one seeded. Com- 
monly polygamous. Trees or shrubs with pimxate or 

ternate leaves. 

Sp* Xanthoxylon fraxineum. Prickly. Leaves pinnate 
with 9 or 11 folioles opposite, ovate acute, subentire: 
umbels lateral, 3 or 4 stipitate pistils and capsulea. 

DESCRIPTION. Shrub 5 to 10 feet high, branches 
alternate, with scattered prickles, sharp, strong and 
straio-ht. Leaves alternate, oddly pinnate, petiole 
rounS, often inerme, folioles 9 or 11 opnosite, nearly 
sessile, ovate very sharp, with slight glandular serratures, 
somewhat downy beneath. Flowers in small sessile um- 
bels, near the origin of young shoots, small and greenish. 

K 2 

114 XANTHOXYLON. No. 9^ 

Diclinous polygamous, some shrubs bearing pistillate 
flowers, and others two kinds, both staminate and com- 
plete or perfect. These last have a 5 parted calyx with 
segments erect, oblong obtuse. Five stamens on the 
base of thegynoplure, filaments subulate, anthers sagit- 
tate, 4 celled. Central gynophore divided into the stipes 
of the pistils, which are 3 or 4, oval, with a converging 
terete style and obtuse stigma. Staminate flowers with 
an oval trifid abortive gynoplure* Pistillate flowers with 
a smaller calyx. Capsules stipitate, elliptical punctate, 
reddish green, two valved, with one seed, oval and 

HISTORY. This genus, whose name means yellow 

wood, and which many botanists write Zanthoxylumhj 
mistake, has many anomalies, because accuracy appears 

of very little moment to the Linnasan botanists. It must 
be divided m at least 4 subgenera or genera, thus : 

1. Dimeinin. Raf. 1815. No corolla, 3 stamens, S 
pistils and capsules, type A", spinositm^ X emargma- 
tiiTTi^ X. acuminalum. 

2, Herculium. Raf. No corolla, 5 stamens, 5 pistils 
and capsules, type X. clava^ X, pimct atum, &c. 

S. 77t?//ax. Raf. 1815. No corolla, 5 stamens, anthers 
4 locular, 3 to 4 stipitate pistils and capsules, styles 

' conniveut, twisted. Dioical polygamous.. Type X 

4. Pseudopeialon. Raf. FL lud. 1817. Five parapetals 
opposed to the segments of the calyx, 5 stamens alter- 
nate with them, anthers bilocular, 2 or 3 pistils and cap- 
sules sessile divical, type P. glandidosum^ Fl. lud. and 
X tricarpum ot Michaus. 

They all appear to form a natural family along with 
the genera Cnestis^ Triphaca^ Tetradnim^ Tenorea^ Raf. 
as stated by me in 1S15. The X, or Thylax fraxineum 
is found from New England to Florida and Missouri, in 
groves. The flowers are vernal, anterior to the leaves, 
green and inconspicuous. Four species are found in the 
United States all equally medical, this, the 2 species of 
Pseudopeialon, and the X clava^ but this last, found in 
V^arohaa and Florida, appears to me different from the 
^:^^^^a of the West Indies j it may be called X cate&^ 

No, 96. XANTHOXYfcON^. 115 

PROPERTIES. The whole shrub is possessed of 
active properties ; the leaves and fruit smell and taste 
like the rind of lemons, and afford a similar volatile oiL 
The smell of the leaves is more like orange leaves- The 
bark is the officinal part, the smell and taste are acrid, 
pungent, aromatic. It is siala^ogue, stimulant, pellent, 
astringent, sudorific, antisiphjlitic, odontalgic, &c. 

The chemical analysis by Dr. Staples, has given two 


oils, one volatile, another fixed and green, resin, gum, 
fibrine, a colored matter, and a peculiar substance Xan- 
thoxyline^ which crystallizes, resembles Piperine, and 
is soluble in warm alcohol. The leaves contain chiefly 
mucilage, gallic acid and a volatile oil* This article 
appears to be equivalent to Mezereon and Guayacum in 
properties. The acrimony is not felt at first, when the 
bark or liquid is taken in the mouth, but unfolds itself 
gradually by a burning sensation on the tongue and 
palate. It is deemed like them very useful in chronic 
rheumatism, producing a sense of heat in the stomach, 
a tendency to perspiration and speedy relief, when given 
in full doses of 10 to 20 grains, 3 times daily, or the 
decoction of one ounce in 4 or 5 doses. It seldom pro- 
duces nausea or effects on the bowels. It however has 
failed in some obstinate cases. In small doses it becomes 
diaphoretic, and removes rheumatic pains. This is a 
great article in the Materia Medica of our Indians j it 
is called Harxtola by thc^westem 

bark of the root, and use it in decoction for cholics, go- 
norrhea, syphilis, rheumatism, inward pains, chewed for 
tooth-ache, and applied externally in poultice, withbear*3 
o-rease, for ulcers and sores. It is a great topical stimu- 
fant, changing the nature of malignant ulcers. In tooth- 
ache, it is only a palliative, as I have ascertained on 
myself, the burning sensation which it produces on the 
mouth, merely mitijjating the other pain, which returns 
afterwards. Some herbalists employ the bark and seeds 
in powder, to cure intermittent fevers. A tincture of 
the berries has been used for violent cholics in Virginia. 
It is very good in diseases connected with a syphilitic 
taint. The long use of it often brings on salivation like 

116 XANTHOXYLON. No. 96. 

The X. clava of the South has all the same properties, 
and even to a higher degree. The chewed bark is said 
to cure tooth-ache in a zew minutes, to be beneficial in 
sore throat and mouth, also in palsj of the tongue or anj 
muscle of the throat. In the West Indies, where it is 
called Prickly Yellow Wood, the wood, bark and roots 
are deemed excellent internally and externally in syphi- 
litic complaints and ulcers ; wonderful cures have been 
performed there and with us by the herbalists, of vene- 
real buboes, venereal sorethroat, crab yaws, malignant 
and phagedenic ulcers, &c. It appears also a valuable 
remedy in epilepsy and dry belly-ache, nay, is said to 
have cured fevers like Peruvian Bark. The juice of the 
roots or their decoction was chiefly used. The X.fraxi- 
neum has probably all the same effects- 

The X glandulosum {Pseudopetalon) of Louisiana, a 
tree 40 feet high, has a white bark, of a strong smell and 
burning taste : it is used for aromatic baths, to cure 
rheumatism j delicate persons are apt to feel indisposed 
by its use. The roots are employed successfully as a 
vermifuge for horses. This tree will be known bjr its 
terminal digynous flowers. Many ignorant herbalists, 
and even Zollickoffer, call likewise Prickly Ash, the 
Jlralia Spinosa, whose true name is Prickly Elder or 
Angelica tree, and use them indifferently. But the 
Aralia^ although a valuable stimulant, diaphoretic and 
even emetic, has by no means all the properties of this 

N. B. This concludes the first part of this work, or 
the selected articles ; but two articles omitted in the 
alphabetical series of the first volume, will be added in 
a supplement, after which shall follow the monograph/ 
of the Vitis or American Grape Vines, with 8 figures* 


C iiT' 3 




Names, Common Snakehead. Fr. Chelonide glabre. 
Vulgar. Turtle head, Turtle bloom, Shell flower, &c. 


Didynamia angios- 

pennia L, 

Genus Cheloxe. Calyx five parted, callculate by 3 

bracts. Corolla ringent, ventricose, convex above, mouth 
gaping with 2 small lips and 5 lobes. Stamina didyna- 
mous, anthers woolly, a sterile filament besides. Cap- 
sule two celled bivalve. Seeds manv, with a membra- 

naceous margin. 

Sp* Chelone glabra. L. Smooth ; leaves opposite sub- 
sessile, lanceolate oblong acuminate serrate, base acute, 
flowers in dense terminal spikes. 

DESCRIPTION. This^ plant haa so many ^.triking 
varieties, that no description can apply to all j they, 
however, agree in having a perennial root, stem erect, 2 
to 5 feet high, with 4 obtuse angles : flowers terminal in 
a dense sessile short spike, each flower sessile and axil- 
lary to 3 bracts,^ commonly ovate acute entire, calyx 
with 5 unequal embricate segments, oblong obtuse, co- 
rolla similar to the head of a snake or turtle. The fol- 
lowing are the varieties, wluch mighty perhaps, be deem- 
ed as many species. 

1, Clu alba. Stem simple, 2 to 3 feet high ; leaves 
subsessile, the lower alternate : spike oblong, flowers 


2. Ch. mactilata. Stem branched, 2 or 3 feet hlglj, 
leaves pctiolate lanceolate, crowded above ,• flowers 
white, with green mouth spotted of red, calyx margined 

of red- 
^^0u_l_a7tceolate.^^^^ixk^,^miAi?. 3 to 4 feet high, 

ieares sessile lanceolate, pube^sccnt beneath, flowers 
white or rose. 



J 18 CHELONE. No. 9r- 

4. Ch. purpurea. Stem simple, leaves petiolate oblongs 
flowers pfurplish. 

5. Ch. ooliquea. Stem simple, leaves subpetiolate 
oblique at the base. 

6. Ch. eialior. Stem simple, 4 or 5 feet high, leaves 
petiolate broad lanceolate, spike oblong, flowers purplisl 

7* Ch. capitata. Stem branched, 2 feet high, square : 
leaves petiolate lanceolate, floral leaves ovate lanceolate: 
spike snort capitate, flowers purplish white. 

HISTORY. All these plants are handsome, with sin- 
ular ornamental and large blossoms, but scentless. 
Thejgrow from New England to Louisiana, near brooks 
and waters, and blossoms from July to November. The 
variety Capitata is peculiar to the Western States. The 
Linnpean genus Cheione is now very natural, since the 
G. Fentoslemon was divided from it. It is peculiar to 
North America. The name means turtle and is not 
goodj Chelonanthus or Ophianthes^ would have been 
better. Some other species equally medical are found in 
the Southern States ; Ch. lyoni will be known by its cor- 
date leaves, and Ch. latifolia by ovate leaves, besides 
ciliated bracts and calyx. 

PROPERTIES. I have the pleasure to introduce 
these active plants into Materia Medica. They have 
been omitted by all our writers, even Schoepf. I am in- 
debted to Dr. Lawrence, of New Lebanon, for the first 
knowledge of their properties, and he to the Indians and 
Shakers. They are powerful tonic, cathartic, hepatic, 
and anti-herpetic. The whole plant is used, but strictly 
the leaves; they are extensively bitter, oneof the strong- 
est of our bitters, without any aromatic smell and very 
little astringency. I have analyzed and made many ex- 
periments with them. Their tincture becomes black, 
and the use of. it dyes the urine of the same color. It 
contains gallic acid, a peculiar resinous substance soluble 
m water and alcohol, similar to picrine and aloes, of a 
black color and very bitter taste, lignine, &c. The pro- 
perties are equally soluble in water, wine and alcohol : 
^»*^ IS tlie best menstruum, but becomes intolerably 

bAT^ ^4 - ^* useful in many diseases, fevers, jauTidice, 

«epatitis, tri^pti,,,,,,^^ tim-^kin. Sec. lu small doses it 

No. 98. GALIUM. ng 


is laxative, but in full doses it purges the bile and cleans 
the system of the morbid or superfluous bile, removing 
the yellowness of the skin in jaundice and liver diseases. 
The dose is a drachm of the powdered leaves 3 times 
daily. The wine of it in small repeated doses, has nearly 
the same effect, although neither so speedily nor vio- 
lently. The Indians use a strong decoction of the whole 
plant in eruptive diseases, biles, hemorrhoids, sores, &c. 
Few plants promise to become more useful in skilful 
hands 5 it ought to be tried in yellow fever and bilious 
fevers, the tropical liver complant, &c. It may be ad- 
ded to many wine bitters, and antibilious medicines. 

Tetrandrla mono- 


Names. Common Cleavers. Fr. Caillelait commun. 
Vulgar. Bedstraw, Cleave wort. Goose grass, Savoyan, 
Clabbergrass, Milk sweet. Poor Robin, Gravel Grass. 

Classy^. Nat, Order of Rubiacea. 
gynia L- 

Genus Galium. Calyx superior 4 toothed. Corolla 
rotate 4 cleft. Stamens 4. Stigmas 2. Seeds 2 globose, 
smooth or hispid, leaves in whorls. 

Sp. Galium Verwn. L. Stem erect j whorls common- 
ly of 8 leaves, linear, grooved, scabrous ; flowers in 
dense terminal panicle and yellow : seeds smooth- 

DESCRIPTION. Root perennial. Stem upright, 
slender and weak, 1 or 2 feet high, somewhat branched, 
angular. Leaves small sessile in whorls of 8, seldom 7 
or 9, linear acute, grooved above, rough, often reflexed. 
Flowers small in large terminal, dense and yellow pani- 
cles, with small leaves interposed : each flower pedun- 
culate, small calyx with 4 acute crowning the adherent 
pistil. Corolla quite flat and rotate, with 4 spreading 
acute segments. Stamens 4 short. Two short styles, 
stigmas capitate. Fruit bipartible into two globular 
smooth seeds. 

HISTORY. Tournefort called this genus Jparine^ 
a very ^ood name, improperly changed to Galium by L. 
too similar to ^11 itnni The species with rough seeds 


120 GALIUM. No. 98. 

form now the subgenus •Sparine. We have many species 
©^f this genus in North America, 20 or more j several 
are yet und escribed. I am not yet prepared to give 
their monography. This species being common to Eu- 
rope and America^ is one of the best known. It grows 
from Canada to New York and Ohio, in pastures, mea- 
dows and river banks, blossoming in June, and:~July- 
Many other species are probably medi^iaV^but we only 
use the G. verum an^ jGnr a^an/i^-xrommon in woods, 

trailing, rough, with wliite lateral flowers and rough 
geeds. The circezans has sweet leaves, tasting like 
liquorice. The G, tinctoriutmnd G. boreale^ called Sa- 
voyan in Canada, are useful plants, the creeping red 

roots dye of a beautiful red like madder with acids j 
the Indians use them for their beautiful red dye. Schoepf 
says that G. tinctorium coagulates milk like G. verum^ 
and is useful for diseases oi the skin. 

PROPERTIES, The G. verum and also GMparine arc 
ancient medical plants; the whole plants are used; as 
subastringent, discutient, antiscorbutic, aperient, diu* 
retic, nervine, &c. Although neglected lately by medi- 
cal writers, because apparently inert ; they are by no 
means so. The taste is bitterish and acid. The flowers 
have an acid, their property of coagulating milk, to 
which the name alludes, is now ascertained to be false j 
and it is no longer used for that purpose. In the South 
of Europe, Artichokes are now used instead of Rennet, 
which spoils the taste of milk, and sweet congealed milk 
is thus procured, very palatable and healthy. Externally 
applied in poultice, it is a good discutient for indolent 
tumors, strumous swellings and tugiors of the breast. 
Internally it is used in decoction sweetened with honey, 
for suppression of urine and gravelly complaints, m 
scurvy, dropsy, hysterics, epilepsy, gout, &c. There are 
instances qn record of having cured these diseases. Use- 
ful also In bleeding of the nose and stomach. Lately 
tound peculiarly beneficial in scorbutic, scrofulous, an3 
d^ops^lcal complaints, acting mildly, but effectually- The 
nowers are of a fine yellow or golden color, and have a 
pci^ . :.mell, somewhat like Melilotm ; they arc used 

fin^^«u^^^^* ?^ Kurope, to give a rich sweet taste and a 
""e yellow color to milk, butter, and cheese, by being 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 


put in ihe pails when the cows are milked. The peculiar 
color and taste of green cheese is produced by the Melt- 
lotus or Sweet Luzerne, used in the same Avay. Cows 
and cattle are very fond of the G. vemm and Melilotus. 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 

Names. Grape Vine- Fr. Vigne. 

Classify Nat. Order of Sarraenta 
oecia L- . . ' 

Polygamia tri- 

Genus ViTis. Perfectly trioical. Calyx cuplike, 5 
lobed before the flowers expand, entire afterwards. Co- 
rolla of fire petals oblong obtuse hooded, adheringat the 
summit Five lon^ stamina opposed to the petals. Pistil 
on a glandular disk, a stigma subsessile, capitate entire. 
Berry one celled. 2 to 5 seeds obcordate. Woody vines 
with alternate petiolate and stipulate leaver; tendrils 

and thyrsoidal racemes of flowers and fruits^ opposite to 

the leaves. 

HISTORY. I propose to ^ive here a monography of 
the North American Grape Vines. The subject \% new 
and obscure. The botanical species are scarcely indi- 
cated, and their numberless varieties have been over- 
looked by our best writers. I have ascertained about 
40 species and 100 varieties, but I must confess that it 
is not always easy to say whether one or the other. I 
was once inclined to consider all our Grapes (like our 
btrawberries) as varieties of a single species, the Vitis 



seUj V. laciniosa. V. anrea^ V. farinosa, K atrcL, V. 
coriathiaca^ S^c. to distinguish the wild, cut-leaved, 
mealv, black, and Currant Vines of Europe. While 
all tRese hav^ been united to K vinifera. Our native 
Grapes had been made into 8 or 10 species, which dif- 
fer less than those, and can hardly be distinguished from 
them, in an exclusive point of view, except by their 
more permanent polygamy. My attempt to classify our 
Vines is therefore arduous, many species being described 
by authors under the same name j but I hope will be 


12f VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

useful in making them known, and may lead to a better 
one when all may be examined on my plan. Many va- 
rietites have no doubt escaped my researches, they abound 
in the woods, since the seeds dfo not always re-produce 
tlae identic kind, and Major Adlum has stated to me to 
have seen 200 varieties at least : some, however, differ 
but slightly; my enumeration is ample enough to in- 
clude all the principal kinds. My distinguishing cha- 
racters will be taken from all the parts, branches, pe- 
tioles, leaves, flowers, and fruits. I will thus ofier what 

has hardly been done yet for the Grapes of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa ; it will be the result of my observa- 
tions during many years and many thousand miles of 
travels- Our vines being all wild (except a few trans- 

planted in gardens) exhibit the spontaneous operation of 
nature and nybridity in this fine and valuable genus. 

The following are the o-enera akin to Vitis. and be- 
longing to the same natural order of Sarmentacea, distin- 
guished by Stamens equal in number to the petals ; op- 
posed to them and inserted on a hypogynous disk: one 
pistil and stigrna^fruit a berry. 

1. G. Cissus^ L. Calyx entire. Petals 4, not coherent. 
Stamens 4, disk cup-like. Berry one seeded. Many 
tropical species. 

2. G. Ampelopsis, Mx, Calyx 5 toothed. Petals 5, 
not coherent nor hooded. Stamens 5. Disk cup-like 
lobed- Short style. Berry 2 locular, 2 or 4 seeded, v?. 
bipinnata^ (F. arbona^ L.) and A. cordifolia of North 

3. G. Quinaria. Raf. Calyx 4 or 5 lobed. Petals 4 or 
5 hooded, not coherent. Stamens 4 or 5. Disk as in Vi- 
tis. A style. Berry 4 locular, 4 seeded. Q. hederacea^ 
(or Ampelopsis quinquefo Ha) and Q. hirsuta of North 

4. G. Causonis, Raf. Calyx 4 toothed. Petals 4, hood- 
ed, not coherent. Disk 4 lobed, with 4 sterile filaments 
alternate with the lobes. Stamens 4. Styl-e filiform. 

B^rry one seeded. The F. fri/b/t'a and F. japonic a be- 
long here. 

'I he r, /i^f€ro;>%Z/aofThunberg does not even belong 

•?}l^^^an' ^"^^ ^^ ^^^ ^a^^^e as Hedera or Ivv. I cali 
It G. miommpela. Calyx superior persistent, with 5 ob- 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 123 



tuse teeth. Petals 5, oval concave hooded. Disk 5 far- 
revved. Stamens 5, inserted in the furrows. Pisstil infe- 
rior adherent, style filiform. Berry pisiform crowned. 2 
1 ocular, 2 or 4 seeds pbcnrdate. 

Several species of Vilis are of doubtful genus, the 
flowers not having been noticed, such as V. pinnata^ 
Vahl. K penfaphy/la, Th. (perhaps a Quinarla) V. ca- 
pensis and V. cirrhosa of Thunberg, V. lucida of Aus- 
tralasia, &c. 

Of the true species of Vitis^ the greatest numberijre 
native of North America, The V. indica (under whose 
name many species or varieties are also blended) and 
V. heptaphylla are from tropical climates; white the 
V. vinifera or common Wine Grape, with its numerous 
varieties, arc found in temperate climates, from China 
to Spain and Barbary. , Several other species hardly 
known are found in Africa and Asia. After enumeratin" 



our American vines, I shall briefly notice these other 
Grapes, since all are interesting as useful, viniferous and 

For the sake of perspicuity, this subject shall be di- 
vided into 5 parts or sections. 1. Account of our vines, 
2. Account of foreign vines. 3. Properties and use of 
innes and grapes. 4. Cultivation of vines in America. 
5- Principles of the art to make good wine. 

• Section 1.. North American Grape Vines. 
The number is so great that some arrangement is 
needful ; I have long sought for the most constant dis 
tinguishing marks, and have at last decided to use those 
afforded by. the shape of the fruit and under surface of 
the leaves as most striking and least variable ; but I am 
by no means confident that they are the best- I have 
thus 3 series of vines with globular berries. l.With leaves 
tomentose arachnoidal and colored beneath, 2. Leaves 

pubescent beneath. 3. Leaves perfectly smooth'beneath, 
and a 4th series with fruit not globular* All our Ame- 
rican vines agree in being humble trailing vines in their 
youth, but susceptible to live from 100 to 300 years, and 
to become very large, as tall as the tallest trees that 
support them : the bark is fibrous, the wood hard^ 

branches knotty, leaves very variable, but always more 

124 VITIS, No. 99 & 100. 

or less cordate or reniform at the base, and toothed on 
the margin, with five branched nerves and deciduous 
stipules. Flowers in bunches, thyrsoidal or paniculate, 
small, more or less fragrant, greenish yellow,' complete 
or pistiliferous or staminiferous, on 3 different indivi- 
duaiSj blossoming in May and June. Fruit from the size 
of a pea to that of a plumb. 

I. Series. Frondarania. Raf. Berries globular or de- 
pressed. Leaves tomentose beneath, tomentum arach- 
noidal colored, yellow, fulvous, rufous, rusty, white, 
cinerous or glaucous. 

1. Sp. Vitisfulva^ Raf. ( V. estivalis of many botanists, 
not of Mx. nor Elliot.) Yellow Grape. Branches tomen- 
tose. Petioles shorter. Leaves broad cordate, 3 or 5 lobed, 
unequally dentate, sinusses rounded, yellow or fulvous 
beneath. Racemes oblong. Berries round and small. It 
grows from Canada to Virginia, on rocky river banks. 
The leaves become smoother when old ; the fruits are 
commonly of a deep bluish purple, and are ripe in Au- 
gust. The varieties are : 1. Sinuata, leaves sinuate pal- 
mate, coarsely toothed. 2. Quinqiieloba^ all the leaves 
with 5 lobes. 3. Corallina^ leaves yellow beneath, fruit 
larger, of a fine red color and delicious taste. In Vir- 
ginia, perhaps a peculiar species, called Red Grape and 
Coral Grape. 

2. V.iersma,'Raf. Raccoon Grape. Branches striated, 
fulvous tomentose. Petioles shorter fulvous tome»tose. 
Leaves reniform 5 lobed, base reniform, sinusses round- 
ed, lobes oval acuminate, with a few large teeth, pubes- 
cent above, rusty gray beneath, nerves fulvous. From 

•Ohio to Louisiana and Texas, near streams, called Bear 
and Raccoon Grape, because greedily eaten by these 
animals. Grapes of middle size, commonly purplish, 
ripe in September and October. Young leavers rusty be- 
neath. Van 1. Cerulea. berries dark blue. 2. 




3. V. saxatiliSy Raf. Stony Grape. See tab. 99, fig. 
A. for variety longipes. Branches fiexuose nearly smooth. 
Petioles villose variable. Leaves variable cordate, often 
tnlobed, lobes divaricate ovate acuminate, with distant 
acute teeth, sinusses rounded, rugose and pilose above, 
gray beneath. Among stones in Arkansas and Texas-. 

No, 89 & 100. VITIS. 125. 

Many varieties : I. LongipeSj branches fulvous hairy* 
Petioles very long, rusty. Leaves trilobe, base reniform- 
2. Media. Petioles shorten Leaves ovate 3-5 lobed, base 
acute cordate- S.iJ/andina- Petioles long. Leaves cordate 
trifid, base acute cordate, lobes near or even overlaping, 
as in F. blanda. Perhaps several species, but leaves of- 
ten variable on same vine. Grapes good. 

4. F. multiloba. Raf- Dissected vine. See tab- 100, 
fig, G- Branches tomentose rusty. Petioles very short, 
round, tomentose rusty. Leaves palmate multilobe, 
base oval acute^ sinusses oboval rounded, segments 
bilobe, the middle ones trilobe, lobes oval lanceolate 
acute, with but few acute teeth, pubescent above, rusty 
glaucous beneath, nerves rusty. Found on the Washita 
and Red River, cultivated at Bartram's garden. Grape 
large, good and sweet. Var. 1. jRubripes. Petioles red. 
Leaves smaller, 5 lobed, lobes oval entire acuminate, 
without lobes, rusty gray beneath, nerves concolor. Is it 

a peculiar species ? 

5, V.digitata. Raf- Hand-chick Grape. Petioles equal 
rufous. Leaves palmate 5 lobed, base reniform, sinusses 
very broad, lobes lanceolate unequal toothed, \Yhite be- 
neath, nerves rufous stellate hairy. Berries black and 
small. In Virginia, Carolina, &c. Grapes similar to the 

Chicken Grapes. 

6- V. bracteata, Raf. (T. labnisca, Walter, F. estiva- 
lis, Elliot.) Sour Grape. Branches and petioles tomen- 
tose. Leaves broad cordate, rounded, entire or lobed, 
toothed, white beneath. Panicles of several bracteated 
fascicles, 3-6 flore. Berries black and pisiform. In the 
Southern States, from Carolina to Florida. A very tall 
vine, with small fruit like a pea, black, very acid and 

7. V. callosa. Raf. Canada vine. Branches and pe- 
tioles striated pubescent Petioles subequal. Leaves re- 
niform subtrilobe acute, with minute callous denticles, 
lucid above, white beneath, nerves rufous. Raceme com- 
pound. From Canada to PennsjWania, in hills. Young 
leaves pubescent above, smooth when grown. Blossoms 

in June. Fruit unknown. 

8. V, hyemalis. Raf. Winter Grape. Branches groov- 
ed smooth. Petioles smooth, very short. Leaves cordate 

L 2 

126 ^ VITIS. No. 99 & lOO. 

subtrifid acute, with unequal obtuse teeth, smooth above, 
pale ^ray beneath. Racemes small. Berries globular,' 
purplish black and small- From Canada, to Ohio and 
Virginia, large a ine, blossoms in July, fruits only ripe 

after frost, in small bunches, rather dense, of an acid 
bad taste. 

9. V, serotina. Raf. Late Grape. Branches procum- 
bent pilose, sometimes rooting. Petioles subequal pubes- 
cent. Leaves cordate palmate, 5 lobed, hardly crenate, 
sinusses rounded, lobes rounded acuminate, hairy above, 
gray beneath. Berries small and black. From Ohio to 
Missouri and Kentucky, in glades, near streams. Grape 
austere, ripe in October. Var. 1. Repens. 2. Micracina. 
3. Sangtdnaria. Bloody grape of Missouri. Berries 
sweet, black outside, red inside. 

10. K glareosa. Raf. Trailing Grape. Branches pro- 
cumbent, trailing, elongated and smooth. Petioles sub- 
equal smooth. Leaves remote, cordate sagittate, broad, 
subtrifid, serrate, smooth above, white beneath. Berries 
bluish black, large and sweet. This is the summer giape 
of the western glades or barrens, found from Illinois to 
Florida. Never climbing, fruit very sweet and fine, as ^ 
large as cherries, ripe in August. 

11. F, latifolia^ Raf. {V. taurina^ Walt. K fabrusca 
of many botanists, tut very different from F. labrusca of 
Europe.) Fox Grape. Branches slender striated pubes- 
cent. Petioles short hairy. Leaves ample coriaceous, cor- 
date oval, lobes approximated at the base, trifid angular, 
denticulate, wrinkled and smooth above, white beneath, 
nerves yellow. Racemes small. Berries large, depressed 
and hard. From Canada to Florida and Louisiana, call- 
ed by many names. Fox Grape, Bullet Grape, Bull 
Grape, Frost Grape, Tough Grape. In woods and hedges, 
blossoms in June and July. Leaves ample, rusty beneath 
when young. Flowers green, peduncles hairy, a short 
style. Fruit commonly purple, with a hard skin and a 
tough pulp, taste foxy. Many varieties : I. £lba, her- 
neyvhitish. 2. Mgra, hemes black, austere and harsh. 
3. P'runiformis, as large as a plumb, of a deep purple, , 
fleshy when ripe, called Elkton or Plumb Grape. 4. liu- 
ora, smaller red grapes, called Red Fox Grape. 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 127 

12. V. labruscoides. Mg. and Rat Sweet Fox Grape. 
Branches round and smooth. Petioles subequal, hardly 
pubeBcent. Leaves reniform at the base, trifid or quin- 
quefid, acute, with unequal acute callous teeth, sinusses 
acute, smooth above, glaucous beneath. Racemes small. 
Berries large, depressed, juicy and sweet- From New- 
York to Virginia, in woods, &c. Large vine, fruit dif- 
ferent from the last, musky rather than foxy, skin thick 
and austere, but inside when ripe with a sweet rich juice. 
Var. 1. Serotina^ Frost Grape, pui-plish black- 2.Rubray 
Worthington Grape, smaller berries, juice dark red, 
sweet and rough. 3. Pulposay Lutfborough Grape, ber- 
ries very large, of a deep purple, pulp dissolving in a 
sweet musky juice. 4. Precox, Early Grape, middle size 
berries, black, with a white bloom, sweet mu&ky taste, 
ripe in July in Virginia. 5. Major^ Big Grape of the 
Catskijl mountains. Berries purplish blue, exceedingly 
large (one measured by Mr, Eaton was 3 inches around) 
fine sweet pulpy juice. All highly deserving cultivation- 

13. F. rugosa. Raf. Roughleaf Grape. Branches round 
and smooth. Petioles similar, subequal, compressed. 
Leaves cordate 5 lobed, coriaceous with rounded acute 
teeth, lobes acute, very wrinkled above, beneath glau- 
cous. Racemes elongate compound. From New York to 
Ohio, blossoms in June. Fruit unknown. 

14. F. canina.RaL Dogs Grape. Branches round and 
smooth. Petiole striated pilose short. Leaves oval cor- 
date, base subreniform acute, end subtrifid, middlelobe 
much longer deltoid very sharp, teeth small broad acute, 
smooth above, with hairy nerves, glaucous beneath, with 
rusty nenes. From Pennsylvania to Virginia, &c. Fruit 
large, purple, tough, with a bad foxy taste, hardly edi- 
ble- Leaves quite ovate, much longer than broad, some 
large 8 inches long, 6 broad, petiole 4 inches. 

15. F. luteola. Raf. Variable Grape. Branches slen- 
der flexuose, fulvous tomentose. Petioles short similar. 
Leaves cordate oval acute, base acute, sides hardly an- 
gular, nearly entire, denticulate by the mere jutting of 
nerves, smooth deep green above, yellow tomentose be- 
neath. Grapes lar^e, depressed, hard. In Pennsylvania, 
&c. Leaves small 4 inches lonff, 3 broad, petioles 2, 

128 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

Fruit foxj, tough. Var. 1. Yellow. S.White. 3. Purple. 
4. Red Grapes. 

16. V. ferruginea* Ru3ty Grape. Branches rusty to- 
mentose, angular, angles obtuse. Petioles short, rusty to- 
mentose. Leaves cordate trifid coriaceous, base sinus 
acute, lobes remote, teeth unequal mucronate, smooth 
above, rusty tomentose beneath. Fruit large, depressed, 
hard, foxy. In Pennsylvania. Leaves as broad as long, 
petioles half length, called Fox Grape as well as the 
last. Grapes commonly pale red, or white tinged of 


bifida^ Raf. Bifid Grape. Branches smooth 

purple. Petioles subequal pubescent. Leaves ample co- 
riaceous,, cordate ovate trilobe acute, end mucronate, 
sinus of the base acute, lobes remote, lateral sinusses 
obtuse, teeth unequal large acute, smooth above, rusty 
gray beneath. Racemes bifid, grapes small bluisl\ black, 
acid. From Pennsylvania to Kentucky, one of the Chick- 
en Grapes. Leaves 6 inches long ana broad. 

18. V. obliqua^R'Af. Sandhill Grape. Branches slen- 
der, hairy, angular, angles obtuse. Petioles very short, 
hairy. Leaves obliqual ovate cordate trifid acuminate, 
base cordate acute, lobes near, commonly unequal, teeth 
unequal, very small, rugose hairy above, glaucous to- 
mentose beneath. Berries white, sweet and juicy. In the 
sandhills of Arkansas river and Oregon mountains. 
Leaves small, 3 inches long, 2 broad, petiole only one* 
Grapes said to be very ^ood. Cultivated at Bartram's 
garden. Very different Irom Sand Grape, variety of T\ 
blanda^ and more like V. longifolia. 

19. V. blanda, Raf. See tab. 100, fig. H. Bland Grape. 
Branches round and smooth. Petioles striated pilose sub- 
equal. Leaves nearly square, cordate or rather split at 
the base, sinus narrow acute, with lobes overleaping ; 
trifid, sinusses small acute, segments acute, the terminal 
larger; teeth unequal obtusely mucronate; smooth above, 
glaucous and sparingly arachmoidal beneath, with rusty 
nerves. Racemes compound. Berries large and sweet. 
*rom Pennsylvania to Louisiana. One of the most com- 
JJionlv cultivated as best for eating and wine : the 
ounches are large, the berries as large as the common 
^"le grape of Europe, commonly pale purple, with a 

No. 99 & 108. VITIS. 129 


thin skin and white sweet musky juice. Many names 
given to it, Madeira Grape, although a true native, Maz- 
zei Grape, Powell Grape, Clifton Grape, &c- The rai- 
sins de Cote, or Sand Grape of Louisiana, appear only 
a variety. The leaves are arachnoidal at first, but often 
become nearly smooth when old. Many van 1- Flava^ 
grapes of a yellow white. 2. Viridis. Green Bland. Fruit 
smaller, green when ripe, yet sweet and juicy, ripens 
early in July near Catskill mountains. 3. Carolintana. 
Smaller grapes. 4. Arenaria. Sand Grape of Louisiana 
and Arkansas. Leaves nearly smooth, except nerves be- 
neath, but similar in shape, grapes dark blue, very 
sweet, skin thicker. 5. Beteroloba. Oddleaf Grape. 
Leaves with^ unequal lobes at the base and top, base 
lobes approximated or overleaping, upper lobes larger 
unequal sharp, with large teeth. In Ohio. Perhaps some 
are peculiar species. 

20. F. ciliata. Raf. See tab. 100, fi^. E. Elsinburg 
Grape. Petioles striated hairy subequaT- Leaves ovate 
cordate 5 lobed, base with remote lobes, sinusses and 
lobes narrow acute, teeth large remote ciliolate, hairy 
above, dirty gray beneath, nerves fulvous gray. Berries 
blue, large, very sweet and juicy. Found in New Jer- 
sey. Begins to be cultivated, fruit as sweet as sugar, 
somewhat like the Bland Grape, but blue, and leaves 
totally different. 

II. Series. Lasipia. Berries globular or depressed. 
Leaves more or less hairy beneath, or at least on the 
nerves, but neither arachnoidal nor tomentose. 

21. V. longifolia. Raf. See tab. 99, fig. B. Petioles 
short and hairy. Leaves oblong cordate, sinus of the 
base rounded, hardly trifid, or with two longer teeth 
near the middle, end acuminate falcate,- unequal sharp 
teeth, pubescent above, hairy and gray beneath. Berries 
blue and sweet- In Arkansas and Texas, bearing fine 
blue grapes, very sweet. Cultivated by Mr. Hulin, in 
Philadelphia. Leaves small, about 4 inches long, less 
than 3 broad, petiole 2 inches : branches slender, round 
and smooth : old leaves nearly smooth. 

22. r. dimidiata. Raf. Orwisburg Grape. Branches 
slender striated smooth. Petioles subequal slender, stri- 
ated and nearly smooth. Leaves thin, oval reniform tri- 

130 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

fid, elongate acuminate, teeth large unequal acuminate, 
smooth above, glaucous beneath, sparingly pilose, chieflv 
on the nerves. Berries depressed and sweet. Found near 
Orwisburg, on the Schuylkill, in Pennsylvania, and cul- 
tivated in gardens. Leaves very thin, pretty large, about 
5 inches long and 5 broad. Grapes very good. 5 Varie- 
ties, white, purple, and black. This species appears to 
answer completely to the description of the F. riparia 
of Poiret, (not of the author's) which w^as the Vig7ie des 
JBattures of Louisiana, and thus this fine grape is from 
Pennsylvania to Louisiana. 

23. V. acerifolia. Baf- See tak 99, fig. C. Mapleleaf 
Grape. Trailing. Petiole very short, striated, pilose, 
redish. Leaves reniform trifid, base dilatate, nerve 
not marginal : sinusses acut^, segments acuminate fal- 

,cate, teeth very large, unequal and sharp, smooth and 
pale or glaucescent on both sides, nerves pubescent above 
and beneath, margin also pubescent. Brought from the 
Oregon mountains by the expedition of Long, cultivated 
in Bartram's garden. It has not given fruits as jet^ but 
they are said to be very good and juicy. Leaves very 
much like those of many Maples, 4 to 6 inches long and 
broad, a little variable, more or less gashed, sometimes 
sinusses very narrow, that of the base sometimes round. 

24. F. monlana^ Raf. Mountain Grape. Branches 
decumbent, round and smooth. Petioles round and smooth, 
longer than the leaves. Leaves cordate trifid acute, mem- 
branaceous, unequally serrate, smooth and lucid above, 

fubcscent and pale beneath. Berries small and black, 
n the Alleghany mountains from New York to Carolina* 
A small trading vine, near to V. Odoratisima^ but leaves 
larger, petioles longer, flowers hardly odorous, fruit 
hardly good. 

25- V. concolor, Haf. Dwarf Grape- Branches pro- 
cumbent green, round and smooth. Petioles round, 
smooth, exceedingly short, one fourth only- Leaves very 
thin, ovate acute subangular, base reniform, margin sub- 
anj^ular, with unequal mucronate teeth, both sides green, 
bit. I sparindy pilose. Small vine trailingon ^e ground, 
irom New York to Missouri. Petioles oidy one fourth of 
J^^e len^h of the leaves. Grapes small, blackish, called 
around Grape and Chicken Grane : this last name is 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 131 

given to all the small black Grapes, as Fox Grape to all 
the larg;e and tough indifferently. 

26- V. columhina^ Raf. Pidgeon Grape* Branches 
round, smooth. Petioles round, subequal nearly smooth. 
Leaves palmate 5 lobed, base subreniform, lobes bilobe, 
terminal tailobe, lobules unequally ovate angular acute, 
sinusses rounded notched, teeth remote callose : upper 
surface smooth, beneath nerves pubescent and rusty. 
Racemes slender. Large vine, growing from New York 
to Louisiana, in woods, somewhat similar to K mnltilO" 
ba in the shape of the leaves, but berries small, blackish, 
sweetish, eaten by the wild pidgeons like many others. 

Sr* V. poptihfolia^ KaL Poplar Grape. Branches slen- 
der, ^reen, smooth and striated- Petioles short, half in 
lengtn, slender striated, pilose above. Leaves o%^ate del- 
toid, acuminate, base truncate or reniform, end hardly 
trifid, acutely serrate, smooth on both sides, nerves pi- 
lose above and beneath, pale beneath- Fruit small and 
black. Pennsylvania and Alleghany mountains. Leaves 
4 inches long, 3 broad, petioles 2, Fruit very small, bit- 
terish, bad tasted. 

28. V. cordtfolia, Mx. P. N- (F, vuJpina, Torrey and 
Eaton.) Frost Grape. Branches round and smooth. Pe- 
tioles slender subequal pilose. Leaves cordate acumi- 
nate, sometimes angular, unequally serrate, smooth on 
both sides, nerves pdose. Racemes loose muUifiore- Ber- 
ries small, pale, acid. In woods and near streams from 
New York to Carolina- Leaves three to four inches 
broad. This is one of the Fox Grapes of the Northern 
States, but \ery different from the F. latifolia^ V. la- 
bruscoides^ and the Southern Muscadine Fox Grapes. 
It is the Winter or Frost Grape of the Southern States : 
they are small, acid, of a pale or amber colon 

29. K fiparia tf Pursh, Elliot, Torrey, &c. River 
Grape. Branches smooth striated- Petioles striated pi- 
lose subequal. Leaves small reniform trifid acuminate, 
with large unequal acute teeth, smooth abuve, hardly 
glaucous beneath, with nerves and margin pilose. Ra- 
cemes compound. Berries small. On the banks of streams 
from New York to Carolina- Flowers very sweet scent- 
ed ; the sterile plant is cultivated under the name of 
Bermuda vine and Mignonette vine, for the profusion of 

132 VITIS. No. 99 & 100- 

the blossoms smelling like Reseda odorata, Var. 1. Vu 

ridis^ berries greenish. 9., Purpurea^ berries purplish. 

III. Series. Hypoleia. Berries globular or depressed. 
Leaves smooth beneath, but commonly pubescent at the 
axilla of the nerves. 

30. Sp. V. odoratissima^ Donn. Sweet scented Grape. 
^-1 and petioles smooth, not striated. Petioles 




and green on botli sides, axillas of nerves bearded be- 
neath. Raceraefi pubescent, lax, compound. Berries 
pisiform and Rweet. From New York to Kentucky^ 
in groves, fields, commonly procumbent, not twining : 
blossoms in May, flowers very sw^eet, like V. rtparia^ 
from which it differs by the petioles, leaves nearly angu- 
lar laciniate, not pubescent nor ciliated. Many authors 
have united it to F» riparia. Var. 1. Atropurpurm^ grapes 
purplish black acerb, on the Ohio and Green Rivers. 
2. Purpurea^ grapes purple and sweet, in Ohio. S.iNTi- 
gra^ Petioles equal to leaves, grapes black, fine flavor, 
in Ohio. 4. Alba. Grapes white, in New York. 

31* V. Amara^ "Raf. Bitter Grape. Branches striated 
and smooth. Petioles very short, smooth, purplish. Leaves 
cordate acuminate, base" obtuse, lobes distant, unequally 
toothed, teeth rounded mucronate, smooth on both sides, 
pale beneath, nerves brown, with bearded axillas. Ber- 
ries small, black and bitter. Found near Philadelphia 
by Mr. Carr, and cultivated in Bartram's garden, leaves 
about 6 inches long, 6 broad, petioles 2. Berries pisi- 
form, intolerable bitter, with two seeds and hardly any 

32. V. vnlpina or muscadina^ Raf. (F. inma, Jaq- V- 
vulpina, L., Abbot, Walter, Smith. F. rotwidifoUa,Ux. 
P. N. Elliot.) JIuscadine Grape. Branches pubescent 
Petioles subequal smooth. Leaves cordate acute, une- 
qually toothed, smooth and shining on both sides, nerves 
bearded at the axilla. Racemes with many capitules. 
I* rmt depressed, large, juicy. From Virginia to Florida 
and lexas, near streams chiefly. It bears a multitude of 
vuigar names, such as Muscadine, Bullet, Fos and Scu^ 

Vjh^^^ ?^^ ' ^^ confusion in the botanical names is 
oad, and as they do not apply, I have changed them 


Nov 99 & 100. VITIS. 133 

all. As I have not seen this species, I have chiefly relied 
on Elliot's description. The leaves are 2 or 3 inches 
long and broad. It blossoms in Julj and Aiipist : 6 to 
8 flowers to the branches of the racemes- The fruit is 
large, 7" to 9 lines in diameter, oblate spheroidal or 
flattened, with ^ thick skin, purplish or bluish black ; 
taste pleasant, sweet and musky, makes a very good 


33- F- angulatay Raf- See tab. 99, fig. D. Angular 

Grape. Branches cespitose, stiff, anplar and striated, 
smooth and purple. Petioles subequai slender subpilose. 
Leaves small cordate rounded obtuse, with a f^w large 
lobular obtuse teeth, base acute, lobes divaricate, shin- 
ing on both sides, axilla of the nerves bearded, mar^n 
subpilose. Fruit black, sweet and juicy. From Carolina 
to Arkansas and Texas, in glades, forming a bush, sel- 
dom climbing- Cultivated at Bartram's garden. Many 
vulgar names, Arkansas, Bushv? Currant, and False 
Scupernong Grape. Leaves hardly bigger than a dollar, 
sometimes purplish beneath : the young ones sparingly 
pilose on the nerves beneath, as in the series lAisipia^ 
Old leaves nearly smooth, angles of the stem acute, fruit 
small, good. 

34. F, verrucosa^ Raf. Warty Grape. Branches round, 
stiff, smooth, warty or dotted. Petioles short, smooth. 
Leaves broad reniform acute, with large acute teeth, 
base subtruncate reniform, both sides lucid and smooth. 
Berries large, sweet, and juicy- From Carolina to Ar- 
kansas. t£s is another of the Scuipernong Grapes ; this 
name is given in Carolina to all the good juicy grapes. 
Leaves 2 inches broad, 1^ long, petioles 1 inch. The 
fruit is white, sweet and good. 

