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Full text of "Aristotelis et Theophrasti Historiae ?cu?m de natura animalium, tum de plantis & earum causis, cuncta fere?, quae Deus opt. max. homini contemplanda exhibuit, ad amussim complectentes ? nunc iam suo restitutae nitori, & mendis omnibus, quoad fieri potuit, repurgatae ? cum indice copiosissimo ? ex quo superfluum quod erat, decerpsimus ? quod vero? necessarium nobis visum est, superaddidimus."

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ARISTOTELIS E T" ?'* 





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THEOPHR AS TI 



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H I S T O R I AE, 



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Cum de natura Animalium, tum de Plantis 
&earumCaufis,cunaafere,qiue Deus opt 



max* homini contempland 



buit.ad 




amufsimcomplcftentes.-nunciam fuo refti 
tutae nitori , & mendis omnibus, quoad ficri 
potuit,repurgata% 

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CVM INDICE 




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SICVT SEHfENTBS. 






L V G D V N I, 



vfpnd GulielmHm Gn^eium, 

M. D. t I I* 

C«tn Priuilegio Regis 



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Hoc opcrc contincntur, 



ARISTOTELIS 

Dehiftoriaanimalium, L^" jx, 

Dc partibus animatm & carum caufis, Libn nn. 
De generatione animahum, Libri v, 

Theodoro Gdi^t intcrprete. 

Dc communi animalium greflu, Liber vnus, 

Dc communi animalium motu, Liber vnus, 

petro ^flcyonio intcrpretc. 



THEOPHRASTI 

Dc hiftoria plantarum, Libri ix. 

Et Decimi principium duntaxat, 
Dc cautis plantarum, 




Theodoro Ga*a inttrfrttt. 



A D HAEC 



Vocabula Latina & Grsca,cx Ariftotclis librisdc 

animahbus,8cTheophraiU de plantis. 

Jndices in prxfatos Libros>fummo laborc & 

diiisentia di&efti. 



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£X Uhfr 



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AND. CR ATANDBR 

Le&ori Salutem, 

m N T I B I candide Leftor 
Ariftotelis& Theophraiti 
Hiftorias, quibus cuncta 
fere qux Deus opt.Max. 
homini contemplanda & vfurpanda 

exhibuit,adamuisimcomplec1:untui 
creaturas inquam omnes,& fenfu prg 

ditas,qux Animalia dicuntur;& fen/ 
fus expertes,quas appellant PJantas* 
Vbi herclene^yquide in fpeciem tam 
humile,tam abiec1:u,tam'cp pufillum, 
in quo fummus ille creator no Cit fum 
me fufpiciendus,& cuius non fit vfus 
amplifsimus ♦ Qua profe&d re vix 
aliud quicquam exiftit,quod gloriam 
&amorem Dei,omnium parentis,in 
cordibus hominum magis excitet & 
inflammet ♦ Qudd autem huiufmodi 
rerum cognitio, meditatio'c]?,cum ad 
omne Philofbphix genus,tum prseci 

puead Medicina 3 tum ad vniuerfam 



a z dcni 




denic^ mortalium vita vtiiifsima ilt, 
ac maxime neceilariamullus eft adeo 
naris obefe , & a x communi fenfu tam 
alienus,quinon intelligat. Quum ve/ 
rd Ariftocclcs SC Theophraftus mihi 
in primis ad hoc facT:i videntur , per 
quos^orwg t^pvoluiteiufmodi myfte/ 
ria bem>nifsime mortalibus eftunde/ 

o 

re:ne tibi ea quocp parte deefIem,opti 

e<ftor,pfacuit eoru quae htic per/ 
tinent opera,fub incudem reuocata, 
niultd quam antehac diligentiuseme/ 
datius'cj?,publicis potius ftudijs, qu 
rei priuatse con(ulens,excudere. Pro 
inde abs te vehementcr contendo 
vt meo in tranffcribendis optimis au 
toribus ftudio,tuus ctiamin compa 
randis fyncerus animus refpondeat, 
Vale,8c~ librorum catalogum verfa 
paginarequire, 

AD LECTOREM. 

AJJmontndute duximut.opiime Zettor.priui <jnam Indicti no 
flrosad{rrtdidrit,priorc numirit Paginam.alterum nero ftr- 
fum tiufdim Pagina d<ft?nare:non fcmpcr illum qttem indicM.fcdab 
toipfo ad fithfc qnentcm denariu numi rum progrediendum tffe : ita ut 

auictmiditt.trcrefiatHtru,dccem illtt Vcrftbtu comprthenfum >JU- 



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I N D E X. 

I N ARXSTOTE- ~**p* * fr* 9&&&*# 6 9 . 10 

Ifs dc Hiftoria animaliom "*ft" t*fi*g*m fit 71.10 

libros Indcx. ^dtpequaptnguefcant 69-10 

^yidtpe ptnguejccntianHnm foecii* 

dafunt 69.30 

Bdom cn 24.10 %*sffdipii in animali locm 69.10 

^Tbortionesqua uocen ^egypti & fiori fanguis mifceri 

tur 167-10 ncquit 207. 20 





^Abcrtufacit & equa ^icgyptws gignit equum fluniati- 
& muher,odore extincla lucer lem 39-10 

»«* I99-IO ^Tcgypti nmlieres fxcuda 16MO 



^sicari nomine animal 12S 10 %-^Tegypti canes 201.20 



n^ttccipenfensbranchia 44.20 %s4*ricaquomaloucxetur 15)6.50 
ccipenfcrisfel 46.30 ^efalouulpicsliminuc 9 206.$O 




^ccipiter auiumcor non edit ^dfetm quadrupedum qua ratione 

2I5MO nofcatur I58.3O 







ccipitribm exiguws licn 46.10 %^ffrica maltiformes funt animam 

+si. ccipitr 16 tepws excubadi 136.30 ff* 2OI.3O 

•^fccipitcr ubi fclhabeat 46.30 *^//<* 40IO 

cipitrum pullifuauesfunt ^rlauda Lttet 19. 10 

I37-3G %^Uuda nidws 130.20 £? 2i3.rO 

^fccipitres ubi nidificent 137. 70 %s*lbardcola quartt jluuios 182.20 

%^/ccipitrutn genera 234.20 ^tlbicuUcibws 182.10 

^stccipttres ucnando interfe dtffe ^yflbugo oculi in omnibm fere fi- 

runt 234.20 mihs 21.20 

ccipitres carniuorifunt 180.50 %^iflbumen otti 15220 

^sfeetabulum 24.10 ^lbumen complcclitur origincm 

etabula uulua qu& habent pulli I33-IO 

*4-2-0 K^kiccdoamdt aquas 182.30 

abulum quo locofit j 7. 20 ^lcedonumfpecies^ nidws > 0* 

cheolm amnvs gignit pifccma- partws 221. 10 

£ r * w * 93*3° ^lcmaonputauit caprasper an- 

^chetacicaddundediila 90,10 res fpirare 221.10 

•^ifcid unde generentur II 9 10 %^&lcmanes poita quo morbo perie 

K^tculem i/ijtflorum IOJ.»0 rit I28.JO 

culeo qua armentur 18.IO ^flcyon quot oua pariat iOf.IO 

•^fcm ptfcts qnando pariat 106*10 ^"lcyonts tempm coitwt ior -IO 

" {"fcrofutiflcat I47.30 ^sflcc grauis utero melior 208.IO 

+^fc 144 pifcis quomodo ouaadat %^tlec mutatur 218. IO 

*43-2o tsiileces quanda pdriant I47.2O 

+s*dcps cqh animalibm 34*20 ^lccts fatcunditzs J47.20 







I N D 1 X« 



^yflccesgregatesfunt Z07.30 flinis 14^90 






^ftccum fxtura eft dpuagenm ^nguiDd quid comedant 190.10 

r 1 4.5.1O *AnguiD& non fuperfluitant mor- 
^/flgttUunde ndfcdntur np.30 tu<t 180.10 

^fhmcntumanimalium 176.10 ^sSfnguiDd quando transfcrenda, 

^fhpcconefiptfccs 1S9.IO fint 180.10 

^flucoauis 181.10 ^sfngummiclusdtfferunt 202.10 

^luushominU 18-30 %s4ngues membrana uerndtionis 

^/flui profluuio medcri codgulum exuuntur II6M0 

73.10 ^/fnguescirca^Lethiopiam uola 

+s4midpifcU 194.10 tes 18.I0 

%s£midpifcUgdudct fluuijsig +.10 %sfnguium mdgnitudo in^/ffiiat 
^mia quid comeddnt 179.10 lo 1.10 



^4miaincrcmcntum I48.IO %s£nguti oculorum *I 20 




nid quomodofe dcfcnddnt %sinimd quid fit 7.30 



115. *o ^Animdl quibud rcbus credripof- 

^miauhircperidntur 19 11 fit 11810 

%sfnaa agauiadifiidct 2jf.?o %sfnimdlium pdrtcsu.io.& 21.10 
%s4nas dqu4,s dmat lSl.30 •^fnimd/id quare dcgant locU dif> 

%s4natomcprimu*trddidit%s4ri~ iunttd 176.30 





floteles 8-?o ^fnimdliumdiffercntix 11.10 

. . Ji 

ngtna canes tntevtmtt 3^2. 10 & 19. 30 

'ngkiDdqua* pinnashabeat %^fnimalium minimttm 117.30 






4^.30 %sjfnimatium coitu* udrij ioo.jo 

nguillc quot pinnx, 17.10 %^fnimatibu4quibujda nutlumu- 

nguilld quomodo capiantur nus prater generationcm 

'ngkiDa Uuesfunt 44.20 ^nimalia qua quinq; fcnfws hd-* 



^fngkiDagulaefi , 32.10 bcant S9.30 



±sfnguiDd non habct ouum ncque %/4$diu dfWones £7» mores I74.30 



femcn 144.10 *s£ ' imdlidmirainmdri 86.20 

%s4fnguiDa nequcmas,nequefaem4 ^fnimaliumdiffcrentia quacxlo 

na efl 5>7-30 cUcfl 100.10 

KsinguiDd qud optim& 203.10 %ssfnimaliaqu£ cautafint xmo 



%^4nguiDU qualongauita x 80.20 %s*%atiu fom». ua Qr uigilia $c.$o 
'nguiDa quomodo pingue fcant ^fnimatium inccjfus $3-10 





6*910 ^sfnimatium aftro 187.10 

^/fnguiDarnm procreatio I46. 20 ^Tnimatium gcnert fumma 4C.10 

"nguittis quibufdam lumbrici ^fnimaliudtfiidia ob cibu 22.10 

/»/*** I46 10 ^Talperfifiu quagencrct 77.10 

nguiDa prodeunt ex tcrra inte ^fnirnalia uarie bibunt 1% .10 








I N * X. 

<*sfnmdlibus funt pdrtcs quxdam ^sfortaquopdttofitopibus dppti 

dats Hilnt drtnd 98.20 cata 60*io 

^ttnimalia alta e x fc minc ,alia Ji- ^'ortd duofunt mcatm dd tefles 

nejcminenafcuntut 99*20 y*-?0 

% s£r\imaimm motus quomodo aga- ^storta origo y8.IO 

tur 33.10 ±sfppcUiconTcitutquid depraua- 

imdliumfiudiiinqHibud ucr* rit j.30 

. fetur 176. 20 ^yfpcr exertos dentes hdbet 37.10 

^sTnimalili gcneratio uaria 99. 10 ^stpcr pifcts in amne ^Ccheolo uo 

^tnimaliumpdrtesdiucrft 31.30 cdliscxiflimdtHtefi £3.20 

^y^nimalium confidcratio quanta ^per quomodobene,quadoq; md 

fit 7.20 lcincat IIO-IO 

^sfnimdtorum £7* inanimatoru rne ^sfpcr quot branchiaa habct 44. 10 

dium non uidetur 329.30 ^pcr qua atate caHretnr 243*30 

nfer gregalts eft > l88<2o ^fpria fuis uirua efi 14^.19 

^nflrcs amant aquai 182. 20 ^fpro coeunti herdcum dpponi de 

fercsqualcsfint IJ.20 hct 15I.3O 

^nferis ucrecundid 8lO ^yfpri quado inire incipiat 10 9.30 

^fnferes fe a coitu lauant 132.20 ^fpri quadiu coitu ualeat 109-30 

fcrutempu4incubdndii$6.$0 ^^pes 7MO 

^tnfcns appcndices 50.30 ^pts melfcntiunt 92.IO 

nferps gula fo.30 ^pes hdbcnt aculcum 9)^0 

nfircsjlcrilia oudfape ddunt ^ytpes nrnrmar adunt 95--0 

ia.30 *s*pes coUiguntfinc fiorurn detri 

jirum fiemind tdntum incti- mcnto l3?*lO 

bant 1^7-2.0 ^pesoptimaqudfint 122.10 

^sfntandria fiuuij duo matant ca- ^pumfur I22.IO 

lorcspecori* 67-10 ^pumduccsnontantum in exa- 

^itntherina iuxta terrampant mine 122.20 

147. 10 ^Ap cs qn mcliwspxeniat 122.20 

rta arClior ucna maiore efl ^yfpcs tempcftatcprafagiut 1^.30 

57.20 ^gpesquandomoUificent 122.3O 

ort<e ucna pulmo anneflitur ^yfpum morbus 20CIO 

27.30 ^jpUfibidomumfdcit H'3® 

^fortamultasnuttituendsaduHl ^pes undc accipiant tperit fus 

uam jp.p materiam 234.20 

rta uenafpind anncttitur ^pfsfcnitugd^dent ^ 234.30 

79.20 ^fpesualcre quonofiatter z^>io 

%^iarta mittit rdmos ad laftcs ^pumpennA 83 . 10 

. 2n.20 ^pesutauesincubdnt 123.10 

^Hortaucna 57.10 ^pum foctm eandiduaeft 123.20 

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I N D £ X. 

^ApUreges futuo cnlore fdt 1x3.10 rum 113. IO 

^ygpes ubi melfaciant fincfauii ^fpumpenna cuulfd renafci no po 

i2-3-?0 ^ /<-/* 67 . IO 

^sXpum mos in floribus petcndis ^Apum ablato aculeo brcui morii 

230.20 turnccejfecft 6? . IO 

^pumgcnusoptimumquod pt ^sfpumucrmes 118.10.^.123-20 

I3I-IO ^pesnoCIuquiefcunt ^8.30 

^pf 5 cadaucraforas educHnt •^sTphuca opimat pccws 1 8tf .20 



I3*»*<5 > ^fphareutpinnulaTb-lnaio^o 

^yitpes fingulis muncribm fe diflri xApuagencratio 14^.20 

buunt 133.10 ^fptiagcnuscncraulos pdrit 

^Apumpurita-s inguflH $1.10 146.10 

^tpibus qua noceant 232.30 ^Cquam quopatto accipiant cm- 

p jes qud odio ( pfcquatur 233-20 flaintcfta g L2Q 



is&pes quando pottjstmum agro- ^Tquar 'u mut atio 

tcnt 20OIO 127.30 

^tpesueUntjiccamcbrana 18. 10 ^qnaquare dicatur diuina 

^dTpum regcs 8-IO 222.30 

^tpes larcnt ^0.30 ^tqna dulct* qua rdtione ex mari 

^Tpts animal ciuilc 14 10 colligcnda 177.30 

^Tpum Uborcs 7.30 *<*q*d «/** quibufdam ad refroc 

^pucibuai^^o.tT 187.10. £7* rationem.utnobis acris 178.10 

232.20 ^ ^Aquaingencrandouis i^. 1Q 

^fpum generdti* m. 30 ^C^udonn flatu mares concibiun- 



tur 



^p^prucsquadoopttma 123.10 •-* l*2-lO 

^tpum du. rs duplicc s ui.jo .^9««i quadam tnutant animaliZ 



^pZducesmatrcsHocaturizi^o colores 67.10 

^pHmfcdulitad 223.20 ^fquaticulus lulo 

^pumHitdfexannoriefl m ^o ^ifquattU quare dicatur dnimal 
^yfpumgcnwsinPonto candtdum i?8-2o 

123-30 ^juattlia acrc uiuentia 12.30 

^/>« i» ffrr^ ctiamfauosfaciunt ^Aquatilia dormiunt 9 %. lo 

I2H° -Aquatilmmordoduplcx u. ? o 

^sfpum duces non utuntur aculco ^Aquatilt ung H -s 6*zo 

122-10 ^AquilabcllHmgcrit cum dracone 

^pHmducesquopaSlo nafcantur 20J.30 

12 2.IO ^Aqutla anguibud ucfcitur 207.30 

yumgcncrd 122. 20 ^f</ 




w^T/>25 quandoflcrcus emittdt, qua gra4 dufirina rubras ft 
donon 123.10 iro 30 

^rfpibuspro pabuUfunt ucrmes co ^/fqla cudrdcolapugnat 



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I N D E X. 





•stqniU carniuord Junt &cs m.io 145MO 

^/fquila pygargu* 136.20 ^rietcs cornigcri gencrdntnr in 

^/fqnila marina hnmorc gaudct ^tfiica 201.20 

182.30 ^crictcs noucUas faemeDas minua 
^cquila qux animalia ucnctur pcrfequnntnr in coitu 11020 

223.ro Ufrieth It ngua adcolorem fcctus ja 
^qniladiuniuit 223.IO cit 110.10 

^cqniU quot oua pariant 136. 20 ^criflapifcis inxta tcrram gcncrai 
^sfquiU putli 136-20 147.10 

^qnilaquotdicbus cxcubeti$6io ^riHotclU praconinm 7. 20 

^squtlarum fcxgcncra J21.20 ^ifrisluU pifces grcgatim habitat 

qutlacxcarttlagincis 102.10 207.30 

rabia cameli 34-IO ^cro hcrba fibi mcdcri ursui^.io 

Vancorum cibus I4-30 ^rteria conflat cartiliginc 28.10 

^trancornm gencra 228.IO ^rtcria habet qb 9 pulmo eflz$.io 

^francus ab/orbct bumorcizy.yo ^strtcrid oniparts omnib* cji.i^. 10 

n^franei nndv procrccntnr 118.20 ^frteria, ojftcinm I8.IO 

ranei quot dicbus confumman- ^trteria quopaflo tcndat adpul- 
tur adtuftuincremcntu I2f.20 mencm 1810 

^rami uermiculos pariut i2r- IO ^rtcriano omnibus fimilk 4^20 

^^ranei tridunm incnbant 125.10 ^Trterid qua parsnomineturie.^o 

^franei ubipariant Ur-lO ^trtcria origo tuxta osjirpcttbus 

^raneus llatimex ucrmiculofor- pofitacjt 40. IO 

matusfalit Ilf.ic ^trticnlusdigitorum ic.io 

^ranci pratcnfes qno paflo pa- ^rundinis florc apcsnafci 2130 

riant I2JIO ^fcalaph 9 appcdtccs habct rc?o 





^rancus quibus tcmporibus uenc- ^ffcarides unde nafcantur 118 30 

tur 128-30 ^ffellus pifcti latet 191-30 

^craneus etiam maiora animaltd ^fiabcUUcjfcraciercs 201.30 

*i*ci* 129.10 ^rfi f ios 83.10 



~*rcana* dtftate cxtennatur 180.10 ^ffilus thunnornm 127.20 




rtliquotcmporc fint Undatifii ^ffili aculcus I8-IO 

micibi llr.30 ^ffilts qualts fit tingna 88.20 






^crdcola auit petit aqnas 122.10 ^filifanguiuorifunt 187- IO 

^frdcoht inimica ptpo cfi 206.*0 ^fjils undc proucniant 13.10.CP 

sfrdeolarumuita 21820 Il<MO 

^trdrrjarumgcnera zo6. 20 . & ^fmapurgatioipartn I4MO 

21 8.10 ^fftnusfiigoru tpatits cft 200.IO 

^crgathytts ingeniofa auis efl in fa ^tfint angnis 7 o. IO 

ciendontdo 216.50 m^tfinus fndicus 3MO 

+scrietcs tcmpore coitus ferociunt % sffinusnonhabetfil 46.20 

h f ~*fin* 



tAjindursnd 150.30 • cius generdnt 130*10 

^fina d caitu interpeUanda, alias ^iues quo locofelhahednt 6%>yy 

femenreucit 177.10 ^Cuiumfitus tautero ijl.io 

^finicoitm IJ7-IO ^sfues pturima habcnt tenucinte- 

^finm nonhabet pediculu 45.IO flinum 70.30 

^sgfinm quddo fcipiat inire 110. 10 ^sfuium odorandi for<tmina 90.10 

fina cotinue parcre pot 153. 30 +sfu 



^/ffinorum morbm I9>3C ioS-lo 

^finorum altmentum 100.20 ^fucs qualehabeat inuulua mem 

^yitfinalac 72.20 branam v.io 

fin& ucrecundia 157-10 ^ucs pcdicutis hfefidntur 127. 20 

Xfinaequutcoiturecipit 1 57.30 wi**e* qua brcucm^ajHc longd 

^ffinum quifuxit cquam, admit - ^dihabeant caudam 42-30 

tuntequa 157-30 ^tuiumlingua 41.30 





^ftninum lac mifcent dd caftum ^ucspalmidss in aqua 3 magna 
conficiendum 73.10 ex parte ucrfantur 182.IO 

rfioauis 181 IQ ^fttcshyemcpetut campes 188. IO 

ficnum gencrd 220.20 +-^f*es afiate pctuntmonus\%%.io 

r ff>iduiclmnnUumcft remedii ^ues quomodofuos inflexm a°*t 
202.20 33.IO 

+sfthimonti*fHCt 101.2.^ %*<£ uc s mammlc c*»pn* 72.IO 





^tramctum in mollibus cfi 76.30 ^uium oua j~ 2.0 



^AtricaptUa 181.20 ^uium os peculiarc 42.10 



^AtrtcaptUa part 9 & nid 9 II7.30 ~^«^ partum difftrre pojfi 
^cttclabu genus locujia quod Cra I3230 

ciuoccnt ^o ^Hiumappendices C0 . I0 

^Attendo pars quaaduircs corpo- ^ucsaquaticaubi nidificcnt 

ruiuuat 54.10 125.30 

^ucupandiratio ^05-30 ~*f"i" m mares multi ouafr 

^yiuditus inanimatib* fedcs 90-10 J ?5*0 

^uditus pifciuargumcta 511.10 •^rfiirj 9«* puluerc fc uotutent^ 
^udiendimeatm 22. 20 q u a aqua lauentur 243.10 

^yfudiendimcatmpifcium 44.30 *-**rtw*w» **»** i*8.iq 

^•«« quaamsca 207.10 ^t^res hominifoli immobilcs 

~*uium Quum putamine duro con &>lo 

P dt 130.20 ***"ium feemina quando canani 



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H5.20 ^4ues omncsfcl hstbcnt 45. 2.3 

^uiumcoitm IOO.30 ^ues habent tejies * f , 

***** /Mrf » pracipue uere 118.30 ^Hespleraq; puUos maturos ex- 

^ucs quibm ungues adunci,par^ pcUunt 1*7.10 

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I N D E X 



%s€*ti dpedes 



14.10 




ucs pcnnis plurimum udlentes 

14.10 
%s£ues dfldtc incubdntes celerim 

excludune 131.30 

^cues quibm tcmporibm meUm ^Cuium crifld 

ualeant 



^sfuibm quibufddm ndturd caUd* 
dedit 43*2.0 

^Cucs qud uotdcesfint 43.10 

^sfues qud calcdrigerd» dd uolan- 

45' 2 * 



dum ineptiores funt 




194.10 
uium odordndi medtm in re- 

41.30 



flro continetur 



U 



43.ZO 
^tuium gcnerdtio in cuo quid cH 

pifcibm comune habedt 138.30 

^nium teflcs IOl-lO 



41.30 ^uibmquibm locutionis praci* 



^Autum OCH 

^Tucs in nidU pdriunt 130-10 pudjacultas fit 
^Cucsfylucftres quotiespariant 

108.10 
^ACues quot notUfe moucdnt 1 8 10 

'uibm qud ungucs babcnt adun- 

coSjfemorafuntmdximd 42.10 

^^tucsomnes ouapdriunt 129.30 



I*9-iO 




^^uiumfemcn genitdle 

utsfceminaubi cnncipidt 131. 10 




^"uiHmaurtHm meatm 41.20 
^^guiummorborumfignd 194.20 
^Cucs nifipariant moriuntur 

I3 H° . . , 

^HCSa coituinborrcfcunt 132.30 
es pUraq; Itcnem exiguum bd 
bcnt 46.10 



4ue s minores lingudcioresfunt 

139.20 
^ues tempore coitus loqudciores 

139-20 
^fucs noucUd oud ddunt pauciora 

10910 
13MO %^tuesquomodobibant 184.20 

uium roflrum dugeri in fenc- 
Cfute 




66.3O 

^tues quibm pdrtibm & a fcip^ 
fis & ab alijs dnimalibm dijfe- 

49.30 




rant 

^ruium duces *71' l ° 

uium penna per dtdtcm nonul- 

U mutantur 66.30 



^Cuium oua uento concepta imfm- uium ojfa parum interfe diffe- 



cunddfunt 

^/fuium incubitm 
x^fuium partcs 
^stfuium crurd 



10O.IO ~<runt 6I3O 

+sfues multx conduntur 191. 10 

18.IO 



137.20 



41.IO %*s£uesqu4* uocemus 



4I-30 
% s£utbm quidpeculidre intcr cste 

rd dnimalia 



^ytucs exiguo dut ettdm qud~ 
dam nullopotu contcntdfunt 



^sfuiumftmur 

^s&uium cibm 

^4ucs quibmfunt adunci ungucs 



41 10 18230 

^sSCues renes non habent 



41.10 

1S1.10 



46.30 




tfil 



Cdrntuora omnesjunt 1S1.10 f unt cdlcdrid»foemints 
^Cuium mdrcs cdnunt quida utfce IOO-IO 



minafu* p-. IO 

nes quo paClo efficiani nc quid 
inpulmonem dilabatup 43.20 



^yfues quddam uento conctptunt 

9O.30 
^iCues omnes copidm unguium hd 

btnt 



I 'N D E X» 






hent 

\ 

m^jfnc '*i%ultifide funt 
m^ucs plantipcdcs 

•^fuium dtgtti 



miumpulmo 



41.IO 
42-10 
42.10 



20.20 
%s£uricuU cju 
nc confldnt 





63 20 
uium quadam genera litcraa 



4220 ^TuricHltsqH&carcant 41.10 

u^uriuittU quid cdat 181.20 




proftrre poffunt 43.20 

^/£uU cuiufdamfcythica morcs 

223-10 
^/fuicuU quopa[ie mutcnt uocc 

^/fuicularum ucntriculus f 2. 10 
^/furat* dormicntcs capiuntur 

98.20 
^gurata UttoralU pifcU 185?. 10 
^uratdpifcU fiigorc Uborat 

195.IO 
^siurdt* partu* 147. 20 

utTHvdtd quotpinna* habcat 

17.20 
^furata ubipariant 106.30 
^tHrdtapdHcaappcndiccs 5020 
^urciia 118.30 

%^&urci fimia hominU more habct 



tler impedit uolatu* auium 



%s£u5Iri fidtu foemin* 

15-2.10 
^ssTuxHma. uocantur ca 



.?...-* 




148.10 



^A 



B 



JBalena, gcncrant atal 141.10 
Balena naturd l7j~\Q 

BalcnU dcfunt branchU I7.r0 

*t fiflula 17.10 

141.10 
ormiant 06.20 



Balena quot adant 
Balena quo paftn A 
JSaUru* pifci* 



1 - , *' 3 ° 

JBalerua quo loco pariat 144 . 20 

Balcri morbm 



-fi 



fltfufc 



I96.IO 

66.20 



39-20 



I.IO 



11.20 



^sfurU pars capttic 

%^£urU pars intcrior 22 20 

%sfurU mcatum nullum habet ad 



tfi 



turtncypro 120.3(1 

Biblts comtnunU efl animalibua 

%s4uru cx qua materia conflituta Bipedumfitus in ufcro 172.10 

22.20 Bifulcaanimalia 



ecrc 



brum 



22.20 



% ^tfurium meatus auium 42. 20 

i^furemfolua homo non mouct 

22.30 
^urium diffcrenti* rnultd 12.30 



?4-?o 

Bifulcafunt qua cornua habcnt 

Biualuia quo loco habcat pabaucr 
84.23 



^turc s ad audicndum aptifiima, JBiualue quodgenut appcllct 82.10 



22.30 
^sfurc s nonfunt indiccs morum 



21.30 



itudt 



^iurtum magnttudo 22.30 

*%sfuricuU aurUjpars extcrior 



BUtta ubi gignantur 11 9.20 

Bolitanafpecicspolypi 72.30 
Bombyx unde fiat II9.10 

Bombycia tcxiffc quendam in Coo 

• in f hU Iio.ro 

£om 



IMDEt, 



nidis 



iftrid infc 



Bombycum uermes 
Bombycumcera 
Bombyzum genus 

Bonafus 
Bonafus in P&onia 



11430 
13.10 
13.10 

178.2,0 

3H° 
3H° 



JBondfui nbt gi*ndtur 2,3.9*30 

2393° 

240 10 



Bon<tft n 
Bonafi caro 
Bonaficxcrementum 140.10 

Bonafus emnia interiora ut boues 
habet 



Boum cornud 3? '30 

Boues fylueflres ubifint 34,10 
Bouesjylueflresqualesfint 34.IO 
Boues fylneftres quid differdnt db 

urbdnis 34. IO 

Boues in Phrygia funt qui cornuA 
Htdures^mouent 64-IO 

Boues etiam fomniare 95« 20 

Boum unguld pice illitd udletmt 

lius 



I98.2O 
lisfit 



I98.20 



det 



gduaet dquvs 



182.20 
184-30 
I02.I0 



Bofca 

JBos forbendo bibit 
Bos ex cdrtilagineU 
JBQSpifcis oud nonhdbet 141 10 
Boucs quidam in cordefuo oflicu- 
lum continent 



46.5O Bouis languentis ftgnd 198. 20 

Bubus copidm Idttts dugentfdbs. 



73« S°- 

Bubulum lac 



72.20 
r eum 



JBoum hox 



defid 



46.IO 
98.10 



72.30 

tbulo ex tergorefitglutinttm 



£4.30 

Brdrhium 



18530 

wesquibus rcbus uefcdntur m & 



pingnefcant 
Boummorbi 

Boum pedum curd 



1S5.10 

TpS.lO 

18MO 



agitur 

'achiafi 



ifiexus iu interiora 

2C.20 



matent 



154.30 



f 



154.30 

Boucs tabordnt pedibus If 4.IO 
Boumjicietds in pafcendo 109.10 
Boues magni in JZpiro 73*3^ 

Bouespediculos habeni 127. 30 
Boum csitus 154. 10 

Bcues quandiu uiudnt 154.20 

if I5.IO 

100.20 



Boucsmitcsfunt 

Boumpotus 15 

Bouis dentes 3 

Bouesfeniorcs qnomodopofi 



20 



w<e 39-30 

momodo infiecldtur 

25. 2.0 
Brdchidfimia dd modum bominis 

Junt fed hirtiufculd $9>30 

Brdchidle quid uocetur 25.30 

Brdchiafimid ut hom* infieCiit 

39^0 
Brdchij pdrtes 25.20 

Brdchium etidm ulnam appclld- 

mus 25.20 

Branchias qua, dnimdliddcteSlai 

hdbcdnt 17.10. O* 44- IO 

Brdnchid delphinis defunt 17. IO 
Brdnchidrumufusin locuflis 

BrdnehidqHOtJlntgUdiopifci 



pinones reddi 



185.20 



44.20 



^r4» 






IN D I X* 



!/* 



C<e/j*4 0* cdpltii 



6l.lO 



partim dttetlafunt 44.10 Calud uertcx quiduocemua 36.20 
fdnchidruinpifcibuaufus dx.xQ ' ' 



JBtdnchias intcgras qua non ha - 

bcant 43*30 

jBranchidtorum difcrimind^.iQ 

Jfrdnchias bdlena no hdbct 17.10 

jBrdficd generdt erucas 119. 30 

Jtrenthusduis montes^Jyluaa co 

lit 



Cdlud fcrrdtd pars 



82.10 



mulierU unam habetfuturi 
36 20 
Itu ucrtex quibufddmgerninus 

$6 > 20 

' futuriscdret 82.10 

35.10 



Cdlud pdrtcs 



</? 



& */fl 



liy.IO Cd/*d tresfuturas hdbet 36*10 



Jfrucmgtnus locufld 



2iy-20 Cw« 
65.30 fk 

T-30 



r/2 



67-20 



JPwci unde procrcentur 118.30 pofleriore nemo 
£ruci quando pdridnt 
Jlrndoru oud qn intercdnt 
jtnbdli fanguis fbras non , 

61.10 
JSubo 



ftunt,fedp 



- . . 65. lo 

118.10 Cdluitiumquiiuocemm 6mo 

Hp.lO CdlUitium malieres pueri & fbd- 
dbet | dones non patiuntur 6M0 

Cdmclm quopdclo urinam redddt 



181.10 



nr.10 



JBucctna qngeneretur 107.30 

JSucctnafcabrd 81.10 Cdmeli tcmpus coeundi 



111.10 



0/< 
1*0 



/<**)? 



Cdmelm quandiuferat uterum 



IIMO 
III- 10 



IIJ. IO 



JBuccinis quimodm gigntnii fit 

113. 10 
JBuccinis qua fit paflendi rdtio 

HJ50 

JPuccind qudndo Idtcat 1 90.10 

.#»* f 4«tf /JlWJ/tf 01*7*0 l8l.IO 

J?«ffo /™#*V r««4 r/| 106.10 

./frirro Ao/fa r*£r/< #/? 206.10 



iiMO.fir: 

Cdmeli cAn-J* 



1 85.30 
Cdmeli fu 

Cdmelui t 



34-10 

dcfiderant turbidi 



* 



C 




^Tebmfi, 



g»* ■ 530 

\melu$md4fauit tempore coitus 

149.10 

iwete cj? c«*t equis odium ndtu- 

rale 



& 



f 



foemina 



14.9*0 



43.40 
Cdlculi quo pdtto gigndntur 68. 10 

Cdlidrts dqua* pctit 



U2.20 



<7 



244.10 

melos quot quidl in ^fid pofii 
deant . ^ 244.10 

\rfusfunt 244.10 

34.20 

Cd 



Cameli papiUt 



I N D l 3C. 



Cameligenitate 34. 20 f* 7 $. 10 

c dmelictunes *-_.m /*,*»/•»; a«_ <_« u-_../2_ ____ _ 



C 



^Wf 



3 4- 30 Cancrt per mer crmftd exHHntur 
lm animal bifulcum 34.30 litf.30 

{*/** 3+-3° Cancrifluuiales 7 S.io 

c *melusdiuHiuit 1*4-30 CancrimaU 78., 

CdmeUrmm grcjfus 33.30 Canccr quomodo ineedat 18.20 

Camelus quom odo mingdt $61 30 Cf» <fcfi /<*/ «* unde gencrentur 
c *mcliardorincoitH 131.10 iyi.io 

Camdi lac 71.10 C<*»r / />ii/c/ »»afe gencrcntur 



2.40.30 



*/?/>»<f iyS.30 201 20 

P nonfuperuenirc Canes ut coeant cumft 



-ff> 



202.IO 



uonutum 



37-1° ^ ^ Hcnt ll0 , lo 

Cameli £a£iriani ab ^Arabijs dif Canes quo paclo nungant 1 «.10 

/**■*«# 3%« j O Canes quot pariant • K3.10 

Camelicoitm lol.io Cants quandiu uiuat 1^3.10 



CanceUus quomodo generetur 



/a 



n^o ff * 3^?o 

Cancelli dejcriptio 84.20 -*<**-/ qualcsnam dcntcs habcant 

Canccr 7 g # l 73.10 

Cancrorum gcnus erufia tedum Cdnum mammd fp&* 



1^.10 Cdntdngustusefl uentc* 4S.20 

Cancrorumjorceps dexter mali- Cnnum amor t.iO 

rf/ot» 81.I0 C<*»w tcmpus ad uenerem iyo. 10 

Cancri quidam in nonnmUis tefla Canis calua flne futuris efl 6l.io 

opertis nafcuntur 113.10 CV*»« ^ duodecimu dnnu coeunt 

Cdncrerum inteflinum io-io HMO 

Cancrorum pedcs 78.20 Canum ingenium iy.20 

Cancri quo pacloore mdneexci- Canes laeoniciungeneretur 102.1O 

#>/<*«/ 80.10 C**« quo inercmctd cdpiit 37.IO 

Cancrorum genus multiplex efi Canibus richnm pecutidris 117.20 

78.10 Cdnumrdbics lp8.IO 

C4» /rri exuuntur fcne&utc 1^3. 30 ^W pro£/ r r f 4f effo; fdHtmnt 
Cancri ambutdrepojfunt 13.10 I40MO 

Cancrorumgenus 7MO Canes qticdnire dicdtuf JJO.IO 

Cancer mas qui dijferat a mare Cdnis pes 3+ # 3 

IO4.10 Canioseflrefcijfum 35MO 

CVwm 9*0 £4<fo cyrfflf I04-IO Crfari *» wa/e »f J.»f*i jS.IO 
Cancrorum ocn/i 76.IO CJ7* If 310 

Cancrorumgenus mirducloeitd- Cdnisorpmeflhirtmm 35.30 



I N D E X. 



Cdnumgcncrdplurd 

Canes locanici quando cocant 



lfZ.2o Capracoitm 



&l\ 



f* 



I52.2O 

Canum cottws 



v? 



172.30 
152.30 



I52.IO 

pra iws quamobrcm concrcfcdt 
69-10 



Cdnum pru 

Cdnum Uc 



Irj 10 Capra uenerts expcrtes quaratto* 



153.10 



Cdnes qutbrn morbU Idborcnt 

197-3° 
Cdnum dtas ex dentibua iudicdtur 

I53.30gr22.i0 
Canes angina morbo moriuntur 



ne Uc prkbeant 
Capvs duces nonfu 
Capratum folcrtia 



74.10 
Cdprarum cibu4 



72.20 

If2-20 
2I0.2O 

M fdbd, 

i8tf.*o 



198 10 



ifesft 



Canes magnt tn Eptrt* 
Canum uox 

Cdni purgdtio 153.10 ^I g 3 
Cdncs etidmfomniant 



733° 



136.20 



10.9 10 Cdpra qukm longa uitd 



20 



bifi 



Cdnes dnniculi cocunt 



65.30 



xOMO 



tOp.30 

CanU quandiu uterumgerdt uq 

10.er152.30 

Canes htrbam tritici comedunt 



<r< 



rum 



contra lumbricos 



151 .10 

Caprps uoxpropria adcoitum 
5>4«3° 



W* 



153.10 
fitdnimdl 39.10 

femtl in annoparii 



140-30 
Cdniciem ccleriutft 

bomines 
Canicies undefit 



lii.io Caprapes 35 13 

Capra menflruorum ftgnnm oflen- 

dunt 135. 20 

Capra qua occafiane obflupefcant 

208.10 



65-10 
6f.io 

Cantharida unde nafcdntur 120 10 
Cdntws dnimalium tempus 15.10 
CdpeUd auU petit aquas 182.30 
Capito cdrne dbftinet 179.10 

CapUonU pdrtus I47. 20 

Cdpitonum alimentum 179*20 
Cdpitones quando paridnt IOMO 



Caprafunt impdtientes fr 

208.30 . 
Cdpra urina 
Cdpfarcdtuos habent 



151-10 



137.IO 

Cdpr£ ualetudinaria funt 187.10 
Capriceps duu non hdbct lienem 



46.IO 
pricipi 

prificu 
iprifici 



fcU 



47-1 o 

I2p.IQ 



CdptfUcprabuitinZcno 72.20 ficus fe 



CdpraJ fomnidrt $4. 30 

Capra nuUo modo Jpirdt ptr aures 
22.10 



forma 



130.10 
221.10 



Caprimum oculorumj?onotum mo 



4 



2I.20 



Cdp 



paflo cubcnt 



18330 



tfium aptum 

72.30 



I N B E X. 



Cdprire 



finefuturd 10. 10. Cf 



i*MO quaddmlcuid 



tft.IO 



omnibu* dnimdlibui fup 
mdtrc cfl 



44-tO 

CdrttUgmeorum coitus i o t . i o 

CartiUginei gencrU facmina mare 

maior 



CdpitU off<\ 

Cdput tcFla tctlorum 



171.10 

tfi.10 
85.10 



quafv 



lOl.fO 

xoi.ro 



continctur 



fid fututU ofi 



f4-*o 



fit communU 



CdpjtU pdrs poTterior 
CdpitU mdgnitudo udrid 



mtnws 



diculu* in capillo ejl 



fixd 



Cdrtildginc* extrcmd nonnuUorum 

*fiium confldnt s ? . 1 o 

CdrtiUgined quotics pdridt 1 o 6. 1 o 

CdrtiUgincd oudgignunt 17.10 

r*»*/>0 Cdnildgincum genus omne hycme 

117.30 conditur 



61.10 

17. lO 

Z7- 10 



i* 



81.30 



riiT^ 



tO.IO 

r?rfp«r dnimdlium 
Cdrdueli cibud 
Cdro tefld intc&orum 



ifitnt 



i*r.?o 

£9.10 



r79.ro 



181.10 

81.10 



fi 



94.10 



communU quibua fit = jf^td c*/f 



^ 



CdrojquiUarum 79-10 

Caro diuifibilU undiq;efi $*.to 

Cdrodbolctur qudndo dnimdlgrd- 
cilefcit 6 *.- 

C4r« ucrtitur in pingue 68.10 



^ 71.10 

r^/?«# fJT f «* UcTefidi 7x10 

Cdftrdndi duarationcs 



fl.io 

dnimalia 



i4?.?o 

Cdflrdtorum uox 



Cartilagineadormicntidcdpiuntur CdtdrdaaguU ro .to 

Cdtdrdfta duit in mdri uiftitdt 



98.10 

rtiUgineorufoecuditdtis 1 4 < 

rttUginea pdrticuUtim fi 
adunt 



Xlf.lO 



CdteUi cdci gignuntur 



61.10 



140.10 
differdt ab offe 



da qutbud fit pro pdrte infi 



107. ?o 



r# 



Cartilagineorum oud t7 . lo 

CdrtiUgo ruptd non repdratur 
6j.io 

J Cdrtilago in quibm meduUam con - 

tincdtjn quibus non 



Cduddrum pili 
Cduda cdmclli 

Cdudts ndtdnti 
Cduda uol 



ucrum 



Cdudam qua habeant 



foeminU dijfe 



mares anidam 



<*?-io Cduddfi 



<fi 



$5.?0 

?4iO 

?4--0 

|f-IO 

4*?0 

*?.t© 
40-rO 



IOI.IO 



dum d{£ 



M 



14.10 



( 



tf 



I N D E X. 






Cdufd qua prima, qudq; feeunda, 

4-tO 

Centiptdd quomodo euomet ham* 

22f.20 

Centipcda, Jf-io 

fentipedes mdrU ineola 4 r 

Centipedes quomodo moueantur 

- 88.10 

Cera bombycum 

Cera ex qua mdterid fingat 122. $ o 

Cerdnthemos 12*. 10 



tur 

Ceruut rumindt 



244.30 



defuntfib 



61.20 



Ceruomdri uoxgrduior 109.IO 
Cerui genitale neruofum 36.30 

If.20 



Ccruorum ndturd 



It*.20 



Ceruw in capite gignuntur uermes 

46.10 
Ceruorum pruden tid 



205MO 
461 10 



animaiwws fit Ceru<i flatim apartu edunt inuoln 



27.TO 
Cercbrumhominis t7-IO 

Cerebrum in chamaleone ubi pofi- 

tum fit 
Cerebrum cenfis caret 



crum 2I0-IO 

Ceruarum inuolucrum creditur ha 



bere uim medicam 



201.10 



41-30 



70.IO 



Cereb 



rum 



adip 

>.fi 



•f< 



Cerui quo paclo cdpidntur 2IO.20 

Ceruua ereclis auribm dcerrime 

fentit 



210.20 



69.10 Cerui aflate pinguefcunt I60-IO 



Cercbru fanguine cdret 24.10.^ 

41. JO 
Cercbrum frioidum 24.10 

Cerebrum quibu* mcmbranU mu- 

niatur 67.20 

Cerc brum ouif fcjualiducfl 69 . 20 

Cercbrumubi fuum fu 20. tO. £7* 

41.20 
Cenbri membrdnt 27. 10 

Ctrebrum bipartitum 27.10 

CerebcUum 27.10 

Cerinthifioresapesnafci" 121. *o 
Cernua quibufddm tcmporibws la 

. t*t I9I.20 

CcrnuapifcU citocrefcit io6-*0 

Cewut quidcomcdant 179.20 

Cerru* mtttat colorcm 103.20 

Certhid duiculd qualts 118. 10 

Ceruipes 3^10 

Ceruix coUipdrs 59.20 

"rjipifcium 4,-30 



i/4 maquam j\ 

160.10 
Ceruorum c;aro ut hircorum olet 

tempore coituj I60.I0 

Cerui habcnt inteflinum imbeciUe 

160 -xo. 

CV *•«<« ubipdriant 20 9. 10 

Ccxuimorfi ajlrpcnte cancros c- 

r/awf 2IO.IO 

CVrai cornud decidud 3 f .^ 

Ceruusfolua omnibws dnni$ cornud 

amittit. 64.10 

Ceruos ^Tchdinosfelin cauda ha 

bcre 46.20 

Ceruosftnes quo paElo cognofca- 

mus 209-30 

Ccruorum ddminicula 209. 30 
Cerui donec rccipiant cornua »0- 

ftupafiuntux 209.30 

Ceruiqnaratione prapdrent cor- 



nua 



210,10 



Ceruices plurimis neruis continen. Ceruorum inteflinum amaru 46.20 



Ccr 



I N D E X. 

Certfu* cdpt wt efl hederam fuis in' fimillf ai* 

cornibus habens uiridem 210.10 ■ chamxleonU celor mutatur toto 
Ceruicornua 3^.30 corporc ^ Q 

Ceruoru cornuatotafolida 64.10 Cbamate* pigre mouetur 41.30 

CoruorHmfanguisqHopaclofptjp- chamaleo qualis fu mortuua 

iHr 4r-30 41.30 

Ceruarumubera je 9 30 Cham&leonis pult 41.33 

Ceruiquomodo oledht,quidq;fa- chamaleo ubi habeat arteriam 

ciant po/i coitnm 160.1^ 41.20 

Ccrua docet hinnulumfuu 20.9.20 Chamaleoubi habeat fanguinent 
Cerua pugnat pro hinnulis futs 41.10 

2.09.20 Chamaleonis pedes 41.10 

Ceruua prapinguis cur fecedat chamaleqnts membrana firmx 

Ceruua ubi amittat cornua zop.io chamaleo di/fcilusjjpirarc tamen 
Ceruorumcoitus 159.20 dtupotcji a U * 

Ceruorum partua 159.20 ChamaleonU interna partes quot 

Ceruus celeriter crefcit 15.30 41.20 

Cerua apartupurgatio ir 9.30 chamatea cerporU partes mouere 
Ccrua qua ratione hinnuhs fuos adarbitriumpoteff 41.20 

defndant ^ 159-30 chamaleonU donuctlia 41.20 

/pacium 159.30 chamaleo Uccrtafwuli* 41.1 



fctffaaure 159.30 Chamaleonis defc 
nua habet , nonf<x- chamalconis cauda 



tto 41. 1 

4I.I 

mma .98.30 charadrium aucm unde u$mjm 

CeruU raro patiutur marc iouo mua 215.20 

Ccu • I7.10 Chenalopeces l?I-30 

Cctequibus br anchU non funt ,a- Chromis ojfcnditur algorc 

nimal gcnevant 141.20 I94.30 

Cetedatamammafunt 7130 chromesfcmel pariunt ioc.xo 

Cetarij odores pifces cxcitant chromis pifcis ut Jtquide audit 

^'3° 91.20 

Cctarij generis coitus l0 2.2o chromtspifcisuidetur uocalU 

Chalcida l99 . l0 92 . 50 

vfeHetur chryfalides n 9u % 



196-10 



cbam 



Ctbt quomodo dijferant 170 .10 
alis fit au'u 115.30 Cibi qui infiant,obfunt nutricibws 



* or *«* 113.10 174.30 



lorem 



S9«I 



41-30 Ctcada alimcntum ros ejf. 89.I 
Chamalco niger crocodtlo non dif Cicada non habet excrementum 

i Z 8* 



I N D b r* 



89.10 

Cicadarum mult dgenerd t 9 .lo 4f?o 

Cuaiacanunt 9«-«o CtnElum 

Ctcadx ubi non funt arberes ,non t9- <o 



CtnHut prdcordid appelUntnr 



'fcptum trdnfucrfu 



prouenmnt . IZ^-xo 1.»«™*««^»««'«/*«' 

Cicad» oku ddeaantur 126.20 »'dum »i5.<« 

Ctcddarum coit U4 U6.10 Cinnamomum cpo fdfolcgant 

Cicdddmarci canmt , femin* fdct zi<s. ? o / jj 

Orcwf acciptter uulpcm tnuadit 

Z6 tO l * 

Cicadd quo ndm pdtlo cdpidntut *o6.io 

Ctrri undt proucnidnt »19.10 

Ciclddundc gn e rentur n%.zo Cirrilolligmt* 7 6.to 

Ckdddrumduogencrafuntizs. 10 Ctutks dntmdntes qudfint »41 

Cicddd qud eanunt , quales fmt clerws noctt fau* ico.to 

xz6 . lo CoaguloUc cogitur 7 uio 

Ctcaddmutd IZ6MO Codgulum quid fit 7 ,.i© 



<fi 



7^*0 



CicerepingHefcHntfues 197.10 CoaguUm pr«t}dntim quodfit 

CicindcU 7f*° »M° 

CicindcU undc ndfcdntur 71-50 Codrmtntdri ira.to 

ciconUcibm 181.10 Ceoitof «t.io 

Ciconidfecedit 191-10 Cochle* St.,o 

CiconUuulneri qudm hcrbdmad- CochUa bcHiolm qudfdam tn fi 

ponant hiio conuntnt 8;.io 

Ciconiamontdnd iilxo Cochle^qualesdentes s,. l0 

CiconUpieta* Mo.0-n6.io Cochlcaquopdflo latednt 190.10 

CiconUdppendtces fo.jo Cocunt auerfa qnd retro urinam 

Cieunid *t,.io mittunt ioo.»o 

ric*P&l 4«tf 4<Wtf wtfftibm Cocunt diutim qud dnimal genc- 

l8lI rdnt^quamqudouum Iot.lo 

Cieurcs dnimdntcs if.I Coitm tempmpUrimorum ucr eji 

1 

Cthd quos pilos uoeemus il.io 104-3° 

Cilium ftmidrum } 9 .*s ?<*** tampot* /«M* «04.10 

CtUuminpdlpebrU jr.io Coitminfflorum 104.10 

CtlicUcdprdtondentur 101.10 Coitutcrufid Uteflorum 101. 10 

CimrcfJ undeuiudnt 1*7.10 Co««# qHddrupcdum oua pdricn- 

Ctmicesunde proueniant 14-10 w»» 1 » ioi.to 

Ctnchlm duu mndc petat cibum Coitm tempm omne quibm oppor- 



nnrr 



xi;-jo «£ 






cmtalU io<.io 

Coira 



I N D t X 



Coitu qud dnimalid ndfcantur 

99.10 
Coitm ante partum facit adfacili- 

tdtemparicndi 168.10 

txntum iomo 



108.20 



Columba coniugiu fcruant % 1 1 . 1 o 
Columba, caiiitas 



8.<o 



Coitus fcrpintum 

Coitu4 homini omnc upws oppor 

tunum • 



Coitua Hdrij dnimdntiud 100. 10 



Columbd frtat totd aSiatc 10S.10 

Columba caudapoji coitum diFlen- 

dunt 152.10 

iof.10 Columbi gregalesfunt 14.10 

Columbdrum genua parit bina eua 



Cottu* mollium 



\ 



105. /O 

fit 108.10 



IJf.lO 

Columclla qua ftt 



folttndi Commofts quu dicatur 



• 

Z»o.zo 



ntm quxrunt 
Colcs 



101.10 Conceptua pnji menfiruorum pr#- 



X4.?o 
CoUumquibws hirtumfit 55.50 

Collum quodfit 

Coili partes 
CoUurio auiculd 



2*. 10 

*4-lO 



fluuium contiglt 

Conceptm fgnd 
Conchji 



ifif.lO 



St.JO 

Concha uiuunt immutabili fidc 



t fi, 



119-20 
iotf. 20 



i?.io 
Concharum 



7f. »0 



genue 

Colubrn Tbebjnts cornuucfligiu Conchaubi gtntrcntur 115.20 

Concha galada, 
ConthatcSta contccld 



<ft 



*r-3° 



8i.2o 



Columba quo loco fcl habeat 

47.10 
Columba etiam hyemc pariut filo 

cumapricum habcant 108.20 
Columbarum puUi quando mclto 

resftnt 108. ;o 

Columbis cxiguw licn 46.10 

Columbi cum hominibus deount 

tf.iQ 

Colnmborum cibus iSno 

Cotumba antc coitum mutuo ofcu 

Columbd quandiu uiudnt nt.io 
Columba primo marcm a deindc fa?.~ 

minam gcncrant n r 20 

Columbx ambo incubut , ttuts ry 

foemcUa mj.jo 

Cfilxmb* ^Acgyptta, 157.10 

Columba fcmcllrcs cecunt 1 ?r .10 



18. *o 
Conchurum gtnu4 uarijs loci$ na- 

fcitur - iimo 

Conchd quada fedtm mutdnt,qUd- 

damnon nx-to 

Cont harum quadam pefltnattm di- 

mfkfuMt 8i.»o 

Cnncha qua piflcribm in ufu ejl* 

qualh Jlt.ubttj;repcrik*ur 11 5.50 

Conzharum hofpes canccUus 



114 io 



ftlpofi 



+6>io 



ifd 




ut 



Cotumba partw 



ii9-?0 



Jpccies pluresfk 



191 10 

Congros uincnnt locufld 178.50 
Congripvljpos uincunt i?8.*o 

Cogri uimtit abfcijfa cauda 207.50 

Congrt branchtd 44.20 

Congri caput habent Jcrpenjcs in 

tndri 



( 



? 



4f.lO 

Congri 



I N D E X. 



Congrifxturd IfhiQ Corde boues qnidamofitcuU con? 

Congriindltofunt "189-10 ncnt . 46.1 

Congri Uues Junt "44-10 Cor e(fc ncruorum origincm 44-3° 

Cowri tantum funt carniuori Cardis uentricului ucna quddam 

Co»ri qnot pinnat habeant 17.30 Cor ferpentum a 49-2.0 

Coniugij Hts 170.20 Cor i« medio finu fdnguinem tcnuif 

Confonantcs quo paclo proferan- fimum hdbct ^ 19-3° 

fW r 9^.20 CordulaaquatiU animal 13.10 

Conuulfione plcnitunio infeJUntttr Cordulum nominc animal 177-2.0 

pjw rf ^74*3° Goiaiifci <* r<t ^ ,ce c4 * 4 '* mucronc 

Couulfioc excipiutur pueri 174 .30 folidum exeunt 6+JO 

Ccnuulfio afcapults orta periculo - Cornigera animalid *r.io 

yirjf I743 Comixctiamuolantcs fuos puUos 

Cor quomodo inter duas Hcnas fit pdfcit 187.10 

j6^6 ' Cornicts guU rO.tO 

Corditfinus in quib.pexigul r 7 .10 gefvl* c«?» »otf«4 bcUum gcrit 

Cor fuo mucrone in quam partem 105.30 

jbettet 29.IO Cornices petunt littord iSl.20 

Cordufinusdcxtermaximuscjl fi Cornicufiemina tdntum incubant 

nificr mimmus 1 }7**0 l 57'1° 

Cordu finus omnes dd pulmoncm Cornuceruini inccfu fugantur ptu^ 

habent foramen 77-10 rimatnfiitorum 92.20 

Cor tres habet finus 29.10 Cornut ccrnornm tfvIO 

Cordufitua * .ic£r +7--0 Cornua qux folidd, qu& caudfint 

Cormcmbrdndopcrtum 19. 10 3f*?o 



dfiniHrdm ucrgit po Cornud qud rdtioe Jlecldtur i%ulO 






ttm 



mtnts 



dtsfi 



19 • 20 Comud difcrepant db ofi 

29.20 Cornua cuti adhxrcnt potius quam 

xcm pfii> '* 64-10 

Cofnu ccrui fiuifiru non inucnitur 



CordUmcdtus ddpulmonemiy.zo 209. 10 

Cor ucnarum principium 77.10 Cornuumcolor 6330 

Cordxntn* rr.20 €*fi**fc Phrygia boucs moucnt 

Cor primu in oho uidetur 1 ? ?.io 64.10 

Cor qudmpartcm in animalibu4 ob Cortitc intecla Utcnt j 19MO 

' $inedt 47-20 CorticeqHadUliaintegatHrji.ro 

Cordts mucro 47. IO Cortice inte.tta Utcndv txuuntfcne 

,Cor drteria iungitur 28.10 ftutcm ^ 193-10 

Cor fnbit fpiriim 28.10 CorHipcnafiigorcmutatnr 67.10 

. C or cfi omnib .quib fingut4 jo.io Coru** boili* tauri eji zjtf.io. 

t oi* 



* 



I N D E i. 



211. IO 



| 

nidificdtio & faztws tes 210 $& 

Crocodtlu* fiuuidttlU fuperiorcm 

Coruiguld fOiO maxtlldm mouct 62.10 

Coruo bino cornud oriuntut 2I2.IO Crocoddi non poffunt fine aqua ui~ 



Coruus quot pariat 136.30 ttcre 176.30 



Corui tcmpus incubdndi tddem. Crocodilu4 qucm ^fgyptus f 
Coruo ubi fdfit A?' l ° guamnonhdbet 40. ?d 

Cuus uulpi dmicut efi 206.30 Crocodtli licn 46.IO 

Coruinamfpeciem gcrentesucnirc Crocodilws fluuidtilis noftu ina- 

non uatcnt i^ .20 q«* > intcrdtu in u rrd dgiti? .20 

Coruulus pifcti cum ntcrum fcrt Crocodili magnitudo 129.IO. 

optimuseft 1S8.20 129 ld 

Coslaa (pindoriuntur 6z. Crocoddi quo loco & quotpdri- 

Coftts pehusimpofitumefl 62.70 ant oua. 11910 

CojUofton* 2<.io Crocodih fiuuiatilU cutti 43.30 

Cofl* turdulorum 2J.10 Crocodilo quo pdtto crurd ficfttn- 

Coft* quot fint ferpentibus 45?. 30 *** ? 2> 3° 

Cotumices fibinrdum nonfaciunt Crocodililatent iSviO 

££. 2,11.33 Crocodili intejiind 48.30 

Coturnices quado ptguiorc si$j 30 Crocodtlua quomodo natet 17.30 

Cottiquopattocapsantur <?i,io Crocodtlicauda 17.30 

Coxd 331.^74.10 CrocodtUfluuidtilisoculi 40.50 

Coxarum doloribus unde mittcn- Crocoddi tcflcs x6-ia 

dusfanguis 5610. Crocodtli gcnws innocknm xCf.30 

Crabronum ucrmcs if<M0 Crm -2j.?0 

Grabronum fituus 114.20 Crirnf qupmodo flcQmnt animalt* 

Critbronumfivturd 2242^ 3^-jO 

Ctabronuprolcsqziandofiat 124. Crurd quadrupcdum cfc & »cru* 

Crabrones ductm habcntcs inter- conjiant 3 4 '*° 

ranidtftcant 124.10. Crurd hominU z6>iO 

Crabroncs ubi nidtficent Crnfia intcttd omncsfcnfus habent 

Crabrones undeuiuant 137*30 £2.10 

Crabronum cnbttia 137-30 Crujia intcttd dnimalid X8.20 

Cancroru faxatili um ctbus 178.30 rf.75.2O \ _, 

Crdngmcs 78.10 Crujidintctldquibus coueniant c» 

Crca 2; 30 u qudfanguintm habct fx.IO 

Crexbelluhabet cu galgu!o 106. lO Crujiaopcrtadormiunt 5?5'3° 

Oj/fct 4*«* ^rfii» ex pi^ , fnr- Crufiata hybcrno tcmporc conima 

• timexaltamattrtd 45 70 *«r 591.^0- 

Crocodilus 12,30 Crufiaccoru cibu* 177-10 

Crocoddi quo patlo purgent den~ 57178-30 



I N D I X- 

Cruftdtum nuUum ddit naturdle cutem emnUhabcre quibus eftjd» 

fonum 79-*o guis * y . IO 

Cruftdtd quo oua foueant 117.30 Cutts quibm fit eommunit j 4 .*o 

Ctcfia de geniturd elcphdntorum cuti omnium incji lentor quidam 

falfafcripftt 74.50 mucofm * 4 . JO 

Cuhitwi ty.to Cymidcm quam duem n%minet lo- 

Cuculus faxd pctit , ut nidtfcct nes < 4. 30 

ijo.20 ■ CynordiSlduocaturricinutixy.x* 

CuculmpifiU uocalis exiftimatur cyprini quottcs anno pariant 

9$.$o i 44 -?o 

Cuculindturd&pdrt 9 eim 137. 10 Cyprini brdnchU 44-to 

Cuculmquid communc cumacci- Cjprini palatum 90mlo 

pitrehabcat x??-io cyprini morbm 19(5.10 

Cuculm in alienos nidos oud fua Cyprinoru gencrati* tarda i 44 .io 

*dit M7.10 cyprini oui magnitudo i 44 .^o 

Cuculm immutatur calore * 4 *.io cyrencnfis ager copiam habet ci- 

Cuculifcetm 120.30 cadarum 126.30 

Cuculi timiditas 220.30 Cytifm du»ct lac 7 ,., 

Cucumere pingues redduntur fues Cyttfm dumflorctMfliincommo- 

«* 4 .?o ^ dm 7h}0 
Cucurbitd cdpiturfalpd 1 7 9. 20 

Culiccsundegenercntur n 4 ,io jp 
Ctt/f x rxnn fcncttutem 193.10 

C«/ic« /*/«i?m 1 , .* o j^w^^yi,,^ „„ cocrf/Wf 
CulicU dculcm i8.*o 



D 



CuUccs uinarij unde nafcantur Dam ^ dec flJ c i +6 , itt 



IlO.IO 



DafqHilliquidcomcdant 179.10 
C*/ic" quomodo pugncnt S8.10 ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

CnBceidttidpaunt 92.10 nt i ph ^ U£h nn „ h fati fM 

Culicilega qualvs auis fit 181.30 



141.30 



C«W* «»«<// . r-io ^ WffW dormicns fpirat t77 . l9 

Cunilam aucs ad uulncra utuntur Dd?hmo ^ . ^/^^ 

Cunila aducrfatur ucncno utpcra Ddp hini fagachcr odoratur ^.xo 

111,10 Dclphino pcculiariinatHrai 7 7 .to 

Curforespifctsgregalcs . + .io nelphinu, feile caret 

Cttrusca iS.-.o nclphini animal gcncrant , 7 . IO 

CHtii non hahti fcnfum «f.io ^ r + I . zo 

C**»»o»coi/ m/wmm *f..o Ddp hi n i cma tmhmc capiantur 
Cutit conilat bcrpctuo contcxtu 

*? Ao Z>elphinminPontoefl 1*9.30 

D^phin 



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Dentcsfcari 



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Iphini gtnitalc 

Delphinorum celerita* 
Delphiniin terracrruput 141.90 



Dcntes amuUntur ofiium naturi 



*4-lO 



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36. 10 Dentcs cquorum Iff.xfc 

«4x.jo Dcntes canini icclar&nt maxime 

atattmequi iy6.xO 

Dentcs quibm mutentur 40-»O 



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43« *0 Dentcs m&xillarcs oclogefimo an^ 

»0 creuerunt quibufdam muli 

ribws 



94.IO 



Cr 



98. iO 



Delphini quomodo dormiant j£. Dcntes elcphanto utrinq; qtuttuor 

quibm molit 
rO*.iO Dentts alioshabentelcph&ntimd*. 

Delphinm quot annis &i iuftam res,&Uosfecmin& tf .10 

magnitudincm perueniat 141 ?0 Dentes maxiUU inharent 4*. jo 



Dclphinorum coitus 



DelphtniquotcporeUtcat 141. IO 

Dclphini crga fcetu charitaj 1 4 1 • * O 



>//~4 







46.1O 



Dcntesfirmifiimi 
Dcntes priorcs acuti 

Dcntes interiores plani 
Dentium uarietas 



61. 10 
37.1O 



Delphiniquot procreent 141. 10 Dentes utrinqne non habent qua\ 
Delphini brachia* no habet 17. 10 cornu&gerunt ?7-iO 

Dcntcs quibm pluret uiuaciora 

?8iO 



Demoliratio quib 9 reb 9 fiat x o. 1 o 

Dentesferpentum 4<?-30 

Dentes maxiUares quando homini 

nafc&ntur ?8 ., 

Z>entespifciumferratifunt ?7 .$o 

£7* 44-*0 

Dcntcs crocodsli 4 o. 90 

Dcntesfimiauthomoh&bet *^.*q 
Dentiumorio triplex mamichora 

t rt 

S*.*0 



funt 

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utorxuita 



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Dentcs ni*ri funt canibm dtatc 



*S.tO 



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prouctlw 
Dcntcs cquo candidiores rcddun- 

tur 3 * • »0 

Dttes caninos cancsmutare $3. 10 

Dentes nouos cnajci prim quam 



cxtrudantur uetercs 



*a.ro 



f»r* i C47?#«i quifint 38. 10 

mw« maribm plures quamfat- 
mints ,g. l0 



Dcntcs ferrati quibm funt,habent 



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osrefciffum ***9.rc 

Dctib indtc&tur ttnni cani 9810 

«7.10 
JPcntes 



tf ' 



I N D E X. 

jyentes litoralis pifcU 189.30 £chiniciboidoneiagilius caterU 

Z>entices gregalcj funt 107.10 mouentur 86.IO 

jpentices quidcomcdant 179*10 £ chintt omnibtu ouafunt gtf.io 

JDcnticis fel 46.10 £chini* quidddmnigricdnsnonc* 

Z>enttcts branchtA 44*10 fculemum ineji 86. xo 

Z>cntirc incipiunt pueri feptimo £chinorumcdput 86.10 

menji *7y5 £chinoru excrcmenti eftiu 8*.IO 

Ditldmnu capra, fdgitta tranfixA JZchinU (jn fit copia ouoru 10 7 .30 

quarunt in Creta infula 110.IO £chini quddo mcltoresfint 1 07.^0 

jyigiti quot duibu* fint 41.10 £chinis fmnt quini dentts %6.iO 

ZJtgitorumpdrtes 15.10 £thinis quid (it proprium Z6*iO 

JJ)iogcms SifpollonidtA de uenis £chinis nuUa efi caro Sf.tO 

opinio jS' 10 £chinis /icUanocct n?.*o 

JDifiimildrespdrtes ll.ic . £chinorum corpus 8*.$0 



JDifiimilariu partiu officia 16.30 £chini quc paclo fpinis utantur 
JDolentibus lumbts unde mittatur £chinomctra 8;*;0 

fanguU 56.10 JEldpho monte funt cerua fcijja au 

JDomiciliafibi parantia 14.10 rc It<)-30 

JDorfum 15. 10 £legini gregalcs funt toy-iO 

Z>orfumpotypi -5) -3° Zlephasquohabituquicfcat^.^o 

Z>-orfumpifcium 61.30 £lcphantimama jt.jo.©* 3^-30 

JDorfum fpineumaut cjfiu habent £lephanti pugnat interfe 1C7IO 

fitnguine prtdita 63-10 £lephanti intcrfe dtjfcrut multi 

Z>orJi doloribus undcfiwguis.mit- 107.20 

Mfnp 56.10 £lcphantorumuenatio XO710 

. Draco quo pd£to>medcaturfibi £lephantorum coitus iOMO.g?* 

'iii. 10 i)8.?o 

JJ>raco difidet cu aquila 105.30 £lephantU nafus 13.10 

JJuces habentia I4.IO £lcphantis dtjciplbtd 8.30 

£lcphdnti ubi habcat tejlcs 5-1.30 
j£ - £lephantiinteUina jo-*0 

£lephdtorufoemindgeitaletf6.iO 

Chinws uidetur non hahere nl £Uphaa quandiu uternmferat ni 




faflum ' 95.10 30. fir '158-30 

£chinorugencra Sl 10^85. 10 £lcph anti puUus 158.30 

£ chinorum aculci I<M0 £lcpbantoiccur finefeUc 46.1O 

£chinis ufuaaddiUiUationesuri £lcphantorum curatnuarijscafl 

na\ 86.10 6«* iOO.io 

£chinitoti candidi apud toroncm £lcphantorum morbi 200.10 

86*10 £lephantictiamtdpid(sdeHordn$ 




hinorumfyint 86.10 100*10 






-£•/«7» 



I N D I X. 



rmntme 



riunt 



43.10 



£lcphanti genitdb 



tf 



26. 10 £piroticd udccd IdClU dbunddtes 



£lephantu4 qudlem uoccm ddat 

95.30 
£lephanti ingcnium 



73-30 • 
£pirus gigntt magnas quadrupe- 

des 



£lephantorum dta4 
£lcphanti pajt 
£lephantipotm 



240. lO 

240.3C 

18^.10 



tifc 



73-5° 
98-10 



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ccclipdrtemcurrant 149.20 

1 8 tf . IO JEqud incendutur libidine 1*9.10 

186.10 £qnalac 

9 utriq; £qud fecundaa deuordt 

{•3° -^V 44 re Z** ^ c y tn<xrwn 24.0.30 



72.20 
170.10 



£lephanti extd 50-10 

£lephantu4 Jlatim dentes habet 

dditus 38-30 

JSlephas linguam exiguam habet 



£qua4 CHcntart 



>ftp 



149.10 



ft 



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149.3® 



38.30 



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15.30 

19S 10 



JSqudrum libido quomodo extin- 



£lephantum naturd 
£lephdntorum morbuf 
£lcphdnttt4 facmind quo d 

no eoire incipidt 
£lephantm mas qudndo coire in- 



guatur 

fxminasfii 



I50.IQ 



III. 20 



ct 



\ptat 



III. 10 



£quarZeoceptu* indicii 143.10 
£quaflanscmittit partum 155-30 
£quorum uita fpacium 155-30 
£quus quandiu dugcatur 169.50 



£leph 



fi 



fi 



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i 



)Spartt iii. 20 
rauidam non tangit 



iii. 20 



£lephanto nanfunt ungues tf j 



£ tO 



£quarU crga pullss dmor 209-10 
£quicerui cornud 3 4 .2.0 

£quicerui barbd 
£quicerui mdgnituio 



34.IO 
34.1O 



£7* crurd 31.10 
« 0* feniores cd 



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£qutre ' 1451.10 Fauos rxtruunt callts fexangnlut 

£quiflis uere tatumpdrit IO7.2O I*4.IO 
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FelUpdrtm Itft.io Fluore dlui Ubordnt elcph&nti 

Felnonefidclphino 46-?0 lOO-IO 

Fetquolocoin pifctbm pofitumfit Fxmin& I6.IO 

x+ , t o Fxnuna in m&rem f&cilc mut&tur 

Felfirpentum ^- 49-tO I77«*0 

/fc/ quibm &nimatibm non fit Faemind infiniHro Utcrc mouetur 

io io- er 4^-io * i&>.io 

Felubi ddmirdculum ufqigr&ndc Faemin* tr&clabiltoresm&rib 9 funt 

*O.IO t04-*0 

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FeU* locu* in dnimdltbu* 46 -lO Fcentindrum genitalid yMo 

Fcmur *4*IO Fxmints f&nouts nigrior 70?0 

FtmorU uen&) fftO Faemin&imalitiofiores mdrib. Junt 

Femord 6*.tO xo^.io 

J% mor* hominU carnojd * 4 , * o Faemin& udlidiores h&bent infcrio* 
Fer&quAperpetuofint l4-?0 respartes 98.10 

Fibcrex&quautftuqu&rit 184.10 Femindm&rc infirmior *t.lO 
Fibr&tn dntmalibm ltf?0 Faemin&cdrohumidtor quammd* 

Fibr& qu&d&m fanicm cominent rts 9* tO 

61 . 1 Fcemind dcutiorcm uoccm habcnt 

Fibrarum naturd 61 to IO«mo 

/V&r* tcndunt a neruU dd uenas Fcemin& Jerociunt & p&rtn 148.10 
5MO ' Farmind mdiores cuddunt qu&m 

Fibrd, in f&nguine 6h 1 mdres in quibufddm animalibm 

Fibrd omnibm communibm $ 4.^0 98.10 

FtbuU & fpina orituv 6i*lO Foemina quomodo ming&nt ^.10 

Ftc&rij culiccs undc gcncrentur Faetm quofe moucat 172.- 20 

1 1 8 . ? o Fcetuc iam dditm quomodo curan - 

FicvduU I81.1O dm I7I-2.0 

Ficulno fuccoUc cogitur 75.10 /Vrfnt qudndo inutcro moucatur 
Ficu pinguis fit fm x8 4 .$o itft.jo J 

O" 1 9 7 • * O Faetum pr&ccdit in p&ricndo equd * 

FidieuU dppcndiccs JOIO I7».I0 

Ftmhra aurtcuU p&rs inferior Foetum qu&d&m fimilid h&bcre c* 

ti.io p&rcnte i7O.rO 

FifiuU quibut fit 16. j o Faetum in utcro Ufum metachccrS 

Florcs purpurarum lii-tO uoc&nt isl-ZO 

Florm cdit equum 1C&I0 Formicd 7MO 

Florm ,fptnm >&gtthm odium intcr Formicd ciuilis eft 14« tO 

Jcexercent 107.10 Formic & fibi domum fdcit H*2.o 

Formi 



X N D X X. 

Formicdrum Ubores 8.10 Fujdnelsquicsnotlueft 190.10 

Formicarum coitta & pdrtu* Fufcindquipifces capidtur $l.zo 

114.10 
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Formica origdni puluere fugiunt S~\*>4ldddconthA $1.10 



91.20 Vj Gdlcm Grdci mufieUm ho- 
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Frdtrarcquidfit l6e-io Gloritd 219.10- 

Frigus mutdt pcnas duium 67.10 Gdlgulus cu Zybiopugndt 205*. 3 3 

FringiUdrius dccipiter ltMO Gdlguliduis magnitudo £7» color 
FringiUago 181.10 181.30 

FringtU&cibm 181.20 GdUeruc*. undc oridntur UO.IO 

Frons qud fit pdrs hominis 20. 20 GaUcruca. pcnna uagind incluf* 
Frons indicdt mcntcm 21. iO 88.10 

Frons mdgnd fegne indicdt zuo GdUipoft uiftoria cdnunt 97.10 

Frons inhominepdrua mobilcmfi GdUinago qualis fit 220.10 

gnificdt zi.io GaUinagonidificathumi 2i4.ro 

Frons Uta mentem mobile indicdt GaUin* ouum d coitu dccem die - 

2MO busperficiunt 1 11.20 

Frons rotundd irdcundum drguit GdUinx nonuUd bispariut 130.10 

2I.IO GdUind pulucrdtrix cft 24.5.20 

Frugtlcgd 181. jO GdUindferme omnibui dnnitem- 



Fucdcibus 180. iO * poribus pdriunt 108.10 

Fucd pifcis mutdt colorem 203.1O GdUindquot diebus fxtum exclu 

FucafoU intcr pifies nidtficdt ddnt 131.$ o 

2OJ.2O GaUindrum iuucncx frcundiorcs 

Fucd pufiUd bU pdriunt dnno funt ueteribus 128.20 

144-2.0 GdUind quo pdclo cocdnt 100.30 

FucU ut apespennas erodut>quopd GdUindrutu gencrofurum fccunui 

(iocjficicndumfit 123. 20 tas U^.jo 

Fuct undc proucnidnt 122.10 GaUindhddridn* 1*9. 20 

Fuci cdrcnt dculco 122. 1 o GdUindccus qualcm crifldm forti- 

Fuci quid dgat in aluedrijs 2? O.20 tusftt 4 , . £ 

Fulicd ubi uiflitct 1 8i .20 GaUindcei quomodo caflrentur 

Fulicdrum ducupdtio 224.10 24j.?o 

FnUo ubi paridt 147.50 GdUinacei libidinofi i f .i Q 

FuUqni penna Hdgind inclufd GaUinacci ingluuies coio 

8$. 10 GdUindceidppendix JO.jO 

Fufdnci pifces 1 r . * o GdUis maribus folis in fuo gcncrc 

Fnfdnei qudndo optims 15*0.20 cdntus tjl datus 5>j.io 

Gum 



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7S.r0 

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W-?0 



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19.10 

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' 78.16 



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Gammari qua ratione cdpiantur 

Oammarorum intcHinum 8 0.2 o 

Oammaricolor 79«IO 

Oauia alba aqu.is amdt 18 t . 10 

Oauia. quot ouapariant io* .20 

OauUgula 70 20 

Oduia unde petdt cibum 18 1. 1 o 
Oauiaabharpadijiidet tos.io 
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funt 17I.10 

Com nopojjunt coalefcerc 14.20 
Oenerandi ratio 170.2O 

Oenerationes animalium uaria 

99.10 
Gtnerofum quodfit 
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Oingius. carne conflant x * . * 
Oinni,quos uocant,ex equa pro- 

deunt IfS-xO 

Oladius p ifcis unde ditlus yr.zo 
Oladtj pifccs ajllo dgitatur 1 96. 20 
Oladiolum ' 77.13 

Olandes animalcula tcftacea ubi 

gencrentur Itj.lO 

dade t e Eic faginatur fues 184. 50 
Olandes camem hunudamfaciumt 

infuibus 193**0 

Glaucus quando fu melior * o $ . 2 
Olaucus aftate latct etia lj6.^o 
Olauci appendices s 0. 10 

Glires in arboribus Idtendo pin~ 
guesjiunt l92.?o 

Olutinum ex qua re jiat 6r*io 

IMO Gobiolitoraliseflpifcis 18^.40 



Gcnitale marium 



foramind ^t.io 



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l7l.*0 Gobignes *audcntfluuljs J94.5O 

£ ^tfrf/f Gabionarid aqud I4J.JO 

Grdculus pijcis parit dutumno 

40.10 147-2,0 

Ii6.tO Gtdculigregalesfunt 207.10 

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14.10 
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damputant 188.10 

Grua nigrefcut in fcntftutc 67.10 

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f tf D E. X. 



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187-2.0 



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C?rHCsintcrfepugndnt 216.10 ccrtc rdro bibcrc 194.1$ 

Grucs quot oua pdridnt 116.10 Hiatula omnu grauida capitur 



14. iO 



Oruts grtgdttsjiittt 

& 188.30 
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14MO 

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Oruum prudcntid 
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214.50 
114.10 



184.10 



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fapc procidit 



187-10 



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Ould uiuiparrt omnibws cfl 45. ? o H 
Oula ad uentrem tendit 47. jO 



taudatifiimum 



Oula crufla inteflornm 



Ould non omnibus fimilU ~ 5 o.IO 
Oulafinitin ucntriculum 28. $0 
Oula coUU pars 25.20 

Oulam pauci piftcs habcnt 4 7 . 1 o 

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73^0 
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Hippcas quofdam cdncros apptl- 
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7*-io 

Hipptldphws iubam habtt 33.30 

Hipptlaphua undc dittus 33. 30 
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110.20 



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H9.5O 
222.IO 
215.20 



II0.20 



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148.30 



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169-20 
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6.20 



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gtnuit 1 7 0.50 

Hcrindcci tcslts y f . 10 

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19. 20* Cr 64. 30 

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HirundinU ingtnium 
211.10 Hirundinum oculi 



I N D E T. 

Hiruniinesquofeceddnt 192.10 Hominis femengenitale quandoim 

Hirundo mdgn pennti qukmpedi- ciptat I5*.2.0 

busualet ^ 13., HonunU uen<* crdfiiores 30.ro 

Homoplurimumfcminis genitalis Honunis grrffU 37- xO 

emittit 74.10 Honunvs naturdancepseH if.io 

Homo mas quandiu generare pof Honuni* tefics ?i. 10 

r* IIO.20 Homini* proprium cfh loqui 

Homo foemina quadiu partre pof~ pg. \ q 

r* '• 110.2,0 HominU (lercu* contra uenenum 

Homofuperiorempartehabet mir ualet 210. ^ Q 

nnre *» 3^30 Homini* partes exteriorcs 25,30 

Homo quando /omniare incipiat Honunisatas ad coitumapta 

5>*-3° 10S.30 

Homo omnes fenfm habet 85^.30 Hominis genitale 35.10 

Homo animal ciuih u . IO Honunupartiumfttu* 25.20 



Homo 



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71. 1 



commune I7J-10 1^8.30 

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11 10 Humeraritancruu* 5i.Io 

Homofolwsambidcxter 32.20 Humerorum ojfa fcapula uocan- 

Homoqualts 2 5.20 



Ho min 14 os 



I"* 5Z-30 

tmor efl omnibua dnimalibu* 



HominU fdliua contrd uenenofos 15.20 

ttlusfacit , 201.30 Hyananatura 16110 

Homoaltter qukm quadrupedes Hyanagenitalid i5o 30 

obtinetpilnm j , 10 Hyendmoliturhornini inftdiad 

Homo quidpeculiariter habcat , 83.30 



IJ.30 



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I31.2.O 



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Honungf 



48.IO 10 



Honunes quot notU moueantur Hypocondrium 24. 10 

l8 : IQ " Hyffrixlatet 16o ^ 



Honunts 



^ndunt 



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64*30 



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19-2,0 



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Ingluuies qualts fii 50. 10 

gyf'* llO.IO Ingucn 24>3°' 

Ichneumo dtftdct eum phalan- Innum procrcari ex nmU &> equa 

ge iOf.30 IJ8.IO 

Jchneumo^cgypti quomodofe dr Jnfecld 7MO 

met II0-3C Infetld impenndtd 7MO 

Jchncumoncs quot pdridnt isi.io Infetlalatent I90.30 

Ichneumoms uefp* Ili.io /«/?<&< pfer-iifM quopdflo nafcdn- 

Iclts manfuefcit lll.io '«r 5>S>-3° 

iflidamufflld 6M0 CTllSlo 



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/<?c «r ta&ewr ^Kii^ ciifdngun Infeila fcncclutem ctidm exuunt 

46.IO I5>3-lO 

lecur fcllc caret jo-IO Infetlaproculfentiunt 91.10 

Iccur homims quale fit 30.10 Infetlorum fienuna maiores cud- 

lecurubipofitumftt 30. IO dunt quammares 98. IO 

C9*47» ?0 Infeflduermcnpariunt 1I8.10 

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Jecorana uena jrio lOO-lo 

JecorifclddnetTttur 46. IO Infcfla pcreunt olco 200.10 

lecorini dppendices 50.IO Inflclorumgenera plura .78.30 

IccorU qutdam dotores cx qua uc- Infctla aculeos habent 88.30 

nafanquinemiJfolcucturcS^o Infeflorum/onus 9110 

Jecurelephdnti 48.O Infc ftd qud fali unt 88. 10 

/<>»** alumnum infeclorum gcnus Infctla quidpro carne habeant 

110.30 88.13 

lleo Ubordnt equi i<?8.IO Injefforumintcfiinum 80.10 

//i<f I4.IO Infcflapcnnatd 88-lo ^»7;. 10 

lltacum turd orum gepm 118 30 Infetla membranU uolant 18.10 

Imbrcs fobolem apum dugent InfccJorumpartes 87.30 

Hl.50 Infctld diuulfketidmuiuere pojl 

Jmbriunx tcmpore multa dnima^ funt 88.10 

liumin mdrinidentur 191.10 Infeilorum difcrimcn in fexu 

Jndta producit ansichoram 37-30 9730 

J/jJm A^irf parunm ferpcntem cu~ Inffiorum oculi 88. IO 

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Jndiamfucmuonhabcre i£6.iO Infetlorum pdfflo v 186.IO 

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I73-IO 91.10 



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InfiEvorum ingenium 228.1 o 

Internodtum diqitorum 



eflinumfi 



64.20 



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Zdc quando uttle If 4*30 

Zdc qud re cogatur «* IO 

Zdc quorufit cafli inutile 73.10 
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72.20 

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71-IO 



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72IO 
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lumenta qua nominemus 1,9.30 
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luuenca qud rdtiont augeantur 

170,20 



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72.30 

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72.20 
72.20 






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I07.30 

Zdbrd quafint 



Zdc non coit frigore 
Zdc igne fpiffatt 
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7220 
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74-IO 

Zdc aliquando edulijs quibufddm 
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Xdc quo paclo in capris Qua no pd 
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Zdc quandouttle If t-20 

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160.30 
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110. 1 o 



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I6.10 

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28 30 
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3130 

flmitc dnimdl 



t 3310 

Zconum mores Xs.lO & 138.30 

ZconU fortitudo 

Zco & lupm ceruariu 

funt 



8.10 






4I-IO 



Zdcertd quo pafto conniueant 

4130 
ZaccrtA ubi pariant oua I29-IO 

Zaccrtarumcoitm IGI.30 

Zacerti uenter inteffindcj; 48-30 

funt 207.30 

2f.lO 
reflesfint ji.io 
\o exutt fenedam 




Xacertm agilis 



193.IO 



209. IO 
nslat ofiibm folidijiimU 

62.30 
Zco ouot catulos paridt 160-30 

Xeo quibm locU nafcatur 160.30 
Zeo ques dcntes mutdt 16Q. 7,0 

XeonU offd uidcntur nuUam habe^ 
re mcduilam 61.30 

Zeoncs quo pafto coeant 00. ? O 
Zeoni quidloco tdlifit j x . IO 

XeonUuenter 48. IO 

Xeonicopmhirtum 3H° 

Zconifunt dcntesfcrdti 37-20 
ZconU cdendimodm 1241 o 

Zfo inedidm diu perfcrrc potcfi 

184.IO 
Zeorarocxcrcmcntum cmittit 



>tx 101.30 

Zacerti ncruorumfrcquentiaprx- 

dnifunt 61-10 

Zacertiquot pedcshabeant ij.tO 

* Zacertts cauda amputata rena - 

fcuntur 49 30 

Zdcertiquandiuldteant 19MO 
Zacerti eauernatfubi unt 14.20 XeonU intcrUrd grauiter olc n t 

Zamia ex eartitapines I02-IO 



84.IO 
Zconvs atui p 
ZeonU urind 



1*4.20 
184.10 



Za/erferpcns 

Zdtax 

Zatax paudei 

Zatdea pilm 



184.IO 
202-20 Xco ignem timee 



II.30 
fluminibm 184-IO 



Zeonum atas 
Xconumgenerd 



238.3O 

2?5>.IO 
239-XO 



184,10 Xcon* pcs 
fupcrc Xconcs coi 



34*30 
rffcrantur 149-10 

j£fO» 



I N D E y. 



.w 



bJ 



^ 



3I.3O 

Zconis os *9-IO 

X^«« acctabula habct hhIho. 

-£ cpu* qu* patto mingat 36. 10 
Zcpua habct coa^ulum 73 20 

Zcporcs quo paflo cecant 100.30 
Z-cporcsfupcrfactant 161.20 

-Zeporulac 11310 

Zeporcs ^fegypti 201 . 2 o 

ZeporU coagulum medctur prvfl u- 

uioalui 71-zo 

<£eporum genus quoddam uidctur 

habcrc bina iccora 47-30 

-Ztporumfoenuna mdrcm ftpe in 

coitujupcruenit ico.30 

Zeporumfanguis quomodo concrc 
fcat 



23. iO 
I81.20 



Zigula linguapars 

Zigurini altmcntum 

Zigurini uocc ualent 21 8.IO 

Zimaces quomodolateant 190.20 

Zimaria ubi partant I05.20 

Zimaria grcgattm ambulant 

20810 
Zimaria quotics pariant 105.30 
Zimariarum uita ^7 30 

Z imoft pifccsgregales 14.10 

ZimuA producit teSlacca II3.10 
Zingua elcphantis cxigua efi 



■fi 



<L*pore$timidi 



45.30 



38.30 
ingua cotor u, 

Junt uarij pili 

Zinguapifcium 
Zingua toco echinis cfi 

caruncula 



66.20 



44.30 



71.20 



46. x O 

bcUaft 



15.10 
fartant ior.30 

Iqcq habcat jd 



>fi 



Unt 



94.^0 

Zinguljm omncs quadrupcdes ha- 
bi nt 



46- ? O 

Zibtdi/tofts cjuidam pili < < ferim ft 
promunt.qutdam maturiu* de. 

Xibrorum ^rislstclit de anima 
Itbu* ordo 4> , 

Ztemmm dcxtro latcrc inuenire 
prodtgiofum cft 4 g l0 

Z ten utna annexwi c(l , . . 

■Tten qutbuafet cxiguus 46.10 
■Ltcn quibu* f u 4d ; io 

■Ctenfcrpetibusexiguuteji 4 <,. l0 

^tenelvphanti ? . to ^ 4 8., 
ttcnitfitu* 30I0 

J-ten hominit fuiUo f tm4 l if t ft 

30.10 



dtffe 



r< 



40.30 

2'.20 
2?. 20 



Zingua quali conSlct carnc 23. 20 



Ztn?ua auium uarta 

o 



/« 



42.30 



Zicnaria ucna 
^iguU 



552O 
28 IO 



23.20 
Zingua purpurii longior digitocj} 

II3.IO 
Zinguapijcium ' 40.2.9 

Zingua piflium impcrfcfla efi 

5)0-20 
Zinpus. loco quibujdam efl paiat* 

Z ingua infcclorum 

Zingua fcrpcntum 49. IO 

■Z inguxjerpentum bifidx 45;. 20 

ZinguacHfaportspcipcrc <>0.20 

IS8.20 



88-IO 



• 



ZifigulacaauU 



7 3 



xw 



I n r> E x, 
jAterdrimm fiudium 1.20 ZocmSla h fine ueru pdriunt 

Jimidcolmmbd I08.IO 12530 

Ztmiddifccdunt I88.IO ZocuSiaquocdfmperednt 115.30 

Z of 4 / » nf orf s dnimdlium uim hd Z ocmSlarmm oud pcr hyemem dm- 

hent 202.20 rdnt Iif^O 

JCw* plmrimum tenent uirium dd Zocmfta mdiorespifces conuinccre 

plant ai C7 dnimdntid I07-IO pojfunt ^ ^ ) 178.30 

ZocuSid 78.10 Zocuftdrumintcslinmm 80JO 



fondnt 93.30 Zocustarumcubtuaf^ 



ZocuSia martna caret fanguine I78.3O 

KJ.30 Zocufid inceffm* 179-10 

Zocnsldmasafoemindquid diffe Zocu[Uquomodopugnent 

rdt 74-10 I79-10 

Jreuslarumoculi 79.10 ZocuStarmm coUegimm 1*79.10 

Xocntta eptimdfmntgramidd Zocmila qno paOo gcnerent 

203 to "5 3° " 

Zocufld unic gcncrentmr 118.20 ZccmHd omdqmandtnmmterogc- 
Zocmflormmcorpm4<tfpcrmmejl rdnt ^ n H° 

7 «.^o ZocuFiarumnomind £.io 

ZoeuUanarepofunt . 13.20 ZocuSlamoritmturmetu potypo- 
Jidcuiid dormimnt 95.30 r"™ 178.30 



Zocuslarum genuc crufld teRum Zocuilis data efi uita diutu 



IO.IO ntf.10 

ZocuSidrummulud 80.20 Zocuslarmm genua 75.ro 

Zocmsla pmgna folers ciferpente Zocutioquidfit ^ 93 

in IO Zocutiohominmm mdrid 14.20 



ZocmSldrum dcntesty 
pro lingua 



uncula Zoilrgo I7.30 

80. 10 -£ oi7/go m** d foemina quid dijfc- 

Zocmslarum pedes 7810 r«f# x I18.IO 

ijfc 9**&«* /oc» prcuenidnt ZoUiginimitd efibrcmis 118 .10 

II5.IO -^ zUioinum coitut 103. 20 

ie£lmtr ZoUiuncsmbipariant 117-30 

19^0" ZoUigviespifctbmutfcuntur 

ZocmSla cxuuntur cruftdfmdpcr 179. IO I 

« fr 115.20 Zolligines qmomodocapiant cibos 

Ztcmslormm ouum *lf*30 7f*-° 

ZocuSlorum coitus 103.30 Zofl^f' quopaflo cibmm capiant 



ZocmSld qmandoexudnt ft 



ZocmSlarmm mdrcs mmores funt 75 20 

ZocmSix ubi pariant I2f.20 76.20 



,/# 



Zocmfl*trH?nmcrmcs 125.30 ZoUi) grcgalcsfmnt 207.30 

* Zolliua 



INDEX 




ZoUimloUigtnc grdndior 76.10 Zupus quot pinnds habcdt 17.30 

ZoUtorumos^ccrcbeUum &. ocnli Jtuperumpartus .I61.30 

76.10 Zufiniaqnandocdndt 141*30 

Zoqui proprium hotnini 9K-10 ZufinidpuUosJuos modouUos dm 

Zumbi ic.io ca I4O.20 



Zumbu dolcntcs uix parturiunt Zufc 



171.30 



quandi 



Zumbriciundc gcncrcntur I18.3O ZufcinU cantut g,io 

Lumbricorum gcncrd 118*30 ZufcinU&mdres &fxmin* c* 

Zumbricumldtumquoiudicio mc nunt 9J-IO 

dsci inejfe deprehendanjt 118.30 Zuteaduujundcdiftdfit Z16-ZO 

Zupminimicusejidfino ZO6.10 Zutcxnidut ^ .Z16.ZQ 

Zupuscerudrius 48.10 ZutcoUcibut 161 IO 

Z^upicanarupartus I6I.3O Zutris 14.24* 

Zuporummorcs Ifio Zutris undc uidum qudritct 

Zupi ccrudrij pdrtus I6I.30 184.10 

Zuput pifcit oudpdrit 142.20 Zjcurgut in ctndenditlcgibu* bcl 

Zupi quo paclo coeant loi.IO li maicrcm quam pdcu ranonc 

Zupu* liquidc tudit 91. 20 habuit I.I 

Zupi camt ucjiuntur tdntum \vpxujVTCii » id cjl liguriunt 

I79.IO ipMO 

Z upua pifcis mclior eft cum nofert Zymphari cquum quidfit 213.50 

utcrum 203.IO Zynxcxauerfo minvit 36-20 

Zupipifccs ubiparUnt 106.20 Zynx fcmitalnm habct y. 10 



tpiftui 

149-IO 



fcrm 14.30 93-30 



tji cocunt IOIJO 



Homo 



95-20 



wW 



Zupi genitalc 36.30 



ZupuaquandopdrUt IO6.30 \ M ^cnd uterum ft 



M 



Zupi ubi cum cdnihud coeant j\± *ft 203IO 

201.30 jMdUcxuHntfcntElutcm 193.30 

Zupuspifcis bis in anno pdrit Jtdaltda dfmorum morbus I99.3O 

IOf.30 JtdaUeolthomini* 31. IO 

Zupi ^r/cgjpti 20I.IO JWdUcolus pars pcdum 62.20 

Zuporum cibuA ttvrd etUm cji JkfdUcolt pdrs cdlcdr efl 62-20 

183.30 Mdmmd 23**0 

Z*/>f quando comcddnt hcrbss JSfamnuta urfd habet qndtcrnM 

i8$JO ^ u.30 

Z*^i g N ; hominempctdt 183-30 JHamai udrim habct dialid y*y> 

y 4 ^/41» 



^ I N O E X. 

jvfdmmd elephanti 3^.30 imo 

jlfammd homints 31.20. CT3r. 30 Afdrifcjtundefidnt 7° :7 >® 

jlfdmmd* qu& dnimalid non ha- Jktdrtd mufietd - r .30 

Afdwf +0.30.^43-20 ^«w 16-lb 

Mammdcamdi 36.10 MdSinfoenundmfdcilernutdrip9 

Jlfammduirorum 16 4.20 '*/? 177^° 

ji/ammd quibus ddtafmt 72.10 Mdftulus in iextro Idtere mouc- 

jVfdmmU cdrcni oud pdrientia tur I67.IO 

7l.r6 JMdtrix c(t oftiumuulud 188.20 

Mamma delphini 43.30 Matricis auu formd 188. 20 

MammdpueUarumuarid. 164 20 MdxiUaduplcx 13. IO 

Mdrnmi* decjdratur dtas dd coi~ MdxiUd quibufddm pilis integun* 

tumnaturd 108.30 *«r 66-20 

Jyf s mtfne in uentre quibus 36.10 MdxiUd ojfi 62-IO 

j^td^ibuldmdxilldpdrs 1320 MdxiUam inferiorem animalid 

jlfdntichnr* defcriptio 37-30 omnidmoucntjcxcepto croadi- 

jlfdntichoredentiumordo 40.20 lo 6l-i O 

jwana* 2r .20 MdxiUdres dentes qudndo homini 

MdnusmultU continentur neruis ndfcdntur 38.20 

6I.IO M jMdxiUaresnuUum animal mutdt 

Mdnmpdrtes ie*lQ 53.31 

Mdre habet dulcem humorem Jlfedicd herbd 18^.30 

178.IO Medicd extinguit Uc 7330 

Jlidrt temporc canis euertitur Mcdicina exempla undcpeti pof- 

161.30 funt 3.IO 

Mdre mird hdbet dnimdlid MeduUdmfcnfucdrcrc 70.10 

89.20 jiftduUdrdth 7210 

Jtfdrcs tempore coitusferociunt Mcdullt mo* os eft 71. 20 

148**0 - JtfidnU* noHcllorum dnimalium 

Mdrcsdfoeminis fegregdntur crucnta 7*'3° 

KO.IO MeduUe parum fues habent 7I.30 

JMaresdentes plures qukm foemi- MeduUam leo non uel certc pdrum 

ndhdbent 38.20 habet 7HO 

Jkfdres mdgvs quamfaemind habct McduUam dlid ojfd habct a alia non 

hds pdrtes quus ccu drma natu^ habent 62. 20 

Tddnimdhbusdcdit 9820 Mfloptimum 234- 20 

Mdreshdbet fupcriores pdrtes ua Mcl candidum in quibufddm locsi 

lidiores 98.10 124 -IO 

Jlfdres longioris uita quamfoemi- Mi l autumnale metius efi 122.30 

ndfunt $8.10 Melundc fidt 121.30 

Mdrindrum animalium diuifio JVfcl qudn dofpiffetur 123. 1 o 

Mcl 



\ 



I N D E X 



<<?©• 



I303O 
II.IO 



Mcl dulcius efl quod crdfl t 
123.10 

MeUdfii 

Melcdgr 
Membra 
Mcmbrdda* dpudphalericdgignit 

I45.ro 
Membrdndprdcifdnon coit 

67.20 
Membrdndindnimdlibud 17.20 
Mcmbrandmdximd qud cor & 

ccrebrum uesliunt 57.20 

Mcmbrdnd quibusflt communU 



puseuentre lfC.n 

Mcntum mdxilld pdrs 23. 10 

122.20 Mergi 11.30 

181.20 Mcrgusubiuifvitct 181.10 

Mergi quotoud pdridnt 1 o f . t o 

12.30 



115.30 



f4-30 

Mcmbrana 

27.10 
Membrand 



Mcnfium prtifluuia lund ct 

fequuntur 
Mcnflrua qud difficilius fl 

I5MO 
Menftrudqud non hdbcant 16J.30 
Mcn[irud in quas rcs abfumantur 

Menfirud quando primum dppd- 

***** 153.30 

Mcnftrua atbd cx qud cdufd proue 

mant 153.30 

Menftrua alba cxtcnudnt corpus 
15^.30 

Menflruaflunt in mulieribu* 



Mcrgus ubi pdridt 
Merops ubi pdridt fitdple 

Meropts pietds 8 10. & 
Mcropts defcriptio 
Meruld bts dnne parit I08.IO 
Meruld pifccs mutdntur 1 04.30 
Mcruld turturcm amat 207.10 
Meruta tatet 

Meruldnidus 115. 30 

Mcruld duis mutdtur colore 

brum 142.30 

"' Merularumpeneraduo 218-20 
18.IO Metdcboerumuocantfiztuminute 



I92.20 



rolafi 



um 



l5r.IO Mitiofmpinguisft 



IfMO 

iS^.^o 



71.10 



defi 



Menftruorum purgatio nulli foc- MoUiceps auis 



Mttum pducos dics latet 1 9 1. 2 O 

Mtluws ubifelhdbcat 67*10 

Miluuspugnat cucoruo tos.io 

Milnis exigum lien 46 '• 10 

Milui camiuori funt l8MO 

Miini quofecedant I92.IO 

Mituum bibere rdrum efl 181 . 30 

Milui tempm cxcubandi 156 . 30 

Miti 82. t© ' 

Mitilis qualiafunt labrd 82*30 
Mitili etiam folcnt fauiflcare • 

113.10 

Mitilis inndfci cancrot II j . 20 

Molaris pifcis pdrtus i47-*o 



iio.ro 



nuna tntcr dnimalia aqueflt ac 

mulitri IjO-lO 

Mcnliruormn fignum& in ouibm 

If O. t O Mollid quando paridnt \&y. 10 

Menflrua c tiam pr dgndntibm ufl MoHta quomodo dormidnt 95.30 



MoUiudifferetid eflin fcxu 97. IO 
MoUid qud uocanttfcnftbus omnid 

prjtditd funt 



ot.IO 



poslremu 



Ct 9610 



> s 



Mol 



* 



I N DE X. 



i 



MoUiaouume^ncipiunt 77.20 Muconcs qudndo pariant .137.10 

MoUium pdrtes 76.10 Mugilts carnc abfiinet 17910 

MoUia qua uocdntjhumorcm pro- Mu^tlis appcndiccs y 0.10 

pter ctbum petunt 177. 20 Mngdu mciior cjtm non fert ute- 

MoUta grauidd optimdfunt rum zoi 10 



202.30 . Mugilus in littoreuerfaturi%^.\0 



MoUtumgcncra ubigradiora red- Mugdu quandopartat \lj 1.3^ 

dantur 18.20 MugiUs quofdam limo nafct 

MoUtaqnopdclococdnt 103 20 107-10 
MoUia naturaUmfonu non ddunt MugiUs ubi pariant xo6. 20 

^3.30 M ugihbus quot ftni pinna. 43 30 

MoUium ouum quomodo erefcat Mugtlcs qua ratione capiantur 

ixy.30 ' 10230 

MoUta cffundunt dtrdmentum mc Mugdupifcisouaparif 142.10 
tuperculfa 76*30 MugiUsuiuuntabfciffacauda 

MoUiaomnia habcnt quadam ca 192.30 

piUamcntd 7^-30 Mugduliquidiusinter pifces du~ 

MoUium differentid 7^.10 dit 91.20 

MoUianonhabentnifcera 76.30 Mugilu pdrtus 147.20 

MoUiaqua uoce\ 7J-IO Mugiles quoties pdriant ic.30 

Moncduld ingluuies jo.20 Mugilcsde mari in Ucus defccn- 

Moneduld pifccsftmcl inanno pa- dunt 144-30 

tiunt lOf.30 Mugilcs dormicntts capiuntur 

Moneduld pijces qudndo opttms 93.20 

190.10 Mugilesjponte ndfcentes 147.10 

Moneduldrum genera tria 2X9.30 Mula dliquando gcmeUos pepcrtt 
MontifringiUaauti 181.IO l SS' l ° 

Mora profunt fuibut 197.20 MuUin Sjria 19.30^ 

MordeUd cx uernuculps nafcun- MuUm quoq; grauidam ftftam 

*"* ' UO-20 <# , 158.10 

Moresuariantiuxta diuerfvatcm MuUin Syriapariunt omnes 

loeorum 202-20 158 IO 

Morum in animalibus ueHigid MuU non menfcs ,fcd crdfiiorcm 
< 175*10 urindm habent 143,20 

Mormurquandopdriat I47.20 Muli cibus 185.30 

Morphna. aqnila cutus Homerus Mulipes )S- l ° 

mcminit 221. 30 Mnlicoitu* k8io 

Motus dnimnlium 18. 20 . & MulwtquandiuUflet if6-lO 

33 ,io Mulua quandvfit in uigorc if6-IO 

Muco quandiu utcrum ferdt Muli utUi 23.30 

, J47-IO Mulutfempcrcicur 14.30 

Mm 



^ 



I N D I X 



Mulofelnonefl 46.30 rumferentes 16510 

Mulorum uitd longd efi 15S. 10 Mulieris cdlua nndm hdbet fntu- 

Mulier ut non concipiat quomodo » frf»f 10. *0 

fdciendum 166.20. Muliones culices fentiunt 51.10 

Mulicri* conceptm indscium Mullm pdrit dutumno 147. 20 

1 6 6*. 10 MuUi dppendices 5 O. I O 

Mulieribmquideuenidtd cence- MuUt gregdlesfunt 20730 

/»'«w ddpdrtum ujij; 167.20 Mullm pifcU ter pdrit 105.30 
Mulieres quo tempore pariant Mutlorum cibm I79.IO 

168 IO Mullm littnralu efi 189.IO 

Mulieribm grauidts defiuunt pili Murcndquomodorepdi 17**0 

congeniti I68.IO Murcndfd 41-3° 

MuUcrum in pdrtu dolores uche- Murcnd cdrnem comedunt , prd- 

mentifiimi 171-30 frmi nihil I79.IO 

Mulier dptd dd conctpiendum Murend pdrtim in litinrcpdrtim 

l6s.zo in dlto uerfdntur 18,9.10 

Multeriinterrd Cdrid quid eue- Murend non hdbent pinndt 

nidt 65.30 43-30 

Mulieres uehementim in pdrtu ld Murendrum brdnchi* 43*30 

bordnt qudm dltd dnimdlid Murendldtet 191.20 

I72.30 Murend coitm 101.30 

MhlieresqudfdciUm pdridnt Murendomnibmdanitemporibm 

I7*tO pdrit IO6.10 

Multerum grduiidrum morbi Murcn* ouum 6+*ld 

167. IO Mm dqudtifa quo locopdridt ond 
MuUercsimpubes 165.IO 128 30 

Mulieresnon crcfcunt pofl tertii JH r u4 donucilium fibt pdrdt 14. 20 

pdrtum I64.IO Mures potumoriuntur 201.30 

Mulier dfHuo tempore mdgis dd Mures pomici Idtcnt l^J-IO / 

coitum fiimuldtur 105.IO Mures ^erdbU 20L10 

Mulier etidm dUqudndo fupcrfne Muris dqudtilts Uen 46.IO 

fd *f* % 1792,0 Murm d murcnd differt iotf.} 

M*lieris morcs 205.IO Mures dqudtiles I76.30 

Mulierquot dnnos generdrepof MuriumnonnuUtsdcefifel 63. IO 

fi* IIO.lO Murinm miedfjecundttdd 16x10 

MulierU membrum genitdle Murts Udsldnt figetes 162. 20 

2 4*3° MurescitodboUntur 162. IO 

Mulieres quot p*ridn t 1*9.20 Murem in muregrduiddm inuen- 

Multcr grduidd uirum pdtitmr tdm I6220 

i*5MO Muresffdlem UmbdntjmpUutur 

MuUcrcs udrid concupifcnnt ute * ui.z 0, 

M* 



I N D E X. 

JtfHres ^dFegyfttj 161.10 A' 

JMurcs bipedes itfl.lO 



jViunum plurd generd 161.10 X Tc^»A uimbabentid ic 20 



JWu/c* coitus diu durdt 104. 10 I \| JVdres ut homofi 



N 



Mu 



tur 



39.10 

cfiil 



JWufcd noldndo fondnt 9330 pnut, cdrtildgine ccjidt • 63 10 

Jktufcdundeoridntur 110.10 Ndres mobiles fune 2310 

JteufcU bind penn<e 89.10 JVdris elcpbdntis 23.10« & 32 20 

JMufculus pifcispitosinoreloco JVdriumfordmind 28.10 

ientiumbdbtt 67.20 JVdfuapdrsfdcici 21.30 

MufcdrumcoitHgignnntur ucrmi JVdfm Jpiritu* inUrumentum 

CH b 100.10 21.30 

JWufcd qudndo gencrentnr 10^.30 AJdfi interfcptum 23.10 

JMuJcdfibtdomumfdcit 14.30 JVafiindne 23.10 

JVJufedrum gufius 187.IO A^/f* 24.10 

Mufed quomodo pungdnt 89. 20 A r dtes hominU 3 + -SO 

MufcddnteriorcpdrtedcuUugC' JVdtex qudlvs fit 6MO 

w "' 18.10 JVdtici* pdfiio 6510 

JMuftcld odit cornicem 20^-30 A r dtices fdxis ddhdrefcunt 65 10 

JMuflcl* quo pdclo dues cdpidt JVdticcm quem uocemus 65. IO 

IIMO JVdtices ubi ndjcdntur 113.10 

JMuSlddfcrpctes impugndt 211.10 JVdtices qud tndu[\rid cdpidntur 
At<*$elorHmpdrtm 106.10 9310 

MnfieU genitdle 3^.30 /VdtrfX 13.10 

Mujlclddimicdturdcumfcrpente JVdtur& operd 6.30 

rutdm comedit 211. 10 JVdtur* ingcnium ubi contcmpUn 

JMuJlclorum omne genmex cdrti dum 7.20 

Ugineis IC2.IO Arccyddlusunde fidt 119.20 

JWufteUnomen 6.IO JVeruindturdfifitlxejl 6l-lO 

JUujlcli ncbrij \yj. 20 A r cr»or«tf* dlimcntum qualcfit 

J^usleUfunt brdnchU dttc cljt 6l. IO 



17- l0 JVerum 

JWuftcU runiedgenifdte 3^.30 6L IO 



i/«# foliddri non potcft 



JMuSleUflellarcs bis mcnfe pdriut JVcrui 



I4O.IO 
JHufleli i 



crfi 



61. IO 



fr «f * qutbm locis oud in JVcruos omnid bdbcnt,quibmjdn- 
fecontincdnt 139 30 gnvstfi 6UO 



JMuflcli 



JVcrut dnimdltbm comrnuncs 



4** zo 34.20 

pvris undcdicdtur 76.30 JVerHorum rigore cdpiunturequi 

19S 



I N D E X. 



I98.10 

JVerui pifcium 
JVcrui pr&tenucs quibusfi 
JVcrui quomodo pcr totun 
dtdufli 



6LIO Occiputuacuumeffe 



r» 



10.10 



$fi 



JVeruorum fumma pdrtes 
JVcruorum origincm in cordc efft 

61.10 



"gl* IH.IO 

Oculdta quid eomcddt jjp.zo 
OcutfbuHd intetlorum gr.IO 



6MO 



61. IO Oculorum udrius color 



igrifa 

6MO 



oculorum 



Mdrtdt 
Jviuc uermes credntut 
JViuU dtumnum tnfetlorum genua 



21.30 
\ftpidrum primum grandcs 

Ii7*10 

> OcM/r habent ncruofos mcdtws dd 

cerebrum 5>o.lo 

ffiiw Oculiin cerebrum finiunt 22.10 
21.20 Oculos habct omnid animdlid pr& 



120.20 



£7* impcrft 



120.30 
JVobite quodfit 

JVoftnd 

JVottu dmbuUntid 

JVotlud notlu uagatur 

IVo&ua abbendiccs 



21 IO 

Ocif/f hirundinum 



Ij.IO Oculi cbdm&teonti* 



223. 20 
14.20 
14.10 



/* 



21.10 
4I-lO 



50.10 

JVotluU exigmm efl Uen 46.10 
JVottnd bctlum hdbet cu orchilo 

20^.30 
JVoftuaguld ^O.1 

JVottud quomodo capidtur 1 88.3O 



OcM/f hominis quatadiflct 26.20 

OcuHniorumquoddicdtur 21 20 
Ocm/# candidum %\. io 

Oculorum unguti iX . 20 

Ocutornm in animdlibua udrietas 



21.20 



/iW 2LI0 



tfijfunt equis quibufddi 



ct n.30 
r/Mw fuperiori pdlpcbrd 42.30 Oculimodici peroptimi 21.30 

Oculorum fitua 



JVoCtua auis dduncU unr>uibu* 

o 



I8I.IO 



192 20 



:tyc 



onundolim feptimodicimpofi- 
ta infantihu* funt I74.30 

* Pompiliua pdcis ftudiofua 

* I.IO 



/• 



&/*»/ 174.30 

***r infctld,cum 

tformari np.iO 








Bfletricu offt^ 

Occiput 



1 21. $o 

Ow/i conditi cUrifiime ccrnunt 

21.30 
Oc«/i ^Mi modice conniuent, opti- 

mosfubeffe morcs dcmonftrant 

21.30 
Oo*/i rf»fir impudentUm fignifi* 

c * nt 21.30 

Oftfc nimium conniucntcs, impu- 

dentia indicesfunt 11.30 

Oculifoli hornini uarij 11.10 ' 

Odorandi mtatm duium 42.20 



I73.IO Olcdopimatoucs 



27.IO 



I86.30 

imdtpccm 18630 



I K V « *• 



Oled flote dpes ptouenite 111.30 

oleds dtnant cicddd I26. I O 

Olerd iuudntur pluuid 194-10 

Olfdtlusfcdes ^SO-IO 
OlfdHud undc fedes adm 

X\\0 
Olfdclus pifi ium 



ejcijjum q uibwi dnimdtibm fii 



39.10 
Ofiium cxtremd nonnutld c*nfl t 




tdtut 



63 20 
61.10 



20.30 



cdrtildgine 

Ojfd neruu /ig 

OscaiuJt 61.30 

Offd lc*nU uidcntur nuUdm omni- 

no hdbere mcdutldm 61 30 
Ojfchonii in primufotidafunt , 

61.30 



>fft duiuintcrfe difft 



oljdfius pifciHdrgumetd 91 30 
Oliud copidfimul& dpum qud- 
refit ni.io 

oUlyginem ddunt tdn& «74. 20 
olor dquas dmdt 182.20 Offi 

Otor repugnat dquild 207. IO 
Olor dltcr dltcru deuordt 207.10 Ojjk cdpitU quot fi 
Otoris mores 207 ■ 10 

Olores cdnunt morituti 21 j.30 

tftorif dppcndiccs 



6I.20 



t 46.20 

)Jiium initiumjpind e(i 6l> 50 
)jfa fuut membtMt* nuddtdfydeta 



oUresgregalcsJunt 

esr 17330 

Omdfi dejcriptio 
Omcntum 

Omcnti pinguedo 
Omctum (\Hibiuf\t 



JO.IO 

14.10 



48.10 
18.30 
69.10 

68 10 



tur 67.30 

)f!tum qudddm mcduUdm hdbcnt 

qudddm non 62- 20. & 7 1« IO 
)ffa non multum dtuerfk qud ha~ 

bednt 



Ojfd frdpilidfn 



62. lO 

61.IO 
6330 



Omentt ortgo 

Owhartfcv quomodo trdnTtulcrit 



68-IO Ofiift 



_ t I2J. IO 

)flifrdgd mdgnitudo, tiufque ch 



II2.IO 



b 



Ui 



Orcind ubi pdridnt 
oftyxvov cuniUm ejfc 



I06.20 Ofitfr 

Offc 



196-10 
8-IO 



2IO3O 

Origdni pulucrefotmicd fugdn- 

tUt J92.20 

Orfoddgns ubi ctcentut 120.10 

Otyx unicornu ty bijutcm 3^10 oftredft 



Unt 
Ofphys 
Oftrcd 



77. ?o 

24.IO 



& 



Os quodfit 
Os honunU 



2.3-10 

39-io 



r> 



113.10 
82.20 



Os quiddifftrdt k cdrtildgine 

63. 20 
Os ptdcifum non teerefcit 6$ 20 
Os qudm pdrtem uocet K- 30 

Osquibmfit commune 5430 
OrU mdgnitudo in dnimdlibui 

J9IO 



Oftred fcdbrd /i 

Ottrets inndCcuntur cdncrirtl\2.0 
Oflreumgenui 18.30 

oRreu qudlidfint Ubrd 82 20 
Oflredrium gtnus omne optitnum 
cfl cumfcrt utcrum 203 IO 

Otm qudli* duis %$ 8 XO 

Ouum qudle prtmum fit 131.10 

Oud 



I N D X X. 

Otit bicoloYd tesludinUfutn^. ?0 Oua pifciummagna parte pereuni 

Onnm moUium cjuale fit 115.36 141.30 

VHd hypcnemia bumidhrd/unt Oua qux pariunt omnut, cortice 

x 3Hd muniuntur ip.ic? 

Oua qud gcnercnt 1? . lo Oud parietid incertum dnfomnici 

Oua quaddctidm infcecundd coitu 101.30 

concepta ^ tJ4-?0 Ouumurinum I3 r 20 

Ouagemind binUconslatniteUU Ouum polypi qualc f\t 115.30 

x 34-30 ^ Ouipara qud uocet x 9tlo 

Ona quadam binospullos ddunt OuiparU omnibns cfidYtcrid &> 

W' x ° gHtdfedudYie 4HO 

O uum omwum auium duYHm hd~ Ouium mamm* „ ,~ 



3H° 



betputamen I30 . ?0 Ohcs jlultdfunt 20S.20 

OH* dquaticdrum diferunt ater- OuU ex potu pinouefcii 185.20 

rcslribua 1?0 . ?0 Ouibui fal dandum 185.20 

OmoYHmcolor i 30 . J0 Oues quidcddnt 187.10 

0*4 o£/<)»grf faeminam adunt Ohcs btbita quadam aqua nigYos 

I?MO ^ dgnatgcncrdnt 5 7 .io 

Ow<* retundiord marcm adunt Ouium coitus 109.30. £r Ki.30 

I?MO OuiumuYind K0.3O 

0*4 w ^fcoyptofimo obYHtd OuiUum Uc dccommodum adcd- 

duntpuUos m,i fcum. 7? . IO 

Oui pifcium color i 3 g. 30 Omibus fabd augent copiam lafti* 

Ouaquopdcloredddnturfcecundd • 74.10 

^»3° Oucs pauciores pariunt qudiunic^ 

Oui uitcUi ey albuminU difcrimc rcsfunt IOO.30 

W»lo Onr/ pinguedine rcrum moYtuntur 

Ouapifcium 142.20 69.10 

O»* /wi ! e w tiafanguinem etiam Oues quot innos parere pofiint 

h * bent 40.10 112.10 

Oua in tepidU uafsjponte ddtde- Ouiumpes j 4 . ?0 

runt puUos jj r IO ouibus uoxproprid di coitum 

OHdqHdddmuentoconcipiunt $4.30 

I00 ' 10 OucsfcnioYCsfi UmpeSiiue iibidi- 

OuorumdifeYentU l? . lo nc incitantur.qHtd ftgnificti 

Ouum crocodili quantufu 129.30 152, 10 

Oudparicntium qHddrHpedum coi Ouium iunioYum libidotcmpesli- 

tU4 IOI.20 ua quid fi*nificce IJ2.IO 

Ouahcuslarum ny.30 Oues fomniare ^.33 

Oua echin.rum 89 IO Qhu tHfd qH4rt concrefcant 



ftfce Ucd 139.10 fajQ 









i 



Quei 



i M d f r. 

Oues qua cdufd geminos pdridnt s n.io 

ijr.iO Palumbdrim dccipiter jr&no 

Ouctmagnain JZpiro 7««?0 Patumbes lo8.*0 

Vues qud fint frigorii pdticntio- Palubes hyemenongemit 141.10 

r« i«9-tO Pdtumbes camporum incoU funi 

Oues quot menfes uterum ferdnt it.io 

151-30 Palubes trimeflres coeunt ijf.jo 

Outi eerebum non eji pingue palumbiumuita Xjf.jo 

dp-tO Palumbiumincubitws 1*7.30 

Oucs Idtifiimd cdudd ior . pdlumboru quiddm latcnt,qutdam 

Outs congrcgantur failo ftrcpttu non ipt.zo 

toS.30 Palumbiumcibm iSi.to 

Ora dbortmn facit ob tonitrud Palumbdrum ingluuies 119 20 

*o8.*0 Pdtumbes bina oua pariut i*o.lo 

Oues quomodo cubent «0S.50 Palumbesdifcedunt 188.10 

0*/£«* <#« <for*f A* c 74.10 pdluftrium ouapallidd r i,o.*o 

Ouesgrauida dbortum fdciunt, Pamphila , platis filta dicitur pri- 

fi glandcm copiofim edcrins mdttxijfcbombycid iij.io 

*97?o Pdntherd qud rdtione uenetur 
Oues pinguefcunt gerentes uterum 210. * o 

«f«-iO pdnthcra odort hellua dtleclan- 

Ouium fanguU quo pafto Jpijfitur tur 110.30 

<SMO Pdntherapes ?4iO 

0«/*w BIM longitudo 151. *0 Pantherd ubifint 101.30 

Ouiumduces xjr.*o Panthera perpetuoferd i 4 ., 

Oues „*cthiopidlongiorisfuntui- pantherx dctesfuntjerrati ?7 .zo 

*«* iTi.IO Pantherdmammd 56". 10 

Oues rediuos habcnt 117**0 Panthera fccmind animofior ma- 

re 104-?0 

/* Pdnthere remedium 105MO 

^Abulorum diuerfitdd 7J.30 Papauer qutd uocct intefld intc- 

Pdcenihilmelim 1.10 <ff^r 8«.iO 

Pdguri cdncri 7810 Pdpduerculu uocdnt mulieres cx- 

PatatumparsorU *i.IO cremctu infantU primu 171.10 

Palatu carnofum quibufdam pro Papilioni antcnnd antc oculosprd 

linguaejl *0.*o tenduntur * 8S.jO 

Palea oipmat pecm 189.50 Papitla 2 M 

Wfitesivai, ideft dlletldtriccs Pdpiliucs ex erucis ndfcutum*-)0 

112..* O Pdpilionum genm quoddam qud* 

Pdtpebrd oculorum 1I#t0 lem producat partum 118.70 

Palpebrd non pojfunt codlefccre PdpiUdfimid ^.to 




r n d js y. 

PapiU* non fmt eonfticu* delphi Pefr tn tsc,uom d*Uttat I?r ,. zo 

"" . _ +"° p *ft™t <»m uttrum fer*nt,mrli 9 

PdptU.* quattrn* uaccts funt rtsfunt , 

Pardalianchts utntnum xlQ .*o Ptdus animalium J£Z 

PardaU q ual„ fi, auis .!,. lo ™* «ff« rJI «^^ J*,- 

Parttuucbu* lSl.10 PeHoriifuut PJ '° 

Parttndt ttmpus hominis J6u , Ptclmculi 8 

P*ru* mufta adit oua n-r ?n /V/7»t*~./~ _: rj ° *° 

n ^ r ,jj . «7-io -* eetuneulis quofdam cancros tnna 

Pafcuaadcarnesbonttatemfaciut fci 

!?*' t0 - Pedanminctdtrc 5'!? 



/»7c 






I0c*0 

Pafpre\ 



t ; 3' -2,o 

PhaUngia unde procreetur 118 zo 

Pedcftrium animaliudtuifto T , - ~ 



l*«.IO 



^ ir J cancrorum 7 o -~ 

P^rumgcnusptrct^ „. IO Pedes JJ rnof ^ ££ 

P*fertsctbu« k l8 P ed»partes \^ 

n 47-10 Pedu ojja ... 

Paittnacaprolemnon potefi reci- PedesmuL 

Here —— -»r «r»» 

r C . . 140.10 tfno 

J tsttnacaptnnttcdrct ,- , n pedes ch<t*»*t* S 

«.o; , V-30 * eaes ctHtmAleontv . T Tr > 

n^. » <-,• 11Q Pcdeu ) u **»"»aliahabta, t- m 

££*»-«" 8.V30 Ptdum ,n fim^s of t c t um ££ 

</ attUa uaoantur ., , ..» n J ;• , . jVsu 

PattUa abfoluuntur ut qutrant ci niant * ? 



bum 



U-. O 



178.10 Pedtcu!osprocreatuesl'.sexo t u Hm 
ifaecunda oua pa- pclltbus farta r o , 

p^ ,. , I^-IO 12.7- ZO ' 

«w o«4 gaUtnn jubuaun - 127.10 
P**o nit Hiu X ? f I0 P edic * l °""» e oitu hndts proere- 



67*3»- IO PtdtcHluHexanturpifces 9 %. xo 



Petltnes 

Pe tt'ncsttridcnt 

PefftnJ/ , 9 ** l ° CM18.IO 

\ *' ° iiy.zo 



cri 



<A Ped 



I N D E X. 



Ttdiculi genus mdrinum qualefit 

• II7.3O 

.ptlaoimsloUim 76.IO 

pella coitm difftcilis tfl 106. 10 
Ttnchps dtfiderat aquas 112.30 
Tc nu propyid pdrs mam 24 20 
Tcnna dpum rcndfci nonpoteft 

&J.10 

penna uoUntes l7'->° 

Tcnnis uoitntium pcdcs 18. IO 
penna duiumfiigort mutdntur 

67.IO 
Ttnna cdule eonflant 4 2 *3° 

>pc nna qutbua cruftd conttgantur 

18.IO 
Ttnnaa qudtornaf hdbentid i3 IO 



fd 



115-1 




ifcufi 



194.30 

Phalangia coitua 104*30 

Thalangia diu intdiam ptrftrt 

18?. 20 

Thalangij quo pdfto pariant 




116 -lo 



fiemina 



mas 



rariut piti 



>JT* 



67.10 

Ttnna qua inttguntur,quales hd- 

btant audimdi mcdtus 21. xo 

Tcrca appendiccs 

Ttrca bramhia 



JC-IO 



98-10 

ThaUra aouas dddmat iSi. 20 
Thdlcricaaqua 145.10 

Phafiana pediculis ucxantur 

127.20 
Thdfianorum aud 130 30 

Thercc^dcs Syriusquo morbo pe- 

rierit 127.IO 

Thilofhphandiinnaturaltbus or- 

do & ratio 6. 30 

Thocana partws 141.30 

Phocandmctidm Pontmhdbet 



Ttrca ubt pariant 
Tcrca conduntur 
Tcrdicis ingluuics 



44.20 

143.30 

19MO 

50.IO 

•Jt 243. ;o 



189.30 

npnicc fcrt cancros mit 



tdtut 



$ 



78.20 



tat 



218.10 



Terdiccs ubi pariant 



13 IO Thohi qunmodo fe tutatur lz6lO 



Ttrdicibus uoxante pugnam 

94.30 
Tcrdiccs quarationt incubcnt 



138.10 



& 



TcrdiccsaffldtHcoapiunt 103-IO 



martum 



103. IO 
Tcrdicum coitus IOJ.IO 

Tcrdix quomodoconcipiat 40. 30 

(IU4 I32.IO 



TcrJicum utta 



Thoxini admodu parui adhuc oud 

habent 142.30 

Thoxrni ubi pariant 144. 10 

Thrigius cafaus 73 IO 

Thycos dppetlant purgamtntum 

nurii Tontici I43.IO 

Ticart quiddicatur 170.30 

Ticanidus 116.30 

Tica uoctm mutatfape zi6io 

Tkm martius 1*1.30 

Tigus martius cur tundat arborts 



pallinsL 

o 



135.30 

cjout 



114.10 

Tici gtntrd 



213 10 Pig^rgm 






XI 4 *o 

2X1.10 



Figmai 



I N D E X. 



fU&jdem cffc 



187.30 



211.20 
mammls mulicr* 



I74.20 



Ptlipracifi non ab incifura augcn 
tur,fedab>radicc - 66.^0 

Pili proportionalia qu& dicantur 
64.20 

Pili honunlf 



PtUxapitUprimipcr atatcm dc- 

fl»» nt 63.30 

Ptlianimahbutcommuncs co.ia 
Pilos non omnia habcnt j^. Ia 

PilofaqttAfint ^}0 

Pilularto penn& uagino incluft 



87.30 



Ptlorum difcrimina 



f 



rfcuntfere mclius f« 



ter 



tfcunt quibua cflp, 



184.30 



3*3° 
64.20 

J'tu icportjunt tn bucca.etiam &* 

rcfupina pcdum parte 6? . 1G Pinguefcunt atatc prowtfa potiua 
Vtlt bertnaceorum - - r 



68.30 



multCru nnn ti*/7un 



6P30 



tur 



... .. . 6^.30 

Pdipitbis mdicant atatcm matu- 

ramadcoitum lc8 . 30 

PtloYummutationndefiat 6+.zo 



quam nouclla 

Pinna pinnothera, 11330 x 

Pinna ereil^e. quo loco quoque pa~ 

fio proueniant II3.30 

Pinna anplant*> an animalta fmt 

dubitatur 220.20 



64.30 
Pilififiilesfi 



funt PinnaauricuUparsfupcrior 



22.10 



ir omnes 6 ^ 

finnt uitiltgine 6c . zo 
nbrarum dcfluunt rcbua 



Pinnafe non mouent 



82.30 



ucnem 



j tnnxjeacm non nuitant 113.301 
Ptnnas binaa qua habcant 17.50 



f> 



Jfifn bnafci in quibus pof 



66.10 Pinnas habent pifcts rem ptcuUa 



rcm 



4B 



o 



Pili uerficolores quibusfun.,..^ 
bent ettaeiufmodicutc " 6 ' 6 .lo 

Ftlos tjua habent, ammal Phnunt 
19-ZO 4 

rili cani quibufdam redditi ex 

tgntudine G 

™ocyu*canifiuntoptrti 6f .zo 
PUorum color mutatur infentcTu 

P'U a qua parte prhmm cande. 
feant 

rilicon S eni,i hbidinofis celerZ 

Ptli yu m homint p,hmm nafc^ 



66.IO Pinnisqu^utantur I7.20 



Pinnothcra qua rationc pifce s ca- 



ptat 



II4.20 



tur 



aUffit,ubiq; nafc 

II4. 20 

Pipecumlutea ccrtat 20C.30 
Pipo ucnatu culicum uiuit 182-30 
Ptropinguefcuntfues 184 30 

Ptfcatores quomodo capiat pifies; 

96.10 & 102.30 
Pifcatores quid obfcrnent in litore 

turi II6.20 



Pifcesfclh 

Ifi 



pifc 



46.30 
9O.30 



Pifces quo tempore optintifi 

A x 10% 






I N D E X- 

1Q1 , Pi/ce^ multifimel pdriuni ice.$0 

Pifcibusfirme omnibusguld dcefl Pifcium oculiprimum apparent 

47.30 144-10 

pifcium cor 47.10 !>*/*<* <p^<" *& *ty* dnimaltbus 

pifces mares turgidos hdbent mea diffcrdnt 44.20 

tusgcnitalifemine 14C.20 Pifcesplurimi fqudmofi 44.10 

pifcium coitus 102.10 Pifces paucifcabri 44"'*? 

l»/7c« nidorem fangninis fugtnnt Pifces quo tempore mdximc cdpiS 

pifcium dppendiccs 49.30 Pifiibus uulgdris peflis non utde- 

pifcesfoeturdmdeuordnt 181. 10 turaccidere i 19J.30 

pifciumgenitdleuirus 71.30 Pifcium oud pdrientium coitus 

pifcibuaostftrcfciffum 44-30 102.30 

pifciumoculi 44*3° Pifiesuordnt marisfemcnprolifi- 

pifcesndrepnffunt 13. 20 c«w J 02 " 3 ? 
Pifcium ouipdrorum coitus rdro Pifces mdres oud focminaru uorat 

cernitur 103.10 101*30 

J>l/&«J» difcrimen locd faciunt pifcesfuntfanguinis pdrticipes 

107.10 44-3° 

pifciumlingud 40.30^ 44-30 Pf/2** quiddifferdnt quodddpdr 

Pifcium mcatus in quibus conti- tum dttinet 44*3° 

ncantfemen I02-20 Pifccs quioud paridnt 44.30 

Pifcium oua etiam fine mdre con- pifccs qui gignant dnimal 44.30 

ceptafxcunddfunt 100.10 Pifciumoffa 62.30 

pifcibus extenudusfquamjt durio Pifiium peculidres (pinuUper cdr 

res efficiuntur 66.30 nempdfiim 62.30 

P(/c« 9*40* »af«* /? moucant Pifcium genus numertfum 43.20 

14.10 pifciumpdrsfupina 43.20 

pifcibus procidit uenter in os Pifcium cduda 43. 20 

178.10* pifciumpartes 43.20 



pifiesqudre dorrnientes nonfi 

l'c capiantur $6.10 Pifiium gcneratio in ouo quid dtf 

pifces pulicibu* uexdntur 96. 10 fi rdt <**> **i* m t I3 8 * 3° 

Pifces infiflant pcdiculi 117. 20 Pifics optimi quib. in locis 194.20 

Pifciumncrui 6MC Pifces infifidnturfiigore 194.20 

J»jf/cej nonnulli dnimal gignunt Pifcts qud rdtione in ouo dugcdtur 

I6.20 -138.30 

pifces quibufdam cibo funt Pifciuuulu^figurd unde petendd 

14.10 139.10 -■'- m - 

pifcescdpicndirdtio 91. 10 Pif 



C 






gcnerent 138.2O 

&f 



Pifcesfuauesfu 



fi 



I N D 1 X. 
9I.IO I43.IO 



urtnu 



Pifiium diuerfa paricndt tcmpora teamncf 

.H7- IG 1 Pifciumfomniargumenta $$.10 

Ptfces quidam dcntes in lingua ha Ptfiium lacufirium partu* i 4 y . la 

t °f nt 44-3° ri f c i"mo*orHmmultitHdoiA2.io 

Ptfctumfemengenitale j 2 . IO Pifiesqui generct anim^l i 4I 20 

-P^Cfi fu/rf Arc* /<y?/«w 646*011 Pifiiumgenera multa latent a*$- 

S I# 3° bu/dam temporibus 191. 10 

Pifcesncnhabentteftes ji. io Pifiiumuulua, 49.10,^^.20 
J*//rt** conceptm magna expar- Pifces. e ttafineclute mriammr 

te uereagitur -107.10 203.10 

/>//c r * rr/tfm /octf *tf rf«ej mn/tf** P#cej ouum generantc s 6 , IO 

l8 7-3° PifiiHmfibum 6 \ 

PifciumfcneautUfign* 203 . 10 P*/J #J carent pulmone Z\ lo 

Pifies uerbafco herba moriuntnr Ptfces ceUriter crefcunt \A%. io 

196 ZO Pifiium dentes 37.30.0- 44 20 

PifciUgregcs duces habct 189.20 Pfics paucifiinu Uhcs TT zo 

Pifies branchi^ habcnt 43.30 Pifces pclagij f£u IQ 

Pifccs oui optimi fmtpojlparti Pifces mamma* n5 habent - 20 

103. 20 & 7I . 30 

Pifcibusodorandi meatus nuUi co Pifiiufcrtmna uiuaciores 9 t. lo 
$ tcul . 44-30 pt ficsnonbabentrenes 47 . IO 

Pifiibu6imbresconducunti 9Jt .io ^ifi^mcapturaquandofi.tt 
Pifiibw incji matcria ex quaglu- I91.30 

tinum concoquitnr 6y . 1Q PifctummarU &> fxmina, ?cnit<t 

Pifctum ouum quomodo crcfiat kudijfcrcntU l4C . . Q 

l })'5° Pifcium coniugU aguntur 

14^.20.07*207.30 
qHaur»* f„ nt rifctMm con ^ Mnt 

rifittm Ungormm p iHH4t ^ Q Pifiiifitmm mtt^ x *, £ 

£/c« gregales u.io.0. z0? . 30 Pifccs noQe pafiere folent i6o . 5 
rtfcesfortioresdeHorantinfirmio l ''fiinm i» f, xh Jifcrimen 



Pifcibua magna expartcpinna, 



res 



XOS.io 97'lO.f? 



**'»****»» SND.50 m«. l80 ., o 

£«T«« «^ rf^ fW » r I44 . ;0 ^yafc^ pkrifqtfil hH& M L- 

■"lctHmftnun* maiores tuadut nexnmefl 4<f , 

jnammarcs 9i . lo Pifccsqnidam necmaresnecfce- 

Pijces hnmore uiunnt i 2 ., mimtfunt ' , 

* *fe*> r*r tHxia litiorspariant Pifies dormiunt 9 < \ 

A x Pi 



I N D B X. 



! 



ifces cito crefc 



ifcesfi 



fenfumgujl 



90.10 
PifctbusqH&cfcafu g 

pifciumnatHram regi 

148.10 
pifccs.uarijs dtlcCiam 

r 91. xo 

pifiibui apta locd 

pifces qui mutentstr 203,20 

jyjfciHmfaxatilium cibus 180.10 

pifces qui fquamis tcguntur, oHd 

1 pariunt 142. 20 

Pifc 



107.20 K 

Polypi ounm 77. \o*& 107.XO 

er 116.30 

Polypus animal foccundum eft 

107.30 
Polypus mas quid differat k fcemi 

" 107.30 

trum brachia quantafiant 



na 



76.10 
195.10 Potypiuita 



Polyporum cibud 



118. IO 

179-1:0 
foucat oua 



117.30 
Polypi ingenium 



117-10 

■fi 



rijci<it»genera. ex limo etiam pro Polypi quo paflo cx oho prodcaat 



neniunt 145.10 

pijces uocis expertesfunt 47-10 

pituita covs animaltbus 54*5° 

pUnta 



M;3° 

plantanoncauaucrfutuingcniu 

fignificdt 16 IO Polyporumgenus 

pUntarum munus *75*30 

pldtea mutant coetum 187-2.0 



116.30 
Polypi primum perexigui 116.30 , 

Polypus in quo loco adat ouum 
116". 30 



plateapregdlu eil 



Polypi quomodo capiatur 92.20 

_ m m ,75*° 

Polypus uno brachio in coitu uti- 

75'30 
76.IO 

76.IO 



tur 



fi» 



188.30 r*ty . 

ifiimos fuijfe Polypws quomcdonatet 



4.30 
podagra eqnos uexat 19810 

Podagraequorumjignum I9S.XO 

Podagra canum 198. IO 

podagra hubws qnidnoceat 198- IO 



podcx 
Pollex 



% 48.10 

2J.20 

polybij dc ucnU (cntcntia 56 20 

polypu* l 7'i° 

polypum qucnddm ndutdm uocdnt 

77*30.^x27.30 
polypi qno patlo coeant 104. 20 
polypi comedunt locuFtas 1 79.50 
polyporum gencra multa 77. 50 
folypus quando paridt .coeatq; . 



tjjatis utunturpifcatores 

91.30 
Polypt caput 77*1° 

Polypws qua ratione fuis brachijs 

utatur 7y5° 

Polyp: optimi funt grauidi 203.I® 

pompiltus polypus 77*1° 

Pontus bellua^ ptfcibua inintica* 

non hdbct multat 189.30 

PopUs 2tf-IO 

Poples qu£par$ dicatur 60 $0 

Porphyrio qualem guUm habcat 

JO.20 

Porphyrio quo patlo bibdt 184*10 

70.30 

Pra 



fi 



I N D E X. 



Pncordia 



& 



Pulmoduium 



. 6}l* 



Praputium 24.10 

Primdds tn cxno fe abdunt 

Pnncipis offtcium 

Priftes nuanonhdbet 141. IO 

Proftrum Jiumorcm uocdnt nudie 



Pulmo qutbta dnimdlibus fit 45;. 30 
f Pulmonempifces non habent 

46.IO v 

IO.IO Pulmone qu<t careant 



46.I0 
Pulmo plurimum fanguinis conti- 



nct 



res 



< 



ofiuuium fdnguinis 71.10 

iwufcidas qua habcant 83.10 



1930 
I71.30 Pulmo non retinct fanguinem, dtf- 

ftftu animaltbus 19. 30 

Pulmononomnibus in codcm loco 



xs 



Prutnanoctt armc 
Pfitacua loquttur 
Pjy^hrusdmnis 



' 7H° 4T-3° ■ 

i3j-20 Pulmoindudspdrtcs difcretus e(l 



1S8.30 

67.IO 

Pubefcuntfoli homines 10.9. 10 
Pubts tdrdtftme canefcit 6yZO 
Pubvfccrc quando incipidt homo 



l$.lO.&* f 8 IO 
Pulmo qua caufa fanguine refcrtws 

uideatur 



l4p.io.C7" 163 10 

ibefcant oportet uuifu 
ad otpntndum 



>"7-?0 

27 • *° 
iS.IO 



66.IO 



Puellxquo dtatts tcmporc pr*ci- 
pui dtbcatt cuslcdtri 165-20 
Pucri quandoimtpidnt deatire 

173.30 
Puerifua mtmbrd rtgert ncqueut 



Pulmo fcrpentum 
Pulmo hominis 

* 

Pulmo ouipdrr>vum 
Pulmoqutbus utnts conneftdtur 

28- 10 
Pulmo-ies animalcula tefia tcfl* 
fpontc prouentunt 113 30 

Putmo qutbus dcejijuoccm non ha~ 
bcnt 



Pul 



93.20 



• « 



9J-IO 

Pultx 



mo exctptt artcnam 47' 3° 
Pnlmomm habentia ftirant 13. IO 
2«\8.20 Pumilio irSlo 



Pulices unde ndfcantur 127 10 
Pxltccs unde uicltttnt 127 IO 

Pluicum ioitHHernuculi proucnt. 



Puptll, 



tOCh 



U qua (ii 



21. Io 



PupiUdrum inflitutio communut 
eji animalibu* 69 \0 



uni 



piundi 



ifu 



lOO.IO Purgatjonesdnte pdrtum pcricu- 
lypt* ca lofk 



i>2-20 

Pultum dntc pullu enuttitur ab e- 

Puliusinouoquo pa^to augeatur 



85.4O 



fi 



ly.io 



dornu 



per 



17320 

Purgationcspoft conccptu 165.IO 

Pmrgatiomcs etiam quibufdam la- 

ttant tbm fiunt 174.20 

Purpura qucmadmodum fe con- 

ddnt IIT.30 

Purpura unde nafcantur 112 10 

Purpuriirum gtncrd multa n 2. 10 

Purpur* flos nuando diterrimus 



1*4-3° 



112.30 



A 



Pur 



I N D B X • 



Turpurs. que pdfto tundantur 

111.30 
TurpnrA qudndo generentur 107 

3° 

Tnrpura dpui Sigd\ 

ld& promontorid 

ruYpurdi Cdri& 
* Turpurdpelagid, 



R 



K><fb 



XcS.Itt 



& 



Rabie tentitur equi 198-30 

[ I39.2O 

147^0 
17.10 



IILIO 



Rdia ouum 

Rdia frcunditd* 

Rdia. brdnchis 
& 44.10 



Turpurd ubi mdgnd,ubiq; parud. 



IH-IO Raiapinniscaret 

Raid quomodo cocat 



II2.IO 



fi* 



17-10 
IOI.3O 

46.36 



fi 



fi 



fit pafc 



111. 10 Rdiit hyemc conduntur 191. 20 

I78.IO Rdnd U-3° 

44 3O 



III 30 

rpu*tubiniord,ubi rubra fi 



ill 20 



Rdnd quo pdflo generet 

Rdn<t coitum neflu magna cx par- 

94.30 
H+IO 

94-0 



te agunt 



Ranarumfaetus 
Randrum ululatu* 



Turpunt quando cdpidntur ill 20 

Turpurd, qutndo Utcdnt 112.30 Rand qua rdtione pifces cdpiat 



& 



fi 



223.10 
Rand uutua 



Turpuris longum uiuendi tempws Ran& coitus 



53.20. 
101.10 



113.10 

Turpura breui crefcunt ii?.lo 

Turpurvs qualU tingud 8 8 • * o 

Purpura ptuuijs infefl ~ 



/' 



mares 



fi 



98 10 



unt 



nos 



Pyrrhtcd oues 



ferdt erbi- 

IO7.30 
fauis nocet 200.IO 

733° 



Ranii lingua cfi 

Rana licn 
Rauccdofuum 



I76.50 
94.IO 
46.IO 



^ 



197.IO 
Rcdmosqua dnimalia hdbcdnt 

R diui undc oriantur 



Vddrubcdes brachi 

€e crurd hdbcnt 



Regutu* auti 



toru ut 



V ^ ee crurd hdbcnt 31.30 

Quddrupedum pdrs maior cdudd 

hdbet 35' 10 

Quadrupcdumfuws in utcr9 

172-10 



P 



110.10 

181.20 

8.10 



emim 



Qualttate affctluum dijft 



Remardpifitculws an habcat pcJtS 

4*. 20 

Remorx ufu* ^e.to 

Rcnes mdxime pinouefcUnt 69 IO 
Renes teftudinis ma tnx 47 IO 



pdrtes 



II.30 



R 



Rcnes nuuli mdrtni 
Renes canum 

Rcnes anjanguinch 



+6-io 
46 10 

Rcn 






I ^ D E X. 

Rcnum mcatm 30. $o Salitiumquidnuncupemm 67.30 

Rtnumuena 30.30 Sandaraca 123.20 gr I?3«lO 

Rencsquthabeant 47. 10 Sandaraca ueneno iumentd inter- 

Kcnumfitm • 3030 '«** . I$9»IO 

Rtnum dexter quid dijfcrat afint- Salpa quid tdat 175?. 20 

y?ro 30.20 Salpa liqutde audit j>I-20 

Rettculm uentris finm 48.IO Salpaautumno parit 106.30 

Rbinobati pifcts nomcn 141. 10 Salpa pifcifterc' cibmeft 1Q6.3O 

Rtctnus proprtucanum 127.20 Salpafcmdparh 105*30 

Ripariaauis . 13*30 Salmauis 2l6*IO 

Romani pontifices quo pafto pace Sanguine carcntes animantes non 

ufifint I.30 habcntuifcm 85MO 

Rofiruaues babetpropriu 42.20 Sanguis infoeminif 7I.IO 

RoftrHmauium ab offe quid diffc. Sanguine abundat mulicr 7MO 

rrf* 63-30 Sanguinemkabcntiamagis adole- 

Rubccula 242.30 /c«w* l8.20 

Rubelio omnis grauida capitur Sanguts afini 70.20 

1423. o Sanguincm qua multum, quaq; no 

Rubeltoinaltouerfatur i8<?>IO multum habcant 70.10 

Rubeliones genm pifcium 5)8.10 S anguints uafa 7O.IO 

Rubcta occtdit apes 231-30 Sanguts integer qualts^qualtsq; cor 

Rubetalien 46.IO ruptusfit 702O 

Rubct&alimcntum 181.20 SdnguinU integri fapor 7O.I0 

Rubecula 181.20 Saguis tcpcratm qualisfit 70.ro 

Rubtcilla 181.20 Sangutsconcrefcit 7CI0 

Rumtnando dtleftantur antmalia San&uis quoruda nocoit 70. To 
2+4. 20 . sanguis taurorumconcrefcit celtr 

Rurexubiuiflitet 182.IO r//w* 70 10 

/£**** orfw tnfeflm firpentibm rl? Sanguis qnorundam fibras non ha 
211 IO t . fcff 61.20 

Rutictlla 242.30 Sanffuts bubali quo patto concre* 

S fat 61.20 

^flfacit utpecudes maturim Sanguinis & uenarum natura ui- 

coeant m 20 detur princtpium f+-?0 

Salamandraignenonabfumitur Sanguinem qua habeant 18. JO 

i2o-?o £7» 16.30 cr 5*-30 

Salamandra, nomcn cflgracum gf Saupuu rubcntior quibm multum 
Utinum f 30 cawiscft 68.30 

Salcfi mulier immndice utitur t fi sanouis in animaltbm 16 AO 

ne unguibm infans nafcitur Sanouinem aearne ebibi r6 IO 
16 30 Sangms fcnfucarct 70. 10 




I N D E X. 






uwem 



bm pluribua quam quaternts co concrcfcit yl.zO 

fidnt 16.30 Sanies fibrits continetur 61.10 

Sdnguinedfdcileputdrent 7020 Sanies qutbusfu communis 74.10 
Sanguis honunis 70-20 Sdnies quid ftt 7I.2O 

jSanguints mittendi ratio <6-lo Saniesinammantibm 16.30 

Sanguts putrefcens pus fit 70.30 Sarda pifcps adeundo pontum capi 
jSanguinn proflnutum undc ueniat tur 189. "O 

70.30 Sarda bts parit ior 30 

JSanguts nigrior quibws parum cdr Sard* unde oriantur 140 .10 

nts 6830 Sardina unde oriantur I46.IO 

Sanguinis participes pifcesfunt Sargiaci gregarijfunt 2,08.10 

44'SO Sargusbjsinannoparit ior.30 

Sanguts nofpijftri potcjlfibris dc Sargus quando coeat 146.30 

/rrfrttf^ 4^0 Sargi altmcntum 180 IO 

Sdnguis comunis omniu efi 70.10 Sarpedts cu fert.comcdatur 130*30 

Crr4^20 Sdtheriuundequaratcibu 184. IO 

Sdnguine qua habent, iecore pra Satyrij cibus 184. 10 

dttajunt 4.6-10 Scamander amnts 



mu 



\omuenti 



67.10 




70.20 



P et " 70.30 ScapuU lf.zoC?6z.l 

Sangutsexfanguinefit 70.30 JV*/>*/<« ww//^ continentur ncru 
Sanguis palpitat 70 . 10 6l IO 

Sanguisjparfus cfi per totu corpus Scarabci ?ftl 

Scarabeifenefiute^ exuuntur 
Seguis primu oritur tctrdc 70 20 1^3. 20 
Saguine cffufo uita interit 70 , 10 Scarabci gignuntur ex uermibu* 
Sanguine ualde humefcente mor- 1I9 10 

businfcFlat 70-^0 Scarabei uiridesunde oriantur 

Sanguis cordis tenuifiimua ubifit 120.IO 

3°* IC> Scarabei membrana uolant 18. r$ 

Sanguinis &> uenaru diftcilis co- Scarabeorumpcnn* crufla tegun - 

& nitio 54-30 tur lS . lo 

Sangutstnuenis continetur ^. 10 Searabci pilulartj conduntur pcr 

Sanguinis aliquid in corde efl fine hyemem 11C.XO 

Hent * f y-IO Scarabcis diu durat coitus 104 .30 



ngutnis morbo nunus infhll, 
turmulieresquamuiri 71.IO gg> 



rdttOHC 



71.10 Scarus unud pifc 

Crfe** 71-10 180.10 



ifc 



Scd 






I N D IX. 



Scdru* quid comedat 
Scari uenter 
Scdri dcntes 

Scdribrdncbi& 



43-20 
44-2.0 



'fl 



9*» 



Scbttdoncs crdbronum quado fiant 

124.10 
Schddones qudndo optimd 123. IO 
Schddohcs dliqudndo fine pedtbm 

prodcunt 123.20 

cyj^nxt ,quomodo trdnHulerit 

164-10 
Scolopendrdmdri* incoU funt 

45.10 
Scombri grcgdlesfunt 207.30 

Scombri quando coednt 148. IO 

ScorduU ex ouo thunni prodcunt 

148.10 
Scorpionis dculcm 
ScorpionU dppendices 
. ScorpionU brdchid 
Scorpiones uhi pdriant 
Scorpiones uermiculos pdriunt 

I24-30 
Scorpiones afuis libcris perimun- 



_ 74-10 

Semen genitdle qudndo generetujr 

in animalibuSjqudndoq;jcecun- 

dumfit 108.20 

Seminisquiplm redddnt 166.10 

Semen quanao readdtur foecudum 



164.20 



pijcibm copioft 



88.1O 

fO.IO 

88.10 



140.20 
Scnunisgcnevdtio in homine quo-r 

to anno incipiat lo%.zo 

Semcngenitdle cumfyiritu exit 

170.IO 
Scmine tmittendo quomodo dijfc- 

rdnt dnimalid 16.IO 

Scmcngenitdlc lcntum ejl 74. IO 

Scminisgcnitnlis color 74. 2 P 

Semen genitdlcfrigore non cott 

74-10 






106.20 Semcngenitale in dqud probdtur 



fcccundum fi 
Scrnixgenitdlia 



74.20 

40.IO 

*20-I0 



tur 



124. 50 Senetl* generadiuimtoU.it HI.IO 



Scorpiones quotpdridnt 12 4.30 

Scorpio bvs parit 105 30 

Scorpiones ubi nocuijubi non 

20220 
ScrophdUc 153*0 

Scrotum 24.20 

Scrotum quod uocemm C2.20 

Scytd equabm grdutbus equttant 

Iry.30 
Sebum ab ddipe dsslet 69.10 

Sebum pifcium noconcrcfiit6^-lO 
Sebo qua pinguefcant *5>.Io 

Sebum quo loco animalis conjifldt 

J^9-30 
Semen infcecHndum & (cecundnm 



fi 



ptfc 



203.20 



Sencflutem qus. cxudnt 1 93-1.0 
Senfuum inftrumcnta 16. 30 



quotji 
\Ai uis i 
nasfixt 



>ft 



176.10 



Septd quomodo natet 

SepU corpm 

Sepid quo loco paridt 



17-30 
7SLO 

II7.3P 

I6.30 



qualc fit 



Scpid carct ftngumc 
Septd quo pdtlo cdpiantur 92.10 
ScpU dttrdmenti ufm 217 30 

SepidqHomodo ouafoucdt 117-30 
Scpid. maiores pifces uincunt 



16;. 10 



17 9 10 






Stp 



4 



I N D £ X. 



If$l7«# 



iftrdtiiy.zo 49.30 



^ 



Scpiauercpdrit 1 07.20 Serpentes oua adunt in luccm 

Scpiafarminaquidd marc differat 19.10.Cr f3.30.er 5-4-10 

* IO7.20 Serpcntcs quomodo moueantur 

Sepiahabet plurimum dtrdmcnti Scrpcntumcoitus 101.30 

80.10 Serpentum dorfum 6i.}0 

Sepid optima funt grduidd 203. IO SerpcntU Henatio,fencttusue 
Sepiarum coitu* 103.30 116.20 

SepUouaqualtaftnt 117.10 Scrpcntum cor 49.20 

S^pioU quomodo cx ohis cxeant Serpentum difrimind 4f .io 

n 7- IO Scrpcntes pleriq; terreftrcs 4.C.10 

Sepi&*lHH4&oHd 77.10 Serpentesmartiindigcne 4 r.io 

JV/>/* »m* ^tt/J differdt a foemind Szrpentum licn 49 -IO 

77-20-Cr II7.30 Serpcnttsinfidtofz rj . IO 

SeptarHmmagnitudo 7^.10 SerpcntumuHlHd 49.10.^54.10 

Scpiarum m*s ouis dditUfcmen df Serpentum uifccrd a.9.10 

P* r g'* * 143. IO Serpcntumdrterid 45). 10 

Sepidrumpdrtus quo collocetur Serpentnm mdrt inhabitantmm gc 

U€4p ncrdplura 

Sepidrum cdrunculds deuslas hd- 



4V-IO 

mtnutu fupiHt 



mis dffigunt dd cdpiendos pifccs alij magni loz . 30 

9}'i° Serptntcslatcnt I91.10 

Scptum^ 77-10 SerpentHmpnlmo 49. 20 

MwrtKOM medicdmentum 102.20 SerpentumiecHr 49.20 



' *"£<»* awri»* 225.2C 15;. 10 



/4 



206.30 



r/2 aducrfarius Serpentum oud 



IfMO 



j crpentum ucntcr 49.10 

rpentcs fcmind mdiorcs quam Serpemibu4cadempdrus qh* td 
marcscuadunt 9 g. IO certii funt ^ 9 . lo 

rbcntcs lonoumfibilum ddunt Serpentum lingua 49-IO 

Serpcntumfellufitus 4.9. 10 



94-20 



/* 



5/7TJ. 



Iifj. Io 



193 IO 



terpcns murcs perfequcns ni.io 
Serpenttbutpedesnonfunt 4r . ro Scrpcntumuiflut fy.uy 

Scrpentes quando exuat fencclam Serpentesuini cupidifunt 18,. io 

^ 1 ^ Serpentesquidtocateshitm habe- 

Serpentes tesles non habcnt ez.io *nt fl .p 

Ser 



I N D E X. 



femen genitale yl.?o Simijs ndtes non funt 40.10 

oculos renafci 49-30 SimidCduddmnonhdbent 40.10 



mtnem 



ipdrttm 

neturfcmen 202.20 quddrupedem re ferunt 39.ro 

Serpentes cauerna* fubeunt 14.20 Simid fpecies 39»Io 

SerpentescdtiltA 143-10 Simid ubipilofafit 39-20 

Serpentumuentriculws 49.10 Simidbrachid 39-5° 

Serpentes quale habednt intesli- Simidcilium 39-JO 

num 49*10 Simiarumldcerti 40.10 

SerumUtlis ' 72.10 Simiarumfizmord 40.10 

Scfclim hetbdm edit cerudptflpdr Simis. binas mdmmdrum papilla* 

tum 209.IO hdbent 39*30 

fexu* difcrimen in dnimdntibui simid habent pdrtesinteriores hn 

' 97' 10 mdnisfimiles 40.10 

Sicili&dgrilcontinipdfcud 69.20 Simidquo pdflomoucdntptdes e$ 

Siculimdrvflocdfemper per bru- brdchid 39'3° 

mahabctdiesalcyoneos IOMO Simiarummanus 39.30 

Siennenfis medici Cyprij opinio de Simid omnid rudiora quam homo 

ucnU 55.10 habent ?9-3<> 



Stnuctrum 



rant 



tcsTiwum quaie 39.30 

111*30 Simiarumpedumofficium 39.30 
faro tegmine opertd olfattum hd simid teftdfunt crafiiorc pilo qua 
bent 92.30 homines 39.20 



onune 



Silpha exuitfcncflutcm 
Siluid 181.20 niant 39.20 

Stluro quo locofclpofitum fit Similares partes II. 10 

46 20 Similares ammalium partes qua\ 
Silur 9 fiCmindprdfidt mari 203-10 fint 49.30 

Siluri oud diu a mdre cujiodiun- Simildri pdrtefenfua continetur 

tHr t% 144- lo 16.30 

Siluri quomodo pariant 144. i Q SimonidU cuiufdam, cdrminUfen- 
Siluriouum qudntum fidt 144,10 tentid 105.10 

S iluri brdnchid. 4420 Sincipiti cerebrumfubditum efi 

Silurimorbu* . i9tf.r0 20.20 



Simidrum umbilicus 



ii 



Simtarum corporis qud pars ma Sinittrdimbccilliord 25.10 

tor 40.IO SiphdrumUctur 43-30 

Stmidquibuicdufisdegenercnt SirenUminor i29.ro 

40I0 Sirentsmaior 2292o 

*T***4 p/«# tcmporU degunt pro- sitta cum dquiU pugndt 206.20 

»4 quam crcfa 40-10 ■ ■ JW* <**# mercs 218. 10 



I N E X. 

Somnidre multd prdter hominem Spongid moUifiimd IIMO 

animalia 95-10 SpongidfenfumcreditHrhabcre 

Somniare quando pueri incipiant 13.10 

' «jf.io Spongidftmiliipldntdeft lyp.iQ 

Somnium nonnuUos homincs im- Spongid HeUcJponti qudles fint 

mutduit 97-IO tfp.io 

Somnm & uigilid dnimalium Spongid cdlorem immodicum non 

.95.30 pdtiuntur 115.10 

Somnidntetidmrccens ndti pueri Spongid optimd quo Uco reperidn 

173.30 : *nr 115.10 

Sonut in dnimdntibm quomodo eli Spogijs uiuis qualUfit color 11 r.io 

* datur 92.20 Spongiarum genm uocdnt dplyfiaf 
Sophifldm Gfdci uocdnt Rhcto- 115.20 

rcm 7.30 Spuriaquoticspdriant 105.30 

Spadonescaluitij immunesfunt Squdma pifccs tdntmm integuntur 

65-30 •& 243.30 12.10.cr 64.10 

Spdrgipifces pcr dfidtem pdriut Squdtint quoloeo fcl pofitum flt 

"10630 46.30 

Spdtdgiechini 8r-30 Squdtindbu pdrit IO6.10 

Spindx prolemrecipere non potefi Squatind qudndopdridt 106. 30 

I43.IO Squatina quomodo pdridnt I40.IO 

Spina 24..30 Squatindduopdrtu4 141.10 

Spind conTldt utrtebrit 4 61.30 SquiUa quo pdclo coeant 105.30 

Spindrum inechinU ufm 89.30 SquiUaqudle ouumhdbeit 80.20 

Spina ofiium initium 61 30 SquiUa animal cruUa inteclum 

Spinaquibmfitcommunis 54.30 78. IO 

Spinaccs musleli quo loco conti- SquiUd mutantur 203.10 

* ncdnt eua I ? 9. 20 SquiUa gibbd qudndiu uterum fe^ 
Spini auU cibm 16120 rant II6MO 
Spiratio animalium 13.10 Squillaparud 85.10 
Spiritm quo paclofubeat caud pul SqniUarum inteflinum So-lO 

*wo»tf 28.20 StelUdnimaltefldtecluiCdlidaelt 

Spongidrumgenm triplex 114,20 113-30 

SpongU dchiUcd 114.20 SteUdtiexmufietorumgcnerequ* 

tfpongidhirci 11+.20 ties pasidnt 106.IO 

Spongid ubi nafcantur 114. 10 SteUio cum araneo beUigerdt 
Spongiarum alimentum 114.30 206 10 

Spongijsftnfuminejfe rU-JO SteUio mutat cutem i93.ro 

S pongtj s infunt beUiole quadam SttUionum morfm ubi exitidks 

114.30 ^ fint 202.30 

Spongia renafcitur \ 14.30 SteUiones quandik lateant 1 9 r . 10 

J7e/ 






I N D E T. 

Stellioncs foemina Mdiores quam 38.ro 

w *rr* 98.30 Suesparum meduUd habent 

Stercu4 comune dnimalibus $"4.30 7MO 

Sternutamentum qua parte agatur Sues fbemina dentes non habent 

12 "^° exertos 9 g #;(> 

Slefuhorm de ^tlcyonc iomo Suis fceminagenitatc ^ 6tZ o 

Stirpes quomoio proueniant Suumferarum coitus & pdrtm 






99-io 



Pl-XO 



If9.r0 
Stirpiumalimentum 99.2.0 Suumpedes 34.30 

Stirpibws quid comune f%t cum al Suis cerebrum pingue efl 69.10 

mmahbws 99.20 S ws primo partu *dit paucos 

Strumamorbusfuum 200.ro 110.30 

SturnusauU 220.IO Sus grandinemfoUconcipit 

Sturnus fecedit 192.20 15)7.30 

StyrAcisfuffitwsfugat multa infe- Suesfylueftres peruicaces rMO 

^ 4 92.20 S ue s gaudent pabuli mutatione 

SubaquiU 222 . IO Ip7 . 30 

^* 4 ^ 149.IO Suumpediculi 127.20 

Subulones *»& itcantur cerui Sucs cum excitantur libidine , ag- 

~°9-?0 grediuntur homines irO-IO 

Sudor cruentus unde fit ?0 . 30 *T«« uirutentos iftu* minime fem, 

Sulphuris odore intereunt infccld tiunt Vje.io 

Sues quibws rebuspinguesfiant 
S^iphurefugaturformicA 92.20 iSf.io 

Sumen z ^ JO s uc lupo obfislere potefl i8j.io 

Supcrcilia hirfuta reddunturper Suis uim & mortui podus igy.io 

feneclutem 66 . lo Srn pracipue radicibm gaudct 

Suppuratione equi etiam infefian - 1 8 * . 20 

iHr 199.IO Smfacilepinguefcit -184.33 

**f 25-30 SucscdpitefipelaborMnt- 197.20 

J*«rrf/ <?«;/*„,, ^rff w e iMnf hm ti J**a b&mitf dlui profluuia 

**' l ° 197.20 

■ftw fylueslres ab urbanU quid dif Sues quando raucefcunt i 9? . 10 

f erani 34.IO Suesquopdflocurandi 197.20 

Sutcorpmhirtum 33. 30 Sut* urbani q> ftri differentU 

Suum uentcr amplus 3 ,. 20 lTp . IO 

S**mHoxddc*itum 98.20 Sucsfcriquopdfto Cdflremur , 

^" 3*io 1,9.10 

^ ^* 4 3*10 Sucsferifamunt 148.30 

S *** non amittit dcnttm. u!l*tn 



Sucsfcri quomodo fc armct 



Sues 









x a a nm 



*fi fi 



197.20 

ts annum 



nongenerdt 

fus fe d fxmina mtlior eft 

ferus qudndtu cum fa 



110.30 



fi 



& 



tis terra obrutu* exclujc- 
rum. 1*7. 20 

Syrid qudles oues hdbedt. 201.10 
Syid mulorHm.gcnHS 16-10 



conuerfetur 



ting 



Hl 



I53MO 

iffo jbrcntex 

151.30 
151.30 



T 



Sua qHot dnnos.mudt 

Sm ping*i* procliuior dd cettum 



T 



^ib 



leumgerit 



18 10 



/ 



Tdbdni quenam modo moriamtur 



IIO.30 

u pinguU fc 

au 



117.20 
Tabani os 



IIO.30 Tdbdnii qudlU lingud 



Sut4 protes qudndo optimd 110.30 



fi 



111.10 



tentpore tnire potfji 
Shs quo paclo aliquando ccedt 

I0p.20 

Suu concipicntu fignd IIMO 

Sues in terra \Uyriorum 35 . r O 



bcnt 



foltd 



83.20 

Tdbdnifdnguiuorifunt Ir<5. O 

Tabani unde nafcantnr 120. VO 

Tabificu pilt crcfcunt 66* ZO 

Td&ushomini* 26 30 

Tdclus omnibm animalibus com- 

muntA I7«30 

Taclus in qud pdrte corporU con- 

fjiat 



35.10 

tftcs 



jl.20 
Sues quot mcnfes uterumft 

ui.io 

Suum coituf 



16-}Q 
21.30 

n~ —r^»w „:fltgium quomo 

doinueniatur 



Tdlpd oculit tdret 



2T.20 



ftb 




<ft 



Ifl. 10 Talparum oculi 



89^0 
QO-IO 



Sues quando incipiat coire. 70.10 Talum quo loc* continednt 35.10 



Crior 10 

\sfoemina quando pariat. 

10930 

percdid iuxtd nafum infl 



Talum qna habeant 3f-lO 

T auri genitale mtmbrum regidum 



IOO.3O 



Tduri Epiri 



2MO 



2MO 



IO5.LO 

e coitus cum frmi- 
nti,dltasnen I5O.IO 

Superciltaindicant animu 11.10 Tduri quando fauidnt 149.IO 

Supercilid retla molltm drguunt TdurU robu\hord funtquamuac- 

o*MO 



fubfr 



antmum. 21.10 

Sutura quodjint im calua uiri. 

6l-lO 



cts cornua 



fanguis cifdurefc 



70.10 



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I4.2O 



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rempora capitts pars 22.30 7VJ7„ c«« natur* J?° 

rt "' w ' * 0fl «««m crfo-i» c*,„ yc/,„ ^,£ w rc&.co,/*, 4,*, 10 t Q 

L tU r fin " Hnt r **™ r.shsnonfuntpsfabm 'H 

fi* 61.10 - cSTfMO 

'■reeto jinulis crabronibus cit Teilium. i-**i***. :•.,- 

■> WWI * ■»* J est,umc *f>'*ita£cif>iutucn4sex 

N*. ,nteil,na,qu* ^socant , «5/ *> J?,.» ^^ ^^ ' '* 

l-modoqtgtMtreMur 100.IO reHtum meatui defcri pti L'L 

'rra tnteiltna pariunt angu.das Teiltbus cxcifis quld meatibnco 
U6 £° rumaccidat _, ,. 



dicatttr 



<f, 



101.20 




,75.10 ' "t**o ex genere ouiparofila ht 

~~ ••"••' """naanum diHifio bct ueficaot K o 

zestatntettdomntalatct 100 10 86.20 

?2 4Cf °T ,W 8 3 IQ rcfl ^inU teilcs 

rci-UjnteaorumnullHmcfidticri rcflud:nesmarina„on uidJnt^ 

^tnfixu 0710 poSjeabf^aquaHtuere m . IO 

rcSlatnullaomnesfenfus babent reiludocumedcrit uiperam^cZ 

>7* ,«rft, ftim+etmgnM* reft^marina rcncs habct 4" o 

fHnMcntur ZOf . lo Tcflud^ OMa „* £ 

rtatntethtplatisfinutia i 7 ,. 30 TVjJW»,» «,„„,. ™'£ 

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102 lo 

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I28.JO 

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"*• 102. ?o 



36.20 Tcltudtnes abruptumfibilu 
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TcnZauium au«>A S^o rctrtx ubi pariat I50 .20 

rftctanZ ^ ^T ^T^ £* 

ljg.2o r btmtfcjrd *p es u?30 






r-Ao/ 



ThoS qudles intus pJTtes hdbedt Torpedines quo pdridnt 140 . IO 

4.8.20 * Torpcdinis brdnchU 44.IO 

Thoesuocdtur Upicerudrij 239.20 TorquiUd duicuU nnde dppclldta 

Thordx hominis 20.10 42-20 

Thordcispdrs 23.10 Ti^ta piUrc mdlufmdmisij^.io 

Thunnd qudndo pdridt 106 .30 Tringd dukuU cibws 182.30 

Thunnidfilouexdntur 19^.20 Tritici hcrbam comtdut cdncs dd 

Thunni qudndo coednt 14S10 uerfus lumbricos 2IMO 

Thunniquidcomeddnt 183.30 Trochilm cu dquild pugndt ic6.}0 

Thunni pingues funt 147-30 Trochilus dquds dmdt 282.20 

Thunni grcgdles pifces 14.10. dr Trochili ingenium iiy.IO 

208.10 Trocdilidues p&rgdnt dentes cro- 



Thun»os quomodn cdpidnt 96M0 codili 210.30 



Thunni dcxtro oculo mdgts uident TregLodit&undedicdntmr 18720 

I0 o.IO Tubercdmeli 34. 10 

Thunni ubildtednt I9MO T *berd 80.5(3 

ThunniUutsfunt, 44.20 Tubcrundturdedrnofdeft 176MO 

Tnunnus qudtM uifua cdptutq; fit Turbindtorum dijferentia, 82.30 

203.20 Turdu* rmttdt colorem 242.20 

Thymo deleSldntur dpes 2^4. 10 T urd*>rumgencrd trid 218.30 

y/6/4 25.30. C2T 62-20 T ordorumnidi 130.20 

Tibi<*homint* * 34*3*3 T urdu* etidmUtct 191.20 

Ttllonipifciquiddcciddt 196.10 Turduainlittoreuerfuur 189.IO 

Tine<tndfcutur in Und,fi drane us Turdi brdnchia 44.20 

includdtur 128. IO T urdulorum gcntis cofl* i r .io 

Tincd unde ndfcdntur . 118.30 T ^rtur I0S.10 

Tinunculut rdre bibit 181.30 T urtur &foteuspugndnt 206.IO 

Tinuculusduiffiecuduseft 130.10 T *rtur cu igndrid difiidet 106MO 

TinuvcHlioHum rubrum cft 130.30 T *nur bindparit oud 130.10 

Tinunculiucntriculus . 51.30 T *rturi cucnit crepit 9 dluiz^.io 

TiphdtoUuturgrddinesfuui^j.^o T nrturU cibu* . 181.30 

TipuUunde oridntur 119.20 T ^rturumuit4 2I2.2D 

TtrfioUchkbct 141.2 O T y r dnnus duic uU . 181.20 
o/i# /dtp£f w«ck prouenidt 70.30 ^" 




TonitrujncuhdntegdllindtOHd pc- "\ T ^iccdrum urind 150-30 

rfww* 131. 20 V T^dccdpHrgdtiokpdrtu 

Tonfi&t 20.20 141.20 

Torpcdo excdrtiUgineij 102.10 7 r dccdrum libido 149.30 

Torpcdo quomodo cdpiat pifces ydcc* minorcs ndtu dd coitum pro 

125.IO wiorfj 149-50 

Torpedinlsfd 40-3O ? y dcc*coitumdJfeCtdntispHrgdtio 

143- 



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^accam annicula peperijp no.io /^moi 
^accacnmgrauidafunt ^ patiu ^enap 



imbrcs 



J^dCCK 



bycmc$0* 

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p»*g-- v* 54.30 

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fenarum cognitio undepofist ha- 

beri rrr T ^ 

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^enafiminaria ^. IO 

cliores quibus multZ 



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earnis efl 

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6S.30 



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I49.3O 



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f<)-30 



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l"cna ad kterum pcrtinctcs S 6. zo 



f i ex 9*4 mattriafiat 
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66.30 



I74-IO 
kraw diuerfi 

9 Ha auis defi 



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ren* QM& ad rents ptrucniunt 

55>-io. 

Vena quopaclo cor complcftantur 

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emsni* 



164.10 P 

2.17-30 17.30 

rtn* ad ccrcbrum pcrucniens 



ip.io 



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fcna maior nu* »» >__ n* . 



t8-io 



/^riw «0» omnibu* cadem 60.10 



tur 

7 r ena aorta 



Jparga- Vcna 



P^cna 

malibua euidcns eft 



60.10 



& 



mortuis animattbua 



60.10 cipikmputasur 



67.10 
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Vena in utcro , . r^ 

j^ , ° 171.10 ftnttr 

ren* multa ac tenuesfb 
cur obliterantur 



54.30 
grfitnguinU natura prm 

54-50 



14.10 

^enter fimplcx quibuafit 4S20 



T + 78.30 Ventcr 

fena maior qu*t corporU partes 
adcat * r 

2 r >_>-> ' • V7«20 r »«nr uQiwunis 

ma * T0 YUHr ^ C * rd " t** renterarcliorefi 



yentcr pifcium 

hominis 



<g«U 



S7-lo 



multam 



Cr/8.10 rentrUdiffe 



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41.10 

48.50 

48.10 

habtnt 

68. ?0 

47.30 
Vcn 



I II D I X 



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48.10 



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69-10 

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Ventricut 
Vcntriculus humanus qualts 

18.30 
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Vcnto quddam concipiunt 100. 10 
Veuud 



Verttbuli excrementum 
Verttbuli os 
Vertibulorum color 



87.10 
87.10 
87.10 



Vertibulaubi nafcdntur 113.20 
Vtfecdm membranam ejje 68. IO 
Vcfica qutbus antmattbm data fit 



68-IO 



Vefi 



ni data rji 
r/J 



68.IO 




Vcnere, 

jliun 

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sfit 163.30 

uoluptdtis cupidtne gc- 

omma animalta 148.30 

tonuatcntes 15.IO 

yer tempusplurma animalia exci 

tat*ad uenercm IO4.3O 

yere pifcium conceptm agitur 

107.10 
yerbafco herba moriuntur pifces 

I96.20 
yereule qudlc animal 8.9. 20 

yermes ex qutbu* prodeunt mfe 

tld 



fic 
tft 

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I02-20 






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cficaprdcija coire nonpot 68. IO 
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$rf 13.IO g? 7510 

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88.20 
U4.20 



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II9.IO 



46.IO 



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Jpaphalangtapcrimunt 121.50 
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14.30 



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120- IO 

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yermium dtjft 



17.20 



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funt 6I.30 

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ctmm 

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VcrtibuU 



cjpertiltoacctabutd habet uulua 

54,20 

ijpertilio neilu udgdtur 14. 20 

cjpertttioni pcdcsfunt 13*30 

i^#//<t &femnu$ antmaltum 



S5.30 
20.20 Vinage quid edat 

20. 20 Vinagp cotumba 



181.30 
108.10 



82. 10 



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Vtnum couulfionts caufa 174. 30 

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J^inum nocct grduidi* 
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I70.10 funt 
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176-30 
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I93-IO 



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72.10 
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129.10 J'itulorum uox 



49-20 



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J^ipera dcuorat fcorpium 2^2.30 J^ituli marinirenes 

J^ipera qunt pariat 

J^ipcra ouum 

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J^ir adcoi*um hycmeprocliuior 

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33.IO 
30.20 
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129.10 J> 

119-10 

217.30 J^itulm marinm ambignum anL 



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104.10 



10.30 

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204.30 

"/' 40.30 

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f* r 7-30 

^tfutcertafedes 90 , 10 

J~ita breuvs quibm fnnt rarions 
dentes 



I41.30 

I4MO 
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J^ituli marini genitale 141.10 

J^itulm nutrinm fcl non habet 

45.IO 

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37SO 
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£.10 
35.30 
17.10 

if.20 
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F7*U dcfcriptio 718.10 

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J^tuerra ^enitale 

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I32.IO 
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^'/*/o marino pedesjunt 13.30.^7- 

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mbilicm Jlmlt 
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108.10 



«9.30 



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funt 



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Vpupa nidificdtio&pdrt 9 118.20 



J^ngues ab offe differunt 63. 30 

J^ngues dnimdlibwt comunes 77. 10 

J^ngues in quibufiUm durifiima Vpupa montium incota 14.1c.cy 

64.30 
J*ngues hdbemt quibmfunt dtgiti J^rdgem qudm auem ^tthenienjes 



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54.IO 

fngues omnesdues hdbent 41.30 
J^ngues qua dues hdbent > cdlcdre 

cdrent 43*3° 

J r niudlue quodgenus uocet 82.10 
J r oca gregdles funt 208. IO 

J^old qua mdnus pdrs (It 2,7.30 
J^oUjciJfura indices longitudints 

vitafunt 2.7.50 

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tur 42.30 



J^elucrum cdudd 42. 30 

J^olucres quomodo uolent 17.30 
J^olucrum difftrentia 13.30 

J^olucres multa pdrtum eijciunt 
ex nido 



uocent 130.20 

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hominumcft IrMO 

Vrin& diflitdtionibm dpium mc- 

dicdmcntum 8d.lo.C7* 211.20 
J^rindtrices 12.30 

J^rindtrix dquat dddmdt 182. 20 
J^rfk urfo dnimoftor 204 30 

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I93-IO 
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48.20 



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ciunt 



108.50 



J^rflfxuiut coitua tcmpors: 149.10 
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136.30 J^rfo corpm hirtum 



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2imo 
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/^ojr fxmindrum dcntior 68.10 

£7* 109.10 
J^ox diffcrt k firno . 93.10 

J^ox equdrum & equorum 109.10 
/^or hominie qudndo mutetur 

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ueneri atatem 108.30 

yocis dtffercntia $ r IO 

/^wr qudrefne mutationeficrue- 

** r 164,20 

J^ocales quomodo proferantur 

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131.20 



1 

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184.20 

33-3° 

J^rforum coitus 100.30.CP16O.IO 
J^rft fugicntcsfuos portdnt catu- 

los 210.10 

^fi^Trumherbdmcomcdunt ci 

c Idtibulo egrediuntur 192.30. 

