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Full text of "A true & exact history of the island of Barbadoes : illustrated with a map of the island, as also the principal trees and plants there, set forth in their due proportions and shapes, drawn out by their several and respective scales. Together with the ingenio that makes the sugar, with the plots of the several houses, rooms, and other places, that are used in the whole process of sugar-making ... All cut in copper / by Richard Ligon, gent."

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Of the 






with a Map of the Idand 





Principal Trees and Plants there ^ (et forth in 

their due Prop 

and Shapes , drawn out by 


their (everal and relpeftive Scales. 

Together with the Ingeniothat makes the Sugar^ 

the Plots of the feveral Houfes, Rooms j and other places , that 
are ufed in the whole procefe of Sugar-making 5 viz, the Griq^ing* 

room, the Boyling-room, the Filling-room , the Ciiring- 

houfe 9 Still-houle ^ and Furnaces ^ 

All cut in Copper. 





* t 



Printedj and are to be (old by Peter Parker y at 


his Shop at the Leg and Star 

over againft the Royal Exchange^ and Thomas Guy at the corner 

Shop oitittk Lumbard-^reet and Cornhill 



Mo.Bot. Garden, 










\ ^ - 



Of the fevcral things mentioned in this 



M ^ 

Fretp of Porto Satifto^ Made- [ - The lik^ of a vUntation ntHr' the 

ra.\ and Defertes. ' pa§. 2. ^(?i. 


» - 

pag. 3 9; 

^ r/en? ^jf Bona vifta, //?(? ^ May Commodities exported and im- 

^Palma. ,. . oasr. 2. /?f?rW. \ ?' ' oaer. ao. 


pag. 5. ported. 

pa^. 40 

Hunting and Hawkjng at Sea, ] ^ii^f mdteriaU grew dn - the 

j^ag. 4. IJIiind^ fit to hM. with, pag. 41. 

. ^ T/jp number and nature vfthe^ In-, 

P^g- 5 

- Shark^and Pilot fijlh^ 

Carvil^afijlithatfaih. psig. 6. ' habitants:. 
' Obfervations Upon the ship* stpay^ | \\ A. combination among t^e Ser*; 

as alfo.ihe.treachery ^/B^rnardo, a ifants^ to kill their Maji)sxs^ pag. 45 



pag- 7 

Reafons why the Negroes sanp^ot 

The firfi Jfght of the JJLwd of no Maffacres , ypon their MaJierSj^, 

Saint Jago. 



pag. 4^. 

Defcription of the Bay there^whici I . 'Negroes 'p^ftime^^rfipott Sunday es , 

^^^^ <7<2// the Pry. 

t.i-<% ^ 

T^e Padre Vadago*s houfe mo- 

pag. 9.r^/?i^'7/)e/r a^tttcfs to learn 



^ ' • 



-pag; 48. 

' The Planters will fiot allptP thjir 

^onihe Jjland ^ audXsUpes ^0 b€ Chrj^i^Ht, f^%*\%0, 

■what hapned to m tkers, . .. pag.. 1 3 . | - Obfir'uations upon thejbapei oft he 

t« .> 


Tkere ure fe,ven tjlmds more Al^fgries. 

xphich 0re neighbours iothis.^zg. 1 8. 1 ■ / JipI(>ti?ffi>fiC'.^groes^^ fe// J[^e 

Zi6e firjijlght of the Barbadoes. llrigemio, and the plot dif covered by 



The yiandfirfi difcmjered by a 

fop/p-pf their OTrntS^ou^ry^men^who 

fhip of ^irVj^'iX^iasa Curteen'f. p. 
, _ The Scitkatidn of the Ijlan 



SS upon 1[fer;ife4iap5. ' 

pag. 2,5 J ,So^i€what ofthe-Plantj^^ (hem-v 
The extent and lengtl) of dayes\felve:t: : \ fr'\-\ %<?( f.Q\P^gr^5. 



"n \ 

pag, 16. 1 j .r J4»?^ Beajis, which are of great ufe 
Temperature of the^airi,^ pag. ijntQ^jihe Pl^ntirx^tU^C^m^h^^g^s^ 

How watered. \ ^. pag; 2 8.] Bu^i' O JceRj>> .Cq\^C?v ^tfio^oes , 

M;^*' and drink f^J^fp^t^tionm^^yShc^^^Qp^ts; ' -pagw -5^, 

<?/ life. 

'\\-^ U'Jag. j^-, -r^^i^l-^ ^fMfirt/r- ' f»g.6Q. 


Bread aftd drinks'. - ^^ ,*^pinmls andlnfcifs. pag..6ii, 
Several forts of mekt, . . . pag. ^ 9 . Ct^-f^^sjihat cov^e a^d dwell upon, the 
The manner of liilling 4 XnttUXLa^i^d,^ ^^ . ^V ^ '. ^^65. 

Visuals brought from forraign Ifl andean d fir jl of the poyfonous trees 



pag. 3 7. and Plants, 

A Feajl of an inland Plantation. Several kinds 

pag. 3 8. 

I ia 

pag. 66, 


pag. 6g. 










The Contents. 

trees of mixt kinds, pag. 7 2 
timber trees" of fever d kinds 

jpag. 73 
the Pajmet Royal dejcribed 

pag. 82 

the Pine defcrihed 

T,6e voIubtnoHs 


Jit to inhabit on this Ijland 

pag. 108 
ihe value of a Plantation Stock} 
five hundred acres of tand^ whereof 

hundred for Canes^ U be fold fi 

Sugar Canes^ mtkthe manner 

plant ingy growth^ time ofripenefs 

with the whole procefs of Sngar-rHa 

king^ both Mufcavadoes and Whites 





UotQ this fur chafe of 14000 I. by 
providence and good husbandry^imay 
be made with 3000 1. 109. 

They earlj revenue of this Via 

the manner ofdiflilling the skim- courfe, will amount 

ings of the Coppers ^of which we maki 
thejirong drinks which the Planter. 

tion^ being once fi 

in an 



7 kill-devil 

pag- 9 

Sugar made 
twenty month 

ejiimate of the value of the 

this If and in 

the Withs defer ibed, pag. ^6 


ndthe defcription ofth 

i'ag. 112. 
An Ejiimate of the expence^ that 

Uiffue out yearly to keep this Plan- 
in good orders/as you fir fi recei' 
ed-iJ^whTch wewMl prefuppofe to be 
compleatly fnrnijhed vpith all things, 

« p.H3- 

The account hallanced^ the yearly 

the ufe ^Liam-hounds 

Aloes growing th 

pag. ^SARevenuewtll amount unto 7516 J, 






the^fiower of the Moon, pag.99. 
Englifh Herbs and Roots. ib. 
Strength of the Ifland by Nature 

An objection anfvpered^ how it 
'fomes to pafsy that riant atiens of fo 
great a yearly value, can bepurchdfed 

hfq little mo'ny 




Ifo within Land, 

pag. 100. ' fomewhat of the Difeajes of the 




ntri/y as a 

How Governed^dnd how Divided 


No Mines in this Jfiand, p. i o I 

the tar River. 

the iS contrivancrtffhe^ Planters- ^ 

if th 




Afi incomparable medicine for the 



houfes^as we found them^whenfirji 



~T>ire0ions for better building 

Plumduet, a great 



ilfor Eng 
land, the fifteenth of Ajpfi]^ i6%o 


Afuruey ofthepteafi 

fits, commodities and incommoditie 

p. 103. ' the abufes of the Captai 
d pro-VMaJiersoffiips, that promij 



nd healthfullnefs 


IJlandy ballanced with thofe of Eng 

land. • p. 104 

the beauties of the Heavens, and 

? large 
provijion of ViBual and Drinkjo 
their pajfengers^y and when they need 
p ntoji, fail them grojfely. ibid. 

Jiorm at 


ff which 

delivered ( under Cod^ 
much they tranfcend thofe of far- 1 little Virgin , being a Paffenger 

ther difiances from the line. p. 106. Uhe Ship. 































a r 













Aving been ccnfiir'd h\ 


( vv ho 






t controlij and therefore am glad to allow^ 


for liiy vvcakiitfs and IiidilGrction ^ that having ne- 
ver made proof of the Sea's dperation^andthefeve- 
ral faces thatwatry Element puts on, and the chaa- 
p;es and chances that happen there, frdnl Smooth to 
Rough/rom Rough to Raging Seas^and High going 
Billows, (vvhicharekil]ingtofbmeConflitutions,)r{hould in the laft 
Scene of mylrfcj undertake to run Co long aRifcoas fromEngUtid to 
the Barhadoei'^ And truly I fiiould without their help conclude my fdf 
guilty of that Ccnfurc, had I not the refuge of an old Provcjrb to fly 
to, which is, [N^edmal^stLeoldlFifitrof} for having loH: (by a Bar- 
barous Riot) all thai: I had gotten by the painful travels arid cares of 
my youth 5 by which means I wasftript and rifled of all I had, left de- 
ftitute ofa fubUftance, and brought tofuch an Exigent, ds I muft fa.- 
midi orflyTantl looking about for friends, who are the beft fiippor- 
ters in fo daggering a condition, found none, oi very few, whom griefs 
and affiidtions had not dcprefs'd, or worn out, Baniihriientabfentcd, 
or Death devour'd^ fothat in (lead of thefe near and' Native Com 
forters, I found my felf allranger inmyownCountrey, and therefore 
refolv'd to lay hoi don the fir ft opportunity that might convoy mc to 
any other part of the World, how far diftant Ibever, rather than abide 
here, I continued not many weeks in this expeftation, when a friend, 

ingtolhift his ground as i, gave mean Overture which I 




ted, and fb upon the fixteenth day ofjtfne, i 647 
D^w«/, on the good Ship called the Achilles^ a veffel of35otunns 
the Mafter r;f|<7OT^ Crowder of C Wf? wjSc no fooner were we dll aboard, 
but we prefently weighed Anchor, and put to Sea 5 in (o cold weather 
as at that time of the year, I have not felt the likcp and continued fb 

came to Falmouth-H^rb 

where wc put 


and^refted for 


ght, but in our paf&ge thither, were very uncertaiin upon what 

reafon of the unfteadiaefs of the winds, and 

cloudinefs of the weather , fo that I perceived more troubles and 



A True and Exa 


doubts in the Seamen in that flioit paflage^ than in all the voyage af- 
tef. Butj the weather clearing up, the Mafter and Mates dreW out 
{everal plots and Landfcapes ; which they had formerly taken upon | 
the Coaft of Fr^fff c and EngUfid^ (which are of great lafe in the nar- 

row, Seas^) by which they. >7cre well aflured where they were, for 
there they feldome u(c Loggline^ ov Bacl{(iaff^ but Sttend onely the 
Tydes, CompalSj and Card 5 tioris there anyufe of other dircdors in 
fb narrow, a foom. We Were (as 0'eniember J about 10 dayes 
(ailing to Falmouth^ and had with us a imall (hip of about 1 80 tunns^ 
called the Norfefuch-^ of which Captain Middleton wasowner^, a very 
good Seaman^, and a Planter in Barbadoes : but himfclf then remain- 
ing iti London * 

The next day we put to Sea^ and continued our courfc to the ^ooth-. 
weftj (with fbmewhat a Scant wind,) partly to avoid, the high go- 
ing Billovpes of the Bay o^ Bijkey : but chiefly to ftand aloof from 
Tirats and Pickaroones : which are very frequent upon the Coajis of 
Spain^ and Bar hary-j and as we paftalong, I perceived a difference in 
the way Df our Ships .''for in flack winds 3 our confbrt the Nonefich 
would run us out of fight in four or five hours (aiU but in 

and ftifF winds ^ we did the like with her. So that I 


guefs'd the larger the fails ^ the fvvifter the way, provided ^ they j 
were alike built in the model of their keeles ; but I leave that to b 
relblved by the Seamen ^ 

or tliat Admirable Archite(3: of Moving- 
Horfesj Mr. Pett, 

About the Latitude- of 45 degrees 3 we met with a Ship coming 
from Gninny^ but bound for Londci 5 the Captains name was Blague^ 
a very civil Gentleman, who hal'd us, came aboard us , and invited 
divers Gentlemen that were there aboard his fhip : which was a Frig- 
got of about 400 tuns, her Lading Gold and Elephants teeth j the Man 
was exceeding civil to us, and gave to e^ery G entlcmari of our Corh- 

pany, a prefent of fuch rarities as he brought from G%unny^ and Binny, 
We flayed together almofla whole day,the weather being very calm, 
and almofl no wind at all 5 in the evening , a frcfh breefe begarl tb 
blow, which ferv'd us bothia our fcvcral wayes, andfb falutingcach 
other with our Ordnance we took leav 

About this time , our Confbrt the Nomfnch parted with us , fhe 

diredly for the Carabby Iflands , 

we f 

or St. Jago^ one of the Iflands of 

CapcFerdj where wc were to trade foi Negroes , Horfcs , and Cattle, 
which we were to fell at the Earbadocs, So, keeping our coiirfe about 
80 Leagues from the Coaft of <S'p^/// and Barbary^ the fiiil: land we 
difcovered, was the Ifle of Porto Santo 5 which lyeth in 5 j degr?^s to 

the Nortvard 5 which vve left of our Larboard fide .- When prelcntly 
after, vve had fight of the Aladeras^ which vve (aild clofe by, and had 
a full view of the place 3 fb Rocky, and Mountainous, and the ground 
fbmi(erably burnt with the Sun, as vve could perceive no part of it 
either Hill or Valley, that had the lead appearance of green, nor any 
i tree bigger than afmall Hathorn, and very few of thofe. Eetween 
this ana threeinconfiderablc Iflands called the Defcrts^ which appea- 
red to us like the tops of large buildings 5 no unevenncfs or rifings 
and fallings, but level as the top of a large Church or Barn j but 
burnt worfc tlian theothet ; fo. that inftcai of the frefli and lively 
greens, other Countreys put oaat this time of the year, thcfe were 




of the I^and ^/Bai-badoes. 


Jipparrcl'd v»/ith Ruflefs, or atbeftr^y/j///<?r//* But it fell out that this 
year the Summer was there hotter than ufually, and the Sea-men that 
vvcre with us, gave us to underflandj that they never had (eert it fo 
biinit as now, and that the Leen^.^r^^part of it Was^ £lt other tinldSj ex- 
ceeding fruitful and pleaCant 3 abounding with all forts of excellent 
fruitS;) Corn, Wine, Oyl, and the beft Sugars ', with Horfes, Cattle, 
Sheep, Goats, Hogs., Poultrey, of all (brts, and the belt forts of Sea-fiQi« 
Thdclilcindslyenear^^ degrees tothelV^r^TV^r.;/. ' . 

Having pafl: between thcfe Heaving the Mdderas on our Starhafd 
fide) we found, a conftant trade-wind to carry us to the Sonthvpard^ 
When the next lOand that came in our view, was BottaFijla \ but at 
fuch a diflance, as we could hardly difcern colours , but the general 
Landicape of the Hills feemed to us very beautiful 5 gently rifing and 
foiling-; v/ithout Fv.ocks bt high precipices. 

This IllAud is fimoup* for excellent Salt, and for Horfes , which 


bne property, excellall that ever I have (een, their hooves being to 
that degree of hardnels, and toughnefs, that we ride them at the Bar- 
hddoQs^ down (Harp and fteep Rocks, without (hoocs s and no Goats 
goiurer upon the fides of Rocks and Hills than they 5 Ind many of thenl 
very ftrong and clean limb'd. 

This Illand, we left ten Leagues, 6v thereaboutSj on Our Larboard 
and next to it , the Ille oCMaj^ famous for ftore of excellent 




The iad: ofthofc Iflands yvjfs P^/w^^ aland fo high, as after we firft 

difcovercd it ( which was in the morning ) we thought to have 
reacht it that night, but found our (elves far (hort of it next mora* 
Uig, though we had a full gail all that night : (b much is the eye 
deceived in Land which lyes high. This man d is about 28 degrees 
to the Norevvard, and from it to the Ifles ofCapeFerd about 13 de- 
crees a long way to be filent,for there is no land bet ween^and there- 

fore r purpole to cntcirtain you with fbmc Sea delights ^ for there is no 

7 - 


place Co void and empty, where Ionic lawful pleafure is not to be 

had, for a man that hath a firee heart , and a good Conscience. But 
thefe Sea-pljsafiircs ate Q) iiuxtwith Cruelties^ as the trouble of the 
one, abates much the delight of the other, for here vve fee the great 
ones cat up the little ones, as they do at Land, and with as little 
remorfc, yet laying that coniiderationafide, the Chafe affords (bmc 
pica lure to the eyes : for fbme kinds of fifties (hew thcmfelves above 


for a long while together. I have ieen 20 Porpifces very 
of that kind, Crois the Prow of our Ship, one behind another 
in fe fteady and conOant a courlc, in chafe of fome other fifhes, as I 
have fecna kennel of large Hoiinds, in Windfor Forrefi:, in theehafe 
of a Stag j one following another diredly in a track; and the onely 
diitcrencc I find is , the(e do not fpcnd their mouths , biit what 
they want in that is fuppfyed by the goodnels of their nofes 5 for 
they never are at a fault, but godonftantly on. The Dolphins like- 
wife purfue the flyitig Filh 5 forcing them to leave their ktiovvn 
watry Elements, and liyc to an unknown one, where they meet with 
as raercilcfs enemies ^ for there are birds that attend the riling of 
thofe fifties 3 and if they be within diftance, feldom fail to make 
them their own. Thefe birds, and no pthcr but of their kind, 
love to ftraggle fo far from land s fb that it may be doubted , whether 

B 1 




t • 




X - - ~r 


True and ExaB Hipory 

the fea may not be counted their natural home 5 for we fee thcni j 
500 leagues from aHy landj at Sun fetting 5 and fb it is not poffible 
theyftiould recover Land that night 3 and on the waves they cannot 
^eft, without great hazzard. I havefeen them fometimcs light, and 
fit upon the waves, but with fuch Giutibn , ftr fear of being taken 
in by a fifti, as her reft is very unfafe j unle{s when (he is covered 
by the nights dark wings. This Bird^ is a kind of fca Hawk 5 fomc- 
what bigger than a Lanner, and of that colour, but of a far freer 
wing5 and of a longer continuance , and when ftie is weary^ (he finds 
refting places, if the Seas be Calm 5 for then the Turtles lye and 
fleep upon the waves, for a long time together 5 and upon their backs 
they fit, and fleepfecutely 5 and there, mute, prune, and oyl their fea- 
thers, route, and do all their Offices of iiature 5 ilhd have room e- 
nough for all, for fbme of thofe Turtles are a yard broad in the back : 
we took bne with our Long Boat, is he lay fleeping on the water , 
whole body afforded all the Gentleman, and Officers of the Ship j a 
Very plentiful meal 5 and was the beft meat we tafted , all the time 
we were at Sea. There are of thefe kinds of Filhes but two Ibrts , 
that CQjaitinue in the Main 5 the Loggerhead Turtle ^ and the Hawks 
bill Turtle, of which forts, the Idtter is the beft, and of that kind ours 
Was that we took. There is a third kind, called^ the Green Turtle, 
which are of a lefler Magnitude, but far excelling the other two , 
in wholefomne/i, and Rarenefs of tafte , but of them hereafter, for 

I have m mind to part fo lightly > with the fdrenamed Birds of 
prey : For having been bred a Faulconer in my youth,I cannot but ad^ 
mm the admirable fwiftnefs of wing tbefe birds make. They 
0iOMnt foitlftimes upQh the tray ne, to lb lofty a pitch : as,ifa Faul- 
icob wgrQiJicre . She* might be allowed a double Cancellere in her 

floppii^g to her game ; they do ft at one entire down-come. Her 

ordinary flying for her own pleafufe, and not for prey, is commonly 
more free than the beft Haggard Faulcon, that I have ever feen 5 
but the continuance of it makes it the more admirable. At the 

times they grow hupgry, they attend the Dolphins, who are their Spa* 
Eliels 5 and wjjere thsy -perceive the wa ter to movej they know they 

are in Chafe of the flying fi{h,and bemgUCSr them, they rife like Co^ 

Vey s of partridges by lijind 16 in a Covey, and fly e as far as young 

that are fork ers, and in their fightthele birds make them 

1. t 

theki quilrry 

Thefe frighted fifhes, fometimes in the night h^fVc crofs'd our (hip, 
and being ftopt by the (hrowds , have fain down , and with their 
bodies we hav^ baited hooks, and taken their purfuers the Dolphins 5 
wlygh we hivt found" very excellent meat , being drefs'd by a good 
hand, with Wiae^ Spice, and fwcet herbs, which we never wanted. So 
here we have excellent hawking^no fear oflofing our hawk, by going 
out at Cheik, or to a Village to Poult, and yet eat of the quarry, and 
fometirties of the Spaniels, which is an advantage the beft Faulconers 
mils ilt Land. As for the hunting here, we only fee the Chafe , but 
fufi^t the hounds tO fie()a themfcjves upon the quarry, or it may be, a 
royal fi(h,. (uch a one a§,may fill 4 di(h to furnifh Nepumes table, and by 
that means We are cozen'dof ourquarryv So that as I ever thought 
0*1 Landa I fi"<^ the fame at Sea, Hawking to be the better (port. I 
had almoft forgot, ta tell what kind of fifh this flying fi(h is, which is 


of the Inland ^/"Barbadoes. 


[life of fiich excellent fport, bothinhimfclfand others^ he is jiid 
Pilchard,b\it his fins largcr^borh in breadth and length^and asloi 


(() lon2 he fly cs , and For their m 

they continue with iis from 33 d-Qgiecs till we coiiie 
leave us. ■ 


the bi 
dnd t 




At which time and place, another kindunderrakc'f"us, not much 
bigger than a Caftrill , and as near that colour as may be^ but of ano- 
ther manner of fly irig:for thefe flyeclofc to the water, and turn about 

e 5 fb that we often lofe fight of them , by intcrpofing of 


every wa^ 
the waves 

d think fbnitimes that 

has overwhelmed her 

The plealure Ihe gives the eye, is by thegiddinefsbf her flyings and 
often feems to be lofl, and yet (contrary to our expedlation) appears 
again. But I will trouble you no longer with the inhabitants of the 
Plyant Air, but dive into the Deep, to try what pleafure that Ele- 
ment afFdirds to give you delight 

- ' 

There is a Fi(h called a Shark, which as he 

common enen?y 


Saylers arid all others that venture, in CalmeSj to commit their naked 
bodies to the fea (for he often bites off Legs, fbmetinics Armes , and 
now. and thenfwallovvs the whole Body , if the Fifh be great} .♦ So 
when the Say Icrs take theni, they ufe them accordingly : Sometimes 
by putting out then* eyes, and throwing thjem over board 5 fbmetimes 
by mangling and cutting their bodies, finas, and taiTes, making them 
a prey to others, who w^re mercilefsTyran|:s themfelves 5 And in this 
kind of juftice they are very Accurate. ; . ,. . -. : 

Many of thefe fifheswetook, fbmeby ftriki ng with harping Ircins^ 
fbme with Fifhgjigs , fbme with hookes 5 and amdngfl: the reft, one 
very lar^e, which followed the Ship four hours, before we went 
about to take him 5 and perceived before him, a littte Fifh whFch thTy 







the V'ilot Fiji} 5 This little guide of his ^ (vvims fbmetimes 


before him, fbmetimes more oriels, at 'his pleafure $ and in his great 

efk adverfity often cleaves to him, and like a dear frieriti, flicks 
feft when he needs him nioft : for when he is taken , this little 


• I 

never fails to faftcn himfelf to his Headj^or fbme part near that, 
and refblves to dye with him.*"The experience of this we found 

only in this great fith ^ but in all the reft we had fornierly taken 5 



without the other. And the En' 

took this great Shdrk with 

piece 6f Beef 3 which he received 

as a large Hook, baited wlm a 
into his mouth, his belly being 
turned upwards, for his mouth being fhortof his friout a good deal, 
he could not take it conveniently, his back being upward, byreafbii 
his fnoiit drove the line afdre it , but as foon as we perceive<^ the 
bait tdl>efwalldwed,we gaveafudden pull, which fafl:ened the hook 


we were fure the weight of his Dody would 

him up, and laid him in the Wafl of the Ship , where 

durft abide, but the Seamen, who dare do any thing 

We had aboard divers maftive Dogs, and ariiongfl them 


large arid fierce, as I hilve feldom fcen any like liim 5 this Dog flew 
to him with thegreateft Courage that might be , but could take no 
hold of him, by reafbn of his large roundncfs and fliniinefs^ but if by 
chance he got hold of one of iii& Fins, the Shark would throw him from 
fide to fide of the Ship, ds if he had been nothing 

iiae CO iiuc 01 mc omp, asu uc uau uccii nui-imig 5 atnd doubtlels 11 

he had encourftred hini in his own Element, the Sc^ , he would have 


made quick work witK hirii 


' r 


True and ExaB Hi^ory 

Divers of this kind We took, but none fo larg 


aB 6 ul t '6 

Other fifhes we 

took 5 

foot long, and lo foot about the middle. 

as the Bomto^ the Spamfi Muquerdly the Albucore, Dolpl 

we found excellent meat, but efpecially the Alhicore ^^ Which i's'a Hfli 


of fuch a fliap 

plea led 

much to look 


we tooK 

ch above a yard long 

forked ^tayles, the giilil 




very firm and ftrong, and the body near tliat, no 

wriftj but fuddenly growing upward to fuch a gr 

'feldom feen any like him , andfo ftrong withall , 

ftrong man , holding one of them faft by the gi 

mov'dbut his tail to getloofe , gave fuch a fpring, as he had 


a mans 
: I have 

?r, ,a ve4; 
hcri this ifiui 

have put his arm out of joynt 

Thefe kind of fiih 

in a 



Sun-fhine evening, delight thcmfclvcs and us, by'tryiri 

Which oif 

them ciln leap highert: above water 5 fo that 

pretty paltime, to lee 

' f 



fifhes fb large, and glorionfly colour'd , (hew themfclves lo fai: above 
their natural Element, whole (hapes and colours gave fuch variety .Biit 
this (port we (aw not often 

I will trouble you no more, with mentioning the YarietT bf fhape^ 
and colours of fifties, till I come to St. J ago 5 onely onc^ a|id*tnat a yei-y 
fraall one 5 for his body is not much biggei: thaii a largcT*onicgi*ii 

and ^ 1„„_^._.,^._ ^ :_. / .^- ^-^ >-^^ 

and more minds to coniidcr him', than the Valt P^hatc ,} m).^^\x^ \i 
be. true, that his large body^ appearing above the fiil'fa^ 9f Hlc W.iiFeF 

yet his faculties are iiich^ as niay draw more eyeS fb IBBk Bi: 
nore minds to coniidcr him' than the Valt Inhale} , mi' j-HBil 

being m calmesa Iraooth level fuperficies , , alid fuddcRl|' ^pj]cili 
is qnppf the flrangeft andmoft monftrpus fights that Caii Be ili ' "' 
(aixd the more admiirable,' when/ie is inediiritred by hi^ iivvd ifiortal 



ncmiesj the Sword and theJhaL fifhes 

caps more than his own length, above water, and 



off; h 

fall b 

ca I . 

the fea with fuch violenccx-as thcTroth and foam is feen 

quar- ( 

61 an hour after. White 



beaten by a ftrong Welt 

wind againft a Kock \ -■ and at other times , fpouts but the 

reat quantities , the height of an ordinary ^Si:eeple.) Yet this g 
^afler-piece of Nature, is not in my opinion {o full of wonder 
doth raile the confideratioh to (iich a hei 



- f 





^__^^__^ this little filH the 

ho c^ when he pleaies, eppy himfelf wtth*°iiis heigKbour 

ortunein another Element, the 

And when he puts on a/e(bl 

he riicth 



the top of 

Y. his 

e^^ let the billow go never ,{b high, and there withofut the help of 


Raifes lip his Main Maft, Ipreads his fails , 'ivliich hd makes 

f}fJ)isowpIinqwsj fits his Rudder and Ballafl:, and begins hisvo} 
age5;^utt6whattoafthc'Vs bound, or what Tra flick he intends 
himlelfand He that made him prtly can tell. Fifties there are noh 

prey on, norfljes, and therefore 'tis npt for food he tr 
a them 500 leagues firom ,any land ; if his Voyage be' 
he muft have albng time and much patienpe to get th 


I have 

there already ;in onethinglie hpth the, advantage of any fhip th 
«vcr failed ^ for he can go nearpt the wind i3y a point, than thcmoft 
yare^Friggot that ever was built.., Vv'hich ihevvs how far Nature can 

exceed Art 

Another advantag'^ he hasv that iii the grcatcft Terh- 

Compafs, nor Card he needs not, for 

peflp he never f(^3 drowning, 
he is never out pffiis way 5 }i? 
or profit we ape yet to feek. 

than .his voyage b 





>■ W I 





of the Ifldnd r^Barbaddes. 

But Before we arrive at our next Harbour, St. J a^o, oncof tlic TJics 
of Cape I'^erjy and now revolted from the King OiSpui^;^ to the r^ri^i- 
ga,l 3 Let ire tell yoUj one little obfcrvation I made of the Sliip^v/ay , 
which in flack winds , and dark nights , we fliw nothing under 
water, bur. darknefs ^ but in ftifF winds, and ftrong gayles, we faw 

. as 

perfectly the keel of the Ship ^ and fiflies playing underneath 

lighted by a torch, and yet the nights,.of equal darknefs. Which 
putnie in mind ofa point of Philofbphy I had heard di(cours'd of^ a* 
mong the Learned 5. That in the Air, Rough hard bodies, meeting 
with one another, by violent flroaks, Rarifie the Air, ib as to make 
fire. So here, the Ship being of a hard fubftance, and in a violent 
motion,meeting with the ftrong refinance of the waves i (who though 
they Be not hard , yet they arc rough , by rcafon of tlieir flitneis,) 
dp caufe a light, though no fire, and I may guefs y that that light 
would be fire,- were it not quencht by the fea, in the infi:ant it is 

which in his own Element, hath the greater power andprc- 




. >Butbeforc vyecame to St.jfd-^i?, we were to have vifited a fmall 
ipand talltdsoilj by the intreaty ofa Portugal we carried with us. 

I whofe name was Ber?7ardo AkTjdes deSoiifa:, who pretended, to hai'e 
a great part of the Ifland ( if not the vyhole ) to be his own, 
but for that, it lay ibrn^what out of our way, and we, could not 
recover it, by reafon thewihd wasCrofs^ and parrfy for ^t we 
Ivere informed by fbmepf the Say lets, who told us it w'as uninha- 
bited By any, but Goats, Dogs 5 and the like, and we guefs'd ,*he 
would (out ofa. vain gloryj (hew us Something that he call'd his. 
ButtheMafter, who. well knew the Condition of the place , would 
not loleib much time to no purpole. Which gavefome dilcontent- 
ment to the Portugal^ w^hich he^expreft in his Countenance , 
fullen dogged look ^ till we cameto'St. J^go, But that was but a 
whetfione, to fharpen aworfe humour he was big vvith^ for though 
our Merchants redeem'd him out of prifbn in. X^W^-'/,' intending hini 
a Main direftor in the whole voyage , WtoiisCrcdnJous cars he highly 
abufed, hy telling them. That the Padre Vagadf (Chief Governor of 

jSt. Jitgo) was ,his brother, and that by the power he had with him , 
to lay all trade open, for Negroes, Horfes^ and Cattle, which 

the Contrabanded goods 5 By which periwafion , vtht^ gave him the 
wer and Command of the Ihip and goods. But he intcjided nothing 



efi than the performance of that truft , but tnftead of ir, meant to 
niake prey of both, and of our Liberties, and probablydives to boot, 
if wehadnoLbcen very waryof him. ^ 

Thefirftth^ngwe pcrceiv'd in him, was a ftrange look he put 
bri, when vye came near the Ifland 3 which cauled us to (u{peft Ibme 
great and badd<^%n he was.bentr on, (for being Jolly arid very good 
Company all the Voyaee, •^-qcbange his Countenance when wc W(^re 
n?ar the place vvhere we Iiop'd to enjoy our lldvcs with happinc(s and 
Contentment, was a prelage of (bme evil intent to be put in practice, 

which hourly wcexpefied 3 and were ctll at gaze what part of it was 
firft to beaded, which he (more fpeedily than he needed) difcovercd, 

and it was thus. - : v 

Our water, being a good part {pent in our paflige thither, and we 

being to make new and large provifions for the remainder of bur 



C 2 



\' -• . 




A True and Exd& Hiflory 

Voyhge, (carrying Hor(es and Cattle with us) which we were to take 
in there 5 he Commanded the Mafter, by the power he had over him^ 
to (end a (liore all the empty Cask he had aboard; with intent to 

detain them 3 and {p make us comply ^by little and little^ to his 
But the Mafter abfblutely denied the Laiiding our great Cask 
told him he would (end our quarter Casks , 


in our Long boat, and 
(bby making often Ireturns, to fill our Pipes and Buts. But finding 

himfelfata lo(s in this' defign^ thought good to keep us from any water 
at all 5 and fb appointed our men to dig in the Valley under the Padres 
houfe^where he was well afluiied no Springs of water were to be found. 
Butfome of ourmen, who fpoke good spanijij ^ by their enquiries 
hed'rdj That there was a very good well on the other fide of the hill, 
under the Caftle, and were brought to thefighl of it by fome of the 
Country people , Which when he perceiv'd we had knowledge of, 
he was much out 

ofCountenancCjand ufed his befl: eloquence to make 
us believe he had never heard of that WelL 

So finding that this praftice would not ferve his turn^ hetryed ano- 
ther ; and that was to command ourMafter^ to carry a (hore that part 
of theCargofoon that was confignd for that placc^ which wasCIoathj 
Bayes, Stuffs of feveral kinds ' Linnen Cloath, Hats with broad brims. 

(Uich as Spaniards \iCe to wear, and were made in Lo^ido 

put ofTthere 5 and thefc goods being valued, when they 


d at Land, there (hould be a return mad 

Horfes, and Cattle 

But as we had Caufe to fufpeft him for the Cask 3 fo we had for the 
Cargo, and fo return d him this anfwer, that we would not land any 
of our goods, without receiving the like value in Cattle j andfb by 
parcels to receive the one^ and deliver the other. 

On which meflagc, wefentthe Purfer ofdtir (hip, that fpoke good 
Spamjh'-^ But Berncirdo^ being vext to the height that his Plot vvasdif- 
covered, kept him prifoner. We (cnt another to demand him, which 
was likewife detained; then we (ent three or four more^and fbme of the 
Soldiers of the Caftlcgave fire upon them.So that we tefblv'd to weigh 
Anchor and put to Sea for a week Or ten day es, and return in the night 
(the weather being dark and fit for ouv purpofe) and fiu-prifethe Pa-, 
dreshoufe with 50 Musquettiers, which we could muftervery well of 
the Gentlemen and other paflengers in the {hip^and (biiife of the Saylers, 
and take the F^«r/re Vagago^ and Bernardo Mendes'de Sotifa^ ind Carry 


the Earbadoes 

But the Padre not knowing of this defig.. .. 
Ecpjardo^^ fent to us a very kind meffage, inviting hirhfelf aboard ou: 
fliip, receiving Roftiiges frdra us, andfo upotj treaty with him aboard 
fettled a trad 

and got our prifbrters 

d^ whereup 



invited to hishoiife,or rather his Rock/or it was mod part of it fbrm'd 
in a Rock, with a fleep and Very high precipice. " 

But larlimiQed into this digreffibnby this witked Pvrfkgal^ whole 
unlucky Countenance before we came to theJ/ZW^gave metheocca- 
Con to fay fome whit of him, and his mifcarriage in the Tfiand-, before I 


But whchv/e came within fight ofit, it appeared 

> 1 

foil of high 

dfteepIVcicks, (the higheft of which were meerflone, without any 
roylatallj and thev of fd great a height , ^s we fcldom faw the 

tops, whilftwelaybcforeit^ being interpofed by mifis, and Cloud., 
which nfc and darken the sky in the time of the Tth-nado, But the diy 

I if 



W IB^ I I 1^ 

ofthelfland o/'Barbadoes. 

had the firft fight of it, being very 

and we being 

petent diftance, had a perfed view of it. ) But thofe of the {econd 
altitude, appear'd not (b white, but had a grayifh colour, asifcovci^ed 
with light and Tandy earth. But the loweft of thofe , feem'd rather 
Hills, than Rocks y but yet no ruffet, as we were in doubt whether 
grafs didevergrow on them. But when we came within diftance of 
difcerning dolour perfectly, we expededthc valleys, as they opened 

would have afforded our eyes a richer profpciS:,' with more vari^ 

ety of colours. Taut we found very 


only the 

ofC<7c<7>7«fJ5 with fbme other that were large and beautiful,vvho(e 
tops (giving amply proportionable (hadows to their roots) held th 

greennef^, and 

e:xtream beautiful. But the. time of our flay 

being the Tumado, when the Sun Cbeingin his return from 


the Tropique of Cancer, to that of Cap 

ifit and refrefla 

the Southern World,) became Zc^;/f/) to the Inhabitants of that part 
of the world j which is about the beginning of ^//g^/? : At which time 

nd is accbmpted winter, to thofc parts 


fall in abundance 

whete the Zenith is, and we (laying there 19 or 20 dayes, ( the 
falling a good part ofthat time,), we perceived the valleys to put on 
new liveries : fbfre{h,'fo full of various greens, interhiixt with flowers 

fbrae on trees, (b full of 

variety, of themofl: beautiful colours, as if Nature had made--choice . 

So that, having feafted " 

of feveral kinds , (brae growing on flalks 

of that place to (hew her Mafler piece 

eyes with this delighted objeft, wedefiVed to try whether their fmell 
was as pleafant and odoriferous,as their beauty was admirable j and to 
latisfie our felves of this curio(ity, wquld willingly have gone afhoai^; 
but we were advifed to flay a little/ till we were better afTured of 
our Portugal Bernardo:. Which flay, .gave us time to. take a view of 
the. Harbour or ^B^;, which they eall the.Pr^, and 1^ about a league 
over from Land to Land. And, as I guefs'dj (bmewhat more 5 from the 
points of Land, to the bottorfi^ and^'as we enter, waleave aimall Ifland 

Larbocfrd fid 



^ . > 



This Bay of r»^j/,lyes to the Iec»^WbftheIflandsbyreafbn whereof 
we found fo great, fb infufferable heat , as you wUl hardly imagine 
that bodies coming out 6f cold Climates, could indure fuch fcorching 

without being fufFocated. i . v' J r u n.- 

I had in a Cabinet two pieces of hard wax, in the hold of the Ihip 

both melted and clave together 5- and the Cement of that Cabinet, that 

was made to hold the Ink, melted and became flat. 

So that finding the Air To torridly^ hot , I thought good to make 

tryal ofthe vvater ^ 

fenfe no more: colder than, the 

and I leapt into the Sea, which appeared to m> 

than the Queens bath (at Batke) 

is hotter in Jtm here in England, 

At the bottom,: or invvard part ofthe P/^, there appeared 

fair round rifing hi 


half the breadth ofthe Tr^not much unlike 

the brow of 

the Honx at Tlimouth^ with a valley on either fide 5 And 
the Hill towards the right hand, a very high and (leer precipice ot a 
Rock 5 in whichftood the houfe ofthe PadreVagado, fixton the top ot 
the Rock. A houfe fit enough for fuch a Maftcr 5 for though he were 
the chief Commander ofthelfland ; yet by his port and houfe he kep-^ 

he was more like a Herniite^ than a Governour 
of a MoHotto of his own getting, three Negroes^ 

His family confifling 
Fidler, and a Wench. 


» i 




True and ExaB Hiflory 



Himfcif a man grave enough to be wiie, but certainly of no great lear- 
ning ^ for upon the differences between Bernardo and us^Colonel M?- 
ciiford writ him a Letter in Latine^ which he did his befl endeavour to 
anfwerjbut fell the two bows fliort/ubftance and language j and though 
his Quarrel were to us^ yet he revenged himfelf on Trijcian., whofe 
head he, broke three or four times in his Letter* 

The firfltime we faw him^ was at his own hoiife , by his own invi- 
tation ; to which almoft inacceffible habitation, when we hadclinied 
with infinite difficulty , and indeed fb painful and violent was our 
motion ( bur legs finding the motion of elevation, much more vio- 
lent then of diftention,) as we were almoft fcalded within 3 and the: 
torrid heat of the Sun, being then our Zetiith^ did fb fcald us without ^ 
as^ we were in fitter condition to be fricafed for the Tadrei dinner, than 
to eat any dinner bur felves* 

Being painfiilly and pipeing hot,artiv'd at this exalted manfionswe 
found none to entertain us hut Berrtardo 5 «Vy.hd(e countenance Wds 
not fowell reconciled tohimlelf^ as to give us a hearty welcome. He 
told us that the Tadrc was gone forth about (bme affairs of the Ifland, 
but would return time enough to dinner, And'whilft we were ftaying 
there, expelling hi? coming, we thought good not to be idle, for 

the'ftrudure of that Fabrick, did not tliiniftcr to our eyes much of 
delight 3 'Onely that it had a fair prorpc<[t to fea; So we walk'd 
along upon that round hilJ, enquiring whAt we could of the place ^ 
and were inform 'd that there had been formerly a very ftately Town, 
beautified with fair builHings, and ftreets fo contrived, as to make 
the beft ufe of fiich a profped: 3 But butnt and demolifii'd by Sh Fran- 
cis Urake*, in the time of the wars ]^ between Queen Elizabeth^ and the 
King of ^/J4z>/, ivhich madeusgixemorereverence to the places for 
that folneofoiirCountreyraen bad' there facrificed their lives for the 



Honour of our Nation. . J . Asf "- 

- About the hour 'that bur ftomach's told m^'ii was full higli time to 
pay Nature her due, we lookt abertit us, and perceived at a good di- 
ftance,' a hbrfe coming tow aid§ us, w ith a man on his ba ck, as hard 
ashisheels couJd carry him 5 and within a very little time, made a 
fuddenftop atthe P^cfre/hotifc, froroj^ihole back ( bemg takettby 
two Negroes) was (et on the ground a great fat man, with a f^own on 
his back, his face not fo black as to be counted a MoUctto^ yet f believe 
full out as black as the Knight of the Sun^ his eyes blacker if pofli- 
ble, and fofar funk into his head, as with a large pin you might 
have prick'd them out in the nape of his neck. Upon his alighting we 
perceiv'd him very much difcompofcd , for the pace he rid, 
not his ufual manner of riding, as by our enquiry afterwards we 
underflood j and that he very feldom rid at all, but his bufinefs having 
held him over long, caus'd him to take horfc, who intended to come 
a foot$ and being mounted V (and he tioheof the beft' Horsemen,) 

was made fubjed to the v/ill of his horie^ which being a Barb, and 
vcrpf^vift of foot, coming towards the place where he waskept^ ran 
with fuch violence, as it was a wonder his burthen had not been caft 
by the way ^ fcr the Horfe having a bit in his rtibuth-, and the ftirrops 
being extream ftiort, as the manner of their riding there is, if he had 
ever checkt him with the bridle, that he had been put to bound, he 
had undoubtedly lay'd him on the ground. But the rider that thought 


' * * *. 


e IflandqfBawadocs. 

I of nothing more, then holding faft by the pummel with both hands , 
was miraculoufly preferv'd. 

In this great difcompofure, he wds taken off by t\vo Negroes^ andCct 
on his oWii legs : but in fuch a trance, as for fome minutes, he 
was not in a Condition to fpeakto us / Sofenfible an impreffion had 
the fear offaHing made in him. But being at laftcome to himfelf , 
he made his addrefstous, and in his language bid us welcom^ begin- 
ning to exciife his too long flay ; to redeem which fault, he had put 
himfelf in fuch a hazard, as in his whole life he had not known the 




Weanfvvered, that it argued a great refpeft and civility tous, 
that he would expofe his gravity, which was accuflomed to a mode- 
rate pace, to fuch a fwiftnefs of motion, as might in any kind indan- 
er his health, or hazard his perfbn.. But he being a man niuch re- 
rv'd, and jldw of language, (aid no more ^ but brought us into his 
houfej which was upon a level at the entrance, but the other fide 
of the Rooms a fteep precipice, and fome of the rooms like galleries , 
(uch as are in the meaneft Ik?;s upon Loxdoff-way. There were 
not in the houfe above fourrodnis,betides two galleries and a Ritchin, 
and thofe all on a flooi: 5 and the floots of earth, not (b much as 
made Level, nor Co evenas tddefcrvefwcepings and the moftof 
them were juftly dealt withali : for they had no more than they dc- 
(crv'd, both above and below j for the Cobwebs (erv'd for hangings, 
and fryiiig pans and grid- irons for pi(3:ures. 

By this equipage, you may guels what the trading is of this Ifland , 
when the Govemour is thus accoutred", but by and by , a Cloath was 
laid of Calico, with four or five Napkins of the fame, to ferve a dozen 
men. The firfl Courfe was feton the table,u(her'd in by the F^^e him- 
felf, (Bernardt)^ the MoUotto, znd Negroes following afcerj) with 
every one a difh of fruit , (Tx in atll 3 the firft was Millions, Plantines the 
(econd the third Bonanos, the fourth of Guavers, the fifth of Prickled 
Pears, the (ixth the Cufiard Apple ; but to fill up thetable,and make the 
l^aft yet more furaptuou*^, the Padre ferit his Mollotto\ int6 bis own 

far a dilh which he referv'd for the Clofe of all the reft 5 

Three r'lfiesm adifh, which were the firft that ever I had fccn, and as 
far beyond the befl fruit that grows in EngUtid^ as the befl Abricot 
is beyond the worfl Slow or Crab. 

Having \^ell fefrefh'd our felves with thefe excellent fruits , we 
dranka ginfs or fwo of Red Sack f a kind of wine growing in the 
Muder£s j very flrong, but not very pleafant 3 for in this Ifland, there 
is made no wine at all 5 nor as I think any of grapes, Co near the Line 
upon Ifhnds m all the world. Having made an end of our fruit , the 
difhes were taken away, and another Courfe fetchtiuj which was 
of flefh, fiih, and fallets 3 the fallets being firfl plac'd upon the table .- 
which \ took great heed of, being all Novelties to me , but the beft 
and mo^Vfavoury herbs that evet I taftcd , very well feafoncd with 
falt,Oyle, and the befl Vinegar. Several forts we had, but notrilixt, 
but in feveral diQies, all flrange, and all excellent. The firfl dilh of 
flefh, was a kg of ayoungflurk, ofa wild Calf, of a year old , which 
was of the Colour of flags flefh, and tafted very like it, full of Nerves 
and linewsjilrong meat, and very well Condited.- boyl'd tender, and 
the fauce of favdury herbs, with Sp^nifi Vinager. Turkies and Hen« 
we had roafted 5 a gigget of young goat j fidi in abundance of feveral 

D 21 ' kinds 


t ' 




A True and Exa& Hijiory 

kindsj/ whole name I haveforg 

Snappers, grey and red 

5 Ca- 

CarpionSjC^c. with others of rare colours and ftiapes, too many- 
be named in this leaf, fome fryed in oyl, and eaten hot/ome (buc't, 

ated : of all thefe we tafted, and were much delighted 

(the Pad 


fome marir 

Dinner being near half d 
black attendants, waiting on us) 
plexion wasraifed out of the red Sack 5 for near that Colour it was 
his head and beard milk white, his Countenance bold and cheerful 

do^ ^nd the other 
old fellow, whole com- 

Lutein his hand, and play 'd us for a Novelty 


ijptme fc 


td 'y a tune in great efteem, in Uarry the fourths dayes, for when 
SirJohiFalJiaffmakQs his Amours to Miftrefs Doll Tear-fieet, Speake 
and his Company, the admired fidlers of that age, play es this Tune, 
which put a thought into my head,that if Time and Tune be theCom- 
pofits of Mufick, what a long time this Tune had in fayling from Eng- 
Lwd tothx^ place. But we being (ufficiently fatisfied with this kind of 

Harmony, defired a fbng , which he performed in as Antique a manner 
both favouring, much of Antiquity , no Graces, Double Relifhes, 
Trillos, Gropos, or Piano forte's , but plain as a packftafFs his Lute 
too, was but of ten firings, and thatwasinfa(hioninKing David's 
dayes 3 fo that the rarity of this Antique piece j pleas'd me beyond 


Dinner being ended3 and the ?ad 


w ea ry of his wait 


rofe, and made room for better Company 3 for 


nd his black Miflrefi were 

take their turns 


A Neg 

of the greateft beauty and majefly together .* that ever Ifaw 
woman. Her ftature large, and excellently ftiap'd, well favour'd,fuIl 
€y'd',and admirably g'rac ajfhe wore on her head a roll of green Tafiaty, 
ftrip'd with white and Ehiliamort, made up in manner of aTurbant, 
and over that aileight .vayle, which fhe took off at pleafure. On her 
body next her Linnen, a Peticoat of Orange Tawny and Sky colour 5 

done with Strait ftripes,but wav'd 5 and upon that a mantle of pur 

filk, ingrayld with ftraw 

This Mantle was large, and tyed 




with a knot of very broad black Ribbon , .with a rich Jewel on her 
right (houlder, which came under her left arm, andfb hung loofe and 

carelelly , almoft to the ground . On her Legs, (he wore buskins of 

wetched Silk,deck'd with Silver Iace,and Fringe , Her (hooes,of white 
Leather, lac'd with sky colour, and pink'd between thofe laces. In h 

ears, fhe wore large Penda 


about her necki and on her arms, fair 



Pearls. But her eyes were her richeft Jewels, for they were thelar- 
geft, and moft oriental that I have ever (een. 

Seeing all thefe perfedions in her only at paflage , but not yet 
heard her Speak, I w as refblv'd after dinner, to make an Eflay what 
a pr'efent of rich filver, filk, and gold Ribbon would do, to perfwade 
her to open her lips : Partly out of a Curiofity, to fee whether her 

teeth ^vcre exadly white, and 

I hop'd they were 




general opinion, that all Negroes have white teeth 3 but that is a Com 
mon error, for the black and white, being (b near together, they fet off) 
one another with the greater advantage. But look nearer to them , 
and you fhallfind thole teeth, which at a diftance appear'd rarely 

hite, are yellow and foul. This knowledg 



in me, but it was not the main end of my enquiry 3 for there 

gilt this Curiofity 

but one thing 

(ef her off in my opinion , the rarefl: black 




of the Ifland of Barh^doQS. 

fwan that I had ever fecn^ and that was hcrlanguage^and graceful de- 

ofthatj which was to unite and confirm a pcrfeftion in all the 
reft. And to thatend I took a Gentleman that fpoke good Span/fi with 
rae,^ and awaited her coming out, which wa5 with far greater Majcfty, 
and gracefuhicfs, than I have feen Queen ^wwe, dcfcend from the 


Chair of State, to dance the Meafures with a , Baron of E//^/^ W, 
at a Mafque in the Banquctting houfe. And truly, had her followers and 
friends, with other perquidts (that ought to be the attendants onfuch 
a (late and beauty) waited on her, I had made a ftop^ and gone no far- 
ther. Bnt finding her but flightly attendedj and confidering Ihe was but 
the^4£/mMiftrelSj& therefore the more acceffiblej made my addref- 
lesto her, by my interpreter , and told herjhad fjme Trifles made by 
the people o^Efsgland^ which for their value were not worthy her iC- 
eptancCj yet fox their Novelty .they might be of fomeefteem^fach ha- 
ving been worn by the great Queens o^ Europe^ and intreated her to 
youchlafe to receive them. She with much grayityjand ref6rvednels5 
opened the paper jbut when (he lookt onthcm.the colours plealfed her 
foj as fhc put her gravity into the lovelicft fmile that I have ever feen. 
And then (new a her rov/s of pearlsjfo clean^whitCjOricnt.and wel (ha- 
pedj as Neptunes Court was never pav'd with fuch as thefe 5 and to (he ,v 
whether was whiter^or moreOrient^thofc or the whites ofher eyeS;j(hc 
turn d thcmup^Sc gave me fuch a lopkjas was a (Jjfficicnt return for a far 
, greater pre/entjand withall wilhtj would, think of fbmewhat wherein 
I ihe might pleafiirc me^and I (liould find her both ready & willing. And 
fowith a gracefiil bo\Y ofher neck^Chetookher way towards herQwn 
Jioufe 5, which was not above a ftones caft from the Padres, Qfh^^f ^ad- 
dreiles were not to be made, without the dillike qf the Vadre^ for they 
are there as jealbus of their JVJiftreiles^ as the I/^/V4»j- of their wives. 
^In the afternoon vve took leave,' and went aboard 3 where we re- 
maiaed three or four daycs ^ about which time ^ /bme pafejgers of 
the (hip, who had no great ftore of litinen for (hift^d^fired leave to go 
afhoar^and took divers women along with them,to vva{h their lihnen. 