35- V. pettata^ Raf- or V. Jlaridana. Florida Grape. 
Petioles short and smooth. Leaves drooping, ovate cor- 
date acute, base subpeltate, split acutely, lobes approxi- 
mated, large acute teeth all around, smooth and green 
on both sides, beneath nerves reticulated prominent with 
bearded axillas, A very singular species, lately found in 
Florida, and communicated to me by Mr. Halsey. The 
leaf is very small, 1 5 inch long, one broad, petioles half 
of the leat : a prominent net work beneath, formed by 



134 VITIS. No. 99 & 100' 


t)roniment nerves instead of veinSy as usual. Fruit un' 



Grape. Leaves orbicular, entire, base liardlj cordate, 
no teeth nor lobes. A doubtful species, inserted on the 
authority of Robin, but hardly described by hiro. From 

Sr. V. poiretia^ Raf, (Fl vulpina^ Poiret.) Chicken 
Grape. Leaves ample cordate, entire trilobe or 5 lobed, 
lobes distant at the base, lobes angular acuminate, une- 
qually toothed- Both sides smooth, pale beneath, with 
yellow veins. "Racemes with many ombellules, with a 
linear lanceolate bract. Berries small and black. This 
species, which Poiset describes as the F- vulpzna of L. 
is totallv difterent from it, and I stronfflvsusnect onlv 

a variety of m}^ V. bracteata^ improperly described as- 
smootji beneath- 

S8. V. jjalviata^ Vahl. Palmate Grape. B^anches^ 
smooth purple* Leaves palmate cordate, segments lan- 
ceolate acute, lateral ones with lanceolate teeth, the ter- 
minal serrate. Raceme oblong and shdrt. Only described 
and seen by VaUl, ^.^ ,/a in Europe from seeds sent from 
America- Perhapsa variety of my V. multiloba* Stipules 
lanceolate. Raceme only one inch lonsr. 

IV. Series. Aglob^'^'a. Berries not globular nor de- 
pressed, but oblong or oval, as commonly in V.vinifercu 

39. F- Vir^Miana. Poiret Virginia Grape. Branches 
smooth and red. Leaves coriaceous, ovate cordate 5 
lobed, lobes unequal rounded, terminal large acuminate- 
teeth unequal short acute, above lucid, beneath with pu- 
bescent Merves. Berries oval. Described by Poiret from 
garden specimens, sent by Mr. Ilinsston irom the Poto- 
mac. Racemes nearly simple, pedicels slender. Berry 
of middle size, of an oval round shape. 

40. V,prGUfera.R^t\ (See tab. 100, fig- F.) Prolific 
Cxape. Branches substriated, subpilose. Petiole short, 
pilose. Leaves cordate acute, of a square form, trifid, 
trilube or 3 lobed, base acute with distant rounded lobes, 
^ ^^T ^-bes and sinusses variable, margin acute serrate 

>Mthj beneath cineruus tomentose. nerve* fui- 

- S41V 

vouii. ifcaceraes compound pruuferons. Berrie:- larae •. 


iSfo. 99 & 100. VITIS. 135 


liptical, A very interesting and 

^any varieties, and a irmltitude of vulgar names, such 
as Alexander^ Tusker^ Schuylkill^ Madeira^ Muscadel^ 
Clifton^ Legoiix^ Cape^ Isabellcty Catawba^ Tokay ^ Mun- 
c^ Grapes, &c. ail belonging to one kind, although form- 
ing several varieties. Thej are reai native grapes* found 
fro'm Pennsylvania to Carolina and Ohio, in woods. The 
grapes are plentiful, large, fine, with a tou^h skin and a 
rich sweet juice. Already much cultivated and valued 
for eating and wine. The chief varieties are : 1. Vtilga* 
vis. Alexander Grape. Petioles longer, leaves larger, va- 
riable on the same vine, often lobed, with broad ovate 
acute lobes and narrow obtuse sinusses. Fruit blackish, 
as large as the end of a linger. 2, Isabella. Isabella 
Grape, figured here. Leaves commonly trifid, fruit large 
andpurpie : found in North Carolina. 3. Media. Ciiftou 
Grane. Smaller grape than the tir^t, and not so sweet. 

4. CatabiamL Catawba Grape, from North Carolina. 
Leaves large, commonly trilobe, grapes purple, lilac or 
white, according to ^^^ttie and exposure, flavour musky. 

5. Prunoides. aluncy Grape. Similar to tiie Catawba, 
but taste different, similar to that of "^^ ild Plumbs. 

6. Ohiensis. Ohio Grape. Grape smaller, white. 

41. F. obovataj Raf. Oboval Grape. Leaves similar to 
the V. prolifera^ on long petioles, commonly cordate, tri- 
lobe acute, sinusses acute. Berries large oboval- Fi^om 
Pennsylvania to VirgiuLd, in islands and banks of streams 
and rivers. Perhaps variation of the last ; but it ha? it- 
self many varieti : . 1. liapestris. Large vine, virith loose 

branches, jsrrapes purple, very juicy and sweet. 2.A" '-a. 
Grapes loose, few, obovate,. nearly black, very ^"eet. 
At the head of the Susquehannah. 3. Pallida, Grapes 
pale red, Alleghany River- 4. PrunoideH. Bluish large 
grape, like a Plumb. 

N. B- By the above enumeration of our Grapes, I 
have done for this genus what Michaux did for our Oaks. 
O'ving to the great caufusiou of former authors, and the 
difficulty of comparing the leaves and fruits of all the 
species, it is hardly as perfect as I should wish. Rigid 
botanists may perhaps wiah to reduce the«e species to a 
minor number, or consider some as hybrids : if they can 
^nd good permanent collective characters, let them r**- 

136 : ' VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

duce our Grapes "fflfc Oaks to a dozen species. But the 
angular or striated branches, the long or short petioles, 
the oval, cordate or reniform leaves, &c- must always 
be deemed essential specific characters, and several of 
my new species, such as V. bracteata^ V. angnlata^ V> 
peUata, V, caninan J\ blanda^ V. longifolla^ V. acerifo- 
lia, v. amara^ V. proli/era^ &c. must h^ deemed very 
distinct. It remains for me to apply the same principle 
to the Vines of the old continent^^which 1 shall do in a 
-very concise maimer, and merely as an illustration of the 
American kinds. 

w ' 

.. II. Section. Account of Exotic Grape Vines^ 


42, ri yinifera, L. Common Grape. Branches tvv ining 
cylindric. Petioles subequal- Leaves cordate sinuate 3 
or 5 lobed, acute, base cordate, teeth unequally acute, 
green jon^both sides. Racemes thyrsoidal paniculated. 
Flowers all fertile, pistil turbinate. Berries ellipsoid. 
Native of central Asia, cultivated all over the world. 
A multitude of varieties and names, perhaps as many as 
500 ; the utmost confusion has been thrown on the sub- 
ject by writers, and no general classification nor syno- 
nymy attempted. The same grapes are often found in 
France, Spain. Italy, Greece and Asia, under very dif- 
ferent names. In this dilemma, I can only offer a first 
(and perhaps rude) attempt at distinction and co-ordina- 
tion, and thus divide the principal varieties into 3 series, 
the last of which he will include 15 species or subspe- 
cies, so different from the others in many respects as to 
be probably peculiar species; nay, 3 of them, K /a- 
brusca, V.pinnata^ F. /aaVuo^a^ have been so considered 
by many botanists already. 

L Series. Berries oblong, elliptic, orsuboboval- 
Var.l^Precoar.Early Grape. Small leaves and branches, 
-pes small, loose, thick skin, juice insipid, pulp dry. 
ipe in June and July. 

Var. 2. Biirgundica. Burgundy Grape. Leaves semi- 
5 lobed, red beneath, teeth subequal. Grapes black and 
^weet 1 - French. 2. Italian^ larger and sweeter. 3. Ger- 
^ J^ ■ '^ weet, austere. 

\ u ' ^^^^^^^' Chasselas Grape. Lono; petioles and 

vooes, tteih broad. Only o;0od to eat. S^subvarieties ; 



No, 99 & 100. VITIS. 137 

1. Yellow unequal berries. 2, Red. :3. White-green, 

Var. 4. Moschata. Muscat Grape* Leaves 5 lobed, with 
tinequal segments and teeth, bunches long^ grape very 
sweet and muskj. 6 subvarieties. I.White. 2. Green. 

3. Yellow. 4. Red, rounder grapes. 5. Small black. 
6. Black Constantia* 7. Persian. 8. Syracuse red. 
S.Gray. 10. Lachryma Christi, black. 

Var. 5. Zibiba. Muscatel or Raisin Grape- Very large, 
musky delicious ilavorj pulp firm. Sev. var. 1. White. 

2. Green. 3. As large as Walnuts, from Mount Atlas. 

4. Large white^ from Syria. S.Black, thick skin. 6. Red, 
from Greece. 7. Malaga white. 8. Sicily white. 9. Dam- 
son Grape, large purple like a Plumb. 

Var. 6. Malve-shi. Malmsey Grape. Leaves like Mus- 
cat, grape large, juicy, very sweet, not musky. 1. Ma- 
deira purple, hard skin. 2. Sicily, purple,^ smaller. 

3. Yellow. 

Var. 7. Nigraria. Claret Grape, with thick black skin, 
commonly a bloom on it, juicy pulp, not musky. Sub- 
variety 1. Spanish. 2. Italian. 3. Calabrian. 4. Tripoli 
large. 5. Lombard or Canaan, with large bunches of 4 
to 10 lb. weight. 6. Claret Grape, small, juice red lite 
blood, taste harsh. 

Var. 8. Violacea.Vuv^l^ Grape. Skin commonly thick, 
austere, purplish, pulp firm not musky. 1. Violet c(^or. 
2. Light purplcr 3- Spanish, a little juicy. 4. Small and 
h'^-'^h, 5. ^Tivrna, very larsre. 

Var. 9. *3urca. Golden Grape* Leaves velvet-like 
above- not lobed, glaucous i aeath, beniea. yellow ob- 
long, perh"^5 a peculiar species. 1. Burgundy. S.Spanish 
lar^re. 3. fetraw Grape, thick vinose juice, delicious per- 
fume, makes the fine golden Straw Wine. 

Var. 10. Versicolor. Varied Grape. Leaves variegated 

of red, yellow and green. 1. Grapes nuxt of black and 
white, a". White and red. 3. Yellow and green. 4. Alep- 
po black and white. Curious, but indifferent. Perhaps 

var. of V. bicolor. 

Var. 11. Greca, Grecian Grape, glaucous or pale co- 
lor, skin rather thick, very juicy, not musky, hardly 
sweet. 2, Blanquette of France. 2. Medoc S.Malaga. 
4- Cyprus. O.Grecian bluish white. 6. White Hamburg. 

138 VITIS. No. 99 k 100. 

7* Tenerifte or Vidonia. 8. Madeira Vidonia, producing 
the strong drj Wine. 9. Bagoal of Madeira, sweeter. 
10- Fajal. 11. Sicily Greca. 12.Sicily harsh. 13.Graves. 
14. White bitterish. 15. Rhenish or Hock. 16. Lisbon. 
ir* Alpine acid. 

Var. 12. Perla. Pearl Grape. Leaves 5 lobed, much 
cut up. Grapes oblong, hard, greenish. 1, Large Pearl. 
2. Small Pearl 3. SicUy Perna. 4. White. 5. Straw 

Var. 13. Felina. Cat's Grape. Small pale green, soft, 
juicy, disagreeable taste. 

Var. 14. Acetaria. Verjuice Grape. Leaves ample, 
nearly round ; grapes ovate oblong, larger green, very 

Var. 15. Duicis. Sweet Water Grape. Commonly 
small, with a very tliin skin, juice very thin and sweet, 
no pulp. I.White. 2. Black. 3. Tokay, white, delicious 
flavor. 4. Blue Tokay, small brownishj with a blue 
bloom. 5. Cotnar of Moldavia, green, makes green 
wine. 6. Nectar of Greece, white styptic. 7- Persian. 

Var. 16. Cuprea. Coppery Grape, of a brick or copper 
color. 1. Small sweet. 2. Large. S. Hard and harsh. 

11. Series, Berries nearly round, but yet diameter 
a little less than the length. 

Var. 17. Oporto. Portugal Grape. Leaves large, with 
unequal lobes and deep teeth : grapes large black, with 
harsh red juice. 1. Common, leaves 4 or 5 lobed. 
2. Short bunch, leaves 2 or 3 lobed. 3. Etna or Mascali. 
4. Dalmatian. 5, Schiraz in Persia. 

Var. 18. Tinto. Tinto Grape. Similar to Oporto, but 
mth sweeter and blacker juice. 1. Spanish Tinto. 
Z. Tintilla. 3. Alicant. 4. Calabria. 5. Grecian. 

Var. 19. Tznctoria. Coloring Grape. Leaves 5 lobed, 
deeply toothed, bunches unequal : grapes unequal hard, 
red, with black and austere juice. Only used to color 
other wines. 

Var._ 20. Crassifolia. Mansard Grapes. Leaves large 
and thick, with smalt teeth ; bunches long pyramidal, 
pt--^ large and black. I.French. 2. Asiatic^, bunches 
from 10 tu 401b. weight 3. Grandifolia. 

i^^fh^* ^^' ^i^*/ma. Velvet Gr^e- Leaves trilo!]5, 

W Q^T^I^'^H^^al J grapes of a fine velvet black. l.Ca^ 
iiura. z* Italian. 

No. 99 & 100, VITIS. 139 

Var. 23. Syriaca. Syrian Grape. Large, of a delicious 
flavor, juicy, red or bfack. 1- Damascus black. 2. Jeru- 
salem, red musky. 3. Morillon, black early. 4, Morella 
of Italy* 5. Lisbon juicy, black. 6. Black Frontignac, 
musky, smaller. 7- Grisly, mixt of red, brown, and 

Var. 23. Malvagia. Malvesy Grape. Similar to Malm- 
sey, but rounder and musky, white or yellow. I.Cyprus. 
2. Sicily. 3- Yellow. 4. Mingrelia or prolific, bunches 
10 to 301b. 

Var. 24. Laxa. Loose Grape. Petioles slender and 
gray, leaves hardly lobed, unequally sinuate : grapes 
large white, loose. 1. Gouais of France. 2, Persian. 

Van 25. ProUfica, Prolific Grape. Leaves thick> hard- 
ly lobed, sinuate: grapes black, not sweet, austere, 
middle size or small. 1. Common garnet. 2. Leaves tri- 
lobe smaller. S.Grecian. Are great bearers, but make bad 

Wine, and spoil the good. 

The above include all the chief varieties and subva- 
rieties of what I consider as the original Wine Grape. 
I shall nest enumerate 15 other kinds, commonly con- 
sidered as varieties, but Avidely different in the leaves, 
&c. ^ as to afford permanent specific distinctions. I 
therefore propose them as species, or at least subspecies. 
Linnxus deemed also the K Zacimosa a peculiar species. 

IIL Series. Vines specifically different from the F. 

43. V, labrusca^ Raf. Wild Grape. Branches trailing 
striated. Petioles subeqnal pilose. Leaves ample cor- 
date, 3 or 5 lobed, whitish beneath, (white when young) 
smooth above, (hairy when young) lobes acute, coarsely 
serrated. Racemes compound, short and lax, flowers all 
fertile, petals pilose at the top. Berries globular, small, 
black and acid. Native of Italy, Greece, Sicily, Bar- 
bary, &c. the only wild Grape of Europe, deemed by 
some the original of all the cultivated Grapes, by others 
a degenerated kind : both opinions appear false, since it 
w known by history that the Wine Grape came from 
Asia, and that it does not change into Labrusca. The 
blossoms are fragrant as in our F* riparia^ and the ber- 
ries like the American Chicken Grapes, quite spherical, 
not eatable nor suitable for Wine. 

140 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 


44. F. farinosa. R^f. Meal}^ Grape, Leaves trilobe^' 
lateral lobes bilobate, covered with a hoary powder, 

downy in youth. Racemes short compact. Berries ovaK 
Var. 1. Black and large. 2. White and large. 3, White 
and small. Often called Miller's Grape^ good to eat, 
makes bad Wine. 

45. r. cana, Raf. Hoary Grape. Petioles thick and 
red. Leaves hardly 5 lobed, with large teeth, green 
above, white tomentose beneath. Berries round, yellow- 
ish, sweet. Var. 1, Common. 2. Rochelle, leaves 5 lobedj 
grapes round, white, sweet, subacid, thin skin. 3. Leaves 
trilobe whiter, yellow grapes. 

46. F. bicoloTy Raf. Black and white Grap»^^ Petioles 
long. Leaves 5 lobed with double teeth, white tomen- 
tose beneath. Berries round soft, black and wlute on the 
same branch- Is it a variety of Vaccina ? and is l\ vini- 
fera versicolor a variety o^it? 

4r. F. mccharina^ Raf. Sugar Grape- Leaves semi- 
5 lobed, villose and pale beneath, small subequal teetR. 
Racemes small conical subsessile. Berries round or ob- 
long, very sweet. Var. 1. Pineau Grape. Oblong dense 

redish. 2. Griset Grape. Bunch deformed, grape round, 
gray, perfumed. 

48. V. rufa^ Raf. Mormain Grape. Leaves palmate, 
pale above, nerves rose color, villose whitish beneath. 
Berries round loose, rufous, sweet and jaeshy. 

49. r. apicma, Raf. Muscadel Grape. Petioles long- 
Leaves lobed laciniate, teeth acute, glaucous beneath. 

Berries round, white or rose. Var. 1. ^//ja. 2. Eosea^ 
3. Parvifolia, 

50. V. pimctata^ Raf. Dotted Grape. Leaves hardly 
trilobe, deeply toothed, pale and smooth beneath. Ra'- 
eemes short. Berries oval acute, white dotted of yellow, 
very sweet. L Sauvignon small. 2. Puntillo. larger. 

51. F succmea. Ambrette Grape. Leaves with acumi- 
nate lobes hardly toothed, smooth beneath. Berries obo- 
val musky, transparent. Var. 1. Yellow. 2. Blackish. 

52. V.turbinata. Ciotat Grape. Leaves 5 parted pal- 
mate laciniate, teeth elongate acute, smooth beneath. 
Kernes oboval musky. Var. l.£lba. Q.Digitata. 3. £pi- 
Pei M ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Parsley, grapes red. 4. Fyriform. 

go. 99 & 100. VITIS. . 141 

; 53. V.laciniosa^l^. Cutleaf Grape;* Leaves dlo-itate, 

4 to 6 folioles subpinnatifid, unequal obtuse, pale and 
smooth beneath. Racemes simple oval pendulous. Ber- 
ries rounded sweet and acid. Var.K White oval. 2.White 
round and small. S.White and red. 4. Grandifolia. 
5. Dissecta* 

54. V. pinnata^YsihL Branches smooth, round pur- 
plish. Leaves with 5 folioles, ovate petiolate serrate 
smooth, terminal lobe subsessile, lower ones often auricu- 
late outside, pale and smooth beneath. Racemes twice 
compound, partial ombellulate. Grape not known. Ge- 
nus doubtful, folioles 2 inches long. 

55. F.connf/i/ac^/, Raf. Currants Grape. Leaves Taro-e 

5 lobed, lobes laciniate by long acute teeth, downy be- 
neath. Berries small and round. Var. !• White. 2. Red. 
3. Transparent. 4, Sultana or Apyrena, without seeds. 
Native of Greece. 

56. K maura^ Raf. Morocco Grape. Leaves subpal- 
naate, teeth long acute, smooth beneath. Berries like a 
heart, unequal, large, Var, 1. Violaceous. 2. Tawny. 
S. Very large purple. Native of North Africa, Morocco 

and Bombay. 

Grape* Leaves 


lobes and segments very unequal. Berries cylindrical, 
straight or curved, commonly acute, with hard pulp and 
two acute seeds. Var. 1, Olive Grape, oblong cylindrical 
greenish. 2, Long cylindrical, very hard. 3. Oblong, 
juicy, white. 4. mcurva. Curved yellow. 5. Curved ob- 

obtuse, green. 6. Curved, brick-red, acute. The 
French call this grape Cornichon^ the Italians Dattola 
and Oliva* It is very good to eat, but rather insipid and 
not good for wine : grapes one or two inches long. 

Here ends the supposed varieties of V, vinifera, and 
begins the series of tropical Vines or F^mrffca of authors. 

58. F. indie a of Rheede, L. Malabar Grape. Leaves 
cordate without lobes, smooth beneath, teeth acute, Bcr- 
rie- globular and red. In Malabar and India. 

59. KJlexuosOf Thunberg. Japan Grape. Branches 
stnooth in x'lgzag. Leaves cordate acute serrate, dow^ny 
beneath, Flo^^ers glomerate in long panicles. In Japan, 
called there ItodorL 


142 VITIS. N0..99&IOO- 

60.^ V. glomerata, Raf. [V^.indica cf the West Indies.) 
Tropical Grape. Branches gray pubescent. Petioles long 
tomentose. Leaves oval acuminate, base reniiorm, denti- ' 
culate, cinereous pubescent beneath. Racemes tomentose 
pedunculate glomerate lon^. Berries glomerate subses- 
aile, globular and red. In Cuba, Hajti, &c. The grapes 
are of middle size, 3-4 seeded, edible- 

61. V. \n&ritima^ Raf. Seaside Grape* Leaves cordate 
rounded, acute with small teeth, tomentose and white 
beneath, tendrils floriferous^ Berries small globular red, 
rough, harsh, and acid. In Jamaica and Yucatan, on the 
sea side* Grapes not larsrer than currants and very much 
like*them, not edible, and yet make a j^ood Wine, The 
twigs, when cut, distil a cool water. Many other kinds 
of Vines appear to grow in tropical climates, perhaps 
different fiom these 4 last, and the grapes of Mexico 
Brazil, Africa, Abvssinia, Persia, Thibet, China, &:cJ 

have never been described as yet The 3 south African 
grapes of Thunberg, r. pentaphylla, F. capensis^ and r^ 
cirrhosa, are probably species of Quinaria or Cissus* 

62.x\nother species, V* heptaphylla^ L. is said by Smith 
to be merely the JlTalia uiodaphylla^ jet by Poiret's de- 
scription it is a true Vitis^ although it has tlie habit of 
Quinaria, It is a native of the East Indies. Leaves with 
7 foholes {or 5 to 8} ovate entire, panicles branched, 
flowers verticiUate. Calyx 5 toothed, 5 petals cohering 
at the top. 5 stamens, a sessile stigraa as in Fitis. 

HI. SKtio)2, Qualities and Properties of Grape Vims 

and Wines. 
Ever J part of tlwise useful Vines is valuable and avail- 
able. The countries where thej are a staple, boast of 
being blessed above all others, and are envied bv their 
neighbours. The ancient nations have cultivated them 
trom the most remote antiquity, and ascribe ih^vc intro- 
auction to primiiive legislators and benefactors. The 
Umdus, Persians, Armenians, Arabs, and Jews to Xa- 
hu,,ua or Xoah. The Greeks said that Bacchus carried 
Jheaa trora Asia to Greece and India, Saturn to Crete, , 
yre^,.-, son ot Deucalion, to Sicilv, Osiris to E-vpt, 

'^ ■^^' Geryon to Spain, &c." Titeir various x^'^s 


No. 99 & 100. YITIS 


were known very early, and many Wines made at very 
earlv periods- "^ 

Vines live from 100 to 500 years, when allowed full 
scope, their roots and s1;ems become very large, some- 
times several feet in circumference. The bark is used 
for straps^ itypes, baskets, mats, &:c. The wood of the 
root and &tem is very hard, and has a fine grain ^ it re- 
sembles AValnut and Cypi^ess, is employed'^to make ta- 
bles, doors, implements, &c. which are very durable ; 
it is too valuable for burning when large. The branches 
and twigs are chiefly used for burning, and fagots made 
with them after trimmins: the Vines ; much used in vine 
countries for ovens, to light fires and cook, &c. In the 
spring, the vernal sap ot the Vines is similar to water, 
and very cooling. 

.IV - » 

tetves-are^TiSedlor manrpxirposes, to carry fruitSy 

butter, and saleable^ to marliet, to cover, clean, scour, 
&c. Cattle are fond of them : they are given to cows, 
ffoats, arid hogs. They form one of the best manures for 
the Vines themselves. A kind of Wine may be made 
of them w^ith sugar. 

The blossoms of the fragrant kinds arc used as per- 
fume, and to give this perfume to Wine, being put in 
when fermenting;. 

From the Grapes are made, 1, Verjuice, 2. Must 
3. Syrup. 4. Grape butter. 5, Sugar. 6. Wines, 7. Boiled 
Wines. 8. Nectar. 9- Piquette, 10. Lees. 11. Vinegar 
12- Brandy. IS, AlcohoJ. 14- Varnish- 15, Preserves^ 
16. Pies and Tarts- IT. Raisins. 18, Tartar or Aro-ol' 

19. Cordials, 20, Perfumes, Cs:c. and ther are one of the 

most palatable and healthy fruit of the'^table, of which 
there is a succession from the end of June to November: 
thev mav even be preserved fresh the whole winter in 
saw dust, and are thus exported. 

Tfie seeds of Grapes are'-eaten by fowls^ pidg;eonsand 
birds ; they are astringent aiid oily. A fine fixed oil is 
made from them bv pressure in Parma, Lombardy,, and 

other parts of Italv, j^imihir to Olive oil* and used for 

buroi'^g and fryin:r. Thehu^ks nnd peduncles are a va- 
luable manure. V\ hen b^mt, they make the best Pot- 
ash used for soft soap. Ar^nl or Tartar is extracted from 
the lees or settlings of Wine, and is intrusted !to iht 



144 VITIS, No- 99 & 100, 

vats and casks 


From Argol are made tartaric acid and cream of tartar. 
Acetic acid is made from vinegar. 

Verjuice is the juice of unripe Grapes and chiefly of 
the Verjuice Grapes, which neVer ripen* It is acid and 
harsh, containing malic acid, tartrate of potash, and ex- 
tractive- It is used as a condiment like vinegar and 
lime juice. It is cooling and laxative : a peculiar Wine 
can be made with it by the addition of sugar, which re- 
sembles fine Cider or Champaigne, according to the mode 
of fermenting. 

Ripe Grapes contain 1* Tartaric acid, 2. Sugar. 3.Wa- 
ter% and 4. Mucilase* in difterent proDortion, accordins: 

to the kinds 



before fermentation. The adventitious elements are : 
1. Malic acid. 2. Carbonic acid. 3. Potash. 4. Tannin. 
5. Aroma. 6, Coloring priticiple, which are not always 
present, except tannin, which is always found in the husk 
or skin, as well as tlie peduncles and seeds of the 
Grapes. Hlpe Grapes are cooling, antiseptic, and nutri- 
tious : when eaten in large quantities, they become diu- 
retic, laxative, and pectoral. They form an excellent 
diet in all inflammatory diseases, incipient phthisis, 
phlegmasis, convalescence from fevers, &c. The sweet- 
est and well flavored kinds are the best, all the harsh 
and bad tasted are only fit to make Wine. It is with 
Grapes as with Apples, the best for the table do not al- 
ways make the best Wine or Cider. Among American 
Grapes, out of 40 species, we have only 17 suitable to 
make good Wine, and among these only 8 very palata- 
ble, such as the Bland, Alexander, Scupernong, Musca- 
dine, Elsinburg, Owisburg, River and Maple Grapes, 
with their varieties. 

Raisins are the dried Grapes* which is commonly done 
by scahling the bunches m boiling water with ashes, 

and mmt hanging them on strings 
to dry m the shade. A few are dried in the sun in very 
w^arm countries. These operations dissipate the water 
TO Grapes ; they diminish the acid and increase the 
^»f» which often crystallizes spontaneously in them. 
«^$ins arp less cooling than Grapes : nav, eaten in 
quantity, they are heating and flatulent. Boiled Raisins 



No. 99 & 100. VITIS.- 145 

are almost restored to the pruiiltive state of Grapes j 
they become very emoUent, pectoral, and laxative. We 
could make raisins m Avuerica with most of the 8 kinds 
mentioned above as palatable, and aliio with some of the 
large Fov Grapes. 

Manj culinary preparations are made with fresh 
Grapes and Raisins, such as pies, tarts, plumb puddings, 
dumplings, preserves, jellie-*, See. In America, we use 
for pies aud tarts almost all the kinds except the bitter 
sort, and even the smallest Chicken and Pidgeon Grapes: 
they improve and enlarge by c^okinsr- Grape Butter is 
made like Apple Butter, by boiUi^g the Must or juice of 
the Grapes to tiie consistence uf houey ; it is vnuch used 
in Europe and Asia, the Freiich call it Saisinet : the 
best is made s\ve<*ttM- and irranular by the addition of 
sugar, and is then one of the i:rfatest delicacies. We 
could easily make it with our Grapes. 

The unboiled and unfermented Slust or recent juice is 
used as a pleasant ^ad c^voi;,.^ beverage, uirh x^tei and 
mjgar, all uvt?r the Oriemat cuviutrit^^ ; it is called Sher* 
bet. and much liked fy tiie Maltoutc^ut^^, sv ho arc forbid 
the use of vu'ne ; several kinds are made bv the addition 
of raisins, cinnamon, rose water, r>pices and other ingre- 
dients j the best is c -^I. J with snow* Syrup and su^ar 
can be made from Must and raisins. The Must of sweet 
Gmpe? j;iv« a syrup by condenj?u*ion or evaporation, 
%hich prevents fermentation; and raisins boiled to a pulp 
and strained 2:ive the ^ame, Ti ^ rup has the flavor 
of the 'T^ .J. and may be u«**d IvWe any oti^ier syrup. 
From it - iv is made by chemicaJ oj^eralit^ns, concen- 
tration, saturation, separation of \vaur. granulation, &c. 
The Grape Sugar is peculiar, it ucver cr>3tallizes per- 
fectly, commonly forms lumps, and it isdifficult to bleach 

; \>ut n makes yen ^^od and sweet Cf>arse sugar. In 
Europe, the manufactu hasbet'o ^ried on a larj^ scale, 

hut rnicflv in France. ^^^ le ine ti. ipf are 11**1 »it sac- 
charmt in i^^ . ami the pi^lvic«c\^ has ly-^n given 
to the batter and W' i hb. t^^^-^*- tjf fiuets and 

But \^ LXE is the rhi^^r - ' tul prmfuce of 

the Grape. It is the jmce uf toe iMapi* altrr' d by the 

vmous t^rujeuiation* It^n*^ att^, iauumerftWe kiud^ f 



146 VITIS. No. 99 & 100 

Wines produced by the various Grapes, their mixture, 
climate and soil, cultivation and manipulation, care and 
skill. Perhaps 3000 kinds! of Avhich 500 in France, 
700 in Italy. 600 in Spain and Portugal, 100 in Germa- 
ny and Hungary, 300 in Greece and Turkey, 100 in 
Persia, 2(,0 in Thibet and China, \50 in Egypt and Bar- 
barv, SO in South Africa, 50 in the Atlantic Islands, 60 
in North America, 40 in South America. But several of 
these differ little from each other. 

The cheinical analysis^ of V\'ine gives, 1. Water. 2. Al- 
cohol. 3. Su^ur. 4. Carbonic, tartaric, and malic acids. 
5. Tannin. 6. A coloring matter. 7- A volatile oil dif- 
ferent in each A^'ine, and producing the bouquet or 
perfume distin^nishing-them. The predominance of these 
principles affords the best classification of ^Vir s into 
8 classes, vQd. white, sparkling, acid, astringent, stron 


sweetened, exquisite Wines, 

1, lied TVines owe their color to the coloring rriatter; 
they are the most common, often called table Wines or 
Clarets, they vary from pale purple to black, and from 
the thinnes«'of water to the thickness of syrup. Vi hen 
new, or le-- than three nn^nths ohl, they are less agre-i- 
ble. diificuU to di*j:fcst, Haruient, liable to irritate and 
intiame the bt;vvt:ls. When froiu 3 to 18 months old 
they are palatable and pe* tVcr. When older they be- 
come better still, lighter, milder, and he;iUhier, very 
stomacliic and reviving. 

2. IVhite JVines arc made with white Grapes or red 
Grapes without husks, they are commoBly limpid, thin 
and dry, \^'hence often called Dry Wines or S;ii.k. The 
color is white, pale, yellow or bjownish, TIjev are milder 
and less acid than the red Wines, very diuretic and 
useful in dnrp^lcs. Su;.hi are iL.<.L, .. ' " ■ 

5. Sparkling fVines contain an exces^s tn carbonic 
acid. Commouly called C!'.ampaigne, wliite and frothy, 

verv mild and healthy : but liable to affect nervous per- 

, fc ■ ■■ 

4. Jlcid IViUi.i have too much malic acid ; they are 

thin and -ourish, but verv c^Kiling. The northern and 

^^y^ -^.'- :_ entries afford hardfyany other, the grap^^ 
being u.i:. "-.- ^^-^ \^ vugan SeVeraf An crican grape* 



No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 147 


are white or pale red. 

5, Jistringent Wines contain more tannin, they are 
« comtmmly red, rough and austere. Such are Port or 

Oporto, Catalonia, RoussiUon, &c* Useful for persons of 
LiK fibres, or who have undue evaeuatu>ns ; but liable to 

brinc!; on gout, 

6, iStrong Mines liave an excess of alcohol, which 
makes thein affect the head ; they are commonlj^ wldte 
or brown. Such are Madeira, Tenerilfe, Lisbon, &c. 



also, commoaly thick, U\sc\^>uh, deHghtlul^ acting 
cordials, and verv^ UQuris.hiug. Sv^ch are Cyprus, 

Jnless drank very moderafelj, they produce intoxi 
lion, dvspepshi, infianimation, and chronic diseases. 

7- Sweet fFine$ contain much sugar, some strength 
and perfume, they are eonimouly ^Yhite or pale, but some, 

a!*e red 

as mild 


Used moderately, they are revivin;^, tonic, stimulant, 

and useful in all diseases of debility, 

8. Exquhite ffines abound in delicious and fragrant 
aroma, are sweety but not strong. Such are Tokay and 
Nectar^ the best of all Wines or Cordiahs, the best kinds 
of which sell on the spot at §15 the bottle, or S^O the 
gallon, while common table wines often sell in Europe 
at 5 cents the gallon. The finest perfumed sweet Wines 
inav be concentrated by frost into exquisite Essence of 

^ J. Jl V^' ■ 

Some of t' most famous or valuable "Wines arc the 
foUowin:; kiiiu- : each has its peculiar flavor. 

Frrxch V/.NES. 1. Silkry^ amber color, dryv fine 
perfume, ^..aachic. 2.Rose colored Champaigne. 3. Mo- 
selle^ white, V ' ^ agreeable. 4. Straw fVine^ similar to 
Tokay, made svith "^Grapes kept on straw till spring. 
5. Rangen^ white, y^vr strong, bad for the nerves, n^ay 
cause palsv. 6. Plneau^ sweet, light, fragrant. 7* Vqu- 
vroi^. sweeU safr, strong, white. S. Gromoir. black, 
thick, roujjh, looses coh}r uud taste by age> 9. Burgim- 
dy^ red, bri-^k, delicate. Hi. CotetVor^ red, strooir brisk, 
hxMi flavor. 1 l.^^wxerr^, red, fine, delicate, fine bouquet* 
12. Leclos^ white, cpute limpid, fine. 13. Chamhertin^ 
red fine, sweet perfume. 14. Vdnay, red, very fine, de- 
H«-htfaI smell. J 5. Grillet^ white brisk perfu\ued, sweet 

148 VITIS. No. 99 & 100- 

i\hen young, dry wlien ohJ. ]6. Hermitage^ red fine per- 
fumed. 17- Golden Hermitage^ j^olden color, delicious 
perfume and flavor. 18. Jierfoc, or best perfumed Claret, 
19. Graves^ white Claret. 20. RomsiUon^ red, rough. 
21. Muscat^ white, sweet, delicious. 22. Ciotat^ similar, 
but thin- Most of these best wines are drank as luxuries 
or medical tonics, and the very best are seldom export- 
ed, costing from 1 to §5 the bottle. 

Spanish Wixes. \>Tinto. black, thick, strong. 2.Tin- 
tillo^ ditto red. 3. Seco. white dry bitterish. 4, Xei^es, 
orSherrv, white, drv, nutty, stnintr. 5. Paxarel. white 
sweet, high flavor. 6. Gi'tsimUu amber color, very sweet 
when young, losing the sweetness bv age- 7. Jilhafiora^ 
like Hock, white, not so dry. 8- Swttt Malaga^ brown^ 
sweet, strong, a fine cordial when old. 9. Lry Malaga^ 
wliiter, thinner and dry. 10. .Hicant^ red, strong, very 
tonic. 11. Catalonia^ red and rough like Port. 12.Ma/m' 
sei/y sweet, redish, fine flavor. 13. Bed Malaga^ fine 
strong. 14 Salamanca^ pale red fine. 

WijvES OF Portugal are commonly called Por/ when 
red, and Lisbon when white : both are strong and rough, 
but improve by age, unless adulterated a^ usual with. 
brandy, 1. Carcavetos is th^e sweet Lisbon. 2. Bticellas, 
the dry Lisbon. 3. Setubal^ Hke Muscat. 4. JUin/iO, best 
pale Port. 5. Douro^ very rough. 

Italian Wines. 1. (fhiaretto^ pale red fine. 2. Pen- 
nino^ white, thin like water, acid, made in the Alps and 
Appennines* 3. Florence or Tuscany^ similar to Bur- 
gundy, thinner, cannot keep. 4. Lombard, Modena and 
Montserrat^ red thin acid, 5. Montepulciano^ red, strongs 
hot- 6. Vicentino, red, strong. 7. Fcderno and Salerno^ 
red delicate. 8. Caiahrese^ black tliick sweet. 9. Ta- 
re?i^o, red, rough, 10- Mtdvagia^isweet, strong, delicate. 
ll.Lacrma, red, sweet, ^strong, perfumed. il.MoscaUi- 
lOy yellow sweet lu-cious. 13. Nohile diwd Ver^ine^ ex- 
f^uisite, similar to Tokav. 14. liosoUo^ or Fiascone, 
white, sweet, thick, like^a cordial. IS.PagUno, sM^aw 
color, fine. 16. .4grodaf^^^ sweet and acid, whue. 
ir,rmodo, black and thick, IQ. Pugiia, pale red, brisk. 
19. ^tferdo, red am! n^u-h. 20 Trappola, sweet and 
Ditter. 21. ^ti*«ro, red bitteHsh, 22. Zafftrano, saffron 

coiou ^b, />oro, golilen sweet, 24, jfftano and San^i- 


No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 149 

ncUo^ bright and pleasant. 25- Greco^ yellow pungent 
sweet. 26. Morello^ black strong. 2r- Vesuvio^ red 
strong. QB.Jschia^ pale strong. 9.%. Pergola^ pale, thin, 
fiat. 30. Passolch fine, made with shrivelled grapes. 
Sl.Miele^ yellow, as sweet as honer. 32. Corsicaji^ simi- 
lar to Catalonia. 33, Sardinian, similar to Burgundy, 
many kinds. The Italian wines are hardly known out 
of Italy, being seldam e-sported ; those of sonth Italy 
alone keep well. 

SiciMAX WrxEs. 1. Di Pasto^ pale strong. 2. Cata- 
nia^ similar, with the pitch taste. 3. Mascali^ red, strong. 
4. Etna^ wliite, firy.. 5- Palermo^ pale red, strong, but 
thin. 6. Castelveirano, vellow^ strong, limpid. The Mar- 
sala or Sicily Madeira is made with this Castelvetrano, 
brandy, bitter almonds, Sec well fined and kept two 
years, f. Tusuy sweet browni, flavor of Cyprus. 8- Sira- 
cusa, sweet strong? yellow like Muscat. 9. Nolo and 
Lipari^ strong pale rou^U. 10.M)c/icti, pale red^ flavor 

of Malaga. 

Swiss Wives. 1. De Vaiid^ dry like Rhenish, 2. Neuf- 
chatel^ red, like Burgundy. S.Boudry^ved^ good flavor. 

4. Montagnard^ thin and acid. 

German Wines. Commonly dry and acid. 1. Treves^ 
a specific for gravel. 2.Ho€k^ white, very dry. 3, Phe- 
nish^ white delicate. 4. Berg^ strong and perfumed. 

5, Heidelberg, fine red. &, Bokemia^ like Burgundy. 
7- /)aau6e. delicate, do wvA keep. 8. Austrian, greenish, 
stronjr- 9, Styrian^ pale strong. 10. Spitz, fine. 11. Ty* 

To!^ red, weak. 

HuxGARiA.v ^Vix£s* l.jluspruck Tohay^ white, lus- 
cious, soft, mild, oily, exquisite. ^.^larlas and Common 
Tokay, inferior, thinner. S.Szeghi^ white, aromatic 
perfume. 4. Moda^ nearly similar to Mazlas. 5. Zombor, 
strong, pale red. 6. Malra and Arad^ red, sweet, strong 


Russian Wuniis. Only produced in the South. l.Zim- 
lanskj red, fine. S..Do}U uhite, fine. S.Tangarog, disa- 
greeable taste, 4. /ufffu or Champaigue of Crimea. 
5. Sudagh^ white, sweet, similar to Hungarian. 6. Cut- 
nar or Moldavian, green, very strong. 

Grecian Wines. 1. Car/o^w7z, red, fine brisk. 2. Po- 
^ega. white, fine flavor. 3. Dalmatiayu red, strong fine, 

N 2 

150 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

4. Lissa^ dark red, very strongs the strongest of all 
wines. o.Morea^ red perfumed, 6. Napoli Malmsej. 
7- Muimsey of Muunt Ida iu Candia. 8. Nectar of Can- 
dia, exquifeite^ delicate sweet. 9. Sumos^ sweet and acid 
white. 10. Nectar of Scio, sweet astringent. 11, Scio, 
pale red, fine. 12. Tenedos^ like Medoc- 13. Tenedos^ 
red Muscat. 14. Santorin^ very sweet and agreeable, 
but sulphurous. \o. Filch ivine^ brown, with the taste of 
tar. iG.Boly wine, very fine. 17- Cyprus, sweet per- 
fumed, red when young, yellow when old, similar to 
Malaga, a fine cordial and stomachic. 

Asiatic Wines. I. Smyrna, red, strong, fine. 2. .45- 
tracan, red, similar to Lacriuia. 3. Caspian, like IMo- 
seile. 4. Caspian, Champaigne. 5. Kmna, red light thin. 
6. Tartary, strong, made very intoxicating by poppies. 

~ ' ?, fine wine made from wild grapes! 8. Armenian^ 
red and white, fine stiong. 9. Syrian Claret. ]0. Ba- 


mascus^ golden dry. 11, Lebanon, thick perfumed red- 
12, Gold wine, yellow, from Syria. 13. Jerusalem, white 
wod. 14. ^arm in Arjbia, ji;o d. 15. Shiraz, tad harsii, 

ligh flavor. 1&, Nectar of Shiraz, white sweet, strong 
perfumed. IT. Ispahan, wliite fine. 18. Tabriz, red and 
white, many kinds. \Q. Shir van, red like best claret. 
^9.Afgan., siuiilar. 21. Many wines in Bukaria, Thibet 
and China, hardly known. 

African Wines. 1. Jewsivinen red, good. 2,Berber^ 
white, fine. 3. Aladeira or Vidonia, dry, strong, yellow, 
flavor of bitter almonds. 4. Bugoal of Madeira, s\v eeter. 
S.Pingo, Malmsey of Madeira, exquisite. 6,Tinlo of Ma- 
deira, red, perfumed, austere. useful in dysenterv. T-Ca- 
nari/, white, similar to Lisbon. 8. Vidonia of Teneriffe, 
similar to Madeira when old. 9>Go^iier, white, sharp, lim- 
pid as water, flavor of Madeira. \0, Falma, yellow, 
light dry. l\. Palma .l/^/Zm^ey, flavor of Pine apple- 
12, Fayal, white, thin, strong, 13. 4.^zorian, pale red, 
like light Port. 14, Const antia, red, highly perfumed, 
^^-^^H, } 5. Cape or Iknapop^ less perfumed. 16. Stony, 
dry tike Graves. 1 7. Rota, red, strong. Tliese 4 last from 
theCajH .ifGiKHl Hope. 

> .iH Amkhi. \N Winks. Onlvn adein Chili, Cuvo, 
lucuman, &r. little known, similar to Catalonia, |>iil« 
^^- In Uv^ Andes ul* Peru wine is also made, but weak 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 151 

and bad tasted. The wine made in the West ladies 
With F. glomerata and F- maritima, is red, harsh acid* 

North American Wines. Are made from Canada to 
Mexico, chiefly from native grapes. In the United 
States, 17 species can make good wine, either alone or 
with a little sugar. The principal wines already made 
are, I. Tlncefines^ pale red, light. 2. Vevay, reil, acid. 
3. I'evayprime^ brown and sweetish, fine. S^Jilexandery 
pale red, flavor of raspberries, and similar to best Bur- 
gundy, made with F. prolifera. 4.B/and^ acid, strong, 
yellow, made with V.hlanaa. S.Lufborough^ red, rich, 
fine muskj flavor. 6. Catawha^ yellow, fine body and 
perfume. 7- Scupemong^ yellow, limpid, very strong, 
tiry when brandy is added. 8. Mtiscadine, yellow, sweet 
perfumed. 9- vatskill^ strong, l>elv*^en Madeira and 
Port in taste and color. iO. Cooper^^ brown, similar to 
Lisbon, but acidule. \l, Elsinbiirg^ fine flavor. 12, Or- 
ivisburg^ very fine, white. 13, habella^ pale and fine. 
14. l1^orthingto7h sixnWvLV to Fort. 15, Tfmter wine^ dark 
red, acid and harsh. 16.IVA:, red- harsh. 17. Harmony^ 
Ted, acid, good. 18. v^Zato/ia, brown, fine, Jkc. The Eu- 
ropean vines thrive in our gardens, and produce good 
eatable grapes with some care ; but are <)ften injured in 
the fields by late frosts, and do uot ripen well, or give 
a thin acid juice unsuitable for good wine : we must, 
therefore, rely on our native hardy grapes, some of w hich 
are equal to the best exotic. 