Cr 210.10 

J r rfim dnimdl omniuorum c(i 

183.30 
Vrfm qud rdtione uincat tdurum 

184.10 

J^rfa utcrumfcrt triginta dies 

160.10 
frfkfoetm parum 160. IQ 

yrfa quando prodcat cu rrfuis cd- 

tuUs 192..30 

frfiifuctd non capitur I92.30 
J r rfi intefiinum 192 30 

J r rfi quot mammas haheant 

3C.30 
J r rticaadherctfaxi$ 8 10 

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I N D Exi 

rrtictos \ ; 87.20 ^HlturesexdiHerfoorbeadHoUrt 

fax>.s aherrat - opiniofnit # j^. IO 

tf/u/o inimici fnnt 



87.10 



rrticarnm genmAnpUx 87.30 207.10 
/ >f*c* •*/?<"* rarefcunt 87.30 / -*//«,- rr^jgwin 49*7/4 207 .10 
rrtica Hbmafcanmr 114.10 r*Ua parsfxmtn* propri* 

rrtic* natnra carnopt eft 17610 40.10 
rrticapifabutwJcHntur i 7 8.io rnlna qno patlo parandafew 
rrttcagenm dmplex 114. 10 concipiat u6 . zo 

rrtica genm qnoddam ly 20 /^* /iw animalium jj. 20 

^terwsfaeniinapropriapars ruUa tefindinvs ~_a 

^rpentHmlongaejl 54.10 



24.10 



rterm c(i nnlna pars interior rulna 

* 3 ' zo „ 53-xo 



^ 



/"* rr<i 53.20 ralna bipedttm & qnadrHpcdnm 

f IJjC __ _ _ ••--%-» „. 



nomina 



31. zo omnium infiafeptum tranfit 



f Hm 53 10 

r^ i,3 ° /. . r«l** pifcium «.20. £r 138.30 

/ ulneratam ueficatn aliyttando cu ^uluafcrpcntum 4j >. IO 

r ^ d,w 6S.10 fHluxnonfuntfimilcsomnium 

^ulpanfcr lgi . 30 j^- 

/'*//.# c«w «>„ «<« ;/>//ri i»f »»« /^*/** ,*;,„ OT 9 «.,ky„ j 3 . I0 

«_/««/ 206-I0 fulua fupra aluum tfi , 4 . IO 

rulpt gcnitalc oflcum 3^.30 ruluaparsinttriorquibusnomt- 

'"*lpts quot pariat t6t.lO nibutappeUttur „. IO 

fulpesgrauidafecedit 161.10 jc 

/'nipcs cumfcrptme amice ututt ^T ^nthum pro fcamadro /fo 

2 °7-iO _7^_ merum dixif e 67Zo 

tH^ium mgemum I43o jcylophthorusuermiculue _j. IO 

/ t*lpccul.t cutc uolat i 1Q z 

Xrtpnmhpifcibmtpmgmcra,,* r-w £ phyria oua 1« io 

„?"* / -' 13930 Zy 

r*U*r t s q *ot e »ap4riat i^. zo F , x 1 S . 

r*lt*mm gencra J}{i . IO 

l »4 






I N D E X* 

/JV K£ *> I Qjf O S ^sf R. I ^stffwa conceptua incontinens eft 
fiotelvs de animalibm 398.30 

libros fndex. ^fin^mamma. 330-30 

^ffinuafelnonhabet 311. 10 

uesquadamcacos pariuntpui 

los 451. 10 

Cetabula qua haheant ^uesfaemina. minus uencredp* 

395.IO petunt quam mares 450.IO 

^tiets & feuu qui ^Auium oua bicolora 400.30 

dtffcrant 267.10 ^fuium (y pifcium gencrationes 

^^duflahabent caltditate omnia cur differant 405MO 

l^.lO ^fuesuncafatacesno/unt^oi-lO 

^ytffrica quarefemper aliquid no~ ^sfuibu* menfiruorum decefiio no 

uiadferat $96.10 fi e 401.10 

^ltmcntum qua ratione difpefet yfuium uenter 307.10 

natwa 392-30 ^uesacuttuifmfunt 1757,10 

+sfmUf*l 3II.10 ^uibusomnib.tcjUsfunttfj.^o 

^naxagorxs de marU & foemi ^luium lingu* 183.30 

na oeneratione 413.10 ^fue s hypertna fiunt 401.IO 

"nouilla quonampafio natent ^futbu^ qualts cura ergaprolcm 

340.IO 406.10 

^sfnima an in fcmine fit 376.30 *sf*** <} u id interfe differant 

^yfuima plena omnia 420.30 336.10 

^Stnima offtcium I7O.IO ^ut s carent mammis 33?. 20 

^TnimA praTiantia 37MO ^fntbu^ qusbujdam pedcs ad nan 

^nimaucgetali* 379-IO dumpati 338. IO 




^sfnimalta quct modis generentur ^farium (itus in quadrupcdibm 

344.30 278.IO 

%0 s*himaliauit£breuifiimai66.io ^Auriummeatm 277.IO 

nim*liii £7" plantaru quedama 

dofirrults gencratio c(t 419.10 2? 

+siTpes fine coitu oemrare 419.10 
^yfpcsoffichfafunt 418. IO X) tfdc* pcrfcftum animalpd- 




^Apufretwsquadofuperet 418-10 xJ rit * m 4fMO 

^fpum reges uidentur nati adfo- £ona(is cornua inutilia funt 

bolis procreationem 418. 10 lS8-IO 
afg rffra 378-30 Bouesquidaqlwpafcatur 181.30 

^sfpnrccllum 40O.IO Boum tcflcs 347.1© 

^fraritcxquamatersacotifict Mrachiorumflcxu* 319. 10 

19030 £ranckiaru multitulinU & p<** 

^sffina quadiu ferat uteru ,399-10 citatis caufa 341 20 

£uc 






ftnun 



*\£ tmsttdt 

^uccina ouum 



C 




^Sftcot q 



I N d r x. 

\U ndtu chamsleo timidif?imua 33MO 

410.IO Xiftec Hocantur fecunda 384.10 

42.3.30 Cibua infemen ccuertitur 40210 

Ctbi contincntiora quafint anima 

Cicada quo pdclogcnerttur^^io 

4.C3* TO Ctcdddrum ndtura 



quomodo fobole oridn- Clunit duibua eji 



tur 



410.IO 

Cdlidiord qua na fint afalidxj\io 
Calidiua quidfit 2*61.30 

Caloris pdrticipid omnia uiuentia 

K^.IO 

Cdmtli fel 

Cdmeli mamma 

Cancellorum ptdes 323.10 

Cdnes Indici nndt generentur 

35>H° 
Cdn is cd cos generdt 

Cdnum mamma 



3ILIO 



I66.IO 

338.IO 
Codgufum qua babeant 309.20 

Cochfea coeunt 4IIJO 

Ccelcsliu reru ctrtior ftdtut, qua 

ttrrendrummortdliu 406.20 

Caelum &folem cur partntis iw>- 

mint uocdrint 346. IO 



330-30 Coeunt animalia diutrfi gcncris 



388 IO 

33010 
Canis catuli act 20 

Cdncrorum dentes j^ 20 

CdphU fanguts teperatu* 32610 
Cdpra mdmma 

Cdprdrum uenter 



330.IO 



507.10 
CartiU^incerumgtnerdtioy qua 

#0.30 

CdruUgintorum oua ^cc ^o 

CdrtiUgincd quo tigumtnti t>enc- 

reconficnt ^ Q 

2? O-IO 



Cd udd animdlium 
Cdudd pijcium 

Cdufdrumgentra 



390.IO 

Coitus prouocat mtnfirua 403.10 

Cofumba cacos gcncrat 4*130 

Columbarum binaparit 402.IO 

Collum 29O.IO 

Collum habcntquibus tfipulmo 

32620 
Compo fitio rtrum tripltx tfl 

158. 20 
Conctptutfit fint uoluptdtt focmi 

n.t non raro 36C.IO 

Conccptus habtt infc animam ui- 

talcm }79-iO 

Cor principium utndrum 273 10 

Cor uitijs non obnoxium^ut alid ui 

fctra 



390.10 



34+-IO 

ficlile fignificat 



29J-IO 
33920 Cor fdnguini* initium 260.30 

Cordu fitus 



CerdU in animdlibu* locua 292.10 



Cornix cacos generat 



28+. io 



Ctrtbrum Cdlortm corpori* mode- Cornud qnibm funt.non habtnt 



ratur 



270 20 
p ft 299.IO 



utrinq; dtntts 
Cornuum conflitutio 



169 20 
Ccrui cor 



itftrat Cornua quomodo fiant 



2.9JIO 



Coflarum ufui 

Crabronum gtncrati* 



s 



189.30 

187.30 

390.10 

273 30 

419 10 

Cr* 



INDBX. 

frocodilo fluuidtiti lingud non eft jglephdM quidftt laco ndrium 

Crufldti generU ma4 &*foemind £pipetrum Pdrndfm fert 318.20 
^XI.IO £qud grduidd coitum pdtitur 

Cruftdccdquomodofimulcocdnt 450.10 

3*3.30 £qu&mdmmd 33CMO 

Cruftdtorum dentes 95*10 £quus feUe cdret 3IM0 

nmdpencrd £qui rreniturdcdliddefl 399.10 



-fi 



rm* 



CruJUtorum fummdgenerd £qut geniturd . 

3^1.30 £xcrcmentorut 

Cuculu4pdrumgenerdt 401.10 351.1.0 
CHtis gcncrdtio 3^1.10 £ xcrcitdtio au 

ru,fdcit utfdcttcparidt 451.3 o 

^mdno hdbet fet 311. 10 ^T^^cieshominU 287*30 

Definiendiufus SocrdtU te jf? Felqu&dtalidhdbedt 31MQ 
poribusincrcuit 25I.IO Fibrsinfdnguine tcrrendfunt 

Delphint tejles 231.20 266.IO 

j/jfa 274.10 Fieridliudexdlio 355>-?0 

sAcr hofpitiujcmini 

t c/i6f generdruntjTni- 



D 




ZJcntium in dnimalibm ufm 41^.20 



275.10 Fcermndqu 

enttumhominU diuijio 285.20 . nm hbidinoft fiunt 450.10 

iffertntid Hniuerfdlts,Jpccies hd Foemind & mdrti rdtio i^ 0.10 



# 



./**' 38630 



•/w. 



/*/? 



gi 353.10 r<<# 4J2..20 



■A 



ipofitio ingcniofd Foemina prouenit d finiji 

118.30 42?. 30 

JDiuidendi rdtio 25N30 Fcemindt 

JDiutni ojftcium 31 6 .30 tur quammat 452.10 

Fcetm in utcropcr umbilicum du- 
£ gentur 35>4'30 

inm optimc munitm eft Formicdrum gencrdti* 3 ^4.20 

iltf.IO Fucifuntocioft 418.IO 

£chiniouum 3 l 7-lO Fucorumpre*ctm ubcrior 418. 10 

%KfijOfitivosJdcft rctraherctur Futts quidfignificce 390-1 

251.10' G 

\f\tio 358 .20 f~> KstfUid. prouincidfrigidu tft 




£temctoru ndturdliuinitiui6l.$Q vj *<>9-IO 



itfus 281.10 GdUind plurd pdrit 401.20 

Gdl 



"* 



i N b r x. 

e?dUina perieruntfoccunditdte Humor mukiforma pfintit 

aliqudndo 402.10 263. IO 

Ccmini homines nati quare uix Hyena cor 295.1$ 

ferucntu 472.20 v/*'it/t$>mcmbrdna 3 8 4*3° 

€?enerU per differcntias diutfio Htjperina aucs\& planta fiunt 

2fl.20 402.IO 

GencrandiuUindfinocxigud I 

^p #IO TjZcurmuhumdd longdmbrt- 

Ccncrdrc qudre cxcttd non pofiint X ucmq; uitamfitcit 31 u® 

348.10 ■ iccur quomodofi habedt 301.20 

€?cncrdtio dtdliu quarefit 3 7 1.30 IgnU in dlio corporc cfifimpcr 
OenerdtionU principium m&rc& 420.IO 

fxmindm ejfe t34f '3° ^tnbribm crebrU foztua fucorum 

Gcnitdle membrum qudre fit qui- tnultu* fit 418*10 

bufdd>quibu(ddmnon 345MO Inftntes pornilioncs fitnt 327. IO 

Gcnitdlis mcmbri mutdtio 331*10 Infitntesquopdftoinutero nutria 
Ccniturd quibws defit 396.20 tur f 3*5-3 Q 

<7cniturdm dfina e mingit 398.30 InfifldqUiW pdrtes ddcibuconfi- 
Gcomctrica rdtiones 398.20 ciendum hdbeant 31^- IO 

Oinnws cxmulo 400. IO Infiftdquddiidiu cocunt 4I9.IO 

CuU cx qud mdteria coftctzpo.zo Infitld cur hdbcdnt multos pcdes 
€7uttur cx quibuaconflct 290.20 I66.3O 

GutturU uft44 19 0. IO Infitld qudre hdbednt pedcs prio- 

H reslougiores 322.10 

Erindcei tefles 24 830 Infetld quid loco lingud habcdnt 



H 



Hirundo duU cdcos exclu- 244.30 



dit 451-30 Infetlorum gcnitalia $+7*19 

Homo diuinitdtU pdrticeps z 7f £7* 3^4.30 

30. £7" 316.30 Injetlorum coitui & generdti* 

Homoqudre crttlmincedat 35 4. 20. €^372.- 20 

2.71. 10 Inteslina ttrrx uermis hdbcnt nd~ 

Homo copiofim dlijs purgdtur turam 411.30 

367.30 Inteflinorum naturd 308.10 

Ifomoprafxcundum animdlefi Infirumcntdria pdrtes omncs dif- 

4fO-IO * firniUre s fitnt 259.30 

HominUcaro 283.IO lulorumpcdcs 320.10 
HominU nuditAs 318 . 20 

Homo multahdbetarma $28-20 X ^sfbor cxcrcmenta confitmit 




L 



Homimipedcs 332..30 JL# 451.50 

Homo cur titilletur 306UO Zaccrti tefics 347-IO 

Hurnidd potcntia aut aflu 2^4*10 Zaccrths qualUfit lingua 333*30 



INDIX 



Zdflequdcdrcdnt ty-zo Musinfp 

Zaftes 3I3-IO 416.IO 



tffc 



rftflu* 4 r 1. 20 Maa praftdt fxmind. S yl '3° 

W 4° ?0 Afarifpartesquafint 246.20 




Zeo c* cos generdt 38 8 -IO Ma4 animal tji quod in dltogignit 

Z tonps o[J* 4 2,<J 30 ^6.1 

tonumamm* ^JO-io Mares in hominum gtnere pntiua 

Zconum gencratio ^yj. z o imperfcfli nafcuntur quxmfoe- 

Zcophams ftntcntia dc generdtio mina 4r2.ro 

* e 42^-30 Mdr$s qualitates 420. ro 

Zepuefuperfatat 437-30- Afarcplurimagignit 419.10 

Zcpu4 coagulumhabct 3057.30 Afdrifz&no acctdunt fxminti mc 

Zeporucor 29y.ro ftrua habentibua 3.4.20 

Zientsinanimalibmufus 30O.ro Mtmbranarum officium 306-30 

Ztenismorbi 300.20 AfcUts copiaquando preucmat 

■Zinguahomini* 283.ro 4i8.ro 



Z 2 - 

butnonfit 20i.ro 4p.[ 



o 



Ztcuffa quopafto gcntrentur Mvnfiruafccminarum 331-ro 

3f4*0 Mcnflruorum & feminis imtti 

ZocuHh nantibu4 cauda utili* esl 367.ro 

3*9 IO Afcnilrud duibus & pifiibus nul 

Ztghd demonilratio 39* . ro la fiunt 4C2 . 10 

Zolltginum pedcs 32430 Menslruaquo tcmporc potifiim» 

ZuntUcu* 420 . IO /? 4 „, 3g2Ia 

-£*/>«* c*cw *cwrr<f* 5gS.r0 Mtnslrud effe excrcmcnta 364.ro 

Zupapartua 4^.20 AScntem dtuinam effc \% . xo 

ZupieoUum ^ z6 , zo jvfetachocruminporck 4 oo.IO 

-d/*r «* quidfaciat 262.20 

-fl4T Mitulorumouum 42^10 

MoUtacurtcrgis copulcnturjono 

M^sfmmis carent aues omnes ratur *C4-zo 

3 -5' 2 ° MoUium partes exttriores expli- 

ifamm* ceruarnm 330.30 cdTjrwr 324. T3 

Mdmmdrum ufu4 in maribm MoUmmgeneraiio , n .i 

3 l9 ' t0 MvUium m<ts c? fcemina +II .ro 

MdmmAclcphanti 3?0 . I0 Mulorum corpw* magna qudrc 

Afdnuscurhomsniddt* 228.ro /ffff 399.30 

Mascdltdtofftminacsl 426-20 Alflteresqu&fintficrilcs 398.ro 

AUsprofici/atur a partc dcxtrd Munerum ftcundita* quo pafo 

&&y> frobxtur pg^ 

Afu 



Mulicrcs diffc 

Ubua kterum fe 
JXiklierkm ktcrm 



m§ * 



I N D 1 X. 

tdnima 390-10 
45-2.30 Ouium fydcratio 



347IO Ouiumucnter 
JVlulier prauiia coitum tatitur 



30j.to 



4r0.ro 

ulieribu* qutbufd* 



3°7 

feclaadita quomodo 



geantur 

Oua urina 



4l°-IO 






* 



4^0.30 



/• caret 3IM0 

JiJklorumgenu4 folum Jlcnle esl 

396.10 

Murt cor magnum fi? 406.IC 
Jllufcdrum gcncratio 3^4. 30 

MuSlcUeor 29C-I0 



«V 



406.30 
o*/ £«rr«», 0. cadidum diucrfam 

habcnt naturam 407.10 

Ouapalufirium 404,20 

OHumpifcium unicolor 400.30 
CW 4 ucrmc q H id diffcrat 372.20 
Ouafubuctancd quarcfidt 402.20 

0»»W 4ft/'«»i 



4OO.3O 



ATdrim w /irA 

A'4/ej /?4&f / A$/»o 



Oftftw cartiUgincorum 4.08.30 
Oftftw» ^«^ gignit perfetlu 
Ouapifcium cursmperfecl, 



tur 



»77--° 



f 3*0.10 

Oujiuteu ctbus cFi pnllts 407.30 



JSTaticcs 



315.10 
ifinitum 34r.ro 
omnia mirabiiia 



w - — — ^» ^^ ^ ^ 

331.20 Ouumquonampaclo dugeatur 



2r6-20 



JVctmi ex lentorc 



JVeruorum copiain cerde eil 



lSl.30 



29; -30 



403.20 

'ueff* quo pafto fiat 407.20 
t quomodofoueantur ut cxclu^ 

****** 40^.10 
"" nunm fuauid 

403.10 



^utdmsna 



O 



390.10 



O^" qkomodo gignantur 
391-20 

Oculi ucncre immutantur 397.10 
Offt/oi animalia contc&a habent 

278.20 
Omentum pingue efi , 312.20 
Orjnr tatS*/ «»«», corW 288.30 
O* animalium 
Ojjaquopaclcfi, 
Ofiium in corpor,u* 

Ofiiumprincipium 



fknt 
Ouorum 

fcunt 

Outpararum quadrupcdum dentct 
334-IO 

Ordincm />4ier quicquid fccudum 
naturamcfl ^ lQ 

OStrc* quo paclo prpucniant 

422.20 
oUre^pUnu aquatiles 419.30 



1 % 



i> 



•r* 



-. .-. . 27310 

cy/4 46 /g* f rcfolui non pojjuni 



287.10 

390.20 T^ ^dttpebrd uulncrdtd non code 

27^0 1 fi** 2 7 <MO 

Vdlumbes cdcos gencrat puilos 
451-30 



I N D B X 



fdntherdcor ^ 19S.10 

Pdrmtdes putduit mulicrcs ealidia 
rcs uiris cjfe 262. 20 



& 403.30 
ifcsumgcncrdtioncs cur iijferc 

a gcnerdtionc ouium omniutn 

409.10 



pdfier pdrit cdets 
PefMnum ouum 



trfaci- 

4f2.*0 PifciumgcnHSQuipdrilcfl4.09.lO 
4CI.3O Pifciumeculi 



423. IO 
lanium aptum 



3.7.10 
pettoris fitm $19 -iO 

p* «i« wwcie Jitf i /*w* 340-10 

pedesgenerdtionc nulldm habent Pifcibm 



179-30 
duldtim cmittuntfc 

men 4IMO 

Pifccs omnes fiemind nonfunt , *f 

quiddm opinantur 415^0 

Pifcibm non funt tefles 341.10 



Jtfi 



*# 



375.IO 



J3W0 

TJtjnfoccun- 
iioresfune 345)2:0 

fc.0I.20 



4O2.3O 

Poiex 

PoUicii ufws 



pcriix plura pdrit 

vniisvctcolesdicttur 42S.3O P ^lypi gencrdtio 

phdtdngid quomodo gencrcntur 

3*4-3° b 
fcfk>iildti* 

phrenes 
$tiofa,ccrruptio 



427-10 

305 ?o 
427.10 



308.30 
328.30 

iUutioncm 0* mdribm &faemi 
nts accidcrc 3 8 3-3° 

3H**<* 

Polypi promufcidc cur cdrcant 

32y20 

Ponulionumgcncrdtio 



400.IO 



/< 



•m* $27.10 

£7* anitnalibus non dbfimi 



ricdcacosgenerdt 4fl-30 

l*i/i drgumcnto funt libidinis 

4JI.IO 

pMorumhominU in cdpitc cdufd 

2*0.20 

Pingueio ftnfu cdtct j 2tf8>10 
Pingstid qudrc (int infccundiord 



lUgcncratioeii 
Plantdrumfemim 

407.20 

Pldntarum ortus 
Pldntarum munus 
Prdcordid 



4IQ.10 



346-20 

370.20 



3*4-30 

.pi/w gwi diutim infi 

re pofiint 



Pifcium 



?40.20 
286-20 



ifcibm cxigum lingud ufm cji 

?33 io 

ifciumfcl ^ 3II.IO 

tfciumutcri 347.10 £7*349 -20 



305.20 
Principium in quibm qudrcndum» 

inquibmnon 389.20 

Principm in gencrdtionc 426.10 

Pubesfocnums prim uenit quam 

mdribm 452.10 

.Pnrri <7a<*r r ncqucdnt continerc cd 

l 391.10 

3*4-3° 

2,*8-IO 



rifcium gcnm mutildtum eji pdr- 

ribmcxtcrioribm 339-20 /*"' 

Pifcium fxcunditm ' 310.10 Pnrpur* 



put 
Pulicum gcncrdtio 
PulmonU ufm 

Pulmoncm qud habent , cdlidiord 

put 



^nrpurd ouum 

Futrtdo qnidji 



l N D E X, 

42,3-10 SeminU 






420.10 
Fjgmderum gtncratio 400.IO 



R 



L^/Vt 



i^4«j nequaquam parit ani- 



ma 



l 



Senettmpriws utnit fxmintf qu* 

maribus ^ % ^ 

ScnfnsfimiUribuspdrtibu* adfcri 

bitt$r l6o.i<y 

**nfortd bipartitafunt l9 9 . lo 



340.30 



Ranarum pinna 

Rationi quando ctcdendum fit 

418.30 
Rationes indnts qudfint 368 . 20 
Rencs quiifaciant in corporc 

300.IO 
Rhinobati crtduntur txfqudtind 

CT raiagigni 396mlo 

Rofira duium dijferunt 335. 10 



400. IO Senforium primum quidfii 



uumprtnctptu cor ipfum cjji 



27*. 20 
Sepi* pedes 



305MO 



r r * n ^° 

f««fi oftcium quodfit 



fi 



& 



Strptntibua nofknt ttilts 34 2.10 

6^3+2,30 
Strptntum naturd 310. 10 

Strptntes quomodo nattnt 340.IO 



3.87-20 



35>o.io 
fcemind 



Strptntum 

& 30.20 

*Z & adeps qd dijf* 



3+9-IO 



S 




^TngttU tenuior & 
geniofior eji 

tguinU dijferentid 



' 1 • ,i 
pulenttor ejt 



•/< 



267,20 



261.30 

i<* 261.20 

Sanguint omnes partes corporU co 
Jiant 



Stcca attu typotentid qudfv 

264. ro 

Simia formd ambtgua efl 331. ro 
Similares partes humidd 261.10 



'/* 



25>*-lO Similarium pdrttum dijft 
fit 266,10 



cartt 1*7.30 

paclo nafcantur 



355-30 
Scrofahabct commodum alimtn- 

tumporceWtsfuU 4fI . 3Q 

Semen effe txcrtmcntum 361.10 
Semen an habeat anima 38 0.10 
SemtnUJiXzunditas ^6^0 

" r ' idnm infcccundum tfi 



2co.20 

Somnws undt nam proficifcatur 

270.30 

Spine in corport quid dicatur 

19310 
Spongia qudtcnus uiuat 31S.10 
Squdtin* pinnd U4.10 

SqutUd quid d cancrU dijferant . 



34f>. 20 



32^10 
crilitatU cduf 



tnuttdnt 



mulorum 



396.ro 



?fMO« 



tfl.ZQ 



Jiffc 



39^.10 

irpium excrementum iy< .10 

l6t.IO 



Fttrpium uenter 



pdrtt 



401 20 

SttH 



* 



qualisfi 



,2.7 .10 runt . 164- '• 

SuiiUnti* pamm moriales, par- rtftcam qud habcn* ,omo 

LmtmmortaUs iM-i? *"<//« c-ojMtfo gcntrentur 3 r 4 . 

Snvtfdtius 45MO vp& 419 IO 

S m copid alimtnti dbttndat 4? i.,o refpeenhoncs ,42-,0 

j--Kp.it/lri !47-K> ^t qui fintflcrtles pttt 

J««»,w4m».4 »0.10 rtJceraqutbmantmdUbmfint.qut 

^ #** primmfenftts 27 2-IO bmq;mnfi»t _ 191.10 






r*4/i */** 



Ji/c 



hmentctur zo6lO 



, sfldterum pentratio 41? 10 

y,S««r«|««- OWD r,fc V *mfirm*, 302.rO 

r ^*or« &L/«i<. Jifcrimc- <ziiO r,fm ubt habct mmjudm 
Tcfiatis qtisfit angedi modus^. V«*t htrctrt qmdfit 3< Ji.,0 

l4<W> J47-IO ^^«fH" .. 34*-3* 



r//« 9«4rf qulbu(dam tnlHS,qut- r #♦«» ,«« 

bufdam foris habeantur 351.10 »78.10 

efliculoscHrnaturddedit ,4750 ritulorur 



fi 



V 



rcftudo ueftcam babet joi.lO ^««u« m-rw.» 

Teiltttidinti tcfics ,47.10 riutp-arormmgentw 35O.3O 

Tinnicttlttsfcccidiftm 9 efi 402.10 rmbilicus uentt conjiat ,85.20 

T-H&rr* cpomoc/o «i^nl .64.* O rmbtltcHS attius 337- 'O 

Tttrbinatorum diferentid jii.jo rmbilico augetur fcctus .39-30 

r«rr«ri>r»rr4i f4<o* 451-10 ^»g«" quomodofiant 190-10 

^- yngttibus quare digiti muniaatur 

V^fccdrum mdmmd ,»o.,o 3'7*3° 

,r f »4 i»4ior 9« d »««»r 46 K»£Ki»m «/«* 329.13» 

iortadifiet 194., o rnguldrum u/ks i 7 4-IO 

/'r»4f «m />ri»ci/>i» cor e/2 184-20 rmuerfalta qna ftnt 154.50 

renaru grdtia uifcera tfie »9810 rnnd froflumttm jtfj.io 



■/i 



+5 



1.20 



rcnm quare dtbtltttt 3 6*-IO rrtted qumtims-tammt 164.40 

rtndduxprmtipales * 9 7'0 rtcri omit bipartiti funt 540,30 

/'<»«•* «o/»/><<« .,cg.,o rterorum difftrtmid 401.1» 

ytntrU ccUrioris qt*d fint ,48.10 fW»«* mori*»«« aliquandort- 

/'cnterfuiUut 308.10 *"' . 3° + -3° 

rentrtt oficinm ,0620 rulpe, cdcos fdrtt ,89.10 

rcrm»aboHoquiddiffcrdtx 7 uiO rulpafdttus . 4 ,Ii» 

/trm« »4ii 9«o />«c7o augtantur ruludrum difcrmtnd multafmtt 

409-30 *5 oa ° r 

rtrttbttla farum a fhntis ditfe. r I N I S. 






2 



THEODORI GAZAE 

THESSALONICENSIS 

PPvAEFATIO I N L I - 

SROS DE ANIM ALIByS s- 

AR.ISrpTHlSi 

V O N T I FJC tM JW^X. 

* ' I 

* I^^T^^^I Y C V R G V M Laced$monium , qai 

legcsciuibas fuis conftituit, rcprchcndunt 
nonnulli , Pontifcx iummc Ntcolae quin^ 
^v^iirc,qa6ditarulcrit lcges,vt bclli potius qui 
Ipacis rationcm habuifie vidcretur . Numi 
vcro Pompiliam-rcgcm Romanum laudst 
maiorcm in modum,qacdpacis adci ftudiofus fucrit, vt nul- 
la caufa moucri ad bcllum pateretur,quorum fcnteotiam , ctfi 
aliasprobo,vtdcbco(nihilcnimpacc commodius,nihil fan- 
10 ftius)tamecbm vitahorainumitafcrat, vtbcllavitariinter* 
dum ncqacant,ficccnfcopr^l3nicdum,confulcnduq;,vt & bcl 
lum int crdum fit faicipicndura , (i rcs vrgct , & pax feru^iida 
fif fempcr,fi ficri potcft :nec belli ratio ynquam probanda fif, 
xiii vt dcmum rcbas compofitis , quicto , tranquilloq; animo 
viuamas.Noenimadpagnara&homicidia,nonad difcordias 
& bclla nati fumus,fcd ad concordiam & humanitate . Itaque 
principis iDftitatum,atq; officium id cifcreor,vt paccmium- 




ces 



Qoodchm Romanospont 



qaod 



nnt^prarccptamaatoris.diuini feraaiint, qood tepUsimh 
paccm conciliarint,* commendarint. S cd vfum nonnulloru 
aufim reprchcnderc.Pace cnim,qua vtidebucrant ad litera- 
ram,A artium bonarum ftodia,* vtrtutum officia , illi quidc 
ad volaptares parum honcftas abufi funt.quod cum omni ho- 
minum ordini fit turpctnm Pontificis pcrfonx turpifsimn 
eft. Fuerunt tamcn& qriirc&c pacc vtcrcntur^&pontificata 
roagna cum laudc gerercnt,quibus tc fimilc vidco planefuc- 
ceisiffe.Prarftascnimdo$rina,& moribus:quofir,vt nomcn 
tuamimmortalitati mandandum cenfeas, ftudio ccticslitc- 









a rarum 



* 



/.R.I STC TE. EE A KI M AI. IB. 

r amra,qu* nunquaro percunr,quam vcl adificicriuqa* bre- 
nitcm P orCflc)ctur,vchhcfjurigea).rarum <Srauri,caias hx- 

icdcsinimici plerunqsfucccdunrvrcj; vojuptatcs ,qoxatmm 
lumcn extinsuk ,reiposr,vnamc]; litcrarum yoluptatc, cmc 
animum illuftrarc poCeft,expetas,atq;inearequielc«-.s.Itaq; 
omncs pontificcm talemhabuifle lctamur,fi;quiiq;fiueciuis 
fiuc pcrcf rinus ftudct pro viribus rem afferrcqua & virtu- 
tumtuarumlaudcm.&animi tui voluptatem aogcat Quem 
enim opeius meritanon folum vcncratr.ur & obicmamu', , icd 
ctiam pcrinde ac patrcm anjamus,ei pcrlibcntcr oprra ftudic-io 
rum noftrorum dcd.canda putamus. Alij »g »»r alia:egoribi li- 
bros Ariftotelispbilofophi,qnosdcnatnraanhralium fcripfc 

rat,conuertere in Latinum fermonem volui,ex iftimans rcm tl 
bi gratam tr,efaaurum,£ bi llbri Latinis hteris mea induftria 
maodarentar,6Hukius,atq:intcgdn;,quama£;u abalijs ad- 

huceft,cxponerentur. Vidcba pcr multa erraflc interpreres, 
tumircpcritialingaar,tu Aiiftotelicardtfciplina: infcitia Ira- 
qac officium cfle cutaui,vt fi quidfacultatis in mc cflet , qoa 
pr;Kftarehacpofiemmeliora,rc aggredercr,& pro vi ribu s in- 
dignins qaicquam tfficere conarer . Laboraui equidem hac in 20 
re vehcmentcr,quoniam nihil adiamcnti ab ijs,qui eadem in- . 
tcrprctari volucre,capcre poteram Aut cnim grxcc »l!i di xc- 
rant.qu* LutincaucbrchominesLatinideudcranr.aut rrrum 
aliarunjnominaaii,simproprie tnbuerunt,aut noua ipfiine- 
ptc finxerunt.Sentcntiam vero authoris paf im adca depraua 
runr,vt argumento quidem intcrprctationiscoram remotatn 
iudoacs fir.qui non rcaius iudicarede rebus narurir.qua Ari- 
ftoteUspoffevideamr.LccutionisctUm gcnus nc tale qoidem. 
quodlcgipoflct,non modo Ariftotclireloqucnti.ldignun^ad- 



Qu 




potui.idctia.viproj? 



ridum&incptomfermonem intcrprctis vix intclligi potcu. 
AfFerrcmhoclocofcriptaillorami:i;cr»retr-m,crrorcsq;figil 

latimcnamerandoreprehcndcrcm,nifi longicr efiemin re&o 
dubia,prarfcrtim apud te Princcps doftifsimc , qui vt antc do- 
florprotuofingulariiadiciofcmpcr damnafti illorum inter- 
prctaroncm,mclioremc5; dcfidcrafti : fic nunc faOos princcpt 
.iccurarws agij.vt hacc ajiquando 1 xplanermr,i.V vna cum fui 



autOfisfcntcnrialurcmLatin3rlinguxrcc:piant.Vtinamt3n 
tumfaculoti* |u rrcciTft Prii:ccpsfapfcr.ti(5imc,vthocmcum 
?ntcrr»rctppc!i ^raui cffcoptitru il]uc!,c]ucdqr.arns,confirTnarc # 






r 



°:m 



THEODORI G AZ AE-1'RAEFATlO. f\ 

poi&m Sedquoniahocpluseftquam vt velhomo modeftus 
de fe polliccri debcat,vel mef vircs attingcre pofsint,nihil cgo 
talc de fMk Illud vcro diccre lieet,hanc cfle omnibus , qoa» ad- 
hucfafte funt,horum librorfi intcrprctatione, & philoiophis 
ad cloquendum ccmodiorcm,* eloquetibus ad difputarvju vti 
liorem,& vtrifquc ad Ariftotclis ienfum pejcipicndum aptio- 
rem.Necafta cqaidcmegMeda maleconuerfis pnmuscgola 
tinis hominibus apcrni,qu£ hishbris Ariftotcles fcripfcrar.Sed 
illuc rcdco.Mc plurimum elaboraflc in his libris intcrprctan- 

16 dis fateor,cum nihil tt primis interprcnbus illis iuuari pofiem: 
fcd omnia cx codicibas veterum autorum pcrcrc ncccfle habe 
rem,lcftionelonga,notationcquc varia.Pl«'nium,Corne!ium, . 
CoIumellam,Varronem, Catonem,M . Tuliium , Apuleium, 
GeIlium,Scnecam,complures alios lingusclatinseautorcs euol 
oercdiligentiusoportnitrquorum jtbros,velfcmdaccuratc le- 
giflclaboriofumeftncdumadvfum interpretandi accommo- 
daiic . Non cnim ita vfum vcrborum accipit intcrpres,vt fuo 
arbitraturcmdifponat,mandctcjuelocuTioni:fed totidem fer& 
vcrbisfcnfusalicnosaccommodatcexprimere cogitur .quod 

20 pctdifficilecft .Accedit ad hxcakcracaufa laboris,quod exem- 
plaria grxca,libros hosde animabbusdico,mcndofa admodum 
habcmus,vcl librariorum cnlpa,vel co cnfu,qoem apud S trabo 
nemgcographumlcgimus Inhiscnim emendardis claborare 
interprcsfincdubiodebet,ncip("ccrraflcin conuertendo videa 
tur.Ita cnim plcrique iud/cant, vt (\ qukl bcnc ab interprcte di 
citur,id autori operis tribujjitrfi quid mal£ , id intcrprcti vitio 



3* 



aicribant.de ijs interprcttbusloquor,qui non minus laudismc 
reamur in conucrfcndis aliorum libns,quarn tlli , qui cos ma- 
gna cum laudc ardidcruntmon de i js^qui & fibi & autori, qucm 
iiiterprctantuMcdecos pariunt.Qnid autemfcnm vel ipfa La- 
tina cxeplaria,quoiii ope iuu^ri nitimur,no minus fint cmcn- 
danda,qua grarca.Qn^ enim vtilitas libroru Pliai] iatis intcr- 
preti afi-crrer,nifiemcdarentur,& corrigerentur? lam antcaeta 
tcm noftra,fecul;s multis iacuit InutUc opus cios autoris.qucd 
dc Hiftoria naturali infcribitur/cil cet proptcr innumcros li- ' 
brarioi u crrorcs.quamuis cnim atitoritate,tum fcriptcris,tuiB 
rerum {criptarum pctcretur,&a pluribus fcribcretur^tamen 
Icgi nc i doaifi;imfsquidemvirispotcm,vfqucadco men* 
cloittm >corr:iptnnKjac habcbatur . Carucrunt ccrt* diu la- 



doftr 



a 2 prefulif 



4 



AK.ISTOTE.OE ANIMALT8. 

p-falii Halerienfis,faciHs fa^a cft,& leflio corum libroron», 
kTmiratio.Hicenimprlmushoslibros cmendauir,arqae vti- 



cset 



,labo 



r ibas iotcrprct ibus relinquerctur . S cd quomam hunc vuu,aha 
iminerata. felicifsimi principaruv* rcipublic* ahtcraru ftu-. 
diis priaatisdiusrtcrint,accid«t rcs cuique procaldubio difrtci-. 
lior.Mihi aatcm vcl illa ditFicultas laboi cm accamular,qua: no 
ad ees intcrprctcs fpeOat,qui rcs difficilcs grece dicanr.taclks 
vero latmis verbis impropri js pcrpetuantrfedad eos,qui ne ca iO 
qaidem inconfiderata relinquunr^u* antiqui aatorcs neglige 




altjs plerifqneoccarrit.Scdancijodignum qu.cqaam vel mco 
tantolaborc,vcl taodefiderio cfficere potacrim,ta milii cris & 
iudcx & ceiifor- Faitquidemftudiummihi cert_ndi,non cam 

%* • rt /* _______ 



catn 



Ariftotcle ip fo,vt libros.quos illc Aksandro rcgi luo principi 
nonminori indaftria,quam doarinaconfcripferat,hos ego ti- 
bi pr incipi mco latinos reddercm non dcteriercs.S cd an cfFcce- to 
rim,quod mihi ftatueram,ta videris.Habcs vcru in hoc codicc 
libros duodcuiginti,fcilicet noutm dchiftoria animalsum,qua- 
faordc partibus,quinquc dcgcneratione.Hiftoriaprimu ob- 
tinct locam,atqac vt nomcn ipfurn fignificar,cxpcfuionem co- 
tinct tci,quod cft,fiuc vt fitrquod scJiol* philofophoru noftrae 
«tatis,quia eft,dicere (olent.Mo x Sibri de partibus,acde gcne- 
rationc,caufam car ita fit,dcclarar:aitcri finalcm pra_cipuc.al«- 



•ntem 



cxploratam cognitionc quod cft,habcredcbeamus,rcflc& fcri- 
bitur h< ftoria aaimaliao) ,& prxcedit in cdoccndis caufis , vndc ja 

• _T* _* fc_ _ ___. ___.•____. • •,._- - ___ /_--__--:*• 



funt 



ntctE 



*>biter qaidern matcrialis quoqcc paisim pro rci dcfiderio ex- 
ponitur,vtfimalautncccfsitans,not^que melioris ratio de- 
clarctur,aat ex quo,vndcquec6fiftant,qua_qacdcraonftretur« 
Scd qaanqaam libris noucm intcrprctatio h^chiftoriaru con- 
fummatur-tamen qui nonus in cxcplari grxco contir.ctur,huc 
e*o fcptimamcollocaui.nccid temerc fa6u cxiftirno . Agirar 
cnim in codchominis generationcqua re Ariftotclcs toiinuo 
d «icnrrarfonc c^ieroru animalia pollitctur cxplicaturu.Itaq; 

__■_ & m » ___. L ■ — 



cactero. 



cxp<- 



fuif 



THEODORI CAZAE PRAEFATlO. 5 

expofuifler,nullidubfoefledebet,quin illefeptimu hunccollo- 
cant.Sed Appcllic6Tcius,dequo Straboplurasl;a,vtpermui 
tain cxfcribendis Ariftotciicis hbrisdeprauauii : ficid perrr.u- 
t*fic viderur,cxiftimans vlrimum efic ronus hiftoria: coilccan 
dum:quoniamcum Anftotcles agercdcgcncrationc incipertr* 
vlrimolocodehomine divUunm pollicitus eft.At ille non vlti 



cm 



quodp 



tionceft,l<rcumcum abloluen^tnbinSccieitur^nqui^vt pa- 

*o rimododc ijs,quc m ttrreftrmm gencrcanimalpariunt,atquc 

eriamdc hominediftcramui.Tcrttus igttur hic a primo dc ge- 



ncrationccollocandus cft:q«ofit vtidcm fcptimcs torius ordi 




nis human* exponir,n«n hiftoriam complc&irtjr. Iraquc non 
iorcr hiftorise libroshoccgo ponendumduxi.fcd fi collocaridu 
vipiameft.libris dc gencrarionc,meo quidcm iudicio coniun- 
gcndum eft.Infp.xcrc fmgulos hos Iibros,ac kgcrc vclis iuni- 

i o mc princcps,n uoad r*ia: occupationcs paticnr ur: vr & i c c x pla 
rara iudicare,# fi quid voluptatis cft in lcgcndis natura: cpcri- 
bu^,oblc^aripoin>.Noncnimmc offcniurum tuas aurcspu- 

- 

to,cuanquam non p s ra:comihipafrio:icd pcrcgrino icrmone. 
non qood ab inrnprcic dicitur,id cx grxco cx< mplari Infellt- 
grrcdcfHcrsbLsi; jalarinaorafioicnium Aiiftotclisira CXpli 
cabtr^vrminimcgracam d(fidercs:nihilmiicct,nihil ir.tuk^f* 
nominat vfu vetcrum probatifsimorum aucrum gcrcra Wii- 
malium.Siquidnoul imponit.ita infcrir,vf frmv.iurciCcgtia- 
tumq-icidq^oqucvidcripofur.Si quidgra-cc apcciL2t,:cli 6 
jo durum occurrit.autenim vfitatum, «(vtita dixerirojvagora 
larinis ciT,;jaaleeft nomcn cidphini.camcli^clcph^ntts^croco* 




codcm 



Q^ 



autoalcrutn^fitiui^rilcmfuJccmitJnommars^pCKgr^x.um fo- 

"^rcvidcbirurfNcc vcroccrcmnendum vulgus mtcrctmcft, 
« qu»d nomium a lirrrarum proftflonbus i uiKupatum,iuo 
iptum nominc appclbtrvt brucu g.-nus loc-ftg tcr rctl rii^u* <* 

^f*c:ar«ljbum vcc^.u Autmartam pchus mufkhr lufticx. 



a | q 



od 



■ 

axioA Graci iftida d!cnr.t,qnsais plaradus gcncra fmt. nec t«* 

nure aftum dixcrim,fi quis viuerra: nomine ca compkaitur: 

phniusenim ita doccbimus,fi id martam,aut viucrram vocc- 

mus.muftclx autcm nomen in co tantum rcmancat,quod grs> 

ci,gaiem,appellat eodcmcjmodo/ilocuftjEilliustc/rtftiis al- 

tcrum gcnus locuftam,akcrum brucum nucupcmcs. Sed cnim 

iufficit lingualatina fingalis gr*cc oralionls,fme vocabulis,fi- 

n- fcntentijsrquanquam nonnulli, qua» latinc, exprimerc nc- 

caeunt,hscinopixlingU3etribuutlatinx',foa:T:c];paapcrie vi- 

tio darclinguaelocupktifsimaeaudct.qaosfatisconuir.ci a M. 10 

TalHoputo,cumiuclinguaRomanamnccopiaquidcm vcr- 

borumagrxcafuperariautumet.Exclamatille ahc.usntulum 

quidtm iniportune:0 inopcm intcrdum linguam grxcamfcd 
Honfinecaufa,quadon6r.uIJiitacontendcnt,vt Grarcis nihil 
decfie,Latinis permulra d:fideraripronuckr:t.Sed dc his ha&e 
nas.Ariftotehs vcrulaudcm,quauismos intcrprttum fu.cum, 
qnem intcrprctantur aatorem,vhcrius laudarc,tarocn i\ latius 
perfequar,vercor nc mihi iarm cbijcifitur,qucdilli, qui apud 
Laxdsmonios.dc Herculislaudihus agpre voluir.Qins Hcrcu- 



lcm vimperct,autminus bcncdceofcntiatf Qujs iliunon in-20 



ter dcos imrnortales <:numere?,colat,cbleruct,vt tu laudarc vc- 
]is,Lacedarnonij fubdiderum:Tanta cft cniro Ariftotclis cxi- 
fh'm.2tio,tanta autoritas iaro apud omncs mortslcs, vt fruftra 
quis pr;?Jicer,quo ingcnKO,quado&rina hic fuerit,quo artifi- 
cio r:n qoacunq; :vn]ica«daTn fibi ftutucrit,tra<ftct:quata vis 
iti hocdifkrcndi,qaanta incognoicendis , cxponcndhq; rcbtis 
dtligat&JKtfcA Latijdecus M.Tullins ita laodat, vt cxcepto 
Pl nonr facilc plvlofophoril principtappeJlcr.Excipit ilic que 
arnarhudatvcr^quedoili/sirr.ucffciudicat.Miffa harc facio. 
Libroraxn quos mtrrpretatus furn,fru<5hi<tt»quanrusfit>cxpli- S° 
caile quoad poilljm.d locns hfc patitur,non ab re fiierit fortaf 
{c.Omniscnim phiiofophandi rario naturalis,vbi a prirois il- 
1;$ narur»initSjs,rnatccictndico,formani,f5ncro,agcn^& mo- 
tum(vtitaloquar)cmcrfcrit,hicvcrfatur,acdiuufsin ciromo- 
rarus,h!cfuas vircscxcrccr,arqiroultipliccro,variam 3 & admi- 
rabilem rornm fonftitutioncm amphfsirnc cxplicat. Fcrfcqui- 
turordincd fcriminaornnia,quibii5naturafua animatcsdjfFcr 

rc inter fc yolttl trcolligit fumina gtnerajeliqua figillatim cx- 
ponit:partitarinfpccicsgcncra:&finguIa,qu3ecirctrcrquinsc 

tanumcroinhiscantincrtur librir,de(crib.t:pcrg.tquacq;cx- 
planai:s 5 qucTr2admouutnoxi5ti2r ; fi!iC tcrrcftria,fiat aquatica: 



i 



cuibils 



THEODOai CAZAS PRAEFATIO. 7 

quibusnamconftetmcmbrt^quibus vcfcjnrar aliment:s,quf- 

bas affxctantac rcbus,quibus moribus prxdfta fint,quamam vi 

ucndi fpacium darum cuJq; cft, quanta corporis raaguitudo, 
qnod maximum,quod minimu eftrcjux (orma,quis coler , quas 



vox^qaacingcnia^quaeoffiCiaideniqjnihilomiuirjquociin ani- 



nulmm generenatura gfgnat,3hr T augear,& tueaiur.Q^ om- 



niacjfpcdat,vt,qaodian£bfsimu; qacqjautorilleque Dcus 
fibi vclutifapeUcdileroquandam prcciofam clegerat , admo- 
n !t:cx i js,quae a natora proceniunr,deu immortalcm , cx quo 
10 ipfapedctn arora,tatc]ligamus,admiremsr,2tq; colamus : qca 
rcnthilpulchnus>nihilgratius,nihil dignfus homini cffe po- 
teft.Tantusfrcctushoramlibroram cft .Nec audiendi funt* 



qui inqaiant:Multa Ariftotdes demnfca,dc apicula,de vert»! 
culo,pauca dc deo. Pcrrrmlra cnim dc deo is rrac>at,qui doftr i- 
na rcrum conditarum exqaifitifsifl?3,ccnd?rorcffi ipfum dccla- 
rat:nccvcrdrnafca,nec vcrmiculus o^ittcnr!useft,vbidenartt 
rxmirafolertiaagitunVtcnfmartificis cuftlfuis, fic natunc 
ingenium inminurifsimispotiuscor.tctrplandficft. Qmrctia 
cumrerumcaufas cbgnofcerc pulcherrimii fi?(hLcemm vna 
*o con;nttionc>ho:iiopcrtici ? abfoluio;pctcft , vt deo imrr.orrali 
iimilis,quaadciasficri potcft,euadar)hJs fanfclibris plcncdo- 
ccmor,cur qua:q$ rcs in animalium gencre ira fitrplancq ; felicf 
tatcrn a(Tcqu<mur tllam nobiliorc, qu& rn a£l:one animi confi- 
ftit,quam fapicns quoq?poera pra?dicans:Fclix,inquit,qui re- 
rum potuit cognofcerccaufas, QrM deanimaloqair,de qua 

torics publtc^priuartmqjdifpctaturfMofqivjm fcorum librc- 

rnn>,tam apcrte philofophus hic £au? opinioncexponit, qua 
inhislibris,qu!danima{it,vnd.c;incorpusrecfp!rur.Ad hxc 




quem Graci foph 
dicatorc,ncminc iam tr:tolatinis aurtbus.Iic cnim flcpcnamc- 
ro vitadifcrepat A prrceptis,& mclfctt hortantur alies , qulm 
ip f io(FiDofungantur:vtinrerdumfruftra iila virtutis cgre- 
gfalaus rrc'ratafir 9 pro]ixaq;corani prsceprio v3cet,& i3- 
ccat,cume5fcrpladef»dcrenrjr,vitjeprarceptcns, & antori- 
tzs; quam qaf rcfpicit,facilics & mooctur ad virretem,* in o( 
ti »orcnetar.At vcro in conrcmplandrs animaltum moribcs 
*xtti*pu i\i ppctuntomnfum officionnr,* efftgtet ofrcrcntur 

JJrtwam fumfDa cmn aatorit«tc na t ur± oranfam parentfs,no 

fi^ulatrc^iDncomtrxrtitiJcnon ihconftantef & hbilcs s frd 

a 4 vcrfc 



2 ARISTOT. DE ANIMAHB. 

vcrc ingenaac atqucperpetux.Qaia enim tam pcroerfa natara 
hoftisfuigcncriscff,qainemcndctur,& mitigetur,cum nallii 
animal occidi k fui generis beftia videaturf Quis ram in parcn- 
tcs impius,nc cum ciconix auis,aut mcropis pietatc crga parc- 
tcsinrclligar,picnt.or efficiaturfQms adc6 inhumanu* illibc- 
ralisqaeeft,quem ofsifragarbenigmrasinpullo* aquilj non fa 
ciat b:nigniorcm?Qn[s tara piger,iners,& iegnis cftyqain cxci 
tctur. ad vitx rauncra,cum formicarum , aut apum labores,at- 



f 






intueturfQna 



>girat,fcdetiam rcguio 

QriiS 



principcm bonum non colat atquc obfcruet , cum (1 rex apum 



initinereaberrauerit,omncscum inquircrc, odorataq; fagaci 
pcrfcqui,donccinuenerint,cognitum habcatrgcftan criam rc* 
gcm a plcbc,cum volarenon potcft,& fi pcncrit,omncs difce- 
dcrcfNuquid parucxcmpli ad boni principis fiuc defiderium, 

li-icobfcroantiamdaturfQms princepsnonadclemcntiam fa 
cilc inuitctar,cum rcgcs apum armari qaidc acalco,fcd co nu- 



in cicpnantis maoiuctudof Qiu 



Qff;e fivics,qu!s amor i\\ canibus ? Qu; 




20 



m pauone f Qua 
Qoiddciuftitiaa 



vocis 
qu-c 



coliigunt quidcm cxijs,quibus auqnid dukcdinis incft,fcd iinc 
vilo friiSua d^trimenrof Qnjd dc caftitatc clrphantis,qui qui 
implcucrir coitu,cam rurius non rangitf Aut columbx,qc2e nc 
qaccoirccu.npluribus paritar,ncqueconiugiam iamindei 

primoortuinitumdcferit^fividu^aurccrkbsfDifciplmaaa 
tcm#cruditioelcphantis,quem non faciar ftudiofiorcmfO- 
mninonuliapjrs vitxhumanxeftiquxnon fuoru ofFiciorum 
excmplacommodilsimehincaccipirtf.ftamvf omittam artcsjo 
illi bcr alc* , qog dklpiit ingcntjs antmalium aoq parum muan- 
rar,vahtudmis cxcmpla qusefo vndccommodtus peti , quam 
cx animalibus polsintf Lo.a pro tcmporis conditionc folcnt il- 
la mutarcmon plus edunr,aut bibunt,quam ftbi falubrc finnon 
d;utiasd:irmiunr,qaam raro valc:udinispoftulat:modum ino 
ucndsq:t:cfccrndtc}acfcruant:nou!tfaa quodquc mcdicamcn- 
ta:viuicfua quodquefortccoiitcntum,^ gaudct-heclatcamc- 
dci, prxcipiunrur.At veroexcmpla,in quibus vismaior,qoi 
in prxcepri cft,ab a ii nahbus ccrtior a pra:bctur. Addo vtilita- 
tcm,q'j«mdiccndif-jcu]ratcexhaiaairaaiium rationc afferri 
poteft.Co^arationcs citim,?&imtlar;encsqucili;£,quas Grxci 

parabolas 



THEO»ORI OA2AE PRAEF ATIO j 



cxornant 



•«.v^^ i ..„.„,,„„„, v4ne,copiose,aptiJsimcq; accipi poiiunt: 
vt fiue oras,uuecommuncm partiris cum alijs iermonem ,e!o- 
qaens.apraj/u-aui^uctfic poisis.Poeta vcro vndc nampul- 
chriusiuaillarara&miraaccipiat,quamcx his libris,qui na- 



autcm 



fatctur,fefuaindeordir.,vbi ph.loibphusddinir nufquamplc 
niu;quamhicviderit.quodquci Galeno mcdicorum principc 
traditur,Ariftotclemprimum anatomcn,hoc eft,membrorura 
10 diuechonem icripfiflfchic agnofcct:& quod idcm * primu*& 
optimus fucrit autor,pcrcipiet. Iam & philoiophi noftre seta- 
tis,qm quadrifariam rerum caufam ex prima illa librorum Na 
turalis aufcultationis inftitutione,accipiunt quidcm commnni 
quadam ratione.fcd quemadmodam his natura vtatur,in con- 

fritutioncgencrationcqucanimalium,parumfautore Arifto- 
rdej vident,inopia fcilicct exemplaris Ariftotclici,qaod legcre 
poisinr,hic vidiflcaliauandogaudcbunt& Phyfici,quo ieap- 
pellant,digniusdccxtcro profctcbunrur. Rationcs cnimidco 
quacrimus vniucrlalcs, > tdcmum rcs particuiares,* fenfiles te 
soneamus.Acceditadhacc voluptaj,qua iuaari,acpctnci quara. 
uis aaioncm Ariftotclcs ait, quam in conteroplandis rebus na- 
rurac auidiisimi capimus. Nam fi piftor nos vehemcntcr oblc- 
ttat,cum animal lcfte pinxerit: quanto vchementius natora 
ipfa afficiet voluptatccnm cius tam multa,& varia animalia, 

imramembrorumconucnicntia^inauditaque moderationc, de 
eicganria fatta:Cum hos lcgimus l.bros,contcmpjarour profc 
cto quam varius,ac polchcrriraas fruftus horum l.brorum ,& 
vtiiuas amplior,qu:tm,vt vcrbis ejtprimi pofsif.Sed quorfum 

,0?^ ntr , 4duccndis hi; «m ncccflarijs taroq'uc commo- 
i„ '* ama;nifsim i shbr «'^cSointcrprctismuncre func%» 
ium,tuicnt C tiamferas Princepsdotf.f S ime,*da S quc in vium 
l„A? ^^ C S° «nctua autoritate*dere nec poffum, 

,„ r!k D u c qUid Ctiam di S° am cx mco ingcniolo exit , qaod 
in ea oibliothcca ponatur,quam magn.ficc coniuicmhom mom 

comratm, vr.litati,condcre ftaruifti .- fi q u ;d inquam tale rff.d 
mea opera poruir,cenfcas ea ipia biblwtheca tanquam cmirate 

cZT k? C odiCcm ' nondamco Sniuim,autvllaminiedcmre. 
ceptnm.Nun cgoprimm tcconftituo iudicc:iam pridem con- 

Knluonjniumdoaorumvirorum habituscs cxiftimator , <* 

^ 1 < , S , C « rUn2,t]r,i * ftud, i s ****** elaborant. F<cir 
cnim tua.lluftris Uoilr^a.tuuriH^ iumrrii ingenium,vt ncmo 

» $ vcl 






10 



AKIST.DE ANIMAtlBi PH' XfV A# 

vcl iudicio granior,vcl aatoritatei locuplcrior habcatar- Priir- 

cipcm etiam fammam tc nuper qaidera habuimus:Jcd qaod o- 

ptauimus,talem habemu$,vt faciU* temporibus his ruis ipcra- 

rcpoflamss pabik.imili.am fclicirarcm , qaam PJarovir do- 

fttisima* fotura cofirmat, cum aut phtloibphi recnattvatrt Rc 

gcs phuoibphanttir.Ta cr.im &ph>!oiophus cs flluftri*>r& for- 

tuuaiutnmiimperij virtuti tuxconiun-fta cft.Lcgcigi* 

turprinceps iapicntiisimc,& iudica,an ego rcm ti 

bi non repudiandam artulcrim:& fi bcnc, 

vtfpcrocedcrt^gcpro tualiberuli- 

f atc,vt pari ftudio laborem fu^ 



10 



* 



fcipcrc alreram,phir aque 

i» dks afFerre hu- 

iufmodi opera 

pofsim* 









» \ 















• 






ARISTO TELIS STA, 

GIRIT AE DE HIST O- 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER 

THIODORO C A2 A- 

l*a»ilittaHimatiaiiiterfe dtfferatttj^itihusue eenut- 

q; natur •tjttter Ji: ae \ Cap. t, 

1 9 «W-; S^ ^H! nimal *vm partcs aat incompofita": funf, 

._ .- 1 ._ . ^^ (bilicct in fimiles fibi partes dioidantar, 

vtcaroin carnes,& obea rcm fimilares appel 

lfntur:autcompoiif„,qu„aptcfecariinpar 
tcsdifsiroilespofsint,noin fimilcs:vt manas 
ijj no in manus iecatur,aar iacies in facles:qua- 
^iuptcreas ausimilaresnominerous . Qnpin gencre partiam 
funt qoat non modo partcs,verum etiam membra appellentur: 
• videhcet quat ccm ipfx totius integriratedefcribantar,habeant 
tamen i nt ra f- par tes diurrfns iui que gener is cpificia,vt caput, 
■x o vt pcs,vt manus^vt totum brachlum aut pecwrrquippe quc & 
ipfa partes finttota?,$ cx partibus confient diucrfis. Quarque 
autcm pars difimilaris cx fimilaribus conftar,vt manus cx car 
nc,orsibus,ncru is.Habcnt vero animalia partcs,aat cafdem fi- 
oiomnes,autdiuerfas.Partcseaiacmvcl fpccic intelligi volo, 

vthoramisnafus,2GtocuIus,fpcciccumnafo,aut oculo homi- 
njsaitcriusconucnif,ftcarocumcarnc,&os cumoiTe. Qupd 
idem dc ecuo,* ccteris qu ? fpccic inter fecofcntirc flatuimus, 
infeIhgideDet:vtenimtotum fehabctadtotum,fic partcs fin- 



*I 




30 



gularfefeadfingulas habeant neccficeft.vel genercquanqa: 
cxccflu,dcfec.uaeinter fedifFera R f.Dcijsloquor,quorn idcm 
eft genus:vcrbigr3tiaauis,autpifcis:idcnim vtramqacdiffe* 
rentijs confumitur gencris.Et fpeciescomplures,tum pifcium, 
ram ctiam au/um habcntor.diffcnint vero intcr fe pa< tes pcnc 
piurimaccoramcontrsriaafTecluum qualitatc, vt ccloris,auf 

C W*? **" a]i ? ma " ls ' aI, 'c minus affe<% ijs ipfis qoalitatibus 
«nf.Multitudinc et<a& paucitare,* magmtudir.cparuitatcq?, 

* °mninoexcemi,defeftuquedjfcrep:mr,cu alijj crufra,alijs tc 
JW protcgminc habeamr:* aliji roftru porrcclius fif,vr gru- 
ibus:al<:js breuc. Pcnn* itc alijs vlcrius,alijsp.Trciu$ dataefr. 

Sed 



t% ARISTOTE.DE ANtMALIB. 

Scdtamen inijsquoque ratio partium nonnullarum dtacrfa 
cft,cumaliacalcari,aiualiquoarmctur acuko,?lia nihilciuf- 
modihabeanr.&alijsapcxin capitcfit fjplt js dcfit . Sed enim 
qaodpropcdixcrim,partcs plurimar,&ex quibustota moics 
compa£racft,aarca!dcmfunr,aurrationccontranorum,* pcr 
cxccflum dcfcdumqucdifferunt.Piuris cnim , min*»risque ra- 
tioncm,rcfcrri ad exccffura defcttuaKjue pctaucrim oporfo 
xc- Non dcfant qaibas partes nec fpecies fint c*dem , ne- 

3uc exccffu,defe£tuue, Jcdproportione conucniant : quomo- 
o 6s cum fpina , & vngucm cum folida vngula , & manum i 
cum forctpato pcdis,& pcnnacum fqcama conacnirc animad- 
ucrtimus.Quod enim pcnna in aaium gerjerc cft,idcm iquama 
in piicibushabctur Fartcs quas fwgula animaha habcm,h r jnc 
in modum diucrfas,ca(demue intelbgimu^atquectiafiru con- 
tcmplamur.Sunt enim complura,qaa* cafdem habeant parte5 f 
icd non fitu codcm: vcrbi caufa 9 mamm3s alia in pcciorc habct, 
aliainfeminibus Varte -. autcm fimiiarcs, aut molics,achumi- 
da!funt,autlicc«,^{ol:d.c.Moi!csinqua,vclomnsno,veiqua- 

diu in fcdc tnaneant naturali, vt ianguis,f aj>ie*#adeps t feuu me- 
dulla,feroen gcniralc,fcl,lac,vbi habcri id pcrcir,caro, & quar 2 
ijsproportioncrcfpondcant- Itemcxciementa omnia,modo 
tamendiucr(o,vt pituir£,& iedimentaalui,atque vcfic* . $io 
casacfolidasinteiligi volo,neruum,cutcrn,vcnam,piHim ,ot, 
• cartilagincm,vnguem,cornu:«quiuocccnimad gcnus appcl- 

lamu5,quumcornu ; tum h«ura,tumtoto dicimiis . Itcmquae 
ijsproporrionercfpondcnt.AmmaJiiim vcro difrcrerit:as 9 aut 
pcr viras,autpcra£iKnef,autpcr roores,aurpcr parec^ con- 
ftituidignum cft . Quibus derebus pritr.um formula quadam 
agendura,dcindcgcncratimdi{cufsione dlligcntiorc difleren- 
dumcenfcmus . Profe&odjfFcrenriaequxin morum. vi&uum 30 
aftionumquerationc vcriantur,coliigi dcbet,co qfffcd alia itnt 
aquatilia,alia terrcftria. Et aquatilium ordo duplcxralia cnim 
in fluido dcgunt,viftamque pctut cx hutuorciqucm et iam hu- 
jnorcm pcr viccs reciphmr,& redduntrnec viuerc poflunt,nift 
verfentur inhumorc,quodplurima!pi(cium partieucnirc a* 
pcrtum eft.Aiiadeguntquidcm infiuido,viifhimqucindccmo 
liunturricd aei em non humorem rcc! a piunr.& forxs parcre io- 
lent.Complurahuius gencrisiunr partimgrcfsilia,vtlutris*U 
fax*crocodiiUs:pjrtim volucres,vtmcrgsvrvrinatrices.Qnin 



onr. 



viftumin hu^crc excrccant , nec foris viucic <^JC4!'t,nih'l 

vel 



t t 3 E R. PRIMVS. 



vcl atris vcl humoris recipiunr,vr vrticar,vt oftrea. Aquatilfc 
autem gcneris alia marina,alia r3amaJia,a!iaIacufiria,alia pa- 
luftria,vtrana,vr cordula.Terrcftrium veroanimantium,alia 
accipiunt,redduntque ai : rc:n(qua:rcsfpiratio nominarurjvt 
homo.& quacanqueterrcftriahabcnrpulr./r.ncm.Alia quam- 
uii aerem rccipiant,tamenfedcm in terra perpctuo tencnf,* 
viSumindidemcapiunr,vt vefpa:,apes,& rcliqua infctfa.quo 
.nomiHeeaappcllo,quorumcorpusinciiuris praxingitur , aut 
partetantum iupina,aut etia prona.Scdciim terrcftrium plu- 

10 ra,vtd:ftumcft,cibumsbaquispctant,nullumgcner/s aqua- 
nlis eft,quod & aquam rccipiat,& terram cibi cauia pctat.Sut 
porrv*,quae primam viuant in humore:deindc forraa immura- 
ta.forii vitamincipiantagere,vtcaliccs paluftresrcx menim 

afiliproueniupf.Adh«c,ali3frdeftabilidcgunt,aliamutabili, 
& vaga.Sedes ftabilisinhamoietanmmmodo eft. Terreftriu 
iralia ftatu immutabili viuunt. A t aquatilium plura iaxis affi- 
xa vitam omne traducunr,vt conchar gcnera complnra.Qpin- 
etiarafpougiafcnlum habcrc aliqucm crcditur: argumcnfo» 
quodmultodifficiiiu$abftrahuntur:nifi clanculum agatur,vt 
io rcfcrant auulforcs.Suntitcm,qua:<*adha;rerc foleant,&qua 
tics libuit abfolui,vt gcnus quod<lam eius,quam vrticam voca 
mus:quippccum nonnulla: cx ijs noftu abfblune pafcantur. 
Non deiiint complura,qua: cum fmt abfoluta , mouerc tamcn 
fc ncqucur,vt oftrcasicx quse tota fimplici , mitioriquc tefta o- 

pcr«,vertibulaappcllantur,«S:calli,auttubcra. Visitcm alijt 
naj.di tributa cft,vt pifcibus,vt raollibus,vt crufhtis,velut lo- 



Q^sedam 



vira 



bet ambulandi.Tcrrcftrium vertolia volucrcs funt , vt aucs, 
vtapes.quacmodointcrfequodamalio differunt.Alia pcdc- 
itna,quoru itcm alia grdsiha, alia rcptilia , alia trafliiia iunt. 
Ammal quod voiucrc tantum fir.vr nifc »< n» a r, 



lc folummodo 



qu<ep 



- ,-..«.... v ,.uc vcjpcrtiiionictiam pedcsiunt,<X: vitulos ina- 
nnus pcdes habet mmutos. Sicnonull* aacsdcpcdc* iunt,qust 



l 



'r* 



cctcra 



pciimiJ,a,vtpcnni J pra:ualerc,fic pcdib.dcgcncrarc v t den«ur, 
vr n.rundoA facula,fluc riparia harcenim omn:a,& moribu , 
«voiatu,* ipcdc p r; ,ximaintcrfc conipicmntur . Apparet 

P omnuttsin™ «mporibus Riparia *ftatc tamum , tbm 

in.ber 



«I 



M- 



ARISTOTi DE ANIMALIB. 



imbcr incefsit:tunc cn im & apparct, & capit 
Kxc auicula eft. Atvero qu* g'efsilia,eadcmcj 



aniinantiumcontincnt. Sutcnimalise gregales,aliseioJJtaritf, 
ru volucres,tam n>urs,tum ctiam pedcftres. Vitaaliae ancipite 
degut, vt eaede modo focietatc modo folitudinc gaadeant. If € 
alis ciuiles,alic inciuilcs.Tum cx grcgahbus,tu etiacx iolita- 



_ijsfunt,gregales in volucrum genere columbi* grues, olores 
Nullum cui vngues adunci grcgatilecflc perpendirr.us Com- 
plura etiam inter nantcs pifcium gcncra grc gatim degcre/ci- IO 
mus,vt quos cuvfores vocant,& thunnos,&limoias,& hamias. 
Hominisnaturatn ancipitcm focietatis,ac folitudiniseffe,aper 
tutn cft. Ciuiles appello animantcs, qus labori communicant 
idem,qnarum opus communi efficitur opcra, munusque idera 
omnicft,quodnonotnnib!3sgrcgslibuscompctit.Ciuilisgenc 

riscfthomo,apis 3 vefpa,formic2,grus Quaruro aliss f ub ducc 
degunt,vt grues,vt apesialise nulli fubditx imperio (cnt,vt f or 
mica:,* alia innumcra pcnegenera. Sunt jtem tam ex grcga- 
libus,quamcxfolitarijs,alia: quxfedcm nunquam miuer,ali« 
<joac mutarc ftato temporcfoleant.Et alia!,qu;t carr^e vefcan- 1<? 
tur,alijc quarfragibur-aliaromnia attingant. Nondefunt, quas 
c bo fui generis vtantur, vtapes, vt aranci. Apes cnim mcile 
& quibufdam alijs dulcibusalentur.Aranei venatumufcarum 
vinuKt.Nonnullapifcibus vcfcinatura voluit.Adh:*c,?.lia: aut 
vim habent vcnandi,aat ingcnio rccondendi cibi dorar.-r font. 
Al:ccnecadvcnandumapt£,necad rccondcndum. Item alias 
ctamciliafibi parant,vt talpa, mus, formica, mufca, apis Aliae 
nullis feincl;idcreca(:spatiuntur,vtplures taminfe&i genc- 

ris>quamquadrupedis.Qninetiam locis difcrimcnaliud cxi- 
ftit:quippccumalixcauernasfubcant,vtlacerti,vtferpcntcs:3 

a!t£ pcr fumaoa tcllurisdcgant,vt canis, vr eqaasrac aliae fo- 
xatninn fxbi excaucnt,alte nunquam eo muncrc fungantur : Sc 
aluenotlu vagentur,vt noftua,vefpertilio:ali;e inrerditi tan- 
totn. Addo etiam alias efiecicurcf, alias fcras. Et aiias pcrpc- 
tuo dcurcs,vt homincm,vt mulum:alias,vt pantheram,vt lu- # 
panr.nonnullas ctiam fsolc pofierciasfucfccrc,vtcIeph2ntos 



*» 



Scd quin aliter particndum eft.Generncnim quaLCUnquepla- 
cida funt, h^c czAtm fcra quoq; poflunt rcpcriri,vt fues,cqui» 
hof»incs,onc$,capr«,<:anes,boue?.Ircalix rautaromnino funt, 



vocem 



ruma!ixloquip;fll:nr,al!2evcccm folam nKiiisexprimenda 

literis 



L I B E R P R. I M V S. If 

liter?srec!dorxAtqucali£loquaces,ali5e tadtarna?, ali# ofd- 
ncs,ali£ inofcir.es. Omniu vccalium animami u comuuis mos 
cft,vt fui initus teporc pottfsiir.u canar,& bhfem. Alia» prse- 
tcrca camporum incolx funt, vf palubesrafcse mcntif, vt ypu- 
p£:aftg cfi hcrair.ibusdcgerefolent,vt columbi. Item aliaeco- 
pia libidinis g.*udcnt,vtperdicumgetius& g^llinaceoru Alte 
minus Vcncrc valet,vt qtj* coruina fpccie gerunqu/ppe qc£ 
raro foleant coirc.Marinarnm etiara animantiam alia: pelagi 
£a?',dlfe lirtcralcs,al!"a:favatiles funt. Ad ha?c,alijs dat2 vis eft 
10 diroicadi,alijs ingcniu cauendi,& euitadiViribus collec.quac 
iuiuria vel inferat alrj ,vel illata fibi jppulfen', iec; defaVdSt; 
Cau tx & : ^puidc funt, qnar aliquidin icipfis pfidtihsbet corra 

ififercdainmria.DjfFcriuprercreamoribus.Naahc mites v re- 

• iKifTae,& min:rac peruicaces fum,vt boues. Alia: anrmofa?,rer- 

nfcs&*,BHjtse omnino>vt/ue.>fylneftres. Ali* ingenicfarac ti- 

Tnidj?,vtceru2 5 Iepores>cgniculi Aliae illibcralesperfcda?, infi- 

A:~r.,/,. ^r rfl^ n.11 , * r * t. 



* 



vtlcon 



Ali* g-nerofe fcroccs,infidiofe,vt UnL Nobilccmm id eft, 
qa cx bono pd: jr gencrcrgcnerofum aut,qa no a fua natura 4e 
20 gcnerant.Er ulte aftat^,malitiof fc e,cailid^,vtvulpcs.Ali9 ani 
< .mofe,& amatrices»* aficntstnccs, vr canes. Aluc miccs, & ma 
fuctudini addi&^vtelephitcs. Aliac vevccudx,& caut£>vf an^ 
fcrcs . Ali* inuide,<Sf ornatus ac politorc ftedioi£,vtpauone$. 




prftcrhominepotc 

de moribus, vitaq; gcneris cuiufquc,diligcntius poft. 

** L ~ *n paTUsanimalihus cics*qu± Ui'pr*pri* fint.C*p*i *•■ 

Mniumautcm partcs communcs animalianr funt* 

3^> ;!WfcS)L« qaa cibus recjpitar,& in quam deuorarur. Quz$ qui 

dem partcs & eafdein elfe, & diucrfa.7,nihil pffA&l 

ration.bas prohibet. Actcnim fpecicactezccfTu, 

*--r"*'<j>rtionr, aut fitu dcterminandum cft.Atajsali* co- 

munes plurtmorum anircaliumpartcshabcntur,* qnA cibi 

cxxrcmcntumcmitfi^r.Noneinmhccomnibusdaucft.par 





q«* P ar 



ha 



Q^~ vcro hcchahent,non illud e 

QiMmobrcm nt;as veficam habci 



aluum 



x g ARISTOTE. DEANXMALIB. 

alaum cadem etiam obtinent. At vero qu* aloam habennnon 
omnia & vcucam potodenr.Humidi namqueexcremcnri con- 
ceptaculum,veficam,ficci,aluum nominamus.Reliquis magna 
cx parte tum hac^quas enumcrauimns parfcs tributa: funt,tum 
ctiam qua: fcmen genitalcmittatur. 

auomoAoanimaliaintet fc&iffcrant infeminU frohfici 

emifiione. Cafut m. 

QVx modo gignerc animal polsint * aur in fe ipfa femen 
prolificum mittunt.aut in altcrum.Fnemina quodinfc 
mittiMppellatur.Mas^qaodinaltcrom. Sedin nonnullis di 
fcrimcn id faemtnx & maris non cft.Spccics quoque partium 



ipfam pcrti nent procrcationcm 
habcant.alia quod vulue propo 



hx funt qux 



£hi 



ius.Itaqucpars,quafentiendi vis ifta continea?ur,nomineva* 
cat. Ali js cnira eadera,alijs cx proportionc habetur. 

Humorem quodf, animalhaberc.ahtertamcnuelhuic%uel 

iJUtnejfes Cafut i 1 i i. 

Vmorem itcm gcnas quoqac animalium contlnet: 20 



quofiautpervim : autper natura ipiam priucrur 
^ernicicra agatur ncccflc eft.Habent ctiam id di- 

_j uerfum,in quohumor ilic& fiat,&cotincarur.Sunt 

h*C in ahjs fanguif,& venarin alijs , quod ijs proporttone re- 
fpondeat:qu£quidem imperfe&afunt:atqucalterum fibra,al 
tcrumfanicsdicitur.Ta6Hisitaqucinpartc corporis fimilari 
con(iftit,vttncarne:autinaliqua generis ciufdem^cmqucin 
partefanguinea,autinea,quxcx proportione vicc illius ha- 
beatur.OmnibustamcnpartefimiJarifcnium hunc contincrl 
certumcft,ficutecontrariopotentias agenres partibus difsI-30 
miiaribus tribatas cfie apertum cftrvt ori ciborum confeftio* 




nem pcdibas:auta!is,aur quibufuis proportionc accommoda- 
tisoffifciuminccdcndi.Adh^canimaliumalia fanguinem ha- 
bcnt,vt homo,equus:deniqu' omnia,qua! aut perfe&a pedibus 
carenr:aurbini5,quarcrnisuepcdibus conftanr.Alia exanguia 
funr>vr apes,vt vefpsc. Atqucintcr marina,ffpia,locufta 5 dcni- 
quc omnia,qax pcdibus pluribusquam quatcrnis innitantur. 

gjt* antmalia pcrfcflum ammahejua cua^ua uermemgi- 
gnant:quoue rttu qusquc tncdUnt. Cap* V. 

Itctn 






1 

IIBER PRIMVS. gy 

Tem alia animal gignunt perfcau, alia oonm, alla 
vcrmem.Procrcsnt animal,homo,cquus, yitulas 
marinus:* rejiqua,que pilis integuturratqjin ge- 
nerc aquatili, qu ? ccte appellamus, vt delphini : & 
tjuj; wcn.ijgmca vocantur.Quprum altcris fiftuia data eft,bra 
chi^defunt,vtdclphini S „S:balcnis.Habent delphini fiftulam 
a dorm,balenp f.onte.Alteris branchix detefta?, vt moftelo, 
rato,rcliqnijq; gene™ ciufde.Ouumidexfoeiibus perfcflis 




qoura 



ammaltotu perjubiecli foetusformation^mcremcntucj ei- 
gmtur. Animahu crgo quar animal gcncrant, aut oua intra fe 

priusconficiunt,vtcartilaginca:autillicoanimal imr.lt for 
r n a ^T , i C r ' VteqaaS,AtVCr ^ in,uce,n fa * a PPrfcao,aut 



»e contmctur teftaceo,& bicolor eft.quale auiu efle v idemus: 



bilcs.Scddc 



j-nea vcr 
les fnnt,autim«o 



*c ijs «curatins pift,cu dc generatiorc 3 gcrtfr,djfTc 



differeti 



2&Z2&I!*-** **» *£* H* 



duohaxrtiruwodo 






■023 



na- 



3 



mt ? vtpifccs( 
binasfupina 

las omninohabent,vt murcnarfcd ita mari vrSmr^LZ fl 



habet vt S /nT Car ^ V ' d / ,icct <***P h »* &«' * cauda ,* r/„ </.,,„ 

hZar mn ! "r\ CmU - S ' & ^*™* fa5 ,atitudin ^ «o col ^ W 
iigont in mucrone. O na» anr n^« l,«U *s . « . » * 



qtt£ 

ucrttt: 



iganr in macrone. Qn# mt ncdr< LU 

,- .11 , r w ^*^* * u * praCSnaDCTC K uiciiui«vt iuuiiia.. iivq: 

^nt.vta5u,la, V tac C ipitcr:aJtemcbranaficca,vtapcs,vtfca- 

b rab 



j ARtSTOTK. DE ANlMAiU' 

raoei-aliar cute,vt vulpecula, vt vefpcrtilio . Volant pennis, 
aut cute,qua:habentfangninem.Mcmbranis ficcis,qus iangui 
necarent,vtinfeaa.Suntporr6,quaevelpennis,velmcmbra- 

nis V olant,omnia bipeda,aut apeda.Angaes cnim circa Aethto 
piam tales volare narrantur.Genos pcnnatum, auem appclla 
musrreliqaadaogcnera nominccarentcommcni . Volucris 



autem 



ncnit,vt vagtnipennes pofsint nucupari,vclatfcarabeis. Altjs 
pennenullacruftainteguntur:quorumaliabipcnncsfunt,alia 

cuadtipennes. Gertmt pennas quatcrnas, quae aut grandiora i 
funt,aot acoleo in aluo armantur. Vaginipennis illius ordints 
nullum efhquod aculeamgerat.Eipeda anteriore parte acu- 
lcosgerunt:vtmufca,tabanus,afilus,culcx.Omnia quae ian- 
guinecarent,minus,qoam qus habent fanguinem adolefcunf, 
paacis marinis exccptis,vt molliutn nonnallis:quae quidem ge 
iiera grandiora locis tepidis rcddantnr,& mari potius,aut dul- 
cibus aquis,qu£m terra. Omnia qux fe mouent,.aut quaterms 
tiotis mouentar,aat pluribus. Quaternis tantum,qu:chabent 
fangumenrvt hominesbinis manibus,binisq; pedibus:aaes bi 
nis alis,&binispedibns:qaadrapedespedibus qaaternis.pifces 
pinnis quatcrnis. Nam & qaae pinnis ant non amplius binis, 
aut nullis,vt ferpentes, vtuntur,quaternis ea quoquenotis ni- 
hilominus raouentunflexus cnim quatcrniijsaguntur, autbi 
ni cum pinnis binis. At vero quae fanguine vacua pedibus fe 

1 m ^* M *_ ■ m* ^M .mm, M m^ mm m^ mm * # m% ^^ lA •* W* * * ♦^^ ^*m 



ibus 



quod 



defcribenda ephemerum appellatum eft,ped»bus quatuor, peu 

nisq; totidem mouetur. Qnjppc q uocl non folum vit * {ux ra " 
tione proprium id merito habcat,fed etiam cum quadrupes fifc 
volucre quoque eft.Omnia porro tam quadrupcda,qua mulri J 
pedaraodofimilimouerifolitafuntrcunftis cnim motus per 
diametrum agitur. Verum chm c*tera ducibns binis pcdibus 
jncedanf ,cancer vnus quaternis rcgi iblitus eft . 

q ux animaha habeantfangmnem^u^ae eodem 
careant. caput vi. 

Vroma ver^ animal'um genera,in qua fingula di- 

gerantur,rediganturq; animalia, qc.bus fcijicct illa 
confummantur 3 &conftent,h:i:cfant,aui5,piicis,ce- 

^ t tus:qUcTqnidemornnrah2bent fanguinem.Ad hac 

gennsteftaintcaamcft,quodoftreutT>,fiueconchamappclla- 

ila inclufum aliud quod nominc vacat communi,vt 

locuft 



o 




LIBER PHIMVS. 1$ 

locuftarum,* cancrorutn,& gatnmarorumgenefaraliod item 

mollc,vtloUigcncs,vtlollij,vr fcpix.Addcgcnus inle&ti, cu^ 
omnia gcncra iangwine carent. Et quorum natura pedes habe- 
repatitur,multishxcpcdibusconftat. Scdinicftorum velali? 
q»a volucrcsciTcapertum eft.Reliquoru animantium gencra 
nulia pr#tcrca arapla inteiliguntur, vnum cniui quod plura 
encra contineat,nullum eft.Scdautfimplcx eft, nullis ipfum 
pecificiscuariansdifcriminibus,vrliomo:aut diuidi qaidcpo 
tcft in fpecics.fed nullis nominibus diftin&as.Qux enim gcnc 
lorcquadrupedcnopenatocotinentur,fangaine quide omnia 
habetifcd alia animalpariut,alia ouu.Dixcrim h#c ouipara,iI 
la viuipara.Qua» igitur animal generat,pilos no omnia habet: 
quas aut oua pariur ,cortice omnia munifitur. Cortcx hic loco 
fquamx ftmilis petcft appcllari.Pedeftrcfanguincu,quod pc- 
dibus carcat ex natura.genus fcrpentu cft, idqj inteftu corticc 

^lr \/i»rn /*ti r^fA«.,«% /^*.~£^_ IZ^ „1 ^ * i _• 




:ft 



Qo£E tame | 

cff, 



2ofpicalato$,genus quodda eflepiloru purandu eft,qual« herina 
cei,arq; hyftrices geranr.viccmenira villorum,non pedum,vt 
cchinnorum aculci prjeftant.Generis quadrupedum, quae ani- 
«ial gignunt,plures quidem fpecics intdliguntur,fed nullis fe 
rcnorarxnominibus.Singuloromenitnnomina habenrar, vt 
hominis,leonis,cqui,cerui,canis,rejiquorumq; ad hunc modu. 
Kullis fere inquam,quoniam genus vnum,vel iuper ijs omni- 

bus,qux iumentanominamus,eft. vt equo,afino,mulo,ginno, 
inno,&mulis,quasterraSyriafert,quxfimilirudincquadam 
nomen nsularum acceperunt, quanquam non omnino e.idem 
30 qua mula? fpeciecontinentur.Coeuot enim, & mutua inter fc 
ratione progencrant.Naturam iraque eorum, qua: minus ge- 

? Cr <l C H t0 ? ntincntUr ' feor f um figiUatim confidererous, neccf 
iecft.Harcita imprarfentiarum formula expolhifle quadam 

pra.guftandigratiaplacuit,videlicet vtquibusde rcbus tra- 
ctanaom,& qaatenus efTct perfcqucndam intelligerctur:p6ft 
accaratiusde ijfdem difleramus,vt primum differcntias,atque 
accidentia,qua: iunfta cuiq; fanf ,accipiamus,deinde ad corum 
comperiendas caufas enitamarrita cnim cffici poteft,vt *ia,ra 
tioneque docendi vtamur narura? congrua , cum comroenta- 
tio hnguloram antecedat.Hinc enim aperitur quibuinaro de 
rcbus,£ «c quibus effici demonftrationem oporteat. rnroum 

b % itaque 






2 ARISTOT- DE ANIMALIB. 

itaq; partes animalium,ex quibus c6ftant,enumerafle par cft: 
ijs rnim potifsimum, atque^ in primis,tota quoq$ ipfa interfc 
differunt, videlicet aut eo,quod aliahabeaEt,alia carcantraut 
fitu, & ordine, autdifferentij$,quas antehacexpofaimus,ideft 
fpecie,exceflu,proportione,<£ affe&uii contrarietatc.Sed pri- 
mum partcs hominis cxplicare debemus. Vt enim nummos ad 
jdquodfibiquifq;exploratumcertumq* habeat, probarc {o^ 



!ct 



,ita c^ieris quoq; in rebus agendum eft. At homo animaliu 
ixime omniu notu nobis ncceffario eft. Partes igitur homi- 



maxime 



ffiig 



fenes cotinuada do&rina? prartermittatur, atq; ctia vt fenfum 
ratio comuetur ,partes primtim cnumcrabimus officiales, fiuc 
inftrumentales,deindefimilarium ordinem profequcmur. 

DefummU in hominti corpore parttbus 7 & quidcaput, 
quid item theraxfit* Caput v 1 1. 

V mmar igitur partes ,:n quas primas totum diuidi- ; 
tur corpus,h*e iunticaput, collum, thorax,brachiu 
|^j|duplex,crus duplex. Thoracem ea partem appello, 

qu£ a colio ad pudenda vfq; ttunca pertcndit. Capi 20 




autem 



pars prior finciput,nouifsime confifterc folita.Omnium enim 
oisium corporis,vltimum id cocrcfcit,& induratur Pofterior 
occipurcft.Mcdiainter occiput & finciput,vertex.Cercbrum 
fincipitiiubditumcftioccipctinane. Calua ipfa fanetota, os 
rarum,rotundu,cutegracilentaobdu&um cft. Habctfuturas, 
qusemulieriscft, vnam in orbemrqua! autem viri,trcs inidcm 
magnaex parteco&intes. Iam vifum ctia finevllafuturaca- 
put viri eft. Vcrtice calaa?, mediu difcrimcn, & arquamentum 
capillorum vocamusrquodnonnullisgeminumcft. Sutcnimp 
qui fafti a natura biuerticcs fint, verum non ofle, fcd capillo- 
ruma?qu3mento. 

uidftciesinhomtne. Caput viiu 

Acicm partcm cam nomlnamos duntaxat in homi- 
ncqaa: calux fubiefta eft. Nam pifcis aut bouis fa- 
cicm diccrc non folcmus. Partcs facici frons , <px 



fub fmcipitc pofita intcr idipfum,&oculos eft.Qjji 

bus hxcmagna,fegnes:qmbusparua,mobiles:quibuslata, tac 
te moucri idoneirquibus rotunda : fracundi. 




/< 



& 



Ca^ut 



IX. 

Supcf 




I I E £ R PRIMVS. 21 

Vpcrcilia fub frontebipaitito diflin<3a:qua:fi in rc 
&umporriguntur,molJem fubefie ammum fignifi- 

cant.Siiuxtanafuminflcxafunt, aufterum nctant, 

Lf=fe~^M; ^ acerbum.Scd fi iuxta tcmpora inflcauntur, deri- 
forcm difsimulatoremque indicant fi v crA in totu«i demifia, 
notam inuidix habent.Oculiijsfabiacentduo, lcgitimo fcili- 
cct natura: officiorquorum partes fuperius inferiusq; tegetes, 
palpebra:appellantur.Pilos,qniextremo palpebraVum ambi 
tui adharrent ,cilium nominamus.Hutnor oculi intericr>quovi 
dcmus,pupilla eft.Qupd cam ambigit, nigrum dicitur . Qucd 
poftremo nigrum circundat,candidum,fiue albugo. Pars com 
munis fuperioris infcriorisquc palpebrx* > angulus cft, quem 
duplicem vtcrqucoculus habctralterum iuxta nafum, aitcrum 
iuxta tcmpora:Qui fi iufto funt longiores, notam mcrum ma 
leficorum prxbent.fi carnofi morepeaunculorumfunt,quina 
-ibus iunguntar,malitiam pnrferunt Habcnt profcfti ocu- 
3s, tucartcraanimaliumgencraomnia, pr^eterqaam tefta in- 
te&a,&fi quidimperfettum ahudcftrtum ea, qua-animalge- 
ncrant omnia,pr^ter talpam:quam modo quodam haberc di~ 
*oxerim,cumtamen omnJno habcre negem rquippc cumcffi- 
nino quidcm nec vidcat, ncc pcrfpicuos habcat oculos. Vc- 
rumfiquispr^tentam membranamdetrah)t,locusoculorum T*tya tjuo* 
apparer,& pars nigra corundcin : firus denique,& dckxi- (LmnuJoha 
ptioeadem, quam legitimam confpicut oculiobtinent,vtpo- betoiulos y t>o 
tecumobduflacutcoculi prefsi,confufi,obla:f!q;eficnt;dum tamen ctnni 



crearcntur. 



no 




Z>t oculorumuarietate in qntbusq; animantxlut. Cput x. 

Andidumoculi, magnaexpartefimilein omnibas 
cft:arquod nigrum dicitur,variat:Alijsenim atru t 
alijsadmodtimcxfium,a!ijsfuluum,alijscaprjmi, 
— _ ^uod morum optimorum mdicium cft.<5: ad cernai 
dJclariratemprimatumobtinet.Solusergo potifsimum ani- 
ma.ium homo,numerofa oculorum varietatc notatur : quum 
cxter/s in fuo fingulis genere,co!or fit idcm:equis cxccptis.qut 
inrerda-nocul.sproueniantcaciijs. Suntoculorum alij gran,- 
oiores,alij parui,alij modici,qui optimi hubentur:ircm alij ni- 

miumprominentcalijcondit.Salijmodicc fiti. Quj conditl 
unt,clarMsim^cernere,ingencrcquoque bratorum ar.ima- 
lum poiliinr.modicustamcn fuus. nota morum cft optimoru. 

fct,autnimiumconniuem> aut rgidi, ir.tcntiq;conftant, aut 

b j modic 



1% ARlSTOT#DE ANIMAIIB. 

modiee tmtant.Notam morumlaudabilium habent,qui mcdia 

criter conniuent.Reliquorum,altcri impudentia:, altcri incon 
ftantia: indices funt. 

Ve aure^nafo^temporibus, maxilhs,labrU^ri n giuuJentU 
htvu lingua,palato, cclumella> eorumq; in quilusfj; 
animaHttbuidtjferentijs* caput x/. 

V ris,pars capitis'qua audimus cft, ita vt nulla fpi- 



y 



/< 



>».-. 



ratiodcfidereturrcrrat enim Alcmxon, qui capras 
f fpfrarcper aurescrcdidit. Aurispars extcrior,cuiia 

!§£> eft nomen auricul*,parte conftat fuperiorcpinna, 

inieriore fimbra:tota autem ipfa,ex cartilagine^cameque con 
ftitutacft.at parsinterior forma anfraftui cochleje fimilir, 
dcfinir in os, quod auriculam plane imitatur, inquod quafi 
nouifsimum vafculum ftrepirus deuenitrhinc meatus ad cere- 
brum nullnseft. Atinoris palatum vfqoe,Tcmita perten- 
dit,# vena de cerebro defcendit eodem . Oculi quoque iu 

7 cerebrum finiunt, & vterque pofitus fuper venula eft . Aures 
homini tantum immobiles : nam eorum qu# fcnfum obti- 

' nent aadiendi,alijs auricul* funt, alijs defunt,mcatusque ipfi 20 
audiendipatent,vt ijsqo* penna,aut cortice fquamaue in- 
teguntur : At ea quse animai generant, omnia auriculas ha- 
bent,excepto vitulomarino,& delphino , 9c reliquis itacc- 
tarjs:nam & qucecartilagineaappellaufmns,animalpariunt. 
Veriim hotro vnus, aurcm non mouet . Vituluscrgo ma- 
rinus mcatu* continct manifeflos,qua audit : atdelphinus 
auditquidem,fcdnullis cauernis, quse viccm prsftent au- 
flom- Cattcra fuas auriculas omnia mouent . Situm aures 
hominis cundem in orbe, quemoculi obtinentrnon vt qna- 
drupedum nonnullis pofitae fuperius funt. Aurium ahx le-jo 
ues,ali* pilofa^alixmedium tcnent,quce quidem adaudicn- 
dum aptifsimariuntiMorumhincprafcita nulla habentur. 
Item alte maiorcs,al?x paruar,ali* mediocres:# aut nimium, 
autparlim,autmed:ocriterarrefla?. Noram morum optimo- • 
rum habcnt qua? mediocres: A t qux magnae, arreftcque vltra 
modum ftultiti«indicesfunf,autloquadtatis. Partem inter 

vtrumiibet oculum,* aurcm,& verticem pofi tam, terapora ap 

pellamDsJtcraparsfacicin2iiis,quarmcatumprcbetfpiritoi: 
acrem enim eapartc reddimus,^ accipimus.Sternufamcntam 
quoqaceadem agit»rpartc:quod flatus vniuerfi eruptio eft, 

fignum augurale,& vnum exfpirituum omcium gcncribo* 

fan 



1 tBER PR.IM vft t « 



fan£mm,& facrum.Tam etiamfpiritum trahi in peflas ,<fc in- 
dereddinecefleeft.quodfieri nopoteihnifinaribus fpiremus: 
cum reciprocatiofpiritusdcpe£torc pcr gurgulioncm , nondc 
capite partealiqua a&itetur:fcd datur viuendi facultas , ctiam 
fi dcfit ipiratio. Olfaaus quoque,id cft,fenfus cdoris, l,ac ea- 
dempartcfomminiftratur. Mobiies eiTe narcs natura voluir, 
nccficutsuresimmobilesfuacompagcPars nafi,qux cartila- 
gineanaresdifcriminaUnterfcptum vocamus: Meatam vero 

Vfrnnn* im-3n^*f-i<Wn* «*»;«-»* Lj^«„^;*^ 1-/1 • n n . ^.* 



10 



iwr* 



piunt,& in osadmouentfoli animatium omnium.Eft prseter- tuntuu 
ea maxiila duplex :cuius pars prior mentum, poftcrior roandi- 
bula cft.Moucnt animalia omnia maxillam infcriorem ,croco- 
d.Iofluuiatilicxcepto:isenim vnos iuperiorcm raouct Labr* 
roox a naio habentur.caro permobilis.Qupd aatem intra ma- 
xiilas,& hbra defcribitur , os eft:cuias partespalatum,& fau- 
ces. Ineftparsfcntiensfaporcm , lingua,vim iftam fcnticndi 
przcipucobtinensparteiuiprimore.nam fiinteriorc tan<»at, 
o mmusfentict Omniapractereaqnarcarofentire potcft,lin- 
guaetiam poteft:vtduru,calidum,frigidu,iua quauis partcil 
cut&iaporc:ha:cautlata cft,aut angufta,autmcdiocris,qua: 

quidcmoptima^cxplanatifjimacft.Itcmautabloluta^utCQ 
ltnua,qualis tortorum,balborumq;cft.Carne folata,n»ra,run 
g^a, lS nguaconftat:eiuspars quxdam ligula cft. Bifidaoris 
compago,tonfill« , Multifida gingmsr appcllantur:carne hsc 

conKant,ir.tusq;dentesoiTcicoh*rcnt. Partcvcro pcnitiorc 

parncula pcndct:alia vuigera,vena:applicata,columella nomi 

?o mm,T ,mmodic * hamcfaaa iutumcfcat,inflaramcturq';,no 
3ommevu Z vocat U r,&ft ran gul at . 4> 

^collo^aore^orutnq; partilx*. Oip. XII. 

5t| OIlum '°t u odinterpe<fius&faciem cfl :Cuiuspars 

gg P"'orguttur,pofteriorgula .quantumcj:celliipj1u g 

-Mf cartibgjneumprioremobtineas fituro,voccm trail 

roittit,&hahtum,id artcrianominatnm cft , ar vero 




t »— ™,.».«i Lviiaiiuiiiuidiuui tii , «u vcro 

quantum interlus carncum fpins? pr.tiacct , gula dicitur . Pars 

autepo.tcriorcollicxtima.ceruixappellata cft.Partcs thora- 
cereiHisd!ipofirxharfunt:Thorax ij.iepartc priore,pofteric 

req;coltat:roo 5f acolIo,pcauspriorem obtinet fitum biparti- 
rom,fft mamma partcfui vtraq, extuberas.Mamis bxior cote 
xtuscorporiseft,iuaapapilla,pq« a foeminislac trafmiflum 

1 1 r ♦ 



b 4 clici 




l^ ARHTOT. DE ANlMAtlB- 

Lacitima cUcltur.In maribus ctiim lac ficri potcfhveriini caro i js fpifla 
tibtti* roulieribus fangof a,foraminulcntaque eft. 

J2cuentreiihftiTiortbKic[;,u>/q; adfeminalc mem- 

br*m. Capnt xiii, 

Entcr infra pc&us cft partc priore,eiusq$ radix vm 
bihcusfft : Cui radiciparsfubie&ainlatosvtrum- 
quc,iliadicitur.Quae autcm reftKubiugitur,fumcn 
eft.fiucabdornen : (Jnms poftrcmum , aquaticulus. 
Sedfuper vnbilicumhypochondriumeft , acartilagine,qua- 
fi fubcartilagiamdenominatum.Cauum autem communcfub 10 
cartilagij,* ilium,cholagoeft.Partem pofteriorem lumbi,pa- 
ri ftru&ura prxcingunt: vndc nomcn ofphys inditum eft.par- 
tis vcro excretorise^quodfubditum quafi ftragulum eft,nates 
appcllatur.In quo autcm femur verfatur,coxa,& acetabulum. 
Pars faemina: propria,vterus aut vulua eft< Maris^penis foras 
poft remo thorace propendcns,partc fui prima carne propemo 
dam conftans,& aequabili facie turbinata-nome aglande pars 
hxc mutuara eft,qua quarintegit cutte,vacatnomine:quj vul- 
ncreobdu&ocoalefcercnequit,ficut necgena:,aut palpebra: 
prajcifac reduci sd vnitatcm queunt:Totum tamen,quod ex ea Z(> 
cutegladeq; coftat,pra:potiu eft:reliquaparscartilagineacft, 
& augcri amplitcr poteft ,& ingredi,atquecgredicontra,quam 
iumentorum.S ubiacet membro genitali teftcs gemini,cute ob- 
duili>qnod fcrotum nominamus.Teftes ipfi dcc ciufdem natu- 
raefunr,cuiuscaro,necmultum 4carncdifsident:Scd qucmad- 
modum harc fc habcanr,ac omnino dc c^teris huiufmodi parti- 
bus,poftca accuratius difTeremus. 

Dcnarietate feminalk membri,mri,&* mutierif. 

Caput xi 1 1 r . 

Vlicris autem genitalecontra,quam viri formatum 30 

eft.Ouumcrim Jubditumpubieft^nonficut maris 

propenfum,acprominens.Ceruix ab vtero effertur» 

acceflum prolifico marisfemini prxbcns.Exitu hu- 

midiexcrementi fuofexus vterquegenitalihabetfubminiftra- 

dum. Communis colli 5 (X: pcctoris pars 5 iugulu eft.Cofta,bra- 

chij,&humeri,aIa.Femoris&im: vetris,inguen.Pars itcmin- 

terior femoris,<Srnatis c6munis,co]e$:extenor,fubnatalc/Tha 

racis iam parrcs omnes primorcs diximus. 




Z)c dorfo ,c*tcrpscfr partibus posierioribuf^ 

Caput X V. 



Dorfum 



IIBFK 1'RIMVsi 




Orfumpont-,peftus efbcuiuspartes fcapular,& fpi 

na,infraq; eregione vetris,lumbi habentur.Comu 
ncs autcm partisfuperioris,inferiorisq;,cofta:o&o- 

nife.Namdehominibusgentis turdulorum,quosf<i- 

ptenis coftis fcruntcreari,nulliusidonei autoris teftimomo 
coftat.H abet fane homo fuas partes ita difpoiitas,y < in eo & in 
perius fit,& prius,& inferias,& pofterius,& dextru,& fmiftru: 
Cdftat J-ntdextru&finiftruexfimilibusfer* partibus,atq; 
cifdem. Vcrum finiftra omniafuntimbecilliora.At poftcriora 

10 prioribas,& fuperiora infcrioribus difcrcpat:prarterqua quod 
inferiorafimilitudinemfuperiorum pra:ferre,eadixerim ra- 
tioncqua venter imus refponderc aitolct facici , in corpulen- 
tia,vel gracilitate:& crura cum brachijs communem incunt ra- 
tionem . Itaque quibas cubiti breucs,ijs ctiara femora,magna 
cxpartebreuiafunt:& quibaspedesexigui,ijsmanus quoque 
paru* haben tur ♦ Membri ver6 fuperioris bipartitam compa- 
ttionera,brachiam,fiue vlnam appellamusrcuius partcs,lacer- 
tus agihs,gibbcr,cubitus,manus:Partesmanus,palma,& digi- 
ti quinque numero: Digiti pars qua: fc infkclit,nodi.s fiuc arti 

20 cuJus efhqu* rigida conftat,internodium dicitur:Digitus pol 
Icx nuncu paros>vnoinfle&irarnodo:ca:tcri binis adducnntur. 
Inffexusver6,tumbrathij,tumdigitorum omnium agiturin 
lnterlora.Brachiumadgibberum appcllatum inflcclitur. No- 
dus quocum brachio manus iungitur, coartaturqae , brachiale 
vocamus.Parsinteriormanusvoladicitur.-carnoia cft,& fcif- 
iuris vitar indicibus diftincla: longioris fcilicct vitx,fingulis 
autbinisduaispertjtam^breuior/sbin^qux non longitudi- 
nem totam dcfignent . Exteriorneruofaeft,&nomine carens. 

Membninferiorisbipartitacomoacrio eruseft.Huius femur* 



*s 



quodlocum 



[cmino 



nor fura,caro neruof a,venosavc,a]ij$ retrafta 4 poplitc , qui- 
bus nates funt pleniOres.-alijs derrafta , quibus graciliorcs,Po- 

ftremumcrurismaileolusgcmtnusvtriquc partitus latericft. 
P«autem,quodmultipJicioileconftat:cuius pars poftcrior 
«Ix.prior diicreta in digitos quinque eft.-media plantae nomi- 
neexplicatuncuius quodcarnofum inferius , foJura attingif, 
Veitigium cft.qaod Juperius,pronam conficit partem , ncruo- 
>um,& n ominisadhucindigumeft . Hxretiummisdigitsvn- 
8««s,cS:nodas interucnit:icdnon nifi vno inflcxu .iddua.tirur. 

VSibusparilntcriorplantjenoncaua^cd ita plcniuignla cft, 

b 5 vtio 



%6 APxlSTOTE. pe aNimalib- 

vtfottim totoattingat vcftigio,ij verfutifunt,* frauduletlfL 
Communefcmoris,& tibi#,gcnupopIe«qaecft:partcs maris* 
acfceminae communes hse iunr:quarum fitus , qucmadmodum 
adfuperius,inferius,prius, pofterius,finiftrum,dcxtrum feha 
beat,tamctfi per corpor is fumma vifu exploratur,*c patct de- 
fcribcndus taracn is quoqucreciradusque eft,cadem slla de caa 

fa,qualuperioracnumerauimusomnia:fcilicetvt fcrics com- 
mentandi feructnr perpetua,dum ordine pcrfcquimuromniu, 
quo minus lateant ea,qua* non modo eodem homincs,quo car- 
teraanimaliapofsidcnr.Ergofuperiora inferioraquc hominc^ 
omnium maximcanimaliumhabere,rationclocoi um natura- 
licm intclligimus :cius cnira partes tara fuperiorft quam inie- . 
riores,adfitum orbis vniuerfi fupcriorem,inferioremque difpo 
fitx funt.Itktem qua? priores,poftcriore$quc,atque criam dc- 
xtrx,finiftr«quc habentar:chmc*tcroru<n animaliam gcnurf, 
vcl omnino rcfpcdxu ciuimodi careat,vcl confufius ita cSftct- 
Caput itaquc caetcris omnibus fuperiorcm obnnet fuum , cor- 
poris fui ratrone. At homo,quoni«Jm (vt mddo diximuOad vni- 
ucrfi orbis habltum inft itutus cft , idcxrco partcm etiam iftam 
habet refpondentcm partifublimi vniuerfi.Caput,ceruices,& 1« 
collum,excipiuttum pe<ftus&dorfum:altcrumprius, akcrum 
poftcriuseft.Subiacentijs vcntcr,& lumbi,genitalc,& natcs: 
moxfcmur,&tibia:poftrem6pcdcs.Crura veri antefledunt 
eodemfcilicetqui&inccduntPedisetiampars mobilior ce- 
dcm fcfleftit.Calx i tcrgo pofitus cft.Mal!coli,fitum imitan- 

turaurium:quippcquilatcratfncantimicruris 3 quomodoau- 
res iunaxlatcribuscapitn habe?.tur Brachraex latere corpo- 
xis finiftro,dextroque dependent,atqucfe introfleftunt : iu vt 
hominipotifsimumdeurxacrurum& brachiorum aduerfain- 
ter fcfint.Senfus autem^partesqaeeorum fenforias,oculos di- J* 
co,nares,linguam 3 codcm 5 fcilicctpriorcm in partcm , fpcftan- 

tcshabemus:atauditum-ciLisqnepartemfcnforiam , idcA aa- 

res,ihtcrc:codeminorbe,quooculos.Diftant ocoli hominis 
iibi intcruallo,proporfionc magnitRdinis rcipcdu aeterorom 

animalium,ininimo.Taflu, l> /cnfibushosiiniexquifnifsimus, 

dcindcgaftus:rel;quisfpcr.Kura mukis.Iranartes cxtcriorcs 



collocara;,arquedifpofua: funr,nominanturcj; pracipuc 
gnitarpcr vium,fuumq; euiJcnriorcm habciitin-. 

Otfn quibnt antmantiUm homims cerslrum, 

gxlj,ar:eri<i,0' ucntcrconue- 



,&co- 



mant. Cap. X\l, 

At VCti 





IIBERFRIMVS* 27 

T vcro iRterior es contra. Sunt enim hominum in 
primis incertae atque incognit». Quamobrera ad 
caetcrorumaniraaliam partes , quarum fimiles fint 
humana»,referentes,eas contemplari debeirus. Pri- 
mum igitur,cercbrum capitis priorera obtinetfitum,non mo- 
do in homine , veHim in csetcris ctiam animalibns , quibus ea 
pars data eft.Omnibus^aotein ijs eft, qux fanguinc obtinet,& 
ob cam rcm fanguinea appcllanturatque etiam qu£ mollia no 
tnine fpeciali nuncupanturrSed home plurimum cercbripro- 

lo portionemagm'tudinis,achumidifsimum habet.Continent id 
mcmbranseduseralteraoisi adhxrens,valida,altera ipfum ccre 
brum attingens,infirmior. Bipartitum omnium cerebr um eft, 
poftf cmumquc iungirar,quod cercbellum appellat«r:quod cer 
te & ta&u,& fpecieforraam habet diucrfam. Pars vcro poftc- 
riorcapitis,inanis 3 &cauaomnibus eft,prout in fingolis wa- 
gnitudine variaturrquibufdara enimcaput grandc,facies fub- 
ie&acapitiparua,vtquajrotunda funtfacieralijs caput par- 
uum,maxilla:lon2a:,velut generi omni iumentorum. Ccre- 
brum omnibus priuatum fanguine eft ,nec venam intra fc vl» 

iolam continct,& adtaflum frigidum pernaturam eftrhabet 
fuo in medio plcrifque omnibus cauum quoddam exiguum: 
membrana obhaereme venofa,cuticularique obducitur :oflc po« 
ftremo continetur tenuifsirao,infirmifsimoque omnium ca- 
pitis ofsiumrqui nome occipiti. Mcatus ab oculis tcrni ad ccre 
brumpertinent:ita vtmaximi&mediocrcs adcercbellu ten- 
dant,minitni ipfum cerebrum adcant. Minimi ij funt,qui pro- 
piores naribus oriuntur. Maximi porro illi sequi diftant,ncc 
vfquam coirepofiunt:Mcdiocrcscocunt:quopraecipue inge- 
ncrc pifcium patct:* cerebro funt i) prcpiores , qu3m magni. 

30 Minimiperquamlavointerfediftantintcruallo,& nunquam 
obeamrempofluntcoire. Gulaintracollumeft,ab anguftia 
& longitudinenuncupata ,cui comes arteria iungitur , prio- 
remobtinens fitum in omnibusijs,qu;ecam haberc naturx 
placuerat:Habcntautem omnia,quibuspulmo eft.Naturacar 
tilaginis arteria coftat ,«-fangainis prrquam e,:igui compos 
cft, venulis complcxa tcnuibus . Quod ad fuperiora,id eft oris 
habitum pcrtinet,crcgfone pofita eft foraminibus narium, 
quar in oris patefcunt ; vndcfit , vt quotics inter bibcndum 
humor retrahitur, cfflun ex ore per narcs . Iungitur lin- 
5ua.>poftremaNqu*ligula nominata eft , pofita interca,qu* 
modu dixi,foramma,vidclicet apta,qu*pcr viccs artcriae 

fora 




%S ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIB- 

foramentuno,quod ad o$ fpe&at,operiat. Arreria altcro fui cx~ 

trerao,cu lingua ima coniungttur,altcro ad puimonis intcrca- 

pedinem de/cendit,tum in vtram q$ finditur partem pulmonis. 

EfTc naq; bipartitus palmoomniurn cxpctit. Vcriim in iis,qu£ 

animal generant,diftin&ionon #que apparer,minimeq;in ho- 

mine.Eft prererea hominis pulmo fimplicior>nec ira mulrifi- 

das,vt nonnullorum animal procreanrin eft,nec leuisJcd in«- 

quabiliscft.atin ouiparo genere:vtauibus,& quadrapedihus* 

quorumpartasouiprimordioinchoarifolitus eft,pars altera 

palrooni» multum difcifla ab altcra eft,ita vt binos haberc pul 10 

mones videantur,atq; ?t fingulariarteria partes in vtrunqj pal 

monislatusdusedepcndent: Venx quoq; maiori,ac altcri,coi 

nomcn cft aort«,pulmo connc&itur. Spiritas vero quotics in- 

flarur arteria,cauafabitpulmonis.H2ec macronata lpecic car- 

tilagincisdiducunturcorpufculis,dcqaibns foramina quoquo 

verlus per diminutioncs arftioribus 7 iubindc ampliora cxcipie 

tibustranfmittuntur.Coretiam arteri^e iungttur,obefis,cartila 

gineis,fibrofi>q$ vinculis:& qua anneSitar,cauum cft . Spiri- 

tus dum arteria iriflatur,anfubeatcor,m/nusinnoniiulliN con 

ftctfcilicet minuti^:atingrandioribusanimalium,ipiritu cor iO 

iubire ipfumapertum eft. Arteriaita fehabet:&accipitdi,red- 

dcdfq;tantumodiipiritusofFiciofungitur:nihil ctcnim aliud 

vel ficcum,vel humidu pati ipfa videtur:fed vbi in ea rale quid 

deerraucrit, randiu torquetur,du excutiat quod dclapfum cft. 

Gula ab orc & ipfa dependet,continua tum fpin#,tum arterix 

nexafibrarum:<Srpericptumtranfueriumin v^ntrienlu finif, 

carnisfprciemrefcrcRs,&pariterdiftcridiin longum latumq/ 

habilis. Ventriculus autem humanus canino fimiiis eft :quippe 

quinonmultoampliorfit,quamintcftinum:fcd quafi intcfti- 

• nofimilisamplion\Tuminteftinufimplex ficxuofis orbibusjo 

cft,i quo proximum inteftinum admodum amplum.Aluus au- 

tcm ipfafuillx fimilis eft.quippe qu# & amplafit,* quod vf q; 

iniedcmporr;gitur,brcueid,corpuletamq, traimittat Ome- 

jLattcs red- tum medio a vcntrcdcpendet,quod non nifi pinguis membra- 

dtt Theod. naeft:ficutctiaminc;zteris animantibus,qii2e vnum continet 



quse 

fro mefente ventrem,& vtraq; parreorisdcntarafunt-Laftcs iupcrintcfti 
no. r^u,omo na pofiti funt,qui & ipfilatioreconftat membrana: & plngucf 
do auti rc-cunr.Pendentcxvenamaiorc,atq$ aorta, venasq; permul 
;i*/erwr ? «r/ffrcquenticoncurfudeferuntexparii!lo vcnarum grandiu ad 
*j*d Htrm* inteftina^ds fummis ad ima vfquc fpargentes.Gula,arteria, vc 
1 *um. ter ira fc habent. 



lras 






JDe 




LIBERPRIMVS 2 * 

dehomtntf f c£ter6rumq; animantium,& 
etus/ed: Cahut xvn. 



fuperius adartcri#niTuram,operrummembran£e in- 
uolacropingui,& corpulento,qua venje maiori adne- 
ftirur,# aorta:. Iungitur cum aorta fuo mucronato 
tarbine,inpeausq;parteeadem vergitomnium pariter,qu* 
peftus fortiantor. Omnibus vcro tam peaoreconftitutis, qua 
ea ipfa parte carentibus,cor jeque fuo mucrone in parrem ver- 

10 gitpriorem:verumlateref«piuspoteft,quoniaradiiTcao ani 
mate dimoueat ur:at parte fui ampliore,& gibba,foperiora cor- 

porisrcaat.Habctmaiorempartemfuimucroniscarnofain,& 



cjeteris 
flas 



ni tantu inpartemfiniftraro potius vergir,paoloa roammaru 

diitinctione ad laeuaro inclinans pa D illam,p C aoris partef upe. 

nore: nec magnu eft, & fpccie tota non oblongam, fed rotun- 

dms,parte tamcn extrema in acutam fe colHgit,exitq*; penb in 

mucronem Habet,vt mod6expofui,fmum triplicem:maximu 

*° dcxtro in latere,miniroam in nniftro,mediu magnitudine in- 

ter iimftrum & dextrum:oranes ad pulmone foraminibas per- 

uij reddantur:qua: res in vno tantu perfpicaa eft.Infcrius ve- 

ro a nexa iao,maximo fmu venxconiungitur maiori , ad qoa 

iactesetiam funt:finu autem mcdio aorra: annexum eft Qpjn- 

etiam ad I pulmonem meatus a cordeducantur perpetui,findun- 

torqj eodem,quo arteria,modo,in omnes pulmonis partes : & 

meatus,qui eodem ab arteria tcndunt,fequuntur. Ver um hi fa- 

penorem obtinent fifum,neq 5 vllo commani foramine ad illos 

3o XTn?"S ipfi CO P° lationc ^r.tom,qaero cordi tranf 

Z ttan n t,rcc, P mnt; Pwtinetenim alter ad cauuro dextrum,alter 



carrcris 



viuiparuminta^fomacconftituuntrnuippcqait 
iit ,& fungofi» ,ac riuulos vcns maioris fingulis fui 



totas inanis 



uis fiftulis cx- 



riniir i: „ * . Z- ^wiui^uiis 11115 JJUUllS CX- 

t anmr L r m ^ aiian i ainis vacuum pulroonem eflearbi 
S5S£f P ? hCCt C ?? ipCaa COrQm pdmonun^uosdi/- 
oermf?r Cnnf anima 1 l!DUS ' aUOfnm ^^6 efflait vni- 
rmDu?m7 namCXrC r liaU ! SvifcCribns " n g°»"em habct.Et 



bus 




jO ARXSTOTE.DE ANIMAUB. ' 

bas fanguincm tenet,verum tenuifsimum medio. Sub pulmo- 
nefeptum tranfucrfum pe&oris eft,qua: pracordia, & cin&u 
appelhnt,coftis,t& fubcartilagine;s,<Sr fpina» annexum,partc 
mediatenue,membrancaq;exiIitatccontextum. Venas etiam 

per fe continct porreft as S unt porro hominis venas craflk pro 

portionc humani corporis- 

jDeiecinore,henefdle 9 rentbtii & wfica. Caput xvin, 

Ecur fupra feptum pofitum a dcxtro latere eft . Lien 
alseuoasquHnomnibus^quaemembra ifta difpofita 
habentpernaturam,nonpr©dtgioic.Iamenim legt- 10 
timum illum locum in nonnuilis quadrupedum licne 
cum iecinore permutafic vifumeft. Verrilien anne&itur, qua 
omentum obducit-Eft hominis lienfuillo fimilis,fed fpecie an- 
gufta&longa.Iecurmagnaexparte,maximoq;animaliu nu- 
mero fellecaret:veru in nonnullis id habcre fibi adnexum vidc 
tur.R.otundum fccurhominiscft,acfimi!ebubulo« Fellispriua 
fionem vcl in vi&imisnonnunqurim pcrcipiccrtum eftrquip- 
pe cum parte quadam agri Chalcidici Euboiae fcl nullum pcco 
ri fitratin Naxo,omnibusferm£ quadrupedibus adeo grandc, 
vt qui facra fecerint aduense ftupefca t,rem fcilicet prodigij lo~ ^ 
cofibiarbitrantes,nontakmcffcnaturam tcrrasillius quadru- 
pedum. Iecor venae maiori adncxum eft,nulla ex partc aortarn 
attingenstvena cnim quse a maiore profkifcitur,iecur tranfi- 
git,qua portae appellata: iecoris habetur.Lien quoq; venae vni 
maiori adncxuscftrvenaenim indead lienem pertedir . Rcnes 
pofthajciuxta fpinamipfemadhaercnr,bubulisfimiles.Dextcr 
in omnibus,quibus funt renesanimalibus,fuperiorcm obtincf 
locum,minusq$ pirtguiobducitur,& ficcior eft:quod vel in om 
nibusxqucliqutdomanifeftatur. Pertinent ad renes meatus 
tamex vcna maiore,quam ex aorta,fednon adcauilrquod ahjjo 
amplius,ali j ar&ius fua mcdiapartecontinentrprjererquam in 
vitulon3arino,cuiusfancrencs,quamuis bubulis fimiles fint, 
tamen omnium folidifsimi vifuntur:Mcatus vcro qui c6 pcrti 
nent,omncs in rcnura corpus abfuraunturrcuius rei argumcn- 
tum eft,quod fanguinccarcnt,nec intra fc quicquat» concrcfcc 
rc oftendunt.Habent igirur,vt modo dixi,finum exiguu,& quo 
meatusduoinfigncs advcficamdcueniunt: alij ctiara cx aorta 
frcqucntcs,acvalidieodempcrtcndont.Exmedio autem renu 
fingulorum vense fingulx,caua»,neruofaedcpcndcnt,fpina prar- 
tercontes ipfara angufto itincre:tum in vtranq; abolcntur co- 

iuffl,acdenu6 ibi porrc&e apparcnt,demumq; In vcficam 

dciccn- 




30 



GIRITAE DEHISTO 

RU ANIMALIVM LIBER 



1 *• INTERUITE THEO- 

D <>R.O GAZA. 



*£' 




"ji^wnam conutntant,t» cputbusAam 
""dtftrant. Caput i. 

ae t e r o r v m animalium partes,ant com 

m cnesorcniumfunt,vt fuperiore voluroine 
ex plicatcmcft:actaliquorum generum prc- 



eswoea «- ^^ CD ° ,u P CriJ,s 6ia * m cft : quippe ciini 

fcn^ r ^*"* animaWa genere diaer fa , par- 
°* qaoque faaramplurimasfpeciedubcant diiwrfai : & 



I 



lIBER. SEGVNDVS» «{ 

defcendunt:ha:e enim ioco vltimo pofita eft , meatibus annexa 
ilhs porrcais a renibus adccruiccm, vnnarium producentem 
rocatum,& ferc circumundtqjextencatisin fibras membranu- 
iisproximis^uodammodu/cptoilJirranfoer/b pcftoris dcii- 

gata Eft profcclo vefica hominisproportione,quam carteroru, 
amplior. 

ntgtnttali mrmbrc, & ttfiihm : qutbtisut ccrporU partibut 

matafccmtnadtfftnttat. Capttt x i x. 

Enitale ceruici veficac adne&itur,foramine foras 6i^ 
rcdo pcruium,fcd paulo inferiuj altero intra candem 
firmitam conuiodcduclum.-quorum foraminum alte- 

Jc m a d teftes,alterumadvdicam,neruofum,cartila- 
gmoiurcq; tcdit.Teftcs cx eo maribus pcdctrde quibus poftei 

partium communi examine,quemadraodum fe habeant,diflcre 
mus.Hsc eodem mcdo vcl in icxu foeminco omnia natura con- 
icrmauir,atq j difpofuitrnulla cnim parte interiore iexos inrer 
le ditfcrunt,nifi vtero;cuiusforroa qualis nam fit,cx confeftio- 

wa • i ? i ° nCpctCndnm ' cx P caanduil! 4' ci i Situs eius ad 
inteitinainfraaluumipartepnorertum vciica iunfla iupri 
«nft™ m A ft ' Scddcvt< ™qu°q;paritcr omnibus diiTerendum 
poteaeft:Ncq;cnimfimilesdatiomnibnsiunt, nec forma fi- 

ZZT n » ri , vtCrUSC2rcrorum <l uo <l ; animalium vulua di 
tiU ' 1 fr'" nominii > tum interiores,turo exteriorcs , has, 
"'«q;,# ad hunc raodum haberi pcrfpedlum eft. 

ARISTOTELIS STA, 



aut 



*% Aft.ISTOTE.DE ANIMALIB. 

r 

ant proportione tanttim cafdcm,genere amem diuerfas:aut gc 

ncrctantumcaldem,fpecie autemdiuerfas.Suntetiam coplu- 

res,qu* aliis datx,ahis dencgats funt Ergo quadrupedes, qu# 

animal generant:caput,collum,& omnes capitis partcs fortiun 

tunvcrum ipfae fingulae partcs forma inter fc diffcrunt : Iatn 

Zeonts cer* leoniceruixoffe vnorigida conftat,necvertebru vllis iungi- 

mx uno offc tur.Interiora autem omnia canibus fimilia continentur Habet 

tompofita. qaadrupedes,quae animal generat,omncsq; vicc brachioru cru 

ra priora:fcd pr*ecipue,qu2e multifidae funt,hxmanibus fao di 
gitato pcdercipondcntrhoc enim ad plura quafi manu vtutur. lQ 
partcm etiam keuam minus qu&m homo abfolutam habent,& 
agilem:exceptoelephanto,quidigitos numcro quinq; indioi- 
fos,lcuiterq;difcretos,crura priora multo pofterioribus logio 

ra,& malleolos pofterioribus imis cruribus pofsidctihabet pras 
tcrc4 talcm tantamq; narcm,vtca manus vicc vtatur : quippc 
qui non «ifi ad os illam admouens,& bibat,& cdat:fuo ctiam rc 
ttori eam crigit,atquc offert,& arbores quoquccadcm proftcr- 
nit,& quoties immcrfus pcr aquam ingrcditur:ca ipfa edita in 
rbores na f u bi ini e,refl at,atque refpirat . Aduciufcula partc fui poftrcma, 

rr ^7^ r ^narisha?ccft,fcdflc(ainonpotcft:cartilagineacmm,<S: proin.20 
Elepbantus . d £ rigic j ia f cu j a eft.Solus etiam animalium homo ambidexter, 

hoc cft,dextcr manu vtraq; nafcitur . Pe&us animalia ©rania 
humano proportionatum pcftori habcrc vifuntur»ver um non 
fimilcrlatum cnim pe&us humanum eft,caetcra angufta: nullu 
cftenimquodprxterhomincmmammas partc gerat priore: 
Elephantus mammas duas quidem,fed ponin peftorchabet,fed 




Quad 



flcftunt 



habcnt 



uexacuruaturae crurum fuornm.Elcphas non,vt aliqui retulc- 
runt,agit:fcd confidcndo crura inflc&it:nequit tamcn prae ni- 
mio pondcrc,vtrunq; in latus sequilibrio quodam vcrgcrc:fcd 
aut lacuo incubat,aut dextro,atq; eo ipfo habitu requiefcit. Fl 
ftit hic ccrtc iuos poftcriorcs poplitcs modo hominis :at ouipa 
ris quadrupcdibus,vf crocodilo,Iacertar,«& reliquisgeneris ciuf 
dcm crura,tum pnora,mm ctiam poftcriora rctro flc&untur* 
pauluminlarus vcrgcntia: ncc fecbs in cxtcris multipedibus 
agitur,nifi quod medij pedes fubinde ambigai amplius in latus 
fle&ontur.Homo inflcxum membrorum fuorum eodem econ* 
trario agit:quippe qui brachiarctrorfum fic£tat,quaquam itt* 

Vtpaulum 



LIBER SECVNDVSt *3J 

\t paulliip vcrgant in latera extcriora,crura antt? contrahat rc 
&e. Sed qucdantctam priora-quini poftcriora inflc&at,nul~ 
lum cft.Omnibus vcro humeri,armiuec6tr&,quAm cubiti, aut 
crura priora fleftuntar.Coxae ctiam contra,qu&m (uffragtncs. 
C tim itaq ; homo contra,qu£m magna pars cx terorum anima- 
lium flc&at,fit 7 vt fi qua alia mcmbris huiufcemodi conftat , ca 
quoq; &contrario flcitanf.Aues ctia fuos infiexus firailes qua- 
drupedibusagunt.cruracnimqDjebina habcnt,tn pofteriora 
curuanr:alas,quas vicc brachioruro,aut crurum prioram obti- 
io ncntjinpriora.Vitulus marinustanqu&m laria,imperfe#aq$ 
' quadrupcs eftrqnippe qui continuo a icapnlis pcdcs habcat ma 
nibus fimilcs modo vrfe.In quinos emm finduntur digitos,qui 
fingnlitcrnis articalisfle&antur,& vnguibus muniantur non 
magnisrpcdcs quoq; poftcriorcs quinis diicretos digitis habet, 
& curuatura & vnguibus cum prirRis conucnicntes.vcrijm for- 
maproximospifcium caudis.Motus animalium quadrupediu 
acraultipedum,perdiametru agitur.quomodo fubfiftcrc etia 
folcnt. Initium autcm inccdcndi omnibus a dextris partibus. 
Gradiunturpedatimlconesz&genuscamclorum vtrunq; ,ba- 
10 ftrianum dico,atq; arabium.pcdatim incedit,clira pes finiftcr 
nontranfitdcxtrum^fedfubfequitur.Partesqaas homo habcf 
priorcs,quadrupedcs infra habcnt iupinasiquas autem illc po 
fteriorcs,hscpronas.Magnaitcm quadrupeduni pars caudan* 

habct:nam vimloquoqjmarino cauda incft , quamuis cxigua 
ceruimodo*Degcnercfimiarnm poftca diccmus . Omnia fcri 
quadrupeda,eaderaq; viuipara,funt pilofa:ncc hominis modo 
leaiaciTcnouimus.Homoccrtc paucifsimf5,exiguisq; intcgi- 
tur pil<s,nifi in capite,qua quidem partc hirtifsimus oninium 
ipiccft.C«tcris qu* pilis veftiuntur,partcs proaae pilofiores 
j funt,fupin«autghbra?omnino,aut mwhs pilofsc habcntur: 
athomocontr4 # Ciliumctiamhomini vtraq* in palpebra,& 
alxopp]er^pili s &pubes,quodc3etcris abcft:Carcnt cnim ci- 
liopalpebr^in%rionV;/edpaulo infcrius pili rari nonnullis 
cxeunt Jpforum autem quadrupcdumpilisinteaoru,alijs cor 
pcs totum eft hirtum,vt fui, vrfar,cani:ali js collum hirtius pari 
vndiq; modo,vt lconi,* rcliquis iubatis;alijs prona tantii cer- 
uicis,a capite ad fummos armos villi geruntur,vtcquo,vt mu- 
lo,<Sr rcliquis capronatis.-quo in generc bonafus,quoq; b fyluc 
ftnbus cornigeris cnumcrandus cft . Qmnetiam hippclaphus 
fatis mbj* fummis cotinet arrais,qui :i forma cqui & cerui,qua 
^brtc6pofita,nomeacccprt,quaficquiceruusdici meruiflct* 

c Nccnon 




34 AR.ISTOT. DE ANIMAIIB. 

Nccnonfera,qu_e & jpfaabequoHippardium nominafaefhca 
prenaspartcgcriteadem.Sed vtrunqjidgenus tenuilsimo iu- 
hx ordincicapite ad fumraos armos crinefcit.Propriu equlcer 
uo villus,qoi cius gutturi raodo barbce dependet. Gerit cornua 
Vtranq;,exccptafosminaeoaiceruini gencris.&nedes habctbi 



^*puH^4\ 



fulco$,Nagr_itudoequicemi non difssdet h. ceruo . Gignitur 

_. — -* JB _■ _ 9 __F 



*Jm*-k c^fi*i vrban.s,quamum interfues vrbanc_,<X: fylueftrcs intcreft Sut 

tzrui & ho- colorcatro,corporerobufto,riftulcuiteradunco,cornua geruf 
^ei/3»/ttf7?r«rclupinatiora.Equiceruocornuafuntcaprseproxiroa.Elephani(> 
»afckntxr. tus in quadrupedutn gencre hirtus minimc cft. Caudse ctia ani 

malrum piiicerporis modum imitantur,dummodc. cauda ncra 
aliqua au&ioredependeat:eft emmnonullis tam exigua,vt vix 
dignofci a fcnfupofsit.Camclus proprium inter ca:rcras qua- 
drupedcs habet in dorfo,quod tuber appdlant fcd ita, vt Ba- 
#rian# ab Arabijs difFcraut alterisenim bina , slteris fingul j 
tuberahabw-ntur.S unt etiam omnibu* fingula parte ima, quale 
indorfo tubera,quibusincubatreliquumcorpUN, & firmetur, 
quoties in genuainclinantur.Papilla. quataor modo vacca. ha 
bctcamelus,caud^mafmofimilem,genitaleretr6 gcnua fingu-3 
la in fingulfs cmribus funt,& flexus artuum,non vt quida per- 
hibcm plures fed propter ajui ijnterualJum plurcs r flc vidctur: 
habct ctia talum fimilem bubulo.cIju.es proportionc magnim 
dinis paruos Bifolcum idammal eft,ncc vtrinq;denratc-m:fed 
bifulcum fic eft,vt pc$ partc fuperiorcfciiTus paululu fit ad fic 
jcumdigitifccundumpartea[;rcmpnorcfumma,quadriparti- 

<* _-_ l* * - - I • /"_ • ■ ■#__ _____ 



tofindaturdifcrimincparuo,quanti3primd(enus diglri tnfi 



©- 



iectum conte_cat:Prc v 



_, _.__- — ... ...^, -j_._.___. *._._.- 

lacasqa_epercxercitumlongiore itinerc fatifcunt ^calccantj^ 
carbatinis Omnium quadropedum crura oiTc ncrcoq; abudat, 
i_iri__»___£rt__-_. Quinetianullum,quo<teedibus c6fter, exccpto 



homincpedcs haberecarnofcs perfpcfifi cft.qpxaru ctiamcar 
nc exuberante^in cluncs yacant,qucd in generc auium confpi- 
ci apertius poteftrat homo contr4:quippe qui nellam fcr* fui 
corporfc pajtcm tam carnofam habcat,qt am natcsfemora, ti- 

bias qua5cnimfurasvocamus,nonificarnisccpia,partc tibte 
pofteriorecomplcntur.Qiiadrupedii autcm quseianguinecon 
ftant^c^dcmq^animal ^cneranr,a]ia_ multifidcefunt,quaIcsho 

minismaiius,pcde_qihabcr.tur.funter:im quar multiplici t pc- 
duir. fifiQradigitcntur,vtcan$s,leo.par*thcra alia: bifulcse funt, 

_■ 



q- 



:X 



IIBEK SECYNDVS. JJ 



€jux forclpem pro vngul 
titatilcs aiice infiiTo funt t 



^pnd llly 

ri/ic rvi P£0 



partepriorcpo. nia funtfi 



to habct.Sunt itS animantm^alia cornigera, alia matila : quae 
cornua gerur t bifulcamagr»aex partc pernatura funt, vtbos, 
ccruus>capn:quod aute ide & folfpes,& bicorr.c fit , nollu eft, 

10 quod nos adhucnorimus:atfolipcs,ideroq$ vnicorne eft,quan 
quamrarti,vtafmus Indxcus Iilccnim& vnicorms,<5: iclipes 
.cft.Vnicornisvero,idcnK];b5fulcusoryxcft.TaIu etia afinus 
illc Indicus folus in folipedu generepefsidct.Scs en:m,vt mo- 
d&dixi,ambiguu$ eftrquo fitetia,vttalo carestprobiore. Pcr- 
multa cx bifclcoru numero talu habet:at vero multifidu nullu 
adhuc talu ciufmodi habere cognitu cft,vt nc homine quide ha 
bere ccrtu cft -Scd lynci fcmitalofiroilc gddarleoni aut tortuo- 
fum inanfraftu cft,qnalcefFingurOmnia vero quibusdar*cft 
talus,cruribus cu pofterioribus c6tincr,ira vt erei^us in fuffira 

io g f *nc parte fui pronaforas/upina introrfum fpcdct,& qu*e vc 
ncres vccantur,intus aducrfe fibipofir^iint:quaccancs,foris; 
qus» attcnnscjfuprA habratur.Sitas taloru ommu taliscft . Sut 
n6nuIla,quatfimolbifalcafint,cSriaba habeant,&cornua bina, 
orbc inflexu mutuo co]J:geCia gerat, vt bonafus,qai in Pxcnia 



fify 



Q^ 



ninoqi.iadrupcdaclll-ccrcu eft>nifiqu.dper traflationecornu 
haberc dkatunqucadmcdu Aegyptij de colubrisThebanis pcr- 
hibent 3 quafi aiiquid illis vcluti veftigiu cornuextut 



exiuDcret.Ccr- 

luoda tc- 



_^ 9 ^_ _ . ^__ — _ _ , w _ __ __ — — 

30 nns,& tnucroncden_uc6creata font. Pars caua ex cutc potius 

ririm*» /t**'\«~i /U1: J-l __« 1 1- rr __«■■_ _ /v*_ .__. __Jf ___*_£ _. __ _-_>:___ 



>*r< 



:o€orima 



nuaomnibus annis decMaa,imtiq _bimata : caetcris perpctua, 
nifi per vim aliqua amitf ant.Mammas itc haberi varii. certum 
cftrnam & inter lc,ipfe qaadrupcdcs,* ab hominc mammartE 
d;ffcrunt rationcIVlcmbrorumctiamqaxad vencreu coitura 
mmodatahabentur,d(fcrimcnplantcft.ratet ratio varia 



accom 



mammarumrcumalijsmammxpartc pxiorc,hoc cft > in pc- 
ftore,autiuxta peftusfint binse , bin/sque papillis , vt horai- 
*Uvt clephanto fub armis diut,tam mari, quana faemin^ 
pcrqucim cxiguse,ncc pro corporis vaftitatc,ira vt cas ~ la- 



c % tttc 



j£ ARl5TOTE«DE /NIMALIB. 

tere cofpicerc propemodu ne qneas. Vrfae mammas habet qna- 
ternas. Alijs tnama* inter facminas binae,papilla?cj; bina?,vt oui 
bus:alij$ papillae quaterna?,vt vaccisrquibnfdam nec in pcfto- 



reoicc in farminibgi mimmxjcd in ventrc habcntur,& quide 



plures,veru non otTmesparej,vtcanibu$,vtfuibusCum itaq; 
carteraidgcnuj>habeatplures,panthcrxquaternas vcntre mc- 
diogerant:Camelns qacq^invcntrcmammasduascum papil 
lis qriatuorhabct,vtbos.Lc£nactiam duas in vcntrc Manbus 
folipedis gcncris nullae funt mammse , nifx ijs,qui matri fimi- 
lc$produrunt:quodinequorumgencrecucnir. Gcnitalc ma-10 
riu alijs foris cft,vt homi«i,equo,& alijs multis:a}ijs intus , vt 
% dclphino,quibus foris eft,ijs aut antc habctur»vt homini,* rc- 
liquis qua? mod6divi,autrctro:quinettam ijs^quxantc gcrut " 
aut * penis,& tertcs abfoluti pendent,vthotpini:aut aluo adhc 
rcnt,S aut plus,aut minits abfoluuntur:non cnim paritcr apro, 



men 



lecqaofimilchabet.fedparau«r»:necpro corpons magnitudi- 
ne:teftes idem non foris confpicuos,fed intuscirca rencs con- 
d;toshabet.H]Qocircainimmceleriusagit.Alijsitaq$ tcftcs ab«* 
foltit*,vt cquo^alijsnon abfoIuii,vtapro.Su$foerriina,genira-20 
lc ca confinet parte,qua pecoris vbera habentur:& cum per libi 
diftero turget,ac prurir ad coitum,furfuro tantifper hoc retra- 

h t,vertitqsfora$,vnndcmaricoit 9 fit facilior:rcfciflumidlo 
geprodictius^dchifcensafnpliuscft.Gcnitalc maxima ani# 
majiu pa* tc ira fc habet.NonulIa cx auerfo mingunt , vt ly nx* 

lco,camelus,lcpus.MarcsigituritaintcrfcdiJcrcpant,vtexpo 
liiumcihtosrnina» omnesex auerfo mrngunr: quippc cxl etia 

foemiaaelephantcrugenitale,vt C£ter«e,interfemora habeat. 



numero 



iagino(um,carnofunQcj;cft,vt hoir.jni.-qood vt partc carnofa jo' 

inflarincqait 3 ficcartilaginofaintumefcit,excrclcirq5:alijsncr 
u^fum,vtC3mclo,vtccruo:a3ijsofTeum,vtlupo,vulpi, muftc- 
l*,i#idi,ldcft muftelac ruftioe , quam viuerram interprctor: 
nam is qu iq 5 ofleum gerit. Ad hxchomo ciim ad iufta increire 
ta pcruerjit,partem fuperiorem habet minorem qu&m inferio- 
rem,contra atq; cxtera ammalia,qus/anguineconftcnt.Partc 
fupcriorem inrelligivolo,quantiimdccapitcad cam pertedit 
parrem,qua cxitus patet excremcntls.inferiorcm autera,quaii- 

t?jmabeaipiafubfcquiturrcliquomcorporij.Animalibuscr- 
g^,iuiepcdibusinnitinaturavoJuir,crura poftcriora partem 



Q-f 



quicq 



uid 



t I B £ R SSCVNDVS. 



qo,cqaidyicecand*Ximdcq;habctur,proparte fnfcrfore e& 
Talcsperfcctis iara incrcmenris animanteseuadum: Dijcrime 
autemincreicendoefl.Homoenim prius quam adultior fit, 
partem fuperiorem corporis habet maiorcm, qidm inf.riorc: 



r 



i 



a>ratem 



Qns 



docodemin g rcdiiolct,infirmaadhu C «ate,Quoiamfnma in- „,„, r „. 

gred l tur:fcdprimumdum i nf,nscft,quadru P esrc P tat,dc,ude f ' *T** 
«engit,bibe S q;inccdir.Suntquxex P ro P oiti»ne incremcn- 6 
lota p aitisvtriuiq ;c apcrefoJcant,vrc^i:s: nonnulla pnmum 
• partt iupcnore minora funr,pofr maiora cum creuerd.r , eade 



# *yigma* 



mincn 



ttiusreddirQreap ar re,qusabvnguiaadciunem porrctfa cfr. 
-Jentcs et.am ca-rcrorum animahum multi P lici d^fierenna, m 

inter^tumhominisrationecuarianr.Habentenimdcn.cora 
nia,qua:qa 3 dru P eda,fangui nca , quxvilJi p ara f U nt,kd vari*: 

lunt enim alia vtrinq; dentara,alia altero denrium ordme ca- 
«iit.-Qnjt cnim cornua gerunr,hsec non dctata vtrinqoe funt : 
qu. PP c qu* P riraoribus maxilla: fuperioiis carcant dcnu- 
*o &as:Qu f nqaamfuntnonnuIl3,qu«&corn l bu S vacct,_c vtrin 
quedcntatanonfinr,vtcamcli.Item al.adcntcs habent e_er- 
tos,vchita P cr:aliaf,neijs funt: Et ah js dcntes fcrrati , vt leo- 

« P anthcr X ,cani:al.jscontinui,vtequo,vtbcui.Snntenim de 
i Dusicrratis,quoru.nfcricsacutorum dcntium mutua infcr- 

«im^cornuhabcatmnliumelt.-necvcroqucdfimul & fcrra- 
ns dcnr.bus hr,* alt,rutrum habeat illorum.hoc cfl vel cc rnu, 

interiorTnbnrv' Pr t ,ir0rCSniaXirnaCX f artC habct acotOS ' 
Jo neri \*hS,?1 *™ $ ' Vttlilas ****>»* ferrathcmnibmcft,vt °e- 

Zt-scT afF,nis: P 1,Cib ^ *>** fei ommbus krrari iunt „ , 
nullumnc^ 

^^^^?"^ 1 "**^ C*fi»cr__* '* «*• W 

Sf 3 ^"^^ 111 ' 1 ^^^ 11 '-^ mant.chore, *" *'"* 

Pion s molT rCS h a ° mmis ^^V co!or rob.-i^canda icor 
Su f C r rCftnS JCU eo «"Wpfcniaq; agnara t*ol5s, 

appcnturn U ' i,rCr,taS,anra ' Vr nunt ^ I*-* milcicerc, 

»o Homl 'n m <]UibUkiam a,ijS ^^'^'bu-svtequo^u^fi- 
«om,ni prunoreJmuta!2tur . Mi(xii]arcs 3utc ; n ^ ^ 

c j maj 



38 



AK.I5TOTE.DE ANIMALIB. 

mal mutat S us,nullum omnino dcntcm amittir. 

' ^n eanes mutent dentes^avue modo uetufitores a recentiorihuf 

dignofcantur* C<*pnt i i. 

jEcanibasdiucrfafcntcntiacft,qu!ppccum alij nul- 

lam ijs dcciderc dcntcm opinentur,alij cahroqi tan- 

tumappellatosniurare velinr,quosetiam homo amit 

titivcrutnlioclaterc,proptcrca,quianon ante mu- 

tant,qulm pares intus enafcamurquod ide vel jn C&teril fcili 

cet ieris eacnire vcrifimile cft.Ec quidcm caninos tant usn ir,u- 




tare pcrhibentur. Aeras vctuftiorum,receiitiorun:>q;canu dt> 10 
tibus iudicatur .Iuucnibus enim dentes candidi,& acuti ; artate 

proae£te,nigri,ob(ufiq>. ^ 

£>entes eq^orum infeneclute txniidiores fieri 7 pfareu'y t m.ircs, 



f< 



C*Put i i r 



A Gitarcer 
/~icnimcxt 



rcs rcdduntur.Pianos ab acurisdnlerminant,quicariini appcl- 

lantur,form# vtrorunq* participcs^qaippe qui in£ra latiuicu- 

li,fiipra acutiufculi fint.Maribus dentesplures quam foemini*, 
vtingciiereh3niin!3m,ouium,faum,caprarumpatenf.Inc5:te'20 

ris nondum cxpioratttm cft.Quibus plures,ha?e viuaciora ma- 
giaex partefant:quibuspauctores&rariorc3>hxc magna cx 



partc vitx funt breuicris. 



<fi- 



» 



dcntes gigni* Caput i 1 1 I. 

HOmlni nouifsimi maxillarcs,quos gcnuinos vocamus,clr 
jiter vicdi mam annara gignuntur,c4: viris&mulieribas: 



ma- 



xillircsilUnouifsiminonli^cdolorcexterunt viris qaoqj ide 
eucnificaccepimusiquod certi i) accidit, quibus in iuuentutc j^ 

ipfi gcnuini nati non faerirt. 
ElephanMmartsifamiflhdiftarei» ordine dentiZ- Capnt v. 

ELepharitodetes vtrinq; quataor,quibascaScitcibu 5 atqac 
mfinnxfpecicmolit.Duo prxteica prorainet grandes, 
quos rriares gradores,rcfimatosc) habt-t freminx minores ,& 
contra quaxn mar-s:v?rgut enitndcoriurr,,proniq;dei*iat. S* a 
tim cum natus eft elcphantus dcntes habct.q janquam grandes 
iilos,non illicd perfpicaos obrincf. 




Ex'vjuame\\e tliphantis hnguam, 

ngaam perquam cxieuam habcuarc 



CitpHt v r. 



pcrquam cxiguam habet*arque iotcrius pofitam 



joam in c^tcrlb fir,ita vt vix cam vidcrc pofsis. 



O K* 




IIBE*. SECVNDVS^ JJ 

o HtdnimdHain orisTn4gnituiinedifcTcp€n\ 9 ih!tp(!eeqtt0 

flimiatili^fegyvtic!* Cahut v i t. * 

Risetism magmtudinedifcrimen exifterc aniroali- 
busplanu-cA.alijsenim osrdcifTum , vt cani,leoni, 
deniq;omnibusquibusdcntcsferratf: alijsparuum* 



vt homIni:alijs mcdiocrc,Vt gcneri fuum, equo flu- 
uiatili 3 qucm gignit Aegyptus,iubacqui,vngula qualis bubus» 
roftrum rcfimum: Talus etiam ineft biiuicorum modo, dentcs 




exerti,fed lcuiter,cauda apri. Vox equiYraagnitodo afini, ter- 
20 goriscrafsitudo tanta,vt cx co vcnabula faciantanterioraora- 
nia,equi Sc afini fimilia. 

£>* genere fimtaru>m>quodpartim hetnincm,partim . 

qnadrupeiesimttatHr. Caput vtiu , , 

SVntqax naturaancipitc, partimhomincra, partim qna- ******* &f 
dropedem imitenmr,vclut fimif ,ca:bi,canicipitcs:iiccnim T******f&* 
cynocephalosappelIo.Ca-bus,fimiagcrcnscaudamcft- Cani- c$a * 
ccps ctiam cadcm forma,qua fimia cft,fed maior,validiorqs,<fe 
faciecaninarfimilior, Vndc&nomen acccpit: " ~ '* 

ferocioribus eft,&denterobaftiore, caninoqucpropiorc* Si- 



s 



adhrc moribus 



2 ° m \« ^^partcfnicorrorispronapilofaeft.vtporcquadropcs 
quamiupina,vtipccicm gcrcns hominis:quicontra,atq;qua- 
drupcdes,obtinct pilum,vr difom iam cft : fed crafsiorc pilo fi- 
mia: vcftinntur,longcq 5 hirtiores partc vtraquc funt : conae- 
niunr cum hominc plurimum fua facicquippe qua: nares, au* 
rcs,dcntcs,tampriinorcs,qu4m maxillareshominismorc ha- 
bcant Ciliura ctiam cum caetcra: qaadrupcdcs non in vrraquc 
palpcbra habeant,fimi;r habent, quanquam prartcr.ue ac proli 
X!us,potifsimu in inferiort:c£tcr* cnim quadrupedes itifcrio 
rib»Jscarctcilijs.Habcr fimixin peaorcbinas mamaru papil- 

jo Ias,i brachia hols modo/cd hirtiufcula,q & ipfa,& pedes vt ho 
rao inftcaut,hoc eft,ita vt circuferetix mtbroru vtroruq; ob- 
uerte intcrfe addacatur.Ad hxc manus,digitos ,vngneshofni- 



ni fimilcs,veru oia rudiora,cfferaciorac;. Tcdcsiui generis ha 
b;t:funtcih velutmamis maiufcul^,&d?2itis vt fr.anuscoftat 



mcdiolongiorc.Veftigiom etiam iranoifimileeft,nlfj quodin 
longum ie porrigit,* voiam referens tendatad poftrema: 
CalJofius hoc alteraiuipartcextremaeft,&ca!cem inepte, 
atqueejtilirer imitarnr. Pcdnm officiam dupfex cft : ijs enira 
& vt pedibnr ,& vt mambas vtuntur,inr1eclantque eofde.per- 
indeacmanos. Lacerros&femora habcnt brema proport io- 
nccuwtorum & tibiamm.Vmbilicum,ijui emineat,nullu ha- 

c 4 bent: 






40 ARI UOTE. DE A NlM AI IB. 

kcnt:feddurum quiddam continctur loco vmbilici.Partem cor 

poris fuperiorcm multo raaiorcm habent,quam inferiore, vi- 

dclicttraorequadrupedum : quinarijenim fcreadternariutn 

rationeconftant. Dcgcncrant ergo,tum ca dc cauia,tum ctiam 

quod pcdcs manibus habcant fimilcs,(Sr quafi cx manu, pedeq; 

conftitutos.Calcisenim poftreraum ad pedcm,rcliqua! autcm 

particula: ad tnanum facil£ rcfr runtur.digiti nanqj vol# fpc- 

cicm gcrunt.Dcgunt plua tcmporis prona*quadiupcdti more* 

quam ere&e» Carent nat!bus,vtpotcquadrupedes. Priuatx 

caudafunt,vtpotebipcdes.Exiguaenimomninocauda ineft,i* 

quatenus nora folum habeatur.Gcnitalc ctiam foemina: raulie 

riseft:maripotiuscanis,quam hominis. 

Decthi*. Caput XX. 

Aebifvt fupcrius dixi)omnes candam habcnr. Partcs ve- 

r6 intcriorcs humanisfimiles, gcacra hxe omniaconti- 

ncntiPartcs ajiimalium viuiparorum cxteriorcs ita fc habcnt 

Vtuipara quadrupeja cjuilw cnm CdterU quadrupedibxs 
connentant y & dijfentiant* Capttt 

II Vadrupcdes,qux ouapariunt,eardemq;fanguinenud 
habcnt (Terreftie autcra ac fanguinisparticcps nul 





lum ouaacdit,quin idcm aut quadrupcs fit,aut pcdi- 
bus carcat omnino) omncs caput, collum, dorf ura» 
pronaatqucfupinacorporispofsidcnt : pcdcsetiam priorc«t 
pofterioresq$,& quodpcdtori proportionctur, modS viuipari 
quadrupcdum gcncris.Caudam quoquc habcnt longiorcm,ex 
ccptis paucis.Scd hscc omnia pcdcs in plurcs digitos habtt di- 
fcretosAdha:c,omnibus his icnfus totidcm,quotcaeteris qua- 
drupcdibusfunt:<S:linguaomnibus dataeft,cxccpto,que Acgy 
ptusfcrt r crocoddlo:nam ille fimilis quibufdam piicibus eft.3 
Chmenjm pifccs oranino fpineam ncc abfolutara contincnt 
lmguam,tum vel maxim& nonnulli adebleuem indj/crctumqj 
cumjpfum linguac tributum locum fortiuntur,vtnifi admodu 
l*brudiduxcris,nc vcftigium quidcm linguac infpicercqucas. 
A uriculis tamcn hxc o rcnia carent,racatusquc tantum habent 
audicndi Carentctiam mammis.Nccgenitalc,autteftcsforis 
obtincntraaaifcftos,fcdintusconditos. Nccpilo,fed corticc 
oraniate&afunt.Dcntibasetiara/crratis funt omnia. Croco- 
dilo fluuiat ili oculi lunt iuis, dcntcs magni, cxertique, vrgucs 
robuftj,cutiscorticofa,contraomncm i&uminm&a, vifus in 

aquahcbcs,cxtraaccrrin 4 usDics itaque intcrrapartc maxi- 

ma 




LIBER SECVN&VS. 41 

ma agit>no3:es in aqua tcmporis ratione:tcpidiorem cnim a- 
quam expcritar,quam aercm. 

r>ecbd.mileontiCrtitKcnmc*teT'MfimiUth<lin€. Caput xl. 

Hamadcon figuratotiuscorporis laccrtam planc rc 
praefentat.Latcradcorium du&a vcntri innguntur, 
vt pticibus: # fpina modo pifciam cminct : roftrum 
fimije porcarise fimilimum,cauda pra^onga,in tcnue 
dciincns,& longis impiicata in fe orbibas lori modo pcrmultis, 
Elatior & terraeft,quam lacertarinflexoscrurum pcrindcvt la 

loccrtjc.pedesfingulibipartitofccantur,p«rtcsqactalem mtcr fc 
habcnt fitum, qualcm pollex ad manus reliqaam partcm obic 
ftunv Scd ipfae ctia rcliquae partcs paolotcnus in digitos quof- 
dam hnduntur: vidclicet primores, triplici fiflura intcrius>da- 
plici exterias:pofteriorcs intcrias duplici, ex tcrius triplici. 
Vnguiculi adunci.Corpus afperutn totum,vt crocodilo. Ocu* 
li in rcceflu caao intus rcccpti,prflcgrandcs,rotundi. cutcfimi- 
li,atqus rcliquum corpus obdu&t,media fui parte pcrqua cxi- 
guadetc£ti,qua videant.Qua; quidcm vidcndi fcdcs nunqaaai 
cutc operittfcsnecpupilla! motu,fcd totias oculi vcrfationc in 

loorbtm mutationemquc quoquovcrfns afpicit,quae vclir. Ma- 
tatfuum colorcm inflatus.Vcrum & niger non longedifsimi- 
liscrocodilocft,Apallidus,vt laccrtacmaculisdiftindus, vt 
pardus nigris . M utatur color toto in corpore, nam Sc oculi co 
colorcsrdiquo corporiredduntur, & cauda cundcm colorera 
accipit . Motus ci pigcr admodum,vt tcftudinis cft:pallcfcit cii 
moritundefunttusquc colorcm cundcm fcruat, Gulam atque 
artcriam fitu eodcm continet,quo laccrta:camcm nufqua nifi 
in capite & maxillis># poftremo caud* admodum exigua pof 
fidetmcc ahbi fanguioctn qu4m in cordc,<fc oculis,& loco a cor 

30 de fuperiorci venulishinc tcndenfibus. Vcrhm nccin ]s qui 
dcmvllacopiaJcdpauxillumhabctur ianguints. Ccrcbrum 
paul6fupcriasocuIispofirumeft,<Srpropcijscontisuum.Ca 
icaatem exterioredcrra&a oculis,quiddam luccns vcluti anu- 

lus^neustenuis,nullapclle interceptus cing-t. Membrsn* 
m omnis ferc corpoi is partes multar, ac valktar, longcque fir- 
nnorcs quam in csteris,tcndunt . DilTcftus hic torus f pirarc 
P r ^ readiu P°tcft,motuada:odum cxiguo adhuccrca cor- 
is Jedcm extantc. Et cum oranes corpori* parres CODfrah t, tu 

vci ^aximccoftascogercatqaeadduccrepotcft.LicneiTi con, 
ipicuum nufqu 4mconrin<:r . Subit caycrnaS|A Juiut morc i a- 

c j Dc 






4* ARISTOT» DE ANIMALIB. 

Z>e auinm nat'Ara,0* qmbut citm c&terit terr& itnxmanlihu* 

ccnueniant. Captit xii. 



Dt Mfibtts. Iftt^-wh i N auibos etia partes nonnul la; fimilitcr, atq; in ijs* 




II quae rxpokri 5 animalibus habentur Omnibus cnitrt 
,, caput incft,& coilun) a & dorfum,<Sr fupir.a pars cor 

poris,& quodpetfori proportonctur.Cruraetiam 

bina honiinis modo, icd qua: in aaeriaro fleftantur, codem ri- 
tu,quo quadrupedes faciunt,vt diftum iam cft . Carcnt mani- 
bus,pcdibusque prioribus.Pcculiarcintcrcartcra ammalia 2- 
las poisidcnt^cluncmfcmorilimikm^ongiorcm^ventrcmQ; i& 

mediotcnusporredum,cohaiioncperpetna,ita vtipfum di- 
uulfum femur eflc videatur,(cdenim fcmur partcaliaiun&um 

tibteeft.Suntfcmorafancmaximaijsaaibus, qurvngues ha 
bent aduncos,& pe&us,quim ca:tcris robuftius. Copia omai- 
hm auibus vnguiarp cft. Multifidae ctiam omncs quedamcdo 
funt,quippe cum pars maxima digitata irt, & nantes q^atncis 
planipede:,,tamen & ipfcdigitos pcrfe&os, diftin£osque ha- 

bcannOmiHbus^quciccffcrunt^quatcrnidigitidati^ont^ter- 
ni inpriorcpartc,finguli inpofteriore, maximaexpartepro 

calcc.paucis quibufdam vtrinqac bini, vt auicuk*, quam iyn-23 
gcm vocant.Ha:cpaulumaior,quamfrtngiila cft, colorc va~ 



itorum 



inzuam 



uraqaatuordigitorum porrigat, rurfumq; contrahat 
ftram.Coliu ctia circuagit in auerium, reliquo qutc- 



ne mcniu 
intra ro 

iccnte corporc,modo fcrpemu: vnde torquiila vulgo appclla 
taeft,quaquamturbo ab antiquis. Vngucs ei grandes,&fimi- 
les vt moncdulis cxeunt: voce autem &ri<ict. Os fibi proprium 
volucrcs pofsidetmcn cnim labra,non dcntcs, fcd roftrom ha- 
bcnt.Aariculisctiamcarcnt &naribus,roeatmqae odorandi ?c 
i;i roftro continent,audiendi in capite . Oculi omnibus,ficot 
cxteris animalibns bini 5 finc cili js.Grauknes palpcbra inferio 
rcconniucnt.Niftantur omncs abanguio obcunte merabrana. 

Atvcro,qua:fpecifrmnoQargcrunt,i'ipcriorc criam palpe- 
bra conniucnt.Hoc idemcortrceintcmanimalia quoque fa- 
ciuntjVtiaccrt^j^rcliquigcncrisciuidcm. Conmucnt cnim 
palpcbra infcriorc omnia,qaanquamnonmorcaaiam ni&a- 
tur.Volucrcs itcm non piii;,(cd iquama:non corriccfcd pen- 

msteguntur.Pcnnceomncscaulcconftant. Cauda ctiarotali* 
qualisdats quadrupcdibuscft,volucrcs carent:icdpenni5C<m 

ditara gcrunr.brcuem, qux longipcdcs, acplanipedes iunt: 
i mai<> 



LXBER SECVNDVSt 



41 



maiorern aatem,qaa: ccontrario conftant, qoa? vcl contra&is 
ad yentrem pcdibus volSt,cum ills candarpofilla; gerulx, por 
recUsincaadamcruribus fcrantur. Lingua ornnjbus cft, fcd 
varic:alijsenimlonga,alijsbrcuis,alijs iata, alijsafigufta. 
Oroniummaxim£animaliam pofthominem literas profcr- QufavesU* 
renonnullaauium gcncra queunt,videlicet ca prxcipuc, qui- ttr&sprcfcr* 



Qimmiuram,nonum cx ijs 5 qna: ouapariunt,lupcnrapoiitara 
fiiae arteriarcontinet:fed mcatum ipfum modotrahunt, modo 
laxant, profuicoramodxdcfiderio:atcjue itacffictrur,nequid 
pondcris in palmoncm deiabatur. Sunt nonnalla ex aaibus gc 
ncra, quibus natura calcar ctiam dcdcrit : fcd nolli datum hoc 
eft,cui vngucsaduncifint. Volacesporro notantqr,qux vn- 
gues habenr aduncosccalcarigerx, qux* pxasfua grauitatc fint 
ad volandum incptiores. Adhxc,auiumnonnulliscriftaad- 
dttaeft:quamcum c^tcra: pennarum cmincntia quadam cx- 
tra&amgcrant,gallinaccusvmis pccoliarem fibi lortitus cft; 
fic cnim inftituia»,vt nec caxo fit, ncc anatura carnis omni- 
no alicna. 



ofi 



ao 



tfclHm 3 eiteo; difft 
Caput xiii. 



Ifcium gcnus intcr ca,qux quas incolanf,vnom dt 
ftingai i carttris iurepotcft, cam forma cuariet na 
merofiore.Habct id caput,&prona,& fupina. Partc 
k^g^xljj qua ventcr>&vifccracontinentur,fupinahabct:cau 

<ura continua,indiuifam<3i partc gcrit pofteriore var&Pifc.u 
nolli ceruix,nulii manas,aut pcdes,nulli tcftcs,nolli mamma:. 




r> 



Scd mamaca:tcris quoq; ncgata eft omnibas, qax animal nc- 
jaeat generare.Ncc vero viuiparis omnino data cft, fed i js ta 
tum qux protinus Intra ic animal format,ncc prirau ouu,dcin 
^3nimal.Vndcfit,vtdclphinusetiamaramas habeaf.animal 
cui cocipit ilhco,& crcat. C5tinet hic faas mamss n5 partcfu 



«uas h.oct,{ed vdatalaeolosquofdahamorisduos, vtroq,;dc 
iatcrc hngpbtij. quuV lac flaitiqtforccatulorti fctfatiu parc 

m °[? l P iatnr:icI & ^ a nonnallis perrcclu eft. Piices igitur ( vt 
nodod!si)ncc mamas hahct, neq; meatu genitaliu vllu intus 
coipicuu.Branchias aut rctn habcnt pcculiarem, quibns humo 
rc.qac orc accepcrinf.reddiit atqj ctia pinnas, quas magna «t 
l f tc ? ,,atc ™as gerut. Attamcn Iongis,vtanguilix,bin.x iuxta 
lUs n 'Crct.magilibus ctiam quos lacus S iph3rum gignit. 

binj», 



44- A RISTOTE. D B A NIM A LI B. 

bina:,aiqaeettam ei quam vittam appcllant . Nonnallis b lon> 
gis nulte omnino funrpinnx,vf murenx ,nec branchix intc- 
gr», vt cxter is pifcibus hab.-ntur Qui autem branchias habcf, 
aut inteftas c6tinrteas,autdctcclas,vt cartilaginea genera o- 



Qmj 
nentur. Qn 



funt,partenifcriore,fupinaqae habentnr:vttorpedini,vt raix. 
fcd fi oblonga iunt eorum latcribus adhxrent,vt in quouis ma 
ftcl.no gcncrcccrnitur.Raia tametfi de^uaasin Jatera habet 
brachias. taraen non fpineo intcctas operimcnto , vt qux non W 
cartilag.nca funt,fed cuticulari. Itcm branchiatorum ipforum 
al.js h mpliccs branchte funt,ali js dupliccs.omnibus tamen fim 
ple*,quaenouifsima corpori admota eft.&alijs paucx,aiiis 
multx:veriiminvtruaquclatusxqut • partifa: omnibui itinr. 
h-ibent quibus paucifsimxfunt,fingulasbranchias vtrinque, 
easq.i<dupUces,vr aper.alijs binx vtrinquc, aitcrx fimpliccr, 
alterx dupliccs,vt congro,vt icaro-ali j$ qaaternx vtrinq; fira- 
pliccs,vt accipenferi,dentici,morenx,anguilte.alijs quatcrnx 
duphc. ordine,nooiisima exccpta,vt turdo,percx, nluro.cynri 
_ no.M uiteligenis et.a rlaplices,& quinx vtraqac cx partc funf. *> 
glau.o k roilri mocrone ita appellato,oa nx dupliccs. Ita bra- 
cmarum colligitar nuraerus.Scd prxtcr branchiaru difcrimcn, 
pitces a cetcris animalibus dirTcrant,eo quod non pilis, vt f crre 
itru,qux animal gcnerant,noncorticc,vt nonnulte ooa paric 
tes quadrupedes,noa penna,vt gcnas aa.um inte*i3tur:fed plu- 
rnni lquamofi fant,pauci qmdam icabri, paucifs*imi ixucs Er- 
go cart.Iagineorum aha afpcra,alia l ? uia iunt.Congri ctiam ct 
anguilte,* thanni,teucsfunt. Dentes omnia piicium genera 
habctfcrratos,pcamatim4;coeunte S ,cxcepto fcarorac omnia 
lcriedentiumacufaarqaemultipl.cifulciuntur.ln Imguaeria^ 
dcntes nonnuilis.Linguam autem ipfam duram,<* pent ipinea 

haDenf,*,taadhxrentem,vt interdum carcrc lingua vidcarur. 
US relciiium,vt nonnallis ouiparis qnadrapedibus eft . partcs 
audiendi,odorandi deniquefentiendi nulte confpicux,prxter- 

qaamoculihabentur.latcnteriamnicatu^qu.busfcntircnecci- 

feht.Ocu!iomnibasfincpaipebri Sl fednonduri.Eft omnc fa« 
n^ pifcium genus fangninis particcps Difcriminc autem par- 
tus fic dticrcpanr , vr aiij oaa pariant alij animal . Pariunr oua 
omncs.qui fquama contcgnntor. An;malomncs,qui gcncrecar 
til3g<neocontinent.'r,exccpta rana. 

&pnm ftrftmtomr. cdptt. xr M r. 

Rrliqunffl 







1IBER.SECVNDVS. a, 

m Eliquumex ijs,que fanguinem habcnt animalibus, 

>X' S cnu ? fcrpentum cft.quod commune ambobus fupe- 
^ • rioribaseflcpotcft.Suntcnim alii rerrcftres,alii a- 

^q^file S :quaqaammaximaparsf,rtcrrcftri s ,c x i ?ua 
vero aquat,], S ,fc,hcet fl uminum incoJa.S unt etiam maris indi- 

Senjicr P entcsterreftnba 4 fimile S ,nifiquodcapothubeantc5 
?n &quidcmgcncraeorumcompJura fant,colore numeroix 
vanctatis.naicicos non in altiisimi, gorgiribus ccrtu eft . Sco- 

10 Z n fn r3S CtUm Tl S Ccnri P cd « voccmaris incolas ciTc noui- 

iOmu S ,fp C aetcrreftribasi1miJ«,magnirudmcpauJ6minores,co 
Jorc rub C nt,ores,numero pedum copiofiores,* cruru tenuitatc 

f£^^ l ^*"**«M,*modo **penru,non ™- 
gna almudinc gurg,tom. Carer pedibm genu S omnc Jerpenru, 

Z 1 rCm ° ram *"?* " 0nndli P^«habcre prodide! 

dir A ; nCfit ? pcdibnSinfta,,c videarur.pifciculus qui- 

rZ^TJuTl afl T $ '' n " ^ n0 ° ad ™« c V nomen i 
remorand,s nau,bus adeprus,vrilis ad iadiciorom caufas,* ama 

20 anW eBa ^ h ^ vo ^t Parresexteriore^nguhW 

w L7i? U£ nam f r •* quot namero ** 9 aibus *<« fc dtf 

ttrcntijs d,floncnt,explicatun iam cft. 



o». 



/ortiutnr. C a[>ut x y 




Vncintenorum ordincmpcrfcqucmur,&primum 

'« co gcncrcquudfanguincconftat.haccnim rario- 

bj^vo nC ,umma S encra * ca:rcrisd,rTcrunr,qood hxc ian- 

nSr&aS"' 3 ^"•«"gPite. Sanguincpr.rd,ra iunt, 

a^nScS ^«re P * fi C n qU / an i mal ' OQ ^^P a n U nr:arquc etia 

5° non fi fcd f " ? •* ? °. uidaliud vacans nomincqucniam genu* 
vt £SS2S? PlC * in f,n ^ lis intclhgatur , vr ferpcns, 

«iam a„ J „ n ! oas cit >* codemilru,quo homini. Ouipari* 

SfS 

acrem aclr P T* £ CTt CarUm P a "iam.Deniq ; omnia quar 
* fi m m puC * rcddun ^nr pulmoncm,artcriam,gula, 
«Omnn, ^ a « c r^milem,qaaquam eas parres diisi 

*S£es a o ut r n ; f,tu qu dcm f,mi,i cont incnt • c ° r 

Pr«ordS X! ;? * la , nSU, ' S * fenfum tranfuerium,quod 

'<=n U iu . 't' aU ^? peUatUr:Ver " m llocin **»* P^ Sa 
^exiguirateq, t) non cquc fpccl* i porcft ; nifi in cordc. 



Pcculiarc 



4£ ARISTOT. DEANXMALIB. 

TccaHarc eft,quod de nonullis bubus proditum eftrgenus cnim 

quoddam boum fuo in corde ofsiculura continere aiunt.At ve- 

ro pulmo non omnibus datus eft : pifces cnim & omnino qu* 

feranchias habcnt,carent pulmdne .Iecur tn crr.nibus cft,in qui 

bus fanguis.Lien raagna ex partc omnibus , quibus fanguis:fed 

magnas parti eorum,qo2? nen animal,fed oua pariunt,lien vf- 

queadeo exiguus eft,vt propejnodu fenfum effugiatrqucd ma- 

gna in parte auium cxperimunverbicaufa , in columbis,mil- 

uis,accipitribus,no&uis. Capricepsauisliene omnino caret. 

In quadrupcdibus etiam ouiparis fimilis ratio eftrnam ca quo- w 

que admodum exiguum habent lienem,vt teftudo,mus aquati- 

lisjrubeta,lacerta,crocodilus,rana.Felalijsadne£tituriecori,a- 

lijs rainime.Ex genere cnim quadrupedum quac animal gene- 
rant,ceruo,& dama: deefle notatum cft:atque etiam equo,mu- 
lo,afino,vitu!o marino,& muriutn nonnullis.Ccruis Achainis 
cognotaincfel contineri in cauda crcditur.Eft,quod ibi conti- 
neri aiunt,colorc quidem fimile felii,fed non ita vt fel humidu, 
fcdlieni fimil*partcinreriorc,Vermcstamcnccrui contincnt 

omnes fuo in capite viuor,,qui nafci fclcnt fublingua in conca 
uocircltervertebram,qua ceruiciinnc&itur capur,magnitu- 
dinehaudminores ijs vermibus,quosmaximoscarnes putres 
«didcritm (Jignivniuerfiatqaecontiguifolem: numcro adei 
circitcr viginti.Scd ceruus fellc(vtdiftum eft)vacat:quaquam 
<iusinteftinuraatnarumade6eft 5 vtneicanibus quidcm artin 
gatur,nifi ccruus prxpinguis fit.Elephanto etiam iecur fincfel 
le:incifo tamcn partc qua fel adh&rere folct , humor fellcusef- 
fluit plus minus. Delnhinus intcr ca qua* marc cxcipiunt,pul 



plus rainus.Delnhinus intcr ca qucc 

ecnhabet,vnusfelle pnuatuxeft.Ai 



moneq;habet,vnusfelle priuatuxeft.Anes,pifcesq$omnesfel 

habent:& quadrupcde^qaeouapariut,dixerira in vniuerfutr* 
omnes aut plusautminusfcllisfortiuntor.Sedpifcium,alijsinJ° 

iecorc pofitum eft,vt mufteligen is c , & filuro, & fqnatin#,leui- 
raix,torpcdini:atqncex longis anguijlar,acui 3 libcllcT.Pulchro 
etiam,in ieccre ineft proportione corporis maxime omnium 
copiofum.Aljjsinteftinoanncxucft,dcpendensdiecorc,mear 
libus quibufdara perpetuisfummcT tenuitstis.Ergo hamia fuo 
inteftinopari proccffa obduftum habct fepc ctiam replicatu, 
reduxque aliqustcnus : reliquis colleaim intcftinis commxf- 
fum cft aut fcmotfus a iecorc^aut propius,vt rafe,accipcnfcri> 
dcntici,murcnx 5 gladio.Sa:peeriamgenusicem vtrunq; pati- 
tur fitum,vtconger:alijs cnim ad iecur,alijs infra fcpcfitilad- 

herer,quod ctiam in auibus pari modapcrfpcftu cft:alijs cnim 

vcntri 



i 



ilBER. SECVNDVsii 47 



ventri,alijs inteftino iungitur, vt colmtb*. coruo \ coturnid, 
hirund.n^paiTcri.ahjs iccori fimuU vetri , vt capric/piti.alijs 
iccorifimal,&intcftino 5 vtaccipitri,miluo. * 







in Enesatqueyeficamomaes,qua:animal gcncrant , qua- 

XV drupcdcs poi 4 ident. At vcr^cx i js,qua, oua pariur, at es, 
Ky«! habcn '-Q£?dru P edum vna teftudo marina hal 
bet rragmtudme c*terarum partium rationem : fnr.iles bubu- 

idl r, am mtW r a ° mnia bubns fimi]ia continct:f,tus 

idcm camm partium cft omnibus,qu* ex iji conftant. 