But (it leem'd) the Tortugah^ and Negroes too', found them handfbme 
and fit for their turns, and were a little Rwde, I catinot (ay Ravilh'd 
them 5 for the Major part^thenijbeing taken from Bridewel^T^tirnball 

ftreet, and (uchlike places of education, were better natur'dthan to 
.iiiffer filch violence s yet complaints were made , when they came 
aboard^ both of fuch abtrfes, and ftealing their linnen, ' ' 

But fuch a praife they gave of the place, as vve all. were defirous to 
(^eit.- %, after the Ram, every day gave an i|icrea(e tp the beauty of 
thcplacej by the budding out of new fruits and flowers. 

.Tliiswasthevalleyon the left fide of the Hillg more fpacious and 
beautiful by much than that on the right handj^j where the Vadre 
dwelt. The next day, a dozen Gentlemen of our company, refolv'd 
to go and fee this fo much ad m.ired* valleys and when our Saylers with 
their long boat went to fetch water^ . (a^ daily they did^) vve went 
along with them, and landed thcre^^aas^high going BiIlovvs,gs I have 
ever feen, To near the land. Muchadbe we had, to be carried to land, 

• I 

though on mens backs 5 and yet the grapple came as near the fhoar as 

they durft bring it, for bulging againft the bottom. , ^ 

No (boner were vve bnded, but the Captain of the Caftle, with 

one Soldier with him 5 came toward s us, with a flpyv formal pace. 






, *- * 










A True and ExaB Hiflory 


ho Jefired to fpeak with one of us alone. Colonel MJciiford^ bcii 
lief man in the Company, went with an Interpreter to meet 
id beinit at the diftance oflpcech^ defired to know his pleafure^which 


he told him was 

That he underftood divers of 


been alhoar, the day before ^ and received fbme injury, from the peo- 
ple of the Ifland, and that it was conceiv'd^ we v/ere come Arm'd tcJ 
take revenge on thole that did the affront. He therefore adviled us , 
ither to make fpeedy return to the boat that brought us .• or to fend 


back our fwords and piftols^ and commit our (elves to his proted 









and if oneofthofe were not prefentlyput in ad, weftiould in a very 
(hort time ha\'e all our throats Cut. 

We told him we had no intention of revenge for any wrong 
done, and that the only caufc of our landing, was to fee the beauty 
of the place vve had heard fb much Commended, by our pcdple that 
were aftioar, of which they had given a very large teftimony, both of 
the pleafantnefs and frultfulne/s of it^ and that our vifit was out of 
love, both to the place and people. But for fending our weapons back 
to the boat, we defired his pardon 3 for this reafbn, that the Billows 
^oing fb vcty high at that time, we could not (end them to the boat 
without being dipt in the Sea wateir, which would (poil them 3 and 
themoftofthem,beingrich fwords and piftoIs,vvevvere loath to have 
their beauty Covered With ruft, which the (alt water would be the 
occafionof. We defired rather, that he would Command a Soldier 
of his, to (lay with a man of ours, and keep them fafe, till our return 3 
which he being content to do, we committed our (elves to his prote- 
dionjVvho put a guard upon us of 10 Soldiers, ^?.vtPoHttgah^ part Ne- 
groes 3 the moft part, of either kind, as proper men as I have (een,and as 
handibmely c]o2Lth^6 

Their g 

ade with much Art , and all (eem'd to be done 

by the Tayl^f 3 the Coverings for their' heads 



unlike Hel' 

metS3 of blew and white ftrip'dfilk, fbme tawny, and yellow^ others 

of other (brts of Colours 3 but all of one fafhion , their doublets dole 

to their bodies, v/ith Caflocks, made of the fafhion of the Kings guard ; 

\oo(f: fleevecj which came to their elbows 3 but large and gathered fb 

I as to fit loofe from their drms 3 wit& four larg e skirtSj^reaching down 

Uo the middle of their thighs 3 but thefeof a different colour from 

their fuits, their breeches indiuferdfitly large, coming down below the 

knee, and the upper part;, (b wrought with Whalebones within, as to 

keep them hollow,from touching their backs3to avoid heat,which they 

were much troubled with 3 upon their legs, buskins of the colour of 

their fuits, yet fbme madea difference ; their (hooes colour'd for the 

mod: part 3 fbme v^^hite, but very few black. Their weapons,as Swords, 

Pifi:oIs^Mu(qucts,Pikes,and Pafri(ans,kept very bright, and worn come- 

i^lily and gracefiilly 3 which arguecj a decency in the Commander^ as 

:th?ir awful tefpcd did of his aufterity. 

I Bein^ now under a Guard, vve marcht into this valley, one of the 
Jdchghifallcft places that I have €ver feen, for befides the high and 

j lofty trees, as the Valmeto, Royal^CbcO'yCtdar^Locn^^'Maftkk^^ Mangrave^ 
\ ^^*ih^ Redwood^ rickJcdydloTv wood^Cajfia^FiJiHla^ Calibap^ Cherry :, Fig- 
tree, whole body is large enough for TxmhQt^CiUrons^Cujiard appk^Gna- 

Ciprcs^Orafiges'^^temons.Lymes^Pdmegranat^ An otto. Prickled 



^pple ^Prickled pcar^Papa^ thefe & more may be accounted wood:& y 



^ ' t 

of the Inland ^/Barbadces. 

d part of them bearing excellent fruit. But then 


fler fbrt ^ that bear the rarcfl: fruit ; whole bodies caunor be 

compted vvoodjasthe TU?JtJ}iQ^Vine^'Bo7iajio^M:lou 

nd (bme few grape?, but thoie inconfiderablc^by rea(bn the) 


make wine .- becaufe they have 

and (bby that means, they 

can never ripe together, but one is green, another ripe, anoth 
which rea(bn will ever ho!d,that no wine can be made on lOanc's^where 
there is no winter:6r within twenty degrees of the line on either fide. 
I have heard that wineisniade in the £4/? Indies^ within lefs than fif- 
teen Degrees , but 'tis of the Palm-tree 3 out of whoie body , they 
draw both wine and oyle 5 which wine will not keep above a day, 
but no wine of grapes, for the realbns aforelaid. Other kinds oftrecs, 

we found good to fraell to, as Mirtky Jcjama7i^ taniarisli , with a tree 
fbmewhat of that bigneft^ bearing- aVery beautiful flower. Theflrfl: 
half next the ftalkjofa deep yellow or gold colour^the other half,being 



ger, of a rich Scarlet : fliap'd like a Carnation, and when 

flowers fall off, there grows a Cod, with fcven or eight Cctd 

of which 3 we carried to the Barhadoes^ and planted 



they grew and multiplyed abundantly, and they call them there, the 
St. 5^^^^ flower, which is a beautiful, but no fweet flower. 

From thefe woods of pleafant trees, we faw flying divers birds, feme 
one way, fbme another, of the fairefl, and moft beautiful colours, that 
can be imagined in Nature;others whotc colours and fhapes come (hort 
ofthe(c,didfo excelin fweetnefs, andloudnefs of voyce,as ourNight- 
ingals in EngUnd^ are Qiort of them, in either of thole two properties 5 
but in vzlriety of tunes^ our birds are beyond themj for in that they 

In this valley of pleafure, adorn'd as you hav^heard 



with our Guard, fair and (oftly, near a quarter of a mile 3 before 


the much prai(ed fountain 5 from whence we fetcht our 
water. The circle whereof, was about 60 foot, the Diameter ab^ut 
20 from the ground to the top of the Well, (which was of firec-ftone,) 
threee foot and a half 5 from thence within, down to the furfece of the 
Wdter, about fifteen foot. The/pringit felf,qpt (6 much to be prai- 
fed for the excellency of the tafte, though clear enough , as for the 
Nymphs that repair thitjher. For whil'fl we flayed there feeing the Say 

their Casks 



plating the glory o£ the 

e : ther6 appear'd to our view, many pi'etty young Ne^ro Virg 
playing about the Well. But amongfl thpfe 5 two, that came down 
with either of them a natural Pitch '"*■*" 

Calibafii upon their 

fetch water from this fountain. Creatuxes, offuch ftiapes, as would 
have puzzel'd Albert D«yer,the great Mafter of Proportion, but to have 
imitated 5 arid Tition^ or Andna dc Sarta, for foftnefs of mufcles, and 
curiolity of Colouring, though witha fludied diligence 3 and a love 
both to the party and the work. To cxprefs all the perfedions ofNa- 
tute, and Parts; thele Virgins were owners of^ would ask a more skil- 

ful pen, or pencil than mine 3 Sure I am, though all were 

their motions were the higheft, and that 

eauty no Painter 

,.,prefs, and therefore my pen may well be filent 5 yet a wordo 
two, would not be amifs, to ex{5re6 the difference^ betvven thefe 
and thofe of high Africa 
Angola^ j^Jhiopa^ and Ai 


Guinny ^ Binny 


E 2 

thofc that dvvelnear the River 







.- '- 










True and ExaB Htflory 


who are thick lipt^ fhort nos'dj and commorily low fo 

But theie 


Id mar the 



compos'd of fuch featiii 
judgment of the beft Painters^to undertake to mend 
fovl that bred thenij fweetasthe fruits they fed on; for being come 

^ar, as their motions, and graces might perfeftly be difcern'd^ I 
efs'd that Nature could no tj without help of Art ^ frame fnch ac- 





compUfh'dbeauties,not only of colours^andfavour^butofmoti 
which is the higheftpart of beauty. If dancing had been in faftiion 
in this Jfiandl might have been perfwaded^thatthey had bcfen taught 
thofe motions^ by ibme who had ftudied that Art. But confidering the 
r tJre'sMufick to be the bed the Ifland afforded, I could not but cafl 
away that thought 3 arid attribute all to pure nature. Innocent, as 
youthful, thcir'ages about fifteen. Seeing their beauties ib firefli and 
youthful, withall the perfections I have named, I thought good to try, 
whether the uttering of their language, would be as fvveetand harmo 

nious, as their other parts 

And by the help of a Gen 

that Ipoke FortngalJ. accoftedthem j and began to praile their 
beauties, (hapes, and manner of dreffings 5 which was extreamly pret 


Their hair not (horn as the Neg 

the places I have named. 

dole to their heads 5 nor inquartersj and mazes, as they ule to wear 


hich is ridiculous to all that fee them . but themiclv 


due proportion of length. 


lb as having their fhortenings by the na- 
Curls, they appeared as Wyers, and Artificial j)reflings to their 
On the iidesof|heir Cheeks, they plat little'ofit ,^ of purpofi 

tye Imall Ribbon 

(bme fmallbead 

f white Amber 



fometimds of the rare flowers that grow there 


Their ears 

hung with Pendants, their necks and arms adorn d with bracelets of 
Counterfeit pearls, and blew bugle 5 fuch as the P^r/7/^^/j- beftow on 
them, for thele are free Negroes^ and wear hpon the fmall of one of 

their legs, the badge of th^irfreedotn^ iwhich 

the leg 

Big as the ftale bf a Spo 

fmall piece of fil 

which comes round about 

and byreafbnofthefmodthnels, andlightnels 


) their going.. Their cloaths, were Petticoats of Strip'd filk 

next to their lin'nfen, whidH'reach to their middle leg ; and upon that 
a mantle of blew Taffity, tyed with a Ribb6n on the' right fhoulder : 
which coming under the left arm , hung -down careldly fbmewhat 
lovyerthan the Petticoat, (bus a great part of the natural beauty of 
their backhand necks before, lay open to the view, their breafl round, 
firm, and beautifully (haped 

Uponiiiy addreffes totheniy they appear'da little difhirb'd 


Whilpered to one another, but hrtd not the Confidence to Ipeak aloud 
I had in my hat a piece of filver and filk Ribbon , which I perceived 

their well (hap'd eyes, often to dart at 5 
give them Cclffidence to ask. I took 


'but their modelties would 

which they 

pted with much 

and divided it between 


m return 

drank to one another my health in the liquor of the pure fountain 
which I perceiv'd by their wanton fmiles, and jcfticulations, andcaft 


g their eyes towards 

when they thought they had expreft 

cn(mgh,they would take in their Countcnnnces, and putthemfelves .„ 
the modefteft p6fi:ures that could be, but we havina brought a 

Cafe of bottles, of Efighfi fy' ' * ' " ^ 

drank a hcMth to them, in i 



fmall dram ciip 5 and g 

d for fome , and 




of the Ifland (?/Barbadoes. 17 

of them which they (melt to , and finding it too ftrong for their temper, 
pour'd fbme of it into one of their Calibafhes : And put to it as 
much water^ as would temper it to their palats^ They drank again, 
but all this would not give them the confidence to ipeak, but in mute 
language, and extream pretty motions, fhewed they wanted neither 
wit nor difcretion to make an Anfwcr. But it (eem'd it was not the 
fafliion there for young Maids to fpeak to ftrangers in Co publick aplace. 
I thought I had been (ufEciently arm'd with the per&dions I found 
in the Padre's Miftrefs, as to be free from the darts of any other beauty 
ofthat place in lb (bort a times but I found the difference between 
young frelh beauties, and thofe that are made up yi^ith the addition of 
State and Majefty : for though they counfel and perfwade our loves 
yet young beauties force, and fo commit rapes upon our affedions. In 
fiimme^ had not my heart been fixed fafl: in my breart,and dwelt there 
above fixty years, and therefore loth to leave its long kept habitation, 
I had undoubtedly left it between them. for a Legacy .• Fpr jRj equal 
were their beauties, and my love as it was not, aor could be particu- 




I have heard it a queftion dilputed, wliether if a hor(e, being plac'd 
at an equal diftance between two bottles ofHey equally good, apdhis 
appetite being equally fix'd upon either ,• whethci' that horfe muft not 
equally ftarvc. For if he feed on either," it muft argue that his appe- 
tite was niore fixt on that, or elfe that battle was better than the others 
Otherwife, what thould move him to choofe one before the other. 

In this pofture was I with my t wo M iftreflps, or rather my tw,o halve^ 
of one Miftrefs 3 for had th6y been conjoyn'd, and (b made one, the 

point of my love had mef there, but being divided, and my affcdion 
not forked, it was impoHible to fix but in one centre 
In this doubtful corMition I tooli myl^aye, Svijth ^n affurance/that 

t , T 

•♦ ' ■ r i •>-• " *»> 

I fhould never find two (ucH parallel Piiragons in my whole (earch 

through the world : And the reafon of tfi^ir io gr.e^t likenefs and luftre^ 
was, they were Sifters and Twins, as I was after inlorm'd by^ Hermite 
that came often to vifit us when we dme on Land,as we often did.and 
not far off from his Cell. . . ' , 

But you will think it ftrange, that a man of my. age and gravity 
(hould have Co much to do with beauty and love : But I have three 
argumentstoproteftme, thefirft is, I have in my younger dayes been 
much enclin'd unto pointing, in which, ^rt, colour, favour and fhape, is 
exercifed 5 and theie beauties being a proper fubjeftjpf all theieper^- 
ftions (being in themfelves perfeft J I could not but confider them' 
with a ftudied dilig 

Next, i had been long at Sea without fetting foot qn any Land, and 

that hath a property to make all Land-obje<^s beautifolj and thcU 

' f •' A 

being in the higheft degree Pairamouat, coujd not but (iirpnze my 
fancy. Befides, the place being extream^beautiflil and lovcIy,could not 
but fecretly harbour in it thefpirit of love,a paflion not; to be govcrn'd. 
And therefore I hope you will pardon my wild extravagaticjjf . . 

But the main realbn of this flying out, is, I had little elfe to fay, for 
the Ifland being a place of yery little or np Traffique, could not afibrd 
much of difcoifffe, Cattle they have very good and large, which they 
fell at very eafie rates. And likewife horles of excellent iLapes and 

F mettle; 


r ' 


A True and ExaBJiijiory 



mettle 5 but they are Contrabanded goods ^ and vvhofbevcr deals in 
them (without (pecial licence) forfeitsboth Ship and Goods, if thcj 
have power to compel them 




0? - 



But I believe they have not , being partly informed by the Herra 

ho came often to us to hear 

and beg (braewhat of us, which 

being obtain'djhc would not ftick to impart fbmewhat of the weaknefs 
ofthe Ifland, that would have cofthimdearjif it had been known to 
the Padre. And fbme of that which he informed us , was, the Forts 

and Block-houfes on either fide the Pry 

hich we.faw the ap pea 

of Ordnances good ftore and larger but we underftood by h 
that thofe Forts were neither regular, nor the Guns Brafsor Iron, but 
4 4. c^ I fuch as Henry the 8th. took Bulloyne with, and this we found by expe- 
rience to be true, for upon our firft difference withs^r^^r^^ and the 
Padre, we weighed Anchor,and removed our (elves out ofthe diftance 
ofthe'Caftle which ftoodin the bottom of the Pr^, and expeded to be 
(hot at from thole Forts and Block-houies 5 but (aw no fire given 5 and 
if they had been fumifh'd with (uch Artillery as would have reached 
us, we (hould certainly have heard from them. 

We al(b enquired of our Intelligencer, theHermite, what Trades 


Manufadures were praftifed th 


but were an(wered , that they 


werefewand incon(iderable: Sugar, Sweet-meats, and Coco 
being the greatefV Trade they had. Yet by the Padre's leave. 
carried away with us 50 head of Cattle, and eight Horfes, which 
nardo made us pay double , for the ulual price being 2 5 /. a piece . 
which he made us pay 50 /. and for hor(es 10/. apiece, which others 
have had for 4 or 5 pound,buthewascoiitentwefhould rate our Com- 
modities accordingly ,and fb we wereno'great lo(ers by the exchange. 
Having difpatch'd our bu(ine(s, we got leave; to go afhoar upon the 
little Ifland, at the entrance ofthe Fry^ thereto cut and pull gra(s for 
ourHor(es and Cattle, which we made up into Hay, a work quickly 
done where fo much Sun-fhine was opr helper^ it being perfedly dry ed, 
we (lowed it in our Ship, which was our laft work, and fb weighed 
Anchor and hoyfed Sail,^ (leering our Courfe for the Barhadoes^ leav- 
ing Bernardo (according to his own defire) behind us, having but two 

degrees to the Southward, to vary in the running of 6 20 leagues Weft- 
ward , St. J^^'S' lying in 15 , and the Barbadoes in 13 degrees and 30 
Minutes to theNorthward ofthe Line. - 

There are (even more Idands, which are calPd the Iflands of Cape 

Verd^y\z.St, Michaels ^St. Vincents^ St. Anthonies^St, Lncia^Bravd^Fogo^ 

and Solly (bme of which are much larger, but none (b confiderable as 
this of St. J ago. 

As we lay at Anchor in the entrance of the Pry, we perceiu'd atSun- 
(et, befween the Sun and us, the Ifland called Fogo^, which was at (uch 
a diftance, that none of us could difcern it all the day till tjiat hour, 
and then the Ifland interpofing between the Sun and us, we (aw it per- 
feftly (hap d like the neither half of a Sugar-loaf, the upper half being 
cut off even, and in the midft of the top of that, a finoak and fire rifing 
out, from which we gue(s'd it took its name. 

About the loth, of yiuguji we put out to Sea, and as we (ailed, we 

left the Ifland of our Starboard-fid 

and did not part with the fight of 

wc difcem'd a little Town near to the Shoar, which we were told 





of the Ifland of Barhsidoes. 

was thebeftin the Ifland, and a place meant for the chief Port for 
Traffick in thelfland^ but by means of a great mifchief that Ship 
fubjed to in that Harbour, it was almoft totally defatted, for 


here was fo Rocky in the bottom^ and thofe Rocks fo thick together 
and (harp withall, as they cut the Cables, off near to the Anchor, and 
fothe Anchor isoften leftin thebottom. There was a Z)«^c)& man that 
layjhere but three dayes, and in that little ftay loft two Anchors. 

620 leagues, which 

From this Ifland to the Barbado 
by rcafonofthe conftancy of the winds.'which blow fcldom in'any 
other point than Nore Eaft and by Eaft , they have ufually fiil'd it in 
fixteen or fevcnteen dayes 5 but wc/or that it was thetirae o£Tor»ado^ 
when the winds chop about into the Souths werefbmewhat retarded 
in our paffage, and made it twenty two dayes e're we came thither, and 

many have made it a for longer time, for in the time of Tornado' the 


pofefothick^and darken the sky, (b much 

able to mike any obfervation for a fortnight together , and fo bein 
doubtful of our Latitude, dare not make the bcft ufe of our Sails aii« 
way, for fear of (lipping by the Ifland ^ and being paftit, can hardly 
beat it up again, without putting out into the Main, and foby painful 
traverfes recover our (elves to the EaftwardoftheIfland,and then fall 
backagain to the due Latitude upon it at 15 degrees,and 30 minutes. 

Befides this pains and lols of time 



mifs the Ifland, we 

hazards by falling upon the Leeward Iflands in the 

night, of which the Bay of Mexico is well ftor'd 

In this long reach fwhichmaybe call'd a Voyage it felf J I had 
only two things to make the way ieem fliort , the one was pleafiire, 
the otherbufmeft^ that of pleafure, was to view the heavens and the 
beauty of them, which were objeds of fo great glory, that the Inha- 
bitants of the world from 40 degrees to either pole, can never J)ewit- 
riefs of A nd this happens at the time when the Tornado is with thofo 
of that Latitude where we were, for the clouds being exhal'd in great 

quantities, fome thick and groft , fome thin and 
hurl'd and roll'd about with great and lefler 

d' being 
the Sun then and 

there being far brighter than witrus here in England^ caufed £ich gl 

rious colours to reft upon thofe cIouds,as'tisnotpoffibIetobe.beJieved 

imagination fram?. fo great a 


by him that hath not feen 

beauty s the reafon is, the nearnefs and propinquity of the pi 
arc in, which makes us fee the glory of the Sun , and of ihpfe Stars 
which move in that Horizon much more perfedly , than at a" fiirthcr 
diftance, the proofof thisi found by looking on the Stars that appear 
large and bright to us in England^ which being feen there, do hot on- 
ly lofe much of their light, but of their magnitude, for inftanc^, there 

is a little Star c^MCAAHriga. near tht Charles IV aim ^ which inEfjglaftdl 
have feen very perfedly in bright nights, but at that diftance I could 
never fee it in the cleareft night 5 though I have often attempted it. 
And upon my return to England^ I found it as I left it 5 which argues 
it was no decay or impediment in my fight that made me lofe it, but 
only the diftance of place. I deny not but a better fight than mine may 
fee this Star Auriga at the Barhadoes 5 but then fo good a fight may fee 
it more perfedly in England than I can, and Co the comparifon holds. 
But another reafon to prove the Cxleftial bodies brighter at a nearer 

F 2 





























m^ and ExaSf flifiorjf 

diftanccj is, ^'hat the Moon being near the full fat which time it gives 
a plentiftil light) I have dbferv^d in the night, the having been for two 
hours of thereabouts, and atfuch a time as the clouds being in a fit 

pofition to refled: the beams which the Moon then 

where you 

the p] 


you (hall fee a perfed Pvainbow in the night 3 but this 

happen at all times, though there be clouds for the beams 
but only fuch as are in an angle wliere thele beams refled and 

meet in a juft'|)Oint. Divers new conftellations we found to the South 
ward, which \n oiir Horizon are never feen 


and amongft 



the Cruferos^ which is made up of four Stars, which ftand 

?Ikoft fquarcj -or rather like the claws of a birds foot, and the Seamen 
told Us, that two of them point at the South pole, as the Painters 




wie Charles WainAo to the North Star 5 but the South pol 

feen by us that come -from the Northern parts, till we be under the Li 

and thfen we (ee both North and South, as we do the Sun 

9tid evtening, at fix and fix. And Aus much for pleafure. 

. Now for bufinefs it was only this^to inform my (elf, the beft I could 

of the kdcbfti pt the Mafter and his Mates kept of the Ships way , both 


C^rd,' a^nd Log-Tme, together with the obfervat 

Nmfi]rfc?y that excellent and ufeful inftrument the back-ftafF,by which 

e-feffOW to a mile theLati^ud 

and if we had an inftru 


mcnt to find due t'he Longitude, -as pcrfedly*^ every man might guide 
a^hipy tlkt could but keep an account. 

To^ the knowledge ofthis great fecret of the Ships courfe , /divers 

. 3 for 
skill to all that were 

(Seritlemdn^foHr Company applyed themielves very diligently 

thcitoaflsfr was not for^vard to communicate h 


t-i J 

And tafuch'S 'proficiency we were g 

wtiiiMVKas* iina taiucn a pronciency we w^ere grown , as to lay a 
w^cr with the BoMwain, a y6r^^ gbod'Seamaii; upon the firft fight of 

the^flandof5d>fddfoef^:4iewpuidlay welhould not fee it till the af- 
teniob^ Or late in> the 

nooii:;fi whether 

5 we,' that we fhould make it before 

\y ere chance, or our jkilfulnefs, I know not, but 

w;ewon'*be wstgelt,, -which was^ couple ofveryfet Hens, which ..^ 
^afed^oljfe^refs'd, and eatthera infightof thelfland, withadouble 

joyrj^ iMp ' thatWehad won the wager, next, that we were grown fb 



Beitigadwceiame'ln' fight of this happy Ifland, the nearer we came 
tbe/mopefbeautifuIjHf appeared to our eyes, for that being in it (elf 
cxtre^irijy bem^fiik ^as .beft difcern'd and beft judged of, when our 
eyes became fulJtMafters of the bbjeas there we faw the high large and 
Icft^-t^e^g, with their fpreading branches and flour ifhing tops, feem'd 
t0;beibchdkling>fbthe^rth^nd roots that gave them (iich^pIcAty of 
f^ibrtbeir.nouftftiment,astdgFow to that perfeffion of beauty and 
lai^cn^fijWhilft they ingratitude return their cool (hadetofecurp and 

(helterthemfrodi the Suns heat "nrhich vvithout it would fcorch and 
Or-y avv4y 5 ib that'bounty an cfgoodnefs in the one, and gratefulnefs 
iQihe «3ther,fer\''etb'mkke ijp this beauty,vvhich othervvife would lye 
empty andc^^vaft, ^b^- truly thefeV^etatives may teach both the fen- 
fitjle and^eafona1>k-tre;itWres:jvvhat it is thattnakes up vvealt 
pd ?li-*anno»3^-in <^at Leviathania well govern 'd Common-wealth' 
vphf^e the Mighty men and RulerV^f the earth by their prudent and 
Caietul proteaion, 5 'fceure them from harms ^-vthilft they retribute 

" ' ^ their 


Jftcind ofBn.Ymdocs: 

; their paras^and Eiithfulobediencejtofcrvctliemina'il juft Commands, 
i And both thcfcj interchangeably arid mutually in love, which is the 
i Cord that binds up all in perfect Harmonvi And where thcfe ire 
I wanting, the roots dry, and leaves fall away, and a general decay, 

and devaftation cnfues. Witnefs the woeful experience ofthclc (ad 

times we live in. 



Being now come to the diftance of two or three leagues, my iirft 

j ODfcrvation was, the fjrm of the Ifiand in general, which is higheft 

! in the middle 5 by which commodity of Situation, the Inhabitants 
within, have thefe advantages -, a free profped: to Sed, and a reception 

I of pure refrefhing air, and breezes that come from thence ; the plan- 
tations overlooking one another (b, as themoft inland parts , are not 

I bar'd nor rcftrained the libertiesoftheir view to (ca,bythofe that dwell 
between them and it. For as we part along near the Qioar^ the Plan- 

i rations appcar'd to us one above another r likefevtral ftories inftately 
buildings, which afforded" us a large proportion of delight* So 
that we bc2g'd ofthe Mafl:er,to take downthofeof his fails, that gave 


the (hip the greatcft rnotion, that we might not be depriv'd on i (ud- 
den, of A fight we all were fb much pleafed with. But our Cattle 
and Horlcs Twho were under hatches 5 and therefore no partners of 
thisobjec%) having devoured all their fodder, and were now ready 
to come to that necelTity, as the next thing to be thought on, "was to 
lain deal boards, and feed them with the (havings j Which deadly 
unger, caufcd (uch lowing and bellowing ofthe poor Cattle, as their 
cry ftopped the Maftcrs ears, fo as theimoothcft, and moft penwafive 
language, we could ufe .* could not force a paffage, but With all the 

haftehe could, put into CarlijieBay , which is thebeft in the Ifland, 

where we found riding at Anchdr, -2 2 good (hips, with boats plying to 
and fro, with Sails and Oars, which carried commodities from place to 

place : (() quick ftirring, and numerous^ as I have feen it below the 

hndg^ 2iK London, 

Yetn tvithfVanding all tWs appearance of trade, the Inhabitants 
ofthe Illands, and fnipplng too, were fo grievoutly vifited with the 
plague, (or as killing a difeafe,) that before a month was expired,after 
our arrival, the living were hardly 'able to bury the dead. Whether it 
were brought thkhci^ in Iliipping.- (for in long voyages, difeafes grow 
atSea.and take away many paiiengers,and thofc difeafes prove couta- 
gious,^ or by the ofthe people ofthe Ifland : who by the 
ill dyet they keep, and. drinking flrong\faters, bring difeafes upon 
thcmfkves, was not ceftoinly known. But I have.thisreafon to believe 
the lattet : becaufe for one woman that dyed, -there were ten men 5 
and the men were the greater deboyftes. ' 

In this (ad time^we arriv'd in this Ifland^and it was d doubt whether 
this difeafe, or famine threatned moft 5 There being a general fcdrcity 

of Viduals throughou 

t t 

he whole iQand. 

Our intention at&O:, was not to ftay long there, biit onely to fell 
our Goods, Cattle, andHorfes, and fo away to y^»^/^/74 5 where we 
intended to plant : but the (hips being (for the itioft part) infeded 
with this difeaf^, and our felves bting unprovided of hands for a 
new Plantation ('by reafbnof thenifcarryingofafhip, which fet out 
before us from r/zw/?;///^, a month before, with men vidlruals, and all 
utcnfils fitted for a Plantation^^we were compelled to ftay longer in the 

G Ifland 



I - 


A True and ExiiB Hifiory 

-^- *-- 

\vas configiied 

Ifland than we intended. Beildes^ the Hiip we cime in, 

to another ^a^t'm Africa^ called Cut chew. ^xotV2idQ for Negroes, 

But during the time of our flay dicrCj we made enquires offbMe j 
''fmall Plantation to reil us on^ till the times became betterp and Btter 
for our remove; with intent to make uft of thofe few hands we 




had , to fettle that^ till we had fupplies ^ and new dii-edions from 
And fo upon difcourfe with fbme of the , mofl knowing men 6i 


■ the Iflandj we found that it was far bettcrp for a rnan that had money ^ 
, goodsj or Credit, topurchale a Plantation there ready furniQul^ ami 

■ ftockt with ServantSjSIaves^HorfeSaCattlejAlIinigoeSjCamelSjd^c. with 
a Sugar work, and an Ingenio; than to begin upon a place^ where land 
is to be had for nothing, buta trivial'Rentj and to indure all hard- 
{hips, and a tedious expeftation 5 of what profit orpleafure may arife. 

in many years patience : and that, not to be expedcd , without large 

.. ilnd frequent fupplies from EngUnd'-^dLwd. yet fare^and labour hard. This 

! knowledge, was a fpur to fet on Colonel Aiodiford^ who had both 
;-goods and credit, to make enquiry for fuch a purchafe^ which in ve- 

ry few dayes he lighted on ^ making a vilit to the Governour 
I Mr. PhiUjp Belly met there with Major PVilUam Hilliard , an eminent 
Planter of the Ifland, and a Counccllor, who had been long there, and 
was now defirous to fuck in fome of the Iweet air o^ England * And 
glad to find a man likely to perform with him^ took him home to his 
houfe, and began to treat with him^fbr half the Plantation upon which 


V -_ 


he lived 3 which had in it 500 Acres of Land,with a fair dvVelling hcufe, 
jan Ingenio pi ac'd in a room of 400 foot fquare , a boyling houfe^ 

filling room, Cifterns, and Still-houfe^ withaCardinghoiile, of loo 
foot long, and 40 foot broad 3 with ftables. Smiths forge, dnd rooms 
to lay provifionSjofCorn^andBonavift^ Houfcs for Nt'^r^^ex and Indian 
\ (]aves,with 96 Negroes^ and three Indian womenj with their Children 3 

28 Chriftians, 45 Cattle for work, SMilchCows^ a dozen Horfcs and 
Mares', 16 Aflinigoesi 

After a Months treaty, the bargain wds concluded, and Colonel 

Afodiford was to pay for the Moity of this Plantation,7ooo /. to be pay- 

jed, 1000/. in hand, the reft 2 000 /. a time, at ^x and fix months, 

and Cq\otl&\ Modjford to receive the profit of half the Plantation 

fls it rofe, keeping the account together ^ both of the expcnce and 

•profit.' : : 

, In this Plantation of 500 Vres of land, there was imployed forfugar 
fome what more than 200 acres, above 80 acres forpafture, 120 for 
wood, i?o for Tobacco, 5 for Ginger, as many for Cotton wool,and 70 
acres for provifions 5 viz. Corn, Potatoes,PIantines,CafIavie, and Bona- 
vifl:^' fome few.acresof which for fruit 3 wz,. Pines, Plantines,Milions, 

j Bonanoes, Gnavers, Water Milions, Oranges,LirRon Limes, &c, moft 
of thefe onely for the table. , . 

Upon this Plantation I lived with thefe two partners a while. But 
vyith Colonel AWz/cr^ three years 3 for the other went for £w^/rfW, 
and left Colonel Mo diford to m^indge the imployment alone i and I to 
give what afnftance I could for tlic benefit of both : which I did,partly 
at their requeftsjand partly at thcindance ofMi\Thof^ias Ketidal^who 
rcpofcd much confidence in me, in cafe Colonel Modiford thould mif^ 
carry in the Voyage, 



of the Ijland ^/Barbadoes. • •25 

of that, till I bring in the Plants ^ where you Qiall, find not only the 
colour, (hapCjand quaUty of this Plantj but the worth and value of it, 
together the whole procels of the great work of Sugar making , 
which is the thing I mainly aim at /But, in my way to that, I will gfve 
you a fleight dcfcription or view, of the Ifland in general ; and firft^ of 

the Scituation . 

- It were a crime, not to believe, but that you are well vers'd in the 
knowledge of all parts of the known habitable world, and I fhall 
(eem impertinent, if I go about to inform you of the (cituation of this 
Ifland. But, becau(e there have been fome difputes between Seamen, 
whether it lye in bare 1 3 Degrees, or in 13 Degrees and 30 Minutes, 
I fhall eafily be led by the moft voices, of the moft able Seamen , to 
give for granted, that Carlijle Bay^ which is the Harbour where moft of 
them put in, is 13 Degfces and 30 Minutey from the Line, to the Nor- 
thern Latitude. -»H 

This Bay is, without exception, the beft in the Ifland, and is fbme- 
whatmorc than a league over 5 and fi-om the points of Land to tlie 
bottom of the Bay, is twice as much. 

Upon the moft in ward part of the Bay , ftands the Town, which 
is about the bignefs oCHot/f/Jlo^ and is called the Bridge ^ for that a long 
Bridge was made at firft over a little nook of the Sea, which was rather 
a Bog than Sea. ' " ' 

A Town illlcifuate 5 for ifthey hadconfidered health, as they did 



conveniency, they would never have fet it there, or, ifthey had any 
intention at firft, to have built a Town there, they could not have 
been (b improvident, as not to forefee the main inconveniences that 
muftenfue, by making choice of fo unhealthy a place to live in* But, 

one houfe being fet up, another was erefted , and (b a thlrd/and d 
fourth, till at laft it came to take the name of a Town 5 Divers Store-^ 
houfes being there btiilt, to ftow their goods ia, for their conveni-^ 
ence, being near the Harbour. But the main overiight was, to build 
their Town upon (b unwholfbme ^ place. For, the ground being fbme- 

what lower within the Land, than the Sea-banks are, the fpring Tides 
fiowover, and there reniains, making* a great part of that flat, a kind 
of Bog or ^jgr^afIs . which ventTout (b loathlbme a favour, as cannot 
but breed ill blood, and is (no doubt) the occafion of much ficknefs 

#^ H ^A ;^^ 

to thofe that live there. _ 

At the time of our arrival, aftd a month or two after , the (icknefs 
raigndfbextreamlyjas the living could hardly bury the dead j and for 
that this place was near to them, they threw the dead carcafes into the 
bog, which infededfb the water, as divers that drunk of it wereahfb- 
lutely poyfbned, and dyed in few hours after , but others, taking warn- 
ing by their harms, forbear to tafte any more of it. 

The ground on either fide the Bay, ( but chiefly that to the Eaft- 
ward) is much firmer,and lies higher 5 and, I believe, they will in time, 
remove the Town upon that ground, for their habitations, though they 
fufFer theStore-houfesto remain where they are, fortheir con venience. 
But the other fcituation,may be made with fbme charge as convenient 

as that, and abundantly more healthfol. 

Three Bay es there are more of note in this Ifland 3 <5ne, to the Eafl- 

ward of this, which they call Auftins Ba/^ not in commemoration of 
any Saint, but of a wild mad drunken fellow, whofe lewd and extra- 

H • vacant 




True and ExnU Htfiory 



made him infiimous in the Ifland 5 and his PMnta 

The other tw( 

ftanding near this Bay, it was called by his name. 

o the Wcfl: o^CarMe Bay 5 and the lirft is called Mackfields Bajf^ the 

other Spikes Bay 

but neither oFthefe three are environed with Land 

I/JIc Bajis : but being to the Leeward of the Iflandj and good 
Anchorage, they feldom are in danger 5 unlefsin the time o^Turnado^ 


when "the wind 

about to the South 3 and then, if they be 

' ' 

The Length 


well moor'd, they are fubjeft to fall foul on one another, and ibme- 
timcs driven aground. For, the Leeward part of the Ifland being rather 
flielvy than rocky, they feldora or never are cafl a\vay. 

The length and breadth of this Ifland, I rauft deliver you only upon 
truft 3 for, I could not go my felf about it, being full of other bufinels 
but I had fbme fpeech with the antienteft , and moft knowing Sur- 
vcycr there , oile Captain Srvan , who told me, that he once took an 
exad plot of the whole Ifland, but it was commanded put of his hands 
by the then Governour, Sir HcKf'y Hunks^ who carried it into England 3 
fince which time^, neither himlelf, nor any other, to his knowledge, 
had taken any 3 nor did he believe, there was any extant.I defired him 
yet that he would rub up his memory, and take a little pains in the 
fiirvey of his Papers, to try what could be found out there ,that might 
give me fome light in the extent of the Ifland , which hepromifcd to 
do ; and within a while after, told me , that he had found bv fbme 

that lay fcattered in his Study, the length of it 3 but for the 

by reafon of the n^oks and corners 


bread til 

that reach'd out into the Sea, lb that it muft of heceflity be broad 




(bme places, and narrow in others. I dedred then 
many miles the broa d eftjand liQvy fcvt^ the narroweft parts might be.He 
toldfrfe, that he guefs'd the broadcft place could not be above (even- 
teen miles, nor the narrowefi: under twelve 3 and that the length, he 
afliired, v/as twenty eight miles* Out of thefe uncertain grounds 

was a hard matter to conclude upon an) 

arid therefore 

It. was u. udi u iiitiLLCi lucuuciuuc upunau^' cciluuilic^ 3 auu uiereiore 

the evenefl way I can go, is, upon a Medium , between twelve and 


and, I will be as mod eft as I can in my comput 


take but 14. which is lefs than the Medium ^ and multiply 14. which 
is fiippofcd to be the breadth, 28* which is afliired to be the lengthy 
and they make 292 (quare miles in the Ifland. _^Beyond this, my en- 
quiries could not reach, and therefore was compelled to make my efti- 

upon this bare SuppQfit 

But, for the form of the Superfi 

of the Ifland, I am utterly ignorant 3 and for the Upright,! have 
given it you in my lirft view of the Ifland, that it rifes higheft in the 


When the Sun is in the AqninoU 

within I o Degrees of either 

fide, we find little change in the dayes length, for at fix and fix the Sun 
lies and lets .• but when he isjpear the Tropick of C^pr/c^r«,anc[ is 57 

" ' ^ fbrthen^ the day is fcmewhat 

Degrees from 

find a d ifFere 

fliorter,and we perceive that fhortning, to begin about the end of 0<5^ 

the Crepujcukm being then iK)t much longer than at other times 


which is not half the length 

with us m EmUfid 

At the time of new Moov^ we find both her Corners equally higt, 

3 but when it is at the diftance of j^/'Degrees 
, . .find Ibme difference 3 for then it hangs not Co 

!?r 1 : _ ^ °^^ ^"^^ ^^ ^^S^e^ t^^" the other, by reafon of the pofition 


hen the Sun . 
> the Southward 

we are in. 

Eight months of the year,the weather is very hot^yet not Co fcalding, 
but that fervaiits^ both Chriftians.and flaves,labour and travel ten hnnri 

a day. 

As the Sun rlfes. there arifes with him cool br 



the higher and hotter the Sun (hines^the flronger and cooler the breezed 
are^ and blow alwayes from theNoreEaft, and by Eaft, except in the 
time of the Tuirnado : And then it fometimes chops about into the 
South, for an hour or two, and th^n returns again to the lame point 
where it was. The other four months it is notfcJ hot, but is nc;u: the 
temper oftheairin EfjgUijd^ in the middle of JWU;, and though in tht 
hot leafons we fweat much,- yet we do not find that faintnefs, that we 
find here, in the end of7«/r, or begiriniffg oCAuguft. With this great 
heat,there is fuch a moifture^as mufl: ofneceffity caufe the air to be very 
Unwholfbme. ' > . 

We are feldom dry or Ihirfty, unle(s we overheat our bodies with 
fitraordinary labour , or drinking ftrong drink^j as of our Englifi 


the Ifland 

carry ovej, o£ French Brandy , 6f'the drink of 
hich is made of the skimmings of the Coppers, that boyl 
theSugar^ which they call kill-Devil. And though fome of thefc be 
needful if they be ufed with 'temper , yet the iihinoderate Ufe of them, 
over-heats the body, which caufes Coftivcnels , and Tortions in the 
bowels^ which is a difeafe vety frequent there , and hardly ciir'd, and 
of which many have dyed , but certainly ftrong drinks are very 


where (bmuch heat 

for the fpirits being exhaufted with 

much fweating, the inner parts are left (fold ind faint : and (hall need 

cdrhfbrtirig, and reviving. Befides 

colder Clj 

and (prightlinefs we have in colder Climates 

bodies having been iifed 

find a debility, and a great failing id the vigoui^ 


blood too, i^ thin 

and paler than in our own Countreys. Nor is the meat Co well 
rclifli'd as in England 5 but flat and infipid, the hogs flefh onely ex- 
cepted, whighisindeedthebefl of that kind that I think is in the 


This moifture of the aii^ , 'cdufe^ all dtir Knives , Etweefe 

Qur Horles and Cattle feldom drink, and wheii they do, it is in very 
finall quantities 5 except fuch as have their bodies over heated with 

Needles, Swords^ and Anlfmittitibn, X6 tuft , and that in an inftant for 
take your knife to the grindftdne, and grind* S^jr all the ruft, 
which done, wipe it dry, and put it up intd yo'ut ftieath, arid (b 

ydur pocket, and in a very little tirtte, drdw it dut 5 andydu ftiall find 

mning to ruft 

hich in more tinie, Will eat deed 

the fteel, and fpoil the blade. Our locks too, that are not often 
made ufe of^ will ruft in the wards, and Co become ufelefs, and Clocks, 
and Watches will feldome or never go true \ and all this occafion'd 
by the moiftnels of the Air. And this we found at fcM : for before 
we came near this Ifland, we perceiv'd a kind df weather , which is 
neither rain nor mift, and contii 

ued with us fbiiietimcs four 


d ayes together, which the Seamen call a Hey ley weather, andrifesto 
filch a height, as though the Sun (hine out bright 5 yet we cannot fee 
his body, till nine a clock in the morning, nor after three in the after- 
clear : a dole and very 


And we lee the sky over our heads 

unhealthfiil weather, and no plealure 

H 2 




tnre of the 





A True and Exa 

How 'WatC' 
red. ' 


f \ 




" rf 




This great heat and moifture together, is certainly the occafion 
that the trees and plants grow to fuch vaft height , and largeneli as 

they are. ' . . 

There is nothing in this Ifland fb much wanting", as "Springs and Ri* 

vers ofwaterj there being but very few, and thofe very (mall and in- 

conGderable. 1 know but only one River , and that may rather be 

term'd a Lake^than a River jThe Springs that run into itjare never a ble 

to fill it,they are lb fmall 5 out iall to Sea it has none 5 but at fpring tides 



the Sea comes in and fills it , and at Nepe tides, it cannot run out 

I again, theSea banks being higher than it. But fomeofit ifllies out 

through the Sands, and leaves behind it a mixt water, of frefh and 

lalt : at the time the tide comes in, it brings with it fbme fi{hes,which 

lare content to remain there ^ being better plealed to live in this mixt 

Vater, tlian the Salt. QoXon^i Humphrey Walrond ^ who is owner of 

the land of both fides, and therefore of it 5 has told me , that he has 

taken fiihes there, as big as Salmons , which have been overgrown 

with fat, as you have {een Porpifcesj but extrcamly fweet and 


But it has not been often, that (uch fiih, or any other, have been 
taken in that place^ by reafonthc whole Lake is filled with trees and 







So that no N<;^ can be drawnjnor any Hook laid , for they will wind 
the lines about theroots,and/bgetaway5 or the lines break in pulling 

up, being iaflned to the roots 

This River^or ^>ake>reaches not withi» the Land above twelve (core 
yards, or a fSght (hot at moft 5 ^d^hereis no part of it fb broad, but 
y^ou may caft a Coy te over it. 

The Ipr jng^idcs there, feldom riie above four or five foot upright: 

ther^ come from the fea in tpthefelmall bibling rivolets^ little Lob- 

fjers, but wanting the great d2iVf% afore , which are the fweeteft and 

fulleftoffifti, that I havcfeens C hichefierLdbOicxs are not to be c 
pared to them. 


But the water which the people of thislfland mofV relye upon , is 
rain water 3 which they keep iii ponds, that have defcents of ground 
10 them, (bthat whatfalls on other ground , may run thither. And 
the place in Which the Pond is (et, muft be low, and clay in the bot- 
tom : or if it be not naturally of Clay, it muft be made lb. For if it 
find any Leak to the rocky part, it gets between thole clifts, and finks 
in an inftant. About the end of December^ thefe ponds are fill'd , and 

with the help it hath by the weekly (howiS that fall, they continue fb, 
yet fbmetimes they feel a want.This pond Water,they ufe upon all ooca- 
lions^^nd to all purpoles 5 to boyl their meat, to make their drink , to 
wafh their linnen, for it will bear Ibap. But one thing feem'd to me a 
little loathfome, and that was the Negroes walhing themlelves in the 
gonds^in hot vveather 3 whofe bodies have none of the fweetefit favours. 
But the PJanters are plcafed to lay, that the Sun with his virtual heat, 
draws up all noifome vapours, and Co thcwaters become ratified, and 
pure again. But it was a great latisfadion to me,that a little Rivulet was 

near us, from whence we fetcht daily, as much as ferved us^both for 
meat, and drink. 

In thefe ponds^j l have never (een any (mall fi(h,fry,or any thing that 
lives or moves in it, except fome flies that M into it 5 but the wa- 

, ter 




d well taflcd 

I [land (^/Barbaddes 

And becnuf( 


Cattle (hall 


\\\ iiiingcr oFmiringor drowning, the befl Husbands rail in a part o^ 
thePgnii, where it is of a competent depth, for the water to ftand 



the bottom with fto 

d fb the Cattle ncithei 

raUe the mud, nor fink m With their feet ; dnd fo the w^ter comes clea 
tQ them. . 

. Water they niVclikeWife from thdirhdufts, by gutter^ at the 
which carry it down to cifterns. And the water wliich is kep^ ^ 

within the limits of their houfes, many of which are built 


per of Fortifications, and have Lines, Bulwarks, and Baftionsto defend 

fe there fhould be any uproar dr commotion in the 

(crvcs thenl 
down upon the 



Illand, ^ithefby theChriftianfcrvants ,' or Negfd 

fur drink whilft they are Befieged, asalfo, td tl 

mked bodies of the Negrdcs, fcalding hot 5 which is as go6d a defc 

againft their underminings, as any other weapons',' ,:.: 

Ifmiy tumult ordifdrder be in the liland, the il^ict neighbour to it 
difcharges a Mufquet,which gives the Alarum to the whole lOand 5 for 
Upoil the report of that the ncxtfhodts,aildfothenrxt, and next, til 
it gii through the Ifland: Upon which warning^'thcv make ready 

d, which is accounted the ftafF 

main fupporter of mans Meat, 


lif^, basnothei'ethatfulltafteithasin£«^/^;;<^3 but'yct they account 
it nourilhing and ftrengthening. It is made of the root of a fmall tree !>?/' 



thrubj vvhich they call CAjJ. 

the manner of his growth I 


tiU I come to fpeak of Trees and Plants in g 
Hlll'oot only, which we are now tdconfidcr, (becaufeour bre^d is 
mad? ©fit) is large and round, like the body dfafm'all Still or retort j 
mida§ we gatherit, we cut fticks that grow nearefttoit , of the fame 
XT%% which we put into the ground, and they grow. And as we ga- 
ther^ vveplant. This root, before it conle to be edteh, fliffers a ftrarlge 
eonvcrlion^ fdr, being an abfolutepoyfon when 'tis gathered, by gddd 
Ordfringo comes td be wholfoni and nourilhing^ and the manner of 
doing It, is this : They wafli the out fide of the rooi: clean, and le^tl it 

ifta Wheel , whofe fbleis about afoot broad, and covered with 


Lm\% made rough hke a large Grater. The Wieel to be turned 

about with" a foot, as a Cutler turns his*' Wheel, And ^as it grates th- 
root, It falls down in a large Ti'dUgh, which is the receivei: appoirtttd 
&r that purpofe. This root thus grated, is as'rank poyfbti^ as can be 
madyby the art of an Apothecary, of the'itloft venonious fimples' he 

put together : but bctng^put intoaftVong piece of double Canv 

loth, ahdprcfs'dhard, thatallthcjuice befqueczed out, and 

ready to make 


then opened upon a cIoath> and iiry^dih the Sun 
brtadt And thus 'tis donel'^'^'^' ' .d 






piece of Irdri, which' i guefs 4s cJaft rcmnd, th^dia 

flitter df which, is about'twenty inchd?, a little holldwed in the niid 
dk» not unlike the mo^uld that the Speftaclc^iriakers grinde tlld 

k% oil, but not /o much cdhcavc as that ^^ abdut half an inch thick 
atthabrim or verge, but thicker towards the middle^ with three feet 
like a pot, about fix inches high , that fire may be underncathi To 
flich a temped they heat this Porte 5 (as they call it;} as to bake , but 

not b 

When 'tis made thus hot, i)^cf}idihn. ^tth 


tuakeiti bccaufe they arebeftacquaintedHvithitj rcaftthe raealupon 
the Pooe, the whole breadth of it, and put k down with their hand 










t ^ 


True and Exati Hifiory 


and it will prefently ftick together .* And wjhen they think that Cidc al- 
rnoft enough, withathing likeaCattlc-dore^thcy turn the other ^ and 
fb turn and re-turn it fb often, till it be enough, which is prefently 
done. So they lay this Cake upon a flat board, and make another^and 
Co another, till they have made enough for the whole Family. This 
bread they made, when v/e came firft there, as thick as a pancake 5 but 
after that, they gi'ew toa higher degree of curiofity ^ and made it as 
thin As a wafer, and yet purely white and crifp, as a new made wafer. 
Salt they never ufe in jt^whichl wonder at 5 for the bread being tafle- 
lefs of it (el^ they ftould give it fome little (eafbning. There is no way 
it eats fb well, as in milk, and there it taftes like Almonds, They offer 
make Pye^cruft, but very few attain to the skil of that j for, as y 



work it up with your hand, or roll it out with 

will alwa} 

crackle and chop,fb that it will not be raifed to hold any liq 
with, nor without, butter or eggs* 

But after many tryals, and as often failings, at' laft, I learnt the fe- 
cret of an htdian woman, who fhe w'd me the right way of it, and that 
was, by (earfing it very fine, (and it will fall out as fine, as thefincfl: 
wheat-flower mEngUnd) if not finer. Yet,, this is not all the fecret , 
for all this will not cure the cracking. But this Is the main skill of the 




this fine flou 

Set water on the fire in a skillet, and pU 

much of 

temper it to the thicknefs of ftarch or pap , and 

let it boy I a little, keeping it ftirring withaflice 3 and mix this with 
the m.i/Icof flower you mean to make into -^ye-cruft , which being 
very well mingled, and Wrought together, you may add what cofl you 
will of butter and eggs, and it vy ill rife atid (land near as well as our 
paft in £;7{jAfW. _ - '- -' ,,. , . 