The Mexican wines made Iruiu Spanish vines, produce 
wines similar to Spanish, but little known as ye^ 

Good wines have wonderful effects on the human sys- 
tem, ExternaUy they are useful ia frictions and lotions, 
in caaea of local debility ; they may restore to life new 
bora and very weak cinidren, likely to die, by merely 

rubbing it on their stomach. 

Internally they are gomi for suckling infant.*», trou- 
bled With worms, or with weak bowels, a teaspoon full 
i^-^ufticient for them with mdk or sugar. A popular 
vermifuy;e for c!uldren in haly, i^ a mixture oi* %vinp, 
lime juice, olive oil, and su^ar. Ciuidren, youths, and 
females ou*;ht to abstain from ti e daily u^^e of it, and 
then it wilfbe a cordial for them in almost all the dis- 
eases. The use of wine as a beverage ought to begin 



152 VITIS. , No. 99 & 100. 

onlj when the body is ripe, and always with modera- 
tion, avoiding ail those adulterated by brandy or perni- 
cious ingredients, as are Madeira, Port, and Sherry, 
which are never pure ; tlie best wines for daily use be- 
ing the French wines, Clarets, Burgundy, Malaga, Lis- 
bon, Fayal, Samos, Cyprus, besides our own American 

In old age good wines become more needful, they 
support strength and life. Plato called them the milk of 
old age. An old Italian proverb says, that milk is the 
tvine of youth^but toine the milk of old age. Aged peo- 
ple can indulge with benefit in their daily u^e, but never 
to excess, and always with water in large proportion. 

Temperance does not consist in abstaining irom wine, 
but in using with moderation, and with water, none but 

the good and mild. The Temperance Societies lately 
established with us, have done a great deal of good in 
checking the vile habit of drinking spirituous liquors, 
but have done wrong in proscribing such wines : they 
ought merely to proscribe the vile trash called Port and 
Madeira, which are not JVines.^ but impure brandy mix- 
tures or IVine Grogs J and encourage the importation 
and cultivation of mild healthy wines for substitutes. 
Christians and Jews can never abstain altoo:ether from 
wine like the Mahometans, since it is needful in some 
of their religious rites. 

When wines are drank in extra doses, they produce 
hilarity, and in excess intoxication. In both cases they 
quicken the pulse, stimulate all the organs, inflame the 
fluids, excite the mind, the nerves and head are more 
or less affected j but t'rus excitement is followed by 
drowsiness, head-ache, sleep, dejection, relaxation, stu- 
por, diarrhoea, stupidity, or madness. All these effects 
are owing to the brandy or alcohol contained in the 
wines, thus they depend on their amount in each dose or 
glass, and on the habit of the drinker. Children may be 
intoxicated by a single small glass. Drunkards get gra- 
duailv used to wines, and require more and more to 
anect laem, thus losing for them altogether its medical 
to kI"** I '^^^ ^'^^"" Woated red face shows the appetite 

v^ne «T.^^?'^^ * ^^'^^'^- Oi^^'^^nia. or craving for 
^vme, and they becoa.e liable to a multitude of chronic 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 153 

diseases, gout, epilepsj, pleurisy, palsy, tremors, ner- 
vous diseases, liver complaints, dropsy of the chest, 
consumptions, inflammatory fevers, dyspepsia, madness, 
apoplexy, &.c. and they entail them on their offspring ] 

This disease is rare in wine countries, not one in 500 
becoming drunkards there, as they are despised and 
hooted ; while in countries where wines are scarce, 
England, Sweden, Russia, and the United SUtes, five 
at least in 100 become drunkards, and get beastly drunk 
on strong liquors and strong wines, rum, brandy, whis- 
key. Port and Madeira, without being despised as they 
ought, drunkenness being rather considered as a ba^ 
habit or infirmity, than a moral disease or shameful vice. 
The best cure for drunkenness are abstinence, mild and 
cooling drinks, bathing and emetics, besides moral re- 
straint, religious feeling, and public opinion. There 
would be no more drunkards if they were all despised and 
avoided by men and women! or put into hospitals as sick^ 
insane^ vicious, and criminaL 

The medical properties of good wines on temperate 
persons are numerous. They are useful in all atonic 
diseases arising from debility, in scrofula, scurvy, ra- 
chitis, paleness, leucorrhea, promoting digestion, stimu- 
lating the heart, increasing the heat of the bodj^. They 
are the best vehicles for tonic medicines used in all fe- 
vers, debilities, prostrations, &c. Wine is to be forbid 
or avoided by those who have a nervous, irritable, or 
lethoric constitution, or some inflammatory diseases ; 
ut even then some acid wines, well watered, mav be 
available and serviceable. 

Several modifications of wine deserv^e to be knriun, 
Jllu.^f X^Jiie pure unlermented juice. Pure wine is made 
of Must alone. Impure or brewed zvlnes have ingredients 
added. Colored ivines have a coloring matter added. 
Mixed wine is made with different grapes. It is adulte- 
rated when wines are united after finin?. Brandy wivfs 
are those aduUera%td by brandy, like Madeira and Port. 
MouHlMle is sharp ancl sweet wine still fermenting. 
BoiLKD WINE \^ reduced nut! thickened by boiling. Pi* 
quelte^ wine made by throwing water on the husks after 
pressure, it is like cnJer. and is drank without water by 
the lab mrers, Frotopion wine made without pressure 

154 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

by mere percolation of the giape, such is Tokay. Bm- 
tenon oi the Greeks, is pressed, or rather wine made by 
mashing the grapes. Nectar is made by a slif>;ht pressiue 
of the sweetest grapes. Essence of wine made bv expos- 
ing wine to frost, throwing off the icicles, and thus con- 
centrating the strength. It may be made as strong as 
brandy, without its pernicions quality, is very portjTble 
retains the perfume, and may be restored to wine by 
adding water. Honey of wine, congealed by age in 100 
years to the state of honey, may be restored by warm 
water. Solar wine, exposed to the sun, made bv it 
thicker, sweeter, and milder. Crust of wine, some thick 
wines, such as Arcadian or Morea, become hard and 
dry like salt or argol by age, may be dissolved again in 
warm water. The Lees or settlings of wine, are depo- 
sited by fermentation and fining, they are rich in ar.n)I 
and potash : from those of the best wines is made tiie 



oil which has the flavor and perfume of the peculiar 
wine it comes from, serves to give it to other wines, or 
to make false brandy with alcohol and water. « 

Quelled vnne is such as was stopped in fermenting by 
throwing cold water in it, or ex]>osure to cold weather. 
±. a ger or Pricked wine is becoming sour bv the acetous 
termentation having begun. Flat wine has lost its flavor 
by being exposed to the air or other means ,• many poor 
wines become flat or sour by age ; they may be restored 
by chemical processes, lime, plaster, brandy, oil of wine, 
&c. Burnt iinne is any wine made hot, but not boiled 
and drunk with spices, &c. useful for gout, cholics. and 
chilis. Wine is otten employed in r.K^kerv, for sauces, 
soups, ragouts, stews, p»4iJings, and jellies ; it is al- 
ways preferable to brandy and stronger liquids; the 

ancients used to boil some fish in wine instead of water 
as a luxury. 

Medicated wines are vehicles of various soluble medi- 
cine,, chiefly tonics, emetics, and febrifut^es. Thevare 
excellent preparation^ although Iatterly°somc deluded 
rfty&icians have preterred alcoholic tincture^, which are 
tur^« , "' ^^}^^^ "^^^ merely in drops. Wine tinc- 
ThT nf -"''^^^'■- ^"^re palatable, and quite as efiicient. 

ot ,ron, sent, an, opium, cokhicntu. i^c are much 


No. 99 & 100. ,VITIS. 155 


used. The Iron Mine was known to the ancients ; it 
was Tnade by putting rusty nails into it, or quenching in 
it nails made red hot : it isapowerfuHonic and restora- 
tive. The Emetic wine is now made with tartar emetic 
dissolved into wine : it is one of the most certain and 
less disagreeable emetics- Every febrifuge medicament 
ought to be given in mild wine, as it increases the effect* 

Vinegar is the result of acetic fermentation ; the best 
is made with sour vvine, both red and white. Any bad 
wine unfit to drink becomes vinegar by itself after a 
while. When wanted quick, it must be put into a bar- 
rel washed with boiling water. Vinegar is used as a con- 
diment in sallads and many dishegr : to make pickles, 
sauces, syrup, distilled vinegar, acetic acid, medicated 
vinegars, perfumed vinegars^ &c. It is highly medical, 
antiseptic, refrigerant, analeptic, &c. The external use 
of it is very useful in fevers, liead aches, syncope, as- 
phyxia, hysteric and nervous aflfectioiis. From it are 
nsade the vinegar of squills, colchicum, opiurn, camphor, 
&c. Vinegar can be discolored and made as clear as 
water, by filtration over animal charcoal or burnt bones: 
and it is then a good vehicle for perfumes, scented wa- 
ters and washes used by hidies. The ancient Romans 
drank vinegar and water. A kind of lemonade may be 
made with it and sugar- The syrup of vinegar is very 
refreshing in summer. Pickles are on!y good when the 
substances pickled are healthy, thus boiled beets, car- 
rots, onions, tomatos, &.c. make g^ood pickles^ while pick- 
led cucumbers, walnuts, cayenne pepper, &c- are very 
bad and unhealthv. 

Braudv ir^ distiiied wine, consisting of alcohol, water, 
and the peculiar f»il of wine. It contains over one half 
of afcoiiul. Wines produce more or less brandy, accord- 
ing to their sfrengdi, many weak French wines produce 
only one-tilth. The quality of the brandy depends on 
the wine, and the mode of distilling it. W hen new it is 
as clear as water, but gets a coSuring in the on^- casks : 
it in also colored by burnt s^.^^.r, and thus is always im- 
pure. By a,^e it loses its iiry taste, and becomes mel- 
low or ».iilder. It is alway-s unheaUhy, even <lvank mo- 
derate! v and with water, but perhaps less so than mm 
and whiskey* It speedily produceii the w^orst itind of 

156 VITIS. No, 99 & lOO. 



^^ r 

intoxication and the disease of intemperance. It acts on 
the stomach and brain as a pernicious stimulant and cor- 
rosive. It is, however, used medicalljin sudden chills 
of the stomach by gout or cold water ; but warm wine 
has exactly the same effect Externally it is often em- 
ployed in bruises, contusions, wounds, sprains, as a sti- 
mulant and resolvent. A peculiar kind called aniseed 
brandy, (Zambu in Sicily) is made in Italy with wine 
and aniseeds, which makes water milky. Brandy is call- 
ed oil proof when lighter than olive oil, a drop sinking 
in it. To know how much oil proof brandy any wine 
will give, boil slowly a measure of it, as soon as 
the vapour rises set fire to it, and when the blaze sub- 
sides, take it from the fire and measure it again ; the de- 
ficiency will be the brandy contained in the wine. A 
very pernicious custom consists in adding brandy to 
weak wines; brandy thus added never amalgamates 
well, decomposes the wine by a slow process, and changes 
the wine into bad grog ! Whenever strength is required 
in wine, the brandy must be put in the Must before fer- 
mentation, by which it is incorporated and modified ; 
the alcohol of wine is always so chemically combined as 

to be harmless. Fruits preserved in brandy are very 

The only proper use of brandy is to make alcohol by 
a second distillation : this of course can only be done in 
wine counrries, where wine is worth 5 cents the gallon, 
and brandy 20 cents, when alcohol comes to 50 cents 
only. Alcohol being the principle of all fermented 
liquors, and a chemical alteration of their sugar, is pro- I 
tluced by cider, beer, rum, arrack, rice* and barlev malts, 
at a rate nearly as cheap. Alcohol is a violent poison || 
taken in any quaatity, it burns and corrodes the stcmiach 
like aqua fortis; but externally it is a good stimulant 
and strengthen ng tonic. It is," however, much used in 
medicine and the arts, being a powerful solvent of many 
substances, resins, oils, &c. With it are made medical 
tinctures, elixirs, sweet scented essences, lotions, var- 
lii^hes, cordials, &c. Used also to preserve animals for 
mseums ; but it has the defect to destroy their colors. 
« ought to be much diluted when for internal use. It is 
a^ witli sugar to make cordiaL^. and tlms rendered 

No. 99 & 100. YITIS. 15; 

milder and luscious ; but jet the alcoholic cordials are 
pernicious, even in small doses, and pure good wines are 
by far better for all the purposes of cordials. The best 
use of alcohol is for economical fuel to heat and cook in 
tin vessels. 

Wine and water is, after all, the best of all beve- 
rages, and the most healthy, when mild wines alone are 
used. Wines of good boctj are those that bear a great 
deal of water without losing their flavor. All white 
Brines bear water sparingly, and some are spoiled by it, 
\ such as Madeira, Graves and Hock, while Clarets are 

improved by it, and bear from 3 to 5 parts of water to 
one of wine. Some thick and strong wines bear 15 or 
20 parts of water. Tlie strongest of all wines, such as 
Zissa and Cutnar, give 40 per cent of alcohol, or 80 per 
cent of brandy. The strong wines, such as Port, Ma- 
deira, Marsala, Sherry, Lisbon, &:c. hold from 40 to 60 
per cent of brandy. The inild wines from 20 to 40 only: 
the mildest (and thus the best) is Tokay, which has only 
27 brandy, or 10 per cent alcohol, no laore than cider! 


The quantity of brandy afforded by mild wines is thus 

the measure of their healthiness and body. Clarets have 

^ ► 50 to 36. Burgundy SO to 32, Hock ^27 to 30. Cham- 

#% paigne 25 to 27. Muscat 22 to 25, &c. The milder they 

^ at-e the less water they bear, and vice versa. 

Section lY. Principles of the cultivation of Grape Vims, 

and chiefly in North America. 

1. It is not my intention to give an elaborate treatise 
on the cultivation of vines all over the world, but rather 
practical hints on the management in the CuitedS^.e<^ 
of our own kinds. 

2. Vines being cultivated in all parts of the world, in 
digerent climates and soils, require different manage- 
■teafcj. are often not kept alike, even in the same coun- 
tries, and thrive under several modes of cultivation. 

3. In general, temperate climates (from which they are 
mostly native) are the b<jst for them : the boreal and tro- 
pical climates are not suitable for them, as the excess of 
cold or heat either chills or bums them. 

4. In Europe, vines are cultivated for wine every 
where, except in England, Netherlands, Denmark, S .. ^- 

O ' 



158 ■ VITIS. No, 99 & 100. 

den, Prussia, Poland, and Russia, and even there are 
found in gardens producing grapes for the table j but 
their juice has not sugar enough to make tolerable wine. 

5. In North America, the wild vines grow as far as 
Canada, in lat. 45, and from thence to the Gulf of 
Mexico J how far south they extend in Mexico is Mot 
known. Wherever found wild, wine can be made. In 
Europe, the wine limits extend from lat. 48 to SON. and 
south to Africa. 

6. In France alone, the vineyards occupy five millions 
of acres, (besides the garden grapes) which produce 
yearly about 1000 miilions of gallons of wine, besides 
the grapes eaten, thus averaging 200 gallons per acre. 
The wines sell from 7 cents to §4 the gallon wholesale, 
according to quality. France having '^^2. millions of in- 
habitants, this produce gives 20 gallons for beverage to 
each, and 360 millions for exportation or making brandy^ 
vinegar, &c. 

7. In Italy and the Islands, with a population of 24 
millions, nearly as much wine is made, and as many 
acres cultivated; thus giving a much larger average to 
each individual, since less is exported or made into bran- 
dy. The price varies from 4 cents to S5 the gallon- 

8. In Spain and Portugal the amount is less, much 
brandy and raisins being manufactured and wines ex- 
ported. In Germany and Greece but little is made in 
proportion ; and in all Mahometan countries, except 
Persia, where wine is less proscribed, none but the 
Greeks, Armenians, and Jews make wine and drink it 5 
but grapes are much cultivated for the table, preserves, 
raisins, &c. 

9. In North America wine was very early made from 
our native grapes, by the French in Illinois. Our native 
tribes drank the juice or must of the irrapes, but were 
unacquainted with the art of making wine. Small trials 
were made in the English colonies and United States at 
several periods j but all the trials directed towards the 
imported vines have failed, owing to our climate being 
uutavourable to them, while it is very favorable of course 
to our native grapes* 

10. lae European and African grapes succeed prettv 
w^u m our -y ekereU gardens, and thus will give us gooli 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 159 

fmit for the table j but when planted in exposed vine- 
yards, the late frosts and heavy showers of the spring in- 
jure them or render them sterile. 

11- A capital mistake was the attempt to make Ma- 
.deira wine in America, instead of American wine. Our 
climate and soil being neither dry nor volcanic as in 
Madeira, could never produce similar wine, even if we 
had the Vidonia or Madeira Grape, and knew how to 
cultivate it and manage the wine. Besides Madeira, 
although a fashionable and costly wine, is bad, unhealthy, 
^nd not worthy of our attention. The same with Port 

12. These and other causes have discouraged the at- 
tempt^s of a vine company established on purpose in 

Pennsylvania. Mr. Legoux, the manager, by his decep- 
tions in grapes, calling them by false names, and his bad 

* management, threw discredit on the attempt. However, 
by calling our Bland and Alexander grapes, Madeira 
a^d Cape^ he was instrumental in diflfusing them among 
those who would not have noticed nor bought them if 
known as native vines. 

13. Notwithstanding these difficulties, many patriotic 
individuals have persisted in the endeavor to make the 
United States a wine country,!)^ establishing nurseries 
and vineyards. Such were'^Major Adlum, of George- 
town, and Mr. Dafour, of Vevay, who have also both 
published works on the cultivation of vines. Mr. Samuel 
Maurick, of South Carolina (the first exporter of our 
cotton in 1784) who established a large vineyard at Pen- 
dleton. _Mr. Thomas Echelberger, of York^, Pe^nm who 
has been instrumental in establishing 20 viaevards near 

14. In 1825 I collected an account of our principal 
vineyards and nurseries of vines. They were then only 
fiO of I to 20 acres each, altogether 600 acres. Whife 
now. in 1830* thev amount to :200 of 3 to 40 acres, or 
nearly 5000 acres of vinevards. Thus having increased 
tenfold wicliin 5 years, at which rate they promise to 
become a pc.-nanent and Increasing cultivation. 

15. Wishing to pteserve the naii s of the public bene- 
factors who had in 18^23 e-^tablinhed our first viueyardi, 

^0 VITIS. No. 99& 100, 


1 herewith insert tlieir names. They are independent of 
the vinevartls of York, Vevav, and Vincennes, 

In New York, George Gibbs, Swift, Prince, Lan- 
sinor. Loubat. &:c. 

in Pennsylvania, Carr, James, Potter, J. Webb, I.e- 
goux. Echelberger, E. Bonsall, Stoys, Lemoiue, Rapp. 
In Delaware, Broome, J. Gibbs, Sec. 

In Maryland, Adlum, W. Bernie, C. Varle, R. Sin- 


claiff ^V- Miles, &c. 

In Vir<j:inia, Lock^^-^rt^Zane. Tl*Wi*ir. Noel, J. Browne* 
J. Dulinj;, &:c. 

In Carolina, Habersliani, Noisette, &:c. 

In Georgia, Maurick, James Gardiner, S- Grimes^ 
Checteau, M-Call. 

In New Jersejj Cooper at Camden^ Another at Mount 

In Ohio, Gen. Harrison, Longworth, Dufour, &c. 

In Indiana, Rapp of Harmony, the French of Vin- 


In Alabama, Dr. S. Brown, and at Eagleville. 


per acre. xVt York, where 2700 vines are put on one 


tttU= 575 ^aliona per acre, value &6r5 in 1823, besides 
S^OO for 5000 cuttings. One acre of vineyard did then 
let for g200 or 300, thus value of the acre about S5000! 
This was in poor soil unfit for wheat, and for mere 

IT. Now in 1830, that common French Claret ofteB 
sells only at 50 cents the gallon, the income must be 
less. I hope our claret may in time be sold for 25 cents 
the gallon, and table grapes at one cent the lb. and even 
then an acre of vineyard will give an income of §^5, and 
be w^orth Si 000 the acre. 

18, The srreatest check to this cultivation is the time 
required for grapes to bear well, from 3 to 6 years : our 
far-^rs wishing to have quick yearly crops j but then 
when a vineyard is set and in bearing, it w^ill last for- 
^"^f *he vines themselves lasting from 60 to 100 years, 

and irr r JIv v« 


19. The next check is the precarious crops if badlj 
managed. Every year is npt etjually plentiful, and some- 

No. 99 & 100, ^ VITIS. 161 

times there is a total failure when rains drown the blos- 
soms ; but an extra good crop of 500 or 600 gallons 
commonly follows and covers their loss- 
^ 20. The cultivation of the vines includes several con- 
siderations, a choice of ground, soil, and vines, repair- 
ing the ground, planting, manuring, dressing, trimming, 
grafting, harvesting, be'sides the diseases of the vines 
and grapes. 

21. Vines may grow any where, bnt do not thrive 

equally every where. Table grapes thrive beat in shel- 

tered gardens, espaliers, and bovvers, producing more and 
better fruit. Wine grapes tlirive best of all on the east- 
ern slope of hills exposed to the rising sun, and in a vol' 
canic or gravelly soil, producing stronger and better 


22. All our native grapes will grow well near to their 

native soil, and produce difterent wines. Some species 
are peculiar to the Southern vStates, and will not thrive 
so well north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers. They 

grow spontaneously in rich soils, or loam, sand, graiwel, 
rocks, near streams : in fact every where, but seldom in 
clay and mountains. 


23. The best situations for native vineyards are shel- 
tered vallevs, banks of streams, on the eastern and 
southern sides of hills in the Northern States ; but fur- 
ther South plains and open grounds will do as well. If 
they have a wood to the north west or south west to 
sheifer them from the cold bla *s or sudden storms, so 
much the better. In the north they may also require 
such shelter from the north east storms. 

24. These are the best soils for them in the order of 
excellence. 1- Volcanic, scarce with us. g.Pseudoyol- 
canic, ot New York and Connecticut, 3. Granitic, rot- 
ten rov.ks. 4. Sandstone gravel. 5. Gravel and sand. 
6. Barren an<l worn out soils- 7. Rich or loamy soils are 
the worst, except clay and damp and cold soils, which 
always produce bad wine. Pine barrens will do. 

25. IT^us it is seen that the worst soils for all other 
agricultural purposes are the best fur vines. Many mil- 

* lions of acres of our rocky, gravelly, or barren soils, now 
hardlv worth any thing, mav inns, if turned to vine- 


162 VITIS. . No. 99 & 100. 

yards, give S^O at least neat yearly income, becoming 
worth S5no or more an acre, at a small expense of a few 
years. A single million of acres of vines mi^ht produce 
yearly 200 millions of gallons of wine, worth S^O^OOO.OOO 
at ©nlv 35 cent-^, and affordino- from 10 to 20 gallons^ 
yearly to each individual for beverage. 

26% In the choice of vines, select those that grow best 
near you or bear the best friut- If you find in the woods 
any vine bearing plenty of ^ >od grapes, mark it, and 
cut it up into cuttings in the winter for your use. It is 
essential with our wild grapes to see them in fruit, in 
order to ascertain if they are worth cultivation, and that 
the mother vine is a fruitful one, there being many ste- 
rile with us. 

27. If we raise our vines from seeds, we are never 
sure to have the same kind, a variety will often spring 
up : besides half of those thus raised are sterile or male 
vines with us, which does not happen with the exotic 
grapes. Moreover, a seedling vine (unless grafted) will 
nt^^l^ar fruit till 10 or 15 years old, w^hile cuttings bear 
in a to 5 years. Therefore seeds ought never to be sown 
except for experiments. 

as. Whether for gardens or vineyards, let us select 
none but the best kinds of exotic or American vines* 
The ample account given of them may serv^e to guide 
the choice- The very best of our vines being K blanda. 
V. prolifera^ F. mmcMdina^ V. ciliata, K dimidiata, V. 
lahrmcoides^ K longifolia^ V. acerifoliay &c. 

29. All vines may be cultivated alike, and bear very 

different treatment- When allowed to grow over trees. 

or on the sides of a house, or in bowers, without much 

triauulng they last several centuries I and a single stock 

may produce loOlbs. of grapes, giving 10 gallons of 

>*~^ The very best mode would be to cultivate the 
/mes together with mulberry trees, as in Italy, allowing 
them to mingle and bans; in festoons- This saves the 

expe:.^-^ o( poL^ for support, and afford silk and 
wme yn *he same ^pot. One acre produces as much in 
thts way as it it was a solitary vineyard, 
o^lVu • -^»*«ican grapes are impatient of control, 
and thrive best when left to climb aloft without much 


No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 163 

trimming* When kept uader as usual in vineyards by 

armual cutting, they only last^ from 40 to 60 years, and 
thu^ less than the European vines. 

32. The best foreign grapes ou^ht to be raised in shel- 
tered gardens for table fruit. Even the most delicate 
may be naturalized gradually, by sowing the seeds, and 
sowing; a second or third time the best seeds produced 
in the^'country. This, however efiectual, is a very long 
process, which requires patriotism and patience. 

33. To prepare the ground for vines or a vineyard, a 
crop of potatoes or turnips ought to be raised on it be- 
fore plantins:, which improves and opens the ground, or 
else it ouglit to be manu/ed and ploughed deep several 
times in the fall previous. 

34. The best manure for vines then, and at any other 
times, are composts made to suit the soil, or mixtures of 
good earth, ashes, gravel, sand, iron dregs, rubbish, 
brick dust, oyster shells, vine leaves, and grape husks, 
with a little duno;. If the ground is rich of itself, it re- 
quires more ashes, sand, and other loosening manure. 
If poor, more earth and dung. 

35. But the very'best manure for vines are volcanic 
aslies, which n)igl)t be imported on purpose in ballast, 
from Naples, Sicily, Portugal, the Canaij or Azore Isl- 
ands. Puzzolana above all, which is a kind of it, useful 
also for water cement. These ashes mi|ht highly im- 
prove our wine. Next t^ them are crumbling iron stone 
and granite ; also the stavel dre^s of forges, or the pow- 
dered drn<=s. The residue of tiie grapes, after mashing 
them for wine, the lees of the wine itself, and even the 
decayed leaves of the vines are also excellent manures. 

36. A regular vineyard ought to be in rows, if to be 
worked with a plough ; but in Europe, w^lxere the hoe is 
more common! v used, they often plant the vmes checker 
wise. The hoe is better than the pb^ugh. because more 
vines can be planted on one acre, the whole ground is 
kept better open, and the produce is greater ; but with 
us the plough is preferred as cheaper. 

37, The ruv*a from 5 to 10 ie^i apart, and each vine 
from ^2 to 5 apart: thus ailouing from 1200 to 3000 vines 
on one acre. The more on the acre the greater the ex- 
penses at first, but also the greater the produce after- 

164 VITIS- No. 99 & 100- 

^vards. Each good vine ought to bear from 30 to 60 clus- 
ters of grapes, -weighing from 5 to 15lbs. 

38. The rows must run north and south, so as to have 
*the full advantage of the risins: and setting: sun» oretse 
from north east to south west, so as to be better shelter- 
ed from those winds which with us bring sudden rains 
and storms, while the first protect the others from the 

bleak vernal north west wind. 

39» When rows and vines are crowded, nothing can 
grow besides in the vineyards ; but 3000 vines in one 
acre, if only producing 5lbs. each, may give 1000 gal- 
lons of wine. While, when kept remote, many crops 
can be raised in the intervals, such as potatoes, turnips, 
beans, &c. It is a prejudice to think this injurious to 
the vines ; it is not so, provided the crops are such as 
require previous ploughing and do not shade the vines 

40. But different grapes must not be planted pro- 

miscuously, so as to prevent the mixture of blossoms, 
pollen, and change of fruit. Each kind ought to be kept 
separate, and even divided by fence, walls, hedges, or 
meadow 3, forming a vineyard by itself- 

41. Plant the cuttings in pits or a trench one or two 
feet deep, made with the hoe or plough, and filled with 
sood manuretf earth or rich made soil with some rubbish, 
gravel, or ashes at the bottom, below the cuttings. 

42. The time of planting is from October to May : the 
best months are November and March. If you plant in 
the fall, cover each plant w^ith a little hillock, and unco- 
ver it in the spring. If the weather be dry after plant- 
ing, water thenu 

43. Choose your cuttings from good vines, and strong 
shoots of last years growth, from 16 to 54 inches long, 
with 5 or 6 buds. Let them be cut suiuuih below at a 
joint and slanting one inch above the upper bud ; the 
slope must be opposite to the bud, that no bleeding of 
the sap may follow it. 

44. If the cuttings are to be kept over winter, or sent 
to any d^'^'^'ance, keep them in sand or drv earth, or else 
lu jxv..^- or straw. Thev must be kept dVv, moisture is 
pernio . and fro&t stiii worse. 

4o, Put *^e cutu:.;:^ in the loose ground of tlie pit or 
trench, at the chosen distaace, in a planting way, bendr 


No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 


ing the bottom of it and pressing the earth close to it 
with the foot. Put the whole in except the upper bud 
which is to become the shoot, all the others, 4 or 5, are 
to become roots. Sometimes 2 buds mav be left out. 

46. Keep the ground very clean and free of weeds at 
^11 times, but above all the first years, by working it 
often with the plough or hoe, or by pulling the wee'Ss. 
At the end of the first year, cover each vine with a hil- 
lock in November, and uncover it the next spring. 

47. Second year. Begin to preserve the vine either by 
rubbing the buds or cutting weak shoots, leaving only 2 
or 3 strong buds or shoots. Put in the stakes or poles 
on which they are to climb. Plough or hoe the ground 
and clear the weeds. 

4B, Thirdyear. Rub off the lower buds and prune the 
side shoots. Put on cross poles if meant to be used. 
Plough, hoe, and weed. Many vines will begin to bear 
grapes this year, 

49* The fourth year ought to be the first crop, a full 
bearing beginning at 5 or 6 years old. The annual 
pruning and trimming must tKen depend on the mode 
adopted for cultivation. 

50. It is well to rub off in the spring all the buds ex- 
cept such as are meant to bear, in the summer to cut off - 
all superfluous or weak shoots without blossoms, and in 

. . .- 'ling, or burn- 
ing of all shoots grown too long. But it must be re- 
membered, that too much pruning weakens the vine as 
much as extra foliage and extra bearing. 

51. Trim the vines to suit the chosen method, leading, 
bending, and fastening them over the poles, cross poles, 
treillisses, trees, bowers, side walls, &c. of the vineyard 
or garden. The poles or stakes must be of durable wood, 
oak, chesnut, locust, or cedar with us ; but need not be 
large nor thick. Thin split ones will do for cross bars. 
Even canes and split canes will do well, and are com- 
monly used in s^aith Europe as cheap and light: the 


large ones being used for standing stakes. 

52, The grapes commonly grow 
and these on the last year shoots : it is therefore need- 
ful to spare these in pruning. Ail dangling branches 
must be raised ; when trees are the support^ they m^ 

166 * VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

be led from one to the other, still less pruning is requir- 
ed with trees tor support. * ^^ 

53. In -vvann countries, vines must be left well shaded 
by the leaves. In a cold climate or a cold season, it is 
usual to cut man^' leaves so as to expose the grapes to 
the sun to ripen well. Leaves, shoots, and grapes must 
never be pulled, but cut with the sickle, knife, or nail. 

54. In a dry climate, a circular hollow ought to be 
dug at the foot of the vine, so as to allow rain to collect 
there, while in a wet climate or season, the reverse is 
needful, and a small hillock must be raised around it. 

55, AVhen the vineyard is in full bearing, a sinHe 
ploughing or hoeing is required, very early in the sprino-. 
Manuring is only required once in 3 gr 5 years, similar 
to what has been mentioned already; the whole ground 
need not be manured, but merely the foot of each vine 
in the winter. Dung compost, in small quantity, is very^ 

56. Grafting is needful upon bad or sterile vines or 
seedlings, &c. It must be performed in March, with 
good scions and cuttings by cleft, grafting and binding 
with clay: also by approach in a pot. Good grafts ought 
f^ bear fruit the ^ame year. In gardens, a variety of 
grapes may thus be procured. Our wild vines are ex- 
cellent hardy supports for all exotic grapes, which thus 
become less liable to early motions of the sap. 

57, The crop or harvest of grapes is called vintage. 
It is always a season of festivity. Although grapes may 
be produced for eating from July to November, the vin- 
tage IS always in September, when most are ripe. The 
clusters are cut with a knife^ and carried in baskets to 
the vat or press. 

58, Many diseases attack the vines in Europe, and 
several insects prey on them. Our own vines are sel- 
dom liable to them, and have fewer insects than any 
other Iruit The worst diseases are tlie blight and the 

5^. The blight or mildew may affect the leaves, blos- 
^m , and fruit:,. It is always caused by drops of rain 

m a su.vvor on which a hot sun shines, which burns them 

;^ ..^^^i ■ *' ^^.^ ^^'^^- The leaves and fruits become co- 

-'-^ '"^UJ> ^hrr-:Ued brown spots. There is hardiv any 


No. 99 & 100. VITIS. I6r 


remedy for this, but the diseased leaves and fruit ou«*ht 
to be cut oif- ° 

60. Another kind of blight happens in the critical time 
of the vines being in blossom, if a heavy shower then 
fallsj the pollen or farina is drowned, and cannot ferti- 
lize the fruit buds. This sometimes spoils the whole 
crop. If we could shelter the vines from our south west 
vernal storms by buildings, walls, woods, or a thick fo- 
liage, this would seldom happen. Never work the vines 
when in blossom. 

61. The yellows are caused by the root becoming weak 
by bad food or overbearing. The leaves then become 
sickly and yellow. This is more easily cured by re- 
moving the leaves, pruning the shoots, cutting some clus- 
ters, but above all by manuring, removing the earth 
from around the root, and re-placing it with good com- 

^ 62. Some small caterpillars group under the leaves, 
curl and eat them. They must be destroyed by cutting 
the leaves attacked, and crushing the insects under foof. 

^ Bugs and other insects feeding on the vines are not dan- 
gerous. Xo Aphis is found on our vines, and no insects 
destroy the roots nor the grapes. 

63. Depredations on the grapes when ripe is a great 

^vil, but as this happens only for a short while, it must 
be guarded against by watching the vineyards night and 
day as soon as the grapes begin to get ripe. Rural watch- 
men are paid on purpose in Europe. Dags wilt not do, 

^ ape. Foxes and birds are 
also depredators. Vineyards on^it not to be near roads, 
* or easily acct 'ble, on that account 

64. Let us conclude by giving a pro forma account of 
the expense of forming and keeping up a vineyard, cal- 
* culating all chaises as cash to be paid, although most 
farmers may own the land, and give their own labor, or 
procure their own cuttings and props, which will be so 
much less. 

One acre of land, from - - - gl to 10 

Preparing the ..ame and manure, - - 5 to 10 

1000 to 3000 cuttings, if bought, - - 5 to 30 

Planting thern, 5 to 20 

Expenses of first year, - - ^16 to *u 

168 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

Brought fonvard, - - - - Si 6 to 70 

Second year^ poles, caues, &c. '- - 5 to 10 

Cultivation, pruning. &c. - - - 5 to 8 

Third year^ cultivation, &c. . - 5 to 8 

Tourlh yeafj cultivatiuny manure, &c. 5 to 8 

Total, - - g36tol04 

65. This shoM s the lowest and highest cost, the me- 
dium may be 5^0 or 50 per acre. On the fourth year 
the income may cover this whole cost, if it is only 150 
gallons of wine at 50 cents j gCj being deducted for 
casks and making the wine- 

66. On the fifth and succeeding years, the annual ex- 
penses mil be only from 5IO to 30, or §5 to 10 for cul- 
tivationj pruning, manure, and the remainder for making 
and keeping the wine, while the income will be from 
SlOO to 200, for 2 to 400 gallons of Wine at 50 cents, or 
half if only sold at 25 cents. Thus^ at the lowest, leav- 
ing a yearly clear income of §40 to 100, or as much 
yearly for ever as was spent at first to plant the vine- 
yard! The land will be worth from gJOO to 1000 the 
acre I and may let at §25 to S50 to tenants. Thus 
upon an avei^-e, each vine is worth half a dollar, and 
any one who plants 100,000 vines, acquires a fortune of ^ 
S50;000, or a clear yearly income of §2000 or more! 

Section V. Gtaerai prmcipks of Vinijication^ or the art 

of making If me, 

1. I do not mean to give the numberless modes of mak- 1 
ing all kinds of wines ; but rather the general principles 
of the art, with their application to Amt:rican wines. 

2. Vif hatever wines we make here, can never be Bur- 


gundy, nor Champaigne, nor Hock, nor Port, nor Lis- 
bon, nor Tinto, nor Madeii-a, nor Malaga, and so forth ; 
bat American Wines. It is idle, it is silly, it is need- 
less, and it is a deceit to attempt it, or to give them fo- 


3, But we mar make, nay, we have already made, se- 

^^Y ! ""^^J g^^ American wines, quite peculiar to us 5 

" y imitate several foreign wines, such as claret 

- a 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 169 

Burgundy, OportOj Malmsey, Carcavelos, and many 
more. Let us be honest and give them as such* with 
pompous American names if we like- 

4. Wines can be made with almost all juicy fruits, al- 
though the real wines are the produce of the grapes. 
Thus, currants, gooseberries, elder berries, huckle-ber- 
ries, persimons, black-berries, oranges, peaches, pears, 
apples, pine apples, &c. have all been used to make pe- 
culiar wines. Those of apples and pears are called 
Cider and Perry. Each other kind ought to have also 
a peculiar name, because they all difier somewhat from 


5. These fruit or domestic wines will onlv be men- 

tioned slightl3% The wine of currants or Ribesium^ is 
the most important for us, because it is already often 
made, is nearest to the best grape wines, and can be 
made to any amount with profit. Several kinds are 
made, which are very good when not spoiled by the ad- 
dition of brandy, which makes them firy and pernicious' 

6. Currant wine or Ribemiim^ always requires water 
and sugar, because currants contain malic acid and no 

tartaric acid. But it requires no brandy nor whiskey. 
To make it more like wine, some good wine, with a lit- 
tle quicklime and argol, may be put into it before fer- 

7. Mr. Dyers' currant yard near Providence, Rhode 
Island, may be mentioned as an example worthy of imi- 
tation. This yard contains 40 acres; each acre has 
1400 currant busies, and produces yearly 120 to 150 

"^"bushels of fruit, which, with water and 4000lbs- of su- 
gar, make about 1600 gallons of wine from each acre, 
selling at 75 cents and one dollar per gallon. Thus each 
acre producing gl200, or S800, deducting the cost of 
sugar, casks, cultivation, &c. as I was informed. 

8. At this rate, the whole yard would give 64,000 pi- 
Ions of wine, and an income of £,32,000! if all made intd 
wine and sold. Mr. Dyers makes two kinds of wine, 
GfO$€ille^ or Eed E tbe slum yd^nd Malmsey^ or fniUe Ri- 
besium. He uses no brand v nor suong Hcjuors. Both 
are excellent, and equal to many tine foreign wines. He 
exports much of it to the West Indies. Is not this a pro- 
fitable industry ? 


170 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

9. "Wine making is a chemical operation, in which a 
.due proportion of needful elements is essentially requi- 
site. No liquor is a wine unless it has undergone the 
real vinous fermentation. 

10. The needful elements of fermentation are, 1. Su- 
gar. 2. Water. 3. Tartaric acid. 4. Mucilage. The ad- 
ventitious elements, which may or may not exist, are 
tannin, potash, carbonic and malic acids, arome, color- 
ing principle, &c. 

11. The Must is the liquor produced by grapes. A 

perfect Must ought to have a due proportion of the four 
elements of wine. When deficient in any, it ought to 
be supplied^ if we want to make good wine. If any ele- 
ment is in excess, it ought to be corrected. 

12- The due proportion of sugar or sweet principle, is 
3lb. in one gallon of Must. When less, the Must makes 
a very dry or weak wine, when more, a very sweet 
wine. The sugar is changed by fermentation into alco- 
hol, chemically combined in the wine, and only evolved 
as a vapor by fire or the process of distilling. In all 
sweet wines, a portion of the sugar is not decomposed, 
still more involving and weakening the alcohol. 

13. The due proportion of tartaric acid and mucilage 
does not exceed 5 per cent* of each. The excess of tar- 
taric acid makes the wine sour or acid. When deficient, 
or supplied by malic acid, the wine is deficient in body 
and strength. Malic acid changes wine into cider li- 
quors ; grapes have little malic acid, whence best to 
make wine. 

14. Currants, gooseberries, blackberries, apples, &c* 
containing too much malic acid, and no tartaric acid, can 
never make but bad and sharp cider wines by. them- 
selves ; but by the addition of quicklime, the acid is 
absorbed and corrected, the tartaric acid may be sup- 
plied : water dilutes the juice, and sugar strengthens it, 
whereby imitation wines are made. 

15- When mucilage is deficient, no due fermentation 
c^i take place. The substitution of veast spoils the 
"^-^^ aad sives to it the flatness of beer. Mucilage is 

\nV *' '' T'^PP^^^d ^y d^^^olved gum, in case of need, 
^xce^^ ot mu^Uti-e produces ouiv a greater quantity 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. in 


of lees. Wine hardly retains any mucilage when clear; 
it ou<>-ht to be precipitated in the process of fermentation 
and clarification along with tartar and potash. 

16. Tannin, or the astringent principle, is communi- 
cated to wine by the peduncles, husks, and seeds, whence 
rough wines are made, such as Port. Delicate wines 
ought to have no perceptible astringency or roughness, 
and the seeds ought not to be bruised in mashing the 
o-rapes, nor allowed to fall in the Must, nor the husks 


ir. The arome, or peculiar taste and smell of wines, 
also called flavor and bouquet, is produced by a fixed 
oil, different in almost every kind of grape and wine. A 
peculiar grateful flavor and scent enhances the value of 
M^ne many fold, (witness Tokay) and all excellent wines 
ought to have this quality- 

18. To preserve the arome of wines, it is needful to 
stop the fermentation before the natural end of it; and to 
procure it to deficient grapes, some peculiar flavored 
substance must be immersed in the Must while ferment- 
ino'. In this depends the art or secret of making valua- 
ble wines, worth from gl to 5 a gallon, instead of 5 to 
25 cents. Each celebrated vineyard has a peculiar secret 
process. Time and experience alone can teach us this 
secret art to its full extent. 

19. Yet we know the substances employed j they are 
oil of best grapes, vine blossoms, Resedxu or Mignonette, 
cowslip blossoms or Pri7nula, elder blossoms, violets, 
oris root or Iris Jtorentina, x-uspberries, strawberries, 
S^c. In Cyprus, they are Smilax blossoms. In Xeres, 
Madeira, and Marsala, bitter almonds are employed. 

suspended in the casks in bags, 

These substances 

while fermentation is proceeding. 

20. Our best native grapes give to our wines a peculiar 
o-rateful flavor similar to raspberries. Our fox grapes, 
with a mu^kv or foxy taste, impart to their wine a Mus- 
catel flavor, "somewlmt similar to Constantia. Our fine 
scented vine blossoms, even when dried, give a rich 

^k^^V ^^^^^V ^^^^^P ^^v ^Hw ^V ^^^^ ^^ ^^ J -- —^ ^^ 

trrateful flavor and scent to our winc^. To currant wine, 

which is made when the vines are in bloQiH^ these fre^h 
blossoms n>ay give a flavor near to Tokav^.lae, 

172 ^ VITIS. No. 99 & 100- 

21. The coloring principle is immaterial to wines. 
There are wines of all colors, clear as water, white, yel- 
low, green, hyacinth, red, brown, black, &c. These 
colors do not impart any value to wine; although the 
finest and dearest wines are commonly pale, yet Con- 
stantia and Lachryma, &.c. are red. 

22, Some wines lose their color or change it by age. 


Any wine can be made colorless, or clear as water by 
infiltration through animal charcoal or ivory black* It 
may be colored afterwards to any shade of yellow by 
burnt sugar, and any shade of red by cochineal or Bra- 
zil wood. The red Champaigne is colored by elder- 
berries juice, boiled with tartar, a few drops are suffi- 
cient to color a bottle of wine. Some kind of grapes are 
used to color pale wines. 

23. Therefore, the essential operations to correct a 
bad Must, or to make a good Must and wine, are to ob- 
viate any deficiency in the juice of the grapes or other 
fruits, by supplying the due proportion of sugar, tartaric 
acid, mucilage, and water that may be lacking, besides 
destroying; or absorbing the malic acid, avouling the 
mixture of tannin, and procuring a grateful aroma. 

24. 1'he art of wine making includes, besides this fun- 
damental knowledge, many practical operations, such as 
gathering the grapes, carrying them, extracting the juice, 
mending it, fermenting the liquor, fining and clarifyino-, 
preserving the wine, obviating the defects and diseases. 
It^ is even a part of this art how to drink the different 

25. Carbonic acid is always evolved in the act of fer- 
mentation, and escapes with some alcohol by evapora- 
tion. When restrained and prevented from escaping, it 
provinces the brisk and sparkling wines. When fermen- 
tation is allowed to take its course, all the carbonic acid 

26. Grapes ought to be gathered in the day time and 
a dry fair day. For the best wines, none but the sound 
clusters are to be used ; for the very best, the sound 
grapes ought J-o be separated from the peduncles, which 
are to be th. ,31 away. Grapes are to be carried to the 
vats or presses in baskets, without being crowded and 
bruised* If dirty, they ought to be washed. 