. * x ^ w v~* 1/ **-> < j> ^nimani t 

**cnr 9 pHlmo,Ue* 9 fil 9 & mnttr obti- 




neant. 



Cap. XVII. 



e^oiui T«S J^r^P^lenfcemmiflum eft,vtante 
a2Tn , ^ d,t0mi,,bD fP fior ^»P^tcm,footurbiratomu- 
£2™3?" piJcibus:i i s cnim ™ n *» c « videri potcft, 
*o aZ S - UtUn m °, CrORCm nonadpea«fpeaantcm,fed 
attf a ,CXttemXim ^ inde P^^cns,qua branchi* dextU 
SSf^?^ W ^W ctiam mea, 

maS • Q J ad b ^ nchias tcr<{cntf s fl "S° las P ro *fi*rio 

Sr ," IS i° CCft,R,ai0ribcs Maiw**wriL arftiores: 
exr -m < f afl t, ad r <Kfcl,n »* «ndida fiftula cft.que dc cordis 
«tiemn ontur.Gula pauci s m pifcibus ineft,vtcongro,«n P utl 

*£!££££ ieCV r r Qni hafcer *" non ^™ cil dextro la 

io Dars " Contm «;' :fi » fiffn« & principio vfq; , dextro ma. 
nccS" 1 ? C3raefl - QS!*«flamentapa't« fepoflKfunr, 

i^£Z? udm * c ** lcnorCf s ei,cr f «*»,qw» <° m * 

^Kr° a8rodK,ter Bolba lacum P&^nr. ouippe 

S»odfic^T lcc ? / a crcdidcr is > °« uon ' am meatus p rocnI 

iSSS^S^ vcl in p ulmonc 'p^™ anmm *** 

lc i n ^!?. Part,{lniflra: adnc£limc iccori i aduerfus,fuuq' ; va- 



fcp^^5 McCBr f,niflr ° vii«m cft,prodigiofe id euenif 

Poftcx P hc aoi ^ D ?r r H ,3c . mnibas ad P^^q^dmodu 

Ptu tranf. w J * / ? 3d VCntrCm P c ^ur, tranfigcns ic 



ftatim 



4? ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIBi 

flatim ori vcntrcm habeant.Q£ocircafa?pics euenit grandibus 
nonnullis,vtdum pcrimpmzm infc&anturminores, vcntricu- 
lasin os procidat.Habcnt omnia qux adhuc enumcraui , ven- 

tremfituconfimilirfepto cnimtranfuerfo continuo fubeft,in- 
teftinumquedceoporre&om f nit adexitum cibi, & cam par- 
tcm qua? podexdicitur.Sed ventrisdifsimilitudo primu,quod 
quadrupedes viuipara?,cornigerar,altera maxilla dentatar,qua- 
tcrnos ciufmodi habentfinus.qux quidem & ruminare dicun- 
tur.Gula cnim incipiens a u ore dcorfum tcndit ad pulmoncro, 
feptumquc tranfuerfumrhincfcad vcntrem adplicat roaiorera 10 
qui partc interiore afper,interceptusque cft,ac propc gula? co 
miffurara finum fibi adnexum habct,quem cx argumento rcti- 
culum vocantreft cnim vcntri extrinfecus fimilis,intus rcticu- 
lis mulierum implexis , magnitudice multo quam venter mi- 
nor.huncexcipit omafum partejnterioreafperum,canccllatu, 
craftatum,magnitudincreticali.Abomafum vcnter abeo alius 
iungitur,raagniradine atnplior oraafo,forma oblongior , can- 
cellisintus ,<Sr cru ftis multis,magnis, & lcuibus inormatus: 
mo x inteftinum iam feqaitur. Cornigera alrera maxilla denra 
ta,omniaadhunc modum fuum habcre vcntrcm ccrtumcft. io 
Scddifferuntinterfemagnitudinc,autfigura,atq; etiam quod 
gola,vel in mcdium ventris tcndat,velin latus vergat. At vcio 
oronia dentata ma x illa vtraque vcntres fingulos habcnt,v t ho 
mo,cani5,fus,vrfus,leo,lupus.Qmnetiam thos,qwem lupu cer- 
oarium appcllem,interna omnia iupi fimilia habet ijs 'gitur 
omnibus fimplex vcntriculuscft , qucm excipit intcftinum: 
verum alijs amplior , vt fui , vt vrfo : & fuillo quidcm cruft* 
larucspauciorcsfont.Alijsarftior,nccmuIto amplior intcfti- 
no,vtcani,leoni,homjni,C*tcrorumetiam fpecies omniure- 
fpeflu eorum,quosmodo enumeraoi,diftinguutor.Alijs enim 30 
ventcrfuillofimilis.alij$canino,tam in maiore,quam in mino 
rc animalium genere.Seddifcrimcn in ijs quoq; magnitodine, 
figura,corpulcntia,cx ilitate ve oritur :atq; etiam fitu gulf ,quo 
meatum ad ventrcm ducat,&conuio iungatur foramini. Inte* 
ftinorum etiam natura vtriq; illi animalium generi,hoccft,v- 
traq;dcntato,&altcramaxilladentato,fibi diffcrt tragnitudi- 
Pe,crafsitudine.replfcamentis. Suntcertcmaiora oir.niainte- 
ftinanonvtrinq;dentatis:necimmerito namipfa ita dentata 
omnia fant an£bora:paucaentro parua eo in gcnere habcntur. 
Admodumparuumintercorniccranullum eft.Quibufda ctia 

appcndicCiiuiitintcftinorum*Rcdum autem imcftinunulli 

cft,cui 



IIBEH SECVNB VS. •. 4> 

tft,cui non partc vtraq; dehtes . Elephanto Jntcftinum ita cft 
finuofum,vt aluos habcrc quatuor videatur.in hoc ctiam cxbus 
recipitur:nullum cnim conceptaculum cibi aliud fcparatim ad- 
eft.Exta quoq; eidem fuillis prox ima , i ed maiora.Iecur cnim 
quadruplomaiusbubuloeib&rcliqua pari ratione,exccpto 
licnchic enim minor cx proportionc eft Ha»c cadem ratio v£- 
trisinreftmorumqjiVcl in ouiparis quadrupedibus cfhvt in te 
ftudiac tum tcrrcftri,tum etiam marina,in lacerto,crocodilo 
vtroq;:omnibus deniq; gencris eiufdcm.S implice cnim vnuqj 
lo habcnt venrrem>aut canino,aut fuillo fimilem.GcriUs ferpen- 
tum nullaeuariatratione:&omniafere proximalaccrtis cxter 

reftri ouiparo gcncre haberc fpcftes , fi pedcs i ]$ demas,longi- 



intcftum 



mo- 



coeuatcs 



gam,ac bifidam habct. Csetcra intcrna cadcm ferpentibus funt 
quarlaccrtis.Verum omniaearum vifcera,propter Jongitudi- 
nem & anguftia corporis,longa,ar&aq$ habctur,ita vt digno- 
fci pr* fu* figura: difsimilitudinc non queant. Arteria namqi 

2.0 longa admodum cft,atq; etiam gula longior . Artcri* origo ita 
iuxtaos ipfum pofitacft,vtefiefub lingua vidcatur, * quide 
videtur lingusepr*minere,quoniam lingua contrahitur , nec 
Vt cartcris manct.Lingua autem ipfa tcnuis,longa»& atri colo- 
ris eft,atq;fiextrahas,porrigt longiuspoteft.PecuIiarcpraetcr 
cwcrorum linguas fcrpcntibus,& laccrtis cft,vt fumma corum 
lingua bifida fit:fed prarciput ierpentum,quippc qux tenuifsl 
mis quibuf dam quafi capillamcntis difcrcta vibretur . V itulo 

» etiam marino lingua fcifla cft. Vcntriculum fcrpe tcs,vclut in- 
teftinumlaxiushabet,caninofimilem:tum intcftinum longu, 



i 

fedlongu 



arterte poitrema: 





minmmucronemfuum dirigcreadpe- 
ttus. Fulmo deindeadne&itur fimplex,fibrofus dfiftulofus,prx 
longus,longeqia cordcfcpofitus.Iccur itcm longu^fimplex. 
Sed lien exiguns,rotodusq,,vt laccrtis.Fcl fimilitcr atq; in pi- 
fcibus habetur.natricibus cnim adnexu iccori cft,caeteris inte- 
ftino magna ex parte adhaerctDetes cxcrti omnibusfunt*Co 
ftx totide, quot dics raefcm integr u ceplem :fingulis cnim tri- 
ccna^.Eucnirc fcrp&ibus ide,quod pullis hirundinum,nonnulii 
aiunt:oculiscnimfcrpentamlaccratisfubnafci alios referunt, 

caud«etiilaccrti5,atqi ferpcntibas amputats renafcutr "" 

Mo. Bot. Garden 

1893 




1 

59 



aristot". deanimaiib-. 

eadem ratfo inteftinorum,& ventrfs pifcium quoq; eft. Venter 
e„i a iii$vnas,&-fimplex,fcdfiguravariacft:nonuHl«eniindi- 

ncrfa omntno fpecies vcntris eft,vt ei que fcarum vocat ,qui * 
ruminarefolus pifciu creditur.inteftinu etia fimplex rcpl.cans 
je,quod in vnu,cotinuuq; refoluatur Pcculiare pifcibus, & ma 
cnacx parte auibus appendJcum agnatio eft-Sed auibus iubter 
& paucsipifcibus fuperne circa ventdcoluexeont . * nonnul- 
lis coplurcs,vt gobioni,muftelo,percx,fcorpioni,fidicula?,tr ul- 
lo,fcaro,mugili:cui parte altera plures exeunt , altcra vnaun- 
tumtali j$ raucx,vt iecorino,glauco:auratx etia paucar.Tu au- 
tcmipfieiufdefpecieiconfortesinterfc diffcrunt. Auratarum 
enim alijs plures,alijs pauciorcs. S unt etia quibus null* omni- 
nofint,vt magnccartilagincorum parti:ceteris ita vt alijs pau 
cac,alijs vel plurim* habcantur.Omi.es tamen pifces ad lpium 
ventrem eas appendices continent. Aues,& inter feipfas differ- 
re,& a cxr eris difcrepare animalibus,intcriorum partiu ratio- 
ncaperra eft Alijsenim ingluuies praepofita v entriculoeft,yt 
gallinaceo,palubo,columbo,perd.ci.Ingluuies cutis inamplu 
finuata eft,qua primu cibus ingeftus continetur incoflus . h*c 
parte qua iungitur gul*,anguftioreft,mox amphor,tum quaio 
defmitin ventriculum,araior. Ventriculus parti plurimar car- 
nofus,callofus^ueeft,cutisintusrobufta,cruft.itiiq; faole dc- 
trahi integra poteft- Alijs ingluaies decft,fed eius vtce gula per 
tinet latior,& pote„tior,vel tota,vel qua propius ventriculum 



Qnii 



ula am 



pliorinfra,&capricipitiparstnferior paulOlatior eit , aiqu. 
etiam noauae.At anati,anferi,gaui3e,cataraaa;,taida: pula to- 
ta ampla,& lataeft. Multisctiam alijs auibus gulam huiufnr.o- 

_______.*..'- -*. -%._._. ->- • .i .__. • 1«.. :__/_*__ _Umf 



£lom 



lisfitingIauici,vttinuRCulo Suntitcm quibusneq; gula,ncq; 
ingluuies ampliorfit,^d vcntriculas longior,fcilicct auiculis o- 



quar ingluu 
admodum 



if« 



collahabait,vtporphyrio:qu«fcrcomnes alui excrementum 
humidiu5,quimc^tcraefolct,reijc;unt.Coturnici prx arterls 
hsc propria habentar ,vt & inglouiem,&* gula propc ventrica 
lu ampla,& lata habeat.Diftat ingluuics a parte gulx propin- 
cjua vcntriculo multq.pro magnitudinis prcportiorc . Tenuc 
qaoq; inteftinu parti plurim? auium cft,& firoplex rcfolui po- 
tcftAppcdiccsaatci.lf pauc£ inauibusfunt,vtdi&umeft>nec 

fopra* 



IIBS* TERTlVSt 



fapra, vt in pifcibas,fed infra qua definir inteftinom habct eas 
no omnes,fcd pluriir.*,vf ga])inaceus,pcrdi v ,ana*,c,conia,a, 

ARISTOTELIS STA, 



fl 



\ 



io 



GIIUTAE D£ HISTO 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER 

nMNTERHBTE THEO- 
r> /*, ^ /• 0ORO GAZA. 

^'•''^ 'fornta renitalium memhr^run, ««,«.« 



4' 




d,fi 



cap 



I 



4.- ^/ —7" ^»»j*» *. 

ecaeteris interioribas parfibas , qnof 
na,aat quales fmt,<& quas inrer fe habeat dif. 
tcrentias,diaum iam eft. Rtftar vt de lir, qua: 
ad gcnerationem miniftrant, diiTeramos . Er- 
goAfoeminisomnibusintus condit* hab<n- 
tur,maribus aatem nuilf iplici dijTerentia eua- 






Jo nm(linft /„ „ ,.. , -"-■*" 1 6 UUiC 'fit'ieris,aii|sfcltesr.uJi 

SZlS^Sf^ auidcra/cd intus Et * ou * int us «*- 

/ li ilforl 1U , b '" dha:rct f c * cr ^ reno-,aot aloo crediri innt. 

f ur aurT *" dei,r * n *? genitalc aut aluo anne, Joftine- 

Eltl - HcfCU teftibus.Nec vero modoeodem ad 

2^1?,« $ COtin ; tur ' r ^ * cr ij^- « = Axrlb mk sur, 

ris £ZT " aDerf °- rifci6 '£"« **»* font ,cftes,nec c*tc- ^ 
ti 0™*, / " '* £crmarC animal P° fi '». A n.bot tcftes da- hahl 



r/? 



50 



Q»? 



crocodilo,* 



Dh/nn er i;cT„ — V w »«n«>ijs ad aiuu nedumr,vtde - 

P^es via n^ ou * S^ra 

KSS! 'T' ° *- tCr is Con ( P icu <* c <* «cftes natnr a vo- 
"tl P 7 " mC f r m T U ' 0ui ad aIo *>' *<*om prox iir u po- 

nectremnf ^ Unr ' d ? iniQS - Autcnim h *™ annexi retro, 
*T,v, h m Sfc* fUib ° S:3Ut 3UtC Ptopc",demifs,4; g, rf 

SSSS^2 ^ fer P ctcs > rcft "*™ «Lt: 

* pTrreor, ° * b,n< ?* aui deie P to «o,ti,latos fpinc vtru- 
^. pcrreptent,coeantn. fuoern^ti. v«„ m -- u-J^L± L 



ad oftiu ex- 



ni mcatushumorisfartifici reddanlur timpore coi.us, 

d X atlri 






Jl ARHTOfE. DE ANlMALlB» 

attrituq; tnutuo femen cf fluit genitale candidum. S cd quibuA 
nam ipfi inter fe difFcrentijsdifcrepent,in difle&ionibus jfpecu , 
lari oportct.nos etiam diligetius poft exponcmus,cum fua fin- 
gulis reddiderimus.Omnibus autcm quae oua 2ednnt,fiue bipe- 
da,fiucquadrupeda funt 3 tcftes lumbis innexi infra feptum con 
tinentur,vcl caodidiores,vel paliidiorcs, vcnulis admodum te- 
nuibus circundati.Meatus defingulisfinguli pertiner,eodemq>* 
coeunt fupra ofl ium cxcremcnti,ficut a gi in pifcibus diflu cft : 
isq; mcatus quicxcoituamborum confiftit, genitale cft.quod 
in minoribusIatet,in maioribus vero,anfercm dico,& rcliqua L o 
huiufcemodi>cuidentiuscft,cum rcccns inicrint. Meatus autem 
tam i)5,qu4m pifcibus lumbis adha:rent,fubteraluum,vcntrem 
& inteft ina,inter vcnam maiorcm,Hc qua mcatus ad tcftem per 
tinent vtrunq;.Scd vtpifcibusletor illeprolificus tcmporcini 
tus haberifentitur,meatusq; latifsime patcnt: vbi vero id tem- 
pus prarteri jt,inccrti vel meatus ipfi intcrdum rcddutur : fic a- 
iiium teftes,prias quam coirc incip:ant,alijs cxigui,alijs omni 
no obfcuri funt:at vcr 6 chm venercm excrcent,infigni tantif- 
pcr magnitudinc augentur,quod apcrtifsimc palumbis & per- 
dicibuscucnit.-atqueita vt hybemis menfibus nc vllos quidcm 20 
tcftes in iis haberi,nonnulli arbirrentur. Quibus aufcm parti 
priori teftcs commifsi funt,ijs aut intus iuxta aluum condutur, 
vt dcIphino:aut foris in apcrto vltima aluo pofiti funr Quibus 
vtrifqaccumcaetcrafintcadcm,vnum illud d<fcrimen exiftir, 
quod qusintuscontinentfuos teftes.nulla cutehabent obdu- 
ftosiqux autcm foris,haec conie&os in conceptaculu, quod fcrQ 
tum vocamus,gerunt.Teftes vcro ipfi oinnibu* grcfsilibus vi- 
niparis fant ad hunc modum. Mcatus duo venales ad capira te- 
ftium de vena aorta pertendut,* ali j totidcm h renibus eodem 
deueniunt:fedijfanguinolenri,!l]iquosmittitaorta exangues? Q 
funt. A capitc autem ip/orum teftium meatus cxcipit fpifsior il 
lo fuperiorc,atq; neruofior:qui progreflus per tcftem fle&it fc 1 
(c inde>& caput ciufdem repetit: vndc rurfus in idcm coeut , 8t 
in partc priorc fubcunt gcnitale Qui caput rcpetunt , ipfi tam 
continua membrana obuelantur cum i js,qui refidct teftibus,vt 
vnus cflc meatus vidcantur,nifi membrantfdiaortium fcceris. - 
humorem adhuc fanguineum continet is,qui refidet,ied minus 
quara illi fuperiorcs. At veru qui rcucrfi ccruiccm fubcunt ge- ■ 
nitalir,humorcm iamhabentcandicantem.Quinctiam dc vcfi- 
ca meatus perfcrtur,* fe ad ceruiccm applicat,qucm vcluti pu 

tainc cannaliculatu ambit id , quod f encm vocaxnus.Spcfta cz 

qux 



ItK E& TERTlVS. Jj 

^nstc!i^Idcfcriptionchac:Sit^iriitiummcatnum,qni deaor- 

taproficifcuntur:cc,mcatus defcendcntcs ad capitateftium:^ Notadcfc 

quiabijsafsident teftibus:&/?>quirepctunt fciiicct quibus hu- pttoncm. 
mor candicans continemr.-c^genitale.-^vefica:/^, tcftes. Exci- 

fisdetra6h'sveteftibus,meatusfurfum fc retrahunt . Cafttarc 

folentduobusmodi$:autcnimtcftesnoucllos adhuc frangunr^ 

aut adultos iam firmosq; cxcidut.Taurum aliquando cxcifutn 

initu protinus afto progeneraflc traditum cft .Tcftes aniroaliu 

ita fc baberc cogn it um cft. Vulnse fiuc vteri,nec codcm (itu ha- yjt/jt*» 

10 bentur,nec fimiles omnium funt:fed difterunt infer Jcium eo- 
rumqu^animalgeneranr 7 tumiilorQm,quaroua pariunt. Ha* 
bent omnes quiiuxta gcnitalecontincntur.finusgcminos^altc- 
rum in latcrc dextro>aitcrum in finiftro.Initium vero vnu eft f 
&c6muncoftiu,qu3ficeruixcarnofaadmcdu , cartilagineaq;, 
parti pludmst anftiisiwgq; animantiu tribum cfhpat s vuul- 
uginrerior,loci,& vterusappellatunvndcfratrcs vtcrinosco- 
gnominamus.oftium actem & cerm\v,iratnx dicitur.Scd bipc 
des,arq; etiam quadrupedcs quar aniinal procreanr,omnes v ol 
uam aut vterum infra ieptum traiuerlum contincnt,vt homo, 

iocanis,{as 5 cquus 3 bos.Cornigcra quoq; omnia fitum habcnt ea 

dem.Extrema plurimarum vuluarum,quae cornua vocant , ia^» 

uojuiperfpcftum cft. At corum qua: oua #dunt ,fitus «on iimf- 

lisomniumcft.Sedauiumvulu^ iuxtafcptum annex^iunt; 
pifc!uminfra,ficutbipcdum,autquadrupcdumqu2ranimalpai 

riontrfcd renues,& mcmbrana coftames,& longa:,ira vf ui mn 
nirifsimis pifciculisfinum vuluse vtrunq; iungi infacicm oul 



o- 



arcna 



diffundt 



3° hahetcarnofam^callofamqj partcinferiore : atfuperne quafe- 
pto iungitar,mcmbran 4 conftat,& prsetenuis ac~o cft , vt oua 
cxtra vuluamcftcexiftimes. Auibuscrgo auftioribus membra 
na confpeftior eft,3; pcr ccruicem inflata e x tollitur , at q; finua 
^r.Atinmfnoribusobfcuriorah^comniahabentur.Quadru- 
pcdum quoq; ouipararum hsec eadem ratio vnlo* eft,vr rcftu- 
^nisJaccrt^ran^&reliquorum gencris ciufdcrm Enimuero 
<*mix vnain vno,&carnulcmioreft:fiffuraaurem&ouapro- 

Xima fepto fuftinentur.Nccnon ca*qaac in gcncrc pedibus pri- 
u *toanimaI xduntinlujem,pofteaquamoua intcr k pcperc* 
ru nr,vrmufteli\(Xr reliqua cartilaginca difta(quicqurd cnim 
m tcx marina pcdibus orbatura,# branchias habcns animal gc* 

d 3 ncrar 



44 



ARISTOTE» DE ANIMALIB. 



nerat.fub co nominc intclligitur)i js vulaa partita,pertinemq; 
ad ieptum quoraod j auibus eft.arquc etiam dc medio fu* bipar 
titi finxiirfctior ad feptum vfq; pertendit:ac oua tam hic , qua 
fupra ad fepti origtaem confiftuntrmox prolapfa in fpatiura la 
tius foetus animalcsexcludunt.Sedcorura ipforum differentia 
vulaae,qua tum intcr fc,tum vero a c^teris piicibus difcrcpef, 
accur atias pcr difle&iones fpe&ari figuris fingul s poteft . S cr- 
pentes ctiam tam ab i js (upradiftis,quim intcr fcdiffcrrc apcr- 
tum cft . V i pcra enim animal xdi r,poft quim intra fc oua pcpc 
rit,cum csetera lerpcntum omnia gencra oua ardant in lucem. ia 
quofit. vt viperas vni vulua fimilis,vt cartilagincis fit . Tendit 
porriferpennbus vulaa prolixior modo corporis,exorfa infe 
rius vno continua meatu,didu&aqj in latus fpina: vtrunq:,qua 
fiduplex tncatcs vfquead feptuinquaouaordinatim gignun 
tur >& xdi indc non fingulatim*(e i fcric contincntc folcnt. Vul 
uaoranibus quae & intra fe s & foras animal gcncrant,fupraal* 
uum pofita eft:qu£ oua par:unr,ijs infra,lumbis adhserct.Q^ 
animai aeduntin lflccem,ciim intra fcoua generarnnt,ijs anccps 
ratio cft:nara & infra lambis adiungitur ea pars vulue.qaa oua • 
continentur,& fupra inteftma oft iti eius foftinctur. Ad hcec di- 20 
fcrimcn vuluarum cft,quodcornigera^& vnapartcdetata,ace- 
tabula haber.t vulaacdum partum geruntratqjetia parte vtra- 
qaedcnntoriidepus,mu$,vefpcrtilio,eadem illa acctabula fuis 
contincnf locis.Atcittera vtrinq;dentata animalis foecuda,pc- 
dib is prxdita, vuluam l*ucm omnia habent,& partus ipfi vul- 
uae,nonacetabulisadtaerct.Partcsdifsimilares animaiiumintc 
rioresjcxtcrioresqjjhunc in modum haberi cognitum eft. 

JDe partihm animalitttn finiUribusShiq; syenntfis C\prij 9 

Dtogenisq; ^fpolloniatx cpintones de fanpii- 

Slmilarium fanguis potifsimum commnnis animalibus fan- 
gtiincis omnibus cft,nec minus comraunis ca pars eft , qua 
fangU!SContinetur,qux vcnadicstur Locumautem communl 
tatisiccundumobtinenrea,quaeijsproportionentur,hoc eftfa 
niCi,Srfibra,atqucetiam caro,quod prascipui corpus anima- 
lmminrft.Os item,&quod viccfungiturofsis.vt fpina,& car- 
tilago. AddecommumtatieiufmodUcntem mcmbranam , ner* 
uo5,vn«u?s,piIos ,<Sr qtiac ijs ex proportione refpondcant . ad 
h£C^dipcm,febum,atc]accxcrementa, ftercus dico,pituitam* 

bilcra,tura fUuaa,tum ctiara atram.Scdcum naturafanguinis 

vcna 



LI3ER T^RTlVsi 5J 

venarumq; princlpium efle videarur 5 primum de i js difTererdu 

cft:praefcrrim cum au tores nonnullos cx ijs,qui rcs cas trafra- 
rint,minus re&£dixiffc intelligam.Caufa vero ignorationisoc 
cultationi carum partium,ac pcrdifficili contuitui tribucda cft : 
naminariimalibas mortais natara vcnarum principaliorum 
abolet ur,propterca qucd ifix in primis cffiuentefanguific lan 
guefcant,&collabantur,cx ijs cnim quafi vaie , vniuerfus fan- 
gais effanditifnquippequi omnis in venis contineatur,prxter 
cxigaum,quiincordccft. in viuis autcm ficri non porcft,vC 

lo qaerna Imodum habcantjcernanturrintus enim natura caru oc- 
cuitaturltaquealij,cum in cadacenbus dific&is infpicertnr, 
fumma principia cerncrc nequiuerunt. Alij iri hominibus ad- 
modum extcnuatis per ea,qa;c cxtrinfccus vidcrentar^interna 
vcnarum principiadcfinicre Sycnnefis mcdicus Cyprius ita 
fcribit: Venaecorporis crafsiorcs oriuntur ad hunc mcdum , dfc 
tcndunt de oculo proptcrfapercilium,pcr dorfum ad pulmonc 
iubmammis.Altcradelatcredextroadfiniftrum,altera dc fi- 
niftro in dextrum:& alrera pcr iecar in rencm,ac teftcm , altc- DtcgtnU & 
ra ad licnem,& renem,<5k tcftem. Poftrcrau ad gcnitalc profer- medici cy - 

^o tur.Diogcncs Apolloniatahxc : Venas hominisccnftare ad/>n/ efimo* 
hunc modum nouimasjdu* maximx habenrur,qu«c pcr vcnrri * nt s • 
culum proptcr dorfifpinara pcrtendunt,altcradcxtrorfum,al 
terafiniftrorfuro,vtraq;adpcdcmfibifubie&um: & in capat 
catdcm per iugulam proptcr hamores cfferuntur : hinc fparfa 
ramorum fcric,alise minorcs membris omnibus fangaincm ri- 
uanMcdcxtradcxtrorfum^dc finiftra finiftrcrfom . Maximt 
autcm illieduf coradcunt,circaipfamfpinamdorfi:alter« itcm 

du* paolo fuperius pcr pc£as (ab ala vrranqac in manuts dif- 
pcnfatx pertcdunt,quarum altcra licnaria,alrera iccoraria vo 
$ocatur.Harumpoftrcmaitafandantur,vtpartc pollice adear* 
partc volam.tamcn ex ijs ramorum tenuioru frcqucntia in di- 
gito ^manuq; fpargitur totam.propaginestemiiorcs i primis 
venis mittuntur,i\ dextra ad iecur,a finiftra ad liencm,& rcncs* 
Quxautcm pertinent adpedesjcindontur quafercur iugitnr* 
tcncluntq;pcr totumfcmur:quarummaxima fcmur ex aacrfo 
pcrreptat, craffaqac apparet:altera paulu intcrios minus craf- 
fa procedir pcr fcmur,tu proptcr £cnu trndut adcritf *pcdcmG j 
iffiu^quo modo ad manus:h ; nc fubeunt planta,& (c fpargut irt 
^'gites.Coplurcsctiatcnucsdecildciliisad vcntre * coftas 
fparfsc obrcpur,quar porre% p iugulu pctut caput, apparerqj 
crafsiafcula:in ccruiccrquaru cxtrcmafifiuramultiplici pxr^cit 

d 4 ">* 



jtf AHlSTOTEit! ANI^ALlS." 

pcr caput,dextradcxtrorfum,finiftra finiftrorfura:atg; vtraqs 

adauremdefinuntSuntpraetcreavenaecollo commiflae iuxra 
jnaiorem,paul6 minores,vtroq$ cx latcre tranfcuntes,ad quas 

plurima illariim capitis pars contcndit :qux imroerfe pcr iu- 
galum m/ttunt alias ad fcapulas,&manus,apud lienaria etiam, 
& iecoraria,alia? paulo minorcs apparcm,quibu$ adigcrc cul- 
tellum folcmus,quoticsaliquidfubcutc afHigir* At fi quid citca 
ventreminfeftat,fanguincmcxiccoraria & licnariamittimus 



nmetiam ad mammas hinc alia: pcrtincnt. Sunt item qusedc 




vrraq; perferantur ad teftcs,pcr dorfi mcdullam,tenucs: atque iO 
eriam aliac quae fubditae cuti tendant pcr carne ad rcncs,cciTent- 
tj;adteftcs viris,ad vtcrura mulicribus.Prodeuntprimaea vt> 
triculo an^pliore^rtam attenuantur,dam de partedextra in la> 
uam,indcq; tranfcant addextram,qaaefeminarije nominatun 
Sanguis crafsior a carncebibitunfedcum ad loca deuenerit,tc 
nuisreddii>&calidior,&fpumofus.Syenefis,ac Diogcnes ita* 

roljbilfententiadcuenarumordmcjbiyfilfarnm 

opwicnumTefutatio. Caput 1 1 1. 

Olybiusha»c:Venarum panaquatuor habcnturrprimum 



p 



£Mtt»orpa» X quodi finCipiteortum tendit per ceruicem,famma perre- %o 
rta Htnari. ptanslaterafpinar,adcluncs&crura:deindeper tibiasadraal- 

Ieoloscxtcriores,&pedes:quam ob rcm doloribus dorfi,& co- 
xarum*de poplitibus niallcolisuc exteris fanguincm mitti foli- 
tum eft.Sccundum venarum par decapite circum aurcs pcr ccr 
tiicem,qux iugularis di£be funt,intus proptcr fpinam & lum- 
bos ad tc&ts & fcmora perfertur:atq; pcr poplitcs & tibias, tc 
ditadintcrioresmallcolos& plantas: quaproptcr doloribus 
lumboruro&teftiumfanguinemexpoplitibus, aut mallcolis 
c::ttimus.Tertium par venarum a tcmporibusperccruice fub 
fcapulis porrigitur ad pulmones*.& altera de parte dextra in fi J0 
niftram pergens,mammam fubit,&adliencm,renemq; dcfcen- 
dit:altera de finiftra in dcxtram procedens^ pulmonibus mam 
roamfabif,moxiecurpctit,&rcnem:vtraq; poftrem6 ad te- 
ftesdefinjt.Quartumparortampartepriorc capitis,dc fede 
oculor um pcr ccruices adhumcrorum clauiculasdeucnit: vnde 
per iaccrtos ad agilcm,mox pcr cubitos ad volam & digitos,ad 

roalasctiamdehnmeropropaginemmittittqu* coftas pcrro 
pt at,dum alrcra ad hene,altera ad iecur pcrueniar,dcindc vtra- 
quecmincns per vcntrcm ad gcniraleddinit . Hxc fere funt, 
quas a cetcris roedicinse autoribus difta accepimus • Ncc de* 
funr r.atur* intcrpretc*,qui tamttfi accuratius pcrindc vt me- 

did 



*r 



IIBSR TEHTlVJ.' 



\? 



dici non traclarnntde vcnis,tamen omnes earum ortnm a capi 

te,atque ccrebro deducuntrquod error eft.Cum itaq; perdiffi- 
cile fit venarom examen folis in ftrangulatis aniraalibus, iam 
antt* extenuatis effici potcft,vt fatis pcrcipiat,cui hjcc rcs car* 

fit.Sedenimnaturavcnarumitaichabct.Daa:intrapeftus ve Vttutr» 
nae continentur lpinat appofitar,alt era maior,altera minor.roa- tm. 
iorpartem priorcm adit,roinor pofteriorcm.&maiof dextram 
potinsfedcmobtinet,minorfiniftram:qoam aortam nonnulll 
Vocant,eoquodneruofaeiusparsconfpicivel inmortuis po- 
10 tuit. Ambae ex cordc originem ducunt:tranfigunt enim totar C£ 
tera vifcera pcr quae tendunt,foam feruantes naturam,vt nihil 
contrahantdetrimenti,quominus &fint ven*,& appcllentor. 
Sed cor noneodcm permeantroodo:vcrnm ei taquam fuae par 
ti continuantur,magisqueea,qu* prior,& maior eft. Situ autc 
tali oriuntur,vtaltera iapra,altcra infra fit,& cor inter fc pofi- 
tum ampleclantur.Habent intra fecorda omnia fmam triplice, 
iedmagnitadincvariaminatifsimoruenim animalium finus 



effug 



cum 
finus 



t o confpicuus eftrmaximornm pcrfpicl omnes poflant . Et 

priorem in partcm cor iao mucrone fpedet,vtdiclu eft , 

qai amplifsimus eft,dextrum f upremumq; rccipit fitura mini- 
musfiniftram,mcdiocrismcdium,qui aurem maximus inter 
cos cft.hic longc rcliquis ambobas amplior eft : omncs t amcn 
ad pulmoncm foramine fpeflant perpctuo, fed propter exigui 
tatcm mcatuum latent,praeterqua in vno.Oriturex eoaroplif 
fimo,fupreraoqj finu vcna maior,fedemq; dextram tcnet, mox 
pcr mediu finum formam recipit venx, vtpotc cum ipfe ven- 
tricalus cordis vcnaeparticula fit,in qua f anguis reftagnct. Aor 
ta de fina medio exir,non eodcm modo,fed pcr fiftulam multo 

Jo arctiorem init focieratem,* tcndit a latcre cordis,cu vena ma 
ier fua radice cor tranfigat,cum fe promit- Vena item ipfa ma- 
iormembrana,& cutcconftat. Aorta a r aioreft,& vehcmcnter 
neraofa,dcduaaq;Iongius,hoccft,adcapat,aat imas partcs 

in anguftum admodum coar&atur.ac nerni nafnram <»v tntn ae 



ciptt Pars prima vcn* maioris furfum a cordc prouc 
jcinditnr bipartito. Adit altcrum membrom pulmones, 



nicns, 
alteru 



mbru 



pulmonem adierit, bipartito fe fcindif ,quiapulmo in duas 
P3rtesdiicrctusfit,deindefingalas nftulas,fingulaque forami- 

n a iubit,ampliu 5 amplfora,arctius ar ftiora,ita vtpars nulla fit 

d 5 fine 



fi 



Hatid 



&* 



$8 aristote.de animalib. 

(ine foramento,& venula:qaanqu;<m poftrcraa diminotfonum 

prxiuacxigujtatcviiumeffbgiant:quofir,vtpuIaio omni cx 
partercfcrtusiangaincvidcatar.Hosautem vcn« mcatos in- 
ducilupra hftulascxartcriapcrtinciites,ccrtamcft .Mcmbru 
altcnun,quodadfpinam&colli vertcbram diximas tcnderc* 
n. pcr fpinam ipfam porrigitur.qua vena Homcrus notat,ca ait: 
Vcnamq; incidcrat omnem:Quae pcr dorfa mcans ccruices fcr 

turadimas.HincvcnuIxfingul^adfingalascoftas, & vertc- 
bras fcruntar.Finditar etiam bipartito h*c cadcm vcna iuxta 

vcrtcbram,qua: (uprarenespofitaeft.I ta h*c niembra vena: 
maiorisinram >slpargutur:fed rurfuspartefuperiore,qca cx 
cordcproted*t iciiTanamcrofiorc vcnarum propaginc, dao pc 
tit loca:qaippe qua» ahas in latera,& humcros mittat,quae mox 
per alas homini ad manus feruntcr,quadrupedi ad pcdes prio- 
res,auibus ad atas,piicibus ad ptnnas,quas partc prona continc 
tar,quarum venarum capita iugulares,qua primum fcindtirur, 
appeilamus:fed qua/cifl* ceruiccm fubeunt, iuxta pulmonem 
artcriam tcndunt.quibus intcrdumforis apprchenfis corruune 
homincs icnfibuscrcptis,& palpcbris comprcfsi<,ira porrctfar, 
amplcxaq; arteriam ad intcruallam auriam fcrantar,qaa 
xillx iaucibos cocunt. Dcnuo indcfcindutur in venas quatuor, 

quarumvnarcmcanspercollum&hamcrumdcfccndir, & cu 
priorc propagine ad flc xum bracfi; j copalatur.fecanda ad pal 
mam 3c digitos ccffat.tcrtia dc vtraq; fcdc aurium ad ccrcbrum 

fan P Crtin ^' ar ^ jfnmultos P r ^ rfnucs ^olosfpargirur:itaq; mc 

xpers ranam / uitodcmccrcbri ^l>,t.Ccrcbram aate ipfum omnitt 

f «P c "fanguiniscft,nccal!qaidvenar,velauaioris,vel mino- 

tionsinidce(Tat.Reliqairami,quiabeadera vena mittuntar, 



ma io 



cil 



3* 






Deaorta uena mmore^ucmoioiiffetatknenamaiores 

Crde evHsmeatibHiyloiopropTiQ Crfede. 

Ena e tiam minor,quam aortam diximnsnomfnar* 



w; maioris confcqoar.rur: veruro mearcs eius,* vcno- 
~ ' " 1* malro minoresft nt,qu;tm ven# ma»oris.locis a 
corde fuperforibn.s venas Ivjnc in modu haberi nonimus. Pari 

aatcm maioris vcn*cordiiubicaa,fcrtur claiior,pcrfeptura- 

quc 



L I 3 £ R TERTIVS. 



^acappl.cata,tumadaortam,rumcriam ad /pinam mcmbra- 
ncisflacadisqucmcanbusconrinctur. roox vcna ad iccur ab 
ca mitntur brcufe,fed lara:dc cjua mult* ac tcnacsfparf* in ic- 
cur oblircranror.Rami indc ab ipia iccur tranfigcnrcduopro- 
carrunr,quorum alrcr ad fcprum,& praecordia dittacciTat : al- 
lcr iupera rcpcrir,duftusqj pcr ahm ad iaccrtum brachii dcx- 

fri^n^H.»^ ->_..* ...» - « ' 



CXtCi 



Qu;. 



fed 

inra 



locraflj,latus petit finiftrum,pergif cjj ad lienem,qaa: iparfa i 
mulo, lubit,iraqu= abolcrar.Quineriam abcadero maiorepro- 
pago pari m, do ad lacertam iiniftri brachij mittiturrfed qux 
adbrachiamdcxtram procedir.eadem quaspertingit ad tecur, 
eft.Harcverdd.uerfaabca,qaieadlienem pertinet,eft .Ali* 
Jtem.j venamaioreduaepropagantur,quarum altera ad omc- 
rum,altcraadid,quoda carne pancrcum appcllatum cft ,de 
qua venarum frequentiapcr laftes tendanr,quse oranesin vna 
dclinunr venam grandem,per totum inteftinum dc ventricu- 
ium ad galam vlq; porreftam, qux & ipia ramos de ijs quas 

aoperrcptat part:bus,ipargif complurcs.Vtraqj igitur, tam ma- 
ior,quarn aorta,renum tenus,vnaatq; perpcroa tcnd»t.hic ca- 
pfritMM rcnum pot ius adhatrcfcunr.findunrurqj bipartito,vcluC 
inhtcram,lambda,aut Vditeram inaerfam : vcrgitquc magi* 
m partem poftcriorem corporis vcna roaior,qaam aorta. S pi- 
nxanncftiaortampotifsimumcircacor venulis practcnuibuf 
&neraoils,norumeft.Ducitureadem dccordeniroirum ampli 
»dineinilgni,fed procedcns arftior, arqj neraofior eaadit: 
mittitcaqaoqueadla&cs ramos , qucraadmodara malor.vc- 

rurn longe minores : pcranguiios enim & fibris proxiraos, 

joqnippc quos cxtenuaros in fibras,cauas ramcn, ceiTarcad- 

ucrterimus. Ad iecur autem aat lienem , nulla abaorra pertf- 



ad 



:unrur, atqaeos ipfum attingunr 
aortaaae venx deueniunt : fed 



caaam non iubeunt rennm , ver&m in corpas eorom abfu- 
mantur . Necnon ahj duo meatus ab aorfa validi,* per- 
P«tui ad veilcam proccdunr : arque etiam alij de cauo rc- 
num eodem vcniunr , qui nihil communc cam vena ma- 
l ore iorriuntur . Singulfs item renibus de medio ve- 

H* CYnrf-j» __* r__ . r . . , 



Tenas 



J? 



tur, 






tfO ARlSTOTE. DEANIMALIB* 

tar,acdcliteicunt.deinde denuo porrc_h_ in clunes apparenn 
quarum & ipfarum poftrema,vt m fexa virili ad veficam gcni 
talequeconijciuntur:ficin fcrmineo ad vuluam,aut vterfi pcr 
tinem.NulIam fane venam de maiore vuluam adire videmus* 
cum dc aor ta multx,frequcnte.qucveniant R amis eriam tum 
aortgjtum ctiam m2ioris,ali__ mittuntur propaginesrqu x prl 
mumadinguit-a ampliaicula: 9 cau.TC]ue accedunt : deinde pcr 
f cs.ora,cruraque in planta .,& digitos finiur t. Atqne etia dure 
iliaspcringuina&femora comtr>utatis vfcibus pcrftruntur: 
alteradepartedextra in finiftram,altcra dc finiftrain dcxtra,io 
ac cartcris venis circa poplites ieconiengunt. Quemsdmcdu 
vcn_eieh«ibcant}& vndcnam fuam originem ducant, apertura 
iam citCocuinct autcm genus animantium omne larguinis 
compos,venarum initi»,(Kr gcnera iumn_a,eo,quocxpofuimus 
modornam reliqua copia vcnarum non firoili rationc in omni 
buseft.ncquccnimpartcseodcm modo, act e_cdcm in cmni- 
bus habentur.nec verosqufc in omnibus patet venarum ieries, 
ied potifsimum in ijs conftat, quibus fanguinis copia & prae- 
cipuamagnitudoeft.nam inmii;utis,ianguinuve inopibus, 

velpernaturam,velperimmodicamcorporis cbcfitate, haud* 
acqut infpici poiTunt. Alterisenim mcatus,quafi alueoli qu<di 

multointericptilimopermifcentur.alterispaaca-^cxdetrque 
fibrxpotias qua ven_ccontinentur.vnatamen, quam matere 
ex prxcipua magnitudme cognominamus,potiisimum cui- 
dcns in omnibus ctiam minut is animalibus eft. 

£>eneri+i$,eorti)?iq;origtne. Capttt v. 

Nermccor* Wj$0tt§ Eruorummox otdinempcrfequemur. Origoeorfi 
detxtnnt. Ilf^f^l quoque in cordecft.Id cnfmncruulos fuo amplio- 




ner- 



^-"^y____~_,' uofaeft,&quidcmpoftrcmac_us neruo omnino c6p 
ftantrquippequxnollo intuscauo di ftinguantur,t£danturqj 
modo ncruorum,qua defimmt, applicata ad nodos ofsjum lu- 
bricos.Ca_tcrnm natura neruorum non rrorc venarum conti- 
nuadecodeminitioproccdit. Venarcnim vtin depiftis can2- 
bis,hoceft fontibusriuomultiplicifpaifispatet.figuram to- 
tius corporis diftribuunt, ita, vt corponbus admodum cxte- 
nuatfs, partes omnes.venulis refertar confpiciantur. Locus 
cnimidem venulisinmacilentiscarne in corpulcntrs rcdun- 
dat.Sed nerui diduaidiftra&iquc pafnm ad artus,& flexus 
ofsium applicantur.quodindectiampcrcipipoteftrnam fieo- 

fiim «-» -^^ ■ . __. ■-_ A < I ___._» ^ AM *2> ___ 1 __. __ l • _ - _ »!____-___ 



cflet 



cocr 






LIBER TERTlVS. CX 

eontinentla omniom pafcret. Summa? ncruomm partes, qu£ 

naembrum ad faliendum accommodatum continet, poples di- 
&x:& qux fe gemmara porrigif ,tendo,nomine:<$: qux ad vires 
corporis iuuant,atrcudo r * humerarius.reliqu* qmbus ofsium 
nodidcligantur,nominc vacant. Nam oiTa omniafiueforis vi 
cifsis» tangunrur,fiuea!terum infcritur al{eri,neruis ligatur: 
& circitcrt fla qua>uisncruerum copiaducitur,capiteexcepto: 
idenimnonneruiijcdfntutisipforum oisium continctur. 
Ncrui naturafifsilis in longitudmem te;id>t:idndi pcr latitu- Ca P at non 
'dinem non poteftrintcndiquc vchementcr idoncacii Humor ner »">f € <lf» 
circaneruos mucori fimilfc, albidus, glutinotoque corfiftit: tHrU *P lum 
quo ipfos ncruos & nsici,& ali ccrtum cft.Ncruus igncm non f»**nit*r. 
patitur,cum vena patiatur:& incifus folidari non polefl. Pars 
corporis nullaftuporetentatur,qua!neruocaret. Nertiis plu 
nmis,pcdes,manos,& fcapuljc continentur:^"- -*i— »~ — « 

Qufbus datns eft fanguis, ijfd 



adiunfti funt. Scd qu* nullos habent articulos, priuat aquc pc 
dibus,& manibus funr,ij S pra:tenues,incertique habentur.qua- 



__ r r-^^^iMuiiuxtap 

* u niunt in confpeftum. 




Defibri*. ^ Caput v I. 

Ibrx intcr neruum & venam,fuam habent natoram: 



ccun 



tem 

tu^ 



quod confift 
imalis. S niffc 



h -^ — ^^- _■* w w -— ■ ■__> jp^k ^^ — ^ *^ — r — ^ w ^ ^ ^^ ^^ 

tnaiorc ex parte in fanguine anirnaliam ineihtamen cerui,da- 
m a , >bub.ili,<Sraltorum quorundam fanguinideeihquocircaeo 
ram fanguij non fimiliter,atquc csererorum concrefcit. S ed cer 
Dorum perindc vt leporum folet fpiflari , videlicet non coitu 
nrmtorcvt caeterorum,fed fluido,qualelac cft,quod finccoa- 
golo fponte coiuerit.Eubali fai guis aliquantulo amplius ipif- 
iatiu.-quippe qui proxime ouillo, aut paulo minus confiftat. 
V ena,ncruus,<Se fibra ita fc habent. 



O 



JDccfitbu*, eorumq;dtffcreHtij$. 

Caput vil. 

Sfa alia ab alijs ncia,& omnia intcr fe apta,vnam conti- 



mancar 



quac ofsi- 

bus 



f% A*I STOTE.' DE ANXM ALIB. 

bus conftant,fpina cfhqnae compa&a cx vertcbris a capite ad 
coxas porrigitur.Vertebraeomncs forarrinctredio perui* fibi 
itinguntur.Extat os capiris continuum,nouifrimisfuper impo 
fitum vertcbris,qnoa calua dicitur.Eius pars fcrrata,fi!tuix no 
ininefignificatur.pars harcnon fimili modo in quoque J^cnere 
animaliumhaberar.Alijsenim oftccontinuocaluapcrficiti:r f 
vt caniralijs compafto,vt homini, ciujque fo?m wx futura c?r- 
, cularitcr eft.Man trcs in fummuro vcrticcm afccndunt futu- 

r#,cocuntque in fignra» triangula? fpcciem. fcd iam * v/ri ea- 
put vifum fine vlla futura eft. Con ftat fan£ caput no quatuor l0 
okibusfed fex.quorum duo cxigua, fcilicct rcliquorum com- 
paratione circa aurcs pofita funt. Maxilla? ?< capitc protcndan 
tur,offa dootquarum inferiore animalia omniaroouent,cxcc 
ptofiuuiatili crocodilo.hiccnim vnos non iufcriorem, fcdfu- 
pcriorcm mouet. Maxillis,df ntium gcnus inhaeret. os partitn 
cauum,partim folidam,<Xr adc^ firmum,vt folum inter offa f cr 
xi aciemrefpuat.Oritar£fpina,fibuIa,iugale, <£ordo cofta- 
xam # Peftus ctiam coftis impofitutn eft. qua: quidcm aducrfae 
inter fecoeant^chm reliquar breuiorcs fint, quam vt facerc ide 
queant.Nullumenimanimalcft, quod circa ventrem os ha- 20 
beat.Sunt item offahumerorum,& qo# fcapuke appellantur, 
& qux i^s annexa depcndent,brachia,(X r manus . Modus idcm 
compa«»lnum,vclinijseft,q*xcrara habenrpriora. Acetabu- 
luminfra,qnafpinadefinitj coxaeft:& ofTa iam crurum oriu 
tur,quibusfemora<Srtib'x conftant,perna?,aut cultnapnomi- 
ne.quorum pars mallcolus cft, & mallcoli calcar : vidclicet ift 
i js qua: habent mallcolos.ab i js offa pedis minuta,* plura fub- 
iaccnt.Qny iginir ex fangaineis ptdeftribus anitr al generant, 
hxcoffanonmultodiucrfahabcntrfcdad proportionem tan- 
tummododuritia,mollitie, magnitudine d.fcrenar.t. Ofsium 3* 
item animaJiseiufdem,aliamedullam intra (e rontincnt, alia 
ijj;* iw^/w>nim^SontnonnulIa quacfuis inofsibos nullam omnino 
U iw^/W^^^^^amvidcantur^vtlorquod admoduro cxigoa *C 
nohaheant. ^ n uemhabcat>eamque in paccis ofsibusfoliscnim infcriori- 
Ex c&dm k us > a *<pe brachijs. Conftatprofe&Ueooraecipueomnium 



con- 



lecnti cocuf anfma ltamofslbusfoIi ? is:funt cnim adco dura, vt ex eis 
f* » tUdttuT «fth,fgirfi velati filicc elfdatar.rdphinus etiam offa habet, 
'£""- n ° n *P inas c *ttroram animaliam fanguineoru offa.anr pau- 

luinterfe differunt,vtauinm:aut proportioneea^cm funt, vt 
pifcium.Qnj enim inter ccs animal £cncrant,cartilag<ne pro 

fpinahabentivtca.^uaccartilagincaappcllaaimus. qai autcm 



oua 



LIBEH TERTIVS^ £j 



oua pariant,fpinam conrinent.qax pcrinde vt dorfom fn qua- 

drupedumord.nc habetur.Scdproprium in pi/cibus eft, quod 
nonnullis fpinuls quardam prctenues fenaratim per carnes in- 
harrent.Scrpentibusetiam dor/um pifcium morcapcrfum efl 
At vero ea.qu* inter quadrapcdes oua parionr,os aut fpinam 
proiuarmagnitudinis modo merucrum. maioraenim ofsi<n* 
turam potius obtincnr, minorafpina potius in ofsis viccm ful 
ciuntur. Omnia prorfus animalia qusianguinem habet.dor- 
Jo con ftanr ,cut ofleo, aut fpineo . cxtera ofla ali js infunt, al i is 
xodefunt.vt enim parfcs cornoris quxque habcrur.ita ofla qooq; 
ad partes accoraodata habeW Qiubus cnim crura , & brachia 
defunt,ijs pernx aut culinar prxdia* ctia defant. Nec vero iis 
qmbus partcs,e*de qaidem,fedd>flimilcs funr : eadem o/ S ;um 

Tatioferuarar:fcdautplurisminori SV c m odod»frerant,aotrro 
portione. Ofla igirar ita fe habent. k 

^^tl^ci^cHmoffcdtfcunti^ vjii 

A rt.lago differt ab ofle pluris,minor:s ve ratienr,dS 

ahas natura eadem,qua ofla conflct Et quemndmo. 

IK^>— «u ° S P r * cim « nunquam rccrefcir, ita A carnla- 

^sm go rapranunquam repararar.Terrefrrium, qu* & 

an.mal g.gnunt,* fangumem habcnt, cartila^o nollo forami- 

nelnlcr.necofsiummoremedullamcontinctAtvcrAaquari- 
Imm cartilag.neis, quod pcr dorfum proportionatum ofsibus 
tcndtt carnlagoeft, humorem in mrdull* ipccicm ccnrincns- 
Grcf M l lumquxani malgignuntauricolar, narcs extremaque 
oisium nonnnlla cartilaginc conflant 





># 



Caput i x 



J "Vl™ alia P arrinm g e n«3.qux nataram nec ea 
dem habent,qoam ea queexpcfita/unt,nec longe al> 

«js rcm °tam,vtvngues,vngulx,cornoa:pr.Tferea ro 
- £?-p7 ftrn «MMledatum auibus cft. hxc enim & flcxilia 

*iiV n J ', C °, m nDllum ° s vcl fiec Uvel findi pofsit,ied fra- 
g^c quodquc habeatar.Colores cornuam, vnguium, vngula- 
,pro cutis piloromquccolorefequonror.etenimcutisni- 
modn° rn,ia , nf S ra ^ Vn S al * nigrx oriuntar : & candidx parf 
Ixmed ,n rC ref P ondenr » «* cornua, & vngucs, & vngu- 
tesn^* Ct ' am mctliam eadcm colorcm prxferunr . At dcn- 

nataram ofsium armulantur : quam ob rcm hominum nf- 
vn^, Vt Acrhio P om «qoe flmiliom,dcntes*ofra candet: 

vn gUes nigri mnA n f n ~ „..♦:„ ^ . , 



rima 






£^ akxstot.de animalib. 

rima caua funt ab radiccquatenus ambiunt os, quod ortum a 

capitc cauo cornu lnfcritur,totumque implct:in mucronc ta- 

mcn folidum excunt,& firaplici parte extrcma conftan t. Cer- 

uis tantummodo tota folida,& fparfainramos, &omnibus 

annisdccidua,nificaftrentur:cura cxcxteriscornigeris nullu 

cornuaamittat.Dccaftratisautcm pofteadifleremus. Adhx- 

rcnt cornuacuti pctius,quam ofsi:vndcfit,vt in Phrygia && 

biboucs fint,qui cornua pcrindc vf auriculas moucant . Q2? 

habent vngues(habtt autem quibus digiti.digiti vcro ijs funt» 

quibus pcdcs,excepto clcphanto:huic cnim djgiti indiaifi , ac W 

lcuitcr formati,nec vngucs omnino funt) hsc crgo, aut rcftis 

vnguibus funt,vt homo:aut aduncis, vt intcr pcdcftria lco,in- 

ter volatilia aquila. 

Z)ep$lK,& ijs qt+£ pilorum uicefunguntur. 

Caput x. 

E pilis, atquc dc ijs quar viccm pilorum fuppctunt, 

&obcam rcm pili proportionaliadicuntur,atq; etia 

dc cute,res ita fc habet. Pilos habent quar pcdcftria, 

cadcroq; viuipara funt. Corticc autcm intcgunturj 

quaeouiparafuntpcdcftria.Squama vcropifccstatu»qui ouu*° 

arcnidum illud pariunt.Namex longis congcr,talcoaum non 

jedit,nec murcna.anguilla vcro nullum omninoouum generat» 

Craf5itudini5,tcnuttatis,copi2e,&magnitudinls pilorum difcri 

mina,pro partium quibus adhxrcnt condit!one,atquc pro co- 

tis qualitatc proucniunt.fit cnim magna cx partc,vt pili & da 

riorcs Sc cralsiores cuticrafsiori cnafcantur.Plurcs autcm lon- 

giorcshumidioribuslocis,arqaccauatioribus (dummodo finl 




ad 



Qu 



igitur mollcs fuaptc natura p ilos habcrc folcnt, hacc pcr vfufflj^ 
pabulimcliork,duriorcsinc?piunt gerere:contr&autem mol- 
liores,paucioresque ea,qu*duro*,copiofosque habucrint, ca- 
dcm illafcilicct rationc. Rcgionum ctiam tepore,aut fri- 
gore diffcrcntia cft wt pili hominum locis calidis duri,f rigidis 

mclles oriuntur.Sunt mollcs, quipromifsi & fimpliccs : «htffc 
quicrifpi. 

Depilis & cute,&ijs qutbuspili &cuth. 

Cdput x i # 

Ataraomnium pilorum fifsilis cft:fcdpluris minor/sve 
rationc intcr fc diffcrunt*Nonnulli paulatim adci duri- 



N 



dcg 



«Jcan 



LIBE* TERTXVS. £j 

«Icantur,vt pili hcrinaceorum. Qupd idcm vnguibus etia eue- 
nit:quippe cum in nonnullis animal!um,gcnus vnguium prac 
nimia dar itudine,nihi!o ab ofiibus differat. Cutis homini pro- 
portionemagnitudinistenutifsimaeft. Ineft incute omnium 
lcntor quidam mucofusrvcrum alijs magis:vt in tcrgorcbuba 
]o,exquoglutinumfaccr?folcnt Qninctiam cpifcibas gluti- 
num a nonnulIiscxcoquitur.Scnfocucem ipfam carcrc coftat, 
maximcqjincapitc, quoniamibinulla interpcfira carnc ofsi 
adhxreat.Vbicunquecutis per fc, acfinc carnc eft, vulncrata 

x j non coit: vt in gcna,bucca,pr#putio,paIpebra. Contexto pcr- 
pctuo cutis in omnibusanimalibus continuatunpec alibi intcr 
pcllatur, qu&m vbi naturales mcatus folcntcuapor^rc, atque 
ct iam in orc,& vnguibus.Cotcm omniababentquibuscfi i*n 
guisrpilos non pmnia.fed ficutdiftinflum iam cft. Mutajur co 
lor piloru jn fene&ute,candidiq; pili cfficiutur in hominibus. 
quod velcartcris animalibus accidit fcd non fatis apertc, pra> 
tcr quim in cquo.Candcfcunt pili k partc fui poftrema, Pluri 
mis tamcn canorum numeruscandicans illico exiftit : qua cx 
re patet canitiem non arldirate committi,vtquidam volunt. 

xonihil cnim illico aridum gigni folcr Cutis autcm vitio, qnod 
vitiligincm appcllamus, pilos omncs produci C2nos apcrtum 
eft.Iam nonnullis psli dom argrotarent, incanucrutrquibus in 
bonam valetudinem rcftftutis , nigrirenati font, canis deflu- 
xisCanciccrcpilosocyusopcrtos,quam deteflos, difflarosq; 
aducrtimus.Xcmpera hpminu,& partcs primorcs quim pofte 
riorcs celcrius canitiem fcntiunt.pubes nouifsimc canefcit. P i- 
liinhomJncanimalium omniiivnopartim fimul,partimpoft- 
** pcractates gignuntur.Congcniti funtpili capitis, * fupcr- 
ciliorH,*palpcbraram:poftgeniti,pubis primum, moxala- 

30 rum,poftremomenti Loca cnim quibus pili proncniant.toti 
dcm iunt congcnitis deputata, quot poft gcnitis dcficiunt ac 
defluont raaximi f primiq; pcr xtatera pili capitis, non tamen 
omncs,fcd tantum priorcsrparte nanque ppftcriore calous nc- 
nioefficitur.Ergo capitis Janiif atem, caluitium nuncupamus: 
quamrem infupcrcilijsfalitium appellcmus* quoad roclius 
vocabulum inucnerimus, ncutrum corutn priufquam ccrptus 
coitus vcncrcus fiMccidere nooimns. Caluiti j roulferes efle im 
«rones,* pucros & fpadoncs 3 apertu cft.Pili p£ft genitUjs qui Qu/tndo m» 
antc pubcrtatem Cdftrati hinr,n6cxcu«f:<Sr poft pubcrtateex- Ittrts mtnti 
^ifis,iolidccidur,prartcrquainpubis.riliin mcntomulieris nopilcfum h*~ 
ptodcunt,nifi uitcrdumpauci,cum meftroicurfosfobftiterut: btant. 

e &vt 



66 ARISTOT. D*E ANIMALtB. 

& vt interra Caria mulieribus facerdotibus euenireaifft,qcod 
diuinationis indicium interprecantur.Rcliqui pili,qai poftca 
gignifolent,mulienbu$ quoqueproucniunt,icdparciu$. Ficri 
poteft,vt homo,tum mas,tum etiam fremina, piiis poft gcni- 
tis careat^iam inde ab ortu natura? vitio contrafto: £ nifi vt pu 
befcant,contingat, fterilcs in gigner.do funt. Crefcunt cxtzii 
piliplusminusvc,proutfingulornm ratio poftulat,raaximi 
jn capite,mox in barba,& prrecipue quibus pil» tenuiores.No- 
nullis ctiam fupe<cilia per fenc&atcm adeo hiribf a redduntur, 
vt tondendurn fir,quod proptcrea eucmt,quia cehafi ni appo ld 
(ita fint ofsiutn,qnse fenefccnte artatc laxantur, & inde plus hu 
moris tranfmitti patiutur At vcr6 pili palpebrat um, nunqua 
plus iu(fco cxcrefcunt. defluunt rebus vcnercis inccrptis, eoqj 
inagis,qao vfus vcneris fuerit amplior.cofdeni etiam lentifsi- 
fntomniumcanefcercclarumeft. Pilieuulfi fubnaici denu6 
pofrunt,dumc{traxtstisfloreradegitur,necvlterius - Habet 
autem genus quodquc pilorum adfuam radicem lentnm quen 
dam humorem,quo protinus vbi euulfum cft, fi qua leuiuicula 
tangac,adh#rer,vt ca traherc pofsittcnacius.Quibus vero ani 
roalibus verficolorcs funt pili, eifdem etiam in cute varius illc 20 
color habctur,atquc etiam in lingua. Barba non pari modo ef 
funditur omnibus,(ed alijstarn raaxilla?,quam muftax, & meri 
tum,pilorum frequentia integanturralij > mcntum lxue,& mu 
fiax:iiiax:ll« pilofac ccrnuntur. Calncfcere mjnus iblent , qui 
mento funt bip.irtito. Crcfcunr etiam pihquibufdam in mcr 
bis,vtpr#cipuc m tabtficis. Qujnetiam in fencttntc &defun- 
£loaagefcuut,durioreiqucredduntur : quod idem vngnibus 
qacqueeucnit. Libidinofisprli congcnitimaturius dcfluunt: 
poft gcniti,celerias fcfc promunf . Minus , qui varices habent, 
calurfcnnt.Etfi calui habcreinceperint,pilos nonnulli prodo-? 
cont.pili prarciii non ab inciiura augcnrur, fed inferius ab radi 
ceexeuntratqueitacuaduntlongiores. Vifcibus quoque exte- 
naatisacicnefcentibus, fquatrurduriorcs, crafsiorc^aoc effi- 
ciuntar, Qriadrupedum ctiam viUi,lana?ue,fcne&ute proli- 
xius augcntur,qnnnquam rarefcant,fiant^uc pauciorcs. & vn- 
gala? quoqac maiorcs in fcncfta rcddnntar. quod idcm roftrfr 

etizm aaiam euenitlncremcntam vngularum idcm, quod v* 
guiuraeft. 

JJe pennU auium 9 & eorum mut ationc,alicrumy; 
animalium^e fotu quorundam flnminum. 

Caput x l U 

PenflS 



IIEHR TZKTlVsl 




t 

t^ Erinx mmm niitix per xutcs rrurantur, prarter. 

'. quagruu ,quas mgrefcere inirnefta peripicuum 

Jli^ii Cii ' Af ver ° P cr a&fius tcmporrfrios,quotic& fr.go 
^S^L ra vrgct acriora, pennje volucru vnkolores mter- 

du e ni ? ris,3utnigriufculi. s aibiduvf,in albas nankur.t.vrcor 
ui,paiTeris,hirundinis cu.us rei ccntrarium,vt qu.cqua cx gc- 
ncre albo vcnircr in nigrum,nunquaro viium efr. Tc rrporum 
qcoq; vicifsitodinc bona pars auium itacoJorc in mLtitu.-.vt 
qusnam fint latcrc poii.nt,n.ii rem peritius ncuerts Aquaru 
10 item diucrfarum viu,nonnulla iucs itr.routai.r colorc s:ahb t e- 

nimcandida,alibinigrarcddunturSuntctiamaqua:multisin 
locis,quascum oues b<berint,mo*c]ueiniermf,nigros generct 
agnos: vtm terra Aflyr.t.dc agri Chajcidici Thrac.x tacit 
amms, qucm prre nimiafrigidirate riychruro vocant. Et in 

Anrandria quoqucduo i untfluu j,quorum alter cardorcm,aI- 
tern,g rJliam p etonbui faC(f Scafp3ndcr ftiam ^^ flauaj 

rcddereouescrcdifur.quamobrcmXanrhuro P ro Scamarro 
nuncupatum ab Homero autumanf Lcpori vni pili,&- i„ b*c- 
ca intus, Ar iub pcdibus iuntxum csfcte animalia nec .ntra cs 
Jonaoeanr pilos,necpartcpedum reiup na,fcd prona. Muiculus 
ctiam pucis pilos in oreinrushaber vicedenriuro,qo.busorom: 
nocaret,iui]li i i m ,ii e ,. SecJ p, ij)yrdii c furn eft , pnciccii auger£ 

aOradicepcirunMupernei.onroiTunt. pcnna.- auicm ncc ab 
radice,neque iupcrnt- ab inciiura poiTunt rer>arari : fed cadant, 
nccciie cft.Ncc penna apium,aur cua:uis .nfcila renafci porefr, 

cumeuullacil.Aculcoeriamapibusdetrafto " 
tnr aJiusnmo breui rooriantur,nfcefleefr. 

£>e mtmbrants infanghtncHammaltbm. 

_ C*p*t xn r. 

V Vnt * tncmbrana: in iangu.neis animalibusrqu* quidcm 
^parsfimihj cutiprxtenui,ipifiuq;rft. bcddiuerium ianc 
genus id adcit,quippe quod hax nct fii» ile,ncc tculfuc fit. A m- 

OHiingula,tu ofla,ru eria vifccra mebrana.tam in roa.orr,qu4 

rominareanfmalmm generetvcru in minorefeniumcfugif, 
quomam admodum ter,uts,atquc cxisuafit.Max.macn.ter me 
0tan2sdn«iunti]l«,quibusccrcbrum.operium mtmitur alte- 
ra iupraadhxret ofsi,quar firroior & craiiior cft : aliera infri 
connguacerebro.mox qua: operitcor.rrag.a haucfur.Pneci- 
t ""««nprana ipia f yDC cra non coit; & cfla fois dnpohata mS. 
•ranisfydcr«nrur. 

Pfmnt; . Caput xmi. 

c a Omen 



<1 



nullus 



$$ ARXSTOT. DE ANIMAtH. 




fi 



quod otn* 



gue,aKamacilentum.Oriturid,&dcpedetin ijs, quas 

animal generant;cadem^5dentataparteutraq$ funt, 
i mcdio ventre,quavcluti quaedam futura ducitur.nccfccus in 
ijs,quae altero dcBtium ordinc parcnt,& jnaiorc vcmredepen- 



det« 



rflcd,& quomodo generentur calcul 
Caput x v. 



VEficaetiammembranacftrfedgCnus idaliud membranario 
eft,quippe quod tcndi ingcnue pofsit. Non omnibus da- 
ta vcfica eft,fcd ijs tantum,qux animal gignunt. ouipari aute 
gencrisnulli,pra»terteftudinem,dataeft. Nccvefica prarcifa 
coire poteft,nifi ad ipfum exordium fax ccruicis. quanquam 
nonignoroitaaliquandp contigifTcvtyulqerata vcfica foli- 
defcerct.fedquod admpdumrarecontingit,parum id obfer- 
uandum cenfeo Defunftis nihil humoris in veficam tranfmit- 
titur. At viuis non folum humor,fed etiam ficca quardam con- 
creraentadcfcendunt,ex quibus calculicowficiantur.Iamnon- 
nullis talia in vefica conftitcrun t, qtue nihilo diffcrre a conchy * o 
lijs viderentur. Ergo de venis,nerui$,fibris,cute,membranis, 
atque ctiam dcpilis,vnguibus,cornibus,dcntibu«i,roftro,cajti 

Iagine,ofsibus,eorumqueproportionabilibus ftatuendum ad- 
huncmodumeft. 

Escarne. Caput xvl. 

Aro autem hxc,& quod carni fimile in genercfangui 
nco,eft oranibus intcr cutcm , & ofla, autqux oisi 
proportionecontinetur. Vtcnimfchabetfpina ad 
os,ttacarpis armulum illudadcarnem.Diuifibilis vn- 
diquecaro eft,necvenarum autneruorummoreinlongam icjo 
cari tantum idonea.aboletur^S: in venas,fibrasquetrafit,quo- 
tics aniraal extenuatur,* gracilefcir.Vcrtitur itcm in pinguc, 
quotiespabulicopiafuppetit. Quibus multum cft carnis, ijs 
venasarfliores,f&fanguisrubentior,& vcntcr ac vifccr a par- 
ua.Quibus parum,ijs vcnarampliores, fanguis atrior, vifcera 




paruus eft ventcr 



carnem, quibus 



O*febo:& qu£ animahaaJipe.qu^feb 




fcant. Caput xvil. 

ebura 



fbamfi 



quidus 



q 



ttBER tUTtVJ, 6j 



concrcfcunt,vtouis, vtcapra:. Adipe pinguiuni Jiquida refi- 

Jtuntfri§ori,vtcquhvtfuis.lecisetudifoepant.Adepsenim 
inter carnem cutemquefoletCunfiftere : iebum in fine carnis 
ferapercft.Oraentum quoqueadipepingucfcentibus adipeum 



(cbo 



nulJisconuftit.vtintcr aquatiJia cartilagineis s quorum icd- 
noribuscolliquatisoleumtaciirus.ipia tamen cartilaginea 

lonullo dilcretoadipecarni, vcntriveadhjcrentepinguefcunt. 
Piicium febumadipem pra-fefcrt,nccconcrefcereJolet.Ani- 
malia quaruis aut intra carnem, aut feorfum pinguefcunt. E 
quibus autem pinguefeparatum non eft , ea minus per ven- 
trem,omentumquep nguekont, Vtanguill*. paucum enim 
eiteisiebom Jn omcnto.pjurima tamen parsanimalium ven- 
trcpinguefcit,* prxcipoi- qux parum ie moueant- Cerebru, 
vr adipepiflgueicen£ium,pinguiufculumeJr,Velutfuis. Sicfc 
boobeforum,fqualidiufculurafentitur,vtouis. Renes ex vi- 
fccribus maximepingucicunt. vcrum dexter minus femper, 

aoquamfmifter.& quamuis velicmenrcrfuefintpingues,tamen 
aiiquidJcmpermcdijsdeeJr. Qux- fcbo pJflguefcunt , magis 
quamquar adipe,in renibus opimandisluxuriant,acomnium. 
pra^ipucouc$,quippcquatrenibus pingui vndique obductis 
intcreant.quodvbertatepabulint,vtinSicilia agro Leonti- 
no her i conftat.Qupcirca fero diei agere oues ad pafcua pafto 
rcs JocJ illius folcnt,quo minus capiantpabuli. 

Vupillai omnibm animaltbttt tafdem tjft. 

Caput XVI II. 

/^\Mnium veroanimaliumcomunepupilla; inftitutio eft« 
Jo V/omnibascnim quxpartemhancpoi<ident,nec durisoca 
1« fant,febo conftat. M inus cfle fcecunda , qua: adipe pingue- 
Jcunt,fiuemares,fiue fasminx,notum eft. Omnia a?tate pro* 
octta porius quam noueiJa pinguefcunt:fed pra:cipui\ cum ii 

laarlongitudinisac latitiidinismodumadepta,augcriin pro- 
xundum incipiunt. 

SanguiHtm ommbttt & communtm, & neetffarirum tjfe 
ammantibiu fanguintU : de cp, fanguinttm ua- 

Srittatt. ^ Caput x Ix. 

Angnis i n primis neceJTarius^communisq; fanguineis oroni 
»as animalibus eft:nec aduentitius iuppctit,fed vcrnaculus 

a ^ae intimus in ommbus Jntegris, atqucimputidis habetur. 

c j Vea 



\ 



V. 



7<> 






ARISTOTE. DE ANTMALIBi 

Venashic vsfa fibl, &conceptacala !nbet:nec in vllo alio,nifi 



in cofde*pr£tcr venas conrinetar. Ta&um nullo in gcnerefen 
f »t:fi :af excrementa quoq; in alao contcnta,fenfu carere cer* 
ttiTn *ft Qjuinetfam cerehrcwii & medulla ta&um non fen- 
tiu it.Etfluittangaisqaamcunqaepartemincideris carnss vi- 
use, jc mcorruptie.Si ianguis integercfi:, rubet, & dulcis fapo- 
ri cftrfcd fi vel natara, vel morbo fit vitiatus^atrior cernuur. 
N c vcro idmodumcraffus>3 4tadmodam.tenufscfi\qai opti 
mohab tuconfter.hamid.js&calidus fcmper eft, quandiu in 
corporeanimilis continetur. At vbieffluxerir,concrefcit om- lo 
nium,prxtc rquim ceruorum,& damaram, & fi quidaliad na- 
xuraerif-noiifit Iraquccxferornmomntum fanguis fplflari 
folet, ttffi fibra? quib js rcferrus cft, eximantur: fed celerrimc 
omniam4anguistauroramcoif,duref:itquc. Copfa fanguinis 
in primis animalihus ijs,qa* anima!& Intrafc formant,& ia 



V 



lucem &\!anr:mox ijsfangutnei^qurpariuntcua. Qo^raa- 
t em vei natura.vel arrc.bono habttufunt, rjs nec muhum ad- 
modam fanguiniseft,vdat jjs,qug pcr altquam pofionem re- 
centemlangatneexundant: ncc furum,vclut ijs qaa:ntmium 
iuntobefj. qafppe cumprspinguiaomniafangatnem qaanvio 
uis purum,taf!ienpaacumhabeant:& qno plas pinguedtmV, 
tnmtatisn jfsideant fangninis. pingue enim omne exangac 
tft. ObcJa iVemfangu nem habcnt imputidum-, quanquam 
fanguis & qti£ fanguteea funt,fac le pntrent :ac pr.ixipii& 
qnasad^AapropiUI-applicantur. Homtmfanguis tenmfsimus 
acmundiLimustauro &afinointer eaquceanimal gcneranr, 
craftifsimus &nigrrrim?.u:parte eriam Infcriore crafsior, & 
atrior eft,quam iaoe, iore.Palpitat iritra venas fanguis omniu 
anun?ltum,p^lfo^2cfimulvndiqaemoaetar.folusq;omnjum 
hamoram fparflis per totumcenpus animalium eft. Et fem-39 
pcr qtunduivtta feruatur,fangais vnusanimatur,& fcruct.ori 
tur primum micvdcanTeqaa-ii totucorpus formctar. Si mtil 

fumfanauinise^fiua^animadefich.flni.niam^vitainrjrit. Si 
ftifguis immodict humefcit,morbus infcftat : ficenim infpe- 
cicrnfi.iicidiluitur,&adejfcrefcir,vtiam n6nulltfadorecro£ 
to exorrJariirit. Idem etiam Wterdum caufac eft, vt qut effluxe- 
rir,aironnt'ioconcrefcereneqaeanr, aut incompte partica- 
Jarimg; fpiff-taf . Dormf entfbas porro fangninis copia partes 
cxteri r*> deferit,f:i!>i^q; inr.ri^res, ira vuda£toculrcilo noh 
*r jutrffluerepof «r Fit nercocofttonecxianlcfanguif^cxfan 

guine adeps. V ttiato excrcfccntci]; fanguincyproflumu vel c 

a narib 






IlBEHTtRTlVS* 71 



naribu$,vel pcr infera marifcis mouerur,aut variccs fiiit Idem 
putrclcens pus redditur><juo demum cocaldceotcpot us>id c -ft, 
tofuslapisconfiftir For.ninisfanguis nigricr &a:afsior,quani 
roanbus eft 3 dummodo cxrera adfinr,paritcr qux vel ab a.»tarc, 
vela ianirarc proficifcacur & minusfanguinis per fummacor 



poris fcrminamm eftrplus emm partcinrcriorc cotinetur.Sed 
omniurofasminarumaximcmulierfanguinc 2bundat.Et quas 
menftruaappel]amus,plurimafieri in raulieribus iolentrquod 
gcnus ianguinis Yitlatum srgrotasq^fiuit immodiC(!.,atqj pro- 
>fiuuium obcam rcmdi&um cft,C#rerismorbis ianguinis mi- 
nus muiicres infeftantur,quara viri paucisitc mulieribus fiunt 
marifcasaut variccs>aut c naribus profufio farguinis.& fi quid 
corum acciderir,dctrimentum in menftruadccurcbir.Aeratum 
ctiam rationcianguisdifcrimen,tumin modo,tum in gcneicrc 
cipir.Erenim in artate admodum iuuenili i aniem trahir 3 & lar- 
gior cft:in fene&ute aarem crafliis, niger & paacus . mcdiu rc- 
nctinmcdiafirmaqjietatc.Concrefcit ctiam faciJfc icr.umvcl 



quod 



«* 



* ^/ _ — --__ -._ 

ucnibui» cucnit.Sap?ics,fanguisincoflus cft:aut quia concotfus 



' 10 nondom eft ? aut quia in fercm dcgenerauerit. 

CT' cajeo. Cap 



X *• 







«jl Edulfcerarioneijs addcredcbemusmaeo qaoquc h« 
midis annumcranda generibus in nonnullis fangui- 
nezsanimalibuscft. Omnia vcroqucc fuaptcnatu- 
&ss^S ra hutiiida in corpcrefunt conccptaculis quibufdam 
tanqaam vafcclis confinentur : vr languisin \cuis , mcdulla 
inokibus Aliain mcmbranis , sut cut*bu:,aut vtnrribus.No- 
trcllis adhucanimalibus,mcduila crucnra admodam eft.-atta- 
tc prpuc&is , aut adipc pjnguelcentibus, adipem traliit . fic 
30 febodeputati.s generibus 3 icbum prx fc fert- Scd qurxquam 
medulla non nifi incluia ofsibus cft,tamcn non oila omnia me- 
cullam intra fe contincntrfcd ea tantum qu& caua habcntur:ta 
mctfi ne ipfa quidem omni 2 continent . cfia cnim lccnis par- 
tirr. nuliara, partim admodum exiguam habenr . quamobrcm 
nuliam omnino mcdcllam Icones haberc ronnulli putarur.r ? vt 
dtftumeft.Iniuillis ctiam ofsibus minus mcdulur cft : & ncn- 
nulhsomninodecft . H*c ferMcmpcr in animalibus natiua 
*congcnirahumidigencrahaben:ur . Adnataautcm poftc- 
noracuieiunt 5 lac&gcnitura : quorumalterum non codcm 
ttodo fn omnibuscft , fcd quibufdam pro gcnirura thcrcs 
gcrataie virus fui gcncris habctur,vt pifcibtrs • Qu» verA lac 

c 4 habcr.t 









/ 



J 



72 A RX STOT. DE A NI M AtTB* 

habent omnia 7 mamrais id contincnt. Mamnax autem dat* i js 

ibnt 3 qux animaI&intrafeconctpiunt 3 & in lacem ^dant-vtea 
quas pilis integantur,vclut homo,& equus. Cetx ctia in aqua- 
tili gcnere,vtdelphinus,vitulusmarinus,balcna.H jcenim ma 
mas habent,& lac. At ca,qur oua parlunt,aut ouo intus concc- 

{Ko,animal poft in lucem excludant^hxc &mammis carent& 
aSe,vt pifccs,vt aues.Gcnus autcm vnumqaodq; la&is habct 
I um faniera dilutam,quod fcrum vocamus : tum corpulentum 
quiddam,qui cafcus didtur.PIus cafci lac illud habcrc videmus 
quodcrafsiuseft.Coitlaceoru,quxnon vtrinq; dentata funt. I0 
quaproptei' cafcus ex ijs fit,qux inter vrbana , dentium ordine 
carcnt fuperiore.eorum autem qux vtrinqoe dcntata funt , lac 
coire bou poteft,ficut ncc pinguc,* tcnue dolccq; eft.Tcnuifsi 
(imum camelicft,moxeqaa?,tum afinarrcrafsifsimum bubulum 
cft.Nullum lac coit frigorcfcd ferum potius trahit. Ignc nimi 
ram omncfpiflatut.& craflcfcit.NaUifcrc animaliara lacficri 
folct,anteqoam vtcrumferat,nccdumfcrunt. Vtilcomneeft: 
fcd primum,noui(simumq; inutile«Non prsegnantibus aliqua 
do,(ed raro,cdulijs quibuidam cfficitur,vt laftefcant.ctia qui- 
bufdam mulicribus natu maioribus,fu&a frequentiore,lac pro 
dijt,*copiatanta,vtinfantcm cnutrircpotuerint. Vbcraetia 
caprarum,quaecoitu nonp-itiantur,paftorcs montis Octar vr- 
tica pcrfricant vehemctcr,vtdolorcm ir.fligant itaq; primum 
crucntcum humorem cliciunt,mox purulentum , poftrcmi lac 
non minus,quam cx ijs,qu# vcnercm patiantur.Maribus ma- 
gnacxpartc,nccbcftijs,ncchominibuj. gfgnitur lac.ficritarac 
potcft,vt aliqaibus intcidam gignatur nam & in Lcmno infa 
lacapcr cx mammis,quasgcminas iuxra gcnitalegcrit , tatnm 
lachs emulgcbatur,vtcoloftra indecoficerent . quod idt ctiam 
proli mafcula: capri illius cucniflc acccpimes.Sed hxc oftcntis P 
annumcrand^potiusducunt nam&Lcmnioilli pecorisdomi 
no 1 conlulcnti, Dcus amplius incrcmentum pcculi j futurum re- 
fpodct.Virispoft pubcm cxiguumnonnullisrxprimitur:verfi 
tamen pcr fuftura ircquentiorcra,vcl multuro prodiflc alsquN 
bus traditum cft. La£i incft pinguedo,quc ctiam concrcto oleu 
prope trahit.Caprinum lac mifcerccum ouillo Siculi , A qul- 
bufcunq; fit copia caprinixonfueuerunt.Coit , fpiflaturq; po- 



20 



tiisimum,non modo quod plurimum habct ca!cum,vcrumctia 
quodfqualidioremJaaiscopiaquibufdam maior,qu4m adfcr 



cafeum prxcipu 



odam ad conficicndum,r4:ponendu 

lom- 

cqul 



LIBER T£RTIVS# 7J 



e 



qumum,acafininummifcentad Phrygiura cafcum conficien- 
dum. Bubulum fer tilius cafeo cfhquam caprinu . dim cnim cx 
amphora ladis caprini formagincs obola: vndcuiginti conficia 
tar>bubulum cadcm menfura rriginta facir,vt paftorcs confir- 
tnant.cjuibufdam quantum fatis ad fartum fit>tantum gignitur 
ncc vlla copia,aar ad repone dam commoditas fappctit, vr cjoi- 
bus maramar plares,quam bin*«nnlli cnim in eo genere ]ac,vej 
copiofom,velcafeo vtilcCogitur lacfaccco,fiuino,& coagulo. 
Succus lana exceptus pofiJlo la&e abluirur , quod inic&um la- 
to &xs copiamdenfat,at«|jcolloftrat. 

Bt coag»io,0>p4bi*ligcnrrfj qtiodlafHscofiam cxtinguat, 

q»odq;tdcmaHgcat. Cap. XXI. 

s 

COagulum,laftis fubftantia eftrauippc quod in corum ve. 
triculo,qaae adhuc laclent,contincatar.Eft crgo coaguiu 
lacignem habcns intra fefe,quod cum animallstemporeconco 

qaeretur,caicumtraxerit.Habentcoagalumorania ruminan- 
tia,& interdcntata vtrinquelepus.Qop vetuftius coagulu cft, 
eo prxftantius.talepronuuioaluimedcri prarcipoe poteft:at- 
qae etiam quod Jcporis eft.fed laudatifsimum hinnuli.Plus mi 
.* © nusvcemulgeri.difcrimen aur pabuli , aut magniiudinis ani- 
maliam efficit. Nam pofillx bucular, quas rhafiana rcgio fert, 

»ngala?afeundcbcnenciopabolimulgentur.& Epiroricx vac- 
caepra: faaprarcipoamagnitudine.amphorasnngolas iingulx 

impientlactis,menfura:queeiujdimidium ma nnsduabus pre- 

A °a Cr f ftus ^ ' muI g«>aut paululam fcinclinar.qaoniam lc 

dendovbcracontingercneqaeat.Cartcras piim quadrupedes 

magnas terra cadem Epirus gignit,exccpto afino:f cd prccipuc 

boues & canes . Paftu opus cft grandibus largiorc,quem rerra 

^ al>u,lde P r *berc,<* J°« fmguiis anni temponbus accom- 

Jo raodata habere ccrtum cft Boues igtfnr egrcgia magnitudmc 

ibifunt.atqucetiamoucspyrrhica:,aPyrrhorege ita cogno- 

jninatar.Pabuli genus aliudcopiam latfis extinguit : vt medica 

herba,& preclpn* ruminatibus Aliud augcr,Vtcytiiu>,vt eru- 

om.Sedcytlius dum fToret.incommodus cft : vrit cnim tantif- 

jwr,at<juecxringuit. Eruum pregnanhbus non prodeft:facit 

tmm P a riam difrkiliorem omnino.Qua: irrquadrupedum ge- 

ncrc fanr edaciora,eadem vt nd poisidcndura meliora.itaad la- 

»s «iamcopiameftcfcecundiora.videlicer dumaliroentico- 

P»am habc3nt,planiim eft. NonnuJJa criam flaruofa , pafta cx- 

^«a,,copiamtfficiuntl.Jtlis.vtfab3clar2ius datr ouibu^ca. 



c j prir, 



/ 






74 



ARlSTOrF. I>E ANlMAtfB 



pris 5 bnbas,capellisfaciurtcnim vt vb-ra dcmittantiTr. Indi- 
cin autefurursecopi.r laftis,cii ante partu vbcra fptf&at dcor- 
fam. Edarat diu lac omnibus,ii non coeat i nec paftu carcat co 
piofo-fedoraniilmaximi' quadrupedu,ouibusquippequiba* 
fralftramcfiuoaofpaciococinactur.Dcnic]; ruminatihailac 
&copiofias,&cafco vriiiuscmuIgctur.B^ucscircaToronnrn, 

paucis antc partumdicbusjaftccarcnnrchquo tcmpore habct 
pcrpcttio,Mulicrum laccommodiuslaricntibus eft>quod liuo- 
rem trahir,quatn qaod candidarn eft.& &ifc* Ulubrius habtnr, 
quim candidar.Eft pon u adalcndum valiriius , i n q»o plusca- 
ieicfWcd infantibu *» falubrius,quod r.jinuscairi contrahar.* 

m* m m ■ 



'/ 



zrewtnaiura. Cap. >: : i. 




; Emen gcnitalecrania emittunt,qua habcnf fcngnf 

Qcid& qaemadmodum conferat h ve ad gerii 
rationem,iuo locoduxrur.plunmum vcro propofc 



Ireg tionecorporishomocnvictif. Pilos habcmium kmc 
lentumefcrcartcrerumnullam hubet Jcnriam. Album omniam 
cft.nccaadicrdasHerodojnF,oui Acthiopcsgenituram colorc 



nigro promcrefcripfcrat.Exttprofciiotcmcnhocgcnitalc^al- 
bum*craflum 5 fiinte2ruraeft:fcdioristenuc tocum rcdditur 23 
& ntgrurn. Nunquam id gcluconcrefcit: imi admodum cxfe- 



u;e 



aatem 



prod 



qao.i 



quefubfidit:qacd autem infrecudum cft,difrundjfar,atq; cxo- 
lcfcit.Falfum ct^m eft qaod Ctefias dcgcnitura clcphantoru 
icriptum reliquit. 

ARISTOTELIS STA/ 



¥> 






G I R r T AF. D E M I S T O 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER. 

IX I I . % H T £ R V & E TE T H E O- 

008,0 GAZA. 



Dcani»iah!ms qmtjarguim c#reat) m *&* 

tuorn; corumgcittr&Mi* ci 




i 



r. 



e partibv namahu habcntiu lanjnl- 
ne,quascemnncs,q' ^te proprtai fingula ha- 



| -^ l'Ugenera:atq;criadcijsq«as fimihrcj.ddsi 
' £ Jj mUarctq; appcllauimus :deniq; dc omnibus, 

tam 



L XBEH QJTA K T V S. 75 

tam intcrioribus,quacxterioribus parribus,diftuiam eft.Nuc 
ordinem animaliii,quxfanguinc carent,pcrfequernur.Genera 
in hnc<5)rdine'piura junf Priroti quae mo]lia appcllauimus,hoc 
cft ,qu* fanguinc carenr,* foris carnc molii obdu£ta,folidu in- 

rus,modoiangu!ncigcnerisc6rincnr:qualc fcpia cftSccundu 
qus cru ftfe renuibus opcriiirur , hoc cft, cpx partcm folida fo- 
ri>,mollcm carnofamcj; inruscctincnr.Duru illud corumreg* 
mcn.non fragile,icdcoll;fileeft:quaIecancrom genus,&lccu-* 
ftarumTcrriuqua:filicearcftaconclufamun.urur,hoccft,qai 
lo bus par* carnea mrus,folida for rs,fragilis arq, ruptilir,no colli 
filU:qux genus concharum,& oftrcaru eft.Quartum infefta 0« 
mnU quod quid£ gcnus mulras & varias copie&itur fpccics *• 
nimaiiu.Sunrporr^iMfcfta^quscvfnomenipfumdeciarat^in- 
ciiuras 1 artefui vcl fupinavcl prona > vel etia vtraq; habcnt: 
tiecofTcu quicquadifcretu aurcarneum,fcd qutddam intcr harc 
ipfa mcdiu corincntrquippe qus corpore pariicr intusfoni clj 
duroconftcnr.Suntaia impenara,vriuli,vrcenrip:*k\aliap 
nara,vr apes,vjfpjr,fcarabci.a)ia vtroq; modo , vtformicae.cft 



cn 



? m p.irs formicaru penata,pars impenis,quod id£ vcl in ijs$ 

ras cicindclasvocanT,licctcoRtcphri.Parrescoru qux mol- 



nomincfiQcbran- 
uscoiincns inrcrio- 



lia nominauircuscxteriorcs, pedcs vulgari 
chlat^ijscontinau caputrtil aiaeasfiuciim 
ra,quc pinnulx j »ubi : t in orbercapur cnim nonnulli minus rc 
flcappeilarunr.Eucnirin mollibus fanc-omnibus,vt caputin- 
tcr peder,& vcntt hnbrarur.Brachia tergoo&onao-nmbus bi- 
nis acetabuiorutti ordrnibus,du&u pcrpctuo omnibus,cxccpro 
genere v.10 polyporu. S cpix,lolligcncs,A lolli j,peculiarc$ bi- 
nas forriutur proraulcidcs longas,acetabolo partc c x rima bino 
afper(uiculas,qiubuscapiur,firadoraadmoucscibosjjs etiam 
30 quotiestcpcftates vrgecad faxi aliquaadhaTctcs fe vcluti an- 
cnons UcHs ftabiliutrpinnulis atitem,quibus alucw circundari 
dairr.U5,natanr.Polypusergofuisbrachijs,vt pcdibusac mani 
busvtirur:qu!ppeq»jidoobusfopraos pofita citil admoucat. 
Vhi.no ver\\ quod& ;.*curiuf*&foIum albicans cft , # partefui 
^trcn3abifurcatuT,dorfoque2dnexum(Dorfum autem par- 
ton kuc appcllant,i qua acctabulorum ordo !ndioatur)hoc 
vlnmo inquam brachioin oiira vrirur-Fiftuiam idcm anreal- 
tocam pofnarnfupra b h<a gcrit cauam , qua marc rranfmit- 
^,quantum fooadmiferit alueo,qur,rtes aliquid ore capifcdU 

transfcit, modo in finiftram. 

$uoq; arramaum fundcrc aftclct.Natat 

oUiq 



J?w modo in de*fcr3rn partem 
'Wcadca fiftjlafuu quoq;att 



1 



7* ARISTOT.DE ANIMALIB. 

obliquus,pcdes in eam porrigens partem,quod capitis nomine 
appcllatam cft Atqac ita efficitur, vt cu m natat, profpiciat in 
aduerfam(nam ocalt fupra funtconftituti)* os habeat cx ;d- 
uerfo,Caputilludpolypis qaandia viuutu,praedurum & quafi 
inflatum eft.Tangunt,ac tcncnt brachi js fupinis,membranam- 
q$ intcrie&am totacxrendtint.in arcnam tamcn elapfis, facul- 
tasapprehendendi,ret!ncntii& nullacft.Diffcrunt poJyoiacc 
teris qua; modo cnumcraui mo)libas,co qaod alucus poiyportl 
, paruus,&crura prxlongarcxteiis^diucrio^alueus amplus,cra 
rabrcaia,ita vt potcftasnulla fit ingredicndi.lpfaautem intcrid 
fcdifcrcpant.qaatcnas lolligo longtor,<cpia latior cft. LoJligi- 
nevcrAlongcgrandior,quilollius nominatunquippe qui vcl 
in cabitaquinq/ cxcrcicat.Scpias quoqjaliquas in bina augc- 
ri cubita notam cft Brachia ctiam polyporum tantandc,arquc 

ctiamplasmagnitadiniscapiunt.Sed lolliorum gcnus pufilitt 
admedum cft,<$ facic quoq; a loliigincdifsidens.Pars cnim Iol- 
lij,qu<ecxitinacarura,ianoreft. pinnulae ctiam circundantcs 
iltetotum in loilioalacam ambiant,ciiin in ioliiginc partcm 
aliquamrclinqaant. Pclagias tamcn lollius non alio modo, 

quamlollioconfiftit.Capntoronjbusintcrcrara,qua! & bra-iO 
chia,# barbac^S: cirri appcllantur.Eius pars oris habitus eft,in 
quo dcntCi duofupra quos oculi totidcm grandiafcali , quibus 
difcrimen cxigaa quarda prarftat cartilago contincns cerebel- 
lamjneft etiam in orc caro quscdam cxigaa, qaa vicc lingax 
vtuntur.Iingua enim nullis hoc in gcncrcdata cft. Alucus ?i ca- 
pitcamplioriscapacitatis propenias,cuius carofiisiliscft , vc- 
rumnonperdire&um,lcdinorbc,CQtea;omnibas intefta cft- 



Osgulacxcipitangofta,* longa quamguttar fcqaitar am- 

Mifrtf , Wplittfcalam,ncqucab(imileaaibascai iangitar venter,tanqna 

eft, mmth, oraafam,facicclaaical^baccinoram.Intcftinum ab co tcnue 
tfjr} r* fif-parrcmrepctensfuperiorcmadosfcrtur,qaodlaxias,quamga 

jV, id f/?hcft.Vifccramol!iumnullis,fcdhabcntqaam mutcm appel- 
muUre , pro lant:vtramq;illum humorcm,cuinomcnarramentCi,quodfto 
mutn facere: rimum infepiaeft.Effandunt fuam id atramcntum oinnia mc 
idtnfepty^ tu percalfa,fed pracipur fepiarmatis crgo fub orc cft , & gak 
*m»in* mol- pereamtendit.At vcroatramentu infra cantinctur,qaia inte- 







r 



*■* 



menqac fuum cadem obao 



turralio no- latum habctmcmbrana,qua inrcftinam^atq, idem meatusetnit 
m$ne papa- tcndi atramenti\excrementiq; cft.Capillamcnta ctiam quaeda 
uer appclla* incorporeomnium habcntur.ScpiaNlolhgini,* lolIio,partes 
tum. durar,ac f olid« mtus per dorfam,4 corporis prcna contincn- 









IIBER QJTA RTV% 77 

tor,qaasnoncodcmappdlanrnominc:fcd quod infertnm fe- 
pijs eft,fepium vocanr:quodjoljiginibus,idgladiolum . Diffe- 
runt cnim,quod fepium robuftum,larumq;cft,inter fpinam & 
osmediampra»ieferensnaruram,fungoiam inter fe comple- 
ftcns Sc friabilcm corpulentiam.Ghdlolos arclior,& carrila^t- 
nofior cft.forma etiam difcrcpar,vidclicct pro alueorum modo 

quibas infe inferrus corinernr.Pn'unic nifwl <V-.1.-_.._. j_. 1. 1 



caputcartilaginepropeconftat.quxfencfcetibus maiorero in 

modum indurefcit.Differuntfoemina: a maribu*,quia in mare 

«o roeatus ille fubditus gulae a cercbello in ima aluei pertendit, id- 

q;ipfumadqnodferrur,fpcciemmamma:iroiratur.Infaemina 
-duplex idem illud ,fupraq; haberur. vtroque tamen in fexu cor- 

pufcula quatdam rubentia parti eiufmodi fubiunfta fpea_tur. 
Ouum polypi vnum incomptum foris,* grandc, intus humo- 
rem candicanrcm concolorcm totum,atq; arquabijem contincr. 
Tanta eft eius oui vbertas,vt vas impleatampjius capite po- 
lypi ipfius. S epi* alucus bipartirus eft,oua candicanria grandi- 
.niiimiliacomplea«permulra.Sedquifnam firns fingularum 
quasenumeranimus,parriumfir,ex defcriptione diiTcaionum 
*o contemplare.Cum vero mares in hoc gener e a foemin is diffe- 
runt,tum vel maxime fepiae id probat.Mas enim prona fui cor 
pons nigriora fopinis potius,partcsq; omnes afperiores habet 

qaamfajmina&lineisintcruenientibusvariaicaudam etiara 
acutiorero.Sedpolyporum generaplura funtrftenim quod * 
eonipectius & maximum eft,coiu 4 tcrreni maiores quam pela- 
n,!lTJ'i _"__' cor P orcex »g QO varioq; eft, cibo ineptum . & 

itatediuerfum ,<fc quod 



icera 



nauti 



, "fr-^*"™ nan qacoraniaduplicicaJcuIantur.Ad h*c,quod M un ' 
30 aJq boI»ra:naro,alij ofiolcmappcllant.Duoiterum vifuntur ge Xmm & P om 
neracoochis indita,quorum altcrum nautam aliqui vocant,al-f iltum '*»" 



» i ■> —« '"pwj/piac«„jjs vipccxuncuiisco- 

caaa,ijmpjextaraennecitadcftinata,vteiinh_:reant iarpius: ii 
loxta terram paicunt«r,vnde euenit vtfluaibus ia^ati in ari- 



/- 



ani 

bolt 



,._. ._„„ v.ndj.7i4 nuai (_ipi-nrar,aui m rerr 

ma «r,ngoantur.Conftantexiguocorpore,facie ilmilei 
'?mfcEftetiamqoi cochlearuromoreuliceotegmine ita rou- 
"«*ur,vtnanqoamegredi foleat , fuaque interdum brachia 
«crat. S ed de gcnenbus mollioro fat is Ai£kam iam eft. 



Cajntt _ 1. 



Crofta 



7* 



A 



P. I STOTE. D! ANIMALIB. 







•^fRufta autem inte&orcm gcnos prin um locufta : cri 



proximum genu? alterutr cft,qcem gamiuarum vo- 
cant.Diflert is a lccuftabrachij.squ* dcncrlatis for 
cipibiisprorendit:atq;et7am qoiM-fiamalfjs dilcri* 
roinibus,qaanquam nonmultis . Tertium genus lquilla eft. 
Quartumcancerqucrumian&plurahubenui genaa lomlla* 
rumenim gencrc ccntincntur gibbx,crang ncs<& parias quas 
rcaioresnunquam cfticipoflunt.Cancrorumetiam gcrus mul 
tiplcx cft,nec Mcilt* enuracrandum. M aximum quas Maias ap- 
pcllanrSecundum paguri,&quos hcraclcoticcs vocantTcr- i& 
Ciumfluuial^SsCXtcrircinutiores^nullisperunorainibusan- 

notati.Genus cancrorum littorale Phoenice fcrt,tant« vcloci- 
tatis,vt vix confequi fit:vndc hippcas,hoc eft equitcs illos aj ? 
peilarunt.ijsnihilfere iniusproptcrinopiam pabuli. Genus 






itemaliudeft,quodmagnitudinccancrum non cxced-it tacic 



gammans firaile.fed ijs omnibus(vt antc dixi)pan dur?»& tc- 

ftaccaforisprocuteeft,molIi$&carncaintu$ fupina corporis 

planiora & tabellattera lcnt,quibus & oua dc pcnuntcum pa- 

riunt.PcdcsIocuftisvtrcq;cxlatcrcquini,vlt!tnis annumera- 

tis,qui in forcipcm cxeunrd-rticalatum, Cancris ctiam omncs t? 

dcnicumforcipibus funt.Sqmilarum generkquasgihbas vcca 
mus,quinivtrinq;fitu,quoc^tcris.quorumproximicapitiaca 

tiorcs,<Sr qoini vtrinqjahj vcntri iubiun£h , qu >rtm cxtrcma 
latiufculaiunt.tabcUieijs nulisepartciupina pronafimilis \o> 



cuftaramcft.cancriscd ucrfo:quippe quibus pTimi ttnnqtic 

quatcrni,tum tcrni aIij,ordit>em ccdcm rrcdo cxpJcntcs. rcli- 

qaabona pars corporis pcdibuscaret.Fle&untur omnium cru- 

Minobliquum,ficur&infcflorum. Brachia forcipata qa«bos 

funt,introrfumfcf]eftunt. Locuftis*caudacft,<Sr pinnar qui- 

nscadiur.t.Sqmllisctiam gibbiscaud2,& pinn^ quarernf. Cra 

ginis quoq; latcri cauda: vtrinq; pinnae adncxx funt : qi/3;um 

pinnarum mcdia vtroq; in genercipinulishorrcnt. Ver uit) i* 1 
Cranginc latlora,in g^bbi. acutiora funt.Cancris ex ci uftaccis 

folis cauila deeft, & cotpof rotundurr eft,cum locofl is fquillif- 
qjlongum fiuDtfFertTT.as locuftaHaroina,quodf<rmina:prf 
»uspcsduplex,marifimplc¥.pir.ria!ttiampari iupit>a? acinc- 
X«,f(xm!i^maiorcs,A'QuarcoiloproxiTrx funt . irinores ha- 
bcntur man omnc^ «qnc minorcf,ncc vfqnam per diminutio- 
ccmdifsimilcs.Adhac,Triari in rcuil, iitiucruhbus , v< lut cai- 
cariamaiufailapromincnta.uta qnrfoemina parua babct * 
lcuiora.vtriqac tarxcn corni^ antc oculos bma 1 lcnga,& tfp* - 









LI3EK. QJV A&TVsl ^O 



ra quibus alia minura & leciora cornicula fubiaccnt . Oculi j js 
omnibusduri&ap»^mmimro,tumforas,tumetiam in oblu 
quummouerirqualcs etiam fuiitparti plunma: cancrorutn, 
imo vero mobiliorc s.Cammarocoior,qucd cx toro dixerim, 
X)iret:r>i8;n5qu^mncnli.<dirpcrrii cuanat.pcdcs inier/ores ad 
grandesvfquedifprfitio£ic,tumgramIes ipll longc maicrcs, 
extremaqucpartclatiores,qu?,m lccufbe habcntor : icd non 
fnecie cadcm.dcxtcr enim fuum cxti err.um , latum , & cblon- 
gum,&tenuchabct:finiftcr craiVum,iS: rotundum. Vterquc 

lo tamcn fciflus in cxtremo , pcrinde vt maxilla tam infra, 
quam fupra dentatus eft. Vcrhmdexcer pufillos,ferratc$qu 
dcntes continctorancr.hcuus primosferratos,imimo« vclut 
maxillarcs,fciltcetparteinfcriore quatuor,& continuos: (u- 
pcriore tres non continuos. V trrqnc ramcn partcm tnouet fu- 
periorem,adinfcriorcn:qire allringit . Blcfas item vrerquc 
fituinferioretanquam nati ad capiendum, premendumquc. 

. Duo fupra eos grandes habcntur : alij hirtiufcnli , paulo ab 
ore infcriores mox branchia: os circundant , non fine hir- 
futiafrcqucntes,quas afsidui- mouct . Fletf it, arqcc in cs 

ao adiucit doos illos hirtiufculos pedes./urculi etiam graciles 
gcrunturi pedibus, qui ori proximi habentur. Denteshuic 
quoque duo, vt locuffce. fupra quos cornoa brcuiora, tc- 
nu/oraque, qolm Iocufta:. Q^tuor itcm alia ad/unt cor- 
nua,fpeciequidem duobus illis fimilia:fcd tcnuiora,* bre- 
Ciora . fupcr harc oculi conftituti funt parui , crafsiufculf, 
non vtlocuft^, mafculi. frcns quafi qu*dam acuta & afpc-a, 
fopra oculos cxtat latior , quim locuft*. Dcniquc f-cics 
acuticr , & pc^us htias quam locuft* , totumque ccrpus 
mollius , & carnofios. 1'cdum autcm oCto nnnero , par$ 

Jo fcifia inextremo bifcrcator : pars dcfinit indiuiia. quatuor 
tt^MfatCCi funt, reliqui quatuor fimply:es ex toto pcr- 

autem collum appcliar.t,quinque partium 
, m latius illud fitum loco nouifsimo habcrar, 

tabellis continuatum quinque . intcriora vero , in quibus 
tcrmina: prius pariunt , quam foetum a:dar.t , hirtiufcula 
quaedam quatuor contincntur , quibus fir.eolis ipinar fin- 
gula»hrcues,araa?qMccminentadcxtcriora • Pcaus,corpmq; 
totum l*ue cft , non morclccuftarumacukatum^ afp^rum. 
Vcrumin pedtbus magnis acolcojpartiscxterioris maiores 
^itmanifcftum cft. Foeminamhocingcncre noUom diicri- 

saco« 



Qnod 

foris eft : & frv r . 



i 



$0 ARISTOTE. DE ANIMAHB. 



men 'imaridiftinguit.nam & mari & foemins forceps alteru- 
tcr granuior morc inccrto cft,parem vcro vtrunqnc ncutcr vn 
quamhabercvifuseft.mareomniacios generis orc cxcipiunt. 
Scd cancri parte oris cxigua addu&a rdpuuntrlocuftsr f uas ad 
branchiastranfmittunt.qoasipf* plnres,qoimc*tera habcnt. 
Communis cnim omnibus branchiarum adnexus eft . Dcntet 
omnibusbini.locoftiscnimduoprimorcs,& in prc caruncula 
quxdam coftituta pro lingua cft.Tum vcntcr os protinus cxci 
pit,prarrerqoimlocaftisJisenim gula antc vcntrcm cxigua. 
tnox i vcntrc intcftinum,quod locuftis, A iquillis , * gamrra JO 
r is rcflr in caudam finir, qua cxcrcmcnta qnittunt,* oua pa. 
riunt.Cancris autcm,qua applicatum illud opcrculum gcritur 
tncdioapplicaminisipfius veruminij^quoq.parte exteriore, 
qua oua pariut,definit.Foeminis itcm fruius gcncris locus ouis 
dcputatos iuxta intcftinum ommbuseft.Et quam mutent,fiuc 
papaucr appcllarunt^amplius parciiisuc habcnt hatc omnia gc 
ncra. Difcrimina propria contcmpjari in fingulis congruii cft . 
Locoftis igitur,vt modo dixi,dcntCb bini maiufculi,<fc tcr quo 
humorfimilismuticontinctur.carunculaetiam intcrdcntcs lin 
gu* reprxfentans effiglcm:& gola ab orc brcuis,quam vcntcr 20 
rocmbrancos cxcipit.cuius oftio trcs dcnticoli inhacrent duo 
aduerfi,reliqaus infra.Intcftinu veri i vcntris Jarcrcfimpkx» 
pari craffamcnto ad excrcmcnti vfqucoftium fertur.Hsclocn 
ftar,* gammari,* cancri fortiuntor.fcd locuftis mcatus qooqi 
k pectere pcndcns,ad cxcrcmenti cxitum pcrtinct qoi faetni- 
nis pro vulua eft,maribus gcnitalis fcminis rcccptaculum fulB- 
cit.mcatushiciuxtacauumcarniscontinctur,itavt mcdia ca- 

1 

ro interiaccarrintcftinum cnim deucxum pcrtingit,meatus ve- 
rocauo applicatur.nccfccus,quam in quadrupedugcnerehatf 
habcntur.NuIlamaris mcatum ac foemin^diffcrcntia d<ftin-}° 
guitrquippecunj vtcrq; tenuis(it,& albidus,& humorcm intra 
fccontinenspallcntem.vtcrq, ctiam cx pcftorepcndct Sq oi '; 
lasetiamouum,clauicolasq;/imilcm in modum habcre ccrtu 
cft Maribos fanfc prae fcEminis propria in pcftoris carnc bina 



1 



f 



qusedam candicantia conftant,difcreta ecxteris partibus colo- 
rcformaq; promufcidi fepiarum proximarverum tacctorta in 
vcrtiginem morc buccinorum papaueris,quorom origoab ace 
tabnlis,quar fobdita pedibus nouifsimis ordinantur.Caro in i)$ 
quoquc eft calorc fangoinis robra,* tafto lento, ncc fimil* 
carni.abhoc,peftori anfrattus alrer ftrocbuccinca,crafsitudi- 
ficllne*fcfcporrigit:fubquoduo quxdam arcna: conditioni 






_ l B _ * Qjyr _ R T V S. g j 



fimilia , femini gcnitali accommodara inteftino adneauntor. 
haec in roare.Foemina autem ouum rubidum parif,membrana- 

^IIIP AKllAlntnm M»m*Anfl«. -- -- - 1 _ __ _ m* 



\ 



tcriorcs atqac cxtcriorcs 



tan 



1/ 



+)$><!*£ fangmntm hdhtnt,conucmant 




Caput x _ j 

quarqi 
extcriorcs 



fl_____FS! ta i $ nominibus h-l>e_nt,genus quod ianguinc caret, 
^^pluribus vacat.Iam enim v,fcer_,qu„ ahq;f an gui- 

coXne s r nia ? naU ° m """** * aod habc " ' nouimus ^ 
^rem 7 " Vtri f e P artcJ 'S u ^.venter,inteftinum. Can 
cris aurcm forcipes,pedesati<- haK-r* * <; «-,i_, _n__. j, 



i 



parte grandior,ac 
Quinetiam de oculis d 



fom n_«-j -t - n- -» • vy_»-u_m ac ocuus dtximus y. v,- 
2? P|U T eflc in obliquum. Alueus vcrototius corpo 

5io£?5? ° fuD P rOn ^ n) P ,odi ^t«^rim,ne:a]i i s,nmei^;r ,,/; 
dknm °„ ; rfcr J mine »y« Heraclcoticis,aut maijs.Os oculis .ub- nm & »*_ 
£i TT^.^^^^^vtlocuftisrvcr-mnonrotundWcdJa ««fo. 
otid_ ; r ina ^T SO P Criuntdao ' intcr <i u * lal " i»teriacent 
i^7r ,qUa . ,aI ° CUftarQm acntlbus --necticxpoiui.Humore 
Orhfnr aCC,pi J'! egmin,bu$ilJ,J d'PcUendo,cmittitq; meatu 

me ,? C T rC,Obda£tismeari0O, ' Qua ta-crfln-it • Doplex ,iic 
«««, f_b o.-uIis eft. Ojiotiex crgo aquam acceperit , vtroquc 

SZZ °i ^"''"^"^-ithumorem. Guk poft 
vS, v a4modum cft '« « « P»*»™ venter os cx ciperc 
tcft C n?'V " ," bif ° IcUS § ula: ^ ubiu "g'^,cuius cx roed.^n, 
ri orr r Umplc x * tCnuc Proceditur,quod iub applicato extc 
nore operculo definit,vt diftum cft.Qood autcm inter tcgom, 

'S acet ' huius »»cuti locuftarum,dcntibu S adncaitur ? H«- 



1 



Dtffc 



slbida 



am 



itudine,& ppcrculo.id enim 
.„ -iftantius,& hiriotioj^c 
ctiam (oemiax locuftarum 



-brf iuntur. Partcs crufta intcfli 
gcneris,itafchabent, 



f Dt 






Bz 






. 



AUSTOTE. DZ ANIMALIB. ^ 

&ianimabbtt*>HH£ tefla tnteguntnr, ecrunnj; intcrfe 



differcntns* 



Caput 1 1 1 1 . 




r 



Vx vero tefta operiunrur animalia,vr vmbilici , co- 
chlcx-,purpur£,&:omnia qua! ottrei,aur concha: no- 
mincappellamus..3tq;etiamcchtnorum ecnus,car- 
ncm qu«cunq;habcnt,rim;literatq; crcftata habet: 
qmppe quac intus camcontincant^teftaq; foris claudanrur,nec 
intrafedurumhabeantquicquam.Sedipiainter fcfc numero- 
fadtfcicpanrdiffcrenria,tum tcftae,tumcarnis interiorisratio- 
nc. Alijs cnim in co gcncrc nulia cft caro, v t cchinisrali js eft, fcd i& 
pcfritusindafa,nccvllaex partc confpe&a,cxccpto capitc, v 
tcrreftrium iimaabas,& ijs qusr cocalia quldam appellarunt, 
<ftaquatiliumpurpuri$,biKcini5,cochlcis, & reliquis omnibus 
tarbiqatisCaetcraautdupliclconftant valaula,aut fimplici, 
vrgenus akerumbiualue.altcrumvniualue pofsit nuncupari. 
BiaaIueappello,quod gcmina tcfta conttnetur vniualucqaod 
ceftaftngulariclaadiror.Santitemqaibusaltera pars fupcrfi- 

cieideteda,carncinoftendat,vtpatelJar. Biualuis gcnerts pars 
elauhliscft^vtpcrtuculuiimitili.eiufmodinanqueomniapar- 

te altcra ligata,akcra foluta conftant, vt & concludi pofsint & l0 
aperiri.Aliabinisqu;dcmconciufavalnulisiunr,vcium vtro- 

q^latcrcconneya^vtvngucsfiuedigiti.Non dcfunt quce tcfta 
rotaocculentur,vtnulSaex partecarnem dete&am habcant vt 
quae vertibu1a,fiuctribera,& callos appcllamus. Ipiarum etiam 
teftaram magna varictas:r»am alia* laruc ,vt vngues,mitili , & 
concharu qo*dam,qaa$ aliqoi Galadas appcllant .alise fcabr*? 
vtoftrC*,^inn*,&concha: nonnullx,* buccina.quxdam etia 
pc&inatim diatfasvr pc&ucul:,# concharii nonnulia^Crafeiru 
dinequoqjdifferUN* rcnuitate«»rum totius.tnm partis.velutla 

brorfi.Alijscnimlabra tenuia,vtroitj]i«:aJ*jscraflra,vt eftrci*.** 

Itcm aliafc moucnt,vt pe£hnes*quos e*ia volarc nonuHi aiur. 

Nam dfc defcrramcnto quocapiuntur,fa:pe exiltont. alia itefn 

natura immcbtli ftmr,vt nanquam fedem,in oua hjercn^fpo ^ 

tcipfamutarevalcant,vtpinna Omncfaneturbinatoru etn 

stouetur & fcrpit.patclla etiam faxis abfolui,in paftumqj f« r * 

folitz eft,C6muneaot£& ij: qu* adbuccnomcraui,* cxtttii 

tcftacei gcneris,vt tcfta inras aeqaalis taeuisq; habcatur . C^ro 

biualuw & vniualois generi ita tcihc adharrer, vr nih pci vim 
ncqtjeardetraht.Atturbinatila^iorcorinerjr&abfolutiorcoi 

gencripcco!rarecft,vrreftarpoftrcma a capitc intorqueatur. 

Opcrculum ctia tadem iam ir.de abortu naturae omttia gerut. 

Moucntar 






IIBER QJARTVS.' ' gj 

Moucntur itcm eadcm omnia parte dcxtra,nan ad vertigin£ fo. 
uccIaaicuJam,fedinadacrfunK Par tes extcriorcs cios gencris 
difFercntijs ijs variantur.Interiornm natora fimilis quodamo- 
do in omnibus cft,maximeq; in turbinatis. 'Lferunt enim in- 

tcr fc magnitudinis excclTu^q; afFcftu.Ncc vcro multom vnx- 
ualuc,acbiualuc genusconchfilc fibi difsidcnt- quippe quxpa- 

ramdiffcrentiaintcrfeafFerant,cjuanquamlong^abimmobi- 
libusdifcrepcnt,quod latiuspofteapatcbit.Naturaergo turbi 
natorom firailis conftat,necnifimagmrudinevar«at,vt modo 
todixi.alijsenimpartfsmaiores,atq;caidcntiores: alijs minorcs 



A 



eiufdcmaffefhonum.Garo cnim prima 



orctcft^quam omnia torofiufcula haber,alijs magis talis,alijs 
minus.Caputeiusmcdiopartis prominulu iongitur,& corni- 
culaduo,qaxpromagnitudineanimantisplus minus capiunt 
incremeti.Exerutcaput morcomnia codc,idemq; pcr motum 
retrahut intro.nonullis etiam os,& dttes acmi,breoe^& tenues, 
vt cochlris.Promufcidas itc gerut medo mofcaro: quod qoide 
membru lingu* cffigicm ptrfc fcrr.Habet hoc ide & idcm pur 
10 pur* & buccina firmu,& torofum,quo fimilitcr vt afili atq* ta 
bani,quadrupcdum tcrgora penetrantrimo longe validius , to 
Itascnim cfcarum poffuntperforare. Vcntcros prstinus exci- 
pitjhmilis in vmbilicis guttur i auium:habentq? parre inferio- 
reduo quxdaalbida^orofa^mamisfimiUa^cuiufmodi caroncn* 
m vcIinfcpijseflraducrtimusrfcdhxctorofiora.Gula^ ven- 
tredaplex longa porrigit fc vfq$ ad papauer,qood poftremum 
tundocomiflbm cft.Haec ergo,vt in pnrpuris & buccinis cofpf 
cca,incbuiculatcft«continenmr.Qupdaute gulae fubiungi- 
tnr,intcftinu eft,gula? ipfi continou/implcxq; ex toto,vfq> ad 

3° cxitum .cuios iniriu circa anfraflom papaucris eft,qua & laxi* 
harret.quodenim papaucr appellamus, qoafi materia vacam, 

atq;excrementitia,magna fui parte in omnibus tcftaccisgenc- 
nbus ineft.Hincforfam verfas replicans,carnis rcpetitfedcm, 
nnitq; ad capat: vndc ei jcitur cxcremctam,pariter in omnibos 
rurbinatis generibus,ram aquaticis quam tcrrcftribns.Membra 
n * in grandiofcolis vmbilicis a ventre gal* atrexitur continua* 
P«r qaam mcatus prolfxior albica* colovcfimilis fuperioribus 

jilisroammiI15tibuscarniculistendit*Habetetiaincifaras,qaa- 
te in oao locuftatu habcrur verlim hoc albidn.illud robidam 
*»• Nullas exitas haic, nullu foramc poftrcmii patcr,fcd prf- 
tcnui racmbrana cauo pcrdaao* angofto cominetur • Ten- 







g^. AMSTOTE» D£ ANIMAHB. 

dunt ab intcftino ad imnm nigrantia quaedam afpera,atq> con- 
tinua,qualia vcl in teftudine vifuntur,fed minus nigra . Carteri 
quoq; vmbilici h*c habcnt eadem:fcd quo minorcs , co minu- 
tiora. Vniualacayte & biualuc genus,partim ijs fimilc eft,par* 
tim diuerfum :caput enim & cornicula,& os obtinct ,atq-, ctiam 
quodlinguajfpcciem gerat:vcrum haec in minutioribus fcn- 

iguitateeffug 



tis,aut nonmoucntibuspcrcipinequeunt.Papauer illud,quod 



ctiam mutemappcllamus,omniahabcnt, fednon Joco eodcm 
ncc par,ncc cx «quo manifcftum,fed patelbe in imo , biualuia 10 



teftarum 



circunda 



ouam appcllant,tempore quogtgnifolet,ambitus alteriuslate 
risora:continetur,vidclicctijs,qaibusdatum id a natura cft, 



onfp 



firailc 



habcantur,in paruis tamcn aat nullo pa&o,aut vix fentiantar: 



pe£hi 



nas id eft,cui altera valuularumlatior,veluttegmcn fopcrpofi 
tacft.Oftiamcxcrementicacteris a latcrc e(hforamcncnim*o 
quoegerant,omniahabent:qaippccum papauer illud, vt di&fi 
iarncft,excrementitium qaiddam omnia membrana contcntu 
fortiantur.AtiUi,quodouumappcllant,foramen,nullo in ge- 
pcrctribatumvidemas,fedcarniipfiintumeicit nec eade qua 
inteftinum parte continetur,ied dextera,cum inteftinu habcat 
finiftram.Capteriscrgotaliscxcrcmcnticxiruscft.Atvcropa- 
tcll* fert-,quam marinam aurcm quida appcllarunt,partc ima 
teftccxccrnitor,qaaforamcnhabctur.Vcntrcm ctiam poft os 
cflc,in hoc eodem patdla? gencreconftar,atq; ctiam ©uis illa fi 
milia.Scd quis coram cuiquc fitus fit,diligttius ex diffc&ioni- Jo 
oas pctendum eft.Quem autcm canccllum appcllant, comunis 
fcrifocius cruftatoram,& tcftatoram gcncrum cft:quippequi 
fpcciciocuftisfimilisfpcactar,nafciqucfcorfum perfc folitus 
fir.Vcrbm quod tcftam dnndcpctit,quam ingreiTas vitam tra 
ducat,hincfiroilisteftaconte&is animantibus eft : quapropter 
i$ in ancipiti eflc,gcnusquc fibi vcndicarc vtrunq; vidctur.For 



fquodfimplicius 



artcm capiti * pcftori fubditam 
cat.cornicala duo rufa tenu ia pcr 



aranci 



ha 

gcrit,quibus oculi totidcm fab* 
iacent,quinunquam intro rcccdant,vt cancrorcm ,fed fempet 

emmcntesappareant.ojfabijs cft,quod vclat capillamentis 

atiibufdam 



LIBHR. QJARTVS. 

quibufdam plaribus circundatur.i js pcdes fubiun 



«5 



adh«r 




ri,&tcrtiusparuus.Thoracisparsinfcrior mollistota cft,di£- 
ic&oqac fina pallidura intuscernitur.Meatusaboread vcn- 
trcm pcrgit.foramcn excrem eti pcrfpici nallum poteft . pcdes 
ac thorax duriticm pne ic ferunt,fcd minus qoAm cancri.Nexu 
nullo tcftis adh£rct,purpurarum modo & baccinarum,fcd ah* 
folutus libcr q* vagatur . Oblongior cft qui turbine iubit,qua 
qui neritem,quera naticcm intcrprctamur.gcnus cnim diucr- 
lo inm cft quod innaticedegif,c£ tcra qaide non abfimilecfeddex 
trura bifurculatum pcdcm paruum habcns,ctim lseuu grandiuf 
culum habeat,& ingrcdi eodcm ipfo grandiorc potifsimum fo- 
lct.Tale profefto gcnus,vel intra cochas,quarum adhsefio fimi 
liscaeteriseft 3 repcritur:quod & fquillam paruam appcllant- 
* T n * pla,<& rotanda , forma bu 



ihpapaucrc tamcn non nigro,vr illa,fcd rubro.teft* adnexum 
corpus raedium cius firmitcr cft .pafcuntur h*c mari tranquil- 
lo,abfoluta faxis.At quotics flatus vrgcnt,canccJU hofpites iU 



lunt 



*o adharrefcunt more patellarum,& muricura,acc*tcrorum gcne 



adh*ret 



culura fibi pofsidcnt. Vfum cnim,quem biaaloibus pars vtraqi 
adminiftrat,eundcm altcra cxhibct tarbinatis.Caro intus, qaa 
oris habitus.Modushic idcm muricibus,ptirparis,atqac omni- 
busgcnerisciafdcra.Qwibas vero finiftcr pes grandior eft,ij 
nanquam cum turbinatis hofpitantar,fcdcara naticibus tantfi 
incantfoc!ctatem,vtdifturacft.Santintcrcochlcas,qu*intra 
febcftiolas habcantfimilcs gamraaris pufillis,qui vcl in flami- 
negignuntur:fcdcadiftcrcntia,vtpr*raollcra intrafaam tefta 

carunculam habcant.Forma qualcs nara fint,cx diffc&ionibus 
contcmplarc. 

Dt echinorum gtnert ■. Ca^ut V. 

Chinis caronegataeftridqs ipfum habent peculiare t 

qtuedam in 




Gencraech 



odcibo 



tlentaqac cofiftunr,p 

ouelli adhuc paruiqu 



quse gencra p 

appcila 



- 



Saafimafremautmarriccmdixcris cchinorum , cu* auidcra 



* I 



omncs 



■v 



#6 ARISTOTE. DE ANIMAIIB. 



J 



mtnfUfu 



nis longis pra*durisq; g/gni in alro gurgite foliturn,quo nonol 
li addiftillationcs vrina? medicamenro vtuntur, Circa roronc 
echini nafcuntur candidi 8t tefta,& fpina,* oaoraugcri forma 
producliorc, qaamc_creri folifi.Spina ijs pirua.nec rigida,fcd 
mollior.nigra autem illa or i ap pl:cata,plura 7 <S_ ad forame ex- 
tcriuscocanriahabcntur/cddifian^a IntCrfcfe , qoibus quafi 
interuentalirr.inum difcriminarur.moucnrur agtlius,#freque 
rius,qui fnnt dbo idoncircuins t ci argumcnram, quod fempcr 
sliqaidalgaefais fpinis implcxumgeranr.Sunt crgoomnibusro 
oua.fcd nonullis eXigua,ncccibo npra.Euenitautem , vt quod 
caput appcllantft o_,ycrfom iri terratn fit.quod vcro ad excrr- 
mcnri exitnm depufartieft,id fupra habeatur.qaod idcm oruni 
bustarbinatf,patellhq»cucmt.paftoscn!mdcirrispct2tur,nc^ 
ccfic cft. Vnd<_ fir,vt osinacrfum ad paftam fit.cxcrementu vc 

rofuperiuspartcpronateft^contrncarur.Dcntcs qnini echi* 
ms omnibus fant,caui f ntrinfecus rinter quos caruncula qoxda 
intrriacens linguae officio fungirur.mox iungitur gula , deindc 



ftus. _ 
cocnnr 



obdu&a 



diuerf a,eodem in omnibus impari quinario namcro : quoram 
qaod nigricar.particredirum cft fuperiori,cx dentium origine 
pendc^s,amarum,necefcolenrij.qn3lein roulris incfTcanimad- 
uerrimus,autccrtieiosproportionale.nam & in teftudine,* 
inruber2,&inrana,arq;eri^m inrnrbinatogencrc&fn mollf, 
icdcolorediaerfo,*auromninoinetiftabili,3nr magis ab vfo 
cibario alieno. Corpas echinis priore atq; nouifsima partc ipif 
ium ,* continens c*rcra ver6 non continaum,fcd fimile Jatcr- 
n2?,caj non obdufta mcmbraoa cft S pinis fais echtni vfuntur, 20 

DCr!nd_.____n_vl;kr_<»__c_w_.^ ~;*_L.1 J. -» _- .^ * 



& 




q; eornnmmantiZnatHra . C^put 



Vsautevcrribola^uccallosfpecialinorc a tcgmf- 
nis quahrare appe!]amo*,nafura infer h*c genera pc 

culiarefortirinorueftrijsenim foliscorpastom tc- 

^ gumctoinclad?tur,caius durities inrcr tcftam &co- 

riomcft-quamobrem modopraeduribubali tergoris fccatar. 

Adhwer-ergoid gcnos i? f xh fua tcQa, ducquefepofira tar 

t?r fcforamina exiguaadmodum habcr, & vifum vixpatfcn- 

tia quiboshumorem accipit,& rcMit. Excrcmentu» enlm 

nullutn into fpefbtur , qualc in crter is oftrcis , vcl echi- 



v 



nxnm 






XOmod 



1 1 B E R. QJV ARTVsi j 

nArum,vel quod appellant papaacr,continetur. Bifie<ftis*pri- 
xnum mcmbrana ncruofa,cruita ambiente obtcnfa oftenditur, 
qua vcrtibuli caro ipia continctur,nulii ccxrcris ii.Tiilts,in a- 
mnibu* tamenfai gcneriscadem.Adharcthax: vtroque cx /a- 
tcrc membrana: circundanti 3 & corio:& qua acih*rct,ai<ftius in 
parrcm vrrauqae cft, Videlicet qui tcndit ad mcatus dudios fo- 
raspercruftam,quibus rcdJitur&accipitur cibus &humor, 
quafi altcrumfuosjalterumoisiam cxcrcmentisdcIcgaiu.Ncc 
Lsidcm, fcd alterum crafsius,altcrum tcnuius cft, caaiiq; 
incus vthnq;,cxiguo quodam interucnicntecotinuo, humorq; 
in altcro cauo confifterc folitus cft. pars veroalia,qua: vcl in- 
ftramcntalis,vel icnfualis fit,nu;la omnino pcrcipitur, ncqtie 
excrcmcntirium qaicqaaroC vtdictum iam eftj qno in cajtcris 
morccotinctur.Color vertibulL«,aur paJiidus, aot rubiduscft. 
Vrticactiam fuigcncriscermtunquippequse & adhxrear fa- 
xis,morc nonuJloYum intcaorum tefta: & intcrdum faxis ab- 
iunfta vagctur.Nulla huic tefta,fcdcorpus omnirx partccar- 
nem pneiciert.Sentit,& manura admotam corripit: adhsre- 

«ofcitqjpcrindcacpolypusfuis braehijs,itavrcaro inrumcicat. 

Os mcdio in corporc conrinet, & dc laxoqtufi dc tcfta vicir, 

*pr«natantcspiicicoloscxcipit,rctinctq3,ficutmanuadmc- 
ra iiominis agi di&um eft,dcuoratcp in hunc modam quarcuqj 
natta cft eiculcnra. Abfolui ctiam iaxis gcnns qaoddam vrfic* 

( Vt modocJiri InnfMfftm *ft-.nnsi*J J»»jw.h; M «.., 3. n .A.. n ^ n 1^r- i* 



1 



od 



gcnu 



vrticarum:alccrum corporc paruo , quodcibo aprius cft: altc- 
ram «n<«iu(culoduroq5,quaiccirca Euboiac Cakidcm gignjfci 
jomus.iuntomncs hybcrnismcnfbuscarncconftantcarquc ri 
g^diuicula. qaamobrcm pcr td tcmpas capiutur,aboq;idonet 
^ut.Atarftate rarcfcunt,&reioluunrar,pr*madent cnim & 



Cie 



facil 



regrapotc 



Hentia ia xa iubirc intcnus ioltt.Partes lam cxpofui moilium 
* vci crofta , vcl tcfta iutcftorum,ta cxtenorcs,c| intcriorcs . 



* 




Capnt 



vr c 



'« 




Vncdcinfediis parirationc rraitandum cft. Con- 

tinct gcnus fpccics piurcr.qiur um noncliif.quam- 
uiscognatis nomen nulluir coniftneeir indirum, vf 

ipijCraboni^vcipariCf tcrisq,- gcncris eiufde Itc$b* 



f 



4 pcniwe 












28 AMSTOTE. DE ANIMALIB# 

penna» vagina inclufa?continentur,vt gallcruc3e,fulloni,plIif* 
lario,<ftrcliqui$generiseiafdcm. Omniamcrgo partes coro- 
muncs illas tres haberi conftat, capur,aluum, tXrqacd inter 



harc 



Qua 



& multipeda,ijsferetotidem funt quanntcriacent, quotiiici- 
fura.Infcfta diuulfa ctiaviucrepofluntomnia-, cxccptisijs, 
<JU£ vcl admodum frigcant, vcl pra; faa cxiguitatc quampri- 
reti refrigercntur. Nam vefpis quoq; diualfis,non dceft viua- 
citas.Viuit crgo cum pe#ore,tu caput,tu etia aluusrat fineco i0 
capntauulfum viuerenopoteft.Diutiuseaviuuntdiuulfa,qoi 
buscorpos longum,pcdesque muIti,<Sr parsqua* ab/cifa eft , in 
vtruq3femoaetextrcmu.na& caputverfosingrediturr& in 
caadamrvt in ijs,qaas vocatcentipcdas,moucri vidcmus.Ocu 
liin omnibus patent : fed nulla cxca^teris partibus fenforijs 
manifefta eft,prxtcrqaa lingua in nonnullis, qaar vcl tefta in- 
tcftis omnibusdata eft,qua & goftant, & cibum attrahut. harc 
alijs mollis,infirmaq; eft:alijsdnra : * valida,vt purpuris,ta- 



alijspl 
guam 



gcrunt 



habet qaibas ian&um id cft,cxceptis qaibufdam paucis. Nam 
& mufcx eo ipfo pertingentes,cruorem moucnr,& culiccs eo- 
dcm acrius pungunt.Habcnt aculcos itcm plcraq; in/e&orafflt 
vel intus conditos,vtapes,& vcfp#:vcl extra prominentes, vt 
fcorpio : qui cti^m vnas inter infcfta lon^o f piculo armatur. 
is brachia qof nq; bifulcis dentata forcipibus habct, atq; ctiam 
bsftiola,qaarinlibris fcorpionicreatur.Qar autemineogc 
ncrc volucrum fortiantur naturam,ijsprxter cstcra mcmbra 
pennc adacxx,alijs binar,vr mu/css,alzjs quatcrna-, vt apibus. 
nullis bin*,qijibus in altioacufcos. Itcm ex volucribtts ipfr?3 c 
alia pennascraftafupertienicnte,qaafivaginainclufas gerut, 
vt fcarabei:aliadctc£tas habcnr,vt apes.nullis volatus regitur 
gubernaculocaud^&pcnnaipfanullocaulcconftat^nollafcif 



Adhax 



Qu; 



vclcrura poftcriora habcnt longiora, vcl gubernaculis qaibaf 
damfaltuiaccotnmodatis fukiuntur retro curuatis, vt crura 
quadrapcdam.Omnibuspartescorporis prona: differunt Ha 
pin!s,ficut vcl in crterisanimanobuseft Qnpd autcm procar 
ncftirjsh i >ctar,fdnec tcftaimitatur , ncaTquod in rcftaceis 



genu£c:irtij$ 



*> 

» 



I 




harc rtf < 






ruram: 



\ 



♦ 



LIBIR QJARTYS. 8? 

tara:qaamobrem his no fpina,no os, no aliqoid fcpio iimilc, 
non icftam ambicntem natura dcdit: ipfum cnim corpus fc fua 
daricia tueri potcft,<& feniare: nec cft quod aliundc muniri de- 
fiderct. Cute omnia circundantur,fcd admedu tenui. Partcs in- 
f ctiorum cxteriores has efTcatq; in hunc modum fc habcrc co 
ftar.Intra finam aborc intcftinum pluribusdire£tum,acfim- 
plcx vfque ad exitumfcrtur:paacis ideft replicatum. Vifcus 
nailum in i js,nullum pingue,ficut neq; in carteris, quse fangui 
nccarent. Vcntrem etiam nonnulla habere aduertimas, k qao 

Xj reliquam inteftinumvel fimplex,vcl rcplicatam proficifcitur, 
vt locaftas.Cicada mter hxc, & omnino in animaliqm gencrc 
vna orccaret.prolixum quiddam compaftum, indiaifamq; gc 
rit,fimile ci quod linguar fpecic rcfert, in ijs quibus aculcus in 
ore.eocj; ipfo rorem haorit,alimentum vnom * peculiarc.Ex- 
cremcntum cicadisnullumin aluo rcperitur. Plura caru funt 
gencra,quaemagnitudinis modo diffcrunt :atq; ctiam qaod 
alijscorpas fub tranfuerfo fepto pnecinflam diftingaitar, me 
branamcj; liquido rcfert: vt i js quas ab argatiolo f ono, ache- 
tas appcllarunt:alij non itaeft,vf cicadaftris.Sunt vcl in mari 

10 nonnulla animalia cffigic infolentiVS: fuigencris: qax quonia 
rara inucntu fint,conftirui in gcnus non dccet.iam cnim pifca- 
■tores vidiilc fe rctolerant qujedam trabunculis pro x ima, pullo 
colorctereti figara,pari ex toto craffamcnto. Itcm alia fcuto- . 
rumeffigic,colorcrubro,pinnuliscrcbns.Ad hxc alia,qa*ge 
niule viri imitarentur,tum fpecfe,tum magnitudinc, fcd pcn- 
nis fubnexis binis loco tcftium, eiq; vcretilc nomen inditu eft. 
cxccptumq;eft aliquandogenusfalchamorumfrcquetia vfi- 
tata.Partesanimalium omnium inrerforesexterioresqsgenc- 
ratimjtumpropri^tumd^mmunesiitafchabcnt. 

J3 guibtu ammahbus infit fenttendi Uif% 

Caput VIII. 

Vncdcfcnfibasd.fT-rendumcft. Nonenim paritcr 

in omnibus vis fneft fentiendi:fed ali js fcnfus omncs 

alijs pauciorcsdcditnatara.Santfanefenfas qoipla 

rimi habrantar , <5bfupra quos nallum adefle alium 

gcneris iui noaerimo$,numcro quinqnc: vifus, aaditas, olfa- 

^as,guftus,tadus.Homoigitur,Aquaecunq;tcrreftriumani- 

^3lgcncranr,atq;cfiamc]u^* fanguinem habent,& animal 

pariunr,omniahos omnes habercfcnius videmns,nifi quidla> 

ium,laccfiitumq5fit:qualcgenustalparuaj,caiviiasdeeft-N6 

*"im oculos in apcrro id habct: cut c tamcn detrafla, quar craf- 

f j fiuiculi 







i 



70 ARXSTOT. DE ANIMALIB.* 









frafcula obtenta fcdcm laminnm opacat ,oculi intos lacefsiti im 
perfe^iqjviiumur.icd ita, vtpartes cafdem habeant omnes, 
quibusoculiJntcgri conftant. Habenter.imnigricantem jllu 
orbiculum*& quod intraecm continctur,quam vocantpopil- 
lara,atqueetiam portionisalbiUcambitioncm:fednon tarali. 
<juido,quam oculi conipcdti & croincmes. ncc in partem cxte- 
xiorcm apparere h*c poiTunt ; propter cutls obdu&s cor pule- 
tiam,vtpotecumnatura intei gencrandum tedatur, atq; ita 
opus incheatum relinqoator. pcrt:nentcnira accrcbro,qua ce 10 
neruoconiungitur, meatus duo neruofi validi ad ipfasoculo- 
rum icdes,qm in dcntes fupcriorcs finiunr. Cattera igitur,& co 
Jorcs & fonos ienriunt,atq; etiam odores,faporc{q;.Quintum 
autem fenfum,qocro taflum appcHamus,omnia habcni anima 
lium genera.£rgoinnonnullis Velipfa: fenforiarparteslati/si- 
mh patent,ac prarcipue videndi.Nam vifui kdes cei ta dcfcri- 
ptaq; eft,atque etiam auditui:cu alijs anricuk promineat,alijs 
foramina pateat meatusaudicndi.Olfaaus item pari modoco 
ftituram eft diucrforium. Na auiii gcneri foramina tantii iunt 
odorandi^um alijs permultis narcsctiam habeantur. S imilis &20 
lingux partis faporum pcrcipiendoru miniftra: ratio eft . A qoa 
tihum tamen gencri quos pilccs vocaraus.dara qoidem eft lin- 
gua,fcd iraperfeaa,incertaq;:oiTeacnim,nccabioluta.Sed pa- 
latum nonnullis carnofum pro lingoa eft,vclut int er fluuialcs 
cyprino,ita vt n!fid,ligenterinfpexeris,lingua ideiTc vidca- 
tur. Pifces autem lenf um guftus habcre conftat, eo quod rouW 
fois quibufdam faporibus gaudent, <* efcam in primis ex pifce 
aroia cxpetunt,&pilctum pingue, vtqoi guftatq eiuimodide- 
lectentur, voloptatemq; ex eo gcnere clculcnticapiaof . Audi- 
f usvero,olfactusue nulium continent mcmbrum roanifeftum P 
Quodcnimrale videripoteftpcrlocanarium,id nonadccre- 

brom vlquc tranfmeacjfcd partim ebfcptum & cacura mox de 
finit,partim ad branehias fertor. Audirc tamen, atquc olfaccre 
pifcespalimeft.ibnoscnim immodicos , vt tr:rcminra rcrai- 
gia,fugereviiuntor.Itaqucfir,vtfac!leintra Juaftabnla capla 
tur. Nam cth externus ftrcpitus parcus eft, ijs tarocn qui de- 
merfuminhumorefuuroauditum habcnt , a-qut-. oranibcs in- 



od 



vni- 



uerlum circundcdcrint grcgem delphinoruro, indc obftrepct*. 
tcsin marc,cffaunt vttcrriticrumpantvniucrfiinlittOFa.ca 
pianturq; tcntato grauatco; capitcpra ftrepiius inft iftlni- 

mictatc • 









IIBEH (iJARTVS. 

njietatcqaanqua neindelphinis quideparsvlla cA manifcfta, 
qus fcnfum miniftret audiendi Ad harcintcr pifcadum quam* 
nuxime caacnt, ne vcl remo, vcl rctibus moueant ftrcpitum: 
fcd cum alfqao in loco grcgatim pffccs ftabuJari intcllcxcrinf, 

ccrtointcrualloconic£tantesretiadimittunt,vt ncque rcmo, 
ncque impctu cymbac ftrepitusad locuro deacniam pifciura: A 
omnibus pra?cipitur naotis filentio qaammaximo nauigef, du 

.... , . [cespJacuc 

epuntcnim 



91 



gregcmcircundant.Nonnunquamvbiaggregarepifi 
rit,idem faciunt quod in dclphinoru captorarobftrep - 

loia<aislapidibus,vtdcterriti inarftios coeantarqueira vniucr 



fi irretiantur:& antcquam circunueniant,orrnem, vt modo di 

3cj,ftrepitum vcrant. Atcom circundatom iam eft,clamandum, 
obftrependomq; iubcnt:ftrepitum cnim tumultumq} fcntien- 
tesperterriricoropellunfur,intcrnimpnntq} incanti Ifem vbi 
piicatores e longinquopifces agrninatim pafcentes. acpcr tra 
qmllijcrenici maris iummaoberrates.afpcxere,Iibuite} magni 
tudinegcnus^ cognofccre.fi lltftiofenfimcj} acceflcrint,latef, 
iupernatatesq; adhuccomperiant.Atii quepriufqoaoccopa- 
nnt ftrepitum cit arinr, fugam f nde plane arripcrc videntur . 
o Addo ctia pifaculoi fluuiariles cottos nomine,qui fubfaxis fla 
- antur.Capiunrurenimanonnullisfaxo pcrcQflb,fi»bquo 




extur 



F r jwepitom tcntentur. Pifccs igirur audire ijs ac ajijs eiuf- 
modidocumcntisconftat.Suntautcmquivelmaximeanima- 
Imm pifccs auditu valcrearbitrenrjr,videlicct homiiram cxpc 
nrricnto,qui afsidu* in mari verfantur,remq; pifc3toriam per- 
calicnt. Sunt vero qui liqujdius inter pifces audiant, mugilis, 
chromis,lupuc,falpa,& reliqui id genus. Cartera pffciu geuera 
"'^ audiunt:qnaobrcm minus rarPiribus verfari potiusfo- 



Olfaftu 
rccentem 



cicarum gmcribus omnescapinntor/ed varijs,fdlicttfuiagn4 
HoRe odorisrqnippc cum vel tcrtida nonnullis accomodcntur, 
vtfalpas ftcrcus. Compluresitcmpi.c.um in/pcluncis laten- 
ta»quotics euccare czptam pi fator voluit,fauces fpccns odo- 

ribusiIiinuntcetariJ5,itaq;protinns e*citant. AnguiHa item 
"Oceodemcani mnrtan_.li +(l \r^* *-___«« r*__r__________________-___*2 _._______-_.£__. 



qtiod col 



earuncu* 



'r*«'-««ucuitd5,oaonsgranacicaMmisa^igunt.iracniai 
fc Wpifccs auidias acccdanr . Polypos cti2.11 afTatos, non 

niu 



1 



1 



9 






ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIB. 

nifi nidoris caufa nafsis inditos dimitti afleuer ant.Q^iactia fl« 
tx quoties vcl pifciom lotura,vcl nauis icntina cieda eft ,fugiut 
vtodoremfentientcs.Sanguincmquoqjfuum fagacitcr piiccs 
odorari dicuntur qux rcs co patct argumcto,quod quorics fan 
guis effufos pifcium eft,fugiunt,& loca pctunt longinqua. O- 
mino vtcfca putrida nafsis inic£a,nunquam fubircaut appro 
pinquarepatiuntur:ficrcccntc nidorulcnraq;,protinus vcl l lo 
ginquofcftinantcs irruropunt.Conftant hxceadcm in dclphi- 
norum gcncrelatius:cum cnim nullam partcm auditui dcputa- 
tamapertcdelphinihabcnt,tamencapiuntur pcr ftrepitumca 10 
pitcaggrauato,vtdiftum iam cft Et cum olfaftus quoqj partc 
nullam fcnioriam habcant manifeftam,tamcn fagaciter odora- 
tur.Hisigiturinanimalibusfcniusincflcomnc5,apcrtum iam 

eft.Rcliqaus animantiuordo,qui quadripartiro diuiditur,hoc 
cft molli,cruftato,tcftato,infc£io,quemadmodum fc habct vi- 
deamus.Ergo mollia y & quae vcl crufta vcl tefta operiuntur,at- 
q;ctiarainfcfta,fcnfibus 4 pr*ditacflcomnibus conftatmam* 



k 






olfa&u,* guft 
procul fcntiunt 



rt 



quod nifiodoreagnofccrent,nunquam h longinquo fenrirent< 
Sulfuris item odorc genera infc&orura multa lntereut. Ad hfc 
formica:,origanifulfurisq; puluifculo infpcrfo,fuas rclinquut 
cauernas,alioq; raigrant.Cornus prsetcrca ccruini,fafto inccn 
fu,plurima inic&orum pars fugiunt:fed prarcipuc ftyracis fuf- 
fitu.Iamfxpie,polypi,gammari odorecicarum allcdati capiu 
tur:& polypi quide ita adhaefcrunt,vtauelli indc non poffunt* 
fcd truncaripotius patiantur.At vcropublicaria herba admota 
protinus ab odorc eius rcfilire dfcuntur.Guftus ctia ftmilis ra- 
tiorinterdum cnim cibum perfcquuntur diuerfum,ncc cifde fc 
poribusomniadcleftantur.Namapes nullam ad rcm putidamj 
folentaduolarc,feddulciapetunt:cuIiccsnulla dulcia geftiunt, 
fcd acida.Ta&u vcro fentire(quodctia antedixi)ommbus da- 
tum animantibus eft .Qnje antcm filicco tegmincopcnuntur,ol 
faftum guftumcj; habercconftant,argumcnto cfcarum. purpa- 
ris cnim cfcas putidas purpurar i j emoliuntur,& acccdunt ipf* 
ad ciufmodi efcam a longe, vtpotc odorantcs . S enius itcm f ap° 
rum ijs incffceifdem illis rationibus patct fapore cnim rerum 
carundcm quseq;dcle&antur,ad quas vcniunt odoribos inu;ta 
ta,quos gratos ienferont&difcreuerunt.Adde quod quarcunq» 
os obtincnt,i js & voluptas pcr faporum attrc&ationcm eucnit 
& dolor.Dc vifu &auditu quaquamnihil ccrti,manifcftiq; ha- 

bcaius: 















IIBER. QJARTVSt mj 

bemus: vngues tamen ad ftrepitum fe fubtrahcre,infcriasq$ fub 
fiderecennantur,quoties ferramentum fentiunr admoueriexi- 

guonamq$extant:reliquoautcmtotocorporepcrindeacinca 
bili occulantur.Peftines quoq; admoto digito dchifcunt,mox 

comprimunt fe vt cernentcs. Naticcs itcm qui capiunr non ad- 

uerfoflato,fedrecundoadeunt,quoties efca pcrfeqountur ncc 

voce vlla,fed Glcntio agut,vtpotc cum & olfaciant,& audiant. 

ncc fieri pofle aiunr,q uin i ubtcrfagiant,fi vox profcratur.Echi 

nusintcrteftaceagenera,quibusfacultasingrcdicndi eft:verti 

*o bula,glandesq;,intcr immobilia ciuldcm gcneris,olfa&um mi 

nimh habcre videtur.$cnfus adhunc modum animalium gene- 

ri naturadi<*penfauit<& tribuit. 




M 



u& animalia uoctm 9 ijv&fonum,qu£ mHrmur 

&dant 9 qu<£itemlcquantur. 

CJput i x. 

Ox qoemadmodu vox fe habeat,difTeremus.Differt pro 
culdubio vox afono,&rertia his adnameranda rcseft lo 
cutio.Gutturc partc vna vox agitorrqaocirca qaibas pulmo 
dccft,ijs nulla vocis emittend* facultas cft.Locutio no nifi vo 

accis per linguam explanatio cft . Vocalcs igimr Jitcrx a vocc <fc 
gattureiconfonante* lingua,& labr i$ proferuntur:quibuslirc- 
ris omnem locuf ioncm confici nulli dubium cft . Quamobrem 
quibos animantiom lingaa hbera abfolqtaq; non cft,ca ncquc 
voccm emittur,neq$ fcrmocinantur.atfonus elidi vel alijs par 
tibas potcft .Ergo infcftis animalibos,ncq; vocis,neq; locutio- 
nis vllafacaltas:fonasqj ljsfpirituinteriore moaetar,non cx- 
teriorc.Nallumcnimcx ijs fpirat,fed alia murmur ardunt : v£ 
3pcs:alia cancrc dicutur,vtcicad^,omnia vcro in eo gcneremc 
brana,fepto tranfuerfo fubdita^jua prxcin&um corpus diftin- 

J° gaitar,fonaBt: vt gcnus cicadarum attritu fpiritas. Mufcjc etia, 
*P«,&reliquaijsfimilia,clim volant,fefc attollunt & contra- 
«unt S onns cnim attritus intcrioris fpiritus cft. Locuft* fois 
gubernaculis attcrcntes fonant.nullum molle,nullum cruftatu # 
vd voccm vel fonam aliqae mittit nat uralem.Pifccs vocis qui 
«em cxpertcs funtrqu ippc qui ncq; pulmonem,neq; arteriam, 
au tgatturobtineant:fcdfonosquoida,ftridorcsq;mouent,qui 
v^lcseflccxiftimatur,vtlyra,vtchromis.hiscnimquaiigra 

amn is Acheo 



altcr enim 



j^ttis qaidam cmit titur. Aper ctiam pifcis,qaem an 
lus g^gnicvocalis habif us cft,& erica,& cuculus . _ _ 
^oodaromodoftrldct^altcrperindc vt cacalos auis obftrcpit, 
Vl w nomcn acccpit.Qmc omnia crcditam illa vocem cmittut, 



aur 



I 



»4 ARXSTOT. DS ANIMALIB. 

jut attrimbranchlarunuquashorridiafculas cofinenf.Mutfuis 
intcrioribu*,quaccirca venrrcm habcnrar fpirituj cnim inclu- 
fus in h?s eft,qucrndum atrcrut atq; agrtanr,!onos illos clidur. 
Nccnon 



abhis voccm cmirti vllam,reftedrci non poteft. Atfonumfac 
ftrepitom rcddi vcrius dixcrit.Na & pe&ines quotics pcr ibm- 
ma humoris nltibundi icrunrunquod volitarc dicunr ,ftriderc 
fentiunturratq; etiam marinar hirundines , quae fublitr.es voli* 
tant,haudquaquani marcattingrnres.ionr cnim his pennarla- 

tx*longa?.Vrigitcr per volatum auiom ftrepmis.qocmalxio 
cxcutiunt.nulla voxcftriranccckiimodifonojiim alfquisvox 
iureappcllcror.Delphinusircni ftridet acmutir,cfferensfHn 
aeremrfcd non qucmadmodom ea >quf fupcrius cnumcraui hic 
cnim & pulmonem 8c arteriam habcr proindeo; nonnihil vo- 
cispotcftpromoucrc ltnguatamcnlibcraabfolutaq; carer*& 
labn£,qaibasvocisaliqucmpofsitarriculum afformarcArvc 
roquxflr Iinguam habcnr dr pulmonem,fiqaadropedesaut$- 
mnrno pcdcftrcs ooiparac funf ? vocem ouidem cmirnnfed exi- 



longu 



afia vcccm 



Icra.Ranislingua fui gcr.eriseft.pars cnim prima,qu& aetcris 
abfolura eft,ii$ cohrrewnodo auo tora fer^ nifcium. inrima vc 



TOCfffi 



tcre.Ft qoid^genos ilMvtalatus , ! ololyginc nommanr, 
marcs intra nqua rcddonr.vr dcant ad coitum f<jeoiiftat. Sonl 
enrmfingulisaniraalru voccs^roprie adJnJta,* vmcrctt cof- 

ro,Vt&Jdib:i$,&capris,*oulbiw.Rcddufrat!a: fuStilolygii* 
llla>maxilbc infcriorisl*ibrot?cminoparil!bra,cu aquatnodi 
cercccprain fauce?,fopcriorcq$ inrrra.T rtt Ufifperoculi 

rrJodvMuccrn^cuhnusbuccaro maxfllisdifttnrit intedocc; 
Cofraenimnoftumagnaex parfe agercvifunt . Gcnusac 
vocem mftterepoteft-ijse;pnecidPc faculnsconf dendarlocU 
tionfc,quibus lingna mediocrrtcr lsta,vel rcnufs . Marcs ac fir- 
raf nx partim voccm rcddunr eandem,oarrim diueHam. G*r fa 



Ufi 



!x lfnguacioresq;funt auiara minores:& circa cottum maslmfc 
talcm effiri vnamquaque aatem morfseft. Ali js In pttgna vfl*» 
^tcoturnrcihu :altjs antepugnam ,vf perdicibos,dum fuos ae- 
ocrfarios prouocantralt js com vfccre,vt gailinaceis . Canunt 
ircm nonnulli mare* pertnde vt fuar frrminae , frcot in lufcini*- 
rumgcnerepatct.Focmina tamen ccfiar canto^comincobat» 
pallosqjedacat. Sed in nonnullis generibos cantus martbcs 

tantufli 



IIBFR. QJT.ARTVS. ,J 

tantumdatuseiT,vtgalunace;s,vt coturnicibas. Qaadrapedu 
aatem genur,quodammal procrcar,vocem varicmittfrmeque 
eft quodloqoi pof ir,ibd propriu id horoinis eft. Quibus enim 



lioeft. Qoiiurdiiamindeabortanatur*runt,ijdcm etiam 
mati.voccm crgo einitterc pcHunr.locur iooem autem nnUam - 
Pueri vt car;era (ua mcmbra conrinere ac regere nequcunf , fic 
etiamlingusruniimpotentes,*quidem imperfccU& fcrius 
lingua abiolauntur.itaque magna ex parte balbutionr , torti- 

iocjuclinguafunt DiTerunrrum voces^tumctiamlocationes.tra 
ctus ratione&regionis.Voy igitur acaminc graaitateq;ma- 

ximenotcicit^nccipecicsdiicrepantgrneris eiufcrm. Atvox 
explanata^uam cffc qoafi l.KOtionem vel brutorom dixeris, 
dittert Acetcrorum animalium , & eorum qu* generc eodetn 
conUnentor loci ratiooe.vcrbi gtatia: Perdicum alij cacca- 
«>anr,aiij Kndent. Et auicularum norinulla- haad vocem can- 
*3» niittant, qoam lai parcntes , il prserepta: paterna caroc- 
rmc edacarione,rooribosquc & cantibus crrerarum au/um in- 
iueaerinr.Iamveroluicinia modulosfuospaliosdoccre,vcr. 
aoiu^ueqoosimitarentor tradere viia eft:vrpote chm non per- 

indelocatiovtvoxpcrnaturamproucniret,fcd acquiri pof- 
ift per duciplinam * ftodioro vndehomines qaoq ; locutione 
vtnnnir varia,cara vocem omnes reddanreandem. Elephanto» 
cirra narcs orc ipfo voccm clidir fpirabundam , quemadmodu 
cum horoofimul & fpiritum reddir,& loqoitur.Ar pcr narcs h- 
oiiictabaram raacirati (on2t. 

Jlcjvmno zr mgtim ammahkm,multaq; prxter 

borntntmanimalia/omniarr. 







capt % 



animantiura 






obfcuritas cfh Nam omnia pcdcftria, * pnrdi- 
ta ianguinc , dormirc ac vigilare fenfu ipfo perci- 
piuntur. Qu?bus cnim palpcbra: adion&ae kmr, 
^onniucndo obdormifcunr. Itcm fomniarc non folom ho- 
^ncs/cdctiam equos,& cancs,* boucs palam eft.atque criam 
ou # cs *j* capras : dcni^uc gcnus omnc quadrupcdura,idcti.g; 
^nimahs ftrcundum Declarant id cancs fu« larratu , quem 
? Cr ^ rema S Unr <]uanquamdc ijsqo.xoua pariunt , incer- 
^n hoc cft.Scd dormirc ca 7 item ccrifi. Aqtt3tilium quoq; fo 
* nQ sapparcr,vrpiicium mollium^crofta opcrtoru,locufta- 
«w» tosuam,*c*tcron»m gcncris eiufdem.Sunt autcm ifth*e 

omtiia 



96 



< 



ARISTOTE. DE ANIMALlB. 









omnia fomno e xiguo contenta,dormire ramcn vidcntur. Argo 
metum vcro quamuis nullum dcduci ab oculis poteft,quia pal 
pcbris carcnt:ipfa tamcn quietcccrnuntur placida fcu fopora- 
ta.Pifcesenimvel manufacilecapcrenturidum dormiunt,nifi 
pcdiculis&pulicibusappeilatis folicitarcntur. Nuncvcrofi 

fomnodatiimmorentur,oo£Uiab innumcra mahitudine jlla- 
rombeftiolaramoccupatiabfumuntur.Gignunturhaecinpro- 

f undo maris tanta fcecunditate,vt etiam cfcam dc pifcc cmoli- 
tam 5 fidiuinvnoinanfcrint,totamcorrodant atq; abfumant. 
& qaidem farpenamcro pifcator eica dcmifiam glomcratis vn- 10 
diqj his bcftiolis,pcrindc vt pilam rccipit.Sed enira pifccsdor- 
mirc argamcntispotiashuiufccmodiarbitran licetrfarpiusc- 
nim pifcator adorius pifce* vfq; adeo latct, vt poisu ctiam ma 
nu toIlcrc,autccrtc fufcina nullo indicc fenfafcrirc.Qnjcfcunt 

tantifper cx totoncq; partealia,quAmcauda lcuitcr mouetur. 
Conftat hoc idcm vel ipfo impctu qucm faciunt , fi dum quio- 
l cunt,motum aliqoid fuerit:cxpaucntes cnim vclutfomno ex- 
turbati fcruntur.Quinetiam in pctris ftabulantescapiantur,vi 
dclicet propter fomnum.& farpe thunnarij circunrctiant thun- 
nosdormicntes.quod argumentoconftat,quiaadmodum quie 20 
fcentes,kuitcrq; pandentcs albida oculorumcapiantur . no&u 
potius quim interdiu dormiunr,ita fopiti , vt ne iada quidcm 
fafcinamqueantur,& magna cx partc vcl adarenam,vcl ad tcr 

ram,vcladlapidcmaliquemprocuinbcmesquidcunr imtegP» 
gitibus,vclfubfaxo,autlittoreabditi.i laniautcm pifciamarc 
nafcfeoccultant.depcnduntor fitu ipfiosarcna^tolliintarqjfo 

fcinapercufsi.LupiquoqjAaorat3B,&mugik^& id genus* 
li],fufcinaintcrdiufacpenomcrodormittcscapiuntur:alloqai u 

cxijsnuliasfufcinapoffecapiexiftimatur. Cartilaginea vero 
ita interdum dorraiunt,vt vel manu toliantur.Nam dclphtob } 

balen#,&quscanq;fiftulam gcrant,*dita per fumna xqnoris 
fiftula,dormiunt:quactiamfpirant,piHnas fuas moucndo lcui 
tcr.Iam dclphiuum ftcrtentcm etiam nonnulli audiere . Mol- 
lia,qaoque ad raorcm fimilcm dormiant, vt pifces . nec f> 
cosqu* crufta operiufitor. Infc&a ctiamaniraaliomdormirc 
argumentum,quod requicm capiunt , motuqi omni proculdu- 
bio ccffant.quod praccipu^ patct in apibus.-quiefcunt cnim no- 
Aa,& conticefcun t,vt nullus omnino bombus fcntiator . Con- 
fiat hoc idcm vcl argamento eorum,qu* maximfc in confpeft* 
aoftro,& intra noftros parictes vcrfantur Non cm modo qu ja 

darcnonvidcant,idcircotioftoqaicfcont(nam orania quibus 

oculi 



L1B2K QJTA R. TVU 9* 

octili dari,ex ilitcr vident ) fcd ctiam ad lucernaram loccm ni- 
hilominusquicfcercvidentur. Homo maximc animaliui» fo- 

mniat.Acditisnapcrinlucem& infantibu5adhucnullum pc- 
nitus contrahitur fomnium : fcd plurimis anno circitcr quarfo 
aut quinto artatis vifsi incipiunt.Produtur tamcn * viri # mu- 
licrcs,qui nunquam quicquam fomniarint . quorum nonnulli* 
in proceflu ftatis accid?t,vt vifo fomnio trutarcniur habitu iui 
corporis,vcl in mortcm,vel in morbum.Defenfa ,de vieiiia, 
defomno,res ita fe habct, 

£>eftxu ma/culino faminecq; , eorumq; in ani- 

manttlua Jijfcrentijs. C*f>* KI- 

Exus autem mafculinus foemininu$q;,ncn in omnf- 
busanimantibustft. Sontenimquibosiddcfit,acft 




militudinequadam &parcrcdicantur,& fcrr 



c vte- 



L— — I rom.Sexosergodifoimcnin animalibos quxyita 

ftabilem viuunt,aut omnino fn i js qus fcfta intcguntnr , nol- 
Jum omnino cft.At In mollibus & cruftaopcrtis mashabetur, 
& fcemina.In pedeftribus quoq; tum pedibus,tum quadrupc- 
dibus,fexus vterq,- eft :atq ; etiam in i js,qu* animal pcr coitut» 
20 ge»erannautouum,aut verme.Ca?terte fgiror in gencxibus firti 
plici rarionis modo , aot cft , ?ut dccft:vcrbicaofa,vt in qua- 
drupcdibusomnibos,aItcrum ma5,altcrufcrmina eft ficinte- 
fla opcrtis,fexos decft difcrimen fed quemadmodum in gencrc 
itirpium,aiiaefruftum fcrunt,ali* fterilcmfortiunturnatura: 

itaetiaminijseft.AtveroingenereinfcdtorumAp-fciu^unt 
qas cmnino fexus hocdifcrimen altrrutram in par tem non ha 

beant.nam anguillaneq;mas,ncq; fremina cft : neq; prolcex 
fcaliquapoteft procreare.fcd quf eamcapiilaroentis* lubri- 
cis qu*da fimilia inferdu adnexa fibi gerentem vid fle aiut,in- 
jo confiderate idaflcrur,antcqua aducrtanf,quaparte ilJa gcran- 
tur.Neq;entm aligdeiufmodicft qoodan,malcrfcr,nifi prios 
gcncraritouum.quodin nullaanguillavifumcft. Ef qusrani.. 
mal gignnnt,fuo in vtrrofoeiu contincnr.no in vcnfrkulo Ita 
cnim non fccus,qua cibos coiicoqucrentur prim* >rdia genitu- 
r*.Qnam aufe differctiam man> * foeminpe angnilte norai ut, 
fcilicct alteram caput habereamplius atq; obloghrs :a!tera,h(=c 
cftfQemina,repandrus:h?cnonmaris,acfn?mincdiffcrctiacft, 
jcdgencris.S untcnira pifciu nonnulli epitragear" ab hirci fteri 
tarcappdlati.quoin gcncrccarini Srbalagri cx amnicis an- 
P°tantur,qui ncc oou nccfcmcn vllum prolificu vrquam ha- 
^cant.fcd qui folidiorcsf inguicrcJq; inco gencrcfunf,ij intc- 

g ftinum 












10$ 



ARISTOTC* DE ANIMAHB. 

ftiitum p3ruam eft,&laus praecipaa in paftu . Ad harcjn tefta- 
ccis atq, in ftirpibus,qaod pariat&gencrct,cft:quod autc ma- 
ris fungatur officio,decft • S ic etiam inter pifccs genu^ pafTau 
eft,& rubelionam,& hiatularu.oua cnim in ijs omnibus rcpcriu 
tur.Sediiipcdeftribusfangaiccis no ouiparis,maximaex par 
tcmaiores,16giorisq; vitc funt marcs quafrcrein^praeterqaa 
in gcnerc mullorurcius cnim f «eminx & maiorcs iunt & viaa- 
cioresquara raarcs. At in ijs qug aut ouum pariunr,aut vcrtne, 
vt pifcibusatq» infcftiwsfceminae maiorcs fuisraaribuscuadut: 
vt {erpcntcs,phalangia,ftclliones, ranx , Sc intcr pifccs pufilii 
cartihginei gcncris,<5k pars plarima gregalium,& genas oinnc 
ftxatile.Foeminas autcm pifcium maribuseffc viuaciorcs con- 



ftat 
tcs fop 



,co quod f aeminae vctaftiorcs quim marcscapiuntur . Par- 
fapcriores prjore^q; in quocuq; animaJiu gcncrc , maribus 



potiores, validiores><& aptiores.Qnae aurc dici pofiant iti- 
Scriores,pcftcrioresq;,eas focrainaehabcnt robuftiores,tura in 
^iorainibii$,tam in carteris animalibus omnibus , qu* pcdeftria 

funt,atq; animal generant.Quod tamcn omnino dixcrim,f<£- 
minainncruioratq; infirmiorcft piluctiamhabcttcnoiorcmi 

qaimmas:aot quod vicepiliadproportioncm habcri natura 
ftatucrat.Caro ocoq; huraidior cfr fuerain^ quam maris,& ge 
nua planiora,Acraratcnuiora:fcdpcdcs elegantiorcs,videlicct 
<juocuncj;in gcncrch^ partcs habcntur. Vox itcm fcrminiso 
mnibus tcnui or & acatior>bouc cxceptobcbas cten im in faenu 

artes autem quas velut ar- 
cornaa,calcaria>& cste- 



9 



nis vox graoior,qua maribuscft . Farl 
tna natur a animaltbus dcdit*vt denrcs. 



fdcm 



na cornaom inops*mut 
bus data calcaria funr,f 



generis ccruini-Joe* 



en.ii4«* orani no carenr.pari 
do, vtfacs (arminardcntibus vacanr exertis. 
At in nonnuliis generibus funt quidem 
h*c icxoi vtriQ;,fcd manbm po- 



llora : vtcornuatauris 
robuftiora,qua 
vaccis. 



Arift 









ARISTOTE LIS STA, 

GIRITAE DE HISTO 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER 

V • INTERl-RETE THEO- 

DORO CAZ4- 

Omnium anim.tntiutn generis fartiti*. Caput u 



\xpos vi parrcsanimaliu omniti,r nm inte 
lriore$,ttie*teriores:arq; etiade fcnfibus,de 



20X 



V 




"^3 L I ^^ 

I voce-de fomno.& qo«fae«ainc maresvefinf, 
|J fatis ia explicaflc cxifbmo.Rcftat vr eorude 
s generationes perfcquamurrexorfiqjite a pri- 

, J mis,ordine apto & coraodo diflerarous.Sont 

porro generatlones aniraaliu rouJtcac varierpartim difsimiles, 
partim qoodamodo fimilcs.Sedcom gcnera ante,vt resexigif, 
<J>geficrimas,nttcquoqjeode modo traaaretcoterous, prseter- 
qoa quod inittom tonc ab homine,cu de partibus ageremos,fu- 
mendurnccnfuimos.Nuc de co noaifsirrediflcrercplacef.quo 
aon.am plurima ipfe dcfe affrrat ex P l icada Ergo ordiendu ab ijs 



& 
1 



. r £ 1 . < l l "deincepsad huncmodu cxponcda innf, hoc cft,moI- 
** & infe<fta.dcinde pifciu gcnus doplcx,ouip.M u djco,atq; viol 
«rom,tnm aoiu genos.ad poftrerou de pcdcftri dicendom cftj 
qoo in f.cnere qurc animal generenf ,quc oua pariat,pr*termit 
tcnda no funr.Enenit vtcomune animalia cfi ftirpibnshabeaf, 

qaodajfafeminc.alf.l f<""' r »r^i,arnr«.nt.i;i*nr t>r/»n!n< /rirn-r .aw» 



l? i . h 5 ,r,0nr » alte in f**R*« alijs* nafcift aogrrifolecvf in 
jiorii de ftirpibus fiue plantis c\pofuimus:fic animalia nafci a- 

j*aex animalibus iolttper form*cognationc:aliafponte,nuk 



oe 



«r inrpeputrefcercc6fifttn,vr coplara infcfta generarunalia 
w animalilms ipfiscxcrcmerisq; partiu gignuntur.Qna: igitur 
™ ! ™ c °gnati feminenunqua procreerur , iis omnibus ortus 
Pcrcoitticft^umodo fexusdifcrimcn id habc'ant,quod marem 
^teminadcfcribercpoteft. Nam in pifdu gencre, nonnnlla 



al m r arCs ncc &*•*»* gignuntur : quar licet gcnus ideai cum 



Quaecfam ctiam fui ge*. 



***** om ^o confiftunt. Ncc<Icfunt qux marc vidua ? fexa 



g z vno 



0o ARlSTOrEt DE ANlMAtlB* 

vno fosmineo fo;mentur:quxperinde vt aaes pariunt.qoe ve 
tooaaconcipinnt quibusabargumentoconceptus nomenhy 
penemia.quafi fubucntanea inditum eft . Verum ca qua: aues 
concioiunr,otnniafuntinfoeccnda.Itaenim eoram naturani- 

hil vltra outi crcare poteft .nifi quo alio modo maris opcra con 
' tin^at.Scddehisdil-gentius poftdiflcremos.Pifciu veronon- 
rulliscum ipontinaa.diderintoua,c!uenIt vtex ijs animal pro- 
generetur.Sedaliaexfe ipfis idfaciunt,alianonf.ne operaroa 
ris-vtdehis quoq.fequentidifpofitione commentabimor pla- 
nius:fimileenim ferc,* in gcnere aaiu exiftit. Q^* autent per 
re,vel in animali.vel in terra,vrl in ftirpe,vcl etia in eoru ipfo- 
. ram partibuscreantur,eadeaiq; maris ac foemina: fexu diflin- 
fta fnnt,iis co. utibus gignitur quidem aliquid,fed ex qno nihil 

* ._ . __ _r •___ L__ *•_.«•_»_<« _~__2«n T_#»__.rr_1nrT_ . Vnflrsdi» 



ampiias gigni poimc. vw 

A*» nrncrranturrmufcaru 



rum oui fpecie rcfrrens^ex qaibus ncc ea qaa! generarmt proue 
ntunt,nec aliud vllu animal,ied id quod iunt, fordes tantu per- 
fiftant.Primu igitor dc ijs quje folet coirc diccndu cftrmox dc 



cxtcris 



ratione,exponemus. 



20 




o u:modo qutq; ammalidgtnerattm coeant. 

Caput i f • 

Oitus nec fimilcs omniu funt , ncc fimilcm in modu 
PgariturQ^accnim cx fawguincis pedeftria viuipa- 
.aiunt,corumomnibus mafculis datum quidemeft 
mcmbrum adofficiam generationisaptum. Vcruno 



od 



aaerfa coeunt 



__t ^ _F T 

fatpcnamero marc prior fupcrucnit C^tcroru magna cx pat- 

_w__ _______J... ____»__— J_ .J-_ __._*! ~1., .__-%^, _«?'->. n.,-.^r,inp,l*»e mrsrrCnCXlt 



odus 



iufto,foemina fcilicet nmefupergrcdicnte. Genus quoq; auiu 
omnecodcm illo acfirnplicimoreconiun^itur.D^fferentiasaa 

m m -./-. /• I -> _____«* _ 



tcm 



«i.marciuocraenicntecoeant > vt gallinzalix non confidcntc 
fcB-nina,fed ftante,vt graes<5_ qu* incoeunt , rem quamce- 
lcrrim. peragmt:ma 4 cnim fupcrfilicnscit6,vtpaflcres.perfi- 
cit.Q^drupcdu vrfr dcmifsrs Ci uribus , quemadroodu cartcra 
qn£ oc<libui innit ndocxercent vcnerem,admotapartcmaris 
fupina addnrium t a «s<nica?<coeut Hetinaceiscoltusercflis P ai> 



bu*libi 



neranfi 






% 



o_y 



rterant,angcntcrq, magnitudine infigni,nec ccrna mares fuo* 
patiuntur,nifi raromcc vaccae tauros,propter rigorcm pcnita- 



IOt 



incm 



co- 



dcmcocunt modo,quocanes.Feles non parrepoftcrkrcjc iun 
gut,fed mas ftat,foemina fubiacet Suntporri in co gcncie foe 
mina; ipf* natara libidjnofsc & ialaccs : itaq, marcs ad coitum 
ipfxfrequentc$alliC!unt,inuitant,cogunt puniunt cnara nifi 
pareant.Camclifedentcfcrmina cocunt,ncc auerfi,fed cople- 
io ttentc marcvt cxtcr«r quadrup cdcsagunt,& coitum totodic 
cxcrccnt.petunt rcccfluum folitudincs cotr libct coitc,nec ali- 
quis co poteft tuto acccdercprarerquam paflor armtnti.Gcni 
talccamclis r.cruo iraconftat,vt Vcl cx eo confki pofsit , quo 
arcusfidifsimeintendatur.Elephanti ctiam folitud:ncs pctunt 
coituri:fedpr*cipu^fecusflumina,&qui pafci confccucrunf. 
Subfiditfa?miB3,cJunibuiq;fubmifjis infiftir pcd.buf,acinri- 
titur M as fuperucnics comprimit,?tc ; ?ta tr unerc vcncrco fun 

giiur.ViuiJimarmimodoammaJiurcrroiringcntiumcccunr, 
tfrdiuligatiin coitu coharrcm,vt cancs.gcnitale ijs maribu* 
*o grandc eft, ° } 

S^Homoao quadrupeda cuipara cceant. 

Caput III. 

Vinet/am pcdcftriu qiiadrupcdes,qux ona pariunt,eode 

fcunt modo,OaO ea any iinnul *rnrrar,f . marr Itin* r- 



01 



ucnjenrc: vt tcftudo tam aquatilis qi>am tmtrftris tabrnr verA 
mquod mcatmcontingam.& quod pcr coitum adhxxttMri , vt 

rana&paftinaca,& rcliqua gen< r.s ciuidem 

JDecottu ecrum 9 <]H<t pcthhus carent,lovg<q; 

funtc6\pire 7 id eftjerpei tum. 
*° Caput iiir. 