. Buttho/c that hiivc not Cows,and cannot make butter u jx)n the place, 
but.rrufl make ufcoffuch as is brought from Ea/^/4//^ or H^/z^^^W, were 
better leave it c}ut,and be <^p^tent to eat their pye-cntfl dry* Yet I make 


difference, bet ween butter that is brought from either of thofe 
in relpeO: of the times it is brought* For, ifa (hip fet out from 

E»gl4p4ixx;'N'07}emher^ and that fhip arriyje at the Barhadoes at the mid- 

Ak^m nc2ivt]m'tnAo£Decemkr^ when the Sun is at the far theft di- 

ftapce, the butter may come thither in very good condition j and being 

places,iiiay retain the tafte for a while:But,if the fhip fet 


Spring or Summers that brings this butter 


foicftie and loathibme. Nor can Cheefe be brought from 
thenee without (poyI,at th^t tin)Q,Qftht^;)Lear,except you put it in oyl. 
^k'ither ai-e Candles to be brought, for the whole barrel will ftick to- 
getherinoftelumpj^andftink Co profoundly, as neither Rats nor Mice 
will come near them, much lefseat of them*- For which reafbn, the 

much troubled with, this annoyance*, as alio, for that 


thefe candles cannot be taken out of the barrel whole, nor will ftaud 
in the band jeftijck without drooping, and hanging dowa^ thev burn 
ftl£theinoft part wax lights, which they make themfelves, of wax they 
fetch fro^ Afriva^ and havfe it at a reafpnable rate,^ there being no Bees 



;. But I am too apt to fly out in extrajvagant digrcflions $ lor, the 
thing Ivy em tofpeakog w^s bJiead only, anxl the feveral kinds of it 5 
in4 having i^itl^much of the bri2:id o( C afavk SiS I know, I willgive 

'""■' '""^ "" ""anothcf k inU, 16 f^ bread ihcy make,, which is a 



ord of 



e Ifldnd of oarhndoes. 





mixt fort of bread, and is made of the flower o^AUycs and Cajfavic mixt 
together 5 for the i/y-cj it (elf will make no bread, it is lb cxtrcam 
heavy and lumpifli .* But thefe two being mixt, they iriake it into Urge 

Cakes, two inches thick 5 and that, in myopinion^ taftestheJikeftto 
Efiglipj bread of any. " ' " . ^ 

But the Negroes ufe the Af./^ej another way^ which is, toafling the 
cars of it at the fire, and Qi eating it warm offthe car. And we have 
a way, to feed our Chriftian fervants with this AUyes^ which is , by 

I pounding it in a large Morter, and boyling it in water, to the thick- 
nefs ofFruaienty ; aridfb put in a Tray fuch a quantity, as wilKerve a 
me(s of fevcn or eight people 5 give it them cold, and fcarce afford 

1 them fak wiih it. This we call Loh-loUjei But the Negrdcs^ when they 
come to be fed with this, are much difcontented, and cry out, 0\o\ 

nomoreLoh'Ub. , 

The third fort of bread tVe ufe , is only* Potatoes , which are cho- 

ienout of thedryeft and largeft they can choofe *• And atrhetime vve 



firft came, theire Was little ejfeufed, at many good Pknters Tables in 
theliland.- And thefe are all the (brts of bread that I know growing 
upon the place* 

The next thing that comes in order, is Drink, which being n1adejZ?r/niL<?f 
of feveral materials, afford more variety in the defcription. The | Mobbie. 
firft, and that which is mofl ufed in the Illand, is Mohbk^ a drink made 
of Potatoes, and thus done. Put the Potatoes into a tub ofwater,^nd, 
with a broom, ftir them up and down, till they are wafln clean 5 then 
take them out, and put therrt into a large iron or brafspot, (iich as 
you boylbeef in, m England --, dnd put to them as much water, as will 
only cover a quarter part of them 3 and cover the top o£ the pot with 
a piece of thick canvas: doubled, orfiich cloth as facts are made with, 
covering itclofe, that the fleam go not out. Then make a little fire 
Vinderncath, fb much only as will caufe thefe roots to ftew 3 and when 
they are fbft, take them out, and with your hands, (queeze, break, and 
mafh them very fmall, in fair water 5 letting them ftay there, till the 
water has draw^ and fiickt out all the Ipirit of the roots 5 which will 
be done in an hour or two. Then put the liquor and roots into a 
large woollen bag, like a jelly-bag, pointed at the bottom 5 and let 
it run through that, into a Jar, and within two hours it will begin to 
work. Cover it , and let it ftand till the next day, and then 'tis fit to 
be drunk. * And as you will have it flronger or fmaller, put it\ greater 
or lefler quantities of roots ^ fbmemake it fo flrong, as to be dtunk 
with fmall quantities. But the drink it felf, being temperately made, 


doesnotatallfly up into the head, but is a fprightly thirft-quenching 
drink. If it be put up in fmall casks, as Rundlets, or Firkins,it will lafl 
four or five ^ayes good, ^nd drink much more fprightly than out of 
the Jar. I cannot liken it to any thing fb near, as Rhemfi-rpwe m the 
•Muft, but it'is fhortofitinthe fltengthofthe fpifit, and finciJcfs of 

ftietafte, ' T . ' '" ^^ ; ■ ■ ' 

There are tvvofcveraf layers, iti which thefe roots grow 3 one 
makes the skirt^of the Potatoes white, the other red : And where the 
redrootsgrowi th^Mobbie^ will be red like C/^r^/-iP/f/e , the other 




Though thisbethedtink rhof^ generally ufed in the Ifland^ yet I 
cannotcorfimendthewholfomnefiof it^ for, the moflp^rt of the 

I 2 




. t 







•^ ^ _■_____ - ^ - 

7>^(? ^//^ jExrff^ HifiDry 

have a moift quality, in them, and arc the c:auI^ of Hydropick 
mours. Mr. rhillip ^ J/, then the Governour of the Ifliihdj told me 

when he was Governour of the Ifle of Trovide 

there chane'd 

(bme Spaniardr to land there, andtafting of this drinkjWqndrcd th 

any of thofe that continually drink 
Hydropick he conceived this drink to be 

Another drink they have which is 
though hot altogether fb pleafint. and tli 


fb unvvholfome flfld 

d riluch whoifoffler 
m ; a drink Vvhieh 


the/WM/// make for their own drinking, and is made of the Crf/^irt^ 
root, which I told you is a ftrong poyfon 5 and this they caufe theif 
old wives, who have afinall remainder of teeth, to chaw and(pit.0Vlt 
into water, (for the better breaking and macerating of the root). This 
juyce in three or four hours will work , and purge it felf of the poy- 

(bnous quality. 

Having (hewed you, in the making of Bread, thdt the itioyft 

ing prefs'd out,which is accounted the poyfbnous quality that root Ma^ 

d baking it is made ufefiil and wholfbme j and na' 

drying ar 
having the juyce and root both ufed, and both thefe put 
which is moift, I know not which way to reconcile theft dire(^ eon= 
traries, but this 3 that the poyfon of the old womens breath and tetth 
having been tainted with many feveral poxes , (a difeafb coffiffiOfl 
amongft them, though they hay»^ many and thebeft cures for it,) arg 
filch oppofites to the povfbn of the CrfjK?zj, as they bend their foreti 

(b vehemently 

qualities in that 

ainft another, as they both fpend their poyf( 
id; and fo therelift of them both; becomes kfl 

unwholfome 5 and the water, which is in it felf pure, caftsout the re- 
mainder of the ifl qualities they.l^avc behind .-j which ismanifefied by 
the extraordinary working, which isfhrbeypnd that of Beef^ Wine 3 
Sider with us in Europe, This drink wiljkeep a month or two, b 

put into barrels, and taftes the likeft to £«g/f/j beer of any drink we 

have there 

ve there. > " " ; ■ 

Gr/pptf is a third, fort of .drink, but few make it well 3 it wa5 tievtr 

my chance to tafle it, which made me the lels 
after it, 



h is a fourth fort, and ofthat I have drunk 


to enquire 



d fugar put toge ther, which in ten dayes ftanding will be very (Iron 




and fit for labourers 

_ A fifth, is made of wild Plumbs, which grow here in g 
dance, upon very large treesj> which being prefs'd, and ftrayncd , give 
Very (liarp, and poynant flayer 5 but the 

much of 


becaufe of the trouble of making it, and the}' are not there very indul 


gent to their palafts 


But the drink of the Plaot 

far beyond ail thefes gath 

them full ripe, and in the height of their fweetnefs 

we pill 


skin, and mafli them in water well boy I'd 5 and after we have let theffl 
flay there a night, wcfbrainit, and bottle it up, and in a week drittk 
it; and it is very flrong and pleafant^dyinkj but it is to be drunk but 
fpariiigly, for it is much ftrongcr than Sackg and is apt to mount up into 
the headi 

The feventh fort o^ d 

that we make of the skimitiing of fll 

gar, which is infinitely flrong, but not very plcafant in tafte ^ it is com* 
mon, and therefore the lefs cflecm'd^ the value ofit is half a Crown 

.1 ^ ^ 





Iflditd ofBdrbadoes. 


a gallon, the people drink much of it, indeed too much 5 for it often I 
layes them ailecp on tlie ground^ and that is accounted a very unwhol- 

(bme lodging;. 

The eighth fort of drink is Beveridge, made of (faring water , white 
JQigar, and juyce of Oranges, and this is not onely plealant but vvhol- 

The laftand beft fortof driiik that this Iflandor the world affords, 

is the incomparable wine of Pines 5 And is certainly the Nedar 

which the Gods drunk $ for on earth there is none like it 5 and that is 

triade of the pure juyce of the fruit it (hlf, without commixture of 

water^ or any other creature^ having in it felf , a natural compound 

of all taftes excellent^ that the world can yield. This drink is too 

pure to keep long 5 in three or four dayes it will befine 5 'tis niade 

by prcffin^ the fruit and draining ' the liquor , and it is kept in 

Havi ng given you a tafte of the Bread and Drink this Ifland af- 



Wine of 



which will ferve any mans palatd 3 that 

over curious j I 

xouldtell you what we have of both forts that is brought to us froni 
other parts of the world 5 as Biskets, both fine and courle. Barrels of 
meal dole put up 3 which comes to us very fweer from EtigUnd^ and 
Holland 5 of which we make Bread, Pye-cruft^and Puddings. And for 

drink, good En^hjl) Beer 

h and SpaniJIj Wines, with others,fbrae 

firom the Maderas^ fomefrom Fiall^ one of the Iflands of^ 

juftly complain of 


igldnd^ Sp 

either of bread or drink, and, from 
fome of Annileeds , fome of Mint> Ibme of Worm- 
wood, c^c. • And from France^, Brandy ^ which is extrearri ftrong, but 
Accounted very wholfome. 

Having given you a juft account, as near as my memory Will fc 

of the bread and drink of this Ifland 


forts of meat we have there j and becaufeHogs flefh is the moft g 
ralmeat, and indeed the beft the Ifland affords, I will begin with 
that, which is (without queftion) as good, as any can be ofthatkind: 
for their feeding being as good, as can grow any where, thefleflimuft 
needs be andverablc 5 fruit, the nuts of Locuft, Pompians ofa rare kind, 
almoft as fweet as Milions, the bodies of the Plantines, andBonanoes, 
Sugar-canes, and Mayes, being their daily food. 

When we came firft upon the Ifland, I perceiv'd the fties they made 

trees, with the ends lying crois upon one another, 

large enough to hold the! 

diftance to play 

to hold them 

and the incloiure they mad 

numbers of Hogs were in them , with 

andftir themfelves for their health, and pleafurcj fo that they 
in a manner pefter'd, and choakt up, with their own ftink , which 
fure the moft noyfome of any other beaft^and by reafon of the Suns heat 
much worle 5 1 have (melt the ftink of one of thoft fties down the wind 3 

mile, through all the wood : and the crowding and thrufting 

them fo clofc tbgeth 

nly the caufe of their want of health 

which much hindred their growth 5 So that they were neither fo larg 
nor their flefh fo fweet, as when they were wild , and at their own 

liberty, and choice of feeding. 

For I have heard Major Hill/ard (ay : that at their firft coming 
there , they found Hogs, that one of them weighed (the intrals be- 
ing taken out, and the head off^ 400 weight. And now at the time of 

thing is the feveral ^^^^' 


h B 

f .^ ^— 




A True and Exd& Hijiory 

my being there^ the mofl fort of thofe , that 


ghbours ftyes, were hardly (o big as the ordinary fwine in England 

So finding this decay in their growth^ by ftovving them too clctfe to- 
gether, I advifed Collonel Modiford to make a larger ftye, dnd to wall 
it about with ftone , which he did, and made It a mile about, fothat 
it was rather a Park than a Stye 5 and fet it on the fide of a dry Hill , 
the greatcft part Rock, with a competent Pond of water in the bot 

torn ; 

and plac'd it between h 

Plantations, that 'from either. 

food might be brought, and caft over to them, with great conveni- 
ence: And made feveral divifionsin the Park, for the Sowes with Pig, 
with little houfcs {landing ftielving,that their foulnefs by gutters might 
fall avvay,and they lye dry 5 Other divifionsfottheBarrovV-Hogs,and 

fbme fof Boar^. 

This good ordering caufed them to grow Co large and fat,as they 

I < 


ted very little of their largene(s when they were wild. The} 
the fweeteftflefh of that kind, that ever I tafted, and the lovlieft to 
look on in adifti, either boyl'd, roafted, or bak'd : With a little help 
of art. I will deceive a very good palate, with a (houlder of it for Mut- 
ton, or d leg for Veal, taking offthe skin, with which they were wont 
: to make minc't Pies, feafoning it with fait, cloves, and mace , and 
fbme fweet herbs minc'd. An d being bak'd , and taken out of the 
Oven, opening the lid , put in d dram-cup of Kill-DevH 5 arid being 

ftirr'd together, fet it dn the Tables and that they call'd aCalv^sfoot 

and, tiJJ rkneW what it was made of, I thought it very good 
meat : When I came firft upon the ifland , I found the Pork dr els'd the 

plain way es ofboyling, roalling, and fbmetimes baking : But I gave 
them fbme taftesof my Cookery, in hafhing, and fricafing thisflefh^ 
and they all were much taken with it 5 and in a week, evcryone'was 
pradifing the Art of Cooker} 

And indeed 

flelh tafles fo 

Collops, Halhcs, or Fricafes, as this. And when I bak*d it , I alwaj 
laid a Side of a young Goat underneath, and a fide of a Shot (which 

young Hog of a quarter old) 


And this, well feafoncd, and 

well bak'd^ 
ever I tafled 

good meat, asthebefl: Palty ofFallow-Deer^ that 

In the cooleft tirae of the' year, I have made an efliy to powd 
and hang it up for Bacon : But there is fuch lofs in't, as 




Husbandry to praftifeit , for, it muft be cut through in fo many pla 

the (alt in, as when Vis to be drcls'd, much goes to wafle 


therefore I made no more attempts that way. But a little corning with 
fait, makes this flcfli very favoury, cither boy led or roafted* 

, we kill a Boaf, and of the fides ofit, liiiike three 
four Collers of Brawn ; for then the weather is fb cooLas, with fbme 

About ChrifiK^as 


may be kept fweet a week : and to make the (buc't drink g 

the fpeedier and quicker fejlfbning, v;e make it o^Mohbie^ with flore^ 

ofSalt, Lemons, and Lymes, fliced 
gives it an excellent flaver 

ith fbme Ntitmeg, which 

Bcef^ we have very feldofflc :iny, that feeds lipon the foil of this 
place, except it be of Gods killing, (as they tcarmit)^ for very few 
are kill'd there by mens hands 5 it were too ill Husbandry, for they c^ofl 
too dear, and they cannot be fpared from their work , which they 
mufl advance by all the means they 

Such a Planter as Collo 

James Drax ("who lives like a Prince) may kill now and then 







but very few hi the Illand did fb when f was there. 

he next to Swines-fleQi ingoddncfs, are Turkies, large, fat, and 

Dunghill-fbul : and laft ofall 

full of gravyi Next to the 


hbehig larded with the £it of this Por 


ing feafbned with pepper and ialt) are an excellent b 
thefcj with their Eggs and Chickens, we cat. 

Turt'e-Doves they have of two forts, and both Very good meat 5 
but there is d fort of Pidgeons, which come from the leeward Iflands 

be part: 

of the yeai'j and it is in Septemb 


ad then return ag 

But Very many of them 

ftay tiWchriJimas 

maKe re- 

of the good fruit they found th 

(bfat, and of fuch excellent taftes 

For, they 

gunSj upon the trees 5 and foracofthemarefof 
thefalljdaulcs them to burft in pice 

many fowlers kill the 





are good roafted, boy I'd. 
bak'dj but beft cut in halves^ and ftcwed 5 to which Cookery, there 
needs no liquor^ for their own gravy will abundantly (erve to rtew 

Pvabbets we have, but t^rne bdeSj dnd they have but famt taftes^more 
like a Chicken than a Rabbet. ' 

And though they have divers other Birds, which I will not forg 


due times, and place 5 y 

for food for th 

Table, which is the bufinefs I intend at this prefent. Other flefli-meat 
I do not rememb 

Now for fifh, though the Illarid ftdnds as all Iflands do^ invironed 
with the Sea, (and therefore is not like to be unfurni(h'd' of thatpro- 
vifion) yet, the Planters are fb good husbands, and tend their profits 
fo much, i.s they will not {pare a Negroes abfence Co long 
tKe Bridge and fetch 

And the Fifherraen feeing their fi(h lye upon 

their hands, and ftink (which it will da in lefs than fix hours') forbear 

go to Sea to take 

nly fb much as they 

have prefen 

for, at the TaverujJ at the Brjdoc ; and thither the Planters come 

they h 

mind to feafl thenllelves with fith 

Mr. Johfc 

fis , or 

Joan Fullers^ where they have it well drefs'd 5 for they were both my 
Pupils. Butter they feldom have, that will beat thick, but in flead 
of that, weare fain to ufc vinegar and fptce, and much of it frycd in 

and eaten hot , and marinated, and fouc't in pickle, and 

cold. Collonel Humphrey Walrond has the advantage of all the 

Planters in thelfland j for, having a Plantation near the Sea, he hath 
of his own a Sain to catch fiih withall, which his own fervants and flaves 
put out to Sea, and, twice or thrice ^ week, bring home all forts of fuch 
fmalland great fiflies, as are near the fhoar 3 amongft which, fbmeare 
very large, and excellently well tafted. For, he being a Gentlemstn , 
tliat had been bred with much freedoms iiberty,and plenty, in England^ 
could not fet his mind fo earneftly upon his^ofit, as to forget his ac- 
cuflomed lawful pleafures, but would have his Table well furnifh'd, 
with all forts' of good meat the Land and Sea afforded^ and as freely 

bid his friends welcom 

And I 

the poorefl of his friend 


lingring ficJknefs, and near death, found fuch a charity with hini, as I 
(hall never forget to pay my thanks for, tothelaft hour of my lifcj and 
I fhali account it as a great happincfs, (if ever it fall in the compaftof 
my power) to be ferviceable to him or his, as any thing that can befall 

nie in the World 

K 2 





A True and ExdB Hiflory 

Amongll other fifhcs that were taken by bis Sa\n , ("as the Snap- 
pers, red and grey, Cayallos, Maciquercls, Mullets ^ Cony-filh ^ with 
divers others, firm and excellent fweetfilb) he took four, that were 
about a yard long at the leaft, all at one draught, and, to that length , 
bigger grown than Salmonds, of therareft colour that ever I beheld j 
from the back-finn, which is the middle of the fifli, to the end of the 
tail, the pureft gralle-green that ever I faw, and as Chining as Satin: 
but the fins and tail dapled or Ipotted with as pure a hair-colour, 
and from the back finn to the head, pure hair colour dapled ivith 
greeny the fcalesas bigforthemoft part, as a half-crown piece of 
filvcn This filhis no fifli of prey, but lives by what he finds in the bot- 
tom of the Sea, as I perceived by what was in his maw. An excellent 
fweetfiflis I drelTed them feveral wayes , and ail proved excellent* 
There is one fiQi wanting to this Ifland , whofe kindes are very fre- 
quent upon mofl of the c/.'^riZ>^^ and LHcaJck^ldaiids 3 and that is the 
green Tnrtk:, which is the beft food the Sea affords , and the greateit* 
ftoreof thcm^ but I havefeen very few of that kind mthe Barhadoes, 
and thofe neither fat nor kindly 3 and the reafbn is , there are no 

flielves nor jfands to lay their eggs , or to ayre themfelves on 


the(e fifhes delight to be on the iands, and can remain there twelve 
hours, all the time the Tyde is out, and then (ufFer thcmlelves to be 
carried away by the return of the next Tyde. They take infinite 
number's of them, by turning them on their backs with Haves, where 
they lye till they are fetcht away. A large Turtle will have in her bo- 

dy half a bufhel of eggs, which fhe layes in the land, and that being 
warm, thej' are hatcht in the heat, . 

When you are to kill one of thefe fifhcs, the manner is, to lay him 
on his back on a table, and when he fees ^ou come with a knife in' 
your hand to kill him, he vapours out the grievoufeft lighs, that ever 
you heard any creature make, and flieds as large tears as a Stag, chat 

has a far greater body, and larger eyes. He has a joynt or crevis,about 

an inch within theutmoft edge of his fhell, which goes roundabout 
his body, from his head to his tail, on his belly-fide 5 into which joynt 
or crevis, you put your knife, beginning at the head, and fb rip up 
that fide, and then do as much to the others then lifting up his belly, 
which v/e call his Calipee^ we lay open all his bowels, and taking them 
our, come next to his heart, which has three diftinft points, but all 
meet above where the fat is 5 and if you take it out, and lay it in a difti. 



IS no 

it will flir and pant ten hours after the fi(h is dead* 
I creature on the Earth, nor in the Seas, that enjoy es life with fb much 
) i\veetne{s and delight, as this poor fiih the Tnrtk 5 nor none more de- 
licate in tafte, and more nourifhiHg, than he. 

Next tothe flefti and fifti this'Iflaod affords, 'tis fit to confiderwhat 
^lelqjtechofes th.QXc avet^ be found ^ that may fervc to fiirnilh out a 
Tablcof filch Viands, as are there to be had 3 which are eggs feveraj 
wayes, -cmz. poch'd, and laid upon fippets of bread,foak'd in butter and 
jittce of limes, and fugar, with plumpt currans fire wed upon them , 
and Clovefi, Mace, and Cinamon beaten, ftrewed on that, with a little 
61t. Eggs boyl'd and roafted, fryed w ith Collops of the fat of Pork 
well powdered* Buttered eggs, an Amulet of eggs, with the juice of 
Limes and Sugar, a Froize, and a Tanley 3 Cuftards, as good as any at 
my Lord iMayors Table 5 Cheef cakes. Puffs, fecond Porrage^ which 






Ifl4nd (?f Bar 

is creatii boyl'dto a height, with yolk of eggs^and (eafon'd vvlthfugar, 
and fpice. Jelly which we make oftheflefh of young pigs, calves feet, 
and a cock, and is excellent good, but muftprefently be eaten, for it 
will not laft. Creanl alone, and fbnie done fcveral wayes, of which 
there is great variety, having Lemons, Lymes, dnd Oranges ready at 
hand, and ibnie wherein we put Plantines, Gnavers and BonanoeSj 
ftew'djOr prefer v'd with fugar, and the fame fruits alfo prefery'd and 
put in dillies by themfelves, without Cream j and for a whetftone^to pull 
on a cup of wine, we have dry ed Ncats tongues, brought frorii new and 
old England j and from Holland^ IVeftphafia Baconj'and Caviarejas alfo 
pickrd Herringjand MacqueireljWhich we have from new Eftgland.and 

Virgima Botarg 

of which fort I have eaten the bcft at Coll 

he! Dr^xejr that ever I tafted. 

The fruits that this Ifland affords, thdve already natiiedjdnd there- 
fore it will be necdlefs to name thcni twice ^ you may take your choice, 
whether you Will have them fet ort the Table before or after meat , 
they ufe as they do in tuJj^ to eat them before meat. 

The vidhials brought from forraigil parts are thefe. Beef \vhich we 
have from Holland^ from Old and New EngUnd^Virgmia^iXiA fonie from 

RHJjlit 5 and yet comes to us fweet. Pork from all thefe places, with the 
molt forts oi fait fifh^asLing.HaberdiriejCod, po6r-John,pickled Mac- 
.querels,pidkled Herri ngs,ali very good. Sturgeon from New F«g/4A»4 
but (b ill Cook'd,as 'tis hardly to be eaten jfor they want the skil bclth of 
boyling and feafoning itjthey firft over-boy I it,and next over-falt it,irld 

(b the filh being over tender by boyling, the fait frets and eats upon 
all the way for when we come to open it, betng carried fir ftoni the 
Eridge,and fliaken in the carriage/there is {carceawhole piecejbutthe 
iSrurgeon and pickle all in a mafti,& fo vehemently (alt, as I could never 

nyofit, bijt at Collonel^'4//r^?«^P]intation it is lefikbroken 

Pickled Turtle, we hare froni the Leeward Iflands, but 

ord er ed 

leant y 
Id hardly find vx our hearts to eat it i\fdr th^ 
gather the Salt and Sand together, for haft, upon the Iflarid \vhefe it 
Is taken up: as j though we wath it never fo well, yet the grit cracks in 

our teeth 3 it has a tafte being ialted, almofl: as ill as puffins , whicli we 
have from the ifles oi Silly, but this kind of food, is only for fervants 
fometimes the mgrocs get a little, but feldome the One or the other did 




firft coming thither 

. diiy jjuuc iin-tcLj «vv»«i iij-ifc wvxiiiii 

But now at my coming away from 

ihuch better' d, for 

the care and .good Husbandry of the Planters, there was grea- 
._ plenty, both of the viduals they were wont taedt, as Potatoes, 
Bonavift^Loblollv, as alfo ofthe bone meat, w3Si Pork, faltFilh, and 

powder'd beef, which came thither by fea, from forraign parts, m io 
much as the Negroes were allowed each man two Nfecquetels a week 

which were given dut to them on Satt&dcty 


and every woriian one; wmtu »*-*»- giw-n v/«- -v^ «.^ 

in the evening, after they had their allowance of Planti 

every bnea large bunch, ot two little ones, to fervcthenifori weeks 

provifion 5 and if any cattle dyed by fhifchance, or by any difcafe ; the 

fervants eat the bodies, and the Ne^mx the skins, head, and intrails 

which was divided amongft them by the Overfcers 3 orit any horle, 

than the whole bodiesof them were diftributed amongft the Nrg' 

and that they thought a high feaft , with T?hich 

^ . andthedrink to the fervants With this dy 



more contented 





















True and ExaB Ht^ory 

g but MobbJe^ and fomctimcs a little Beveridge ^ bur 

othing but fair 

And now I think, I have given you a juft 


the viftuals that feeds theMafteivl^c Scrvants^and the S 
ofthis lOand : and now you fee the provifion the Ifland affords, 
me leave to (hew you what feafts they can fwhen they vyill) make 
for theii^ friends, upon their PlantationSj which that I may the better 
do, I will make two bills of fare 5 theone for an Inland Plantation, 
the other for a Plantation near the fea, of fuch meat and flich plenty of 
that, as I have feen and eaten of, at cither of thofe Plantations 5 And 
for the Inland Plantation,! will make choice of Coll onel^J^^^ejDr-^xej, 
at whofe Table I have fourjd yvell drefs'd, thefe following meats , for 
thefirft Courie whereof there hath been tvvomefle«of meatand both 

he fee'ds^extreamly fat, giving him a dozen acres of Bonavift to go loofe 

id due times of watering 



■qually good, and thisfeaftis alwayes vvhenhe kills a beef 



Firftihen /becaufe beef being the greatefl rarity in the Idandjefp 

Uy fuch as this, is) 

ill begin with 

d of that fort th 

thefe dilhes at cither mels 5 a Rump boy I'd, a Chin 


fted, a larg 

piece of the breaft roafted, the Cheeks bak'd, of which is a difh 
ther me(s,the tongue and part of the tripes minc'd for Pyts, fcafbn'd 
with fwect Herbs finely mincVbSuctjSpiceartdCurrans^the Lcgs,Pal- 
and other ingredients for an Olio Vodridoto either'me/s, a dilb of 

diflips at the Talile and all of Beef ^ and 

hich he invites his fellow 

M^rroVi' -bones, lb he 

he intend 

1 ^ 

he great Regal 


Planters 5 who having v/cU eaten jof it, ^hedilhes are taken away, and 
ahothei: Courie brought iri, which is a Potato pudding, a di(h of Scots 
Collops-pfalcgofPork/^'s good a,s i^ny^i^ tfie Wprld , a fricacyof 

the farrie, a' diOl o^ boy I'd Chick 
drc/s'd with his Bloodand Time, a 

IJipulder of a young G 
Kid with a pudding in his belly , a 

d fweeteft in the 

/uckihgPig, which is there the fat tefl, >vhiteft, ai 
world, with the poynant-fauce of the Brains, Salt, Sage, and Nutmeg 
<lone;with Claret-tvineja Shoulder ofMutton which is there a rarediOi, 
a P;ifty of the fid.eAf a young Goat, and a fide of a fat young Shot up- 
on if, ■ wellieafbn'd with Pepper and Salt, iind with fbme Nutmeg, 
a Loyn of Veal, to which there \rants no faqce being (b well furniOi'd 
with Oranges, Lemons, and Lytnes, three young Turkiesin a dilh, 
two Capons, of which fort I have feen fome extream large and very 
fat, Kvo Hens with eggs in a difh, four Ducklings, eight Turtle doves , 
and three Rabbets \ and for cold bak'd meats, two Mufcov/a Ducks 
larded, and feafon'd well with Pepper atid Salt .• and thefe being taken 
off the TablCj another courfeis fet on3and that is o^lVefifhalia. or Spa->^ 
KiJ/KhacoUy dryedNeats Tongues, Botargo, pickled Oyflers, Caviare, 
Anchoyies301ives5and(intc:rmixt with thefcj Cuflards, Creams, fbme 

alone, /brtie with preferves of Plantines, Bonano^ G 

thofe' preferv'd alone by themfeIvcs,Cheefe-cakes, Puftes , 

to be made with Ew^Mj flower, and bread j for the Caflav 




for this kind of Cookery ; fomctimcs Tanfies, fbmetimes F 

cwAniulcts. and for firuit 

Bonanoes, Gnav 


luickkd Pear, AnchovePear, pricji/kd Apple, Cuftard Apple, water 
Milions, and Pines worth all that went before. To this meat you 


Milions, and Pines worth 

fddom fail of thisdrinkj/Mpbbie, Bcyeridge , Brandy, Kill-Devil 


Clarct-wine^ White-wine, andHhenifh 

» i 



ofth I/Iand of Barhadocs. 

Shen-y, Caiiary^Red fack^wine of Fiall, with all Spirits thit coraefronl 
laml , and with all this,you fhall find as chearful a look.and as heartv 


awelcomej as any man caa give to his bcft friend 
a Feaft: ofan inland Plantation- 

And Co much for 

Now for a Plantation near the Sc:i 

hich dial] be Collonel U'al- 

rond% he being the beft feated for a Fcaft, of any I k 
thiSj that though he be wanting in the firft Courfc, which is Beef ^ 
yet, it will be plentiful lyEipplyed inthclaft, whiclTtsi^ian and that 
the other Wants. And though ColloneUr^/m/ J, have not thatinfinitfe 

rtoi% of theprovifions Collonel Z)n7x abolind 

yetj he 


ting in ail the kinds he has, unlcfs it be Sheep, Goats, and Beef, and 
fo for all the forts of meats, that arc in my Bill of Fare, in 


Drax\{\s Feaft, you {liall find the fame in Collonel IValronds 




(e are fupplycd with all. thefe forts of filh I Oiall 



Ai'iUcts^ Mdcqucrcls^ ParratJiJIj^Smpp 


for which wc h 

ihs^ Lobjlcrsy and Conyfij}}^ with divers forts 

d and grey 


And having thcfc rare kinds of fillies 

twcrea vain fupcrfluity, to make uleof all thofcdiQies I have named 
before, but only fuch asHiallferveto fill up th^ Tables and when he 
h.mhe ordering it, you muft. expert to" hiiVe it excellent, his fancy 

Feaft, being as fir beyond any mans there, as the 

for fuch a purpofe, ^nd his 


ontrivance of 

place where he dwells is better feitu 

Land touching the Sea, his Houfe being not half a quarter of „ 

from it, and not interpofed by any unlevel ground , all rarities that 
•e brought to the Ifland, from any ^art of the world, are taken up- 
brought to him, and ^ 

\. - 

the night 

flowed in his Cellars, in two hours time.and that 
Wine, of all kinds, Oyl, Olives, Capers, Sturgeon, 

Ncats tongues, Anchovies, Caviare, Botargo, with all forts oi iilted 
meats, both fiefh and fifh for his Family $ as. Beef, Pork, Englijii 
Peafe, Ling, Habcrdine, Cod, Poor John, and Jerkin Beef, which is 


ndflaHjt through, hungup and dryed in the Sun 


put toiti And thus ordered in Hifpjfiiola, as hot a place as Barba 

than powdredBeef, and is as dry a; 

doesj and yet it will keep 

Stock-fifti, andiuftfjch meat for flefli, as that is for filh , and 

Qinjentinit, but it fills the belly, andfervcs the turn, where no 
other meat is. Though fbme of thelemay be brought to the inland 


Plantations well conditioned 5 \ 

Wines cannot pofiibly 

good 5 for the wayes are fiich, as no C^rts can pais 5 and to br 
Butt ofSackjOr a Hogftiead of any other Wine, upon 

.ng up : 

?/ backs 

will very hard/y be done in a night, fo long a time it requires, to hand 

up and down the Gullies, and if it be carried in the day-time, the 
Sun will heat And taint it , Co as it will lofe rriuch of his fpirit ancl pure 
taftc 5 and if it be drawn out in bottles at the Bridge, the fpirits fly away 

m the drawing, 



ihall find 

y great difFe 


taftc and quicknefsof it. Oyle will endure the carriage better th 
Wine, but ov>.r-much heat will abate fomething of the pHuty ai 


tafteithas naturally. And for Olives 


jogging m the carriage caufes them to U 

d ((>me 





and infect the reft. *^*»that 

Wine, Oyle, and Olives, cannot poffibly be brought to fuch Planta- 
tions, as are eight or ten miles from the Bridge :, and from thence, the 
moft part of thcfe commodities are to be fctch'd* So that you may 


L 2 




* , 


True and ExaB Htffmy 








.nc, what advantage Collonel lVaIrof;dhas^ of any inland Planta- 
tionThaving tHefe materials, which are the main Regalia^s in a Feaft, 
andhis own contrivance to boot, befidcs all I have formerly nam'd 
concerning raw and preferv d fruits, with all the other ^elquechojes. 
And thus much t thought good to fay for the honour of the Kland 
which is no more than truth 3 becaufe I have heard it fleightcd by fome 
that feem'd to know much of it* 

About a hundred fail of Ships yearly vifit this Ifland^ and receive 
during the time of their (lay in the Harbouts, for their fuflenance. th( 
native Viduals growing in the Ifland, fuch as t have already narfled 
bcfidcswhat they carry away, and what is carrie^d away by Plant 
ofthe Ifle, that vifit other parts of the world '^' 
Ifland trades in, are indico, Cotmr-rvool^ robacco^ Sugar ^ Gwg 


The commodities 


Commodit ies thefe Ships br 


Ifland. arc. Scrvajih and 



Jmpar- Slaves, both men and Women 5 Borfcy, Cattk^AJfimgoes^ Camels, Vten- 

* flls for boyling Sugar as.Coppcrs^fackesfioudges^nd Socksts 5 all manner 
of working tooles for Tradefmen, as, Carpe filers, Joyners, Stmths, Ma- 

fpnr:, Mill-wrights, WhteUwn gk s,r inkers. Coopers, &c. Jron,Stecl,L€ad, 
Brajs, Fervter^Chth of all kinds, both Lwnen and Woollen , StHp,Hats, 
Hofe^Shoocs,Gloves, Svpords, Knives, Lock,s, Keys, &c. ViBuals of all 


kinds, that will endure the Sea, in fo long a vdyag 


ves. Cap 


Ancbovks, faked FleJI) and Fifi, pkklcd Maciimrels and Herring 
of all forts, and the boon Beer, d^ Amletcrrc-. 
What JShU- I had it in my thought before t came there, whdt kmd of Buildmgs 

dlngt we 

1 d be fit for a Countrv 

was Co much troubled with heat , as 

foHndat mr j j^^^^ heard this was^and did cxtiefttofind thick walls, high roofs, and 

firfi coming 
upon the 


but found neither the one nor the othet 


ean con- 

/ - 


trary 5 

thdm^ 'I could hardly iland Upright with my hat 
all .• befides, another courfe they took, which was more wonder to me 

out the wind, which 

timber houfes, with low roofs, fo low, as for the moft part of 

on, andno cellars a f 

' T 


than all that 5 which wds, flopping, or barrmg 
Qiould give them the greateft comfort, when they were neer ftifled 
With heat. For^ the wind blowing alwayes one way, which was Eaft- 
Wardly, they fhould have made all the' openings they could to the 
EafV, thereby to let in the cool breezes, to refrefij them when the heat 
ofthe day came. But they, clean contrary, clofed up all their houfes to 
the Eaft, and opened all to the Weft s fo that in the afternoons, when 

theSuncame tothe Weft, tho(e 

low roofed rooms were lik 

Stoves, of heated Ovens* And truly, inaveryhotdaj 

ght raife 

„ doubt, whether fo much heat without, and fo mucxh Tobacco and 
j^H-devH within, might not fct the houfe a fire s for thefe three 
gredients are ftrong nlotives to provoke it, and they 



But at laftl found by them, the teafons of this ftrangefn-epofterous 
manner of building, which was grounded upon the weakeft and filli- 
eft foundation that could be t For they alledged, that at the times of 


hich was very often, the Wind dravc the 

in at their 

dowsfofaft, as the houfes within were much annoyed 

for having no glafstokeep 

ith it 
they could feldom fit or lye dry 


fo being conftrained to keep out the air on that fide, for fear of 


the water, would open the Weft ends of their houfes (b 



_ . 

of the I/land of Baibadots. 



i 5 f ds was beyond the proportion of window? to repair that 
want) and fo let in the fire 5 not confidering at all> that there. was fuch 
a thing as (hutteTs foi* windows, to keep out the rain that hurt them, 
and let in the wind to refrcfh them, and do them good at their pi 

But this was a toniideration laid afide by 


part of the meaner fort of PI 

the moft 

But at 1.1ft I found th 


make fuch 

their poverty and indig 

which wanted the means 

tdther fufter painfiilly, and patiently abide this 

andfb, being compelled by that, had 

fdl or part withanyof their good 

So loath poor people are to part with that , wliich is th 

e, than 
prevent (b great d milchiefr 

rir next 



diate help, to fupport them in their great want of fuftenance. 
For, at that lock they often werc^ and fome good Planters too, that 
far'd very hard, when we came firft into the Ifland* So that hard la- 
bour, and want of viduals, Jiad Co much deprefs'd their fpirits, as they 
were dome to a declining and yielding conditioD. Nor can this be 
called flothflilncfs or fluggifiinc/s in them, aslonje wili.have it, but a 

decayofthcirfpirits, by long and tedious hard labour, ripight feeding, 
and ill lodging, which is able to wear out and quell the beft Ipirit of the 






« mate- 

The Lacnft is a tree of fuch a grdvvtH, both for length and bignels, ^^^^_ 

as may ferve fof beams in a veryldrge room : I have fecn many of |r/^ "'^^ 
them, whofe ftraight bodies are a*bove fifty foot high, the diatilefer of in thejjiand 
the ftem or body, threefoot and half. The timber of this tree is a \fi^ ^» ^feW 
hard clofe fubrtance, heavy*, but firm, and not apt to bend, fome- r^'^^' ^^'^^ 





brittle, but lafting. M.tfiick^ 

what hard for tooles 

ether /b large as he, but of a tougher fubftanc^:^ and" not accounted 

The ^w/Zj'-^ree wants Ibmething of the largenefi of thefe 
but in his other qualities goes beyond either j for, he isfiill out as la- 


fting, and as (Irong, but not £0 hcavv 

ma)/ h hidCd 
the EleJMkii 

(f ji/chite- 
fi^fiy for 


(b hard for tooles to work. TinSer, 

The Redwood and pricl{lcd jcllow wood., good for pofts or beams,Jlnd 
lighter than the Locnji 5 both are accounted very lafting, an.d good for 
building. The Ced.ins^ without controul , the beft of dll 5 but by 


reafon it works fmooth 

d looks be^utifuL weufeit moft in Wain 

Tables, and Stools. Other timber we have, as the Iron-Ofood^Sind 



therfort, which are.excelient good to endure wet and dr} 



bfthofe we make Shingles, which being fuch a kind of wood, as will 
not vvarp 

arc the beft coverings for ahoufe that ean be, full 
d lye lighter upon the B^aftersi . '. . 
We have two forts of Stone , and either will ferve indifferently 

good as Til 


in building .• The one we find on fides of (mall Hills, anditly 
as ours do in Ef inland, in Quarries j but they are very (mall , rough , 
and ill ftiaped, fomeoi them porous, like Honey combes j but being 
burnt, they make excellent Lyme , the whitcft and firmeft when 'tis 

Stane fit far 




' II 

dry, that I have (e 

dby the help of this 


make the better 

» ' 

(hift with our ill ftiap'd ftone^ for this lime binds it faft together, and 
keeps it firm to endure the weather* Other Stone we have, which we 
find in great Rocks, and mafiie pieces in the ground ^ but fo foft ^ as 
with your finger you may bore a hole into it 3 and this foftftefs gives us 
the means ofcutting it with two-handed Sawes, tvhich being hard, 
we could not fo cafily do, and the eafinels caufes the expedition j for 
by thdt, we the more (pecdily fit ititor our walls, taking a juft breadth 






# ^* 










,H ' 









\ t 


V - 


;i ^jT*-, • 




'-» > _ 

True and Eka& HiHory 


of the 

he w" n 

and cutting it accordingly i To that vve need very 

This ftone, as we ciit it in the quarr) 

harder than 

dinaty ittbrter 

but being fet out in the weather 5 by pieces 

cuiit, ^rows itrdifFerently hard, and is able' to bear all the 

that ly 

and the longer it lyes^ the harder it g 

18 we 




JIdyes (ve madej whilft I wa^icre, for the making and burning of 
bricks3't)Ut never could atbin to the p^rfeaion of it j and the reafon 
wafe, the over fatnefs of the clay .'Avhich would alwayes crackle and 

was, tne over lacuGisui LUC wia;^ 3ev>ft*i»-" t.^w..^ -*.. -^ 

breikj-vvhenitfeltahegfedtheat of the fireiathe Clamp 

and by 

nb means could wc find the true teniper of it; though we made often 
tryal^* Therc'wasdn ingenious 'jen? upon the rfland^whofe name was 
SolowOK, that undertook to te'dch the making of tt 3 yet for all that, 
^vhenifcame totKI touch htswifdom failed , and we were deceived 

-in bur expefta^ 


I doubt nt)t but there is a^vvay of teftipering, to 

makeit fat better fHa'n ours in'E^^/^W 5 for the pots which we find 
thelfland, whereirt the Jndi^im boyl'd their Pork, wei-e of the fame 
kind of Clay, and they were the beft and fineft temi)er'd ware of 
eirehtfiirt evei* I faw*' ' If we could M^lie true temper ofit, a g -^ 

advantage might be* made totheffland^ for the air being moift , 



• m * 

ftones often fweat, and by their moifture rot the timbers they touch, 
wlhich'tb prevent we cover the ends of our beams and girders with 
boards, pitch'd^nBoth:fides, but the walls being made of bricks, or 

butlin'dwithbrick/'Woul4bG much the whdlefomer. f and befides 
kccpour wainfcot fromrot^in^^i;. HangingsVe dare fiat ufe, for be- 
ingijkj^rd by Ants, and eaten by the Cockroaches, and Rats, yet fome 
ofthe Planters that meant to handfom their houfes, were minded to 
fend for gilt leather , and hang tbeir rooms with that , which they 

morethdn perfwddedthofe vermine would 


and inth 


• ''J 

* ' 

refolutionirei^tberfi „ .^ 1 n « t/» 

enters/^nd MafbnS, were newly comciipcin the Illandjand lome 
of thefe very -great IVhflers in ' their Art : and fuch as could' draw a 
plot?, and purfue the defign they framed with great diligence, and 
beautificthetops of their Doors , Windows , and ChiMney^peeces \ 
vcryrprdtrily 5 but not many of thofe, nor is it needful that there ihould 
be many; for though the Planters talk of building h'otifes, arid wilh 
them up, yet when they weigh the want of thofe hands in their fugar 
work, that mufl be employed in their building , they fall back, and 

their confidering caps. I drew but" at leafV twenty plots when 



came firft into the Iflands which they all lik'd well enough, and yet 

but two of them u^'d, one by Captain Midkton , and 

ifaft^ and thofe were the two befl houf( 



I left fihilh'd ii) -the 

Ifland" when I dame away. Cellars I would not make under 'ground, 
iinlefs the houfc be fet on the fide of a Hill ^ for though the air be moifl 
iibovc, yet I found it by experience rtiuch moifter under ground 
that no moift thing can befetthete , but it vvill in a very (hort time 
grow mouldy, and 

nu rocicii 5 and if for coolnefs you think to keep any 
raw flefh, it will much footier taint there, than being hung up in a 
garret, where'the Sun eonfmually (bine's upon. Nay the pipe -ftavcs 
hoopSi and heads of barrels, and hogihcads, will grow mouldy and rot- 
ten : Pavcm^i^sand foundations of bricksWould much help this with 
glais windows, to keep out the air. 