No. 99 & 100. viTis. irs 


27. The thin skin grapes require peculiar care in 
handling. Our native grapes have all a thick skin, and 
require little care. Tokay and some other delicate wines 
are made with grapes so soft as to drop their juice by 
their mere weight. All wines thus made without mash- 
ing, w^ere called Frotopion by the ancient Greeks ; they 
are the very best, 

28. Must and wine are made not only wath ripe grapes, 
but also with unripe ones, also shrivelled or over ripe 
ones from the vines, grapes kept on straw, scalded or 
half dried grapes, nay, even with raisins and vine leaves. 
Very different wines are thus made. 

_ 2p. Green and unripe grapes make dry light wines, 
similar to Champaigne. Hock, Rhenish, Moselle, and 
Graves. Their elements are similar to currants and 
gooseberries, composed of pure acid and extract, but de- 
ficient in sugar, which must be added, else their Must is 
nothing but verjuice. All our acid wild grapes, sour 
even when ripe, have a similar juice, and may make a 
red dry wine w itli sugar. 

30. The due proportion is 40lbs. of fruit to 5 gallons 
of water, added by degrees while mashing. Then add 
SOlbs. of sugar, half a pound of crude tartar, the whole 
should make 10 gallons of Must at least Keep 12 
hours, strain, put in a tub or vat, ewer with a blanket 
and boards, keep two days, put ne# in casks with a 
vent hole and peg. Decant in December, fine it several 
times, and bottle in March. If too sweet, ferment again 
before fining by exposure to air and heat upon the lees. 

ol. All grapes shiivelled or over ripe make good strono- 
wines often sweet. Some grapes thus used, produce 
very valuable wines, but the quantity is ahvays less. 
They never require addition of sugar. RaL^n wine is 
seldom made, although many good sweet wines can be 
made with them. Raisins must be scalded, pressed^ and 
the juice treated as common Must. 

32. The wine of vine leaves and tendrils is altoaether 


artificial : it is brisk like Champaigne. The process 
to infuse lOOlbs. of leaves and tendrils for 24 hours in 
16 gallons of water, poured boiling hot over them. Press 


7 ■ 

And \vater su&cient to make up 20 gallons of Must 

p 2 

i74 VITIS. No, 99 & 100. 


If a 

sweet wine is desired, more sugar is required, and the 

fermentation must be stopped by racking in sulphured 

S3, There are manj ways to procure the juice of ripe 

grapes. Mashing is the most ancient, and as yet, the 
most usual. This is done for common and cheap wines 
by trampling the grapes under naked feet over the 
boards of the vats, where they are heaped, by walking 
and dancing over them. Although this antique process 
appears not very clean, yet it is not more unclean than 
kneadin«: the bread dounrh with the hands, and besides 

the fermentation purifies the juice completely. 

34, But for the best or valuable wines, the grapes are 
mashed by rollers in a trough, or ^ peculiar press with a 
circular trough. Juicy grapes are very easdy mashed ; 
the hard or tough grapes even require but little pres- 
sure, and nothing like apples for cider. Our fox grapes 
with tough pulp, require rather to be left standing after 
bruising or mashing, so as to allow the pulp to dissolve, 
before the juice is extracted. 

35. In no case are the seeds to be bruised, else the 
wine will be rough and harsh : thus any hard pressure 



main there during the fermentation, they impart an aus- 
tere taste to the wine. It is therefore essential to avoid 
seeds, husks, and peduncles, in making delicate wines, 
unless we wish to iaiitate Port wine. This may be done 
by straining:. 

36. Commonly fifteen pounds of grapes ought to aiford 
one gallon of Must, and 5 gallons of Must ought to give 
4 gallons of wine, after fermenting, settling, and fining. 
But juicy grapes give more, and tougli grapes less, thus 
from 12 to ISlbs. uf grapes may give a gallon of Must. 

37, A deficient Must may be mended by the rules 
already stated. It is then that sugar, water, brandy, 
Hme, scented substances, &c. may be introduced to ad- 
vant.'^'^e before fermentation, so as to incorporate well, 
which can never be done after it. 

^ o^u- IS not the leaven of wine, as often errone- 
ously supposed, but the parent of strength aud alcohol, 

No. 9d&.100. VITIS. 175 

into \^hich it is changed by fermentation- Therefore, 
adding sugar to the Must, if not sweet enough, is equal 
to giving strength to it, and is bj far preferable to add- 
ing brandy then or afterwards. 

39. Sugar is seldom added to weak wines in Europe, 
because it is too dear : while brandy is added because it 
is cheap. We may easily avoid this error in America, 
where the reverse happens. In Spain, they often add 
the brandy to the Must, this makes Sherry tolerable. 
In Port, Madeira, &c. the brandy is added after fer* 
mentation, and thus they become Wxne Grogs! 

40. Any other spirituous liquors added to the Must 
0r wine besides brandy, spoils the wine completely ; 
rum and whiskey, above all, give a very bad burning 
taste. Peach brandy is used for our Scupernong wine, 
wh*ich spoils it also and makes it firy. , 

41. In many countries, a part of the Must is boiled to 
condense the suo;ar of it, and then added to the whole to 

strengthen the wine. This is a very old and very QXiod 

practice ; but since sugar is now in general use, and so 
cheap, it is hardly needful. AVhen the whole Must is 
boiled, very sweet wines are produced. 

42. To know the strength of the Must, which varies 
every year, let it be weighed with the hydrometer or 
any other means. A good Must ought to weigh at least 
one tenth mote than water, or 1.100 up to 1.140 when 
water \veio;hs 1.000- Or if a <:;alloa of water weisrhs 8lbs. 

G ^j a 

a gallon of good Must ought to weigh 9lbs. : the more 
the weight the better, and greater the strength. When- 
ever an egg floats in the Must, the w^eight is 1.125. Our 
wild grapes give a Must of 1.040 to 1-100 weight, the 
Muscadine or Scupernong is only 1.040. 

43. By a simple yearly trial, we may thus know the 
•state of our Must, and how much sugar is required to 

give it a proper strength. This will vary from 4 to 20 
ounces per gallon, in order to produce strong excellent 
wines- xMany of our grapes, however, can produce good 
thin clarets without sugar, like common French and Ita- 
lian wines; but if superior hies are ^.«nted, sugar be- 
comes needful- Every 4 ounces of sugar per gallon in- 
creases the weight of Must 11 in 1.000, or above 1 per 


176 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

44. Water is seldom wanted to dilute the Must, unless 
to make Piquette, or a very thin poor wine, in quantity 
rather than quality. Coarse sugar is the best to sweeten 
the Must, because it contains mucilage. Syrup will do 
as well; but molasses will not do, unless deprived of 
their bad taste by charcoal. Honey gives a flat taste to 
wine. Our maple sugar will do very well, and also the 
fresh syrup or molasses of maple. 

45. Mucilage is the leaven of wine ; it separates by 
fermentation into lees that sink, and froth or yeast that 
rises. Whenever mucilage remains in the wine, it is 
liable to ferment again even in bottles, therefore, the 
whole must be separated by racking and fining. If a 
second fermentation is needed, it may be produced by 
putting any wine over lees, and mixing them by rolling 
the casks. 

46. Yeast of beer must never be used for any wine? 
not even currant wine ; it gives a bitter taste of hops, 
an ammoniacal flavor and flatness. A wine leaven, use- 
ful for all artificial wines, may be prepared by drying 
the lees and froth of wine : it may be kept long for use. 

47. So true are these principles, that sugar and vege- 
table mucilage or extract may form wine alone with wa- 
ter, but tartar adds to the strength and helps the fer- 
mentation b)^ promoting the change of sugar into alcohol. 
But such artificial wine would be tasteless unless flavor- 
ed by fruits. 

48. Sweet wines are the best of all wines, because the 
whole sugar has not been converted into alcohol, either 
by a deficiency of mucilage or by the fermentation being 
suspended before the end of it : which may be done at 
any time by decanting or separating the liquor from the 
lees and froth, then strainin"; or filtering, clarifvin^ and 

49. Whenever tai'tar must be added, crude tartar is 
tlie best, because it contains some mucilage of the grapes. 
Cream of tartar is not so good, although it is said to pro- 
mote the briskness or sparkling property. 

^0, Quicklime is the ingredient commonly used to 
corre^^ the acidity of some grapes : but if not used sp- 
rm^y u gives a bad urinous taste to wine. In Spain, 

T only spnnkle the grapes with it. In France, they 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. 1T7 

put one gallon of slacked lime for 100 gallons of wine. 
Pidgeoa dung, being almost pure lime, is often used for 
the same purpose- It is often collected and sold for 
this purpose in Europe. If not sparingly used, the urin- 
ous taste is still worse in the wine. Ground plaster is 
also used. 

51. Turpentine, tar, firwood, &c. coyer the acidity 
of wine, but impart to it the tarry taste. This is the 
great defect of common Grecian wines ; but the Greeks 
do not dislike that taste. Our spruce twigs would give 
to our wines the taste of spruce beer. 

52. The best heat for fermentation is variable. It 
merely begins at 54 degrees F, and is very slow^ till 60 
degrees: from this up to 100 degrees it improves ; the 
greater the heat in the vintage time, the quicker and 
the more violent is the fermentation, and the wine is 
commonly the better for it. The froth of fermentation, 
when allowed to escape, makes the wine sweeter, when 

kepi in the wine, drier. 

53. Fermentation ought to be carried on under sheds, 
in the open air, and in close vessels, with bungs, spile 
holes, peg?, or safety valves. The larger the casks the 
sooner it is completed, whence the usual use of vats or 

large tuns and tubs, holding 1000 gallons or more. Light 

r^ ^ - jampaigne, are allow- 

ed to remain only for a few hours, (from 6 to 24) in the 

vats. White wine only 36 hours* Red wine from 2 to 6 

54. Wines removed from the vat to casks after strain- 
ing through the hair sieve, will continue in a slow state 
of fermentation, depositing lees and throwing froth. If 
the froth is removed repeatedly, or the wine often chang- 
^ from cask to cask, it will ultimately cease. The casks 
are kept in cellars, wells, or cool stores. 

55. The choice of casks is not useless. Old casks are 
always preferred. New casks, unless burnt, communi- 
cate a taste and color to wine, therefore, the inside 
ou^ht always to be charred : the best casks are made of 
«HK or chesnut aiitvca; the larger they are the better, 
for the sake of uniformity in the wine. 

55. Each change of casks leaving the lees behind, is 
called a racking, the best wines require several, and 

178 VITIS. No. 99 & 100. 

thus a set of casks on purpose. Sulphuring is the ope- 
ration by which a cask or the wine is impregnated with 


the fermentation stopped- The black oxide of mai 
nese has the same properties. 

ST. A sulphuring liquor may be made by the action of 
sulphuric acid on saw dust, the fumes bein^ conveyed to 
the wine, and some of the dust liquid thrown in it. 
However, the most usual mode is to fumigate the empty 
cask, before racking, by burning sulphur matches in 


58. Another mode has lately been found to destroy 

it altogether* 


the sulphate) diluted in tliera. A single ounce weight of 
it will do for 600 or 800 gallons. 

59- Fining or clarifying the wine is the next opera- 
tion, and always neeaful before bottling. Many sub- 

stances are employed, sand, gypsum, fishglue or isinglass 
salt, gum, starch, rice, milk, charcoal, albumen or white 
of eggs, ox blood, &:c. They all act in the same way, 
by precipitating the tartar, acid, and every remain of 
mucilage : whereby the turbid wine becomes perfectly 
clear and transparent. 

60. The use of these substances is optional, the cheap- 
est being most frequently used. They must be dissolved 
in wine before mixing, and are all precipitated thetn- 
selves. The proportion required depends on the foul- 
ness of the wine : they may be added by degrees. Eggs 
and milk are the best. The ox blood and salt give a bad 

taste to delicate wines. Isinglass may destroy the aro- 

ma, if not sparingly used- 

61. The acid fermentation of wine, whereby they are 
changed into vinegar, takes place when there is too 
much water in it, when the vinous fermentation has been 
imperfect in weak 


-- -... — o— - Vinegar may even be produced 
by mixing brandy and milk, or by passing the compound 
carbonic acid gas of the vinous fermentation through 
water and mucilage. 

62- N^o acetic fermentation can take place as long a^ 

there is a portion of undecomposcd sugar in the wine ; 

No. 99 & 100. VITIS. ' 179 

whence the need of stopping fermentation before it i5 
quite decomposed. Sweet wines never change into vine- 
gar. Sugar put into light and dry wines prevents the 
acetic fermentation ^ but if put in after it has begun, it 
increases it. Charcoal, plaster, and lime must then be 
used to absorb the acid. Brandy is of no use then, 

63, The fretting of the wines in the spring after vin- 
tage, is a second slow fermentation. It is thg best time 
then to bottle brisk wines, to give flavor to insipid wines 
by immersions of odorous substances, and to clear the 
whole mucilage by fining, else the wine may fret and 
become pungent. 

64. Sherry wines are made by sprinkling the grapes 
M^ith brandy and wine, some brandy is put in the Must ; 
several rackings, at one month's interval, with some bran- 
dy added each time. This is the least objectionable 
mode of making strong wines, yet the brandy is not to- 
tally incorporated. In Vidonia, Sercial, Madeira, Te- 

nerilFe, Port, Fayal, &c. the same precautions are seldom 
used, and the brandy put in is only diluted : whence 
their unhealthy and pernicious use. Brandy can only 
be put in strong wines to make them still stronger : be- 
cause it decomposes and destroys all the delicate fine 
wines like Claret, Burgundy, Champaigne, Hock, &c. 

65. The mixture of wines can be subject to no rules, 
as it may be varied in numberless ways. Many wines 
are only used for mixing and improving (or spoiling:) 
others. Some dark wines serve to color the pale clarets. 
The Catalonia is made into Port, with brandy and log- 
wood. Nay, it is said that much Port is drank in Eng- 
land, which has no wine at all in it ! Madeira is made 
with Teneriffe, brandy, and Prussic acid! Thus drunk- 
ards are gratified and poisoned. 

66. The only proper mixtures of wine ought to ini- 
prove them. This may be done by adding some good 
wine, or some essence of wine, or oil of wine, to wines of 
inferior quality. The essence of pure excellent wines, 
concentrated by frost, is the most valuable addition to 
any kind. The art of mixing wines and grapes is tlie 
practical secret of vineyards. 

tir. All poor wines, whether thin or brisk, do not keep 
long, and ought to be drank new. The best wines are 

s ac- 

180 VITIS. No. 99 & 100- 

those that keep well, and are improved by age and a sea 
voyage : they are commonly sweet and rich. These best 
wines must be drank alone, in small glasses, like cor- 
dials. Good table wines ought to bear from 3 to 6 times 
their bulk of water, to be improved by it. and always drank 
with it- 

68. Delicate and superior wines ought to be bottled as 
soon as perfectly clear and 6 to 9 months old, particu- 
larly if to be transported. Common wines ought to be 
kept or sent in barrels or quarter casks. Large casks 
are only useful at the vineyards. Some wines improve 
by travelling, and are better than on the spot ; this they 
owe to the shaking and tiiue ol^psed- 

69. Mustiness, Tiarshness, acidity, and ropiness are 
the four principal diseases of wines. When win 
quire a musty or bad taste, they may be restored by 
charcoal and toasted bread put in gradually. To mend 
harsh wines, put in it gradually milk, salt, and sand. If 
too acid, sugar, lime, or ground gypsum, or add sweet 
wine to it. Lead formerly used, is a poison, and must 
never be employed, as it makes the wines deleterious, 
producing cholics, &c. When wines get ropy, they must 
be fined or clarified again, 

_ 70. To recapitulate. Wine is as easy to make as 
cider, notwithstanding such needful cares. Very little 
additional trouble will produce superior wines, of double 
value at least. The same grapes may produce several 
kinds, white or red, sweet or dry, rough or sparkling, 
according to the mode of fermenting. Sugar must be 
used to strengtlien the wines, and never brandy- It is 
worth while to attend to the quality rather than the 
quantity. Time and experience will teach us still better 
the practical details. 

_— r^V- 






Jllphahetical Enumeration of all the Medical Plants of 

the United States omitted in the 100 selected ^^rii- 

clesy with additions and corrections^ <5'C. 

1. This second part of the present v/ork could easily 
have been enlarged to a size equal to the first. But it 
must be Uuiited to a mere catalogue of additional medi- 
cal plants, with a short account of their uses and pro- 

^2. Some, of the mentioned plants are as valuable as 
many of the selected ones, and of well ascertained pro- 

erties : upon these, it will be needful to dwell a little 

onger. Such are the genera Abies^ Iris^ Angelica^ Sina- 
pis^ Croton^ Mentha^ Qiiercus^ Esculus, Hleraclum^ Ni- 
cotiana^ Viburnum^ Iaiuths^ Lactuca^ Morus^ Pnimis^ 
Phytolaca^ Liatris^ Pinus^ Sambiicus^ and many more. 

^ 3. No botanical account can here be given ; the bota- 
nical names will enable to consult books on the subject- 
When the plants are undescribed in Michaux, Fursh, 
Nuttall, Elliott, Torrey, Eaton, &c. they will be de- 
scribed in the botanical supplement. 

4, The medical indications are taken from all sources, 
personal observations and communications, or from au- 
thors, chiefly from Schoepf» Cutler, Thatcher, Mease, 
Bii^elow, Smith, Henry, Williams, Josselyn. Castidione, 
Kalm, Ives, the two Bartons, Drayton, Gambofd, El- 
liott, Coxe, Zollickofter, Eberle, &.c. Thus including-the 
result of the whole actual knowied^^e ou our medical 

5» When medical plants are mere equivalents of each 
other, they may be mentioned as such. But even such 
equivalents may have some peculiar spparate propertr. 
Tiie whole will evince how an^ple is our vp<?etabie ^fa- 
teria Medica, and how adequate to ail needful purposes, 



182 ABALON, 

6. Many economical uses will be added, as well as 
several useful or remarkable facts worthy of notice. 
Most of the vulgar names will also be given. 


ABALON (Adamson) ALBIFLORUM, U^LBlazing 
Star, DeviVs Bit^DevWs Root^ liattle-snake Root^ Een- 
horn^ ^"C. [Verateum hiteum^ Z. Melanthium divicun\ 
1\ Helonias dioica of others.) Root large tuberous, nau- 
seous, pungent bitter. It is tonic, diuretic^ sialagogue, 
and vermifuge. In large doses, emetic. The plant kills 
cattle feeding on it. The decoction kills insects, bugs, 
and lice. Corn steeped 24 hours in it before so\ying, is 
not eaten by birds. Used by empirics and Indians for 
choUcs, fevers, worms, &c. As wash in scurvy, which 
produces diuresis by the mere external application. 
Carver relates an Indian story about being once a cure 
for all disorders, the devil bit off part of the root to 
"^ lessen its value, whence the name. It has been driven 

from o-enus to genus, while it was a peculiar one. I have 
adopted the good name of Adamson. The flowers are 
white and not yellow, indioical racemes. Estival, from 
New England" to Florida and Kentucky, in meadows 

and savannas. 

ABIES, J. Fir or Spruce Trees, Tall Evergreens, 

wrongly united to Pines by L. the tallest trees ot Noiiii 
America, some reaching 300 feet. A dozen species are 
spread from Canada to Alaska and Carolina, all equally 
useful, ornamental, and medical- They are : 1, ^^ bal- 
samea. L. or Balsam Fir. 2. •^. canadensis^ L. Hemlock 
Spruce. 3. d. nigra. 4. A alba. 5. A. rtibra. or black, 
white, and red Spruce trees, all united to the second by 
H L. besides 6 species of the Oregon country called by 

me, 6. A. trigona. 7. v3. heterophyUa. 8- Ji\ aromatica. 
% Jl.micTopkyila. 10. M.obiiquUa. ll.^-/a/ca/a,Raf- 
Those which have a balsamic smell, produce in small 
bladders on the branches, the Canada Balsam, (wrongly 
r^'-\ Balm of Gilead) which is healing, useful for in- 
lemal and external sores. It is injurious in recent 

good after they he^ln to heai. It may be 

' ^ " -J — *■ K^ -■* -_ 


taken internally on loaf sugar. It is equivalent to tur- 
pentine and storax. 

Spruce beer is an American beverage, made by the 
Indians with twigs and cones of spruces, boiled in ma- 
ple syrup. Now it is chiefly made with molasses and 
yeast, when no spruce is put in, it is only molasses beer. 
The proper spruce beer is a palatable and healthy drink, 
powerfully antiscorbutic. The first discoverers of Ca- 
nada were cured of the scurvy by it, since which, it has 
become in common use in Canada, the Northern States, 
and even in Europe. If the use was still more genera], 
it might destroy the tad effects of the scorbutic habit or 
land scurvy, so prevalent among those chiefly feeding 
on salt meat. The essence or extract of spruce, is an 
article of exportation, used as naval stores : spruce 
beer may be made by it in a short time, and any where. 
^ The bark of Spruce trees is sudorific, and m exten- 
sive use for tanning leather, also to die of a brick red 
color* The inner bark is used by empirics in powder 
and tea for bowel and stomach complaints, rheumatism* 
and gravel- The timber is valuable fur masts, spars, 
rafters, and boards. The resin exudino; from the trees 

is nearly like frankincense. Josselyn says that it 
very good in powder over wounds, to re-produce the 
flesh : but as the resin of the European fir is used in 
plaster to produce itching, rubefaction, and blistering, 
the resin of all the firs must be heating and irrit-^^ing- ^ 
ABRUS PRECATORIUS, L Liquorice bus^^. Bed 

bean^ Love pea. A siuall ornam ::'' ' and medi ,1 :5hruH. 
found from Florida to BraziK also in E^vr^t and Ea^"^ 
Indies. It belong* to monodelpliia enucandria, and to 
the leguminose tnoe. Weil known bv its beautiful 
scarlet seeds w^ith a black spot^ u.-^ed as beads bv the 
Hindus and Mahometans. The roots and leave:? are 
equivalents to liquorice, sweet, mucilaginous, demul- 
cent and expectorant ; a good tea of the leaves used for 
colds and fevers. Tiie seeds* aUhoue:h farinaceous, aiv, 
hard and tough, yet they are eaten in i .^vpi. In Atne- 
ricat they are considered purgative antt ueleterious. 
Perhaps our American is different from the .Vsiatic kind. 

..Jsia ab'Synthium^h.) Common fVormwood. Inoi 

% t^ fr 

H+ 71 

134 ACER 

dens, sometimes spontaneous. Taste intensely bitter, 
smell strong, contains an essential oil and bitter extrac- 
tive. Very valuable medical plant- Two scrujiles ot 
the extract cure intermittents. Useful in cachetic, hy- 
dropic and hypochondriac affections, in jaundice, against 
worms, &:c/ Essential oil dark green, a powerful stimu- 
lant, antispasmodic, and vermifuge. The wormwood 
wine is an excellent tonic ; wine, ale and beer are me- 
dicated by it. Sometimes substituted for hops in brew- 
ing. Leaves excellent topical resolvent, applied to swell- 
ed breast and tumors. The ashes produce the salt of 
Jibsynthium^ useful in gravel, and to dissolve tlie stones 
as formerly believed. Many other properties, very early 
known. It is said the continual use of this plant has 
cured the gout, increased the milk of nurses, removed 

dropsy and hepatitis. 
ABUTILONCORDATUM,J. Yellow Mallow. {Sida 

ahutilon of L.) Common from Canada to Mexico. Equi- 
valent of -Ma/fa or common Mallow, being mucilaginous, 
emollient, and de...ukent. A tea is used in Virginia for 
internal inflammations, stranguary, gonorrhoea, &c. The 
leaves are edible, the negroes use them in the South in 
soups, gombos, and calalous. It was one of the plants 
aftordiiig a kind of hemp to the Southern Indians to 
make nets, fringes, coarse twist cloth, and the frame ot 

the fine feather mantles. 

m«n from Can 

NICA,L. Mercury weed. Com- 
ida. Elliot says that Dr. At- 
kins ha-^ found it expectorant and diuretic, u^^eful in hu- 
mid asthma, ascites, and anasarca. The empirics of the 
South use it for many other purposes. This plant de- 
serves in\ c^tl'-^ tioii i tiie other species of the genus have 
probably siiiular pr'^perties. 

ACER. L, Mm}le T. .S8. Valuable trees found all 

over the riiireii >tatt- : a dozen species at least- Wood 
lM»d!*ome and vakmbLe for furniture, tools, guns, &c. 
Commonly pale jeUoH, when veined called curled ma- 
ple. TLd I ,rk of ^. rubnu red maple, dies wool and 
-T ;. brown . ' >r ; t'»e CHerokees use the inner bark 
^' *i : re . Maple sug;ar is made from theii* 

sap m ;^., ~^;,. _: The Birch tree (Betula) :,::d Hickory 

r^r^'"^,' ^:''"'' .■■""^ M^ive a s^--.;-t sap a^ ^^W as the Map'^-^* 
iiie it.d:.\n^ made -; rap and :«ugar from all, but chiefly 

^H-i^ jX- 


ACNIDA. 135 

A. nigra, ^A, rubra. A. dasicar- 
now called Xegundii.s.i fraxini- 

pGj an 

afford the most. This sugar is equal to the cane sa*>-ar 
of Sacchanim officinarmn. "When badlv made, it is 

dark and has an empyreumatic taste. When properlv 
made, it granulates well, may be easily refined into loaf 
sugar, and has a pure sweet taste. The syrup made by 
boilijig the sap is very good : when boiled longer, it be- 
comes sugar with little care. A single tree aftbrds from 
10 to 20 gallons of sap by mere tapping, and 3 or 4 gal- 
lons give nearly a pound of sugar* We could make 
maple sugar in sufficient quantity for the whole use of 
our population, and even for exportation. But instead, 
the trees are wantonly destroyed or neglected. Hardly 
lOOjOOOlbs. of sugar "'are made annually, and chiefly in 
remote settlements. We ought to plant and cultivate 
these trees instead of destroying them, or leave from TO 
to 50 on each acre of cleared land. Whole forests of 
them have lately been planted in Germany, Hungain% 
and France. The leaves of A. striatum^ called Dock- 
mockie maple, are used in topical application for the in- 
flamed breast. 

Common to Europe and America, from Canada to Loui- 
siana, in woods and fields. ^Vhole plant used. Bitter 
and nidorose, tonic, restringent, and vulnerary, but sub- 
narcotic and inebrlant. Used for heniorrhofds, dysen- 
tery, hemoptysis, menstrual afttctions, wounds* hvpo- 
chfindria, and cancer, ^ The iaiusioa and ex^ract"^ are 
employed. The American plant is stronger than the 
European, and has lately been exported for use : thi^- 
often happens with our plants, our warm suuiuiers ren- 
dering our medical plants more efiicacious. The A.plar- 
mica^ or Sneezeweed, is said also to ^row in New^ York; 

few botanists have seen it. Used as an errhlne in 

ACHRaS SAPOTA, L. SapodiL Florida and B?i. 

hama. Fine fruit. Seeds acrid diuro"^^^. useful in emul- 
sion for nephritis, dysury, and disea-f « *)t the uretlua 

ACMDA CARMABiNA,L. JrUhw Hemp. This 

\vi^ the be^t white hemp of inc Nordiern Indians, . !.;> 

4 2 


made nets, ropeg, thread, and purses with it. The seeds 
were eaten by them. 

ACONITUM NAPELLUS, L. fVolfsbane. Schoepf 
says that it grows n\ Virginia, no one else has seen it ; 

it grows ill Virginia, i 
ave mistaken for it the 


he must have mistaken for it the A.nncinalunij our onlj 
native spe^l^s, which grows from Virginia to Missouri, 
and has probably similar qualities. The Wolfsbane is 
an acrid nauseous poison, but diuretic, drastic, pellent, 
idorific, errhine, vesicatory, &:c. Producing vertiga 
and convulsions. It is, however, used in Europe in mi- 
nute does, as a heroic remedy in schirrus, anchylosis^ 
spina ventosa, amaurosis, gout, rheumatism, and even 
intermittent fevers, 

ACTEA ALBA and RUBEA. irjiite and red Co 
hash, or Barteherrifj Toadroot. From Canada to Caro- 
lina- in woods. Root bitter, repellent, nervine, used for 
debility in Canada- Equivalent of Botrophis. Plant and 
berries poisonous, said to be liked by toads. Berries 
white or red in the second species. Wrongly blended 
bv L. with A. spicata or A. nigra of Europe, which has 

black berries. 

ACTIMKaIIS. ]\Iany species, all called formerly 
Cor ;'"'^ aUemifo/ia. Dr. Eoff informed me that they 
cur^ ^u^ r'n^\. orm by rubbing with the leaves. 

savs that the Caerokees used a strong decoction of it as 
an emetic in agues! this would indicate greater activity 
in tiiis plant. ^ 

ADKEA GLABERRIMA, Raf 1815. {Uriica jni- 
rnila. L.) Cool weed. Very common. Very different 
from n'^*'tic», quite smooth and cool. The leaves applied 
or bruised give immediate relief in inflammations and 
painful ^wf^Uings- As a wash, they cure the topical 
jtoison of Rhus or Shumac. Called Neicffsha^ meaning 
us cool as u€. by the Osages. Its peculiar grateful strong 
smell indicates other properties. 

AGARIC U?. Funk. Many species, growing on dc- 
•! ed tret^-. All more or less stvptic and bitter, useful 
-ke t \_ nc, a soft powder for stopping arterial 

r% or^ r ''■ '-■ i i 

- ■^. 


. Ml aiiiputati<m3 of liu.Li, without iigature.. 
a!5aut : ;;^ers tiKiy be made with an equal quantity 

^ii t;r:;_ ;^.: p,^: \^^^. -.--S ],, Mae, Lc. Puiik la* the liidiaii 

ALLIUM. 187 

name for all perennial fungi growing on trees and of a 
spongy nature : useful to make spunk or touch wood to 
light easily fire with. Those growing on pines and 
hickories are commonly deemed be&t. 

AGAVE AMERICA-^ A, J.. Flowering .^loea, Mt- 
guey of Mexico. Zabara of Cuba, Spain, and Sicily. 
From Carolina and Florida to Mexico. Valuable econo- 
mical plant. Radical leaves evergreen, 2 to 6 feet long, 
the inside is edible after coction, tasting like lemonade. 
The juice -flowing from the young central leaves cut off 
IS sweetish, by fermentation it produces the Pulque or 
Mexican beer j by coction, syrup, honev, and suo-ar can 
be made of it. The old leaves dressed like flax, pro- 
duce a strong white silky thread ; the Mexican cloth 
aiid papar were made from it, also fine fringe and lace. 
The central stem grows in a few months 18 to 20 feet 
high, bearing a beautiful pyramid of yellow blossoms. It 
IS a false notion to suppose that it blossoms onlv once in 
100 years J this happens once in 15 to 25 vears, and 

atterwards the plant dies, but the root sends^off lateral 
oftsets. The steins are used for lio;ht rafts and posts j 
cattle and sheep feed on the blossoms. Cultivated for 
hedges and use in Mexico, Spain, Sicily, and Barbarv. 
Worthy of attention in Fiorida. 

AGAVE VIRGINICA, L. Virginia Aloes, Rattle^ 
snake master. Root bitter, tincture used for cholics, 
chewed in obstinate diarrhoea by the Cherokees, vio!ent, 
but efficient* 

ALCHEMILLA ALPINA, L. Ladies' mantle. On 
the White mountains, and in Canada. Astringent, equi- 
valent of Potentllku 

ALETRIS AUREA, M^. Add, harsh bitter root, 
used in vinegar for dropsi A fevers in Carolina, Elliot 

ALISMA PLANTACtO, L. Wa^.er Plantain. Had 
once much celebrity in Russia, as a cure for hvdropho- 
bia ; time has not confirmed this valuable property. 

ALIMA ODORATA, Rif. Fl. lud. Sweet Plantain. 
The whole plant odmous, used for wounds and bruises 

in L * laiia- 

ALLll M, L, Wild Garlic. Landlanch. Several spe- 
cies, A, canademe most common, give a bad taste to ^he 
milk and butter of cows feeding on them. The tincture 

188 ALNUS, 

used for gravel. The Cherokees u^e them in cookerr. 
Many species cultivated in gardens and fields. A* sati- 
vum or common Garlicky is a well known condiment, 
highly medical, exteniallj as a stimulant, rubefacient, 
and blistering, internally as a diffusible stimulant, diu- 
retic, expectorant, sudorific, &c. useful in diseases of a 
languid character and interrupted secretion, catarrhal 
disorders, and chronic cough, pituitous and spasmodic 
asthma, flatulent cholics, hysterical and dropsical com- 
plaints, intermittent and typhoid fevers, retention of 
urine, &c. It is also a powerful vermifuge, and has ex- 
pelled the tenia- It is given in substance, conserve, 
milk, wine, &c. Properties residing in a yellow, thick, 
acrid oil- Applied to the sole of the feet as an excellent 
revulsion from disorders of the head. Ointment or poul- 
tice repellent, discutient, diuretic, and cures deafness 
produced by atony or rheumatism. The excessive use 
of garlick in cookery, may produce head-ache, flatulence, 
fetid breath, thirst, inflammations, fevers, and bloody 
piles. Parsley and celery correct partly its strong smell 
and taste, and also that of onions. 
ALLIUM CEPA, L. or Cepa vulgaris^ Tt, Onmis. 

Have the same properties as garlick, but weaker. Very 
useful as food in dropsies and suppressed urine. Onions 
correct the taste of fish, and can cure the bad eftects pro- 
duced by bad fish, salt, smoked, or putrid. They pro- 
mote secretions and excite appetite. Their excess prb- 
duces flatulence, thirst, head-ache, bad dreams, and may 
derange the central functions. Externally, they form 
good cataplasms for suppurating tumors. "^ Raw^ onions 
can only suit strong- stomachs, they render the breath of- 
fensive. When boiled or stewed, they are palatable and 
healthy. The ancients thoujirht that' onions and garlic 

could cure or prevent the plague. The A.porrum or 
Leeks, have the same qualities and uses, they are still 
milder than onions : both roots and leaves used. 

ALN L S SERRULAT A, Aiton. Black alder. Near 
streams from Canada to Florida- Leaves vulnerary ami 
i.^tringent, repel the milk when bruised and applied to 

Ki u^ ^^* ^^^ styptic, dies brown, and with vitriol 
black, i ne cones aLu die black. The inner bark of 
t^ rwt IS emetic aiui uies vellow. The wood produces 


a light charcoal, the Y|rj best for gunpowder. The 
A. undulata, A. glutinosa, A. glauca, &.c. found in 
mountains and Canada, are equivaleat. The Prinos 
also called Alder with us, has diflerent properties, and 
bears red berries ; both are called Sulling bj the Cana- 
da trihps, who use the barkiu poultice for swellings aud 

ALSTNE MEDIA, L. Chicktveed. Antiscorbutic and 
pectoral, may be eaten boiled for greens. Birds are 
fond of it 

ALTHEA OFFICINALIS, L. 3Iarsh Mallow. Eu- 
ropean plant, becomes spontaneous • with us in manv 
places. Plant and root mucilaginous, demulcent, emo"- 
hent ; used m cataplasms, gargles, fomentations, clvs- 
ters, and decoctions, for diseases of the throat and lungs, 
bowels bladder, and urethra, also for pains, irritations, 
and inflammations. Equivalent to mallow and gum 

Arabic, but better. In France, lozenges of it are used 
tor cough. 

AMANITA, Lam. Mushrooms, with giUs beneath, 
ana a central support : nearlj 500 species in North 
America. Several are excell " ' " 

A, imtscaria, A. de^'nonti, A. 
atbelta, A. aurantiaca, A procera, A. ovoidea, &c. Ml 
Uie European species are found with us, 50 kinds are 
eaten ui France, 100 kinds in Italr. Here M'e are afraid 
ot ihem, and only eat 2 or S. An easy test can teach 
us whidi are haru. s : boil or cook a white onion with 
thenu if It retain^, tht cr^ >r, the inushrc.^.^ are good : 
if &e ■ n becomes hluhh they -e bad or unh Jthv. 


xMany species are poisonous, all the milky ot.; are 
such, also the bl k and thin kljids. The flesliy a-d 
firm are c^^^iionlj good : those who have a fine smell 
are the best, are delirious. Thej may be dried 
and u ..J for condiment. Dried niushroom;? are an arti- 
cle of tr.,]e in Italy ; we could collect them in abun- 
dance* T^ ^y are an es ntia! ingredient of gocxi catchup 
sauce. When poisonuus mu^iuooms arc eaten by mis- 
take, the} ...Ja^^ any^^^y^ -:; m?, eonvulsiuns, and 
lU^ih : the best i.;nedip« are emcucs, t:cher, milk, &.. 

The A. atrammtaria can make ink. The best kind : 


g the little bulbs or filament 




nj species cultivated for beautj, and many wild. The 
leaves of several can be eaten boiled like spinage : in 
Louisiana they eat my A^ diacanthus^ Raf* The A. san- 
guineus^ L. called Lovely bleedings is a powerful styp- 
tic, the decoction is in popular use to stop the flow of 
menses, when other remedies have failed. The A.pii- 
mihis^ Raf. may be pickled like other fleshy sea plants- 

AMARYLLIS ATAMASCO, L, Grotind lily, Stag- 
ger grass. Said to poison horses and cattle^ producing 
the disease called t>taH:£ers. Beautiful vernal white 

AMBROSIA, L, Ragweed. The A. elatior and other 
species with jagged leaves bear that name, called also 
Carrot-tveed^ Conot-iveed, Bastard Wormwood. Bad 
weeds in old fields, not eaten by cattle ; if cows eat it 
by chance, their roiik becomes bitter : the plant deemed 
emollient and antiseptic in fermentations, the seeds 
mised with wheat, give a bad bitter taste to bread- The 

A. trifida 

used bv tl - 

may be available* sometimes 10 feet high. 

, was 

AMPHICARPA MONOICA, Elliot. (G/t/cme</o,L.) 

Pea Vine. Cattle are greedy of this plant, and destroy 
it almost everr where, oudit to be cultivated for fodder* 
The seed^ are like peas, and as i»:ood to eat* la Caroli- 
na thev begiji to cultivate it for the table. 
^ AMYGDALL- cmm\:ym,J^. Almond tree. Cul- 
tivated from Virginia to Florida ; but our late vernal 
frosts injure it, as it blu.-simis in February and March. 
S veet almonds are a fine fruit j they contain the same 
elements as human milk. The bitter almonds contain 
b- Ides Prussic acid : th»*v are pernicious, and poison 
t>|-w„ The oil of almonds is produced by both, 2lba- 
e'v<^ lib. of oiU verv bland, demulcent, useful in tick- 
^tGg jugh, heat of urine, pains and inflammations. The 
emul^io:4. ^: ^\\]^ ^|| almonds hao equal propertied-* a fine 

•^•-" mA is cooling. Orgeat 


'-^^^^%^. fiO'Wcf >'aier 


AMYGDALUS PERSICA. Feach tree. Was culti- 
vated bjthe Indian tribes before Columbus, either indi- 
genous or brought from Asia. Now common^from Ca- 
nada to Louisiana^ in orchards- Fruit delicious. Wine 
can be made with it. Peach brandy is a pernicious 
liquor. Peach kernels are similar to bitter almonds. 
The peach blossoms are bitter, anodyne, carminative, 
diuretic, and vermifuge, much employed in Europe for 
worms, colic, gravel, &c. in the form of tea. Said also 
to subdue inebriation and deafness. The peach leaves 
have the same properties, but are weaker, more bitter, 
and less agreeable, sometimes purgative in large doses. 
Deserving attention as an efficient vermifuge. 

AMYGDALUS GLABRA, Dec. .Vec/arme. Peculiar 
species, and not a variety of peach. Properties similar 
to peach, but much weaker. Rare with us. 

AMYRIS FLORIDANA, Nuttal. Florida Balsam 
tree. The berries are black and fragrant, the leaves 
aromatic. Properties similar to Z. maritima and Ji.hal- 
samifera of the West Indies, called Rosewoods, cepha- 
lic, diaphoretic, used for weak eyes, &c- The whole 
genus is balsamic^ producing Gum Elemi, Balm of Gi- 
lead, &c. 

In Florida, and spread to Brazil. Very valuable tree, 
it grows in pure sand and consolidates the same. Wood 
very fine and hard. The nut good and healthy ; the 
cover of it produces a black exsudation, dies black, and 
is used to cure the itch and diseases of the skin. Ought 
to be cultivated. 

From New York to Carolina. SeemingJv inert, yet 
acrid and active. Believed useful in hyurophobia'^by 
Boerhaave, and ever since. Employed in Europe for 
mania, epilepsy, melancholy, &c. tlius useful in ail ner- 
vous diseas.^ ; Clayton recommends it in febiile deli- 
rium. Also pulmonic and alexiter. It Is poisonous to 
catue : yet Colden says the decoction was used in New 
York in the bl ^H- sweat or mui *ciin of calves. 

ANDROMEDA, L. the .^. nitida oi Carolina, Sot^r 
wood or Fipesteffij is equivalent of Kalmia for the itch, 
the leaves are acrid, the bark dies purple with copperas- 



The A. angustifolia, or Titi of the Florida tribes, is also 
equivalent of Kalmia. The A. mariana or Wicke, like- 
wise very useful in the ground itch of negro's feet. The 
A. racemosa or Tf'hite Fepperhush, White Osier, is us^ 
for baskets and fish flakes. The powder on the leaves 
and buds of w3. pulvcrulenta or Mealybush, and other 
kinds is a powerful errhine ; even the powdered leaves 
are sach. 

ANDROPOGON, L. Sedge Grass. Many species, 
disliked by cattle because coarse and dry; but the .^. 
cilialus makes good hay in Florida. Some of our spe- 
cies may be equivalent to j1. schenanthus and A. nardus. 

ANEMONE VIRGINICA, L. Jrindbloom. Kalm 
says the hairy seeds dipped in alcohol, are used in odon- 
talgv, being put in the hollow teeth. 

ANETHUM FENICULUM, L. Fennel Cultivated 
and often spontaneous. Seeds pungent, aromatic, equi- 
valent to anniseeds, but a different flavor. The sweet 
fennel is bleached and eaten like cellery in Italy. 

From Canada to Carolina. The root has a strong smell, 
when fresh it is a poison, the juice is acrid and blisters 
the lips 5 the Indians of Canada use it for suicide. But 
wben dcy, it loses its \irulenee, and becomes a warm 
aromatic, similar to lovage. Cutler says the stems are 
candied in New England. 

ANGELICA LLTCIDA, L. Angelic root. Belly-ache 
root. Nendo of the Virginian Indians. White root d 
the Southern tribes. Equivalent of Ginseng and officinal 
Angelica. Root like Ginseng, taste similar, smell like 
aniseed. Highly valued by the Southern Indians, and 
cultivated by them : used as a carminative, and in cook- 

^J' . T^^^ ^^^^ i^ said to give the excellent flavor to 
V irginia hams and pork, when hogs feed on it. It is 
bitterish, subacrid, fragrant and aromatic, stomachic 
and tonic, useful in cholics, hysterics, menstrual sup- 
"-essions, chlorosis, anorexia, &c. The powdered seed"? 
n lice. Schoepf and Henry mention the A. sylve^uni 
-o American, which is erroneons, they m 
cies Henry adds that it is sialasrogue and repellen--, 
i!^ » , •?/ ^^^'/^ tumors, and ttie root an antidote 
■gaiJ^L yeUow fever, chewed when visiting the sick. this ope 



The Missouri tribes call it Lagonihah^ and mix it with 
tobacco to smoke 5 they also eat it, ftut it often produces 


Makes fragrant haj ; cows fed on it give a very fine 
milk : sheep feeding on it produce excellent mutton. 

APIOS TUBEROSA, P. (Glycine apios, h.) Indian 
Potato, Potato Pea. Hopniss of the Delaware tribes. 
Noa of the Missouri tribes. Tucalia of the Southern 
tribes. Hankt or White apple of the Oregon tribes. 
Valuable plant, formerly cultivated by the Indians (yet 
by the Creeks) for the roots, which are like potatoes, or 
rather like Helianthus iuberosus, and the seeds like peas 
and as good. Deserving to be cultivated by us. The 
roots are white, tender, very good boiled or roasted, and 
m soups, or even raw when dried. 

APIUM GRAVEOLENS, L. Cellery. Much culti- 
vated. When bleached a good pot herb ; root, petioles, 
^d leaves are excellent m soUps, ragouts, fried, &c. 
They are stomachic, excite appetite, correct the alka- 
lescence of meat and fish. Very useful in obstructions 
and hver complaints. When eaten raw less healthy 
impairing digestion, but correcting fetid breath. 

Cultivated for condiment and very medical. Diuretic 
and sudorific, the root chietiy so, and with an agreeable 
sweeUsh taste. In decoction, it increases urine, cures 
the suppression and strangury, gives relief in nephritic 
pains, better still if united to mallow and water mellon 
seeds. The leaves are pungent aromatic, they give a 
good flavor to soups, and keep the kidneys in gcrod or- 
der. It is said that given to sheep, they prevent and 
cure the rot. 'Bhey are injurious in nervous disorders 
and epilepsy. The seeds have been used in syphilis. 

APUOCERA MARITIMA, Raf.' {Monocera, E.) 
Toothache Grass of Carolina. Root bitter, siaJagogue, 
used for the tooth-ache : the grass eaten by cows affect 
their milk, giving it a bad taste. 