/j Var autcm pcdibus carcnt,& longo font corporc , vt fcr- 
v^j:cntef,vtmurcnx,ijs coitus circumplou tr utuofupma 
rom partium agitur.iSr quidcm fcrpentcs tta circumcolut* fi- 
*>* l pix coh«rent,vt vnms ferpcntis bkipins corpns totum cfle 
vidcarur.Hoceodcmmodolaccrtarumctiam gcnus complcxa 




Dtcciiupifcium. Caput y 



Ifctt omnes c cceptis plams cartilaginci gcncris , admotis 

^«^mparcibusiupjnjscopulaiitur.rlaniautcmeim gcnc 
^'Jdcir:q ; habcntes caucUm,vt ra^.paftinaca , & reliqua hu- 
"*modi,non iciu admoti; iupinjs,icd ctiara tcrgo fcrminarn 

^ • g j lupi 












J0l ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIS'. 

fopinis mariam foperpofiris, modo cauda impedimento nullo 
obcrafsitodinemfit,coeunr.At fquatii*,& quibufcunqne ple- 
nior cauda eft,his attritu mutuo tantum partium fupinarum 
coitus agitur . Sunt qui fe vltbuc confirment nonnulia ex car- 
tilagincis auerfa modo canum tci icftriura colwcrere. Fcemina 
in oTnnlcanilaginco generc maior,quam raas eft . quod tdem 
fexc vel in cxteris generibus plfcium cfle conitat. Cartilagt- 
nea veri praeter ca qua: enumeraaimus.iunt bosdamia , aqui- 
la,torpedo>rana,oraneque gcnus muftelorum. Sfd omnia car- 
tilapineahuncln modum coire apertiu» notatum a pluribusio 
eft : morantur enim in coeundo diutius omnia qax ammal 
cencrant , quam qoae oua. Delphinte quoquc omniquc ce- 
tariogenerimcidem modas eft cocundi : plams cnim admo- 
Us partibus agunt : ncc parom moltumve temporis , icd mc- 
diocrcin coita ipfoconiuraunt.DifFcruntnonnulli marcscar- 
tilaginei gencris £ fuis fceminte , co quod manibus bina quae- j 
dam circaexcrementi oftium pendent,quibus fceminx carear, 
rtperfoiciingencre muftclorumpoteft:in lite cnimquoddi- 
xi.omnibus eft. Tcftes igitur nec pifces habent , nec vllum a- 
liud genus quod careat pedibus : fcd binos mcatas , tam icr-i9 
pentes,tam ctiam pifces raalculicontinent,quifcetificofemi- 
ne cum cocundi eft tcmpus , implcntar , & laftcum omnes e- 
mitcont Immorcm. Goliigunt hi fcfcin vnum caput,quem- 
admodum in auiam genere vnitur quod fubeat . Contincnt 
enim aucs intus foos tcftcs,ac c.rtera animalia qux * pedes 
habent,cioua pariunt. Hcc ergoinferitur,atqucinlocos,# 
rcceptaculum tenditur foeminaiura . Pedcftnbus viuipans 
idcai mcatus foris extat, & feminis ,<& excremcntitij humo- 
ris.alterintusmeatus ducitur,vtdixi,cum partium difFcvcn- 
tiasexplicarem.Sed quibus vcfica dceft , ijs idem meatus ucco J 
etiamexcremcnto pcrtinetforisrintuiquc altcriustahabctur: 
qux qaidera fimiliter tam in foem: nis eorum,qaim in marious 
iunr.Carentcnim vefica,pra:rci tcftudincs, qaarom fccmtaX 
fingularcmhabctmeatum.qiunqaavefi.am obtincat. Sedte- 
ftudoincorum,quiouapariuntgcnereeft.Pifcium oaapa rlC 

tiumcoitusmmus 

lificum maris vorando isaplcri 

cernitor.nam tep 

vcntrcraqjeorum late percutiut roftris.quoetiam fit,vtmarcs 

(t>mrnArcAf:riils(i.mt[int*& targklS. temDOre autCSl partUS 



patet:qu.imobrcm complures fccminas pro- 
ndounolcricrediderur. Idcnimfierttepi^ 



.11« oua aedidcrint,iph ™& a ' 

at 



mta 



eus VOf ant pifccs vero cx ijs c\ux rcmanferint,oriumtir. Cir* 

ca Phrenicem pifccs vel mutuo fexuo aipc tfu capi accepimus. 

inugilcsenim marcs a piicarorciubducunn2r,-quorum afpetfu 

faemin<- congregantur,atq; ita obrctitmtur. veriacj; vicc mares 

caphintur fubduai* foeminrs.icddcuoratio illa Icminis gtni 

l:s>qma fxpius ccrnitur argumcntum coitus ralis cm£titur Fa- 

ciunt hoc idcm quadrupcdes quoq;.tcmporc cnim coitus non- 

nihil humoris fuo gcnita!i,tiim mares,tum et iam f cemina! cmit 

tunt 3 atq;admotisadgenitalia naribus cdorantur. Pcrdicesfi 

xo aduerfa: maribus ftctcrin^ventuiLj; indc af flct,vbi marcs ftar, 

v concipiunt,&maritantur.p]crunq;cttamvocc marium vtero 

* ingraueicont/igcftiunt,ac)ibidinccurgcnt. volatu quoq; fu- 

pcrnc mariura cffict idcm poteft: vidclicct dnm mas ipic in foe- 

minam ffrtifkum fpiritum dcmtttir. orc hiante,excrtaquc lin- 

gua,& mares & tominarc cunt.At vcrus piicium ouiparorum 

coitus rarocernirur,quoniamcongreisiO!:cm quamprimum di 

grcisio fequatur,ficri tamcn ita corum coitum viium cft. 

Dt coitu molhs gtneris pfciHm* 

CApH t V l< 

*b \ A Oilta,vf polypi,fepi*,lolligmes,modo eodettf omnia 
IVlcocunr cnbub cnim inuicrm admotts,coinplcxuquema 

1 tuo brachtorum libidincm explcnt Ergo pojypis coitus,cum al 

l tcrcapite vulgoappcllato in tcrram veric,mtibundoque,cxpH 
cat porrigitquc iua brachia,aher iupcrucnir, pafssq; brach* j$ 
fingulisadfingtilafubiacentis acctabnlorum concepru mutuo 

' adhsrcfcir.Marem ctiam nonnulli aiunt gererc, quo d gcrita- 
lisfpecicm rcferat fuobrachio*:n quoduo -mpliisima acetabu* 
lahabcntorncruoid quaficonftarcporrcfturoadmedmm vf- 
quc brachium cor.firmant,totumcuc nari fa?mir« anncfti. Sc- 

jopiac 3 acloIliginesoraappltC3ntcs/& brachia xnter lc cotr.poneit 
tcs,narantcsque,inadncrfamcocunt. n.trem etiam diftam irl 
narcminferuntnatatasahcrirctroriiim,altrri antcucrius irt 
c* agitur.Pariunt ea foi corporis partc,qua: fift ula dicitur 5 qu< 



& cotre cas nonnulll arbitrantur . 

£>2 cBitu ptfcmn* trnfia cffcrtorvm. 

cafut vtt. 

Enera crufta opcrta,v t locuftar,gamar?%fquill^ hu* 
mfmcdircliquamore quadrupcdum rctro mingcn- 

rium coeonMcilfcctjVt foemfnacatrdatn fupinam rx* 

ponar,mas foam f uperponat,& applicct.coire iolent 

teconte Ytn iuxca terrSfE.laxo tftim coitus omntum ic gcnus 







I 



104 amstote.de animalib. 

cxploratns eft interdu ctiam cum ficas maturcfcant,coire inci 
piant.Hoccodcm modo gammari quoq;,&fquiltecceunt. Ca 
"cri partc priorc copulan ;ar,fua opcrcula loculofa illa , rugoia- 
q;,mutua conicrtionc c6ponenrcs.l J rimu canccr minor ab aucr 
(o iaperuenire ioleKtum maior vbi iik faperaenerit , vertit fc 
Jn latus . Nalla rc differt fnemina i marc,nifi quod opcrcalum 
applicatile illudamplias^diftantius.&htriutiusfneininaegc 






aatem qaod 



dua egerunt 




u infe(tjfum 9 quoue temporc uenerewftimulns magis Xt 
ammalia tjutque excttet. caput viii. 

Nfefta auerfa coeunt,deinde quod minos eft , fapcr- 
ucnit maios,hcc eft,mas foeminam.ncc mas in f aemi 
nam grnitalc vllum infcrit membru morc animahu 
c#reroru:fed foemina iurium in marh reccptu, cau- 
dje vlrtmamfujtmearum qaendam prxdaccns refic&itrqui in 
nonnalliimaiorqjamproportionctotiuscorporis cflc vide- 

tur,ahpiaparuaadmodamfint.Scdfuntetiamin quibus mi- 
nusinco:iacnlcnsa!ftimetar.Plariuhocfaerit,fi muicas coita ** 
vencreo copalatas diuerfi s,tardo ctiam qu£ coiucrint,ldungu 
turdigrcffu dtu nanq;eo;ucopahtiodurat:qaod in ijsqusin 
noftro confpcflu veriantar,facilcpatet:verbicaufa,in mulcis, 



hunc 



fca%fcar3bci,vcrticilla,phalangia,& fiqaidaliqdgeneri* ciuf- 
dcmcoirefolet.Phalangij$,quaetcxunt,coitus agitar hoc mo- 
do.cum faimina d :du&am araneam traxcrit, mas candc mutui 
trahit,quodvbiloepiasfccerint,coeurit,& aucrfis clanibus co- 
palamurnam propteraluuorbiculatam modus hicconiangcn 
di ijscongruit.Cottumomniumammaliurnficriad hunc mo 30 
dum apertameft.Temporaautemcoitus ddcripra , & aetates 
certas ad venercm fingulis ammaliu natura fixit,& ftatuit . cr- 
go plurimorum animantium natura vult quidem rcm venerea 
pcr id tempns:cam hyemis ccftante f^oitU,aetaris clemetia ori 
tarquodfan&tcmpusveriscft,qaoplarima& volatilia & p"- 

deftria&natatiaadcoirumcxcitamur.Sed iuntquar per au- 

tumnum criam & hycraem coeanr,at qucpanant: vt nonnulla 

cumaquatilium,tum volucrumgcnera.Homini maxtme tern- 

poribus omnibus opportunusco;rus cft.arqucetjam plura aha 

pcdeftris gcneris,quae cu hominc viuunf,cottum nnllo rcmpo- 

rcafpernantur,vidcltcctproptertcporcm, & pabuli vbeitatc 

quorum. 






II-BCK. Q_VINTVS. 10} 

*|aoram tempas ctiam gercndi vteribreaeeft,vtfuis,vt canis, 
& volucrum qua^arpiuspariunt.Compluractiamcducationi 
fuorumpartuumcon(ulendo,non nificommodotcporc cocut. 

Stimularur ad vcncrcm mas hominum magis tempora hyber- 

no,fneminaaeftiuo.GcBasaatcmauium(vr difturn cft) parte 
plurima.Vere,acineunte a:ftatecoit,& parif,excepta alcyo- 
ncqnae circa bramam parcrcfolita eft.quamobre quotics bru 

mafcrenacxiftit,dicsaicyoneiappcllantur,ieptcrn antc bro- 
mam,& feptcm i brutna,vt S imonidcs quoque iuocarminc tra 
x© didit,vf :Cam pcr mcnfcm hybcrnam Jupitcr bis feptem moli 
tar dics teporis.clementiam hanc torporis nutriccm iacra va- 
riae,& piil? alcyonis mortalci dtxere.tranquillu vcro tanf iipcr 
fcmpus efficitur,fi ita cuenerit,vt brama aoftrina vergUijs 
aquilomjs fiat. Septeroprimis dicbus nidam conficcrc ancm 
hanc fcrtur,reliquu,feptcin parere,cducareque.Dics akyonco* 
ficricirca brumam,non fcmpcr noftris locis contingitrat In S* 

culo mari pcnt fcmpcr id cucnit . Tarit alcyon circitcr qain- 
quc oua. 

g^jtf animalia fcmel 7 e]H*ue plitries in anno pariant. 
* ^ Capnt i x, 

Ergi,& gauiae faxis maritimJsoua*bina,tcrnaae pa- 
riuntncd gau;#arftate,mergiik brama incuntc Vcrc. 
fcincubantcartcrarumauiummore,fcd neutra caru 
auiumconditur.Oftinium rarifsimam vidiflc alcyo- 
ncm cft.fer^ cnim circa vcrgiliarum occafam,brumaq$ ipiam 
apparet:<£ vbi primum pcr portom non plus quim nauem cir 
camaolarit,ftatim abir,vt nafquam praercrea vidcatur • quo- 
modo S tcfichoram quoq;eius mcminiflc notum cft • Lufcinia 
ctiam parit acftate quinq;,aut fcx oua,conditur ab autumno vf- 
fO q; ad vernosdics.Infcwla hybcrnoquoq;temporecocunt,& fc 
rcnis auftriniiqjdiebus nafcuntar ca,quae ic abdcrc nonlolct, 
vtmufc£,£ormicx.Scn>el anno m3gna parsfylucftrium amma 
lium parit,qu* fUlscct non, vt lcports,iupcrfo:tant.Pifccs plu- 
rimi ctiam iemcl n.ariunt:vt ij quosfuiancos,cx argumcntoco 
gnominant,quiafufiin rctibnscapiantur, vtthunni, limanie, 
mugilcs^punacmoncdijl^chroTi^cs.paflrcrcs,^ rdiqoa Ecncris 
ciuldcm,cxceptolnpn:huic cnim foli cxr gcm*rc partOi bis an 
nocxcrcctur.icd pofbrior infirmior cft.S^rda miocv * faxati 
Icsbis,cxccpto muilo.h ccmro (olus fof par-t:q < d *x Uvtz ip 
io,ftufuraquciivrcil»g;!Mf.trrcnm>a3iquibus inlo i pjrrc ap 

f p^rct.Scorpiobis,<S:iaigus Vcrc.aca: r.!mno.uipa icir.cl au- 

g j tumno- 




I0 £ AR*STOTE> DE AfttMAttS. 

t_mno.Thnnnaetiamfemcl.Sed qnoniam partcra pr*m_t-- 
T t:,part«ra fero producat,hin= faettficare bis creditur.sedit pri- 
mam partem circa meniem Decembrcm,abruma alteram Ve- 
re.Diffcrtraa$thunnusaf'5U»na,co quod fc_min» pinnula 
iunct a fob ventre eft apharcns nuncupata,qu„ mari deeft. 

o uotia,qtnmsue anni ttmfonbtts cartilagtnr* 

~ Sw ' parunt, Caput x. ^ # 

iArtilagineorurofqnatinavna bis paritrnam „ fnci- 
jffipiete autumno,<* circa Vergiliarum cccafcm:ied pcr 




auramnum felicius.Singulisvcrof „u_is parros ie^io 
ptcni,auto£toni prouentunt.nonnulliex mnftclloru 
generebismenfcputanturparerc,vJdclicctqui ftcliati appel- 
laoturrquodideo videtur,qaia oaa eorum non fimul pcrficiun 
tur.Nondefuntquacomnibusanni temporibus parianr,vt mu 
rena,caiaspartus&numcrofiorcft.5rquajprodierint cx par- 
uo,cclcriincremenroadolcicunt,vt&cquifclis.nam cius ctia 

partas de minimo in maximum celerrime augfetur. Sed mure- 
naomnibus anni tcmporibasparit.eqoiielis veretantum. Mu- 
rus non idero quod murena eftrquippecum murcna fit varia, 
atqj infirmior.murus vnieolor,& robuftus,colo»e larici arbon to 
firoilis.dcntes ctiam tam intus qu;tm fdris pofsidct Sexros di- 
icrimcn pcrinde ac in cstcris volunt,vt alterum mas f it,a!teru 
f<_mina.c_conth_c in tcrra,* farpcineacapiuntur. Fit vt pi- 

fccs omncs celeri increraento perficiantur icd praxipnc graco- 
lasinterminora.Solerhicparcreiuxtalittora,algofis,der,fi:q; 

locls.Cerr.ua etiam brcui cx paruo inilgnem magnitudinem ac 
cipit.Llmariacacthunniinpontopariunt,nec vfquam ahbi. 
Mugiles,aurat_. lupi,locis ijs maxime ardunt, qa;\ flumina 



cxeun! 
iicant. 



ombm menfihus pifc 



P 




Ariantpifces p.uritnafui partcmenfibusliis tnbnr* 

Marrio^Arrili^Maio.aurumnopaud i vt (alpa, ,ar- 

pgpsA nonnulla alia gcncris eiujfdi%paulo antcarqai- 

„ linoftium- AcWc his forpecfinem,cfc 1'quitin^n. . SanC 

ccrtc qsm vcl pcr hycmcm,»ftarernuc _ _os arda^t pirtcSiVt iti* 
damclt.ncr hycmcrnlu-u5,niugilis f acus. pcrarftatcm itieflW 
Iunio,Thannacirca(oIf.itiU;T5rp^ir i.*c foiliculo quiddam 

fimilc,ia^iiootta«iga3,multanuc confiftunt . fpargi etiam 

pcr s_{tatcm p irUmt,mttgil!*_3l bbconcs, fefgones _ inucroncs, 

capic 



L1B2K CLVINTVS. 107 

capitones:grauefcerc vcro mcnfc Dcccmbri incipiunf,gerunt- 
^ucdicbustricenis.MugiicsaliqaosnoncoJtu,fcdliino,arcna-. 

uc nafci conftat.Conccptus igitur pifcium magna ex partc vcr 
no agitur tcmporcfcd tamcn,quoddiftumeft,d_ sftate,& au- 
tumno,& liyerae nonnullacoitu ireplcntur. Vcrtim nccparifcr 
omnibus»aut fimpliciter,aut gcneratim id cucnit:ncc plurima: 
parti, vt verno tcmpore.ncc vero c^teris illis temporibus tam 
numcrofo partu f(_tificatur,qu&m Vcrc.Deniq; latcrc no % <k- 
cet,vtftirpium,&qu3drupcdarnanimantium gcneri pluritr.it 
10 intercflc cx regioncjnon folum ad ca»t cram corporis fclicirate, 
fcd ctiam ad coitum,partumq; amplioremrfic in pifcium qao- 
que rationc locis ipfis difcrimrn plurimum oritur,non ad aa- 
gnitadinemtaatum,habitumq$vegetiorcm,verbm ad coitum 
ctiam &partum,vr cadccn alibi plurics gcnerenr,alibi minus. 

Jtfolle genus fifcium uerno temporeparere^fejjiam 



uero cmmhns anni tem£oribu4. 

Cafut xil. 



2o 



M 



poribus • perfeucratqi 
dies quindecirn.quories autem 
atramentum ouis fuperinfund 



ita cffidtur,vr iolidcfcant.incedereconiugntim folcnt.Mas va- 
riusraagis,qtjimfoemina,doxfoq3acriorc cft.Polypus hyber- 
notcmporccoit,vcrno parit-latet c.rcitcr mcnfcs duos. Ouum 
veluti cirrum *di r,fru&ai popcli albae fimile.pcrquam f cecun 
dum hoc animal eft.nam dc co qaod a_diderit , copia innumcra 
proucn.trdiicrepatmasafcrmina^coquod capitc cft produ- 

30 &iorc,& quod genitalc pifcatorcs app_llant,alb-dum fuo in bra 
chiocontiner.fou_r polypus oua qujescdideritrqoamobrenidc- 
terrinu tantifper cfficiunrur:haud cnim in paftom prodire pa- 
tiantur. Quinetiam purpurx Vcrc gentrantur, & buccina 
hycme abcunte . Gcnus dcniqur omnc quod tcfta operitor, 
vcrnoaarumnaliquctcmporchabrrc cernunrur ea,quse oua ap 

pcl!ant,exceptis echinis ciboidcncis: quippc quibtisctfi pcr 



1 



tamen 



recommittitur,vtouisomninocarcant:fcd mavime plenilu- 
***js,diebuscjs tcp_disreftituonmr,redduntquc p3eniore$,prac- 
tcrquara ijs.quos pyr&u* fcrt Euripus : nam illi hybcrnis 

mM^ikii. _______/__ _____ r______ _*__.? ___.____*_! /_J M i_._«i _~_ •■__-%- 1 _ *-_-% 



«cnfibus racliores 



/ 



Aa 



9 

1 



£6 ARISTOT. DE ANiMALIB. 

Ad Haec vmbilici paritcr omncs , hoc eodem tcmpore fua oua 

_ _ 



haberevifuntur. 



faturAj & 



ort 



bto 



&g 




Caput * I It. 

Vinm fylueftres,v t dixi,fcmcl magna cx partc cocuf, 

atqac pariunt. Vcrum hirundo bis parit, & mcrula. 
lcd eiusprimipartusintereutfrigorchybernorom- 

ntum nanquc auiom prima h*c parit. pofteriore au 
fem partam educat,* fclicitcr ducit ad fincm. At vcr 6 qua: aut 10 
vrbana funt,aut traduci poffunt ad morcs miriorcs,h*c fa. pins 
gcnerant,vt columba:,qua: tota a:ftate foetant. Gallinar etiam 
ineunt,& pariunt omnibos anni temporibus-cxccptis brumali 
bus diebus. Columbacci vcro gcncris plurcs fpccics funt : cft 
cnim liuia difta 4 liuorcdiuerfum certe i columba gcnus,quip 
pe qoae minor,quam coiumba fif , & minus pariens manfueice- 
rc.liuet ctiam plumis,* pcnc nigricat,* pedibus rubidis, ica- 
Cttiare , id brofisquccftiquasobrcsnullusidgenmcxllarcalit.Maximo 

ift tn c*Ua. intcr h*c gcncra corporc lunt palumbcs. fccundum magnitu- 

dinis locum vinagoobtinct,paul6 maior quam columlus cft-20 
minimumcxiJ5 turturcft,rariunt colombacomnibasanni te 
poribus,pu]lo5qcceducant,filocumapricumhabeant,&cibu. 

fin minus, jeftatc tantuir.mcdo foef ant. Scd prolcs prasftan- 
tior vcre,quim autumno eft-detcrrima arftate, & omnino tem 
porc calidiorc. 



■f 



<n&% 




inciptat,qtiduc dtjln&t. Caput xnil. 

Etatcctiamdifferuntadcoitum animalta rprimum 



fA \ cmm magnse corum psrti icmen non linaui wiipit 

* cxcerni , & poflc gencrare :fed visilla prolificajo 
%yi poftca accedit,noucllorum cnim in otr nibus anima 



ium 



fifoecunda fiMmbccillioratamen gencrat Apauciora quod 
potifsimum in hoitfinum & quadrupcdum animal gignentium 
generc,atq;etiaauiu patet:altciucnim prole pauciorem pro- 
crcar,altcru oua #dir pauciora. Actas vcro accomodata ad coi- 



tum 



rcni 



fam,aut ac dctrimcnto naturx,&vitio anticipct. Rcs igif ur ho 
mim innotefcir,tum vocis mutationctum ctiam tcftium,non 



umctiam 



mis 






I I B E S. (JJINTVS. 10* 

nrtsettam declaratur.-fedprrcipoeortu pilorum pubisSemen 
aute fcrre inctpir circitcr annos bis fepre:fed vim genitale reci 
pit circa annos ter feptcm.Carteris animalibusdenegara puber 
tas eft.alijs enlm nulli omninodatifunt pili,al.jsfupina in par 
tenttlll,aot pauciores,quain prona. At voceiramotari n6noI 

1 * r* ** w^ ■ ■ -■-■-■ . __ * j1 A I * * 



qjprol 



tiorelt.nam ccruini etiam gcncris maresvocem grauiorcm, 
»o qaa fasminar mittunt. Vox autem maribus in hoc genere,com 
teposcoeandieK.fQetninisaurcm cum roctucrint. breuis vox 
foeminarcft,maris produ£tior -Canibus item fenefcentibusvox 
grauior redditur.Equorum etlam voccs difrerrc palara eft.foe- 
minx cnim fimul ac nat*funr,vocem exJgoam mittunt, ac tc 
nucmrmaresexiguam qoidcm & ipfi, fcdpleniorcm tamen , * 
gramorcm,quam foemfn*,* indies maiorcm reddunr. Bimus 
cum clt,atq,- inireincipfr,vocera magnam^grauem^; mas mir- 
tit:teemina maiorem,qua ante ,&cIariorem vfq; ad vigefirau 
xtatis annum magna cx partefed ab hoc tcmpore imbecillio- 
'orcmrammares,quamfoemina! reddtmr. Magna igitur ex par- 
te,vtd.xi,vox marium,foeminaromc;difFcrr,eo quod roares 

graumsfonanr miim f~.~:„~. .._ r_,i ..-...?.. _i, - 



emitt 



nere Itj i agirur.Sunt enim in quibus ccontrario fir,vr in bubus. 
na bou farmina,grauiore qua mas agit voce:& vitulis grauior 

qaaadulris t pe r fcaiaj;:quamobrchiscaftratisvoxecontrario 

mutatur.tranfeunt enim quarcaftratur in fcemina.Tepora au 

te coitus ad hunc modu per artates natura fuis aniroalibus fta- 

tu.r Ooes*capra:anniculxcocunt,atq;vfcruferunt:fcd ca- 

3opra- potius.mares quoq; in ijs ipfis gencribus eodem illo tem- 

porc mcont.fed prolcs differr,quatenus prxftantior ea eft qua 

eneicentes marcs A foeroinae procrearinr.Sue. rum roarcs, tu 

«minx coire incipiunt raenlefua_artatisochuo : quanquam 

m«anteqaam fir anniculus, prolem generat vitiofam. foemi- 

anmcula parit.ficentm tcropus gerendi vteri exigit.Sedno 

wnoos Iocis eadem artatis ratioeft,vt dixi.iam enim fues,n5 

tam atammarCS<Ju5ffrm m* quarto coeunt mcnfe : fexto 

aor C " ri Vd P^gcn^are dteducare pofsint. nonnofquam 

m menicdeciraoinireincipiunt. Valent ij coituad trienniu. 

tcco« ^ TJ^ <,aam f<rmin * anniculi,magnaquidcex P ar- 
«rcuntrfed nonnunquam vel racnfc oclauo.quodroagis f<*r- 



minx 






n0 AKISTOTE. DEANIMALIB* 

min* euenit,quamari,Gerit vterum dicbus fexaginta & vno, 
autduobus, autadfummiuribusrnecminus qua fexaginta die 
bus.quodfiquidcekriusprodierit,educari acperfici nequit, 
Cumpcpcrit,rurfumfextop6ftmcnfc,nccprius coitu im- 

,plctur.Equus inirc tam mas, qua f cemina incipit bicnnis , ita 
Vt valeat procrcarc:proles tamcn pcr id tcmpus minor, & im- 
fcecillior eft. At vero(quod cx more plurimo agitur) in trima- 
tu coeunt,& proficiunt fubinde in gcnerando, yt prolcs prx- 
ftantioradqfqucannosvigintiprocrcctur. Coeunt marcs ad 
annos tricenos ternosifoennnxad quadragenosrita vrpcr to-is 
tsva ferfc vitam coitum cquis feruari cucniat. Viuit enim ma- 
gna expartemas annoscircitcr quinque* triginta, foemina 
plus qua qoadraginta.IamA' quinque&fcxaginta annos vi- 
xiffeequumproditumeft.Afinus tammas quafceminamcn/c 

trfcefimocoit:fcd magnacx parte ncqueunt gcnerarc : vcrum 
inbimam,auttriraatu,<X: femifle. Scdiam vel anniculam vcn- 

trem gcfsifTc afellam aiunt, ita vt quod pcpcrerat, edocari ac 
perfici potnerit.Bssetiam annkula peperit,vt cducari, auge- 
riquc quantum genusexigeret,licuerit. Trimcrdia generatio- 
nis horum animaliu ita fe habcrc perpefum eft.Homo mas ad** 
* annum vlquefeptuagcfimii, videlicct tcrminovlfimo potcft 
f»encrare:fTTr.inavfqueadquinquagefimu,vcrii idraro Pau- 
ciser.im proles ineoatfafistemporcprocreatacft. Scdt^agna 
orparte mailbus qtimftis# fcxa;?efimu$annusfinisprn«?ene- 
rand* fft:fnctninis>ouinrus & qn3dragef11r.us.Oucs parcre vf- 
quc ad annu oftauu poflunt,& f\ bcnecurentur.vel in vndeci- 
mum facolras paricndi protrnhitur. & quidcm ficri poteft, vt 
ctiaxn pcrrotain fcrc vitamcciant,tam mares qoAmfoemin^. 
Hirci pingucsmir.usffECundi funt. quorum argumento vites, 
quoricspcrnimlam alimcnti copiamluxuriante» fruftomnoja 

ferut,hircefcere rufticidicont. Verrm cura cxtcnuandi adhibi 
ta,efficiturvtcocant,atq? procrcet. Arictes priiru vetuftforcs 
frrminas incunt,noue llas enim mfrus pcrfcquutur.Parint,vt 
„ dixUuniorcs paucjora,qnam vetuft iores. Apro dd trienniura 
probitascocund*edcrat. vctuftioribusproles deterior gig n ^ 

tar nulloscnim praetcrca profccluseiacceditjiulla virium re- 
creatiO.foktinirepabulofathuns.Etcum alteram nonfubeg* 
rtt, vcl initus breuior agltur, foetus corpore minore crcatur. 
Paucifsima fos xdit prima part one, viget fecunda.nec fencfces 
copia fo?f 05. ccficitur,onanquam lentiiu coit.vbi vero quinttt 

cccimb annurana&acft.nonpratteicagencratjfcd efieratur* 



I I B E a. Q_V r N T V S. ,, £ 



prngnet.ocj 

a mod ..... r~»— ^.*»*wtt-,*fiwianiiooi habear la- 
tt,s.Pro, es ,quod a d arrate att*net,oprima eft,cum vigenr pnrc 

tc S .q a od a dtc m pora,pr^ft a ,uicr< J a l Thycr n isinK 1 o|,> n f tur> 
£«««M« *ftarc:quippc qu* paraa, «ite,& F e*huraida 
fil .Ma, fi p,naw,|„j« ommbusanni tcmporibu, potcft, » cc 
fola mterdn^ed etia noao,auteerte maturinoporLmum S 
porc.fcncfi.cs autc minus fubmdc aglt, vt diclu eft.fcpe qoTvel 
per^tatcvclpcrinfirmiratciux narur* neqoeao73„* 
W coire,quum foemina imporcns Juftinendi maris feiTa cluncs de 
m.tta,,cubanrc S vna cu fo,minu coCant. C6cip* SSS£r 
ca Pra:libidincg c fti Cnrcpi . Qricnj 3Qrictllas flXSS 
ahrcr icmcn a vulua rcjpnirur, relapfumque euancfcit Ca n « 
non p ? ,oram cocuat vitam,fed vJq; ad qucnd^ S viT" 
Ztur7 e T entmd ^^ «»*« « parte. * coeun rSS. 
Jn^Snl 2T iam - aIi °- aib " s > 1 " fo*»W*«fi maribus,velan! 
Sta R ^£? , W^ i ^« Bfi|,,fi "*^ftculta S n6de- 

«oeorto^S^ < ^ p,C,W abaocrfo Vrinam '«Wr,f«I 
m n^Teon . £tUm fi - e ft - T ^ 3S COCanai in terra Ara W> 



naincioirm, , p . ro,innocolt,i:le P' ,atu " G?!B ' 

**" S can rr ,3utauodecimoscuceIetrin3 -- aur q^^ 

incutcy c co ufi^ 3S £"* X** annos na ^P<™n* 
diuir cad/n - ,nter P°»«o reperii.Qua grauida red 

parir fit Dr * tCrCa ta § crc nuaoa P arftar - V«»fi &nio gcrit: 
!-«2&££ 2 "^ 5 Cft U "* "^".rudine bimeftris, 

3* do nri^ "5' * Uit ' Coitu ' n an,mahu,qu* „5 nifi cocun 

i prog.nerent,ad hunc modum habcre fe intclligimus. 

** 'J <><;>** fiUceah,t e g»nt»r ttfla, q M cotim omntno 

<xptrtt s J»,,t. Caput , xv. 

Ox dc gencratione eorum,vel quar coeant, vcl non 
cocant,commenrabimur:<& primuradcijs, quarfiii 
ceo tegmine operiuntar.hoc enim vnutn fer* genus 

candem . ,otom «P»» *»''»« «« • P"rpur,rvernorempore 
«cm?„«- fCiC coll '* eB »' ««*«* • qoam fauagi- 

^mSS! 1 : Y * VdUt f3UD . S £ftapum Vcrnm non 

«n n Q Hn^ C tft /° Cm VM,D fua COn * fione coagmcnta- 
«Jmltam ijspatet foramcn,neq ; ar ijs porpars cnaJcutur, 




lu AR iSTOTE. DE ANIM ALIB. 

fed cum parpurar,tum ctiam rcliquateftis inclofa,- llmo fcre, 
&materiaputrefcenteoriuntur.Illa verocoagmentatio fauo 
fimibs,tanquam purgamentum,tam ijs,qi__mbuccmis euen.f. 

* > r . _. _■ -_., A T _• ^ _-_ _■* _- «/* #a flnt- 



quoqu 



xfovxafl&c* tc ^ (s 



dem,qux>exteftaceisfaiiosfaliaant, alio rrodo, quam cxtcra 

_____ _1 •_.__ ««*.-*-«__ tih^rinc _TlIin«i 



#/? , F-«»- ordiontur fauos,m*.corcm quendam.ex quo poram.nea. cellu- 
/»»'•■ lar illxconfiftunt harc crgo rtipta difluf^ue omnia humoretn 

tiucm continebant,in terramdimitfunt.Mox co quo cffudermt ■ 
lcco gignuntur purpurute,exordio admodum cxiguo confifte 
t.aw %rvM* tcs?quas f,bi annexas gerunt,qnsc grandes capiuntur. nonnul- 
^ahbet ,id 1« ^iam forma nondum diftinfta cernutur,fiforte prius qua 

_A ..iAurJn — _ _ __ ! ■-'-- Si *+n*trc. fin 



r/. 4».»« /o , nt 

fo. __m_*_ 



(dem 



lentitaque peranguftiam,vclativu_ fpccicfoetus conforma 
tur.Gcnera parpurarum plura,„ nonnullx magnitudinc an- 
gentur infigni,vt qu* ad S igrum,* LeOum Idar promonf o- 

ria gignuntur.Alixparu^vtquas Euripus ferf,& Caria.pela- 
giae magnseJcabrs^ue funf, quarum flos magna cx partc ni ' 
ger:fed nonnullis rubidus pcfillum. nonnullas ex magnis, vcl 
ad precium minxcuaderc nouimus.Parua: ad lirrora,* cras rc 
periunturflorcrubro : partcs itc Aquilonic nigras,Auftrina_ 
rubras magna ex partefernnr.captunrur tempore vcrno, cum 
fauos cxruunt.Caniculsetcmporennllacfcrc' capiuntur r.on 
enim tantifper pafcuntur,fed fe abfcondunt,& larenr.fl orc fuu 
inter papauer d fbm,& collum continent,tcxtu fpifsiorc,afpc 
£fuveluti membranse candicantis,qoam detrahunt.tingir h.rC 
prefTa & inficit manum.pertinet cadem fuo fitu,perindc vt ve« 
na,idqueflos illecelebcrpofatur.reliquum cortextus quafi altr. 
mcn eft.Cum fauificant purpurar,tunc deterrimuro habcnf flo 
rem.Paruas tundunt cum teftis:non cnim detrahcrc facile eit. 
tnainrem ftorem teftaablatadetrahunt:quam obrcm euenif. 
vrcollum _ papaaere feparetur. Flosenim pofitus inrerharc 
eft,fupra eam partem,quam ventremappeHant. Iraquedcrra; 
Qo florediuidanturpartes iftx,neccffceftDantopcram vtvi 
oarfrangantur.nam fiprius.quatn fregcris,cxpirarint,florc 
omnem cum vira euomunt quapropf er f olent ea$ ailcruarc in 
naf_is,dum infa. fc colliganf ,arquc reqoiefcant.Veteres nai arri 
efcce adiunc>amdcmi?r-renon fo.ebant:itaqne#peacc.deM t 
-,.. -r,rt,..r_ i„m «traftadeciderct. At homin„ noflr — " ,,$ 



adiun 



10 



HBEH QJVINTVS. H| 

adiungunt naflas,ne fi dccidat,abfoluatur.quod tnnc potifsimu 
cuenir,cum plena aft.nam fi inanis fir,diffiriJc fe euellcre po- 
tcft:harc propria cueniunt purpuris.Buccinis etiam modus ide 
gignendi,qui purpuris,tempusq$ idem eft.opcrculum ite oris 
idem tam huic vtrique gcncri adhscrct natiuum, quam carteris 
turbinatis ouinibus. pafci quoquc cxerta lingua appdlata fub 
ilta operculo folet.longior digito linguahsecpurpuris eft,qua 
pafcitur:&tucon.hulas,tumctiamfuigcneristeftam perfora 
rcpoteft.Tempus viuendi * purpuris,& buccinis longu. An- 

10 nos enira circiter fcx purpurx viuant, & fingulis annis ircre- 
mentum earum patctpcr orbes:quibus totidcm quot annos ha 

, bent.tefta intorta cuniculatim in crepidine dcfinit.Mituli etia 

fauificarefolttifunt.Oftrcisquacoenum 3 ibiorigoconfiftir. 
Conchae,chama?,vnguc5,pcftincs ,locis arcnofis ortus initia ca 
piunt.Pinnsereftadocis arcr.ofi5.ca?nofi.que,cxbyflb,id cft 
v/llo fiuc lana illa pinraliprouenmr.quarcuftodem intrafeco 
tinent,autfquillam paruam>aut cancellum:quo quidem cufto 
depriuatarpereuntbreuitempore- Teftacea deniquc omnia 
fponte narara: in hmo diuerfa, pro diflferentia limi oriuntur. 
nam in crenofo oftreavn arenofo conchx,& rcliqua , qua: mo- 
uocnumcraui.Rimiscaucrnisqucfaxorum vcrtibula genera 
tur,& gUndcs,* qu# per famma adharcnr, vr patellar, vt nati- 
ccs. Omnia id genus ccleri incrcmcnto augcntunfed prarcipui 
purpur*,atquepcaines,quippe quar annoperfici pofsint.Ca- 
cri colorc albido, corporc admodum parui in nonnullis rcfta 

| operti generis nafcuntur:& plurirai quidem in mitulis foliat js 

mox in pinnis,quos pinnorheras vocant.Quinetiam in pc&u- w|X ^ f|rf 
^lis^tqueoftreis Verum i j nullum confpicuum capiuntin- /-^^ * 
crementu. Pifcatorescancroseiufmodi na/ciconfirmantjvniV 

3<>cumillis,quorum tcftam inhabitanr.Latcnt aliquandiu in arc- 
na pc£iincs,ficut cram purpurce- Nafcitur ergoconcharum gc 
nas qncmadmodum expofitu eft,fed locis vari js : nam alia va- 
dis,alia gurgitcalia duris locis atque afpcris, alia arcncfis : 3t 
alia fcdem mutant,ajia ftabiliter deguntPinn* ex ijs, quae fe- 
dcm nunqua murarc folent,radice innituntur. Vngues & con- 
<&* nulla innitcnres radice permanent eculii viucre pratcr- 
cancqacuntpinnac.Qryc ftella vocaturadco naturacal idaeft, 
vtomniaconta&i protinusdecoquat.detrimenfo etjafumrao 
^hinisEuripiPyrrhenieandem eflcconfirmant.fortra cius 
"clli$,qu* pinguntur,fimiliscft, Qujnetiamqui pulmoncs 

a JPpeilantur 3 fpontc proucniunt.Concha, quar pi&oribus vfui 

h eft» 



114 



AKlSTOTt D E A N I M A L I 3 • 



eftiaafsitarftoeptoriara cxced*:* florcm iiht no latra teftam, 

iedforhhabet compertri idgcnuslocis Caria? potffsirou no- 
uimus.CanCcllus illcconch^ruro holp«»princfpio ex tma.li- 
tnoq;conf,ft> r t ? mox conchnlas ingrcditnr v^cnss- vbi cu cxcrc 
uerit, tra: fit ta concham ampliorctn, videhccr aut naticjs, aut 
iurb -'nisaw alicaius fimi lis.ixpe ctiam parua buccina iubit,in> 
grrffusq; ampliorem illam gcritpri mcdo,& viuir in domici- 
lioca aciorcsrurfat^excrciccnoaiiairiperitatnpliorem. 

Cap*t xvi. 

MOdus idem gignendi ijsctiatr efcquc nulla tefta ir.tegu 
tur, vtvrticis &{pongijs,qui tfcfta inclufis:per rirr.as 
cnim,&caaernas,& fauces faxorura oriumur.GcnusdapIcxvr 
ticr cftrali* eniin finuofisadha:rent,qua:minquam a faxisab- 
folaunturralia: plaria,& liuoraaroanr,quxfais abiun£tefedi- 
bus vaga^tur.Pateiixquoqueabioluifolcnt^alirq; tranfue. 
nafcietiam incabil bus ipongiarum noul«us>bcftiolam ara- 
nei finailcm,«iotmn pinnorhcra rr utuantero . degit hxcintra 
fpongiaium cubikrA apcricndo claudendcq;,pitcicu]cs capit- 
aperitanteqoam ingrediarktur:cIaudit,&contrahitcu ingreisi 
icnt Getms frongiarum triplex ftatUitut:nair> ali* rara?,ali* 



20 



imu 



infe* itnr:eoque minns ciere ftrepitam pofic notaturo cft. £c- 
nus h^cinucntu pcrquam raramcft.Q*n.aatcai in gcncrc tlto 
fpiffo pracdurar iant,atq; afpe;\T, nominc hirci nuncupantnr: 
qaidc 



toq;alantur:caius rci^r^mcntutr, eft> quodcapta:,litro rc* 



fertx omncs cernuntar.quoci ccrtc indicar,aztcris quoq; adh 
rcntibus,cibura per infum annexum hauriri.Imbecilliorcspro» 
prcrea funt ipiffar,quam rar t T,quia minns ako radicis hrfu in- 
nituntur. Senfum criam fpongi j*e(Tcaiunt 9 argumento, qnod 
adcuuiibrh acrefiom contr.muntar, tta vt euelli difftcile fU- 
quod if\ctn er?am iaciiin.t,quotic5 fi atas,tcmpeftasq> vrgct. nc 

fua dc fcde rell antur.5 cd funt qui dc hoc dobitent, vt qoi Tc- 

rona^incolttnt.NarranttamcnprocUidubiobeftioIasquaidaj 

velutsincusj .imbncbsve,&eiuftT?odialtas cofiftereintra fp* 
gia?, ir .)fjcali:quasd euulfis fpongijs pifcicclifaxatiles dcuo~ 
rent^qui vcl radices afaiamuntfotas,qua: inhi*rentes £&&>&* 
manierint.Sieuencritforic, vtfpongia abrumpatur,refidtio 
frercnafjjur&tomplctur, Magnimbincaraplifrirria folut* 



Q 



.t1. 



itix & rarac fpongte augentur plurima?,qu# circa Lycia funt. 
Scd moliifsima:,quae: fpifEernam achillea: torofiQres ijs coftar. 
omnino qaae altfs tranquilli queinfuntguigitibus , molhfsi- 
msefiinnfiatus enim ac tcmpeftstes,/pongias quoque vt ca^tc- 

ra altiliaredduntduriorcs,&incrcrriCntumimpcdiuntquam- 
obrcm fpongiae Hellefponti fpiflar,acdurae font, <Sr omnino 
quas marcvltra Maleam promontorium ; citraqueferr,difFerut 
inrer fc molJiticdoritateque.ncccalorem immodicnm /pogiae 
patiuntur:fit enim co,vt mcrepulJokntiura putrcicant quo- 
Xocirca optimaMUxtaorascomperiuntur fpcngyacfigurgitea]- 
to dcmerfe funtrcomraode criira temperanrur proptcr altitodi 
ncm gurgitis.Color illotis^viuisq,' nigricans dt.acharcnt ncc 
parte>ncctoto:iiitcrfunt cniro fiftularquardam inancs:fcd plu- 
nbus pafsim particulis ha:firant,#qnafi mebrana cxtcnta fub- 
efle radicibus carom videtur-fupernc autcm creteri mcatus co- 
creri propemodum latent.At vero quaterni, aur qaini pattnr, 




-^jyiid5i»uc:a^cpir,quianunquaiauetur,quaIiiiiotaiiainvo 
ces.habct hocampliorcs illos mcatus,fedrcliqqo torocorpprc 

2odcnfumcft:nihi!otamcn denfius,quimqu^dntc enumerauf- 
m .? S 8 c ? cra >S aan< ipam lcnria.s& ex toto pulmoni fimilius ccr 
nit.Sefum id genushabercdiuq; viuereintcroesprscipnc co- 
uenit.cognofci pra» cartcris fpogijs co facllepof docuroetc ,qtf 
cu ilbt albicetlimo /ulfidctcidfcmper nigrore oftedir. Quocf 
ad JpongUs,* teftatortl gcncratione pertinct.res ita fc habct. 

&el<Kuftt* 9 0' eorum partw temporc,deq; cetet.it crufia 

cpertis. Crfut xvir. 

Ocuftxintercruftata,qua: pcrcoitumconccpcrant, oua 
gcrunt vtero tribus menfibus h;s,Maio ,Iunio,Iulio:tum % 
3oaeindc fubaluoinrugas cfeponunt, qaa ouamorc vermium 
^gentunquod idcm de mollibus ctiam, ac dc pifcibus ouipa* 
*is intelligitur: oaura enim omnium ita accrcfcit. Fit igi- 
*ur locuftarum ouamarcniduminpartcs 0Q0 diduSum.fin- 
gohsemm opcritnentis,qu;edclatcre cxtant > fingula qua> 
dam carti] iginca iunguntur,.quibus ouaadhxrcnt.totumque 
quaftfpccies vuxcofiftitrvnumquodquccnim illoroip cartiU 
giucorum in plura icinditunqux fi difcrcucris, patet:fin afpi- 
cis,tantum compofirum quiddamapparct.fiuntmaxima, non 
qji« ioxt.i mcatum, fcd qcuc media fita funnminimaquc ro- 
fciisima continentur. Magnitudo minimis,quanta granis fi- 
cuum cft.nec mcatu ipfum vlla contingant, fed pcr mcdiu hx- 

h 2 rcnt: 






jlfi ARISTOT, D£ ANIMALIS. 

rcnt:vtraqueenim cxparte,caudamdico,& aluam,b?no raaxf- 
tnc diftinguitur interualkr.ficcnim opcrimcnta qucq; difpofi- 
tafuntSedquoniamlateraipfacomple&i fatis non poisint, 

addito extremo cun&a teguntur,idque velat operculam obtu- 
rat. Videtar prorfas locufta cartilagmofis il\i$ particalis man- 
darc oua,cum enititur,caudam adducens, & protinus compri- 
mem,inflcftcmq; fefe,parere.Cartilaginc* vero illse appcndi 
ccs per id tempus augcntur,atque ouoram capaccs reddontur. 
parc us cnim in ijs recipirur,vr fepiarum in farmentis, & qua- 
libetcollauionccoll-Katur.locufta: adhunc pariant modum. *o 
jnoxvbieafuicorporis partc intra diem raa*im£vigefimum 
oua concoxerint,abigunt vniueria>conglomerataque ita in idc 
vt <fc foris congefta appareat. Tum ex co locufta? proueninnt 
intra diem maximtdecimurrsquintum <Srfa?pe minores, quam 
Vtdigitimagnitudinemexplcant,capiuntur. excludunt igitor 



ar£hirum 



fturo 



locuftse afperis,faxofisq;locisproueniunt. gammari leuiori- 
busaqtcrrenis.ncurrum genuslimofa amatrvndefit, vtgam- 
mari apud Hellcfpontum,& eirca Thafum gignanturdocuftx 2 * 
circaSigrum,* Athon.Conie£itnturloca afpera, limofa^c 
pifcatores,orishttoralibus,arquealijs idgenusindicij>, quo- 
tics capruram in alro libet cxercere. littora potius vernis, hy- 
bcrnisq, temporibusexpetunt.conferunt fcin altum,xftarc 
vidrlicct,cum alias calorcm>al'J<.«; frigus pcrfcquuntur I is etia 
quas nominc vrfx ar&os appcllant, idcm pariendi t^mpus na- 
tura ftatuit,qaod locuftisrquocirca pcr hyemem,& Vere priuf 
qaVrn oua exclddant,ciboIaadjntar:cum cxcluferint,dcterri- 
msefium.Crufta fua,<£ locuftx & cancri,tam nuper nati,qua 
p6ft,exuunturpcr Ver,quemadmodum anguesmcmbranavcr 1* 
nationis,quam fcne&utem appellant. Locuftis omnibas vita 
diuturnior dataeft. 

Z>epoljpojeptdjo!!igine % c£teri<q; molhbw ouiparit 9 



MOlliacopuh 
Jidam,quod 



fixtura & partn 
Caput x v 1 1 1. 



ndics arenidum,qunle illudcruftatigene- 
ris euadit Acdit po'ypus fuum outuvel in cubilibusjvel in figa 
lino,vel in qQoaJtocaao,fimr]ehbrnfc:« fiorcntis racemulis* 
«tfmftui arbiris popali albx^vt ditfu iam cft . pendcnt vtiqj 
per aibilc oua tanta fxttinditatc,vt collcciis va€ impieatar lo 



trBER. QjtNTVS» jf- 

g£ amp!ics,quacapurfi£quoconrinebantur. Polyporu itaq; 
ouis,diebus poit quinquaginta maximc, ruptis, poiypuii mo, 
do araneoru pcr qua muJi exerput,quorumnatura iigillatini 
nondu conipicuaeft,qujnquaiormaiati> tota apparct. fcd ob 
exiguitate" imbeciilitattq; copia interit.iam nonulJi adc6 fpe- 
ftatur exigui vtnoUa paniu coftant diftinaioncquanaiis ad 
taftu moueantur.Oua quje icpiar acdunt,magnitudintm royr- 
torum capiunt,& nigrefcu r. cmiflb cnim atraroento parentis 
intundnntur,atqjitainficiuntur.cohjcrcntintcr fe adfpeciera 
loraccmicunaa vni obdudfa cuidam nexui.necfacilealteiude- 
traniibaiteropcteft.mas enim humore qucnda raucoris mit- 
tir,cuius lcntorctenaciter oua fibi coha:reftUt,ac crcicunt etia 
hxc & cum prirau sdita candida fmt.arq; ex gua,mox atraoie 
toperfuia,n )g ra,maiorac; rcdduntor. Cun;q;"icpicla iam in- 
tus toftiterit,vidclicet toraex candido ouiinrcrno concrefces, 
tum rupta oui mcrnbranula proles cxit.priraura pars iJla inte- 
nor candida, vcluri g, ado coufiftit.cn foemina fuum atramcn 
tum aiperfcrir. Naf citur cnim fepioia ex eo ipfo cadicante cor- 
puicuJo verfa in caput,modo auium ventre anncxo.Sed qualfs 
*°»am (itin his annexus vrobiiici,nondum exploratfi habcrous, 
Conftattamcn candidomiiludiobindcdiminui,dum fcpiola 
augctur:<S:adpoftrcmum,vrlutcumauibus,iic candidum hi$ 
aboJeri.prirnum oculi grandcs in his qaoq; : perinde vt in carte 
ris,apparer.Sftouum a,b,c, oculi,d,lepiolaipfa,e.hocipfum. 
fcruntvtcrum f epfa: verno tcmpore. Pariunt intra diem dcci- 
nmmquintum.moxouaadaacraisitudineacinoromvuse mi- 
norurn,intradicm ite decirouqaintu capiunr. quibus obroptis 
fcpiola: excluduntur quae,fi quis prius,proIc iam perfecta ob- 
fcident oui mcbrana,ftercuicu]u mittunr,fnumq; prae mctu co 
Joiorcimrnutat excadicanteinrubriofculu.Sedcu genusomne 
craftarumfibiiun£tacontincat oua,itaq}foucar:polypus dit 
pia,& rehqua gcnerfs ciulde,ooa quar pepcreriut atioJut a fe- 
oer,*pra:cipucfcpia:quipjjccuiusfa;pcnumero altieos iuxta 
r c rra,tmm hoc iacit,apparear.roiypus iaemtna modo incubat 
ouu,modo in orc iui cnbiljs afsidcns, brachmm iupcr ouis ex- 
Pprrcclumtcnct.Sepia parit raxrarerram interalgas & ha- 
ruaincs,* fi tjuod aggcftura tale inipclum iit,vt farmenta, aut 
»pioes,aur quarhbct alia matcrici coi.geries.Er quidc pifcvo- 
rcs oe mduftria fafccs f arroentorurodilponunr, haccpr rhberer 
•n cis Joculamcntis paritprolixaro ilia^continentenu^teriem 
U)ram,qualis cirri mulicbris ipccies cft. cnimur, aiuum per 

h | intcj 






U$ ARTSTOTE. DEANIMALIB. 

interaalla repriroens,triipergitq; atrametam, inferpofifa qale 
te:vtpote,ai non nificu labore emittat. Lolbgcnes in. alropa- 
riunt.conieriu ijs qaoq> ouu,quaic fepijs eit. V iuendi fpacium 
tamiepLCi<jualolliginibreuc:naexceptis paucis biraatom no 
complent.poiypis eriam tantunde feporis advfdcnda datu eft. 
proJcunt c fingulis fepiarum ouis fepiola? fingulaerquod idem 
in genereetia lolliginum fitlnter lolligincm marcm & fecmi 
na hoc intcreft,quodfreminainteftinac6tinctdao,veluti ma- 



inas:qaaefialuodific&ainfpc&es,facile videris. Mas omnino 
ijs carct.Scpia tum hoc idem difcrimen habct, tam vero quod 
mas varius plus,quam foemina eft, vt expofui. 

&c<jsmfe{torumgemribtMyC[H£aiit ex erttcis autex 

utr mibus ,aut cxfimo gtgtwntur. 

Caput x l x - 

Nfe&i generis mares f ceminis efle minores 5 ac faper 



lO 




flum 



parianr 



m Vermcm autem ornnia faciunt,excepto gencre quo 

dxm papiiionum. quoddurumquiddam fimikcartamo, idcft, 
cnici femini producit, icd intusflaidum. Vermibus vero ipfis 3 
non parte a!iqua,ficut in ouis animal creatur,(cd totus vcrmis 
accrcfcft,& partf culatim diicretUs formatur in fpecicm deftina 
tfanimalis.procrcautiirporro infe£ta,aurex animahbusgcne 
ris dufdem,vt phaiangia,& aranci. cx phalangijs & arancis, vt 
bruci,locuft£,cicad£.antnoncx animalibus,fcd ipontcalii ex 
rorcqui frondibus infudat,vide]icet vcmo tempore,vt natura 
ferf. Ssepe tamcn & hyberno, quoties tranquillum, auftralcq; 
tcmpus diatius confiftit.Itcm alia cx cceno, aut fimo putrefcc- 
teoriunrnr:a!ia in ligms aut ftirpjom,aut crfis:alia in anima- 
lium pilisralia in cxcrementis,aut iam excretis, aut adhuc intrz ?0 



QUX 



quorum gencratriafunt,]arum,tcrcs,& quodaicaridaappella 
tucft,rx quonihilprocrcarialiudpotcft Latuautemiijudio- 
lum intcftino adhxrens,parit fimilccncumeris fcminf, quo in- 
dicio mcdiCi gefctts id lubrici incfle intelliganr-Nai cfitur papi- 
lioncs ex crucis, frrocar ex vlrent ibus folijs,maximcc]$ cx brafsi 
ci.Prinui minusquzd mil^ocofiftitin foJio, mox vcrtniculiin 
dcc6trahc::tur,* accrefcur,iu mtra rrkiun cniculxafforman 
tur.qusauvte motu ceffanr,ftnq; forma imatantor,appclJan 
' fanrifpcrchryf^jdcs,quafi anreifas dixeris.duromfcilr 
l>nciat1t,ad;taftu mobfle$,meatibas armcofis obdufrr* 



turq 
pdtd 



non 



Q_* 



«• 



rleft os,non aliuHcx ^#b)iV.qoo<lcon£picimfitpo6fdcnt*Iogo 

pcft {cporc.putamire obrupto cuolant indc animalia penn ;^c- 



ra,quo_ papiliones vocamws. Itaq. primu dmm cjucs iunt,cibo 
aliVur,2tq$cxcteirxM»u cmittunt. At vero cu m mnthiM duias 
traf!crint,nihilvejgi!i^nt^cJcxc£rnunt.H;ccc2c!ci;i>n^ii ra 
tiocortcraru^tiamcit i.n.rcx vermib»js coj iiftat iitcvxcoitu 
animaliu verraee.fcu fi_-ie coita prodiercna & apum & Crtbi o- 
num,& vclparfi Ycr_ncs,q*. ad.u rcccntes iunt& aJuntur.tanni- 
perefe ftcrcus emtttcj e Videnntt At cu fortna? lit_iajr.<_ta retepe 

13 iinr,iubqua tadeny.r_ph:eappeliatur,iamncq; cibt_ prseterca 
capiunt^ncq; vliu -rodduar almcxcrcmtn.u,(co CG€ictti& c< n- 
tradtc|!ife{cunt,nccvilop:;::omoucrcic patiutur, viqiKi.um 
fpecies deftinata perficiatur.quo facio cuoJat pro)es,rupto,quo 
conrineb^ru^tolljculo.Qujnetiafupcrar^ acia: cUflir qu.bui- 
drimemlmodiaiijsgcncraiurcrucis-.quxvtidCtingicfa!. Farie 
enim innitentes pnorecantrahuntieie,adduccntci poiknoie, 
arcaatimq;inccdunt. Vcjuqurq; oita 5 f_bico.k>ie i iuaeruca 
trahunt.Fitex quoda vcrme grandiorcqui vcluti corm?figc- 
^inaprotcndir,in:q;gcncr!scft,})nmu toto kmnw*to,eruca: 

20 dcindc quae bombyx appciiatur.ex quo nccy«iaJus,in^aida di- 



xcritn.quae varia tor rcarum iuccchio,in lcmcftn temporls ipa 
cfocopkrur. £x hoc ammal:& genere botnbycia iUa roukc-rcf 
nonnu]];e retorqucndo in fiiumdeducunt,dc nde texur.t.priroa 

tcxjflcinCoiniulaPaphila Plarisfiiu dicitur*Eodc modoica 
^beitaurigignunturcx vcrmibt«,qui m lignisar disnaicun- 
tur.primucnim vcrmcsipfiimmobiicsiiur,rooxdiii-upto} uta . ._j 

mincidicarabcigcnuscxitBLfcasinaluearijs gjgni apcrtum ****** *"- 

cltt Blattat 



^^qux&ipigepejnnarxiunt.Afiiuslatiukalis qu.bufdam be- (li 
iuolii,qB£ in fluuijs lupcrnafar.t,enafcitcr:qu3*nobrc magns. in t 
^uorumcopiac:rcaaq!u:,vbiid^enus bcfljoiaium t&, fcvu- 



<j 



nom 



bas 



J ' J * 

AUn ^nKitatispcnnigcr^ani!nal:ag)gni_i t tur 9 quo5Cii-ros vo- 
Can( ' Culice> mulionesex a/car jci..__oo tft fipulii generan.gr. 
tjpulae feji in ptiicis,& vbicunquc aqua ic CGhigir,ttrrena i» b- 
Hurnrc concrezione onu< tur - Rt vc prjfttf{ o f< i i{ i p».trc-* 
ccnscolorcm candicantcm trah.it . tnox Gigriolntroi.poftrc.- 
t«o cracntuin . taiis cutn fu< ■ un./.ot qu t ro fi rt br t 

-•^Cvealguir proccuRt ;qi«id Kirrui h:rrenr?a lnx oriai- 
1:4 ^ouctitur^tcimk «UoJucmur.u. c ferq i urpcraqu,n>, 
»P¥l« auncupat«.tum paucis poit dicbns crujunt feiup* 

h 4 aqoa 



/ 









HO AMSTOT. DEANIMALTB. 

aquadurse, atq;immobilcs.mox difrupto putaminc > culexe-' 
mcrgit,ac infider,donecvclfolc , vclflatumcucttur& vokt. 
Communeomnium vermiumtfti&corumquaeex vcrmbas 
proueniuntanimaiium,vtprin:ordiumgcnerationis 5 aotaiolc 

aut a fpintu pra?ftctur.fedcopiofius accclerius fiunt tipuJain 

aquls , quarum fedimcntum varium ac promifcuum fit. qualc 

in agro Mcganco in operis folct mifccri,putrcicit cnim hocfa- 

cilios:&autumno ^uoqs vbcrius generatur : minus cnimhu- 

moris cfTc tuncaccidit.Rediui graminc oriuntur . Scarabci viri 

dt:s,galleraca:iam vocariincipicntes vermibusfimo bouisaut 

iumcnticrcatis gignantur.Scarabci pilularij in fimo qucm vol *o 
uunt,condantarperhyemcm,paruo*q;vermiculospariunt,cx 

quibusipfi procrcantur.Quinctiam Jeguminu vcrmiculispcn 
nata animalia rationefimilt prodeunr.Mufcae cx vcrmiculis fi- 
mi digcfti in parfes gignuntur.quamobrcm qui co fungantur 
munerc,contcnduntreliquumfimi promifcui diicernere,etiam 
confe&um concoftumq; effc fimum confirmant.Principium aa 
tcm vcrmicalorum ipforum cxigaum cft,qaod primum rubc- 
fcit,atq$ex immobili quafi hsercns adhocfibris moucri incipitt 
mox vermiculus immobilis rcdditurrquicum poftea motuscft 
rurius immobil?sfif:demumq;gcncrarmafcam,qua:flatus,aut20 
folis bencfici© moueatur.Tabani ex lignonaiconrar . Orfoda- 
gnar,quasmardellasappellem,cx vcrrr.icuiis immutatis,qui in 
brafsic* caulecrcanrur.Canrharidarexerucis fici,piri,pini,at- 
q$ctiamieotis caninaeoriantar:fiunr cnim in Ivf omnibus vcr 
mcs.petitgcnusidanimalisf(rrida,qaonfaextalimareriacon ; 

ftitutum cft.Viranjcultcescx vermiculis,quifeee vini accfcc- 
tc gignuntur,origmcm trahunr.Quineriam in ijs quic putredi 
nemnuliam poflerecipereexiftimantur,nafci animalia noui- 
mus: vt vcrmes in niuc vetuftic re,quihirtiiuntpilis,&ro- 

bidi,quoniam * ipfa nfx vetoftate rubcfcit fed in niuc mejO 
d : * terrx candidi , & grandiores inueniuntcr . torpcnt o- 
mnes,acdifficulter mouetur.In Cypro infola,xrarijs fornaci- 
bui^vbichalcireslapisingeftascomplaribosdicbuscrcmatur, 
bcftiok ta medio ignc nafcuntur pcnnat.Y,paulo muicis gran- 
dibus maiorcs,quxper ignera faliant^atqjafribuient.Emoritur 
&hocgenas,*illadniuisalumnum,camaltcramabigne,altc- 
ruoj u niue dimotum eft.Nonnulla corpora ciTe animaliii ,<P X 
igncnonabfumanrur,falamanc!ra claro documcntocft t c\uXj 
vtaiont,igncm,ina»bulanspcreumextinguit. Hypanis flu- 



ipud 



folli 



quod 



LIBEK QjINTVSt *U 

ores,quibus quadropcdes volocrcs ernm- 



vmit,& volat:mox deicendentefolemacrcfcit, & langucr : dc- 
indc occidentc emoritur,vita non vltra vnum diem pc rafta: vu 
dccphcmerum,ideft,dianumappcllatum cft. Qux cx crocis 
aut vermibus gignuntur aranea inuolata,magua cx parteprin 
cipioexeunthxcita. 



rJP 



>/c7 



*° CaffUt XX, 

\ TEfpx autem ichncumoncs nuncupatar , qux minorcs,qaa 
V # ca!tcr*iunt,ph4langiaperimunt 5 occilaqjfcruntin paric 
tfnasiautaliquid talcforamincpcruium:dcii*lc illiniunt luto, 
atq; cx ijs incnbando ibom procreant genus. Nonnolla cx ijs f 
quorumpcnnis cruftafupcruenit,* cx minutis , qux nominc 
carent,nidos fibi l luro paruos aut ad fepulchra,aut ad paricti- 
nas confingunr,atq; in ijs vcr mJcalos Pariunt.Tcmpus gencra 
tionis aprincipioadfincm,maxim^icr^partifeptcnarijs tcr- 
nis deJcnbirur,aut quaternis.Culicum,& vcnniformis gcneris 
10 parti plurim* tcr icptcni attributi fdntOuiparis quatcr fcptc 
ni magna cx partc S cptcm cx ijs ab initu,concrctio,& conJum 
matio oui vcndicat fibizreliquis tribasieptcnisincubanr,atque 

cxciudunf,ca/cilicctqu«iaoprocrcant faetu, vt araneus,aat 
aJiquid gencr is ciuidem.rautationes vcro& tranfitu* m figuras 
2lias 3 trinis,aut quadrinis dicbus,paiti inaxims pcraguntunfi 
cat in morbis quoq; dies dccretorins cacnit - Talis inicftor um 
gencratiueit.pcrcuntftriatiSjContortwqjmcmbris^vtfcncCtu- 
te gcnus maiorum animalium moritur.qu* pcnata cx ijs fant, 
JKnnis ctiam conuulfu autumno (crh monuntar . Tabani qui- 
30 dem vcl aqua intercutc ocuJoram caeci intcreunr. 

Dt coitu crgejterxtione apum,:' ^ria vpinicnes . 

Catput xxi. 

f*§*!S Egenerationeapomvariafententiacft. Alij cnim 

cas parcrc & coirc ncgant,f cd deportarc f ocmra cxi 




ftimam.ncc vnde porfrnt , conftat inter omncs led 
p^^^^ijexfloreccrinjiSi,aI)j cx flore arundmis,alij cx 
fcoreolcsamnr,argumcntumq; affcrunt,quod cam oliuaram 
Proucnrusfitlargior,funcpluracxamina prodeant. Suntqui 
«corumqiiidcmiceturam comportariab aliquo cx ijs, qux 



h J 



M T i • 



t 12 AMSTorr. deaKimaltb- 



icfuc! 



.bos.QSpruiu duofunt genera>alcerumfuInum,quod prarftan- 
tujseft:sltercm'nigrum s magi$q; varlu.magnitudoijs duplo, 
quamcxtcrisfrugiapibus^auftior eft.pars a pracinfto infe- 
tfor proportionefefqnialtera ade6 longitudinis habetor.voca 
ta- a nonaullis matres,vtpotcori:;ini$ autores,argumcnTO re- 
ferunt,quodfacorum foctm aeditur ctiairfincdutc rpumin- 
quarn-Aliquipcrcoitura 2giopinantor,marc<cj:efic fu^oStfoB 

roinas vero apcs cfrccontcndunt.Carcrx in concanrisjtnisq 1 * 
fauorum proueniunt.Duccs fubtcr ad fauum pcndcntcs or itin- iar 

furfcparatimiex,autfcptcra,contraquimcietcrae turmsfoe- 
turaadhfrcntc^aculcumapcspof5idcnt-fucicocarcntRcge5, 

duce<.q$ habent fed non vtutunquocirca cos carcrc aculeono- 
r.uilicxiftimant. 



t * 



& dt&tty<\*4\ f 



ife£tiQnc*Cr}}a<!oKibt'.s,idcft upum f 

Capnt % X X 4 . 



Enera 



VJf tnnditatcm compaftilcs funUcamdum,qux long#,& ve-:a 
fpis fimile$.tertiuro,qut fdr nunedpatur:grandis hic,# aluocft 

amnlfnrf» nnarrnfti.fnnK nraprinna mafmrudine % fcdnuilo^r- 



auu 



qao apcs fubirc p. fsintrfnci auf cm vt grandiorcs,ncqocar, Du 
cumduofuntgcncra.vtiinidifluincft.Nccvnusin cuoqjcxa 

inincduxtantummodocft.fcd plure*:peritu3 ipJura cxamem 

fiduces vcl non fatis habranf arfquod non tam principis dcfide 

iio,qu^mortu$,vt aiut,ad quem ilii ntttffartj funt,inddit)vel 

plores qnam fatis:diftrahut cnim cxamcn.Prouenii irerus apti p 

pvircius Vercfcrotino^fquabrcrubigine.angcnt porro mclla 

ficcitatcs,fobolem imbrcs Vndefit,vtfimulohua.v3r exarmnu 
copiafit. Fanospri^umconfidunt,moxcollocanrfretumorc 

cmrttcntesfuo,vt piacet*qaice*iffiit aliandt»proli5 pritror 
diaconuehixleinderibicaufa mcli icanr,tHm3:iiatc,quiin)au- 
tumno.fcd mclins mel auturonak cfc- Conftruunt 'taao eflori* 
bas^ccramex lachrymaarb<rutr.fingont,m«rlhex rcreacris: 
fydcrum exortu potifsimnmrfc arcuscoeleitis kftcubttu contra- 
hut.omnino amc verailiarum ejcomim racl non f x.l 'auOs tta<J? 



pf; 



t 



fcd rorcmcandcntcm deferrc.arguracntocihqucd vno aut ai- 
tcrodicc^lla3 meilcrcpktasinaeniuntaniaiij Itcm autumno 






113 EH QJ2NTVS. |XJ 

roe!,pofteaquam dctraftum eft,non reparatur,cum tamcn filo 
ctiain temporc flores proueniant .fublato itaque mcljc , & cibo 
aat nullo cxtante,aut exiguo,rcpeterent ccrtc apes munos mcl 
lisconficicndi,fiexfloribus poflintaccipcrc.CrafTcicir autcm 
mcj concoftum iam tcmporc.Initio cnim vtaqua diiutum eft, 
& primis diebus finecraisitudinecernitur.quoJ li excmptu co 
tempore fit,crafsitudinc carct.tum viccfimo maxime diefpjfla 
tur.Indiciuto pcric&ionis in faporc potiisimum eft:duicius e- 
nim,quod craisius. Colligurt apcs cx omnibus , qua; fiorcm 
Iocaliculatumferunt,atquc ctiamcxcxten^in quibus dulcc- 
doeft>& iingua iuiceptum gcnus idfaporis deportant , fwe vU 
lofruftuuradetrimcnto. Vindcmiatur initio caprifici aluei: 
tunccnimmcliationisterminuseft. Schadoncs autcm(fobo- 
lemdico)optimx-fiunt,cumm-llificatur. aggerunt fuiscruri- 

busccram^atquccrithacam.TOcloreeuomutincdks foetupo- £n/ / ; 



Htcam* 



nto incubant aumm morc cxclu/us indc vcrraitulus dum par~ ~ U£ & r an ^ 
uascft,iacct infauo obliquas.poftdeindc fua ipfc fimiZ»2mtti *PP*l 
te ic crigit , cibumque capit:& fauo ita adh<eret,vt rctincri vi- jatmr , &a 
dcatur.FcBUW apum Sc fucorum candidas eft.ex quo vermicu- Dt Jj ort j c 
to Iifiant,qoi in apcs,facosq; rranfeant.Primordiwm regu c*lo- ceP g£, ims , 
rccernitur faluo,corpulenria mcllis cra(s!oris,raagnitudinc ili e . 



x arhoTHm 



co proxiaia iu j> futunr foboli.ncc pr imum cx co vermiculus gi f UCCO gummi 
gnit:ir,fcd(htimapfs,vtaiiint.quaaurcmparJcfo?rus confti- ^^jArmim 

tntnsUr t^«I .L-* L i r . o t i . _ rC .. s_» 



t.CYMX 



tutusiit,mchbi^rcgionc coniicitar. Schadones,fifcetusep- ta ^ r;wTu 
preflusintcrcipiatur,truncatf fincpcnnis,&cruribuspredcut. f0re $ H ^ § 
^cdfi]ibcre'adfincmgenerationisvencrunt,rupnquacingun Hern ^ nn • 
tur membrana , cuoiant ■ Stcrcus qaandiu fit vermis , emit- m i^) iem } 9 
*»t : poftmodum mm,nifi pcrfcclc ( vt raodo di*Oprodicrinr. 



o 



» quis capira ijsdcmat,priufquam pcnnas habeanr,propa« 
3°bul nimirum apibus iunt . & fi fucum adrmptis pcnnis in 
alacum rcijcias,ipfo rcliquorum pcnnas crodunt . V ita apu an- 
m foc.nonnnlls: etiam feptem poflunt complcrc . Quod fi c- 
xamcn noucm,aur decem annos durauent profpcrc atium eflc 
^iumoatunGcnus quoddam apum !n Ponroeft candidum val 
dc,quod bis menfc mcllificct.Apud Thcmifc vram circa Thcr- 




auus 



statinscoftraiit co^iacijim jnct^trasftucft hrdevc.qu^hyc 
|^iKMrfat,vndcdpc< rnelcapiat.ad Amiium vrb*" coachiror& 



°cisiap- r ioribus mclcandidu craftlitcq; maiorcm m modum, 



qaod 



124 AR.ISTOTE. DE ANlMAtlB. 

quod apcs faciunt arboribus fine fauo,qualc ctiam ficri in pon 

tocognituraeft.Suntenim apcs> qux fauos fub terra triplici 

1 ordincfacjant:m quibus n.eieft^vermisnullus.iednccfauiom 

ncs eiufmodi funt,nec apcs ita omncs confingunr. 



c 



foztura crabronum^& nejparum, Caj>ut xxill. 



Rabroncs&vcfpaMi dcjfce amiffo aberraocnnt, fauos 
fuse proli conftituur<,in fublimi & foraminibus. crabroncs 
infublimi,vefpae inforaminibus.fcd fi habcantduccrnjubtcr- 
ranidificant.Cxllis icangulis fauos extruuntomne<,vt apes: 
fed cx raateria corticca quadan»,& arancofa:Iong£: tamcn lau-i& 
fiorfauusc;abronum,qu&m velparum eft. Foeturam modo 
apum inftillant ad latus caellarum fam,& panetibus admouet. 
VerbmnoinomnibuscxiHsineftsequdtsfcEtus^fed alijs fara 
grandiufculus,vt vel queat volarc : aiijs in nymphj eft s aiijs 
adhuc in vcrmiculo.Excrcmcntum vcrmicalh tantum,vt & in 
apum gcnerecft.manctfostus imraobilis,cum in nympha cft* 
& mcmbrana vrlatur.Paululum mcllis qaantum guua,in carl* 
lis crabronu & regi jnc proii paratur.S^hadoneshuius gcneris 
non Vcrc,fcdautumnofiunt & crefcunt muximc picnilunio. 
harrct & foetus & vermiculus non in irao cadlae,fed latcri. 2 * 

x £>e f>artu ncnnutlorum ex genat bombycum, 

Capuf xx j III. 

Ftin.flc: Ni- |R^!K&¥t! Onnulla ex bnmbycum gcncrc,nidosinacutucxeun 
Acs luto fin- KB^^lQr tcs ^* ^ u, ° S 12 -*^ illif o$, virri 4 pecic «jfFigunt lapidt,aut 



runtfalistte If^i alicni t*lMarocrafio5,duro<.q,, vt fpiculo pcrforari 
^ieapplicatos'^^*^ vixpoisint.pariurtin ijs,& verrmculos producunt 
Uptii &c* ^^^^c^branaobuolutos nigra,leorfumq;£ mcmbriina 







ceram in luto faciunt,qu£ raulto paiLdior ficquam ccra apuia- 

£>ccoitu & partuf rmtcarum. 

Capirt XXV. J* 

Oeant<Srformica?-,c8r vcrmiculum pariunt nulliannexu: 
qui accrefccns Cx roinutulo & rotudo lopgmf cuius fit> fof 
mamqjacapitdcbitam.ortuseorum vcrno tempore agitor. 

JDepartn terrcjlnumfco.pivnum . 
Capnt XXVI. 

&^S$&. VincS: fcorptones tcrrcftres vermiculosouoruro fp* 

[cfc pariunt complures,& incubat.mox vr prolepcr- 



j . — — * — — — i — 

r eccrunt,pei!untorabea ipf«,ficut& arancis accidift 






* e 



^* 



cnim vnd«:os pariunr- * 

Vcgcneribus araneorum 7 & eciumPartt** capnt XXVI 1 ' 

Aranci 




IIBER. QJINTVS. lij 

Ranei vero cocunt mod ,\ quo diflom eft.Pariont vermi- 
7lculos,quinoncxparre,ledtotiinaranci formam imma- 
tanrunnam 3c rorandi um indc a primo ortti prooeniont. Cu 
pepererinr,incubant,<S: fnduopeiagunr.parionromncs in re- 
h icd altj in iubtili & brcui,al.j in crafsiore.& alij omnino in 
finu orbiculato,alij ita,vr aliquatenus tcla obdufta proles ma 
niatur.prole, autem ipia non vniuerfa producitur- vt tamen 
qaifque exiuit,protinns ialir^lumq; mittif. homor fimilis in 
vcrmicaljs!nfriaupe;cSpitur,atq;in arancis ipfis recens na- 
io tis,hoc cft craflu ,,& candidos. Pratenfcs aranei in tela pariunt, 
cuius dimidium applicatum ipfis matribus eft, reliquuro foris 
rccipit partom,* incubanteadera in tela,atque viaificant. Pha 
langij j n rete,quod craflom confccerint, pariunr , atqoe inca* 
bant.cjcreris lautioribus illis partus minoris nomcri eft:ar ve- 
ro pnaIansiisadmodnmnnmrr«r.« r-^^X. ;„r- ul. i 



rif,matrcmamplexaconfomit 3 &ci;cit iarpe etiam patrcm ii 
ccperint:adiouatenim foeminaro incubitu Pariontur interdu 
* trccenti codero vtero.conlummantur aranei,& iofta fibi rcci 
piunr .ncremcntadicbus qaarer ieptenis,a paroo fui ortus ini- 



'orieadfinem. 




locuft 
caput x x v r i t. 



jOcuftceoderocoeunr modo,qaoc«tera infefla, fcili 

jcct minorcfuperucnicntemaiasfuntcnim in co gcne 

rCmarCs minorcs qn.-imfoeroinar.Pariunf in tcrra fi- 

. ' f ~— - x °C3alicolo,quo mares vacat.-acvniocric,* locoeo- 

aem irerum deponant,«ta vt qoafi faoos cfle videator.hinc vcr 

nucai, ipeciem ooi gcrentes oriantur.qaiterraquadam prxtc- 

ui.tanqaam membranula ambiontor: qoa difiefta emcrgont 

^ ,tat ' 3cc aolant.TammollisfGetorah*ccft,vtadtacium le 
o|^imam d labatar,* pereat. Non fomro* fclluri partus coro- 
jnitrirur/cd paul \ altios.hic concoftioneperafta excunt ex il- 

o rerrcno amictilo paroa: locufta:,& nigrantes:dcinde cote ob- 
Pfa,maiorcs ftatimefficionrar.panontexita Veris,& ftatitn 

Parto moriantar,vcrmiculiscirca collam innafcentibus tcm- 

obe r u Pa u UJ,qafCJSIlrangD,Cnr - Marcs ^ ao< l ; eodcm "mpore 
cuft "^ c C teTr * cmcr S Q nf -Locis montanis aut tcnuibos lo^ 

foaoT° T' (edplanrC,rim0f, ^ aC P ariant en,m ln rim,s 



incunte 
foperioris locaftar. 



O eorHtnfa iura C<tptt x x l x. 



Parl 





%l6 AMSTOTE.DE ANIMALIBt 

Ari modo,& qucs brucos appellant«,pariunr:& cnm prpf- 
rerintmoriuntur.inrcreunr oua corum aquis autuir>n<ili- 

btu,cum niwis inceflcrinr.At ficcoautumno largior proucn- 
tus brucorucft,quoniarn minus oaa intcrcant.innormis enitn 
efle videtur eorutn qcidcm intcntus qainctiam ortus nulla cer 
ie agitar ratione, 

Dt gnmnhm cicsJ<trum,&' ctrum coitn. 
Cciput x x x. 

l^lcacbrudnoiuntgcncraralfjcnimminorcs^qafprf 
t \ m# p:cdeunr,& ucuifstir £ pereunt : .aliff iraiorcj, \o 

^ > % ^ ux cannnt,c«dcir»tj; iicuifsirrf prodcunt , & plfc 
££l'ma? intcrcunr. S unt qnac canunt prxcinflu diuiduXj 
fme minorc^fiue maiorcs ftmr.qca: autcm non canont, indioi- 
duaeconfcant.vocantnonnulli grandiorcsillas & cancntcs ar- 
gatas:mirioresmutas.Sedcancre velinfecudo hccgcnere pcf 
ltint paulalum,quae prxcin&e prodicrunt.Naici non poffunt 
cicadar,vbiarboresdefant:quocirca apud Cyrcnam nuijtf in 
carapo funr,cum circa oppidum ipfam muljtac proneniant. 
Olcas nmim£amant,vt minus vmbrofas.locarfr.im fngidic- 
ra afpernantarrquansobrcm in opacis ncrconbas effe nec\ntut.io 
Cocant ram raaiores,quam minorcs fupincr coplext: muruo: 
ma>q; infcrit in foemiriam,ficut& crrtcrainfc&a aguntGenH 
talefasrmuahabct refciffurn.quo rccipit id qood a marc inijci* 
|qr Par;untinarulsctlTant'bu^cxcauantcsarpcrita:c praractf 
ta,qa rn partehabent pofteriore: quomodo bruci ctiam folo 
ciuiinot!ipariur»t:quaproptcr in Cyrencnfi agro copta cft. 
Q^nctiam in harundmibus.,quo adminiculo vites criguntor, 
nidumffitnrx cxcauant.& in caolibusfqQillaehcrh* intcrdu 
pariunt.fcdhicfrctus facilt in tcrram dilabitur. Iroacniunt 
lar^ecopia imbriuirt.Crcfcit primoin tcrra venr;culus:dein ]0 
<3cfitcx co qu<e tcttigomctra vocatur, parcntis nominc : oua 
t:mporcgiulafaaaifsim2ifunt,antcquam cortex rumpatur. 
poftmodum circa folftitia no&u cxcunt,ftatimq; rupto corti- 
cc,prodcunt cicads cx soatncc illa cicada,quam modp tctti^ 
mctramdixi,nigrx protinns,& duriafculae,<R maiofculx s atq? 
incipiuntcancre.marcsvtroqjin gcncrc canont: fosmin* 6- 
lcnt.fi: antccoitu marcsfuauiores funt:a coito fcemin^qaifv 

e qu# ouacandida,gufta habeant gratacxcitatae cum fnbuc- 
lanf.qucndam rcddunt humorcm modo aquae , qco ruftici eas 
mfnge re,3r cxcrcmento noncarcre,ronqucali ailcuerant • S* 
quis digitum contrahenr ,ac rcmittcm iubuicic apprcpinqa'*' 



LIBEH QJflNTVS* IX* 



magis€xpe£font,quam ii ilico cxtendaf:* quidcm tranfire in 
dfgimm alliciuntur quod enim ocnlto hebctes funr,quafi frons 
aliqua:noueatur,dig:mm ita admotum confccndunr. 



o-?- 



Cd/Wt XXXI. 



i/r/l 



/*"\ Va: cx nnmcro infecWu non carne viuunf.fcd carnis vf 

V^. ua: hamorcalotur, vr petliculi,paJ<ccs,cimicc',hiec per 

coitum generantca,quaclcr.dcs vocantur:cx qoibus nihil prar- 

10 tcrea nafci poteft.iilorum autcm generario tal/s eft Puliccs mi 

»imjquadampufrcdinegignunmr,iedeir.c'j Aii ortus forde* 



orc,qu 



anraiaiium conhftit.Pedicoliitx carncquibus futnris emcrgut 
ceu puftol* quxdam fine purc exigoserquas il pungas,pedica- 
iiexeunt.Acciditmorbus hicnonnullis hominibnsprse nimio 
corporis humore.* qaidem aliqcosfceditate obijiTeproditum 
cit,vt Alcmanem poctam,& Fherecvdem Syrium.qoibnidam 
ite- morooram gencribus copia naicttur pcdiculorum.Genaj 
pedicuMcruvocatu.eftdLvm^eoqaodmagnaex parte pro- 
toneniat,& cornoridetrahidifFiciiius pofsif Pueris pcdicoli ra 

^apiaomaai.svirismiiraj.omninofcenJn-magis quam tna- 
res | pediculu fcnthinf.minus laboranf coriJ capiia,quibus pedi- 
ctiJus in capilio eft.Qmn & cx caterfc animalibw coplura pedi 
culo mfcftantur, v t aues:& phafianje quidc intcreur ,nifi fe po]- 
uerct.omnino quibus puiac3o3ec6ftat,ijsprdicalns gignitcr. 



bi?r. 



nonpe 
oucs vtruq: id ha- 



ber.oues & caprx rediuos habet «pediculis vacaf. S nibas qaod- 
cJapcd:cuIig r adc,acduriifamiliarecft.Canibus propriu rici- 
Jo nas,qqi ab eodc animali norac cynoraiftaeaccepit.Genas aatc 
vnuquodq; pcdiculi ex corporcipibini animalis enafcir . Pro- 
nen;ur laru; us ped.cnli mutatior.e aquaru,quibus hruare fe fo- 
"««•a.quorunarnrapediculupatitnr .Inmarietia pifccs hoc 
»a u infeitarrveru noin pifcibns ipils,fedlimo gignitor fimile 

moltiped;busafelliv,nifiquodcaada hoc ampliufcula habeat. 



"Wtipcd.?^ exaguia.Aillus thnnnoro iub p:r>naoritor,fpccic 

«wpioni«,ar3nei magnirndicc-Marii,qucd a Cyrcna in Ae C y 

ptupad,rur,pi/cis,pcdicalusnoiccirca Dclphirueft, qui oim 

F ln §0lijim*fiM?ahulicnni.i.oi.r.^-1nKi«i „„.— C^.Jt.*,.^ 






tatur 



11$ AMSTOT- DE ANIMALTB. 

JDegenere ttncarumrfuod tn htnts procreaturdeq; xylofwihoro^ 
yuod inltgnisinecnon de ficariijs c»ticibHf,qu9S caprificus 

generat. Caput xxxn. 

Vinetiam alia! gencranturbeft!ols,vtditfucft,tani 
in lams,& quibufais lanitio confcftis, vt tinese , qu* 
lanis poluerulentis praecipufc oriuntur :atque etia ma 

gisfiaraneasvnaincludarur.fi quid cnim humoris 

ineft,hic abforbes ampliat ficcitatem.nafcitur * in tunicis hoc 
idem vermicuh genus.Tum vero in ccra vctafta, vt in ligno, 




animalgigniturcandidum,quodomniom animalinm efleminiio 

mumexiftimatur,nominc acari.nccnon alia in chartis »aut ijs 

proxiraa,qu* in vefte,aut fcorpioni,fed finccauda generantur 

perquara exigua.omnibus propir dixerim,vel Cizcis humcfccn- 

tibus,velhuraidisficcdccntibus,creari animal poteft.Nakitur 

&vcrmiculusquidam,cui nomer.i corrumpcndis lignis xy- 

lophthoro,acfi ligniperdi appelle ,nullo minus abfurdumtca- 

putenim fuo putamine exerit varium.pcdcs in poftremo ha- 

bet,vt ali j vcrmesaeliqunm corpus tunica araneofa inregitur, 

faoq; tcgamcnto hsercntes feftacas gerit,ita vt (orth eas, cafu- 
qaehbicontraxifiedumambularct,videretur.Vcrumipfxna-iO 

tiaacinhatrcnttunicae:&vt liraacibus tcfta,fic totum id vcr- 
miculo huic adhaeretmecdecidit vnquam,fcd eueltitur,vt nati 
mim.quodfi hanccius tunicam detrahas,expirat>pariq; modo, 
atq; limax,tefta detra&a hcbctefcit. proccflii vtique temporis 
id quoque in aureliam tranfit,vt cruca, atque immobfle vio& 
Scd quidnamcxcoanimalispennatioriatur,compertum non 

adhuc cft.Ficarios culices caprificus gencrat fuis pomis.fit pri- 
mumvcrmiailus,moxruptacuteeuohtculex,mutatjqae fc* 

dcpctit ficus immaturas: qaibus fe in(inuans,facit nedccldant. 
Quamobrem agricohe appendcre ficis caprifici ficus , & iaxM i 9 
eaidcm eaprificos icrcrc aflolent. 



fi 



Cdput XXXI II. 



a 



Vadrapedis aatem fanguinei onipari gencris ortos vcr- 



no tcmporc quidem agitur,fed coirus non tcmporc eo- 
dem.alta enim V ere,alia atfta 



mmod 



ftudo ona darioris teftar,* bicolora aedit,quale ouum aaiu *» : 
caque defofla,& coopert a terra,ac paui ta,& complanata incu- 



bat 



lutaria 



tudinc 



I I B £. I. SEXTVS. 



tudineparit ooa,qua. dcferit tcrra obruta,dieq; triccfimo repc 
tit,refoflaq; aperit,fcetumq; continuo ducit in aquam.Teftu- 
din« etiam marinae egrcflVin terram,par.unr oua auium cor- 
tahumouis fim.lia:&defofla,coopertaq> incubant noflibus, 
©uorumnumcrusmaximuseft,namad ccntena pariant oua. 
Q«iin & lacerta: <Sr crocodili tam terreftres,qua fluuiarih* , iua 
oua terrat grcmio committunt Laccrtarumouafrontein tcr- 
ra aperiuntunvitam enim earom annum noti complcrc.ied ie- 
meftrem finirc aiunt. Crocodilus fluuiat.lisouafexaginta co- 
jo plunmum parif,viu!tq;dia,maximumq;animal,minima hac 
or:gmecuadit.ouumcnimnonmaiusquam anier.s,& foetos 
inde excluias proportionc eft. Attamen crcfcit ad quindecim ca 

r_lf_v v nr\t _-*ni __»._____ ______ ■ . __ * 



"}» 




/< 



fi 



Ipera e.erpetibus vna animal aedit,clim intra ieoua 

pnmum ppercrit.Ouum hoc vnius coloris,<& moJ- 

jie,vtpifciomcft.fcEtusiupcrnfconi.ftit:ncccortice 

continctor,ficut ncc pifciam quiden. parit catalos 

obsolatos membranis:quar tertia die rumpantur.eaenit intcr- 

*odam,vtquiin vteroadhucfunt,abroils membranis prorum- 

pant.fingulos,diebus fmgulis parit.plurcs quam vigtnti.Ote 

ra_fcrpen.es oua pariuntforiscontexta-ad monilis,hoccft or- uonictn^ 

ll_)me_iff fr&]1f>riifn /-i n _^_-l^ M .L. A n /__-_-_._ 1 ____ _ __%_-_ _ • _ _-* 



cubat f t 



30 



qux pcpcrcrint in terra,<S_ foctam fcqucntc cxcladunt anno. 

ARISTOTELIS STA 

GIRITAE D£ HISTO- 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER 

YI. INTERPRETE THEO- 



fi 



numero 



DOR.O G AZA 



^uesomnes ouaparere,dmtrfi. 



ourrum numero omnesconuemre. 




Caput 1 



ERPENrrvM, & infcitorum , atq; ctia 



oua paricntium gcncra 
cmocfum animaducrtm 
ta pariunt omncs:Jcd tcm 
idiuc non idcm omnibus 



quippccum aliae cocant & pariant cmni fe 

re tcir.porc,vt g*llinx,\tcolabx . Gallina 

Cmm toto ^nno,pr«tcrquim duobus mefibus brumalibus, pa- 



i 



rit. 



I3'3 ARISTOTE. DE ANtMALIB. 

rit.magnaetiam gcnercinrum nonnullis f(xcunditas,qnando 
vcl fe*agin:a £diintanteincabi<u:qaanquaipf2* minas foecu 
da^quamignobiksfuntltemhadriai>xparuoquidcfunt cor- 
pore,fcd qnotidiepariunt.f-rocianttamen^ pallos fsrpe intc 
jrimuntColor his varius,Nonnul]a.' eti^m ccortalb is bis dic 
pariant lum aliqu* to tantu copte i>roaenerut,vtcffcctebrc 

liimorcrciitur.fcdgallinv vtdiQu cft,perpctu pariunt O- 
Jombxaatcm,palam'bc5,furtur,vina^rsb:n2pariant.fcdcolu- 

ba vcldccics anno:alix fcmcl aono>& parciits gencrant* Agi- 
Curmaximoaoiatnnu.ticrnpartur» vcmo tcmporc. Scd alijs* 
atixfcecundiiJspariant.c]aodb»fan:im fit,autenim quia crc- 
brias,vt colubae,aut quia r.mnerofius vt gi]jina?.On*nes , qni- 



bus vngnes adanci,pjrciu j £cnerant,cxccpto tinutulo,qui pla 
rima in aduco gcncre parit.Iam enim quatuor ciusrcpcrti fant 



CXtCtX 



jn nidis.Quz aute minus volat^vt pcrdices,vt coturniccs > non 
nid:s,fed condcnfofruticeprolcm muniunt Sic & alauc!a:&te 
trsx.icd haecfuum nidu patereaarxcupmnt-Qnem vero Boeo 
tij meropi: vocant,hic vnus fubicns terrx caucruas,facit cuna- 
bula.Turdi nidos cx luto>vt hirundincs faciut in cjccc lfis arbo-' 
ribns>iraddncepsc6tinuato opcrc,vt quafi catcna quardam ni- 
doromcontexta vidratur.Vpupa vnafuo in genetc non nidifi- 
caf,fcd ftjpitcsarbortifubics f paritfine viloftrarro'om cattfc 
Cacalusfaxa dfcdomiciliapctir, in qu-ibus nidificet, Tctru 
qnam Athcnicnfes vrigemvocafifefttc terrx,nec arbori fuoin 

nidum con>miuir,fcd frutici- 
£>endt»ra & diucrJitateoHorttm omn^m auium,ftmineq;*rt' 

4 ^B _ > 



583? 




ff r fcto. Caput i i. 



irodorondepraucH rJcdlcpc confimetur r?afur£.3° 
0^|Ga]Hnaeenimnonnu11aparitit moliia vitio.# blco- 
-^=--'Jor quoq; ouum auiii intus eft,luteu inrerior, albiua 
cxtcrius.fed d:fferutoca aqoatiearu i terrcftribur.cjurdmulto 
plus lutet qn4ra aJbi,cx r.roporrirnccrnrineanr. Difrerant & 
colorcintcrfcouaauiu.SurcnimaliaraJida,vt colubarum & 




Qn.' 



partc latiorc csir,com gignitar 



benfj 



1 IB ER SEJtTVS. jjj 



bcf, mare gignuf.Incubitu auiu.foetti cxdudi narnre rafio eft. 
no tamc ita folu oua apermntur,ied etiam fp5te in terra , vt in 
Acgypto obruta fimopullicicprocrcant.Et S yracufis potator 
quidam^ouisfub ftoria in terta pofit..s,tandiu potabat , doncc 
oua x-derct foctu.Iam vcro & ai in vafis quibofdam tepidis ef- 
fcntcoiefta,fponteoua pullo orompicre.Semen genitale vo* 
Jucru omnium albn,vt cacteroru aniroaliu eft.Concipit focmi- 
qca:coicrit,ouufuperiusadfepfum trJfuerium :qocd onu 



pnmomun«u,«Srcadidumccrnitur:moxrubram,crocrum<5;- 
io dcndc increfccsduteoro <* flauum efficitur fotu . lam amolius 



aaaumdifcernitur,itavtintu S p 3 rslutcafit,foris c^idi ara- 
b.at vb. perfcclu eft,abioluitur, 3 rq 5 tx ir putaroioe,du paritur 
roolh:fcd protinus durciccnrcquibufcuq; cmergit portiotmV, 
nifi yifiovulnadefecerit.lamqualccertotcporecft, rale ali- 

ES&ISSr 1 k ! CU t0t "'^ ualij P**** pnHweft.Gallina etia 
difciiia,tal,a fub iepto,quo loco focroinis oua adh*rcnt,reper- 



qnod 



«a,a vcro quaf , iubuctanca dixcri^rrliqoias cfTc parrus , qucm 



cxpcrtcsadiSci 



«t .inr.t h*c ftcrilia & minora,ac ninos iucundifaporis,* ma 
g •*htnmda : qa a „ qoat f occl1d3 g i gnU r.tur,/ c d plora numero. 
n«fflor eoru craficfcerc inculVfationcauis n6 P oreft:fcd raro ca 
««to,qoam h.rca p Sr s fimilis fibi perfeun-at.Parittf genus id onl 
piarcs aues, vt g ihW,perdi< ^cclurol ar.pauones , anferes , * 
quar ab anfere,,* vulpc compofifo nomtne chenalopeces.id cft, 
vu.panfcrrsdic^iurt.Exciuduntcelerius Incubantes .rftate, 
quam hycmeJdeo icftate gallimr duodeuigefimo die fcetti cx- 

JO cittlantrhyemealiqoando vigrfimoquinto.Difcrimen tamc' * 

aoiom eft,qood aliae tnagis al.js fungi offtcio incubandi P of- 

cX ™ cab2ntc < &&*>* fo„uif,oua pereunt.Qu* aatem cani 

«rij,«vnnaanonmilii« vccantar,arftatc ma-is confiftut. 

anotqm hypcnemia,hoceft fubucntaneos illos partus iephy- 

"a nominent,eo qnod verno tempore aues flatus illos foccun- 

•w ex iauonio recipere vidcantur.fedidcm faciunt ef iam fi di- 

S totn gcnital- palpetttr. Redditu. certcooam fubaentaneam 

iod toecnndain <ft quod iam conccpfom per coitum eft, tran- 

«J genus d.oerfum^fi prias cocat,qux vel fubucnt aneum,vel 



fcmi 



proficiat 



! 



i * vt 



y«; ARIS.TOTE* DE ANIMALIB. 

vt fubuentanca oua fcecunda rcd dantur - & qoa* inchoata i ma- 
re piiore funt,fpecic poftcriorisproucnfant.Atfiiamcandidu 
acceperunt humorcm,fieri non potcft, vt vel fubuetanca in fa> 
cunda mutenrur,vel que per coitum conccpta gcftintuMranf- 
cat in genus maris,qui lccudus coicritJncarpta quoq;,fi adhuc 
paruJsdefieritcoirus,nonaccrefcnnf:fed (i conf:nuctur,ccleri 
incremcntoaugcntar,iuftamcj; maguitadinem implent.Natu- 
ram vitcllus oui,& albumcn habcnt contrariam,non taatu co- 
lore, vcr um eciam virtatc.Vitcllus cnim fpiffatur frigorc, alba 
mcn non,fcdampliushumet.contra albumcn ipiflafur igne,vi-l0 
tellu5non } fedmollisperfiftir,nifipcruratur. magisq; in aqua 
fcruenie,quam ad igncm cog;tur,afq; mduratur.Mcbranahaec 

intcr fc diiccrnuntur.Grandincs autcm dittx,quae initio vitcl- 
liadhaerent*nilad goicraticnemcofcrunt.quaquamaltqui ita 
nonexiftimant.hasduas efle certam eft,altcram partifuperio- 
niunctam^ltcraminfcriori.Eucnitctiam,vtfi quis ruptopu- 
tamincoua plura in patinam coniccit cxcrcata,& coquit ign c 
moili,& continentc,vitclli omncs in mcdium cocant: albumina 
autemcircundent,&infcorasconftituant. Gallinarom iuucn- 
cx pariunt prim*,ftatirn Vcrc incunte:&plura qoam vetcreV-o 
fed minora.dentque aues,nifi pariant ,laborant morbo , afqus 
intcrcont.Inhorrcfcunticoitu,acfccxcutiunt.fa?pc ctiam fe- 
ftuca aliqua lefc luftrant quod idcm & xdito cuo intcrdum fa* 
ciunt.Colambaicaudam diftcndunr.anfercs fcfcaquis ingurgi 
fant.Celeritcrmagnapaisauium&implctur,&ou3 fubuenta 

ncaillacocipit.qucd vci in pcrd;cepc*cipi pofcft,?o quod IiM 
dincincitatur 3 tcmporc namficontramarcm ftcteritfoeminai 

auraabeofiantcfit pr£gnas,atq; cxtcmplo inutilis aucapij* 
Olfaftumcnimcflccxquifitumpcrdiciboscrcdirur.Ouigcnc- 

ratio ab initu,& pulli rur ius cuo conco&o pronetos , non parij* 
temporis fpacio euenit omnibus:ftd pro magnifudinegenera- 
tis intcreft.Ouumgalbnx confiftitA coitu, & pcrficitur dccc 
dicbus magna ex partc columbx paucionbus i .cultas colofl> 
bis rctincndi oui,etiam tempore partoriendi cft . Na-ti fi ab ali- 
qao vcxctar,aut pcnna iu nido cuoli a,vel quauis aliafimilis tt 
infcftctor,autctiarafponrcmo ofiu5habcat,ouom pcr trift*- 
tiam retinct,partumq;d.rTerr.Pccu!iarccolumbis illudctiacft» 
vt in coitu,nifi ante motuo ofculenf ur,raas non afcendat.fcd ia 
mor fif,an (cnior,intcrcft:(enior cnim pnmuiti coitum ofco* 

cxorditur:(cquefcm&fincofculoag't At iunior qootics libct 
coircfoticsolculaiur.JgitorhicrituscolLmbaiiipropriuscft» 

atq; 



LIBER SK XTVS. 



«q;ettamine,vtfaemfna:falianr,acfupergrefru mutuo a°at 
fima S nonfit,&cumofcolo,vtmarcs.& quamuis nihil aifera 
emittat in alteranyamc-plura fic oua,quim cx roaris coiiu p*. 
riunr. Vcrum nullus his enafcitur pullos,fed funt omnia irrira 
Generatio vcro cx ouo omnibus volucribus eucnit,mcdo qui- 
dcm eodem.ied tcroporadifferont,vtdiclara iam cft. 

mmft<ui»t>»Bm m Mgtntmurjtq ttm crtt* 

tiomsoritnt. Caput m. 

|j^2?gf AH.n is porro tertia die,ac nocfc poftqua ccrner*. m- 

prseftare incip 




^^^^^jgcncnpluspratercattcmpori^neccirecir.minori au 

tcm n.nus fuftkit. Erlvrtur per id tempus lutcus hu- 
mora dcacum . riKmou . ciLa ^ 

K£ 7 ^t P " n ? Um «*»**«■ *" «ndido liquore co 
e X co'r 3 r PUnaU 1 3f ? fiam '* ra ^«ur,vt animal. Tendunt 
blZZ. ^ Ve " a J csl3 "S' Ji g"<duo tortuofiad tMfcw » 
Hnl, .^^T ^^«nbranacriamfib.is diftin- 

meaS n ] S ' S ' ,a5n ^ 001 iiQUOrCm P Cr id tcm P Us circundat, a 

toSS ' VCOarUm Wto »-P*«l° ^utcro poft,& corpus iara 

topoU di(ccrn,rur,exiguom admoduro primum * candidum.con 

ipicaum capitc,* maximeoculis inflatis,qu.bus ita perroanct 

*n.fcro cn.ro dccrcfcunt ocuh,&fc ad rataro contrahunt pro- 

Wnr^T PafS aafem infcrior corporis,nuliomcmbro: t iupe 
nor.di(t,ngui,interinitiacernitur.Mcamuro,quos cx corda 



ambicndum 



aibumi 



"»«ww pcr vmbilicum cx lureo pctitur -Dic iam decimo pul- 
«s fotus pcrfpicuus eft,& membra omnia patent. caput gran- 
«OJ totocorporc eft.ocuii capiregradioreshercnt.-quiri c qui 
UWs ma,orcs per id tcropns cmineant nigri,nondu cti popUla. 
qa.ous B cutem detrahas,nihil folidi vidcris,fed humoreracan* 

^m,rig,dara4;adroodumrcfulgcnteroad lucc,nec quicqua 
^uu.raoculi&caput.Iaro v cro <ft vifcera eo tcmpore parci, 



« a.ui inteftinorumq; natura pcrtpicua cft . Venx ctiam ilis i 
ord. proncifcentrsdam fcfeiuxta vmbilicuro conftiruunt. Ab 

bran aUrCra , Vrabll!CO v«a oritur duplcx.altera tendcns ad rae 
anaro ambietcro vital.iro,qrii eo tcroporc humet, & largior 



b 



»'cnremca,quapu;ii,s 



or, 

rrctr.branam am- 



ouc n " P U,SO P Cmur ' &e " raf ]«vitcllum,hamorc- 

vitc 2' r Um conrin « t,lim c ™< F«ilus paulatfro incrcicir, 
«iiusicorfuroinduaspartc S iecatur,quarura alfcra locutc- 



m 



i 3 net 



Ij4 ARISTOT* DE'ANIMAU3. 

ntt fuperiorcm,altera infcriorem,* mcdius humor cadidus co- 

tinctur.nsc partem inferiorcm a vitcliohquor dcfcnt albus, 
qualis an te habebacur.Dreimo dic albumcn cxiguum iam,& le 
tum:craffam,pallidam nouifsimfc incft. S unt cnim quxque lo 
catahoc ordine.pnma,poftremac]; ad tcftam oui mebrana po- 
fica eft,non telte ipiius n.uiua_ied altcra illi fubicfta.liqnor ia 
eacandiduscfc.deindepuiKis continctur obuolutus membra- 

na.ne tn humorc matteaf.mox pullo vuellus iubiacct,in quon 

alteramcx vcnis prorepered.clum eft,cum altcra alburnen m 

bicns petat.Cun:*a aatcm ambit membrana cum humore,fpc- 10 

cic faniei.Tum vero membraaa alia circa ipfum faetum,vt di- 

&um eft _dudtar,arcens humorcm.fub qua vitcilus aha obuola 

tus membrana.in que vmbilicus 4 cordcac vcna inaiorcoricns 

pertinetratq; itaeffic»tur,acfaetas aiterutro humore artinga- 

tar.Viccfimodiciampullus fi quis putaminc fc&o iolicitct, 

mouct intus fefc,pipitq; aliquantulam:& iam ab code dic plu- 

mcfctt,quoties vltra viccfimum exclufio protelatur . iu pofi- 

tuseft,vtcaputfupcr crusdextram admotum ilibus «, alam iu- 

pcr caput pofitam habeat.qum ctiam tv.embrana,qax pro fccu 

dishabetar.poft vltimam tcft^ mcmbranam,ad qua altcr vm- *e 

biiicuspertcndit,euidcnspcridtcmpuseft,pullasq; in eadcin 

• «%. * 1 __- O. •__._[-. mil 



mem 



ccm fccundirum pra:ftat,vitellumq ; ambit.ad quern alter vm 
b;licu5proccdit,Iati{ispatct.OriturvmbiIicas vferquc & cor- 
d:,# venamaiore,vtd'iehimcft.Fit aatcm pcrid tcmpas, vt 
vmbiiicus altcr,qui mfecundas cxt:riores fcrtur,coprc{To iam 
animanrc abfoluatur:alrcr T qui adit vitellum,ad pu!li renue in« 
tcftinainannechtur.IamS pallam ipfam mulrum humoris 
latei fubiratq; incius aluo fecij aliquid fabfidir Iutcam.excrc* 
mencum etiam album eodcm temporc pullus cmittit,& in al- 
uo qaiddam album confifeit.Demum vitellus paalarim abfami 
tur totas mcmbrorum haufta,ita vt fi pullo dccimo die pvd 

_ r r . ■ t . .i .1 I: _ ... •__.__*/_*_ 



fc»-»-. m -mw m m»m f — — -— m> — - — .--. .... _.. ..,_..... . . -- j -- , 

exclufo rcfcindas aluum,nonnihil adauc viteili compcnas. Vm 
bilico veru abfoluitur pallus,ncc quicquam pnsterca haarit.to 



tasenim humor,qui in mediocontinebatur,abfimiptus iam cft. 
Temporeaatcm fapradi o pallus dormit qurd:m,(cd no pcr- 
peta j,quippe qui excirctur interdum..t moucns Mt rcipicUD 
atqucpipiarCorctiamciascamvinbihco^vt fpirantis rcfi^, 
&palpitat.Scdaaium ortus ad fiuncmodamcx oaoagitur.r^ 
tiunt aatcmouanonnulla snf(rcunda,vclex ijs ipfis,q«^ c ° n " 
ccperint coita.nullus cnim proacnit faetas,<juamais i^" 



USER SEXTVS, ijj 



bitufoaeantur.quod maximciu eolumbis notatuir, cft. Oun rc 



minabinisco 
citin nonnull 



oftan t Viteiiis.qui nc inuicem conFondantur^ia- 

lisprxrenuequodd^mlcptum aibuminis medist* 
aJijs vitcJli conta£u imuuo fincv Uo diicrimjnc itwgutur, Sunt 

in gcncrcg^Iiinaru,qurpariantgcinina omma,in quibusani- 

maducrium efhquoddc vitelio cxpoiuiquxdam enim duodc- 
uiginti pcpcrit gaiiina 7 cxdu{ii(]Nprxt^rqtra, fi qua cflenr (vt 

fir) irrira.C^rcris itaq; foetu* prodijt, lcd ita geir.ini cxcludun 
tur. vt alicr fit maior,alter minor: St tandem m monftrum dc- 

lo gencrct,qui minor nouifiimeproucnit. 

(?tj»*4 cvlhnibdcckm htna i m^ml terna adfnmmum 

parerc, dtq; etwftztificaUenk ttdint* 



Capttt 1 1 i c. 




Anunr magna ex partcbiita oua , qua* fpccic columbacca 

continenrur omma,vt paiumbcs,vt rortur. lcd compluri- 
mum tvrrnapa]umbes,& turrsr.ColGn.bx- omni tcwpore, vt di 
ttumcft,pariiu.Turtur&pa]umb^ Vcrcnecpiusquam bis: 
atqucita,fi prior fccrus corraprus eft.frangunr emm cua rra- 
resauiumcomplures .fcdquamois tria ii.terdum pcpcrcrinr 
20 oua,rjUiiquam plusduobus puilis edacunr.r.onimnquair, crian* 
vnu tanrum.rcliquum ouuui ferapcr irritum cft, quod vrfrum 
vocant Aucsmagnae^" partcanmcutencqutmgenerare.Oni 
ncsver*campar:re incepere,fempcrferc cuacominenr: qt:a- 
qua ia nonnu>lis faciic 00 exilifate vidcri no pc ffunt Coiui?c 
magna cx partc marc & foemina gcnerat:priore mare ; pofte- 

nore Ktimna & cum pcpcrcrinr priffiH ouum, vno interpcii- 
3<e,fcaindu panut. incubant air.bo viciisim, intcrdiu mas* 



noctuf(Enuna.concoquunt,atq; apcriunrcirradicm vJcdiiru 
o^um,quod prius ardidcrinr.pcrfora: ouu pridicciusdici, quo 
► puHu excludur.ft foucnt proJc arnbo ad ccrtu rcmpus , codein 
raodoquoouj. fosminainopcrcioboifs aceibior i:,arecfl,vt 
c^tcris quoq, eoenit i parta animalibus.Pariunr dccies anno: 
nonnulias MKiam vndccic^. Acgyprirc vero# dnodecies.Couint 
rntraannu columbx,<jaJppe qax lcmcilres noflc incipiar vcnc 



f e- palubes & turtares etia trnneftres coirejccrificarc^ aiiqut 
rc tcrur,3rgumcro qaod iarga eoru copia eiK Gerunt vreru de- 
■n* quataordtebas,ac roridem aJ.js incubant,& totice aii js 



CC! 

fcet 



™s;ts voicccr fir,arq; pcrficftor,VI vtx poisit apnrchendi. 
v >^paiab;u;n vciaJ quadrar.mra anaosciurareciiaimsrur. 
perdicum ampljai quam 3ii ievdec!rr lrt ,oLmba citrs dies trigin 
wprak- cxpedita iupcriorcparit. 

i 4 Dcnidi 




l$6 AKISTOTE. DE ANlMALlB. 

De mhjic&uonc&fatura h»lt»ri>s,&hiTHnd\ 

Caput 

VV ltnr nidificat in excclfiAimis rupibas: vnde fir* vt raro 
nidas&palli vulcunsccrnantur, Q^iocirca Hcrodotus 
Bfyfonisrhctoris patcr, vulrurcs exdmerJo orbc nobis inco- 
gniroaduolarepurauirjargumcnfo 5 c{UodncfxionidamvidifF:t 
vultaris,& quod multi cxercitum icqucntes rcpentc apparcat. 
fcd quanquam difficilcmdumcius dlitis videris,tamen viibs 
aliquando cft. Pariant vulturcs oua bina. cartera quaecarnc 
vci"cuntur,non plas quim fcmel annaparcrecxplcratum cft.to 
Hirundo vnabls annon!d:ficatpullorum hirundinisadhacrc 
ccntiumoculi,fiquis ftimulocos vexaritjrcfar.c:fcunt:&ccme 
di vimpofteaplanerecipiant. 

Z)e aq*iiar*mgenere,& futujeq; anferit,acctj>itrh- 3 p;il»i, 

&cormf>artu. taffttt v i. 

|j QilJJ* oaa pariant tcrnarfcdpallos binos excludilt 

|^lj|| vtcx vcrfa, quem ad Mufrum refcrunt autorem, 

m conftat.Exdudif binos,aedit terna, educat vnu. Scd 

=Siqaamuis magna cxpartc iicfiu,tamcn &tres vifi 

aliquand a iu nt pulli. Alteram in cducando cxpcllunt txdio na*° 

triendi:nam * degenerare ac hebetcfcere aqu/la dicitur, co tc- 

pore,vt frrrus fcrarum rapcrc no qucarnomenq; hinc cxaeti, 

hoc cftd-gcnerantisaquilxaccipit.vngucs^tiam eius inuer- 

ttmtur dicbus paacis,& pennar albefcunr,vt merito fuos odcrit 

partus lcdpullumercaamoi'ifragacxcipLf,atqaeedacar in- 

cubat aquila triccnis dicbus. <Sr crtcris quoq; magnis aliribus 
tempus incubandi tantundcm i natara ftatarum eft, vt anferh 
vt tard c.mcdiocribus viccni pcrficiunt Jncabationem, vt acci- 
pitri,vtmiIuo.Pariuntmiluibinamagnacx partc.-intcrdu ta- 
inen fttcrnaaotidrmq; exeludunt puilos,fed quiaetoliusnunp 
cupatur,vclqaatcrnos aliquandocxcludit. Coruus qaoqaeno 
nioiobma,t taliquj vo]uar,parit,veriim eriarn plara.Incubat 
aarcm vi*mti d»ebus,& pullos nido expdlit.qood idcm & ali* 
complures volacrcs fachmr. quibascnim partus numerofior 
cft,vnam{xpeeijciunt. Gcncraaquilarum nonarque omnia 
prolcm faftidtuntrfcd difficilior in alendo vna,cui notncn py- 
gargocauda albicans dcderar.benignior,qux tora nigrteatto* 
lorc.nam omncs fcr£ ahtcs, quibus vnguesadunci, pulloscutu 
prtrmm prouolandi facultas fucrit,nido cxpeilunt,pctcatien 
tcsquecoguntdifccdcrc. * qetertt quoqucaucsmaxiiiiafcrc 
iuipartc,vr diaumcft,idcm hocfaciunt.cumq; cnutrierinfc 

nihil 



lJ SER SE XTVS. IJ7 



nihil pnEtercaadhibent cura:, excepta cornice, qo*aliquan- 
d.u prou.dct.quippe qu* volantcs iam fuos puJJos pafces ipfa 

COmitetnr. L r * 



comitctor. 



VII 




D< cucu!injtHr*,&-tiusf>artH+. Caput 

VcuJos ex accifJittc fieri immutata figura _ nonolli. 

putattmqaoniara uuotempore Jsapparct,acclpi.er 

|«Uc,cuifimil; S cft y non afpicitur-fcdita fcreeocnif, 



£-_____ vtnc «teriquidcmaccipitresiictnc_rnantnr,_oin 
primum voeem emifir cucuJus.n.fi per qua paucis diebas. Jpfc 

aatembreaitemporearftatisvilus.hyemenonwnitar.efthic 
neq; adunas vnguibo«,vtaccJpiter,neqjcapitcacdpitri fimi- 
lisried ca vfraquc partecolombomp,tius,qu_m accipitrc re- 

prxientat.nec aho^qu.m colore imitator accipirrc, tiifi quod 

accip,termacul is difti 1 ,guitur,cculincis:cuculusveJurpunais. 
loagmtudoatqjvolatushmilis accipitrum minimo,qui ma- 
gna ex par te pcr id tempus non cernitur,q_o cuculus apparct: 
namvelambo vna v.ltal.quando funt. Qujnetiamab accipi- 
re ■ntennu cuculus v iiu, cft,qued nulla _u, s fuo in gencrc fo 

^letfacerc.puJloscucuinemofcaitvidiire.parirrainen^veru 
r>o.nnidoquemipfcfcccrir,fed intcrdum in nidis nunorum 
»ium:«oua <_o__aJicoa_*pererit,cd.i max.meveronidospa 
lubmm pctit,quo.u.n & ipforum oaa du abfumes, iua relin- 
qu.1 parit maiorc ex partc finguJa oua,raro bina. Curucs quo 
qac in ntdo pam foucr ilh^ excludit , * cducat. quo qoidctn 

pr.vc.puetcmporc«S,p I nguls,<SgrarifaporispulJuscuculicft. 
J «iiietiam acdpitrom fcaues va_ck.pingoe.q_e_r.ciuntur.Ge 
nus eorom quoddam mdos faccrc procul in petris cxcclfis , pre 

ruptisque aiTuJcr. r r * 

nc mmm mcmi^fku^itmpm m*s,quc ittmfmnkm 

TM , mcubct. Ca p Ht VI1I# 

I Ncubatmagna au;itmparsCvt«fecoJumbisr«ulOf W m.na_ 

{tZ 3 ' _f ^fK-M * ™res incubandi monus tantilper 

ern?r,7 ° m ^™* totern " ffi > 'ticubitu c_bum qu*_ront. An 

™ mi f r ; tmm «ncubant-qua. vtca.pcrur 1 t,„unquam 

» * «P 'w*«.__ ioc:„ bcrbam habcnttbus nidos Vadutrquo fit, 

ZZT hboTC "> C <>™™ «ia f«nto« ran.i, mcubar, 

ic_,.T S n r° PCrCnCr '' eUCfanr - i!iar ^ l,fsClb » ,n fu^crunt,pa 

StoSotn^S Pjlm " biUm f<rinina inCubat V-endfa- 
^napicns.totaquc -Ocfc, * V iq ; ad tempus tcntaculi per- 

i I Jeu 




Ij3 aristot.de animalib. 

feaerans:rcliquotemporcmunusidcm mas fubit. Pcrdiccsbi- 
na ouorum receptacula faciurin aitcio foemina incubar, irzl 
tcro masiexcladitq^fua vicrquc,6: educatpulli ctiam ipiiiub 
iunguntur a marc ftaiim cum procedunt. 

JDe pauonc,& etfu fvcttt 9 Ljw)ttesip tnanno pdriat,dccpautum 
te(hbn< 9 qm cotius lempore^randtorcs efficts.nlur. 

csfm$ i x . 

Auo vioit annos viginti quinque.paritmaxirce a trima- 
tu,&colorcs pcnnaviMu varios recipit.excludit dicbes tri- 
ccnis,aut paulo tardms.femcl tantiiinodo anno parit oua duo- 10 
dccim,aut paulo pauciora,ncccontinuatisciiebus,lcd binis ter 
nisvcintcrpoiiris.primiparx o&ona maximea:dunt.Irri:a& 
fubucntanea llla pauoncsctiani pariunt.Cocunt Vcrc:& par- 
tus brcui acoitu agitur Amictit pennas 7 cum prirms arborum 
frondibus:rccipit cum gcrminc carundem. gallinii fubijciant 
incubandaouapauoma, qooniam mas dumicsmlna incubar* 
aduolanscafrangar. qua.n obcauiam Hc fylueirrcs nonnulbr 
aucs parinnt fugientes marcm,& incubant. Subijciantur ina- 
ximcbina,cumplurafuo incubituncqueant tpcrirC*CUraqu* 
adhibctur vt cibu , acifir,nc ddidcrio cius difccddu, gallina in 2,0 
termittat foucndi opcram.Teftcs auiom grandiores cffici tcm 
pore coitus ccrtutn eft.fcd falaciorum conipcftiores fun t vr gal 
linaceorum,& pcrdicum tcmpcrantiorurn minus.Auesadhuc 
mocum coeunt,gcftant,5: pariunt. 

Dc jnfciwn foctu 9 erafdemtj; inter eosdiutrfttate,& 

HHhixfrma. cafnt-t x. 

Plfccs haud omncs parere oua di&um iam cft • genas cnim 
cartilagineum animal gcncrat:reliquaoua pariiit.icd nec 
cartilagineis quidrmfocmsf.ncouo.pariut cr.irn mtraiceaa, 
& augent,atq; excludunt,praeterqaam raia. Vcluasctia pifccs 30 
habcntdiucrias,vt diftum eft nam qoi pariunt oua,biforcatas 
habcnt, atquc infcrius pnfuas. cartiJaginca vcro ca fpccic po- 
tius habent,qua aues.fcd intcreft,qood oua non iu x ta praecor- 
diaomnibus,fedinfra nonnullisperlpinamconfiilunt: vndc 
au&a in aliu transferuntur locum. Onom pifcium no bicoior» 
vt 2uium:icd vnicnlor cmninm cft,& olos albi trahens, oeani 



gen^ratio ex ouo ab auiuni generationc , eo quod altero carct 
vmbilico, qui ad mcmbranam teft^ fubditam tcnd it: altcrum 
cnim tantii,qui aolbas nd vitcllum fcrrur,habct aiesttt • C*&* 
ra idcm ortus cx ouo auiun,,& piicium cft: quippc cu.n & t&~ 






lIBTPv S£XTV$. 1J9 

tus in cxtremo oao nafcatur,& venae fimiles cx cordc intcr ini- 
tia proficifcatur:&caput, oculi,deniq$parresiupcrioresprin.- 
cipiofiantprajgrandcs lncrcfcetcetiam fcetu, humor pari mo 
doiubindeabfumitur demumq; nihiliapereft, qaodnofoetu 
fabicr it,fiau <f e vucllo auium expofitum eft. Quinetiain vm- 
bilicus paijio k vcntrc inferius h&rer* qai recens nsttis longior 
fitcrefccntibuspaulacimbrcuiorrcddatur,demumq;(ctotum 
intra fcetum recondat,vt didium dc auibus cft.Mebrana quoq; 

cadem ouuirb&t<^etutncontin?t cui membranaalteraioetum 
ioperfecomincnsf&biacet.hamor aucem intcr membranas poii- 
tuscft. Ad hxc,cibas in alao fuggcritur, eodcm modo pifcicu- 
Ijs albus,quo auium pullis luteu*. Figura vulusecx diile&ionc 
petendacit.Difcrimcn autem intcr ie ipiipifcej, oftcndunt, vt 
muftelini. qui turn inter fe,tum et:am a planis raticncvferi dif * 
fcrunt. «onnulhs cnim incdio vuluaccircafpinarn oua adhs- 
rent,quemad!nodamdi£totneft,vtcaniculis. ^uscam adcrcuc 
rint 3 abfoIutaferuntnr pcr vuluam bifurcem,anrtcxamq; ad 
prxcordia, quomodo&cartcrisgenerisciuidcm in vtranque 

parrcm transfcruntur.habet taon eorutn, quaai caetcrorum mu 
aoltciinigencris vulaapauloaprarcofdijsuiferius,vcluci niain* 
mas albidas, qua» non nifi grauidis habaatur-Caniculx** raia:, 
teftacea qu^edam g»:runt,:n quibus hnmor adoui fimilicudine 
confift it.figura cius tefht fimilis tibiaru liguUs cft: meacusque 

nUntC?ni!l Jrt>f*r%f~t«-it *•« »n»/>i'.<nt.(ljr 4~r4 r"in trtll Jc_ ntlJCltir.* 




doditQrfcBrtw.fpinaccs vcro muftcli,fic a fpina,quam liabent. 



nuncapari,oua adpnccordia contincnt iupcr maminasiquibus 
vt defcenderint , iam ab/olutis , fcmus innafcitur. Iclcm hic 
jogencrandi modns & vuipcculiscft. Muftcli autcm lcucs vo- 
cati.ouapcr vuluam m^di-itn^vtcaniculxijeftant: qu;cpoftea 
in vtrunq; vrcrifinum deiccndant. mox ammal gignirur vm- , 
bilico faerettte ad vuluam,!ta v: oao abf umpto, partus no ali- 
tcr,qu} m , n q:i3(Jr3pedecon£incriVidcatur.adha?rct vmbili- 
°k il!*proJixus ? capite altcroad parcem vulu.r inferiorcm, 
vcluc iex acetabulo anncxusraltero ad mediutn foetum, cua in 
parrc iecur cil . viuum fi re/cccs,faecam ad ooi fimiiitudmcravi 
«-risjetiam ii non prarterca ouum habeat. Secundar, mcrr.bra- 

**H* fingulje fcrtus fingulos modo quadrupedumcotintt. Ca 
P^tprolss in vreronouccadhuc partetn fpc&at iupcrxorcm. 
^oihoruiam & perfcciioris inferiorc vcrfustransfertur.:n.i- 



rc$ 



* 



140 ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIS. 

inlxna,faemin«indewaingcncrantar:atq; etiaai parreeadc 
vna foemin*,& roarcs.viicera ct ia foetus hxozt, vt ictur:per in 
deatqiinquadrupederaagnacruauaq; rcfcfto cernuntur.O- 
rania cartilaginea fimal & oaa partc (upcriorc circa pnecordia 
contincnrcompIura,alia maiora,alia niinora,fr IrifcrlOre ani- 
malia iam exclufa.vndc fk,vr,gcnas id pifcium lcpias menfe & 
pariar,& cocar:quippc qnod non vniucrfa ardcrc iolear qu* co 
ccperir,fedparticularim repcrcys (xpc,& d u pcngcns>\ tdum 
faperius oua cotrahir,intcnus coquar,atq; perfi^ar.Ccteri rou 

fteli frEtas fuo> & craittunr,* retipinnt intra fclpfoi.qaod ideia 
& fqaatmx,& torpedincs faciunt . & quidcm iam v.f a torpcdo 
cft grandis,qu« focras inrra ic circitcr oc r >gtnra haberct. Scd 
fpinasvnusexmuftclis recipereprolctnipinx iropcdimctono 
poreft.neq; Veropaftinaca & raiacx planis rccipiunt proptcr 
caudxafpcritatem.flaiactiamiuamnonrccfpic iojoicnvum 
capitis Uiagnitadine,tum aculcorum impcdinunro.nam ncani 
mal quidero vna haec parir,vt di am cft. Dift rimrn,quod h*c 
inter icipfa difcrepentj& generatio cx ouo ad hunc moduxn eft» 

JDc afflnentta genrtahs ftn tnii tnpifcibus martlusfatus 

timporcrfttomnljfyd jferantgenttaUsmealut *° 

marts, irfunstna.dtq; carttlagtftcorum 

partu. faput Xl* 

MArcs autem pifcium temporc coitus,tr,catus p!cnos fcml 
nisgeniralisitah^nt,vtarrrirufacilefemcn ipfuraef 
fiuatcandiciam.meatushiipra:cordij.$,vcnaq;maiorcoriaW 
bifurces.Patcntq; eo temporcctiam impci -ir)s,fcilicer incrcmc 
to femtnis,<& turgcntis faftu libidmts.imcrduro enim , ac non- 
nnliis admodam iaccrti rcdduntur,vt dc teftibus tn auiam gcnc 
rcexpofiramcft. Diffcruntinrerfemcatus geniraies maris& 
fcemina^tum alijs rebus , tum ctiam quod maris lumbis inhx* P 
rentfirmiusifaeminxmobilcs fant,<Sr membrana tcouicont:- 
ncntar.fed hxcqaemadmodum (t habeant,ex dcfcnptionedu 
feftionatnconfidcrandafant.Saperf«rrantcartiIai!ncagcnera 

& fcrant vterum tncnfibas complurimam fenis : fcd fepifsi^ 
qui ex muftclis ftellarcs vocanrur,quippe qui mefc bis pariatf 
ininum autcmcoitus mcnfe Septcmbrieft . Cxreri muftelibis 
annopariunr,cxceptacanicula'qu,ri"-mcl.omnia in Vcrehcc 
pariant.S qaatina etiam actamno,occa(a vcrgiliarum,qai p» 
tas fecandus eft primas enim verno fit tcmporc : fcd fecundas 
fcliciorcft.Torpcdocircaaatumnum. Rcpctunt cartihg* 1 ** 



% 



tlBER SEXTVS. 141 



litrus* vada,pclago & alro rcliflo gurgirccura tempnsparie- 
di inftar,vr ncq; reporc carcanr : & prcgcniem rorius collccenf . 
Pifcium carcrorum diucria gcneracoire v fum a ncmine eft. 
S quarinam folam & raiamhoc faccrc credirui :argumcnto p f - 
fcis co!ufdam,qui ncmen ex vrroq,- compcfitum trahit rhino- 
bati,quafi fquarlnoraiam appellcs . eft ennn parte priore rai* 
fimi)is,pofteriorefquatina*,!anquamex co vrroq;proucniens 
gcncrc.Mundi igirur,gcnusq; cmnc muftc]inum,vt vulpecu- 
Ia,vtcanis:&plani,vt turpcdo,raia,kuiraia , paftinaca , modo 
10 quodiximus gignunranima],cum infrafeouapcpcrcrint. 

De partu ,& pulloi um numtro pifcMmmuipartrum, 

dtlphine 9 \ahna 9 uitulo marino 9 & reh- 

quts 9 cjti£ cete appeliantur* 

Caput xii. 

j Elphfni,balena:,& rcliquacerc,qu;je non branchfas, 
fcd fiftulam habcnr animal gcncranr.Addirur ijs prf 
ftes,& bos.nulJum cx ijs enim oua habere ccrnirur: 
— M fe^ ftarim fosrum,ex quoreda&oinformamani- 

mal conftar:qucmadmodum homo & qaadrupedes,qu$ animal 
*Q panunr.Delphini fingulos magnacx parre axtontrinrerdura- 

mcn Srbinos.balcnx velbinoscomplurinium^magnaq; cxpar 
tcvelimgulosprocreanr.idcm &phocxn^idcftrirfioni ,par- 
tu^qm dr Iphino fimiliscft,rrafcenis in roto-fed inrcreft,quod 
mmor tirfioeft,doifoamplio!C,colore carruIeo.Complures cu 
genusefledclphini opinantur.Spirant qux fiftulam habcnro- 
mnia,& rccipiunt aercm.haud cnim caret pulmone . & quidcm 
viius dclphmus cft dor mire, roftro emerfo,ac ftcrrerc.lac & dd 
pnmus habcr,& rirfio,quo fuos nurriunr foerus . gcftanro; eof- 
«minfinnos infanria.adolcfcircelcrius prolcs deJphini/quip- 
l pe qax annis decc ad fummam perucnter magnirudincm.gcfta- 
tar vrero dccem menfibus.parrn, dclphinis*ftare.nec vllorem 
Porealio.Fir eriam vr delphini rricenis dicbos occulrenrur, & 




comi 
an 






msc opluriba5.Conftititenimn6nullosvixifle. annis viginti- 
jja«n<j|,alio$ etia trigmta.quod cognicu cft,pr.rcifa a pifcatori 
Dus amda,vt quos ita reddidiffent mari,c3 P tos ite a.° nofceret, 







I^X ARISTOT. DE ANIMAUB. 

petat,idco\n aquaticisdceo narrandum eft.Ergohic anitnalft 
concipit ftatiin intra fe,& parinfecundas quoq; cmktit,& lac 
rcddit modo pecudum.parit fingulos,aur gcminos,& cotr.plu- 
rimum tres.mammis^quas gcminas habct.cducar f rtu ritu qua 
drupedum partt vt homo omni tempore:fcd maximc cutn pri 
inhcapris.proIemcircaduodecimumdiem& partu deducitin 
mare,fubinde afluefaclcns.illa dccliuis fcrtur,ncc ambulat,cum 
noncii inniti fuis pedibus valeat.colligere feiple virulns & con 
trahere poteft:carne enim abudat,mollisq; eft,atq; ofsibuscar 
tilagincfis c#nftat jntcrficaur difficulter,nifi elifis temporibus io 
capitisrcorposcnimiotumcarnofumcft.tnugitus ei in fomno, 
genirale foeminc fimile rai£ cft.omnia vcro id gcnus mulicbris 



iexos fimilitudincm rcfcrunt.Generatio partusq; aquaticoru 
^ux anirnal,vcl intra fc,vel foris pariant,ita agitur. 

£>epartuf>$fciu;n outparorurK^diqifexusfamiti^t 

CT marts Jifcrimtne* 

J 
Cap. XIII. 

PTfcesautem quiouapariont,vuluam bifarccm,ac infcrittf 
pofitam habcnt,vtdiftum cft.Pariunt ouaomnes qui fqua 
mis teguntur,vt lopos,mogilis,tte]is,& qoi candidi appcllan- 20 
tur,&qailseues,pr*tcrquam anguilla.ouam ipfum arenidum 
eft.quod etfi vtero continetur,tamen dcteftum,* pcr icipfnm 
coftare videtur,quia tota valua ouis rcfcrta cft.itaquc fit,vt i« 
paruis quidcm pifcicslis oua tantutr.modo gemina effe vid^n 
tur,nam ob tcnuitaiem exi gaitarctnq; vultia inccrta in i js elc. 
Dccoiru pifciomfatisdiftam iam cft . Scxu anrcmcos quoq; 
diftingui 3pertoin cft.Parscnimpiicium maxima coniutwv.a- 
tur marc & fcemina.Dc rubclionc & hiatula ambigitur.otnnes 
cnimgrau?ifxcapiuntur^coRfiftunritaq;oua pcr coitum,inij$ 
qui vcncrcm norunt,fed non coitu tantum,vcrumen'a finecoi- ^ 
tu.quod argumetoconftatnonnullorum Suuiatiliomrnatn pno 



cum r.ati funt& admod 



gunt 



partcn(vt narraiur)marcsceuorant : aliapcreunt in humorC; 

Qu* autcm locis opportunis ardita fint,harc fexoantur . n» \ ! 
omnia'eruarentor,nimiacuinfq;gcncriscfictcopia.nec vcr° 

ha?c omnia fcecunda locantur,fcd ca ccrtc,quibus xditis in^ *f 
mcn afpcricrit gcnitale.fub parf u cnim mas fequcns,fetne oxtf 
afpergit:& qux vitalc id virus contigerir,i js pifciculi cnafcon 
tur ca!tcrisproctforstulit,cuentt,hocidcm Ain mollintngc* 
■crc fit.mas cnim fepia,oua qo£ foemir.a f didcrit,perfcquiturt 



LIBER. SEXTTsi 143 

funm fcmen afpergens.qnod vel in reliqais eiufdem generis fic 
rirarioeft.VerumnonnifiinfamJjshoc vifumadhuc eft.Pa- 
riunt iuxta littora gobioncs,fuaq; oua lapidu amolcxibus man 
dant,latinfcula,& arenida.Tdem & cseteri faciant,*quoniam lit- 
tora * tepidiora iunr,& tutiora.ncfr_tus a maioribus abfuma- 
torcibumctiampra:bent vberius,vndcfir . vtin Ponto circa 
1 hermodoontem amnnn plurimi pariant:eft cnim islocus tra 
quillusjtepidur,* aquarnm dulcium copio/u* . pifces qui oua 
a:dunf,femel pariunt anno:pra«rcr fucas'pufjlJas,c>_e bis pariut 
loanno. Difterthociugenere masafemina,quod'nigr]or,& 
iqaatrnsamplioribuscft. Cxrcri pifcesoua eodem foramine 
vulua; ardunt. Quiautcmacus vocatur.vnus tempore paricn 
di vtero dehifcente oua emittit.habercnim hic nmam quanda 

\Qis v^ptrcimo,vtca?Cilia'fernenrcs.i narrn .inrrm «„„•# *. „„l 



agitcr 



mem 



, - -- ~— •"•'uiiiuiunanqae ouo innaicitur Io.ru 

brana obduaa.oculi primum patcnt grandes,* in ejob, j F eae 
atformati.quare conftat no ilmilitcr gigni,arquc cx vcrmjbus, 
vt qmdam putarunt , contra enim in illu eucnit,vt pars infc- 
*o nor maior inter inina ut,oculi & capot poftca augeantnr.ouo 
autem rupto, fcetux velut nuclcus conftat,qui primum nullum 

acc,pitc!bum,fcdoolhomoreiamhauftoincrcfcunt.poftnu- 
tnnntur aquisdulcibus ikuioru vfq;dum fatis augeanrur.Dc- 
terturcx PontoinHellcfpontum purgamentum ^quoddam il- 
iins maris r quod algs nominc phycos appcllant,coIorc pallidu. 
«orcma.ga:idencalijvolunf,atq;cx eofucariam algampro- 
ocnire fit hoc xfath initio,coq} tum oftrcsctum ctiam piicicu 
i» eius loci aluntur. rarpuram quoq; iuuin florcm hinc trahcre 
noanolliexiftimant. . 



30 




uiattltu m 6; . £,«/'. xim. 



f< 



|J Acuftrcs & iiuuiatiles piices quinto fuae a_tatis men 

_f! 1f» Vfftiim _r_r,r»fl~ ______ — -, _-».___* ___^_. __•_■___________. _• •„ ♦ ___ __ . ** 



i^v. vtcrum 
I 



cn.ncsintra annunvicciemen generarionis fimuJ o- 
mne cmittunt,fcd modo marinorcm. hic quoq, fem- 

p*]'^ ouoiu 5 mare5 liquoris 

act f rctini?t "P sriunt tcporibos aftatis. Cyprini quinquie*. 

ciant CXlCSailn0 ' p3rtlIim ^ UC f y € * croin "Honc potifsimum fa- 
arnn/ nC ? 5 Cr ' rcIic l ui fcmcl **"* ° oa "* ftagnis {.uuioram , & 
•"^•-hcuum^vtphoxini.&pcrcar.Siluri&pcrc^conti- 
ittuntfaamfa\-uii:,vt tmx . adeo cnim fa-tus ipfc 






conti 



144 AR.ISTOTE. DE ANIMALIB. 

continoo filofibi coh£rct,vt perca? qaidrm quoniam latior eft f 

pifcatores in lacu arundme glomerent.pariunt filuri gradiores 

ftagnoaltiore,qnippcnonnu!li vcl trium pafluum altitudine 

pariant minores breuioreconfenti funt gurgite, praecipuiad 

radices falicis,autcuiafuisarboris.atq;etiam iHtcr srundincs, 

& algas,& mufcofam congrriem.no iolum pares cum paribus, 

fed ctiam admodum grandes cum paruis veniunt : admotisquc 

meatibus,quos aliqui vmbiiicos vocant,foemina ouum,mas li 

qaoremvcncrcumdepromit.&oua,quxliquorillc vitaliscon 

t jgcnt,candidiora cxtcmplo ccrnuntur,maior*q; rcddi codcm I0 

diepropcmodumdixcrim.Pauloautempoftoculi foetus cxi- 

ftunt confpicui,qui in quonis pifcium genere perindc vt in at 

terisanimalibusftatim patelcunt,praegrandcsque apparent. 

Quarex ouisnonattigeritliquor mafculiillc v;ral>s,h;*:fteri 

lcicunt,&fupcruacuaftint:vt in TOarinoctiam gcnere incidif. 

faecundis iam ouis pifciculo incrcfcentcdetrabirur velut puta 

men.qaod membrana eft ouum ambiens,* pifciculum oua ta- 

fta k faetifico maris iemine,admodam glucinofa reddunt ur,ad 

ccfpitcscoeuntia,autvbipepcrerint Masooa quar arditafuuf, 

cuftodit:freminaabitcum pepercrir.Tardiisimum filuri incre 20 

jnentamcxouocft.quamobremmasfaepe vel quad'aginta& 

quinquaginta dicbus Siisidct , cuftodiens oua,nc 4 pifaboi oc- 

currcntibusabfumantur. Secuda? eft tarditatis generatio c jrpri 

norumrpariqwnodoouaseditai mareferuantur.At minorum 

nonnulla,vcltcrtiodiefpccicpifciculi c^piunt Augenturoua 

qu* femen maris atf igerif,vtdiftum eft,& eodcm dic,& poft- 

Fitouumfiluri,qaan^umcruum,cyprini& reIic]uorum gcne- 
riseiufdem magnitudincmillij.h&>cadhuncmodu pariunt af- 
quc gcncrant.Erica gregatim fua oua gurgiti alriori mad^t co- 
gefta.contr.\,quem fullonemappcllanUs liitora perit traqoil* 
liora,led is quoq; gregalis cft.Cypr inus,baleros,& c*teri fcrh 
cmnes vadis intrudun tfcfc cum parturiunf.se f^pcnumero fm 
gulasfoeminasmarestrrdecim,* quatoordccim pcricqumur. 
Moxfceminaooaprocedcndo cmittit.mares>feflantes femen 
/uum/)UisrefpergaRf:verum plurimapercunt.quod cnimfoe 

mmanonftabilis,fcdmutanscontinaiparit,dii5ipari ooa nc- 
cefTceft,vidclicet ea,qu* non in matcriem inciderint aliquaitf» 

fcdcxceptaabvndafcrantur.neq;cftcnimqui fuaoua cudo- 
diat,exccptofiIuro,&cyprino.fedcyprinus tuncea cuftodif,cu 
congcfta rcpercrit.Habent mares cmnes fcmcn gcnitale ,prs- 

tcr anguilla^,qujneutrum ncq, ouum,neq; fcmco fortiracft. 

Afccn 



IBER SE XT VS." I45 

Afccndant dc mari in lacus & fluuios mugilcscontn.,anguillar 
tndc in marc vcniunt.ptfccs maxima quidcm cx partc ouo gi- 
gnuntur,vt diftum iatn cft. 

J2egcnenbmptfaum,qud uellinc,uel arena, 

ueljfu ma marts ex imbre exci- 

tataprocrcantur. 
caput fcv. 

Ed funt cjui & limo,& arcna proncniat.ct.am cx i js 
generibus.quarpcr coitu,& oui primordfo gcncrcn- 
tur.quodtum alijslocispalnftnbus,tum veroapud 



\ 




cmoratur 



nis ortu rcficcatis,6t Ijmo iam arido,vbi primii imbribus rcfta- 
Rnarcloca incinerer_riifr,v.,l. **GmUUm*~ -*-.»-_-..* ^.-:U! _• 1 



. O _.quod 

pcr comi procrcatur,magn_tud.ne Jialccul* parua. : ncc in his 
aliquid vel oui,vel fcminis cotinebatur.Qninetia in nonnullis H 

Aaa? amnibiis.mii ^ffl., 



nc naricaru 



wt in marcpifciculi quida magnitudi e fi > n « r 
roucniunt.Sunt qui omncmucilu gc- f * m € pj* 



k 



oua 



,quod 



tnr.SednpnnuHa vel fponte generari,ex ijs quse per coitupro 

«nr.fatis ex ijs conftatqur autcm necouu ,nccanimal pa- 

r»ant ,i js ortos vcl cx liino,vd ex arena,& per fumma fafla pa 

tredine agitunqualis eti;i apuac origo fpuma nuncupara ex ter 

raarenofaconfifrif.quoclqoicfcapuacgcnus ncc incrcmentuca 
Jwjnee prolc affert,* tcporis longioris fpacio per if ,fed denuo 

nafcitar vndcfit,vtbreuiquodatemporeexcepto,omnibusfe- 
rtannircporibusgcneretorrqnippc cti fpuma illaab ar_raro 
autunali ad Vcr vfq; eduret. Effcrri id pifcicoli genus fundito* 
30 dc terra,argumcmu eft,qaod nrfi tepore tcpido non capiator, 
vtpote quod de humo ad fumma,teporis gratia veniat.Qnin & 
»loagitato,detraaaq;eius colluuioe,copiofior <S: melior exif. 
^•tera apoaegenera deteriora propterea funt,quia cito aogen 
r.Fiuntlods vmbrofis,apricisvc.quotiesteporis beneficiofo 
« tcpcfcit.vt in Atfica terra apud Salamine,& iuxta Themi- 

fifV *'* inMararnonclocis cnim hufufcemodi fpuma illaco 
1 «,* teporetali apparet :fed nonufqoa vcl cu aquadecrlo 



vnde 



fertuxq; fnterdu pe 



-,-« «rium tepidu eft,& in fpuma fluirante,perinde ac in 
vcrm «cu!us voluf tur • Qoamobre in loca coplura genus id 

k apua; 






146 ArUSTOT* DE ANIMAIIB. 

apu£adfcrturexalto,&copiofc quoqs generatnr*<Sr capittfr 
anno guicto & humido. Rclrq.ua apua fcetura pifdum eft.qux 
enim gcbionaria dicitnr,gobiones paruos Jgnobilcs, qui tcrri 
fubcunt>crcar.quam vcro phalcrica vocant,mcmbradas gignir: 



ex quibus fardins^ex fardinis fardar oriutur.Gcnus apue,quod 
Zncraftcho- inporta Athcniefiunafcitur.cncraulo&d.ftosprogcr.crat.qoin 
Us Pcddidtt ctk * S cnas 3 * inc * a F ux tftfOliod alecu,& mtigi lu fit fcetnra.Spa 
tnthtum in ma ««rfahera illa fterilis humida eft,brcurc;(vtdi£ueft)rcm 
re *l m : ^ pascduratmoxcapita&oculircftanf.fcdiarn pifcafores quc- 
iu Hi (i:\ri- ad^odu dcportare poflent,inucncrurit falecnim afpcrfa,pJu$io 
vshabtt. temporis affcruari potcft. 

Dtprccreaiicne angutUarurn r C*p* xvl. 

p^. | NguiHc necpcrcoituprocreantur,neepariuntcua. 

^li^if nccvcrocapta vnquamaliquacftjqujeautfcmenge 

] nitalcaut oua habcrct. Mcatus quoq; vel feminuvcl 

l vulua? accommodatus,nulla refcifla oftcdir Scd hoc 

vnum intcr fangninca gcnus totum finc coitu,finc ouo procrca 
t ur.quod ita effe argun.cnto conftat,quod in nonnullis fecukn 
fis ftagnisaqua cmniexhaofta,& limo dctrafto, anguilte dc- 
tiuo generantur^vbiaqua acccflerit pluoiamam ficcis fcmpori- ^ 
bus gignt nequt ur, ctiam in laco percnnirquippc qua» imbre,& 
juuanMfc alantur.fcdhoc gcnus non coitu,non cuocrcari apcr 
tum eft. Vidcntor tamen nonnulhT haberc faculratcm gigr.cn- 
di,qnod in aliquibuslumbriculi fi-nt:his enim gcncrari anguil 
Us creditunquoderror cft.fcd certcex his prodcunt , cjuarter- 
r* intcftina vocantur,qnsc fpontc >n luto , humcfcctcq: humo 
proueniunt. Iamaliar abfolui cx hif vifsr funt,alia?fcalptis,di- 
fcerptisq;intusapparuert:nt.or!onturhxcintcftinadifta,tum 

inmari,tumctiamin flouijs,ftagmsqj,putrcdini.« maximcra- 
tionerfed in rnari,qua algx funtrin ftagnis autcm & fluuijs ia-P 
xta ripas .calor enim amplius eas fubiens partes, facit, vrpu- 
trcant.Talisgcneratioanguillaruni cft. 

Z>cuterQ y <5* temporcpartus aquatiltum^ucmo^ 

deip aherumabaltiro tnfatibus 
amttttndtsdtfftrat. 

04fk xvii. 

PA rtus acttfpifchincq; ccdc tepore,nec fimilimodo omniu 
fif :ncc pari tf poris fpacio ijeritur vterus grc^santecoitu 
mariM focininaxu confiflut;fcd fub coitu & parf u coiugia a- 
gunfor.Vtcruveroalijdicbus ampliustricciiis fcrut,alij mi- 
DUf.omnestam^/paciunumcrisdiftingucndu feptcnarijs (et~ 



IIBE* SXXTYS 



t futur. rlurimu teporis datur i js,qaos nonalli appellant mari- 
nos.SarguscoitmcTe Decebri.ferr vrerifdies xxx.quioctia in 
magilu gcnere,quilabcoa nonuilis vocatur,* muco,eode quo 
iargusteporccoeut.&tanfudem teporis ferur.laborat omncs 
per id rcpa^quogerutvteru.Vndefif,vttunc potifsimuruat 
in tcrra.atq; excidar.ferutur porro graui ftimulo agitati in ter 
ram,atq; omnino idteporis mot u pcrpetuo incitaf nr,donec pa 

riant fetl omniu ma::ime mugile ita foJicitari ccrtu earrequie- 
faita partu c6rinuo.exifus pariuidi pifciucompluribus eft: vbi 

13 vermiculi natiin vetrc fuerint.innafcurur enim minnta qu*da 
animalia vermiculi fpecie.qox partu expellunt.Paritfoiifario 
rum|enusinVerepiurimisdeniq;partus circa xquinoc*ium 
vernu agirur,ceteris non eade anni tepcftas accomodata cfcied 
alijsa:ftas,alij?autunalea;quinoftiu ar tribuitur . parit prima 
nocingenereantherina,qaaarifbmappeIio,S laxta tcrram. 
cap,to au te vlrimos eft.conftat id cu f eetus ariftar primu ,capi« 
loros noaifsime apparear.Mugilis etia inter primos partu ac- 
ccicrar,& falpa arftatis iniiio Iccis plurimis , nSnufquam cnim 



«47 




graculus 



cormttit,vnde ftt,vt fero pariat.Diutius cnim frigus cotinetur 
W "T' r* cclui P oft ™ m fostificat inter alga s ,vf oote qui 
oc IS iaxofisdegat.ferfvteruIor.gorc<poris fpacio.Aleces bru* 
™?3riur. Ca ;rerij i ui pclagicifunt,.Tftafemagnaex part 
s rei _argun,cntu eft,qnod minimcper id tenus capiatar . 

^ndftTmaomniupifciualeccflevidctar.Raiaintcrcartn-^- 
citur na:n «o»os-veru qucd de facili ccreur , hinc cffi- 

r>vt appareantpauca:.afdithsecoaatdiocrfa,A iuxtaterra. ->*' 



e.ca- 

laei- 



\ 






-gincu minus tcrrmcar, c]3ia aniinai g 
potiisimu magnitndinepofeft . actxs ct. 



dehiwi fottif i. cw ^'>Plo'«^ e| wgcnerirrflfropt.,ac 
taWT VtC r P ariur ' no wm multitodmc ouorn ; qaa magni- 

mZ,^^ 3 ^ ™?™^ P arcntc " offafa drcundat: 
fuei5r A "i a C CrC ft ?7 P roiis a,nor no fmar '<* fi «*%«*» 

Pin^dt ^fl ferCn$ * U ? aren *'P»if Thnni etia pr* nimia 



Thcod.pr* 




fco 



nifcqnentJ ann< 
esxtare annoei 
fcbruario poft 



rf 



c^ /i 



k * parl 






J4.8 ARISTOTE. D! AMlMAHB» # 

pariunt Iunio ante nonas.sdant faa oua condita quafi vtrfca* 
lo incrementum autcm partus prxcipuafumit celcritatc.Cam 
enim thuni in Ponto pepererint,prodeut ex ouo quas alij fcor 
dulasv®cant,Byzantij aaxumasnominant,quiadicbuspaucis 
adolcfcunt:qu<£excuntPontoautumnofoetas comitantesrco- 
dcm autem rcdeunt verno tempore iam adcptae eam magnitu- 
dincm,qaa limarue nomcn accipiant. Proffflo omne pifcium 
genusceleriteradolefcit,&pra?cipo& inPonto-.quippecu ibi 



i 



diebn 



adum 



o 



eifdcm locis degentibas,nec coenndi,ferendi vc tempus cfTc ide 
nccfastificandi,3Ut proficiendicnam & qui graculi appcllatur, 
nonnufquam meflfctritici pariunt.Vcrtimita hacc nos exponl 
mus,vt magna ex partercs euenit.Congri etiam faeturam in- 
trafecontinentrfednonomnibus locisaequt idcoftatnecipfa 
f cetara fatis patet in vtcro pingui obefo:incft tamen ferie qua 
dam prolixiafcula,vt in fcrpentibus.quod certe ignis periculo 
innotef dt.pingue enim abfumitur,atq; eaaporaturroqa autcm 
crepant,*cxtrufadifsiUunt.Adha2:cfipalpites,& atteras digi-^^ 
fis pingucleue vtiq; fenferisrouum autem duriofculam.Con- 
griitaq; alij pinguc habcnt,ooum nullam, ouum autem quale 
modo expofui pofsidcnt* Scd dc coira,vtcro,& eiufmodi reli- 
qais cartcroram animantium omnium , tam aquatilium , tum 
volacrum,atquectiam tcrrcftrium,quxoua pariunt , di&um 

iameft. 

Z>ecoitH,ehsfi; tempore,&libidine qnadrupe* 

durn<.jt*£4nimalpariwnt* 
caput XVII I- 

Equitur vtpari modo de i js.quae in terrcftriu gene- }<> 

reanimalpariunt, arq;etiadehominc differamus. 

coitum&priuatim&publicc omniumdiximus.Co 

munc autcm omniam animaliu cft, vt cupidine,vo- 

luptatcq; rei vcnercse maxime geftiant>atq, incitentur- Fero- 

riantfoemin*4partu,marestemporecoitus.Iam eqai eqaos 

mordcnt^ftcrnantequitcmjatq; infequuntur.fues quoq;ferU- 

cerrimc faruiantquanquam per id rcmpus imbecillcs ex coita 

reddantar.dimicant intcr fc mirum in modum armantcs fefe, 

& catem qua crafsifdma pr^parantes,induratesq;atrrita arbo 

rumrfepe etia Joto obdu£o,ac rcficcato,tcrgus inuiftu contra 

iftos cfficiunt.pugnat adci acri ccrtamine,grege relifto,vt fe- 

penumcro morte vtcrqjaduerf arius obcat.Simtli modo & tau- 

rict 




x 



IIBER SE XTVS* 14^ 

ri tffcratur,& arictcs,& hircLQui enim fupcriore tcporefccij, 
iugicocordia pafcerttur,coitus tcporcdiisidcm ; & aiter alteru 
libidinis rsbie inuadit.Camelus ctii mas fa>uit tcpore coitus,(l 
uchomo,fmecamelusaccedat:nicquis quidem odio naturall . 
adueriantur.Idt fcris quoq; eucniie aperru cft.Nam vifi,lupi, 
lconcs,acrius pcr.id tcpus in cos qui acccflcrint feuiur.intcr fe 
tamen minus h2ccdimicat,viddicctobeamrcm,qaianul.uex 
ijs gregale eft .Quinct ia vrf x 4 iuis catulis vchcmeter fercciut 
vt cancs a catellis. Et clephanti quoq; ad coiiu cffcrari folcnt J 

10 quamobre apud Indos ijs haud quaqua pcimini iniiu aiunt.lt 
bidinis cnim rabie agitati,cafas profterrut male conditos,plu- 
raq; alia incomoda facmt.mitigari pabuli copia narratur.-pla^ 
gisetiatemperat,addu&is alijs quibusfcrircprattJpiant.Qose 
autc non vno teporc,iedfa*pius annocoecnt,vtca 3 qua: cu ho- 
minedcguntjVcrbigratia^canCcsfucs^vtminuscffcrcntur^facit 
coitus copia.Inccndutor libidine ex ireminis tqmepotiisimu, 
mox vaccac.£quaeitaq;equiunt:vndc votibuju idab hocvno 
animalitrahitur,malediftoinmulicrcs libidinofas Nccnocue 
taripcridtcmpus cquaedicuntur.quaprcptcrin Crcta infula 

aoequosadmiflariosminimiafccminisicmoucdos cenfrnt. Cu 
vero ita affcflse fucrint,currunt reli&a focictate .fimile hoc vi- 
*tium eft,vt qucd iubarc in fuibus dicitur.cununt n6 oricnrcm, 
aut occidcntc verfus,fcd cx aduerfo aquflonis.aut auflri.ntc ap 
propinquarc quenqua patiutur,doncc vcl dcfatigata: d<flftat t 
vcl ad mare dcucniant Tum aliquid cmittunt,qucd hippcma- 
ncs appcllatur,eode,quo illud quodnafcilur,ncminc.Tale hoc 
fanc eft,qualc fuis illud,qucd apria vocant : fed hoc prxcipui 
ad amoris veneficia pct^tur.Equac trporecoitus colligurit iefe, 
* iocictatc magis qua antea gaudent iaflat cauda crebrius,vo 
ccm immutat,humore cmittunt fuis gcnitahbus fimile gcnitu- 
r£,ied mulro tenuiore,qua mares>quem hippomanes nonnulll 



ppelbnt,non quodpullis naicctibus sdharretaccipicu hgmo 



jo 



xcmdifficilecfleaiont,quodpaulatnnadmodulabitur w Mingut 

••.jX~1__. . . _*i i . ___ • 1 ,*_!__________ *7-_«_ 



eriaplgrics,atq; infer ieludunt cu cquiunt.ha_c deequis.Vac- 
ca_ tauriunt,&libidincadc6 in_endufur>vtbubulcieas tenerc, 
aut caperc ncqueant.ind.cium tum equa:,tum vacc* fuar libidi 
»i5prxftant,genitalisipeciepromincnt:orcVaccx ctismmin 
guntcrebriosmorecquarum. Adhsecvaccartauros ioperuc- 
Diunr,& iequuntur iCcdulo,& aisiftut.Tumt adcoitum prius 
ininoresnatu,quim maiorcs,tum in equorum gencre , tt m in 
houm, Tcmpor is ctiam bcncficio,& corporis vaictcdinepro- 

k J p*-ifio 






V 





\ 



-1 

IJO ARISTOTE. DI ANlMALlBi 

penfiora redduntur ad vencicm animalia*EquarUm lioido ex- 
r jnguitar magis iuba tonfa,& frons triftior rcdditar.marcs in 
hoc gencre foeminasfibi foclctateconion&as dignofccnt olfa- 
fta,etfipaucisantc diebus vnA fucrint,quod fi fcRminj; di- 
ucrfarpcrmifccantur,marcs ahcnas mordendo expellunr>iuas- 
qacfingolifeorfum habentes pafcuntur. Tricenar, aot paolo 
plarcs fingulis dantur . qixotics tnas acceflerit a!iquis,confc> 
ihmin cam marttus co:iaertitur 3 cJ: currens gyro aggrcdi- 
tnr pugna:&fceminam>fi qua l'c mcucrir,moriu rccocat.Tau* 
rusremporecoitus tantamcumfceminis pafc»tar,cxferosqucio 
oppagnat mares.temporibus carteris mares interic conucrfan- 
tanqaod coarmcntaridicitar. Iam Epiriproainci«etauriia> 
pias trimeftri temporis fpacio non apparent- Omnino fcra 
OTnnia,autcert&plurima,nonanr£cum faeininis adcommunc 
pafcuum veniunt , quam tcmpus fit cocundf. S ed cam iam per 
aetatcm licucr;r,fegrcgantar mares afoeminis,feorfumqucpa- 
fcantur.Sucsfaemina?,cam libidineexciranrar>quod iubaredi 
cirur,vel homines aggrcdiuntur. Cancs codem illo modo affc- 
&#,caniredicumur Prominetgcnitalcin frEininis,cum adcoi 
tam ftimulantur,& locus hamefcxt.cquabushumoris aliquid 1 * 
ibidcfiuir pcridtempus.purgatiomcnihuorum firquidcm & 
crreris>fed nulh atqucacmulieri.Oui &caprsc temporcco- 
eandi indtcantur.quod idcm poft coitum etiam fit zd tempus, 
mox defiftitjdonec partoriantrtum denuo indicatur : qaarepa- 
ftoresproximurneflepartuiriintclligunt.A partu aatcmpur- 
gattofcqaitur aband£:primam Ieaitercrcenia,poftmodum val 
de.vacca:,afinar,equaMnodoqaidcm ampliorc quam fupradi- 
(Xii tinittitur , vtpotc magnitudinc ejtcedcntibus , fed multo 
exproportionemincs.bositaque firmina cum coitum affe- 
ftat 5 leuiterpargatur,quantum hcmina: dimfdmni , aat paaUiO 
plos. Tempus autcm coeundi tuncpctifsimum cft,ccmpur- 
gatur.equafacilimc omniom quadrapedurn parit.vacar admo 
dutnpurgamctis,nimiumque cmirrit proflauimn fanguinifi 
videlicet procorporismagnitndiriC.Conceptus indiciamma- 
ximc in vaccis,equabusq,,cumefes ccflarur,fpacio temporis bi 
mcftri ,trimeftri,qa^drimcftri,femeftri.fed idpciperc difficile 
cft,nifi quis iandadu fccutus,afluetuiq, admodu fit.quaobrem 
no dcfunr,qui mcfes in his animalis ncgt r.Mulabus rr.efcsnul- 
li tnoacntar,fedearu vnnacrafs;or,qoam manu eft-Omnino 
excrcmcntu vcfica: quadrapedu craisias,qc3m hominu eft. In 

tcr eas tamen quadrupcdcs^occs foeminje^k caprac , crafsiorcjn 

, * . red 



ttBt R S1X1 VS. Ift 

rcdJurttvrinamquammcircs.Afin.Tconrrifcnniorcm qua ma 
rcs,& vaccae accriorem. A parru vrina cuadtupcdum ommum 
crafsior redditur,(5fc magis corum quar minni purgamur.Lac 6e 
rhncipit ad fpccicm puris initio coitus,icd vtile pofcea cft , eri 
pcpercrint.ptnguefcunt tam oucs quam caprs.cum g:r;ur psr 
£um,cduntq;ait)phiis.qucdidem dc bubus cciam ,ac cstcris 
qaadrupedibus affirmar.duni eft.Sunr porro animaiia propcn 
fiora ad coirom prop& dixerim omnia vcrno tcmperc>Jed iunt 
tamen,qusenoncotcmporecocanr,veriim prout qu*;<}; alcrc 

icrfuosfaettis commodiuspoftunr*itaiempu.sfibiconucnsens ha 
bcant.SuCbCicurcs vterum fcrunt mcnfcs quatuor numerus 
partus plnrimum adviccnof.fi tamcn mulros pcpcrcrint, eriu- 
careomncsnonqucunr.fcnciccntcsctiajri psriunt quidcm fi* 
mi]imodo,fedtardinscoau.implcntur vnocoitu:ia*pius tarce 
fupcr ucnrum patiuntur,ea dc cauf a,q uod pofl coirani humorc, 
quam apriam nonnulli appellanf,cmittunt:qucd quidcm com. 
mune oronibus inciditied aiiqua: vnacurehccicmcn cria sd- 
mifTum cijciut.FcEttts,qot in vtcro Ixihs minutus q; fucrit,me- 
tachcerum dicitur^quafi poflhumum voecs.qusd in psrre qua- 

2 o]ibct vuluxaccfdcrepotefr.Cum icrofa peperif,primam mam- 
mam porco,qui primus in luccm prodijf,prxbct.caucncfum ne 
prima fubationc antc aurcs flaccidas coixus fiat ,fruftra ctcnim 
fucrit.Atfiplcnaiamauiditatcac dciidcrio libkiinis turgido' 
admifforafiat,vnus(vt mododnn)initas fatisfit prodeftapro 
coeunti hordcam apponcrc pabulo quod idcm & tcrofa: foetx 
commodum cft,fcd eli^um -S atit cfcrofis a:ix ftatitn prolis foe 
cundx laudabili.v*h« incrclccnfes mclius gcncrant.Sucrr. alrc 
tooculoamifTobrruicxtingui magnacx parrcnonnulli exifti 

^ant.plurimis vitaadannos quindccim:al:quibus ctiam pro- 
J° pc ad viccnos 

Ves&capr:? tcrno aut quaternocoftu implentur ,& 
ii;iCoiruimber accdsit,abortum infcit.pariunt ma- 
xxma cx partc fingulos,fed aliquanco & binos, & ter- 
nos,5r quarcrnos.ferunt quinq; mcrrfibus , tum oucs T 
^mcapro.Vndcfit vtbcisnopnulIis,quibus carit clemcnria, 
* pabuli copia cft,bis pari inf. vita caprft ad o&ora* complu- 




^^Qmannos^ouibuKad dcnos :! d magna cx parte ad pau- 
Cl 9rcs.duces pecoris umcn vcl ad qumdenos protrahunt vi- 
^•Singuluouiiibusfinguii tluccs conftituuntcr, qui quo- 






K 4- tlCS 



\ 



Ijl . A&I STOTE» PE ANIMALIB. 

% lies fao nomine i paftore vocantor>anteccdunt .quod ab incun 
tc xtate facere afluclcunt.Oucs xthiopicx vcl ad doodecim,* 
Iredccim annos vicam agunr.Caprx ctiam ad dcccm , & vndc- 
cim.Coeunt tam oucs quamcaprx,quandiu viuunt.pariut gc 
ininos,tum pabuli bcncficlo,tum (i patcr aut maf er , vim cam 
"gcminandi pcr narura obrinear.Mares aure aut fcrminx gcne 
ratar vi,tu aquaru tu admiflarioru. Na & aqux faciunt,vt fcc 
minx maresuc concipianrur ad hxc,aquilonis flatu marcs po- 
tius concipiuntur >auftri faeminx. Vis tara cft aquilonis,vt vcl 
caquxnonnififaeminas pariant,immutctad prolismafculxio 
procreationcm.Speftarcad aquilonem oportet cam cocunt 
f\£minx.quxmaneiniri£blcnt,marem,fi fero dici admifcris, 
non pariuntur.Candidi,nigri vecfficiuntur f octus , fi fub lin- 
gaa arietis venx nigrx aat candidx habcntur.cuias enim colo- 
ris funt vcnx,eiafdcm & vellas eft.variam ctiam,fi plares ve- 
narum colorcs fant.Qax aqaam falfiufculambibunt,maruriu» 
cocunt ncc folum antc coitum,fcd ctiam k coira faliedum cft. 
atq; ctiam vcrno temporc.Capris nullum dacem paftores con 
ft itaant,quia carum narara non ftabihs,fed lubrica atq; mobi 
liscft,in gregeoaiam,fi maiorcsnata rempeftiuc libidinc in-iO 
citanrur,annum efTc fcliccm grcgi paftorcs confirmant. fcd fi 
minorcs,infclicem. 
JDe coittit& factHra canum y eoYum'y, Hittlongitudtne. f 4p. x x. 

Anam gcnera plura f unr.Coit laconicom mcnfc fux 
xratis o&aao.& crus iam circa id tempus artollcntes 
nonnalli vrinam rcddunt.Impletur canis vnoinita, 
quodin furtici js maxime conftar initibus. implcnt 
cnim qui fcmcl inicrinr,gn-unt Laconicx vrcrum parre fexra 
anni,hoc cft fcxagcnis dicbas,aur vno, vcl alrero plus, miniif- 
cc.Catellicxcigignuntur,nccinrc duodecimam diem vifamjo 
accipiunr.Cocant cancs poftca quam peperer unt/exto menfe, 
nec cirius.S ut qux partc quinf a anni vrcrti fcrant,hoc eft duo- 
bus & fcxaginta dicbus, quarum catclli duodcciin dicbus lace 
carent.nonnallx quarta partc anni,hoc eft tribus mcnfibos fc- 
runr,quarum catelhdiehus dccemdrfcprem lucccarent.tanrun 
dcm tcmporiscanirectiamfaeminx putantur.Mcnftruahuias 
animalis dicbus fcptcm moucnturjimulq; cacnif,vt gcnitalc 
promineat veraoi nondum per Jd tcmporis coitam patiantar, 
fed ieqacnribas fcprem dicbas.tanpusenim qaototo canis Ji- 
bidinetcnetar/itcbusquatuordccimmagnaex parte de/cribi- 
tur. Vcrum nonnallx eriam adicxrumdccimum pruriont.Par* 




r 






ano 



X.IBER. SIXTVS. Ijj 

gatioautem qux coniun&a partui eft,vnaiaim catellis nafcen- 

tibu* prouenitjCraflb pituito/oq; humorc.rcddunturetiaratc- 
nuiores apartu^t lacantcdiebus qainq; quam pariant , habct 
magnaexparte.vcrumnonnullis etiam ieptcm aut quatuor 
diebus anticipat. V tilc ftatim vt pepercrint,eft . Genns laconi- 
cum,poft coitum diebus triglnta,haberc lac incipit . Craffum 



ed- 



canum,qaim exterorum animalium lac 



ccptofcrofxacleporislndiciumin mammis ctiam apparct, 
10 cum xtatem cocundi iam habent. Fit enim perinde ac in homi 
nibas,tumor in papillis mammarumj& cartilago quxdam coa 
fiftit.ied difficile id perccperis,nifi habeas vfum rci:caret enina 
hxc indicia magnitudinchoc igitur foeminx eaenire certti cft. 
marinihil eiufmodiaccidit.crus mares tollcntcs,mingunt ma- 
gna ex partc quidem fcxto mcnfe *tatis,fed nonnull. vel fcriat 
oftauo icilicet menfc id faciunt.atq; ctiam maturius quam fex- 

to.quodautemfjmpliciterdixerim,cumcoireincipiunt,tollat. 
fpeminxomnesconfidctcsmingunt.Veruminhoc etiam fexa 
nonullaecrurcelato minxeront.rarit canis duodecim cum pla 
*o rimum,fcd magnacx parte qoinq; aut fex.vnam etiam aliqaa 
peperifleccrtum eft.Laconic* magna cx partc ofto pariant: 
coeant qaandiu viuunt^Sc marcs & farminx.Pecoliare generi» 

Laconicicft,vtcamlaborarint,coircmclius quim pcr ocium 
poisint viuit in hoc eodcm eenere mas ad annos decem, faemi 



.14 «i auoaecim.Lxtcn cancs maxima quidcm ex parte ad an- 

»osqaatuordecim,fednonnullivelad viginti protrahunt vi- 
taro.Qaamobrcrca^apudHomerucanem Vlyfsis viccfimo 
anno mori aliqoi iudicant.Laconid fan* generi* foeminx,quia 



vcr& 




in cxteris,etfi n on Uth admodum conftat.tamen mares vi-«v 
resiant.Dentcs canes non routant,prxtcrquameos,quos v 
«ntcaninos^osq; quarto xtaris menic tam forroinx,qoa ma- 
rcs.Vndcfit,vtdiacriafitaatorumfentcntia.Ali; enim qnod 
a«ostantumodomutant,ncgant omnino vllos mutari, cam 
cospaacosrepcrircdifficilcfir.alijcumhos vtderint, cxteros 
ouoqueparirationematariexiftimant. Aetatis iud.cium ex 
«nnbusfumitur quippe cum iuniores candidos habcant , * 
«titosiicniores nigros^S hcbctes. 

I>ecoitu & ftrtuhonmji^ mtris Cfotmmm 

*t*U. C*f»t xxl* 

Bos 




i 



ARISTOTE. t>t AtJIttAllB.' 

OsvnoinituimpIct,agitq$ vchcmetcr,ft5,vt fctfmi 

na vix toicrans iuccumbar . S i forte conccptio pcrcr 

'raucrit,viccfimo poft <iie marcm fcrmina repetit. 

Scniorcs tauri ncc fepius quidem faeminam eande, 

codcm fuperucniunt dic,nifi cx interuallo. At iuniores,* cande 

fepius cogunt,& pluries petunt,ac ibpcrucniut vigorc iux «ta 

tis.Salaxminimc interrnaresbcscft.coitqui vlcerit cumqjis 

vrncrc iam dcbilitatus langucrit,2ggrcdiror vifiusillc languen 

rcm,*plcrunjq5 fupcrat.Coirc tum mares,tum faeininae anoo 

setaris primo pcratto incipiunt,quoad facaltas fic procreandi. 10 

verum quod magna cx patte fit,vcl anniculi, vcl na£H oftauu 

lfienfem venercm adcunt.Sed enim quod maxiroe cofcffum ha 
bcmus,bimamgcnerant.Fcruntvtcrummefesnouem,dccimo 

pariunt .Sunt qui dcccm totos mcnfes , cxccptis pancis dicbus* 
affirmcnt.Qnod autem inluccm pnecurrerit h#c tcmpora ,id 
abortiuumcft,vitaltque minimc, eciamfi pauio maturaucrif 
partumtprxmolli nanque,impcrte$aquc vngula prodit . Pa- 
riuntfingufo«,gemincsraro.Qj^ndiuviuunt,& coire folenf» 
& parerc. Viuunt magna cx partc fcemina? annos quindccim, 
atqucctiammarcscxcift.noanuliissrtas,vclad viginti annos,2tf 
atqucctiamplurcs,ficorporcbenehabitofint.nam cxcifos af- 
fucfaciunt,*duccsconftituuntlx>um,vtouiuin,qni plus tem- 
por is quamcsctcri viuunt vfucxcrcitij^St copia pabuli. vigcnt 
quinquennes maximc.quocirca Homerum quidam rczih dixil 
fc aiunt:Qn;nqucnnem taurum,<fc bouis luftro fl orcntis.Idttn 



nanq; fignificari arbitrantur.Dentcsbimus cmittit bos-ncc vni 



ocribs, vt cquus.vngulas,cum dolorcarticulorum laborat* non 
amfttit" ' i --— ,Xr r - l T -■• 



t 



partu vtilecft.antequam pcperit,carct laftc.quatu teCxis pro- 
ocnerit primum concrefccns,perIndc vt Lipis durc/cit.quod ita jo 
accidit,nifi aqua admifcearur.Iuuenca rccentior quarn annica- 
la non patitur venercm,nifi oftentojam cnsm vcl quarto xtz* 
tismenfecoifieperipe&nm cft.Irrftium coitU5 T plur ;mis quide 
mcnie Aprili & Maio fcd nonnulla: ctiam ad antumnum vique 
tempuscoeundidcducunt.Cumplurcsgracidx funt,& facib 
jnitium patiuntur,nimirnm pro figno hycmis & imbriom id ac 
clpitor «menfcs & vaccis fium,vt cquabcs,fcd mincs. 

dcfy mmh & fst mua dtatt* 

capnt x x 14. 