If I were to build ahoufe for my fdf in that place, I would have 




efthe^ Ifland (7;f Barbadoes 




a third part of my building to be of an Eaftand Weft linCjand the dther^ 
two thirds to crofs that^at the Weft end : in a North and South Hnc,ahd| 
this latter to be a ftory higher than that of the Eaft and Weft line' fo 
that at four a clock in the afternoonj the higher buildings will begfn to 
fhadc the other , and fo afford more and more ihadii to my Eaft and 
Weft building till nightj and not only to the houfe, but toall th 
that I make on either fide that building,and then I would raife my fouti 
dation of that part of my houfe wherein my beft rooms were three foot 



* • 



above ground 


g it hallow underneath for Veotidufts ' which 

I would have come into every room in the houfe^ and by that means 
you ftiall fed the cool breeze all the day^and in the evening, when they 
llacken, a cool fhadc from my North and South building, both which 
great refrefhings, in hot Countreys ; and according tothisModeL 

I drew many plots^ of feveral fizes and 

but they did 

would not underftand them .- at laftlgfeW weary 'of cafting ftones 
againft the wind^ and fo gave oven 

It v/ere fomewhat diificult, to give you an exad account , of the 
number of perfonsupon thelQand j there be ingfuch ftore of ftiipping 

that brings paflcngers daily fo the plac 




by thofe that arfelong acquainted, and beft leen in the knowledge of 
thellland, that there are not lefs than 50 thoufand fouls, befides TS!e- 
groes 5 ana feme of them '^ho began upon fmall fortunes, are now rifon 
^'^ very great and vaft eftdteS ' ' "'^ 

"The Ifland is divided into three forts of men 
and Slaves, 
fters for eve 

The flaves and their pofteritv, being ftibjed 
', are kept and preferv*d ynxh greater care 

Mafters, Serv 

to their Ma 
than the fer 

vantSj whbare theirs but for five y 



according to the 


So that for the time, the fervants have the'worfer lives, for 
are put to very hardjabour, ill lodgings and their dyet very 
When we came firft oil the Ifland , fome Planter§^ them- 
felvesdid not eat bone meat, above twice a week : the reft of the 
(even dayes. Potatoes, Lbblolly, and Bonavift. " Butihe lervants no 
bone^eat at all, uulclsanOxedyed : and then they were feafted, as 

they had planted good ftore of Plau 




fed with this kind'of food ^'-^but moft of it Bo- 
navift, and Loblolly, with fome cars of Mayes toafted^ which food 

(especially Loblolly^) give them much difco 

had Pla 

complain 5 fo 

But when they 

h to ferve them , they were heard no moi 

ood they take great 

of dre{fing,and eating it, is thi 


d their manner 

gathered for them (fomewh 

before it be ripe, for fo they deCre to have it,) upon Saturday^ by the 
keeper of the Plantine grove 5 who is an able Negro^ and knowes well 
the number of thofe that are to be fed with this fruit , and as he ga- 
thers, lay es them all togetherj till they fetch them away,which is about 

clock in the aftern 

for that day they break off work foo 

ner by an hour ; partly for this purpofc, and partly for that the fire 
the furnaces is to be put out, and thelngenio and the rooms made 
clean 5 befides they are to wafb , ft)avc and trim themfelves againft 
Sunday. But *tis a lovely fight to fee i hundred handfom 'Negroes^ 
men and women, with every one a grafle-grccn bunch ofthefe fruits 

M 2 






ber i 

re df the 








, »■ 


True and ExaB Hilary 


on their heads, every bunch twice as big as their heads, all toniing 
in a train one after another, the black and green ^o well becoming 
one another. Having brought this fruit home to their own houfes, 
and pilling off the skin of (b much as they will u(e , they boyl it in 
water, making it into balls, and fb^ they 



One bunch a wee 


To this, no bread nor drink, but 


lodging at night aboard, with nothing under, hoi: any thing a top of 


They are happy people, whom fo 

Very good 

(ervants, if they be not fpbyled by the Englip, But more of them 


As for the uiage of the Servants, it is much as the Mafter is , merci- 
ful or cruel s Thole that arc merciful, treat their. Servants well , both 
in their meat^ drink, and lodging, and give them fuch work , ,as is not 
unfit for Ghriftians to do. But if the Mafters be cruel, the Servants 
have, very weariforae and mifcrable lives. ^ Upon the arrival of any 
fhip, that brings fervants to the Ifland, the Planters go aboard 5 and ha 

g bought jfuch^ of them as they like , (end them with a guidtohis 

plantation 5 and being come, commands them inftantly to make their 
Cabins, which they not knowing how to do, are to be advised by 
other of their fervants, that are their Seniors 5 but, if they be churiifb, 
and w ill not fhevv them, or if materials be V^varif ing , td m^ke them 
Cabins, then they are to lye on the ground that night. Th e(e Cabins 

are to be made of flicks, vviths, and Pjantine 

under (bm 

fhade that may keep the rain off 5 Their fuppers being a few Potatoes 

for meat, and water or Mobbie for drink. The 

th a Bell to work 

ay they 

clock in the morning, with a fev 

Overiecrto command them, till the Bell ringagiin, which 

clock 3 and then they 

and are fet to d 

either with 

me/s of Lob-IoJly3 Bonavifl, or Potatoes. Atone a clock, they are 


again to the field, there to vyork till fix , and then hgme 

(upper of the fame. And if it chance 


d wet them 

hrough, they have no (hift, but muft lye fb all night, ff they put off 
their cloaths, the cold of the night will ftrike into them , and if they be 
not ftrongmen, this ilJ lodging will put them into a ficknels ; if they 
complain, they are beaten by the Overfeef 5 if they refift, their time is 
doubled, I have feen an Overfeer beat a Servant with a cane about 
the head, till the blood has followed, for a fault that isnotwohh the 

fpeaking of 5 and yet he muft have patience 
Truly, Ihayefecn fiich cruelty there done to Ser\ 

fc will fol/ow; 

I did not 

think one Chriftian could have done to another. But, as difcrceter and 

better natlir'dmen have 

?■ to rul 





been much bettered ; for now, moftof the fervants lie in Hamocks 

d in warm 

d when they coihe 


have fhift of fhirts 

and drawers, which isall the cloths they wear, and are fed with bone 
fftcut twice or thrice a week. Colloncl Walrond feeing tiis fervants when 
they came home, toy led with their labour , and vvet through with 
their fweating, thoughtthatfhifting of their lirinen not fufficient re- 
frelhing, nor warmth for their bodies, their pores feeing much opened 
by their fweating 5 and therefore refolved to fend into England for 

rug Gowns, fuch as poor people wear in Holpitals, that fb when 

' V tTiey 

-r -r > 


$M b/Bdrbad'6e^ 




* ' 

they hadOiifted themrerves, tliey might put on thofe Gbwns, ind lye 
down and reft therii iri their Haniocks : For the Hamocks being but 
thin, and they having hothitig on Wit Shirts and dHwch^ when they 
awak'd out of their fleeps, they found thfemfelyeS very cold $ and a 
told taken there, iS hiWet t6 Be recovered, l\ikn \n EngUn d ^ byhoW 



miich the body is infeeblcd by the greiit toyl, and th _ 
"which cannot but Vety ftilich txhiufl: the fpirits of bodies uriaccuftb- 
med to It. But this cafd^'and charity 6f Colloniei ^^/rWs, loft him 
nothing in the conclufion 5 for, h6got (uch love of his fervants, is 
Itiey thought all t6o little tticy could do forhinij and the love of the 

fervants th 

of much concernment to the Mafters 



their diligent and painful labour, But in fore-feeing ind preV^ntiiig 
mifchiefs that often happen ; by ttie cdi-ele ffnefs add flothfulnefi of 
iretchlefe fervants $ fometinies by laying fire fb negligently, i^ whpte 
lands of Canes and Houfcs too^ are burnt down and^b'dbfumedj, tb the 
utter ruine irid undoing 6f their Ma fteirs ; Fdi-j the rtiateriafi ilitit 
being all coiilbuftible, anJ apt to take fire, a little overdght, at^ the fire 
of aTobactb-^ipei being fenqckt out Igainfti dry ftiimp of at tree, 
has kui orifire, atiJ the \^iifd fanning that fire , if a Snd of Caries be 
but near, arid they once take fife, all that are down" the wind^will 


be burnt up; Water there is none to du'Ctich 


dred Negroes With buckets were AOt able trfdb it 3 fb violent arid f^rea- 
ainga fire thists, drtd fuch a noife it makes, as if f Wb Arniies, with a 
thouland (hot of either fidei, were continually giving firp, everjr knot 
of every Cane, giving as great a repoh as a Piftql. Sd thil there is no 
way to ftop the going on of thisflinie, but by cuttirig ddwn and re- 
moving all the Canes ;hat grow Before it, for the breadth oF tw^^fiiy 

oir thirty foot down the widd, Jlnd there the Negroes toftandand beat 
but the fire, as it tfeeps" Upon thJ^'groUtld, whci-e the Canes are cut 
dowri. And I have feenibrrife Negrdis (b earneft tb ftSjp this fire, as with 
their naked ittt to't'redd', arid with th^di-niked bodies to tumble, and 
roll Upon it 5 fb little they regard their bWn fmdrtor fafety , in refpeft 
of their Maft^ers benefit. The arC befotc I came away , there Were 
evi^b emineHt f>!aritcrs iri'the tond, that with fuch ad accident as this 




of the Cdtles that were 

buillt5 tliedne, Mx.\jMts Ho! duppe^ihc other :, W.ConftantineSil' 
vehcr : And tile iatter had not only his Canes,but his houfe burnt down 

ttie ground 

This, and much more iHifchiefhas Been done, by the 

negligence arid wilfulnefs of fervants. And yet foitte cruel Mafters 

will provdke their Servahts Ib^ by extream ill ufa^e , and often and 
cruelbeatingtliem, as they grow defperate. 

dndfbjdyn together 

revenge thenifelVes upon tliem 

A little before t cairie froni thence, there was fuch a cbmHnatibi! 

ambrigft thcni 

the like was never feen there before, their fuffe 

rings being grown to a greatTieight,arid their dilily complainmgs to one 
another (of the intolerable burdens they labour'd under) being 

fpread thrdughout the Ifland 

the laft, forfie aniongft them, whofe 

ipirits were not abl 

doreVuch flavery, refolved to break through 

.., ^. dye in the aft 5 and' fo confpired with fbme others of their a(^ 
quaintance, whofc fufferings wete e^uall, if riot dbovc theirs, afnd 




f *,™ ■, 





fc *H^ 



. -r. 








i I Negroes 


A True and ExaB Hiflory 



their (biritsno way inferiour, r€(blved to draw as many of the difcon- 
tented party into this plot, aspolTibly they could 5 and thofeof this 
perfwafionj were the greatefl: numbers of Servants ia the IflaiKl. i3o 
that a day vVas appointed to fall upon their Mafters , and cut all th "' 

throats, and by that means 

make themlelves onlyTre'emen 



tnroars, anaDyrnacniGiius, \.yj umiv^. liii^nxiviv^o yjmy nv-v-iin.^ , l/ui 
tofters of the Ifland. And fo clofely was this plot carried, as no dif 

covery was mac 


the day before they were to put it in adl 




then one of them;, either by the failing of his courag 
obligation from the love ofhisMaftcr, revealed this long plotted coh- 
fpifacys and fo by this timely advertilement, the Mafters were laved; 
.Judice Hctherfa II (\viiorG fervant this was) fending Letters to all his 
friends, and they to theirs, and fo one to another, till they were all fe- 
curedi and-^ fef examination, found out the greateft part of them 5 
whereoFeighteen of the principal men in the confpiracy, and they the 
firf! leaders and contrivers of the plot ,. Were put to death , for exam- 
ple to the reft. And the reafon why they made examples of Co many, 
wasj' they found thefe (b haughty in their refj * " 

and Co 

they were like enough to become Adors in a fecond pi 

and ft> they thought good to lecure them 
Ipepial eye over, theni 


and for the reft 


l6 has. been accounted a ftrange thing, that the Negr^ex, being more 
dduble the numbers of thp Chriftians that arc there, and the)r 
accounted a bloody people, where they think they have power or ad- 
vantages, and the more bloody, by how much thc^ are more fearful 
than others. : that thefe (hould not commit fonie horrid maftacre 
upon the C hr iftians, "thereby 

Hfranchile themfelves 


aiid b 


Mafters of the Ifland. But there are three reafdns that take away this 

wonder; the 

* * 

They are not (uffered 



The other. That they are held in fuch 

handle any 
d flavery, as 

tfiey are foarfol to appear in any daring ad: 3 and (eelng the ihuftering of 

and Hearing their Gun-(hot , ( than which nothing is more 


terrible to them) their (pirits are fubjug 
they dare liot look up to any bold attempt 

fo low a cond 
Befides thefe: there 

third reafon, which ftops all defigns of that kind, and that is. They 

fetch'd from foveral parts of Jfi 

who fpeak leveral latig 

ges, and by that means, one of theiti underftands hot another 


iomeof them are fetch'd from G;/i»/;^ and Birrnji^ fomefrom Cutche 
fome from Artgsla^ and fome from the Hiver of Gambia, And in fom 

bfthefo places where pjetty Kingdomes 

they fell their Sub j efts 

ortncic places vvncrc \x-i*-y i\uj^uuiuta ai*. , t-n^-j ivi* niv.n ^#ui^^v_ci3 

arid fuch as they take in Battle,' whom they make flaves 5 and fom 

mean men (ell their Serva 

their Child 

dnd fomctimes their 


Wives 3 and think all good trafEck, for fuch cdmmodities as out Met 

chants fond them. - 

• When they are brought to us, the Planters buy them out of the 
Ship^ where they find them ftark naked, ^nd therefot'e cannot be de- 
ceived in any outward infirmity. They dhoofe them as they do Horfes 

youthftilleft , and moft beautiful , yield 

the greateft prices 


y pound fterhng is a price for the beft 

m^ri,Ncgroe , and twenty five, twenty fix, or twenty (hven pound for 

Woriian j the Children are at e^fier tates; And we buy them foi, aS 







w, ^ * 


of the Ifldnd (^/Barbadoefe. 

the fexes may be egua! 5 for, if they hav^more Men thdq Women,' tKe 
Imcn who arc unmarried Will conie' to their Mailers^ and complaiii , 
that they cannot live without Wives, and defire him, they hiay have 

Wives. And'he tells them, that the next fhij[) that 
them Wives, which fatisfics them for the pref( 

the good 

he will buy 

d (b they expc^ 

which the Mafter performing with them, the braVeft 


fellow is to choofc firft, aiid fb in ordef, as they are inpldpe 5 and 
\:y one of them knows hisbettei*, and gives him the |irecedence ,'*?(?■ 
Cows do one another, in paffing tHrough a narrow gdte ^foi^jthe moft 
of them areds tiear Beads as may be, fetting their iouls hfide. Reli- 
gion they know noi]c 5 yetnioft of them acknowledge a God ^ asap- 
ptarsby theit motions and getlures ; For, if one of theiii do another 
wrdng, frid he cannot revenge hirrifelf, he looks up to Heaveil for 
vengeance, and holds up both his hands, ks if the power muft come 
from thenccT that rhuft do him right. * Chaft they are as any people 
undeir the Suri; for, when the men arid wonien drc together naked , 
they never caft theireycs towards the parts thatdught to be covered ^ 
nd thofe arrtortgftus, that have Breeches and Petticoats, I iievetfaw 

fbniuchas a kil 



wanton glance with their ey 



between them. Jealous they ai-e of 'tficfff Wiveis, arid hold 
great injury and icorn, ifail6thernianmal^6 tHe leaft cdurtlhip to his 
Wife. And if any of their Wives have twb Children at a birth , tKy 
conclude her filfc' .his Bed, and fo no more adoe but hang her. We 
had an excellent IVeer<? in the Plantation , whole name was Macow^ 

dwasoiir chief Muficia 

[r Plantine-GrSve. 

5 a Very valiant ihan, and was keeper of 
TK\s Negroes Wife was Brought to bed df two 

their manriei: is, had provided k cot<l 

Children^ and het Husband 

hang her. But fhe O verfecr finding vVhat he was about t5 d 

formed the Mafter of it* who {ent for Mjcovp 

diflwade him fi-om 

this cruel aft, of miirdering his Wife, anduled all perfwafions thai pof 

fibly hfe coiild, to let hini 

that flich double Births are iri Nature 

and that divers prefidents were to be found amongft us of the like 5 
fo that we rather praifed our Wives, for their fertility, than blamed 
thera for their falienefs* But this prevailed little with him,upon whorti 
cuftom had taken fb deep an impreffion 5 But tefolved , the next 
thing he did, fliouldbe td hangheh Which wHen the Mafter per- 
ved, and that the ignorance of the ihan, (houldtake away the life 


woman . Vvho v/a^ innocent of the 

her Husband corl 

denined her for, toldhimpLlinly , that if he hang'd heir, he him 


fiiould be hang d by her, upon the (artiebdugh^ indthcrefJ 


him tdcotlfiderwliathe did. This thrcatriing wrought more V/ith hirri 
than all the rcdfbns of Philofbphy that could be given hini 5 andfolet 
her alone 5 but he never car'd much for her afterward , but cho'le ano- 
ther which he lik'd better. For the Planters there deny not a flave,that 
is a brave fellov;^, dnd bne that has extraordinary qualities, two or three 
Wives, and abovb that nuniber they lelddm gd : But no woman is d- 

lowed above orle Husband. ** 

At the tioie the wife Is to be brought a be J, her Husband removes 
his board,(wfiichishis bed) to another room (for many feveral diyi- 

heir little hoillcs,) and none above fix foot fquUre) 

N 2 And 

fioiis they ha 













- 11 







Trike mdExoB Hifiory 

r , 



And leaves his wife to God, arixl her good ibrtunCj ih the room, and 
upon the board alone, and calls a neighbour to come to her, who 
gives little help to her delivery, but when tlie child is born, (which 
(he calls her Pickaninny) (he helps to make a little fire nedt het fbetj 
and that (erves infhad of PofTets, Broaths, and Caudles. In a fort- 
night, this woman is at work with her Pickaninny ac her back, as 
merry a foul as any is there .■ If the Ovetfeet be difcreet , (he is 

ftiffer'd to reft her fclf a little more than ordinary 5 but if not, the !§ 
compelled to do as others do. Times they have of fuckling itheit 
Children in the fields, and refreOiing themfelvcs 5 and good reafon, ifer 
they carry burthens on their backs § and yet work too. Some woniehj 
whofc Pickaninnies are three years old, will , as they wdirk at weed- 
ing, which is a ftobping work,(uffer the hee Pickaninny, to fit a ftride 
upon their backs , like St. George a Hor(e-b^ck 3 and theire Spur his 
mother with his heels , and fings and crows on her back, 'clapping 
his hands, as if hfe meint to flye, which the niother is (b pleas*d with, 

as (he continues her painful ftdopingpofture, longer than (he would 

do, i-ather than difcompoj(e her Jovial Pickaninny of his pleafure , 
fo glad (he is to lee him merryi The work which the women do, is 
oft of it weeding, aftooping and painful Vvork , atridonand night 



hey are calFd hbnsue by the ring of a Bell, where they have tvvo hours 
tinje for their repaft at noon 5 and at bight, they reft frotii fix, till fix 
a Clbck next morning. 

Oil SuncUy they reft^and hzlve the vvhole diy a: their plealure 5 and 
the moft of them ufe it as a day of reft and pLealuire > but (ome of them 
who will make Benefit of that dayes hberty , go where the Man- 
grave trees gtow, and gather the batk, of which they make 

which they truck aVvay iot other Commodities , as Shirts 
a^d Dowers. "^ 

In the afternodns on SHfiday£s\ they have their Miifick , which 
is of kettle dnlnis, and thole of (everal fizes5 upon the (maUeft the 
bcft Mufitian playes, and the other come in as Chorafles : the drum all 
tiien know, has but one tone 5 rind therefore variety of tunes have little 
to do in this mufick 5 and yet (b ftrangely they varic theiif time, as 'tis 
a plea(ure to the moft curious edrt, and it was to me one 6f the ftran- 
geft noifcs that ever I heard rfaade of one tone 5 and if they had the 
variety of tune, which gives the greater (cope in Mufick, as they have 
Of tmie, they would do wonders in that Art, And if t had not fain 
fick before my coming away, at leaft (even months in one fick- 

I had given them fbme hints of times, which behg under- 
jftobd , would have ferv'd as a great addition to thcit hatiiiony 5 


time without tune 



i$ not an eighth part of the Science of 

I found Macow very apt for it of hiiii(elf , and diie aay commg 
=ihto the hou(e, (which none of the Negroes u(e to do, uhie(i an Offi- 


ccr, as he was,) he found me playing on a Theorbo , and finging to 

It, which he hearkened very attentively to , and when l hid done 
hetcok thcithcorboin his hand, and ftrook one ftring, ftopp ing it by 
degrees upon every fret, and finding the notes to varie, till it came to 
the body of the inftrurtient 5 and that the nearer the body of thcin- 

' ftrument 


' «». 

' ■ 


' * 

tftbk Ifland of BavhsidocL 


ftrunlenthe ftdpt, the (mailer 6v higher the (bund was^ which he found j 
was by the (hortning of the ftring, confidered with him(elf , how he 
might make fonle tryal of this experiment upon fiich an inftrumcnt as 
he could come by 3 having no hcipe ever to have any inftrument of 
this kind to pradice on< In a day or two after , walking in the Plan- 
tine grove, to refreOi me in that cool fhade, and to delight my felf 
with the fight of thofe plants, which are Co beautiful , as though they 

left afrefh impreffion in me when I parted with them, yet upon a re- 

view, fbmething is difcern d irt their beauty more than I remem- 
bred at parting ; which caufed me to make often repair thither 3 I 
found this Negro (whole office it was to attend there) being the keep- 
ei: of that grove, fitting on the ground, and before him a piece of large 
timber, upon which he had laid crols, fix Billets, and having a hand* 
(aw and a hatchet by him, would cut the billets by little and little, 
till he had brought them'to the ttines , he would fit them to, for the 
(hotter they wer^, the higher the Notcs5which he tryed by knocking 
upon the ends of them with afttck, \Vhich he had in his hiind. When 

I found him at it ^ I took the ftick out of his hand, and tryed the 
found, finding the fix billets to have fix di(tin(3: uotcsj. one above 
another, which put me in a wonder, how he of himfclf, (hould with- 
out teaching do Co much. I then (hewed him the difference betwecij 
flats and (harps, which he prc(ently apprehended, as between f 4, and 
Mi : and he would have cut two more billets to tho(e tunes, but I had 
then nc> tinie to fee it done, and (b left him to his own enquiries* I (ay. 
thus much to let you fee that fbme of the(e people are capable of 
learning Arts. 

Another, of another kind of (peculation I found 5 but more inge- 
nious than he : and this man with three or four more, were to attend 
me into the Woods, to cut Chuf ch wayes, for I was employed fomc-' 
times upon pub! ick works 5 and thofe men were excellent Axe-men, 
and becaufe there w^re many gullies in the way, which were impafla- 
ble, and by Vhat hidhris I was compcU'd to make traverfes,up and down 
in the wood 5 and was by that in danger to mifs of the point, to which 

I was to make my pafiage to the Chtrchj and therefore was fain to take 
a Compa(swith mc,whieh was aCircumferenterjtomakeniy traverfes 
the more exadt,and indeed without which,it could not be donc,(etting 
up the Gircumfcrenter, and obferving the Needle; This l^egre Sambo 
conies to me, and feeing the needle wag, defiredto' know therea(br| 
of its ftirring, and whether it were alive : I told him no, but it flood 
upon a point, and for a while it would flrir, but by and by ftandflill , 
which he obfervM arid found it to be true^ . ... 

- The next queftion was,Why it (lood one way,and would not remove 
to any other point, I told him that it would (iandno way but North 
and South, and upon that fhew'd him the four Cardinal points of the 
compafs, Eaft, Weft, N6rth, South,which he prefently learntby hearty 
and promis'd me never To forget it.HislaftqueftiOn was, why it ^puld 
ftand North, I gave this reafon, bec^tife of the huge Rocks of Load- 
ftone that were in the North part of the world, which had a quality to 
draw Iron to its and this Needle being of Iron, and touched with a 
Loadftone, it would al wayes ftand that way^ 













True and ExaB Hifiory 

This point of Philofophy was a little too hard for him , and Co he 
ftood in a ftrange mufe ^ which to put him out of, I bad him reach his 
axCj and put it near to the Compafs, and remove it about 5 and as he 
did fo^ the Needle turned with, it, which put him in the greatefl: ad- 
miration that ever I (aw a man, and fb quite gave over his queftions , 
anddefired me, that he might be made a Chriftian j for, he thought 
to be a Chriftian, was to be endued with all thofe knowledges tie 

I promifcd to do my beft endeavour 5 and when I came home 
Ipoke to the Mafter ofthe Plantation, and told him, that poor Sambo 
defired much to be a Chriftian. But his anfwer was , That the people 
of that Ifland were governed by the Lawes o£ England ^ and 
thofe Lawes, we could not make a Chriftian a Slave. I told him , my 
requeft was far different from that, for I defired him to make a Slave 
a Chriftian. His anfwer was. That it was true , there was a great 
difference in that 
account him a 

1 , 




3 being once a Chriftian, he could no more 
and {o lofe the hold they had of them as 
Slaves, by making them Chriftians 3 and by that means ftiduld open 
fuch a gap, as all the Planters in the Ifland would curfe him. So I 
Wa^^ftruck mute, ^ndi^oox Sambo kept out of the Church 5 as inge- 
i^ious, as honcft, and as good a natur'd poor foul^ as ever wore blacky 
or eat green* ' 

On SUndayesm the afteriioon, their Mufick {)layes, and to dancing 
th^ygo, the men by themfelves , arid the women by themfelves, no 
Mxt dancing. Their motions are rith er what they aim at, than what 

they do 5 and by that means 

igrefs the left upon the Sunday 

their hands having more of motion thai:\ their feet,and their heads more 
than their hands.. They may dance a whole day,andne*r heatthem- 


yet^now and then, one of the adiveft amohgft them will leap 
bbtt upright, and fall in his place agaiil, but without cutting a capre. 
When they have danc'd an hour or two, the men fall to wreftle, f the 
Mufick playing all the while) arid their manner ofwreftling is, ta 
ftaftd like two Cocks, with heads as low as their hips 5 and thrufting 
their heads one againft another, hoping to catch one another by the 
leg, which (bmetimes they do .• But if both parties be weary,and that 
they cannot get that advantage^ then they raife their heads, by pre(^ 
fing hard one againft another, and (b having nothing to take hold of 
but their bare flefti, they clofe , and gra(p one another about the raid 
die, and have one another in the hug , arid then a fair fall is given 01 
the back. And thus two or three couples of them are engaged at once 
for an hour together, the women looking on ; for when the men be 
gin to wreftle, the women leave off their dancing, and come to be fpe 
Sators of the fport. 

When any or therri dye, they dig a grave, and at evening they bury 
him, clapping and wringing their hands, and making a doleful found 
vyith their voices. They are a pedple of a timerous and fearful di(^ 
pofition, and conlequcntly bloody , when they find advantages. If 
any of them commit a fault, give hirii prefent puniftirtient, but do no 
threaten him 3 for if you do, it is an even lay, he will go and hang him 

♦ '£ 

felf; to avoid the puniftiraent 




mM - • 



Ifldnd (?/ B^rbadoes 




What their other opinions are in matter of Religion^ I know 
but certainly, they are not altogether of the fedl of the 
For, they believe a Refurreftion , and that they (hall go into their 
own Countrey again, and have their youth renewed. And lodging th ' 


their hearts^ they make 

ordinary pradicCj upon 

any great fright 

or threatriingof their Matters , to hang them 

But Colionel IVdrortd having loft thtee 

four of his beft T<ieg 

this way, and in a very little time, caufed one of their heads to be cut 
off, and fet upon a pole a doxen foot high, and having done that , 
caufed all his l^cgroes to come forth, and march round about this head, 
and bid them look on it, whether this were not the headof foch 
an one that hang'd himfelf Which they Acknowledging, he then told 
them^ That they were in a main errour, in thinking they wenunto 
their owd Countreys, aftet- they were dead , for , this mans head was 
here, as they ill were witneffes of 3 and how was it jioffible, the body 
could go without a head. Being convincd by this fad, yet lively fpc- 
dtacle, they changed their opinions s and after that, no more hanged 


When they are (ick, there are two remedies thit 



outward, the other, an inward medicine 



thing they call Negro-oyl 

and 'tis made in 'Barhary 

it is as Bees 

they call for fome of that, and 

but foft as butter . When they feel themfelves ill 

their bodies 

their breafts 

bellies, and fides, and in two dayes they are perfeftly well . 
does thegreateft cures upon fuch , as have bruifes or (trains m their 
bodies. The inward medicine is taken, when they find any weaknels 
or decay in their fpirits and ftomachs, and then a dram or two ot f^u- 
(^ez;i/ revives and comforts them much ex. r \ 

I have been very ftrid, in obferving the (hapes of thefe people 

for the men, they are very weUtimber'd, that is, broad between the 
(houlders^fullbreafted, wellfillettedV ind clean ^,^8 ^ ^?^ j!^f ,^^^j* 
good with Albert DHrers ruIes,who allowes twice the length of the head. 

the breadth of the fhould 

:inoUlU CIS 5 aim •-»»*' ^^.^^^ey-r-j J ^ 

and according to this rule thefe men are Ihap d 

breadth of the hips, „ 

But the women not ^ for the fame great Matter ot Prop 

.uc-acu WU.U.U, .vv...the length of the face to ^he ^readth^of t^^ 
(boulders, and twice the length ofherownBead to the breadth of the 

each woman 


And in that, thefe women are faulty 

ofthera, whofe hips have been broader than their (houlders, unlefi 
they have been very fat. The young Maids have ordmin^r veO^ 
large breafts, which (land ftrutting out fo hard and firm, as no lea- 
ping, jumping, orftirring , will caufe them to ftake any mwe 
the brawns of their ariS. But when they come tobe old>.f;J l»Jf 
had five or fix Children, their breafts hang down below thett NaVds, 
fo that when they (loop at their comnlon work of weeding, tne? na"g 
almoft down to the ground, that at a diftapce, y ""^ "i^-^f '^^ {Jl^y 

had lix legs 

their Children's backs 

And the reafon of this is, they t/ejhc ctoaths dtKjut 

hich comes upon their breafts , which by 

preffing very hard, caufes them to heng down to that length 

O 2 

But this 

and twice ihcUngth of the face, to the 


for I hive feen very few 




True and ExaB Ht^ory 



Children, when they arc firft born, have the palms of their hands and 
the folcs of their feetj of a whitifh colourj and the fight of their eyes 
of a blewifh colour, not unlike the eyes of a young Kitling 3 
they grow older, they become black. 

Their way of reckoning their ages, or any other notable accident 
they would remember, is by the Moon-, and fo accounting from the 

the time they were bi-ought out of 

time of th 

Childrens birth 

their own Gountrey, or the time of their being taken Prifone 
fbme Prince or Potentate of their own Country , or any other 
rious accidents, that they are refolved to remember, they account by 
theMo6rt5 as. To many Moons finqe one of thcfe, and fo many Moons 

fince another 

and this account they keep as long as they 


any of them live long, their Arithmetick fails them, and then they 
at a dead fault, and (ogive over the chafe, wanting the skill to hunt 
counter. For what can poor people do, that are without Letters and 
Numbers, which is the ibul of all bufincfs that is adted by MdrtaIs,upon 

the Globe 

this World 

Some of them, who have been bred iipamongft the l^orfngals . 
have fbme extraordinary qualities, which the others have not, a 
firiging arid fencing.- I. have leen fbmc of thefe rortugal Negroes^ at 
Gollonel jf.4«?e/ Draxes , play at Rapier^ and Dagger very skilfully . 
with their Stookados, their Imbrocados, and their Paffes; And at An- 
gle Rapier too,' after the manner of C^^r^wa^j , with filth comelinefs^ 
as, if the skill had been wanting ^ the motions would have pleafed 

you 5 btitthey 
th their p 

skilful too, which I perceived by their binding 
d nimble and fubtle avoidings with their bodies 

and the advantages th^ ftrongeft man had in the clofe, which the 
avoided by thenimblenefi and skilfulnefs of his motion. - For, in this 
Science, I had been Co well vcfs'd in my youth, as I waj now able to be 
a competent Judge. Upon their firft appearance upon the Stage, they 
m'arclj towards one another, with a flow niajeflick pace, ancf a^bold 
commanding look, as if they meant both to conquer 5 and coming near 
together, they (hake hands, and embrace one another, with i ch earful 
Jo'oH.* But their retreat is much quicker than their advance, and,being 
at firft diftanccjchangc their countenance,and put themfelves into their 
pofture 5 and fo after a pa{sor two, retire, and then to*t again .• And 
\y hen they have done their play, they embrace, (hake hands,and put 
ting on their (moother countenances, give their relpcfts to their Mafter 
and fbgooff. For their Singing,! cannot much commend that havina 

heard fbgood in Europe^ but for their voices, I have heard many of 
them very loud and fweet/ 

th meh and women, 




Excellent Swimmers and Divers they iire , 

(JoJlonel Drax (who wasnotfofiriB an obfirver <7/Sunday _ ^ 

himfclf la wfiil recreations) would((>metimes, to fhcwme ]fp__ 
that day in the afi:ernoon, fend fot one of the Mufio'bfa Duc«- 
and have her put into his largeft Pond , and calling for fome of"his 
beft fvvimming Negroes^ commanded them to (^vim and take this Duck • 
but forbad them to dive, for if they were not bar'd that play theV 
vyould rife up under the Duck , and take her as fhe fwon^p or 

meet her in her diving, and fo the fpdrt would have too quick an end 

- I fcut 

of the IfldndofBsiVDiAots. 


but that play being forbiddcrijthe duck would make them goodfport, 
for thev are ftronger Ducks, and better Divers by far than ours ; and 

this chafe, there was much of pleafiire 

fee the various (w 

mings of the Negr 

{bme the ordinary wayes, upon their bell 

fome on their backs , fome by (triking out their right leg and left 

arm, ^nd then turning 

the other fide , and changing both their 


g and arm, which is a ftronger and fwifter way of fwimming^, than 
any of the oihets : and while vVevVere feeing this fp 

the diverfities. of their fvvimmings, a Negro maid 


d obfer 

there at the beginning of the fport, and therefore he:ird nothing of 
the forbidding them to dive, put ofFher peticoat behind a bufli, that 

was at one end of the Pond , and clofely funk down into the wa 



nd at one diving got to the Duck , puU'd her 

under water 



atid went back again the fame way (he came to the bu(h,all at one divc; 
We all thought the Duek had div*d ; and expeded her appearance 
above water, but nothing could be feen, till the fubtilty was difco- 
vered, by a Chriftian thatfaw her go in, and fo the duck was taken 
from her. But the trick being fo finely and fo clofely done, I beg d 

that the Duck might be given her ag 
young g 

much pleafed 

which was granted, and the 

ung girlc mucti pleaiea. . . t it i it 

Though therc'be a mark fet upon thefe people, which will hardly 

bevvip'd off 

of their cruelties when they have advantages 

and of their fearfulnefs and falfenefs^ yet no rule Co general but hatH 
his acception : for I believe, and I have ftrong motives to ciufe nie td 
be of that pcrfvvafion, that there are as honeft,faithfiil, and confcio- 
nable people amongH: them, as amongft thofeof^wr^i'f, or any other 

part oF the world. 

A hint of this, I will give you in a lively examples and 

time when Viftuals were (carce 

quently planted, as to afford them enough 

d Plantins were not then fo fire- 

So that fome of the high 

fpirited and tl^f bulent amongft them,began to mutiny, andhadaplo 

iicretly tobe reveng don their Mafter 5 and one or two of thefe were 

that made the fires in the hirnaces, who were never withdut 


floreof dry wood by them 


were refolvedto make 

fire to fuch part of the boyling-houfe, as they were fure wouHfirethe 
reft, and fo burn all. and yet feem ignorant of the faft, as a thing done 
by accident. But this plot was difcovered , by fome of the others 
who hated mifchicf,as much as they lov d it 5 and fotraduc d them to 
their Mafter, and brought in fo many witneffesagiinft them, asthey 
were fore d to confcfs , whatthey meant fhould have been put in att 
the next night : fo giving them condign puniftiment the Mafter gave 

Order to the overfeer that the reft (hould 

do what they would 

dayes liberty to 
; and withall to 


themfelves and their wives, to __ - ^ - , 1 u- u 

oiM,. them a double proportion of visual forthree dayes, both which 
, .efus'd : whichweaUwonder*dat,knowing we 1 how much they 
.. V d their liberties, and their meat, having been lately pmch d ot the 
one, andnothavmg overm-uch of the other 5 and therefore being 
doubtful what thdr meaning was in this, fufpefting fome d&ontent 
amoneftthem, fent for three or four of the beft of them and defird 

that was oner d tnem, but 


know why they refiis'd this favour 


*. , 




True d'nd ExaU Hiflory 

— t 

d fuch an anfwer .* as we little expected 5 forthey toldusjt was 

not (uUennefs 


flighting the gratuity their Mafter beflpw'd 

thcftij but they would not accept any thingasarecompencefbr doing 
that which became them in their duties to do 3 nor would they have 
him thinks ^^ was hope ofreward^ that made them to accufe their fellow 
fervantSj but an aft of JufticCj Which they thought themfclves bound 

duty to do, and they thought 

felves fufficiently rewarded 

the Ad. The fiibftance of this, in luch language as they had 


delivered^and poor Saml?o was the Orator-rby whole example the oth 
were led bothinthedifcovery of the Plot, and refijfal of the gratuity. 
And withall they (aid, that if it pleas'd their Mafter, at any time, to 
beftow a voluntary boon upon them, be it never Co fleight, they would 
willingly and thankfully accept it ; and this ad might have befeem'd 
the beftChriftians, though (bme of them v/credenyed Chriftianity 5 
when they earneftly fought it. -Let others have what opinion they 

pleafe^ yet I am of this belief 3 that there are to be found amongft them^ 
fbme whoareasmorallyhoneft^ as Confcionable, as humblc,as loving 
to theit friends, ^nd as loyal to their Mafters, as any that live under the 
Sun 5 and one realbnthey have to be (b,is, they fet no great value up- 
on their lives ; And this is all I can remember concerning the Negroes^ 
except: of their games,' which I could never learn, bccaufe they wanted 
language to teach me. 

As for the Indians^ we have but fevv 

a»oxvx iii^x//M/««j3 wc jijav*_ uuii^-yy^and thofc fetcht from other 
Countries 5 fbme from the neighbouring idands , (bme from the 

Main, which we make (laves : the women who are better vers'd in 
ordering the Cadavie and making bread , then the Negroes 



ploy for that purpofe , as ahb for making Mobbie : th 
u(e for footmen, and killing of iiih,vvhich they are good at 3 with theit 
own bovves and arrows they will go out 5 and in a dayes time,kill as 
much fifli, as will (erve a family of a dozen per(bns,tvvo or three dayes, 
if you can keep the fifh (b long. They are very adive men, and apt 

any thing,(boncr than the Negroes 3 and as different from them 

(hape, almoft 

the men very broad (houlder'd 

breafted, with large heads, and their faces almoft three fq 
about the eyes and temples , and (harp at the chin , their 

5 deep 
are,^ broad 
skins (bme 
of them brown, fbme a bright Bay, they are much craftier, and fubtilcr 
then the Kegrscs 3 and in their nature falfcr 3 but in their bodies more 
adive: their women have very (mall breads , and have more of the 
ibupeo^ the Europea^is than the Negroes^ their hair black and long, 
a great part whereof hangs down upon their backs , as low as their 
hanches, with a large lock hanging over either brcaft, which feldom 
or never curies .• cl oaths they fcorn to wear, efpecially if they be Well 
fiiap'd 3agirdlethey u(eoftape, covered with little fmooth fhcls of 

from their flank of one fide, to their flank on the 

fifhes, wh 

other fide, a fringe of blew Bugle 3 which hangs fo low as to cover their 
privities. We had an /W. 

flave in the hou(e, who 

of excellent (hape and colour,for it was a pure bright bay 3(013] 1 breaft 
with the niples of a porphyric colour, this woman would not be woo'd 


by any means to wear Cloaths. Shechanc.d to be with Child^ 
Ghriftian fervant , and lodging in the Indian houfe^ amongft other 






Iffand of hkrh^dcki 


women bfhcr own Country, vvhe'retlie Chriftkn icrvants , both men 
and women came ; and being vcty great , and that her time was come 

be delivcrcdj loath td fall in labour before themen, walk'd down which was a I^dnd of water, and thereby the 

I 1 • ^ /^ 

Pond, brought hetfelf abed'5 and ptefentlyvvafliing her Child in fome 
of the Water of the Pond, lap d it up in fuch rags , as .flie had beggd 

• 1 

of the Chrift 

din three hours tirtie canie hdme, with her Child 



arrils^ a luftyBoy^ fi'olick and lively 






This ^/ri/.^;/ dwelling near the Sea-coaft, upon the Main 



p put in to a Bay, and fentfome of her men a Ihoar , to, try,' what 
vidualsdr \vater they could find, for in fome difltefs they were: But 
the iWr^;// perceiving them to go up (bfar into the Country, as they 
^vcre fure they could not make a lafe retreat, intei'cepted theihitf their 
retun^,3nd fell upon them,cha(ing them into a Woodland being difper- 
fed there, fome were taken,and fomekiird; but a young man amongft 
thcrh ftragling from the reft^ was met by this /«<^z'^// Maid , who upon 
the firft fight fell in love with him, alid hid him clofe from her Country 

(the Iricliarn) in a Cave, and there fed him, till, they could fafcly 
go down to the fnoar, where the (hip lay at anchor.expcding the return 
of their friends. But at laft, feeing them upon the fhoar, fent the long 

Bolt for th 

them aboard, and bi;ought them away 

But the 

youth, when he camd A^oav'mthe Barbddoes:, forgot the kindnefs of 
the poor maid, that had ventured her life for his fafety, and Cold hct 
for a flave, who wis as free born as^he : And (b vooi Tarko fcir her love. 


loft her liberty. 

Now for thcMafters; I have yet faid but little 

half of what they defc 

able to faty 

They are men of great abilities and parts 
they could not go through, with (uch great works as the 

undertak( ^ 

order, and continue itfb 

g of one of their Plantations, being a work 
require a Very good head-peece, to put in 


n nam 

Planter there, that feeds daily twohutidred mouths 

d Tecps them in fuch order, as there are no mutinies amongft them 

al abil 

yctof fev 

All thefe are to be employed in their (eve 

fo as no one be idle. The firft work to be confidered 

Weeding, for unlefs that be done, allelfe (and the Planter too) will 
be undone , and if that be neglcflied but a little time, it will be ahard 
matter to recover itagain^ fbfaft willthe weeds grow there. But the 


ground beitig kept 

fit to bear any thing that Country 


After weeding comes Plantmg 

d they account two feafo 

year beft ,and that is, Maj and T^ovemh 


but Cartes are to be 

field after another 3 

planted at all times, that they may 

otherwife, the work willftand ftill. And commonly they have 
field that is planted together, at one time, ten or a d< 
work of planting and weeding, the Mafter himfelf 



fs he have a very trufty and able Overfee 

fee dom 
ithdut fi^ich 

unlcisne nave a very trmty ana aoie wvcncci -, auu »»i..wv^«.. .^^ 
one, he will have too much to do. The next thing he is to confid 



hat belong 



Ingenio it felf 

IS ttieingenio, ana wnat oeiongs 10 luat 5 aa , m'- .i.^v.^v^ *t .w-. 
which is the Vri'imm A fobilc ofthc whole work, the Boyling-houfe 

theCopp-i'S and Furn 

the Filling room, the Still-houfe 

P 3 














AXrue and ExaU Hijiory 

and Cureing-houfe 3 and in all thefe^ there are great carualtics. If any 
thins: in the Rollers, as the Goudges, Sockets^ Sweeps, Cogs, or Bray 

be at fault 

whole workftandsftill j or in the Boyling-hou(e 

if the Frame which holds the Coppers , ("and is made of Clinke 

faflned with plaifter off 

if by the violence of the heat from the 

Furnaces, thefe Frames crack or break, there is a ftop in the work 
that be m'ended. Qjr if any of the Coppers have a mifchance, and be 
burnt, a new one muft prefcntly be had, or there is a ftay in the work. 
Or if the mouths of ;he Furnaces, (which are made of a fort of (lone , 
which we have from England, and we call it there, high gate ftone) if 


there muft new be provided, and laid in with much 

by the violence of the fire, befoftned, that it moulder away 

or it will not 

be. Or if the bars of Iron^ which arein the floor of the Furnace ^ 
when they are red hot (as continually they are) the fire-man ^ throw 
great (hides of wood in the mouths of the Furnaces, hard and care- 

the weight of thofe log 

will bend 

break thofe bars 

rthough ftrongly made) and there is no repairing them, without the 
,„^„i, cv^r^A n-;n . fr^r^lltVipfe Henpnd noon one another, as wheels in 

•k ftand ftill 5 for all thefe depend upon one another 



Or ifthe Stills be at fault, the kill-devil cannot be made. 

the lofs of our Cattle, 
I have known in one 

But the main impediment and ftop of all, is 

and amongft them, there ^refuch diieafes, as 

Plantation,thirty that havcdyedia twodayes. And I have heard^that 

a Planter, an eminent man there, that cleared a dozen acres of ground 


(bon as the grafs 

which ac- 

and raird it about for paftu . , - ^ 

was grown to a great height, to put in his workmg O 
cordingly he did, and in one night fifty of them dyed j fo that fuch i 
lafs as this, is able to uqdo a.Planter, that is not very well grounded 
What it is that breeds thefe difeafes , we cannot find, unlefs fome of 
the Plants have a poyfonous quality , nor have we yet found out cures 
for thefe difeafes , Chickens guts being the befl: remedy was then 
known, and thofe being chop d or minc'd, and given them in a horn 

with fome liquor mixt to moiftenit, was thought the beft remedy : yet 
it recovere4 very few . Our Horfes too have killing d ifeafes amougfl 
them, and fome ofthem have been recovered by Gliftcrs, which we 
giv^ them in pipes, or large Seringesniade of wood, for the fame pur- 
pofe* For, the common difeafes, both of Cattle and Horfes, are ob- 
ftrvia:ions and bindings in their bowels j^and fo lingring a difeafe " 

to thofe that 
get well 

they are almoft worn to nothing before they 

So that if any of thefe (lops continue long, or the Cattle 

be recruited in a reafbnable time, the work is at a (land 5 and 

by that means, the Canes grow over ripe , and 

time have their 

dryed up 



a very (hort 
be worth the grin- 

Now to recruit thefe Cattle^ Horfes, Camels, and Aflinigos , 

liable to thefe mifchances and decayes. Merchants muft be 


fulted, (hips provided, and a competent Cat 

tnm^l[f^ t^pxxr^rr^xrnrrpfitnfnrr^iwn Darts, to 1 

oyages to forraig 


goods adventured 

pply thofe loffe 



when that is done, the cafualtics at Sea arc tobeconfidcrcd,and thofe 
happen feveral waves, cither by (hipwrack, piracy, or fire. AMafter 

- " • ' "^ 3 having 

of a (hip, and a man accounted both able, ftout, and honed 



. I 


- ' 

of the IfldndofBarbsido^t. 





fported goods of (eVeral kind 

from England to a part of Afr 

the River o^Gamhra^ and had there exchanged his Commodities for 
Nezroes^ which was that he intended to make his voyage of^ caufed 



themalltobeOiip'da anddid , r i. • u n. j 

ther^ and make them furi?, but having an opmion of their honelty and 
faithfulnefs to him, as they had promifed 5 and he being a credulom 


and himfelf ^ood iiatur'd and merciful, fuffered them 


loofe, and they being double the number ofthofe in the Ship ^i. found 
their advantages, got weapons in their hands, and fell upon the Say- 
Icrs, knocking them on the heads, and cutting their throats fo faft, as 
the Mafter found they were all loft, out of any poffibility of favmgj 
and fo went down into the Hold, and blew all up with himfelf^ and 
this was' before they got (Jut of the River, thefe, andfeveral other 
wayes there will happen, that extredmly retard the work of Sugar- 

making. * ' t t. u ' 

Now let us confiderhownSany things there are to be thought on, 

that go to the aftuating this greatwork;, -and how many cares to pre- 
vent the mifchances-, that are incident to the retarding , if not the 
fruftratingofthewholework, and you will find them wife and pro- 
vident men7that go on and profper in a vyprk, that depends upon Co 



And thus much I 


Thisllay; to ftopthoCe mens mouths, thatlyehere at honie^^ and 
expeft great profit in their adventutes\ and nevdt confider^, tl^^ough 
what difficulty, induftry and pains it is acquired' 
thought good to fay, of the abilities of the Planter* _ 

The next thing is, oftheit natures and difpofitipn^T, which T iound 
compilable inahigh degree toall Virtues, that thofc of the beft^rt 
of Gentlemen call Excellent 5 as. Civilly intreating ofStrapgers,; vyith 
communicating to them any thing withm the compaCs^pt their 

knowledge, that might be beneficial to them , m any 

amongft them, dnd aflifting them 

giving them harbour fo(r jihem 

And if their intentions were to buy Plantat 

f cs and fervants. And it ttieir intentions were to ouy r lautu. tv.x» , 

make diligent enquiries forfuch as they defired , and to drive the 

bargain as near the wind for their advanbg 

poflTibly they^could 

and to put themfelve-s in" fom^e travels, in fetling the bufmefs : Or 
ifthat could not do theinfervice, ro recommend them to any tncnd 
they had, that lay more fit and convenient for their purpofe. Lovmg, 
friendly, and hofpitable one to another j and though the}' are of. feve- 


Lil Perfwafions, yet, their difcretions ordered every thing fo 

there never were any fallings out between them : which to prevent 

fome of them of the better fort, madea Law amongft^themrelves, ttiat 

wholbever nam'd the word Roundhead 

fliould give 

thofe that heard him, a Shot and a Turky,tobeeatenathishou{ethat 
made the forfeiture, which fometimes was done purpofcly,that they 
mii^ht enjoy the company of one another 5 and fometimes this Shot 
and this Turky would draw on a dozen di(hes more, if company — 



Sofmnk, fo loving, and fo good 

d were thefe 

Gentlem?,/ one to another 5 and to exprefs their affcftions yet highet 

they had particular names one to anoth 

as, Neighbour, Friend 

Brother, Sifter : So that f t>erceived nothing wanting, that might make 





V J 

ft --* 


^ imJ ■-' 



A True' and ExaB Hiflory 








Tame beafis 
that are li- 
ving on the 





and Cgvpes* 





up afirm and lafting friendfhip amongft them $ though after I cailie^ 
away, it was otherwife 

Sports and exercifes they nevqr us'd any j as Bowling, Shooting , 
Hunting, or Hawking , for indeed there are no places fit for the two 
'firft exercifes, the Countrey being fo Rocky, uneven and full offtumps 

of trees * and for the other two, they want game 5 for there are no kind 
ofwildbeaftsinthelfland, nor any foul fit to hawk at 5 befides the 


Country is fb woody , as there Js no ChaWpian to fly 

■Paftrrdgesi Heathpoults, Quailes, orRayles, never fet foot upon this 

ground, unle/s they were brought there ' ^'^ '' ' " '"' 

and if (o^ they 


and for Hawkes, Ineverfaw but two, and thofe the merrieft ftirrei 


I faw" fly 5 the 

of them was 

evening juft 

Sun fetting, which is the time the Bats rife , and fo are to a good 
height 5 and at a 'dovt^ncome^ this ^^rWj' Faulcon took one of them 

and carried it away. ^ ^ , n 

: If I (hall begin with the largeft/firft I muft name Camels, and thefe 

very ufeful beads, but Very few will live upon the Ifland 


have had them brought 

but few know how to dyet them. Cap 

-- k/;^^/»/'^//&^A« had four or five, which were of excellent ufe, 
ly for carrying ddt^m fugar to the bridg 


of briiit^insj from 



thence hogflicads of Wine ^ Beer^orVinegar, which horfes cannot d 
iior can Carts pafsfbf Gullies, and l^egroes cannot carry itjfor ther' 
fcs afore-mentioned 5 a good A^el will carry 1600 L weight, ; 

gdtliefureftofanybeaft. . • - j 'n 

We have fi'omfeveral parts of the world,' EngUndy HcUatid^ Bofja^ 

'VfJ^a^t^eJile&OfCafeVerd, Virginia^'Nevp EffgUtid^ and fomc from one 
bf the imcirdjfiands fnthe Carrihhhs cAlVdCffrrifa, befides forne we 
treed and very ftrong and goodrilettled, bold and fit to charge on : 
thefe Htjrfes we uie either for the Ingenio,or thcSaddle,feldom or never 
f6'r tarty ing fugar, the gullies being fo ftefep. 

■ We have from the feveral" places I haVe naM'd , but chiefly Bulls, 
ff 6m" the Ille ofAfay , mdBomviftht; Which are Cattle , being well 
"taught, will work tlie orderlieft that I have feen any. With thefe, we 
have Cows, and (ome of them vvfe ufe for the Pay Ic, andfome for the 
rngeriio, fome we bi:ced,audhaVe(peedierincreafe than m Europe, for 
here a Calf will bring a Calf in fourteen months5 and if it were not for 

the difeafesthat take away our Cattl 
any from forraign parts 

fiiould not need to fetch 

t ' 

Are here of exceeding great ufe in the Ifland, in carrying our fug 

down to the bridge^which by reafbn of the gullies 

the Horfes 


befides when the great fains fall^the arc fo deep-, and full 



hard lifting him up. Whereas the Aflinigoes pick and chqofe 
their way, and fbmetimes choofe out little wayes in the wood , fuch 
as they know are fit for them to pais , which horfes cannot do, be 

*of roots, as when a horfe puts in his leg bctw 

hardly pull it out again, having a great weight on his back 


fe the wayes arc now to narrow for them, or if the) 


would want much the wit of the Affinigoes, to pick and choofe their 
wav. And if by chance the Aflinigocs fall, two Kigrocs are able to heljf 

him up 

d we fcldom ufe more than two, for ailifl 







Ifldnd ofBaxhidott 


Chriflian that has the charge of the tarriages* One of the(e Afiini 


will carry 15 


of fugar 3 fbme of the ftrongeft 2cd 

ght^ our Planters have been very defirous if it were pofiible to get 


there, for they would be of excellent ufe 


(tigars, and working in the Ingenio 5 .but they had got none when I was 

carrying the 




there, but they were malting tr\ 

get (bme of thofe, or 

Come large Horie Affiaigoes, to breed, with the Mares of that Coun 


We have here in abundaace, but not wildor loofe, for if they wer< 
they would do more harm than their bodies are worth 3 they 



clos'd, and every man knows his 

thole that rear theni to fell 

ghing them alive 

do'commonly fell themfbf a groat a pound 

ibmctimes fix pence if fledi be deir. There was a Planter in the 
llland, that came to his neighbour, and laid to him, Neighbotir I hear 
yon have lately bought good (tore of (ervants, outofthe laft (hip that 
came from England^ and I hear wi^hall , tliat you want provifions 3 
I have greit want of a woman (ervant 5 and would be glad to nlake art 
cxchange^Tf you will let me, have (bme of your womans fleQi, you (hall 
have (bme of my hogs flefh 5 fb the pric6 was fet a groat a pound for 
the hogs flefh, and fir-pence for the Womans flelh. The (cales were 
(et up , and the Planter had a Maid that was extream fat, lafie, and 
good for nothing , her name was Honor ^ The mdn brought i great 
fat (bw, and put it in one fcale, and' H(?»<?r was put in the others but 

he (aw how much the Maid outweighed his Sow, he broke off 

d would not g 
(eldom happen, . yet 'tisaiA or4inary thing there, to fell their (ervants 

the barg 

though iuch a ca(e as this, niay 


cr for the time they have to (eryej and in exchange, re 
ceive any commodities that are in the Ifland -^ I have (aid as much al 
ready of the largene(s weight and goodne(s of thefe hogs as is needful 
and therefoi^e I (hall need no more* - 

We have lii^f e, but vei'y Cew 5 and thole do not like well the pafltire, [ shcepi 
being very unfit for them^ a (bure tough and (aplels gra(s, and fome 
poy(c)nous plant they find, which breeds difea(es ampngftthem, and 
fbthcy dye avvay, they never are fat, and we thought a while the 

(on had beeti; their too nitich heat with their 

and fb got them 

often (h 

but that would not cure them; yet the Ews bear alwaj 

two Lambs ; their flefh when we tryed any of them , had a very faint 
tafte, fothat I do not think they are fit to be bred or kept in that 
Countrey : other Pneepwc have there, Vr'hich are brought from Cjfi/?^; 
and E;fm% and thofe have hair growing on them, inftead ofwool5and 


liker Goats than Sheep, } 
the oth 

their flefh is tafted more like Mutton than 

We have in greater plenty ? an 


d they profper fdr better than the 


d I find little difference in the tafte of their flelh, and the 

Goats here, they live for the mod part in the woods 



the paflure, but-are alwayes in( 
upon their neighbours ground 

. d in a fence, that they do not trefpafs 
for whofocver finds Hog or Goat of 


hboufs. cither in his Canes, Corn, Potatoes, Bonavift,orPI 

\y by the ] 
and kill hira^ but 
know where he is 

Ifland (lioot him through with a Gun 

he muft rrefentl V fend to the owner, to let him 















< ^,. 

4. ^. * 

True and ExaB Hi(iofy 


hardly worth the 

i did the Beads, I will fet them 

TheBirds of this place (fetting 
painsofdefcribing^ yet^ in order, 
down. The biggeft isa diteft Buflard , but lomewhat lels than our 
grey Buflards in England^ fomewhat fwifter of wing 5 and the only 
good they do, is, fometiraes to kill the Rats. The next to himinbig- 

the larger Turtle Dove, and of them , there is great (lore in 

the liland 

much handfomer bird, both in (bape and colourjthan 

Endfind^ and is very good meat 

Next to her is the lefTe 

Turtle, a far finer bird than (he, but of a contrary ihap 

.^he fhape of a Partridge , but her plumidge gray 

under the wings s a pretier bird I do not know, of (b few g 



and a red brow 

her tune likfe the other 

The next is a bird like a Thrufh, of a 

melancholly look, her feathers never fmooth, but alwayes ruffled, as 
iffhe were mewing, her head down, her ftiouldersiip 

) f 

f her neck 

broke. This bird has for three or four notes, the loudeft and 


as if (he were fick or 

I heard , if ftie had variety 


(he looks alwaye 


[(weeteft, that ever 
could go beyond her 

melanchollyk -. 