APOCYNUM, Add. Very valuable, affording hemp 
and cloth from the stems, cotton in the pods, sufj-ar in 
the blossoms, shoots edible like asparagus, roof very 
powerful, emetic, cathartic, diuretic, sudorific, vcrmi- 


194 ARALIA. 

fuge, and pectoral, according to doses and forms. Six 
grains of the powder is sudorific, 30 grains will purge 
and vomit, useful in asthma united to SKunkweed^ Also 
used in dropsies, rheumatism, and whooping cough by 
empirics. All the species nearly equal, and deserving 



A beautiful native flower, adorning our rocks, cultivated 
for beauty. Equivalent of Aq. vulgaris^ which is^ diu- 
retic, menagogue, sudorific, antiscorbutic, and aperitiver 
The roots, flowers, and seeds are used in Europe ; the 
seeds are acrid oily, taken in vinous infusions for jaun- 

ARABIS RHOMEOIDES, Mx. Meadow Cress. Equi- 
valent of Water Cresses, the tuberous root edible as 
well as the leaves, siutilar to Radishes, taste like Coch- 


ARACHIS IIYPOGEA, L. Ground Nvt, Feci iXuL 

Cultivated from Maryland to Florida. Erroneously call- 
ed Fi'Slachoe Nvt in Carolina, the name belongs to the 
Pistacia of Sicily and Syria. Called Pindars in the 
West Indies. Cultivated by the Indians from Florida 
to Brazi! before Columbus, by the name oi Manx. Yet 
by the Creek tribes, wlio raise large crops in pure sand. 
The seeds or beans are oity, they produce much oil fit 
for alt uses j commonly eaten roasted in the shell or 
pod : nutritive, demulcent and pectoral. A kind of 
chocolate can be made with tliem, quite inferior, though 
taste similar. 

ARALIA SPINOSA, L. Prichly Elder, Shot Bwh^ 
Pigeon Trce^ &.c. Valuable medical tree, the bark JS 
emetic, cathartic, sudorific, sialagogue, febrifuge, &<^- 
that of the root is the best, the dry le* active than the 
fresh- It is said to cure the bite of rattle snakes By 
emesis, &c. the Indians use it for dropsy, syphilis, tooth 
ache, cholic, rheumatism, &c. in decoction ; the extract 
is also useful, the fresh roots are almost poisonous in the 
ffreen state, they must be roasted and pounded, even 
th^n they act as a violent eir.etic. The berries are Mid 
to be a certain cure for spring intermittenta, united t^ 
the bark, th<^v have a gooif smell, and are eaten by wild 


pigeons. Tuc bark has aa aromatic taste, very "useful 
in chronic rheumatism ; equivalent of Xanihoxylumy 

ARNICA. 195 

but milder- The leaves and seeds are pectoral. Add 
to A. nudicaulU^ i^sed for bilious complaints as a ptisan 
\\\ Canada, and Jl. racemosa by the Indians as carmina- 
tive, pectoral and antiseptic, in coughs, pains in the 
breast, mortification; the root with horseradish, made 
in poultice for the feet in general dropsy. The juice of 
the berries and oil of the seeds is said to cure ear ache 
and deafness, poured in the ears. 

ARCTIUM LAPPA, L. Burdock. Common to both 
continents. Root valuable, diuretic, diaphoretic and 
detergent, equivalent to Aralia and Smilax\ Useful in 
rheumatism, scurvy, syphilis, nephritis, phlogosis, oede- 
ma, gravel and gout. These properties are mild, since 
the boiled roots, stems and leaves are eaten in Canada; 
nay, the root even raw, like radishes, the taste is sweet- 
ish austere : the use of it makes the urine milky, and 
produces flatulence. The seeds are bitter snd purgative. 

ARETHUSA BULBOSA, L. The bruised bulbs use- 
ful for the tooth ache, and in cataplasms fur tumors. 

ARGEMOXE, L. Thorn Poppy. The Flava {MexU 
cana^ L.) with yellow blossoms, and tlie j9lbl/Iora with 
white ones, have similar properties- From Pennsylvania 
to Mexico. Equivalent of Chelidonmm^ having a yellow- 
bitter juice, which dies yellow, and when inspissated, 
becomes similar to Gamboge. It is anodyne, detersive, 
resolutive, hypnotic, diuretic, useful in herpetic diseases, 
psora, sore eyes, dropsy, jaundice, &c- The seeds are 
drastic and emetic, used in the West Indies for the 
bellyache and dysentery, their infusion is diapliorefic 
and ophthalmic, dose only a table spoon: when sm^jked, 
they are narcotic. The capsules used like Poppy heads 
in diarrhoea and dysentery. Deserving attention, ap- 
pear to unite the properties of Opium, Gamboge and 


ARNICA, L. Leopard* 8 Bane. We ha\*- several 
a5pccie9,A.m^(/£cau/^, dorO)\jfum^plantaginei(m^ ixc- weak 
equivalents of A montuna, the roots and flowers of 
which are stimulant and discutient, very u&eful in palsy, 
rheumatism, congestions, typhus, kc. It is a narcotic, 
producing burnings, hemorrhage, vertigo and coma in 
lanje doses. Vinegar cures these symptoms. 



ARONIA OVALIS, P. Juneberry, Shadtree, Misa$- 
cutu of Algic tribes. Averj fine tree and northern fruit, 
which ou^it to be cultivated. It is sweet, black, like a 
cherry. The A. alnifolia of the South is similar and as 
cod. M^r A. cordata also with redish berries. The 
Jhokeberries are produced by 4 or 5 species of shrubby 
Armia : they are astringent and unpalatable. 

ARUM ESC ULENTUM, L. Eddoes, Tanniers. Cul- 
tivated in Carolina for the root, which is a common ve- 
getable of topical climates all over the globe. These 
roots must be boiled in several waters, or roasted. 

ARTEMISIA VULGARIS, L. Mugivort. Common 
to both continents. Equivalent of Msynthium. Anti- 
septic, stomachic, detergent, deobstruent, laxative, diu- 
retic, diaphoretic, menagogue, corroborant, antispasmo- 
dic and vermifuge. Useful in hysterics, spasms, palpi- 
tations of the heart, worms, obstructions, &c. in tea, 
infusion or powder. The leaves, tops and seeds are 
used, these last and their oil are equal to Santomic 
seeds as vermifuge. Warm fomentations of the leaves 
are excellent discutient and antiseptic. Many equiva- 
lent species grow in the West, the .-?. columhiensis of 
Nuttall is very aromatic. The S. santonica is said to 
row m the South, the seeds are an article of trade in 
'urope. The A. dracunciilus of gardens is a fine condi- 
meht. The A. abrotamim or Southern wood of gardens 
IS equal to Mugwort and Absynth in properties. It is 
said to prevent baldness and make the hair grow by 
a spirituous infusion of it. All the species m'ake the 

milk of cows bitter when bruised upon. Aloxa made 
with them. 

AS ARUM. Add, £)r. Firth says he has cured the 
tetanus 1^' the decoction of A. canadense. The Indians 
make a fine snuff with A. virginicum, the fresh leaves 
are used for wounds and scrofula. 

ASCLEPIAS. Add, the Indians of Louisiana use 
my .4. aerpentaria, Fl. lud. {or the bite of rattle snakes. 
1 he A. dehiUs makes a kind of flax. The A. phytola- 
cmaf-^ dies yellow green, the milk appears similar to 
opmm : s.|k gloves have been made with the silk of the 

li.' ., ^H^^*^^*^" ^^^ Western tribes call many spe- 
rte> J\epeshcu they use the roots in dropsy, asthma. 



dysentery, and as emetics, chiefly the A* syriaca^ A. 

incarnata^ and A. ohtusifoUa. 

ASIMINA, Dec. Ty. {n^lnnona sp. L. Porcelia of 
others.) Papaw^ Custard Apple, Asiminier in Louisiana. 
The A. triloba^ found from Ohio to Mexico. Fruit with 
a bad smell, but when ripe after frost, the pulp is sweet, 
luscious, yellow, similar to Custards. It is sedative, 
laxative and healthy. A wine is made of it, quite clear 
and good, useful for aphthas of children. The skin of 
the fruit and the seeds are fetid, smell similar to Datura. 
The A. grandiflora of Florida, has large fragrant white 
blossoms, and a fruit like Cucumber, rough outside, but 
with a fine hard yellow pulp inside, delicious and whole- 
some. The A. xncamata has also a fine fruit. All these 
shrubs deserve cultivation. The Indians make strong 

ropes with their bark. 

Cultivated, often spontaneous. The shoots a well known 
vernal luxury, very healthy, diuretic^ gi^'^^g ^ stron 
smell to urine, purifying the blood, pectoral, sedative^ 
and sudorific : but the excessive use is said to brins: on 
gout. The root and seeds are aperient, diuretic, aphro- 
disiac, &c. useful in gravel, nephritis, &c. A peculiar 
substancej asparagine, found in them. Valuable diet in 
many diseases of the breast, heart, kidneys and bladder, 
it allays the inordinate action of the heart. A syrup 
made with the green part of the shoots, is useful when 
out of season. Alcohol is made with the berries. 

ASPIDIUM, Sm. Malefern^ Sweetbrake. We have 
nearly £5 species, many are medical : the Jl. filUjias^ 
most used as a vermifuge, to expel the tenia, it is united 
to Skunkweed and given before and after a purge ; use- 
ful also for rachitis or rickets ; the root \< the part used, 
it is edible, and eaten by the Indians as well as the 
leaves. Pliaius knew its vermifuge quality. All the 
sweet scented species are equally medical, vermifuge, 
f>ectoral5 diaphoretic arid demulcent. The Aspidiinn 
gives bv analysis, a peculiar fatty substance, Jhpidine^ 
which IS nauseous, heavier than water, has a bad taste, 
and forms soaps ; it contains also gallic and acetic acids. 
tannin, sugar, starch, gelatine, lignine, &c. The root 

B 2 

198 AZALEA. 

taste is bitterish, sweetish, subaatringent and mucilagi- 
nous. Used in England to flavor Ale. 

ASPLENIUM, L- Spleenfern. Many species. Equi- 
valent of c4. trichomanes and nS.rnta^ suca as A. eheneKm^ 
trichomanoides^ rkizophyllum^ &c. Mild astringent, pec- 
toral and corroborant, aperient and diuretic, useful fur 
obstructions, gravel, syphilis, to clean the kidneys, hy- 
pochondria. &c. in decoction. 

ASTER, L. StarivorL A fine prolific genus, v/e have 
nearly 100 species. Never before introduced ia Materia 
Medica. I am indebted to Dr. Lawrence, of New Le- 
banon, for the follov/ing indications. The -/?. novanglia 
is employed in decoction internally, with a strong de- 
coction externally, in many eruptive diseases of the skin: 
it removes also the poisonous state of the skin caused by 
Rhus or Shumac. The ^'^. cordifolius is an excellent 
aromatic nervine, in many cases preferable to Valerian. 
Many other species must be equally good, such as Jl. 

they ought to 
epsy, spasms, 

l.rsterics, &c. 
' ATRIPLEX, L. Orach. Several species. Ji. kidnla- 
la i.^ refrigerant, watery, edible, similar and equivalent 
to Purslain, .^. halamoides^ Raf- or Sea Orach, is simi- 
lar* also anodyne, useful in gout as a cataplasm, with 
sairch j the young shr>ots are eaten like Asparagus, *^. 
kortends or Garden Orach, eaten like Spinage, 

AVENA SATIVA, 1./ Common Oats. Seeds nutri- 
tive^ demulcent, refrigerantj equal to Barley in fevers 
i* a gruel. Oat cakes are eaten like Buckwheat cakes 
in Scotland. Oat meal is eaten in porridge like our 
r..u&h ? it cannot be made into bread for want of gluten. 
Purridge maybe applied to plilegmons to make them sup- 
surate. The thin gruel is useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, 
c.'Ugh- hoarseness, ulceration of the throat. Sowins is 
''X sour infusion of the husks,- boiled io a jelly, rather fit 
f«r pigs than men* Oats is tlie chief food of horses in 
N„i J— "n climates, but Barley is far better. 

-VZaLEA, L. E autiful ornamental genus of s!irubs. 
' /'^ l*'a&; splen '^i bSossomSj often called Sivamp 
Pintt. Ifl'J Honcf/'suclie.^ Sprin^bloom, Cutler says 

puniceits and those with a strong scent 3 
tried as equivalents of Valerian in epil 




that the blossoms are made into fragrant conserves in 
the North. 

AZEDARACA AMENA. Tt 1700. (Melia azedarac. 
L.) Bead tree^ Hoop tree, Pride tree. The old good 
name of Tournefort, Adanson, Jussien, &c. is much bet- 
ter than Melia of L. being part of Bromelia and Melian- 
thus. Native of Arkansas and Texas. Cultivated from 
Carolina to Louisiana, often called there Pride of China, 
Valuable, elegant and medical tree, growing any where 
from America to Japan, improving sandy soils, bearing 
transplantation and lopping at any age. Good coarse 
wood, fine fuel } cattle eat the leaves, hogs and birds 
the berries. Inner white bark of the roots excellent ver- 
mifuge, dose 20 grains in powder or a decoction ; but 
the outer bark is deleterious, purgative, narcotic, and 
must not be used : in Carolina, they boil the whole root 
and it thus becomes a violent remedy, causing vomiting 
and purging, stupor and spasms, like over doses of Spi- 
gelia, A cathartic is useful after it to carry oiF the 
worms. The berries are also vermifuge, children may 
be allowed to eat them : they contain a concrete oil, 
useful for burning, employed in Japan ; it is extracted 
by coction, candles may be made of it; useful ia tinea 
capitis, in the form of an ointment. The ample leaves 
are bitterish, nauseous, stomachic, discutient and emol- 
lient, used in the East and West Indies in decoction, 
for malignant fevers, and in cataplasms for bites of 
snakes. The blossom^ are fragrant and medical like 
the leaves. 

Pencil tree. Sea shoi-e, from Long Island to Florida. 
Ornamental when in seed. Peculiar seent like Conyza 
and Jacobea^ indicating medical properties. 


Florida, below lat. 28. Very useful for rods, props, light 
carpentry, vessels, and other domestic uses. The young 
shoots are edible, boiled or pickled. 

BATSCOIA, Mx. Puccoon^ Red paint, Alcanet. Se- 
veral species. One of them must be i\i€ Anchusa virgin 
niana of L. and Schoepf. Red root, used as a die and 
paint by the Indians, also as a vermifuge- Perhaps equi- 

200 BLITUM. 


valent of Anchusa and Rubia^ djeing deep orange rather 
than red. 

BERBERIS. Add, barberies are used in Egypt in the 
plague and violent fevers. 

BETA VULGARIS, L. Garden Beet. Root sweet, 
good food boiled, baked or pickled. Leaves diluent, 
refrigerant, useful in sore eyes, head ache, tooth ache, 
corj^a, &c. applied on the parts : the best dressing for 
inflammations, cutcers, suttons. As good as spinage 
for greens. Blossoms enhine. Beet sugar is made in 
France on a large scale, is nearly as good as cane sugar, 
but lighter : the mashed roots after the juice is pressed 
out, are excellent food for cattle- 

BETULA, L. Birch Tree. Valuable trees for the 
timber, sap and bark. The best is B. lenta ; many vul- 
gar names, Sweet Birch, Black B. Cherry B. Spice B. 
mountain Mahogany.' Wood much used by cabinet 
makers, takes a fine polish : bark with a sweet spicy 
smell and taste, like Gaidiera. alterative and antiscro- 
fulous, pectoral, diaphoretic and depurative. Nelashkih 
of the Osages, used for colds, coughs, and breast com- 
plaints, scrofula and sores. A tea of the bark or twigs 
commonly used by empirics for obstructions, complaints 
of the bowels; a syrup of birch bark and peach stones 
used as stomachic and restorative after dysentery. A 
beer is made with the decoction, also with tne sap, which 
is sweet like maple sap, and can become syrup and ho- 
ney by boiling. All the Birches give a similar sweet sap. 
The twigs, inner bark, leaves and buds have more or 
less the same smell and taste. The B. nibra or R^d 
Birch^ has a fine timber for cabinet makers. The In- 
dians use the light bark for canoes, B.papyracea (while 
or paper birch) chiefly, whose white smooth bark can be 
written upon. The Birch wood raakes fine hoops j the 
empyreumatic oil of the distilled wood, gives the peculiar 
amell to the Russia leather, no insects touch it, useful 
also to preserve furs. 

BIDENS, L. Spayiish Needles. Bad weeds in fields. 
Leaves small like carrot, they die wool of a fulvous co- 
lor. Equivalent of Daucus and Acmelicu 

BLITUM, L. Blite. Several species, taste and smell 
like Cedar or Juniper. Edible and diaphoretic. 

BROMELIA- , 201 

BOLETUS, L. Touchwood. , Fungi with pores be- 
neath 5 we have nearlj 200 species : those with cells 
beneath are mj G. PJiorima; Polyponts has a central 
stern, Dedalea a labyrinth beneath, Fistulina hollow 
tubes beneath. The true Boletus are sessile, equivalent 
to ^^garicits to make tinder and styptic lint- A ciyina- 
barinus dies red. jB. suberosies is made into corks in 
Sweden, -B. igniarius and B. foment arius chiefly used 
for spunk or tinder. B, 77iarginatus exudes an acid. B. 
odoratus and B. suaveolens smell like anniseed, their 
powder preserves clothes from insects, used in Europe 
with honey in phthisis. The B. laricis is tonic and 
used in fevers. Almost all the fleshy species of Poly- 
poms are edible, test same as for Amanita^ B. eduUs, B* 
juglandis, &c. are excellent 

BOTROPHIS- Add, used for rheumatic pains, dis- 
eases of languor and squirrous tumors, in tmcture or 
decoction, by the Cherokees and Southern tribes. 

BOTRYCHIUM, Mx. Eattlesnake Ferns. Several 
species, mild astringents, equivalent of Osmtmda. 

BRASSICA OLERACEAjL. Cabbage. Wellknmvn 
vegetable, healthy, antiscorbutic, pectoral when boiled- 
Raw in coldslaw, or pickled in sourcrout, almost indi- 
gestible. Cauliflowers still better than cabbage, the 
best taste like beef marrow. Cabbage is good food for 
cattle, but spoils the milk of cows. Eaten by^ horses, the 
leaves cure the salivation or slabber. It contains sulphur. 

BRASSICA RAP A, L. Turnips. Nutritive, diluent, 
flatulent, aphrodisiac, diuretic. Spontaneous with us. 
The Rutabaga is a variety much liked by cattle. Leaves 
good boiled for greens. The seeds produce much oil j 
tliis oil, as well as the decoction and soup of the roots, 
useful in gravel, cholic, asthma, aphtha, strangury, otal- 
o^Y, &c. The Br. napus {Kale or Cole) is a native of 
Arkansas, little known as yet with us : the leaves 
bleached like Cellery, are sweet and tender j the oil of 
Coleseed or Br. campestris, almost exclusively used in 
Holland. Belzic and Flanders, to cook and burn, 

BROMELIA ANANAS, L. P/«^ ^7^/>/e. Cultivated 
in Florida. Delicious fruit, diuretic, menagogue and 
aphrodisiac: an excellent wine like Malmsey made with 

202 CALTHA. 

Ambrosial smell 

1^ J the syrup and preserves exquisite. 
and flavor. 

BROMUS PURGANS, L. Broom Grass. Medical 
grass, sudorific, vermifuge, laxative, diuretic, menagogue, 
&c. Excellent for cattle, purges them, 

BUNIAS AMERICANA, Raf. Seacole, The B. ca- 


kil^ of Schoepf, B. maritima of others. On the se 
shores. Acrid, diuretic, antiscorbutic. Edible, makes 
a fine pickle for scurvj j root mixed with bread in Ca- 

in gardens for borders, grows very slow, a tree 8 feet 
high, must be 100 years old. Wood yellow, very hard, 
excellent for implements and wood cuts. Leaves and 
bark bitter, fetid, purgative, pellent, sudorific, alterative, 
antisyphilitic. Said to be equivalent of SlyUingia m 
syphilis; also used in epilepsy and hysterics, also for 

C AC ALIA, L. Caraway. Many species. All more 
or less emollient like Mallow, the C reniformis (called 
Wild Cabbage!) used like beet leaves. C. suaveolens 
equivalent of Sonchos. 

CACTUS, L. Nearly 20 species in the United States. 
See Opuntia for the Prickly Pears. Almost all have 
edible fruits, acid and grateful : those of C. bleo are 
like cherries : those of C,ferox are purple, size of an 

^Sg' Many are very troublesome weeds, with formida- 
ble thorns. 

CALLA PALUSTRIS, L. Swamprobin. Canada 
and New York* Roots acrid and caustic like Arura, 
yet by drying, grinding, macerating and boiling, a fine 
meal and bread is made in Sweden, very palatable* 

CALLICARPA AMEBIC AlSi A.l^: SoiverbusfuYk- 

jsiidL to Florida. Ornamental shrub, the purple berries 

die wool purple with alum ; they are edible, acid, sweet- 

isli and subastrin^ent. Leaves useful for dropsies in 

decoction, according to Dale, Miller, Schoepf, and 

CALTIIA, L. Marsh Marygold, RJeadoivboids, Cow- 
««p- Several species, all acrid when fresh, not eaten by 
^^^eep ; they kill the cattle bruising them, inflaming 
their stomach : yet Cutler says that they are a grood pot 
herb boded ^ see Bununcidus. The flower buds are 

. CAPSICUM, 203 

Similar to capers when pickled. The juice stains yellow. 
Said to be equivalent of Chelidonium. 

Jlllspice. Fine shrub, much esteemed for the blossoms, 
Smelling like Pine-apple. The bark is aromatic, similar 
to cinnamon, the seeds taste like Pimento : often used 
in the South for substitutes to spices j yet said to poi- 
son dogs and wolves. The root is a very strong emetic 

CANNABIS SATIVA, L. Common Hemp. Well 
known, often spontaneous. Leaves and seeds virose, 
narcotic, phantastic, anodyne, repellent. Leaves used 
as Tobacco in the East Indies, under the name of Bang, 
smoked and chewed, pernicious, they exhilirate at first, 
but soon affect the head like opium ^ the excessive use 
brings on stupidity, mania, and many diseases like to- 
bacco. Boiled in oil they form a good liniment for rheu- 
matism. Used before surgical operations to produce 
stupor. The emulsion of the seeds useful for gonorrhea, 
leucorrhea, jaundice and impotency. Hemp seed oil is 
bland and good for lamps. Hemp beer intoxicates. 

CAPRARIA BIFLORA, L. Cartb Tea. Florida 
and Louisiana. Used as tea in the West Indies, taste 
very different from tea. 

CAPSICUM, L. Cayenne Pepper. The C.baccatum 
wild in Florida. C. annnus cultivated every where. 
^xi of Haytians. Chile of Mexicans. Fruit a well known 
condiment, very strong stimulant, acrid and burning. 
Tlie abuse or even use of it, often produce fevers and 
inflammatory disorders, liver complaints, obstructions, 
bloody piles, sores, &c. Useful in food only for flatu- 
lence^ it is never of service to the healthy, but is medi- 
cal to the sick, stimulating the stomach, excitino- the 
lierves in lethargic and paralytic affections. Often used 
as a gargle in palsy of the tongue, putrid or ulcerated 
sore throat. Externallv ajirood stimulant and rubefacient 
in chronic rheumatism, palsy, gout, tooth ache, drop- 
sies, used in cataplasm or tincture rubbed on. Employed 
in the West Indies in the cachexy or morbid debility of 
negroes. A specific in the relaxed sore eyes, in a weak 
wash. The powder sprinkled on socks will cure the cold- 
ness of the feet. It has become a principal article in 
the practice of the empiric Thompson, to retain, as be 


says, the vital heat and cause a free perspiration : he 
boasts of havino; used it in all diseases, in doses of half 
to one teaspoon full, with good effect, to have cured 
agues, fevers, spotted fevers, &c. witli it, and to have 
always found it harmless. This must be false, it cannot 
be harmless in inflammatory disorders, nay, rather per- 
nicious- By Dr. Conwell's analysis, it contains a pecu- 
liar substance, Capsiciney azote, mucilage, nitrate of 
potash, a coloring matter, &c. 

CARDAMINE, L. Ladies^ Smock. Many species* 
Equivalent of Nasturtium^ but more diuretic, nervine 
and diaphoretic- Roots said to be purgative- Leaves 
edible. Flowers most efficient, usea in powder for epi- 
lepsy, hysterics, chorea and spasmodic asthma, united to 


CAREX, L. Sedge. A tribe of grasses rather than 

genus: nearly 150 species lately ascertained with us, 

by Schweinitz, Torrey, Dewey, and myself. Not much 

liked by cattle: the large kinds make a rough kind of 

hay ; those of salt marshes rather better owing to the 

salt taste ; useful to consolidate marshes and sands- 
Those with odorous roo|:s are medical, like C arenaria 
of Europe, edible, stomachic, diuretic, equivalent of sar- 
saparilla, gayac and Dactylon. 

CARICA PAPAYA, L. Papay. Wild in Florida, 
fine evergreen tropical tree : fruit like a pear, good to 
eat : milk of the unripe fruit a fine vermifuge, one dose 
is said to kill all worms, and e^ren the tapeworm, a dose 
of castor oil is taken next to expel them- 

CARLIN A ACAULIS, L. Ground Thistle. In Rhode 
Island and Virginia, according to Gronovius, Forster and 
Schoepf : oiuitted by all our late botanists, perhaps a 
Cnicus, Bitter, aromatic, acrid, graveolent, sudorific 
and stomachic, useful in hysterics and hypochondria- 

Cultivated, become spontaneous. Flowers and seeds 
nauseous, bitter and aromatic, laxative, diaphoretic and 
diuretic, useful in jaundice, cough, asthma, dropsy, mea- 
si€8, exanthema, &:c. in infusion. The seeds produce 
oil suitable for burning. Flowers chieflv used to die 
yellow and make the LadieaP rouge. (Jften imposed 


^pon as the true Saffron or Crocus^ which has other pro- 

CASSINE PERAGUA, L. Schoepf. Ilex vomitoria, 
Ait. This, by some, is said to be the true Cassine of the 
Florida tribes ; but C. amulosa, Raf- Ilex cassine and 
dahotij Fibtirmim cassinoidesy are all equally so named 
and used. _ The leaves are bitterish, sudorific and diure- 
tic, vomitive and purgative in strong decoctions, called 
black drink by the Indians. Said to be useful in gravel, 
nephitis, diabetes, fevers, and small pox. 
^ CASTANEA, Tt. J. {Fagus, L.) Chesnut. The a 
americana bears chesnuts one fourth the siz.e of European 
.chesnuts. Valuable tree for timber, posts, staves, hoops, 
&c. the bark tans and dies leather red, the Indians use 
it for deer skins. The sap of old trees is blackish, and 
can make ink. Chesnuts are flatulent eaten raw, better 
boiled or roasted : flour, cakes, bread and soap is made 
with them in Corsica, Italy, Switzerland, &c. The.CL 
pumila or Chincapin, has a ^ood fruit, tasting like fil- 
berts, and affording a good palatable oil: the w^ood is as 
durable as Red Cedar; the bark is astringent and tonic, 
used for agues in the South. 

CATALPIA CORD ATA, J. Ux.{BignoniacataIpa,) 
L. Catalpa or Cataba tree. Near streams. Beautiful 
tree, with a soft white wood like Poplar. Bark tonic and 
vermifuge ; wood emetic ; leaves emollient, anodyne^ 
useful in cataplasm in parturition and nervous pains. 
Blossoms smell like Martynia^ give a bad honey to bees. 
Pods useful for asthma in decoction; when yo^ng may be 
pickled - 

Jersey tea^ lied root. Small shrub, with a red root, im- 


Excellent anti- 


were used as a tea, similar to Bohea, in the war of the 
revolution. The roots die red, and make a red ointment 

with lard, very good 

Ihepowaer, imu^iuu aiiu unciure are usieu. ni»a spe 

cific m the hands of many empirics to cure the gonorrhea 

in three days, without bad consequences, by flie decoc- 

206 CKAMEROPS. |^ 

tion. It is even useful in inveterate syphilis and chronic 
tumors* Probably equivalent of StUingia, 

CKLASTKIIS SCANDENS, lu.Fevertidg, Staff vine j 
Bitttrsiveet^ Equivalent of Dulcamara and Mezereon, 
but weaker. Bark used, emetic, antisyphilitic, discutientj 

externally it expels indurated tumors, and the swelling 
of cow bags- 

CELTiS, L. Nettle tree, Hackherry in the West. 
Sugar-berry tree in the South, Several species, with 
yellow, purple and brown berries. Bark anodyne, cool- 
ing. Berries sw eet, subastringent, good to eat, useful for ^ 
the dysentery. 

CENTAUREA, L. Several species cultivated, some 
have become spontaneous- C. benedicta^ (Blessed or 
Lovely Thistle) a g'sod medical plant : leaves, flowers 
and seeds used, vei^bitter, somewhat nauseous, tonic 

and stomachic, sud(1™c and diuretic, purgative and. sub- 
emetic, repellent and antacid. Employed in decoction, 
infusion, extract, for agues, pleurisy, gout, cachexy, ano- 
rexia, vertigo, head ache, whooping cough, and even the 
pla<rue. It is also hepatic, and useful to correct the bile. 
2. C.cyantfSy called with us Bluebottles^ has long been 
deemed ophthalmic. S. C. cakitrapa or Knapweed. Root 
good for nephitis and gravel, in decoction, tlie analysis 
gives gum, resin, a green matter, fungine, silica, many 
salts. C.jacea^ C\ nigra^ C\ solslitialis also spontaneous 
and more or less equivalents, all called Knapweeds. 

CEPHALANTHUS. Add, inner bark agreeable bit- 
ter, much 'used for coughs, and in a wash Tor palsy in 
Carolina ; also diuretic, taken in pills for gravel- 

CERCIS CANADENSIS,!.. ^frd6wi/. Blossoms edi- 
ble, eaten by Indians, equal to Tropoleum in sallad, or 

Cultivated in Carolina, Florida and Bahama. Equiva- 
lent of Logwocd for dyeing and perhaps for medical use. 
The blossoms are menagoiue. 

CHAUEROPS, L. Falm trees. Several species, 
from Carolina to Texas. Afforded food, wine, sugar, 
triut^ cabbao:e, fans, darts, ropes and cloth to the Florida 
tribes. - .0 aSWd rpry good fruits, like plumbs, sweet 
or austere, others like dates. Bears fond of them. Now 


chiefly used to make hats, baskets, fans^nd mats, with 
the leaves. The Ch, palmetto or Royal Palmetto, the 
largest risirif; 80 feet, wood spongy, valuable because in- 
corruptible in water, and never eaten by worms, used 
for wharves and forts, resisting cannon balls. The cen- 

tral cabbage is deliciousj trees often wantonly destroyed 
for it- Sap now little used, although affording Palm 


CHaTIA, L. Water Feathers, Aquatic plants, with 
a fetid srnell, said to be antispasmodic and vermifuge. 
They contain a peculiar substance, Charine, similar to 
animal matter, a fetid green oil, arid many salts, chiefly 

carbonate of lime, produced by crustaceous Polyps co- 
vering the plants- 

CHEIRANTHUS, L. Wallflower. Several species 
cultivated, sweet scented nervine^ The Cluaaper, N. of 
the West, is called Bitter root by the Indians, intensely 
bitter, and used br them as ai:onic. 

CHELIDONIUM MAJUS, L. Celandine. Probably 
native. Whole plant used, the juice or sap rs a yellow 
milk, acrid and bitter, which extirpates warts, cures 
ringworms, and cleans old ulcers. Diuretic and diapho- 
retic, aperient and hepatic, stimulant and detergent* 
Beneficial in dropsy, cachexy, jaundice, oedema, tabes, 
&c. in decoction. A poultice boiled in milk has cured 
the herpes miliaris : a poultice of the roots mashed in 
vinegar, disperses scrofulous tumors of the nock : an 
ointment with lard cures the piles. Juice also ophthal- 
mic, useful for sore eyes and to take off films in the eyes. 
The CK glaiicium^ L. {Horn poppy^ Bruiseroot) found 
on the sea sliore of Virginia by Schuepf, has a similar 
yellow juice, more fetid, deleterious, narcotic, phantas- 
tic. Seldom used internally ; but very useful externally 
for wounds, contusions, gravelly pains, the ulcers of 
horses and cattle. In Portugal, leaves infused in wine 
taken for gravel in small doses. These plants are acrid 
narcotic, acting sometimes as drastic or diuretic. Their 
analysis gives a peculiar substance, Chelidine^ bitter, 
nauseous and yellow, citric acid, lime, potash, mucilage, 

albumen, silica, &c. 
CHENOPODIUM, L. Lamb's quarter, Pig weed, 

^QW bank. Several species, native or naturalized, eaten 




boiled as greens, such as Ch. albwn^ CL bonus, kc. 
cooling 5 viilnerarv externally, useful in gout, pleuritis, 
oedema,^ varix, fistula. Correct in the article of Ch. 
anthehninthicum^ two species equally medical are blend- 
ed under that name. The southern and western spe- 
cies, whi::h I now call Ch. rugosum^ Raf. is v/ell de- 
scribed by Elliot, it is really perennial, stem furrowed 
4 or 5 feet high, leaves rugose, glandular beneath, &c. 
The Ch. amhrosioides or Mexican tea, used in Europe 
for hemoptysis, and to help parturition. 

Cultivated condiment, stimulant, diuretic : root, leaves, 
seeds, oil and extract used. 

{Primus Carolin, L. ) fVinter Laurel^ Laurier Amande 
in Louisiana. Evergreen tree, blossoming in winter- 
Leaves give flavor of almonds to milk, creams, &c. Said 
to poison cattle. 

CHIOCOCCA RACEMOSA, L. Snoivherry, David 
root From Florida to Brazil. Root bitter, pungent, 
nauseous, diuretic and menagogue, alterative and stimu- 
lant- Used in decoction, tincture or powder for dropsy, 
amenorrhea, rheumatism, syphilis, spina ventosa, osteo- 
copia, &c. A powerful plant, acting without pains on 
the stomach, bladder, &c. Specific for dropsy and men- 
strual suppressions. 

CHIONANTHUS, L. Fringe tree. Two species. 
Bark of the root febrifuge in agues and chronic fevers, 
externally in cataplasms, it cures wounds without sup- 

CHROSPERMA, Raf. Redseed. United to Melan- 

thium and Helonias by authors. Equivalent of Malon^ 
a narcotic poison, the roots put in molasses destroy fties. 


White If eed^ Daisy ^ Goldens. Cooimon, leaves odorour. 
subacid, sometimes eaten in sallad, decoction pungent, 
diuretic; used for wounds, asthma, phthisis and tinea. 

CHRYSOSPLEMUM, L, Water Carpet. Succulent, 
acnd. substyptic, aperient, corroborant: used for coughs, 
asthma, and abdominal diseases. 

CICHORIUM INTYBUS,L, Succory. Naturalized. 
Aonic, apenent, diuretic, laxative, atteuuant accuprot 


CITRUS. 209 

tic, detergent and corroborant. Useful in obstructions, 
jaundice, cachexy, hectic fevers, hypochondria, agues 
and bilious fevers, hemorrhage, 2;out, cutaneous erup- 
tions, debility of the bowels, &c. The whole plant used, 
the juice, extract and syrup* The root roasted and 
ground makes a substitute for coffee in Europe, tasting 
bitterish and sweetish, A syrup of it with rhubarb, oats, 
Sac. used for all diseases of the liver, kidneys, skin and 
blood, fevers, cholics, &c. The C. endivia or Garden 
Endive, eaten as a sallad, has similar properticvS, much 
weaken The seeds w^ere cold seeds of the Galenic 
school. Succory is also tinctorial, and dies yellow. 

CICUTA. Add, the yellow juice of the root dies 


CIRCEA, L. Two species, their roots die yellow, 
leaves useful in decoction and cataplasm, for piles and 

lent of C, j9«re/rcE. vSchoepf, 

GISTUS CANADENSIS, L. Frostwort, Rock rose. 
Used by empirics for curing scrofula^ in decoction and 
cataulasms. Tiie roots throw off small white icicles. 

CITRUS AURANTIUM, L. Orange tree. Native 
of South Florida. Cultivated from Florida to Louisiana* 
Very useful tree. Wood similar to Box, but softer. 
Leaves bitter, anodyne, diaphoretic, stomachic, forming 
a fine medical tea in nervous diseases, debility, &:c. 
Flowers delightful fragrant j their essential oil called 
Xeroliiim^ contains a concrete oil, JVeroline ; analeptic, 
antispasmodic, fine condiment and perfume. *l'>uit de- 
licious, sweet and acid, many kinds, yellow or red, large 
or small, bitter, &:c. The young fruits called Arancini in 
Italy, from the size of a pea to'a walnut, make a fine 
bitter tincture, aromatic and stomachic, good preserves, 
&c. used also to keep cauteries open. Their bitter prin- 
ciple, called Hesperidine^ found also with an essential 
oil in the orange peel, much used in syrup and powder, 
&c. as a good tonic, corroborant, pellent and vermifuge^ 
nseful in convulsions, histerics, hypochondria^ jaundice, 
ischuria, hemorrhage of uterus alone or united to Nero- 
Hum. The Curasso liquor made with it. The unripe 
juice is acid, equal to lemons. Ripe juice sweet, healthr, 



cooling, useful against scurvy and in fevers : the Orange- 
ade made_ with it and sugar, also the Orange wine. 
Orange juice and sea salt is a popular purgative in Ja- 
maica. Seeds bitter, forming a bitter emulsion as good 
as the leaves or buds, and vermifuo-e. 

CITRUS MEDICA, L. Lemon tree. With the last 
and equivalent. Many varieties, Lhnes^ Citron, Bcrga- 
mot, &c. The oils of Lemon peel and Bergamot peel 
well known as perfumes. Thick rind of Citrons fine 
tonic preserve. Inner bark white, tonic. Leaves, blos- 

soms and seeds like those of Oranges. Juice verj acid, 
containing much citric acid and mucilage, fine condi- 
ment, lemonade grateful drink, very useful in all fevers, 
scurvy, gravel, &c. Antiseptic, refrigerant, diuretic 
and anti-emetic. Punch is a bad drink, it gives head 
ache and dyspepsia. "Wine punch is grateful and healthy. 
Citric acid is used in the arts. Oil of lemons to take off 
spots of grease. Lime juice purified of the mucilage, 
employed as mordaunt by the dyers. 

Ydlow Jlsh, Fustic tree^ Yellow Locust. From Ken- 
tucky to Alabama. Fine tree, wood yellow and soft, 
like Mulberry and Fustic, fine canoes made with it. 
The bark gives a bright yellow dye, it is laxative, and 
that of the roots purgative. Flowers fragrant, like Robi- 
nia. The turners use the wood, it is good for inlaying, 
it dyes pale yellow like Fustic. 

CLAVARIA, L. Coral or Cheb Mushrooms. AH the 
fleshy kinds edible, 

CLAYTONIA, L. Pigroot. Root tuberous, ediblcj 
dug by pigs. Antiscrofulous in cataplasms. 

CLEMATIS, L, Virgin bower. Almost all the spe- 
cies medical like Cl.JIammula, CI. vitalba, and CI. recta 
of Europe j the bark, leaves and blossoms acrid, raising 
blisters on the skin ; a corrosive poison internally, loses 
me virulence by coction and dessication. The extract 
used tor osteocopic pains, dose 1 or 2 grains ,• frictions 
«t an oily lintment cure the itch. Our CI. virginica and 
^ -> la also used as diuretic and sudorific, for chronic 
rne^raausm, palsy, and ulcers in minute doses. All 
ornamental vmes. The flowers hold a peculiar sub- 


COFFEA. £11 

stance, Clemaline^ similar to gluten. Bruised green 
leaves used by our empirics as escharotic for foul vene- 
real ulcers, and detergent of other sores. 

CLEOME EDULIS, Raf Fl. lud. Leaves eaten in 
gombos, smell like Assafoetida. CL pentaphylla also, 
it smells of garlic. 

CLINOPODIUM, L, JDogminL Equivalent of iV«- 
peta: much weaken 

CLINTONIA, Raf Five species. See Sigillaria. 
Blueberry^ Ciiscwn bv Algic tribes. Leaves used by 
theni as a plaster for bruises and old sores, applied wet 
or bruised. Berries sweetish, edible. 

CNICUS, J. Thistles. Bad weeds, the Canada this- 
tle or Cr.arrensis above all. Those with bitter roots 
tonic, used in poultices bv Cherokees, My Cn. ediilis of 
Oregon, has edible roots/ Leaves of many hepatic, cor- 
rect the bile in decoction or powder. 

CNIDIUM CANADENSE, S. T. (Sison do, L.) 
TVild Chervil Roots eaten like Chervil in Canada. 

COCCOLABA miFERA, L. Seaside Grape of Flo- 
rida, tropical plant, fruits too astringent to eat fresh. 

but make good pies, cause costiveness, good for diar- 
rhoea. The extract of the wood is a kind of kino. 

COCHLEARIA, L. Scurvy Grass. All the species 
antiscorbutic, Acrid, pungent, diuretic, stimulant, &c. 
Whole plants used fresh (losing activity by drying) in 
scurvy, cachexy, d^^opsy, hypochondria, pitui'tous asthma, 
scorbutic rheumatism, pleurisy, cholics, cramps, tooth 
ache, &c. in sallad, juice, conserve ^ they afford an acrid 
volatile oil : the fresh root purgative, has been used 
after poisoning by subiimaie : in poultice it blisters. 
C. officinalis chiefly used. The C. armoracia is the Horse 
Radish^ the root still more powerful, a hot stimulant, 
has equal properties, useful for condiment in dropsical 
and nhleeraatic comnlaiuts : srood external stimulant in 


blisters on the skin j the infusion is emetic : used in the 
above diseases, also hoarseness, agues, anorexia, &:c. 
COFFEA, L. The Coftee tree, cnltivated in Florida. 

Dr. Grindel has cured fevers by one scruple of raw cof- 

concrete oil. Terrified coftee in substance or usual de 


coction, promotes digestion, revives and keeps awaker^ 
teing antinarcotic and antidote of opium j useful in 
asthma, chronic catarrh, gout, head ache, diarrhea, fe- 
vers, menstrual suppressions, scrofula, &c. It is astrin- 
gent, antiseptic, stimulant at first, sedative afterward^s. 
The abuse produces tremors, nervous diseases and pal- 
sj! Baneful to nervous, hot, choleric and phthisical 

COLUTEA, L. Bladder Senna. Equivalent of Sen- 
na, leaves purgative, dose 1 to 3 ounces in decoction. 

COMANDRA, N. or Theslwnnmbellatum^ L. Toad 
Flax. Used for fevers by the Algic tribes. 

COMMELINA, L. Dayflowet. We have 10 species 
blended under C. virginica and C. communis^ forming 
even peculiar genera, Ananthopits^ Mlotria^ Nephrallusj 
Raf. All equivalent. Root antifebrile, leaves eaten by 
the Indians as greens, emollient, pectoral and anodyne. 
The blossoms afford a fine azure blue, bja peculiar pro- 
cess, called Hoosaki in Japan. 

COMPTONIA. Add, can make ink. Boiled in milk 
ood for all fluxes, tooth ache and sore mouth. 

CONVOLVULUS BATATAS. Sweet Potato. Culti- 
vated fr#m New Jersey to Louisiana. Healthy comes- 
tible, boiled, roasted, cakes, pies, bread : taste like 
chesnut. Containing vpater, starch, sugar, and ferment- 
C brasiliemh in Florida, leaves antifebrile- C. arvensis 
is slightly purgative, and dies yellow. C. sepium is pur- 

CONFERVA, L. Watermoss. Can make paper, used 
for cooling lozeno;es in China, mucilaginous. 

CONOCARPLfS ERECTA, L. Buftonbush. South 
Florida to Brazil j root antisyphilitic in decoction. 

CONVALLARIA MAJALIS, L. Lily of the Valley, 

Mountains Alleghany. Flowers very fragrant, sternu- 

CONYZA, L. Plowmamcort. Several species, with 
»trong balsamic smell, stimulant, antispasmodic, nervine. 

COPTIS. Add, is the Tissavoyanejaiine of the Ca- 
nadians, the roots and leaves die skins, wool and flax 
yellow K^ahn, 

CORALLINA. Plants, not animals. Equivalent of 
rucus and. Spongia. ^^irmifuge and absorbant. Many 


species ; the C. officinalis contains carbonate of lime and 
magnesia, gelatine, albumen, sea salt, &c. 

COREOPSIS, L. TickseecL The flowers of nearly ail 
the species afford a red dye to the Indians, similar to 
Carthamiis^ C. auriculaim used by the Cherokees, 

CORNUS- Add, bark of C. sericea^ smoked like to- 
bacco by the Western tribes : the black fruits of C. po- 
ly gama, Raf. Fi. lud. very good to eat, C7. paniculata 
has been substituted to C florida. 

CORYLUS AMERICANA, L. Hazelnut, Filberts. 
Good fruit, giving relief in nephritis : affords much oil 
of a bad smel!, anodyne, odontalgic. 

CRATEGUS, L. Hawthorn^ Thorn trees. Many spe- 
cies- Fruits of several edible, red or yellow, acid or 
sweetish, making fine stomachic preserves, useful for 
diarrhoea and antiemetic; such are Cr, coccinea^ Cr. to- 
mentosa, Cr. crusgalli. The leaves and flowers of this 
last, used as pectoraWin coughs and \vhooping cough, as 

a tea : the shrubjmakes fine hedges. 


CRINUM AMERICANUM, Lin. Louisiana Squill, 
Splendid plant, substituted to Squills like the Cr. lati- 
folium of East Indies, but weaker. 

CROTON, L. Several species produce the Cascarilla 
bark, Cr. eleutherea, Cr. cascarilla, Cr. odorifera and 
Ct. balsamifera ; the two first grow in Florida and Ba- 
hama. Bark aromatic, fragrant, smoke muskj, taste 
pungent, bitter. It contains resin, volatile oil, mucilage 
and a bitter principle. Tonic, carminative, stimulant, 
pectoral, eccoprotic, Sec- useful in dyspepsia, asthma, 
fevers^ measles, flatulent colic, diarrhea and dysenterj, 
the thrush of children, putrid and malignant agues, in- 
ternal hemorrhages. Dose 12 to 30 grains in powder ; 
tincture 20 to 60 drops, it loses the activity bj coction. 

CUCUBALUS BEHEN, L. Campion Pink, Sea Pink. 
Root anthelmintic, emetic in large doses. 