Eqnas 



IX* £R SEXTVS. »J$j 

Qops colrcincipit bhnus,tammasquimfa?mlna:frd 
hoc in paucis fit,pulliqjeorum ipforumminorcs im- 
becilliorc$q;funt. Qupd aotcm plurimum trimato» 
tammares quamfoemin*incipiunr,& proficiut fub- 
inde ad prolis prxftantiam,in vicHimum vfq; annom.Fcrt vte 
ram cqua mcnfcs vndecim.parit daodecimo menfc. cauus non 
certo dicrum numero implcf ,f f d aliquando vno,aut daobns tri 

U. '....--. ,tf MaaJ^ M f...-:U.i* f~+*inr <-**«•*. \ f%n\ir\ ilinnt ^^firim ift- 




•fcri 



laboriofos 



10 bas eft.S alaciisimam omniom,tum fceminarum,tom mariom 
cquus eft,homin« cxccpto.Iuniorum coituspra:ter artatcm con 
tingitpabulibonitatc&copia.pariont magna cx partc cqux 
fingulos.fedgcmellos quoquc aliquando cum plurimu pro- 
crcat.mulaetia gcmcllos peperit,q**ce quidem pro oftcnto ac- 
eipiuntur.Coirc itaqueincipit cquus vel rriccfimomenfc : fcd 
qaoaddigncjprocrcarcpofsit,tuactempus cft,com dcntibus 
mittcndis ceflauit. verum iam nonnullos ctiam cum mutant,im 
plerepotuifleaiunt.ibiqnefieri ita confirman?,nifi natura fte* 
riles iint.Equo dentcs qoadragint anomcrofunr, quorum pri- 

2,0 moresquaruormcnfetricefimo mut3ntur,bini vCrinquc, fo- 
pr:\ dico,& iubrer.tom vbi pnererea annum compleoerit, qua- 
tooritcmmodi codem mitrantur:duofupcrius,totidemq; infc 
rtas.rurfusqj anno aitcropera^o,fimili modo quatoor alij ma 
tantur.qaibus iam prxtcritisanni quatuorft menfibosfcx,nul 
us prsrerca mittitor,quanqaa cucniffein aliquocertum cfavt 
cum primis omnes amirtcrcnturratquc ctiam in a!io,vt cu vl- 
timisomncs:fcdh^craro.I*irita(]; , vtcqcofcri tepos idoncu 
maxime fit ad procrcandum,cum -nnom qoartum,cfc icx men- 
fcs complerit.fcniorcs cqui profr &o foscudiorcs font,tam frr- 
minar,qu.\mmarcs.Equtvclfuasniatres& filias fuperueniutj 
atqac tunc perfe&am cfle armentom vidctur,cum parcntcs (ua 






1 



quabus 



quadr 

niom 



proficercad partus 



pos iam ardendi appropinqu3rit, erigit fe,ftanscjue cmif- 
tit partum . Vita equonxm plurinm ad decimomoSauom , 
^tqac criam vicciimom annon? . tcd nonnulli ctiam qain- 
4«e & vjginri,arquc triginta cgcran? • & fi cura diligcn- 
ter adhibcarur , vcl ad qninqoaginta protrahitur 2etas,lon- 
g*f itr<a tamcn vfta in pkrifcus adtriccfir*:umannum,quod 



magna 



15* AHI3TOTE, Di ANIMALIB» 



. 



magft* cx pater ficri noaimus. Faemina magna quidetn partc 
quinq; & vigintiannos viaerc potcft.icd iam nonnallfctiam 
qaadraginta vixere.Minus temporis tnares viuunt, quam fcc- 
mina^proptcr coitarn.* qui domi aluntur,minus qaam grcga 
rij.fa*minaqainqacnniofincm 5 tam longitadinis, tum ctiam 
proccriratisiut corpori* recipit,ied mas iexennio. p<ift,annis 
fcqucnnbus totidcm crcicit fn torpulcntiam,* ad viginti vfq; 
annospcrgitproficicns.verumcclcriusfceminar quim marcs 
pcrficiuntur:qaanquam in vtcromarcs,qu3tn focininx ctt icis, 
qacmadmodu ctia homincs.quod idem>vel in cricris animali-10 
bas qu* pariant plura,ficri iolct.Laftarc mulu iemcftrc tepo- 



xis fpacium rcfcrunt,mox fugi non pati: vi nanq; humoic tra- 

hi,& cu dolorc.cquo aut plus tcmporis tribuut. Vigct & cqaus 

& mulus identium orta:cumqac prodicrint omncs, non facik 

«tttcmdignoucris. QuamobremdicHolct,certa fubortu,in- 

fcctta ab orru.deniq; poft dcntium ortam. co maximc dcclara- 

tar «tas^qucm caninum vocamus.brcuior cnim hic fcptenni- 

bus cft,proptcr frcni attritam quod ad cutn ini jcitunno fcpic- 

nibus maior qaidcm.fcd non vcrticcextans ada&iore. Ianiori 

bus acutior & proccrior cft.mas omnibas tcmporibus inir,nec*Q 

ccflat qaandia viuit.Farmina ctiam qaandia vioit initur,nec 

tempus vllam ccrtnm libidinc aufcrtricdingentam hominisar 

cct,aut vinculo,aat aliqaohuiufccmodiimpcdimcnto.non ta 

incn quoais tcmporc fafto initu,facultas cnutricndi quod pc- 

percrint,datar.Equum apud Opanta gregarium fatfle acccpj 

mos,quiannosquadraginta natospoflctcoircrfcd adinmcnti 

<jao ad lui pcdes priorcs attollerentur, dcfiderabat . Cocandi 

mitiam cqois in Vere. Ncn ftatim h parta equa implctur , ld 

intcrmifTo tcmpore;* mehus qaarto aat qainto anno in tcrpo 

iito procrcat.Omnino,fi nihil plusdctur, vnum tamcn intcr-jo 

ponereannom,(5kquafinoaalcfaccrc neceflecft. Eqaa igitur 

intcrpofitotcmporcvtdiaum cft, parit:at afinacontinuepa- 

mc potcft.fit ctiam in equoram generc,vt alia: omnino ftcri- 

lcs fint. ali* concipiant quidcm, icd xdcrc ncqucant. cnius rci 



d - indicium aiQn t,qood foetus circum rcncs alia quxdam, ipccic 
S^uca e qm. propcmodum rcnum,itacontinct,vt rciciflas qaataor rcncs 



« puim* habcre vidcarur. Cum equa peperit, ftatim lccundas deuoraf 

J "'woruatqoectiam quod pulli nafcentis frontt adh^ret,hippomane$ 

tom amorediaam, magnitudincminuscaricaparuajpecie latiuiculum» 

* € «»d*t- orbiculatum, nigrum : hoc fi quis pra-rupto odorcm moucar, 

t oitmeU*. equa excitatur,furitqae agmto eo odore. quapropter id 4 vc- 



A 



LI5ER SlXTVS. IJf 

Sr percipitar mulicrcolis. Si cam eqaa ex eqoo 
icrit afinas, faetus iam conccptus corrumpi- 
ducem, vt boum , nullum confHtuunt.quo- 
nararanonftabilis,fcdmobilis,procaxq; cfh 

afinit&aJinApartHtmarisq; crfiemin& 
tute. Capttt xxiil. 

» mas,tam focmina tricefimo menfe cofrefncf- 



ii,eoctemque temporedentesmittitpriores:fecandosaQ 
tetem iexto menfe,atqae ctiam tcrtios quartosqae eodcmq;.g»o 
monas hos qoartos a dijudicanda xtate nuncupant. S ed ii vel 
anniculaafinaconccpit,vtpernciproles acadolefcere poflet- 
Reijcit fcmen a coitu, nifi interpelletur . quamobrem ftatim 
poft coitum verberant,infeftanturq;.parit duodecimo mefe. 
fingalatim magna ex parte procrcat prolem.ea nanque natura 
eft,vt vnum pariat.fed nonnunqaam gemeilos etiam xdit.Afi 

lidem equi genituram corrumpit,vt diclu eft, fcd equu* 
wim minime,cam eqaa iam afini inita conceperftLac grauida 
habet menfcdccimo.A parta diefeptimomari iungitur,coqae 
aodietoncla maximerecipitinitum,fedpoftmodnmctiam pati- 



nus 
afmi 



lu 



rat,peperit,nu- 

nfpeftu homf- 

parturit.fi priuf 



quam gnomonem dimlfiuef,peperif,parere tota fua artare 



tc& 




iif 



*c cit. Cam vcl equus cumafina, velafinus cam cqaa inie- 
nt,multo magis abortus confequitur,qu£m com vnigena: in- 
tcr fciungantar:vcrbigratia,equacamequo, aut afinacutn 
afino . Eacnit etiam tcmpus gcrcndi vteri > cam cquns cum 
:Qahna coierit, maris norma.id cft,vtqaanto fpacio tcmporis 
mas P^ficitur fao in gensre, tanto ctiam f oetas, quem ipfe 



magnitu 



o^magis foeminar, quam mari fimileeuadit quod nafcitor. 

"equcntcr cccant^icqacvllo interpofito tcmporc cefTent, 
S a *ita ianguntur,breaifowninaftcrilcfcit-qua dccaofa non 
toqaenter itaconiungunt, qaicnram huic adhibcnt rcijcd 
^npus altqaod interponant. Non afinum cqua, vt afina 
^qaum rcc *pit,nifiafinus fit,qoi equam faxcrit . Admittunt 

c mduftria qtins hippothelas vocant,ac fi eqaimillgos cogn 

f ncs ; S ai ittpafcais modocqaorum viribusbonis faperart* 

t 

De molo, 




tf% AMSTOTEiDE ANIMALIB. 

iytmxb^&eiuicoitUi&atatc. Caput xxnn. 

MVlus fapcrucnirccoircq; incipit mifsis clctibus primis: 
fed fcptcnnis implcrepoteft>ctiicu equa coiunftus In- 
numprocreauit.poft deinde fuperucnirenon folet.mula quo- 
<jae iam fafta grauida cft ,fed non quoad pcrficerct ,atque xde 
rct prolem . In terra S yria fupcr Phcenicem mnlx % & coeunr* 
&pariunt omnes:fcdiagcnus diucrfumeft,quanqcam fimfc* 
lc.prodeunt quos ginnos vocant ex cqua,cum in gcrendo vfe- 
to aegrotauicmore purnilionum in ordine hominu , aut por- 
corum dcprauatorum in gencre fuum,quos pofthumos nuncu ** 
paui.& quidcm vt pumilio>fic ginnus modum fuo gcnitall ex- 
ccdit. ViU malis ad annos moltos . iam qnidam vcl ofiogefi- 
mum annum potuit agere,vt Athcnis cum templum ardificarc 
tur,qui quaaisdimifTas iam moncrcpcr fcne&am, commcas 
tamcn, ac obiensiaitcnta exhortabatur ad opus : quamobrem 
Tlinlus ftc: ^ ccr rtoWmineeumarceriafrumentorum aceruis fancitum 
Conn itendo c ft-Scriusfocminafcncfcit,qn4mmas. Nonnajli fceminara 
tQimtaioq; , P to & uuio vrinsepurgari aiant marcm olfaftuvrinor ortus fc- 
*ccendebat * ncfrcrcortus corum animalium talis cft. 

iumcnta ad lndtciumetatis yuadrupedum. Caput xxv. 2$ 

^piq^ A Etatcm dignofci quadrupedum confirmant,qui in earnm 

* Jlcura font conftitutf,fi cutis prartcnta maxillis, dcrratta* 

moxrclaxata^licoinfuum rcdeat locum.hocenim indicium 
rcccntioris quadrupcdis cft. vctcriscontri,fidjutius ruguta 

mancat cutis. 

Z>e tttero *& atrte camdi . Captit xxvi. 
Amclusfcrt vtcrum mcnfesdeccm.parit fcmpcr vnu tan 




tummodo: vnipara nancuc eft. (cparant prolem £ parcn- 
te anniculam. Viuitdiu,plus enim qu?*m quinquaginta annos- 
parit in Vere,& Iacfcum vfquc cA ieruat.qno iam concepcrit.Jt 

tumIac,tumcarocamclifuauifsimaomniumcft. bibitur cios 
lac ad vnam mcnfuram duabus^ut tr ibus aqux admixtis. 

Dcclephantorum coitu,dtq; tcmporc cjuo 

HterHsfertur,&eorumpulli*. 

CfipHt XXVII. 

ELcphantus tam mas quam fosmina inciprt coire anno zti 
tis vigcfimo.fcrendi vtcri tcmpus alij annum & fcx mcn- 
fes,a!ijtriennium ftatuunt. caufa quamobrem incertum hoc 
fit, quodncnpafeatcoitus.paritenitens pofterloribos cr«- 
ris,<ftfubfidenscum dolorc. pullos tfditus orc fagit. rion pro- 

«iafcidc.i& ftatim <juum natus cft,ccrnit,& ambulat. 

Dccoita 




I IBE R SBXTTS. Ifg 

Dt co\tufuum>0>uu< temporr. Caput X x v 1 1 1. 

Ves fcra? princfpio hyemis*coeunt, Vcre pariunt.petentes 
maximc inoia,prarrupta,angufta,& opaca.mas com foemi- 
"K conueriari 0*1« tr igmta magna ex parte folct NumerOj 
F3«us,& tcmpusferendi idcm,atq; in vrbanisfuibnseir. Vox 
eiiam fimilis ;fcd famiina vocalior eft,mas rarovoccm emirrit. 

Marcscaftrati,maioresfcrociorc£quc cnadont,vt fciteHcme 
lusfir.gitjcumdicat: 

Nutrijt ereclum fylois horrentibus aprom: 
10 Inftar non brati,icd do; fi inontis opaci . 
Caftrantor,quod recentibus adhucmorbus prnries incubit ia 
teftes,ouo attcrctcs eam partcm ad arborcs,tcftes cxtinguont. 

^F Z>; ceruorum co,tu,partu, & natura. 

eCaput xxix. 

Eroa pjurimum fnbfidens coit, vi diflum iam eft . marem 

cn,m/afli i ne renonpoteft,obciusconientif S imuimpct«. ; 
Verantamcn aliquando ctiam fuftinent modo oui C m,& focia* 

occlmant,cum turgcnte iam Ver.crecoitum appctunt. Ma« 

non m eadem immoratur,fcd mutat:brcuiq'ue interpcfito tcm 

pore,alumarqucaiiam fupcrgreditur.Coitus abarcmrome- 

c Augufto Sc S eptembri implentur paucis dicbus,& ab eodcra 

vnlr'17™ *T* ° a ° m ™ ks 'P™™t magna « partc 
vnum.fed nonnuli.r etiam geminos pe P erifle perfpeSum cft. 

parcrcmxtaviasmaxi.r.efoiccmetubdluarum.Incren.entura 
hmnuli ccIe " • purgatio carteris tcmporibus nulla eucnit cer. 
os.Cum aotem parit pituitofo quodam humorepurgarur.da- 
ccreluum hinnulom ad ftabula confocuit.qoem locmr, fibi ha- 
«t rc.ugimn, petra difruptacft vno adito,vnde dcfenderc fe> 
rep U g n areq;folctij 5 , |nuadQnf y. ta e ff cperqoi . 

30hoca,„malfertur,fednihil certi exijsqua: narrantur , vide! 
mmm-c geftatio, aut incrcmentum hinnuli ita eucnit, qua- 
ArJ? f Ct P txlon p ' Montecnim Afi*Ela P ho no,e apud 

i ^ f ™ ' 1« *« vel al,bi,fi loca mutarinr, 

ro^ ^ v" dcm f(EfOS iam indc * P ri ™ o, tu in vtc- 

!dem contrahit fignum. Quatcrna vbcra fceminis, vt vac- 

P^pClS" " npkDC T irt *<»****?**** per ic ipfi,* 
S?E t 'l S" ucolcntism So*fqac fohtarius fcrobes fo- 
hir? 7 "^i.tacies q uoque eo: u nigr efdt afper 2ine, vt 

«*H*c tdeo ceioo accidunt, ouiafaJa* aniraal fiaptcuatL 

cft. 



llO AKISTOT. DB "AN1UA t'IB. 

cft,atqae ctiam quia pingai abundat. pinguefcunt enim xfta- 

tc fapra modnm,quamobrcm nec currere quidem poflunttfcd 

fecundo aot tertio carfa capiantarab ijs,qai pcdibas infe- 

dantar.fugiantctiam in aquas proptcr «ftumatquc anhcli- 

tum.Caro corom libidinis tcmpore vitiatur, & foctet, pcrindc 

quafi hircorum . hycmc iraqae cxtenuantur, debilitantur qac. 

' Vcrc autcm vigcnt maximc ad corfom. cum fugiont, rcquicm 

Intcr currcndum aliquam faciunt,confiftcntcsq,- manent, dam 

qui infequitur,appropinquet,tum fuga itcrum arripiut.quod 

idco facerc vidcntar,quia intcrioralaborant.inteftinum cnim 

tamtcnueimbecilleq;habent,vtctiam filcaitcr percuflcris, 

pofsit rumpi,cutcadhucintcgra. 

Z)t urfi cottu,partu, £r f*Ms,ieq; hyflricii natur** 

Cdj>ut xxx. 

VRft coeunt,vt di&umeft,non fuperuementes , fcd homj 
ftrati.fcrt vtcrum vrfadics triginta.Parit tum vnom, tu 
ctiam du^srfcd complurimum quinqucfoctum minimam pro 
fai corporismagnitudinc xdit : quippc qua minorcm catfo, 



itcm,&carcum 




» : i 



propcmodum, membri 
lem coit mcnfcFcbruar 



guefcit 
prolcm 



vtcrum 



vt vrfa.grauidam capi vrfam difficile cft. 



v 



&pullo 

mutatione. caput xxxl 



cmi ttcre 



geminos,fed cum plurimos icx 
jum. Qnpddc leama fertur.vul 

ra fehnla *ft. fafta ex C3 caofa» 



ncm 



compcrirc autor ille fabul* potcrat. rarom hoc cnim cft , ncc 
maltis nafcitur locis:fcd Eorop.r totias,ea partc folom ,<p xin % 
tcr Achrloumamnem,*Neflumeft.parit lexnaquoq; adco 
paroos>vt vix poft fccundum mcnfcm incipiant ingrcdi. Leo- 
ncs tcrrac Syrix qoinqnies vita pariuntrprimum quinq;, p« ft 
vno/ubinde panciorcs,dejndc fteriles degunt. carct learna io- 
ba:maris barc propria cft. dcntes cos tantummodo mutat U* 



vocantur 



rio*i 






trBER niTVsi ui 







ifas.idque fexto menfc xt aris fit. 

ZJe 7^4:»* natura,mea t ,busy genifalibm marii 
Crfemuix. cafut xxxn- 

HY*na colorc lupi pr ope cft,fed hirfutior,* iuba per totu 
dorfum pr*dira cft.Quod autcm de ca fcrtur,gcniralc fi 
mul * mar is,& fcemina: eandcm habere,commetitium eft :fcd 
vmlc fimiliter,atque in lupi<,&canibus habcrur . quod vero 
fofnnncum efleviderur,fubcaudapofirum eft,figura fimileee 
mrali foemina^fcd fine vllo meatu. fub hoc meatus excrcmcn 
torum eft.Qmnctiam foemina hyama.prxter iuum illud, eria 
iimilcvt mas habet fub cauda fine vllo mearo, a quo excreme 
toram mcarus eft, arquc fub eo gcnitalc vcrum continctur. 
vnluam etiam hyaena foemina , vt cxter* huiufccmodi fo£ 
mmae ammantes habet . Sed raro hyxna foemina capitur, 

lammtervndccim namero,vnamtantumcepiflcvenator re- 
tuiitquidam. r 

De co,tu,&f atura hporum. Caput x x X 1 1 1 . 

1 5!!"* 3 Ti COc ' unt ' vt «Pofiram eft.retro enim vrina 

iotf! .T • Coeunt *P ariun tq"°qu«cmpore,dumq'oevtc 

ro fenmt fuperfoetant,* fingulrs menfibusgcncrant. ied foe. 

rus *dunt non vniuerfos.intcrpofitis cnim dicbus quot rcs tu 

£nt,peragunt partionem.habct foemina lac pr iufqua pariat, 

tnmTw C r. n r nQO " pctit coi,ani >& la£tans adhuc cocipit foe 
ttmlacfuillofimilefua crafsitudineeft. Partii non vtmaior 
ndipcdum pars,caecum aedir. 

V^coitu^panuuulpis. caput xxxilli. 
vipesiuperueniens coit.paritc.rcos, vt vrfa, atquc etia 
innrmrores.parturiens ita fecedit,vt raro grauida capia- 

JoS ?ar n r P r aiT i ^^^^^^^endorcfoucKScconco- 
Jflqmt.pantcum plurimos quatuor. 

nepartu luporum,feli u ichneumenU,lupi canarij, 

&l»piceruarij. caput xxxv. 

v pus rert * parit vt canis,tum tempore, tum etiam foe- 
Pore ZnT™ ° C3X0$ Cti * m S cncrat cani$ ni °do coit vno te- 

WoW r iWBn,e * ftatc ' rCrtur dc cta» t»rte adfabu- 

«i cE "' r UP ° S °rT e$ intf a duodcdm dies parcrc. cuius 
CaDfam V&mnt fabulofcquod Latona ober 




P*>propt ^r,t/ yP r ,$ < Dd ?«***rint fubfpccie lu- 
n ondur cx ol? ,n T£ Scd 3n tCmpDS hoc *> aricndl fit > 

Chut^; Ve T QUidc ' n fiC vul g°> ™ 

«n niinime cfle videtar.qoale vcl illud fcrun t ,lunos fcmel 



1 invJ 



t6Z ARISTOTE. DE /NIMAHB. 

in vita parerc Felcs & ichneumoncs tot numero pariunt 5 qucrr 
canes,vefcuturq; eifdcm.viuunt circttcr annos fcx.Lupus item 
canariu$,cxcos parit luporum ritu, numcro cum plurimu qoa 
tuor.Quinetiam lapus ccruarius coitu vt canes impletor,& c£ 
cos gencr«u,uumcro doos,aut tres,aut quatuor corporc log^or 
& ciuda porreftior eft,fcd proceritatebrcuior. celeritatc xqui 



auamu 




eft>profilireq; longiuc ob cam rem potefh 

JDt muUs.q^os terra syriafert Caput xxxvi. 

Vntin Syria,qaos mulosappellat, genns diucrfum ab co, 10 
quodcoitucquae&afini procreatur, fed fimile facie.quo- 
modo afini fylueftres,fimilitudinc quadam nomen vrbanorum 
accepere.& quidcm vt afini illi fcri, fic muli prarftat celcritatc. 
Procrcant ciufmodi mulx fuo in genere. cuius rei argumcnto 
llta funt,qu* tcmporc Pharnacse patris Pharnabazi in tcrram 
Phrygiam vcncront, qux adhuc extant. trcs tamcn cx nouem* 
quot numero olim fuiffc aiunt.fcraantur hoc tcmporc 

Z>e natura,& uariisgeneribw murium,<lcij; fuUorum 

numercfltate. CaWt X X X v 1 1- 

MVrium generatio mirabilis praetcr cstcra animalia mn-*<* 
iorcm in modu cft,tn numero,tum celeritate. Iam cnim 
fccmina prsgnantc in vafemiiiario aliquado occopata,paulo 
p<ift refcrato vafe, mufculi namero vfginti&centum reperti 
font.Miru etiam pcrcipimus ortu rcdandantis agrcft is muna 
gcncris. lociseninricopluribnsagrita inaudito modooririfo- 
lcnt,vtparu ex vnlacrf o frumcnti relinquatur.tam cito abiU- 
mitur,vt nonnolli mediocres agricolae,cum pridie mctenc!u ft* 
tucrint,poftrid:c manc cum mcfloribus acccdcntcs ad fegctem, 
ablumpta inueniant tota: interitcs aute minime cucnit ratftv 
nc.paucis cnimdicbus omnino abolttur, quaquafnperiorete- 3° 
porc homincs vincerc vel fuffiendo.vel fues,vt latibula cftodc- 

ret,admittedo,no poffcnt Qmnetia volpes cos veratur ,& ca- 
tifylaeftresinprimis:fedtamefupcrarecopia&ccIeritarepro 

uctus nequeut:ncc aliud quicqua omniu vincit, nifi imoresajs 
cnim quaprimu inrereilt.Tcrre Perfic* partequada murctoff 
tmna refcifTa,foetus foemintni prxgnatcs copenuntur.S u t qoi 
vchemcntcr confirmcnt mures,fi falc lair bant,implcri finc : coi 
ta Acgyptijs muribus prxdurus fcr£,vt hcrinaccis,pi!u$ eft. 
S unt cti3m 3iij,qui cretti bipcdcs ambulcnt. habcnt enina crU- 
ra poftcriora longa,priorabreuia.ortnscornm quoq; nomero 

(m cft Sant vcl alxa gentra muriu clura.fcd de ijs ha^enus. 

5 r Arift* 




I Z B £ * SEPTIMVS. jgj 

ARISTO TELIS STA, 

GIRITAE DEHISTO- 

K.IA ANIMALIVM LIBER 

VII. INTERI-RETE THEO- 

00«.0 GAZA. 

potentiHmprxutniHnt. caput \. ' 

E H o m i n i s generarione , tum pri- 
ma in ytero,tu poftenorein luce,& v/q; in fe 
neduic,que jdmodu fc habear,qua: fiue nam- 
rx ratione cueniant,!oco hoc dicemus. _ 
inter mare & fremina differcria fir,<* qJbuf. 
.„ . ^ — ,- na partibps c5ftet,antc e.v pofitu eft.Mas au- 

//k^ SCnltaic ma g na «< pattcincipitfcrrcannopcr 
aaobi. feptimo.-fimul etii pubefcerc incipit co repore, v t ftir 
p« feme latoras primuflorere Alcmecn Croroniara air. vox 
ue perjd tepos murari in fonu afperioreWquabitiore-c; inci 

J^W? !?*! ^** 4 ** c ' n a «Ha Pr?t«ea eft,neq tot, 
aojqoabilisjfcd fimilis hdibus inc6rcnt„ & afperis.quod caprire 
denomjnat.idq; potifsimu incdit i jsqui re venerea incipiut 
agcre.ijs em yox trafir fn fonu virilc.Abftinetibus ver6 ccorra 
rmht.erilcnra adhibcant(quodaliqui faciur ex «js,qui choreis 
indcigctjvcl logofcruari tpefincma»t»a routarioneporMa- 
mx ctia extuoerar. & genitalcr.6 folu~magnitudine,iedetiam 
iptcie proncit.euenit porr^ id teporif, qui ia fricari, cotrefta- 
rio; per hbidine^cosperint^vt cu feme emittut, n6 modo vola- 
ptstcyciu dolorc quoq; aflkiarur.Focminis ctia pcr id tcpus 
excrgut vbera,quodfrarraredicimr.«S qoar meftrua vocatur» 

Me aioa dicumr,admodu etii puellis eueniut,* magis fi cibo 

vmnturhumidiori.Hecincremcnmimpcdiutcorporis,„pueI 
«m extcnuat.fed meics tunc plurimis nut,cu ii vberaadduos 

1 t3 itospromin^t.«ivoxcodetcporepoelbru mutator ingra 
■ore.Deniqjcu mulier Vocis acutioris,qua virfir,tu natumi 

tZV?"™ 'T*™ maiorw fonat 'Vt * pueri,quam viri acu- 
«Qs.Sedyoxfocmin* acutiorcftquammam,* fiftulapuel- 

dir in Cm !° r ' aua 1 m P ac roru cft.Fit «ia, vt pcr id tepuscufto- 

tet£*^ P K ^ '*™*»™™™ ad vfam rei vcncrc.T inci- 



rcte 



Qnpdfiiam „^_ 

«percnt^uim corpora Ipia, nullo adhuc vfu venereo,fe«l 

1 2 fpOO 



X<$4 ARISTOT. Dl ANIMAHB. 

fpontc mutetur,fcqoi feruariquc teperatia folct pcr artatcs fa 

ruelU quan pcriorcs.nam& <\ux admodum pucllx concunibunt^lihidino- 
do Z*forfm~-fioreseuadunt. &maresfiucalteraparte,fiue vtraquc minus 
U euadani- cauerint,propcnfiorcscodcmefFiciuntur. Meatusenimlaxan 

tur,rcdountquceocorpuslubricum, & fimulvoluptatis, qua 

olim gcftirent,mcmorcs,defider io mouentur pixtcvixx contrc 

ftationis. Prodcuntnonnulli iam indc aprimoortu naturar 

impubes,infrccund que,propterea qucd partefui genitali fuc 

rint dcprauati.Mulieres ctiam fimili modo impubes a natmi- 

tatc poflunt crcari.Habitus quoquc tum marium, tum formi- l0 

narum mutantur,vt fint vcl fanitati, vcl morbo habiliorcs : & 

vcl graciles vcl plcni,benequc vegcti.nam a pube ex macilen- 

tis craficfcunt,cuaduntque ianiores^alij contra.quod pari mc- 

do puellis etiam euenitqui cnim pueri,aut qux- puelte cxcre- 

mcntis antcacorporisrcdundabant,cum ca ipia excremcnta 

vnacum femine,aut mcnfibus fecernantur,faniorcobeamrem 

corpore efftciantur,atquc vegetiore.Iam cnim ea,qo£ ianitati 

alimcntoqueobftcnt,cxeunt. At vero quibus contri antecdTo 

rit,ijs corpora gracilior2,& morbis opportuniora reddontur* 

e^ccrn itur cnim dc ipfa natura Sc bcnc habifis.cum aut femen, 

autmcnfesprodcunt.In pucliis item diuerfitas vbcru eftralijs 

' cnim admodam magna,alijsexig3a funt.cucnit hnl.vtcorpo 

raimmodicccrcfcant^cnmpucllxcvcrcmentfsrcdandant.futa 

ris cnim adhuc & nondum proflcentihus menftruis, quo plns 
continetur humor«s,eo ma£iscfferri,furfamoue impcili necd- 
fc eft ,doncc infra crumpat. Itaquc quod intcrim incrementntn 
mamm*acceperint,fcruint poftea. maribus ctiam mamm£ 
confpcftiorcs & freminatiorcs,tum iunioribu.stum fenioribos 
dFiciuntur,qui humidiorcs,!aroiores,nec vcnulcnti funt,eora- 
qucipforam,ijs magis qui fufci,qu£m qai candidi fint.Scmcnj 
profefto infaecundum vfqac ad tcr fcptimum annum eft.m * 
prolificum quidem eft Jed cxigua imperfe#aque gencrant iU" 
niorcs,*mares, &fneminr« vtmoeterorum qnoqucanima- 
lium gcncre plurimis cuenit. concipiunt quidem facilius natu 
minorcs,fcci laborant in puerpcr io vehcmentius. corporc ctia 
niinus magna cx par te pcrficiuntur. & fencfcunt celerius ma- 
rcs falaces,& muliercs qua- frcquentius parianr.nam neincre- 
mcntum quidcm poft tertium partum cffici pofTe vidctur • fc- 
dantur autem,tcmpcraturque melioi ,quc in rci vencreasvJum 
Iuxuriant,cum partum multotics exercucrint. Scd poft annu 
tcr fcptimum mulicribus quidcm opportunt iam procrtatio 




IIBER SEVTlMVS* j$y 

cft.Scd virisltcinacccdercnliqoidpotcft adprokmprofcttio- ' 
rcir.Scmirainfoecundaiant,<]u* tcnuia.fcEcunda, quae ^ran- 

dtnis ipccicm refcruntrcademc wc potiu^ itiarcm fa^tificanf .co 
ira tcnuia 5 nccg]obulenta,freminam gignunt.Mcntumctiam 
maris ca statepilis integitur. 

DttntnJtTHHmHlurit. Caput n, 

Rofluuium autem menfmm dccrcfcentc Juna contin<*it: 
quamobrem nonnullicauillo fexumfcemineum lonarrri 
buunt, quoniam fimul , vr illa decrcfcat, & muiier pcrgcior, 
10 moxquc repleatur ambar,euauat.paucis menftrua fingulis mc 
libus mouentanfed vllo iniermiiToplurimisiacilius agftur ca 
ijs,quibus brcui tcmporc, hoc cft biduo aur triduo prcfluuxit: 
icd qaibus longam protrahitur,dfficilius:Lborant cnim id ic- 
poris.aljis nanquc vnfucriim harcpurgatio fit, aliji panlatim. 
Actamcn omnibus corpus grauatur, quandiu clfluat humor. 
Multis etiam cum menftrua citamur, & erupticni propinqua 
funt,ftrangulationcs vuluarum iequunmr, & crcpitus, doncc 
crnmpant.Coccptus mulicnbus I profiuuio mei,ftruorum iua 



natura contingit.& qua: ijs cartnt,fterilcs magna ex partc exi 
xo ftunt.verum fieri potcft,vt aliqux etiam fine corum prcflcuio 
concipiant,vidclicct quibus tantum humoris colligitur,quan- 
tum ijs,qua: purg«ntur,reftare folet:quanquam non tanta co- 
pia,vt & forasjpoisintprofluerc.nonnulle ctiamdum profniut 
rnenfes,concipiunt,poftea ccnciprrcnequeont : quibus vulua 
itatim apurgatione coirprimirur. Sont quibus p/a-; ar.tibus 
ctiam menftrua vfque in poftrcmum gerendi temput eueniat: 
quibus accidir,vtparua pariant , ftpiolcs aut minus vitalis, 
autmhrma procrcctur.Mulrisctiamdefiderio ccitos,quovel 
iauenilis«tatisratione,vel quialorgotcmporc abftinuerint, 
30tenemur,defccnduntvtcri.d menftruafarpetcr in mcnJccita- 
tur,donecconcipiant:quo fafto afcendunt,& iuo fltuconftituu 
tnr.nonnunquam ctfj ca:tera benc ie habet vtcrus, humidus ta- 
mcn eft.rdpuitiemcn genitaie,fi humidus fir.Omnium autcm 
ammalium( V tanrid-xi)muiicribus intcr fcrminas plunma 
n*c purgatio cuenit.nam ijs qux non pariunt animal, r.ih:l ta 
«niouctur,proptercaquod hocmateria: inpcruacuum vciti- 
turmcorporisalimentun,. Suntcnim nonnullamaribus fuis 
maiora,atquc etiamalijs incorriccm,alijs in fquamam,ahjs 

'ntrequentiam pennarum abiumitur. Terreftribus quoque 

^«malparientibus^npil^^corpulentiatranfmhomocnim 
«uior catfcris cfl :a:^ue ctiam in vrinam diuertitur: plnrima 

1 3 cnim 



166 ARISTOT. DE A^IMAUB. 

cnim cx carteris largius mingur;t,& craAius. At roulicribus vi- 
cecorum,qu#dixiSomnium,quanfumfupcruacuum fit>in pur 
gationcm menfium vcrtitur. quod in maribusquoque fimili 

fieri modopercipimus,feminis grn^talis rationc. plunmum 
cnim omnium animaliumcmitnr^comparationedicomagni- 
tudinisfuxr&vereintcr ipfosmares,qui humidiorcs natara 
funt,ncc valdc carnoihplus rcddunt : atqucctiampluscandi- 
diores,quam fufcincc fecus in mulieribus fit.corpulentis cnim 
multum menftrui cxcremcnti in corporis alimcntum trar.fif. 
Sc in vfu quoqucrci vcncrcse candidiorcs iua naturaplus, qua lo 
fafoe euaporantprxparatur hoc amplius vfu ciborum huini- 
donun,& acrium t 

JD: indicijs cenceptionit,& <Juot dierumfpacU 

mas^uet ttemfccmina tn utero rnc- 

matHTy deq; abortiontbus* 

Caput III. 

# - 

Ndicium mulicretn lam cocepifie/cum ftatfm a coi 
tulocus ficcefcit fit certc, vt ii oris,quo concipirur» 
labrafunt lxuia,inepra funt ad conceptum : labiturao 

faxlv U\JUi- !^l^^l ra * m * c ^ u|,t ' c,ncil ' nccvc rofi cra ff ;| iunt,commo 

de vium prarftannfcd fi addigiti tafhim afpcriufcula, & hxren 

clco iumperi tu ^ nr > aC( 3 ac Ctiam fi tenuiora,itacommodc ad conccptionem 
ho c cfumUt M* !* Tate igitor pneparandus eft vterus, qui concipiaf. 
GaxJ ccdr^W ^ 1 f 2CCrc necon ^piat,placet,contraagendumeft.nam fi 

y ■ h* labrafintl^ofora,conc»pcrenequeaf. Q«*amobrcmnonnull# 

€u tuntpero. . , . s * * t ^*— - 

* vt icmen incidat»antc vuluam cx oleo iuniperino, aut ex ceru* 
fa,thureve,excipietcs olco,iIlinunt.fed fi in feptimu diem inxus 
pcrmanicrit,conccptu iam eilccertu eft.nam quseeffluxiones 
vocantur,inrra tot numero dies fieri folcnt.purgationcsaurem 30 

acccdant plurimis 3 cu conceperint, ad tempus qnoddam, fcili- 
ccttriginradicram,maxitr:cfic5ccptafcrminaeft ? quadrag!n- 

ta fi mas. A par tu eriam purgationes codem dieru numero con 
fequi vo]unt,quanquam non xquc ita diligetcr eueniunt . At 
vcro pcft coceprum,* dics, quos modo dixi , no item fccudui» 
natura inferius agitur,(ed invbcratrafitur,& laceffrcitur. Cu- 
ios nota intcr inina cxiguo quoda,& aranese propemodu ipc- 





qua: graciiiorcs iurit,emderus acciatt. mgama cnaicnnuuw. 

coccpcui argurncnto eiTc pofTunt .Marcs icctus magna cx parte 

circa 



■ 

LI3U SEPriMVS. ' 1^7 

cJrca qaadragefimu dic.de xtro pottus ]atercmoucfar,fce:niii£ 

fioiiiro,circi:er nonagdimu.Nihiltamcn cerfi in his afrirmari 
licct.multis cnim ferctibus f o?mina,inotus agitur in dextro,& 



contrain finiftro,gcrentibus marc.Scd cnim ha:c,& rcliqua hti 
iuicemodi* vt diffcrunrco quo magna cx parte & magis minus 
vcacciditXiCviccipimus.Findrturctia fcsrus hoc cocie teporc, fi x 

cu b$te caruncuJa informis cdftarct.Efiiuxiones vocatur,qujc ditur dtfi 
intraieptimuvn diecorruptioncsincidtit. Abortioncs aurcm, <ruitu Tm 
qua: incra qaadrag^fnrtu. £t quide plurimi foef us infra tot nu- 



10 mcro dic$ dcprauaniur.M as qui quadragefiino dic cxicrif ,fi in 



fFundiiur.atq; aboletur. Sedfiina- 



qua fngida>cogitur cofiftif q;,vduri in mebrancla,qtu ropta, 
foetus ipfc apparet magnitudine formicar maiuf cuke:& mebra 
iam indc difcreta,tu cecera omnia,tum getmalia coftant:& ocu 
li quemadmodu in caucris animatibus pr^grandes-Scd fcemi- 
n^ : qu2eintratcitfuincnfcmcrupcric,indiftinfta efbqn^aurc 
quartu adrpta eft mefem,finditur,& reliqaa diftinaionis effi- 
gic brcaiteporeaccipit.Cu itaq; f<xtus in vt cro formatur>f<fi 
minatardiasqcamaspcrfculioncquarcmqj partiii rccipit,& 
10 i«pius in dccimu mcnicm,qua mas prot rahitur* S cd cu in iace 
prodierit,fcemina ocya;,quam mas & accrt:fcit>& xtatc florct, 
& feneftutc maccratur , & magis , qux plurics paiiunt , vt di- 
fiaai iam cft. 

De tjs qu£ a conceptione ad partum ufq; mulicribus tm- 
ntuniy i]uhuctemporepariatJt 7 quotq;uno partst 



parcrepifitKt. C*f* II IX. 

CV m fcmen concepcrit v terus.fl atim fe cotrahit , donec ad 
fcptimu mcnfem ventum fit.ociauo iam a J^pcritur atquc 
dchifcit.& partus fi viuit>dcfccndit menfc ecde . fcd fi mortuus 
3o eft 5 ncq; fpfe defccndit,nec vterus pcr id tempus dehifcit,idque 
indkium facit foetum haudquaquam efle vitalem.Eucnit pro- 
**fto,Vt muiicrcs a conccptu corpus totum grauentur,& oculo 
^caligincs^&dolorescapitismoueantur.qu^ alijs maturius, 
«tcrc die dccimo acc;dut,ahjs fcrius,prout magis mintis vecx 
matcria fupcroacua tentatur.Naufe* ite>& vomitus pluritnas 
CJ pmnt,& praxipue quibus purgationesconftixcrint , nccdura 
3 ?voera tr anfeanr. Aliquae igitarprincipio magis laboranr, 
™* pf.ft.cum iam freras plcnius creuent. S*pc ctiam multis 
«inliatio vrin* ad poftrcmum infeftat.icdmagnacx partc, 
<P* marcm fc nmt^ fac ilim cxigunuminusqacpailcnt.contri, 

1 4 qpx 



I 






■ 



j$g * ARISTOT. DE ANIMALIB. 

qqa?faeminam.funt cnim pallidiorcs,& grauiasdegnnt.Mull 
etiamtamorcs extuberationesqscarnisin croribus incidu t:fed 

tamencontr^ ctiam nonnullis contingit:SoIcnt appctitu* varij 

graaidis euenire^cito&commutari^qucd picarc quidam a pica 

aue dcnominanr& nimirum com foetum fexus foeminci fcriit, 

auidius appetut^minasq; re frui iam praefente,quam cupierint, 

poflunt.faftidiunt enim ftatim,quodmodo vehementer appctc 

rent. Pauciscontigit,vtmeliashabeant,cam vtcrum gcrunf. 

Sed pnccipafc tunc laftidiunt,tadioq; fatifcunt , cum fretui ca- 
pillnsoririincipit.rilioongcnitigraaidisdcflaunt,pauciorcs- 

qucredduntur.contriquapartcpilos minimehaberc folcbat, 10 

ea magis accipiunt.pl us etiam motus magna ex partemas in v- 

teroinfert,quafaemina&celcrias prodir.freminseem partas 

tardior cft dolor etia cx fcrmina cotxnuus fcd obtafior :ex mare 

accr,& longt molcftior.Qu* paulo antc partu conciibuntJaci 

lias pariunt- Parturirc interdanr mulieres videntur,cum tamen 

tempus non fit,fed quoniam f oetos inuertit fuu caput>idco ini- 

tiam hoc effe partaricndi videtur.S cd cam catfera animalia o- 

mnia fingular i,ac fimplici modo partum fuum pcrficiant( V na 

cnim pariendi tempus ftatatam omnibus eft)homini vni multi 
plexdatumeft:nam&feptimomenfc>&o&auo 3 &nonopare-20 

repoteft,& quod plurimumd:cimo,nonnuIl:£ ctiam vndccimu 
tangunt fcrtus qaimaturius,qaamfeptimo mcfc prodeat,nnl 
lo pafto vitalis eft qui feptimo,vitalis quidem hic primus exif» 
fcd magna cx paftcinfirmior:qnamobrcm conabulis ex lana cu 
obaolutmt,&f.«fcijsalligant. Meatusetiamnonnulliinfifsi>vt 
aariam,aut narium L rpenumero gcncrantar.-fcd accrcfccnf i ar 
ticulanrur infanti,& dctr.um fuam formam recipiunt.& pleri- 
qoedehis qooq; fcptimo nath viucre atq; adolefcere poiTunf. 
Qni autem mcnfcoftauonafcuntur,viucre ac adolefcere in ter 
ra Aegypto pofTunt.& quibufdam afcjs in locis,vbi mulicres fcr 1° 
tiliores fant,multo>q; fimal facile,& ferunt & pariant.etiam fi 
moftrofi fint. fed locis Grsccte molti intertur,nec nifi pcr paa 
cifcruantur.vndcfit>vtfiquisfcruetur,non oftauomenfena- 
tas exiftimet ar,fed malierem fui conccptas initiumlatuiflc.in- 
fcftantur maximc mulicres mcfe quarto,oftauoqj.& fi vcl quar 
to, vcl oftauo freros pericrit,ipf x quoquc magna cx partc in- 
tcrcanr.iraquc fit,ne folum m-nfe o&aao nafi non viuant , k& 
ctiam ipfis emorruis periculam,qnar pariunt>fubeant . Siin«* 
modo&qaidiutarniores,quAmvndecimo menfe nafcividen* 

lor,latcxcputantur latctcnimmulicrcsconccptus initium >« 

cam 



LIBU SEPTIMVS, 2*9 



comant^ Infiatusfuerit vtcrus, vt farpe accidif,pAft coicrint, 
atq; conccpcrint.hoc cnim principium eflefui conceptus exifti 
mant,quod fimilc indicium attulit . Ita multiplex perficiendi 
tepus,paricndiq;diuerfum homini datu cft.Et cu aliafingulot 
pariant>alia plures,genus humanum in ancipiticft.Nam quod 
plurimum & locis plurimis agitur,molicrcs fingulos fingul^ pa 
riunt Sedfepc&locisplerifquegeminosetia>vtin terraqoo» 
queAegyptoficricertom eft.pariunt etiam tres,& quatuor.& 
qaidemlocisnonnullisvaldeitafit,qooddiaam iam cft fed 
quinquccomplurimum nafcantur.lamenimhoc pluribuscuc 
lo nifle confpcftom cft.& quardam viginti,partubus quatuor edl 
dit:quinos cnim fingulis partubus cnixa cft , maiorquecorum 
pars enutriri & adolefccrc potuit- Et cu in cxtcris animalibus 
gemini nati,etiam fi mas & fajmina fint,nihilominus cnutrian- 



tur,f eruenturque,quam fi marcs ambo,aut f armin.x fmt:in gc- 
ncrc certe humano pauci gemini fercantur , fi alter mas fit>al- 

terfoemina.Mulicr&cqaaomniommaxim^ animalium gra- 
uida^coitum patiuntur,cxtera vbigrauida fucrint,fugiunt ma- 

, res,ea fcilicct quorum natora fuper f cetatc morc lcporis recu- 
fat. vcrum cqua nunquam fuperfaetat,fed magna cx partc vnu 

*o tanmmmodo gencrat, A t vero in ijnuliereraro quidcm cuenit> 



vt ioperfoetet. fed faftum tamcn aliquandocft.Qui itaquc lon 



gop fttcmporefintconcepti,nihiloperfici poflbntrfcd pra> 
maturiosdolorem,quoipfi , & primus faetus intereat,mouent. 
lam incidit,vt fafta corruptipncduodecim fuperfcetata puer* 
pcnaegerercntor.At vero fi proxim^ primo concepto fccun- 
ousfitfa<ftas,ablolui «diqucpotcf^quod fuperfoetar it,vt qu4 
"gcmininafci vidcantur.quomodo Herculem* Iphiclcpro- 
creatos eflc fabulanrur. Nam jdetiam conftitit adultcra qua- 
«3m,qua:alterumfuomarito,alteram adoltero fimilcmpepc- 
3o ntUm & cum geminos qnxdam ferrct,tertium fuperfoetauit: 
*cumtempus paricndi iuftum iam eflet, primos vitalespcpc- 
nt,.ecundum quinto menfc clifit ,qui ftatim mortuos cft. Altc 
f * cam primam feptimo peperiflcr,qai mortuos cft,mox doos 
wito mcnfium nomero sdidit,qui vixcrunt . qasdam ctia fab 
3t>ortuconccperant,atq 5 alreru abegerunt,altemc6tinoerunt, 
Pertufcrutq? ad partu.plurimis fi concubocrint mcnfe oftauo, 



matcr comc 



Jnfani jmucore opplctus cxit.efculcntoru ctia,qu* 

2r^ S cro!o$ vcnit in luccm . <* fi ialc Jimnodic* vfacft, 
P lQ ,lnc vnguibus nafcitur. 

I 5 Dcla 









170 




ARISTCTF. DE ANlMALlB* 

honitati,& maUgniMtJtji menfbrucrum 

mKtttbriumfine. Ctip- V*. 

Acquodantcicptimumcnfcmcotraftu cft,inutile eft.fcd 



pfimul infans nataiis cit,& iaceflc vtile incipit.prius autcm 
falfum ctiaeft,vtpecoris.Vino prxcipuecu vrcrum ferut pla- 
rimceinfeftanrur.difloluuntur cnim fi biberinr,atq; debihtan- 
tur.Principium &fwnsmnlicribusproiis rccipienda- manbas 
pr3ehtd*,fcminis & mcnikruoru emilsiocft. Scd ncq; cii inci- 

pinnt ftatimprohficafunt-ncqjaim dcfwunr,& iaffl pauciora 



a 



Oiii 



mumannu:quodtepusqusexceflTcrinr,ijs ad quinquageiimu 
ieruanturctianonnul)«cotcmporcpcpcrcrunt.fcd vitra hoc 

teir.pus nulla poteft protrahcrc 



M 



UsjimiUu 
cnmalijs. 



fit trcner<tn& fi 



Cfif 



VI 



c fi cxccflerinf< 
cuidam annos 



20 



i 



icptuaginta nati,gcnuctut.Euenit fanc multis & mulienbus & 
vii is, vtquiconid&iinter fe ncqueant procrcarc,vbi diflociari 
fc vinxcrc cu aiijs,qocat.quod idem in maris quoq;,aut icemi 
nae procreationcnimirum cucnirc certum cftpleruq; enim cu 
muliercs,tum vinSquandiu cum eifdcm iunguntur ,fasminam 
tanmm>marcmueprocxcant,fciun&i autcm contra. Actatisc- 
tiamrationcimmutatur,vt iaucncs intcr fc foeminas gencreft 
feniorcs fafti marcs,act contra.EUtio qucq; gcneradi omnino 
«lifcrime hoc idcm rccipit,v t iaucncs nihil procrccr,t,ieniorcs 
iamincipiat gcncrarc.Autcontri,vtqui ante poflfent poftm- 
hil pofsint foshfkarcSunt etia aliqua: miihcrcs,qux vix coci- 
piant.-fcdfi coccpermt,perficist atqs aedant.Alir confra ,faciK5* 
quideconcipiantJcdicruarcnopoflunt.f.untiS: viri,qj»non 
rrifi focmina procreenr.i tanbercs.qua? no nifimait:c*c6tr^ 
vtdcHerculefabalatur,qui intcrduos & ieptuaginta libcros 
fcemina vnam tantummodn genuit.Qra: concipcre nequeant, 
{i vcl cura adhibita,aut aliquo caiu cocepcrint , toeminam ma- 
gna cx parte pariunt potius,qu_m mare.Mdtis etia viriseuc- 
nit,vtcumamea poflent gencra.c^ft ncqucant, dcindc ror- 
fusfacultatc recipiantgcncrandigignamur kfiqncq;ex «- 
fis.vcrbi caufa,claudi cx claudis,& ca:ci cx cvcis . dcniq, Gvrnks 
fepcnuineroinre,qu3cpr;rter na:uracomite;ur , & %"* ha " 



IBER SZ PTIM V!. 171 

bentcs fibi cognata ha?rediraria,vt verracas,vt nxaos,aat cica- 

trices,aut quid aliud gcncris eiufdcm.Iam talc quid vcl tertia 
pr >le pift regeneratom eft,vt cum quidam fao in brachio pu- 
&i noram habcret,filius non id retulir,fed ncpos ca coporis par 
tc nigriticm quandam habcns confufam prodijt.fed raro hxe 
cOueniunt.Integri aatecx mancis negignatur,nulla rcsobftat» 
& fa?piisime ita agttar.fjmiics etiam alicuipartiibas,aut auis> 
fuisqjmaioribas gcneranr.Alig. (lmilitudinisnihil rcfcrut.rcct 
ditur ecia vcl poli plurcs ciuidem profapiu» , vt in Sicilia cias» 

*° qu«e adulterium cum Aethiope commiierat,filia non colore pa 
tris sthiopis retulit,fed qui natus cx hac cft,is aaum athiope 
regenersuit.Fccmina» magnaex parteraatri,mares patripro- 
neniut fimiles.fed fit ciia £ diaerJo,vt fcemina: patri,marcs ma 
tri fimiles procrcctur.Particula tim ctia iim iks fiunt,vr alia cor 
pocis partc fimiles fint patri,alia matri . gcmini vel difsimiles 
intcrfenati iam funt,fed plurimi magna cx partcfimilespro- 
deuat.nam & quaedam cnm feptimo dic a partu concubuiflct, 
conccpifletq feprpcrff fimilem fupcriori quafi gcminu.Naturs* 
ctiam rat lonc alie fibi,alia: fuo marito fimiles gencrat>vt cqua 

20 Pnarfalia cognoimneiufta. 

uQmo&o ftmtn PtnitaUinfoTmttHT- 

Cap*t vil. 

Vmfemcngcniraleexit,fpiritus anteccdit>& quidem fpfo 
exitu conftatagicum fpirira.nihilenimprocul fine viole 
tiaipidtaliproii.i noteft.Tu infinuatu in vtero,diuq;contei*- 
tum,mcbranaobducirur:qnippcquod anteqoam dilccrnatur, 
cxeat vclur ouil in fua mebranula contcftjm>detrafto putami- 
ncmebrana autem ip(a vcnis referta c&omnia vcro tum nata 
t!lia,tum pedcftria,tum etiam voiariiia,fiuc animalis, fiueoai 
Joforma prouenium,fimili rnodo gignantar,mfi qnod alia vmbi 
licara hab-ant vulaxadh?:rentein,vidclicct qux animilisfor-» 
roacn3icuntur r a!iaoiio,ai:a vtroquc modo,vt inquodampi- 
fciatn gen«rc:& slia qodii membrani: C3ntincntur,alia fecudis. 
primum iatra vltimum ir.uolacrum animai gigniturntnox altc 
ra membrana cbuciat , plurima quidem fui parte vulcj* adhx- 
rcns , fcd parte etlam feiun&i/S: aqaam conrincns . humor au« 
^mintcrhascrucnrusaquoiasquccft,qucm mulieres profc- 

tumvoc^nr. 

JDt&liimntQ ammnhsin uttro txiJitnUSjdth; 




h&minisjiatu intodrm* 

Cuput ViU, 



Acgcn 



17* AR.ISTOTE. DE ANIMALIB. 

Vgetur animalia omnia quibus cft vmbilicus, per ipfnm 
vmbilicum-hic acctabulis vulus adhseret,fi iunr.Sed fi 




lacuisfitvulua,ipfivulu^adhxrct vcnaiubicfta.fuus in vtcro 
«juadrupedumomniumcxtciuseft.expedum autcm obliqaus, 
vt pifciam.bipedam vcru inflcxuscontra&usq;,vtaumm .ho- 
ino ctiam in fcmct conglobatus fit gcftatar,vt nafam inter gc- 
nua,ocal9sfupcrgenaa,aures cxtra gcnua habcat. omnibas 
arqacanimalibascaputprimumfuperias eft icd cu creuerint, 
& iamcxitam apperaf >deorfum dedacitur Itafir,vt omnibus 
partusiecundamnaturam in capur,contranaturam in pedcs,io 
autinflcxocircumafto^JC.rporeagatur.quadrupcdcs vcl ex- 
crcmcntum iam indc habcnt,# alui,& ve(ic%,alterum in poftre 
ino inteftini,alterum in ipf i vcfica.Quibus in vuloa acctabula 
fant,foeta accrefcentcacetabula ipia iubir.de minauntur > po- 
ftrcmo abolentar omnia.vmbilicas autcm vclat putamcn eft 
circa venas,quarum origo ab vterocft,autacetabuIisfi ha- 
bcntar,aut vcnxcommifTa cft. Sunt fretui maiori,vt boui qua- 
tuor vcn2e,minoridu«,minimo vna,vt auibus . pert&nent dux 
• adfaetampcriccur,quaportasappellant>ortscivcna maiori- 
rcliqaxdaaeabaorta,quafindaur,<& du£ dc vna cfficiunturio 
Vtrunquc venarum permembranulae ambiunt,<& membrana- 
1& ipfas ambit velut putamenr vmbilicus. Coilabuntur fabifl* 
dc ven«,& quo foerus amplius crcu*:rit,eo adda&ius ip<* con- 
trahuntur.Faetus autcm grandcfccns caaa vtcri fobit,vbi pal- 
pitans iamfcntitur,& circa gcnitalc parcnrs interdu voluitur. 

JDt doUrtbm mulnrum inpartu^O' qu£fuctlc 3 *ju£He 

dijficulterpanant. Caput ix. 

VmmaIierespartariunt,doloresmult3s quidcm in partcs 
incumbuntjfcd plurimis ad altcrutrum fcmar . Cxtcrnin 
qaibas aluum tormina vchcmcntcr excrccnt»ccyfsimc pariuf-jo 
qu£lumbosdolent,vixpariunf.qaaMmum vrmrcm , cxpedi- 
tius.Si mas nafcitar,proftaitianiesdiluta pallidiufcala «fcd ii 
foemina,crucnta:veriimca quoq; pr&humida eft.icd ficriqo^" 
que poteft nonnalli9,vtcorum ncarram accidat . Cstcris am- 
malibus partus nonlaboriofi cueniunr.minus cnim cum partu 
riunt,infcftari vidcntar.Atmalieribus dolorcs vchcmentifs*- 
miincidunt,&prxcipatftabilibus,&fcllular:js,& qu.bus non 
bona latcra font,ncqae facuhas rctincndi fpir i tus fuppctit. dii 
ficilius ctiam gdunt,fi intcrca dum pcr vim rcttoCOtjCdact* cra 
perinc rcfpirationem.primu n aqaa i!la fuhter cutemfufa, ptf 
fcctos mottoncna,ruptis mcbraniscffluit,dcindcfoetas inuerio 

vt-f^*" 



c 



tlBER SEPTIMVS. 17} 

vtero >& fecandis interna eao!uentibus,foras venitin lucem. 




JDe ebJletricU cura,& deivfxntU exttu,de tardttatc dura- 

tionis cftum > & dentiur.i ami(?tone . 

Caput X. 

f^ffl Atr.vero & obftetricis officiu pars ingcnij,perfpica- 
jj f: cisq; intelligcntiflC cft: non fcltim enim d.ffcultati 
l^ partus opportunc cxpcditequefuccurrcndumcft ,fed 
- etiam contra ea cjuar accidanr,protinusagendum in- 
10 geniofe.& in iccando dcligandoqae vmbilico infanris prudcn- 
tia requiritur,& peritia.namfi fimul fecunda* quoque excide- 
rint,vcllere vmbilicascum fecundis alligatur,fupericsque pre- 
dicirur.qu£autemdcljgatumeft,cohxrdcir, & pars continua 
dccidir.fi copula,amentumque diffoluatur,foefus ianguinecffa 
foemoritur.Sedfifecunds non ftatim com fcetu exierint,du 
infusipfa? 5 forisautcminfanseft»deligato vmbilico fecantur, 
faepe vifuscft puer emorruus nafci,cum ci infirmo, priufquam 

dcligarcturvmbiJicus,fang«isinvmbiliccm,& circa cfflucret. 
Sediam aliquse obftctrices {a&x peririores , reprimunt intro 

iodevmbilicoianguincm,quofaao ftatim infans, qui modo 
cxanguisdcficiebat,recrcarur,vit^q; reftituitur , Nafcuntur, 
vto ctumeft/ecundurnnaturamcsetcra ctiam animalia vcrfa 
jncapatfed pueri manusquoq;adcoftas porrc&as,extenfasq; 
habenr- Qnf cum cxierint,voccm ftatim emittunt,& manas in 
osadaiou-nr.excrcmentum etiam reddunt,alij ftatim,alij bre- 
tn\fedomnes intradicmrquodexcrementumplurts^quam pro 
mtanrismagnitudinecft.papauerculumhoc moliercs vocant* 
colorecruenium,atq; admodum nigrum & piceum eft,mox la- 
ftcum iam & albidum redditunfogit enim confcftim vbcra in- 

30 fans.vocem antequam egrcdiatur,nunquamemittit,ctiam ficu 
difFicaltcrcgreditur,caputcxtct,corpusintusfit totum* ^».- 
bus purgationes partum anticiparint,d;fficilius liberantur.ied 
1 d partu purgationcs parcius fcquantur,nec largins,qu4m pri 
rea;,neqj ad quadragefimum diem pcrfcucrauerint, efficitur vt 
muiiervalidforfitj&celeriuspofsit concipere.Infantes autem 
primisquadragintadiebus neque rident cum vigjlant,ncquela 
chr ymantur:fedno&u&pcrquictcm vtrunquc interdum fa- 
^unt.nec vero fcntiunt magnaex partecumfcalpuntur . Pla- 
"mamhuiusteinporispartcin^ormiuntcaeterumin dies quo 
iubindc auftiores fuerint,eomagis ad vigilandum immutator. 
Somniarcctiamcosconftat^fcdjfcro mcminiflc poffunr ima- 

ginum 



fi 



«7+ ASLfSTOTE. DE ANIMAHB. 

ginum.Otcris quidem animalibosdifcrJmen ofsium nullcia 
cft,fcd omnia perfc&a iam inde i natiuitate proueniunr.atpue 
risfinciputmolleeft,fcroqucduratur.& cum catfcra animslia 
nafcantnrcumdcntibus,puerifcptimomcnfcdcntireincipiut. 

primumaeduntprimorcs^alijfupcriores prius,alij inferiores. 
dcniq;omnesmaturiusdentiunt,quoramnatriccs lac habent 

calidius. 

JDeaduentu laftis in muliere^& malopilar't,de\; laclu 

durattones Capttt Xi. 

Oftpartam,purg.ttionesq;,la&iscopia excirator^ non-i* 
nulliseffluitnonfohm dc papillis , f ed etiam paisim per 
"vbera.aliqaibusetiampcralas,cdurantq; in poftevu globoli, 
quoties hamor no coquatur,nec exear,fed reduder.vbrra en ta 
totafungofaitafunt,vtfiinpoculopilum forte haufenf ino- 
ljcr,dolor moucatur in mammir,quod malum pilarc appeJiat, 
,.„ , . nec fcdatur donec pilas vcl preffos cxcat fponrc, vel cum lafifc 
WW* 1 »? 1 a " cxusatur.Scruatur lac donccmulier concipiat,tom definit arqi 

cxtinguitur,taminhominc, qaam m quadrupedum viuiparo 
gcnerc.Quandiu Iac cmanat,purgationes magna cx parrc non 
)fiunt:magna inquam cx parte,quoniam iam quibufrlam latfanio 
tibusfa&a pargatioeft.Scdenim naturaitafert,nc hwnorlo- 
cispluribusfimulerumpcrcfolcat .nam & marifcas habcnti, 




dcteriorcs acceduntp 



purgationes.& quod in nonnolhs acodit, 
r a lumbis per annu cxcernitur,2ntequrm 



curnddapfus humor a lumbis per annu cxcermtur,2nteq 

vtcrum fubcat,idcm euenit.Q^nbus dum eriam purgationes no 

iiunt incidcrit vomiruc,fecurius cxigunr. 

Pueros ut plurimum antejspttmum diem conuuljione 

intertre. Caput XI i. 

Olcnt pceri pluriir i couulfionc excipi , & prarcipoe 

corpulcntiores,* lafte vefcentes copjefiore,craf5io- 3* 

req;,& nutr icem lafter: tcs fucc iplensm,& corpclen * 

tam.nocct criani ad hocmorbi gcnos vinum,mag;s- 

q; nigrnm qo£m album,& qaod minas dilutum eft.atq; eria ex 

cibis,qui inficnt,plurimiob/unt.Etfi alnusfubftitcrir 5 nocuiim 

eft.Plurimi ante fcptimum diem irtercurt.vudcfif,vt nt-mina 

feptimo dic imponantur,tanqnam faluti iain pucri ma- 

giscrcdamus, plcnilunioctiam infeftantur 

hoc malo pcriculcfius * fi i fcapa- 

lis conuulfio oriatur,in an- 

gaflofpcscft. Ar . ft 




LI3ER OCT4WS. 1?\ 



ARISTOTELl S STA/ 



GIRITAE DE HISTORIA 

ANIMALIVM LIBER VIII. 

INTERl-RETE THEODO- 

R O G A Z A- 

Deuarietate aCltcnum^ uittus omrimm aritmanttu. Caput U 







Jenehatio, & reliqaa animalium natura 
g ita fehabet. A&ionesautem & vitae,pro mori 
H bus vicluq;differunt.funtcnim vel Jn pluri- 

mis caeterorum animaliuiru veftigia morum 
animi humani,quanqnam hffc apertius in ho 



mincdiicernantur Ineft vrbanitas,feritas,cle 

mentia,acerbita5,fortitudo,ignaui3,mrtas,fidentia,ira,malitia, 
atquectiam prudentia: imago ineft ?n multis, quemadmodum 

cum de parribusdocerem^expofuLalia cnim eo quod magis,mi 

nusue habeant,comparattonc hominis differunr: homoq 5 ipfe 

cnmmultisalijsanimalibasiradifsidet.quippecum aJiqoa cx 

*<>his magis in hominc habeantar,aliqua in cxtcris animalibus U 

tius,aliavcr6di£Fcrantproportioncvtenimin hominc ars f 

fapicntia,prudcntia,ficin nonnullfsbrutis incft vis quardam 

eiufmodi alrera naturali j.conftat hoc ita efTe plane arjrumento 

pucrilis «tatis,in quafuturorum habitum,quafi vcftigia&ic 

mina videris.& tamen nihil per id tempas animarn hominisdif 

fcrre k bellaarum anima propt dixcnm.itaCj, nihil rcmotcm & 

rationceft.fi partim eadc,partim fimilia,partim ex proportio 

nc in catteris animalibus habetur.fcd adeo dc inanimatis paola- 

tim,fcnfijnQ;adanimatanaturatrafit,vtco:inuatione ipfa la- 

Jo teat coru cofiniu,<Sr medm,vtrius nam fit extremi. Iam abani- 

mantiu gcnerc primu gcnus plataru cft,caruq, alia ab alia dif- 

terr,co qaod magis vitx partjccps eflc videtur.vniuerfum aut 

gen refpedu corporu csetcroru quas anima vacat,ipfam quafi 

animaleft:at refpcftu animalis,inanimcefie videtar-Sed enim 

«igrciTus hinc ad an 'malia cotinu^vt mcdo d»xi)procedit.fant 

enim marisnonalla,qaae ambiges animal ne fint,an plata : har- 

rcntenim,#dctra£acdplurai<i gen*intercut.vcrbi gratia,pin 

nj * adha»ret, vngues cuulfi viucre nequcur.deniq; gcnus vniacr 

fam eoru,qa* tcfta inttgii tur,p33tx fimile refpe&u gradicntia 

animaliu cft.Qoin & vis /cntiendiitahabetnr , vt aliqaa nol- 

Himciusindiciompr«bcant,alia lcaitcr & perobfcarc fentire 

videan- 



X*& AMSTOT. DE ANIM/LIB. 

videantur.Nonnollorom natura corporis carnofa eft , vt coru 
qax tubera appcllantur,aot vrticx. At vero fpongia omnino fi 
milis plantis eft.Caeterum paruo quodam difcrimine fubindc 
alia ptx ali )s iam adipifci vitam,motomq; vidcntur.Qupd i& 
in moncribus ctiam vitx pcrcipcrc licct.plsntarcm cnim nul- 
lum aliudmunus eflevidetur,nifi quoadfimilem quaeq;fibi fa 
ciantaltcram f vidclicct quasfemineoriantar.ficanimaliu etia 
«juorundam nihil muneris prercr gcncrationem accepcris, vn- 
defit,vt eiufmodi a&iones fint omnium communes:<ed proce- 
dcnte fenfu,iam vcncrcicoitus voluptatc vita eoru difcrepat, to 
atquectiam partus y cnutrienda:q; prolis ratione.itaq; aliafim- 
plicitcrpcrindcvtplanticofFicio procrcandi funguntar fak 
tcmporibus:alia in cnutricnda etiam prolc laborant , fcd cum 
perfecerint,defiftunt,ncc vllam infuper fcruant focictatem. 
AHa quae prudcntiora funt,& plus memoriae fortiunrur , ciui- 
lios agunt cum prolc.Prima igitur pars virae an imaliom in of- 
ficioprocteandiconfiftit,alterainalcndo.In his enim duobus 
lludiumomniumvitaqucvcrfatur.CiciautemdifFcrunt potii 
fimumrationemateria^ex qoa ipfa qua» alunturconfiftunt.in- 
crcmcntnm cnim qoibufquc fccondum natnram cx cadem qoa 2& 
conftitcrint,materiafit.Qupd autcm fccundum naturam cft, 
id fuauecontingit:fcquunturqueon:niaeam volaptatcrru qa* 
fccundum naturamcft.Dcgunt igitur animalia locis difiuofta-* 
alia nanq; terreftria,alta aqoatilia funt.quam diffcrentiam tri- 
fariam intelligimosaut cnim rccipicndi acris,3Ut aquae raticy 
ne,altera terreftria,alrera aquatiliadicimus.aut quod apta tra- 
turafuntfcraari temperamcnto alterotri,quanquam aerem 
aquamue non rccipiant autctiam qaod cibum pcrant, verien- 
turq; vtroblqucdiutios.compluraenimcum rccipiant aercffli 
partasqaefaciantinterra,cibumtamenalocis madidis petur,?o 
verfanturqucin humorc partcm maximam temporif. qoae f°- 
la vitam ambiguam agcre videntur,quippc qax eadctn, & vc- 
lutpedeftria,<S: vclut aquatica ftatai pofsint. 

Deuittuaqvdtihumammantium. Caput l I- 



orem 



AT corum qux hut 
vcl volatilceft,nec cibum fibi ex tcrra petit , quanquam 
multafpirabilispedcftrisquegeneris humore gaudent,& ita 



ulla 



odili,& fluniati* 

* «^*^j-*pftudi* 



lutariar,fi 



ni 



IIBER. OCTAVVS. 177 

»ifi allqoandiu fpi'rent,interconr,<* parcre,edacareq*j folcnt in 

iicco.Naturaomniamjiiaxim^animal l amiupcrflua,pcculia- 
risqucdclphino,«S:fiquJdal«udtalc,vcJincctacco genere, vd 
in rcliquo aqoatili fit,v.t balama,* quarcunq;fiftuJam geiunx. 

hocenimgenusnecterreftrctamum,iicque aqoatkum facile 
dixcrim.S iquidcm tcrreftrcquod acxem recipit.aqaatilcoiiod 
aquam fecundum naturam,eft.particep S naq; e ft vrriufq;,cum 
&mareaccipiaf,rcddatqueperfiftulam,&acicm per pojmp. 
nem.Jiabent enim hoc membrum,& fpirant. Q"j>mobrem del- 
» phinus rctibus apprehenfus.breui tempore ftragulatur,vt quf 
fpirandifacaltatcmamiieril.foris vero diatim viuere poteft 
mutiens,* anhclan s modo czterorum fpirantium . qoinetiam 
dormicns roftrum exerit fupra marc,vt fpirct. Scd in vtraq; di 
u.fioms tam contrariorum parte collocari hoc genos abfutdum 
eft.quamobrem aquatile genas amplius diftinguendam vide- 
tur,vtaliaaccipiant,rcdeantq;aquam,ca caufa qua fpirantu 
aerem,quo rcfrigerentor,alia propter cibum.Cum cnim in ha 

inorccibumaccipiunt,fierinonpoteft,quinfimol aliquid hu- 
uioris admittatur:quod admiiTum.quo cmittant , inftrumemu 
jhaocantnccefreeft.Qna: igiturproportionefpirationis humo 
re vtuntucbrachias habent:quibusautcm per cibum humor il- 
«&itur,., sxl ftul ail ,f angQ|nco ge nercdata eft.Mollibus ctiam 






tcinpcrationcm 



punt quidcm acrem,icd in humoresetaterr dcgaof,aut qu* ac- 
cipunt quidem humorcm,& branchias habeanf ,fed tcrram pc- 
tant,vnde cibum accipiant.qualc vnum adhuc tantummodo no 

°K mU l C u rdulDmn0m '" e:hic€nimnon P u hnoncm,fcd bran- 
3ochias habct.egreiTusq; cibom petit in terra.A quadropes idcm 

«t,vt ad ambulandu idoneus.Horum autcomniu natuta qna- 
« pcruerfa yidetur,ficut marium nonnullot um natura foemi- 
«in refert,foeminatum marcm -exiguis cnim quibuidam parti 

A ff S natUra animalinm immutata,plurimom totoin cotpo 

redifrerrcvidctar.qaod latifsimc in excifis patct . particuU 

enini quadam obl*fa,totum animal in foeminam vertitur.qua- 

Foptcr inprimaetiamortus conftitutionc minimse magnita 

innquoquam immutato,dummodofitprincipalcefficifur v t 

tcru mas,altcrum focmina rcddatucatq; fi omnino tollatar, 

cuttumprodcat.Itaq;terrcftrcetiam& aquatilc cflc modo 

"oq ; prcdia ,partc animalis «igua immutata potcft,vt al 

m tcrrcft 



178 



APvlSTOT* DE /NlMAHBt 



/ 



r , r reftnaaliaaquatilia procrecntur:*aliavltam fiinpUe| * 

Charum enim cuiq; fuaueq; eft,quod p« "^'**%g* 
Wriasdiximus.Sedcumanimalia tnfanam In aquatile,* 

tc Sc*uidantur:aat cnim recipiendi aeris^us ue nccefs 
«dine .atcomori, temperat!onr,aQt tertio vitfns ranone, vi 
±0 fa ui/cVimenurohisdiair.onem membris cofequetur 

aTi^ nimtemnerandic 3 rporis§ratla,&viaus rat^onejafque 

e iam e^ipicndi aeris,aut aqu* necetatatc Ita dcgent al.a «m 10 
«er^men ti^vif tus cj , caafa ta ntn m . I gltor eoram.qua: tcfta ope- 
£ a,nonnulla immota aluntur humore «uld,& potolento, 
«aTirfpiffatranfmittitu^cumtenuioripremariConcoaoe 

ciatuT quemadmodum & primo natnr* ortu inftitountur.Dnl 
cem aS contineri humorem in mar Mtquc ita tran mit n * 
percolari,conft a teoexperimer.to,quo firxaera vas tenoi £ 

Le nnxeris,idq'; annexa linea in tnare demittas inane die ac «o 
arvnahamorlc.piamdulcisintrafecoiliget.Vrticxp:^ 

lisfortiMncidentibos vdcuntur.os in i^^ B ^£„ 
maioribns eaidentias eft.Mc*am etiam vt <^ re *'T ° f c " 
mentum fecedat,habent pai It inperfare.Vrt.ca enim spfe«£ 
fioftreoiumcarocfc vidcturinclafe iaxo,pcnnoe vt teiUpa 
tcllx etiam feccdant abfolaentcs feie,vt Veic^r.Qw»^ 
mobitia^adc-m^carnevekentiaiunt,!^ yiflus ex pifctt» 
eft.vt ourpur ftnt enim «rniuor*,* quidem cfca hun.imoa 
capiuntur quanqna i js etiam (JOK mari puUuIant, »«taontw. 
Teftndines marinxconchulas pctanr,habentenim as emnrtW» 
robyftifsimam,qu<cqaid nanq: in os ceperint,fiae Iapiclon 

qaoduis aliad,perfring^nt acdcuorar.t.cxcunt etiara in tcr ' 
i pafcunt hcrbamlaborant plcrunq; & Inrerennt qoctics nn j 
tantes ficcantar folcdrferri enim in gar gitera facile nequeuo 1. 
hic idem vcfcendi modas cruftaceis eft,nam ea qooq; oroni 
rafnnt.qaippe quc & lapillos,* limum,& algam *?*"* 
q 3 ctiair s ftercus,vt cancri fexatilcs.carncs etiam nimtrum ap- 
pcWWXocaftxvelpifcetmaiorcs conuincerc ?f™y™ 

Vfu.vt locoftis polypi fupcriorcs fint,* adc. «, t (1 cifdenj 1 * * 
tibu s fenferitlocuftapolvpum,prajmetucmonatur . Cong_ 

locuft* conoincant: nam elabi non qoeont proptcr cralt* . t 

_ .1 f . * f~J ~As*r,~ nrtn nniilint • itX - . 



ritatcm.Uongnpoiyposiupcia«/i 

enim Sc lapfum polypi corpus vfum fv 
tarniaoraomniaiont Pafcontur loa 



circa 



tlBER. OCTAVVS.* 

circa faa coliilf a,qua? in alto locis afperis,faxofis, cauernofisqj 

facicnt quicqufdceperint ori admoucnt fuoforcipe,vtcancri! 
incecht locufta fua natura anre,com nihi! meroit.demifsis in J_ 
tcracornibtJs:at vbimetuit,fugitrcrro,Iongeq'; fuacornua por 
rtgit.Dimicanrinter fe more arietum cornibus, qux e?:tol!en- 
tes vlbranteso; feriunt aducrfariumfed vniaerfe etiam plcrul 
que taquam gregis cofieghim viiuntor.TaJis vioedi modu* eo- 
rum e{i,qu£cruftaoperiuntur.rnmollium genere JoJligines 
at^; fcpi* pifces,vel maioreseuincunt.I 5 oJypi conchulis naxi- 
iomeextringentes carunculas vefcunrur.vnde fir.vt eorum eubi- 
Jiacognofcant,qui venantur con^erie teftarum .Quod aute no- 
milh aiuntpolypum feipfum elTcfalfum eft.fed aliqui fua bra- 

chiacorrofahabentacongrfs.pifcesomnesfoeiruram fuo tem- 
poredeuorant.Reliquaviausrationoead^nmn.knc *A ,T.: 



»7? 



thonn 



hiatujje, 
& car- 



neyefcuntur,&alga,&concha,*coeno.capitonesccrno.daf- 
qniiIicoeno&ftercorc.fcaras,<S:occlataaIgafaIpa ftercore # 
aiga,porrumctiam pcfit.&cncurbftacapitonquodeicx cmni 

* o bus ym euenir.aJter etiam altcrum faf generis ardir.excepto mt, 
^,iec! raa ximecongri.Capifo& mugilfs fojf carnc omnino 
aWinent.caiusreiargu.r.entumeft,quodneq 5 in ventre rale 

, S a, cvnqiMmh3ben!-cscapiantur,neq;cfcaineoscxcarnc vti 
^r,iedofTapanfs. Vcfcirur-.nugilis vnufquifq;alga,atq; are- 
na.Capucqufm aliqai labeonem vocant,Iittoribaj eandet .al, 
jer gener.s c.ufdem tjranslittoranus cft.qui non nifi mncore vc 
»utarfuo,qaamcbrem femper fpfe ieiunoseft. Pafcuntur liino 
omncs capitones,quo fi t> vt graaes <* fordidi fmt.pifcc' ipfi nul 
«m omn.no edanr cSrquoniaverfariinlimo folenf, f fTet_t fe, 

jovnnanturqae fepc,vt corporis fordes aWuant.Oua foetosque 
wru i nolla b*Uua vlolantur.quapropter copiW- cxiftnnf. frcf 
ramadoleuerint,tunc a ca:teris pifciba<corripi_rur,maximeq; 

aoarchano.GuloftTsomni tlm aMmcmag:liscrr,afq;5nfati3bi- 

Maocirca vcrrediftdto gra^efcir,* nifi ieian'fir,heret iners. 

A-^ C ^, mie r i ^: apurabrcond, ' f ' < t a3fico rpns totu occaltet. 

^ntexe tia . vtdiail cfr)carne V cfcftor,*ir.oIlta appetft,eae- 

i pierunq; & hoic,*; hiatulx,vf cu pifces minores infequatur 

n «S°la fubeft.alu. igir(vtdixi)carniuora tatn funt,vt delnhf- 
l Q rl? tC - * aUr3ta,vt car «« a g"'n«.vt mollia. A lia magna c . ote 



m % te 









»30 ARlSTOTE. DE ANIMAHB. 

te matcrie, VI f uga,gobio,omnes faxatiles.Fucx quanquam c* 
tera abftincnt carne,tamcn fquillas fepenumero appctunt .fed 
alter eriam inuadit (vt di&um cftjalterum, maioruq; tBiRores 
funt praeda.argumcntum vt carnc vefcantur,eft,qnod efca ho- 
iufcemodicapiantur.Amia,thunnus & lupus magna ex parte 
carne aluntur,6rd algam etiam tangunr. S argos mulJi reliquias 
jfequiturmam vbi ille luto excitaro ab? jt(fodere cnim poteft) 
hic dcfccndit & pafcitur^imbccillioresq; nc eodcm ^dnatent,ar- 
cct.fcarus vnusintcr pifccs ruminare quadrupedum ritu viile- 
tur.Castcris pifcibu^ captura minorum a fronte agitur ore , vt 10 
folcnt mcarcat cartilaginei,* dclphini,& omnes cetacei gene- 
ris refupinati corripiunf,habcnt enim os fubter:vndcfir,vtpe- 
riculum minorcs facilius pofsint euadcre . Alioquin pauci ad- 
modam feruajrentur.quippe cum delphini cclcritas,atq> cdendi 
facultas,mira cife vidcatur. Anguilhe paucce qusdam, ccrtisq; 
locis vcfcuntur limo,atq; edulijs>fi quisappopat: fed plurim* 
4*lci humore viuunt idq; qui viuarijs anguiilarijs danr opcrat 
fcruant,vt quammaximc pura,fynceraque fit aqua,afflut sfem 
per»&cfflti-:ns pcr ripas,vbi viuariacxtruunt . nam nifi aqaa 
fitclara^brcuiaftran^alataeintcrcunt .branchias enim habcntio 
cxiguas.hinc turbarc aquam fohciti funt,qui eas pifcantur . tt 
quidem in S trymone amn • circa vergilras capianttir. tuc enim 
aqua&lurumaducrfisflatibusinturbatur,alioqiiin fatius eft 
quicfcere. Anguilbe non fuperfluitant mortuar,ncc furfum» vt 
cacteripiices,maximaparteffFeruntur:funt enim vcntrc exi- 
guo.pingue in paucis incft.plarima» eo carcnr.viucrc cxempt* 
quisvcl acidiem quintum,fcxtumq; poflunt&aquiloncpla- 
rcs diutius durant,auftro minus.& fi aeftatcdelacu in pifcinam 
transfcruntur,viucrc nequcut ied fi hyemc,facilc fedismatatio j 
nempatiuntur.nullamdcniq; vcherrentem mutationem tolc-}0 I 
rant,& quidcm aeftate:ctiam fi in f rigidam aquam trasfcrs, om j 
nesplcrunq;intercunt.Qu[n&ficxiguain aqua ftabulcntcift 
percunt.quod ide & oeteris pifcibus cucnit ftrangulantur en^ n 
fi fcmpcr cadcm in aqua exigua vcrfantur,quomodp fpiranttf 
animalia intcrcant,fi in acrccx guo claudantur.V«ta angailh* 
nonnullis vcl adfeptem,o£loqueannos protrahitur.Viftu^ 11 
uialibus ctiam fum ex mutua fui generis prarda,tom ex hcrba, 
radice,& fi quid iji coeno compcrfant.no&e potius pafccre , m- 
terdiu fecedcre in altum foliti iunt.Talis pifcium vi£tus cft. 



fi 



f> 



i» 




IIBER OCTAVVS. t8l 

Nauiamgenerc, qoibasvngaes adanci,omncs carmoorse 

funt.froges aotcm ipfar,etiam fi in os indideris,ncqueunt dc- 
uurare,vt genera aquilarum orania,milni,accipirres ambo , id * 
eft,palumbarios,4 frmgillarius,q&i multum inter lc magnitu- 
dinedifFcrunr,atqaectiambatco,quimilao sequiparatur ma- 
gnitudine,femperq; ipfe cernitur.ad hxc ofs.fraga , & vultiir 
& ofsifraga: magnitudo maior quun aqmla?, color cx cinere 
albicans. Vultur um duo genera funr-alteriim paraom,* albica 
tius:alterum maius,ac molriformius.Noaurnarum etiam no- 
to nuila; adoncis vnguibusfunt,vtcicuma,noftua, bubo . fpccies 
fimilis noaua: bubo eft,fed magnitudine rdminor quam aqoi- 
la.Itemaluco,vlula,afio. Aluco maior gallinacco cft.vlula co- 

par.picasvtriqucvenantur.afiominorquamnoftua cft . harc 
tna hmili fpeeie conftanr,& carne v iuunt S ant etiam in gene- 
renon adunco,qua:carne veicantor,vthirondo:aliqoavermi- 

fll ncn.tn,,» „..'..■ -II- _../*• i * 



cmus 



culos petant,vt fringilla,paiTer,rubctra,luteola, parus . 
gencra tria funt.-fringillagcquar maior cft,quippe qua: fnngil 
lam squct.alter monticolacognominc cft,quoniam in monti- 
busdcgat,coi caoda longior.tcrtios magnitudinefoi cxicoi cor 



t tum 



J* 



20 pons diicrepaf,qaanqu«m cxtera firnili* cft I tcm ficcdala, atri t"X«txl e ,. 

capilla,rub»cilla,rubcail3,fi]uia,curuca,afilas,tyrannuf,cai cor «"« > ><i <fl » 
pusnonmoltoampliusquimlocufts^crifta rutila ex pluma \**n c^illa, 

«atiafcola,&cxtcracIcgans..cantuqiiefaauisha:c aoicuia cft. 9«^»» «*/« 
Adhxcfloras,cuimagnitado qaanta fringillat,* lrontifrirg.I ?**** 
*a,qua: fringilJat fimilis,& magnitodinc proxima cft , fed coJio " ' ' 
cccruleo,* m montibos dcgir,vndc nomen acccpit. tom etism' 
reguluj,^ frugilcga.harc & rcliqua id gcnns vermiculi? partiin 
« toto,partim magna cx partc alontor. Spinam appetunt illa, 
ipinus,fiaeligarinus,carduclos,item qua: auriuittis appellaior: 
job*ccnimomniavi£titant infpinis.vcrmcm autem,# qucduis 
Jiiad animal afpemantur.dcrmiunr harc,& pafcunror ecdcm in 
ioco.Aliaculicibus gaodcnt,nec al;o magis , quam venato cu- 
iicum viuont,vt pipo,tum maior,rom mir.or. vtrurc; picum 
"lartmm voca^fimilcsinrcrfefvJit,voccmq; fimilem emittut: 
'cdmaiorem.qmmaioreft.rafcontorad macericm adudsn- 
tes.item galguius,ci.i magnirudo quanta tnrtoii fert eft,color 
Wteos lignipcrahicadmcdum eft,magnacueexparrerraccrie 
Paicitur,vocem emittit magnam.-ncola maxhr* Pdoponntfi 
aais neceft.tum vcro enumerandos intcr hxc cfr culicil< £a <ii* 
«os,magnitudineparua quantafpinis.colorecincieus, diftin- 

««s '»aculis,voceparua,qui& ipfclignipcta cft.Alia frugibus 

m } viuunj 






1$** ARISTOTE. DE ANlMAtlB. 

viautaVt palambe^co]umbus,vinago,turtur.vifuntar feraper 

columbi,atq; palun >bcs>fcd turturxftare rantumrhycmcfccon 

• <ht,lantat cnim fuo tcmporc. Vif**g<> autumno poi iKimu &co 

fpicitur,& capitur,cci magn/cudo maior cclambo,minor qua 

paiumbi cft.Modos maximc capierdi cam dum fc in aqoam bi- 

bendopropendir.vcnlun t ad ncftr a loca cum iam fcccrint pro- 

. lentxatcra vcroomnia quae xCuic acccdunt , nidulantur apud 

nos«& carnc magna c>. rartcfuos cnutriunt pn]los,cxcepto co- 

lumbaceo gcncre.Otr n um fei* auium,aliae viftum a tcrra pe- 

tttt,aliae £flouio,ali* a lacu, ali* a marided palrnipedes in ipfa t* 

aqoapartcmmaximamtempoih vcriantur,& aliquas ingorgi 

tantcs ie,qu«rant qucd comedant.fidipedes oirca aquamcaru- 

q; nonnulltt tcrra contcntis alf ilibus vefcuntar,qu# fcilicctcar 

nem non tangunt.retit lacns & fl uuios ardcola , * albardcola, 

oux magnitudine mincr eft,roftro lato.porrcftoqj.Itcm cico 

nia,& gauia.cui colorcinereus. Ad hsec ionco, cinchlus ,slbicu- 

la>tringa,qux intcr minorahxcmaiuJcalacft,tardoenim x<pi 



ctus varicpriEtc 



►ddupl 



aherum mutum,quodampliorccorporc cft.vtriqidorfumcos 
rukum.Trochitui ctiam hocloco poncnduscft.Scdapud oiarc 
aicedoquoq; verfatcr,&carulus.n;cnocorniccs littora petut, 
& qu# . nda cicccrit animalia,tar;gynt:nam & his natura otnm 
uoraeft.tunctiamgauiaaibir&iulica^ncr^us^S: rtipcx vifti- 
tantaptjdmarc.palmipcdun grauioret circa lacus , & amncs 

verf ntur,vt anas,o!or,phaI«ns,vrinatrix. Ad hrcbofca fmu- 

lis anarMcd minor,& qui ccruus appellatus cft,cui magKituao 
qaantaciconi2e,fedcrurabrcuiora,paIir.ipcs>natansq;cft,cOiO- 

rc nigcr,if'fidct aroonbus,& niduiatur in ijs,h:c vnus cx hoc gcjo 
jicreJtcm anfcr maior*anfcrminor,qui grcgatilis cft, vulp^n- 
icrfCapclIa,penc]ops,3quilad:fia mar:ra,& inarcadir, & bW 
Mairse ctiam herbis vcicuntur. A lires vnca» tum ca*cra,qu£ & 
pcrarc poffunt animaha,tum aucs aggreditmmnfednon fui ge 
nerJscaminoraeiunt modo p;kium,qui plcrcnqjf bi ccgnatcs 
rapiunt.Gcnnsauiumcumomncpotu cxigoo contcntcm nt> 
tiim aduncis nulius omnino vius b-b:ndi cft,pra:terquam p'M 



cifcimis quibufda; .qnae * ipia: raro vruntur,qualispot:isi^u 
tinuncuSuseft. iiluuseriam viluscftbibere^quanquam raro. 

De HtffoJerpe»tiun:,c*t€nruTnq; tmirmiutn corUcc 

tnteclarum. CfPH llil# 

Gcnas 



/ 



libeh. oCrAPVs. X.83 

CEnns animaliam corticc intcftum, vr lacertl,* reliqox 
huiufccmodi qaadrapedes, atquectiamfcrpentcs, ojnni- 
uoram eftcnam & carncm eduntd: hcrbam. Serpcnres cmniu 
" maximc animalium vcl cupcdisc dediti iunt, fed dciidcrium ijs 
quoqucbibendic^igaum 5 <Rrc.liquis,quibus pulmo fungolus 

cft,qaale omnia habcnt,qu* oaa pariunt,& quibus parum ian 
guiniseft.Scrpttcs vini incontinentcs etiaiuntrproindevipc 
ras aiiqui vino cii fi&il-bus ad fcpcs difpofito venantur, cbri^ 
emmcapiantur.ied cum fcrpcntes carniuorar fint,quicquid cc 

10 perint iucco exuftcveliqni: totum pcr meatc fui feccfibs cinit 
tunt.quod ide omniafere id genm animalia f<iciut, vt arancir 
fcd his foris iugcndo eaapor ai e mos eft , fcrpentibus intus in 
vcntre.accipit fcrpcns vodelibcr quoddatur, fiueauis,£ucbel 
lua eft.oua ctiam dcuorat : fcd cum acccpcrit, rcducit. & vf quc 
co retraddt,quoad partcm na&us poftrcmam c dircfto confti 
; taat,tum colligit fc, in breueque contrahit, vt quoJ inditum fa 
pra tenetur,in vnu ex tcnto corporc deducatur.qucd propfer- 
ca ita facif,quia gula tenucm habcf, & kngam. dia& /crpetcs 
& phalangia viucrc poffunt fine obo:qood tx ]jt,qu£ pharma 

*Q.Copola_,id eft ,pigmcntanj 2_unt 5 perpcndi poteft. 

qu<c ex lacH:w<:fiu*ii<*i; un^um petuat. 

Caput \v. 

aVa Jrupcdum,quj animal gcncrant,fylueftrcr,cxdar.q5 
krratardentibiu-carne omnes vdctitur:nifi quod lupos 
aium tcrram quanda cum cfurium,cdcrc hoc ip tur peculiare 
lupon* fichcrbas aatcm non alio tcmpore tangi;.,nifi cu mor- 
bolaborant,quomodo &- c2ncsheibamgcftacccn:um,atq;ita 
pUrgantur.Lupi hominemi.h potiuspciunt^qui irertes<S_ vni 
50 petx quidam iunf.quam qui vcnatorcs Quam autem alij gla- 
»uni,alijhyxnam appellantxcrporenonn_inore,quam lupcs 
cft,inba quaequus,iedietadariorcjongioreque,& pcrtotcm 
dorfum porrc&a molitur haec infidias hcmini.car.es etiam(vo- 

______ I _ • 4 1 . r_ _f" * 1 f** 1 * __. _ _ -_ 






niiticncin hominis imitandoJcapir,& icpuichra cf_bdithun a- 
02ai3!dacarnis,accruit.VrfusaRimalomnioorumcft,quippc 
^ui & fruftus arborum quas ccnfccndit corporc lubrico cdat, 
& l-gamina,& apcs pcrfnngcns aluco^ 3 &- cancro?,& formtcas. 
carnc etiam vcicitur ,viribns enim lnis cofidcns, inuadir no fo 
toroccruos,fcdttia.n_ues feros,ficljm r'w*per>tcc|ue potncrit 
a gere.taiiru apcrtoMartcaggreditur,corjfcrtaiam pugna, ftcr 

^itfcrciupiniijdomqs taaru^ fciirc conatur, ipfciaisbraclujs 

■ m 4 airijslc 









184 ARISTOTE. D E A N I M A L I B. 

ampleftlturcornua,oremorfum armis defigit, profternifqae 
adaerfariumlngrcdi velduobusinnitens pedibus erc&us ali- 
qaandio poteft. carncs omncs prxmaccratas,<X: propcmodum 
putrescomedit.Leo vefcitur quidcm.carne ritu caetcroru fyl- 
ucftriumferratorum,fedcibo incontincntcr admodu vtitur* 
maltaq;dcuorar foJida,fioc vllodjfle£iu. mox nihiltriduo,aut 
ccrtc biduoedrrrfcrrcenim incdia poteft, vt qui iam ^d mulfi 
fatictatcrcplcrascft.parubibit,e\crcmcnturarocmirtit.tcr- 
tio dic vcl vtcanq; accidit.egerir ; idq}duru, aridu, & fimilc vt 
canis.ff aram ctii alui accrrimu emi:tir,& vrina grauitcr olcn it 
temrvnde fir,vf canes arborcs odorerur. mingit cnim crureela 
to,vtcanes adftipitcs.focdom quaqueodore in c;bo relfnqait 
ex fao haIitu,proiciflb nanq; lconc intcriora grauiter olerSut 
inter quadrupcdes,fcrasq;,qux vi€m ex lacu,<& fluuijs pcfatat 
vcro a mari nuliu,prartcrqua virulas marinas.funt etia in hoc 
gcncrcfibcr,iathenu,fatyriu,Iutris,latax,qaarlatiorlatrecft, 
detesq; habct robuftos,qaippc qasc noftu plcruq; egrcdies,vir 
gulta proxima iufc dctibus vt fcrro praxidat.lutris ctia homi- 
ne morder,necdcfiftit(vt fcrut) nifi fra&i ofsis crepitu fenfe- 
rit Lataci pilusduras,fpecie intcrpilu vituli marini & cerui. 20 



/ 



£u<t antmalta lambendc,qu£ fi 



•fi 



tfi 




Caput vr. 

Ibunt,quibus dcntcs ferrati,animalia Jambcndoratq; cti* 

nonnulla cx non (crratu,vtmurcs. Quibusautcmconti- 

nui,forbendo,vt cqui,<£ boucs. vrfus ncq; iorbcndo ncq; l»n- 

bendo, fcd morfu.auiam cxrcrx iorptu.Scd qaibas collain eft 

longam,intermitfunt,caputq; refupinar Porphyriovnus,mor 

fu.Cornigera animaliatam fera,quam vrbana, & quibas dcn-J3 

tcs fcrrati non fant,omnia frugc,herbaq; vcfcantar,nifi vchc- 

menrercfarianr,fueexccpro,qui minimehcrbarfragumvc ap 

petens cft,fed radicu maximc cx ommbos animahbus, qaonia 

riftu aptifsimo ad id ncgocij eft facilimc ctia omniu idcm hoc 

zd qaodvis pabulu aftucfcit,& celcrrime quoq; in pingucdine 

prodcit pro fai corporis magnitudine. icx^intn enim dicbus 

pingucfcit.quantu aut profcccnf, \) cognoicut,quibus ca res 

curx cft, vbi ieianiu ad fagioam coftitucrinf . pingucicif frme 

prarfarigatos tridao. & cxtcra quoq; omnia fcrc mchus prsfa 

f igata famcpmgacfcur faginat a tri dno iam qui fues obefanfc 
Tiiraccs pcr fagina,cu primodicporu prxbacr int, poft mtcr- 

poiita 






LIBKX OC TAYTS. itf 



pofiro vno die prarbcnt, tam daobus, deinde triduo, atqne lu 



imal hordeo,milio,ficu,glade,p 
hoc,tu actera,qaibus veter cal 
igucfcut.cxteru 



guefcit h 



volutam.pafccre gregatim pro xtate velle videtur.lupo ctiaui 
fas obfiftcrc,repagnareq; potcft. S cxta pars ponderis quantu 
poderarit viuus,abfu:mirar occifo in pilos,fanguine,& rdiqaa 



animaliaomnia 



tur 






gmbM rtbmpafi 




crcmcnto. Caput vli 

vefcanr 




tum cient, vt eruo, & faba frcfa, atq; etia ipfa fabaru her- 
t feniores,fi cute incifa fpif itu adigas,dcinde prsebeas pa- 
lu,pingues facics . Adfiaec hordeo vel integro, vel pinfito,* a 
6 .ama fcparato pinguefcut,<5cdulribus,vt ficu,& pafla:vino c- 
tia & frondibus vJmirfed prxcipue fole,& lotione calid* aqoe. 

Cornua iuninrn fm.AAi t~ ~~— n.n,^_ i . c. c -i_ 



ra fleftutu 
fentiunt,fi 



vchemctius 



ioIicitata,qua niue. Aagcntur iaucncx amplias 7 cbm plus tepo~ 
riscxpcrtesVcnerisdegunt. Qaamobrcm ternr Epiri incolar* 
qaas pyrrhicas vocant,annis nouc intaftas Vcncre feruant,vt 
incrcmentum ampliter capiant,* ietauras nuncupant. has nu- 
^roqaadringetaseiTc&propriasregis accipimus rnecpoffi 
▼mcrelocis alijs,qnanquam tcntatam ab aliqaibus cft. 



caput viii. 

Qni,muli,& afini fruse herbaaac vc 



$ 






bam 



VJu.iuo fruuntur pabulo:* quod minus porum afpcrnatur, id 
appetentiuspabulicft,(Srplenius obefarur.Farrago pilum cx- 
polit,cum frugibus grauida eft.fcd duris iam horres arifhs in- 



medioc 



befrcg< 



ppc qaac 



jex Huuio quide prius hauriat,qua pf dc inturber.poffuntvel 

^qaatuordies tolcrarefmcpota,mox bibanr quamultum. 

£>*paj}*, & potione elephantt, dtj; atate etujdi 

0-camcU. *Capnt \ x . 

m j Elcphan 





t 36 ARISTOT. D! a.ntmalib. 

Lcphantas codcm pafta modios Macedonicos noa£, qaod 

plarimum cdcrc potcft.Scd tantum dare pcriculofam cft. 

fcx,aur fcptttfi dcdiflc modios,in vJa freqacnri fafiseft.icd fa- 
rinaenonpkis,quam quinqu;. vini ctiam qainq; mares ,qus 
jncnfura hcminas continct fcx. lam quidam amphoras aqux 
mcnfurae 



fos 



afurx Macedonic* qaatu^rdecim codcm haufir poto,& rur 

a mcridieeiufde rffeioitaVMl magna pars camcloro an- 

nostriginta,fcd malto pi Jres nonnullar, nam vcl ad ccnttfiiriU 

anoum faculratem viuendi protrahunt.Iilcphantcm alij annos 



duccntos 



10 



/ 



Quibw herbx oues C i&bt* uefcantur, & de ciftfi 

impi ngna tio n x ea run (L tn . Ca[' w t 

OVes & capra: hcrba vcfcuntar.pafccrc oacs fedultf , atqac 
ftabilcs folent.Caprx locacreb o po;timt»nt,iummaquc ■ 
rantumcontingunt Pinguefdt porifsimum oais ex potu:qca- 
obrcm seftatcialcm daredie quintofolitifant^fingulis centc- 
«isfingulos modios: fic enim pecas incoiumc, atquc pingums 
redditur.Frcquens igitur faiis vfus co pcrtinct, quando & pa- 
leiscopiamfalisadmifccnt, vtfuibuudarplus aqur hauriantja* 
& aatumno cccarbitam falc contraftam afFeruot:quod lac etia 
aaget.S agitata* qaoquc meridicplus poftmeridianisbibant. 
factisdiftcnta vbcrapcndcnt,qaibusfalisabundecft. opiniaf 
pecas olca,oleafter, aphaca, paka, hcrba, quxcla efEcaciora 
funt cx falluginc rcfpcrf i.pin^ucicunt & hxc plcnias prxfati-' 
gatainediatrfdao.Aqaaoaibus aitumnocoi;:moc!ior aquilo- 
nia, quamaaftrina cft. & pafcua adfolis occafom fpeftintia 
profnnt.itincra & laborcs «teimantind'cant paftorcs ouc va- 
lidiorem,cum hybernis temporibus pruinam,qoam fafcep*- 
rit,fcraat.nam quibus vLrJom minu:,parumpra!fuaimbccilli3° 
tatcccnftantcs,difcutiur*t fuo.motu quantumfufcepciint.Ca- 
ro cuiufquc quadrupcdis dcterior eft,ul locis paluftribus, qua 
editioribus pafcit.Santpono irigoris paticntiorcs^qa^ascaa 
da amplior,quam quibus porreiticr, & ghbrx cxutiorcs, qaa 
vcftitiores.crifpa: etiam algoris impaticntcs .fiint. Vaicnt inc* 
lia, oucs,quamcapra:f<d robaftiorcscapr*, qaim oues iant. 



ouium 



ftis, longcqaamca:tcraaptiora funt ad pcdiculos procrean- 



*o$* 






-,€,&> pctt+tvfei 

Cafut x I 



Infctfa 




Nfefla; 




1IB5R. OCT avvsI i3 7 

ilia quibas dent es>omniaora funt. Quibus an- 
_ternlingua>tantum humorc vndiqae cliquando iualingaa Eliquanid 
vclcuntur , qirorum alia omniuora funt, qaibus guitus om- exugeni** 
nium faporum cft, vt mafcac : alia fanguiaora , vt tabani , & 
afilialia fuccis plantsrutr,,& fru&uum viuunt- Auis vna nuJ- 



lis putidis afsidcf, ncc vritur alio cibo qu3m duicr. Aquam 
etiam hbentiisime indeh2uriont,quamfyFCcrJ, clarifsimiquc 
fontcs fcaturiunt.Talis animalicm v it\us cft. 

JDe Afiiontbw at im&liUtx 9 & rthm tn jcmibtto eaiem 
lo uerptntutm Caput xil. 

ACtic aut,& cmnc cornm negcciii incoitu,procreationCv 
atq;vi£his folcrtia vcrfaturrnecnonac! frigora,Eftus,mu 
tationesxlcnjq, terr.porum pcxtinct.ineit cnim omnibusfcnfbs 
natiaus mutation» faflae frigorcaut calorc. Itaq; vt homines 
alij domicilia hyemc rcperut,alij qui amplioris ^poincia? ptin 

cipcs fur t,fede m pro tcporc mutannvt mcra afbtc locis frigi 
dis,hyeme tcpidis trahant.fic bruta,qu<r Ioca pofTunt permuta 
rcfaaut.Arq; alia fufcfidiu in ipfis cofoctis fibi locis copcriuf . 
aha percgreproficifcuntur.Ia ab autumnaii seqoinc&io cx Vo 

aoto,Ioci&q j frigidis fugiant hyeme futura. Auerroautcm cx rc- 
pida regione,ad frigidam /eje confcrunf,* ftus meiu futuri . <ft 
aliadc lcci.s vjcinisdiiccdunt^aliadc vltimis propcdixcrim, 
vtgrucs faciunf» quar cjc Scythicis campis ad paludcs Aegy- 
pto fupeiiorcs, vndc Nilos profluir, veniunf, qoo in lo- 
copcgnarccum Pygmaris dicuntur : ncn cniminfabula cft, 
fedceftc,genus tum hominum, tcmetiam eqcoram pufillum 
(vt diciturj eft, ccgunrquc incauernis, yndc nomcnTro- 
glodyr* a fubcundis cauernis acccpere . Platca: etism mi- 
gtant,&deStrymcneai7:ne ad Iftrum aduohnt, prolcmquc 

3Q2bi fsciunt.alcunt vniucrik», ac piiorcs expcftant pofteiiorrs, 
propterea qucd vbi irontcm fuperarinr, videri priorcs i po- 
fterioribnsncqueant. Qmnetiam pifccs medo ccdem , ali '} cx 
Ponto,aut in Pcntum ti *nrj:t,a)ij pcr hycmcm cx alto in litto 
ra feporis gratia vcniunr, ccntr^ ;rftate ex littorcin alicm vi- 
tantcs aeftum cliiccdunf . Accs cuoquc imbcciliiorcs hyberno & 
gdido tcmporc difcrdunt in campos, vt tcporc potiantur: 
sftiuo autcm repctunt momc ., vt aftucarcant. ftrnpcr qoac 
imbcci]liora funt,prius vtravisrationedifccdunf. Iam lcom- 
briar>tcquamt!iunn!,coturniccs antcqram grues.altcra cnim 

t Aagufto 3 aIrcra Septcmbrl mcnfc incipiunt. iunt prcfeiio o- 
Xtoti pinguiora,qaa? dc locis diiccdunt fagidis, qaam qusc dc 

calidfe 






lit AMSTOTI. DEANIMALIB. 

calidisrvt coturnices aatumno,quam Vcrc funt pinguioresJif 
cnimvt fimal dc locis frigidis ;& tcmporc calido difcedatur- Sut 
ctiam Vcncris appetcntxora vcrno temporc , cumq; ex tepido 
difccffcrunt.Scd aaium*grues,vtdiflum eft,ex vltimis in vltl 
ma abcunt.volant flatu lequundo.qaod dc lapidc narrant , fal- 
fum eft.lapidcm cnim cas tenere falcimento,quem,vbi decide- 
rxt,accipi vtilem adauri probationemaiant.Palumbes eriadi- 
lcedunt,& liui«,ncc hybernarc apud nos patiuntur,atq; ctiara 
furtpres,* hirundmcs:fcd columbx mancnt.Cotarniccs qao- 
quc difcedant,nifi paucae locis apricis rcmanferint:quod& tor 10 
furesfaciunt volatgrcgatim,tom palambcs,tum turtares,cu 
acccdant,* cam fao tcmporc abcut.Coturnices cum cccidcrint 
fi fcrennm fit,aut aquilonium tcmpas,fociantur ; & profperc de 



gunt 



Qoa 



tur,auftinm ? non aquiloncm obferuanr.omnino xgrc propter 
fui Corporis pondus volant.funt cnim corporc grandiorc , qua 
fuispcnnisdcfcrripofsint,vocifcrantesq; ob cam rem vobt, 
laborant cnim quafi oppreffae oncrc • cuin ha?c adcunt loca,firie 
ducibus pcrgunt.at cum hinc abcunt,ducibus lingulaca,oto^*° 
matricc proficifcuntur, atq; ctiam cynchramo,a quo etiam rc- 
uocantur no&u,cuias vocem cum fcnfcrint aucapcs,!ntcllig^ 
parari difcefTum.matrix forma perindc ac aacs lacuftres cft,at- 
quc ctiam lingulaca,qux linguam cxerit pra:longa,vndc ei nc- 
mfc Otusnoftaaefimilis eft,pinnulis circiteraurcseminetibas 
praeditus,vn nomeacccpir,quafi auritu dicas. nonulli vlala cu 
appcllat,alij ^fionc blatcro hic eft,& hallacin3tor,& planipefi 
laltantcs cnim imitatur.capitar intetus in altcro aucapcaitero 
circumuctc, vtno&ua.omnesdeniq; aucs vncsbreui iuntcox 
lo,A lingoalataapt^qi adimitandam.Nam<fc Indicaauis,cui 
nomen pfitacx,quam Ioqui axunr,talis cft,& loquacior cumbi jo 
bcritvinuxn,reddxtur.Grcgalcs cxauibus iunt eras^olor,pia- 



tea,an(er minor. 



fciurr^qaoruwdamq; terrefl 




mfugtendts adihtjts. Caput X 1 1 1- 

Ifcium alij,vt di£himcft,difccdunt ab alto ad Iittus,* co» 
tradclittorcin alTum,fugicntescxupcrantiascalorris,#rri 

goris.Scd prarftant pelagicis lxttorales,qaippc qai cibo copio- 
ftorcmelioreq; potiantur.qua enim iol ingruicplura exeunt# 
vt fit in horthmam Sc litaas niger propias tcrram oritur,alter . 
fimilis crraticis cft.Tum ctiam benc cx calido frigidoq; tempc 



LIBLK O CT AVTsi l8? 

ratafontlocamaristerrenaquofit,vt<8:carocoram pifciuma 
gisconftct,cam pelagioram Jiumida,mollis,folutaq; fit,Litto- 
rales fant dc:2tex,fcarabxus,cernua,aurata 5 mugilis,mula$,tar- 
das,draco,palcher,gobio,atqucomne faxatile genos. Pelagij 
funt paftinaca,genusq; omnecartilagincum,<£ congrornm al- l-xxjiQoTifi- 
bicantium genus,& hiatula,robelio,glaucus.pagri autem,fcor- t*vei$ , ambi 
pioncs,congri nigrantcs,muren;c,caculi ambigunr.Scd difcxigunt,fcihcct 
mcn horum,diucrfit2te ctiam locorum ac tcmporu cxiftcrc pp a n littoralcs 
tefttyt apud Crctaminfolam gobiones,omneque faxatUcge- anpclagij. 

10 nus fatis pingucfcit.Thunnus ctiam poft arfturam mclior cft: 
iam cnim co tcmpore ab infcftantis afili agitatione requidcif, 
qux f acit,v t fit in ^tatc detcrior.Quinetiam maritimis lacobos 
gcncra plura pifcium marinoram gigni apcrrum cft, vt falpa, 
aaratam,mullam,alios £ crh plarimos . A mias ctiam in A lopcco 
ncfo rcperics.* in^ i ftonidc lacu plurima genera habctur.Mo- 
xicdalaemagnacxpartenonfabeunt rontam,fcdin Proponti- 
detrahuntxftatcm,&pariunt:hyememin Aegco-Scd tbunni, 
limari*,amia: fabeant Pontum Vcre^ftatemq; ibi traducur* 
&rcliquifereplurimifu(anci, &gregatilis gencris code tran- 

20 feunr.Eft fanif plurima pifcium pars gregatilis,nec vllas grcx 
carct duce.Pctunt autcm Pontum paftus gratia,qui vbcrior & 
& commodioribi,propter aquarum dulcium admixtionefup- 
pediratur.Bcllux quoqac magna* paaciorcs ibidcm funt , nam 
excepto delphino,& phocxna,quam tirfionem intcrpretor,ni 
nil in Ponto malcficum cft.ncc dclphinus hic magnas eft,quan 
qaam cxtri vbi aliquantum proccflcris,magni habcantur.Tu 
itaq; vi&us,tum ctiam partus gratia Pontum fubcunt. Sont 
cnim ibi loca ad partitioncm aptiora,* humor dulcior ac po- \{u ykf +#« 
tulcntior f cet um melius cducat. S ed cum pcpcrerint , * pro- **lvis j&a fi* 

jo lesiam adoIeuerit,exeuntpoft Vcrgilias ftatim.&fi hyems aa 4>Ivo* luttp 
ftrina fit,tardius:fiaquilonia,cifius,propterfequandiflatusco \n$ \p t$ 
moditatcmrprolesqucadhucparaa apud Byzantium capitor, *»?T<}- 
vtpore com longior mora in Ponto non facrit . S cd dc c*teris Pliniusfc: 
* cum adcant,&cum exeant,conftat.Sardaautem vna,cum a- scd tn Pon~ 
dit,videtar,&capitur:fcdcxiens nufquam vifa adhuccft.quod tumnulla in 

rc- trat bcjltapt 

odfcib.malcjica 

i-pr*tcr mtu~ 



amncm 




argnmcnto cft, los , O* 



qaod ibi contra cocnit,qu4m in Pontorexcuntes cnim fcmpcr uos dclphi 



nunquam . Thanni dcxtrorfam 



contin 



fy aristot! de animalib. 

contingcntes fubeunt,fcd rcmcant contra:l*uum eniai fn latn* 
fc admouent.quodproptercafacercdicuntur,qcia dextrooca 
loclariasvidrntftu natura,la:uoh<ktius.Fuf2ne!S,de quibas 
loqaor,interdiumeare,no£tuquiefccrein moreeft - pa.cuntar 
ctiam noflcnifi laccat luna.ita cnim faciunt iter i nec volunt 
qaiefcere.Quidam vfupcriti ref marin* nibilo cos moucri,fcd 
«juiefccre k bvuma ad eqcino&iam vernum,vbicunq; id tcmpo 
is fint,aficacrant.Moneda]3e fubeuntes Pontucapiantar,exeu 
tcs autem minus.optimx in Propontide funt , antcqna p ariaf ; 
At cascri fufanei cxeun tcs potics capiunrur,&optimiper idrcio 
porisfant.Cum vcro adeqnt Pontum,proxiitiC Aegcum pin- 
gaifsimi capiantur.quo fubindc afccndcrint tnagis,eo macilen 
iioresfiant.fxpeetiamflatu audrino vehementius cccarfantc 
fit^vt cammonedulis &fcombriscxcant,3f; mariinfcrlorema 
gis quam circa Byzantium capiantur,dtfce{Tum,fedi'sq; muta- 
tionem hocmodo faciuntHic idem affcftus terreftribus etiam 
cuenit,cum fcabdunt>& latcnr. hyf me enim Jatcbras fubcut,te- 
porciam rcpidiorc cxennt:ratio vero * latcrdi* patcndico- 

tnunisanimaljamcacft,vrftbi contra vtriufque cxnpcrantia 
teinporisopitaknnir.l3tetaliqaorumgenn5]totum,aliquoium 

partim latct, partim non later. Tcftaenim inte&a omnia la- 
tent,vt in mari purpara,buccinum,omncq'; id genus.SedabiO 



lutotum latfbultmi euklentius cftrcoduntur cnitn fcccflfu,vt pc- 

£tincs fccctc vlfuntur.aliqua leuiorc qaodam tcgminc fpperim 
pofitodelitefcpnt,vtcoch]exterreftre.sideftlimacrf.&adhr- 

rcntiam muratio inccrta eft.Ndn tatne codem tcmpore cmnia 
1atcnt,fcdlimace byrme.purpura: & buccina canis cxortudies 
circiter triccnos conduntur.peSincs ctiam tcmpore eodem/ed 
corum plarhna fanclatent,& algore vrgentcft a*ftu- ^ 

~ wtempcre irfeflorum gcnerafefc iibfcondant y aut 



aftns aut byemis tmpeth* 

Cxput XII 1 1. 

INfe&a pene omnia condunttTr,pr.rtcre^qnrr vitam in domi 
ciTjs ctm hominibcs agant,qoxq$ priusintereant,quam an 
jitram tcpus excedant.lateth^chyetr.ealia diotius, alia quadiU 
algor vehemens cft,vtapes:na ipfx etiam ccffant,* latcnt.cn- 
ias rci argum?ntum 3 quod miniml- ctbun fibi appofitum gufta 
rcvidentur.«'fiquacrcpferir,!c!unia fpcfiatur , ventretrani- 
kcente,nullo(]:pcnituscontcnto 3 qacd manifeftutta fit.Qoie- 
fcant ab occafu vergiliarutri vfq; sd ver.coduntur antem quj- 

03 locis apricis abdita,* vbi fibi cqbilc conftituere rutius iol«. 
* r Dc §c 



LIBER OCTAVVS. *S* 




■JDt gmete ftrpcvtum 9 cv.od hyanealditur 9 du]; ncnnullis 
pijctins aifi hytmcj)igoris caufa c$ndantnr 9 

quiq; &Jlate prcptcr calcrem» 

Caput xv- 

Anguinei quoq? gencrzs multa fe coi?dunt,vt ca cua: infe&a 
eorticc funtfcrEetesdico,l3certc5,iTelliones,croccdi]os fla 



uiatiles.Mc fibos q uatuor frigidifsiinis foarc ]atct,ncc per id tcm 

pusquicqnacomcdut.C&tcrflcquideferpctcs caucrnas fubcuf 

terrar,fcd viperx fub faxis cordmur.Pifriu ctii copJur es latere 

lo nouimos,ied apertiisimt: hippuril,que cquifelcm nominauL& 



corunlufice graculti perhycme.namhiioiinunquacapi 
nificcrtisquibuf<!at(:poribus 3 cjfdcq;fcrr.per,cu cx'teri c 



untur 



ornnes 



fcre fempcr capiatur. Murcna etia latet,& cernua,& coger. Sa- 
xatiles vero coniugatitn mares cu f oeminis condutur,quomodo 
& fcetificare folent,vt turdi,meruta percar.Thunnictiam iatcft 
prtfaltis gurgftibushyeme,pingucfcuntq;i latibolo maiorein 
mocucapi ircfpiut vcrgiliarum ab ortu ad ar #uri occafum vl 
timum,rcliquo tepore quiefcunt latcntcs.capiun rur nonulii ex 
hiscstcrJSG>Jatcnnbu5rcporcfaiieccffus 3 CQin fcmoucantlo- 

2 o cis tepidis ? aut fi tcmpcri* infolitx quictes contingant.Prcdcut 
epimaliquantu!odefuocubilipaftum,&prarc!puc*plcnilunio» 

funt m2gna cx partc fuauiisimi,cum latcnt . Primacte in cosno 
fcabdunt,cuii:s reiar£iimcntumc(hc r ucdncq ? -co reinporcca- 
p:nntnr ? & dorfofoeoilen^ 

ftantur. Vcrro aute tcmpcrc prcdeunt,& appropinquat ad tcr 
*amcoeuntcs,paricntesq$:quotemporeffrto grauidx capiun- 
tur,tcmpeftiuff q; tantUper cfic putantur.Autuno vero & hye* 
^tdctcriorcs funt.SimuI ctiam m3rcs plcni femmcgenitali,la 
#e appellato,per id tempm cernunttK.-itaq; prffftant ad vium. 
joprolcadhuc par.ua difficjlccapiantur.-aduitiore, toti largaca- 
ptura proptcr infefti afili ftimolum cft.latent alia in atcna,alia 
inluto,oretantomdete<fto.plurima tempore condunturfolum 
fybcrno,vtcruftata,&pifce5faxatilcs,& raix,omncq; cartila 
gincum genos,dicbus fcilicct frigidifiimis . quod ita ciTc co ar- 
gnmcntoconftat,quod minimccum algor eft,capiuntur.ledpi 
fciom nonnulli xttatc ctiam latcnt,vt glaccus : hicenim pcr id 
tempa^ ic abdic circitcr dicsicxaginta. Afcllus etiam latct» 
ftaorataplurimum tempom.afcllum latere indicio eflfe vide- 
t°f quod longo interpofitotcmporc eapiator-Pifccs vcl arftate 
«tcrc docomento iJio probatur * quod tcmporibus fyderum 
wt capturar,& pracciput canicuhe ; marc cnim pcr id tcmpus 
' i cucr 



IJX ARISTOT.DE ANIMAltB. 

cuertitarqaodlatifsime apud Bofphoram patct . limus enim 
in fumma effertur,pifccsq; innatant.aiunt ctiam ii gurgitu ima 
fepius tcrantur,plures cadcm fagena capi fecundo ia£u , qua 
primo.Tum ctiam magnis imbriljus mulra apparentanimaliu 
gcncra,quas antc vel vnquam , vcl raro vifa fucrint. 

Dc auibus ,qu£ bycmc cccultantur. 



caput 



XVI 




Viom ctiam complorcs condantannon vt aliqui po 
tant,pauc* nec omncsad locatepidioraabeunt,fed 

quibus loca ciofmodi funt vicina , folita: iedi 3 ij* cb *• 
fcccdcrc libet,vt miluos & hirundines agcrc animad- 



uerfum cft. Qua» autcm procul locis ciufmodi morantur,non 
mutantfedem,(edfcibidemcondant.Iarncnim xifx funthiru 
dincs in anguftijsconualliu nude,atq; omninodeplumes.milui 
ctiam de huiufmodi locis euolaflc,cum primum apparercnf,vi 
fi funt. Latibalo gcnera diftingui vel adunca vcl reflunguia 
no poflunt.nam & ciconia latct,& merula,& turtar,& alauda: 
de turturc quidcm maximi omnium conftat : ncmo prop£ di- 
xerim,vidificperhyememvfpiam turturcm dicitor.latere au- 
tcm incipit praepinguis,& quanquam pcnnas in Iatcbradimit-*o 
tit,tamcn pingncdinem feruat .paluniborom aliqui latenf , ali- 
qai non latent,fcd cum hirundinibus abcunt.Turdas ctiam la- 
tct,&: fturnus,& cx gcncrc vnco miluus paucis quibufdamdic- 
bus,& nottua. 

£>c quadrupcdibm cju* hycmc latcantM^. $* 

qHtfcncfrutcm exuant 
cap. xvii. 

Vadrupcdum quae animal generant,hyftrices concfu 
tur,& vrfirfed vtrum proptcr frigus,an alia de cau- 
fa,ambigitar.pingucfcunt vrfi pcrid tempus,tuifl}° 
mares,tum fcemin* vchcmcntcr,vt mouere fefefa- 
ciltncqaeantparitctiamfo?minacotemporc,& tandiu latct 
quoad tcmpas fit,vt faos catalos in apcrtu producat>quod ver- 
no tcmporc mcnfc a bruma tcrtio facit.S cd quod minimu,dies 
circitcr qaadraginta latet.ex quibus bis fcptcm ita fopitur,vt 
fc nihiJo moucatrrdiquis poftca pluribus latct quidem,fcd mo- 
actur,& furgir. faetu grauida vrfa, vel a ncminc, vel a paucifsi- 
mis capta eft.tempore f ui latibuli hoc animal nihil edcrc certu 
eftrquippe quod ncq; cxeat,& captutn vcntrc intcftinoq; ina- 
ni vidcatur.Narrant cias inteftinum pcr inediam ita connioo- 
rc,vtadduftumpropccoh«rcat.Itaq; vrfum latebra cgreffutn 




1 



IIBEH OCTAVVS.' 19% 

primnm herhamarum diaamdcguftarcvt inteftinum laxe- 
rur,<Srhicr.Glircsctiamlatentinipfi $ arboribus ,pingaefcunt- 2, £ «S* fl « 
q; per id tempus vehementcr Jtidcm inurcs P6tici gcncris. N5- . f < 

nulla cx ijs quar condantur , exuunr id.quod feneftus vocatur 7,CVTlK0S ° 
qaodcutis vltimacft,&primiortusoperculu.Sed in pedcftri Wnof. 

viuiparogencrcdevrfo,quadccaufaIareat,ambigitcr,vtdi- Pbn.ConJ» 
Ctu iam cft.Corticcintcdra maximaferc fui parte icccflus fuo ^rbyeme et 

tcmporelaret.<Srexauntfcnc£hjtcmea,quibuscutis mollis in ec **<***" w»- 
predura,& teftacea quidem eft,qualis teftudinif nam & tcftudo rts ' hi ^* nta 

10 intcr cortice intefta cnumaranda eft ,& mus aquatilis)fed qaa- *<'«&'? 
lis ftellioni,laccrto,(Srpraccipueferpentibus eft.cxuutenimhec 
omnia,tum Verccumcgrcdiuntur,tum ctiam autumno.Vipc- 
ra etiam exuit tam Verc, qoam aatumno.Cum fcrpens exucre 
incip,t,ab oculis primum dctrahi aiunt,ita vt obcarcari videan >l**t*i 5 U 
tur ,js,qai rem non intcllig un t,tum caput e* uiturrglabru enim JivtuSS» 
hoc oinmum antcquam reliqaum corpus apparet,aiq; vna fcr c - > . » 
noftc & dic fcncaus tota exuitur 4 capitc orfa ad cS £ ™ iV70$ '* 
tc altcraintus fubnafcente ipfa rcmouctur. Vtenimfoetus in- 70f * 
uohtcro fecundarum quo conrentus prodicrit ,exuitur,f,c ifta fe Pltn ** '*' 

loneftotc dctrafta renooantor.Infeaa en,m eodcm modo exuur "**"' mem 

len C ctQt C m,quibushocfolitumeft,vtillpha,«Scculcx,dc:ea quo hran *> W 
rupennar vagina contincntur,vtfcarabei.fed omniafaaoiam/''"■^ ,n/M5 • 

quod g ,gnidebucrit,exuunt.namvtpartui viuiparo fecundar, 
iic vermiculariar prol, operculmn circumrumpitur.eque & api 
bus,& locuftis.cicada vbi cruperunt,oleis aut arundinibos irfl 
<Junt,& cum rupto opcrcolo cxeunr , paru quidam in eo rclin- 
quunt humoris.ncc multo p6ft volant,& incipiont cancre Lo 
eoft* mter marina ,& gammari exuant,aut V ercaut autumno 

poitparram.lamcaptxaliqaaefuntlocufta,mollc.n habentcs 
3°partemfuperiorem, qoodcruftaiam circomrupta dctraaaq; 
dlet mfcriorem autemduram,quia nondum eflet difropta no 
en,m fimilis in his atq; in anguibas exutio fit latet locuftar mc 
icscrcitcr quinq ; .Cancrictiam cxaunt fcncautem,molliores 
Soidem peripicucied ctiamdurioresexnercaiut,vtmaias.Cu 
vcro exuunt,molJ is admodam crafta fubnafcitur.4 quidecan- 
cn pr« teneritate non fat is ambulare poflunt . cxuunt harc far- 
pius anno. S cd quamam latcant,* quomodo,& quo tcmpore, 
*q; etiam qoar,& quo tempore cxuant fcnea u te,iam diau cft. 

JL 1 _- -^. - * 



1 * J fr 

l*rc,cpodM tempusauibHs conducat. 

C*£ut x.v 111, 




Viuunt 



j 9 ^ AM8TOTF. DIAMIMALIB. 

X Tlunnt ant<* animal/a tefcfpfft non cifdc teporibns, neco- 



mn«bus*que ex exnpcrarijs. Valetudines ctiam.ft morb. 
«er rcrora ecneru diaerfitate varie accidut,& In totu non eadc 

r . * rt . - i «r„«*ri.inl/ir«.f!i 2d 



10 






«eteram fanitate ,tom etia ad paru 5 praedpoe palamWi . fli 

vcroDifcibas.eyceptis quibufdam p3Ucis,fmbrescondutut.in- 
commodiccntrUoibu.anniplumj fant,piici»us ficd.qnrppe 

€u a.iiumtalJsnarurafit,vt nebiberequid. largius pois.ntn- 
nedetrimento.AdunrxiLM.uraur.svtdiaueft^viuuntpropcd. 

sermi fine vllo potorqnod Hefiodus nefciuit.facit en.m in nar 
rttioneobfefcion.s N ini,aqnd5aagurijpra_fide b.bentemXjC 
teraeaues bibunr qnldem Jcd parunec aliud vllu pot.cn. inool- 
gear,quod pulmonc ftmgofum habear,aut pariat oou.Cu aue» 
«grorant,plumx indicn proferunt tarbanturenim,necpo(ita 
ram eandem fcruant quam habcnr,cum rcae valcnt. 

pu£< imantta£luuia£*udeaiit,<i»ibu:»e noceat. 
^*f caput xix- 

Ifcium gcnus maximacx parte annfs pluuijs bene(vtdiflu 
_>. elt)viuir.itaenim nonmodoplcscibi nancifcitur,vcrun.c- 
fiam omnino plunio humore luoafUr, Vt e . ouae torra gignutor. 
olera enim quauis rigtntur tamci. non tantu prcrcunt quan- 
tum imbrc,q!jcd ir.de arudinibus etia bcu prcgnatis cuen.r.n»- 

hilcnim flere sccrefcuncnifi aquse pluiiia: incidat. Indiciu r« 
inde accipl poteft,qcod pifces plurimi pcrant rontil , vt ineo 

tradocat arftat c.facit enim copia amniu loci illius , vt mare H 
dolcius,&cibusIargiorhabcatar,queijdcfluuijdcferant.Sub- 

eont etia fluuios eenera nifcium coplura,* prxflat in fluentis 




lacubus 



o 



uijs.deHiqiIoca praedita lacus coinoclitate pnces poi.i»..» ~ r - 
inos.ex pluuijs autcm ipfis xftiui .mbres comodiores funt par- 
ti maximx p.fci&m,* prxciput-cum ver,*ft3s,& autunus in> 
bribusabuDdarint,hycmscont.afcrcnior fucrit .ad lumiram 
prope dixerim.cum bcne homimbus annas cedif ,tonc 4 p»ct- 
busfeliciterdcgercccntingit.locisautem frigidis parum vi- 

gcnt. Maximfc infeftantor algorc , qui lapidem in cagite na- 
bent,vtchromis,lupu5,pha3cr,vmbra.facitcnimlapidisr.gor, 

vt per algorcm °elcntor,*excidant. Sedcoin plurim.s piK» 
generib us imbres conducanr,trug.Ii tamen , & cap.roni , « c 
quii-a.-i^ilismurinusvocator^occt.fitenim vtpfcn.jstnui- 

tx cx his dc facili txcaecenrar , fi modam aqua cxccfle.it . wic 

cnin» 






. 



cnim 



LIBER OCT/.VVS. *9 < 



j>er hyemcm potius capito ita affici , nam ocali eias alb_-_ 
lcunt ; &m<>cilentus pcr id remporiscapHunatqueadpoftrc- 
mum malo eodem intcrit. qnod non mag»s jmbrium copia, 
quatn algore acciderc vidctur. lam cnim cam alilri tom in 
Nauplio agro tcrrx Argiuat , in vadis multi capti fnnt orci, 
cum hyems fuiflct afpcrrima . mulri ctiamalbos habentcso- 
culoscaptifanr. Aurataquoquc hycmelaborarfcdarchanas 
*fta:e,eoquc£cmporccxtenuartir. Prodeft coruulis fcrmi, 
pratcr crtcros piWcs anr.cs fqualens , quod his quoquc ob 



rcm 



M 



■<_, 



cidit : . loca profua natura gcnera quxqoc fibi habert ad incc- 
lamitatcm commodiora. quodcnim natnra 3ittorale,aut pc- 
laginm cft , huic fuo loco pro natura: dtfiderio verfari com. 
modiuseft.quodaurem ambigit.idcoir.niodc vtroquedegcre * 
potcft. Sed/unt ctiam locaqu;edam fir~u!ispropria,inoui- l 
bus reclius valeanr. Commodiora(quo<i(lmpliciter dixerim) l 
loca font ca , quar algarum copia fcarcnr . pinguiores enim Io- fitamitgit 
cis his capiuntur, qui mulris & varijs locis folent oabulari. ambignam., 
Nam&quibus alga incibo eft.abundc pafcnnturr&qoibos 
'-o caro appcritur, plurcs plfcej fibi repcriunt. Intereft ctiam 

aquilonia fmt,an aoAr:;ia.gcnus enim longom aquilonf js me- 

lius vigct : & quidem _catc , loco eodem , in aquilonijs rlores 
longi qoJm laricapiunrur.Thunni * gladij agTtantiir afilo ca- 
nisexortu habentcnim vtriquc pcrid tcmposfub pinna-ceu 



vcrmiculum, qocm afilum vccant,cfT<gie fcorpionis, magni- 






fixlvctft 






tndine aranei.infcftat hoctanto dolore, vtnon mmns intcr- 

Aim gladiu^quAm dclphinas exiliat, vndcfir-vt vcl in naufgia 
frpcnumcroincidat.Thunniomnium max.me pifctam gaa- 
denttcporc^&obcamrcm arcnannfc littora a_feunt.pcrfum- 
3° ma etiam maris innatant,quo tcporfs potiantor. P ifciculi an- 
tem fcrtiari proptcrca poflunt > quia fpernuntar - maiora cnim 
^gnifcquuntar.fedouorum^r prolis pars magna proindc 
abfuinitnr- Cumcnim pifces defidcrio tcporis loca ^mx AVfXMVQV . &t 
Jdeant Jigariant quicquid attigerint.capiantar maxijnc pi. i t S rmn t 7Hit 
«ces non nialto ante, quAmfol oriatunaut poftquam ccci- -* 
dif.dcniqac ctrca folis ortum occafom • tempeftiue cnim iaci 
tantifpcr putatur . qaamobrcm co temporc pifcarorcs folent 
r etia tollcrc, tnnc cnim maximc vifus pifciom fallitur,quip- 
jccum nofhi qoicfcant,lucc autcm iam clariorcmclias vi- 
d «jnr. Morbus pcftilens nallus incidcre pifcibas vniaerfis 
Vwctu r , qaalis plcranquc ho-ninibus } cS> quadrnpcdam cqnis, 

n 2 &bu 



fiant 



#' 



i 




T -£ ARISTOTE. DE ANlMAtlB* 

&bubas,& rcliqai generis nonullis accidit,tum feris,tum vrk 
nisxgrotaretamen&ipfi putantar.& quidem pifcatorespro 
morbiindiciocapiunt,cumaiiquotextenuafoslanguentibusU 

milcs,& colore immutatos , inter muitos pingues ac validos e- 
iufdem gencris ccperint.Marinom gcnus ita fc habct. 

fiMtaltbns & lacuftrtbuspifcibus ncceant, 
auotot vngenio ijdem capinntnr. 

FLuuiatile & lacuftre peftc quide & ipfum immnnc eit , icd 
nonnullis morbi incidunt propri j filurus enim canis exor-i 
tu potifsimum(quodfublimisinnatct)fidcratur,& tonitraojo 
piturmagno,quod&cyprinoaccidif,fedleuius. Silarus vela 
drac^ne angocgurgite param alto iOus interif.Ballero,& tillo 
nilumbricuscanisexortu innafcitur,qui dcbilitat ,cogitq;ad 
fumma ftagni effcrri,qua scftu £ntereuntxhalcis,quam sricam 
appello,vitioinfeftaturdiro,vt pediculi fub branchijs innati 
qua multi interimatquod nulli ex carteris accidit.moriutar pi- 
fccs vcrbafco herba,quaobrecxrcri ,auaiatiles , & lacuftrcs ca 
inficicntescapiuntrfedphcraicesmannosctiam ita pifcantur. 
Sunt qui duobus quoqj ali js capiendi generibus vtantur . quod 
enim altos gurgitcs amnium pifcesper hycmem vitare folent 
(Cum enim aliasdalds aqua frigidior fit,tum vcl maximc ews 
imaalgenOidcircofoflfam in fluuiu ducunf,qaam maccrisiun 
geiitcsoperiunt,&foeno,atq;lapidibus ftipant,vt quaficuni- 
culamfaciant,aditu patente ad fluuium,vnde impleatur : tum 
faflo gclu naffa inde pifcacur . Altcrum genus captura: talc eit, 
cuius vfus & hyemc cft & acftate medio amne f ruticibus,& lap 1 



dibuscircamfarpiut,vnoaditudato modo oris-Tum ineoo^c 

Tcftaceogencri annj 

lod 



pofit 



pluuij profunt,pr£tcrquam purpurisrcaias rei indiciu c ^fP.,^o 
fi amnis in marc fluentis aqua guftarint , moriuntur eode dic: 
viu:t purpura extra mare,qax captaeft ,dics circitcr quinqaa- 
ginta. Alit altera alteram,eo quod foa tefta gnatum,vcluti alg a 
mufcamiic gerit.qu* autcm uro cibo i js afferant,ponderis catt 
fa adliibcri aiunt.vt in libra fint grauiorcs.Cxteris fqaalor in- 
commodas cft.nam & pauciora rcddunt ur,& dcteriora.& q al e 
pcftincs tanc magis trahunt ruffum colorcm. Iam in Pyrrheo 
Euripopeftincs aliquandodcfuerunr,non modo proptcr terr^ 
mentum,quo pifcat orcs abradendo vbertim caperenf,vcrun> 
ctiam proptcr ficcitates. Cxteris ctiam teftkf is imbres condu- 
cut,proprerea qaod marcdulcius rcdditur:fed frigusfacit pro- 



IIBER QCTAVVS- 



i>1 



fc&<J nc vcl in Ponto,vcl flunijsgigni pofsint,exceptis bifori- 
bus paucis.gcnus nanq; vniforc pot ifsimum rigorc indur atur, 
& intcrit. Aquatilc animalium gcnas ita / e habct. 



Dt morbi$fHnm,eommq; rtmcdt-s. 



01 



C\iput 



XXI- 



Vadrupcdum fucstribusmorbigcncribus laborant,qoo 

rum vnum raucedo vocatur,quo maxime fauccs,maxil* 

l^q; inflammantur. fcd idem malum,vel qualibct alia corpor is 
partecomrahi potcft.Iam cnim plctunq;in pedcm,alias in au 

to rcm decumbit.Putreicit protinus me mbrum 5 & vlcus ferpit,do 
ncc ad pulmone deueniat>quo tafto inors fequitur . creicit hoc 
vitium cclcritcr,ncc potcft fus quicquam cdcrc cu ita sgrotat, 
ctiam fi quantumlibet fit morbi incremcntumcuratur a proca 
rijs,cum malum incipcrc fcnfcrint , haud alio modo quAm tota 
parte ab/ciffa qoa ccrpcrit. Reliqua duo genera codem vocabu- 
loncminantur ftruma.quorumaltcrum dolorcapitis & graui- 
Us cft,quo plurimilaborarcfolcntraltcrum alui profluuiu cft, 
qaodirremcdiabilcincidit.alreri/uccurritur cx vino adhibito 
nanbus,eocj; ipfo dilutis,ied djfficulter eo qtioq; periculo fub- 

20 trahitur.biduo cnim aut quatriduo intcritus obucnir. Raucc- 

fcunt poti/simura coanno,quomontes abundetulcrint,&pin- 

guifsimi fint.Iuuat mora cclfi dcdiffe in cibatu,& balncum tnul 

tum&calidum,& venxiublinguafira^ctiltello adattoiangui- 

nem detraxifle. Grandinofi autcm fiunt fucs,quorum crura & 

collum &armicarncconftanthumidiore> quibus partibus vcl 
grandincsplurimxinnafcurttur.oarodalciorcftfigfandincsha 

bct paucas:fed fi multas,humida valde,& irfipida cft - Facilfc 
" qQigrandcntCognofcuntur:partccnim lingux infcriorcgran 
dine*habentur,&fifetamdorfocucllas,cruorcm in radicepili 
33 cuulfi vidcris.Pcdibus etia poftcrioribus conftarcnon poffunr* 
quigrandcnt.carcntgrandinccuadhuclaftent tolluntur gr2n 
dincstipha^quxvclincbatu vnliscft.Sed prxcipufc alunt,& 
opimant ficos,& ciccr cibusdeniq; non fimplcx,ied variUs,/a- 
ginaoptima cft.gaadcnt cnim facs pabuli mutationcqoemad- 
ftodam & c^tera animalia.tum ctiam ficri aiunt cibi varietate* 
vt partim inftctur.partim impleatur carnc , p^rtim opimetur ♦ 
Glandcs fuauitcr quidcm a (uihus comedimtur,ied carnr m hu- 
inidamfaciunt fi iola:dantur.&fi grauidx g^andem copicfius 
edcrint,«bortumfaciunt,vtoucr:qmbus confi^ntius hccglan. 
.dibus efitacis accid t. v num cx omnibus qux iy>uimus anitnali* 



•us ,fus grandincm concipit* 



n 3 



Qjzi b 



Ijt ARI5TO;. DE ANTMALI3. 

ifsflen tti r can es . Cap . X X I r . 



tjXIw o^- /^Anes tribuslabcrant vitijs,rabie,angfn3>podagra.facitra 



* / ~ - \^biesfurorcm,&qu2ir,omordcrinf,omn!arabiuntexccpto 

/} * - - hominc.In:crcriitcanc5hocmo2bo»&cjuajmorJaiant»tcxcc- 

t tj ***** ptohomiRC. Ansinactiam inrerimir.& podagra tentati pauci 

1 i cuadcrepcfiant.Pvabics camclum etiam prchcndit . fcicpnan- 

, ' er r toscxtcrismalisimtnuncs aiunt ,inflationcautcmaiuiacrius 
dctam mfsu , 
/i r /7 , mrcitari. 

J /• 7 t 'iort?t K kcumzrf?altttm* Cap. xxill* 




jpria* /;»>- vtdemifUcaures flacceaf ,& vt ccar.cderc nequcat.brcui moriu 

mihi. tur,adaperti:c;pulmoinipiciturpairis. 

Qnibus morhts Ltbtrcnt equtgfegalcs^dcmefltci^,^^ de ntor 

bortimiiuitcijs 0> rcmtdi's,necucn de byppemane, 

Crp-tu c? i ttcruw,0' bcurx. 

caimi xx ii n. -• 




vnguc :ciUerarii!ftatur.Indiciumori5i,vtaltcrtcftiudcxtcrpai 

pitct,vcl vr paclo cicra narc& cauu quiddam rugofam^; g*g na - 
xur.At vero ecjaidomcilici morhisplurimis obncxij iunt .la* 

borat ileo dicto 7 id cft ttnoioris forcftini morborcuius maliin- 
diciu,vtcrura poftcriora atrrahir sdpriosay* ita ibminoucar» 
vt propemodu collidat. SU vbi antea dicbns aiicjuot tpotc icia- 
narint,mox in furore verratur.fanguine dbrra&o iuuarur.Ca- :3 







psunturctiariporcnemorurcuias indiCiu,ven3e vt omncsner 
iilqjintcd^nrurvSccaputccruJccsq^iirirnobiliter rigeaf,re£tis- 

6i cruribus gradjatur. Supputationcetia ecjoi infcilantur.V i- 

tiueorueft,q?jod hord;atiodicitur,cujus ittdictu ,vr palatctn 

inolcftcf.&ferucfius fpiret equus qua cx confct to.nuliii haius 



in 



QSS 



phanOiCftQr.taieeit^vtcquusad tibixionu <juicicat><x acw** 
tat fraittemxQ vcro cofdccnden>,ctrctar contcntlus dcnccrcti 
r.eas.dHmiTus criam femper triftia;;cft,fi ribte tcncrnr rcuius 
indicmjVtauriculpsdcmiftaradiuba, rnr»us^;prcrcndatti~<]* 
^icifsimf4ititctJrrcmediabiJccriamalii,fi cordis dolorc ve- 



xator: 



ttBEK OCTAVVS. x 199 

xatur.cuius indicium,vt I.ucraftibfic!antvS: alia prcfiringatur. 
&fi vcficadimoticaturdciuo firu cuius indicjLirunc vrma rcd 
dcrcpo_sir,& vt vngulas>duneKj; trahar.& i: paftnac?m deuo 
rarint,cuiusmagnircdo,qua_ vcrnciljibeftioja, eft (nam mor- 



(us muris aranci,vci ccrci isiumcntis mokftihimus cfi)puft _ 
Ix hoccxcitamur <& pcrioileiior qucm d*fixcrir grauida.pufta 
Ix cnim rumpuntur,ex quo intcri tus .'equuor.icci fi ncn graui 
daeft,non interimit quinctiam ca quam al.j chalcid-imualijdy- 
gnidim vocar_t,fuo morfti ai?t ir.terimit,aut vehcmcntem do • 
l iorcm moucf.fimiI.is hecparuis lacertis cftzied colorc lcrpcrif, 

quanicxciliaiiinominat.dcuiCjhomincsviupcrifitotidcm fc- 
re morbis eqiium,arq; criam ouem infcftari>quot hc mincm re- 
fcrun t. interrt vencno iandarac* & equcs.& quoduis iumcntu, 
fine vererinum_datur!n aqua pcrcolarum abortnm etia facic 
cquaodorcm icnticns fung, himjgitislucerna. cxtincft^, qucd 
& mulfcrum nonnullis accidic . hattcnus de cquorcm morbu. 
Qtrod hippomancs vocant.ha-rct quidcm frcntinafcentis pui- 
)i,vt narr«iurScdcqujrr j erkmbentcs a^ftcrgcr-tcsq^id abro. 
danr.quarautem dehoci;*bulan:_:r, figmcnta mulicrcu.arum, 
2.0S: proicilorum carminis inomtamcnto.um efiecrcdaidinn po 
ticseft.Emitrictiaivi abcquaprius quam pulkm^qucd puliu 
dicitur.ccrtumcft.cqui vccemquoq^ag iicuntcquornm qci- ' 

boscumpugnarint.Gaudcnrprat^vri^ais.&paiudjbus.bibunt 
enim aqua^ iibentius rurbkiasquod fi chra cit,iniurbaf:t ea vn 
gulis ltu<,& cumbibcrint.lat nt ie tntoijy.rj »h:sc. pcriuntur* 

bslncumcnm-.o^ninf^hocanimaladam^^cv-qua 1 ckdiw efh 

qaatnobccn. nar ara etiam equlflattfattfis ira conftar, vt viucre 
nifi in humorc ston pvisit Bos contra qaam ecuus,u_fi aqua (k 
clara,fn: daatq; ]ym F ida,bibcrcnolii. 

JO ^JJinos nnv w&rbo Lbor.irt ,f *£«r**$ iwp.licntcs 

€ fj e * C"hut xxv. 

S ini vno maximt morbo Jaboratvr,Gucm mahdam vocar> 



v. ' 




in 



an :m alc.t : quaproprcr Tontica A Scyrbicaterraafmis carcr. 
pteUpbantartiwmorlT, ' immiihif itf. Cmpmt xxvr. 



Lephanti rrorbis infbrioneconlra&irhboranf :qno 

£_. r • _ _. _. . i 



fit,ncpo/iintcxcrcircr,tr,m vc] vcrks, vd aiui rcd- 




dcrc . AEgrorart cii*m fi correda nt tcrram , n: 
iieafrcqacntcr vianturmam fi f reqiien ter ? t) iM fcn 



n 4 . tiui.t 



/ 



200 ARtSTOTE. PE ANIMALIB. 

tiant mali.lapides ctiam intcrdum deuorant.necnon flaorc tca 
tanmt>qao,cam vireslanguerinr,curanturpotione aqu# cali- 

* dx,& cibo fceni mcilc imbuti.vtrunq; enim id fiftit profluaiu 
alui fi pcr iniomniam fefsi funr,armis perfricatis cx fale,oleo, 
&aqaacurantur.camhameridolcnt,carmbus fuillis afsis ap- 
pofitisiuaantar.Oleam alijbibant,alij non,&fi fpiculum cor 




Up dtbcat, Jum rcs ita fc habct. 

an diflami, n,tnmL 



Quad 



>fi 



\o 



an txfmnp Ca ^ mt XX vn. 

omnmotpe- |g^^ Nfc£forummaximaparseotcmporevalet,quo gi- 

rtttores tudt- jj*$ ? gnitunvidelicetcum annus talis,quale vcr,humidus 




*c»f. |g| || & tC pidus cft. Apibus bcftiol* quardam in alacis in- 

^ nafcuntar,qu* fauis ofFiciant . V crmiculas item fpc- 
cicaraneinocetfauis,qucmalijclerum,alij pyrauftam vocat. 
hic fibi fimilcm forma aranei parit in lauo,& facit vt examcn 
«grotct.obeft etiam alia qoxdam bcftiola fimilis hepiolopapi 
lioni,qui lucernarum laminibus aduolat.hsec polucrcm fpiran 
do in alueo parit,nec aculco ab apibus ftimulatur , fcd tantum i0 
fumoabigitur.Eracaequoq;nafcunturin alucis tcredincs di- 
£be,qu3s apesnon inleitantur.xgrotanr porifsimum,cum iyl- 
ua tiores arruginofos tulerit,atque ctiam tcmporibusficcis.I"- 
tcreunt inie&a omnia raftaex oieojfed cckrrim^fi capitc illi- 
tocxponantarfoii. 

^/fntmahttm d ? ffcrentiapro loccrum uarictate. 

caput xxviii 

Iaerfitate ctiam locorum dzfferentia oritar.vt enim 
ioch nonnullisg-gniomninoaliqaa nequcunt,nC 




alijs gcncranrur quidem,fed pauciora,& vita brcuio 30 
rc,ncc profpcra,locis ctiam vicinisdifcrimcn huiui- 
modiexiftit vtagri Millefijlocisfibipropinquis cicacte aite- 
risgignuntur,attcrisnon Amnis in Cacphallenia infula dirr 



m sr,caios citra alterum latus cieadarum copia cft, vltra alteru 
nulle. In PordoIclena,via intcriacet,tuius vhra alterom 1&& 
g«gnirurcatas,citraalterumgigninon poteft.Terrx Qccotiz 
in Orchomcnio agrotalpsc habentur multserat in Lebadico vi 
cino nnite funt,ncq; fi aliundc port Jtx c!> fuerint,vclant IntO 
drrc.In Itiiadia lnfrla kpovrs fi aliunde illati dhniuantur,**- 
ucrencqaeut:fcdeodcm rcuerfijVndemansintroiermt infnWtfl 

inoriuntcr.InSiciliaformiacqua: cquitc* appellantur r non 

junt» 



1 1 B I R OCTAVVS. 101 



funt. In Cyrenenfiagro ranae vocales prarterito tfyore deeraf . 
In Africa non aper,nonceraus,non capra fylaeftris eft.India, 
tefte Ctefu,quanquam non fidc digno,foem ncc fcram nc_c mi 
iuetam habct.Qnx autefangainecarent,& qux icccflu tempo. 
reconduntur,grandioranimiramillapofsidet.In Ponto neqj 
mollia funt,neq; teftata,n:fi locis quibufdam paaca.In mari ru 

broteftataomniamiraqaadammagnitudineaagentar.In Sy- 
riaouej funt cauda lata ad cubiti mcnfaram . Capra: auriculis 

menfura pal;nari,& dodrantali,acnonnolic demiisis,ita vt fpc- 
10 ctent ad terram.Boaes nodosfcapularum fl c aant,vt cameli. in 
Ciliciacapra:tondcntar,vtalibioucs.In Africa arictcs ftatim 
conngeri gencrantur,necfolammares,vt Homcrus fcribif,fed 
«iami(feminig.Contriin Fontopcrprouinciam Scythicanul 
iiscomuaenaicutur.In Aegyptoaliquamaiora,quam in Grx 

cia,nont,vtboues,&oucs.aliquaminora,vrcanes,lupi,leporcs, 
vuIpes,corni,accipitres.aliqua magnitudine pari , vt cornices, 
« caprje.caius rei caufam atribuut cibo,qui alijs largc,ali js par 
«Ht,vt lupis,* a.cipitribus.camiuoris enim parum cibi fuppe 

'tatar,proptc r raptas,qao viuunt,penuriam.aacs cnim mino 
r«pauc i eibihab;nfur.lcpori vcro,omnicj 5 noncarniuoro gc- 
jjen vutus iciunior ob cam rem eft,quod ncq; nuccs.nec poma 
J~ ™ Q rniora.Tum etiam multis lccis,ca:li &fitus conditio 
3r W in tCrra I]I y«'«,& Thracia^ in Epiro,afini par- . 
"' I *t?' ln Sc y thica * Gallica nulli propter immodicu fri V - « — r 
?..*'" Ara ° ,a laccrti magnitadinc cubitam cxccdunt. Marcs x«*ff<ii/w4- 

uarn tnuho foricibus auctiores,qaibus crara priora vel palmi . 
n 1U ra,pofteriora adprimnm digiti nodum habetur.In Afri 

tri3 mC i angUi " miraificat&fcrturIacn, ' m n5nul,i vbi 

JQ abwl aPPli / ? lif ! C, " ,t ' 0fla boum multorUm vidiflc narrat,quos 

du<b -\ an § ui °us non dubitarent,cum triremcs pro- 

liea^f"/ ' quam P r:mum an § ucs »nfeaarentur,& nonnal 
* ca Fn «lerterent. I re lcones in Europa potias funt, 

Panther r ° Pae P r rtC ' qQ3e intCr Achcloum amne,* NeiTum eft. 



XJt 



fericff.r.r ™"> m * uro P a an tem 



"s in Afr i? ^ <Unt ' for tlorcs in Eoropa.malrifonnte 
"oui AfHr? V " dc P roacrbl '° qaoda dicitur : Semper aliquid 
Veod^ T afferreiacitcn "' ,n iiliasfitQs aqaaru penuria, vt 

felS?! CWra0 ? hibcdi cauia '<l uo °u>dem loco etia qoz 



f, 

al 



«ieni>cn*f., "•«"'«•Huoqutciemiocoetiaqux 

rcr 'd« vrcri f , ,C0Cunt& g cn *"nt quorum tempora cadcm fc 

tc ^antar „,? ma ? nitodincj non «nultA intcr fcdiicrcpcnt. 

"^nnnorcs inter fcdciidcrJofluui^nam ftcontri qua 



n J caetera 



*02, 



AP.ISTOTE' CB ANIMALIB. 

^terapotomquxrunt.temporeenim hybcrno magis, quam 

acftia Jnfoetara nanq; hfccft biberesftaicproptcrea coodjin 

brcs ficri per id rempos non foleanf .& mures qoldem cura bibe- 

rint,moriuntur.Sed vel alibicoitu alicnigenaru procrcan aper 

tum-eft,vtin Cyrenenfi agro,lnpi cum canibus cceunr,& laco- 

nici cahes cx vulpe & canc gcncrantur.Indicos etiam canes ex 

tigride & cane gigni cot nrmant:vercm non ilatim , icd rertio 

coito.primo enim belloinos adhuc catulos procreari aicnt. alH 

gantorcancslccisdcfcrti^&niiibeliua inienialibidine fit,ia> 

pelacerantar. I0 

Mores ettam anmaliumpro lccorttm c,t>.ahtated,jferrt,uen(- 
naq ; ferpentum,uel mtncra ,ttel aftcriera. Capttt 3 X r x. 

■K * Orumetiamdiuerfitatem loca <fficiunr,vt montana & 
lVIafpera iuas beftias rcddunt & afpe^tu efferatiores, & vi- 
ribus robuftiores,qubi plana & raolliora. Argume nto vel iues 
Athimomisacceperira,quorum ncfeminas qmdem Ipcctare 
marts fuus infericris audcnt.Morfus etiam bellcarnm rx loco- 
rum diaerfitate plurimu difterunt,vt in Pharojccisqs aliji icor 
piones non hedunt-At ai:js,& pwectjwi in Scyih.a multi,&tna 
gui,&nocaifant&fivcihomincm,velquamuis bcftiam per- zo 

caflerint,interimant.ncc lucs ccadere poiTunt,quanquam c*« 
rosvirolcntosiaasminimtfcntiunt.&nigrieorumpotiisiir.u 



interi 



PKTffl 



imantur.quifqttamen cekrrimi- interit,fi iftus adierit 
aquam.Anguiumquoqjiaaspcrlocaplarimudifrerunr.Aipis 

cnimanguis,exqoomedicamen!um purrificura illnd compo- 

Africa eityiitur.cuins iauinulium remedimneft -na- 



«riijjiwp fdtar codem ^ a j L roJn qoo lafcj^pjj ouidam puiilius, cuius 
MUcnm txt rclt)ediam { is cft , qaem exfepakhro coiuidam rcgi i antiqoi 
dcns a celfo. accJplunt)Coq \ pPr f u f cx v ino bibunt. IraliK locis qiMD-ufdam 

moriusetiamftcllionuracxitiales funt.Sedomnium vencnato 3 o 
rum 11101 fos grauiores ihnt,fi alterum cdcrit altcrum, vr icor- 
piuradenoraria vipcraccrtum eft.Flariinis vcrueorum aducr 
jbmr ialma hominw.Serpens quidam minarus eft,quem altqat 
lacrum appellanr,quc.r angues prtcmagni fugiunt.magnitu o 
huic ad cubitum,fpccics hiriuta quicqud moraordcrtt cotmoo 

circitcr putrcicit F.ft pratcrcain Indica regionc fcrpcm par- 
OUijCuias vnias rcmedio carcnt incolas '. 

Qmte^npire ptjctnm geuerafrrtitanti ra tn cibum 

reliar.tiir. Cafmt xxx. 

Dlfcxlmcn animaliam vt profperccontrauc cxfgant, vc 
vtcroplcnocxiftcrcnoairaus.Tcftacnira iate«a vt p*- 



► 



HBER OCTAVVsJ IO3 



ftincs,omneq; oftrearium fiucconcharium genas,atque ctiam 
crnftainte&a>tuncoptima /unt,cu grauida,vt htcin locuftis, 
&rcliqaishuiufmodipatef.fed quanquam tcftainte&a graui- 



dadicimus,tameiLr.u]Jum eorum velcoitom,vcl partum vidc- 



( rct^craftaintc&animirum & coirc , & parere pcrcipicntur. 
Mollia etiam prccftanr,cum grauida i unt, vt lolligines , fepia*, 
polypi.pifces cum implcri incipiutcoJtu,boni omncs ferefunt. 
icdproccdentc vtcri temporc Ai) prxfl anr.alij non - Alcc , fwc 
rcarna vtcro grauis melior eft .forma rotundior farminasporre 

10 ftiormari,cS:lat!or.Eucnit vtcumfcrru impkrifcrminainci- 
rit,tnaris color in nigriorem,plari5q; varietatis matctur,& ca- 
rodctcrrima cibo efficiatur.vocantur 4 nonullis pcr id tcmpns 
hirci.mutantur pifccs,cui n.crui2r,& qui turdi appcllantor, ar- 
pcctiamfquillccrVcrccnhn riigrcicunr ,poft ver aibedinem 
iwn recipiunr Fuca ctiam mur at colorcm. cum cnim cstcris 
temporibus candida fit, verno varia rcdditor.folam hanc cx ma 
nnispifdbusnidcmfibiconftcrncrc, arq;in ftragola parcrc ? ro fmaricle, 
amnt.Akc ctiam mntatur>vt dixi,& cerrus,vt cx albcdinerur- rc J t { t t ctrri. 
' Qs *forcad nigrcdinemrcdcantrqnod ir.aximtrfuis pinnis , & 
branchijsdcclaranr.CoruuIus cti&m com vtcro fcrt , optimus 

«ft 5 ?crindev^talec.magilisvcro,&l(ipis,cS:rdiqui fer^ omncs 
W*nu intcdri dctcriorcs fanf ,cam ferunt fimilcs fibi, fcrcntcs 

* n cnfcrcntcspaucifunt,vtglaucus.Vitianrurctiamfcncfta- 

,c P*fes,& quidcm thunni vel ad rcm falfamcntariam fcncs im 

Probifuntnnultumcnim carnis abfumitur.quod idem vcl in cx 

j^spifcibuseacnit.declaramrcorumfcnctius duritic magni- 

u lRC S^qnamarum.Iamcapcuseftthcnf«usfcnc>*,caius pon 

* Cra t«dt2kntaqaindecim,&candac intcruaiium ad cubif^ 

^^^^P^am.Flauiatilcs & lacuftrcs pifces optimi fant d^\ 

^ P^tum,& fcminis gcmtalis emifsioncm.Scd nonnalli etia 
^rcrGnrcommendantar,vtfapcrd!s.alijdamnantur,vt fa:- 
SJ^ 1 c * teri omncsmarcsfuisfcEminis fmt prsftantiores, 
qj ^™' 03 prarftatfuo nuri.& in gmcrc anguiilarum 
1 °Spcmcl orrsih-t,quas fVrminas r.ominanr,qna: nomcn 



Wnunxreinercaccrperunr. Nonfunt enim i<xmU 
n« 5 fcd quia aipe&a £ cttensdiicrepant, 

fcrminx appeibntur. 



IU «TO RIAS 



A N I M A L 1 Y M 



L Z B K I O <: T A V I 



Arlft 



to4 



A 



ARISTOT. DE ANlMAtlB* 

RISTOTELIS ST 

GIRITAE DEHISTO- 

RIA ANIMALIVM LIBER 




/ 



IX. INTERHETE T«£0- 

DOB.O 6 A Z A- 



tf« 



•fetnimtciti** >&tarunic»ufi 



lo 



Caf>Ht 



I 




R E S 



__., animalium obfcuriorum,paromq; 

viucntium tcmporis, minus fcnfu pcrcipmn- 

tur : viaaciorum euidentiorcs funt . Habetc 

| cnim vim quandam naturalcm animantcs m 



dent 



tta,acerbitaie;& reliquis hab.tlbns generis eiuldem. In . no nnul 
lis ctiam commune aUquiddifciplm_,eruditionisque haoetar. 
Aliaenim vicifsiminterfe,alia ab homine(qu_ fcil.cet aud> JC , 
tu noncarenf)nonmodoftrepend:, verumeriam fign.hcandi 
difFercntias poiTuntdignofccre.Inomnibus vero, quoru pro- 
creatio eftfoeminam & marem fimili fcre modo natura diitm- 
xit moribus, quibus mas d.ffcrr a foeminatquod pr„c.puetom 
in homine,tum etiam in ijs,qo„ magnitudinc pr_ftcnr,& qu» 
drupedes vinipar_fmt,percipitur. Suntcnimfcemin* mon- 
bus mollioribus,mitefcunr cclerius,& manum f acihus panun- 
tur.difcuntetiam,imitanmrqueingeniofius,vtin gensre ca- 

numlaconico,faeminasciTefagaciores quammarcs, apcrtuai 
eft.Moloticum ctiam genus venaticum nihilo a cxterfc diia :• p 
par.Atpccuarium longeft magnitndine, „ fortitodinecontr 
bclluas przftat. Tnfigncs »«ro animo ; & induftria, qni « vtro- 
que,moloti:umdico<Sclaconicum,prodierint. Sed i^ ir ' in 
omnes minusqoam marcjfunt ammof.c,cxceptapanthcra,<x 
&vrfa. fam.injecnim in his generibus effe videntur an" r f" 
rcs,cum in carteris fint procol dabio molliorcs: verom ma.ui 
fiores,aftatiores,infidiofiores foemin* iunt, atque in cnuir. 
da prolefolicitiores.Mares contra animoilores, t«oc'ores,i.. 
piiciorc^mmuscmcinudion. Qnornmveftigia morum,co. 
inomnibus fere infunt,tum vel maxime in pe. te£honbas, 

prxcipue in hominc. Hiccnim natara pcrfcaifsimacit, « 



t 



LI BER NO N VS. *0S 

cam rcm hahitus ifti confpe&iores in co ipfo continentur Jta- 
quemul/cr mikricors magi$,& ad lachrymas propenfior, qua 
vir cft.inuidaitemmagJs,& queruia,& maledicentior,& mor- 
daciorpra:tereaanxia,<S:dciperas magis, quatras,atq;impu- 
dctior,& mendacior .quinctiamfaciliordecipi\maniniffeque 
aptionad haec vigilantior,icgnior, immobilior deniqueeft, <5fc 
minascibiddiderans.Mas vcroiuuantior,vtmododixi,& for 
tior eft.Nam&in molliumgenere 5 cumfa:piai<3acft tridcn- 



abanimalibus eft,vnde augarcs fuadifsidia,& 
gunt.difadio bellaomnemducdifcordiam fta 



te,mas faaminam adiuuar,fccmina marcpercufTo, fugam arri- 
1 opit Pngnat inter fe ipfa animalia,qna» loca eadcm incolunt,at- 
qaeeifdctn vcfcunturcibis-namfi viflus pcnuria fit, fit ccrtc 
ooeam rcm, vt vel ciufdem gencris animantes pugna inter ie 
conicrant. Et quidem marinos vitulos fitus eiufdcm pugnarc 
inniccm aiunt,& marcm cum niare,& fcrminamcum foemina, 
doncc altcr ab altcro vcl cecidatur, vcl eijciatur. Idem que eo* 
rum catulos faccr c. Carniuora etiam & oppugnantur a aete- 
risomnibus^&ipfacumcarterispugnantrqaoniam viftushis 

confidia coili- 

que difcordiam ftatuunt , confidio 
ttpaccinomncmque concordtam. Quod fi cibi copia fuppetaf, 
haud fcio a n ca qaae nunc metuunt,& fcroclant , inter fc eant, 
maniuctcquc cum intcr fc eunt.cum homineetiam agant.cuius 
* Cl indiciurnfacitcur2, quam Acgyptij animantibus impcn- 
cantqucd cnim apud illos cibo non carent , fed copiofe alun- 
ta,idco collcgio vcl ipfaeffcratifsimadcgont.manfaefccnt c- 
nim iuicommodi ratione.qualefc genus crocodill cxhibet fa- 
^rdotilocisquibufdam,proptcrcibicuram, quaribi infumi- 

' dct 

, ^ aquija angutDus.icnncutno 

Qm P^ alan gc:venatur enim phalanges ichncumo. Auium va- 
^dicta: 5 cuin alaudis.pipo cum lutea. oua enim inuicem exe- 

n a a' C °™ ix cam noftaa. cornix enim meridie oua furripiens 
"° *f a kfumir,cam non clare intcrdia no&ua videat. no&ua 
**txk oua cornicis nofta cxcdit. eftque altera interdiu,altcra 
J ta potentior Jtem noftua cum orchilornam is quoq;oua 
_ ltn °3ux.fcddievelca:tera: ao,ca ^ x>oiriIlcs noftuam ni 



^r.qaod idcm fieri carteris etiam lods intclligi licct. Difsi 
a qaila camdracone: vcfcitur enim aqaila anguibus.Ichnea 



^rom circumuolant. quod mirari vocatur,aduolantesq; pcr- 
ma !^ n ^ ua P ro ptcr aacupcs ca conftituta,aaicularum gcncra 
P iu ' Va " a ca P iunt Q2i nc tiam qui rex aaium appcHatur, 
Scis^ft C ° ntra candcm toim *citias gerit.muftelainimicuscor 
" clt '^Tpcquiciusoaa,&p U llosvioler.Turturcu igna- 



ria 



* 



4 * 

10 £ AMSTOTE. DE ANIMALI3. 

riapugnat.loaisen_mp?.fcendi, viftasqueidem comm efc 
Galgulus cam lybio,railuus cam coruo. eripit cn(m mjluus a 
coruo qaicquid tenet,vt qui & vnguibusfit prrrftanti^r^o 
latu.itafit,vtcosquoqucvi£rusrJtiofaciatinimicos.Adhrc f 

intcr ca qus cibum fibi a mari petunt,ar.as,gaaia,& harps,tn- 

ciccm difstdcnt.Burco in alio gencre hoftis ran#, & rubctx,* 

angals cft.rapit enim eos.atq; cxcdit.Turtur & loteas pugnar. 

ccciditur a latco turtar,& a cornicc tympanus nom inc coiarc 

viola,c2teriqacadanclrapiunt ? vndehis oriturbcllum inter 

ftellionem ctiam & araneum bellum cft . dcucrantor enfcnara- 

neia ftellione.pipoinimicaardeol«eft.ouaenim& pulli ar- 

dcolx violantur h pipone.falo praeliam cu afino eft ,proptcrca 

quod afinas fpinctis faa vlcera fcabcndi caufa atteratrtum igi- 

tur ob cam rem,tum etzam quod fi voccm radetis audierif,oua 

abigat pcr abortum,pulli ctiam mctu labantur in terram.itaq; 

obcam iniuriam aduolans.vlceraroftroexcauat. lupus, afinc* 

taoro,* valpi cft hoft is.Cum cnim carnc ipfc alatur ,boucs in 

uadit,& a(inos,& valpcs.haccadcmdecaufa & cum circo acci-- 

pitrc vulpi inimiciti* funt.circus cnim,quia vnguibus cft adu 

_-_ ___. * .1. -. - i -____. _________ — __fe _r* __«____* _T« Mf 



_.• 



afino aducrfarius eft ,qnippc qui aduohns feriar, & corum ccu 
los laccrct.Aquilactiam cu ardeola pugnat, ynguibus etcnim 
valens aggrcdirur.harc aatcm rcpngnsndo emoritur. ^falocu 
Vulturc,crcxcomgalgulo,&merula,& virconc,qncm cx fla- 
grationc procreatum qoidam fabulantur.nocet enim hls* &eo 
rumpollis. Sitta&trochiluscii aliqua.fittacnimouaaquiljc 
frangitaqu ila tum ob eam rcm,tum etiam quod carniuora ctt 
aducrfatur. Florus odio equumhabet. peilitar cr.fm ab cquo 
pabuloherba.,qua vcfcitur.nabecclans h(c,nec valcns acic ocu 
lorum cft,quippc qui voccm quidcm cqui imitetur, atquc ac- 
uolans cquom fogerrfed interdum exc!piarur,occicattirquc ab 
cquo.colir hic pa!udes,& ripascoloris cft pulchri . & vi&os fa- 
cilis.Colotxhoftisafmuscft.dormitenimcolota in praejepi- 
bus,& narcm fabiens afini nccomedat ,impcdir. Ardeolaru tria 

.. «■ - .. . . _ ______ „_«_-__;_'__<_ 



emlttit 



funtgcnera,pclla,arDa,ftellaris,pigcrcognominc.pclLrco!tos 

diffjc?liseft,vociferaturenim & fanguincm cx oculis.vt ainnt, 

rgre,fummoquecum dolore.prce- 
uumcum ijs inir,a qumus ixditur,hoceft cum aqu.la,£ qua ra 

piturrcum vulpcu qua nofta capitar : cam alaada, I qua oua 
ciasdiripiuntorfcrpcnsmuftcl^/uisqueaducrfariuscft.nia- 

« . . i _.!_.__ . i __.-*«__ ..:A.,_- +~lm*vMdt\n 



qaod 



appct 



LIBER. NOtJTJ. • 20 7 

appetatar necefleeft.fiiis vero,quia ab ea denortrar.«efa!o vvl- 
pieft inimicus,fcrit enim ptlosq; eius eucllir, occiditque catu- 
los,vncisn5ncaevnguibuscft.CorousvuIpianfcus eft , pu- 
gnatenimcum fcfalcnervndefir, vthuiccamabiUopcrcuti- 
tur,auxilietur. Vultnr ctiam & acfalo inuicnn inimici funt ,vn- 
guescnim vtriq;vncihabcnrur.AquiIa:ctiapugnatvuI(ur & 
olor,nutritque eam fepius olor. Olor ibus vero vt alter alrei u 
cuorer,in morc cft, maxime in vokcrum genere. font porro 
aliafcmper teter fe infefta,alia hominu ritu, cil rcs ita tulcrir. 
Ahnmue&fpinusinimiciintcrfciunt . viftus enim fpino a 
vcpnbus,quas afinustenellas adiiuc pafdt. Florus,/pinuj.a.>gi- 
tnas,quem falnm voco,odium intcr fe exercent. & nimiiu /an- 



«r*" 



mci 



*f «olaJur.co&alaoda,gaJgnlus &la:dus. Colit en;m gal- 
giaasiroteta&nemorajaedusfaxa & montcs.fuiiq-Iocis vter 
ye contcntns degir pacifice. amici etiam pifex,harpa, milunr . 
V uipes etiam cu ferpente amicevioJt-ambo cnim cauernis gaa - 
t!cn r .& merala quoq; turture amat. Lco &lapas ccruaria^ini 

:o f ,C n tl' C u m Cnim C3rnC iUDt *MiGn ex cifdt petant ncccf- 

ecu.E.cpbanti ctiampngpantinicrfe vehemcnter,& dcnti- 

Q \ a ! ter a] ^vm fcrir.qui autcm vitfus fuerit, adeo animum 

amittit.vt ne voce quide vicloris tolercr. d.fTerant inter fe ele 

pnjntcs mfreni (n modu robore,atq; animo. Sont apud Indos 

v a rej bcllica» no folum marcs,fed ctia frcminarrvcruramen 

rtnunat paaciorcs funt,& longe tlm idicres.euertit srdificia e- 

irnoll tU J " ac!moncns ^agnos . palmas vero fua fronte 
RMonjcdccIinet, tum pedibus incnlcans profternit in 

q-iosT' • n ? ti0 , ta], ' s elephantotnfn eft.confcendnnt mitcs ali- 

tor fe mor ° s 95 e?fphantdt,qdj vcnantur>ccrfcq; infcqacn- 

Pm, ^? 5 " 0005 c " occuparint,{orirc prarcipiunf fute, dum fati- 



£t'r« -• ' ? , iflo]uant - TlJ ™ reclor indefatigatum illom infi 



3 



alij m, f iT rcftor ' 1 " 1 're fc quifq; exhibetrcu dcfcedcrit 
«mmitcfS i nt rcroant ' ali J ruatn repetunt ferifatcm.itaque 
«Piuntnr i"" 1 CrQra pri ° ra praepc d, ' nn 'vincnlis,vt quiefcanf. 
wipici* in I • "u « ' a,n S ranclrs >* Pullf.Sedamicitiap,atqne ini- 
2?™ Wfc*.7«fl* vit*que ratione ita cxiftunt. 

; ™*r m ' t P a P'X**i*9*miti& uiuunt,r,uwe ncn 




* •'.^mtntmieiAtfmt. C*put n. 

n n: T antCmali J^Hatimd,enni 
n Srcgatim,ini IK icic]; viuut.Qui 



partim 



20? ARISTOTE. DE ANIMALIB* 

partim cunrvtero ferunt,partim cum fretum «diderint. Gre- 
gales denique funtthunni,alcces,gobioncs,voca:Jacerti,coruu 
li fme gracul!,dentices,mulli,malleoli,elegtni,facri,ariftulc,far 
• giac!,loll!J,papaueres,iuli t T,l!marte,fcombri,monedul^.horu 
nonnulli non modo gregales funt,verumetiam coniugales Re 
liquiomnesconiugia agunt quidem,fcd greges ftatis tempori- 
bus,vtmododixf,conftituunt,fcilicetautcum vtcrum gerunt, 
aut poft partum.Lupus & mugilis quanquam inimici funt ca- 



ftato tempor 



zo 



gem 
bus 



barij.fepcmugiles cauda abfcifla viuunt, atqucetiam congri 
mcatutcnuscxcremcntario. Ab/cinditur mugilis caudaalu- 
po,congri h murcna.Ineuntprxlium maiores cotra minores. 
maior cnim quifque atque robuftior,minorcm infirmioremqi 
deuor at.fcd dc marinis gcncribos fatis* 



genere cnilt amente tyft< 
Caput iii. 




Otes autem animalium,vtdi£um iam cft,differont*o 
intcrfefortitudine,ignauia,manfuetudine,ferocita- 

te,mente,demcntia.Iam enim genus ouile amens, & 
^__moribus(vtdicifolct) ftultifsimiseft,quippe quod 
omnium quadrupedam ineptifJmum fif « repit in defertafine 
caufahyeme obftante ipfum f#peegrcditur ftabulo. occopatu 
£niae,nifi paftorcompalerit,abirenon vulr,fcdpcritdefiiK's, 
nifi marcs a paftore ducantur.ita enim reliquus grcx confeqdi 
tur. Caprarum ex grege fi quis vnam villo mento dependen- 
te.quem aruncum vocar,apprehenderit, cxtcvx ftant vclur fto 
pidx,faos in vnam illamoculos conijcientes. Cubant diffici-J 
lius oues,quam capra?:magis cnim capra: quie/cant,accedunt- 
que adhominemfamiliarius.fcdfuntfrigoris impatientiorcs, 
quam oucs.docentpaftoresfuas oues gregari,fa&o ftrepitu.na 
ficum tonuerit aliqua rclinquatur,quxnon concurrerif,abor- 
tum,fieft grauida,facit.vndcfir,vt fi qnem domi ftrepitumo- 
aeris,^mnes concurrant,proptcr confuctudincm. Cubatoucs, 
capraquc vniucrfx pcr cogoationem« Cum primum fol con- 
oerfpsdcftiteritxaprasnonaducrfis prarterca intcr fc oculis» 
fcd aueifis cubare accepimus. 

De/ocietateboum.ecjudrumque mutm interfe amore. 

Catut iii. 

1 - Qonc* 





II B £ R N O NVS. 109 

Onct 3t pafcunt per focietatcs atque confaetudines* fi 
vnusaberranr,reliqai fcquuntur.quapropter boanj tiift 
prsucncrintrfoiu armcntum requirant,necefTe cft.Equa: fecje 
tateconiunftar,fi altera fort£ perierit, altera pullum parcrre 
orbatum enutrit . Equarum denique gcnus miro quoda amo- 
rcprolis tcncri putaturrcuius rci indicium eft,quod fzpw ftc 
rilesauferuntpollosa matribus, quos ipfai ajnore proiequen- 
tc$ tueantur : fcd quoniam la&e careant, dcprauanf eo$ «juos 
diligont. 

*Q De cctu&pYudtntiainpuUii &dcnAt*Jet[* matis 

cornuum amiflionc,0* rcparatwne. 

Caput v. 