. '• Another there is, not much unlike a Wren, butbigasaThrufh^ and 

this is as merry and jolly, as the other is fad 3 and as (he ^iis. 


tenance " as if (he would invite y 


d lifts up hei 

looking with i> earnefi: and merry 

come to her., and will fit 

you come very nearher* .- ' This bird I never heard fing 


Black-bird, with whiti^ ey 

and that lb illbecomes her, as fhe 

ted an unhaujdfbnie bird 5 her voice harfh, fomewhat like our 

" "': , ind are harmful birds, for 

f jay in Eriglan'd 3 they go in great flock ^ 
they are great devourersofcorn, ancltloflon:^ of 

and the PI 

with them deftroVed^ though the;j(^ know not which way 


kind of Stares', for ^hey walk ,^ and do not hop as other birds 
One thing [ obferve in thefc birds p^ which I never faw ii> any but 
them, and that is, whenthey,fly, they'put their train into feveralpo- 
ftures^one while they keep itftraight, asother birds ^fometimes they 



thetailof anlh, and by and by ptit it'thi 

with the covering feather a top, and the fides downwards 

The next is of the colour of a Feldefare, but the hcild feeras 



for that rcafbn they call her a Counfellor j her flj 

• tunc , 'tis fuch as I hdve not heard 


d for he 

for her body, and 

ing is extrcam wai 

any like her, not for the fwcctnefs , but the ftrangenefs ofit, for flic 
performs that with her voicc,^ that no inftrument can play, nor no voice 

* ^r forig being com- 


fingj but hers 5 and th 
po[ed of five tones, and every 
other. Mr. "jolm Coprario^ an 
friend, told me once, that he was ftudj 


quarter of 

compofer of Mufick 

higher th 



man had ever attempted to do 


iofity in mufick , that 
waSj of quartet notes j 
gave it over : But if he 

but he not being able to go through w 

had liv'd to have gone with me to the B^rW<)e/,thisBitd ftiould have 
taught him. Under this fize there arc none confiderable j Sparrowcs, 
Havfocks, Finches, Yellow Hamcrs, TitmicCjand divers others of that 
(bfr, for which I have no names. But the lad and ftrangeft of all, is, 
that which we call the humming bird, much lefs than a Wren, not 


V t 

vfthe Ifland o/Barbadoes 


much bigger than anhiimbl 

her body long, her wings fmall and 

Qiarp, of a fiillen fad green^ iio plcaiant colours on hers her manner of 
feeding is^ juft as a Bee, putting her bill int6 ablollbri^ Or d flower, 
taftes as lightly as A Bee, nevcf fittingj but puthng With her wings, all 

s are as 

the time fhe ft^iy cs with the flower , hnd the rttotibn of h^r 
tiirtible and fwift, as 14 Bee : We have nd way to take hei*, but by (hoo- 
ting fan d out of a Gun at her, which mazes her for the pirefent , that 
you may take heir up^but there is no way to keej? her alive^het feeding 

being fuch 

give her but her felfl Now for the Birds that 


upon the outward verge of the Ifland,! have not much to fay.Some 
tiriies Teals come to our Ponds, three or four couple together, but 
ftever go avVay , for when we fee them, we take a giinjjind coming near, 
Ihoot thenij and the report of the gun frights i and make's thole thlt 
iare alive fly awlVj dnd fetch one turn, aridcortie back x6 fee theit fel- 
lows dead, and alight to them, and fb weftidotdndfllOotagairttill 411 
be kill*d 3 for they will alwayes come bddk to fee their dead fi^iertdg; 
The like We dcJ with thofe birds we call Oxen and K 



Sm:ill Swallows We have now ind then . but 

fbmewhat different frbm 


But there is a Bird the\ 

Man of war , and he is much bigger 


than a Heron, and flies out to Sea upon difcoveries, (for they 

light upon the Sea) to fee what fhips are coming to the Illand 

When they teturn, thelflcinders look out, and fay,, 4 fhip iscoriiing 
4nd find * 

tileetus twenty 


I have feen one of therti, as high as I icOuld look, td 

from land 

d fbme dther^s^ alnibfl as b 


Ducks, that in an eVehingeame in a fldckof tVVehty, or thete about 

and they made divers turns about the (hid 

befdre Suil-fettirig 

d when it grew dark, they lighted upon the fibs of the (hip , and 
v/ith little ndofes ofpackthted, tht; Say lets caught them 3 they were 

very fat and good 

f « 

Though the Bat be no Bird, yet fhe flyes with wing 



d ai way 

es a 


before Sun-fetting, at which time they come out of holes, chim- 

and will raife them to a great height, feeding 

time of the 

and hollow 

themfelves with flyes that they find in the air, at that 



Having ddiie withBcafts 

d Birds 

wd will enquire wtiat other 

lefitT Animals or Infeds there are upon the Ifland , of which. Snakes 
are the chief^ becaufe the largell 3 and I hdve feen fbme ofthofe a yatd 
and a half long. The only harm they do, is to our Pigeon-hdufcs, and 
thilk-pans 3 

where they can coriie in, they Will get to the nefts , and d 
young Pig 

that if vve leave any hole in the bdttom o^ the hdufe 

f they be notdvet big. And yet *tis flrange td fc 



what great mdffcls they will fwallow 3 Aide they will tip again ft a 
Wall, if it be butpefpendicular3 but if it be declining outward , they 
cannot get up, but will fall back ten foot high, if they be hindred by 
any (looping of the wall, fdr which reafdn vve make jetties', near the 
top offuchrooms,as vve will keep them out of 3 they have climbed 

fix foot high upon the outfide ofa 

come in at \ vVindovv^dov 

the iixlide, skim our milkfians ^ and away agaixi : Till vve tdok 
\ of then: there, We kneVv not by what nlcans our pans were thtiS 








5//f^ A- 

nimds and 



















True and ExaB Ht^ory 

skim'd. - They never (ling any body, nor is there any venomous beaft 

in the Ulan J. The next to theft are Scorpions, of which, fbme of them 

areasbigasRats 3 fraoothj and coloured hke a Snake, fbraevvhat 

j blcwer.their bellies inclining to yeIlow,very nimble and quick to avoid 

' their purfuers .- yet^ the Snakes will now and then take themjbetween 

whom there is a great conflict:, before the quarrel be decided 5 for 

the Scorpions that are large, are very ftrong, and will maintain the 
fight fbmetimes half an hour, t have leen themwreftle together a good 
part of that time : But in conclufion, the Snakes get the better, and 
dtvour the other. Thefe Scorpions were never known to hurt man 




Toads or Frogs we have none. 




Lizards we had in great plenty, but the Cats kill themfbfaft in the 
houles, as they are much leifened in their number. This little Animal 
loves much to be where men are, and are delighted tofland and gaze 
in their faces, and hearken to their diicourfe. Thefe with uSjI'think, 
are different fi'omthofe of £«rfjpc 5 the bodies of ours are about four 
inches long, the tail near as much, headed not much unlike a Snake 
their colour, when they arepleafed, a pure grafs-grcen on the back, 
blewidi toward the fide, andyellowifh on thebclly 5 four legs, and 
thofe very nimble .• When they fee at diftance (bme of their, own 
kind, that they are angry with, they fwcll a little bigger, and change 
their colour^ from green toruflct or hair-colour , which abates much 
of their beauty , for their green is very pleafant and beautiful : Cold 

they are as Frogs. Next to thefe are Cockroches^a creature of thebig- 



nefs andlhape ofaBeetle, but of a pure hair-colour, which would 
fet him off the better, if he had not an ugly wabling gate, but that 
makes him unhandfbme. He appear^ in the evening when 'tis dark, 
and will, when he plcafcs, fly to your bed, when he finds you Keep- 



ingj and bite your skin, till he fetch blood, if you do not wake 

if you take a Candle to (earch for him, he fhifrsawayandhides him- 

felf, asthePurnefesdo mTtialy, The Negroes, who have thick skins. 

and by reafbn of their hard labour, fleep fbundly at night, are bitten 
fb, as far as the breadth ofboth your hands together, their skins* are 
rac'd, as ifit were done with a curry-comb. Next to thefe tormen- 
tors, are Musketos , who bite and fting worfe than the Gnats and 
Stouts, that fling Cattle inE^^/^wr/, (and are commonly felt in marifli 
ground). And next to them Me ri wings, and they are of ib fmalla fize, 
and fothin and aercall, as you can hardly difcern them , but by the 
noifcof their wings. 


which is like a frnall bugle horn ,, 

at a great 


fla ace .'Where they lting,there v/ill rife a little knob, as big as apeafe, 
I and iadfo a whole day, the mark, will not be gone in twenty four 
hours. Caterpillars we have fbmetimcs in abundance, and they do 
very great harm 5 for , they light upon the leaves of our Potatoes, 
which we call Slips, and eat them all 


awa)-. and come {o low, as to 

I eat of the Pvoot too : And theoncly rcm.edy we have^ is,todrivea 
iiockofTurkies into the place where they are, and they will'devour 




The harms thefe vcrmincdo us, is double, firft, in the flips," 
which is the food wc give our Horfcs, and iscaflinto the rack 5 and 

in our Potatoes, being the root of thefe flips , 
feed upon. 




our {<:\\c% 



of the JjlMd (^/'Barbadpes. 


Flyes we have of jfo many, kinds , (Trom tvvd inches long with 

great horns, which wc keep in boxes 



gft his rariticsj to the leaft A 

^ewcd by JoL 

would be a 


weary vvork to fet them down, as alfo the fiidden production of 
them, from Nothing to Maggets, from Maggets to Flyes 5 ai 

only a race of all thefe kinds , that g 


d there 
ou^ but 


upon new occafions, new kinds 5 as, after a great downfall of rain , 
when the ground has been extreamly moiftnedj and fbftncd with the 
water, I have walk'd out upon a dry walk (which I made my felf^ 
in an evenings and there came about me an army of filch fly eSj as I had 
never feen before, nor after 3 and they rofe, as I conceived, out of the 
earth : They were as big bodied as Bees , but far larger wings 5 harm 
they did us none, but only lighted on us , their colour between afh- 
colour and purple* 

The next of the(c moving little Animals, areAuts, or Pifinires , and 
thofe are butof afmallfize, butgreat in induftry 5 and that which 
gives them means to attain to their ends , is, they have all one foul. 
IfKhouldiay, they are here or there, Iftiould do them wrong-, for 
they are every where, under ground, where any hollow orloofe earth 
is, amongfi: the roots of trees, upon the bodies, branches, leaves, and 

places, without the houfes and within ^ upon 

fruit of all 

the (ides, walls, windows, and roofs without 




fealings , and windows within 3 tables, cupbord 




ftools, all are covered with them, (b that they are a kind of Ubiqui- 
tarics. The Cockroaches are'their mortal enemies, and though they 

are notabletodotlicm any milchief^ being living , (by realbn they 
are far ftronger and mightier than a hundred of them, and if they (hould 
force any one of them with multitudes, he has the liberty of his wings 
to make his cfcape) yet, when they find him dead , they will divide 
him amongrt: them into Atomes, and to that purpose, they carry him 
home to their houfes or ncfts. We Ibmetimes kill a Cockroach, and 
■throw him on the ground , and mark what they will do with him 


body is bigger than a hundred of them , and yet they will find 
means to take hold ofhim, and lift him up 5 ar.d having him 


ay they carry him 

d fbm 




afliftants, if any be weary 3 and fome are the Officers that lead and 
fliew the way to the hole into which he muft pafs 5 and if the Van- 

ers perceive, that the body of the Cockroach lies crois, and 


pafs through 

carry him , order is g 

arch, through which they, mean 
and the body turned endwife , and 
this done a foot before they come to the hole, and that without any 
flop orftay ^ and this is obfcrvable, that they never pull contrary 



Cupbord s, or Bed 

and will prevent their coming on their 
have little hollows of timber, fill'd with 

water, for the feet of thefe to. ftand in , but all this will not ft 
their turn 5 for they will fbme of them, go up to thcjeiling, and 
them (elves 


fall upon the tcaftcrs of the Beds, Cupbor 



To prevent them from comin 


where our meat 










True And ExaB Hiflory 


is kept 3 we hang thepi tb the roof by Vopc§ ^ and \:at thofe 
ropes 5 and the roofs o\^er thenij as alfb the ftrings of out 
Hamocks^ for which rcafon W€ avoid them better in Hamocks thari 

in beds. . . . . 

Sometimes when we try concludons upon them 5 we takt the Car- 
pet off the Table, and (hake it, fb that all the Ants drop off, and rub 
dolvh the legs and fctt of thofc tables, fWhichftood not in water)and 
havihgdone To : we lay on the Carpet again, iind fet upon it A 
Sallct di(h, or Trencher, Vvith fugaf in it, which fodie of thetri in the 
room will prefently finell, and make towards it as faft a§ they cdn , 
which is a long journey, for hettiuft begin at the foot of the table,dnd 
conle as high as the ihfide of the Carpet, and fo go down to thi? bot- 
tom and up of the omfide of the Cdi'pet, before he gets Oii the table ^ 
and then to the fugar^which ha fmels to^ arid having found it, returns 
again thefarte way , without takhig any for his pains , and informs 
all his friends of this booty 3 who come in thoufands, and ten thou- 

, fetch it all away j and when they are thickelt 
lar^e Book (or any thing fit for that purpole) 

s, and in artinftant 


upon the table, clap a 

upon them, (b hard as to kill all that are uti tier it, and when you have 
done fa, takeaway the bbokj dnd leave thcnito themlelVes , but a 
quarter of an hour, and wheti you come again , you (hall find all 
thole bodies carried awny^ Other f f yals We make of their tngeniiity^ 

as this. Tdkea Pewter difh^ and fill it half full ofwdter, into which 
3)Uta little Gaily potfiU'd with Sugar, and the Ants will prefently find 
it.and come upon the Table j but when they perceive it inviron'd with 
water, they try about the brims of the difli, wherp the Gaily ^ot is 
ncareftj and there the moft Venturous amongO: thenl , commits hira- 
felf to rhewiter, though he beconfcious how ill a fwimnier he is, and 
is drown'din the adventure : the next is riot warnd by His example, 
but ventures too ^ and is alike drown d, and many more, fo that there 

is a (riiall foundation of their bodies to venture on 3 arid then they 
come f after than evtr^ dnd fomakea bridge of their owri bodies , for 
their friends to paCs on 3 n^gleding their lives for the good of the 
publiquc, for before they make an erfd, they will make way for the 
reft, and beconie Maflefs of the Prize. I had a little white fugar which 
I defired to keep from them , and was deviling which Wiiy to do it,' 
and I knockt a Nail in the beam of the room , and faflned to it ^ 
brown thread, at the lower end of which thread, I ty^d a large fhell 
of a &h 5 which being-hollow, I put the fugar in, and lockt the door, 
thinking it fafe 3 but when I returned, I found three quarters of my 
/ugargoLie, and the Ants in abundance, alc'ehding and dcfccnding , 
like the Angels on 'j a coh% Ladder :^ risi have fecnit painted, fo that i 
found no place fiife. fromthefe more than bulie Creatures. 

Another fort (jfAnts there are, but nothing fo numerotts or harm- 
ful as the other, but larger by far 3 thefe build great nefiS, as big as 
Bee hivcSjagainft a \t\ill,ora ftce^of Clay and Lome, fom'etimes within 
doors, and in itlevcral little Manfions , fiich as Bees rnake for them- 
felvcs*, but nothing focufious 3 thcfc the Cocki'oaches and Lizards 
meet withall , way-laying them near tlteir ncfts , and feed upon 
them; which to prevent, they make from thence many and feveral 




of the Iflando 


galleries that reach Come of them Cix or (even yards (everal wayes , of I 
the fame earth they do their neffcs 3 fo that for fuch a diftaiice as that, 
they arc not to be perceiv'd, by any of their enemies, and commonly, 
their Avenues go out amongft leaves, ormofs, or fome other Covert 

that they may not be perceiv'd , but the moft ofthefe are in the woods^ 
I for we hpedeftroyed their ncfts, and their galleries within doors Co 



often, as they are weary of building, and (b quit the houfe : I can fay 
nothing ofthefcjbut that they are the quickeft at their work of building, 
ofany little Creatures that ever I (aw. Spiders we have.the beautifulleft 
and largeft that I have feen, and the moH: curious in their webs , they 
are not at all Poyfbnous. - / 

' One fort more ofthefe harmful Animals there are , which we call 
;j Chegoesj and thefe are fo little that you would hardly think them 
able to do any harm at all, and yet thefe will do more mifchief than the 
Ants, and if they were as numerous a« harmful, there were no induring 
of them 5 they are of a fhape, not much unlike a Loufe, but no bigger 
than a mite that breeds inchcefe , his colour blev/iQi : an Indian has 
laid one ofthem, on a (hect ofwhite paper, and with ray fpedacles on 
I could hardly difcern him i yet this very little Enemy , can and will 
do much mifchief to mankind. This vermine will get thorough your 
Stocken, and in a pore of your skin, infbme part of your feet,' com- 
monly under the nail of your toes, and there make a habitation to lay 
his ofFfpring-,as bigasa fmall Tare,or the bagofaBee,which willcaufe 
you to go very lame, and put you to much fmarting pain. The Indian 
women have the befl skill to take them out, which they do by putting 

ina fmall pointed pin or Needle, at the hole where he came in , and 

winding the point about the bag, loofen him from the fle(h, and Co 
take him out. He is of a blewilh colour, and is Ccen through the 
skin, but the Negroes \v\ioCc skins are of that colour (or near it) are 
in" ill cafe, for they cannot find where they are ^ by which means they 
are many ofthem very lame : fbme ofthefe Chegoes are poyfonous, 

and after they are taken out^ the Orifice in which they lay, wilifefter 
•and rankle fora fortnight after they are gone. I have had ten taken 
out of my feet in a morning, by the molt unfortunate Tarico^ an Indian 


Some kind of Animals more there are in the woods, which becaufe 
I neverfliw,! cannot fpcak their forms : fome ofthem I guefs are no 
-bigger than Crickets 5 they lye all day in holes and hollow trees , 
and as ibonastheSun is down, they begin their tunes , which are 
neither finging nor crying, but the (hrilleft voycesthat ever I heard : 
nothing can be Co nearly refembl'd to it , as the mouths of a pack 
of fmall beagles atadiflance j and Co lively, and chirping the noi(e is, 
as nothing can be more delightful to the ears, if there were 
much of it, for the mufick hath no intermiliion till morning; 

all is hufht. 

- I had forgotten amongO: my fiihes to mention Crabs , but becaufe 

this kind ofthem live upon the land,! might very well overflip them. 

and now bring them in, amongft thele Animals ; they are fmall Crabs, 
fiich as women fell by dozens in baskets in the fhrects, 
colour raw and alivC;, as thefe are boyl'd, which are of a reddifh colour. 

S "" 


X ' 






A True and Exa& Hijlory 

Theie Crabs are coming from the Sea all the year long, Cexcept ii 
March) they hide themfelves in holes, and in houles, and (bmetime 

5 and into every part of the Ifland they come, (bme 


times we meet them going up flairs in the night , fometimcs 
low rooms, fbmetiraes in our Gardens, where they eat the herbs. 
We hold them not good meat : But the Negroes will often xx^onSun- 
dayesgoz Crabbing, and think them very great dainties when they 
areboyled. The(e Crabs in March come all out of their holes , and 
march down towards the Sea in (uch multitudes, as to cover a great 
part of the ground where they go, and no hedge, wall, or houfe can 
ftopthem^ out they will over. As we ride, ourHorfes tread on them, 
they are (o thick on the ground. And they have this /enle, to go the 

neareft way to the Sea, from the place where they 


ftop or (lay them, but death ; 'lis 

and nothing 

I guefs they g 


Having paft through all the reafonable and fenfitives Creatures of 

, I come now to (ay fomewhat of the Vegetables , as of 

this Ifland 


and ofthofe there are (uch infinite varieties, as to mention 

were to loofe my (elf in a wood 5 for, it were impoiJible for any one 
the time I flayed there, (though he ftudied nothing elie) to give 

"' onely mention 

And therefore I 

of mod and greateft eftcem in th 

of the particul 
(uch, as for beauty or ufe . 

And for that there is none of more ufe thai> the Thyjtck^lslnt , I will 
begin firft with that, which though the name feem to' promife health, 
yet it has poyfbnIodg*d(ecretly within, and that poyfbn may bring 

health, being phy fically apply ed, and in fit timesand feafbns 

reafbn why I think it poyfc 
nor feed on the leaves 

becaufe Cattle will 

broufe • 

willingly come near the (hade. This tree 
will grow to be eighteen foot high, but we have a way to employ it 5 
as for beauty and u(e,thereare none fuch in the Ifland.This tree(which 
if of the height as I have told ^ou)h2LS many (prigs, of four, five, and fix 

foot long 5 we lop them one after another, and as we take ofFthe bran- 
ches, cut flakes of them , about four foot and a half long , and flick 
them in the ground an inch deep, and no more, clofe to one another, 
in the manner of PalifTadoes 5 and (b, with a rail of either (ide,to keep 
them even, and here and there a (pur or braket on either fide , to 
keepthemfleddy fbramonthj by which time, they will not only ga- 
ther roots to flrengthenthem, and hold them up, but leaves to cover 
their tops, and (b even and finooth they fall , as to cover the tojps of 

themfelves. at leafl 

foot and a half downward ; and will 

in a 

may remove 

month more, be fb firmly rooted in the earth , as y 
your rails andbrakets^ toaffift thole that are planted after them ^ 
other places. Thefe leaves being large, (rnooth,and beautifully fbap'd 
and of a full green, appear to your eyes like fb much green Sattin 

hang'd on a rail 
^rally . 

fo even and fb finooth they hang natu- 

Theftems will grow apace, but more in their bignefs than their 
height, (for you may if you pleafe, keep them at this height, by cut- 
ting off the tops) and in a while they will not only touch, but imbody 

- them- 

of the Ifland of B^rhadocs. 


themfelvcs one into another j and then they become as ftrong and 
ufeful a fence, as any can be made , ib clofe , as to keep in. Conies, 
and keep out Rats 5 for, neither Cattle nor Vermuie love tojcpme near 
it. And as it is a beautiful and ufeful fence , for Gardens alid Or- 
chards, and to keep in Conies, Turkies, MnfcoviaDucks, &M Q\ing' 

hill fowl, that cannot fl) 

(having one wing dipt) lb it ie"rves 


for fingular ufe, in fencing about all our Paftures, or what other ground 
we would enclofe ; For, oiir fences being all n^ade of fain trees^ with 
the ends laid crofs one upon another ,- and mhny of t!hofc.t;:ecs fuch 



-thoufand two hundred fixty eight trees to encompals thenl 

wood, as were apt to rot and decay , by extream moift 
lent heat 5 and the Planters having found the moft of themjyerei 
rotten and decayed, and to make newiinces of that kind unpolTible , 
by reafba the timbers and trees that grew very near, that place , 'were 
imployed in making thofe fences, (foras they, made them, the,timber 
flood in their way, and no more ado but cut them down, and lay them 
in their places without fiirtherremoving) and renrovds of fo great trees 
as they were, not to be done with few and weak hands : So that they 
were come t<Ma great ftrait, and knew not which way , nor how to 
renew thele fences :, fome of the Paftures having no ItCs than threb 

■ Atlaft, 
Liiey thought upon this way, of making new fences , which is the 
•moft commodious that can be imagined. And fo they gather'd all the 
Phyfick-nuts they couldj and (owed them, and made large Nurferi« 

of them, which as foon as they grew to any ftrength, they remoy'd,and 
planted themfo, as making a fleight hedge betweenthfi old fence and 
the Pafture, that Cattle might not tread them down, being young^and 
tender, they planted them between v and in fourf years tiaie they 
prewfo ftrong, as they were of iyffi^^ient ability to defend themfe!ves, 
and became a very fufficient fence to keep in or out the ftrongeft Bulls 

And then, all the \rood of the old fence being dry 
and fit for the Furnaces, was eufin1h(5rtpiec^s,tleft,^ and fent home ^ 
by the Aftinigoes^ and part was gathered together , and^made '' 

the Pafture 


Charcoals, for fewel at home, and for the Smiths Forge, for we have 

there no Sea 

Befides this, there is another u(e of thisPIant,and 


Phyfical: Take five of the kernels, and eat them in a morning 

Ming, and they arc a Vomit and Purge 'j but the body muft be ftrong 

I that takes Co many : three will ferve a body^that iseafie to work on : 

I my felf took five of them, and they gave me twelve vomits, and 

above twenty ftools, which 

great an evacuation in a hot 


here the body is weak, and the (pirits exhaufted by 

l\» ^« v*n»^ 


« i 

.ButI faw a ftronger man there take them before me , and tEey 
wrought moderately with him 5 but, finding a weaker conftitution to 
work on, they had the more powerful operation. . 

This Nut, as it grows on thetree, is Ukea white Fear-plumb, and 
of a yellowifti colour, with a pulp otr1f , as , .n. , • 1 

that being taken off, there remains a ftone, of a blackith colour, and 


Plumbs biit 

within that 

kernel , and in that kernel , in the parting 

halves, as our Hazle-nuts in England 

part in the middle long 




wife you (hall find a thin film, which looks of a fiiint Carnation 


S 2 


^ ■ 







- 1 





Trite and ExaB Hihry 







jPoyfon tree. 








* whith colour is eafily dircerned , the reft of the kernel being fa per- 
feftly ^white5 Take out that film, and you may eat the nut fafely , 
without any operation at all, and 'tis as (weet, as a Jon^afi-Almond. 
This film is perfedly difcem'd, when the nut is new gathered ^ but I 
havelook'don them which have been longer kept , after I bi^ought 
them into H/;^7^ W, and I find the Carnation colour quite gone^butthe 
kernel retains ftill his operation, both in Vomit and Purge. ^ ^ 

- - The leaves are ftiapd not much unlike a Vine leaf, but thrice as big, 
and much thicker, and fuller green. ' " 

The poyfbned . tree , though I cannot commend for her vertues , 
yet for her beauties I can. She is almoft as large every way as the Lo- 
cuft, but not of that manner of growing 5 her leaves fiill out as large 
and beautiful , as the Lawrels, andfo like, as not to be known afun- 
der. The people that have lived long there, (ay, 'tis not who! fom to 
be under the (liade of this tree. The fellers, as they cut them down, are 
very careful of their eyes 5 and thole that have Cipers, put it over their 
faces^for if any ofthefap fly into their eyes, they become blind for a 
month. ANegro had two Horfes to walk, which were left with him 
by two Gentlemen 5 and the Horfes beginning to fight , the Negro 
was "Afraid, and let them go 5 and they running into the wood toge- 
ther, fl'ruck at one another, and their heels hitting fome young trees, 
of this kind, ftruck the poylbnous juice into one anothers eyes , and 
(o their bHndnefs parted the fray, and they were both led home flone 
blind, and continued fo a month, all the hair and skin pilling off their 
l&ces. Yet, of this timber we make all, orthemoftpart, of the Pots 
we cure our Sugar in 5 for, beingfawedj^ and the boards dryed in the 
Suri, tfaepoyfbn vapours out. 

And as this tree's poyfon in her fap,{b the Mantionell's is in her fruit, 
which they account as high a poyfon, as that of the Cafla vie. The fruit 
is like an apple John^ and 'tis (aid to be one ofthofepoyfons, where- 
with the Indian Caniballs invenome their Arrows. 

And now I have ham'd the CafTavie, 'tis fit it come in the rank of 
poyfbns, though with good ordering it makes bread. 'Tis rather a 
(hrub than a tree, the fprigs, few of them bigger than a broom-ftafF, 
crooked and ill (hap'd 5 but no matter for that, for the leaves are (b 
thick as to cover them 5 and they grow in tufts or bunches, and ever 
an odd one, as, 5. 7. 9. or 1 1. every leaf an inch broad, and fix or fevcn 
inches long 3 dark green, and turning backward from the forefidc. 
Their Roots I have fet down already, their bignefs, and manner of 
growth, with the ufe of them/ 

Coloquintida is as beautiful a firuit, as any you can (ee, of the big- 
nefs of an Oftraches egg 5 a fi'uit offo ill a tafte, as a (poonful of the 
liquor mars i whole pot ofpottage 3 the rind (mooth , with various 
greens, interlac'd with murries, yellows, and faint Carnations. 

Next to' this fhall be the Calfia fiftula, which is a tree that will grow 
thd moft, in the leaft time, of any that ever I knew : Ketone of the 
feeds, (which is but "a (mall feed) and in a years time, it grew to be 
eight foot high, and as large and big intheftem, as an ordinary Rat- 
toon you walk withall : The leaf of this tree is like that of an Alh, but 
much longer, and of a darker colour 3 the fruity when 'tis ripe, juftof 




^ ' -.1 




Ifland of Bar badoes* 



the colour of a black pudding, and (hap d as like, but longer. I have 
(cen of them above 1 6 inches long , the pulp of it is purgative, and a 
great cooler of the reins. 

Now becauiewe will have all ^ or as many of the poyfonous and I Thepeyfi^ 
Phyfical trees and plants together as we can3 that they may not trouble | '^^^ ^'*»^- 
another leaf^ we will put in a plant amongfl: the 

and that is fb 
like a fugar Cane as hardly to be di(cern*d , the ;6ne from the other .* 
and this Plant hath this quality, that whofeevef chews it, and (licks 
in any of the juycc,will have his tongue, mouth, and throat,(b fwelfd 
as to take away the faculty of (peech for two dayes,and no remedy that 
I know but patience 

Tamarine-trces were but newly planted in the Ifland 


time I 

< away, and the Palm 

( (b much admir'd for her two rare 

vertues of Oyle and Wine) was newly begun to be planted, the plan 
being brouglit ns from the Eaft-Indies^ but the Wine flie brings 
may rather be called ia pleafant drink , than to afliime the name of 
Wine: 'tis thus gather'd, they cut the bark in (uch a part of the tree, 
where a bottle may fitly be plac'd, and the liquor being received into 
thisbortle. it 


% - 

• - - . 

will keep very good for a day and no longer, b 


FrtUt trees. 

very delicious kind of liq 

The poyfbnous trees and plants being paft over 
mention fiich as will make amends, and put our . mouths ifftafte, but 
not too fuddcnly to fall upon the beft, I will begin with the moft con- 
temptible fruits which are in the Ifland, the Figtree and Gherry-tree, 
which have favory names, but in their natures neither ufeful, nor well 
tailed. -The Fig tree being very large, but bears a /mail fruit, and I ^iz^trn. 

thole of fb mean a conditi 

I never faw any one eat of them 

and the leaves not at all of the fhape ofour Fig leaves^nor the fifth part 
fo large, the body of the tree Ihavefeen as large as an ordinary Elme 

here in England 

The Cherry tree is not altogether fo large , the fru 
and infipid : but the colour (bmething fefembling a Cherry , Und the 

ulelefs Cherrytree 

fhape not much unlike j which cauled the plan 

call it by that 



The next to thefc (halx be frmts,rather for fauce than meat, to whet 
our appetites to thofc that follow after 5 and thefe are the Citrons, 
Oranges, Lemons, Lime. 

The Citron is a fmali tree, though (he bear a great fruity and fb ill 
matchtthey are^ as the firuit pulls it down to the ground, and mofk of 
the firuit touches, and bears upon the ground ^ theflalk of a dark co- 
lour, the leaf fliap'd like that oftheLemon^ butofa very dark gfeen : 
thefe fruits we had in great abundance, when firft we came there, but 
were all caft away, by roafon we had none but Mulcavado (ugar , and 
that is not fit to prelerve with s bcfides there were very few then that 
had the skill to do them. 

The Orange trees do not profper here, nOr are the fruits (b kindly 

as thofe ofBerjfxudor.hrge they are and full of juice,but not (b delicious 
as thofe of that Ifland , befides they are very full of feeds, and their 
rinds neither fb deep, and pure an Orange Tawny, nor fb thick, and 
therefore notfb fit to prelerve ; the trees fcldom laft above fevcn years 


their prime, and then decay 









True and ExaB Hifiory 







Prickled ^- 

; *■ 










The Lemon tree is much better fliap'dand larger, but this fruit is 
but here and thcrcj ftragling in the Ifland. I have feen fbme pf the 
fruit largCjand very flill of juice^with a fragrant finell .* the leaves both 
of thefe and the Orange treesj (hall not need to mention being (b well 

known in E»^/^W. ' - - 

TheLimetree is like athick HoIIybufti in£;7^/4;?^5 and as ftill of 

.prickles; if you make a hedge of them, about your houfe/tis fufficient 
proof againft the Negroes ^ whole naked bodies cannot pofSble enter 
itj and it is an extraordinary fure fence againft Cattle 3 it commonly 
grows (even or' eight fopt,high5 extreamly thick of leaves and fruit , 
and of prickles vthe leaves not unlike thole of a Lemon trcejthe fruit 
(b like as not to be dilcernedj at the diftance of three yardj^^^^but only 
thaf '^is lefsj but iq.the tafte of the rind and juice ^ extrpamly diffe- 
rentj much fitter forfauce than the Lemon 5 but not fo gogd to eat 


The Prickled apple, grows on a tree extreamly thick leaved, and 
thole leaves largCj and of a deepgreen^ (ha^'d qot much unlike the 
leaf of aWallnut treein England : this firuit is (hap'd like the heart of 
anOxe, and much about thatbignels 3 a faint green on the outfide^ 
with many prickles on it, the taftc very like a.muftie Lemon. 

Thenext in order, Ihall be the prickled pear, much purer in tafte 
and better form'd 5 the fruit being not unlike in lliape to^^jGreenfield- 
pear, .and of a faint green, intermixt witblbme yellow near the ftalk 5 
butthebody ofa mixtred, partly Crimlbn , partly Stammell , with 
igrickled fpots of yellow , the end of it growing Ipniewhat lar» 

ger jthan the middle , at which end , is a round Ipof pf a murrey 
colour, the brcdth of an inch , and circular vvith a Centre'^ in' the 
middle, and a fmall circle about it y and from that circle within, lines 
drawn to the utmpft extent of that round Murrey fpot, with faint 
circles between the fmall circle and the largeft , upon that Murrey 

Ipot. - • ■ ■ •, ■ .' ^ .'1-p--. ■ - i 

Thele lines and circles, of a colour no more different in licjht- 
neCs from the murrey, than only tobedilcerned, and a little yellower 
colour. •. 

The Pomegranate is a beautiful tree the leaves Iraall, with a green 
mixt with Olive colour, the bloffom large, well Ihap'd^. and of a pure 
Scarlet colour 5 the fruit not fo large there, as thole we have from 







Theyoiing trees being let in rows, and planted thick make 
a very good hedge, being dipt even a top with Garden Ihoar^. The 
fruit is very well known to you, and therefore I ftiall need lay nothing 
of that, and thele are all the remarkable fruits that grow on trees, 
and ar^ proper to this Ifland, that lean remember, though I believe 
thei;^ qjp many more. ^ 

The Papa is but ^Imall tree, her bark of a faint willow cplour, her 
leaves large, and ofthelhapeof thePhyfick nut tree, bi^^^ of the colour 
of her own bark, the branches grow out four or five of one height, and 
fpread almoft level, from the place where they bud out 5 to the ends 
of the branches, and about two foot higher, luch other branches Iprea- 
ding in the lame manner, and if the tree grow to a greater height than 

ordinary, a ftory or two more of thele bows ; the top hajadlbmcly 





















iff the Ijland <?f Barbadoeiv 




fbrm'd to the branches , the fruit lome what 

growing dofe tothe body cJf the tree, where the branches groWj and 

•igg^r than Turmps, 

are fbmewhat a fainter Willow', then cither the body ^'branches ;, or 
l^Kves, The tree^ though it, may be accounted wodd^ j'rt 'the fofreft 


that yet I ever law 3 foi^ "With my kriife^j I can cut down a tree as big 
'as a mans leg at one chop. , Thefruh:. we boyl^ and {ctvc it up; with 
powdred pork^ as wedoturnipsin£^7^/W 5 but the" turnip is far the 
more fa voury fruit. ■ "^'^^^ " '^"' '"^ ' ^"- 


oneiy ihe upper 
ibbw'tlfe -thickni 

thicknefs of 

The Guaver grows on a Tree, bodied analtav'd^iike a Cherry- 
tree, but the leaves fomewhat larger and ftiffey, the fruit of the big- 
nefs of afinalliLemon, and near that golg>i]r, 
fomcwhajt blunter than , the Lemon, the Hud abo 
the rind of a Lemon, but foft^ and of a delicate tafte^^^fKol^s within 
a,pulpy.fubp:ance, full offmall feeds, like a fig, fbme of them white 
withini andforpeofa ftammel colour. The(e (e'eds have this property, 

that when they havepaft through the body ,whercioevcr they areiaid 
down, they grow. A Planter, and an eminent m:^n in the Ifland^ feeing 
his Daughter- by chance about her natural bufinefs, caH'd to her 


CrtAverl j 

. v 




^- ^ 



V^ . 1. 



^^ r 


d'Dcn^ Daughter^ rUfit even. She anf vered : Tfyou do not Itk^ Vw, remove 
*em^ Father^ temo've *em, Thefe fruits have different taftcs, ibme rank , 

fbme fweet^Kb that one ,wouId give a reafon of thisVariety, which ^sls^ 



' ^ 

r " 

cm, let fall their loads .every where y and fb they grow in abun- 

according tothefeveral conftitutionsthey had paffthroughj'fbme ha- 
ving a milder, fome a ftronger favour. 

This tree doth much harm in our Plantations , for the Cattle eating 
ofth " 1 '. 

dance, and Ao much harm to the Paftures, and much pains and labour 
is taken to deftroy them. Theyare the befl fruits prefev'd of any, the 
feeds being taketi out, and the rind only prcferved. 

I have been told by fortie Planters, ia the IQand. that Coco-trees 
grow there, and they are fuch men as I givc credit to, but I never fa\y 
any, yet, I rftay venture to tell whatfnapes they bear,having been "^qVl 
acq uaintefd 'with them at the lOand oiTSt. j^ 2^£>,where there grew very 
many of them. They feldom are above 80 or 90 foot high, fbme a 100. 

The branches ofthcfe come out in feveral parts of the tree, lea tin 
fpaces between the heights, but the greatcft quantity is at top,' an 
thattopalwayesfloopsa little 3 but the r^uts grow.vvhere the loivej 

boughs break out. 

Thefe Nuts are offevcral fizes, the moft of th^m as big as a large 




« ^ «« 


*--* » : I 

foot-ball, .with a green skip without, and between that and the fhell, 
a pulpyfubftance, whichwlien itisdry, i^l^ketheri^d ofthc"^an- 

grave tree, of which they nia1ceroap=, or f to brjng the relemblance 

■a little ncarei;J like hemp hurds. ThisNut-jhell i^ near half an inch 
Ithicka^which wecommonlj ciit at one end.,' a holc'lis big as a thirty 
fhiljing piece, and ive findfhe fhell full of a clear and pure taflcd li- 
quor, very dehcious,blit 'not very wboBbilie, This ftictlis fin'd within 
with a fiibl^ance as thick as it fel^ a white colour, and taftes fw'eete 
than the beft f m/^^WaJmit, and of that fpftnefs 
leaves of this tree, are lil^e the OliVeJeaves. . 

j i^he Cufiafd a^ple ^fdws qxx fniitt^X of branches and large jiC;*/^^- 
eavesp and is a lively and lufty trfefe to look on 3 the fruit, when 'tis: ,<f/>/f 


The colour of tK 


- * 1 


T 2 



-•** ^'- 



True and ExaB Hi^ory 


ripCj asbig as the largeft Pomewater, but juft of the colour of a War- 
den. When 'tis ripe, we gather it, and keep it one day, and then it is 
fit to be eaten. We cut a hole at the lefler end, (that it may ftand the 
firmer in the diOi) fb big, as that a fpoonmay go .in with eafe, and 
with the (poc 
than this to ii 


ly this add 

Never was excellent Cuftard more like itfelf 

which makes it tranlcend all Cu 




Trees of 



ftards that art can make, though of natural ingredients 3 and th 
a fruity tafte, which makes it ftrange and admirable. Many feeds there 
are in it, but fofmooth, as you may put them out of your mouth with 
fbme pleafure. 

^ 'Twas never my luck to fee any of thofe trees, that bear the Ancho- 
vie-Pears, nor to tafte of the fruit, and therefore can give you no ac- 
count of that tree , only to let you know , that there is fijch a tree in 


The Macow is one of the ftrangefl:trees,thelfland affords 5 the body 
and branches being ftuckall over with pricklcs,of the fineft forms that 
Ihavefeen. ■ \ . . 

They are black as jet, or Ebony polilh'd 5 the fizes, from one to fe- 
ven inches long, (harp at the point, with proportionable increafings, 
from that part where it grows to the tree or bough , and wav'd, as I 
have feen fome fwords, from the point to the hilts , the fineft natural 
pick- tooths that can grow. I brought a large bundle with me, but had 
them pickt out of my Box by the way. This tree is about the larg 
nefsof an ordinary Willow, the leaves of that colour and (hap 
extreamlyftiff and hard. 

It bears at top a large tuifof fi-uitj which we call Apples, but they 
are not a fruit to be eaten j their colour as their leaves, willow-green 
and juft fuch for (hape as the Cyprus tree bears. Sure, Nature firm'd 
this tree to fome great purpofc , (he is fo arm'd j for neither man nor 


beaft can touch her, without being wounded 

She is well ftiap*d, her 



body ftrait, her branches well proportion'd, her top round. 

Next to this in colour are Date-trees, but the leaves (bmewhat 
ger- The (hape of this tree I cannot give you, having never feen 

old enough to bear the name of a tree, but (prigs rifingfi-omthe i 
at leaft ten foot high. • 

The Mangrave is a tree of fuch note, as ftie muft not be forg-^* 
for 5 though (he be not of the tall and lufty fort of 





. y^t> (lieisof 
for, there drops from her limbs a kind of Gum , which 

hangs together one drop after another, till it touch the ground , and 
then takes root, and makes an addition to the tree. So that if all thefe 
may be laid to be one and the fame tree , we may fay , that a Man- 
grave tree may very well hide a troop of Horfe. The bark of this tree 
being well ordered, will make very ftrong ropes, and the Jndiam 
make it as fine as flax, andfpin it into fine thred, whereof they make 
Hamocks, and divers other things they wear ; and I have heard , 

Irnnen they wear is made of this bark, as alfo their chairs and 





TheCalibafhtrectcars leaves of the fullefl: and richeft green, of 
y that I know, and the greateft plenty of leaves 5 her fruit not for 

u is for the moft part as big as that of the Coco, round as a ball , 






of the ifland of Barbadoes. 

green as the leaves of the fame tree, Iraooth and fhining, and 

i . • 

manner o^ 


rowing IS lo cioie to the body , and the largeft of the 

boughS;, as to touch them fo^ that tillk be pull'd or cut ofFj we cdn- 

perceive any Q-alk it has. Of this round b 

bowls and cups^ for, being hollow with 
ploy them for feveral u(es , as they 
diilies. fom 

all, we make diflies , 
the Coco-nut, we cm- 
of different (iizes ; fome for 


for they 


fome forbafbns, andfbme of the largeft to car- 
do Goardsj with handles a top ^ as that of a kettle, 
ther, and much ftronger than they. The(e look very 

rs -f 


beautifully on the tree, and to me the more beautiful, by how much 
they w< 

re the mor 

for, by their firm and dole touching the 
houtany appearance of ftalks, they feenito cleave, ra.|:her ' 


trees, wi 

than grow to the trees 

One audb 

- ^ 

A J 



J that is the Bay 

Iflandhavet feeni> that bears an E^g- £ay 

who(e leaves are (batomatick 

three or four of them will amply iupply the place of Cloves, Mace, and 
Cinaraon, in drelfmg any dilh of meat where that isrequired. It diffe 
not hi n 





(hape or colour from ours in Enghind 


irhout queftion the mofl: ufetul timb 

the Timber 

ifland^ for being ftrong, Iafting,and not very heavy ,'tis good fbrbuil- ^^^i* 


b ut b y 

(on of the (hloothnefs and fairnels of the grain , th 


* ^ 

is much of it us'd in Wainfcots , Chairs , Stools , and other Utenfils 
Vithin dores 5 l?ut, as they grov/,l never faw any of them beautifully 
fhapd, the leaves juftlik^thofepf the Alhin EngUnd^ but fomewhat 
bigger. : * _. . . " 

Ihe Maftick is a tree very tall, but the body flender,arid therefore 
Nature hath provided means to fupport her 3 for, (he has ipijrs Or brac- 
kets above feven foot from theground^ which are fixt or engrafted in 
the body 5 and (bme of the Ipurs jeach out from the tree to the root,(b 
J^roadj as that tables haveb^en made :ofa round form,above three foot 
and a half diameter. Some trees have two, (bme.thrqe of thcfe fpurs. 
This tree has commonly a double top, one fide being Ibmewhat higher 
than the other. The ftuit is like none of the rfeft, 'tis ofa ftammel co- 
lour, and has neither skin nor (lone j but it is more like a Cancrethan 
a Fruit, and is accounted unwhoKbm, and therefore no man taftes it .* 



I believe, the feed of th6 

for we fee none other. The 


of this tree^row'offuch a height, as till they fall down, we can give 
no judgment of them. The timber of this tree is rAuk'd araongft the 
fourth fort, three being better than it. Ihavefeen the bodies of thefe 

fix ty foot high 


The Bully tree is lefs than the Maftick, and bears a fruit like i Bul^ ^^i 

Imd j her body flrait, and well (hap'd , her branches propor 

tionable, her timber excellent andlafting 


Redwood is a handfbme tree, ,but nQtfb lofty as theMaftick, i 
lent timber to work, for it is not fb hard as fome others,, which 


lethey feldom break their 


the reafbn the work-men commend it above others 

rkingit, and that is 



midhng tree for (ize , the body about two foot and a half dia- 



This. -is acdni nted^as good as the Red-wood in all reipedf 









^ t 









^ fr//^ W E^^ff Hijiory 

is a ftrongand lafting timberj good forbuildingj and for all ufes with- 
in doors. 

Iron wood is called fo ^ for the extream hardnefs^ and with that 

Iron mod. I liardnefs it has fuch a heavinei^, as they feldomufeit in building y be- 

fides, the workmen complain that it breaks all their tools. ' lis good 
for any u(e without doors, for neither Sun nor rain can any wayes mol- 
lifie it. Tis much u(ed fo/Coggs to the Rollers, 

tigmtmvit£ they ufe now and then for the (amepurpofe, when the 
other is away 5 but having no bowling in that Countrey, little is ufed : 
They fend it commonly for EMgUfid^ where, we employ it to feveral 
u(es 5 as, for making Bowles, Cabinets, Tables, and Tablemen. 

TheLocuftisa tree, not unfitly to be refembled to a Tu/can Pillar, 
plain, maffie, andrurall, like a well limbM labourer 3 for, the burden 
it bears being heavy and ponderous , ought to have a body propor- 
tionably built, to bearfb great a weight. That rare Archited, / V^r//- 
vius^ taking a pattern from Trees, to make his moft exaft Pillars, re- 
]t(Xs the wreathed, vincd, and figured Columns 5 and that Cohtmna 

\AtticuYgzs^ mentioned by himfelf, to have been a fquared Pillar^ and 
thofe that are (weird in the middle, asiffickof a Tympany or Dro'p- 

andchufts rather the ftrai^hteft , moft exac^, and beft fiz'd , to 


ear the burthen that lyes on them, ^o^, looking on thcfe trees , &nd 
finding them fb exaftly to anfwer in proportion to the Tuscan Pillars , 
I could not but make the refemblarrce the other way: For, Pillars can- 
not be more like Trees, than thefe 'Trees are like Tu/can Pillars , as 
he deferibes them. I have feen a Locuft ("and not one, but many) that 
hath been four foot diameter in the body, near the root, and for fifty 
foot high has ]cfl[cnedfo proportionably, as if it had takcti pattern by 
the ancient Remainders, which Vhihnd&Y was fo preci{e in meafuring , 
which is a third part of the whole Qiaft upward , and is accounted as 
theraofl graceful diminution. The head to this body is fo proportio- 
nable, as you cannot {ay, 'tis too heavy or too light, the branches 

* large, thd (prigs, leaves, and nuts fo thick, as to ftop all eye-fight from 
paffing through, andfo even at top , as you would think you might 
walk upon it, and not fink in. The nuts are for the moft part three 
inches and a half long, and about two inches broad , and fomewhat 
more than an inch thick 5 the (hell fomewhat thicker than a half crown 
piece, of a ruliet Umbre, or hair colour \ the leaves bigger than tho(e 
thaf grow upon the Alhin England : I (hall not mention the timber, 

I having given itin my Buildings. The Kernels are three or four in every 
nut, and between thoie, a kind of light pulpy (iibftance, fuch as is in a 
Hazlc-nutj before the kernel be grown to the full bigneis : In times of 
great famine there, the poor people have eaten them for* (uftenance : 
But of all taftes, I do not like them. 

• Another Locuft there is, which they call the baftard-Locuft. This 
lo^ fair, but will not laft. 

There is a tree called the r^/««e*^,growing near the Sea-coaft^which 

I 1 

Valmto tkr'^^g^^^dy %^^ ground, does not afford that fubftance of mould , 


P ■ 

to make a large tree , nor (hall you find in that low part of the Ifland , 
any confiderable trees fit for building, which is amain want and hin- 
dcrance to them that would bhild there, for 3 there is no means to 




of the Ijland of B^rhadoQs. 




tranfportany from the high lands, byrcafbn of the unpaflab 
the wayesjthebody of this tree I have (cen about 45 or 50 foot high,the 
Diameter feldom above 15 or 16 inches, the rind of a pure alli colour- 
full of wrinkles, the leaves about two foot and a half long , in b 


juft as ifyou took twenty large flag 
thcr, and tyed them at the broad 

thatch houfes, 

h their flat (idcs toge- 
VVith thcfe bunches they 



every bunch by himfelf on the Iathes,fbmevvl 

g one anoth 



This is a very clofc kind of 

thatch, keeps dry and is very lafting, and looking up to them on the 

fide of the 


prettiefi: becomming figures that I 

havefeea of chat kind,thcfe leaves grow out no where but at the tops 

of the 

Another kind of 

hatli an add 





the name,hath like wife an addition to the nature: fori believe there 
not a more Royal or Magnificent tree grovin^ 
beauty and largcnef;, not to beparalell'd^ and excells, fo abundantly 
m thofe two properties and perfjftions, all the rcfl, as if you had e- ' 
ver (een her, you could not but have fallen in love with her 5 Tm fure' 
I was extreamly much, and upon good and antique Authority: For if 
Xerxes (trangQ Lydran love the Plantane tree, was lov'd for her age, ' 
why may not I love this for her largenefs > I believe here are more wo- 
men lov'd for their largenefs than their age, if they have beauty for an 
addition, as this hath i and therefore I am refolved in that poyut, to go 
along with the multitude, who run very much that way : but how to 
(et her out in her true fliape and colour, without a Pencil, would ask 
a better pen than 




yet I will deliver her dimenfions .. 
as I can, and for her beauty much will arife out of that 
I will beg leave of you to fliew her in her infancy , which is about 



yeari old 

llie is about feaventeen foot high 

her body, and her branches, and that part which touches the ground 
not unlike an [nkhorne, which I have ften turn'd in Ivory ,round at the 
bottoiiie,and belhed at that part which holds thelnke^ and the fl:em 
or body of the tree, growing lefs, as that part which holds the Pens, 
butturn'dbya more skilful workman 5 and fb 

her ; 

part purpl 




C\yi foot and a half hi 

Pvings at fix luches dift 

f this body, pai_ 
of white and green mixt,that go about 


This ftem 

fta 1 k 





as leaves of parchrac 

hich g 


ep wrap ping 

be about 

bottome of the 

nother (b 

hal f above the oth 

clofe asto make a continued fl:cm,of thefamebignefs, or two foot and 

-r. everj^ftone of thoic filmes or skins, bearing 
a ftalk, which leiTens fo infcnubly, from the skin to the povnt, as none 
but the great former of all beauty can make the like. 


Thefe fta Iks 




thofe th 


the moft inward.are the higheft, and every one of thofe ftalks adorn'd 
"th leaves, beginning a liule from the filmes to the poynt, and 

the(e Leaver like Cylinders, (harp 



of a puregrafieg 

with a ilick-ftonc 

d, and biggefi: in the 


part of the ftem which istheenwrappings of the film 

(hining as parchment dyed green, and flickt 

?3 and all the branches with the leaves, of a fiill gra(s 
green fpreading every way, and the higheft of them eight foot above 


U 2 










rue and ExaB Hifiory 


the green ftem, the other in order to make a well (hap'd Top 
beautiful aftem. The branches fprout forth from the middle/ 
trinfickpart of the tree, one at once 5 dndthat wrapt up /b clofe 
rather Uke a Pike than a branch ' ' * 
bends towards the Eaft ; 

to fo 
or in- 

the leaves abroad , at which 

_ d that Pike alwayes 
but being opened by the Suns heat ftrcads 



1 or 


fprig below withers and hangs down, and pulls with it the film that 
' ;ars It, andfo both it and the film" which holds it upturn of arufTet 
colour and hang down hkc a dead leaf, till the wind blows them off 
by which time the Pike above is become a branch 

ipened^ then comes' forth another Pike_, 

branch and film below, falls away as the for 

fo much higher, as that branch took room. 




pike and a dead leaf 

d then the next outmoO: 
and fo the tree grows 
d fb a pike and a dead 

^vhich will not be till 100 years be accomplilhed 

(he be advanc'd to her full height 

about thirty 

forty years old flie will bear fruit, but long before that tinie, chan- 
ges herjhape, her belly being lefTcned partly by the multiplicity of 
roots (he moots down into the earth (nature forefeeing how areata 
weight they were to bear, and how great a ftrefs they wereto fuffer 
when the winds take hold of fo large a head, as they were to be 
Crown d with) and partly by thrufting outfuftenancc and fubftance 
to raifeand advance theftemor body (for out of this belly which is 
the itore-houfe ofall this good itcomesj) fo that now (he becomes ti- 

per, with no more Icflening than a well ihap'd arrow, and full 

ftrait, her body then being 5f a bright AOl ., ._,, uaumc- 

of green, the films a top retaining t'heir fmoothnefs and ffreenncfs onh 

fbme dappl 

^^^ aiape,and that is a little fwelling near the pi 
hes the ftem or body, not much unlike an Uri ' ' 

fwellingthatwasinthebody, is now 



fo that the 
the films or ski 

But at this age , the branches (land not fo upright, as when 
the tree was m her niinority but has as great beauty inthe ftoopine 
.nd ^.M.nn.» .e fhe had in the rifing of her branches, when her 

and declenfion 

youth thrufts them forth with greater violence'and vigour. 