CUCUMIS, L. Several species cultivated, chiefly C. 
sativus or Cucumber, fruit watery, mucilaginous, un- 
healthy unripe, raw and pickled : healthy boiled, fried 
or stewed, sedative, laxative: externally raw, refrige- 
rant, emollient and cosmetic, useful m pnckly heat and 
ringworms. The C. melo or Muskmelon, delicious fruit, 
laxative, diminishes transpiration and excite diuresis. 

214 CYNARA. 

The seeds of both cooling in emulsions and used in stran- 
gury, gravel, fevers, &c. 

CUCURBITA, L. Many species, often spontaneous, 
cultivated by the Indian tribes even before Columbus I 
C citndus or Watermelon^ highly diuretic and refrige- 
rant, useful in fevers, gravel, &c. too much chills the 
stomach like Cucumbers. C. verrucosa and C- meloprpo 
are the Squashes, very healthy boiled. C. lagenaria^ 
{Gourd or Calabash) also, rind used for bottles* by the 
Indians. C. pepo or Pumpkin^ valuable j pulp sweet, 
healthy, cooked in many ways, excellent with vice {Fur- 
lata dish of Italy); the Indians bake a bread of it or 
rather cakes, heavy, but sweet, yet made in the West, 
or united to Maize. The seeds of all cooling and much 
used in fevers, gravel, strangury, cholics, &c. in emul- 
sions. Very oily, producing a fine sweet oil, pumpkin 
seeds might be saved for this purpose. Pumpkin pies 
are a peculiar delicate dish- IncJiians dry pumpkins in 
stripes for winter use. The C. aurantia (Orange vine 
or Squash) found native of Florida by Bartram, climbing 
on trees, now cultivated for beauty. 

CUNILA. Add, Indians use it for wounds, to expel 
a dead child ; it kills rattle snakes by holding it to the 
nose with a stick. 

CUPRESSUS THYOIDES, L. White Cedar. Fmits 
fragrant, the oil drives off insects and worms. Infusion 
of the wood stomachic. 

CURCUMA LONGA, L. Turmeric. Cultivated in 

Florida and Louisiana. Valuable yellow dye, principal 
ingredient of Curry powder. Weak aromatic smell and 
taste, slightly bitter. Gentle stimulant, diuretic, deob- 
ftruent and hepatic, useful in jaundice, diseases of the 
liver, gravel, cachexy, dropsy, ague??, obstructions, men- 
strual suppressions, &c. Externally, it resolves tumors. 
It dyes saliva and urine vellow. 

CUSCUTA AMERICANA, L. Dodder, DevWs gut. 
From Canada to Brazil : bitterish, subastringent, dyes 
^f a pale red, stomachic, febrifuge, antiscrofulous j use- 
ful in decoction for agues and scrofula. 

CYNARA, L. Articlwke. Cultivated. Very healthy 
vegetable when well cooked, supposed aphrodisiac, uu-^ 


healthj raw. The petioles very good bleached like 


CYNODON DACTYLON. Bog^s Grass, Bermuda 
Grass. Root sweet, mucilaginous, aperitive, refrigerant: 
contains sugar and vanilline. Much used in Europe in 
decoction, to cool and purify the system. Valuable hay. 

CYNOGLOSSUM, L^ Hound^s tongue. Root yu£ 
rarj, stjptic, used in wounds and fluxes. The leaves 
are narcotic, smoked like tobacco. The seeds are mu- 

CYPERUS, L. Bullrush. Many species, disliked by 
cattle, used for mats by the Indians. C. esculentus, or 
Ground Nuts. Roots edible, sudorific, diuretic, useful 
after fevers. Emulsions, mush, cakes, coffee and cho- 
colate made of them by different preparations, besides a 
hne golden sweet oil. C. hydra (Nut grass, or Horse 
grass of the South) is a bad weed, roots like horse hair, 
Avith round nuts equal to the last in part, it spoils fields, 
but consolidates sandy soils. The C. articuleUus of Flo- 
rida, {Adrue'm Jamaica) has roots stimulant, aromatic, 
equivalent to Aristolochia serpentaria. C. odoratus, C. 

compressus, and C. strigosus, equivalent of it, roots 

DAUCUS CAROTTA, L. Carrota. Wild and culti- 
vated. Roots good food, healthy when well boiled, indi- 
gest otherwise, deemed aphrodisiac in the East : con- 
laming much su;;ar and mucilage, also mannite. and the 
pretic acid, which makes a vegetable jelly. Sugar has 
been made from carrots, also vinegar by fermentation. 
Emollient and detergent applied to ulcers, in poultice 
boiled to a pulp, checking suppuration, fetid smell and 
callosity of bad ulcers. The wild roots have a stronger 
sraell and taste, very diuretic and useful in strangury 
arising from blisters. Carrot seeds are still more so ? 
they contain a peculiar oil, green, pungent, aromatic 
and bitter, also tannin : deemed stomachic, carminative, 
PienasooTie, useful in eravel. urinary and menstrual sun- 


Raf. 1817. (^Bydrophyllumy 

auct) Shawnee SallaiL Eaten as greens in the We^t^ m 

early sprinij. " 


DECODON VERTIClLLATUai, Gm, (Lythrum.'L.) 
Grasspoly. Baneful to farmers^ causing abortion in 
mares and cows browsing it in winter. Equivalent of 


DELPHIDIUM, Raf. {Delphinium, Jj. same as JDeU 
phinus I) Larkspur- Manj genera blended here, Sta- 
phisagria, Consolida, Ajaxia^ Pleclrornis^ Raf. A. sta- 
phisagria or Stavesacre in Virginia, Schoepf. Seeds bit- 
ter, nauseous and burning, o\ving to acrid oil and del- 
phine ; powerful drastic and hydragogue, dangerous, ex- 
cept in minute doses ; powders used cxternaliy for cuta- 
neous eruptions, itch, lice, tooth ache. I)." consoUda 
spontaneous in fields, milder equivalent, Fiow^ers bitter, 
ophthalmic, used for gravel and chronic sore eyes in rose 
water. ^ Seeds of D. exaltatum and D. eonsolida^ found 
useful in spasmodic asthma, the tincture is used by 
drops, and gradually increased. 

L-) Only 3 stamens, Elliott. Spanish Moss. From Ca- 
rolina to South America, on trees. Very useful winter 
food of cattle. When rotted in water, only a black 
elastic Ebre like horse hair remains, used to stuff' mat- 
tresses, saddles, chairs, to make ropes and cables. 
Pauska of the Western tribes- Also medical, best grow- 
ing on Liquidambar^ used in sudorific baths, the infu- 
sion is pectoral in catarrh^ asthma, &c. 

DIANTHUS, L. Clove Fink, Carnation. Fragrant 
flowers, cordial, sudorific, alexitere, used in pofions, 
conserves, and to give a pleasant flavor and color to me- 
dical syrups, vinegars, &c. 

DICLYTHRA, M. (Fumaria cucidlaria, L.) Colic 
weed, Dutchman breeches. Several species. Root tube- 
rose, used for tumours, when eaten gives the cholic, the 
decoction purifies the blood. Equivalent o{ Fmnaria. 

DIERVILLA CANADENSIS, Tt (Zonicera diervilla, 
L.) Nauseous, pellent, antisyphilitic ^ has been used 
for disury, gonorrhea and syphilis, but is not efficient 

DIGITARIA, Mx.(Crop grass. Crab grass.) Several 
species, D. sanguinaliSy D.villosa, D. JUiformis, D.di- 
vergtns^ valuable grasses in the South, best fodder for 
cattle from April to June. Mild equivaleirt of Cynodon 


EQmSETUM. 21; 

BIONfiA MUSGIPULA, L. form two species, D. 

torymbo&a and D. sessiliflora^ Raf. Wondertul plants,' 
irritable, equivalent of Drosera, 

DIOSCOREA, L* Ywn root. Many species produce 
^arns, D. saliva cultivated in Louisiana, healthy, but 
insipid roots, very nourishing. D. villosaov Wild Yam^ 
u&ed bj the Western tribes, roots and meal. Leaver 
also edible. 

DIOSPYROS. Add, Fiakmin or Oiigoust of Western 
tribes, a wine made by them. Seeds good for the gra- 
vel in infusion. 

DIPS AC CS, L. Teasel Now spontaneous, heads used 
by fullers, root tonic aperitive, water held by the leaves 

deemed cosinetic- 

DOLICHOS, L. Cowag€y Coivilch. JD.lacleus, RslI 
Fl.lud.has yellow edible seeds, depurative and ano- 
dyne. J), pruriens^ juice of the leaves diuretic, elec- 
tuary made with the pods excellent vermifuge, acting 

DROSERA, L. Sundew. Many species. All sub- 
acrid, acidulous, hurtful to sheep, corroding the skin ; 
juice used to destroy warts and corns, with milk for 
treckles and sunburns : it makes milk solid, but sour 
like bonyclabber, liked in Sweden. Deemed pectoral 
in South America, a sirup used for asthma- The dew- 
Uke drops of the leaves are acid and viscid, catching in- 
sects like Dionea. 

ECHIUM VULGARE, L. ^/a/e rMVf/e. Equivalent 
of Borrago^ pectoral, depurative, antiepileptic. Root 
gives Orcanet a red dye, soluble in alcohol and oils. A 
light charcoal made of it, useful to painters for sketches 
as it does not soil paper. 

ECLIPTA, L. Juice of the leaves of ^. erecta black 
and dyeing the hair. ^* ciUata, Raf FK lud. is poison- 
ous, smellino- like Cicttta, with a very acrid taste. 

ELEPHANTOPUS, L- One of the Indian tobaccoes. 

ELYMUS, L. Many species, consolidate sand like 
£. arenariusj Aruudo arenaria^ and Cyperus arenaria. 
The seeds have been used for bread. 

EQUISETUM, L. E. arvensemd others are astringent 
and diuretic, used in hematuria, gonorrhea, phthisis, &c. 
EMyemale and prealinm. polish wood, metals and utensils, 




good food for rattle in winter. All the rough species 
used to scour and clean. Used in Italy for a cattle diu- 

retic, given to oxen voidins; blood. The E. ttiberosunij 
Raf. of Oregon, roots foo<l of Indians. Some tall spe- 
cies called Nebiafahby the Missouri tribes, are used for 
brooms, mats, wick«, thatch. Their roots produce great 
thirst J they are powerful stimulant and diuretic, used 
in dropsiesii menstrual and syphilitic diseases. 

ERIGERON- Add, E. canadense is called Horse 
weed in Kentucky, and used for the strangury of horses. 
E. bellidifolium^^ czWed Rosebety and Roberfs plantain 

\n bitterish, pungent, used for hard tumors, and for the 
bite of snakes, in large decoction and cataplasm. 

ERIOPHORUM, L. Cotton grass. The woo! may be 

spun like ci>tton. 

ERYNGIUM, L. Button Snakeroot. Many species 

very active, diuretic and sudorific. E. aqnaiiaim^ E.fe- 
tidum and E, yucefofitnn^ mostly use'!, this last also 
called Co?m Snakeroot. said to be the best cure fjr rat- 
tle snake bites, chewed and laid on the wound. E./eti- 
ditm equal to it, to Valerian and Onntrayerva, antihisteric* 
The roots of all are pungent, bitter, aromatic, stimulant, 
corroborant and expectorant, deemed useful in debility, 
clironic diseases of the lungs and bladder. They pro- 
duce salivation, and sometimes emesis in strong; doses. 
The Indians value them much in fevers and dropsies- 
They unite E, yucffolium to Iris in dropsy. They are 
a very powerful sudorific, quite equal to Dor^tenia con- 
trayerva in fevers. Requirin;; investigation. The E. 

campestre of Euiope has a root edible, iliuretic and 

Astringent, diuretic, used for asthma, cough» ischuria. 
The syrup use<l by sinj^ers to clear their Toice. The E. 
alliaria is detersive, aperient, incisive and attenuaot. 
useis in <lyseiitery and hvsterics. 

ESiYTHRINA HKRBACEA, L. Coralbhom. Roots 
sudorific, fiowers pectoral. Verv ornamental. 

ERYTHRONIUM- Ad<K called Tarmia or Deer' $ 
toji^ie Vv th»^ Mis^^uri tribes, used externally hw them 
m a wash and pouitice for breast complaints. Internally 
diuretic vermifuge, uned aguinst the tenia in Asia. 


ESCULUS, L- Buckeye^ Horse chesnut. All our sp. 
belong ta the sub G- Pavia^ and are equivalent. Their 
roots are saponaceous and narcotic, used boiled instead 
of Si)ap for woollens : the Indians stupifj and catch fish 
with them. The wood is very wSoft and white, it cannot 
burn ; it is made in the west into small tougli and white 
chips for hats like Poplar in Europe : paper can be made 
with the shavings : Indians make b;)wls and spoons with 
it. Branches, leaves and nuts narcotic, with a nauseous 
smel! : cattle eating them are poisoned, the symptoms 
are a wry neck, fixed eyes, swelled body, constipation, 
palsy, convulsiims and death : the remeily is oil poured 
m the mouth and injected. Dr. Mac Dowell, of Dan- 
ville, has tried the powder of the rind and found 10 
grains in powder equal to 3 grains of opium. The pound- 
ed nuts used in poultices, the root in diarrhea by In- 
dians. Deserving investigation : possessing probably all 
the uses of the Asiatic horse chesnut, E. 7iipoca6tan€a^ 
which has an astringent tonic bark, containing JE^^a^/zne, 
equal to willow bark in agues before the fits, typhus, 
gangrene. The fruits give much starch, and may be 
eaten after being deprived of the bitter narcotic princi- 
ple : used also as sternutatory in ophthalmia and head 

ESOPON GLAUCUM, Raf. FL lud. Equivalent of 

EUDISTEMON, Raf. Pepper grass. The Cochlearja 
coTOnojnn of Schoepf, since united to man^irenera Bis- 
cutella, Lepidmm, Senebura. Coronopus. Different from 
all. Mild tonic, astringent,' diuretic, gives bad t^.te to 

milk of cows. 

EUP\TORIUM. Add, in small doses alterative, an- 
tiscorbiaic and pectoral. £. perpuretnn, anti^v jji.iiitic, 
Sciioepf. jE. cra^s'rfl ''un, Raf. Fl. lud. herben cJievreuU 
of Louisiana, used for wounds. E. pilosum. E. rotundi- 

foHum and E. scabridum, bitter, stomachic, tonic and 

febrifuge, used for snake*- bites and as equiv. of E. per- 

foliatiim. The Eupatorine, the active principle, \% an 

alkali, in white powder, S(dub!e in alcohol and ether, 

peculiar taste, it burns in fire, and irivc.. sufplmtes. 

EtrPHORBlA. Add. the F.. iuihpru^, Mole plant or 
i^purge Gapers. Milk drastic -Utliough the 



seeds are eaten like Capers with «s, it has lately been 
found in Europe that the ripe seeds contain 44 per cent, 
©fa purgative oil, similar to that of Croton tiglium^ but 
mild and not dvastic : dose from 3 to 8 drops. The E. 
helioscopia gives a similar oil. The pretty E. leucoloma, 
Raf. {marginata^ N^ not Kunth) of Arkansas is used by 
Indians as emetic and sudorific in fevers, bowel com- 
plaints. By handling it, some persons are poisoned as 
■with i?/iW5. or feel a kind of nervous cramp in the hand* 

ter, subastringent, ophthalmic, formerly used for many 

EVONYMUS, L, Spindhbmh, WaJioon, Leaves 
pectoraU Fruits emetic, decoction or powder equiv. of 
Sabadilla and Staphisagria^ for the Itch and destroying 

FAGUS, L. Beech trees. Leaves in decoction useful 
for burns, scalding and frost nipping. Bark also used 
with oil or butter. Nuts edible, much liked by hogs, 
contain much sweet oil, proper for all uses. Wood less 
valuable than chesnut. Shade baneful to grass, beech 
lands little fruitful. Ashes good for potash. Beech shav- 
give much pyrolignic acid. 

FEDLV RADLITA, Ms- {Valeriana, L.Sch.) Lamb 
Zettucej Corn SallacL Good sweet sallad, in winter 
and spring. Deemed diuretic and useful for hypochon- 

FICUS CARICA, L. /Y^/ree. Cult. Spontaneous 
in Florida. Milk of the tree caustic, takes off'spots from 
the skin, becomes a kind of gum elastic by drying. 
Wood soft, spongy. Leaves emollient. Fig's ciiitain 
much sugar and mucilage, very nourishing fresh and 
dried, laxative, pectoral, emollient, hepatic, herpetic, 
supurative, &c. Useful in cough, cholic, constipation; 
externally in poultice for buboes, phlegmons, anthrax, 
&c. to make tliem supurate. The skin of fresli tigs is 
acrid and must be peeled off. 

FILICES. Ferns. All the fragrrant kinds are oectoral, 

anthelmintic, often edible, used to make good beer. l>n- 
less collected in summer, they become nearlv inert. 
FILINGUIS, Raf. (Scofopendrmm officinale. Sm. 

same as Scoloprndra') HarC^ tangne. Astringent, oint* 

FUCUS. 231 

hient made with oil for burns ami piles ; in tea for dfar- 

I'hea and dysentery- 

FISTULINA HYPODRIS, Bull. {Boletus hepadcus, 
Dec.) Zwer Mushroom, Eatable when young, topical 
calmant in ^out* 

FLOERKEA5 W. Stveei Sallad. Edible, good and 
SM eet. 

FRAGARIA, Add, dried for use in Europe, used in 
coughs, phthisis, mania, melancholy and goat. Roots 
bitter astringent, contain tannin and gallic acid, the de- 
coction is red, and dies the alvine excretions, used in 

blenorrhaoy, diarrhea, hemorrlia*;e, and also as a diu- 

FRASERA. Add, used by empirics in cold infusion 
or oxymel for griping cholics, nausea and costiveness oi 

FRAXINUS, L. Msh trees. Many sp. Valuable wood, 
coujpact, elastic, used for implements, screws, wheels, 
&c. Bark bitter astringent, used for hemorrhages and 
agues. Leaves for bites of snakes in poultice. Seeds 

aromatic, dessicative, said to prevent obesity 1 Ashes 

FUCUS, L. TFraekj Seaiceeds. A family of marine 

plants, all. more or less equivalent. They contain gela- 
tine, tibrine, muriate and phosphate of soda, iodine, sul- 
phate and carbonate of lime, iron, manganese and silica. 
Some sp. have a sweet principle similar to Mannite and 
are edible, such are, F. edulis^ didds, saccarhbws^ es^ 
ctdentus^palmatus, belonging to the N- <i. Larmnarm^ 
and eatea in Greenland, Iceland, &c. Beinj; burnt, 
they furnish the kelp used for glass : iodine was first 
discovered in it, and they chiefly owe to it their medical 
properties, rendered bland by m"i\hire. Burnt in close 
vessels, they furnisli^the vegetable Ethiops, composed of 
carbune, carbonate of soda and iodine- 60 abundant on 
some shores as to afford much manure, cattle like to feed 
on them and it keep., uiem healthy. They are vermi- 
fuge, diuretic, deobstruent, resolvent, &c. useful iii 
gout,bronchocele. scrofulous hwelHngs, gmtres tumors, 
buboes, swelled testicles, cl . :)nic leuconliea, &c.and in 
all disorders where iodine avails. The F. heLJnlhocor^ 
Uu is much u^ed in France against worms, for chddreii 

r 2 


an ounce for 3 doses in powder with honey, or decoc- 
tion. We used instead the F. nutans^ (Sea Oak or Gulf- 
weed) Kalm says it was given in fevers and to women inr 
childbed: Josselyn in wine for gout. The esculent 
Swallow nests of India are made with the F. corncus. 
Vases as hard as leather made w^ith F* potatorum of 
Australia. The F. nutans is edible also, used for fevers 
and retention of urine in German^'. F^ serratas gives 
most iodine. The charcoal or ethiops of jP. veslculosus^ 
used for scrofula, contains facie acid, resin, a little 

iodine. F. gigaiUeiis of the ocean is a vegetable wonder, 
the stem being often three miles long! F tendo used for 
ropes in China, very tough, 

bitter, antiscorbutic, depurative : useful for exanthema, 
prurient itching, scurvy spots, scabs, w^eak stomach, in 
^y^up, extract or wine. 

FUNGI. Mushrooms. Extenvsive class of plants, of 
which a multitude found with us. Many are edible and 
yield sugar, 150 are eaten in Italy, nearly all found with 
us, belonging to the genera Amanita^ Bdetus^ Phallus^ 
Clavaria, Fhjdnxim, Tuber, Lycoperdon^ &c. Ilelvella 
amara and Boletus laricis are bitter, tonic aud febri- 
fuge. ^ Tiuder, corks, ink, &c, are made with several. 
Fungine is a peculiar substance found in them. Ail the 
tough, lactescent, deliquescent and fetid kinds are poi- 
sonous if eaten, being acrid, narcotic, causing inflamma- 
tion of the stomach and bowels, great thirst, orlpings, 
convulsions and death. The remedies are emedcs, pur- 
gative injections, antispasmodics, emollients, acidulous 
drinks, &c. 

GALARDIA AMARA, Raf. Fl.lud. fragrant, eq. of 
Aiithemis, gives intolerable bitter taste to milk of cows. 

GALAX ROTCNDIFOLIA, L. Carpenters' leaf. 
Vulnerary, used for all kinds of wounds, bruises and 


GAUTIERA. Add, Moschar of the Missouri tribes, 
indicates poor soil. Berries used in home beer in the 
North, gives it a fine flavor, they are good antiscorbutic, 
invigorate the stomach, Lc, 

GEASTRVM, Pers. Ground Sta- The LycG,.:rdon 
bovista of L. and Schoepf. Several sp. My G. Jlctigea 


has the peridium like a star instead of the volva. Dust 
inside styptic, absorbent, ophthalmic, gastritic, &c. Used 
in amputations, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, ulcers and in- 
tertrigo. Schoepf. 

L-) Jessamine, Woodbine. Root and flowers narcotic, 
tlieir effluvia may cause stupor, tincture of the root used 
for rheumatism in frictions. 

GENISTA TINCTORI A. Dijers' broom. Greenwood, 
Woodwaxen. Often spontaneous. Djes yellow like Re^ 
seda. Decoction diuretic, leaves and seeds mild purga- 
tive, the seeds sometimes emetic, us^d for hydrophobia 
in Russia. They contain a yellow ftit, a straw colored 
matter, osmazome, albumen, wax, mucilage, tannin, con- 
crete oil, &c. G. scoparia^ branches used for brooms, 
seeds also purgative- The bark of all the sp. give a kind 
of flax, G. juncea chiefly, 

GENTIANA. Add, G. ochrolenca and G. catesbei 

often called Shnpson root or Snake *root in the South, 
nauseous, used for bites of snakes, nervous fevers, pneu- 
monia, &c. 



Pockweed, musky smell, astringent and diuretic, gives 
relief in gravel and blenorrhagy, good cataplasm for ery- 
sipelas, gargarisni in sorethroat : used for the disease of 
cattle called bloody water. 


Specific of the Sioux for the bite of rattle snakes, used 
also for the tooth ache. 

GEUM. Add, the analysis of the root has given tan- 
nluj adraganthine, o:um, resin, peculiar oil heavier than 
water. The G. radiatiim^ Mx. is probably the G, odo- 
ratisshnum of Bartram's travels, or Spiceroot^ the roots 
taste like Cloves and Pimento, and maybe used like 

GILLENIA. Add, given to horses in Carolina to 

mend their appetite. Elliott. 

Iwof, Robinnmaivay. Bitterish, subacid, tonic and vul- 
nerary, pectoral and opthalmic. Used for coughs, ob- 
struction^, laxity and debility of viscera, to purify the 
blooiL cleaning ulcers in the lungs and kidneys ; also m 

224 GOODYERxi. 

jaundice and hypochondriac cholic, asthma, &c. Snuffed 
up the nose it has cured inveterate head aches. Used 
in tea, united to cherry bark ; for sore eyes united to 
Celandine. It makes ale antiscorbutic and tonic. Said 

to be baneful to horses- 

GLEDITSIA, L, Honey Locust. Useful tree, good 
wood, leaves and pods liked bj cattle and sheep, the 
pods have a sweet acid pulp, good to eat, good beer and 
methej^rm made -with it. The prickly kind used for 
hedges. Equivalent in America of the Ceratonia or Ca- 

rub tree of South Europe, 

GLYCIRHIZA, L, Liquorice. G. lepidota of Mis- 
souri has a bitter, nauseous root, yet eaten roasted by 
Indians, another sp. called Cahohamo by the Oregon 
tribes, is sweet and good, tasting like sweet potatoes. 

GKAPHALIUM, L. Cudtveecl The Gn. margari- 
tacenm also called Silver leaf^ None so pretty, is ano- 
dyne and pectoral, used in colds and coughs, pains in 
the breast, also mild astringent and vermifuge, used in 
dysentery and hemorrhage in powder or decoction- Ex- 
ternally used in tumors, contusions, sprains, in awash. 
Also in the diseases of sheep. One of the good substi- 
tutes for tobacco in smoking. Many other sp. of the 
genus are equivalent- The Qn. ptcmtagineum and dioi- 
cum^ belonging to S. G. Antennaria, have many names, 
White plmitain^ Poor robin or Battle snahe plantain^ 
Squirrel ear, Scinjachu of some Indians. Both pecto- 
ral, used in coughs, fevers, bruises, inflammations, debi- 
lity : also against the negro poison and rattle snake bites: 
Indians will for a trifle allow themselves to be bitten and 
cure themselves at once. 

GONOLOBUS HIHSUTUS, Ms. Negro vine. Root 
drastic, acting on the bowels like Colocynth. The juice 
serves to poison arrows in Guyana. Deserving examina- 
tion. Found in North and South America. 

Jlower. Root tuberose, fragrant, nervine. Equiv. of 


GOODYERA PUBESCENS, Br. Tmsaca reticulata, 
Raf. Satyrium and Neottia of others. Rattle snake leafy 
Networt^ Netleaf^ Scrofula tveed. Deemed by some em- 
pirics a specific for the scrofula, the fresh leaves are ap- 



piled bruised to the sores, renewed every 3 hours, and 
the warm infusion used as tea freelv, also to wash the 
sores. It IS employed by the Indians, and has efiected 
some cures. 

Beautiful tree, reaching 100 feet, wood coarse but beau-, 
tiful, cinnamon color, veined of white, yellow and brown, 
used for inlaying* &c. The inner bark dyes wool, cot- 
ton, linen and deer skins of a redish or sorrel color ; 
equal to oak for tannini;. Beautiful fragrant blossoms 
lasting nearly the whole year. Leaves in the fall be- 
come versicolor, yellow, red and brown. 
^ GOSSYPIUM, L. Cotton. Two sp. cult, from Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky to the Gulf of Mexico, C herbaceum 
and G. hirsutiimj are become a valuable staple of the 
Southern States, might be cult, as far N. as Lono- Isl- 

and- G. arboreum, G. indictwi^ G^religiosum^ &c- are 
cult, in the East and West Indies. The whole plant 
useful. Leaves emollient, eq. to Mallow. Seeds sweet 
ody, liked by cattle and poultry, emulsion useful for ne- 
phritis, giving much sweet oil available for many pur^ 
f)oses, similar to almond oil : we could make several mil- 
ions of gallons at 25 cents the gallon! Cotton w^ool is a 
peculiar chemical principle, Gossypine : medical use for 
ear ache and tooth ache, but makes bad lint for wounds, 
the fibres being with flat sharp edges and irritating. 
Used for making threads, cloth, quilts, wicks, fringes, 
muslins, paper, &c. 

GRATIOLA, L. Many sp, purgative like G- ojflci- 
nalis of Europe. Gr. aurea the nearest akin. Gr. vir- 
ginica or Water Jessamine, used as such, said to grow 
from Canada to Guyana, but snany sp. probably blended 

in that name. 

GUAYACUM OFFICINALE, h. Gnayac. Lignum- 
vit3e. In South Florida. Valuable tree, all the parts 
available. Wood verv hard, used for tools by turners 
like boxwood. An oil smelling like Vanilla is distilled 
from it. Flowers make a fine pectoral s\^rup similar to 
violets. Seeds purgative. The gum or Gtmyacine, is a 
peculiar bitter substance, difterent from 2;ums and re- 
sins, very activelv medical, the bark, wood, oil and ex* 
tract are much weaker. All aperient, stimulant, ster-r 


hutatory, depurative, alterative, repellent, &c. Very 
useful for gout, rheumatism, syphilis, diseases of the 
skin, tooth ache, ozena and scrofulous affections. The 

.A - h V m m J^ Y 

tincture, wine and powders are the most powerful pre- 

parations, in large doses it is purgative, it produces dia- 
phoresis when the body is kept warm and diuresis when 
kept cool. 

Mahogany, Nickar tree^ Bondne. From Ohio to Loui* 
siana. Fine wood, hard, often veined. Leaves purga- 
tive containing Cytisin€n a bitter nauseous principle- 
Seeds one of the best substitutes for Coftee, much used 
in the West. 

GYNEMA BALSAMICA, Raf. Fl. lud. Batime des 

Sativages of Louisiana. Strong aromatic sweet smell, a 
powerful stomachic and sudorific used like tea. 

HABENARIA, W.equiv. of Orchis. 

ducing an oil similar to that of Beech nuts and Filberts. 

HEDERA HELIX, L. Ivy. Cult. Wood very hard. 
Leaves bitterish, vulnerary, used for ulcers, issues, ra- 
chitis, ozena, epiphora, atrophy : macerated in vinegar, 
it cares the ulcers of the feet. Berries acid. Equiv. of 
Klder br^rries. 

HEDYCHLOE PUMILA, Raf {KiUingia do. L.) 
Sweet grass. Eaten bv sheep, produces the fine mut- 
ton of the west, also rich milk and butter of covvs. 

HELIANTHUS, L. Snnjlowen The seeds of //. 
giganteus and other sp. eaten by the Indian tribes all 
over N. America, put in the Sngamite or Maize soup of 
Canada ; parched, ground and baked into cakes by the 
Oregon tribes. Roots of //• strumosus eaten roasted, 
not so good as H. tuberosus ; this last oddly called Je- 
rusakm Artichoke by us, and cult. Roots very so^d, 
TOStmg: like Articlmke when cooked ; cattle fond of 

them ; they contain sugar ami the new substance Dah- 
line^ a beer is made with them, they grow in the worst 
soils- H. anmins or large Sunflower of Mexico, is com- 
mon in our gardens : leaves astringent, useful for diar- 

^ ^ ■ potash. Seeds much liked by 


serving attention on that score. 


HELICHROA, Raf. Several sp. called Eudheckia 
purpurea bj L. Red Sunflower. Root acrid and burning, 
used m syphilis by the Mandans j Schoepf says to cu?e 
the ulcers on the back of horses. 

HELICTERES, L. A sp. found in Florida and Ba- 
hama, the root bitterish, used for ulcers, exanthems and 

HELLEBORUS, L. Schoepf says H. fetidus (Bears- 
foot, Settisvvort) found in Virginia, and H. viridis Ca- 
nada and Pennsylv. Acrid, nauseous, purgative, eme- 
tic, vermifuge, used for lumbrics and worms of horses, 
to kdlhce, &c. they dye yellow. Equiv. of If. orient»1i» 
and niger, dangerous drastics and hydragogues, 
scribed m mania, coma, dropsy, psora, amenorrhea, 
they must be used with great caution. 

HELONIAS BULL ATA, L. Decoction of the peel- 
ed root used in N. Jersey for the belly ache, cholics, &c. 

HEMATOXYLON, L. Logwood. Florida and Ba- 
hama. Well known dye wood. Extract sweet and as- 
tringent, used in dysentery and obstinate diarrheas, re- 
laxed bowels, &c. ' 

. HEPATICA. Add, Decandole has made two pecu- 
liar species of our kinds, H. amerkana and H. acutilo- 
f^a: Eaton has adopted them. Their true names are 
Lwerleaf. Physicians disagree on the powers of these 
plants. Dr. TuUy considers them of little use. Dr. 
Mease informs me that the leaves alone are useful, the 
foots and flowers useless. Dr. Lawrence has seen some 
g nd effects from them. Considered as mild deobstruent 
and diuretic by others. They have failed to give even 
relief m many diseases of the lungs. A syrup made with 
them has been used with little effect. 



9 "-'* **^& 

thartic, antispasmodic, &c. u^^^-^d bv the Indians* 

HERACLEUM LANATUM, Mx. Cow parsnep, 
Masterwort. Root with a rank strong smelL pungent 
caustic tastp, it blisters the skin when fresh, dry it be- 
comes aromatic, diuretic, carminative, sial-^o^ue, ex- 
pectorant, laxative, nervine, &c. useful in cardialgy, 
''jspep^slu and epilepsv. Dr. Orne has cured some cft«^ 
^f epilepifj by using the pu!vcri/.ed root in doses of 2 or 



3 drachms for a long while, with a strong infusion of the 
leaves and tops at ni^ht. Requiring attention, as we 
have so few remedies ^r this cruel disease. Leaves used 
as maturative in cataplasms. Seeds incisive. Roots and 
leaves used by empirics for many other complaints, 
choHcs, flatulence, asthma, amenorrhea, disorders of the 
brain, agues, palsy, apoplexy, &c. in doses of one drachm. 
Probably equiv. of Angelica and Imperatoria. 

HIBISCUS, L. Water MaUow, SweatweecL Many 

sn. all furnish by maceration of the stems, tow, flax, 
cloth, silk, and paper: ought to be cultivated for , this.- 
Root of H. moBcheiitos par -oric. Our H. speciosus^ 
H. coccineiis and //. crocens, Raf. cult, for the splendid 
blossoms, H, abelmoschus cult, for the musky and eme- 
tic seeds. H. esculenliis or Okra, cult, for the pods, a 
fine mucilaginous vegetable when unripe, in soups, boiled 
or stewed, main ingredient of Gombos or Calalous, a 
famous dish, luscious and aphrodisiac. Seeds pectoral, 
make a good flour and a substitute for coffee. 

HICORYA, Raf. 1807. (Caryal^. i 81S, Jiiglans sp. 
L.) Hickory tree. Very useful. Good heavy wood, best 
for fuel. Leaves sweet scented, nervine. Vernal sap 
sw' -tish and acid, producing syrup, sugar and beer like 
Maples. Tendrils of the young roots edible, eaten by 
Indians wlien hungry. They made milk, oil and many 
dishes ». ith the nuts. A.> good as walnuts, sweeter^ 
some have hard shells, the best, H.oliva or Pecan, and 
H, sulcata or Shellbarh^ have soft shells. The Pignut 
hickories^ such as H. cimara^ ILporcina and H. nquatica 
have bitter nuts, their bark is stvptic. The inner bark 
of some sp, chiefly //. oblonga is cathartic- Equiv. of 
Jvzlftns cinerea. 

HlKRACirM VENOSUM, L. Hawkweed, Blood- 
wortj Snake plantaiftj &c. Antiseptic, vulnerary, as- 
tringent, sudorific, pectoral, &c. Active plant, root and 
'^avfs used, bitterish : long used bruised or chewed and 


Schoepf, lately confirmed bv T)r. Harlan, who made ex- 

perimetus on it. Used by empiri'-^ in tea or syrup for 
scrofiua, amenorrhea, hemorrhaire, hemoptysis, &.c. i ni- 
ted to Sangtdnaria in powder, for curiTigthc polypus of 
the no«**. Many other sp. may be equivalents : the //• 


gronovi only used, the roots said to cure toothache, and 

the fresh leaves to destroy warts. 

In Florida- Poisonous, the shade and effluvia dangerous, 
affecting chiefly children. Narcotic poison producing 
sleep, tremors, convulsions, &c. Milky juice acrid cor- 
rosive, a fdw drops kill worms, root also vermifuge, but 
a dangerous one. Gum similar and equal to Guayacine. 
The milk is burning, blistering, inflames and depilates 
the skin. 

, HOPEA TINCTORIA, L. Sweet leaf, Horse sugar. 

Delaware to Florida. Useful tree. Root stomachic, de- 

purative- Leaves sweet, eaten with avidity by horses 

and cattle, their decoction dyes wool and silk of a bright 

HORDEUM VULGARE, L. Barley. Cult. Seeds 
contain hordeine 55, starch 32, sweet gum 9, gluton 5, 
yellow resin 1. They produce 70 per cent- of flour, 
which contains starch 68, gum, sugar, gluten, &c. Very 
useful grain, it makes a coarse bread, but cleaned ancl 
pearl barley make excellent soups and dishes, en. ot 
Rice. Decoction cooling, demulcent, useful in inflam- 
mations. Malt is barley sprouted and dried, from which 
ales and beers are brewed : the decoction of malt is use- 
ful for scurvy and scrofula. Barley beer is healthy, but 
the reverse of wines, making the body and mind heavy 
and dull j disdained in wine countries and nicki»nmed 
horse piss. Barley best food for horses and mules, used 
Irom Spain to China instead of Oats. 

HURA CREPITANS, L. Sandbox tree. Florida. 
Singular fruit, opening with noise, used for haidia^ ^^ad. 
Seeds drastic and emetic like Crototi tigliurn. 

HYDRANGEA, L. Bissum. Several sp. Dr. Koft 


retic. Used in decoction otpowder, action mild, cq. to 
Arbutus in gravel, &c. Useful in dyspepsia. 

HYDROPIIYLLUM, L- Schoepf say* the //. sana^ 
dense is used n^ainst the bite of snakes ami the pois^uuou^ 

erysipelas produced by Rhus. 

HYPER[CUM PERFOR\TLM,L. St. Johm^^^^rt. 
Bad ^ *ed in fields. Vulnerary, pectoral, pellcnt, ner- 
vine, Sec. Blossoms chiefly used, although yellow th 




dye oils red, infused in sweet oil or bears grease, they 
make a fine red balsamic ointment for wounds, sores, 
sweljings, ulcers, tumors, rough skin, &c. .The tea of 
the leaves gives relief ^i diseases of the breast and lungs. 
Used for many otlter disorders by empirics, in diaiThea, 
menorhea, hysterics, hypochondria, mania and low spi- 
rits. A syrup made v^^ith sage, specific for croup, dose 
a tablespoon full for a 12 months child, half if 6 months 
old. Used with Iris and Sanguinaria for sore mouths 
and throat. An ointment of it with Bittersweet, Elder- 
bark and Datura^ said to bo a specific fo? hard breast 
and tumors. Other sp. are mostly equal. 

HYPOGON ANISATUM,Raf FK lud. Aniseroot. 
Tuteshehah of Missouri tribes. Root aromatic, smell be- 
tween Anise and Lemon, diuretic, carminative and feb- 
rifuge, much valued by the Indians, they also make a 
fine tea from the tops. Equiv. of CoUinsonia and still 
more active. 

HYPOPYTHIS. Birdsnest Eqmv. o( 3Ionotropa. 
aphrodisiac, used m Sweden for the coudi of cattle and 
sheep. ° 

HYPOXIS ERECTA, L. Slargrass. Root edible, 
vulnerary, febrifuge, used in chronic ulcers and agues. 

in>SOPUS OFFICINALIS, L. Hyssop. Cultiv. 
Leaves pungent aromatic, eq. of sage : used in coughs. 
asthma, and other diseases of the chest as expectorant. 
Gives essentia! oiL 

ICTODES FCETIDA, Big. 1818, or rather Spatkye^ 
majoefida^ Raf. isor. Wrongly united to Dracontmm, 
FothoH, Callii, .drum and Symplocos by L. and other 
authors I Vulgar names SkunkweeiU Skunk Cabbage j 
Collard, Itch weed, Stink Poke, Skoka of the Indians- 
Singular plant, blossoming in winter befoi^e foliation. 



bv any menstruum. The roots contain an acrid princi- 
ple smnlar to ^rum, dissipated by heat, also resin and 
TOucdage. They form a bundle of fleshy fibres and are 
the most active part. Powerful antispasmodic, expec- 

iciteive, vermifuge, menago 
powder, tincture, ^yrup. 

sudorific* &c. 
extract, &c. Used 

with success in spasiuodic asthmas and coughs, hysteric 



INULA. 25 1 

pertusis, epilepsy, dropsy, scurvy, clironic rheumatism, 
erratic and spasmodic pains, parturition, amenorliea, 
worms, &c. Doses in asthma 20 to 50 grains of the 
powder. All preparations with heat are less powerful. 
The syrup is a mild one, useful in senil catarrh. In de- 
licate stomachs, this plant produces nausea, emesis, 
headache, vertigo and dimness, even in small doses. 
The leaves are less powerful, but the seeds most active 
requiring smaller doses, being' pungent, containing albu- 
men and a fixed acrid oil* Leaves externally used for 
wounds and ulcers, herpes and cutaneous affections, 
bruised and applied : also used to dress blisters, pro- 
moting the discharge. It is said that bears are fond of 
this plant and feed on it. The lotion of the root cures 
the itch. 

IMPATIENS, L. Touchmenot, Jewel laeed^ Slippers^ 
Celandine^ Quickinihehand^ Weathercocks^ Two sp, /. 
fulva and pallida^ both in common use for jaundice and 
asthma, as a tea. In large doses emetic, eccoprotic and 
diuretic. Leaves used for piles and wash for wounds ; 
tliey dye wool satfron color and yellow 


iMPERATORIA, L. Imperial MasterworL Cult. 
Root bitter, acrid, aromatic : carminative, sudorific, 
menagogue, &c. Used for flatulence, cholics, hysterics, 
agues, palsy and even sterility, said to make women 

INDIGOFERA, L. Indigo plants. The L car oUtu ana 
wild, /. tinctoria and argentea cult. All producing in- 
digo, whose blue principle is now called f^fgine. Leaves 
hepatic and deobstruent, used in liver coiitpiaints, diar- 
rhea, lochial diseases, and to kill lice. 

INULA HELENIUM, L. Elecampane. Native. 
Root very active, bitterish, aromatic, stomachic, attenu- 
ant, stimulant, pectoral, vermifuge, diuretic, laxative, 
diaphoretic, &c. Useful in coughs, humid asthma, hy- 
^pochondria, cholic, tremors, viscid phlegm, it excites 
diuresis and diaphoresis, gently loosens the bowels, 
strengthen the stomach and the viscera. Taken in tea, 
electuary, srrup. United to Comfrer and Elm bark, it 
makes a good electuary for consumptive cough, whoop- 
ing cough. The extract is of little value. Leaves use- 
Ail in scabies. Root by no means weak as lately sup- 



— L 

poseil ; it contains several active substances, a peculiar 
concrete oil, similar to Camphor, a peculiar fecula, 
called Jntdine^ a crjstallizabte resin, acetic acid, albu- 
inen, &c. 

IPOMEA QUAMOCLIT, L. Cyprus vine, Red Jes- 
samine^ &c- From Florida to Mexico, beautiful vine. 
Root said to be purgative in the West Indies, juice ce- 
phalic and errhine in the East Indies. Ip. avictdarh, 
Raf. Fh lud, has edible seeds, eaten by the Indians, 
ducks fatten on it. /p. macrorhiza has a huge root, amy- 
laceous, edible, eaten bj negroes. 

IRIS, L. Flower de luce^ Flag lily. Many sp, useful 
and ornamental. Roots of all more or less medical. /. 
versicolor, or common blue Flag, chiefly used : roots 
sweetisfi mucilaginous, taste nauseous subacrid, it con- 
tains white resin and fecula. Cathartic, diuretic and 
astringent. Much esteemed by the Southern tribes, and 
kej>t in ponds for use, as a purgative j very active, a few 
grains of the fresh root operates on the bowels with much 
nausea, 60 drops of the juice are drastic, milder when 
dry. In large doses drastic and emetic ; formerly used 
in syphilis and hydrophobia. Useful in anasarca and 
hydrothorax, the decoction in sore mouth, ulcers and 
wounds in a wash. A decoction of | Iris and | Eryn- 
gium yucefoUum has cured the dropsy, without disturb- 
ing the bowels. The leaves used for many diseases of 
children, being niikler, purgative and vermifuge. The 
sweet blossoms still better, their syrup similar and equal 
to that of violets, pectoral, laxative, &c. The seeds may 
be used like <bffee, eq. of Okra seeds. All these proper- 
ties appear common to /. verna^ L vir ginica, L gracilis^ 
/. pseudacoruSy and perhaps to all our sp. The root of /. 
cristata are also cathartic, when fresh the taste is sweet 
at first, but next burning like Capsici(m,i\\Q leaves used 
to alleviate thirst, h florentina cult, produces the per* 
fumed Oris root. 

ISANTHUS, Mx. Equiv. of Teucrium. 

ISIP1IL\, Raf. 3 sp. L glabra, L tomentosa, L trip- 
teris^ united to Jlristolochia, are equivalents. The first 
or A. sipho^ Ms- {Pipe vine or Sasafaril) has the root 
very pungent and aromatic, eq. of Seneka root j the bark 





pentine smell, used as pellent and diuretic in decoction for 
-dropsj, cachexjjgout, &c. The seeds are bitterish and 

IVA FRUTESCENS, L- Bastard Jesuit bark. Sea 
shores, bark smelling like Elder flowers, tonic, eq. of 
Sambticus. Leaves fragrant, raaj be pickled. 

JACOBEA, Tt. All the radiated ^enecios of L. /. 
aurea, {JRagwort, Liferoot^ Anumguah of Indians) is an 
active plant, aromatic and pungent, roots and radical 
leaves chiefly used ; diurttic, deobstruent, vulnerary, 
repellent, pectoral, febrifuge and menagogue. Useful in 
gravel, sugilation, pains in the breast, chronic coughs, 
debility, amenorhea, &c. in tea or powders. The In- 
dians call it the .female flower, using the blossoms for 
menstrual suppressions attended with debility* Said to 
relieve melancholy and cause cheerfulness, to relieve 
epilepsy, cure the gravel, and to dissolve coagulated 
blood. It acts as a gentle but efficient stimulant. The 
activity resides in a grateful essential oil. J. obovata and 
J. baisamita are nearly equivalents : the first is the old 
Roberts root of Schoepf, it is an acrid bitterish tonic, 
said to kill sheep and horses, used for diseases of the 
skins, ulcers and the yaws, drank and the powder ap- 
plied. •/. lobnta or Butterweed is also active- 

JANIPHA, Kunth. Jatropha^ L. The J. stimulosa 
(my Bivonea^ 1814) Sandneitle. Sea shore, from Vir 
nia to Florida, burns the hands like nettles, juice milEy 
acrid* seeds purgative. J. manihot cult, in Louisiana, is 
the Maniho or Manica of S. America : roots poisonous, 
yet producing the edible flour called Cazabi or CassavCy 
made into cakes, bread, tapioca, gruef, &c. 