Erarum quadrupedum ccrua maximfc prudetia prae 
ftarc videtur,tum quia circa femitas pariat,quo fci- 
licct bellua» proptcr homincs minus accedunt : tum 
ctiaquia cuni peperitinuolocruprimucxedit,mox 
fefelim hcrba petit,qua cnm ederit,redit ad prolem. Prxterea 
hinnulum duccns in ftabula, afluefacir, quo refugere debcat. 
faxumhoccftabruptam,vnoaditu,quolococamft quis inqa- 
*°dit, cxpe&are,repugnarcq; affirmant. Masitemcumpinguc- 
rit,qood valde temporc frufluom fit,nufquam apparct,fed lon 
gc fccedit,vr qui ponderc fuat corpulerix capi fc poflc facilius 
fentiat Cornua etiam locis difficihbus amitnt & qua inucniri 
ncqoeant;vndetl!udproucrbiumortum,QnSccruiamittunt 
^ornua.Quaficm fua amiicritarma,cauct ne inermlsreperia- 
tur.Cornu finiftrum copertam cflc a ncminc adhuc ferturroc- 
culit id cnimtaquam quodam medicamento pra?ditum Anni 
^uwnondomcornua nafcuntur,nifi quoad indicii gratia fit ini 
tiom quoddam praetobcrans,qnodbreuc,hirtumouecft.Bimis 
cornua primum oriuntur fimplfcia,S: rc£te,ad fobularum fimi 
Jjtadinem,quam ob rcmfubuloncs per id temporis eos vocant- 
Trnriis bifida excunt 5 quadrimis trifida,atqucdeinccps ad huc 
j^odum procedit numerna vfqs ad annum fcxtum. Ab hoc fimi 
la lcm F*r prodcunt,ita ne fit dignofccrc artatcm ramorom nu 
™cro.fcd fents cognofcimus maximeindicioduplici illordcn- 
a enim aut nullos,aut paucos habcnt.atque adminiculis caret. 
yocantur adminicula rami,qui imis cornibus prominent ante 
Jontem,quibus in pugna vtuntur iuniore$:fcnes autemcarct. 
" llttUl V fingujis annis cornuamcnfc Apnli, qnxeum pmife- 
TOt,occultantfcfcinterdiu,vtfupcrius dixi, idqjopacls faciut 

°«ivt muicarom tsdio vaccnt.pafcuntur pcr id tempus no* 

o £hh 






SIO ARISTOT. DE ANiMAUB. 

' aa,donecreripiantcornaa, qaarprimam qaafi cuteveftita,* 

hirtiufcula emittiit:fed cu creaeri»t,foli exponunt, vt cxcoqua 

tar,* ficccar -vbi iam nihil attritu arborum, cum ea fcalpanr, 

indolenr,runc ea rclinquunt loca,confifi habere iam quo repu- 

gnare pofsfnr cum res exigit.captus iam ceruas cft, hedera Uiis 

enatam cornibus gerens virideiruqns: cornu adhuc tenello tor 

tMnfcrta,quafi ligno viridi coaluCrit.Cerui morfi vel a phala 

gio>velaquonisgeneriseiufdcm,cancTos edurr:quod ideho- 

rnini ctiam prodefie putarur,fed non caret faftidio.Cerus fta- 

»im a parto excdunt inaolacr um,vt diflnm eft,ncc fieri potelt,» 

vt 'd accipias prius enim qnam in terram dcmittant,ipfe arn- 




ja effe fignificarir.fed fi cera* eretfas aariculas tcneat ,acerrime 
fentit, ncc latere infidix poftunt:fin detr.ifi~as,facile interimit. 

jye quibufdam animahbttf, yuaprudcntia qttaJam 

patttrainHitmtf Capttt vi. 

VRfecom fugiunt,fuos catulos propellunf, fufceptosque 
portant.cum ab infefhnte iam ocenpantur,a;bores fcan- o 
dant.Sol:nt vifi arum herbam comcdere, cam e latibolo egrc- 

diunrar,vt difiom eft:ltgna eriarn manducanr, quafi dcntiant - 

Scd excxrrris quoque qaadtupcdibus multae prudcnter fibi 

opitulari videnrur . N T am <Sr in Creta infula capras fylucitres 

* fag:ttatransfixas,dictamnum herbam quxrere aiunt:hoc cnim 

fpfcalaexcorporeeijci. Canes etiam rrgrefcentes hf rba qaa- 
. t dam comcfa vomitant .panth-ra cam vcnenam, pardaliancnes 
<! r * f * "diaum,ab angoreedcrit,quo leones etiam infereunr,ftercus no 
J" ,tur ' , minis quarrit:eo enim ipfo luaatur.qaocircavenatores ftercus 
!j/ <*yy&<* , ^f p r0 p, n q, jnm Aafpendunt ex arbore aliqua.ne procul bellaa 3« 
**i» ttaftkh, a beat,petcns fuam mcdicamentam. itaque infiliens ibidem,* 
CrPli.habtt( pc capiendi ptrfeuerans,in feeffirendaemonror.Eandemfe- 
t>t »aft ah- ^ abfcondcntem venari fernnr,propterea qtiodfuo odcrebd- 
f*; luas deleaari intclhgat propius enim ita accedunf, qoas corri 

piar.Ichneomo Aegypti,vbiafptdem angaem funm hofte afpe 
xcrit,non prius aggredirur, quam focios vocet, & limo obdu- . 
clc,contra ians morfuro; fefc loricet- Modns armandi.vf pr«- 
mum madcf Kiar corpus^ in terra fe volaf et. Crocodilishian 
ttba.s rrochili aues tnuolantes dcpurgar.tdenrei.quo ,nDner ^ 
ipfi aluntar.&croccdilusfenricns fecom commode agi , nilvi 
hocct/cdcum egredi iutem vult,ccruiccs monet,nc c °P*j!™*^ 



IIBER nonvs. 



ur 



TcftudocnmvipcramcdCTit,iT!oxctiniJaiTicdif. qoodcamfra 

fapins faaam animaduertfflet quidam, vtguflaracuniJa vipc foiycutti 

moiteiaquotiesdimicataracum ferpenrceft,ruramcomedit: «W_* , ;; 
odoretenim cius hcrb,r fnfeflus ferpentibus cft dracocum ncr fjJa. 

vinm pomcrom naufca infcftatur, fuccnm ivlucflris Jadocar vt *&*®'> 
«orbetrqaod ita facerc Vifasfepftia cft. Cancs cum Jomfricis ! •jp tmt firm 
inreftanrur,hcrbam tnrici comedunt.Ciconi*,carier.Toue aoes Utuct ' fK, y 
cu vulnus pcr pugnam acccperint, conilam pJaga- appononf. ll «Z rt l 1 *' 
Jocuitam «ia compiurcs v derunr,quoties cu fcrpente pognat 
coHom eius prcbenderc.Qmn &muftela prudent cr capcre aoes 

Videfor.iuPnJarpnim «„--,-,.-._..•. ... t__. r- 



c 



qooque m,pugnat,eum prarcipuc qui murc*vcnafur,vidclicct 
ea cauia,quia ipia ctiam morcs pcrfcqoitur. De herinaceornm 
leniu Iocis multis pcrpcnfom eft,vr qoi in caocrnis funr, ccm- 
matcntfuaaibiIia,aquilonom& auftrorom mutationc. qui au 
tem mtra tea.i aluntur,ad parietc s difceduf . qood ita ficri ccm 
liyzantij qoidem aniinaduerriiTct. c onfecufm cxiflimafioncm 
^eit,vtre,npa,fararompolTctprTfagirc.iais gcnus moftelx 
ruitica:,qaodviuerram inrerprctor,m3gnitodineeft,c.u3m mc 
Wtotn catellac minnr,fcd piio,fcrma,a]bcdinepartis inferio- 
ris,&morum aflorla mcftd? f.milis. m.infucfcit maiorcm in 
fflodum offidt aloearibus:meIiis enim auida eft.sur; ctiam pc 
^vtieJw.jrcnimlceiosotTccmcft.vtanrtdixi.&treJicanen 
vriiixftjliarjonjbus cftcputatur.darur pcr ramcrtao:vino. 

. <Oc c« t***Utgimt0f4m, cua antmalta qt^dahcminum ra 



Jo 



"'"™ rc r^lnitant,utkiry.,ic{ims,&tmi!e ce- 
1»'>-Iactumgentt<;c!tq; xtatt cclumbarum,Per- 
i"«m*&faff t99m . fafut vii. 




eff^„-j b ; rj«one.quctJ primu in auium gcncre hirado m 

feVnrt J COft,n)en<lo< ^ n, ' do *>ftedit.confingitimplicito Into 
eft feJr n ° V™ lmari * Palcationis : « fi quando luti inopia 
J.Jl* ma «~"acns volutatin nalaercomnibos rcnnis ftra 



cicn^ * £'. im T re ho '«''n"m fecit, duriora pritrum fubij- 
atq- inV" f. totu c °nfternes pro fui corporis magniturfine 
^bora» T U a P roIe,n,r » ra m'mas,qo. } im fcrmina .rqoitatc* 
^iada nJ 1,p ? rt,t puUiS f,n S ulis cibom , obferaaos cofnetudine 

n«m oar^? 1 ,CCc l 1crfr ' b,s a «ip'3t • «crcmenfa ctiam nnllo- 
* n parentcsei 1 ciant.P; 1 il _^l.i — . .• . 2_.. r_ 



circumag 



o t 



raiqj 



Io 



ftt -ARISTOT. Dl ANtMALlB. 

rasiq; ipfos egererc edocent. Ad hsc, columbi pjeraq; conte>la 
lionis huiufmodi afforunt.ncq, enim cam pluribus adoleiccre, 
aut coire patiuntur , neque coniogium iam indc a primo ortu 
initum dcferunt, nifi coelebs,aut v idua. Qoinctiam foeminx 
parturienti mas adeft,& cultu^omniq^e officiofongitur. i*pc 
etiamfczminam pigrius cnntc ad nidum oropter partus labo- 
rem mas percutit,cogitq; intrare. exclufus iam pnlhs terraial 
fuginofam potifsimfi prjcmandocati in eorum os inferens,iuu 
ineerit,atq; ita praeparat ad cibum recipienduadnltos ia,cum 
tempus prodeuodi ex nido cft,mas fubigit.Ita magna ex partc 
columba: mutuo degunt amorecfed interdum nonnullac etia ex 
JxAet* maritatis cum alijs coeunt.pugnax hoc animal eft. alter akeru 
f»bifft, infcftat.nidumq; altcr alterios fubit ,fcd raro. nam etfi cx lon- 

ginquo minus,tamcn apud ipfum nidum fummo certamine di 
micatar .proprium columbarum & palumbium & torturum ei 
fe videtur, ne collam cum bibunt,refupinent, nifi fatis haufe; 
rint.mare vno conte«ta,& turtur,& palumbes viuit,nec altetu 
rcciDir.Incubant ambo,& mas&foemina.dignofcimasne,an 
ffEminafit,haudfacile eft,nift interiorum aipeau.vita palum 

bibus longa,nam ad vigefimumquintnm,& adtrigefimum an- 

num protrahitur.nonnullas quadraginta etiam anr.oscomple 

uiffe exploratum habetur-xtate autem proue&is vngnes accre 

fcunt,quos reciderefolent,qui alunt.nihil,quo ladantur apcr- 

te.aliud his iencfccntibus accidif . Turturcs & columbx vel ad 

, annum o&auum viuunt,fcilicct quae excxcata: allcflatrices alu 

7T»\iv(jCJiaf tnr.perdicibus vita ad quinq; & viginti aBnos. Nidolantur & 

atlecUtnccs palambcs&turturesfcmper locis eifdem,&cummaresin to- 

&fic dicun tumdiuturniores.quafnemina: fint,in hismarcm prius, quam 

tttr colttmbt foEminam mori nonnolli aiunt, vidclicet documento earom, 

autattesqu* qojcdomialleftatrice-.alunrnr. Sunt qui pafferum ef ia maresi 

i» renbusfer anno dratius durare non poffe arbitrcntur,argumento quodve 

uantur ad a- r j s f n i r j nulli mentom habere nigrum fpe£lentur,fed poftea, - 

Ua* alhettn- tanquanullusannifuperioris feruetur.fneminas verohoc in 

dtf. genereeffeviuaciores volunt capienim has cum nonnullis,co 






20 



gnofciq 

locis fripdis,h} 
hycmefrigfdis. 



cmc 



M 




aftutia. cafnt v 1 1 1 • 

Ves graniores nidos fibi non faciunt,vt coturnices,vt pe* 

dices,& rcliqux gcncris ciufdem, qoibus cnim volandi ta- 

colfas 



10 



ilBU NONVS, 21* 

cultas dceft >ijs nidus non prodeft,fed fafta in aprico area f ah- 
bienirn nulquam pariuntjatquc matcria,vt vepribus quibuf- 
damcongeftis,quoadaccipitrum&aquilarum iniuriam dcui- 
iarepof5int,ouaadunt,& incubant.Moxcum cxcluierint. pro 
tinus pullos educunt,propterca quod nequcunt iuo volatu ijs 

cibamadminiftrarc refoucntfuos pullosiub feipte ducendo 
morcgalljnarum,& cotnrnices,<3rpcrdiccs,neccodem in loco 
&pariunt,&incubant,nequis locu pcrcipiat longioris tcmpp 
ris mora-cum ad nidam quis venando acccfTcrit,prouoluit fcfe 
perdix ante pedcs vcnantis,quafi iam pofsit capi, atq; ita al|i- 
cit ad k capiendam hominem,eoufque dum polli effugiant:tu 
ipia auolat,& rcuocat prolcm.parit oua non pauciora qua de- 
ccm,icd fxpius fcdecmi. Maliticfa aftutaquc auis hcec cft, vt dU 
xi.icccrnuntur vcrno temporc dc grcge per cantum & pugna, 
coniagatim mares cum fre minis^quamcunqoc fibi quifqne for 
tc accepcrit.oua mares qux compcrerint,peruoluunt, & fran 
gsnt prs fuafalacitatc,nc fremina incubet.quod ne accidat foe 
n.inacm6licns,clanculum diffugies parit.fcd fitfxpius,vt pra: 
turgorep3^turiendiquolibctlocoffdat,&marc pra^fcnti.veru 

vtouaicrucntur ? nunquam ex eo quopeperit lcco difccdi,& 
nabhomrne vifa eft,ita fcab ouis aftute qucmadmodum a pul 
hs fubtrahit,labans antc hominis pedes,dum dimoucat. S ed cii 
diftagerit fcrmina vt incubet,marcs tumolruant 3 clamitant,pa 
gnamqae inter fe conferunt, quos ccrlibes vocant* qui auum 
Victas in pugna fucrit.iequitur vi&oris vencrem paticns, ncc 
a ba!i ,niii aiuoviftorefubigitur.fcdfi icomitcprincipis,aut 
S^oais vulgari vincatur, clam £ principc acfurto iubigitur.^ 
V cram hoc non ita fieri fempcr,<cd certo tempore anni planu 
^t.Hocidcmacoturnicibus qaoqueagi animaduertimus.Gal- 
30 hnacei ctiam idem interdum faciunt. In templis enim vbi finc 

^winis munerari j, dicatique verfantur, non tcmerc cum qui 
^perdicatasacccflTerit,omnesiubigant. nccnon pcrdiccs man 

^tiiam^domcftici fubigunt fcros,& fpcrount,contuir.cIio- 
^ac tradant.pcrdiccm venatorcm dux fylueftrium primus 

n ^dir,pugnamque obuiam conierit, quo capto compage aU 

c r occurrit,tom alius, atque ita Cngulis dimicatur, fi mas fif, 

*i l VCT1 3tor.S cd fi toemina eft^vbi dux ad eius vocem occarrc- 

icaetera: vniucrixeum inuadanf,fcriant,fugantabeafoemi 

reln f UiCiCntCS ^ ^ n ° n fib, ' fcd llH accrflerit. hic tacitus ob ei 
H *P C ^ acce dit,nc voce percepta oppugnetur - nonnunquam 



cflficcrcvf f ccn;i 



o j ca 



21^, ARISTOTE. DEANIMAU!* 

ta pugnarecum cxteris maribas cogatur,pcriti refcrunt, pcrdt 
ces non modo canunt,verumctiam ftrident,& voccs alias quaf 
damemittun^fepe&fazmina incubanscxurgif,cum marem 



occurrcns 



bct libidini maris, vr iatiatus negligat vcnatricem. Viqacadco 
tum perdices,tuetiJmcoturmces copialibidinis gaudent,vt itL 
aucnpantcs corruant,& fepenumero capitibus corum rcfidat. 
Talis pcrdicum coitus,&morum alhrtiaeltnidulantur bumf, 
vtdixStunicoturniccstampcrdiccs, atqjetiam alix qu<rdam 
ciffdem parun; volanris gcncris.ex his itcm al*uda,& gaihna* I* 
go^&coturnixjnunquam ia arborcconfiftanr,ied humi. 

£)e ptco martto & tribwgeaeribu* etufdem* 

Capttt ix. 

Ontra atquemartiuspicus^quihumi nunquam confiftere 

patttur.tundit hic qaercus vcrmium 3c culicum caufa,qao 

cxeant. rccipit cnim egrcflos lingua fua, quam maiofculam & 
htiufculam habct. fcandit pcr arborcm omnibus modis , nam 
vcl rcfupirtas morc ftellionum ingrcditur. vngucs ctiam habct 
comodiores qaam moncduia,ad tutiorem arboru reptationcm 
crw\itt$? his cnim affixis afccndit. Suc pici martij cognominc tria gcne^ 
f < iK t%>j ra,vnum minus quttn mcrula,cui rabidx aliquidplamx ineft. 





\ cvaarc vt ftcrnat arbores>dicitur. lam vcro mitefccns quldam 

' * amygdilum, quodrim^e infcruifletligni,vtfixum conftantcr 



i&un reciperct,tertio !$■ pcrtudif,& nuclemn cdit. 

Veprudentta grnum. C*f*t X- 

Rucs ctiam mulra prudcnter faciunt. loca cmm loft- 
gtnqua petunt,fui commodi gratia,& volant alf c? vt 3° 
nrocul oroibic-re oofsint &fi nubcs tcmpeftatemq; 




__ vidcrint,conferunt f c in tcrram,& humi quiefcut. du 

cetii enam habcnt T & cos,qui c]ament,diipofiti in extremo agnrf 
ncvt vox pcrcipipofsit.Cum confiftanf^cxtcr^ dornuunW* 
pitefubtcralam condito,alrernispedibub infiftcntcs- duxdc- 
teftocapitcprofpirit & quod fcn lcri t, voccfignificat. Platea 
fluuiatiliseonchasmaiufcula^.kucsquedeuorat: quas vbifr* 
irigluuic coxcr;t,cuomit, vt hiantibus iam lcgu teftts cxocn** 
atquc ed at« 

JDcdemtcilijs agrejltnm uelucrum* 

■ Caput xt. 

1 ' pemo 




ItBER NONrS» , t^f 

Omicilia vero agreftcs volucres aptifsimk ad vlflu,<£ pra 
lis /alutcm moliantur.Sunr alij parcntes feliciorcs,& tuo 
rumgnatorumdiligcnriores.ahxminus.&alij^ir.gcniu advf- 
ftumacutias,alijs obtufius eft.Cohir aha: loca fragofa,* texa 7 
&caaernas:vtqac_i prxrnptis torretium alucis charadnu ap 
pcUamas^uafihiaricoladixcris.prauahccauis^&colcre.cS: vo 
cc:<S_ no&u apparer,dic aufagit- Accipiter ctiam locisfaxofis dt 
ardaisnidularur auiii quasceperir,cornunqaacdir,I<:q; non- 
nal]iincoturnicc,&turdo,a_ij w alijs obferuarut. quinetia ve- 
lonandi<JiiFcrcntiaadnotatur,ncfnniliinodoxOatc,vthycmera 
piar.Vaituris vcl pullu vcl nidu a nemine Yifum adhuc nonul- 
li aiant.cS: nimirum ob cam rc Hcrodotus Br yfonis rhetorispa 
ter,3liandcfiru cniincnttore quodam vcnirc dixitrargumemu- 
^iaffcrcb^f,quodbrcaitcporemultiapparCrcnt,«S: tamcn vn- 
dc,conftaret ncmioi. Sedcaufa huius rei cft,<jaod ropibus inao* 
ccisispar!at,ncq;locoriiplonmu incola auuiixc cft.rdir non 
plas qoira vnu ouu,aut duo cum plarimu.Sunt quar motes co- 
ianr&iy!uas,vt vpapa,<ftbrcnthus:cui & vidusprobus,& vox 
fenora eft.Trochilus cc frutcca incoiit,* foramina.capi difficr- 
*o lcpotcftiugjx atc; infirmis mor.bus cft 7 (cd vidus probitatr, 

_0L *__«_*•■ - •_!_. __ 



&^gcnijfolcrtiaprxditU5.vocaruridc& icnator,& rcx.qua 
•tfrem aquilam pugnare cum co rcferunf . 

****,& cius *tat»TLi,n:cTf n dc ccnccrtatttnc etaf- 
d*m cum s.quth, C ^juum^u^nai 

Ctf»t x i r . 

v Vnt alia? qu£ vitam apad marc tradacat,vt dnclus,qtii aftg 

^tus,&capid!fficiliscft,fcdcaptu$omniumaxixriC mitrfot. 

l*ius hiccftrincotinens cnim partc fui pofteriorc. viuunt apud 

3 ° marc >#flucios,&lacr.s palmipcdcs or/mes .natora cnim ipl-f 

S u *nt,qood fibicomodiusfit.ScdmukiCCtiam fidipedescirca 

«quas,paiadc.qnc dcgunt-\ : florus apcd omnes , cui color pul- 

cb ^&: vita comrnoda. Catar*fta mari vftitat , & cum ie aU 

^gurgitarit, manct non mincs ttmporis>qui:n qao fpa- 

c ^m tracfieris iugeri.minor qu^tn accipitcr at>:s haxeft.Olo- 

sctia pa!m*pcd_s fant,& apudlacus,paludc_que viuunt.nec 

P'Ooitate vi6^us,morum,prolir ^fencaatis v.tc.nr Aquitera, 

' pugnam c<:epcnt ,rcpugoantes vincunt. Jpfi autcni r.un- 

T*m r.ih prouocatiinfcrunt pagnam.cancrc iolitifunt , St 

* 4 * Cl puciainiainoritari.voIam ctia io pciagus longius.& iam 

04 quid 



^f 






tI< AR.ISTOT. DE ANIM AtlB. 

qoidam cum in mari Africonaoigarcnt, multos canentes vocr 

fiebili,& mori nonnullos confpexere.Chalcis raro apparetrmo 

tcs ctenim incoIit.ni gr o colorc eft,magnitodine accipitris,qiie 

palumbariura nominant,forma longa actenoi. Iones cymmde 

eam appellant. Coios Homeros etiam meminit in Iliade,com 

dicit:Chalcidadijperhiber,homines dixere cymindem. Sont 

qai eandem hanc aoe non alia efle,ac ptyngem velint.interdio 

minus apparet,quia non clarc vidct,icd noau venator more a- 

quila::& pogsat vcro com aqoila adeo acriter , vt farpius ambx 

implexjcdefcrantor in terram:& vioae a paftoribos capiantor. 

Parit hsec ouadoo,& iaxis fpeloncisq; nidolatur- Grues etiam 

pugnant inter fe tam vehementer,vt dimicantes capiantur.ho- 

mincm enim «peftarc potius,qua pogna defifterc patiutur.pa 



riant ooa non amplius qoim bina 






dtfi< 



^t: 



V 



* meropumptetate inaltndtsparentt- 

bus* Cap- XI I !• 

tca voccs plurimas commutatrfmgulis cnim fere dicbus di* 



voccm 



dam in arboribus facit ex pilis,& lana.glandcs cu deficiunt col- 
ligit & in rcpofnotio abditas refcruat. Ciconias genitorum fe- 
ne&utem inuiccm cducarc in vulgatum cft.Scd funt qui mero- 
pcsquoq;idemfaccre confirmcnt,viccmq; reddi,vt parcntcs 
nonmodofcnc(ccntes,vcrumctiam ftatim,cum tamdatur fa- 
cultas.aiantur opcra liberorummcc matrcm aut patrem exire, 
icd incubilimanentespafcilaborceorum,quos ipfi genuerunt, 
enutrierunt,educarutpenc huius auis infcriores pallidae funt, 
fuperiores C£rulear,vthakyonis:poftremaepinnul* rubr^ha 
bentur.parit fcx aut feptcm a*ftate in prsecipiti js mollioribus, 10 
intro vel ad quatuor cubita fubiens.Lutea di&a k calore partis 
fuannferioris pallido, magnitud:nc alaud^eft .parit quafuor 
auc q jinque.nidum fibi ex alo hcrba euulfo ftirpitus f acit , fed 
CtnnamuL ftrjgulum fubijcit ex villo,& lana.hoc idem & merula tacit,& 
gma Phni. pica,interioraq;nidiexcifdcmconftcrnunt.Solerti porro in- 
ah ^fnflot. gemo argathylis in ripariarum genere fuum inftruit nidum,n 
Ctnn* m - lis emm inre < it lineis fpecie pilx,aditu arfto.In Arabia cinna- 
mw.niftfor- momus auisappcllatur,quamfurcuios cinnamomiportare,ac 
t> /^eWMwnidumexhi.conficereaiunt.nidificatexcdfis arboribus,& ra- 
ftt ,an»a . mis:fed incol* fagittis plumbatis nidom pctunt,atq; ita dilcal- 
»*/pw.„ (ointcrramcinnamomumlegunt. 



'fr 



IIBEH NONYji «7 



Cufut xi iii. 



eolore mm coerulc» 



^Vium viridi.tum etiatn leoifer porporeo iniignis,videlicet 
non particulatim colore ita diftin _ia,fed cxdifcreto varicrefol 
gens corpore toto,<fc alis,& colio.roftrum fuboiride , longpm <fc 
tenntTai is ipccies eius eft.nidus marinc fimilis pil ? ,& i js Q,u$ 
a flore maris haiolachnae dicantnr.S cd colore leuiter rnffo,figa 
« proxiina cucurbitis medicinalibus ijs , quibus collum porre- 
10 dius cft.magnitudo maximis amplior quam fpogia:.funt enim 
alij maiores,aJij minores.coieptus,ftipatusqs vndiq;eft,& cre- 
troinani,tum iolido conftat-rcnititur ferramento acuto,vtvix 
pofsitdiicindi.Sedfi vna &fcrrotondis 3 & manu _oll:dis,facil e 
penndc vt flos andus marisfhalofachnam dico ) confrangitur. 



etiam 



tur marcinflucrc nequear.habetfoa inania proximacaois fpo 

Piarntn __ .r.k: _•__.__ ______ * _•_ . ■ 



dctur 



tamencipinispotiusacospifcisconftirui.piicibus cnim alce» 
do viuit ied amnes etiam iubit.afcendens longius partus huic 

10 0D,S raa *»m* quinq; confuinitur.fcEtificat toto iua: aetati* tem 
porcparere nata mcnies quatuor,incipit. 

Dtpartu Cr nidtficitiont upufttfari atri- 

capill*,fali,&i*irtents t 

Caput X V. 

Pnpa nidum potiisim. . ftercorehominis facif.motat fa- 

CiciT. tnr\r%~*> •___4_L_____t__ __ t . /* _ - 




>iicurc«rrcraru 
_rd_t_vraiunr_/ 



grc- 
am 



Jo 



ne ~ n P lun, n 3 *d«eahquircfcront,fedpoft Africam ftrutio- 
-lam vcl decem & fepccm oua atricapill* reperta funt.Sed 

narr_ CtU ' j T im V ' sinti P arir >* numero impari iempcr , vt 
Proo -(! ateaquo( I oeinarbonbus ' & vermicolis alitur. 
mx» * Iarcinix P racrcr c~reras aoes, vt lingu- fum- 

c- CUn \ ,necarea t.Salus vita. commoditate, & partus numero 

lis&TrT CtlalreriDs P cdis clauditate cedit. Vireodoci- 

grati c ] Vif * ' ft Qnera in S enioms norar " r » *«* n.al_ volat , ncc 




Caput xvi 



&fl 



kd 



Cj. _«/_»_ XVI. 

te !n T K Prim, ' s virar cotnrao <toare nota eft.confiftit cfta 
ab arSI- £* aura:n y e,nc '" fok & apricis. inipcftat pa 
^rudinibos iuminB.paruo cerporc cft,led voce proba, 

o j colorc 



I 



%y& ARISTOTH* PI ANlMA _ IB- 



Jl 



m ^ - ^ _ '_ * ^ 

jfpcciem pr* ie fertdecora.percgrina h<sc auis cilc vidctur,qoip 



qtxx raro noitns Jocis appareat. 

Z>e monbus & natbru crcgts,fitt<e,uluU, certhi^i 

tyhgurivi. % Caput XVII. 






G 



qua*fictadicitar>mores pug 
coDosvitx facilioris.rcm n 



cam ei tribuut,quia reru callet cognitione. prole hxc numcro- 
iam,feliccmqi progignit.viiutma.eriecontudens. Vlula nofte l< * 
oagatar,ac pa(citur:die raro apparct.Coht hxc etiafaxa&fp 
luncas. vidusenim gcmini cft.pollet ingenio acinduftria in vi- 
tx munenbus. Nouimus auiculaquandaexigua nominecer- 
fhia , cai mores audaccsjdomsciliii apud arbores,vi&us ex cof- 
_is,ingcniu fagax in vitx ofFicijs , vox clara. Ligurini,& vita & 
colorc ignobiies iunt,fed valent vocis amosnitacc. 

Dctnbus ardeolamm genertbus^O' eatum utta,de^; ghoi- 

cis natura. Ca\>ut x v 1 1 1- 

ARdcolarum pella difficulter coit,vt df £tu eft,fed fagax & 
coenacgcrulaeft^&operofj. Agcreinterd;aiol-t:coIorc 
tamceftprauo,&aluohutnida.Reliquarumduarnm(Cr/aeniai 
funt gencra)candida,colorc eft pulchro, & coit,& nidulatur,& 
parit probe.pafcicur paludibus,lacu,campis,& pratis.Sed ftcl- 
laris piger cognominata(in,fabula cR^vt olim eferno in auem 
tranfierit)atq; vtcognomen ionar,iners,oc:ofaq; eftrtalts ar- 
deolarum vita cft.Phoici appcll_t__,pa:ujiare pra: c_»:tcris cft> 
vtoculospotifsitnum appcuc.inimicaeicharpx, vittas enim 



carum 



^ *_P W w 

JDe ducbus merularum generuus. 



Cat>ut :_ i x. _ 

,_lte-?° 



MErularum duo funt genera,aitcr u nigru & vu.garcsalte- 
rum candida 3 magnitnd»nequidecompari,5: voceiiir_i- 
liifcdcirca Cyllcnam Arcadi^famiiiarcncc vfquam alibina- 
fcens.Eft cnim ex hoc gencre qox fimilis nigr_t iir,fed iulcz co~ 
lorc,&magnitudinepaulomincr.verfari harcin/axis,& tctiis 

folitacftrnec roftrum mtilom.vtmerulahabet^ 

JJe tnbus turdorum £cnenb*s. 

Ctput x x* 

TVrdoratriaftsntgcncravnuvifcmonl.q^od nifi vifcdt 
atq; rcfjna non veicitur,<_i magnirudine pic_r cft. Alteru 

piiarejqaodfonatacute^&majnitudine mcrulx cft.tcrtiam* 

qtiod 



IIB5S. NONV& %lf 

^aod iliacom quidam vocant,minimum intcr hxc , minusqac 
macuIisdiftinAum. 

JDeauecocruleo nomine t &eiusforma. 

Caput xxi» • 

Oaimus &faxatile aoicula qaandam,cai nomc ca?rnIco, 




X ^(cjusmaximcin Scyrocolit,faxa3mans,magnitudinc mi 
nor qaam mcrala , maior paulu qua fringiib.pede magno efh 
fcanditqj faxa:colorc c*ralco, rof iro tcnui & longo,crore brc* 
ui fimiliter vt pipo eft. 

10 o* uireone, & mcllicipiteauibus. 

Caput xxii. 

Vlrcototusviridans cxobfcuroeft.hycmchicno videtnr* 
fcd sftiuo folftitio potifsimu vcnit in conipeftu . difccdit 
cxorta arttarifyder/s.msgnitudine tar turis cft-Molliceps eodc 

tol<Kofempcrfibiftatuitfcde,atqj ibidem capitur.grandi<fc 
cartilagineo capitccft , magnitudinc paali minor qua turdus, 

orcfirmo,paruorotando,colorctotas cincreo.depcs &pcnnis 
inualcnscft.Capitur maxlm& no&n. 

&* £*rdilo,& ccUurionedeq; anibus c<*teris,%ti£ 
10 ftrnpercohfjncHxfunt. 

Cap. xxili. 

Ardalusctiaaaicala qu,rda pcrhibetur.qaa! magnacxpar 
tcgregatimvobr,nccfingularehancvidcris,colorctotacI 
*crco eft,magnirudine proxima fuperiorirfcd penis ac pcdibus 
bonis.voccfrcqucrem,nccgrauccmittir.Colluriocifde,quibus 
mcmh vefcitar.magnitudo cius quoq; eade qus: fapcrioribas 
cft.capitur hybcrno potias tcmporc Hxc omnia Jcmpcr appa- 
rent,atq 5 etiamca qaxinvrbibusfokntprxcipue viaerc , vc 

coraas,vt cornixmatn ca qaoq; fempcr confpicua fant,ncc lo 

*> q matant,vt latent. 




M 



x x r 1 1 r. 



&* trikm generibus monedu Urtim. Cap. 

1 Q nc dularu triafunr genera.vrii qaod graculosvocatar» 
^nitudi n eqaanucornix,roftro rotordo,rutilo. Alte 
j^P*cognomfaatuparna.&^^ 
«.yfetfc Prhy-i* tcrraMcicii.qj palmipes cft- 

A*>* duobus aUndaru n gcneniws. Cap. XXV. 
L aud;rumduofunrg;neHilrcrutcrrcnom,cri£latu>ga* 
cnuacnftaap^na!U,»]teru grceale,necfin2uIare,mo- 

"«itcri^fv-frl^f r D O T p 

i 5ll **" y * u coIorchm ik,quar»quam maenitudinc minus, 
g ^ Cro f rcnsccibo rcri idoneum. & 

Galll 



*to 




ARISTOT- DE ANIMilLlS. 

* 

Allinago di&a,pcr fepes horrorum capifar>rnagnJra 
dine quanra galJina eft,roftro 16go,color e attagenar. 
currir celcrirer,& hominemmirediligit.Sturnus ni- 
ger,albisdiftinctusinaculiscft,magnitudincirierula% 

Z>e lbe,& dnobus earum genefib*s. 

Caput x x vil. 
Bej Aegypti duplici gencre diftinguuntur.iunt enim ali« 
candid«,aliac nigrcT.candid* apud Pelufuim tanttl no iunt* 
cum in rcliqua rora Aegypro habeanrur.nigrae conrra apud Pe- 
lufiam ranram,in caerera Aegypto nulhe. 

Heduobus afionumgenenbtis. 

M Sioncs aliquiomnibusanni tcmporibus parcnt,* ob 
j^j eam rcm percnnes,& fcmperafiones vocabulo copcfi 
ro appellantur. qui efui non funr proprcr viticm car- 
nis.Aliquiaurumnoinrcrdumapparct>nccplus vno 
aut altcro die immoranrurrqui Sc efui f unt,& valdc probantur. 




19 




Caput x x v 1 1 r. 



20 




difFcranthinullofcr^alioaperennibus iliis,nifi corpulcntia 
pingui,& qaod vox his dceft,illis non dccft.de gcncrationceo- 
rum,qu«nam fir,nihil adhuc cxploratum habcmus,nifi quyd fa 
oonijs flatibusapparent.ccrrum cnim hoccft . 

& e cucuhfoctu ,&etu*p rudentia . capv.t xxix. 

VCulus,vtanteadi&omeft,n5 nidificat,fcd in nidis 
^j pariralicnis,& pr«cipucinpaluiribium,& curucar» 
& alaud*,humi,atq; criam in nido luteola: appclbt£ 
fupcrarborcnxparithic vnumouum,ncc ipie incu- 
bat.Sed auis in cuius nido pepernrir,ea incubat,e>:c!udit,atqae 
enutrir.quae cum ipfcal!cnigcnapullusaccreacrir ? fuos cijccre 
dicitar,ita vrpcrcanr.Alijcosagcnirriccoccidi,&dari in cibo 
cuculi pullo aiunr,videliccr improbatos proprer ipecicm cuca- 
liclcganriorcm.fcdquanquamplurima cxijs vidifle nonnallijo 
confirmant,ramcn dc puilorum intcritu non conuenirinteroin 

ncs* Alij enim cuculum ipfu m repctcrcnrdum,cui fuum ouum 
mandarit,pullosq;dcuorarenatricis volunr.alij pullum cuculij 

quod magnitudinepraeftct^pofTe perciperc cibum omnem obla 
fum,atq;itacxtcrosfamcparireautuinant.alij ipfum vr for- 
tiorem,c«teros paftus conforrcs occidere autorcs funt fed ptu 
denter fane prolis fax procreationcm moltri vidcrur cuculus. 
Camenim(eignauam,minimcq;opitulandi porcntcm nouc- 
rit,facit quafi luppofitirios fno% pullos,qu6 lcruari pofsinr. ti* 
miditarcenimhaecauisexccdir,quippequa: ab auiculis vella- 

tar,& pr<e mctu earum fugiar. 

Dt 



IIEER NONVS. 2U 



I)c aj>odummdulationc,O t caprimulgifirma* 

Caput xxx. 

APodc$,quosalK]uicypfellosappellant,fimiles cfie hirun- 
ainnm,di&am iam cft.Haud enim difccrni ab hirandinc 



poflunr,mfi qaod tibijs funt hirlatis,nidum fpccieciftellx pro 
du&s longius fi&e ex luto, vno aditu dato amifsimo, faciunt: 
id^locisangaftisintrafaxa&ipccus, vr & bcllaas deuirare 
pol$int,& homincs.Qnem caprimulgum appellant,auis monta 
nacft,magnitadinc paulomaiorqnam merula,minor quSm 

ioCQcula^,moribusmollior.paritouaduo,aat triacum plarima. 
fugitcaprarum vbcraaduolans,vndcnomcnaccepit.Cum fu- 
xcrit,vbcr cxtingui 7 capramq;cxcarcariaiun^Patumclarc in« 
tcrdia videt,fcd noftu pcrfpicax cft. 

&ecoruorummdtficaticne,0'f(£tu. Caput xxxr, 

€Orai locis ar&ioribus,<3r vbi no fatis cibipluribus fit , dno 
tantum incolunt:& fuos pnlIos,cum iam potcftas volandt 
«ft»primum nido eijtiunt,deindc rcgionetotaexpcllunt. parit 
conins quatuor,* quinq ; .Tcmporc quoapud Pharfala hofpi- 
2, tcs Mcdi* pcr/crc,corui locis Athcnarum Fcloponncfiq; defuc 
^nt,qaafiicnfomhabcrcnt3liqucm,quointcr fc rcrum cucn- 
tafignificarcnt,* mouerentur- 

Dtjex aquilarum gcnertbw 9 earum <j; nidu latione, O* uc~ 



A 



nationc. caput xxxil. 

Q^Iarum plura funt gcnera . vnum quod pigargus ab al- 
bicanrc cauda dicitar,ac f\ albicillam nomincs.gaudct h#c 
P an ^*lacis,& ppidis.hinnulariaa nonnullis vocata cogno 
*" Qc eft.montcs etiamfyluamq;fuisfrctaviribus petit.rcli- 

^ a ^ Cncrara fopl^na,&iucosadcant. Altcrum gcnas magni- 
i0 & ^ i Un ^ um '* viri ba^planga,autclaaga nominc , faltus 

mo°T '* JaCQS incolcrc (oliwm , cognominc anataria , & 

rphnaamaculapcnnarjqaafinaraiaindixcris.cuius Homc- 

? cr,am mcmincrat in cxita Priami.Tcrtfum genus colorc ni 

tud* - S,Vndc nomcn *cccpit,vt pulla & fuluia yocctur.magni- 
Co j? Cmin 'nia,fcd viribus omnium prarftantifsima haec cft. 
tn$ r mo "tcs ac fylaas,& lcporaria cognominatar.vna hxc foe 
da,ft"° S ^ ta ^ nccdaci t.pcrr!ix,concinna.polita,apta,intrcpi- 
Suipn^ a ^ ,non inai dacft:modcfta ctiam,ncc pctulas, 

tanf H ^* n ° n cIan g ar ,neqac lippiat,aut murmurct , Quar- 

bica nf r ntUperCn0ptcros al> alaram n °tis appellatum,capitcal 
lc 3 corporc maiorc quim cartcra: adhuc didx hxc cft : fcd 



brcui 



a 



*,, ARISTOTI.BS ANlMAtlB. 

br euioribos alis,canda longtore. vulruris fpeciem h*c refcrf. 
_ubaqaila,&motana ciconiacognomlnator..ncolit lacosdtge 
r cr,nec vitijs caterarum carct,& bonornm quae illae obtinent- 
expcrs eft:quippc qoae acorno ceterisq; id gcnns alitibus vcr- 
beretur ,fagetur,capiatur.grauis eft enim,vi£tu iners cxamma- 
ta fert corpora .famelica femper eft,& querula.clamitat,& clan 
Rit.Qaintum genus eft quod halisetus.hoc eft marina vocatar, 
Lutomagna,&craifa,aliscuruantibus,caada lata moratar 
ha:cinlittoribus&oris.accidithaicfaepias,vtcam fcrrc qu^d 

ccperit nequeaf.in gurgitem demergatur. Sextum gcnas gne- 
fiam,ideft^erumgcrmanam<3:appellant.vnnm hoc ex ooiw 
aoiu genereefle veri,incorruptiq; ortuscreditor. caeteraenim 
*cnera,& aquilaram,& accipitrum, & minutarum ctiam au.u, 
promifcuaadalterinsqjinuiccmprocreant. Maxima aquilaru 

\zc cft,maior ctiam quam ofsifraga,fed caetcras aqoi 
r,n; a 1tera nortioneexcedit.colorc cft ruffa, confpectu 



omniom 



7 



\x operandi volaudi^, i prandio ad mcridianum ,. mane en.m 
quiefcit vfquedum forum frequens,& prandcndum lam iu.ic- 
nefccntibus aquilis roftrumfupcrius accrcfcit,incuruatarque- 
fabinde magis magisq;,vt demum fame intereant . cui rci data 
eftfabula,vthocitaaccidataquilar,quoniamcum olirn homo 
effctMpitiiniuriamintukrit.Condun^referuantqjfuoinnt 

do quantum fibipallisfuperfit.quod cnim dic qaaque facoltas 
venandi non datur,fit interdum ne quod portent extrmiccus 
habeant.fi qucm deprehenderint violantem nidum , verberant 
fais aliJ,& vnguibus lacerant.Nidulantur locis non planis,1ed 
celfi S ,pr*cipoe quidein arduis faxis& prxcipit.bus,ied ar-on 
basctiamAlontfuospullosdonccpoteftas volanct nat:tnm 
nido cos expellant:poftregione quam ipfi genitorcs inco.unr. 
tota exterminant.Tenent enim fingula aquilarum paria longu 
traaum.vnde fit,nc vllo pa^o vicinos habere patiantur. Vena- 
ror locis non fuo nido propinqois,fed longe diftant.bus . tU- 



porcm *-*« arn n ° 



ftatim rapiant,fcdexpcaantdum prodeat in P^a ncc pro« 
nus dealto in terram ruunt,fed paulat.m ddcendunt. qu* tdco 
_ac«ant,vt tutiores ab infidi js fint.confidum et.am loc.s ard.tm 
nbus,quiad,rTicalter - terra t olluntur.volantIublimes,v. pcr 

quammaxime procul afpiciant. T*?^ STllnoZ 
Lum omniom aqailam cffc diuina pcrhtbcnl . Omnes prote 



tTSER .VONV$. *tf 

flo quibas vngws adanci,iriinim£ in fa>:is cor/iftont,qooniam 
faxidcrities impcdimento curaarars vngaiu cft. Vcnatar aqut 
kleporc5,hinolos,valpes,& rdiqaa qoa? vinccrc valeat.Viuit 
tcmporclongcqaod diutarnitate nidi cicfd:m drclararor. 

fc r jth:cfi>& eiufnidifi 





Cythte terrtf incola auis cft, magnitndmeofidi> f 
noc eft auis tardx,quar durs procreat pullos. & quas 
peperit ooa non incubiro fooef ,fed condifa jn lepc- 
rina,aut vulpina pclle rdinquit, atquc ifa oboolof» 
^lnfommaarborccollocat.ciicij a vcnationc vacat,cuu t odit.& fi 
So«fcidir,impognat,* vcrbcr ar alis perinde vt aqaila* faciut* 

ri Uti y cicHriiLt,0' cpifra^a. Cdbut xxxiin. 

0#ax,ciconi*.& rcliqoa,qoar interdioneqoeurccr 

-ere,noflu venando cibum fibi jcqnirant. Vcro po 

tota noftc id faciunr,fcd vcfperfino,* matntino.Vc 

nantor autcm murcs,!acertaf ,verticiIlos, & eiofmo- 

? aI,3 sqtiafdam bcftiolss.Quscofsifraga anpellator , prob£ * 

^tihcat 3 &viuiYc^n«a cro Ia,&bcnf;^nacft.nutrfcat bcric & 

l0 ^Pdlos^ aqnil*.cnm tahn illa fco? nido cicccritMc tccI 

P Itc °Mcedacat.mittir nanqncfnosaqurfa,anrcqaam tempus 

^aahucparentfsopcramdcfidcrantes^ecvolandiadcptof fa . 

d I 3 r e,11,C l Uod P cr,,nuidi5 itafaccrccreditur.natoracniminoi 
^taTnclicaeil,ncccopiofavenationis.magnumtamcn qofcl 

cnS ° r,CUm vcn ^«r. inuidet fgfl or fuis hberis iam maiof- 

iis,atq. cdacqfcuh^* ob eam rem vngoibus fccat Pulli ctia 

Pintcrfcpognarcincipiuntdcfcde^acpafto.ltaq; i paren. 

sJ^.^^^poJfanttTr.dcicai vocifcrantur > periclitatnrqM 

fatisf i ** TCCiph cos tcni g n ^& toctur^ alit ,dom qoantu 

frh$ fJ* ad 7 olcfc3n t.Parom hxc ocolis valct.nobecola cnim ocn- 

cft^ kfo$*Af vcro marinail!acl:in7simaocolorom acie 

p c ^ . pUliOS *&UC implumcs cogit aducrfes intucri folem. 

l ^ «t euir, qui recufct , & vcrtit 2d folcm . Tum coios ocali 



hccp r y marint > h " n c occidit , reliquom cducaf . \ 
rinZ^ irarc & l*tf ora,vndc nomcn accr pif.vioitq; aoi 



Va^atur 



accrpif,vioitq;aoirm ma 



^tcir yS RatQ,vt Aftnm eft. Aggrcditur fingolas. com emer- 
to Dctr. ^ rDari ^ r,r fag'f auis vr cucias vidit aquilam,& me- 



emer-* 



m PcrcuIf 3 f c r 5 

^ r 3n2of LtCaC i fCOC ° Iorom v ^!cns , fedulo adaolat doncc vcl 
^nqL . m ,1Cmorc > vel per fumma corripiat. Vnfocrfa* 
alis repcUo naadft arcent cn "« frc<jacnt«,rcfpcrgcntcs45 fak 



Fuliis 



2*4 AHISTOTE. OI ANlMALtl. 

FvlKarumaucHpdtic. Caput xxxv. 

Vlicx fpumacapiuntur,appctunt cnim cam aoidius^quo- 
circa Ipuma inipcrfa cas vcnari in vfu cft .Caro caru pro- 




bi odor 



A 



gucfcunt fatis,& dui iunt. 

X?e acctpitrum gcnertbu* numcro acccm. 

Caput xxxvi. 

cipltrum gcnus prsecipuum butcocft,trion 
i tcftium nancupatosJccandum «falo , tcrt 
is_uitcm.Dalurabarius.& ocrnix diffcrunt. 



vocatur 



alijlcucs&iubctarij,qutabundiviuunt,atq; humiuol* font. 



Gcncra 



qoxmodo 



lcntcm rapiunt,volantcm non appctur 
alijfupcrarborcm,auttalcquidconfccndfntcm vcnanrar: fin 



humicft,aut volatmoninuadunt.Alij ncq;humi,ncq; >mobli- 
mi mancntcm aggrcdiuntur,fcd volantcm capcrc conatur.Fcr- 
tur ctiam icolumbis quodq; accipitrum gcnus cognofci • itac; 
cum accipitcr prouolat/i fublimipcta cft,mancnt quo conftitci 
rint loco:fcd fi humipcta,qui prouolat,cft,non mancnt Jcd con 
tinuo auolat.Thraciac partc quaeolim Ccdropolis vocabatar, 
hom incs focictatc accipitru pcr paludcs aucupantur.Cu cnim 
ipfilignis,quactcncnt,arundincs & frutctamoucrunt,quoaacs 
cuolarcnt,accipitrcsdcfupcr infc&antur : quorum mctu aucs 
pcrculfae tcrram rcpetunt ,mox homincs pcrcutiunt baculis, 
itaque capiunt.tum partcm caram quas cepcrinr,auium accipi 
ibus impartiuntcr.Qufnctiam apud Maeotidcm paludctn h* 
is cflfc pifcatoram fanuliares aiont,& nifi partem fuam £ p*k 



tr 



P° . . 

catoribus acccpcrint,rctiacum in tcrra cxpanfa reficcantur, b-; 

ccrarc.Ratioauiumtaliseft. 

£>c tngcnto martnorum & fitiuiatilium ptfcium pro rationt 

commodtorismt£. Capht xxxVil 

Ed in marinis quoqucammantibus pcrmultaintci- 

ligi poflunt,non finc folcrti ingeniocffici rationc vi 

txcommodior is. Nam & muolgata illa dc ***** 

______ qu*pifcatrixcognominataeft,&qax dc torpcdi- 

nc,veraomninoccrtaq;funt.Ranacnim ;jsqa* gcmina ante 
oculos fuos dcpcndcnf ,qooram fila capilli fpccicm rcferunf» 

fcd 




poftrcma rotundis quibufdam prarpiiantur^q 

AA.tic Uic innn^m.vhi hycia arenoilS 2Ut fettllv 



fa additis :hisinqua 



■ 



io\o 



IIBIR. NONVS, llj 

folo fc abfcodcrlf, pifcator attollcns illa fibi pendentia fila.dom 
enim pifdculi occorrunt,<Xr capit a machinamenti pcnfilir pul- 
fanr,ip(afubtralKosfilaaIlicit,doneccos fuum in os adducar* 
Torpedopilccs quosappetif,afficit« ipfa,quam iuo in corpo 
rccontinetfacuitatctorpeiKhratq; itaretardos pra? ftupore ca 
pit*& vefcitur.abd t fc in arena &. limo,tom pifccs qui adnaran 
tesobtorpucrinfjcorripit.quam rcm pleriejconfpeftem £ fe re 



tulemnt Fafhnacaetiam feipfaoccoltat,iednonfimili modo* 



argamcntum fic viucrchos pifces adduci potcft , quod fa?pics 
lohjbentcsin vcntremogilemcapiamar velccifsimom pifcem. 



comtardifsimi ipfi fint.Tumetiam ranaquae caruerif prappi- 
latis villorum illis capiribos macilcntior capitor . torpedincm 
aotem vel hominibus infpirare torporem certum cft.Obruunt 
arena fefe 6c aidli^: ra ac.& pafleres,& fquatinse. cumq; nulli 
fui corporisparteminteftamreliqoerint^verberarxadtoLsfui 
ori$,quos pifcaroies virgulas vocant,quas pifciculi cum afpc- 
xcrint,adnarant quafi ad aJgas,quibus vcfci fohti funt . Q^o in 
loco amhtas fit,nul]am ibi beliuam efle conf. flum eft . quo iam 
indicio fccorc fpongiatores vr inantur,* facrum hunc pifcc ob 
aoeani rcm nominant.fcd idcafu ficcueniredixcrim,quorrodo & 
vbifuhmax,ncq;fuscft,neq;perdix.omncs enim limaccs ab 
hiscdonturScrpens marinacolore<& corpore congro proxi- 



nueft,feJobfcurioratq;acrior.h3ecfi capta dimittatur foris, 
inarenam roftroquamprimum adaftotcrcbrat , fubitq; tota. 
eft oreacntiore hacc quim terrcftrcs Qnjaotem centipcda ap. 
P^atur,vbihamumdeuorarif,euomitforasfua inreriora, do- 
nechamum cijdat.tumrccipitintru,acvaleteadcm,qoa antc, 
falabritatc.appetitushisqnoqinidorulcforum vt teneftribus 
cftinordentnonorc.fcdtaflutotluscorporisfimilitcr, vt qu* 
JoVrtk*vocantur .pjfces^qni yulpcs nuncupantor, com fe de- 

S^ffchamomfcnferint.fibi opirulantmyvtcentipedx • logius 
j^qocfefccfFcrcntes hsmilincamabrodunt . capiuntur enim 
J^nonnollishamomultiplici,gargitepr*alto, & fiu&oofo. 
Qiijnctiamamiae combclloam vidcnnt aliqrkm,colligtint fc- 
e A quar magnitod«nef)raeftant,luftrante$ gtegcm circcmoal- 
!?*£** Soa violatur,difcndant.dcnteshis validi.& i 

W.Fluaut.liiim filun,;: mas pluriir.om curar proli impCdit. f<r 

*j vt pep?rif,abit.fed mas quo in loco plurimus fcetus con- 

^tcnt,pe r feueransouacuftodit:necalium prssbct vfum,nifi 

puciculosncdiripiantfatum,arccat:id4»vel ad quadragc- 

p fimum* 



lam cum 



>!_ ARlSTOTci J>_ AN-IMAUS- 



R nnm % quinqaa^Hmnm dlem facit, dcncc fatis iam au fo fo 
fcSfaS - «Kr , pHcibus valear.prchcn d.tur f_rpe 1 pifa 
,orib_ vbi cua cuftodit.dom cnim arcct pifc.culos^quarnNpro- 
filirA i_**f*i_»4? r.iouet manct apud oua tam aniente am 
£0 vtcum f*pe a ptfcatordtts oua,fi pr*atti_ gurg.t.bo* fubfi 
dant,ed.c 3 nt«r,quoad raagU fieri potefr,in vadum: ,pfc tamc 
«od:rr,ftudiofatutn f_qa_fur,ncq;_fcrcrevnqnan_ pat.arur. 

r_nc fi minor fit nat_.m_W ; vfu excrcitatus ; fac.lchamo ca- 
„ t ur:fcd fi peritus * hnmitr . ga eft.mor fu deni» fei **&*« 
unpitbamum^foetumaisi^cuftodit. Omma ver.tumK 



ptrur 

*a.npit 

infdcm 



dc 5 unt.fuos enim quibufq; cibus in ijs cft. Vagantur maximc 
& obcrrant,qa« carne aluntur,prxtcr paoca,vt mugilcm , iai- 



«ueipiacmittit,fibiobd_cif,itavtineo quafi cub.n qu.dcar. 
G-ncm teiUt i St expcdis peficn potlfsimum plnrimurnque M 
mouet vol.itu.nam purpurafc eius fimilia , pam admodu pro- 
«cdiUtor.De r-nrtpo !'yrrha:o pifces per hyemcm omncs , «- 
ccpto e.obione,.oras cnatant prortcr trigu .locush.cemir itri 
gid.or cft.fed incantc verc eodcm redeunt.Vacat Euripus ica 10 
i-o,* aiofa,* rehquis ipinofioris gcncris omnihcs.mu ftel. et.a 
& foina;cs ;n eo mari nequaquam gignunturrnrcnon J<> c " lt *' 
poiypi,boliten*,at q lia quxdam genera.g^bioncm albom 
Euripi non efte pelagium ccrtmn cft.Vigent pifces ouiprx ve- 
ris tcmporcdoncc pari r.viuipari auramno,atq; etiam mugi- 
lcs,muili,& reiiqut generi^ eiu.d-m.Apnd Lesbum infulam om 
nia tam pelagia quim Euripica parcrc foicnt ia Euripo . coeut 
autum_.pa.iunc vcrc.cartilnginca etiam antumno.mares com 
fcemtais circa coitum congrcgcntor.Scd vere fubcunt Eur.pu 

*t f — __.__.r^#-_* /*t?i i 



3 



coitu< temporc complura ex his fibi adhtrentia capiatur-Moi- 
liom aftatifsima fenia eft.fob b*6 fuo v tirnr arramcnro , no 
modocummctn.t,verumetiam abfconderdr caafa.polypos ar- 
qae loli go atramiftum pro mctu mittonf.fed accrefaf dcnuo 
poftqoam mif«unt,vt nunquam copia defit atramcnf .. c*ter 
fcpia,vtdixi,ficpe vclfinc paoorefuo vtitor atramento «i 
? , . _ r __. ..a: t_1«_ _* .,/..___ _r r.red.t m 



_.& cum pro^i-cBa paululum ft oftcnder it, red't m 




OCCl 

vcn_tor 



-foK.m pifciculosifal mugilcs ctiam ^? ios ?°^ m ^ZT^s 



<1C_3 eiC,CUITl-U UI-.iuhiwvi I.. ..*... ..-.»- ' «A*r 

.ci ta.niiiari«,c_in oninia coll-gat,„ fco in d omkilio rccon^ 

4 Cu"'_ 



tomci confampferit ouantum vtileilf,abigitfeflas,fc cancro- 
rnmcraibs,* pntamina conchularum,* fpinas pifciculorum. 
fti etism mutatioaecoloris venamr pifccs.trahitenim fibico- 
iorcm fimilcm ijs,quibusappropinquarit faxis.quod idem etia 
cammctcerit,facit.Sunt qui fepjam quoq: facerehcc idcm au- 
ioir_ent.colorcm nanqucea fibi contraherefimilem loco,in quo 
v:riatur,confirmanr.Scdpifc:um fola fquatina ita affici folct. 



polyp 



1« 



natura ts- 



magna ex parte bicnnio viucre non noteft.faa enim 
oi cbnoxium eft.cufns re i ind:cinm,cu prefTus polypas aliquid 
lubinde humoris emitfat,demnmq; abfamatur totos.quod fce- 
mtnis j. parta potifsimum mcidfrfrupent etia fcemina:,vt ne- 
qnevnciis iaaate fentiant,«S: manu vrinantisdefacili capian- 
iur.fordefccnt etiam,nec pnctcrea afsidedo venari poffunt. ma 



mucorem 



bwMtom complcanr cffe vidcfur,qnod ab orta coriim,qui sfta 



rancfcm 



^fit,adautumnum 
paol 

^«redcbilitariq/tammarcmouAmformfnamfernn^vt vel a 
pifcic ].jdeaorentur,d:facil^ a faisdctrahsntur cobilibus,cnm 
antea nihil tale ijs vfu eocniat rum vero paruos , nouellosqoe 
juamais jccens natos : tstnen nullo eiufmodi majo affici narrat. 
qnjnimo validiorescffequ-tm grandesc6f5rmanf.Sepiasefii 
• £ ima Ia non v »acrc aperrum cft M ollium vnus polypas exit irt 

iicciim.graditurpcrafperiora^vitat la.'uia.validum cum cxte- 
m luis parribas hoc nnimal fit.collo tamen imbeciile cum pre- 

j.Ktovit.moHia itafehabent.Conchastennioresfcabrasq; cf- 
«lecircam fe,velut loricam duram,eamq; eo ampliojc , quo 

?op r 'i " ta " lpIi0rCs ' at< i' dccac l oar,latibuloaGt cafo,a <i a36i 
P oairca.ont.Nautaquoqjpolypus natura # vitx muneri* 

""gojaris eft.nauigar cnim per maris fumma elatus de imo 



cffertfeconcha inurr!a,vt afcendc 

erfit 



;•— r>4cnauiget. Vbi ver6emcriit,concham i 
ci inter (ua brachia mcmbranulam quandam anr. 

i ilV** [5'fcjnfcrne palmipcdumaoium contin 



anncxam ilmilc 



llti* ! if-Tr* ,wt P'«»injpcdumaaium continentur : veru 
tamr nar yt fcnt ' ha:c P ra:tcnc "' s ciK&aran«fpeciem imi 
^trocnr / ^ ,Cum aUra '' nr P»«f .cirros progubernaculli 
rf ,T?T r r W ' fi < l u, ' <1 m«o*rif>concha,Ti protinasma 
^^'Sr^t gft ^ g CTeratlone incrcmcntoqj eins 



ex 



coitn p- r ^'.r ±u **™ m naoeo. videtur famen non 
S'gni , fed fponte , vt catterx concbae prouenire, 



p x nec 



tti ARTSTOTE. DE ^NXMAtlB. 

pec vero an concha folutns viacrc pofsif ,certum adhuc eft. 

De ingenio infeclorum,ey formtca fladto * 

Caput x x x v j 1 1. 
^S! NfcGorum ofFiciofifsitr.um,* prse carteris ferfcom- 
g ; nibus animalibus gcnus formicarum & apum eft.cra 
% W$l broncs item ac vefpa%& propedixerim omnia huiu* 






cognata generis.araneietiamlauttores& ftrigofio- 
res,ingeniofiores in vitac muneribus funt.Iam formfcarum nc- 
gociaomnibusinpromptuhabenturrVtq; cadcm femita fcm- 
perambulant,&cibariarccondunt,&cellas promptaarias fa-io 
ciunt,nec intcrdiu folum,fed ctiam no&ibus plcna luna labore 
excrcent,ncmo eft,qui non videat. 

JDt gentrtbtto araneerum^eorumf, induflrta in utnatione 9 & 

telaconficiemla. Caput xxxix. 

i * A A R ancoram autem & phalangiorum plura funt genera. 
c\v Hj TtHolH /y niordaxjcjuod in duo diftinguituralterum fiinile i js, qu* 
7t*op> lapos appellant eft,paruom,varium,procax,falax, pulex nun- 

procax , fa- cupatum,alteru maius,coloris nigri,cruribus prioribus nigris* 
/rfx,pJ*.*c«-tardum,&lenteambulans,necviribus valcns, neque faliens- 
wim^t^fn^/Caetcraqaajmcdicamentarijproponunt^autnullum^aut ccrte^o 
fuhim ingrc exilcminferuntmorfam.Gcnusfccundam,quod lupi ncmcn 
<btns* acccpit partim exiguu eft,non quod tcxitrpartim maius, quod 

afpcram paruamq; fclam apud tcrram,aut fepes orditur.bucu- 
lis intexcrcfolitnm primord? js intus pofitis obferuatur.dum ali 
quid in tela offendcs commouerir.mox accurrit,vt capiaf . par- 
tim variom eft,quod paucam,vilcmq; telam fub arbonbus fa- 
cit Tcrtium gcnns,quod fapientifcimum lautif^imnm^uconi- 



niumeft.texitenimprimumfilis quoqaouerfas diftendens in 
orbem,tam ftafriinadacens,!nitio a medio accepto : nec infcitfc 
medium ipfum accipitrdeinde fubtegmina infcrens,atq; ftipasj 
tubile & repofitorium alibi fibiconftifuitrfed venationc in me- 
dio fui operis obferoando cxercet.Com enim beftiola eo incidc 
rit,motu medi j excitus occurrir,deuincitq; primum obuolaen* 
araRcis,damdefatigcf,infirmamq;faciat,tam tollit ac dcfert: 
& fi fortc fame tcnctur,exugit haec cnim frnitioeius eft.fin mi 
nus recondito,quod ceperit,in rcpofitorio,repctit venandi nc- 
gocium:fcdpriusconfarcinato,qaodper venatum lacefsifum 
ft.fi quidintermcdiumA cxtrema inaderit,primum ipfcin 
mediu currit,inde ad id qu od inciderit,velut i ftato inirio pr<v 
perar.Siqois telam hccrarittcxere iternm incipit.venatar orie 

tefoIe»aut occidentc quoniam bcftiols temporibus hispotifsi- 

mum 



■ 

tlBER. NONVS. ^ 

mum offcndant.Fcemina & tcxit £ venatur-mas comes frucii- 
d^nonlaborandieft.Araneorumlaatiorum,* tclam fpifsiore 
texetium,dao fant genera.altcrum minus,aJterom maius.quod 
igitur longioribus cft cruribus pcndcns fubtus obieruat, nc be- 
ftiol* pr* formidinc fibi caueant,fed incaats incidant in par- 
tcm faperiorcm.ineptius cnim proptcr fui corporis magnitudi 
ncm cft . At altcrum quod modcratius cft,fupernc obfcruat , la- 
tcns in quodam exiguo fu* tclse foramine. Aranci ftatim cu fdi 
ti fanr,fila mittant,non intrinfccas tanquam cxcrememum,vc 
io Dcmocritus ait,fcd cxtrinfecus dc fuo corpore vcluri cortice, 
aotmorc eoram,qu<e fuos villos iaculantar,vt hiftricis, maio- 
ractiam animalia inuadit,irretitq j iuis fiJis-nam & latcrtos par 
nosaggreffbscircundatos,* fdis obducit,doncc cohibeat : mo* 
adhxrcns,morfum dchgit.harc iu fe habcnt. 

&tge»eriljHtapi4m>€«rum<i;fiHdto %n tdtficandtsfaHts, 

deq; bh herbv 7 aHtbu4 apes alnntHr* 

Capht xU 

/^Enus cft infc&orum quoddam nomine adhuc vacans,quo 

VJ vno comprehendaturrfed formam foarum partiom cogna 

10 tam °^nium rcfcrcns,videhcet ca qux fauos faciunt , vt apes, 

* r cliquafimjlisform* infe&a,quorum genera nouemnumc- 

ro funt.Scx illa cx his grcgalia,apcs,rcgcs apum,fuci,qui jntcr 

apcs degunr,vefp* annu*,itcin crabrones,& tcrcdincs S olira- 

itevero rcliquatriafirenis minor 3 qui fufcos totus cft .firenis 

n5aior,niger,varius.tcrtium,qucm bombyccm vocant,qui ma- 

ximasintcrha:ceft.Formica!nihil vcnan(ur,fcd fada ab ahjs 

jolligunt.Aranci nihilconficitarneq; recondunt,fcdcibutftfo- 

uni venatu fibi acquirum.Ex nouem iJ5,qnse modo er.umcra- 

?* §^ er, kus,apes(nam dc cxtetis poft)nih*l vcnantur,ied ipfe 

f - llbl Cibaria faciunt.atq; recondunt.mci cnim cit us carum cft.cu 

^sreimdiciumfaciunccumapiarijcximcrc incipiunt fauos. 

S^muiscnim fufTiantur^vthcmcntcrq; cx fumolaborent,tamc 

P^smcliistuncsduntquamprius.quod cnim cibi caufa Abi 

"cond:dcrinr,parcigs co temponbus c^tcris vtumur:fedhabet 

««m quo altero cibo alantur,qucd quiiiam ccraginem,al;j ce- 

^um vocant-vcrum hocdettnus e^ dukcd.neprcpcficus. 

^ngeruutidquoq;vtc^ramiuiscrur)bi)s.rerqaam varia in 

rin? tI10P ! rari0nc * vifa,rati0cft Cumcnim aJucum recepc- 
nim u d um> eonftrucrc incipiantfaaos defercntcs cx flcri- 

ttar? * C l Um arborum jachr y *™sfalkis,& vlmi,&rcliqua- 
* ^^«Sluti^umpariunt.hhpaaimciituinquoquc illinont, 

P 3 M 



t3<* ARISTOT* DE ANIMXLiB. 

nebeftiol£nocua:fubeanf.vocant hocopus apiari/ teftoriora 
imam. Aditus etiam fi ampliorcs funr ,fabrica obftruentes coar 
tant.Effingunt faaos primum in quiba? ipfctgignantur.dcindc 
in qaibus rcgcs difti,& fuci.faos ccrte femper componunt : fed 

TCgum,cum fcetas largtor cft.facoram autcm cum eopia mcllis 

fpcratur,fauos rcgam minorcs facianc iuxta faosfacorom iu- 
xta rcgum minorcs,quain fads.Exordtum opcris a fcfto aluci* 
fextm<j;adpaaimcntum pcrpctuo ftabilimentoagitarrplurck 
<jee ad paaimcntum telx deducuntur celta: autem dc mcliaria? 
&fobolarhegcminse omnesfant Vno enim eodemq; interfe- r# 
-pto,du« fibi iungantor ccilx,modo pocali gcmini:altcra intos, 
altcraforis.compages,qaa parictibus faui adhasrent , arfliorcs 
& mclle vacuse rclinqaantur,gemino aut triplici vcrfu -plcnio- 
rcs cnim funt faui,quibas plas cera» obducitur.pars aditas aluri 
priorillitacftcxcommoicrficcnim vocant quod vclut excre- 
mcntam purgamentomq>cer*eft,bencnigru ,acrisq; odoris. 
medenturhoc plagis,& huinfcemodi fuppurationibus.proxi- 
nnin ab co tecioriam picatas ccreus prarbcc Ieaius id quam co 
mofis medicamcftfumeft.Sunt qai fucos dfcpcrfefin^erefauos 
eodem in alaeo,& cam apibas negocium conficiendi faui parti~<> 
ri dicant: vcrum mellificandi nollam habcrc facultatem,fed 
fci tum cos,tum coroin pullos mclLvjnod apcs fcccrinr manct 
iarimagnatemporisparteintus,cumq; cxennr,efferunr fefc 
fofiminfublimcgyroq; volirant 3 & qosfi cxcrcinim faciant. 
qacd vbifatis tamfcccrint,redcuntdomum,&epulis perfrua- 
«ur.Rcgcs nanqoam prodcantforas,ve!at pafcantnr , vcl alia 
caufa,ni(i vniucrfa cam plcbc.& fi cum pcrgut,rex ipfe fortc fi 

abcrrarir ? omncsinqaircre,odcratuc; fagsci pcrfcqui-doncc 
inoenianr^accepimas.gcftjri etiam cum i piebe,cam volarcnd 
poteft.&fipericrit,omnesdifccderc: vcl fi aliquandiu manfe-J 
rfnt,fauos quidcrn coficere,fcd mcl nullum.ncc ficri pofic,quin 
breniomnesdifced.jnr.Ceram apesperreptando fiorcs,capiut 
priorum acmr.ine pcduin,mox priores in mcda* abftergtftf t, & 
mctlios in blaefa pofteriorum:arqacita onafta? difceduf.& qai- 

"dcmgraaari premfqueonercccrnantur,qootic5 redcunf. Mos 
apibus,neflorum plaragcnera pctan? , vno codcmque profc- 

/to,fcdfingulisfingula. vcrbigratia,a viola ad violam aduo- 

•Jant , nec aliad attingunt , quoufquc foum in alucam re- 

deant.Iucle inozcem quath»r>t,& fingulas ^tres aot quatuor fo 

qauntor. Scd quid accipiant r fcfad facile vidcris : ncc vc- 

xo qaemadmodum operantur^vifem adhuc eft.Ccr* congeft^ 

t noNrf 



ve- 



i 

riotaripotuit in oleis>cum cfiatius In codem morcntar*propter 
frondcin eias arboris fpifsiorcm.Poft hfC faeuficarcjnqpiur; 
ncc proktbct quicquam quo minus cadcrn in cclla finr,& puOL 

Amcl,& fuci.Gignifucos iccrmm dicirur, fi dux vioit : ied u 
cbijt,ia apum loculamcntis oriri cx ipfisapibus^rquc fcosf.e- 
ri animofiorcsjquocircaaculcatos vocari ? quair u*s aculeo ca- 
reant. Animo nanqj feriendi,:acn gorcftau ,namen hac meruc- 
lantSant loculi ipfifucorum ampliorc*>& fingamurfeorfcm 
quoquc pcr fe faai fccorar^icd roagna cx partcfahis spum in 
loieruncur^quapropter iccandum eft.Genera aputn plura, vt di- 
xi-duo principium.altcrum rurfam ,euod pr^ftamias eft.altc- 
ramnigromjmagi^acvariun^duploamphu^ aprc vtili. Tcr- 
tiam genus qaod opumum,breue hoc,in rotunditarcm ccmpa 
&ik& varium cft.Qnartum Ipngata crabronibus fimiiC.Pra:- 
tcrcaquod turappcii-ctur.nigrumhoc, aiuoqucanplicrc eft. 
Qninctiamfacus qai oir.niam maximus cft,ied fineaculeo» & 
ignaaus.Diflcrunt imci ic apes paictibus nan? vrbanis,& qc^ 

rnfticomonranoqucviciucclucutis prodicrint.iur.r cnirn L# 
fylucftres horrkuorc . aipecl(i,& iracundiores, & mii)Ore,kd 

looperc ac laboreprseftantiorcs.Gcnus frugi faoos iuos acqoabi 
lcsconflruir,iupcrnuiiiqae torum opcriii ctum pohtum appu 
aifjftad fmgulos vius fauu fingulaum tffingir, yjdclicct parte 
aliaad mcila.aha ad prole,aLa ad tutos accomcdata.quod fi ac 
cidcrit,vt codc m faao omnia hscrccxpiaMiur^locolus aher de« 
inceps difpcfitbs habcturioaniff.A t vcro illa :f orrc&iore? , fa- 
fcss insqaaicseonficiunr, &ppcrimrmu retamid n pcrinde 
vtcraoroucs impoRunt.foetani ctia 3 & rcliqwa fine crdinc Rz- 
tutmt.duccs improbi cx his oriuntur,& copia tum fucomm, t h 
etiamccram,<juosi : ures vocanr. Scd melhs aut nihi},aur «d- 

Pmodu parum opcra carum conficitur.Incubant 3f cs iuis faui.% 
«concoquunr.qaod nififccerinr,vitiari c\ arena fauos aiunr. 



^cdti decxrerofccomincrepotucrint,vtinaihita perfcuc- 
re nt,parris cjuaii abortos fu:fin minos, toti pcrcunt faui . Gi- 
§numrinijsqux vitianrur,veii;iicui; : qnirno;cf>cnnisfubna- 
*« cuolant.Curant ctiam apcs,vt faui ci e&i ftcr.r. quod ii quf 

*^rrucrint,erigu^t,&pi]:siuiciuntfi.:rr.iC2tis , vtiubire pof- 
"nt.Cumcmmviaquaacccdant nondatur,ccfiant incubitu: 
Vndcnc,vtfauiaranccn:ur-Fur &fuc:; i ullam cit t; ; unu£ r kd 
€a:tcnsqiifbu.Tcum viuunr,um;ri:>ir.Ucumr :no tan;tn ;mpu- 
^ icmper.na dcprehcnii mtcrdum abonisapibus ppciduntur^ 

tnccantnimuumipUctiamiiuccs^quiplurcs quamfatis ht, 

p 4 habe 



jjl ARISTOTE. DE ANIMALIB, 

habeantar:& potifsimom improbos, nc principom multitodo 
feditioncs in cxamine faciant necant prxcipoc, cum non am- 
pla (obclis copia cxtitit : ncc habcnt tanquam coloniam mit- 



tat.fauo 

tc cum defint,quil>as mittcndis duces ipfi pratficiamur.nccnon 
fauos tollunr focorom ,fi mcllispcnoriaraconicftantor, ikc al 
uei annonafoptriorisanniabundanr.<5:apiariam cximcriUin 
fonc prxcipucde melleimpugnant,acpradente$ fucos expel- 
lont.iquidem£rpcvifantur forisinaluco rcfidentcs cxolcs. 
flagrantodio>brcoes contralonga«>>casquralucis pcllcrccona- 
turrqoa in pugna.fi illa? vicerincoptimom ita forccxamcn po 
tatorrfcd (ihje fols rcmankrint>ociofiC viount , & nihil boni 
integu faciont. Pcrcuntctiam ipfrantcquam autumnusfir. 
rt J ent bonar apcs quoad ficri potcft, nc quam intra aioeu in- 




terimanr,& fiquaintcricrit intus,ftafim foras cudauer cdu- 
cont.Qjn aatcm furcs vocantur.& iuos inoicem fauos of cndut 
& alicnos,fi 1 ituerint,fobeont.fedfi capianfur,capitc punian- 
tur.ncc facileautiatere,auf aufagercpoflaot.funt cnim in qao 
qac adita cuftodcs. & fur ipie, fi quando (orripere ingreflum 
potucrit,adco in faticfatcm repletur,vt ncqocat coolare,icd an*$ 
tcahmim volutetur.itaquefugaperqaan difficiiiseft. Regcs 
nonqaa.n fon i vilunrur,nificum migratur:& tonc ita,vt rcli- 
qux omncs circa ipfom prtncipem fuum giomcrcntur. C 8 vc- 
ro migrandum cft, vox Joliraria&pccaliaris quxdam aliqaot 
anu dicbus intns mittifur: * biduo, auttriduo paoca? circum 
atocom volaot.anrc^ etiamintereasfif, nondum cxploratuvn 
habemus,quoniam difficilc cognitu cft.Colledta:iamauoi3nf, 
& per fingulos reges diuiduntur.A fi fortc pauca: propc mal- 
tas confiftunf,concedont paucae ipl«r ad plurcs, ac rcgcm, qoe 
rcliq»icnnt,fi iequutur,inferimunf.difceffus &migratio ita agijO 
tur fingii isauttm tr.oneTibusfediftnbount, vtahacflorcscon 
Uchant,al ;eexrruar.t,aiia? poliant f juos, &dingant. Aquam 
tunc portant*cumprolemnufriunt. Camcm nuliios ammalis 
t.1n£unf,necopfoniumappctonr. Kullum histcmpos ccrtom 
coniuctQtr.que efhquo opcran incipianr.fcd fi ciban js non ca- 
rcnr,bcncc]uedcgnnf xftiuo potlfsimum tcmpore opus a2g*c 
dmmur, & qnandiu fcrcnum fif , afiidui opcrantur . Noucll* 
etiam terrio quam prodiennt dic, ftarim negocium ineunt , *» 
cibusnon /uppcf!r.cumqucincubanf,d>grrdunrur nonnoUc 
ad paftum,lcd bteoi rrdcunr,prolcs feiicis cxaminis qaadrag?n 
tacUebusinrermiltuur.tanrummodo abruma.com iatis iani 

CQQ&C 



IIBEH NONV5» 233 



concreuiiic puliitiem Jcnierint, cibo appciito dcrciinquunt. 

ipla vero cu datur faculras,rupto opcrculo cxit.Beftiolas,qug 

in alaeis najfcuntur,& fauis officiunt,apcs not£ melioris toliur 9 

& rcm fam iliarem taentur.fed altcr* pro iuo vitio negligunti 

A pcrirc pariuntur.Cum autcmfauos apj ari jeximunt,cibi ta 

tum ielinquonr, quantom per hycmem jfufficiat. quod fiUtis 

fu,feraator cxamcniin minu5,vel moritur ibidcm, fi nediice- 

dat hycms obftat,vcl deferitfedcm,fi icrcnum nancifcitur. mcl 

apibus tom aeftate,tum hyemc in cibo eftrfcd rccondunt altcrti 

loquoq; cibari) genus, cui duritics cerar proxima, quod i andara- 
cara nonnulli appellant.Infcrunt iniuriam apibus maximc vc 
ipx& aa*cohe,quas paros vocant,atque ctiam hirundo,& mc* 
rops,qoi apiaftcr cft tum vero ranse lutariae>eas vbi ad aquam 
acccfferint,rapiunt.quamobrcm cas apiarij pcr paludcs & fta- 
gna,vndc apcs aquantur,venarifolcnt,& vciparum latibula,& 
hirondinum,ac meropum nidos propinquos alueis tollunt. Nul 
hm animal nifi fui gcneris apes fogiunt. pr acliantor cnim in- 
terfc&cum vcfpisricdcum rurifunt,ncciibiinuiccm, ncquc 
vllisalijsinioriatur/Atvcro apudfuosalucospugnantaccrri • 

lomc,* hoftcs quos vicerint,cnccant. Intercut qux percuflTcrint: 
quoniam (inc intcftini eruptionc aculcus eximi non potcft.fac 
pms cnim cuadunt, fi qui iftos cft , curam adhibct, vt aculeus 
ififixus iun&us cum aluo extingamr,alioqui apis interit. Nc- 
cant vcl maxima animalia iftuiui aculci.Iamequusoccifus ab 
apibos eft,fed principcs minimc irntantur 5 & fcriont. cffcrunt 
ioras apcs vita in aluco dcfun&as,& csetera mundifsimum om- 
ntaai hoc animal cft. Qnamobrcm farpcnumcro cum alui ne- 
Ktsitas cft,auolant.& in icccflu rcddunt excrcmcntcm,quonia 
ro*Icolcat.oderunt non folum fard 0$ odores,fed ctiam vnguc 

*° lorQ mdel;cias.ex quo fit,vt homincs his dclibutos pcrcotiat. 
percnnt apcs tum ali js caiibus, tum vcro cum multi principcs 
***** partcm quifquciecum quolibuitabdocat. Rubcta etiam 
a f*>intcrimit iubiens enim aditus aluei,afflat>&obferuansra 
pit coolates.nulio haec affici malo ab apibus potcft,ied ab apia 
ri °*acilc interimitur. Gcnus autcm apum quod improbu cfle, 
^koos fingcrc ajpcros diximus,nouellis maximc tubuqt apia 
pJ n onulii:pcccarcq; ita pcr impcritiam cas arbitrantur.noucl 
^Qtem iunt anniculac omncs.quarom examcn quotannis auo 
Witom cfhNcc vei o noocil^ Jpi^e perrnde ac vetcrar* f& 
m** copia rncilis nofuppem. Apiarij fucos depcliunt, & fc- 



p j rci 



*J4 A*ISTOT£. DE ANItfALlB. 

^cs intas operanttir,hirtiore$tj; more domefticar ratlone funfc 

'Adolefccntes foris negocium exercer,& ea>qar rcs exigit, por 

tant,leuioresq; funt laborc hiriuti^ detrita. fucos ctiam ipfx 

interimant,quoties non fatis loci opcribus cft. tencnt cnim al- 

ttci locam penifiorcm.Cum morbo cxamcn qaoddam labora- 

ret,agmen peregrinurn inuafir,& pugna confcrta,adcptaq; vi- 

Qoriz mdla diripiebat.quod cnm spiarias profterncret, viitu 

cxamen ftatim cgrcftiim vlci(ccbatur,nechominemipfam vl- 

io pafto impctcbat.Morbo cxamina valcntiora potiisimum in 

fcftantur clero(ficcnim vocant vcrmiculos,quiin pauimcnto t& 

nafcantur)c quibus crefcentibus vclut aranea aluco toti obdu- 

citar,&fauicaricpercunt. Altcrummorbi genus qoafi ocium 

^uoddam & vctcrnitas apum incidit cnm fcsJo aluei odore. Pa 

ftasgrntifsimasapibasthymumeftifcd rubido albidum pr«- 
fertar.locusaeftatc non feruidus ,hycme tcpidus. ssgrotant co 

potifsimumtemporc,cum perarroginofam matccie opcrawr.- 
Qooties Veroflatu vehementuaftancur, lapillamgcftant. quo 
fe qcafi fulcro* fundaminc quodam ftabiliant contra flatum. 
bibant fi flaaias fitprop:nqaus,non aliumlcquim ex co,pofi 
toonere.fin minus, aliundcharaorc haufto pcrgunt irc ad md fo 
cuomeridum,confcftimq; ncgocium rcpetunt. Mcllis conficic- 
f!i tcmpora dao funt,vcr atqac aatamnus.f cd vernam fuauius, 
candidius,omnino prxftantius autumnalieft.conficiturprote 
fto melias cx noaa ccra,noueilisque ftirpibus.ruf umvero atq,* 
deformins faui vitio rcdditar, qaippe quod pcrir.de vt vinum 
avafcvitictur.qaaproptcrcoqacndummrcficcandumquecft. 
Cum aurcm e* thy mo fl orentc faai rcpkntur,fit ira, vt minus 
ntelcoeat&duretar.prohaturcai cx aureoiocolor. qaod aa- 
tcm albicar,none fyncerothyinoconfe&um eft,fcd idoculis& 



vlccribas commodiusapplicatur . Mellis cxilior pars fiuitaf ; £> 
qaa* ejctmcndacftrpura vero & valida fubfidir. conficiant ceri 
cum ftirpes florent, quamobrcm cximenda pcr idt cmpus ccra 
dealaco eftrcominoo entm rrparatur.Harc funr,vndc accipi^» 
thymus,f uius agreftis,fcrtuk ca;;ipana,albucu,myrtus^pblcus, 

vitcx, genifta. Cam ex thyma conficiurit, acjnam admifceflf» 

antc^am fauus occopctur . I< gcrant a!ai orcremcnta omncs» 

autvoi3ntcs,vtdiftumcft,autccrtain partcfar?:. minoreso#» 
ciofioresmainribusiunr,vrdi:<i.pcrna"hisdetrita:,colorniger 

dorhim repandum iilr r.itid yemiftsque lunr more occiiW 
muiicrum.Gaud^rcetiamplaufuatGuc fonitu apcs vidcnfttf* 
qaapropter tinnita xris aut fi&ilis conuocari cas in alucu aiuf : 






qiunl 



«juanquam inccrtum cft,an audiant,& voluptatenc, an formi- 
dinc itafaciantquin &f ocias ocioias 7 ac defides, aut minus par 
cas pcilcrc in morc apibus eft.partiuntur intcr ie opcra, vt an* 
ledixh&ali^cfauosconficiunr^al!» inclla,alfcr erythacam.& 
aliae fauos expoiiunt,a.ia. aquam important ad ceilas, & mella 
tempcrant,alia: munus cxtrarium (ubcunt. Temporc matuti- 
noomnesfilent. doncc yn^ gcmino aut triplici bombo cxcitc* 
ovnncs.tum vniucrfse ad opus prouolant.cumq; rcdierinr 7 pri- 
mum itcm tumultant* pauJatiinqj minus fubindc ftrepunt, du 
lo vnacircumuolitando iufarret.curfi dormicndum pracipiat.tij 
rcpcntc omnes eonticcfcunt. Dignoicitur examcn valcrc fufur 



cunfe 



tuncenim nouclJaeopcrantur. Efuriutabhycmepotiisimum, 
camopasincipiunt.Reddunturociofiores,fi .ucximendis fa- 

elin- 



uisplos mcllis rclinquatur. itaqj proexaminis numcro reli 
quendnm eft. Agunt ctiam anx ius,fi plus cicmctstur. quim 



vr 



criam 



dcfidiofiorcs recdunrur.agrius cnim quafi defperent,opcri ;n- 

cumbunt Caftrantur faui ilngulis icxtarijs,act tcrnis ieryiicx- 

2ctarijsJcd fi cxubcrant.binis fextanjs caftrari , aut quinis fcmi- 

__»v*-i_-; _„ _.__/__ . . _- * _____• _ \ 



& 



icxtarijs pofiunt.pauci ternis fcxtarijs.Impugnatur apcs av 
«piSjVt antc dixi. c]uaobrc apiari j cas venatur coft ituta olla, 
carnc in capcfita.vbi cnirn multac iaad carneacccflcrint.appo 
hto opcrculo fupcr igne olla ponuriaci autc fi paaci adiunt ia 
mnt.rcddunt cnim apcs in opcre iolicitiorcs. prvfagiunt apcs 
& nycmcin & imbres.cuius rci indicium eft .quod non auolant, 
ied icrcno adhuc in alueo volutan tur, quo apiarij hycmcm ex- 
Faant.cuvcromutuointerieanncxu aliacxaiiadcpcdet in 
alaco 3 indiciudciercdicabili«cft.quodncaicniat 5 apiarijalucis 



77 ^* vx ^° aa iC!.t:xpcditconiucuiUcapudaiucariapiros, 
i^as,mcdica herba,iuna,cruilia, myrtum,papauer. fcrpyllu, 



a In prato 



ua- 



am ygdalam.CognoicuntiiMs apiarij nonnulh.farin 
f- 1 peria.Minus apcs fcrtificanr.fi vericrotinum fit, «™* 
' aat ^go incidcrit. RattO apum nd hunc modotn cft. " 

-0« ibokut ueftamm gtneribus, & varuniJhdsQ ir<f*uiis 

cotijimrndi;. fapnt X 1 I. 

tparom duoiunr gcnrra.altcrumfcnim , quod rarum 




i-inaicens inmcncibus,&i>aricnsnon fubtcrra , icdin 

_n. ii_--v- i. _, * 




VlUlt 



*j£ - AHISTOT. DE ANIMALIB. 

vitrit hoctotoanno,* quidem temporc hybcrno . qoercu carfi 

cuolarefpe&atur.cxigit hyemem in ]atcbra.& icmpcr in macc- 

riediuerfatur.iunteius alias matrices^aliae opcraria;,vt in alte- 

ro generc,quod placidius eft .Qux autcm fit natura opcrariar* 

ac mafricis,in co ipfo placidiorc gencre percipi facilius poteft. 

func cnim huius quoq; duo gencra,alterum duces , quas matri- 

ccsappellat,altcrumoperari2e maiorcsmitioreiqj duccsfunr. 

j\etas opcrariarum annum non complet,fcd omnc? hyemein- 

ualcfccnte moriuntur.quod ca rc conftat,qaia hycmc incipien- 

tc ftupefcanrbruma autcm nullar omnino appareant.duccs vc-iq 

r6quimatricesvocantur,totahycme vifuntur , atqjfubterra . 

l3titant.plcriq; enim Cum per hyemcararent,aat fodercnt,tna 

triccs viderut.-operarias nemo ortostalis vefparum eft.Duces 

vbiiamlocumfibiopportunumdelcgerunt.fauos opcrc xfti- 

ooconfingunt,& vcipeta(ccllulasdico) conftituunt quatcrnis 

foricu!is,aut propt , in quibus vcfpae non matriccs nafcuntor. 

qua» cum incrcucrint,rurfus altcra ampliora cffingunt . quoru 

itcm prolcs cum creucrit ,alia f ac»ut,ira, vt poftrcmo autumno 

plurtma amplifsimaquc vefpcta condita habcantur . in quibcs 

duxquaematrix ?ocataeft,n6 infupcr vefpas,iedmatricesianno 

procreat.qua: quidcm fupernc poft fumma vcfpcti vcrmiu fp 

ciemaltograndiorumgignuntur,in ccllulis continuatis qua- 

tuor numero,autpaalo pluribas.alioqui incrcfccndi ratiodaci 

bus cadcm qux vcfpis eft.Sed cum vclpjeopcrari r faais afFuc- 

rint,non prxtcrcaduces operantur,fedopcr3rte ipfx cibu fuis 

ducibusfumminiftrant.quodca recon ftat, quiadacesnon item 

eaolant,(edintra teda quicfcont.Catteril vrrum duces anni fu- 

perioris nouellis iam procreatis ducibus mrcrimantur a vefpis 

noucllis,idq;fimilim(xJoe'jeniat,anplusctxamtcmporis pof- 

fint viuere,nondum txploratum cftrnec vero leriefrutern matri J° 

cis,&vefparumgcncrisfcri,atrtaliquem huiufcemodi affeau 

annotareadhucquifquam pottiir Eftautcm matnx latior,po 

derofior,crafsior, Amaior qoa vefpa:volatuq;haudplurnEU . 



valet.prsepondcrc cnim fui corporis volarc logius ncquit.quo 

fir,vt fempcr in vefpanjs (akmt d igcntes f auos ,<Sr muncrc 

in vcfp^ 
tur tatne 



fungcntes cdljrio.iniunr porru marriccs nuncuparae i 

rijs pl:inmis:fed aculeata: finf,nrc ne,ambgitur.videl 
ftipfae vtapomd'Jces,gcrcreq(iidemaculcum,i^dnon cxtrin- 

gcrcaut ftrirc.Vefparum aut^tr alig ^arenr aculco,vtfuci.> 
lix habent.minores imbecillioref q; fam,qu* carent,ncq; repa 
grunt.contri qux habent,maiorcs>robafta: , atquc pngnsccs, 

9 (juas 



LIB!R. NONVS. IJ? 

quas nonnulli mares appcllant.fcrminas vero cas, qux carent, 

Fleraequeex ijs quxaculcum gcrunt,amitterceumpntatur hyc 

mcinftante:fcd hoccx neminc qui vidifler,acccpimus. Vcfp# 

temporibusficcislocisqueafperispotiusoriuntur ortusfubtcr 

ra agitur -fingnnt fuos fauos cx congcric , ac terra:<£ ab codem 

primordroquafiftirpevnuniquemque sdificant.cibum vclcx 

floribus quil)ufdam,& fru&ibus pctuntrfcd quamplorimum cx 
carnc.coircnonnull«ctiamcxc2Ctcrisv»fa:funt :fcd an ambx 

acaleocareant,authabfat,vclalrcra habeat,altera careat,non- 

10 dum cxploratum cft. Fcrarum ctiatn nonnullar coire vi{x funt 

& alrcram gcrcrc aculcu conftirir/ed dc altcra incertum eft.fce 

tusnonparruprouenircvidetur.ftatimcnim auciior qua par~ 

tosvcfpacpjtiatur.cxiftitSi vcfpamcx pcdibus ccpcris,bom- 
biIarcq;fineris,adaolant quaraculeocarent.quod nonfaciont, 
qoxaculcatoclunt.itaq; argumcnto quidam hoc vtantur,vtal 
rcrxmarc^ fintjaltcrarfmninse.Capiurorhyberno tcmporeia 

fpe]unds,# quaraculeum habent , & quae carcnt.condunt aliae 
faavcfpariapanca,&exigua:ali^plura<Sr ampJiora. Capitur 
™ a gnamatncum parsi lolftirioapud vlmos .colligunt cnim 
iohincicnram * gummoiam marenarrbprodierclocisquibafdatft 
snatrices ortu admodum numcrofocum fuperiori anno vefpa- 
tnm atq; imbrium copia prarcefsifict capiuntur pcr prxcipiria 
* tctvx rimas,pr,rruptaquc dirc&iorajomncsq; vifuntur acu<» 
k «n) gcrcre.talis vcfparum ratioeft. 

Dt crahr»nihHS,mftH<j; eornm &aheis. 

cafnt x l 1 1. 

CRabroncsnonfloribos t vfapcs,fed carnc magnaexparte 
viuunt.vndcfit,vt vcrfari vcl in ftercorc farpc folcant. ve- 
30 nantar ctiam mufcas ma/ufcolas,qaas vbi cepcrint,abfciflo ca- 
P ite 5fdiquumcorpus gcftantes auolanf.Sedpomum ctiadul- 
^ppctunt-cibushis taliseft.Dcces morcapum . vcfparomqj 
habcnt qaj proportioncad crabrones maiores quam vcfparum 
vc fpas,& apum ^d apes funt.dcgut hi quoq; intus,vt vcfpa 
™n daccs:faciant fibi alucum fab tcrra cr3broncs,terra egefta - 
«vtformic^cxcauant.mifsioenim vt apam,nullaveeoru vel 
vc fparum fieri foict.fcd qai fubindc oriantur nouclli ibide ma 
* c nt,4 alucum tcrra cgefta faciant ampliorcrmamplificat ma 
° rcm ,n ™odum,<X: iam cx valltiore quodam cxaminc qaalli- 



r «,5r quatuor faaorum pleni cxccpti funt.nec vero cibum rl 
a P0m fibirccodant,fcd icianilatcnt pcr hycmcm>quo tem- 

portf 






tfi AMSTOT. T>t ANtMAtlB. 



doccs 



rcs vno fingalis coru cxaminibus oriuntoiyvt intcr apes gignu 
turplares^qaicxamm.i diftrahunt.Scdfiqni crabronesfuoal- 
ncoabcrrarint-jCollffTUrfcadaliqoaarbore^fauosqjibi confi- 

ciunt,qai vcl facpc cpfpico? apparet.in quibns vnu procrcat da 
cem.qaicu adolcacrit.a^mcn adducit,* fccu in alueo collocat. 
Dc coitu crabronti nihil adhuc cxploratu habeo,ncc vnde frsti 
ficcnt.Scdcuingcncrcapumcarcatacalco-cS: fuci.& regesrat- 



rones 



armari 



accuratias 



/< 




c<*/>«* x t 1 r i . 

Ipf 



20 



paulo plaribuscfcllulis.mcllis ctiaprauicaiufdiiinchoatio 
in his rcpcrirur. Tcrcdo no abfimilis crabronibus eft>fcd varfa* 
& latitudine proxima npibus.copcdiofa haeceft,* ad culina,* 
pifces,*haiufccmodidcliciasfingularis achjol3tfoctunib tcr- 
ra xdit.vt vcfpa: maltipkx huios qaoq; teredinarin efh# lon- 
gc amplius quam vefpa: 3 atq; porrc&ius. Munens viteq> rafio 
apom,vcfosru,& rcliquoruin generisciufdc, ad hnc modu cft. 

Mort s antmanttHm ^ijftrre- i & manj r Hc!ud$nt,C?' ftritalt: 
</e<j; Uonum gentribut C naturfi>£r '«■]>* ctruariJ. 

Cahut xlitii. 

CActcrumin tnoribus animantiu(vt di&um iam eft)pcrd- 
pi diffcrctias liccr,pr«ecipuc quide ad fortitudine,* timi- 
ditatem:fedadmanfactudincquoq;& feritateetia infpfofyl- 
•ueftriu gencrc.Lcocmm quauis inec&dofcrocifJmus fit,tame 
paftos,* famc iam vacas,facilis mitisq, fnaiorc in modutn cft. 
nihilhicfafpicatur,nul!insfafpiciofascft,fcftiaas , ludibodas.?* 
bcncaolasadmodu<aiscamfocfjs,&famzlisribus eft.Invena- 
tadumccrnitnr nunquamfugit,autmetuif.fedetiafi venantiu 
maltitudincccdcrccogitur^fcnJ i pcdarim^ue difccdircrcbro 
fabfiftent arq; rc(pc£ten*.naftus vero opaca,fuga qua maximc 
poteft veloci,fefubtrahit*donec in apcrta deucniat,tum 

lcntc inccdit.Scd fi qoado locis nudfs atq: paretibus cog 
gam apertc arripcrc,airrit c6tentns,nec falit,carfu5q; cias co- 

tinens, vt canu intenditur.cum tamen ipfc infecfotar , vbi i* m 
propinqaariMnfilit.Vcractia illadeeo narrantur,!gnepr*- 
cipiu formidare,vt Homcrns quoqiteftatur cum dicat: Ardcn- 
tesq; faccs quas qaau is f$uiat,horrct.* pcrcufibrcm agnofccr^ 



irar 



" IIBER WONVJ. i^yf 

atqoc cx obferuato inuadere. S i quis ctia non percoiTerff,fecf 
infcftcr,huncficepcrir,no vnguibus laccraf,nec vllainiuria a£ 
ficit,fed quar if folmatqj vbi ita pcrterroit,demittit. Acfcant vr 
bes,& iniuriam hominibtis inferunt.potifsitrm tcmporc fu« fc- 
ncQmls nooC cnim pcr corporis f mbeci]Iittte,& dcntium defc* 

ftjonctnven3nncqacunf.Viccrcannosrr.ulfosputatar.*qui 
dc qnicapms cft clandus,demes coplures ira&os liabcbat . quo 

argumcnto quidam longam efic leonum xtatcm exiftimarcnt. 
haud cnfcn hoc scciderr.nifi longo tcmporc potDilTe , Lconom 
*o duo funt gcnera-quor u altcrum brcaius,crifpiorcq; pilo,qaod 
lgn^uiascft.-alteram longius,piloq,-probiore,quod generofios 
ciUagiant intcrdum lconcs dimiifa intcr crura cauda, vt cancs. 
Iam vtfus cft leo,qoi cani fuem iggrcderetonvf ictis horrcntc 
3fpcxit,fageret.Infirmns p3rtciliamcftcontraiaus,fcdrcIi- ( 
cuocorporc maltas patitur phgas,&capire validifsimo cft. 
Qn.rcunquc vcl momorderit,vel vngoibus IsccrariManics pd 
j^sadiriodom dchis vlccribus cffluit,etiam per fafcias , atquc 
ipongias,ncc rcprimi vllo paflo poteft.curantur codcm modo, 
^omcrias,cinini,vlcera. Thocsctiam quosjcpos ccruarios 
**' ma '>Hominens d?l»g;xnt,& nequccflfendunt 7 nequc ir.ctintc 
vaidc.pugnant ccm canibus & leonibcs.quo fit nc eodeminlo 





i$ccre ; &l>arta hcnajt 

Cdjwi x l y. 



Onafus 

Paeon 



is gfgnitor in tcrra P*onia,mote MeiTapo,qef 
iar,& Medix terra: collimitu cft , & monapios 



[i a rKonibns appelIatur,magnitodtnetauri,fcdcorpo 
-i]reqQ^mbcslatiorc.Brcu:orcnim, &in latcraaa- 



Tcrgu 



: v» t -ctera f orroa boufs f.miliseft , nifiqaodceruixinbata 

v6nrr? tenas ' Vtc< J D, * cft ' rcdvill ° mollforcqoa iabaeqna,& 
^morccolor pili f0 ;ias corporis rbuus.iufea prolixa,& ad 

Wilh «, *"*& *" rc qocs c >Iore inter cinereu & ruffia:no 

tt hLj^^" ' P arfos vn "t,cft.fcd villo fuprafqualWio- 

^ferh^ario.nigri autadmodurafF. nulli fu~* ---"-^ 

c -.tmi.con»na adunca in fe flcxa,& puena: 



&pugnx inatilia^gi 



mag 



^aq AKI STOTE. DE A NIM ALIB. 

jnagnitndino-palmarUaat panlo maiora amplitudine no multo 
ar£ttore,quim vt fingala femifextarium capian t , nigritic pro- 
ba.anti*ad oculosvfq;demifl*,ita vtinlatus potius quam zn 
th pcndeant.caret fuperioredentitim ordtne , vt bos,& reliqua 
cornigcra omnia.crura hirfuta,atq; bifulca habet , caadam mi- 
norcm quam profoi corporis magnitadine,fimi]em bubul* cx 
citat puluerem,& fodit,vttaurus.tergorccontraiftus pra:uali- 
do cft.Carncm habct gufto faaucrrirquamobrcm in vfu venan 
«ii cft.Cam pcrcaflus eft,fugit:nifi defatigatas nufquam confi- 
ftitrepugnatcalcitras,* proluuiemalui,vel adquatuor paflusio 



jcienjrquo pra?hdio 
infe&antium canum 
i bellua excttatur,* r 



Tcmp 



di vniuerfi in montibus cnitontur. Scd priufquam foetu*dat, 
excremeto aluicirciter cum locum in quo pariaiit,fed qaafi val 
lo circondant & muniunt.largam cnim quandam cius excremc 
ti copiam ha:c bcllaa cgerit. 

De tngento & f fagacitate elephanti* 

Caput x L V I. % 

ELcphantas omnium fcrarum mitifsimus , Sc placidifsimas 
cft:qaippc qai pcrmulta officia,& crudiatur,& intelligat. 
quandoctiam rcgcm adorarc condifcit. valct fenfu,& reliqua ia 
gacitatcingenijexccllit.quam implcucrit coitu,ea ruriusnoft 
tangit.V iocrc clcphantosmarcsalij annos ducentos , alijccn- 
tam & viginti aiunt.fceminac etia fcr£ totidcivr.fai florerc sta 
tccirca fexagffimum narrant.hyemis ac fr igorfs impatiens hoc 
animalcfiedicitar,amatarnnes,& quanquam no fluaiatilefitt 
tamen ripariumdici poteft.inceditetiam pcr aquam,& catcnos 
mergitur,qaatcnus cias promafcis fuperat.refl at enim pcr cz& 
& fpiritom accipit,& reddikfcd natarefatis pondcrcfui corpo 

ris non poteft. 

camelum matrtm nunquamfuperucnire,deq; 

ftrudcntia equt regis Scytharum. 

caput x l v 1 1* 

CAmelimatrcs nunquamfuperucniunt foasfed etiafi <\ nii 
cogat,ipfinonpatiuntur.iamcum aliqaando admiflanQ* 
non habcrctur,curator pullum matri opertar admifit . qoi dam 
cokct.dclapfoopcrimentoagnouit matrem,* quaaiscoifu m 
abfolaerit,memor tamcn commifsifcclcris,paalo poft camcl> 
rium illum morfu dcfixo intcrcmit . Fcrunt ctiaregi Scytn** 



LIBFK. NONVS^ 24* 

fuiffecqoamegregiam,cxqua maresgenerofiomncs gigneren 

tur.quorumvncm,qnipra:ftantiorhaberetur,cum vrcx ma- 
trc procrcarer,p]acrret>admiffum omnino rccofaflc . opertam 
deindelatuiffematrem,vtimprudcns fuperucnirct.verum vbi 
iconcubitutdCiemmatrisdcteftam agnoaerat,fugam propc- 
raffe,atq; feipfum aflum prarcipitem tntcremifle. 

Dt manfuttuitnc,<tmore , &celeritatedelpbinorum. 

Caput xlviii. 

IN marino etiam gencre pluriir.a dedclphinis narranrur indi 
cia morum placidorum ac mitium.amorcs quoq; in pueros, 
& affeftus libidinis,cum circa tarcntum,& Cariam , tum etiam 
locisalijsreferur.t fenur ctiam delphino apud Canam capto 
3tqjfaocio,ingentcm reliquorum multitodincm conucniflead 
porrum ? immorataiiic[;,donccpifcator dimifcrir cum,qucm ce- 
perat.f om ojnnes fimul recepto captiuo redijfle.paruos itc deU 

phinosmagnusaliquisfemper comitatur cuftodiae caufa.Iam 
confpe£tus cft delphinorum grex,maiorum & minorum promi 
iccus,poft qucm,dco quidam pauiopcft vidcrentur delphinu- 
ium dcfunflum labentcm in imom fubire , & in fomma pelagi 
2 odorfocuthere,quafimifcrante$,nc abaliqua bcllua deuorare- 
tur.QoinctiamdcvcIccitatchuius an:malismira& incrcdibi- 
liaquxdam acccpimus.omnium enim velccifsimum eflccredi- 
tor animalium.rum aquatilium , tum terrcftrium.fuperfiliunt 



meuc 



ctiam malos nauigiorum maiorum,quod tunc potifsimu 
^ficum aliquem infcftanturpifcem,quemdcuorcnt.tuc cnim 
uqocmimpetunt,lofigiusfugir,adima gurgitum perfequun- 
jnr propter famis nccefsitattm.quod rcditus longior fit rctinet 
c, 9 Qa fl fpacium cogitantes,couci fiq; fcruntnr perinde acfa- 
gJtta pcrntccs,vt cclcritatcopportuna longo rranfmifib itinc- 
rcadlocumfpirandideueniant quoimpetu fif,v tfe ciaculetur 



hoc 



deiH vrinaror cs f aciuntacum fc in profundom demifcrunr. 

P ro viribus enim conuerfi enixius efferuntur,vr fpirenr dcgut 

^ n *ugarim mares cum foeminis.Qj^ritur quamobrem in ter- 

] erumpant.hoccniminterdum eosfacere inccrta decaufa 



Dehi 



moribusq; immutantur. 



<f 




p. Cafut xlix. 

d,vt V<>q; animalia pro fuis affcftibus agcrc , fic pro fuis 
quoqj aGionibus afficiimmutariquc moribus folcnt.partes 



q cttam 



*41 AMSTOT. DEANIMALIB. 

ctia corporis nonnulle fopenumcro ratfone agendi f mmafatur 
vt in auiu ecnerc carnit.Gallinxenim cu mares vicerint,caca 
r *unt,& exeplo mariu tentant fuperu?tu coire.crifta ctiam caa 
daq; er!gitnr,ita n nr facile praetcrea fit,anfremina: fint cogno- 
fcerc.nonnonquaeriam calcaria paraa ijs enafcnntur.i^m ve- 
roS: mares vifi n6nullifnnt,qui cu fortefremlna interiflet ipfi 
officio inatrisfungeretur 3 in pullos duftando,fouedo,edacado, 
ira,ncde crtero vclcucunrcvcl coirc appetcret- qnin & iam in 
de a primo orru natura?,ita nonnulli mare< effcrminati prooc- 
niut,vtncq;cacuriant,neq; pcrcoitua^crc ve!int,&vcnerctnfO 
coru quitcntent fupcruenircpatiantur.Cucnlus etia immuta- 
t ur colorc,& voce minus explanat,cu fe abdituros cft.quod fa- 
c?re cx ortu canicnla; foletrapparere aute incipif ab ineunte vc 
re ad cias fyderis ortu. Abditur & ea,qna -cnsnantham quida ap 
peltant,2C fi viti floram dixcrtaexortu einfde fydcris - occafu vc- 
ro ipparet.vitat enim interdu frigora,aliis seftmn .Necno voa 
paeum coldrcturn ver \ fpecieimmutatar,vt Acfchylus poeta 
fatis carminc fuo cxpofuit: 

2 ujnfert fuiff>e£t'atnem,& eftopem mali, 
Cohte \becicmmu>ltimodo pingens fuam. 

SaxicoIam y & imbrihum ar^ta ^ftantem alitcm. 



^AMti infanttsforma hicfefe rtfert t 
tfam ucrc canrficans vAn cxtitit ncuo, 



eftaietum ieinie^ut recan<initfe<res, 




^CJas rcpente uarius maculatas quatit. 

jKigaturhicfemperfaftiitenslocos. 

£> fe^ta c]u*rit ncmorv.m y & muias plagas* 

Coplureserfam alia? anrs immntantur pcr tepora,* ceAorCi 
& voceivt tncrnla,qnscexnf^ra redditur rufa,& voce mirtitdi- 
ncrfam ftrepitat enimper hycme,cum per xftare tumultnans 3 
cantcf.Matat & turdus coIore,quippe qai colto #ftite varias, 
hyemcmurinodiftinftusfneftetarrvocetamen eadeeft.Lafci- 
nia cancrc folet alsiduediebus ac noftibns quindecim , cu fy^ ua 
frondeincipitopacare.ddn canit qaidc>fed no afsidui.moxa- 
duitaajftate,vocemmittitdiuerfam,noinfuper variam t au cc!c 
rem,modiilatamq;,fed fimplice.coWectia immutatur - & qoi- 
dcmin terra Ttaliaper id tcmpns alio nomincappellatur.appa 
rctnondm:3bdtrenimfcfc^Iarcr.Rubeculie J & <\ux ruticillx 
appcI!afnur,inoiccmtranfeunt:cftq;rubccnlahybcrnitempo- 
rij,ra!!Cil!a xftini. nec alio fert> inter fe dtffcrunr , nifi pc&ortt 

olorc &caud*.fic& ficcdok&atricapill? v icibus commatan- 

tof» 



irBER NONVS. *41 

fur.fif cnim incunte aunrmno ficedula ab antumno protinns a- 

tricapilla.ncc intcr cas diicrime aliqaod nifi coloris & vociseft . 

Aucm aatem eflc eandcm conftatrquia dum immntaretur , hoc 

gcnus vtrunq; confpeflum eft ? nondu abfolute mut3tum:ncc al 

tcrutrurn adhuc proprium vllum habens appcllationis.Nccmi 

rum fi hxc ita voce aut colorc mutantur,quando & palubes hyt 

rrenon gcmit,n(fi quod aliquando ex afpcrrima hycmc placi- 

dum tempnsfucccfsifTct.rcmucrifrquod apud peritos in admi- 

ratione habitum eftc„ teram incunte vcrc gcmerc incipir.Pe- 

*o niq; aues tum maxim^plorimasq; cmittunt vcccs cum coeut. 

Mos nuium c(b>vt aliac fcfein pulucre volutent,alte fett lauet, 

ali« nec pnlucre neq; balnco vtantur.Sunt pulucratrices, qua: 

r.on altiuolacfcd tcrra?propinq-_,vt gallina,perdix,rtragena t 

alauda,fafiana Lotrices,nonr.ullre rcftungocs,<£ qus circa flu- 

uios aut paludes,aut rnire verfantur. Alix vtronq; tnm lauare, 

tum pulucrare{oknr,vt columbus , vt pafler.Aduncarum par$ 

lnaior neutru facit.harc ita fe habent.Proprium nonuJlU auitim 
cuenitcrcpi!usalui,vt tUituri.parsctian{noii;fiima aluicaru- 

dcm vchtmcntcr citatur,cum voccm rcddunt. 
10 Deijs aKtmMus qus cafiratione immutantur, qu£ue 

YHWtnent. Cty* I-- 

MVtantnr vtxh animantinm aliqua forma * morifcu5,no 
modo pcr artates & tcpora,vcruetiam caftrationc.caftra 
tnr anrem ea qoibus funt tcfres Sunt aoibus teftcs intns lubris 
ha:rentes,£ quadrupedmr. ifs qu« oua pariont. At vero i js qox 
animal §cnerant,ea'dcmc;rcrreftriafunt,plarimaquide parte 

fcris ; fed nonnullis ctiam intuscontinctcr. omnibus vcro po- 
ftrcmaalaohabentur. Caftranturgallinacci parfcnouifsima 
3cfu« alni, qax au coeunt,cocidit -hanc enim fi doobus aut tribus 
ftramenris ado(Tcris,capos facics.quod fi pcrfc&os eft qui ca- 
f r ratur,crifta pallefcit,* cucuritedcfinif,neq;coitum vcncreu 
^pct!t.iedfiachncpaJluseft,neinchoar! qoidem exijs quic- 
quam potcft.cnm accrcfat.quod idem in hcrnine quoq; accide 
«ccrtum cft Nam fi puer adhuc excidatnr,neq; poftgeniti pili 
in na(cuntQr,nequevr^immutatur,fcdfuum feroar acumcn. 
At fi iam puber , poflgemti dtfiuuntptli , prarterqoam pubis. 
h*ccnim qsamois minoator,tamen maner .fed congeni ti non 
«cflmmt.ncmocnim fpado caluefcit. Qoadropcdum ctiam 
^cOoram vox omnium in foeminam immutator. Scd com 



***** nifi 



:r vnus quasrate 

q x caftr 



I 



10 



244 ARISTOTF. DE ANIM A LIB- 

caftretur,non refert.omnia deni q; fi dum crefcunt,caftranrno 
maiora Sc clegantiora quam incsftrata euadunf . (cd fi poftea- 
qaa adoleuerunt,& teitl jncremento conftiterunt,caftres , nihil 
pr rterea accederc ad magnitndine poteft Cerui,fi cu per xta- 
tcm nondnm cornua gerunr,caftrcntur,non ;rdunt cornua:fed 
ficorniaeriexciduntur,nondecidantcornua,Amagnitudineea 

dcmferuantur.Vituli^tempuscaftraudiannfculiseft^lioqafn 

minores deformioresq; eaadut.M odas caftradi hic eft.Trafto* 

deorfam teftcs,atq;obtcntos,prefTosc; >n imumfcroti ,coltello 

adafto,extradut.mox fibras fnrfum,qnoadmaxim£*fieri potcft 

reprimant,* plagaminfarcmntcapillamentis,vtfanies cffltie 

re pofsit.& fi inflammatar,ignem adhibcnt fcroto,& refpergat. 

Sibos a rccenti caftratu ineat,procrcarcpotcft> Apriaeriam 

fcropharu caftratur,ne prsterea coitum appetat,fed breui tem 

porc obcfctur.Caftratur aute cum bidud ie:unarit,fafpefa per- 

nisprioribus,rccifacutcinter fnemina,qua mariba* teftesma- 

ximecontinentur.haccnim parte adhacret vuluis apria difo, 

cuwejiguaparteabfafaconfarcinat.Csmelietia foeminxca 

ftrantar,cueis vtiinpreliohbet 3 neconcipiantvtero.nonnulli 

fopcrioris Afi-x incolarcamelos vel ad tria millia pofsidef.CurJO 
runf cameli celerius quaequi Ni(Tanz,proptcr laxiore fui gra- 

dusglomerationem.&caftrata dcniq; auftiora qua incaflrata 
eaadant.Animaliaquibas raminare in moreeft,proficiunf>de- 
lcflantOrq; nonminusin ruminando,qu5m edcndo. Rnminat 
qusc fuperiorcdcntium ordinecarent,vt boue?,oacs,capr#.ex 

feris nullam adhac ruminareconftat,pra>terqaaea quae alfqua 
docamhominibuseKigunt,vtceruus.hucctcnimraminarcpia 

nura cft. Iacent potifsimu cum ruminat cmma,# hybern is prx 
cipoemenfibus folent ruminarc.fcprcmferc menfibus hocfa- 
ciunt,qaae intra tcfta alantur.gregalcs lcuius minusq; tempo-5° 
risraminant,quoniaforispafcantur Snnt etiacx dentatisv- 
frinq; nonnulla qua* ruminent.vt mares Pontici r & pifcis,qoc 
abcarcraminalcmquidamappcllarunt.Sant itemalui fiucn- 
tiorisea,qaibuslongiorafuntcrura,fcd propcnfiora ad votm- 
tum,quibus latias pe&us eft. Idqne tum in quadrnpcdum ge- 
■erctom in auiom , tam ctiam in hominam ita cfle magna cx 
partc pcrpenfum cft . 

HISTORIAE ANIMA- 

LIVMflNlS. 

Ari» 






ARIS TOTELIS 



'41 



DE 



10 



PARTIBVS ANIMA- 

LIVM, ET EARYM C A V- 

SIS LIS EK I, INT£K- * 

* R E T £ THEODO- 
RO GAZA. 

D*dS tffe& contemplandt Crdccendf prtciptrc hahitnt* 



Caput 



l 




I N omnI ccntemplacdi genere , omniqac 
«tam ftobiliori,Cam ienobiliori docendi via 



& ratione,duos cffc habitus conftat , quorura 
alterum fcientiam rei appell«iie,altcni quafi 
peritiam quanda,bcne cft.Hominis cnim pro 
jbe periti officium eftiadicarepcrfpicienter 
poflc,quidnam7eftc,autnon rccteabcoquidocct exponitur. 
ioquippccum &hominemomnino peritumralem eflfc exiftimc 
mtts,«5r pcritiam Jpfam non nifi facultatcm huxus officij cfle fta 
tuamos.Scd hunc omnibus fere in rcbu^ valcrc iudicio arbitra- 
lr.or numcro vnumrillom vcroccrtacnaturse alicuidcJeg: 
fierienimporeft,vtrcm vnam qu;fpiam>ita vtaliuson-ncspof 
uciudicarc.Qnjmobrem naturalisquoqjhiftoriazirae conte 
phtionislimjtcshuiuiriiodialiquiponi dcbent 5 adcju 
nfodum cxpJicandi rcferre polsit,<X: approbarc fcir.oto iJlo vc- 
ritatis cxamine,quona modo rcs itane,an alitcrfe habcat. Vcr 
ci gratia,vtrum fubfiantias fia£ulatim di/cuticdas caepifie prx 

,aut bouis,aot alius cu- 



os iudcx 



J°ftct,hoceft naturam hominis,autl 
iaf^uam gencratim exponcre aptius fit.an rcbus fubicdiii , qaa» 
communiter omnibusaccidunt,cdmuni viu quodam potius age 
uuin.Sunt enim complera,qu.~; eadem in maitis. gcncribusdi- 
0e nis inter fc fmt,vt fomnu.sfpiraticauftioydjminutio^mors. 

tni ad-1 
j wtjjnaocc*quonacnt5diccrc poisunus:fed cu 

«ngolatim agimus,cade fapcde moltijueferrc neccflecft . Na 

n C S Q| S* in canibus,& in bominibus , ca quse modo dixi,o- 

j^nia infunr quaproptcr qui fingulatim agcrc pcr accidctia ve. 

^tepennmero ver ba cifdc de rcbus faccrc cogctur , quae lcili- 

^^dcariimantibasadiuaxfant/pccie diuerfis. Suntenim 



Ad hrc,rcliqui,id genus afreftas,* difpofirior.es.Nihil e 
nuc ccrri expLmatiqs habcoquoddehisdiccrc pofsimus: 



9 3 



fortaf 



24,£ AMSTOTB. I>E P A R- ANlM. 

fortafTc,qu5! cu cande fortiantur appellationc , difcrimine df~ 
ftcntipeciei,vtanimaiiu inccfias.quippcqui fpccic vnusefTe 
minus videatur.difcrcpanr cnfen inter ie voiatwiatatio^ngrei 
fio,reptio.Quamobiequonam modotradandufit,Utcrc ncn 
conucnit,vtruinquamc6manircrprnmlpcrgcncrisc6plexio- 

ncm,poft vcro rcs proprias confidcrarc oportcat : an protinus 
gqxq; perfcqui fingalatim rectius eft:no enim dchac rc achuc 
prafinitu cft . Ncc illud coiifciYum eft,vtrum,v t mathcmatici 
rcm fuaco^lefte dcmonftratc coniueuaut,fic homo rcru natu- 



o 



raliu ftudiofus,primu quaeparent in animatiu gencre.parrcs-io 
Q-y fingulns explor are,deinde caufam qaam ob re ita fint rcddcrc 
dcbcar.an iccus agendufit.Ad haiccu plurcs caufas gcneratio- 
nisnaturaliscflc videamus,fcilicctea,ojiusgratiares gignan- 
tur 3 atq;cam,vndemouedi principiu fit:definiendudc iy$ etiatn 
eft,qu;ena prima^qacefecunda haberi dcbear. Principatu fanc il 
laobtincrcvidctjqiafubhocvcrbojcuiusgratia figmficamus. 
hrccnim ratio eft.ratio aute principiu cft pariter in rebns tam 
arte.qaanaturacoftitucndis. Vbicnim velpcr intcllc6u,vel 
pcrfcnfuinmcdicusfanifate,opifcx sedes dcfinicrit, rationes<Sr 
caafas rei,cua facit,reddcrcfukt:& vt cur itafacist,fubiungit. 2 
qaanqna illa,cuius gratia.caufa & ratio boni & pulchri,natu- 
rxopcribus potius,quam artiscoianfta eft.Nccdsitas vcro no 
«quc in rcbus naturac omnibus incft,ca vidclicct,ad cjua omncs 
fcre autorcs rationes referrctetant prius,quadoccat,quot mo- 
dis accipi ncccfiarm dcbcat Incft idipfum rcbus qnide strcrnis 
fimplici,abfoiutaq;ra!ione;iedcaducis ctiam gigncdi&q; omni 
bascxfuppofitionctribuiturrquomodo in artificiofis , vta:di- 
bas,& qaibnfais ali js gencris eiufde.Msteriam cnim talcm adcl 
tfe ncccflceft,fi domus, aut quiais alius finis fctura* fit ' awjn* 
ctiam fieri 3 moucriq; illud prirr u oporret,dcindc hoc , ac dcin-* 
ceps ad hunc ir.odam itur ad fir.e-cuius gratiares qurcq? & *«*■ 
citur,& cft eodcmq; modo in rebus quoc; natura gigncndis a- 
gitar,quanqnademenftrandi modus,neccfsitatuc; ratio ,in na 
turalidoSrinadiacrfa atqjfcictijsfpecalatiuis cii .dxiuehis 
' alioloco princip;ucnimaiteri5qrmdcft,altcrisquoderit^K» : o 

modar.Qnodcm talisfaniras,;u»t homo > hoc vel eflc,vcl faitu 

irin-cefi-eft.nonquia <iocvci cft,vel Fuff,ilJud MCcfTarioW 
cft.vclcrit neq;huiofmodidcmonftrationisncccfsitateitaper 

petuitatianneftcrepcfiumas, vtdiccrc liccstt hoc effc,qoonu 
iKud cft.ied de his eriam alio locodifpatatom a nobis cft,& qoi 

iu* in rcbus id 1/ceat , & qaae pofsint rcciprocari, & <jua:n ob 

A cau 



£ T EARVM CAVSlS) LIBBR U > 4 7 

csufam.Laterc autcm ncillucl quidcm oporter,an ita agcndum, 

qcemadmodupriorcsautore<,qui>quomodorci> quaeq; ficrct, 

quamquomodoeflct,traftarcmaluerunt.non cnim lntcr harc 

parora intercft.fcd cnim exordtcndti qucd di&u iam eft,vt pri- 

inum respcrfcqaamur,qua! quoq; in gefterctoaipc£iorcs,prQ 

ptioresq; habentur.ddndccaufas reddau«us,& gcnerationc.hoc 

cnim in x<\ ifici js ctiam potius euenit»quod cnim. foima ardiuin 

talis cft,aut quod taks iunt *xdcs 3 idcirco fieri gcics hunc potius 

in modum ceniCmusgencratioenim lubftaniia: gratiacft,non 

lofubftantia geaerationis gratia.Q^am ob rcm Empedocles ple- 

raque in animalibus propterea ua tontincri,quia ita, cum ori- 

rcntur.accidcrit,maic ait,vt & fpinam haber i talem , quod pcr 

contortioticmd:fiungi,fraiig:q; acciditmdcius & quaintcmc 

gcnitalcquodconfiiterat^vimtalcmhabcrcoportct ,& quam 

rcs,qa2cffecerat,prior*cfletnon modo ratione, vcrumetiam 
tcmporc.Gignitctcnimhomohominetn.itaquc ortus taliseuc- 
nitipecie,quoniam talis qui gignitcft.Q^ncriam dc ijs , quac 
ipontefieri videntur,pari;er aiquedeartiiiciofis animaduertc- 
rclicet.Nonnulh cnim vclfporc eadem qux arfe : fieripofTunt 
lOvtfanitas.Hisigitur caufa cfficicrs fimilis amcccdar , ncceffc 
eft,v t ars condcndarum ftatuarum prior ftatuis eft.quando fp» 
tcficrincqucunt.Artemautcmopcris,cficoratior 3 CH, onini-b- 

iunitam matcria ccrtum cft.Fo» tuitis quoqac ratio f miiis eft -* 
vtcnimarsfchabct.iracxiftunt.Qiuniobrem cen!cidum ita 
potiis;mum,vt obeam rem mcir.bnshh homo coftc^quia fccc 
hommleficcft.Nonennivficripo|eli,vt finc hts arcirbris ho- 
roofir.fm mirm^proximumtamen aliud qaicqui opinandum, 
* vcl omnino ficri aLter i;cn poffe,vel bcnc ita fieri tantu pof 
fe ftamcndum.Cum itaq- talis res fit.gcnerationvm in huc tno 
3cdun^talcmqj euenircneceffecft.Quaproptcr mcr-bra v.o hr.c 
ordmc oriunturrfcdprhnum hocdejndc iliud,2tq;in hunc ir o 
dom oinnia,qu* naturaccnfiftunt,d»fponuiitur.Vctcrcs igitur 
*& Sc primi natur* interpi cte^materiale pnr.cipicin,atq; eiuf 
^odicaufam,qu3enam,quali5q,cfict,indagarnnt:& qconi pa- 
«ohinctota oriretur,& quo moGcntc,vt dilcordi«?,& cocordia, 



6-iKiatcrra,& alter lcuC^ahcra graocuc cnim ir.ordu etia ge- 
n cjar.hu;ccadedeortaplataiu&animal.u qooqj rcfeiuc Vcn 
^ccnim,alLu,omneq5Cibi&cxcrcnieiic6ccptacu!u,'.tacorXa 



ll fte.cumincorporchumorlabcretur<S:rucrct.naies cx rupto 

q 4 patuif 



%+t ARISTOTE-DE P A R« ANIM 



fpclleret 



qaa non niii corporu 



omncsexijscorponbascotnponantatqueconltituunt. 

fi homo,caeferaq;animalia, mcmbraq; eoram natara conitct, 
diccndum protc<ftodccarnc,d--oirc^icfanguin^dcniqjcic om- 
nibostamfimili,quamdjfsimili ftruecompa&is;vtdefacic>dc 
manu,depedr,qaaqaodq;coramtalcfif,&qua itacoftent fa- 
cukatcliac virtate.noncnitr.fatis cft catcnas tamam ncfiir, 
quibas cx rcbus compofitu fif,vt ignc,tcrrajc: fcd pcrinde agc 
dam,vtfidelccto,autdeqaolibet alio gcncris ciaidcm agere-io 
tur.formam cnim potius,quam matcriam cius dcclarare tcnta- 
remu$:vtars>autlignurn:velfiidminus,totius quidcm ipfilB 
fpccicm non omittcrcmus.Ic&us cnim hoc in hoc cfhauthoc ta 
lccft.Qnocircavclipfam figaram cxplanari^qualisq: fornia 
iir,indicaricongruit.quippccumform£ naturapottor iif.qua 
rnatcriae.Igitarfianhnalium membroramquc vnumquociq n* 



gur 
tafli 



cii 



fe antmalia conftarc videtur.quippe qai per/picuum eflc di 
,qualis formafit homo.quafi iua ipfe homo figura,coloreq; 
patcat.Atquimortaushomo,quanqua figur* iormam habctio 
candcm,tamen homo non eft. Ad h«c,fieri non potcft , vt maa* 
fit quocunq; modoconftans^vtarnra^aatlignca, nifi arquiuoca 
nominis communionc.iicut qua* pifta cft, vtpote qu* iuo fun- 
gl officio nequcat.quomodo ncc lapidc.2 tibix luu aflcqui mu* 
nas poflunt.neq;mcd/cuspi<ftas artcm mcdicinalcm cxcrccre 
poteft pari ratione mcmbrorum qaoque hominis vita fundi 
nullumideflcinfuperpotcft,qaodcrat,cum viucrct: vt oca' 



odu 



ncrua 



qucrctur.Siccnim natura.M"l!icxploratoresortus& cauiasrctc-jo 
runt figurarum.i quibus cnim facultatibus condita f ucrinr, e 

ponunt.Itaq; fabcr fecurimfortaiTcant rc.cbrum dicctnll* tcr 

ram# airretjt fcdmchus fabcr,vtquiparum fuffcerc arbicre- 

turJi vfq;codicar,quodinftrumcnto incidcntc,partim caui» 

partim plana cxtitcrunn/cd ^dijcUt , quoniam talcm adkgcnf 

i^am&cau(am,caritacxponar,vidcl'cet, vt talcm aut tdlctn 

fonrmm opns accipcrct.Conftat igiiur non rec^c illos diflcruif 
fc>atq;antmaltalcci]cdJccrcoportcrc,&qaid,qualcq;tum td 

ipfam,tumetiam mcmbram vnumquodq;cxplicari oporterc* 
quomododeforma lciti docendum cft.Ergoii animal,vcl ani- 

ma,vcl pars animae,vcl non iinc anima eft.quamprimum cmm 

acor 



ET EAKVM CAVSIS, LIBEH U I49 



cmbrum vl 



idem 



fabul* tranfifle in lapidcm narrat.fi hxc,inquam,ifa ftatui dc- 
bcnt^hominisnaturaeftadiofiiancintereftdeanima «8: diflcrc- 
rc <$ fcirc.& fi non dc omni anima,tamen dc ca ipfa , qux talc 
anitr.al cft ,* quidnam anima^aut ccrtk pars ifta animsc fit: at~ 
q; etiam dc i js,quse tali cias fubftantise accidant . prsefertim cu 
bfariam nataram intelligamus,vt altcra pro materia fir ,a!tera 
ptofubftantia.quae quidcm,& vtmoucns,& vtfiniscft,talis<jj 
icanimalium anima,vel omnis,vcl pars aliqua cius fit . Nam o 
eam ctiam rem,qai dc natura agit,eo amplios doccrcdc anima, 
quimdcmateriadebct,qaomatcrianaturapotias pcr anima, 

quam ccontrario eft.lignum cnim,& lc&as,& tripes,proptcrca 
eft,quia idcmpotcntia illa cft.Sedquarretquifpiam,animad- 
uertens ad id qaod modo dixi: Vtrum 6c anima omni,docerc na 
turalis lcienti* interfit,an de aliqaa vna.at fi dc omni,nulla ccr 
tcprxtcr naturalcm philofophiam relinqurtur fcientia. intelle 
#os enim,fiue mcns,rcram intclligibiiiueft,itaqac rcram om- 
nium notioncs nataralis vna tcncbit. Eft enim ciufdcm fcicn- 

10 tiac,vt tam dc intel]c£hi,qaam de r« intelligibili doccat, fiquidc 
eadcm contemplatio omniurn cft inter fe coniunftorum , ficat 
fcnfusctiam,(&rcifcnfibi!is.Annonomnis anima principiam 
^otascftfncqucpartibusanimxomnibus id tribui debct, fcd 
auerndi principiam idcm putandam,qaod & in plantif ,eft, al- 
^randivimcandcm,quim fenticndi:dcferendi aute aliud quic 
^F^non vim intelligendifdeiaf ioncm cnim vel in cxteris cflc 
a nimalibucnouimas,intel]c(5him fiacmentem in nallis . Con- 
^t igitar nondc animadiflcrcreomni cportcrc : quandoqui- 
^ non anima omnisnaturacft,fcd aliquacius pars vna , aot 

loftiamplurcs.Adharcrcmamatcria abftraftam nuilam potcft 
tcicntia nataralis contcmplari.cum natara rci altcaius gratia fa 
^toinnia.rcbus aurem abftraftis abiun&um,id cft , quod fab 
«oc^ajf Us grat»a,vcrbo intelligimus.vt enim ars in artificiofis, 
^mrcbusipfisaiiqaodef^prir^ipja^ali^&talis caufa vi 
T^ r,( r laTT1 ex yniucrfo pcrinde vt calor/s,frigorisq; primor- 
£ Itabcmas.Qrumobrem vcrifimilius dixerim carlum & fa£u 
^abc:ufmodicaufa,fifaaameft,& magis cfTe ob ea caufam, 
Y a <*m anim alta caduca atq; mortalu.ordoenim,<Sr ratus certus 

V ^tus,long^r magis in rcbas patct cxlcftibus,quam in nobis, 
!n ccrtaant^m in^~a„ #.r *..:-.«-. »-^ • *« 



1 

I 



aurcm,inconftans,& 
tcft-AtiUigrnusani! 



quodq 



q 5 cxtif 



IJO ARISTOTE.DE P AR. ANlMAi 

extitifleq; ccnfent.Caelum autcm fort£ fpontcqj tale conftitif- 
lc volunt,in quo nihii fortunae,nihil temcritatis deprehcdi po 
tcft.Rctnautemhanccffeilliusgratiaaflcrerc vbiq^ iokmus, 
quotics fincm inrelligimus ahquem,in quem notus(fi nollarcs 
prohibet)rcrminerur.qu€>civcaeiufmodi ahquid efle conftat, 
quodnaturamvocamus.noncnim quodhbct, & vtcunq; tors 
tulir,exquouisfemineorinirJcdhocex hoc, neq; ex corporc 
quolibecfemcnquodiiberprodit principiuitinanq«& efficicf 
rci,quxgignitur,femeneft.funfhd?cenim natura,& proindc 
cx hoc cnaicuntur. Atq; etiam pnufquam boc,iilud eft, v ndc ie- \q 
meexpromitur.Semc cnim ipfum gencratio cit,finis vero fub- 
ftantia.vtrii.5; autcm his prius illud cft,u quo proficifcitur. fe- 
ir.cn enim bif ariam accipitor^vidrlicct cx quo,& cuius. nain & 
A quodcccfi>it,eius femcn cft,vt cquiicS: cjus quod ex iiio fatu- 
rumeft,vt muli.verum no codcm modo,icd vt dittum iam cft. 
Adkecfcmennonnifipotcntiaeft.Potcntia autein qutmad- 
modum ad a&urn fehabeat,nooimus.cau£ie igitur l\x iunt duac 
numero:alteracuias gratia,altera ex Dccelsit^tc.mult- cpiin gi 
gnonrur,quia necefic cft.Scd qusrctf orralle quifpiam , qcam 
necefsitatcm intelligi vclinr,qui resficri ncccflario aiunt.neu-io 
tcr cnim accipi potcft eorcm inodorum,qui prsefiniutur in ijs, 
<]u*pcr philofophiam tradatafunt.Tcrtxas autcm ij*,qu£ ba 
bent generatione rebus eft.alimemu cnimneutro illoram iuo* 
doru cfle dicimas nccciTariumlcd quiaficrinon poteft, vt rcs 
finccofit,ideoncccfsitatcmeiadfcribimcs.qucdqr»afi cx fup- 
pofirionc eft.vt enim quia fccuri fcindendu fii,durmn a!lq f J» 
cfle neceflc eft:<fc fi darum,vcl *ncam,vcl ferrcuiita cu inftrji- 




platn jo 



taic arq; ex taiibus coftare nccrllc iit,ii Uiacl cuius gr*iu* j^« ■;• 
cft,fururufit.Conftat igitarduosefl*ecaof*modos,ac potdsi- 
mum vtrunq;afiequiveibisoportere.icdfiminu$id ncri p°" 
tcft,tamcn pro viribus cniti ad eius lignificarioncm, oamesq^ 
nihilfercdc natara doccrcqni hocr6dicunT,cx!ftimarc Ew 
cipium cnimrcru natura potias,quammateriacft. Emp^^ 
clcsetiamineaminterdamincidir^iucius ab ipla vcritatc « 
fobftantiaatq; naturaeiTe ratior.c fatcricopclhmr.vcluticutn 
os qmd fir,reddit.quippc qui non aliqoodelemcntu vnumcl 
id vclir,nondiu>,am tria,non omnia,!cd mixtioms cieir.en f o- 
rumrationcm.Igitnr&carncm&csctcra, eluimodi parrcsho 
cunde in modu dfcaocnu eft.Caufa vcro quamobrc **&** 



IT EARVM CAVSIS, LTBE* I. *JI 

rcs illf autorcs non ad hunc vcncrint modam,quod qui rcs tf- 
fccatqjiubft.inti^definicioncmipfamexplicarc haudquaqoa Upipdfli- 
folcbant.ScdDcmocritushanctctigifprimus,non tame qa<x* v @- 



ad rcram naturalm ftudium putaucrat necciTariam , fed quoad rnra j uret » r ± 




trandatum eft.Licet quod mododixUra dcir.oftiarc. Daraani 
maIibuiipiratiocfthuiusgratiarci,fcdcam proptcr has cffici 
!orcsnccc(T:ci}.nccc(sitasvcroal»asita{lgni{.cat,vt fi rcs cnias 
gratia furara ftt,hacchabcrinccciTcfit.al^s ita,vtfic (ehabcaf, 
aptaq5.ua natura ita fmr.cgredi cnim calorcm,rur(usq; ing^- 
di,cum inre obuia offcndat ur,acrcmq; intcrlabi neccilarm cft. 
Scdcamacrexteriorrcfrigerando rctorqoct , ingreflus atquc 
cgreflus caloris intcrioris rci alicuius grat ia agirur. lite modos 
traftandi cft.hccc ad id genus doftr inx via & ratio attinct . forc 
&eiaimodiiuntca,quorum caufasaccepifleopcrxprctiu cflc 

dacimus. 

Ontra los^m genu* fingulart iu Jmasdmidunt 

10 drffirenttds. C*f*t II- 

SVntvero.qui gcnusinduas fecando differentias accipfant 
fingolare.qcod quide partim non facilt. >partim nullo pafto 
ficri poteft.non cnim dcfunt.qcoru vna tantu fit differentia.cf 
teraaattTB fupcraacuaiiiit.verbi gratia.pedatu,bipcs , fifsipcs, 
mu!nfidri.ha:centm vnapor.isimacft.fm minus,farpiusidc di* 
finccctVccrir. Ad ha::,gcnus quoduis diftrahino dcbet :vt cxc- 
pli gratia-aocs alix in hoc,ali# in illo d.uifionis mcmbro collo- 
ccntar.quod xditx illx dioifioncs faciik.qoippc cu ita fiat , vt 
aaiu ali« cu aquatil.bus conftiraantor,alia: in alio ponattir gc- 
!onerc.Scdvtnoincnhuicfimilitudiniauis,iIlipiicis inditu cft, 
hc aiii: iunt qua: nominc vaccnt,vt illa compos fangninis , aut 
^?crs.vtraq;cnimnominc vnociret.Quod fi nihil cx ijs qose 



gcaerisiocicrateiungurur,diftrahidcbct;huftra ilia icorinm 
fcduaspartcsdftmaioagftur^cumfciungiac diftrahi Cu nc-. 
^iTc/ii ? ad;uidatur.Santcnimexmulripoi.bus alia in tenc- 
*".alia in aquatili gcnerc 




mui iconum in duo iccant. Ar priuationis,qua priuatxo cit, 
j*tta cft diffcrcntia .non cnltn ficri poteft, vt (pccies eiu. 
*>qQodnoneft:vcUit impcdati,autimpcnnati,ficutpcnnati 



I 






2J2. aristot.de pak* animalivm 

& pedati. Differentiaaatem vmuerfalis fpecies habeat, ncccfle 
cft.nam nifi hibcat,cur vniucrialibus potius adnumerari, qui 
fingularibusdebeat!' Scd quanquam iuntdifferenti^ quar vni- 
uerU!esfint,S:fpecicshabcant,vtpcnnatus,cump?:nijaru alia 

fiffi,alia conrinua fir..pedatos etiam partim rnultifidus cft,par- 
tim btfidus,quod in biiukis animalibus patetrpartim cotinuus 
nulia fiffura didu£tus,quahs corum cft, qax ioiidam habct vn- 
golam.ramendifficile eft,vel in ciufmodidiffexenuas, qoorum 
ipeciesfunt,diipartirc, vtquoduis animalcontineatur inijs 
ipfiSjiKC idem in plures veniat, vt pcnnatum & iippennatum.ie 
ambo enim hsec in cadem fpecie poffunt contineri,vt formica* 
vt nitedula fiue circmdela. & alia qaxdam vtruque recipiunt. 
omniumver6difficilimum,tm6inipoisibilceftyVt in ea qux 
fanguinccarcnt,ita diutdamus.differentiam cnim vnaquanq* 
inaiiquofiugulari incffe, & proindc oppcfitam neceficcft. 
Qvod ii heri non poteft, vr i]s, qaaefpecie interfcdifferunt» 
fpccics aliqua fubftantiae indiuidua,vnacj -, infit,fed differcntia 
intcrccdercneccffc eft,vtauis abhomincd ffcrt,bipcdis enirn 
ratio aliadiuerfaqueeft vcl fangume conftant Jargais difcrc- 
pat ipic,nifi pro nulla eflentue par tc debeat hab:ri.fcd fi hoc its 



# 



ita« 



Quc 



Qm 



totidem differentix crunt,quot animalia indiuidua.iiquitlcui & 



Qnod 



4 



fcd indiuidaafit,conftiU qux diucriaftmt fpecic animaliaineo 

dem.pcrillamquiderncommunem contineri. Itaquc nccciic 

eft,vtfi propri^fintdiffbrenox, in quasomnia indiuidua ca- 

# dant,nulla communis fit.fin minus,qux diuerfa funf , vcnicot 

ineandem:cumncque indiuidaumidem, diuerfaspcr du.HH 
ftioncm adircdebeatdjffcrentias,nequcdiuerfa candcm, atq« c 
omnia in ijs ipfis oportcat contincri. ipccics igitur to»teiw*J 
colligi ita non poffe,vt dmidut qai anima]ia,auc qaodois shud 
gcnus feorfum in duo fccant, apertum iam cft. fit enim aaton- 
bus illis, ; t vltimas differcntias totidem eflc,quot an iinalia otn- 
nia indiuiduafpecicncccfic Cu . Cumcnim genus aliquodnfc 



cuiusdiffcrcmiae primaealbum & nigrum habcantur,atquec^ 
rum vtrorunqucalisefint, itidemq, vkcriusvfquc ad inoH* 
dua,cfficiror proff fto,vt vltimsr,3ut quatuor , aut aliquo nu- 
meroeiiciantur,videlicct quiab vuomuitiphcari ftitluT*» 9 
dcmautcmfpecicsquoquccrunt» cum diffcenna fpccfcrt" 



ET EARVM CAVSIS LIB. t. *fj 

inmateria.nequcenimfinemateria pars vlla eflcpoteft ani- 

_• r_i. . _ _ _ i 1 _t _J 



odo 



taec d uidcndum ijs rcbus eft,qua.fita. in iubftantia iunt, non 
ijs cju* 2ccidut,vt fi quis ita figuras diuidat, vt alia? angulos pa 
rcsducbVt&i$,alieparesplurib* habct.acciditciTi triagul^fi 
gur?,vt pares duob^reft is anguJos habeat.Oppofitis itedioide 

du cit.diftat em inter fe oppofita oia/ vt albcdo & nigrrdo,vt 

ieftitudo & curuitas.quod li altera diuerfa funt,diu fdencii per 

sppofita eft,& non ita,vt alteru nataticnc,alteru colore diftin 



goatur. AnimatactiacomunibusCGrporis&animsr muncrf- 

l_ _ 1 ■ • t /* _k _ _ * tltt- _ 




Ciciunt cadem^hsec diftinguere videamur. Cum otrnia qu* vr 

banafunt,eade fylaeftria quoq; reper>atur> vt homincs, equi, 

boues 5 cane.Mn tcrra Indica,fucs,capr£,oues, quje fi arquiuoca 

2ofunt,nonfcodumdiftinftaiunt.fedfi eadcm fpccievmnr.qne 
iumJamfierinonpoteft,vtiylueftreatquevrbanii pro diffe- 

Ktijsreftccapiai.tur, Omninoquacuq,difTerentiam dioidis, 
vna tanm d.yifione id accidcre nccefle eft • Qii?propter gcnera 
tm iumcrc snimalia tcntandum cft, vr a vulgo iam aotore di- 
ftinftu c ft ecnus auis,pifcis,carteroru quae fingula multis difFc 
t^ntijs^cicnbuntur. nccbipartita illa fe£ticnc agendrm eft. 
Siccnimaut omninoficrinon poteft,vtinftitutu affcquamur 
wmidcmin pbrcscadatdiuifioncs^&contrariavcniPntin can 

dem.autvnatantum prouenict difFerentia, qua. vel fimplex, 
Jovei Fcrcomplexioncm fpccicm vltimam referat fcd fi non dif 
wentradifFcrcntiam accipis diuifioncm cfFici continua perin 
dc vtorationem coniun&ione vnam necefTe eft.verbi caufa,oc 
corr u i j s q U i j t a diuidcrc confueueront aliudpcrnatom,aliod 
impennaturn.pcnnati aliud vrbanum,aliud fylucftre:aut aliud 
album,aliudnigrum.nonenim diffirrentia pennati vrbanum, 
aftumveeft.fcdhocprincipiumeft altcrius difFcrentiaMTvpen 
«ato autem per accidcns cft _ Qnamobrem pluribus diuidendu 
protinus difFcrcntijs quod vnum eft,vtnos cenfcmos.Sic cnim 
Pnuationes diferentiam facicnt,quam inbipartita feaione fa 
CCr . c n ?S ue ant. A pertum vel indc dhfier i non pofic, vt cx fin- 



gencris fc 
vnam 






3|J4 ARISTOT. DS PAR. ANTMALIVM 

ftionc* qaidamfieripoflepntarunt.Impofsibilccft enimvna 

diflferentiam cflccorum,quse vt finguladiuifionem recipiunr, 
(iaefimplicia,fiuecomplcxaaccipiantur.fimplic!adico 5 finon 

habcantdiffercntiam,qua]is fifsipcdatio eft.copJexa aurem , fi 

habcant,vt maltifidum adfifsipes eft idenim iila fibi valt co- 

tinaatiodifferentiarum,quxdegenere perdimfionc dcdacun 

tur,perinde quafi quid vnum omnis harc feries referat. qaaqaa 

vocabulo euenit, vt vlrima tantum difFcrcntia cffc videatur,vc 

lutmultifidu,3utbipes.pedatuautem & multipes lapcruacoa 

iint-At vcro plures huiufccmodi diffcrenrias habcri non pofle 1 * 

conftat eoargumcnto,quodcum pergisiubinde, dcucnies qai- 

dcm ad vltimam differentiam,fed non ad (ummi,ft fpccie*qa? 

quidem diffcrentia,vel fifsipes tanrum eft, vel omnis complc- 

xio.verbi gratia,fihominemdiaidcns pcdatum,bipes, fifsipcs 

componis.At fihomo bipcstantummodocflet, h.*rc diffcrcn- 

tiavna fufficeret. Scd quoniam hxcvnanoneft^muitas effe 

non fub vna diaifionc neceflc eft. Atqui fieri non poteft, Vt 

plurcs ciafdcm fubbipartita vnafintfc&ione,fcdfingulrfin- 

golisiiniant ncceflecftitaque fieri qtroquc non porcft > vt 
pcr bipartitamillam diaifioncm>aliquodfiflgu]areanimal3C- 2 ? 

cipiamus. 

I?egenere crfpecie. Caput i 1 r i . 

Ed qua?ret qaifpiam,cur principio homines r.on compJefte 
do appellarintnominc vnogeneris,quodbcftia$ tnm aqua 
tilcs,tam volacrcs continerct.S unt cnim nonnulli 3ffc£to$,tu 
Iiis.tum catfer is animalibus ommbuscorr.munes. Verantamen 
re&e ad hunc modam dcfinitum,diftinfttiqce eft . gcnera enfm 
quxcanqucexceflu inter fediflerant,& plus,minu$verecipiat, 
ha!C vni fuhic&a funt gcneri. quse aut proporfonc recipiunf* 
l^cfcorfum pofita fant.verbigratiarAuisdiffertab aue,auteoj0 
quod magis habcat quicquam^ut fuperantiae ratione. aucscm 
aliac pcnna funt longiore,alircbrcaiorc.Pifccs vero proportkv 
nc ab aaibusd ffcranf.qnod cnim penna in auibus eft, hoc idc 
iqusmainpifcibushabetur, verum id faccrc inomnibus non 
facilecft.magnacnimparsanimaliumeadcm affeftacft pto- 
porttanc.fcdcmn vlritnae fpccicsfubftantixfinr.quat quidrtn 
fpccics nullo fpcciei difcrimine d.ffcranr, vt Socrates, Cotl- 
fcus,cfficiturprofc£to,vtvrlvniuerfalia expltcari prius,vcl 
idcm fsepias diccrc nccefic fit, vt diftum iam eft. Vniacr/alia 
vcro commnnia funf.qua? enim in plurtbus infttntjiarc vniucr 

falia appcllamus.Scd qaarftio exiitir,vtra tsndcm trafon cc- 

bcaot. 




*T EAUM CAVSIJ, tlS* 1. JJ5 

beanr.qnia enim fobfrantia eft ?d,qood fpcclc indiuiduu eff,po 
ftfjnnam dixer.m fbrofi qnii dc finqolis indiaidois fpecie feor 

ium confidcrarc potucrif . 3f qnc vr de hominc,if fl dc suibus cf- 
ic sgcndum.habct cnim hoc genns Cprciet. fcd non dc i js, vcra 
«lclingulisind.Wuis anibas,vf de pafTere,de grne, de reliquis 

ha<oiccmodi.<cdfiiricncn.cr,vrf?fpcdccodcmdfc 3 turcfFcc>u 
(qnomamcommunisploribasfiOcfricicrur fan*, vr fcorfum 
merre de fingoJi,,* fnbabfurdum fir, * prolf*om. Ore; um 

lutd fortafic agcrur,fi qa.r ad gencra arrinenr,ca comuni nceo> 
''c.ocxphccr-ujrvidelicer qo*rcaeab hominibosdcfinira di- 
J«ntnr,qnaq; narnram fortinntor communem,* fpccies non 
'ongc jnter fe differcntes compl eauntur.vt Mfc ,vt pikis. & (1 
«inidaimdfitnomineqaidcm vacans,fcd genere parf modo fpe 
cic* contmcns. Quje anrem non elofmod, fonr,haec figillarim 
ooc t aniu S ,vtdc homfne* fi qoidaliadralr habeamr. Gencra 
Wtemfi qnam fimi!irudinc< orx fc feranr.figorisferi- partim, 
riosqae corporis defcribuntnr quale genas ai,ium,aat pifciu 

def 1 aC n amat<lDCoftrCa fi ?«"aram affinirarc fna gencra 

i jj"' Partcscnnr ' cornni non P- r oportionfs fimilitudine 

re panr,quomodo os hominfs,* fpfna pifcfc,fed pnrfos affe 

r 1 Cr S . CCrp0rfs ' M cft > n; " T ,"^in<* 1 praultate,molIitie,du- 
«te,icn,ratc, afpcritarc, & reHqofsgencrfs ciofdem : arque 
™,m eo quod magi s ,mimi SV cqaicqaam habeant. Scd qu£- 
ii rrK m " ti0 rra &»*fe ^tars probart dcbcir, vt^nc de 
atqu- S - Viaapf, ' ,,f3cilirnc 4 ; contcmplaridocerccjs pofsimns, 
modef f ' a '" f d,u ' rionr ' r Iu e "i >" inodum fieri pofsit, vt com- 
Qoeat PCC ' eS famanror '* qo*«n bipartita feftio partim fierfne 



Qnjt cam 



^«r""*^ 1 



S 



'Mjlantijs naturahbus ,partim mertalibwjartim 
mmcrtahU*,. Capat v / 

focuT*?** nan,r3eonft3n t»Pari'm ingenitar,immort» 
crirn» n SOrnnioos fanr: pa r t>'m ortos participes, atqae 



"obiicm ac dia 

de 



arfernam 



od 



benefic 



ceea ipfa n j ' ,U1 K* ,c,, ««M«orum ocnenao, ra 

n °bu CoZ^I a !T 3,rOTn - e ^ ^ nf>(rC CT P jmUS ' foculMS 



ifcrur 

f t ' r-"> r% •■■MW4UIC2, quocf cas 1 

» a ocmas,n ffe vbcrias poiTumostqaippc 






inefle 






2<6 



jHljTOT- DE PAR. ANIMALIVM 

inefl- qaoqae in genere pcrcipcre pofsif ,qaicur.quc non labo- 
rcm rccafat pleniorcm.vtrunqne tamen ftudiam nos deletjat. 
Res nanque illas foperiores, tametfi leaitcr attingere poflu- 
mas,tamcn obeioscognofcendi generis cxcellenham amplius 



obleaamur,quacum hxcnobis iunaa omnia tencmos:tjucm- 
admodum quamlibetpartcm, minimamqaccorporis noftraiu 



pudbe dcliciarum vidifle gratius aciucundtuseft,quaca:tero- 

I ■ r -_./f_ o *—__.A^flf__. Afh_«r 



[Crnbra 



inferiora.quia & plura funt,& cognofci plenias poflunt, idc.r 

co pstftantiam fibi fcientia: vendicant Q«met iam qaod & no «» 

bis propiora,& naturac famili.riora funt, hinc aliquid cum re- 

ramdioinarum ftndiorcpcndunt,atqaccompenfant. Scdcum 

iam fatis de illis egerimus,noftraque explicauerimus fent.tia, 

reftat vt de animante natoradifieramus , nihil pro viribas o- 

mittentcs,vel vilias,velnobilias.nam & in ijsqaa: hoc in gene 

nere minas grata noftro occarrunf fenfui,natara parens & aa 

tor omnium miras cxcitat voluptatcs hominibus,quiinte~i- 

guntcaafas.atqoeingenacphilofophantur. abfurdum cnim. 

Bullaqac rationc probandam eft,fi imagines quidem rcrum na 

taralium,nonfine dclcaatiooe proptercainipcaamus,quod 

ingcnium vna contcmplamur,quod illascondiderit, id eft.ar- 

tem pingendi.autfingendi.Rerum aatemipfaram natorartn- 

gcnio.miraquefolertia conftitotarom contemplationcm^noii 

exofcolemur ' " r ~ ""* 



Quamobremvilioram animalium difputatione 



pcrpenfionemque faftidio puerili qaodam ipreaiflc^molei.eq; 
taliflcdignamnequaqaam eft,cumnuliaresfit natar_,in qua 
non mirandum atiqaid inditam habeatar-Et qaod Hcrachtum 
dixtffe feront ad eos,qaicum alloqai eam vcllenf, qaod iorte 
in cafa f urnar ia qaadam caloris gratia fedentem vidiflent,ac- 

■ ____ !__• 1_ I _____ -fc __________ m __T_ J _F * __^ -ft IHl I I -L-tl I *^ 



ccdcrc 



tWU.lv %ujiimva**a uuiiiut* ---_*• *,.__-__._. --w- _--._.-— 

inqnif ,ne hnic quidem loco dtj defunt immortales- Hoc icc 
in ind_gandaquoquenaruraanimantiam faciendom ciht ^ 
gredt enim qaarquc finc vllo padoredcbcmns,com in omniou» 
natara: ncmen,&honcftum, pulchrumqae inlit in gf nium ; . 
Quippc cam natur* opcribus iunaum illud prccipuc iit. > 



temere,\ 



omnuaganrur.nnisautem,cu.mgratia quicquamvcl coa 
W 1 r rt ndirn t r, e ft.h ni.honcfticce obtinct rationcm.At v«o 



quis caetcrorum animaliuin contcmplat ioncm 

k&amcjue patat, iam hic de fe qaoqac idcm aj 



Noo 



] 



r 



ET EARVM CAVSIS L I B. 1« 1J7 

Non enim fieri poteft,vt ca fmc magna abominatione infpicla * 
mus,ex quibuscorpusconftat humanum, vt fanguinem,car- 
nc,ofla,venas,reliqua gencris eiufdem. Omnino itaccniendu, 
vt qui dc quauis corporis parte,aut dc vafc aliquo diiporat,no 
de materia,aut cius materix gratia doceat,fcd formae totius ra- 
tioncficut & cum de xdibus agitur 9 non d^ lateribus, non dc ]a 
lo,non delignis,ied deformaipfaramsediumdccemus. Pari 
ratione,qui dc natura agit,dc compofitione, tota^ iobftantia 
tractet,non de ijs,quse nunquam cucnit vt a iubftar.tia fepare- 

lotur.fcdprimumeadiftingui fingulis ingcnenbus necefleeft, 
qax pcr fc animalibus accidunt omnibus.poft vero caufas pcr- 
fcqui corum conandum eft. Qucd igitur ant£ diximu5,'muka 
in multis animalibus infunt communia, part/m fimpHci ratio- 
ne, vt pedes,penna>, fquamae,atque etia affe&us fimilitcnpar- 
timproportione.proportioncinquam,quod alijspulmo datus 
eft,alijs pulmo quidemnegatus,fcdvicepulmonis iunftuali- 
quidcft,qaodpuhnonireiponde2t aiijsiteianguis incft,alijs 
fanguinis proportionalc,quod candtm in gencre exangui obti 
nct vim, quafanguis in compotc illo fanguinis habet. Vcru fi 

lofeorlamde fingulis difputctur,cucnict quod di&u iam cft,vt fae 
pc cade itercntur,dum dc omnibus qu* adiunfta iunt agirur. 
quippc cu cadc copluribus iun&a habeantur. Hcec ita placeat 
prarhniri,* ftatui.Cum autem inftrumetum omncrcialicuitis 
gratia iir,&par tes corporis quafq;gratia efiealicuius vidca- 
roos,id aut ipfum cfie alicuius gratia, no nifi pro aliqua a&io- 
nc fu, patctiam totum ctiam corpus conftarcalicuius gratia 
a&ionis plenioris.No cnim fcaio,ierrs gratia fa&a eft, lcd fcr 

rafcftionisgratia,cum fc£tioqoa'divfiofit.Q2?P rd P ter cor 
pusctia totu animx gratiacoditum cft,& mcmbra officiorum 

jogratia conftant,& muncrum,ad qusefingula accomodantor pri 
mam igitur a&ioncs,tum omnium communes,tumcas qu?fu£ 
fingulis gencribus,fpeciebusquc habcantar,expom oportcbit. 
^ottimancsdico^qu* adiundte omnibus fcnt animalibos . fuas 
aatcmpropriasqucappcllo,quaru diffcrcntias pcrexccflum, 

fiuefupcrantiamcomparandoaccipimus. Vcrbi gratiarAucm 

P ro gcncrc pono,homincm pro fpccic, & quodcunque Tationc 

ula vniucrfali,null3m diffcrentiam rccipit.nam alia proportio 

^alia gcncre,alia fpccic rationcm complcnt communitatis . 

Q£?ram itaquc a&ioncs rerum aliaram gratia difpefat* funt, 



modo 



^aftioncs.Itcmfi qua: prioris fint a&ioncs 



r rnra 



*<8 



ARISTOT. DE FA*. AMIMALIVM, 



rnrn capiantur,qao modo \p(x fe habent ,eodr m mebra etia ha- 



be 



quid incfle neceffecft.aifcftus & adiones intclligi volo,ortnm, 
iacrcmentu^coitam venereamuvigiliam ,fomnum, inceflum/% 
quxcunq; haiafmodi alia poflfant generi animalinm tribui.me 
bra anpcilo nafair>,oculam,atqt;c ctiam rotam kciem,qaar par 



itcm 



cft. Scd dc modo,viaq; traftandihacknus.caufas nancexplica 
je,tumcommumum,tumpropriorum<;onemar, exorfi ipri- 

mis,ficutftatuimai>. l0 



ARIS TOTELIS 



DE 





P ARTIB VS AN I M A- 

LIVM, ETEARVM CAV- 

$IS LI3EK. II.INT-BH- 



O- 



RO GAZA. 



jTe rcrum omninm compofii 



Caput 

4 



I. 



20 




cmb 



J 

ptii nobif funt,'planioscxplicai;imus. Nunc 
quas ob caufas, qttarqj sd hunc modu it* k ha- 
: ^t,cofiJcremus,vidclicct ita, vromnisratio 

y^ , ,„ ^igAi itb Ijs, qua^per hiftorus cxpofuimas, 

tracletur. £n itaq; triplcx fit copofiticprima ftatui poteft ea* 

«,i*** nrimnrdiis coficiriir ii;.on» nonulti clcnura appcllaf* 

"orttffcdfcipoteft,exvir 

libu* ,fed vc antc expofitu <o 

I 



rfei-nieitus 



cft.hamidiras enim,& ficatas,* cal 



:ft 



fcquatar,vt 2rauitas,leiJtas,dcnfit is r raritas,afperitas,lenifa6> 



eliqoatiii 



iliis natora fimilarwm partium in animalibus cft, vtoisis, VC 
carnis,* reliqaorom gcneris dufdnn. Tertia & vltima nnmc 
ro,partiam difsimilarism cft, vt faciei, manus , & reliqaorum 
cljfmodimcmbroram. Scdcamcontriia gencrationeatqoc 
in eftlntia agatur.qux cnf m poftcriora funt gcnerationc, nrc 
natara priora funt.A quod primum natura cft, id vltfmum clt 
gencrationc.non cmma:des>latcrumauc lapidomgraiiafanft 



IT URVM CAVSI^, UB. !!. 1J9 



fed haec «dfum gratia peruntur.quod idem 
teriaintclligimus. nccinduftione tamum i 



de quauis alia ma- 
■ patet, vcrumctia 
raticnc.omnccmmquideigniturex aliquo, & adahquid foa 
generationemdeducit,& &prircipioad pnncipiu pcrgit,hcc 
eft,ab co quod primum mouet, * naturam iatn aliquam obn- 
nct ad formam al:quam,aut talem qucrrpiam fire.homo cnim 
homiocgignit,* ftirps ftirpcm exm3teria ? qv?ftibic£a fingu 
lis eft.Cum igitur generatio & cffcntia ita (c hibrant,tnr.ccre 
inaterlam gcnerationcmej^fiepriorem nccciTerft rratione vc- 
ro eflentiam reicuiufqjiS formam.patet hocdefir.itione gene- 
rationls : quippe cum sedjficatioms dcfinitiocontineat aedium 
dcfinitione^diudcfinitior.oncontireat ardificationis dcfini- 
tfone.idemq, in carteris enenjt.QnamcbremeJemcntorum rra- 
teriam cficfimilarium partium gratia neceficeft. Sur enim ha: 
poftcriorcs lilis gCDef atione . ijsaurem ipfis difsimilares funt 
pofteriorcs.iam cnim fine hx tcncnt ac termir.tLtcrnario ccn- 
ftitutionem adeptac numcro, icilicetvf pcrfici generarionc in 
multis natura fert.Confiaf igitur aniir.olia ex vtroqi mcmbro 
rum hoc gcnerc.vcrum fimilarfa d fsimilariu grstia habcntnr f 

J °ilioromcnm officia fant & afiioncs,vr oculi,vtnarium,#fa- 
ciei totiu5.itcm digiri,manus,5' brachij fotius: {cd cu aftiones, 
motionesq; mulr iformcs/u animalibcs totis, tu etism ir.ibns 
ciafmodi fribuanMr,diaerfa virtntibuscffeca, cx qaibus con- 
»5t necefie cft.ad a!ia rnim mol]itics,ad aiia durities teommo- 
dior cft.<S> al( a intedi,3lia flefti dw-bct. itaqj partcsfimilarrs ob 
tinet fibi vires eiufmoch figillat im accomodata%.ilia eni mol- 
iMiadtra eft,# alia humida,alia ficca,& alialeta,alia rigida. 
Atvcr^difsimilares plurc.s&copofiras vircscontinct visem 
3la ad premcn3u,alia ad mittendu comcda tranot eft. Qua ob 

3°te partcs organicar,quas ofFiciales * inftr umctarias licet appel 
lar r>exofTibus,ncruis,c3rne^ roi-Ua 

•* ijs.caufa cuius gratia cur harc ia (c haber^haec cfr.fcd cu pra* 
tcrea qux»rat,quaobcam h*c ira iehabercneccflcfir, ratio ma 
«Hcfracft^quod ia prcfcir,vr ita fe inuice ex necefsitare habe- 
^t.cli^imilaresenimcoftare cxfjmilar:bu5pofiunt,ui plari- 
wstxretiamfingul:s,vtvifccranonnulb.conftant enim fer£ 
omniamoltiformi fignra,qu« cx corporefimilaricodita habe- 

w Atfierinopotcft vtfimilaresex diisimilarrbus confician- 

- m ™ M animaliil,alia ftruefimplici fimihnc; conftantralia 
^Pofua^difsianilariafunt. Cuautcpartcs oliz inftrumen, 

r * tarijc 






160 niSTOTM)BPAK. /NIMAHVM 

tari*,aH* foffori* finMnftrumentaris omnes, vt diaum lam 

cft,difsimilares funt.fenfus autem omnibas contingif rer fimi- 

brt s,f dUcet prOptcrea qood quiuisfcnfus vniusgcneriscertj 

cftjingulseqaefcnfort* partcs fmgaiorumfer/ibiiiumgencm 

capaces habcntarraffidtiir ctiam quod pctentia eft,ab eo quod 

acta cfhlta quod idcm lunt genere.vnumque illud,& hoc funt . 

qaam obrcm mannm,aat facian,autaliam quamuis eiafmodi 

parrenMioUas rfeturae interpres terram,aut aquam, aut ignem 

effeconatur exponere Partcs vero fenforias fwgulas ekmetJs 

fmgulis tribuunt,vtaliam aerem,aliam ignem eflcconfirmcnr.it> 

Sed cum fenfas in partibus fimplicibus pofitus fir.euenit ratio 

ne optima,vt tactus fedem fimilarem qnidem,iJed minime fim 

plicemfortiatartqaippe qui maxime vim recipiendi plura go 

neravideatarhabcre,malta u; pr^fefcrrecontrariefates iai 

obieai.verbigrat!a,calidiratc,frigiditaKm,ficc!tatem 3 humidi 

tatcm.alias ctiamgenerisetafdcm.& qaidcm caro in qaauis ca 
rnm qaalitatum fentiendarum pofita eft, aut quod caini pro- 
portioncrefpondet,corpulentifsimum omnium partium ienfi 
bas accommodatarum cft Qainctiam cum ficri non poisit,vt 
animal fitcarens fenfu-.roquoqueefficitur necefTario,vr mcm*« 
bra nonnulia fimilaria in animahbus habeantar. vis en»m fen- 
tiendi fita Ifl his cft. Aftiones autcm per difcimilaria adrnini- 
ftrantur.Scdcam visfennendv/ismoucndi,vis nutriendi,eo- 
dcm in membro contineantur,quod alio lcco cxplicatum £ no- 
biseft:fitnecefrario,vtmcbruir.,quodpnmum princiniaeiuf- 
modi teneat,i4 «Sfimplex co debcat effisqoa omnmm capax ien 
fibilinm eft : * difsimilare eo,qua moties & agf ns eft.qaamobre 
Jngcncreexangui,hoceft, experte far.guinis animalium pro- 
portionalecft.In(anga!ncoaatem,id cft comporefanguinfc, 
cor talchabetur mcmbrom.quippecumcoM in parres fitjiiiaj 
rcsfccetur 5 quemadmodumquo^u^ex alijs viiceribosr* difsj 
milare fit,propter faa> figorx formam.Otcra etiam omniayi 
fcera3ppellataiecutahociunt.quippequ^cxeadc-m matena 

conftcnt.natara enim eorum ommamfsngumeaeft» quomam 
pofira funtadmeatusvenarutn,atque infercapcdines. igirur 
perinde qaafi fcx aqu* profloeotis,crtera vifccra veluri pro- 
fafioresfangaints pcr vcnas Ifftntis cor.fi ftunt. At vero cor> 
qaiafanga*nisin:tiumcft,& vmcrcandifangainis primaob- 
tinct,idcircocx tali rr areria ccrftarc,qualc reriptt alimcrrjm» 
ratio -ft.Sfd qoatn ob caufarr, vifccra forma fanguineafinf,* 
partim fimiiaria,part,m difs*mil*ria,di£tem iam cft. 




IT EARVM GAVSIS UB. II. 2*1 

TtrtmmSmtUrtuirralut molles o humidas,ahasftccat 

& feltiat cfffjey ordntibusfimilanum ^Jatj-uutu.; 
deque cahdt O-frigiJt accepttcnibte,eorin}; tXCtjj», 

Caput xi. 

\rtiam autcm fimilarium alia: molles & humidx funtuhx 
dura; & folidaj.humidae vcl omnino,vel qoandiu io confti- 
tutioncnatara: mancnt,ianguis,fanies,adeps, feuum.medulla, 
gemtura.lac ubi haberi folet , caro,# qoar i j s prcportioe refpo 
acnt. non cnim omnia animalia partcs has obrif ; ent. Sedfonc 
10 qux ad proportionem nonnullarom ex ijs conftcntSiccxac 
ioitda: >nter <imdaresfont,os.fpina,neraus,vena.ordo cnim fi- 
milarrti diicrcpat. quippe qui nomc partim communc toti cu 
partcicraet,vt vcnarpars vena refte appcllaturrpartim no ier 
net,vtin v lceribus patet.figuraenim diucrfaeft Primuigitur 
P^rt.bu. his^uhumidis^tuficcis^multicaufar modi triboutur. 
clJ -.i-tanquammarcriamcmbrorum diisimilauufinrcx ljs 
ennn membra qjxqueoffidal.afiuemftrumentariaconftanr, 
c:sibus,neruij,carnibos,alijsgcncris e»ufdcm,qua.parrtm ad 

eilentiam., ..•♦;.». — i-.ru j ,. . . j ,- 



ncm 



JO vt kamtdx liccis.erenim omniacx humore iua capiunt alimen 
»-aiii> vtcxcremcnta earum fint,attidit,vtiedimentu ficci ali 
"|C. ti,arqueetiam humidi in ij\,quibn> vcficadjia elt.Earum 
autem ipiarom pai nuin difcrimina.qaibus inter ie dilcrcpent, 
".'[ :emcliori£ gratiahabcnrur.vt tum aliarum, tumfanguinis 
a^angQincin.aliasenimtenuior,aliuscrafsioreft:* a.iusiyn 

r n ^ ,ailUS; taii)ulent,or - iteir ' aii "* trigidior,ains calidio-,ta 

10 codem annnali qisani in diucrfis. quantum cnim fanguinis 

Partecorporis continerur iaperiori, his diffcrcnri js, dilcrepac 

iim inferiori. Omnino animalibus, al.js fanguinrm dedit na- 

nra^hjs vice iangoinis partcm eiufmodi aliam.eft ccrte t obo 

Ticd J ^ Ci - r ian 8 u j i 'S ui crafsior & calidior cft. Vim autcfen- 

enai inreihgendicJDe obtinetpleniorcm, qu« tenuior atq; fri 

5 »or eft.hocidemdilcrJmen in ijsquoqae habctur, qujc ian- 

itiod' P , roport 'P ne «'pondcnt.quam ob rem apes, aiqoeeiuf- 
• i aliaaniniali^ ingeniofiora muitis carcntibos /aneainc 



Jant 



g 

habenf 



rem *a f,< i ux 'anguinem habcnt irigidiorcm & tcnuio- 



hibcn 



Pluriw C1UlpP i C qaX V, ' a * vir,bo5C °rpori , & anima: mgcnio 
«aiDiaTff Vakant - CU2 P r optcrpars criarr. fupcrior corporis 
t • ,Ula " e »cniadiis i dctcuminfcriori,&fcrmma cammare, 



r t * 



26Z ARISTOT* DE P AR. ANIM ALI VM 

& dextra pars cum finiftra eiufdcm corporis . pari modo catte- 

ris quoqstaeiulmodipartibur, qaadtfsimilanbas ftatueredif 
fcrentiamdsbcmas,p4rthriadofficia & eflentiamcuiuiuisani 
maiis,partim ad meiiusdeteriu-.vc.cxempli gratia,inter ca 
quaeoculoshabcnr,aLadanscculisfunt,alia namidis.& alia 
carentpalpebr;s,2liahatc:n,vr vilus litexqmfitior. Sangoine 
vcro habcn\aut quodeandem quani fanguisnaturam obtincat, 
qua neccfle fit,atque etiam quaenamfanguinis fit naturj,cxpli 
candum fais iam caufis eft fi prius calidi ingidique ratione ai- 
ftinxerirnm .Natura cnim rcruni multarum ad ca ipfa princi- lo 

piarcferfar.complureiqucambigunr,qu* nam animalia,mem 
hravccalida aut frigida fmt.etcnim nonnullis aquatilia tcrre- 
ftribus cile calidiora placet,argumento quod naturae f rigiditas 
calorenarune ccrum copenjctur.Sangainc etiam deftitcta, i]s 
quoe fangulncm obt!ncnt cfle calidiora : 8c f cxminas atr.piius 
quam marcs calere arbitrantur • Partr.cnidcs enim mulicres effc 
Vfris calidiorcsautoreft.quod idcm quibuidametJam alijspl 
cuiMrgumento copte fanguinis ,qua mcnftrua fianr.Empedo- 
clcs contra opinatur Sanguinc ctia ik bile,aiij intercalida enu 
mcrant.ahj jntcrfrigKJa.quodfi calidumatqucfrigidum tan-*o 
tamrecipiuntambiguftatcmd'controuerfiam,quiddeca?teri$ 

arbitraridcbeamusrHscenimomniumqu* ienfum patiutur, 
aperrilsima lant.kd quseftio ftitc ortaindc vidctur, quod cali- 
dum multuariam dicitur. quifqacenim quamuis contraria dw 
car,tamcn aliqoiddicere videtor . Qu^mobrem noflc oportct 
quemadmodarn rcrom naturalium conftitutarum partim cali- 
dar,pait!mfrigida:,<S:aliae ficcs,alia» hamidxdicidcbeanf. Na 
vixx qucqs & morf is caufas ha?c haberc, atque ctiam fomni & 
vigilia?,icuetotisftfcRcftuti$,& morbtd fanitatis no afperita 
teir. aui icniratcm, non grauitatem aur Jecirate.nihilfcri* tale}^ 
aperromeflcvideiur,*rcftequidcm. Sunrcnimhaec, vtalio 
lococxpc>luimus,initiaciemcntorum nat&ralfimKcaiidaindi- 
co,frIgidom,f]cum,humidum. Vfruigitnrfimplici rationc,an 
mulriplici calldfi dicatur'Scd quodna^m ofliciu rcicaiidioris fit 
antiiplarafjr.f.quotnumerofint,dcclarandumcft. primoigi 
turmodo caiidiu.' d?cirurid,quodampliorcm inuehit lcnfom 
cu rangifurrnccfmrftoIore.quodquioVm failerc ir.tcrdum vi# 
d:tur.nafieriporeft,vtcorporishabitus cauiamdolcndi a#e- 
rar,cum icntirar. Ad hurccalidius quod rei liquabilisliqoancs, 

*rcicremabiliscrcmannuscft.Ifcmfialfcrt;plas, ahcrufoi* 
nu: fir,ide quod plus eft, hoc aitcro ?A ininus*calidius cft.Pr*- 

: . rcrca 



ET IARVM CAVSIS» UBER Z i* 3<£j 

tcrcaquoddcduobusnonciro/edlcnrc frigcfir,fdcaJidms eih 

& quod citius calefir,eo quod lcntios,narara" efic calidiori ccnfe 
mus.perinde quafi alterum fitaduerium,vt remofios alteriUR fi 
mile,vtpropinquius. Aiterum igitur alrero caiidius efie,e;fi no 
plunbus .tamen tot modis dicitur.Qui modi omncs cifce incfle 
nonpoirunt.aqaaenimfcrucs plen.uscalcfacit quiim fiamma: 
fedfiamma vrit &liqeac rc,vri aut liquari idortea : quod aqua 
efticerc nonporcft.Iieaqua fcruescalidior eft.quatnignis exi- 
guus,attamen citios magisq; rcfrigcfcit quatn ignis , quarr.uis 

io exi g uos:quippc quifrigiduj nunqaam fiat,cum aqua omnis re 
irigerari pofsit. Ad ha:c,aqua fetuens calidior fcniiiur;fed ccie 
rius refrigefcit& c6gelaicir,qoam o.eum.Sanguis praterea ra- 
ftucalidior quam aqaa,*ut olcum cft,fcdcclerios geiafcit. La- 
pis etiatrc,ferrum & reliqua generis eiufdcm lcntius quidcm ca- 
fcfiunt quam aqua,fed vbi calefacla fuerinr , vrcre vehemcrius 
pcliunt. Poftremo ea,quar caiida eflc d;ximus,calorcm aut cxtcr 
num continenr,autfuum.plurimcm autem rcfert , hocan illo 
modo calidum quicquam fir:alrcrum cnim corum propc- eft,vc 
calidum pcr accidcns fit ,non per fc.perinrie quaii fi tebricti ma 

2 u iicum cfieaccidit,dixeris moficum cflecalidiorem,quam cu qu£ 
cjlidus ianus eft.Sed com aliod per ie calidum^Iind pcr accidts 
fi:,refrigcfcir quidc icntius quod per ic calidum cfl .fed fepc fir, 
Vt ienium vehemctius cairfaciat id quod pcr accid^ns caiidum 
«ft.item ampiius vrit,qnod pcr fecaiidum cftSvr fiamma , qua 
aqua feruens.icd radu smplics calcfacit aqua feruens,qus per 
accidcscalidaeft.Iraq; iudicinm vtrcm nam ex ducbus caiiciur 
ut,non eflefimpicx 2pcrtum cft.quando ficii potcft , vr hacal- 
tcrom,iUa aiterum rationecalidiusfit .nonnuiiaex ijsnedi- 
« qmdem fimplicitcr calida, aut non calida poflunt.fobic- 

3o ctoenim quod tandcmfint.non caiidafunt,icd pcr aflocia- 
nonem calidafunt : vdut fifcrro calido,aut aquzncmcn im- 
pones.hoc enim modo fanguis caltcus eft . & quidem patct f; i- 
giditarcm aliquam efTe naruram , non priuationem in ijs,qco- 

rumiubicaumcalidumperafTec'ticncmfiucpafsioncmeft.na- 
«Jra criam ignis talc quid fortaftc eft . fubicflum enim forfitan 
eit,veliumos,vcl carbo:quorum aircrum lemper cajidumeft, 
quippc curn futncs non n;fi exhalario fir ; carbo autcm extin- 
ttas tngtdas c ft . Olcum & teda effici frigida pofiunt. Adufta 
"^r.tcre cmniaaliquid habcntcaliditans,vr calx,cipl>,fcdi- 
™««a ammalium,* imer excrcmcr.ta fcl,eo quod feruorcni- 

o ttarocrinr,reiictmnquc fibi contineant aliquidcaliditatis. 

r 4 Tcda, 



t $4 ARISTOT^DE PAR- ANIM. 