And now there 

and yet 

that rile 

V J T ^"-"**"^«^^* r^^'ii ^icdLcr violence ai 
they had then lome little ftooping near the points. 

an addition to her beauty by twogreenftudds,oriup .... .naiiuc 

out of her fides, nearthe place where the films joy n "to the'tree and 
they are about three foot long, fmallat the place from whence'thev 
grow, but bigger upwards, purely green, and not unlike the Iron that 

Glafiers u(e 

melt their Sawder with 

One grows on one fide of th , 

between thefe two .of the fame height 

otheron the other fide, atid 

cither fide the tree , a bufii 

upon which the fruit grows, which areof thebighefs of large' French 
grapes, fome green, fome yellow, fome purple, dnd when they come to 
be purple, they are ripe,andiji a v/hile fall down, and then the yellow 
becomes purple, and the green yellow. 5 and fo take their turns till 
beW nfr"' °'^^^ T^^^e fruits we can hardly come by 

n^!l. r^'T^'^f^o^ nor IS It any great matter : for thetafteis 

^Zt/T' ^"'/^u" ^""^^ H '^'"^ ^''y ^g^^^^ble to their pal - 
for hofe that eat of them grow fuddenly fat. ^ have feen an L 

tvith two fiiort ropes clime th 

fuddcnly fat. I have feen 

ex , and gather the fruit , abo 



























o/ the I [land (^yBarbadoes. 

time, fheis 8o foot high, and continues that form, \vithoiit variation, 
only as (he ^rovves older, (6 taller and larger, and has ahvayes green^ 
yellow, and purple fruit, fuccecding one another ^ whether there 6e 

bloflbmes^ I know not, for I never went {q high as to ]ook. This 
fort of trees 1 have feen of all fifes, from ten, to t\m hundred Toot 
■high 5 and I have becft-told by (bnic of the ahticnt Planters, tha^ 
when they camefirll: upon ihelfland , t hey' have (ecn fome ofthcra 
three hundred £oot high.' Kvid lome reafbns f have to psrfwade me to 
believe it 5 Top, anungft th(7te that I ha've (ecn grovving ,'\yhich I have 
giieffcto be tWv> hundred foOt.high, the bodies of which I meafurcd, 
il^nd found^tob^ but ffxiicen inches diameter. And I once foundliia 
wood.a tree lying, which (denied to have been long' fallen 3 for, tlie 

young wood vs^ds (b grown about her , as flandiiig at one end, I could 

no: fee the 'other: But, having a couple of Neorros with me, thatwtfre 
axe-men, Jcaufcd them t^ cut away the wood thaf*gre\y about the 
tree, that J might come to^the other end, which I thoughtvvould ne- 
I ycr be done , (he was fo l<bng, a'ncl jet a grcltt part of her cut off , and 
carried away. Imeafiired th&dianleter ofher n:em,and found it to be 

J5 inches; .: -/; 'i 'ii;. ?/^' :■ /^^ ."^: ; h.^^: . . 

fivNow ifwegoby the rial e of Three p and fay , if 1 6 inches diampter 
make 200 foot high , what tball 25 inches? And by this flile welhall 
^rove her to be 3 1 2 fodthigh. But the branches of this tree were all 
carried away , Kb that I could fee none of them. BiVt^l have meafured 
a branch of one of thofe treei'of 200 fodt high, and found it 25 foot 


J. Di: 

'» »-. 

J Xi- 

. : 1^7 '1 

-. r 




•^A 1 2 

.. I 

..>.■>-•■ A 

« ft* ^ 



^ ^ 





I" » 



^ * r-. 





J - <^ 

.*^ V 


So then, by the fTirfie Rule ? If 2^0 foot high bear a branch of 

35 foot long, what (liall a Tree of 312 foot high ^0} Andl fee by 
the fame Rule, it appears to be 59 foot long. And one of thefe trees, 
after fhe comes to bear frQit, will have lio lels than- 20. branches at 
oace, fbut -many mor^ in her nt)nage)'anahalfe of them hold' this 
length. 1 haveXeen a br^fich ofone of'th^fe fmall tree of 200 foot 
high, fallen down, and blovvh from the tree in the fatling, twenty 
paces off, which has made me admir6 ftod whence it fhould come.* 
For the tree being of fo great a height,thb branches lofe much of their 
bigncfs and^ length by their diftance: But, lying on the ground, 
where we can tak^e the juftmeafure , we find what they are./ And |t admirable thing, to (e6 the form of this (prig oi: branch, which is 
not above two inches broad where it joyncsto the fiFm, and is leffen- 
ing of the breadth from that end l:othe point , which' ^'twenty five 
foot long, fo infenfible, as it is not poflible to dilccrri^here the dimi- 
nution is. Sofhiooth, (o ^ven, (bfirmc and tough, aS' though it were 
not wopd, 'tis much (tronger,and abler to endure the weather, or any 

this ftalk"^ are a 

kind of bending. The leaves that grow upon 

11 of 























A True and Exa&Hijiory 

them ("unlefs towards the points) two foot long , that part whicli tou- 
ches the ftalkj finally but ftrong enough to bear the leafe^ aud hath a 
little (hortflalk, to which the leafegrowes^ which leafe is as exadly 
form'dastheftalk, growing by degrees, to make two inches broad 
in the middle, and lofing that breadth infenfibjiy to the poynt. Thele 
leaves are thin, but tough enough to indure the ftrongeft.wind that 
blowes, without being broken, and not above four inches diftant one 
from another , which multiplicity of leaves, makes the beauty of the 
tree the fuller. About the time this tree parts with her belly ,& growcs 
to aflenderkindof {hape,{he drawes up ariiongft her roots fbme of the 
foyle that bred her, about tvyo foot higher than the level I of ground 

' 5 and by rcafbn it is held in by an infinity of finall Roots, 
that come from the body, it there remains firm, and falls not down, 
the outfideofthis earth is about a foot round about, broiider than the 
Diameter of the Tree 5 fo that if the Diameter of the Tree be a foot,the 
Diameter of this earth is three foot at top, but fbmwhat more below 5 
for the fides are not fo fteep as to hold one breadth above and below. 
If this earth were beautiful, fmooth, and large enough, it might be 


called the Pedeftal to that Corinthian Pillar, the Palmeto Royal. 
But what is wanting in the Pedeftal , is fupplyed in the dimenfions 
of the Pillar , for, the Corinthian Pillar is allowed for length but nine 
of her own Diameters, and this will not askeleave to take 150. which 
makes herthemore beautiful , fince the jftrength fhe hath, is able to 
^W^^l the weight (he bears : And for the Architrave, Frize,and Cor- 
nice, ^hey are not to be compared to the beauty of the head of this 
Pillar, together with the fruit and fiipporters. And I believe,if Fetru-vi- 
us himfelf had ever been where this Pillar grew,he would have chang'd 
all his deckings and garnilhings of Pillars, according to the form of this 

And though the Corinthian Pillar be a Column lafciviouflj deckt, like 
a Curtefan , and therein participating ( as all inventions do ) of 
the place where they werefirft born 5 ( Cerwth having been without I 
controvcrfie, oneofthe wantonneft Towns in the world ) yet this 
wants nothing of her beauty, and yet is chaft, which makes her the 
more admirable,, and the more worthy to be prized. One thing more 
I have to iay of this Tree, , which is not only the Rdbt that brings forth 
all this beauty,, but the root of much admiration and wonder, that, 
bemg a tree of that height, bearing a top of fovaftan extent, as from 

the poynt of the branches on one fid 

the poynt of the ftalk on the 

other fide, to be 78 foot, upon which the winde cannot but have 
mam power and force, yet, I never faw any of them blown ddwn nor 
any root of^his Tree bigger than a Swans quill : but there are majiv 
otthem, and they faften themfelves in the Rocks, which hold them 
very firm. The wood of this Tree is Co extream hard, and tough with- 

moft of the axes that 

the work 



imployed to fell them, are broken lu 
and they are well enough fervcd for cutting down fuch 
The ufe our Planters made of them at firft coming, before 
^^ r 1, 1 ""^^"^^^ ™?^^ ftiing}es,was,to faw the bodies of thefe trees 
honfr ^P^t'^^ might reach to the ridgepole, to the Eves of the 
houfci for they wereTioUqw, and then rawing them Ion? wife th^e 
were two concaves, which they laid together, fetting thf hollowfid^' 




of the IflandofBavbadoQs. 


pWard i, and where they clofe^ one to c6v6r therri, with the hollow 

fide downward 

d fo the whole hoiile 

And this was the ufe 

they made of the bodies of thefe Trees, for which, very many of them 
were deftroyed. 

Butjl doubt, I have tir'd you with naming (b many Trces^and there- 
fore I will give over ^ but with this rule^ that which way (bever I have 
travelled ( from the place I dwelt) either Eaft^Weflr, North^or Souths 
f but four miles diftant J I fiave ftill found trees, fuch as I had never 
feen before, and not one ofthofel have named, and many of them 
extreamly large and beautiful. And the nearer the middle of the 

Ifland, the larger the trees, and th 

fb that from trees of a hun 

dred foot high, to a diminution of twenty ^and from leaves of cigh 
inches long, with a proportionable breadth to that lengthy to the imall 
Qrjes ofhalfan inch, which mofl of the trees bear that 


%idge,and,r think, near the Sea, every where you (hall find many, 
and the moft (uch. And the reafon I have given before ^ the land in 
the highed part of thelfland being very rich mould, and that near the 

Sea being a {andy light earth 


branches of thofe 

the partings or twills of the 

( which I have not named ) fuch excrelcen 

h q 

grow out,as are ftrange for their formes, and no doubt medicinable 

their natures 5 fuch as is our Mijleto^ or Polypodium^and much largerj 
and more frequent 3 but we want skilfull men to find out their ver- 
tues. - • ' 


There are (bcfides the Bay-leaves', which, as I told yoUi might ' pia„ti that 
ierve for Cloves, Mace, and Cinamon) two forts of Spices^ Ginger, j beayfr 

and red-Pepper: The Ginger being a root which brings forth blades- 
not unlike in fhape to the blades of Wheat, but broader and thicker, 
for they cover the ground fb, as you cannot fee any part of it. They 
arc of a Popinjay coltmr, the bloilbnie a pure Scarl et. When 'tis ripe 

dig up the 

( cutting off fhe blades ) and put them into the 

hands of an Overfeer, who fets many of the young Negroes to fcrap 

them with little knives, 6i fmall Ironfpuds, ground to an edg 

fcrape all the out ward skin off^ to kill the fp 


for, without 

that, it will perpetually grow. Thole that have Gingcrjand not hands 
to drefs it thus, are^<?ompelled fO fcald it, to kill the fpirit 5 and that 
Ginger is nothing fb good as the other, for it will b(^ hard as wood,aad 
black, whereas the fcrapt Gin 
and quicker tafte. 

There is of this kind tWb fc 

vvhiteand fbfi:, and hath 

the one fb like a childs Cora! 



not to be difcerned at the diftitice of two paces 3 a crimlbn and fcarlet 
niixt, the fruit about CWo inches Ibrig, dnd fhines more than the beft 

' ?m 

poli&t CoraL The Other of the fame 

and gliflering as much 

but fhap't like a large Button of a Cloak 5 both of one and the fame 
uality 5 both fb violently ftrong, if when we break but the skin 

ends out fuch a vapour into'6iir Lung 

we fall 


whi^h lafts a quarfer of an hdW after the fruit is reflnoved 5 but 


cantjfot agreatef* m»ghgae isnbYinth^ v^orld. Garlick is faint and 
cool to it. ItgfOwes <5H a little fhrub,^no bigger thin a Goosberry 
bufb. . Having 




True anct ExaB Hi^ory\ 

QucHmher. ^ Having inflam'd this leafe with a burning neat^ it is fit to apptyji 

Cooler left it fall on fire , and that is fiich a one, as is cold in the third 
degrce'a Cucuraber^of which kind^w/e have fxcellent good^ from the 
beginning of N<?z^<?wW, to the end offc^r«.?r;^but after that, the We^^- 
ther grow es too hot. They ferve as Sailets fcoliJ , veith Oy Ic, Vinegar, 
and Peppers and hot, being ftewed, or fryed, of which' 'we make 
S a wee for Mutton, Pork, Turk^eys, or Mufcovia Ducks. '. Geefe I 
never faw but two in the Ifland \ and thofc were at the Governoufs 

Me Hem. 




it \.\ 


• ■ 



,*-^.*-"r \ 












Millons we have likewi(e for thofe four months^ but before or af- 

l-ter J the weather is too hot,. \T hey are for the moft part larger than 

here in England, I havefeen them cut four inches thicki they eat moi- 

fter then here they do ^ which makes them the lels/wholforae. We 

^ ^jjj.£ Rafter the ieeds are put into t he ground ) but to 
we^lthein. I have feenofthcmfixteea inches long.. ^ ' : . 
^ I iThb Water Millori thercj is one ofthe gbddlieft fruits that growes. 
I have feen ofthena5bigasaG:loakbag,V3rith a to of cloatiis in it^ pure- 
ly green, engrayl'd with ftraw Colour j;' Atud Co waniion Nature is, in 
difpofing thofe figures, as though.they bt^ upon all parts' of the^fruit , 
.yet, they vary and fiowfo infinitely, and\noinch oflquare or circle is 
to be found upon the rinde, that is like one another^ and the whole 
riode. as 'fniooth as pol iOit glafs. W here they put out upottthe ground, 
there they lie s for the Vine they grow by^ has not fTrength to re- 
1 1 move them. This fruit within is not anlike.alT Apple for colour, but 
for taftc, not like any firuit I know xxx'B^'oUttd ^' v^ateriih , and wal* 
lovvifhs yet thejpeople there eat ftrange,qu30f!tiesl)f it, two or three 
pieces, bi^, asifcut round-, about ^ twt^vferpenriyjoafe,.^!! inch thick.* 
They hold it rarely cooling «to. the body,. gnd excellent for the ftone.' 
The feeds are of themfelves fo ftrong al^ur^e, as to dye that part of 
the fruit it touches, of the fame colour 5 and till they do fo, the fiuit 
is not full ripe.v They account the largeff.beft. Extreamly full of feeds 
they,are,which in the eating flip out wjth luch eafc^ as they are not at 

all trbublefome. 

' Grapes we have in the Ifland, arid they.are indifferently well tafted, 
buc.they are never ripe togethef 5 fonie may be pickt out to make 
Wine , but it will be fo fmall a quantity, as it will not be worth the 
whilk." There is alwaies fomA green, fome ripe, fome rotten grapes in 
the bunch. ' • ' 

,Thoueh the Plantihe bear not the moft delicious fruit that growes 
on this Ifland \ yet^ for that (he is of great ufe,and beauty too, and for 
many other rarities that (be excels other Plants in, I (hall endeavour 
to do her right in niy defcriptign. Andjfirft, for the manner of plan- 
ting 5 .we put a root into the ground, fix inches deep, and in a very!, 
(hort time, there will come forth three or four fprouts, whereof one has 
the |>tecedence5 and holds that advantage, fas the prime Ha wke does 
in an Ayery. J And as this fpi out growes, it fprings from the intrih- 
fick part of the ftem 5 and the out- leaves hang down and rot 5 but 
ftillnew ones come within, as rife up as the Palmcto does, like a pike, 
which opened with the Sun, becomes a leafe ^ and about the time it 
comes to be eight or ten foot high, the pikes 5 (and confequently 

:^-- ': ■ ' ■ the 



f ' 





of the Ifland of Barbdidocs. 


the leaves) will be of their full bignefsjand Co (as others grow ) 

that bignefsj till the laftip 



which is the foul 

of the Plantj. and will never be a leaf^ but is the ftem upon wh ichthe 

fruit muftg 

About the time the leaves come to their full bigneG 

they rot no more, but continue in their full beauty 5 arichgrecnjWith 
ftripesof yellow (bint ermixt, as hardly to be difcerned where they 


Thefe leaves arethe moft of them above fix foot longhand two 
foot broad j (mooth, fhining, and ftlfFe as a Lawrel leaf^ and from 
the middle of the leaf to the end, iucha fall, asa father has, in a well 
(hap't plume. But, as all thele leaves came out In a pike, Co that pike 

bends alittle towards the Eaft, tJAough as fbon 



a leaf, choofcs anj point of the Compafs to lean to j and (b m a due 
proportion hangs round about the fi:cm. At the time it comes to be of 
the full height, the uppermoft leaves will be fifteen or fixteen foot 
high, and then you fhall perceive the ftem upon which the Buit muft 
grow, more than a foot higher than the refl, with a green bunch at 
^ top, which bunch has Iucha weight, as to make it ftoopby degrees, 

it ihlL 

bebut'feven foot from the ground 5 and then the g 

which held the bloOTome in, open, and (hew the blolibme 
which ij 

that ihape, with th 

of a pure purple, and as big as the heart of a Stagg, and of 


downwards-, and fo 


opening the leaves, till it be ready to fall oS^ 3 and when it falls, pulls 
with it above a foot of the ftaik that held it, which is covered with 
yellow bloflfomes: This purple blo0bn].e, whenit fell, Iguefsto be a 
pound weight, befides theftalk it took along with it. After this is 
fallen, the fruit grows out from that end which remained 5 and as it 
growes, turnes up towards the (talk that bears it, much like a Grap- 
ple that holds the Ibng-Boat of a Shfp 5lDr,as a dozen large fiOi-hooks 
tied together, turning up feveralwaies, each turning up of that fruit 

being (even or eight inches long,^ud as big as a large Battbon 
walk with. In (ix months, this Plant will be gi 

and th 




pleafant, wholfbme, and nourifhing fruit, yellow 


when 'tis ripe : But the Negroes chu(e to have 

for they eat it 

boy I'd, and it is the only food they live upon. Our manner of eating 
it, is, when it is full ripe, take ofFtheskin, which wiU come-off with 
much eafe; and then the fruit looks yellow,, with a^frpth upon it, but 
the fruit firme. When it is gathered, we cut dov^n the Plant, and give 
it toThe Hoggs, for it will never bear more^ The body of this plant is 

veen the skins, water 


fbft, skin 

iflues fbrth as you 

kin, like an Onyon, and bet 

In three months, another fp 

bear!, and fo another, and another, for ever 5. for we never plan 

Groves we make of thefe plants, of twenty acres of ground 

you do Cher 


and plant them at fuchdiftances, and in (iich 

ry-trees in Kefit^ fo that we walk under the leaves^ asunder the Arches 

St. Faith's Church under St. f^w/ from fun and 

but the 


The wilde Plantine grows much as the others does, 
not fo broad, and more upright, the fruit not to be eaten , of a fcarlct 
colour, and almoft three fquare. I know no ufe of this fruit or leaves, 
but to look on. 

The Bonano differs nothing from the Plantine iti the body and 




i « 

Wild Tlan- 







A Trueand Exa& Hiflory 


ri<< ~ 

leaves, but only this, that the leaves are {bmewhat lefs, and the bodie 
has here and there fbme blackilb fppts, the blofTome. no bigger then a 
large bud of a Rofe , of a faint purple^ and Afh-colour mixt, the ftalk 
that bears itj adorn'd withlmall bloflbmes^ of feveral colours^ when 
they fall off, there comes 

out the fruit, which does not turn 
the Plantines do, but ftand outright like a bunch of pudding 



of a length, and each of them between four and five 

Tbisfruitisofafweetertaflethenthe Plantine ; and for that 

reafbn the N<?gr<7<^j will not meddle with them, nor with any fruit that 
has a fweet tafte, but we find them as good to fteWjOr preferve, as 
the Plantine^ and will look and tafte more like Quince. This tree 
wants little of the beauty of the Plantine, as fhe appears upon the 
round, in her full growth 5 and though her fruit be not fb ufcful a food 
the belly, as that of the Plantine, yet (he has fomewhat to delight 
the eyes, which the other wants, and that is the picture of Chrift up 

do it 

with one 

,on theCro(s5 fb lively expreft,as no Limner 

' colour ) more exadly 5 and this is (een, when you cut the fruit jufl: 
crofs as you do the root of Feme, to find a fpread Eagle ; but this is 
much more pcrfeft,the head hanging down, the armes extended to the 
full length, with fbme little elevation 5 and the feet crofs one upon a- 

This I will fpeak asan Artifl 5 let a very excellent Limner, paint a 
Crucifix, only with one colour, in limning 5 and let his touches be as 

bigger then this 

(harp,"and as mafterly as he pleafes, the 

which is about an inch long, and remove that picture at fuch a diflance 
from the eye, as to lofe fome of the Curiofity, and dainty touches of 
the work, fb as the outmoft flels, ,or profile of the figure may be per- 
fei^ly difcern'd, and at fuch a diflance 5 the figure in the fruit of the 
Bonano, fhall feem as perfed as it : much may be faid upon this fubjeft 

by better wits, and abler fouls then mine .• My contempi 


only this,, that fince thofe men dwelling in that place profefiing the 
names of Chriftians, and denying to preach to thofe 
harmlefs fouls the Negroes^ the doftrineof Chrifl Crucified," which 
might convert many of them to his worfhip, hehimfelfhas fet' up his 

poor ig 

Crofs, to reproach thefe men, wh 

her then they will lofe 

the hold they have of them as flaves, will deny them the benefit and 

blefling of being Chriftians 

Otherwife, why is this figure fet up 

for thefe to look on, that never heard of Chriftp and God never mad 

thing ufelefs, or in vain. 

Nowtoclofeupallthat canbefaidof fruits, Imuflname the Pine 

for in that fingle name, all that 

m a 

fuperlative deg 

for beauty and tafle, is totally and fummarily included : and if it 

here to fpeak for itfelf,it would fave me much labour, and doit folf 





^ Tis true, that it takes up double the time the Plantine 
ringing forth the fruit^for 'tis a full year before it be ripe, but 

be thought on 

when it comes to be eaten, nothing of rare tafte 

there 5 nor is it imaginable, that fo full a Harmony of taftes 
canberaifed out of fo many parts, and all diftinguifhable. But before 
I come to fay any thing of that, I will give you fome little hints of 
ner Ihape and manner of growth, which though I mufl acknow 












of the Ijlandofhaxhadots. 


ledg my felf to be down-right lame, in the expreflion 5 yet rather 
then you (hall lofe alljiwill indeavourtoreprekntfome ofherbcau- 

fuch faint expreffions as I have. A Slip taken from the body of 

" , will not presently take root, but the 

this plant, and let in the ground 

Crown that growes upon the fruit it felf 

fedion then 


d will ha 


beauty all the 



growing. In a quarter of a year, it will be a foot high, and then the 

fb as I have leen 

leaves will be about 7 or 8 inches long, which appear to your eyes 

like Semi-Circles ; the middle bein^; 

afrench (word, that is made for lightnefs and ftrength. Th 

for themoO: part, froft upon green, intermixt with Carnati 


pure incarnadine. The leaves fall over one another, as they are 

edges of the 

teeth like thofe upon Savves , and thelc 

plac't higher on the ftem 


points of the loweft, touching the 

ground 5 in a quarter of a year more, you fhall perceive on the top 
of the ftem aBloflbme, as large as the largeft Carnation, but of difie- 

very fmall flakes. Car 
termixt, fome yellow, fome blew 1 

with purple, Sk} 
5 v/hite and Phily 
faid to reprelent many of the 


colours will 

Crirafon and Scarl 
:aves, and fome Peach Colour, 

nd Orange tawnyjCridaline, and 
So that the Bloflbme may be 

the fight, which the fruit 

week or ten daj 


does to the tafte, thefe 

and then wither and fall away, under which there 
bunchof the bignels ofa Walnut which has in it all thefo 
mixt, which in the bloflbme were difperll:^ and fo grows bigger for two 
months more, before it (hews the perfe(5i: fliape, which is fomewhat of 
an Oval form^ but blunt at either end 5 and at the upper end, growes 
out a Crown ofleaves, much like thole below for colour, but more 
beautiful 5 fome of the leaves of this Crown, fix inches long, the out 

■ees. This fruit is inclosM with a rind, which 

leaves, (horter by deg 

begins with a (crew at the ftalkjand fo it goes round till it comes to the 

top or Crown, gently rifing, which Icrew is about 1 of an inch 

broadband the figures that are imbroydrcd upon that forew neer of 

dimenfion, and divifions bet 

And it falls out fo, as thole 

divifions arc lieverover one another in the Icrew. but 


with their Iba 

under the middle of the figures above, thofe figures do vary fo in the 
colouring,as if you fee an hundred Pines they are not one like another, 
and every one of thofe figures has a little tuft or beard, fomeofgreen, 
fome yellow, fome Afti colour, fome Carnation /There are two forts 
ofpines, the King and Qcen Pine .• The Queen is far more delicate, 
and has her colours of all greens, with their fliadowes intermixt, with 
faint Carnations, but moftof all froft upon green, and Sea greens 
Ring Pine, has, for the moft part, all forts of yellows^ 
do wes intermixt with grafs greens, and is commonly the larger Pine. 
Ihave{eenfomeofthemi4incheslong, and fix inches in the diame- 
tre 5 they never grow to be above four foot high, but the moft of them 
having heavy bodies, and (lender ftalks,lean down and reft upon the 
ground. Some there are, that ftand upright, and have coming 
of the ftem^ below, fome fprouts of their own kind, that bear 

Icj and then rife upright, I 


firuits which iett out from the ftem 

Y 2 







A . True and ExaB. Hifiory . 



havefcena dozenof thefe roundabout the prime fruit, but not fo 
highas tlie bottom ofthaC5and the whole Plant together, (hews like 
a Father in the middles and a dozen Children round about him 
all thofewill take their turnes to be ripe, and all very good, 
this fruit is grown to a ripenefs^ you (hall perceive it by the fmellj 
which is asfar beyond the fmell of our choiceft fruits o£ Europe^ \s the 
tafte is beyond theirs. When we gather themj we leave fbme of the 
ftalk,to take hold by , and when we come to eat them^, we firft cut 
ofTthe crown, and fend that out to be planted ^ and then with a knife, 
j jpare ofFtherinde^vvhichis (o beautiful, as it grieves us to rob the fruit 
offuch an ornament 5 nor would we do it, but to enjoy the precious 
fubiftance it contain^s 5 like a Thief, that brcakes a beautiful Cabinet, 
which we would forbear to do, but for the treafure he expeds to ^ find 

within. The rinde being taken off,we lay the fruit in a dilb, and cut 
it iirflices, half an inch thick 5 and as the knife goes in, there ifiues 
out 5fthe pores of the fruit,a liquor, clcer as Hock- water, neer about 
fix fpoonfulls, which is eaten whith a fpcon 5 and as you tafle it, you 
find^it in a high degree delicious, but fb milde, as you can diflinguifh 
no tafVe at all 5 but when you bite a piece of the fruit, it is (b violently 
fharp,as you would think it vvould fetch all the skin off your mouthj 
but, before your tongue have made a fecond trial upon your palat,j 
y'ou fhall perceive fuch a fweetnefs to follow, as perfeftly to cure that 
vigorous (harpnefs 5 and between thefe two extreames, of (harp and 
fvveet, lies the relifti and flavor of all fi*uits that are excellent, and thofe 
taftes will change and flow fb faft upon your palate, as your fancy can 
hardly keep way with them, to difiinguifh the one from the of her ; 
andthisatleafttoatenthex^amination^fbr fo long the Ecchowill lafl. 
This fruit within, is neef of the colour of an Abricot not full ripq, and 
eate§ mfpe and (hortias thtit does 5 but it is full of pores, and 
thofe of (uch formes and colours, as 'tis a very beautiful fight to 
look on, and in yites the appetite beyond meafure. Of this fruit you 
may eat plentifully, without any danger of furfeting. I have had ma- 
ny thoughts which way this fruit might be brought into £;/§/. ;W, but 
cannot fatisfie my felf in any 5 preferv'd it cannot be, whole 5 for, the 


rinde is is fb firm and tough,as no Sugar can enter m 5 and if you divide 

it in peices, C ttie fruit being full of pores) all the pure tafte will boyle 
out. 'Tis triie, that the Dutch preferve them at Fernctmbocli^ and fend 
them home 5 but they are fuch as are young, and their rinde foft and 
tender : -But thofe never came to their full tafte, nor can we know by 
the t'^eot them, what the others are. From the Uer^/wJ^ej, fbme have 
been brought hither in their full ripenefs and perfedion, where there 

Camsj with has been a quick paflage,and the fruites taken in the nick of time , but 



fff fhmting J 
of their 

grow hjtimc 

of ripenefs t 
vpith the 

vphole procefs Uhe beauty and tafte of thefe formentioned Trees and Plants, beyond 
if Sugar- whlch, the Sun with his mafculine force cannot beget, nor the tee- 

that happens very feldom. But, that they fnould be brought fiom the 
5^r/?<<^^ex,is impoffible, by reafbn of the fcveral Climates between. 
We brought in the fbip feventeen of feveral growths, but all rotten, 
before we came halfe the way. 

Though I have faid as much as is fit, and no more then truth, of 



mirig Earth bear j all which are proper and peculiar to the Hand 






inc . 


J \ 


Th e Jtrjh Jt 





e C-urelna 


e arc-un 


'e. -tvltre, tie, pottxjittni n-Urh hold, -the. Sw^^r azv 

B.foQ-tey 0, xn-cMe^S 

a ve t n 

^'ftetfs to 

of y. vtif^^^S to cvjiefj^ 














a,.ihs, roirm& -mhtre. 1^ty Xttoch 
orttiaZs into 

'rvhe.7vth£,yjcnoc%it(nvtjor mufccL-voAoSj thtyfinh. 
mlile, of -^-j e. ^ ait wbU coUurel 

[ojd hrownxr^ colour {he. topp frothy cm.1 light ^ththoltc^vtrU 

Iromtu, a^lJuJl ofJioUfses^ lath -rvhich the,yj&tt ajUs to lie, 
hoytl c^aift2, Tvith ihe. Mofiis huthi Cilter-rus of ruhUh zh ey 

ffta-he \Be,ivruhs^ wi)ich though itle, ciTvorf& JcvrAi, 

, l^e ^:ij^ra^^ES letn/eem the. poits v^oit tbt^mir ahavt 

andharw a eiw eerit^ Jianiicms afiinth 

inches fq 


hy ^e^nc 

Jiron^ £ml ffUfsyJiuils (^:poJb^ arU^irded arl^ract 

with Iron '^Isdas orwooi.^ tJse^lgncfth oj^c fonts' 

or a 8 . itLches loTt^ Ttiade ta^tr down^w t^r-Z^ onA^ 


Jfrnlrn^ yet yowmnll hc;^ilyXno'ruitJram.-AcJe.co7vlJcrt 

hs -Wall 




I of Jug er 

Toonvc. Tvhich 


trua dore^s 

of Ji-uf. 







i. o/ 

^ o . jrc ate 


hroivd^e -nrith 

is too foo-b tafta 



the.y h (W & Jonte^ iyrtve^s 





"1 I i i I I T-r 


' — *♦ 


Jioric of -polts- 

J he, provnJi roonue 

^ tl 




O'Wie^ or thc^tuct m^here. tl^f^^qtuurs 





w. convtyy 



toy Qift t rrvs 

^rauni, roo-me, 
a..tht h*iacXina -roome . 
*i . the, lores 

C . the v^uitU hetm eerie, the £' 

a,, the. Claims erf which there 


;^/ Moh[i 




^ one 

.„ . , "^^^ -^ ■ -^^^ch hall 

till they hoyU it wUch conumfy 


»^ tit a, weeXe^ . 





e . ctU the guiters that c entv ay th e %ohfs es Jjrnnu^ 

to the Cifierits , 

/ . the tVaHs of the roonu which areto be accom£ted. 

two foot thick^:, \ . A _ l^ere arejeldffme any windows 

in, the Cure'tn^ houft-^ fer the. meyji ayer is a^n. 

enemy to the cure of iJj e fu^ er nttherhrin^ 
aliens cf well kinMecL coa,le>f into the Toome^ 



ehetiaUy in^ nufyji anJi rty^e 










^Ln fom,c of the 9\ 

"^f^cts^^ f/fe cancr l^nicn raoKe. tAe ^uaer 

















T^t -upright qfthc IrL^cnio orJiill th at f qv.E ej e s 

th e JvuniMioiv or jlatej of th e houfe. tviuh nu(b ie- of nuJsey 

and. lajixfia iimhtr 

erf -the. Zrvae-nio' 

the -vlcuuks thathcare up 

thtjwportef arj^ropj^ thatleares upp 0}ofe plank 



e. Suacr Cci^ts 


the-Jties of -At houfe. which art Jtrofy pojis orJU^lds wkuh 

learevfthehoiife- atuL or e. pi a.dt 

',foott di/birut. wiA 


lave and. hUowtoJlrtfifthefi th$m^forheitrtinj u^ ^i fUtu cfih 


t^e-Jhaftliatis jri^ted into thciudlc 

which turtles 

I . Wi- arecvt3eamz< to which ihe Shaji ofthe^ nudlc 


over ait-J^ tucrrhe^ 


CircU where^ the horfes 

guuL likewtfc all th 

a.tvd^ Cattle d^rtuv . 

h . iheBracJceits thathee^e tJje-^ame 

"^ jTQ-nvJh a^k^Uia ivhcrt^of there, 

8 • 

of th& houf 







' ti 




they were planted there by the great Gardiner of the World 
there is one brought thither as a ftranger, from beyond the Li 


hich has a property beyond theni all 5 and th 



vvhich thdagh it has but one fingle tafte, yet, that full fvveetriels has 
fuch a benign faculty , as to preferve all the reft froni coirliptida , 
which, wiihgut it, would taint and become rottenj and not bnly the 
fruits of this lilmd, but of the world, which is a fpecial preheraineiice 
due to this Plant, above all others, that the earth or world canboaft 
of. And that I may the more fully and amply fct her off, I will give 
you all the obfervatiions Imade, from my firft arrival oh the Ifland 

heii pi 

was but 

infancy, and but faintly under 

ftood^ io the time I left the place, when it was grown to a high per 


At the tini? we landed on this Ifland , wliirch was in tbc beginning 
O^ September ^ 1 647. we were informed, partly by thofe Planters we. 
found there, and partly by bur own obfervations, that tlie great worK 
of Sugar-making , was but newly praftifed by the inhabitants there. 

ottcn Plants from Fcr- 

• - 

r ^^ 

them at the Barhadocsi 

Some of the mod itidiiflrioilts men,, having 

na/jibock^^ a place iii Brafil^ and made tr) 

d finding them to grow, they planted more and 


• ^ 



grew and multiplyed on the place 

■ L F 

number,, as they were yi^orth th 


o make 


try^l whai 

the (ecrets of the work 

Sugar doiild be ma 
being not well uiid 

they had fuch a confiderabl^ 
fet up a very Imall Ing 


Upon that (by I. Biit 
flood * the Sugars tjiey 

made were very inconfiderable, and little worth , for two or three 

years.But they finding t^heir errours i>y their daily pradice, begati^ '' 

mencjj and, by new directions froni ^r^/?/,{bmetimes by ftrangers, 
and now and then by their own people^ ""fwho being covetous of the 
knowledge 9^3 thing, which (b muc^ concerned them in their parti- 
cu]ars,nnd for the general good of the. vy hole Ifland J) vyefe , content 
fbmetim'<?s t6 make a voyage thither, to improve their knowledge in 

thing they (o much d 


Being now.made much abler to mak 

their queries , ofthefecrets of thatmyftery, by how much their often 
failings, had put them to often ftops andnonpluffes in the. wdrkv And 
fb tcturning with moft Plant*, and better Knowledge, they went on 
upon freflihop^s, butftill (hort,of what they fhould be more skilful 
in ; for, at our arrival theie, we found them ignorant in three ii\ain 

points, that itiiich conduced to the work 

The manner of Plah 

t * 

ting, the time of Gathering, and the right placing of^their Copp? 
their Furnaces^ as alfo, the true way of covering their.,R,olle ' 


plates or Bars of Iron: AH which beirig rightly done^^' advance much 
in the performance of the main work. At the tiihe df ouf arrival 
tkere, we found many Sugdr-worksfct up> and at works but yet the 
gars they made, were but bare Mufcavadoes. and kw of theriiMer- 

chantable commodities, fbrnoifV, and mil of molofTes, and fbill cur'd, 
as they were hardly worth the bringing home for £»^/^»<^* But about 
the time I left the Ifland, which was in 1^650. they were much bet- 
d^ for then they had the skill to know when the Canes vvere ripe 


hey vvere fifteen months old i and before, they 
gathered them at twelve, vvhich was a main difadvantage to thenia- 





^ I 


A True and ExaB^ Hijiory 

king good Sugary for, the liquor wanting of the fweetiief^ it ought 

have, caufed the Sugars to be 

d unfit to keep. Befi 

they were grown greater proficients, both in boy ling and curing tliem^ 
and had learnt the knowledge of making them white, fuch as you 
call Lump Sugars here in Ertglatid ^ but A(3t fo excellent as thole they 
make in Bra^l^ nor is there any likely hood they can ever niake fuch: 
the land there being better, and lying in a Continent, tilufl: needs have 
conftantcr and fteadier weather, and the Aire much drier and purer, 

bd in fb fmall anlland^ and that .of H^r Woe/i And now, 

) much the ftart of all the 

feciiig this commodity. Sugar, hath gotten 

rdl of thole, that were held the ftaple Commodities of the Hand , and 
fo much ovcr-top't thei^, as they are for the moft part flighted and 
negleded. And, for that few in Ettgland know the trouble and care of 
making it, I think it convenient, in the firft place, to acq uaiqt you, as 
fiir'as my memory willferve, with the whole procels of the work of 
Sugar-making ', >vhich is now grown the foul of Trade in Wis Hand. 
Aftdleavingtotrouble-j'ou andmyfelf, with relating the errours our 
PrcdecefTors lb long wandred in, I will in brief fet down the right 
and bcft Way t^i'ey' pradiled, when I left the Ifland, which, I think,will 

•-"!-- ^ T /^ v . ■• . • ; V . :*, ' ,,,1 V 

of no greater or ^rthcr improvement 

'" .But, before I will begin With thi^t, I will fet you f^e, hpv^ ftiuch the 
fa'nd there hath been ildvirtic'din the profit, (iuce the vyork of Sugar 
brgan, *^otheftime ofour landing there^ wht^hrw^-not* above five or 
x For, be fo^e -theo^or^k began jthis Plantation of Major H///i - 

6f fivelitindred acres^ could have b^cnpurchaled forfbur hfln- 

ig5 and rib W*' the HaTfe'tfiis Plantatioiij with the 


poll n 

d iUd 


Stock upon lt,\vas (bjd for /even thbula'rfd poiitid (terline: 

AmUt b t;vidertt, ,tl^at all the laqd there, which has been iriiplbyed 
tfK?r^ork','Mb jfe>und the,Hke imjjrovtment. ^ And t b'ellevc, when 
' e^rmall Plantatfe,h^ in poor 'mens .hands, OJf ten3 twenty, or thirty 

„..^^^.,,J ,.hicharet66 fmall W Tily to that yi'drii, be bought up by great 
jfecq,^ and put together, info Pfantations dffivie, fix, or feven hundred 

fiat two thirdsof the Hand .will be fit for Plantiitidnfeof Sugar 

fi-.JjlO J 

Mch Will makS 

f 1 ' 

1 « 



^ -* 

of the richeft Shots' of earth undet the 

*- * * 


Ami noWpHnce f have puffny lelf upOntPfi^ Difcovery^ I thtnk it 
to let you know the nature of the Plant, the right way of Planting 
'the manner ofgrowth, the,time of growing to ripenelS, the manner 
^ ^^ _ g. bringing home, the jlace where tx> lay theni,bcth^ brought 
hwile, the time 'they may lye there, without fpoyl,the nianncr of 
''fmding bff^iieezing theiti, the convepnce of the liquor to' the Ci- 
rnihbW Ibhg It may ftay there withbfitf harme, the manner of boy- 

ig an'd skimofitrig. with the conveyance of the skimmings into the 
Cilfcrns, in the Sttll-houfe, the manner oFcfiftilling it, which makes 
^!l^4t«"gc(f Spirits that meq cati drink, ivith the temper to be put in, 
' m the temper is,*^the time of cooling the Sugar before it be put 

, . tiriie it ftaies in the Cureing houfe, before it be good 

Mtifcavado Sug^r. . And Jaft, the taking ofit into Whites, which we 
callLufifp-Sugah :^ ■ ^ ' 

Firft then , ' it is fit to fet down,, what nianhcr of place is to be cho- 

"^ fen. 






of the If and ^/Barbadoe^, 

(en , to (et this Sugar-work, or Ingcnio, upon 5 and it muH: be the' 

that hath .within the conipafs of eighty foot 

brow of a fmall hill 

twelve foot defccm^viz. from the grinding placCjwhich is the higheft 
ground, and Hands upon aflat , to the Stiil-houfe, and that by thefc 
defcents; From the grinding place to the boyling hdufe, four foot and 
a halfi from thence to the fire-room, feven foot and a half^ and (bnie ■ 
little defcent to the Still-hbufc, And ihe reafbn of thcfe defcents are! 
iihcfcvthe top of the Giftetn, into vv^hich thefirll: liquor runs, is, and 
muft be foraewhat lower than the Pipe that convaiesiti and that is 
a little under ground. Then the li^-^uor which runs from that Ciftern 
muft vent it felf at the bottom, othbt^wife it cannot run all but, and 
that Ciftern is two foot and a half deep ; and fb, running upon a tittle 
defeent, to the darifying Copper, which is a foot and a half above 
the flowre of the Boyling hoiife, f and fb is the whole Frameiwhere all 
the Copper5ftand)^itmuftofneceffity fall out, that the flowre of the 
Boyling'houfe muft be below the flowre 'of the Mil] -houfe, four foot 
and a half* Then admit the largeft Copper be a foot and dhalf 
deep, the bottom of the Copper will be lower then ^he flowre of the 
Boyling-hou(e,.by a footi the bottohbf the Furnaces muft be three 
foot beloW^the Copjjers, and the holes ufider th^ FiVnaceSjiiito which 
the afties fallals three foot b3ow the bottom of thd Furnace > : A little 
more fiH is required to the Still-houle, and fo the account is made 
up. Upon what place the Sugar-work is to be fet, ifiave drawiirwo 
Pldfs, that.^xprefs more tbah language can do, to which I refer ydu. 
And to I have done with thelngenio, and no\vtd the work I promi- 
fed, which I (hall be brief in. "^ . , r ' — ' 

, When I firft arrived upon the Hand, it was in my purpofe, to db- 
(ervetheirCeveral manners of planting and husbandry there^ and be- 
caiile thisPlaritwasoftJreateft value and efteem, \ defired firft the 
knowlede'c of it» I (aw by the growth, as well as by what I had been 
tdld, that it was 1 ftrqrig and liifty Plant, and 16 vigorous, as" where it 
grew, to forbid all Weeds to grow very neer it 3 fo thirflily it (uck*t 
thd earth for nouriOiment 3 to maintain its own health and "^ 

4 • 


' • -i f- f 


But the'¥'lantcfs; though* they know this to be true; ^et, by their 
maanei- of Planting , did norrightly purfue fheir own knowledge 5 
For theit manner was, to dig fmall holes, at three foot diftance, or there 
aboufi and put in the Prahts end wife, with* a little' ftxjp^iug, (b that 
eacll Plant brought not forth above tliree or four fprouts^t^themofty 
and they being all fiiftned to one root, when they^rcw large,. tall,and 
heavy, and ftormcs of windf and rain caSe, (and 'ihofejaines there, 
fall with much violence and weight)^ the roots Were loofened , and the 
Canes lodgedi and fo became rotten, and tinfit, for (ervicc in makin^ 

good Sugar. - And befittes, the roots being far afuhder,. weeds grew 
up between, and vvorfc then allwced^,Withs,vvh1chareof a ftron- 
^er erouth then the Canes, arid do much liiifchiefe ' where they are. 

or, they vvinde about them, and pull therti down to the ground,asdif- 
daining to fee a prouder Pfaiit than themfeJves. But experience taught 
US5 that this v vay of planting vyas moft pernicious, and therefore were 
refolved to try another, Which is, without queftion^the befts and that 

Z 2 








*m 'Ui^^ 

' V 



A True and Exa& Hiftory 

by digging a (mall trench of fix inches broad, and as much deep 


the whole length of the land you mean to pla 

laying the earth on one fide the trench as you make it 3 then lay 

Canes along the bottom of the trertch 

by another, and Co 

them the whole length of the trench^to the lands end, and covpf 
them with the earth you laid by 5 and at tvvo foot diftance, another 
6f the fame, and Co a third and fourth, till you have finiQi'd all the land 

you intend to plant at th 

For, you mult not plant too much 

but have it to grovvripe (iicceffively, that your vvork niay 
come in ordei'jto keep youftill doing, for.ifitfhouldberipeall toge- 
ther, you are not able to vvork it fp^and then for want of cutting,they 
would rot,and grow to lofs: By planting it thus along, tvvo together, 
every knot will have a fprout, and fo a particular root, and by the 
means of that, be the more firmer fixt in the ground , and the better 
able td endure the Wind and weather, and by their thick growing 
together , be the ftronger to lupport one another- By that time they 
have been in the ground a month , you (hall perceive them to appear 3 
like ^ land "of greetT Wheat in Ew^/^W, that is high chough to hide a 
Hare^and in-4 month niore, tvvo foot high at lea(t. But upon the firft 
months growth, tho(e that are careful, and the beft husbands, com- 
mand their Over(eers to fearch, if any 'weeds have taken root,and de- 
ilroy them, or if any of the Plants fail, and (upply theni, for where 
the Plants are vvanting,vvecds will gfovv • for, the ground is too Vet- 

tuoUsto be idle. Or,jfan]' VVithsgroyv in thofe vacant places, they 

Vyill - ^ ' - -— - 


youn T 

fpreaifvery far, aiid~3^o~muchnarm, piallmg^dovvn all the Canes 

reach to. If this husbandry be not u(ed when the Canes are 

will be too late to find a remedy, for, when they are grown 

height, the blades will become rough and (harp in the fides, and 

To cut the skins of the Ncgrcs^as the blood will follow, for their bd- 





dies, Jeggs, and feet , being uncloathed and bare 

•fanes without (mart andldls of bloddjvvhich they Vvillnot endure 

Befides , if the Overfeers ftay too long, before they repair thefevoid 

places, by new Plants, they will never be ripe together, which is a 

very great harm to the whole field , fot whicb there is but one ferhe- 

and that almoft as ill as the difeafe, which is, by burning the 
ivholc field, by which they Ibfe all the time they have grown : But the 
Toots continuing fecurefrom the fire, there arifcs a neWfpnng all to- 
gether 5 fbthat to repair this lofs oftiriie, they haveonely this^recom- 
pcncc, which is, by burning an army of the main enemies to their pro- 
fit. Rats, which do infinite harm in thelHand, by gnawing the Canes , 
tvhich prefently after will rot, and become unferviceablc in the work 
of Sugar. And that they may do this juftice the more (eterely, they | 
begin to make their fire at the out-iides of that land of Canes they 
mean to burn, and (b drive them to the middle, whereat la(l the fire 


d burns them 


d this great 

they put often 

without Affifeisor Seflions,fbr,t here are not (b great 


mics to the Canes, as thefe Vermine, as alfo to the Routes, w'here they 
Jay up their ftores of Corn and other prdvifions^ and likewife in dwel- 
ling houfes for their viduals. For, when the great down-falls of Win 
tome, vvhKhmnmvemher mdDecemher, and intlte time of the Tur- 


of the ipdndofBaihadocSi 

ptada, they leave the field, and Ihelter themfelves in the dwelling hou 
fcsj where they do much mifchief. 