JUGLANS, L. We have 3 sp- !./• nigra. Black 
^Valnut 2. J, fraxinea^ Ash Walnut. 3. J, einerea^ 
Butternut or White Walnut. All valuable trees, pro- 
ducing fine timber, sugar, nuts, oil, medicines, &c. J. 
nigra has the finest wood, hard and brown, bark and 
rind of the nuts dye w^oof brown boiled alone, and black 
>vith vitriol. Leaves scented, said to shelter from the 

thunder. Vernal sap sweet, may give sugar. Young 
green nuts pickled in vinegar, styptic, unwholesome. 
The green rind rubbed on tetters and ringworms dispell 
them : their decoction vermifuge and sudorific, also an- 

V 3 


tisyphilitic. Nuts very oilv, flatulent ; the oil fit for 
painters and lamps, it is said to expel n^orms and even 
the tapeworms taken with sugar. J. fraxinea has a better 
nut, similar to the J. regia or European Walnut. 

The J. cinerea (fig. 32 of Bigelow) has the most sac- 
charine sap, equal to MapleSj a tree gives 4 to 5 gallons 
V. eekly when tapped, and eight gallons afford one pound 
of sugar. Fresh outer bark rubefacient and blistering, 
the lint of it used to dress the bites of snakes. Inner 
bark bitterish, styptic, purgatrve, that of the root strong- ^ 
er. The pills and extract in doses of 10 or 30 grains, 
one of the safest and mildest cathartic, equal to jalap, 
friendly to the bowels, almost a specific in dysentery ; 
much used in obstructions, jaundice, agues, worms> cos- 
tiveness, &c. Also in colds, coughs, hemorrhage in 

O*'"' * ^^xi.-" 

small pills. A cordial made with aromatics. Employed 
to cure the murrain of cattle and yellow water of horses- 
The extract ought to be made in the spring, and with 
care. The nuts are very oily, but pretty good when 
fresh : the rind and husks dye brown : often pickled 
when green. 

JU>iCUS, L* Bushes. Many sp. J. acutns and ej- 
fusus most common, used for ropes, brushes^ baskets, 
mats, caq^ets, &c. The seeds are cathartic, used for 
diarrhea and fluxes. 

KRAMERIA LANCEOLATA, Ty. Perhaps equiv. 
of the valuable Kr, triandra (or Eatayihla officinalis^ Raf.) 
of Peru, a yery valuable astringent tonic. 

KUHNIA, L. 3 sp. AVeak eq. o{ Enpatorhm. 

LACTUCA, L. Lettuce. Several sp. all equivalents. 
L, elongata most commonly used. L. gigantea, Raf- 10 
feet high. Bitter milk of all affords the Lactucarmn or 
Tridace^^ or lettuce opium. Useful and powerful ano- 
dyne, diaphoretic, laxative and diuretic. The extract 
very efficient in pills for the dropsy and ascites. The L. 
sattva or Garden Lettuce is milder. Eaten in sallad, 
boiled or cooked it acts as a good refrigerant, paregoric, 
diluent, sedative^ and anodyne : good topical ii^dative 
and a good diet in nmny diseases, hypochondria, saty- 
nusist i^yinphoniania, consumption, nervous complaints, 
Slc. producing a propensity to sleep, and allaying pain- 
The milk of it easily collected by incisions, cotton or a 


LAURUS. 235 

Sponge, is similar to opium when inspissated. The ex- 
tract of the whole plant, although less pure, is quite 
equivalent, 24lbs. of Lettuce give lib. of it. The tinc- 
ture is also equal to that of opium. A better equiv. in 
all cases for (^ium, although the doses must be double, 
because inducing sleep without delirium or irritation ; 
it holds no narcotine nor morphine, but some elastine, wa- 
ter, extractive and salts. Tne L. Jistnlosa^ Raf. FI. lud. 
is not bitter, properties between Lactuca and Chicorea. 

LAMIUM, L. Deadnetth, Henhit Two sp. wild. L. 
purpureiim and L. ampkxkaule^ said to be corroborant 
and cephalic, sudorific and laxative, used bj empirics 
for gout and rheumatism with XanihoxyJon^ and for a 
cephalic snuff with Asarum. 

L ANT AN A, L Sagetree^ Blueberry^ Cailkau in 
Louisiana. Two sp- L.ftoridana^ Raf. and L.imdidata^ 
Raf. mistaken for Z-. camara and L. annua by authors.' 
Leaves form a fine scented tea like Z. camara or Baha- 
ma tea, and X. pseiidothea or Brazil tea, said to be bet- 
ter than the Chinese. Diaphoretic, useful in fevers, but 
nauseous when very strong : the tea of the blossoms is 
still better. Twigs coagulating water like Sassafras. 

LARIX, Tt. J. Larch ^ Tamarack^ Hacmatack. We 
have two sp. Black Larch, L. pendula^ and Red Larch 
Z. microcarpa in the North. Equiv. o^ PinnSj producing 

I arenus^ 

a fine balsamic turpentine, good for wounds* 

LAURUS, L- Baytrees^ Laurels. Beautifu 
all the sp. valuable: Z. sassafras above all, found Irom 
Canada to Mexico and Brazil. Roots, bark, leaves, flow- 
ers fragrant and spicy. Flavor and smell peculiar, simi- 
lar to Fennel, sweetish subacrid, residing in a volatile 
oil heavier than a\ ater. The Sassafrine, a peculiar mr -^ 
cus unalterable by alcohol, found chiefly in the twig^ 
and pith, thickens water, very mild and lubricating, ve- 
ry useful in opthalmia, dysentery, gravel, catarrh, &c. 
Wood yellow, hard, durable, soon loses the smell, the 
roots chiefly exported for use as stimulant, antispasmo- 
dic, sudorific and depurative ; the oil now often substi- 
tuted ; both useful in rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, 
secondary syphilis, typhu« fevers, &c. Once used in 
dropsy. The Indians use a strivng decoction to purge 
and clean the body in the spring; we use instead tlie tea 

236 lEONURUS. 

of the blossoms for a vernal purification of the blood# 
The powder of the leaves used to make glutinous Gom- 
-bos. ^ Leaves and buds used to flavor some Beers and 
Spirits. Also deemed vulnerary and resolvent chewed 
and applied, or menagoue and corroborant for women in 
tea: useful in scurvy, cachexy, flatulence, &c. Bowls 
and cups made of the wood, when fresh it drives bugs 
and moths. The bark dyes wood of a fine orange color 
with urine, called Shikih by Missouri tribes, and smoked 
like tobacco. " . 

L. benzoin has many vulgar names, Spicewood^ All- 
9pic€, FeverbKsh^ &c- is etjuiv. to Sassafras, taste sind 
oil difterent, more spicy, all the parts used in tea or 
powder, chiefly as stimulant and depurative, also as to- 
nic and vermifuge. Good febrifuge m agues. Red ber- 
ries once used like Pimento, afford a fine stimulant oil. 
used for bruises, cholics, itch and rheumatism, leaves 
and berries for dysentery. All the other species more 
or less equivalents, L, carolinensis and L. catesbiana^ 
MX. (Z. indica and Borbonia, Sclioepf) called Redbay^ 
Redlmirel, Sweetbay, loluchhico of Indians, are fine 
Evergreens, wood like Mahogany, dyes beautiful black ; 
bark acrid aromatic, substituted to Cinnamon : leaves 
aromatic, bitter-sweet, twig^ and leaves give a sweet 
mucilage. />. ludoviciana.^ R^. Fl. lud, is used like Z. 
nobilis of Europe, wood dyeing yellow> leaves used in 
cookery. Z. per sea or Jlvogadopear^ ^vocat in Louisia- 
na, large good fruit like a pear, taste like Pistacia^ 
deemeti aphrodi&iac : buds and leaves stomachic, carmi- 
native, menagogue and resolutive, used forcholics, histe- 
rics, jaundice, dysentery, itch, &c. 
LEDUM, L. Marsh tea^ Labrador lea. Both Z. pa- 
^jjps/re and Z. lalifolium^ boreal plants, used as tea, con- 
tains 20 cheniica! substances, even wax and osmazome, 
y^rj near to Chinese tea, but stronger, owing to a fra- 
grant resin. Leaves bitterish nidorose, cephalic, pecto- 
ral, exanthemic, &c. Useful in coughs, exanthema, itch 



Said to be narcotic and phantastic bv Scboepf. 

~- -^sURUs CAUDLiCA, L. Lions taiLT/iroworL 

Spontaneous, stimulant and pectoral, used for cough* 

&ud CatarriiS. form^riv for mrdmlfl-v. 

LICHEN. 237 

LE P ARGY RE A, Raf. 1816. Silverbush, ffippophae 
canadensis, L. Sheperdia, N. Berries purgative. 
LEPIDIUM VIRGINICUM, L. Peppercress. From 

Canada to Guyana, probably many sp. blended, forming 

my G. Dikptium^ F 


and precox 2 sp» there ascertained, equiv. Eaten as 
cresses. All acrid, diureticj antiscorbutic, antiscrofu- 
lous : used in scurvy, dropsy, asthma, scrofula, hernia, 
gravel, &c-as a diet. 

banchedOyh. Epifagus! N. 1818. Cancer root^ Beech 
drops. Root and stem astringent, bitterish, nauseous, 
known to Schoepf as useful incancerg : base of Martin's 
powders (with white arsenic, sulphur and Mamintulus) 
a painful remedy for curing cancers by application, but 
hurtful in scrofula and scrofulous cancers, A sirup of 
it united to Iris^ Sanguinaria and Polygonum used by 
empirics for sore mouth, cancer in the mouth, dysentery, 
&G. Plant parasite on Beech roots. 

LESKEA. Several sp. subastringent Mosses. 

LIATRIS, Auct. Throatwortj Sawort^ Button Snake 
root. 25 sp. all medical eq. made 2 by L. Serratula 
spicata and scarfosaJ Many vulgar names, Backache 
root, DevUsbite, Rattlesnake master^ Blazing Star, Prai- 
rie Pincs^ Gayfeather, Rough root, &c. All have a tu- 
berous medical rout, acrid, bitterish, pungent, spicy, 
smellins: like turpentine or juniper, holding a peculiar 
balsamic resin, but no oil : properties partly soluble in a 
watery decoction, wholly in alcohol- Mi>st powerful diu- 
retir^, acting mildly, nmy be used ad libitum : 'd\bo di»- 
cutient, lonfr. diaphoretic and deobstruent. Veiy useful 
in dropsv, gonorrhea, ani^ina, croup and hives, sore- 
throat, >^crufula, giaveKpains in the brea^^t, after pains ot 
womon and bites of snakes, buth internaily and topjcall v. 
The X odorathmna or Vanilla lenf, used hke the Pa- 
^:icria trinervia or Trevel of Cuba, to perfume Havana 

T/U JIEN. L- Prolific tribe of ^.anf. now dm led m 

rnaiiv <r,.„era ; Treemoss, Rochno.., Livera _L /.iver- 
moss, Icdmid mass. Lungwort, Orchd, &c. Many u - 
fu! and luedicaU the Z. t$landic% pulmonarmi an^ 
CQCci^^rus chie&^ cd as tonic aiid pectoral, mucibj- 

238 LI XA III A. 

noud, bitterish, used in coughs neglected catarrhs, he- 
moptysis, jauudicct diabetes, cmariation, pituitous plithi- 
sis, scurvj, &c. ihej contain bitter extractive, gluten, 
lichenint^ a peculiar starch not glutinous, &c. edible 
after long boiling, one lb. swelU to 3lbs. : decoction to- 
nic, dyes brown. X, cocc//Vrt/.y chielly used for convul- 
sive coughs. Z. caninus or Dogmoss^ once used for hy- 
drophobia, base of Dr. Mead^s powders. L. plicatus and 
other sp. of G. Lhnea or Beardmoss^ are astringent, once 
used tor hemorrhage, hernia and epilepsy. All the 
Lichens can be used for dyeing, they afford a mult tude 
of shades of brown, fawn, rufous and yellow colors. The 
inost valuable are those growing on the rocky shores of 
tlie sea, and affording the Orchil, which dyes purple and 
red by maceration in urine : they are now called Rocella 
tinctoria, fucopsis^ Gyrophora pustulaia^ Lecanora pa^ 
rtlla and tartarea^ Sac. 

LIGUSTICUIVI, L. Lavage^ Smellage. L. scoticum 
IS native, eq. of the warm pungent Ombelliferous. 

LIGUSTRUM VULGARE, L. Privet, Frivy, Reim^ 
veide.^ Native N. Y. and Pennsvlv. Leaves and flow- 
ers bitterish, subastringent, detersive, vulnerarv, used 
for the diseases of the mouth and ears, ^^rethroa't, angi- 
na, scurvy in ^ar^arisms. Unripe berries dye silk and 
wool green with alum, give a green ink and fecula, make 
a green pigment with ceruse. When ripe a purple pig- 
ment can be prepared. 

IJLACA VULGARIS, Tt (%m^a, L.) Lilac: 

Uult. Wood by distillation nffords a fat oil smelling like 
Rosewood oil, the infusion is yellow balsamic. Tincture 
bitterish, affording by evaporation a resin similar to Dra- 
gonsblood. Extract uf green buds a pure bitter, used 
like Cinchona in Italy for fevers. 

LILIUM, L. Lily. Many sp. all eq. Roots edible 
roasted, poultices good maturative. A fragrant pectoral 
conserve made with the flowers of the white Lilr. 

LLMNETIS. Marshgrass. Give a strong rancid smell 
to the milk and butter of cows, even to the breath and 
meat of cattle ,- but affords a good hay for horses. 

LINARIA. Toadflax. Bad smell, bitterish, anodyne, 
pellent, diuretic, purgative, vermifuge, &c* Used far 


sore eyes, jaundice, dropsy, chiefly for piles in oint- 

LINNEUSIA BOREALIS, L. r«Jwi/?oicer, Ground 

vine. Bitterish subastringent, diuretic, eq. of JirbuluSy 
used also for rheumatism and disorders of the skin, 

kenah of the Missouri tribes, whole plant laxative, pec- 
toral and sudorific, used f{)r cough and asthma. Common 
Flax or Z. usltatissirnvm is become spontaneous, pro- 
ducing tow, flax and linen. Seeds niedicalj demulcent, 
pectoral, emollient, &c- Flaxseed tea used in coughs, 
hematuria, cliolic, gravel, hemoptyajs, gout, dysuria, &c. 
Flaxseed or I^inseed oil much used by painter^ being 

dessicative, said to expel the worms of children, given 
# mixt with sugar. 


White gum. Beautiful fragrant tea from N. Y, to Mexi- 
co. Much used by the Indians. Tnner bark in tea for 
nervous diseases, leaves for smoking ; buds sudorific and 
febrifuge, cure fevers in 2 or 3 davs. The ^um was the 
copal or intense of the Mexicans, a fragrant perfume ; 
used as a drawing plaster by the Cherokees, also for 
diarrhea, dysentery, itch, &c. Wood compact, tough, 
warps but takes fine pofish. The baisam made by coc* 

tioh of the branches similar to Storax, gray, aC4:id, fra- 
grant. Leaves smell delightful, cephalic and corrobo- 
rant, make a fragrant tobacco. 

Poplar. Two varieties. \, Alba acidilobaov White wood. 
2. Flava obtimloba or Veilow loood* Valuable, orna- 
mental and medical. Reaching 120 feet high and 30 
ronnd. Durable timber, heavy, hard and tough, but 
subject to warp, the yelluw kind softer and brittle. Espe- 
tofiga of the Osages, use bark of tf)e roots and green 
seeds as febrifuge and vennifuge for children. Found 
from Lake Champlain to Texas, in rich soils. Medical 
eq. of Magnolia^ less aromatic and more astringent. Bark 
must t>e collected in winter. Active tonic, antiseptic, 
stimulant and sudorific, deemed equal to Cinchona in 
the sauke doses for intermittent and low fevers, weak 
stomach, dyspepsia, hysteria, dysentery, chronic rheu- 
matism, gout, &c. Used in powders, infusion, tincture 


240 MALVA. 

and extract. Contains gum, resin, mucus, fecula^ mu- 
riatic acid, an oil, &c. A palliative in phthisis. Some- 
times used in cholera infantum and worms, also in the 
botts of horses. Often united to Comics, Qutrcus and 
Prinos, Inner bark of the root most powerful : a fine 
cordial made with it Leaves used by Cherokees in 
poultice for sores and headache, ointment for inflamma- 
tions and mortifications : make the milk of cows bitter. 
Extract of pm)t equal to Gentian. Remedy for syphilitic 
ulcers of the nose. S^.dii laxative. 

LITHOSPERMUM, L. GromwelL 8 sp. Equiv, of 

LOI4IUM, L. Darnel, Seeds narcotic, pernicious 
when mixt with wheat, make the bread bad, unhealthy. 

LONICERA, L. Honeysuckle. All sp. leaves and 
flowers bitterish, mucilaginous, astringent, detersive, 
&c. A sirup used for sorethroat, irritation of the lungs. 

LUDWIGIA, L. Several sp. subastringent. 

LUPINUS PERENNIS, Linn. Lvpin, Fingerleaf. 
Grows in poorest sandy soil and improves it, liked by 
horses and sheep. Seeds bitter and flatulent, edible by 
lixivation like /. sativus of Europe, flour resolutive. 

LYCOPERDON, L. Pw^iaZ/s. Edible when young. 

LYCOPODIUM, L. Ground pine. Hog bed. Many 
sp. Z. c/araft/mand selago chiefly used. Diuretic, me- 
nagogue, drastic, nervine, attenuant, aperient and cor- 
roborant. Used in dropsy, gout, scurvy, diarrhea, sup- 
pressions. Externally for ulcers of infants, serpigo, tinea, 
fdica, &c. They kill lice and insects, dye various co- 
ots^ mend bad wmes, inflammable, pollen, much used ia 

Fellow balm. Subastringent, stonmchic, expectorant, 
used in tea for colds, coughs, agues, to mend the appe- 
tite. &c. 

LYTHRUM SALIC ARIA, L. WiUowort, Loose- 
strife. Subastringent, mucilaginous. Decoction very 
useful in diarrhea and dysentery after a purgative. 

MALVA, L. Mallow. All the sp. eq. muciladnous, 
insioid* emollient, laxative, edible. Ingredient ofGoni- 
b^ 3, and the Dolma of Greeks, with Seolymus^ Kumef 
and oil. Very useful in gonorrhea, strangury, &c. topi- 

MAYZEA. 241 

cally in inflammations, much used in fomentations, cata- 
plasms and clysters : also in dysentery, acrid humors. 
Flowers and seeds pectoral in coughs, soreness of the 

throat and Inngs. 

MARANTA, L. Arroiv root.. Two sp. from East 
Indies, j\L amndinacea and 3f- indica^ now cult, from 
Carolina to BraziL Root yielding a large (luantity of 
peculiar fecula, forming a jellj in liot water. One acre 
yields HOOlbs. of this fecula* Excellent demulcent and 
analeptic equal to Salep, good diet for invalids and con- 
valescents, also for acrid secretions, hectic fever, dis- 
eases of the kidneys and bladder, bowel complaints, de- 
bility, &c. Used against poisons in West Indies, si^^i 
prepared widi milk and sugar. The Malabar Arrow 


.1 in herpetic dis- 
Ilorehound. Rank 

root is made with Curcuma angustif( 



smell and bitter taste. Mild aperient, deobstruent, me- 
nagogue, vermifiise. Sec. much used in humoral asthma, 
dysmenorrhea, hysteria, obstructions, jaundice, cachexy, 
coughs, dropsy, "&c. It removes tiie salivation of mer- 
cury 1 In large doses laxative. Base of the Negro Cesar 
remedy against rattle snakes united to Gnaphalium. The 
sirup, candy, tea with honev. often employed. 

the Mississippi. Fruits make good pickles when young. 

MATRICARIA, L. Feather/en. Cult. Eq. of ^n- 

themis. Aperient, menagogiie, vermifuge. 

MAYZEA CEREALIS, Tt. Raf. {Zea Mityz, L.) 
Maize, Indian Corn. Valuable cereal plant, cult, m 
Asia 2500 years ago! in Tartary in 1240, see Marco 
Polo! in Java and Africa before Columbus ! In America 
from Canada to Peru. Producing from 50 to 100 bushels 
per acre. Several var. with round or flat seeds, white* 
vellow o*r colored, a peculiar sp. in Sr>uth America, M 
vestila, Raf. with a valve to each seed. See my me 
moir on Maize. A Mexican var. gigantca is 20 feet 
high. The stems produce sirup and sagar like canes, 
but much less, very good fodder. Leaves and husks 
used for mattresses.' Very good thatch. Green com de- 

242 MENTHA. 

licate f(»od, but lieavj and breeding worms in children. 
A black acid oil is distilled by descension from the cobs 
in Kentucky, used to cure ringworms- The meal eaten 
in cakes, bread, puddings, mush, this last deemed useful 
in Italy as a diet in atrophy, dysentery, phthisis, &c. It 
contains 77 of fccula, besides albumen, gum, sugar, wa- 
ter, iron, many salts, and 3 per cent, of Zeine^ peculiar 
substance, between gluten and resin, similar to yellow 
wax, elastic, not combustible. 

MEDEOLA VIRGINICA, T.inn. Cucmnher root. 
Wrongly called Gyromia by N. since M, asparagoides 
was long ago made a N. G- Root succulent, eaten by the 
Indians like Cucumbers, good taste, when much is eaten 
acts as diuretic and hydragogue, but not emetic as sup- 
posed by Schoepf. 

used by Cherokees ns a poison for crows, and a sure but 
violent remedy for the itch. 

MELILOTUS, Tt. MeUlol Clover. Two sp. with 
yellow and white blossoms, both native, sweet scented 
leaves, make fine hay, giving rich milk, butter and 
cheese. The flowers and leaves pectoral, emollient, re- 
solvent, lubricant, used for disury, leucorrhea, coughs^ 
&:c, also topically. 

MELISS\, L. Balm, 3 sp. spontaneous and equiv^ 
M. officinalis^ M* nepela and M. sylvatica^ Raf. Plea- 
sant smell, make fragrant tea. Stimulant, antispasmo- 
dic, stomachic, expectorant, menagogue, pellent, resol- 
vent. Useful in obstructions, suppressions, headache, 
piles, pleurisy, asthma, hysteria, inflammatory fevers, 
&c. Eq. of itfon^^rrfa. 

MELOTHRIA NIGRA, Raf. A. N. 1820. Very dif- 
ferent from M. pendula of West Indies. Blackberry 
vine, Charopesha and Shagahmga of Missouri tribes. 
Root very bitter, vermifuge. Berries black and small^ 
while M, pendttla lias them as large as nutmegs, pickled 

unripe, and eaten ripe in West Indies. 

Pis^worty Yellow Sarsaparillcu Root bitter, tonic, mu- 
cilaginous, ustd for the strangury of horses. 

Mentha, L. Mint. Several sp. native and cult, all 
eq. the if. /jzpcri/a strongest. Fragrant, pungent, stimu- 

MORUS. 243 

lant, carminative, stomachic, resolvent, pellent, anti- 
emetic. Much used in sauces, conserves, paste, candy, 
distilled water and oil. The oil contains camphor and 
all the properties, dose a few drops. Useful to allaj 
spasmodic affections of the stomach and bowels, obviate 
nausea, check emesis, expel il tulence, prevent cramps 
in the stomach, also in cholics, hysteria, whooping cough, 

&c. Used by drunkards to flavor and modify their drams 
or slins:^, 

MIEGIA MACROSPERMA, Pers, Cane. Several 
var. from 6 inches to 15 feet high. Kentucky to Texas. 
Seeds like oats, larger, give good Hour, produced only 
once in 3 or 4 years. Fine angling rods, walking canes, 
weavino- looms. Winter food of cattle, much destroyed 
by them. The Natchez made bread and mats with it. 

MIMOSA, L. or Acacia, W. Several sp. 3L ehurnea 
first plant growing on the sea sand of Florida- M, far- 
nesiana from Florida to Mexico, Popniac, Goldbriar^ 
flowers fragrant but strong, used in perfumery, give 
head ache to nervous persons : seeds give a fetid breath. 
The beautiful JSL jtiHbrisin naturalized as far north as 


MIRABILIS, L. False Jalap, Four o^cloch, 3 sp. 
Cult. Root uncertain cathartic, 2 drachms often produce 
only one stool, used in bowel complaints. One lb. yields 
one ounce of resin. 

MITCHELLA REPENS,L. Partridge berry. Mild 

diuretic, tea used in New England to care dropsy and 
out. Red berries mild astringent, a popular remedy for 
iarrhea in the North, and for disury m Caroli 
plant^ JVestroot, Fdroot. Ophthalmic and nervine. Us^d 
by Indians and herbalists, juice mixt with water deemed 
specific lotion for sore eyes. Dried root in powder used 
in epilepsy and convulsions of children, dose a teaspoon 
full, often united to Valerian ; cures also inveterate oph- 

MORUS RUBRA, L. Bed Mulberry. Fruits refri- 
gerant and corroborant, useful in sorethroat, angina, pu- 


trid fevers ; sirup chiefly used. Bark said to expel the 
tenia, the Indian tribes make mats, ropes, baskets with 
it (paper can be made also) and a kind of flax with the 

244 MYRICA. 

young shoots, used for their twisted cloth- All the sp. 

are eq. IVuits containinjj: tartaric acid, wliite Mulberries 

sweeter. Leaves of alt can feed the silk worm like M. 

alba^ our native kinds give stronger silk. The white 

Mulberry was found by Soto in 1540, by Laudoniere in 

1567, and by Joutel in 1685, from Florida to Texas, it 

is not the M. alba, but my M. tomentom, Raf. Fl. lud. 

The Black Mulberry of Louisiana and Texas is my 3L 

MU^A, L. Banana, Plantam tree. Native of Florida 

below lat. 28. Several sp. cult, in all tropical climates. 
The most valuable of all trees, Eacli tree produces 100 
lbs. of delicious food, one acre holds 1600 trees, and 
gives l60,000ibs. of food, while wheat only 1200lbs. per 
acre, and potatoes 4000lbs, Fruits excellent, edible in 
many ways. Young shoots edible boiled. Stems give 
bread and wine from pulp and juice, when old aftbrd 
ropes, thread and tinder, leaves a thatch, &c. 

MYRICA, L. Sweet gale^ Bayberry^ PFaxberry^lf^aX' 
myrtle. All the sp. equiv. Valuable evergreen shrubs. 
Leaves fragrant, balsamic, containing like the bark tan- 
nin, resm, gallic acid and mucilage ,• they are emetic, 
pectoral, astringent, nervine, subnarcotic, cephalic, ver- 
mifuge, menagogue, stomachic, &c. Useful in uterine 
hemorrhage, hysterical complaints, palsies, cholics and 
scrofula in powders, decoction and tea. The tea of -31". 
g-afe milder, formerly drank in Europe as tea, and leaves 
put in soups, used in Russia for gout, fevers, itch and 
insects. The bark chewed is a good sialagogue, made 
into snuft' it is a powerful errhine : taste acrid, stimu- 
lant, in large doses of a drachm it produces a burning 
sensation and vomiting, sometimes diuresis. Bark of the 
root used for the tooth ache. The inner bark pounded 
soft dispels scrofuions swellings and sores, a strong lea 
of the leaves being drank also. A tincture of the berries 
with Heracleum is used for violent flatulent cholics and 
cramps. The buds d^^e yellow. The berries are covei^ed 
with a peculiar wax, easily extracted by boiling, cooling 
and purifying, they give 32 per cent- of wax, fragrant, 
greenish and brittle, used for beautiful fragrant cand!es, 
soap, blacking balls, plasters. It contains cerine, itf^/- 
ricine insuiuble in alcohol^ and a peculiar oil. It is ac- 


tivelj medical, astriuffent, vulnerary, anodyne, subnar- 
cotic. Dr. Fahnestock announced in 1822, that it is a 
specific for typhoid dysentery : this valuable property 
has been confirmed, I have verified it on myself in diar- 
rhea, others in cholera morbus : it was known in Ken- 
tucky before 1822. It is used in powder, pills or lozenges, 
made with sugar and mucilage. 

MYRTUS COMMUNIS, L. Comrnon myrtle. Cult, 
fragrant, leaves astringent, corroboraiit, dye purple : 
two var. with black or yellow berries, austere, sweetish, 
eaten in Greece and Sicily, useful for diarrhea, a sirup 
made with them. 

NEGUNDIUM FRAXINEA, Raf. Eq. of.4c^r. 

NEPETA CA TARIA, L. Catmint, Catnip. Bit- 
terish, hircose smell, liked by cats. Resolvent, pellent, 
cephalic, menagogue, carminative, vermifuge, antispas- 
modic. Useful for hysterics, some fevers, a specific in 

NERIUM OLEANDER, L. Rose Laurel. Cultiv. 
Poisonous for men and cattle : milky juice caustic, 
takes off spots in the eyes. Leaves acrid errhine^ use- 
ful for itch, ringworms and rheumatism, either boiled, 
in powder, or infused in oil. 

Baham vine. Probably Momordka do, L. but a difterent 
enus, nay, our sp. somewhat different from the tropical 
ind called Cerasee in Jamaica. Found from Florida io 
Texas. Cult, in gardens for use. Root useful in jaun- 
dice, liver complaints, mesentery, powder emetic, equiv. 
of Bryonia, leaves also emetic in decoction. Pu!p of 
the fruit vulnerary, r^d oil made by infusion like Hype- 
ricum, much use'd and excellent for wounds, bruises, 
cuts, chinks, burns, pite^, &c. 

NICOTIaNA, L. Tobacco. Well known, many sp. 
cult, in Asia lonn; before Gdumbus! The very best and 
wildest is the N. paniculafa or Tobacco of Persia Syria, 
Pei-u, Varinas and Cuba. N.fruticom is cuit. in China.iV. 
rvstica or green Tobacco, cult, in Mexico and Africa* 
^. quadrioutvis by the Mandans, &c. iV. tabacum the 
most common in America, and the strongest or worst 
Cokiha was the ancient name of it in Hayti, and 71?- 
bacco^ the name of the tube, pipe or segar used to smoke 

X 2 


246 :nicotiana. 


it, whence the name, see my memoirs on Maize and To- 
bacco. All equiv. Nauseous narcotics, poisonous Aveeds, 
disgusting taste and smell ; first used by the priests of 
Indian nations to intoxicate and appear inspired, adopt- 
ed by the idle savages and the vicious civilized men as a 
stimuiant narcotic^to tickle the throat and nose. Its 
baneful effects are well known, but disregarded by the 
vicious and selfish because used to it. A poison at first, 
many always loath it. Chewing is the very worst mode 
for health, smoking the most offensive, unless we use 
miid kinds or mix it with sw^eet herbs as the Asiatic and 
Indian do* The constant use of it spoils the breath, 
smell, saliva and stomach, dims the sight, hurts the brain, 
nerv es, lungs and liver, causing dyspepsia, tremois, he- 
patitis, scurvy, consumption, apoplexy, cardialgy, &c. 
Total abstinence or mild substitutes are the needful re- 
medies. . Medically and topically a powerful anodyne, 
antispasmodic, emetic, sedative, antiherpetic, errhine, 
&c. Useful in all diseases of the skin, hvsterics, tooth- 
ache, schirrus, epilepsy, worms, &c- The smoke or 
infusion injected revives vital action in locked jnw, ob- 
stinate constipation, ileus, strangulated hernia ^ baneful 
in asphyxia and parturition, nay, always dangerous, a 
strong injection may kill. In very small doses e<^- of 
Digitalises a violent diuretic for dropsy, &c. in tinc- 
ture. Juice of green le:ives instantly cures the stinging 
of nettles. Poultices of ieav^is with vinegar applied to 
stomach cause vomiting, applied to abdomen expel 
worms! useful when emetics and vermifuges cannot be 
taken- Much care is required in using the ointment for 
psora, tinea, and the wine or tincture for disury. The 
use often attended v.'ith tremors, giddiness, faintiyg? S:c* 
The seeds efjuaU^ poisonous^ a dangerous vermifuge- 
Green thick oil of leaves. a violent poison, one drop can 
kill a dog I Two other active sub---tances found m it, 
Tabacine and Nicollne. The N, qyuidrivalviH is the Non- 
thatv of Missouri tribes, used in decocti^m with Water 
oakasdiscutient of abscesses, local tumors; leaves applied 

warm for local inflammations ; poultice with bears grease 
used for cutaneous eruptions and swellin£:s, also to dis- 
pel dropsy and expel w^orms; commonly producing nau- 
sea, vomiting, vertigo, prostration, &c. " Tobacco stems, 

OPUNTA. 247 

leaves and snufF destroy all kinds of msects, moths, ca- 
terpillars, &c. -^ 

NYSSA, L. Tupelo^ Peperidge^ Sourgum^ Black- 
gum. Six sp. of trees eq. Wood vvlute, verj soft when 
fresh, very light, tough and compact when dry, much 
used for bowls, implements, wheels, tubs, troughs, &c. 
Fruits bitter and acid. N. coccinea, Bartr. Ogeechee 
tree^ Lime tree has a red acid fruit, size of a plumb, used 
like limes in the South, 

OCYMUM BASILICUM,L, Sweet basil Aromd^iic, 
stimulant, cardiac, used in cookery. Cult. 

pDOSTEMON, Raf. 1817- Mahonia, N. 1818. Moun^ 
tain holly. Purple aci,d berries* Eq. to Berberis. 

OENOTHERA BIENNIS, L. Snndrop, Primrose 
tree^ Scabish. Young roots edible boiled or pickled. 
Leaves vulnerary bruised and applied to wounds* Flow- 
ers fragrant and phosphorescent at night. Schoepf says 
the O.molissima^ L. (leaves linear lane. unduL) omitted 
by our authors, from N. Y. to Carolina in fields, is also 
vulnerary. The beautiful O.gra'ndijlora is equaUy ^o^ and 

perliaps all the sp- 
OLEA EUROPE A, L. Olive tree. Cult, in S. Green 

fruit lixiviated and salted for food, ripe fruit dryed. 

Olives are tonic and stomachic, produce the best sweet 
oil, so useful for food and light. Deemed a panacea in 
Africa and Greece for wounds, sores, cholics, tenesmus, 
cough, rheumatism, hydrophobia and poison! Excellent 



OXOPORDON, L. While Thistle. A sp, in Ohio. 

Edible like Cynara. 


lient, used for ulcers and sores. 

Equiv. of Spigelia and JlristolGchia for worms and snake 


OPUNTIA, Tt. Dec. Prickly Pears. Many sp. all 
eq, blended under Cactus opunlia by our authors! dis- 
tinguished by myself. _ O, humifusa, di:scr. 1820^ and 
since O. 7nesacantha, 6. cespitosa^ O, maritima^ (Elliot 
sp.) O. coccinea^ &c. Fruits edible^ small and acid in 


our sp. but in 0, coccinea size of a pear, of a livid pUi*- 
ple, juice scarlet, acid and cool like Pomegranate, verj 
diuretic, tinges urine of a bloody color, yet very whole- 
some. Young leaves eaten by negroes like Hibiscus, 
split leaves good emollient topic for acute ilicumatism, 
baked for chronic ulcers, gout and wounds. The juice 
and gum used for the gravel. 

ORCHIS, L, Salep^ TwinrooL All the sp. with tu- 
berous twin roots become Salop by dessicution, analep- 
tic and pectoral. O, morio and mascula chiefly produce 
the Oriental Salop. All the fragrant sp. are stimulant 
and nervine, once deemed aphrodisiac. O. fragrans, 
Raf. 1817, of N. Y, is such. O, orbicufata and macro-- 
phylla^ vulnerary leaves, called HealalL O. Jimbriaia 
roots vermifuge, powder used, kills worms by touching 
them, is similar to a fecula; smell like Cypripediunh 
taste like Ulmus fnha. Many sp, now removed to 


agra nt 

Stomachic, corro- 

borant, detergent, stimulant, men agogue, diaphoretic 
Useful in tea for cough^ asthma, chlorosi?, oedema. Lo- 
tions and fumigations used in chronic rheumatism and 
palsy. Flowers and tops most grateful and efficient, 
they also dye purple. Dry leaves form a grateful tea. 
Fresh used for baths in uterine disorders. The distill- 
ed oil has all the properties, it is acrid and caustic, 
burns the skin, relieves toothache. O, majorana^ or 
Sweet Marjoram, is eq, but milder, very grateful, used 
in cookerv, cult. 

ORNITHOGALUM L. BethUhemstar. Root edible 

Eartlidub^ dapwort. Astringent, antiseptic and anti- 
syphilitic, deemed in the West a specific fur gonorrhea 
and syphilis. Useful for obstinate ulcers, aplithose and 
herpetic sores, diarrhea and dvsentcry. 

plant of the Indians now neglected. Seeds eaten like 
pease, acrid when fresh, make good bread and soups by 
coctimu Fresh roots acrid, but good and edible roasted 
or dried* Eq. of *5rum.^ 


ORYZA SATIVA, L. Bice. Cult many Sp. and 

yar. little known jet : the O. mutica or Mountain Rice 

IS cult, in the West. Excellent food, and even suitable 

to invalids, convalescent, and the phthisical. Boiled in 

soups, puddings, iScc. Pilau or Sernm is the Rice boiled 

dry, the chief food of Hindus, Chinese, Turks, &c. 

Made grateful by spices, oil, butter, meat, fowls, and 

fish, their substitute for bread. The Rice flour has 8il 

per cent of starch and 5 of water, no gluten nor riugar, 

thus makes bad heavy bread- In China, Saki or Beer, 

and AVine of Rice are made, starch being turned into a 

sugary substance by fermentation, and thus yielding al- 

ORYZOPSIS (Mx. bad name! or Tvd\iiiv Dilepyrum, 
Raf. 1807) angustifolia. American Rice, Eq. to Rice, 

seeds large white, eaten by Indians,^ good flour and 

OSMOSHIZA DULCIS, Raf. \Ql7.{Myrrhiscloytom 

Mx?) Sweet Sisily, Root fusiform, with a sweet smell 
and taste, near aniseed, edible, carminative^ expecto- 
rant, demulcent, useful for coughs with Malva, for flatu- 
lent bowels with Heradnim, Eq. to Angelica. Child- 
ren are fond of this root, may be poisoned by mistaking 
for it, two sp, of the same Genus or Myrrhls Auct. called 
z>.- , r. , , rr. -^^ jistinguished bvthe rootless 

aromatic, foliage the sanie, but in O. dulcis base of the 
foUoles acute,*in myO. vilosaor 3L longistylis obtuse, in 
O. cordatali^f, cordate. These last produce, when eat- 
en, effects verv similar to those of the virulent Umbellate. 
The YarJiah of the Shoshonis is my Osm? echdis (per- 
haps OxypoliSj) the roots are tuberose fasciculated, fu- 
siform nodose, w^hite, smell like aniseed. Esculent, 
make fine meat and cakes. 

OSMUNDA, Ia. Hut tie snake Fern. Many Sp. nearly 
Eq. Roots demulcent, sub-astringent, corroborant, _ dis- 
cutient, esculent. O. spectabilis gives a fine mucilage 
boiled in milk, like arrow root, useful in diarrhea, dysen- 
tery, cholera infantum, phthisis, &c. a topicsl discutient, 
0^ ci7mamomea Eq. of Tussilago veraiifuge besides, 
used also in rachitis and i-uptures. Ei*ten bv Indians, 
deemed aphrodisiac, O. vir/^rnira deemed eni 
I>ite3 of R.attks^nukgs, 



OXYPOLIS, Raf. G. formed by Slum rigidum, tri- 
cuspiJalum, denticulalwn, tcretifolium and A7igdica tri- 
quinuta^ Mx. All poisonous or dangerous plants. Eq. 
to Slum. 

PANCRATIUM, L. Squilihj. Fresh roots einctic 

like tulip and narcissus, eq. to squills, much weaker: 
diuretic given in decoction to horses for diarrhea. 

PANICUM, L. Panic grass. P. rnUiaceum or com- 
mon millet cult, fine fodder, r. und )<A\ow seeds feed 
fowl?, good fVtur, cakes,' puddiii,-. P. Uulicum cult. 
for birds. P. maximum or Guinengrasg, pLreniiial 
good hay of tropic.--, Florida. /'. atnariim is tho Bitter- 
grass of Carolina. We have 55 native sp. all co:irse 
grasses, P. glaucum and others called Cat^""<" I'inrn. 
^rass, bad weeds in fields. 

PAPAVER, l^.Popptj. All the sp. produce opium. 
r. rfieas, now spont. mildest, flowers emollient, demul- 
cent, anodyne, pectoral, used in tea, also a fine red sy- 
rup : capsules iniUI eq. of Lactuea. The P. somnife- 
rum cult, for beauty, seeds, and opium : seeds a«brd 
2o per cent of fine useful sweet oil, and much mucilage, 
not narcotic, eaten terrified for cakes. Unripe capsules 
give mi.k bv excision, which is opium when inspi«ated. 
bee niedical books for properties of opium, too much 
used by pliysicians, being a dangerous stimulant, nar- 

cotic, sedative, S:c. in fact a rank poison : best mode to 
employ It in frictions. Two active elements of it the 
Morphine or sedative principle, and the "A arcoZ/ne have 
lately been separated and the morphine used in minute 
D !^''j£'^'"*,Pr*'*^"*='"" delirium or irritation, 

I'ARrLl ARIA, L. Pellltory, Four eq. sp. P. hetero- 
pnylla and P. rvfa Raf are new. Juice or decoction 
used as diuretic, deobstruetit, mcnagogue, in gravel, 
nephritis, suppressions, obstruct! ,:ii. Contain Nitrate 
or potash. 

PARXASSIA, L. once deemed eq. of hepatica. 

PASSIFLORA, L. Passion fower. Fruits of all edi- 
ble acid, a syrup made used in fe\ers cooling. P- in- 
carnala called May apple, fruit vellow as large as an 
e<nr. n„!n un„ L^^^^g. ^^-j topically and juice 

dogs to cure the stagg 


PASTINACA SATIVA, L. Parsnep. Root escu- 
lent, sweet, diuretic, flatulent, seeds aromatic used in 
agues* Root of wild parsnep acrid, evnetic, producing; 
sores bj handling;. 

PEDICtJLARrS, L. Lousewort. P. Gladiata is 
one of the vulnerary plants called HealalL P. canaden- 
sis deemed by Indians to cure Rattlesnake bites. 

PELTANDRA, Raf. 1817. {Leconiea Ty. 1824) 
Fivesp. blended in ^rum sagiffoUnnu Taroho^ Tuckah^ 
fVampee of Indian tribes- Fresli roots and seeds acrid, 
pungent, stimulant, eq. to ^^rum ; but mild and edible 
when roasted or boiled : seeds used like pepper- 

PEONIA, L. Peony. Cult, root aud seeds nervine, 
used in palsy, convulsions, epilcps3% Contains starch, 
fat, mannite, gum, acids, tannin, salts, &c, 

PHALARIS, L. Canary seed^ seeds food of birds, 
flour aperient, tlie best to glue cotton stufTs- 

PHASEOLUS, L. Beans. All esculent, flatulent, 
cosmetic, nephritic. Flour makes Purey soup. Some 
used for catchsup. Several cult- by Indians. 

PHYSALIS, L, Ground cherry. All sp. eq. to 
Solanum virginicum ; but berries acid bitterish, liked 
by children, good diuretic and sedative. 

PHYTOLACA DECANDRA, Poke, Pq can of Vir- 
ginia tribes, Coakum of northern tribes. Garget or Pig- 
eon berries in N. En^L Chougraa in Louisiana, Jucato 
in Jamaica, Cuechiliz m Mexico. Valuable active plant 
Root emetic and cathartic without^spasms, dose 10 to 30 
grains of dry powder, safe and powerful. Young shootg 
and leaves eaten like aspara;:;u3 and spinage, also m cala- 
lous merely laxative- Old leaves acrid purgative* 
Stems and leaves contains more potash than any plant, 
67 per cent by burning, and 42 per cent of pure caustic 
potash by lixivation. Has a peculiar acid phytolacic 
near mafic. Fresh roots and leaves escharotic, discu- 
tient, specific in poultice for cancerous or malignant ul- 
cers, psora, tinea capitis, &c. or extract as a plaster, a 
wash of Hum ex used at same time. Berries juice altera- 
tive, specific for chronic and syphilitic rlieumatism, fresh 
or kept by adding I alcohol, a tablespoon full each 4 hours. 
The extract less certain, one !b. is made by 4lb- doses 





by birds and fuwlf=, give bad taste to their flesh : furnish 
a purple evanescent stain and ink, and a fix«d blue dye 
vith urine for mordaunt. Leai^s used by fariiers for 
ulcers of horses, &c. 