Teda,& quodois pingue alio modo calidum cft,vidclicet qood 
celeriter in aftum ignis mutari poteftxalor aorem vim tumco 
gcndi,tum liquadi habere videtur.qu.r igitur aqux vniusfunr, 
eafngore cogontor.quaererracignecalida ctiam indurantur. 

frfg >rc cclcri atq, irrdolubili concrctu,quxrerram porius prc 
fcfcrunr lcuius aurcm,qua:aquam.Scddchisplaniusalio]oco 

fkfinitumanobiscft,fciliccrquanam concrdccre aprafint,* 
qmbu^» caufis ftringantur.Calidum verocalidiu5,cnm multifa* 
riamdicatur,noneodemmodo rcbus iungewr nmnibus:fcd ad 
dercdrbebi$,aliud perfe cflecalidjm^alicd pleruq; pcr accides. l <> 
itrtn alinHnftfenr ia, aliudaftn.dr alicdhoc modo,quod raftum 



ampl*us calcfaciar : aliud , quod flammam cxcitat arq; igniar. 




Qnod fi caldum mulriplici rarioncdicariir,frig!diim quoq; pa 
ri rationefcqu.irur,nece(Tceft.arq;dc calido,frigido,excefFuq; 
corum,ad hunc modum dcfiniflcfatis fit- 

Dcftcco O* lmtnid? Jifyutatio. 

Capttt m # 

Eqoitor Vt dc ficcc,& humido,modo fuperioru difleramus. 

nam ca quoq; multifariam dici folenr, vr alia ficca , aur ha- 20 
\r\kh potcntia (int»aiia a<ftu.Gclu cnim,omncmq; humorecon- 
crctum ficcumdicimus aftu,& pcr accidcns,com t*men poten- 
tiz * per fc humidus fit.cotdk tcrra,cinis,& rcliqua gencris eiuf 
dcm mixm humori,humida a£hi,& pcr accidcns reoduntur,qoa 
quam pcr icatq» potetia iicca funr.at vbi hcec fcparata iucrinf* 
quod aqua rcfcrrum cft,id& aftu& potentia homidom cft.qoe 
autcm terra: propria funt,hacc omnia ficca funt . & quide quod 
proprteacfimpliciterficcumcft,hocmodo maxime intelligi- 
tur.altera ctiam,humida dico,h:*c cadcm rationc , qua calida & ^ 
frigida,proprijabfo!utiq;nomen rccipiant-His ita prxfinitis, 5 
apcrtum ia n cft fanguincm quodammodocahdom eftc,vidcli- 
cct e quale cft ci ianguini cife perindc quafi aqaa fcrucntc no 
minc vno fi ^nificcmus.Ar vero fubiefto,& quod rande cum fir» 
finguiseft,noncalidos efty&quodammodopcr fc calidos,quo- 
dammodononperfccaliduseft.Calidttasenim in eiosrationc 
incft^quemadmodum albedo in albi hominis rationc. At co,qoa 
fan^uis pcr alfeftionem fiue p.iKionem cft,no pcr fc czlidus eft. 
parimododc ficco 3t humido ft Jtucndutn cft.quaproprcr in c- 
iufmodi rcru narura,parnm cahda & humida f untiied icparara 
nngelafcu t,* fngida tfll- videtucqaaits eft tan^uis.partim ca 

idacraI:ioraq; funt, vt bihs;icd icparata ab coru,in quibosha- 

^ bcntur 



IT !ARVM CA?SIS, HBER It. 2*f 

bentur natura,corra afficiunturrquippe quae refrigeretur 3 3tq; 
hmncfcant.iangaiscnimficciorredditur.bilis flaua humidior. 
magisautem,miniisvcpartidpari oppofita,velut inrcm infira 
his itatucrc dcbcmuscxplicaiu iam cft,quonam modo fangui- 
im natura particcpsfit caliditatis,humiditatrs,autcontrariaru 
qualitatmn. Scd cum omnc quod augetur,capiat alimetu necci. 
iclu:alimcntum aute omnibas cx humido & ficco fuppcditetur 
quorum conco&io & mutatio,no nifi pcr caloris vim agitur,fit 
vt ram animalia omnia, qoam ftirpcs 3 & fi non alia dc caufa,ta- 
io mcn ob cam rcm principiu caloris naturalc habcant neccfie fit : 
idcj;ipfum partibusfif pluribus accommodatum,quedrnodum 
cibi coficiendi adminiftrationcs.Prima cnim adminiftratio pcr 

fpicuacft,cupcros,partcsq;orccontctas pcrficiatur animali- 
bos,qaorum cibas fcftionem dcfidcrct.fcd h*c nullius caufa cft 

concoftionis,fcdfacilitatcmconcoqucndi potius prsftar.cibi 

cnim illa minutati m diuifio facit,vt calor facilius coficlendo ex 

P«iar.Atfupcrior«fcinfcriorvcntcriamcum calore naturali 

iuoconcoquendi oflFicio funguntur.fcd vtos animalis cibi con- 

tc&imcatu$cft,atq; etiamparseianncxajquamgulam appel- 

iolanr,cibu:nquibusdatacftanimalibasvfq;ad vcntriculu de- 
ducif.fic alia quoq; adefle principia oportct ,quorum opcra me 
bra omniacorporis ex vcnrrc,naturaq; InreftinortLquafi prar- 
fcpi pabulum capiant.ftirpcs cnim fiuc platsc fais radicibas alt 
mcntumiamconfc&omcx tcrrahauriunt:quocirca nc excre- 
mcntum qmdcm contrahi in ftirpibns folct.terra enim calorc- 
q» cios,perindc ac vcntrc vtuntur. At animaliv gcnus omnc fc- 
f<-fedapcrtcqa£ inccdunt ; quafi tcrram intrafccontinent finu 
vcntri s ,ex qao vt illr radicibus,ita hxc aliquo intcrccdcntc ci 
bcinaflu;ncrcdebcnt,doncc fincm fcqucntis concoftionis fa- 

P ciant.cibus cnim ab oris ofFicio vcntri mandatur . hinc mebrfi 
alrad capiat necefTc cft,& quidcm ita nafura conftiruir. Vcn* e* 

f dh PCr t0taS la ^ CS ad YCntrem * cndunt vfq; > cxorfae infcrin j. 
"*ccx animalium confedtione , commentationeq; naturali 

P^endafiinr.Com autcm omnisalimenti,omnisq; excremcntf 
conceptaculu aliquod haberi neccffc fif ,ven*q; quafi vafa fint 

wnga»nis,parct/anguinemcficanimalibus ianguincis vltimu 

^mcntum.cxangujbus vero id efle,quod vicc fanguinis habca 

rp J°P 0rti °nalc.quamobrcm quoticscibus no ingcritur,fan 

i^ chcit: S oof JCS ingrntur,augetur.& fialimcnrabonaaflu 

ontur /anguis integcr cft:fi praua,vitiofus.Igitur fangoincm 

imtv. gr^tia datum efic animalibus fanguinc prarditis apcrtu 

r 5 cxijji 






l6 £ ARISTOTE. Dl PAR. ANIM- 

e*ijs,c*terisq;eiu<modirationib;is cft.na ob cam re fansui* 
nc tailas qaidan fenf u; moacrc poteft,ficut nec cxtcr J e*cre 
mcntoru gcncra.ncc vcroa.imctum Jcnfum mouet,Vtc»ro.tK.c 
cnim lenlum cu ungirur,mouct.no enim faogaiscontinuus cr 
l»Uncq;cognatuscft,fcdincordcacvcnis,quah vahs conune- 

lur. ••dquona modomtbraex languin • iua capiant incrcmcta 
atqjaunidcalimedomninoratio.icdiflcrcrcctidcgcncratio- 

neagc.™ir.,loci S q;aI.js,aptiuscft.nuch.iacnusdiaami.t.non 
cnim plushiclocus d;fi4erat,qua vt ungaineciTc ahmcticigra 
tia,& aiimcnti membrorum caofa cxploratum habeaiur. I 

Z>tf>brif,Cr <\*£ anim.-.lia ijs cartanfjt'];, mt. 

tt*sc**fa,&faniti nat»ra. 

Caput I i I !• 

aVas aute fibras vocat,r.5 omnls c6tinct fanguls.fed funt 
qul no habcant,vtccruaru ianguis.ft damaru . qusm oo 
reidu"n50inisgcniununquam ipifiatur.iangu:* cnimquidi- 
lutior efWdgidior eft:itaq; durelccrc non rotcft • qai auu ter- 
renuseft,nimirucoit,com huincr cuaporatur.fiora; autt ul* 

— - _ .- - ... „lln/.v ilt .1111 



tiuntopihciu.Quoniam ctiaci 
bus,qua: taie obtaient ianguin 



lior q 




ill 



iyn 



guinc vacat aniina 

tibasionr.vsciicta 



mctus 



cor 



de habctor,mcrut'di affcaioni fhnt opportuniora : aq i 
f r igore congciafcit qoa ob rc cxfcra qux cxanguia , timi 
fan\uincisiuntanimaIil>us,quod fimplicitcr dixcrim >* 

iimio merti,& ccci cmctt cmtttont nonnuIU 
immutant.Quoru aatc iangu.shbri* admod 
rcfertuieft,h*ctcrrciuamplios coftant nat 



ccffint pr* 



animoJa,ir4aanda,proin<lcc])ruribUiia 
eft.fblldaaatc firmioraq; omnia c al 



acccdunt* 



exquont,vttauri*apri anu '>^ u ^ t3ribu ^;^ 
«h enbn eortl ribt is rcfcrtior eft.& qokk tawonim langu^ 



raatcris/ 



ITSAJtVM CAVSfSf IIBEH I !• **7 



fcmoac 



mauti 



ru cnim natura terrcna cft.quod fi no cxiinatur^o^at»jr vt ter- 

ra humida frigorc cu cnim calor cxpximiijMmot vna trahitur, 

atq;cuaporatur,vtdi&u iam eft.atq;iuaScrefcit>nonacaIore 

f:cccicci,icda frigore . At ver6 quadiu in corporc continetur, 

hamidusciiproprtrcalorcanimahbus inditu profcflo natura 

flangumiscaulam cfie,cur pennuira animalibus veniant,tu per 

morcs,tum ctia per icnium rat.o eft.materia cnim totius corpo 

1° ri$ cft quippc cu alimetuui matcria fir>ianguis autc vltimu ali 

m&um habcar.facir igitur, vt plurimu dificrcntix caiftat fi ca 

lidtuaurfrigiduslu : fi renuis autcraflhs,fi turbulctus aurniti- 

das. Saniesparsdiiuta,fiucaquoiaianguinis cft , co quod aut 

nondomconcoda,aut corrupta cftutaq; id vclfanics ncccflario 

eft>vejfanguinis gratia cft. 

jDeftuCyO' aiUpe^eoTHmq; drjferentij^C^ <{t*£ani- 

rnalikm feuuni ,<j«* iiem aeltptm /;.;- 

hcant. Cap*t V. 

*o CEuum & adcps inter k diffcrurJanguisratione.eft cnim co 

ru:r. vtrunq; fangnis cococtus pcr bonitate cnutncdi.confi- 
ftit(j;cxco,quodinpuipaquidc animalis non abiumatur,icd 
cococtionis aJimct iq; bonitatc pracditu cft.indicat id pingucdo 
toru^um pingoeimcr huui!da,commnne ignis & acris lir.qua 
obrcm KUnm cx - js quac fanguinc carct, vcl adipe hahct,vel ic- 
Dt»m:(juandoquidciangui5 deeft.Quoru autcm fanguis corpu- 
]cntiorcft,hxcicuum aotias habent Jcuum cnim tcrrcnum cft. 



vndcfit>vt modo fibroii ianguinis cogatur,tam iplum,qca riuf 
^3dnus>cuparuma^u^,;nui(d terrr contincar .Qnam ob rc 
jo qu* non vtrinq; dcnuta/cd ccrnigcra f unr,harc feuum habcnr. 

naturamcornm rrfcrta cfiehuiulmodiciemcto patct,co quod 
«orniwgcruiHjtaioiq^ootincrrquarqaidcmomnianaturalunt 

arida ^tirrcna. At vcro penus vtnnq;dcntatom,&cornUGm 
«xpcrs^ mairi{idum,viccicuiad:prmhabct.qu«ncr: cogitur, 

^fioitatcalicjuairagitur^quonia ciasnatura minustcrrcna 
^•'«cfnnediocrncr m aniraalium membris habctur-profunt- 

* cr*i ajJomimpcdiw>&adfaniratcviroq;opi$ttlatur:fcd 

fi n.odu ercediit>noceiit atq> micrimunt . nam (i corpus tottt 
**- licrit in adipc,autfcuu penbif.animalenimcapanecft,m 

^irnfiHlubctur.C^roai:tc,(&qoodcarni proportionctur* 

^okti^cc iticnai-ianguis,vtdiaamiamcft,& icnfucarcr, 

&09 



tent 
afficitum 



t ^8 ARISTOT. DE PAR. ANIM-A. 

& obcam rcm,nec adeps,nec fcnom fentfcfunt cmm fanguis c5 
co&is.quodti totum corpus talccff;C!atur,nuliu prtfterea icn- 
fum hibcrc potcnt.hinc * ccleriter ea <cnefconr,quae valde pin 
guerimrqoppe qux parum fanguims habeanr,vtpote com co- 
pia fuabiumpra ad pinguedinem. Qnx autem parum fangui- 
ms tubcut^haec tam inde adint ritum iunt opportunmra I I n« 

— : ninopia quxdam fanguiniscft. quodq; param eft, 

j cngore qaolib?r,tum k calorc facilc potcft. Quin- 

cr.im obeia omnia ftcriiiora ea dc cauia .ant.quantum cniili ex 
fang Ji nc proficilci ad genituram,* lemea genitaie debcat, hoc ro 
in adipeni aut feuuni nmipncatur.ianguis cnim cnm concoqui 
tur ad hac . troniit.itaque aut nallum omnino cxcremcnr ii in \]S 
ipfis coniiftit,auc parum- Atquc de .angainc,fanie,adipe Jcuo> 
quid fmc,& oo quas habeamur,diaum iam cft. 

(Vf ! mtdtt&atqHtbi&q; aMmattbu* datafit. 

Cafut vi, 

Ed medulla etiam natura qaaxlam fanguinis eft. non 

vt quidam volunt,vi> gemtuitfieminaiis. patct hoc 

in i js,qu9e niiper in lucem prodtcrint. medulla cmm 

in ofsibus quoq; corum languinca cont snetur,vrpoce*o 

cmn omnes corporis partcs ex ian gptoc conftcnt,& parttu alt- 

menmm prarftetur a fanguine.ted pcr incrcmentucdcottione- 

q;efficirur,vtqucmadinoducaeteramembra,fic viicera quoqj 

immotenturcoiore.pcrcopiaenim ianguinis viiccraeciam cu 
rccenr!aadhucfunt,colorcmfibifangumcumtrahunt.«JCCtiam 




medulla afficitur,& ptnguis in pinguibus ammalibus cft,atqae 
exungi* fimiiis. At qnibns fanga:s uon pingucdini,fcdfcuo h- 
milh pcr conco&ione euidit,! js rnedula icuo fim.lis cft.quam- 
obrem vt cornigcrts animalibus,nec vtnnq; dentatis , mcdslla 
fprciem geric fcttkfic vtrkiqi dttiteis acq; multifidfs pinguedi?o 



rcfert 



continaam hanceffeoportci,porrecYKr.c; per longitudinc ip 
nz totius,qa_e cx multis vertebraiisorb.culat-ir Hoostongt 
tar.mm fi expingucdine aut feuo eflVr, nou *quc pcrpctua & 

fepofT-r.fed vcl £tagtlfr,vd humida eflel Snnt cx arimaltbo*» 
qnxnullamcommcntaTioied^njtiiir.eduliainhnbcaot^Kici'- 

cetea,qibnsofla roHuOi,* i li la(ottt,vtIebni.eios enim ol- 
i JMraod « im ad ottanvi pefobfcttWm ratttoiiam cnnti- 
nenf.carereomninotr.cdaili .idcnrur.Scdcum .Istom natura 
inelTrinanimalib-isnecefil fir.aut qtf d ofsibw proporttonc- 
tur,vt in aquatilibus fpinam,fit ncccffario, VI nonnolia nao^ 



* 



IT tavM CAVSIS, LIBER I T. If^ 

ctfam quod pro alimento comineatur,ex quo rfa cofift?nt.a]i 

mentum aurem emmhus cfie fanguinem ditfu iam eft . ieoofas 
cuam * pingoe- eflf medollasratio cft.tepor cn,m,qu<m oi u 
complotio facit,fanguincm concoquit.f anguinis anrem per fc 
concoft?o,teuum cfe adeps cft.qooniam ttia m i\< qua* ofla fpH- 
fafirrmc; habenr,no tcrr.erc partim nul]a,parfirn exigua ineft 
medulla.aliirientum enim in ofla abiumitor.Q^e amcm r 6 of- 
fa habrnt fed fpinam,ij$ dorfi rsntam mcdalJa eft. paruir. enim 
continent fanguinis fuaptc natura. <Jr dorfi (pjna tanruir modo 
xocaaahabctur.quamobremin ea meduJlxalic;u:dcre2npoteft. 
vnaenimipiacapaxcft,fohc]; eget copula propter irtercc- 
ptioncs quam obremmedollactiam eiu* partis difTm, vt di- 
^umeft.quodenimviccfibulxfungirur. idcirco lenta nerco- 
facj; eft,vt tntendi pofsit Cauia quam c b rcm medulJam habet swhoui 
animalia,qmbus dara eft,declaratum iam cft.Qnid cti a mcdol- cc p»l a . 
Jafit,p^tcr.fciIicctalimentifargninei,quodin ofla, ipinamiic 
Oiitribuatur 3 contentumcj; concrj£ium excrementum. 

•De cercbr$.&' cihs natttra.dtcfc c*piti}fluxioMbu*.,&'fomni 

|J Roximom fer£ eft,y t de cerebro docramus. nara cerebrum 
A qacquc medcllam cflc atq; origincm medulke , cdrlcribcs 
placoit 3utoribus:argumento,quod dorfnr edullam iunftam cu 



?» 



ccrtb?ocerncrent.S<rd rcs contra fe habet,c mnino propt dixe- 

nni.c-rebrumcnimpartiDmomriiu corporisfrigiiiis.mu eft, 

^mmcduliacalidafuaptcnaturafitquod eius ptnguedine & 

^nngia perfpicuum cftjdc; facit vt cerebro iungi, continua- 

riq; pofiT t ipia dorfi mcdull a.folet erum narura ietnper etr oli- 

'contracuioraisexupcrartpamaDxilium per coniuntfioncm 

- la ^ r ^' v ^cxceflbmalteriusaltcrocompcnfct Sc mcdcrc- 

^Sedcnimmcdall3mcalidamefleplunbus fan£ ratiombus 

^omtat.ccrebriaatemfrigiditas,&taaapcrcipi peteft,& ra. 

c inteiligitar,qaod orrniom maximc humorum corporis 

o ^"? a,n « = c 3rct,quippc qaod nihil fangoinis habeat,fqualorcq; 

Parf tQm tc i ; horridum . nec vcro excrcmetnm eft ,nec intcr 

£o COntinuas cr.umcrandun ,fcd fui generis eft^ quide ra- 

Part!b Ptlma n3tUram dvfotodt fortifom eft .nulhm vero com 

fatu't ^'^* virn obtinent fentiendi conttnaitatcm habere,cu 

^r,nuIl P3rCar,tUm VcIn - axirn ^ ir ^ con ft3t,quodcum tangi- 

crerr a Um ^** '^^'f^^modum ncc ianguis,ncq; cx- 

^ ^ntum animalium vllom-datom aatem hocanimalibuscft 

* totiui iafutcm.Quod cnim nonnullt ftatount iir por 

tunc 






/ 



t «0 ARlSTOTE. DE £ A *• ANlM. 

tonc animamcffcigncm,aut aliqnam eiufmodi vfm,meIiosfof 
taficdixcris animam in quodam eiafmodi corporecoftare cn- 
ius rei caufa eft,qucd ad excqucnda animae officia,ca]or omniu 
maximeadmlniftradf vim obtiner.Cumenimofficiom anima: 
fit alere & mouere,hac ca ipfa facdtate potifsimum cfficiiimr. 
igitur anima rffe igncm arbitrari fimilc cft,atq; fi fcrram , ant 
afciam,fabrom aot artcfabrilem cffe rdeoarbitrem,quta opas 
ron nifi iun&ishisefficisrur Sedqo?«m genusomne animaliu 



caloris 



™ mmm ^^ f * J 

omniamomentumrequirantcontrariu, qcod mediocritate acto 
' mcdium affequantur :ir. hoccnim effentia rario<5; confiftit,no 
in alterotrocxfremo feorfum pofito: ; dcirco aduerfuscordi* fe- 
<Jem & ca!orem,cere brom natura molita eft. Et ca de caufa pars 
iftaan]malibnsmn^aeft 5 naruramobtinensaqu««Srtcrr^ co- 

muncm>atq;obeam rem ccrcbrum omnia fanguine prtfdita 
habent.cx caetcris nollom fercsnifi pcr propnrtioncm,vt poly- 
pos.paromenim caloris obtinct omnc id genos , propter fan- 
guinis priuationem.Ccrcbrum igitor calcrcm fcrurrcmcj; cor 
d'"s moderatur,* tcmpcriem affc-rt.S cd vt ea quoq; par* modi 
co potiatur calore, vrn# ad trembranam ccrebri deueniunt ex 10 
vtraqoe ven2,maiorcm dico,<dkeam qn^aorta vocstur.cS- neca 
lor nimius cffendaf ,non pauca? amplar.fed frcqucnres ac renues 



lcm 



:ap 



turin ijscorporibos,qu:bnscercDnimhigidiU5Cit,qu^mrnn- 
pcramcntom modicum poftuler cum enim alimentum per ye- 



nas 



ratum eft,fluxtones pituitac fanieiq- mooet.qood fimilc ger.era 
tioni imbrium eoenirc intciligendum eft,quodmagnu conter* ^ 
rccum paroo licet Cum enim ex terra vapor cxhalat^cffertor-ja 
(p in fublime^calorcvbifupernomaeremfubicrit frigidum, 
confiftirrdenao in aqoam propter refrigefationem ,2tq$ * n fcr- 

ram defloit Seddehis,com de morborom caufis agirur, diffcre- 
rccogroumcft.-videiicctqnoadtraflaredchisnaturalibosfcie- 

tiarintcrcft.SomnusetTamaccrebroproficifcitur ijttqo* ca,n 
cbtincnt partcm animahbas.quse autcni carcnr i js,proportio- 
nalefoppetif.cumenimfanguinisalentis effluentia refrigcrc- 
tur Vccrebro.antetiam cbaliascaufas fimiles ,c*pi f aggnca- 
«ir -* qaidcm fomno fop?ci,ca Mrporii parteiolent tent*i» 
qaeefficitur^vtcaloradimaaimfanguinefubtcrfagi^^-^ 



€a{ 



crigen 



ET EARVM' CAVSTS," tlBER itl 171 

gendi corporis aofert abijs animalibus, qu* erefla incedere 
natura voluit.cxteris capot crigi prohibet qaibus dc rcbus fen r 
fundocaimus,cumdefenfu&fomnoagcremus Cerebrum au 
rem eflccommune aqu*& tcrrar conftar,ex co qued ei accidir. 
Cum enim coqnitar,indorefcit atq; ficccfcif, vt homore cxafto 
acslore ? tcrrcna portio rdinquatar:qaemadmcdi?m in Irgumi 
riunirdiquoruirojfraftuumdccoftionc. cunder.im *»y m>*4 



fibi sdmixtum cont/n<?nt : dnra terrcnaq; admodum ea qucque 
lotelinquontur.Homofntrromnia ammalia plrrlmum cercbri 
babct,fciiicet proportione fui corporis.& ftitcr homines,mares 
plasquim fosminaexordis cnim pulmonisq;locnm caiid)'r$imu 
* fanguine refcr tifsimum homo habcr-vndc animallum homo 
vnus ere&os eft.caloris enim natura inu2lefcens,incrementom 
de mcdio agir pro fno impetu. Itaqcc contrA multom calidita- 
ris,multam hnmiditatif .frigidiratisq; cppcnitur. qua quidem 
c °P*3fit,vtcapitiso5,qucdca!nariarn nonnulli appellant, feri 
admodum induretor,cum din calor ccaporetur . qucd nulli cx 
csferis animalibusfanguineprarditiscuenit.iunfturasetfapln 
ZQtmas in capitehomo habet,<Sr mas plurer quam fcsirina , eadc 
^caufa,vtlocusfpiranriorfit,<!tamplfus, inquo plus cerebri 
tabetur.nam fi ccrebrum vel humct,vcl fKcet fopra mcdn , fuo : 
«Rgl off;cio non potcftrfed aut non refrigerabir, aut coagula- 
bit.iuquc morbos,deliria,mortes aireret.cnlor cnimcordis ar- 
T C P dn °'pfom confcnticntifsimum eft,fenfcmq> cderrime fa 
cxt,cum fanguiscerebri vllo paclo mutator arq; afficitur.lcd de 
co^natis animallom hamoribus omnibus di#u fert cft.Poftge- Poftgtnttt t 
Wl excren:enta funt cibi,id eft,veficfc fcdimcn,atque alui.prtf- fahcn \mm+ 
crca gcnit Ura ^ I 3C5 f C jj lcct j n jj s q C orum natura harc obtinet. re *> 

joverQmcibicKcremcntaquibiiftTamahimalibus ion#a fint,* 

^asobcaufa^aptiusin conuderanda difierendaque alimcnti 

^ <** ejcpJicetur.de fcmincautcm gcnirali,* la£fc,traatedu 

^ ,cum de gencratione.altcrumcnim corum principiaui genc 

0,1 w eft.altcrum gcnerationis gratia habetur. 



J* 



• - 




caput VIII. 



cxteris 



•[• 



car 



teris autcm de co , qaod vice carnis proportionc 
reipondcat . hce ctiim principium & carsos ner fe 



amm 



X7* AR.ISTOTE. DE PAR. AKIMAL 

animaliom cft.quod rationc etiam patetanimal cnim co dcfini 
ma$ qaod fenfam obtinct,primamq; cam,qui primus eft . Ta- 
ttamautemprimumcflccertumeft.ta&us vero fenforia pars 
eiufmodi cft aut prima,vt papilla vifusraut coiriun£ta,pcr qua 
agitar,perinde qaafi pupillae omnc diaphanes,hoc cft tra^fluci 
dum coniungas.Caetcris igitur fcnfibus ncc tribaj hoc poterat, 
neq;operaeprcciameratcfflcianatora.At vcro taciaidari nc- 
ceflc f uit.fola cnim,aut maximfc omniom fcnforium fedes tange 
dicorpulcntaeft.Senfuiautcmpatetcstera omnia cius vnius 
gratia haberi:ofladico,neruos,cutem,venas,pilosctiam,& vn-13 
uium genaSj& quicquideiufmodi iunctum cft.natora cnim of 
iom adhibita cft,vt f aa duritie rcm mollcm fcruarct in ijs,qug 
ofla habcnt.cadcmq* dc caufa proportionalc ofsium habctur in 
*js,quxofsibuscarent:vt ingenercpifciumalijsfpina,alijs car 



« * 










rnn 



ingencrefangainisexpcrie,cruftatao:rinia cxrra fic manita 
fcraantor,vclat cancri,genusq; omne locuftaram,atq; ctiam tc 
ftatorum,vt qaseoftrea: appcllatur:his cnim omnibas caroin- 
tas.terrenum autcm ilIud,quodcontineat &confcruet,foris cft. 

oam prxtcr ipfum contincndi oincium,quoniam eorum natu-2,g 
taparam caloris obtinet,cum fangainc careant,idcirco tcfta vc 
lutifurnulas qaidam ample&esconferuat inteftinumcalorcm, 
&tuctur.Q - oinetiam tcftudo& lutarif gcnas fimili modofcha 
bere vid"tur,quanquamdioerfam gcnas abillishoccft. At vc- 
10 animalia infe&a & mollia contri quam hxc, & modo intcr 
fcoppofitocoftant.nihilcnimo{sis,n!hiltcrrcnihabercdiicrc- 

tam videntar,qaoddignum cffatu fitrfcd mollia fcrc tota,car- 
nofa,& taftui ccdcntia funt.nc tamcn corpus corum facilc pcr- 
cat,modo illorum qux carnc lafciuiunt,naturam intcr carncm 
&neroumobtincnt:molliscaim,vtcarocft > fcd intcndi potcftj* 
vt ncruus.fifsilis aotem caro corum non in dire£him,fcd in an- 
fra&om.ita cnim ad vircs commodior cflc potcft.habcnt criam 
qaod pifcium /pinis proportionetur : vt fepice quod fepium vo- 
cant.lolligines qaod gladiolutrupolypi nihil ciufmodi habent- 
qaodcorum alacas,qacmcapat appcllant,breaior eft,illorutn 
proccriorideoq; vtdiredtas inflcxusq;rnanerct,naturahis ad- 
minicolis faciendam ccnfait.qaemadmodum in gcncrcfangui- 
neo,ali}s os dedit,ali js fpinam.infe&a contri qoam haec,& <an- 
goinepr3cditaconftunt,vtmododiximas.quippc quxnihil ha 

bcant dari aat mollis djfcrctum:fed dura toto corporc fint du- 
titic talifVtoiTccarnofiora^carnc oflaciora terradoraq; coftctt 



ET EARVM CAVSIS, ItBEK II. **7? 

nc facilc cor pus eorum diuidi poisit. 

SImili$naturacftofsibos,&venis.vtraq;enimex vno orfa 
cotinua eft,& neq; os vllam fcorfum pcr fc habetar,fed aut 
parscontinuieft,2ottangir,atq;annc&irur,vr natura & tan- 
qaamvno,continuocj5,&tanc|namduobusdiftinftisqjadflcxu 
vtamrncq;vena vllafeorfum perfeeft,fed omnes pars furt 
vnius.nam fi quod os icparatumefler,accidcrct, vt ncc cflFkio 

fungi poflTet,cuius gratia naturaofsium habetur. quippe quod 
J °nccflcdcndi,ncq;dirigcndicaufam vllamprflebcrcr, cum non 

c6tinuumcilct,fcdintcrceptum:c5!:l«dctcproca!dubio poffct f 

perindcquafivelfpina>velfpiculum carni infixom. vcna etia 

fi qua feparararnec fua! origini continua tenderer,faum fangui 

nem feruare non pofTcr.Calor enim profluens ab origtne facir, . 

ne fanguis gelct.putrefcere etia fanguis videtur,qui a fuo fon- 

teremotttscft-rrincipium venarumcorcft.cfsiuin,qcod fpi- 

nadorfi vocatur,videlicet in omnibus ijs,quac offa habcr . hinc 

cnimcstera offaoriun tur,& continuantur: fpina eft enim, 

qood longitudinem ac re&itudinem contineat srnfmalijum. S ed 

20 cum corpus inflcfti per animalis motum ncccfie fit , ita coftat, 

vt Sc vna fit propter contmuiratem, & multipartita propfcr 

vcrtcbrarumdjftinflionem.hjncfemornm brachioruirc]; ofla 

depcndentcontinua,codemc]; arcibus adneftutur, qua flc&en- 
damcft,ncrui$deligantor.cxtremaqjfibicoha:rcnr.iiltcrumca 

oum,altcrum rotondum,aat vtrunq; cauum,mcdio talo , qusfi 
claao complcxo,vt flrfti extendiq; poisint.alirer enim aut nul 
lo pafto,aot non benc motus ciufmodi agi poffet.nonnulla cx- 
tremisfimilibos coniunguntur ncruis dcligata . Cartilaginoia: 
etiam partcs inicruntur ficxuris,vcluri le&iftcrnfum,nc attri- 
3o ta matuo 3f c?antar:caro circa ofla confi ^it vinculis modo fibra 
tumrenuibus adharrcns,cuiuscaufaofsiom genus habctur. vt 
«nim quicx limoaut alia maffa humida animal cffmgunt, fir- 
^o ahquo ftibdito corporcobducun^atquc afibrmart : fic na- 
tura cx carnibus animalcondidit.cxteris igitur partibus, (cili- 
cctcarn °fis,ofla omnibus fubiacent,aut fleftendi grat>3»fi mo 
°wnur:aut conferuandi cauf3,fi immobilia fant: vr cofta?,qu* 
P^ftusfalatisvifcerumgratiaclaudunt Vcntcromniom ofsi- 
ns vac at,nc tumori impcdimcnto fint,qui per cibum ingeftu 
^gatnecciTceft^atque etiam ne in focminis incrarento 
P^rtiumobftcnt.Sedeinm qusanimal vel intrafe , vcl foris 
P*nunt,hxcfimilcsrobuftajq; ofsiotnobtinentvircs • multo 



y enim 



\ 



I 



174 AMSTOT. DE PAR. ANTMA. 

cnim miidf a liaec fooi ljs,qu* "6 pariut animahvidelicet pro^ 

. portioncfolitxmagnitudints.nam nonnufquatn complura ex 

hoc animaiium generc crefcunt miram in modum,vt in Atncj, 

locisq; alijs calidis ft Gceis.magnis autem adtniniculo opus efl 

imiori,vai!diori,4firmiori.3tquc inter magna ijs potifsimum 

tali opu i eft aJium?nto,qu3e violentiora fnnt.qnam ob rcm ma 

res oisibus durioribus confl-ant,qiiam foeinina:.* qaa; carmuo 

ra funt,qiim qa* alio cibo vcfcunmr.ijs enim via_s pcr dimi 

cationem acqairitar vclut leonis ofla adeo dura funt, vt cx ijs 

perc.ilsis,ignisquafiexfjliccexcutiatur.delpKinus etiara nonzo 

fptnas,fei oiTa habet.viuiparum cnim eft.Sanguineis aotemno 
viuiparis n atora aliquantum dr5>cnerat,vt volucribus . quam- 
Uis enim habcat oiTa,tamen imbecilliora. Inter pifces,fpinafli, 
quioua pariunt,habent.Serpentib:isetiam nafuraofsium Ipi 
nacea eft-praeterqaam magnis.robor cnim corum validiora exi 
gitfirmameta,eademqna&vluiparis ratione.At cartilaginea 
noimne fpinam ex cartilagine habent.motum enim eorum eiie 
molliorcm neceiTe cft.itaque fukimentl genus non rigidum,led 
mollasefleoportatt.AdcIcquodterrenam omncmmatcria ad 
eorumcotcmconficicndam narara abfumpfcnt. pluribus autc io 
locisll nultantundem exupcrantia: d.fpcnfarcnstura non po- 
teft.qtioniamctiamin viuiparo gcnerc olTa cartilaginofa com 

*. . r ... ■'. . .- .1 J.._ »t~ .^.-.^«fnmoi 




Q*j 



plura habcntar-fclllcct in ijs qutbas expedit tnollc mucowmqj 

efle,quod folidum habcatur rationc camis obduax.vt auribus 
acnaribucucniireapcrrumcfl.prominentioraenim n ngwa 

- . , . . er . »r ... - — * — J...,- -Toe fr CltU 



tmm touTx propter neutrum prxctfum rccreicere potcft. Vacant meoui 
«« confiant, carriiagines terreftrium animalium difcreta. qnod emm in 
'o- mmim difcretnm conttnctur,id mixtum pcr totum facit, vt cartna;, j 
Cnnfortt&ha- resmoll.smucofacpconftitaatar.At incartiltgineogenere Ipi 
btnt a fmt, na dorfi quamuis cartilaginofa.mcduiiam habet .vicem enttn o 
&c ttem tx- fis lix: pars tenet in co genere . Pro:;imas ofs>bos eflc part 
uu fit. oftcndittaftus etiam illas,vng-irs,vngulas tom folidas,tam - >- 

fulcas.cornna.roftra auium.qux omnia prxfidij gratia aaiui 
fta funt animalibus. Quae cnim tota ex i js conftanr , noffl.» 
conforf ium tantummodo habcnt cnm fnis partibus. verbl ff ' 
tia,vngula tota,&corno totum.ad falutcm animalis ejtcog» - 
tam eft. Dentes ctiam in hoc rodcm ^cncre collocandi < unt -H 
aliis rem vnam tantum expediunt,id eft cibl cofeaionem . ai< 

non]iolum adhocvfai funt, icd etiam ad pugnandum, vtj 



7 * F 






/ 



BT £ARVM CAVSIS, L I B E R 2 T. M« 

omnibns,qaibus aur ferrati,aut cxcrtifontdenres . Terrenam 
& validam efle natorsm corom,qu« modo enumeraui , nccclfe 
cft.vis cnim armorum ca eft rquam ob rcm omnia ciafmodi ad- 
minicula quadrupcdibus viuiparis potius adiuncla funt , c-uod 
terraciora,quam gcnns humanam,ea omnja conftat. Scdde vs 
arq;fimilibu5>cateni dico^ vcficam,membranam,pilos , pennas* 
& quac ijs proportionerur,& fi qua huiufcemodi alia funr,poft> 
ca vna cum difsimilar lbus partibus confidcrandam cfr, /cilicct 
quarnam corum caufa itf,& cuiusgratia data fint animalibus. 
cxofRcijscnimcaquoquc pariter atquc ijla digno/ci ncccfte 
cft.fed qaod partcs corcm idemcum totis nomen forciumur, 
proprcrea intcr fimilarcs in hocloco enumerata fant.piincipiu , 
aatem & origo eoram omnmm os eft,& caro . rationcm criam 
geniturx&h£tispr^termifi:riU5,cum dc humidis ac fimilari- 
bas ageremus.S unt cnim hscloco dc gencrarionc coninnfl io~ 
ra,camalterum coruminitiumfit ar.imaltum generandorum: 
altcrom alimcntum,vbi inlucem prodicrinr. 



JDc dnabus partibus m qtabnjq; animanttbns tjecefu 



20 



tnenta tmittant 3 <ie q; fcnfuum m, 
O* eorumlccc incorpovt. 

Capnt 

Vncquafiaprimisftcrnmorfid:frcramuc. Jn omnf- 

jbas vira prf ditis <fc perfe£Hs,partcs maxim£ ncccfta- 

1|^^jriae duac fantralrera qua cibum capianr,altrra qua cx- 

^ crcmentnmemittant.noncmmficripotcft,vtfineci- 

vc ^ foncntur,vcl augeantur- S cirpium itaqae genu*(nam id 

qaoqaeviucrcfarcmur)Iocumfupcruacai cxcremcntt nullom 

habct.clbam cnim concoftam cx tcrra haaritrfcd vice rxcrcme 




effii 



cft media 



od 



Sedftirpiumnatura^qaoniajiiftab iiseft,nonex muhisac va- 
*ijs partibus difsimiianhus conftat : qaippc cam ad paucas a^ 
choncs paucorum inftrumentoram vfus rcqairatur. qaamob 
rcmdcftirpiumXiucplantarumforma feorfam agendnm eft. 
Q^autcm vnicum vitafcnfuetiamprzditafunrJiarc fpccic 

^lriformiorem namcrofiorcmquc varietatem recipiunt . at* 



od 



aendUcdctiambcneviucndi rationem natara eorom obti- 
nuuqualchominumgenqscft.-qqippequoclaatvnamcx om- 

wousanimalibasnobiscognitis dijjinifatis particeps fit,aot 



* t on 



■ 



1^6 aristote.de p a r. anima* 

omniam maximMf aque tam ob cam rem,tmn ctiam quod ex- 
teriorum partiumeius formanotifsimaeft,primum de homi- 
ne difTerendum cenfemus.iam enim partes ctterri nsturales ho- 
minis vniusfecundum naturamdifpofiuefunt : quandoquide 
partem fapenorem ad vniucrfi faprcmum ercftam obtinet. 
Soluscnimanimaliumhomocrcftusinccdir. Caput hominis 
macilenf um,carneque propc omni exmum efle necdTarium, 
cx ijs quce dc ccrcbro dixitrius,euenit.nccaudiendi lunt, qoi fi 
caruofumcfTcr,viuacius hominum genus futarum cenfeant. 
ied vtmeliusfentirct,carnem ademptam cxiftiment.vim enimio 
fentiendi fitam In cerebro fenfam autem pcr partes nimiu car 
nofas nequaquam admittipoflearbitrantur.ncutraenim eo* 
rumratio veraeft.Sedficercbrum ^carniscopiacircundarc- 
tar,contr?i cfFiccrct ,quam inftirutum exigeret 3 cuius gratia ad- 
ianftumcft animalibus.non enim refrigerare pofiet,cam val- 
deipfumtcperet.NecfenfasvIhus caufam cerebrum obtincf. 
quod quidem expcrs omnino fenfus non aliter ? quam quodais 
cxcrcmentum cftVcrucum intclligerecaafam, quamobrem 
ienfus nonnulliin capitchabentur,nequcant,qaodcam partc 
Ctfteris eflepcculiariorcm animaducrferint^ideo fcnfum cu ccio 
rebroconiungcndumratiocinantur.Scdenimprincipiumfcn- 

iirum cfle cordis locum d finitum iam eft,cum dcfenfa agerc- 
mus.& qaam ob cjufam duo,id eft tangendi * guftandi fcnfus 
ercordc apcrf^dcpcirdrnf.vnusex relrqnistribus, idcft olft* 
ciendi mcdiam renet duo>id cft audiendi & vidcdf maximc iti 
capitepofiti/unf,proptcr fenforinmnaturamrvifujque omni 
busincapiteeft.namnaditus,^lfa£hisq; pifcium , & rcliquoru 
generiseiafdem,cfcclarantquoddicimus. audinnt cnim atquc 
olfaciunt,com nullum fcnforiumcorum fcnfuum ipc^pitc ha 
bcant manifeftum. Vifum aute ommbus quibas eft datas,apud 30 
ccrcbrum efle optima ratioeft.ccrebrum cnim humidum acfri 
gidum eft.vifus aqux nafuram obfiret.hfcenim omnium pcr- 
lacidorumhcilimcconferuariporeft. Scnfus etiam cxquifi* 
tiorcs per partes quae fangainem habeant fynceriorem abfol- 
aincccfTecft.Sanguiniscnim calidioris agitat :o ofFiciam fcn- 
ticndr infercipir,atqacrcfringit.his de caufis fcdes eorum fcn- 
fauiH mandatac funt capif i.nec vcro pars prior tantum capitis 
carne vacaf,fcdetiampoflerior,quodomnibus capire prardi- 
tif,pjrtcm hancerc&am maximcconftarcoportet.nihil emtti 
crigi poteft prcfimn operc Ii acte accideret animali , h caput 

carnc dbrectum habcrct .quo ctiam patcr no fdco carnem decf- 

fc capi 



ET EAKVM CAVSIS, LtBER It. *77 

fc capit!>vtcerebrum icntiat.pars cnim poftcrior capitiscere- 
bro carct,<& tamcn carnis expcrs nihilominub cft. Audiru ctia 
nonnulia animalia fitum in capite iubcnt debita rarione.quod 
cnim iuanc vocatunpienum acris eft.icnforium aurcm autlie» 
di acrfs efleiatemur.vt igftur ab oculis meatus ad vcnas circa 
ccrcbrum iparias reudunt,fk ab auribus mcatus in occipuf pe- 
nerrar. vis autcm /cnticndi ncc vlli exangui data cft parti,neqj 
ianguinis propria eft.lcd cuidamex his,quae ianguine proac- 
niunt,delcgataelt,quocirca parsnuliacxanguisecru qvtx ian- 

logauicmhaixiir,ienrircporcft.necipfc ianguis fcnfu pr^ditus 
cft.quippc qui nulia pars fir animalium.Ccrcbrum vcro partc 
prioricapitiscontinent omma,quibub hocdatum cft.quoniam 
id^quoientiuntjinpartcprioncorporisiirum eft.fcnius enim 
prouenit a corde,quod parte priori comiflum cft.Scntirc ctia 
parres tunrummodopoflunt,qu^ianguincmobtincnt. occiput 
autcm venisvacuumeft.fedcsautcm fenforix probc ad hunc 
niodum a narura difpoiitx iunt. Aurcs orbe capitis xquis por- 
tionibus fccanr,tcnentq; medium.auditur cnim non modo pcr 
dircdum,verusnctiam vndiquc.Vilusparti priori mandatos 

xotft.cernitur cnim pcr diredum.Motus ctiam antc fit. profpicie 
dum aurcm eftcodem,quo motusagitur.Naresintcr oculos ra 
tioneoptimacoliocat;c funt.Geminaenim, fedes quaeqj fenfo- 
ria cft proptcr dupliccm corporis partem, fcilicct dcxtram & 
fmiftram.ied hoc in ta£u incertum cft,proptcrca quod primu 
fcnioriumnoncaro,nonparsciuimodialiqua cft,fcd aliquid 
intimum.L Jngoa ctfi obicurius,quam ocoli,tamen certius,qua 
taau^geminumguftandivcftigiumoftendit.cftenim hic eni 
fenfus quafi taftus quidamrattamcn rcs vclin co iatisconftat. 
fiffura eniin linguam diftingui peripicuum cft. At veri in cse- 

33 Kris icnticndi partibus faiium bipartttum cflc latius patct.au- 
t^ cnim gemin2e,& oculi gcmini funt. Vis criam narium bipar 
tnacft.qac fi aliter iitadiftraftaquceflet,vt aurcs,fuofungi of 
fcionon poflet,nccpars in qua pofita cft cx inftituto admir.i- 
ftf^rct.efficuur enim icnfcs olfacicndi pcr ipirarionem , in ijs 
qiu: obrinent narcs.pars autcm fpirandi mcdiom tcnct,& ant £ 
politacft.q Ui p ro p tcr narcs in mc dio triom icnfuum natura 
coiiftitui^qnafi pcr lincam fabrilera dircftas,ad reipira- 
tionis agitationcm.carreris criam animalibus,hacc 

eadem fcniuum domicilia bcnc pro lua ! 



cuiufquc natara condita 

habcnrur. 






* 3 n* 



A 



1^8 ARISTOTE. DE PAR. ANlMAt. 

JDefitn auricnlarum tn quadrupedtbus* 

Caput xi. 

aVadrupedes enim aoricalas habcntfufpefas 3 &fupra ocu 
m \o$ fitas habcre videntur. vcruntamen non ita cft,fcd co 
jpcctumarxntiuntur.quoniambeftiarnon ere&o, fed prono 
lunt corporc.Com igirurplurim;eitainccdanf,iuaat,vi &iu( 
pcnfioresfintauricotee,& crcbro moaeantur.iic cniin mclius 
Yndiq; ftrepitus circumatte excipient. 

De mtattbm auditoriis «mum. Ctput x II. 

Vesmcatustantumauditorioshabenr.qaod cnim cutisto 

earumdariorfit,necpiiisfed pennisintegantur,ideoma- 

• teriacarentcxquaauricutecreentur.quadrupcdesctiam oui- 
parae & corticatseeodcm modo fc habcnt.cadem cnim rario vcl 
illts ccnaenict.qainctiam vitulus marfnoa intcr ca quar aniinal 
pariant,non auriculas fed caucrnas tantum habct ad audicndu* 
Vtpote qut manca & Isefafit quadrapcs. 

Genw i)ominum,4kium ,& quadrupedum conteftcs palpcora 
oculosbabere,<jiHHcmodo tpforum qucdq; conntueat* 

Caput xiii. 

Enus hominam, auium, qoadrupedum , tam viuiparum 20 
qu?tm oniparum ocalos vifuscaftodtendi gratia intcguntj 
fed vari&.quaecnim animal pariam,geminamhabcnt palpcbra 
&conrJacrcvtraquefoIenr.auestam leuiores quim grauio- 
rzs,& quairupcdcs ouiparse paipcbra infcriori conniocnt. ni* 
ctentur aacs ab angalis mernbrana obeunte.cuios rci cacfa citt 
vt operimentum praffidiofitocutiseorcrn hpmidisquiideo M 
midifunt,vtccrnereacutiaspcf int.namfi duri eflent, totius 
quidem conftarcnr contra ca,qaas cxt rinfecas occurfarent,atq> 
incidcrcntf-dccrnereacur^nonpoficnt.itaqae cius rci caaia 
catis practenuis pupillae obtenditur. At vcro jalutis grafia pal J# 





frcqucurius,quoniam cutcm tcnaifsimam habet,palpcbra autt 



cuteconftat.vndefir,neautpalpehra,aut prreputium vulncrc 
d/dufium coalciccre pofsiriunt enim cutcs finc carncQa? aa- 
tem intcr aues palpcbra infcriori coniucnt,&quadrupcdcs our- 
parx prx dnritia caris capur ambt cnt is,if a con niuenr. v olucn- 
boscmmgrauforibus c\ncd ncqueant volitare, increrr.entum 
ennaram adcutiscraflhmcnram conucrtitorrradcir quepalp 

rainferioxi conniucn: . Columbaz autcm & fimilia vtraq u ~* 

Qtudrt 




Qil_ a 



ET EARVM CAVSIS, L I B. II. 2? g 



itaque cutis qaoqs ccram cz tcris cutibus durior eft.Cutis isil 
tur capitis eoru prsrdura eft,:deoquc palpcbra iriile haberc re^ 
queur.infcrior carnofaeft,vriatis ter.uitatis tonfi Onisquc ha- 
beat.NiSatur volucres graoiorcs non paipcbra, <cd n.ebrana. 
qaod paipcbra- motus lcnt:cr cft,com cclcritatc fn opiw.qc3m 
membranapraricarcpotcir.iiccnifi abanguionarihus proxi- 
iuoniciantur,quodeoru nararam cx vnopr;nc»pio prouenire 
mclius fit. Pnncipiu aute in ijs cft j: ars naribus aciharc rs pars 
lo ctia priorprincipium porius qua iatcscft. sr vtro quadrupe- 
aesquxouapariunt.roneodcniaantur ir,odo:quonl»m ron 
jubricum exquifitumcj; viium cas habcrc r.ccri]ceft,cmn tei se 
itrcsfint.volucnbus certc ncctiTaricintft. ijscnim vlui cernc 
diex longincuoeft.vnde iit vt qua: vnguibusiuntadui.us, cla 
nismu-ccmant.cibas enim de iubJimi tcnipiciendns ijs cft . & 
quidem voJarc in excdfom < mmti maximcaniu gcr.ui ic\ obea 
rcm afloJet. Tcrreftrcs autcm parumq; volatilci; aocs,vt gaJli- 
n-icei & hmilc$,no acic oculorum valcnr.nclla enim Viclus rc- 

«iiitatc cogontur.Pi(ccs,infcc:ia;dcruftara,quauis diocr/bslia 
2obeant oculos,tamcnnuJIum ex ijs palpcbram habet qu* cnim 

crufta:nteguntnr,vfucareanti'alpebr.Tnecc2Tccft,cfi mii cc- 
Ieri cutis officic prarftari no poisit.fed tamen vice efus tutda-, 
ouritie oculoru ha-c cmnia muniur.tnr, quali pcr palpebra ob- 
uuclaquandatransiucida cernanr.fed cnm cbeam duritiahe- 

«ius contucri nccefic (it.mcucri ocnlos fnfcclornm naiuravo 

1 »atqj magij cruftatorum,vt nounuliornm quadrupedum au 

" c oIas,ic:licct ea caufa,v t clarius ccmeicr.t,tu ic ad iucc ccuer 

Srtr,a,< j5 «cipcrcnt Jpltdorerifciom oculi lubrici iunt. vfus 

rum cerncndi ex longinqoo ncceiTarius i/s cft.qua' logius mo- 
ocantur terTeftribusiraq;aertrar/picifaciepotcit.at pijci- 

^c)uonia aqoa vt adcernendc acutius aducrfamr.f c ad inter 
P^iandum viium non mulra ofTcnfacula afferrmcdo acris id- 

ocu! ln ' CC k PalpC ' Jrani k****' ninii cni,n *"'.ftra na ™ra seit. * 
'isiubncis iunr proptcr circuniuii uumoris crafK-menjum, 

•nJ^* a J"' :m -:ha cthum Lthtant,(] txutecjem tartt I :dt<$ 

**»4* t Cr tt.lis quorHKiLm awm*hum,€r kemtmt 

txftllc. C api*t Xilii. 

^JIIiumhabentpalpcbrfs adtanfiom omnia, qua-obtinent 

nabc- ° f * ai \ Cf '* ^ X cortice inregutur,carct,vt oux pilos no 
*«t. oc Uruthionc A fricx, cauiam qua ob u cihii fcbta* 

4. poftea 






aSo ARISTOT. DE PAR. ANIMALI/M 

poftea reddemus & intcr ca qua: pilos habent, hemo vnm ci- 
lium in vtraquc palpcbra obtinct, quadrupedum cnim gcncri 
pilinonpartcfupina^fedprona potius habentur.homocon- 
tra,partc magisfupina quam prona.pili cnim opcrimcnti gra 
tia adiunfti funt animalibus.itaquc quadrupedibus proaa po- 
tius c^ent tegumcnto.priora autcm qaaquamnobiiiora v funf, 
tameupcrcorporis totiusflexumfouenturactepent. Athomi 
m,quoniam prior pars compar poftcrion eft, proptcr corpo- 
ris cre&ionem,?dcirco naturaparti nobiliori adiumenfum ccn 
luit adhibcndum , fcmpcrcnim naturareimclioris autor c eft,K> 
quoad eiusfieri.potcft. quamobrcm quadrupcs nolla eft,qao: 
pilos vel in palpcbra infcriorihabcat,quanquam nonnull* ha 
bent pilos quofdam fub ea nafcentcs 3 vel in a!is,vcl in pube,vt 
homo. Sed vicc corum ali js prona totius corporis hirfuta ha 
bentur, vt canibus.alijs crifta adiun&a cft,vt equis,caetcrisqae 
£cnem ciufdem.alijs iuba,vt lconi mari . Qoineriam caudas 
prolixiorcs pilis natura ornauit.alias longis,quibus tcnor brc 
uis,vt cquisalias brcuibus,quibus tenor longus,vt bubos,atq; 
ctiam pro reliqui corporis natura.vbiqueenimnatura quod 
aliundc dcmpfcrit,rcddcre ad partem aliam folet. Iam quibos^ 
corpus admodum pilofum condtdcrat, caudam ijs diminuit: 
quod tn vrfis pcrfpicuum cft. Hoino animaliam maxime-om- 
mnium pilofocaoitccft.cuiusreicaafa, tumad nece 11 itatem* 
tum ad prsfidi j rationem rcfcrenda eft.nccefl adam cnim pro 
pter ccrcbri hamiditatcm & commifluras caluaenam vbrptu- 
rimum humoriscaIorisquecft,ibfdcm ortum pilorum efle co- 
piofum ncccflc cft. Adiumcnti autcm ratio, vtfrcqucntiapili 
caput opcrien v defcndat <t nimio'frigore & calore. Cum cnim 
ccfcbrum hominis proportionc maximum Sc humidifsimam 
iit maximam ctiam futclamdcftderar. rcs nanquc humidiisf-jo 
ma quarquc,* rcferuefccre & rcfrigcfccrc maximc idonca cft. 
qu.r autcm contra fc habct,hxc minus affici potcft . fcd nos vt 
huc digrcdcrcmur,fccitrcicognatio,cumrationcm cihorum 
reddcremas.itaquc dc rcliquis mentioncm fuo loco & temporc 
facicmus. 

ouasth caufas fuperctUa y O' ctlla inanimaUha 
naturaconlhtmt. C*pnt x v» 

Vpcrcilia vcro Srcilia adiamenrigratiahabentnr.foperci- 

liaenim vf delabcntcs humorcs arceant, velut imbricamen- 

lum,fiac grunda humoribusa quicapitccmancnt paratum- o- 







♦ 



IT EAKVM CAVSXSy i I B. I. 2fil 

liavtcontraincidenfiainoculos,quafi vallumquoddam pro- 
mineant fupercilia in compage ofsium pofita funt,quaproptcr 
compluribus fenefccntibas adco crc/cunr, vt tondendum fit. 
Cilia vcnularum clanfiilis fummis innituntur . nam vbi cutis 
finitur, ibidem venulx ctiam dcfinunt . itaque propter va- 
porcm qui inde crafsiufculus prodcat , pilos ijs locis* ena- 



pcdiar. 



<*> 



io 



ouomcdo inhominibpc. 

aarcs & Ubrafi 



«f> 




caput xvx. 
Enforium vero olfacicndi non longc qnodammodo 
eu$riatca?teris qaadrupedibus viuiparis. quibus cm 
maxilla: oblonga^ cxeunt in acutum, ijs narcs in ri- 
&u appcllato continentur modo,qao fieri poteft. cx 
fcris explanatius ad maxillas conftant, At elephantus peculia- 
tcm hanc parrcm prse cxtcris fortitus cft animalibus. nam & 
roagnitudinc & viribus habct peculiarcm.naris cft cnim , qua 
2 ccibum tam ficcum,quam humidum illc capiaf,oriqacpcrindc 
ac manu admoucat,arborcs ctiam eadcm complc&endo cucllif . 
dcniqoe ca non alio vtitur modo,nifi vt mamf. Eft cnim hoc 
animal l ua natura fimul terrcftre,& paluftre , itaquc cum cibu 



pcterc exhumorcdcbcret,& tamcn fpirarcnccefle habcret, vt 

rcrrcftrc&compos fanguinis.nec pofler prx nimia magnitudi 

n ccclcritcrdifcederccxhumoreadaercm,modononnullorum 

S u * & animal pariunt,& fangnincm habent & fpirant, idcirco 

y * paritcr humorc atqoc f crra vti pofTct, neceflc fuif . Qualc 

^tur vrinatorum nonnulli inftrumcntum fibi accipiunt, quo 

jaquandiu in profundo mancnt, aercm extrinfecus trahant, talc 

narara clcphan ti dcdit narcm illam prarlongam.quamobrcm fi 

S^ndoiter pcraquamfaciunt,nareemcrfa refpirant.nam, vt 

^ododixi,promurcis pronarcelcphantibus cft . & cumfieri 

j 10 " F°^it,vt naris ad ciufmodi v/um accommodctur, nifi mol 

u hr,aptaque ad fleaendom.impedimento cnim pr* fua lon- 

^adincclT'-r,adcibmnc3picndum.qaomodo aiunt dccoroi- 

boumiliorum,quirccefla pafccrc folcnt fua natura. nam 

°s quod progrcdi dcmiflb in tcrram capitc ncqucant, rcccdc 

** aacrium pafcifolitos aianr . cum itaquc naris ciufmodi 

^'^tafitnarnra^quxracmbris eiuidcm aburi ad plura ofFu 

* lolct,eandcm in vium trahirpcdumpriorum.hoscnimvi- 



%t% 



ARISTOTE. T> l P A H. ANIMALIVAIj 



cemanuamhabct genus qaadrupedam digitatum, non iclum 
pondcris cauia iuftincndi.Elcphantcs aatcm non bifulcor* non 
folidos pedes habent, fed digitatos. ftdqucniam corporisma- 
gnitudo vafta,pondusq5 ingcns cft,idco luftincndi tantummo 
dogratiapedcshabcntpriores, necad vllum alhzmviumvli- 
lcs proptcr tarditatem flcftcndi,3tqueincptiam.Narcm ignur 
clcphantus habct vt fpiret, quomcdo & ca:tcra animaiia qui- 
bus pulmo.candemque praelongam, atque in anfraftum fiexi- 
bilem,proptcr moram in humorc diutarnam,& ictai dum inde 
difccilum.Cumquc vf us pcdum priorum defuerit, ca, vt diitu i* 
cft,parte abutitar natura ad iupplcndum miniftcnum , quod 
pcdespr*ftarent.At aucs&icrpcntes,* quscunque cx qua* 
drupcdibus languinis compotcs ouiparae (unt, foramina qnide 
nanamanteoshabcnt,fcd noniracxplanata,vtnarcs appclla 



aucm 






Qupd 



lishabent quodroitrum vocamr.huius autcm rcicaufa cft na- 
tora auium,qua: ad hunc modum conftat.& bipcs cr.im & volu 
criseft itaqueleuc pondustum capitis, tum eriamceroicum 
fuftincrc ncceflecft , vt peftasctiam ar£um habcrcdcbuit. 10 
Roftrum igitur oflcum habcnt,vt ccmmodc & cibum capiant, 
& ad pugnam armentur. Arftum hoc cft proptcr capitis exi- 
guitarcm.cumquc mcatus olfacicndi iuo roftrocontfneant,na 
rcs habcre non poffunt. De cartcris animaiibus qux non fpj- 
rant,di£tamantcaeft,quamobcaulamnaribas carcnt.& w* 
branc ? aij$,aliafiftula,alia praxin£u,vt inieaa,odorc fcntmtf 
& omnianatiuofpiritu fui corporis quafi moucntur.qui fpiri- 
tus in omnibus ex natarainhtus eft.ncn aduentitius dctcris ac- 
ccdit.Naribus labrorum natara fubiacet i js, qur fimul d dctcs 
habcnt&fanguincm. Auibus enim, vtdiftumcft,cibiarnia-J^ 
mentiqaegratiaroftrcm oftcum habctur.Coaftum cnim pro 
dcntibas^inidcm pcrindc qnaiidctradlis hominis labris ia- 
pcriorcs infe.iorcsqaedcntes ieorfum coEfnndcns,Iongiicu- 
nemvtnnqacanguftainproduxrrjs.iamcnim iftud rcitrnm 
aaium fuerit.fed cartcris animahbus tebrorcm natura adialu- 
fem,tutelamquedentlam adiunfta cft.-quam ob rcm, vt qux- 
cjue cxquifitc bcnequc dcnr :bos prafdita tent ? fic cam quoqEC 
obtinent partcm.hoir.ini autcm nHiIl!a,carnc!a,ft qi» fcp** 
ri poflcnr,iabra adiunfta funt,tum dcntium tuendorcin grtt» 
Vtcartcris,tum etiam potiori c~ute,vt bcneefiet.nani sd vfoiH 
fermonis ca qoaque prcficiunt. Etcxum vt linguam non bm* 



♦ 



1T EARTM CAV31S L I B. II. 2$$ 

lerr. atque alijs animalibus natura homtei dedit, fed idonczTn f 
quaadduplicem aftionem vterctur(qcod cam in multis face- 
rcdiximus nam&ad pcrcipicndos iaporcs, <$_ ad formandum 
fermonemjficlabra tam iermonis, quim rute]_£ dcntium gra- 
tia adhibuir.Sermo enim qui vocc promarar, ex lfteris coftar. 
q3 fi lingua talis,* labra hamida atq,- agilia no eflen t>maxima 
literarum pars exprimi non pofiet. quippc cum litcrse partim 
li»guaproducantur,partimlabris comprimantur. Sed qcas & 
quot numero difFcrentias h#c habear,ex eruditis mctrica rai io 
«o nc accipiendum cfthas autcm partes iliconcccflcfuit acccderc 
idoncas,<S: natara eiufmodi pra_ditas sid vfum iamdidum.ita- 



homi 



tactas . 



alium 



Jitu o* uarietate in qn\ 

Capnt x v I I. 



Llngna in ore pa 
modofimili 5 c_cteris difsimih, tum eorundem ipforom, tii 
tcrrcftnum comparationq. Homo igirur iinguam abfolaram, 
2 °moIliiiimam & latam przcipub habet>vt commoda ^d vtrunq; 
officium fit:hoc cft,& ad fapores percipicndos,& ad iitcras cx- 
pnmendas. eft enim homo omniimi maxime animalium iciiiu 
f*cilts,tS: lingua qugmoilis cft.vim tangendi prfcipucobtinet. 
|«ftoi autcm taftus quidameft. adiiterarum ctiam cxplana- 
tionem,<S_ ad fermoois exprefsionem,lingua mollis, lata,& ab- 

f_r\l ia* n .__. I . _fl_ — t i I • 



produc 
hoQ 



r __ • 



dcfcau 



quod 



joitia cft.quipp e c £j am pj a an gufta c5tincat,angufta ampla non 
capiat.paruum cnim in magnocon:inetur,magmi mparuoha 
ocri non potcft. quam ob rem aucs quae litcras proferrc maxi- 
mc pofrant,!ingDa iunt Jatiore,quam c_etcr_r. Qusdrupcdcs au 
tan quae Sc fanguinem habcnt,c&animal pariunt, vocem paru 
^planarc poi_iint:vrqoac ]ing!iamduram,craflim,& mini- 
^cabfoiatam habcant.at fkrxqacauiumvocem copiofeemit 
^nt.* quamuis latiorcm habe__nt,qu* vnguibus lont aduncis, 
roen minorcs Vt xahcresiur.t.^cdmncslingua v.untur etiam 
a JQifenius mutuam interpicr.itioncm;Jcdaliar alijsamplius, 
Wtinonoliis vcl viusdoccdimutoifseflevidcatcr. icddeijsdi 
IX1! ^Jsiat!s P cu hiftor/asauimaliomicnbcrcmm- Tcrrcftriu 

a&ton 



w 





a g4 AMSTOTE. DE P A R. ANlM- 

aatem oaiparorum fanguincorti pars rnaior linguam habet ina 
tilem ad vocis 6iFiciu,&adhi:renic&duramquanquaadrapo- 

rum guftauiferpetes & laccrti Iongahabef,& bifida atq; it^ \o 
gam ierpentes, vt ex paruo logc protrahi pofstt:bifida & parte 
extremacapillameti tenuitatc eit,propter iux natura: cupcdia. 
duplex cnim voluprasijs capitur,quafi duplice fcnfum guftadi 
habcat. O mnia tam fanguinea qua exanguia habct ca partctr>, 
qa&faporesientirepoteft.na&qux mulrkudini vidtturcarc 
rc ca p*rte,vt pikes nonulli,ea quoq; parciori quoda obtincnt 
rcodo,& feri fimili, vt fluuiatilcs crocodili.Sed hoc Jatct jn plo"> 
rimiscaula quada iufta.locuscnsm oris omniu id genus ipino- 
fas eft.& quonia aquatilcgcnus brcui tcmpore icntit fapores, 
hinc fit,vt pro fui vfus breuitate lingua param difcreta habeaf. 
Raptim cnim fammaqjcelerirare cibus ad ventrem ingcritor, 
qaod immorari faporibus pcrfruedis ncqueachumorc inrer Ja 
bente.itaq;nifi osincliiiaueris ? cerni parshxc difcreranopore 
rit . horret hiclocus fpmis , quippc quiex frcquenti conra&n 
conftitatus Cit brancbiarum,quaram natura fpinofa eft. Cro- 
codiiisnonnihilcaufoadeiuspartis vitiatione affcrr etia »m- 
mobilirasmaxillxinfenoris.Iinguaem inferiori annecfar ina- 
xill«,quailli quaficontri habeiit fuperiore,c#teris enim iupe 
rior immobilis cft . Itaq; vt ad fupcriore non habt t,quod obi 
aditus f ollitur,fic ad inferiore carentrquod fupcrior quafi traf- 
lata ia locu inferioris eft. Accedit ad hxc genus vitacqua xnore 
ptfciu agir,cu;n tame ipfe terrcftre (it . Itaqj vcl ob ea re incx- 
planata hancpartcm habcat neccfleeft.Palatu pi/cium ctiaco- 
plares carnofam habct,& qaidcm,intcr fluuiatilcs nonnulli ad 
modamcarnofumj&moUcvtcyprini noininc,ad:o irtfip*?* 
diligenrcr aduertas,lingua id cilc videatar. Pifccs igitar ob ea^ 
qaadixmiuscaufam,& fi ]ingaanocarent,tamen cxplanatam 
nonhahet.Sed cu cibi gratia fenius iaporis adhibitus fif ***S* 
sioa quauis partc iua lingua obtincat,(cdextrcma potiisirc a | n J 
idco pifcibus part icula hxc t antumodo difcreta habetur - c&u 
aute quaquam ammaha omnia cupiunt , vt quae voloptatc cx 
cibo fentiat^cupiditas ento rei iuauis eft)tamen mebrum qu*j 
ad fenticndum accomodatum efhnon omnibus fimilcdatuc . 

fcd alijs abfolatu,ahjs adhxren s, vklelicct i js quibus vocis dc- 
fuitvlu^&ali)sdurum,?iiijsmo!lecarno!uirc75.nam&cruit3- 

tis, vt locaftis marinis>& reliqats gcncris ciufdc tale quid fa ™ c 
habetur:atq5etiamn)oilibus,vticpijs,vtpclypis. InlcQoru™ 
aliamcbrumhocintus contincnt,vtformica: . quemadmoda* 

mui 



IT EUVM CAVSI*, ITBER I I I. ijj 

mulra cria ex teftatis.alia foris gcriti velut aculeom fungofum 
&caoum,vt eo fimul & guft.irc,& eibom trahere pof&intpatet 
in hoc ir,ufcarum genere,# apum,& omnium generis eiufdem, 
atq;etfa in nonrullis teftaris.purpuris cnim ranraobrinet vim 
hoc membrum, vttefla* conchyliorum franfi^ere valear,velut 
torbinum,quorum efca capiuntur.necnon a/ili,<Sr tabanieode 
ipcftant.quorum alreri Iingna adaflacnrem hoirinum fecar,sl 
teri tergora eriam brftiaril elacerant hisigitur animalibus lin- 
gua talis natora rributa eft,quafi refpondens * obuerfaria nar£ 
ioclephantorum.Narisenim illis adiumento eft,& lingua his pro 
aculeo habcrur. Cxtcris animahbus omnibus lingua talis,qua- 
fem iam e*pofuimus data eft. 



ARISTOTELIS DE 



PARTIBVS ANIMA- 

LIVM, ETEARVMCAV- 

SIS, LIBER III. INTER- 
1'RETETHEODO- 

R O G A Z A. 

&* ordme &> conflitnticnc J.ent'iHm,oris £rfac*ei yeorun- 
"emc^inommbns animantibns dtHCiJttatc. Cap. !• 

k o x i m E ab I ]s natura dentiu eft , & oris. 

| quodicriedentiucotinerur,<Src6ftat. Scdcu 

dentiu natura comoni quide ofFicio ad cibu 

| coficiendil adiun&afmramc generarim feor- 

fum alijs roboris gratia , tum ^d innadcndu, 

tumetiaaddefendendu,alijsauxiljj tantum 

£^=hs«HHSJ caufa dataeft . partimenim ea vtraquecau- 

aocres obtincnt,vr nec ab ali ]$ afficiatur,& ipfa africiant alia, 

qu* cx feris natura carniuora funtrpartim ea cauf a tamu,ne 

ficabalijs afFia*atur,vtcoplura tum fylueftrisgeneris , tum 

cft r . n '- nonnnBte dl>i conficiendi caufa tantum adhibita 

fto/k tlDm opCra ^ 0mo ver ^ * d vfnm communem probefa- 

lare< 1 "^ dcntCS:Vidclicet P rlmorcs acQtos vrfecent,maxil- 
ap s :? tosvt molant^ifcriminantcos vtrofqucij, qui canini 

rirL 3ntDr ; mcc ' ta inrcr eos natura condirinam & med?u par- 

funt, 




P^rtimT 1 qU ^ CXtrCmifft - Et caninii P r * parrfm -acutlfuf 
ni lati quod idcm in cxteris quoq; animahbus eft,quib 



ULS 



non 



V 



I 



X 



lJ6 l ARISTOT. DBPAR. ANIM. 

non omncs acuti habentsr.fcd potifsimum loeotionis gratia ta 
lcs,tbtc];nomcrodctc$homofortituscft.adlitcrascnimcxpri- 

mcndas plurimnm confcrnnt primidentes.Nonulla animalia, 
qaod di&am iam cft.cibi tantum conficicndi gratiadcntcs obli 
ncnt.Qnibas autem fimulA auxilio funt,& robori dcntcs,ha:c 
aut excrtos habcnt,vtfus:aut acutos pe&inatim fc/c ftipantes, 
vndc fcrratis ca dcntibus cffe diximus.Cum cnim vires eorum 
acumini dcntium commiffse fint,reae qui vtilcs fmt,ad feroci- 
tatcm pcfbnarim cocunt,nc occurfa contrario attcrratur &he 
betefcant.fcd nulli fimol & fcr rati,& excrti funt dentes qnonia ™ 
.natura nihilfruftra,nihilfupcruacanei facerc folct .auxilinm 
alijsperi&um,alijs per morfumrnam fues faemimc mordet,vt 
qux carent dcntc cxcrto cxtcrum aJiqoid accepiffe in vniucr- 
fum coniienit,quod vtilc fit,tum ad haec ipfa,tum etiam ad mul 
ta,qosepofteadicemus.parte$cnim qu^ad inuadedum,aut aa 
dcfcndcncum fpcftant,qa£q$ 4 natura iis tribucntcr , qox act 
fola,aut prarcartcris vti pof int.3: quibus xis vtcndi pr.xcipoa 
kec prttdpuc* ai m»s dorata funt,vt 3caleo,cakarf,cornu,dcn- 
te,# fi qcidciufmodialiud fit.cum^smaresrobaftiorcs.magk- 
c; animofi finr,ideo aut folis ijs.aut mclius ijs partcs ctafmodi 20 
datac funt.quas cm in fa»min is quoqj habcri ncccfic cft,vt qa* 
cibo aceotmnodcntur,cas habcnt quidem & fowninaMcd mincs 
qaamarc; quxactcm adrcm nullam neccffafiam Ip«ctenM|S 
carem.qmproptcr in ccruorum genere cu maribuscornua iin 
fxminisdcfunt.Vaccarum etiamcornua& tauroru intcr fro^ 
ant.nuodidc in pccorcctia ccrnimus.calcar etia cumares W 
ant,fcr:rinxm5gnaexpartcnon habcnt.pari mododeren- 
,quisquoq;ciufmodipirtibosintclligcndum cft. Pifcesotn*» 
fcrratis dcntibus funt, vno cxccpro,qui fcarus vocatur . c °?q , q 
jrcs ctia ccntcs in ltogua hacent,& in palato.cuios rci caufa elti i 
quod cum merfi in aqua degant ,humorcm cum cibo adinitiac, 
cumq; cxpuant <]uamprimam neccfie cft.non enim JnjBQk 
commorari pofTanr?qaando humor in vcntrem intcrr pi* • !( 
circo «nncs acoti,& frcqnctcs viidiq; funt,videlxct vt P r ? 1T1U 
tirudinc in minutafccent,qus attritu fubigcrcnequcant.Ada" 
ci prscrerca funt , quoniam robur fcr t totum pifcium in dcnfi- 
busfifumcft.Naturactiamoris,tum eorum qox modo dixi^t 

fidorum caufa,tum ctiaad fpirandum adiunfla animaliboscit. 

fcilicftijs qu*fpirar.t,atqucexfrmfecus rcfrigcrantor,natur 
cnim ipfi pcr ftwt cJixlmas,partibas omnium commanibus * 
plci a ouc officia prop ria abutUur . proindc oris quoq; <*^ 




onifli 



il 



BT !ARVM CAVSIS, LlBh III. . 287 



*i! 



culiareeftrfcrmoalioru.lpirandi er a vfns noncomunis omnU 
bas cil.Ar vcro narura i)^comniacodc c6iecir,adhibitadifTere* 
tia cios partis pro aftionis difcrimine.funt enim alia orecoprcf 
fi3ri,alia aropliori.q-.iibuscnim cibi coiicfenui,* fpiradi,& Jo- 
qucndi gra tia os dartl cft,ijs coprcfsins cft , quibus tuxili) gra- 
tia.jjs fidentibus fiintrerratis,rcfcifTam.Cii enxm rora eorom 
vis in mordendo iit,hiatu oris amplioi e efle neccfTe eft.eo naq; 
pluribus,* plenius morfum inngenf, quo amplius rcfciiTom os 
i- fit.Pifciu ctia mordacibus & carniuoris ralc os cft.non carniuo- 
ris in arflu fe colligit.tale enim os vtilc ijs eft,iJlud inutile. Aui 
busos^quod roftru vocaturrhocenim prolabris* dcntibusha 
bct,fcd varic pro viu & auxilio.qiwe em ^ducis vnguibus funr* 
quoniam carne viuunt,& nullo fruclu vefcantur,roftru omnia 
habcnt «jducum.Talecn im tum ad rctinendu,tum vero ad vim 
infereda commodins atq; apnus eft. vis autem in hoc, & in vn- 
guibui iita eft.vndefif,vt vngucsetia babeant adunciores.Car- 
tcrarom aaium roftrii vtile ad vl&nm cuiufq; cft.vcrbi graria, 
rooorifcci gcncris & coruini,robuftu atq; prajdurum osVft:mi 
nuti gcncris lanru ad tcrrae fruftus coilfgendos , <Sr ad beftiolas 
capicndas idoneu.Q^e aute herbis vtuur,quxq$ apad paludcs 
viftitar,v: nantes,& palmipcdes , partim alio quodamodoro- 
ftri commoditatem obtincnt,partim latitudinc roftri fibi foflFl» 
cmnt quippc qug roftro eiufmodi infodere pofsint,qualc inter 

qaadrupcdcsetiamfuiseft.nais quoq; radicumappet*ns cft. 
OnIn«i5 *-_!_- t-_*_l .n^ ...... t cfiranf)& rel f- M 



Qui 



is,nonnu!la:ferracuroftriextremumhabet.ira 



caeterat 



J0 ?P irxs P art «omncsfere expofuimus,profopum autem,ideft 
tacies,cpod intcr caput & collum hominis eft,nomcn h re ipfa 
^ccpiiicvideriir^quodcnimvniisanimaliu homo ercftuscft, 
Ms profpicir antcuerfus,voccmq;anfcuerfus mittir. 

E>* cern»Hmconfittutioncy& qux animaUa. habunf 

cor»ua y qti£ ttcmiis tarcfint, 

Caput 1 u 



rr 




j Ecorn&os diflcrcnttom eft . harcenim capiti innl- 



tontar,quocunquein gencrccflepoflunt. carcntijs 
otnniaqti^nonviaipara fmt-cornua vd alijsqui- 

buidam inclTc dicir.ius, fed pcr fimilitudine & tranf- 

totio 






^Jg ARISTOT. DE TAR.. ANIM. 

latlonem.cam nallam cx is cornu officlo fungator.gerutemm 

oax animal pariant cornua ad vim aut inferendarmaut depel- 

lcndam:quod nulli c* cactcr.s qu* cornoa habere dicuntur con 
t ineit.nutlumcnimvriturcornibas,veladconuinccndum, X c 

ad dcfcndedum.qux virium funt officia.a°*'g; tor H""* 1 
tifidoshabcnt,cornuomniacarent.cu;us rcicaafa cft,qaodcor 

nuauxdtigratiahabetar.mullifidisaatemnon defunt aliaan- 
xaiaJcditenimnaturaalijsvngae^alijsdetespagnaccs^.is 

partcm aliam,qua fcfe toeri atq;defendcre poffcnf. At vero br- 
fulcorum pars mafor cornaa gerif.A lolipedu nonnulla ad v.m.o 
inferendam:quxdametiam ad dcfcndcndom . qaibusaotccor- 
nua naturanon dedit,eorum faluti praefidijs confaluit al.js , vt 
pcrnidtate corporis cqais opifalata cftSmagnitudine camel.s. 
rnaenitudinisexuperantiafofficitad nccem arcendan.,quodca 
mclis contlngit:atq;ctiammelius elephantis.Qnardactudcn 
te e .ertoarmanfur in gencre bifulco,vt fues.Qnjbus autccor- 
nua prxnlmioexceflu fuperuacaa funr,ijs alterum auxil.u na- 
tur.iadhibuif,vtceroisvelocitatem.grandinisenimilla*»' u 
tifidacornuammagnitudopotiusobrft qnam prodeu\buMi>s ^ 
etiam capreisq; interdum cornua inutiliafant.nam ctfi contra 
nonnalla refi ftunt,& corn ibos fe defendant,tamcn fcr oces pu - 
gnaccsc; beiluas fagiunt Bonafis(nam ijs qooq; p«i adonc '" 
te cornua reflcxa inter fe orbcm colligant)excremcnti protuiio 
nem natura pro auxiliodedit.hoc enim,com mctuunMctoctu^ 
haceadcm proftfionealia quoq; feruaricerfumeft.plura »*« 
aaxiHa fimal quorum fingula fatis eflcnt , nolli natura tnbo-f . 
cornigerorum pars maximabifulcacft.fedfolipes etiamtradi- 
tur in eo gencrcquem afinam Indicti vocant.maxima an j™ a " 
' Ilom pars.vtcorpus dextrofimftroq; quibas fe mouent,diltin ^ 
gaitar.fic etiam cornua bina eadem illa de caufa geri natnr* m 
gcnio Scd iunt etiam qa* corna fingalari armenrur, vt or\Tt, 
&qccmafinam Indicam appellaridiximas.oryx bifnlcu,an- 
nus illcfolipcseft.geruntfani- mediofni capiriscornu nxu.ne 
qox vnum habenf.ficenim mwlme pars vtraq; cornu obt.n - 
bif,cummcdiamcommuneparitcrvtria; extremofit • ,oM P" 
potias quim bifukomefle vnicorne rcc~tc videri P° tctt - vn ^\ 
U emm tam folida qoam bifulca candem naturam habct ^ ' 
cornuiraq; eifdem fimul& vngalam findi,«*cornu congrau 
cft .fifsio etiam vngalar,& corna cx defe^a naturx eaen.t. I r 



* 



goLrfolipcc? 1 



m» 



IT £ARVM CAVSIS, IIBEH 1 1 1 • 2S9 

iMndauir.nec,vr Acfopi Momus viriodar,quodrauros non tn 
arm is cornua gerar, ynde fcrlrc vchcmcnrius pofsir , M cap/rc 
p-me corporis imbecillima.no cnim ingcnio pcripicaci iHe Mo 
mus hxcdcprehendit.vt enim fi in alia quauis parrc cornua ha 
bereturjfruftra ponderi eflent,nolla in rc vtilia,multa etia offi 
cia impcdircnr-fjc armis qaoq; infixafedem omnino inepta fc 
ncrcnr.non folum cnim vndc lchis fianr vehemcnriorcs confidc 
randam cft,fcd eriam vnde rcmotiores.itaq; cum carcanr mrmi 
bas^ftncc pcdibasimis affixa gcrercpofsint,ncq;gcnibm(fic- 
lo xasenimimpediretur)capitegerantncceflc cft,qacmadir.odu 
i natara conftirurum eft.quinctiam ad ca?f?ras corpons mor io 
ncs,iramaxim&geri fine vlloimpcdimcnto poflunt.Ceruisdu 
taxatcornua totafolida,* decidua rum vtilifntJscau<a,vtone 
rc kuenrar,rum cx ncccfsitatc pra» podcrccxrcris aliquarcnos 

caua4:mocroncdcmumcocrcrafunt,quoniamadiftoshoc fit 
commodius.fed nepars cauadebilis fit,qoacutianncftitar,foli 
oom quiddam r.fsibas cxorrum ingrcdirur ca impletc^totaSic 
cnimfitacopa£laq^cS:ad vim infercndacomodifsima,* adrclf 
qaarvitxmuncrain offenfifsimahabent Scd cuiufnagratia na 
loraracornuum fir,<8r qua obcanfam?lij:d3fa.alijsnegarafit,ex 
ofirum cft.Nunc quemadmodu natura lc habere ncccflfaria rc 
usfubteftis neccflfario naruraratiocinaria alicoios gratia abo- 
fatarjdiflcrcndumcft.rrimoigirorplus corpulcnti terrenici 

ln animiliknr «-«J: il - /1 ;— ^__rf m.-± 11*. -J ^ 




"4n 



habem 



minimu caprca cft .natura vcro contcplada refpcthi plariu cft. 



omm 






ra narurafir.Os aure omnc,& quicqurd fpecic gcrir ofsis,ter 
rcnum eft qua ob re plu -imum \A cfle prope dixerim in maxi«* 
|Omis,partis inaioris conreplarione.Corporis igirur ciufmodi cx 
cremeti exuperatia in maioribus habita animalibns ,natura ad 
*™»u,&reabutitarcommoda. itaqjquarum excrcmeti cius 
*J locum fapcriore effcratur.alijs in denrcs , vcl continuos vcl 

pcrrosdiftribuir,alijsincornaa.qoaobre cornigcrorum nol- 
™n vtrinq;d;ntarom cft fupcrnc cnim primorcs dctes non ha 
bcnt.quippecum natura hincadimcdoaddiderif cornibas,* ali 
I^JJm qaod in cos dcnres digcratur,in cornupm incremetom 
*Wmitar car ccrux cornibus carcat,cqm dcntcsfimilifcr ha- 
^nr,arq ; marcs,caufa cft,qaod cadc fcxus vrriufq* narura , Sc 
r^^cracft.fcdfneminis adcprafunr corni»a,quonianc mari- 

»osquidcvtiliafint:fcd vuiu mciioru bcncficio,marcsminw 

£ offcn 



/ 



1*0 ' ARISTOT. DE PA&- ANIM. 



i 




offenduntar.Csteris animalibus,quibus h*c materia no u cor- 
«na feccdit:aut dcntiutn ipforum magn.mdincm comraum om- 
n<u incrcmcnto natura auxit , aot dentes c:>crtos veluticornua 

^maxillisproduxit.Scddepartibuscapitishaaenus. # 

De ccllo,gula,& arteria,& earum cftir.o m cot . 

poreanimantium. Crfut III- x 

Ollu capiti fubiacet ijs.quz id habent animalibus^non cm 
omnia habcnt,fcdea tantom,qaibns funt partes ill*,qua- 
xum zratiacollumccnditucft,hoc cftguttur,& qu ? gu.a voca- 
tor.Guttur fpir.tus caufa dat um eft.hoc enim fpiritum amma- 1 
lia trahunt,& reddunt.rcfpirando & expirado.quam ob re qux 
carent pulmone,colio etiam caret.vt genus pi.cium Gula cir, 
qaa cibus & potus deuoratur.itaq, ea quae caret colio,gula n*c 
jnanifeftam non habent ,ncc gulara habcri cibi caufa neccile eit 
nihilenimadcibumparat&quidema Gtn oris contmuo ven; 
tereflepoteft,polmo nonpoteft.aliqucmenim quiiitra^.uco 
oallis adefle communem oportet,quo fpiritu ad fiftuias pcr ar- 
ter ias diger at bipartitus. atq ; ita efficcre fpiritas rcciprocat.o- 
n:mmaximepoteft.Cam igitor inftramentam fpiratiom ac- 
comraodatum,longitudinem habeat neceflc fit,gulam interoszo 
& ventrerahaberinecefleeft.Conftstgulaex ncruo&carne.ex 
tierno, vt extendi oofsit,cum cibus ingentur:ex came,vt moll.s 
fit & ccdat,neclxdatur afperitatc cibi defccdentls-Gottur autc 
qaod& artcria vocatur,corpore c6ftat cartilaginofo : non io- 
liim enim fpirandi caufa eft , fed etiam vocis. quod autcm io- 
net,leucacfol.dt!mcffeoportct. Ante gulam artena poii- 
ta eft,qaanquam impedimcntoflt,cumcibusingcritur. Nam 
fi qaid vel cibi,vel potus in arteriamdaabitur,ftrangulat.ones, 
tormina,& tcfles grauifsima: incitantar.qaam ob rcm non au- 
dicndi funt,qai h?c potum meare dicant. Accidunt enim aperte 
qu*modo dixi,omnibus quoties aliquidcibidilapfatn eft.l ro 
feflo opinionem eoram qai potum hac admitti exiftimant,.r- 
ridendam eflc plara oftendunr mcatus enim nullos de pnlmonc 



vcntrem 



etiam per vomitum,& naufeam,vnde nam humor remeet , ra- 
certom non eft.ad haec hnmorcm non continuo colligi "J ven- 
cam,fed prius in ventrem cerrumeft.excrementaen.m auiiti 
si videntnr fece viniatri vulncrc etiam ventris ixpc hociaem 

patefaflnm eft. S ed enim ftultas opiniones admodom icruta- 
ri,ftoltnmforraueeft.Arteriavero,quodexterinr,vtdixiin«, 

poiita cft,i c ibo infeftatur.attamcn natnra ad hoc molita eir 



tt EARVM CAVSI5, LIBEH III. 291 

mlnorcm lingaam,(iue lingo]am,qu#artcriam operifef.non 
omnia viuiparacam obtintt,fcdcatan(u,quilu$ pulmo&cu- 
tispilo inte#a,non cortex,non penna operimento eft.Cortica 
tis enim pennatisquc,guttur vice lingulx cpcricnfisipfum co- 
trahitur & diduciturrquemadmodum ilJis operitur aliunde & a- 
peritur,vidclicct fpiritui trahtdo rcddendove aperitur,cibo in- 
gercndo operitur>ne quid illabatur . quod fi quid errcris in co 
motu committitur,vel dcerratecibcin alicnum tratnitcm,vel 
refpirationepr^ucnicictoffcs, ftragolationesque excitantnr, 
io vtdi&um cfttam vero folerti ijigenio mof us,& lingola:* lin- 
gu* adhibitus k natura eft 5 vt cibus ncq; in cre cum molitur ca- 
dat fub dcntes,neq; cum per fauccs meat , in artcriam labatcr» 
Carent animalia qua: mododiximus,lingua,quoniam «Xrcarne 
«cca,tSr cuteconftant prardura . non enim facile moceri mem- 



brnm id poflet Ji ex tali gcnere camis cutisque conftaret . icd 
cxtrcmaipfius arterfcecitms comprimerentur,qoamlfngula, 
qcam animalia pilo prsedita habcnt cx foa came.hsec dixiflcfa 
tisciT,qaaniobcaufamanimaliumalia lingulam habcant,a3ia 
carcann&qaemadmodumnatura vitiofitus aitcria: rcmediu 

a °lingulamcmolitaadhibuerit.Guttur autemantc gutem nccef. 
fario poiitum eft. Cor cnim in parte pr ion , arque in medio fl- 
tttm cftrin qao principium vitae,omnisqu^ tnotus Sc fcnfus efle 
ccnfcmos.etenim parf c verfos,quam priorem appcllamus,tum 
fcofus,tum etia motus agitur.hac cnim ipfa ratione pars prior* 
& poftcrior ftatuendaeft.Pulmo candem qnam cor obtinctfe- 
dem, idquc amplcftitur . S piratio tnm proptcr pulmone , tum 
proptcr originem cordi inditam agitur . attrahitnr & reddirur 
a -r perarteriam.itaquecum in parteprioricorprimumcollo- 
carineceflcflt,arteriam quoquc& gutturconftituiantegulam 

3° ncceflc efthaxenim ad pulmonem & cor tcndunt,gu!a ad ven- 
t rc.deniquc qnod mclius & nobilius cft,id femper (nifi quid ma 
ius impcdit)(uperioris,inferiorisque ratione ftiperius coiloca- 
*°r prioris,pofteriorisq; prius.dc:tfr!,finiftriq;dextu .fcddc 
Coilo,gula,<Sr de artcria diaom iam cft. 

jDe cord^o* csus cju»ht>:tey quamqt ob cau- 
fant anlmahbhs inmnflnmfit* 

caput nir, 

Equitor vt dc vifceribus doceamus . qus ecrum {*- 

nc propria funt,quac fanguinem habent.nulli enim 

exagnitim animali vifcus vllum eft.cum fanguineis 

omnia fint.Itaqj Democritus no rc&edc his tra&af 

t t fevi 




»9*- 



ARISTOTE. VI PAR. ANIM- 



fe videtar.fi qnide inccrta hxc effe putauit,pra: exiguif ate exa- 
euium animaliu.ftatim enim cu confiftunt, qua: fanguine ha- 
bWxigoaq'; admodum iunt.deprehedi cor & iccur finedubio. 
poffunt.quippecu inouis triduocubatis,punai iam magmtudi 
ne apoarcat.nccnon in partubus abortitijs perquaexigua cer- 
nuntur ad hxc , vt exteriorom partium non idem vfus omm- 
buseft,fcdqusq;provitamotuquevario fibi peculiarem re- 
ccpcrunt:ficinteriorualixalijsaccommodantur • vifcera aute 




10 



tis patct.Sunt enim croentiora,maioraq; cx rationcqoonia m 

prima concretionc fpecics,copiaq; materia euidentior eft.Cor 

igitur omnibus fanguine predif is incft.& qua ob caufam.diciu 
&amehaceft,&nficdiccmus.Sanguisenimncccirarioincitin 

i js qua: fanguinea iunt.qui cu humidos fif,conccptaculu libi na 
beat ncceflccft.ideoq; venas natura emohra videtur.quaru vnu 
ciTe principium neceffe eft.vbicunq; enim fieri poteft,vnU elie, 
quamplurameliuseft.corautem,venarum principium cit cx 
hoc enim venx,& per hoc efle videntur.nafura etiam eios veno 
fa eft,vtpote generis focictate iunai cum vcnis.quoniam & l» zO 
tuseius fedcmobtinctprincipalcm.in medioenim pofitumelt, 
fedmagisfuperius,quainfcrius.&parti priori ammotiusqua 
pofteriori.naturaenimrernnobiliore conftituere inlocis no- 
bilioribus folet,nifi quid maius impcdiat.Cordishunccfielocu 
latifsimc in homfne pater.fed in caeteris quoq; animalibus pari 
ratione tenere fibi vult mediumcorporis ncceffarij . cuios fane 
exitus eft,qu£ excrementa emittutur.crura aute ah js aliter ad- 
ionaa funt,nec ad vitam neceflatia habcntur,qua ob rem iis de 
ptis vita non tollitur,additis etiam nullum fequi intcritum cer- 

tom cft.Qni capiti venarum originem tribuunt,non refte opi-J 
nantur.pluraenimdifpcrfac;principiafaciunt,idci5inlocoiri 

gido.argnmentum,quod frigus hic locus vchementius fentiat: 
contracordis locus calore abundat cumq; per caetcra vifcera ve 
nx tranfigant,nulla per cor tendit,vt dianm eft.itaq; partem & 
principium vcnarom cor efle apertum eft.idq; optima ratione. 
mcdiamenimcordisfp!flumcauuinq;corposeft . plenumetia 

fanguinis eft,quafi hinc vena? oriantur.cauum eft.vt contmeat 
fanguinctn:ipiffum,vtprincipiumcalori^feruarepofsit.innoc 

enim vifcerum & partium omnium corporis fanguis fine veni^ 
c6plcaiturcatersparresfangu'ncvenishabentcontentu,idq, 

reaa rationc.languis cm ex cordc ad vcnas ,qcoq; dcrioatur.ar 









ET IARVM CAVSrs, £ I 8 E R III. l^J 

Vcroadcornon aliundedeucnif. idenimorigo prima,&fons 
fanguiniseft,autconceptaculuprimum.ha:c cxconfc&ione a^ 
nimaliumperfpicipoflunt,afquc etiamex generacione. Cot 
enim ftatim omnium partium primumconfiftcn$,iangiMnolcn 
tam eft.motus etiam ixtitiae ac f riftiti* ,deniq; omniom fenfuu 
h!ncoriri,eodeq; dcfincrc vidcnfar .Ratione quoq; ita cflepro 
batur.principium enim vnum efle oportet,vbicuq$ficri potcft. 
aptifsimus autcm omnium locorum medius cft . mcdiom cnim 
vnumeft & talcvt vndiq;attingi,vel #que vcl proxime pof- 

lo fit.ad hgccu nccpars alia iangumea vlla,neq; ianguis ipfc vitn 
habeaticntiendi,quodprimom iangainemhabet.id cflcquod 
fcntiat ccrtum eft . habeat auicm pcrinde ac vas quod princi- 
piam cft,necefle eft.nec ratione tantum ita efle probatur , vc- 
rumctiamfcniupcrcipitur.namin partuum prima getieratio* 
nc*ftatimcorpalpitareccrnitur,qoafi animalfit>vtqubdprin- • 
cipiamfit natarxeorum quxfanguinem habcnt . argumetuin 
vel indc deduci poteft,qaod nallum animal fanguinis compos 
ca: cat corde.principium cnim fanguinis habcant,neccfle cft . Ic- ' 
caretiam omnibus fanguine prscditis ineft.fed ncmo idccnfbc- 

2.0 ritcflcprincipium velcorporis totius,veIfanguinis.fitu cnim 
nequaqoam obtinct principaicm.Licncm \ct6 iibi haber adacr 
fominijs,qu2eexquifitiusconftentncc vero fanguinis concc- 
ptaculum modo cordis intra ic continct : fcd vf rcliqu* partes 
fanguincm venis inclufumhabrt.adhaec vcnapcriecar tcndif, 

nccvllacxcoprcucnit.ven^e cnim omne$ex cordc faa inifia 
trahunt.itaqjcumalterutrumiftorumprincipium efie ncccflc 
fit,iccur autcm nonfit,corfanguinis quoq; principiam cflcne- 
cefle cft.animal cnim fcnfu dcfinitur.vis autcm fcntiendi primo 
yiitribuifur,qaodprimumfangainc pneditamcft. Talcau- 
3o tcm cor eft,qaippc quod & origo fanguinis fir,& primum fan- 
guincm habcat, Extrcmumcias turbinaturin mucroncm fir- 
niifsimum.fitum in pc&ore cft <& omnino parti priori corpori* 
commiflum,nc refrjgeretur.omnibus enimpe&us minus car- 
nofum,qaim tergam eft . qaam obrem a tcrgo perquim t urc 
caloropcrmscft.Corcxtcris animalibus in mcdtopc&ore cft; 
nomini tantiim paulo vcrgit ad lcuam,vt eius partis refrigera- 
tionemmoderctar«.& compenfct. Omniumcnimanimalium 
^Wtac homo rcfrigcratam habct partcm finiftram . in pifci- 
basctiamcor fimilcm fitum tenere ,&cur difsimilis vidcatur, 
dictam iam cft.folishiscordis mucroadcapurfpc&at, cam ea 
P*rs prior fitreodcmcnim agitur motus.Copia quoq; ncruoru 

t 3 cordc 






*94 



ARISTOTE. DE V A R. AMlM. 



norum 



- 

cordccft,idquercaaratione.hinccnim motusoriuntar,qui in 
tendendorcmittendoqueefficiuntur.itaqae miniftcrio ta!i& 

roborcopus cft. Cor autem,vt fnpri diximus,vcluti altciu ani 
nialincftijs,qucccordcvitalemoriginem conrinent. Corfine 
ofTecft omnium quae nos noucrimus,pr*terqu4m cqui , & ge- 
ner ts boum cuiafdam , quibus prx magnitudinc quafi admini- 
culum fubditum cft quomodototumctiamcorpus ofsibus fu- 
ftentatar d:contincrur.Vcntriculum triplicem cor mag 
animalium habet,daplicem minoru,vnum ad poftrcmu.nullu- 
qae eft quodfmc vllo vcntriculoconttet.& qaam obcaufam,duo 
dum eft.locum enim &conceptaculum quoddam fanguinis pri 
mi in cordc habcri conacnit. S angainem autem primo effici in 
cordcfepc iam diximus. Scd cum duar venxfint princ;pales,al 
tera mator,altera minor aortaque 2ppellata,qu* fparia ramo- 
. r um fcriC cxteras minorcs venas prcdacant,atqac intcr fe dif- 
f crant,vt pofthac exponemusrmelius fan£ cft initia quoque ea- 



ffUIS 



£tosquefit.qnam cbrcmvbi fieripoteft,fangainisconceptacu 



aatem 



da corum ampliora,fed mclius trcs cflc vcntriculos,vt vnus co*° 
munc principium fit,mediam autcm &impar principium cft. 
itaqac magnitadoamplior iubindc dcfideratur. V tilc fi t,vt qu$ 
ttiaximafint,triplicem ventriculamhabeanrdcxter plurimum 
fangainir,& calidiisimam continetrqaam ob rcm pars corporis 
dcxtcra calidior,finifter parum,idq; frigidisfimum.mcdiusmc 
diocrem,tum copiatum ca]orc,fcdpuriorcm.principiam enim 
qaammsximc quicfceredcbet.Taleautemerit,fi fangaispurns 



Qni 



ticulatio* 



nem quandam rimis,faturisvc capitis fimiJem habcrc vif untur, 
qaanqaam non ita conftant,vt quod cx pluribus fit compa&u: 
fcd(vt modo dix/)articalationem potius oftcndunt.Sunt artica 
iatioracorda eorum,qu2efenfu melins valenr . inarticulatio- 

raeoram^quss fenfuhebetiorifunt vt Suam.Difcriminacor- 
dis,qu2eamplitudin&extgaitatc,daritia,mollitiacxiftat,vclad 

mores pertineant aliquatcnus.Qu? cnim fenfu hcbetifunt,cor 
habentdnrum & fpiflum, quzautcm lcnto valcnt , mollius: 
panida ctiamfant,quibuscor grandias. audentiora,fident!0- 
raque,qaibus minas aat mediocrcaffeftas cnim qui accidit cx 
mctu, iam in ijs prareft , qooniam caioremproportionccor- 
dis non habeanr , fcd pjram caloris in magno conceptaccio 

exolcfcatataqacfangais frigidior fit. Cor magnum propor- 

* ° 9 lionc, 



tT URViM CAVSIS» IIBER IlN 5-95 

tlone , lepori , ceruo , 'muri , hycnse ,afino,pantherae ,mcftc- 
l^ & rciiquis fer& otnnibos qux aperte timida funt,aut propter 
metum aalcfi ca, Similc ia venis atque in vetriculiscordis eue 
nit.Sunt cnim £rigidiores ? & vensc ampliores,& ventriculi am- 
pliorcsrnam vt ln parao & in magno domicilio tamudcm igni$ 
non seqnc ca!efacit,fed minus in magne:fic in his calor non pa 
riter agit-vasenim taro vena,quarn vetriculuscft. Jtem motus 
alleni,calidumqaodq;refrigerant.piu, aurem fpirirus in am- 
plioribus cfc,magi>q; vakc quarn ob rem nullcm cx ijs,qu# vc 
lonii aut vcntriculisiunt amplioribub,obcfumpcr camem,opi- 
mumqjeft-fed qu^ita pingadcat,aut omnia,autmaxima par- 
tevenisincertis,parooq; vcnrriculocflecernunrur.CorfoJum 
vifccrum,atque omnino partium corporh nnlluui viitum pati 



turgraue,idqjrcdarationc.cumenim principium qorrumpt- 
tur,n:hdcft quod cstcris qua: independeat,pr3ebvrc auxil»u:n 
poim.indicium,vt nullam affciium cor patiatur,quod in nulla 
hoftia cor ita afFcfttnn vifum adhuc cft,vt in cseteris vifceribos 
ccrniiur.Renrs enimf#pcnumcrocalcolis,&panKs,& papulis 
refcrti videntaratquc ctiam tecur &pulmo,acpoti($imu Jien. 
aomolcactiamaiia vitiorum gcncracuenirc inijs videmus -kdta* 
mcn circa arteriam pulnionis,& qua iecur anncfikitur venj ma 
iori,pcrc^igux ita atcidit:idq; ratione refta.hac enim rnaximc 
Cordiaflbtiantur.At vcro qu«morbo,vjt;jsqj eiuimodi pertut 
a:i;maiia,ijs difle&is afFcthis morbofi ia corde confpiuur.ti 
Scd dc cordc quate: nam fit,& cios gratia , & qcam ob cauiam 
iunitum animalibu» fit,h&cdixille iatis cft. 

£>eu*iu$ > O'Mr*ta.lQC0 in corporibus torurn amnjantm 3 qu 

f gwncpf&dittfunt. CaffHt V- 

SEquitur vtdc venisdifleramu^videlicct dc maiori ,& dc 
aorta.h» nanq; cxcordeprimse rccipiunt fanguinem: rcli- 
«p* eajfi iobolcs funtigitur fanguinis gratia cas cfle diftctn 
teta efthumor cnim coceptaculu quifq; dcfiderat.Vcnaru ao- 
tcm gmusconceptaculuia & v«s eir.itaq; ianguis in i)s , quafi 
>n valc cft.icd quam ob rem do^ fonf,&dc cude origine in cm 
ncc corporifi partcs difcurrant,explicandum nunc dt.caufa,vC 
prtncipi(i vnu,& ab vno elTc racliu > fit,quod annr a fenticnrcm 
Vft aactuhab:atomnia.hinccnimpars ctiaquareaanima pri- 
niocorincaf vna cft,tu potctia,tu aftu,in ijs qu« iangaine ha- 
tet.Atmnonulliscoruqusfanguine cjrent,adtu duntaxar. 
qaJTiobrcmcalorisquoq;or:ginim in codem tantilpcr cfle 

^cccflc cft.ha«:eac<: caufa eft em,vt fangufc homidus fit & cali 

t 4 «tus 



- 

% 2$ ARISTOTE* DE P A R. ANIM. 

dus.cum igitur vna in parte fitprincipium fcnfus & calonV/an 

gais ctiam ex vno fuam originem ducit.vnitate^autem iangui- 

nis fit,v t venarum etiam capita ex vno codemq; oriantur du# 

autem nnmerofunt,quoniam corpora animalium quaelangui- 

nem habent,& gradiuntur,bipartita fint hxc cnim omnia par- 

tepriori& pofteriori,dextra & finiftra,fuperiori & infcriori 

diftinguuntur quantoaute nobilior acprincipaliorpars prior, 

quampofterioreft,tantovena maior pra^ftantior eft altera, 

quamaortamvocaridiximus.ahcraemmin priora, altera in 

poftenoradilcorrit.& altera inomnibus fanguincprasditis ha 10 

betur aperte,altcra in nonnullis aut obfcure,aut inccrtc.Caufa 

vero vt venae in omnes corporis partesdigcrantur , quod fan- 

Cuii,autquodvicemfanguinis tenet>totius corporis materia 

cft.ouse in *'cna,aot in vicario \cux cotinetur.fed quonam ino 

do,#cx quo animalia nutriantur,& quomodo cx ventre capiat 

alimentum,cumde gencrationeagitur,aptius & fpcftari,* cx- 

phcari poteft.Cum autcm partet exfanguineomncsconfiftat, 

vt diximus,venarum riui in omncs corporis partes rarione rc- 

fta expanduntur. Sanguincm cnim fundi per omnia,adefTcquc 

* emnibus oportet.fiquidem partcs quxq; ex co confiftunt & vt *• 

inhortisrigandisdevnaorigine,fonteq; vno aqoa riuis per- 

multis diducitur,ali jq; ab ali js du ftas fubind : cxcipiunt quouf- 

q; humor in omncs partcs deucniatratq; etia vt in fabricis per 

totamfundamemorumdefcriptioncmlapides apponuntur, vl 

dclicct ea ratione,quod fara hortcrum humoris beneficio na- 

fcantur,fundamenta ex lapidibus condantonfic natura fangui 



ncm 



tcriafit patethocin jjs,quaemaximecxter.ucntur, nihil cnim 
nifi ven* apparcnt,v t in vitin*ys,(Sr ficulnis,& rcliquis generis 
ciufdcmfrondibusijs cnim arcfccnnbus,venas tantumir.odor*; 
linquuntur.Cuiusreicaufacft,quodfanguis,& quod fangtiini 
proportioncm,potcntia fit corpus & caro,aut quod ijs propor 
tioncrcfpondcat.Igitur vt in adaquationciulci altiorcs affl- 
plforesq^durant^minimiautcmprimi^ac cclcritcr limo obdo- 
£toaboldcunt,rurfusq;dcduc1oapparcnt, fic venje amplil^- 
msedurant.minimafautem primar aftu carne$cfficinntur,qoan 
quam potenria nihilominus venx fint, quam ob rcm ctfi caro 
cxtat,fangui$tarnen irdudto vulncre vndiq;cffluit.Atqoi fine 
vcnafanguiseffenoiipotcft.vena autem nnlla manifcfta cft f 
quo modo neque riuorum foueola* pateant , priuf quam limos 

icnx in rainores iubindc cx amplioriDas 

quoufq; 



Proccdunt 



ET IARVM CAVSIS* L I B E R. IJf. I97 

quGufqac ar&iorcs reddantur,quam vt fanguinem tranfmfttc 
re poisint.quam ob r cm exitus ianguini nolias patcr,qcanqaa 
cxcrcmcnto vaporis humid/, qucmiudorem vocamus,fatispa 
tcat.fedncilliqtiidem mfi corporc calefa&o,& vcnularu clau- 
fQlispatcfa&is.IamnonnuUis accidit, vt crucntum quoddam 
cxcrcmcntum i udarcnt pr optcr viriatum ccrporis habitum,fci 
licctcum corpus laxum fluxumqj cflctjfanguisqjprse ciuditatc 
humcfccrctimbecill tatccalorii>qaicxfguus vcnulis indufus 
concc crc non poflct.omnccnim quod aquae & terr* comma 

i nccft,craflc(ccrccum concoquitur^d ftum iam cft. alimcntnm 
autcm & fmguis mixtum cx ijs eft,calor vcro concoqucic non 
poteft,non modo quia exiguus eft,verum ctiam pr« mmia ci- 
bi afTumptt copia ht cnim cxiguus comparationc tanti cibari j. 
duplexautcmcxupcrantiacibi cft,aut cnim quan:itatc,aut 
qualitatc,ldcft,modo &gcnerc.quippecum cibusno arqucco 
coftufacilisquifqifit.profluitautcmfangufs potiisimum pcr 
ampliora vcnarum foramina.quam ob rcm c narjbtu,gingiuis, 
& iede,intcrdum ctiam cx orc profluuium fanguinis fit finc vl- 
Iodolorc:nonpervim,vtexartcria.diftantfpacio inter fefa- 

aopernc venamaior,& aorta.infri muratis vicibus tendunt, atqj 
ita continctur corpus.progredicntes enim icinduntur iuxta bi- 
fidam crurum part itioneiruatq/ altera ex parre priori in poftc- 
riorem fc porrigit,alicra cx poftcrioriin priorcm 3 codemq; co 
currmir.vtenim ca quae impiexa funt,continentiora conftant* 
fic vicibus venaru mu tatfs,parf c$ priores corporis cum poftc- 
rioribus copulator . S tmile enam i corde locis lupcrionbus fit. 
fedqni diligentias nofle vcljf,qucmadmodum venaeintcrfcha 
bcant,fpcctet c id tcm pcr d flcftionem,tum ctiam pcr comm£- 
tarionem,hoceft,hiftoriamanimaliumdcbct.atq; dc vcnis,& 

jo c ordc haftenus.de rcliquis ctiam vifceribus hac cadcm via & rt 
*ione confidcrandum cft. 

JDep:tlmone & tiusforma,quib^5 xttm wftrit»r> 

quibtts mn* Caput y 1. 

T) Vlmo idco habctur,quia gcnus animalium quoddam pedc- 
-* ftrceft.Calorcm cnim refrigerari neccflccft.quodcxtrtiw 
iccusca,quac habentfangmnem defidcrantfuntcnim calidiora- 
Ar qu* fangnine carcnt, ; el fuo natiuo ipiritu htis refrigerarl 
P°iHint:cxrrinfecu$ autcm vcl aere, vel aqua rcfrigcrarc neccf 
* Cc ft.quam obrcm pifcium nullus habcrpulmoncmrfcd pro co 
r ^nchias obtincnt,vt cum dcfpirationc agercmos, rctulimus. 

aqaaeuimrciVigerantur,vtacrc quar ipirant • qoamobrem 

t ? om 



49 8 ■ ARISTOTE. VI JAR. ANIMA. 

otA : niaou*fpirant,habentpainionc.fpirant pedeftria otr.nla, 
Aaqaatiiium nonnulla.vt balcna & delphinas,atq; ctiam «te, 
omuiaquxreflantcompluracnimnatura ancipiti iunt,tum 
ex terreftri'im,tum cx aquatiliam namcro.r.am* eorum quac 
ter-a fuftentar.tar ,aercmq; arripiunt,quxdam in humore ma- 
ktm m remporispartem coniamunt,propter iui corports tem 
peramcntn m.&corum qaxm mri-orcdeguor nonnullatanttt 
terrcftrli naturxfibi mn;uantar,vtnifi interdu fpirent,viucrc 
ncqneant .Pnlmo ig'tur ipirandi officio dclcgatus etr,q<H on- 
ginem q,ndc.n uii motas accipirex cord,-:iediuatum amplilJW 
dine,tum inan tateaditumfpirifui patcfacit.cumcr.im artoUi 
tur.ln iitfoirttas:cumcon;vah!tur,cffi'jit.Adcordjspaipita- 



reifatur2,expcaationeq; moucatar.in pluribus ctiam cor ia- 
xointe.-aailodilfar a pulmone.fuamq; (aperius tenct,vt mhii 
adcordts paipiranonc.ai conferat pulmo . D.fivrcnria puiinc- 



nis 



QM3 



Qa* 



contra onipara funt,cxigoam & ficcum ,fcd aptum ampliari,ac 
extamefcere cain inflatur:q .alts eoru eft , qax ex terreftnbas 
q^adrupcdes ouiparx lunt,vt lac :rtoram,& teftndinmr.* cx- 
terortimgcneriseiufdem.Volacrumctiam natura,qu« aues 
appellamus,eodem pertinct.omnm enimcarum pulmo tango 
fus,&fpamxfimiliseft.fpamaenimfatia diftuiac; « 3™P J<> 
tumorc inexiguum refidet,&pulmoearumexiguas,membra- 

nxq; fimilis eft.quam ob rcra hxc omnia param fitiunt,* paru 
bibunt.diactIamaquamdeinerfatolerant.iatis coim ab ip<o 
pulmonismotufpiritali inai»q;rrfrigeranturdiatius,vt qax } o 
parumcalorishibcantAccdit adhxcvtnngnituclo coroor. 

eotum propeomniu minor vtt iparis fir. Calor enim cft, £p 
Vimobtincataugcndi.f3ri^j:nisautcmcopia,ca3orisindiCtum 

eft.Corporaetiammeliuserigir.quam ob rem homo cxter» 
ereaioromnibascft.&viaipira reliquis quadropedibus er- 
clioraincedant.nullum cnim viuiparam vel expcs, vcl amt> - 
lans xque iatibula petir.pulmo lgicur ipirand. gratiadatuso; 
ninocft.led exanguis,ta!i^;cuiufdam ammanum genens c- 
fa eft.verhm co.nmane eorum nominc vacat,ncc vt «? u,am | * 
tius nomen obtinuit.itaq; vtaocm cffc ex aliquoeft,ncin «u 

tia illoraui ineft,vt habcant puhnoncm. pt 



ET EARVM CAVSXS» IIBIR III. 299 

Z>< mfur*mfim4$ & eorum loco in corpore animanti»m 9 cP 

offtcio. C«put VII. 

VlJcerom quxdamfimplfciacffe videntar,vt cor,vt pul- 
mo.qusdam biparrita,vtrcncs. qusedam vtronam modo 
fe habcant,dubitamr.Ieoirenim<SHiencm andpiti intcr harc 
effc fpecie dixeris.nam & quafi iimpicx,& tanquam pro fimpli 
dduoiimili prxdita natara cffe vtrunqae vidctur.S ant tamcn 
omnia bjportita-calus rci caufa eft corporisdifpofitio,qua? b;- 
partita quidcm fir/ed in vnnm initium coeat, confamcrurque* 

xoactcnimfapcrforc&inferiorc, «ut priorc Sc poftcriore,aut 
dextra& finiftrapartcdiftingaitur,quamobrcmcxrebru quo- 
qucomniumbipartitamcflclibivalt,atquc ctiam fenforium 
vnumquodq; cademqj rationccor vetriculis fuis diftingairor. 
palmo vcro in ou iparis adco dirimirur, vt ca binos habcrc pul- 
xnonc s vidcanr ur. Renes bipartitos effc nullidubiam cft. dc ic- 
core & licnc iure ambigcs.cuias rcicaufa eft,qaod in ijs quar lic 
ocm habcre ncceffc cft,iien ipfc quafi iecur adalteratum effe vi 
detar.fn ijs aucem qxtx licncm habcrc no ncceffeeft,vt exiguas 
aamodam licn vclutinote gratia haberar, fic epar bipartitum 

*o apcrtc cft,& pars altcra ad dcxtram,altcra quar minor cft , ad 
iin »ftramficumtrncrccxpetit. Qnjnctiam in ouiparis quam- 
aiJnuous^qaaminviaiparisapcrrainfit^tamcn in nonnuilis 
«^acdiuifampatct.vtlocisquibafdamleporcs bina iccinora 
babcrc videntur,qaemadmcdum in gcncre pifcium , tom alij 
quidam,tum cartilaginei iecnr duplicatcm haberc videtur. S cd 
<?aon um iccur parte dcxtra porius fitum cft,ideo natora lienis 
^dhibitacft.Itaqac quanqaam ncceffari^ quodammodo cft,ta« 
men non admodam omnibus animalibas. caufa igltar vt vifce- 



jS mm natara bipartita fit,qacmadmcdam diximus,dextram fmi 
itrumquceft.vfrunq;enimfibifimilcexpofcit, qaomodo ca 
qnoqacfimilcm,pcminamqae habere nataram cxpetunt. vt 
pim ittz quamui s gcmina eodcm cccunt, fic vifceram fingo- 
I^quamats gcmina , ncxacodcm contincnrar . Sant viicc- 
^qaardimfnprafcptam^qnxdam infra. fcd omnium vfas 
commanis venarnm graria cft,vidclicet quo vcnac, vtpote 
P=nfilesfuft m cri,&copula vifcrrum ftabiliri ad corpns pof- 
lnu ]'iaficnimanchora!pcr pa r tes dcduflas iaciunturad cor- 
P^-vcrbi gratia,dcvcna maiorc ad iccur & licncm dcocni- 
r - ctcnim vifccrom corum natura , quafi clauus corpo- 
ri «m affig!t,fcil-cct iccar ftlirn, in htrracorporis vcnatn 

^orcmafnrmant.adharccnimioJa rami ab illa mittuntur. 

Rcncs 



1 



JOO ARIST. DE PAR. ANIMALIVM, 

Renes aatem in partempoftcriorcm candcm contincnt, qoan 
qaamadrenemvtrunqucnonmodo dcvcna maiori,fcd ciia 
dc aortapraetcnditvcna. hxcvifccrum beneficio inftitutioni 
animalium pra_ftantur,atque ctiam iccur & licn iuuant ad cibi 
concoaionem.quod enim fanguinca funt,calidam habcnt na- 
turam- Renes ad cxcrcmcntum quod xn vtficam fccedit,opita- 
lantur. Sedcnimcor&iccur omnibus animalibus necefTaria 
funt.altcrum proptcr caloris origmcm(locum cnim adeffe ah- 
qucm quafi iares,focumque oportet,quo narurae fomitcs,&pri 
mordia ignis natiui contmcntur & icrucntur,cundcmquc turu ° 
cffcvclutiarcemcorporistotius neccffecftj altcram iecurdi- 
co,cibiconcoquendi gratia adeft - & quidam nnllum fanguine 
prsditum ijsduobuscarercpoteft.quamobremomma quioas 
f anguis,duo haec vifcera habcnr. Qnx autcm fpirant , tertium 
etiam habcnt, pulmonem. Lien pcr accidens nece_Tari_s eit, 
quomodo cxcremcnta tum a!ur,tum vcficsecx quo fif,vrin no- 
nullis dcficiat magnitudine,vt volucrum qoibufdam,qu£ vcn- 
triculum habcnt fcruetiorem^velutcolumbo^ccipirri, milao. 
Qmnetiaminouiparisquadrupedibus parimodo hocpercipi 
potcft.habcntenim perquamexiguum multis etiam fquama.o 
tis exiguus, quse vcfica ctiam carent, quoniam excre^entum 
pcr c.rncmlaxiorem xn pinnas & fquamas tranfcat. Iicncmm 
vaporcs vacantcsdiucrtir, & artrahit cx ventriculo, & conco- 
qucrccos potcft,vt quifanguineusfit- quodfi plascxcrcmcnti 
fir,parumqac caloris habeat Ifen,corpus pra: alimcnto immo- 
dico langucfcit.cS: proptcr conflunium huc humoris fa_p«cci- 
dit, vt lineofis ventrcs prsedari cfficlantur. quo modoijStqm 
fupra modum mingunt cx diuerticulo humoris. At quibus pa- 
rum cxcremcnti confiftlt, v t auibus atquc pilcibus, ijs aut ■noii ^ 
magnus, aut nor« gratia duntaxat habctur. Qnadrupcd|bcs?o 
ctiam ouiparis licn exig_us_ rigidus, & rcnifimilis efti fcilrcct 
ob cam rem,quod pulmo corum fungofus eft,parumque potas 
dcfiderant,& quantum cxcrcmcnti conftitcrit,in corpus & <- or 
ticcm vcrtitur,vt auibus in pennas. Scd in ijs <\ux vcficam M- 
bent,&pulmonem fanguincum,humidus cft,tum ob cam qaam 
mododiximuscaufam-tumquiapartis finiftrxnatora humi- 

dior & frieidior eftcontrariumcnim quodquc adfibi cogna- 
___ _ __J£ _•_!_.__-____ _/t _______ _„ j_„^^r^,Ar.nrontrar- u 



\ 






w — _. _. — „ __ _ -_ _ — 

Rcncsnullancccfs 



itaq.modoq 



c-fsiratehabetar^cdvtmclias&locuplctins,» 1 ' 
humoris cnim cxcrcmetitij grati-,<_aic6_uitin vcha, adw^ 



ET EHVM CAVSIS, LIB. ITI. JOf 

fttntexfuanatura,inquibus plus huiufcemod/ fedimcnfi fieri 

folet,vt vefica rnclius fuo muncre fungcretur. Scd cum \fus 

ciofdem caufa rcnes atque vefica habeantur-diflcrcndum nunc 

dc vcficaeft,pra_terrriifla fcquentcpartium enumerationedc 

praecordijscnimnondum docuimus 7 qu_e pars vifcerumratio- 
niconion&aeft. 

Q^jbus antmalibin datafit utfic*: ,Jeq; cius cjficio* 

&fit»in ccrpore antmantwm. 

Caput -viil. 

10 \ 7Efica non omnibus animahbus data eftjcdiji tantum tri 

V buere voluifle natura videtor,qu_e pulmone haberet Jan 

gaineu,idq; refta ratione caloris enimexceflu , qui in eo ipfo 

mebro cotinetur ,(_tibuda h_rc omniu pra_cipuc animaliu funt 

cibiq; indiget,no modo ficci,vcructi__ humidi copiofiorir.itaq; 

eXCff iriPflf II **tln rAnlA^itr ^t^nki «Pr^iT*» *(l'rtm/* /V.1«~ * ir*Tit4*>-> 



cxcrernent u ctia copiofius cotrahi necefle cftrncc folu tantum, 
quantu h vcntrecocoqui excernique cum cius cxcremeto pof 



crcmcnti 



bcri neceflTc cft.quamobrcm omnia qu_e talcm habet pulmone, 

veficaobtinent.qufleautcmtali carcntpulmone,& vel paruin 

2obibunt,qaoniafungofumpulmonehabeant,vel omnino potu 

aflumunt 5 non potus,fcd cibi gratia vt infefla,* pifces,vel etia 
qaa: penna,aut fquam-*.autcortice intcguntur,hrc tu propter 

nh«%i^^.». _ /T* _. _. _ • _," / J .. __ — ' 



excrcmefi 



trahitur in ca ipfa abfamatur,vcfica omnia carcnt, exccpra te- 
ftudine inter corticata.in hac cnim tantummodo naturacaftra 
tacft.Cuius rcicaufaefhqnod marins? tcftudincs pulmont ha 
bcntcarnofum,fanguineu,& fimflc bubulo tcrrcftres autepro 
portionemaiore.fuperficicsctia,quiaobdenfapraduraqjmo- 
dofi]iciseft ; facit nchumordifflaricuaporariq5pof.it pcrcar 
3°ncm laxioremrvt auibus,ferpentibus,cxteri_q5 opcrtis cortice 
^ncnit atq ; ita cxcrcmenti copia tanta fubfidct, vt corum natu 
raconceptaculom & vzs quoddam capax humoris defiderct.vc 
Ica f S itUr tcftudo fola intcr hsec habet,ea dc caufa,fcilicet ma- 
n naamplam,terreftnsexiguamadmodum 



K 



jficto ytjuibusq; animahlms datt fint. 
Caput ix. 

Enum etiam ratio fimili* eft.nullum cnim pcnnatu, nul- 
t ^ S a3m 3tum,nullum corticatum,excepta teftudincre- 
$ a oct quanquamin nonnullis auibus carunculae quaedam 
k tm P ccicm rcnum oftcndcn tcs, quafi cacaro qu_e 

n,bas dc ^gata cft,locum non _ubcat,fcd in plura difpcrfa fif . 

genus 



S 



l 



«os 



AR.ISTOT. DS tAtC. ANIMAIHM. 

ecnus tamen teftadinis qua lutariam vocant, & vefica &ren_- 

buscaret fitenimpropter cius mollitudinem tcgminis,vt ha- 

jnor faclle diffletur. lutaria igitur ob cam caufam ncutram ea- 

rum partium habct- czteris animalibus qua: fanguincurn (vt 

<Jiaum ea)habcnt pulmonem, renes omnibus natura tribac- 

rat. qaippe quje fimul & ad vcnas continendas ijs vterctnr , & 

ad humorem foocruacuum exccrnendum abuteretur . mcatas 

enim dc vcna maiore ad rcnesvfque pcrfcrtor.Cauum in omni 

bus ineft renibus,aat amplius,aut ardius, praeterquam m ivita 

!o marino.eius enim renes bubulis fimi.es,omnium firmifsimi 

ac fohdifsimi funt.hominum etiam rcncsbubolis fimiiesfant. 

quippe quitanquamcompofitiex multis renibusexiguis co- 

ftcnt.nequc a_quabilcs funt,quomodo renes onium,ca.terarn- 

one quadrupedum habentur. quo fit, vt morbus eorum difficiJe 

* *_ F .1 /■ ._ __•_____• -...-..,._._ innrvnermt* 



curan 



wuniri iiuiiimiv.i. r «.»..,-..- - r -- — o ... 

accidit enim vt quafi multis rcnibus laborcnt, ditticilius rernc- 
dium adhibeatur,quam fivno infeftarentur. Meatus qni ex 
vcna pcrtendit,non cauum fubit renum, (cd in corum corpos 
abfumitur. quam ob rcm in cauis eorumnihil fangcinisconti 
nctur,ncqucconcrefcitmortuis. Meatusverodecauis renum 







cxsngues 



}is.atqae ctiatn ali j cx vcna aorta validfr frcqoentestjce coccrn 
dcoeniutquxitanatarainftimit.vtcxvcnahumoriscxCT^e 

tu ad rcncs vcnirct.in renibcsautem fedimen humoribus per 



cauom 
rcd 



corpus renom colatis,in medium coflueret,vbi plarimica. 
continent.qao fit,vt rcncs omniu maxim_- vifceru fcedum 
dant odorcm.tum deinde ex medio per eos mcatus in vehca 1 
magis magisq.tanquacxcrementufecernitur atque reijotor. 
vefica ipfa ex renibus depedct.tendiit enim in ea , vt dittti er» 
validi meatus.Rcncs his de caufis habetur,* virtutcs, qoas 
ximus^obtinent.Omnibus aute quae renes habent,dexterJop ' 
rior finiftro eft.quod enim motus ex partc dextra prouentat.n 
turaqjdextra: proinde validtor fit,ideo partcs oww^ 
eaufa vergant ad fitii potius fuperiore oportet.na &fup« 
dcxtru magis attollitur,* arcuatu magis,qua finiftru haoC ^V 
Tagitur in omnibus a iecoredexter,quod elatior eft. ,ccar ,. 
partedcxtrapofitu eft.pingoe plcnius rcnes ambir, ^ am * 
qaa vifcera.quod & neccifarf A fif,cam cxcremcntnm per r 
tranfmiflam coletur.quantu enim relinquitur 6"6°: n £P V 



concoqui poteit.nnis autem 

Vtenim 



tc 



i 



ET EARVM CAVSlsJ LXB.IIT, 30J 

re aliqnid ignis relinquitur ? fic in cocoftis humidis nSnihil calo 
r i%qui effeccrit,relinquitur.quo fir.vt pingoe leuefif,& humo 
ribus refidcar,3t q; fluirer. fic non intra ipfos rencs, quonia dcn 
ium hocvtfcus fi<*,fed circutn rcnes cft,vidtlicet aut zdcps iv. ijs 
qo^pingucfccreadipefclcnf.autfcsumin jjs, ovae ienoopi- 
mantur.qconjmdiffcrentiaaliolococjcFlicara eft. nettilario 
igitarcadccanfap!nguefcant,fcilicet ex ijs qu^necefliriocae 
niuntanimalibus,quxreneshahercdcbuerunt. Salot zutcm 
caufa,vrrenumnarnracalidafir. Cumcnim ppfitiloco vh:mo 
*° finr,tepore defiderant ampliorem. rergum emm carnofL 1 ,1 eft, 
vr cor,* reltqua partis fupcrioris viiccra proir gar. At Jubi car 
nr vacant,vt flc&i pofsint.omnium enim flcxus excames funr* 
itaq, vice carnis adipc rencs obfepti mumunrur . Quinetiam 
humorem melius difcernut,& concoquunt fua pingucdinc.pin 
gue cnim omne calidtf eft .calor autem concoquit. rencs his de 
cacfis pingui operiutur,dexter omr.ibos mmns pinguis. cuius 
rei caufa eft,quod natura dexf rae partis ficcior eft * mobilior. 
motus aurem contrarius eftrliquat eniiji pinguedinem & con- 
famit.fed cum c^teris animalibus renes habrre pingucs, profi- 
c;at,«Sr plerunq; toros obefos habcanr,or ! ibus hocletalccft.quo 
mm qnanqoa pin^ues admodu finr,tarne aliquiddcfir,& fi no 
vtriq;,dextro quide.caufa cur hoc foiis^ur ma r imh ouibus ac 
cidar>qaod 1 )$ qu* adipe pingucfcercfoler.pingue humidu eft. 
toq; no arqueflarus intcrclufi dolore faciunr,quodcaufa fyde- 
rationis cft,q«a ob rem hoirJnibuscriaqui viriorenum labo- 
^int,quanquapingucfcereiuuat>ramenfi pingues admcdum 

Wicianrur,dolorcs profc&oaccidanrleralcs.Caererisaate etfi 
jeuo pino uc f CUnt)tamcn { cuum ^inos deni um qua ouibus fir. 
Copia ct i5 f cui g Cnus ouium longc excedir.oir nium enim ani- 
^bum oucs ccleri renum obefirate opplenrur. iraque humorc 
flatuq; interclufo celer irer prtffyderationeintcrcunt. nanque 
pcr vcnam aortam & maiorcm,ftatim virium ad cordis fedem 



mcatGsenim 



ousdiau 



m iam cft. 



*i 




fept* tranfuerfo,fiue prtcordijs, & etui offi 

Capat 
Eparantur h.rc inter fc fcpto rranfucrfo, quod non- 
nulli prarcordia sppellar. diftcnninat hoc a reliquis 



moncm 



dit 



hoc 



3 o4 



AltlSTOT- DE TAR. ANIMALIVM 



iccur 



ios rei caafa eft,quod ideo haberur, vr fedcm cordis a yenrredi 

rim ar,videlicervtanimat fenrientisorigo tnoffenfa ieruerur, 

n ec facile occapetur exhalarionecibi, & caJoris aduentiti) co- 
pia. hac entm caufa narura interccpit praxordiorum.quai: pa- 
rieris fepisqoe interuenta,diftiniirque partem nobiltorrm ao 
ijmobiliori.inqaibos faperioris,inferiorisquerario poiler na- 
berufoperius eft enimcaias gratia reliqua lint, quodque me- 

lius fir.inferius aatem quodcias gratia fir,& concepracolum ci 
bi neceiTarium./Vnneairurhocfeptnmfiuecinftascou.s partei» 



aotem 



effcrcntc 



tom cx iis qaxplcrunq; accidunt,dacitar. vbi cnim propter vi 



cmitatem 



rcm 



COnrmuomcniciniciiitiui^m. piant ^vi.-.w— ... i — . 

phrenes appellanrar,quafi participes prudenrfr fint.atqui noi 
latcnas participes funt, fed qaia propinqu* font ijs quar vim 
obrinentillam,(cordienim pnrrenduntur) hinc mentis muta- 



* 



rem 



modo de necefsitatcqaod com carnofie fin r parte fai coitis *»- 
mora .carnofiores cfle ncceiTc fit: vcrametiam vr minos vaporis 
«cipianr.nam fi carneplenioreconftarent,copiam vaports 
haberenr,* trahercnt. partem haccalefaftam celerirer fcnim" 
aperire indicar veLd quod titillata eucnit. rident enim ccieri- 
ter qai ruillantur, quia motus ccleriter ad eam locam pe«*" 



jrcntem 



bofso 



vmjstitiiletur,& catis tcnultas eft,^ quod folas omniam **"* 



odup»P 
val 



rifam attalfT-proditameft, fcilicetca.ore,quemmoaeat 
noshocenim verifimiliuscredi potcft , qu:.m quoddccapi 
refcrunt.vtabfcifTum loquipotuerint. Sontenim qai hoc - 
cant,Homefamque teftem adhibeanr , qaafi ob eam rcm U 
dixerir,Tpfcquedumloqaitar,tr!<fccrurpuluere verre* . n 

enim dum iple homo,fed dum ipfe ve.rcx inrel..gi volonf. 



occt 



is,* ;. qun nr 

tpite praeafo 




«idtf 



*r ZAKVM CAVSIS, tlB. III. 

cidir.iraqnc hominem cuinomen Cercidas in prcuincia qu*- 
(icrunr,compertumque in iudiciam duxcrunt. fed ficri non po- 
rcft,vtcaptirpracci/aartcria 3 &fincmoru pulmonfc loquarur. 
nec apud Barbaros quicapirafun ma cum cejcr Jrare abfcin- 
dunr,ralc quidvnquameucmfTeacccpimns.Ad h*c,in carreris 
anin.alibus curidnonalicjuandofiar^riium enimijsnunquam 
prarcordi js rraicdi s moucriconienraneumeft,cnm ridendivi 
careanr.Arcapircabicifone/uam vocem aliquando emirranr, 
quidnam prolubcat? Corpus ramcn detrafto capirc prc^rcdi 
io quoquam non rcmcrecrcdi porcft .nam ca qoidam qua: fan^ui 

nccarcnr^VCI ViUCrc diutius Dnflnntfrnnrara ranft^ »1m« -mt 



m 



— — — - - — — — ^— ■ — — v — -^ ^ ^^ t ^^ mmm m ^mm w 

cauiam alio loco docuimus . S cd cuiufnam graria finguia vifce- 
rum habeanrur,explicarumiam cft.Extremisautem vcnaron> 
intcrioribusharcnecefTarioadionguntur.vaporc cnim prodi- 
re,cumquc fanguincum ncccflc eft ,es quo confiftentc concrc- 
fcenteqtic vifccrnm corpus contrahatur & coaementctur. oua- 



cxteris difsimilem habcnr. 



iiimil 



fficio' caput 



20 N/l ^ m ^ ranis omnia vifccra includuntur.pro tcgminc cnim 
1 ▼ lopus eft >quo ilhefa /cruantur,eoqcc Icuiori. mcmbrana 
aotcm ralis fuapte narur a eft,quippc qua: & dcnfa fir, vr arccrc 
pofsit, dcarnc vacer, vr vaporcm nccrrahat ncc habear,& rc- 
^isprxtcndarunvrleuisfir^nihilpondcrisaffcrarMaximx 
**ttcr mcmbranas & robuftifsima: funtqux coraur ccrcbrum 
atnbiant.idqacoptima rationc. harccnim praxipuam tutclam 
wjdcrant.turclacnimpartibusadhibcnda principalibus cft. 
«*c autem principarum maxime virar obrinent ■ 

N*n emma mfctr* cmmbus animahhus tneffc* 
50 Capat xi U 




omncm vilcerum numerum 



, . JfcC l aai ^nnonomncm.quxfinrh*c,& quamob caofam, 

1 k / am C ^** VZTie vcr ° ^ xc ^knt ur ' ,,C< 3 0C cnim cor &~ 
^uchabcnrcaqa^cordcprxdirafunr^ncqocaliud propi di- 

S"!!! Iani,Iam mim iccur ali ) $ raoltifidam eft,alijs fimpli- 

rnr,& viuipara iunr. 

lrupcdum,&ouiparo 



*um 



ncre quac ianguincm hat 

pifcium iecinora,&qua 



1U iccur maximefimilecft iccori viaiparorum. puro cnim 

languineocoloreexbilarainr, vt illod cuius rcicaufa eft, 

Y«>aaaium corporadifflari, euaporariqae opiime pofsint, 



v nec 



~\ 



» £ ar.istot.de pak.«anim. 

ncc maltam habcanr cxcrcmcnti viticii. qao t t iam fit,vt non- 
nulU ex viuiparis fcllccareat.Iecur enim ad temperie,fanita- 
temque corporis multum confert finis nanq; eorum in fangui- 
nc porifsimu fuaseftlecur aatcmomnium vifcerum,exccpto 
corde,fangaine refertifsimueft. At vcr6 quadrupedu oaiparo- 
t u,& pifcin iecinora maxima parte paliidiufcula fant. nonnul 
loru ctia vitiata omnino,vt corpora quoq; eorundem praunm 
teocramctB fortiutur,vclut rubet;r,ttftodinis,& fimiliu. Liene 
bifalca ir.ter cornigera habet rotundu,vt capra,ouis,& reliqua 
ou,nifi aliqoa pro fuamagnitudine auftiore inlongitudinemW 

babeat.vtboaes.AtmultindisprolJxus omnibas cft,vt homini, 
cani.Solipedibnsaatemmediutenct,*promifcuuseftpartera 



hab 



rjferentta uift 






Caput x 1 1 1. 

Ifferant vifcera a carnenon modo 



1~*<Y 

JL/etia eo quod caro foris pofita cft, vifcera intns continen- 
torcuiasreicaufaeftquod nataram comuncm cum venisha- 
beant,& partim venaru gratia fint, partim non fme vcnis eile 
pofsint.Subeftprarcordijs vcnter,qu^ guladcfmit,fihabctur:i» 

fi minos,ori adiangitur. . . 

£>einteftmo,&»intrc,tor»m'c>; cfcio,0> locts ccncoftionit. 



Caput x tit I 



VEntri inteftinam annexum eft. fed qaam ob caufam p-»r- 
tcs has animallahabeant omnia/nulli dubiom eft;. OM» 
enim&ingeftum recipere,& cuaporatameijccre,neq;eandem 
locum eiTe cibi concoc%& excrementi necctTccft. conccptw»- 
lum etiam adeiTe in quo cibus mutetur oportct. pars cnnn aii 
cibum ingeftum complefti,al;a excrementum,,matcriamq; « - 
peruacuam capercdcbet quaruaftiontKn vttempnsuiocriui J» 
ift,fic loca etia diuerfa haberi necciTe cft.Sedde ijs ^iusdAV 
remas,cum de gencratione & alimento agetur nunc Az ™ c 'J 
»ia ventris & partium codem pertinentium confiderandam 
Vetres enimnec magnitudine neq; fpeciefimiles interle W • 
fedquse infanguineo generevtrinquedetata&viutparaiun; 

hecfimplicc habetventre,vt homo,canis,leo,& ««^;^ 1 
pedes in plures di£itosfinduntur,&qu* antfolipeda iunr, 




IT IARVM CAVSIS, 1 1 B. III. £07 

pc qnx no vtraq; partf detata fint.& camelus quufemfqaaqua 
cornibus ciret)idco non fapernc dcntata cft,qaod ei magis ne- 
ceflarium cft ventrem calem habcrcqaim dentcs priores cam 
itaq; ventrem fimilem non vtrinq; dcntatis habeat,dentes etii 
fimilimodo fortitar,vtpotepanimneceflarios,qainctiam cu 
cibas dirus fplnofusqae fit>& tamen lingaam efic carnofam ne 
ceffcfir,natura dentiam portioneterrenaadpalaticallamat- 
queduritiam abaia eft.Raminaretiam camelus morecomige- 
rorum,qaoniam vcntres fimiles cornigeris habcat . Habet ha:c 

J o finguhplare^ ventrcs,vtoais,capra,ccraus,&fimilia, vtcum 
officium oris non fatis in molcndo ciboadhibeturpropterin- 
opiam dentiam,manus ventrium expl£at,dum alias abaiio ci- 
bam rccipit-fcilicet primas inconfe&um, fecandas aliquanta- 
lnmconfechim,tcrtiasplenius,quartus perqaam plencconfe- 
ftam. ita fit, vt genas hoc animaliam recepracula cibi habeat 
plura,quibas nomina h*c aut indita funt,aut inderelfcet,ven- 
rcr,arfineum fiuc retiailam,omafam,abom3fam-Quonamo- 
do hsec fc habeant,tom fita,tumetiamfpecie,c* hiftoria difle- 
ftioncqae animalicm petendum eft. H&ceadcm caafa eft, vr 

*°auinm quoq; genas partem^qaa cibum rccipit,variehabeat.cti 
cnimidorisofficio, qaodciboconficiendo triboitaromnino. 
carcat,vt quodnulloshabeatdcntes,& nequeq*odirim3t,ne- 
qaequomolatcibnmobtineaMdcircoant anteventre finum 
habent,qniingluuics appclljtar,proorisofficio,autgulam pa 
tentiorcm,aatantevemrcm partemalfqoam gnlaeipfius finuo 
iam,in qnacibum recentem,<& inconfeftam recondant,aut ve- 
Crisipfiuspa r tcm aliqaam prominentem,autetiamvcntrern 
ipfam validum & carnofmn,vt cibam immohtam diu continc 
rc,& concoqnere pof sint.bonfs enim viribas ventr is, & calore 

3°natara defc&u oris repcndit,*copenfat. S unt qa^ nihil cx ijs 
nabeat,fed ingluaie prolixa vtatar.fcihcet ea qnibos crura pr£ 
longaft lxaiafunt,proptercibihnniiditatem.caufaigitur cft, 
quod cibus i js omnibus moli <8r confici facile pofsit,vt eotu ve 
*res pcr facilcm cibi concoSionc humefcanr.Pifciu gencri dati 
funt dcntes,fed ferrati prop£ dixerim omnes. gcnus enim quod 
aaexiguueft,quodno ferratoshabeatdentes, vtquifcarasvo- 
catar,qai vnas& ruminaremerttj ob eam rcm creditar. qasc 
cnimnon vtrinqaedetatacornigcrafunCraminant.haber.t o- 
tones acutos,qnibus & fi cfbum fccarepoflant.tatnen malefe- 
cat,quoddiattasimmorarinequeant.qaamobremnecplano5 
habcnt dcntcs.no cnim fierJ potcft,vr dctcrat cibu.itaque fru- 

v * ftra 



JOS AHISTOTE.DE PAR ? ANlMAlltM, 

ftrahabercnr.Itcm ftnmachuvn alij nullumomnino habcnt, a- 
lijbrcucm.fcdcoimadconcodioncm iuuandam alij modo a* 
oium ventriculos habcnt,&carnofos,vt mugilis. Maioraatem 
jiumerusappen-liccsiuxta vcntrcm frcquentcs obtinct , vt in 
ijsquafi lacuniscibumconditum iTiaeerent,atquc concoquar. 
fcd piiccs contra qiiim aues eas appcndices fitas habenf. qaip- 
pe qui fuperne habeant ad vcntrcnr.crjm aues qpibus datri hcc 
eft,infri parte inteftini extrcmad.flumet.Vfuiparoructia non 
iiallisappcndicesinreftinalcsinfr\ cadcmdccaufa habentur. 



gcnus Pifcium omne, qaoniam cibum minus conflcere pofsiti i* 



cradaque egerar,* vorax & gulofum cft . actera 
quibusinteftinafuntrefla,ciboru!nauidafunt.cu enim cibas 
cclcritcr cgcratnr 7 proindeqac breufs \ fus fruendi fit, brcui rc- 

pctant cibam auida necefle eft -Qn* vtrinquedetata funt,par 
uom hibcre vcntrem diSum iam cftdiiFcrcntiam autem dupU 
ccm fcrc omnia rccipiant.alia cnim canino fimifcm habef,alia 
fuillo.amplior vcntcr fuillus cft,Hexnofusq,-,vtdiutius conco* 
quat.caninas paruas cft,necmultoamplior inteftino,lsuisqae 
intus. \ ventrc natura inteftinorum poilta eft in omnibus ani 
malibushabet&eadifFerentiam, vt vcnternumerofioie.alijs 2 * 
enimfimp!exintcftinum,fibiqucfimilcrcfoluitnr,aIijsdif irn» 

lc.quibnfdam enim parte qua vtftri iugitur, laxius eft:qua dcli 
nif^ar&ius.Quaobrcmcanes vehementi nixti,ncc finecracjatu 
:im partem kuant cxcrcmcnto: fcd tamcn maiori animahu na 
mero arftius partc iupcriori eft,latius infcriori. maiora multi 
plicabil'oraque funt intcftina cornigerorum. vcntris ctiam u- 
mis coru amplior,quod aafliora fint.cornigerorom cnim pro- 
pc dixcrim omnia ampliora funt pabuli rationc,vt confidant, 



c 



Qmb 



omnious 



tur,habcnr.& cxcum,actumidum qaiddammoxarftatur,<Srco 
plicatar.abhocrcfhimadexitumvfquc cxcrcmcnti pcrtcdtft 
qux qaidepars,quam podicem vocant>aiijs pinguis, alijsfmc 
pingai cft. Q^eomnia natura folcrsmolita eft ad congmam 
Cibiconfcfrionem,* excrementi vfum,3r tranfmifsionem.pro 
ccdcnti enimdcfcendcntiquecxcrementc,aut fubfiftcnti, vtim 
motctur in animahbus,qux prae magnirudincaut Iocorii calo- 
rc vcg-tiora,cibiq; plenioris indi^cntiora fint, via ampliatOTj 
fuiruvf ventrcm intcftinom angaftius excipit. fic a colo, qaod 
laxam tnteftinum vocatur«£ alui amplitudiwe rurfusfemitam 

anguft iorcm,claaIculam i flexucfis orbibus diftarr.,fabit cxcre 

mcnl 









ET KARVM CAHIS, i I B. t l I. T£ 

tncntum iam pcnitus caaporatum,vt natara ferDctur, nec vni 
wrfun cxitus fiatexcrementi.Quc igitor ammajia contincnlid 
ra cflc ad cibi defideriam conaciTir,hxciua in aluo laxiorcs ft- 
aos no habeot.fed anfraaus,orbesq; plurcs contincnt. ncc re- 
&o intcftino vtLmtur.laxitas coinj imeftini auidirate augct ci- 
oicrcftitudoaccckrat aaiditatein. quam obrcm antmaiia, qu£ 
vcl fimplcx habcnt intcftinu, ve! conceptacula ampla,cibti aut 
copiofum capiunt,aut cclcrius repctunt. Scd cam in ventre fa 
periorccibum ingcftum rccentccfle ncceflcfit,in imam autcm 

lQ dclapfumfccalentam,caaporatuir.q;.Jocu ctia aliqiicinterpo- 
fitu cflc,in quoimmutetur,* ncc reccns adhiic, ncque fam cx- 
aftus in ftcrcus fit,necefle cft. itaq; genus id animaliu omne ha 
bctcampartem,quaeiciunium vocatur, pofitam in co, qucd 4 
vcntrc tenae tendit,|ntcft ino .hoc cnim niediu cft intcr vcnrrc 
lbperiorc,in quo cibus crudus adhoc fit,& fnfcriorcm,in quo ia 
fapcraacuam excrcmcntu contmeatur.hoc cum in omnibus ita 
fititfBB in ijs patet, qux & inaiora fint & ietunarint. ita cnim 
interftitiam loci vtriuiqoeconfpicitor. nam fi ardcrmt, muta- 
tioni parum temporis fuppetit. Scd facminispars nulla ccrra 

lo fapcrions inteftini ieiuna eft.alia cnim ali js, vt iors tulerir.Mtf 



inibuscft. 



2^J 



Caput x v. 




Abcnt,quodcoagu!um vocatur,omnia qa# plurcs conti* 

nent Ventrescarentqaa: vnum habent,cxcepto leporc. 

«<ux:m quibus hocdatum cft,non in magno ventre, necin rcti 

caIo,ncque f n vltimo,quod abomafcm appellauimu^fed in eo 

<lui inter vltimum& duos primospofituscft^qcodcraafutr.vo 

c *fur.habent ha:c omniacoagulum proptcrlaft;s craflattdfci 

tam. carcnt quibus finguli vcntrcs, quod eoram lac renoc fit. 

quam ob remcornigfroram Jac ipifiatur , mutiloium nequa* 

qoam. lcpon coagulcm tit , quoniam hcibain fucci laftci 

pafcatur. talisemm humorlacin ventriculo infantiuin 

ftringit,facitq; coloftrum. Cor coagulum in oma- 

fo moltiocntriam confiftat, explica- 

ftim in ProMematibos 

eft. 




V j Afift 



5»» 



AHIST-; DI PAR. AMIMALIVM, 



A RISTOTEL 





D 




PARTIBVS ANIMA- 

LIVM, ET EAR.VM CAV- 

SI£, LIBER III I- INTER. 
PRET E THEODO» 
R.O G A Z A. 

Ifcera&utnirem, etitrdp fnftttm txftfita tn qnair, 
ft.hbuf cuiparn, & V ^nxpclbui cartntytQiem mo- 
J 9 b*beri,attnnennH!L<alvsdjftrri. Otf. I- 



10 




g| t s c e k A, venrer, & reliqa* quas expcfm- 
x.us partes , mcdo codem in qoadrupcdibus 
^J ouiparis,& in Ijs quae pedibus carent, vt fer- 
pcntibus,habcntur. naturaenim ferpcnrum 
cognata i js cft:quippe qux fjmilis fit lacert* 
^^ prxlongx,ac expedi . his vero & pifcibos o- 
miualimil.aluntmjfi quod pulmo ferpentibus datus elc, qao- 
niarr. trrra vtantur. Piices eo carem,* brachias vice puImo-J» 
r.s /ortluntur.Vcfica nec pifcibus,neque eorum vlli qax modo 
dixi,3diunaa eit,nfi tefiadini. hamor cnim i js in corticem te- 
g-»nt* , vt auibus in pcnnas abfumitur,cum exigoopota con- 
fenra finr,propter exangucm pulmonis natnram. & WJ^™ " 
crementum aiui i)s quoquc omnibus albicat, qoemadmoomn 
auibus.itaque ijs qux veilcam habent, exempta vrina, faJwg 
quxdam terrenain vails «ubfidet.quantum cnim dolce& pow- 
lcntumfit, in carncm prse foa lcuitatcabfumitur. vipers mter 
fcrpcntes cadcm a carteris fui gencr» difFerentia d.fcrepat. , qoa 
inrer pifccs cartilsginea a c*ter is fui gcneris . Na & carttlag - , 
«ca,& vipera aniwal zdont in luccm,vbi primum intra ic ou^ 
pcpercrlnt.venrres ilngulos harc quoquccmnia habenr, vrcs- 
jcra qox vrrmqccdcntarafanf. lienem ctiam admodum p jr * 
uom, vfcseteraqax carcntvcficaJerpcnrcsproprcr corporis 
formam,qax longa cft <* angnlWpecfem quoqocvifcercT, .i 

bcnr prolixam & carteris animalibus difsinnleni, vr q°i ao 
corpor:sopific.ii,quafjformolamciT.gJatamlortiatur.Umcn- 

WtT,!acW: inteltinoru ; :i tura,atq;etjafcptt., & cor, omn. 

animaliafangainc prsdita obrincnr. Polmor.cm atqu- ar 
oraniaprxtcr pifcesfitam ctiam artcri^gola^q^omnia q Jiw 

hxcdatafttnt,fimjlcm tcnentproptercaufas fupradicra.c. 




10 






IT FARTM CAVSTS, IlBER I 1 1 I v - 3tf 

pU4m ob caufam iiriimahnm aka 

ftil>abcrtnt t alianon m 

El ctla habct maior pars animaliu , quibus fanguisridquc 

aatin iccorc,aut intcftmuiepofuu.vtquod iuanatura no 

minusaiuofamiliare hsbcat.hoc ltacflemaxm <bin pifcibusco 

ftat-Cu cnim pifccs fci habcant omncs,tu magna cx partc fui» 

inteftinisanncxucotircnt.nonnullietiatoto inteftino prsete- 

xtam,vtamia.Nccnon fcrpcntu pars maxima code modo habc 
rcccrnitur.quamobrsquitellis naturafcnfus alicuius gratia 
cffcopinatur,non rcfli icntiunr.vcluntcnim idco icl adcifc,vt 
partc animx fita in iccorc mordcndo cx citct , laxando exhiia- 
rct.Quardafelic omnino caret,vtequus,mulus , v*finus,ceruu* f 
damaxamclus non diicretu,fcd vcnulis quibuida confulum ha- 
feet.vitulasctiamarinu* carct,& intcr piiccsmarinos dclphi- 
nos.Sunt<S: qoar partim habeant , partim nonhabcantcodein 
gcncrc,vt murcs.quod idcm homini ctiam accidit . aliqui cnim 
M in iecorehabcrc viiuntur,aliquicarent.itaq?dc toto gencrc 
ambigitQr,qui cnim altcrutrucopercrint,idcm in omnibus tri- 
*e boant,qaali omncs codcm habcant modo,quo aliqoi.hoc idexn 
ocibosctiacaprisq;cucnitpar6 cnimcaru maximahabct fel: 
* qaide terris quioaida adcci largfc vt cxuperatia prodigij loco 
habeatur,vtin Naxo,iedal;js quibuidamlocis omnino carcat, 
vrapudCalchide Jiuboica partc quadam agri Ad hrcpiiciu 
fcl(vtdiaumclft:;longc rcmotua lccorccft.Anaxagoras crro- 
rcopinari videtur fel cflc morborum caufam acuto;u • cu cnim 
abondar,aipergi in pulmoncm,& vcnas,& coftas ailcticrat *p 

nanq;fcreacciduntea vitiaanimaiibus>qu^ feilc carcnt.Qjflc- 



fnsctiaidpatcrct,fi itacfiit.Adh^ccopiahumoris, qu#pcr 
abfcciTusdecumbit,confcrri nonpotcft cumco,quod cxfcl- 
lisconccptacalo afpergatur. Scdenim vt biiis , quae qualibet 
*lia corporis partc gignitur .cxcrcmcntom^uoddam liqtia- 

^cntarnquc eft,fic fcl *ecr>ri adiunctum non rc; cuiqcam dck- 
g a tam,fcdcxcrcmcntumcflc videtur,quomodo & aiui,mtefti- 
nor umquc fedimcn. Attarr.cn naturacommodc vcl excremctis 
iQisintcrdqmabutitur.fednon proptcrca quxrerc omn/aali- 
^> caofa debeinus . cum cnim aliqua eiu*mcdifint,ik>vt 
^complura neccflario ciwfa eorum proucniant Qmbus igi- 
tar iecoriscoftitutio faiubris eft*& ianj;ainis natura qux icccr 
^bcat dulcis accedit , hxc atfi nullum fcl fuo in iccorc h ibcnr* 



ibuida 



▼ 4 partiux 



I* 1 



ARlSTOT. DEPAR.. ANIMALIVM 

par tim non habcnt.quam ob rcm iccinora corum qux fcllc va- 

cant,dulciafuntprobcq;coloratapropcdixcrim omnium.par 

ticulactiam iccorisquxfclliiabdiracft,dulcihima eft.at vcri 

<mx fangainc minas paro conftftant,h:rc excrcmetum id quod 

f cl appcliamas , fcmoacnr.cxcrementum cnim contrarium ali- 

mcntocflc valt,&amaramdalc/.:ftfanguis intcger dolciseft. 

fcl tgitur non alicuias gratia,fcd pargamcntum atq; inutilt cf- 

fc matcriam coftar,quam obrcm pulchrc k vctcribas dicitar il 

lis,qal cadfam,car diatias viaatur,fcllis vacuiutem eff* aiunt: 

argamentocxfohpcdu,ceruoramq;generc dcdafto.hxc cnim 

& fdlc vacant,&dia viuunt. Qainctiam ca qux illi non vidc- 

rintfcUecarcrc.vtdelphinus,vtcamclus,long3eua funt.iecoris 

cnim naturam vtopportunam ac ncceflariam omnibus fangai 

ncis animalibus caufam pro fua qaalitarc afferrc , viucndi plas 

miniis ve tcmporis ratio cft.cxcrcmcntam ctiam talc haius vi- 

fccr is c{Tr,C3Ctcroram aatcm nallam,ratio cxigit . Cordi cnim 

nalluseiaimodihamorappropinquare porcft : qtioniam illod 

affc£hxmnullumpatitarvialentUTn.c3ctcroram aatcm vifceru 

nullam ncceftariam animilibus efhnifi iccar . abfardum aatcm 

{ir,nifi vbicunq;pitaitam,aut alui fcdimcn vidcris,excremen- 

tam id cfTc patcs- par i q; modo dc bilc fclle vc ccnfcas . i cd locrs 

difcrimcn cliccrc vclis. At dc fclic quam ob caufam alia habcar, 

alia non habcanr,fati$ diftum cft . 

J2tQmcnto>& eiHsoriu,& offici*. 




■ 21 



capnt iii. 

*8c omcnto diflerarnas . hzc 






_ _tn loco,& cam intcftinis contincntar. Omcntum mcora- 
nacftaatfcaofa,autadipofa,icilicervtro modo pingucfccrc 
animal folct Qnarnam difFcrcntia intcr hxc fir,diflum iam cft, 
oritur idd^medio vcntre,tam vni vcnrri,qaam molti vcntn gejO 
ncri,quavclati faturadcfcribitur.incftcnim & in ventre,vtin 
cordc futurx veftTgium qaoddam,vnde omcntom cxorfum rcli 
quam vcntrispartcm,cunaaq; intcftina compleftitur in om- 
nibus fanguinc pr^diris,tum tcrrcftribus,tum aquaticis animi 
Itbas.ortasomcntalis necefTarijcucmt.cumenim fieca autha- 
da mifccllacalcfcir,vltimam femper curis manbranxueij* 

"icft. I* c 

proptcrmcmbranardcnfiratcinqaodfangaincialimcntitran 

mifram,colatuq; eft,id pingac cfic neceffe cft.tcnaifsiirui cnim 
hoccft,&caiorclociiftius concoaumprocarnofa Sl fjj?S a * 
acacoagmcnrationcinfcaamaut adipcm euadcrc neccile c j 



locu 




ITEARVMCAV5I5, LIBIR I 1 I I . JIJ 



Omcntum ratione hac j 
meliorem concofhonem 



t ur.calor cnim vim habct concoqacndi ,pmgae autem calidum 
cft,dfco:nentum pingueeft.itaqjdemedio vcnrrc oritur,quo- 



iccur 



omcnto 



X)* Ufl»cis 9 & tcrum ortn^ & quam ob caufam anima* 

libusfangHineprxdttu dataftnt. 

Cafut iin. 

*o /~\ Vodaaremla&esvocant,mcbrana<SHpfamcft, pcrteo- , 

V^ «i cscontinnadc intcftmoru tcnorcad vcnam viqj maio- (*&**I*(*P* 

re,&aortam,plenavcnarummultaru atq; frcqacnum>qu:tab '**#«• 
Intcftinis ad vcnam maiore,aorfamq; pcrmcanr . Orruv cias 
fimtlitcr atq: cacteraru partiam neceflanAcile coperimos Scd 



qaaobcaufamdatafitanimalibusfangainepr 
dom cft .cu cniin neccflcfit,vt animalia cibu c% 
rurfnsq,- cx hoc alimecu fiat,quod in omncs corporis parrcs di- 



aediris,c6fidcraa 
cxtriniecuscapiat 



gcratur.qaod in exaguibus nomine vacar,in langutneis iangoi 

appellatur.ideoaliquid adcflcoportet,quo tanqua radicccibas 

*° de vcrre ad vcnas deferatar.Itaq; vt ftirpes radicib* terrx in< 

nixarcibu indehauriant.ficanimalibus veter & intcftinoru vi- 



ladcs 



lices 



Quc 



ahmcntiijcftqaonapaSopcr vcnasex alimcto m^cRo iubcat 
«s parres,quod in vcnas digeritar,cxplicabitur,cu de gencra- 
tioncalimentoqjanimaiiu agemus . Sed cnim vt animaiiaian- 
gaincpneditaconftant partibu$,qua?deciarat2t! adhuc iunt , & 
quas ob caufas,diftu iam cftrfequitar qaod & reliq«um cft , vt 
^qaorad ecncrattonernpcrtinenrquibus faeminadiffcrat a ma- 



rc 



*js quoq; tuncdi(rcrere,cuindeillis trachmfi 



,de 



Cr 



tf 



'/' 



Capnt v. 

V* aut£ mollia,qu*<]j cruftata vocantur,plurirnii ah \\% 
3 f| £ ocplicauimus difrcrunt.iara enim omnevifceru nata 
" c* 11 >n habcnt ,nec vlla cx rchqufs qa* fanguine carenr.qus 
*j> gcnera fant aireru quod fcila eotcgirar : altcru qaod infc- 



Ql 



rara c6ftar,nulla 
v j cx i )% 



1*4 





ARlSTOTr. DE PAR. A- N I M • 



prius cft .ctenim languine alia habcre,alia no habcrc in racione 

rccipitar^uxcffcntiacoru de6ni..t.nihii etii cx i^ouotu gra 

Cia vifccra habct animalia ianguine pr*dita,datt ch.irr.odi am 

t.L a - ___&_.___. .^ k«r Uik^r.nnn vrfica,no vlumfpira 



hxc habet 



jxi«iliuua v.iv.tiv-' *-■** - *•■■«» ----- ___.---,., -- ^ . 

di,fcd vnfi qood cordi proportionetur.id habeat neceitc ett • vis 
«nim animx fenti<fdi,vi t*q; caofa.partc aliqua corporis pnn- 
cipm animalibus omnibus cft- At vero partes ad victu pertine 

* . /y* •% i .1 -** __..,;, ..-_.-_«- r»rr_nf_T lO 



omma 



ca quibas cibu recipianchabct molhu genus partcquod os v<v 
catur ,binos detesratq; to orc pro lingtza carnoium quidda,qao 

___ _t _r -/_!:'. ^ _4;4>4_*n __r rVnftara rtii D2ri mOCO Dincs 



difcc 



detes habet primorcs.&carnofum illud qaod iinguar propor- 
tionctor nccno tcftata omnia partc ciufmodi babet cadc cauia 
qaa (anguinea . vidclicct ad cibu fcntiendu.Quonia ctia inietta 
fimili rarionc.aat promukidc habcnr ore prodcuntc , vt apunv 
Wcariiq; <icnus>vt dittu iam cft:aot in orc condita partc ciui 

?. T_ _.r :™ *,C ^r^^iiGnt ernrris CiUklcn!. 



quanqua 



: 



rumq; genus:qua:da non ta 
fcQoram cnim complura n 
tcs obtinent. Tcftatorom 



bnsertambinisf_lciqntur,vtcrafta.a. Stomachus iiucgo- 

laaborcprxlongamollibus eft,quam inghtnies excip it , quo- 
modoauibas.tumventcrconJDngirur^intcftinumventnan- 

ncxum.fimplex vfq;ad cxitu tendit.fepijs igitur & polypis v« 
ter fimilis tufigora.xum tatmeft Atijs qoas lolliginesappeiia 
ma-,Hna qoidc conceptacola ventris ipecie gerunt : fed altcru 

. ■* . . . . _.S i__-" _ -,._.,...™, r_.rr.US 



tatra dti 



ctiamtotumcarnemollioreconftat .habenthxcita easpartes 
cadcm caoia.qua ancs.ncqu-- cnim corom vllura pc:dt coinrao 
lcrecibam.itaque ingiuuics ventti praeiacet. Habcnt cttaprc- 
fidiifilatisqaegrat.a. quod stramcntum vocatur.tunicacoa- 
tcntum mcmbranca,cxitum finemqac habcns , qoi alui excre- 
mcnta emittunt,partc quxfiilola vocatur,qua: in iiipinispcu- 



taeft.fedcumatramentumhocmoilta naoeani ou_w-,v» r - 
cipo^plurimumciacfepiacoiitinet.qooticsc^ivmctnpertcr- 

rentur, hoceffofo humorc aquam ir.i'ufcant,fibique ■'£«?■ 

feptom prcponcnt,* turbukntiara quafi quoie ablconUat.i - 
5:ntho C attaraenruinlolligincs,&polypifopr--podraut.ra 



ITEARVM CAVSlStlBERiril. JU 



htum 



quoniammagis vtantur .quodijs propterea euenrt,quia vi- 
tam litroralcm traducunt , & tair.en nihil qno fibi aoxilien- 
turaliud habenr,quomodo polypi & brachijs fibi iufficiunt,* 
coloris mutationc,quar * ipfa accidit ei pcr mctum , vt cfftifio 
atramentiloHigo folaexijs gaudctaito, vitamquc pelag^cam 
agtt . fepiaigirarplusontinet atrair.enri,&infra>quon]a co- 
pioilos.faciliascnim & longiasproianderemaioriex copia po 
tetit .fit in hoc genereatramentum,vt in auibus,c,uod percx- 



crcmcntum 



vcfica , quantumque tcrrcnum maximcfit»in atramcntum fc- 



ioni 



rcn 



Scdtum 



^uefit.hoc cnimpolypus caret.loiligo carfilaginof 
»ue getit. Quam ob caufamhoc aiia habcant,ali; 
qualcq; in vtroquc habcatur gencrcdiftum iam eft . 
txanguiafmt,& obcam rem refrigerata & pauida,hinc 7 vt ho- 
minum nonsll: s per metnm funditur aluus,aut cxcrcmcnt a vc- 
fic* profiuir , fic i js accidit quidcm ncccffario,vt incm percul- 

*ofa efRindantnr. Scd r.aturahoc cxcremento adprarfidiam & 
tutelameoramabutitur. Cruftataetiam tum locuftacca , tam 
cancri,binosdcntcshabcntprimores,&intcr caruncakm lin- 
gaaccfrigic illam , vtdiftum iam eft:tum ftomachum oricon- 
tinuo iun&um,exiguum prcportioneiuorum corporumma- 
gnitudinis.hanc excipit venter,inquolocuftz & cancrorum 
aonulli dcntes alios habet , quonia iuperiorcs illi lccarcno ia- 
tif qacant . hinc intcftinamfirnplcx vfquc ad cxitum cxc * c - 
ttecri dirigitur. Quinetiam fingula tcftatorum gencrahas 
wldem obtinent partcs .ied alia explanatius,alia obfcurius: 

30 qoanquam maiora confpeftum carum pnrbcant cuidcntio- 
rem. Cochtearigitur & dcntespr*darosacutosquchabenNvt 
diftumiam eft*fc quod interiacet dcntibus ,carnofumfimili- 
^r,vtmol!ia<Srcruftata.prormifcidc ctiam,vt di&um cjl,inter 
^ilcu 8c lingna.On auteiungitur quafiinglcuicv aimi,a qua 
fiomachu3ciflt 3 quemcxc!p!tvcntcr.!n qcofirumcft quodpa- 
paucr vocatur,mox inteftiriucontinuum tendt ilmpiex,ongi- 

_ ^% * ift l_ — 



■em 4p; 

Qtcreme 



cochlcat 



confhnt. Snnttcftatorumgcncrapluraraliacnim turbinata 
font.vtcaqu>:mododai.3]iabiualuia.alia vniu^uia, Jedrur- 



binara 



j t £ ARISTOT. PE PAR. ANIMA. 

binataqaoq;biaaluibus qaodamodo afsimilantor.quippeqns 
omnia opcrculo qaodam congcnito,carni patulaeappofitoclau 
dantar,vtpurpar*,baccin3,natices,& rcliqua generis ciufdc. 
idq; prxfidtj caafa.qua cnim tefta non protcgit, faciit c ffcndi 
poflet ab f js qas cxtrinfccas inciderent.Cacter um vniual uc ge- 
nus,qaod faxis tcfta in dorfum dat a adhaeret,fcruari poteft fit- 
cj ; alieno fcpto quodammorfo biaalue,vt quae patellae vocatur. 
Biualaefe occladcndo tuctur,vt pefttnes, vt mituli rurbinatu 
crufta iJJa pra:tenui,qa« k fronfe intcgitur , qaafi biualuc cx 
vniualut efficitur Echinusomnium maxim^i natara munitusio 
jftrquippe qui tcfta vndiqoc fpinis frcqucntibus circumualla- 
tacclctar.qoamrcmpccaliaremhancin gcncrc tcftato fbrtiri 
diximus.Natura autcm cruftatorum contii,qaam mollium co 
ftat.Altcracnimcarnismollitiamcxrrahibcnt: altcra intra. 
htncforistcrrenadaritiamobtincnt,qoanquam cchinas nihu 
habcat carnis.Igitur cxtcra quoquc tcftata omnia,vt diftu eft> 
haScnt 8c os,& lingasr effigtem,* vcntrcm,& ofticm cxcreme 
ti.fcd intcreft fita & magnitodinc.qux fingala quemadmodam 
fchabeant,ex commentatione,diffcdioncque animalium pctc- 
dam cft .quxdam cnim rationc,qu*dam confpcdta ipiaram pc: 
tius dechrandafunt.Echini,* corum quae vertibula ftue tubc 
raappelIaai,gcnas,pccul:arimodopr2Ccsereris conftant tcfta- 
tis.Habcntcchinidentes quinos,&carunculam intcrpofitam oe 
tibasiliam,qa«inomnibusfupradiaiscft.cui ftomachus ian- 
gitar.abhocvcntcrinplaradidactas,perindc acfi plares na- 
meroventrcshocanimalhabcar. Scn* cnim omncs Aftt&w 
plcniq; vacantismaterix.cx ftomachovnodcpcndent,in vnu- 
qjoftiumcxcrementifiniunt caro,vt di&um cft,ncllaeftc:rca 
ventrcm:fedqua»oaaappcllanturnamerofiora tcftae adhaerer, 
membranolis fingulaobuoluta,#paribasdiftinaa iwerwlltej* 
nigra ctiam quardam ctrcum ab orcfufim fparguntur , notninc 
adhuc nollo appcllata.fcd cum no vnum,fcd plura genera tcni- 
norom fint,omnium partes qufdem eas omncs fortiuntur rWJ 
oaa appcllata,ncc omnes cibo idonca,* paroa admodum contt 
ncnt,c«cptisijsquivadafncolant.omnino id Ipinm carrcrif 
quoq; tcftatiscuentt.carocnim non xque omniu ciculentact . 
&cxcrcmcntam,quodpanaacrvocatur,qaibufdam Cibo ic&- 
ncum,quibufdam nontdoneumcft.continethoctorbfnara om 
nia fa3clauicala:vniualaia{uofundo,vtpatclix:b«aalu»a qo* 
nodo ligantnr.quod autemoaam vocatar,latercdcxtrobiaa - 
cia habcnt.altcro latcrc oftiam cxcrcmcnti coMincnt . S cd &* 



ET £UVM CAVSIS, UBER tllT. 

qoale 



m 



m iangoineo gencre,com viget.qoam ob rcm fieri folet per id 
tempus anni qoo vigent/cilicet vere Sc autunolaborantenim 
teftata omnia per frigos & *ftum,atqueexuperantiam tcmpo- 
rispatineqneunf.argumcntoefhqaod echinis euenit . habcnt 
cnimid" tam indeab ortu naturce,* plenilunijs vberius:n6 quia 
perid tcmpus copiofius paicuntur,vt quidam puranf.fedqood 



eniorem 



ociideranr,quoniamfrigoripatcnt,vtpote qox fanguine ca- 
toreant.ex quofit.vt atftate potius vbique vigeant , prjeterquatn 
m Pyrcnfi Euripo.nam ibi non minus tcmporchyberno proba 



quod 

KCS Dfr iri tCmpU r *"• '»"" --' 



emnQmero,atq;impariomnes.qoina enim,dentes etiam, 

. -Jtrescjj totidem.R.atio,qood non onum eft,quod ouum vo- 

catur, vt m odo dixi,fed quod bona animalis enutritione alimo- 

niJq; proueniat.Fitoftreisqaidem in altero tantummodo late- 

rc,id quod oui nominc appellaturcidemqj eft,quod echinos ha- 

ocre dicimus fcd cum tefta cchini non modo carterorom oftrco- 

°nm orbein colligat vnum,fed in globum circumagatur, vf non 

partim talis,partim non talisf ormctur,fcd vfqocquaq; fimilis 

tit',vndiq ; enimin fe nutibus fuis conglobatur) idcirco ooum 

qaoq; fj.nili m<x j habeatnccerTceft.non cnim ambitn,vt catre 

ra^j/similiconftat cchinus.nanq; ijs omnibos caput in medlo 

»irum eir.ooajn quidem corporispartcm fitum tcnere fuperio- 

rcm certum eft.Nec veroouum habereconfinuum poteft,qua- 

«to neq; c*tera gencris ciufdcm fic habent,fcd altcro latere tan- 

°m ™ orbis.Ergo cum id commune omnium fit,proprium au 

«m iihns.vt globi fpeciem gerat,oua numcro impari fmt , «e- 

«Hccft.nam fi pari eiTent,perdiamctrum difpofita habercntur, 

. '' m,1 - mJ i , ncatq;indcfcruarirarionem interualli conuc- 

«at.S 1 cauremdifpofitisvtroq;laterc orbis ouum haberetur, 

Ei°-i n C 'a tCTiS ° ftreiS "° n cft - altcro enimlatere fosc orae idha 
t*& oftrcs <fc pc&incs.iraque t crna,aut qoina, aut quolibet 

inLT| ,Cr ° impa " cflc necciTc eft. Atfi tema efTcnt, diduaa 
w le laxo admodum intcruallo habcrentor . fi plura qoam 
q ina,continuum propi- ooum redderctur quorum altcrum n5 
j^^s cit.alrcrum fieri non poteft. Qnina igitur oua echinos 
fnc ^i/r^j eft.quam <* caufam venter quoq; qoinq; parti- 
co„I f* tOUdem n^enrar-fingula cnim oua.cum quafi 

Poraquardam animalis fint,modum quoq; viucndi fimilem 

habcanc 



£ AR ISTOTE- DH PAR* AHIM. 



habeant 



4 



itom 



Saeom occuparenr, vt echintt* dlffictie fnofttftwr A : cibi ml 

S^l-O» *«em qamqoemnnero h*»*»** 



rationem 



«haamcft.Cur aatem rfijparaaadmodunwalij «»£»'?£ 
«fhqnodnatnraconftanratij ali js calidiore.calor m<*"*» 
SncUere plcnios potcft.qaam ob rcm qui cibo inutdcs font, 
£ * cxcrcmcnti plaa eft.mcbiliores etiarn facit na.ura calons 
yr pafcant«r,nec ftabiles manennt.coias rci indiaam eft,qood 

cornm I pinis aliqu.d fcmpcr adh«reai,tanqtwn crebro moaea 
far.ip.n.senimvtncd.ba.vtuntar.Vertibalaaatcmparulaa 

mtura i plantisdilrerunt.fant tamen fpongijs viuaciora qa p 
pccamfpongiarvircshabcanrplantx.natara cnim contmuc 
ibinanimat.sadanimaliatranf.tpcrca qax viuant qo.dem. 
Ud non fint anim alia^M vt param admodom d.fferrc altcrom 
ab alrero videator,proptcr fuam propinquitatem.fpong'a ^ 
tar.vt diaam efi,cum adhxrendo tantum viaerc Pf«>™[°* 
ta autem nequeat vioerc,fimilis plantis omnino f-Ql*™ 
tobcra vocantcepnlinone>,atq i etiam plara eiafmodi alU w 
m ari,parum ab ijsd.fFerunt fua ipfa abfolut.one. v ucnt cmm 
finc vllo fcnfa,per inde ac planrx abfolatar.nam & in * cr . rcU ; 
Wlantisfanrnonnnlladnfmodi.qu** viuant & g.g"»- 
tujatinaliisplantis.aatabfoluta.qaalcetiam eft qoodme. 
doPaxnafosfert,vocatamaquibafdam epipetrum. hocen.m 
<Jiu vmcrcpoteft fofpcnfom Et vcrt.bulum igitar,& quKqwa 
icncrisciafdem fimilc plant* eft.quia adhxrendo rantu>r, , 
Uiait,fcdcamaliquidhabcatcarnis fenfumahqocm naoc 

vidcri potcft. itaquc vtronam modo ftatoeadu iir,inccrtu c * 
habet hoc an.malis gcnusduo foram.na,rimamc; vnam,qu 

cipiat humorcm dbo accommodatu> qaa rorfus «n ,n « ^ 
tom hamoris remaneatnihil cnim «cremenri vt c* tcra 
ftata h~c fc hibereoftendit cx qoo ^otiUim^&^ 
tticqatd fimilc in animaliam gencrccft,planta «n rc appci 

Ifsir.Nec enim planta vlla bfcfl ™™ entam ^'% pi . 