The C 

their tops 



be eight foot high ; the Canes themfelves 

do commonly grow t© 
are commonly five or dx 
foot, (I have feen fbme double that length, but 'tis but feldome) the 
bodies of them^ about an inch diametre, the knots above five or fix 
inches diftant one to arib 

Ibme more, fome le{Ie,for there is no certain rule for that, th 

but the Canes themiclves 

her 5 many times three or four inches 

of the blades, and tops^ pure grafs gi 
when they are ripe of a deep Popinjays and thentheyyeeld the grea- 
ter quantity, and fuller and fweeter juyce. The manner of cutting them 
is with little hand bills, about fix inches from the grouncjj at which 
time they divide the tops from the Canes, which they do with the 

fame bills, at one ftroak 


holding the .Canes By the upper 

end, they ftrip off all the blades'that grow by the fides of the Canes 
which tops and blades are bound up in faggots, and put into Carts 

y home 3 for without thefc, ourHoriesand Cattle are not'ahl 



work, the pafture being (b extreini liarHiand faplefs,but with .thq(( 

very well nourrihtand kept in heart 


we lik 

wife bind up in faggots, at the (ame time, and thole are corarnonly 
brought home upon tTie Ajpni goes , and weufethefafliion of 
Devot2-pirc in that kind ofHusbandry,(fbr there we learnt it^which i 
fmall pack-laddles, and crooks which lerve our purpoles very fitly 
yingupon each Crook a figgot^ and one a top, fb that each Affinig 

carries his three fagg 

and being accuftomed to go between 

the field and the place where they arc to unload,- will ofthemfelves 

make their rcturnes without a guide 5, So underftanding this little 
beaft in performing his duty. The place vi'here they unload 

IS a 

little platform of ground , which 

2UOUS to the Mill-houfe 

hieh they call a Barhjcw^ about 30 foot long and 10 foot broadjdone 
about with a double rayle to keep the Canes from falling out of th^t 
room, where one, or two,or more, (who have other work to do in the 
Mill-houfe, J when they fee the Ajjlmgoes coming, and make a fi:op 
there, are ready to unload them, and fb turning them back a^ain , 
they go immediately to the field, there to take in frefli loading^fothat 
they may not unfitly be compard to Bees 5 the one fetching home 
Hony, the other Su 
clean, ai 

being laid on the Barbyon^wG. work them 

d leave none to grow dale, for if they fhould be more then 
two dayes old, the juyce will grow four , and then they will not be 
fit to work, for their fournels will infed the reft 5 The longeft time 

they ftay, after the} 

me of grinding, is fi-om Saturday 

g to Munday morning at one or two a clock, and the neceflity 
of Sunday coming between , C^pon which we do not work) caufes 

ftay fo 

hich othervviie we would not do. The manner of 

grinding them, is this, the Horfes and Cattle being put to their tackle, 
they go about, and by their force turne (by thefweeps) the middle 
roller, which being Cog'd to the other two, at both ends, turne them 
about^ and they are three, turning upon their Centres, which are of 
Bra(s and Steel, going very eafily of themfelves, and lb cafie as a mans 
taking hold of one of the fweeps with his hand will turne all th 

with much eafe. But when the Canes are put 

A a 


- 1' 





A True and ExaS Hijlory 

the rollers , it is a good draught for five Ojten or Horfe 



Negre puts 

the Canes of otie fide . and the 

draw then? 

through to the other fide, where another Ne^re ftands^ and \ 
them; and returns thenibackon the other fide of the middl 

which draws the other way. So that havhig paft 




that is forth and backbit is conceived all the juyCeis preft out, yet the 
Spaniards have a pre{s, after both the former grindings-, to prefs out 
the remainder of the liquor but they having but firiall works in 
-^/>4/»5 make the moft of it, whilft we having far greater quantities, are 
loath to be at that trouble. The Canes having paft to and again ^ 
there are young 'Negn Girlcs, that carry them awdy , and lay them on a 
heap 3 at the diftance of fix fcorc paces or thereabout 5 where they 
niakc a large hill, if the work bdvfe continued long : under the rolled Sj 
there is a receiver ^ as big as a large Tray, into which the liquor falls ^ 
and ftays not ther^\, but runs under ground in a Pipe or gutter of 
lead, cover'd over clofe^ which pipe or . gutter, carries it into the Ci- 
ftem^Which is fetireettbc ftaires, as you go down from the Mill-houfe 


the boyling houfe* But it mult norremain in that Cifterne above 
day, left it grow Ibwr, from thence it is to pafle through 


fixt to the wall) to the Clarifying Gopp 

there is occafi 

on to ute it, ahd as the work goes on, and as it Clarifies in thefirft 
Copper, aiid the skumme rifes, it is conveyed away by a pafldg 

gutter for that purpofi 

alfb of the fecond Gopp 

?, 01* 
oth which 

skimmings, are mjrx ftt fe ur ^ wortlrthc labour of (tilling^ beciufethe 

skum is dirtie and gio^s^. But the skipimings of the other three Cop- 
pers, are conveyed down ta the Still-houfe , there to remain in the 
Cifterns, till it be a little Ibwr^ for till then it will not come over the 
tielme. This liquor is remov'd, as it is refin*d , from one Copper to 
anotherj, and the more Coppers it pafleth through, the finer and purer 
it is, being coniiriualiy cfrawu upr^nd keel'd by ladles, and skim'd 
by skimmers, in the NjEgres hands, till at laft it comes to the tach, 
wher^ it'Muft have much labour, in keeling and ftirring 5 and 




thrown into the four laft Coppers, a liquor made of 

and aOies which they call Teihper, without which, the Sug 

would continue a Clammy ftibftance and never kerne. The quantities 
l^^y P^t iharefmall, but being ofa tart quality it turnes thcropinels 

clattiminefs of the Sugar to cruddle andfep 

which you will 

find, by taking Out fome dro^s ofit,to Candy, and Suddenly to grow 
*^ ■ ^ ■ and then it has enoug^i of the fire. Upon which Eflay they 


,. tly poure two fpoonfuls of Sailet Oylc into the tach, and then 

immediately it gives Over to bubt>Ie or rife. So after much keeling, 
they take it out Of the tach,by the ladles they ufc thcre,and put it'Wo 
ladles that are of greater receipt, with two handles, and by them re- 
move it into the cooling Ciftcrn, neerthe ftayers thatgocs'to the fire 
wm : But as they remove the laft part of the liquor out of the tach, 
they do it with all the celerity they can, and fuddenly caft in cold 
^warer, to cool the Copperfrom burning, for the fire in the fiirnace, 
Ifontmues ftill in the fame heat : and fb when that water is removed 

the Ladles, they are in the flime degree careful and 
quick, as foon as the laft Ladle full is taken out, to throw in fome of the 





of the I(ldnd of ^3xhdidots 

liquor oFthenext Coppei*, to keep thetach from burning, and /bfill 
it up out of the next, ahd that out of the third, and that out of the 
fourth, and that out of the Clarifying topper, and (o from the Ci- 
flern, and fo from the Mill-houfe or Ingenio. Arid (b the work gOes 
on, from Munday morning at one a clock, till Saturday nigk, (at 
which time the fire in the Furnaces are put out J all hourcs of the day 
and night , with frefh fupplies of Men, Horfes, and Cdttle. The Li- 
quor being come to fuch a coolnefs, as it is fit to be put into the Pots, 
they bring them neer the Cooler, and ffcopping firft the Iharp end of 
the Pot (vyhich is the bottom) with Plantine leaves, fand the paflage 

there no bigger then a mans finger will go in atj they fill the Pot,'and 

(et it Between the flantions , in the filling room, where it (taiestillit 
be thorough cold , which will be in two dayes ind two nightS5 and 
then if the Sugar be good, knock upoii it with the knuckle of yout 
finger, ds you would do upon an earthen pot, to try whether it be 
WhoIe,anditwiIl givealbund^ butifthe Sugar be very ill,it will nei- 
ther be very hard, ilbr give any found i It is then to be removed into 

the Curcing houfc , and fet between ftantions there : But firft , the 

ftopples are to be puU'd out of the bottoih of the pots, that \he Mo- 
lofles may vent it fclf at that hole , and fb drOp drowti upon a gutter 

of board, hollowed in the the middle, which conveycth the Molofles j 
from one to anothei*, till it be come into the Cifterns, of which there 
is commonly four, at either cbrner one 5 and there remains, till it rife 
to a good euilntity, an J then they boy 1 it again, and of that they ffiakc 
Peneles, a kind of Sugar fomeWhat inferiour to the Mufbavlido j but 

yet will fweeten indifferently well, and fonieofitvery%ell coloured^ 

The pots being thusdpehed at the bottoms, the Molofles drops out, 
but lo (lowly, as hardly to vent it felfein a month, in which time, the 
Sugar ought to' be well curd 3 and therefore they thought fit, to 
thruft a fpike of wood in at the bottom, that fhould reach to the top, 
hoping by that means, to make way for the Moloffes to have the 
fpeedier pafTage : But they found little amendment in the purging, 
and the reafbn was this, the fpike as it went in, prcft the Sugar fo 
hard j>. as it flopt all pores of pafTage for the Molofles. So finding no 
good to c6me of this, they devis'd another way, and that was, by ma- 
king an augure of Iron, which inftrument cuts his way, without pref^ 
fing the Sugar, and by that means the Molofles had a free pafTage, 
without any obftrudtion atJall. And fo the Sugar was well cur'd in a 
month. Asfbr the manner of ufing it, after it is cur'd, youftiallfindit 

fet down in my Index, to the plot of the Cureing hou(e* And this is the 
whole prOCefs of making the Mufcavado Sugar, whereof fbme is bet- 
ter, and fome worfcjas the Canes are 3 for, ill Canes can never make 

good Sugar. v < . £• 

I call thofe ill > that are gathered either before of after the time of 
fuch ripenefs, or are eaten by Rats, and Co confequeutly rotten , or 
puU'd down by Withes, or lodgd by foule weathef, either of which, 
will ferve tofpoil fuch Sugar as is made of them. At the rime they 
exped it ftiould be well cur'd, they take the pots fi-orri the flantions 
in the Curing-houfe, and bring them to the knocking room, which 
vou (hall find upon the plot of the cureing ho ufes and turaingitup- 

^ fide 









A True and Exa& Hiftory 


fide dowiij they knock the pot hard againft thegroun^and the Sugar 
comes whole out, as a bullet out of a mold, and when it is our, you 
may perceive three forts of colours in the jpot, the tops fomevvhat 
browniOij and of a frothy light fubftance, the bottom of a much dar- 
ker colour, but heavy, grofs, moift, and full of MolofTes^ both which 
they cut away, and referve to be boyl'd again , with the Moloffes for 
peneles ; The middle 




thirds of the 

whole pot, and looks ofa bright colour, dry and fweet, they lay by 
it felf, and fend it down daily upon the backs of Affinigoes and Ca- 
inells, in leather baggs, with aTarr'd cloth over, to their Store-houfes 
at the Bridge^ there to be put in Caskes and Chefts, to be fhipt away 
io^ England, or any other parts of the Worlds where the beft market 
is. Though this care be taken, and this courfe ufed, by the beft huf- 

bands, and thofe that rclpeft their credits, as Collonel ^ames Drax^ 
Collonel Walrond^ Mr, Rdjnes, and fome others tha 1 1 know there 5 yet, 
the greater number, when they knock out their Sugars, let all go to- 
gether, both bot tom an d top," and fo let the better bare out the worfe. 
But,~lvhcirmey come to ffetrMct^feftnt to be fold, they will not 2 


above 3! 

for the one^ and for the other, about 6Ii. 4s 



thole that ufe this care, have'fuch credit with the Buy. _ ^ 

fcarce open th^ Cask to make a tryal, .fo well 4:hey are afl^red'of 

the goodncfs of the Sugars they make 3 as of Collonel James Drax, 
Collonel Walrond^ Mt. Raines^ and fbme others in the Ifland that I 

I have yet faid nothing of making white ^Sugars, but that is much 
quicker /aid than done.- For, though tire Mufcavado Sug„., .. 
but a months time to make it fb, after it is boyl'd, yet the Whites 



quire foiir month?, and it is only this 

Take clay, and temper it with 

the thickiiefi of Frumenty, or Peafe pottage^ and poure 

the top of the Mulcavado Sug 

ftands in the pot , in the 


-- ^..w.^-.«^v. ..M^ai , cia iL iiauus in me pot, m the 

Curmg-houfe , and there let it remain four months, and if the clay 
crack and open, that the aire come in , clofe it up with fome of the 
rame,either with your hand, orafmallTrowell. And when you knock 
open thefe pots, you fhall find a difference, both in the Colour and 
oodnefs, of the top and bottom, being buttofuch a degree, as may 
e rank'd with Mufcavadoes^ but the middle perfect White, and ex- 

j cellent Lump-Sugar, the beft of which will fell in London for 2od. a 
. pound 


1 do hot remember I have left unfaid any thing, that cond 
^ •" "k of Sugar-making, unlefs it be, fometiraes after g 


f which moiften the aire more then ord 





,. - , e . , y J to lay it out upon fair 

daics in he Sun, upon cloaths, or iti the knocking room, and fome- 

tmies to bring w pans of coals, well kindled, into the Cureing-houfe 
It I have omitted any thing here, you fhall find it ftpplyed in the la- 
dcxcsof my Plots. . ^ '' 

r,i,^^^\f^"^^j"f,^^5,^^^™"^i"gs. Which run down to the StiU-houfe, 


the firft 

foure, rfi 

which my plot fiiews you in the Still-houfe , till it be 

that comes off 

then, the Spirits will not rife 


the Still ) 

friiall Liquor, which we 



of the JjlahdofBarhskdots":. 

i: ■■ ^ t 

■low -wines,' which' Liquor' we put into the Stilj^- .)r\d draw it off a- 
gain 5 afiiof that comes lb ftrong a'Spint^as a c§(\^lej)eing brpug^t 

(JiftancCj to the bung of a Ilogniead Qf gut^ where \t is k( 

1 flic to it", .arid taking; hoy^c/it^^ bring the 


the Spiri 

down to the velTell, and (et all a fire, which immediately brcakes th^ 
— flelL and becomes a flame, burnimi all about it that is combuflibl^' 


We loft an excellent Negro by {iich 
Jar of this Spirit, from the StilJ-fiouf< 

the D 

who bringing 


I, in the 
ht, notknowingtheforceof the liquor he carried, brought the 

die (brae what nccrcr thanli 


how to put it into the Fu 

ght, that he might the b 
h "conveyed it into the Butt 







the Spirit being ftirr'd by that motion, flcw^out, and got hold, of th 
flame of the Candle; and',t) fct all Mn fire' dtid Burnt the 'feborNeeru 
to death, who was, an c^ceTTeut fervant. And if h^ hadin tftt iriftatft of 
firings clapt'^hisHaud on tliebpng^allhad iiccn fayed 5 but li^ thatj 
knew nbtthat curep9'l. the, whole vei^^^^^ of ^pirrt&^'-and his life to 
boot. So that upon' |ll'ajt mi(aa vei-|ture, a ft rid jBiiimafid was ^gWeh, 5 

tl^it none bf thofe'''Smrits Jlipuld 'be brought,' tb the Brink'-robih 5 

ft erm^the. nighty npv no ore or Caadle ever to corire in 
the re, 

^This drjnk J though l^t Kad 

had theVertueto cure many 5 for when theyare ill, with taking cold 



hap to kill orit .Negro, yet ithas 

f which often they arc ) and ver} 

der them in the night but 

they may, having nothing 

rd, upon, which t^ey lie, nor any thing 

them : And though thedaies be^6t,the^whts are cold, and 

that change cannot but work upon thelH^o^es,' though they be hardy 


Befides, coming* RQme hot and fweating in the evening,fit 

g or lying down, muftj^e^ds. be the occafion of tajcing cold, ^nd 
fbmetimcs breeds 'fickneffes''amongrt them, vVhich w^Jien they feel, tjiey 
complain to the Apofhecary of tne'^'lantat'ion,vvhichVe call 'i!)odor 
and he gives to ev^ry one. a dram ^up of this Spirit, and that is a 

efentedrei -. AnSas/yiis drLn1iiioFg^ftltufe,tdctokndTcfrcrh the 
or Negroes . whom w£ out?httoriav^ alDecial care oL h 



fpecial ci/e of, by the la- 

P' ^ . , .^ , .,.,,_, _ , 

bour of Whofe hands, our nrofitis brbudit in \ lb is^^ii'-heTp?i 

Chriftian Servants too; lar., w 

ha ' • ' ■ ^ " ^"' 



labour, and fwea'tulgfin the Sun, 
ftomacks debilitated, and much ^ 
a dram or two ofthvs Soirit. is a 


fpirits are 'exhapftTed, by tfieir 

etf hours ey ^ry day, tjiey find 

eakncd in thdf Vigbur (?very 

■teat comfbrt and refreftiine 


ommodity of good value in tHePJ 


fend it Jovvn tbthe J^r 

imat retail it. Some t^*y fell to' the, ^lps,aild 'i&tranfported intoft 

1 e they |Mtb (ucft PlantCx ^, 

drink, for 

.Aey buy it a^ eafieya^es;'half a'crpwh a "gallon waatl^e 'price, the 

time that I was tliqre ^ but they wer^e then piirpohng; to rail^ the price 

pjgn pafts^ a^id druri^by the,wayw. ^o m e they , fell to inch. Planter 
Whave no Sug:ar-vvorl>/j)Ptpir b\ 

id there put it oil to thole '■. 


tb a deerd: 

They make weeKfy, a^Ioug ai 



fuch a Plarvtanon as ti^^^ 1 fterling, be^dQs'vijhat is 'drunk by 
fetvant^and flaves. 

vviork, of 



And now for a clofe of this work of Sugar, I will let you fee, by way 














True and ExaB Hifiory 

f - _ 

of eftimate, to what a Revenue this Ifland is raifed$ and^ in my opini- 
on, not improbable. Ifyou will be plealed to look back to the extent 
of the Ifland , you (hall find ^ by taking a medium of the length and 
breadth of it, that there is contained in the Ifland 392 fquare milcs^ 





out of which we will fubftrad a third partj which is the molt remote 
part of the Hand from the Br/W^e^where alitor the moft part of Trade 
is, which by many deep and fteep Gullies interpofing , the pafl!age is 
in a manner ftop'd ; befideSj the Land there k not lb rich and fit to 
bear Canes as the other 3 but may be very ufefull for planting pro 

vifions ofCorn ,Team3^iuLviftaj Cafl[avie, Potatoes; and likewifeof 

Fruits, as Oranges, Limons, Lymes 

Bonanoes ; as alio, for 

breeding Hoggs,Sheep,Goats, Cattle, and Poultry, to fui;nifh the refl 

ofthe Ifland, that want tho(e Commod 

For which reafbns , we 

will fubftrad a third part from 392. and that is 120. ia;d (b the 


i93i (130I 

3r3r3 -.. 


r t 

* •^ 




maining | is 262 fquarc ipilesj the greateft part of which may ^^ 
laid to Sugar-works, and fome to be allowed and fet out for fciall 
Plantations, which are not able to raife a Sugar- work or fet up an In- 
genio, by reafbn of thepaucity of acres^ being not above twenty, thir- 
ty, or forty acres in a Plantation5 but thefe will be fit to bear Tobacco 
Ginger, Cotten-wool, Maies, Yeames, and Potatoes, as alfb for bree- 
ding Hoggs, But moft of thefe will in fliort time, be bought up by 
great men, and laid together, into Plantations of five, Cix^ andfeven 


And then we may make our computation thus 

A mile fquare will contain 640 acres of land , and here we fee is 2 62 
acres, being I ofthe Ifland. So then, wemultiply 2^2 by 64o.andthe 
produd will amount unto 1^7680. Now we will put the cafe that 
Ibmeofthofe men that have imall Plantations, will not fell them but 
keep them for provifions , which they may live plentifully upon * 
for thofe provifions they ratfe, will fell at good rates 3 for vvhich ufe 

we will fet out thirty thoufand 

acres from 167680, and there will remain 13768 

So then we fubflraft 30000 

be for 

Sugar-works3 outof which, ^^may be planted with Canes, the other 

I for Wood, Pafture, and Provifions , which muft fupport the Plan 

tations, according to the fcale of CoUonel Jl^oMford's Plantation;, as I 


. s 

of the I/land of Baxhidots 







I f 








(aid before* Now thefe two fifts are, as you fee 550^2 acres, and aii 
acre of goo J Canes will yield 4000 pound weight of Sugar, and none 
will yield lefsthen 2000 weight 5 but we will take a iJ/e^s/i^^jand reft 
upon 3000 weight, upon which we will make our computation, and 
fet our price upon the Sugar, according to the lo weft rates, which 
ftiallbe 3 d. per pound, as it isMufcavado, to be (bid upon the Ifland, 
at the 'Bridge, In fifteen months the Canes will be ripCjand in a month 
more, they will be 'w^X cur'd, and ready to becaftup, and ftowed in 
the Ware-houfe. So here, we make our computation upon the place, 
and (ay, 3060 threepences is 37 I. 10 s. ten acres of which is 375 1. 
fterling. So then we (ay,if lo acres of Canes will produce 375 1. what 
ftiall 55072. which is the number of acres contained upon the \ of the 
land, alotted for Sugar Plantations, upon which the Canes muftgrow: 

and by the Rule 013. we find, that it amounts to ^^65200. in fixteen 

months; Now add four months moreto the time of cureing, anii 


a* ' 









2065200 \6 

.' r- 


1 03 2 600 



making it into whites, which is that we call Lump-Sugar in England j 

and then the price will be doubled to 4130400. out ot which we will 

abate J for wafte , and what is cut off from the tops and bottoms c^ 
the potSjWhich will be good Mufcavadoes 3 but we will abate for that, 
and wafte J which is 103 2 600. and that we will (ubftrafi: . from 
4130400. and there remains 3097800. which is the tatall of the re- 

B 2 









A True and Ek'a&.HiJiory 

venue of Sugars^ that grow on the Barhadoei for twenty months, and 
accounted there, upon the Hand, atthe Bridge. - But if you will run 
the Hazards of theSca^as allMarchants dne,and bring it for England, 
it will iell in London/ori2 d. the pound, and fb 'tis doubled again, 
and then it will amount ti3> 6195600. and in two months time more it 
will be in England^Now youfec what a vaft Reveno^ihis little fpot of 
ground can produce in 22 months time. And fo I have done with this 
plant,oneIy one touch mpre,to conclude with all^as-Mictiitians, that firft 
play a Preludium, next a Leflbn,and then a Sarabaadj which is the' 
life and {pirit of all the reft. So having played youa(hortTrcludium 

to this long and tedious leflbnofSugar and Sugar-ma^Liiig, I do think 


I fit to give you aSaraband,with my beft Touches at laft^which (hall be 
.only this, that as this plant has a faculty, to prelerve '411 fruits^ that 
grow in the world, from corruption and piitrifiction ^Soit has a ver- 
^ejbeing rightly applyed, to prelerveu' in our- Healths" and for- 
f;i|ftes too. Dp(3:or Btitkr one ohhc moftieamed and Eigioas Phyfitians 
fhU this Nation, or the wo: Id ever bred, was wont to, (ay that, ' 

/ V^> 'f^^^ 

y t 

If Sugar c^n p'cjcfbc both Tear es an3iTlu;?ils. 
Oil hiii.Whj can it' 720t -^Veferve as wcU mtr Lungs'*^ >■ 

M \ 

% rr t 

I f'-j 

r>»»f '^ 


.^^^m I 


lArtudthat it 'might work the fame ef^-^ft on him(elf,heiiiwayes drank 
jjjhis Claretjvirte, greatftore of the beft refin d Sugar*, :and alio pre- 
fctibed it fev«fal'^ayes to' his Patients, for "Cokls, Coughs^ and Ca- 
tarrsfjWhich ar e d i (eafess that retgn much in col d Clitna te s, 
in Hands, where the"l^y re ismoyfter theri in Continents s'and fb much 


Now for our fbrtuneSjthey arenotonely preferv'd, but made by the 

!| powerful operation of this plant. 

Colonel 'jdtna Drax^ whofe beginning upon that Hand, wasfound- 

!| ed upoa-a ftock "not exceeding 300 1. fterling, has raifed his fortune 
to fych a neight, as I have heard him fay, that he would not look 
towards England,with a purpofe to remain there, the reft of his life, 
till he were able to_pur chafe an eftate of ten thoufand pound land 
yearly, which hehop'd in few years to accomplish, with what he was 
then owner of^and all B^^ this plant ofSugar. Colonel Thomas Modi- 



\ford, has often told me, that he had taken a Relblution to himfelfj 
not to fet his face for England, til he had made his voyage, and imploy- 
ment there, worth himau litjhdred thoufand pounds fterling, and all by 

I this Sugar plant. And thefe, were men of as percing fights, and 
profound judgmehts^as any I have known in that way of management. ' 
Now if (uchEftates asthefe,may be railed, by the well ordering this 
plant, by Induftriousand^pauifulmen, why may not fuch eftates. 

careful keeping, and orderly and moderate expending, be preferv'd, 
in their poiterities, to the tenth Generation 3 and by all the fweetNe- 
^btidtion ofSogir ^ 

.jDne Veget'abfe VVe have on the Hand, which will peither become 

theimne ofa Tree, or a pliant 5 and that is a Withe j which is in fome 
reifica^ the hairmfulleft weed that can grow 3 for it pulls dowii* all 
tbatlt can^each'to;Canes;aad all other fmall plants,lt makes nothin 

I. ^ 

r - 






of the I jland of BarboidoQs. 


iofj ifitbe fufFer'd to look upina Gardcn^it will wind about all Herbs 
and Plants that have (talks, pull them dovvn and dcftroy them 5 or if it 
find the way into any Orchard, it will clime up by the bodies of the 

as td draw thcni 

branches, and there inwrap them (b 

(as it were) into a purfe, fforoutof the niiinftalk, hundreds offmall 
Iprigs will grow,) and if any other tree be fo neer as to touch it/it will 
find the way to it, and pull the tops of therri together, and utterly 
disfigure the t 


d hinder th 

themiinftalk belo^^ 
bove in the branches 

g^.^wth of th 

fruit j and if y 
therbotjin hope to kill it, the moyfi:urc a- 
thruft down a Vins into the ground, and get 
a new foot; Nay, this is not all the mifchicf, for it ,will reach the 
higheft timber, and involve and enwrap (b the branches, as to hinder 
their growths.and many times faften one tree to another, that one (halt 
hinder the growth of another. A couple of Colonel Draxcs Axemen 






about the time it began to bend, that they 



perceiv'd which way it would fall , got clear on the other fide , and 
thought themfelvcs (afe : But this being faltned to another by ftrong 
Withes^ pulfd a great branch of that tree after it, which fell upon the < 
fellers, and bruifed them fb as they hardly (cap'd with their Vives, \ 
Cleere a paflage often foot broad, that goes between a Wood and a \ 

nd of Canes overnight, and conie next mornin 

d you (hall find 


if 5 

way croft all over with Withs, and got neer the Canes 5 So th 
ou had left your vifit till the next day, they had gotten into the! 

Canes5and then it would be too late to help : for when they are rriixt 

with them you cannot de(troy the or 

Ibever they touch ground they get 

every p!ace,'and as they go pull dow 

without the oth 


ots , and lb creep i 
Thefe harniefjl With 

have with all thefe vices (bme virtues. They (erve for all dies where 
roapsor cords are required, as for binding our Wood and Canes into 
faggots, 01^ what elfe roapes are needful for 5 and without therri we 

condition for v/e have riot any wood fit td make hoops for 

ho2(lieads, barrels, rubbs , or what not \ and We can h 

them of 

what length and bignels we plea(e , and they at'e fot that u(c very 



?ral kinds of thefe Withes there are , (bme that bear ftuit 
hat bigger then the Cod ofa Bean, which being divided long 
wile with a ("harp knifcjyou (liail perceive the moft varicrOt and bea 

fullcft: Colours th 
great b 

be, audio wcllmatcht, as to make up a very 

Fell a dofcn acres ofwood, going on in a ftraight line, and when 
the ground is clcered, the fide of that wood you left ftanding will be 
likewife in the fame ftrait line, and in a few years thefe Withes will 
mount to the tops of the Tree5J, w^hich are for the mofi:' part, eighty or 
i6z foot high, and from that topto the ground, on the outfide of the 
wood, all will be cover'd with leaves, and thole are broad, green,and 



Co that if you be abfent from the place two or three years 3 
d look to find a wood, you find a fair green Cuftain, 360 paces 

nd 80 foot high , which is as pretty 





the (ame things are done in the mouths or entrances of C 



d this is one of the plcafmtell Viftos in tlieKIand 









A True and Exa^ Hijiory 

- - - . ■- 

T ■ 

you (ball find a Cave large enough to hold 500 merij and the mouth 
of it cover d with a green curtain, 40 foot high, and 200 foot long ; 

and (b clofe a Curtaine it is(the vines being wrapt and interwove one 
into another) as without putting it alide, you can hardly have light to 

read by. 
Thefe Caves. are very frequent inthelfland, and oflevcral dimen^ 

fions, fbme finally others extreamly large and Capacious: The run- 
away Negres , often-lhelter themfelvcs in thele Coverts , for a long 
time, and in the night range abroad the Countrey, and fteale Pigs , 
Plantins, Potatoes, and Pullin, and bring it there 5 and feaft all day , 
upon what they ftole the night before^ and the nights being darkjand 
their bodits black, they fcape undifcern'd. 

There is ndthing in that Countrey to u(eful as Liam Hounds^ to 
find oiit thefe Thieves. I have gone into divers of thofe Caves^totry 
what kind ofayre is to be found there, and have felt it Co clofe.j and 
moyft withall, as my breath was neer ftoptj and I do believe, if I 

fhould Tcmoin there-b^at onejiight^ I (hould never come out a- 


I have often wondred, why fuch vaft Caves and Rocks fhoiild not 

afford (bme fprings of water, theayre which touches them, being fo 
very moyft, for we fee in £7/5/^^, where Pvocks arCjSprings of water 
ifluc out, and fbmetimes (when \vet weather is) the moyfture hangs 
upon the Rocks in dro|)S5and fo runs down, add fi nds i way to vent it 

felf into (mall bibling Springs , but herg^it does not fo, though the 

Ayre be much moyftcr than in England : But certainly the reafbn is, 
' e extraordinary drinefs, and fpunginefs of the St-ne , which 
fucks up all moyfture that touches it , and yet it is never fatif- 
fi'ed. ^ 

*" * ■ - 

I had it in my thoughts, to make an E flay, what Sir Franck Bacdns 

fblitatie, touching the making of Artificial Springs vvould 


) 5 but troughs of that ftonc, being of fo dry andfpungy a quality 
vvould never have beeti fit for it ^ bcfideSjW'ehaVend brakes growing 
there, which is one of the materials us'd in that experiment; 

Another fort of Withs we hai^e, but they are made of the gum of 
trees, which falls firom the boughs drop after drop , one hanging by 
' another, till they touch ground^ from whence they receive fbme nou- 

# ^m ^« 

rifhment, which gives them powerto grow larger.' and if it happen 
that three or four of themcomedown (b neer onerinother as to touch, 
and the wind twift them together, they appear Co like ropes, as they 
cannot be difdern'd five paces ofF,whether it be a rope or a Withe. I 
have leen of thefe of feveral fizcs, from the fmalleft whipcord to the 
reatefl Cable of the Soveraine; and the mofl of thofe timber trees I 

have named^has theiil^ fbme four, fbme five, fbme half a dozen, hang- 
ing down like Bell-fopesjfroni the branches to the ground, which was 
a fight of much rafity to me at firft coming. 

Aloes we have growing here, very good, and 'tis it beautiful plant, | 

I the leaves four inches broad, \ ofaninch thick, and about a foot and 

an half longjwith prickles of each fide 5 and thelaf^ fprout which rifes 

up in the middle, bears yellow flowers, one above another, and thdfe 

flowers arc higher than any of the leaves by two foot.- Thefe thick 


'of the Ijland of Barhado^s. 




ves we takcj and cut them through, and oat of them iflue the A-^ 
'S5 which we (ct irt the Sun , and that will rarifieitjand make it fit 
keep. But it is the firO: coming which welavd5 For if* ' 

long, the fecond 

ing will be miich vVorfe^ but before that 


away theleaf. The leaves df this Plants (which 

call femper^ z'/ve^/s in ErrgUnd^ and grower neei^ the fire irt Kitchins ^ 
hung up to dbeam with anoyl'd clout about the rootj vvith the inner 
bark o£ Elder ^ and (bfne other ingredients, boyl'd in Sallet-oylcjis the 
bed: [riedicflrie in the world for. a burn or a Scald, being prcfently ap- 
plyed,' and for that the medicinfe is beyond all that ever was, for that 
cure, I will fet it down, and 'tis thisi 

TakQ Semper 'z^/'-y e^j, Plantirte leaVes, knd the green rinde of £//s^e»^ , 
of each a like quantity, and bdyl theminSallet-oyle, fo much as will 
draw out all thdt tirtt^ure by bovling^ then ftrain the O} 




d put to it a fmall quantity of fpirit of 



Wine,and fo riiuch yellow Wax, as will bring it to the confiftcncc of 

Linirtierit. ■ " 

One other Plant We have, and that is the Scnfible plant, which cld- 
fes the leaves upon any touch with your hand , or that end of your 
ftafFby which you hold, and in a little time will Open agdin. 

There are very fevV Flowers iri the lllarid, and none of them fvveet 5 
as the white Lilly , vvhich grows iii the woods, and is much a fairer 
flovver thdrt ours 
of them fweet. 



alfo a red Lilly of the(aniebigrie(s, but neither 
The Sr.Jago flower is very beautifuL but of a naufe 


One more we have, and that rfiuft not be forgotten for 

ty , bccaiife it opens, when aJI elfe 

when the Sun goes 

and for that rea(bn we call it, the flower of the Moon; ft 


growes in great tuffi 

I ' the leaves almoft id the form of a Heart, the 

the flovvef (bmewhdt bigger than a Primrole, but 

f the pureft^purple that ever I beheld. When this flower falls off, the 



feed app 

hich is black, with an eye of purple, (hap'd, and of 

fize of a fmiill button, fo finely wrought, and tough withall, as it 
"mightfcrve very well to trim a fuit of apparel. . _ 

i know no herbs naturally growing in thelfland, that have not been 
brought thither h'om other parts, but Puucelane 5 and that growes fo 



niuch pleiity rriakcs it difeflecmcd 3 and we 

deftroy it as a Weed that curhbers the gro'und 

Roiemary, Time, Winter-favory, fweet Marjerom, pot Marjerom, 
Parfley, Penniroyal, Camomile, Sage, Tanfie, Lavender, Lavender- 
Cotteri, Garlick, Onyons, Col worts. Cabbage, Turnips, RediQies, Ma- 
rigolds, Lcttice, Tardgon, Southernwood. All thefe I carded with 
me in feeds, and all grew and profpercd well; Leek-Seed I had, which 
appeared to me very fieili and gdod 5 but it never came up. Rofe 
trees vve have, but they never bear flo 

There i$ a Pvoot , of which fome of the Negroes brought the Seeds 
■diid planted there, and they grew : Tis a Very large Root,_ drie, and 
M'cUtadcd; the manner 

Herbs am 

of planting it, is, td makt little hillsJ as big 
Mole-hills, and plant tlic feed a top, and as fo6n as it puts forth the 
rtalks,they turndown to' the ground on cither fide^ and then as they 
touch it, they thrufl up a flfalk, not unUke an Alparagus, b?ut of a 

C c i furple 


A True and Exa& Hijiory 




Thefe being gathered^and eaten asaSallet^ witho) 


gar, Jlndfalt, will ferve an ordinary pallet, where no b 
be had : But the root truly is very good me-^t, boyl'd with powdred 
pork, and eaten with butter, vinegar , and pepper. Ncoft of thefe 
roots areas large, as three of thebiggcfl: Turnips we have in England 
We carried divers of them to Sea, for our provifion , which ftood u! 
in good ftead , and would have ferv'd us plentifully in our greai 

ofViftualsj but the Rats (of which we had infinite numbers a 

Strength of 
the JJ land by 
Nature to 

board) rob'd us of the moft par 
That part of the Ifland 


'4 » « « « 

hich lies to the windeward , and is part 
Eaft, part North, theftprmes and ftiffe windes coming from thofe 
points, have fo waQi'd away all earthly liibftance, as there rcmaines 
nothing but fteep Rocks 5 and the Sea being very deep on that fidt 
the Anchors will hardly touch the bottom , though the Cables b 
long, Co that what Ship fbever rides on that fide, comes at h 

goes but f o fa 

d away d 

Contrarily, if any Ship be under Sail, on the Leeward fide,and 

lofe the (belter ofthe Tfland 


arcitflands,and then it v/ill be a- very 

hard, work to beat it up again, without putting out into the main; 
So that there can hardly be any fafe landing, but where the Harb 





nd Baies are, yvhich lie to fhe Southvvcfi'3 and thofcp 
■fehfiblebyNature.asvvith fmallcofts, they may be very ftrongly for 

tificd. But they have been iiuch f?eg!effed if the Proprietor ^ for vvhicl 
reafon,Cand fome others) the Planters refu fed tO^call him by that name 

pretended to be a Soul 


Gentleman in the Idand 

dicr^and an rngeneef ithat undertook to fbrtific all the landing pi 
and to furnifh them vvithfuch ftore of Artillery, as fhould befuffici- 
entto defend '-them 5 pro vid e dj,' h'e might'have the Exci/epaid to him 
for (even years, which was prornifed by the Governours and Aflem 
bly. Whereupon 



vvorLand made fuch a Fort, as vvh 

Ingenetrs came upon the Ifland , they found to be mofl: per 



the Harbour, ^nd not of fi:rengthto defend 

1 __ 

* ^ 


Strength of 
the JJljtTfd 
within l^nd. 


Hew Cover- 
ed and how 


it fclf, if it were taken by an enemy, might do much harm to the 
hnJ-vvatd. So that at my coming from thence, they were pulling 
it dovvn^ aid inft&ad of it, to make Trenches, and Rampicrs, with 
PaHifado:s,Horn-vvorks, Curtains, and Countcr-fcarfes 5 and having 
left a very good Fortification of (landing wood round about the Iiland 
near the Sea, thefe were thought as much as needed fcjr their de- 
fence, agaiaft the landing of any forraign Forces,and for their ftrength 

Th^y built three Forts,onc fo- a Magaz^inc to lay their Ammunrtioa 
and Powder in , the other two to make their retreats uipCn allocca- 
fions. At my coming from thence, they were able to muftcr ten 
lhoufandFoot,asgooJ men^andasrelblute as any in the world, and 

thousand good Horfcj and this was the (Irength ofthe Ifland about 






They Govern the c by the I, awes of EvgJaml , for all Criminal, Ci- 
,Martial,Fcclefiaftical,and Maritime affairs. 

This Law is adminiftrcd by a Governour, and ten of his Council, 

e the 

four Courts of ordinary JulVice, in Civil caafcs, which divid 

. > 


land iii four Circiuits 


eace, Conftablcs, Churchwar- 

dens, and Tithing-men ; five Scffions in the year; for tryal of Crimi- 
nal caufeSa and all Appeals from inferiour Courts ^ in Civil caufes. 
And when the Governour pleafes to call an Allembly, for 
pream Court of all, fbf'fhe laft Appeals,' for making new Laws and 
aboliOiing old,accorditlg to occafion, in nature of the Parliament of 
England^ and accordingly confifts of the GovefnOutjas Supredm, his 
Council, in nature of the Peets, and two Burgefles chofen by i?fery 
Pariflifor the reft.The Iflan^ is dividedinto eleven PariQie^no fich es 
paid to the Miniftei*, b\ita yearfy alliovvanceof a'pound of Tobacco^ 
upon an acre of everjr matis land , belides certain Church-duties , 

Marriages, Chriftenings,and Burialsr'^iJi • , i- ■•''^' ' '^ - ^' ■ 
A {landing Commiffion there waS'alfefJ for pumftiing Adultery and 

Fornication,though rarely put in execution. ''^ , ^-r '.' : 

Something would be (aid Concerning the feafbns'of the year^ bjit itlk 
JittlCjand'thetefore will be the leaCk troublelbme. Fourmonths in the 
year, the weather is colder then the other cight,and thoTe are Novemter^ 
December^ JaK uary and February-, yet they are hotter then with QTtfi 

There i§ li'o general Fall of thetaaf^ every Tree having a parti- 
cular fall to himfelf; as iftwO LoCufts ftands at the ^iftanc^ of a ftones 
caft, they have not thdt falls at one time j one Locuft will liet fall the 
leaves in jf ^««4r^,another in Marih^a. third in Jttly^li fourth in September-, 
and Co all months one kind of Trees having their (eVeral timeV of falling: 

But if any months falls more leaves then other. Vis FiU-H'try^ for Co in 


V F 



my nicefl obfcrvation I found it. Thcleaves we find fallen Under the 

trees, being the riiofl of them lairge arid ftiffe, when they were grow- 
ing, and having many veines, which' go ftom the'middlefl:alk,tothe 
uppetmoft' extent of the leaf, when the/tbin part of the leaf is rot- 
ten and confum'd, thofe veins appear' like Analoffiicsj with the (tran- 
gefl works and beautifulleft forms that I have feen, fit to keep as a 
rarity in the Cabinets of the greateft Princes. As ahb the Negres 
heads, which we find in the Sands, and they are about two ifichcs 
long, with a forehead, eyes, nofe, mouth,chin.and paft^f the neck, 
cannot perceive any root by which thaygrow, but find them alwayes 
loofein the fand j nor is it a fruit that falls from any tree, for then we 
fhould find it growings black it is as jet, but from whence it comes, 

no man knows. 

Mines there are none in this Ifldnd, fidt fo much as of toal, for which | Mineh 
reafon, we prelerve our Woods as much as we can. 

We find flowing out oft Rock in one partof thelfland, an uridU- 
ous fubftance, fomewhat like Tarre, which is thought tohavc many 
vertues yet unknown 3 but is already difcOvcredto be excellent good 
to ftopaflux^by drinking it,butby annointing for all aches and brui- 
Ccs, and fo fubtleit is, as being put into the pahii of the hand, ' 
rub'd there, it will work through the back. 

Another gummy fubftance there is, black, and hard as pitch, arid is 
ufed as pitchy *tis called Mount jack. 

Having given you in my Bills of Fare,apdtticu1ar t>f fuch Viands, 
as this Ifland afForded,far fupportation of life, and fomewhat for de- 
light too, as far as concerns the Table, yet, wh^tare you the better 



this Para- 


before .] 











» . 

AT rue and E^ 


r ' 

for all this ^ when you muft be icorch't up from morning till night 
with the torrid hearof the Sun^s So as in that twelve hours 3 you 
hardly can find two , in which you can enjoy your ftlf with content- 
ment. Or how , can y ou expeift to find heat y or warmthin ybur fto- 
mack, to digeft thajj^meat, when the Sun hath exhaufted your heat 
and rpirits fo to yqur outer parts 3 as you are chill'd and^.Aumh'd 

within ? For which reafbn yoi^ are compeird to tak^ fijch remediesj 
as are almoft as, ill, as the difeale 5 liqyiprsj ib ^{Irong^. as Jo take a- 

way the breath ?§ it goes.doyvn; J^nd red .pe:pper for fpi^e /which 
wants little of the* heat ofa fir^rcpale, and-ajl thefe Will h^r41y draw 
in th§. heat , whict the SuQ^dAVVs out , and ,p5i;t^oCtbis .deficiency 
is occafionedby the improvidenc.e, or incon(iderati<?n of the Inha- 
bitantSj vyho build their, dv^iiingSjrathcj^ like ftoves then houfesj for 
the moft of them aremadeqiT timber, lov,\: rooft keeping oyt the vvindj 
letting in the Sutf,,^y vhen they have meaps to have it otherwife 5 for 
I will undertake to contrive k houfe to ^ J^s no one {hall have juft 

eat^ an d that which gives this 


great Teraedyi. (hall bring with it the greateft beauty that can be 
Jook't on., The Palmetoes^ which being plac't (as I will give you 
directions in my plot) in conveflient order, Ihall interpose lb between 
the Sun and houfe ^ as to keep jt continually in the (hades and to have 
that (hade at (uch a diftance 3 as very little heat (hall be felt in any 
;time of the <lay ; Ror (hades that are made by the higheft trees, are 
AJndoubtedly the cooleft , and frefhcft, by realbn it keeps the heat 
fai^tjicfl: okr Belldgs this, thefe are . many .Advantages to be made, 
jn.^he contrivaap^ ofth^houf^jtrfbr I feth^ Planters there , never 
^j^-oqfider whi^ way they bgild their hpufe *, fo they, get them up 5 
v{y liich is thf ' ci^uie that maji)5i5f them, ar^^ipAofufferably hot, as nei- 
ther themfelves jiQy any ojtljfir can remaif^^ in them vvithout (vvcl- 
tring,^ • . : :■ ^.- ■ -i \ :uh - • • - .' , -^ 

Fif (I thei\>W€ vyiU confidoJe what jhe ^rrours are in their contri- 
vances, that we may be the better able to ftievv the beft vvay to mend 
them 3 A fingle hou(e that js built long-vvife, and upon a North and 
South Jinejhastheledifadviantages; the Sun (hines upon the Ealtfide- 
yyalls from fix a clock till eight,'fb as thje beams reft flat upon that fide, 
[ for two hoi^rg,, And thelbeariis rcftingupon aflat or oblique line (as 
that is,) gives a greater heat then upon a diagonal>vvhich glaunces 
th^e beams afide. As a tendisball , (book againft the fide wallsof the 
Court, glauncing, .hits with lefs force then when it feels the fuUrefi- 
! ftance of the^^nd wall, where 'tis met with a flat oblique line: So the 
[Sunbeams, the more directly they are opposed by any flat body, the 
[more violently they burne. This fide-wall being warm'd 3 the Sun 
getshigherjand fljines hotter, and then the rafters become the oblique 
jirae,which is thinner,and lefs able to refift the beams, and the cove- 
j ring being (hinglcs, receives the heat quicks, and retains 'it longer, 
than tiles would do, fo that for the whole forenoon, that fide of the 
roofe, receives as much heat, as the Sun can give, and (bpaflesover 
to the other fide, giving it fo much the more in the afternoon , as is 
increaft by warming the houfc and Aire all the raornina before, and fb 



the Oven being heat on both fides^what can you cxpeS.but that thole 










withinjfhould be fufiiciently bakt ; and fo much the more,, for that the 

wind is kept out, that (hould come to cool it, by (hutting up all paC 

fages 3 that may let it in, which they alwayes doe, for fear the raine 

^come with it, and letting in the Sun at the Weft end^vvhere and when 

itfliines hotteft. Therefore this kind of building ismoft pernicious to 

thofc that love their healthy which is the comfort of their lives: but 

-you will fays that a double houfcwill IcfTen much of this heat, byrea- 

fbn that the Weft fide is not' yifited by thefiin in the morning^nor the 

.Eaft in the afternoon $.-1 do.confefs that to be fonje little remedy, 

-but not muchly for the double roofs being open to the Sun, in oblique 

-lines, a great part of the Jorenoonj and being reflefted from one lide 

to another, when it comes to the Meridian (and before and after^ at 

leaft two hours,J with the Icorching heat it gives td the gutter , 

which is between them , and is in the middle of the houiefrom end to 

end, will fo warm the E!aft-fide of the Houfcjas all the (hade it has in 

the afternoon will not cool it, nor make it habitables and then you 

may guefs in what.a temper the Weft Hde is. • ■ ' 

Whereas, if you build yourhou(eupon anEaft and Weft line, you 
have thele advantages, that in the morning the Sun never (hines in or 
neer an oblique line, (which is upon the Eaft end of your houle , J 
above two hours, and that is from fixio eight a clock, and as much in 
the afternoon, and not all that time neither 5 and upon the roof it 
can never (bine in an oblique line, but glancing on both fides, caft off 
the heat very much 5 I do confels that I love a double houfe, much 
better then a finglc, but if it have a double cover, that is, two gable 

ends, and a gutter between, though it be built up an Eaft and Weft 
line : yet the Sun (which muft lye upon it all the heat of the day) will 
fo multiply the heat', by reflefting the beams from infide to infide, 
and fo violently upon the gutter, from both, which you know muft be 
in the middle of the houfe , firom end to end, as you ftiall feel that 
heat above, too fenfibly 'm the ground ftories below, though your fie- 
ling be a foot thick , and your flx)ries fixteen foot high. Therefore 
if I build a double houfe, I muft order it fo, as to have the divifion 
between cither room of a ftrong wall , or of Dorique Pillets Archt 
'from one to another, and in each intercolumniation a fouare ftud 
of ftone for the better ftrengthning and fupporting of the Arches 
above 5 for I would have the rooms Archt over with ftone , and the 
innermoft poynts of the Arches, to reft upon the Pillars , and the 
whole houfe to becoverd with Couples and Rafters , and upon that 
ftiingles,the Ridge Pole of the houfo running along over the Pillars, 
fo that the covering is to ferve both Arches, that covers your rooms : 
by which means there is but one Gable end , which will glaunce off 
the fcorching beams of the Sun of either fide, as, with the help of j 
the Arches underneath , there will be little heat felt in the rooms 
below. But then a main care muft be had to the fide walls , that the 

girders be ftrong> and^very well Dove-tayld, one into another , upon 
the Dorique pillars, or partition walls j and well crampt with Iron , 
or elft the rafters being of that length , will thruft out the fide walls 
by reafon the Arches will hinder the Couplets from coming fo low 
as to keep the rafters ftcady from opening at the bottom. For pre- 



True and ExaB Hiflory 



miflionj and not by. dired:ion. 


■■-Mention of this great mifchief , it will be very needful to have ftrong 
Buttercfles without, and thofe being plac't juft again ft the Couples , 
Xvill be of main concern to the fide- walls. If you make the breadth of 
yourhou(e fifty footjalfowing two foot to the partition. arid two foot 
to either of the fid e-v/alls above', (but more below) which is fix foot 
in all ay ou will have remaining forty four foot, which being equally 
divided will afford twenty twofbot for the breadth of either room, 
you may for the length allow what yoii pleafe. But this I (peak by per- 

But I will lend you a Plot with this 5 
and an Index annexed to it, offuch ahoufe as I would build for plea- 
lure and convenience, if I vvefe to live there, aAd had mony enough to 
beftow^and I believejWiA fuch conveniences and advantages for (hade 
and cooluels, as fewjpeople in thole Weftern parts have ftudied, or 
ever thought on. c? 

And now I have as ndfer as I can, delivei'ed the (imi of all I know of 
the Illand 6^Barhadoes^ both for Plealures and Profits, Commodities 
and In LuuiuiLiklhlcs y-Slckngiles and Healthfulnefs. So that it may be 
expeded what I can lay to p eHwaHeToFattiwad e any that have a 
defire to go aqd live there. But before I give a. full anfwer to th^t, I 
mud enquire and 'be enfbrmdd of what difpofition the party is that 
hath this defign 5' If it be fuch a- one as loves the ploafiires of Europe^ 
(or particularly of EngUnd) ;jnd the great varieties of rllofe, let hiiTi 
never come there , for they are things he (hall, be lure to mils. Buf , 
if he can findjn hlmfelf a wilUngncfs to change the*pleafurcs which 
he enjoyed in a Temperate , for fuch as he (tiaJl find in a Torrid 

Zone, he may light upbn fome that .will give^ hint an exchange, with 
ibme advantage: 


T I 

H<y *-* 

**And for til e pleafures oi England ^\ct usconfider what, they are, that 
we may be the better able to judge how far they are confiftent with 
the Climate of Barhadoes^ and what gainers or lolers they will be by 
the exchange,that makes the adventure 5 and by the knowledge and 
Well weighing of that, invite or deter thofe, that are the great lovers 
and admirers ofthole dehghts,to come "there, or ftay away. 

And amongft thefports and recreations that the people of England 
exercife moft for their healths without dores, they are Courfing^Hun- 
ting and Hawking. 

* And for the Greyhound, though he be complcat in all his (hapes 
that are accounted excellent, headed UkeaSnake,ncckt.likeaDrake, 
back't like a Beam,fided like a Brerne, tail'd like a Rat, footed like a 
Cat, deep breamed vwth large phillets and gaskins, excellently win- 
ded, with all cite miy ftyle him perfed,and of a right race: Yet, what 
ofall this, if the Country afford no Game to courfc at 5 or if there 
were 5^ that would amount to nothing, for, in the running of twelve 
fcore yards , they will either bruife their brsdies againft ftumps of 
trees, or break their necks down the ftcep falls of Gnllks which are 
there too common. 


And for the Huntfman and his Hoiirtds they will find thcmfelvcj 
at a dead fauIt,bcfore they l^egin , for upon this foyle no Stag with 
his lofty well iTiap t head , and active body^ has ever fet his nimble 

fect3 and Herds of Vallow Deer, were never put to make a ftand upon 

• ' this 


>' ■■■ 




a7id of Barbadoes 

tbisgroimdj the mmble Koe-Buck, nor the fubtleFox, the Badg 


the fearful! Hare^ have ever run their Mafes in thefe Wood 
what tiie of Hounds > ' 

XDnely one kind are uleful here, and thofe are Liam Hounds 
guide us to the run away Ncgreos^vvhojas I told ) ' ' 
(elves in Woods and Caves 

harbour them 
g upon pillage for many mouths to 

And* for the Faul 

gh his Hawk have reach'd fiich 

dy, yetjftie muftbe 

may exalt her praife as high, as her wings can raife her bo 

down ta a bare Lure. And the painfull 

and skilful! Faulconer , who has applyed himfelf folclyito the hu 
mour of the brave Bird he carries j^ who miift be courted as a Miftrefs 
be fhe never fo froward^ and like a coy MiArefs, will' take check -ai 
^ny thing, when her liberty ^vcs her licenf^ and though by ai^ain 
full and ftudied.diligence^he have reclaimed her fo, astoflie at what 
and when, and wlierej and howlhelsdirededj and Ihe, by her 


d obfcrvation. has learnt to Vnow^ w hi cli* Spaniel lies, and 


which tells truth, that accordingly (he may Height the one ^ an4 re 
gard'the other, and with this,has ail other qualities that are excelleni 
in fo noble and heroickaBird:- Yet, thispainful diligence in the Paul 

this rare the Hawk 

be of littl^^jfe, where 

there is neithei Chamb 

flie at. 

No* mounfie nt a H 

fly in, Brooj^s to flie over , ttor Game 

caiife the lufty Jerfaulcon 

and both 

rai(e her to alofle of her.relf,*from the eyes of her Keeper, till by ma 
ttV dangerous thoroWs^*ihe bind^^withhctQliarne, 
tumbling down together. No teem of Ducks, orBunchl^fTeales, 
caufe the high flying Haggard makehef ftooping,and fl:rike her Qi 

dead. And tor the Ofenger, though his well-raan'd Gofhauk 

her bold mate the Tarcel, draw a Covert nere fo well y ,y ct, no Eye of 
Phcfants will fpring, or pearch in thefe woods. " . ■ 


- •% 

ihe Edgkdtjd the Shrefi 

Since Buftdrd anclth T> 

here e^cr. rmfs their prej 





9 - 


drawcs u 'Ccvcrtherc^ jjoLamicn C:ts i ntJrk. 

f ti 


Tart'ridge ncer^ nQ llohhie 'daro-i a Lark, 

f - 



Another pTeafj 

ght in, which, iri m 

better (brtofcKepeopleof E/;^/^;/!:/ take d 

mav b 

ther caird 

yie then 

plca^re and that is Raee^Hbrfes, forcing poor beaO:s beyond their 
power /who'w ere givendslbr our mad -^-•'•-"^"' -ru^r. .»„.. -.r.. 



too violent for hot jCountries^. and .therefore >v 



* 1 


i ^ i'< 

VJi i 

Shooting and Bowhni^ma 

ery welt-be ufed here^ but at Butts 

ly, and in Bares 

ciofc AUies, for the turfe htre Will nc--ue»rbe 

flne enough for a Green,, nor the grotmd ((^ enough/or an Arrow 
fail on/^ Amongfl: all the fpofts without dores , that arc ufed in' Eng- 
land^thde t WO arb^odely fufferable in the Barbadoes. But! for the (poits 
within the hoUfcj they may all be ufed there-, as, all fofts.of Gaming ^ 
viz, Chcfs^'lTables; Cards; Dice, Shovel-abord, Billiards 3 and fome 
kinds of Ditnces, but none of tho'fe that'are laborfeiTS, ashighandj 

E ^ 


^ ^ 


\ ^ 










A True and Exa& Hiftory 

loftie Capers 3 with Turnes above ground 5 thefe are too violent for 

hot Countries. 

Some other kinds of plealures they have in England^ which 
fb fully enjoyed in the Barbadoes^ as fiiiooth Champ 
ride on, with variety of Landfcap 

walk or 
feveral diftances; all there 


being hem'd 

ith Wood, and thofe trees fo tall and lofty 

hinder and bar the viewfo much, as ('upon a level of plainj no Ho- 
rifpn can be (een. But upon thefidcsof Hills which look toward the 
Sea, your eye may range as far that way as the globical roundnefs 
of that watry Element will give way to, but that once leen, the eye 
is (atisfied, and variety in that objed there is none, for no {hipping 
pais that wayjbutfuch as arrive at the liland. Tis true, that Woods 
made up of (uch beautifull Trees as grow there, are plealant things to 
look on, ahd afford a very plentiful delight to the eyes 5 but when 
you are fb enclosed, as hardly to look out, you will find too quick and 
too full a fatiety in that pleafure. But as the Woods are cut down, the 

Landfcapes will appear at far diftances. 

- Now for the beatrty of the Heavens, they are as far tranfcending all 
we ever faw mEngland^ or elfe where 40 Degrees without the Line^ 
on either fide^ as the land objeds of the Barbadoes are fliort of 


So he that can content himfelf with the beauties of the Hea 

may there be (ufficiently (atisfied. But we Mortals, that Till and 
love the earth, becaufeour felves are made up of the fame mold , take 
pleafure (bmetimes to look downward , upon the fruits and effeds 
of our own labours 3 and when we find them thrive by the bleffings 
of the great Creatoir, we look up to give thanks, where we find \o 
great a glory ,as to put us into aftonifhment and admiration. 