PINL'8, Ti. Pines. Valuabte genus, loanj sp. all me- 
dical, afl[(>rding tar, pitch, rosin, turpontinc and oil of 
it, diuretic, depurative, equiv. to MkSy see medical 
works. Timber, boards, toasts, &c. P. teda, pitch pine. 
P. lutea, yellow pine, P. strobus^ white pine, mostly 
used. The Indian tribes use the bark in poultice for 
sores and piles, tlie bt»iled nmts for dravviujj plaster, the 
decoction of buds as purgatiTp, tlie cones in rheuma- 
tism, and tar dissolved in spirits as a wash to cure itch, 
tetters and wens, 

PlsiL'M SATIVUM, Lin. Sweft peas. Equiv- of 

Phaseolus. ^ ' 

^Ht^l^^^ **AJOR, L. Great rinntarn. Root 
tood iebnfuge, astringent, vulnerary, usi;d for tabes, 
ulcers, sore eyes, fluxes, bloody urine, diarrhea, &c. 
lately for fevers. Leavp^- bruised good for slight wounds, 
spider bites, sores aiul tumors. Seeds vermifuge, anti- 

dysentenc. Cattle like it. Many so. equiv. P. lanceo- 
lata am\ P. mantima cult, in Europe for cattle, but cows 

ir^^rh^ }^^^' ^''^'^^ •"^'^^^ ?«»*^ pickles. 

POPLLLS, L, Poplar, All sp. useful. Wood white, 
sott, chip hats made with it, cotton of the seeds make 
paper and cloth. Bark used for tanning in Africa, mixt 
with bread m Siberia. Buds tonic, stimulant, sudorific, 
fragrant and balsamic, good ointment in rheumatism, 
gout, burns, sures, diseases of the skin, internally for 
chronic catarrh and diseases of the kidneys. They hold 
20 elements, oil, popullne. peculiar fat, albumen, resin, 
&c. Inner bark used by Indians and empirics in tea or 
bitters for faintne?s, hepatic and nephritic diseases. 
Bark of P. balsamifera emetic and cathartic, of P. tre- 
ptda or Aspen, tonic, stomachic, febnfu'^e. 
^ PORTULACA OLERACEA, L. Purslain. Escu- 
lent in salad or boiled. Diluent, cooling, corroborant? 
antiscorbutic, diuretic, vermifuge, subastringent, anti- 
syphihtic, &c. Very mild, used in gravel, strangury, 

scurvy, gonorrhea, ulcers of the mouUi. Good 

PRUNUS- 253 

children vvitK worms. A cool salve made with it for 
sore lips and nipples. i 

POTENTILLA, L. Cinque/oil. All the sp. mild 
astringent, tonic and vulnerary. P. reptanSy jP. cmia- 
densis and P.fruticosa mostly used in weak bowels, he- 
morrhage, ague?, menorhea, &c. P. anscrina (Silver- 
weed) also antiseptic, used in gargles for loose teeth, 
spon2:vgums : by coction becomes edible, 

PUteNANTIIES, L, Gall of the Earth, Dewitt make- 
root^ Lion-sfoot. Many sp. Eq. Root and milk very 
bitter, used in dysentery and to cure snake bites in men 
and cattle in poultice. P. alba and serpentaria chiefly. 
-P. opicrhuiy Raf. 10 feet high, eq. of Laettica. 

PRINOS, T.. Black Alder, Fever bush, TFinter berry. 
8 Sp. Eq. /\ verlicillatus mostly used. Inner bark eme- 
tic, cathartic, tonic, antiseptic. Used in agues, fevers, 
debility, anasarca, dropsy, incipient sphacelus, herpetic 
eruptions, gangrene, jaundice, foul ulcers, &c. in pow- 
der, decoction and tincture, awash or poultice- Berries 
purgative and vermifuge, mild eq. of bark, bitters made 
with thorn. Popular remedies. 

PRUNUS, L. Cherry trees and Plumb trees. Useful 
genus, we have nearly 40 wild sp. of which I have pre- 
pared a monography, only 25 described by authors. All 
our wild Plumbs esculent, some cult, by Indians, make 
good pies, preserves, &:c. The best are 1- Pr. angustifo- 
lid, Cherokee Plamb, yellow, fine. 2. Pr. coccinea, Raf. 
Fl. lud. large, crimson, acid. 3. Pr. stenophylla, Raf. 
sweet and black. 4. Pr, umbellata, Elliot, acid. 5. Pr. 
versicolor, Raf. several colors. 6. Pr, aurantiaca, Raf. 
T. Pr. chicasa. 8. Pr. hyemalis, &c. Few wild Cherries 
are esculent, but Pr. rotundifolia. Raf. Pr. hirsntus, E. 
are good. Pr. virginiana, Pr. ca)iadensis and Pr. aero- 
Una, are active medical, berries in racemes, called 
Black Cherries. The bark is bitter astringent, contains 
Prussic acid, tannin, gum and mucus. Tonic, febrifuge, 
sedative. Very useful in fevers, agues, hectic fever, 
dyspepsia, lumbar abscess, chronic asthma and hysteria, 
cardiaigy, &c. Taken in powders, dose 10 to 40 grains 
in infusion, tincture, &:c. heat drives off the Prussic acid. 
Bark of the root stronger- Reduces pulse from 75 to 
50. In iar£:e doses narcotic and vermifuge. Leaves 



254 PYRUS. 

poison cattle, berries intoxicate birds, used for cherrj 
bounce, baneful : kernels equal to bitter almonds. Com- 
mon cherries and plumbs cultiv. Prunes are laxative, 
cherries refrigerant. Pr. armeniaca or Apricot, fine fruit, 
the abuse produce fevers. Cerasine gum produced bj all. 

PTELEA, Lin. Wingseed, Boisptiant in Louisiana. 

sp. Leaves vulneraiy, vermifuge, in tea or poultice. 

FTERILIS, Raf Pterls, L. Brake. Roots of all edi- 
ble, vermifuge, leaves fragrant, used in beer. 

PTEROCAULON, Elliot. Blackroot, Hinih of \Yest- 
ern Indians. Root alterative, detergent, drastic, abor- 
tive. _ It may cause bloody stools, vertigo and dizziness 
even m small doses. Said to be used for phthisis by 

Honda tribes, but must be dangerous internally, also to 
clean ulcers. 

PULMONARLA, L. Lungwort. 6 sp. Equiv. Root 
vulnerary, eq. of Symphytum. Leaves used in diseases 
ot the lungs, influenza and hooping cou^h, with Marru- 

md Prunus : smoked by some Indians like to- 

PUNICA GRANATUM, L. Pomegrmmte. Cultiv. 
Fruit acid refri-^erant, useful for fevers. Flowers tonic, 
astringent, anodyne, diuretic, used in decoction, lotion, 
injection for chronic diarrhea, prolapsus, cephalgv, &c. 
Rmd of fruit styptic, makes ink, used for tanning and 
dyeing brown and black. Inner bark of the root yellow, 
excellent vermifuge, specific for tenia, known to I'linius, 
since forgotten, lately restored. It is bitter astringent, 
dyes yellow, contains tannin, gallic acid, wax, mannite, 
&c. 2 ounces in 3 doses after castor oil and lemon syrup, 
expel the tenia or tapeworm. 

PYCNANTHEMUM, Mx. Mountain mint, mid 
Basil. Aromatic plants, mild eq. of Monarda. 

PYRUS MALUS, L. Apple tree. Cult. Aftbrds fine 
fruits, cider, apple butter, preserves, brandy, vinegar, 
hard wood. Apples refrigerant when ripe, very healthy 
boiled, roasted, then laxative: very baneful when unripe, 
cause diarrhea and cholera : abuse of apples and cider 
^ives cholic and rheumatism. P. corona/ fa (wild Crab) 
fragrant blossoms and fruits, austere, good preserves. 
P.J'usea, Raf. (Oregon Crabapple) has brown acid pulpv 
fruits, wood very hard, used for wedires. P. communis 


or common Pear, cult, better and healthier fruit, Perry 
better than Cider, wood very useful, as hard as ebony. 
P. cydoyiia^ Quince. Astringent fruit, sirup and pre- 
serves used for diarrhea, cholera, cholic, nausea. Eaten 
raw in Italy. Seeds fine mucilage, inviscant, demulcent, 
coafjulate water. 

QUAMASIA ESCULENTA, Raf. 1817. Quamash, 
Bear grass^ Wild HyacintL Wrongly united to ScUla 
and Phalangium^ Kentucky to Oregon. Onion sweet, 
esculent, makes a fine bread tasting like Pumpkin bread. 
Used in poultice for inflamed breast. 

QUERCUS, L. Oak. Nearly 40 sp. All valuable and 
tnedical. Useful wood, bark, sap, galls and fruits called* 
acorns. Fine timber used for staves, casks, fences, shin- 
gles, boards, houses, ships, &c. Acorns often esculent, 
taste of chesnuts. Q. edidis^ Raf. and Q.prinos sv/eet 
and good even raw, in Q. v irons good roasted and afford 
sweet oil, the bitter kinds become worse by roasting, but 
sweet by boiling, Indians make oil and bread of them. 
- Sap of Q.prinos^ &r< acid sweet, make a beer like Beech 
sap. Wood of Q virens and Q. laiirifolia [lAxe, Oak, 
Laurel Oak) as heavy as Guayac, cannot split, nails 


driven in cannot be taken off, hardens by age, strong, 
compact, durable, our best timber; the next furnished 
by Q. alboj obtusiloba, prinos^ montana^ &c. Bark used 
for tanning, chiefly Q. ruhra^ falcata^ alba. Bark of Q> 
tinctoria is the Quercitron bark dying yellow, also Q. 
castanea and nigra. Q. alba and otiier sp. dye brown, 
contain much tannin, and 18 per cent, of a peculiar 
substance Quercine^ insoluble but inflammable, the sul- 
phate of quercine soluble in acidule water. Febrifuge, 
astringent, antiseptic, weak eq. of Cinchona for fevers, 
very useful in cynanche, ulcers, dysentery, gangrene, 
hemorrhage, sorethroat, wounds, prolapsus? tubes me- 
senterica, hernia, &c. Used in wash, bath, poultice, de- 
coction, &c. Cups and acorns equiv, used also in spas- 
modic cough, asthma, chronic hysteria, amenorhea, 
rheumatism. Dry emanations of oak bark useful in 
phthisis. Some Indians use Q. hjrata in dropsy and as 
an emetic. Oak galls still stronger, used to dye black. 

make ink, powerful astnngent and styptic 

256 RHUS. 

QUINA.RIA, Raf. Creeper, 2 sp. Q. hederaceaa.n<i 
hirsuta blended with Hedera, Vitis and Ampelopsis. 
Beautiful vines. Leaves bitter, eq. of Hedera. ' 

RAPHANUS SATIVUS, L. Radish. Cult and wild. 

Root attenuant, diuretic, stimulant, carminative, eruc- 
tive. Useful in convulsive asthma, rancedo, ischuria. 

tive. Berries used to make sap green. Drastic hydra- 
gogue, nauseous bitter. Used in drops j, rheumatism 
and gout, cause griping nausea and thirst. Dose 20 fresh 
berries, the sirup is the best preparation. 

RHEUM, L. Rhubarb. Cult. Root popular stomachic 
iijpd laxative cliewed fresh, purgative when dry. We 
^ave not the true Chinese ip. or Jimodi of Thibet, R. 
amtrak. R. undulatum mostly cult, also tonic astrin- 
gent. Leaves edible, laxative, eq. to Rumex. 

RHIZOPHORA, L. Mangrove. In Florida. Bark 
astringent styptic, tans like oak bark, a bath of it useful 
tor petechial fevers. Eq. of Quercus. 

RHODODENDRUM, L. Mountain Laurel, Ros^ay. 
8 sp. E<j. of Kahnia. Bark and leaves astringent. Bi<re- 
low denies their narcotic quality. Contains tannin and 
resm. Bark used as stimulant, it increases the heat of 
the body, excites thirst, increases secretions and excre- 
tions. Used m rheumatism and gout, by our Indians for 
ulcers and sour stomach ; they mix the ashes with to- 
bacco. Leaves poison cattle. Blossoms viscose, when 
dry errhine, yield resin and sugar. 

RHUS, L. Shumac. All the sp. medical, two series 
of them. 1. Harmless. 2. Poisonous.. 1 Series, R. gla- 
bnim, typhinum and copallimim eq. Roots antisyphi- 
litic, used by Indians, dye wool redisb. Leaves "have 
much tannin, make the Morocco leather, dve wool and 
silk black, good astringent for all fluxes. Bark and ber- 
ries make ink. Fresh roots used for rheumatism, spiri- 
tuous infusion rubbed with flannel. Gum similar to co- 
par, cures tooth ache put in hollow teeth. Indian flutes 
made of the stems. Berries used in dysentcy, rheu- 
matism, dysuria, sorethroat, putrid fevers, hemorrhage, 
gangrene, &c. they have an agreeable acid taste, make a 
cooling drink infused in water. Efflorescence on them 
used as salt and vinegar : it is malic acid. Seeds ia 



powder used for piles and wounds. The juice removes 
warts and tetters, is the fine red mordaunt of Indian 
djes. Seeds afford oil for lamps, Sacacorni article of 
trade in Canada^ made by drying the berries in ovens 
after bread, fine substitute of tobacco, those who use it, 
loath tobacco ! Kinikah of western tribes is root and 
leaves, half mixt with their tobacco, used also for dropsy. 
Galls of Shumacs lately found equal to Aleppo galls. 
Second series, B. vernix, pumihira^ radkans and toxi- 
cum^ called Poison wood or vines, are poisonous even by 
handling, or exposure to the effluvia in some persons, 

causing a distressing cutaneous disease or eresypela : 
remedy rest, evacuations and parsley poultice, ice and 
lead.^ Acrid milky juice, becomes black in the air, forms 
indelible ink, inspissated becomes fine black resin and 
varnish, with cinnabar red varnish of Japan. Root used 
in chronic asthma, anasarca, phthisis, obstinate herpetic 
eruptions. Extract of leaves chiefly used, a specific in 
palsy, doses a grain, also for hemiplegia and rheuma- 
tism. Contain tannin, gallic acid, green fecula, toxine 
resin, &c. poisonous gas is carbonated hydrogen. R. 
cotinus is cultiv. Feather tree, wood dves fine oranw, 

leaves tan well. 

RIBES, L. Gooseberries and Currants. Nearly 30 
sp. wild. a. nigrum on Kennebec river. Roots in in- 

fusion, bark in gargles used for eruptive fevers, dysen- 

tery of cattle, fruits and jelly for sorethroat. Anodyne, 
diuretic, pelJent, depurative, used in angina, exanthems, 
dysenterv, hydrophobia, scabs and ictus. A fine cordial 
made of "black currants. R.rigem smells like Ictodes. 
R. nibmm^ fruit very cooling, useful in bilious and high 
fevers, jelly very grateful. Wine made with currants 
and gooseberries. Many edible sp. in Alleghany and 
Oregon mountains, deserving cultivation. 

RICINUS COMMUNIS,L.Pfl?macn"5/i,Casfor, Cult. 
wild. Leaves revulsive emollient, cure swelled breast^ and 
dispel the milk of nurses at weaning by mere application. 
Seeds drastic, vermitune. Castor oil mild purgative, 
useful in iliac and painters' cholic, nephritis, worms, 
constipation, &c. It is pale, thick, viscid like hemp oil, 
sweet when fresh, acrid when old. Seeds give 66 per 
cent, of oil, an acre produces 100 to 150 gallons, may be 

T 8 

258 RLBUS. 

used for lamps, quite soluble in alcohol. Dose 1 or 2 
ounces in lemon syrup, emulsion, broth, coffee, choco- 

ROBlkiA ACACIA, L. Black Locust. Very use- 
ful tree, fine timber, leaves greedily eaten by cattle. 
Inner bark sweetish like liquorice, emetic, cathartic and 
pectoral, according to doses, root best j much used by 
Indians and negroes* Biossorns fragrant laxative, liked 
by bees. Seeds oily. Wood used for posts, rafts, bows, 
ships, &c. Ehowah of Western tribes. 

ROSA, L. Roses- Beautiful G. queen of flowers, we 
have 30 wild sp. and many cult. Roots, galls, buds 
and fruits of all astringent, sweetish, corroborant, used^ 
in dysentery and diarrhea ; contains tannin, sugar, my- 
ricine, resin, fat oil, volatile oil, acids, salts. Blossoms 

of red roses similar, styptic, have gallic acid, fine con- 
serves ,• while pale or white roses, R. damascena chiefly 
are laxative, a fine syrup used for children. Rose water 
fine perfume, useful for sore eyes- , Oil of Roses or Otto 
delightful perfume, stimulant^, the best made from i?» 
moschata. Fruits edible, but give the cholic, preserves 
made. R. macro carpa^ Raf. size of pigeon egg, very 
good. ^ Leaves make a good palatable tea, chiefly the 
Eglantine Roses with fragrant leaves. Petals of ^■ 
gallica, smell increased by drying. 

RUBIA, L. Madder^ 2 native sp. 7?. tinctoria cult, 
all eq. Roots fine red dye, principally Rubine and Ali- 
zarine, Dyes bones, milk and urine of animals fed on 
it. Menago^ue and deobstruent, used for suppressions, 
jaundice, diseases of bones, rachitis and atrophy of 
children, doses 20 to 30 grains. 

RUBU3, L. Bramble. Nearly 30 wild sp. i?. idens^ 
cesmSf strigosus^ occidentalism deliciosus^ odoratits^ &:c. 
are our delightful Raspberries- Those with black fruits 
called Rlaclcberries^ snch tisR. villosus. The creeping 
kinds are Dewberries. Tlie Cloudberry is R* chame- 
morus. Roots of all more or less astrinosent, subtonic, 
much used in cholera infantum, hematemesis, chronic 
dysentery, diarrhea, &c. The Cherokis chew them 
for cough ; a cold poultice useful in piles: used witli 
Lobelia in gonorhea. Fruits of all cooling, mild as- 
tringent, antiseptic, analeptic, diluent, cordial, &c. 


Eipe fruits, preserves, jam, jelly or sjrup grateful and 
beneficial in diarhea, gravel, hemoptysis, phthisis, sore- 
throat, putrid and malignant fevers, scurvy. Black- 
berries dye purple, are more astringent and acid. 
Raspberries afford delicious distilled water, beer, mead 
and wine. Said to dissolve tartar of teeth. Twigs dye 
silk and wool. 

RUMEX, L. Dock, 25 sp, mostly eq. R. briianica, 
sanguineus and aquaticus^ chiefly used. Roots astrin- 
gent, deobstruent, tonic, diaphoretic: useful in scurvy, 
cutaneous eruptions, syphilis, ulcers of the mouth, foul 
ulcers, itch, cancerous tumours, &c. in decoction, wine, 
lotion. They dye yellow. Contain sulphur, starch, 
oxalate of lime, &c. Syrup with Prunus or Diospyros 
used for dysentery. Leaves edible equal to splnage. 
B. patientia^ ohtusus^ .aciitiis and crispusj similar, but 
root less astringent, laxative or purgative, diuretic, seeds 
used in dysentery. J?- acetosa or sorrel is cult, fine 



acid vegetable, laxative, refrigerant and antiscorbutic. 
7?. acetosella or sheep sorrel, similar bat subastrinnent. 

SABAL, Ad. Su.ulpalm, Latanier, 7 sp. eq.of o/^a- 
merops for mats, hats, baskets, thatch, fans. Fruits 
bad. in S. adansoni black and sweet. 

SAC CH ARUM, L. Sugar Cane. Sugar is made - 
\vith S. qfficinarum, the taller and hardier Tahiti cane 
ives most, S. sinensis Chinese sugar, S. violaceum 
ava sugar, the worst kind, but gives most rum. Su^ar 
is edulcorant, relaxant, pectoral, vulnerary. Affording 
molasses, rum, cand^, syrups, cordials, &c. Used as 
food, condiment, and preservative. 

SAGITTARIA, L. Arrowleaf, Katnip of Lenaps^ 
TJapahi of Oregon tribes, 12 sp. eq. valuable esculent 
"roots of Indicus, (cult, in Ciiina and Japan) trade with 
it, make bread, soups, dishes, &c. Refrigerant, sub- 
astrih«^ent; useful applied to feet for yaws and drupaf- 
cal lejs; leaves applied to breast dispel milk of nurses 

like mcinus. ^ 

SALICORNIA, L. Kelpwort, Samphire. All sp. 

furnish Kelp by burninz. Edible, fine pickle, liked by 

•heep: med. eq. of Fucii^- Antiscorbutic, give appe^- 

tite, used as deobstruent in abscesses, seel otyrbe, hyper- 




sarcosis, scrofula, goitres, tumors and swellings* Cori-' 
tains Soda and Iodine. 

SALIX, L. Willow. Valuable prolific genus, 45 

native sp. Twigs used for baskets, wood soft white for 

chip hats. Bark of all bitter astringent, febrifuge and 

antiseptic. Eq. of Cinchona in many cases, contains 

tannin, gluten and salicine similar to Quinine, 3 doses 

-of 6 grains of Salicine have cured agues, S. alba, 

latifolia, fragillis, helix, caprea, &c. chiefly used in 

Europe. Schoepf mentions the yellow and swamp 

willows used with us, roots and bark in bitters. Dose 

of powders k to 1 ounce. Rose Willow much used by 

empirics for fluoralbus, menorhea, cutaneous eruptions 

and agues, in tea. The seed wool of some sp. may be 
spun. *^ •' 

SALSOLA, L. Barilla. All the sp. produce Barilla 
or crude Soda: cult, in Spain and Sicily for it. Stimu- 
lant, antacid, diuretic, &c. 

SALVIA, L. Sage. Seveval s^i. S. lyrata, daytoni, 
■^exicana, 4-c. called Cancerweed, fresh leaves used to 
dispel warts, tumors, said to have cured Cancers. S. 
officinahs cult, grateful subtonic, nervine, uterine, sto- 
machic, useful in languor, convalescence, aphthas, soft 
gums, to dispel milk, &c. Sagetea chiefly used, leaves 
also m cookerv. 


and inner bark acrid purgative, berries laxative, baneful 
to birds and fowls: acid, afford Wine, Alcohol and Oil. 
Shade deemed baneful, leaves being subnarcotic, said to 
cure the rot of sheep, laxative, nauseous, a cooling oint- 
ment made with them, poison for insects and mice. 
Bark dyes black, boiled and applied to cheeks cure 
toothache, in small doses diuretic deobstruent, useful 
m obstinate glandular obstruction and dropsies. Rob 
of berries aperient, diuretic and diaphoretic, used for 
coughs and costiveness. Young leaf buds drastic and 
unsafe. But Elder flowers anodyne, pectoral, sudorific, 
pellent, emollient, useful in erysipelas, fevers, rheum- 
atism, gout, exanthems, &c. in decoction, lotion, cata- 
plasms. Also, in pleurisy, chronic cou^h, eruptions and 
bruisos. They give a fine Savor to vinegar and wine. 



S. pubeiis and ehuloides, Raf- or Mountain Red Elder 
Dwarf Elder, are eq. 

SAMOLUS VALERANDI, L. Bitterish, edible in 
salad or boiled. Eq» of Veronica becabunga, 

tonic, astringent, antisyphilitic- Useful for leucorrhea, 
gonorrhea and syphilis, hemorhagj, dysentery, &c: 

whole plant used in decoction, also vulnerary and bal- 
samic, root for tumors and wounds of horses- 

SAPINDUS FALCATUS, Raf. Soaptree. S. sapo- 
naria of Schoepf and Elliott, but different from tropical 
sp. Nuts saponaceous^ viscose, sweetish, bitterish 
acrid J used as a soap but spoils linen, also in chlorosis 
and leucorrhea. 

active. Contain Saponine IT, Gum 16, Resin 12, extract 
12 per cent. Tonic, diaphoretic, hepatic, &c. Useful in 
jaundice, obstruction, gout, rheumatism, syphilis, her- 
etic diseases, liver complaint*, cachexy, leucorrhea, 
c. in decoction- Eq. to Smilax in syphilis. Deemed 
diuretic, menan^ogue, and vermifu.,:; formerly. Taste 



bitterish, spumescent with water, used like soap in Eu- 
rope. L?.tely used in scrofulous and venereal ulcers. 
Dose 2 ounces, boiled and taken In one day by degrees* 
S. villosa^ Raf. Fl. lud. and ^S*. viscaria are eq. 
roimdpine. Vulnerary traumatic : used in contusions, 
bruises and sprains, united to Cunilaand Coniimi^ boil- 
ed and applied. 

SAURURUS CERNUr?, L. Lizard tad. Roots 
emollient, discutient, used in poultice roasted and 
mashed by Cherokis, useful in Lumbago, pains in the 
breast, sore nips. Leaves and b!os>uiii> peculiar grate- 
ful smell, promise to be u-^eful in other ^lisea.-^c:.- 

SAXIFRAGA, h. Several «p. Eq. to S\ grunulaia, 
bitterish astringent, roou used for gravel in dec.>^do.« 

&\ Pensyl^^'nira appear.-^ active, 

SCHL'BKRTf V DISTH ft V, MirWI, tCupnssm. 

/^.) Cijprp^% From Delaware and KriHiukv to Mex- 
ico. Wonderful tr*^*^, reachni;^; l.^^u f ^ ad 40 feet cir-* 
cuit in 100 \^xts. Wood sfiti but excellent and <lurable. 
used for boats, boards, r^hing^'^, &c. 2 var. vvL.e ; * 


black, known by bark only. Nuts balsamic fragrant, their 
resin makes a fine orange varnish j diuretic, carminative, 
pellent in decoction. 

SCLEROTIUM CLAVUS, Dec. or Sphacelia sege- 
turn of others. The ergot of rye, parasitic fungus. Poi- 
sonous, causing dreadful dry gangrene when mist with 
rye bread. Contains rocella or violet color, fulvous 
chrome, sweet oil, ammoniac, ferment and phosphoric 
acid. Specific as uterine parturient to help parturition, 

m doses of 5 to 10 grains. Dangerous abortive for wo- 
men and cows. 

SCORZONERA HISPANICA, L. Cult, healthy es- 
culent root, mdd sudorific, menagogue, &c.. 

Holmesweed. Heal 

S r T>?^^\^ sp. S . marilandica, lanceolata, S. hastata 
Rat. Fl. lud. ^nd. sylvatica, Raf. All eq. to S. nodosa, 
aquatica^n^ camna of Europe. Bad rank smell, like 
Elder, bitter acrid. Vulnerary, resolutive, antiscrofu- 
lousm decoction, poultice and steam bath. Much used 
m N. Jersey, N. Y. and New England ,• often united to 
Vistus and tonics. Deemed good for all kind of sores in 

^e^T.^^.T^'?,**!^' '^"'■*'^ *^^ scab^of dogs and swine. 

SECALE CEREALE, L. Bye. Cult. Flour resolvent, 
contains starch 60, gluten 10, mucilage II, sugar 3, albu- 
men 3 per cent. Good sweet heavy bread 

SELINON CANADENSE, Linn, or' Cnidium do. 
Deemed eq. of S.palustw lately found atonic, useful in 
epilepsy in doses 10 to 20 grains, in convulsions of chil- 
QPTvw^ 2 gr. In larger doses poisonous. 
feLJNECIO, Lm. Groundsel, Fireweed, Vulnerarv, 
acrid tonic, astringent, useful in hemorrhage, wounds, 
headache, inflammations, salt rheum, herpes, diseases of 
Skin chiefly externally. S. hieradfolius and vulgaris 
Chiefly used. Emetic in large doses. Smell strong, 
stems ot ^ar. ^>an/ea, 8 feet high, tliick — — ' ""'^*- 
Rweet, edible. Birds like the leaves. 

SESAMUM, L. Benny, Zezehan ; Vangle in Jamai- 
ca, ^mse^ of Arabs. Jitgotin& o( French. Gkigiokna 
oi Italy. Cult, m Asia 2500 years ago for oil, yet from 
fepam and Guinea to China. "Oil of seeds preferred to 
Ulive oilhy Arabs, said to make women fat! skin soft. 
Clean hair. Brought bv negroes to Southern States, 


Seeds eaten with Maize, make good cakes with honej, 
put in bread to flavor it. Emulsion pectoral. Horses, 
cattle and fowls grow fat on them. Leaves fine emol- 
lient, thicken water like Sassafrine, very good for diar- 
rhea and dysentery as common drink. Seeds give 90 
per cent- of oil I mild, sweet, keeps manj years, fit for 
food and lamps, laxative like Castor oil, equivalent and 
better, not nauseous. 

SIC YOS ANGULATA, L, Bryony, Wild Cucumber. 

Root and seeds bitter, purgative, diuretic, eq. of Bryony 
in dropsies, Canada to Mexico. 

^ SID A, L. Softy. Eq. of Malva. S. spinosa and rhom- 
hifolia, used as tea in the west, leaves roasted first, good, 
palatable and diuretic. 

SIDEROXYLON, Lin. Ironwood, Ttirlbay. Very 

hard wood, berries sweetish astringent, useful in diar- 

SILENE, L* Wild Pink, Several sp. have a vermi- 
fuge deleterious root, such as S. virginka, pennsylvani- 
CGy caroliniana. Eq. Spigclia? 

SILPHIUM, L. Turpentine Sunflower. Several sp. 
S. gummifer^ tcrebintlutceum^ undulatum^ Raf. reni- 
forme^ Raf. produce by exudation and incision a fine 
fragrant and bitterish gum like Frankincense, white or 
amber color, chewed by Indians to sweeten breath and 
clean teeth. 

SINAPIS, L. Mustard. Cult, and wild, 
gra and alba eq. Leaves acrid antiscorbutic- Seeds 
very active, contain fixed oil, acrid oil, sulphur, &c. Oil 
by expression similar to rape oil, good for lamps ; in 
India S.ramosa and dichoiojno c\x\t. for this oil. By dis- 

. tillation the acrid oil is evolved, it is the active principle. 

.Flour of mustard much used as condiment, but the abuse 
produces dyspepsia, atrophy and palsy! Itiserrliine, ru- 
befacient, in topical use j applied to the feet, forms Sina- 
pisnes very useful revulsions in fevers- Otherwise stiraa- 
tant, diuretic, antiscorbutic, useful in chronic diseases 
of languor, dropsies, palsies, giddiness, pains in the 
head, cachexy, lethargy, tinea, scurvy, &c. Externally 
in chronic rlieumatism, palsy, nervous diseases. For- 
merly and lately again praised as a panacea in asthisa, 
gravel, chlorosis, dropsy, dyspepsia, &c-! the milder S. 

264 SMI LAX. 

alba or white Mustard seeds chiefly used whole in large 
doses, proved by Gassicourt to be merely laxative, near- 
ly inert. Nay, larger doses still or infusion are emetic 
by irritating the stomach : may cause convulsions in 
children when mist with bread. Decoctiou in small 
doses aperient .and diuretic. 

SISYRINCHlUM, Lin. Lily grass^ Scurvy grass. 
Eaten by horses and cattle. Root yellow acrid, decoc- 
tion purgative, said by empirics to be antidote of subli- 
mate! and used as eq. of Cochlearia! 

hlVM, Ij. iraterParsnep. Several wild sp. Equiv. 
S. nodijlornm, deleterious plant, yet deemed diuretic, 
menagogue, herpetic, lithontriptic, cures obstinate cuta- 
neous diseases, 6 spoons full of juice in a day said not 
to hurt the head, stomach, nor bowels. Doubtful to me. 

S.JaHfohum certainly poisonous. S. ruxrosum, Raf. 


Indians bait the traps with it. Roots tuberose, poisonous 
to men, but boiled useful for tumors and bruises. S. 
sisarum or Skiret^ cult, in Europe, rare with us, roots 
sweet, esculent, astringent, vulnerary, useful in liemop- 
ty&is and internal hemorrhage, 

SMILAX, L. Sarsapariila. Valuable prolific genus, 
we have 25 sp. divided by me in 3 G. Nemexia, {S. her- 
bacea a.nd pedunculata) and Parillax with monosp. ber- 
nes, {S. pumila laurifolia)/ All more or less eq. Sm. 
sarsapariila best known; Sm. paeudo china largest roots, 
extend 100 feet in damp soils forminn- clusters. Much 
used by southern Indians for food in°meal, cakes, frit- 
ters, jelly, mush, &c. The fecula is a red brown flour. 
Good beer made with Sassafras and molasses, purifies 
the blood. Shoots eaten like asparagus. S. caduca^ 
lauri/olia, tamnoides, &c. equally used. S. ovata and 
fragrans, Raf. have fragrant blossoms, give aroma to 
Wine liquors like S. aspera of Europe. Berries of 
many dye blue and black. Roots fine alterative, depu- 
rative, sudorific and diuretic, in decoction, syrup. 

Much USpd in rarhpYv. cvnViilio n-mif Tnari^ninnt dis- 




Propetti ^ _ „ _^ 

la, mucus, albumen. The centre is pure fecula, inert, 


^ SOLIDAGO ODORA, Ait. Sweet Goldenrod, Pro- 
lific genus, we have nearly 70 sp- This easily knowu 
by its sweet scent near to aniseed. Essential oil of it 
has same scent, much used for head ache, in frictions. 
Whole plant aromatic stimulant, diaplioretic, carmina- 
tive, useful in flatulence, nausea, spasms of the stomach, 
chiefly used as a grateful tea. Leaves prepared like 
tea, have been sent to China, much used in some parts 
of our country, used in fevers by Cherokis. Some 
other sp. also medical, but more astringent, aperient, 
corroborant, useful In gravel, ulceration of the bladder, 
fevers, dropsy, cachexy, lax bowels, S.virgaurea (wild) 
and the subodorous sp. chiefly used. A species said by 
Schoepf to be used for wounds and bites of rattlesnakes 
in decoction, also in tumors, angina, pains in the breast 
and viscid tumors. 

SONCIIUS, L. Mild eq. of Xacmca. Many sp. 5'. 
cleraceous edible, milk dispels wa^ts* 

SORB US, L. Mountain ash^ Service tree, 3 sp. eq. 
Bark smells and tastes like cherry bark, equal to it, 
more astringent, fine tonic, antiseptic, contains Prussic 
acid, used in fevers and other diseases, like Cinchona. 
Fruits very austere, never ripen, become mellow and 
edible when rotten; yield malic acid, make a very 
strong cider, and furnish alcohol. S. pumilus, Raf- of 
Oregon mountains, has large edible fruits, eaten and 
dried bv the Shoshonis. 

SORGHUM, Lin. Broom corn^ Indian millet, 2 ^p* 
cultivated. S. sacharalnm^ yields sugar, much used for 
brooms, S^ vulgare^ seeds afTord flour, cakes, coffee and 


SPINACIA, L. Spinage. 2sp. cult- S. oleraceaand 

^inosa, esculent, diluent, laxative, eccoprotic. 

SPIREA, L- Add, Sp.saUcif alia used as an agreea- 
ble subtonlc and subastringent tea near Albany, &c* 
My. Sp..corymbosa also in Virginia. 

SPONGIA, L* Spunge. Prolific tribe, 250 sp. Not 
animals, but sea plants, having no motion whatever I 
All eq. of Fucus. Wrv useful in surgery, wounds, ul- 
cers, Stc- Best poison for rats, cut small. Burnt sponge 
specific for bronchocele. Contain iodine and osmazome- 




STEHEIMIS, Raf. 3 sp. blended with Ilhcehrurrtf 
Gomphrena and ^chyranthes by authors. SL repens, 
ficoidemn and vermicular ie. Diuretic, subastringent,' 
useful in ischury and disury. 

ry, Cockiip hat, Queens delight. Large woody root, pur- 
gative, alterative, antisyphilitic. Verv active, specific in 
yaws, sores, nJcers, chiefly syphilitic and all venereal 
diseases, also lepra and elephantiasis. Ingredient of 
Swaim's panacea. 

tasbuck of Algic tribes. Root diuretic, eq. of Sigillaria. 

ST1(RAX, L. Spring Orange. Blossoms fragrant 
like orange, balsamic, aphrodisiac. Bark vulnerary, deer 
care their wouuds bv rubbing against the tree. 

SURI AI\^A MAHITIMA, L. Florida, Bahama. Bark 
muciJaginows, used for sore lips. 

SWIETENIA MAHOGANI, L. .Mahogany tree. 
In South Florida. Wood very useful and beautiful. 
Bark bitter astringent, tonic, febrifuge, used in fevers : 
shavings of wood in diarrhea. 

SYMPHORIA, J. Raccoon berry, Bluewood. 3 sp. 
Kq. A racemosa, ghnurata (Snowbcrry) and debilis, 
Kat. Root tonic astringent, used for agues in Virginia, 
liark ot It for syphilis by Western tribes. Active febri- 

fuge in small doses. 


SBOpt mter njdorose, peculiar strong smell, en. oi M- 


mituge, carminative, deobstruent, a balsamic tonic sto- 
machic, fansey tea much used in fevers, agues, ca- 
chexy, hysterics, dropsy, strangury, &c. deemed very 
etticient m gout, it strengthens the stomach and kidneys. 
Uhen dry milder, but fine stimulant and vermifuge, 
equal to Contra. The flowers contain an alkali Tana- 
eetme, the tanacetic acid, phosphate of lime, &c. Leaves 
besides tannin, gallic acid, peculiar oil. Poultice of 
leaves cure sprains and bruises, used to dye and flavor 
puddings. They dye green and tb^jaovvers" yellow. Said 
to preserve meat from flie*'. " ** 

TAMARINDUS IXDICA, Lin. Tamarind. Fine 
shade tree, cult, as far as lat. 38. Pulp of tiie pods fine 


Hcid, refrigerant, laxative, quenches thirst, useful in fe- 
vers, constipation, gout. A kind of beverage made with 
It, very grateful in summer heat. Contains sugar, citric 
acid, gum, water, salts, &c. 

TAXUS, L. Few, ChimvoocL 2 sp. T. canadensis 

and baccata. Wood red, hard, useful. Leaves baneful 

to cattle and sheep. Berries edible, contain sugar, 

gum, malic and phosphoric acids, a red fat; but seeds 

acrid, pernicious, oilj, the oil of it used for lamps in 

TECOMA, J. Bignoma sp. Linn. Trumpet Jiower^ 
Crossyme. 3 sp. of beautiful vines or creepers. Leaves 
svyeetish acrid, depurative, mild eq. of Stillingia^ used 
with it for yaws, and to clean the blood as a tea- 

TEPHROSIA, Pers. Galega sp, Lin. Turkey pea^ 
Catgut^ DeviVs shoestrings, Suckehihaw of Osages, 4 sp. 
T. virginica most common, ornamental, bad weed in 
fields, roots matted very tough, powerful vermifuge in 
decoction. Seeds food of turkeys. 

TEUCRIUM, L, Germander. Prolific genus, but few 
American, 71 chamepytis in Virginia, Schoepf. All 
more or less aromatic bitter, stimulant tonic, pellent, 

menagogue, useful in agues, chlorosis, arout, rheumatism, 
hematuria, &:c. T. canadense ha.s a suballiacous smell. 
THALICTRUM, L. Meadowrue. Root of some sp. 

deemed useful for snake bites in Canada, lea\^^ put 
sometimes in spruce beer, perhaps TIu purpurascens. 

THALESIA rXIFLORA, Raf. I8I4. Orobanche 
cfo. L. Squaw drops^ Cancer drops, Eq. of Leptamnium^ 
otten used promiscuously, root astringeut antiseptic, 
useful in cancers, gani^rene, fluor albus, &c- 

TiLVSPIUM, N. {Thapmi sp. L.) Roundhe..,t. Vuj. 



THEAPHYLLA, Raf. {7hea, L.) Tea Shrub, Cult- 
Height be in fields in the South, 40 kinds in CInna, some 
delicious fragrant, only the worst imported and lose 
niuch by a;^e. Contain Theint^ tannin, gum, gluten, 
volatile oil, &c. Mild sudorific and diuretic, baneful to 
nervous persons, useful in indigestion and to help di- 
gestion of the usual bad and gross food of Chinese and 
oure. The Chines ascribe to it many uses in diseases 


of the head, bladder, breast, stomach, &c. they saj it 
removes obstructions, quenches thirst, revives heart, pu- 
rifies brain! prevents drowsiness and letharo;y, clears 
the sight, dispels wind. &c. Boiled in vinegar used in 
diarrhea and tenesmus. The seeds furnish good lamp 
oil, seeds and oil useful for colds and asthma. The 
abuse of strong tea may cause tremors, palsy, epilepsy, 
apoplexy, mania, &c, 

THUYA OCCIDEXTALIS, Jlrhor Vita, White Ce- 
dar. Fine tree, only 36 feet high and 14 inches diameter 
when 150 years old. Ointment of fresh leaves with 
bear's fat, excellent for rheumatism, decoction useful in 
coughs, fevers, cacoehyma, scurvy, gout, Sec. Distilled 
water for dropsy j poultice of the cones and Polypodium^ 
in powder with milk remove the worst rheumatic pains. 

THYMUS SERPYLLUM, Linn. Ground Thyme. 
Spontaneous. Pennsylvania. Fine fragrant condiment 
and stimulant. 

gic tribes, root mucilaginous pectoral. 

TILIA, L, Linden^ Basswood^ Whitewood, Spoon- 
wood, Sucumug or Sugumuck of Mohegans, Suciiy or 
Wuckopy of Algie tribes. Beautiful and useful trees', 
we have 5 sp. with T.stenopetala, Raf. Fl. lud. All eq. 
Wood very white and soft, used for canoes, models, 
spoons, turning, &c* when dry it .swims like cork, 
makes fine light charcoal for gunpowder* Bark used 
hy Indians for ropes, thread, cloth and tinder, also make 
of it a hard paste to pitch canoes. Blossoms fragrant, 
cephalic, sudonfic, antispasmodic, useful in tea for head 
ache, epilepsy, spasmodic cough, &c. They contain a 
peculiar substance Tiline^ soluble in water only and 
yellow brown, gum, tannin, salts, &c- Leaves and bark 
emollient, flax and paper has been made with bark. 
Seeds can make a kind of chocolate. 

TOXYLON AURANTIACUM, Raf. 18ir. {Maclu- 
reoyN. 1818) .^yac. Stinking wood. Bow woody ¥eUon> 
wood. Lately supposed the Morus tinctoria by some! 
which has fruits yellowish, edible, size and shape of 
mulberries I while Toxylon has fruits of size and shape 
of oranges, not edible I In Arkansas and Texas, wood 


^yes yellow, best bows made of it, hard and elastic. 
Useful for hedges, grows quick from mere cuttings. 

TRADESCANTIA, L. Spider flower. 12 sp. orna- 
mental, leaves much liked as greens by Cherokis. 

TRAGOPOGON, Lin. Oyster root. Fine vegetable, 
cult, and spont. Root tasting like oysters. 

TREMELLA, L- Treejelly. M 

on Maples deemed useful in sore throat. 

Raf. 1 807. Hy 

perician virginicum^ L. Schoepf. Tincture of flowers 
used in cholics, against vomiting, &c. 

TRICHODIUM, Mx. Walter grass. Smooth and 
sweet sugary grass, perennial, good winter fodder in 
the South. 


TRIFOLIUM, L. Clover. Valuable fotlder, flowers 

-^ fragrant, give much honey to bees. White clover or Tr. 

repens blossoms once used in gout, subastringent. We 

have 15 sp. TV. stolonifenim or Buffaloe clover worth 


Fever root^ Tmker weed^ Horse Ginsengs Ipecac^ Wild 
Coffee^ White Ginsengs Sincky of Indians. Root pur- 
gative, emetic, diuretic, tonic, &c. taste bitter and nau- 
seous, 5lbs- give 2lb. of extract, yields no resin nor oil. 
A mild purge, eq. of jalap in doses of 20 to 30 grains 
in powder, or half of extract. In larger doses emetic 
Impaired by age. Useful in fevers, agues, pleuritis, &c- 
Leaves diaphoretic, seeds- used as coft'ee by the Ger- 
mans near Lancaster. Ti% angustifolium or Minus, is 

TRITICUM, L. Wheat. Valuable cereal grasses, 
nianvsp- cult. Aftbrding straw, paper, hats, flour, bran, 
shorts, semolay vermicelli, macaroni, nndles^ gruel, por- 
ridge, pastry, cakes, bread, crackers, biscuit, starch, 
toasts, soups", &c. Tr. spelta equal to pearl barley. Tr. 
monococum affords best gruel and a good beer. TV. 

best white starch, and grows any where 

in driest or swampy soils. Wheat has much gluten, 12 
to 24 per cent. \^hence makes best bread. ^ Dry toast is 
good tor weak stomach, the infusion of it in fevers and 
debility. Burnt bread best charcoal to clean the teeth- 
Roots of TV. repensj Schoepf, eq. of Cynodon, sweet 


270 TYPHA. 

aperient, diuretic, vermifuge, decoction in obstructfons. 
TV, durum or flinty wheat, makes best Semoln or coarse 
meal, and this the best vennicelli and other Italian 
figured gruels and nudles, very healthy as diet for inva- 
lids convfllGSccnts* 

TROPEOLUM MAJUS, Lin. Nasturtium, Indian 
cress. Leaves and flowers eaten in sallad and soups, 
subacrid, diuretic, antiscorbutic. ^ 

TUBER, L. Truffle Tuckaho. Subterranean Fungus, 
the most delicious of all food. We have several native 
%p. not yet distinguished nor described. Bosc mentions 
one from Carolina, of fine taste, excellent to eat, but in- 
odorous- European very odorous, contains albumen, 
ammoniac, phosphate of (ime, arome. Very nourishing, 
aphrodisiac. Many dishes and a syrup made with theun 

Eaten greedily and destroyed by hogs, dogs, foxes and 

TUCAHUS, Raf. or Geynrmdariiu Tuckahoe^ Tucka- 

hoo of Indian tribes. Very different genus from Tuber 
and from Uperhiza of Bosc, although same native name^ 
nay all esculent roots called Tuckalio^ such as Apiosmid 
Patatos. Also subterranean fungus, Tuber has internal 
veins, Tuckahus a solid white mass, with wrinkles and 
gemules outside. Several sp. I have seen 3. T. ru- 
gosus, leviusmlus and atbidus. Parasite on the roots of 
Oaks and Hickories when young, detached when old- 
71 rugosus reach 401 b. weight. Fungose when fresh, 
hard brittle like starch when dry, tasteless, inodorous, 
esculentj eaten by Indians in many ways ; asserted by 
Dr. Macbride to be altogether modified gluten, without 
fecula nor fibrine !