U pcr mcdiom tenoi qaadammcmbrana m qaa vi t* P «n«P 
tos lit .ratio congrua cft.C^s autcm vrtica^ appcllant ,no ^ 

fta opcriuntur,fcd cxcluf* omnino funt »js,qux m & en ^ 




■* m 



1T EAR.VM cavsis, LtllK iui. JI$ 

«ifimns.ancipiti narara hoc gcnuseft,ambigens& plate,* anl 

mali.abfoluicnim,&efcampetcrenonnollas,<S: fentire occur- 
rentia pofle,atque etiam afperiutc corporis vti,ad fctaendom 
animaliscft.At vero quodimpcrfe&u fit,&faxfs ccleritcr ad- 
!irrcar,necaliquid excremcnti emittat manifefte,qaanqoa os 
habeat,platarom gcncri fimile eft Stellaram etiam genos fimi- 

le cft.qnippe quod concharcm coplares aggrediens cxcgat. Ra 
tio eoram,qux inter exanguia 2bfolat a vioanr,vf molliom cra 

ftatorum^eadcm atque teftatornm cft.partcsigitur adcibom 
*02ccommodatas,qoas omnibusinefleneccficeft,eoqao explica 
Bimus modo fefc habent. Sed habeant cert£ illud quoq$ oportet 
qaod ci parti proportionetur,cui fcntiendi principatas in fan 
gaincogencremandatoscft.hoccnim in omnibns animalibos 
incffc ncccfTe eft.Ergo mollibus,id mcmbrana cof inctar humi* 
dom,pcr qaod gala in vcntrem perr£dit,admota potius tergo. 
nutis id a nonnullis vocatur.Croftatis et iam talc quid altem 
adiun&cm cfhquod & ipfum matis nomine appellatar. hami- 
da,corpalcntaq; ea pars cft.tenditpcream mcdiam,vt mododl 
xtTCas^ftomachasfiucgula.Namfiinfcrcam St tergu pofitus 
^Orffct^diftendiacqucnonpcflctcibo ingraliente,propter dotfi 
danticm.inteftinum k mate natura fe moaif,cxtrac]5 pofaif, Sc 
atramentnrn intcftinoannexuit,vt quamplarimam diftaret ab 
aditu,5: pars fordida a nobili,<£principe prccal haberctar,par 
tcm nanccordi proportionari <& fitus iplc oftcndir,cum fcfctn fit 
&dakcdohamoris,tanqaamconco&a,<Sr fangoinea quceda . In 
^raihrisctiameodem mo do fcnticndi nririCinatos habctur,fcd 



rciimispatct.attamcn in medio femper quaft*endum hoc princi- 
pmm cft.aat fcilicct inter partes,qu& cibum recipiunr , 8c qci 
^crctncntum emirtunt,fi fixadegunt: aat tnrcrciextram partc 
^anifcram/iincefsUiafan^Infcftsprina^ij ciu/modi pars, 
vtantcdiximas,intcrcapat ftalaeam eft.qcur etfi magna ex 
P^ b™?lcx eft,tamcn nonnullis molf iplex cft,vt iulis, & fi- 
™Jitbas prfio?:s.qaofit,vt pr^cifa vicere pofsint.natura enim 
prtcm hanc fimplicem,vnamo 



|JSi vbi potcft fimplice facit:vbi no poteft,multiplice,idq; in 
■ if* minas,in alijs magisapcrtu cft.partes aute qu£ cibil admi 




-— '5u««fcaaDioruoDnnenspoteirate.qi 
«cft n ^" P3rtc P rf ore hahctar»ijs intra dentes taic ientoriu coti 

VKMqi cxifit intcftinumrcau.fimplcxad oftiura vfquc 



ocrc 




3tO ARISTOTE. »E PAR. ANIMAL. 

excrementiporre&um. quibufdam hocrctortum in anfra&ura 
cft.Sant ctiam qux vcntrcm ori adiunttam,intcftinuir.q; a vc 
I rc reuolotom habcant.vt qux cdaciora maioraq; funt,cocepta 
colutn cibi obtincant copiofioris.Oenus cicadarnm pcculiarcm 
maximc omnium iftorum naturair. fortitum cft . quippc qu 
parrcm candem in vfom tom cns,tum lingoac conftitutam ap- 
tifsimc habeat,qua vcluti radicc cibum ex humoribus trahat. 
fiempcomneinic&orumgenus minimo alimcnto contcntuta 
cft,<fcpropcfibiipfafufficiunt,non tam corporis exiguitate, 
quam fr igiditate.quod enim calidum eft, cibom & dcfidcrar,* !• 
concoquit cito.contra quodfrigidumeft,cibocarercfacjlc pa- 

fitur.fcdomniummaximccicadarumgenusieiunum eft. htis 
cnim ijs alimcnto cft humor,qui in corporc rcmanct ficnt ani* 
malibus Ponticis,quac non diutius quam diem vnum viucrc 
<3ocunt,quanquamillisvitadic vno pcrquam brcui tcmporis 

{pacioddcribiror.ijsplostcmporisdatur,tamenid quoq, bre- 
oecft.Scdcumdcpartibus animaltuminferioribus di&u iani 
£t,ad rcliquas cxtcrjoresrcdcundum eft,incipicndumq, no vn 
dc digrcfsi fomus,fed ab ijs lpfis,qoar ruodoexpofuj,vt ijs expc 
diris qux moram cxigutbrcuiorcm,amplius in gcncre aniina- 20 
lmm pcrfeflo,* fanguine pradiroimmorcmur. 

£>epdTtibu$extcriorthu$gcneri4tnJefii 9 earuntq; tnterfe 

chfitdcntia. Caput vi. 

Rgoinfcftaanimaliaquanquamnon partibus nomcrofo 

conftant,tamen ipfainter fe difsidcnt.quippe quac cum owi 

fiiamultoshabeantpcdes,quoniamcontra tarditatcm frigidi- 

tatemq; naturae corum numcrus cxauftus pcdum motioncm ef 

ficiatfaciliorem.tamenvarienomcrum hunc fortiantur . qu* 
cnim plunraom profoi corporis Iongirudinefrigcnt , numcro 

prsecipuc fupcrant,vt iulorom genus.Quinctiam quod princi-J* 
pia plura habeant,hinc & infcftioncs font, 4 nomcrus pcdnm 
proindeaugcturquibus autcm pcdcs pauciorcs , hxc volocres 
font,vt pcdum inopia adiumcnto pcnnarum compcfetor. Ipfa- 
rnm autcm volocrom qux pafcuis viuant,* pabuli caufa ne* 
ccflchabcant euagari>hf quadripenncs funt,* corpulctiam ha 
bcnt lcuiorem,vt apcs,& rcliqua gcneris ciofdem binas v troq; 
fui corpuris latcrc pennas gcrunt.At vero quae corporecxigoo 
funt,bipennes conftant: vt genus mufcarum.Quf au rem parua 
funr,& vitam ftabilcmagunt,multis fulciuntur penis,vt apcs: 
fircrufta pcnnasobte&asgcrunr,vcIut gallcrucx & caetera Jd 
gen*s infe&a.fcilicct vtpcnnarum wixcs intcgrastucantor.Co 

enim 




IT I4HTM CAVIIJ," trniKiitu Jtl 

mlm ftabilia fint,corrnmpi facilios poflunt, qoim qoar tnom , 
cirantnr agiliori.itaq; fcpto propofito muniuntur. Qujnctiam 
pcnnaeorumcaret& fiifura,* caule.non cnim penna,fcd mc. 
branacatis5emoIaeft,qo«praeficdfate neceflario abfoluatnr 
corporeeorum,cum carnis portio frigeat.infc&a autem funr, 
tom ob caofas predi &as,tum etiam vt fcfc toto inflexu feruare 
pofsint.conglomerantur enim quaxunq,- ex i js proli x o corpo- 
refont.qaodefncinifiinfedisnonpofrct Quar aatem glome- 
rari nequeant,contrahont le in incifaras.qood patet,cum tan- 
guntar,velateaqaa:cantharivocantur.vbi enim meruerint, 
mota ceflant>totoq; corporeindnrefcant.infefta vcro hxc cfle 
neccilarium propterea eft,quod in corum eflcntia ineft , vt mul 
ta principia habeant.caq; rationc fane plantis afsimilantor . vt 
cniraplant* ipfa qaoqac praccifa viucrc poflbnt, fcd h*c alt- 
quandiu,ill* vel pcrfici poflunt,acdu*ex vna atq; etiam plo- 
rcs namcro prccreamur.aculeb ctiam armanior nonnolla infc 
ftacontraanimalianoxia.geritar acoleus alijs partc priorc» 
alijs pofteriore.autenim ore,antaluo extrema nam vtelephan 
tis parsdelegata odoriboscommodaetiam tom ad pugnadum. 



ibus 



% 



admoaeatq;,& dcfcndat contra aliorom iniurias . Qujbus aute 
non ia orc aculcus,harc dcn tcs habent,cibi fcilicct aur conficicn 
di,aatcapiendi,admoocndiquegratia»vtformicae,vt apes . At 
vcro qoxaculeoin2luoarmatafunt,haecvtanimofa aculcum 

proann}sobtinacrc,qui intraaloamconditas eft,vt in apibus, 
& vcfpis,qaonia volucres fant. nam fi pra*tenuxs fragilisq, aca 
leas extri paterct,faciU corrumperetor. Scd fi vt in fcorpionc 
diftarct^onus ita afferrct.fcorpio profcfto quod non volam* 
*° *^g r cfla femoueat,caudamq; fortitos fir,aculeam caadx adiu 
«om gerat,vel inotilem ad pognam habeat,nccefTe cft . Nulli 
acalcus in alaocui penna: binar.qacd cnim imbccilla paruaquc 
»Qnt,idcobinashabentquippc cum vcl & paucioribos cfFerri 



quacpa 



imbec 



*trircpolTont.At vcr6 qua* pluribus pennis prardita funt,quia 
aathora funt,merit6pcnnas plorcs obtinuerc , partcq; poftc 
riorc valent.inftrumcntum autcm non idcm ad vius difsimile* 
^ rif,nc "potcft,fedaddcfcndcnduacutifsiir.u, ad guftadu 
""^m^cibiattrahcnsmdiuscft.Vbi cnim licet doobus 
▼" ad duo opcra,ncc aliud impcditur, nihil talc natura facerc 

x folct» 






f olet.quale pe r inopiam ars excuforia obelifcolychnium ex ve- 
rulucanaqjcomponit.attamcnidfineri non poteft,eodem ad 
pluraoperaabntitur.Pcdcspriorcs nonnnlla ex ijs longiores 
£jeo habent,vt quoniam proptcr ocalornm duritiam non cx- 
qnifitc cernant,crunbus ijs longioribus abftergant incidentem 
2iolcfuam,arque arceant.quod Sc facerc muicas vidcmos,& 
apes,& rehqaas generis emidcm.femper enim prioTibus cruri- 
busvallant&protegunt.pofterioramedijs longiora funr, vt 
ambolent melius,* attollantur faciiius de terra.cum auoiare i- 
bct.quodplanjus ea oftcndunt qu* faliunt,vt locuftae ,vt culi- ro 
ces .cmn enim inflcxa rarfus connixa extendunt,attolli de ter- 
xa necelle eft.Locuftx non partc priorc, fcd poftcricre habcnt 
crura illa ad gubcrnaculorum effigicm condita.fuffraginc enim 
intuslltitineceiTeeft.qaodnulh crurum priorum datum eft. 
omnibushisfenjpcdcs,ijsctiam,quoiura cnixu faliunt con- 

numcratis. 

Departihustefiatorumexterioribuf. Caput VII. 

Eftatorumcorpusnonmultiplcxeft.cuius rci caufacft, 
^ qaodcorunaturaftabihscft.Qua-cnim mobiliora funt, 
hxc phires habeant partes necefic eft.quoniam aaiones eorun^o 
iint,& officia.plura enim dcfiderant inftrumcnta ca , qua» plu- 
res motiones cxcrccnt. Ad hxcaut omnino immobilia iunt,ant 
parummotusatiipifcuntur.vcrumnaturaconfulens eorum li- 

luti,duritiam teftae obduxit.Sunt alia vniualuia,aha biualuia, 
ahatarhJnata,vtdiaomiamcft.turbinatietiamgencri?,aliain 

anfraitumir,tortafant,vtbuccina.aliainglobum tantuin cir- 

cama&a,vt chinoium genas,nccnon biuiluium.alia referati- 
liafunt,vtpcaincs,&iuituli.abalt:rocniinlaterenodohg-n- 

tur.qurdjm vrroq; latcre conm>:a mnt,vt vnguium genus.Ha 

bcnt omnia teftata caput infra,plantarum modo.cuius rei cau- J 

fa cft,quodcibum dc imo capiant,vt plants radicibus fuis nau 
riunt.itaqiijsvfueaenit,vrinfcriorahabeantiiipra,iapcnora 




iiuVi 



b 



reat. Ca:terx corporis partes noiriiue vacant , prxter cam qu* 



cibumrecipit- 



>u*partibw crtfjla tuttrtorum, 

Ccpv.t VIII- , 

i. rr ... p ej j cr ^«.-r,r.lnrcsOD 



tinaerunt.S umma coru genera quatuor nnmero ionr, i - 
cuft J c.gamari,fquilla:,cancri,' i ua;fingulain plurcsfpccics 



_nun 



I * 



Et EARVM .CAVSts; tiBER. Ilffc ?i j 

ftingurfur.qua; non modoforma,verii magnitudine ctia mul 



<am intcrfcd.ffcraitrral 



icnt.Gcnn$igiturcancrariu&locQftarinfimiliainrcr fe funtf 
eo qnod vtrunqj brachia forcipibus dcnticolatis habeaf .fcd hec 
non ingredicndi caufa habenrur,led vt ijs qaafi manibus capiat 
& rettneant.quam ob rem cotra quam pcd©-. ca flcclere fokat. 
hos enim in cauum,illa in orbe fletfnnt & cjrcnmagut.fic enim 
ad cibum capiendum admouendumq} comodias agitur.-Sedtn- 
tereft,quod locuftat candam habenf,cancri no habent . locuftis 



xocmm vt nantibas cauda 



momnitendo.Atcancrisinutiliscft,quoniavita agete terre- 
«wnvwernasq; tubirefolear,qai tame cx ijs pekgij funt,ij p e 
«fcshabcntlongerctardiores adambulandu.funt enim csreris 
iph nantiores,vt maia:,& qai heracleotici appellatnr. crnra ijs 
bteuia,qnia parum moucntnr.fed falos ecrnm beneficio crofi* 



firaioris 
niora 



oriscotfngit.!taq; maijscruratcnnfora,hcraclcoritf$ brc 
«Cacclliaatc,qai pcrqaa cxigoi in pifcictdfc rcpcHmor, 
pcdcs nouifsimos latinfcolos hat>er,vt ad inndu vriJes finrvqna- 
ii pro pinnak<?,aotrcir.ispcdes habcrctur. Squill* 4 c*ncrar?o 

l ScncrcdiiT(pnif-<^% nno^^; _*.(■.-<«-• \ „_.._l_u*_ l__: % ■ 



dond 

ad 



qaod 
pcdc*,eonanq;re- 

nomagis 



Y"-— ■•■•nMiuiuHui.jjtuM oinincm piurcj,quoaromapis 
adnandu,q t ,am adingrediendo fintfusptcnatora prooeJiorcs. 
jwrres ftipfnas & capiris ita habcr,vt alter- ad accipicnda red- 

«ndamqjaqaambrachiaramfpeaxcondira: fm»:-altcr* pla- 
morestabcllatioiciq0einfosminis cruftati gcncris omnibus, 
joam m maribas conftcnt.& intcriora vcr6 opercoli apolkati 
«"rtiora,amplioraq; f_ tnlnr cancri h.„enr,quam maresVqao- 

1 033 m f*) <Vrir««* M A ^ ^ I _____•__.__ ft. 



mam _, 

Jorcfolcnt 



font 



•°req;habet.Parte enim dcxtra efficaciora fuap 



? 



«rT^ ial . ia ?' a - red - s ' t °r -« femper a natara caiq^vel foli, vel 
P«cpae,,dqaod vti P 6t:vt d_es,eojm ar 

?_* <*~___9 — _ I* 






cotmaos,* 



aat cxerf os,aut ferrs- 



«jnarn vfas addcfcndcndu aut dimicadu Gamari foli nf, ce 

tamar« ^° ^^ 00 ^ 1 f ° rS t-feritfonrfF* hab ^ gradiorcn 
e»«l q / 3af ^ina:.caofaanrcorforcipd habc5t,qt,od ej 



> 



«HiS n7- t,qaod f ° rCip " habct ^ 1 " alrcr " ^andiorc- incertc, 

quod ad i ff^* gcncr rt is natura tcner » fcd ita d e fi«««f » vt 



x * Qu 



t!4 -JHLISTOTS. 51 PAR. ANlMA. 

OnifnamfitaspartiumfingQlarumfiC&qnaaifFercntU intcr 
feirfcrcpent,& qao marcs cum f oeminis difsideant,ex commc 



tr« 



xtcrionbus molliitm ammah^m J 0'p 
carenti»m. CapHt IX. 

k cum aetcrorum 



MOllium partcs lntenores 4nic,ium «ww*»— ■ " r V 
aunc cxtcriorom ordinem perfequemur.habcnt haec to- 
risalucumcorporisinaifcrcmm,&pcclcs parti priori mnttos 
circum caput,infra oculos circa os & dcntes.fcd cum cstera ani 
malia quibtfs pedes,aut partc priore pofteriorcq; cos habeant, 

. n r 1.2 i:i :. n iM n «nr * faneuineca 



innituntar 



aariaicrcjvica^ufciwu.i^r"— ~~- — • w . . 

r ent,hoc vnam genus pcdcs parte,qaam priore in «> « a P imI »! 

omncs continet.cuios rci caafa cft,qaod pars eius poftenor aa 

priorem addutfa eft,extremaq; cocant & confundantar, quo- 

fnodo tarbinatis inter tcftata accidit.Gcnus cnim teftatum «n 

nino partiam craftatis,partium mollibus fimile eft . qua enim 

foris terrcnam portionem,intus carncam habent,cruftatis alsi- 

jnilantur.qua aatem forma ciafmodi corporis conftat,cu moi 

libusconucnit omne qoodammodo,fed praccipne quae ex turoi 

natis cunicalo in anfradwm contorqacntur . natora cnim eo- 

ram vtrorunq; perindc fc habet,qaafi qais dire£a linea (vt in 

qaadrapedum & hominam gencre eft)primum extrema Unes 

parte fupcriorc os ntum intelligat,qua,a: mox ftomachu,qua, 

b.tam ventrem,qua,c.deinde inteftinum vfq; in oftiom excrc- 

mcnti,qua,d.ha:c ita in fanguinco gencrc difpofita funt . « ca- 

. ri.it ui».. n»'mnm rfV,nn3 mrum lploram 



corum 

caafa a natara adiefta fant,vt priora poftcno 
aftatis etiam infectisq;ordo interiorum code* 



modo 



fanguineo generc At veromollia * tarbinata inter fe qoidew } 
proxime conftant,fcd i js econuerfo.nnis cnim ad principm n 
atur,quafiquislineamefneaendoaddacatd,ad a. Cumeniii 
jta partes interiores i js collocentor,ambit alueus,qul m poiy- 
pis tantam capat vocatar,qaalis in tcftato gcnerc tnrbo elt.n 
aliud intcreft,nifi quod altcris mollc quod ambit,cft:aiteris ; 
ro tegmine carnem natura complcxa eft,vt feruentnr,cum 
ficulter moaeantor.hinc fit,vt excrcmcntom tam ffl^W^ 
tarbinatis meatu ori vicino emittatur:qnanquam ™ lllD V , 
fra,turbinatis alatere.hacde caufa pcdes molliom ita po 
fant,&contri qa;W. castcroram. Sepi* atquc *<> ll 'S ,n< * 
fimUi,vtpolypi,modoconftant:qaoniam vimnandi tar i 



IT EAR.VM CAVSlS, ttBBH^ini. J*J 

tnodo habent,cum polypi velingredipofsint.habent cnirri fe- 
piac&lolligincs pcdes fopradentes/cnos exiguos,coromt]j no 
uiisimosduos maiores.reliquos autcm o£onorum daos infra 
omniDm maximos.vt enim quadrupcdibnscrurapofteriorafir 
miora validioraq;funt,ita ijs quoqoemaximi quiinfr£ habcn 
tur.his cnim onus fuftinctur,motosquepotifsimum agitardao 
criamillinouifsimimaioresfaismcdijs fant,quia illjsmini- 
ftrcnt.polypus mcdios quatuorhabetmaximos. Omnibosigi- 
turhispcdcsoaoni.fcdfepijs& lolliginibus brcacs , polypi* 
iomagni.alucum cnim corporls fepi* & lolligincs habcnt magnfi 
polypi paruum.it aque quod natura polypis cx corpore dcmpfe 
tat^idinpedumlortgitadinemaddidit.quodfepijs & lolligini* 
basdepedibus abftulerat,eo corporis magnitudinem auxir* 
qaam ob rcm polypis pedes non fblom ad nandam vtiles funt> 
^ctiamadambolandum.fepijsautcm &loIliginibus inutiles 
^nt.parui funt enim,cum alucum habeant magnum.cum itaq; 
pcdeshabeant breues atqacinutilesnef ftu maris tempcftate* 
q$ exturbentar faxis,vtq; dclonginqao admoucant, ideo pro 
^ufcfdes binas praelongas habent,quibus vcluti anchorls fnni- 
*otantor,feq; ftabiliant md^onadigij tcmpeftatc vrgcnte.vcnen* 
tar ctiamprocul,oriq$tlonginquo admoucant.Polypi proma 
f€idccarcnt,qooniam pcdcs ad vfum candcm commbdos ha* 
be-ant.Quorum autcm pcdibbsacctabola cirramcntaq; adfunt* 
«£c vim contextumqj talem habent,qualem implicamcnta illa 
qaibasdigitosantiquimcdid inderc folcbant.ita enim fibris 
im plexafunt.quibuscaranculas,cxteraque ccdcntia trahant. 
qaippc qaae lapfa prehcndat,intenta prcmant & rctincant,cum 
P*r$ intcrior tota contingat atquc ample&atur . itaqcc cum 
*«ad non habeant,q"no capcrc admouerequc pofsint,nifi aut pc 
J°dcs aut promufddcs,h*c pro manibas obtinentad vim tam in- 
rercfidam,tampropulfandam,atqacctiamadc«tcra yitx mu- 
ncra nccefFaria.fed cum cartcra omhia gcminis acctabulis ferie a 
c 3p?te in cxtrcmos vfque cirros habcant ordinatam,genus v«u 
ry quoddam fimplfd infpergiror acctabuio.cuius rci caufa 
*d longitudincm tennitatcmqucbrachij rcfcrcnda eft. cu cnim 
angfcftum fir,fimplicis aceta&uli ordincm tantum capiat ncccf 
f C cft,non igitur ita conftant,quia id optimum /ed quia necefTc 



^ndantem 
gmum 



hxc 



^««gincs ?ocant,latioxcm hanc habcnt,ncc angoftam 



x 



3 Pi* 



32* A*I*?©T* DS ? A fti A N I M A. 

* -^s «./«.in. «in.vjerpfni^m nf*rnnim alucurrufcd dc irtcdio 






i(. 



r*» 



conipicuum, quontam 



paraaai hahcant aiaeum>qucmiati*iais pcdibus dirigerc pof- 
dc i::Uiioribuf quam de cxtcrionbps partibus. . ^ 

r>e e&tncrihnzanimantiHm »w farorPtin,fa7i^4int{;pra- 

ditmimpai tiba^O 1 cvrum ctim hrntne inijs 

MjteYentta. C*P»t *• 1 I0 

J.£ g^ncreiangtiircoviuiprodcnuu diiicrtdam cir, 

l&itiorrpctitoa rcliqa^partiom eaiom-qw anti 
u^isouipaxisp^nmododi^mos.partcs qaibus 





WW&^Konnulks inddcretum hoccft, vt cancris . coilam 
pmnihus viuipttiscft.ouiparorcmajijscft, alijrdeeft. Qv? 
cniiu ^w.ra jbabcnricolla» .«Jarn -pbtinent 4 Q«* autem 
ipiritu cxtrtaf<wu$.«on accipiunSrfarcnt hac partc.OpaUC w 
rcbr^grafcapot^HriUtn cft.hanc cnitn par|{m genus oinnc .an 
guiacam habcat ncculceih* quiuc loco bjskt&O cordi , ob ■ cas 
quas tx iiaixms caaiasUcdnKKMf.a ffciiimjn ctiam nonnario*- 
in^G^Joc.^it 9 quc.niani(ar.g sciusricmbntcmpcr&tos ^ 
,dice iir^?; idoncas tum ad ccrt&si»? t«pefacienduro,torn ad icn 
fcma trr.RG llii-tcm atq; inrcgnrqtcna.T^ctiam itcm partftij 
fubiecit cam qu* aditum cibo prxbcrfr.hiccaimcommodc coi 
ioc^rcturquippcccmncq;iupra^or&vita^prii\cipiam,VCn 

tcr conftityificffctncq^fiinfc«^.qiiitx* im*€ cfttflflBffWi 

i-pro^ 

& ccn- 

coqucndi d* ftarct. S«d cnim capnt ca casia conditum eit . co*m 
aurcm artcriacgratiahabcnH-.quippcqaod cam atqnc. ctiara 

rotcgjf.qmplcxoq; faa toeafur -hoc catfcris aiwmal<7 
,hilcAvcrtebriscompa.'3un\cft.at lnpp & lcoci cli? 

tos vics 





coilum ijs 



gct.comodiu.s <SWpad robur,quam ad c#t 
ffqratur 1 voluir oilo «3 capitecrurapi 



ctusq 



priora^pe* 



tus^Iu 




■j'i * 



poris 



tr eArvm cAvstsi lib. liiti $17 

^ons molcs afsidcret. pondas cnim tardiorem reddit & mcnte 
dfc f cnfum communcm.qaa ob rcm concretionc & poridcre gra 
uioreopprimctc^corpora vergerein rcrra neceffe cft.itaqjna* 
tora tutc con(hlens,pro brach ijs & manibus crura priora qna* 
fcirapedibasfubdidir.nam poitcriora bina omnjbns grefsilibus 
cflenccefieeft.Quorum igitur anfma pondus fuftinerc no pof- 
fet, tac qaadrapcdafafla font. animalia nanque omnia, exce- 
pto homincjformam gerunt pomilionis.eftenimpomiLocu- 
Rfrpars faperior magna cft,inferior qux fuftinct pcndos nio- 

Ic tanqj exerccf$parua,mimmco; refpondens fuperiori.ibpcrio- 
rc intdltgi eam volo, qu« a capite vfq; ad exerementi oftium 
pertendir,qou pe&us etia c6tinetur.hominibusigtturh£cpars 
modiceadinferiore codita eft,mulroq$ minoradultis ismper- 
tefiivqj cuadit.infantibusenim & diucrfo cft : fuperior magna* 
inferior minor eft.qua ob rd icrput infantes, ncc ambulare pof 
funr.ia principio 5 ncfcrpere qaide poflanf*fcd immobiles iacct 
onines cnim infanres pomiiiones iunt,tu prcfc&u artatn.homi 
»ibus pars inferior arguctur qaadrapcdibcs contrik , inferior * 
primam maxima eft,m prccdlh temporis fhpericr crefcif,qiKC 

lofciiicet cacihqu?* ab ano ad caputporre^a cft.vndefir vt polli 
equ/ni paalo iais paretibus i unt fnmmifsiorcs, stq; adulti cru-- 
repofteriorecapur attingerenequ£Ut,quod noueiii facile attin 
gm Solipcda & bifalca ira fc habtt digitata aut cornnq; vacna 
forma quide * ipfa pomilioni s fnr.t,fed mjnus. qua ob rC : pars 
coru inf crior ad iupcriorc ocfedus ratione incremctum 

forma 



«t. t <i\»iij ctia & pifciu genus, omncq, fanguine prjeditu t on 
pomiuonis eft,vtdixi.Qoa obre bruta hominibas funt dcm 
tiora ctcnim intcr homlnes paeri viris,& inter vircs pomilio- 
»c«mentedeficiut,quaqaaalijsviribusfortcvale5t. cniu.T rci 
J caufa,qua diximus,eft, qood principiu animi admodu difFicib 
^ota,corpulcntumq; in ijs eft.addo ctiam quod cu minos rrma 
n ^ at calorisjqni efferat,p]us autcm terrena* porti< 



^Iccap U t<jj infri habcaf.ad poftremum immcbikfif, & fcnftx 
Vacunrn.piantaqaccft vicemutata,vt fuperiora infri,infc:io- 
w iopra habeat rsdix enim plantariflll vim obf inet oris * & cz- 
Pstfs.iemcn contra, fupcL extremifque ram»s conilftit . Scd 

jwn ob cauiam animaiiu ^liudbipcs, aiiud mulcipcs, alitjd 
omnirio cxpcs,& cur aiia pbnte^i aiia animantes coititerinr, 

x 4 cxpli 



pZ ARISTOT. Dl VAK. ANtMALt/M» 

«plicatum iam cft. atquc ctia qua dc canfa homo animalium 

vnus ercftus eft, vtque creftus iuaptc natura*non dcfidcrat cru 

ra priora,fed pro ijs brachia & manus a natura rccepit. Anaxa 

goras igitur homincm prudcntifsimum omnium animalium 

tflc ait,quoniam vnus omnium manus obtinet. fcd refta rario 

cxigit,vt quoniam prudentifsimus omnium cft,ideo manns rc 

ccperit jTianus enim inftrumcntum funt. natura autcm, vtho- 

mo prudcs,ita tribucrc folct cuiquercm qua vti pofsit. re&ius 

cnim tibia dabitur pcrito tibix,quam tibiam habcnti pcritia ti 

bia: addctur.rcm cnim minorcm maiori potiorique natura ad- Xa 

didit,nonmaiorcmnobilioremquc minori. qnod fi ita mclius 

eft,naturaaut cx ijs qu# ficri pofsint, faccrc folct q# mclius 

fit,homo non proptcr manus prudcntifsimus cft:fcd quiapru- 

dcntilsimus omnium animalium cft, idco manus obtinct . qui 



ftrumcntu/cd 



*^*W""»-~ w 

ta.cft enim,vt italoquar,inftrumentumantcinftra.natura igt 
tur ci qui artcs plarimas rccipcrc potcft,manum rcddidit,qux 
ad plura inftrumcnta vtilis cft. Qui autem hominenvnon bc- 
nc,feddetcrrimt omnium animaliumconftarcaiunf,nudum*o 
cnim atq; incrmcm creatum rcfcrunt 3 non reflc ij fentiunt.car- 
tcra enim animalia vnum auxilium habcnt, idquc nallo pafto 
poflimt permutarc,fcd quafi cakcata femper dormirc, ac om- 
nia agercnec vcftitum vnquam dcponerc plcniorcm^ncque ar 
ma mutarc qua; fcmd acceperint,oeccfle cft. At homini mul- 
ta habcreauxili a liccr,ea quc fubindc mutarc arma ctiam qa* 
Velit,& vbi vclit,capcrc potcft . manus enim & vngois cft, & 



armo 



rura,aut inftrumcntorum.qoippc qux omnia h#c fif,qooniam 
omnia & fomcre potcft,* tcncrc.cui manus naturae forma etiajO 
adhibita eft congrua,diuifa enim & mukifida cft : nam in eius 
diuifione,componcndi faculta;» cft. in compofitionc vis diuide 
di efle non poflet - vt fi etiam cadcm modo fimplici modo duplj 
d,&omninomultifariam liccf. Qu,n & flcxusdigitorum*» 



n&us 



vt cnim fi manus omnino deeflef ,potcftas capicndi non hcrct: 
fic nifi digitus hic a latcrc adeflef ,non cadem illa facoltas pro- 
be darctur.hiccnimapartcinfcriori furiumprcmit,vtcactcri 
i fupcrioredcorfum.quod fier|itaoportct,fi validcquali co- 

pula forri coiligandum iit.pollet hic piurimum,vt vnus multoj 



ET £ A * V M CAT.SISi . L I B. III I. 



I*> 



«qmparet.Drcuis ctiam clt, vt robuftus iir, & qooniam nullam 
pr^ftarct commoditatcm fi Jongus cffcr. retf c ctiam nouifsi- 
mns digirus paruus cft ,& mcdius Jongus^tanquatn rcmos naui 
gi j mcdius.quod cnim officio capitur,circiim pcr mcdium digi 
tomcomplcaipotifsimum ncccfle cft. ScdenimpoJlcx&ma- 
gnus,qui a latere iunftus cft, idco appclJator,qaamois paroos 
fit,qaia ca*cri fmc co inutilcs fcrh ftmt. Vngocs eriam rcfte na 
tura molita eft.qoippc qu* cactcris animalibos cos ycI ad vf um 
aliamdedcrit,homini autcm opcrimenti tantum graria cxcogf 
10 tarit,digitos cnim cxtrcmos integunt & tuentur.flexos brachio 
rum homini tum ad cibum admouendum,tom ad caeteros vfc*> 
contri quam quadrupedum gcncri agutor.illis nanquc inrror 
fcs. poplitcs fletfi neccffc cft.vt ad grcflfum vtilcs fmt.vfum cm 
pedumprsftanr arrus priorcs,quanquam iilius criam gcncris 
ca quaedigitata funt,non modo ad grcflum vtuntur prioribos 
cruribus, verumetia ad manns officia vti nitontor.quippe <p* 
& capiant prioribus cruribus & rcpugnent.quodfoiipcdcs po- 



forioribus faciunt non cnim crora corum priora cubiris mani 
busqucproporrioncrcfpondenr,vrnonnoIJorum cx jjs, f qoora 
lojttdcsindigitos finduntur. obidpcdes priores quinis diftin- 
Ctosdigiris habcnt,poftcriorcs quarernis, vr lcones,& canes,at- 
que ctiam lupi^ pantherar,quintus cnim corum quinto, ma- 
gnoqucmanusrcipondet. Scdquarparua intcr digitata fottf 
poitcriorcsctia cjuin<j;digitos obtincnr,qoonia fcrpcrc ioleu 
lcdicct vr vnguibos numcrofioribos apprehendendo faciiios 
oorcpanr adfublimiora.rcftus inrer laccrros hominiconftira* 
tum eft,carteris inter crura priora. larom id cfTc in hominc ra- 
tionc permirrirur,cum nihii Jaccrti adiudi larcribos impediat. 
Atquadrupcdibu 



u 



1 1* 



3omtitanr,protendunt,pars harc coartata eft.vndc fit,ne quadru- 
pedcs eo loco habeant mammas.nam homini,quod &fpacij la- 
X,tas P er ™'ttit,& carnoia ea pars eft.cum oper iri fedcm cordi» 
conaeniat,mammarpec1ori afformatse funt carnolenta:. mari- 
us ^em ob eam quam diximus caufam :ied f ceminis ad alte 
rum quoque opus narura mammis abutitor, quod eam fxpc (& 
ceredtcmms.cibum cnim in i js recondit iuis paruulis. binx ho 
nimi mamm ? ,quoniam binar iunt partcs,datra & finiftra,d» 



fcula:,ipacio interpofito difterminanturrqu 
»» ioco fibicoeant,finc vlla modcftia.cateris 



a 



mt : ita cninj 

habcntur iin 



x 5 imp« 



* 



3JO A-AISTOTE. D£ r A R. ANIMA LXVMi 

impedimento.quibus cnimfolidj vngpla,autcornaa,&partus 
numcroparciori,hs£c mammas inter fcmora habentjeasquebi-. 
nas . Qnse autem numeroio partu,& pedc muhifido funt , h*c 
aur plures per venrrem duplia ordincvt roquc de laterc geruti 
Vt fues,vt canesiautbinas-tanctr.n mediovcntre,VtIed.€CKis rci 
caafa c;ft,non quia parcifsime gcncrat, nam plures quim duo$ 
* intcrdum *dit,icd quod mxnus ia&c abundat. cibnm cnim qae. 
raroaftumir^quoniamcarniaorum eft,in corpns abicinit.Eie- 
phasduas tantum habet,casquc iub armls . caufa cur doas h* 
bcat,quod vniprolis cft.car non intcr femora, quod multindu io 
«ftfnullamcnim intcr fcmora habct,cui pedcs cliicreti in digi- 
tos funt. cur fapra fub armis \ quod in i js qus plarcs obtincnt 

mamrnas & pritnx 1'untjSc plarimum la&is haaritif ,qus.ea par 
te continentur argumcnto eft ,quod icrofse faccre aflblenr. por 
ciscnim arditis primis,taammas prxbcntprimas.crgocui vnfi 
cft quod primum in iucem prodi: , idprimas habeat maminas 
ncceflccft.primcTautemquxiabarmishabenriir. clephas hac 
decaufacfaas,eoquelocomammashabct quaeaotem multipro 
: lafunr,h;ectotovcntrecxubera!ir.cuiusrei caufa eft, qtfod ca 
qux prolcm numcroficrem edutatura fint, mammas ddideratza 
numcroiiorcs. quas cuin perlatitadinem non niftduas hajcrc 
pofsint,videlicetrationcbipartiticorporis,in dcxtrum fwi- 
ftrumque per longitadmcra habcant,neceflc cft . Locus autcm 
vnus qui inter priora & pofter iora crura intcriacet, por rtctns 
per longitudinem cft. Quaeautcmnon malnfida,fcd deprola 
fiint,autcornata,h«cintcricmcra mammas habcnt, vtcqua 
afina,camclus.h<rccnim fingulospannnt.&pcsequo &afino 
ft>lida$,cameIo bi<uicas.ceruaetiamxapra,vaoca,* rdiqua ge* 
neriseiuiderrunanimas oartc cjdcm gerunr.cuiusreicauiaeit, 
quodhsecfurfum verfuscapiant fuiccrporis incrcmcnta. na-jo 
que vbi confluuhmi & copia excrementi ianguinis,qui locos 
fan^Urfraefr,*circaeffiacntisrrateriroftia, ibi ™* mra ** 
natura poiitxfunt.quacirim parte motus agitur alimentMn* 
Ctiam capi alimcntum porcft.fed cnim h omo & fomlM * lXl * s 
habct mammas.ln cxtcds mares nonntilli carcnt, vt cqni. ^n 
cnim omne$,fcd tantnm qui matri limiles prodicre habenf. de 



cft.Apcfl 



chtfiii;,obcamquamanTt rcdAdimos cauf a , iciiicetnc aut 
cibitamorcm,qui per cilorem ncccffartA euenit,aut vterospx 
nos impediat.fincm autc t horacis appcllati facicnt partcs-qa* 
ofttutn excremcnti,tom ficci, «t humidi contincnt a SfcWJJ 

- — 



IT IARVM CAVSIS, tlBi IXII. JjX 

veroparteeadcm,tumadhamidi cxcrcmcnticxitcm, nrm ad 
rcm vencream vtitur in fcxn tum foeminino,tom ctiam mafcu 
lino omni fanguinco,cxceptis paucis:in Omnique viuiparo gc 
nere,nullo exccpto. culus rci caufa eft , quod gcnitura hcmor 
quidam excremetitius eft,fcd hoc ifa eflc nunc fubijciatar,poft 
vdemonftrabitur.fcrminasctiam pari rnodomcnftruaparre ea- 



dcmemittant:fcdde ijsqaoquepoftea definiemus. nunciJJud 
fubiaceat,mcnftrua ct iarn fceminarum cxcrcmcntum efle, & 

- 

vacantcm rnateriam. hcmida autem fuapte naturafuntmen- 
xo ftrua& genitara.itaque corcmprofufionem fimilibu5,cifdem- 
quetribui partibus ratio cft . intusautcm quemadmodam fc 
habeant^ quad;fFerantratJone,femen gcnitalc& gcftaiiovtc 
ri,ex aaimalium hiftoriacomentationcq,* apertum eft:&com 
<icgcncrationc 3gemns,d!cerur.formasctiamharum partiom 
tales ncceffarii ad offkium propofim cfTcdcbcrc , quales iam 
funt 3 obfcDiii non eft.fed mar is inftrumentu alterum sb altcro 
difFcrt,pro difcrimine corporu . no cnim arque neruofa naiura 
ornniacoftdnt anjetur ctia & minuitur hoc vnum membrnm, 
finc vlla morbi motatione,homm cnim alterum vtile zd coitu, 
2o altcromad crteroscorporis vfos corcmoducft. nam fi fcmpcr 
Inrsrii mcdo fc haberctvimpcdimCnto niminm efic conftat hoc 
incii.bru exclufmodi partibus,vt corum,qc;cmododixivvtru- 
«pepofsiteaenire.partim enim neruum,partimcartilagiiicin 
habet.itaq;&contrahipoteftiS:cxtcndi:atq;cttam fiatus a* 
faxcft:Scdqaadrup^d-sfo?mina cmnesinauerfcm minguf, 
quippcqu^jreniralcnonalibicommoJiiis hibere pofstnt ad 



eoinr.n.Mares vcro perpauci in aucrfcm mingut,vt lynxjco» 
C3ir,clus,lepus.Solipcs nuKcmfic mingir. Hominis partes po- 
ftcriorcs,* crura, peculiari modo prx quadrupcdibos habcn« 
3*tur. Caadam omnia fcrc non folum via/para,icd etia ouipara 
habent.nam etfipleriiqiinagnitudinc-incbru idcaret,tamc ali 
S Qi <J Ptominct,q3c3odadcic nbcrc pofsit.homo vnuscaoda va 
car.natcs habtt,qcod nulli quadrupedu darc cft- crura ctia ho- 
r ^jfcinorcfuraq5carnmVrafunt,cucxtera aninaalia omnia 
«o modo viufpara,vcriictia qca:ciiqaecruribusccnftat,vacaa 
c arnclw:h^beat.f:eruoi;i c mm,ofibfcnta^pinoiarfigkla.qno- 



nicaoia vna eft .propedixcrun crr.niu, qcod homo folos ani- 



j^ccre&iis cft.vt iginir f«ilc fuftincrefapcriorapoflet,** 
™ T * corpQlfcia partiVnpericriclctnpfir^fnf^rioriaddklititaq; 
nat cccarriofasfecit,&femora,&fura^fcdnatesvcladforporis 
xc ^icvtiic«rcddidit;quadrnpedcs cnim ftarc diu infatigati* 



virious 



2*% * ARISTOTE. DE PAR. ANIM. 

viribas poffunt*vtq; quafi iaccat,cu qaatcrnis fultis innitStar. 
At vcro homines no f acilc eretto corporc ftando durat.fed rc- 
quieicdileqidefidcraf.homoigifurnatcs& crura carnofaha- 
bct,obcamquadiximuscaufam.&caudaob cam revacat-ali- 
xncntuenimquodcaadaadit.inhxcipfa abfumitur vfusq,caa 
d$ necelTarius defuit,quonia natcs fua corpoletia fatis operiut. 
At quadropcdes&rcliquaanimaliaecontrario cu cnimforma 
pomilionis dcgencrcnt,partc fui f uperiore pondus,omnemqac 

1 ___• ________ /___ /__*__ -_■___ _f____J • - -- _J__»_ M _-_*<% ._-*-_ *%-««■_»_ __-__-_»*• tr__ri= if _3rtri-__ 



iam 



crura 



tu cxcrcmcnto miniftrat,protcgeretur & cuitodiretur.cauaam 
j js natura rcddidit,fublato quod ad crura def crrctur alimeto. Si 
mia quodforma ambiguafit,vt & in ncutro,& in vtrcq; gcnerc 
fit conftitueda,tdeo ncccauda habet,ncq_ natcSjVidclicct vt bi- 
pes cauda vacat, vt quadrupes natibus.Caudaru aute plures dif 
fcretix funt.& natnra i ]s quoq; abutitur,cu non modo ad inte- 
gcnda tucndaq; fcde vtatur,veructia ad rcliqui corporis vinta 
atq; vtilitatePedcs quadrupeduinterfcdifFerut.alijsenimfo- 
lich,altjsbifidi,alijsmultiiidUolidifuntcoruquibus pr* cor- 
poris magoitudinc.copiaq; tcrrene portionis,pro comu aut de«* 
ie,materia ad vngais natura iecefferit.fed enim cx ea copia pro 



ibu 



)atq; 



quod fi talus adcflet,crura pofter iora difficilios flcftcretur,cele 
rittS enim & aperiutur & clauduntur qua. fmgulis angulis con- 
ftcnt.qaa qux plaribus.Talus aute,vt qui clauus cft ,tanquam 
alienus artusdaobashifce infcritar,podus quide afferes,fcd gra 
dum cffic.estotiore.htac enim & ca qux talu habct.non in prio 
ribus, fed poftcrionbus tantu cruribus eu continent,quoniam 
leaiora,flcxibilioraq;cffcdebent,qa« pracedat . firm iora autc 
c6tentioraq; cffe pofteriora cog-uit:ad rcpugnancu etia,inrcre 
dsmq; iftu vehcmentiore commodius ita coftant.gcnus aatcm 
hoc animaliu cruribus ita vt pofterioribusfolet- bifaka talu ha 
bere ccrtu cft:i js enim pofteriora font planiora.& quonia tala 
habcant,folipcdac_ren6poflhnt,quafios quod pcdi dccft,t-ia- 
neat iti fuffragine.digitatis t aius no eft .na fi cfler,digitata non 
cfient,fed tantu Jafitudin!sfinderetar,qoantu talus occnparet. 
qua ob rc ea qn* talu habeot,magna cx partc bifnlca funt.Ho- 
mini pedes omnitt maximi proportione magnitudinis ^fjr 4 * 
folus cnim crcftus cft.ita qui dao pondus corporis totu faf *> 
ptari ciTcnt,logitudin£ latitudineq; obtincrc dcbucrur.dig-Wj 




ET 2AJIVM' CA VSlSf L IBBR IXXl. JJJ 

rum etia manos magnif udo contri quam pedis eft,rationcma- 
nus cnim officiu cft capcrc arq; premere.itaqj longos habcat dl 
gitos oportct.manus cnim parrc qua fc flc&it,coprehedit.pcdi$ 
ante officium eft tutc coftare.quod ea partepedis effici putan- 
du eft,qo* infiffa cft.cxtremu aute fiflum, qua infiflum cflc me 
lius eft.nafi pes totus infifliis eflet,totus confentiret partcali- 
qualaborate:quodfiflb indigjtosxqucaccidercno potcft.brc 
ucs etia minus offcndi ltfdiqj pofluntrqua ob rcm hominu pe- 
dcs moltifidi & brenidigiti f unt . Vnguiu gcnus eade caufa pc- 
ro dcs qua manus obtinet.cx trema em operieda muniedaq;potif 
fimam fant propter imbecillitatc.de animalibus fanguincis,vi 
oiparis,terreftribus ferc omnibns di£bm iam cft. 

Dtpartibus ammalium omparorum,tum quadrupt- 

dum>tumexf>edum:&quamob cau- 
famjtc anaturadtgtTtaftnt» 

Caput x i. 

Anguinca vcro ouipara partim quadrupeda funf, 
partitn cxpcda,quale vnu tantumodogenus ferpcn- 
tum efhcaufam qua ob rem id pcdibus vacct>reddi- 

dimus,cu dc grcflu animalium ageremus.cctera eios 

iormafimiliqaadrapcdibusoulparisfunt.habet hacc animalia 
caput.partesq;capitiscifdcdccaufis.quibus caetera fanguinea 
genera.Linguam etia in orc continet omnia,excepto vno cro- 
codilofluuiatili.hunccnimnonifilocu tantumodo linguaeha- 
bereparaucris.caiusrcicaufa eft,quod ide& terrcftris,* aqoa 
tilis qoodamodoeft.crgo vt tcrrcftris locu obtinet lingu^, vt 
aqaaticusclinguiscft pifcescnim,vtdiflucft,aut nulla habe- 
"liogua videtur,nifi valdcrefupineturraotincxplanatam ha- 

bent.caufa eft,quod ijs lingoar vfus pcrqua cxiguus efhquonia 

3$ mandcrc prseguftarcq; non pofcint,fcd in dcuorado fcnfum vo 

JHptatemqjcibicapiatJingua enimfcnfom mooct faporu.cfca 

l^torum autcm omnium voluptas in defcendcndo cotingit.du 

cnimdcgbtimus,pinguia fentimus>* falfa,& dnlcia , & relf- 
933 gencrisciufdcm-fcnfom igitur huc animalia ctiam ouipara 
«abet^omniu fer& condimcntoru,cfculcntoromq; in dcuora- 
dogol* taQione fuauitas exiftit,* gratia.quaob rem non qui 
potionomUaporumqj inc6tinentesfunt,ijdcmetia condimetis 
*z cibo loxoriant. S cd cu carteris animalibos fcnfus quoqj gn- 
«andi adianausfit,il!is quidcm altcr quafi vnos tribotus cft. 
«ccrtis ex quadrupcdibos ooiparis lingua bifida,vt fcrpenti- 

t*fc:partcq; ettrcma pilofa admodum,vt diafiiam eft.quin- 

ctiam 



'jj4 AHXSTOT» DE V AK. ANIMALIYMj 

cttam vitulis marinis lingaa bifolca eft .qaam ob re hrec anima 
lia omnia tenaia funt.S crratis ctiadentibcs quadropedesoui- 
parac fant modo pifciuSenfcria aute omnia fimili modcatq; 
atteraanimaliahabct.verbi gratia,nares olfacicndi,oculos vi- 
dendi,aarcsaudiendi fcnforium.non tamen harc cmincnt,quo- 
modo ne auibus quidem,fcd foramina tantu habctur . caufa? v- 
trifq; duritia cutis eft.altera cnim pcnna,altera cor tice integu- 
tur.corte* loco fquamar & fimile cft,fed fua natura rigidior at- 
cj;darior.qood in teftudine atq;fcrpcntibus magnis,& croco- 
clilo fluulatili palam fit firmior enim ofleeuadjt, vr qui tale na 1 * 

turam fcrtiatar.Palpebram faperiorem h«c aaimalia non mo* 
nent,vtneaucsquidem:fcdinferioreconniuct,eadecaufa,qui 

cum deillis ageremas,reddidima$.fedcum auium nonnullct ab 
angulismembranaobeuteni£ientur 3 h#cnon ni&anrur. Sunt 
enim ocolis durioribas,quam aues.caufa eft , qucd illis vtpote 
volucribas acamen ccrnedi commodius ad vitar niunera fit»ha!C 
autem quoniam cauernas fubire omnia folent , minus cerncndi 
vfum exquifitum requirunt.Scd cum caput in partes dnas diui 
datur,fcdicet fuperiorem & inferiorcm maxillam , homo & vi- 
aiparxquadrupedesmaxillamfurfum,deorfam,atq; in latera 
agttanttpifccs vero&aaes,<X:ouipara> quadrupedcs fnrfamde- 
orfumq;tantummoaent.caufacft,qucd eiufmodi motus vti- 



utem 



QB 



Qn? 



aatem maxillaribus carent,ijs nullo pafio vtilismotas hic cit. 
qu3mob remfublatus ijsomnibuseft.nihilenim natnra fuper- 
oacuam facit.Cfcteraomnia maxilJam moaent inferlof cmrcro 
codilus fiuaiatilis vnus fapcriorem.cuius rci caufa eft,quod pe 
dcs ad capiendum retinendumq; inutiles habetparfci cnim ad-$0 
modom funt.itaq; ad hunc vfumnatura os ei propsdibiw vfik 
condidif.Adrctincndumvero,vndei£tus inferri vehementius 
poteftande motus cornmodius agitur.infertur autem vehemen 
tias dcfupcr,qaAm de parte inferioreergo cum vtriufq; >tu ca~ 
piendi,tum mordcndi viqs orcadminiftrctur,magis auten)n«* 
ccflarium retinendi offkium fit,cui nec manus fint,n^q;pfdes 
idonci,commodius huiceft moucrefaperiorem ir>axijia,q*iai» 
inferiore.Qnod ide 
cipis partc moucant 
pc illu itaq; vtiicm ad cap 
opot t$Ltn ordcdi at 



caai# citxur etiacancn uipcriorc i«» — 
,no inferiore.habct enim pro mana forci- 
id capicnda,no ad mordenda forcipeeu tf 



aOtt 



ET EARVM CAVSIS, LISER. t [ I I . 3JJ 

c^tcr!sq;qDibaslicerocioriuscibu capere, <poni5in fiamore 
nofinf,oris vfusparttfusea,vTiuanibus antpedibas capfanr, 
orefecet & wordeat.at crocodilis os in vtrnq; vfum vtilefaflu 
cft a natora,cu ita inaxilkr moocantur.ColIu ctiani omnia hu^ 
ioiccmodi animalia obtin^r proptcr pelmonc quippeque aere 
pcrartcri.Tfi{}damproc!uaior^ fr acefpiat* reddantlcollum 
cnim id appcUamuSjCjnod intcr caput * arinos,humerorue in- 



proprrti ferpentibus pra? 

ncris aniraalibas eft.vt capat vertere f n aucrfum.reliquo qole 



febras cartilaginofas 

tibus neceflarin hae i 



iecroru 



ad fe c6cer- 



prxhgy Jint corpore* pedibus careat,inepti fonf ar 
tcndu.tuendumq; cotra ea,qcor a rergo incnrrat.nihi^.^n >-« 
iuath efler.fi capaterigere qoide polTcnr,fed eircuagere nequf 
rcnr - Haber hccc * ea qax petfori proportionetur,parf e,tnam- 
mas necea parte,nec vfpia fni corporis cotinerr. Anes etia ma 
mis caren txo ias rei caufaeft,<jDodnuIJue* ijshabear Jac.mam 
JJ ^™ c oc«ptacoIa,<Sr tanqui vas lactis eftnec folu harc , fed 
««amqoaccuq;n6 viaipara intra fe funt,lafle vacat,qnoniam 

"^"""^nouoaoielaftcosillecibasingenitosouiparisco 

inet.icddeijs planiusdicetnr,c6dcgenerationeagemos.De in; 
cexacurnarnmr»-,^*;,-;^^ r.j * , a * \°- . 



curaa 

mal 



_ aliugrelTu agcremus.Canda etiam gencs id animaliu haber, 

F rtim prolixiore,partim breutorc.cuius rei caufam ante in v- 

3<W nreddid ' mu <-Omniu' vero ouiparoru pedeftriumte- 

usunns chamxleo eft.qoippe qai omniu maxime- inopia fao 

6 nis rigeat.caufa ad mores anime eias refer&a cft.pne nimio 

4> ,n cnimultiformisefficir,menK enhn rcfrivmtin *wl«* 



eere-f * S is< J ; cft * De P ar « ibos animalfum far goinrf 
»am finr tUm cx P edom ' turn q«adropednm , aat bipedum qua> 



ntextra,* qua de caufa,diaum fcr h eft. 

e r artt ow duiZexterinril.t,, &. eam dtffe- 



cau 




fic a natuYApt,fitAftnt. ccpttt 



Xli. 



(T TY a,Icr,mu,c interfedifcrcpat,eo qaod mpr- 
; C€iludefcauvepartiam,&in pluris mmorisq; ratio 
! ne veriari percipimos. S ont enim earam alfcc lonzp 

*«ttc } aliac brcuMinguam ctiam ali* latiufculam ha- 

brnf, 



t$6 AR.UTOT. BH PAl. ANIM. 

bent,a!te anguftam.eodeq; modo rcliquis partibus differunt. 
At priuatim intcr fc paulo rationc partium differunt.quanquj 
& cxtcris forma ctiam partium difcrepent pcnnatum cnim gc- 
nus omnium auiumeft,idq; proprium habct ad c*tera anima- 
lia.cumenimaliapilo,aut fquama,aut corticc tcgantur ,aues 
pcnnaopert*funt,pennamq;habcnt fiflam,ncc fimili /pecie, 
atq; ea,quf totipcnna a pcnnse cotinuitate appello his cnim fif 
fa,illis infiffa eft pena.& altcra excaulis,altera caulata cft ,qoin 
etiam capitc roftri naturam fingularcm ac propriam pra? cxtc 
ris gcrunt. clcphantis enim naris pro manibus cft.inicdis qui-x 
bufdamlingua oris officiofungiturcathis viccdcntium manuf- 
c;,roftrumoflcumdatum eft.de fenfuum locisdiftum iameft. 
Collumauibusquoq;porre£u,eademq$de caufa quacxteris 
eft.hocalijsbrcoe,alijs longu,&fcrc procruru modo,magna 
ex partcdefcriptu cft Qnibus cm loga funt crura, ijs collulon- 
gum.contrck,quibus brcuia crura,ijs collum breucpraeterqua 
almipcdibus.Collumenim necbreue,cumcrunbos logis>nec 

irteriim rnm kri-rnknc n^Aitm iAr**ir\%(\-riivi* rv trrra nntcft.Car 




niuorisctiam volucribus longitudocolli incommoda cft.imbe- 
cillccnim,Qood Drolixumcft . iis anrem viftus bcncficio viriu 



com 



quidcm 



tis funt,vtquxcodemgencrecom palrnipedibus contineator. 



collum longius habcnt.tale enim ad cibum cx humore petendu 
comodiuscft.fcdcrora ijsbreoia,vtmclius natarepofsint. Ro- 
ftra ctiam intcr fc differunt v ittos rationc . alijs enim rcftumt 
alijs vncumroftrnm eft.re&um ijs,qua! cibi capicndi gratia ta 
fum id habent.vncum carniuoris.Talcenim vtilceft ad rctinc- 
dum ijs,quae raptu viuant>& cibum ex animalibus pctere nccc * 
fc habeant.quibus autem vi&us ratio placida-herbisq; compa- J 
randa eft,ijs roftrom latum.hoccnim & zd effodiendom pabu- 
lum,& ad cucllendum,& ad tondendum commodios cft.nonnol 
lislongum, vt & collnm,qaoniam cibum cx alto capcrefoleat. 
& quidrmbonapars tum earum,tum etiam palmipedom , aot 
fimpliciter.aot parte cadem captura bcftiolarum quarundam 
aquatilium viuiq. Itaq;fit, vrcolloqoafi arundinc pifcato- 
x ia,roftro autem veluti Jinea & hamo v tanturpartcs vero pro 
nsfupinarq; ,& thorax appclhtes qoadrupedum ,confuilus in 

eencre anium haber tur.alar enim oro branchiis,& prioribus pe 



cxtrcrna alaiu 



quamobrcm 



*{■ 



bina 



$ 



\ 



VM 



bina,fed intro fleaenda,vt qoadropedu foffragincs , no vt ho- 
minis poplitesforas.alas aote qoas vice croru priorum cople- 
rc modo diximus,in orbe agunt.bipcs neceflario eft gcnus auiu 
inter ea qusfanguinc habcnt,atq; etia aligcrtf.Cu cm fangui- 
nca quxq; no ploribus qua quatcrnis notis moueanf,mebrana 
pendetia quatcrna aoibus quoq; funt, vt cxtcris grefsilibus,& 
pedeftribus 5 quanqua illis brachia aut crora quaterna. Auibus 
vice cruru priotu brachiorum ve ala comune datu cft mebrum: 
hacenimvolatilesfunt.qux quide volandi vis in auisdTentia 
10 cotinetor.itaq; neceflario rcftat,vt bipedes fint.ita cnim notis 
fiaefignis quaternis,alisfci1icctadditismoucatar.Pcaus acu- 
tom carnofumq; omnibus eft.acutu vt melius volet.lata enim, 
qoia moltu aeris propellut,difficilius mooetor.carnofum,qoia 
quod acotu eft,nifi plen£ opertu fit,imbecillium cft.Pcftori ve 
ter fubiacet ad oftiu vfq$ cxcremcnti , & fuffragincm trudes no 

3iifcr,qoa in quadropedum atq; hominu gcnerc igitnr inter a- 
hs& crura,partes h* pofitx font. Vmbilicu omnia ha £>et , qos 
vc j y to<> vioiparisa:duntar,vel onoouiparis excluduntor.fed 
anib iam adulris hicdcJitefcit, inccrtusq,- cft: vt patet per genc 
10 rationccoru.intcftini nanq;coalitn vmbilicns aoium cofiftit, 
*non venaru pars vllaeflyvt in vioiparo genere . Itcm auiom 
? * v °kces,alisqs grandibus atq; validis funt: vt qox vngues 
nabentaduncos,&carncvcfcutor.volaccs enimtbta vitacfle, 
^ccflc eft iraq; pcnnis abondat,<Sr alaru magnitudinc praftat. 
no m °do qu^e vncis funt vnguibos,vcru alia quoq; gcnera 
Vofacmm volatu foperat: videlicct ea,qox vcl pernicitatc vola 

1 c * c *° c 5tor , vel loca mu tarc folcar. S Dfif quce no vo!aces,fed 
graaes fint,quibus vita terrcna,& aot frogc viuct,aut natat.& 

padaquasimmorator.Corporavncunguiuexigoafantcxcc- 
Ptis ahs.quonia alimenti copia in alas & arma,prscfidiuq; abfu 

* or cotra qax volaces no funt,ijs corpora in molem cu2<iut 
Sr ^ 10rcm ' a fq;itaefiicitor,vtfintgraoiorcs.Sed grauiumno- 
nollis prsfidio calcar cft ,qnod vicc alaru fois crnribus geront. 

de vcro quar & calcar habcat & vnsucs adancos,nolla eft.caa 



117 



vncan 



deft gCDCri C ^ lcar Vfui cffc non P otcft - vtilc cnim tantom in pc- 
n certamine cft .qua ob rcm grauium nonnullis adiunflum 

fcn?° V j ng0C * ** unci n ° n {olnm inut,le ^ rcd «iinocui ef- 
Urll^ folum hx rctcnt >& contra ingreftbm infixi rcni- 



confiftunt.natoracnim ciufmodi 



vnguiu 



x 



y m vtr 






r 



jjg ARHTOT. DE PAR. ANIM. 

in vtronq; eft.eucnit id per aen-ralionc neceffariA,cu qnod fer- 
rcnomApr^xin corporc cft,forma parrfum comodaiuad 
pu-"ia recipiat itaq;vbi furfum prorneiir,roftri duritia aur n)4 
goTriKJitii facit.voi deorfum lapfnm cft,calcaria cmtfbfH vili- 
d,icfTn^'r,autpcdit>usvn£»oiums^iity^rc * robir Siir.ul 

aut^ h*c fmgula locis diucrfis efftcerc m ptntft .difirafla cnim 

cx:rcmcri chtf natura mualida redd<tur.Itc alijscruru longira 
dmecond<f,al j<pediiin^^ 

g"e.n cotexu.qu) 6t neceflatiotVf attc* apt*ad nardu,sut orn- 
ninonalmioedrsfit^otdilcrelosquidcmhihcatdiG.if^sfcJhni 

guiisanncxalatitndin-cutis,vclutjfpadi ulas daftu perpctw 

gerant.hsc ncceflirio hisde catifa vcnim.Quod aute ad*o» 

mcKorU ratione attinef,pedes eiufmodi habent vir.r qoa dcgut 

gr3tia,vt cum in humorc vuiar,nec pcnnis vtarur,pcdes ad na- 

ttom vtlcs habcant .ipenim perinde vtutaryvt reinis n20taN& 

. pinnollsfuis pif v*5.qnaobrem vclfi pifciu oinnu!a,vcl auium 

pedibus inrerieftacotisdcft<-octur,nare no poterunt. Sunt in 

gcnercaniu,quxIon^iscrnribasinnitatur.cnius rci canfaefr, 

«jaod viti earu paluftris eft.namra enim inftrumef a ad offfCtat 

noofticiu adinftrumentaaccomndaf.qaonfa igirurnanrs no- 

fint,ldeo no oalmincdes funt,quod infolo nrxmolli & tobrico 

dc^antthinc longa ijs crura,& dlgtfJ produftiorcs.fi lexus ctiam 

plures Ifl digitfc magna ex pa* tc. fcd cu volaces no fiof»A tainc 

ex eade materia omncs confttf ,cfficltor vr alimcnru quod cvrc 
fia ad caudi tranfmitrator,ijs in crora id abfumpto reddat cam 
parteaufliore qnaproptcrin volitaprocaudaijs ynum-f*** 
rcftiscnimcrur bns inanerfcm volat ita enitnfif,vt ir.rervc- 
landu non imp.-diat pcdn prolixitaf ,fcd inner. Ar qoihus crura 
fereai* fantjuec ad ventrt crVraftxs cruribrts volatcu eobnmd 
liscarii impcdimentofint perics Ha pofiti,vncu guibas vcl *d ra 
ptuhabcfurcxpeditiorrs.Q^r loqo fantcollo,fi id crafsiu; h.*- 
bcnf,volat colloporrcfto.fiT^nnccaruato ferurur.cn enftgt** 

z logitodine quatirur,fac U fragi poteft. Clams ambus 
iscft.quaqoanoclun^fccfcniora btna habere proprer 
longitudinechinis vidcatur.quippecu ad mediom vfq- ventre 
porn^rnr.Caula eft ? qood gcoui hocsnimalium bipes f ft tio 
creftam nam C\ modo hominum aot qcadrupcdum clunem brf- 
ucm i fcdcciusquedcindcdircrla ftruc fjbdxtom habcre^on> 
nino ftarc non pcfT-r.homo enim quiacrcftus eft , &*£?*£*' 
Q^vJrapcdifcu.vcror.1 priora id corp 



O 



o 



1° 



naepr 
ommb 



quoniamfuanaturain 



ET EARVM CAVSIS, LIBBR. 1111. %tf 

pcirJlioncmdcgeneratmeqnccrura habent priora,qoofiiam a- 



giorem cmolira daxit sj medium,corpusque pronum fulcjuit: 
&crura fubdidit ea parte , qua po: dercatquil brante , & amua- 
Ijrcxq3f]ibriopoiTent,&conftarc. Sedquam obcaufamge- 
r.us auujmbipes noncrcclumfit,exphcatum fam cft curaa- 
rcrn crura carnofa non habcat , cadcm cauia efhquam dc qua- 
dropcdum cruribnsrcddidimus. Sunt auibu?; digiti cuatcrni 
aKjueomnibus ,tam muhifido , qoltn nalmiprdi gcneri . nam 
10 deftroihionc terrs* Afrioe incoh ooftea drfir 



crr 



cos cft , vni cum reliquis,qu# adauium gcncs habct contra- 
tfj*. Scdcum ommbus quatcrni digiti finr ? trrs parte priorc 
naWnfur.vnus poftcriorcpro calcc, vt tutc fif , qui minutus 
incft in ijs qrj« longa habcnt crura , vt in crece euenir.neccft 
^aodplures habeatdigitos frd cumtalis ilfgi torum prfirio in 
Cttcrfa fit.Tniyngcvn:\,quauitarbinem apppeilatamdixiiV-» 
rrinquebini.caufacft^qnodeius corpas minus qu£m catera- 
rompropcnfumeftinadnerfum. Teftes omnibus ambus ciTc 
certum c(r,fcd intaslumbis adhxrenr.cuiusrei czufaminge- 
*o nerationis rationc animaliam exDlicabimus.partes auiuinira 

fciubent. 

&tpartibn* txtcriorilrtupifdutrtf&caujis qua- 

reftcanittHra iriilitut& fint, 

Caput xiii. 

r^^^Tl Mciom genus tr.atilatius item ac irrperfe£Vor,qoi 

^J5n auiarr ' ' P arf '^ us cxterioribus cft. Non cn*m cru- 

l^l^^i] r3 >^on manus,non abshoc babcr.cur ita , canfa 

^ t Y"^" ™ cxpofira eft.conriooo fimphci corporc^ capi- 

hmt^i^ VfC * QC P orri S ifur - Caodj vero ipfa non omni- 

j. */f *&&& OT ^ caeteris non eoarief ,p!anoram nonncl- 

psna conftat,& longa eft,incremenrum cnim ekis partfs ad 



aliod ' f »'«uu,v(in torpcQinc,p«Jinnaca,cv uquia 

fa & . tia ™°* c *™'lagincom cft . horam «gifor canda fpino- 
tonga eft .quorundam carnofa qoidem ,fcd brcuis,ea-. 

qoef? Ufa i SUa * t0r P c * n, - n rt"l«n*mrcfcjubrcois carnofa- 
Sttaid ga qfC,0C ri S idfor - conr ^i accidir ranKqnod enim 

quanr° ** TUm P3rtC pn0rC mlnas carn ° ra « ft > icfco n3ru r* 



e 0rum 



pifcibas nulla membra depcncicnt , qnon 



m 



y * funcr 



.- IRISTOTE. DE PAR. ANlM- 

fapca roacancam,nihilfrafta natnra agit.Scd cum fua fubftatia 
fjnguinemhabeant,*tamennatilesnon grcfsiles fint,pinnu- 
Us habcnt vt nantes,pcd«bas carcnt vt non pedeftres,fed aqua- 
tilcs.pcdum enimadditio ytilis admotom qai in pedo,hoceft 
folo>a*amr:vndc&tiomenmdttumpedibuseft. Ad h*c,fieri 

oon potcft.yt fimol & quaternas hab:5r pinnulas,& pedcs,aut 
aliud eiafmodi membrumxam fanguinem habeant . Corduli 
qaamaisbranchijspr5diti,pcdcshabcnt,quoniampcnnacarer. 

caudam ctiam habent laxam & latam . pifces qui non lati funt 
modo rai* aut paftinacs,quatercas pinnulas habcnt,Wnas par 
tc prona,& binas fupina.neq; eft qui habeat plurcs.fanguine e- 
nimcarcret.binas,qu«parteprona lateribus gcruntur,omnes 
ferchabcnt-rcliquisqqxfubdit*funr,carcnt nonnulli cx.lon- 
gis & corpukntis,vt anguiila,vt conger,& mugilfi genus,quod 
inlacuSipharumnafcitor.nuIte omnino pinna: praelongis,* 
fcrpentis fpcciem referenribus.vt muren*:fcd flexuofo impcl- 
fucorporum-ita humore vtuntur,vt tcrraferpentesmodona- 
q; eodcm ferpentes natanr,quo in ficco repunt. Caufa cur id gc 
nus pifcium pinnis careat,cadcm cft,qua fcrpentcs prJibus va- ^ 
centxaius reicaafamexplicauimusxu dc inccffa &motuani- 
malium ageremns.aut enim male mouerentu t , aut nullo paito 
moueri pofTent,fi quatcrnas mouendi notas haberent.vix cnim 
mouereiHUr/iuepropinquasinter fehabercr,fmc remotaspro 
ptcr logttt intcrualium.fcd fi plures mouendi notas Janguinis 
vacua cttcnthxc eadcm caufa bipChnibcs quoq; pifcibus reddc 
dicft.fcrpcntiscnimcaquoq; faciem refcrunt,& fuicorpons 
flcxuproduabuspinnisvtunrurvndcfit,vt inficco & repere 
pofsinr^&dmtius viuerc.itaq; altcrinon protinus,altericupe- 
dcftris naturac familiarcs finr,minus exanimantur.Qui aute bt- 
nis tantummodo pinnis n3tant,cashabent qu# parti pron^ad- 
harrent^n fi 1 atitodo proh:beat,easq; iuxta caput pofiras gerunt 
quihabcnt^quoniam eo loeo longrtudinccarcant,qua vicc pen 
narum moucantur-corpus enim cius generis pifciu cx porredu 

in cauda cft.Rala* fimiles pro pinnis extrcma fui corporis la- 
titodme natat.Squarina& ranar pinnas lateribus accommoda- 
tas infiri gcrunt,proptcr ampli mdincm partis fuperiorfs . qu* 
aotcm parti fupinas commitfr funr,cas iuxracaput adiuflas na 
bent. nihil cnirc latitodo impedit,qoo minus mooeatur fed pr 
fuperis illishasgeruntmioorc* ijs,qur ad latera applicantor. 
Torpcdo dua s iu xra caudam pinnas habet.pro rcliquis latita- 
dinc vtitur>& vtroq; fui corporis fcmicirculo , quafi gemm^ 



STEARVM CAV5IJ, tlBEH IIII. J41 

pinnis natat.dcpartibus capitis & fenibrijs antca d<3um eft* 
Piiciu autem genusprarcstcrisqusianguincm habenr anima- 
libuspropriam fibibranchiarum naturamforfitiim cft.car fra, 
caufam cum defpirationeagercmus , rcdJidimus. Qua? atucm 
branchiashabent,autinte£fosgcrunt,aut deteftas>vt genuso- 

mriccartilagincu.cauiaeft,quodcactilaginctumbranch!artmn 

_ nentaconftant.Gcnusautem hocomnecartilagmca 
Jubct ipinam.motus ctiam cartilaginci gcncris lcntus,pigerq; 
eft,qaoniamnonfpinaautneruo corroboratur * contra gcnus 
lo/pmatumcclcritcrfertur.tegmcntum autem quod brachias o- 
pcriat,celcritcr moucri oporttt^cum branchiarum natora qua- 
fi adfpirandi vfum pifcibus data fit.quam ob rc in ipinafh non 
ttiodotegmcntum,verumetiain ipfi branchiaram mcatus cotra 
hontur,vtcclcriusagatur.habcnt branchias alij multas,alij paa 
C2s:& alij duplices,alij fimplices fednouifsimam fimplice ma- 
gna cx partc.vcrum cognitiodiligentior ex confcchonibns co- 
mentatJoneq;animaiiu petcndacftcaufacopix&inopi^ bran 
chiaru,calorii cordi infiti copia,aut inopia cft.in quibus cnim 

plQsincftcaloris,h«ccclcriusmoucri cportet& * chemcntios. 

iogcmina:autembranchi«atq;duplices,talem naturam potius 
quam fimplices pauciorcsq; obtincnt.vnde fit , vt nonnuili cx 
ij* qui branchiashabcntpauciorcs,minu:q3 contincntcs,diu ex 
traaquam viuercpofsint,vt2nguilla,& quicunqjferpciitisfpc 
cicmrctcrunt - noncnim mulrum rcfrigeratiOiiis d^fidcrant. 
Sunt & oris difcrimina.alijs cnim os anf c * proptum eft . alijs 
infrapartciupina,vt delphinis,*cartilag:nco gencri . quaob 
rcinhec nifi conucrfa rdupinentur,cibum corripcre nequcunt. 
qaod natura non modo falutis grat ia catferorum plfcium fecif- 
icvidcturdumcnimfefc iftaconucrtunt,mora iuterccdit,qua 

30 pHds queminfcflantar 5 euadcrcpofsit.nam omnia id genus ra 
piua piicium viuunr.vcrumetiam nc nimis fuam decoradi aui- 
ditatcmcxplcrcnt cumcRimfaciJiuscapcrcnt,breai perimmo 
dicam fatietatem perirent.quoniam etiam cam roftrum cortfm 
ftruauratercti.actenui fit.tacilt fcindi in orishabitum ndpo- 
^ft. Ad h*c d.fFcrentia cxiftir.quod alijs os refciflum,aiijs /ub- 
indcinacutiuscomprcftum.carnc vefccntibus rcfciflum.vt ijs 
qa^usfcpcainatim ftipatdcntiu fcries.ijs enim viresorccon 
^ncntur.comprcflum,& vt mododixUoar&itum ijs qu<enon 
carncvcfcuntur.CMXisalijsiquamafa(ctcnim iquama pr*r£- 
g'ditatctenuitatcq 5 defiftensiumma corporis occupat>liisa* 

'Pcra^vt i<i«atin« 3 raijc,& rcliquis gencris ciuidcm . alijs knis, 

y 3 icd 



54* 



■ ARlSTOTEi DE rAR. ANIM 



fcd paacifsimis cartilaginea fquamis carenf,fed afpcra ccte ma 

ruuntor>qaoniam fpinacartilaginca conftant . tcrrcnam cnim 
portioncm natura inde ad Cutem tranftulir 3 inqj eius afperita- 
temabfcmpfu. Tcftcs piiciunullus,nccintusnccforis habct. 
ncc Jcrpetcs,aut c x i js al:quid qax ptdibu; carenr,p2rte cam ha 
bcrccompertum cft:iedeius vicc meatum cxcrc meto,& gencra 
tioms vi!niacc6modatum habcnt cundc,quem oattcra quoq; o- 
uipar3,eadcmqsquadrupedaomnia ccntincnt,quonia ncc vefi 
cam hVjent,neq; cxcremcnwm humidum iccernont.pilciu gc- 
IW hisk cxteris animalibus difFcrcnti js difcrcpat. Dclphini-ba *° 
lcn*,&re. : iquum cetarium genus branchijscarentrfed fiftulam 
fui pulmonts caula contincr , qua humorcm quc in ore accepe- 
rint,rctpuant.nam & humorem admitti ncccflc efhcamcibum 
in aquafubmerium capian^&admifTam cmitti neccfTeeft.bra- 
chi^ igirur i j< qu* ipirant,incommod£ habe.ntur.caufam vero 
cum dc ipirarionc agcremus,reddidimus.haud cnim fiert potcft 
xt idcm & branchias habcat,& fpircr.fcd enim ijs ad relpuenda 
aqaam fi ftula data cft, quac an tc cercbrum fita cft»ne pc ftpcfi- 
ia id interciprrct :i fpina:caufa vero cur polmone ha:c habeanr, 
& ipirent,q»)od maiora anim^Iia plus caloi is fibi rcquirunt, Yt 
pofsint.moocii.qaaf roptcr pulmoijs indicus cft,p]enus colcris 
fangcinci.funt hxc qcodamodo& terrcftria & aqoatiiia . vtc- 
nim acrem tcrrcftriu moretrahm.t -fic pedibus vaciif,&cibum 
inhuiriorcmodo aqqatil&m capiur. VUoli ctiam marini & vc- 
fpcrtil:onc5,quariiaai,*,b*gant,aitcricum aquatilibus & ferrc- 
ilrtbos,a!tericum voluaibus& pedcftribas,ideo participcs& 
vtrcranq;Cv neotrorumfunt.vituS«nanq; marini,fi vt aqcati- 
les inipcaarur,pcdc* habentrfi vt prdeftrcs,pinnas.quippc qoi 
pcdcspoftenorcs pi>ceos admodum habcart.atqj ctiam «kmcs^ 
omccsfcrratos.acutosq;. vcipcrtilior.es ctiapedes vt Volucrcs 
hahcnt:icd v t quadrupcdcs non habcnt cauda etia tam qnsdru- 
pcdis qoim volucris carentnam quia volncrcs iunt,cauda qua- 
drupcdisvacant quiapedeftrcs, volucris quod ijs ncccflarM 
accidithabcntcnfm cutcas pennas.nullum aurcm volafilccaa- 

dam habcr ,mfi pcnna fcifla volstile fit. Genus 
cnimfdcaudaicxpcnnaciuimodiconflat. 

cauiavcro qu-drnpcdis, gcncri 
volatiliadionfta,vcl im- 



pedimento cius pcn- 
nisprocnidobio 

cfiet. 



Dc 



*.T EAKVM CAVSIS, LIBER XIII» 



34? 



Jtmthioni m0 Afrtco 7 O' tim tuitm 

Ca^it x H II. 

Truthioetiam Africus eodcm 



/i 



accm, 



partim qaadrup< cfera referr.qoippe qui nofl vt qua- 
% ^) jtj^i-upcs pennas habcat,vt non auh fubiimis ron vo- 
S==*Jct.ncc pcr.nasad vol irdum commodas gerit t icd pi- 

lisfimiles.Item qoafi qcadrupcs fu,pilos babcr plpcbrsfixpc* 

rioris,& gl abcr capite,& pirtc colli fuperiOrecfhttaq,c!lfa ha- 

bet pilofiora>fcd qoafi auis fit,infra pennis inlegitur.Bipe* ctia 

iocanqcamauis,b:i^lcustanquamquadrupcsc{t\non cn m dl^ 

tos b*bet,fed vngokni bipartitam.qoarom rcui caufa cft,quod 

magnitudinenonaoisJed quadruj cdiseft.magnitudine cniffl 
aaium minimam cffc propc uixeriro, necefle t fi . corpus cnim 
mobir.fublimcm moucrinequaquamfacileeft .Sedde par ti- 
bos animaiium quam ob caufam qusq, fini,d»&um ism eft pcr 
omnia animalinm genera.Qufc com explicata fint, fequitur vt 
de gtnerationibus animalium diiTcramus. 



© £ PAMIBVS ANIMALIVM £ T 



t% 



£ A B.VM cAVilSj tl- 
U R X Qjf A R T I 



y 4 









344 



ARISTOTE-DE G E N E. A N I M. 



ARISTOTELIS 



DE 



GENERATIONE ANI- 

,M A L I V M, L I B E R. I. 

INTERPRETE THEO- 
D O KO GAU> 

VnUurfalU genermtionis partitie* 



Caput 



I. 



10 




v m dc atteris animalium partibns, tcm frnn 

imatim 3 tumfingulatim feorfum dc propnjs 

I gencriscuiufq/ didum i2mfit,quemadmcdii, 

& qua dc caufa vnumquodq; cflet , eam cau- 

famdico,cuius gratia quippiarn fit,ponimus 



rfj cnim caufarom gencra qnatuor numcrorpri 
mum cuiusgratia,vtfinem.fecundum,fubftanri2crationc. cpx 
quali vnum quoddam fcre exiftimadafunt.tertium vero,qoar' 
tumq; materiam,& id vndc principiummotus.fed cum dc cartc 20 
risdiftumiamfit:ratiocnim,&id,cuiusgratia,vt finis,ide eft-* 
materia vero animalibus partes funt totisdtfsimilarcs^ difsimi 
laribusfimilares,ijsq; ca qu* clementa corporum appcllatur: 
reftat vt departibus quar ad generatione pcrtincnt difleramus 
de quibus nihil adhuc dcfinitum eft.atq; etiam de caufa mouen 
tc quaenam fitfcd dc ca ipfa caufa confidcrarc idem quodamo- 
do eft,atq; de gencrationc cuiufq; agcrc. Quam ob rcm noftra 
hoecdifputatio in idem ca coniccit,cum & partcs,qu« ad gcnc- 
rationcm accommodantur>vltimas djfpofuifTct,& gcncrationis 
principium ab i js proximum collocafiet . Animalium alia per 30 
coitum fccminae & maris gignuntar,fcilicet in quibns gcncri- 
bus fcxus vterq; eft.non cnim in omnibus,fed in prgditis fan- 
guinc,paacis quibufdam exccptis 3 alrerom mas,alrerum foemi- 
na perfe&om eaadit.cxanguium vcro quxdam marem & f oemi 
siam habcnt,vt fobolcm ciufdcm gcncris procrccnt. alia pro- 
crcantquidem,Jednonfuigencrisprolcm,(ciHcetqu« non cx 

coitu animaliumprodeunt,led ex tcrra putri,aat excrcmcn tiu 
qaodautcm in vniucrfum dixcrim.cornm quae locum mutarc 
lolcnt,aot nando,aut volando, aut gradicndo , vidcbcct prout 
qaodqueafomfuocorporeeft,nonnullatoto generc fuo fc* 

xum vtranquc obtincnt 3 non modo fangainc pr* dita , vcrum- 

ctiam 






IIBER. PR.1MVS. 345 



goia 



fexos vtcrquecft,vtmollibos,vtcraftatis:alijsmaxima partc, 
vr gcneri infectorcm.eoram aatem ipforum, qax ex coitu co- 
gnatorum animaliam gignuntur : ipfa quoq; fibi cognata pro- 
gcnerant.At vcro quas non cx coitu,fedputri matcria oriuntur 
ea gcnerant quidem,fed genus diucrfam quodque prodijt , nee 
mas cft, neque foemina.Talia funt nonnulla in genere infeflo 
rum,quod iufta eccnit ratione.nam fi ex coitu corum,qox non 
ex animalibos orta funt,anlmalia orirenrcr,hxcfi eiofdem ge- 
JonerJscflcnt,primam qaoqaeortamparentum talcm eiTc opor- 
teret.qaod recte itacenfcmas,qaadoficeaenirein cseteris ani 
malibas patet.fed fi difsimilia quide,fed qa* coirc inter fe pof 
icnt,gignerentar,rarfas ex ijs al/a qoardam natora-procreare- 
tor^&alia ex ea,idq^ in infimtum procederet .At natura infini 
tum vitarefolet.infinitomenimfinecaret.natora aurcm fcm- 
pcr hnem quxrit.Qnx aatem non grefsilia funt , vt teftatum 
animaliam genus & qax faxis adharrentia viuanf,quoniam na 

turai.m!lipl a ntisconftant.hincvtinill!s,ficinijs mas deeft, 
« tcemina:fcdfimihtudincproporrionequcnomen fexus acci- 
toP^nt.habent enim parnm eiufmodi differcntix.quoda eteniir. 
«n ftirptam genere,fant eodcm in generc arbores.qaa:fru£tam 
jcrant,* q Q * ipfe qaidem non fcrant,fcd ferentes adiuaant il 
ias ad maturandum,vt inter ficom & caprificam euenit . gene- 
Mtionis etiam ratio eadcm in ftirpibas qaoqoe eft,cnm ali* fe. 
^neprodeant^alijcfpontcnatarar.oricnturenimapatrefcen- 
vel hamo,vel parte aliqaa planrac. Sunt enim qo* ipfa per 

-nanqaamleoriDmconfiftant/cdinalijs arboribos ck'co,fo- 
^'tgeneranVytvifcum.feddeftirpibos fioe plantis feorfum 



°Pcre pcr.fespfis dicato agendom cft. 

30 Prmcipn-m renerat 




'jje martm,& fxminam. 
Caput 1 1. 

Vnc de animalium generatione diflercdom eft, proot 



cuiq; ratio coperif ,dcduccda ex ijs, quac dicla ia funr 
Generationis cnim principia,vtretolimos,illa potif- 
. «nwtn qais ftatuerit,marem & focminam.marcm,vt 
J «l motus <Sr gcneration is originem tcneat:faemina, vt qood 

iam TlX '^ 3m rCtniracflc potifsimomcrcdcs,fi qucmadmo- 

^ ,vndeq; femen geniralefiaf.intcl!excris.£xhocenim quae 

f (£ln ^ 0r,Ur,rar > co » r, ft«"r.id a,irfm q ucm3 dmodu cxmarcac 

inaprodear,nequaqual.,tcreoportet. q U od cnimeaparj 

«^inamarcq;fcccrnitor,<Srinfjs atq; cx ijs h*c fcwctf* 



34« 






ARISTOTI. DE G E N- ANlMt 

fir,id::o mas & f rcmina principium conferunt genc rationis.Ma 
rcm nanqucidanimaldicimus,quodinalio gigu/t.fccminam, 
quod in ieipfo.quam ob rem in vmucrio q joquc naturam tcr- 
r£>quafi foeminam matremq; ftatuunt,c*lum autcm < 



& folem 



&rcliquagencrisciufd-m, nominc genitoris patrkq; app-i- 
lant Mas autem & frrmina mter lc diffcruat ratione, quod ia- 
cuitasvtrfaiqsdiuerfadUrniaautcm partibas corporis qm- 
baidam d/icrcpatrationis diicrimS ta cxalrat,vt m as fit quod 
in altcro gcnerare potcft , vt dif tnm eft,i : a?mina quod in kipio 
«&cxquofhquodgcneratur,contentam in eo q«od gcncrat.f* 
ScdqaumticultatecSrTr.uncrcquodjmh^c diftingaantur, ad 



omncm 



incntaqucfacultiit^busparfcscorporis aj3ctwm»detar,ad pro- 



crcation 



ioncmquoqiKySrcoitum partcsaliqu«s cffe acvomuiod*- 
tas necefleeU,eascj; tetcr fr diueria:;,quibu$ mas aioeminadd- 
ferat-nam etfidc toto animdi mas aut fccmin* diuiar ,tarnca 
non quauis fui partc potauiaq; ldem mas,aut iosmina cft , icd 
ccrta qnadam virtutefiuc potenna,& parte.ficut & yim ccrne- 
digradicnd;queobtinct,vtfcnfopatct.partcs vcro eiufmodi 
funt fomiins,vtcri,<S vulo* rmaris teftcs,* coles, in omnibus 2# 
fanguine prsditis.corum cn.m alijs tcftes,aiijs meatas eiutmo- 
di qaidamfunt.in gcnerectiain cxangui difcrimcn maris& i« 
mtnac cft ,qaibus h«*c fcxus conrrarietas data cft. diffcrcnt lor- 
ma intcr fc partes ad coirom drlcgatx in ianguinco gcncrc M 
intclligcndam fic cft,vt principio vcl cxiguo immutito itomn 
exijs quxaprincipioiunt?immutari folcant,patethccin exc- 
ftis,quibus partc gcnitali tantum corrnpta,tota fcri forma vi- 
quc co commutatur,vt aut frcmina cffe vidcantur , aut param 
abfinr,tanquam con quahbct iui corporis partcaut potenna, _ 



amr 



marem 



fi 



tur,cumanimai,qua foemina aut mas cit , inimatatur : q<*a 
principium dimoucatur. 

Geniiaha numbra mn eadem emnihns ejfcanimahbw. 

TE&cs& vteri,aut vulu;c,non pari rationc in omnibas w 
gainc prsditis animalibus funt-iam cnim vt pnmam 
tcftiba^dicam,aliaomnino tcltibus carcnt in eo gcncre,vt p - 
fccs,vtfcrpcntcv:mcatusq 5 tantum gcminos icmmi geni 
pr*icriptosobtincnt.alia habcnt qaidemtcftcs4cdmrus »»* 
bis adb«rentcs,qui rcncs contincutar;mcatosi]; ab coru Y^ 






I IBER PRIMVS. 



«pefora$tendunt,vt in i/s yix teftibuscarenr,qui in idcm co- 
iungantur,quomodo in iilis coftitutum cft ita aucs omnes ha- 
bcnc & quadrupedcs,quae oua pariunt,intcr cth qu# aerem ac- 
cipiunr,pulmonemq; obtinent-his cnim omnibus teftes lumbis 
intus adhaercnt mcat osqj gcmini ab bif fimilitcr atq; icrpenti- 
bus tcndunt» vt lacerto,tettudmi,atq; omnibus corticc intcflis, 
Qoataurem aniinalgignunr,omnia rcftes in adccrio habcr.fcd 
nonnuliaintusvltimaconditcs aluo,vtdclphinus.nec mcatus, 
fcdpencm pertcndcntcm habct,vr boues ahaforis gerunt,quo- 
iorumaliapendenttt,vthomincs:aiia annexo* adiedcmfcisilcs, 



347 



vtiuesJeddehisdiligentiusdiftinclumcftinlibri^quotdehi- 
ftoria animalium fcripfimus. Vreri omnium bipartiti iunt , vt 
tcftes gemxni omnibus maribus habenrur.fed alijs mxta genita 
le,vt mulieribus,& omnibus quse animal non ioiutn foras , iccf 
etiamintrafcgenerant,* piiabusqei oua *dunt:alijs iuxta 
fcptum rrataerium fiue cin£him,vr auibus omnibus,& piteibus 
quianimalpariunt.Cruftatisetiam vulua; bifidae iunr,arque 
etiam moliibus.quazenitncuacorum vocanturpro vulua ha- 
bcr.tmcmbran2s,qaibu5contincajr.Sedhocmax/mcindifcre- 
iOtomeftinpo]ypis,vtfimplcxcilcvjdcatur.cuius rci cauia crt 
forma corpcri$,qua firailii vndiqj cft^nfcc^s ctia quibus ali- 
quidmagniradims 7 bifidx funr,minoribusincert$cproptcr cor 
porisexi^njratc.partesqu^s cxplicadas propolui, ita ie habcf. 

Qnam ob cauftf* natura ttfiicuLs anmahkus wdfdit.q** ittm 
anwiaha vitinSj&qua tardius CQtantiCr ^ucdtauvus 

cum fiattm a cafirattonc invffctitmffUntnt* 

DCaput 21 XI. 
EdifFercntiainftrumctorum gcnitalicm qnxin maribus 
f«nt,qui,qaas ob caufas finr,c6(idcrer,accipiar pritr.il nc- 
30cciiccft,cjiufna rei gratia teftiu coftitutio habcatur,crgo fi na 
tc ' r * rc Saacuq ; f ac ^ meh* in 

c ' 10c cti a membr u ob eoi u alrer utril efli debcricd no necefla 



r u u cflc sd gcncratione patcr.oinnibus cnim quae generat,ad- 

^aucircr,iincccfstratisratiohabcretur.nucvcro ncc fcrpen 

1 u $ tc ucsfunt,nt:q; pifcibus.vififcxitcnimcoire^plenosqjfc- 

/-^•sgcniraiis hsberc focs -neatus.rcftat igitur vt mcliorrs ca 
Jpia notac gratia teftes habcatur.Scdcnim maxima?animaliu 



nonc 



c l 



^^jicdintusaabcn^omniapropcfiora cclcrioracjuc ad 



vcnc 



• j.g ARIST. DE CENER- A N I M A t. 

vcncrcm fant. At vcro qaa! caft iora cflfc cooucnit, i j s vt in cibi 



rcuolutioncm 



anfraaujqoe ha5cnt,ne libido vchemens,crcbraque citetur.te- 
ftcs autem ad hanc rem emoltta natura cft.motom enim excre- 



iorem 



risque eiufmodi,atque etiam hominibus,cum rcphcat rone ier- 

uent.Scd quemadmodum fe habcant,pctendum ex ammanom 

hiftorijs cft . nullatiTnim partcm meatuum teftes complent, 

fed adieai pcndent,eo modo quo ponderatextrices tebs anne- 

aant.hisenim detraais meatu, intri fe retrahunt. quo fit , ne i° 

exeaa pofsint generare.nam nift ita rerrahcrentor.pofient ge- 

nerarc.fc iam taurus quidam,cum ftatim a caftrationc inijflet. 

implcuit.quoniam nondum retraat elTent meatos.Auium veru 

& quadrupedum ouiparoru teftes cxcrcmentum rccipiunt geni 

tale.itaquetardius ijs,quam pifcibus fcmen prcdit. patet hoc 

in auium genere,cum tempore coitus teftes molto habcat gran 

diores,qua; certo tempore coeant.At vbi id tempus prartenerit 

ade6 exiguos habcnr,vt inccrtum fere an habeant fit cum tame 

eotempore quo coeont, gerant praegrandcs.celerius itaquc ea^ 

coeunt.qux tcftcs intrafecontinenr. quaeenim extrahabent, 

non prius femen emittunt,qaam rctrahant tcftcs. 

ȣ anwialia membrum adcoitum accommoda- 

tumoblintant,® 1 <]»* »»»• 
Capnt V. 

INftramentom etiam accomodatum ad coitum qnadrapedes 
obtinent.habcre cnim id poiTant. Aues, Sc <px pedibus va- 
cant,habereneqneuot.qooniam alteriscruraiubmc-d.a aluo 
pofita font,alteris nulla funt crura.natura autem pcnis hinc pc 
def,<5fcfitum hunctcnet.& quidcmobeam remeuenit, vt ,nCO t 
eundocroracontendantur.nam & inftrumentum boc ncroocoj 
ftat,& crarnm natnra neruofa eit itaq; cum habcre id ne°» Dca / 
teftesquoqueautnonhabere, autnoneo locohabcrc nccc - 
cft.Idcm enim fitus penis * teftiam eft in i js ,q«a: hjbent vtr 
qae.quinetiam ea quorum teftes font extr^cum pcnis per » 
tamcaIefcit,iemcngenitaIeprolndecolleaum emittunt.n > 
paratoiamfcmincconrredanr,vtpi!ccs. Omnibusquce an- 
mal gcnerant,teftes ante haoent«r,vcI inws,vel extAprttt - 
qnamherinacco h.ccnim vnus lubis adharentes contmct - 
eande,Qaa aucs cauUm.coitum enim h-rinaceoru cc.cn.c. 
ri neceneeftvu non more quadrapcdum fuperucniant wrpj 
fedcreai coniungantar proptcr aculcos .caoftm qo.r.r. ci>r 



IIBER PHIMVS. 349 

* teftcs habent quar mcmbram hoc obtinent,& car alia intus,alia 
extra,dcclaratam iam cft . 

ouam cb caufam nonnulla animaha mcmhro gcriitali 

careant, Caput ^t. 

aVx autem carcnt eo membro, non qaia melias fit care- 
rc,ideo caret::fcd tantum qoia necefTarium,vt di$u eft. 
quomam celeriter peragator eoram coirus neccfle cft.qualis na 
tiujpifcium^ierpentumcft. pifcesenim incurrcntcs attin- 
gur,abfoluuntorquc ocy(sim£ nam vt in hominum, & eiufmo- 
lodi omnium genere femen genitalefpiritu retento emirti nccef- 
fe cft,fic in pu r cibos,mari non in branchi js acccpto emittitur.fa 
cile autem pereunt,mii id afaidue faciant itaqac non ijs femen 
tantifpcr concoquendum eft,cum coeunt,vt pedeftribus & vi- 
aiparis,fed tempeftatis tempore iam conco&um conrincntvni 
aerfam,ita,vtnedum contingunt,conficiant, fed concoftom 

m circa tc- 



20 



paratmnque emittant. quam ob rcm tcftibus carcnt, 

fimplicesre&osquehabcnt.qualisparticula qua?dan 

ftes quadrupedum cft.replicationis enimmeataspars akera 

fanguinea cft,qua recipitur matena feminis : altera exanguis, 

qua iaftam iam femcn tr infir.iraqae cum gcnirura cA deaenir, 

celeritereaquoqucabfolountur.Atpifcibustalistotusmeatus 



plicarionis altcracft.Scrpentescomplexu muruo cocunt-ca- 
rcnt tcftibus 6 pene,vt diflom iam eft. pene, qaia craribus ca- 
tent.tcftibus,propter fuicorporislongitudincm. mcatusmo- 
do ptlcium habent .quod enim corum natura porre&a in longu 
*ft>ft pracrerca in tcftcs protrahercntar, refrigcrarctar genita 
rapropter moram longioris itincris.quod ijs quoquc accidir, 
qQibuspcnisimmodicuseftfuntcniminfrEcundiores ijs qui- 
3°bus mediocris, proptcrea quod femen frigidum infoecundum 
ejt.rcfngcratur autcm quod Iong£admodumiertur. fed qaam 

°bcaufamanimalium alia habcnt teftcs,alia non habcnt,dccla 
*atum iam efh 

■ 

Q^prnodofcrpentes coeant. Caput v 1 1* 

Ocunt ferpentcs complcxu motno, propterineptamfai 

V-^corporis formam ad applicandum.cam cnim exigua qoa- 

* ■ parte coiungantur, nequcut prar nimia prolixitatc ada- 

P «ri.cumqoe mcbris quibos ampleftatur careat,proijs agilita 

^orporis vturar,coplexuq; mutuo fefc obuolueres expcdiuC 

^ncre vndefit, vt letius abfolui quam pifces videatur, no fo- 

m «Rcatuum prolixitate,fcd ctia ca ip fa,qaa vtutar folcr*ia. 

Dcfivu 



9<0 ARISTOT. DE GENER. ANTMAL. 

r>t fitti uttrerum aut ttuluarum in quibnfcue 

ammantibns* C*p** vin» \ 

DE vtcris auLvukrs qaemadmcdnm fehabeant, ambiges. 
magnaeitemmeius partisdiueifitss.nam nequc viulpa 
racnmiahabefitfiimlifim.fcdcum homincs,omncque genns 
terreftre infra ad genitale habeant, cartilaginca fupraconti- 
fictiixtafeptu.neqsouipsrafibi coueniunt,fed pifces infri vt 
homines,* qaadrcpcdcsvioipara* habent.aues * quadrupcdes 
oaiparx fupra.artamen ipfi quoq; fitos cotrarij rion funt a ra- 
lioncremcti.Iam enfmquae oaapariur,dioerfcpariut.ttcnimi<> 
alia imperfe&a emitrut ona, vt pifces foris enim pifcium oua 
pcrficinntor & augcntur.cn ius reicanfa eft,qaodmagnafrecu 
ditas eft .idqce munus co;um, vt ftirpiu eft.quod fi intra fc fcr 
tam pcrficerent,paaciora neccffario arderent.nuc ver<i& tot 
cocincnt,vt valua vnum efle ouum in paruis quidem pifcica- 
lls videarur.Sunt enim hi fcecundifsimi,vt in cxteris quoqjtu 
plantis,tum animalibus eucnit,quorunatura hisproportionc 
• tur.in ijs enim ma^nitudinis incrementum vertifur in feminis 



copia.Auesd' qasdrupedcs ooipnraroaanrdfmt perfedta.qua: 
Vt feruari pofsint , duro iam conftenf putamincooortct.iunt 2 o 
cnim quandia increfcunt mollJora. tcfta autrrr. efficitur calore 
c?:ternoeuaporantchurr,ore itaqjcaiidu efTcloctim, inqooid 
fiaf,neccfTc eft.talis auterr Incas ferti trafarrfi eft, quippeqai 
cibu conco ;uendoperficiar.Qnod fi onacnrireri in vuluane- 
ccfTecft^vutuam coru qur oua #Janf pcrfefo/mm cfle adfe- 
ptu neccfTecft.co; u autem <\ux imperfe&a, infra. ita enim m 
promota crtf.ft fua vero natura vulna proncruor ?d fitum in- 
feriorem,qo^m nd fuperiorem eft,nifi qu*d aliud opas natara? 
impcdit.lnfra eft cnim exitus eiuf officium. 

Jjtgtnttationt uinipa v crttm>& tius intcr tositffertntta. 3 

Caput tx. 

Vloipara etia intcr fe cifferunf .alia enim non mcdo foras, 
verumet^a intra feanimal generanf,vthcmmcs,vtequf, 
vtcanesden^q;omnia qne pilh tcgnntar,&intcr aqoatilte« c 
phini,balcn2C,& reliqua cerarij gcncris. 

JDegentratton? carttl ^ineorum^ utpcr** 

CfipUt x. 

Artilaeinea vero,<* vpenr/.u intrafcooagcncrant^o* 
V^^nitT alforas pariuf.^c^feftu aeneratouu.itaenimexoao 
animal gignitnr,nc hr pcrfefto m-Ilu noextra,hDecpar«*ut^a, 
^aia natura frigida fiint, nofi quia calid V't quidam volan^ 



De gentratione mollium ammanttum* 



s$« 



cupttt 



x i. 




Vtemollnnre&agcncrantooa.quodenim calorfs exigul 
f mr,v]ti itiu ficcare n&tura eorum non poteft.Qnia igifnt 
frig»da funr,molk sererat quia moUe%noncxtr?t perirercnim 
proptcr fitam molhtiem.Cu aatem exoaoanimal gigniror,eo 
dern quo in auibus modo partc plurima gmeratur.defcendunt 
oua in ?mum,efTicjuntcro; animalia infri ad gcrirale.quomo- 
ooin ih fir,qoa? iarn inde & primoortn.animalgeneranr^quam 
ob rem vnloa quoqne cornm difsimilis rum vtotparis,tu ouipa 



rte e(t,qaon''a vrruifqoeconfcrtium gcncris habcnt . na * fu 
pru ad feptu,# irsf ra porrcfla gcnus omne cartilagmeii habct. 
fcd ra dc ca,qua dc cattcrts voluar aut vf eri,generibus,queadmo 
du fcbabcat,pcr hiftorias,diiTea:on<rscjue animalrum indagan 



uam 



percipicndumo; eft.itaq;hoc genos * iupri cotinet vol- 
.qaiaouiparu perfcflorumouoru cfr:<? infra.quiavinipa 



qmaviuip 
rum rft,atq; particeps vfriufq. ruadit. AtvcrA ca quae. protincs 
animal generat,omnia infra habcnt. nrllocnimnaturr cpcrc 
impcdtiintur,r^cpartum gcmmant.Adh^c.fierinon potcft vt 
" n * ira h*aiuxrafentom gignantur.freturn cnim pondos&mo- 
tam tabere neccitc eft.is autcm locas curn vital.s fir, hxc pati 
n o Poroft.difFicoltatcm"ctiam paricndi ira accidere neccflc cft 
ptoptcr dchtronem longiorem.nam & nuncmulicres.fi in par 
to vcl ofcitado,vel aliqua ciufmodi caufa rcrrahunt, difrdltus 
parianr.Inancs ctia vten\aot vnloae ftii-fum adinn6>x ftrarcia 
Janr.nccnon validiores cfie cas qoa: animal contincant, necefie 
*"-quam ob rcm omnes cx carnofse funt.Qoae autetn 26 fepru 
^nsontur^mcbranacoftant. tometiam in ijs ipfisanimalibus 
S u ? ijerninant parum,planum hoc idcm fir,ooa cnim fupri, at 
y~j ' atl,s cont, * nenr -anfmalia vero parte inferavclux gcrut. 
c< Jquam ob caufam fimcontrario\teluas nonnulla animalia 



continctur,diaumiamcft. 



rcm 



o^tam cb caufam uteros intus antmalia babeant* 

tejles uero alia intas^aha extra. 
Caf>nt xil. 

- Vfa ntevterosantvuloasomniamtnshabcat,tcftcs alia 
v\« Cxtr * ,a ' la 'ntuscaufa cft,quodcii vtrrocontfneatorouod 
hr>c ,rUr ^ aC C ° a ° di3n1 P cr hnenm * cocoflion^df fiderer, 
corn^r 1 a ? f ^ * oinni "^ fn ^5 funt. locoscnim exrcrfor 
Poris & frigidaj eft, &clFenfionie 3 rpcfitus. Tcftcs alijs 

trtes 






ARISTOT. DB GENIR. ANIM. 

intus.alijs extra.propteiea quod ijs qooque operimento & ve 
l anm Kopuscft,tamvtferucntur,tum vtfcmen S cm "J """ 
cerepofsint. haudenimfieri poteft vt frigcntes&gel.d. pof- 

fmt retrahUtque emittere gcniraram.quam ob rem qulbus te 
ftesinpropatulofant,habentopcrimentumcateom,qDodicro 

tnm vocatar -Scd quibus natara cutis prx fua duritia obftat,ne 
m ollis,cutea,& ad compleflendom habi lis fit, vt ijs qux aat p.- 



mollis,cutea,& ad compiecienaam «u»»»» ■ - -r t- ~ - '- 
fcea cutc,autcorticeteguntur,ijsintushabeantnr,neccile elt. 

quapropter dclphin»,* quxcunque cetarij gcneris J aben "^ 
ftes,intus continent:atque etiam ouiparx quadrupedes cort ca 
tigeneris.cutisetiamauium daraeft, vtmagnitodin! debitx 
inhabilis fit ad comprehcndedum.caufam his omnibos dchgna 
ri neceiTe eft,vna cu i js,qoas antea diximns, ex ip qux p« ■ .m- 
tam & rem veneream accidont hxc eadem caufa eft, & vt eie- 
phantus ac herinaceus teftcs habear.t intus. cutis cn.m . js quo- 
qae inepta ad habendam particulam qux opcriat. S »tus etiam 
vterorum contrarius in i js qoar animal intra fc generant,ad ca 
qux ooa xduntatqne etiam eius ouipari gcncris ln ijs qua:vtc 
rum infra habent,ad ea qux fupri ad feptum. vcrbi g^P" 
fcibos ad aaes,quadropedcsquc ouiparas, atquc etiam ijs, qoi 
modo vtroque generant,vt oua intra fe pariant,an imai xci i 
in lucem.qux cnim intra fe & foris animal gencrat, vterum na 
bent in alao,vthomo,bos,canis,& reliqua gener Iseiu dem.na 
ad foetus tum faiutem,tum incrementum,cxped.t nih.l pona 



tis infidcrc vteris. 



fi 



<{fe diuerfc 



Caput xiii. 




tapnr x i i i. 

Batus etiam diaerfas i js omnibus cft, quo< excrem 
tum ficcum,&quo hamidum cxit.quam obr^» 



id gcnos,tam fcemin 



llE\™/3 CS id 2enus,tamtocm.nx,qoam m-«» &-"" — 

WmM quo excremcntum ficcum, & quo humidum fecer»* 
tur,qooqoe maribos genitora.fomnnis partos em.ttatur.p 
priorefupcriorc^uc meatus is continetur.Qorc ^?\ 
quidrm oua.fcd impcrfed^vt pifccs ouiparW jsnonfet ,» 
fed lambis adharrens voloacontinetur mec enim incrc mc 



ficd 



rispemctur.armcarusiiiwi..^.-. - .„,.„- .«qn* 

intus eft omnibus qux genitali carent.ou.pans c « a ' n V^ 
habent veficam,vt tcftudfnibus. Generationis *™J*r n3lo 
excrementi cmittcndiduplcx meatos eft:icd qoufcm.n.s n. 



5% 



I I B E R. P R r M V S» 35} 

Tabamlda eft,idco mearus idcm commnnis cam excremefo ha 
midi alimenri habcror.conftar hocira cflcco, qaodcom genira 
le fcmen omnia animalia fcranr, cxcremcnrum ramcn humidu 
ilJud non omnia rcddunr :fcd cnm & maris feminalcs mearus,& 
crmin* vrcru firmari ncc obcrrarc oporrcar,idijuc aur jn par 
tcpriorccorpori5,autinpoftcriorcadprona cfFici neccfle fit, 
idcirco viuiparis proprcr fcEtuin vrcr us in parrc priorc pofi- 
taseft,oaiparisadlubos&prona. Quar aurcm anfmal ardunt 
in loccm,cum inrra icoua generarinr, ijsiifus vterque. qoonfa 

vrranq;rcfcrunrgcnus;*caderuviuipara,ruooiparafuf)r.par 
lc cnim vuluae l upcriorc in qua oua gignu tur,fub fcpro ad lum 

bos & prona habcnrinferiore ad aluu. hac cnim iam procreat 

animai Mcatus idcm i js quoq; ficci alimcnti,* coirus cft.nullf 

cnim cx ijs gcniralc peder,vr anrcadiflum eft.mearus cnim gc 

niralcs mariu.txi eoru quoru propri j funr,tu vcro coru qai tc- 

«cshabcnr r (imili modo arq; vuiuae ouiparoru habcnter. omni 



bus 



fttjb 



adhxrenr 



Qnib 



bcaul; 



Jomtos contincntur,ijs protinus cum meatibus firmanrur.ncc ic 
^ i js cft,quibus cxtra tom codcm dcpcniunr,fciliccr in locum 
8 c nitalis,communiquc cxcipiunrur mcaru fimilis & dclphino 
meatuum modus cft,fcd tcftcs fob aluo occulti. fcd quemnair. fi 
tam partcs ad gcncration? m accommodatse ,& quas i 
toucrinr in his gcncribus^dlflom iam cft. 

Cr^Ttacea^molltA,teftacea 9 0' tnfecUammdlia, 

tum tnttrfe^tum cumfangutnetsw 

generatione difftrrc* 

GCap. xi Iil. 
* Acrcris qusc fanguinc vacant animalibus, non fdcm mcm 
'broruadgcncrarioncmpcrtincnriumodosrfcdtum intcr 
* c »pfc,rum eria cum fanguincis diUidcnt- Sunr hxc rcliqua gc- 
"2 ^ U3 ^uor numcro vnum cruftatum, fccundu molle, tcrtiii 
ln feftum,qujrru teftatum.An quarti gcncris vlla cofcant, inccr 



»cemus 



«om cit.pluri m a ramcn nocoircapertu eft.quemadmodu confi 
font, po ftca,- 

mingur.^u djicru iupinu,aircru pronu appncaucrinr cau 

^•etcnim ne parrc fupina fuperucniant,prona impediut cau- 

Pr* faaru pinnaru prolixa appcndicchabcnt in hoc gcncrc 

^rcstcnues gcnitalcsmcatus,f(Eminx vulaas mebrancas ad 

Wtinom fiflas,hinc atcpc indc, in «pibus glgnitur ouum. 

-l Dc 



J54 ^RIST. T>t GEKU» ANIMAI. . 

J?e ccitH, ?y «entrtMonc molhum aninialmm . 

fafntt x v • 

Ollia ovc coeut,renixu coplexuq; mutuo brachioru. 

ficcnimconiungi ncceffecft, quonianaturaexitum 

ff excrcmcnti in os infieficndo adduxerit,vtanttdiflu 

^ eft>cu de partibns agcrcmus.haberc foeminas omncs 

in hoc gcncre mebrom vulua.e apertum eft . Continent cnim 

ouu primoindifcretu,mox difcrctu in plara, ik pariunt omnia 

i^ipcrfeflamodoouiparoiu pifciu. ircatusiHc inrcrior fcfcm 




excrcm 



qui femen genitafe pcr meatiim cmittat,idq; parte corporis fa 
pina,qua putamcn difcat a &marci31abitur,faciunt.quam ob re 



ca narte mas cum loemins copmarur.n<mm iu<^uut femen,n- 
uemembru,aut *liqoa virtute,<iac vim aliam mittat,adtroue- 
rl ad mcatu vulual^ neccftc eft.crinis vero infcrtio maris pol y- 
pi pcr fiftularruqua pifcatorcs crinc coirc polypos aiunt,ccm- 
plexus gratia fit,non quafi inftrumcntum id fit vtilc sd gencra 
tioncmetcnmicxtramcatamcorpusquc cft, intcrdum tcrgis 
qaoqucmi!liaccpGlantar:fed gcncrationisncgratia,an alia 

caal!i,nomlam exploratum habetur* 

Vt cQtt+yty gtntraticne inftfterwn. 

C*P*t x v I • 

T Nfc&orom aliqua cocunt,atq; ex animali W ciufde gencris 

modo eorum quibus cft fanguis,vt locuft s,cicacte» 
ph^iJ^i2,vcfpa:.formJc^altquacocunt quide& gencrant, fea 
116 fui «eneri* -inimal,fcd vcrmiculos tantumncq; cx jnta»- 



20 



qv<x<j 



q 



■vr cu!icrs,& vcrmiculi,* plara eiufmodi gcncra. intcr ca vero 
ooae coi f unt,frcni>n:c maxima cx psrtc maibres manbos fonf: 
nec tne-tus yil.i fcminalcs m maribosefic videntor.no]lu,parte 
plorimadixenm,mebrum (ccmtox a mare inferhor, fed njan 
ifcemina furfom de partc inferiore.quodconfpeaajriin plnn 
bus cft.necdefupcrac«u ambsgiturrfed contra, yt mas ffletnm* 

inferat,vifum in paucis eft. nrcj a<mac ita exploratu habetur. 
vtgcoerepofsimusdjftinjiucrr.Hocidcmfercinpifcibusqao 

queouiparismaximaexparrc, &in qnadrupcd.bcs oa! P. ar !f 
«A,vtfn»minx maiorcsfmt maribus,qocniam idcommoooe 
ad vterumma^naoucrumcopiaext.mefccntnn. f<rmini« in 
ea generc mCbium,q-K.d p r o vulaa!wl>etur,fiiTnm iuxtamt 
ftinum,vtcxtcris,pofitumeft, in qao fcetut gencrator. pa«s 






IIBIR P&IMVS* JJf 

hoc In locuftis,* rcliqufs>qaornrn magnitudo aliqua fit,& na- 
toracoiturccipiatmaxin:acnjrnpar3gcneris infefli pcrexi-* 
gua eft.inflrumcnta gcnerationi accommodara,de qaibusncn 
amea difTeru<mas, ita fc habent.Siniiiariu parfium femcn geni 
tale,# Uc reliqaimusrdc quibas nuc opportanc dicemus .& pri 
ffcaim de icmine,poft in fequcntibus de laflc. 

2^j* ammalid ftmtn emiitant,qu£ nomO' vucrun- 
datt cphrioyCjui femtn tx unatwaque corpo* 

rUpiXite prouenire atrtrmant» 
10 Caput xvil. 

Frr.cn a!fa aperteemitrut,vt ca qua?funt natnra fangainca. 

aha,id eft infeft* & moll ia,emi ttant nec ne,incer tu eft.iraq; 
coi»f:d-randu hoc cft»vf ru mares omnes femen emittant,an no 
©mna.fi: fi no omncs,ccr ali j emittat^alij no Tum etia vtrum 
fcEmina» feme aliqoodconfcrant ad procreatione,an non. & (i 




fcm 



oaamms 



«a qsar fcrr.en emittontfoofemine ad generationem > qaxrcn- 

ao C 5 -at(? : °™ino q«? natur^ fit feminis ,&eortr-qa£ meftrua 
v^c jrurricilicet in ijs aniVnalibus,qur idhcmoris genusrmit- 
toi Omnia ex femine gigni,fcmc autem ipfvm prdficifci a ge- 

W _fe mm ^ _____ ___. i ___-. m t __. _* _ -_m_ * ^** _M _ 



^iwrinas <£ faemin-r cmittantran alter tantanvft vfrnni ex to 
to corporcfecernitar,an non ex tcto,nam fi no cx toto, nec ex 
ambobasquideparctibusprodirc probabile cft . qnapropter 
P ri ™ttrndehoc,qaemadmodumfehabcat Inqairendam cft. 
Santenim qnidicatidextotoproucnire.Qujbcsaute argume 

^ptobsnt.vtfemencxvnaqaaqaecorporfspnrte/ccernarnr. 
^qoatoor fere nomero funt.Primum vehemctia volapratir.ma- 
gb enim foaue eft ,qnod idc amplioris f\t affcftas.amplias aatc* 
tft,(jocd omnibas mebris,qai quod paucis accid^t. Sccundom 
qaodcx mancis mancaprocrecnfur fcmc cnim abca,quae dccft 



ror 



flcr 
fimiles 



1 caGfacU,vt totnm fimile fit,quodcx tali toto femen gcnira- 
v : P rodi ^»t,partJbas qaoquecaufa fi 
o*5uaq; partealiqaid vcnerir. Qu; 



od 



r*r 

^rific 



quid cft ex quo prlmum gencre 



ctia IC .P, qrtk S^oq^caiufqaefit/emcnaliqaod propriu fidcm 
^JiAafacianthuicopinionivcrifimilcm.non folcm cnim 






2 X XcbcS 



s 



2i& ARISTOTE. M GENER. A N I M A L» 

rebus naturae infitis, & natiuis , hbcri fimiles parentibus pro* 
deunt,fed etiam aduetitias atque cxternas prafentant.ia enim 
~ cum parcntes cicatrlces haberent, filij quidam parteesdem fui 
corporisidemhabuerunt.& Chalcedonccum pater brachio ef- 
fetcompun£o,filius idemrctulitrconfufatamcn nota,mino5qj 
t xplanata.his fere ratiombus quidam potifsimum credidcrur, 
fcmen k toto corpore profidfci. 

Imfsrcbatioineos, qttt dicuntfemenex omnibn* cot- 
foris partibus prouentre 9 femenq; efje cxcre- 

mentum. Cnput Xvlll» *° 

Fd cu fcrutamnr,& dilteetius rem difcutlmus, cotra potius 
efle vicktur. nec fupradi&a quatqor illa folucre difficikeit. 
_ _}a#daaliafequuntur impofubilia ex ea ipfaopinione.Pri- 
inum isttnrXimiiitudonullu indicinm afferr, vt femen genita 
leex totocorpcre fccedat,quadoquid*&voce,&vnguibas,& 
pilis,&motu fimilcs procreaninr,cx quibusnihilproueniat.no 
nullaetia nondum habetcum generantvvtcanos. aut barbam. 
tnaioribus itcm fuis plerunq; fimiles funt,ex qtiibcs nihil fccci 
fit. redditur cnim poft plara gcnera fimilitudo : vt in Helide, 

cju* cu Aethiqpcconcubuerat,nonfiJ(am forma Aethiopis pe-io 
perit,fednatusex fUiaerat Aethiops.In ftirpibusetiameadem 

ratio eft.namfi hoc ita cffet,in ijs quoquc ab pmnibus partibus 
fcmen proculdubio proficifceretur.atplerafque partes, aut il- 
\x non habent, aut quifque abfcinderc poteft,aut poft genitaj 
habent.qaiaetiam cx fru&bos nihil feccdit : & tamen ij quoq; 
Jormacadcm proueniunf,ad h#c,vtrum ex vnaquaqaefimda- 

.: «irf.-*i«him r\mA;+ xr**Ui «rir.i <".mp r»n>.r»*»rno.an etiam 



ex 



fimi- 



autcm 



5° 



les iint iecciiu cx totofScd aiia cauia,quanoo nec m ipm s u,v v 
fimilitudoproptcreafit^quiaextoro corpore icmen gemw' 
fcccfTerit. ScdficxdiistmiIaribustaRtum,ergononcxtoto & 

_i .t *..».* . :-* r««t^ni!U 



bus omnibus.at cx fimilaribus .««- 



priorcs^&difsimilares exfimilaribus conttant. «vrraw — 
manibos fimiles procreamur, fic & carnc& vnguibns. At vero 



partesdiil;iir.ilaresex fimilaribas.itaqae qar.dex ijs lccean,". 
iliis qaoq; fccefier it.atq; ex ip/a compofitioncperinde qnaii a 
nominc/crlproqnippiamproficifc3tar,fia toto,vela quaai 

fjrllaba proficiiatar.qaod fi a fyllabis, ab elen.etis c° iri P ol, V^ 



r 



neq; prodierft.itaque fi ex igne,& reliquis ciafmodUarnes of- 
fa ve conftanr,ex elementis potius fucrinr. nam ex compofirio 
ne quonam patfo pofsintfAtqm fineea fimile cfle nihij potfr. 
rit.quod fi quid eam pcftea crear.idcaufa fiinllfnM&j* fuerit, 
nofcccisio ex toro Ircm fi partcs diftraclrin ftmtae finr,cuo 
nampacloviuatffed fi coniuiTcircparuam qucddam anlmal 
fucrit.gcnitales etia partes quona pacto confiftatf no enim fi- 
mile eft quod a marc, & frcmina ftccdit. Item fi vttiuf que fc- 



men ajqut cx toro vcnir,duo animalia generabtrntur.vrrunqce 
io enimomnia habebii.quamobrem F.mpedocJes maximeffi ifadi 

cendtim eft)conf entanea huic rationi fcripfifleviderar hoc qai 
dem loco.nam fi alibi diccri3,non bene. dicit cnim maris ac foe 
minx quafi lymbolti efle.rotum vero a neutro proficifci.ftd di- 
fcerpta gerunt mas ipft Sc focmina membra. cur enim foemina 
non cx ieipfa gcneiei.fiquidcm femen ex toto ftccdit,& concc- 
ptacuium obtinct f S ed v t v idctur, aat non cx tcto ftcedir ,'aat 
«a,vt iIldait,non ex vtroqoceadem fccedantquaproprcralte 
rum alreriuscoitum defiderat.fcd impofsibile liiud qucqueoc- 
corrit.nec cnim maiora poflunt diftra&a feraari, animataque 

Jocfle.quomodo Empcdcclcs gencrat amorc,cum dicit : Multao, 
ponunturcapita abfqtic/ua ceruice.mox enim coalefcere coag- 
mentari^ ait.quod fieri non poflc apertum cft,quando nec anl 
ma yiraque omni vacua feruari poflbnt,neqae veluti plura ani 
maiia coaleicerein vnuimtS: ijs quicx totofeccdctc aiunt 5 acc:- 
aif,vteodcmmodoquoiilc,dicant.nam vttamamorcin rcr- 
ra >iic i js in corpore agifunncn cnim ficri pofeft,vrparres cca- 

. lan g3nrar,c6meando4;eoc!cm deuenlant.Tam ctiam qConam 
pattodirimantur iupcriora,inferiora,dextra,finiftra, priora, 
poi.criora'harcenim omnia carcntrationc. itcm cum partiaih 

joaiiaracuit3fc,al,> s fFcaibusdiftinguantar,videlicetdifsimila 
Ks.eoquodcff.cere aiiquid pofsinr,vrlingoa,vt manastfi,,,.., 
"s dunria , molliria,& reiiquis eiufmodt affectionibus (non 
«ioi vrcuq; fc haber/anguis eft ant carojcohftar ob ea re ficri 
ve l Vt ^^o^^ccflcrit^vniiioca fir com partibus corporfs. 

fi Cf j^ raria ' vt ^ an § uis * ^"g 01 "*'" 1 © ««<■•»« proo«"'af- At 
rir T f0 ^ uoda ' n fan S ais fi ar,no ca caufa fimilitndihis fuc 
tur? X ° mnioas parfibcsdeccflcritrvt ainnt,qoi ita opina 

gais r S C Cn ' ni CX vnatant « icccdere. quandoquideno fan' 
turf| CX 8 ° inc gfgnftfc-.cur cnim no omniavel cx vno gigna 
rar T* .?"" fcntCntia cadcm e & videtur, atqj illa Anaxago- 
>vt nuilamfimilaregignator : mfi quod ille communeid dc 

z j omnibt 









-,g ARISTOT. »E GENER. A K I M* 

omnibus aflerit,hi vcro generationi tantum animaliiz trihauf; 

Adhaec,qaonam pa&o itta augcantur,com ex totofcccficrint? 

Anaxagoras cnim probc ait, carnes cx alimento carni acccdc- 

rc.icd i js qui eadcm non dicunr,& tamcn feccderc cx tcto pro- 

nunciant,quonam padio alio acccdcntcmaius qoicqoadncie- 

patS qood acccflferit,maneat? At fi mutari quodacccflcrit po- 

tcft,cur non iam inde ab initiofemcn fittale^vt gigni cx copof 

fit fanguis & caro,non ipfam fit fanguis & carof ncc vcro dici 

poteft ttmperationepoilaageri,pcrinde vt vinum aqaa adic- 

£ia.ita cnim principio maximcfyncerum meracumqs eflet vnu 19 

qaodqjmunc vero & caro,& os,& qucsuis alia pars, quod dici- 

tur,id poftmcdum magis eft. Scminis antcm partem aliquam 

dici ncruum e{T?,aat osjonge plus cft 7 qu5m vt noftcr fenfus af 

fcqui pofsit.ad hsrcfifceraina & mas dilFcrunt interfe vteri ra 

tioncjvt Empedoclcs 2it,funditur in puris mas,fcemina frigo 

rcmixtojnutari videmus tain viros quam moiiercs,vt qucm- 

admodumcxinfocctmdisicECudijficcA' habilibos foeminaepro 

creanda^admarisprocreationcmpropcnficuadant, qaafi non 

fitcaufa in fecrdc^do cx toto,necne,fcd in modcratione,imn"i0- 

dcrationcyeeius qacd cxmuliere viroq;<ecedet,antobaliqna20 

ciofmodicaufam.iihoc xnqcam itaeileponamus, conftat non 

propterca cifc £reminam,quia ex qaodam fcccflerit-itaquc^ncc 

partem quidcm quam pr opriam habct mas aut foemina, fccei- 

fu confiftcre.fiquidem femcn idcm & mas cffici poteft & fccpnf- 

na,tanqaam ncnalterutra pars in icminefit. Qmd igitur refc 

rat,dc hacparte itadicatur»an dc crtcrisfnam fi icmen ab vte- 

xo non proucnir,cadeca:tcris quoq; partibus ratio icroada cft/ 

ItenonnolJaanimaliaoriuntur cxnullis,velciufde,vcl diucru 

gencrisan;malibus:vtmuftar,<S: genera papilionu, cx quibus 

gignuntur quaedam animalia,fed non fimilis naturae, fed gcnus 50 

quoddam verimculi patet igitur no femine quod ex cu&ispar 

tibus feceflcrit,gcncrari quaeccmqjdiacrfi gcncris funt,nam 1»- 

«liliaeirent.fiqaidemfimilitudoindiclocflct, quodex cunutf 

fecefTcrit.qaardam ctiam animaiia vno coitu plaragenerat.pla 

tasveroomninomota eodcm,omnem annuum froftum airer: 



certum 



fingul 



bus.heri fccretioncs neceiic cft.ncc vero hcxi potcit, vr in *' 
ro diuidatnr iam enim tanquam i planra nouella, aut animau 
nupcr sdito non femtnc fepararctur.Itcm qax aoulfione f«u- 

tur/emc aiFcrunt.crgo & priuaqua auuifa fcrcretcr,ex cadc ia» 

* msgrii 



fr.a^nimclinc fru&ificaflc,nonextota plantadeftri&umfemcn 
tul/iFeccnu eft.Omniii veri ipas imii argumcntu fn genere jn- 
fctforu antmadaertimus f-ti$,qaodafi non omnifi-,tamen p]u- 
rimorum femina pcr coitu particniam qoanda ibam infctit it% 
marc»* quidem coitu ra agun;:quotl antca dittu cft.Subiedte 
enim in iupcra -indere viiunronquanqoa non omnia,fcd pluri- 
ma ex ijs qu£ explorata habemus.itaq; in ijs eria maribus,qut 
iemcn cmittunt,non cauia generarionis eft,quod cx tora fotcfa 
Jerir,fed alro quodammodo,dc quo poftca vidcbimus/na fi caa- 

f fa cffct fcccffus,vt putant,non cx cun&is feccdcrc partibus ccn 
fendum cffefrfcd ab agentccreat riceq; raoni vir late, velut i £x 
bro,no i matcria.fed hi fimilcaiufvvt fi vel icalceis j>ficilcidi- 
cdt fi] ius cnim qui patri ftmilis eft.fiinili icrb cnltu corporis v- 
titnr. Cauf a aute vt voluptas rci ventrex vcbcmctior ficnon 
qaod cx toto fccefferir,cft,fed quia prurigo vchemens accidic. 
qua ob rem fi quis frcqueter ca rc vritar,minus affkitur volo- 
ptatc. Itevolnpras Vcncris in finecoitus ptftif$imfieft.Atfi 
ex toro ieccrncrerur,n6fimol,fcdfingul!S partibus , alijs prius* 
ali js poft cxultarct .Caofa venS qua ob re cx mancis maca pro- 

10 aeniuiu,cadc cft,<* cur fiiiifimilrs parenribas prodeut.ied noa 




P 
toto fcccdcrc probari potcftretfi non ex toto fcccdif .nihi! rario- 

iji repugnat 5 fi a fcemina quoq; no fcccdcrc^cdalio quoda mo- 

«fecaofam gencrarionisprarfUri ;\fcemina ftatucmus . quade 

TCrt d.iieramus^praximii eftjcu icmc non ex cudte fecerni par 

tibusapcrtuiamfit.Iniriuvcrotumcius ipfius propofitf,tam 

ctia fcqucntis totius di(putationis,vt priir u dc feminc quidni 

30iit,accfpiamus itacnim&oft;ciaipfa,*qa« officijs acccdunt. 

4F* Confid ^ r 3re potcrimas. Tale autem fua natura femcn 

nierequirir,vtcxcoprimooriannjrea quarfecondom natu* 

ran conftiruuntur,non quod ex ilio( vcrbi gratia)homine 

aliqoid fit,quod agat.fir cnim ahquider hocqciaiemcne- 

^cft. Scdcumsmiltitariamahudex a^ofiat.aliocnimmo- 

»cum exdieno&em fieridic;mas,aof cxpuerovirum.qno- 

^m hocpoit hcc . aho cumcx arc ftatuarn,aoc exlignolc- 

jm* ju«anquecxmateri;*ficridicimus,vtcx aliquoqaod 

""i«tormctor,totara fir.alis ctim ex mufic* immoficutn, 

ex*ano a-grum,*omninocontrarium cx contrario.prr- 

*c«>vt Epicharmas fettf fiiam cxaggerationem^cx calumnijs 

% 4 *£<d 



J^O ARlSTOT. DE GEN- ANIMALIVMt 






malcdi&a^exmalediaispugna.quxomnia ei rcfcrutur , vnde 
prlncipium motus.quale id quoq; quod modo diximu^cft.pars 
cnim quxdam totiusdifcordia: caiumniaeft:ied aliquorum ex- 
tra,quod mouerit,cft.vt ar$ cxtra fuom opus cft,& Jucernacx- 
tti domus incertdium.Cum itaq; tot modis aliud cx alio fiat,ie 
mcn inalterodcduobushiscflcapcrtumcft.autcnim cxco vt 
materia,aut vt cx primo quod moocrit cft quod gignitur • non 
enim vt hocpoft hocquomodo cx Panathencis nauigatio:neq; 
vtcx contrariocontrarium.gignitor cnim contrarium cx con- 
trario,quodcorrumpitur:& aliud quippiam fubijci oportet,exi& 
quoprimo in mancntc fit-Igitur in vtrdnam deduobus illis co- 

ftitucndomfufemen,confideradum cft.vtrum vtmateria*& pa 
tiens:an vt forma & agcns:an ctiam vt vtrunqj: ynk cnim cum 
ijs fortaiTedeclarabitor,& quonam pafto cx contrarijs genera- 
tio fit omnibus ijs,qua» cx feminc oriuntur.nam ca quoq; genc 
ratio qu* cx contran js fit,naturalis tft.alia cnim cx contrarijs 
oriuntur marc dico & fremina.alia ex vno tantum,vt plant* o- 
mncs,& animaliom nonnulla,in qaibas no diftinftus,ieorfum- 
qs coftitotus cft fcxus maris & foemm^.Gcnitura igitur id vo 
catur,qaodagencranteproucniens caufa eft,qua:primaobti-*e 
neat principium gcncrationis:vidclicct in ijs,qu# coirc natora 
voldit. Semcn aufcm cft,quod cx ambobus cocuntibus illis ori 
gincrritrahit qualcfcmen platarom omnium cft,animahu no- 
noildrum,inquibusfcxusdiftinausnon cft.vclot id quodcx 
marcacfoemina primum milcctur,qoafi cocentus promiicuos 
quidam,autanimal hxccnim iam habcnt qood cx ambobusrc- 
qoiritur. Scmcn&fruausinterfcdifFcrunt,pnoris pofterij- 

risqj ratione.fru£his cnim quod cx alio eft zfctncn cx quo aw* 
namaliisamboidemfunt.Naturaautemprima eius,quodie* 
mcn vocator,quxnam fit,cxponenda latius eft . Quodcanqrm }0 
corporcaccipimus,aut partemcflcfecudum naturam,veldjfsi 
milarcm,vcl fimilarcm ncceflc cft:aut prarcr naturam , vt vcl 
papulam,vcl excrcmcntum,vel colIiquametum,vel alimcntu* 
cxcrcmcntum appclloreliquias alimcnti\coiliquamentu,qoo<l 
cx incrementofeccrnitur rcfolutione prrter naturam.kd nu i - 

lamid cfle partcm vcl fimilarem veldifsimilaran apertumci^ 
nlhilcnmicxco>quamuisfimilanconftituiturvtcxncruo,aat 



Qupniam ctian 
i ieparatum non 
ob! 



na 



«riaturJlimcntom plantr res aduentitiaeiUtaq; aui com £ cn 






IIBER.P&IMVS. jf_ 

Hicntom.aat excremcntum cfTc neceflc cfr.veteres quidem au- 
torcs opinari vidcntur id eiTe coJJiqaamctum.quod cnim cx to 
to f eccdcre proptcr motus caJorem dicunt,vim habct coJJiqua- 

menfi._nl1inn_m.-nf_ ->nfj> m ____•__ ..-.., >- .■ - 



aatem 



iccudum naturam oriri poteft cx ijs quarprseter naturam funr. 

excrementum igitur efle neceffc cft. A t omnc c xcrcmctum, aut 
, alimenti inutilis eft,aut vtijis.lnutilc dico,a quo nihiJ prseter- 

ea naturat fuppeditetunfed quo plas abiamitur,co magis natu- 

ra vitiatur.vtilc contrafedenim non talc excrementum id eflc 
lo conftat,co quod i js qui vd a:tate,vel morbo pcfsimefe haber, 

tJ + r\ »■» 4f> i-. ____ _*» ______ __^ _. ^ _. » t « _. _rfc ,/* . _ _. 



cnim 



naiium omnino,aut non prolificum,propter inutilis ac mcrbi 

cicxcrcmentipcrmiftioncm.crgo vtilis excremcti parsaliqaa 

icmcncft.viiiiisimum antcm quod vltimura cft ,<£ex quoiara 

vmimqaodq; gignirur membrum.cft cnim tnm prius,tum po- 

ltcnus.primi igitur alimenri cxcrcmctum piruira eft,& fi quici 

almdciufmodicft pituitacnim alimcnri vrilfscxcremcntucft, 

curas tci indicium ,quod pcrmiftum qu cibo puro aicrc porcft* 

*Iaborcab/umifur.vlrimumautcmparuum admodum cxplu 

*° imo re ^ n qaitur alimcnto.icd inrelligendum pcrcxiguo augcri 

quoridieanimaiia Aplanras.nam nifiiraciTct. additioneplu- 

ris cadem vcl minima modum cxccdcrcnt magnirudini* . igitur 

conrra quAm vctcrcs pmarunt,diccndum cft . Cu cnim ilii quo4 

« roto iccedat,fcmen cflc farcantor,nos quod ^d torum fuaptc 

natura faciat fcmcn ciTc f arebimur. Cumq. illi colliquamcmu 

oicant;noscxcremcntum potiUseiTcftatuimus.quodenim vln- 
mum accedat,* cxcrcmcnrum vkimi fir,id fimilc cffe probsbi- 
iiuscftpcrindc vtpiftoribusfxpenumeroaliquid andiiceli,*4 



remaner.iimileeiusauod con 



3°iccnsaotcm quodq ; # colliqucfccnscorrumpirur&dcgcncraf. 
argamcntum non collfqu__mentum,fcd cxcrcmcntum potius ef 

leilfnrl^A « !____.__ i* . ___.*. 



qaod 



inx 



gtns ncccffccft.fcdminusexcrcmenti quippcco incorpos ma- 



cxcrcmcti 



'ocus iccundum natura nuJJus colJiquamenio datus cft.icd fluit 

OUoriinr*. ± __-,!- _f_ •_ _ _ _a __ . . 



exeremcmis 



nious iocus praefcripiuscft.vcrbi grari-,aj«menti ficci exctcme 
f'*aiuus,hum.di vcfica, vtilis vcnrricdus^cminaj.s vtcrus gcni 
MlCiRamtn» Jn ca enim loca iccolJigum arqj confluunt.Tcfti 

pioniu ertain faciunt ca qsMteneniunr.v. 4<-tT, r n.n,<^_ivimn 






% J id fir. 






— 



I 9&x AMSTOTE* DE GEN- ANIM. 

id fit qax idco accidanr,qaia talis excrcmcn ti rtatura cfhdjfio* 
lotio enim & imbeciilitas manifefta confcquitur,vbi vcl mim'- 
mum id ieceffcrir,vt qaaficorpns co fine priucror 7 <juidcfr.u ab 
aiimeto afferatur.pauci vcro qoida & breui tcmporc per xmi 
lealruncum id feccdit:vidc)icct vbicopia iupcranr.qnoinodo 
alimentu primum,fi vbi moducxcc(Icrit,cmi{titur,mcliuscor- 




quae infalubres iunt-qua 



qua 



lmbeci 



rimis & magna parte ita aec_dit,vt venere cxoloator , dcbiiitc- 
torq5,ob cam quidiximuscaufam.Ad ha.c,fcrnen ncc in prima 
aetatc,ncq;in fcnedutcneq; mmotbis eft.caret hoc xgri pro- 

_ * • _■ _- j» . 2 •* ______ __i ■ _r_*__. 

pte 

qucrc.pucri propter incrtmerum.abiumitur enim totu aw~cn- 

lum m corporisdefidcrium- priuiquiialiquid cxcremcnri rema 
ncatquinquenio nanqjfcrfc corpus in homine quide dimidiuin 
capcrc vidctar dmnis magnitudmis,qrue rcliqno toto tepore co 




ipeci 

jnaitum icminis _edut,alia paru ^alia nihil omnio6,fcJqj no pr# 
imbcciihtatc.fcd contra nonnulhs* tocnitabfcmitarem toow» 
pos,vthominun6nu]lis 7 quivbiper habitu corporis bonucar 
nu_eti,aut pinguiorcs cuaierinr,minus feme cir.;ttont 7 minusG; 
re vcncrca cxpctunt.fimiiis & vitibcs afrcfiio incidit , qam»- 
miaalimeticopia luxariant,& hircice tatifper d.cncurna & 
hirci pinguefcetcs minusfeminishabct.qusobrecosftlctr.r.- 

th cxtcnuarc.& vitcs hircirc sb ca ipia hireorii rfiefticne dixe- 
runt. viri etta malicrcsq j pingn_s minus fcezudz cfle, qaa non 
pingues vide tur.quoniain vcgctioribus cxcremetujn concodtu 
tranfitinpinguc.na&pingucdoe.vcrcmentu cftbonitate iob- 
_iantia!falubre.funtQucenullumafrcrant fcme,vt lali^vtpo- 



_• 





munt,vt diaueit.SiinilimoclotoBcudilsi-nanuoq; o. m- 
mafunt.alia propter vires,a5ia prcpter imbecillitate . mujtum 
enim atq; inatilcexcrem- nrii prcmifcetur.vt vd niorbi nonou 
liscontrahar:nir_cu non bcnc pargatioce_si_.& alij cnadut,aiq 
obcut mortc tabclturcnira eo modo qno pcr .vrinar profltiosu- 

nam id quoq. vitiu iam m _uibus accidiflc ctrtu cit >im «n** n 



tTBHR VK 1M V S. /^ $6$ 

ticw. excrcmcfi & fcminis eft .quibusq; excremcntum amboru 
tam ficci,quam hamidi alimcnti,ijs quo homidi ccdcm fcmini* 
qnQqjfccrctioagiturhomjdienim cxcremcntu cft.nanq;om~ 
irium alimcntu humidum porius eft. At vero quibus hocdeeft, 
ijs ca parte,qua cibi ficci /edim entum tendit,femc quoq; fcccr* 
nitur.addoctiam quod collxquatio &tabesfcmpcrraorbofacft 
excrcmcnti emifsio fcmpcr vdlis eft fcminis fcccfsio tn aocipi- 
ti vcrfaror^qucniamrliquidalimcnti inutilis afluinir.At ficoU 
Jlquatio cfllt % fcmper noccret , quod non facir. Scmen igitur 
io cxcrcmcntom cfic alimcnti vrilis atquc vltimi , fiuc omnia fe- 
mcn cmittnnt,(iuc nonrin ijs tamcn qoae cmittunt>itaeflcaper 
tumiameft. 



MtnTlxtta ejfc excrement4,omnia^ 
fangumea ea iffa tmittere. 
Cafut xi r. 






■ 




Oft hacccoiufna alimentifitexcrenicntu,& cJemeo 

ftruisdificrendu eft.fiunf cnim nonnollis viufparis 
mcftrua.nam his declaratis apcrtu crit,cS: vtrum fas 

,_ mina femen cmitrat^vt mas,fiatq; vnum ex anibo» 

bus lcmin-bus miftu,an nuliu fcmen £ foemina fccernator.& fi 
fiullu,vtrum aliud quippianonconfcratfcemina adgenerario- 
Wtn^fcdlocutantumodopraebeatan aliquidcoferat.idq; quo- 
»am pa&o,& qaomodo .S cd cnim fanguinc cffe vltimu alimcn 
tttjn infanguinariogcncrc animaliurproportionaleautc in exa 
guwdi&um antea eft. Veru cumfemc quoq; eycrementu lit ahv 
tneti,cicsq; vltimi.aut fangois^proporfionaleve eft , aut cx ijs 
*h'quid.fcd cum cxfangains concocto digefteq; modo qoodam 
pars qa#q; g?£natur,feraen autcm conco&um diucrfum afan- 
gaincicccrnatar(nam incectu aut pcr vim cmiffum , vidclicct 
£im vltra modum qufs rc vcncrca vtitur , crucntu iaxn aliqui- 
busprodijtJconftatfcmenciTccxcrcmcnrum alimcnti fangui- 
^ci 5 quodvhimuinmcmbradigcritur.& qutdetn vimmagpa 
o&cam rem obtinet .Sanguinis enim fyncerifalcbrisq; fccefsio 
rcfolacrc poteft.vtq; fili j firoiki parentibns fmt,ratio cxigit.fi- 
milecftcnimqtjod^dpartes acceffcrit, ciqucd rcmancr.ifa- 
*pe fcmen manus aot faaei,aut totius animaliscftmanosin- 
™V ta '* qr &cies,aut animal totom indcfinitum.A qoalc 
quodcunqnciliorumcftaaatalcjcmen potentia cft,aut cor- 
pu.cnt!aiaa,autfacoltatefiuc virtote,quam infeipfo conti- 
•W» Idcnira nondam cx ijs quxcxpoiuimu* ,f*tct vttum 

(emi 



J<$4 ARIJTOTI. Dr CIN. ANlMAL. 

fcmfnis corpas caufa fir gcncr jr ionis,an habitu alfquc * prin- 
cipiummorasgenitaleobtincar.neq;enim manus,ncq; aliud 
quodois mcmbram,finc anima,aur aha faculrare eft manui^oc 
qaodlibctmcmbrum,<cdxqaiaocc tanram.Conftareriam coU 
liquarioncm qaoq;fcminariam vbi accidir,excremenrum eflc. 
qaod vitiam caenir,cii rcfolairur in quodacccflerir : qnofhodo 
cam protinus dccidit quod tc&orij opcris modo illirum fucrir. 
Jdemcnim vltimamexcremcnraincam primocxcrcmeroeft. 
atq; dc his ad hunc modam dilTcruiftc latis fit. S cdcum infirmio 
risplas cxcrcmcnri,minasq; concoftumficri,idq;copiamcrac- ro 
tihamoriscflcncccflcficinfirmiasaarcm fccundom natuTam 
cft,quodmiciascalorisadipifcirur,ralcq;f(rminafir, vr anr*a 
diftum cft,hinc fccrcrioncm qaoq; illam fanguineam fawinx 
cxcrcmcntumciTc ncccflc cft.Tal is anrcm cie&iocft eoru qux 
menftraaappcllantur.menftrua igitur cxcremcnru efle,<5r pro- 
porrione,vrmaribusgeniruram,ficfocminis menftrtta proue- 
ntre,ape*tum cft . Rctte aurc ira dici indicant ca quar in i)i if 
- cueniunt .eadem cnim «ctatemaribus gcnirara ficri incip ,<S ic- 
cerni:foeminisaurem mcnftruacrumpunt.voxctiam mutJtur, 
Amammseintumcfcanr,nccnondcfinentea:tate aoolctar ma-2# 
ribus gcnerandi fjculrasrfrminismenftruoru conflcuium. Ad 
haccandiciam illa tac;unt,vt excremcntum iit hxcfecretio fo- 
minaru,qaodnonmar x,non profiaaiu cnaribus iangaintSt 
non varices,non talc quid malicribus magna cx partc accidcre 
fclct, qaandiu mcnftrua proftuunt. & fi quid talc accidir, dctc* 
•fiorcshantpargationcs,qnafih2Ecmarcria mcnftrua confu 
ptain ca facrit.minasetiam vcnofar funt ioemtnar ? qoam ma- 
rcs:& lautiore> kuiorcsq; funr,quoniam excrcmentu qooue-j 
tendat,conflaerc in mcoftraafolcr.hanc cadem cauiam cflcpo- ^ 
landom»<kvtcorporam!noraiintfacminaram,qu2im mariorn ?o 
Jft.*iuiparo genere.in hoccnim vnomcnftroa profluunt,&om 
©ium aperriJsimi- in mukcre plarimnm nanq; mcnftrai cxcrc- 
mcnrt mulier emirrir,cx qaofir,vtcaidcntifsimcpallcir,d'ob- 

fcariorcs habcat vcnas,# corporc pianir ad marcm dcficiat S«» 
cum mcnftraa finr qaod for.-ninis fiat perinde vr maribusgcm- 
tura>nccficri pofsit vt du* fimol iccrctiocs fcminalcs *g* n * t 
idcofcmcnrtfacminanoncoferrf adgcncrationem apcrru cit. 

nam i\ lancn cflcr,mcnftraanon eftentnanc idco fllad deci ? 
quiahatcfunt.Scdmcnfrraacflrccxcrcmcnrum,vtfcmcPie5pH 

carum iamcft.Tcftnnonio autcm codem accipi pofliint alic«* 



cx 



jjs,<jax amraalibus accidut.pinguiacnim minus fcmiojs 



ha- 
bcnd 



L I B l R p R T M V S. j^j 

bcnt,quim macilcta, vt antea diftu eft.cuius rti caufa efl ,qaod 
*pinf;ticdocxcrcmcntam,vtfcmcn,(S: fangais conco&is cft> 
quanquamnoncodemmodo,qaofcmcnjtaq; rationc optima 
Sf.vt cu matcria faperuacaa codimpta fn pfnga?dincmfit,defi 
ciat gcnttura.generis etia exanguis mollia,* croftata ootima 

fnnr rnm itt«.^n«.».,» ^»„J __-_ !___ • _ _ . 



gerant 



ic carcnr,nec pingae 
guedinfs fecernitor 



in fcminaie excrementuro.Indicio aatem cft non talc femcn k 
wminaemitti,qTjaleamare,nccambcrumifl^ 
toaliqui volm.t,quod fxpcnumero fceminc cocipiant fineea,qoc 
per coitum fit,volaptate.rur fasq; cum ea ipfa volopfate,pari- 
q; concarfa profufionis vtriafq; nihilo rnagw concipftar , nifi 
nvcnftraoram hamor fit modice temperatas.qaam obrem nec 
nuHisomnfno vicibusmenftruorum faeminagenerat,*eq; cu 
effiuont magna ex parte.fed A purgationc.yis cnim quse in m* 
r» genitarac6tinetur,am caret ajimento & materia^x qua in- 
fiituat animalraut nimia copia femen cum humore eluitor fcd 
*bi ctflaxerint fatis,qaod remanct, confi ftir . Quae autc nuHis 
ifcenftnjornm vicibus concipiunt,aot intercadum ag_tanror,<& 
efiihnt_T.onp^ft, car u altcris caafaeft,qood—« — L *- 




*ncn?,qaantfiprolificis rcmanet i porgarione, quanqoam 
ntm ita fupcrat.vt cfflacre pofsit:alteris,qaod k poi £ arionc os 
ricomprimatonComigitnr multum qukJem efflux_r,fcd 
«nuc cifiuit,tamen non tantum vt femen elabatur, tunc conci 
pHint.ncc vero abfurdu qafequarn .fi £ conccpta item effiuunt 
n*nftrua:Mm vel poftaltqoandiuprodeont 



5 



~F *emper,fcd id morbtdomeft.quam ob rem paucis & raro 
^dit. Qux aorem magna ex parte fiant,ea maxime fecundu 
torarn iunt.a fo_rmina igitur confcrri ad generationem raatc 
^mafcnftroorumconftitutionefit.incnftroa autcm iof. 



^tremtnt 1 1 ro,apcrti 



fnminos^ut maresfi 



tmitterc,ar%Hmento quod ftari fe re mbptatc 

^^^ afiiaantur. Caput xr. 

Q V°d auttrm femen conferr J a fo?m1na per coitom nonol 
r ^J>- J icxi ftimant,propterca quod interdum ftmili votepta- 
^J^nr,vt mas,fimolq;aliquidhumorisfeccrnaf,ri n5 fra 
y lonfnalk dhfed loci prbprios . vteri enim excretio cft,qo£ 

ti2_. ?**'? ,all » s non.eoenit (quod plorimu dixeriir_)ijsquxni 

_ t^maresq;funt.noneocnitijs,qoa_lofc« atq; viragi- 

•«Pa vcrc quibus cocnit con proicminis cmifsionc inter- 

dum 



• ££ A1MSTOTE* t>E CJK.' ANIM' 



t:t 



dumeft,fedmultoexcedit.tomctiam c 
rimnm facit,vt plHS mimisve eius hnir.oris excer nstur.vt qua> 
<lam acr ts faporis aagent planeexcernendi modurri . voluptas 
antem qua: pcr coitum fentitnr,non folam fcmine exeonte acci 
Ait.bA *tiaiTi fniritu,ex Quo conftftente femen emittitor . quod 



qacunt 



cnimijs omnibasfcalpendo excitatur.<S: quotumdcprausta cft 
«encratio,aluns interdum folui:ur,propterea quod excremen- 
tom eo feccdit,quod concoqui atqueeffrci fem^ non pofsir.tor- 
ma etiam fimilis mulieris & adolefccntuli eft . & mulier quafi 
Hias infaiiiniseft.impofcntiaenim quada foemina efheoqood 
fonen ex vhimo alimcntoconcoquereneqaear.qaod alimentu 

ant fanguis eft,aut far. D r . . r , . 

uecarent,proptcr natura: frigiditarcm.vt igitnr in alno proflu 

ui. j. ..,._. »:„ :„ ,,_...), . n .niMi. r 3 nmflnnia _an__ot 




oetera 



bo citantur,hoc natur 



gu 



cx eo rattoncoptimafieri,apci:tum eft.Sant eni.n mcnftrua fe- 
mennonparom,fedindigcnsc6fe&ionts,qaomodo in frufluuiO 
j»=neratio»eadhacimpcrfc£h,incfr quidem alimenTun.,fed co 
te£honem ad puritatcm defiderat.quamobre-.r' vt menftruage- 
nitura.admift*generanr,ficalimentum in froftibcs gignendis 
miftum alimentoiyncero alit Jndicio ctiam cft iemcn no emtt 
ti a fo.mina,quod cam per coitam feminis volaptas cotrefta- 
tioneloci eiuidem atq; maribus vcniar,tamen hamor ille non 
hac emittitur.Itcm naomnibnsfarmin.sidexcern.tur,fed fan 



snineis 



eptum tranfuerfum cft,nec partus cx ouo. Ad ha:c,i js quac non 

_ * _- t . 1 f . . • 1 -1 _». ___.__-_.— _*«-r.iffitur 



ittitnrj* 



tfncnitfcd proportionale fangninis habcnt,non cttj 
IU5 i& omor.vt cnim in ali js fanguis,fic in his alia ineft i 
lxcaufa aut nc aut his,aut fupracli&is fangnincis fiat pnrgatio, 
ficcitas corpcr is cihqcx parum cxcrcir.cnti relinqait, ^ ^]?" 
fj;fatisdunta^:atadgcncrationemfir T non vtctiam aliquid w- 
ras mittator. At vero qu$ viuioarafunr fincoui partionc,vt M 



omnia animal procrcant iinc ouo}i js omnibus ca purgario 



ram 



pwgationes redandsnt,qudmhomini.fedquemadmodum cui 
q; 3 „im=ltha:ceaenianr,inlibrisce hiftorijs anim aUutr jterf- 
ptam efcpluriraa ex oranibus aniraalibus porgatio mauerm 



I I S E R fR 1M v sl *{- 

nt.maribas etiam plor iir. u emitr it ar feminis.magnif ad M s ra- 
tione.caias rel caufa cft ccnftif otio <Orporis,qua- homida * ca 
Jida cft.plarimu enim excremenfi fieri in einimodi corporcne- 
cefleeft.carentctiam partibas ijs,in quas vertltur excrcmemu 
m crtcris animalibos.non cnitn piloru copiam gercnf per cor- 
posr.o ofsJom,aat cornuom,aot dentia excrefiones.Jndicinm 
femen cf:e in menftrois,qood fimnlvf antedixi.maribosfemc 
nen incipir,* fcrmJnis menftroa innotefcontcadcm a?fate,ran 
qoam fimol ca loca diftendantur,qnoe vf runq; rccipiant excre- 
tomcnto.Camc; fepos diftendcnci inftat.locainromefcuf HpJrf 
ta.quod mariu rcftcs apcrtius ofl.dunt,qoanq__ & mamar.fecj 

toei«inarumamma;potias indicant.com enimbino diqfro ex- 
toUuntor.tonc plurimis incipJunt menftroa.Jeitur Jn qoibus v| 

taprcditisfexnsmarisacfcEminafdJftJnaosnon cft,in ijsfe- 

m#n ffJ..&* _."*__._**_■__ ' 



rem 



•verbi graria,ex vno rritici grano vnos cnlm* , vr cx 
nu animal geminu enim ouu,duo eft oua. At Jn qci. 



tar corpus 

» oo vnu «niinii ^cimiiu cnmi ouu,auo cir oua, A t in qa 

S nCribaS m3S& focminadiftimjurror.ir» i j» plora animajia 
10 r* eoderp fcminc gigni poiTant,oaaJi naf ura diiTerat . femen in 
piantaru & animaliu genere indicium eft\quod vno initu plo- 

"gignantorjnjjsqaa. pl«M qnAm vnom poftunf gencrare. 
qao argamcnto conftat etiam non omnJ ex parte corporfs ec- 
«'tara proocnJre.ncq; cnim diftinfla ftatim Jnde ex eadnn par 
//!f Crncrcnrar ' ne q; poftqua frmul ad vferom dcocnificnf,ibi 

' ngurrchtar.fedeuenirporro q "' 1 » « refla rarione eft,vt 
masforma & princJpiu motos pT#bear, fcrmina corpus af- 

; ^teriafqocmadmodu in laais cocietioneccrras lacipfnm 
c »>lccc_s_ l i--,_,j,~ _.„.,_/- .~_j, j,_ ___,'-.-. 



.09 



gidebeatcarinpla 



pauc.oravc Parriatar,aarfineulareinftifGaf,aIia rafio eft 
^ q . aia " 0nd 'ff*»-tformaqood diniditor,fi modo fe habeat 
X ,CC ad mater iam,vt neq; minos fit, vt concoqcere dcnfare- 
ra _p aCC 5 t,nc< . ; ampjics vtexiccarc pofsir,ntobea rem vtplu 

tant_' aerCtnr ' Cirt ' e ™ ^* C ° 1™* ■ 3rfns " c ° {r ' tif < ex vn ° »* vntt 

dn, ° f r ° Cr f atDrfcd ?«nirora _ f-xmina n6coferri ad generan 
« m '»-m« aliquidcoferri, iaq; ciTc menftrcoru conftituf ion_, 

ticn- »« ° naIc ,n £ f nerc «5euJ,f u ex fapradiais,tu etiii ra- 
ex onn » ° ? '"^^'O* r o i> « ..fTe enJm qnod generef^fc 

tc I r i^ Cr ,?' 0c . cflceft ^«1;«°^'« vnu,forma oofci-diuTB 

^""OwdJaerfnateflnottfr.A* _-,-A«- 1;- -„_j;ii;n k 



cn 



s<« 



m 

AlllSTQT- *I GINi ANIMA. 

«acntlwobrinent^^ ciTc agc' 

r ^. ^ i/: _^. .a «♦^r»n^«^aprns.toeminaaaa 



Quodfi 



farmina 



non «niiuranuled materiam conferat.quod & neri «ta vide- 
tur .natura enim menftruorum pro prima roateria eft . A «k de 
his ttadocuiffe fatis nt.Apertum vn4 cum ijs eft,de quo d.iierc 
i j~ «r,. nn^madmodum fcilicctad «ncrationc mas co 



fcrarA quonam pa^o icme maris caufa eius quod gigmtur Itt, 
vtrum vt infitum,* protinus indcp?rs corporis gignend.mi- 
ftum cammateriafoeminc,an femen nihilcommunccumcor-io 
porc habeat,fcd motus,visque in co contcnta fit qux commont 
cet.hxc cft enim qux agat.quodautem confiftat & formam re- 
cipiat>reliquum excremcnti f aeminx eft,atq; vt ratione,iic ette 
ais quoq; probari vidctur.nam cum in vniuerfom animo com 
plcftimur,non itaeff.ct vnum ex patientc agcntcq; videtor, vt 
quod agit,in eo quod cfficitur inftt:ncc omnino ex eo qucd mo 

ncr,A quodmouctur quicquamconftitui. At foemina qa.dem 
auafoemina,paticnseft:mas,quamas,agcns,& vndc moaenci 
principlumeft.itaquefi cxtrema vtriufquc fumantur,qua alte- 
,om agens & moacns.altcrum patiens & quod moaeatur it,no 
cx iis vnum qaod gignitur eft,(ed itavtexfabroc* hgnolcctoi 
aut c* ccra & forma globus cft .Patet igitur nihil feccrni a maris 
fe m inceffcneceffc.nequefiquidacccdit,idcirco ex eo.vtinitr* 
effcquod gignitur/cd vrexeoquodmouerir,<*forma,vtq, 
medicinaquifanatuseft.faaaetiamrationiconfcntiunt.b«nc 

enim marcs nonnolli pcr coitom nec mcmbrum qmdem vlium 
infoeminam indcrc vifuntur,fcd contra foeroinain m ^:\ 
in quibuldam infeai* fit.quodcnim in ijs.qux ?ndunt,cttu» 
femine in foramina,idcminmareiplo vaporvirtosqacetric » 

- particulam qa- r "~ 4 -" " MX cft ' J 
linm diu cocat 



vndcnt vrgenusiaanimaHumum«.uv«,aw^.".— -- k . -^ 

Derct.contunaaigiturmancntquoofquc conftituant P cr ' ' 
«. a«*irura confttruit.ied abiunaa cito xdunt conceptum.q.*' 

rlont cft.quippc qux * crm,c * n . 

naximo fan* indicio eft,qood au 
iseuenit,fcmen,nccomnicxparte corp 

quid emitti a marcquod infit in eo,quco 



>gcncrcnt 



viaiiica- 



modo di ximus dc infe£ii**quoram 



rem. N am tioc accioir vr au.s hy pcnemia,idcft "J^jLn, 
fcrar , fi poftea coit nondum mutato ou« ex iuteo i» ^ 



* 



LIBER P&IMTff. j^ 

fcrcanda ex fubaentitijs rcddantur, fiuc conccptn cx cofra . /i 

adhaclatcis,cumaliomarccoiuir,fimilccias,quo com poftea 
coiait,proaenit omnc gcnus pullorum.quapropter nonulli cx 
ijs,qui vr gallin* generofse procrcentur,operam dant, ira mu- 
tatis admiflarijsfaciu.nt>tanqua non mifccatur, conftirutione- 
q>fabeatfemen,neq;omniex partcvcncrJt.ex ambobus cnim 
venilTct.itaq;bispartes eafdcm habercr,fcdfuafacultare fcm£ 
maris matcriam conrenta in fa2mina,& cibum qualitatc qoa- 
dam afficiar.id cnim efficerc potcft,vbi fecudum prscocnerit tc- 
to pefacicndo,& cocoqucndoxibos cnim ab ouoabfamitur , qaa- 
diacrefat.Hocidemingenerationeqaoque ouiparoru pifciu 
taenit.vbienimfaeminaouasdiderit,mas fcmen afpcrgit. & 
qascanq; attigit,fa-canda cfficiuntQr.qua: non arrigir , rcma- 
ncnt inf accunda,quafi non ad quantitate mas confcrat , fcd ^d 
«palitatem.patct igitur cx ijs,ncc omni ex partcfcmen fcccdc- 
re>ncq; faeminam ita vt marcm confcrrc ad gencrationem, fcd 
maretn principiu motus,f oeminam materiaprjeftare.hac cnim 
caafa,necpcrfcipfafxminagencrat.principium cnim & id 
qaod moueat difccrnatq;,defidcrat.S ed nonnullis, vr auibus alf 

_••_ _-_ _-_ __ __ _>-_ __ 

V _■ ff~% v- ~i __ ___ _->__.___ ___*_ /1 __ _ _^_ _ _- 



aoqaatenusnaturagigncrcpotcft.Aucs cnim conftituunt quidi 

_^_P_ ~l m _l _J_ ? _____ _ i _^\ _f ___ 




_:t 



qoodg 



vocantor 



aat mas,aur f aemina,fed ambo in foemina confcrunt,qaod fuu 



crcatar 



qaod 



natriatar 



accedc 



faber adeft lieno & fieulas limo.deniq; omnis 



^otio vltima ioxta materiam eft,vt xdificatio in ijs quae ardifi- 
3ocantor.hincetiamqoemadmodumasconferat ad generationc 
accepcris nec enim mas omnis femen emittit,& qoibos emitti 
*»r maribas nulla pars foetus hoc eft.ucut nec a fabro qoicqoa 
^**** ad l«gnoru materiam.neq; pars vlla artis fabrilis in co 
S a odefficitur,eft:fed forma & fpccies ab illo per motum in ma 
c »a exifti Mt qj an im3 | n q aa f orma & fa^ ia c ft >mooet ma 

****« aliud membru motu certc qualitatis vel diuerfo,i qui- 

J*««<:itur dioerfom,vel eodan a quibos idem . manus aotem 

tramcntaqjmateriammooent.Ita natoraetiam marisfeme 

Wctis vtitor co femine qoafi inftrometo,* afto habcte mo 

^X 1 ,n ^Pcribos artiu inftrumentamoocntur .in illis enim 

T»«iamodo motio artis eft.Qn* /gitor fcme emittut,hoc mo- 

A do 



AR.ISTOT. DE G E N. ANIMA. 

do ad generationecooferunt.Qme autcm non en.ittnnt,fedfae 
mina partlculam fai qaandam infcritin marem, hsec fimilc fa- 
ccrc videntur,quafi quis materiam ad opificcm afferat.nam ob 
imbecillitatcm eomm marium nihil per aliad natara eff.cere 
potcft:fed vix afsidente ipfa motus valcnt,& fimilis fingeti,no . 
fabricanti eft.quippe qoae non pcr aliud attingcns,fed ipfa iuis 
tncmbrisremcondatinftituendam.Sexus igiturmaris ac ;iv> 
minardiftinaus in gsnere omniam animaliu grcisiliam eft . & 
quanqaadiaerfafuntanimaliamas & foemina , tamen fpecie 
idera funt verbi gratia,homo vtrunqj. At in plantis facoltates 10 
ifhe mifcttur ,ncc mas k fosmina feparator . qaam ob rcm ex ie 
ipfie progcncrant,nec genitaram emittant,fed coceptnm, quod 
Empcdoclis fcmcn vocatur,afferant.idq; Empcdocles bene retulit fao car- 
»t tfu*'-. mine: Deinde etiam ouiparo genas arboream tulit orta . Oan 

iuhfi a>v- cnim conceptas cft,& animal ex parte eius creator rcli qnu alf- 
J> „._ mcnramcftanimalisfcminisetiamaliqoaex parte conultit 

JT quod oritur.rcliqaam alimentam germini radiciq; pruna: cit. 

ypx JLiv- h(yc idejn qnojammodo in i js quoqj coenit animalibus,qu* ie- 

«fy«»f«T0p xa diftingaonfar.com enimvniantur& gcncrant , infcparata 

l\cuxt . rcddontor vt plantar.idq; natura corum nititar , vt vnom nar,io 

^intwu* quod cam coeunt,& coniunguntur,confpicitor vnum eftici ani 



fi c 

,utfix3iat) 



ig 



par»£ primH^m mittanr,qua: contcpju ^»«u- .^«..« -- -r — '^ 
Vlm« rc.quam in fanguineo gencrc agatnr.h*c enim parte qoaoam 

diei cohserent.gcnitora intra plurcsdies conftitoitur. mox v 
eamemiferant partem,abfolaantur.profcao animalia tanqu 
plar.ta: dujifa: cffe vidcntur,perindc qaafiilias quoq; P oit< P* 
femen attaierc d.flbluas , & fepares in fexum infitam maris ac 3 
fasminx.Atq;hxcomniare&citaanataracondita fant.pl - 

taram enim fabftaatias non aliud manos,nulla a^io mji gen. - 
. r ...n. _„_j .-.^ f~m,„» rnira efficiator, 



foBminat 



tarom gencri tribait. S ed dc his alibidifputatom a nobis cit -a 
animalismunasnonfolum generare,quod commoneotnni 
viuentiu eft.fed ctiacognitionis alicuins particeps vnuquc . m> 
eft,aliudmaioris,ahud minoris.aliudminima; . • feniom e w 
habentJenfos awtem cogn.rio qua:daeft.coias fioe noJ»u- ^ 
ignobilis nota plurimu rcfcret ad homini-. ne pr {"kntia, a 1 
tcnos inaniinu cofidcrctur r: a ad prudcntiam nihil eile vi 



•V 



tlBER SECVNDVS. 

tur,tadam gaftamq; tantam adipifci. A t ad fenfos vacuitatem 
fummu id eflcpatabitar.Charu enim cefucns copor£etus cilc 
cognirionis,necemormu cxpertemq; cfTenria? omnis iacerc.fcn 
faaarcmanimaliadiffcrunr ab ijsquseranru viuant.fcd cu vl- 



ctiam 



rcopas ciVunccocunt&mifcentur,dk qoafl planta? cffiaurur, 



rcOu 



niam intcr animalia & plantas ambiguu eft, vt in ambobus con 
ftitutam generibus,munere ncutrias fungirur.na vt plara icy « 
to maris &freminae caret,nec in altcro generaf.vr aotem animal, 
nallam cx fc fru&um affert modo plant*:(cd cofiftnnr * sene- 
t antar extcrrena &humida quadam concrctionc.fed dccorum 
gcncrationc poftca diflcremus. 

ARISTOTELIS DE 



GENERATIONE ANI- 

MALIVM, LIBER II. 

JNTERPRETE THEOf 
DORO GAZA. 

10 Qj^djtt caufa 9 ut principmm generttionit cmufq; mouent 

p*imutn &*procrcans Caput I. 

uem acfojminaefleprincipiageneratfo- 

nfs,<Sr quama coram cflcntia? vis arq; rarioef 

fet*diftum iam cft.Scd quam obre ggnarur, 

& fit altcrum mas,alterom fcemina, vr rc cim 

Ii Jspy^zJ I f*rio,# quona primo mocete,& quali matc- 
«!p^ --— - "^ riaidefficiatur,procededocxplicarc conabi- 
m *»r.At ver A qood ad melioris ratione & caufam, cuius gratia 
pcrtiner,c«litu S p r i nci 'pi amc j aCltar ^ anlcnim reromalif fint 

J Jfnip!rerna?,fammcq;dioinaf,al!acqaac pofsint*efle,<Srn6 cf- 

* palchru autedioinumq; illadcaufafemper fua uatura melio 

^coditionisinreb*c5l "' ~ ' " ' 

^d*elTc^particcm 




quod verofcmpi 



r^u.caq;animantcorporcmclfor,ammatuq;inanimato 
n ? 9 PP tcr « nim a:& effcqua no cfle,& viucre, qaa no v«ue 
*mi firrcfficic his dc caufis,vr gencrar io fit animaliu . Cum 



-- v.ii rcru m unguiantr cit.q ti raiis eltenr, iempitema 

«fi efi ? C -I C v cri \ p5t -l ta 9 g^hoim femp,# bcftiaru, * plata 
*.icd cu pricipiu fit coru mas at^j fccmina >fit vt gcncra- 



J7* 



A i tionis 



, f t aristote.de gen. anim. ^ 

' tionis gratia fit mas & fosmina in reru natura.Cumq. ftia nata 
r a JtaMN^I ^uina canfa fit ea,qo.c prima «f^^ 
tio ineft,& forma,qoam materia:cumq; mehas etiafit fcpara- 
r, adctcriori qood mclios eft,ideoin quibufcnq; fieri poteft, 
& quoadeius ficri poteft,mas afocmina feparatur.mehos cmm 
ir.asiso. d.uintl cft principiu motus qnod pcr gencrationemas 
obtmct.frmina cnim materiaeft.fedcoir,* iungirur ad gene- 



ambobn 



Q™ 



qtlob rc plan qocq; virar parlicipcs funt . qoa aotcm fcote.o 
adeft.gcnus animaliu eft.Qnpru incefsihbus fcrc omnib mas 4 
feemina fcparatur,ob cas quas modo redd.dimos caofas.eoruc, 

alia,vr diclti eft,fcmcn emittUKtralia non emittoot ccm coeut, 
cuiusreic a uiacft^uodqoa:nobiliorafunt,eadefaanaturama 

gnitodine fibi poftolanl.quod non nifi calore animali hcri po- 
teft.Qnpd enim maios eft,id a facultatc ampliorc mouert ne- 
ccficclt.mouercaoiiScalorpoteft.qoamobrem in vnioericm 
propl dixcrim,maiora qujcfanguinemhabct.quam ea qoa. no 
habent : & incedentia , quim ftabilia.maiora-quxfcmen jeni- 

t ale propter calorcm ac magnitudinem emittut dc mare & Ke 
mina qoam ob caufam fint,diaam iam cft. Animaliu vero aw 

pcrficiunt partum,forasq'; mittont fibi fimilc: vt ea qus anlmai 
idunt in lucem.alia nondum explanatum, foamq; forma . ao - 
ptum pariunt.quorom fanguinca ouum parUwt,exangui 
Jnem.Inrer ooom & vermcm hoc intcreftroou eft co.os exp 
te anlmal gignitur.reliquu cibus ei quod gignitur, elt . ver 

« quo toto animal gignitur.Eoru ao