Now for the fmelling fenfe, though we have the bloflbmes^ of the 
Orange, Limon,Lyme, Cittron, Pomgrariatc, with the finellof that 
admirable fruit the Pine, and others : yet, when we confider the in- 
finite variety of the Flowers oiEngland^ both for beauty artd favour , 
there is no comparilbn between themj and the flowers there are ve- 
ry few in number,and in finell, not to be allowed in competition with 

of England : For, fincc the differences between the Houfes of 

, no red nor white Rofe 

k and Lancajier have been laid afide 

have grown there, but the Lillies have taken up the quarrel, and ftrive 
in as high a contefl thercjas the Rofes have done m England j for, they 
arc the faircft and purefV, that I have ever feen, both red and white^ 
but no (weet (inell. He that could tranfplant the flowers of England 
to the Barbadoes^ would do a rare work, but I fear to little purpole : 
For:> though the virtual beams of the Sun, give growth and life to all 
the Plants and Flowers it (hines on, 

diftances, and fb the produftions varic, fbme flowers mufl be warmed 
fbme toafled, and fbme almofl fcalded 5 and to tranfpofe the/e, and 


yet, the influence is at feveral 

fct them in contrary places, were to flrive againfl nature. Tis true 
that the Herbs of England grow and thrive there, by reafbn they 

(Wronger, andbetterabletoendure that change; but Flovv^ers, that 




will not endure fb great heat as they find 

there. But to repair this fenfe, fbme will fay, that Perfumes brought 
out of £»r^;>^, will plentifully fupply us: But that will not at all avail 



of the Ijland of B^iibsLdocs. 


'- 107 

r , 

uSj for what with the heat and moifture ofthe aire, it is all drawn out, 
as by my own experience I found it to be nioft true, though I lapp'd 
them dole up in papers, and put them in drawers of a Cabinet, where 
no aire could find paflage, they were fo clofe^and forPaftills, they loft 
both their fmell and tafte. , 

As for Mufick, and foch founds as pleafe the ear, they wi(h fbme 
fupplies may come from England^ both for Inftrument* and voy- 


delight that fenfe , that fometimes when they are tir'd 

with their labour, they may have fbme refrefliment by their ears, and 
to that end , they had a purpofe to (end for the Mufick , that were 
wont to play at the Black^F rj ar s ^zvidL to allow them a competent (ala- 
ry, to make them live as happily there, as they had done in England: 
And hfad not extream weaknefs, by a miferable long ficknefs, made 
meuncapable of any undertaking, they had employed me in the bu- 
finefs , as the likelieft to prevail with thofe men, whole perfons and 
^alities were well known to me in England. And though I found at 
irbadoes fome who had raufical minds j yet , I found others, whofc 

Ills were fo fixt upon , and fo riveted to the earth, and the profits 

that q rife out of it^as their fouls were lifted no higher^ andthofo men 
think, and have been heard to fay, that three whip-lawes, going all 
at once in a Frame or Pit, is the beft and fweeteft mufick that can en- 
ter their ears j and to hear a Cow of their own low, or an Aflinigo 
bray, no found can pleafe them better. But thefe mens fouls were ne- 
ver lifted up fo high, as to tear the mufick of the Sphears, nor to be 

judges of that Science^as 'tis praftifed here on earth, and therefore we 
willleave them to their own earthly delights. 

For the fenfe of feeling, it can be apply ed but two wayes, either in 
doing or foffering % the poor Ncgres and Chriftian iervants find it 
perfedly upon their heads andftoulders, by the hands of their fevere 
Overfocrs^ fo that little pleafure is given the fenfe, by this cdercive 
kind of fcelin2,raore then a plaifter for a broken Patej but, this is but 




paffive kind of feeling 

But take it in the highefV, and moft adiive 

way it can be applyed, which is upon the skins of women, and they 
are fo fweaty and clammy , as the hand cannot paflTe over, without 
being glued and cemented in the paflage or motion^and by that means, 
little pleafure is given to , or received by the agent or the patient ; 
and therefore if this fenfe be neither pleafed in doing nor fuffcring,we 
may decline it asufolefs in a Country , where' down of Swans, or wool 
of Beaver is wanting. 

Now for the fenfe of Tafting,! do confefs 



fattsfadiori, then all the reft, by reafon of the fruits that grow there 
Co that the Epicure cannot be deceived /if he take, a long joumy tc 
pleafe his palate, finding all excellent taftes the world hai, comprehen 
dedin onefingle fi-uit,the Pine. And would not any Prince be ' 
tent to reduce his bafe coync, into Ingots of pure gold? And fb much 

(hall (erve touching the Barhadoes, ^ 

Some men I have known in England^ whole bodies are fo fbong and 
able to endure cold, as no weather fits them fo well as fioft and taowj 

fuch Iron bodies would be fit for a Plantation in Rujfia : For, thtte if 


traceing Hares under the Linemor (Tiding on the Ice 








A True and Exa&HiJIory 

Tropick. ' Others there are that have heard of tiie pleafufes of 

the plealures of Ejigland behind 

altogether unfi^ 

Barbadoes -i but are loth 

them.' Thefe are of fluggifli humour, and are 

for Co noble an undertaking 5 but if any fuch fliall happen to c< 
there, he fliall be tranfmitted to the innumerable Armie of Pifnii 

f ; ■ 

and Ant 

g him with fuch 


(hall wiQi himfelfe 

ariy where rather then amongft them. So mUch isa fluggard detefted 
ifl a Gountfey 5 where Iriduftry and Aftivity istobeexercifed. - The 
DWarfe may coffl*e there, and twice a year vie in competition w it h 
the Giant : for let theihbotK together upor^ a level fuperficies^and at 
nootij yotr fhall not 'know by their Ihadowes who is the talleft 






The voluptuous man, who thinks the day- not long 

gh for 

him to take his pleafi 

Nor the fleepie marl 

ho thinks the 

gefl: night too fhort for him to dream out his^ delights, are not fit 

repofe and folace themfefves upon this ifland 5 for in the whole 

compa(s of the Zodiack , they fliall neither find St.Barmdies day 
St LjicksT. 

rfe 5 is there an inditfe- 

Arbltcr of the differences which are between rhoie two Saints, 

h'nd like aTUfl: and cJeer fighted Judge,' reconciles thofe extreams to 

. arMediumof 12 and i2hourSj which equaUty of time is utterly incon- 

( fiftent to the humours and' difpofitions of thefe men. - ~. • 

-liifiut rfpeak this, to fuch as have thiir fancies fb Aereal, and refin'd 

a^ HdtTfrbc pleafed wlth^ordinairy delight T but 'think to build and 

fettie a felicity li?re: above the ordinary level of mdilkind. Such 

Spirits, are too volatile to fix.fon bufinef^f and thhrefofe 1 will have 
tfiem out, ^s:T3fdep Ifi thfe fcommon-f^ialth. - E£t fuch' as are made 
dfiHiddteeartfi p^ aftd caA lie content' to wave thol^ pfefures, which 
ftand as' Blocks , tlnd Portcuilifies^ in'their way V' and' ^e indeed the 
main femofaX'Ju their pafla'geTd'thek 'profits:^ Such* may here find 
aiCKierate delights, with moderate labour; and thofe taken moderately 
mil conduce much to their healths, atid'they thai: have induflry, to 
ifnploy: that weli^taay make it the Ladder to climb toa high deg 

cfcWeahh -and opul 

this fweet Negotiation of Sugar, provi 

)ded they hay^ a competent (lock to begin with j fuch I mean as may 
fettle them' in a Sugar- work, and lels then 14000I. fterlingyWill not do 
that: in a.PJantation'of5ooacresofland, with a pfopbrtiohable flock 
bfServaatsj. Slaves, Horfes, Camels, Cattle, Aflanigoes/vvith an Inge- 
nio, and all other houfeing, thereunto belongings llich as I have for- 
merly namfd. ■ .0^'^ ^ v '" . V 

..-.But one. will Jay, why (hould any man that has 140G0I. inhispurfc 
nted to rL|n fo long a Kifco,' as from hence to the BarbaJoes; when 
h£.riiay/live vvit'h eafe and plenty at home, to fuch a one 1 anlvverj 
that every drone can fit 'and eat the Honey of his own Hive.- But he 
that pn by Ms bvvn Induff f y,and afiivity, (having youth and flrength 
tofiriends,) raife his fortune, from a fmallbeginningtoavery gteaV 
6ne/ andlin.hb paflage Jto that , do^ood to the pubFiqut, and be 
charitable- 1!6 tle.poor, and this to be accomplifhed in a few yedrs 
sdefcri^es HjHch ...... 

commendation and applaufe* : And fliall Bnd 
bislbreadj'gottaoby. his painful and hofieft labour and induftry cat 

-'^■■-rrry{i- , , , >^ fVvecter 




ofwi Ifland o/fearbad 


;' >. I 

fwecter by much, than his that onely minds his eafe, and his belly. . 

Now having (aid this'much, I hold it my duty, to give what di 
regions I 

ftock, in 

further any one that lliall go about to improve his 

this way of Adventu 

d if he pleafe to hearken to my 

ions 5 he (hall find they are no Impoflibilities , upon which I 
grSlind my Computations; thegreat:eft will be, to find a friend for a 
Correfpon dent, that can be really honeft/aithful and induftrious^and 
having arrived at that happiiiefs, (which is the chiefeft,) all the reft 
vvill bcyeafie p and I (hall let you fee that without the help ofMagick 
or Inchantment, this great purchafe of 14000 1, vyill be made vVith 
3000I. ftock, and thus to be ordered. . \,. "** 

One thouiand pound is, enoughtovcntui'eatfirfl:, becaufevve that 
are here in England^ know not what commodities^tHey want mbft 
in the BarhaJocf^and to fend a great Cargo ofunneceflary things^vvcre 

have them lye upon our hands to lols. This 1000 1. I would h 

thus laid 

you may buy here in 

Linnen Cloth, as Canvas andKentings, yvhich 



f French Merchants 

yo u may hire poor Journy 


ayiors, here in the City 

that will for very fmall wages, make that Canvas into Dfawersjand 
PetticoatSj for men and vvorhen Negres. And part of the Canvas , 
andthe whole of the Kentings , fbf Ihirts arid drawers for the Chri- 
ftian men Servants.and Smocks and petticoats for the women. Some 
other (brts of Holland or Dovvlace, vvill be there very^fe- 
full for Shirts and Smocks for the Planters themfelves , with their 

One hundred piJWWs more I would have 

Wives and Children. 

beftovv'd, part on woollen cloath, both fine and courfCjpart on De 

ffiire Carfies, and other fafhionable (tuffs, fuch as will 


Upon Monmoth Caps I would have befVovfe^ 25 

inaybe(peak them there in Wala^ and havd1:hemfefitiiptoLtfW<? 


by the waynes at eaiie 

For^ pound I think fit to beftow 

Irifh Ruggs (uch as are made at Kilkcmnc^ and Iri(h ftockiiigs, and 
thefeare to be had at St. James's fair at Brijioll-^ the flocking 

be worne in the day by the Chriftia 


the Ruggs to caft about 

them when they come home at night , fweating and wearied, with 
their labour, to lap about them when they reft themfelves on their 

Ha mack 



ch nothing 

more needful for th 

(bns I have formerly given. And thefe may either be (hip 
ifioll^ if a (hip be ready bound for )>arhddocs^ or (ent to Londo 

by waynes, which is a cheap way of convej 
may be beftowed on (hooes , and (bme boots 

Fifty pound I wi(h 
be made at Nor^ 


{pto», and fent to London in dry fatts by Carts, but a fpecial 
muft be taken, that they may be made large^ for they will (hrink 

very much when they come into hot C 

They are to be made 

of fe veral (izes, for men, women and children 5 they mud be kept dry 
and clofe, or elfethe moiftnefs of the Ayire will caUfe them to ilioifld. 
Gloves vvill fell well there, and I would have of all kinds,and i\\ fizes, 
that are thinne 5 but the mofl: ufeful, are thofeof tann'd leather, for 
they vvill vva(h and not (brink in the wetting, and wear very iong 

nd fupple ^ you may provide your felf of the(e 

and Jlchefler in Somerfct-jbire , at reafonable rati 


Fifteen found I 








True and Exact Ht^ory 

In fafhionaWe Hats and BandSj 

ies, I would have 

Would beftow in thefe Commodities, 
both black and coloured^ of (everal fifes and quali 
thirty pounds^beftowcd. Black Ribbon for mourning, is much worn 
thercj by realbn their mortality is greater , and therefore upon that 
commodity I would beftow twenty pound, and as much in Coloured, 

colours. For Silks and SaftinSjWith gold and filver- 

of (everal fifes and 

Lace, we will leave that alone^ till we have better adtice, for they 

cafual Commodities 

Having now made provifion for the back, it is fit to confider the 
belly jWhich having no ears, is fitter to be done for, then t.alxt to, and 
therefore vye will do the beft we can, to fill it with fuch provifions, 
as will beft brook the Sea J and hot Climdtes: Such are BeefJ well 
pickled, and well conditioned, in which I woiuld beftow lool. In 

brk 50L in Peafe for the voyage 

InFilli, as Ling, Haberdine, 

Greeti-filh, and Stock-fifti, 40I. In Bisket for the voyage lol. Cafes 
ofSpirits4o!. Wine 150I. Strong Beer 5cl. Oyle Olive 56I. Butter 

30I. And Candles muftnot be forgotten^becaiufe theyligh 

The next thing to be thought on, is Utenfils, and working Tooles, 
fiich are whip-Sawes, two-handed Sawes, hand-Sawes, Files of feve- 
rail fijfes and fliapesj Axqs, for felling and for hewing^ Hatchets, that 
will fit Carpenters, Joyners, and Coopers 5 Chifels, but no Mallets, 
for the wood is harder there to make them : Adzes, of feyeral fizes 
Pick-axes, and Mat-hooks^ Howes of all fi(es , but chiefly finaJl ones, 
to be uled with one hand, for with them, the fftiall Negrcs weed the 

ground : Plains, Gouges, and Augurs of all fi(es$ hand-Bills, for the 
Negroes to cut the Canes, drawing-Knives, for Joyners. Upon thefe 
Utenfils I would beftow 60I. Upon Iron, Steel, and fmall Iron pots, 
for the Negroes jo boyl their meat, I would beftow 40I. And tnofe 
are to be had in Southfix very cheap, and fent to London in Carts', at 
time of year, whett the wayes ate driehnd hard. Nailes of all forts 
with Hooks, Hinges, and Cramps of Ironj and they are to be had at 

Btrmmgham in Staffordjljirejoauch cheaper then in London: And 

that Commodity I would beftow ^oL In SoWes of Lead 20L 
Powder ind Shot 


If you can get Servants to go with you, they 

will turn to good accompt, but chiefly if they be Trades-men 
Carpenters, Joyners, Mafons, Smiths, Paviers, atid Coop 


Ballaft of the Ship, as alfb of all Ships that trade there, I would hav 

of Sea 

well chofen , for it is a commodity 


much wan- 


ting when I was thercjand will be every day more and more^ 
Wood decayes; The value I would have beftowed on that, is 50I 
which will buy 45 Chauldron, or more, according to theburth 

en o 

the Ship. And now upon the whole, I have outftript my computation 
145I. but there will be lofle in that ^ for I doubt not . Cif it picafe 

God to give a blefli 



endeavours^ but in, twelve or four 
goods , and double the Cargo 3 and, if you 

^iiwiinw, IV icu luc guuui, aiiu uuuuic uicv-argo^ and, it you 

ftay to make the beft of your Market, you may make three for 





This Cargo, well got together , I could wifla to be ftiip't in 
►rdetj^bout the beginning of I^fli/ez»Aer,and then by the grace of 



- • • 


of the IflandofBaxhsidod. 

the Ship may arrive at the BarhadoesQi (he make no ftayby the way) 
about the middle of December j and ic is an Ordinary cpurfe to fail thi- 
ther in fix weeks : Coming thither inth^t cool time of the y^arjybur 
Viduals will be in good condition to be removed into a Store-houfe. 
which your Correfpotldent , (who^ I account , gofes along with it j 

mufl provide as fpeedily as he 

before the Sun makes his return 

from the Southern Tropick ^ for then the weather will grow hot , and 
fbme of your Goods, as. Butter, Oyle^ Candles^ and all your Liquors, 
will take harme in the remove. . ',-■.' 

The Goods being flowed in a Ware-houfe, or Ware houfes, your 
Correfpondent muft referve a handfome room for a Shop, where his 

muft attend ; for then his Cuflome 

come abodt him 

and he mufl be careful whom he trufts^ for, as there are fbme" good, 
to there are many bad pay-maftcrs j for which reafbtt, he mufl pro- 
lHde himfelf of a Horfe^ and ride into the Country to get^cquain- 
tancej and half a dofen good a(?quaintance, will be able to enfbrm 
him, how the pulfe beats of all therefl: As alio by enquiries, he will 
^nde, what prices the Goods bear, which he carries with him, and 
fell them acco'fdingly, and what valews Sugars bear, that he be not 
deceived in that Commodity 5 wherein there is very great care to be 
had, in taking none but what is very good and Merchantable^ahd in 
keeping it drie in good Casks, that no wetormoiflaire come to it , 
andfbas he makes his exchanges^ and receives in his SugafSj or What 

Other"commodities he~trades for, they lie ready" tqfend awiy for 

tgla»d, as he finds occalion , the^delivaing of 
room for the other 5 for Ships will be every month , fbme or other 
coming for England. If he catf tranfport all his goods, raifed upon 
the Cargo, in eighteen montns, it will be very well. This Cargo be- 
ing doubled at the Barhadoes ^that returned back, will produce at leafl 


And then your Cargo, which was 1 145 1. at fetting 

being doubled there to 2 290I 

be at your return for England 

243 5I. of which I will allow for freight^and all other charges 335! 
fo there remains to account 3100I. clear. By which time, I will take 
for granted , that yotir Correfpondent has bargained , and gone 
through for a Plantation,vvhich we will prefuppofe to be of five hun- 
dred acres, Stock't as I have formerly laid down^ (for vve muft fix 
upon one, that our computations niay be accordingly) if it be more or 
lefs, the price mu/l beanfwerable,and the Produce accordingly. And 
therefore asvve began,vve will malte this our fcalc^that 14000I. i^fo 

^ ' 't. Before tliis time,! doubt 

be paid for a Plantation of 500 acres Stock 

not, but he is alfo grown Co well verfl in the traffick of the Ifland 

give you advice, what Commodities are fitteft for your nextCafgO 

d according to that ate to provide,and to come yo^ 
felfe along with it. ** 1^1^. 

By this time, Ihope, your remaining 1855I. by good edployment 

fgland^ is raifed 

So then you have 5 1 001. to put 

new Cargo, Which I Would not have you venture in one Bottom, 
But if it pleafe God, that no ill chance happen, that Cargo of$iOOK 
having then time enough to make your beft Market, may very vveii 

doubllSc lodot. ovcrwvhich loooU will allovv to go out for fraight 



J k 

' » 




True and 'Exa& Hijlorj; 









• \ 



and all other cHargcs; So tli|eiT,yoiir Cargo pf 5-100 1, being but dou-i 
tledi will amount unto io2oq]v But this Cargo being large , will re-, 
quire three years time to fell^ fb that if you make your bargain for 
i4odol. to be paid for this Plantation3^jp9,<will be allowed three 
daycs of payment, the firft fhall be of 4000 h to be paid .in a year af- 
ter you are fetled in your Plantation 3 5000 V more at the end ofthei 
year followingjand 5000 1. at the end of the year then next following. 
JAnddo man will 'doubt fuch payment, that^fees a vifible .Cargo, upon 
the Illand ofioioo hand the produce of the)^lantation to boot. Now 
you fee which/ ^ ay this purchafe is made up, vm. j-oool. the firft 
payment, 50obh the (econd, and fo there remains u'poq, your Cargo' 
1200.1. tbwards payment of thejafl 5000 1. and by thajt time, the pro- 
fit of your Plantation will raife that witii advantage 5 and then you 
have;your Plantation clear, .an4 freed of all, debts.- And we will ac- 
CiOiUnt attheloweft rate, t|iat if two hundred acres of yqurfive hun- 
lidfed,, be planted with Canes, and. every. Acre hear but three thou- 
i^gd - weight of Su^ar^^yaluin g the Sugar but at threepence per pound. 


ffy^enpound ten (billings every acre , then two hun- 


,dj?ed acres will produce 7500 1, in fixteen months^ that is.fiftecn months 
fcJr the Canes to grow and be ripe , and a' month to Cure, the Sugar 
jtji^tig made. 

.. jiBut if you ftay four months longer, your Mufcavado Sugar, which 
I Valued at three pence per poufKl, will be Whitcsy arid then the price 
•wjllbe doubled ,.and that you (ee is 1 5000^ Ouf of yvhich we wilj, 
abafe 4 part forwaflcj zn^ioiLthctop^ and bottomes-of the Pots/ 


• • »• 




J: ' 


i. .. 




1f * 







* ^ 

^^ , 

I - ^ 


f * 

/ 4 




which may be rank'd with the Mnfcavadoes , and that is 3 7 50 Land 
then there remains 11250I. to which we willadde the value of the 
Drink that is made of the skimmings, at 120 1. per month, which in 
twenty months comes to 2400,1. and then the whole revenue will 
amount unto 13 650 1, in twenty months. But this profit muft come 
fir'^c'^ffively in, as the Sugars are made, and they work all the year, 

\^'- inN^'vewher and Dece/fiher^ when the great downfalls of rain 
come:; and if they pave the way es between the Canes, for the Slids 



for, little elfe hin 

and Affinigoes to pafTe, they may work then 
ders them, but the unpaflablenefs of the wayes. 
_So then you (ee, that upon the venturing, and well husbanding of 
3000 1, ftockjyou are letled ina revenue of 682 1. a month, of which 
mChths wewill account 1 3 ,in a year, (b that after your work is fet in 

order^^nd that you will account the yearly revenue, you will find it 
BB661 p 

* » 


confider what the certain charge will be ydarly , to 





of the Ifland of Ba-rhdidocs 

keep the Plantation in the condition we receive it, which we will 
(uppofe to be compleatly furniihcd, with all that is ncceflary there- 
unto: And firft, of all manner ofhoufeingy as convenient dwelling 
houfes, the.Mill-houfe, or Grinding-houfe where the Sugar is preft 

the boy ling houfe, with five fufficient Coppers for boyling ^ 



and oneor two for cooling, with all Utenfills, that belong to the Mill. 

and boy ling-houfe 5 the filling room. 

with ftantions^ the Still-houle 


with two fufficient Stills^ and receivers to hold the drink , with Ci- 
fteros toail thefe rooms, for holding liquor, and temper, the Cureing 
houfc nU'd with ftantions, two .{lories high,and commonly in it (even- 
teen or eighteen hundred pots for cureing 5 the Smiths forge, with 
room to lay coales , fron, and Steel 5 the Carpenter, and Joyners 
houles, where they lodge and lay their tools, and much of their fine 
workes with fufficient ftore-houfes , to lay fuch provifion as we 

receive from f( 

orrain partSjasBecfjPorkjFilhj Turtl 



and alio to keep 
oar drink which is made of the Sugar, to the repairing of all which , 

thepremiies with the Appurtenances, we will allow no lelsthen 500 1. 

per Annum, 

To this, there is yet more to be added : for though we breed both 
Negres, Hones, and Cattle 5 yet that increase, will not fupply 
the moderate -dccaycs which we find in all thole 5 elpecially in 

our Horfes and Cattel!, therefore we will allow for that 500 I. Va 




The next thing wc'are toconfideris, the fecdi'ti'g of our (ervants 
and flaves, over and^above th& provifions which 'the Plantations 
bear, and that will be no great matter , for. they are not often fed 
with bone-meat 5 But we will the ,Ghriftian fervants, 
( which are not above thirty in number, ) four barrels of Beef, 
and. as much of Porkc yearly , with two barrels of faltFilh, and 
530 poor- Johns, which we hai^e from New England , four barrels 
of Turtle, and as many of pickled Makerels , and two of Herrings , 
~ rocs ; all vvhich I have computed , and finde they will 

1, or there abouts ^ b^fidcs thelraight, which will 
i be no great matter , for vou muft be lure to have a Faflor , both 
at New Enghwd and Virgima , to provide you of all Commodities 
tho(e places afford, that are ufeful to your Plantation 5 or elfe your 
charge will be treble. As from New Ejigland^ Beef, Porke, Filh, of 
all forts, dried and pickled^ from Virginia ] ive- Cattle , Beef arid 
Tobacco k for theirs at B.irh^icloes is the worft I think that growes in 


UDt unto TOO 

the- worl d 

And for Cattle 



lyes neercr to 



thenifclvcs , and the Virginians cannot have a better marVet 
to (ell them; for an Oxe of S 1. pound price at Virginje, will yield 2$ 1. 

Buttogoon with our computation : for as we have given order for 
feeding our people, fo we muft fortheircloathings and firft for the* 
Chriftians, which we will account to be thirty in number, whereof 
J (hall be men, and i women, that we/may make our computation 
the more exaft^ and for the men, (which are twenty in number,) 
we will allow' one for the fupreame Overfeer, who is to receive and 
givediredions, to all the fubordinate Overfeers, which we allow to 








TtuB and ExaB Htfiory 

be five more , and thofc he appoints to go out with (evcral Gangs, 

tome twenty , more or lefs^ according to the ability of the 



feer he Co imploj 

and thefe 

go out upon (everal 

Iinploytncnl§3 as he gives them diredions, fome to weed 5 fome 
plimtjfome to fall wood, fome to cleave it, fome to faw it into boards, 
fome to fetch home, fome to cut Canes, others to attend the Ingenio, 
Bbyling-houfe 5 Still-houfe, and Gureing-houle, fome for Harveft, 
to cut the M^ies, (of which we have three Crops every year,J others 
to gather Prbvifions, ofBonavifl, Maies, Ycames, Potatoes, Caflavie, 
anddrefsit at fit times for their dinners and fuppers, for the Chrifli- 
an fervants^ the Niegres alwayes dreflirig their own meat themfelves, 
in their little Pots, which is only Plantines, boyl'd or roafled, and 
foffl6 eaVfeis of Maies toafted, at the fire^ and now and then a Makerel 
a piete, of two Herrings. 

The Prime Overfeer may very well dcferve Fifty pounds Per 
Annum^ tk thfe value in fuch Commodities as he likes, that are grow- 
ing updfi the Plantation j for he is a man that the mafter may allow 

fometimes to fit at his own Table, and therefore muft be clad 

d ingly 

The other five of the Overfeers, arc to be accounted ia the 

rarjke of Servants, whofc fireedome is not yet purchafed, by their five 
years fervicc, according to the cuffome of the Illand. And for their 

every man 

loathing, they (hall be allowed tljree (hirts together 
for (hifts , which will very well laft half a year, and then as many 

moath a paire^ that is twelve pair g^ year $ (vx pair of ftockings yearly, 

and three Wdffmduth Capps, and for Sunday es, ^ doublet of Canvas, 
and & plain band of Holland. 

mcfre. And the like proportion for drawers , aadU5>r fhooes 














of the Ifland of Baxbcidocs. 

tofExpeffces^ ijfuin gout yearly for Cloathhtg ^ for the Chrijl 

both Men and IVojnen^with theH^agcs of the principal Overfe 

whichpall he ^o \.ftcrling , or the value infnch Good 

as gro TP up 

the Pla 


To the five fubordinateOverleer 

for each mans cloathing 


Six flilrtSjat 4 s. a piece 
Six pair of DrawerSjat 2 s. 
Twelve pair of Shoes , at 5 s, 
SixpairofLinnen or Irifh fto- 

. kings,at 20 d. 
Three Mmmguth Ca ps ^at 4 s. 
Two doublets of Canvas^and 

^ix Holland bands 




To the fourteen commoq fervants. 

04 o I Six Shirts to each m^n 
o 12 o I Six pair of drawers to each man o 
» 16 o\ Twelve pair offlfocs^ at 5 s 

04 o 

o I 


Three Monmouth CapSj ^t 4 s» 




O I 2 



Sum total] to each man 

4 04 


5 o 

Sum total! for each man 

Sum total, of the fourteen 
Servants by the year 

5.9 o 


Sum iiotal far the fi ve O v^erieers 2750 

^k)W for the ten vvomen fervants, we will diipoie of thein, thus.* 
Four to actend in the houfe, and thofe to be dlowed , as iblloweth 

the firft Columne, v/z,. - . 


The four that attend in the houfe 

to each of them 

The Oilier fix' wtKai w.^d , and do the 

Six finocks, at 4 s. a piece 
Three petticoats , at 6 s. 
Three waftcoats^at 3 s. 
Six coifes or caps^ at 18 d. a 

Twelve pair of ChoeSjat 3 s,. 

1. «. d. 

I 04 o 

o 18 o 

09 o 

o 00 o 

6 o 

work abroad yearly 







Sum is 
Sum total of the four vvo- 
kmeathat at^qqd in tlie-houfe 


6 o 

Four (mock s^at 4 s. a poece 
Three petticoatSjat 5 s. a piqce o 
Four coifs^at 12 d. a piece o 
Twelve pair of fhoes^at 3 5. 



04 9 

16 o 

19 A 

Sum is 
urn total 1 of the fix, Gomh 
mon women fervants 

3 II 

21 06 








Thirty Rug Govvnes for the'e thirty fervants , to cafl: about them 
when they come home hot and vvearicd/rorahtheirvvorkjanditotleepV- 37 10 p 

in at nightSjin their Hamock^at 2 5 s. a 'Covvn or raande. ** r -- 

Now for the Negres, which we will account tobe a hundred of both 
Sexes, we will divide^them equally 5 The fifty men (hall be allovved 
yearlj but three pair of Canvas drawers a piece, vvhidi at 2 s. a pair , 


is 6 s. 

• •■ * 

The women thai] be allowed but tvfo petticoats a piedc 
4 s, a^ piece 5 which is 8 s. yearly. '* . 

So the yearly charge of the fifty men Negres, n 


And of the women 

Sum is 

15 00 p 

20 00 o 

35 ^ P 







A .True and ExaB Hijiory 



Now to fum up all, and draw to a coaclufionjwe will account, that 
for the repairing dilapidations, and decaycs in the houfcing, and all 
Utenfills belonging thereunto 3 


' V 



I ^' 








500 00 00 

We will allow yearly to ifTue out of the Profits, that 
arife upon the Plantation - 

As al/b for the moderate decayes of our Negres 5 
Horfes, and Cattle, notwithftanding all our Recruits byl^oo 00 00 
breeding all thofe kinds , 

For forraign provifions of vidualls for our fervants 

andfomeofour flaves^we will allow yearly 
For wages to our principal Overfeer yearly 

By the Abftrad of the charge of Cloathing the five 
Subordinate Overiecrs yearly. 

By the abftrad of Clothing the remaining 14 men-fer- 

By the Abftra(3: of Cloathing four women lervants 

that attend in the houfe ' 

By the Abftrad of the remaining fix Women-fervants, 


I 00 00 00 

50 00 00 
27 05 00 

16 00 

19 04 00 

that do the common work abroad in the fields. 

The charge of thi rty Rug Gowns for thefe thirty fer- 
vants _ 

By the abftrad of the cloathing of fifty men-Ne-^ 

21 06 00 

57 10 00 


y 15 00 00 

By the abftrad for the cloathing of fifty women-Ne- 




20 00 00 





Sum total of the expences is 


1349 o^ 00 

■ < 

Sum total of the yearly profits of the Plantation 


00 00 


So the clear profit of this Plantation of 500 
of land amounts to yearly 


9 00 

« « 

A large Revenue for fb (mall a fiim as 140C0 1, to puf chafe, whei 
the Seller does not receive two years value by looo 1. and upward 
and yet gives day es of payment. ._ 



- _ 'J 

I have been, believed in all , or the moft part, of my former d 
fcriptions and computations, concerning this Ifland, and the wayes 
to attain the profits that are there to be gathered ^ but when Icome 
to this point, no man gives mc credit, the bufinefs leeming impoifiblej 
that any underftanding man , that is owner of a Plantation of tbis^ 

fhould fell it for ib inconfiderable a fiim ; and I do 






of the Ijtand of Barbadoes. 


blame the incredulity of thefeperfons 5 for, if experience had 
taught me the contrary, I ftiould undoubtedly be of their perfwalion/ 
But left I (hould, by an overweening opinion^ hope, that my experi- 
ence (which is only to my (elf ) (hould miflead any m^n befidcs his 

reafon, which every knowing man ought to be guided and governed 
by, I will without ftraining or forcing a reafon, deliver a plain and 
naked truth, in as plain language, as is fitting fuch a iubjed:^ >vhich I 
doubt not will perfuade -much in the bufinefs. 

Tis a known truth there, that no man hath attained to fuch a for- 
tune as this, upon a fmall beginning, that hath not niet with many 
rubs and obftacles in his way, and (bmetimes fallings back, let his 
pains and induftry be what it will : I call thofe fallings back, when 
either by fire, which often happens thereVor death of Cattle, which 
IS as frequent as the other , or by loflTes at Sea, which fomtimes will 
happen, of which I can bring lively inftances : If either of thefe mis- 
fortunes fall, it {tands in an equal baliance,whether ever that man re- 
cover, upon whom thefe misfortunes fall : But, if two of thefc hap- 
pen together, or one in the neck of another, there is great odcfs to be 
laid, that he never (hall be able to redeem himfelf, from an inevitable 

rume 5 For, if fire Happen, his ftock is confumcd, and fomtimes his 
houfc ^ if his Cattle dye, the workftands flill^and with cither of thefe 
his credit falls ^ fo as, if he be not well friended, he never can enter- 
tain a hope to rife again. 

Thefe toylcs of body and mind, and thefe misfortunes together, 
will deprefs and wear out the beflfpirits in the world, and will caufe. 

them to think, what a happy thing it Ts, to fpend tfie remainder of 

their lives in refl and quiet in their own Countries. And I do believe, 
there are few of them, whofe niinds are not over-ballanc*d with 
avarice and lucre, that would not be glad to fell good penni-worths, 
to fettle themfelves quietly in England. Befides the cafualties which 
I have named, there is yet one of nearer concern than all the reft, and 
that is, their own healths, than which nothing is more to be valued ^ 
for, fickneffes are there more grievous, and mortality greater by far 
than in England 5 and thefe difeafes many times contagious : And if: 
a rich man, either by his own ill dyct or diftempcr, or by infeftion, 1 
fall into fuch a ficknefs, he will find there a plentiful want of fuch 
remedies, as are to be found in England. Other reafbns, and flrong 

hanker after their ownCoun- 

ones, they have, that induce them to 

try, and thofe are, to enjoy the company of their old friends, a^d to 
raife up Families to themfelves, with a Sum which they have acqui- 
red by theirtoyle-andindun:ry, and often hazards of their lives, whofe 
beginnings were flight and inconfiderable 5 and what can be a greater j 
comfort, both to themfelves and their friends, than fuch an enjoy- 
ment > But I fpeak not th^is to difcourage any man, that hath a mind 
to improve his Eflate^ by adventuring upon fuch a Purchafe 5 for , 
though the Planter, by long and tedious pain and induftry, havej 
worn out his life, in the acquift of his fortune 5 yet the Buyer, by his- 
purchafe, is fo well and happily feated, as he need endure no fuch | 
hardfhips, but may go on in the managing his bufinefs, with much 
eafe, and fbme pleafure 3 and in a dofen years, return back with a 









A True andExa& Hiftory 


very plentiful fortune, and may carry with him from England^ bcttei^ 

remedies for his health, then thfcy, who for 

g time had neither 

means to provide, nor money to purchafe it 5 for though fbme Sim 

pies grow 
than any we 

be fo for our bodi 

'3 that are niore proper to the bodies of the Natives, 
bring from forreign" parts ^ and no doubt would 

if we knew the true ufe of them 5 y 

wanting that knowledge, we are fain to make uie of our 


r a _ 

But when able and skilful Phyfitians fhall come 5 whole know- 
ledge can make the right experiment and ufe of the vcrtues of thofe 
Simples that grow there, they will no doubt find them more effica- 
cious, and prevalent to their healths, than thofe they bring from 



For certainly every Climate produces Simples more 

proper to cure the d i feafes that are bred there,thari thofe that are tranf- 
ported from any other part of the world. -fuch cure the great Phyfitian 
.to mankind takes for our convenience. 

Somewhat I have faidof the difeafes that reign in general in that 
Iflaiid, but have fallen on no particular, though I have felt the power 

and Tyranny of4tTrpomniiR;o vv iiijody^-as mvifch as any man that hath 

pad through it to death, though itpleafed the merciful God to raife 

me up again : for I have it to (hew under the hand of Colonel Thsmas 

Modiford^ in whofe houfel lay fick, that he faw me dead without any 

Appearance of life, three feveral times, not as in founding, but dying 

fits, and yet recovered at laft. -. • ■ • 

To tell the tedious particulars of my -ficknefs, and the feveral 

prove but 
f it ; On- 

drclTchcs our ignorant Qi7acklalvers there gave me 

a troublefbme relation, and therefore I am willing to decl 

ly this much, that it began with a Fever, and as it is thecufiome-of 

that difeafe there to caufe bindings, coftivenefs 
gripings and tortious in the bowels, fo it far'd v 
fortnight together had not the leaft evacuation by Sei^e, 



fuch torment 

that, wore me out to fuch a weaknefTe 


; that for a 

which put 
that time I have notflept^^ and want of 

I was 

dition to take any remedy 

This excefliv 

new torment within me, the Stone 



fourteen day cs together nodropof water came from 

y to ray expcfta 

ithin begat 
which ftopt my paffage fo 

me ; But 

God Almighty fent rae a R^emedy 

for that, and fuch a oneasall the whole world cannot afford the like 

for in ten houres after I took it, I found my felf 

ly eas*d 

but perfectly cur'd of that torment, at leaft for the prefcnt 


nly broke, bur brought 

that ftopt my paflage, fo 

the Stones and Gra 

my water came as freely from mc 


d carry cd before it fuch quantities of broken (tones andg.„ 
my whole life I have not fcen the like. About three weekcs 

month after this, Ibecam 


fame diftrefs^and felt the like 


whereupon I took the fame medicine ^ which g 
Now if it did thus to a body fb worn out as mine, 
fo decayed as it could operate little to the cure 

(^0:> when it meets with fiich Org 


ily toaliift 


'here Na 

what wil 


But I give the Reader but a footy Rclatiou of mj 

Mai ad 

t * 


of the Ifland of Barbadoes. 

MaladieSjand indeed very unfit for his ear es^ yet whenlQiall prelcribe 

Remedyj which may happ 

him 5 I may hope to 


niakehim amends : for truly my touching upon the difeafe, wa$ but 
touQier in the cute, which (hall follow clofe after^^and 'tis briefly thus. 
Take the PiQcofa green Turtle which lives in the Sea, dry it with a 
moderate hea^, pound it in a Morter to powder, and take of this as 
much as will lye upon a (hill ing,iu Beer or the likCjAIe or Whitewine^ 
and in a very (liort time it will do the cure. If this (ecret had been 
know n'm Eur ope hut a dozen years fince^ no doubt we had been well 
ftor'dwith it by this titne, for 'tis to be had both at the ChaHhbjfand 
Luc4)Uk^lihnds^ where the fefifhes abound. ... 

Yet Co flow was my recovery of the main (icknefs, and niy relap(< 



I was ever and anon , looking out to meet my 

Death 5 my Memory and Intelleft (ufFering the 

familiar Companion 

fame decayes with my body, for I could hardly give an account of 
of the time I wasfick 5 bat as my health increaft, they return 'd. la 


able to ride down to the Bridge, wher 

three months more I was 

finding a Ship bound for EfjgUnd , I agreed for my paflTage and dy ^ 

by the way 5 and (as the manner ofaU Mafters of Ships is) hemademe 

tne way 5 ana i^astnc manner uiauiviimt 
ge promifcs ©llfJentifulp'rovifions aboard 


Porlie, Peafe. 

Filh, Oylc, Biskct, Beer 


d fbme Wine. This Ship had been fift 

months out of E^^/^Wj and had traded at GuwnyznA B'wti^ for Gold 
and Elephants teeth, but. thofe. commodities taking up but little room, 
the Captain made the UarbaSes in his Way home, intending 



that nland afforded 

his full la4ing of Sug 

and liich other Commodities 

d fo being read v^ to fet Sayle^, my felf and 

tnat aianaaiioiucu ^ aim iv^ ^.wiii^ iv^^v^^ i.^^ ^wi. kj^j^^, ^±xj *v.^» «, 

divers other Gentlemen cmbarkt, upon the fifteenth ofJpril i6$ 

Twelve a Clock at night 
at he might the bet 


hich time our Mafter made choyce of 


defcry'd by a well known Pi 

.«v. that had for many dayes layn - hovering about the Ifland 

take'ary Ships that traded for Lo77don, by vertue of a Commiffion 

/ - - - . •- r-r^. ._ 7 This Pirate was an 

bold enough 5 but had the Cha- 


he pretended, from the Marqucfs oi Ormo7td 

his name Ph 


rader of being more 

is and 


than becam 

To confirm the firft p 
of the Harbors of the Kland 


fuch things as he 
at larce. He had 

to wait on her, but the ni 
cerncd by him^ and fo wc came 
fortnight after we had been at Sea 

of his Character, hetooka Ship mone 

^ out of which he furnilht himfelf with 

ted but left the carkafe of the VclTel to floate 

■ fmall 

^ht covered us from being dif- 

fafely olF the Ifland. About a 

'^'11- Mafter complained that his 

Frigot of about 500 Tunns, and 

mrifad ;busM him, and; for fome Cornmod Wes uto to to^^ 

had truckt 
of bread, v 


the Gjr 

? fcrv'd 

k part 

of h 



fo that inftead 

the fvveepings and duft of the Bread 

Roorne, which caulcd 

a general 

complaint of all the PafTeng 




with fome Phyfical perfwafion of 
and binding as bread 

fdtimcc tfpon forcc^ 

ccUcnt food ac Sia > 

ft now (iipply that want, which 
the Mafter, that it was hearty 
re(ted (atisfied, with this Motto 

Tiic next thin 


was Filh, an ex- 


and rhe want ofthat troubled us much, y 





A True and Exa^ Hijlory 














fdme Remedy muft ferve as for the other. Patience. The next 
thing wanting was Porke j and the laft, Beere, which put us clean 
but of Patience , fb that now our ftaple food of the Ship ^ was 
pnely Beefe, a fewPeafejand for drinkj water, that had been fifteen 
ihonths out of Ef^gLmd : finding how ill we were accommodated, 
we defired the Mafter to put in at Fiall, one of the Iflands of 
Azorcfy a little to refre(h our felves, which liland was not much 
out of our way 5 but the Mafter loth to be at the charge of re-vi6i:u- 
atlingjandlofiof timc^refus'd to hearken to us 5 and being a requcft 
much to his difad vantage, flighted us, and went on, till he was paft 
reco>very of thofe Iflands, *and then a violent ftorm took us, ana in 
that ftoriD a (ad accident , which happened by mcancs of a Por- 1 

tugal, who being a Seaman 

and trufted at the Helme 


though he have a compa(s ^ befote him , yet is mainly guided 

the Quarter Mafter that Gonns the Ship above, upon the Qii^rter 

Deck 5 whofe Diredions the Portugal miftook, being not well verft 

in the Englifli tongue, and Co fteer'd the Ship, fo neer the wind, 

that fhe came upon her ftayes, which caufed fuch a fluttering of the 
Sayles7~'agiliuIt~T!TC'~Mafts3 ^^ ihff'Wind being extream violent) as 

they tore all in pieces $ 

all being fpent in the long voyage to Cum^y 5 

the ftiipy to mend them, fo that now the Mafter ( though too 

la'te ) began to repent him 6f not taking our Counlel to go to 

Nor was there any other Saylcs in the Ship, 

nor any thread in 


But how to redeem us out of this certain ruine 



Maltcr, nor his Mates could tell 5 for though the Winds blew 

rfty^r'fo iaire, we lay ftill at Hull 3 and to makeufe of the Tyde, 
in the Maine, vyas altogether yaine and hopelefle. Our 

Viftuals too, being at a very low ebb, could not laft us many 

dayes. So that all that were in the ftiip, both Sea-men and Paf^ 
lengers, were gazing one upon another, what to doe when 
our (mall remainder of proviiion came to an end. But the 
Sea-men, who were the greater number, refolv'd, the Paflen- 
gers (hould be dreft and eaten , before any of them ftiould goe to 
the Pot 3 And Co the next thing to be thought on was , which 
of the PaOfengers fliould dye firft , for they vi^ere all defign d to be 
eaten .• So they refolved upon the fittcft and healthfuUeft firft, 
asJikelicfttobe the bcft meat, and fothe next, and next, as they 
eate Cherries, the beft firft : In this Election I thought my fe]f 

being nothing but a bagg-fotl of Hydro 

fecurc, for my body 

j fiiould 

[pick humours, they knew not which way to di^efs me, but I 

diflblve and come to nothing in the Cooking 3 At laft the 
Cooper took mc into his cohfideration, and (aid, that if they would 

hearken to him, there might be yet fome ufc made of me 


that was in his opinion the beft 5 that feeing my body was not of 
a confiftcnce to latisHe their hunger , it might (erve to quench their 

a fhort prayer againft drought and thirft, 


So I 

fay [ng 

rcmain'd in cxpecladon of my doome with the reft 5 So merry thcle 
kind of men can make thcmfelves, in the midft of dangers, who are 
fo accuftomcd to them s and certainly thofe men, whofe lives are fb 





of the fjlandofBa-ih^docs., 

frequently expofed to fuch hazards^ do notiet that value upon them 
as others^who live in a qbiet fecurity , yet, when they put themfelves 
upon any noble aftion, they will (ell their lives at (uch a rate, as none 
ftiall out-bid them ; and the cuftome of thefe hazards, make* them 

more valiant then other men 5 and thofe amongft thep, that do found 
their courage upon honeft grounds, are certainly valiant in a high per- 



At laft^ a little Virgin^ who was a paflenger in the Ship^ flood up 

upon the quarter deck 3 like a (he-Worthy , and (aid, that if they 

would be rul'd by her , (he would not only be the contriver, but 
the ader of our deliverance. At who(e Ipecch ^ We all gave a 


tribute our help to all (he com 

th^t the S(;iip-Cgrpenter fhp^ld make her 
d the Saylers cobhe but (bme ol" the Occomc 

mandcd 3 wh\ch wg^s 

DiftaiFe and Spindle, and 

with which inftruments and materials , (he doubted not , but 

repair our then u(ele(s Sailes 

make (uch a quantity of thread , as to 

which accordingly (he did^ and by her vertue ("under God) we held 

our lives. ■ . ^ 

Though"^ luchr an accident as this , and (iich a deliverance, de- 

(erve a grateful! commemoration 5 yet , this is not all the ufe we 

are to make of it ^ (bmewhat more may be cohfidered , that 

may prevent danger for jthc future, and that is, the great 

abu(e of Cap 

their Pa(Iengerf,"(uch plenty of vidual 

and Mafters of Ships , who promife to 

may (erve them thq 

whole voyage; But , before they be to ff way^ eitKer pinch them 

of a great part , or give them that which is naftie and unwhol- 
fbnte. And therefore I could wi(h every man , that is to go a long 
voyage , to carry a referve of his own , of (iich viands , as will 
Ia(t 3 and to put that up fafe 5 for , if it be not under lock and 
key 3 they are never the neer 3 for , the Saylers will as certainly 






their honefties: Compl 
remedy. One 


thing I have ob(erved5j 
Let a Sayler fteal any part of the Ships provifipn, he (hall be fure 
have (evere punilbmcnt 5 but , if from a Pa(leng 

it concern him never (b 


The(e enormities 

^^ 3 though 

be laughed 

(it to be complained on at the Trini- 


his remedy 




the abu(cs 

ty-hou(e , that fome redrefs may be had 

Out of this danger at Sea, it has plealed the God of all mercy to 
deliver me, as alfo from a grievous and tedious (ickne(s on land, in 
a ftrange Country 3 For which, may his holy Name be eternally ble(^ 
(cd and praifed, for ever and ever. 

I am now ca(t in Pri(bn , by the (ubtle pradices of (bmc, whom 

eternal and merciful 



I have formerly called Friends : But the 
God has beea pleafed to vifit and comfort me 



rai(e me 

up (iich friends, as have kept me from cold and hunger, who(< 



where cruelties and tyrannies are exerci(ed 

fo high a mea(ure , may be 




doubt not of my rdeafe out of this reftraint, by the power of him 


















True and ExaB 



who is able to do 

For^ as DavJdQSh. to Sdul^ that G 


who had delivered him out of the paw of the Lion , and out of tlv 
paw of the Bear, would deliver him from that uncircumcifed Phili 
ftinCj Coliah o^Gath : So may I now (ay 5 that Godj which has delive 
red me from a ficknefs ro death, on land, and from (hipwrackand ha 

rds at Sea 

alfb deliver me from this uncircumcifed Philiftine 

t]\QVpfer Bench], than which, the burning fire of a Feavor,nor the ra- 
ging waves of the Sea, are more formidable:. But, we have /een and 
fufered greater things. And when the great Leveller of the world. 

Death, fhall run his progrefs, all Eftates will be laid eeven. 



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1 1* 






An Index to the Platforme or Superficies of an Ingenio^ 


rinds or fquee^es the Sugar, 

ATTHi ground 

plat , upon which the Pofts o 
ftand , that bear up the houfe, o 
the Intercokmniation between thofe PUIars. 

B The Pillars or Pofts themfelvcs. 

C The wall between the Mill-houfe and Boyling 


The Circle or Circumference,where the Hor- 
fes and Cattle go, which draw the Rollers a 

The Sweeps, to which the Horfes ani Catth 
are faftned , that draw abou: the Rollers. 


of the 

that Frame. 

-" — - 'e» I 

or J^ ttercir<;s , that fuppo 

H The pore, that goes down ftairs to the Boy 



ftcrn, intowhich the Liq 


the Ingeniojraiifdiately after it isground^and 
is carried in a Ppe under ground to this Ci- 
ftem.wberc i.renains not above a day at moft. 

JC The Ciftcrn tiat holds the Temper, which is 
a Licuor nia4'with allies, ftcept in water, and 
is other than the Lye we waft withall in 
£r{land. This temper , we ftraw in the three 
la/ Coppers , as the Sugar boyles, without 
wich, it would never Corn, or be any thing 
bf a Syrope ; but the fait and tartaroufnefs 
(jthis Temper, caufes it to turn, as Milk does, 
/hen any foure or fiiarp liquor is put into itj 
hd a very fmall quantity does the w«rk. 

The Boyling-houfe. 

he five black Rounds are the Coppers, in 
the Sugar is boy led , of which 

with wood or Iron , and are thirteen or four- 
teen inches affunder s fo that the tops of the 
Pots being fixteen inchcs^cannot flip between, 
but are held up four foot from the ground, 
^ The Frame where the Coppers fand, which 
is raifed above the flowre or level of the 
room, about a foot and a half, and is made of 
Dutch Bricks , which they call Klinkers, and 
plaifterofPrfm. And befidesthe Coppers, 
there are made fmall Gutters, which convey 
the skimmings of the three Icffer Coppers , 
down to the Still-houfe , whereof the flron 
Spirit is made, which ihty zsWkiU'devil^ an 
the skimmings of the two greater Coppers are 
conveyed another .way, as worthlefs and good 
for nothing. 

R The Dore that goes down the ftairs to the 
fire-room , where the Furnaces are, which 
caufc the Coppers to boylj and though they 

be ^grefthere, by reafon they 


under the Copp 

have made fmall 
femi-circles , to let you fee where they are , 
behind the partition-wall, which divides the 
fire-room from the boyling-houfe j which 
wall goes to the top of"^ the houfe , and h 
mark'd with the Letter (c) as the other walls 



made in the wall , from the 

Giftern that holds the flrit Liquor, to the cla- 
rifying Copper, and from thence is conveyed 

to the other Coppers , with Ladles that hold 

a gallon a piece, by the hands of Negrcs that 

attend that work day and night, fliifiing both 

geft is called "the clarifying Copper, and the I Negres ani Cattle every four hours, who alio 

leaft, the Tatch 
The cooling Ciftern, which the Sugar is put 
ito, prefencly rfcer it is taken off the fire,and 
I there kept till it be Milk-warm ; and then it is 
f o be put into Pots made of boards, fixteen in- 
ches fquare above,and fo grow taper to a point 
.' downward 5^ the Pot is commonly about thirty 
inches long , and will hold thirty or thirty five 
pounds of Sugar. 
N The Dore of the Filling 


convey the skimmings of the three lefler 
pers down to the Stilihoufe, there to be twice 
diftiU'djthe firft time it comes over the helme, 
it is but fmall, and is called Low-wines . but 
the fecond time, it comes offthe ftronge;^ Spi- 
rit or Liquor that is potable. 
r All Windowes. 

V The Fire-room, where the Furnaces are , 

that make the Coppers boyl. 
W The Still-houfe. 

The Room it felf, into which the Pots are fet, X The Ciftern that holis the skimming 

being flll'd, till the Sugar grow cold and hard 

which willbe in two day es & two nights,& then 

they are carried away to the Cureing , houfe. 

The tops of the Pots, of lixteen inches fquare 

begin to be foure, 'till when 
ome over the helnie. 
The two Stills in the 5«ll-houfc. 
The Semi-circles. that Ihew where about ih 

and ftand between two ftantions of timber . | Furnaces ftand 
which are girded together in feveral places , 

Tlace this after Folio 84 

^ rt